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Full text of "The baby's food: recipes for the preparation of food for infants and children"

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A 



THE BABY'S FOOD 

RECIPES FOR THE PREPARATION 

OF FOOD FOR 

INFANTS AND CHILDREN 



BY 

ISAAC Af'ABT, M. D. 

Professor of Diseases of Children 

in the 

Northwestern University Medical School 




PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON 

W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY 

1917 



Copyright, 1917, by W. B. Saunders Company 



PRINTED IN AMERICA 

PRESS OF 

, B. SAUNDERS COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA 



FOREWORD 



Young mothers, nurses, and caretakers frequently 
ask the physician for minute directions for the prepa- 
ration of foods for infants and older children. I have- 
attempted to collect from various sources recipes for 
the preparation of the most commonly employed foods. 
I undertook to do this primarily for my own conveni- 
ence in prescribing for patients and meeting the repeated 
demand. I claim no originaHty in regard to the recipes, 
and acknowledge my indebtedness to various sources 
for information: 

Boland: Handbook of Invalid Cooking. 

Farmer: Food and Cookery for the Sick and Con- 
valescent. 

Hill: A Cook-book for Nurses. 

Patee: Practical Dietetics with Reference to Diet 
in Disease. 

Birk: Sauglings-krankheiten. 

Ewald: Diat und Diatotherapie. 

Langstein-Meyer: Sauglingsernahrung und Saug- 
lingsstoflfwechsel. 

United States Department of Agriculture: Farmer s 
Bulletin, Preparation of Vegetables for the Table, by 
Maria Parloa. 

7 



8 FOREWORD 

Engle and Baum: Grundriss der Sauglingskunde. 

Keller and Birk: Kinderflege Lehrbuch. 

Hogan : How to Feed Children. 

Webster and Llewelyn: The Apsley Cookery Book. 

Rorer: Diet for the Sick. 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to my 

assistant, Miss Freda Payne, R. N.; to Miss Louise 

Stevenson, B. S., Dietitian, Butterworth Hospital, Grand 

Rapids, Mich, (formerly Asst. Dietitian, Michael Reese 

Hospital); to Miss Giselle Kessler, R. N., Supervisor of 

the Sarah Morris Memorial for Children, and to Miss 

Maude Perry, B. S., Supervisor of Dietetics, Michael 

Reese Hospital, for valuable suggestions and material 

assistance in arranging the recipes and correcting the 

proof. 

Isaac A. Abt. 
Chicago, III., 
Jidy, 1917. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Table of Measures and Weights ii 

Mineral Constituents i^ 

Caloric Value 13 

Beverages 15 

Acid Beverages 15 

Albumincius Beverages 17 

Starchy Beverages 19 

Miscellaneous Beverages 21 

Medicinal Teas 23 

Mn-K Preparations 27 

Broths and Soups 46 

Animal Broths 46 

Vegetable Soups 47 

Farinaceous Soups 54 

Miscellaneous 55 

Gruels 58 

Puddings and Cereal Preparations 64 

Custards 74 

Eggs * 76 

Vegetables 78 

Fruits 92 

Meats 97 

Sea Foods loi 

Breads ' 107 

Miscellaneous Recipes iii 

9 



lO CONTENTS 

PAGB 

Diet Lists ii6 

Diet for Children from One to Two Years ii6 

Diet for Children from Two to Five Years 117 

Meyer's Dietary for Diarrhea in Older Children 117 

Diet for Constipation in Older Children 119 

Outline of Plan for Feeding the Baby 120 

Artificial Feeding 122 

Plan for Feeding the Baby (Diseases of Infancy — Birk) 122 

Raths and Packs 125 

Care of the Nipples and Bottles 133 

Normal Salt Solution 134 

Eruption of Teeth 135 

Table of Measurements 135 

Index 137 



THE BABY'S FOOD 



TABLE OF MEASURES 


4 saltspoons 


equal 


I teaspoon. 


2 teaspoons 


equal 


I dessertspoon. 


3 teaspoons 


equal 


I tablespoon. 


i^ dessertspoons 


equal 


I tablespoon. 


2 tablespoons 


equal 


I ounce. 


3 dessertspoons 


equal 


I ounce. 


6 teaspoons 


equal 


I oimce. 


8 drams 


equal 


I ounce. 


2 ounces 


equal 


I wineglass. 


8 ounces 


equal 


I cup or tumbler, 


1 6 tablespoons 


equal 


I cup. 


2 cups or tumblers 


equal 


I pint. 


2 pints 


equal 


I quart. 



I heaping tablespoonful of cane-sugar equals i ounce. 

3 level tablespoonfuls of milk-sugar equal i ounce. 

All ingredients measured by the tablespoon or teaspJoon 
are measured level. To measure a spoonful, fill the 
spoon and level it off with the back of a case-knife. 



Grains. 


5 ■ 


-<>h 


3i 


-5i 


Si-5 


7 ■ 


-lO 


lO 


-15 


5 • 


-8 


lO 


-i3i 


T^U- 


4 



12 THE BABY'S FOOD 

MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE FOOD 
Amount of mineral ingredients of diet needed per day: 

Grams. 

Phosphoric acid 0.3-0.4 

Sulphuric acid 0.2-0.3^ 

Potassium oxid 0.2-0.3 

Sodium 0.4-0.6 

Calcium oxid. 0.7-1.0 

Magnesium ; 0.3-0.5 

Chlorin 0.6-0.8 

Iron 0.006-0.013 

Infant requires about 5 grains of calcium daily. 
Milk contains 22^ grains of calcium in each quart. 
Eggs, cereals, rice, radishes, asparagus, and spinach are 
rich in calcium. 

Meat, fish, bread, fruit, and potatoes are poor in calcium. 
Foods richest in iron are spinach and other green 
vegetables, yolk of egg, beef, apples, lentils, strawberries, 
white beans, peas, potatoes, wheat, and oatmeal. 

Animal foods are rich in sodium; vegetable foods are 
rich in potassium. 
Percentage of phosphoric acid in fresh foods: 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Carrott 0.036 Barley meal 0.23 

Turnip 0.058 Pork 0.16 

Cabbage 0.089 Milk 0.22 

Potato 0.14 Beef 0.28 

Beans 0.92 Eggs 0.33 

Cheese 0.37 Mutton 0.42 



CALORIC VALUE OF VARIOUS FOODS 13 

Foods rich in oxalic acid are : black tea, cocoa powder, 
pepper, coffee, beans, sorrel, spinach, rhubarb, beets, 
currants, and prunes. 

Percentage of sulphur in dried proteins : 

Per cent. 

Dried egg-white 1.8 

Dried syntonin 1,8 

Dried wheat albumin 1.5 

Dried pea albumin 0.4 

Dried gluten albumin 0.7 

CALORIC VALUE OF VARIOUS FOODS 

Foods. Amounts. Calories. ' 

Applesauce i ounce 30 

Bacon I ounce 30 

Bread Average slice 80 

Butter I pat (^ ounce) 80 

Puttermilk i ounce 11 

Cane-sugar i ounce 1 20 

Carrot i ounce 13 

Cereal (cooked) i heaping teaspoonful 50 

Cereal waters i ounce 3 

Chymogen milk i ounce 21 

Cows' milk i ounce 21 

Crackers i ounce ! 1 14 

Cream (16 per cent.) . . i ounce 54 

Custard i ounce 60 

' The number of calories indicate the energy value of food from the 
stand[}oint of nutrition, and the -figures are expressed in terms of 
heat units. 



14 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Foods. Amounts. Calwies. 

Dextrimaltose i ounce no 

Egg I (2 ounces) 64 

Egg (white) I 14 

Egg (yolk) 1 50 

Flour I ounce 100 

Gelatin i ounce 50 

Human milk i ounce 21 

Keller's Malt Soup. . . i ounce 25 

Malt (extract) i ounce 89 

Meat I ounce 5o~7o 

Milk-sugar i ounce 130 

Potato I medium sized 90 

Rice (boiled) i tablespoonf ul 60 

Skimmed milk i ounce 11 

Soup (chicken) i ounce 15 

Spinach i ounce 8 

Toast Average slice 80 



ACID BEVERAGES 

IRISH MOSS LEMONADE 

1 cupful Irish moss, 

2 cupfuls boiling water, 

4 tablespoonfuls lemon juice, 
I teaspoonful sugar. 

Pick over and wash the moss and soak one-half hour. 
Pour off the water and add the boiling water; cook until 
syrupy, keeping it just below the boiling-point. If too 
thick, add more hot water. Strain, add lemon juice, 
and sugar to taste. Serve hot. 

Useful for coughs and colds. 

CREAM OF TARTAR DRINK 

I or i^ teaspoonfuls cream of tartar, 

I pint boiling water, 

I or 2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice, 

I teaspoonful sugar. 
Dissolve the cream of tartar in the boiling water, 
flavor with lemon and sugar when, cold, and strain and 
drink as refrigerant and diuretic. 

LEMON WHET 

I cupful hot milk, 

1 teaspoonful sugar, 

2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice. 

Heat the milk to boiling-point in a double boiler, 

IS 



l6 THE BABY'S FOOD 

add the lemon juice, and cook without stirring until the 
whey separates. Strain through cheese-cloth and add 
the sugar. May be served hot or cold. 

WINE WHEY 

I cupful sweet milk, 
z cupful sherry wine. 

Heat the milk to the boiling-point, add the wine, and 
cook without stirring until the milk separates. Strain 
through a fine strainer and serve hot or cold. 

APPLE WATER 

I sour apple, 

I cupful boihng water, 

I tablespoonful lemon juice, 

1 teaspoonful sugar. 

Cut an apple into small pieces without paring, add 
boiling water and sugar, and cover. Let stand till cool, 
then add lemon juice. Strain and serve. 

GRAPE WATER 

^ to I ounce of grape juice, 
^ teaspoonful sugar, 
4 ounces of water. 

JELLY WATER 

2 tablespoonfuls jelly (grape or currant), 
f cupful boiling water. 

Beat the jelly with a fork until smooth; add the boiling 



ALBUMINOUS BEVERAGES 17 

water. If extra sweetening is required, i or | grain of 
saccharin may be added. If the jelly lacks flavor, add 
lemon juice to taste. 

ALBUMINOUS BEVERAGES 

ALBUMIN WATER (a) 

§ cupful boiled water, 

I egg white. 

Pinch of salt, 

^ teaspoonful sugar, 

^ teaspoonful orange juice. 

To ^ cupful of boiled water add the white of one fresh 
egg and a pinch of salt. Stir very thoroughly. A piece 
or two of ice may be added before stirring; ^ teaspoonful 
each of sugar and orange juice may be added if not 
contra-indicated. Barley water may be substituted for 
plain water. 

ALBUMIN WATER (B) 

^ cupful boiled water, ^ 

I egg white, 
Pinch of salt. 

Divide the white of one fresh egg by cutting it in 
several directions with a sharp steel knife. Add ^ pint 
of cold boiled water and a pinch of salt. Shake thoroughly 
and serve cold, either from the bottle or a spoon. 



l8 THE BABY'S FOOD 

NUTRITIOUS LEMONADE 

1 egg yolk, 

2 teaspoonfuls granulated sugar, 
5 ounces water, 

Juice of ^ lemon. 

A nourishing drink is made in the following way: Add 
the juice of I lemon to the yolk of a raw egg; allow 
this to stand for five minutes and then add 2 teaspoonfuls 
of granulated sugar and 5 ounces of water. 

ALBUMIN WATER WITH BEEF EXTRACT 

I egg white, 

I cupful boiling water, 

J teaspoonful of Liebig's Beef Extract, 

A pinch of salt and a pinch of celery salt. 

Dissolve the beef extract in cold water, stir the white 
of the egg into this mixture, then pour in the hot water 
gradually while stirring constantly. Season with salt 
and celery salt. 

NUTRITIOUS ORANGEADE 

I egg white, 
I teaspoonful sugar. 
Juice of I orange, 
5 ounces water. 

Beat the white of i raw egg with i teaspoonful of 
granulated sugar, and add the juice of i orange and 5 
ounces of water. Serve cold. 



STARCHY BEVERAGES 19 

STARCHY BEVERAGES 
BARLEY WATER 

I heaping teaspoonful pearl barley, 
I pint water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Wash I heaping teaspoonful of pearl barley, let it soak 
over night. Drain the water off and add a pint of water 
and a pinch of salt. Boil for three or four hours or until 
the grains of barley are soft. Water must be added from 
time to time to keep the quantity up to i pint. Strain 
through muslin. 

When made from prepared barley flour (there are a 
number of barley flours on the market) a little cold 
water is added to i level tablespoonful of barley flour. 
This is carefully blended into a very thin, smooth paste, 
and then poured into a pint of boiling water containing 
a pinch of salt. This should be boiled in an open stew 
kettle for five or ten minutes and then transferred to a 
double boiler and cooked for twenty minutes, then 
strained through a fine strainer (preferably muslin) 
and enough water added to bring it up to the original 
quantity. ' • 

RICE WATER 

I heaping tablespoonful rice, 
I pint water, 
A pinch of salt. 
Wash I heaping tablespoonful of rice, soak over night, 
drain and add a pinch of salt. Cook in a double boiler 



20 THE BABY'S FOOD 

for three or four hours or until the grains of rice are 
quite soft. Add water from time to time to keep the 
quantity up to i pint. Strain through muslin. 

OATMEAL WATER 

I tablespoonful oatmeal, 
I pint water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Add I tablespoonful of rolled, ground, or crushed oat- 
meal to I pint of water, boil three hours in a double 
boiler, add enough water to make a pint, and strain. 
Salt to taste. 

WHEAT FLOUR WATER 

I or 2 tea spoonfuls wheat flour, 
I pint boiHng water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Rub to a smooth paste one or two teaspoonfuls of 
wheat flour with a Uttle cold water. Add this to i pint 
of boiling water, boil a few minutes in an open pan, then 
transfer to a double boiler and cook thirty minutes. 
Salt to taste and strain through a fine strainer. 

RICE FLOUR WATER AND OAT FLOUR WATER 

These are made in exactly the same way as wheat 
flour water as given above, using the rice flour or oat 
flour instead of the wheat flour. 



MISCELLANEOUS BEVERAGES 21 

IMPERIAL GRAIiUM 

I or 2 tablespoonfuls Imperial Granum, 
I pint water. 

Mix the ingredients, cook thirty minutes, and add 
enough water to make a pint. 

CORNMEAL WATER 

I ounce cornmeal, 
I quart water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Stir I ounce of meal (2 level tablespoonfuls) with cold 
water until an evenly mixed thin broth is formed. Place 
this in a quart of slightly salted boiling water, cover, 
and boil for thirty minutes. Replace the water evap- 
orated by boiling. 

MISCELLANEOUS BEVERAGES 

TEA 

I teaspoonful green tea, 
I pint water. 

To a small ^ teaspoonful of green tea add i pint of 
boiling water, cover and steep for two or three minutes, 
or imtil the tea is of a light yellow color; then pour 
through a clean sieve or muslin. The tea should be very 
weak. 

WEAK TEA FOR THIRST 

3 leaves of tea, 
I cupful boiling water. 
Weak, cold tea (English breakfast), made by steeping 



22 THE BABY'S FOOD 

about 3 leaves in i cupful of boiling water for two min- 
utes; is useful to quench the thirst of a baby suffering 
with diarrhea. 

IRISH MOSS TEA 

5 cupful Irish moss, 
I pint cold water, 
I teaspoonful lemon juice, 
I or 2 teaspoonfuls sugar. 

Wash the Irish moss and drain. Cover with cold 
water and allow to simmer until dissolved. Strain and 
add the lemon juice and sugar to taste. This will often 
relieve a dry cough. 

COCOA 

I teaspoonful cocoa, 
^ cupful milk, 
^ cupful water. 
Sugar to taste. 

Make a paste of i teaspoonful of cocoa and a little 
cold water or milk. Add ^ cupful of milk and ^ cupful 
of water, sweeten to taste, and boil from three to five 
minutes. 

WATER COCOA 

I level teaspoonful cocoa, 
I cupful water, 
Sugar as desired. 

Put the cocoa into a saucepan, add gradually 2 ounces 



MISCELLANEOUS BEVERAGES 23 

of cold water, bring to boil, add 4 ounces of boiling 
water. Sweeten as desired and serve hot or iced. 

MEDICINAL TEAS 
CAMOMILE TEA 

5 pint boiling water, 

I teaspoonful of leaves of camomile, or 

i teaspoonful of powdered camomile. 

Pour 5 pint of boiling water over the leaves or powder 
and allow to steep for three or four minutes, and strain. 
This is a bitter tonic. 

SASSAFRAS TEA 

4 sticks sassafras bark, 
I pint boiling water. 

Pour the boiling water over the bark and allow to boil 
for five minutes. Strain. 

FENNEL WATER 

^ pint boiling water, 

I teaspoonful powdered fennel. ' 

Pour the boiling water over the fennel powder and 
allow to steep for five minutes and strain. 

CINNAMON WATER 

I ounce stick cinnamon, 
I pint boiling water. 

Boil together fifteen minutes. Strain and serve hot or 
cold. 



24 THE BABY'S FOOD 

FLAXSEED AND LICORICE TEA 

1 ounce flaxseed, 

2 drams licorice root, 

1 pint boiling water. 

Pour the boiling water over the whole flaxseed and 
licorice root, which has been previously bruised, cover, 
and cook very slowly for four hours. Strain before 
serving. 

SLIPPERY ELM TEA 

2 teaspoonfuls slippery elm powder, or 
I piece of the bark, 

I cupful boiling water, 

Sugar to taste, 

^ teaspoonful lemon juice. 

Pour the water upon the slippery elm powder or bark. 
When cool, strain and flavor with sugar and lemon juice. 
This is soothing in case of inflammation of the mucous 
membrane. 

GINGER TEA 

I tablespoonful molasses, 
I teaspoonful ginger, 
^ cupful boiling water, 
J cupful sweet milk. 

Mix molasses and ginger; pour on gradually the 
boiling water and boil one minute. Add the milk, and 
when thoroughly heated, serve. 



MEDICINAL TEAS 25 

FLAXSEED TEA 

2 tablespoonfuls unground flaxseed, 

2 cupfuls boiling water, 

Lemon juice to flavor, 

Sugar to taste. 
Wash the flaxseed and add the boiling water to the 
washed flaxseed. Simmer one hour. Strain. Add the 
lemon juice and sugar as indicated. Serve hot or cold. 

CATNIP TEA 

I tablespoonful catnip leaves, 
I pint boiling water. 

. Pour the boiling water over the leaves, allow to steep 
for five minutes, strain, and serve. This is efficient in 
relieving colic in infants when given by mouth or when 
used as an enema. 

MINT TEA 

This is made by using the same proportions and pro- 
ceeding as for catnip tea. It is used for the same pur- 
pose. 

SAGE TEA 

I teaspoonful sage leaves. 

1 pint boiling water. 

Pour the water over the sage leaves, steep five min- 
utes, strain, and serve. Good in cases of flatulence and 
sometimes allays nausea. 

ALMOND MILK 

2 ounces sweet almonds, 
2 ounces milk. 



26 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Scald 2 ounces of sweet almonds with boiling water; 
after a few moments pour off the hot water and 
remove the hulls. Put the blanched almonds into 
a mortar, pound them thoroughly, and add 2 ounces of 
milk (or 2 ounces of water) and mix well. Strain 
through a cheese-cloth. The strained hquid is the so- 
called almond milk. 

TOAST WATER 

2 slices stale bread, 
I cupful boiling water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Cut the stale bread into ^-inch cubes and remove the 
crusts. Dry thoroughly in a slow oven until crisp and 
a delicate brown. Break into crumbs, add the water, 
cover, and let stand one hour. Strain through a cheese- 
cloth, season, and serve hot or cold. This often proves 
efficient in cases of nausea. 

LIME-WATER 

I tablcspoonful slaked lime, 

I quart boiled or distilled water. 

Put the lime and water in a bottle, cork, and shake 
thoroughly two or three times during the first hour. 
The lime should then be allowed to settle, and after 
twenty-four hours the upper clear fluid poured off into 
a glass-stoppered bottle. Keep tightly corked and in a 
cool place. 



MILK PREPARATIONS . 

WHEY 

I quart milk, 

I teaspoonful essence pepsin. 

Curdle i quart of new milk at 104° F. with essence 
of pepsin, liquid rennet, rennet powder (chymogen). 
After a time the milk coagulates. Let it stand for 
one-halif hour, then pour the whey off; or hang the 
curdled milk in a straining cloth and let the whey 
drip out. 

LEMON WHEY 

1 cupful hot milk, 

2 teaspoonfuls sugar, . 
2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice. 

Heat the milk in a double boiler. When hot add the 
lemon juice and cook without stirring until the whe^ 
separates. Strain through cheese-cloth and add the 
sugar. Serve hot or cold. 

WINE WHEY 

I cupful sweet milk, 
i cupful sherry wine. 

Heat the milk to the boiling-point, add the wine, and 

27 



28 THE BABY'S FOOD 

cook without stirring until the whey separates. Strain 
through a fine strainer and serve hot or cold. 

ACID PHOSPHATE WHEY 

. I cupful hot milk, 
2 teaspoonfuls sugar, 

1 teaspoonful Horsford's Acid Phosphate. 
Heat the milk in a double boiler; add the acid phos- 
phate; cook without stirring until the whey separates. 
Strain through cheese-cloth and add the sugar. Serve 
hot or cold. 

JUNKET 

This is a healthful dessert made simply of pure milk 
and sufficient junket tablet to coagulate the milk. It 
is nutritious and easily digested. 

Milk or cream that has been boiled or sterilized 
cannot be used in making junket, and care must be 
taken not to heat the milk more than lukewarm, as hot 
milk spoils the action of the tablet. 

CUSTARD JUNKET 

2 cupful hot milk, 
I egg, 

4 tablespoonfuls sugar, 
f cupful lukewarm milk, 

1 teaspoonful vanilla, 
§ junket tablet, 

2 teaspoonfuls cold water. 

Beat the egg, and add to it 2 tablespoonfuls sugar. 



MILK PREPARATIONS 29 

Pour the hot milk on the mixture of egg and sugar, 
and stir thoroughly. Put this mixture into the top of 
the double boiler and stir constantly until it thickens; 
take at once from the fire and cool. Mix 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar with lukewarm milk, add this to the cooled 
custard, and blend thoroughly. When lukewarm add 
the vanilla and the tablet dissolved in cold water. Pour 
the mixture immediately into sherbet cups or small 
glasses. Stand in a warm room undisturbed until firm 
like jelly, then put on ice to cool. 

COCOA JUNKET 

1 tablespoonful cocoa, 

2 teaspoonfuls sugar, 

2 tablespoonfuls boiling water, 
I cupful milk, 

J junket tablet, 

I teaspoonful cold water, 

3 drops vanilla. 

Rub the cocoa, sugar, and boiling water to a smooth 
paste, place over the fire, and bring to the boiling-point. 
Add gradually the fresh cool milk and heat until luke- 
warm, not more; add the vanilla and then the tablet 
dissolved in cold water. Place in molds and keep in a 
warm room until jellied. Place on ice and serve plain 
or with sweetened cream. 



30 THE BABY'S FOOD 

COFFEE JUNKET 

2 tablespoonfuls boiled coffee, 

1 cupful milk, 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar, 
I junket tablet, 

I teaspoonful cold water. 

Heat the milk until lukewarm and add the coffee and 
sugar; when the sugar is dissolved add the tablet dis- 
solved in cold water. Place in molds, keep in a warm 
room until jellied, and place on ice to cool. 

VAinLLA, BITTER ALMOND, OR STRAWBERRY JUNKET 

^ teaspoonful of vanilla, or 

^ teaspoonful of bitter almond extract, or 

I tablespoonful pure concentrated strawberry syrup, 

I pint fresh milk, 

I junket tablet. 

Add the desired flavoring to the fresh cool milk, heat 
till lukewarm, add the junket tablet previously dissolved 
in cold water, and remove from stove. Allow to stand 
in a warm room until firm, then place on the ice to cool. 

FROZEN JUNKET 

I pint milk, 

i junket tablet, 

4 ounces pure cream. 

Heat the milk imtil lukewarm, add the dissolved 
junket tablet, remove from the fire, and add the pure 



MILK PREPARATIONS 31 

cream. Pour at once into the freezer and freeze the same 
as ice cream. 

JUNKET FROM CONDENSED MILK 

I can condensed milk, 
I can hot water, 
^ junket tablet, 
J teaspoonful vanilla. 

In making junket, where fresh milk cannot be secured, 
condensed milk may be used. To i can of condensed 
milk add an equal quantity of hot water and stir 
thoroughly; add j teaspoonful vanilla. Cool the mixture 
to a lukewarm temperature and add ^ junket tablet 
previously dissolved. Pour into individual glasses and 
let stand until firm. Cool and serve. 

CHOCOLATE JUNKET 

I quart milk, 
^ cupful sugar, 

1 square chocolate, or 

2 tablespoonfuls cocoa, 
I teaspoonful vanilla. 
Whipped cream as desired, 
I junket tablet. 

Sweeten a quart of milk with ^ cupful of sugar. Melt 
I square of chocolate or 2 tablespoonfuls of cocoa, add 
^ cupful of the milk, and boil one minute. Remove from 
the fire, add the remainder of the milk, which must not 



32 THE BABY'S FOOD 

be boiled, and i teaspoonful of vanilla. Probably this 
mixture will now be lukewarm ; if it is not, warm it until 
it is. Stir in i junket tablet (previously dissolved in 
water). Pour at once into serving dishes and leave 
undisturbed until firm. Place on ice to cool. If 
whipped cream sweetened and flavored with vanilla is 
heaped upon the chocolate junket before serving, a most 
deUcious dessert is obtained. 

JUNKET ICE CREAM 

^ cupful cream, 

^ cupful milk, 

2§ tablespoonfuls sugar, 

^ junket tablet, 

2 teaspoonfuls cold water, 

I teaspoonful vanilla. 

Heat the milk until lukewarm, add the sugar and 
vanilla; when the sugar is dissolved add the tablet dis- 
solved in the cold water. Allow it to stand in a warm 
room until firm, then beat thoroughly, turn into a small 
pail, and freeze. The junket improves the consistency 
of any cream. 

Note. — The preparation may be varied by adding 
2 teaspoonfuls of cocoa dissolved in a little boiling water. 
Add the cocoa to the mixture before adding the junket 
tablet. 



MILK PREPARATIONS 33 

PLAIN JUNKET 

i junket tablet, 
I pint milk, 
Flavoring to taste. 

Into a small bowl put ^ junket tablet or i teaspoonful 
essence of pepsin, and add i pint of fresh cold milk; 
stir gently to mix thoroughly. Place the bowl contain- 
ing the milk and the digestive ferment in a pan of larger 
size, and pour into the larger pan boiling water sufficient 
to come to the level of the mixture. Let the bowl stand in 
the hot water for two minutes; then remove and let stand 
until it is firmly jellied. The junket is now ready for 
use just as it is or sprinkled with sugar or grated nutmeg. 
To keep the junket place it on ice or in a very, cold place. 

BUTTERMILK MIXTURE. A. (Heubner) 

I quart buttermilk, 

2 1 level tablespoonfuls wheat flour, 

3 to 4 level tablespoonfuls cane-sugar. 

To a few tablespoonfuls of buttermilk add 2^ level 
tablespoonfuls of flour and rub to a paste. Add enough 
buttermilk to make i quart, (i) Bring to a boil, with- 
draw from fire; (2) bring to a boil, withdraw from fire; 
(3) add 3 to 4 level tablespoonfuls of cane-sugar and 
bring to a boil for the third time. (1,2, and 3 should 
require about thirty minutes' time.) Add boiled water 
if necessary to make i quart; put on ice. 
3 



34 THE BABY'S FOOD 

BUTTERMILK MIXTURE. B. (Jules Brady) 

24 oz. ordinary buttermilk or acidified skimmed milk, 
8 oz. barley water (i oz. barley flour to 8 oz. water), 
I oz. Mellin's Food, 
^ oz. cane-sugar. 

Mix the ingredients and place on ice. 

BUTTERMILK MIXTURE. C. (Jules Brady) 

21^ OZ. acidified whole milk, 

lof oz. barley water (use i oz. barley flour as above), 

I oz. cane-sugar. 

Mix the ingredients and place on ice. 

BUTTERMILK FORMULA (Baginsky) 

I quart buttermilk, 

I to 3 tablespoonfuls browned flour, 

I to 3 tablespoonfuls cane-sugar. 

Mix the ingredients together imtil smooth, put on a 
slow fire and, while constantly stirring, boil for three to 
five minutes. Allow to cool and place on ice. 

SWEETENED JUNKET 

I cupful milk, 
\ junket tablet, 

1 tablespoonful sugar, 

2 or 3 drops vanilla. 

Warm i cupful of milk in a double boiler until it is 
lukewarm. Add to this | of a junket tablet or 2 tea- 



MILK PREPARATIONS 35 

spoonful essence of pepsin, i tablesponful sugar, and 
2 or 3 drops of vanilla. Pour into molds and put in a 
warm place until the mixture is firmly set, then put in 
the ice-box to chill. 

ACIDIFIED MILK 

I lactic acid bacilli tablet, 
I quart milk. 

Add a pure culture of lactic acid bacilli to raw or 
boiled, whole, or skimmed milk (depending on the kind 
of acidified milk desired), place in an earthenware dish 
and allow to stand at about 8o° F. for fifteen to twenty- 
hours, or until the milk is curdled. Stir vigorously in a 
chum or with a spoon or egg-beater imtil the curds are 
very small, and then pass the mixture through a fine 
wire strainer. If the buttermilk is too thick, add a small 
amount of water. When the buttermilk is once made, 
a small portion (about 4 ounces) may be used for the 
inoculating agent for the next supply to be made. In 
this way the original culture may be made to last from 
six to eight weeks. The quantity and action of the 
product made will vary but Uttle. Add 4 ounces of 
buttermilk to i quart of fresh milk, put in a warm 
place, and follow the above directions. 

Sometimes the milk will not coagulate, although it 
may smell sour. Stirring gently with a spoon will often 
produce coagulation in a few minutes. The fat present 
will rise to the top, and when coagulated appears as a 



36 THE BABY'S FOOD 

brownish-yellow scum, which may be removed before 
the curd is broken up. 

HYDROCHLORIC ACH) MILK 

I quart milk, 
I pint water, 

25 drops dilute hydrochloric acid 
(10 per cent, solution). 

Add the milk to the water and bring to the boiling- 
point. Then add the hydrochloric acid. Cool before 
serving. 

SOT BEAN AND CONDENSED MILK (Ruhrah) 

I quart water, 

1 level tablespoonful soy-bean flour, 

2 level tablespoonfuls barley flour, 
A pinch of salt. 

Condensed milk as desired. 

To I quart of water add the soy-bean flour and the 
barley flour, and a pinch of salt. Boil for twenty 
minutes or longer, and replace the water lost by evapora- 
tion. To this add condensed milk, varying the propor- 
tion from I to 16 to I to 8: i to 8 would require the 
addition of i dram of condensed milk to each ounce of 
fluid; I to 16 would require i dram of condensed milk 
to 2 ounces of fluid, according to the age of the 
child. As a rule this will be found to agree admirably, 
and may be used in quantities var)dng from 2 to 8 
ounces at a feeding. The preparation may be varied 



MILK PREPARATIONS 37 

in composition, and in older children the barley flour 
and soy-bean flour may be increased to double the 
strength advised above; that is, 2 level tablespoonfuls 
of soy-bean flour and 4 of barley, and occasionally this 
may be increased still further. 

If too large a quantity of soy bean is used, or if it is 
used without a sufficient amount of starch or condensed 
milk, it is liable to cause thin, dark-colored, foul-smelling 
stools. 

CHTMOGEN OR PEGNIN MILK 

I quart milk, 

I teaspoonful chymogen or pegnin. 

Boil the milk for five minutes, cool to 104° F., and 
add I teaspoonful of chymogen or pegnin, and stir for 
one-half minute. Allow to stand for twenty minutes, 
when it will have coagulated, then beat it until the curds 
are finely divided. Do not heat above 100° F. when 
preparing the individual bottles for feeding. 

ALBUMIN OR EIWEISS MILK (Finkelstein) 

I quart milk, 
Digestive ferment, 

1 pint buttermilk, 

2 level tablespoonfuls wheat flour, 
I pint water, 

Dextrimaltose as directed. 

Heat I quart of fresh whole milk to 98° to 100° F., 
then add 2 level tablespoonfuls chymogen powder or 



38 THE BABY'S FOOD 

essence of pepsin (i teaspoonful) or a junket tablet 
(previously dissolved in a little cold water), place in a 
water-bath of 107° F. for fifteen to twenty minutes 
until coagulated, and then hang in a sterile muslin bag 
one hour to drain off the liquor of the milk. 

To the curd of i quart of milk thus obtained add i 
pint of buttermilk and rub through a copper hair- 
strainer three times. To this add 2 level table- 
spoonfuls of wheat flour rubbed to a paste with i pint 
of water. Boil the mixture ten minutes, cutting back 
and forth constantly, not stirring, with a large wooden 
spoon; otherwise large curds will form. If necessary 
add water to make the finished mixture i quart. 

Dextrimaltose (3 to 5 per cent.) should be added when 
directed by the physician. The early addition of 3 per 
cent, dextrimaltose is advisable. This is best done by 
dissolving the dextrimaltose in a moderate quantity 
of water and adding while the mixture is boiling. The 
albumin milk must not be overheated before feeding, 
as it will curdle. 

ALBUMIN Mn.K (Engel) 

I quart milk, 

3 level teaspoonfuls chymogen, 

I quart sterile water 

Boil I quart of milk for five minutes. Place in a 
water-bath of a temperature 104° to 107° F. and add 
3 level teaspoonfuls chymogen (dissolved in cold water). 



MILK PREPARATIONS 39 

Let the milk thus treated rest at room temperature 
one-half hour. The milk now having cooled to 89° to 
91° F., heat it rapidly to 104° to 107° F.; after a few 
minutes the milk will begin to coagulate. Stir constantly 
until the desired temperature is reached. Do not 
disturb for fifteen minutes. Add i quart of sterile 
water and mix. After a time the curds settle to the 
bottom; let rest one-half hour, and then pour off one- 
half of the fluid which has collected at the top. The 
preparation is now completed, the lower quart being 
used. Do not heat this milk over 100° F. before feeding 
or coagulation will take place. 

ALBUMIN MILK (MiUler and Schloss) 

I quart water, 

I quart buttermilk, 

45 ounces boiled top-milk, 

I ounce dextrimaltose. 

Mix I quart of water and i quart of buttermilk, and 
boil two or three minutes. Allow to stand quietly in a 
room for thirty minutes, when the curds will have settled 
to the bottom and the whey will have formed over them. 
Pour off 36 ounces of the whey and mix the remaining 
curds thoroughly. Pour 4^ ounces from the top of 
a quart of milk which has been previously boiled. Put 
this in a mixing bowl and add to it an ounce of dextri- 
maltose and 27^ ounces of the prepared curds from 



40 THE BABY'S FOOD 

which the whey has been poured away; mix all together 
thoroughly. Thus i quart of albumin milk is ready for 
use. 

ALBUMIN MILK (Heim and John) 

21 ounces hot water, 
21 ounces milk, 
3^ quarts boiled milk. 
Digestive ferment. 

From 21 ounces of raw cows' milk obtain the casein 
by adding a digestive ferment. The curds should be 
separated from the whey and 21 ounces of hot water 
added to the curds. Bring to a boil while stirring 
constantly, then strain through a hair sieve. In this 
way an almost homogeneous milk is obtained. Mix 
this with 3 1 quarts of boiled milk and boil again, so 
that tough membranes or lumps may not form, as is 
sometimes the case when the fresh casein is put through 
a sieve and boiled but once. 

KOUMISS (Peiser) 

I pint milk, 

I cake yeast, 

I teaspoonful sodium bicarbonate 

(20 per cent, solution), 
I pint water. 

Place a pint of milk in a quart flask and add to this 
I cake of yeast and shake thoroughly. Place the flask 



MILK PREPARATIONS 41 

near the oven and control the temperature with a 
thermometer, keeping it at about 86° F. During the 
day the shaking should be repeated at intervals. After 
twenty-four hours the koumiss is ready, though not in a 
form available for the infant. To reduce the acidity, i 
teaspoonful of sodium bicarbonate (20 per cent, solu- 
tion) should be added, and the koumiss diluted with 
an equal quantity of water. Thus is obtained a mix- 
ture equal in milk-sugar and whey content to albumin 
milk. 

BENGER'S FOOD 

Benger's Food may be added to a milk, mixture to 
constitute from 2^ to 5 per cent, of the total mix- 
ture. Thus, to a 30-ounce mixture it will be necessary 
to add i| ounces of Benger's Food to make 5 per cent, of 
the total or f ounce of Benger's Food to make 2^ per 
cent. The formula of the milk mixture may contain the 
amount of milk and water as directed by the physician. 
Prepare in the following way : Add i or 2 ounces of the pre- 
pared formula to the Benger's Food and rub to a smooth 
paste. Bring the remainder of the formula to the 
boiling-point in the double boiler, then pour this boiling 
mixture over the paste. Mix well and allow to stand 
without heat for fifteen minutes. Heat for the second 
time to the boiling-point in an open stew-pan over an 
open flame, stirring most of the time. Allow to cool 
and place on ice. 



43 THE BABY'S FOOD 

SCHLOSS MILE (Formula A) 
(For Infants under three months) 

6 ounces or 176 c.c. of 16 per cent, cream, 

42 ounces or 140 c.c. of whole milk, 

23 ounces or 700 c.c. water, 

3 grains or 0.2 gram potassium chlorid, 

I ounce or 30 grams dextrimaltose, 

§ ounce or 15 grams flour, 

I level teaspoonful or 5 grams powdered casein. 

Mix all the ingredients except the potassium chlorid, 
and boil for fifteen minutes. Cool and add the potas- 
sium chlorid in solution. 

- SCHLOSS MH/K (Fonnula B) 
(For Infants over three months) 

6 ounces or 176 c.c. 16 per cent, cream, 

4I ounces or 140 c.c. whole milk, 

23 ounces or 700 c.c. water, 

3 grains or 0.3 gram potassium chlorid, 

I J or 2 ounces or 45 to 60 grams dextrimaltose, 

I level teaspoonful or 5 grams powdered casein. 

Mix the same as preceding. 

These recipes are intende.d to make i liter (quart) of 
the mixture. It contains the same precentage of salts 
and fats as human milk, but less sugar without the 
dextrin and maltose and the powdered casein. If flour 
is used it must be boiled with the sugar casein prepara- 



MILK PREPARATIONS 43 

tion for fifteen minutes. If no flour is used the Diixture 
is simply brought to the boiling-point. 

LAROSAN MILK 

f ounce Larosan powder, 
I pint milk, 

Water or gruel as directed, 
Sugar as directed. 

Rub into a paste i small package (f ounce) Larosan 
powder with a small quantity taken from a pint of 
fresh milk. Bring the remainder of the pint to a boil 
and add the mixture to it; boil the whole for five minutes, 
stirring constantly. Strain through a fine sieve, and 
add water or gruel as the physician directs. . Add sugar 
in the proportion of 3 to 5 per cent., as directed. 

FRIEDENTHAL'S MILK FORMULA 

II ounces skimmed milk, 

20 ounces water, 

85 ounces 16 per cent, cream, 

2 ounces milk-sugar, 

14.4 grains potassium chlorid, 

7.2 grains monobasic potassium phosphate, 

7.2 grains dibasic potassium phosphate. 

Mix together the skimmed milk, water, cream, and 
milk-sugar. Pasteurize for twenty minutes at 140° F. 
Cool and add the potassium salts in solution. 



44 THE BABY'S FOOD 

KELLER'S MALT SOUP 

1 1 ounces warm milk, 
2 ounces flour, 
2f ounces Loeflaund's or Borcherdt's Malt Soup 

Extract, 
20 ounces water. 

To II ounces of warm milk gradually add the flour 
(which has been rubbed to a thin paste with a little 
cold water), stirring constantly while adding it. Pour 
through a clean sieve or muslin. 

In another dish dissolve 2f ounces of the malt soup 
extract in 20 ounces of warm boiled water. Then mix 
both solutions, put on the fire, and, while stirring con- 
stantly, boil for two or three minutes. 

MILK-MALT SOUP MADE FROM POWDER 

5 rounded tablespoonfuls of dry malt soup powder, 
22 ounces warm water, 
3 rounded tablespoonfuls wheat flour, 
1 1 ounces milk. 
Dissolve the dry malt soup powder in the warm water; 
mix the wheat flour with the milk and strain through a 
cheese-cloth. Then mix all together and bring to boil 
in a double boiler, stirring frequently. Boil five minutes. 
To dissolve the dry malt soup powder add it slowly 
to the warm water, stirring until complete solution is 
obtained. 
Malt soup is of great value in the treatment of con- 



MILK PREPARATIONS 45 

stipation in the artificially fed infant; the laxative effect 
is due to the high percentage of maltose which it con- 
tains. 

ARTIFICIAL MILK 

I ounce suet, 

I pint thin barley water, 

I ounce gelatin, 

I teaspoonful milk-sugar, 

12 sweet almonds. 

Cut up very finely i ounce of suet and tie loosely in 
a muslin bag. Boil slowly for an hour in the barley 
water, to which has been added I ounce of gelatin and 
milk-sugar as directed. Add a little water occasion- 
ally as it boils away. Pound up 12 sweet almonds and 
pour the fluid slowly on them, and mix well. Strain 
before using. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS 

Animal Broths 
lamb or veal broth 

I pound lamb or veal, 
I quart cold water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Chop the meat fine and add to the cold water with a 
pinch of salt; cook slowly for two or three hours in a 
double boiler. Add water if necessary from time to time, 
so that when finished there will be i pint of broth. 
Strain. When cold, skim off the fat. 

VEAL BROTH FOR DELICATE CHILDREN 

I pound veal, 

I quart water, 

A pinch of salt, 

6 teaspoonfuls cream. 
Veal broth may be made in the usual way, carefully 
skimming off all the fat; 20 drops of cream may then be 
added to each ounce of broth. Sugar may be added 
if indicated. 

CHICKEN BROTH 

I small chicken or ^ large fowl, 
I quart boiling water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Remove the skin and fat from the chicken or fowl 
46 



BROTHS AND SOUPS 47 

and chop bones and all into small pieces. Add i quart 

boiling water and the salt. Cover and allow to simmer 

over a slow fire or in a double boiler for two hours. 

After removing from the fire, allow to stand one hour 

and then strain. While cooking add water if necessary 

from time to time so that there will be i pint when 

finished. 

Vegetable Soups 

cream soups 
I tablespoonful cooked peas, or potatoes, or as- 
paragus, or corn, or tomatoes, 
^ cupful water, 
^ cupful sweet milk, 
^ teaspoonful flour, 
I teaspoonful butter, 
A pinch of salt. 

Cream soups may be made from vegetable pulp, 
using I tablespoonful of cooked peas, or potatoes, or 
asparagus. Add to the pulp ^ cupful of water in which 
the vegetables were cooked and | cupful sweet milk. 
Mix i teaspoonful of flour with the butter and salt, add 
to the above mixture, and boil several minutes. Strain 
if necessary and serve hot. 

Com or tomatoes may be used in the same manner, 
using 2 tablespoonfuls of the strained vegetables, | pint 
water, and f pint of milk. When tomatoes are used, 
add a small pinch of baking soda before adding the 
other ingredients. 



48 THE BABY'S FOOD 

GREEN PEA SOUP 

I pint shelled peas, 

I I pints boiling water, 
I quart milk, 

1 slice onion, 

2 tablespoonfuls butter, 
I tablespoonful flour, 
A pinch of salt. 

Put the peas in a stew-pan with the boiling water and 
a small slice of onion and cook until tender, which will 
be about thirty minutes. Pour off the water, saving 
for use later. Mash the peas fine, then add the water 
in which they were boiled, and rub through a puree 
sieve. Return to the saucepan, add flour and butter 
(beaten together) and the salt. Now gradually add the 
milk, which must be boiling hot, beat well, and cook ten 
minutes, stirring frequently. 

CARROT SOUP (A) 

I pound carrots, 
I pint water, 
I quart meat broth, 
A pinch of salt. 

Scrape i pound of carrots and cook them in a pint 
of water for forty-five minutes, or until soft. Put them 
through a fine wire strainer into a quart of previously 
prepared meat broth. Salt to taste. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS 49 

CARROT SOUP (B) 

I pound carrots (red part only), 

1 quart milk, 

2 tomatoes, 

I ounce butter, 
A pinch of salt. 

Boil the carrots for thirty to forty-five minutes in a 
pint of water, drain, and allow them to cool; grate or 
pound the red part until smooth. Skin the tomatoes 
and cook with the butter in a small saucepan and add to 
the carrots. Add all to the boiling milk (which has been 
brought to boil in a double boiler) and let simmer for 
forty-five minutes. Serve with toasted squares of bread. 

POTATO SOUP 

6 medium-sized potatoes, 
I pint chopped celery, 
I slice onion (if desired), 
I tablespoonful butter, 
I tablespoonful flour, 
i^ tablespoonfuls salt, 
I quart milk. 

Pare the potatoes and put in a stew-pan with the celery 
and the sUce of onion (if desired). Cover with boiUng 
water and put over a hot fire. Cook thirty minutes. 
Reserve half a cupful of the milk cold and bring the rest 
of the milk to the boiling-point in a double boiler. Mix 
the flour with the cold milk and stir into the boiling 



50 THE BABY'S FOOD 

milk. When the vegetables have been cooking thirty 
minutes, pour ofif the water, saving it to use later. 
Mash and beat the vegetables until fine and light, 
then gradually beat in the water in which they were 
boiled, rub through a puree sieve; put back on the fire. 
Add the salt and whip with an egg-beater for three min- 
utes, then gradually beat in the boiling milk. Add the 
butter and serve at once. 

SPLIT PEA SOUP 

I pint split peas, 
4 quarts water, 
^ pound salt pork, 

1 slice onion, 

2 tablespoonfuls celery, 
I tablespoonful flour, 

I tablespoonful butter. 

Pick the peas over that there may be no blemished 
ones, then wash and soak in cold water over night. In 
the morning drain off the water and put them in the 
soup with 4 quarts of water and the salt pork. Sim- 
mer gently seven hours, being careful that the soup 
does not burn. When it has cooked six hours add the 
seasoning. Stir the soup with a large wooden spoon. 
When done it should be thin enough to pour. By boil- 
ing it may become too thick; if so, add boiling water. 

When thoroughly cooked the soup is smooth and 
rather mealy. If not cooked enough, after standing a 



BROTHS AND SOUPS 51 

few minutes the thick part will settle and the top look 
watery. At the end of seven hours strain the soup 
through a sieve and return to the soup pot. Beat the 
flour and butter together until creamy, then stir into 
the soup, and simmer half an hour longer. If the pork 
has not seasoned the soup sufficiently, add a httle salt. 
For some tastes the soup will be improved by the addi- 
tion of a quart of boiling milk. Serve little squares of 
toasted bread in a separate dish. 

SPINACH SOUP 

4 tablespoonfuls boiled spinach, 

I slice onion, 

I quart milk, 

^ tablespoonful butter, 

I tablespoonful flour, 

Salt to taste. 

Prepare the spinach as follows: Wash well in three 
or four waters. Boil it in as Uttle water as will keep it 
from burning and stir frequently; it will take from ten 
to fifteen minutes to cook, according to the age of the 
spinach. Drain it and rub through a sieve. 

Slice the onion, throw it into cold water, bring quickly 
to the boiling-point. Boil the milk and drop the onion 
into it, and let it simmer for a minute or two. Then 
strain out the onion and add the milk and salt to the 
prepared spinach. 



52 THE BABY'S FOOD 

CAULIFLOWER SOUP 

I large or 2 small cauliflowers, 

I quart white stock, 

A pinch of salt. 
Boil the cauHflower in water until tender, but not 
broken. This will require from twenty to thirty 
minutes. Keep little sprays of the white part to add to 
the soup before serving. Add the rest to the stock and 
simmer for ten minutes, then put it through a wire sieve. 
Return to a saucepan and add the sprays of cauliflower 
and serve very hot. 

The white stock is made by mixing 2 oimces of barley 
flour with a Uttle cold water, adding it to i quart of boil- 
ing milk, seasoned with a little butter and salt, and then 
boiling until it thickens. 

VEGETABLE SOUP 

J pound lamb, 
I potato, 

1 carrot, 

2 stalks celery, 

1 tablespoonful pearl barley, 

2 tablespoonfuls rice, 
2 quarts water, 

A pinch of salt. 
Cut the vegetables into small pieces, add these and 
the barley and rice to 2 quarts of water, and boil down 
to I quart, cooking three hours. Add a pinch of salt 
and strain before serving. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS S3 

QUICK LENTIL SOUP 

I teaspoonful lentil powder 

^ pint boiling water, 

Pinch of celery salt, 

I or 2 tablespoonfuls of cream or § teaspoonful butter. 

Stir I teaspoonful of lentil powder into | pint of 
boiling water, cook thirty minutes, add a little celery 
salt, take from the fire, and add a tablespoonful or two 
of cream or a little butter. 

NAVY BEAN SOUP 

2 ounces (4 tablespoonfuls) navy beans, 

i^ pints water, 

I cupful meat broth, 

I teaspoonful butter, 

I teaspoonful flour, 

^ teaspoonful salt. 

Soak 2 ounces of beans in cold water, drain off, and 
cook them slowly in i ^ pints of water until they are soft 
but not broken. Rub through a sieve, add i cupful 
of meat broth, and cook for one-half hour, adding more 
broth if it boils away. Mix together i teaspoonful of 
butter, I teaspoonful of flour and | teaspoonful of salt, 
and add to the soup. Return to the fire and cook for 
a few minutes. 



54 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Farinaceous Soups 
browned flour soup 

1 tablespoonful wheat flour, 

2 teaspoonful butter (if desired), 

1 quart water, 
A pinch of salt. 

Brown the flour in a clean pan with or without the 
butter. Add i quart of water and bring slowly to the 
boiling-point, stirring constantly. Salt to taste. Feed 
cold or warm. This is very useful in diarrhea in older 
children. 

MACARONI SOUP 

2 tablespoonfuls barley flour, 
§ pound macaroni, 

I quart milk, 
I ounce butter, 
A pinch of salt, 
I pint water. 

Boil the macaroni in a pint of water for twenty min- 
utes, then drain and cut in |-inch lengths. Boil the milk 
in a double boiler with the butter and salt, thicken with 
2 tablespoonfuls of barley flour, add the macaroni, and 
cook for forty-five minutes. 

FARINA SOUP 

I pint meat broth, 
I tablespoonful farina, 
Salt to taste. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS $5 

To a pint of meat broth gradually add, while stirring, 
I even tablespoonful farina, and boil down to i cup 
(I pint) , boiling about twenty minutes. The farina may 
be boiled for fifteen or twenty minutes before adding 
the meat broth, then the farina and broth may be boiled 
together but ten minutes. 

VEAL AND VEGETABLE BROTH WITH FARINA 

I pound veal, 
I quart water. 
Cook two to four hours, drain off broth. 

I medium-sized potato, 
I carrot, 

I cupful dry farina, 
A pinch of salt. 

Scrape the vegetables, cut into small pieces, and cook 
in double boiler imtil tender. Strain through a fine 
strainer, add this to the meat broth, and reheat. When 
hot add J cupful of farina and cook for one hour. Season. 

Miscellaneous Soups 
liebig's extract of beef thickened 
I teaspoonful Liebig's Extract, 
I pint boiling barley water, 
I teacupful milk, or whites of 2 eggs, 
A pinch of salt. 

A teaspoonful of Liebig's Extract may be added to a 
pint of boiling barley water, which has been seasoned 



56 THE BABY'S FOOD 

with a pinch of salt. To this may be added also a 
teacupfiil of milk. Instead of the milk the whites of 
2 eggs, beaten up with 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, may be 
stirred into the beef extract and barley water when cool 
enough to be taken. Too great heat will coagulate the 
egg albumen. 

DRIED FRUIT SOUP 

^ cupful dried apricots, 

5 cupful prunes, 

I pint cold water. 

Sugar to taste, 

I teaspoonful rice flour (if desired). 

Pick over and wash the fruit imtil perfectly clean. 
Cook in a pint of water until soft; strain and squeeze 
out the juice. Sweeten to taste. If desired it may be 
thickened by adding i rounded teaspoonful of rice flour 
to each pint of fruit juice. After adding the flour cook 
twenty minutes to convert raw starch. 

WHEY SOUP 

1 pint milk whey, 

2 to 3 level teaspoonfuls cornstarch or cornmeal. 

Make the whey by the whey recipe given previously, 
mix the meal with a small portion of the whey, and 
bring the rest of the whey to the boiling-point. While 
stirring continually pour the meal into the whey, boil a 
short time, and then strain through a hair-sieve. After 



BROTHS AND SOUPS 57 

standing for a time the soup stiffens, but becomes fluid 
when it is heated to body temperature. 

APPLE SOUP 

^ pound apples, 

I pint water, 

I heaping tablespoonful sugar, 

Lemon peel, 

A pinch of salt. 

Wash the apples, slice them into the water, and stew 
for thirty to forty-five minutes. At the termination of 
the cooking add the sugar and some lemon peel. Strain 
the soup through a hair-strainer and add a pinch of salt. 



GRUELS 

CEREAL GRUELS 

Boiling Scalded 

Cereal. Salt. water. milk. 

I tbsp. barley flour I teasp. ^ cup ^ cup 

I " rice flour i " | " | " 

I " farina I " J " § " 

1 " oat flour 1 " i " h " 

2 " cracker crumbs., i " ^ " ^ " 

In the top of the double boiler mix the desired flour 
with enough cold water to form a paste. Add the boil- 
ing water, boil for two or three minutes over the fire, 
then set over the lower part of the double boiler and 
cook for fifteen or twenty minutes, stirring frequently. 
Add the salt and scalded milk and serve in a hot cup or 
bowl. The cracker gruel does not need to be mixed 
with the cold water nor cooked over the hot water, as 
it is sufficiently cooked by the two or three minutes' 
boiUng. 

FLOUR-BALL GRUEL 

I tablespoonful grated flour-ball, 

I pint milk, 

A pinch of salt, 

I tablespoonful cold water. 

Grate i tablespoonful of flour from a previously pre- 
pared flour-ball (see recipe for Flour-ball). Put the 
flour into § pint of fresh milk and stir over the fire until 

58 



GRUELS 59 

it comes to a boil. Add a pinch of salt and a table- 
spoonful of cold water and serve. The gruel is excellent 
for children with diarrhea. 

BROWNED RICE FLOUR GRUEL 

2 tablespoonfuls browned rice flour, 
6 tablespoonfuls water, 
2 pint boiled water. 

To make the browned rice flour, put ^ pound of rice 
flour into a granite baking-pan and place in the oven; 
shake and stir it occasionally until every grain of the 
flour is slightly browned. Take it from the oven, and 
when it is cold put it in a glass jar and cover it. 

To make the gruel, moisten 2 tablespoonfuls of the 
browned flour in 6 tablespoonfuls of cold water. Add 
^ pint of freshly boiled water, place over the fire in a 
double boiler, and cook for one-half hour. 

Serve plain or with milk, or add 2 tablespoonfuls of 
cream. With the addition of an equal quantity of milk 
this food is well adapted to infants and young children. 

FARINA MILK GRUEL 

f pint milk, 

I tablespoonful farina, 

A pinch of salt. 

Put i pint of milk in double boiler or in a saucepan 
and heat it to the boiUng-point over hot water. Sprinkle 



(Jo THE BABY'S FOOD 

into the milk a tablespoonful of dry farina, and cook for 
twenty minutes, stirring frequently. 

ARROWROOT GRUEL (A) 

1 teaspoonful Bermuda arrowroot, 

2 teaspoonfuls cold milk, 
5 pint boiling milk, 

^ teaspoonful sugar, 
A pinch of salt, 

A pinch of cinnamon, or | teaspoonful of 
brandy, or a dozen large raisins. 

Mix the arrowroot with the cold milk. Stir this 
slowly into the boiling milk, and allow to simmer for 
five minutes. Stir constantly to prevent lumps or 
burning. Add the sugar and salt, and, if desired, a 
pinch of cinnamon. In place of the cinnamon ^ tea- 
spoonful of brandy or a dozen large raisins may be boiled 
in the milk. If the raisins are used they should be 
stoned, and the sugar may be omitted. 

ARROWROOT GRUEL (B) 

2 tablespoonfuls arrowroot, 
2 tablespoonfuls cold water, 
I cupful boiling water or milk, 
A pinch of salt. 

Mix the arrowroot with the cold water until smooth. 
Add to it the boiling water or boiling milk and cook for 
one hour. Add a little salt, strain, and serve hot. 



GRUELS 6l 

ARROWROOT GRUEL (C) 

I teaspoonful arrowroot, 
I tablespoonful cold milk, 
I pint warm milk, 
Salt to taste. 

Mix well I teaspoonful of arrowroot with i table- 
spoonful of cold milk. Put this into a saucepan con- 
taining f to I pint of milk which is quite warm but not 
boiling. Stir gently, but not too slowly, and always 
one way, from left to right, using the handle of a wooden 
spoon. Stir constantly until it thickens and is of a 
cream-like consistency, when it is ready for use. 



FLOUR GRUEL 

I tablespoonful boiling water, 
I cupful milk, 
I teaspoonful salt, 
^ tablespoonful flour. 
Sugar and butter as desired. 

Put the boiling water in an uncovered pan. Add the 
milk and salt and bring to the boiling-point. Mix the 
flour to a smooth paste with a little cold milk, add to the 
boiling fluids, and cook five minutes, stirring constantly. 

Strain into a cup and serve. The gruel may be varied 
by adding ^ teaspoonful of butter before straining. It 
may be sweetened to taste. 



63 THE BABY'S FOOD 

CRACKER GRUEL 

^ cupful milk, 

^ cupful water, 

I tablespoonful rolled and sifted cracker crumbs, 

I teaspoonful salt. 

Bring the milk and water to the boiling-point, add 
the cracker crumbs, and cook in a double boiler for five 
minutes. Salt to taste. 



GRtlELS FROM RICE, OATS, WHEAT, AND BARLEY 

These are made in the same manner either from the 
flours or from the graias. If the flours are used the 
proportions are 2 to 4 level tablespoonfuls of the flour 
to a pint of water. When the grains are used, 2 table- 
spoonfuls are soaked over night, then cooked for four 
hours. This should be strained, and when milk is to be 
added it must be stirred in immediately after removing 
from the fire. 

CORNMEAL GRUEL 

^ cupful yellow commeal, 
I pint hot water or hot milk. 
Salt to taste. 

Sprinkle the commeal into the hot water or hot milk, 
to which the salt has been added. Cook for one hour 
in a double boiler. 



GRUELS 63 

THICKENED MILK 

I tablespoonful wheat or rice flour, 

I pint milk, 

Sugar and cinnamon to taste. 

Much nourishment is obtained from milk thickened 
with wheat flour or rice flour. The method is as 
follows : Rub the flour until smooth in a few spoonfuls of 
milk. Gradually add more milk until I pint is used. 
Sweeten and flavor with cinnamon and boil for several 
minutes, stirring it continually to insure smoothness. 



PUDDINGS AND CEREAL PREPARATIONS 

SAGO JELLY 

i pint sago, 

I pint cold water, 

I pint boiling water, 

A pinch of salt, 

|- cupful sugar, 

I teaspoonful lemon juice. 
Soak the sago over night in a pint of cold water; 
in the morning add a pint of boihng water and a pinch 
of salt. Boil in the double boiler one hour, then add 
I cupful of sugar and the lemon juice. 

SAGO PUDDING 

1 pint milk, . 
if ounces sago, 

I J ounces butter, 

2 eggs, 

I teaspoonful sugar. 
Cook if ounces of well- washed white sago in a pint 
of milk. Stir often to prevent burning. When the 
sago becomes tender place it in a dish to cool. Add if 
ounces of butter and stir until it froths. To this add 
the yolks of 2 eggs, one after the other, i teaspoonful of 
sugar after each egg, and lastly whip the whites of the 
eggs and stir them in. Bake in a well-buttered form 
with moderate heat for three-quarters of an hour. 
64 



PUDDINGS AND CEREAL PREPARATIONS 65 

RICE MILK (A) 

I ounce rice, 
I pint scalded milk, 
I saltspoonful salt, 
I teaspoonful sugar. 

Soak the rice in cold water for twelve hours. Strain 
and add i pint scalded milk, the salt, and sugar. Stir 
well and cook for one hour. Rub through a fine sieve 
and dilute with more milk if desired. Sago or tapioca 
may be used in the same way. 

RICE MILK (b) 

I pint boiling milk, 

if ounces rice, 

I tablespoonful sugar. 
Stir into a pint of boiling milk if ounces of well- 
washed rice, add a tablespoonful of sugar, and stir well. 
Cook slowly until it is soft, which usually requires 
about one hour. 

ORANGE RICB 

if ounces boiled rice. 

Juice of 2 oranges, 

I heaping teaspoonful sugar, 

I paper of gelatin, 

4 oimces boiling water, 

I sweet orange. 

Make a mixture of the freshly boiled rice, the orange 
juice, sugar, and gelatin (dissolved in the boiling water). 



66 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Build a shell with the sections of a sweet orange and fill 
with the above mixture. Serve cold. 

MILK RICE WITH FRUIT 

I ounce rice, 

I pint boiling milk, 

Small amount of lemon peel, 

I orange, 

1 tablespoonful sugar. 
Jelly or fruit as desired, 

2 egg-whites, 

5 teaspoonful pulverized sugar. 
Wash the rice and pour it into i pint of boiling whole 
milk, cover, and cook slowly in a double boiler until soft. 
Then add a small amount of lemon peel, the orange and 
sugar, and stir well. Place in a flat porcelain dish some 
stiff jelly or, better, fresh fruit (pears, apples, oranges, or 
sliced pineapple). Pour the rice over the fruit, then the 
well-whipped whites of 2 eggs. Sprinkle it over with 
pulverized sugar, and set it in a moderately hot oven 
until it is a delicate brown. 

RICE JELLY 

1 2 tablespoonfuls rice, 
I cupful cold water, 
A pinch of salt, 
f cup milk, 
I egg-white. 
Wash the rice and soak in cold water for two hours and 



PUDDINGS AND CEREAL PREPARATIONS 67 

drain. Bring the milk to a boil and gradually add the 
rice. Cook in a double boiler for one and a half hours. 
Strain through a fine sieve. Place in molds and pour 
over the rice the well-whipped egg-white. May be 
served cold with milk (or cream) and sugar. 

CORNMEAL MUSH 

I level tablespoonful cornmeal, 
^ pint warm milk, 
I teaspoonful salt, 
I teaspoonful sugar. 

Stir together slowly the cornmeal, warm milk, salt, and 
sugar, and boil for fifteen minutes. 

Rice meal mush or oatmeal mush may be made in the 
same way, except that 15 level tablespoonfuls of the latter 
are used instead of i tablespoonful of the former. 

JUNKET AND CORNMEAL PUDDING 

4 tablespoonfuls yellow cornmeal, 

I pinch salt, 

I pint boiling water, 

1 pint milk, 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar, 
I junket tablet. 
Grating of nutmeg- 
Put one pint of boiling water into a double boiler, add 

the salt, and then gradually add the meal, stirring con- 



68 THE BABY'S FOOD 

tinually. Stir until quite smooth and cook for one-half 
hour. Remove from the fire and add i pint of cool milk 
in which 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar have been dissolved. 
Mix well together and when cooled to lukewarm add i 
dissolved junket tablet. Stir the junket tablet in quickly 
and turn the mixture at once into serving dishes. Grate 
over the top a little nutmeg. Let set until firm, and then 
place on ice to cool. 

CORN FLOUR PUDDING 

1 pint milk, 

2 tablespoonfuls com flour, 
Flavor to taste, 

Jam if desired. 

With I pint of milk mix 2 tablespoonfuls corn flour; 
flavor to taste; then boil the whole eight minutes. Allow 
it to cool in a mold and serve with or without jam. 

CORNSTARCH PUDDING 

1 pint milk, 

2 tablespoonfuls cornstarch, 

I level tablespoonful cane-sugar. 
Flavor to taste. 

With I pint of milk mix 2 tablespoonfuls of cornstarch 
and I level tablespoonful cane-sugar. Flavor to taste; 
then boil the whole eight minutes; allow to cool in a 
mold. 



PUDDINGS AND CEREAL PREPARATIONS 69 

HUNGARIAN PUDDING 

I once butter, 

I heaping tablespoonful pulverized sugar, 

1 ounce flour, 
4 ounces milk, 

2 eggs, 

1 grated lemon peel, 
f teaspoonful sugar, 

^ ounce bread crumbs. 

Place the butter, pulverized sugar, and flour on the 
mixing board and make a ball. Boil the milk and place 
the ball in it, and cook, with continuous stirring, to a 
thick mush. Let cool. Stir in the yolks of 2 eggs one 
after the other, add the lemon peel, sugar, and finally 
the beaten whites of 2 eggs. Butter a stew-pan, sprinkle 
the bread crumbs on it, place this preparation in it, 
cover, and stew for one hour. 

RICE AND MILK PUDDING 

2 tablespoonfuls rice, 

1 tablespoonful cornstarch, 

2 pints milk. 

Boil the milk in a double boiler, and while stirring add 
the rice and cornstarch and cook until the rice is soft and 
creamy in color. The pudding may be sweetened when 
served. 



7a THE BABY'S FOOD 

CUSTARD PUDDING 

I egg, 

I teaspoonful sugar, 

4 ounces milk, 

I teaspoonful flour (if desired). 

Break the egg into a teacup and add the sugar, beating 
thoroughly. Add the milk, stir, and tie over the cup a 
small piece of linen; place the cup in a shallow saucepan 
half full of water, and boil for ten minutes. If it is 
desired to make a light batter pudding, a teaspoonful of 
flour should be mixed with the milk before tying up the 
cup. 

Fawnaceous Puddings 
PLAIN pudding 

1 tablespoonful cornstarch, or 
1 2 tablespoonfuls farina, or 

2 teaspoonfuls arrowroot,* 
I white of I egg, 

I cupful scalded milk, 
^ tablespoonful sugar, 
Few drops vanilla, or 
I teaspoonful brandy, or 
Few shavings lemon rind. 
See method below. 

Note. — ^This amount of arrowroot will not make a 
pudding of sufficient stiffness to mold, but the arrowroot 
is more delicate unmolded. 



PUDDINGS AND CEREAL PRERARATIONS 71 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING 

Farinaceous material same as for plain pudding, 

^ cupful milk, 

^ white of I egg, 

I tablespoonful sugar, 

f square of chocolate, melted, 

A pinch of salt. 

Method. — Mix farinaceous material, sugar, and a pinch 
of salt together. Add enough cold water to form a 
smooth, thick paste. Place in a double boiler and cook 
until it thickens, stirring constantly. Add to this the 
scalded milk and chocolate. Cook ten minutes longer, 
stirring occasionally. Beat the egg-white until quite stiff, 
add the hot, thickened milk gradually, beating all the 
time. Pour into a mold which has been dipped into cold 
water. Chill. Unmold and serve plain or with custard 
dressing. 

VARIATIONS 

(i) After the pudding has cooked for ten minutes, 
pour over it the yolk of an egg, beaten slightly. Bake in 
the oven for ten minutes. To one beaten egg-white add 
I tablespoonful sugar, and spread it over the pudding. 
Return to the oven to brown the meringue slightly. 
Serve cold. 

(2) Before molding the pudding garnish the bottom of 
the mold with a candied cherry, or serve with fruit sauce, or 
when unmolded make a small hollow in the top of the pud- 
ding, in which put i teaspoonful of currant or grape jelly. 



7a THE BABY'S FOOD 

Tapioca Pudding 
cream tapioca 
2 tablespoonfuls minute tapioca, or 
I tablespoonful pearl tapioca, 
^ cupful milk, 
I tablespoonful sugar, 
^egg, 

Few thin shavings of lemon rind scalded with 
milk, or lo or 12 drops of vanilla. 

See method below. 

BAKED TAPIOCA 

I tablespoonful minute or pearl tapioca, 
I cupful milk, 
I tablespoonful sugar, 
^ yolk of I egg, 

Few thin shavings of lemon rind scalded with 
milk, or 10 to 12 drops of vanilla. 
See method below. 

FRUIT TAPIOCA 

2 tablespoonfuls pearl tapioca, or 

3 tablespoonfuls minute tapioca, 
I cupful boiling water, 

Sugar to taste, 

I apple or i peach, or I cupful berries. 

The apple may be pared and cored and cut in eighths. 
The peaches may be peeled and cut in halves or quarters. 



PUDDINGS AND CEREAL PREPARATIONS 73 

Method. — If pearl tapioca is used, soak one hour or 
longer in cold water. If minute tapioca is used, no soak- 
ing is required. Put the tapioca in the desired liquid 
in a double boiler. Cook until transparent. (The time 
required for cooking minute tapioca is shorter than for 
cooking pearl tapioca.) 

Add the egg yolk, and unless to be baked, return to the 
double boiler and cook until slightly thickened. Add the 
egg-white, beaten stiff ; put in mold. 

When cold, unmold and serve with cream or fruit 
sauce. If the pudding is to be baked, add the cooked 
tapioca to the egg or to the fruit. Put in the oven and 
bake until the egg is set or the fruit is soft. When egg is 
used, bake in pan of hot water, as in baking custard. 

These proportions give a pudding that will unmold 
when cold. If a creamy consistency is desired, use one- 
half the quantity of tapioca indicated. 



CUSTARDS 
General Method 
Scald the milk. While scalding, beat the egg. Add 
the sugar to it. Mix well. Add the scalded milk slowly, 
stirring all the time. Pour into a baking dish, put it into 
a pan of hot water, and bake until the custard is firm. 
Test by inserting point of knife in center. If knife blade 
is clean upon withdrawal, the custard is thoroughly 
cooked. 

PLAIN CUSTARD 

§ cupful milk, 

I yolk of egg, or from | to i egg, 

I tablespoonful sugar, 

\ teaspoonful vanilla, or grating of nutmeg. 

Cook by general method given above. 

chocolate custard 
§ cupful milk, 
I yolk of egg, 
I tablespoonful sugar. 
I tablespoonful scraped chocolate. 

Melt the chocolate over hot water. Dilute with 
scalded milk until of the consistency to pour. Add the 
chocolate to the egg, and finish according to the general 
directions given above. 

74 



CUSTARDS 75 

BAKED CUSTARD 

I egg, 

I I tablespoonfuls sugar, 
f cupful scalded milk, 
Nutmeg or cinnamon to flavor, 
Small pinch of salt. 

Beat the egg slightly, add the sugar and salt. Add hot 
milk gradually, and pour into small buttered molds. 
Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon, set in a pan of hot 
water, and bake in a slow oven until firm. Remove from 
mold for serving. 



EGGS 

General Principle in Cooking 
As egg albumin coagulates at i6o° F. and as it toughens 
when boiled, eggs should be cooked below the boiling- 
point to insure a tender consistency. 

SOFT COOKED EGG 

I pint water, 
I egg. 

Method I. — Put i pint of water in a saucepan. When 
it boils remove the saucepan to side of range, put in i 
washed egg, and let it stand from five to ten minutes, 
according to consistency desired. Serve in heated egg 
cup. 

Method 2. — Wash i egg and put in saucepan with i 
pint of cold water. Bring to boiling-point. Remove 
from water and serve in heated egg cup. 

POACHED EGG 

I egg, 

I slice toast, 

Parsley, 

A pinch of salt. 

Into a shallow pan of boiling water break i egg. 

Remove the pan to a place on the range where the water 

will not boil, and let it stand until the white is coagulated 
76 



EGGS 77 

and a thin film is formed over the yolk. Lay a neatly 
trimmed piece of toast on a skimmer, dip it in the hot 
water to soften it, place in the middle of a hot plate, 
remove the egg carefully with the skimmer, and place on 
the toast. Garnish with parsley. 

CODDLED EGG 

I egg, 

I pint water. 

Into a saucepan of boiling water a fresh egg is placed 
without removing the shell. The water is immediately 
removed from the fire and the egg cooked slowly in it for 
five minutes. The white should then be of jelly-like 
consistency. 

EGG POACHED IN MILK 

I egg, 

i^ teaspoonfuls butter, 

^ cupful milk or thin cream, 

I pinch salt, . 

I slice toast. 

Melt the butter in the top of the double boiler, add the 
milk or thin cream, and when hot carefully drop in the 
egg. Cool until the white is nearly firm, keeping it just 
below the boiling-point. Add the salt and serve on toast. 



VEGETABLES 

Vegetables, on general principles, should all be prepared 
in the same manner. Clean very carefully and boil in 
salt water until soft. Cut them into small pieces and boil 
again until a thick broth is formed. Strain through a 
hair-strainer and add a piece of butter. Whenever prac- 
ticable save the cooking water, as it contains most of the 
plant minerals. 

MASHED POTATOES (A) 

I pint boiled potatoes, 

I tablespoonful butter, 

^ teaspoonful salt, 

Milk or cream to moisten. 
To prepare them just as they should be — light, creamy, 
and snowy white — allow to each pint of potatoes i 
tablespoonful of butter, | teaspoonful salt, and hot milk 
or cream to moisten. Mash in the kettle in which they 
boiled, and beat with a fork until they are light and 
creamy. If not quite ready to serve, set the kettle in a 
pan of hot water and leave on the back of the range until 
desired on the table. 

MASHED POTATOES (B) 

J pound potatoes, 
^ teaspoonful salt, 
Water to cover potatoes, 
I teaspoonful butter. 

Place J pound of potatoes in enough boiling salt water 
78 



VEGETABLES 79 

to cover them, and boil in the ordinary way until they 
are thoroughly done. Put through a fine sieve and add 
I teaspoonful of butter. 

MASHED POTATOES (C) 

I pound potatoes, 
I teaspoonful salt, 
I pint water, 
f teaspoonful butter, 
4 ounces milk. 

Clean and scrape well I pound of small potatoes, boil 
until they are soft in salt water (| teaspoonful of salt to 
I pint). Pour the water off and let them steam while on 
the stove. Put through a hair-strainer and whip with 
f teaspoonful butter. Add 4 ounces of milk and stir well. 

BAKED POTATOES 

Select potatoes having a smooth, unmarred surface. 
Wash perfectly clean and dry with a cloth. Put them in 
an old baking pan — do not crowd them — and place in a 
hot oven. If the oven is large and hot and the potatoes 
of medium size, forty minutes is sufficient for the baking. 
On the other hand, if the oven is filled with cold potatoes 
the temperature of the oven will be. quickly reduced and 
it will require an hour to bake the potatoes. Baked 
potatoes should be served as soon as they are done. If 
they must be kept any time after the baking is com- 
pleted, break them in order that the moisture may escape. 



8o THE BABY'S FOOD 

Keep them in a warm oven or covered with a cheese- 
cloth in a stew-pan. 

YOUNG KOHLRABI 

2 kohlrabi, 

I pint boiling water, 

^ teaspoonful salt. 

Wash and peel 2 young kohlrabi. Lay aside the young 
tender leaves. Slice the kohlrabi into § pint boiling 
water, add ^ teaspoonful salt, and boil slowly for a 
quarter of an hour. Pour the water off and set it aside. 
Place the tender leaves in another pot and boil for five 
minutes. Drain the water off and add this to the 
kohlrabi water which has been set aside. Then to this 
water add the finely chopped leaves. Now pour this 
water over the kohlrabi, place on the stove, and boil 
slowly for five minutes. If it is necessary, strain this 
again through the hair-strainer. 

SPINACH 

I quart spinach, 

^ pint water, 

I teaspoonful butter, 

§ teaspoonful salt. 

Bread crumbs as needed. 

Remove roots, pick over carefully (discarding wilted 
leaves), and wash thoroughly in many waters until free 
from sand. Cook in boiling salted water, allowing one- 



VEGETABLES 8l 

fourth as much water as spinach. Cook twenty-five 
to thirty minutes. Chop fine or rub through a coarse 
sieve. To 2 tablespoonfuls of spinach add i teaspoonful 
of fine bread crumbs, ^ teaspoonful of melted butter, 
and a pinch of salt. Reheat and serve. 

ASPARAGUS ON TOAST 

9 stalks of asparagus, 
I quart water, 

1 teaspoonful salt, 

2 slices toast, 

I teaspoonful butter. 

This delicate spring vegetable should be treated very 
simply, yet carefully. Cut off the woody part and scrape 
the lower part of the stalks. Wash well and tie in a 
bunch. Put into a deep stew-pan with the cut ends 
resting on the bottom of the stew-pan. Pour in enough 
boiling water to come up to the tender heads, but not to 
cover them. Add a teaspoonful of salt for each quart of 
water. Boil slowly until tender, having the cover 
partially off the stew-pan. This requires from fifteen to 
thirty minutes, depending on the freshness and tender- 
ness of the vegetable. 

Butter some slices of well-toasted bread and lay on a 
platter. Arrange the cooked asparagus on the toast, 
season with butter and a little salt, and serve at once. 
(The water in which the asparagus was boiled may be 
used in making vegetable soup.) 



82 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Another method of cooking asparagus is to cut the 
tender part into short pieces, add boiling water enough to 
cover the vegetable, and place on the fire. Cook until 
tender (about fifteen minutes), season with salt and but- 
ter, and serve in the greater part of the fluid in which it 
was cooked. If preferred a cream dressing may be served 
with asparagus. 

CREAMED ASPARAGUS 

9 stalks of asparagus, 

I pint water, 

J cupful milk, 

I teaspoonful flour, 

1 teaspoonful butter, 
A pinch of salt, 

2 slices toast. 

Cook 9 stalks of asparagus in a pint of slightly salted 
water. When tender remove stalks one by one. Place 
on a warm plate and remove pulp by taking hold of firm 
end of stalk and scraping lightly with a fork toward the 
tip. Use pulp only. 

Make a sauce with | of a cupful of water in which the 
asparagus was cooked, j of a cupful of milk, i teaspoonful 
of flour, I teaspoonful of butter, and a pinch of salt. 
Dip the toast in the sauce. Take what is left of the , 
sauce and mix with 2 tablespoonfuls of the asparagus 
pulp. Reheat. Place on toast and serve. 



VEGETABLES 83 

PLAIN STRING BEANS 

I quart beans, 

^ pint water, 

I J tablespoonfuls melted butter, 

I level teaspoonful salt. 
Wash, string, and cut the beans into ^-inch lengths. 
Boil rapidly in salted water for twenty minutes, place 
in a colander and let the cold water run over them. 
This blanches them. Place in a saucepan with water 
and salt and cook until tender. Rub through a colander 
and add the butter. 

SHELL BEANS 

I pint beans, 

i^ pints water, 

I tablespoonful butter, 

1 teaspoonful salt. 
Wash and cook in boiling salted water from one to 
one and one-half hours. Cook in a sufficiently small 
amount of water that there may be none to drain off 
when done. Put through a colander and season with 
butter. 

GREEN PEAS 

I cupful green peas, 

1 pint boiling water, 
^ teaspoonful salt, 

2 tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, 
^ teaspoonful flour, 

^ teaspoonful bread crumbs. 



84 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Cook a cupful of green peas in i pint oi boiling salted 
water until they are done. Drain, saving water in which 
they were cooked. Rub through a coarse sieve. Make 
a sauce of 2 tablespoonfuls of water in which the peas 
were boiled, 2 tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, | teaspoonful 
of flour, ^ teaspoonful of fine bread crumbs. Mix this 
sauce with the peas. Reheat and serve. 

BOILED LETTUCE 

4 or 5 heads lettuce, 
1 5 pints water, 
^ teaspoonful salt, 

1 teaspoonful of butter, 
White sauce if desired, 

2 egg-yolks. 

Wash carefully 4 or 5 heads of lettuce, removing thick, 
bitter stalks and retaining all sound leaves. Cook in 
1 1 pints of boiling salted water for ten or fifteen minutes, 
then blanch in cold water for a minute or two. Drain, 
chop lightly, and heat in a stew-pan with i teaspoonful of 
butter and a pinch of salt. If preferred the cooked 
lettuce may be heated with a pint of white sauce, sea- 
soned with salt. After simmering for a few minutes in 
the sauce, draw to a cooler part of the range and stir in 
the well-beaten yolks of 2 eggs. 

BOn.ED CAULIFLOWER 

I head of cauliflower, 
I quart water, 
^ teaspoonful salt, 



• VEGETABLES 85 

This vegetable, which a few years ago was a luxury, 
is now cultivated by nearly all market gardeners and is 
within the means of all housekeepers. It is a most 
delicious vegetable when properly cooked. Care should 
be taken not to overcook it. 

Remove all the green leaves and the greater part of the 
stalk. Put it, head down, in a pan of cold water which 
contains a teaspoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of 
vinegar to each quart of water. Let it soak in this water 
an hour or more. This is to draw out worms if any should 
be hidden in the vegetable. Place the cauliflower in a 
large stew-pan, stem end down, and cover generously with 
water. Add i teaspoonful of salt and boil gently with 
the cover of the saucepan partially off. A large compact 
head will require thirty minutes, small heads from twenty 
to twenty-five minutes. If the flowers are loose the heat 
penetrates to all parts quickly. When compact, a little 
extra time should be allowed for the cooking, but the 
time must never exceed thirty minutes. The cauli- 
flower begins to deteriorate the moment it is over- 
cooked. 

Overcooking, which is very common, can be told by the 
strong flavor and dark color. It makes the vegetable 
not only unpleasant to the eye and palate, but indigestible 
also. If this vegetable must be kept warm for any length 
of time, cover the dish with a piece of cheese-cloth. 



S6 THE BABY'S FOOD 

CREAMED CAULIFLOWER (A) 

I small head of cauliflower, 

I quart water, 

I teaspoonful flour, 

I teaspoonful salt, 

I cupful sweet milk, 

I teaspoonful butter. 

Clean and break up cauliflower and cook it twenty 
minutes in boiling water with a little salt. Drain. Make 
a sauce with I cupful of water in which the cauliflower 
was cooked, the butter, flour, and milk. Pour sauce over 
cauliflower. If very small pieces are desired, mash with a 
fork or rub through a coarse sieve. 

CREAMED CAULIFLOWER (B) 

I pint cooked cauliflower, 

I pint milk, 

I teaspoonful salt, 

I tablespoonful butter, 

^ tablespoonful flour, 

3 slices toasted bread. 

Break the cooked cauliflower into branches and season 
with salt. Heat the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, 
and stir until smooth and frothy, then gradually add the 
milk, stirring constantly. When the sauce boils add the 
salt and the cauUflower. Cook ten minutes and place 
on slices of toast. Serve very hot. 



VEGETABLES 87 

Onions 

The onion is valuable for its flavor and for its laxative 
action. Either the Spanish or Bermuda onion is pref- 
erable for children. They may be boiled or baked, and 
may be given to children over three years of age, provided 
no idiosyncrasy for onions is shown by the child to whom 
they are served. 

BOn.ED ONIONS 

I large or 2 small onions, 
I pint boiling water, 
I teaspoonful salt, 

1 teaspoonful soda, 

2 ounces milk, 

I teaspoonful butter. 
Put the onions in a pan of cold water and peel under 
water. Put them into a quart of boiling water to which 
salt and a pinch of soda has been added. After cooking 
five minutes, pour off the water and add fresh salted 
boiling water, cook for ten minutes, and change the water 
again. This time place them in i pint of boiling water 
to which ^ teaspoonful of salt has been added, and boil 
for forty-five to sixty minutes. Drain off the water and 
add a little milk, cook a few minutes, and add the butter. 
Serve hot. 

CREAMED ONIONS 

1 boiled onion, 

2 ounces cream sauce. 

Pour cream sauce over boiled onion, reheat, and serve 
hot. 



88 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Celery 

Celery is both wholesome and digestible if in good 
condition. It should not be given raw to children under 
six years of age. A single tender slip from the heart may 
be given to older children. For general use for children 
celery should be stewed. 

STEWED CELERY 

I bunch celery, 

1 pint boiling water, 

2 teaspoonf ul salt. 
Cream sauce if desired. 

Cut off the tops of a bunch of celery, cut the stalks into 
small pieces, first scraping them well. Place in boiling 
salted water and boil until tender over a quick fire; 
this requires from twenty-five to thirty-five minutes. 
Serve plain or with the usual cream sauce. 

BOILED BRUSSELS SPROUTS 

I dozen brussels sprouts, 
I quart boiling water, 
I teaspoonful salt, 
I tablespoonful butter, or 
^ cupful cream sauce. 

To be perfect brussels sprouts should not be larger 
than an English wahiut. Trim off the outside leaves. 



VEGETABLES 89 

keeping just the hearts of the sprouts. Throw these 
hearts into cold water and soak for one hour, then put 
them into a quart of boiling salted water and cook rapidly, 
uncovered, for about thirty minutes or until tender. 
Drain. Serve with salt and butter or with cream 
sauce. 

Tomatoes 
Raw tomatoes must be used very cautiously. The 
seeds and skins should be discarded and the tomato 
should be fresh and just ripe. A green or overripe 
tomato is dangerous. 

STEWED TOMATOES 

2 tomatoes, 

I ounce cracker crumbs, 
I teaspoonful butter, 
I teaspoonful salt, 
^ teaspoonful sugar. 

Pour boiling water over the tomatoes, peel, and cut 
into pieces. Put in a saucepan and cook slowly for 
twenty minutes, stirring occasionally. Add a few bread 
or cracker cnunbs and season with salt and butter. A 
small amount of sugar may be added if the tomatoes are 
very add. 



go THE BABY'S FOOD 

SQUASH 

I small squash, 
I pint water, 
i teaspoonful salt, 
I teaspoonful butter. 

The various varieties of the summer squash are gen- 
erally cooked when so small and tender that the thumb- 
nail can easily pierce the rind. 

To prepare for the table, wash the squash, remove the 
rind, cut into small pieces, and either cook in boiling 
water or steam. It will cook in boiling water in thirty 
minutes, while about an hour is required if cooked in the 
steamer. The cooked squash is mashed fine and sea- 
soned with salt and butter. This method gives a 
delicately flavored dish 

BOn.ED CARROTS 

I pound carrots, 

I pint meat broth, 

I teaspoonful bread crumbs, 

I teaspoonful butter, 

A pinch of salt. 

Cook ^ pound of carrots in a pint of fat-free meat 
broth or slightly salted water, adding more if it boils 
away. Rub through a sieve, add i teaspoonful of bread 
crumbs, i teaspoonful of butter, and a pinch of salt. 
Reheat and serve. 



VEGETABLES ^ 91 

BOILED BEETS 

6 young, tender beets, 
I quart boiling water, 

1 teaspoonful salt, 

2 teaspoonfuls melted butter. 

Cut off the top at least one inch from the root, as this 
will prevent the loss of the juice in cooking. Wash the 
root carefully without bruising it. Cook in boiling salted 
water until tender. This will require from forty-five 
minutes to one hour. Remove the skin, cut into small 
squares or sHces, and serve plain or with a small amount of 
melted butter. These may be added to the diet of a 
child five years or more of age. 

CREAM OR WHITE SAUCE 

(Pour over any vegetable.) 
I cupful milk or thin cream, 
^ tablespoonful butter, 
I saltspoonful salt, 
I tablespoonful flour. 

Scald the milk. Melt the butter in a saucepan, remove 
from stove, add the flour, then gradually the scalded 
milk, place in a double boiler over the fire and cook, 
stirring constantly, until smooth. 



FRUITS 
ORANGE JUICE 

Take a sweet orange, cut in halves, and squeeze out 
juice by hand or with a lemon squeezer; strain and serve 
promptly. 

ORANGE GELATIN FOR OLDER CHILDREN 

^ box shredded gelatin, 

5 cupful cold water, 

Juice of I lemon, 

2 cupfuls boiling water, 

I cupful sugar, 

I cupful orange juice. 

Soak the gelatin in the cold water thirty minutes. 
Add the boiling water and dissolve. Then add sugar and 
fruit juice, strain through a fine strainer (or a cloth) into 
molds, and set away to harden. 

PRUNE JUICE 

§ pound prunes, 
I teaspoonful sugar. 

Wash thoroughly | pound of prunes, cover with cold 

water, and soak over night. In the morning place on the 

stove in the same water and cook until tender; add i 

teaspoonful of sugar and strain. 
93 



FRUITS 93 

PRUNE GELATIN 

I pound prunes, 

1 quart water, 
^ box gelatin, 

2 teaspoonfuls sugar. 

Place the prunes in a quart of water and cook slowly 
until tender. Remove from stove, drain off the liquid, 
set aside. Remove the stones from the prunes and push 
the pulp through a sieve. Add the pulp to the liquid, 
and bring the whole to a boil again. Pour tliis boiling 
mixture on 5 box of gelatin which has previously been 
soaked in cold water. Add the sugar and stir to dissolve. 
Strain, and allow to stand until firm. 

STEWED PRUNES 

^ pound prunes, 

I pint water, 

I teaspoonful sugar. 

Stew the prunes until quite soft and then rub them 
through a coarse sieve. Put this pulp back in the water 
in which the prunes we're cooked, add the sugar, and boil 
again for about ten minutes. 

PRUNE WHIP 

6 stewed prunes, 

I egg-white, 

^ teaspoonful powered sugar. 

Remove the seeds from the prunes and press the pulp 



94 THE BABY'S FOOD 

through a sieve. Fold into the pulp the well-beaten white 
of one egg. Put this into an individual baking dish or a 
custard cup, dust with powered sugar, bake in quick oven 
five minutes, and serve at once. 

PRUNE PULP 

^ pound prunes, 
I pint water. 

Cook the prunes slowly in the water in a porcelain 
saucepan until they are quite soft. Then rub them 
through a coarse sieve. 

BAKED APPLE AND RICE 

2| ounces rice, 

I pint boiling milk, 

1 pound apples, 
5 pint water, 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar, 
I teaspoonful butter, 

I egg, 

I teaspoonful lemon juice, 
I pinch grated lemon peel, 
I pinch salt. 

Stir 25 ounces rice into i pint boiling milk and cook 
slowly for i hour. Pare and slice I pound of apples, add 
5 pint water, i tablespoonful sugar, ^ teaspoonful butter, 
and stew in a double boiler until they are tender. \Vhen 
cooked, add to it i egg, ^ teaspoonful butter, i table- 



FRUITS 95 

spoonful sugar, i teaspoonful lemon juice, a pinch of 
grated lemon peel, and a pinch of salt. Stir all well 
together. Butter lightly an earthen form and place in 
it a thin layer of the prepared rice, then the apples, then 
the rest of the rice. Bake for thirty minutes in the oven. 

APPLE SAUCE 

6 apples, 

I cupful cold water, 

I teaspoonful sugar. 

Pare 6 apples and cut them in quarters. Place them in 
an enameled dish, add i cupful cold water, and boil the 
apples about thirty minutes. Strain, and sprinkle over 
them I teaspoonful of sugar before serving. 

APPLE PASTRY FOR OLDER CHILDREN 

I pound apples, 

25 tablespoonfuls sugar, 

I ounce butter, 

1 ounce flour, 

2 eggs, 

I pint milk. 

Pare a pound of apples and slice them into a porcelain 
baking dish with i| tablespoonfuls of sugar. Then stir 
together i ounce of butter, i heaping tablespoonful of 
sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, i ounce of flour, | pint of milk, 
and the beaten whites of 2 eggs. Pour this mixture over 
the apples and bake for one hour. 



96 THE BABY'S FOOD 

GRATED BANANAS 

Fresh, ripe bananas, either grated, mashed, or finely 
chopped, afford a valuable fruit food. These with milk 
constitute a nourishing food, and may be given to 
older children. 

FRUIT SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS 

6 tablespoonfuls fruit juice, 
I teaspoonful arrowroot or cornstarch. 
Blend the arrowroot or starch with a little cold water 
and pour it into the hot fruit juice. Boil three or four 
minutes. Sweeten if desired. This may be used over 
any plain cake or pudding. 



MEATS 

SCRAPED AND BROILED MEATS 

Raw or slightly cooked beef, scraped and seasoned, 
may be fed to children of fifteen to eighteen months of 
age. As much as a tablespoonful may be given once 
daily. Use meat, preferably, from the round, free from 
fat. Place on a board and scrape with a silver spoon, 
scraping with the grain. When the desired amount of 
meat pulp is obtained, shape into a patty and broil on a 
hot, dry spider. Do not cook too long. When done, 
season with a little salt and butter and serve. A few 
drops of lemon juice may be added. 

Later, beef-steak, roast beef, and lamb chops are 
best, and should be broiled, not fried. Soup meat well 
cooked may also be given. All meats should be very 
finely cut or scraped before giving them to the baby. 

BROn^ED BACON 

Put thin strips of bacon in a broiler. Place the broiler 
over a dripping-pan and bake in a hot oven until crisp. 

FRIED BACON 

Heat a frying-pan very hot. Put into it strips of 
thinly sliced bacon. As the fat is drawn out, pour it off 

7 97 



98 THE BABY'S FOOD 

into a cup. Cook the bacon until crisp and brown. 
Drain on soft paper. 

BEEF JUICE 

I to ^ pound round steak, 
I pinch salt. 
Or 

I pound round steak, 

I pinch salt, 

Cold water to cover. 

Method I. — Broil slightly j to | pound round steak cut 
in small pieces, and then press out the juice with a meat 
press or potato ricer, and add a pinch of salt. Serve 
fresh or warm. 

Method 2. — Put i pound of finely chopped round steak 
in a covered jar, pour in enough cold water to cover it, and 
add a pinch of salt. Cover the jar and let it stand on ice 
for six hours or more, shaking it from time to time. 
Strain the contents of the jar through a piece of cheese- 
cloth. When made by this method the beef juice is not 
quite so palatable, although children do not seem to 
object to it, and it has the advantage of being more 
nutritious and much more economical. 

Beef juice can be warmed sUghtly by pouring it in a 
small cup, and then placing this in a larger one containing 
warm water. It should, however, not be warmed enough 
to coagulate the albumin. 



MEATS 99 

BEEF JELLY 

I pound beef, 

I pint water, 

Salt to taste. 
To I pound of fresh, lean, chopped beef add i pint of 
water. Boil one hour. Add more water if it boils 
away. Strain. Salt to taste. Allow to cool, when it 
will jelly. 

CREAMED CHICKEN 

^ cupful cold cooked chicken, 

I pinch celery salt, 

I saltspoonful salt, 

^ tablespoonful butter, 

^ tablespoonful flour, 

\ cupful thin cream, 

I sUce toast. 
Melt the butter in a double boiler, stir in the flour, and 
gradually add the scalded cream. Cook thoroughly, add 
the chicken (cut into small cubes), then add the season- 
ing. Heat well and serve on slice of toast. 

BROILED CmCKEN 

I small young chicken (about 2§ pounds), 

1 teaspoonful salt, 

2 tablespoonfuls flour, 
I tablespoonful butter. 

Dress for broiling, following the directions given in the 
previous recipe. Season with salt and rub all over with 



lOO THE BABY'S FOOD 

butter and dredge with flour. Put in a well-greased 
broiler and broil over an open fire for fifteen minutes, 
turning often. The flesh side must be exposed to the fire 
the greater part of the time, as the skin burns easily. 
When the chicken is nicely browned, place in a dripping- 
pan, skin side down, in a moderate oven twelve minutes. 
Put in a hot dish, season with salt and butter, and serve 
immediately. 
This rule is for a chicken weighing about 2-2 pounds. 

BROILED SQUAB 

I squab, 

^ teaspoonful salt, 

I tablespoonful flour, 

I tablespoonful butter, 

I sUce toast, 

I tablespoonful currant jelly. 

Select a squab that is fresh killed, dry picked, and not 
drawn. Clean, cut off the head and feet, singe, and wipe 
with a damp cloth. With a sharp knife split the squab 
down the back, beginning at the back of the neck and 
cutting through the backbone the entire length of the 
bird. Lay open and remove contents. Cut through the 
tendons at joints. Wipe thoroughly. Season with salt, 
rub thickly with softened butter, and dredge with flour. 

Broil ten minutes over the open fire; serve on hot 
buttered toast. A tablespoonful of jelly may be served 
with the squab. 



SEA FOODS 
Fish 

Fish, if fresh and of the right kind, is an excellent food 
for children. It is of great nutritive value and less 
stimulating than meat. As it is very easily digested, a 
larger portion should be served than would be given if 
meat were used. After the fourth year of the child's life 
broths should always be included in the dinner when 
fish is given instead of meat. 

Fish should be scaled and cleaned as soon as they come 
from the market, washed quickly, and put in a cool place, 
not on ice, but near it if possible. Only white-fleshed 
fish should be used for children, and the flesh should be 
firm and hard. If the flesh is flabby it is unfit for use. 

For children it may be boiled, creamed, baked, or 
broiled, but never fried. 

BROILED FISH 

I white fish, 

I large pinch of salt, 

1 teaspoonful butter, 

Parsley, 

I slice lemon. 

Clean the fish, wipe with a cloth dipped in salt water, 
and dry on a towel. Sprinkle the salt over the fish and 



102 THE BABY'S FOOD 

then spread with the butter. Use a double wire broiler; 
put the thickest edge of the fish next to the middle of the 
broiler; turn often while broiling. The fire should be 
fairly hot. 

The time required for cooking will vary with the thick- 
ness of the fish; the fish is done when the flesh separates 
easily from the bone. 

When ready to serve, loosen fish from the broiler and 
slide the fish on to a platter, having the flesh side upper- 
most. Spread with butter and garnish with parsley 
and a slice of lemon. 

BAKED nsH 
I white fish, 
I large pinch of salt, 
I tablespoonful melted butter, 
I tablespoonful flour, 
4 small shces fat salt pork. 

Clean the fish, wipe with a cloth dipped in salt water, 
and dry on a towel. Place in a dripping-pan on a greased 
paper or on a strip of cloth. Sprinkle with salt, brush 
over with melted butter, dredge with flour, and place 
around the fish small pieces of fat salt pork. Bake in a 
hot oven until the flesh separates from the bone when 
lifted with a fork. Baste every ten minutes. Serve 
plain, with melted butter or with white sauce. 



SEA FOODS 103 

CREAMED FISH 

^ cupful cooked fish, 

Pinch of salt, 

i cupful cream or white sauce, 

I slice toast, and spray of parsley. 

Remove the skin and bone from the fish and flake the 
flesh with a fork. Of the flaked flesh use | cupful, 
seasoned with salt. Blend the flaked fish and the white 
sauce, reheat, and serve on toast. Garnish with parsley. 

CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH 

I tablespoonful butter, 
I tablespoonful flour, 
I cupful hot milk, 
I pinch salt. 

Melt the butter in a double boiler and add the flour. 
Pour the milk on gradually, stirring constantly. Bring 
to the boiling-point, cook thoroughly, and season with 
butter and salt. 

OYSTERS 

The soft part of the oyster may be used freely for 
children over five years of age. Oysters are very nutri- 
tious and furnish variety. They should not be given to 
children before October or after March. Oysters should 
be kept in the shell in a cool place until they are to be 
used. The hard part of the oyster is the muscle which 
fastens the animal to the shell, and this muscle should be 
removed when preparing oysters for young children. 



I04 THE BABY'S FOOD 

They may be broiled, roasted, stewed, panned, or steamed, 
but never fried. 

As oysters contain an albuminous substance they must 
not be subjected to a very high temperature. The 
general rule is to remove the oysters from heat as soon as 
the body grows plump and the edges curl. 

ROASTED OYSTERS 

3 oysters in the shell, 
I pinch salt, 
I teaspoonful butter. 
Lemon juice if desired. 

Wash the shells very carefully with a brush. Put 
them in wire broiler over the fire, the round side of the 
shell down so as to hold the juice. Cook them quickly, 
turning once or twice until the shell opens. They may 
also be cooked in a hot oven. When done, remove the 
upper half of the shell, season quickly with salt and butter, 
and serve them while very hot. Lemon juice may be 
served with them if desired. 

PAN ROAST OYSTERS 

3 oysters, 

1 pinch salt, 

I teaspoonful butter, 

I slice toast. 

Sprig of parsley and slice of lemon. 

Wash the oysters. To do this place the oysters in a 



SEA FOODS lOS 

strainer over a bowl and pour i tablespoonful of water 
over them. Take each oyster up in the fingers and re- 
move any particle of shell that may adhere to the muscle. 
Put in a double boiler with a little of the oyster liquid 
and stir gently with a spoon. When the bodies grow 
plump and the edges curl, remove from the heat. Season 
with salt and a little butter and serve on toast. Garnish 
with parsley and a slice of lemon. 

OYSTER STEW 

§ cupful oysters, 

f cupful milk, 

f tablespoonful water, 

I saltspoonful salt, 

I tablespoonful butter. 
Scald the milk. Drain the liquid from the oysters and 
strain. Wash and pick over the oysters. Heat the 
liquid to the boiling-point, put in the oysters and simmer, 
but do not boil. When the oysters are done strain the 
liquid into the scalded milk, season with the salt and 
butter, add the oysters, and serve immediately, 

BROttED OYSTERS 

4 oysters, 

I cupful cracker crumbs, 
4 teaspoonfuls butter, 
I saltspoonful salt, 
I slice lemon and sprig of parsley. 
Select large oysters, wash, drain, and dry with a towel. 



lo6 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Melt the butter. Season the cracker crumbs with salt. 
With a silver fork lift each oyster by the muscle and dip 
first in the melted butter and then in the crumbs. Place 
on a buttered fine wire broiler and broil, turning often 
until brown and the juice begins to flow. Serve plain, 
garnished with parsely and a slice of lemon. 

CREAMED OYSTERS 

8 oysters, 

I tablespoonful butter, 
I J tablespoonfuls flour, 
^ cupful thin cream, 

1 saltspoonful salt, 

2 slices toast. 

Wash, drain, and dry oysters between towels. Melt 
the butter in a double boiler, stir in the flour, and pour on 
gradually the scalded cream. Season with salt and cook 
thoroughly. Add the oysters and heat until the bodies 
grow plump and the edges curl. Serve at once on slices 
of toast. 



BREADS 

RUSKS 

1 quart milk, 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar, 

1 teaspoonful salt, 

i ounce compressed yeast, 

2 tablespoonfuls warm water. 
Flour as needed. 

Scald I quart of milk, add to it 2 tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, and when lukewarm add ^ 
ounce compressed yeast moistened in 2 tablespoonfuls 
warm water. Now add sufficient fiour (about i| pints) 
to make a batter. Beat thoroughly and stand in a pan 
of warm water, cover the whole, and keep warm for four 
hours. When light, add sufficient flour to make a dough, 
knead lightly until soft and elastic. Put it back into the 
bowl, and when it has doubled its bulk and is very light 
pinch off bits of the dough, form them into round bis- 
cuits, stand in greased pans, cover, and stand in a warm 
place (75° F.) for one hour or until very light. Brush 
the tops with water and bake in quick oven for twenty 
minutes. Stand aside until cold, and they are ready for 

making into zwieback. 

107 



Io8 THE BABY'S FOOD 

ZWIEBACK 

After the rusks have been baked according to the 
preceding recipe, and are quite cold, pull them into halves, 
put them on brown paper in a shallow baking-pan, baked 
side down, dry them in a moderate oven until they are 
crisp but not brown, then close the oven door and toast 
them gradually, watching carefully, until they are a light 
brown. To be quite perfect they must be crisp to the 
very center. These will keep in a tin box, in a dry place, 
for a week. 

MAPLE MOLASSES GINGERBREAD 

I egg, 

1 cupful boiling water, 

2 ounces butter, 

I cupful maple molasses, 
^ teaspoonful soda, 

1 teaspoonful ginger, 

2 cupfuls of flour. 

Beat egg in mixing bowl; add the molasses, butter, and 
gradually i cupful of flour. To the remaining flour 
add the soda and ginger, sift, and add to the ingredients 
already in the mixing bowl. Beat all well and add the 
boiling water. Bake in well-greased and floured gem 
tins, or in a shallow pan, in a hot oven for about twenty 
minutes. Test with a darning needle. If the needle is 
clean when withdrawn or if the gingerbread shrinks from 
the sides of the pan the gingerbread is done. Common 



BREADS 109 

molasses may be substituted for the maple molasses 
called for in this recipe, but the flavor will not be as 
agreeable. 

BRAN BISCUITS 

I pint of flour, 
I quart bran (straight), 
I cupful molasses, 
I teaspoonful soda, 
I teaspoonful salt, 

1 pint of milk. 

Sift all the dry ingredients together, rub the butter 
into the dry ingredients, add the molasses, and then the 
milk. Mix well and bake in mufiin rings. This will 
make about 20 rings. 

These bran biscuits are very efl&cacious in overcoming 
constipation in nursing mothers or older children. 
Usually 2 biscuits a day will be sufficient. 

BRAN BREAD 

2 eggs, 

f cupful molasses, 

I cupful sour cream, 

I cupful seedless raisins, 

I cupful wheat flour, 

I heaping teaspoonful baking powder, 

1 rounded teaspoonful soda, 

2 cupfuls of bran. 

Sift and mix together in a mixing bowl the bran, 



no THE BABY'S FOOD 

wheat flour, and baking powder. Beat the eggs and add 
them to the dry ingredients. Stir the soda into the molas- 
ses, and then add the molasses to the ingredients in the 
mixing bowl. Next add the sour cream, and lastly the 
raisins. Stir all well and bake in a moderate oven for 
one hour. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 

BREAD- JELLY. MEAT JXnCE. AND CREAM 

2 ounces bread-jelly, 
2 ounces meat juice, 
2 to 3 ounces cream (i6 per cent.), 

1 pint water. 

The bread-jelly is prepared as follows: Soak 4 ounces 
of stale bread for six hours in water, changing the latter 
once or twice during the time it is soaking. Drain off 
the water and boil the bread for one and a half hours in a 
pint of fresh water; rub through a hair-sieve and allow to 
cool, when it becomes a jelly-hke mass. 

Rub the specified quantities of bread-jelly, meat juice, 
and cream thoroughly together, and add the water 
gradually. 

BAKED FLOUR (FLOUR-BALL) 

2 pounds wheat flour, 
2 quarts water. 

Tie 2 p)ounds of wheat flour in a cheese-cloth bag and 
boil in 2 quarts of water for five hours. Remove from 
water, place in oven, and bake until quite brown on the 
outside. This will require from two to three hours' 
slow baking. Break open and throw away the brown 
shell; the remainder, the baked flour, must then be 



112 THE BABY'S FOOD 

grated into a powder, or may be ground in a Nixtamal 

TOCwl.^ FARINA PASTRY 

I ounce dry farina, 

4 ounces boiling milk, 

I J teaspoonfuls sugar, 

I teaspoonful salt, 

I egg, 

I teaspoonful butter, 

I pinch lemon peel. 
Place I ounce of farina in 4 ounces of boiling milk 
in which ij teaspoonfuls of sugar and j teaspoonful of 
salt have been dissolved, and boil, while stirring con- 
tinuously, for ten minutes. Let cool, and stir into this 
the yolk of i egg, ^ teaspoonful of butter, and a pinch of 
finely grated lemon peel. Whip the white of an egg 
and add it to this. Place this mixture in a well-buttered 
earthen dish and bake slowly for fifteen minutes. 

SPAGHETTI OR MACARONI 

ID sticks spaghetti or macaroni, 
I quart water, 
I teaspoonful salt, 
I pint milk, 
I teaspoonful flour, 
I teaspoonful butter. 
Add 10 sticks of spaghetti or macaroni, broken in small 

^ The Nixtamal mill is made by the Enterprise Manufacturing Co., 
Philadelphia. It may also be used for grinding vegetables, meats, 
and almost any article in the infant's dietary. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 113 

pieces, to a quart of boiling salted water, dropping the 
pieces in one by one, that the water may continue 
boiling. Boil gently for twenty minutes; drain thor- 
oughly and put the spaghetti (or macaroni) back into the 
saucepan. Add a pint of milk, thicken with a teaspoon- 
ful of flour which has been rubbed to a smooth paste 
with a teaspoonful of butter, and allow the contents of 
the saucepan to simmer for twenty minutes. Enough 
milk should be added so that the spaghetti (or maca- 
roni) will be well covered when done. 

NOODLES 

I cupful flour, 

I saltspoonful salt, 

1 egg, 

2 tablespoonfuls water, 

T pint chicken or beef stock. 
Put the flour in a large shallow dish, make a depression 
in the center, add the salt and the egg beaten with the 
water. Work the flour into the egg mixture a little at a 
time; the dough must be exceedingly hard. Knead and 
pound until it is elastic, and then roll in two sheets as 
thin as tissue-paper. Place on a clean towel on a flat 
surface and allow to dry for one and a half or two hours; 
they must not become brittle. Then roll them up as 
tightly as possible and with a sharp knife shave the 
noodles from the ends. Shake them out and allow them 
to dry. They may be made one day to use the next, 
and if perfectly dried will keep for several days. 



114 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Boil these in chicken stock or beef stock; or they may be 
cooked in water and served with butter and cream. 

MILK TOAST (A) 

I cupful milk, 
I tablespoonful butter, 
I tablespoonful flour, 
3 slices toast. 

Scald I cupful of milk. Melt a tablespoonful of butter, 
add to it a tablespoonful flour. Add the scalded milk 
gradually to the butter and flour. Place over the fire, 
stir continually until smooth and until the flour is 
thoroughly blended. Then pour this mixture over the 
toast, which has been previously cut in small thin slices, 
with the crusts removed. 

MILK TOAST (B) 

I cupful milk, 

I tablespoonful butter, 

I saltspoonful salt, 

1 teaspoonful cornstarch, 

2 slices bread. 

Scald the milk. Melt the butter in a saucepan; when 
hot and bubbling, add the cornstarch. Pour the hot 
milk slowly into the saucepan, beating until smooth. 
Let it boil up once. Then add the salt. Toast 2 slices 
of bread. Pour the thickened milk over the slices and 
let stand five minutes before serving. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 115 

IIfFANT>S GELATIN FOOD 

I teaspoonful gelatin dissolved in 2 ounces cold water, 

5 pint boiling water, 

I gill sweet milk, 

I teaspoonful arrowroot, 

I to 2 tablespoonfuls cream, 

Granulated sugar as desired. 

Dissolve the gelatin in 2 ounces of cold water. To 5 
pint of boiling water add i gill of sweet milk and i 
teaspoonful of arrowroot (rubbed into a paste with cold 
water) and boil two minutes. Add i to 2 tablespoonfuls 
of cream and remove from the stove. Pour the boiling 
fluids into the pan containing the gelatin and stir thor- 
oughly. Sweeten with granulated sugar, if desired. 

MAYONNAISE DRESSING 

I egg-yolk, 

I pinch of salt, 

4 tablespoonfuls olive oil, 

10 drops of lemon juice. 

Put the uncooked yolk of i egg into a clean cold 
porcelsiin dish, add a pinch of salt, and stir with a fork 
until well mixed. Add 4 tablespoonfuls of olive oil, 
drop by drop, stirring continually. Then add the lemon 
juice and put into the serving receptacle and place on ice 
until wanted. 

This dressing may be used with lettuce, young dande- 
lions, or water-cress. 



DIET LISTS 

DIET FOR CHILDREN FROM ONE TO TWO YEARS OF AGE 

6 A. M. : Bottle. 

9 A. M. : Baked apple, or apple sauce, or mashed prunes, 

or orange juice. 
ID A. M. : Cereal with part of bottle. 

Crisp bacon (after the fourteenth or fifteenth month 
alternate egg with bacon). 

Toast or zwieback. 

Bottle. 

2 p. M. : Animal broth (8 to lo ounces) to which has been 
added some* cereal (rice, barley, farina, or oatmeal) 
and a small amoimt of washed vegetable (carrot, 
spinach, peas, or potato). Before adding the vege- 
tables to the soup they should be put through a fine 
sieve and have the consistency of a very fine gruel. 

Bread and butter, or toast and butter. 

Part of a soft-boiled egg may be given two or tnree 
times a week. 

After the sixteenth or eighteenth month scraped, rare, 
broiled beef or mutton, or a small quantity of baked 
or mashed potato may alternate with the soup. 

For dessert, apple sauce, prune pulp, or other stewed 
fruits may be given. 

Ii6 



DIET LISTS 117 

6 P. M.: Bottle and zwieback, toast or cracker, or 
junket, and cracker or zwieback. 
3 to 4 ounces of milk. 

DIET FOR CHU^DREN FROM TWO TO FIVE YEARS 

8 a.m.: Stewed fruit or orange. 
Thoroughly cooked cereal. 
Bacon or egg (boiled or poached). 
Bread and butter. 
Milk or cocoa. 
12 M.: Soup, to which may be added rice or vegetable. 
Lamb chop, scraped beef, chicken, or roasted meats. 
Potato and one of the following vegetables: carrots, 
squash, spinach, peas, beans, asparagus tips, boiled 
lettuce. 
Light dessert, as custard, gelatin; or some simple pud- 
ding, such as sago, rice or cornstarch, or stewed fruit. 
3 : 30 to 4 p. M. : Light lunch of fruit and crackers, or 
zwieback, or small quantity of milk with crackers, or 
zwieback. 
6 P. M. : Cereal, milk toast, spaghetti. 
Stewed fruit, junket, or custard. 
Milk or cocoa. 
Bread and butter. 

LUDWIG MEYER'S DIETARY FOR DIARRHEA IN 6LDER CHILDREN 

First Day: Laxative usually contraindicated. 
First feeding: Cocoa made with water, sweetened with 
saccharin; i teaspoonful of pure casein (Plasmon 
nutrose) may be added to the cocoa. 



1X8 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Second feeding: Two tablespoonfuls of junket or 
cottage cheese. (For younger children this may be 
passed through a fine sieve and suspended in sac- 
charin water.) A small slice of toasted white bread. 

Third feeding: Broth (5 or 6 ounces) to which has 
been added i teaspoonful of powdered casein; i or 
2 tablespoonfuls of finely scraped meat which has 
been broiled or stewed. (Beef or chicken may be 
used for this purpose.) 

Fourth feeding: Junket and toast, same as second 
feeding. 

Fifth feeding: Cornstarch or arrowroot gruel, to which 
is added a teaspoonful of powdered casein. Some 
cold meat may be given. 

In the second and fourth feeding a soft-boiled egg or a 
very hard-boiled egg, which has been grated, may 
be substituted for the junket. 
Second Day: The same as the first. 
Third Day: Zwieback or more toast should be added. 
Fourth Day: 2 tablespoonfuls of finely divided vegetable, 
such as spinach or carrots, may be added to the diet. 
A portion of a banana may be given. 

Gradually the usual diet may be resumed. All vege- 
tables should be well mashed. The energy value of 
this diet is high and prevents starvation and malnu- 
trition. 



DIET USTS 119 

DIET FOR CONSTIPATION IN OLDER CHILDREN 

(A selection of foods may be made from this list.) 

Before Breakfast 
I or 2 ounces of orange juice in water. 

Breakfast 

Cereals: Hominy, oatmeal, cornmeal, farina, cream of 
wheat, cracked wheat. Cereals may be served with 
milk and sugar, or with butter and sugar, using the 
butter liberally. 

Breads: Whole wheat bread, graham bread, corn 
bread, rye bread, bran bread, gingerbread,, bran biscuits, 
bran muffins. Butter spread moderately thick. 

Bacon: Baked or broiled. 

Eggs: Coddled, soft boiled, or poached. 

Milk: Malted milk, sweet milk, or buttermilk. 

Fruit: Stewed fruit, as apples, prunes, plums, peaches, 
varying with the season. Honey, fruit jelly, jam. 

Luncheon 

Broths: Animal broths (a moderate quantity) to which 
have been added vegetables and cereals which have been 
boiled for a ling time. 

Vegetables: Potatoes (moderate quantity), spinach, or 
string beans, or peas, or asparagus, or strained stewed 
tomatoes, or mashed cauliflower, or carrots, or squash, or 
puree ot peas, or puree of beans. 

Meats: Roast beef, rare steak, scraped beef, minced 
chicken, lamb chop. 



I20 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Breads: Bran bread, bran biscuits, whole-wheat bread. 

Milk: Malted milk may be given as a drink (6 tea- 
spoonfuls of malted milk and 8 ounces of hot water) once 
or twice daily. Malted milk may be flavored by the 
addition of a teaspoonful of cocoa. 

Dessert: Stewed fruit, apples, prunes, plums, peaches, 
raw fruit, custard, gelatin, cornstarch pudding, ice cream, 
junket. 

A light luncheon may be served in the afternoon con- 
sisting of orange juice or stewed fruit, or a glass of milk or 
malted milk, with bran biscuit or crackers. 

Supper 

Cereals: Farina, cream of wheat, wheatina, with milk 
and sugar or butter and sugar. 

Breads: Whole-wheat bread, corn bread, bran bread. 

Milk: Malted milk, sweet milk, buttermilk. 

Dessert: Stewed fruit or a fig. 

Occasionally custard, cornstarch pudding, or junket 
may be given. 

OUTLINE OF PLAN FOR FEEDING THE BABY 

The baby is not fed during the first day. At the most 
he receives water. On the second day he is put to the 
breast. He receives only a small quantity of breast 
milk during the first few days. On the third or fourth 
day the breast milk begins to appear. 

Most babies are fed every three or four hours. Thus an 
infant is fed at 6 a. m., 9 a. m., 12 m., 3 p. m., 6 p. m.. 



DIET LISTS 121 

lo P. M.; that is, 6 feedings. Many babies are placed 
upon a four-hour schedule at once; that is, they are fed 
at 6 A. M., lo A. M., 2 p. M., 6 P. M., and lo p. m. Such a 
schedule gives j&ve feedings. 

Babies are allowed to remain at the breast for twenty 
minutes, and are fed alternately from each breast. At 
the sixth month of the baby's hfe he receives some addi- 
tional food. 

He is usually given a few teaspoonfuls of soup or 
cereal. In some cases difficulty with this new feeding is 
experienced. Very frequently he must become accus- 
tomed to the new food ; 3 to 5 ounces of soup or a small 
quantity of cereal may be given with the 2 o'clock 
feeding. Some carrots or spinach may be cooked in the 
soup, and a small portion of the vegetable pressed through 
the sieve when the soup is strained. 

Thus at the sixth month the baby receives four breast 
feedings and one feeding of soup and vegetables. At the 
eighth month another breast feeding is substituted by a 
cereal, or by a bread or zwieback milk pudding. The 
bread or zwieback is cooked in water and about 3 ounces 
of milk are added. 

At the ninth month the breast feedings are substituted 
by cows' milk. This should not be done, however, during 
the height of the summer. Thus, by the ninth month, 
the baby is receiving one meal of soup and vegetables, one 
meal of bread or cereal pudding with milk, and three meals 
of either whole or slightly diluted milk. 



122 THE BABY'S FOOD 

ARTIFICIAL FEEDING 

The baby receives the bottle alone until the sixth 
month, except that at the third month the plain water is 
substituted by a cereal water as a diluent. 

In the sixth month the baby receives some soup in the 
same way as did the breast-fed baby; in the eighth month 
bread or zwieback or cereal pudding, and in the ninth the 
baby may, as a rule, have whole milk. 

The above plans are subject to modification. Delicate 
babies or those suffering from some congenital anomaly 
of constitution cannot be fed according to any general 
plan. Indeed, frequently the physician must use the 
greatest ingenuity in adapting the diet to the baby. 

plan for feeding the baby (diseases of infancy— birk) 
Breast Milk. Cows' Milk. 

First Day 
No food; water. 

Second Day 
5 or 6 breast feedings. 5 or 6 feedings of | 

milk, f water, § level tea- 
spoonful of milk-sugar or 
malt-dextrin. 

From the Second Month 
5 or 6 breast feedings. 5 or 6 feedings of ^ milk, 

^ water, i level teaspoon- 
ful of milk-sugar or malt- 
dextrin. 



DIET LISTS 



123 



From the Sixth Month 
I feeding of meat broth i feeding of cereal soup 



with cereal and vegetables 
in it; 4 breast feedings. 



or vegetables; 4 feedings of 
f milk and \ cereal water; 
I teaspoonf ul of milk-sugar 
or malt-dextrin. 



From the Eighth Month 



I feeding of cereal and 
vegetable; i feeding of 
bread, zwieback, or cracker 
pudding; 3 breast feedings. 



I feeding of cereal or 
vegetable; i feeding of 
bread, zwieback , or 
cracker pudding; 3 feed- 
ings of I milk and \ cereal 
water, i teaspoonful milk- 
sugar or malt-dextrin. 



From the Ninth Month 
I feeding of cereal and vegetable; i feeding of bread, 
zwieback, or cracker pudding; 3 feedings of whole milk. 

From the Fifteenth Month 

One midday meal — soup, vegetable, cereal, or egg — 
may be given at this period. One evening meal, and 
three glasses of milk, the bread, cracker, or zwieback. 

Orange juice may be given, especially to the artificially 
fed babies, as early as the fourth month. 

A breast-fed baby, imder average conditions, receives 



124 THE BABY'S FOOD 

as much breast milk as would be equivalent to one-sixth 
of its body weight. The artificially fed baby should 
receive in the twenty-four hours an amount of milk 
represented by one-tenth of its body weight, though, 
owing to the addition of sugar and cereal decoctions, the 
amount given is equivalent to one-sixth its body weight. 



BATHS AND PACKS 

THE BABY'S BATH 

The skin should be kept clean. Every child should 
have at least one tub bath daily and on hot days one or 
more sponge baths as well. For the tub bath sufficient 
water should be used to cover the baby's body, and it 
should be from 80° to 85° F. A sponge bath properly 
given should take from five to ten minutes. One or two 
tablespoonfuls of alcohol or a teaspoonful of bicarbonate 
of soda added to the bath water are pleasantly cool 
and refreshing. Following the bath the folds and creases 
of the baby's body should be well powdered. 

BABY'S FIRST BATH 

First oil the body thoroughly with olive oil in order to 
remove the vemix caseosa. Allow the oil to remain on 
the body for an hour and then remove with cotton or a 
soft cloth. The bath should then be given in a warm 
room, using water at a temperature of 100° F. 

The mouth should be cleansed with sterile water and a 
soft cloth; this should be done very gently. A full bath 
should never be given or the baby submerged in water 
until the cord has separated. 

INFANT'S DAILY BATH 

For the first five months the morning bath should be 
given at 98° F. This should be given in a warm room. 

"5 



126 THE BABY'S FOOD 

The bath should be short and the body dried quickly 
with gentle rubbing. The addition of salt or bran to the 
bath is an advantage when the skin is unusually delicate 
or when excoriations are present. One large handful of 
either should be used to a gallon of water. 

By the sixth month the temperature of the bath for 
healthy infants may be lowered to 95° F., and by the end 
of the first year to 90° F. Older children who are healthy 
should be sponged or douched for a moment at the close 
of the tepid bath with water at 65° or 70° F. During 
later infancy or childhood the warm bath is preferably 
given at night, a cold sponge being given in the morning. 
The morning sponge should be given in a warm room, 
while the child stands in a tub partly filled with warm 
water. The cold sponge should last but one-half of a 
minute, and should be followed by brisk rubbing of the 
entire body. 

In some infants and children there is no proper reaction 
after the bath, the child being pale, blue about the lips 
and under the eyes. All tub bathing and all cold bathing 
should then be stopped. 

iXCOHOL SPONGE FOR FEVER 

All the clothing should be removed (in the case of 
infants the diaper may be left on the baby) and the child 
laid upon a blanket. The body should be sponged with 
water at 80° to 85° F. to which 2 or 3 ounces of alcohol have 
been added for ten to twenty minutes and then wrapped 



BATHS AND PACKS 127 

in a blanket without further dressing. This must be 
done every three hours or oftener in order to be efficient 
in reducing high fever. 

COLD PACK 

The child should be stripped and laid upon a blanket. 
The entire trunk should then be wrapped in a small 
sheet wrung from water at a temperature of 100° F. 
Upon the outside of this ice may then be rubbed over 
the entire trunk, first in front and then behind. By this 
method there is no shock or fright, and the temperature is 
readily reduced. 

The rubbing with ice should be repeated in from five 
to thirty minutes, after which the child may be rolled in 
the blanket upon which he is lying, without removal of 
the cold pack. The face should be sponged while this 
is being carried on, an ice-cap kept to the head, and a 
hot-water bottle apphed to the feet. The pack may be 
continued for from one to twenty-four hours according to 
circumstances. 

COLD BATH 

Remove all the clothes from the child and put the child 
into a bath at a temperature of 100° F. The temperature 
of the bath is then gradually lowered by the addition of 
ice or cold water until a temperature of 75° or 80° F. 
is reached. The body should be well rubbed while the 
child is in the bath, and water should also be applied 
to the head. On removal from the bath the body should 



128 THE BABY'S FOOD 

be quickly dried and rolled in a warm blanket. This 
bath is usually continued from five to ten minutes. 

EVAPORATION BATH 

Envelop the trunk closely in two layers of gauze, 
cheese-cloth, or some closely woven material. This is 
moistened from time to time with water at a temperature 
of 95° F., and continuous evaporation is kept up by the 
use of a hand or, better, an electric fan. This is more 
efi5cient than sponging, the patient is but slightly dis- 
turbed, and the child is not shocked or frightened. Hot 
applications should be constantly made to the extrem- 
ities. 

MUSTARD BATH 

Not all children bear cold well, and in its use and 
frequency of repetition one must be guided by its effect 
upon the child's general condition, as well as upon the 
temperature. When with high fever the body feels cold, 
pulse is feeble, and respirations are shallow, cold is 
contraindicated and a hot mustard bath should be given. 
The hot mustard bath is most efficient for bringing the 
blood to the surface in cases of shock, collapse, heart fail- 
ure from any cause, or in sudden congestion of the lungs 
or brain. 

Four or five tablespoonfuls of powdered mustard 
should be mixed with one gallon of tepid water. To this 
should be added four or five gallons of plain water at a 
temperature of ioo° F. The temperature of the bath 



BATHS AND PACKS 129 

may be raised by the addition of hot water until a temper- 
ature of 103° or 106° F. is reached if desired. The bath 
should not usually be continued for more than ten 
minutes. If necessary it may be repeated in one hour. 



MUSTARD PACK 

If collapse occurs the mustard pack may be used. 
This is prepared as follows : Mix 3 or 4 handf uls of mus- 
tard flour with I quart of hot water and stir until the 
mustard fumes are strong enough to bring tears to the 
eyes. A large towel is then dipped into the mustard 
water and wrung out. The towel is placed on a woolen 
blanket, the infant is entirely undressed and fully wrapped 
in this blanket, the mustard towel being next to the body 
of the child. Only the head is left free. The blanket is 
pinned securely about the child with safety-pins. After 
twenty minutes the child should be taken out of the pack 
and placed in a warm bath. After a few minutes the 
child is taken from the warm bath and, without being 
dried, is wrapped in a bath towel and placed in a warm 
bed. It will generally sleep for two or three hours. 

HOT PACK 

Remove all the clothing and cover the child's body 
with Turkish towels wrung from water at a temperature 
of from 100° to 108° F. Then wrap the child in a thick 
blanket. These applications may be changed every 



I30 THE BABY'S FOOD 

twenty or thirty minutes until free perspiration is pro- 
duced, and may then be continued as long as necessary. 
This is mainly used in uremia. 



HOT BATH 

The hot bath may be used to promote reaction in cases 
of shock or collapse. The patient should be put into the 
bath at a temperature of ioo° F., the water being gradu- 
ally raised to 103° or 106° F., but never above this point. 
The body should be well rubbed while the patient is in 
the bath, A thermometer should be kept in the water 
to see that the temperature does not go too high, as the 
danger of burning the child is great. During the bath 
cold should be applied to the head unless otherwise 
directed by the physician. 

HOT-AIR OR VAPOR BATH 

Remove all the clothing and lay the patient upon the 
bed. Raise the bedclotliing ten or twelve inches above 
the body, and sustain the bedclothes by means of a 
wicker support. Pin the bedclothes tightly about the 
neck, so that only the head is outside. Beneath the 
bedclothes introduce hot vapor by means of a tea-kettle, 
croup-kettle, or vaporizer. This will usually induce free 
perspiration in fifteen to twenty minutes. It may be 
continued from twenty to thirty minutes at a time. 
Instead of vapor, hot air may be introduced. The air 



BATHS AND PACKS 131 

space about the body is indispensable. This bath is used 
chiefly in uremia. 

TEPro BATH 

The tepid bath may be given at a temperature of 95° 
to 100° F. This bath is very useful in conditions of 
excitement or nervous irritability. It is also very effi- 
cient in inducing sleep. 



ELECTRIC-LIGHT BATH 

Remove the clothing and lay the patient upon the bed. 
Arrange the bedclothes in the same manner as in giving a 
hot-air or vapor bath. Six or ten electric lights are then 
fastened together and introduced beneath the bedclothes. 
This is an easy, safe, and rapid method of stimulating the 
skin and inducing perspiration. Free perspiration usually 
occurs in from three to five minutes. If profuse per- 
spiration is needed this bath may be continued from 
fifteen to twenty minutes. Too long an exposure may 
produce depression. 

TANNIC ACm BATH 

Two pounds of oak bark is put into a gallon of water 
and boiled for one hour. The liquid is poured off from 
the bark into four bottles. One bottle is added to each 
bath. The baths should be given two or three times a 
week. This is very good for irritating eruptions. 



132 THE BABY'S FOOD 

BRAN BATH 

Tie one quart of wheat bran in a cheese-cloth bag and 
drop this into the bath-tub containing four or five gal- 
lons of water. The water should be about 90° or 95° F. 
Squeeze the bran bag until the bath water is white and of 
the consistency of a very thin porridge. This bath should 
be used when the skin is tender or when excoriations or 
irritating eruptions are present. 



CARE OF THE NIPPLES AND BOTTLES 
New nipples should be boiled before using. After 
using, the nipples should be carefully washed in soap 
and water, boiled, and placed in a solution of boric 
acid and water (i teaspoonful of boric acid crystals to 
a glass of boiled water). They should be rinsed before 
using again. A jelly glass, which can be boiled and 
which is easily kept clean, is a good receptacle for the 
nipples. Keep the jelly glass constantly covered. The 
nipples should be handled only with clean fingers. 

Use a plain rubber nipple. Avoid the nipple that has 
glass and rubber tube attachments. It is impossible 
to clean, and is positively dangerous. 
The bottles should be treated in the following manner : 

(a) Immediately after the baby has emptied the bottle 
it should be rinsed with soap and water. 

(b) It should be rinsed with clean boiled water. 

(c) It should be turned upside down so that the water 
may drain out. 

(d) Before refilling the bottles with baby's milk, they 
should be immersed in a kettle filled with water, brought 
slowly to a boil, and allowed to boil for five minutes. 



X33 



NORMAL SALT SOLUTION 
NORMAL SALT SOLUTION FOR ENEMAS 

Add I level teaspoonful of salt to i pint of warm 
water. This may be given per rectum as an enema, to 
cleanse, allay thirst, or to stimulate. When given as a 
cleansing enema i pint should be used; when to be 
retained the quantity should be given as stated by the 
physician. 

NORMAL SALT SOLUTION FOR SUBCUTANEOUS OR INTRAVENOUS 
INJECTION 

To I quart of freshly distilled water add 2 level tea- 
spoonfuls of salt. Place this in a quart flask, or in the 
bottle from which it is to be given, place in a pail or 
deep pan of water, and boil for thirty minutes. The 
water surrounding the flask of salt solution should come 
to the level of the liquid in the flask. While boiling, the 
flask of salt solution should be tightly covered with 
several thicknesses of sterile muslin, or if the mouth is 
not too wide, it may be closed with a plug of sterile 
absorbent cotton. This should be prepared immediately 
before using. 

This makes a normal or 0.7 per cent, salt solution. 



134 



ERUPTION OF TEETH 

Average age. Date of eruption of milk teeth. Range of age. 

6 months Lower central incisors. S to 9 months. 

9 months Upper central incisors and upper 8 to 12 months. 

lateral incisors. 

12 months Upper molars, lower lateral incisors, 12 to 15 months. 

and lower molars. 

18 months Canines. 15 to 24 months. 

24 months Second molars. 20 to 36 months. 

The average date of eruption of the first tooth is 237 
days — male, 252 days; female, 221 days. 

The teeth drop out in the same order in which they 
erupt, the roots of the teeth being absorbed. 



TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS 

Weight, Height, 

pounds. inches. 

Boys. Girls. Boys. Girls. 

At birth 7.6 7.2 20.6 20.5 

ist month 8.2 7.7 21.5 21.4 

2d month 10.7 10.2 22.4 22.3 

3d month 12.7 12.2 23.2 23,'0 

4th month 14.2 13.6 24.0 23.7 

5th month 15.4 14.8 24.7 24.3 

6th month 16.0 15.5 25.4 25.0 

7th month 16.7 16.2 26.1 25.7 

8th month 17.3 16.8 26.7 26.4 

9th month 17.7 17.2 27.3 27.0 

loth month 18.2 17,7 27.9 27.6 

nth month 19.4 18.8 28.5 28.2 

12th month 20.5 19.8 29.0 28.7 

i8th month 22.8 22.2 30.0 29.7 

2d year 26.5 25.5 32.5 32.5 

3d year 31.2 30.0 35.0 35.0 



Head circumfer- 


ence, inches. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


139 


13-5 


14.7 


14-3 


ISS 


IS-I 


16.2 


16.8 


16.6 


16.2 


16.8 


16.4 


17.0 


16.6 


17.2 


16.8 


174 


17.0 


17.6 


17.2 


17.8 


17.4 


17.9 


17-5 


18.0 


17.6 


18.5 


18.0 


18.9 


18.6 


19-3 


19.0 


135 





136 THE BABY'S FOOD 

Weight, Height, 

pounds. inches. 

Boys. Girls. Boys. Girk. 

4th year 35.0 34.0 38.0 38.0 

Sthyear 41.2 39.8 41.7 41.4 

6th year 45.1 43.8 44.1 43.6 

7th year 49.5 48.0 46.2 45.9 

Sthyear 54.5 52.9 46.4 48.2 

9th year 60.0 57.5 50.4 50.1 

loth year 66.6 64.1 52.3 52.0 

nth year 72.4 70.3 54.0 54.1 

i2thyear ' 79.8 81.4 SS-^ 56-5 21.3 



Head circumfer- 


ence, i 


inches. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


19.7 


I9S 


20.5 


20.2 


20.6 


20.3 


20.7 


20.4 


20.8 


20.5 


20.9 


20.6 


21.0 


20.7 


21. 1 


20.8 



INDEX 



Acid beverages, 15 

phosphate whey, 28 
Acidified milk, 35 
Albumin milk, 37, 38, 39, 40 

water, 17 
with beef extract, 18 
Albuminous beverages, 17 
Alcohol sponge for fever, 1 26 
Almond milk, 25 
Apple, baked, with rice, 94 

pastry, 95 

sauce, 95 

soup, 57 

water, 16 
Arrowroot gruel, 60, 61 

pudding, 70 
Artificial feeding, 122 

milk, 45 
Asparagus, creamed, 82 

on toast, 81 

Bacon, broiled, 97 

fried, 97 
Baked apple and rice, 94 

custard, 75 

fish, 102 

flour. III 

potatoes, 79 
Bananas, grated, 96 
Barley, gruel from, 62 

water, 19 
Bath, bran, 132 

cold, 127 

daily, 125 



Bath, electric-light, 131 

evaporation, 128 

first, 125 

hot, 130 

hot-air, 130 

mustard, 128 

tannic acid, 131 

tepid, 131 

vapor, 130 
Baths, 125 
Bean soup, navy, 53 
Beans, 83 
Beef jelly, 99 

juice, 98 
Beets, boiled, 91 
Benger's food, 41 
Beverages, 15 

acid, 15 

albuminous, 17 

miscellaneous, 21 

starchy, 19 
Biscuits, bran, 109 
Bitter almond junket, 30 
Boiled beets, 91 

brussels sprouts, 88 

carrots, 90 

cauliflower, 84 

lettuce, 84 

onions, 87 
Borcherdt's dri-malt soup, 44 
Bottles, care of, 133 
Bran bath, 132 

biscuits, 109 

bread, 109 

137 



X38 



INDEX 



Bread, bran, 109 

Bread-jelly, meat juice, and cream, 

III 
Breads, 107 
Broiled bacon, 97 

chicken, 99 

fish, 1 01 

meats, 97 

oysters, 105 

squab, 100 
Broth, chicken, 4,6 

lamb, 46 

veal, 46 
and vegetable, with farina, 55 
Broths, 46 
Browned flour soup, 54 

rice flour gruel, 59 
Brussels sprouts, boiled, 88 
Buttermilk formula, 34 

in the home, 35 

mixture, 33, 34 

Caloric values of foods, 13 
Camomile tea, 23 
Carrot soup, 48, 49 
Carrots, boiled, 90 
Catnip tea, 25 
Cauliflower, boiled, 84 

creamed, 86 

soup, 52 
Celery, 88 

stewed, 88 
Cereal gruels, 58 

preparations, 64 
Chicken, broiled, 99 

broth, 46 

creamed, 99 
Chocolate custard, 74 

junket, 31 

pudding, 71 
Chymogen milk, 37 
Cinnamon water, 23 



Cocoa, 22 

junket, 29 

water, 22 
Coddled egg, 77 
Coffee junket, 30 
Cold bath, 127 

pack, 127 
Condensed milk and soy bean, 36 

junket from, 31 
Constipation in older children, diet 

for, 119 
Com flour pudding, 68 
Conmieal gruel, 62 

mush, 67 

water, 21 
Cornstarch pudding, 68 
Cracker gruel, 62 
Cream of tartar drink, 15 

sauce, 91 
for fish, 103 

soups, 47 
Creamed asparagus, 82 

cauliflower, 86 

chicken, 99 

fish, 103 

onions, 87 

oysters, 106 
Custard, baked, 75 

chocolate, 74 

junket, 28 

plain, 74 

pudding, 70 
Custards, 74 

Daily bath, 1 25 

Diarrhea in older children, Meyer's 

dietary for, 117 
Diet for children from one to two 
years, 116 
from two to five years, 117 
for constipation in older children, 
119 



INDEX 



139 



Diet lists, 116 
Dried fruit soup, 56 

Eggs, 76 

boiled, 76 

coddled, 77 

general principle in cooking, 76 

poached, 76 
in milk, 77 

soft cooked, 76 
Eiweiss milk, 37 
Electric-light bath, 131 
Enema, normal salt solution for, 

134 
Eruption of teeth, 135 
Evaporation bath, 1 28 

Farina milk gruel, 59 

pastry, 112 

soup, 54 
Farinaceous puddings, 70 

soups, 54 
Feeding, artificial, 122 

baby, plan for, 1 20-1 24 
Fennel water, 23 
Fever, alcohol sponge for, 1 26 
First bath, 125 
Fish, loi 

baked, 102 

broiled, loi 

cream sauce for. 103 

creamed, 103 
Flaxseed tea, 25 

and licorice tea, 24 
Flour, baked, in 

gruel, 61 
Flour-ball, in 

gruel, 58 
Fried bacon, 97 
Friedenthal's milk formula, 43 
Frozen junket, 30 
Fruit sauce for puddings, 96 



Fruit soup, dried, 56 
Fruits, 92 

Gelatin food, infant's, 1x5 

orange, 92 

prune, 93 
Ginger tea, 24 

Gingerbread, maple molasses, 108 
Grape water, 16 
Grated bananas, 96 
Green pea soup, 48 

peas, 83 
Gruel, 58 

arrowroot, 60, 61 

barley, 62 

browned rice flour, 59 

cereal, 58 

commeal, 62 

cracker, 62 

farina milk, 59 

flour, 61 

flour-ball, 58 

oat, 62 

rice, 62 

wheat, 62 

Hot bath, 130 

pack, 129 
Hot-air bath, 130 
Hungarian pudding, 69 
Hydrochloric acid milk, 36 

Ice cream junket, 33 
Imperial granum, 21 
Infant's gelatin food, 115 
Intravenous injection, normal salt 

solution for, 134 
Irish moss lemonade, 15 
tea, 22 

Jelly, beef, 99 
rice, 66 



I40 



INDEX 



Jelly, sago, 64 

water, 16 
Junket, 28 

and commeal pudding, 67 

bitter almond, 30 

chocolate, 31 

cocoa, 29 

coffee, 30 

custard, 28 

from condensed milk, 31 

frozen, 30 

ice cream, 32 

plain, 33 

strawberry, 30 

sweetened, 34 

vanilla, 30 

Keller's malt soup, 44 
Kohlrabi, 80 
Koumiss, 40 

Lamb broth, 46 
Larosan milk, 43 
Lemon whey, 15, 27 
Lemonade, Irish moss, 15 

nutritious, 18 
Lentil soup, 53 
Lettuce, boiled, 84 
Licorice and flaxseed tea, 24 
Liebig's extract of beef, thickened, 

55 
Lime-water, 26 

Macaroni, 112 

soup, 54 
Malt soup, Keller's, 44 
Maple molasses gingerbread, 108 
Mashed potatoes, 78, 79 
Mayonnaise dressing, 115 
Measurements, table of, 135 
Measures and weights, table of, 11 
Meats, 97 



Meats, broiled, 97 

scraped, 97 
Medicinal teas, 23 
Meyer's dietary for diarrhea in 

older children, 117 
Milk, acidified, 35 

albumin, 37, 38, 39, 40 

almond, 25 

artificial, 45 

condensed, junket from, 31 

Eiweiss, 37 

Friedenthal's, 43 

hydrochloric acid, 36 

larosan, 43 

pegnin, 37 

preparations, 27 

rice, 6s 

with fruit, 66 

Schloss, 42 

thickened, 63 

toast, 114 
Milk-malt soup made from powder, 

44 
Mineral constituents of food, 12 
Mint tea, 25 
Miscellaneous recipes, iii 

soups, 55 
Mush, commeal, 67 
Mustard bath, 128 

pack, 129 

Navy bean soup, 53 
Nipples, care of, 133 
Nixtamal mill, 112 
Noodles, 113 
Nutritious lemonade, 18 
orangeade, 18 

Oat flour water, 20 
Oatmeal water, 20 
Oats, gruel from, 62 
Onions, 87 



INDEX 



141 



Onions, boiled, 87 

creamed, 87 
Orange gelatin, 92 

juice, 92 

rice, 65 
Orangeade, nutritious, 18 
Outline of plan for feeding baby, 

120 
Oysters, 103 

broiled, 105 

creamed, 106 

pan roast, 104 

roasted, 104 

stewed, 105 

Pack, cold, 127 

hot, 129 

mustard, 129 
Packs, 125 

Pan roast oysters, 104 
Pap, 63 

Pastry, farina, 112 
Pea soup, 48, so 
Peas, green, 83 
Pegnin milk, 37 
Plan for feeding baby, 120-124 
Poached egg, 76 
Potato soup, 49 
Potatoes, baked, 79 

mashed, 78, 79 
Prune gelatin, 93 

juice, 92 

pulp, 94 

whip, 93 
Pnmes, stewed, 93 
Pudding, chocolate, 71 

com flour, 68 

cornstarch, 68 

farinaceous, 70 

Hungarian, 69 

junket and cornmeal, 67 

plain, 70 



Pudding, rice and milk, 69 
sago, 64 

tapioca, baked, 72 
cream, 72 
fruit, 72 
Puddings, 64 
fruit sauce for, 96 

Recipes, miscellaneous, iii 
Rice, apple, 94 

flour water, 20 

gruel, 62 

jelly, 66 

milk, 65 
pudding, 69 
with fruit, 66 

orange, 65 

water, 19 
Roasted oysters, 104 
Rusks, 107 

Sage tea, 25 
Sago jelly, 64 
pudding, 64 
Salt solution, normal, for enemas, 

134 
for subcutaneous or intra- 
venous injection, 134 
Sassafras tea, 23 
Sauce, cream, 91 
for fish, 103 
fruit, for puddings, 96 
white, 91 
Schloss milk, 42 
Scraped meats, 97 
Sea foods, loi 
Slippery elm tea, 24 
Soup, apple, 57 
browned flour, 54 
carrot, 48, 49 
cauliflower, 52 
cream, 47 



X42 



INDEX 



Soup, dried fruit, 56 

farina, 54 

farinaceous, 54 

green pea, 48 

Keller's malt, 44 

lentil, 53 

macaroni, 54 

milk-malt, made from powder, 
44 

navy bean", 53 

potato, 49 

spinach, 51 

split pea, 50 

vegetable, 52 

whey, 56 
Soups, 46 

Soy bean and condensed milk, 36 
Spaghetti, 112 
Spinach, 80 

soup, 51 
Split pea soup, 50 
Squab, broiled, 100 
Squash, 90 

Starchy beverages, 19 
Stewed celery, 88 

oysters, 105 

prunes, 93 

tomatoes, 89 
Strawberry junket, 30 
Subcutaneous injection, normal 

salt solution for, 134 
Sweetened junket, 34 

Table of measurements, 135 

of measures and weights, 1 1 
Tannic acid bath, 131 
Tapioca pudding, baked, 72 
cream, 72 
fruit, 72 
Tea, 21 
camomile, 23 
catnip, 25 



Tea, flaxseed, 25 
and licorice, 24 

ginger, 24 

Irish moss, 22 

medicinal, 23 

mint, 25 

sage, 25 

sassafras, 23 

slippery elm, 24 

weak, for thirst, 21 
Teeth, eruption of, 135 
Tepid bath, 131 
Thickened milk, 63 
Thirst, weak tea for, 21 
Toast water, 26 
Tomatoes, 89 

stewed, 89 

Vanilla junket, 30 
Vapor bath, 130 

Veal and vegetable broth with 
farina, 55 
broth, 46 
Vegetable soup, 52 
Vegetables, 78 

Water, albumin, 17 

with beef extract, 18 
apple, 16 
barley, 19 
cinnamon, 23 
cocoa, 22 
commeal, 21 
cream of tartar, 15 
fennel, 23 
grape, 16 
jelly, 16 
lime-, 26 
oat flour, 20 
oatmeal, 20 
rice, 19 

flour, 20 



INDEX 



143 



Water, toast, 26 

wheat flour, 20 
Weights and measures, table of, 11 
Wheat flour water, 20 

gruel from, 62 
Whey, 27 

acid phosphate, 28 



Whey, lemon, 15 
soup, 56 
wine, 16, 27 
White sauce, 91 
Wine whey, 16, 27 

Zwieback, 108 



Books for Nurses 



PUBLISHED BY 

W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY 

West Washington Square Philadelphia 

London: 9, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden 

Sanders' Nursing nev (2d) edition 

This new edition is undoubtedly the most com- 
plete and practical work on nursing ever pub- 
lished. Miss Sander's already superior work 
has been amplified and the methods simplified to 
bring it down to the newest ideas in nursing. 
There is none other so full of good, practical 
information detailed in a clean-cut, definite way. 

Modern Methods !n Nursing. ByGEORGiANA J.Sanders, 
formerly Superintendent of Nurses at Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital. 12mo of 900 pages, with 217 illustrations. 
Cloth, $2.50 net. Published August. 1916 

Dunton's Occupation Therapy 

EMPHASIZING BASIC PRINCIPLES 

Dr. Dun ton gives those forms likely to be of most 
service to the nurse in private practice. You get 
chapters on puzzles, reading, physical exercises, 
card games, string, paper, wood, plastic and 
metal work, weaving, picture puzzles, basketry, 
chair caning, bookbinding, gardening, nature 
study, drawing, painting, pyrography, needle- 
work, photojjraphy, and music. 

Occupition Therapy for Nurses. By William Rush 
DUNTON, Jr., M. D., Assistant Physician at Sheppard 
and Enoch Pratt Hospitals, Towson, Md. lamo of 340 
page;, illustrated. Cloth, $1.50 net. October. 1915 



This Catalogue Revised to August. 1917 



Stoney's Nursing 



NEW (5th) EDITION 



Of this work the Americaji J oiirnal of Nursing sa3^s: "It is the 
fullest and most complete and may well be recommended as 
being of great general usefulness. The best chapter is the one 
on observation of symptoms which, is very thorough." There 
are directions how to improvise everything. 

Practical Points in Nursing. By Emily M. A. Stoney. Revised 
by Lucy Cornelia Catlin, R. N.. Youngstown Hospital, Ohio. 
12mo, 511 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.75 net. Published August, 1916 



NEW (3d) EDITION 



Stoney's Materia Medica 

Stoney's Materia Medica was written by a head nurse who 
knows just what the nurse needs. American Medicine says 
it contains * 'all the information in regards to drugs that a 
nurse should possess." 

Materia Medica for Nurses. By Emily M. A. Stoney, formerly Super- 
intendent of the Training School for Nurses in the Carney Hospital, 
South Boston. Mass. 300 pages. Cloth, $1..'!0 net. April, 1906 



JUST ISSUED 
NEW (4th) EDITION 



Stoney's Surgical Technic 

The first part deals with bacteriology, including antitoxins; the 
second with all the latest developments in surgical technic. 
The National Hospital Record says : "Pregnant with just the 
information nurses constantly need." 

Bacteriology and Surgical Technic for Nurses. By Emily M. A. 

Stoney. 342 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.75 net. October, 1916 

Goodnow's First- Year Nursing 2d edition 

Miss Goodnow's work deals entirely with the practical side of 
first-year nursing work. It is the application of text-book 
knowledge. It tells the nurse how to do those things she is called 
upon to do in her fir.st year in the training school — the actual 
ward work. 

First-Year Nursing. By Minnie Goodnow, R. N., formerly Super- 
intendent of the Women's Hospibil, Denver. 12mo of 354 pages, 
illustrated. Cloth, $1.50 net. Published February. 1916 



Aikens' Hospital Management 

This is just the work for hospital superintendents, training- 
school principals, physicians, and all who are actively inter- 
ested in hospital administration. The Medical Record sdiys: 
"Tells in concise form exactly what a hospital should do 
and how it should be run, from the scrubwoman up to its 
financing." 

Hospital Management. Arranged and edited by Charlotte A. 

Aikens, formerly Director of Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 488 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $3.00 net. April, 1911 

Aikens' Primary Studies new od) edition 

Trained Nurse and Hospital Review says: ** It is safe to say 
that any pupil who has mastered even the major portion of 
this work would be one of the best prepared first year pupils 
who ever stood for examination." 

Primary Studies for Nurses. By Charlotte A. Aikens, formerly 
Director of Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, D. C. 12mo of 
472 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.75 net. Published June, 1915 

Aikens' Training-School Methods and 
the Head Nurse 

This work not only tells how to teach, but also what should 
be taught the nurse and how much. The Medical Record says: 
" This book is original, breezy and healthy." 

Hospital Training-Scbool Methods and the Head Nurse. By Char- 
lotte A. Aikens, formerly Director of Sibley Memorial Hospital, 
Washington, D. C. 267 pages. Cloth, $1.50 net. October, 1907 

Aikens' Clinical Studies ,ew<«EDmoN 

This work for second and third year students is written on the 
same lines as the author's successful work for primary stu- 
dents. Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette says there " is a large 
amount of practical information in this book." 

Clinical Studies for Nurses. By Charlotte A. Aikens, formerly 
Director of Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washington, D. C. lamo of 
56q pages, illustrated Cloth, $2.00 net. Published Augost, 1916 



Bolduan & Grund's Bacteriology 2d edition 

The authors have laid particular emphasis on the immediate 
application of bacteriology to the art of nursing. It is an 
applied bacteriology in the truest sense. A study of all the 
ordinary modes of transmission of infection are included. 

Applied Bacteriology for Nurses. By Charles F. Bolduan, M.D., 
Director Bureau of Public Health Education, and Marie Grcnd, 
M. D , B{icteriologist, Department of Health, City of New York 
188 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.50 net. Published November, 1916 



Fiske's The Body 



A NEW IDEA 



Trained Nurse and Hospital Review says "it is concise, well- 
written and well illustrated, and should meet with favor in 
schools for nurses and with the graduate nurse." 

Structure and Functions of the Body. By Annette Fiske, A. M., 
Graduate of the Waltham Training School for Nurses, Massa- 
chusetts, lamo of 221 pages, illustrated. Cloth, SI. 25 net. May, 1911 



Beck's Reference Handbook 



NEW (3d) EDITION 



This book contains all the information that a nurse requires 
to carry out any directions given by the physician. The 
Montreal Medical Journal ^Ays it is "cleverly systematized and 
shows close observation of the sickroom and hospital regime." 

A Reference Handbook for Nurses. By Amaxda K. Beck, Graduate 
of the Illinois Training School for Nurses, Chicago, 111. 32mo of 244 
pages. Bound in flexible leather, $1.25 net. February, 1913 



EW (2d) 
DITION 



Roberts' Bacteriology & Pathology e 

This new work is practical in the strictest sense. Written 
specially for nurses, it confines itself to information that the 
nurse should know. All unessential matter is excluded. The 
style is concise and to the point, yet clear and plain. The text 
is illustrated throughout. 

Bacteriology and Pathology for Nurses. By Jay G. Robets, Ph. G., 
M. D., Oskaloosa, Iowa. 206 pages, illus. SI. 50 net. August, 1916 



DeLee's Obstetrics for Nurses 



FOURTH 
EDITION 



Dr. Delyce's book really considers two subjects — obstetrics 
for nurses and actual obstetric nursing. Trained Nurse and 
Hospital Review says the "book abounds with practical 
suggestions, and they are given with such clearness that 
they cannot fail to leave their impress." 

Obstetrics for Nurses. By Joseph B. DeL,ee, M. D., Professor of 
obstetrics at the Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago. 
12nio volume of 508 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $2.50 net. July, 1913 

Davis' Obstetric & Gynecologic Nursing 

JUST OUT— NEW (5th) EDITION 

The Trained Nurse and Hospital Review says: ** This is one 
of the most practical and useful books ever presented to the 
nursing profession." The text is illustrated. 

Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing. By Edward P. Davis, M. D., 
Professor of Obstetrics in the Jefferson Medical College, Philadel- 
phia. 480 pages, illustrated.. Cloth, $2.00 net. Published May, 1917 

Macfarlanc's Gynecology for Nurses 

NEW (2d) EDITION 

Dr. A. M. Seabrook, Woman's Hospital of Philadelphia, says: 
"It is a most admirable little book, covering in a concise but 
attractive way the subject from the nurse's standpoint." 

A Reference Handbook of Gynecology for Nurses. By Catharine 
Macfarlane, M. D., Gynecologist to the Woman's Hospital of Phila- 
delphia. 32ino of 156 pages, with 70 illustrations. Flexible leather, 
$1.25 net Published May. 1913 

Asher's Chemistry and Toxicology 

Dr. Asher's one aim was to emphasize throughout his book 
!he applicatioji of chemical and toxicologic knowledge in the 
5tudy and practice of nursing. He has admirably succeeded. 

laino of iqo pages. By Philip Asher, Ph. G., M. D., Dean and Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, New Orleans College of Pharmacy. Cloth, 
$i.s5 net. Published October, 1914 



Aikens' Home Nurse's Handbook IZl^'i 

The point about this work is this: It tells you, and shows you 
just how to do those little things entirely omitted from other 
nursing books, or at best only incidentally treated. The 
chapters on "Home Treatments" and "Every-Day Care of 
the Baby," stand out as particularly practical. 

Home Nurse's Handbook. By Charlotte A. Aikens, formerly Di- 
rector of the Sibley Memorial Hospital, Washingrton, D. C. i2mo of 
303 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.50 net. Published March. 1917 

Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Nursing 

This book is written from beginning to end /or iAe ?mrse. You 
get antiseptics, sterilization, nurse's duties, etc. You get an- 
atomy and physiology, common remedies, how to invert the 
lids, administer drops, solutions, salves, anesthetics, the 
various diseases and their management. JVew (2d) Edition. 

Nursing in Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat. By the 
Committee on Nurses of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. 
i2mo of 2gi pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.50 net. Pablished Sept. 1915 

Paul's Materia Medica nev (2d) edition 

In this work you get definitions — what an alkaloid is, an in- 
fusion, a mixture, an ointment, a solution, a tincture, etc. 
Then a classification of drugs according to their physiologic 
action, when to administer drugs, how to administer them, 
and how much to give. 

A Text-Book of Materia Medica for Nurses. By George P. Paul, M.D. 
12nio of 282 pages. Cloth. $1.50 net. Published September. 1911 

Paul's Fever Nursing new od) edition 

In the first part you get chapters on fever in general, hygiene, 
diet, methods for reducing the fever, complications. In the 
second part each infection is taken up in detail. In the third 
part you get antitoxins and vaccines, bacteria, warnings of 
the full dose of drugs, poison antidotes, enemata, etc. 

Nursing in the Acute Infectious Fevers. By George P. Padl, M. I). 
12mo of 275 pages, illustrated. Cloth. $1.00 net. October. 1915 



McCombs' Diseases of Children for Nurses 

NEW (3d) EDITION 

Dr. McCombs' experience in lecturing to nurses has enabled 
him to eniphasizey«y/ those points thai 7uirses 7nost need to hiow. 
Natiofial Hospital Record says: "We have needed a good 
book on children's diseases and this volume admirably fills 
the want." The nurse's side has been written by head 
nurses, very valuable being the work of Miss Jennie Manly. 

Diseases of Children for Nurses. By Robert S. McCombs, M. D., 
Instructor of Nurses at the Chiklren's I-iospital of Philadelphia. lamo 
of 509 pages. Illustrated. Cloth. $2.00 net. Published June. 1916 

Wilson's Obstetric Nursing new od) edition 

In Dr. Wilson's work the entire subject is covered from the 
beginning of pregnancy, its course, signs, labor, its actual 
accomplishment, the puerperium and care of the infant. 
American Jour^ial of Obstetrics says: ** Every page empasizes 
the nurse's relation to the case." 

A Reference Handbook of Obstetric Nursing. By W. Reynolds 
Wilson, M. D., visiting Physician to the Philadelphia l,ying-in 
Charity. 355 pages, illus. Flexible leather, $1.25 net. April, 1916 

American Pocket Dictionary new ^.h) edition 

The Trained Nurse and Hospital Review says: "We have 
had many occasions to refer to this dictionary, and in every 
instance we have found the desired information." 

American Pocket Medical Dictionary. Edited by W. A. Newman 
DORLAND, A. M., M.I). Flexible leather, gold edges, $1.25 net; 
indexed. $1.50 net. April, 1915 



THIRD 

edition 



Lewis' Anatomy and Physiology 

Nurses Journal of Pacific Coast says "it is not in any sense 
rudimentary, but comprehensive in its treatment of the sub- 
jects." The low price makes this book particularly attractive. 

Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses. By I^eRoy 1, :wis, M.D. 12mo 
of 326 pages; 150 illustrations. Cloth, $1.75 net. 

Publiahed September, 1913 



Pope 



's Materia Medica 



READY SOON 

The important knowledge of the physiologic action of drugs is 
given here. You learn what symptoms to watch for, and the 
results of each drug upon the various organs and functions of 
the body. Vaccines are included. 

12mo of 400 pages. By Amy E. Pope, formerly Instructor in the 
Presbyterian Hospital School. 

Warnshius' Surgical Nursing ready soon 

The author gxv&s you here the essential principles of surgical 
nursing, and reliable fundamental knowledge based on his 
own personal conclusions and experiences. Secondary matter 
is excluded, and all primary and pertinent j)oints are set down 
briefly and concisely. 

Octavo of 350 pages, with 200 illustrations. By Frederick C. 
WARNSHirrs, M.D., F.A.C.S., Visiting Surgeon, Butterworth Hos- 
pital, Great Rapids, Michigan. 

Friedenwald and Ruhrah's Dietetics for 

IMUrSeS NEW (3d) EDITION 

This work has been prepared to meet the needs of the nurse, 
both in training school and after graduation. American Jour- 
nal of Niirsmg says it "is exactly the book for which nurses 
and others have long and vainly sought." 

Dietetics for Nurses. By Julius Friedenwald, M. D.. Professor of 
Diseases of the Stomach, and John Ruhrah, M.D., Professor of 
Diseases of Children, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore. 
i2mo volume of 431 pages. Cloth, S1.50 net. Published September, 1913 

Friedenwald & Ruhrah on Diet '^."Z 

This work is a fuller treatment of the subject of diet, pre- 
sented along the same lines as the smaller work. Everything 
concerning diets, their preparation and use, coloric values, 
rectal feeding, etc., is here given in the light of the most re- 
cent researches. Published July, i9ij 

Diet in Health and Disease. By Julius Friedenwald, M.D., and 
John Ruhrah. M.D. Octavo volume of 857 pages. Cloth, $4.00 net 



Pyle's Personal Hygiene ?r.'.'r;^?."r 

Dr. Pyle's work discusses the care of the teeth, skin, com- 
plexion and hair, bathing, clothing, mouth breathing, catch- 
ing cold; singing, care of the eyes, school hygiene, body 
posture, ventilation, heating, water supply, house-cleaning, 
home gymnastics, first-aid measures, etc. 

A Manual of Personal Hygiene. Edited by Walter L. Pyle, M. D.. 
Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia. i2nio, 543 pages of illus. 

Galbraith's Personal Hygiene and Physical 
Training for Women new ,.., bd.t.on 

Dr. Galbraith's book tells you how to train the physical pow- 
ers to their highest degree of efficiency by means of fresh air, 
tonic baths, proper food and clothing, gymnastic and outdoor 
exercise. There are chapters on the skin, hair, development 
of the form, carriage, dancing, walking, running, swimming, 
rowing, and other outdoor sports. 

Personal Hygiene and Physical Training for Women. By Anna M. 
Galbraith, M.D., Fellow New York Academy of Medicine'. i2ino of 
393 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $2.25 net. Published January, 1917 

Galbraith's Four Epochs of Woman's Life 

This book covers each epoch fully, in a clean, instructive way, 
taking up puberty, menstruation, marriage, sexual instinct, 
sterility, pregnancy, confinement, nursing, the menopause. 

The Four Epochs of Woman's Life. By Anna M. Galbraith, M. D. 
With an Introductory Note by John H. Musser, M. D., University of 
Pennsylvania. i2mo of 288 pages. New (3d) Edition. March, 1917 

Griffith's Care of the Baby new (e.h) edition 

Here is a book that tells in simple, straightforward language 
exactly how to care for the baby in health and disease ; how 
to keep it well and strong; and should it fall sick, how to 
carry out the physician's instructions and nurse it back to 

health again. Published June. 1915 

The Care of the Baby. By J. P. Crozer Griffith, M.D., Univers- 
ity of Pennsylvania, lamo of 458 pages. Illustrated. Cloth, $1.50 net 



Aikens' Ethics for Nurses ^ s.xTo'n^SI 

This book emphasizes the importance of ethical training. It 
is a most excellent text-book, particularly well adapted for 
classroom work. The illustrations and practical problems 
used in the book are drawn from life. 

Studies in Ethics for Nurses. By Charlotte A. Aikens, formerly 
Superintendent of Columbia Hospital, Pittsburg, lamo of ^i8 pages. 
Cloth, $1.75 net. Published April. 1916 

Goodnow's History of Nursing 

Miss Goodnow's work gives the main facts of nursing history 
from the beginning to the present time. It is suited for class- 
room work or postgraduate reading. Sufficient details and 
personalities have been added to give color and interest, and 
to present a picture of the times described. 

History of Nursing. By Minnie Goodnow, R.N., formerly Super- 
intendent of the Women's Hospital. Denver. i2mo of 370 pages. 
Illustrated. Cloth, $2.00 net. Published December. 1916 

Berry's Orthopedics for Nurses 

The object of Dr. Berry's book is to supply the nurse with a 
work that discusses clearly and simply the diagnosis, prog- 
nosis and treatment of the more common and important ortho- 
pedic deformities. Many illustrations are included. The 
work is very practical. 

Or:hopedic Surgery for Nurses. By John McWilliams Berry. 
M.D., Clinical Professor of Orthopedics and Rontgenology, Albany 
Medical College. Cloth, $1.00 net. Published July, 1916 

Whiting's Bandaging 

This new work takes up each bandage in detail, telling you — 
and showing you by original illustrations — just how each 
bandage should be applied, each turn made. Dr. Whiting's 
teaching experience has enabled him to devise means for over- 
coming common errors in applying bandages. 

Bandaging. By A. D. Whiting, M.D., Instructor in Surgery at the 
University of Pennsylvania, lamo of 151 pages, with 117 illustra- 
tions. Cloth, $1.25 net. Published November, 1915 

10 



Smith's Operating-Room just issued 

The object is to show you how to assist the surgeon according 
to the newest operative technic. You get the result of active 
experience systematized, and in concise form. You get a thor- 
ough digest of every essential ; detailed lists of instruments ; 
glossary of medical terms. Every phase of the subject is 
covered by ample, practical instruction. 

The Operating-Room. A Primer for Nurses. By Amy Armour 
Smith, R.N., formerly Superintendent of Nurses at the Woman's 
Hospital of the State of New York. 12mo of 295 pages, illustrated. 
Cloth, $1.50 net. Published October. 1916 

Bandler's The Expectant Mother just out 

This is an anatomy, physiology and hygiene covering those 
points and functions concerned in child-bearing and designed 
for the use of the nurse and the mother. Every question of 
interest to the expectant mother is treated. 

The Expectant Mother. By S. Wyllis Handler, M. D., Professor 
of Diseases of Women, New York Post-Graduate Medical School 
ami Hospital. Cloth, $1.25 net. Published October. 1916 



Winslow's Prevention of Disease 



• JUST 
ISSUED 

Here you get a practical guide, giving you briefly the means 
to avoid the various diseases described. The chapters on diet, 
exercise, tea, coffee, alcohol, prevention of cancer, etc., are of 
special interest. There are, besides, chapters on the preven- 
tion of malaria, colds, constipation, obesity, nervous disorders 
and tuberculosis. It is a record of twenty-five years' active 
practice. 

By Kenelm Winslow, M.D., formerly Assistant Professor of Com- 
perative Therapeutics, Harvard University. 12mo of 348 pag:es, 
illuslrwted. Cloth, $1.75 net. Published November, 1916 

Brady's Personal Health just out 

This is different from other health books. It is written by a 
physician with some fifteen years' experience in writing for the 
laity. It covers the entire range of health questions — care of 
mouth and teeth, catching cold, adenoids and tonsils, eye and 
ear. ventilation, skin, hair and nails, nutrition, nervous ail- 
ments, etc. 

Personal Health. A Daclor Book for Discriminating People. By 

William Brady, M.D., Elmira, N.Y. 12moof 400 pages. 

Cloth, $1.50 net. Published September. 1916 



Hoxie & Laptad's Medicine for Nurses 

Medicine for Nurses and Housemothers. By Gkorge 
Howard Hoxie, M. D., University of Kansas; and 
Pearl L. Laptad. 12mo of 351 pages, illustrated. 
Cloth, $1.50 ne^ Second Edition— April, 1913 

Bohm & Painter's Massage 

Massage. By Max Bohm, M.D., Berlin, Germany. Ed- 
ited by CiiAS. F. Painter, M.D. , Tufts College. Octavo 
pf91 pages, 97 illustrations. Cloth, $1.75 net. June,1913 

Boyd's State Registration for Nurses 

State Registration for Nurses. By Louie Croft Boyd, 
R. N., Graduate Colorado Training School for Nurses. 
Cloth, $1.25 net. Second Edition— February, 1915 

Morrow's Immediate Care of Injured 

Immediate Care of the Injured. By Albert S. Mor- 
row, M.D., New York Polyclinic. Octavo of 354 pages, 
with 242 illustrations. Cloth, $2.50 net. 

Second Edition — March, 1912 



deNancrede's Anatomy 



EIGHTH EDITION 



Essentials of Anatomy. By Charles B. G. deNan- 
crede, M. D., University of Michigan. 12mo of 400 
pages, 180 illustrations. Cloth, $1.25 net. Sept., 1911 



Morris' Materia Medica 



SEVENTH EDITION 

Essentials of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Pre- 
scription Writing. By Henry Morris, M. D. Re- 
vised by W. A. Bastedo, M. D., Columbia University, 
New York. 12mo of 300 pages, illustrated. 
Cloth, $1.25 net. Published March, 1905 



Register's Fever Nursing 



A Text-Book on Practical Fever Nursing. By Edward C. 
Register, M.D., North Carolina Medical College. Oc- 
tavo of 350 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $2.50 net. June 1907 




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