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A Concise Review of its Early Settlement, Industrial Development and 

Present Conditions, 




A Comprehensive Compendium of National Biography and Life Sketches of 
Well-known Citizens of the County. 





fN PLACING the History of Wexford County before the citizens, the publisher 
can conscientiously claim that he has carried out in full every promise made 
in the Prospectus. He points with pride to the elegance of the binding of 
the volume, and to the beauty of its typography, to the superiority of the paper on 
which the work is printed, and the truthfulness depicted by its portraits and the 
high class of art in which they are finished. Every biographical sketch has been 
submitted for approval and correction, to the person for whom it was written, and 
therefore any error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom 
the sketch was prepared. The publisher would here avail himself of the opportunity 
to thank the citizens of Wexford County for the uniform kindness with which they 
have regarded this undertaking, and for their many services rendered in assisting 
in the gaining of necessary information. 

Confident that our efforts to please will fully meet the approbation of the 
public, we are, 


B. F. BowEN, Publisher. 


fN PREPARING the biogr^Lphy of any prominent person something of the scenes 
and incidents contemporaneous with the Hfe of the individual are deemed 
essential to fully bring out motives and incentives that may have prompted 
the doings or sayings of the man or v^oman. It is often the case that lives of the 
parents and even earlier ancestors are alluded to to show the environments surround- 
ing the birth and early life of the person and how they may have helped or hindered 
in the early formation of character. 

The same is true in writing the history of a city or community. There are always 
reasons why people congregate in one place rather than another, in starting a village 
that may grow into a great city, and these reasons are always of interest to the 
reader and give him a far better conception of the subject matter that is to follow. 

What is true of an individual or a city is equally true of a county. There is 
always an interest in contemplating the reasons which lead people to leave an old 
settled country, where every facility for comfort and enjoyment are within reach, 
and emigrate to a wilderness country, remote from civilization, and destitute of even 
the most necessary conveniences that minister to the comfort of the individual. 

The '* Forty-niners" journeyed across a continent in ten-ox wagons for gold; and 
within the past few years we have seen a steady stream of adventurous people mi- 
grating to the frozen north-land, drawn thither by the glitter of the same shining 
object. The home-seekers in a new country are lured by no such glittering bauble. 
While it is no doubt true that every pioneer to a new country expects to better his 
financial condition by the change, he knows that this betterment must come slowly, 
aQd must be accompanied with unceasing toil and untold privations. 

Bearing in mind these great privations and this continuous toil which is the lot 
of all pioneers, I have considered it important to devote the first part of this work 
to a review of some of the causes which led up to the early settlement, rapid growth 
and wonderful development of this section of the State, including Wexford County, 
after which the work will t>e confined entirely to the county. 

The Author. 




Abbott, Lyman 144 

Adams, Charles Kendall 143 

Adams, John 25 

Adams, John Quincy 61 

Agassiz, Louis J. R 137 

Alger, Russell A 173 

Allison, William B 131 

Allston, Washington 190 

Altgeld, John Peter 140 

Andrews, Elisha B 184 

Anthony, Susan B. 62 

Armour, Philip D 62 

Arnold, Benedict 84 

Arthur, Chester Allen 168 

Astor, John Jacob 139 

Audubon, John James 166 

Bailey, James Montgomery... 177 

Bancroft, George 74 

Barnard, Frederick A. P 179 

Barnum, Phineas T 41 

Barrett, Lawrence 156 

Barton, Clara 209 

Bayard, Thomas Francis 200 

Beard, William H 196 

Beauregard, Pierre G. T 203 

Beecher, Henry Ward 26 

Bell, Alexander Graham 96 

Bennett, James Gordon. 206 

Benton, Thomas Hart * 53 

Bergh, Henry 160 

Bierstadt, Albert 197 

Billings, Josh 166 

Blaine, James Gillespie 22 

Bland, Richard Parks.. 106 


Boone, Daniel 36 

Booth, Edwin 51 

Booth, Junius Brutus I77 

Brice, Calvin S 181 

Brooks, Phillips 130 

Brown, John 51 

Brown, Charles Farrar 91 

Brush, Charles Francis 153 

Bryan, William Jennings 158 

Bryant, William Cullen 44 

Buchanan, Franklin 105 

Buchanan, James 128 

Buckner, Simon Boliver 188 

Burdette, Robert J 103 

Burr, Aaron iii 

Butler, Benjamin Franklin... 24 

Calhoun, John Caldwell 23 

Cameron, James Donald 141 

Cameron, Simon 141 

Cammack, Addison 197 

Campbell, Alexander 180 

Carlisle, John G 133 

Carnegie, Andrew TZ 

Carpenter, Matthew Hale 178 

Carson, Christopher (Kit) ... 86 

Cass, Lewis no 

Chase, Salmon Portland 65 

Childs, George W 83 

Choate, Rufus 207 

Chaflin, Horace Brigham 107 

Clay, Henry 21 

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. 86 

Cleveland, Grover 174 

Clews, Henry 153 


Clinton, DeWitt no 

Colfax, Schuyler 139 

Conkling, Alfred 3-2 

Conkling, Roscoe 32 

Cooley, Thomas Mclntyre 140 

Cooper, James Fenimore 58 

Cooper, Peter Z7 

Copeley, John Singleton 191 

Corbin, Austin 205 

Corcoran, W. W 196 

Cornell, Ezra 161 

Cramp, William 189 

Crockett, David : 7(i 

Cullom, Shelby Moore 116 

Curtis, George William 144 

Cushman, Charlotte 107 

Custer, George A 95 

Dana, Charles A 88 

"Danbury News Man" I77 

Davenport, Fanny 106 

Davis, Jefferson 24 

Debs, Eugene V 132 

Decatur, Stephen loi 

Deering, William 198 

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell... 209 

Dickinson, Anna. 103 

Dickinson, Don M I39 

Dingley, Nelson, Jr 215 

Donnelly, Ignatius 161 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 53 

Douglass, Frederick 43 

Dow, Neal 108 

Draper, John William 184 



Drexel, Anthony Joseph ..... 124 
Dupont, Henry 198 

Edison, Thomas Alva 55 

Edmunds, George F 201 

Ellsworth, Oliver 168 

Ernerson, Ralph Waldo 57 

Ericsson, John 127 

Evarts, William Maxwell.... 89 

Farragut, David Glascoe 80 

Field, Cyrus West 173 

Field, David Dudley 126 

Field, Marshall 59 

Field, Stephen Johnson 216 

Fillmore, Millard 113 

Foote, Andrew Hull 176 

Foraker, Joseph B 143 

Forrest, Edwin 92 

Franklin, Benjamin 18 

Fremont, John Charles 29 

Fuller, Melville Weston 168 

Fulton, Robert 62 

Gage, Lyman J 71 

Gallatin, Albert 112 

Garfield, James A 163 

Barrett, John Work 200 

Garrison, William Lloyd 50 

Gates, Horatio 70 

Gatling, Richard Jordan 116 

George, Henry 203 

Gibbons, Cardinal James. .... 209 

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield yy 

Girard, Stephen 137 

Gough, John B 131 

Gould, Jay 52 

Gordon, John B 215 

Grant, Ulysses S 155 

Gray, Asa 88 

Gray, Elisha 149 

Greeley, Adolphus W 142 

Greeley, Horace 20 

Greene, Nathaniel 69 

Gresham, Walter Quintin ... 183 

Hale, Edward Everett 79 

Hall, Charles Francis 167 

Hamilton, Alexander 31 

Hamlin, Hannibal 214 

Hampton, Wade 192 

Hancock, Winfield Scott 146 

Hanna, Marcus Alonzo 169 

Harris, Isham G 214 

Harrison, William Henry 87 

Harrison, Benjamin 182 

Harvard, John, 129 

Havemeyer, John Craig 182 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 135 

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard. . 157 
Hendricks, Thomas Andrew. . 212 

Henry, Joseph .' 105 

Henry, Patrick 83 

Hill, David Bennett. 90 


Hobart, Garrett A. . . 213 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 206 

Hooker, Joseph 52 

Howe, Elias 130 

Howells, William Dean 104 

Houston, Sam 120 

Hughes, Archbishop John.... 157 

Hughitt, Marvin 159 

Hull, Isaac 169 

Huntington, Collis Potter.... 94 

Ingalls, John James 114 

Ingersoll, Robert G. 85 

Irving, Washington 2>Z 

Jackson, Andrew 71 

Jackson, "Stonewair' 6y 

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan. . 67 

Jay, John -. 39 

Jefferson, Joseph 47 

Jefferson, Thomas 34 

Johnson, Andrew 145 

Johnson, Eastman 202 

Johnston, Joseph Eccleston.. 85 

Jones, James K 171 

Jones, John Paul .-•.... 97 

Jones, Samuel Porter ^1$ 

Kane, Elisha Kent 125 

Kearney, Philip 210 

Kenton, Simon 188 

Knox, John Jay 134 

Lamar, Lucius Q. C 201 

Landon, Melville D 109 

Lee, Robert Edward 38 

Lewis, Charles B 193 

Lincoln, Abraham 135 

Livermore, Mary Ashton 131 

Locke, David Ross 172 

Logan, John A 26 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 2>7 

Longstreet, James 56 

Lowell, James Russell 104 

Mackay, John William. 148 

Madison, James 42 

Marshall, John ; 156 

Mather, Cotton 164 

Mather, Increase 163 

Maxim, Hiram S 194 

McClellan, George Brinton.. 47 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall 172 

McDonough, Com. Thomas. . 167 

McKinley, William 217 

Meade, George Gordon 75 

Medill, Joseph 159 

Miles, Nelson A. 176 

Miller, Cincinnatus Heine. . . 218 

Miller, Joaquin 218 

Mills, Roger Quarles 211 

Monroe, James.. 54 

Moody, Dwight L. 207 

Moran, Thomas..,.. 98 , 


Morgan, John Pierpont 208 

Morgan, John T 216 

Morris, Robert 165 

Morse, Samuel F. B 124 

Morton, Levi P 142 

Morton, Oliver Perry 215 

Motley, John Lathrop 130 

"Nye, Biir 59 

Nye, Edgar Wilson 59 

O'Conor, Charles 187 

Olney, Richard 133 

Paine, Thomas 147 

Palmer, John M 195 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry.... 160 

"Partington, Mrs." 202 

PeabcKly, George 170 

Peck, George W 187 

Peffer, William A 164 

Perkins, Eli 109 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 97 

Phillips, Wendell 30 

Pierce, Franklin 122 

Pingree, Hazen S 212 

Plant, Henry B 192 

Poe, Edgar Allen. .. 69 

Polk, James Knox 102 

Porter, David Dixon 68 

Porter, Noah 93 

Prentice, George Denison 119 

Prescott, William Hickling. . 96 
Pullman, George Mortimer. . 121 

Quad, M 193 

Quay, Matthew S 171 

Randolph, Edmund 136 

Read, Thomas Buchanan 132 

Reed, Thomas Brackett 208 

Reid, Whitelaw 149 

Roach, John • 190 

Rockefeller, John Ravison. . . 195 

Root, George Frederick 218 

Rothermel, Peter F 113 

Rutledge, John 57 

Sage, Russell 211 

Schofield, John McAlister 199 

Schurz, Carl 201 

Scott, Thomas Alexander.... 204 

Scott, Winfield 79 

Seward, William Henry 44 

Sharon, William 165 

Shaw, Henry W 166 

Sheridan, Phillip Henry 40 

Sherman, Charles R 87 

Sherman, John 86 

Sherman, William Tecumseh. 30 
Shillaber, Benjamin Penhallow202 

Smith, Edmund Kirby 114 

Sousa, John Philip 60 

Spreckles, Glaus....... 159 



Stanford, Leland loi 

Stanton, Edwin McMasters. . 179 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 126 

Stephens, Alexander Hamilton 32 

Stephenson, Adlai Ewing 141 

Stewart, Alexander T 58 

Stewart, William Morris 213 

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth 

Beecher 66 

Stuart, James E. B 122 

Sumner, Charles 34 

Talmage, Thomas DeWitt... 60 

Taney, Roger Brooks 129 

Taylor, Zachary 108 

Teller, Henry M 127 

Tesla, Nikola 193 

Thomas, George H 73 

Thomas, Theodore 172 

Thurman, Allen G 90 


Thurston, John M 166 

Tilden, Sam.uel J 48 

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan.... 119 

Toombs, Robert 205 

'TT.wain, Miark" 86 

Tyler, John 93 

Van Buren, Martin 78 

Vanded>ilt, Cornelius 35 

Vail, Alfred 154 

Vest, George Graham 214 

Vilas, William Freeman 140 

Voorhees, Daniel Wolsey 95 

Waite, Morrison Remich 125 

Wallace, Lewis 199 

Wallack, Lester 121 

Wallack, John Lester 121 

Wanamaker, John 89 

Ward, "Artemus" 91 


Washburne, Elihu Benjamin. . 189 

Washington, George 17 

Watson, Thomas E 178 

Watterson, Henry ^6 

Weaver, James B 123 

Webster, Daniel 19 

Webster, Noah 49 

Weed, Thurlow 91 

West, Benjamin 115 

Whipple, Henry Benjamin. . . 161 

White, Stephen V 162 

Whitefield, George 150 

Whitman, Walt 197 

Whitney, Eli 120 

Whitney, William Collins.... 92 

Whittier, John Greenleaf 67 

Willard, Frances E 133 

Wilson, William L 180 

Winchell, Alexander 175 

Windom, William 138 



Alger, Russell A 16 

Allison, William B 99 

Anthony, Susan B 62, 

Armour, Philip D 151 

Arthur, Chester A 81 

Barnum, Phineas T 117 

Beecher, Henry Ward 27 

Blaine, James G. 151 

Booth, Edwin 63 

Bryan, Wm. J 63 

Bryant, William Cullen 185 

Buchanan, James 81 

Bu'ckner, Simoij B 16 

Butler, Benjamin F 151 

Carlisle, John G 151 

Chase, Salmon P 16 

Childs, George W 99 

Clay, Henry 81 

Cleveland, Grover 45 

Cooper, Peter 99 

Dana, Charles A 151 

Depew, Chauncey M 117 

Douglass, Fred 62, 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 27 

Evarts, William M 99 

Farragut, Com. D. G 185 

Field, Cyrus W 63 


Field, Marshall 117 

Franklin, Benjamin 63 

Fremont, Gen. John C 16 

Gage, Lyman J 151 

Garfield, James A 45 

Garrison, William Lloyd 63 

George, Henry 117 

Gould, Jay 99 

Grant, Gen. U. S 185 

Greeley, Horace 81 

Hampton, Wade 16 

Hancock, Gen. Winfield S.... 185 

Hanna, Mark A 117 

Harrison, Benjamin 81 

Hayes, R. B 4$ 

Hendricks, Thomas A 81 

Holmes, Oliver W 151 

Hooker, Gen. Joseph 16 

Ingersoll, Robert G 117 

Irving, Washington 27 

Jackson, Andrew 45 

Jefferson, Thomas 45 

Johnston, Gen. J. E 16 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 185 

Lincoln, Abraham 81 

Logan, Gen. John A 16 

Longfellow, Henry W 185 


Longstreet, Gen. James 16 

Lowell, James Russell. 27 

McKinley, William 45 

Morse, S. F. B 185 

Phillips, Wendell 27 

Porter, Com. D. D 185 

Pullman, George M 117 

Quay, M. S 99 

Reed, Thomas B 151 

Sage, Russell 117 

Scott, Gen. Winfield 185 

Seward, William H 45 

Sherman, John 99 

Sherman, Gen. W. T 151 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 27 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher 27 

Sumner, Charles ., . . . 45 

Talmage, T. DeWitt 62, 

Teller, Henry M 99 

Thurman, Allen G 81 

Tilden, Samuel J 117 

Van Buren, Martin 81 

Vanderbilt, Commodore 99 

Webster, Daniel 27 

Whittier, John G 27 

Washington, George. 45 

Watterson, Henry. ^3 



Chapter I— Michigan 219 

II — ^Kautawaubet or Wexford County 22.'^ 

Ill — Arrival of New Settlers Continues 227 

IV— First Election 232 

V— First Railroad 239 

VI — Woman Suffrage — State Census — County Elections — Bear Trapping 244 

VII — The County Seat — Efforts to Secure its Removal from Sherman— Schemes to Prevent 

Removal —Final Result 249 

VIII — New Judicial Circuit — Greenback Party 250 

IX — New Railroad — New Villages — New Impetus to Farming and Lumbering 262 

X — City and Village Organizations 2()9 

XI— Our Honored Dead Pioneers " 299 

XII — Old Pioneers Who Have Removed from Our Midst 310 




Allen, George 480 

Anderson, Aaron F 546 

Anderson, Gustave 459 

Anderson, Johannas 551 

Auer, Henry C 885 

Averill, David B 498 


Baker, James A 545 

Ballou, Henry 410 

Bechtel, Charles J 521 

Billings, Henry M 556 

Blue, George W 860 

Bostick, Charles H 550 

Boyd, Marion B 5*25 

Boynton, Elisha M 345 

Bredahl, Rasmus P 514 

Brehm, Edward C 389 

Burman, Axel G 522 


Cadillac State Bank 387 

Callis, T. Henry 461 

Carlson, Charles J 484 

Carnahan, Samuel 404 

Cassety, Samuel J 387 

Chittenden, Hon. Clyde C. . . 325 

Cobbs, Frank J 321 

Cobbs, Jonathan W 365 

Colvin, Marvin D . 463 

Corlett, Thomas A., M. D. . .. 517 

Cornell, Elon 448 

Cox, Edward 382 

Crawford, Ralph W 457 

Crosby, Thomas W 392 

Cummer, Jacob 327 

Cummer, Wellington W 338 

Curtis, D. W 408 


Daugherty, Chester C 495 

Davidson, Donald 374 

Dayhuff, Mrs. Cynthia 480 

Denike, Andrew B 400 


Denike, Thomas P. 509 

DeVoe, Henry 1 487 

Diggins, Fred A 324 

Discher, Jacob 534 

Drury, Charles H 478 

Dunbar, John 418 

Dunham, Charles C 473 

Dunham, Nelson H 524 

Dunton, Lucius A 453 

Dutton, Charles W 436 

Evitts, John A 496 

Fales, Willford D 381 

Frederick, George A 515 

Frederick, Reuben D 489 

Gasser, Sanford 435 

Gates, Lucas W 553 

Gilbert, Esedore 464 

Goldsmith, John 438 

Goodyear, Frank L 476 

Graham, George S 549 

Gray, Taylor W. 481 

Gray, William H 508 

Guernsey, Willis D 858 

Gustafson, John A 402 


Hagstrom, Carl E 422 

Hagstrom, Otto 423 

Hansen, Henry 426 

Hanthorn, James 396 

Harger, Ezra 537 

Harvey, John 458 

Haskin, John A 399 

Haynes, James 492 

Hector, Frederick W 380 

Hodgson, Thomas 440 

Hogue,JohnR 510 

Holmberg, Andrew 877 

Huff, Henry B 394 | 


Huntley, Victor F., M. D ... 506 

Hutzler, Horace G 547 


Jenkins, Ira 502 

Johnson, Andrew 519 


Kaiser, Daniel E 456 

Kellogg, Phillip 528 

Kelley, William 497 

Kluss, John 427 

Kneeland, Dr. Howard S 518 

Knowlton, Henry 342 


Lake, George A 349 

Loveless, William W 376 


McBrian, Nelson 408 

McCane, Joseph 520 

McCoy, Daniel 467 

Mclntyre, Donald E 334 

McNitt, Henry C 450 

McNitt, William 586 

Macey, Lester C 445 

Manning, John H 424 

Mansfield, James E 491 

Massey, Richard W 485 

Miller, Carroll E., M. D 854 

Miller, Humphrey W 432 

Mitchell, Austin W 370 

Mitchell, George A 318 

Mitchell, William W 822 

Moffit, Edward G 357 

Morgan, Edward, M. D 512 

Morken, Elias 471 


Neilson, Nels 487 

Nichols, Isaac 886 

Nichols, John J 505 

Nordstrom, Nels P 469 

Norris, Richard C 532 



Olsen, John 443 

Ostensen, Hans 530 

Otis, George H 364 


Parker, John T 368 

Parker, Lyman E 540 

Payne, Henry J 418 

Peck, Alvah 397 

Peck, Elwood 483 

Peterson, Carl B 541 

Powers, Perry F 362 

Prud'homme, Rev. L. M 378 


Reynolds. George A 504 

Reynolds, Norman A 534 

Rose, William 351 

Rydquist, Peter A 416 


Saunders, William L 331 

Sawyer, Eugene F 346 


Seaman, Sylvester R 463 

Seaman, Warren 428 

Shaver, William H 412 

Smith, Albert L 442 

Smith, Elijah 466 

Smith, N. Jacob 472 

Smith, Ward P 527 

Southwick, Albert B 488 

Southwick, W. E 431 

Stanley, George S 391 

St. Ann's Church 379 

Starkweather, Isaac 405 

Stewart, Joseph 359 

Sturtevant, Heman B 383 

Sturtevant, Walter L 409 


Teed, George C 390 

Terwilliger, J. M 333 

Thomas, George E 420 

Tibbits, Lemuel A 516 

Torrey, Johns 419 


Torrey, Nelson R 415 

Tripp, Lewis J 353 

Tweedie, Ariel W 406 

Tyler, Cyril H 451 


Vance, Asaph T 477 


Waddell, Robert M 369 

Wall, Samuel J 538 

Warden, Joshua M., M. D. . . 372 

Webber, Arthur H 454 

Westbrook, William P 395 

Westover, George D 446 

Whaley, James 417 

Wheeler, John H 317 

Wheeler, Porter 500 

Williams, George F 542 

Williams, Walter S 554 

Wilson, Lewis T 367 



. . OF . . 

Celebrated Americans 



.1 _ r 




the first president of the Unit- 
ed States, called the *' Father 
of his Country,'* was one of 
the most celebrated characters 
in history. He was born Feb- 
ruary 22, 1732, in Washing- 
ton Parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine Washington, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four 
children, and March 6, 1730, he • married 
Mary Ball. Of six children by his second 
marriage, George was the eldest. 

Little is known of the early years of 
Washington, beyond the fact that the house 
in which he was born was burned during his 
early childhood, and that his father there- 
upon moved to another farm, inherited from 
his paternal ancestors, situated in Stafford 
county, on the north bank of the Rappahan- 
nock, and died there in 1 743. From earliest 
childhood George developed a noble charac- 
ter. His education was somewhat defective, 
being confined to the elementary branches 
taught him by his mother and at a neighbor- 
ing school. On leaving school he resided 
some time at Mount Vernon with his half 

brother, Lawrence, who acted as his guar 
dian. George's inclinations were for a sea- 
faring career, and a midshipman's warrant 
was procured for him; but through the oppo- 
sition of his mother the project was aban- 
doned, and at the age of sixteen he was 
appointed surveyor to the immense estates 
of the eccentric Lord Fairfax. Three years 
were passed by Washington in a rough fron- 
tier life, gaining experience which afterwards 
proved very essential to him In 175 1, 
when the Virginia militia were put under 
training with a view to active service against 
France, Washington, though only nineteen 
years of age, was appointed adjutant, with 
the rank of major. In 1752 Lawrence 
Washington died, leaving his large property 
to an infant daughter. In his will George 
was named one of the executors and as an 
eventual heir to Mount Vernon, and by the 
death of the infant niece, soon succeeded to 
that estate. In 1753 George was commis- 
sioned adjutant-general of the Virginia 
militia, and performed important work at 
the outbreak of the French and Indian 
war, was rapidly promoted, and at the close of 
that war we find him commander-in-chief of 

•Vnifht 1897, by Geo. A. Ogle b Co. 



all the forces raised in Virginia. A cessation 
of Indian hostilities on the frontier having 
followed the expulsion of the French from 
the Ohio, he resigned his commission as 
commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, 
and then proceeded to Williamsburg to take 
his seat in the Virginia Assembly, of which 
he had been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington marr'ed 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Curtis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and 
devoted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by the annual attendance in 
winter upon the colonial legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his coun- 
try to enter upon that other arena in which 
his fame was to become world-wide. The 
war for independence called Washington 
into service again, and he was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces, and 
was the most gallant and conspicuous figure 
in that bloody struggle, serving until Eng- 
land acknowledged the independence of 
each of the thirteen States, and negotiated 
with them jointly, as separate sovereignties. 
December 4, 1783, the great commander 
took leave of his officers in most affection- 
ate and patriotic terms, and went to An- 
napolis, Maryland, where the congress of 
the States was in session, and to that body, 
when peace and order prevailed everywhere, 
resigned his commission and retired to 
Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1789 that Washington was 
Called to the chief magistracy of the na- 
tion. The inauguration took place April 
30, in the presence of an immense multi- 
tude which had assembled to witness the new 
and imposing ceremony. In the manifold de- 
tails of his civil administration Washington 
proved himself fully equal to the requirements 
of his position. In 1 792, at the second presi- 

dential election, Washington was desirous 
to retire; but he yielded to the general wish 
of the country, and was again chosen presi- 
dent. At the third election, in 1796, he 
was again most urgently entreated to con- 
sent to remain in the executive chair. This 
he positively refused, and after March 4, 
1797, he again retired to Mount Vernon 
for peace, quiet, and repose. 

Of the call again made on this illustrious 
chief to quit his repose at Mount Ver- 
non and take command of all the United 
States forces, with rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, when war was threatened with France 
in 1798, nothing need here be stated, ex- 
cept to note the fact as an unmistakable 
testimonial of the high regard in which he 
was still held by his countrymen of all 
shades of political opinion. He patriotic- 
ally accepted this trust, but a treaty of 
peace put a stop to all action under it. He 
again retired to Mount Vernon, where he 
died December 14, 1799, in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. His remains were depos- 
ited in a family vault on the banks of the 
Potomac, at Mount Vernon, where they still 
lie entombed. 

American statesman and scientist, was 
born of poor parentage, January 17, 1706, 
in Boston, Massachusetts. He was appren- 
ticed to his brother James to learn the print- 
er's trade to prevent his running away and 
going to sea, and also because of the numer- 
ous family his parents had to support (there 
being seventeen children, Benjamin being 
the fifteenth). He was a great reader, and 
soon developed a taste for writing, and pre- 
pared a number of articles and had them 
published in the paper without his brother's 
knowledge, and when the authorship be- 
came known it resulted in difficulty for the 



young apprentice, although his articles had 
been received with favor by the public. 
James was afterwards thrown into prison for 
political reasons, and young Benjamin con- 
ducted the paper alone during the time. In 
1823, however, he determined to endure his 
bonds no longer, and ran away, going to 
Philadelphia, where he arrived with only 
three pence as his store of wealth. With 
these »he purchased three rolls, and ate them 
as he walked along the streets. He soon 
found employment as a journeyman printer. 
Two years later he was sent to England by 
the governor of Pennsylvania, and was 
promised the public printing, but did not get 
it. On his return to Philadelphia he estab- 
lished the *' Pennsylvania Gazette," and 
soon found himself a person of great popu- 
larity in the province, his ability as a writer, 
philosopher, and politician having reached 
the neighboring colonies. He rapidly grew 
in prominence, founded the Philadelphia Li- 
brary in 1842, and two years later the 
American Philosophical Society and the 
University of Pennsylvania. He was made 
Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 
1775. His world-famous investigations in 
electricity and lightning began in 1746. He 
became postmaster-general of the colonies 
in 1753, having devised an inter-colonial 
postal system. He advocated the rights of 
the colonies at all times, and procured the 
repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was 
elected to the Continental congress of 1775, 
and in 1776 was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, being one of the commit- 
tee appointed to draft that paper. He rep- 
resented the new nation in the courts of 
Europe, especially at Paris, where his simple 
dignity and homely wisdom won him the 
admiration of the court and the favor of the 
people. He was governor of Pennsylvania 
Sour years; was also a member of the con- 

vention in 1787 that drafted the constitution 
of the United States. 

His writings upon political topics, anti- 
slavery, finance, and economics, stamp him 
as one of the greatest statesmen of his time, 
while his '* Autobiography " and ''Poor 
Richard's Almanac " give him precedence in 
the hterary field. In early life he was an 
avowed skeptic in religious matters, but 
later in life his utterances on this subject 
were less extreme, though he never ex- 
pressed approval of any sect or creed. He 
died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 

DANIEL WEBSTER.— Of world wide 
reputation for statesmanship, diplo- 
macy, and oratory, there is perhaps no more 
prominent figure in the history of our coun- 
try in the interval between 181 5 and 1861, 
than Daniel Webster. He was born at 
Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, 
January 18, 1782, and was the second son 
of Ebenezer and Abigail (Eastman) Webster. 
He enjoyed but limited educational advan- 
tages in childhood, but spent a few months 
in 1797, at Phillip Exeter Academy. He 
completed his preparation for college in the 
family of Rev. Samuel Wood, at Boscawen, 
and entered Dartmouth College in the fall 
of 1797. He supported himself most of the 
time during these years by teaching school 
and graduated in 1801, having the credit of 
being the foremost scholar of his class. He 
entered the law office of Hon. Thomas W. 
Thompson, at Salisbury. In 1802 he con- 
tinued his legal studies at Fryeburg, Maine, 
where he was principal of the academy and 
copyist in >the office of the register of 
deeds. In the office of Christopher Gore, 
at Boston, he completed his studies in 
1804-5, and was admitted to the bar in the 
latter year, and at Boscawen and at Ports- 
mouth soon rose to eminence in his profes^ 



sion. He became known as a federalist 
but did not court political honors; but, at- 
tracting attention by his eloquence in oppos- 
ing the war with England, he was elected 
to congress in 1812. During the special 
session of May, 181 3, he was appointed on 
the committee on foreign affairs and made 
his maiden speech June 10, 181 3. Through- 
out this session (as afterwards) he showed 
his mastery of the great economic questions 
of the day. He was re-elected in 18 14. In 
1 8 16 he removed to Boston and for seven 
years devoted himself to his profession, 
darning by his arguments in the celebrated 
''Dartmouth College Case" rank among 
the most distinguished jurists of the country. 
In 1820 Mr. Webster was chosen a member 
of the state convention of Massachusetts, to 
revise the constitution. The same year he 
delivered the famous discourse on the " Pil- 
grim fathers," which laid the foundation for 
his fame as an orator. Declining a nomi- 
nation for United States senator, in 1822 he 
was elected to the lower house of congress 
and was re-elected in 1824 and 1826, but in 
1827 was transferred to the senate. He 
retained his seat in the latter chamber until 
1 841. During this time his voice was ever 
lifted in defence of the national life and 
honor and although politically opposed to 
him he gave his support to the administra- 
lian of President Jackson in the latter's con- 
test with nullification. Through all these 
fears he was ever found upon the side of 
v^'ight and justice and his speeches upon all 
the great questions of the day have be- 
,";ome household words in almost every 
family. In 1841 Mr. Webster was appointed 
secretary of state by President Harrison 
and was continued in the same office by 
President Tyler. While an incumbent of 
this office he showed consummate ability as 
a diplomat in the negotiation of the '* Ash- 

burton treaty " of August 9, 1849, which 
settled many points of dispute between the 
United States and England. In May, 1843, 
he resigned his post and resumed his pro- 
fession, and in December, 1845, took his 
place again in the senate. He contributed 
in an unofficial way to the solution of the 
Oregon question with Great Britain in 1847. 
He was disappointed in 1848 in not receiv- 
ing the nomination for the presidency. He 
became secretary of state under President 
Fillmore in 1850 and in dealing with all the 
complicated questions of the day showed a 
wonderful mastery of the arts of diplomacy. 
Being hurt in an accident he retired to his 
home at Marshfield, where he died Octo- 
ber 24, 1852. 

HORACE GREELEY. —As journalist, 
author, statesman and political leader, 
there is none more widely known than the 
man whose name heads this article. He 
was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, Feb- 
ruary 3, 181 1, and was reared upon a farm. 
At an early age he evinced a remarkable 
intelligence and love of learning, and at 
the age of ten had read every book he could 
borrow for miles around. About 1821 the 
family removed to Westhaven, Vermont, 
and for some years young Greeley assisted 
in carrying on the farm. In 1826 he entered 
the office of a weekly newspaper at East 
Poultney, Vermont, where he remained 
about four years. On the discontinuance 
of this paper he followed his father's 
family to Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
whither they had moved, and for a time 
worked at the printer's trade in that neigh- 
borhood. In 1831 Horace went to New 
York City, and for a time found employ- 
ment as journeyman printer. January, 
1833, in partnership with Francis Story, he 
published the Morning Post^ the first penny 


paper ever printed. This proved a failure 
and was discontinued after three weeks. 
The business of job printing was carried on, 
however, until the death of Mr. Story in 
July following. In company with Jonas 
Winchester, March 22, 1834, Mr. Greeley 
commenced the publication of the New 
Yorker, a weekly paper of a high character. 
For financial reasons, at the same time, 
Greeley wrote leaders for other papers, and, 
in 1838, took editorial charge of the Jeffer-- 
sonian, a Whig paper published at Albany. 
In 1840, on the discontinuance of that sheet, 
he devoted his energies to the Log Cabin, a 
campaign paper in the interests of the Whig 
party. In the fall of 1841 the latter paper 
was consolidated with the Nezu Yorker, un- 
der the name of the Tribune, the first num- 
ber of which was issued April 10, 184 1. At 
the head of this paper Mr. Greeley remained 
until the day of his death. 

In 1848 Horace Greeley was elected to 
the national house of representatives to 
fill a vacancy, and was a member of that 
body until March 4, 1849. In 185 1 he went 
to Europe and served as a juror at the 
World's Fair at the Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don. In 1855, he made a second visit to 
the old world. In 1859 he crossed the 
plains and received a public reception at 
San Francisco and Sacramento. He was a 
member of the Republican national con- 
vention, at Chicago in i860, and assisted in 
the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
President. The same year he was a presi- 
dential elector for the state of New York, 
and a delegate to the Loyalist convention 
at Philadelphia. 

At the close of the war, in 1865, Mr. 
Greeley became a strong advocate of uni- 
versal amnesty and complete pacification, 
and in pursuance of this consented to be- 
come one of the bondsmen for Jefierson 

Davis, who was imprisoned for treason. In 
1867 he was a delegate to the New York 
state convention for the revision of the 
constitution. In 1870 he was defeated for 
congress in the Sixth New York district. 
At the Liberal convention, which met in 
Cincinnati, in May, 1872, on the fifth ballot 
Horace Greeley was nominated for presi- 
dent and July following was nominated for 
the same office by the Democratic conven- 
tion at Baltimore. He was defeated by a 
large majority. The large amount of work 
done by him during the campaign, together 
with the loss of his wife about the same 
time, undermined his strong constitution,, 
and he was seized with inflammation of the 
brain, and died November 29, 1872. 

In addition to his journalistic work, Mr. 
Greeley was the author of several meritori- 
ous works, among which were: **Hint<» 
toward reform," *^ Glances at Europe/* 
* ' History of the struggle for slavery exten 
sion," '* Overland journey to San Francis- 
co," ''The American conflict," and ** Rec- 
ollections of a busy life." 

HENRY CLAY.— In writing of this em- 
inent American, Horace Greeley once 
said: "He was a matchless party chief, an 
admirable orator, a skillful legislator, wield- 
ing unequaled influence, not only over his 
friends, but even over those of his political 
antagonists who were subjected to the magic 
of his conversation and manners. " A lavv^ 
yer, legislator, orator, and statesman, few 
men in history have wielded greater influ- 
ence, or occupied so prominent a place in 
the hearts of the generation in which they 

Henry Clay was born near Richmond, 
in Hanover county, Virginia, April \2„ 
1777, the son of a poor Baptist preacher 
who died when Henry was but five years 



old. The mother married again about ten 
years later and lemoved to Kentucky leav- 
ing Henry a clerk in a store at Richmond. 
Soon afterward Henry Clay secured a posi- 
tion as copyist in the office of the clerk of the 
high court of chancery, and four years later 
entered the law office of Robert Brooke, 
then attorney general and later governor of 
his native state. In 1797 Henry Clay was 
licensed as a lawyer and followed his mother 
to Kentucky, opening an office at Lexington 
and soon built up a profitable practice. 
Soon afterward Kentucky, in separating from 
Virginia, called a state convention for the 
purpose of framing a constitution, and Clay 
at that time took a prominent part, publicly 
urging the adoption of a clause providing 
for the abolition of slavery, but in this he 
was overruled, as he was fifty years later, 
when in the height of his fame he again ad- 
vised the same course when the state con- 
stitution was revised in 1850. Young Clay 
took a very active and conspicuous part in 
the presidential campaign in 1800, favoring 
the election of Jefferson; and in 1803 was 
chosen to represent Fayette county in the 
state legislature. In 1806 General John 
Adair, then United States senator from 
Kentucky, resigned and Henry Clay was 
elected to fill the vacancy by the legislature 
and served through one session in which he 
at once assumed a prominent place. In 
1807 he was again a representative in the 
legislature and was elected speaker of the 
house. At this time originated his trouble 
with Humphrey Marshall. Clay proposed 
that each member clothe himself and family 
wholly in American fabrics, which Marshall 
characterized as the ** language of a dema- 
gogue. *' This led to a duel in which both 
parties were slightly injured. In 1809 
Henry Clay was again elected to fill a va- 
cancy in the United States senate, and two 

years later elected representative in tne low- 
er house of congress, being chosen speaker 
of the house. About this time war was de- 
clared against Great Britain, and Clay took 
a prominent public place during this strug- 
gle and was later one of the commissioners 
sent to Europe by President Madison to ne- 
gotiate peace, returning in September, 181 5, 
having been re-elected speaker of the 
house during his absence, and w^as re-elect- 
ed unanimously. He was afterward re- 
elected to congress and then became secre- 
tary of state undv^r John Quincy Adams. 
In 1 83 1 he was again elected senator from 
Kentucky and remained in the senate most 
of the time until his death. 

Henry Clay was three times a candidate 
for the presidency, and once very nearly 
elected. He was the unanimous choice of 
the Whig party in 1844 for the presidency, 
and a great effort was made to elect him 
but without success, his opponent, James K. 
Polk, carrying both Pennsylvania and New 
York by a very slender margin,^ while either 
of them alone would have elected Clay. 
Henry Clay died at Washington Juoe 29, 

of the most distinguished of American 
statesmen and legislators. He was born 
January 31, 1830, in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, and received a thorough edu- 
cation, graduating at Washington College in 
1847. In early life he removed to Maine 
and engaged in newspaper work, becoming 
editor of the Portland * 'Advertiser. " While 
yet a young man he gained distinction as a 
debater and became a conspicuous figure in 
political and public affairs. In 1862 he was 
elected to congress on the Republican ticket 
in Maine and was re-elected five times. In 
March, 1869, he was chosen speaker of the 



house of representatives and was re-elected 
in 1 87 1 and again in 1873. In 1876 he was 
a representative in the lower house of con- 
gress and during that year was appointed 
United States senator by the Governor to 
fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Senator Morrill, who had been appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Mr. Blaine 
served in the senate until March 5, 1881, 
when President Garfield appointed him sec- 
retary of state, which position he resigned 
in December, 1881. Mr. Blaine was nom- 
inated for the presidency by the Republic- 
ans, at Chicago in June, 1884, but was de- 
feated by Grover Cleveland after an exciting 
and spirited campaign. During the later 
years of his life Mr. Blaine devoted most of 
his time to the completion of his work 
*' Twenty Years in Congress," which had a 
remarkably large sale throughout the United 
States. Blaine was a man of great mental 
ability and force of character and during the 
latter part of his life was one of the most 
noted men of his time. He was the origina- 
tor of what is termed the '* reciprocity idea" 
in tariff matters, and outlined the plan of 
carrying it into practical effect. In 1876 
Robert G. IngersoU in making a nominating 
speech placing Blaine's name as a candidate 
for president before the national Republican 
convention at Cincinnati, referred to Blaine 
as the '^ Plumed Knight " and this title clung 
to him during the remainder of his life. His 
death occurred at Washington, January 27, 

J tinguished American statesman, was a 
native of South Carolina, born in Abbeville 
district, March 18, 1782. He was given 
the advantages of a thorough education, 
graduating at Yale College in 1804, and 
adopted the calling of a lawyer. A Demo- ] 

crat politically, at that time, he took a fore- 
most part in the councils of his party and 
was elected to congress in 181 1, supporting 
the tariff of 18 16 and the establishing of 
the United States Bank. In 18 17 he be- 
came secretary of war in President Monroe's 
cabinet, and in 1 824 was elected vice-president 
of the United States, on the ticket with John 
Quincy Adams, and re-elected in 1 828, on the 
ticket with General Jackson. Shortly after 
this Mr. Calhoun became one of the strongest 
advocates of free trade and the principle of 
sovereignty of the states and was one of 
the originators of the doctrine that ** any 
state could nullify unconstitutional laws of 
congress." Meanwhile Calhoun had be- 
come an aspirant for the presidency, and 
the fact that General Jackson advanced the 
interests of his opponent. Van Buren, led 
to a quarrel, and Calhoun resigned the vice- 
presidency in 1832 and was elected United 
States senator from South Carolina. It was 
during the same year that a convention was 
held in South Carolina at which the '' Nul- 
lification ordinance " was adopted, the ob- 
ject of which was to test the constitution- 
ality of the protective tariff measures, and 
to prevent if possible the collection of im- 
port duties in that state which had been 
levied more for the purpose of ' ' protection " 
than revenue. This ordinance was to go 
into effect in February, 1833, and created a 
great deal of uneasiness throughout the 
country as it was feared there would be a 
clash between the state and federal authori- 
ties. It was in this serious condition ot 
public affairs that Henry Clay came forward 
with the the famous ''tariff compromise '* 
of 1833, to which measure Calhoun and 
most of his followers gave their support and 
the crisis was averted. In 1843 Mr. Cal- 
houn was appointed secretary of state in 
President Tyler's cabinet, and it was under 



his administration that the treaty concern- 
ing the annexation of Texas was negotiated. 
In 1845 he was re-elected to the United 
States senate and continued in the senate 
tjntil his death, which occurred in March, 
1 850. He occupied a high rank as a scholar, 
student and orator, and it is conceded that 
he was one of the greatest debaters America 
has produced. The famous debate between 
Calhoun and Webster, in 1833, is regarded 
as the most noted for ability and eloquence 
in the history of the country. 

of America's most brilliant and pro- 
found lawyers and noted public men, was 
a native of New England, born at Deer- 
field, New Hampshire, November 5, 1818. 
His father. Captain John Butler, was a 
prominent man in his day, commanded a 
company during the war of 1812, and 
served under Jackson at New Orleans. 
Benjamin F. Butler was given an excellent 
education, graduated at Waterville College, 
Maine, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1840, at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where he commenced the practice of his 
profession and gained a wide reputation for 
his ability at the bar, acquiring an extensive 
practice and a fortune. Early in life he 
began taking an active interest in military 
affairs and served in the state militia through 
all grades from private to brigadier-general. 
In 1853 he was elected to the state legisla- 
ture on the Democratic ticket in Lowell, 
and took a prominent part in the passage of 
legislation in the interests of labor. Dur- 
ing the same year he was a member of the 
constitutional convention, and in 1859 rep- 
resented his district in the Massachusetts 
senate. When the Civil war broke out 
General Butler took the field and remained 
at the front most of the time during that I 

bloody struggle. Part of the time he had 
charge of Fortress Monroe, and in Febru- 
ary, 1862, took command of troops forming 
part of the expedition against New Orleans, 
and later had charge of the department of 
the Gulf. He was a conspicuous figure dur- 
ing the continuance of the war. After the 
close of hostilities General Butler resumed 
his law practice in Massachusetts and in 
1866 was elected to congress from the Es- 
sex district. In 1882 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and in 1884 was the 
nominee of the ** Greenback'' party for 
president of the United States. He con- 
tinued his legal practice, and maintained his 
place as one of the most prominent men in 
New England until the time of his death, 
which occurred January 10, 1893. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS, an officer, states- 
man and legislator of prominence in 
America, gained the greater part of his fame 
from the fact that he was president of the 
southern confederacy. Mr. Davis was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, June 3, 
1808, and his early education and surround- 
ings were such that his sympathies and in- 
clinations were wholly with the southern 
people. He received a thorough education, 
graduated at West Point in 1828, -and for a 
number of years served in the army at west- 
ern posts and in frontier service, first as 
lieutenant and later as adjutant. In 1835 
he resigned and became a cotton planter in 
Warren county, Mississippi, where he took 
an active interest in public affairs and be- 
came a conspicuous figure in politics. In 
1844 he was a presidential elector from 
Mississippi and during the two following 
years served as congressman from his d^'s- 
trict. He then became colonel ot a Missis- 
sippi regiment in the war with Mexico ano 
participated in some of the most severe oai- 



ties, being seriously wounded at Buena 
Vista. Upon his return to private life he 
again took a prominent part in political af- 
fairs and represented his state in the United 
States senate from 1847 to 1851. He then 
entered President Pierce's cabinet as secre- 
tary of war, after which he again entered 
the United States senate, remaining until 
the outbreak of the Civil war. He then be- 
came president of the southern confederacy 
and served as such until captured in May, 
1865, at Irwinville, Georgia. He was held 
as prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, until 
1867, when he was released on bail and 
finally set free in 1868. His death occurred 
December 6, 1889. 

Jefferson Davis was a man of excellent 
abilities and was recognized as one of the 
best organizers of his day. He was a 
forceful and fluent speaker and a ready 
writer. He wrote and published the *' Rise 
and Fall of the Southern Confederacy," a 
work which is considered as authority by 
the southern people. 

JOHN ADAMS, the second president of 
the United States, and one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the early struggles of 
his country for independence, was born in 
the present town of Quincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachusetts, October 30, 
1735. He received a thorough education, 
graduating at Harvard College in 1755, 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1758. He was well adapted for this profes- 
sion and after opening an office in his native 
town rapidly grew in prominence and public 
favor and soon was regarded as one of the 
leading lawyers of the country. His atten- 
tion was called to political affairs by the 
passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and he 
drew up a set of resolutions on the subject 
which were very popular. In 1768 he re- 

moved to Boston and became one of the 
most courageous and prominent advocates 
of the popular cause and was chosen a 
member of the Colonial legislature from 
Boston. He was one of the delegates that 
represented Massachusetts in the first Con^ 
tinental congress, which met in September, 
1774. In a letter written at this crisis he 
uttered the famous words: **The die is now 
cast; I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish with my 
country, is my unalterable determination." 
He was a prominent figure in congress and 
advocated the movement for independence 
when a majority of the members were in- 
clined to temporize and to petition the King. 
In May, 1776, he presented a resolution in 
congress that the colonies should assume 
the duty of self-government, which was 
passed. In June, of the same year, a reso- 
lution that the United States "are, and ol 
right ought to be, free and independent,'* 
was moved by Richard H. Lee, seconded by 
Mr. Adams and adopted by a small majority. 
Mr. Adams was a member of the committee 
of five appointed June 1 1 to prepare a 
declaration of independence, in support of 
which he made an eloquent speech. He was 
chairman of the Board of War in 1776 and 
in 1 778 was sent as commissioner to France, 
but returned the following year. In 1780 
he went to Europe, having been appointed 
as minister to negotiate a treaty of peace 
and commerce with Great Britain. Con- 
jointly with Franklin and Jay he negotiated 
a treaty in 1782. He was employed as a 
minister to the Court of St. James from 
1785 to 1788, and during that period wrote 
his famous ** Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions." In 1789 he became vice-presi- 
dent of the United States and was re-elected 
in 1792. 

In 1796 Mr. Adams was chosen presi- 



dent of the United States, his competitor 
being Thomas Jefferson, who became vice- 
president. In 1800 he was the Federal 
candidate for president, but he was not 
cordially supported by Gen. Hamilton, the 
favorite leader of his party, and was de- 
feated by Thomas Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams then retired from public life 
to his large estate at Quincy, Mass., where 
he died July 4, 1826, on the same day that 
witnessed the death of Thomas Jefferson. 
Though his physical frame began to give way 
many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was glad- 
dened by .the elevation of his son, John 
Quincy Adams, to the presidential office. 

most celebrated American preachers 
and authors, was born at Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, June 24, 1 8 1 3. His father was Dr. Ly- 
man Beecher, also an eminent divine. At 
an early age Henry Ward Beecher had a 
strong predilection for a sea-faring life, and 
it was practically decided that he would fol- 
low this inclination, but about this time, in 
consequence of deep religious impressions 
which he experienced during a revival, he 
renounced his former intention and decided 
to enter the ministry. After having grad- 
uated at Amherst College, in 1834, he stud- 
ied theology at Lane Seminary under the 
tuition of his father, who was then president 
of that institution. In 1847 he became pas- 
tor of the Plymouth Congregational church 
in Brooklyn, where his oratorical ability and 
original eloquence attracted one of the larg- 
est congregations in the country. He con- 
tinued to served this church until the time 
of his death, March 8, 1887. Mr. Beecher 
also found time for a great amount of liter- 
ary worL For a number of years he was 

editor of the "Independent" and also the 
'' Christian Union. " He also produced many 
works which are widely known. Among his 
principal productions are ' 'Lectures to Young 
Men," ''Star Papers, " "Life of Christ," 
' ' Life Thoughts, " * ' Royal Truths " (a 
novel), "Norwood," " Evolution and Rev- 
olution," and " Sermons on Evolution and 
Religion. " Mr. Beecher was also long a 
prominent advocate of anti-slavery princi- 
ples and temperance reform, and, at a later 
period, of the rights of women. 

JOHN A. LOGAN, the illustrious states^ 
man and general, was born in Jackson 
county, Illinois, February 9, 1824. In his 
boyhood days he received but a limited edu- 
cation in the schools of his native county. 
On the breaking out of the war with Mexico 
he enlisted in the First Illinois Volunteers 
and became its quartermaster. At the close 
of hostilities he returned home and was 
elected clerk of the courts of Jackson county 
in 1849. Determining to supplement his 
education Logan entered the Louisville Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1852 
and taking up the study of law was admitted 
to the bar. He attained popularity and suc- 
cess in his chosen profession and was elected 
to the legislature in 1852, 1853, 1856 and 
1857. He was prosecuting attorney from 
1853 to 1857. He was elected to congress 
in 1858 to fill a vacancy and again in i860. 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion, Logan re- 
signed his office and entered the army, and 
in September, 1861, was appointed colonel 
of the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, which he 
led in the battles of Belmont and Fort Don- 
elson. In the latter engagement he was 
wounded. In March, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to be brigadier-general and in the 
foUowing month participated in the battles 
o^ ^ittsburg Landing. In November, 1862, 



for gallant conduct he was made major-gen- 
eral. Throughout the Vicksburg campaign 
he was in command of a division of the Sev- 
enteenth Corps and was distinguished at 
Port Gibson, Champion Kills and in the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg. In October, 
1863, he was placed in command of the 
Fifteenth Corps, which he led with great 
credit. During the terrible conflict before 
Atlanta, July 22, 1864, on the death of 
General McPherson, Logan, assuming com- 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, led it 
on to victory, saving the day by his energy 
and ability. He was shortly after succeeded 
by General O. O. Howard and returned to 
the command of his corps. He remained 
in command until the presidential election, 
when, feeling that his influence was needed 
at home he returned thither and there re- 
mained until the arrival of Sherman at Sa- 
vannah, when General Logan rejoined his 
command. In May, 1865, he succeeded 
General Howard at the head of the Army of 
the Tennessee. He resigned from the army 
in August, the same year, and in November 
was appointed minister to Mexico, but de- 
clined the honor. He served in the lower 
house of the fortieth and forty-first con- 
gresses, and was elected United States sena- 
tor from his native state in 1870, 1878 and 
1885. He was nominated for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1884 01^ the ticket with Blaine, but 
was defeated. General Logan was the 
author of ''The Great Conspiracy, its origin 
and history," published in 1885. He died 
at Washington, December 26, 1886. 

Republican candidate for president, was 
born in Savannah, Georgia, January 21^ 
18 1 3. He graduated from Charleston Col- 
lege (South Carolina) in 1830, and turned his 

attention to civil engineering. He was shortly 

afterward employed in the department of 
government surveys on the Mississippi, and 
constructing maps of that region. He was 
made lieutenant of engineers, and laid be- 
fore the war department a plan for pene- 
trating the Rocky Mountain regions, which 
was accepted, and in 1842 he set out upon 
his first famous exploring expedition and ex- 
plored the South Pass. He also planned an 
expedition to Oregon by a new route further 
south, but afterward joined his expedition 
with that of Wilkes in the region of the 
Great Salt Lake. He made a later expedi- 
tion which penetrated the Sierra Nevadas, 
and the San Joaquin and Sacramento river 
valleys, making maps of all regions explored. 
In 1845 he conducted the great expedi- 
tion which resulted in the acquisition of 
California, which it was believed the Mexi- 
can government was about to dispose of to 
England. Learning that the Mexican gov- 
ernor was preparing to attack the American 
settlements in his dominion, Fremont deter- 
mined to forestall him. The settlers rallied 
to his camp, and in June, 1846, he defeated 
the Mexican forces at Sonoma Pass, and a 
month later completely routed the governor 
and his entire army. The Americans at 
once declared their independence of Mexico, 
and Fremont was elected governor of Cali- 
fornia. By this time Commodore Stockton 
had reached the coast with instructions from 
Washington to conquer California. Fre- 
mont at once joined him in that effort, which 
resulted in the annexation of California with 
its untold mineral wealth. Later Fremont 
became involved in a difficulty with fellow 
officers which resulted in a court martial, 
and the surrender of his commission. He 
declined to accept reinstatement. He af- 
terward laid out a great road from the Mis- 
sissippi river to San Francisco, and became 
the first United States senator from Califor- 



nia, in 1849. In 1856 he was nominated 
by the new Republican party as its first can- 
didate for president against Buchanan, and 
received 114 electoral votes, out of 296. 

In 1 861 he was made major-general and 
placed in charge of the western department. 
He planned the reclaiming of the entire 
Mississippi valley, and gathered an army of 
thirty thousand men, with plenty of artil- 
lery, and was ready to move upon the con- 
federate General Price, when he was de- 
prived of his command. He was nominated 
for the presidency at Cincinnati in 1 864, but 
withdrew. He was governor of Arizona in 
1878, holding the position four years. He 
was interested in an engineering enterprise 
looking toward a great southern trans-con- 
tinental railroad, and in his later years also 
practiced law in New York. He died July 1 3, 
1 890. 

WENDELL PHILLIPS, the orator and 
abolitionist, and a conspicuous figure 
in American history, was born November 
29, 181 1, at Boston, Massachusetts. He 
received a good education at Harvard 
College, from which he graduated in 1831, 
and then entered the Cambridge Law School . 
After completing his course in that institu- 
tion, in 1833, he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1834, at Suffolk. He entered the arena 
of life at the time when the forces of lib- 
erty and slavery had already begun their 
struggle that was to culminate in the Civil 
war. William Lloyd Garrison, by his clear- 
headed, courageous declarations of the anti- 
slavery principles, had done much to bring 
about this struggle. Mr. Phillips was not a 
man that could stand aside and see a great 
struggle being carried on in the interest of 
humanity and look passively on. He first 
attracted attention as an orator in 1837, ^^ 
a meeting that was called to protest against 

the murder of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy. 
The meeting would have ended in a few 
perfunctory resolutions had not Mr. Phillipp 
by his manly eloquence taken the meeting 
out of the hands of the few that were in- 
clined to temporize and avoid radical utter- 
ances. Having once started out in this ca- 
reer as an abolitionist Phillips never swerved 
from what he deemed his duty, and never 
turned back. He gave up his legal practice 
and launched himself heart and soul in the 
movement for the liberation of the slaves. 
He was an orator of very great abihty and 
by his earnest efforts and eloquence he did 
much in arousing public sentiment in behalf 
of the anti-slavery cause — possibly more 
than any one man of his time. After the 
abolition of slavery Mr. Phillips was, if pos- 
sible, even busier than before m the literary 
and lecture field. Besides temperance and 
women's rights, he lectured often and wrote 
much on finance, and the relations of labor 
and capital, and his utterances on whatever 
subject always bore the stamp of having 
emanated from a master mind. Eminent 
Clitics have stated that it might fairly be 
questioned whether there has ever spoken 
in America an orator superior to Phillips. 
The death of this great man occurred Feb- 
ruary 4, 1884. 

was one of the greatest generals that 
the world has ever produced and won im- 
mortal fame by that strategic and famous 
•' march to the sea, " in the war of the Re- 
bellion. He was born February 8, 1820, at 
Lancaster, Ohio, and was reared in the 
family of the Hon. Thomas Evving, as his 
father died when he was but nine years of 
age. He entered West Point in 1836, was 
graduated from the same in 1840, and ap- 
pointed a second lieutenant in the Third 



Artillery. He passed through the various 
grades of the service and at the outbreak of 
the Civil war was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Regular Infantry. A full history 
of General Sherman's conspicuous services 
would be to repeat a history of the army. 
He commanded a division at Shiloh, and 
was instrumental in the winning of that bat- 
tle, and was also present at the siege of Vicks- 
borg. On July 4, 1S63, he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the regular army, and 
shared with Hooker the victory of Mission- 
ary Ridge. He was commander of the De- 
panmcnt of the Tennessee from October 
27th until the appointment of General 
Grant as lieutenant-general, by whom he 
was appointed to the command of the De- 
partment of the Mississippi, which he as- 
sumed in March, 1864. He at once began 
organizing the army and enlarging his com- 
munications preparatory to his march upon 
Atlanta, which he started the same time of 
che beginning of the Richmond campaign by 
Grant. He started on May 6, and was op- 
posed by Johnston, who had fifty thousand 
men, but by consummate generalship, he 
captured Atlanta, on September 2, after 
several months of hard fighting and a severe 
loss of men. General Sherman started on 
his famous march to the sea November 15, 
1864, 3-f^d by December 10 he was before 
Savannah, which he took on December 23. 
This campaign is a monument to the genius 
of General Sherman as he only lost 567 
men from Atlanta to the sea. After rest- 
ing his army he moved northward and occu- 
pied the following places: Columbia, 
Cheraw, Fayetteville, Ayersboro, Benton- 
ville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, and April 18, he 
accepted the surrender of Johnston's army 
on a basis of agreement that was not re- 
ceived by the Government with favor, but 
finally accorded Johnston the same terms as 

Lee was given by General Grant. He was 
present at the grand review at Washington, 
and after the close of the war was appointed 
to the command of the military division of 
the Mississippi; later was appointed lieu- 
tenant-general, and assigned to the military 
division of the Missouri. When General 
Grant was elected president Sherman became 
general, March 4, 1869, and succeeded to 
the command of the army. His death oc- 
curred February 14, 1891, at Washington. 

most prominent of the early American 
statesmen and financiers, was born in Nevis, 
an island of the West Indies, January 11, 
1757, his father being a Scotchman and his 
mother of Huguenot descent. Owing to the 
death of his mother and business reverses 
which came to his father, young Hamilton 
was sent to his mother's relatives in Santa 
Cruz; a few years later was sent to a gram- 
mar school at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 
and in 1773 entered what is now known as 
Columbia College. Even at that time he 
began taking an active part in public affairs 
and his speeches, pamphlets, and newspaper 
articles on political affairs of the day at- 
tracted considerable attention. In 1776 he 
received a captain's commission and served 
in Washington's army with credit, becoming 
aide-de-camp to Washington with rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In 1781 he resigned his 
commission because of a rebuke from Gen- 
eral Washington. He next received com- 
mand of a New York battalion and partici- 
pated in the battle of Yorktown. After 
this Hamilton studied law, served several 
terms in congress and was a member of the 
convention at which the Federal Constitu- 
tion was drawn up. His work connected 
with '' The Federalist " at about this time 
attracted much attention. Mr. Hamilton 



was chosen as the first secretary of the 
United States treasury and as such was the 
author of the funding system and founder of 
the United States Bank. In 1798 he was 
made inspector-general of the army with the 
rank of major-general and was also for a 
short time commander-in-chief. In 1804 
Aaron Burr, then candidate for governor of 
New York, challenged Alexander Hamilton 
to fight a duel, Burr attributing his defeat 
to Hamilton's opposition, and Hamilton, 
though declaring the code as a relic of bar- 
barism, accepted the challenge. They met 
at Weehawken, New Jersey, July 11, 1804. 
Hamilton declined to fire at his adversary, 
but at Burr's first*fire was fatally wounded 
and died July 12, 1804. 

ENS, vice-president of the southern 
confederacy, a former United States senator 
and governor of Georgia, ranks among the 
great men of American history. He was born 
February 11, 18 12, near Crawfordsville, 
Georgia. He was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and admitted to the bar 
in 1834. In 1837 he made his debut in 
political life as a member of the state house 
of representatives, and in 1 841 declined the 
nomination for the same office; but in 1842 
he was chosen by the same constituency as 
state senator. Mr. Stephens was one of 
the promoters of the Western and Atlantic 
Railroad. In 1843 he was sent by his dis- 
trict to the national house of representatives, 
which office he held for sixteen copsec- 
utive years. He was a member of the 
house during the passing of the Compromise 
Bill, and was one of its ablest and most 
active supporters. The same year (1850) 
Mr. Stephens was a delegate to the state 
convention that framed the celebrated 
** Georgia Platform," and was also a dele- 

gate to the convention that passed the ordi- 
nance of secession, though he bitterly op- 
posed that bill by voice and vote, yet he 
readily acquiesced in their decision after 
it received the votes of the majority of the 
convention. He was chosen vice-president 
of the confederacy without opposition, and 
in 1865 he was the head of the commis- 
sion sent by the south to the Hampton 
Roads conference. He was arrested after 
the fall of the confederacy and was con- 
fined in Fort Warren as a prisoner of state 
but was released on his own parole. Mr. 
Stephens was elected to the forty-third, 
forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth and for- 
ty-seventh congresses, with hardly more than 
nominal opposition. He was one of the 
Jeffersonian school of American politics. 
He wrote a number of works, principal 
among which are: *' Constitutional View 
of the War between the States," and a 
*' Compendium of the History of the United 
States." He was inaugurated as governor 
of Georgia November 4th, 1882, but died 
March 4, 1883, before the completion of 
his term. 

ROSCOE CONKLING was one of the 
most noted and famous of American 
statesmen. He was among the most fin- 
ished, fluent and eloquent orators that have 
ever graced the halls of the American con- 
gress; ever ready, witty and bitter in de- 
bate he was at once admired and feared by 
his political opponents and revered by his 
follower^. True to his friends, loyal to the 
last degree to those with whom his inter- 
ests were associated, he was unsparing to his 
foes and it is said ''never forgot an injury." 
Roscoe Conkling was born at Albany, 
New York, on the 30th of October, 1829, 
being a son of Alfred Conkling. Alfred 
Conkling was also a native of New York, 



born at East Hampton, October 12, 1789, 
and became one of the most eminent law- 
yers in the Empire state; pubhshed several 
legal works; served a term in congress; aft- 
erward as United States district judge for 
Northern New York, and in 1852 was min- 
ister to Mexico. Alfred Conkling died in. 


Roscoe Conkling, whose name heads 
this article, at an early age took up the 
study of law and soon became successful and 
prominent at the bar. About 1846 he re- 
moved to Utica and in 1858 was elected 
mayor of that city. He was elected repre- 
sentative in congress from this district and 
was re-elected three times. In 1867 he was 
elected United States senator from the state 
of New York and was re-elected in 1873 
and 1879. In May, 1881, he resigned on 
account of differences with the president. 
In March, 1882, he was appointed and con- 
firmed as associate justice of the United 
States supreme court but declined to serve. 
His death occurred April 18, i 

most eminent, talented and popu- 
lar of American authors, was born in New 
York City, April 3, 1783. His father was 
William Irving, a merchant and a native of 
Scotland, who had married an English lady 
and emigrated to America some twenty 
years prior to the birth of Washington. 
Two of the older sons, William and Peter, 
were partially occupied with newspaper 
work and literary pursuits, and this fact 
naturally inclined Washington to follow 
their example. Washington Irving was given 
the advantages afforded by the common 
schools until about sixteen years of age 
when he began studying law, but continued 
to acquire his literary training by diligent 
perusal at home of the older English writers. 

When nineteen he made his first literary 
venture by printing in the * ' Morning Chroni- 
cle," then edited by his brother, Dr. Peter 
Irving, a series of local sketches under the 
nom-de-pliime oi ** Jonathan Oldstyle." In 
1804 he began an extensive trip through 
Europe, returned in 1806, quickly com- 
pleted his legal studies and was admitted to 
the bar, but never practiced the profession. 
In 1807 he began the amusing serial ** Sal- 
magundi," which had an immediate suc- 
cess, and not only decided his future 
career but long determined the charac- 
^ ter of his writings. In 1808, assisted by 
his brother Peter, he wrote *' Knickerbock- 
er's History of New York," and in 18 10 an 
excellent biography of Campbell, the poet» 
After this, for some time, Irving's attention 
was occupied by mercantile interests, but 
the commercial house in which he was a 
partner failed in 18 17. In 18 14 he was 
editor of the Philadelphia '^Analectic Maga- 
zine. " About 1 81 8 appeared his **Sketch- 
Book, " over the nom-de-plume of * 'Geoffrey 
Crayon," which laid the foundation of Ir- 
ving's fortune and permanent fame. This 
was soon followed by the legends of 
*' Sleepy Hollow," and " Rip Van Winkle," 
which at once took high rank as literary 
productions, and Irving's reputation was 
firmly established in both the old and new 
worlds. After this the path of Irving was 
smooth, and his subsequent writings ap- 
peared with rapidity, including ** Brace- 
bridge Hall," *' The Tales of a Traveler,'' 
'' History of the Life and Vo3^ages of Chris- 
topher Columbus," *'The Conquest of 
Granada," **The Alhambra," ^^Tour on 
the Prairies," ** Astoria," ''Adventures oi 
Captain Bonneville," "Wolfert's Roost," 
'' Mahomet and his Successors," and *'Life 
of Washington," besides other works. 

Washington Irving was never married. 



He resided during the closing years of his 
life at Sunnyside (Tarrytown) on the Hud- 
son, where he died November 28, 1859^ 

CHARLES SUMNER.— Boldly outlined 
on the pages of our history stands out 
the rugged figure of Charles Sumner, states- 
man, lawyer and writer. A man of unim- 
peachable integrity, indomitable will and 
with the power of tireless toil, he was a fit 
leader in troublous times. First in rank as 
an anti-slavery leader in the halls of con- 
gress, he has stamped his image upon the 
annals of his time. As an orator he took 
front rank and, in wealth of illustration, 
rhetoric and lofty tone his eloquence equals 
anything to be found in history. 

Charles Sumner was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, January 6, 181 1, and was 
the son of Charles P. and Relief J. Sumner. 
The family had long been prominent in that 
state. Charles was educated at the Boston 
Public Latin School; entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1826, and graduated therefrom in 
1830. In 1 83 1 he joined the Harvard Lav/ 
School, then under charge of Judge Story, 
and gave himself up to the study of law 
with enthusiasm. His leisure was devoted 
to contributing to the American Jurist. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1834 he was appointed 
reporter to the circuit court by Judge Story. 
He published several works about this time, 
and from 1835 to 1837 and again in 1843 
was lecturer in the law school. He had 
planned a lawyer's life, but in 1845 he gave 
his attention to politics, speaking and working 
against the admission of Texas to the Union 
and subsequently against the Mexican war. 
In 1848 he was defeated for congress on the 
Free Soil ticket. His stand on the anti- 
slavery question at that time alienated both 
friends and clients, but he never swerved 
from his convictions. In 1851 he was elected 

to the United States senate and took his 
seat therein December i of that year. From 
this time his life became the history of the 
anti-slavery cause in congress. In August, 
1852, he began his attacks on slavery by a 
masterly argument for the repeal of the 
fugitive slave law. On May 22, 1856, Pres- 
ton Brooks, nephew of Senator Butler, of 
South Carolina, made an attack upon Mr. 
Sumner, at his desk in the senate, striking 
him over the head with a heavy cane. The 
attack was quite serious in its effects and 
kept Mr. Sumner absent from his seat in the 
senate for about four years. In 1857, 1863 
and 1869 he was re-elected to the office of 
senator, passing some twenty-three years in 
that position, always advocating the rights 
of freedom and equity. He died March 11, 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, the third pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
near Charlottesville, Albemarle county, Vir- 
ginia, April 13, 1743, and was the son of 
Peter and Jane (Randolph) Jefferson. He 
received the elements of a good education, 
and in 1760 entered William and Mary Col- 
lege. After remaining in that institution for 
two years he took up the study of law with 
George Wythe, of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
one of the foremost lawyers of his day, and 
was admitted to practice in 1767. He ob- 
tained a large and profitable practice, which 
he held for eight years. The conflict be- 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies then 
drew him into public life, he having for 
some time given his attention to the study 
of the sources of law, the origin of liberty 
and equal rights. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to the Virginia 
hoHse of burgesses in 1769, and served in 
that body several years, a firm supporter of 
liberal measures, and, although a slave- 



holder himself, an opponent of slavery. 
With others, he was a leader among the op- 
position to the king. He took his place as 
a member of the Continental congress June 
21, 1775, and after serving on several com- 
mittees w^as appointed to draught a Declara- 
tion of Independence, which he did, some 
corrections being suggested by Dr. Franklin 
and John Adams. This document was pre- 
sented to congress June 28, 1776, and after 
six days' debate was passed and was signed. 
In the following September Mr. Jefferson 
resumed his seat in the Virginia legislature, 
and gave much time to the adapting of laws 
of that state to the new condition of things. 
He drew up the law, the first ever passed by 
a legislature or adopted by a government, 
which secured perfect religious freedom. 
June I, 1779, he succeeded Patrick Henry 
as governor of Virginia, an ofBce which, 
after co-operating with Washington in de- 
fending the country, he resigned two years 
later. One of his own estates was ravaged 
by the British, and his house at Monticello 
was held by Tarleton for several days, and 
Jefferson narrowly escaped capture. After 
the death of his wife, in 1782, he accepted 
the position of plenipotentiary to France, 
which he had declined in 1776. Before 
leaving he served a short time in congress 
at Annapolis, and succeeded in carrying a 
bill for establishing our present decimal sys- 
tem of currency, one of his most useful pub- 
lic services. He remained in an official ca- 
pacity until October, 1789, and was a most 
active and vigilant minister. Besides the 
onerous duties of his office, during this time, 
he published '^Notes on Virginia,'* sent to 
the United States seeds, shrubs and plants, 
forwarded literary and scientific news and 
gave useful advice to some of the leaders of 
the French Revolution. 

Mr. Jefferson landed in Virginia Novem- 

ber 18, 1789, having obtained a leave of 
absence from his post, and shortly after ac- 
cepted Washington's offer of the portfolio 
of the department of state in his cabinet. 
He entered upon the duties of his office in 
March, 1791, and held it until January i, 
1794, when he tendered his resignation. 
About this time he and Alexander Hamilton 
became decided and aggressive political op- 
ponents, Jefferson being in warm sympathy 
with the people in the French revolution 
and strongly democratic in his feelings, 
while Hamilton took the opposite side. In 
1796 Jefferson was elected vice-president of 
the United States. In 1800 he was elected 
to the presidency and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1801. During his administration, 
which lasted for eight years, he having been 
re-elected in 1804, he waged a successful 
war against the Tripolitan pirates; purchased 
Louisiana of Napoleon; reduced the public 
debt, and was the originator of many wise 
measures. Declining a nomination for a 
third term he returned to Monticello, where 
he died July 4, 1826, but a few hours before 
the death of his friend, John Adams. 

Mr. Jefferson was married January i, 
1772, to Mrs. Martha Skelton, a young, 
beautiful, and wealthy widow, who died 
September 6, 1782, leaving three children, 
three more having died previous to her 

''Commodore" Vanderbilt, was the 
founder of what constitutes the present im- 
mense fortune of the Vanderbilt family. He 
was born May 27, 1794, at Port Richmond, 
Staten Island, Richmond county. New 
York, and we find him at sixteen years run- 
ning a small vessel between his home and 
New York City. The fortifications of Sta- 
ten and Long Islands were just in course of 



construction, and he carried the laborers 
from New York to the fortifications in his 
**perianger, " as it was called, in the day, 
and at night carried supplies to the fort on 
the Hudson. Later he removed to New 
York, where he added to his little fleet. At 
the age of twenty-three he was free from 
debt and was worth $9,000, and in 1817, 
with a partner he built the first steamboat 
that was run between New York and New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, and became her 
captain at a salary of $1,000 a year. The 
next year he took command of a larger and 
better boat and by 1824 he was in complete 
control of the Gibbon's Line, as it was 
called, which he had brought up to a point 
where it paid $40,000 a year. Commodore 
Vanderbilt acquired the ferry between New 
York and Elizabethport, New Jersey, on a 
fourteen years' lease and conducted this on 
a paying basis. He severed his connections 
with Gibbons in 1829 and engaged in 
business alone and for twenty years he was 
the leading steamboat man in the country, 
building and operating steamboats on the 
Hudson River, Long Island Sound, on the 
Delaware River and the route to Boston, 
and he had the monopoly of trade on these 
routes. In 1850 he determined to broaden 
his field of operation and accordingly built 
the steamship Prometheus and sailed for 
the Isthmus of Darien, where he desired to 
make a personal investigation of the pros- 
pects of the American Atlantic and Pacific 
Ship Canal Company, in which he had pur- 
chased a controlling interest. Commodore 
Vanderbilt planned, as a result of this visit, 
a transit route from Greytown on the At- 
lantic coast to San Juan del Sud on the Pa- 
cific coast, which was a saving of 700 miles 
over the old route. In 1851 he placed three 
steamers on the Atlantic side and four on 
the Pacific side to accommodate the enor- 

mous traffic occasioned by the discovery of 
gold in California. The following year 
three more vessels were added to his fleet 
and a branch line established from New 
Orleans to Greytown. In 1853 the Com- 
modore sold out hisNicarauguaTransit Com- 
pany, which had netted him $1,000,000 
and built the renowned steam yacht, the 
''North Star." He continued in the ship- 
ping business nine years longer and accu- 
mulated some $10,000,000. In 1861 he 
presented to the government his magnifi- 
cent steamer *' Vanderbilt, " which had cost 
him $800,000 and for which he received the 
thanks of congress. In 1844 he became 
interested in the railroad business which he 
followed in later years and became one of 
the greatest railroad magnates of his time. 
He founded the Vanderbilt University at a 
cost of $1,000,000. He died January 4, 
1877, leaving a fortune estimated at over 
$100,000,000 to his children. 

DANIEL BOONE was one of the most 
famous of the many American scouts, 
pioneers and hunters which the early settle- 
ment of the western states brought into 
prominence. Daniel Boone was born Feb- 
ruary II, 1735, in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania, but while yet a young man removed 
to North Carolina, where he was married. 
In 1769, with five companions, he pene- 
trated into the forests and wilds of Kentucky 
— then uninhabited by white men. He had 
frequent conflicts with the Indians and was 
captured by them but escaped and continued 
to hunt in and explore that region for over 
a year, when, in 1771, he returned \.o his 
home. In the summer of 1773, he removed 
with his own and five other families into 
what was then the wilderness of Kentucky, 
and to defend his colony against the savages, 
he built, in 1775, a fort at Boonesborough,. 



on the Kentucky river. This fort was at- 
tacked by the Indians several times in 1777, 
but they were repulsed. The following 
year, however, Boone was surprised and 
captured by them. They took him to De- 
troit and treated him with leniency, but he 
soon escaped and returned to his fort which 
he defended with success against four hun- 
dred and fifty Indians in August, 1778. His 
son, Enoch Boone, was the first white male 
child born in the state of Kentucky. In 
1795 Daniel Boone removed with his family 
to Missouri, locating about forty-five miles 
west of the present site of St. Louis, where 
he found fresh fields for his favorite pursuits 
— adventure, hunting, and pioneer life. His 
death occurred September 20, 1820. 

LOW, said to have been America's 
greatest "poet of the people," was born at 
Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. He 
entered Bowdoin College at the age of four- 
teen, and graduated in 1825. During his 
college days he distinguished himself in mod- 
ern languages, and wrote several short 
poems, one of the best known of which was 
the ** Hymn of the Moravian Nuns." After 
his graduation he entered the law office of 
his father, but the following year was offered 
the professorship of modern languages at 
Bowdoin, with the privilege of three years 
study in Europe to perfect himself in French, 
Spanish, Italian and German. After the 
three years were passed he returned to the 
United States and entered upon his profes- 
sorship in 1829. His first volume was a 
small essay on the *' Moral and Devotional 
Poetry of Spain'' in 1833. In 1835 he Pub- 
lished some prose sketches of travel under 
i:iie title of • ' Outre Mer, a Pilgrimage be- 
yond the Sea." In 1835 he was elected to 
the chair of modern languages and literature 

at Harvard University and spent a year in 
Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, culti- 
vating a knowledge of early Scandinavian 
literature and entered upon his professor^ 
ship in 1836. Mr. Longfellow published in 
1839 * * Hyperion, a Romance, " and * * Voices 
of the Night, " and his first volume of original 
verse comprising the selected poems of 
twenty years work, procured him immediate 
recognition as a poet. *' Ballads and other 
poems" appeared in 1842, the ** Spanish 
Student" a drama in three acts, in 1843, 
'* The Belfry of Bruges " in 1846, "Evan- 
geline, a Tale of Acadia," in 1847, which 
was considered his master piece. In 1845 
he published a large volume of the ^^Poeti? 
and Poetry of Europe," 1849 '* Kavanagh, 
a Tale," "The Seaside and Fireside " in 
1850, * 'The Golden Legend " in 1 85 1, ''The 
Song of Hiawatha "in 1855, **The Court- 
ship of Miles Standish " in 1858, ** Tales of 
a Wayside Inn " in 1863; *' Flower de Luce'' 
in 1866;" **New England Tragedies" in 
1869; "The Divine Tragedy" in 1871; 
"Three Books of Song" in 1872; "The 
Hanging of the Crane " in 1874. He also 
published a masterly translation of Dante 
in 1867-70 and the " Morituri Salutamus," 
a poem read at the fiftieth anniversary of 
his class at Bowdoin College. Prof. Long- 
fellow resigned his chair at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1854, but continued to reside at Cam- 
bridge. Some of his poetical works have 
been translated into many languages, and 
their popularity rivals that of the best mod- 
ern English poetry. He died March 24, 
1882, but has left an imperishable fame as 
one of the foremost of American poets. 

PETER COOPER was in three partic- 
ulars — as a capitalist and manufacturer, 
as an inventor, and as a philanthropist — 
connected intimately with some of the most 



Emportant and useful accessions to the in- 
. dustrial arts of America, its progress in in- 
vention and the promotion of educational 
and benevolent institutions intended for the 
benefit of people at large. He was born 
in New York city, February 12, 1791. His 
( life was one of labor and struggle, as it was 
with most of America's successful men. In 
early boyhood he commenced to help his 
rather as a manufacturer of hats. He at- 
tended school only for half of each day for 
a single year, and beyond this his acquisi- 
tions were all his own. When seventeen 
years old he was placed with John Wood- 
ward to learn the trade of coach-making and 
served his apprenticeship so satisfactorily 
chat his master offered to set him up in busi- 
ness, but this he declined because of the 
debt and obligation it would involve. 

The foundation of Mr. Cooper's fortune 
was laid in the invention of an improvement 
in machines for shearing cloth. This was 
largely called into use during the war of 
18 12 with England when all importations 
of cloth from that country were stopped. 
The machines lost their value, however, on 
the declaration of peace. Mr. Cooper then 
turned his shop into the manufacture of 
cabinet ware. He afterwards went into the 
grocery business in Mew York and finally he 
engaged in the manufacture of glue and isin- 
glass which he carried on for more than 
fifty years. In 1830 he erected iron works 
in Canton, near Baltimore. Subsequently 
he erected a rolling and a wire mill in the 
city of New York, in which he first success- 
fully applied anthracite to the puddling of 
iron. In these works, he was the first to 
roll wrought-iron beams for fire-proof build- 
ings. These works grew to be very exten- 
sive, inciuding mines, blast furnaces, etc. 
Wnile in Baltimore Mr. Cooper built in 
1830, after his own designs, the first loco- i 

motive engine ever constructed on this con- 
tinent and it was successfully operated on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He also 
took a great interest and invested large cap- 
ital in the extension of the electric telegraph, 
also in the laying of the first Atlantic cable; 
besides interesting himself largely in the 
New York state canals. But the most 
cherished object of Mr. Cooper's life was 
the establishment of an institution for the 
instruction of the industrial classes, which 
he carried out on a magnificent scale in New 
York city, where the ** Cooper Union" 
ranks among the most important institu- 

In May, 1876, the Independent party 
nominated Mr. Cooper for president of the 
United States, and at the election following 
he received nearly 100,000 votes. His 
death occurred April 4, 1883. 

one of the most conspicuous Confeder- 
ate generals during the Civil war, and one 
of' the ablest military commanders of mod- 
ern times, was born at Stratford House, 
Westmoreland county, Virginia, January 19, 
1807. In 1825 he entered the West Point 
academy and was graduated second in his 
class in 1829, and attached to the army as 
second lieutenant of engineers. For a 
number of years he was thus engaged in en- 
gineering work, aiding in establishing the 
boundary line between Ohio and Michigan, 
and superintended various river and harbor 
improvements, becoming captain of engi- 
neers in 1838. He first saw field service in 
the Mexican war, and under General Scott 
performed valuable and efficient service. 
In that brilliant campaign he was conspicu- 
ous for professional ability as well as gallant 
and meritorious conduct, winning in quick 
succession the brevets of major, lieutenant- 



colonel, and colonel for his part in the bat- 
tles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, 
Chapultepec, and in the capture of the city 
Mexico. At the close of that war he re- 
sumed his engineering work in connection 
with defences along the Atlantic coast, and 
from 1852 to 1855 was superintendent of 
the Military Academy, a position which he 
gave up to become lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Cavalry. For several years there- 
after he served on the Texas border, but 
happening to be near Washington at the 
time of John Brown's raid, October 17 to 
25. 1859, Colonel Lee was placed in com- 
mand of the Federal forces employed in its 
repression. He soon returned to his regi- 
ment in Texas where he remained the 
greater part of i860, and March 16, 1861, 
became colonel of his regiment by regular 
promotion. Three weeks later, April 25, he 
resigned upon the secession of Virginia, 
went at once to Richmond and tendered his 
services to the governor of that state, being 
by acclamation appointed commander-in- 
chief of its military and naval forces, with 
the rank of major-general. 

He at once set to work to organize and 
develop the defensive resources of his state 
and within a month directed the occupation 
in force of Manassas Junction. Meanwhile 
Virginia having entered the confederacy and 
Richmond become the capitol, Lee became 
one of the foremost of its military officers 
and was closely connected with Jefferson 
Davis in planning the moves of that tragic 
time. Lee participated in many of the 
hardest fought battles of the war among 
which were Fair Oaks, White Lake Swamps, 
Cold Harbor, and the Chickahominy, Ma- 
nassas, Cedar Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Malvern Hill, Get- 
tysburg, the battles of the Wilderness cam- 
paign, all the campaigns about Richmond, 

Petersburg, Five Forks, and others. Lee's 
surrender at Appomatox brought the war to 
a close. It is said of General Lee that but 
few commanders in history have been so 
quick to detect the purposes of an opponent 
or so quick to act upon it. Never surpassed, 
if ever equaled, in the art of w^inning the 
passionate, personal love and admiration of 
his troops, he acquired and held an influ- 
ence over his army to the very last, founded 
upon a supreme trust in his judgment, pre- 
science and skill, coupled with his cool, 
stable, equable courage. A great writer has 
said of him: *' As regards the proper meas- 
ure of General Lee's rank among the sol- 
diers of history, seeing what he wrought 
with such resources as he had, under all the 
disadvantages that ever attended his oper- 
ations, it is impossible to measure what he 
might have achieved in campaigns and bat- 
tles with resources at his own disposition 
equal to those against which he invariably 

Left at the close of the war without es- 
tate or profession, he accepted the presi- 
dency of Washington College at Lexington, 
Virginia, where he died October 12, 1870, 

JOHN JAY, first chief-justice of the 
United States, was born in New York^ 
December 12, 1745. He took up the study 
of law, graduated from King's College 
(Columbia College), and was admitted ta 
the bar in 1768. He was chosen a member 
of the committee of New York citizens ta 
protest against the enforcement by the 
British government of the Boston Port Bill, 
was elected to the Continental congress 
which met in 1774,. and was author of the 
addresses to the people of Great Britian and 
of Canada adopted by that and the suc- 
ceeding congress. He was chosen to the 
provincial assembly of his own state, and 



resigned from the Continental congress to 
serve in that body, wrote most of its public 
papers, including the constitution of the new 
state, and was then made chief-justice. He 
was again chosen as a member of the Con- 
tinental congress in 1778, and became presi- 
dent of that body. He was sent to Spain 
as minister in 1780, and his services there 
resulted in substantial and moral aid for the 
struggling colonists. Jay, Franklin, and 
Adams negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain in 1782, and Jay was ap- 
pointed secretary of foreign affairs in 1784, 
and held the position until the adoption of 
the Federal constitution. During this time 
he had contributed strong articles to the 
''Federalist" in favor of the adoption of 
the constitution, and was largely instru- 
mental in securing the ratification of that 
instrument by his state. He was appointed 
by Washington as first chief -justice of the 
United States in 1789. In this high capac- 
ity the great interstate and international 
questions that arose for immediate settle- 
ment came before him for treatment. 

In 1794, at a time when the people in 
gratitude for the aid that France had ex- 
tended to us, were clamoring for the privilege 
of going to the aid of that nation in her 
struggle with Great Britain and her own op- 
pressors, John Jay was sent to England as 
special envoy to negotiate a treaty with 
that power. The instrument known as 
*' Jay's Treaty " was the result, and while 
in many of its features it favored our nation, 
yet the neutrahty clause in it so angered the 
masses that it was denounced throughout 
the entire country, and John Jay was burned 
in effigy in the city of New York. The 
treaty was finally ratified by Washington, 
and approved, in August, 1795. Having 
been elected governor of his state for three 
consecutive terms, he then retired from 

active life, declining an appointment as 
chief-justice o^ the supreme court, made by 
John Adams and confirmed by the senate. 
He died in New York in 1829. 

one of the greatest American cavalry 
generals. He was born March 6, 1831, at 
Somerset, Perry county, Ohio, and was ap- 
pointed to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, from which he graduat- 
ed and was assigned to the First Infantry as 
brevet second lieutenant July i, 1853. 
After serving in Texas, on the Pacific coast, 
in Washington and Oregon territories until 
the fall of 1 86 1, he was recalled to the 
states and assigned to the army of south- 
west Missouri as chief quartermaster from 
the duties of which he was soon relieved. 
After the battle of Pea Ridge, he was quar- 
termaster in the Corinth campaign, and on 
May 25 he was appointed colonel of the 
Second Michigan Cavalry. On July i, in 
command of a cavalry brigade, he defeated 
a superior force of the enemy and was com- 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers. 
General Sheridan was then transferred to 
the army of the Ohio, and commanded a 
division in the battle of Perrysville and also 
did good service at the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, where he was commissioned major- 
general of volunteers. He fought with 
great gallantry at Chickamauga, after which 
Rosecrans was succeeded by General Grant, 
under whom Sheridan fought the battle of 
Chattanooga and won additional renown. 
Upon the promotion of Grant to lieutenant- 
general, he applied for the transfer of Gen- 
eral Sheridan to the east, and appointed 
him chief of cavalry in the army of the 
Potomac. During the campaign of 1864 
the cavalry covered the front and flanks of 
the infantry until May 8, when it was wit;^ 



drawn and General Sheridan started on a 
raid against the Confederate Hnes of com- 
munication with Richmond and on May 25 
he rejoined the army, having destroyed con- 
siderable of the confederate stores and de- 
feated their cavalry under General Stuart at 
Yellow Tavern. The outer line of defences 
around Richmond were taken, but the sec- 
ond line was too strong to be taken by as- 
sault, and accordingly Sheridan crossed the 
Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge, reaching 
James River May 14, and thence by White 
House and Hanover Court House back to 
the army. The cavalry occupied Cold 
Harbor May 31, which they held until the 
arrival of the infantry. On General Sheri- 
dan's next raid he routed Wade Hampton's 
cavalry, and August 7 was assigned to the 
command of the Middle Military division, 
and during the campaign of the Shenan- 
doah Valley he performed the unheard of 
feat of ** destroying an entire army." He 
was appointed brigadier-general of the reg- 
ular army and for his victory at Cedar Creek 
he was promoted to the rank of major-gen- 
eral. General Sheridan started out Febru- 
ary 27, 1865, with ten thousand cavalry 
and destroyed the Virginia Central Railroad 
and the James River Canal and joined the 
army again at Petersburg March 27. He 
commanded at the battle of Five Forks, the 
decisive victory which compelled Lee to 
evacuate Petersburg. On April 9, Lee tried 
to break through Sheridan's dismounted 
command but when the General drew aside 
his cavalry and disclosed the deep lines of 
infantry the attempt was abandoned. Gen- 
eral Sheridan mounted his men and was about 
tc charge when a white flag was flown at the 
head of Lee's column which betokened the 
surrender of the army. After the war Gen- 
eral Sheridan had command of the army of 
the southwest, of the sfulf and the depart- I 

ment of Missouri until he was appointed 
lieutenant-general and assigned to the di- 
vision of Missouri with headquarters at Chi- 
cago, and assumed supreme command of 
the army November i, 1883, which post he 
held until his death, August 5, 1888. 

PHINEAS T. BARNUM, the greatest 
showman the world has ever seen, was 
born at Danbury, Connecticut, July 5, 18 10. 
At the age of eighteen years he began busi- 
ness on his own account. He opened a re- 
tail fruit and confectionery house, including 
a barrel of ale, in one part of an old car- 
riage house. He spent fifty dollars in fitting 
up the store and the stock cost him seventy 
dollars. Three years later he put in a full 
stock, such as is generally carried in a 
country store, and the same year he started 
a Democratic newspaper, known as the 
*^ Herald of Freedom." He soon found 
himself in jail under a sixty days' sentence 
for libel. During the winter of 1834-5 he 
went to New York and began soliciting busi- 
ness for several Chatham street houses. In 

1835 he embarked in the show business at 
Niblo's Garden, having purchased the cele- 
brated *' Joice Heth" for one thousand dol- 
lars. He afterward engaged the celebrated 
athlete, Sig. Vivalia, and Barnum made his 
* ^ first appearance on any stage, " acting as a 
*' super" to Sig. Vivalia on his opening 
night. He became ticket seller, secretary 
and treasurer of Aaron Turner's circus in 

1836 and traveled with it about the country. 
His next venture was the purchase of a 
steamboat on the Mississippi, and engaged 
a theatrical company to show in the princi- 
pal towns along that river. In 1840 he 
opened Vaux Hall Garden, New York, with 
variety performances, and introduced the 
celebrated jig dancer, John Diamond, to the 
public. The next year he quit ihe show 



business and settled down in New York as 
agent of Sear's Pictorial Illustration of the 
Bible, but a few months later again leased 
Vaux Hall. In September of the same year 
he again left the business, and became 
**puff " writer for the Bowery Amphitheater. 
In December he bought the Scudder Museum, 
and a year later introduced the celebrated 
Tom Thumb to the world, taking him to 
England in 1844, and remaining there three 
years. He then returned to New York, and 
in 1849, through James Hall Wilson, he en- 
gaged the ** Swedish Nightingale," Jenny 
Lind, to come to this country and make a 
tour under his management. He also had 
sent the Swiss Bell Ringers to America in 
1844. He became owner of the Baltimore 
Museum and the Lyceum and Museum at 
Philadelphia. In 1856 he brought a dozen 
elephants from Ceylon to make a tour of this 
country, and in 1851 sent the " Bateman 
Children" to London. During 185 1 and 
1852 he traveled as a temperance lecturer, 
and became president of a bank at Pequon- 
nock, Connecticut. In 1852 he started a 
weekly pictorial paper known as the *' Illus- 
trated News." In 1865 his Museum was 
destroyed by fire, and he immediately leased 
the Winter Garden Theatre, where he played 
his company until he opened his own 
Museum. This was destroyed by fire in 
1868, and he then purchased an interest in 
the George Wood Museum. 

After dipping into politics to some ex- 
tent, he began his career as a really great 
showman in 1871. Three years later he 
erected an immense circular building in New 
York, in which he produced his panoramas. 
He has frequently appeared as a lecturer, 
some times on temperance, and some times 
on other topics, among which were ' ' Hum- 
bugs of the World," ''Struggles and 
Triumphs, " etc. He was owner of the im- 

mense menagerie and circus known as the 
''Greatest Show on Earth," and his fame 
extended throughout Europe and America. 
He died in 1 891. 

JAMES MADISON, the fourth president 
of the United States, 1809-17, was 
born at Port Conway, Prince George coun- 
ty, Virginia, March 16, 1751. He was the 
son of a wealthy planter, who lived on a fine 
estate called " Montpelier, " which was but 
twenty-five miles from Monticello, the home 
of Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Madison was the 
eldest of a family of seven children, all of 
whom attained maturity. He received his 
early education at home under a private 
tutor, and consecrated himself with unusual 
vigor to study. At a very early age he was 
a proficient scholar in Latin, Greek, French 
and Spanish, and in 1769 he entered Prince- 
ton College, New Jersey. He graduated in 
1 77 1, but remained for several months after 
his graduation to pursue a course of study 
under the guidance of Dr. Witherspoon. 
He permanently injured his health at this 
time and returned to Virginia in 1772, and 
for two years he was immersed in the study 
of law, and at the same time made extend- 
ed researches in theology, general literature, 
and philosophical studies. He then directed 
his full attention to the impending struggle 
of the colonies for independence, and also 
took a prominent part in the religious con- 
troversy at that time regarding so called 
persecution of other religious denominations 
by the Church of England. Mr. Madison 
was elected to the Virginia assembly in 1776 
and in November, 1777, he was chosen 
a member of the council of state. He took 
his seat in the continental congress in 
March, 1780. He was made chairman of 
the committee on foreign relations, and 
drafted an able memoranda for the use of 



the American ministers to the French and 
Spanish governments, that established the 
claims of the republic to the territories be- 
tween the Alleghany Mountains and the 
Mississippi River. He acted as chairman of 
the ways and means committee in 1783 and 
as a member of the Virginia legislature in 
1784-86 he rendered important services to 
the state. Mr. Madison represented Vir- 
giana in the national constitutional conven- 
tion at Philadelphia in 1787, and w^as one of 
the chief framers of the constitution. He 
was a member of the first four congresses, 
1789-97, and gradually became identified 
with the anti-federalist or republican party 
of which he eventually became the leader. 
He remained in private life during the ad- 
ministration of John Adams, and was secre- 
tary of state under President Jefferson. Mr. 
Madison administered the affairs of that 
post with such great ability that he was the 
natural successor of the chief magistrate 
and was chosen president by an electoral 
vote of 122 to 53. He was inaugurated 
March 4, 1809, at that critical period incur 
history when the feelings of the people were 
embittered with those of England, and his 
first term was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 
which finally resulted in the declaration of 
war, June 18, 1812. In the autumn of that 
year President Madison was re-elected by a 
vote of 128 to 89, and conducted the war 
for three years with varying success and 
defeat in Canada, by glorious victories at 
sea, and by the battle of New Orleans that 
was fought after the treaty of peace had 
been signed at Ghent, December 24, 1814. 
During this war the national capitol at 
Washington was burned, and many valuable 
papers were destroyed, but the declaration 
of independence^ was saved to the country 
by the bravery and courage of Mr. Madi- 
son's illustrious wife. A commercial treaty 

was negotiated with Great Britain in 181 5, 
and in April, 18 16, a national bank was in- 
corporated by congress. Mr. Madison was 
succeeded, March 4, 1 817, by James Monroe, 
and retired into private life on his estate at 
Montpelier, where he died June 28, 1836. 

American character, was a protege of 
the great abolitionist, William Lloyd Garri- 
son, by whom he was aided in gaining his 
education. Mr. Douglass was born in Tuck- 
ahoe county, Maryland, in February, 18 17, 
his mother being a negro woman and his 
father a white man. He was born in slav- 
ery and belonged to a man by the name of 
Lloyd, under which name he went until he 
ran away from his master and changed it to 
Douglass. At the age of ten years he was 
sent to Baltimore where he learned to read 
and write, and later his owner allowed him 
to hire out his own time for three dollars a 
week in a shipyard. In September, 1838, 
he fled from Baltimore and made his way to 
New York, and from thence went to New 
Bedford, Massachusetts. Here he was mar- 
ried and supported him.self and family by 
working at the wharves and in various work- 
shops. In the summer of 1841 he attended 
an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket, 
and made a speech which was so well re- 
ceived that he was offered the agency of the 
Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society. In this 
capacity he traveled through the New En- 
gland states, and about the same time he 
published his first book called '* Narrative 
of my Experience in Slavery." Mr. Doug- 
lass went to England in 1845 and lectured 
on slavery to large and enthusiastic audi- 
ences in all the large towns of the country, 
and his friends made up a purse of seven 
hundred and fifty dollars and purchased his 
freedom in due form of law. 



Mr. Douglass applied himself to the de- 
livery of lyceum lectures after the abolition 
of slavery, and in 1870 he became the editor 
of the ** New National Era " in Washington. 
In 1 87 1 he was appointed assistant secretary 
of the commission to San Domingo and on 
his return he was appointed one of the ter- 
ritorial council for the District of Colorado 
by President Grant. He was elected presi- 
dential elector-at-large for the state of New 
York and was appointed to carry the elect- 
oral vote to Washington. He was also 
United States marshal for the District of 
Columbia in 1876, and later was recorder 
of deeds for the same, from which position 
he was removed by President Cleveland in 
1886. In the fall of that year he visited 
England to inform the friends that he had 
made while there, of the progress of the 
colored race in America, and on his return 
he was appointed minister to Hayti, by 
President Harrison in 1889. His career as 
a benefactor of his race was closed by his 
death in February, 1895, ^^^^ Washington. 

ear for rhythm and the talent for 
graceful expression are the gifts of nature, 
and they were plentifully endowed on the 
above named poet. The principal charac- 
teristic of his poetry is the thoughtfulness 
and intellectual process by which his ideas 
ripened in his mind, as all his poems are 
bright, clear and sweet. Mr. Bryant was 
born November 3, 1794, at Cummington, 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, and was 
educated at Williams College, from which 
he graduated, having entered it in 18 10. 
He took up the study of law, and in 181 5 
was admitted to the bar, but after practicing 
successfully for ten years at Plainfield and 
Great Barrington, he removed to New York 
in 1825. The following year he became 

the editor of the "Evening Post," which 
he edited until his death, and under his di- 
rection this paper maintained, through a 
long series of years, a high standing by the 
boldness of its protests against slavery be- 
fore the war, by its vigorous support of the 
government during the war, and by the 
fidelity and ability of its advocacy of the 
Democratic, freedom in trade. Mr. Bry- 
ant visited Europe in 1834, 1845, 1849 and 
1857, and presented to the literary world 
the fruit of his travels in the series of ''Let- 
ters of a Traveler," and ''Letters from 
Spain and Other Countries." In the world 
of literature he is known chiefly as a poet, 
and here Mr. Bryant's name is illustrious, 
both at home and abroad. He contributed 
verses to the "Country Gazette " before he 
was ten years of age, and at the age of nine- 
teen he wrote " Thanatopsis, " the most im- 
pressive and widely known of his poems. 
The later outgrowth of his genius was his 
translation of Homer's "Iliad" in 1870 
and the "Odyssey" in 1871.. He also 
made several speeches and addresses which 
have been collected in a comprehensive vol- 
ume called " Orations and Addresses." He 
was honored in many ways by his fellow 
citizens, who delighted to pay tributes of 
respect to his literary eminence, the breadth 
of his public spirit, the faithfulness of his 
service, and the worth of his private char- 
acter. Mr. Bryant died in New York City 
June 12, 1878. 

secretary of state during one of the 
most critical times in the history of our 
country, and the right hand man of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, ranks among the greatest 
statesmen America has produced. Mr. 
Seward was born May 16, 1 801, at Florida, 
Orange county, New York, and with such 



facilities as the place afforded he fitted him- 
self for a college course. He attended 
Union College at Schenectady, New York, 
at the age of fifteen, and took his degree in 
the regular course, with signs of promise in 
1820, after which he diligently addressed 
himself to the study of law under competent 
instructors, and started in the practice of 
his profession in 1823. 

Mr. Seward entered the political arena 
and in 1828 we find him presiding over a 
convention in New York, its purpose being 
the nomination of John Quincy Adams for a 
second term. He was married in 1824 and 
in 1830 was elected to the state senate. 
From 1838 to 1842 he was governor of the 
state of New York. Mr. Seward's next im- 
portant position was that of United States 
senator from New York. 

W. H. Seward was chosen by President 
Lincoln to fill the important office of the 
secretary of state, and by his firmness and 
diplomacy in the face of difficulties, he aided 
in piloting the Union through that period of 
strife, and won an everlasting fame. This 
great statesman died at Auburn, New York, 
October 10, 1872, in the seventy-second 
year of his eventful life. 

JOSEPH JEFFERSON, a name as dear 
as it is familiar to the theater-going 
world in America, suggests first of all a fun- 
loving, drink-loving, mellow voiced, good- 
natured Dutchman, and the name of **Rip 
Van Winkle " suggests the pleasant features 
of Joe Jefferson, so intimately are play and 
player associated in the minds of those who 
have iiad the good fortune to shed tears of 
laughter and sympathy as a tribute to the 
greatness of his art. Joseph Jefferson was 
born in Philadelphia, February 20, 1829. 
His genius was an inheritance, if there be 

such, as his great-grandfather, Thomas 

Jefferson, was a manager and actor in Eng 
land. His grandfather, Joseph Jefferson, 
was the most popular comedian of the New 
York stage in his time, and his father, Jos- 
eph Jefferson, the second, was a good actor 
also, but the third Joseph Jefferson out- 
shone them all. 

At the age of three years Joseph Jeffer- 
son came on the stage as the child in ''Pi- 
zarro," and his training was upon the stage 
from childhood. Later on he lived and 
acted in Chicago, Mobile, and Texas. After 
repeated misfortunes he returned to New 
Orleans from Texas, and his brother-in-law, 
Charles Burke, gave him money to reach 
Philadelphia, where he joined the Burton 
theater company. Here his genius soon as- 
serted itself, and his future became promis- 
ing and brilliant. His engagements through- 
out the United States and Australia were 
generally successful, and when he went to 
England in 1865 Mr. Boucicault consented 
to make some important changes in his 
dramatization of Irving's story of Rip Van 
Winkle, and Mr. Jefferson at once placed 
it in the front rank as a comedy. He made 
a fortune out of it, and played nothing else 
for many years. In later years, however, 
Mr. Jefferson acquitted himself of the charge 
of being a one-part actor, and the parts of 
''Bob Acres," "Caleb Plummer" and 
"Golightly " all testify to the versatility of 
his genius. 

a noted American general, was born 
in Philadelphia, December 3, 1826. He 
graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1846 from West Point, and 
was breveted second lieutenant of engineers. 
He was with Scott in the Mexican war, 
taking part in all the engagements from 
Vera Cruz to the final capture of the Mexi- 



can capital, and was breveted first lieuten- 
ant and captain for gallantry displayed on 
various occasions. In 1857 he resigned his 
commission and accepted the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, and became presi- 
dent of the St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company. He was commissioned major- 
general by the state of Ohio in 1861, 
placed in command of the department of 
the Ohio, and organized the first volunteers 
called for from that state. In May he was 
appointed major-general in the United 
States army, and ordered to disperse the 
confederates overrunning West Virginia. 
He accomplished this task promptly, and 
received the thanks of congress. After the 
first disaster at Bull Run he was placed 
in command of the department of Wash- 
ington, and a few weeks later of the 
Army of the Potomac. Upon retirement 
of General Scott the command of the en- 
tire United States army devolved upon Mc- 
Clellan, but he was relieved of it within a 
few months. In March, 1862, after elabor- 
ate preparation, he moved upon Manassas, 
only to find it deserted by the Confederate 
army, which had been withdrawn to im- 
pregnable defenses prepared nearer Rich- 
mond. He then embarked his armies for 
Fortress Monroe and after a long delay at 
Yorktown, began the disastrous Peninsular 
campaign, which resulted in the Army of the 
Potomac being cooped up on the James 
River below Richmond. His forces were 
then called to the support of General Pope, 
near Washington, and he was left without an 
army. After Pope's defeat McClellan was 
placed in command of the troops for the de- 
fense of the capital, and after a thorough or- 
ganization he followed Lee into Maryland 
and the battles of Antietam and South Moun- 
tain ensued. The delay which followed 

caused general dissatisfaction, and he was re- 
lieved of his command, and retired from active 

In 1864 McClellan was nominated for 
the presidency by the Democrats, and over- 
whelmingly defeated by Lincoln, three 
states only casting their electoral votes for 
McClellan. On election day he resigned 
his commission and a few months later went 
to Europe where he spent several years. 
He wrote a number of military text- books 
and reports. His death occurred October 
29, 1885. 

SAMUEL J. TILDEN.— Among the great 
statesmen whose names adorn the pages 
of American history may be found that of 
the subject of this sketch. Known as a 
lawyer of highest ability, his greatest claim 
to immortality will ever lie in his successful 
battle against the corrupt rings of his native 
state and the elevation of the standard of 
official life. 

Samuel J. Tilden was born in New Leb- 
anon, New York, February 9, 18 14. He 
pursued his academic studies at Yale Col- 
lege and the University of New York, tak- 
ing the course of law at the latter. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. His rare 
ability as a thinker and writer upon public 
topics attracted the attention of President 
Van Buren, of whose policy and adminis- 
tration he became an active and efficient 
champion. He made for himself a high 
place in his profession and amassed quite a 
fortune as the result of his industry and 
judgment. During the days of his greatest 
professional labor he was ever one of the 
leaders and trusted counsellors of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was a member of the 
conventions to revise the state constitution, 
both in 1846 and 1867, and served two 
terms in the lower branch of the state leg- 



islature. He was one of the controlling 
spirits in the overthrow of the notorious 
'' Tweed rinf,^ " and the reformation of the 
government of the city of New York. In 
1874 he was elected governor of the state 
of New York. While in this position he 
assailed corruption in high places, success- 
fully battling with the iniquitous "canal 
ring " and crushed its sway over all depart- 
ments of the government. Recognizing his 
character and executive ability Mr. Tilden 
was nominated for president by the na- 
tional Democratic convention in 1876. At 
the election he received a much larger popu- 
lar vote than his opponent, and 184 uncon- 
tested electoral votes. There being some 
electoral votes contested, a commission ap- 
pointed by congress decided in favor of the 
Republican electors and Mr. Hayes, the can- 
didate of that party w^as declared elected. 
In 1880, the Democratic party, feeling that 
Mr. Tilden had been lawfully elected to the 
presidency tendered the nomination for the 
same office to Mr. Tilden, but he declined, 
retiring from all public functions, owing to 
failing health. He died August 4, 1886. 
By will he bequeathed several millions of 
dollars toward the founding of public libra- 
ries in New York City, Yonkers, etc. 

NOAH WEBSTER.— As a scholar, law- 
yer, author and journalist, there is no 
one who stands on a higher plane, or whose 
reputation is better established than the 
honored gentleman whose name heads this 
sketch. He was a native of West Hartford, 
Connecticut, and was born October 17, 
1758. He came of an old New England 
family, his mother being a descendant of 
Governor William Bradford, of the Ply- 
mouth colony. After acquiring a solid edu- 
cation in early life Dr. Webster entered 
Yale College, from which he graduated in 

1778. For a while he taught school in 
Hartford, at the same time studying law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1781. He 
taught a classical school at Goshen, Orange 
county. New York, in 1782-83, and while 
there prepared his spelling book, grammar 
and reader, which was issued under the title 
of *'A Grammatical Institute of the English 
Language," in three parts, — so successful a 
work that up to 1876 something like forty 
million of the spelling books had been 
sold. In 1786 he delivered a course of lec- 
tures on the English language in the seaboard 
cities and the following year taught an 
academy at Philadelphia. From December 
17, 1787, until November, 1788, he edited 
the "American Magazine, "a periodical that 
proved unsuccessful. In 1789-93 he prac- 
ticed law in Hartford having in the former 
year married the daughter of William Green- 
leaf, of Boston. He returned to New York 
and November, 1793, founded a daily paper, 
the ''Minerva," to which was soon added a 
semi-weekly edition under the name of the 
" Herald." The former is still in existence 
under the name of the " Commercial Adver- 
tiser." In this paper, over the signature of 
' ' Curtius , " he published a lengthy and schol- 
arly defense of ''John Jay's treaty." 

In 1798, Dr. Webster moved to New 
Haven and in 1807 commenced the prepar- 
ation of his great work, the "American Dic- 
tionary of the English Language," which 
was not completed and published until 1828. 
He made his home in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, for the ten years succeeding 1812, and 
was instrumental in the establishment of 
Amherst College, of which institution he was 
the first president of the board of trustees. 
During 1824-5 he resided in Europe, pursu- 
ing his philological studies in Paris. He 
completed his dictionary from the libraries 
of Cambridge University in 1825, and de- 



"voted his leisure for the remainder of his 
life to the revision of that and his school 

Dr. Webster v^as a member of the legis- 
latures of both Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, was judge of one of the courts of the 
former state and was identified with nearly 
all the literary and scientific societies in the 
neighborhood of Amherst College. He died 
in New Haven, May 28, 1843. 

Among the more prominent works ema- 
nating from the fecund pen of Dr. Noah 
Webster besides those mentioned above are 
the following: ** Sketches of American 
Policy," ^^Winthrop's Journal," ^* A Brief 
History of Epidemics," ** Rights of Neutral 
Nations in time of War," "A Philosophical 
and Practical Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage,'' ** Dissertations on the English 
Language," *'A Collection of Essays," 
**The Revolution in France," ''Political 
Progress of Britain," ''Origin, History, and 
Connection of the Languages of Western 
Asia and of Europe ," and many others. 

great anti-slavery pioneer and leader, 
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
December 12, 1804. He was apprenticed 
to the printing business, and in 1828 was in- 
duced to take charge of the "Journal of the 
Times" at • Bennington, Vermont. While 
supporting John Quincy Adams for the presi- 
dency he took occasion in that paper to give 
expression of his views on slavery. These 
articles attracted notice, and a Quaker 
named Lundy, editor of the "Genius of 
Emancipation," published in Baltimore, in- 
duced him to enter a partnership with him 
for the conduct of his paper. It soon 
transpired that the views of the partners 
were not in harmony, Lundy favoring grad- 
ual emancipation, while Garrison favored 

immediate freedom. In 1850 Mr. Garrison 
was thrown into prison for libel, not being 
able to pay a fine of fifty dollars and costs. 
In his cell he wrote a number of poems 
which stirred the entire north, and a mer- 
chant, Mr. Tappan, of New York, paid his 
fine and liberated him, after seven weeks of 
confinement. He at once began a lecture 
tour of the northern cities, denouncing 
slavery as a sin before God, and demanding 
its immediate abolition in the name of re- 
ligion and humanity. He opposed the col- 
onization scheme of President Monroe and 
other leaders, and declared the right of 
every slave to immediate freedom. 

In 1 83 1 he formed a partnership with 
Isaac Knapp, and began the publication of 
the "Liberator" at Boston. The "imme- 
diate abolition " idea began to gather power 
in the north, while the south became 
alarmed at the bold utterance of this jour- 
nal. The mayor of Boston was besought 
by southern influence to interfere, and upon 
investigation, reported upon the insignifi- 
cance, obscurity, and poverty of the editor 
and his staff, which report was widely 
published throughout the country. Re- 
wards were offered by the southern states 
for his arrest and conviction. Later Garri- 
son brought from England, where an eman- 
cipation measure had just been passed, 
some of the great advocates to work for the 
cause in this country. In 1835 a mob 
broke into his office, broke up a meeting of 
women, dragged Garrison through the street 
with a rope around his body, and his life 
was saved only by the interference of the 
police, who lodged him in jail. Garrison 
declined to sit in the World's Anti-Slaverv 
convention at London in 1840, because 
that body had refused women representa- 
tion. He opposed the formation of a p^^- 
litical party with emancipation as its basis. 



He favored a dissolution of the union, and 
declared the constitution which bound the 
free states to the slave states '' A covenant 
with death and an agreement with hell." 
In 1843 he became president of the Amer- 
ican Anti-Slavery society, which position he 
held until 1865, when slavery was no more. 
During all this time the " Liberator " had 
continued to promulgate anti-slavery doc- 
trines, but in 1865 Garrison resigned his 
position, and declared his work was com- 
pleted. He died May 24, 1879. 

JOHN BROWN (-Brown of Ossawato- 
mie"), a noted character in American 
history, wasbornatTorrington, Connecticut, 
May 9, 1800. In his childhood he removed 
to Ohio, where he learned the tanner's 
trade. He married there, and in 1855 set- 
tled in Kansas. He lived at the village of 
Ossawatomie in that state, and there began 
his fight against slavery. He advocated im- 
mediate emancipation, and held that the 
negroes of the slave states merely waited 
for a leader in an insurrection that would re- 
sult in their freedom. He attended the 
convention called at Chatham, Canada, in 
1859, and was the leading spirit in organiz- 
mg a raid upon the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plans were 
well laid, and carried out in great secrecy. 
He rented a farm house near Harper's Ferry 
in the summer of 1859, and on October 
1 6th of that year, with about twenty follow- 
ers, he surprised and captured the United 
States arsenal, with all its supplies and 
arms. To his surprise, the negroes did not 
come to his support, and the next day he 
was attacked by the Virginia state militia, 
wounded and captured. He was tried in 
the courts of the state, convicted, and was 
hanged at Charlestown, December 2, 1859. 
The raid and its results had a tremendous 

effect, and hastened the culmination of the 
troubles between the north and south. The 
south had the advantage in discussing this 
event, claiming that the sentiment which 
inspired this act of violence was shared by 
the anti-slavery element of the country. 

EDWIN BOOTH had no peer upon the 
American stage during his long career 
as a star actor. He was the son of a famous 
actor, Junius Brutus Booth, and was born 
in 1833 at his father's home at Belair, near 
Baltimore. At the age of sixteen he made his 
first appearance on the stage, at the Boston 
Museum, in a minor part in ''Richard III." 
It was while playing in California in 1851 
that an eminent critic called general atten- 
tion to the young actor's unusual talent. 
However, it was not until 1863, at the great 
Shakspearian revival at the Winter Garden 
Theatre, New York, that the brilliancy Oi 
his career began. His Hamlet held the 
boards for 100 nights in succession, and 
from that time forth Booth's reputation was 
established. In 1868 he opened his own 
theatre (Booth's Theater) in New York. 
Mr. Booth never succeeded as a manager, 
however, but as an actor he was undoubted- 
ly the most popular man ow the American 
stage, and perhaps the most eminent one in 
the world. In England he also won the 
greatest applause. 

Mr. Booth's work was confined mostly 
to Shakspearean roles, and his art was 
characterized by intellectual acuteness, 
fervor, and poetic feeling. His Hamlet, 
Richard II, Richard III, and Richelieu gave 
play to his greatest powers. In 1865, 
when his brother, John Wilkes Booth, 
enacted his great crime, Edwin Booth re- 
solved to retire from the stage, but was pur - 
suaded to reconsider that decision. The 
odium did not in any way attach to the 



great actor, and his popularity was not 
affected. In all his work Mr. Booth clung 
closely to the legitimate and the traditional 
in drama, making no experiments, and offer- 
ing little encouragement to new dramatic 
authors. His death occurred in New York, 
June 7, 1894. 

JOSEPH HOOKER, a noted American 
officer, was born at Hadley, Massachu- 
setts, November 13, 18 14. He graduated 
from West Point Military Academy in 1837, 
and was appointed lieutenant of artillery. 
He served in Florida in the Seminole war, 
and in garrison until the outbreak of the 
Mexican war. During the latter he saw 
service as a staff officer and was breveted 
captain, major and lieutenant-colonel for 
gallantry at Monterey, National Bridge and 
Chapultepec. Resigning his commission in 
1833 he took up farming in California, which 
he followed until 1861. During this time 
he acted as superintendent of military roads 
in Oregon. At the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion Hooker tendered his services to the 
government, and, May 17,* 1 861, was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
served in the defence of Washington and on 
the lower Potomac until his appointment to 
the command of a division in the Third 
Corps, in March, 1862. For gallant con- 
duct at the siege of Yorktown and in the 
battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Fra- 
zier's Farm and Malvern Hill he was made 
major-general. At the head of his division 
he participated in the battles of Manassas 
and Chantilly. September 6. 1862, he was 
placed at the head of the First Corps, and 
in the battles of South Mountain and An- 
tietam acted with his usual gallantry, being 
wounded in the latter engagement. On re- 
joining the army in November he was made 
brigadier-general in the regular army. On 

General Burnside attaining the command of 
the Army of the Potomac General Hooker 
was placed in command of the center grand 
division, consisting of the Second and Fifth 
Corps. At the head of these gallant men 
he participated in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, December 13, 1862. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, General Hooker assumed com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, and in 
May following fought the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville. At the time of the invasion of 
Pennsylvania, owing to a dispute with Gen- 
eral Halleck, Hooker requested to be re- 
lieved of his command, and June 28 was 
succeeded by George G. Meade. In Sep- 
tember, 1863, General Hooker was given 
command of the Twentieth Corps and trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and 
distinguished himself at the battles of Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ring- 
gold. In the Atlanta campaign he saw 
almost daily service and merited his well- 
known nickname of '' Fighting Joe." July 
30, 1864, at his own request, he was re- 
lieved of his command. He subsequently 
was in command of several military depart- 
ments in the north, and in October, 1868, 
was retired with the full rank of major-gen- 
eral. He died October 31, 1879. 

JAY GOULD, one of the greatest finan- 
ciers that the world has ever produced, 
was born May 27, 1836, at Roxbury, Dela- 
ware county, New York. He spent his early 
years on his father's farm and at the age of 
fourteen entered Hobart Academy, New 
York, and kept books for the village black- 
smith. He acquired a taste for mathematics 
and surveying and on leaving school found 
employment in making the surveyor's map 
of Ulster county. He surveyed very exten- 
sively in the state and accumulated five thou- 
sand dollars as the fruits of his labor. He 



was then stricken with typhoid fever but re- 
covered and m?-ae the acquaintance of one 
Zadock Pratt, who sent him into the west- 
ern part of the state to locate a site for a 
tannery. He chose a fine hemlock grove, 
built a sawmill and blacksmith shop and 
was soon doing a large lumber business with 
Mr. Pratt. Mr. Gould soon secured control 
of the entire plant, which he sold out just 
before the panic of 1857 and in this year he 
became the largest stockholderinthe Strouds- 
burg, Pennsylvania, bank. Shortly after the 
crisis he bought the bonds of the Rutland 
& Washington Railroad at ten cents on the 
dollar, and put all his money into railroad 
securities. For a long time he conducted 
this road which he consolidated with the 
Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad. In 1859 
he removed to New York and became a 
heavy investor in Erie Railroad stocks, en- 
tered that company and was president until 
its reorganization in 1872. In December, 
1880, Mr. Gould was in control of ten thou- 
sand miles of railroad. In 1887 he pur- 
chased the controlling interest in the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co., and 
was a joint owner with the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railroad Co. of the western 
portion of the Southern Pacific line. Other 
lines soon came under his control, aggregat- 
ing thousand of miles, and he soon was rec- 
ognized as one of the world's greatest rail- 
road magnates. He continued to hold his 
place as one of the master financiers of the 
century until the time of his death which 
occurred December 2, 1892. 

prominent United States senator and 
statesman, was born at Hillsborough, North 
Carolina, March 14, 1782. He removed to 
Tennessee in early life, studied law, and be- 
gan to practice at Nashville about 18 10. 

During the war of 1812-1815 he served as 
colonel of a Tennessee regiment under Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson. In 181 5 he removed 
to St. Louis, Missouri, and in 1820 was 
chosen United States senator for that state. 
Having been re-elected in 1826, he sup- 
ported President Jackson in his opposition 
to the United States bank and advocated a 
gold and silver currency, thus gaining the 
name of *' Old Bullion," by which he was 
familiarly known. For m.any years he was 
the most prominent man in Missouri, and 
took rank among the greatest statesmen of 
his day. He was a member of the senate 
for thirty years and opposed the extreme 
states' rights policy of John C. Calhoun. 
In 1852 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in which he opposed the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise. He was op- 
posed by a powerful party of States' Rights 
Democrats in Missouri, who defeated him as a 
candidate for governor of that state in 1856. 
Colonel Benton published a considerable 
work in two volumes in 1854-56, entitled 
'' Thirty Years' View, or a History of the 
Working of the American Government for 
Thirty Years, 1820-50." He died April 10, 

of the most prominent figures in politic- 
al circles during the intensely exciting days 
that preceded the war, and a leader of the 
Union branch of the Democratic party was 
the gentleman whose name heads this 

He was born at Brandon, Rutland coun- 
ty, Vermont, April 23, 1813, of poor but 
respectable parentage. His father, a prac- 
ticing physician, died while our subject was 
but an infant, and his mother, with two 
small children and but small means, could 
give him but the rudiments of an education. 



At the age of fifteen young Douglas engaged 
at work in the cabinei making business to 
raise funds to carry him through college. 
After a few years of labor he was enabled to 
pursue an academical course, first at Bran- 
don, and later at Canandaigua, New York. 
In the latter place he remained until 1833, 
taking up the study of law. Before he was 
twenty, however, his lunds running low, he 
abandoned all further attempts at educa- 
tion, determining to enter at once the battle 
of life. After some wanderings tnrough the 
western states he took up his residence at 
Jacksonville, Illinois, where, after teaching 
school for three months, he was admitted to 
the bar, and opened an offi-ce in 1834. 
Within a year from that time, so rapidly had 
he risen in his profession, he was chosen 
attorney general of the state, and warmly 
espoused the principles of the Democratic 
party. He soon became one of the most 
popular orators in Ilhnois. It was at this 
time he gained the name of the ** Little 
Giant." In 1835 he resigned the position 
of attorney general having been elected to 
the legislature. In 1841 he was chosen 
judge of the supreme court of Illinois which 
he resigned two years later to take a seat in 
congress. It was during this period of his 
life, while a member of the lower house, 
that he established his reputation and took 
the side of those who contended that con- 
gress had no constitutional right to restrict 
the extension of slavery further than the 
agreement between the states made in 1820. 
This, in spite of his being opposed to slav- 
ery, and only on grounds which he believed 
to be right, favored what was called the 
Missouri compromise. In 1847 Mr. Doug- 
las was chosen United States senator for 
six years, and greatly distinguished himself. 
In 1852 he was re-eiected to the same office. 
During this latter term, under his leader- 

ship, the '* Kansas-Nebraska bill " was car- 
ried in the senate. In 1858, nothwith- 
standing the fierce contest made by his able 
competitor for the position, Abraham Lin- 
coln, and with the administration of Bu- 
chanan arrayed against him, Mr. Douglas 
was re-elected senator. After the trouble 
in the Charleston convention, when by the 
withdrawal of several state delegates with- 
out a nomination, the Union Democrats, 
in convention at Baltimore, in i860, nortii- 
nated Mr. Douglas as their candidate for 
presidency. The results of this election are 
well known and the great events of 1861 
coming on, Mr. Douglas was spared their 
full development, dying at Chicago, Illinois, 
June 3, 1 861, after a short illness. His 
last words to his children were, *' to obey 
the laws and support the constitution of the 
United States." 

JAMES MONROE, fifth president of the 
United States, was born in Westmore- 
land county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. At 
the age of sixteen he entered William and 
Mary College, but two years later the 
Declaration of Independence having been 
adopted, he left college and hastened to New 
York where he joined Washington's army as 
a military cadet. 

At the battle of Trenton Monroe per- 
formed gallant service and received a wound 
in the shoulder, and was promoted to a 
captaincy. He acted as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling at the battles of Brandy wine, German- 
town and Monmouth. Washington then 
sent him to Virginia to raise a new regiment 
of which he was to be colonel. The ex- 
hausted condition of Virginia made this \m < 
possible, but he received his commission. 
He next entered the law office of Thomas 
Jefferson to study law, as there was no open- 
ing for him as an officer in the army, in 



1782 he was elected to the Virginia assem- 
bly, and the next year he was elected to the 
Continental congress. Realizing the inade- 
quacy of the old articles of confederation, 
he advocated the calling of a convention to 
consider their revision, and introduced in 
congress a resolution empowering congress 
to regulate trade, lay import duties, etc. 
This resolution was referred to a committee, 
of which he was chairman, and the report 
led to the Annapolis convention, which 
called a general convention to meet at Phila- 
delphia in 1787, when the constitution was 
drafted. Mr. Monroe began the practice of 
law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and was 
soon after ?^icted to the legislature, and ap- 
pointed as one of the committee to pass 
upon the adoption of the constitution. He 
opposed it, as giving too much power to the 
central government. He was elected to the 
'United States senate in 1789, where he 
allied himself with the Anti-Federalists or 
*' Republicans, " as they were sometimes 
called. Although his views as to neutrality 
between France and England were directly 
opposed to those of the president, yet Wash- 
ington appointed him minister to France. 
His popularity in France was so great that 
the antagonism of England and her friends 
in this country brought about his recall. He 
then became governor of Virginia. He was 
sent as envoy to France in 1802; minister 
to England in 1803; and envoy to Spain in 
1805. The next year he returned to his 
estate in Virginia, and with an ample in- 
heritance enjoyed a few years of repose. He 
was again called to be governor of Virginia, 
and was then appointed secretary of state 
by President Madison. The war with Eng- 
land soon resulted, and when the capital 
was burned by the British, Mr. Monroe be- 
came secretary of war also, and planned the 
measures for the defense of New Orleans. 

The trjsasury being exhausted and credit 
gone, he pledged his own estate, and thereby 
made possible the victory of Jackson at New 

In 1 8 17 Mr. Monroe became president 
of the United States, having been a candi- 
date of the *' Republican " party, which at 
that time had begun to be called the * * Demo- 
cratic" party. In 1820 he was re-elected, 
having two hundred and thirty-one electoral 
votes out of two hundred and thirty-two. 
His administration is known as the ''Era of 
good-feeling, " and party lines were almost 
wiped out. The slavery question began to 
assume importance at this time, and the 
Missouri Compromise was passed. The 
famous ' ' Monroe Doctrine " originated in a 
great state paper of President Monroe upon 
the rumored interference of the Holy Alli- 
ance to prevent the formation of free repub- 
lics in South America. President Monroe 
acknowledged their independence, and pro- 
mulgated his great ''Doctrine," which has 
been held in reverence since. Mr. Monroe's 
death occurred in New York on July 4, 1831. 

wizard of electrical science and whose 
name is synonymous with the subjugation 
of electricity to the service of man, was 
born in 1847 at Milan, Ohio, and it was at 
Port Huron, Michigan, whither his parents 
had moved in 1854, that his self-education 
began — for he never attended school for 
more than two months. He eagerly de- 
voured every book he could lay his hands on 
and is said to have read through an encyclo^ 
pedia without missing a word. At thirteen he 
began his working life as a trainboy upon the 
Grand Trunk Railway between Port Huron 
and Detroit. Much of his time was now 
spent in Detroit, where he found increased 
facilities for reading at the public libraries. 



He was not content to be a newsboy, so he 
got together three hundred pounds of type 
and started the issue of the '' Grand Trunk 
Herald." It was only a small amateur 
weekly, printed on one side, the impression 
being made from the type by hand. Chemi- 
cal research was his next undertaking and 
a laboratory was added to his movable pub- 
lishing house, which, by the way, was an 
aid freight car. One day, however, as he 
was experimenting with some phosphorus, 
it ignited and the irate conductor threw the 
young seeker after the truth, chemicals and 
all, from the train. His office and laboratory 
were then removed to the cellar of his fa- 
ther's house. As he grew to manhood he 
decided to become an operator. He won 
his opportunity by saving the life of a child, 
whose father was an old operator, and out of 
gratitude he gave Mr. Edison lessons in teleg- 
raphy. Five months later he was compe- 
tent to fill a position in the railroad office 
at Port Huron. Hence he peregrinated to 
Stratford, Ontario, and thence successively 
to Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cumati, Memphis, Louisville and Boston, 
gradually becoming an expert operator and 
gaming experience that enabled him to 
evolve many ingenious ideas for the im- 
provement of telegraphic appliances. At 
Memphis he constructed an automatic re- 
peater, which enabled Louisville and New 
Orleans to communicate direct, and received 
nothing more than the thanks of his em- 
ployers. Mr. Edison came to New York in 
1870 in search of an opening more suitable 
to his capabilities and ambitions. He hap- 
pened to be in the office of the Laws Gold 
Reporting Company when one of the in- 
struments got out of order, and even the 
inventor of the system could not make it 
work. Edison requested to be allowed to 
lat'tempt the task, and in a few minutes he 

had overcome the difficulty and secured an 
advantageous engagement. For several 
years he had a contract with the Western 
Union and the Gold Stock companies, 
whereby he received a large salary, besides 
a special price for all telegraphic improve- 
ments he could suggest. Later, as the 
head of the Edison General Electric com- 
pany, with its numerous subordinate organ- 
izations and connections all over the civil- 
ized world, he became several times a 
millionaire. Mr. Edison invented the pho- 
nograph and kinetograph which bear his 
name, the carbon telephone, the tasimeter, 
and the duplex and quadruplex systems of 

JAMES LONGSTREET, one of the most 
conspicuous of the Confederate generals 
during the Civil war, was born in 1820, in 
South Carolina, but was early taken by his 
parents to Alabama where he grew to man- 
hood and received his early education. He 
graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1842, entering the army as 
lieutenant and spent a few years in the fron- 
tier service. When the Mexican war broke 
out he was called to the front and partici- 
pated in all the principal battles of that war 
up to the storming of Chapultepec, where 
he received severe wounds. For gallant 
conduct at Contreras, Cherubusco, and Mo- 
lino del Rey he received the brevets of cap- 
tain and major. After the close of the 
Mexican war Longstreet served as adjutant 
and captain on frontier service in Texas un- 
til 1858 when he was transferred to the staff 
as paymaster with rank of major. In June, 
1 86 1, he resigned to join the Confederacy 
and immediately went to the front, com- 
manding a brigade at Bull Run the follow- 
ing month. Promoted to be major-general 
in 1862 he thereafter bore a conspicuous 



part and rendered valuable service to the 
Confederate cause. He participated in 
many of the most severe battles of the Civil 
v^ar including Bull Run (first and second), 
Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Fraziers Farm, 
Malvern Hill, Antietam, Frederickburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, 
the Wilderness, Petersburg and most of the 
fighting about Richmond. 

When the war closed General Long- 
street accepted the result, renewed his alle- 
giance to the government, and thereafter 
labored earnestly to obliterate all traces of 
war and promote an era of good feeling be- 
tween all sections of the country. He took 
up his residence in New Orleans, and took 
an active interest and prominent part in 
public affairs, served as surveyor of that 
port for several years; was commissioner of 
engineers for Louisiana, served four years 
as school commissioner, etc. In 1875 he 
was appointed supervisor of internal revenue 
and settled in Georgia. After that time he 
served four years as United States minister 
to Turkey, and also for a number of years 
was United States marshal of Georgia, be- 
sides having held other important official 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, the second chief- 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739. 
He was a son of John Rutledge, who had 
left Ireland for America about five years 
prior to the birth of our subject, and a 
brother of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. John Rut- 
ledge received his legal education at the 
Temple, London, after which he returned 
to Charleston and soon won distinction at 
the bar. He was elected to the old Colonial 
congress in 1765 to protest against the 
** Stamp Act," and was a member of the 

South Carolina convention of 1774, anj of 
the Continental congress of that and the 
succeeding year. In 1776 he was chairman 
of the committee that draughted the con- 
stitution of his state, and was president of 
the congress of that state. He was not 
pleased with the state constitution, how- 
ever, and resigned. In 1779 he was again 
chosen governor of the state, and granted 
extraordinary powers, and he at once took 
the field to repel the British. He joined 
the army of General Gates in 1782, and the 
same year was elected to congress. He 
was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention which framed our present constitu- 
tion. In 1 789 he was appointed an associate 
justice of the first supreme court of the 
United States. He resigned to accept the 
position of chief- justice of his own state. 
Upon the resignation of Judge Jay^ he was 
appointed chief-justice of the United States 
in 1795. The appointment was never con- 
firmed, for, after presiding at one session, 
his mind became deranged, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Ellsworth. He died at 
Charleston, July 23, 1800. 

of the most noted literary men of his 
time. He was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, May 25, 1803. He had a minister for 
an ancestor, either on the paternal or ma- 
ternal side, in every generation for eight 
generations back. His father, Rev. Will- 
iam Emerson, was a native of Concord, 
Massachusetts, born May 6, 1769, graduated 
at Harvard, in 1789, became a Unitarian 
minister; was a fine writer and one of the 
best orators of his day; died in 181 r. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson was fitted for 
college at the public schools of Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 182 1, win- 
ning about this time several prizes for es- 



says. For five years he taught school in 
Boston; in 1826 was licensed to preach, and 
in 1829 was ordained as a colleague to Rev. 
Henry Ware of the Second Unitarian church 
in Boston. In 1832 he resigned, making 
the announcement in a sermon of his un- 
«villingness longer to administer the rite of 
Ae Lord's Supper, after which he spent 
about a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he began his career as a lecturer before the 
Boston Mechanics Institute, his subject be- 
ing "Water." His early lectures on *' Italy" 
and "Relation of Man to the Globe" also 
attracted considerable attention; as did also 
his biographical lectures on Michael Angelo, 
Milton, Luther, George Fox, and Edmund 
Burke. After that time he gave many 
courses of lectures in Boston and became 
one of the best known lecturers in America. 
But very few men have rendered such con- 
tinued service in this field. He lectured for 
forty successive seasons before the Salem, 
Massachusetts, Lyceum and also made re- 
peated lecturing tours in this country and in 
England. In 1835 Mr. Emerson took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts, 
where he continued to make his home until 
his death which occurred April 27, 1882. 

Mr. Emerson's literary work covered a 
wide scope. He wrote and published many 
works, essays and poems, which rank high 
among the works of American literary men. 
A few of the many which he produced are 
the following: ** Nature;" *'The Method 
of Nature;'; *' Man Thinking;" "The Dial;" 
*' Essays;" "Poems;" "English Traits;" 
"The Conduct of Life;" '* May-Day and 
other Poems " and " Society and Solitude;" 
besides many others. He was a prominent 
member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the American Philosophical 
Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and other kindred associations. 

the famous merchant princes of New 
York, was born near the city of Belfast, Ire- 
land, in 1803, and before he was eight years 
of age was left an orphan without any near 
relatives, save an aged grandfather. The 
grandfather being a pious Methodist wanted 
to make a minister of young Stewart, and 
accordingly put him in a school with that 
end in view and he graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, in Dublin. When scarcely twenty 
years of age he came to New York. His 
first employment was that of a teacher, but 
accident soon made him a merchant. En- 
tering into business relations with an ex- 
perienced man of his acquaintance he soon 
found himself with the rent of a store on 
his hands and alone in a new enterprise. 
Mr. Stewart's business grew rapidly in all 
directions, but its founder had executive 
ability sufficient for any and all emergencies, 
and in time his house became one of the 
greatest mercantile establishments of mod- 
ern times, and the name of Stewart famous. 
Mr. Stewart's death occurred April 10, 

speaking of this noted American nov- 
elist, William Cullen Bryant said: "He 
wrote for mankind at large, hence it is that 
he has earned a fame wider than any Amer- 
ican author of modern times. The crea- 
tions of his genius shall survive through 
centuries to come, and only perish with our 
language." Another eminent writer (Pres- 
cott) said of Cooper: " In his productions 
every American must take an honest pride; 
for surely no one has succeeded like Cooper 
in the portraiture of American character, or 
has given such glowing and eminently truth- 
ful pictures of American scenery." 

James Fenimore Cooper was born Sep- 



tember 15, 1789, at Burlington, New Jer- 
sey, and was a son of Judge William Cooper. 
About a year after the birth of our subject 
the family removed to Otsego county, New 
York, and founded the town called " Coop- 
erstown." James Fenimore Cooper spent 
his childhood there and in 1802 entered 
Yale College, and four years later became a 
midshipman in the United States navy. In 
181 1 he was married, quit the seafaring life, 
and began devoting more or less time to lit- 
erary pursuits. His first work was "Pre- 
caution," a novel published in 18 19, and 
three years later he produced ''The Spy, a 
Tale of Neutral Ground," which met with 
g"reat favor and was a universal success. 
This was followed by many other works, 
among which may be mentioned the foUow^- 
ing: ' ' The Pioneers, " * * The Pilot, " ' ' Last 
of the Mohicans," *'The Prairie," '*The 
Red Rover," ''The Manikins," '^Home- 
ward Bound," ''Home as Found," "History 
of the United States Navy," *'The Path- 
finder," "Wing and Wing," "Afloat and 
Ashore," "The Chain-Bearer," " Oak- 
Openings," etc. J. Fenimore Cooper died 
at Cooperstown, New York, September 14, 

MARSHALL FIELD, one of the mer- 
chant princes of America, ranks among 
the most successful business men of the cen- 
tury. He was born in 1835 ^-^ Conway, 
Massachusetts. He spent his early life on 
a farm and secured a fair education in the 
common schools, supplementing this with a 
course at the Conway Academy. His 
natural bent ran in the channels of commer- 
cial life, and at the age of seventeen he was 
given a position in a store at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts. Mr. Field remained there 
four years and removed to Chicago in 1856. 
He began his career in Chicago as a clerk 

in the wholesale dry goods house of Cooley, 
Wadsworth & Company, which later be- 
came Cooley, Farwell & Company, and still 
later John V. Farwell & Company. He 
remained with them four years and exhibit- 
ed marked ability, in recognition of which 
he was given a partnership. In 1865 Mr. 
Field and L. Z. Leiter, who was also a 
member of the firm, withdrew and formed 
the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter, the 
third partner being Potter Palmer, and they 
continued in business until 1867, when Mr. 
Palmer retired and the firm became Field, 
Leiter & Company. They ran under the 
latter name until 1881, when Mr. Leiter re- 
tired and the house has since continued un- 
der the name of Marshall Field & Company. 
The phenomenal success accredited to the 
house is largely due to the marked ability 
of Mr. Field, the house had become one of 
the foremost in the west, with an annual 
sale of $8,000,000 in 1870. The total loss 
of the firm during the Chicago fire was 
$3,500,000 of which $2,500,000 was re- 
covered through the insurance companies. 
It rapidly recovered from the effects of this 
and to-day the annual sales amount to over 
$40,000,000. Mr. Field's real estate hold- 
ings amounted to $10,000,000. He was 
one of the heaviest subscribers to the Bap- 
tist University fund although he is a Presby- 
terian, and gave $1,000,000 for the endow- 
ment of the Field Columbian Museum — 
one of the greatest institutions of the kind 
in the world. 

EDGAR WILSON NYE, who won an im- 
mense popularity under the pen name 
of " Bill Nye," was one of the most eccen- 
tric humorists of his day. He was born Au- 
gust 25, 1850, at Shirley, Piscataqua coun- 
ty, Maine, "at a very early age" as he ex- 
presses it. He took an academic course 'vol 



River Falls, Wisconsin, from whence, after 
his graduation, he removed to Wyoming 
Territory. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1876. He began when 
quite young to contribute humorous sketches 
to the newspapers, became connected with 
various western journals and achieved a 
brilliant success as a humorist. Mr. Nye 
settled later in New York City where he 
devoted his time to writing funny articles for 
the big newspaper syndicates. He wrote for 
publication in book form the following : 
**Bill Nye and the Boomerang," **The 
Forty Liars," *'Baled Hay," ''Bill Nye's 
Blossom Rock," ''Remarks," etc. His 
death occurred February 21, 1896, at Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina. 

the most celebrated American preach- 
;^rs, was born January 7, 1832, and was the 
youngest of twelve children. He made his 
preliminary studies at the grammar school 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey. At the age 
xA eighteen he joined the church and entered 
the University of the City of New York, and 
graduated in May, 1853. The exercises 
were held in Niblo's Garden and his speech 
aroused the audience to a high pitch of en- 
thusiasm. At the close of his college duties 
he imagined himself interested in the law 
and for three years studied law. Dr. Tal- 
mage then perceived his mistake and pre- 
pared himself for the ministry at the 
Reformed Dutch Church Theological Semi- 
nary at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Just 
after his ordination the young minister re- 
ceived two calls, one from Piermont, New 
York, and the other from Belleville, New 
Jersey. Dr. Talmage accepted the latter 
and for three years filled that charge, when 
he was called to Syracuse, New York. Here 
it was that his sermons first drew large 

crowds of people to his church, and frcni 
thence dates his popularity. Afterward he 
became the pastor of the Second Reformed 
Dutch church, of Philadelphia, remaining 
seven years, during which period he first 
entered upon the lecture platform and laid 
the foundation for his future reputation. At 
the end of this time he received three calls, 
one from Chicago, one from San Francisco, 
and one from the Central Presbyterian 
church of Brooklyn, which latter at that 
time consisted of only nineteen members 
with a congregation of about thirty-five. 
This church offered him a salary of seven 
thousand dollars and he accepted the call. 
He soon induced the trustees to sell the old 
church and build a new one. They did so 
and erected the Brooklyn Tabernacle, but 
it burned down shortly after it was finished. 
By prompt sympathy and general liberality 
a new church was built and formally opened 
in February, 1874. It contained seats for 
four thousand, six hundred and fifty, but if 
necessary seven thousand could be accom- 
modated. In October, 1878, his salary was 
raised from seven thousand dollars to twelve 
thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 1889 
the second tabernacle was destroyed by fire. 
A third tabernacle was built and it was for- 
mally dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1891. 

JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, conceded as 
J being one of the greatest band leaders 
in the world, won his fame while leader of 
the United States Marine Band at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia. He was not 
originally a band player but was a violinist, 
and at the age of seventeen he was conduc- 
tor of an opera company, a profession which 
he followed for several years, until he was 
offered the leadership of the Marine Band 
at Washington. The proposition was re- 
pugnant to him at first but he accepted the 



offer and then ensued ten years of brilliant 
success with that organization. When he 
first took the Marine Band he began to 
gather the national airs of all the nations 
that have representatives in Washington, 
and compiled a comprehensive volume in- 
cluding nearly all the national songs of the 
different nations. He composed a number 
of marches, waltzes and two-steps, promi- 
nent among which are the *' Washington 
Post," ** Directorate," '* King Cotton," 
*' High School Cadets," *^ Belle of Chica- 
go," *' Liberty Bell March," *' Manhattan 
Beach," ^'On Parade March," ** Thunderer 
March," ''Gladiator March," *'ElCapitan 
March," etc. He became a very extensive 
composer of this class of music. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, sixth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, July ii, 1767, 
the son of John Adams. At the age of 
eleven he was sent to school at Paris, and 
two years later to Leyden, where he entered 
that great university. He returned to the 
United States in 1785, and graduated from 
Harvard in 1788. He then studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1791. His 
practice brought no income the first two 
years, but he won distinction in literary 
fields, and was appointed minister to The 
Hague in 1794. He married in 1797, and 
went as minister to Berlin the same year, 
*=^e.rving until 1801, when Jefferson became 
presmcnt. He was elected to the senate in 
1S03 by the Federalists, but was condemned 
by that party for advocating the Embargo 
Act and other Anti-Federalist measures. He 
was appointed as professor of rhetoric at 
Harvard in 1805, and in 1809 was sent as 
minister to Russia. He assisted in negotiat- 
ing the treaty of peace with England in 
1 8 14, and became minister to that power 

the next year. He served during Monroe's 
administration two terms as secretary of 
state, during which time party lines were 
obliterated, and in 1824 four candidates for 
president appeared, all of whom were iden- 
tified to some extent with the new *• Demo- 
cratic" party. Mr. Adams received 84 elec- 
toral votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41, and 
Clay 37. As no candidate had a majority 
of all votes, the election went to the house 
of representatives, which elected Mr. Adams. 
As Clay had thrown his influence to Mr. 
Adams, Clay became secretary of state, and 
this caused bitter feeling on the part of the 
Jackson Democrats, who were joined by 
Mr. Crawford and his following, and op- 
posed every measure of the administration. 
In the election of 1828 Jackson was elected 
over Mr. Adams by a great majority. 

Mr. Adams entered the lower house of 
congress in 1830, elected from the district 
in which he was born and continued to rep- 
resent it for seventeen years. He was 
known as '* the old man eloquent," and his 
work in congress was independent of party. 
He opposed slavery extension and insisted 
upon presenting to congress, one at a time, 
the hundreds of petitions against the slave 
power. One of these petitions, presented in 
1842, was signed by forty-five citizens of 
Massachusetts, and prayed congress for a 
peaceful dissolution of the Union. His 
enemies seized upon this as an opportunity 
to crush their powerful foe, and in a caucus 
meeting determined upon his expulsion from 
congress. Finding they would not be able 
to command enough votes for this, they de- 
cided upon a course th&t would bring equal 
disgrace. They formulated a resolution to 
the effect that while he merited expulsion, 
the house would, in great mercy, substitute 
its severest censure. When it was read in the 
house the old man, then in his seventy-fifth 



year, arose and demanded that the first para- 
graph of the Declaration of Independence 
be read as his defense. It embraced the 
famous sentence, *^that whenever any form 
of government becomes destructive to those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
etc., etc." After eleven days of hard fight- 
ing his opponents were defeated. On Febru- 
ary 21, 1848, he rose to address the speaker 
on the Oregon question, when he sluddenly 
fell from a stroke of paralysis. He died 
soon after in the rotunda of the capitol, 
where he had been conveyed by his col- 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY was one of the 
most famous women of America. She 
was *born at South Adams, Massachusetts, 
February 15, 1820, the daughter of a 
Quaker. She received a good education 
and became a school teacher, following that 
profession for fifteen years in New York. 
Beginning with about 1852 she bscam.e the 
active leader of the woman's rights move- 
ment and won a wide reputation for her 
£:eal and ability. She also distinguished 
herself for her zeal and eloquence in the 
temperance, and anti-slavery causes, and 
became a conspicuous figure during the war. 
After the close of the war she gave most of 
her labors to the cause of woman's suffrage. 

PHILIP D. ARMOUR, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the mercantile 
history of America, was born May 16, 1832, 
on a farm at Stockbridge, Madison county. 
New York, and received his early education 
in the common schools of that county. He 
was apprenticed to a farmer and worked 
faithfully and well, being very ambitious and 
desiring to start out for himself. At the 
age of twenty he secured a release from his 

indentures and set out overland for the 
gold fields of California. After a great 
deal of hard work he accumulated a little 
money and then came east and settled 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He went into 
the grain receiving and warehouse busi- 
ness and was fairly successful, and later on 
he formed a partnership with John Plankin- 
ton in the pork packing line, the style of the 
firm being Plankinton & Armour. Mr. Ar- 
mour made his first great ' * deal " in selling 
pork ''short" on the New York market in 
the anticipation of the fall of the Confed- 
eracy, and Mr. Armour is said to have made 
through this deal a million dollars. He then 
established packing houses in Chicago and 
Kansas City, and in 1875 he removed to 
Chicago. He increased his businevSS by add- 
ing to it the shipment of dressed beef to 
the European markets, and many other lines 
of trade and manufacturing, and it rapidly 
assumed vast proportions, employing an 
army of men in different lines of the busi- 
ness. Mr. Armour successfully conducted a 
great many speculative deals in pork and 
grain of immense proportions and also erected 
many large warehouses for the storage of 
grain. He became one of the representative 
business men of Chicago, where he became 
closely identified with all enterprises of a 
public nature, but his fame as a great busi- 
ness man extended to all parts of the world. 
He founded the ''Armour Institute " at Chi- 
cago and also contributed largely to benevo- 
lent and charitable institutions. 

ROBERT FULTON.— Although Fulton 
is best known as the inventor of the 
first successful steamboat, yet his claims to 
distinction do not rest alone upon that, for 
he was an inventor along other lines, a 
painter and an author. He was born at 
Litde Britain, Lancaster county, Pennsyl 



vania, in 1765, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
At the age of seventeen he removed to Phila- 
delphia, and there and in New York en- 
gaged in miniature painting with success 
both from a pecuniary and artistic point of 
view. With the results of his labors he pur- 
chased a farm for the support of his mother. 
He went to London and studied under the 
great painter, Benjamin West, and all 
through life retained his fondness for art 
and gave evidence of much ability in that 
line. While in England he was brought in 
contact with the Duke of Bridgewater, the 
father of the English canal system; Lord 
Stanhope, an eminent mechanician, and 
James Watt, the inventor of the steam en- 
gine. Their influence turned his mind to its 
true field of labor, that of mechanical in- 
vention. Machines for flax spinning, 
marble sawing, rope making, and for remov- 
ing earth from excavations, are among his 
earliest ventures. His *' Treatise on the 
Improvement of Canal Navigation, " issued 
in 1796, and a series of essays on canals 
were soon followed by an English patent 
for canal improvements. In 1797 he went 
to Paris, where he resided until 1806, and 
there invented a submarine torpedo boat for 
maritime defense, but which was rejected 
by the governments of France, England and 
the United States. In 1803 he offered to con- 
struct for the Emperor Napoleon a steam- 
boat that would assist in carrying out the 
plan of invading Great Britain then medi- 
tated by that great captain. In pursuance 
he constructed his first steamboat on the 
Seine, but it did not prove a full, success 
and the idea was abandoned by the French 
government. By the aid of Livingston, 
then United States minister to France, 
Fulton purchased, in 1806, an engine which 
he brought to this country. After studying 

the defects of his own and other attempts in 

this line he built and launched in 1807 the 
Clermont, the first successful steamboat. 
This craft only attained a speed of five 
miles an hour while going up North river. 
His first patent not fully covering his in- 
vention, Fulton was engaged in many law 
suits for infringement. He constructed 
many steamboats, ferryboats, etc., among 
these being the United States steamer 
*' Fulton the First," built in 18 14, the first 
war steamer ever built. This craft never 
attained any great speed owing to some de- 
fects in construction and accidentally blew 
up in 1829. Fulton died in New York, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1815. 

chief-justice of the United States, and 
one of the most eminent of American jurists, 
was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, Jan- 
uary 13, 1808. At the age of nine he was 
left in poverty by the death of his father, 
but means were found to educate him. He 
was sent to his uncle, a bishop, who con- 
ducted an academy near Columbus, Ohio, 
and here young Chase worked on the farm 
and attended school. At the age of fifteen 
he returned to his native state and entered 
Dartmouth College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1 826. He then went to Washington, 
and engaged in teaching school, and study- 
ing law under the instruction of William 
Wirt. He was licensed to practice in 1829, 
and went to Cincinnati, where he had a 
hard struggle for several years following. 
He had in the meantime prepared notes on 
the statutes of Ohio, which, when published, 
brought him into prominence locally. He 
was soon after appointed solicitor of the 
United States Bank. In 1837 he appeared 
as counsel for a fugitive slave woman, Ma- 
tilda, and sought by all the powers of his 
learning and eloquence to prevent her owner 



from reclaiming her. He acted in many 
other cases, and devolved the trite expres- 
5;ion, ''Slavery is sectional, freedom is na- 
tional." He was employed to defend Van 
Zandt before the supreme court of the United 
States in 1846, which was one of the most 
noted cases connected with the great strug- 
gle against slavery. By this time Mr. Chase 
had become the recognized leader of that 
element known as '' free-soilers." He was 
elected to the United States senate in 1849, 
and was chosen governor of Ohio in 1855 
and re-elected in 1857. He was chosen to 
the United States senate from Ohio in 1861, 
but was made secretary of the treasury by 
Lincoln and accepted. He inaugurated a 
financial system to replenish the exhausted 
treasury and meet the demands of the great- 
est war in history and at the same time to 
revive the industries of the country. One 
of the measures which afterward called for 
his judicial attention was the issuance of 
currency notes which were made a legal 
tender in payment of debts. When this 
question came before him as chief-justice 
of the United States he reversed his former 
action and declared the measure unconstitu- 
tional. The national banking system, by 
which all notes issued were to be based on 
funded government bonds of equal or greater 
amounts, had its direct origin with Mr. Chase. 
Mr. Chase resigned the treasury port- 
folio in 1864, and was appointed the same 
year as chief-justice of the United States 
supreme court. The great questions that 
came up before him at this crisis in the life 
of the nation were no less than those which 
confronted the first chief -justice at the for- i 
mation of our government. Reconstruction, | 
private, state and national interests, the 
constitutionality ot the acts of congress 
oassjed in tmaes of great excitement, the 
construction and interpretation to be placed 

upon the several amendments to the national 
constitution, — these were among the vital 
questions requiring prompt decision. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1870, which 
impaired his health, thcugh his mental 
powers were not affected. He continued to 
preside at the opening terms for two years 
following and died May 7, 1873. 

STOWE, a celebrated American writ- 
er, was born June 14, 18 12, at Litchfield, 
Connecticut. She was a daughter of Lyman 
Beecher and a sister of Henry Ward Beecher, 
tvv'o noted divines; was carefully educated, 
and taught school for several years at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. In 1832 Miss Beecher 
married Professor Stowe, then of Lane Semi- 
nary, Cincinnati, Ohio, and afterwards at 
Bowdoin College and Andover Seminary. 
Mrs. Stowe published in 1849 *'The May- 
flower, or sketches of the descendants of the 
Pilgrims, " and in 1851 commenced in the 
* ' National Era " of Washington, a serial story 
which was published separately in 1 8 5 2 under 
the title of ** Uncle Tom's Cabin." This 
book attained almost unparalleled success 
both at home and abroad, and within ten years 
it had been translated in almost every lan- 
guage of the civilized world. Mrs. Stowe pub- 
lished in 1853 a '*Keyto Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
in which the data that she used was published 
and its truthfulness was corroborated. In 
1853 she accompanied her husband and 
brother to Europe,, and on ner return puD- 
lished ''Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands " 
in 1 054. Mrs. Stowe was for some time 
one ot the editors of the •* Atlantic Monthly " 
and the '' Hearth and Home," for which 
she had written a number of articles. 
Among these, also published separately, are 
*' Dred, a tale of the Great Dismal Swamp " 
(later published under the title of '^ Nina 



Gordon"); '' The Minister's Wooing;" ''The 
Pearl of Orr's Island;" "Agnes of Sorrento;" 
-Oldtown Folks;" ''My Wife and I;" "Bible 
Heroines," and "A Dog's Mission." Mrs. 
Stowe's death occurred July I, 1896, at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

ter known as "Stonewall" Jackson, 
was one of the most noted of the Confeder- 
ate generals of the Civil war. He was a 
soldier by nature, an incomparable lieuten- 
ant, sure to execute any operation entrusted 
to him with marvellous precision, judgment 
and courage, and all his individual cam- 
paigns and combats bore the stamp of a 
masterly capacity for war. He was born 
January 21, 1824, at Clarksburg, Harrison 
county, West Virginia. He was early in 
life imbued with the desire to be a soldier 
and it is said walked from the mountains of 
Virginia to Washington, secured the aid of 
his congressman, and was appointed cadet 
at the United States Military Academy at 
West Point from which he was graduated in 

1846. Attached to the army as brevet sec- 
ond lieutenant of the First Artillery, his first 
service was as a subaltern with Magruder's 
battery of light artillery in the Mexican war. 
He participated at the reduction of Vera 
Cruz, and was noticed for gallantry in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Mohne 
del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of 
the city of Mexico, receiving the brevets of 
captain for conduct at Contreras and Cher- 
ubusco and of major at Chapultepec. In 
the meantime he had been advanced by 
regular promotion to be first lieutenant in 

1847. I^ 1852, the war having closed, he 
resigned and became professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy and artillery 
instructor at the Virginia State Military 
Institute at Lexington, Virginia, where he 

remained until Virginia declared for seces- 
sion, he becoming chiefly noted for intense 
religious sentiment coupled with personal 
eccentricities. Upon the breaking out of 
the war he was made colonel and placed in 
command of a force sent to sieze Harper's 
Ferry, which he accomplished May 3, 1S61. 
Relieved by General J. E. Johnston, May 
23, he took command of the brigade of 
Valley Virginians, whom he moulded into 
that brave corps, baptized at the first 
Manassas, and ever after famous as the 
" Stonewall Brigade." After this "Stone- 
wall " Jackson was made a major-general, 
in 1 861, and participated until his death in 
all the famous campaigns about Richmond 
and in Virginia, and was a conspicuous fig- 
ure in the memorable battles of that time. 
May 2, 1863, at Chancellorsville, he was 
wounded severely by his own troops, two 
balls shattering his left arm and another 
passing through the palm of his right hand. 
The left arm was amputated, but pneumonia 
intervened, and, weakened by the great loss 
of blood, he died May 10, 1863. The more 
his operations in the Shenandoah valley in 
1862 are studied the more striking must the 
merits of this great soldier appear. 

vJ Near to the heart of the people of the 
Anglo-Saxon race will ever lie the verses of 
this, the "Quaker Poet." The author of 
"Barclay of Ury," "Maud Muller" and 
"Barbara Frietchie," always pure, fervid 
and direct, will be remembered when many 
a more ambitious writer has been forgotten. 
John G. Whittier was born at Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, December 7, 1807, of 
Quaker parentage. He had but a common- 
school education and passed his boyhood 
days upon a farm. In early life he learned 
the trade of shoemaker. At the age of 



eighteen he began to write verses for the 
Haverhill *' Gazette." He spent two years 
after that at the Haverhill academy, after 
which, in 1829, he became editor of the 
**American Manufacturer," at Boston. In 
1830 he succeeded George D. Prentice as 
editor of the '*New England Weekly Re- 
view," but the following year returned to 
Haverhill and engaged in farming. In 1832 
and in 1836 he edited the '' Gazette." In 
1835 he was elected a member of the legis- 
lature, serving two years. In 1836 he became 
secretary of the Anti-slavery Society of Phil- 
adelphia. In 1838 and 1839 he edited the 
** Pennsylvania Freeman," but in the latter 
year the office was sacked and burned by a 
mob. In 1840 Whittier settled at Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts. In 1847 he became 
corresponding editor of the '* National Era," 
an anti-slavery paper published at Washing- 
ton, and contributed to its columns many of 
his anti-slavery and other favorite lyrics. 
Mr. Whittier lived for many years in retire- 
ment of Quaker simplicity, publishing several 
volumes of poetry which have raised him to 
a high place among American authors and 
brought to him the love and admiration of 
his countrymen. In the electoral colleges 
of 1 860 and 1 864 Whittier v/as a member. 
Much of his time after i8y6 was spent at 
Oak Knoll, Danvers, Massachusetts, but 
still retained his residence at Amesbury. 
He never married. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 7, 1892. 

The more prominent prose writings of 
John G. Whittier are as follows: ** Legends 
of New England," ''Justice and Expediency, 
or Slavery Considered with a View to Its Abo- 
lition," '* The Stranger in Lowell," "Super- 
naturalism in New England," '' Leaves from 
Margaret Smith's Journal," ''Old Portraits 
and Modern Sketches" and " Literary 
Sketches. " 

DAVID DIXON PORTER, illustrious as 
admiral of the United States navy, and 
famous as one of the most able naval offi- 
cers of America, was born in Pennsylvania, 
June 8, 1 8 14. His father w^as also a naval 
officer of distinction, who left the service of 
the United States to become commander of 
the naval forces of Mexico during the war 
between that country and Spain, and 
through this fact David Dixon Porter was 
appointed a midshipman in the Mexican 
navy. Two years later David D. Porter 
joined the United States navy as midship- 
man, rose in rank and eighteen years later 
as a lieutenant he is found actively engaged 
in all the operations of our navy along the 
east coast of Mexico. When the Civil war 
broke out Porter, then a commander, was 
dispatched in the Povvhattan to the relief of 
Fort Pickens, Florida. This duty accom- 
plished, he fitted out a mortar flotilla for 
the reduction of the forts guarding the ap- 
proaches to New Orleans, which it was con- 
sidered of vital importance for the govern- 
ment to get possession of. After the fall of 
New Orleans the mortar flotilla was actively 
engaged at Vicksburg, and in the fall of 
1862 Porter was made a rear-admiral and 
placed in command of all the naval forces 
on the western rivers above New Orleans. 
The ability of the man was now con- 
spicuously manifested, not only in the bat- 
tles in which he was engaged, but also in 
the creation of a formidable fleet out of 
river steamboats, which he covered with 
such plating as they would bear. In 1864 
he was transferred to the Atlantic coast to 
command the naval forces destined to oper- 
ate against the defences of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and on Jan. 15, 1865, the 
fall of Fort Fisher was hailed by the country 
as a glorious termination of his arduous war 
service. In 1S66 he was made vice-admiral 



and appointed superintendent of the Naval 
Academy. On the death of Farragut, in 
1870, he succeeded that able man as ad- 
miral of the navy. His death occurred at 
Washington, February 13, 1891. 

NATHANIEL GREENE was one of the 
best known of the distinguished gen- 
erals who led the Continental soldiery 
against the hosts of Great Britain during 
the Revolutionary war. He was the son 
of Quaker parents, and was born at War- 
wick, Rhode Island, May 27, 1742. In 
youth he acquired a good education, chiefly 
by his own efforts, as he was a tireless 
reader. In 1770 he was elected a member 
of the Assembly of his native state. The 
news of the battle of Lexington stirred 
his blood, and he offered his services to 
the government of the colonies, receiving 
the rank of brigadier-general and the com- 
mand of the troops from Rhode Island. 
He led them to the camp at Cambridge, 
and for thus violating the tenets of their 
faith, he was cast out of the Society of 
Friends, or Quakers. He soon won the es- 
teem of General Washington. In August, 

1776, Congress promoted Greene to the 
rank of major-general, and in the battles of 
Trenton and. Princeton he led a division. 
At the battle of Brandy wine, September 11, 

1777, he greatly distinguished himself, pro- 
tecting the retreat of the Continentals by 
his firm stand. At the battle of German- 
town, October 4, the same year, he com- 
manded the left wing of the army with 
credit. In March, 1778, he reluctantly ac- 
cepted the office of quartermaster-general, 
but only with the understanding that his 
rank in the army would not be aflected and 
that in action he should retain his command. 
On the bloody field of Monmouth, June 28, 

1778, he commanded the right wing, as he 

did at the battle of Tiverton Heights. He 
was in command of the army in 1780, dur- 
ing the absence of Washington, and was 
president of the court-martial that tried and 
condemned Major Andre. After General 
Gates' defeat at Camden, North Carolina, in 
the summer of 1 780, General Greene w^as ap- 
pointed to the command of the southern army. 
He sent out a force under General Morgan 
who defeated General Tarleton at Cowpens, 
January 17, 1781. On joining his lieuten- 
ant, in February, he found himself out num- 
bered by the British and retreated in good 
order to Virginia, but being reinforced re- 
turned to North Carolina where he fought 
the battle of Guilford, and a few days later 
compelled the retreat of Lord Cornwallis. 
The British were followed by Greene part 
of the way, when the American army 
marched into South Carolina. After vary- 
ing success he fought the battle of Eutaw 
Springs, September 8, 1781. For thelatter 
battle and its glorious consequences, which 
virtually closed the war in the Carolinas, 
Greene received a medal from Congress and 
many valuable grants of land from the 
colonies of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. On the return of peace, after a 
year spent in Rhode Island, General Greene 
took up his residence on his estate near 
Savannah, Georgia, where he died June 19, 

EDGAR ALLEN POE.— Among the 
many great literary men whom this 
country has produced, there is perhaps no 
name more widely known than that of Ed- 
gar Allen Poe. He was born at Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 19, 1809. His 
parents were David and Elizabeth (Arnold) 
Poe, both actors, the mother said to have 
been the natural daughter of Benedict Ar- 
nold. The parents died while Edgar was 



still a child and he was adopted by John 
Allen, a wealthy and influential resident of 
Richmond, Virginia. Edgar was sent to 
school at Stoke, Newington, England, 
where he remained until he was thirteen 
years old; was prepared for college by pri- 
vate tutors, and in 1826 entered the Virginia 
University at Charlottesville. He made 
rapid progress in his studies, and was dis- 
tinguished for his scholarship, but was ex- 
pelled within a year for gambling, after 
which for several years he resided with his 
benefactor at Richmond. He then went to 
Baltimore, and in 1829 published a 71 -page 
pamphlet called **A1 Aaraaf, Tamerlane 
and Minor Poems," which, however, at- 
tracted no attention and contained nothing 
of particular merit. In 1830 he was ad- 
mitted as a cadet at West Point, but was 
expelled about a year later for irregulari- 
ties. Returning to the home of Mr. Allen 
he remained for some time, and finally 
quarrelled with his benefactor and enlisted 
as a private soldier in the U. S. army, but 
remained only a short time. Soon after 
this, in 1833, Poe won several prizes for 
literary work, and as a result secured the 
position of editor of Irhe ' * Southern Liter- 
ary Messenger," at Richmond, Virginia. 
Here he married his cousin, Virginia 
Clemm, who clung to him with fond devo- 
tion through all the many trials that came 
to them until her death in January, 1848. 
Poe remained with the ** Messenger" for 
several years, writing meanwhile many 
tales, reviews, essays and poems. He aft- 
erward earned a precarious living by his 
pen in New York for a time; in 1839 be- 
came editor of ** Burton's Gentleman's 
Magazine" ; in 1840 to 1842 was editor of 
** Graham's Magazine," and drifted around 
irom one place to another, returning to 
New York in 1844. In 1845 his best 

known production, **The Raven, " appeared 
in the *'Whig Review," and gained him a 
reputation which is now almost world-wide. 
He then acted as editor and contributor on 
various magazines and periodicals until the 
death of his faithful wife in 1848. In the 
summer of 1849 he was engaged to be mar- 
ried to a lady of fortune in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and the day set for the wedding. 
He started for New York to make prepara- 
tions for the event, but, it is said, began 
drinking, was attacked with dilirium tre- 
mens in Baltimore and was removed to a 
hospital, where he died, October 7, 1849. 
The works of Edgar Allen Poe have been 
repeatedly published since his death, both 
in Europe and America, and have attained 
an immense popularity. 

HORATIO GATES, one of the prom- 
inent figures in the American war for 
Independence, was not a native of the col- 
onies but was born in England in 1728. In 
early life he entered the British army and 
attained the rank of major. At the capture 
of Martinico he was aide to General Monk- 
ton and after the peace of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, he was among the first troops that 
landed at Halifax. He was with Braddock 
at his^defeat in 1755, and was there severe- 
ly wounded. At the conclusion of the 
French and Indian war Gates purchased an 
estate in Virginia, and, resigning from the 
British army, settled down to life as a 
planter. On the breaking out of the Rev- 
olutionary war he entered the service of the 
colonies and was made adjutant-general of 
the Continental forces with the rank of 
brigadier-general. He accompanied Wash^ 
ington when he assumed the command oi 
the army. In June, 1776, he was appoint^ 
ed to the command of the army of Canada, 
but was superseded in May of the following 



year by General Schuyler. In August, 
1/77, however, the command of that army 
was restored to General Gates and Septem- 
ber 19 he fought the battle of Bemis 
Heights. October 7, the same year, he 
won the battle of Stillwater, or Saratoga, 
and October 17 received the surrender of 
General Burgoyne and his army, the pivotal 
poinr, of the war. This gave him a brilliant 
reputation. June 13, 1780. General Gates 
was appointed to the command oi the 
southern military division, and August 16 of 
that year suffered defeat at the hands of 
Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, North Car- 
olina. In December following he was 
superseded in the command by General 
Nathaniel Greene. 

On the signing of the peace treaty Gen- 
eral Gates retired to his plantation in 
Berkeley county, Virginia, where he lived 
until 1790, when, emancipating all his 
slaves, he removed to New York City, where 
he resided until his death, April 10, 1806. 

LYMAN J. GAGE.— When President Mc- 
Kinley selected Lyman J. Gage as sec- 
retary of the treasury he chose one of the 
most eminent financiers of the century. Mr. 
Gage was born June 28, 1836, at De Ruy- 
ter, Madison county. New York, and was of 
English descent. He went to Rome, New 
York, with his parents when he was ten 
years old, and received his early education 
in the Rome Academy. Mr. Gage gradu- 
ated from the same, and his first position 
was that of a clerk in the post ofBce. When 
he was fifteen years of age he was detailed 
as mail agent on the Rome & Watertown 
R. R. until the postmaster-general appointed 
regular agents for the route. In 1854, when 
he was in his eighteenth year, he entered 
the Oneida Central Bank at Rome as a 
junior clerk at a salary of one hundred dol- 

lars per year. Being unable at the end of 
one year and a half's service to obtain an 
increase in salary he determined to seek a 
wider field of labor, Mr. Gage set out in 
the fall of 1855 and arrived in Chicago, 
Illinois, on October 3, and soon obtained a 
situation in Nathan Cobb's lumber yard and 
planing mill. He remained there three years 
as a bookkeeper, teamster, etc., and left on 
account of change in the management. But 
not being able to find anything else to do he 
accepted the position of night watchman in 
the place for a period of six weeks. He 
then became a bookkeeper for the Mer- 
chants Saving, Loan and Trust Company at 
a salary of five hundred dollars per year. 
He rs.pidly advanced in the service of this 
company and in 1868 he was made cashier. 
Mr. Gage was next offered the position of 
cashier of the First National Bank and ac- 
cepted the offer. He became the president 
of the First National Bank of Chicago Jan- 
uary 24, 1 89 1, and in 1897 he was appointed 
secretary of the treasury. Hi:^ ability as a 
financier and the prominent part ne took in 
the discussion of financial aff--'rs while presi- 
dent of the great Chicago b'__:. ave him a 
national reputation. 

ANDREW JACKSON, the seventh pres- 
ident of the United States, was born 
at the Waxhaw settlement, Union county, 
North Carolina, March 15, 1767. His 
parents were Scotch-Irish, natives of Carr- 
ickfergus, who came to this country in 1665 
and settled on Twelve-Mile creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His father, who 
was a poor farm laborer, died shortly be- 
fore Andrew's birth, when the mother re- 
moved to Waxhaw, where some relatives 
lived. Andrew's education was very limited, 
he showing no aptitude for study. In 1780 
when but thirteen years of age, he and his 



brother Robert volunteered to serve in the 
American partisan troops under General 
Sumter, and witnessed the defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. The following year the boys 
were both taken prisoners by the enemy 
and endured brutal treatment from the 
British officers while confined at Camden. 
They both took the small pox, when the 
mother procured their exchange but Robert 
died shortly after. The mother died in 
Charleston of ship fever, the same year. 

Young Jackson, now in destitute cir- 
cumstances, worked for about six months in 
a saddler's shop, and then turned school 
master, although but little fitted for the 
position. He now began to think of a pro- 
fession and at Salisbury, North Carolina, 
entered upon the study of law, but from all 
accounts gave but little attention to his 
books, being one of the most roistering, 
rollicking fellows in that town, indulging in 
many of the vices of his time. In 1786 he 
was admitted to the bar and in 1788 re- 
moved to Nashville, then in North Carolina, 
with the appointment of public prosecutor, 
then an office of little honor or emolument, 
but requiring much nerve, for which young 
Jackson was already noted. Two years 
later, when Tennessee became a territory 
he was appointed by Washington to the 
position of United States attorney for that 
district. In 1791 he married Mrs. Rachel 
Robards, a daughter of Colonel John Don- 
elson, who was supposed at the time to 
have been divorced from her former hus- 
band that year by act of legislature of Vir- 
ginia, but two years later, on finding that 
this divorce was not legal, and a new bill of 
separation being granted by the courts of 
Kentucky, they were remarried in 1793. 
This was used as a handle by his oppo- 
nents in the political campaign afterwards. 
Jackson was untiring in his efforts as United 

States attorney and obtained much influence. 
He was chosen a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1796, when Tennessee 
became a state and was its first represent- 
ative in congress. In 1797 he was chosen 
United States senator, but resigned the fol- 
lowing year to accept a seat on the supreme 
court of Tennessee which he held until 
1804. He was elected major-general of 
the militia of that state in 1801. In 1804, 
being unsuccessful in obtaining the govern- 
orship of Louisiana, the new territory, he 
retired from public life to the Hermitage, 
his plantation. On the outbreak of the 
war with Great Britain in 18 12 he tendered 
his services to the government and went to 
New Orleans with the Tennessee troops in 
January, 1813. In March of that year he 
was ordered to disband his troops, but later 
marched against the Cherokee Indians, de- 
feating them at Talladega, Emuckfaw 
and Tallapoosa. Having now a national 
reputation, he was appointed major-general 
in the United States army and was sent 
against the British in Florida. He con- 
ducted the defence of Mobile and seized 
Pensacola. He then went with his troops 
to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he gained 
the famous victory of January 8, 181 5. In 
1817-18 he conducted a war against the 
Seminoles, and in 1821 was made governor 
of the new territory of Florida. In 1823 
he was elected United States senator, but 
in 1 824 was the contestant with J. Q. Adams 
for the presidency. Four years later he 
was elected president, and served two terms. 
In 1832 he took vigorous action against the 
nullifiers of South Carolina, and the next 
year removed the public money from the 
United States bank. During his second 
term the national debt was extinguished. At 
the close of his administration he retired to 
the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845.. 



ANDREW CARNEGIE, the largest manu- 
facturer of pig-iron, steel rails and 
coke in the world, well deserves a place 
among America's celebrated men. He was 
born November 25, 1835, at Dunfermline, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States 
with his father in 1845, settling in Pittsburg. 
Two years later Mr. Carnegie began his 
business career by attending a small station- 
ary engine. This work did not suit him and 
he became a telegraph messenger with the 
Atlantic and Ohio Co., and later he became 
an operator, and was one of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound. Mr. Carnegie 
was afterward sent to the Pittsburg office 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., as clerk 
to the superintendent and manager of the 
telegraph lines. While in this position he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Woodruff, the 
inventor of the sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie 
immediately became interested and was one 
of the organizers of the company for its con- 
struction after the railroad had adopted it, 
and the success of this venturegave him the 
nucleus of his wealth. He was promoted 
to the superintendency of the Pittsburg 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
about this time was one of the syndicate 
that purchased the Storey farm on Oil Creek 
which cost forty thousand dollars and in one 
year it yielded over one million dollars in 
cash dividends. Mr. Carnegie later was as- 
sociated with others in establishing a rolling- 
mill, and from this has grown the most ex- 
tensive and complete system of iron and 
steel industries ever controlled by one indi- 
vidual, embracing the Edgar Thomson 
Steel Works; Pittsburg Bessemer Steel 
Works; Lucy Furnaces; Union Iron Mills; 
Union Mill; Keystone Bridge Works; Hart- 
man Steel Works; Frick Coke Co.; Scotia 
Ore Mines. Besides directing his immense 
iron industries he owned eighteen English 

newspapers which he ran in the interest or 
the Radicals. He has also devoted large 
sums of money to benevolent and educational 
purposes. In 1879 he erected commodious 
swimming baths for the people of Dunferm- 
line, Scotland, and in the following year 
gave forty thousand dollars for a free library. 
Mr. Carnegie gave fifty thousand dollars to 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1884 
to found what is now called ' * Carnegie Lab- 
oratory, " and in 1885 gave five hundred 
thousand dollars to Pittsburg for a public 
library. He also gave two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars for a music hall and library 
in Allegheny City in 1886, and two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars to Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, for a free library. He also established 
free libraries at Braddock, Pennsylvania, 
and other places for the benefit of his em- 
ployes. He also published the following 
works, **An American Four-in-hand in 
Britain;" *^ Round the World;" ** Trium- 
phant Democracy; or Fifty Years' March of 
the Republic." 

GEORGE H. THOMAS, the - Rock of 
Chickamauga, " one of the best known 
commanders during the late Civil war, was 
born in Southampton county, Virginia, July 
31, 1 8 16, his parents being of Welsh and 
French origin respectively. In 1836 young 
Thomas was appointed a cadet at the Mili-^ 
tary Academy, at West Point, from which 
he graduated in 1840, and was promoted to 
the office of second lieutenant in the Third 
Artillery. Shortly after, with his company, 
he went to Florida, where he served for two 
years against the Seminole Indians. In 
1 84 1 he was bre vetted first lieutenant for 
gallant conduct. He remg»ined in garrison 
in the south and southwest until 1845, at 
which date with the regiment he joined the 
army under General Taylor, and participate 



ed in the defense of Fort Brown, the storm- 
ing of Monterey and the battle of Buena 
Vista. After the latter event he remained 
in garrison, now brevetted major, until the 
close of the Mexican war. After a year 
spent in Florida, Captain Thomas was or- 
dered to West Point, where he served as in- 
structor until 1854. He then was trans- 
ferred to California. In May, 1855, Thom- 
as was appointed major of the Second Cav- 
alry, with whom he spent five years in Texas. 
Although a southern man, and surrounded 
by brother officers who all were afterwards 
In the Confederate service, Major Thomas 
never swerved from his allegiance to the 
government. A. S. Johnston was the col- 
onel of the regiment, R. E. Lee the lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and W. J. Hardee, senior ma- 
jor, while among the younger officers were 
Hood, Fitz Hugh Lee, Van Dorn and Kirby 
Smith. When these officers left the regi- 
ment to take up arms for the Confederate 
cause he remained with it, and April 17th, 
1 86 1, crossed the Potomac into his native 
state, at its head. After taking an active part 
in the opening scenes of the war on the Poto- 
mac and Shenandoah, in August, 1861, he 
was promoted to be brigadier-general and 
transferred to the Army of the Cumberland. 
January 19-20, 1862, Thomas defeated 
Crittenden at Mill Springs, and this brought 
him into notice and laid the foundation of 
his fame. He continued in command of his 
division until September 20, 1862, except 
during the Corinth campaign when he com- 
manded the right wing of the Army of the 
Tennessee. He was in command of the 
latter at the battle of Perryville, also, Octo- 
ber 8, 1862. 

On the division of the Army of the Cum- 
berland into corps, January 9, 1863, Gen- 
eral Thomas was assigned to the command 
of the Fourteenth, and at the battle of Chick- 

amauga, after the retreat of Rosecrans, 
firm.Iy held his own against the hosts of Gen- 
eral Bragg. A history of his services from 
that on would be a history of the war in the 
southwest. On September 27, 1864, Gen- 
eral Thomas was given command in Ten- 
nessee, and after organizing his army, de- 
feated General Hood in the battle of Nash- 
ville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Much 
complaint was made before this on account 
of what they termed Thomas' slowness, and 
he was about to be superseded because he 
would not strike until he got ready, but 
when the blow was struck General Grant 
was the first to place on record this vindica- 
tion of Thomas' judgment. He received a 
vote of thanks from Congress, and from the 
legislature of Tennessee a gold medal. Af- 
ter the close of the w^ar General Thomas 
had command of several of the military di- 
visions, and died at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, March 28, 1870. 

GEORGE BANCROFT, one of the most 
eminent American historians, was a 
native of Massachusetts, born at Worcester, 
October 3, 1800, and a son of Aaron 
Bancroft, D. D. The father, Aaron Ban- 
croft, was born at Reading, Massachusetts, 
November 10, 1755. He graduated at 
Harvard in 1778, became a minister, and for 
half a century was rated as one of the ablest 
preachers in New England. He was also a 
prolific writer and published a number of 
works among which was ' ' Life of George 
Washington. " Aaron Bancroft died August 
19, 1839. 

The subject of our present biography, 
George Bancroft, graduated at Harvard in 
1 817, and the following year entered the 
University of Gottingen, where he studied 
history and philology under the most emi- 
nent teachers, and in 1820 received the de- 



gvee of doctor of philosophy at Gottingen. 
Upon his return home he pubhshed a volume 
of poems, and later a translation of Heeren's 
** Reflections on the Politics of Ancient 
Greece." In 1834 he produced the first 
volume of his ** History of the United 
States," this being followed by other vol- 
umes at different intervals later. This was 
his greatest work and ranks as the highest 
authority, taking its place among the great- 
est of American productions. 

George Bancroft was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Polk in 1845, but 
resigned in 1846 and became minister pleni- 
potentiary to England. In 1849 he retired 
from public life and took up his residence at 
Washington, D. C. In 1867 he was ap- 
pointed United States minister to the court of 
Berlin and negotiated the treaty by which Ger- 
mans coming to the United States were re- 
leased from their allegiance to the govern- 
ment of their native land. In 1871 he was 
minister plenipotentiary to the German em- 
pire and served until 1874. The death of 
George Bancroft occurred January 17, 1891. 

mous Union general, was born at 
Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 181 5, his father 
being United States naval agent at that 
port. After receiving a good education he 
entered the West Point Military Academy 
in 1 83 1. From here he was graduated 
June 30, 1835, ^J^d received the rank of 
second lieutenant of artillery. He par- 
ticipated in the Seminole war, but resigned 
from the army in October, 1836. He en- 
tered upon the profession of civil engineer, 
which he followed for several years, part of 
the time in the service of the government in 
making surveys of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river. His report and results of some 
experiments made by him in this service 

gained Meade much credit. He alsu was 
employed in surveying the boundary hue of 
Texas and the northeastern boundary line 
between the United States and Canada. 
In 1842 he was reappointed in the army to 
the position of second lieutenant of engineers. 
During the Mexican war he served with dis- 
tinction on the staff of General Taylor in 
the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma 
and the storming of Monterey. He received 
his brevet of first lieutenant for the latter 
action. In 1851 he was made full first 
lieutenant in his corps; a captain in 1856, 
and major soon after. At the close of the 
war with Mexico he was employed in light- 
house construction and in geodetic surveys 
until the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 
which he gained great reputation. In 
August, 1861, he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers and placed in command of the 
second brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
a division of the First Corps in the Army of 
the Potomac. In the campaign of 1862, 
under McClellan, Meade took an active 
part, being present at the battles of Mechan- 
icsville, Gaines' Mill and Glendale, in the 
latter of which he was severely wounded. 
On rejoining his command he was ^iven a 
division and distinguished himself at its head 
in the battles of South Mountain and Antie- 
tam. During the latter, on the wounding 
of General Hooker, Meade was placed in 
command of the corps and was himself 
slightly wounded. For services he was 
promoted, November, 1862, to the rank 
of major-general of volunteers. On the 
recovery of General Hooker General Meade 
returned to his division and in December, 
1862, at Fredericksburg, led an attack 
which penetrated Lee's right line and swept 
to his rear. Being outnumbered and un- 
supported, he finally was driven back. The 
same month Meade was assigned to the 



command of the Fifth Corps, and at Chan- 
cellorsville in May, 1863, his sagacity and 
ability so struck General Hooker that when 
the latter asked to be relieved of the com- 
mand, in June of the same year, he nomi- 
nated Meade as his successor. June 28, 
1863, President Lincoln commissioned Gen- 
eral Meade commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Potomac, then scattered and moving 
hastily through Pennsylvania to the great 
and decisive battlefield at Gettysburg, at 
which he was in full command. With the 
victory on those July days the name of 
Meade will ever be associated. From that 
time until the close of the war he com- 
manded the Army of the Potomac. In 
1864 General Grant, being placed at the 
head of all the armies, took up his quarters 
with the Army of the Potomac. From that 
time until the surrender of Lee at Appo- 
matox Meade's ability shone conspicuously, 
and his tact in the delicate position in lead- 
ing his army under the eye of his superior 
officer commanded the respect and esteem 
of General Grant. For services Meade was 
promoted to the rank of major-general, and 
on the close of hostilities, in July, 1865, 
was assigned to the command of the military 
division of the Atlantic, with headquarters 
at Philadelphia. This post he held, with 
the exception of a short period on detached 
duty in Georgia, until his death, which took 
place November 6, 1872. 

DAVID CROCKETT was a noted hunter 
and scout, and also one of the earliest 
of American humorists. He was born Au- 
gust 17, 1786, in Tennessee, and was one 
of the most prominent men of his locality, 
serving as representative in congress from 
1827 until 1 83 1. He attracted consider- 
able notice while a member of congress and 
was closely associated with General Jack- 

son, of whom he was a personal friend. He 
went to Texas and enlisted in the Texan 
army at the time of the revolt of Texas 
against Mexico and gained a wide reputa- 
tion as a scout. He was one of the famous 
one hundred and forty men under Colonel 
W. B. Travis who were besieged in Fort 
Alamo, near San Antonio, Texas, by Gen- 
eral Santa Anna with some five thousand 
Mexicans on February 23, 1836. The fort 
was defended for ten days, frequent assaults 
being repelled with great slaughter, over 
one thousand Mexicans being killed or 
wounded, while not a man in the fort was 
injured. Finally, on March 6, three as- 
saults were made, and in the hand-to-hand 
fight that followed the last, the Texans were 
wofully outnumbered and overpowered. 
They fought desperately with clubbed mus- 
kets till only six were left alive, including 
W. B. Travis, David Crockett and James 
Bowie. These surrendered under promise 
of protection; but when they were brought 
before Santa Anna he ordered them all to 
be cut to pieces. 

HENRY WATTERSON, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the history of 
American journalism, was born at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, February 16, 
1 840. His boyhood days were mostly spent 
in the city of his birth, where his father, 
Harvey M. Watterson, was editor of the 
** Union," a well known journal. 

Owing to a weakness of the eyes, which 
interfered with a systematic course of study, 
young Watterson was educated almost en- 
tirely at home. A successful college career 
was out of the question, but he acquired a 
good knowledge of music, literature and art 
from private tutors, but the mpst valuable 
part of the training he received was by as- 
sociating with his father and the throng ot^ 



public men whom he met in Washington 
in the stirring days immediately preceding 
the Civil war. He began his journalistic 
career at an early age as dramatic and 
musical critic, and in 1858, became editor 
of the ** Democratic Review" and at the 
same time contributed to the *' States, " 
a journal of liberal opinions published in 
Washington. In this he remained until 
the breaking out of the war, when the 
*' States," opposing the administration, was 
suppressed, and young W^atterson removed 
to Tennessee. He next appears as editor 
of the Nashville *' Republican Banner," the 
most influential paper in the state at that 
time. After the occupation of Nashville by 
the Federal troops, Watterson served as a 
volunteer staff officer in the Confederate 
service until the close of the war, with the 
exception of a year spent in editing the 
Chattanooga '* Rebel." On the close of 
the war he returned to Nashville and re- 
sumed his connection with the "Banner." 
After a trip to Europe he assumed control 
of the Louisville ** Journal," which he soon 
combined with the ** Courier" and the 
** Democrat" of that place, founding the 
well-known ** Courier-Journal," the first 
number of which appeared November 8, 
1868. Mn Watterson also represented his 
district in congress for several years. 

one of the most successful and widely 
known bandmasters and musicians of the 
last half century in America, was born in 
Ballygar, Ireland, on Christmas day, 1829. 
He attended a public school until appren- 
ticed to a wholesale merchant at Athlone, 
of the brass band of which town he soon 
became a member. His passion fpr music 
conflicting with the duties of a mercantile 
life, his position as clerk was exchanged for 

that of musical instructor to the young song 
of his employer. At the age of nineteen he 
sailed for America and two days after his 
arrival in Boston was put in charge of the 
band instrument department of a prominent 
music house. In the interests of the pub- 
lications of this house he organized a minstrel 
company known as *'Ordway's Eolians," 
with which he first achieved success as a 
cornet soloist. Later on he was called the 
best E-flat cornetist in the United States. 
He became leader, successively, of the Suf- 
folk, Boston Brigade and Salem bands. 
During his connection with the latter he 
inaugurated the famous Fourth of July con- 
certs on Boston Common, since adopted as 
a regular programme for the celebration of 
Independence Day. In 1858 Mr. Gilmore 
founded the organization famous thereafter 
as Gilmore's Band. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war this band was attached to the 
Twenty-Fourth , Massachusetts Infantry. 
Later, when the economical policy of dis- 
pensing with music had proved a mistake, 
Gilmore was entrusted with the re-organiza- 
tion of state military bands, and upon his 
arrival at New Orleans with his own band 
was made bandmaster-general by General 
Banks. On the inauguration of Governor 
Hahn, later on, in Lafayette square, New 
Orleans, ten thousand children, mostly of 
Confederate parents, rose to the baton of 
Gilmore and, accompanied by six hundred 
instruments, thirty-six guns and the united 
fire of three regiments of infantry, sang the 
Star-Spangled Banner, America and other 
patriotic Union airs. In June, 1867, Mr. 
Gilmore conceived a national musical festi^ 
val, which w^as denounced as a chimerical 
undertaking, but he succeeded and June 15, 
1869, stepped upon the stage of the Boston 
Colosseum, a vast structure erected for the 
occasion, and in the presence of over fifty. 



thousand people lifted his baton over an 
orchestra of one thousand and a chorus of 
ten thousand. On the 17th of June, 1872, 
he opened a still greater festival in Boston, 
when, in addition to an orchestra of two 
thousand and a chorus of twenty thousand, 
were present the Band of the Grenadier 
Guards, of London, of the Garde Repub- 
licaine, of Paris, of Kaiser Franz, of Berlin, 
and one from Dublin, Ireland, together with 
Johann Strauss, Franz Abt and many other 
soloists, vocal and instrumental. Gilmore's 
death occurred September 24, 1892. 

MARTIN VAN BUREN was the eighth 
president of the United States, 1837 
to 1 84 1. He was of Dutch extraction, and 
his ancestors were among the earliest set- 
tlers on the banks of the Hudson. He was 
born December 5, 1782, at Kinderhook, 
New York. Mr. Van Buren took up the 
study of law at the age of fourteen and took 
an active part in political matters before he 
had attained his majority. He commenced 
the practice of law in 1803 at his native 
town, and in 1809 he removed to Hudson, 
Columbia county, New York, where he 
spent seven years gaining strength and wis- 
dom from his contentions at the bar with 
some of the ablest men of the profession. 
Mr. Van Buren was elected to the state 
senate, and from 181 5 until 18 19 he was at- 
torney-general of the state. He was re- 
elected to the senate in 18 16, and in 18 18 
he was one of the famous clique of politi- 
cians known as the ** Albany regency.** 
Mr. Van Buren was a member of the con- 
vention for the revision of the state consti- 
tution, in 1 82 1. In the same year he was 
elected to the United States senate and 
served his term in a manner that caused his 
re-election to that body in 1827, but re- 
signed the following year as he had been 

elected governor of New York. Mr. Van 
Buren was appointed by President Jackson as 
secretary of state in March, 1829, but resigned 
in 183*1, and during the recess of congress 
he was appointed minister to England. 
The senate, however, when it convened in 
December refused to ratify the appointment. 
In May, 1832, he was nominated by the 
Democrats as their candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the ticket with Andrew Jackson, 
and he was elected in the following Novem- 
ber. He received the nomination to suc- 
ceed President Jackson in 1836, as the 
Democratic candidate, and in the electoral 
college he received one hundred and seventy 
votes out of two hundred and eighty-three, 
and was inaugurated March 4, 1837. His 
administration was begun at a time of great 
business depression, and unparalled financial 
distress, which caused the suspension of 
specie payments by the banks. Nearly 
every bank in the country was forced to 
suspend specie payment, and no less than 
two hundred and fifty-four business houses 
failed in New York in one week. The 
President urged the adoption of the inde- 
pendent treasury idea, which passed through 
the senate twice but each time it was de- 
feated in the house. However the measure 
ultimately became a law near the close of 
President Van Buren's term of office. An- 
other important measure that was passed 
was the pre-emption law that gave the act- 
ual settlers preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery had 
begun to assume great preponderance dur- 
ing this administration, and a great conflict 
was tided over by the passage of a resolu- 
tion that prohibited petitions or papers that 
in any way related to slavery to be acted 
upon. In the Democratic convention ot 
1840 President Van Buren secured the 
nomination for re-election on that ticket 



without opposition, but in the election he 
only received the votes of seven states, his 
opponent, W. H. Harrisonj being elected 
president. In 1848 Mr. Van Buren was 
the candidate of the " Free-Soilers," but 
w^as unsuccessful. After this he retired 
from public life and spent the remainder of 
his life on his estate at Kinderhook, where 
he died July 24, 1862. 

W INFIELD SCOTT,, a distinguished 
American general, was born June 13, 
1786, near Petersburg, Dinwiddle county, 
Virginia, and was educated at the William 
and Mary College. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1808 he accepted 
an appointment as captain of light artillery, 
and was ordered to New Orleans. In June, 

1 81 2, he was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel, and on application was sent to the 
frontier, and reported to General Smyth, 
near Buffalo. He was made adjutant-gen- 
eral with the rank of a colonel, in March, 

1 8 1 3, and the same month attained the colo- 
nelcy of his regiment, He participated in 
the principal battles of the war and was 
wounded many times, and at the close of 
the war he was voted a gold medal by con- 
gress for his services. He was a writer of 
considerable merit on military topics, and 
he gave to the military science, ** General 
Regulations of the Army " and '* System of 
Infantry and Rifle Practice. " He took a 
prominent part in the Black Hawk war, 
and at the beginning of the Mexican war he 
was appointed to take the command of the 
army. Gen. Scott immediately assembled 
his troops at Lobos Island from which he 
moved by transports to Vera Cruz, which 
he took March 29, 1847, and rapidly fol- 
lowed up his first success. He fought the 
battles of Cerro Gordo and Jalapa, both of 
which he won, and proceeded to Pueblo 

where he was preceded by Worth's division 
which had taken the town and waited for the 
coming of Scott. The army was forced to 
wait here for supplies, and August 7th, 
General Scott started on his victorious 
march to the city of Mexico with ten thou- 
sand, seven hundred and thirty-eight men. 
The battles of Contreras, Cherubusco and 
San Antonio were fought August 19-20, 
and on the 24th an armistice was agreed 
upon, but as the commissioners could not 
agree on the terms of settlement, the fight- 
ing was renewed at Molino Del Rey, and 
the Heights of Chapultepec were carried 
by the victorious army of General Scott. 
He gave the enemy no respite, however, 
and vigorously followed up his advantages. 
On September 14, he entered the City of 
Mexico and dictated the terms of surrender 
in the very heart of the Mexican Republic. 
General Scott was offered the presidency of 
the Mexican Republic, but declined. Con- 
gress extended him a vote of thanks and 
ordered a gold medal be struck in honor of 
his generalship and bravery. He was can- 
didate for the presidency on the Whig plat- 
form but was defeated. He was honored by 
having the title of lieutenant-general con- 
ferred upon him in 1 8 5 5 . At the beginning of 
the Civil war he was too infirm to take charge 
of the army, but did signal service in be- 
half of the government. He retired from 
the service November i, 1861, and in 1864 
he published his ''Autobiography." Gen- 
eral Scott died at West Point, May 29, 186.6. 

1—^ years occupied a high place among the 
most honored of America's citizens. As 
a preacher he ranks among the foremost 
in the New England states, but to the gen-^ 
eral public he is best known through his 
writings. Born in Boston, Mass., April 3y 



1822, a descendant of one of the most 
prominent New England families, heenjo37ed 
in his youth many of the advantages denied 
the majority of boys. He received his pre- 
paratory schooling at the Boston Latin 
School after v^hich he finished his studies at 
Harvard v^here he was graduated with high 
honors in 1839. Having studied theology 
at home, Mr. Hale embraced the ministry 
and in 1846 became pastor of a Unitarian 
church in Worcester, Massachusetts, a post 
which he occupied about ten years. He 
then, in 1856, became pastor of the South 
Congregational church in Boston, over which 
he presided many years. 

Mr. Hale also found time to write a 
great many literary works of a high class, 
i^mong many other well-known productions 
:>f his are '' The Rosary," •* Margaret Per- 
ciyal in America," ** Sketches of Christian 
distory," ** Kansas and Nebraska," ''Let- 
ters on Irish Emigration," ** Ninety Days' 
Worth of Europe," ** If, Yes, and Perhaps," 
»*Ingham Papers," '* Reformation," "Level 
Best and Other Stories, " ' ' Ups and Downs, " 
* 'Christmas Eve and Christmas Day," " In 
His Name," '*Our New Crusade," ''Work- 
ingmen's Homes," ** Boys' Heroes," etc., 
etc., besides many pthers which might be 
mentioned. One of his works, '*In His 
Name," has earned itself enduring fame by 
the good deeds it has called forth. The 
numerous associations known as ' 'The King's 
Daughters," which has accomplished much 
good, owe their existence to the story men- 

pre-^mipent as one of the greatest na- 
val officers of the world. He was born at 
Campbell's Station, East Tennessee, July 
5, 1 801, and entered the navy of the United 
States as a midshipman. He had the good 

fortune to serve under Captain David Por- 
ter, who commanded the *' Essex," and by 
whom he was taught the ideas of devotion 
to duty from which he never swerved dur- 
ing all his career. In 1823 Mr. Farragut 
took part in a severe fight, the result of 
which w^as the suppression of piracy in the 
West Indies. He then entered upon the 
regular duties of his profession which was 
only broken into by a year's residence with 
Charles Folsom, our consul at Tunis, who 
was afterwards a distinguished professor at 
Harvard. Mr. Farragut was one of the best 
linguists in the navy. He had risen through 
the different grades of the service until the 
war of 1861-65 found him a captain resid- 
ing at Norfolk, Virginia. He removed with 
his family to Hastings, on the Hudson, and 
hastened to offer his services to the Federal 
government, and as the capture of New 
Orleans had been resolved upon, Farragut 
was chosen to command the expedition. 
His force consisted of the West Gulf block- 
ading squadron and Porter's mortar flotilla. 
In January, 1862, he hoisted his pennant at 
the mizzen peak of the "Hartford" at 
Hampton roads, set sail from thence on the 
3rd of February and reached Ship Island on 
the 20th of the same month. A council of 
war was held on the 20th of April, in which 
it was decided that whatever was to be done 
must be done quickly. The signal was made 
from the flagship and accordingly the fleet 
weighed anchor at 1:55 on the morning of 
April 24th, and at 3: 30 the whole force was 
under way. The history of this brilliant strug- 
gle is well known, and the glory of it made Far- 
ragut a hero and also made him rear admir- 
al. In the summer of 1 862 he ran the batteries 
at Vicksburg, and on March 14, 1863, he 
passed through the fearful and destructive 
fire from Poit Hudson, and opened up com- 
munication with Flag-officer Porter, who 



had control of the upper Mississippi. On 
May 24th he commenced active operations 
against that fort in conjunction with the army 
and it fell on July 9th. Mr. Farragut filled 
the measure of his fame on the 5th of Au- 
gust, 1864, by his great victory, the capture 
of Mobile Bay and the destruction of the 
Confederate fleet, including the formidable 
ram Tennessee. For this victory the rank 
of admiral was given to Mr. Farragut. He 
died at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 4, 1870. 

GEORGE W. GHILDS, a philanthropist 
whose remarkable personality stood 
for the best and highest type of American 
citizenship, and whose whole life was an 
object lesson in noble living, was born in 
1829 at Baltimore, Maryland, of humble 
parents, and spent his early life in unremit- 
ting toil. He was a self-made man in the 
fullest sense of the word, and gained his 
great wealth by his own efforts. He was a 
man of very great influence, and this, in 
conjunction with his wealth, would have 
been, in the hands of other m.en, a means of 
getting them political preferment, but Mr. 
Childs steadily declined any suggestions that 
would bring him to figure prominently in 
public affairs. He did not choose to found 
a financial dynasty, but devoted all his 
powers to the helping of others, with the 
most enlightened beneficence and broadest 
sympathy. Mr. Childs once remarked that 
his greatest pleasure in life was in doing 
good to others. He always despised mean- 
ness, and one of his objects of life was to 
prove that a man could be liberal and suc- 
cessful at the same time. Upon these lines 
Mr. Childs made a name for himself as the 
director of one of the representative news- 
papers of America, **The Philadelphia Pub- 
lic Ledger," which was owned jointlv by 

himself and the Drexel estate, and which he 
edited for thirty years. He acquired con- 
trol of the paper at a time when it was be- 
ing published at a heavy loss, set it upon a 
firm basis of prosperity, and he made it 
more than a money-making machine — he 
made it respected as an exponent of the 
best side of journalism, and it stands as a 
monument to his sound judgment and up- 
right business principles. Mr. Childs' char- 
itable repute brought him many applications 
for assistance, and he never refused to help 
any one that was deserving of aid; and not 
only did he help those who asked, but he 
would by careful inquiry find those who 
needed aid but were too proud to solicit it. 
He was a considerable employer of labor 
and his liberality was almost unparalleled. 
The death of this great and good man oc- 
curred February 3d, 1894. 

PATRICK HENRY won his way to UU' 
dying fame in the annals of the early 
history of the United States by introducing 
intothe house of burgesses his famous reso- 
lution against the Stamp Act, which he car- 
ried through, after a stormy debate, by a 
majority of one. At this time he exclaimed 
'' Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Crom- 
well and George HI " (here he was inter- 
rupted by cries of '' treason ") " may profit 
by their example. If this be treason make 
the most of it." 

Patrick Henry was born at Studley, 
Hanover county,- Virginia, May 29, 1736, 
and was a son of Colonel John Henry, a 
magistrate and school teacher of Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and a nephew of Robertson, the 
historian. He received his education from 
his father, and was married at the age of 
eighteen. He was twice bankrupted before 
he had reached his twenty-fourth year, when 
after six weeks of study he was admitted to 



the bar. He worked for three years with- 
out a case and finally was applauded for his 
plea for the people's rights and gained im- 
mense popularity. After his famous Stamp 
Act resolution he was the leader of the pa- 
triots in Virginia. In 1769 he was admitted 
to practice in the general courts and speed- 
ily won a fortune by his distinguished ability 
as a speaker. He was the first speaker of 
the General Congress at Philadelphia in 
1774. He was for a time a colonel of 
militia in 1775, and from 1776 to 1779 and 
1 78 1 to 1786 he was governor of Virginia. 
For a number of years he retired from pub- 
lic life and was tendered and declined a 
number of important political offices, and in 
March, 1789, he was elected state senator 
but aid not take his seat on account of his 
death which occurred at Red Hill, Charlotte 
county, Virginia, June 6, 1799. 

general and traitor of the Revolution- 
ary war, is one of the noted characters in 
American history. He was born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, January 3, 1740. He 
ran away and enlisted in the army when 
young, but deserted in a short time. He 
then became a merchant at New Haven, 
Connecticut, but failed. In 1775 he was 
commissioned colonel in the Massachusetts 
militia, and in the autumn of that year was 
placed in command of one thousand men 
for the invasion of Canada. He marched 
his army through the forests of Maine and 
joined General Montgomery before Quebec. 
Their combined forces attacked that city on 
December 31, 1775, and Montgomery was 
killed, and Arnold, severely wounded, was 
compelled to retreat and endure a rigorous 
winter a few miles from the city, where they 
were at the mercy of the Canadian troops 
had they cared to attack them. On his re- 

turn he was raised to the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was given command of a small 
flotilla on Lake Champlain, with which he 
encountered an immense force, and though 
defeated, performed many deeds of valor. 
He resented the action of congress in pro- 
moting a number of his fellow officers and 
neglecting himself. In 1777 he was made 
major-general, and under General Gates at 
Bemis Heights fought valiantly. For some 
reason General Gates found fault with his 
conduct and ordered him under arrest, and 
he was kept in his tent until the battle of 
Still^yater was waxing hot, when Arnold 
mounted his horse and rode to the front of 
his old troop, gave command to charge, and 
rode like a mad man into the thickest of 
the fight and was not overtaken by Gates* 
courier until he had routed the enemy and 
fell wounded. Upon his recovery he was 
made general, and was placed in command 
at Philadelphia. Here he married, and his 
acts of rapacity soon resulted in a court- 
martial. He was sentenced to be repri- 
manded by the commander-in-chief, and 
though Washington performed this duty 
with utmost delicacy and consideration, it 
was never forgiven. Arnold obtained com- 
mand at West Point, the most important 
post held by the Americans, in 1780, and 
immediately offered to surrender it to Sir 
Henry Clinton, British commander at New 
York. Major Andre was sent to arrange 
details with Arnold, but on his return trip 
to New York he was captured by Americans, 
the plot was detected, and Andre suffered 
the death penalty as a spy. Arnold es- 
caped, and was paid about $40,000 by the 
British for his treason and was made briga- 
dier-general. He afterward commanded an 
expedition that plundered a portion of Vir-^ 
ginia, and another that burned New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and captured Fort Trum- 



bull, the commandant of which Arnold mur- 
dered with the sword he had just surren- 
dered. He passed the latter part of his life 
in England, universally despised, and died 
in London June 14, 1801. 

ROBERT G. INGERSOLL, one of the 
most brilliant orators that America has 
produced, also a lawyer of considerable 
merit, won most of his fame as a lecturer. 
Mr. Ingersoll was born August 24, 1833, 
at Dryden, Gates county. New York, and 
received his education in the common schools. 
He went west at the age of twelve, and for 
a short time he attended an academy in 
Tennessee, and also taught school in that 
state. He began the practice of law in the 
southern part of Illinois in 1854. Colonel 
Iiigersoll's principal fame was made in 
the lecture room by his lectures in which he 
ridiculed religious faith and creeds and criti- 
cised the Bible and the Christian religion. 
He was the orator of the day in the Decora- 
tion Day celebration in the city of New York 
in 1882 and his oration was widely com- 
mended. He first attracted political notice 
in the convention at Cincinnati in 1876 by 
his brilliant eulogy on James G. Blaine. He 
practiced law in Peoria, Illinois, for a num- 
ber of years, but later located in the city ot 
New York. He published the follow- 
ing: **The Gods and other Lectures;" **The 
Ghosts;" ''Some Mistakes of Moses;" 
*'What Shall I Do To Be Saved;" -Inter- 
views on Talmage and Presbyterian Cate- 
chism ;" The ''North American Review 
Controversy;" "Prose Poems;" "A Vision 
of War;" etc. 

a noted general in the Confederate army, 
was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, 
in 1807. He graduated from West Point 

and entered the army in 1829. For a num- 
ber of years his chief service was garrison 
duty. He saw active service, however, in 
the Seminole war in Florida, part of the 
time as a staff officer of General Scott. He 
resigned his commission in 1837, but re- 
turned to the army a year later, and was 
brevetted captain for gallant services in 
Florida. He was made first lieutenant of 
topographical engineers, and was engaged 
in river and harbor improvements and also 
in the survey of the Texas boundary and 
the northern boundary of the United 
States until the beginning of the war 
with Mexico. He was at the siege of Vera 
Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo was 
wounded while reconnoitering the enemy's 
position, after which he was brevetted major 
and colonel. He was in all the battles about 
the city of Mexico, and was again wounded 
in the final assault upon that city. After 
the Mexican war closed he returned to duty 
as captain of topographical engineers, but 
in 1855 he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry and did frontier duty, and was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the expedition 
to Utah. In i860 he was appointed quar- 
termaster-general with rank of brigadier- 
general. At the outbreak of hostilities in 
1 86 1 he resigned his commission and re- 
ceived the appointment of major-general of 
the Confederate army. He held Harper's 
Ferry, and later fought General Patterson 
about Winchester. At the battle of Bull 
Run he declined command in favor of Beau- 
regard, and acted under that general's direc- 
tions. He commanded the Confederates in 
the famous Peninsular campaign, and was 
severely wounded at Fair Oaks and was 
succeeded in command by General Lee. 
Upon his recovery he was made lieutenant- 
general and assigned to the command of the 
southwestern department. He attempted 



to raise the siege of Vicksburg, and was 
finally defeated at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Having been made a general he succeeded 
General Bragg in command of the army of 
Tennessee and was ordered to check General 
Sherman's advance upon Atlanta. Not 
daring to risk a battle with the overwhelm- 
ing forces of Sherman, he slowly retreated 
toward Atlanta, and was relieved of com- 
mand by President Davis and succeeded by 
General Hood. Hood utterly destroyed his 
own army by three furious attacks upon 
Sherman. Johnston was restored to com- 
mand in the Carolinas, and again faced 
Sherman, but was defeated in several en- 
gagements and continued a slow retreat 
toward Richmond. Hearing of Lee's sur- 
render, he communicated with General 
Sherman, and finally surrendered his army 
at Durham, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. 
General Johnston was elected a member 
of the forty-sixth congress and was ap- 
pointed United States railroad commis- 
sioner in 1885. His death occurred March 
21, 1891. 

known throughout the civilized world 
as '*Mark Twain," is recognized as one of 
the greatest humorists America has pro- 
duced. He was born in Monroe county, 
Missouri, November 30, 1835. Hespent his 
boyhood days in his native state and inany 
of his earlier experiences are related in vari- 
. ous forms in his later writings. One of his 
early acquaintances, Capt. Isaiah Sellers, 
at an early day furnished river news for the 
New Orleans ** Picayune," using the ;^^;;/- 
de-plume oi '^M^Lxk Twain." Sellers died 
in 1863 ^nd Clemens took up his nom-dc- 
J>iume ^nd rmde it famous throughout the 
world by his literary work. In 1862 Mr. 
Clemens became a journalist at Virginia,. 

Nevada, and afterward followed the same pro- 
fession at San Francisco and Buffalo, New 
York. He accumulated a fortune from the 
sale of his many publications, but in later 
years engaged in business enterprises, partic- 
ularly the manufacture of a typesetting ma- 
chine, which dissipated his fortune and re- 
duced him almost to poverty, but with resolute 
heart he at once again took up his pen and 
engaged in literary work in the effort to 
regain his lost ground. Among the best 
known of his works may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: * ' The Jumping Frog, " ' ' Tom Saw- 
yer," *' Roughing it," *' Innocents Abroad," 
** Huckleberry Finn," ^'Gilded Age," 
** Prince and Pauper," ''Million Pound 
Bank Note," ''A Yankee in King Arthur's 
Court," etc. 

known as ''Kit Carson;" was an Amer- 
ican trapper and scout who gained a wide 
reputation for his frontier work. He was a 
native of Kentucky, born December 24th, 
1809. He grew to manhood there, devel- 
oping a natural inclination for adventure in 
the pioneer experiences in his native state. 
When yet a young man he became quite 
well known on the frontier. He served as 
a guide to Gen. Fremont in his Rocky 
Mountain explorations and enlisted in the 
army. He was an officer in the United 
States service in both the Mexican war and 
the great Civil war, and in the latter received 
a brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious 
service. His death occurred May 23, 

JOHN SHERMAN.— Statesman, politi- 
cian, cabinet officer and senator, the name 
of the gentleman who heads this sketch is al- 
most a household word throughout this 
country, Identified with some of the most 



important measures adopted by our Govern- 
ment since the close of the Civil war, he may 
well be called one of the leading men of his 

John Sherman was born at Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, May lOth, 1823, 
the son of Charles R. Sherman, an emi- 
nent lawyer and judge of the supreme court 
of Ohio and who died in 1829. The subject 
of this article received an academic educa- 
tion and was admitted to the bar in 1844. 
In the Whig conventions of 1844 and 1848 
he sat as a delegate. He was a member of 
the National house of representatives, 
from 1855 to 1 86 1. In i860 he was re- 
elected to the same position but was chosen 
United States senator before he took his 
seat in the lower house. He was re-elected 
senator in 1866 and 1872 and was long 
chairman of the committee on finance and 
on agriculture. He took a prominent part 
in debates on finance and on the conduct of 
the war, and was one of the authors of the 
reconstruction measures in 1866 and 1867, 
and was appointed secretary of the treas- 
ury March 7th, 1877. 

Mr. Sherman was re-elected United States 
senator from Ohio January i8th, 1881, and 
again in 1886 and 1892, during which time 
he was regarded as one of the most promi- 
nent leaders of the Republican party, both 
in the senate and in the country. He was 
several times the favorite of his state for the 
nomination for president. 

On the formation of his cabinet in March, 
1897, President McKinley tendered the posi- 
tion of secretary of state to Mr. Sherman, 
which was accepted. 

president of the United States, was 
born in Charles county, Virginia, February 
9» I773» the son of Governor Benjamin 

Harrison. He took a course in Hampden- 
Sidney College with a view to the practice 
of medicine, and then went to Philadelphia 
to study under Dr. Rush, but in 1791 he 
entered the army, and obtained the commis- 
sion of ensign, was soon promoted to the 
lieutenancy, and was with General Wayne 
in his war against the Indians. For his 
valuable service he was promoted to the 
rank of captain and given command of Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati. He was ap- 
pointed secretary of the Northwest Territory 
in 1797, and in 1799 became its representa- 
tive in congress. In 1801 he was appointed 
governor of Indiana Territory, and held the 
position for twelve years, during which time 
he negotiated important treaties with the In- 
dians, causing them to relinquish millions of 
acres of land, and also won the battle of 
Tippecanoe in 181 1. He succeeded in 
obtaining a change in the law which did not 
permit purchase of public lands in less tracts 
than four thousand acres, reducing the limit 
to three hundred and twenty acres. He 
became major-general of Kentucky militia 
and brigadier-general in the United States 
army in 18 12, and won great renown in 
the defense of Fort Meigs, and his victory 
over the British and Indians under Proctor 
and Tecumseh at the Thames river, October 
5, 1813. 

In 1 8 16 General Harrison was elected to 
congress from Ohio, and during the canvass 
was accused of corrupt methods in regard to 
the commissariat of the army. He demanded 
an investigation after the election and was 
exonerated. In 18 19 he was elected to 
the Ohio state senate, and in 1824 he gave 
his vote as a presidential elector to Henry 
Clay. He became a member of the United 
States senate the same year. During the 
last year of Adams* administration he was 
sent as minister to Colombia, but was re- 



called by President Jackson the following 
year. He then retired to his estate at North 
Bend, Ohio, a few miles below Cincinnati. In 
1836 he was a candidate for the presidency, 
but as there were three other candidates 
the votes were divided, he receiving seventy- 
three electoral votes, a majority going to 
Mr. Van Buren, the Democratic candidate. 
Four years later General Harrison was again 
nominated by the Whigs, and elected by a 
tremendous majority. The campaign was 
noted for its novel features, many of which 
have found a permanent place in subsequent 
campaigns. Those peculiar to that cam- 
paign, however, were the ** log-cabin" and 
*' hard cider" watchwords, which produced 
great enthusiasm among his followers. One 
month after his inauguration he died from 
an attack of pleurisy, April 4, 1841. 

CHARLES A. DANA, the well-known 
and widely-read journalist of New York 
City, a native of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, 
was born August 8, 18 19. He received 
the elements of a good education in his 
youth and studied for two years at Harvard 
University. Owing to some disease of the 
eyes he was unable to complete his course 
and graduate, but was granted the degree of 
A. M. notwithstanding. For some time he 
was editor of the '* Harbinger," and was a 
regular contributor to the Boston '' Chrono- 
type." In 1847 he became connected with 
the New York * ' Tribune, " and continued on 
the staff of that journal until 1858. In the 
latter year he edited and compiled * ' The 
Household Book of Poetry," and later, in 
connection with George Ripley, edited the 
*^New American Cyclopaedia." 

Mr. Dana, on severing his connection 
with the ** Tribune " in 1867, became editor 
of the New York •^Sun," a paper with 
which he was identified for many years, and 

which he made one of the leaders of thought 
in the eastern part of the United States. 
He wielded a forceful pen and fearlessly 
attacked whatever was corrupt and unworthy 
in politics, state or national. The same 
year, 1867, Mr. Dana organized the New 
York '* Sun " Company. 

During the troublous days of the war, 
when the fate of the Nation depended upon 
the armies in the field, Mr. Dana accepted 
the arduous and responsible position of 
assistant secretary of war, and held the 
position during the greater part of 1863 
and 1864. He died October 17, 1897. 

ASA GRAY was recognized throughout the 
scientific world as one of the ablest 
and most eminent of botanists. He was 
born at Paris, Oneida county. New York, 
November 18, 1810. He received his medi- 
cal degree at the Fairfield College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, in Herkimer county. 
New York, and studied botany with the late 
Professor Torrey, of New York. He was 
appointed botanist to the Wilkes expedition 
in 1834, but declined the offer and became 
professor of natural history in Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1842. He retired from the active 
duties of this post in 1873, and in 1874 he 
was the regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at Washington, District of Columbia. 
Dr. Gray wrote several books on the sub- 
ject of the many sciences of which he was 
master. In 1836 he published his *' Ele- 
ments of Botany," " Manual of Botany" in 
1848; the unfinished ** Flora of North 
America," by himself and Dr. Torrey, the 
publication of which commenced in 1838. 
There is another of his unfinished works 
called *' Genera Boreali-Americana," pub- 
lished in 1848, and the *^ Botany of the 
United States Pacific Exploring Expedition 
in 1854." He wrote many elaborate papers 



on the botany of the west and southwest 
that were published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions, Memoirs, etc., of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which in- 
stitution he was president for ten years. 
He was also the author of many of the 
government reports. * ' How Plants Grow, " 
'* Lessons in Botany," ^* Structural and Sys- 
tematic Botany," are also works from his 
ready pen. 

Dr. Gray published in 1861 his ''Free 
Examination of Darwin's Treatise " and his 
" Darwiniana," in 1876. Mr. Gray was 
elected July 29, 1878, to a membership in 
the Institute of France, Academy of Sciences. 
His death occurred at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, January 30, 1889. 

one of the greatest leaders of the 
American bar. He was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, February 6^ 18 18, and grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1837. He took 
up the study of law, which he practiced in 
the city of New York and won great renown 
as an orator and advocate. He affiliated 
with the Republican party, which he joined 
soon after its organization. He was the 
leading counsel employed for the defense of 
President Johnson in his trial for impeach- 
liijent before the senate in April and May of 

In July, 1868, Mr. Evarts was appointed 
attorney-general of the United States, and 
served until March 4, 1869. He was one 
of the three lawyers who were selected by 
President Grant in 1871 to defend the inter- 
ests of the citizens of the United States be- 
fore the tribunal of arbitration which met 
at Geneva in Switzerland to settle the con- 
troversy over the '' Alabama Claims.'* 

He was one of the most eloquent advo- 
cates in the United States, and many of his 

public addresses have been preserved and 
published. He was appointed secretary of 
state March 7, 1877, by President Hayes, 
and served during the Hayes administration. 
He was elected senator from the state of 
New York January 21, 1885, and at once 
took rank among the ablest statesmen in 
Congress, and the prominent part he took 
in the discussion of public questions gave 
him a national reputation. 

JOHN WANAMAKER.— The life of this 
<J great merchant demonstrates the fact 
that the great secret of rising from the ranks 
is, to-day, as in the past ages, not so much the 
ability to make money, as to save it, or in 
other words, the ability to live well within 
one's income. Mr. Wanamaker was born in 
Philadelphia in 1838. He started out in 
life working in a brickyard for a mere pit- 
tance, and left that position to work in a 
book store as a clerk, where he earned 
the sum of $5.00 per month, and later on 
was in the employ of a clothier where he 
received twenty-five cents a week more. 
He was only fifteen years of age at that 
time, but was a " money-getter" by instinct, 
and laid by a small sum for a possible rainy 
day. By strict attention to business, com- 
bined with natural ability, he was promoted 
many times, and at the age of twenty he 
had saved $2,000. After several months 
vacation in the south, he returned to Phila- 
delphia and became a master brick mason, 
but this was too tiresome to the young man, 
and he opened up the '* Oak Hall " clothing 
store in April, 1861, at Philadelphia. The 
capital of the firm was rather limited, but 
finally, after many discouragements, they 
laid the foundations of one of the largest 
business houses in the world. The estab- 
lishment covers at the present writing some 
fourteen acres of floor space, and furnishes 



employment for five thousand persons. Mr. 
Wanamaker was also a great church worker, 
and built a church that cost him $60,000, 
and he was superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which had a membership of over 
three thousand children. He steadily re- 
fused to run for mayor or congress and the 
only public office that he ever held was that 
of postmaster-general, under the Harrison 
administration, and here he exhibited his 
extraordinary aptitude for comprehending 
the details of public business. 

cratic politician who gained a na- 
tional reputation, was born August 29, 
1843, at Havana, New York. He was 
educated at the academy of his native town, 
and removed to Elmira, New York, in 1862, 
where he studied law. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1864, in which year he was ap- 
pointed city attorney. Mr. Hill soon gained 
a considerable practice, becoming prominent 
in his profession. He developed a taste for 
politics in which he began to take an active 
part in the different campaigns and became 
the recognized leader of the local Democ- 
racy. In 1870 he was elected a member of 
the assembly and was re-elected in 1872. 
While a member of this assembly he formed 
the acquaintance of Samuel J. Tilden, after- 
ward governor of the state, who appointed 
Mr. Hill, W. M. Evarts and Judge Hand 
as a committee to provide a uniform charter 
for the different cities of the state. The 
pressure of professional engagements com- 
pelled him to decline to serve. In 1877 
Mr. Hill was made chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state convention at Albany, his elec- 
tion being due to the Tilden wing of the 
party, and he held the same position again 
m 1 88 1. He served one term as alderman 
in Elmira, at the expiration of which term, 

in 1882, he was elected mayor of Elmira, 
and in September of the same year was 
nominated for lieutenant-governor on the 
Democratic state ticket. He was success- 
ful in the campaign and two years later, 
when Grover Cleveland was elected to the 
presidency, Mr. Hill succeeded to the gov- 
ernorship for the unexpired term. In 1885 
he was elected governor for a full term of 
three years, at the end of which he was re- 
elected, his term expiring in 1891, in which 
year he was elected United States senator. 
In the senate he became a conspicuous 
figure and gained a national reputation. 

ALLEN G. THURMAN.—** The noblest 
Roman of them all " was the title by 
which Mr. Thurman was called by his com- 
patriots of the Democracy. He was the 
greatest leader of the Democratic party in 
his day and held the esteem of all the 
people, regardless of their political creeds. 
Mr. Thurman was born November 13, 18 13, 
at Lynchburg, Virginia, where he remained 
until he had attained the age of six years, 
when he moved to Ohio. He received an 
academic education and after graduating, 
took up the study of law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1835, and achieved a brilliant 
success in that line. In political life he' was 
very successful, and his first office was that 
of representative of the state of Ohio in the 
twenty-ninth congress. He was elected 
judge of the supreme court of Ohio in 185 1, 
and was chief justice of the same from 1854 
to 1856. In 1867 he was the choice of the 
Democratic party of his state for governor, 
and was elected to the United States senate 
in 1869 to succeed Benjamin F. Wade, 
and was re-elected to the same position in 
1874. He was a prominent figure in tho 
senate, until the expiration of his service ii 
1 88 1. Mr. Thurman was also one of the 



principal presidental possibilities in the 
Democratic convention held at St. Louis in 
1876. In 1888 he was the Democratic 
nominee for vice-president on the ticket 
with Grover Cleveland, but was defeated. 
Allen Cranberry Thurman died December 
12, 1895, 2Lt Columbus, Ohio. 

known as ** Artemus Ward," was born 
April 26, 1834, in the village of Waterford, 
Maine. He was thirteen years old at the 
time of his father's death, and about a year 
later he was apprenticed to John M. Rix, 
who published the **Coos County Dem- 
ocrat " at Lancaster, New Hampshire. Mr. 
Browne remained with him one year, when, 
hearing that his brother Cyrus was starting 
a paper at Norway, Maine, he left Mr. Rix 
and determined to get work on the new 
paper. He worked for his brother until the 
failure of the newspaper, and then went to 
Augusta, Maine, where he remained a few 
weeks and then removed to Skowhegan, 
and secured a position on the ** Clarion.'' 
But either the climate or the work was not 
satisfactory to him, for one night he silently 
left the town and astonished his good mother 
by appearing unexpectedly at home. Mr. 
Browne then received some letters of recom- 
mendation to Messrs. Snow and Wilder, of 
Boston, at whose office Mrs. Partington's 
(B. P. Shillaber) ** Carpet Bag " was printed, 
and he was engaged and remained there for 
three years. He then traveled westward in 
search of employment and got as far as Tif- 
fin, Ohio, where he found employment in the 
office of the ** Advertiser," and remained 
there some months when he proceeded to 
Toledo, Ohio, where he became one of the 
staff of the '* Commercial," which position 
he held until 1857. Mr. Browne ilext went 
to Cleveland. Ohio, and became the local 

editor of the ** Plain Dealer," and it was in 
the columns of this paper that he published 
his first articles and signed them ** Artemus 
Ward." In i860 he went to New York and 
became the editor of ** Vanity Fair," but 
the idea of lecturing here seized him, and he 
was fully determined to make the trial. 
Mr. Browne brought out his lecture, '* Babes 
in the Woods " at Clinton Hall, December 
23, 1861, and in 1862 he published his first 
book entitled, ** Artemus Ward; His Book." 
He attained great fame as a lecturer and his 
lectures were not confined to America, for 
he went to England in 1866, and became 
exceedingly popular, both as a lecturer and 
a contributor to ** Punch." Mr. Browne 
lectured for the last time January 23, 1867. 
He died in Southampton, England, March 
6, 1867. 

THURLOW WEED, a noted journalist 
and politician, was born in Cairo, New 
York, November 15, 1797. He learned the 
printer's trade at the age of twelve years, 
and worked at this calling for several years- 
in various villages in centra! New York. He 
served as quartermaster-sergeant during the 
war of 1 8 12. In 18 18 he established the 
** Agriculturist, " at Norwich, New York, 
and became editor of the ** Anti-Masonic 
Enquirer," at Rochester, in 1826. In the 
same year he was elected to the legislature 
and re-elected in 1830, when he located in 
Albany, New York, and there started the 
*' Evening Journal," and conducted it in op- 
position to the Jackson administration and 
the nullification doctrines of Calhoun. He 
became an adroit party manager, and wa> 
instrumental in promoting the nominations 
of Harrison, Taylor and Scott for the pres- 
idency. In 1856 and in i860 he threw his 
supfJ^rt to W. H. Seward, but when defeat- 
ed in his object, he gave cordial support to 



Fremont and Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln pre- 
V3Ued upon him to visit the various capitals 
of Europe, where he proved a valuable aid 
to the administration in moulding the opin- 
ions of the statesmen of that continent 
favorable to the cause of the Union. 

Mr. Weed's connection with the * * Even- 
ing Journal ** was severed in 1862, when he 
settled in New York, and for a time edited 
the ** Commercial Advertiser.'* In 1868 he 
retired from active life. His ** Letters from 
Europe and the West Indies," published in 
I ?i6^y together with some interesting * ' Rem- 
iniscences,*' published in the ** Atlantic 
Monthly,*' in 1870, an autobiography, and 
portions of an extensive correspondence will 
be of great value to writers of the political 
history of the United States. Mr. Weed 
died in New York, November 22, 1882. 

one of the prominent Democratic 
politicians of the country and ex-secretary of 
the navy, was born July 5th, 1841, at Con- 
way, Massachusetts, and received his edu- 
cation at Williston Seminary, East Hamp- 
ton, Massachusetts. Later he attended 
Yale College, where he graduated in 1863, 
and entered the Harvard Law School, which 
he left in 1864. Beginning practice in New 
York city, he soon gained a reputation as 
an able lawyer. He made his first appear- 
ance in public affairs in 1871, when he was 
active in organizing a young men's Demo- 
cratic club: In 1872 he was the recognized 
leader of the county Democracy and in 1875 
was appointed corporation counsel for the 
city of New York. He resigned the office, 
1882, to attend to personal interests and on 
March 5, 1885, he was appointed secretary 
of the navy by President Cleveland. Under 
his administration the navy of the United 
States rapidly rose in rank among the navies 

of the world. When he retired from office 
in 1889, the vessels of the United States 
navy designed and contracted for by him 
were five double-turreted monitors, twc 
new armor-clads, the dynamite cruiser * 'Ve- 
suvius, " and five unarmored steel and iron 

Mr. Whitney was the leader of the 
Cleveland forces in the national Democratic 
convention of 1892. 

EDWIN FORREST, the first and great- 
est American tragedian, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1806. His father was a 
tradesman, and some accounts state that he 
had marked out a mercantile career for his 
son, Edwin, while others claim that he had 
intended him for the ministry. His wonder- 
ful memory, his powers of mimicry and his 
strong musical voice, however, attracted at- 
tention before he was eleven years old, and 
at that age he made his first appearance on 
the stage. The costume in which he appeared 
was so ridiculous that he left the stage in a 
fit of anger amid a roar of laughter from 
the audience. This did not discourage him, 
however, and at the age of fourteen, after 
some preliminary training in elocution, he 
appeared again, this time as Young Norvel, 
and gave indications of future greatness. 
Up to 1826 he played entirely with strolling 
companies through the south and west, but 
at that time he obtained an engagement at 
the Bowery Theater in New York. From 
that time his fortune was made. His man- 
ager paid him $40 per night, and it is stated 
that he loaned Forrest to other houses from 
time to time at $200 per night. His great 
successes were Virginius, Damon, Othello, 
Coriolanus, William Tell, Spartacus and 
Lear. He made his first appearance in 
London in 1836, and his success was un- 
questioned from the start. In 1845, on his 



second appearance in London, he became 
involved in a bitter rivalry with the great 
English actor, Macready, who had visited 
America two years before. The result was 
that Forrest was hissed from the stage, and 
it was charged that Macready had instigated 
the plot. Forrest's resentment was so bitter 
that he himself openly hissed Macready 
from his box a few nights later. In 1848 
Macready again visited America at a time 
when American admiration and enthusiasm 
for Forrest had reached its height. Macready 
undertook to play at Astor Place Opera 
House in May, 1849, but was hooted off the 
stage. A few nights later Macready made a 
second attempt to play at the same house, 
this time under police protection. The house 
was filled with Macready 's friends, but the vio- 
olence of the mob outside stopped the play, 
and the actor barely escaped with his life. 
Upon reading the riot act the police and 
troops were assaulted with stones. The 
troops replied, first with blank cartridges, 
and then a volley of lead dispersed the 
mob, leaving thirty men dead or seriously 

After this incident Forrest's popularity 
waned, until in 1855 he retired from the 
stage. He re-appeared in i860, however, 
and probably the most remunerative period 
of hi§ life was between that date and the 
close of the Civil war. His last appearance 
on the stage was at the Globe Theatre, 
Boston, in Richelieu, in April, 1872, his 
death occurring December 1 2 of that year. 

NOAH PORTER, D. D., LL. D., was 
one of the most noted educators, au- 
thors and scientific writers of the United 
States. He was born December 14, 181 1, 
at Farmington, Connecticut, graduated at 
Yale College in 183 1, and was master of 
Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven in 

1831-33- During 1833-35 he was a tutor 
at Yale, and at the same time was pursuing^ 
his theological studies, and became pastor 
of the Congregational church at New Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, in April, 1836. Dr. 
Porter removed to Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1843, and was chosen professor of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale 
in 1846. He spent a year in Germany in 
the study of modern metaphysics in 1853- 
54, and in 1871 he was elected president of 
Yale College. He resigned the presidency 
in 1885, but still remained professor of met- 
aphysics and moral philosophy. He was 
the author of a number of works, among 
which are the following: ** Historical Es- 
say," written in commemorationofthe2ootb 
aniversary of the settlement of the town ol 
Farmington; •* Educational System of the 
Jesuits Compared;'* **The Human Intel- 
lect,*' with an introduction upon psychology 
and the soul; ** Books and Reading;" 
''American Colleges and the American Pub- 
lic;" ** Elements of Intellectual Philosophy;" 
' ' The Science of Nature versus the Science 
of Man;" ** Science and Sentiment;" ** Ele- 
ments of Moral Science." Dr. Porter was 
the principal editor of the revised edition of 
Webster's Dictionary in 1864, and con- 
tributed largely to religious reviews and 
periodicals. Dr. Porter's death occurred 
March 4, 1892, at New Haven, Connecticut. 

JOHN TYLER, tenth president of the 
United States, was born in Charles City 
county, Virginia, March 29, 1790, and w^s 
the son of Judge John Tyler, one of the 
most distinguished men of his day. 

When but twelve years of age young 
John Tyler entered William and Mary Col- 
lege, graduating from there in 1806. He 
took up the study of law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1809, when but nineteen years 



of age. On attaining his majority in 1811 
he was elected a member of the state legis- 
lature, and for five years held that position 
by the almost unanimous vote of his county. 
He was elected to congress in 18 16, and 
served in that body for four years, after 
which for two years he represented his dis- 
trict again in the legislature of the state. 
While in congress, he opposed the United 
States bank, the protective policy and in- 
ternal improvements by the United States 
government. 1825 saw Mr. Tyler governor 
of Virginia, but in 1827 he was chosen 
member of the United States senate, and 
held that office for nine years. He therein 
opposed the administration of Adams and 
the tariff bill of 1828, sympathized with the 
nullifers of South Carolina and was the 
only senator who voted against the Force 
bill for the suppression of that state's insip- 
ient rebellion. He resigned his position as 
senator on account of a disagreement with 
the legislature of his state in relation to his 
censuring President Jackson. He retired to 
Williamsburg, Virginia, but being regarded 
as a martyr by the Whigs, whom, hereto- 
fore, he had always opposed, was supported 
by many of that party for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1836. He sat in the Virginia leg- 
islature as a Whig in 1839-40, and was a 
delegate to the convention of that party in 
1 8.-9. This national convention nominated 
him for the second place on the ticket with 
General William H. H. Harrison, and he 
was elected vice-president in November, 
1840. President Harrison dying one month 
after his inauguration, he was succeeded by 
John Tyler. He retained the cabinet chosen 
by his predecessor, and for a time moved in 
harmony with the Whig party. He finally 
instructed the secretary of the treasury, 
Thomas Ewing, to submit to congress a bill 
for the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the 

United States, which was passed by con-- 
gress, but vetoed by the president on ac- 
count of some amendments he considered 
unconstitutional. For this and other meas- 
ures he was accused of treachery to his 
party, and deserted by his whole cabinet, 
except Daniel Webster. Things grew worse 
until he was abandoned by the Whig party 
formally, when Mr. Webster resigned. He 
was nominated at Baltimore, in May, 1844, 
at the Democratic convention, as their pres- 
idential candidate, but withdrew from the 
canvass, as he saw he had not succeed- 
ed in gaining the confidence of ♦his old 
party. He then retired from politics until 
February, 1861, when he was made presi- 
dent of .the abortive peace congress, which 
met in Washington. He shortly after re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States 
and was elected a member of the Confeder- 
ate congress. He died at Richmond, Janu- 
ary 17, 1862. 

Mr. Tyler married, in 18 13, Miss Letitia 
Christian, who died in 1842 at Washington. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar-^ 
riage, with Miss Julia Gardner, of New York. 

one of the great men of his time and 
who has left his impress upon the history of 
our national development, was born October 
22, 1 82 1, at Harwinton, Connecticut. 
He received a common-school education 
and at the age of fourteen his spirit of get- 
ting along in the world mastered his educa- 
tional propensities and his father's objec- 
tions and he left school. He went to Cali- 
fornia in the early days and had opportunities 
which he handled masterfully. Others had 
the same opportunities but they did not have 
his brains nor his energy, and it was he who 
overcame obstacles and reaped the reward 
of his genius. Transcontinental railways 



were inevitable, but the realization of this 
masterful achievement would have been de- 
layed to a much later day if there had been 
no Huntington. He associated himself with 
Messrs. Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, 
and Charles Crocker, and they furnished the 
money necessary for a survey across the 
Sierra Nevadas, secured a charter for the 
road, and raised, with the government's aid, 
money enough to construct and equip that 
railway, which at the time of its completion 
ivas a marvel of engineering and one of the 
wonders of the world. Mr. Huntington be- 
came president of the Southern Pacific rail- 
Toad, vice-president of the Central Pacific; 
trustee of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, and a director of the Occidental 
and Oriental Steamship Company, besides 
being identified with many other business 
enterprises of vast importance. 

GEORGE A. CUSTER, a famous In- 
dian fighter, was born in Ohio in 1840. 
He graduated at West Point in 1861, an- 
served in the Civil war; was at Bull Run id 
1861, and was in the Peninsular campaign, 
being one of General McClellan's aides-de, 
camp. He fought in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam in 1863, and was 
with General Stoneman on his famous 
cavalry raid. He was engaged in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and was there made brevet- 
major. In 1863 was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers. General Custer was 
in many skirmishes in central Virginia in 
1863-64, and was present at the following 
battles of the Richmond campaign: Wil- 
derness, Todd'sTavern, Yellow Tavern, where 
he was bre vetted lieutenant-colonel; Meadow 
Bridge, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevil- 
lian Station. In the Shenandoah Valley 
1 864-65 he was brevetted colonel at Opequan 
Creek, and at Cedar Creek he was made 

brevet major-general for gallant conduct 
during the engagement. General Custer 
was in command of a cavalry division in the 
pursuit ot Lee's army in 1865, and fought 
at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, 
where he was made brevet brigadier-general; 
Sailors Creek and Appomattox, where he 
gained additional honors and was made 
brevet major-general, and was given the 
command of the cavalry in the military 
division of the southwest and Gulf, in 1865. 
After the establishment of peace he went 
west on frontier duty and performed gallant 
and valuable service in the troubles with the 
Indians. He was killed in the massacre on 
the Little Big Horn river. South Dakota, 
June 25, 1876. 

brated as * * The Tall Sycamore of the 
Wabash," was born September 26, 1827, 
in Butler county, Ohio. When he was two 
months old his parents removed to Fount- 
ain county, Indiana. He grew to manhood 
on a farm, engaged in all the arduous work 
pertaining to rural life. In 1845 he entered 
the Indiana Asbury University, now the De 
Pauw, from which he graduated in 1849. 
He took up the study of law at Crawfords- 
ville, and in 1851 began the practice of his 
profession at Covington, Fountain county, 
Indiana. He became a law partner of 
United States Senator Hannegan, of Indi- 
ana, in 1852, and in 1856 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for congress. In the fol- 
lowing year he took up his residence in Terre 
Haute, Indiana. He was United States 
district attorney for Indiana from 1857 until 
1 86 1, and he had during this period been 
elected to congress, in i860. Mr. Voorhees 
was re-elected to congress in 1862 and 1864, 
but he was unsuccessful in the election of 
1866. However, he was returned to con-^ 



gress in 1868, where he remained until 1874, 
having been re-elected twice. In 1877 he 
was appointed United States senator from 
Indiana to fill a vacancy caused by the death 
of O. P. Morton, and at the end of the term 
was elected for the ensuing term, being re- 
elected in 1885 and in 1891 to the same of- 
fice. He served with distinction on many 
of the committees, and took a very prom- 
inent part in the discussion of all the im- 
portant legislation of his time. His death 
occurred in August, 189 . 

mous as one of the inventors of the tele- 
phone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
March 3rd, 1847. He received his early 
education in the high school and later he 
attended the university, and was specially 
trained to follow his grandfather's profes- 
sion, that of removing impediments of 
speech. He emigrated to the United States 
in 1872, and introduced into this country 
his father's invention of visible speech in the 
institutions for deaf-mutes. Later he was 
appointed professor of vocal physiology in 
the Boston University. He worked for 
many years during his leisure hours on his 
telephonic discovery, and finally perfected 
it and exhibited it publicly, before it had 
reached the high state of perfection to which 
he brought it. His first exhibition of it was 
at the Centennial Exhibition that was held 
in Philadelphia in 1876. Its success is now 
established throughout the civilized world. 
In 1882 Prof. Bell received a diploma and 
the decoration of the Legion of Honor from 
the Academy of Sciences of France. 

the justly celebrated historian and 
author, was a native of Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and was born May 4, 1796. He was 

the son of Judge William Prescott and the 
grandson of the hero of Bunker Hill, Colonel 
William Prescott. 

Our subject in 1808 removed with the 
family to Boston, in the schools of which 
city he received his early education. He 
entered Harvard College as a sophomore in 
181 1, having been prepared at the private 
classical college of Rev. Dr. J. S. J. Gardi- 
jner. The following year he received an in* 
ury in his left eye which made study 
through life a matter of difficulty. He 
graduated in 18 14 with high honors in the 
classics and belle lettres. He spent several 
months on the Azores Islands, . and later 
visited England, France and Italy, return- 
ing home in 18 17. In June, 181 8, he 
founded a social and literary club at Boston 
for which he edited *'The Club Room," a 
periodical doomed to but a short life. May 
4, 1820, he married Miss Susan Amory. 
He devoted several years after that event to 
a thorough study of ancient and modern 
history and literature. As the fruits of his 
labors he published several well written 
essays upon French and Italian poetry and 
romance in the *' North American Review.'" 
January 19, 1826, he decided to take up his 
first great historical work, the * * History of 
the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella." To 
this he gave the labor of ten years, publish- 
ing the same December 25, 1837. Although 
placed at the head of all American authors, 
so diffident was Prescott of his literary merit 
that although he had four copies of this 
work printed for his own convenience, he 
hesitated a long time before giving it to the 
public, and it was only by the solicitation of 
friends, especially of that talented Spanish 
scholar, George Ticknor, that he was in- 
duced to do so. Soon the volumes were 
translated into French, Italian, Dutch and 
German, and the work was recognized 



throughout the world as one of the most 
meritorious of historical compositions. In 
1843 he published the ** Conquest of Mexi- 
co," and in 1847 the ** Conquest of Peru." 
Two years later there came from his pen a 
volume of * ' Biographical and Critical Mis- 
cellanies." Going abroad in the summer of 
1850, he was received with great distinction 
in the literary circles of London, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Antwerp and Brussels. Oxford Uni- 
versity conferred the degree of D. C. L. 
upon him. In 1855 he issued two volumes 
of his **History of the Reign of Philip the 
Second," and a third in 1858. In the 
meantime he edited Robertson's ** Charles 
the Fifth," adding a history of the life of 
that monarch after his abdication. Death 
cut short his work on the remaining volumes 
of ** Philip the Second," coming to him at 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 28, 1859. 

American commodore, was born in 
South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 
1785. He saw his first service as a mid- 
shipman in the United States navy in April, 
1799. He cruised with his father, Captain 
Christopher Raymond Perry, in the West In- 
dies for about two years. In 1804 he was 
in the war against Tripoli, and was made 
lieutenant in 1 807. At the opening of hostili- 
ties with Great Britain in 18 12 he was given 
command of a fleet of gunboats on the At- 
lantic coast. At his request he was trans- 
ferred, a year later, to Lake Ontario, where 
he served under Commodore Chauncey, and 
took an active part in the attack on Fort 
George. He was ordered to fit out a squad- 
ron on Lake Erie, which he did, building 
most of his vessels from the forests along 
the shore, and by the summer of 1 8 1 3 he had 
a fleet of nine vessels at Presque Isle, now 
Erie, Pennsylvania. September loth he 

attacked and captured the British fleet near 
Put-in-Bay, thus clearing the lake of hostile 
ships. His famous dispatch is part of his 
fame, ** We have met the enemy, and they 
are ours." He co-operated with Gen. Har- 
rison, and the success of the campaign in 
the northwest was largely due to his victory. 
The next year he was transferred to the Po- 
tomac, and assisted in the defense of Balti- 
rnore. After the war he was in constant 
service with the various squadrons in cruising 
in all parts of the world. He died of yellow 
fever on the Island of Trinidad, August 23, 
1 8 19. His remains were conveyed to New- 
port, and buried there, and an imposing 
obelisk was erected to his memory by the 
State of Rhode Island. A bronze statue 
was also erected in his honor, the unveiling 
taking place in 1885. 

JOHN PAUL JONES, though a native 
of Scotland, was one of America's most 
noted fighters during the Revolutionary war. 
He was born July 6, 1747. His father was 
a gardener, but the young man soon be- 
came interested in a seafaring life and at 
the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a 
sea captain engaged in the American trade. 
His first voyage landed him in Virginia, 
where he had a brother who had settled 
there several years prior. The failure of 
the captain released young Jones from his 
apprenticeship bonds, and he was engaged 
as third mate of a vessel engaged in the 
slave trade. He abandoned this trade after 
a few years, from his own sense of disgrace. 
He took passage from Jamaica for Scotland 
in 1768, and on the voyage both the captain 
and the mate died and he was compelled to 
take command of the vessel for the re- 
mainder of the voyage. He soon after 
became master of the vessel. He returned 
to Virginia about 1773 to settle up the estate 



of his brother, and at this time added the 
name ** Jones/' having previously been 
known as John Paul. He settled down in 
Virginia, but when the war broke out in 
1775 he offered his services to congress and 
was appointed senior lieutenant of the flag- 
ship ** Alfred," on which he hoisted the 
American flag with his own hands, the first 
vessel that had ever carried a flag of the 
new nation. He was afterward appointed 
to the command of the ** Alfred," and later 
of the ** Providence, " in each of which ves- 
sels he did good service, as also in the 
** Ranger," to the command of which he 
was later appointed. The fight that made 
him famous, however, was that in which he 
captured the ** Serapis," off the coast of 
Scotland. He was then in command of the 
**Bon Homme Richard,'' which had been 
fitted out for him by the French government 
and named by Jones in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, or ** Good Man Richard," Frank- 
lin being author of the publication known 
as ** Poor Richard's Almanac." The fight 
between the '' Richard" and the *'Serapis" 
lasted three hours, all of which time the 
vessels were at close range, and most of the 
time in actual contact. Jones' vessel was 
on fire several times, and early in the en- 
gagement two of his guns bursted, rendering 
the battery useless. Also an envious officer 
of the Alliance, one of Jones' own fleet, 
opened fire upon the ''Richard " at a crit- 
ical time, completely disabling the vessel. 
Jones continued the fight, in spite of coun- 
sels to surrender, and after dark the *' Ser- 
apis" struck her colors, and was hastily 
boarded by Jones and his crew, while the 
♦* Richard" sank, bows first, after the 
wounded had been taken on board the 
<*Serapis." Most of the other vessels of 
the fleet of which the *' Serapis " was con- 
voy, surrendered, and were taken with the 

** Serapis" to France, where Jones was 
received with greatest honors, and the king 
presented him with an elegant sword and 
the cross of the Order of Military Merit. 
Congress gave him a vote of thanks and 
made him commander of a new ship, the 
** America," but the vessel was afterward 
given to France and Jones never saw active 
sea service again. He came to America again, 
in 1787, after the close of the war, and was 
voted a gold medal by congress. He went to 
Russia and was appointed rear-admiral and 
rendered service of value against the Turks, 
but on account of personal enmity of the fav- 
orites of the emperor he was retired on a pen- 
sion. Failing to collect this, he returned to 
France, where he died, July 18, 1792. 

THOMAS MORAN, the well-known 
painter of Rocky Mountain scenery, 
was born in Lancashire, England, in 1837. 
He came to America when a child, and 
showing artistic tastes, he was apprenticed 
to a wood engraver in Philadelphia. Three 
years later he began landscape painting, and 
his style soon began to exhibit signs of genius. 
His first works were water-colors, and 
though without an instructor he began the 
use of oils, he soon found it necessary to 
visit Europe, where he gave particular at- 
tention to the works of Turner. He joined 
the Yellowstone Park exploring expedition 
and visited the Rocky Mountains in 1871 
and again in 1873, making numerous 
sketches of the scenery. The most note- 
worthy results were his * * Grand Canon of 
the Yellowstone," and '* The Chasm of the 
Colorado," which were purchased by con- 
gress at $10,000 each, the first of which is 
undoubtedly the finest landscape painting 
produced in this country. Mr. Moran has 
subordinated art to nature, and the subjects 
he has chosen leave little ground for fault 



iinding on that account. **The Mountain 
of the Holy Cross," ** The Groves Were 
God's First Temples,'* ** The Cliffs of Green 
River,'* ** The Children of the Mountain," 
**The Ripening of the Leaf," and others 
have given him additional fame, and while 
they do not equal in grandeur the first 
mentioned, in many respects from an artis- 
tic standpoint they are superior. 

L ELAND STANFORD was one of the 
greatest men of the Pacific coast and 
also had a national reputation. He was 
born March 9, 1824, in Albany county. New 
York, and passed his early life on his 
father's farm. He attended the local 
schools of the county and at the age of 
twenty began the study of law. He 
entered the law office of Wheaton, Doolittle 
and Hadley, at Albany, in 1845, ^^^ ^ f^w 
years later he moved to Port Washington, 
Wisconsin, where he practiced law four 
years with moderate success. In 1852 Mr. 
Stanford determined to push further west, 
and, accordingly went to California, where 
three of his brothers were established in 
business in the mining towns. They took 
Leland into partnership, giving him charge 
of a branch store at Michigan Bluff, in 
Placer county. There he developed great 
business ability and four years later started 
a mercantile house of his own in San Fran- 
cisco, which soon became one of the most 
substantial houses on the coast. On the 
formation of the Republican party he inter- 
ested himself in politics, and in i860 was 
sent as a delegate to the convention that 
nominated Abraham Lincoln. In the 
autumn of 1861 he was elected, by an im- 
mense majority, governor of California. 
Prior to his election as governor he had 
»been chosen president of the newly-orga- 
nized Central Pacific Railroad Company, 


and after leaving the executive chair he de- 
voted all of his time to the construction of 
the Pacific end of the transcontinental rail- 
way. May 10, 1869, Mr. Stanford drove 
the last spike of the Central Pacific road, 
thus completing the route across the conti- 
nent. He was also president of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental Steamship Company. 
He had but one son, who died of typhoid 
fever, and as a monument to his child he 
founded the university which bears his son's 
name, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 
Mr. Stanford gave to this university eighty- 
three thousand acres of land, the estimated 
value of which is $8,000,000, and the entire 
endowment is $20,000,000. In 1885 Mr. 
Stanford was elected United States senator 
as a Republican, to succeed J. T. Farley, a 
Democrat, and was re-elected in 1891. His 
death occurred June 20, 1894, at Palo Alto, 

STEPHEN DECATUR, a famous com- 
modore in the United States navy, was 
born in Maryland in 1779. He entered the 
naval service in 1798. In 1804, when the 
American vessel Philadelphia had been run 
aground and captured in the harbor of Trip- 
oli, Decatur, at the head of a few men, 
boarded her and burned her in the face of 
the guns from the city defenses. For this 
daring deed he was made captain. He was 
given command of the frigate United States 
at the breaking out of the war of 18 12, and 
in October of that year he captured the 
British frigate Macedonian, and was re- 
warded with a gold medal by congress. Af- 
ter the close of the war he was sent as com- 
mander of a fleet of ten vessels to chastise 
the dey of Algiers, who was preying upon 
American commerce with impunity and de- 
manding tribute and ransom for the release 
of American citizens captured. Decatur 



captured a number of Algerian vessels, and 
compelled the dey to sue for peace. He 
was noted for his daring and intrepidity, 
and his coolness in the face of danger, and 
helped to bring the United States navy into 
favor with the people and congress as a 
means of defense and offense in time of 
war. He was killed in a duel by Commo- 
dore Barron, March 12, 1820. 

JAMES KNOX POLK, the eleventh 
president of the United States, 1845 to 
1849, was born November 2, 1795, in Meck- 
lenburg county, North Carolina, and was 
the eldest child of a family of six sons. He 
removed with his father to the Valley of the 
Duck River, in Tennessee, in 1806. He 
attended the common schools and became 
very proficient in the lower branches of 
education, and supplemented this with 
a course in the Murfreesboro Academy, 
which he entered in 18 13 and in the autumn 
of 18 1 5 he became a student in the sopho- 
more class of the University of North Caro- 
lina, at Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 
18 1 8. He then spent a short time in re- 
cuperating his health and then procee^ded to 
Nashville, Tennessee, where he took up the 
study of law in the office of Felix Grundy. 
After the completion of his law studies he 
was admitted to the bar and removed to 
Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, and 
started in the active practice of his profes- 
sion. Mr. Polk was a Jeffersonian ** Re- 
publican '' and in 1823 he was elected to the 
legislature of Tennessee. He was a strict 
constructionist and did not believe that the 
general government had the power to carry 
on internal improvements in the states, but 
deemed it important that it should have that 
power, and wanted the constitution amended 
to that effect. But later on he became 
alarmed lest the general government might 

become strong enough to abolish slavery 
and therefore gave his whole support to the 
*' State's Rights'* movement, and endeavored 
to check the centralization of power in the 
general government. Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of congress in 1825, and held that 
office until 1839. He then withdrew, as he 
was the successful gubernatorial candidate 
of his state. He had become a man of 
great influence in the house, and, as the 
leader of the Jackson party in that body, 
weilded great influence in the election of 
General Jackson to the presidency. He 
sustained the president in all his measures 
and still remained in the house after Gen- 
eral Jackson had been succeeded by Martin 
Van Buren. He was speaker of the house 
during five sessions of congress. He was 
elected governor of Tennessee by a large 
majority and took the oath of office at Nash- 
ville, October 4, 1839. He was a candidate 
for re-election but was defeated by Governor 
Jones, the Whig candidate. In 1844 the 
most prominent question in the election was 
the annexation of Texas, and as Mr. Polk 
was the avowed champion of this cause he 
was nominated for president by the pro- 
slavery wing of the democratic party, was 
elected by a large majority, and was inaug- 
urated March 4, 1845. President Polk 
formed a very able cabinet, consisting of 
James Buchanan, Robert J. Walker, Will- 
iam L. Marcy, George Bancroft, Cave John- 
son, and John Y. Mason. The dispute re- 
garding the Oregon boundary was settled 
during his term of office and a new depart- 
ment was added to the list of cabinet po- 
sitions, that of the Interior. The low tariff 
bill of ,1846 was carried and the financial 
system of the country was reorganized. It 
was also during President Polk's term that 
the Mexican war was successfully conducted, 
which resulted in the acquisition of Califor- 



nia and New Mexico. Mr. Polk retired from 
the presidency March 4, 1849, after having 
declined a re-nomination, and was succeeded 
by General Zachary Taylor, the hero of the 
Mexican war. Mr. Polk retired to private 
life, to his home in Nashville, where he died 
at the age of fifty-four on June 9, 1849. 

Dickinson was not heard of on the lec- 
ture platform, and about that time she made 
an attempt to enter the dramatic profession, 
but after appearing a number of times in dif- 
ferent plays she was pronounced a failure. 

ANNA DICKINSON* (Anna Elizabeth 
Dickinson), a noted lecturer and pub- 
lic speaker, was born at Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 28, 1842. Her parents were Quakers, 
and she was educated at the Friends' free 
schools in her native city. She early man- 
ifested an inclination toward elocution and 
public speaking, and when, at the age of 18, 
she found an opportunity to appear before 
a national assemblage for the discussion of 
woman's rights, she at once established her 
reputation as a public speaker. From i860 
to the close of the war and during the ex- 
citing period of reconstruction, she was one 
of the most noted and influential speakers 
before the American public, and her popu- 
larity was unequaled by that of any of her 
sex. A few weeks after the defeat and 
death of Colonel Baker at Ball's Bluff, Anna 
Dickinson, lecturing in New York, made 
the remarkable assertion, ** Not the incom- 
petency of Colonel Baker, but the treachery 
of General McClellan caused the disaster at 
Ball's Bluff." She was hissed and hooted 
off the stage. A year later, at the same 
hall and with much the same class of audi- 
tors, she repeated the identical words, and 
the applause was so great and so long con- 
tinued that it was impossible to go on with 
her lecture for more than half an hour. The 
change of sentiment had been wrought by 
the rieverses and dismissal of McClellan and 
his ambition to succeed Mr. Lincoln as presi- 

Ten years after the close of the war, Anna 

sonal characteristics of Mr. Burdette 
were quaintly given by himself in the follow- 
ing words: *' Politics .»* Republican after 
the strictest sect. Religion } Baptist. Per- 
sonal appearance } Below medium height, 
and weigh one hundred and thirty-five 
pounds, no shillings and no pence. Rich I 
Not enough to own a yacht. Favorite read- 
ing.? Poetry and history — know Longfellow 
by heart, almost. Write for magizines > 
Have mo.-e ' declined with thanks ' letters 
than would fill a trunk. Never able to get 
into a magazine with a line. Care about it.^ 
Mad as thunder. Think about starting a 
magazine and rejecting everbody's articles 
except my own." Mr. Burdette was born 
at Greensborough, Pennsylvania, in 1844. 
He served through the war of the rebellion 
under General Banks ** on an excursion 
ticket" as he fehcitously described it, **good 
both ways, conquering in one direction and 
running in the other, pay going on just the 
same." He entered into journalism by the 
gateway of New York correspondence for 
the **Peoria Transcript," and in 1874 went 
on the ** Burlington Hawkeye" of which he 
became the managing editor, and the work 
that he did on this paper made both him- 
self and the paper famous in the world of 
humor. Mr. Burdette married in 1870, 
and his wife, whom he called **Her Little 
Serene Highness," was to him a guiding 
light until the day of her death, and it was 
probably the unconscious pathos with which 
he described her in his work that broke the 
barriers that had kept him out of the maga- 



^nes and secured him the acceptance of his 
** Confessions " by Lippincott some years 
ago, and brought him substantial fame and 
recognition in the literary world. 

of the leading novelists of the present 
century and author of a number of works 
that gained for him a place in the hearts of 
the people, was born March i, 1837, ^.t 
Martinsville, Belmont county, Ohio. At 
the age of three years he accompanied his 
iather, who was a printer, to Hamilton, 
Ohio, where he learned the printer's trade. 
Later he was engaged on the editorial staff 
of the ** Cincinnati Gazette " and the ** Ohio 
State Journal." During 1861-65 he was 
the United States consul at Venice, and 
from 1 87 1 to 1878 he was the editor-in- 
chief of the * 'Atlantic Monthly." As a 
writer he became one of the most fertile 
and readable of authors and a pleasing poet. 
In 1885 he became connected with '* Har- 
per's Magazine. " Mr. Howells was author 
of the list of books that we give below: 
''Venetian Life," ''Italian Journeys," "No 
Love Lost," " Suburban Sketches," "Their 
Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaint- 
ance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "Dr. 
Breen's Practice," "A Modern Instance," 
"The Rise of Silas Lapham," "Tuscan 
Cities," "Indian Summer," besides many 
others. He also wrote the ' ' Poem of Two 
Friends," with J. J. Piatt in i860, and 
some minor dramas: "The Drawing 
Room Car," "The Sleeping Car," etc., 
that are full of exqusite humor and elegant 

of the Rev. Charles Lowell, and was born 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 
1 8 19. He graduated at Harvard College in 

1838 as class poet, and went to Harvard 
Law School, from which he was graduated 
in 1840, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in Boston, but soon gave his un- 
divided attention to Hterary labors. Mr. 
Lowell printed, in 1841, a small volume of 
poems entitled ' ' A Year's Life, " edited with 
Robert Carter; in 1843, " The Pioneer, " a 
literary and critical magazine (monthly), and 
in 1848 another book of poems, that con- 
tained several directed against slavery. He 
published in 1844 a volume of "Poems" 
and in 1845 "Conversations on Some 
of the Old Poets," "The Vision of Sir 
Launfal," '^ A Fable for Critics, " and "The 
Bigelow Papers," the latter satirical es- 
says in dialect poetry directed against 
slavery and the war with Mexico. In 
1851-52 he traveled in Europe and re- 
sided in Italy for a considerable time, and 
delivered in 1854-55 a course of lectures on 
the British poets, before the Lowell Insti- 
tute^ Boston. Mr. Lowell succeeded Long- 
fellow in January, 1855, as professor of 
modern languages and literature at Harvard 
College, and spent another year in Europe 
qualifying himself for that post. He edited 
the " Atlantic Monthly " from 1857 to 1862, 
and the "North American Review" from 
1863 until 1872. From 1864 to 1870 he 
published the following works: " Fireside 
Travels," " Under the Willows," "The 
Commemoration Qde, " in honor of the 
alumni of Harvard who had fallen in the 
Civil war; "The Cathedral," two volumes 
of essays; ♦* Among My Books" and "My 
Study Windows," and in 1867 he published 
a new series of the " Bigelow Papers. " He 
traveled extensively in Europe in 1872-74, 
and received in person the degree of D. C. 
L. at Oxford and that of LL. D. at the 
University of Cambridge, England. He 
was also interested in political life and held 



many important offices. He was United 
States minister to Spain in 1877 and was 
also minister to England in 1880-85. On 
January 2, 1884, he was elected lord rector 
of St. Andrew University in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, but soon after he resigned the same. 
Mr. Lowell's works enjoy great popularity 
in the United States and England. He 
died August 12, 1891. 

JOSEPH HENRY, one of America's 
greatest scientists, was born at Albany, 
New York, December 17, 1797. He was 
educated in the common schools of the city 
and graduated from the Albany Academy, 
where he became a professor of mathemat- 
ics in 1826. In 1827 he commenced a 
course of investigation, which he continued 
for a number of years, and the results pro- 
duced had great effect on the scientific world. 
The first success was achieved by producing 
the electric magnet, and he next proved the 
possibility of exciting magnetic energy at a 
distance, and it was the invention of Pro- 
fessor Henry's intensity magnet that first 
made the invention of electric telegraph a 
possibility. He made a statement regarding 
the practicability of applying the intensity 
magnet to telegraphic uses, in his article to 
the **American Journal of Science " in 1831. 
During the same year he produced the first 
mechanical contrivance ever invented for 
maintaining continuous motion by means of 
electro-magnetism, and he also contrived a 
machine by which signals could be made at 
a distance by the use of his electro-magnet, 
the signals being produced by a lever strik- 
ing on a bell. Some of his electro-magnets 
were of great power, one carried over a ton 
and another not less than three thousand six 
hundred pounds. In 1832 he discovered 
that secondary currents could be produced 
' ' -^ long cc-ductor by the induction of the 

primary current upon itself, and also in the 
same year he produced a spark by means of 
a purely magnetic induction. Professor 
Henry was elected, in 1832, professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in the College of New Jer- 
sey, and in his earliest lectures at Princeton, 
demonstrated the feasibility of the electric 
telegraph. He visited Europe in 1837, ^^id 
while there he had an interview with Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone, the inventor of the 
needle magnetic telegraph. In 1846 he was 
elected secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, being the first incumbent in that office, 
which he held until his death. Professor 
Henry was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of 
Science, in 1849, and of the National 
Academy of Sciences. He was made chair- 
man of the lighthouse board of the United 
States in 1871 and held that position up to 
the time of his death. He received the 
honorary degree of doctor of laws from 
Union College in 1829, and from Harvard 
University in 185 1, and his death occurred 
May 13, 1878. Among his numerous works 
may be mentioned the following: *' Contri- 
butions to Electricity and Magnetism," 
** American Philosophic Trans, " and many 
articles in the ** American Journal of 
Science," the journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute; the proceedings of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, 
and in the annual reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institution from its foundation. 

rear-admiral of the Confederate navy 
during the rebellion, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland. He became a United States 
midshipman in 18 15 and was promoted 
through the various grades of the service 
and became a captain in 1855. Mr. Buch- 
anan resigned his captaincy in order to join 



the Confederate service in 1861 and later he 
asked to be reinstated, but his request was 
refused and he then entered into the service 
of the Confederate government. , He was 
placed in command of the frigate **Merri- 
mac '* after she had been fitted up as an iron- 
dad, and had command of her at the time 
of the battle of Hampton Roads. It was 
he who had command when the **Merri- 
mac" sunk the two wooden frigates,. ** Con- 
gress'* and ** Cumberland," and was also 
in command during part of the historical 
battle of the **Merrimac'' and the ** Moni- 
tor," where he was wounded and the com- 
mand devolved upon Lieutenant Catesby 
Jones. He was created rear-admiral in the 
Confederate service and commanded the 
Confederate fleet in Mobile bay, which was 
defeated by Admiral Farragut, August 5, 
1864. Mr. Buchanan was in command of 
the ** Tennessee," an ironclad, and during 
the engagement he lost one of his legs and 
was taken prisoner in the end by the Union 
fleet. After the war he settled in Talbot 
county, Maryland, where he died May 11, 

RICHARD PARKS BLAND, a celebrated 
American statesman, frequently called 
**the father of the house," because of his 
many years of service in the lower house 
of congress, was born August 19, 1835, 
near Hartford, Kentucky, where he received 
a plain academic education. He moved, 
in 1855, to Missouri, from whence he went 
overland to California, afterward locating in 
Virginia City, now in the state of Nevada, 
but then part of the territory of Utah. 
While there he practiced law, dabbled in 
mines and mining in Nevada and California 
for several years, and served for a time as 
treasurer of Carson county, Nevada. Mr. 
Bland returned to Missouri in 1865, where 

he engaged in the practice of law at Rolla, 
Missouri, and in 1869 removed to Lebanon, 
Missouri. He began his congressional career 
in 1873, when he was elected as a Demo- 
crat to the forty-third congress, and he was 
regularly re-elected to every congress after 
that time up to the fifty-fourth, when he was 
defeated for re-election, but was returned 
to the fifty-fifth congress as a Silver Demo- 
crat. During all his protracted service, 
while Mr. Bland was always steadfast in his 
support of democratic measures, yet he won 
his special renown as the great advocate of 
silver, being strongly in favor of the free 
and unlimited coinage of silver, and on ac- 
count of his pronounced views was one of 
the candidates for the presidential nomina- 
tion of the Democratic party at Chicago in 

port) was of British birth, but she be- 
longs to the American stage. She was the 
daughter of the famous actor, E. L. Daven- 
port, and was born in London in 1850. 
She first went on the stage as a child at the 
Howard Athenaeum, Boston, and her entire 
life was spent upon the stage. She played 
children's parts at Burton's old theater in 
Chambers street, and then, in 1862, appeared 
as the King of Spain in * * Faint Heart Never 
Won Fair Lady. " Here she attracted the 
notice of Augustin Daly, the noted mana- 
ger, then at the Fifth Avenue theater, who 
offered her a six weeks' engagement with 
her father in ** London Assurance." She 
afterwards appeared at the same house in a 
variety of characters, and her versatility 
was favorably noticed by the critics. After 
the burning of the old Fifth Avenue, the 
present theater^ of that name built at 
Twenty-eighth street, and here Miss Daven- 
port appeared in a play written for her by 



Mr. Daly. She scored a great success. 
She then starred in this play throughout the 
country, and was married to Mr. Edwin F. 
Price, an actor of her company, in 1880. 
In 1882 she went to Paris and purchased 
the right to produce in America Sardou's 
great emotional play, *' Fedora.*' It was 
put on at the Fourteenth Street theater in 
New York, and in it she won popular favor 
and became one of the most famous actresses 
of her time. 

of the greatest merchants America has 
produced, was born in Milford, Massachu- 
setts, a son of John Clafliin, also a mer- 
chant. Young Claflin started his active life 
as a clerk in his father's store, after having 
been offered the opportunity of a college 
education, but with the characteristic 
promptness that was one of his virtues he 
exclaimed, *'No law or medicine for me." 
He had set his heart on being a merchant, 
and when his father retired he and his 
brother Aaron, and his brother-in-law, Sam- 
uel Daniels, conducted the business. Mr. 
Claflin was not content, however, to run a 
store in a town like Milford, and accordingly 
opened a dry goods store at Worcester, with 
his brother as a partner, but the partnership 
was dissolved a year later and H. B. Claflin 
assumed complete control. The business 
in Worcester had been conducted on ortho- 
dox principles, and when Mr. Claflin came 
there and introduced advertising as a means 
of drawing trade, he created considerable 
animosity among the older merchants. Ten 
years later he was one of the most prosper- 
ous merchants. He disposed of his busi- 
ness in Worcester for $30,000, and went to 
New York to search for a wider field than 
that of a shopkeeper. Mr. Claflin and 
William M. Bulkley started in the dry goods 

business there under the firm name of Bulk- 
ley & Claflin, in 1843, and Mr. Bulkley was 
connected with the firm until 185 1, when he 
retired. A new firm was then formed under 
the name of Claflin, Mellin & Co. This 
firm succeeded in founding the largest dry 
goods house in the world, and after weather- 
ing the dangers of the civil war, during 
which the house came very near going un- 
der, and was saved only by the superior 
business abilities of Mr. Claflin, continued to 
grow. The sales of the fifm amounted to 
over $72,000,000 a year after the close of 
the war. Mr. Claflin died November 14, 

Saunders Cushman), one of the most 
celebrated American actresses, was born in 
Boston, July 23, 1816. She was descended 
from one of the earliest Puritan families. 
Her first attempt at stage work was at the 
age of fourteen years in a charitable concert 
given by amateurs in Boston. From this 
time her advance to the first place on the 
American lyric stage was steady, until, in 
1835, while singing in New Orleans, she 
suddenly lost control of her voice so far as 
relates to singing, and was compelled to re- 
tire. She then took up the study for the 
dramatic stage under the direction of Mr. 
Barton, the tragedian. She soon after 
made her debut as ** Lady Macbeth." She 
appeared in New York in September, 1836, 
and her success was immediate. Her 
** Romeo" was almost perfect, and she is 
the only woman that has ever appeared in 
the part of ** Cardinal Wolsey.'* She at 
different times acted as support of Forrest 
and Macready. Her London engagement, 
secured in 1845, after many and great dis- 
couragements, proved an unqualified suc- 



Her farewell appearance was at Booth's 
theater, New York, November 7, 1874, in 
the part of ** Lady Macbeth/' and after that 
performance an Ode by R. H. Stoddard 
was read» and a body of citizens went upon 
the stage, and in their name the venerable 
poet Longfellow presented her with a wreath 
of laurel with an inscription to the effect 
that * * she who merits the palm should bear 
it." From the time of her appearance as a 
modest girl in a charitable entertainment 
down to the time of final triumph as a tragic 
queen, she bore herself with as much honor 
to womanhood as to the profession she rep- 
resented. Her death occurred in Boston, 
February 18, 1876. By her profession she 
acquired a fortune of $600,000. 

NEAL DOW, one of the most prominent 
temperance reformers our country has 
known, was born in Portland, Me., March 20, 
1804. He received his education in the 
Friends Seminary, at New Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, his parents being members of that 
sect. After leaving school he pursued a 
mecrantile and manufacturing career for a 
number of years. He was active in the 
affairs of his native city, and in 1839 be- 
came chief of the fire department, and in 
1851 was elected mayor. He was re-elected 
to the latter office in 1854. Being opposed 
to the liquor traffic he was a champion of 
the project of prohibition, first brought for- 
ward in 1839 by James Appleton. While 
serving his first term as mayor he drafted a 
bill for the *• suppression of drinking houses 
and tippling shops," which he took to the 
legislature and which was passed without an 
alteration. In 1858 Mr. Dow was elected 
to the legislature. On the outbreak of the 
Civil war he was appointed colonel of the 
Thirteenth Maine Infantry and accompanied 
General Butler's expedition to New Orleans. 

In 1862 he was made brigadier-general. At 
the battle of Port Hudson May 27, 1863, he 
was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He 
was confined at Libby prison and Mobile 
nearly a year, when, being exchanged, he 
resigned, his health having given way under 
the rigors of his captivity. He made sev- 
eral trips to England in the interests of 
temperance organization, where he addressed 
large audiences. He was the candidate of 
the National Prohibition party for the presi- 
dency in 1880, receiving about ten thousand 
votes. In 1884 he was largely instrumental 
in the amendment of the constitution of 
Maine, adopted by an overwhelming popular 
vote, which forever forbade the manufacture 
or sale of any intoxicating beverages, and 
commanding the legislature to enforce the 
prohibition. He died October 2, 1897. 

ZACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth president 
of the United States, was born in 
Orange county, Virginia, September 24, 
1784. His boyhood was spent on his fath- 
er's plantation and his education was lim- 
ited. In 1808 he was made lieutenant of 
the Seventh Infantry, and joined his regi- 
ment at New Orleans. He was promoted 
to captain in 18 10, and commanded at Fort 
Harrison, near the present site of Terre 
Haute, in 18 12, where, for his gallant de- 
fense, he was brevetted major, attaining full 
rank in 18 14. In 181 5 he retired to an es- 
tate near Louisville. In 18 16 here-entered 
the army as major, and was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel and then to colonel. 
Having for many years been Indian agent 
over a large portion of the western country, 
he was often required in Washington to give 
advice and counsel in matters connected 
with the Indian bureau. He served through 
the Black Hawk Indian war of 1832, and in 
1837 was ordered to the command of the 



army in Florida, where he attacked the In- 
dians in the swamps and brakes, defeated 
them and ended the war. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general and made commander-in- 
chief of the army in Florida. He was as- 
signed to the command of the army of the 
southwest in 1840, but was soon after re- 
lieved of it at his request. He was then 
stationed at posts in Arkansas. In 1845 he 
was ordered to prepare to protect and de- 
fend Texas boundaries from invasion by 
Mexicans and Indians. On the annexation 
of Texas he proceeded with one thousand 
five hundred men to Corpus Christi, within 
the disputed territory. After reinforcement 
he was ordered by the Mexican General Am- 
pudia to retire beyond the Nueces river, 
with which order he declined to comply. 
The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma followed, and he crossed the Rio 
Grande and occupied Matamoras May i8th. 
He was commissioned major-general for this 
campaign, and in September he advanced 
upon the city of Monterey and captured it 
after a hard fight. Here he took up winter 
quarters, and when he was about to resume 
activity in the spring he was ordered to send 
the larger part of his army to reinforce 
General Scott at Vera Cruz. After leaving 
garrisons at various points his army was re- 
duced to about five thousand, mostly fresh 
recruits. He was attacked by the army of 
Santa Anna at Buena Vista, February 22, 
1847, ^iid after a severe fight completely 
routed the Mexicans. He received the 
thanks of congress and a gold medal for 
this victory. He remained in command of 
the ** army of occupation" until winter, 
when he returned to the United States. 

In 1848 General Taylor was nominated 
by the Whigs for president. He was elected 
over his two opponents, Cass and Van 
Buren. Great bitterness was developing in 

the struggle for and against the extension of 
slavery, and the newly acquired territory in 
the west, and the fact that the states were 
now equally divided on that question, tended 
to increase the feeling. President Taylor 
favored immediate admission of California 
with her constitution prohibiting slavery, 
and the admission of other states to be 
formed out of the new territory as they 
might elect as they adopted constitutions 
from time to time. This policy resulted in 
the ** Omnibus Bill," which afterward passed 
congress, though in separate bills; not, how- 
ever, until after the death of the soldier- 
statesman, which occurred July 9, 1850. 
One of his daughters became the wife of 
Jefferson Davis. 

MELVILLE D. LANDON, better known 
as ** Eli Perkins, "author, lecturer and 
humorist, was born in Eaton, New York, 
September 7, 1839. He was the son of 
John Landon and grandson of Rufus Lan- 
don, a revolutionary soldier from Litchfield 
county, Connecticut. Melville was edu- 
cated at the district school and neighboring 
academy, where he was prepared for the 
sophomore class at Madison University. He 
passed two years at the latter, when he was 
admitted to Union College, and graduated 
in the class of 1861, receiving the degree of 
A. M., in 1862. He was, at once, ap- 
pointed to a position in the treasury depart- 
ment at Washington. This being about the 
time of the breaking out of the war, and 
before the appearance of any Union troops 
at the capital, he assisted in the organiza- 
tion of the ** Clay Battalion," of Washing- 
ton. Leaving his clerkship some time later, 
he took up duties on the staff of General A. 
L. Chetlain, who was in command at Mem- 
phis. In 1 864 he resigned from the army 
and engaged in cotton planting in Arkansas 



and Louisiana. In 1867 he went abroad, 
making the tour of Europe, traversing Rus- 
sia. While in the latter country his old 
commander of the *' Clay Battalion," Gen- 
eral Cassius M. Clay, then United States 
minister at St. Petersburg, made him secre- 
tary of legation. In 1871, on returning to 
America, he published a history of the 
Franco-Prussian war, and followed it with 
numerous humorous writings for the public 
press under the name of **Eli Perkins," 
which, with his regular contributions to the 
*• Commercial Advertiser," brought him into 
notice, and spread his reputation as a hu- 
morist throughout the country. He also pub- 
lished '' Saratoga in 1891," **Wit, Humor 
and Pathos," '* Wit and Humor of the Age," 
•* Kings of Platform and Pulpit," '* Thirty 
Years of Wit and Humor," ** Fun and Fact," 
and '' China and Japan." 

LEWIS CASS, one of the most prom- 
inent statesman and party leaders of his 
day, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1782. He studied law, and hav- 
ing removed to Zanesville, Ohio, commenced 
the practice of that profession in 1802. He 
entered the service of the American govern- 
ment in 1 8 12 and was made a colonel in 
the army under General William Hull, and 
on the surrender of Fort Maiden by that 
•officer was held as a prisoner. Being re- 
leased in 18 1 3, he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general and in 18 14 ap- 
pointed governor of Michigan Territory. 
After he had held that office for some 
sixteen years, negotiating, in the meantime, 
many treaties with the Indians, General 
Cass was made secretary of war in the cabi- 
net of President Jackson, in 183 1. He was, 
in 1836, appointed minister to France, 
which office he held for six years. In 1844 
he - as elected United States senator from 

Michigan. In 1846 General Cass opposed 
the Wilmot Proviso, which was an amend- 
ment to a bill for the purchase of land from 
Mexico, which provided that in any of the 
territory acquired from that power slavery 
should not exist. For this and other reasons 
he was nominated as Democratic candidate 
for the presidency of the United States in 
1848, but was defeated by General Zachary 
Taylor, the Whig candidate, having but 
one hundred and thirty-seven electoral votes 
to his opponent's one hundred and sixty- 
three. In 1 849 General Cass was re-elected 
to the senate of the United States, and in 
1854 supported Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska 
bill. He became secretary of state in 
March, 1857, under President Buchanan, 
but resigned that office in December, i860. 
He died June 17, 1866. The published 
works of Lewis Cass, while not numerous, 
are well written and display much ability. 
He was one of the foremost men of his day 
in the political councils of the Democratic 
party, and left a reputation for high probity 
and honor behind him. 

DEWITT CLINTON.— Probably there 
were but few men who were so popular 
in their time, or who have had so much in- 
fluence in moulding events as the individual 
whose name honors the head of this article. 
De Witt Clinton was the son of General 
James Clinton, and a nephew of Governor 
George Clinton, who was the fourth vice- 
president of the United States. He was a 
native of Orange county, New York, born at 
Little Britain, March 2, 1769. He gradu- 
ated from Columbia College, in his nativ(3 
state, in 1796, and took up the study of law. 
In 1790 he became private secretary to his 
uncle, then governor of New York. He en- 
tered public life as a Republican or anti- 
Federalist, and was elected to the 



house of the state assembly in 1797, and the 
senate of that body in 1798. At that time 
he was looked on as ** the most rising man 
in the Union/' In 1801 he was elected to 
the United States senate. In 1803 he was 
appointed by the governor and council 
mayor of the city of New York, then a 
very important and powerful office. Hav- 
ing been re-appointed, he held the office 
of mayor for nearly eleven years, and 
rendered great service to that city. Mr. 
Clinton served as lieutenant-governor of 
the state of New York, 1811-13, and 
was one of the commissioners appointed 
to examine and survey a route for a canal 
from the Hudson river to Lake Erie. Dif- 
fering with President Madison, in relation to 
the war, in 18 12, he was nominated for the 
presidency against that gentleman, by a 
coalition party called the Clintonians, many 
of whom were Federalists. Clinton received 
eight-nine electoral votes. His course at 
this time impaired his popularity for a time. 
He was removed from the mayoralty in 
1 8 14, and retired to private life. In 181 5 
he wrote a powerful argument for the con- 
struction of the Erie canal, then a great and 
beneficent work of which he was the prin- 
cipal promoter. This was in the shape of 
a memorial to the legislature, which, in 
18 17, passed a bill authorizing the construc- 
tion of that canal. The same year he was 
elected governor of New York, almost unani- 
mously, notwithstanding the opposition of 
a few who pronounced the scheme of the 
canal visionary. He was re-elected governor 
in 1820. He was at this time, also, presi- 
dent of the canal commissioners. He de- 
clined a re-election to the gubernatorial 
chair in 1822 and was removed from his 
place on the canal board two years later. 
But he was triumphantly elected to the of- 
fice of governor that fall, and his pet project, 

the Erie canal, was finished the next year. 
He was re-elected governor in 1826, but 
died while holding that office, February 11, 


AARON BURR, one of the many brilliant 
figures on the political stage in the early 
days of America, was born at Newark, New 
Jersey, February 6, 1756. He was the son 
of Aaron and Esther Burr, the former the 
president of the College of New Jersey, and 
the latter a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, 
who had been president of the same educa- 
tional institution. Young Burr graduated 
at Princeton in 1772. In 1775 he joined 
the provincial army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. For a time, he served as a private 
soldier, but later was made an aide on the 
staff of the unfortunate General Montgom- 
ery, in the Quebec expedition. Subse- 
quently he was on the staffs of Arnold, Put- 
nam and Washington, the latter of whom 
he disliked. He was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a 
brigade on Monmouth's bloody field. In 
I779» on account of feeble health. Colonel 
Burr resigned from the army. He took up 
the practice of law in Albany, New York, 
but subsequently removed to New York City. 
In 1789 he became attorney-general of that 
state. In 1791 he was chosen to represent 
the state of New York in the United States 
senate and held that position for six years. 
In 1800 he and Thomas Jefferson were both 
candidates for the presidency, and there 
being a tie in the electoral college, each 
having seventy-three votes, the choice was 
left to congress, who gave the first place to 
Jefferson and made Aaron Burr vice-presi- 
dent, as the method then was. In 1804 Mr, 
Burr and his great rival, Alexander Hamil- . 
ton, met in a duel, which resulted in the 
death of the latter, Burr losing thereby con- 



siderable political and social influence. He 
soon embarked in a wild attempt upon 
Mexico, and as was asserted, upon the 
southwestern territories of the United 
States. He was tried for treason at 
Richmond, Virginia, in 1807, but acquitted, 
and to avoid importunate creditors, fled to 
Europe. After a time, in 18 12, he returned 
to New York, where he practiced law, and 
where he died, September 14, 1836. A man 
of great ability, brilliant and popular talents, 
his influence was destroyed by his unscrupu- 
lous political actions and immoral private 

ALBERT GALLATIN, one of the most 
distinguished statesmen of the early 
days of the republic, was born at Geneva, 
Switzerland, January 29, 1761. He was 
the son of Jean de Gallatin and Sophia A. 
Rolaz du Rosey Gallatin, representatives of 
an old patrician family. Albert Gallatin 
was left an orphan at an early age, and was 
educated under the care of friends of his 
parents. He graduated from the University 
of Geneva in i'779, and declining employ- 
ment under one of the sovereigns of Ger- 
many, came to the struggling colonies, land- 
ing in Boston July 14, 1780. Shortly after 
his arrival he proceeded to Maine, where he 
served as a volunteer under Colonel Allen. 
He made advances to the government for 
the support of the American troops, and in 
November, 1780, was placed in command 
of a small fort at Passamaquoddy, defended 
by a force of militia, volunteers and Indians. 
In 1783 he was professor of the French 
language at Harvard University. A year 
later, having received his patrimony from 
Europe, he purchased large tracts of land 
in western Virginia, but was prevented by 
the Indians from forming the large settle- 
ment he proposed, and, in 1786, purchased 

a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, 
In 1789 he was a member of the convention 
to amend the constitution of that state, and 
united himself with the Republican party, 
the head of which was Thomas Jefferson. 
The following year he was elected to the 
legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he was 
subsequently re-elected. In 1793 he was 
elected to the United States senate, but 
could not take his seat on account of not 
having been a citizen long enough. In 1794 
Mr. Gallatin was elected to the representa- 
tive branch of congress, in which he served 
three terms. He also took an important 
position in the suppression of the ** whiskey 
insurrection." In 1801, on the accession of 
Jefferson to the presidency, Mr. Gallatia 
was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
In 1809 Mr. Madison offered him the posi- 
tion of secretary of state, but he declined, 
and continued at the head of the treasury 
until 1812, a period of twelve years. He 
exercised a great influence on the other de- 
partments and in the general administration, 
especially in the matter of financial reform, 
and recommended measures for taxation, 
etc., which were passed by congress, and be- 
came laws May 24, 18 1 3. The same year he 
was sent as an envoy extraordinary to Rus- 
sia, which had offered to mediate between 
this country and Great Britain, but the lat- 
ter country refusing the interposition of 
another power, and agreeing to treat di- 
rectly with the United States, in 18 14, at 
Ghent, Mr. Gallatin, in connection with his 
distinguished colleagues, negotiated and 
signed the treaty of peace. In 181 5, in 
conjunction with Messrs. Adams and Clay, 
he signed, at London, a commercial treaty 
between the two countries. In 1816, de- 
clining his old post at the head of the treas- 
ury, Mr. Gallatin was sent as minister to 
France, wh re he remained until 1823. 



After a year spent in England as envoy ex- 
traordinary, he took up his residence in New 
York, and from that time held no public 
office. In 1830 he was chosen president of 
the council of the University of New York. 
He was, in 1831, made president of the 
National bank, which position he resigned 
in 1839. He died August 12, 1849. 

MILLARD FILLMORE, the thirteenth 
president of the United States^ was 
born of New England parentage in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga county. New York, January 7, 
1800. His school education was very lim- 
ited, but he occupied his leisure hours in 
study. He worked in youth upon his fa- 
ther's farm in his native county, and at the 
age of fifteen was apprenticed to a wool 
carder and cloth dresser. Four years later 
he was induced by Judge Wood to enter his 
office at Montville, New Yprk, and take up 
the study of law. This warm friend, find- 
ing young Fillmore destitute of means, 
loaned him money, but the latter, not wish- 
ing to incur a heavy debt, taught school 
during part of the time and in this and other 
v^ays helped maintain himself. In 1822 he 
removed to Buffalo, New York, and the year 
following, being admitted to the bar, he 
commenced the practice of his profession 
at East Aurora, in the same state. Here 
he remained until 1830, having, in the 
meantime, been admitted to practice in the 
supreme court, when he returned to Buffalo, 
where he became the partner of S. G. 
Haven and N. K. Hall. He entered poli- 
tics and served in the state legislature from 
1829 to 1832. He was in congress in 1833- 
35 and in 1837-41, where he proved an 
active and useful member, favoring the 
views of John Quincy Adams, then battling 
almost alone the slave-holding party in na- 
tional politics, and in most of public ques- 

tions acted with the Whig party. While 
chairman of the committee of ways and 
means he took a leading part in draughting 
the tariff bill of 1842. In 1844 Mr. Fill- 
more was the Whig candidate for governor 
of New York. In 1847 he was chosen 
comptroller of the state, and abandoning 
his practice and profession removed to Al- 
bany. In 1 848 he was elected vice presi- 
dent on the ticket with General Zachary 
Taylor, and they were inaugurated the fol- 
lowing March. On the death of the presi- 
dent, July 9, 1850, Mr. Fillmore was in- 
ducted into that office. The great events 
of his administration were the passage of 
the famous compromise acts of 1850, and 
the sending out of the Japan expedition of 

March 4, 1853, having served one term. 
President Fillmore retired from office, and 
in 1855 went to Europe, where he received 
marked attention. On returning home, in 
1856, he was nominated for the presidency 
by the Native American or * * Know-Noth- 
ing" party, but was defeated, James Buch- 
anan being the successful candidate. 

Mr. Fillmore ever afterward lived in re- 
tirement. During the conflict of Civil war 
he was mostly silent. It was generally sup- 
posed, however, that his sympathy was with 
the southern confederacy. He kept aloof 
from the conflict without any words of cheer 
to the one party or the other. For this rea- 
son he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 

PETER F. ROTHERMEL, one of Amer- 
ica's greatest and best- known historical 
painters, was born in Luzerne county, Penn- 
sylvania, July 8, 1817, and was of Germaa 
ancestry. He received his earlier educatioa 
in his native county, and in Philadelphia 



learned the profession of land surveying. 
But a strong bias toward art drew him away 
and he soon opened a studio where he did 
portrait painting. This soon gave place to 
historical painting, he having discovered the 
bent of his genius in that direction. Be- 
sides the two pictures in the Capitol at 
Washington — * *De Soto Discovering the Mis- 
sissippi" and ** Patrick Henry Before the 
Virginia House of Burgesses" — Rothermel 
painted many others, chief among which 
are: ** Columbus Before Queen Isabella," 
*• Martyrs of the Colosseum," ** Cromwell 
Breaking Up Service in an English Church, " 
and the famous picture of the ** Battle 
of Gettysburg." The last named was 
painted for the state of Pennsylvania, for 
which Rothermel received the sum of $25,- 
000, and which it took him four years to 
plan and to paint. It represents the portion 
of that historic field held by the First corps, 
an exclusively Pennsylvania body of men, 
and was selected by Rothermel for that 
reason. For many years most of his time 
was spent in Italy, only returning for short 
periods. He died at Philadelphia, August 
16, 1895. 

distinguished leaders upon the side of the 
south in the late Civil war, was born at St. 
Augustine, Florida, in 1824. After receiv- 
ing the usual education he was appointed to 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated in 1845 ^^d 
entered the army as second lieutenant of 
infantry. During the Mexican war he was 
made first lieutenant and captain for gallant 
conduct at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. 
From 1849 to 1852 he was assistant pro- 
fessor of mathematics at West Point. He 
was transferred to the Second cavalry with 
the rank of captain in 1855, served on the 

frontier, and was wounded in a fight with 
Comanche Indians in Texas, May 13, 1859. 
In January, 1861, he became major of his 
regiment, but resigned April 9th to fol- 
low the fortunes of the southern cause. 
He was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate army and served in Virginia. 
At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, 
he arrived on the field late in the day, but 
was soon disabled by a wound. He was 
made major-general in 1862, and being trans- 
ferred to East Tennessee, was given com-^ 
mand of that department. Under General, 
Braxton Bragg he led the advance in the 
invasion of Kentucky and defeated the Union 
forces at Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, 

1862, and advanced to Frankfort. Pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he 
was engaged at the battle of Perryville, 
October 10, and in the battle of Murfrees- 
boro, December 31, 1862, and January 3, 

1863. He was soon made general, the 
highest rank in the service, and in com- 
mand of the trans-Mississippi department 
opposed General N. P. Banks in the famous 
Red River expedition, taking part in the 
battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, and 
other engagements of that eventful cam- 
paign. He was the last to surrender the 
forces under his command, which he did 
May 26, 1865. After the close of the war 
he located in Tennessee, where he died 
March 28, 1893. 

American statesman, was born Decem- 
ber 29, 1833, at Middleton, Massachusetts, 
where he was reared and received his early 
education. He went to Kansas in 1858 
and joined the free-soil army, and a year 
after his arrival he was a member of the his- 
torical Wyandotte convention, which drafted 
a free-state constitution. In i860 he was 



made secretary of the territorial council, 
and in 1861 was secretary of the state sen- 
ate. The next year he was duly elected to 
the legitimate state senate from Atchison, 
where he had made his home. From that 
time he was the leader of the radical Re- 
publican element in the state. He became 
the editor of the *' Atchison Champion " in 
1863, which was a ** red-hot free-soil Re- 
publican organ." In 1862 he was the anti- 
Lane candidate for lieutenant-governor, but 
wa§ defeated. He was elected to the Unit- 
ed States senate to succeed Senator Pom- 
eroy, and took his seat in the forty-third 
congress and served until the fiftieth. In 
the forty-ninth congress he succeeded Sen- 
ator Sherman as president pro tem. , which 
position he held through the fiftieth con- 

BENJAMIN WEST, the greatest of the 
early American painters, was of Eng- 
lish descent and Quaker parentage. He was 
born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738. 
From what source he inherited his genius it 
is hard to imagine, since the tenets and 
tendencies of the Quaker faith were not cal- 
culated to encourage the genius of art, but 
at the age of nine years, with no suggestion 
except that of inspiration, we find him choos- 
ing his model from life, and laboring over 
his first work calculated to attract public 
notice. It was a representation of a sleep- 
ing child in its cradle. The brush with 
which he painted it was made of hairs 
which he plucked from the cat's tail, and 
the colors were obtained from the war paints 
of friendly Indians, his mother's indigo bag, 
and ground chalk and charcoal, and the juice 
of berries; but there were touches in the rude 
production that he declared in later days 
were a credit to his best works. The pic- 
ture attracted notice, for a council was 

called at once to pass upon the boy's con- 
duct in thus infringing the laws of the so- 
ciety. There were judges among them who 
saw in his genius a rare gift and their wis- 
dom prevailed, and the child was given per- 
mission to follow his inclination. He studied 
under a painter named Williams, and then 
spent some years as a portrait painter with 
advancing success. At the age of twenty- 
two he went to Italy, and not until he had 
perfected himself by twenty-three years of 
labor in that paradise of art was he satisfied 
to turn his face toward home. However, he 
stopped at London, and decided to settle 
there, sending to America for his intended 
bride to join him. Though the Revolution- 
ary war was raging. King George III showed 
the American artist the highest considera- 
tion and regard. His remuneration from 
works for royalty amounted to five thou- 
sand dollars per year for thirty years. 

West's best known work in America is, 
perhaps, **The Death of General Wolf." 
West was one of the thirty-six original mem- 
bers of the Royal academy and succeeded 
Joshua Reynolds as president, which posi- 
tion he held until his death. His early 
works were his best, as he ceased to display 
originality in his later life, conventionality 
having seriously affected his efforts. He 
died in 1820. 

Georgia evangelist, was born October 
16, 1847, in Chambers county, Alabama. 
He did not attend school regularly during 
his boyhood, but worked on a farm, and 
went to school at intervals, on account of 
ill health. His father removed to Carters- 
ville, Georgia, when Mr. Jones was a small 
boy. He quit school at the age of nineteen 
and never attended college. The war inter- 
fered with his education, which was intended 



to prepare him for the legal profession. 
After the war he renewed his preparation 
for college, but was compelled to desist from 
such a course, as his health failed him en- 
tirely.. Later on, however, he still pursued 
his legal studies and was admitted to the 
bar. Soon after this event he went to Dal- 
las, Paulding county, Georgia, where he was 
engaged in the practice of his profession, 
and in a few months removed to Cherokee 
county, Alabama, where he taught school. 
In 1869 he returned to Cartersville, Georgia, 
and arrived in time to see his father die. 
Immediately after this event he applied for 
a license to preach, and went to Atlanta, 
Georgia, to the meeting of the North Geor- 
gia Conference of the M. E. church south, 
which received him on trial. He became 
an evangelist of great note, and traveled 
extensively, delivering his sermons in an 
inimitable style that made him very popular 
with the masses, his methods of conducting 
revivals being unique and original and his 
preaching practical and incisive. 

character in political affairs and for 
many years United States senator from 
Illinois, was born November 22, 1829, at 
Monticello, Kentucky. He came with his 
parents to Illinois in 1830 and spent his early 
years on a farm , but having formed the purpose 
of devoting himself to the lawyer's profession 
he spent two years study at the Rock River 
seminary at Mount Morris, Illinois. In 1853 
Mr. Cullom entered the law office of Stuart 
and Edwards at Springfield, Illinois, and two 
years later he began the independent prac- 
tice of laW in that city. He took an active 
interest in politics and was soon elected city 
attorney of Springfield. In 1856 he was 
elected a member of the Illinois house of 
representatives. He identified himself with 

the newly formed Republican party and in 
1 860 was re-elected to the legislature of his 
state, in which he was chosen speaker of the 
house. In 1862 President Lincoln appoint- 
ed a commission to pass upon and examine 
the accounts of the United States quarter- 
masters and disbursing officers, composed 
as follows: Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; 
Charles A. Dana, of New York, and 
Gov. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Cullom was nominated for congress in 
1864, and was elected by a majority of 
1,785. In the house of representatives he 
became an active and aggressive member, 
was chairman of the committee on territories 
and served in congress until 1868. Mr. 
Cullom was returned to the state legislature, 
of which he was chosen speaker in 1872, 
and was re-elected in 1874. In 1876 he 
was elected governor of Illinois and at the 
end of his term he was chosen for a second 
term. He was elected United States senator 
in 1883 and twice re-elected. 

Am.erican inventor of much note, was 
born in Hertford county, North Carolina, 
September 12, 181 8. At an early age he 
gave promise of an inventive genius. The 
first emanation from his mind was the 
invention of a screv/ for the propulsion 01 
water craft, but on application for a 
patent, found that he was forestalled but 
a short time by John Ericsson. Subse- 
quently he invented a machine for sowing 
wheat in drills, which was used to a great 
extent throughout the west. He then stud- 
ied medicine, and in 1847-8 attended 
lectures at the Indiana Medical College 
at Laporte, and in 1848-9 at the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati. He later 
discovered a method of transmitting power 
through the medium of compressed air. A 



•double-acting hemp break was also invented 
by him. The invention, however, by which 
Dr. Gatling became best known was the 
famous machine gun which bears his name. 
This he brought to light in 1861-62, and on 
the first trial of it, in the spring of the latter 
year, two hundred shots per minute were 
fired from it. After making some improve- 
ments which increased its efficiency, it was 
submitted to severe trials by our govern- 
m'ent at the arsenals at Frankfort, Wash- 
ington and Fortress Monroe, and at other 
points. The gun was finally adopted by 
our government, as well as by that of Great 
Britain, Russia and others. 

a national fame in politics, was born 
August II, 1847, in Edgefield county, South 
Carolina. He received his education in the 
Oldfield school, where he acquired the 
rudiments of Latin and Greek, in addition 
to a good English education. He left school 
in 1864 to join the Confederate army, but 
was prevented from doing so by a severe 
illness, which resulted in the loss of an eye. 
In 1867 he removed to Florida, but returned 
in 1868, when he was married and devoted 
himself to farming. He was chairman of 
the Democratic organization of his county, 
but except a few occasional services he took 
no active part in politics then. Gradually, 
however, his attention was directed to the 
depressed condition of the farming interests 
of his state, and in August, 1885, before a 
joint meeting of the agricultural society and 
state grange at Bennettsville, he made a 
speech in which he set forth the cause of 
agricultural depression and urged measures^ 
of relief. From his active interest in the 
farming class he was styled the ** Agricult- 
ural Moses." He advocated an industrial 

school for women and for a separate agri- 

cultural college, and in 1887 he secured a 
modification in the final draft of the will of 
Thomas G. Clemson, which resulted in the 
erection of the Clemson Agricultural Col- 
lege at Fort Hill. In 1890 he was chosen 
governor on the Democratic ticket, and 
carried the election by a large majority. 
Governor Tillman was inaugurated Decem- 
ber 4, 1890. Mr. Tillman was next elected 
to the United States senate from South 
Carolina, and gained a national reputation 
by his fervid oratory. 

No journalist of America was so cele- 
brated in his time for the wit, spice, and 
vigor of his writing, as the gentleman whose 
name heads this sketch. From Atlantic to 
Pacific he was well known by his witticism 
as well as by strength and force of his edi- 
torials. He was a native of Preston, Con- 
necticut, born December 18, 1802. After 
laying the foundation of a liberal education 
in his youth, he entered Brown University, 
from which he was graduated in 1823. Tak- 
ing up the study of law, he was admitted to 
the bar in 1829. During part of his time 
he was editor of the '' New England Weekly 
Review," a position which he relinquished 
to go south and was succeeded by John 
Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet. 

On arriving in Louisville, whither he 
had gone to gather items, for his history of 
Henry Clay, Mr. Prentice became identified 
with the '* Louisville Journal," which, under 
his hands, became one of the leading Whig 
newspapers of the country. At the head of 
this he remained until the day of his death. 
This latter event occurred January 22, 1870, 
and he was succeeded in the control of the 
*' Journal' 'by Colonel Henry Watterson. 

Mr. Prentice was an author of consider- 
able celebrity, chief among his works being 



**The Life of Henry Clay," and *' Prentice- 
ana," a collection of wit and humor, that 
passed through several large editions. 

SAM. HOUSTON, in the opinion of some 
critics one of the most remarkable men 
who ever figured in American history, was a 
native of Rockbridge county, Virginia, born 
March 2, 1793. Early in life he was left in 
destitute circumstances by the death of his 
father, and, with his mother, removed to 
Tennessee, then almost a boundless wilder- 
ness. He received but little education, 
spending the most of his time among the 
Cherokee Indians. Part of the time of his 
residence there Houston acted as clerk for a 
trader and also taught one of the primitive 
schools of the day. In 181 3 he enlisted as 
private in the United States army and was 
engaged under General Jackson in the war 
with the Creek Indians. When peace was 
made Houston was a lieutenant, but he re- 
signed his commission and commenced the 
study of law at Nashville. After holding 
some minor offices he was elected member 
of congress from Tennessee. This was in 
1823. He retained this office until 1827, 
when he was chosen governor of the state. 
In 1829, resigning that office before the ex- 
piration of his term, Sam Houston removed 
to Arkansas, and made his home among the 
Cherokees, becoming the agent of that 
tribe and representing their interests at 
Washington. On a visit to Texas, just 
prior to the election of delegates to a con- 
vention called for the purpose of drawing 
up a constitution previous to the admission 
of the state into the Mexican union, he was 
unanimously chosen a delegate. The con- 
vention framed the constitution, but, it be- 
ing rejected by the government of Mexico, 
and the petition for admission to the Con- 
federacy denied and the Texans told by the 

president of the Mexican union to give up 
their arms, bred trouble. It was determined 
to resist this demand. A military force was 
soon organized, with General Houston at 
the head of it. War was prosecuted with 
great vigor, and with varying success, but 
at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, 
the Mexicans were defeated and their leader 
and president, Santa Anna, captured. Texas 
was then proclaimed an independent repub- 
lic, and in October of the same year Hous- 
ton was inaugurated president. On the ad- 
mission of Texas to the Federal Union, in 
1845, Houston was elected senator, and 
held that position for twelve years. Oppos- 
ing the idea of secession, he retired from 
political life in 1861, and died at Hunts-^ 
ville, Texas, July 25, 1863. 

ELI WHITNEY, the inventor of the cot- 
ton-gin, was born in Westborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, December 8, 1765. After his 
graduation from Yale College, he went to 
Georgia, where he studied law, and lived 
with the family of the widow of General 
Nathaniel Greene. At that time the only 
way known to separate the cotton seed from 
the fiber was by hand, making it extremely 
slow and expensive, and for this reason cot- 
ton was little cultivated in this country. 
Mrs. Greene urged the inventive Whitney 
to devise some means for accomplishing^ 
this work by machinery. This he finally 
succeeded in doing, but he was harassed by 
attempts to defraud him by those who had 
stolen his ideas. He at last formed a part- 
nership with a man named Miller, and they 
began the manufacture of the machines at 
Washington, Georgia, in 1795, The suc- 
cess of his invention was immediate, and the 
legislature of South Carolina voted the sum 
of $50,000 for his idea. This sum he had 
great difficulty in collecting, after years of 



litigation and delay. North Carolina al- 
lowed him a royalty, and the same was 
agreed to by Tennessee, but was never paid. 

While his fame rests upon the invention 
of the cotton-gin, his fortune came from his 
improvements in the manufacture and con- 
struction of firearms. In 1798 the United 
States government gave him a contract for 
this purpose, and he accumulated a fortune 
from it. The town of Whitneyville, Con- 
necticut, was founded by this fortune. 
Whitney died at New Haven, Connecticut, 
January 8, 1825. 

The cotton-gin made the cultivation of 
cotton profitable, and this led to rapid in- 
troduction of slavery in the south. His in- 
vention thus affected our national history in 
a manner little dreamed of by the inventor. 

LESTER WALLACK (John Lester Wal- 
lack), for many years the leading light 
comedian upon the American stage, was 
the son of James W. Wallack, the ** Brum- 
mell of the Stage." Both father and son 
were noted for their comeliness of feature 
and form. Lester Wallack was born in 
New York, January i, 18 19. He received 
his education in England, and made bis first 
appearance on the stage in 1848 at the New 
Broadway theater. New York. He acted 
light comedy parts, and also occasion- 
ally in romantic plays like Monte Cristo, 
which play made him his fame. He went 
to England and played under management 
of such men as Hamblin and Burton, and then 
returned to New York with his father, who 
opened the first Wallack's theater, at the 
corner of Broome and Broadway, in 1852. 
The location was afterward changed to 
Thirteenth and Broadway, in 1861, and 
later to its present location, Broadway and 
Thirteenth, in 1882. The elder Wallack 
died in 1864, after which Lester assumed 

management, jointly with Theodore Moss. 
Lester Wallack was commissioned in the 
queen's service while in England, and there 
he also married a sister to the famous artist, 
the late John Everett Millais. While Les- 
ter Wallack never played in the interior 
cities, his name was as familiar to the public 
as that of our greatest stars. He died Sep- 
tember 6, 1888, at Stamford, Connecticut. 

the palace car magnate, inventor, 
multi-millionaire and manufacturer, may 
well be classed among the remarkable 
self-made men of the century. He was 
born March 3, 1 831, in Chautauqua county, 
New York. His parents were poor, and 
his education was limited to what he could 
learn of the rudimentary branches in the 
district school. At the age of fourteen he 
went to work as clerk for a country mer- 
chant. He kept this place three years, 
studying at night. When seventeen he 
went to Albion, New York, and worked for 
his brother, who kept a cabinet shop there. 
Five years later he went into business for 
himself as contractor for moving buildings 
along the line of the Erie canal, which was 
then being widened by the state, and was 
successful in this. In 1858 he removed to 
Chicago and engaged in the business of 
moving and raising houses. The work was 
novel there then and he was quite success- 
ful. About this time the discomfort attend- 
ant on traveling at night attracted his at- 
tention. He reasoned that the public would 
gladly pay for comfortable sleeping accom- 
modations. A few sleeping cars were in 
use at that time, but they were wretchedly 
crude, uncomlortable affairs. In 1859 he 
bought two old day coaches from the Chi- 
cago & Alton road and remodeled them some« 
thing like the general plan of the sleepine^" 



cars of the present day. They were put 
into service on the Chicago & Alton and 
became popular at once. In 1863 he built 
the first sleeping-car resembling the Pullman 
•cars of to-day. It cost $18,000 and was 
the ** Pioneer." After that the Pullman 
Palace Car Company prospered. It had 
shops at different cities. In 1880 the Town 
of Pullman was founded by Mr. Pullman 
and his company, and this model manufac- 
turing community is known all over the 
-world. Mr. Pullman died October 19, 1897. . 

JAMES E. B. STUART, the most famous 
cavalry leader of the Southern Confed- 
eracy during the Civil war, was born in 
Patrick county, Virginia, in 1833. On 
graduating from the United States Military 
Academy, West Point, in 1854, he was as- 
signed, as second lieutenant, to a regiment 
of mounted rifles, receiving his commission 
in October. In March, 1855, he was trans- 
ferred to the newly organized First cavalry, 
and was promoted to first lieutenant the 
following December, and to captain April 
22, 1 86 1. Taking the side of the south. 
May 14, 1 86 1, he was made colonel of a 
Virginia cavalry regiment, and served as 
such at Bull Run. In September, 1861, he 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
erai. and major-general early in 1862. On 
the reorganization of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, in June of the latter year, when 
R. E. Lee assumed command, General Stu- 
art made a reconnoissance with one thou- 
sand five hundred cavalry and four guns, 
and in two days made the circuit of McClel- 
lan's army, producing much confusion and 
gathering useful information, and losing but 
one man. August 25, 1862, he captured 
part of Pope^s headquarters' train, including 
that general's private baggage and official 
correspondence, and the next night, in a 

descent upon Manasses, capturing immense 
quantities of commissary and quartermaster 
store, eight guns, a number of locomotives 
and a few hundred prisoners. During the 
invasion of Maryland, in September, 1862, 
General Stuart acted as rearguard, resisting 
the advance of the Federal cavalry at South 
Mountain, and at Antietam commanded the 
Confederate left. Shortly after he crossed 
the Potomac, making a raid as far as Cham- 
bersburg, Pennsylvania. In the battle of 
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, Gen- 
eral Stuart's command was on the extreme 
right of the Confederate line. At Chancel- 
lorsville, after ** Stonewall" Jackson's death 
and the wounding of General A. P. Hill, 
General Stuart assumed command of Jack- 
son's corps, which he led in the severe con- 
test of May 3, 1863. Early in June, the 
same year, a large force of cavalry was 
gathered under Stuart, at Culpepper, Vir- 
ginia, which, advancing to join General Lee 
in his invasion of Pennsylvania, was met at 
Brandy Station, by two divisions of cavalry 
and two brigades of infantry, under General 
John I. Gregg, and driven back. During the 
movements of the Gettysburg campaign he 
rendered important services. In May, 1864, 
General Stuart succeeded, by a detour, in 
placing himself between Richmond and 
Sheridan's advancing column, and at Yellow 
Tavern was attacked in force. During the 
fierce conflict that ensued General Stuart 
was mortally wounded, and died at Rich- 
mond, May II, 1864. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth 
president of the United States— from 
1853 until 1857 — was born November 23, 
1804, at Hillsboro, New Hampshire. He 
came of old revolutionary stock and his 
father was a governor of the state. Mr. 
Pierce entered Bowdoin College in 1820, 



was graduated in 1824, and took up the 
study of law in the ofSce of Judge Wood- 
bury, and later he was admitted to the bar. 
Mr. Pierce practiced his profession with 
varying successes in his native town and 
also in Concord. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1833 and served in that 
body until 1837, the last two years of his 
term serving as speaker of the house. He 
was elected to the United States senate in 
1837, just as President Van Buren began 
his term of office. Mr. Pierce served until 
1842, and many times during Polk's term he 
declined important public offices. During 
the war with Mexico Mr. Pierce was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and he embarked 
with a portion of his troops at Newport, 
Rhode Island, May 27, 1847, ^^^d went with 
them to the field of battle. He served 
through the war and distinguished himself 
by his skill, bravery and excellent judg- 
ment. When he reached his home in his 
native state he was received coldly by the 
opponents of the war, but the advocates of 
the war made up for his cold reception by 
the enthusiastic welcome which they ac- 
corded him. Mr. Pierce resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, and in the political 
strife that followed he gave his support to 
the pro- slavery wing of the Democratic 
party. The Democratic convention met in 
Baltimore, June 12, 1852, to nominate a 
candidate for the presidency, and they con- 
tinued in session four days, and in thirty- 
five ballotings ,no one had secured the re- 
quisite two-thirds vote. Mr. Pierce had not 
received a vote as yet, until the Virginia 
delegation brought his name forward, and 
finally on the forty-ninth ballot Mr. Pierce 
received 282 votes and all the other candi- 
dates eleven. His opponent on the Whig 
ticket was General Winfield Scott, who 
only received the electoral votes of four 

states. Mr. Pierce was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the United States March 4, 1853, 
with W. R. King as vice president, and the- 
following nagied gentlemen were afterward 
chosen to fill the positions in the cabinet: 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jeffer- 
son Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert Mc-^ 
Clelland, James Campbell and Caleb Gush- 
ing. During the administration of President 
Pierce the Missouri compromise law was 
repealed, and all the territories of the Union 
were thrown open to slavery, and the dis- 
turbances in Kansas occurred. In 1857 he 
was succeeded in the presidency by James 
Buchanan, and retired to his home in Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. He always cherished' 
his principles of slavery, and at the out- 
break of the rebellion he was an adherent of 
the cause of the Confederacy. He died at 
Concord, New Hampshire, October 8, 1869. 

JAMES B. WEAVER, well known as a 
leader of the Greenback and later of the 
Populist party, was born at Dayton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1833. He received his earlier 
education in the schools of his native town, 
and entered the law department of the Ohio 
University, at Cincinnati, from which he 
graduated in 1854. Removing to the grow- 
ing state of Iowa, he became connected- 
with **The Iowa Tribune," at the state 
capital, Des Moines, as one of its editors. 
He afterward practiced law and was elected 
district attorney for the second judicial dis- 
trict of Iowa, on the Republican ticket in 
I Z66, which office he held for a short time. 
In 1867 Mr. Weaver was appointed assessor 
of internal revenue for the first district of 
Iowa, and filled that position until some-^ 
time in 1873. He was elected and served 
in the forty-sixth congress. In 1880 the 
National or Greenback party in convention 
at Chicago, nominated James B. Weaver as. 



its candidate for the . presidency. By a 
union of the Democratic and National 
parties in his district, he was elected to the 
forty-ninth congress, and re-elected to the 
same office in the fall of 1886. Mr. Weaver 
was conceded to be a very fluent speaker, 
and quite active in all political work. On 
July 4, 1892, at the National convention 
of the People's party, General James B. 
Weaver was chosen as the candidate for 
president of that organization, and during 
the campaign that followed, gained a na- 
tional reputation. 

of the leading bankers and financiers of 
the United States, was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1826, and was the son of 
Francis M. Drexel, who had established 
the large banking institution of Drexel & 
Co., so well known. The latter was a native 
of Dornbirn, in the Austrian Tyrol. He 
studied languages and fine arts at Turin, 
Italy. On returning to his mountain home, 
in 1809, and finding it in the hands of the 
French, he went to Switzerland and later 
to Paris. In i8i2,aftera short visit home, 
he went to Berlin, where he studied paint- 
ing until 18 17, in which year he emigrated 
io America, and settled in Philadelphia. A 
few years later he went to Chili and Peru, 
where he executed some fine portraits of 
notable people, including General Simon 
Bolivar. After spending some time in Mex- 
ico, he returned to Philadelphia, and en- 
gaged in the banking business. In 1837 he 
founded the house of Drexel & Co. He 
died in 1837, and was succeeded by his two 
sons, Anthony J. and Francis A. His son, 
Anthony J. Drexel, Jr. , entered the bank 
when he was thirteen years of age, before he 
was thrpugh with his schooling, and after 
that the history of the banking business of 

which he was the head, was the history of his 
life. The New York house of Drexel, Mor- 
gan & Co. was established in 1850; the 
Paris house, Drexel, Harjes & Co., in 1867. 
The Drexel banking houses have supplied 
iand placed hundreds of millions of dollars 
n government, corporation, railroad and 
other loans and securities. The reputation 
of the houses has always been held on the 
highest plane. Mr. Drexel founded and 
heavily endowed the Drexel Institute, in 
Philadelphia, an institution to furnish better 
and wider avenues of employment to young 
people of both sexes. It has departments 
of arts, science, mechanical arts and domes- 
tic economy. Mr. Drexel, Jr., departed this 
life June 30, 1893. 

inventor of the recording telegraph in- 
strument, was born in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, April 27, 1 79 1. He graduated 
from Yale College in 18 10, and took up art 
as his profession. He went to London with 
the great American painter, Washington 
Allston, and studied in the Royal Academy 
under Benjamin West. His ** Dying Her- 
cules," his first effort in sculpture, took the 
gold medal in 1813. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 181 5 and continued to pursue his 
profession. He was greatly interested in 
scientific studies, which he carried on in 
connection with other labors. He founded 
the National Academy of Design and was 
many years its president. He returned to 
Europe and spent three years in study 
in the art centers, Rome, Florence, Venice 
and Paris. In 1832 he returned to America 
and while on the return voyage the idea of 
a recording telegraph apparatus occurred to 
him, and he made a drawing to represent his 
conception. He was the first to occupy the 
chair of fine arts in the University of New 



York City, and in 1835 he set up his rude 
instrument in his room in the university. 
But it was not until after many years of 
discouragement and reverses of fortune that 
lie finally was successful in placing his inven- 
tion before the public. In 1844, by aid of 
the United States government, he had con- 
structed a telegraph line forty miles in length 
from Washington to Baltimore. Over this 
line the test was made, and the first tele- 
graphic message was flashed May 24, 1844, 
from the United States supreme court rooms 
to Baltimore. It read, *'What hath God 
wrought!" His fame and fortune were es- 
tablished in an instant. Wealth and honors 
poured in upon him from that day. The 
nations of Europe vied with each other 
in honoring the great inventor with medals, 
"titles and decorations, and the learned 
societies of Europe hastened to enroll his 
name upon their membership lists and confer 
degrees. In 1858 he was the recipient of an 
honor never accorded to an inventor before. 
The ten leading nations of Europe, at the 
suggestion of the Emporer Napoleon, ap- 
pointed representatives to an international 
congress, which convened at Paris for the 
special purpose of expressing gratitude of the 
nations, and they voted him a present of 
400,000 francs. 

Professor Morse was present at the unveil- 
ing of a bronze statue erected in his honor in 
Central Park, New York, in 1871. His last 
appearance in public was at the unveiling 
of the statue of Benjamin Franklin in New 
York in 1872, when he made the dedica- 
tory speech and unveiled the statue. He 
died April 2, 1872, in the city of New York. 

chief justice of the United States, was 
born at Lym^, Connecticut, November 29, 
1 8 16. He was a graduate from Yale Col- 

lege in 1837, in the class with William M. 
Evarts. His father was judge of the su- 
preme court of errors of the state of Con- 
necticut, and in his office young Waite 
studied law. He subsequently removed to 
Ohio, and was elected to the legislature of 
that state in 1849. He removed from 
Maumee City to Toledo and became a prom- 
inent legal light in that state. He was 
nominated as a candidate for congress re- 
peatedly but declined to run, and also de- 
clined a place on the supreme bench of the 
state. He won great distinction for his able 
handling of the Alabama claims at Geneva, 
before the arbitration tribunal in 1871, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States in 1874 on the 
death of Judge Chase. When, in 1876, elec- 
toral commissioners were chosen to decide 
the presidential election controversy between 
Tilden and Hayes, Judge Waite refused to 
serve on that commission. 

His death occurred March 23, i^ 

ELISHA KENT KANE was one of the 
distinguished American explorers of the 
unknown regions of the frozen north, and 
gave to the world a more accurate knowl- 
edge of the Arctic zone. Dr. Kane was 
born February 3, 1820, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. He was a graduate of the 
universities of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
and took his medical degree in 1843. He 
entered the service of the United States 
navy, and was physician to the Chinese 
embassy. Dr. Kane traveled extensively 
in the Levant, Asia and Western Africa, 
and also served in the Mexican war, in 
which he was severely wounded. His 
first Arctic expedition was under De Haven 
in the first Grinnell expedition in search 
of Sir John Franklin in 1850. He com- 
manded the second Grinnell expedition 



in 1853-55, and discovered an open polar 
sea. For this expedition he received a gold 
medal and other distinctions. He published 
a narrative of his first polar expedition in 
1853, and in 1856 published two volumes 
relating to his second polar expedition. He 
was a man of active, enterprising and cour- 
ageous spirit. His health, which was al- 
ways delicate, was impaired by the hard- 
ships of his Arctic expeditions, from which 
he never fully recovered and from which he 
died February 16, 1857, at Havana. 

daughter of Judge Daniel Cady and 
Margaret Livingston, and was born Novem- 
ber 12, 181 5, at Johnstown, New York. She 
was educated at the Johnstown Academy, 
v^'here she studied with a class of boys, and 
Was fitted for college at the age of fifteen, 
-after which she pursued her studies at Mrs. 
Willard's Seminary, at Troy. Her atten- 
tion was called to the disabilities of her sex 
by her own educational experiences, and 
through a study of Blackstone, Story, and 
Kent. Miss Cady was married to Henry B. 
Stanton in 1840, and accompanied him to 
the world's anti-slavery convention in Lon- 
don. While there she made the acquain- 
tance of Lucretia Mott. Mrs. Stanton 
resided at Boston until 1847, when the 
family moved to Seneca Falls, New York, 
and she and Lucretia Mott signed the first 
call for a woman's rights convention. The 
meeting was held at her place of residence 
July 19-20, 1848. This was the first oc- 
casion of a formal claim of suffrage for 
women that was made. Mrs. Stanton ad- 
dressed the New York legislature, in 1854, 
on the rights of married women, and in 
i860, in advocacy of the granting of di- 
vorce for drunkenness. She also addressed 
the legislature and the constitutional con- 

vention, and maintained that during the 
revision of the constitution the state was 
resolved into its original elements, and that 
all citizens had, therefore, a right to vote 
for the members of that convention. After 
1869 Mrs. Stanton frequently addressed 
congressional committees and state consti- 
tutional conventions, and she canvassed 
Kansas, Michigan, and other states when 
the question of woman suffrage was sub- 
mitted in those states. Mrs. Stanton was 
one of the editors of the ** Revolution," and 
most of the calls and resolutions for con- 
ventions have come from her pen. She 
was president of the national committee, 
also of the Woman's Loyal League, and 
of the National Association, for many years. 

American jurist, was born in Connecti- 
cut in 1805. He en^oxcia Williams College 
when sixteen years old, and commenced the 
study of law in 1825. In 1828 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and went to New York, 
where he soon came into prominence be- 
fore the bar of that state. He entered upon 
the labor of reforming the practice and 
procedure, which was then based upon the 
common law practice of England, and had 
become extremely complicated, difficult and 
uncertain in its application. His first paper 
on this subject was published in 1839, and 
after eight years of continuous efforts in this 
direction, he was appointed one of a com- 
mission by New York to reform the practice 
of that state. The result was embodied in 
the two codes of procedure, civil and crimi- 
nal, the first of which was adopted almost 
entire by the state of New York, and has 
since been adopted by more than half the 
states in the Union, and became the basis 
of the new practice and procedure in Eng- 
land, contained in the Judicature act. He 



was later appointed chairman of a new com- 
mission to codify the entire body of laws. 
This great work employed many years in its 
completion, but when finished it embraced 
a civil, penal, and political code, covering 
the entire field of American laws, statutory 
and common. This great body of law was 
adopted by California and Dakota territory 
in its entirety, and many other states have 
since adopted its substance. In 1867 the 
British Association for Social Science heard 
a proposition from Mr. Field to prepare an 
international code. This led to the prepara- 
tion of his *' Draft Outlines of an Interna- 
tional Code," which was in fact a complete 
body of international laws, and introduced 
the principle of arbitration. Other of his 
codes of the state of New York have since 
been adopted by that state. 

In addition to his great works on law, 
Mr. Field indulged his literary tastes by fre- 
quent contributions to general literature, 
and his articles on travels, literature, and 
the political questions of the hour gave 
him rank with the best writers of his time. 
His father was the Rev. David Dudley Field, 
and his brothers were Cyrus W. Field, Rev. 
Henry Martin Field, and Justice Stephen 
J. Field of the United States supreme 
court. David Dudley Field died at New 
York, April 13, 1894. 

HENRY M. TELLER, a celebrated 
American politician, and secretary of 
the interior under President Arthur, was born 
May 23, 1830, in Allegany county, New 
York. He was of Hollandish ancestry and 
received an excellent education, after which 
he took up the study of law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the state of New York. 
Mr. Teller removed to Illinois in January, 
1858, and practiced for three years in that 
state. From thence he moved to Colorado 

in 1 86 1 and located at Central City, which 
was then one of the principal mining towns 
in the state. His exceptional abilities as 
a lawyer soon brought him into prominence 
and gained for him a numerous and profit- 
able clientage. In politics he affiliated with 
the Republican party, but declined to become 
a candidate for office until the admission of 
Colorado into the Union as a state, when 
he was elected to the United States senate. 
Mr. Teller drew the term ending March 
4, 1877, but was re-elected December 11, 
1876, and served until April 17, 1882, when 
he was appointed by President Arthur as 
secretary of the interior. He accepted a 
cabinet position with reluctance, and on 
March 3, 1885, he retired from the cabinet, 
having been elected to the senate a short 
time before to succeed Nathaniel P. Hill. 
Mr. Teller took his seat on March 4, 1885, 
in the senate, to which he was afterward 
re-elected. He served as chairman on the 
committee of pensions, patents, mines and> 
mining, and was also a member of commit- 
tees on claims, railroads, privileges and 
elections and public lands. Mr. Teller came 
to be recognized as one of the ablest advo- 
cates of the silver cause. He was one of the 
delegates to the Republican National conven- 
tion at St. Louis in 1896, in which he took 
an active part and tried to have a silver 
plank inserted in the platform of the party. 
Failing in this he felt impelled to bolt the 
convention, which he did and joined forces 
with the great silver movement in the cam- 
paign which followed, being recognized in- 
that campaign as one of the most able and 
eminent advocates of ** silver" in America. 

JOHN ERICSSON, an eminent inven- 
tor and machinist, who won fame in 
America, was born in Sweden, July 31, 1803. 
In early childhood he evinced a decided in« 



clination to mechanical pursuits, and at the 
age of eleven he was appointed to a cadet- 
ship in the engineer corps, and at the age of 
seventeen was promoted to a lieutenancy, 
in 1826 he introduced a '* flame engine,'* 
which he had invented, and offered it to 
English capitalists, but it was found that it 
could be operated only by the use of wood 
for fuel. Shortly after this he resigned his 
commission in the army of Sweden, and de- 
voted himself to mechanical pursuits. He 
discovered and introduced the principle of 
artificial draughts in steam boilers, and re- 
ceived a prize of two thousand five hundred 
dollars for his locomotive, the '* Novelty," 
which attained a great speed, for that day. 
The artificial draught effected a great saving 
in fuel and made unnecessary the huge 
smoke-stacks formerly used, and the princi- 
ple is still applied, in modified form, in boil- 
ers. He also invented a steam fire-engine, 
and later a hot-air engine, which he at- 
tempted to apply in the operation of his 
ship, *'EricssQn," but as it did not give the 
speed required, he abandoned it, but after- 
'wards applied it to machinery for pumping, 
hoisting, etc. 

Ericsson was first to apply the screw 
propeller to navigation. The English peo- 
ple not receiving this new departure readily, 
Ericsson came to America in 1839, and 
built the United States steamer, * * Prince- 
ton," in which the screw-propeller was util- 
ized, the first steamer ever built in which 
the propeller was under water, out of range 
of the enemy's shots. The achievement 
which gave him greatest renown, however, 
was the ironclad vessel, the *' Monitor,'' an 
ei.tirely new type of vessel, which, in March, 
1862, attacked the Confederate monster 
ironclad ram, ** Virginia, " and after a fierce 
struggle, compelled her to withdraw from 
Hampton Roads for repairs. After the war 

one of his most noted inventions was his 
vessel, ** Destroyer," with a submarine gun, 
which carried a projectile torpedo. In 1886 
the king of Spain conferred on him the 
grand cross of the Order of Naval Merit. 
He died in March, 1889, and his body was 
transferred, with naval honors, to the country 
of his birth. 

JAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, and was born in Franklin 
county, April 23, 1791. He was of Irish 
ancestry, his father having come to this 
country in 1783, in quite humble circum- 
stances, and settled in the western part of 
the Keystone state. 

James Buchanan remained in his se- 
cluded home for eight years, enjoying but 
few social or intellectual advantages. His 
parents were industrious and frugal, and 
prospered, and, in 1799, the family removed 
to Mercersbur Pennsylvania, where he 
was placed in school. His progress was 
rapid, and in 1801 he entered Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, where he took his place 
among the best scholars in the institution. 
In 1809 he graduated with the highest hon- 
ors in his class. He was then eighteen, tall, 
graceful and in vigorous health. He com- 
menced the study of law at Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 18 12. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and took a 
stand with the ablest of his fellow lawyers. 
When but twenty-six years old he success- 
fully defended, unaided by counsel, one of 
the judges of the state who was before the 
bar of the state senate under articles of im- 

During the war of 18 12-15, Mr. Buch- 
anan sustained the government with all his 
power, eloquently urging the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war, and enlisted as a private 



volunteer to assist in repelling the British 
who had sacked and burned the public 
buildings of Washington and threatened 
Baltimore. At that time Buchanan was 
a Federalist, but the opposition of that 
party to the war with Great Britain and the 
alien and sedition laws of John Adams, 
brought that party into disrepute, and drove 
many, among them Buchanan, into the Re- 
publican, or anti-Federalist ranks. He was 
elected to congress in 1828. In .1831 he 
was sent as minister to Russia, and upon 
his return to this country, in 1833, was ele- 
vated to the United States senate, and re- 
mained in that position for twelve years. 
Upon the accession of President Polk to 
office he made Mr. Buchanan secretary of 
state. Four years later he retired to pri- 
vate life, and in 1853 he was honored with 
the mission to England. In 1856 the na- 
tional Democratic convention nominated 
him for the presidency and he was elected. 
It was during his administration that the 
rising tide of the secession movement over- 
took the country. Mr. Buchanan declared 
that the national constitution gave him no 
power to do anything against the movement 
to break up the Union. After his succession 
by Abraham Lincoln in i860, Mr. Buchanan 
retired to his home at Wheatland, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he died June i, 1868. 

JOHN HARVARD, the founder of the 
Harvard University, was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1608. He received his 
education at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
and came to America in 1637, settling in 
Massachusetts. He was a non-conformist 
minister, and a tract of land was set aside 
for him in Charlestown, near Boston. He 
was at once appointed one of a committee to 
formulate a body of laws for the colony. 
One year before his arrival in the colony 

the general court had voted the sum of four 
hundred pounds toward the establishment of 
a schocl or college, half of which was to be 
paid the next year In 1637 preliminary 
plans were made for starting the school. In 
1638 John Harvard, who had shown great 
interest in the new institution o.^ learning 
proposed, died, leaving his entire property, 
about twice the sum originally voted, to the 
school, together with three hundred volumes 
as a nucleus for a library. The institution 
was then given the name of Harvard, and 
established at Newton (now Cambridge), 
Massachusetts. It grew to be one of the two 
principal seats of learning in the new world, 
and has maintained its reputation since. It 
now consists of twenty-two separate build- 
ings, and its curriculum embraces over one 
hundred and seventy elective courses, and it 
ranks among the great universities of the 

jurist and chief justice of the United 
States supreme court, was born in Calvert 
county, Maryland, March 17, 1777. He 
graduated fiom Dickinson College at the 
age of eighteen, took up the study of law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1799. He 
was chosen to the legislature from his county, 
and in 1801 removed to Frederick, Mary- 
land. He became United States senator 
from Maryland in 18 16, and took up his 
permanent residence in Baltimore a few 
years later. In 1824 he became an ardent 
admirer and supporter of Andrew Jackson, 
and upon Jackson's election to the presi- 
dency, was appointed attorney general of 
the United States. Two years later he was 
appointed secretary of the treasury, and 
after serving in that capacity for nearly one 
year, the senate refused to confirm the ap- 
pointment. In 1835, upon the death of 



Chief-justice Marshall, he was appointed to 
that place, and a political change having 
occurred in the make up of the senate, he 
was confirmed in i336» He presided at 
his first session in January of the following 

The case which suggests itself first to 
the average reader in connection with this 
jurist is the celebrated *' Dred Scott " case, 
which came before the supreme court for 
decision in 1856. In his opinion, delivered 
on behalf of a majority of the court, one 
remarkable statement occurs as a result of 
an exhaustive survey of the historical 
grounds, to the effect that ** for more than 
a century prior to the adoption of the con- 
stitution they (Africans) had been regarded 
so far inferior that they had no rights which 
a white man was bound to respect." Judge 
Taney retained the office of chief justice 
until his death, in 1864. 

tleman had* a world-wide reputation as 
an historian, which placed him in the front 
rank of the great men of America. He was 
born April 15, 18 14, at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, was given a thorough preparatory 
education and then attended Harvard, from 
which he was graduated in 1831. He also 
studied at Gottingen and Berlin, read law 
and in 1836 was admitted to the bar. In 
1 84 1 he was appointed secretary of the 
legation at St. Petersburg, and in 1866-67 
served as United States minister to Austria, 
serving \\\ the same capacity during 1869 
and 1870 to England. In 1856, after long 
and exhau tive research and preparation, he 
published ill London **The Rise of the 
Dutch Repablc." It embraced three vol- 
umes and im iiediately attracted great at- 
tention throughout Europe and America as 
a work of unusual merit. From 1861 to 

1868 he produced ''The History of the 
United Netherlands," in four volumes. 
Other works followed, with equal success, 
and his position as one of the foremost his- 
torians and writers of his day was firmly 
established. His death occured May 29,, 

ELIAS HOWE, the inventor of the sew- 
ing machine, well deserves to be classed' 
among the great and noted men of Amer- 
ica. He was the son of a miller and farmer 
and was born at Spencer, Massachusetts, 
July 9, 1819. In 1835 he went to Lowell 
and worked there, and later at Boston, in the 
machine shops. His first sewing machine 
was completed in 1 845 , and he patented it in 
1846, laboring with the greatest persistency 
in spite of poverty and hardships, working 
for a time as an engine driver on a railroad 
at pauper wages and with broken health. 
He then spent two years of unsuccessful ex- 
ertion in England, striving in vain to bring 
his invention into public notice and use. 
He returned to the United States in almost 
hopeless poverty, to find that his patent 
had been violated. At last, however, he 
found friends who assisted him financially, 
and after years of litigation he made good 
his claims in the courts in 1854. His inven- 
tion afterward brought him a large fortune. 
During the Civil war he volunteered as a 
private in the Seventeenth Connecticut Vol- 
unteers, and served for some time. During 
his life time he received the cross of the 
Legion of Honor and many other medals. 
His death occurred October 3, 1867, at 
Brooklvn, New York. 

PHILLIPS BROOKS, celebrated as an 
eloquent preacher and able pulpit ora- 
tor, was born in Boston on the 13th day of 
December, 1835. He received excellent 



educational advantages, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1855. Early in life he decided 
upon the ministry as his life work and 
studied theology in the Episcopal Theolog- 
ical Seminary, at Alexandria, Virginia. In 
1859 he was ordained and the same year 
became pastor of the Church of the Advent, 
in Philadelphia. Three years later he as- 
sumed the pastorate of the Church of the 
Holy Trinity, where he remained until 1870. 
At the expiration of that time he accepted 
the pastoral charge of Trinity Church in 
Boston, where his eloquence and ability at- 
tracted much attention and built up a pow- 
erful church organization. Dr. Brooks also 
devoted considerable time to lecturing and 
literary work and attained prominence in 
these lines. 

WILLIAM B. ALLISON, a statesman 
of national reputation and one of the 
leaders of the Republican party, was born 
March 2, 1829, at Perry, Ohio. He grew 
up on his father's farm, which he assisted 
in cultivating, and attended the district 
school. When sixteen years old he went 
to the academy at Wooster, and subse- 
quently spent a year at the Allegheny Col- 
lege, at Meadville, Pennsylvania. He next 
taught school and spent another year at the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio. 
Mr. Allison then took up the study of law 
at Wooster, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1851, and soon obtained a position 
as deputy county clerk. His political lean- 
ings were toward the old line Whigs, who 
afterward laid the foundation of the Repub- 
lican party. He was a delegate to the state 
convention in 1856, in the campaign of 
which he supported Fremont for president. 
Mr Allison removed to Dubuque, Iowa, 
in the following year. He rapidly rose to 
prominence at the bar and i:i politics. In 

i860 he was chosen as a delegate to the 
Republican convention held in Chicago, of 
which he was elected one of the secretaries. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the governor. His 
congressional career opened in 1862, when 
he was elected to the thirty-eighth congress; 
he was re-elected three times, serving from 
March 4, 1863, to March 3, 1871. He was 
a member of the ways and means committee 
a good part of his term. His career in the 
United States senate began in 1873, and he 
rapidly rose to eminence in national affairs, 
his service of a quarter of a century in that 
body being marked by close fealty to the 
Republican party. He twice declined the 
portfolio of the treasury tendered him by 
Garfield and Harrison, and his name was 
prominently mentioned for the presidency 
at several national Republican conventions. 

turer and writer, was born in Boston, 
December 19, 1821. She was the daughter 
of Timothy Rice, and married D. P. Liver- 
more, a preacher of the Universalist church. 
She contributed able articles to many of the 
most noted periodicals of this country and 
England. During the Civil war she labored 
zealously and with success on behalf of the 
sanitary commission which played so impor- 
tant a part during that great struggle. She 
became editor of the ** Woman's Journal,'* 
published at Boston in 1870. 

She held a prominent place as a public 
speaker and writer on woman's suffrage, 
temperance, social and religious questions, 
and her influence was great in every cause 
she advocated. 

JOHN B. GOUGH. a noted temperance 
lecturer, who won his fame in A-merica, 
was born in the village of Sandgate, Kent^ 



England, August 22, 1 817. He came to 
the United States at the age of twelve. 
He followed the trade of bookbinder, and 
lived in great poverty on account of the 
liquor habit. In 1843, however, he re- 
formed, and began his career as a temper- 
ance lecturer. He worked zealously in the 
cause of temperance, and his lectures and 
published articles revealed great earnestness. 
He formed temperance societies throughout 
the entire country, and labored with great 
success. He visited England in the same 
cause about the year 1853 and again in 
1878. He also lectured upon many other 
topics, in which he attained a wide reputa- 
tion. His death occurred February 18, 

sculptor and painter, was born in Ches- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1822. 
He early evinced a taste for art, and began 
the study of sculpture in Cincinnati. Later 
he found painting more to his liking. He 
went to New York, where he followed this 
profession, and later to Boston. In 1846 
he located in Philadelphia. He visited 
Italy in 1850, and studied at Florence, 
where he resided almost continuously for 
twenty-two years. He returned to America 
in 1872, and died in New York May 11 of 
the same year. 

He was the author of many heroic 
poems, but the one giving him the most re- 
nown is his famous ** Sheridan's Ride," of 
which he has also left a Representation in 

EUGENE V. DEBS, the former famous 
president of the American Railway 
Union, and great labor leader, was born in 
the city of Terre Haute, Indiana, in 1855. 
He received his education in the public 

schools of that place and at the age of 
sixteen years began work as a painter in 
the Vandalia shops. After this, for some 
three years, he was employed as a loco- 
motive fireman on the same road. His 
first appearance in public life was in his 
canvass for the election to the office of city 
clerk of Terre Haute. In this capacity he 
served two terms, and when twenty six 
years of age was elected a member of the 
legislature of the state of Indiana. While 
a member of that body he secured the 
passage of several bills in the interest of 
organized labor, of which he was always 
a faithful champion. Mr. Debs' speech 
nominating Daniel Voorhees for the United 
States senate gave him a wide reputation for 
oratory. On the expiration of his term in 
the legislature, he was elected grand secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Fireman and filled that office 
for fourteen successive years. He was 
always an earnest advocate of confederation 
of railroad men and it was mainly through 
his efforts that the United Order of Railway 
Employes, composed of the Brotherhood 
of Railway Trainmen and Conductors, 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association was 
formed, and he became a member of its 
supreme council. The order was dissolved 
by disagreement between two of its leading 
orders, and then Mr. Debs conceived the 
idea of the American Railway Union. He 
worked on the details and the union came 
into existence in Chicago, June 20, 1 893. For 
a time it prospered and became one of the 
largest bodies of railway men in the world. 
It won in a contest with the Great Northern 
Railway. In the strike made by the union 
in sympathy with the Pullman employes 
inaugurated in Chicago June 25, 1894, and 
the consequent rioting, the Railway Union 



lost much prestige and Mr. Debs, in company 
with others of the officers, being held as in con- 
tempt of the United States courts, he suffered 
a sentence of six months in jail at Wood- 
stock, McHenry county, Illinois. In 1897 
Mr. Debs, on the demise of the American 
Railway Union, organized the Social 
Democracy, an institution founded on the 
best lines of the communistic idea, which 
was to provide homes and employment for 
its members. 

JOHN G. CARLISLE, famous as a law- 
yer, congressman, senator and cabinet 
officer, was born in Campbell (now Kenton) 
county, Kentucky, September 5, 1835, on a 
farm. He received the usual education oi 
the time and began at an early age to teach 
school and, at the same time, the study of 
law. Soon opportunity offered and he 
entered an office in Covington, Kentucky, 
and was admitted to practice at the bar in 
1858. Politics attracted his attention and 
in 1859 he was elected to the house of rep- 
resentatives in the legislature of his native 
state. On the outbreak of the war in 1861, 
he embraced the cause of the Union and was 
largely instrumental in preserving Kentucky 
to the federal cause. He resumed his legal 
practice for a time and declined a nomina- 
tion as presidential elector in 1864. In 
1866 and again in 1869 Mr. Carlisle was 
elected to the senate of Kentucky. He re- 
signed this position in 1871 and was chosen 
lieutenant governor of the state, which office 
he held until 1875. He was one of the 
presidential electors-at-large for Ken- 
tucky in 1876. He first entered congress in 
1877, ^^^d soon became a prominent leader 
on the Democratic side of the house of rep- 
resentatives, and continued a member of 
that body through the forty-sixth, forty- 
seventh, forty-eighth and forty-ninth con- 

gresses, and was speaker of the house during 
the two latter. He was elected to the 
United States senate to succeed Senator 
Blackburn, and remained a member of that 
branch of congress until March, 1893, when 
he was appointed secretary of the treasury. 
He performed the duties of that high office 
until March 4, 1897, throughout the en- 
tire second administration of President 
Cleveland. His ability and many years of 
public service gave him a national reputa- 

FRANCES E. WILLARD, for many years 
president of the 'Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and a noted American 
lecturer and writer, was born in Rochester, 
New York, September 28, 1839. Graduating 
from the Northwestern Female College at the 
age of nineteen she began teaching and met 
with great success in many cities of the west. 
She was made directress of Genesee Wes- 
leyan Seminary at Lima, Ohio, in 1867, and 
four years later was elected president of the 
Evanston College for young ladies, a branch 
of the Northwestern University. 

During the two years succeeding 1869 
she traveled extensively in Europe and the 
east, visiting Egypt and Palestine, and 
gathering materials for a valuable course of 
lectures, which she delivered at Chicago on 
her return. She became very popular, and 
won great influence in the temperance 
cause. Her work as president of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union greatly 
strengthened that society, and she made 
frequent trips to Europe in the mterest of 
that cause. 

RICHARD OLNEY.— Among the promi- 
nent men who were members of the 
cabinet of President Cleveland in his second 
administration, the gentleman whose nama 



heads this sketch held a leading place, oc- 
cupying the positions of attorney general 
and secretary of state. 

Mr. Olney came from one of the oldest 
and most honored New England families; 
the first of his ancestors to come from Eng- 
land settled in Massachusetts in 1635. This 
was Thomas Olney. He was a friend and 
co-religionist of Roger Williams, and when 
the latter moved to what is now Rhode 
Island, went with him and became one of 
the founders of Providence Plantations. 

Richard Olney was born in Oxford, 
Massachusetts, in 1835, and received the 
elements of his earlier education in the com- 
mon schools which New England is so proud 
of. He entered Brown University, from 
which he graduated in 1856, and passed the 
Harvard law school two years later. He 
began the practice of his profession with 
Judge B. F. Thomas, a prominent man of 
that locality. For years Richard Olney was 
regarded as one of the ablest and most 
learned lawyers in Massachusetts. Twice 
he was offered a place on the bench of the 
supreme court of the state, but both times 
he declined. He was always a Democrat 
in his political tenets, and for many years 
was a trusted counsellor of members of that 
party. In 1874 Mr. Olney was elected a 
member of the legislature. In 1876, during 
the heated presidential campaign, to 
strengthen the cause of Mr. Tilden in the 
New England states, it was intimated that 
in the event of that gentleman's election to 
the presidency, Mr. Olney would be attor- 
B«y general. 

When Grover Cleveland was elected presi- 
d'^nt of the United States, on his inaugura- 
tion in March, 1893, he tendered the posi- 
tion of attorney generai to Richard Olney. 
This was accepted, and that gentleman ful- 
filled the duties of the office until the death 

of Walter Q. Gresham, in May, 1895, made 
vacant the position of secretary of state. 
This post was filled by the appointment of 
Mr. Olney. While occupying the later 
office, Mr. Olney brought himself into inter- 
national prominence by some very able state 

JOHN JAY KNOX, for many years comp- 
troller of the currency, and an eminent 
financier, was born in Knoxboro, Oneida 
county, New York, May 19, 1828. He re- 
ceived a good education and graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1849. For about 
thirteen years he was engaged as a private 
banker, or in a position in a bank, where 
he laid the foundation of his knowledge of 
the laws of finance. In 1862, Salmon P. 
Chase, then secretary of the treasury, ap- 
pointed him to an office in that department 
of the government, and later he had charge 
of the mint coinage correspondence. In 1 867 
Mr. Knox was made deputy comptroller 
of the currency, and in that capacity, in 
1870, he made two reports on the mint 
service, with a codification of the mint and 
ccinage laws of the United States, and 
suggesting many important amendments. 
These reports were ordered printed by reso- 
lution of congress. The bill which he pre- 
pared, with some slight changes, was sub- 
sequently passed, and has been known in 
history as the '' Coinage Act of 1873." 

In 1872 Mr. Knox was appointed comp- 
troller of the currency, and held that re- 
sponsible position until 1884, when he re- 
signed. He then accepted the position of 
president of the National Bank of the Re- 
public, of New York City, which institution 
he served for many years. He was the 
author of ** United States Notes,'' published 
in 1884. In the reports spoken of above, a 
history of the two United States banks is 



given, together with that of the state and 
national banking system, and much valuable 
statistical matter relating to kindred sub- 

opinion of many critics Hawthorne is 
pronounced the foremost American novelist, 
and in his peculiar vein of romance is said 
to be without a peer. His reputation is 
world-wide, and his ability as a writer is 
recognized abroad as well as at home. 
He was born July 4, 1804, at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. On account of feeble health he 
spent some years of his boyhood on a farm 
near Raymond, Maine. He laid the foun- 
dation of a liberal education in his youth, 
and entered Bowdoin College, from which 
he graduated in 1825 in the same class with 
H W Longfellow and John S. C. Abbott. 
He then returned to Salem, where he gave 
his attention to literature, publishing several 
tales and other articles in various periodi- 
cals. His first venture in the field of ro- 
mance, " Fanshaw,'' proved a failure. In 
1836 he removed to Boston, and became 
editor of the ''American Magazine," which 
soon passed out of existence. In 1837 he 
published *' Twice Told Tales," which were 
chiefly made up of his former contributions 
to magazines. In 1838-41 he held a posi- 
tion in the Boston custom house, but later 
took part in the *' Brook farm experiment," 
a socialistic idea after the plan of Fourier. 
In 1843 he was married and took up his 
residence at the old parsonage at Concord, 
Massachusetts, which he immortalized in 
his next work, •♦ Mosses From an Old 
Manse," published in 1846. From the lat- 
ter date until 1850 he was surveyor of the 
port of Salem, and while thus employed 
wrote one of his strongest works, ' * The 
-Scarlet Letter." For the succeeding two 


years Lenox, Massachusetts, was his home, 
and the " House of the Seven Gables" was 
produced there, as well as the * ' Blithedale 
Romance." In 1852 he published a '*Life 
of Franklin Pierce, " a college friend whom 
he warmly regarded. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed United States consul to Liverpool, 
England, where he remained some years, 
after which he spent some time in Italy. 
On returning to his native land he took up 
his residence at Concord, Massachusetts. 
While taking a trip for his health with ex- 
President Pierce, he died at Plymouth, New 
Harnpshire, May 19, 1864. In addition to 
the works mentioned above Mr. Hawthorne 
gave to the world the following books: 
*' True Stories from History," **The Won- 
der Book," ''The Snow Image," ''Tangle- 
wood Tales," "The Marble Faun," and 
' ' Our Old Home. " After his death appeared 
a series of "Notebooks," edited by his wife, 
Sophia P. Hawthorne; " Septimius Felton," 
edited by his daughter, Una, and "Dr. 
Grimshaw's Secret," put into shape by his 
talented son, Julian. He left an unfinished 
work called " Dolliver Romance," which has 
been published just as he left it. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, sixteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, was born 
February 12, 1809, in Larue county (Har- 
din county), Kentucky, in a log-cabin near 
Hudgensville. When he was eight years 
old he removed with his parents to Indiana, 
near the Ohio river, and a year later his 
mother died. His father then married Mrs. 
Elizabeth (Bush) Johnston, of Elizabeth- 
town, Kentucky, who proved a kind of fos- 
ter-mother to Abraham, and encouraged 
him to study. He worked as a farm hand 
and as a clerk in a store at Gentryville, and 
was noted for his athletic feats and strength, 
fondness for debate, a fund of humorous 



anecdote, as well as the composition of rude 
verses. He made a trip at the age of nine- 
teen to New Orleans on a flat-boat, and set- 
tled in Illinois in 1830. He assisted his 
father to build a log house and clear a farm 
on the Sangamon river near Decatur, Illinois, 
and split the rails with which to fence it. In 
185 1 he was employed in the building of a 
flat-boat on the Sangamon, and to run it to 
New Orleans. The voyage gave him a new 
insight into the horrors of slavery in the 
south. On his return he settled at New 
Salem and engaged, first as a clerk in a store, 
then as grocer, surveyor and postmaster, and 
he piloted the first steamboat that as- 
cended the Sangamon. He participated in 
the Black Hawk war as captain of volun- 
teers, and after his return he studied law, 
interested himself in politics, and became 
prominent locally as a public speaker. He 
was elected to the legislature in 1834 as a 
*• Clay Whig, " and began at once to dis- 
play a command of language and forcible 
rhetoric that made him a match for his 
more cultured opponents. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1837, and began prac- 
tice at Springfield. He married a lady of a 
prominent Kentucky family in 1842. He 
was active in the presidential campaigns of 
1840 and 1844 and was an elector on the 
Harrison and Clay tickets, and was elected 
to congress in 1846, over Peter Cartwright. 
He voted for the Wilmot proviso and the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and opposed the war with Mexico, but 
gained little prominence during his two 
years' service. He then returned to Spring- 
field and devoted his attention to law, tak- 
ing little interest in politics, until the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise and the passage 
of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1854. This 
awakened his interest in politics again and 
he attacked the champion of that measure, 

Stephen A. Douglas, in a speech at Spring- 
field that made him famous, and is said 
by those who heard it to be the greatest 
speech of his life. Lincoln was selected as 
candidate for the United States senate, but 
was defeated by Trumbull. Upon the pas- 
sage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill the Whig 
party suddenly went to pieces, and the Re- 
publican party gathered head. At the 
Bloomington Republican convention in 1856 
Lincoln made an eflective address in which 
he first took a position antagonistic to the ex- 
istence of slavery. He was a Fremont elector 
and received a strong support for nomina- 
tion as vice-president in the Philadelphia 
convention. In 1858 he was the unanimous 
choice of the Republicans for the United 
States senate, and the great campaign of de- 
bate which followed resulted in the election 
of Douglas, but established Lincoln's repu- 
tation as the leading exponent of Republican 
doctrines. He began to be mentioned in 
Illinois as candidate for the presidency, and 
a course of addresses in the eastern states 
attracted favorable attention. When the 
national convention met at Chicago, his 
rivals, Chase, Seward, Bates and others, 
were compelled to retire before the western 
giant, and he was nominated, with Hannibal 
Hamlin as his running mate. The Demo- 
cratic party had now been disrupted, and 
Lincoln's election assured. He carried 
practically every northern state, and the 
secession of South Carolina, followed by a 
number of the gulf states, took place before 
his inauguration. Lincoln is the only presi- 
dent who was ever compelled to reach 
Washington in a secret manner. He es- 
caped assassination by avoiding Baltimore, 
and was quietly inaugurated March 4, 1861. 
His inaugural address was firm but con- 
ciliatory, and he said to the secessionists: 
"You have no oath registered in heaven. 



to destroy the government, while I have the 
most solemn one to preserve, protect and 
defend it.' He made up his cabinet chiefly 
of those political rivals in his own party — 
Seward. Chase, Cameron, Bates — and se- 
cured the co-operation of the Douglas Dem- 
Ov:rats. His ^reat deeds, amidst the heat 
and turmoil of war, were: His call for 
seventy-five thousand volunteers, and the 
blockading of southern ports; calling of con- 
gress in extra session, July 14, 1861, and 
obtaining four hundred thousand men and 
four hundred million dollars for the prosecu- 
tion of the war; appointing Stanton secre- 
tary of war; issuing the emancipation proc- 
lamation; calling three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers; address at Gettysburg 
c/metery; commissioned Grant as lieuten- 
ant-general and commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States; his second 
inaugural address; his visit to the army be- 
fore Richmond, and his entry into Rich- 
mond the day after its surrender. 

Abraham Lincoln was shot by John 
Wilkes Booth in a box in Ford's theater 
at Washington the night of April 14, 1865, 
and expired the following morning. His 
body was buried at Oak Ridge cemetery, 
Springfield, Illinois, and a monument com- 
memorating his great work marks his resting 

STEPHEN GIRARD, the celebrated 
philanthropist, was born in Bordeaux, 
France, May 24, 1750. He became a sailor 
engaged in the American coast trade, and 
also made frequent trips to the West Indies. 
During the Revolutionary war he was a 
grocer and liquor seller in Philadelphia. 
He married in that city, and afterward 
separated from his wife. After the war he 
again engaged in the coast and West India 
trade, and his fortuiie began to accumulate 

from receiving goods from West Indian 
planters during the insurrection in Hayti, 
little of which was ever called for again. 
He became a private banker in Philadelphia 
in 18 12, and afterward was a director in the 
United Slates Bank. He made much money 
by leasing property in the city in times of 
depression, and upon the revival of industry 
sub-leasing at enormous profit. He became: 
the wealthiest citizen of the United States 
of his time. 

He was eccentric, ungracious, and a 
freethinker. He had few, if any, friends in 
his lifetime. However, he was most chari- 
tably disposed, and gave to charitable in- 
stitutions and schools with a liberal hand. 
He did more than any one else to relieve 
the suffering and deprivations during the 
great yellow fever scourge in Philadelphia, 
devoting his personal attention to the sick. 
He endowed and made a free institution, 
the famous Will's Eye and Ear Infirmary 
of Philadelphia — one of the largest institu- 
tions of its kind in the world. At his death 
practically all his immense wealth was be- 
queathed to charitable institutions, more 
than two millions of dollars going to the 
founding of Girard College, which was to 
be devoted to the education and training of 
boys between the ages of six and ten years. 
Large donations were also made to institu- 
tions in Philadelphia and New Orleans. 
The principal building of Girard College is 
the most magnificent example of Greek 
architecture in America. Girard died De- 
cember 26, 1 83 1. 

LOUIS J. R. AGASSIZ, the eminent nat- 
uralist and geologist, was born in the 
parish of Motier, near Lake Neuchatel, Swit- 
zerland, May 28, 1807, but attained his 
greatest fame after becoming an American 
citizen. He studied the medical sciences at 



.Zurich, Heidelberg and Munich. His first 
work was a Latin description of the fishes 
which Martins and Spix brought from Brazil. 
This was published in 1 829-3 1 . He devoted 
much time to the study of fossil fishes, and 
in 1832 was appointed professor of natural 
history at Neuchatel. He greatly increased 
his reputation by a great work in French, 
entitled ** Researches on Fossil Fishes," in 
1832-42, in which he made many important 
improvements in the classification of fishes. 
Having passed many summers among the 
Alps in researches on glaciers, he propounded 
some new and interesting ideas on geology, 
and the agency of glaciers in his ** Studies 
by the Glaciers." This was published in 
1840. This latter work, with his '* System 
of the Glaciers," published in 1847, are 
among his principal works. 

In 1846, Professor Agassiz crossed the 
ocean on a scientific excursion to the United 
-States, and soon determined to remain here. 
He accepted, about the beginning of 1848, 
the chair of zoology and geology at Harvard. 
He explored the natural history of the 
United States at different times and gave an 
impulse to the study of nature in this 
country. In 1865 he conducted an expedi- 
tion to Brazil, and explored the lower Ama- 
zon and its tributaries. In 1868 he was 
made non-resident professor of natural his- 
tory at Cornell University. In December, 
1 87 1, he accompanied the Hassler expedi- 
tion, under Professor Pierce, to the South 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. He died at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 14, 

Among other of the important works of 
Professor Agassiz may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: ** Outlines of Comparative Physi- 
ology," ** Journey to Brazil," and ** Contri- 
butions to the Natural History of the United 
States.** It is said of Professor Agassiz, 

that, perhaps, with the exception of Hugh 
Miller, no one had so popularized science in 
his day, or trained so many young natural- 
ists. Many of the theories held by Agassiz 
are not supported by many of the natural- 
ists of these later days, but upon many of 
the speculations into the origin of species and 
in physics he has left the marks of his own 
strongly marked individuality. 

WILLIAM WINDOM.— As a prominent 
and leading lawyer of the great north- 
west, as a member of both houses of con- 
gress, and as the secretary of the treasury, 
the gentleman whose name heads this sketch 
won for himself a prominent position in the 
history of our country. 

Mr. Windom was a native of Ohio, 
born in Belmont county. May 10, 1827. 
He received a good elementary education m 
the schools of his native state, and took up 
the study of law. He was admitted to the 
bar, and entered upon the practice of his 
profession in Ohio, where he remained until 
1855. In the latter year he made up his 
mind to move further west, and accordingly 
went to Minnesota, and opening an office, 
became identified with the interests of that 
state, and the northwest generally. In 
1858 he took his place in the Minnesota 
delegation in the national house of repre- 
sentatives, at Washington, and continued 
to represent his constituency in that body 
for ten years. In 1871 Mr. Windom was 
elected United States senator from Min- 
nesota, and was re-elected to the same office 
after fulfilling the duties of the position for 
a full term, in 1876. On the inauguration 
of President Garfield, in March, 1881, Mr. 
Windom became secretary of the treasury 
in his cabinet. He resigned this office Oc- 
tober 27, 1 88 1, and was elected senator 
from the North Star state to fill the va^ 



cancy caused by the resignation of A. J. 
Edgerton. Mr. Windom served in that 
chamber until March, 1883. 

WilHam Windom died in New York 
City January 29, 1891. 

DON M. DICKINSON, an American 
politician and lawyer, was born in 
Port Ontario, New York, January 17, 1846. 
He removed with his parents to Michigan 
when he was but two years old. He was 
educated in the public schools of Detroit 
and at the University, of Michigan at Ann 
Arbor, and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-one. In 1872 he was made 
secretary of the Democratic state central 
committee of Michigan, and his able man- 
agement of the campaign gave him a prom- 
inent place in the councils of his party. In 
1876, during the Tilden campaign, he acted 
as chairman of the state central committee. 
He was afterward chosen to represent his 
state in the Democratic national committee, 
and in 1886 he was appointed postmaster- 
general by President Cleveland. After the 
expiration of his term of office he returned 
to Detroit and resumed the practice of law. 
In the presidential campaign of 1896. Mr. 
Dickinson adhered to the ** gold wing" of 
the Democracy, and his influence was felt 
in the national canvass, and especially in 
his own state. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOR, the founder of 
the Astor family and fortunes, while not 
a native of this country, was one of the 
most noted men of his time, and as all his 
wealth and fame were acquired here, he 
may well be classed among America's great 
men. He was born near Heidelberg, Ger- 
many, July 17, 1763, and when twenty 
years old emigrated to the United States. 
Even at that age he exhibited remarkable 

business ability and foresight, and soon he- 
was investing capital in furs which he took 
to London and sold at a great profit. He: 
next settled at New York, and engaged ex- 
tensively in the fur trade. He exported 
furs to Europe in his own vessels, which re- 
turned with cargoes of foreign commodities, 
and thus he rapidly amassed an immense 
fortune. In 181 1 he founded Astoria on 
the western coast of North America, near 
the mouth of the Columbia river, as a depot 
for the fur trade, for the promotion of 
which he sent a number of expeditions to 
the Pacific ocean. He also purchased a 
large amount of real estate in New York, 
the value of which increased enormously 
All through life his business ventures were 
a series of marvelous successes, and he 
ranked as one of the most sagacious and 
successful business men in the world. He 
c'iea March 29, 1848, leaving a fortune es- 
timated at over twenty million dollars to 
his children, who have since increased it. 
John Jacob Astor left $400,000 to found a 
public library in New York City, and his son, 
William B. Astor, who died in 1875, left 
$300,000 to add to his father's bequest. 
This is known as the Astor Library, one of 
the largest in the United States. 

SCHUYLER COLFAX, an eminent 
American statesman, was born in New 
York City, March 23, 1823, being a grand- 
son of General William Colfax, the com- 
mander of Washington's life-guards. In 
1836 he removed with his mother, who was- 
then a widow, to Indiana, settling at South 
Bend. Young Schuyler studied law, and 
in 1845 became editor of the **St. Joseph 
Valley Register,'* a Whig paper published' 
at South Bend. He was a member of the- 
convention which formed a new constitu- 
tion for Indiana in 1850, and he opposed 



the clause that prohibited colored men 
from settling in that state. In 185 i he was 
defeated as the Whig candidate for congress 
but was elected in 1854, and, being repeat- 
edly re-elected, continued to represent that 
district in congress until 1869. He became 
one of the most prominent and influential 
.members of the house of representatives, 
and served three terms as speaker. During 
the Civil war he was an active participant 
in all public measures, of importance, and 
was a confidential friend and adviser of 
President Lincoln. In May, 1868, Mr. 
Colfax was nominated for vice-president on 
the ticket with General Grant, and was 
elected. After the close of his term he re- 
tired from office, and for the remainder of 
his life devoted much of his time to lectur- 
ing and literary pursuits. His death oc- 
curred January 23, 1885. He was one of 
the most prominent members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows in America, 
and that order erected a bronze statue to 
his memory in University Park, Indianapo- 
lis, Indiana, which was unveiled in May, 

tained a national reputation as an able 
lawyer, statesman, and cabinet officer, was 
born at Chelsea, Vermont, July 9, 1840. 
His parents removed to Wisconsin when 
our subject was but eleven years of age, 
and there with the early settlers endured all 
the hardships and trials incident to pioneer 
life. William F. Vilas was given all the 
advantages found in the common schools, 
and supplemented this by a course of study 
in the Wisconsin State University, after 
which he studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and began practicing at Madison. 
Shortly afterward the Civil war broke out 
;and Mr. Vilas enlisted and became colonel 

of the Twenty-third regiment of Wisconsin 
Volunteers, serving throughout the war with 
distinction. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to Wisconsin, resumed his law prac- 
tice, and rapidly rose to eminence in this 
profession. In 1885 he was selected by 
President Cleveland for postmaster-general 
and at the close of his term again returned 
to Madison, Wisconsin, to resume the prac- 
tice of law. 

inent American jurist and law writer, 
was born in Attica, New York, January 6, 
1 824. He was admitted to the bar in 1 846, 
and four years later was appointed reporter 
of the supreme court of Michigan, which 
office he continued to hold for seven years. 
In the meantime, in 1859, he became pro- 
fessor of the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and soon afterward was 
made dean of the faculty of that depart- 
ment. In 1864 he was elected justice of 
the supreme court of Michigan, in 1867 be- 
came chief justice of that court, and in 
1869 was re-elected for a term of eight 
years. In 1881 he again joined the faculty 
of the University of Michigan, assuming the 
professorship of constitutional and adminis- 
trative law. His works on these branches 
have become standard, and he is recog- 
nized as authority on this and related sub- 
jects. Upon the passage of the inter-state 
commerce law in 1887 he became chairman 
of the commission and served in that capac- 
ity four years. 

kJ American politician and writer on social 
questions, was born in Germany, December 
30, 1847. He came to America with his 
parents and settled in Ohio when two years 
old. In 1864 he entered the Union army 



and served till the close of the war, after 
which he settled in Chicago, Illinois. He 
was elected judge of the superior court of 
Cook county, Illinois, in 1886, in which 
capacity he served until elected governor of 
Illinois in 1892, as a Democrat. During 
the first year of his term as governor he at- 
tracted national attention by his pardon of 
the anarchists convicted of the Haymarket 
murder in Chicago, and again in 1894 by 
his denunciation of President Cleveland for 
calling out federal troops to suppress the 
rioting in connection with the great Pull- 
man strike in Chicago. At the national 
convention of the Democratic party in Chi- 
cago, in July, 1896, he is said to have in- 
spired the clause in the platform denuncia- 
tory of interference by federal authorities in 
local affairs, and ** government by injunc- 
tion." He was gubernatorial candidate for 
re-election on the Democratic ticket in 1896, 
but was defeated by John R. Tanner, Re- 
publican. Mr. Altgeld published two vol- 
umes of essays on ** Live Questions," evinc- 
ing radical views on social matters. 

ican statesman and politician, was born 
in Christian county, Kentucky, October 23, 
1835, a^d removed with the family to 
Bloomington, Illinois, in 1852. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, and set- 
tled in the practice of his profession 
in Metamora, Illinois. In 1861 he was 
made master in chancery of Woodford 
county, and in 1864 was elected state's at- 
torney. In 1868 he returned to Blooming- 
ton and formed a law partnership with 
James S. Ewing. He had served as a pres- 
idential elector in 1864, and in 1868 was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, receiv- 
ing a majority vote from every county in his 
district. He became prominent in his 

party, and was a delegate to the national 
convention in 1884. On the election of 
Cleveland to the presidency Mr. Stevenson 
was appointed first assistant postmaster- 
general. After the expiration of his term 
he continued to exert a controlling influence 
in the politics of his state, and in 1892 was 
elected vice-president of the United States 
on the ticket with Grover Cleveland. At 
the expiration of his term of office he re- 
sumed the practice of law at Bloomington, 

SIMON CAMERON, whose name is 
prominently identified with the history 
of the United States as a political leadef 
and statesman, was born in Lancaster coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1799. He grew 
to manhood in his native county, receiving 
good educational advantages, and develop- 
mg a natural inclination for political life. 
He rapidly rose in prominence and became 
the most influential Democrat in PennsyJ^ 
vania, and in 1845 was elected by that party 
to the United States senate. Upon the 
organization of the Republican party he was 
one of the first to declare his allegiance to 
it, and in 1856 was re-elected United States 
senator from Pennsylvania as a Republican. 
In March, 1 861, he was appointed secretary 
of war by President Lincoln, and served 
until early in 1862, when he was sent as 
minister to Russia, returning in 1863. In 
1866 he was again elected United States 
senator and served until 1877, when he re- 
signed and was succeeded by his son, James 
Donald Cameron. He continued to exert a 
powerful influence in political affairs up to 
the time of his death, June 26, 1889. 

James Donald Cameron was the eld- 
est son of Simon Cameron, and also 
attained a high rank among American 
statesmen. He was born at Harrisburg, 



Pennsylvania, May 14, 1833, and received an 
excellent education, graduating at Princeton 
College in 1852. He rapidly developed into 
one of the most able and successful business 
men of the country and v^as largely inter- 
ested in and identified with the develop- 
ment of the coal, iron, lumber and manu- 
facturing interests of his native state. He 
served as cashier and afterward president of 
the Middletown bank, and in 186 1 was made 
vice-president, and in 1863 president of 
the Northern Central railroad, holding this 
position until 1874, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by Thomas A. Scott. This 
road was of great service to the government 
during the war as a means of communica- 
tion between Pennsylvania and the national 
capital, via Baltimore. Mr. Cameron also 
took an active part in political affairs, 
always as a Republican, In May, 1876, 
he was appointed secretary of war in Pres- 
ident Grant's cabinet, and in 1877 suc- 
ceeded his father in the United States 
senate. He was re-elected in 1885, and 
again in 1891, serving until 1896, and was 
recognized as one of the most prominent and 
influential members of that body. 

American arctic explorer, was born at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, March 27, 
1844. He graduated from Brown High 
School at the age of sixteen, and a year 
later enlisted in Company B, Nineteenth 
Massachusetts Infantry, and was made first 
sergeant. In 1863 he was promoted to 
second lieutenant. After the war he was 
assigned to the Fifth United States Cavalry, 
and became first lieutenant in 1873. He 
was assigned to duty in the United States 
signal service shortly after the close of the 
war. An expedition was fitted out by the 
United States government in 1881, un- 

der auspices of the weather bureau, and 
Lieutenant Greeley placed in command. 
They set sail from St. Johns the first week 
in July, and after nine days landed in Green- 
land, where they secured the services of two 
natives, together with sledges, dogs, furs 
and equipment. They encountered an ice 
pack early in August, and on the 28th of 
that month freezing weather set in. Two 
of his party. Lieutenant Lockwood and Ser- 
geant Brainard, added to the known maps 
about forty miles of coast survey, and 
reached the highest point yet attained by 
man, eighty-three degrees and twenty-four 
minutes north, longitude, forty-four degrees 
and five minutes west. On their return to 
Fort Conger, Lieutenant Greeley set out 
for the south on August 9, 1883. He 
reached Baird Inlet twenty days later with 
his entire party. Here they were compelled 
to abandon their boats, and drifted on an 
ice-floe for one month. They then went 
into camp at Cape Sabine, where they suf- 
fered untold hardships, and eighteen of the 
party succumbed to cold and hunger, and 
had relief been delayed two days longer 
none would have been found alive. They 
were picked up by the relief expedition, 
under Captain Schley, June 22, 1884. The 
dead were taken to New York for burial. 
Many sensational stories were published 
concerning the expedition, and Lieutenant 
Greeley prepared an exhaustive account 
of his explorations and experiences. 

LEVI P. MORTON, the millionaire poli- 
tician, was born in Shoreham, Ver- 
mont, May 16, 1824, and his early educa- 
tion consisted of the rudiments which he 
obtained in the common school up to the 
age of fourteen, and after that time what 
knowledge he gained was wrested from the 
hard school of experience. He removed to 



Hanover, Vermont, then Concord, Vermont, 
and afterwards to Boston. He had worked 
in a store at Shoreham, his native village, 
and on going to Hanover he established a 
store and went into business for himself. 
In Boston he clerked in a dry goods store, 
and then opened a business of his own in 
the same line in New York. After a short 
career he failed, and was compelled to set- 
tle with his creditors at only fifty cents on 
the dollar. He began the struggle anew, 
and when the war began he established a 
banking house in New York, with Junius 
Morgan as a partner. Through his firm 
and connections the great government war 
loans were floated, and it resulted in im- 
mense profits to his house. When he was 
again thoroughly established he invited his 
former creditors to a banquet, and under 
each guest's plate was found a check cover- 
ing the amount of loss sustained respec- 
tively, with interest to date. 

President Garfield appointed Mr. Mor- 
ton as minister to France, after he had de- 
clined the secretaryship of the navy, and in 
1888 he was nominated as candidate for 
vice-president, with Harrison, and elected. 
In 1894 he was elected governor of New 
York over David B. Hill, and served one 

of the most talented and prominent 
educators this country has known, was born 
January 24, 1835, '^^ Derby, Vermont. He 
received an elementary education in the 
common schools, and studied two terms in 
the Derby Academy. Mr. Adams moved 
with his parents to Iowa in 1856. He was 
very anxious to pursue a collegiate course, 
but this was impossible until he had attained 
the age of twenty-one. In the autumn of 
1856 he began the study of Latin and Greek 

at Denmark Academy, and in September, 
1857, he was admitted to the University of 
Michigan. Mr. Adams was wholly depend- 
ent upon himself for the means of his edu- 
cation. During his third and fourth year 
he became deeply interested in historical 
studies, was assistant librarian of the uni- 
versity, and determined to pursue a post- 
graduate course. In 1864 he was appointed 
instructor of history and Latin and was ad- 
vanced to an assistant professorship in 1865, 
and in 1867, on the resignation oi Professoi 
White to accept the presidency of Cornell, 
he was appointed to fill the chair of profes- 
sor of history. This he accepted on con- 
dition of his being allowed to spend a year 
for special study in Germany, France and 
Italy. Mr. Adams returned in 1868, and 
assumed the duties of his professorship. 
He introduced the German system for the 
instruction of advanced history classes, and 
his lectures were largely attended. In 1885,. 
on the resignation of President White at: 
Cornell, he was elected his successor and 
held the office for seven years, and on Jan- 
uary 17, 1893, he was inaugurated presi- 
dent of the University of Wisconsin. Pres- 
ident Adams was prominently connected 
with numerous scientific and literary organ^ 
izations and a frequent contributor to the 
historical and educational data in the peri- 
odicals and journals of the country. He 
was the author of the following: *' Dem- 
ocracy and Monarchy in France," '' Manuals 
of Historical Literature," ** A Plea for Sci- 
entific Agriculture," ** Higher Education in 

JOSEPH B. FORAKER, a prominent po- 
litical leader and ex-governor of Ohio, 
was born near Rainsboro, Highland county, 
Ohio, July 5, 1846. His parents operated 
a small farm, with a grist and sawmill, hav- 



Jng emigrated hither from Virginia and 
Delaware on account of their distaste for 

Joseph was reared upon a farm until 
1862, when he enlisted in the Eighty -ninth 
Ohio Infantry. Later he was made ser- 
geant, and in 1864 commissioned first lieu- 
tenant. The next year he was brevetted 
captain. At the age of nineteen he was 
mustered out of the army after a brilliant 
service, part of the time being on the staff 
of General Slocum. He participated in the 
battles of Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mount- 
ain and Kenesa.w Mountain and in Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

For two years subsequent to the war 
young Foraker was studying at the Ohio 
Wesleyan University at Delaware, but later 
went to Cornell University, at Unity, New 
York, from which he graduated July i, 
J 869. He studied law and was admitted to 
the bar. In 1879 Mr. Foraker was elected 
judge of the superior court of Cincinnati 
and held the office for three years. In 1883 
he was defeated in the contest for the gov- 
ernorship with Judge Hoadly. In 1885, 
however, being again nominated for the 
same office, he was elected and served two 
terms. In 1889, in running for governor 
again, this time against James E. Camp- 
bell, he was defeated. Two years later his 
career in the United States senate began. 
Mr. Foraker was always a prominent figure 
at all national meetings of the Republican 
party, and a strong power, politically, in his 
native state. 

T YMAN ABBOTT, an eminent American 
1—/ preacher and writer on religious sub- 
jects, came of a noted New England 
family. His father, Rev. Jacob Abbott, was 
a prolific and popular writer, and his uncle, 
Rev. John S. C, Abbott, was ^ noted 

preacher and author. Lyman Abbott was 
born December 18, 1835, i^ Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. He graduated at the New 
York University, in 1853, studied law, and 
practiced for a time at the bar, after which 
he studied theology with his uncle. Rev. 
John S. C. Abbott, and in i860 was settled 
in the ministry at Terre Haute, Indiana, re- 
maining there until after the close of the 
war. He then became connected with the 
Freedmen's Commission, continuing this 
until 1868, when he accepted the pastorate 
of the New England Congregational church, 
in New York City. A few years later he re- 
signed, to devote his time principally to lit- 
erary pursuits. For a number of years he 
edited for the American Tract Society, its 
*' Illustrated Christian Weekly," also the 
New York '* Christian Union-." He pro- 
duced many works, which had a wide circu- 
lation, among which may be mentioned the 
following: ''Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and 
Teachings," **01d Testament Shadows of 
New Testament Truths," "Morning and 
Evening Exercises, Selected from Writings 
of Henry Ward Beecher," "Laicus, or the 
Experiences of a Layman in a Country 
Parish," ''Popular Religious Dictionary," 
and "Commentaries on Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, John and Acts. " 

well-known author, orator and journal- 
ist whose name heads this sketch, was born 
at Providence, Rhode Island, February 24, 
1824. Having laid the foundation of a 
most excellent education in his native land, 
he went to Europe and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. He made an extensive 
tour throughout the Levant, from which he 
returned home in 1850. At that early age 
literature became his field of labor, and in 
1851 he published his first important work, 




-** Nile Notes of a Howadji." In 1852 two 
works issued from his facile pen, *'The 
Howadji in Syria," and '* Lotus-Eating. " 
Later on he was the author of the well- 
known ''Potiphar Papers," ** Prue and I," 
and * 'Trumps." He greatly distinguished 
himself throughout this land as a lecturer 
on many subjects, and as an orator had but 
few peers. He was also well known as one 
•of the most fluent speakers on the stump, 
making many political speeches in favor of 
the Republican party. In recognition of 
his valuable services, Mr. Curtis was ap- 
pointed by President Grant, chairman of 
the advisory board of the civil service. Al- 
though a life-long Republican, Mr. Curtis 
refused to support Blaine for the presidency 
in 1884, because of his ideas on civil ser- 
vice and other reforms. For his memorable 
and magnificent eulogy on Wendell Phillips, 
delivered in Boston, in 1884, that city pre- 
sented Mr. Curtis with a gold medal. 

George W. Curtis, however, is best 
known to the reading public of the United 
States by his connection with the Harper 
Brothers, having been editor of the ** Har- 
per's Weekly, " and of the '*Easy Chair," 
in ** Harper's Monthly Magazine, "for many 
years, in fact retaining that position until 
the day of his death, which occurred August 
31, 1892. 

ANDREW JOHNSON, the seventeenth 
president of the United States, served 
from 1865 to 1869. He was born Decem- 
ber 8, 1808, at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
and was left an orphan at the age of four 
years. He never attended school, and was 
apprenticed to a tailor. While serving his 
apprenticeship he suddenly acquired a pas- 
sion for knowledge, and learned to read. 
From that time on he spent all his spare 
time in reading, and after working for two 

years as a journeyman tailor at Lauren's 
Court House, South Carolina, he removed 
to Greenville, Tennessee, where he worked 
at his trade and was married. Under his 
wife's instruction he made rapid progress in 
his studies and manifested such an interest 
in local politics as to be elected as **work- 
ingmen's candidate " alderman in 1828, and 
in 1830 to the mayoralty, and was twice 
re-elected to each office. Mr. Johnson 
utilized this time in cultivating his talents 
as a public speaker, by taking part in a de- 
bating society. He was elected in 1835 to 
the lower house of the legislature, was re- 
elected in 1839 a^s a Diemocrat, and in 
1 84 1 was elected state senator. Mr. John- 
son was elected representative in congress 
in 1843 and was re-elected four times in 
succession until 1853, when he was the suc- 
cessful candidate for the gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. He was re-elected in 1855 
and in 1857 he entered the United States 
senate. In i860 he was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention for the presidential nomination, 
and lent his influence to the Breckinridge 
wing of the party. At the election of Lin- 
coln, which brought about the first attempt 
at secession in December, i860, Mr. John- 
son took a firm attitude in the. senate for 
the Union. He was the leader of the loy- 
alists in East Tennessee. By the course 
that Mr. Johnson pursued in this crisis he 
was brought prominently before the north- 
ern people, and when, in March, 1862, he 
was appointed military governor of Ten- 
nessee with the rank of brigadier-general, 
he increased his popularity by the vigorous 
manner in which he labored to restore 
order. In the campaign of 1864 he was 
elected vice-president on the ticket with 
President Lincoln, and upon the assassi- 
nation of the latter he succeeded to the 



presidency, April 15, 1865. He retained 
the cabinet of President Lincoln, and at 
first exhibited considerable severity towards 
the former Confederates, but he soon inau- 
gurated a policy of reconstruction, pro- 
claimed a general amnesty to the late Con- 
federates, and established provisional gov- 
ernments in the southern states. These 
states claimed representation in congress in 
the following December, and then arose the 
momentous question as to what should be 
the policy of the victorious Union against 
their late enemies. The Republican ma- 
jority in congress had an apprehension that 
the President would undo the results of the 
war, and consequently passed two bills over 
the executive veto, and the two highest 
branches of the government were in open 
antagonism. The cabinet was reconstructed 
in July, and Messrs. Randall, Stanbury and 
Browning superseded Messrs. Denison, 
Speed and Harlan. In August, 1867, Pres- 
ident Johnson removed the secretary of war 
and replaced him with General Grant, but 
when congress met in December it refused 
to ratify the removal of Stanton, who re- 
sumed the functions of his office. In 1868 
the president again attempted to remove 
Stanton, who refused to vacate his post 
and was sustained by the senate. Presi- 
dent Johnson was accused by congress of 
high crimes and misdemeanors, but the trial 
resulted in his acquittal. Later he was Uni- 
ted States senator from Tennessee, and 
died July 31, 1875. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH, first attorney- 
general of the United States, was born 
in Virginia, August 10, 1753. His father, 
John Randolph, was attorney-general of 
Virginia, and lived and died a royalist. Ed- 
mund was educated in the law. but joined 
the army as aide-de-camp to Washington 

in 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He- 
was elected to the Virginia convention in 
1776, and attorney-general of the state the 
same year. In 1779 he was elected to the 
Continental congress, and served four years 
in that body. He was a member of the con- 
vention in 1787 that framed the constitu- 
tion. In that convention he proposed what 
was known as the '* Virginia plan" of con- 
federation, but it was rejected. He advo- 
cated the ratification of the constitution in 
ttie Virginia convention, although he had re- 
fused to sign it. He became governor of 
Virginia in 1788, and the next year Wash- 
ington appointed him to the office of at- 
torney-general of the United States upon 
the organization of the government under 
the constitution. He was appointed secre- 
tary of state to succeed Jefferson during 
Washington's second term, but resigned a 
year later on account of differences in the 
cabinet concerning the policy pursued to- 
ward the new French republic. He died 
September 12, 181 3. 

born in Montgomery county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 14, 1824. He received 
his early education at the Norristown 
Academy, in his native county, and, in 1840, 
was appointed a cadet in the United States 
Military Academy, at West Point. He was 
graduated from the latter in 1844, and brev- 
etted as second lieutenant of infantry. In 
1853 he was made first lieutenant, and two 
years later transferred to the quartermaster's 
department, with the rank of captain, and 
in 1863 promoted to the rank of major. He 
served on the frontier, and in the war with 
Mexico, displaying conspicuous gallantry dur- 
ing the latter. He also took a part in the 
Seminole war, and in the troubles in Kan- 
sas, in 1857, and in California, at the out- 



break of the Civil war, as chief quarter- 
master of the Southern district, he exerted 
a powerful influence. In 1861 he applied 
for active duty in the field, and was assigned 
to the department of Kentucky as chief 
quartermaster, but before entering upon that 
duty, was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers. His subsequent history during 
the war was substantially that of the Army 
of the Potomac. He participated in the 
campaign, under McClellan, and led the 
gallant charge, which captured Fort Magru- 
der, won the day at the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, and by services rendered at 
Savage's Station and other engagements, 
won several grades in the regular service, 
iand was recommended by McClellan for 
major-general of volunteers. He was a con- 
spicuous figure at South Mountain and An- 
tietam. He was commissioned major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, November 29, 1862, and 
made commander of the First Division of 
the Second Corps, which he led at Fred- 
ricksburg and at Chancellorsville. He was 
appointed to the command of the Second 
Corps in June, 1863, and at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July i, 2 and 3, of that year, 
took an important part. On his arrival on 
the field he found part of the forces then 
in retreat, but stayed the retrograde 
movement, checked the enemy, and on the 
following day commanded the left center, 
repulsed, on the third, the grand assault of 
General Lee's army, and was severely 
wounded. For his services on that field 
General Hancock received the thanks of 
congress. On recovering from his wound, 
he was detailed to go north to stimulate re- 
cruiting and fill up the diminished corps, and 
was the recipient of many public receptions 
and ovations. In March, 1864, he returned 
to his command, and in the Wilderness and 
at Spottsylvania led large bodies of men 

successfully and conspicuously. From that 
on to the close of the campaign he was a 
prominent figure. In November, 1864, he 
was detailed to organize the First Veteran 
Reserve Corps, and at the close of hostilities 
was appointed to the command of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. In July, 1866, he 
was made major-general of the regular 
service. He was at the head of various 
military departments until 1872, when he 
was assigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Atlantic, which post he held 
until his death. In 1869 he declined the 
nomination for governor of Pennsylvania. 
He was the nominee of the Democratic 
party for president, in 1880, and was de- 
feated by General Garfield, who had a popu- 
lar majority of seven thousand and eighteen 
and an electoral majority^'of fifty-nine. Gen- 
eral Hancock died February 9, 1886. 

THOMAS PAINE, the most noted polit- 
ical and deistical writer of the Revolu- 
tionary period, was born in England, Jan- 
uary 29, 1737, of Quaker parents. His edu- 
cation was. obtained in the grammar schools 
of Thetford, his native town, and supple- 
mented by hard private study while working 
at his trade of stay-maker at London and 
other cities of England. He was for a time 
a dissenting preacher, although he did not 
relinquish his employment. He married a 
revenue official's daughter, and was employed 
in the revenue service for some time. He 
then became a grocer and during all this time 
he was reading and cultivating his literary 
tastes, and had developed a clear and forci- 
ble style of composition. He was chosen to 
represent the interests of the excisemen, 
and published a pamphlet that brought 
him considerable notice. He was soon after- 
ward introduced to Benjamin Franklin, and 
having been dismissed from the service on a 



tiharge of smuggling, his resentment led him 
to accept the advice of that statesman to 
come to America, in 1774. He became 
editor of the • * Pennsylvania Magazine, '* and 
the next year published his * * Serious 
Thoughts upon Slavery " in the * * Penn- 
sylvania Journal." His greatest political 
work, however, was written at the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Rush, and entitled ** Common 
Sense." It was the most popular pamphlet 
written during the period and he received 
two thousand five hundred dollars from the 
state of Pennsylvania in recognition of its 
value. His periodical, the ** Crisis," began 
in 1776, and its distribution among the 
soldiers did a great deal to keep up the spirit 
of revolution. He was made secretary of 
the committee of foreign affairs, but was dis- 
missed for revealing diplomatic secrets in 
one of his controversies with Silas Deane. 
He was originator and promoter of a sub- 
scription to relieve the distress of the soldiers 
near the close of the war, and was sent to 
France with Henry Laurens to negotiate the 
treaty with France, and was granted three 
thousand dollars by congress for his services 
there, and an estate at New Rochelle, by the 
state of New York. 

In 1787, after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war, he went to France, and a few 
years later published his ** Rights of Man," 
defending the French revolution, which 
gave him great popularity in France. He 
was made a citizen and elected to the na- 
tional convention at Calais. He favored 
banishment of the king to America, and 
opposed his execution. He was imprisoned 
for about ten months during 1 794 by the 
Robespierre party, during which time he 
Wrote the ** Age of Reason," his great deis- 
tical work. He was in danger of the guillo- 
tine for several months. He took up his 
residence with the family of James Monroe, 

then minister to France and was chosen: 
again to the convention. He returned 
to the United States in 1802, and was 
cordially received throughout the coun- 
try except at Trenton, where he was insulted 
by Federalists. He retired to his estate at 
New Rochelle, and his death occurred June 
8, 1809. 

America's noted men, both in the de- 
velopment of the western coast and the 
building of the Mackay and Bennett cable. 
He was born in 1831 at Dublin, Ireland; 
came to New York in 1840 and his boyhood 
days were spent in Park Row. He went 
to California some time after the argonauts 
of 1849 and took to the primitive methods 
of mining — lost and won and finally drifted 
into Nevada about 1 860. The bonanza dis- 
coveries which were to have such a potent 
influence on the finance and statesmanship- 
of the day came in 1872. Mr. Mackay 
founded the Nevada Bank in 1878. He is 
said to have taken one hundred and 
fifty million dollars in bullion out of 
the Big Bonanza mine. There were as- 
sociated with him in this enterprise James 
G. Fair, senator from Nevada; William 
O'Brien and James C. Flood. When 
vast wealth came to Mr. Mackay he be- 
lieved it his duty to do his country some 
service, and he agitated in his mind the 
building of an American steamship line, 
and while brooding over this his attention 
was called to the cable relations between 
America and Europe. The financial man- 
agement of the cable was selfish and ex- 
travagant, and the capital was heavy with 
accretions of financial ** water'' and to pay 
even an apparent dividend upon the sums 
which represented the nominal value of the 
cables, it was necessary to hold the rates 



at an exorbitant figure. And, moreover, 
the cables were foreign; in one the influence 
of France being paramount and in the other 
that of England; and in the matter of intel- 
ligence, so necessary in case of war, we 
would be at the mercy of our enemies. This 
train of thought brought Mr. Mackay into re- 
lation with James Gordon Bennett, the pro- 
prietor of the ^* New York Herald." The 
result of their intercourse was that Mr. Mac- 
kay so far entered into the enthusiasm of 
Mr. Bennett over an independent cable, 
that he offered to assist the enterprise with 
five hundred thousand dollars. This was the 
inception of the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany, or of what has been known for years 
as the Mackav-Bennett cable. 

ELISHA GRAY, the great inventor and 
electrician, was born August 2, 1835* 
at Barnesville, Belmont county, Ohio. He 
was, as a child, greatly interested in the 
phenomena of nature, and read with avidity 
all the books he could obtain, relating to 
this subject. He was apprenticed to various 
trades during his boyhood, but his insatiable 
thirst for knowledge dominated his life and 
he found time to study at odd intervals. 
Supporting himself by working at his trade, 
he found time to pursue a course at Oberlin 
College, where he particularly devoted him- 
self to the study of physicial science. Mr. 
Gray secured his first patent for electrical 
or telegraph apparatus on Octx^ber i, 1867. 
His attention was first attracted to tele- 
phonic transmission during this year and he 
saw in it a way of transmitting signals for 
telegraph purposes, and conceived the idea 
of electro-tones, tuned to different tones in 
the scale. He did not then realize the im- 
portance of his invention, his thoughts being 
employed on the capacity of the apparatus 
for transmitting musical tones through an 

electric circuit, and it was not until 1874 
that he was again called to consider the re- 
production of electrically-transmitted vibra* 
tions through the medium of animal tissue. 
He continued experimenting with various 
results, which finally culminated in his 
taking out a patent for his speaking tele- 
phone on February 14, 1876. He took out 
fifty additional patents in the course of 
eleven years, among which were, telegraph 
switch, telegraph repeater, telegraph annun- 
ciator and typewriting telegraph. From 
1869 until 1873 he was employed in the 
manufacture of telegraph apparatus in Cleve- 
land and Chicago, and filled the office of 
electrician to the Western Electric Com- 
pany. He was awarded the degree of D. 
S. , and in 1874 he went abroad to perfect 
himself in acoustics. Mr. Gray's latest in- 
vention was known as the telautograph or 
long distance writing machine. Mr. Gray 
wrote and published several works on scien- 
tific subjects, among which were: ** Tele- 
graphy and Telephony," and ** Experi- 
mental Research in Electro-Harmonic Tele- 
graphy and Telephony." 

WHITELAW REID.— Among the many 
men who have adorned the field of 
journalism in the United States, few stand 
out with more prominence than the scholar, 
author and editor whose name heads this ar- 
ticle. Born at Xenia, Greene county, Ohio, 
October 27, 1837, he graduated at Miami 
University in 1856. For about a year he 
was superintendent of the graded schools of 
South Charleston, Ohio, after which he pur- 
chased the ** Xenia News," which he edited 
for about two years. This paper was the 
first one outside of IlHnois to advocate the 
nomination of Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Reid 
having been a Republican since the birth of 
that party in 1856. Mter taking an active 



part in the campaign, in the winter of 1 860- 
61, he went to the state capital as corres- 
pondent of three daily papers. At the close 
of the session of the legislature he became 
city editor of the '* Cincinnati Gazette," 
and at the breaking out of the war went to 
the front as a correspondent for that journal. 
For a time he served on the staff of General 
Morris in West Virginia, with the rank of 
captain. Shortly after he was on the staff 
of General Rosecrans, and, under the name 
of ** Agate, " wrote most graphic descrip- 
tions of the movements in the field, espe- 
cially that of the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing. In the spring of 1862 Mr. Reid went 
to Washington and was appointed librarian 
to the house of representatives, and acted as 
correspondent of the '' Cincinnati Gazette." 
His description of the battle of Gettysburg, 
written on the field, gained him added 
reputation. In 1865 he accompanied Chief 
Justice Chase on a southern tour, and pub- 
lished *' After the War; a Southern Tour." 
During the next two years he was engaged 
in cotton planting in Louisiana and Ala- 
bama, and published '*Ohio in the War." 
In 1868 he returned to the ** Cincinnati Ga- 
zette," becoming one of its leading editors. 
The same year he accepted the invitation of 
Horace Greeley and became one of the staff 
on the ** New York Tribune." Upon the 
death of Mr. Greeley in 1872, Mr. Reid be- 
came editor and chief proprietor of that 
paper. In 1878 he was tendered the United 
States mission to Berlin, but declined. The 
offer was again made by the Garfield ad- 
ministration, but again he declined. In 
1878 he was elected by the New York legis- 
lature regent of the university, to succeed 
General John A. Dix. Under the Harrison 
administration he served as United States 
minister to France, and in 1892 was the 
Republican nominee for the vice-presidency 

of the United States. Among other works 
published by him were the ** Schools of 
Journalism," '*The Scholar in Politics," 
''Some Newspaper Tendencies," and 
* * Town-Hall Suggestions. " 

the most powerful and effective preach- 
er? the world has ever produced, swaying 
his hearers and touching the hearts of im- 
mense audiences in a manner that has rarely 
been equalled and never surpassed. While 
not a native of America, yet much of his 
labor was spent in this country. He wielded 
a great influence in the United States in 
early days, and his death occurred here; so 
that he well deserves a place in this volume 
as one of the most celebrated men America 
has known. 

George Whitefield was born in the Bull 
Inn, at Gloucester, England, December 16, 
1 7 14. He acquired the rudiments of learn- 
ing in St. Mary's grammar school. Later 
he attended Oxford University for a time, 
where he became intimate with the Oxford 
Methodists, and resolved to devote himself 
to the ministry. He was ordained in the 
Gloucester Cathedral June 20, 1836, and 
the following day preached his first sermon 
in the same church. On that day there 
commenced a new era in Whitefield's life. 
He went to London and began to preach at 
Bishopsgate church, his fame soon spread- 
ing over the city, and shortly he was en- 
gaged four times on a single Sunday in ad- 
dressing audiences of enormous magnitude, 
and he preached in various parts of his native 
country, the people crowding in multitudes 
to hear him and hanging upon the rails and 
rafters of the churches and approaches there- 
to. He finally sailed for America, landing 
in Georgia, where he stirred the people to 
great enthusiasm. During the balance of 



his life he divided his time between Great 
Britain and America, and it is recorded that 
he crossed the Atlantic thirteen times. He 
came to America for the seventh time in 
1770. He preached every day at Boston 
from the 17th to the 20th of September, 
1770, then traveled to Newburyport, preach- 
ing at Exeter, New Hampshire, September 
29, on the way. That evening he went to 
Newburyport, where he died the next day, 
Sunday, September 30, 1770. 

* * Whitefield's dramatic power was amaz- 
ing, " says an eminent writer in describing 
him. *' His voice was marvelously varied, 
and he ever had it at command — an organ, 
a flute, a harp, all in one. His intellectual 
powers were not of a high order, but he had 
an abundance of that ready talent and that 
wonderful magnetism which makes the pop- 
ular preacher; and beyond all natural en- 
dowments, there was in his ministry the 
power of evangelical truth, and, as his con- 
verts believed, the presence of the spirit of 

America's prominent men in the devel- 
opment of electrical science, was born March 
17, 1849, near Cleveland, Ohio, and spent 
•his early life on his father's farm. From 
the district school at WickHffe, Ohio, he 
passed to the Shaw Academy at Collamer, 
and then entered the high school at Cleve- 
land. His interest in chemistry, physics 
and engineering was already marked, and 
during his senior year he was placed in 
charge of the chemical and physical appar- 
atus. During these years he devised a plan 
for lighting street lamps, constructed tele- 
scopes, and his first electric arc lamp, also 
.an electric motor. In September, 1867, he 
entered the engineering department of the 
iUniversity of Michigan and graduated in 

1869, which was a year in advance of his 
class, with the degree of M. E. He therl 
returned to Cleveland, and for three years 
was engaged as an analytical chemist and 
for four years in the iron business. In 
1875 Mr. Brush became interested in elec- 
tric lighting, and in 1876, after four months' 
experimenting, he completed the dynamo- 
electric machine that has made his name 
famous, and in a shorter time produced the 
series arc lamps. These were both patent- 
ed in the United States in 1876, and he 
afterward obtained fifty patents on his later 
inventions, including the fundamental stor- 
age battery, the compound series, shunt- 
winding for dynamo-electric machines, and 
the automatic cut-out for arc lamps. His 
patents, two-thirds of which have already 
been profitable, are held by the Brush 
Electric Company, of Cleveland, while his 
foreign patents are controlled by the Anglo- 
American Brush Electric Light Company, 
of London. In 1880 the Western Reserve 
University conferred upon Mr. Brush the 
degree of Ph. D., and in 1881 the French 
government decorated him as a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 

HENRY CLEWS, of Wall-street fame, 
was one of the noted old-time opera- 
tors on that famous street, and was also an 
author of some repute. Mr. Clews was 
born in Staffordshiire, England, August 14, 
1840. His father had him educated with 
the intention of preparing him for the minis- 
try, but on a visit to the United States the 
young man became interested in a business 
life, and was allowed to engage as a clerk in 
the importing house of Wilson G. Hunt & 
Co., of New York. Here he learned the 
first principles of business, and when the war 
broke out in 1861 young Clews saw in the 
needs of the government an opportunity to 



reap a golden harvest. He identified him- 
self with the negotiating of loans for the 
government, and used his pov^ers of pur- 
suasion upon the great money powers to 
convince them of the stability of the govern- 
ment and the value of its securities. By 
enthusiasm and patriotic arguments he in- 
duced capitalists to invest their money in 
government securities, often against their 
judgment, and his success was remarkable. 
His was one of the leading firms that aided 
the struggling treasury department in that 
critical hour, and his reward was great. In 
addition to the vast wealth it brought. 
President Lincoln and Secretary Chase 
both wrote important letters, acknowledging 
his valued service. In 1873, by the repu- 
diation of the bonded indebtedness of the 
state of Georgia, Mr. Clewu lost six million 
dollars which he had invested in those se- 
curities. It is said that he is the only man, 
with one exception, in Wall street, who 
ever regained great wealth after utter dis- 
aster. His * * Twenty-Eight Years in Wall 
Street " has been widely read. 

ALFRED VAIL was one of the men that 
gave to the world the electric telegraph 
and the names of Henry, Morse and Vail 
will forever remain linked as the prime fac- 
tors in that great achievement. Mr. Vail 
was born September 25, 1807, ^^ Morris- 
town, New Jersey, and was a son of Stephen 
Vail, the proprietor of the Speedwell Iron 
Works, near Morristown. At the age of 
seventeen, after he had completed his stud- 
ies at the Morristown Academy, Alfred Vail 
went into the Speedwell Iron Works and 
contented himself with the duties of his 
position until he reached his majority. He 
then determined to prepare himself for the 
ministry, and at the age of twenty- five he 
entered the University of the City of New 

York, where he was graduated in 1836. His 
health becoming impaired he labored for a 
time under much uncertainty as to his future 
course. Professor S. F. B. Morse had come 
to the university in 1835 ^s professor of lit- 
erature and fine arts, and about this time, 

1837, Professor Gale, occupying the chair 
of chemistry, invited Morse to exhibit his 
apparatus for the benefit of the students. 
On Saturday, September 2, 1837, the exhi- 
bition took place and Vail was asked to at- 
tend, and with his inherited taste for me- 
chanics and knowledge of their construction, 
he saw a great future for the crude mechan- 
ism used by Morse in giving and recording 
signals. Mr. Vail interested his father in 
the invention, and Morse was invited to 
Speedwell and the elder Vail promised to 
help him. It was stipulated that Alfred 
Vail should construct the required apparatus 
and exhibit before a committee of congress 
the telegraph instrument, and was to receive 
a quarter interest in the invention. Morse 
had devised a series of ten numbered leaden 
types, which were to be operated in giving 
the signal. This was not satisfactory to 
Vail, so he devised an entirely new instru- 
ment, involving a lever, or ''point," on a 
radically different principle, which, when 
tested, produced dots and dashes, and de- 
vised the famous dot-and-dash alphabet, 
misnamed the '* Morse." At last the ma- 
chine was in working order, on January 6, 

1838. The machine was taken to Wash- 
ington, where it caused not only wonder, 
but excitement. Vail continued his experi- 
ments and devised the lever and roller. 
When the line between Baltimore and! 
Washington was completed, Vail was sta- 
tioned at the Baltimore end and received^ 
the famous first message. It is a remarka- 
ble fact that not a single feature of the. 
original invention of Morse, as formulated^ 



by his caveat and repeated in his original 
patent, is to be found in Vail's apparatus. 
From 1837 to 1844 it was a combination of 
the inventions of Morse, Henry and Vail, 
but the work of Morse fell gradually into 
desuetude, while Vail's conception of an 
alphabet has remained unchanged for half a 
century. Mr. Vail published but one work, 
*' American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph," 
in 1845, ^"d died at Morristown at the com- 
paratively early age of fifty-one, on January 
I9» 1859. 

ULYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth 
president of the United States, was 
born April 27, 1822, at Point Pleasant, Cler- 
mont county, Ohio. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered the United States Military 
Academy at West Point, from which he 
graduated in June, 1843, ^^^^ was given his 
brevet as second lieutenant and assigned to 
the Fourth Infantry. He remained in the 
service eleven years, in which time he 
was engaged in the Mexican war with gal- 
lantry, and was thrice brevetted for conduct 
in the field. In 1848 he married Miss Julia 
Dent, and in 1854, having reached the 
grade of captain, he resigned and engaged 
in farming near St. Louis. In i860 he en- 
tered the leather business with his father at 
Galena, Illinois. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, 
he commenced to drill a company at Ga- 
lena, and at the same time offered his serv- 
ices to the adjutant-general of the army, 
but he had few influential friends, so re- 
ceived no answer. He was employed by 
the governor of Illinois in the organization 
of the various volunteer regiments, and at 
the end of a few weeks was given the 
colonelcy of the Twenty-first Infantry, from 
that state. His military training and knowl- 
edge soon attracted the attention of his su- 

perior officers, and on reporting to General 
Pope in Missouri, the latter put him in 
the way of advancement. August 7, 1861, 
he was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and for a few weeks 
was occupied in watching the movements of 
partisan forces in Missouri. September i, 
the same year, he was placed in command 
of the Department of Southeast Missouri, 
with headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th 
of the month, without orders, seized Padu- 
cah, which commanded the channel of the 
Ohio and Tennessee rivers, by which he se- 
cured Kentucky for the Union. He now 
received orders to make a demonstration on 
Belmont, which he did, and with about three 
thousand raw recruits held his own against 
the Confederates some seven thousand 
strong, bringing back about two hundred 
prisoners and two guns. In February,) 1862, 
he moved up the Tennessee river with 
the naval fleet under Commodore Foote. 
The latter soon silenced Fort Henry, and 
Grant advanced against Fort Donelson and 
took their fortress and its garrison. His- 
prize here consisted of sixty-five cannon, 
seventeen /thousand six hundred stand of 
arms, and fourteen thousand six hundred 
and twenty-three prisoners. This was the 
first important success won by the Union 
forces. Grant was immediately made a 
major-general and placed in command of 
the district of West Tennessee. In April, 
1862, he fought the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, and after the evacuation of Corinth by 
the enemy Grant became commander of the 
Department of the Tennessee. He now 
made his first demonstration toward Vicks-- 
burg, but owing to the incapacity of subor- 
dinate officers, was unsuccessful. In Janu- 
ary, 1863, he took command of all the 
troops in the Mississippi Valley and devoted, 
several months to the siege of Vicksburg,. 



^hich was finally taken possession of by him 
July 4, with thirty-one thousand six hundred 
prisoners and one hundred and seventy-two 
cannon, thus throwing the Mississippi river 
open to the Federals. He was now raised 
to the rank of major-general in the regular 
army. October following, at the head of 
the Department of the Mississippi, General 
Grant went to Chattanooga, where he over- 
threw the enemy, and united with the Army 
of the Cumberland. The remarkable suc- 
cesses achieved by him pointed Grant out 
for an appropriate commander of all na- 
tional troops, and in February, 1864, the 
rank of lieutenant-general was made for him 
by act of congress. Sending Sherman into 
Georgia, Sigel into the Valley of West Vir- 
ginia and Butler to attempt the capture of 
Richmond he fought his way through the 
Wilderness to the James and pressed the 
siege of the capital of the Confederacy. 
After the fall of the latter Grant pressed 
the Confederate army so hard that their 
commander surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, April 9, 1865. This virtually 
ended the war. 

After the war the rank of general was 
conferred upon U. S. Grant, and in 1868 he 
was elected president of the United States, 
and re-elected his own successor in 1872. 
After the expiration of the latter term he 
made his famous tour of the world. He died 
at Mt. McGregor, near Saratoga, New York, 
July 23, 1885, and was buried at Riverside 
Park, New York, where a magnificent tomb 
has been erected to hold the ashes of the 
nation's hero. 

JOHN MARSHALL, the fourth chief jus- 
tice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Germantown^ Virginia, Septem- 
ber 24, 175 s His father, Colonel Thomas 
J^arshall, served with distinction in the Rev- 

olutionary war, while he also served from 
the beginning of the war until 1779, where 
he became noted in the field and courts 
martial. While on detached service he at- 
tended a course of law lectures at William 
and Mary College, delivered by Mr. Wythe, 
and was admitted to the bar. The next year 
he resigned his commission and began his 
career as a lawyer. He was a distinguished 
member of the convention called in Virginia 
to ratify the Federal constitution. He was 
tendered the attorney-generalship of the 
United States, and also a place on the su- 
preme bench, besides other places of less 
honor, all of which he declined. He 
went to France as special envoy in 1798, 
and the next year was elected to congress. 
He served one year and was appointed, first, 
secretary of war, and then secretary of state, 
and in 1801 was made chief justice of the 
United States. He held this high office un- 
til his death, in 1835. 

Chief Justice Marshall's early education 
was neglected, and his opinions, the most 
valuable in existence, are noted for depth 
of wisdom, clear and comprehensive reason- 
ing, justice, and permanency, rather than for 
wide learning and scholarly construction. 
His decisions and rulings are resorted to 
constantly by our greatest lawyers, and his 
renown as a just judge and profound jurist 
was world wide. 

known more widely as a producer of 
new plays than as a great actor. He was 
born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1838, and 
educated himself as best he could, and at 
the age of sixteen years became salesman 
for a Detroit dry goods house. He after- 
wards began to go upon the stage as a 
supernumerary, and his ambition was soon 
rewarded by thp notice of the management. 



During the war of the Rebellion he was a 
soldier, and after valiant service for his 
country he returned to the stage. He went 
to Europe and appeared in Liverpool, and 
returning in 1869, he began playing at 
Booth's theater, with Mr. Booth. He was 
afterward associated with John McCullough 
in the management of the California 
theater. Probably the most noted period 
of his work was during his connection with 
Edwin Booth as manager of that great 
actor, and supporting him upon the stage. 
Mr. Barrett was possessed of the crea- 
tive instinct, and, unlike Mr. Booth, he 
sought new fields for the display of his 
genius, and only resorted to traditional 
drama in response to popular demand. He 
preferred new plays, and believed in the 
encouragement of modern dramatic writers, 
and was the only actor of prominence in his 
time that ventured to put upon the stage 
new American plays, which he did at his 
own expense, and the success of his experi- 
ments proved the quality of his judgment. 
He died March 21, 1891. 

ebrated Catholic clergyman, was born 
at Annaboghan, Tyrone county, Ireland, 
June 24, 1797, and emigrated to America 
when twenty years of age, engaging for 
some time as a gardener and nurseryman. 
In 1 8 19 he entered St. Mary's College, 
where he secured an education, paying his 
way by caring for the college garden. In 
1825 he was ordained a deacon of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, and in the same year, 
a priest. Until 1 838 he had pastoral charges 
in Philadelphia, where he founded St. John's 
Asylum in 1829, and a few years later es- 
tablished the ^* Catholic Herald." In 1838 
he was made bishop of Basileopolis in parti- 
bus and coadjutor to Bishop Dubois, of 

New York, and in 1842 became bishop of 
New York. In 1839 he founded St. John's 
College, at Fordham. In 1850 he was 
made archbishop of New York. In 186 1-2 
he was a special agent of the United States 
in Europe, after which he returned to this 
country and remained until his death, Jan- 
uary 3, 1864. Archbishop Hughes early 
attracted much attention by his controver- 
sial correspondence with Rev. John Breck- 
inridge in 1833-35. He was a man of great 
ability, a fluent and forceful writer and an 
able preacher. 

was the nineteenth president of the 
United States and served from 1877 to 1881. 
He was born October 4, 1822, at Delaware, 
Ohio, and his ancestry can be traced back 
as far as 1280, when Hayes and Rutherford 
were two Scottish chieftans fighting side by 
side with Baliol, William Wallace and 
Robert Bruce. The Hayes family had for 
a coat of arms, a shield, barred and sur- 
mounted by a flying eagle. There was a 
circle of stars about the eagle, while on a 
scroll underneath was their motto, ''Recte." 
Misfortune overtook the family and in 1680 
George Hayes, the progenitor of the Ameri- 
can family, came to Connecticut and settled 
at Windsor. Rutherford B. Hayes was 
a very delicate child at his birth and was 
not expected to live, but he lived in spite of 
all and remained at home until he was 
seven years old, when he was placed in 
school. He was a very tractable pupil, being 
always very studious, and in 1838 entered 
Kenyon College, graduating from the same 
in 1842. He then took up the study of law 
in the office of Thomas Sparrow at Colum- 
bus, but in a short time he decided to enter 
a law school at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where for two years he was immersed in the 



study of law. Mr. Hayes was admitted to 
the bar in 1845 ^^ Marietta, Ohio, and very 
soon entered upon the active practice of his 
profession with Ralph P. Buckland, of 
Fremont, Ohio. He remained there three 
years, and in 1849 removed to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, where his ambition found a new 
stimulus. Two events occurred at this 
period that had a powerful influence on his 
afterlife. One was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, and the other w^as his 
introduction to a Cincinnati literary club, 
a body embracing such men as Salmon P. 
Chase, John Pope, and Edward F. Noyes. 
In 1856 he was nominated for judge of the 
court of common pleas, but declined, and 
two years later he was appointed city 
solicitor. At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
Mr. Hayes was appointed major of the 
Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, June 7, 1861, 
and in July the regiment was ordered to 
Virginia, and October 15, 1861, saw him 
promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment. He was made colonel of the 
Seventy-ninth Ohio Infantry, but refused to 
leave his old comrades; and in the battle of 
South Mountain he was wounded very 
severely and was unable to rejoin his regi- 
ment until November 30, 1862. He had 
been promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment on October 15, 1862. In the 
following December he was appointed to 
command the Kanawa division and was 
given the rank of brigadier-general for 
meritorious services in several battles, and 
in 1864 he was brevetted major-general for 
distinguished services in 1864, during 
which campaign he was wounded several 
times and five horses had been shot under 
him. Mr. Hayes' first venture in politics 
was as a Whig, and later he was one of the 
>first to unite with the Republican party. In 
1864 he was elected from the Second Ohio 

district to congress, re-elected in 1866, 
and in 1867 was elected governor of Ohio 
over Allen G. Thurman, and was re-elected 
in 1869. Mr. Hayes was elected to the 
presidency in 1876, for the term of four 
years, and at its close retired to private life, 
and went to his home in Fremont, Ohio, 
where he died on January 17, 1893. 

a celebrated character as the nominee 
of the Democratic and Populist parties for 
president of the United States in 1896. He 
was born March 19, i860, at Salem, Illi- 
nois. He received his early education in 
the public schools of his native county, and 
later on he attended the Whipple Academy 
at Jacksonville. He also took a course in 
Illinois College, and after his graduation 
from the same went to Chicago to study 
law, and entered the Union College of Law 
a<= a student. He was associated with the 
late Lyman Trumbull, of Chicago, during 
his law studies, and devoted considerable 
time to the questions of government. He 
graduated from the college, was admitted to 
the bar, and went to Jacksonville, Illinois, 
where he was married to Miss Mary Eliza- 
beth Baird. In 1887 Mr. Bryan removed 
to Lincoln, Nebraska, and formed a law 
partnership with Adolphus R. Talbot. He 
entered the field of politics, and in 1888 
was sent as a delegate to the state con- 
vention, which was to choose delegates to 
the national convention, during which he 
made a speech which immediately won him 
a high rank in political affairs. He declined, 
in the next state convention, a nomination 
for lieutenant-governor, and in 1 890 he was 
elected congressman from the First district 
of Nebraska, and was the youngest member 
of the fifty-second congress. He cham- 
pioned the Wilson tariff bill, and served 



three terms in the house of representatives. 
He next ran for senator, but was defeated 
by John M. Thurston, and in 1896 he was 
selected by the Democratic and PopuHst 
parties as their nominee for the presidency, 
being defeated by William McKinley. 

MARVIN HUGHITT, one of America's 
famous railroad men, was born in 
Genoa, New York, and entered the railway 
service in 1856 as superintendent of tele- 
graph and trainmaster of the St. Louis, Al- 
ton & Chicago, now Chicago & Alton Rail- 
road. Mr. Hughitt was superintendent of 
the southern division of the Illinois Central 
Railroad from 1862 until 1864, and was, later 
on, the general superintendent of the road 
until 1870. He was then connected with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road as assistant general manager, and re- 
tained this position until 1871, when he be- 
came the general manager of Pullman's 
Palace Car Company. In 1872 he was made 
general superintendent of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad. He served during 
1876 and up to 1880 as general manager, 
and from 1880 until 1887 as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. He was elected 
president of the road in 1887, in recog- 
nition of his ability in conducting the 
affairs of the road. He was also chosen 
president of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha Railway; the Fremont, Elk- 
horn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and the 
Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railroad, 
and his services in these capacities stamped 
him as one of the most able railroad mana- 
gers of his day. 

JOSEPH MEDILL, one of the most 
eminent of American journalists, was 
born in New Brunswick, Canada, April 6, 
1823. In 1 83 1 his father moved to Stark 

county, Ohio, and until 1841 Joseph Medill 
worked on his father's farm. Later he 
studied law, and began the practice of that 
profession in 1846 at New Philadelphia, 
Ohio. But the newspaper field was more 
attractive to Mr. Medill, and three years 
later he founded a free-soil Whig paper at 
Coshocton, Ohio, and after that time jour- 
nalism received all his abilities. **The 
Leader, " another free-soil Whig paper, was 
founded by Mr. Medill at Cleveland in 1852. 
In that city he also became one of the first 
organizers of the Republican party. Shortly 
after that event he removed to Chicago and 
in 1855, with two partners, he purchased 
the *' Chicago Tribune." In the contest for 
the nomination for the presidency in i860, 
Mr. Medill worked with unflagging zeal for 
Mr. Lincoln, his warm personal friend, and 
was one of the president's stanchest sup- 
porters during the war. Mr. Medill was a 
member of the Illinois Constitutional con- 
vention in 1870. President Grant, in 1871, 
appointed the editor a member of the firs^ 
United States civil service commission, and 
the following year, after the fire, he was 
elected mayor of Chicago by a great ma- 
jority. During 1873 and 1874 Mr. Medill 
spent a year in Europe. Upon his return 
he purchased a controlling interest in the 
•* Chicago Tribune." 

CLAUS SPRECKELS, the great '* sugar 
baron," and one of the most famous 
representatives of commercial life in Amer- 
ica, was born in Hanover, Germany, and 
emigrated to the United States in 1840, 
locating in New York. He very soon be- 
came the proprietor of a small retail gro- 
cery store on Church street, and embarked 
on a career that has since astonished the 
world. He sold out his busmess and went 
to California with the argonauts of 1849, 



not as a prospector, but as a trader, and for 
years after his arrival on the coast he was 
still engaged as a grocer. At length, after a 
quarter of a century of fairly prosperous 
business life, he found himself in a position 
where an ordinary man would have retired, 
but Mr. Spreckles did not retire; he had 
merely been gathering capital for the real 
work of his life. His brothers had followed 
him to California, and in combination with 
them he purchased for forty thousand dollars 
an interest in the Albany Brewery in San 
Francisco. But the field was not extensive 
enough for the development of his business 
abilities, so Mr. Sprecklas branched out 
extensively in the sugar business. He suc- 
ceeded in securing the entire output of 
sugar that was produced on the Sand- 
wich Islands, and after 1885 was known as 
the ''Sugar King of Sandwich Islands." 
He controlled absolutely the sugar trade of 
the Pacific coast which was known to be 
not less than ten million dollars a year. 

famous as a clergyman, and for many 
years president of the Society for the 
Prevention of Crime, was born April 17, 
1842, at Framingham, Massachusetts, of 
English descent. At the age of sixteen 
he was pupil in the grammar school at 
Clinton, Massachusetts, and for the ensu- 
ing two years was a clerk in a dry goods 
store, which position he gave up to prepare 
himself for college at Lancaster academy. 
Mr. Parkhurst went to Amherst in 1862, 
and after taking a thorough course he gradu- 
ated in 1866, and in 1867 became the prin- 
cipal of the Amherst High School. He re- 
tained this position until 1870, when he 
visited Germany with the intention of tak- 
ing a course in philosophy and theology, 
but was forced to abandon this intention on 

account of illness in the family causing* his 
early return from Europe. He accepted the 
chair of Latin and Greek in Williston Semi- 
nary, Easthampton, Massachusetts, and re- 
mained there two years. He then accom- 
panied his wife to Europe, and devoted two 
years to study in Halle, Leipsic and Bonn. 
Upon his return home he spent considerable 
time in the study of Sanscrit, and in 1874 
he became the pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional church at Lenox, Massachusetts. He 
gained here his reputation as a pulpit ora- 
tor, and on March 9, 1880, he became the 
pastor of the Madison Square Presbyterian 
church of New York. He was, in 1890, 
made a member of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Crime, and the same year be- 
came its president. He delivered a sermon 
in 1892 on municipal corruption, for which 
he was brought before the grand jury, which 
body declared his charges to be without suffi- 
cient foundation. But the matter did not end 
here, for he immediately went to work on a 
second sermon in which he substantiated his 
former sermon and wound up by saying, 
**I know, for I have seen." He was again 
summoned before that august body, and as 
a result of his testimony and of the investi- 
gation of the jurors themselves, the police 
authorities were charged with incompetency 
and corruption. Dr. Parkhurst was the 
author of the following works: * * The Forms 
of the Latin Verb, Illustrated by Sanscrit, '*^ 
**The Blind Man's Creed and Other Ser- 
mons," **The Pattern on the Mount," and 
•* Three Gates on a Side." 

HENRY BERGH, although a writer, 
diplomatist and government official, 
was noted as a philanthropist — the founder 
of the American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals. On his labors for 
the dumb creation alone rests his fame- 



Alone, in the face of indifference, opposition 
and ridicule, he began the reform which is 
now recognized as one of the beneficent 
movements of the age. Through his exer- 
tions as a speaker and lecturer, but above 
all as a bold worker, in the street, in the 
court room, before the legislature, the cause 
he adopted gained friends and rapidly in- 
creased in power until it has reached im- 
mense proportions and influence. The work 
of the society covers all cases of cruelty to 
all sorts of animals, employs every moral 
agency, social, legislative and personal, and 
touches points of vital concern to health as 
well as humanity. 

Henry Bergh was born in New York 
City in 1823, and was educated at Colum- 
bia College. In 1863 he was made secre- 
tary of the legation to Russia and also 
served as vice-consul there. He also de- 
voted some time to literary pursuits and was 
the author of *' Love's Alternative," a 
drama; •* Married Off," a poem; **'The 
Portentous Telegram, " **The Ocean Para- 
gon;" ^'The Streets of New York," tales 
and sketches. 

of the most eminent of American di- 
vines, was born in Adams, Jefferson county, 
New York, February 15, 1822. He was 
brought up in the mercantile business, and 
1 early in life took an active interest in polit- 
ical affairs. In 1847 he became a candidate 
for holy orders and pursued theological 
studies with Rev. W. D. Wilson, D. D., 
afterward professor in Cornell University. 
He was ordained deacon in 1849, i^ Trinity 
church, Geneva, New York, by Rt. Rev. 
W. H. De Lancey, D. D., and took charge 
of Zion church, Rome, New York, Decem- 
ber I, 1849. In 1850, our subject was or- 
dained priest by Bishop De Lancey. In 

1857 he became rector of the Church of the 
Holy Communion, Chicago. On the 30th 
of June, 1859, he was chosen bishop of 
Minnesota, and took charge of the interests 
of the Episcopal church in that state, being 
located at Faribault. In i860 Bishop 
Whipple, with Revs. I. L. Breck, S. W. 
Mauncey and E. S. Peake, organized the 
Bishop Seabury Mission, out of which has 
grown the Cathedral of Our Merciful Savior, 
the Seabury Divinity School, Shattuck 
School and St. Mary's Hall, which have 
made Faribault City one of the greatest 
educational centers of the northwest. Bishop 
Whipple also became noted as the friend: 
and defender of the North American In- 
dians and planted a number of successful 
missions among them. 

EZRA CORNELL was one of the greatest 
philanthropists and friends of education' 
the country has known. He was born at 
Westchester Landing, New York, January 
II, 1807. He grew to manhood in his na« 
tive state and became a prominent figure m 
business circles as a successful and self-made 
man. Soon after the invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph, he devoted his attention to 
that enterprise, and accumulated an im- 
mense fortune. In 1865, by a gift of five 
hundred thousand dollars, he made possible 
the founding of Cornell University, which 
was named in his honor. He afterward 
made additional bequests amounting to many 
hundred thousand dollars. His death oc- 
curred at Ithaca, New York, December 9> 

IGNATIUS DONNELLY, widely knowu 
1 as an author and politician, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 3, 
1 83 1. He was educated at the public: 
schools of that city, and graduated from the 



Central High School in 1849. He studied 
law in the office of Judge B. H. Brewster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1852. In 
the spring of 1856, Mr. Donnelly emigrated 
to Minnesota, then a new territory, and, at 
Hastings, resumed the practice of law in 
partnership with A. M. Hayes. In 1857, 
and again in 1858, he was defeated for state 
senator, but in 1859 he was elected by the 
Republicans as lieutenant-governor, and re- 
elected in 1 86 1. In 1862 he was elected to 
represent the Second district of Minnesota 
in congress. He was re-elected to the same 
office in 1864 and in 1866. He was an 
abolitionist and warmly supported President 
Lincoln's administration, but was strongly 
in favor of leniency toward the people of 
the south, after the war. In many ways he 
'was identified with some of the best meas- 
ures brought before the house during his 
presence there. In the spring of 1868, at 
the request of the Republican national com- 
mittee, he canvassed New Hampshire and 
Connecticut in the interests of that party. 
E. B. Washburne about this time made an 
attack on Donnelly in one of the papers of 
Minnesota, which was replied to on the floor 
'of the house by a fierce phillipic that will 
long be remembered. Through the inter- 
vention of the Washburne interests Mr. Don- 
nelly failed of a re-election in 1870. In 
1 873 he was elected to the state senate from 
Dakota county, and continuously re-elected 
Hintil 1878. In 1886 he was elected mem- 
ber of the house for two years. In later 
years he identified himself with the Popu- 
list party. 

In 1882, Mr. Donnelly became known as 
an author, publishing his first literary work, 
** Atlantis, the Antediluvian World,'' which 
passed through over twenty-two editions in 
America, several in England, and was trans- 
lated into French. This was followed by 

**Ragnarok, the Age of Fire and Gravel," 
which attained nearly as much celebrity as 
the first, and these two, in the opinion of 
scientific critics, are sufficient to stamp the 
author as a most capable and painstaking 
student of the facts he has collated in them. 
The work by which he gained the greatest 
notoriety, however, was *'The Great Cryp- 
togram, or Francis Bacon's Cipher in the 
Shakespeare Plays." ** Caesar's Column," 
*' Dr. Huguet," and other works were pub- 
lished subsequently. 

STEVEN V. WHITE, a speculator of 
Wall Street of national reputation, was 
born in Chatham county. North Carolina, 
August I, 1 83 1, and soon afterward re- 
moved to Illinois. His home was a log 
cabin, and until his eighteenth year he 
worked on the farm. Then after several 
years of struggle with poverty he graduated 
from Knox College, and went to St. Louis, 
where he entered a wholesale boot and shoe 
house as bookkeeper. He then studied law 
and worked as a reporter for the '* Missouri 
Democrat." After his admission to the bar 
he went to New York, in 1865, and became 
a member of the banking house of Marvin 
& White. Mr. White enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of having engineered the only corner 
in Wall Street since Commodore Vander- 
bilt's time. This was the famous Lacka- 
wanna deal in 1883, in which he made a 
profit of two million dollars. He was some- 
times called ** Deacon" White, and, though 
a member for many years of the Plymouth 
church, he never held that office. Mr. 
White was one of the most noted characters 
of the street, and has been called an orator, 
poet, philanthropist, linguist, abolitionist, 
astronomer, schoolmaster, plowboy, and 
trapper. He was a lawyer, ex-congress- 
man, expert accountant, art critic andtheo- 



logian. He laid the foundation for a 
**Home for Colored People/' in Chatham 
county, North Carolina, where the greater 
part of his father's life was spent, and in 
whose memory the work was undertaken. 

JAMES A. GARFIELD, the twentieth 
president of the United States, was born 
November 19, 1831, in Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, and was the son of Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield. In 1833 the father, an 
industrious pioneer farmer, died, and the 
care of the family devolved upon Thomas, 
to whom James became deeply indebted for 
educational and other advantages. As James 
grew up he was industrious and worked on 
the farm, at carpentering, at chopping wood, 
or anything else he found to do, and in the 
meantime made the most of his books. 

Until he was about sixteen, James' high- 
est ambition was to become a sea captain. 
On attaining that age he walked to 
Cleveland, and, not being able to find work, 
he engaged as a driver on the Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania canal, but quit this after a short 
time. He attended the seminary at Ches- 
ter for about three years, after which he 
entered Hiram Institute, a school started by 
the Disciples of Christ in 1850. In order 
to pay his way he assumed the duties of 
janitor and at times taught school. After 
completing his course at the last named edu- 
cational institution he entered Williams Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1856. He 
afterward returned to Hiram College as its 
president. He studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1859. November 11, 1858. 
Mr. Garfield and Lucretia Rudolph were 

In 1859 Mr. Garfield made his first polit- 
ical speeches, at Hiram and in the neighbor- 
hood. The same year he was elected to the 
-State senate. 

On the breaking out of the war, in 186 1, 
he became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty 
second Ohio Infantry, and, while but a ne^A' 
soldier, was given command of four regi- 
ments of infantry and eight companies of 
cavalry, with which he drove the Confeder^ 
ates under Humphrey Marshall out of Ken 
tucky. January 11, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general. He participated 
with General Buell in the battle of Shiloh 
and the operations around Corinth, and was 
then detailed as a member of the Fitz John 
Porter court-martial. Reporting to General 
Rosecrans, he was assigned to the position 
of chief of staff, and resigned his position, 
with the rank of major-general, when his 
immediate superior was superseded. In 
the fall of 1862 Mr. Garfield was elected to 
congress and remained in that body, either 
in the house or senate, until 1880. 

June 8, 1880, at the national Republican 
convention, held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the presidency, and 
was elected, He was inaugurated March 
4, 1 88 1, but, July 2, following, he was shot 
and fatally wounded by Charles Guiteau for 
some fancied political slight, and died Sep- 
tember 19, 1 88 1. 

INCREASE MATHER was one of the 
1 most prominent preachers, educators and 
authors of early times in the New England 
states. He was born at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, June 21, 1639, and was g*iven an 
excellent education, graduating at Harvard 
in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, 
two years later. He was ordained a min- 
ister, and preached in England and America, 
and in 1664 became pastor of the North 
church, in Boston. In 1685 he became 
president of Harvard University, serving 
until 1 70 1. In 1692 he received the first 
doctorate in divinity conferred in English 



speaking America. The same year he pro- 
cured in England a new charter for Massa- 
chusetts, which conferred upon himself the 
power of naming the governor, lieutenant- 
governor and council. He opposed the 
severe punishment of witchcraft, and took 
a prominent part in all public affairs of his 
day. He was a prolific writer, and became 
the author of nearly one hundred publica- 
tions, large and small. His death occurred 
August 23, 1723, at Boston. 

COTTON MATHER, a celebrated minis- 
ter in the ** Puritan times" of New 
England, was born at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, February 12, 1663, being a son of 
Rev. Increase Mather, and a grandson of 
John Cotton. A biography of his father 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 
Cotton Mather received his early education 
in his native city, was trained by Ezekiel 
Cheever, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1678; became a teacher, and in 1684 
was ordained as associate pastor of North 
church, Boston, with his father, having by 
persistent effort overcome an impediment in 
his speech. He labored with great zeal as 
a pastor, endeavoring also, to establish the 
ascendancy of the church and ministry in 
civil affairs, and in the putting down of 
witchcraft by legal sentences, a work in 
which he took an active part and through 
which he is best known in history. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. in 17 10, con- 
ferred by the University of Glasgow, and 
F. R. S. in 171 3. His death occurred at 
Boston, February 13, 1728. He was the 
author of many publications, among which 
were ** Memorable Providences Relating to 
Witchcraft,'* ** Wonders of the Invisible 
World," *» Essays to Do Good," **Mag- 
nalia Christi Americana," and ** Illustra- 
tions of the Sacred Scriptures." Some of 

these works are quaint and curious, full of 
learning, piety and prejudice. A well- 
known writer, in summing up the life and 
character of Cotton Mather, says: ' ' Mather, 
with all the faults of his early years, was 3 
man of great excellence of character. He 
labored zealously for the benefit of the 
poor, for mariners, slaves, criminals and 
Indians. His cruelty and credulity were 
the faults of his age, while his philanthro- 
phy was far more rare in that age than in 
the present." 

WILLIAM A. PEFFER. who won a 
national reputation during the time 
he was in the United States senate, was 
born on a farm in Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, September 10, 1831. He 
drew his education from the public schools 
of his native state and at the age of f.fteen 
taught school in winter, working on a farm 
in the summer. In June, 1853, while yet a 
young man, he removed to Indiana, and 
opened up a farm in St. Joseph county. 
In 1859 he made his way to Missouri and 
settled on a farm in Morgan county, but on 
account of the war and the unsettled state 
of the country, he moved to Illinois in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and enlisted as a private in 
Company F, Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, 
the following August. He was promoted 
to the rank of second lieutenant in 
March, 1863, and served successively as 
quartermaster, adjutant, post adjutant, 
judge advocate of a military commission, 
and depot quartermaster in the engineer 
department at Nashville. He was mustered 
out of the service June 26, 1865. He had, 
during his leisure hours while in the army, 
studied law, and in August, 1865, he com- 
menced the practice of that profession at 
Clarksville, Tennessee. He removed to 
Kansas in 1870 and practiced there until 



1878, in the meantime establishing and 
conducting two newspapers, the *' Fredonia 
Journal " and ** Coffey ville Journal/' 

Mr. Peffer was elected to the state senate 
in 1874 and was a prominent and influential 
member of several important committees. 
He served as a presidential elector in 1880. 
The year following he became editor of the 
** Kansas Farmer," which he made a promi- 
nent and useful paper. In 1890 Mr. Peffer 
was elected to the United States senate as 
a member of the People's party and took 
his seat March 4, 1891. After six years of 
service Senator Peffer was succeeded in 
March, 1897, by William A. Harris. 

ROBERT MORRIS.— The name of this 
financier, statesman and patriot is 
closely connected with the early history of 
the United States. He was a native of 
England, born January 20, 1734, and came 
to America with his father when thirteen 
years old. Until 1754 he served in the 
counting house of Charles Willing, then 
formed a partnership with that gentleman's 
son, which continued with great success until 
1793. In 1776 Mr. Morris was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, and, although 
once voting against the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, signed that paper on its adop- 
tion, and was several times thereafter re- 
elected to congress. During the Revolu- 
tionary war the services of Robert Morris 
in aiding the government during its finan- 
cial difficulties were of incalculable value; he 
freely pledged his personal credit for sup- 
plies for the army, at one time to the amount 
of about one and ahalf million dollars, with- 
out which the campaign of 1781 would have 
been almost impossible. Mr. Morris was 
appointed superintendent of finance in 1781 
and served until 1784, continuing to employ 
his personal credit to facilitate the needs of 

his department. He also served as mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature, and 
from 1786 to 1795 was United States sena- 
tor, declining meanwhile the position of sec- 
retary of the treasury, and suggesting the 
name of Alexander Hamilton, who was ap^ 
pointed to that post. During the latter 
part of his life Mr. Morris was engaged ex- 
tensively in the China trade, and later be- 
came involved in land speculations, which 
ruined him, so that the remaining days of 
this noble man and patriot were passed 
in confinement for debt. His death occurred 
at Philadelphia, May 8, 1806. 

WILLIAM SHARON, a senator anr* 
capitalist, and mine owner of na 
tional reputation, was born at Smithfield, 
Ohio, January 9, 1821. He was reared 
upon a farm and in his boyhood given excel- 
lent educational advantages and in 1842 
entered Athens College. He remained in 
that institution about two years, after which 
he studied law with Edwin M. Stanton, and 
was admitted to the bar at St. Louis and 
commenced practice. His health failing, 
however, he abandoned his profession and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Carrollton, 
Greene county, Illinois. During the time 
of the gold excitement of 1849, Mr. Sharon 
went to California, whither so many went, 
and engaged in business at Sacramento. 
The next year he removed to San Francisco, 
where he operated in real estate. Being 
largely interested in its silver mines, he re- 
moved to Nevada, locating at Virginia City, 
and acquired an immense fortune. He be- 
came one of the trustees- of the Bank of 
California, and during the troubles that 
arose on the death of William Ralston, the 
president of that institution, was largely in- 
strumental in bringing its affairs into a satis- 
factory shape. 



Mr. Sharon was elected to represent the 
state of Nevada in the United States senate 
in 1875, and remained a member of that 
body until 1881. He was always distin- 
guished for close application to business. 
Senator Sharon died November 13, 1885. 

HENRY W. SHAW, an American hu- 
morist who became celebrated under 
the non-de-plume of *^ Josh Billings," gained 
his fame from the witticism of his writing, 
and peculiar eccentricity of style and spell- 
ing. He was born at Lanesborough, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 18 1 8. For twenty-five years 
he lived in different parts of the western 
states, following various lines of business^ 
including farming and auctioneering, and in 
the latter capacity settled at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, in 1858. In 1863 he began 
writing humorous sketches for the news- 
papers over the signature of ' * Josh Bill- 
ings,*' and became immediately popular 
both as a writer and lecturer. He pub- 
lished a number of volumes of comic 
sketches and edited an ** Annual Allminax " 
for a number of years, which had a wide cir- 
culation. His death occurred October 14, 
1885, at Monterey, California. 

JOHN M. THURSTON, well known 
throughout this country as a senator 
and political leader, was born at Mont- 
pelier, Vermont, August 21, 1847, of an 
old Puritan family which dated back their 
ancestry in this country to 1636, and among 
whom were soldiers of the Revolution and 
of the war of 1812-15. 

Young Thurston was brought west by 
the family in 1854, they settling at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and two years later at Beaver 
Dam, where John M. received his schooling 
in the public schools and at Wayland Uni- 
versity. His father enlisted as a private in 

the First Wisconsin Cavalry and died while 
in the service, in the spring of 1863. 

Young Thurston, thrown on his own 
resources while attaining an education, sup- 
ported himself by farm work, driving team 
and at other manual labor. He studied law 
and was admitted to the bar May 21, 1869, 
and in October of the same year located in 
Omaha, Nebraska. He was elected a 
member of the city council in 1872, city 
attorney in 1874 and a member of the Ne- 
braska legislature in 1874. He was a mem- 
ber of the Republican national convention 
of 1884 and temporary chairman of that of 
1888. Taking quite an interest in the 
younger members of his party he was instru- 
mental in forming the Republican League 
of the United States, of which he was presi- 
dent for two years. He was then elected a 
member of the United States senate, in 
1895, to represent the state of Nebraska. 

As an attorney John M. Thurston occu- 
pied a very prominent place, and for a num- 
ber of years held the position of general 
solicitor of the Union Pacific railroad sys- 

TOHN JAMES AUDUBON, a celebrated 
J American naturalist, was born in Louis- 
iana, May 4, 1780, and was the son of an 
opulent French naval officer who owned a 
plantation in the then French colony. In 
his childhood he became deeply interested 
in the study of birds and their habits. About 
1794 he was sent to Paris, France, where 
he was partially educated, and studied de- 
signing under the famous painter, Jacques 
Louis David. He returned to the Unit- 
ed States about 1798, and settled on a 
farm his father gave him, on the Perkiomen 
creek in eastern Pennsylvania. He mar- 
ried Lucy Bakewell in 1808, and, disposing 
of his property, removed to Louisville, Ken- 



tucky, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. About two years later he began to 
make extensive excursions through the pri- 
meval forests of the southern ^and south- 
western states, in the exploration of which 
he passed many years. He made colored 
drawings of all the. species of birds that he 
found. For several years he made his home 
with his wife and children at Henderson, on 
the Ohio river. It is said that about this 
time he had failed in business and v^^as re- 
d»uced to poverty, but kept the wolf from the 
door by giving dancing lessons and in portrait 
painting. In 1824, at Philadelphia, he met 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who encouraged 
him to publish a work on ornithology. Two 
years later he went to England and com- 
menced the publication of his great work, 
** The Birds of America." He obtained a 
large number of subscribers at one thousand 
dollars a copy. This work, embracing five 
volumes of letterpress and five volumes of 
beautifully colored plates, was pronounced 
by Cuvier ** the most magnificent monument 
that art ever raised to ornithology." 

Audubon returned to Ameriqa in 1829, 
and explored the forests, lakes and coast 
from Canada to Florida, collecting material 
for another work. This was his " Ornitho- 
logical Biography; or. An Account of the 
Habits of the Birds of the United States, 
Etc." He revisited England in 1831, and 
returned in 1839, after which he resiaed on 
the Hudson, near New York City, in which 
place he died January 27, 1851. During 
his life he issued a cheaper edition of his 
great work, and was, in association with 
Dr. Bachman, preparing a work on the 
quadrupeds of North America. 

the superior British squadron, under Com- 
modore Downie, September 1 1, 18 14. Com- 
modore McDonough was born in Newcastle 
county, Delaware, December 23, 1783, and 
when seventeen years old entered the 
United States navy as midshipman, serving 
in the expedition to Tripoli, under Decatur, 
in 1803-4. I^ 1807 he was promoted to 
lieutenant, and in July, 18 13, was made a 
commander. The following year, on Lake 
Champlain, he gained the celebrated victory 
above referred to, for which he was again 
promoted; also received a gold medal from 
congress, and from the state of Vermont an 
estate on Cumberfend Head, in view of the 
scene of the engagement. His death oc- 
curred at sea, November 16, 1825, while he 
was returning from the command of the 
Mediterranean squadron. 

OUGH gained his principal fame from 
he celebrated victory which he gained over 

America's most celebrated arctic ex- 
plorers, was born in Rochester, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1 82 1. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and located in Cincinnati, where later 
he became a journalist. For several years 
he devoted a great deal of attention to cal- 
orics. Becoming interested in the fate of the 
explorer. Sir John Franklin, he joined the 
expedition fitted out by Henry Grinnell and 
sailed in the ship *' George Henry," under 
Captain Buddington, which left New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, in i860. He returned m 
1862, and two years later published his 
** Arctic Researches." He again joined the 
expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell, and 
sailed in the ship, ** Monticello," under 
Captain Buddington, this time remaining in 
the arctic region over four years. On his 
return he brought back many evidences of 
having found trace of Franklin. 

In 1 87 1 the ** Polaris " was fitted out by 
the United States government, and Captain 



Hall again sailed for the polar regions. He 
died in Greenland in October, 1871, and the 
** Polaris" was finally abandoned by the 
crew, a portion of which, under Captain 
Tyson, drifted with the icebergs for one 
hundred and ninety-five days, until picked 
up by the ** Tigress," on the 30th of April, 
1873. The other portion of the crew built 
boats, and, after a perilous voyage, were 
picked up in June, 1873, by a whaling vessel. 

OLIVER ELLSWORTH, the third chief 
justice of the United States, was born 
at Windsor, Connecticut, April 29, 1745. 
After graduating from Princeton, he took 
up the study of law, and was licensed 
to practice in 177 1. In 1777 he was elected 
as a delegate to the Continental congress. 
He was judge of the superior court of his 
state in 1784, and was chosen as a delegate 
to the constitutional convention in 1787. 
He sided with the Federalists, was elected 
to the United States senate in 1789, and 
was a firm supporter of Washington's policy. 
He won great distinction in that body, and 
was appointed chief justice of the supreme 
court of the United States by Washington 
in 1796. The relations between this coun- 
try and France having become violently 
strained, he was sent to Paris as envoy ex- 
traordinary in 1799, and was instrumental 
in negotiating the treaty that averted war. 
He resigned the following year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Chief Justice Marshall. His 
death occurred November 26, 1807. 

eminent American jurist and chief 
justice of the United States supreme court, 
was born in Augusta, Maine, in 1833. His 
education was looked after in boyhood, and 
at the age of sixteen he entered Bowdoin 
College, and on graduation entered the law 

department of Harvard University. He then 
entered the law office of his uncle at Ban- 
gor, Maine, and soon after opened an office 
for the practice of law at Augusta. He was 
an alderman from his ward, city attorney, 
and editor of the ** Age," a rival newspaper 
of the *' Journal, " which was conducted by 
James G. Blaine. He soon decided to re- 
move to Chicago, then springing into notice 
as a western metropolis. He at once iden- 
tified himself with the interests of the 
new city, and by this means acquired an 
experience that fitted him for his future 
work. He devoted himself assiduously to 
his profession, and had the good fortune to 
connect himself with the many suits grow- 
ing out of the prorogation of the Illinois 
legislature in 1863. It was not long before 
he became one of the foremost lawyers in 
Chicago. He made a three days' speech in 
the heresy trial of Dr. Cheney, which added 
to his fame. He was appointed chief jus- 
tice of the United States by President Cleve- 
land in 1888, the youngest man who ever 
held that exalted position. His income from 
his practice had for many years reached 
thirty thousand dollars annually. 

first president of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Vermont, Octo- 
ber 5, 1830. He was educated at Union 
College, Schenectady, New York, from 
which he graduated with honor, and en- 
gaged in teaching school. After two years 
he entered the law office of Judge E. D. 
Culver, of New York, as a student. He was 
admitted to the bar, and formed a partner- 
ship with an old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
in the west, but after a few months' search 
for a location, they returned to New York 
and opened an office, and at once entered 



upon a profitable practice. He was shortly 
afterwards married to a daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States navy. 
Mrs. Arthur died shortly before his nomina- 
tion for the vice-presidency. In 1856 a 
colored woman in New York was ejected 
from a street car and retained Mr. Arthur 
in a suit against the company, and obtained 
a verdict of five hundred dollars. It result- 
ed in a general order by all superintendents 
of street railways in the city to admit col- 
ored people to the cars. 

Mr. Arthur was a delegate to the first 
Republican national convention, and was 
appointed judge-advocate for the Second 
Brigade of New York, and then chief engi- 
neer of Governor Morgan's staff. At the 
close of his term he resumed the practice of 
law in New York. In 1872 he was made 
collector of the port of New York, which 
position he held four years. At the Chi- 
cago convention in 1880 Mr. Arthur was 
nominated for the vice-presidency with 
Garfield, and after an exciting campaign 
was elected. Four months after the inau- 
guration President Garfield was assassinated, 
and Mr. Arthur was called to take the reins 
of government. His administration of 
affairs was generally satisfactory. At its 
close he resumed the practice of law in New 
York. His death occurred November 18, 

ISAAC HULL was one of the most con- 
spicuous and prominent naval officers in 
the early history of America. He was born 
at Derby, Connecticut, March 9, 1775, be- 
ing the son of a Revolutionary officer. Isaac 
Hull early in life became a mariner, and 
when nineteen years of age became master 
of a merchant ship in the London trade. 
In 1798 he became a lieutenant in the United 

States navy, and three years later was made 

first lieutenant of the frigate ''Constitution." 
He distinguished himself by skill and valor 
against the French on the coast of Hayti, and 
served with distinction in the Barbary expe- 
ditions. July 12, 1 8 12, he sailed from 
Annapolis, in command of the ''Constitu- 
tion," and for three days was pursued by a 
British squadron of five ships, from which 
he escaped by bold and ingenious seaman- 
ship. In August of the same year he cap- 
tured the frigate " Guerriere, " one of his 
late pursuers and for this, the first naval 
advantage of that war, he received a gold 
medal from congress. Isaac Hull was later 
made naval commissioner and had command 
of various navy yards. His death occurred 
February 13, 1843, at Philadelphia. 

as a prominent business man, political 
manager and senator, was born in New Lis- 
bon, Columbiana county, Ohio, September 
24, 1837. He removed with his father's 
family to Cleveland, in the same state, in 
1852, and in the latter city, and in the 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio, 
received his education. He became an em- 
ploye of the wholesale grocery house of 
Hanna, Garrettson & Co. , his father being 
the senior member of the firm. The latter 
died in 1862, and Marcus represented his 
interest until 1867, when the business was 
closed up. 

Our subject then became a member of 
the firm of Rhodes & Co., engaged in the 
iron and coal business, but at the expira- 
tion of ten years this firm was changed to 
that of M. A. Hanna & Co. Mr. Hanna 
was long identified with the lake carrying 
business, being interested in vessels on the 
lakes and in the construction of them. As 
a director of the Globe Ship Manufacturing 
Company, of Cleveland, president of the 



Union National Bank, of Cleveland, president 
of the Cleveland City Railway Company, 
and president of the Chapin Mining Com- 
pany, oi Lake Superior, he became promi- 
nently identified with the business world. 
He was one of the government directors of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, being appointed 
to that position in 1885 by President Cleve- 

Mr. Hanna was a delegate to the na- 
tional Republican convention of 1884^ which 
was his first appearance in the political 
world. He was a delegate to the con- 
ventions of 1888 and 1896, and was elect- 
ed chairman of the Republican national 
committee the latter year, and practically 
managed the campaign of William McKin- 
ley for the presidency. In 1897 Mr. Hanna 
was appointed senator by Governor Bush- 
nell, of Ohio, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of John Sherman. 

GEORGE PEABODY was one of the 
best known and esteem.ed of ail philan- 
thropists, whose munificent gifts to Ameri- 
can institutions have proven of so much 
benefit to the cause of humanity. He was 
born February 18, 1795, at South Danvers, 
Massachusetts, which is now called Pea- 
body in honor of him. He received but a 
meager education, and during his early life 
he was a mercantile- clerk at Thetford, Ver- 
mont, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 
18 14 he became a partner with Elisha 
Riggs, at Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
and in 1 8 1 5 they moved to Baltimore, Mary- 
land. The business grew to great propor- 
tions, and they opened branch houses at 
New York and Philadelphia. Mr. Peabody 
made several voyages to Europe of com- 
mercial importance, and in 1829 became the 
head of the firm, which was then called 
Peabody, Riggs & Co., and in 1838 he re- 

moved to London, England. He retired 
from the firm, and established the cele- 
brated banking house, in which he accumu- 
lated a large fortune. He aided Mr. Grin- 
nell in fitting out Dr. Kane's Arctic expedi- 
tion, in 1852, and founded in the same year 
the Peabody Institute, in his native town, 
which he afterwards endowed with two hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Mr. Peabody visited 
the United States in 1857, and gave three 
hundred thousand dollars for the establish- 
ment at Baltimore of an institute of science, 
literature and fine arts. In 1862 he gave 
two million five hundred thousand dollars 
for the erecting of lodging houses for the 
poor in London, and on another visit to the 
United States he gave one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars to establish at Harvard a 
museum and professorship of American 
archaeology and ethnology, an equal sum for 
the endowment of a department of physical 
science at Yale, and gave the ** Southern 
Educational Fund " two million one hundred 
thousand dollars, besides devoting two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to various objects of 
public utility. Mr. Peabody made a final 
visit to the United States in 1869, and on 
this occasion he raised the endowment of 
the Baltimore Institute one million dollars, 
created the Peabody Museum, at Salem, 
Massachusetts, with a fund of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, gave sixty thou- 
sand dollars to Washington College, Vir- 
ginia; fifty thousand dollars for a ** Peabody 
Museum, *' at North Danvers, thirty thousand 
dollars to Phillips Academy, Andover; twen- 
ty-five thousand dollars to Kenyon College, 
Ohio, and twenty thousand dollars to the 
Maryland Historical Society. Mr. Peabody 
also endowed an art school at Rome, in 

1868. He died in London, November 4, 

1869, less then a month after he had re- 
turned from the United States, and his. 



remains were brought to the United States 
and interred in his native town. He made 
several other bequests in his will, and left 
his family about five million dollars. 

MATTHEW S. QUAY, a celebrated 
public man and senator, was born at 
Dillsburgh, York county, Pennsylvania, 
September 30, 1833, of an old Scotch-Irish 
family, some of whom had settled in the 
Keystone state in 1715. Matthew received 
a good education, graduating from the Jef- 
ferson College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, 
at the age of seventeen. He then traveled, 
taught school, lectured, and studied law 
under Judge Stcrrett. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1854, was appointed a prothon- 
otary in 1855 and elected to the same 
office in 1856 and 1859. Later he was 
made lieutenant of the Pennsylvania Re 
serve>, lieutenant-colonel and assistant com- 
missary-general of the state, private secre- 
tary of the famous war governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, Andrew G. Curtin, colonel of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylva- 
nia Infantry (nine months men), military 
state agent and held other offices at different 

Mr. Quay was a member of the house of 
representatives of the state of Pennsylvania 
from 1865 to 1868. He filled the office of 
secretary of the commonwealth from 1872 
to 1878, and the position of delegate-at- 
large to the Republican national conventions 
of 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1888. Hewasthe 
editor of the ♦* Beaver Radical" and the 
** Philadelphia Record " for a time, and held 
many offices in the state conventions and on 
their committees. He was elected secre- 
tary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
1869, and served three years, and in 1885 
was chosen state treasurer. In 1886 his 
great abilities pointed him out as the 

natural candidate for United States senator, 
and he was accordingly elected to that posi- 
tion and re-elected thereto in 1892. He 
was always noted for a genius for organiza- 
tion, and as a political leader had but few 
peers. Cool, serene, far-seeing, resourceful, 
holding his impulses and forces in hand, he 
never quailed from any policy he adopted, 
and carried to success most, if not all, of 
the political campaigns in which he took, 

JAMES K. JONES, a noted senator and 
. political leader, attained national fame 
while chairman of the national executive 
committee of the Democratic party in the 
presidential canjpaign of 1896. He was a. 
native of Marshall county, Mississippi, and 
was born September 29, 1839. His father, 
a well-to-do planter,settled in Dallas county, 
Arkansas, in 1848, and there the subject of 
this sketch received a careful education. 
During the Civil war he served as a private 
soldier in the Confederate army. From 
1866 to 1873 he passed a quiet life as a 
planter, but in the latter year was admitted 
to the bar and began the practice of law. 
About the same time he was elected to the- 
Arkansas senate and re-elected in 1874. In 
1877 he was made president of the senate, 
and the following year was unsuccessful ia 
obtaining a nomination as member of con- 
gress. In 1880 he was elected representa- 
tive and his ability at once placed him in a 
foremost position. He was re-elected to 
congress in 1882 and in 1884, and served as 
an influential member on the committee of 
ways and means. March 4, 1885, Mr. Jones 
took his seat in the United States senate to 
succeed James D. Walker, and was after- 
ward re-elected to the same office. In this 
branch of the national legislature his capa- 
bilities had a wider scope, and he was rec- 



ognized as one of the ablest leaders of his 

On the nomination of William J. Bryan 
as its candidate for the presidency by the 
national convention of the Democratic 
party, held in Chicago in 1896, Mr. Jones 
was made chairman of the national com- 

THEODORE THOMAS, one of the most 
celebrated musical directors America 
has known, was born in the kingdom of Han- 
over in 1835, and received his musical educa- 
tion from his father. He was a very apt scholar 
and played the violin at public concerts at 
the age of six years. He came with his 
parents to America in 1845, ^^d joined the 
orchestra of the Italian Opera in New York 
City. He played the first violin in the 
orchestra which accompanied Jenny Lind 
in her first American concert. In 1861 Mr. 
Thomas established the orchestra that be- 
came famous under his management, and 
gave his first symphony concerts in New 
York in 1864. He began his first ** summer 
night concerts" in the same city in 1868, 
and in 1869 he started on his first tour of 
the principal cities in the United States, 
which he made every year for many years. 
He was director of the College of Music in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, but resigned in 1880, after 
having held the position for three years. 

Later he organized one of the greatest 
and most successful orchestras ever brought 
together in the city of Chicago, and was 
very prominent in musical affairs during the 
World's Columbian Exposition, thereby add- 
ing greatly to his fame. 

mous inventor and manufacturer, was 
born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, February 
15, 1809. When he was seven years old his 

father invented a reaping machine. It was 
a rude contrivance and not successful. In 
1 83 1 Cyrus made his invention of a reaping 
machine, and had it patented three years 
later. By successive improvements he was 
able to keep his machines at the head of 
its class during his life. In 1 845 he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, and two years later 
located in Chicago, where he amassed a 
great fortune in manufacturing reapers and 
harvesting machinery. In 1859 he estab- 
lished the Theological Seminary of the 
Northwest at Chicago, an institution for pre- 
paring young men for the ministry in the 
Presbyterian church, and he afterward en- 
dowed a chair in the Washington and Lee 
College at Lexington, Virginia. He mani- 
fested great interest in educational and re- 
ligious matters, and by his great wealth he 
was able to extend aid and encouragement 
to many charitable causes. His death oc- 
curred May 13, 1884. 

pen name of Petroleum V. Nasby, this 
well-known humorist and writer made for 
himself a household reputation, and estab- 
lished a school that has many imitators. 

The subject of this article was born at 
Vestal, Broome county. New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1833. After receiving his edu- 
cation in the county of his birth he en- 
tered the office of the ' * Democrat, " at Cort- 
land, New York, where he learned the 
printer's trade. He was successively editor 
and publisher of the ' 'Plymouth Advertiser, " 
the *' Mansfield Herald," the ** Bucyrus 
Journal," and the '^Findlay Jeffersonian.'' 
Later he became editor of the ''Toledo 
Blade." In i860 he commenced his 
" Nasby" articles, several series of which 
have been given the world in book form. 
Under a mask of misspelling, and in a quaint 



and humorous style, a keen political satire 
is couched — a most effective weapon. 
Mr. Locke was the author of a num- 
ber of serious political pamphlets, and 
later on a more pretentious work, ** The 
Morals of Abou Ben Adhem.'* As a news- 
paper writer he gained many laurels and his 
works are widely read. Abraham Lincoln 
is said to have been a warm admirer of P. 
V. Nasby, of ** Confedrit X Roads" fame. 
Mr. Locke died at Toledo, Ohio, February 
IS, 1888. 

RUSSELL A. ALGER, noted as a sol- 
dier, governor and secretary of war, 
was born in Medina county, Ohio, February 
27, 1836, and was the son of Russell and 
Caroline (Moulton) Alger. At the age of 
twelve years he was left an orphan and pen- 
niless. For about a year he worked for 
his board and clothing, and attended school 
part of the time. In 1850 he found a place 
which paid small wages, and out of his 
scanty earnings helped his brother and sister. 
While there working on a farm he found 
time to attend the Richfield Academy, and 
by hard work between times managed to get 
a fair education for that time. The last 
two years of his attendance at this institu- 
tion of learning he taught school during the 
winter months. In 1857 he commenced the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1859. For a while he found employ- 
ment in Cleveland, Ohio, but impaired 
health induced him to remove to Grand 
Rapids, where he engaged in the lumber 
business. He was thus engaged when the 
Civil war broke out, and, his business suf- 
fering and his savings swept away, he en- 
listed as a private in the Second Michigan 
Cavalry. He was promoted to be captain 
the following month, and major for gallant 
conduct at Boonesville, Mississippi, July i, 

1862. October 16, 1862, he was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Michigan 
Cavalry, and in February, 1863, colonel of 
the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. He rendered 
excellent service in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. He was wounded at Boonesboro, 
Maryland, and on returning to his command 
took part with Sherman in the campaign in 
the Shenandoah Valley. For services ren- 
dered, that famous soldier recommended 
him for promotion, and he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers. In 1866 Gen- 
eral Alger took up his residence at Detroit, 
and. prospered exceedingly in his business, 
which was that of lumbering, and grew 
quite wealthy. In 1884 he was a delegate 
to the Republican national convention, and 
the same year was elected governor of 
Michigan. He declined a nomination for 
re-election to the latter office, in 1887, ^"^ 
was the following year a candidate for the 
nomination for president. In 1889 he was 
elected commander-in-chief of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and at different 
times occupied many offices in other or- 

In March, 1897, President McKinley 
appointed General Alger secretary of war. 

CYRUS WEST FIELD, the father of 
submarine telegraphy, was the son of 
the Rev. David D. Field, D.D., a Congre- 
gational minister, and was born at Stock- 
bridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 18 19. 
He was educated in his native town, and at 
the age of fifteen years became a clerk in a 
store in New York City. Being gifted with 
excellent business ability Mr. Field pros- 
pered and became the head of a large mer- 
cantile house. In 1853 he spent about six 
months in travel in South America. On his 
return he became interested in ocean teleg- 
raphy. Being solicited to aid in the cou- 



struction of a land telegraph across New 
Foundland to receive the news from a line 
of fast steamers it was proposed to run from 
from Ireland to St. Johns, the idea struck 
him to carry the line across the broad At- 
lantic. In 1850 Mr. Field obtained a con- 
cession from the legislature of Newfound- 
land, giving him the sole right for fifty years 
to land submarine cables on the shores of 
that island. In company with Peter Cooper, 
Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and 
Chandler White, he organized a company 
under the name of the New York, New- 
foundland & London Telegraph Company. 
In two years the line from New York across 
Newfoundland was built. The first cable 
connecting Cape Breton Island with New- 
foundland having been lost in a storm while 
being laid in 1855, another was put down in 
1856. In the latter year Mr. Field went to 
London and organized the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company, furnishing one-fourth of the 
capital himself. Both governments loaned 
ships to carry out the enterprise. Mr. Field 
accompanied the expeditions of 1857 and 
two in 1858. The first and second cables 
were failures, and the third worked but a 
short time and then ceased. The people of 
both continents became incredulous of the 
feasibility of laying a successful cable under 
so wide an expanse of sea, and the war 
breaking out shortly after, nothing was done 
until 1865-66. Mr. Field, in the former 
year, again made the attempt, and the Great 
Eastern laid some one thousand two hun- 
dred miles when the cable parted and was 
lost. The following year the same vessel 
succeeded in laying the entire cable, and 
picked up the one lost the year before, and 
bmh were carried to America's shore. After 
thirteen years of care and toil Mr. Field had 
his reward. He was the recipient of many 
:inedals and honors from both home and 

abroad. He gave his attention after this 
to establishing telegraphic communication 
throughout the world and many other large 
enterprises, notably the construction of ele- 
vated railroads in New York. Mr. Field 
died July 1 1, 1892. . 

G ROVER CLEVELAND, the twenty- 
second president of the United States, 
was born in Caldwell, Essex county. New 
Jersey, March 18, 1837, ^"^ was the son 
of Rev. Richard and Annie (Neale) Cleve- 
land. The father, of distinguished New 
England ancestry, was a Presbyterian min- 
ister in charge of the church at Caldwell at 
the time. 

When Grover was about three years of 
age the family removed to Fayetteville, 
Onondaga county, New York, where he 
attended the district school, and was in the 
academy for a short time. His father be- 
lieving that boys should early learn to labor, 
Grover entered a village store and worked 
for the sum of fifty dollars for the first year. 
While he was thus engaged the family re- 
moved to Clinton, New York, and there 
young Cleveland took up h's studies at the 
academy. The death of his father dashed 
all his hopes of a collegiate education, the 
family being left in straightened circum- 
stances, and Grover started out to battle 
for himself. After acting for a year (1853- 
54) as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind at New York 
City, he went to Buffalo. A short time 
after he entered the law office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of that city, and after a 
hard struggle with adverse circumstances, 
was admitted to the bar in 1859. He be- 
came confidential and managing 'clerk for 
the firm under whom he had studied, and 
remained with them until 1863. In the lat- 
ter year he was appointed district attorney 



Oi Erie county. It was during his incum- 
bency of this office that, on being nominated 
by the Democrats for supervisor, he came 
within thirteen votes of election, although 
the district was usually Republican by two 
hundred and fifty majority. In 1 866 Grover 
Cleveland formed a partnership with Isaac 
V. Vanderpoel. The most of the work here 
fell upon the shoulders of our subject, and 
he soon won a good standing at the bar of 
the state. In 1869 Mr. Cleveland associated 
himself in business with A. P. Laning and 
Oscar Folsom, and under the firm name of 
Laning, Cleveland & Folsom soon built up a 
fair practice. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Cleve- 
land was elected sheriff of Erie county, an 
office which he filled for four years, after 
which he resumed his profession, with L. K. 
Bass and Wilson S. Bissell as partners. 
This firm was strong and popular and 
shortly was in possession of a lucrative 
practice. Mr. Bass retired from the firm 
in 1879, and George J. Secard was admit- 
ted a member in 1881. In the latter year 
Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo, 
and in 1882 he was chosen governor by 
the enormous majority of one hundred and 
ninety-two thousand votes. July 11, 1884, 
he was nominated for the presidency by the 
Democratic national convention, and in 
November following was elected. 

Mr. Cleveland, after serving one term as 
president of the United States, in 1888 was 
nominated by his party to succeed himself, 
but he failed of the election, being beaten 
by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892, however, 
being nominated again in opposition to the 
then incumbent of the presidency, Mr. Har- 
rison, Grover Cleveland was elected pres- 
ident for the second time and served for the 
usual term of four years. In 1897 Mr. 
Cleveland retired from the chair of the first 
magistrate of the nation, and in New York 

City resumed the practice of law, in which 
city he had established himself in 1889. 

June 2, 1886, Grover Cleveland was 
united in marriage with Miss Frances Fol- 
som, the daughter of his former partner. 

years one of the greatest of American 
scientists, and one of the most noted and 
prolific writers on scientific subjects, was 
born in Duchess county. New York, Decem- 
ber 31, 1824. He received a thorough col- 
legiate education, and graduated at the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connect- 
icut, in 1847. His mind took a scientific 
turn, which manifested itself while he was 
yet a boy, and in 1848 he became teacher 
of natural sciences at the Armenian Semi- 
nary, in his native state, a position which 
he filled for three years. In 185 1-3 he oc- 
cupied the same position in the Mesopo- 
tamia Female Seminary, in Alabama, after 
which he was president of the Masonic Fe- 
male Seminary, in Alabama. In 1853 he 
became connected with the University of 
Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at which institu- 
tion he performed the most important work 
of his life, and gained a wide reputation as 
a scientist. He held many important posi- 
tions, among which were the following: 
Professor of physics and civil engineering at 
the University of Michigan, also of geology, 
zoology and botany, and later professor of 
geology and palaeontology at the same insti- 
tution. He also, for a time, was president 
of the Michigan Teachers' Association, and 
state geologist of Michigan. Professor 
Winchell was a very prolific writer on scien- 
tific subjects, and published many standard 
works, his most important and widely known 
being those devoted to geology. He also 
contributed a large number of articles to 
scientific and popular journals. 



United States navy, was a native of 
New England, born at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, May 4, 1808. He entered the 
navy, as a midshipman, December 4, 1822. 
He slowly rose in his chosen profession, at- 
taining the rank of lieutenant in 1830, com- 
mander in 1852 and captain in 1861. 
Among the distinguished men in the break- 
ing out of the Civil war, but few stood higher 
in the estimation of his brother officers than 
Foote, and when, in the fall of 1861, he 
was appointed to the command of the flotilla 
then building on the Mississippi, the act 
gave grease satisfaction to the service. 
Although embarrassed by want of navy 
yards and supplies, Foote threw himself into 
his new work with unusual energy. He 
overcame all obstacles and in the new, and, 
until that time, untried experiment, of creat- 
ing and maintaining a navy on a river, 
achieved a success beyond the expectations 
of the country. Great incredulity existed as 
to the possibility of carrying on hostilities 
on a river where batteries from the shore 
might bar the passage. But in spite of all, 
Foote soon had a navy on the great river, 
and by the heroic qualities of the crews en- 
trusted to him, demonstrated the utility of 
this new departure in naval architecture. 
All being prepared, February 6, 1862, Foote 
took Fort Henry after a hotly-contested 
action. On the 14th of the same month, 
for an hour and a half engaged the batteries 
of Fort Donelson, with four ironclads and 
two wooden gunboats, thereby dishearten- 
ing the garrison and assisting in its capture. 
April 7th of the same year, after several 
hotly-contested actions. Commodore Foote 
received the surrender of Island No. 10, one 
of the great strongholds of the Confederacy 
on the Mississippi river. Foote having been 
wounded at Fort Donelson, and by neglect 

it having become so serious as to endanger 
his life, he was forced to resign his command 
and return home. June 16, 1862, he re- 
ceived the thanks of congress and was pro- 
moted to the rank of rear admiral. He was 
appointed chief of the bureau of equipment 
and recruiting. June 4, 1863, he was 
ordered to the fleet off Charleston, to super- 
cede Rear Admiral Dupont, but on his way 
to that destination was taken sick at New 
York, and died June 26, 1863. 

NELSON A. MILES, the well-known sol- 
dier, was born at Westminster, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8,1839. His ancestors set- 
tled in that state in 1643 among the early 
pioneers, and their descendants were, many 
of them, to be found among those battling 
against Great Britain during Revolutionary 
times and during the war of 18 12. Nelson 
was reared on a farm, received an academic 
education, and in early manhood engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Boston. Early in 

1 86 1 he raised a company and offered his 
services to the government, and although 
commissioned as captain, on account of his 
youth went out as first lieutenant in the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry. In 

1862 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of the Sixty-first New York In- 
fantry. At the request of Generals Grant 
and Meade he was made a brigadier by 
President Lincoln. He participated in all 
but one of the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac until the close of the war. During 
the latter part of the time he commanded 
the first division of the Second Corps. 
General Miles was wounded at the battles 
of Fair Oaks, Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, and received four brevets for 
distinguished service. During the recon- 
struction period he commanded in North 
Carolina, and on the reorganization of the 



regular army he was made colonel of in- 
fantry. In 1880 he was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and in 1890 to 
that of major-general. He successfully con- 
ducted several campaigns among the In- 
dians, and his name is known among the 
tribes as a friend when they are peacefully 
inclined. He many times averted war 
with the red men by judicious and humane 
settlement of difficulties without the military 
power. In 1892 General Miles was given 
command of the proceedings in dedicating 
the World's Fair at Chicago, and in the 
summer of 1894, during the great railroad 
strike at the same city, General Miles, then 
in command of the department, had the 
disposal of the troops sent to protect the 
United States mails. On the retirement of 
General J. M. Schofield, in 1895, General 
Miles became the ranking major-general of 
the United States army and the head of its 

actor, though born in London (1796), is 
more intimately connected with the Amer- 
ican than with the English stage, and his 
popularity in America was almost un- 
bounded, while in England he was not a 
prime favorite. He presented * 'Richard III. " 
in Richmond on his first appearance on the 
American stage in 1821. This was his 
greatest role, and in it he has never had an 
equal. In October of the same year he 
appeared in New York. After a long and 
successful career he gave his final perform- 
ance at New Orleans in 1852. He con- 
tracted a severe cold, and for lack of proper 
medical attention, it resulted in his death 
on November 30th of that year. He was, 
without question, one of the greatest tra- 
gedians that ever lived. In addition to his 
professional art and genius, he was skilled 

in languages, drawing, painting and sculp- 
ture. In his private life he was reserved, 
and even eccentric. Strange stories are 
related of his peculiarities, and on his farm 
near Baltimore he forbade the use of animal 
food, the taking of animal Hfe, and even the 
felling of trees, and brought his butter and 
eggs to the Baltimore mark-ets in person. 

Junius Brutus Booth, known as the elder 
Booth, gave to the world three sons of note: 
Junius Brutus Booth, Jr., the husband of 
Agnes Booth, the actress; John Wilkes 
Booth, the author of the greatest tragedy 
in the life of our nation; Edwin Booth, in 
his day the greatest actor of America, if not 
of the world. 

mous as the '^Danbury News Man," 
was one of the best known American humor- 
ists, and was born September 25, 1841, at 
Albany, N. Y. He adopted journalism as a 
profession and started in his chosen work on 
the **Danbury Times," which paper he pur- 
chased on his return from the war. Mr. 
Bailey also purchased the *'Jeffersonian,"" 
another paper of Danbury, and consolidated 
them, forming the ''Danbury News," which 
paper soon acquired a celebrity throughout 
the United States, from an incessant flow of 
rich, healthy, and original humor, which the 
pen of the editor imparted to its columns, 
and he succeeded in raising the circulation* 
of the paper from a few hundred copies a 
week to over forty thousand. The facilities 
of a country printing office were not so com- 
plete in those days as they are now, but Mr. 
Bailey was resourceful, and he put on re- 
lays of help and ran his presses night and 
day, and always prepared his matter a week 
ahead of time. The * 'Danbury News Man" 
was a new figure in literature, as his humor 
was so different from that of the newspaper 



wits — who had preceded him, and he maybe 
called the pioneer of that school now so 
familiar. Mr. Bailey published in book 
form ''Life in Danbury" and "The Danbury 
News Man's Almanac." One of his most 
admirable traits was philanthrophy, as he 
gave with unstinted generosity to all comers, 
and died comparatively poor, notwithstand- 
ing his ownership of a very profitable busi- 
ness which netted him an income of $40,000 
a year. He died March 4, 1894. 

famous lawyer, orator and senator, 
was born in Moretown, Vermont, December 
22, 1824. After receiving a common-school 
education he entered the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, but only 
remained two years. On returning to his 
home he commenced the study of law with 
Paul Dillingham, afterwards governor of 
Vermont, and whose daughter he married. 
In 1847 he was admitted to practice at the 
bar in Vermont, but he went to Boston and 
for a time studied with Ruf us Choate. In 1 848 
he moved west, settling at Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and commencing the practice of his profes- 
sion soon obtained a wide reputation for 
:ability. In 1856 Mr. Carpenter removed to 
Milwaukee, where he found a wider field for 
his now increasing powers. During the 
Civil war, although a strong Democrat, he 
was loyal to the government and aided the 
Union cause to his utmost. In 1868 he 
was counsel for the government in a test 
case to settle the legality of the reconstruc- 
tion act before the United States supreme 
court, and won his case against Jeremiah S. 
Black. This gave him the election for sen- 
ator from Wisconsin in 1 869, and he served 
until 1875, during part of which time he was 
president pro tempore of the senate. Failing 
of a re-election Mr. Carpenter resumed the 

practice of law, and when William W. 
Belknap, late secretary of war, was im- 
peached, entered the case for General 
Belknap, and secured an acquittal. During 
the sitting of the electoral commission of 
1877, Mr. Carpenter appeared for Samuel 
J. Tilden, although the Republican man- 
agers had intended to have him represent 
R. B. Hayes. Mr. Carpenter was elected 
to the United States senate again in 1879, 
and remained a member of that body until 
the day of his death, which occurred at 
Washington, District of Columbia, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1 88 1. 

Senator Carpenter's real name was De- 
catur Merritt Hammond Carpenter but about 
1852 he changed it to the one by which he 
was universally known. 

THOMAS E. WATSON, lawyer and 
congressman, the well-known Geor- 
gian, whose name appears at the head of 
this sketch, made himself a place in the his- 
tory of our country by his ability, energy 
and fervid oratory. He was born in Col- 
umbia (now McDuffie) county, Georgia, 
September 5, 1856. He had a common- 
school education, and in 1872 entered Mer- 
cer University, at Macon, Georgia, as fresh- 
man, but for want of money left the college 
at the end of his sophomore year. He 
taught school, studying law at the same 
time, until 1875, when he was admitted to 
the bar. He %opened an office and com- 
menced practice in Thomson, Georgia, in 
November, 1876. He carried on a success- 
ful business, and bought land and farmed on 
an extensive scale. 

Mr. Watson was a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic state convention of 1880, and was a 
member of the house of representatives of 
the legislature of his native state in 1882.. 
In 1888 he was an elector-at-krge on the 



Cleveland ticket, and in 1890 was elected 
to represent his district in the fifty-second 
congress. This latter election is said to have 
been due entirely to Mr. Watson's 'Mash- 
ing display of ability, eloquence and popular 
power.'* In his later years he championed 
the alliance principles and policies until he 
became a leader in the movement. In the 
heated campaign of 1896, Mr. Watson was 
nominated as the candidate for vice-presi- 
dent on the Bryan ticket by that part of the 
People's party that would not endorse the 
nominee for the same position made by the 
Democratic party. 

matician, physicist and educator, was 
born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5 , 1 809. 
He graduated from Yale College in 1828, and 
in 1830 became a tutor in the same. From 
1837 to 1848 he was professor of mathe- 
inE^tics and natural philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Alabama, and from 1848 to 1850, 
professor of chemistry and natural history 
in the same educational institution. In 
1854 he became connected with the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, of which he became 
president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. 
In 1854 he took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. In 186 1 Professor Barnard 
resigned his chancellorship and chair in the 
university, and in 1863 and 1864 was con- 
nected with the United States coast survey 
in charge of chart printing and lithography. 
In May, 1864, he was elected president of 
Columbia College, New York City, which 
he served for a number of years. 

Professor Barnard received the honorary 
degree of LL. D. from Jeflerson College, 
Mississippi, in 1855, and from Ya^e College 
in 1859; also the degree of S. T. D. from 
the University of Mississippi in 1861, and 
that of L. H. D. from the regents of the 

University of the State of New York in 1872. 
In i860 he was a member of the eclipse 
party sent by the United States coast sur- 
vey to Labrador, and during his absence 
was elected president of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. la 
the act of congress establishing the National 
Academy of Sciences in 1863, he was named 
as one of the original corporators. In 1 867 
he was one of the United States commis- 
sioners to the Paris Exposition. He was 
a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, associate member of the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
many other philosophical and scientific 
societies at home and abroad. Dr. Barnard 
was thoroughly identified with the progress 
of the age in those branches. His published 
works relate wholly to scientific or educa- 
tional subjects, chief among which are the 
following : Report on Collegiate Education ; 
Art Culture; History of the American Coast 
Survey; University Education; Undulatory 
Theory of Light; Machinery and Processes 
of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus of the 
Exact Sciences, Metric System of Weights 
and Measures, etc. 

secretary of war during the great Civil 
war, was recognized as one of America's 
foremost public men. He was born Decem- 
ber 19, 18 14, at Steubenville, Ohio, where 
he received his education and studied law. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and 
was reporter of the supreme court of Ohio 
from 1842 until 1845. He removed to 
Washington in 1856 to attend to his prac- 
tice before the United States supreme 
court, and in 1858 he went to California as 
counsel for the government in certain land 
cases, which he carried to a successful 
conclusion. Mr. Stanton was appointed 



attorney-general of the United States in 
December, i860, by President Buchanan. 
On March 4, 1861, Mr. Stanton went with 
the outgoing administration and returned to 
the practice of his profession. He was 
appointed secretary of war by President 
Lincoln January 20, 1862, to succeed Simon 
Cameron. After the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln and the accession of Johnson 
to the presidency, Mr. Stanton was still in 
the same office. He held it for three years, 
and by his strict adherence to the Repub- 
lican party, he antagonized President John- 
son, who endeavored to remove him. On 
August 5, 1867, the president requested him 
to resign, and appointed General Grant to 
succeed him, but when congress convened 
in December the senate refused to concur in 
the suspension. Mr. Stanton returned to 
his post until the president again removed 
him frbm office,' but was again foiled by 
congress. Soon after, however, he retired 
voluntarily from office and took up the 
practice of law, in which he engaged until 
his death, on December 24, 1869. 

theologian and founder of the church 
known as Disciples of Christ, was born in 
the country of Antrim, Ireland, in June, 
1788, and was the son of Rev. Thomas 
Campbell, a Scoth-Irish '*Seceder. " After 
studying at the University of Glasgow, he, 
in company with his father, came to America 
in 1808, and both began labor in western 
Pennsylvania to restore Christianity to 
apostolic simplicity. They organized a 
church at Brush Run, Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, in 181 1, which, however, the 
year following, adopted Baptist views, and 
in 1 81 3, with othef cont>regations joined a 
Baptist associatibh. Somie of the under- 
lying principles and many practices of the 

Campbells and their disciples were repug- 
nant to the Baptist church and considerable 
friction was the result, and 1827 saw the 
separation of that church from the Church 
of Christ, as it is sometimes called. The 
latter then reorganized themselves anew. 
They reject all creeds, professing to receive 
the Bible as their only guide. In most mat- 
ters of faith they are essentially in accord with 
the other Evangelical Christian churches, 
especially in regard to the person and work 
of Christ, the resurrection and judgment. 
They celebrate the Lord's Supper weekly, 
hold that repentance and faith should precede 
baptism, attaching much importance to the 
latter ordinance. On all other points they 
encourage individual liberty of thought. In 
1 84 1, Alexander Campbell founded Bethany 
College, West Virginia, of which he was 
president for many years, and died March 4, 

The denomination which they founded 
is quite a large and important church body 
in the United States. They support quite 
a number of institutions of learning, among 
which are: Bethany College, West Virginia; 
Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio; Northwestern 
Christian University, Indianapolis, Indiana; 
Eureka College, Illinois; Kentucky Univer- 
sity, Lexington, Kentucky; Oskaloosa. 
College, Iowa; and a number of seminaries 
and schools. They also support several 
monthly and quarterly religious periodicals 
and many papers, both in the United States 
and Great Britain and her dependencies. 

WILLIAM L.WILSON, the noted West 
Virginian, who was postmaster-gener- 
al under President Cleveland's second ad- 
ministration, won distinction as the father 
of the famous ** Wilson bill," which became 
a law under the same' administration. Mr. 
Wiison was born May 3, 1843^ in Jefief- 



son county, West Virginia, and received 
a good education at the Charlestown 
Academy, where he prepared himself for 
college. He attended the Columbian Col- 
lege in the District of Columbia, from 
which he graduated in i860, and then 
attended the University of Virginia. Mr. 
Wilson served in the Confederate army dur- 
ing the war, after which he was a professor 
in Columbian College. Later he entered 
into the practice of law at Charlestown. 
He attended the Democratic convention 
held at Cincinnati in 1880, as a delegate, 
and later was chosen as one of the electors 
for the state-at-large on the Hancock 
ticket. In the Democratic convention at 
Chicago in 1892, Mr. Wilson was its per- 
manent president. He was elected pres- 
ident of the West Virginia University in 
1882, entering upon the duties of his office 
on September 6, but having received the 
nomination for the forty-seventh congress 
on the Democratic ticket, he resigned the 
presidency of the university in June, 1883, 
to take his seat in congress. Mr. Wil- 
son was honored by the Columbian Uni- 
versity and the Hampden-Sidney College, 
both of which conferred upon him the de- 
gree of LL. D. In 1884 he was appointed 
regent of the Smithsonian Institution at 
Washington for two years, and at the end 
of his term was re-appointed. He was 
elected to the forty -seventh, forty-ninth, 
fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-second and fifty- 
third congresses, but was defeated for re- 
election to the fifty-fourth congress. Upon 
the resignation of Mr. Bissell from the office 
of postmaster-general, Mr. Wilson was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy by President 
Cleveland. His many years of public serv- 
ice and the prominent part he took in the 
discussion of public questions gave him a 
-national reputation. 

CALVIN S. BRICE, a successful and 
noted financier and politician, was 
born at Denmark, Ohio, September 17, 
1845, of an old Maryland family, who trace 
their lineage from the Bryces, or Bruces, of 
Airth, Scotland. The father of our subject 
was a prominent Presbyterian clergyman, 
who removed to Ohio in 1812. Calvin S. 
Brice was educated in the common schools 
of his native town, and at the age of thir- 
teen entered the preparatory department of 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, and the 
following year entered the freshman class. 
On the breaking out of the Civil w^ar, 
although but fifteen years old, he enlisted in 
a company of three-months men. He re- 
turned to complete !iis college course, but 
re-enlisted in Company A, Eighty-sixth 
Ohio Infantry, and served in the Virginia 
campaign. He then returned to college, 
from which he graduated in 1863. Ip 1864 
he organized Company E, One Hundred 
and Eightieth Ohio Infantry, and served 
until the close of hostilities, in the western 

On his return home Mr. Brice entered 
the law department of the University of 
Michigan, and in 1866 was admitted to the 
bar in Cincinnati. In the winter of 1870- 
71 he went to Europe in the interests of. the 
Lake Erie & Louisville Railroad and pro,^ 
cured a foreign loan. This road became 
the Lake Erie & Western, of which, in 
1887, Mr. Brice became president. This 
was the first railroad in which he had a 
personal interest. The conception, build- 
ing and sale of the New York, Chicago,^ 
St. Louis Railroad, known as the '* Nickel 
Plate," was largely due to him. He was 
connected with many other railroads, among 
which may be mentioned the following: 
Chicago & Atlantic; Ohio Central; Ricli- 
mond & Danville; Richri^ond & West Poipt 



Terminal; East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia; Memphis & Charleston; Mobile & 
Birmingham; Kentucky Central; Duluth, 
South Shore & Atlantic, and the Marquette, 
Houghton & Ontonagon. In 1890 he was 
elected United States senator from Ohio. 
Notwithstanding his extensive business inter- 
ests. Senator Brice gave a considerable 
time to political matters, becoming one of 
the leaders of the Democratic party and one 
of the most widely known men in the 

BENJAMIN HARRISON, twenty-third 
president of the United States, was 
born August 20, 1833, at North Bend, 
Hamilton county, Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, General William Henry Har- 
rison, afterwards president of the United 
States. His great-grandfather, Benjamin 
Harrison, was a member of the Continental 
congress, signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and was three times elected gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

The subject of this sketch entered Farm- 
ers College at an early age, and two years 
later entered Miami University, at Oxford, 
Ohio. Upon graduation he entered the 
office of Stover & Gwyne, of Cincinnati, as a 
law student. He was admitted to the bar 
two years later, and having inherited about 
eight hundred dollars worth of property, he 
married the daughter of Doctor Scott, pres- 
ident of a female school at Oxford, Ohio, 
and selected Indianapolis, Indiana, to begin 
practice. In i860 he was nominated by 
vhe Republicans as candidate for state 
supreme court reporter, and did his first 
political speaking in that campaign. He 
was elected, and after two years in that 
position he organized the Seventieth Indi- 
ana Infantry, of which he was made colonel, 
and with his regiment joined General Sher- 

man's army. For bravery displayed at Re- 
saca and Peach Tree Creek he was made a 
brigadier-general. In the meantime the 
office of supreme court reporter had been 
declared vacant, and another party elected 
to fill it. In the fall of 1864, having been 
nominated for that office. General Harrison 
obtained a thirty-day leave of absence, went 
to Indiana, canvassed the state and was 
elected. As he was about to rejoin his 
command he was stricken down by an attack 
of fever. After his recovery he joined 
General Sherman's army and participated in 
the closing events of the war. 

In 1868 General Harrison declined to 
be a candidate for the office of supreme 
court reporter, and returned to the practice 
of the law. His brilliant campaign for the 
office of governor of Indiana in 1876, 
brought him into public notice, although he 
was defeated. He took a prominent part 
in the presidential canvass of 1880, and was 
chosen United States senator from Indiana, 
serving six years. He then returned to the 
practice of his profession. In 1888 he was 
selected by the Republican convention at 
Chicago as candidate for the presidency, and 
after a heated campaign was elected over 
Cleveland. He was inaugurated March 4, 
1889, and signed the McKinley bill October 
I, 1890, perhaps the most distinctive feature 
of his administration. In 1892 he was 
again the nominee of the Republican party 
for president, but was defeated by Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, and 
again resumed the practice of law in Indian- 

celebrated merchant and sugar refiner, 
was born in New York City in 1833. His 
father, William F. Havemeyer, and grand- 
father, William Havemeyer, were both sugar 



refiners. The latter named came from 
Buckeburg, Germany, in 1799, and settled 
in New York, establishing one of the first 
refineries in that city. William F. succeeded 
his father, and at an early age retired from 
business with a competency. He was three 
times mayor of his native city, New York. 
John C. Havemeyer was educated in 
private schools, and was prepared for college 
at Columbia College grammar school. 
Owing to failing eyesight he was unable to 
finish his college course, and began his 
business career in a wholesale grocery store, 
where he remained two years. In 1854, 
after a year's travel abroad, he assumed the 
responsibility of the office work in the sugar 
refinery of Havemeyer & Molter, but two 
years later etablished a refinery of his ov>n 
in Brooklyn. TbL ?.ft^rwards developed into 
the immense busine/.s o^ Havemeyer & Elder 
The capital was furnished by his father, 
and, chafing under the anxiety caused by the 
use of borrowed money, he sold out his 
interest and returned to Havemeyer & 
Molter. This firm dissolving the next year, 
John C. declined an offer of partnership 
from the successors, not wishing to use 
borrowed money. For two years he remain- 
ed with the house, receiving a share of the 
profits as compensation. For some years 
thereafter he was engaged in the commission 
business, until failing health caused his 
retirement. In 1871, he again engaged in 
the sugar refining business at Greenport, 
Long Island, with his brother and another 
partner, under the firm name of Havemeyer 
Brothers & Co. Here he remained until 
1880, when his health again declined. 
During the greater part of his life Mr. 
Havemeyer was identified with many benev- 
olent societies, including the New York 
Port Society, Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Church, American Bible Society, 

New York Sabbath School Society and 
others. He was active in Young Men's 
Christian Association work in New York, 
and organized and was the first president ot 
an affiliated society of the same at Yonkers. 
He was director of several railroad corpo- 
rations and a trustee of the Continental Trust 
Company of New York. 

eminent American statesman and 
jurist, was born March 17, 1833, near Cory- 
don, Harrison county, Indiana. He ac- 
quired his education m the local schools of 
the county and at Bloomington Academy, 
akhough he did not graduate. After leav- 
ing college he read law with Judg-e Porter 
at Corydon, and just beiorc the wa.^ >^ be- 
gan to take an interest in politics. Mr. 
Gresham was elected to the legislatu^' ^rom 
Harrison county as a Republican; previous 
to this the district had been represented by 
a Democrat. At the comrfiencement of 
hostilities he was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry, but 
served in that regiment only a short time, 
when he was appointed colonel of the Fifty- 
third Indiana, and served under General 
Grant at the siege of Vicksburg as brigadier- 
general. Later he was under Sherman in 
the famous * 'March to the Sea,'* and com- 
manded a division of Blair's corps at the 
siege of Atlanta where he was so badly 
wounded in the leg that he was compelled 
to return home. On his way home he was 
forced to stop at New Albany, where he re- 
mained a year before he was able to leave. 
He was brevetted major-general at the close 
of the war. While at New Albany, Mr. 
Gresham was appointed state agent, his 
duty being to pay the interest on the state 
debt in New York, and he ran twice for 
congress against ex-Speaker Kerr, but was 



defeated in both cases, although he greatly 
reduced the Democratic majority. He was 
held in high esteem by President Grant, 
who offered him the portfolio of the interior 
but Mr. Gresham declined, but accepted 
the appointment of United States judge for 
Indiana to succeed David McDonald. 
Judge Gresham served on the United States 
district court bench until 1883, when he 
was appointed postmaster-general by Presi- 
dent Arthur, but held that office only a few 
months when he was made secretary of the 
treasury. Near the end of President 
Arthur's term, Judge Gresham was ap- 
pointed judge of the United States circuit 
court of the district composed of Indiana, 
Illinois and contiguous states, which he held 
until 1893. Judge Gresham was one of the 
presidential possibilities in the National Re- 
publican convention in 1888, when General 
Harrison was nominated, and was also men- 
tioned for president m 1892. Later the 
People's party maae c. strenuous effort to 
induce him to become their candidate for 
president, he refusing the offer, howeve'., 
and a few weeks before the election he an- 
nounced that he would support Mr. Cleve- 
land, the Democratic nominee for president. 
Upon the election of Mr. Cleveland in the 
fall of 1892, Judge Gresham was made the 
secretary of state, and filled that position 
until his death on May 28, 1895, at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia. 

ELISHA B. ANDREWS, noted as an ed- 
ucator and college president, was born 
at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, January 10, 
1844, his father and mother being Erastus 
and Elmira (Bartlett) Andrews. In 1861. 
he entered the service of the general gov- 
ernment as private and non-commissioned 
officer in the First Connecticut Heavy Ar- 
H:illery, and in 1863 was promoted to the 

rank of second lieutenant. Returning home 
he was prepared for college at Powers In- 
stitute and at the Wesleyan Academy, and 
entered Brown University. From here he 
was graduated in 1870. For the succeeding 
two years he was principal of the Connecti- 
cut Literary Institute at Suffield, Connecticut. 
Completing a course at the Newton Theo- 
logical Institute, he was ordained pastor of 
the First Baptist church at Beverly, Massa- 
chusetts, July 2, 1874. The following 
year he became president of the Denison 
University, at Granville, Ohio. In 1879 
he accepted the professorship of homiletics, 
pastoral duties and church polity at Newton 
Theological Institute. In 1882 he was 
elected to the chair of history and political 
economy at Brown University. The Uni- 
versity of Nebraska honored him with an 
LL. D. in 1884, and the same year Colby 
University conferred the degree of D. D. 
In 1888 he became professor of political 
economy and public economy at Cornell 
University, but the next year returned to 
Brown University as its president. From 
the time of his inauguration the college work 
broadened in many ways. Many timely 
and generous donations from friends and 
alumni of the college were influenced by 
him, and large additions made "to the same. 
Professor Andrews published, in 1887, 
** Institutes of General History," and in 
1888, '* Institutes of Economics.'* 

of the present biography, was, during his 
life, one of the most distinguished chemists 
and scientific writers in America. He was 
an Englishman by birth, born at Liverpool, 
May 5, 181 1, and was reared in his native 
land, receiving an excellent education, 
graduating at the University of London. In 
1833 he came to the United States, and 



settled first in Pennsylvania. He graduated 
in medicine at the University of Philadel- 
phia, in 1836, and for three years following 
w^as professor of chemistry and physiology 
at Hampden-Sidney College. He then be- 
came professor of chemistry in the Nev^ York 
University, with which institution he was 
prominently connected for many years. It 
is stated on excellent authority that Pro- 
fessor Draper, in 1839, took the first photo- 
graphic picture ever taken from life. He 
was a great student, and carried on many 
important and intricate experiments along 
scientific lines. He discovered many of the 
fundamental facts of spectrum analysis, 
which he published. He published a number 
of works of great merit, many of which are 
recognized as authority upon the subjects of 
which they treat. Among his work were: 
*' Human Physiology, Statistical and Dyna- 
mical of the Conditions and Cause 'of Life 
in Man," *' History of Intellectual Develop- 
ment of Europe," *' History of the Ameri- 
can Civil War," besides a number of works 
on chemistry, optics and mathematics. Pro- 
fessor Draper continued to hold a high place 
among the scientific scholars of America 
until his death, which occurred in January, 

GEORGE W. PECK, ex-governor of 
the state of Wisconsin and a famous 
journalist and humorist, was born in Jeffer- 
son county, New York, September 28, 1840. 
When he was about three years of age his 
parents removed to Wisconsin, settling near 
Whitewater, where young Peck received his 
education at the public schools. At fifteen 
he entered the office of the ** Whitewater 
Register," where he learned the printer's 
art. He helped start the * * Jefierson County 
Republican'' later on, but sold out his 

intere3t therein and set type in the office of 

the *' State Journal," at Madison. At the 
outbreak of the war he enlisted in the 
Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry as a private, and 
after serving four years returned a second 
lieutenant. He then started the **Ripon 
Representative," which he sold not long 
after, and removing to New York, was on 
the staff of Mark Pomeroy's **Democrat." 
Going to La Crosse, later, he conducted the 
La Crosse branch paper, a half interest in 
which he bought in 1874. He next started 
** Peck's Sun," which four years later he 
removed to Milwaukee. While in La 
Crosse he was chief of police one year, and 
also chief clerk of the Democratic assembly 
in 1874. It was in 1878 that Mr. Peck 
took his paper to Milwaukee, and achieved 
his first permanent success, the circulation 
increasing to 80,000. For ten years he was 
regarded as one of the most original, versa- 
tile and entertaining writers in the country, 
and he has delineated every phase of 
country newspaper life, army life, domestic 
experience, travel and city adventure. Up 
to 1890 Mr. Peck took but little part in 
politics, but in that year was elected mayor 
of Milwaukee on the Democratic ticket. 
The following August he was elected gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin by a large majority, 
the *' Bennett School Bill" figuring to a 
large extent in his favor. 

Mr. Peck, besides many newspaper arti- 
cles in his peculiar vein and numerous lect- 
ures, bubbling over with fun, is known to 
fame by the following books: ** Peck's Bad 
Boy and his Pa," and **The Grocery Man 
and Peck's Bad Boy." 

CHARLES O'CONOR, who was for 
many years the acknowledged leader 
of the legal profession of New York City, 
was also conceded to be one of the greatest 
lawyers America has produced. He was 



born in New York City in 1804, his father 
being an educated Irish gentleman. Charles 
received a common-school education, and 
early took up the study of law, being ad- 
mitted to practice in 1824. His close ap- 
plication and untiring energy and industry 
soon placed him in the front rank of the 
profession, and within a few years he was 
handling many of the most important cases. 
One of the first great cases he had and which 
gained him a wide reputation, was that of 
** Jack, the Fugitive Slave,'* in 1835, in which 
his masterful argument before the supreme 
court attracted wide attention and com- 
ment. Charles O' Conor was a Democrat 
all his life. He did not aspire to office- 
holding, however, and never held any office 
except that of district attorney under Presi- 
dent Pierce's administration, which he only 
retained a short time. He took an active 
interest, however, in public questions, and 
was a member of the state (New York) con- 
stitutional convention in 1864. In 1868 he 
was nominated for the presidency by the 
* ' Extreme Democrats. ' ' His death occurred 
in May, 1884. 

American officer and major-general in 
the Confederate army, was bom in Ken- 
tucky in 1823. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1844, served in 
the United States infantry and was later as- 
signed to commissary duty with the rank of 
captain. He served several years at fron- 
tier posts; and was assistant professor in the 
military academy in 1846. He was with 
General Scott in the Mexican war, and en- 
gaged in all the battles from Vera Cruz to 
the capture of the Mexican capital. He 
was wounded at Cherubusco and brevetted 
first lieutenant, and at Molino del Rey was 
brevetted captain. After the close of the 

Mexican war he returned to West Point as 
assistant instructor, and was then assigned 
to commissary duty at New York. He re- 
signed in 1855 and became superintendent 
of construction of the Chicago custom house. 
He was made adjutant-genenal, with the 
rank of colonel, of Illinois militia, and was 
colonel of Illinois volunteers raised for the 
Utah expedition, but was not mustered into 
service. In i860 he removed to Kentucky, 
where he settled on a farm near Louisville 
and became inspector-general in command 
of the Kentucky Home Guards. At the 
opening of the Civil war he joined the Con- 
federate army, and was given command at 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, which he was 
compelled to abandon after the capture of 
Fort Henry. He then retired to Fort Don-^ 
elson, and was there captured with sixteea 
thousand men, and an immense store of pro- 
visions, by General Grant, in February, 
1862. He was held as a prisoner of war 
at Fort Warren until August of that year 
He commanded a division of Hardee's corps 
in Bragg's Army of the Tennessee, and was 
afterward assigned to the third division and 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, 
and Murfreesboro. He was with Kirby 
Smith when that general surrendered his 
army to General Canby in May, 1865. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the vice- 
presidency on the Gold Democratic ticket 
with Senator John M. Palmer in 1896. 

SIMON KENTON, one of the famous pio- 
neers and scouts whose names fill the 
pages of the early history of our country, 
was born in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
April 3, 1755. In consequence of an affray, 
at the age of eighteen, young Kenton went 
to Kentucky, then the **Dark and Bloody 
Ground,'* and became associated with Dan-- 
iel Boone and other pioneers of that region. 



For a short time he acted as a scout and 
spy for Lord Dunmore, the British governor 
of Virginia, but afterward taking the side 
of the struggHng colonists, participated in 
the war for independence west of the Alle- 
ghanies. In 1784 he returned to Virginia, 
but did not remain there long, going back 
with his family to Kentucky. From 
that time until 1793 he participated in all 
the combats and battles of that time, and 
until "Mad Anthony" Wayne swept the 
Valley of the Ohio, and settled the suprem- 
' acy of the whites in that region. Kenton 
laid claim to large tracts of land in the new 
country he had helped to open up, but 
through ignorance of law. and the growing 
value of the land, lost it all and was reduced 
to poverty. During the war with England 
in I S 12-1 5, Kenton took part in the inva- 
sion of Canada with the Kentucky troops 
and participated in the battle of the Thames. 
He finally bad land granted him by the 
legislature of Kentucky, and received a pen- 
sion from the United States government. 
He died in Logan county, Ohio, April 29, 

American statesman of eminence, was 
born in Livermore, Maine, September 23, 
1 8 16. He learned the trade of printer, but 
abandoned that calling at the age of eight- 
een and entered the Kent's Hill Academy at 
Reading, Maine, and then took up the study 
of law, reading in Hallowell, Boston, and at 
the Harvard Law School. He began prac- 
tice at Galena, Illinois, in 1840. He was 
elected to congress in 1852, and represented 
his district in that body continuously until 
March, 1869, and at the time of his retire- 
ment he had served a greater number of 
consecutive terms than any other member 
of the house. In 1873 President Grant ap- 

pointed him secretary of state, which posi- 
tion he resigned to accept that of minister 
to France. During the Franco- Prussian 
war, including the siege of Paris and the 
reign of the Commune, Mr. Washburne re- 
mained at his post, protecting the lives and 
property of his countrymen, as well as that 
of other foreign residents in Paris, while the 
ministers of all other powers abandoned 
their posts at a time when they were most 
needed. As far as possible he extended 
protection to unfortunate German residents, 
who were the particular objects of hatred of 
the populace, and his firmness and the suc- 
cess which attended his efforts won the ad- 
miration of all Europe. Mr. Washburne 
died at Chicago, Illinois, October 22, 1887. 

WILLIAM CRAMP, one of the most 
extensive shipbuilders of this coun- 
try, was born in Kensington, then a suburb, 
now a part of Philadelphia, in 1806. He 
received a thorough English education, and 
when he left school was associated with 
Samuel Grice, one of the most eminent 
naval architects of his day. In 1830, hav- 
ing mastered all the details of shipbuilding, 
Mr. Cramp engaged in business on his own 
account. By reason of ability and excel- 
lent work he prospered from the start, until 
now, in the hands of his sons, under the 
name of William Cramp & Sons' Ship and 
Engine Building Company, it has become the 
most complete shipbuilding plant and naval 
arsenal in the western hemisphere, and fully 
equal to any in the world. As Mr. Craniip's 
sons attained manhood they learned their 
father's profession, and were admitted to a 
partnership. In 1872 the firm was incor- 
porated under the title given above. Until 
i860 wood was used in building vessels, al- 
though pace was kept with all advances in 
the art of shipbuilding. At the opening of 



the \yar came an unexpected demand for 
war vessels, which they promptly met. The 
sea-going ironclad **New Ironsides'' was 
built by them in 1862, followed by a num- 
ber of formidable ironclads and the cruiser 
** Chattanooga." They subsequently built 
several war vessels for the Russian and 
other governments which added to their 
reputation. When the American steamship 
line was established in 1870, the Cramps 
were commissioned to build for it four first- 
class iron steamships, the ** Pennsylvania," 
**Ohio," ** Indiana" and *^ Illinois," which 
they turned out in rapid order, some of the 
finest specimens of the naval architecture of 
their day. William Cramp remained at the 
head of the great company he had founded 
until his death, which occurred January 6, 


Charles H. Cramp, the successor of his 
father as head of the William Cramp & 
Sons' Ship and Engine Building Company, 
was born in Philadelphia, May 9, 1829, and 
received an excellent education in his native 
city, which he sedulously sought to sup- 
plement by close study until he became 
an authority on general subjects and the 
best naval architect on the western hemis- 
phere. Many of the best vessels of our 
new navy were built by this immense con- 

the greatest American painter, was 
born in South Carolina in 1779. He was 
sent to school at the age of seven years at 
Newport, Rhode Island, where he met Ed- 
ward Malbone, two years his senior, and 
who later became a pamter of note. The 
friendship that sprang up between them un- 
doubtedly influenced young Allston in the 
choice of a profession. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1800, and went to England the 

following year, after pursuing his studies for 
a year under his friend Malbone at his home 
in South Carolina. He became a student 
at the Royal Academy where the great 
American, Benjamin West, presided, and 
who became his intimate friend. Allston 
later went to Paris, and then to Italy, where 
four years were spent, mostly at Rome. In 
1809 he returned to America, but soon after 
returned to London, having married in the 
meantime a sister of Dr. Channing. In 
a short time his first great work appeared, 
*'The Dead Man Restored to Life by the 
Bones of Elisha," which took the British 
Association prize and firmly established his 
reputation. Other paintings followed in 
quick succession, the greatest among which 
were * 'Uriel in the Center of the Sun," 
•*Saint Peter Liberated by the Angel," and 
* 'Jacob's Dream," supplemented by many 
spnaller pieces. Hard work, and grief at the 
death of his wife began to tell upon his health, 
and he left London in 181 8 for America. 
The same year he was elected an associate 
of the Royal Academy. During the next 
few years he painted "Jeremiah, " "Witch 
ofEndor," and "Beatrice." In 1830 Alls- 
ton married a daughter of Judge Dana, and 
went {o Cambridge, which was his home 
until his death. Here he produced the 
"Vision of the Bloody Hand," "Rosalie," 
and many less noted pieces, and had given 
one week of labor to his unfinished master- 
piece, "Belshazzar's Feast," when death 
ended his career July 9, 1843. 

JOHN ROACH, ship builder and manu- 
facturer, whose c£^reer was a marvel o/. 
industrial labor, and who impre3sed his in- 
dividuality and genius upon the times in 
which he lived more, perhaps, than any 
other manufacturer in America. He was 
born at Mitchelstown, County Cork, Ire- 



land, December 25, 1815, the son of a 
wealthy merchant. He attended school 
until he was thirteen, when his father be- 
came financially embarrassed and failed 
and shortly after died; John determined to 
come to America and carve out a fortune 
for himself. He landed in New York at the 
age of sixteen, and soon obtained employ- 
ment at the Howell Iron Works in New Jer- 
sey, at twenty-five cents a day. He soon 
made himself a place in the world, and at 
the end of three years had saved some 
twelve hundred dollars, which he lost by 
the failure of his employer, in whose hands 
it was left. Returning to New York he 
began to learn how to make castings for 
marine engines and ship work. Having 
again accumulated one thousand dollars, in 
company with three fellow workmen, he 
purchased a small foundry in New York, 
but soon became sole proprietor. At the 
end of four years he had saved thirty thou- 
sand dollars, besides enlarging his works. 
In 1856 his works were destroyed by a 
boiler explosion, and being unable to collect 
the insurance, was left, after paying his 
debts, without a dollar. However, his 
credit and reputation for integrity was good, 
and he built the Etna Iron Works, giving it 
capacity to construct larger marine engines 
than any previously built in this country. 
Here he turned out immense engines for 
the steam ram Dunderberg, for the war ves- 
sels Winooski and Neshaning, and other 
large vessels. To accommodate his increas- 
ing business, Mr. Roach, in 1869, pur- 
chased the Morgan Iron Works, one of the 
largest in New York, and shortly after sev- 
eral others. In 1871 he bought the Ches- 
ter ship yards, which he added to largely, 
erecting a rolling mill and blast furnace, and 
providing fevery facility for building a ship 
out of the ore and timber. This immense 

plant covered a large area, was valued at 
several millions of dollars, and was known 
as the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding 
and Engine Works, of which Mr. Roach 
was the principal owner. He built a large 
percentage of the iron vessels now flying 
the American flag, the bulk of his business 
being for private parties. In 1875 he built 
the sectional dry docks at Pensacola. He,, 
about this time, drew the attention of the 
government to the use of compound marine 
engines, and thus was the means of im- 
proving the speed and economy of the ves- 
sels of our new navy. In 1883 Mr. Roach 
commenced work on the three cruisers for 
the government, the '' Chicago," '* Boston" 
and '* Atlanta," and the dispatch boat 
'* Dolphin." For some cause the secretary 
of the navy refused to receive the latter and 
decided that Mr. Roach's contract would 
not hold. This embarrassed Mr. Roach, 
as a large amount of his capital was in- 
volved in these contracts, and for the pro- 
tection of bondsmen and creditors, July 18, 
1885, he made an assignment, but the 
financial trouble broke down his strong con- 
stitution, and January 10, 1887, he died. 
His son, John B. Roach, succeeded to the 
shipbuilding interests, while Stephen W. 
Roach inherited the Morgan Iron Works at 
New York. 

the two great painters who laid the 
foundation of true American art, was born 
in Boston in 1737, one year earlier than his 
great contemporary, Benjamin West. His 
education was limited to the common schools 
of that time, and his training in art he ob- 
tained by his own observation and experi- 
ments solely. When he was about seven- 
teen years old he had mapped out his future, 
however, by choosing painting as his pro- 



fession. If he ever studied under any 
teacher in his early efforts, we have no au- 
thentic account of it, and tradition credits 
the young artist's wonderful success en- 
tirely to his own talent and untiring effort. 
It is almost incredible that at the age of 
twenty-three years his income from his 
works aggregated fifteen hundred dollars 
per annum, a very great sum in those days. 
In 1774 he went to Europe in search of ma- 
terial for study, which was so rare in his 
native land. After some time spent in Italy 
he finally took up his permanent residence 
in England. In 1783 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, and later his 
son had the high honor of becoming lord 
chancellor of England and Lord Lyndhurst. 
Many specimens of Copley's work are to 
be found in the Memorial Hall at Harvard 
and in the Boston Museum, as well as a few 
of the works upon which he modeled his 
style. Copley was essentially a portrait 
painter, though his historical paintings at- 
tained great celebrity, his masterpiece 
being his ** Death of Major Pierson,'' though 
that distinction has by some been given to 
his ** Death of Chatham." It is said that 
he never saw a good picture until he was 
thirty-five years old, yet his portraits prior 
to that period are regarded as rare speci- 
mens. He died in 181 5. 

HENRY B. PLANT, one of the greatest 
railroad men of the country, became 
famous as president of the Plant system of 
railway and steamer lines, and also the 
Southern & Texas Express Co. He was 
bom in October, 18 19, at Branford, 
Connecticut, and entered the railroad serv- 
ice in 1844, serving as express messenger 
on the Hartford & New Haven Railroad until 
1853, during which time he had entire 
charge of the expr<».s» -business of that road. 

He went south in 1853 and established ex- 
press lines on various southern railways, and 
in 1 86 1 organized the Southern Express 
Co., and became its president. In 1879 he 
purchased, with others, the Atlantic & Gulf 
Railroad of Georgia, and later reorganized 
the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad, 
of which he became president. He pur- 
chased and rebuilt, in 1880, the Savannah 
& Charleston Railroad, now Charleston & 
Savannah. Not long after this he organ- 
ized the Plant Investment Co., to control 
these railroads and advance their interests 
generally, and later established a steamboat 
line on the St. John's river, in Florida. 
From 1853 until i860 he was general 
superintendent of the southern division of 
the Adams Express Co., and in 1867 be- 
came president of the Texas Express Co. 
The * 'Plant system" of railway, steamer 
and steamship lines is one of the greatest 
business corporations of the southern states. 

WADE HAMPTON, a noted Confeder- 
ate officer, was born at Columbia, 
South Carolina, in 18 18. He graduated 
from the South Carolina College, took an 
active part in politics, and was twice elected 
to the legislature of his state. In 1861 he 
joined the Confederate army, and command- 
ed the ** Hampton Legion " at the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run, in July, 1861. He did 
meritorious service, was wounded, and pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. He command- 
ed a brigade at Seven Pines, in 1862, and 
was again wounded. He was engaged in 
the battle of Antietam in September of the 
same year, and participated in the raid into 
Pennsylvania in October. In 1863 he was 
with Lee at Gettysburg, where he was 
wounded for the third time. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and 
commanded a troop of cavalry in Lee's 



army during 1864, and was in numerous en- 
gagements. In 1865 he was in South Car- 
olina, and commanded the cavalry rear 
guard of the Confederate army in its stub- 
born retreat before General Sherman on his 
advance toward Richmond. 

After the war Hampton took ari active 
part in politics, and was a prominent figure 
at the Democratic national convention in 
1868, which nominated Seymour and Blair 
for president and vice-president. He was 
governor of South Carolina, and took his 
seat in the United States senate in 1879, 
where he became a conspicuous figure in 
national affairs. 

NIKOLA TESLA, one of the most cele- 
brated electricians America has known, 
was born in 1857, at Smiljau, Lika, Servia. 
He descended from an old and representative 
family of that country. His father was a 
a minister of the Greek church, of high rank, 
while his mother was a woman of remarka- 
ble skill in the construction of looms, churns 
and the machinery required in a rural home. 
Nikola received early education in the 
public schools of Gospich, when he was 
sent to the higher **Real Schule" at Karl- 
stadt, where, after a three years' course, 
he graduated in 1873. He devoted him- 
self to experiments in electricity and 
magnetism, to the chagrin of his father, 
who had destined him for the ministry, 
but giving way to the boy's evident genius 
he was allowed to continue his studies in 
the polytechnic school at Gratz. He in- 
herited a wonderful intuition which enabled 
him to see through the intricacies of ma- 
chinery, and despite his instructor's demon- 
stration that a dynamo could not be oper- 
ated without commutators or brushes, 
began experiments which finally resulted in 
his rotating field motors. After the study 

of languages at Prague and Buda-Pesth, he 
became associated with M. Puskas, who 
had introduced the telephone into Hungary. 
He invented several improvements, but 
being unable to reap the necessary benefit 
from them, he, in search of a wider field, 
went to Paris, where he found employment 
with one of the electric lighting companies 
as electrical engineer. Soon he set his face 
westward, and coming to the United States 
for a time found congenial employment w?th 
Thomas A. Edison. Finding it impossible, 
overshadowed as he was, to carry out his 
own ideas he left the Edison works to join 
a company formed to place his own inven- 
tions on the market. He perfected his 
rotary field principle, adapting it to circuits 
then in operation. It is said of him that 
some of his proved theories will change the 
entire electrical science. It would, in an 
article of this length, be impossible to ex- 
plain all that Tesla accomplished for the 
practical side of electrical engineering. 
His discoveries formed the basis of the at- 
tempt to utilize the water power of Niagara 
Falls. His work ranges far beyond the 
vast department of polyphase currents and 
high potential lighting and includes many 
inventions in arc lighting, transformers, 
pyro and thermo-magnetic motors, new 
forms of incandescent lamps, unipolar dyna- 
mos and many others. 

CHARLES B. LEWIS won fame as an 
American humorist under the name of 
**M. Quad." It is said he owes his 
celebrity originally to the fact that he was 
once mixed up in a boiler explosion on the 
Ohio river, and the impressions he received 
from the event he set up from his case when 
he was in the composing room of an ob- 
scure Michigan papen Hds style possesses a 
peculiar quaintness, and there runs through 



it a vein of philosophy. Mr. Lewis was 
born in 1844, near a town called Liverpool, 
Ohio. He was, however, raised in Lansing, 
Michigan, where he spent a year in an agri- 
cultural college, going from there to the 
composing room of the ** Lansing Demo- 
crat." At the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed in the service, remained during the 
entire war, and then returned to Lansing. 
The explosion of the boiler that '*blew him 
into fame," took place two years later, while 
he was on his way south. When he re- 
covered physically, he brought suit for dam- 
ages against the steamboat company, which 
he gained, and was awarded a verdict of 
twelve thousand dollars for injuries re- 
ceived. It was while he was employed by 
the " Jacksonian" of Pontiac, Mich., that he 
set up his account of how he felt while being 
blown up. He says that he signed it ' ' M 
Quad," because **a bourgeoise em quad is 
useless except in its own line — it won't 
justify with any other type." Soon after, 
because of the celebrity he attained by this 
screed, Mr. Lewis secured a place on the 
staff of the *' Detroit Free Press," and made 
for that paper a wide reputation. His 
sketches of the **Lime Kiln Club" and 
** Brudder Gardner " are perhaps the best 
known of his humorous writings. 

HIRAM S. MAXIM, the famous inventor, 
was born in Sangersville, Maine, 
February 5, 1840, the son of Isaac W. 
and Harriet B. Maxim. The town of his 
birth was but a small place, in the 
woods, on the confines of civilization, 
and the family endured many hardships. 
They were without means and entirely 
dependent on themselves to make out of 
raw materials all they needed. The mother 
was an expert spinner, weaver, dyer and 
seamstress and the father a trapper, tanner, 

miller, blacksmith, carpenter, mason and 
farmer. Amid such surroundings young 
Maxim gave early promise of remarkable 
aptitude. With the universal Yankee jack- 
knife the products of his skill excited the 
wonder and interest of the locality. His 
parents did not encourage his latent genius 
but apprenticed him to a coach builder. 
Four years he labored at this uncongenial 
trade but at the end of that time he forsook 
it and entered a machine shop at Fitchburg, 
Massachusetts. Soon mastering the details 
of that business and that of mechanical 
drawing, he went to Boston as the foreman 
of the philosophical instrument manufactory. 
From thence he went to New York and with 
the Novelty Iron Works Shipbuilding Co. 
he gained experience in those trades. His 
inventions up to this time consisted of 
improvements in steam engines, and an 
automatic gas machine, which came into 
general use. In 1877 he turned his attention 
to electricity, and in 1878 produced an 
incandescent lamp, that would burn 1,000 
hours. He was the first to design a process 
for flashing electric carbons, and the first 
to ^^standardize" carbons for electric light- 
ing. In 1880 he visited Europe and exhibit- 
ing, at the Paris Exposition of 1881, a self- 
regulating machine, was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor. In 1883 he returned to 
London as the European representative of the 
United States Electric Light Co. An incident 
of his boyhood, in which the recoil of a rifle 
was noticed by him, and the apparent loss 
of power shown, in 188 1-2 prompted the 
invention of a gun which utilizes the recoil to 
automatically load and fire seven hundred 
and seventy shots per minute. The Maxim- 
Nordenfelt Gun Co. , with a capital of nine 
million dollars, grew from this. In 1883 he 
patented his electric training gear for large 
guns. And later turned his attention to fly- 



ing machines, which he claimed were not an 
impossibility. He took out over one hundred 
patents for smokeless gunpowder, and for pe- 
troleum and other motors and autocycles. 

one of America's very greatest financiers 
and philanthropists, was born in Richford, 
Tioga county. New York, July 8, 1839. He 
received a common-school education in his 
native place, and in 1853, when his parents 
removed to Cleveland, Ohio, he entered the 
high school of that city. After a two-years' 
course of diligent work, he entered the com- 
mission and forwarding house of Hewitt & 
Tuttle, of Cleveland, remaining with the 
firm some years, and then began business 
for himself, forming a partnership with 
Morris B. Clark. Mr. Rockefeller was then 
but nineteen years of age, and during the 
year i860, in connection with others, they 
started the oil refining business, under the 
firm name of Andrews, Clark & Co. Mr. 
Rockefeller and Mr. Andrews purchased the 
interest of their associates, and, after taking 
William Rockefeller into the firm, established 
offices in Cleveland under the name of 
William Rockefeller & Co. Shortly after 
this the house of Rockefeller & Co. was es- 
tablished in New York for the purpose of 
finding a market for their products,. and two 
years later all the refining companies were 
consolidated under the firm name of Rocke- 
feller, Andrews & Flagler. This firm was 
f^^ucceeded in 1870 by the Standard Oil 
Company of Ohio, said to be the most 
gigantic business corporation of modern 
times. John D. Rockefeller's fortune has 
been variously estimated at from one hun- 
dred million to two hundred million dollars. 
Mr. Rockefeller's philanthropy mani- 
fested itself principally through the American 
Baptist Educational Society. He donated 

the building for the Spelman Institute at 
Atlanta, Georgia, a school for the instruction 
of negroes. His other gifts were to the 
University of Rochester, Cook Academy, 
Peddie Institute, and Vassar College, be- 
sides smaller gifts -to many institutions 
throughout the country. His princely do- 
nations, however, were to the University of 
Chicago. His first gift to this institution 
was a conditional offer of six hundred thou« 
sand dollars in 1889, and when this amount 
was paid he added one million more. Dur- 
ing 1892 he made it two gifts of one million 
each, and all told, his donations to this one 
institution aggregated between seven and 
eight millions of dollars. 

JOHN M. PALMER.— For over a third 
of a century this gentleman occupied a 
prominent place in the political world, both 
in the state of Illinois and on the broader 
platform of national issues. 

Mr. Palmer was born at Eagle Creek,. 
Scott county, Kentucky, September 13^ 
18 17. The family subsequently removed 
to Christian county, in the same state, where 
he acquired a common-school education, and 
made his home until 1831. His father was 
opposed to slavery, and in the latter year 
removed to Illinois and settled near Alton. 
In 1834 John entered Alton College, or- 
ganized on the manual-labor plan, but his 
funds failing, abandoned it and entered a. 
cooper shop. He subsequently was en- 
gaged in peddling, and teaching a district 
school near Canton. In 1838 he began the 
study of law, and the following year re- 
moved to Carlinville, where, in December of 
that year, he was admitted to the bar. He 
was shortly after defeated for county clerk. 
In 1843 he was elected probate judge. In 
the constitutional convention of 1847, Mr. 
Palmer was a delegate, and from 1849 ^^ 



1851 he was county judge. In 1852 he be- 
came a member of the state senate, but not 
being with his party on the slavery question 
he resigned that office in 1854. In 1856 
Mr. Palmer was chairman of the first Re- 
pnbHcan state convention held in Illinois, 
and the same year was a delegate to the 
national convention. In i860 he was an 
elector on the Lincoln ticket, and on the 
breaking out of the war entered the service 
as colonel of the Fourteenth Illinois Infan- 
try, but was shortly after brevetted brigadier- 
general. In August, 1862, he organized 
the One Hundred and Twenty-second Illi- 
nois Infantry, but in September he was 
placed in command of the first division of 
the Army of the Mississippi, afterward was 
promoted to the rank of major-general. In 
1865 he was assigned to the military ad- 
ministration in Kentucky. In 1867 General 
Palmer was elected governor of Illinois and 
s-^rved four years. In 1872 he went with 
the Liberal Republicans, who supported 
Horace Greeley, after which time he was 
identified with the Democratic party. In 
1890 he was elected United States senator 
from Illinois, and served as such for six 
years. In 1896, on the adoption of the sil- 
ver plank in the platform of the Democratic 
party. General Palmer consented to lead, 
as presidential candidate, the National Dem- 
ocrats, or Gold Democracy. 

WILLIAM H. BEARD, the humorist 
among American painters, was born 
at Painesville, Ohio, in 1821. His father, 
James H. Beard, was also a painter of na- 
tional reputation. William H. Beard be- 
gan his career as a traveling portrait 
painter. He pursued his studies in New 
York, and later removed to Buffalo, where 
he achieved reputation. He then went to 

Italy and after a short stay returned to New 
York and opened a studio. One of his 
earliest paintings was a small picture called 
**Cat and Kittens," which was placed in 
the National Academy on exhibition. Among 
his best productions are ** Raining Cats and 
Dogs," '*The Dance of Silenus," * 'Bears 
on a Bender," ''Bulls and Bears," " Whoo!" 
" Grimalkin's Dream," " Little Red Riding 
Hood," "The Guardian of the Flag." His 
animal pictures convey the most ludicrous 
and satirical ideas, and the intelligent, 
human expression in their faces is most 
comical. Some artists and critics have re- 
fused to give Mr. Beard a place among the 
lirst circles in art, solely on account of the 
class of subjects he has chosen. 

WW. CORCORAN, the noted philan- 
throphist, was born at Georgetown, 
District of Columbia. December 27, 1798. 
At the age of twenty-five he entered the 
banking business in Washington, and in 
time became very wealthy. He was 
noted for his magnificent donations to char- 
ity. Oak Hill cemetery was donated to 
Georgetown in 1847, and ten years later the 
Corcoran Art Gallery, Temple of Art, was 
presented to the city of Washington. The 
uncompleted building was utilized by the 
government as quartermaster's headquar- 
ters during the war. The building was 
completed after the war at a cost of a mil- 
lion and a half dollars, all the gift of Mr. 
Corcoran. The Louise Home for Women 
is another noble charity to his credit. Its 
object is the care of women of gentle breed- 
ing who in declining years are without 
means of support. In addition to this he 
gave liberally to many worthy institutions 
of learning and charity. He died at Wash- 
ington February 24, 1888. 



ALBERT BIERSTADT, the noted paint- 
er of American landscape, was born in 
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1829, and was 
brought to America by his parents at the 
age of two years. He received his early 
education here, but returned to Dusseldorf 
to study painting, and also went to Rome. 
On his return to America he accompanied 
Lander's expedition across the continent, in 
1858, and soon after produced his most 
popular work, *'The Rocky Mountains — 
Lander's Peak. " Its boldness and grandeur 
were so unusual that it made him famous. 
The picture sold for twenty-five thousand 
dollars. In 1867 Mr. Bierstadt went to 
Europe, with a government commission, 
and gathered materials for his great historic- 
al work, ''Discovery of the North River 
by Hendrik Hudson." Others of his great 
works were ** Storm in the Rocky Mount- 
ains," •* Valley of the Yosemite," ''North 
Fork of the Platte," "Diamond Pool," 
"Mount Hood," "Mount Rosalie," and 
"The Sierra Nevada Mountains." His 
"Estes Park'' sold for fifteen thousand 
dollars, and "Mount Rosalie" brought 
thirty-five thousand dollars. His smaller 
Rocky mountain scenes, however, are vast- 
ly superior to his larger works in execution 
and coloring. 

ADDISON CAMMACK, a famous mill- 
ionaire Wall street speculator, was 
torn in Kentucky. When sixteen years old 
he ran away from home and went to New 
Orleans, where he went to work in a ship- 
ping house. He outlived and outworked 
all the partners, and became the head of the 
firm before the opening of the war. At 
that time he fitted out small vessels and en- 
gaged in running the blockade of southern 
ports and carrymg ammunition, merchan- 
dise, etc., to the southern people. This 

made him a fortune. At the close of the 
war he quit business and went to New 
York. For two years he did not enter any 
active business, but seemed to be simply an 
on-looker in the great speculative center of 
America. He was observing keenly the 
methods and financial machinery, however, 
and when, in 1867, he formed a partnership 
with the popular Charles J. Osborne, the 
firm began to prosper. He never had an 
office on the street, but wandered into the 
various brokers' offices and placed his orders 
as he saw fit. In 1873 he dissolved his 
partnership with Osborne and operated 
alone. He joined a band of speculative 
conspirators known as the "Twenty-third 
party," and was the ruling spirit in that or- 
ganization for the control of the stock mar- 
ket. He was always on the * ' bear " side and 
the only serious obstacle he ever encoun« 
tered was the persistent boom in industrial 
stocks, particularly sugar, engineered by 
James R. Keane. Mr. Cammack fought 
Keane for two years, and during the time is 
said to have lost no less than two million 
dollars before he abandoned the fight. 

WALT. WHITMAN.— Foremost among 
the lesser poets of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century, the gentleman whose 
name adorns the head of this article takes 
a conspicuous place. 

Whitman was born at West Hills, Long 
Island, New York, May 13, 1809. In the 
schools of Brooklyn he laid the foundation 
of his education, and early in life learned the 
printer's trade. For a time he taught coun- 
try schools in his native state. In 1846-7 
he was editor of the ** Brooklyn Eagle," 
but in 1848-9 was on the editorial staff of 
the "Crescent," of New Orleans. He 
made an extended tour throughout the 
United States and Canada, and returned to 



Brooklyn, where, in 1850, he published the 
** Freeman. " For some years succeeding 
ybis he was engaged as carpenter and builder. 
During the Civil war, Whitman acted as 
a volunteer nurse in the hospitals at 
Washington and vicinity and from the close 
of hostilities until 1873 he was employed 
in various clerkships in the government 
offices in the nation's capital. In the latter 
year he was stricken with paralysis as a 
result of his labors in the hospital, it is 
said, and being partially disabled lived for 
many years at Camden, New Jersey. 

The first edition of the work which was 
to bring him fame, * 'Leaves of Grass," was 
published in 1855 and was but a small 
volume of about ninety-four pages. Seven 
or eight editions of ''Leaves of Grass" have 
been issued, each enlarged and enriched with 
new poems. ''Drum Taps," at first a 
separate publication, has been incorporated 
with the others. This volume and one 
prose writing entitled ' * Specimen Days and 
Collect," constituted his whole work. 

Walt. Whitman died at Camden, New 
Jersey, March 26, 1892. 

HENRY DUPONT, who became cele- 
brated as America's greatest manufact- 
urer of gunpowder, was a native of Dela- 
ware, born August 8, 18 12. He received 
his education in its higher branches at the 
United States Military Academy at West 
Point, from which he graduated and entered 
the army as second lieutenant of artillery in 
1833. I^ 1834 he resigned and became 
proprietor of the extensive gunpowder 
manufacturing plant that bears his name, 
near Wilmington, Delaware. His large 
business interests interfered with his tak- 
ing any active participation in political 
life, although for tnany years he served 
as adjutant-general of his native state, and 

during the war as major-genetal command- 
ing the Home Guards. He died August 8, 
1889. His son, Henry A. Dupont, also was. 
a native of Delaware, and was born July 30, 
1838. After graduating from West Point 
in 1 86 1, he entered the army as second 
lieutenant of engineers. Shortly after he 
was transferred to the Fifth Artillery as first 
lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank 
of captain in 1864, serving in camp and 
garrison most of the time. He was in com- 
mand of a battery in the campaign of 
1863-4. As chief of artillery of the army of 
West Virginia, he figured until the close of 
the war, being in the battles of Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, besides 
many minor engagements. He afterward 
acted as instructor in the artillery school at 
Fortress Monroe, and on special duty at 
West Point. He resigned from the army 
March i, 1875. 

WILLIAM DEERING, one of the fa- 
mous manufacturers of America, and 
also a philanthropist and patron of educa- 
tion, was born in Maine in 1826. His an- 
cestors were English, having settled in New 
England in 1634. Early in life it was Will- 
iam's intention to become a pbysician, and 
after completing his common-school educa- 
tion, when about eighteen years of age, he 
began an apprenticeship with a physician. 
A short time later, however, at the request 
of his father, he took charge of his father's 
business interests, which included a woolen 
mill, retail store and grist mill, after which 
he became agent for a dry goods commission 
house in Portland, where he was married. 
Later he became partner in the firm, and 
removed to New York. The business pros- 
pered, and after a number of years, on ac- 
count of failing health, Mn Deering sold his 
interest to his partner, a Mr. Milner. The 



business has since made Mr. Milner a nnill- 
ionaire many times over. A few years 
later Mr. Deering located in Chicago. His 
beginning in the manufacture of reapers, 
which has since made his name famous, 
was somewhat of an accident. He had 
loaned money to a man in that business, 
and in 1878 was compelled to buy out the 
business to protect his interests. The busi- 
ness developed rapidly and grew to immense 
proportions. The factories now cover sixty- 
two acres of ground and employ many thou- 
sands of men. 

JOHN McAllister schofield, an 
American general, was born in Chautau- 
qua county. New York, September 29, 1831. 
He graduated at West Point in 1853, and 
was for five years assistant professor of nat- 
ural philosophy in that institution. In 186 1 
he entered the volunteer service as major of 
the First Missouri Volunteers, and was ap- 
pointed chief of staff by General Lyon, under 
whom he fought at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek. In November, i86r, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
was placed in command of the Missouri 
militia until November, 1862, and of the 
army of the frontier from that time until 
1863. In 1862 he was ^nade major-general 
of volunteers, and was placed in command of 
the Department of the Missouri, and in 1864 
of the Department of the Ohio. During the 
campaign through Georgia General Scho- 
field was in command of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps, and was engaged in most of the 
fighting of that famous campaign. Novem- 
ber 30, 1864, he defeated Hood's army at 
Franklin, Tennessee, and then joined Gen- 
eral Thomas at Nashville. He took part in 
the battle of* Nashville, where Hood's army 
was destroyed. In January, 1865, he led 
his corps into North Carolina, captured 

Wilmington, fought the battle of Kingston, 
and joined General Sherman at Goldsboro 
March 22, 1865. He executed the details 
of the capitulation of General Johnston to 
Sherman, which practically closed the war. 
In June, 1868, General Schofield suc- 
ceeded Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of 
war, but was the next year appointed major- 
general of the United States army, and order- 
ed to the Department of the Missouri. From 
1870 to 1876 he was in command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific; from 1876 to 1881 
superintendent of the West Point Military 
Academy; in 1883 he was in charge of the 
Department of the Missouri, and in 1886 of 
the division of the Atlantic. In 1888 he 
became general-in-chief of the United States 
army, and in February, 1895, was appoint- 
ed lieutenant-general by President Cleve- 
land, that rank having been revived by con- 
gress. In September, 1895, he was retired 
from active service. 

LEWIS WALLACE, an American gen- 
eral and famous author, was born in 
Brookville, Indiana, April 10, 1827. He 
served in the Mexican war as first lieutenant 
of a company of Indiana Volunteers. After 
his return from Mexico he was admitted to 
the bar, and practiced law in Covington and 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, until 1861. At the 
opening of the war he was appointed ad- 
jutant-general of Indiana, and soon after be- 
came colonel of the Eleventh Indiana VoIt 
unteers. He defeated a force of Confeder- 
ates at Romney, West Virginia, and was 
made brigadier-general in September, 1861. 
At the capture of Fort Donelson in 1862 he 
commanded a division, and was engaged in 
the second day's fight at Sbiloh. In 1863 
his defenses about Cincinnati saved that city 
from capture by Kirby Smith. At Monoc- 
acy in July, 1864, he was defeated, but 



his resistance delayed the advance of Gen- 
eral Early and thus saved Washington from 

General Wallace was a member of the 
court that tried the assassins of President 
Lincoln, and also of that before whom Cap- 
tain Henry Wirtz, who had charge of the 
Andersonville prison, was tried. In 1881 
General Wallace was sent as minister to 
Turkey. When not in official service he 
devoted much of his time to literature. 
Among his better known works are his 
•*Fair God,'' ** Ben Hur," ** Prince of 
India/' and a ** Life of Benjamin Harrison." 

can statesman and diplomat, was born 
at Wilmington, Delaware, October 29, 1828. 
He obtained his education at an Episcopal 
academy at Flushing, Long Island, and 
after a short service in a mercantile house in 
New York, he returned to Wilmington and 
entered his father's law office to prepare 
himself for the practice of that profession. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1851. He 
was appointed to the office of United States 
district attorney for the state of Delaware, 
serving one year. In 1 869 he was elected to 
the United States senate, and continuously 
represented his state in that body until 1885, 
and in 1881, when Chester A. Arthur entered 
the presidential chair, Mr. Bayard was 
chosen president pro tempore of the senate. 
He had also served on the famous electoral 
commission that decided the Hayes-Tilden 
contest in \^y6-y. In 1885 President Cleve- 
land appointed Mr. Bayard secretary of 
state. At the beginning of Cleveland's sec- 
ond term, in 1893, Mr. Bayard was selected 
for the post of ambassador at the court of 
St. James, London, and was the first to hold 
that rank in American diplomacy, serving 
until the beginning of the McKinley admin- 

istration. The questions for adjustment at 
that time between the two governments 
were the Behring Sea controversy and the 
Venezuelan boundary question. He was 
very popular in England because of his 
tariff views, and because of his criticism of 
the protective policy of the United States 
in his public speeches delivered in London, 
Edinburgh and other places, he received, in 
March, 1896, a vote of censure in the lower 
house of congress. 

JOHN WORK GARRETT, for so many 
years at the head of the great Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad system, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, July 31, 1820. His father, 
Robert Garrett, an enterprising merchant, 
had amassed a large fortune from a small 
beginning. The son entered Lafayette Col- 
lege in 1834, but left the following year and 
entered his father's counting room, and in 
1839 became a partner. John W. Gar- 
rett took a great interest in the develop- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. He 
was elected one of the directors in 1857, 
and was its president from 1858 until his 
death. When he took charge of the road 
it was in an embarrassed condition, but 
within a year, for the first time in its exist- 
ence, it paid a dividend, the increase in its 
net gains being $725,385. After the war, 
during which the road suffered much damage 
from the Confederates, numerous branches 
and connecting roads were built or acquired, 
until it reached colossal proportions. Mr. 
Garrett was also active in securing a regular 
line of steamers between Baltimore and 
Bremen, and between the same port and 
Liverpool. He was one of the most active 
trustees of Johns Hopkins University, and a 
liberal contributor to the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Baltimore. He 
died September 26, 1884. 



Robert Garrett, the son of John W. 
Garrett, was born in Baltimore April 9, 
1847, and graduated from Princeton in 1867. 
He received a business education in the 
banking house of his father, and in 1871 
became president of the Valley Railroad of 
Virginia. He was made third vice-presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 
1879, and first vice-president in 1881. He 
succeeded his father as president in 1884. 
Robert Garrett died July 29, 1896. 

CARL SCHURZ, a noted German-Ameri- 
can statesman, was born in Liblar, Prus- 
sia, March 2, 1829. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Bonn, and in 1849 was engaged in 
an attempt to excite an insurrection at that 
place. After the surrender of Rastadt by 
the revolutionists, in the defense of which 
Schurz took part, he decided to emigrate to 
America. He resided in Philadelphia three 
years, and then settled in Watertown, Wis- 
consin, and in 1859 removed to Milwaukee, 
where he practiced law. On the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party he became a 
leader of the German element and entered 
the campaign for Lincoln in i860. He was 
appointed minister to Spain in 1861, but re- 
signed in December of that year to enter 
the army. He was appointed brigadier- 
general in 1862, and participated in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and also at 
Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg he had 
temporary command of the Eleventh Army 
Corps, and also took part in the battle of 

After the war he located at St. Louis, 
and in 1869 was elected United States sena- 
tor from Missouri. He supported Horace 
Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and in 
the campaign of 1876, having removed to 
New York, he supported Hayes and the Re- 
publican ticket, and was appointed secre- 

tary of the interior in 1877. In 1881 he 
became editor of the ''New York Evening 
Post," and in 1884 was prominent in his 
opposition to James G. Blaine, and became 
a leader of the ''Mugwumps," thus assist- 
ing in the election of Cleveland. In the 
presidential campaign of 1896 his forcible 
speeches in the interest of sound money 
wielded an immense influence. Mr. Schurz 
wrote a "Life of Henry Clay," said to be 
the best biography ever published of that 
eminent statesman. 

GEORGE F. EDMUNDS, an American 
statesman of national reputation, was 
born in Richmond, Vermont, February i, 
1828. His education was obtained in the 
public schools and from the instructions of 
a private tutor. He was admitted to the 
bar, practiced law, and served in the state 
legislature from 1854 to 1859, during three 
years of that time being speaker of the lower 
house. He was elected to the state senate 
and acted as president pro tempore of that 
body in 1861 and 1862. He became promi- 
nent for his activity in the impeachment 
proceedings against President Johnson, and 
was appointed to the United States senate 
to fill out the unexpired term of Solomon 
Foot, entering that body in 1866. He was. 
re-elected to the senate four times, and 
served on the electoral commission in 1877. 
He became president pro tempore of the 
senate after the death of President Garfield, 
and was the author of the bill which put an 
end to the practice of polygamy in the ter- 
ritory of Utah. In November, 1891, owing 
to impaired health, he retired from the sen- 
ate and again resumed the practice of law, 

LUCIUS Q. C. LAMAR, a prominent 
political leader, statesman and jurist,, 
was born in Putnam county, Georgia, Sep- 



tember 17,1825. He graduated from Emory 
College in 1845, studied l^w at Macon under 
Hon. A. H. Chappell, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1847. He moved to Oxford, 
Mississippi, in 1849, ^i^d was elected to a 
professorship in the State University. He 
resigned the next year and returned to Cov- 
ington, Georgia, and resumed the practice 
of law. In 1853 he was elected to the 
Georgia Legislature, and in 1854 he removed 
to his plantation in Lafayette county, Mis- 
sissippi, and was elected to represent his 
district in the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth 
congresses. He resigned in i860, and was 
sent as a delegate to the secession conven- 
tion of the state. He entered the Confed- 
erate service in 1861 as lieutenant-colonel 
of the Nineteenth Regiment, and was soon 
after made colonel. In 1863 President 
Davis appointed him to an important diplo- 
matic mission to Russia. In 1866 he was 
elected professor of political economy and 
social science in the State University, and 
was soon afterward transferred to the pro- 
fessorship of the law department. He rep- 
resented his district in the forty-third and 
forty-fourth congresses, and was elected 
United States senator from Mississippi in 
1877, and re-elected in 1882. In 1885, be- 
fore the expiration of his term, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland as secre- 
tary of the interior, which position he held 
until his appointment as associate justice of 
the United States supreme court, in 1888, 
in which capacity he served until his death, 
January 23, 1894. 

BER won fame in the world of 
humorists under the name of **Mrs. Parting- 
ton. *' He was born in 1841 at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and started out in life as a 
printer. Mr. Shillaber went to Dover, 

where he secured employment in a printing 
office, and from there he went to Demerara, 
Guiana, where he was employed as a com- 
positor in 1835-37. In 1840 he became 
connected with the **Boston Post," and 
acquired quite a reputation as 'a humorist 
by his ''Sayings of Mrs. Partington." He 
remained as editor of the paper until 1850, 
when he printed and edited a paper of his 
own called the ''Pathfinder," which he con- 
tinued until 1852. Mr. Shillaber be- 
came editor and proprietor of the "Carpet 
Bag," which he conducted during 1850-52, 
and then returned to the "Boston Post," 
with which he was connected until 1856. 
During the same time he was one of the 
editors of the "Saturday Evening Gazette," 
and continued in this line after he severed 
his connection with the "Post," for ten 
years. After 1866 Mr. Shillaber wrote for 
various newspapers and periodicals, and 
during his life published the following 
books: ' 'Rhymes with Reason and Without, " 
"Poems," "Life and Sayings of Mrs. Part- 
ington," "Knitting Work," and others. 
His death occurred at Chelsea, Massachu- 
setts, November 25, 1890. 

EASTMAN JOHNSON stands first among 
painters of American country life. He 
was born in Lovell, Maine, in 1824, and be- 
gan his work in drawing at the age of eight- 
een years. His first works were portraits, 
and, as he took up his residence in Wash- 
ington, the most famous men of the nation 
were his subjects. In 1846 he went to Bos- 
ton, and there made crayon portraits of 
Longfellow, Emerson, Sumner, Hawthorne 
and other noted men. In 1849 he went to 
Europe. He studied at Dusseldorf, Ger- 
many; spent a year at the Royal Academy, 
and thence to The Hague, where he spent 
four years, producing there his first pictures 



of consequence, '*The Card -Players " and 
**The Savoyard." He then went to Paris, 
but was called home, after an absence from 
America of six years. He lived some time 
in Washington, and then spent two years 
among the Indians of Lake Superior. In 
1858 he produced his famous picture, ''The 
Old Kentucky Home." He took up his 
permanent residence at New York at that 
time. His ''Sunday Morning in Virginia" 
is a work of equal merit. He was espe- 
cially successful in coloring, a master of 
drawing, and the expression conveys with 
precision the thought of the artist. His 
portrayal of family life and child life is un- 
equalled. Among his other great works are 
*'The Confab," "Crossing a Stream,' 
** Chimney Sweep," "Old Stage Coach," 
" The New Bonnet," "The Drummer Boy," 
** Childhood of Lincoln," and a great vari- 
ety of equally familiar subjects. 

REGARD, one of the most distin- 
guished generals in the Confederate army, 
was born near New Orleans, Louisiana, 
May 28, 1 81 8. He graduated from West 
Point Military Academy in 1838, and v/as 
made second lieutenant of engineers. He 
was with General Scott in Mexico, and dis- 
tinguished himself at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, and the battles near the City of 
Mexico, for which he was twice brevetted. 
After the Mexican war closed he was placed 
in charge of defenses about New Orleans, 
and in i860 was appointed superintendent 
of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point. He held this position but a 
few months, when he resigned February 20, 
1 86 1, and accepted a commission of briga- 
dier-general in the Confederate army. He 
•directed the attack on Fort Sumter, the 

first engagement of the Civil war. He was 

in command of the Confederates at the first 
battle of Bull Run, and for this victory was 
made general. In 1862 he was placed in 
command of the Army of the Mississippi, 
and planned the attack upon General Grant 
at Shiloh, and upon the death of General 
Johnston he took command of the army 
and was only defeated by the timely arrival 
of General Buell with reinforcements. He 
commanded at Charleston and successfully 
defended that city against the combined at- 
tack by land and sea in 1863. In 1864 he 
was in command in Virginia, defeating Gen- 
eral Butler, and resisting Grant's attack 
upon Petersburg until reinforced from Rich- 
mond. During the long siege which fol- 
lowed he was sent to check General Sher- 
man's march to the sea, and was with Gen- 
eral Joseph E. Johnston when that general 
surrendered in 1865. After the close of the 
war he was largely interested in railroad 
management. In 1866 he was offered chief 
command of the Army of Roumania, and in 
1869, that of the Army of Egypt. He de- 
clined these offers. His death occurred 
February 20, 1893. 

HENRY GEORGE, one of America's 
most celebrated political economists, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
September 2, 1839. He received acommon- 
school education and entered the high 
school in 1853, and then went into a mer- 
cantile office. He made several voyages on 
the sea, and settled in California in 1858. 
He then worked at the printer's trade for a 
number of years, which he left to follow the 
editorial profession. He edited in succession 
several daily newspapers, and attracted at- 
tention by a number of strong essays and 
speeches on political and social questions. 
In 1 87 1 he edited a pamphlet, entitled " Oui 
Land and Pohcy," in which he outlined a 



theory, which has since made him so widely 
known. This was developed in *' Progress 
and Poverty," a book which soon attained a 
large circulation on both sides of the Atlan- 
tic, which has been extensively translated. 
In 1880 Mr. George* located in New York, 
where he made his home, though he fre- 
quently addressed audiences in Great Britain, 
Ireland, Australia, and throughout the 
United States. In 1886 he was nominated 
by the labor organizations for mayor of New 
York, and made a campaign notable for its 
development of unexpected power. In 1887 he 
was candidate of the Union Labor party for 
secretary of state of New York. These cam- 
paigns served to formulate the idea of a single 
tax and popularize the Australian ballot sys- 
tem. Mr. George became a free trader in 
1888, and in 1892 supported the election of 
Grover Cleveland. His political and eco- 
nomic ideas, known as the '* single tax," 
have a large and growing support, but are 
not confined to this country alone. He 
wrote numerous miscellaneous articles in 
support of his principles, and also published : 
**The Land Question," ** Social Problems," 
** Protection or Free Trade," **The Condi- 
tion of Labor, an Open Letter to Pope Leo 
XIIL," and *^ Perplexed Philosopher." 

name is indissolubly connected with 
the history and development of the railway 
systems of the United States. Mr. Scott 
was born December 28, 1823, at London, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He was first 
regularly employed by Major James Patton, 
the collector of tolls on the state road be- 
tween Philadelphia and Columbia, Penn- 
sylvania. He entered into the employ of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1850, 
and went through all the different branches 
of work until he had mastered all the details 

of the office work, and in 1858 he was ap- 
pointed general superintendent. Mr. Scott 
was the next year chosen vice-president of 
the road. This position at once brought 
him before the public, and the enterprise 
and ability displayed by him in its manage- 
ment marked him as a leader among the 
railroad men of the country. At the out- 
break of the rebellion in 1861, Mr. Scott 
was selected by Governor Curtin as a mem- 
ber of his staff, and placed in charge of the 
equipment and forwarding of the state troops 
to the seat of war. On April 27, 1861, the 
secretary of war desired to establish a new 
line of road between the national capital 
and Philadelphia, for the more expeditious 
transportation of troops. He called upon 
Mr. Scott to direct this work, and the road 
by the way of Annapolis and Perryville was 
completed in a marvelously short space of 
time. On May 3, 1861, he was commis- 
sioned colonel of volunteers, and on the 23d 
of the same month the government railroads 
and telegraph lines were placed in his charge. 
Mr. Scott was the first assistant secretary 
of war ever appointed, and he took charge 
of this new post August i, 1861. In Janu- 
ary, 1862, he was directed to organize 
transportation in the northwest, and in 
March he performed the same service on 
the western rivers. He resigned June i, 
1862, and resumed his direction of affairs on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. Colonel Scott 
directed the policy that secured to his road 
the control of the western roads, and be- 
came the president of the new company to 
operate these lines in 1871. For one year, 
from March, 1 871, he was president of the 
Union Pacific Railroad, and in 1874 he suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of the Pennsyl- 
vania Company. He projected the Texas 
Pacific Railroad and was for many years its 
president. Colonel Scott*s health failed 



him and he resigned the presidency of the 
road June i, 1880, and died at his home in 
D irby, Pennsylvania, May 21, 1881. 

ROBERT TOOMBS, an American states- 
man of note, was born in Wilkes coun- 
ty, Georgia, July 2, 18 10. He attended 
the University c f Georgia, and graduated 
from Union College, Schenectady, New 
York, and then took a law course at the 
University of Virginia. In 1830, before he 
had attained his majority, he was admitted 
to the bar by special act of the legislature, 
and rose rapidly in his profession, attracting 
the attention of the leading statesmen and 
judges of that time. He raised a volunteer 
company for the Creek war, and served as 
captain to the close. He was elected to the 
state legislature in 1837, re-elected in 1842, 
and in 1844 was elected to congress. He 
had been brought up as a Jeffersonian 
Democrat, but voted for Harrison in 1840 
and for Clay in 1844. He made his first 
speech in congress on the Oregon question, 
and immediately took rank with the greatest 
debaters of that body. In 1853 he was 
elected to the United States senate, and 
again in 1859, but when his native state 
seceded he resigned his seat in the senate 
and was elected to the Confederate con- 
gress. It is stated on the best authority 
that had it not been for a misunderstanding 
which could not be explained till too late he 
would have been elected president of the 
Confederacy. He was appointed secretary 
of state by President Davis, but resigned 
after a few months and was commissioned 
brigadier-general in the Confederate army. 
He won distinction at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at Sharpsburg, but resigned 
his commission soon after and returned to 
Georgia. He organized the militia of 
Georgia to resist Sherman, and was made 

brigadier-general of the state troops. He 
left the country at the close of the war and 
did not return until 1867. He died Decem- 
ber 15, 1885. 

AUSTIN CORBIN, one of the greatest 
railway magnates of the United States, 
was born July ir, 1827, at Newport, New 
Hampshire. He studied law with Chief 
Justice Gushing and Governor Ralph Met- 
calf, and later took a course in the Harvard 
Law School, where he graduated in 1849. 
He was admitted to the bar, and practiced 
law, with Governor Metcalf as his partner, 
until October 12, 185 1. Mr. Corbin then 
removed to Davenport, Iowa, where he re- 
mained until 1865. In 1854 he was a part- 
ner in the banking firm of Macklot & Cor- 
bin, and later he organized the First Na^ 
tional bank of Davenport, Iowa, which 
commenced business June 29, 1863, and 
which was the first national bank op. n for 
business in the United States. Mr. Corbin 
sold out his business in the Davenport bank, 
and removed to New York in 1865 and com- 
menced business with partners under the 
style of Corbin Banking Company. Soon 
after his removal to New York he became 
interested in railroads, and became one of 
the leading railroad men of the country. 
The development of the west half of Coney 
Island as a summer resort first brought him 
into general prominence. He built a rail- 
road from New York to the island, and 
built great hotels on its ocean front. He 
next turned his attention to Long Island, 
and secured all the railroads and consoli- 
dated them under one management, became 
president of the system, and under his con- 
trol Long Island became the great ocean 
suburb of New York. His latest public 
achievement was the rehabilitation of the 
Reading Railroad, of Pennsylvania, and 



during the same time he and his iriends 
purchased the controlling interest of the 
New Jersey Central Railroad. He took it 
out of the hands of the receiver, and in 
three years had it on a dividend-paying 
basis. Mr. Corbin's death occurred June 
4, 1896. ; 

was one of the greatest journalists of 
America in his day. He was born Septem- 
ber I, 1795, at New Mill, near Keith, Scot- 
land. At the age of fourteen he was sent 
to Aberdeen to study for the priesthood, 
but, convinced that he was mistaken in his 
vocation, he determined to emigrate. He 
landed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 18 19, 
where he attempted to earn a living by 
teaching bookkeeping. Failing in this he 
went to Boston and found employment as a 
proof reader. Mr. Bennett went to New 
York about 1822 and wrote for the news- 
papers. Later on he became assistant 
editor in the office of the ''Charleston 
Courier, "but returned to New York in 1824 
and endeavored to start a commercial 
school, but was unsuccessful in this, and 
again returned to newspaper work. He 
continued in newspaper work with varying 
success until, at his suggestion, the * 'En- 
quirer" was consolidated with another 
paper, and became the ''Courier and En- 
quirer," with James Watson Webb as 
editor and Mr. Bennett for assistant. At 
this time this was the leading American 
newspaper. He, however, severed his con- 
nection with this newspaper and tried, 
without success, "other ventures in the line 
of journalism until May 6, 1835, when he 
issued the first number of the "New York 
Herald. " Mr. Bennett wrote the entire 
paper, and made up for lack of news by his 
own imagination. The paper became popu- 

lar, and in 1838 he engaged European jour- 
nalists as regular correspondents. In 1841 
the income derived from his paper was at 
least one hundred thousand dollars. Dur- 
ing the Civil war the " Herald " had on its 
stafi sixty-three war correspondents and the 
circulation was doubled. Mr. Bennett was 
interested with John W. Mackay in that great 
enterprise which is now known as the Mac- 
kay-Bennett Cable. He had collected for use 
in his paper over fifty thousand biographies, 
sketches and all manner of information re- 
garding every well-known man, which are 
still kept in the archives of the "Herald" 
office. He died in the city of New York in 
1872, and left to his son, James Gordon, 
Jr. , one of the greatest and most profitable 
journals in the United States, or even in the 

noted American, won distinction in the 
field of literature, in which he attained a 
world-wide reputation. He was born at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. 
He received a collegiate education and grad- 
uated from Harvard in 1829, at the age of 
twenty, and took up the study of law and 
later studied medicine. Dr. Holmes at- 
tended several years in the hospitals of 
Europe and received his degree in 1836. 
He became professor of anatomy and phys- 
iology in Dartmouth in 1838, and re- 
mained there until 1847, when he was 
called to the Massachusetts Medical School 
at Boston to occupy the same chair, which 
position he resigned in 1882. The first 
collected edition of his poems appeared in 
1836, and his *'Phi Beta Kappa Poems," 
"Poetry," in 1836; "Terpsichore,'' in 1843; 
"Urania," in 1846, .and "Astraea," won for 
him many fresh laurels. His series of 
papers in the "Atlantic Monthly," were: 



**Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," *^Pro- 
fessor at the Breakfast Table," *'Poet at 
the Breakfast Table," and are a series of 
masterly wit, humor and pathos. Among 
his medical papers and addresses, are : "Cur- 
rents and Counter-currents in the Medical 
Science," and ''Borderland in Some Prov- 
inces of Medical Science.'* Mr. Holmes 
edited quite a number of works, of which 
we quote the following: '*Else Venner, " 
* 'Songs in Many Keys," "Soundings from 
the Atlantic," "Humorous Poems," "The 
Guardian Angel," "Mechanism in Thoughts 
and Morals," "Songs of Many Seasons," 
"John L. Motley" — a memoir, "The Iron 
Gate and Other Poems," ''Ralph Waldo 
Emerson," "A Moral Antipathy." Dr. 
Holmes visited England for the second time, 
and while there the degree of LL.D. 
was conferred upon him by the University 
of Edinburgh. His death occurred October 
7, 1894. 

RUFUS CHOATE, one of the most em- 
inent of America's great lawyers, was 
born October i, 1799, at Essex, Massachu- 
setts. He entered Dartmouth in 181 5, 
and after taking his degree he remained as 
a teacher in the college for one year. He 
took up the study of law in Cambridge, and 
subsequently studied under the distinguished 
lawyer, Mr. Wirt, who was then United 
States attorney-general at Washington. Mr. 
Choatebegan the practice of law in Danvers, 
Massachusetts, and from there he went to 
Salem, ^nd afterwards to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. While living at Salem he was 
elected to congress in 1832, and later, in 
1 84 1, he was chosen United States senator 
to succeed Daniel Webster, Mr. Webster 
having been appointed secretary of state 
under William Henry Harrison. 

After the death of Webster. Mr- Choate 

was the acknowledged leader of the Massa- 
chusetts bar, and was looked upon by the 
younger members of the profession with an 
affection that almost amounted to a rever- 
ence. Mr. Choate's powers as an orator 
were of the rarest' order, and his genius 
made it possible for him to enchant and in- 
terest his listeners, even while discussing the 
most ordinary theme. He was not merely 
eloquent on the subjects that were calculated 
to touch the feelings and stir the passions 
of his audience in themselves, but could at 
all times command their attention. He re- 
tired from active life in 1858, and was on 
his way to Europe, his physician having 
ordered a sea voyage for his health, but had 
only reached Halifax, Nova Scotia, when 
he died, July 13, 1858. 

D WIGHT L. MOODY, one of the most: 
noted and effective pulpit orators and 
evangelists America has produced, was born 
in Northfield, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts, February 5, 1837. He received but 
a meager education and worked on a far mi 
until seventeen years of age, when he be- 
came clerk in a boot and shoe store in 
Boston. Soon after this he joined the Con- 
gregational church and went to Chicago, 
where he zealously engaged in missionary 
work among the poor classes. He met 
with great success, and in less than a year 
he built up a Sunday-school which numbered 
over one thousand children. When the^ 
war broke out he became connected with 
what was known as the "Christian Com- 
mission," and later became city missionary^ 
of the Young Men's Christian Association at 
Chicago. A church was built there for his 
converts and he became its unordained pas- 
tor. In the Chicago fire of 1871 the church 
and Mr. Moody's house and furniture, which 
bad been jgiven him, were destroyed. The: 



church edifice was afterward replaced by a 
new church erected on . the site of the old 
one. In 1873, accompanied by Ira D. 
Sankey, Mr. Moody went to Europe and 
excited great religious awakenings through- 
out England, Ireland and Scotland. In 
1875 ^hey returned to America and held 
large meetings in various cities. They 
afterward made another visit to Great 
Britain for the same purpose, meeting with 
great success, returning to the United States 
in 1884. Mr. Moody afterward continued 
his evangelistic work, meeting everywhere 
with a warm reception and success. Mr. 
Moody produced a number of works, some 
of which had a wide circulation. 

of world-wide reputation, and famous 
as the head of one of the largest banking 
houses in the world, was born April 17, 
1837, at Hartford, Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his early education in the English 
high school, in Boston, and later supple- 
mented this with a course in the University 
of Gbttingen, Germany. He returned to 
the United States, in 1857, and entered the 
banking firm of Duncan, Sherman & Co., 
of New York, and, in i860, he became 
agent and attorney, in the United States, for 
George Peabody & Co., of London. He 
became the junior partner in the banking 
firm of Dabney, Morgan & Co., in 1864, 
and that of Drexel, Morgan & Co., in 1871. 
This house was among the chief negotiators 
of railroad bonds, and was active in the re- 
organization of the West Shore Railroad, 
and its absorption by the New York Central 
Railroad. It was conspicuous in the re- 
organization of the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad, in 1887, which a syndicate of 
capitalists, formed by Mr. Morgan, placed 
on a sound financial basis. After that time 

many other lines of railroad and gigantic 
financial enterprises were brought under Mr. 
Morgan's control, and in some respects it 
maybe said he became the foremost financier 
of the century. 

the most eminent of American states- 
men, was born October 18, 1839, at Port- 
land, Maine, where he received his early 
education in the common schools of the 
city, and prepared himself for college. Mr. 
Reed graduated from Bowdoin College in 
i860, and won one of the highest honors of 
the college, the prize for excellence in Eng- 
lish composition. The following four years 
were spent by him in teaching and in the 
study of law. Before his admission to the 
bar, however, he was acting assistant pay- 
master in the United States navy, and 
served on the *' tin-clad" Sybil, which pa- 
trolled the Tennessee, Cumberland and 
Mississippi rivers. After his discharge in 
1865, he returned to Portland, was admit- 
ted to the bar, and began the practice of his 
profession. He entered into political life, 
and in 1868 was elected to the legislature 
of Maine as a Republican, and in 1869 he 
was re-elected to the house, and in 1870 
was made state senator, from which he 
passed to attorney-general of the state. 
He retired from this office in 1873, and 
until 1877 he was solicitor for the city 
of Portland. In 1876 he was elected to 
the forty-fifth congress, which assembled 
in 1877. Mr. Reed sprung into prominence 
in that body by one of the first speeches 
which he delivered, and his long service in 
congress, coupled with his ability, gave him 
a national reputation. His influence each 
year became more strongly marked, and the 
leadership of his party was finally conceded 
to him, and in the forty-ninth and fiftieth 



congresses the complimentary nomination 
tor the speakership was tendered him by the 
Republicans. That party having obtained 
the ascendency in the fifty-first congress he 
was elected speaker on' the first ballot, and 
he was again chosen speaker of the fifty- 
fourth and fifth-fifth congresses. As a 
writer, Mr. Reed contributed largely to the 
magazines and periodicals, and his book 
upon parliamentary rules is generally rec- 
ognized as authority on that subject. 

CLARA BARTON is a celebrated char- 
acter among what might be termed as 
the highest grade of philanthropists Amer- 
ica has produced. She was born on a farm 
at Oxford, Massachusetts, a daughter of 
Captain Stephen Barton, and was educated 
at Clinton, New York. She engaged in 
teaching early in life, and founded a free 
school at Bordentown, the first in New Jer- 
sey. She opened with six pupils, but the 
attendance had grown to six hundred up to 
1854, when she went to Washington. She 
was appointed clerk in the patent depart- 
ment, and remained there until the out- 
break of the Civil war, when she resigned 
her position and devoted herself to the al- 
leviation of the sufferings of the soldiers, 
serving, not in the hospitals, but on the bat- 
tle field. She was present at a number of 
battles, and after the war closed she origi- 
nated, and for some time carried on at her 
own expense, the search for missing soldiers. 
She then for several years devoted her time 
to lecturing on '* Incidents of the War." 
About 1868 she went to Europe for her 
health, and settled in Switzerland, but on the 
outbreak of the Franco-German war she ac- 
cepted the invitation of the grand duchess 
of Baden to aid in the establishment of her 
hospitals, and Miss Barton afterward fol- 
lowed the German army She was deco- 

rated with the golden cross Dy rhe grancr 
duke of Baden, and with the iron cross by 
the emperor of Germany. She also served 
for many years as president of the famous 
Red Cross Society and attamed a world- 
wide reputation. 

the most eminent Catholic clergymen 
in America, was born in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, July 23, 1834. He was given s. 
thorough education, graduated at St. Charles 
College, Maryland, in 1857, and studied 
theology in St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, 
Maryland. In 1861 he became pastor of 
St. Bridget's church in Baltimore, and in 
1868 was consecrated vicar apostolic of 
North Carolina. In 1872 our subject be- 
came bishop of Richmond, V'irginia, and 
five years later was made archbishop of Bal- 
timore. On the 30th of June, 1886, he 
was admitted to the full degree of cardinal 
and primate of the American Catholic 
church. He was a fluent writer, and his 
book, ** Faith of Our Fathers,'' had a wide 

This name is, without doubt, one of 
the most widely known in the United States. 
Mr. Depew was born April 23, 1834, at 
Peekskill, New York, the home of the Depew 
family for two hundred years. He attended 
the common schools of his native place, 
where he prepared himself to enter college. 
He began his collegiate course at Yale at 
the age of eighteen and graduated in 1856. 
He early took an active interest in politics 
and joined the Republican party at its for- 
mation. He then took up the study of law 
and went into the office of the Hon. Will- 
iam Nelson, of Peekskill, for that purpose, 
and in 1858 he was admitted to the bar. 



He was sent as a delegate by the new party 
to the Republican state convention of that 
year. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in 1859, but though he was a good 
worker, his attention was detracted by the 
campaign of i860, in which he took an act- 
ive part. During this campaign he gained 
his first laurels as a public speaker. Mr. 
Depew was elected assemblyman in 1862 
from a Democratic district. In 1863 he se- 
cured the nomination for secretary of state, 
and gained that post by a majority of thirty 
thousand. In 1866 he left the field of pol- 
itics and entered into the active practice 
of his law business as attorney for the 
New York & Harlem Railroad Company, 
and in 1869 when this road was consoli- 
dated with the New York Central, and 
called the New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad, he was appointed the attor- 
ney for the new road. His rise in the rail- 
road business was rapid, and ten years after 
his entrance into the Vanderbilt system as 
attorney for a single line, he was the gen- 
eral counsel for one of the largest railroad 
systems in the world. He was also a 
director in the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, Michigan Central, Chicago & 
Northwestern, St. P^ul & Omaha, West 
Shore, and Nickel Plate railroad companies. 
In 1874 Mr. Depew was made regent of 
the State University, and a member of the 
commission appointed to superintend the 
erection of the capitol at Albany. In 1882, 
on the resignation of W. H. Vanderbilt 
from the presidency of the New York Cen- 
tral and the accession to that office by 
James H. Rutter, Mr. Depew was made 
second vice-president, and held that posi- 
tion until the death of Mr. Rutter in 1885. 
In this year Mr. Depew became the execu 
tive head of this great corporation. Mr. 
Depew's greatest fame grew from his ability 

and eloquence as an orator and ' * after-din- 
ner speaker," and it has been said by emi- 
nent critics that this country has never pro- 
duced his equal in wit, fluency and eloquence. 

PHILIP KEARNEY.— Among the most 
dashing and brilliant commanders in 
the United States service, few have outshone 
the talented officer whose name heads this 
sketch. He was born in New York City, 
June 2, 181c;, and was of Irish ancestry and 
imbued witli all the dash and bravery of the 
Celtic race. He graduated from Columbia 
College and studied law, out in 1837 ac- 
cepted a commission as lieutenant in the 
First United States Dragoons, of which hi?, 
uncle, Stephen W. Kearney, was then colo- 
nel. He was sent by the government^ 
soon after, to Europe to examine and report 
upon the tactics of the French cavalry. 
There he attended the Polytechnic School, 
at Samur, and subsequently served as a vol- 
unteer in Algiers, winning the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. He returned to the 
United States in 1840,- and on the staff of 
General Scott, in the Mexican war, served 
with great gallantry. He was made a cap- 
tain of dragoons in 1846 and made major 
for services at Contreras and Cherubusco. 
In the final assault on the City of Mexico, 
at the San Antonio Gate, Kearney lost an 
arm. He subsequently served in California 
and the Pacific coast. In i8u he resigned 
his commission and went to Europe, where 
he resumed his military studies. In the 
Italian war, in 1859, he served as a volun- 
teer on the staff of General Maurier, of the 
French army, and took part in the battles 
of Solferino and Magenta, and for bravery 
was, for the second time, decorated with 
the cross of the Legion of Honor. On the 
opening of the Civil war he hastened home, 
and; ofiering his services to the general gov- 



eminent, was made brigadier- general of 
volunteers and placed in command of a bri- 
gade of New Jersey troops. In the cam- 
paign under McClellan he commanded a di- 
vision, and at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks 
his services were valuable and brilliant, as 
well as in subsequent engagements. At 
Harrison's Landing he was made major-gen- 
eral of volunteers. In the second battle of 
Bull Run he was conspicuous, and at the 
battie of Chantilly, September i, 1862, 
while leading in advance of his troops, Gen- 
eral Kearney was shot and killed. 

RUSSELL SAGE, one of the financial 
giants of the present century and for 
more than an average generation one of the 
most conspicuous and celebrated of Ameri- 
cans, was born in a frontier hamlet in cen- 
tral New York in August, 18 16. While Rus- 
sell was still a boy an elder brother, Henry 
Risley Sage, established a small grocery 
store at Troy, New York, and here Russell 
found his first employment, as errand boy. 
He served a five-years apprenticeship, and 
then joined another brother, Elisha M. Sage, 
in a new venture in the same line, which 
proved profitable, at least for Russell, who 
soon became its sole owner. Next he 
formed the partnership of Sage & Bates, 
and greatly extended his field of operations. 
At twenty-five he had, by his own exertions, 
amassed what was, in those days, a consid- 
erable fortune, being worth about seventy- 
five thousand dollars. He had acquired an 
influence in local politics, and four years 
fater his party, the Whigs, elected him to 
the aldermanic board of Troy and to the 
treasuryship of Rensselaer county. In 1 848 
he was a prominent member of the New 
York delegation to the Whig convention at 
Philadelphia, casting his first votes for Henry 
Clay, but joining the ** stampede" which 

nominated Zachary Taylor. In 1850 the 
Whigs of Troy nominated him for congress, 
but he was not elected — a failure which he 
retrieved two years later, and in 1854 he 
was re-elected by a sweeping majority. At 
Washington he ranked high in influence and 
ability. Fame as a speaker and as a polit- 
ical leader was within his grasp, when he 
gave up public life, declined a renominatiort 
to congress, and went back to Troy to de- 
vote himself to his private business. Six 
years later, in 1863, he removed to New 
York and plunged into the arena of Wall 
street. A man of boundless energy and 
tireless pertinacity, with wonderful judg- 
ment of men and things, he soon took his 
place as a king in finance, and, it is said, 
during the latter part of his life he con- 
trolled more ready money than any other 
single individual on this continent. 

United States senator and famous as the 
father of the ** Mills tariff bill, "was born 
in Todd county, Kentucky, March 30, 1832. 
He received a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools, and removed to Palestine, 
Texas, in 1849. He took up the study of 
law, and supported himself by serving as an 
assistant in the post-office, and in the offices 
of the court clerks. In 1850 he was elected 
engrossing clerk of the Texas house of rep- 
resentatives, and in 1852 was admitted to 
the bar, while still a minor, by special act 
of the legislature. He then settled at Cor- 
sicana, Texas, and began the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He was elected to 
the state legislature in 1859, and in 1872 he 
was elected to congress from the state at 
large, as a Democrat. After his first elec- 
tion he was continuously returned to con- 
gress until he resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of United States senator, to which he 



was elected March 23, 1892, to succeed 
Hon. Horace Chilton. He took his seat in 
the senate March 30, 1892; was afterward 
re-elected and ranked among the most use- 
ful and prominent members of that body. 
In 1876 he opposed the creation of the elec- 
toral commission, and in 1887 canvassed 
the state of Texas against the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to its constitution, 
which was defeated. He introduced into 
the house of representatives the bill that was 
known as the *' Mills Bill," reducing duties 
on imports, and extending the free list. 
The bill passed the house on July 21, 1888, 
and made the name of ** Mills" famous 
throughout the entire country. 

HAZEN S. PINGREE, the celebrated 
Michigan political leader, was born in 
Maine in 1842. Up to fourteen years of 
age he worked hard on the stony ground of 
his father's small farm. Attending school 
in the winter, he gained a fair education, 
and when not laboring on the farm, he 
found employment in the cotton mills in the 
vicinity. He resolved to find more steady 
work, and accordingly went to Hopkinton, 
Massachusetts, where he entered a shoe fac- 
tory, but on the outbreak of the war he en- 
listed at once and was enrolled in the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Bull Run, which was 
his initial fight, and served creditably his 
early term of service, at the expiration of 
which he re-enlisted. He fought in the 
battles of Fredricksburg, Harris Farm, 
Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Har- 
bor In 1864 he was captured by Mosby, 
and spent five months at Andersonville, 
Georgia, as a prisoner, but escaped at the 
end of that time. He re-entered the service 
and participated in the battles of Fort 
Fisher, Boyden, and Sailor's Creek. He 

was honorably mustered out of service, and 
in 1866 went to Detroit, Michigan, where 
he made use of his former experience in a 
shoe factory, and found work. Later he 
formed a partnership with another workman 
and started a small factory, which has since 
become a large establishment. Mr. Pin- 
gree made his entrance into politics in 1889, 
in which year he was elected by a surpris- 
ingly large majority as a Republican to the 
mayoralty of Detroit, in which office he was 
the incumbent during four consecutive terms. 
In November, 1896, he was elected gov- 
ernor of the state of Michigan. While 
mayor of Detroit, Mr. Pingree originated 
and put into execution the idea of allowing 
the poor people of the city the use of va- 
cant city lands and lots for the purpose of 
raising potatoes. The idea was enthusiast- 
ically adopted by thousandsof poor families, 
attracted wide attention, and gave its author 
a national reputation as '*Potato-patch Pin- 

eminent American statesman and a 
Democratic politician of national fame, was 
born in Muskingum county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 7, 18 19. In 1822 he removed, with his 
father, to Shelby county, Indiana. He 
graduated from the South Hanover College 
in 1 841, and two years later was admitted 
to the bar. In 1851 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention, 
and took a leading part in the deliberations 
of that body. He was elected to congress 
in 185 1, and after serving two terms was 
appointed commissioner of the United States 
general land-office. In 1863 he was elected 
to the United States senate, where his dis- 
tinguished services commanded the respect 
of all parties. He was elected governor of 
Indiana in 1872, serving four years, and in 



1876 was nominated by the Democrats as 
candidate for the vice-presidency with Til- 
den. The returns in a number of states 
were contested, and resulted in the appoint- 
ment of the famous electoral commission, 
which decided in favor of the Republican 
candidates. In 1884 Mr. Hendricks was 
again nominated as candidate for the vice- 
presidency, by the Democratic party, on the 
ticket with Grover Cleveland, was elected, 
and served about six months. He died at 
Indianapolis, November 25, 1885. He was 
regarded as one of the brainiest men in the 
party, and his integrity was never ques- 
tioned, even by his political opponents. 

GARRETT A. HOBART, one of the 
many able men who have held the 
high office of vice-president of the United 
States, was born June 3, 1844, i^ Mon- 
mouth county. New Jersey, and in i860 en- 
tered the sophomore class at Rutgers Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1863 at 
the age of nineteen. He then taught 
school until he entered the law office of 
Socrates Tuttle, of Paterson, New Jersey, 
with whom he studied law, and in 1869 
was admitted to the bar. He immediately 
began the active practice of his profession 
in the office of the above named gentleman. 
He became interested in political life, and 
espoused the cause of the Republican party, 
and in 1865 held his first office, serving as 
clerk for the grand jury. He was also city 
counsel of Paterson in 1871, and in May, 
1872, was elected counsel for the board of 
chosen freeholders. He entered the state 
legislature in 1873, and was re-elected to 
the assembly in 1874. Mr. Hobart was 
made speaker of the assembly in 1876, and 
and in 1879 was elected to the state senate. 
After serving three years in the same, he 
was elected president of that body in 1881, 

and the following year was re-elected to 
that office. He was a delegate-af -large to 
the Republican national convention m 1876 
and 1880, and was elected a member of the 
national committee in 1884, which posHion 
he occupied continuously until 1896. He 
was then nominated for vice-president by 
the Republican national convention, anc^ 
was elected to that office in the fall of 1896 
on the ticket with William McKinley. 

as a political leader and senator, was 
born in Lyons, Wayne county. New York, 
August 9, 1827, and removed with his par- 
ents while still a small child to Mesopota- 
mia township, Trumbull county, Ohio. He 
attended the Lyons Union school and Farm- 
ington Academy, where he obtained his ed- 
ucation. Later he taught mathematics in 
the former school, while yet a pupil, and 
with the little money thus earned and the 
assistance of James C. Smith, one of the 
judges of the supreme court of New York^ 
he entered Yale College. He remained 
there until the winter of 1849-50, when, at- 
tracted by the gold discoveries in California 
he wended his way thither. He arrived at 
San Francisco in May, 1850, and later en- 
gaged in mining with pick and shovel in Ne- 
vada county. In this way he accumulated 
some money, and in the spring of 1852 he 
took up the study of law under John R. 
McConnell. The following December he 
was appointed district attorney, to which 
office he was chosen at the general election 
of the next year. In 1854 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of California, and 
in i860 he removed to Virginia City, Ne- 
vada, where he largely engaged in early 
mining litigation. Mr. Stewart was also in- 
terested in the development of the **Com- 
stock lode," and in 1861 was chosen a 



member of the territorial council. He was 
elected a member of the constitutional con- 
vention in 1863, and was elected United 
States senator in 1864, and re-elected in 
1869. At the expiration of his term in 
1875, he resumed the practice of law in 
Nevada, California, and the Pacific coast 
generally. He was thus engaged when he 
was elected again to the United States sen- 
ate as a Republican in 1887 to succeed the 
late Jamfes G. Fair, a Democrat, and took 
his seat March 4, 1887. On the expiration 
of his term he was again re-elected and be- 
came one of the leaders of his party in con- 
gress. His ability as an orator, and the 
prominent part he took in the discussion of 
public questions, gained him a national rep- 

years a prominent member of the 
United States senate, was born in Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, December 6, 1848. He 
graduated from Center College in 1868, and 
from the law department of the Transyl- 
vania University of Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1853. In the same year he removed to 
Missouri and began the practice of his pro- 
fession. In i860 he was an elector on the 
Democratic ticket, and was a member of 
the lower house of the Missouri legislature 
in 1860-61. He was elected to the Con- 
federate congress, serving two years in the 
lower house and one in the senate. He 
then resumed the practice of law, and in 
1879 was elected to the senate of the United 
States to succeed James Shields. He was 
re-elected in 1885, and again in 1891 and 
1897. His many years of service in the 
National congress, coupled with his ability 
as a speaker and the active part he took in 
the discussion of public questions, gave him 
a wide reputation. 

HANNIBAL HAMLIN, a noted American 
statesman, whose name is indissolubly 
connected with the history of this country, 
was born in Paris, Maine, August 27, 1809. 
He learned the printer's trade and followed 
that calling for several years. He then 
studied law, and was admitted to practice 
in 1833. He was elected to the legislature 
of the state of Maine, where he was several 
times chosen speaker of the lower house. 
He was elected to congress by the Demo- 
crats in 1843, and re-elected in 1845. I" 
1848 he was chosen to the United States 
senate and served in that body until 1861. 
He was elected governor of Maine in 1857 
on the Republican ticket, but resigned when 
re-elected to the United States senate 
the same year. He was elected vice-presi- 
dent of the United States on the ticket with 
Lincoln in i860, and inaugurated in March, 
1 86 1. In 1865 he was appointed collector 
of the port of Boston. Beginning with 
1869 he served two six-year terms in the 
United States senate, and was then ap- 
pointed by President Garfield as minister to 
Spain in 1881. His death occurred July 4, 

I SHAM G. HARRIS, famous as Confed- 
erate war governor of Tennessee, and 
distinguished by his twenty years of service 
in the senate of the United States, was 
born in Franklin county, Tennessee, and 
educated at the Academy of Winchester. 
He then took up the study of law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and commenced practice 
at Paris, Tennessee, in 1841. He was 
elected to the state legislature in 1847, was 
a candidate for presidential elector on the 
Democratic ticket in 1848, and the next 
year was elected to congress from his dis- 
trict and re-elected in 185*1. In 1853 he 
was renominated by the Democrats of his 



district, but declined, and removed to Mem- 
phis, where he took up the practice of law. 
He was a presidential elector-at -large from 
Tennessee in 1856, and was elected gov- 
ernor of the state the next year, and again 
in 1859, and in 1861. He was driven from 
Nashville by the advance of the Union 
armies, and for the last three years of the 
war acted as aid upon the staff of the com- 
manding general of the Confederate army 
of Tennessee. After the war he went to 
Liverpool, England, where he became a 
merchant, but returned to Memphis in 1867, 
and resumed the practice of law. In 1877 
he was elected to the United States senate, 
to which position he was successively re- 
elected until his death in 1897. 

NELSON DINGLEY, Jr., for nearly a 
quarter of a century one of the leaders 
in congress and framer of the famous 
**Dingley tarifl bill," was born in Durham, 
Maine, in 1832. His father as well as all 
his ancestors, were farmers, merchants and 
mechanics and of English descent. Young 
Dingley was given the advantages first of 
the common schools and in vacations helped 
his father in the store and on the farm. 
When twelve years of age he attended high 
school and at seventeen was teaching in a 
country school district and preparing him- 
self for college. The following year he en- 
tered Waterville Academy and in 185 1 en- 
tered Colby University. After a year and a 
half in this institution he entered Dart- 
mouth College and was graduated in 1855 
with high rank as a scholar, debater and 
writer. He next studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1856. But instead of 
practicing his profession he purchased the 
**Lewistown (Me.) Journal/* which be- 
came famous throughout the New England 
states as a leader in the advocacy of Repub- 

lican principles. About the same time Mr. 
Dingley began his political career, although 
ever after continuing at the head of the 
newspaper. He was soon elected to the 
state legislature and afterward to the lower 
house of congress, where he became a 
prominent national character. He also 
served two terms as governor of Maine. 

guished American statesman, was born 
in Wayne county, Indiana, August 4, 1823. 
His early education was by private teaching 
and a course at the Wayne County Seminary. 
At the age of twenty years he entered the 
Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, ar^d at 
the end of two years quit the college, began 
the study of law in the office of John New- 
man, of Centerville, Indiana, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1847. 

Mr. Morton was elected judge on the 
Democratic ticket, in 1852, but on thi 
passage of the *' Kansas-Nebraska Bill" he 
severed his connection with that party, and 
soon became a prominent leader of the Re- 
publicans. He was elected governor of In- 
diana in 1 86 1, and as war governor became 
well known throughout the country. He 
received a paralytic stroke in 1865, which 
partially deprived him of the use of his 
limbs. He wa^ chosen to the United States 
senate from Indiana, in 1867, and wielded 
great influence in that body until the time 
of his death, November i, 1877. 

JOHN B. GORDON, a brilliant Confeder- 
ate officer and noted senator of the United 
States, was born in Upson county, Georgia, 
February 6, 1832. He graduated from the 
State University, studied law, and took up 
the practice of his profession. At the be- 
ginning of the war he entered the Confederate 
service as captain of infantry, and rapidly 



rose to the rank of lieutenant-general, 
commanding^ one wing of the Confederate 
army at the close of the war. In 1868 he 
was Democratic candidate for governor of 
Georgia, and it is said was elected by a large 
majority, but his opponent was given the 
office. He was a delegate to the national 
Democratic conventions in 1868 and 1872, 
and a presidential elector both years. In 
1873 he was elected to the United States 
senate. In 1886 he was elected governor 
of Georgia, and re-elected in 1888. He 
was again elected to the United States 
senate in 1890, serving until 1897, when he 
was succeeded by A. S. Clay. He was 
regarded as a leader of the southern Democ- 
racy, and noted for his fiery eloquence. 

trious associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, was born at 
Haddam, Connecticut, November 4, 18 16, 
being one of the noted sons of Rev. D. 
D. Field. He graduated from Williams 
College in 1837, took up the study of law 
with his brother, David Dudley Field, be- 
coming his partner upon admission to the 
bar. He went to California in 1849, and at 
once began to take an active interest in the 
political affairs of that state; He was 
elected alcalde of Marysville, in 1850, and 
in the autumn of the same year was elected 
to the state legislature. In 1857 he was 
elected judge of the supreme court of the 
state, and two years afterwards became its 
chief justice. In 1863 he was appointed by 
President Lincoln as associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United States. During 
his incumbency, in 1873, he was appointed 
by the governor of California one of a com- 
mission to examine the codes of the state 
and for the preparation of amendments to 
the same for submission to the legislature. 

In 1877 he was one of the famous electoral 
commission of fifteen members, and voted 
as one of the seven favoring the election of 
Tilden to the presidency. In 1880 a large 
portion of the Democratic party favored his 
nomination as candidate for the presidency. 
He retired in the fall of 1897, having 
served a greater number of years on the 
supreme bench than any of his associates or 
predecessors, Chief Justice Marshall coming 
next in length of service. 

JOHN T. MORGAN, whose services in 
the United States senate brought him 
into national prominence, was born in 
Athens, Tennessee, June 20, 1824. At the 
age of nine years he emigrated to Alabama, 
where he made his permanent home, and 
where he received an academic education. 
He then took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1845. He took a 
leading part in local politics, was a presi- 
dential elector in i860, casting his ballot 
for Breckenridge and Lane, and in 1861 
was a delegate to the state convention which 
passed the ordinance of secession. In May, 
of the same year, he joined the Confederate 
army as a private in Company I, Cahawba 
Rifles, and was soon after made major and 
then lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment. 
In 1862 he was commissioned colonel, and 
soon after made brigadier-general and as- 
signed to the command of a brigade in Vir- 
ginia. He resigned to join his old regiment 
whose colonel had been killed. He was 
soon afterward again made brigadier-gen- 
eral and given command of the brigade that 
included his regiment. 

After the war he returned to the prac- 
tice of law, and continued it up to the time 
of his election to the United States senate, \xt 
1 877. He was a presidential elector in 1 876 
and cast his vote for Tilden and Hendricks 



He was re-elected to the senate in 1883^ 
and again in 1889, and 1895. His speeches 
and the measures he introduced, marked 
as they were by an intense Americanism, 
brought him into national prominence. 

WILLIAM Mckinley, the twenty-fifth 
president of the United States, was 
born at Niles, Trumbull county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1844. He was of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and received his early education 
in a Methodist academy in the small village 
of Poland, Ohio. At the outbreak of the 
war Mr. McKinley was teaching school, 
earning twenty-five dollars per month. As 
soon as Fort Sumter was fired upon he en- 
listed in a company that was formed in 
Poland, which was inspected and mustered 
in by General John C. Fremont, who at 
first objected to Mr. McKinley, as being too 
young, but upon examination he was finally 
accepted. Mr. McKinley was seventeen 
when the war broke out but did not look his 
age. He served in the Twenty-third Ohio 
Infantry throughout the war, was promoted 
from sergeant to captain, for good conduct 
on the field, and at the close of the war, 
for meritorious services, he w^as brevetted 
major. After leaving the army Major Mc- 
Kinley took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar, and in 1869 he took 
his initiation into politics, being elected pros- 
ecuting attorney of his county as a Republi- 
can, although the district was usually Demo- 
cratic. In 1876 he was elected to congress, 
and in a call upon the President-elect, Mr. 
Hayes, to whom he went for advice upon the 
way he should shape his career, he was 
told that to achieve fame and success he 
must take one special line and stick to it. 
Mr. McKinley chose tariff legislation and 
he became an authority in regard to import 
duties. He was a member of congress for 

many years, became chairman of the ways 
and means committee, and later he advo- 
cated the famous tariff bill that bore his 
name, which was passed in 1890. In the 
next election the Republican party was 
overwhelmingly defeated through the coun- 
try, and the Democrats secured more than 
a two thirds majority in the lower house, 
and also had control of the senate, Mr. 
McKinley being defeated in his own district 
by a small majority. He was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio in 1 89 1 by a plurality of 
twenty-one thousand, five hundred and 
eleven, and two years later he was re-elected 
by the still greater plurality of eighty thou- 
sand, nine hundred and ninety-five. He was 
a delegate-at-large to the Minneapolis Re^ 
publican convention in 1892, and was in- 
structed to support the nomination of Mr. 
Harrison. He was chairman of the con-, 
vention, and was the only man from Ohio 
to vote for Mr. Harrison upon the roll call. 
In November, 1892, a number of prominent 
politicians gathered in New York to discuss 
the political situation, and decided that the 
result of the election had put an end to Mc- 
Kinley and McKinleyism. But in less than 
four years from that date Mr. McKinley was 
nominated for the presidency against the 
combined opposition of half a dozen rival 
candidates. Much of the credit for his suc- 
cess was due to Mark A. Hanna, of Cleve- 
land, afterward chairman of the Republican 
national committee. At the election which 
occurred in November, 1896, Mr. McKinley 
was elected president of the United States 
by an enormous majority, on a gold stand- 
ard and protective tariff platform. He was 
inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1897, 
and called a special session of congress, to 
which was submitted a bill for tariff reform, 
which was passed in the latter part of July 
of that year. 



known in the literary world as Joaquin 
Miller, **the poet of the Sierras," was born 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1841. When only 
.about thirteen years of age he ran away 
from home and went to the mining regions 
in California and along the Pacific coast. 
Some time afterward he was taken prisoner 
by the Modoc Indians and lived with them 
for five years. He learned their language 
and gained great influence with them, fight- 
ing in their wars, and in all modes of living 
became as one of them. In 1858 he left 
the Indians and went to San Francisco, 
where he studied law, and in i860 was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Oregon. In 1866 he 
was elected a county judge in Oregon and 
served four years. Early in the seventies 
he began devoting a good deal of time to 
literary pursuits, and about 1874 he settled 
in Washington, D. C. He wrote many 
poems and dramas that attracted consider- 
able attention and won him an extended 
reputation. Among his productions may be 
mentioned •* Pacific Poems," ** Songs of the 
Sierras," ** Songs of the Sun Lands," 
** Ships in the Desert," ** Adrianne,aDream 
of Italy," *^ Danites," '^Unwritten History," 
** First Families of the Sierras " (a novel), 
** One Fair Woman " (a novel), ** Songs of 
Italy," ** Shadows of Shasta," *^The Gold- 
Seekers of the Sierras," and a number of 

noted music publisher and composer, 
was born in Sheffield, Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, on August 30, 1820. While 
working on his father's farm he found time 
to learn, unaided, several musical instru- 
ments, and in his eighteenth year he went 
to Boston, where he soon found employ- 
ment as a teacher of music. From 1839 

until 1 844 he gave instructions in music in 
the public schools of that city, and was also 
director of music in two churches. Mr. 
Root then went to New York and taught 
music in the various educational institutions 
of the city. He went to Paris in 1850 and 
spent one year there in study, and on his re- 
turn he published his first song, ** Hazel 
Dell." It appeared as the work of ** Wur- 
zel," which was the German equivalent of 
his name. He was the originator of the 
normal musical institutions, and when the 
first one was started in New York he 
was one of the faculty. He removed to 
Chicago, Illinois, in i860, and established 
the firm of Root & Cady, and engaged in 
the publication of music. He received, in 
1872, the degree of ''Doctor of Music" 
from the University of Chicago. After the 
war the firm became George F. Root & Co., 
of Cincinnati and Chicago. Mr. Root did 
much to elevate the standard of music in this 
country by his compositions and work as a 
teacher. Besides his numerous songs he 
wrote a great deal of sacred music and pub- 
lished many collections of vocal and instru- 
mental music. For many years he was the 
most popular song writer in America, and 
was one of the greatest song writers of the 
war. He is also well-known as an author, 
and his work in that line comprises: * * Meth- 
ods for the Piano and Organ," ** Hand- 
book on Harmony Teaching, " and innumer- 
able articles for the musical press. Among 
his many and most popular songs of the 
war time are : ' ' Rosalie, the Prairie-flower, " 
•* Battle Cry of Freedom," *' Just Before the 
Battle," '* Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys 
are Marching," '* The Old Folks are Gone," 
'*A Hundred Years Ago," *'01d Potomac 
Shore, " and ** There's Music in the Air." Mr. 
Root's cantatas include * * The Flower Queen" 
and **The Haymakers." He died in 1896- 






Michigan is a part of that almost un- 
known quantity designated at the beginning 
of the last century as the Northwest Terri- 
tory. In 1805 a part of this great territory 
was set ofif and given the name of "Michi- 
gan lerritory." The lines describing tliis 
territory were not the same as those now 
defining the boundaries of the state of Mich- 
igan, for it is said that owing to some dis- 
pute as to the southern boundary line, con- 
gress, to appease the desire of the Michigan 
representatives for more land, ''threw in" 
the portion, of the state now known as the 
Upper Peninsula, which has proven to be the 
depository of untold mineral wealth, placing 
Michigan well in the front rank of mineral^ 
producing states of the Union. 

Owing to the fact that in those days all 
inland transportation and travel was by 
wagon and stage coach, settlements remote 
from the lake shore were for many years 
very few and were usually found along such 
rivers as were navigable, and these grew 

very slowly. The lack of transportation fa- 
cilities was not the only retarding element 
in the settlement of the state. The ague had 
full sway throughout nearly the whole 
southern part of the state, and it soon be- 
came known everywhere that to go to Mich- 
igan meant to be shaken with the ague for 
a year or more, with accompanying doctor 
and drug bills, and there is little doubt that 
the fear of the ague diverted many of those 
who were constantly joining in the ''west- 
ward march of empire" from the fertile 
lands of Michigan to more distant homes in 
the still newer "West."* In this age of rapid 
transit and rapid development, when vil- 
lages and even cities spring up almost in a 
day, it looks strange that it should have tak- 
en over thirty years for the territory of Mich- 
igan to have arrived at the age of 

* "West" was the designation given by eastern people to all 
the country lying west of the state of New York. The author well 
remembers that when his grandfather moved from Cattaraugus 
county, New York, to Oakland county, Michigan, they called 
it " going way out west." 



statehood ; but when we go back to that peri- 
od and in our mind's eye see conditions as 
they then existed we almost wonder that 
enough people could have been induced to 
find homes within the lx)unds of the state to 
entitle it to admission into the Union. 

In June, 1836, congress passed an en- 
abling act to admit Michigan to the Union, 
but there were certain conditions contained 
in the act which had to be complied with on 
the part of the state. In due course of time 
these stipulations were carried out and on 
January 26, 1837, a supplemental act was 
passed by congress by which Michigan was 
declared to be ''one of the United States of 
America, and admitted into the Union on 
an equal footing with the original states, in 
all respects whatever.'' 

At that time there was not a mile of rail- 
road in Michigan except what was known 
as the Erie & Kalamazoo, which had been 
built from the town of Port Lawrence 
(which name was later changed to Toledo) 
to Adrian, a distance of twenty-three miles. 
This was what was knowl^ in those days as 
a "strap" railroad, the rails being made of 
wood and covered with a wide bar or strap 
of wrought iron. The cars on this line had 
been drawn by horses up to within six days 
of the time Michigan became a state, but 
on January 20, 1837, the owners of this line 
put on a steam locomotive, which was the 
first locomotive ever used in the state. 

Previous to this time there had been 
much talk alx)ut railroads, and as early as 
1830 a company was organized to build 
what was to be called the Detroit 
& St. Joseph Railroad. The name 
was changed later to the Michigan Central. 
After the company had expended about one 
hundred and tw^enty-five thousand dollars 

and within tv/o months after the state had 
started in to do business for itself, an act was 
passed by the legislature authorizing the 
purchase of this road by the state and pro- 
viding for its early completion. The work 
was taken hold of on the part of the state, 
money being raised on state bonds to pay 
for the work, and within a year from its 
birth the state had completed its railroad 
from Detroit to Dearborn, a distance of ten 
miles. At this rate it would have taken 
twenty years and more to have completed 
the road, but the state kept on issuing its 
bonds and trying to build its railroad until 
finally it was forced to call a halt, as the 
continual process of issuing bonds had so 
injured the credit of the state that an issue 
of fifty thousand dollars of bonds were sold 
in New York in 1845 for eighteen cents on 
the dollar. This condition of things created 
a strong desire on the part of the state to 
sell its "elephant," and negotiations were 
forthwith authorized with that end in view. 
After many months of delay the sale was at 
last made, and on September 23, 1846, the 
road passed into the hands of the Michigan 
Central Railroad Company. So anxious had 
been the state to get the road off its hands 
that the company drove a remarkably good 
bargain, one which has caused the state a 
good deal of annoyance since. 

During this time the state had had a 
somewhat similar experience with the Mich- 
igan Southern Railroad, now known as the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad. 
The state had paid out nearly a million dol- 
lars in the construction of this road, and 
upon its sale to the Southern Michigan 
Railroad Company, in December, 1846, it 
could only realize five hundred thousand 
dollars from its investment. 



While these ventures in railroad build- 
ing were not a source of profit to the state 
in a financial way, they attracted public at- 
tention to Michigan, and the people along 
their lines, no doubt, came into the enjoy- 
ment of railroad privileges much earlier 
than they would have done had railroad 
Iniilding been confined to private enter- 

With the building of railroads came new 
settlers in increased numbers, until at the 
time of the adoption of the present consti- 
tution in 1850, the census reports show a 
population of three hundred and ninety-five 
thousand and seventy-one, as compared with 
about one hundred and eighteen thousand 
when the state was admitted. This growth, 
however, had been confined almost entirely 
to that portion of the state lying south of 
the center line of the Lower Peninsula. In 
many of the northern counties not even 
township lines had been surveyed when the 
territory became a state in 1837. It is not 
strange, therefore, that the whole of this 
northern end of the Low^er Peninsula should 
have been looked upon by those living in 
the southern counties as a valueless wilder- 
ness. At that tiir^e there were the remnants 
of several tribes of Indians living in what 
now constitutes the counties of Antrim, 
Charlevoix, Emmet, Kalkaska, Grand Trav- 
erse and Leelenau, and as early as May, 
1839, two evangelical missionaries located 
at what is now known as Old Mission, in 
Grand Traverse county, with the purpose 
in view of teaching and Christianizing the 
Indians. They were well received and their 
work bore good fruit. Three years later 
the result of the work of the missionaries 
was shown by a desire on the part of the 
Indians to raise something more than corn 

for food, consequently a barrel of wheat was 
brought by them from Green Bay, Wiscon- 
sin, and sown under instructions of the mis- 
sionaries. This was probably the first wheat 
sown in northern Michigan, certainly the 
first of which we can find any authentic rec- 

Little by little civilization kept encroach- , 
ing upon savagery and more white people 
were getting a knowledge of the natural ad- 
vantages offered by this hitherto unknown 
part of the state, and in the year 1847 ^ 
hardy homeseeker by the name of Board- 
man took up his residence where Traverse 
City now stands. He built the first house 
that was put up on the present site of Trav- 
erse City, and from him the river, empty- 
ing into the bay at that point, and the lake 
a short distance up the river, received their 
name. He also built a small saw-mill, op- 
erated by water power on a creek which 
enters Boardman river about a mile from 
its mouth. When this mill was erected there 
was not another saw-mill within a hundred 
miles in any direction. 

In 185 1 the firm of Hannah, Lay & 
Company located at what is now known as 
Traverse City and started upon a business 
career which proved wonderfully successful. 
Mr. Hannah had previously visited that lo- 
cality and ascertained by personal examina- 
tion the great quantity of pine timber along 
the Boardman river, and, having had consid- 
erable experience in the lumber business, saw* 
at once that there was a grand opening for 
a lucrative business. The firm bought a 
large quantity of pine land that cost them 
only one dollar and a quarter per acre. I'hey 
started in in a moderate way, for in those 
days markets wxre limited, prices were low, 
and transportation facilities were confined 



exclusively to sailing vessels on the lakes 
and it took from six to nine days to land a 
small cargo of lumber in Chicago from Tra- 
verse Bay. Their first saw-mill W2is the one 
heretofore mentioned as having been built by 
Mr. Boardman and which they purchased 
of him. This w^as what was known as a 
**muley mill/' having but one upright saw, 
which under the most favorable circumstan- 
ces would not cut more than two and a half 
or three thousand feet of lumber in twelve 
hours. This proved to be altogether too 
slow a process even for those slow times and 
accordingly, in the spring of 1852, they 
commenced the construction of the first 
steam saw-mill ever built in northern 'Michi- 
gan. Having already cleared out the Board- 
man river far enough to reach the first or 
nearest of their pine lands, they were in po- 
sition to do what was then considered a ''big 
lumber business." 

The advent of Hannah, Lay & Company 
was the ''dawning of the morning" in the 
settlement and development of the whole 
Grand Traverse region. They furnished 
work for all applicants. They supplied the 
wants of all newcomers, and by their liberal 
and honorable dealings did much to encour- 
age those seeking homes. But the home 
seekers were not numerous for the first few 
years. The vast unbroken forest that 
stretched back from the little opening made 
at Traverse City to a seemingly unlimited 
distance was not very inviting to those who 
had lived in an old settled country. So the 
'fifties passed by and the total population in 
Grand Traverse county (Indians excepted) 
was twelve hundred and eighty-six. This 
included the people who were connected 
with the mill, the boarding house, the lufn- 
ber camps and those who had been bold 

enough to strike out into the forests to make 
homes for themselves. 

Then came the great, cruel war, and for 
four weary, woeful years hund' eds of thous- 
ands of "the flower of manhood" had to face 
far more dangers and difficulties than a 
Michigan wilderness offered, and the 
thoughts of seeking new homes in the"west" 
gave way to thoughts of how to economize 
and care for the little ones at home while 
the husbands and fathers were fighting the 
battles for the Union on southern fields, lan- 
guishing in pestilential prison pens, or sleep- 
ing the last long sleep in unknown graves in 
the blood-stained "sunny South." But in 
spite of all this strife and carnage in one sec- 
tion of our coimtry there w^as still a steady 
increase in the population around Traverse 
Bay, the census of 1864 showing two thous- 
and and twenty-six, or an increase of only 
sevtn hundred and forty in four years. In 
the spring of 1865 the war ended and thous- 
ands upon thousands of the boys in blue re- 
turned to their former homes. The spirit of 
adventure aroused by army service would 
not permit many of the returning soldiers to 
settle down to the humdrum routine to which 
they had been accustomed before enlisting, 
and the westward stream of adventurous 
homeseekers grew into a mighty river and 
such a growth and development as the new 
states and territories of the west witnessed in 
the next ten years has never had a parallel 
in the history of the world. One important 
factor in this great stride of advancement 
was the building of the trans-continental 
railroad. This, in addition to the passage 
of the homestead law, giving every head of 
a family one hundred and sixty acres of 
land, by the payment of a nominal sum and 
living on the land for five years, soon peo- 



pled a vast area of country which otherwise 
would have continued to remain in its pri- 
meval state for an indefinite length of 

This great western movement of popu- 
lation came at a time when northern Michi- 
gan was ripe to receive it, and the tide surged 
back from the shores of the great lakes, and 
particularly from Traverse Bay, until the 

bounds of one county were too limited to 
receive and contain it, and it soon began to 
lap over into adjacent counties as if deter- 
mined that the time had come when the giant 
forests which for centuries had held full 
sway throughout this whole section of the 
state should yield its scepter to man, the lord 
of creation, and henceforth administer to his 
desires and demands. 



During the years 1836 and 1837 the Uni- 
ted States surveyors had reached the terri- 
tory now known as Wexford county, in 
their preliminary or township line survey, 
but it was not until the year 1840 that a 
name was given to that part of the state 
known as townships 2], 22, 23 and 24 north 
of ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 west. The first 
name to this territory was Kautawaubet, 
supposed to hcive been an Indian name, but 
it was afterwards discovered that the name 
had no particular significance and in 1843 
the name was changed to Wexford. There 
must have been some one around from the 
''Emerald Isle" when this change of name 
was suggested, as it is only in Ireland that 
w^e find the name Wexford applied to a lo- 
cality previous to its having been used to 
designate a part of the. wilderness of north- 
ern Michigan. 

It was some twelve or fifteen years af- 
ter the township lines had been established 
before the government found time to divide 
the townships up into sections. This work 
would doubtless have been done soon- 
er had there been any demand for 
the land, but no one then would 
have taken land in Wexford county 
as a gift, while on the prairies, in states far- 
ther west, it was difficult to make surveys 
fast enough to meet the demands of the con- 
stantly flowing stream of people from the 
east. Soon after the section lines had been 
run an effort was made to secure the build- 
ing of a state road through from Muske- 
gon or Newaygo counties (the settlements 
in these counties being then the most nor- 
therly on the south side of the ''Big 
Woods") to the new settlement opening up 
around the shores of the Grand Traverse 



bay. This effort was crowned with success 
when the legislature of 1857 passed an act 
authorizing the construction of a state road 
to be called the Muskegon, Grand Traverse 
and Northport State Road. This name was 
afterwards changed and when the road was 
finally built it was known as the Newaygo 
and Northport State Road. Not much was 
done toward the construction of this road 
until i860. 

In this connection the author feels con- 
fident that his readers will be interested in 
a letter from the pen of the Hon. Perry 
Hannah, written in response to a request for 
some reminiscences of his early experience 
in northern Michigan that might interest 
the readers of a history of Wexford county. 
We do this the more readily because in the 
early years of the county's existence all the 
business of the new settlers was done in 
^Traverse City/' and largely with the firm 
of Hannah, Lay & Company, managed by 
Mr. Hannah, and all the early settlers were 
well acquainted with him. The letter is here 
given complete: 

Traverse City, Michigan, Jan. 22, 1003. 
J. H. Wheeler, Esq.: 

1 have your request to write some early facts of my 
experience in the Grand Traverse country that you 
might incorporate in your history of Wexford county. 
This would be more of a tax on my time than I could 
well devote to it, besides it would take a book too large 
for your history to put only a part of it in. 1 should be 
willing to give you an item or two of my experience that 
has some connection with the affairs of your county. 

In the winter of 1853 and 1854 I made my first trip 
to the * * outside ' ' world on snow shoes. Soon after the 
first of January, 1854, I left Traverse City, when there 
was not a single house outside the limits of the city, for 
Grand Rapids. The snow was plump three feet deep, 
light as feathers, and not a single step could be taken 
without the Indian snow shoes. I furnished myself with 
two Indian packers for carrying supplies. It took six 
days to make the trip from here to Grand Rapids. The 
first settlement we reached was Big Rapids, some five or 
six miles this side of the forks of the Muskegon river. 

The wolves got on our track before the first night's 
camping. They were not troublesome to us in the least 
until we had made our camp fires in the evening, then a 
tremendous howl was set up and continued during the 
whole night. We were not in the least troubled as to 
their contact with us, but they broke up our sleep. As 
soon as we left our camp in the morning they followed 
us and picked up any scraps that might be left. They 
continued with us till we were out of the woods. 

There was not a single sign of a trail of any kind to 
travel by, which compelled us to constantly use our 
compass, as very little sunshine can be seen at that 
season of the year beneath the thick timber that then 
shrouded the whole country. This was the most tedious 
journey I ever experienced in the early days of Grand 

In the winter of 1850-7 I was a member of the state 
legislature. When the legislature adjourned, early in 
the spring, some of the members came and shook hands 
with me and said, "I suppose you have to go to your 
home all the way by stage." This was very amusing to 
me, coming from state legislators, when I knew that my 
trip had to be made "afoot and alone" through the 
long woods. 

In 1857 I was appointed one of the commissioners 
to assist in the work of laying out a state road to be 
called the Muskegon, Grand Traverse and Northport 
State Road. Before we started the survey on the line, 
I concluded it would be a good move to have the route 
looked out, so I engaged a hardy old pioneer and hunter 
to go from Traverse City south and look over the line 
through Wexford county. After being absent for some 
ten days he returned, and in answer to my questions 
regarding the feasibility of the line his reply was, "First 
rate; it could not be better. I tell you, Mr. Hannah, if 
we get a settler through to Grand Traverse on that line 
we will be sure of him. By golly! them hills, they be 
awful big, and they all slope this way, and the settler 
that gets here will never go back over those hills." 
While the hilk over the state road are pretty " tall." the 
old hunter got a pretty poor impression on his first trip 
from the state-road point of view. Today we consider 
that Wexford county is not all hills, but is, much of it, 
the best land we have in the state. 

Next is a little incident in building our bridge over 
the Manistee river. George W. Bryant, who lived in 
our village, had located the land where the bridge was 
to cross the river. I had let the contract to Godfrey 
Greilick, a sturdy old German, to build the bridge. Mr. 
Bryant notified Mr. Greilick that in building the bridge 
over the Manistee river he must not cut a single tree on 
his land. The old German, meeting him on the street 
of our village one day, told Mr. Bryant, in very emphatic 
language, " If you come where we do make dot bridge, 



and I see one tree grow on top your heat, py golly! I cut 
him off." It is needless to say that Mr. Bryant's land 
furnished all the timber for that bridge. 

What a wonderful change in the last fifty years in 
Grand Traverse and Wexford counties. Traverse City 
today has a population of twelve thousand, and the 
Newaygo and Northport state road is lined with many 
beautiful farms. Yours respectfully, 

* Perry Hannah. 

This letter will give something of an 
idea of the condition of Wexford county 
less than half a century ago, for it should 
be remembered that the bridge here spoken 
of was built in 1864, only thirty-nine years 

The making of this state road progressed 
very slowly and its final completion was not 
until a goodly number of people had settled 
in Wexford county. Its commencement, 
however, w^as doubtless the direct cause of* 
the migration of the first settler to the coun- 
ty. This person w^as B. W. Hall, whose 
home for several years prior to 1863 had 
been in Newaygo county, who having heard 
something about the Grand Traverse coun- 
try, and knowing of the project of building 
a state road through to it, made up his mind 
to take a trip north and see for himself if 
the country was as desirable as it was rec- 
ommended to be. It w^as in September, 
1862, that he started on this trip, having 
supplied himself with provisions enough to 
last five or six days, for traveling through 
the forests in those days, even in the summer 
time, was no easy task. The ground 
throughout nearly all the forest was covered 
with a mat of what the early settlers called 
''shin tangle," a growth of vine, or ground 
hemlock, which grew from three to 
six feet in length, but by reason of the 
weight of the snow^s of many winters it took 
nearly a horizontal position except at tUc 
ends, which turned nearly to the perpendicu- 

lar, somewhat after the manner of heavy 
clover when it lodges from excessive growth. 
Indeed, it was often called ''Michigan clov- 
er," for in the late autumn and early winter 
stock would almost entirely subsist upon it, 
so much so that the milk and butter would 
taste so bitter as to be very unpalatable. 

When Mr. Hall reached the plateau 
about half a mile north of the Manistee 
river and one and a half miles north of the 
present village of Sherman he found a piece 
of land that just suited him. He continued 
on his journey to Traverse City, where the 
United States land office w^as then located, 
and entered the northwest quarter of section 
30 in town 24, north of range 11 wxst, un- 
der the pre-emption law, wdiich held the land 
for an individual for six months, at the end 
of which time he must pay the government 
price of one dollar and a quarter per acre or 
lose his claim. The homestead law had not 
then been enacted, and all had to pay "Uncle 
Sam" the same price for his land. After 
cutting down the trees on a small piece of 
his land as a notice to all that the land was 
taken, he retraced his steps over the "trail" 
and began to make the necessary prepara- 
tions for an early removal to his new posses- 
sions in the spring. 

As soon as the snow had melted away 
in the spring of 1863, wdiich in those days 
was not until well into May, w^ith such of 
his worldly possessions as he could convey 
in a one horse-wagon, Mr. Hall, with his 
wife, a cow, some pigs and some chickens, 
started over what is now called the old 
State road. Fallen tree trunks, tangled un- 
derbrush and bridgeless streams he had to 
encounter and overcome, but no obstacles 
were sufficient to baffle his determination to 
make for himself a home in Wexford coun- 



ty. For three full weeks he battled with con- 
stantly recurring difficulties, at the end of 
which time he reached the Manistee river. 
Not a soul had they seen since starting on 
their trip, for there was not a dwelling be- 
tween Big Prairie on the south till the Mon- 
roe settlement in Grand Traverse county 
was reached. Arriving at the river, the next 
thing was how to cross it. Some two miles 
up the river from the line of the state road 
was what was known as the '' pony jam,'' 
where the Indians were in the habit of cross- 
ing with their ponies on their hunting or 
migratory trips. About eighty rods down 
the river was another jam which afforded 
easy crossing on foot but was not very safe 
for four-footed animals. These *'jams" 
were made of the trunks of trees which had 
been torn from the banks by the ever-chang- 
ing channel of the river and carried down 
stream until arrested by some projecting 
point of land. Thus for ages and ages had 
these accumulations increased until in some 
cases, like that of the "pony jam," they had 
entirely covered the river. To see the Manis- 
tee river today one would almost think this 
statement was a fairy tale, but it is never- 
theless true, as a number of people yet liv- 
ing in Wexford county can testify from ac- 
tual and personal knowledge. While Mr. 
Hall was inspecting the jam below the state 
road with a view of making such additions to 
the nearly perfect natural bridge as would 
enable him to move his belongings to the 
north bank of the river, he was agreeably 
surprised to find that another adventurous 
person like himself was camped on the north 
side of the river, bent on getting his mova- 
bles to the south bank of the river. Both 
having the one desire of crossing the river 
in view, the task was much more easily ac- 
complished than either had supposed, and it 

was not Jong before the crossing was com- 
pleted and each went on his way rejoicing. 
This second settler was Dr. John Perry, who 
was the first settler in the county on the 
south side of the Manistee river. 

The homestead law was an important 
factor in the settlement of Wexford as well 
as all the other counties in northern Michi- 
gan, and before the close of navigation in 
1864 nearly every available piece of govern- 
ment land along the line of the state road 
for seven miles from the north line of the 
county had been taken. This did not mean 
that the new settlers were very numerous, 
as each homesteader was entitled to a piece 
of land half a mile square, so it took only 
four families to locate a whole section of 
land, and as every alternate section had 
been set apart for the purpose of aiding in 
the building of a railroad, the settlers were 
necessarily widely separated. Notwith- 
standing this fact everybody was every- 
body's neighbor, for, as Will Carleton very 
aptly puts it in his "First Settler's Story," 
"Neighbors meant counties in those days." 
People would go three or four miles to a so- 
cial gathering, or to assist a "neighbor" in 
raising a log house, or join in a "logging 
bee" to enable him to get a small patch of 
land ready to raise a little something for 
himself and family to eat. Thus during the 
summer of 1864 log cabins and small clear- 
ings made their appearance in quite a num- 
ber of places in Wexford county where pre- 
viously, for unnumbered centuries, the pri- 
maeval forest had reigned supreme, inidis- 
turbed by naught save the wild denizens 
who found homes beneath its sheltering 
branches and in its tangled jungles, and the 
almost equally wild Indians who roamed at 
will through its majestic solitudes or fought 
each other to the death in its shadows. 



As vSooii as the snow was gone and navi- 
gation opened in the spring of 1864, the tide 
of emigration to the Grand Traverse region 
set in with renewed vigor, and Wexford 
county got its full share of the newcomers. 
These later arrivals were forced to take 
lands farther back from the state road, and 
consequently had to make. roads for them- 
selves from the state road back to their re- 
spective homesteads. There was no high- 
way commissioner to lay out roads, and no 
way to raise funds by tax to open them, 
therefore the roads or ''blazed trails'' were 
not made on section lines, neither did they 
follow any particular point of the compass. 
They usually took the shortest route to the 
settler's home except where hills or swamps 
intervened, in which case they would pass 
around the obstruction. It was no easy mat- 
ter to follow these trails by those unaccus- 
tomed to "woods lore," and especially was 
it difficult in the twilight or after dark, 
which often occurred with those who were 
forced to work out a part of the time to 
earn something to support their families, or 
in returning from house raisings or logging 

An amusing incident was related to the 
writer by a Mr. Durbin, who lived only half 

a mile from the state road, which fully illus- 
trates these difficulties. He had been away 
from home at work and, supper being a lit- 
tle late, it was quite dark by the time he 
reached the point where he had to leave the 
state road. About half way to his house a 
tree had blown down, the top falling di- 
rectly in the path. When he reached this 
tree-top he thought he could pick his way 
around it and tell when he struck the path 
again, as every one familiar with such mat- 
ters knows that there is no sound 
of breaking twigs or crushing leaves in a 
wellbeaten path. He confidently started 
around the tree top, but did not find the 
path. He kq^t on going, however, and soon 
found himself back to the state road. He 
soon found where his path turned into the 
woods again and started for home. When 
he reached the fallen tree-top he resolved 
to take extra caution this time and find the 
path on the other side. He moved very 
carefully and listened intently for the lack 
of snapping and crunching which would in- 
indicate the finding of the path, but, not find- 
ing it, kept on going, hoping he might see 
the light in his home, when, to his great 
surprise, he finally reached the state road 
again. He was thoroughly baffled and not 



a little frightened at this turn of events, but 
finally decided to try it once more. This 
time when he reached the fallen tree-top he 
crawled through it, over the limbs and under 
the brush, never losing touch of the beaten 
path and of course got home all right that 

When the summer of 1864 closed there 
w^ere some twenty families in the county. 
These were nearly all on the line of the state 
road or within two miles of it. In the spring 
of 1865 the settlement received numerous 
additions, some coming by boat and some 
overland. During the summer of 1865 an 
arrangement was made by which Jacob York, 
one of the newcomers who had a horse and 
wagon, made weekly trips to Traverse City 
to take out and bring in the mail for the set- 
tlement, and also to do such errands and 
bring in such light articles of merchandise 
or freight as he could in his light wagon. 
By common consent the house of William 
Masters, on the state road, was chosen as 
the place for leaving and receiving letters 
and parcels, and his house soon came to be 
called the 'Tostoflice." Later in the year 
Mr. Masters was appointed postmaster and 
a mail sack was furnished in which to carry 
the mail, but the settlers had to pay Mr. 
York for his services for a year before the 
postoffice department would consent to es- 
tablish a mail route to the new settlement. 

The first school house built in Wexford 
cJ^pty was made of logs and was situated 
near the county line between Wexford and 
Grand Traverse counties. It was put up by 
volunteer work on the part of those interested 
in having a school, and the first teacher, 
Zylphia Harper, was paid under the old sys- 
tem of rate bill, for as yet there was not even 
a township or school district organization 

in the county. This school house was, a few 
years later, the scene of the first law suit ever 
held in Wexford county. It was a case of 
assault and battery between Jay J Copley 
and Myron Baldwin and grew out of the 
holding of the second caucus in Wexford 
county. The case was presided over by I. U. 
Davis, one of the justices of the peace 
elected at the first township election held in 
the county. The writer had charge of the 
jury after the final pleas were made on each 
side, and there being but one room to the 
school house, and no other building w,it]iin 
lialf a mile, he had to turn tlie spectators, 
lawyers and even the ''court" out into the 
street so that the jury could deliberate in 

Among the arrivals in the fall of 1865 
was J. H. Wheeler, from western New York, 
who had heard of the wonders of Wexford 
county through a brother of B. W. Hall, 
the first settler in the county. Being some- 
what familiar with the saw-mill business, he 
came with the intent of building a saw-mill 
with which to supply the needs of the new 
settlers in the way of lumber. It should be 
remarked here that nearly every house in 
the settlement had thus far been built prac- 
tically without a foot of lumber, for lum- 
ber was very high priced and, besides, it 
would cost thirty to forty dollars per one 
thousand feet to hire it hauled from Trav- 
erse City, the nearest place where a board 
could be found. After the settler had got 
the ^'body" of his house up, he would hew 
out some poles for rafters, split out some 
'*ribs" and nail then to the rafters, from six 
inches to one foot apart (according to 
whether he intended to use ^'shakes" or 
shingles), and nail the shingles or ^'shakes'' 
to these 'Vibs.'' By setting up other hewed 



poles in the gable ends of the house from 
the top log to the rafters and nailing ''ribs" 
and ''shakes" to them, the same as for the 
roof, he soon had his house enclosed. The 
floor was usually made of thin slabs of elm 
or bass-wood split out and hewed straight 
on the edges and then fitted to the sleepers 
on the lower sides, after which they could 
be lined and hewed to make them as even 
as possible on the upper surface. Some- 
times roofs were made of bark and occa- 
sionally an entire "shanty" was built of that 
material. Mr. Hall lived a year in a bark 
"shanty" when he first settled in the county. 
We can yet see, occasionally, a log house 
that was built thirty or thirty-five years ago 
as a home for some homesteader when he 
first became a resident of the county. 

The whole settlement were anxious to 
have a saw-mill built and readily subscribed 
a liberal amount of work toward its erection. 
Plans were perfected during the winter and 
work commenced the following spring, but 
owing to unforseen obstacles encountered in 
building the dam the work was delayed un- 
til the summer of 1867, when the mill was 
started, much to the gratification of the 
community, as well as the owner. This 
was the first saw-mill built in Wexford 
county. It was an old fashioned "muley" 
mill, something like the one heretofore de- 
scribed as the first mill in northern Michi- 
gan, but it performed an important part in 
the early development of the county. It was 
built on what for many years was known 
as the Wheeler creek, which empties into 
the Manistee river about a mile north of the 
present village of Sherman. A mill still oc- 
cupies the same site, though two structures 
on the same site have been destroyed by 
fire. Mr. Wheeler also built a frame house 

in the summer of 1867, which was the first 
frame house built in the county. 

I had almost forgotten to describe the 
manner of wintering the stock in those 
early days. Hay there was none for the first 
two years on the homestead, and straw 
was very scarce, so some other food 
must be substituted. After it was too 
late in the spring to plant ordinary 
crops the settler would clear off a patch 
for turnips or rutabagas, even sometimes 
sowing the seed among the logs after the 
brush had 1)een burned away, not having 
time to entirely clear the land. This crop 
could be put out as late as the 20th of July 
with good results and needed no care from 
seed time until late in the fall, when they 
were pulled and put into pits for the winter 
use. When the snow got so deep that the 
cattle could no longer subsist on the "Michi- 
gan clover," heretofore referred to, the set- 
tler would start in on his winter's job of 
felling trees upon which to browse his 
stock. The cattle soon began to relish and 
even thrive upon the fine twigs of the ma- 
ples, and this, with a liberal feeding of the 
turnips or rutabagas, brought them through 
the winter apparently in as good condition 
as if they had been wintered upon the best 
quality of hay. At the same time necessity 
on the part of the settler to provide for his 
stock was really a virtue in another direc- 
tion, for the more timber he was obliged 
to cut in the winter the more acres he could 
clear off in the summer. 

Judge Chubb, one of the first settlers in 
the township of Cleon, once forming a part 
of Wexford county, and who still resides at 
Copemish in that township, often relates 
his experience in getting through his stock 
the first winter after his arrival. Among 



the other animals he brought with him were 
some pigs, never dreaming of the difficulty 
of getting them through the winter, thirty 
miles from the nearest point where feed 
could be had, and with roads — such as they 
were — made impassible by four feet of snow. 
When he had fed out the last of what he had 
provided for them, and with no possible 
way of getting more food, he was in de- 
spair and was sure they would die. If they 
liad been in condition to make pork, he says, 
he would have killed them and got some ben- 
efit from them in that way, but to put off 
the evil day as long as possible in the hope 
that the snow might settle so that he could 
get out to Traverse City for supplies, the 
rations to the pigs had been curtailed al- 
most to the starvation point so that there 
was not much left of the pigs, as he puts 
it, but their "squeal.'' As a last resort, and 
entirely as an experiment, having never 
heard of the like before, he drove his pigs 
to the woods one morning with the rest of 
the stock and, to his utter amazement, they 
took right hold of the "browse," and from 
that day on to spring they followed the 
cattle every morning to the woods and he 
actually kept them the remainder of that 
winter on "browse." 

In 1867 Oren Fletcher settled in Wex- 
ford county and being a miller by trade, and 
seeing the absolute necessity of a grist-mill, 
he interested the people in the matter, and 
through the encouragements received and 
donations offered, at once commenced the 
construction of the first grist-mill in the 
county. The work was pushed vigorously 
and before winter set in the settlers had the 
satisfaction of knowing that they could get 
their gristing done witiiout having to go 
twenty-five or thirty miles to Traverse City 

for it, as had hitherto been the case. This 
mill was built on the creek ever since known 
as Fletcher creek *arid for some ten years 
was the only grist-mill in the county. 

It was also during the summer of 1867 
that the work of putting the state road in 
passable shape for travel was completed. 
While a goodly number of settlers had al- 
ready arrived in the county over "the trail," 
it was, as the word indicates, only a "trail" 
in many places and far from being in a suit- 
able condition for travel. However, steps 
had been taken for an overland mail route 
and the first thing to be done w^as to put the 
state road in shape for travel. This being 
done, the mail route was established, and di- 
rect intercourse with the "outside" during 
the whole year w^as henceforth to be a real- 
ity. Hitherto the only means by which a 
person could leave the Grand Traverse re- 
gion during the winter was on foot with the 
aid of snow shoes. Those were long win- 
ters indeed to many, wdio were strangers 
among strangers, and especially to those 
who were inclined to be at all "homesick," 
for with the slow way of getting mail to and 
from Traverse City, and the fact that all 
mail had to be carried on foot or on horse 
back over an Indian trail from Traverse 
Cit}^ to Manistee or Muskegon, it took from 
three to four weeks for a letter to go and an 
ansvVer to return from any outside point. 

Everybody in the Grand Traverse re- 
gion had been up to this time dependent 
upon Traverse City for provisions, and as 
Hannah, Lay & Company were the princi- 
pal firm at that place it was necessary for 
them to anticipate the needs of the entire 
region from November, when navigation 
closed, until May, when the first boat could 
be expected. The influx of settlers some- 



times exceeded calculation, and consequently 
provisions at the company's store would 
run pretty low before navigation opened. 
The winter of 1866-7 witnessed such a heavy 
drain upon their stock of suppHes that it 
became necessary for them to adopt the 
plan of selling only fifty pounds of flour 
and ten or fifteen pounds of pork to one 
person, in order to piece the supply out and 
make it last until the first boat should ar- 

As soon as the state road w^as suffi- 
ciently improved to permit of it a mail route 
was established, at first with only weekly 
trij^s, but very soon the service was increased 
to six times a w-eek. It required two and a 
half days to make the trip from Traverse 
City to Cedar Springs, the then northern 
terminus of the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
Railroad. At this period George W. Bry- 
ant, of Traverse City, erected quite a large 
two-story building just south of the old 
state road bridge over the Manistee river, 
intending it for a sort of hotel and grocery 
store combined. The work was done by 
Lewis J. Clark, who for some time acted 
as salesman for Mr. Bryant and also as as- 
sistant postmaster for the second postoffice 
established in the county. The name 
given to this postoffice w^as Sherman, we 
suppose in honor of General Sherman, as 
it was quite the custom in those days to name 
towns, cities, villages and postoffices after 
some noted general of the late war. This 
name, Sherman, attached itself to the hud- 
dle of houses that w^ere put up wdien the 
county w^as organized and the county seat 
estal)lishe(l, and is still retained l)y the pros- 
perous village near the Manistee river in the 
northwestern part of the county. Mr. Bry- 
ant's object in building nearly a mile north 

of the present location of the village of 
Sherman developed a little later when 
the legislature passed , an act organi- 
zing the county of Wexford. The post- 
master at this second postoffice was 
Dr. John Perry, heretofore spoken of as 
the first settler on the south side of 
Manistee river. New settlers in search of 
homestead locations had kept going farther 
and farther east of the state road until some 
of them were ten or twelve miles distant 
from the new postoffice and it was a decided 
relief to them to be able to post a letter, 
buy a pound of soda, tea or tobacco or 
twenty-five pounds of flour w^ithout having 
to go four miles farther north to the little 
grocery kept by Mr. Masters, the first post- 
master in the county. 

Mr. Clark used to tell an amusing story 
of a settler living eight miles east of the 
postoffice coming in one day for some gro- 
ceries. Among other things he wanted a 
hundred pounds of flour, and when asked 
by Mr. Clark how he was going to get the 
things home, re])lied, ''On my back." Upon 
being told by Mr. Clark that his supply of 
flour was quite low, and that it would be 
several days before he received a new sup- 
ply, and that consequently he could only 
spare him twenty- five pounds, in order that 
he might have some left to supply the wants 
of other needy customers, the man replied, 
''Huh! that would not make biscuit for 
breakfast for my family.'' It may seem 
strange to state that a man would think of 
carrying a hundred pounds of flour besides 
other small groceries a distance of eight 
mile*^ on his back, but backing, or "packing," 
as it was then called, was a common way for 
the settler to get his provisions home. There 
is a man living in the county today who on 



more than one occasion carried a hundred 
pounds of flour and several packages of 
small groceries from Traverse City to his 
home in what in now Wexford township, 
a distance of twenty-eight miles and would 
do it between sunrise and sunset. This man's 
name is R. W. Updike, a man whose repu- 
tation for truth and veracity was never ques- 
tioned by those who knew him. 

Thus will be seen some of the difficul- 
ties surrounding the new settlers. Most of 
them were from the common walks of life, 
and not one in ten of them was able to pro- 
vide himself with a team as one of the nec- 
essary things to take with him into a new 
wilderness country. Consequently ''pack- 
ing'' was a very common thing, and clearing 
land by hard labor about as common. The 
first crop was always sown without plow- 
ing the land, and frequently the second crop 
would be put in the same way, it being im- 

possible to get team work to do more than 
harrow in the seed. Corn was frequently 
and potatoes nearly always planted just as 
the fire left the land, without the aid of 
either plow or harrow. This cumpulsory 
manner of farming did not bring the results 
that a better system would have done, but 
it was the best many could do and sufticed 
to keep the wolf from the door until such 
time as team work would be more plentiful. 
For three or four years there was but one 
horse team in the county and but three or 
four ox teams, and in drawing supplies 
from Traverse City, hauling together the 
logs for the houses of the new settlers, at- 
tending logging bees to enable some new 
comer to get in a few^ potatoes or a small 
patch of winter wheat, they had all they 
could possibly do without drawing the 



Wexford county, up to the year 1866, 
was attached to the township of Brown, of 
Manistee county, for assessment and judi- 
cial purposes. At the annual meeting of the 
board of supervisors of Manistee county in 
1866 the whole county of Wexford was or- 
ganized into a new township, to be known 
by the name of Wexford. It was ordered 

that the first election should be held on the 
first Monday of April in 1867, when a full 
set of township officers should be elected. 
Previous to this time none of the 
nvmierous voters in the county had 
cast a ballot since he had resided 
in the county. One could have voted 
if he wanted to do so bad enough to 



tramp throiigb the woods a distance of 
twenty-five or thirty miles to the poHing 
place in the township of Brown in Manistee 
county, but no one had availed himself of 
that privilege. 

Just a day or two before town meeting 
day, a couple of families got together one 
evening and made up a ticket for the com- 
ing election. The head of one family was 
put on for supervisor and one of the justices 
of the peace and his son for tow^nship clerk, 
while the head of the other family was not 
forgotten, being allotted one of the high- 
way commissionerships, there being three 
for each township in those days. There was 
quite a little gathering at the polling place — 
being the first school house heretofore re- 
ferred to — and, being shown the tickets, 
which had been written out for the occasion, 
they began to inquire where and when the 
caucus was held that selected these candi- 
dates. The nominee for supervisor, Hiram 
Copley, made the remark that if they did 
not like the ticket they could go around back 
of the school house and hold another cau- 
cus and put up another ticket. This was 
said in a manner that indicated that he w^as 
sure of his election, no matter what was 
done, as he was at the head of the Republi- 
can ticket and nearly all of the voters were 
Republicans. However, a majority of those 
present took him at his word. They got 
together on the sunny side of the school 
house, for it was a raw^ April day with lots 
of snow on the ground, and made up a ticket 
and then went in and elected it. We are 
unable to give the exact number of votes 
polled at that election, but from the best 
recollection of the writer, who was there 
and stayed until the votes were counted, 
there were not to exceed thirty votes cast. 

As soon as possible after this election 
the highway commissioners commenced the 
work of laying out such roads as were nec- 
essary, and the school inspectors, acting in 
conjunction with those in the adjoining 
township of Grand Traverse county, organ- 
ized a fractional school district, comprising 
territory on either side of the county line 
between the two counties. The site of the 
school house was in Wexford county, thus 
making this the first duly organized school 
district in the county. At the first election, 
Lewis C. Dunham was elected supervisor 
and George A. Smalley tow^nship clerk. 

At the next township meeting there w^as 
also a ''bolt'' from the nominees of the Re- 
publican caucus. The *'old" settlers had 
planned to nominate Gibbs Dodge, a bright 
young man who lived on section 29 in Wex- 
ford township, as it now exists, for super- 
visor, while the ''new" settlers who had re- 
cently settled in the township now known as 
Colfax wished to nominate E. C. Dayhufi', 
one of their neighbors, to that office. This 
feeling in favor of Mr. Dayhuff was un- 
known to the friends of Mr. Dodge, con- 
sequently no effort was made to get the vot- 
ers out to the caucus. But when caucus day 
arrived it proved that Mr. Dayhufif's friends 
outnumbered those of Mr. Dodge and the 
nomination went to Mr. Dayhufif. This so 
exasperated the "old" settlers that they went 
to work and put up a Union ticket in oppo- 
sition to what they called the Dayhufif ticket. 
Between the time of holding the caucus and 
the first Monday in April there was a very 
heavy fall of snow and when election day 
dawned it was found that the roads leading 
to the eastern settlements were impassible 
and no one from that direction got to the 
polls. The result was that Mr. Dayhufif 



was defeated and Mr. Dunham was re- 
elected supervisor. So sure was Mr. Day- 
huff that he would be elected that he had 
written his friends '^outside'' to direct their 
letters to him as supervisor, and letters ac- 
tually came to the postofifice directed to *'E. 
C. Dayhuft', Supervisor of Wexford Town- 

In the Manistee county convention in 
1868, called for the selection of delegates 
to the state convention, w^hich chose dele- 
gates to the presidential convention, Gibbs 
Dodge was chosen to represent Wexford, 
which thus contributed its mite to that over- 
whelming tide of popular sentiment which 
resulted in placing the hero of Appomattox 
in the presidential chair. 

During this political campaign it be- 
came apparent to the settlers in the new- 
county that the time had come when we were 
entitled to a county organization. Accord- 
ingly at the next session of the legislature, 
which convened in January, an act for the 
organization of the county was passed. The 
terms of this act disclose the handiwork of 
Mr. Bryant, and show why he had put up 
his store building and made a little clear- 
ing on the bank of the Manistee river near 
the state road bridge. After providing for 
time and manner of organization, the act 
provided for the location of a county seat. 
It stipulated that the county seat should be 
located on section 36, in town 24, north of 
range 12 west, '' At or near the Manistee 
bridge,'' and appointing H. I. Devoe, I. N. 
Davis and E. C. Dayhuff as commissioners 
to decide the particular spot where it should 
be. After looking the situation over care- 
fully and learning something of Mr. Bry- 
ant's parsimony, and fearing that a village 

would not thrive where he owned all the 
available building sites, they determined to 
exercise all the discretion given them by the 
act and accordingly located the county seat 
within four hundred feet of the southeast 
corner of section 36, nearly three-fourths of 
a mile from Mr. Bryant's intended site on 
the bank of the M.anistee river. 

The act of organization divided the 
county into four townships, and attached 
Missaukee county to Wexford county for 
judicial purposes. The names and dimen- 
sions of the townships were as follows: 
Wexford, comprising the same territory as 
now, viz: six miles square; Springville, 
comprised of six surveyed townships, viz : 
towns 21, 22 and 23 north of ranges 11 and 
12 west; Hanover, of seven surveyed town- 
ships, viz : Township 24 north of ranges 5, 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 west, and Colfax, of 
townships 21, 22 and 23 north of ranges 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 west, or eighteen sur- 
veyed townships. 

The Republicans and Democrats each 
nominated candidates for the different of- 
fices and the Republicans carried the day on 
their entire ticket with the exception of 
judge of probate. This candidate's name 
was Solomon C. Worth and in one town 
the tickets were written S. C. Worth and 
by throwing this town out, or in other words, 
counting it as if for a different person, gave 
the Democratic candidate, I. N. Carpenter, 
more votes than for either Solomon C. 
Worth or S. C. Worth. The new officers 
were as follows : Sheriff, Harrison H. Skin- 
ner; treasurer, John H. V/heeler; county 
clerk and register of deeds, Leroy P. Chani- 
penois; judge of probate, Isaac N. Carpen- 
ter; superintendent of schools, C. L. North- 



rup ; surveyor, R. S. McClain. The highest 
number of votes cast for any candidate was 
one hundred and twenty-nine. 

At this election, which was held on the 
day designated by law for holding the annu- 
al township meetings, a full set of town- 
ship officers for each of the new townships 
were elected, the supervisors of the several 
towns being as follows: Colfax, R. S. Mc- 
Clain; Hanover, L. C. Northrup; Spring- 
ville, William Thomas; Wexford, H. I. De- 
voe. The first meeting of the board of su- 
pervisors of Wexford county was a special 
meeting held on the first day of May, 1869, 
at the home of Sylvester Clark, at which 
meeting H. I. Devoe was elected chairman 
of the board. The board at this meeting 
appointed Lewis Cornell, William Thomas 
and Erasmus Abbott as superintendents of 
poor and took action looking to a settle- 
ment with Manistee county. It also fixed 
the salaries of the new county officers, giv- 
ing the sheriff and treasurer each four hun- 
dred dollars per year, the clerk three hun- 
dred dollars and the judge of probate two 
hundred dollars.* 

There being no newspaper printed in the 
county, the Traverse Bay Eagle was selected 
to do the county printing. The board also 
authorized its chairman to select a suitable 
place for holding the circuit court for the 
county. As there was no lawyer in the 
county, a petition for the appointment of 
O. H. Mills, of Traverse City, as prosecut- 
ing attorney was forwarded to Hon. J. G. 
Ramsdell, judge of the circuit to which Wex- 
ford county belonged, and Mr. Mills was 

* At a subsequent meeting the resolution fixing these salaries 
as above stated was rescinded and the salaries fixed at one hun- 
dred dollars for the sheriff, seventy-five dollars for the treasurer, 
one hundred and fifty dollars for the clerk and one hundred dollars 
for the judge of probate. 

accordingly made the first prosecuting at- 
torney of Wexford county. 

At the annual meeting of the board of 
supervisors, in October, 1869, the county 
treasurer's report showed the total receipts 
to have been six hundred and fourteen dol- 
lars and twenty-nine cents and the expen- 
ditures four hundred and forty dollars and 
nineteen cents^ leaving a balance in the treas- 
ury of one hundred and seventy-four dol- 
lars and ten cents. At this first annual 
meeting of the board, the valuation of the 
several townships was as follows: 


Colfax $558,839.72 $ 8,071.67 1566,911.39 

Hanover 216,751.00 10,528.68 227,279.68 

Springville 97,468.29 8,225.00 105,693.29 

Wexford 22,304.60 19,090.00 41,394.60 

Total .1895,363.61 $45,915,35 $941,278.96 

It must not be forgotten that this total 
covers the valuation of the entire county of 
Missaukee as well as Wexford county, and 
it should also be remembered that the tax 
law at that time exempted homesteads from 
taxation, but provided that the improve- 
ments on homesteads should be assessed as 
personal property. This accounts for the 
comparatively large proportion of personal 
property on the tax rolls. 

At a special meeting of the board of su- 
pervisors held in January, 1870, the matter 
of building a court house was decided upon, 
and a building committee appointed whose 
duty it was to advertise for sealed bids for 
the erection of a court house in accordance 
with plans and specifications prepared by 
William Holdsworth, Sr., of Traverse City, 
the cost not to exceed five thousand dollars, 
exclusive of the foundation, which was un- 
der a separate contract. J. H. Wheeler was 
the successful bidder for the court house 



job and the preparatory work was entered 
upon at once. One great reason why the 
work of building a court house was begun 
so soon after the county was organised was 
the fact that the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
Railroad was pushing its road northward 
which it was feared that when it went 
through Wexford county there would 
be some point on its line where a 
town would spring up and would be 
desirous of having the county seat, and 
it was thought that the building of a 
court house would tend to prevent the 
removal of the county seat. To further 
strengthen this feature of the situation, 
when the deed was drawn to the county 
for the site of the court house it was made 
for so long as the property was used for 
county seat purposes. Surely this, it was 
thought, would hold the county seat, for 
when the voters understood that by a removal 
of the county seat the county would lose five 
or six thousand dollars which it had put 
into a court house and jail, it would cause 
them to vote against removal. How little 
such reasoning amounted to will be seen 
later when- the fight over the county seat 
really got warmed up. 

As there were no rooms that could be 
rented for county offices, the officers held 
their respective offices at their residences. 
The first session of the circuit court was held 
in the little log hotel kept by Sylvester Clark. 
The only thing for the "court'' to do was to 
give suggestions to the new sheriff and oth- 
er officers regarding the duties they might 
be called upon to perform, and to instruct 
the county clerk as to what books it would 
be necessary to have for court work. 

When the location of the county seat 
had been definitely settled Mr. Henry Clark, 

who had been very active in securing the 
site for the county buildings, contributing 
four hundred dollars in cash for that pur- 
pose, besides donating about three acres of 
land, induced E. G. Maqueston, of Big 
Rapids, to come to Sherman and build a 
store building and engage in a general mer- 
cantile business. Mr. Maqueston had never 
done anything in that line, but his brother, 
I. H. Maqueston, of New York, was some- 
what familiar with the mercantile business 
and it was not long before the two brothers 
had decided to embark in business in the 
new county of Wexford. They commenced 
at once the construction of a large store 
building, twenty-two by sixty feet in size 
and two stories high. This was completed 
about the first of September, 1869, and was 
quite an imposing structure, being the sec- 
ond frame building put up in what is now: 
known as the village of Sherman. The build- 
ing still stands and during all these years has 
been used as a general store. The second 
story of this building was left for a hall 
which could be used for court room, danc- 
ing hall or church services, and, as a matter 
of fact, it was used at different times for all 
these purposes. It was in this hall that the 
first preaching services wxre held in Sher- 
man, and, so far as any record can be found, 
in the county, except one or two funeral 
services which had been previously held. 
This first preaching service was on the last 
Sunday in December, 1869, conducted by 
Rev. A. K. Herrington, who had settled on 
a homestead in Wexford township. 

In the fall of 1869 T. A. Ferguson, a 
recent graduate from the law department of 
the university at Ann Arbor, having seen a 
notice of the organization of the new county 
of Wexford, made a visit to the county seat 



with a view of getting the position of prose- 
cuting attorney for the county. He found 
the prospect so favorable that he decided 
to remain and at once began building a 
house in the village and before winter set 
in he with his young wife commenced their 
first housekeqoing at the new county seat. 
The county now having a resident lawyer, 
there was no trouble in having the circuit 
judge appoint him as prosecuting attorney 
and he thus became the county's first resi- 
dent prosecuting attorney. Later in the fall 
came H. B. Sturtevant, a brother-in-law of 
Mr. Ferguson, and commenced that business 
career which made him one of the most in- 
fluential residents in the county until his 
very recent removal to Owasso. He was 
not only active and influential in business, 
but was a natural politician and for thirty- 
five years has had an active interest in the 
political affairs of the county. 

Mr. Ferguson and Mr. Sturtevant, com- 
ing fresh from the constant political strife 
which ever holds sway in old settled com- 
munities, began at once to lay plans for their 
own political advancement, and when the 
time approached for a convention to nomi- 
nate candidates for the second county elec- 
tion, they had done their work so quietly 
and so well that they secured control of, 
the Republican county convention. As 
there were only five townships to send dele- 
gates, the work was not so very difficult. 
In one township the caucus was called to 
order an hour before the time named in the 
notice, delegates elected, and caucus ad- 
journed before the proper time had arrived 
for calling it and before the majority of the 
voters reached the voting place. In another 
town enough Democrats attended and voted 

to out-vote the Republicans who were op- 
posed to a change in the county officers. 

Contesting delegates were elected in the 
towns which were so grossly manipulated, 
but the managers of the scheme knew some- 
thing of the science of politics, while the 
'^other fellows" were as green as pumpkins 
in that line. It was therefore an easy matter 
to get the right chairman, and an easy thing 
to have the chairman appoint the right com- 
mittee on credentials, and the contesting del- 
egates were disposed of in short order, and 
the convention did the work laid out for it 
by nominating an entire new set of officers, 
except surveyor and judge of probate. I. 
N. Carpenter, a Democrat, being renomi- 
nated, the reason therefor having been gen- 
erally believed to have been in recognition 
.of the help given by the Democrats in the 
caucuses. The officers as nominated by that 
convention were as follows : Sheriff, Jos- 
eph Sturr; clerk and register, H. B. Sturte- 
vant; treasurer, William Masters; prose- 
cuting attorney and circuit court commis- 
sioner, T. A. Ferguson; judge of probate, 
I. N. Carpenter; surveyor, R. S. McClain. 
The new treasurer was not selected because 
of his fitness, but because it would be nec- 
essary to have a deputy to do the work, and 
Mr. Ferguson wanted to be deputy. After 
election this was done, and Mr. Ferguson 
in addition to his duties as prosecuting at- 
torney, transacted the entire business of the 
treasurer's office during the term for which 
Mr. Masters was elected. The total vote at 
this second county election was one hunderd 
and ninety-one. 

At the annual meeting of the board of 
supervisors, in October, 1870, surveyed 
township 22, north of range 10, west, was 



organized under the name of Thorp, in hon- 
or of Col. T. J. Thorp, one of its early set- 
tlers. This name was afterwards changed 
to Selma, which it has retained ever since. 
This was the first town organized by the 
board of supervisors and the fifth in the 
county. Another new township was organ- 
ized a few months later consisting of town 
21, north of ranges ii and 12 west, and 
given the name of Henderson, also after 
one of its earliest settlers. 

During the summer of 1870 the frame 
of the court house was put up and enclosed, 
and L. P. Champenois, H. B. Sturtevant, 
J. H. Wheeler and two or three others 
erected houses in the new village, and L. J. 
Clarke, whose little store building stood on 
the corner now occupied by E. Gilbert's 
large two-story store, moved his building 
to the lot now occupied by the Sherman 
bank and built a large addition thereto. 

In January, 1870, the first effort looking 
to the organization of a church society was 
made. Presiding Elder Boynton, of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, visited Sher- 
man, accompanied by Rev. Mr. Cayton, a 
Methodist minister living in Grand Trav- 
erse county, and perfected arrangements for 
preaching services every alternate Sunday, 
which were to be conducted by Mr. Cayton. 
At first these meetings were held at the home 
of L. P. Champenois, and later at the Ma- 
queston hall until the school house was 
built in the fall of 1871, when that was used 
for church purposes. Soon after Mr. Cay- 
ton entered upon his work the first sacra- 
mental service in Wexford county was held 

at the home of H. B. Sturtevant, the only 
communicants being Mr. Sturtevant, his 
wife Rhoda and T. A. Ferguson. At the 
Methodist Episcopal conference held in the 
fall of 1870, Rev. A. L. Thurston, who had 
located a homestead in Thorp (now Selma) 
township, was designated as ''supply'' for 
the church work at Sherman and held regu- 
lar meetings there, unless prevented by the 
inclemency of the weather. His home was 
about sixteen miles from Sherman and it 
was no easy task to cover the distance upon 
such roads or trails as existed at that time, 
especially in the winter months. 

It almost seems like a stretch of the im- 
agination to recall those early religious 
gatherings. There was not a church bell or 
even school house bell to call the people to- 
gether, not a piano, organ or any kind of in- 
strument to assist in the singing, and not 
even a choir to take charge of it. Sometimes 
some one with a "tuning fork" might be 
present to ''pitch" the tunes in the proper 
key, but more generally the tunes would be 
started by some one bold enough to take 
the initiatory, often so high that the soprano 
voices could hardly reach the high strains, 
and sometimes necessitating an absolute 
breaking down and starting over again. And 
yet, through the distance, it seems as if 
there was far more reverence, more con- 
scientious worship in those primitive gath- 
erings than in the present up-to-date 
churches with their upholstered chairs, their 
pipe-organs, their paid choirs and their 
chiming church bells. 



In the closing days of 1870 the '^iron 
horse" made its first appearance in Wex- 
ford county, the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
Railroad having completed its line as far 
as Little Clam lake, some six miles north- 
ward from the southern boundary of the 
county. The original survey contemplated 
having the line pass between Big Cfam lake 
and Little Clam lake,* but through the 
efforts of George. A. Mitchell, who had pur- 
chased quite a large tract of pine timber 
on the east shore of the little lake, and 
whose sagacious eye foresaw the advantages 
of having mills at the eastern end^ of 
a body of water where the prevailing west- 
erly winds would very materially assist in 
floating timber to them, the railroad com- 
pany was induced to swing eastward from 
its orignal survey and pass around the east 
end of the lake. The advantages that have 
resulted from this change of course can 
hardly be realized by one not familiar with 
lumbering operations, but it is not too much 
to say that there would have been no city 
of Cadillac in Wexford county if the rail- 

* These lakes have just been re-christened, and the smaller 
one will hereafter be known as Lake Cadillac, and the larger one 
as Lake Mitchell. 

road had passed, as first intended, between 
the lakes. 

With the advent . of railroads came a 
complete change in the base of business for 
the whole county. As soon as regular trains 
could be run the mail route was changed 
and the daily stage coaches, which had been 
running over the old state road, first to 
Cedar Springs, then to Morley, and then 
to Big Rapids, from Traverse City, were 
started on the new route to Clam Lake, as 
it was then called. Merchants began to 
have their goods shipped to the new rail- 
road terminal, and business with Traverse 
City from that day almost entirely ceased. 

During the winter of 1871 fire 
destroyed the saw-mill of J. H. Wheeler, 
causing much inconvenience and delay in 
getting out the material with which to com- 
plete the court house. The work of re- 
building was begun at once and when spring 
opened it was again in running order. 
Another serious difficulty encountered in 
the building of the court house, as well as 
all matters of public nature, was the slow 
process of getting returns from taxes lev- 
ied. Far the larger share of the real estate 
in the county was owned by non-residents, 



who had been in the habit of paying their 
taxes at the auditor general's office in Lan- 
sing and who for several years after the 
organization of the county followed the 
same practice. In those days there was 
only a yearly settlement with the state, in- 
stead of quarterly as at present, and so the 
taxes assessed in any given year were re- 
turned to the county treasurer in March of 
the next year, if not paid, and in the Oc- 
tober following the county treasurer would 
have to make a trip to the capital to settle 
with the auditor-general and bring back the 
money that belonged to the county and the 
townships. As a result of this process all 
public improvements were paid for with 
orders drawn on the proper township or 
county funds and the jobber would sell 
them at the stores for whatever price he 
could get. So low had the county's credit 
got before the court house was completed 
that the contractor sold a one thousand dol- 
lar county order for eight hundred dollars 
and had to take half of that amount in 
''store pay." Township and highway or- 
ders were often sold at still greater dis- 

During the summer of 1871 the con- 
tinued expansion of the lumbering interests 
of Manistee had pushed their way up the 
Manistee river until they had invaded Wex- 
ford county. Before logs could be floated 
to Manistee it became necessary to cut off 
the great number of sweepers (fallen trees 
projecting into the river) and clear away 
the many jams of flood wood reaching en- 
tirely across the river. This required a 
large force of men, with axes and saws, and 
long lines of rope, with heavy two, three 
and four-shieve tackle blocks, and even 

with all the necessary appliances the work 
at times progressed very slowly. 

The county of Missaukee, which had up 
to this time been a part of Wexford coun- 
ty since its organization in 1869, was or- 
ganized into a separate county by the leg- 
islature of 1 87 1, and held its first election 
on the first Monday in April of that year. 
This greatly reduced the aggregate value of 
taxable property in the county, as shown by 
the equalization as fixed by the board of 
supervisors at their annual session in that 
year, the total valuation of the county for 
that year having been fixed at $498,861.86, 
including $35,826.00 of personal property. 

In the fall of 1871 Mr. Ferguson started 
to remove his home, which occupied the 
present site of the Sherman House, pre- 
paratory to erecting a commodious hotel. 
It was during the very dry time in the fall 
of that year, which witnessed such vast, de- 
structive forest fires in Michigan and Wis- 
consin, as well as the great Chicago fire. 
After the first day's efforts in the work of 
moving the task w^as but half accomplished, 
and the house was left in the street when 
night came on. About midnight a cry of 
*Tire'' awoke the villagers and this house 
was found to be in flames. Forest fires 
were raging not more than one hundred 
rods away, but whether sparks from these 
fires or the hand of an incendiary caused 
the destruction of this house was never 
known. Many believed it was the latter, 
as Mr. Ferguson, in his capacity of pros- 
ecuting attorney, had in several cases been 
instrumental in causing just punishment to 
be meted out to violators of the prohibitory 
liquor law which was then upon the statute 
books of Michigan, and it was thought that 



the building was set on fire as an act of re- 
venge, but if so, the guilty party was never 

In November, 1871, Mr. Ferguson com- 
menced the work of building a hotel, the lit- 
tle log hotel — the only hotel then at the 
county seat — not being sufficient to accom- 
modate the growing needs of the public. 
The work was pushed along as rapidly as 
possible, but in those days every foot of 
flooring, ceiling, siding or finishing lumber 
had to be dressed by hand, there being no 
planing-mill nearer than Traverse City, and 
it would cost as much to draw the luml>er 
there and back as it would to hire the work 
done by hand. The hotel was finished some 
time in January, 1872, and E. Gilbert, now 
a prosperous merchant at Sherman, was in- 
stalled as its first landlord. A large school 
house was also put up in the county seat 
town during the fall of 1871 and was ready 
for use in December of that year. Previ- 
ous to this there had been no public school 
in the new village, although a private school 
had been taught a part of the time, Mrs. 
Gilbert and H. B. Sturtevant having at 
diflierent times been in charge as teacher. 

At the annual meeting of the board of 
supervisors in 1871 a resolution was passed 
authorizing the superintendents of poor to 
purchase a poor farm on section 16, in 
what is now Antioch township. This was 
done and the following summer a large 
two-story building was erected in which to 
care for such unfortunates as might be- 
come a county charge. 

In the early days of 1872 there 
came to the county seat town two young 
and energetic men from Howell, Liv- 
ingston county, to see what encourage- 
ment they could get toward the establish- 

ment of a newspaper. Everybody was anx- 
ious to have a newspaper started and it did 
not take long to secure pledges enough to 
warrant the venture, and on the first day 
of May, 1872, the first issue of the Wex- 
ford County Pioneer was printed. The 
publishers were Charles E. Cooper, late ed- 
itor of the Manton Tribune, and A. W. 
Tucker. This was the first newspaper ven- 
ture in the county. 

During the year 1872 three new town- 
ships were organized by the board of su- 
pervisors, viz : Clam Lake, Cedar Creek 
and Antioch. Quite a village had sprung 
up where now stands the city of Cadillac, 
and it was not long until it became ap- 
parent that an effort would be made to se- 
cure the removal of the county seat from 
Sherman to the new village of Clam Lake. 
The inauguration, development and success 
of this effort will be treated in a separate 
chapter in order to give the details in a 
more connected manner than occasional ref- 
erence thereto with contemporaneous his- 
tory. The court house was completed in 
1872 and also a county jail, thus giving the 
county ample room for its officers and 
courts, its prisoners and its paupers. 

In the spring of 1872 Rev. Jonas Den- 
ton, a Congregational minister, located at 
the county seat and through his efforts a 
Congregational church society was organ- 
ized with the following membership, viz : 
H. I. Devoe and wife, C. L. Northrup and 
wife, A. Anderson and wife and Gifford 
Northrup. Services were held in the vil- 
lage school house once in two weeks, al- 
ternating with the Methodist Episcopal 

The new county had its first gen- 
uine experience with politics in 1872. In 



that year was held the first presidential 
election since the organization of the coun- 
ty. That election witnessed probably the 
greatest number of presidential candidates 
in the history of the country. There were 
seven in all, as follows : Gen. U. S. Grant, 
renominated by the Republican party; 
Horace Greeley, nominated by the Lib- 
eral Republicans and endorsed by one wing 
of the Democratic party; Charles O'Con- 
nor, nominated by the "straight-out" Dem- 
ocrats; James R. Black, by the Prohibition- 
ists; W. vS. Groesbeck, by the Revenue Re- 
formers; David Davis, by the Labor Re- 
form party, and Charles Francis Adams, by 
the Anti-Secret Society party. 

During this memorable campaign the 
first political club ever known in Wexford 
county was organized at the county seat. 
As a matter deemed worthy of historical 
preservation, the names of the members of 
; Wexford county's first political club are here 
given as follows : W. J. Austin, II P. 
Champenois, E. Gilbert, J. H. Alberts, E. 
S. Carpenter, S. Gasser, Harvey Burt, E. J. 
Copley, N. L. Hanna, J. P. Barney, Jonas 
Denton, Isaac Johnson, Moses Cole, Mar- 
tin Daniels, T. H. Lyman, Charles E. 
Cooper, Charles Fancher, C. McClintock, 
William Cole, A. Finch, William McClin- 
tock, H. J. Carpenter, T. A. Ferguson, 
William Mears, Arthur Morrell, Nathan E. 
Soles, B. Woods, C. L. Northrup, H. B. 
Sturtevant, J. S. Walling, J. L. Newberry, 
Stephen Snyder, S. C. Worth, J. B. Paul, 
A. E. Smith, George W. Wheeler, James 
Seaton, A. W. Tucker, J. S. York, J. H. 
Wheeler, forty. It was called the Grant 
and Wilson Club and of its forty members 
at least one-half are still living, and al- 
though a few have drifted into other po- 

litical organizations, nearly all of the sur- 
viving members are still true to the party 
whose principles they subscribed to over 
thirty years ago. 

We had few speeches, no torch-light 
processions, no barbecues, no bonfires; in- 
deed, there was no occasion for such things, 
for Wexford county politics in those days 
was somewhat like the handle to a jug — 
wonderfully one-sided. The total vote for 
presidential electors was three hundred and 
fifty-one, of which two hundred and sev- 
enty-seven were in favor of U. S. Grant 
and seventy-four for Horace Greeley. 
Neither of the other five candidates re- 
ceived a vote in Wexford county. At the 
November election in 1872 the following 
county officers were elected, all Republi- 
cans: Sherifl:', E. D. Abbott; clerk, and 
register, H. B. Sturtevant; treasurer, Ezra 
Harger; prosecuting attorney and circuit 
court commissioner, S. S. Fallass; judge of 
probate, William Mears; surveyor, A. K. 

In this election Hon. T. A. Ferguson 
was elected representative in the state leg- 
islature for the district to which Wex- 
ford county was attached. The bill intro- 
duced by him, and which his efforts secured 
the passage of, which most largely inter- 
ested his constituents and gained for him 
their united praise was the act taxing rail- 
road lands. The railroad company claimed 
that their lands should not be taxed until 
five years after the issuing of the patents 
therefor, and even after the passage of this 
bill introduced by Mr. Ferguson they re- 
fused to pay the first tax levied against 
their lands, claiming the law to be unconsti- 
tutional. They took the case to the su- 
preme court, got beaten and thereafter their 



lands helped to pay the burden lx)me by the 
pubHc for the support of government. 

During the summer of 1872 the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad was pushed on 
through the county and as a result another 
new village came into existence. It was at 
first called Cedar Creek, after the township 
in which it was located, but later the name 
was changed to Manton. This shortened 
the distance from the county seat to the 
railroad by nearly one-half and enabled the 
making of a round trip in a day instead of 
taking two days, as before. The mail route 
was soon changed and all railroad business 
was thereafter transferred to the new sta- 

A second newspaper was started in the 
county in 1872, its first issue appearing 
June 1st. It was given the name of the 
Clam Lake News, and was published by C. 
L. Frazier for a few months, but in No- 
vember of that year its management was 
assumed by S. S. Fallass, the new prose- 
cuting attorney-elect. 

The year 1872 witnessed the inau- 
guration of the stupendous lumbering 
operations, which has at last swept 
away nearly the last vestige of the large 
tracts of pine timber which the county then 
possessed. In addition to the heavy opera- 
tions along the Manistee river, the new vil- 
lage of Clam Lake was a genuine lumbering 
town. As early as June, 1872, there had 
been two saw-mills, each with a capacity of 
twenty-five thousand feet per day, put in 
operation, and a few months later two oth- 
ers were started, with a capacity of forty 
and sixty thousand feet per day, respective- 
ly. These four mills manufactured about 
four million feet of lumber per month, or 
nearly fifty million per year. 

If one stops a moment to contemplate 

the work of these mills, and those built soon 
afterward at Haring, Long Lake, Bond's 
Mills, McCoy's Siding and on the shores of 
Clam lake, and their constant operation for 
ten, fifteen and twenty years each, he can 
get some idea of the vast wealth in the pine 
forests in Wexford county at that early 

During the legislative session of 1873 ^^^ 
act was passed detaching the township of* 
Cleon from Manistee county and attach- 
ing it to Wexford county. The act was 
thought to be unconstitutional, as it changed 
the boundaries of legislative and judicial 
districts in effect, though not specifically 
providing for such changes, consequently it 
had to be re-enacted at the next session of 
the legislature. This town remained a part 
of Wexford county until the year 1881, 
when, by act of the legislature, it was set 
back into Manistee county. While it re- 
mained in Wexford county, Alonzo Chubb, 
one of its most prominent citizens, was 
elected judge of probate for Wexford coun- 
ty and served a four-year term. 

Two new townships were organized by 
the legislature of 1873, ^^^ • Haring and 
Greenwood, the former consisting of town- 
ship 22 north of range 9 west, and the lat- 
ter of town 24 north of ranges 9 and 10 
west, making thirteen towlnships in the coun-^ 
ty. The first agricultural society in the coun- 
ty was organized in October, 1873, ^^^^^^ 
Alonzo Chubb as president; A. M. Lamb, of 
Clam Lake, T. A. Ferguson, of Hanover, 
and Warren Seaman, of Cedar Creek, vice- 
presidents; George Manton, of Colfax, as 
secretary, and C. J. Mankletow, of Selma, 
as treasurer. 

Rev. R. Rideoff succeeded Mr. Denton 
as pastor of the Congregational church at 
Sherman in April, 1873, and through his 



efforts the vSociety built a church building 
during the summer, which was dedicated 
October 1 1 of that year. This was the first 
church building erected at the county seat 
and the second in the county, the Methodist 
Episcopal society of Clam Lake having got- 
ten their church edifice in condition for oc- 
cupancy in July of that year. 

As a result of the taxation of the rail- 
road company's lands, the aggregate valu- 
ation of the county, as equalized by the 
board of supervisors in October, 1873, was 
$1,423,416.63, greatly reducing the rate of 
taxation and thereby relieving a part of the 
burden which had hitherto been borne by 
the people of the county. 




To show that Wexford county was 
still quite a wilderness in 1874, two local 
trappers, by the name of Walter and Jesse 
Mesick, caught twenty-four bears in the 
spring of that year, besides the capture of 
several others by other residents of the 
county. Deer were also very numerous and 
many a settler saved a considerable portion 
of his meat bill by eating venison; in fact, 
many of them were without the necessary 
means to purchase meat, and wild meat was 
all they had. Many a saddle of venison 
was left at the door of needy settlers by the 
Mesick brothers, with no thought of re- 

It must I)e borne in mind that the early 
settlers in this county, as in all new coun- 
ties, were of limited means, and by the time 
they had paid for moving their families and 
household goods thirty to fifty miles to their 

homesteads and had gotten up a little house 
to shelter them, their money in many in- 
stances was about exhausted. One of to- 
day's prosperous men in Wexford county 
had to work out by day's work to earn the 
money to pay the freight on his goods aft- 
er their arrival at Traverse City. It was no 
uncommon occurrence that people would 
sometimes live for days and weeks upon 
potatoes and salt. Even leeks were resorted 
to as an article of diet by some, and there 
are merchants and ex-postmasters still liv- 
ing in the county who can well remember 
the odor brought into their places of busi- 
ness by those who resorted to this produc- 
tion of nature to eke out their scanty supply 
of food. It may be said that these men 
might have gone out and worked for others 
and earned enough to have lived more com- 
fortably, but let any such imagine a man 



with a family going twenty-five miles from 
the nearest trading point, through a dense 
forest, and starting in to make a home. No 
team, no cow, nothing but his hands with 
which to fell and clear away the monarchs 
of the forest and erect a log house to live in. 
His neighbors were few and, for the most 
part, in like circumstances as himself. 
When such conditions are realized, one can 
see that the result must have been privation. 
Of course these pioneers had to work out 
some of the time, but they had the courage 
and fortitude to suffer privation for a time, 
that they might the sooner be in a position 
to raise the necessaries of life upon their 
own land. 

The census of 1874 showed a popula- 
tion of thirty-one hundred and twenty-five, 
as compared with six hundred and seventy 
in 1870, a gain of over four hundred and 
fifty per cait. This is the most rapid 
growth in the history of the county and was 
the direct result of the building of the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad and the 
advent of newspapers in the county. Many 
a settler was induced to come to the coun- 
ty from reading about it in the papers pub- 
lished in the county. 

The legislature of 1873 passed a resolu- 
tion submitting to the people a constitu- 
tional amendment granting to women the 
right of suft'rage, the vote on its adoption 
to be taken at the general election in No- 
vember, 1874. There was an animated dis- 
cussion of the question in the county dur- 
ing the summer, but of course the amend- 
ment was defeated. The public mind was 
not ripe for such a movement at that early 
date. It might not be amiss to reproduce a 
prediction made by "Zelma," a correspond- 
ent of the Wexford County Pioneer dur- 

ing that canvass : ''But with all the oppo- 
sition men can ofifer, this measure will be- 
come a law all over the United States. 
Tis just as certain to l^e as the sun is to rise. 
It will probably be years before it becomes 
general, but, like the eels, they'll like it when 
they get used to it." This prophecy of near- 
ly thirty years ago has, in part, been ful- 
filled already, and who shall say the time 
will not come when it will be true entirely? 

The township of Liberty was organized 
by the board of supervisors in October, 
1874, making fourteen organized townships 
in the county. The county campaign of 
1874 was really the first hotly contested one 
had in the county. Both parties put up 
strong tickets, and a vigorous fight was 
made by each. The opposing tickets were 
as follows : Sheriff, J. Shackleton, Repub- 
lican, J. E. Culver, Democrat; treasur- 
er, E. Harger, Rep., I. H. Maqueston, Dem. ; 
clerk and register, H. B. Sturtevant, Rep. : 
clerk, E. Shay, Dem. ; register, I. N. 
Carpenter, Dem. ; prosecuting attorney and 
circuit court commissioner, D. A. Rice, 
Rep., E. F. Sawyer, Dem. ; surveyor, C. J. 
Mankleton, Rep., S. H. Beardsley, Dem. ; 
superintendent of schools, A. K. Harring- 
ton, Rep., William L. Tilden, Dem.; coro- 
ners, H. N. Green and George Roth, Reps., 
H. B. Wilcox and William E. Dean, Dems. 

The Republicans elected their entire 
ticket except the surveyor, though some of 
the majorities were quite small. Sheriff 
Shackleton had 226 majority; H. B. Sturt- 
evant had 113 majority for clerk and 80 for 
register; E. Harger had 22y majority for 
treasurer; S. H. Beardsley (Dem.), 39 ma- 
jority for surveyor; D. A. Rice had 483 
majority for prosecuting attorney, and cir- 
cuit court commissioner, Mr. Sawyer having 



withdrawn from the contest; A. K. Har- 
rington had 223 majority for superintend- 
ent of schools ; and H. N. Green and George 
Roth had 214 and 8, respectively, for cor- 

Hon. T. A. Ferguson was renominated 
for representative in the state legislature, 
his opponent being a Mr. Holbrook, of 
Clam Lake. Owing to the fact that Mr. 
Ferguson in his first term had secured the 
passage of the bill annexing Cleon to Wex- 
ford county, and the further fact that it was 
thought to be necessary to do the work over 
again to make it entirely legal, and also to 
the fact that the people of Clam Lake did 
not want the town to remain in Wexford 
county, as it tended to prevent the removal 
of the county seat to that village, the Clam 
Lake News, a Republican journal, espoused 
the candidacy of Mr. Holbrook, the nomi- 
nee of the Democratic party, and did all in 
its power to secure his election. Notwith- 
standing this, Mr. Ferguson was elected by 
nearly five hundred majority in the district. 

The first agricultural fair in Wexford 
county was held in October, 1874. A very 
good display was made in the various de- 
partments, but, owing to the newness of the 
country, the only fruit shown was a plate of 
grapes grown by H. J. Carpenter. C. L. 
Northrup, one of the early settlers in the 
county, having taken up the study of the 
law in the office of T. A. Ferguson, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in the summer of 1874 and 
commenced practicing with Mr. Ferguson, 
the name of the new firm being Ferguson & 

As previously stated, the Grand Rap- 
ids & Indiana Railroad Company took the 
case of the taxation of their lands to the su- 
preme court, and in March, 1875, ^ decision 

was reached upholding the law and requir- 
ing the company to pay taxes that had been 
assessed aginst its lands. As a result of this 
decision, there was paid into the treasury 
of Wexford county in the spring of 1875 
the sum of $33,207.08, which should have 
been paid during the two preceding years. 
A large portion of the money — in fact, near- 
ly all of it — went back to the townships, 
consequently the latter were enabled to make 
great improvements in roads and school 
houses and to pay up indebtedness caused 
by the refusal of the railroad company to 
pay their taxes when they were due. 

At the spring election in 1875 Harrison 
H. Wheeler was elected judge of the cir- 
cuit to which Wexford county belonged, 
over's. W. Fowler, of Manistee, his Dem- 
ocratic opponent. Judge Wheeler had previ- 
ously served the circuit some time, having 
been appointed to fill the vacancy caused 
by the resignation of Judge White. So well 
was Judge Wheeler liked that he received 
almost the solid vote of Wexford county 
and in several townships in the county there 
was not a vote cast for his opponent. 

In those days there was no limit to the 
number of special meetings the board of 
supervisors could have during a year, and 
such meetings were sometimes very fre- 
quent. To such an extent were these special 
meetings indulged in that it came to be re- 
marked, when the notice of a special meet- 
ing was seen, ''It must be that the super- 
visors are getting out of pork again." Two 
of these special sessions of the board were 
held during the summer of 1875, ^^ both 
of which a petition for the organization of a 
township, to be called the township of Sum- 
mit, was presented. Action on these peti- 
tions was frustrated at both of these meet- 



ings, principally because of the bearing the 
organization of this town would have on the 
county seat question, but at the annual ses- 
sion of the board the matter was again 
brought up under a new petition, asking 
that the same territory be organized into a 
township to be called Boon. This effort 
was successful and another township was 
added to the roll of townships in the 

The Colorado potato beetle, a few spec- 
imens of which had been noticed in 1874, 
became quite numerous in 1875. Many 
ways of destroying them were suggested 
and tried, but nothing except the poison 
method succeeded. Much was said at the 
time against the use of paris green, it be- 
ing claimed that the plant would absorb the 
poison and convey it to the tubers and thus 
injure those who ate them, but experience 
has proved the fallacy of such reasoning. 
Much was written about the new pest, and 
the general belief was that it would not re- 
main long, but pass away like the Jocusts, 
Subsequent experience, however, has 
shown this little beetle to have the great- 
est staying qualities of anything known to 
the nineteenth century. It seems a little 
strange that this destructive beetle should 
have remained in its native haunts and let 
potatoes grow for two or three hundred 
years unmolested, and then suddenly swoop 
down upon the whole land in numbers suf- 
ficient to destroy the entire crop, if let alone. 
Perhaps the rapaciousness of its appetite 
can be partially accounted for by these long 
years of waiting for its favorite dish of po- 

The most destructive June frost ever ex- 
perienced in the county occurred on June 
12, 1875. Winter wheat and rye had 

headed out and were thus ruined by the 
frost. A few settlers tried the experiment 
of mowing down the growth already made, 
and those w4io did so were rewarded with 
a second growth, which yielded ten or 
twelve bushels to the acre, but the fields 
that were left uncut proved almost an utter 
failure. The frost was so severe that it 
killed the new growth on the beech tree 
branches and the leaves as well. It did no 
injury to fruit, for the very good reason 
that there had been no fruit trees planted 
long enough to bud or blossom. The usual 
early snow falls did not occur in the fall 
of 1875 and the year closed with the mild- 
est weather for the. season ever before 
known since the first settlement of the coun- 
ty. Games of base ball were played the 
first day of the year 1876 in Sherman, and 
it was not until near the close of January 
that sufficient snow fell to make good 

An effort was made early in 1876 to 
organize a company to be known as The 
Manistee River Navigation Company, with 
a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, the 
object being to put a boat on the river to 
run between Manistee and Sherman, but the 
project was abandoned as sufficient sub- 
scription for stock could not be secured. 

The first mowing machine brought into 
Wexford county was purchased by Jerome 
Bartley in the summer of 1876. Previous 
to this time all hay and grain raised in the 
county had been cut with the scythe and 
the cradle. At the election of November, 
1876, the county cast nine hundred and 
thirty-eight votes for president, six hun- 
dred and eighteen for Hayes and Wheeler, 
three hundred and eighteen for Tilden and 
Hendricks, one for Peter Cooper (Green- 



back) and "one for the Prohibition candi- 
date. The new county officers were all Re- 
publican, thongh one of them, Alonzo 
Chubb, judge of probate, was elected on an 
''independent" ticket, defeating the Repub- 
lican nominee for that office. Rev. A. L. 

As a general, rather than a local, his- 
toric fact, it might be well to mention the 
first effort toward the resumption of specie 
payment by the government. Congress had 
provided for the coinage of twenty-six mil- 
lions of silver bullion into minor coins with 
which to redeem the fractional paper cur- 
rency that had served the people for 
''change" since 1863. It was a novel thing 
to many of the younger people to see "hard" 
money instead of "soft" money in circula- 
tion, as no one under eighteen years of age 
could remember to have seen the like before. 
It was not long until the great volume of 
"shin plasters" had entirely disappeared and 
their place filled by the minor silver coins. 

This was a wonderful help in paving 
the way for a complete resumption of specie 
payment, which was brought about only a 
few years later. The legislature of 1877 
passed a law granting a city charter to the 
village of Clam Lake, though under a new 
name, Cadillac. It is quite doubtbul if this 
little town would have thought of being 
made a city, much less to change its name, 
had it not been for its desire to become the 
county seat. A bill of this kind would have 
met with strenuous objections from other 
sections of the county had not its origin and 
pathway through the legislature been 
shielded by a new and mysterious name. 
So completely did this name hide the object 
of the bill that no one except those on the 
"inside" were aware of the object sought 

until it had passed both houses and been 
signed by the governor. 

This act provided for dividing the city 
into three wards and giving to each ward 
a supervisor, who, of course, was a member 
of the board of supervisors, thus giving to 
the township of Clam Lake a representa- 
tion of four on the board, one from the town 
and three from the city, that was within 
the limits of the town, except a little strip 
that was taken from the township of Rar- 
ing. There were only about six or seven 
hundred people in the new city, the school 
census for the previous year showing but 
three hundred and fifty children of school 
age in the entire township of Clam Lake, 
including the village . The number of 
school children in the other townships of 
the county at that time was as follows : 
Antioch, 90; Cedar Creek, 119; Cherry 
Grove, 25; Cleon, 23; Colfax, 92; Green- 
wood, 8; Hanover, 58; Haring, 10; Hen- 
derson, 4: Liberty, 13; Selma, 51; Spring- 
ville, 20; Wexford, 100; total for the coun- 
ty, 958. Another new township by the 
name of Sherman, was organized in 1877, 
consisting of section i in town 23, north of 
range 12 west, section 6 in town 23, north 
of range it west, section 31 in town 24, 
north of range 11 west, and section 36 in 
town 24, north of range 12 west. 

During the latter part of the year 1877 
a company was organized with the object 
in view of building a narrow gauge rail- 
road from Sherman to Cadillac. A pre- 
liminary survey was made of the proposed 
road and the route pronounced feasible, but 
the promoters were not able to interest cap- 
italists with sufficient means to warrant the 
building of the road and nothing further 
was ever done in the matter. 



The first efifort made for the removal of 
the county seat from Sherman was at the 
annual meeting of the board of supervisors 
in 1872. Mr. Hollister, supervisor from 
Clam Lake township, introduced the reso- 
lution, and the place designated for the pro- 
posed location was the village of Clam 
Lake. This resolution was defeated by a 
vote of four yeas to five nays. Not daunted 
by this defeat, Mr. Hollister renewed his 
efforts at the January meeting of the board 
in 1873, but the result was more disastrous 
than before, there being but three votes for 
the resolution to six against. During the 
legislative session of 1873 the township of 
Cleon, as before stated, was attached to 
Wexford county, which was a purely coun- 
ty-seat move. The legislature had some 
scruples against taking this town away 
from Manistee county and placing it in 
Wexford county, and it was necessary to 
secure a petition signed by residents of 
Manistee county, outside of the township 
of Cleon, as well as those in that township, 
who favored the proposition. According- 
ly a messenger was sent to Manistee vil- 
lage with a properly drawn petition and a 

long list of names was secured. To show 
how easily one can get names signed to al- 
most any kind of a petition, this messenger 
reported that he would go ino a s'aloon, call 
up all hands for a drink, pull out his petition, 
and nine out of ten would sign it without 
reading it or hearing it read. To look at 
the petition w^hen it came back one would 
think that every last resident of Manistee 
wanted Cleon to go, and would almost be 
willing to pay something if she would go. 
\^^ith petitions by the yard from Wex- 
ford county, the names upon which were 
too often fictitious, and such a formidable 
petition from Manistee county, it was not 
very hard to convince the legislature that 
Wexford county ought to have Cleon. One 
of the strong arguments used was the de- 
scription of an almost impenetrable swamp 
adjoining Cleon on the west and south 
which made it almost impossible to get to 
Manistee, twenty-five miles away, while the 
distance to Sherman, the county seat of 
Wexford county, was only six to eight 
miles, with comparatively good roads. The 
arguments and petitions did their work and 
Cleon come into Wexford county and re- 



mained with us until 1881. With five su- 
pervisors that could be depended upon to 
vote against removal, the question was not 
again brought before the board of supervis- 
ors until June, 1876, although it frequently 
cropped out in the newspapers and once 
again in the legislature, in 1875, when the 
Cleon bill had to be re-enacted, owing to the 
fact that the first bill was thought to be un- 

On the T4th of June, 1876, two resolu- 
tions for removal were introduced at a 
special meeting of the board of supervisors, 
one by Warren Seaman, of Cedar Creek 
township, for removal to Manton village, 
which had by this time become an aspirant 
for county-seat honors, and the other by 
William Kelley, of Clam Lake township, to 
remove to the village of Clam Lake. On 
each of these resolutions the votes stood, 
yeas, eight, and nays, eight. 

At a special meeting of the board held 
January 11, 1877, a resolution was intro- 
duced by R. D. Cuddeback, supervisor of 
Haring township, to remove the county seat 
to section 5, in town 2;^, north of range 9 
west, the vote on which resolution was six 
yeas and nine nays. 

When it became known, some time in 
March, 1877, that the village of Clam Lake 
had been transformed into a city under the 
name of Cadillac, and that after the first 
Monday in April she would have three 
members on the board of supervisors, steps 
were xit once taken to checkmate this new 
scheme for the removal of the county seat. 
Plans were devised for the organization of 
four new townships in the northern part of 
the county, in order to hold the balance of 
power on the board of supervisors. One of 
these new townships was to consist of that 

part of Cedar Creek township lying on the 
west side of the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
Railroad, and was to be called Westside. 
Another was to consist of the north half of 
the township of Colfax and to be called 
Wheatland. The third was to consist of 
town 22, north of range 12 west, together 
with the southern tier of sections from town 
23, north of range 12 west, which were put 
in, in order to have voters enough to hold 
the offices, and was to be christened Dover, 
and the fourth was the township of Sher- 
man, heretofore described. In order to get 
these towns organized and officers elected in 
time to prevent any mischief which might 
be done by the addition of the three new 
supervisors from the city^ of Cadillac, a 
special m.eeting of the board was called for 
March 30th. For fear that dilatory tactics 
would be resorted to in this work, a rule 
was adopted as soon as the board was called 
to order, which provided that no member 
should speak more than once on any sub- 
ject without the consent of the board and 
should not have more than fifteen minutes 
time without such consent. 

Lender this '^gag rule'' the resolutions 
organizing these towns were passed. The 
board took a recess until seven o'clock in 
the evening, and the supervisors from the 
northeast part of the county requested a 
conference at the house of H. B. Sturte- 
vant with the supervisors from the north- 
west part of the county before the board 
should re-assemble. The object of this con- 
ference was kept an entire secret until all 
were present, when the subject of a vote to 
remove the county seat to Manton was 
broached. The writer was a member of that 
conference, and when this proposition was 
made the Sherman supervisors, as those 



from the northwest part of the county were 
designated, protested and argued that the 
question of removal had not been consid- 
ered in the preHminary work of making 
these four towns, only so far as it would 
offset the advantage that Cadillac had 
gained by the city charter. The supervisors 
from Manton were obstinate and when the 
Sherman supervisors would not yield, they 
declared that • they would have the resolu- 
tions organizing the new towns reconsid- 
ered if they could not secure the passage of 
a resolution to remove the county seat to 
Manton. This open threat was too much 
for the Sherman supervisors and they 
''bolted" the conference. 

When the evening session of the board 
convened the Manton members, true to their 
threat, moved to reconsider one after an- 
other of these organization resolutions and 
lay them upon the table, the Cadillac su- 
pervisors being only too glad to assist in 
this work. A halt was called when the 
Sherman resolution was reached and then 
it began to dawn upon the members from 
M^anton that they were playing with dan- 
gerous weapons, and an effort was made to 
take these resolutions from the table, but a 
motion was immediately made to adjourn, 
and, in explaining his vote on this motion, 
S. S. F'allass, of Clam Lake, took the floor 
and made a lengthy speech, reading copi- 
ous extracts from the statutes of the state 
and the constitution to consume time. He 
was called to order time and again, but the 
chairman ruled that he was not out of or- 
der, and when an appeal was taken and a 
majority voted against the ruling of the 
chair, the chairman boldly asserted that it 
took a two-thirds vote to overrule the de- 

cision of the chair, and thus Mr. Fallass was 
allowed to continue his random, time-con- 
suming speech, and openly declared he 
would talk the session into Sunday before 
he would yield the floor for any motion ex- 
cept to adjourn. He even went so far as to 
send over to the hotel about ten o'clock for 
a lunch and ate his lunch during the inter- 
vals in his speech, until finally the board, 
becoming convinced that they were power- 
less to do business under the decision of the 
chair, adjourned, leaving the one township 
of Sherman saved out of the wreck. This 
was practically the turning point in the 
county-seat struggle, for had the resolu- 
tions organizing these other towns re- 
mained as originally passed, Sherman 
would have held the key to the county-seat 
situation and would doubtless still have re- 
tained the county seat. The supervisor 
from the new township of Sherman was,, 
for a long time, denied a seat upon the 
board of supervisors, through another ar- 
bitrary act of the clerk in refusing to call 
his name, it being claimed that the organi- 
zation of the town was illegal. The matter 
was taken to the courts, where the organiza- 
tion was sustained, after which the super- 
visor was accorded his rights upon the 

At this March meeting of the board 
of supervisors another resolution for the re- 
moval of the county seat was offered, this 
time to section 32, in Colfax township. 
This point was very nearly the geograph- 
ical center of the county and on the shore of 
Dayhuff lake, quite a pretty sheet of water 
at that time, but which, through the clear- 
ing up of the surrounding lands, is gradu- 
ally drying up. This resolution was tabled, 




pending the passage of the resolutions to 
organize the new townships and, Hke those 
resohitions, laid on the table and died. 

The broaching of this subject of mov- 
ing the county seat to the center of the 
county was to form a combination to secure 
all the votes possible in favor of removal 
to some place. The insincerity of the talk 
of the supervisors about the county seat go- 
ing to the center of the county, where it 
would be as far from a railroad as it was 
from Sherman to the railroad, was so trans- 
parent that it deceived no one, although it 
might have had some little influence occa- 
sionally with the supervisor of that town, 
Colfax. However we find that on the i6th 
day of April, 1877, ^ resolution was offered 
by S. S. Fallass, supervisor of the second 
ward of Cadillac, to remove the county seat 
to this same point on the Dayhuff lake. 
This resolution was killed on a tie vote, 
nine to nine, as was a similar resolution of- 
fered by R. S. McClain on May 31, 1877. 
On this last-named date Mr. Fallass offered 
a resolution of removal to Cadillac, which 
received ten yeas to eight nays, but not hav- 
ing the requisite two-thirds of the board, as 
provided for in the statutes. On neither of 
these questions was the supervisor from 
Sherman allowed to vote, although pres- 
ent at every meeting of the board. June 
i, 1877, Mr. Fallass again offered a reso- 
lution of removal to the center of the coun- 
ty, which, like all its predecessors, failed to 
pass, the vote being nine to nine. June 12, 
1877, W. P. Smith, supervisor of Cedar 
Creek township, offered a resolution to re- 
move the county seat to the village of Man- 
ton, but it was killed on a tie vote, nine to 
nine. The same day William Kelley, of 
Cadillac, introduced a resolution to re- 

move the county seat to Cadillac, but there 
is no record of a vote being taken on this 

The matter was then allowed to rest un- 
til the January meeting in 1878. There 
were three resolutions for removal offered 
at this meeting, one by S. S. Fallass, to re- 
move the county seat to Cadillac, one by 
Supervisor Dayhuff, to remove to the cen- 
ter of the county, and one by H. C. Mc- 
Farlan, supervisor of Cedar Creek, to re- 
move to Manton. Mr. Dayhuff's resolution 
was lost, the vote standing ten yeas and nine 
nays. The next vote was upon the resolu- 
tion to remove to Manton and this received 
the necessary two-thirds of the votes, the 
result being thirteen yeas to six nays. This 
resolution having been adopted, of course 
the one introduced by Mr. Fallass was not 
voted upon. The resolution to remove the 
county seat to Manton provided that the 
popular vote should be on the first Monday 
in April, 1879, ^^^ ^he Manton people were 
quite elated at the prospect of that town be- 
ing the seat of justice for the county, for 
they confidently believed that the proposi- 
tion would be ratified by the people, but 
when the vote upon the question was can- 
vassed there proved to be only two hun- 
dred and ninety for removal and nine hun- 
dred and seventy-one against, so the coun- 
ty seat still remained at Sherman. 

The sixteenth resolution for removal 
was offered March 5, 1880, by S. S. Fallass, 
the place designated in the resolution be- 
ing at the center of the county, but his res- 
olution was defeated by a vote of seven yeas 
to ten nays. By this time the Cadillac side 
of the fight, under the leadership of Col. 
T. J. Thorp, who was then county clerk 
j and register of deeds, came to the conclu- 



sion that it would be better to get the coun- 
ty seat away from Sherman, even if it 
went to Manton, and trust to the future to 
get it to Cadillac. They were aware of the 
fact that there was a tacit understanding 
between the Manton and Sherman interests 
whereby Sherman would have to favor 
Manton whenever a resolution favoring the 
latter place came before the board, as it was 
feared that otherwise Manton would join 
hands with Cadillac to spite Sherman. 

Banking on these conditions, they said 
to Manton, "You introduce another reso- 
lution to remove the county seat to Manton, 
and test the good faith of the Sherman 
people, and you will find that we will be as 
loyal to you as Sherman will.'' According- 
ly, on the 13th of October, 1881, Supervisor 
McFarlan, of Cedar Creek, introduced the 
seventeenth resolution for the removal of 
the county seat, and designated the village 
of Manton as the proposed new location. 
When the roll was called upon the question 
of adopting the resolution it was found that 
sixteen supervisors had voted in the affirm- 
ative and only two in the negative. 

Many thought that while the supervis- 
ors from the city of Cadillac and surround- 
ing towns had voted that the county seat 
should go to Manton, their constituents 
would not do likewise when called upon to 
ratify or reject the proposition, but this 
time, as before stated, the people of Cadillac 
had determined to get the prize on the wing 
and try and prevent it from getting much 
of a foothold until it was landed in Cadillac. 
Sherman, too, must needs give a good vote 
in favor of Manton, else Manton, failing 
to get it, would accuse Sherman of bad 
faith, and these two localities would then 
be at odds. Therefore it is not surprising 

that a heavy vote in favor of Mantpn Wc^s 
polled. Had the people of Sherman known 
just what the plans of the Cadillac people 
were, the vote would have been somewhat 
different, but the result showed that if 
every vote in the northwest part of the coun- 
ty had been cast against removal, it would 
still have carried by a large majority, as 
Manton and Cadillac gave practically a sol- 
id vote in favor of the proposition. The 
total vote on this question was twelve hun- 
dred and fifty-five, of which eleven hundred 
and nine were in favor of removal and one. 
hundred and forty-six against. Thus, aft- 
er a struggle of nearly nine years, Sherman 
at last had to part with' the county seat. 

The agitation was not to stop here, how- 
ever, and even before the county property 
had been conveyed to its new home, Mr. 
Fallass, a supervisor from Cadillac, on the 
27th day of April, 1881, introduced the 
eighteenth resolution on this subject, which 
was referred to the committee on towns and 
counties and never reported out. During 
the summer of 1881 the people of Cadillac, 
profiting by the scheme resorted to by the 
northern part of the county, — splitting up 
townships for the purpose of increasing the 
membership of the board of supervisors, — 
formulated a plan to organize six new town- 
ships. To carry out this plan, a special 
meeting of the board was called in August, 
at which the petitions for organizing these 
six townships were presented and granted 
by the board. It should be here stated that 
Henry F. May, of Cadillac, was elected as 
representative to the state legislature in 
1880 and during the session of that body, 
in the winter of 1881, succeeded in getting 
a bill passed setting Cleon back into Manis- 
tee county, and another disorganizing the 



township of Sherman. Before these bills 
took effect and while a majority of the 
board of supervisors were opposed to the 
county seat going to Cadillac, the township 
of Concord w^as organized, consisting of the 
east half of the former township of Sher- 
man and section 5, in Antioch, and section 
22, in Hanover. This organization was de- 
clared by the courts to be illegal, and thus 
the number of supervisors opposed to an- 
other removal of the county seat was di- 
minished by two, giving the Cadillac inter- 
ests a majority of the board, but not the 
requisite two-thirds to secure the long- 
wished-for prize. The object in organiz- 
ing these six new townships was to secure 
this two-thirds vote. Of these six town- 
ships, five of them were made by splitting 
up the township of Haring, which was then 
the scene of active lumbering operations, 
having a saw-mill at Haring station, an- 
other at McCoy's siding, another at Bond's 
Mills and still another at Long Lake. These 
five townships were named Copley. Kysor, 
Garfield, Lindon and Long Lake. The 
sixth new town was made from the north 
half of Cherry Grove and was called Nel- 
son. The vote on the organization of these 
townships is recorded as ten yeas and one 
nay, there being nothing to show whether 
the rest of the board of supervisors were 
present or not. 

The first election for these new town- 
ships was fixed for the first Monday in Feb- 
ruary, 1882, and a set of township officers 
was at that time duly elected for each of 
them. Another special meeting of the 
board of supervisors was called for Febru- 
ary 14th, at which all of these new town- 
ships were represented on the board. The 
right of these representatives from the new 

townships to seats on the board was ques- 
tioned and the matter was referred to a 
special committee for investigation. Pend- 
ing the report of this committee. Supervis- 
or J. R. Bishop, of the second ward of Cad- 
illac, offered the nineteenth and final reso- 
lution, to date, for the removal of the coun- 
ty seat from Manton to Cadillac. Without 
the six new townships, the Cadillac con- 
tingent must gain one vote from the oppo- 
sition in order to have this resolution 
adopted, while with the new towns they had 
votes to spare. What inducements were 
held out to gain this one vote from the 
enemy was not, aiid perhaps never will be, 
known, but the vote on the resolution was 
taken before the report of the committee 
above referred to was made, and it dis- 
closed a startling fact to the people of Man- 
ton. The supervisor from Liberty, a town- 
ship adjoining that in which Manton vil- 
lage was located, had voted for the resolu- 
tion, giving it exactly the two-thirds re- 
quired for its passage — twelve yeas and 
six nays. The object sought in the organi- 
zation of the six new townships having been 
accomplished without their actual partici- 
pation therein, the committee reported that 
they found the organization of the new 
townships "fatally defective, and that the 
said townships have no legal existence, and 
that to avoid all complications that might 
otherwise arise, we recommend that the su- 
pervisors from the said townships be de- 
clared not entitled to seats on this board." 
This report was adopted and thus the mush- 
room townships of a few months' growth 
died a natural death, without a pang or a 
struggle. They had wrought the desired 
work, however, by showing what could be 
done, and thus influencing one man to vote 



against his constituents, against the inter- 
ests of his section of the county, and prob- 
ably against his own conscience. 

The question of removal, having thus 
been placed before the people again to be 
voted upon, at the ensuing April election, 
was carried by a vote of thirteen hundred 
and sixty-three for removal to six hundred 
and thirty-six against, and at daybreak the 
morning after the vote was taken the peo- 
ple of Manton were aroused by the toot of 
a special train which had come up from 
Cadillac for the county property. They ral- 
lied out suflficient force to baffle for the time 
being the efforts to take the county's 
property on board the cars, and the train 
went back to Cadillac with only part of its 
object carried out. A call was made for 
volunteers to go back to Manton for the rest 
of the public property, which was responded 
to by about one hundred and fifty mill men 
and campmen, many of them taking along 
a bottle or two of ''fire water,'' and by the 
time they reached Manton tbey were ready 
for any undertaking. Under such circum- 
stances it is quite needless to say that be- 
fore noon all the county property was safe- 
ly housed in Cadillac. 

The reason for this unseemly haste 
in taking the county property to Cadillac 
was to prevent the delay and expense of in- 
junction proceedings, which had been 
threatened in case the popular vote was in 
favor of Cadillac. Such proceedings would 
have been dragged out at as great a length 
as possible to enable Manton to hold on to 
the prize that much longer, even if she had 
to let it slip in the end. This brought the 
county seat warfare to a final end. At times 
it had been very bitter, and its inner history 
would reveal a vast deal more of corruption 

than it is worth while here to portray. One 
or two incidents will suffice to show to what 
lengths such things will sometimes run. 
There were several times in the history of 
this struggle w^hen the change of one vote 
would mean the passage of a resolution for 
removal. On one of these occasions one 
supervisor had been approached and offered 
ten dollars to vote for a resolution to remove 
the county seat to Clam Lake. He told the 
party he would do it, and received the 
money, but when his name was called to 
vote upon the resolution he revealed the 
whole transaction, told who had given him 
the money, and then voted against the reso- 
lution. There was much confusion among 
the friends of removal at this turn in affairs 
and considerable talk of arrests for at- 
tempted bribery, but nothing was done in 
the matter. 

At another time three hundred dollars 
was paid to a supervisor living near Sher- 
man and an agreement made to buy his 
farm at a good price and give him a house 
and lot in Clam Lake, in consideration for 
which he was to vote for a resolution to re- 
move the county seat to that village. He 
was to be furnished protection from violence 
from the people of Sherman, whom he 
would thus have betrayed and whose wrath 
he expected the act would have merited, and 
would undoubtedly have voted for the reso- 
lution when the board met had he not, in an 
unguarded moment, made a confidant of a 
fellow workman, who laid the matter before 
H. B. Sturtevant, who was then clerk and 
register, largely through whose efforts the 
scheme miscarried. When the board con- 
vened there were a score or more of people 
at Sherman from Clam Lake, besides the 
supervisor, and arrangements had been 



made by the Sherman people with William 
McCHntock, who was running a lumber 
camp four miles east of Sherman, to be on 
hand with a large number of his men to see 
that no one was molested after the vote was 
taken. Odds of two to one were offered 
by the Clam Lake sympathizers that the 
resolution would pass, so confident were 
they that the arrangement would be carried 
out. Even George A. Mitchell, the one who 
had platted and fostered the village of Clam 
Lake, was present to witness, as he sup- 
posed, the end of his efforts to secure the 
cotmty seat. The excitement was intense 
until the announcement of the vote deciding 
the resolution lost, when a great shout went 
up from the people of Sherman over the de- 
feat of their enemies and a corresponding 
look of dismay was displayed by the friends 
of the resolution. The Sherman people 

were so sure that they would come out ahead 
that they had prepared to celebrate their 
victory by the firing of anvils, and had 
already commenced this work when Mr. 
Mitchell came along on horseback, having 
started on his return home, and begged the 
boys to desist until he could get by with his 
horse. This request was cheerfully com- 
plied with and after he had ridden past he 
was given a parting salute. 

For many years following the removal 
of the county seat from Manton to Cadillac 
there remained a bitter feeling on the part 
of those who had *'loved and lost," and even 
yet there occasionally crops out a tinge of 
this bitterness, but nearly all parts of the 
county have come to realize that the present 
location is the" proper one and the most con- 
venient for the majority of those whose 
business calls them to the county seat. 



Taking up the thread of our history 
where we left off to narrate the events con- 
nected with the county-seat struggle, we 
commence with the year 1878. As yet there 
had been very little agitation of the Green- 
back question in Wexford county, but the 
county had arrived at that stage where there 
were a good many more aspirants for office 
than there were offices to fill, and it fre- 

quently occurred that there were defeated 
candidates in the ranks of both the old par- 
ties who, holding spoils above principle, 
were ready to do almost anything that they 
thought would land themselves in a good 

In the meantime the question of the re- 
sumption of specie payment by the govern- 
ment was being agitated and as a condition 



precedent to such action the volume of 
greenbacks was gradually reduced. This in 
a measure caused a contraction of the cir- 
culating medium, and this was taken up by 
those who were anxious to have a new party 
organized, that they might have a chance 
to once more get a taste of the '^loaves and 
fishes,'' and accordingly the new party 
started out with an active and schooled 
leadership. Many speakers were employed 
throughout the state, and in Wexford 
county a thorough canvass was made. The 
new party wanted an "organ" in the county, 
and as both the county papers were Repub- 
lican they tried to get control of one of 
them — the Pioneer — and make it a Green- 
back paper. 

H. F. Campbell, who had been working 
on the paper for about a year, had secured 
an option to purchase it at a stated price by 
paying one hundred dollars down and the 
balance in one year. As the time approached 
for making this payment Mr. Campbell saw 
he was going to be unable to meet it, and a 
consultation was had among the Republican 
candidates on the county ticket and other 
Republicans at the county seat, the result 
being that J. H. Wheeler furnished the one 
hundred dollars to make the payment agreed 
upon, and became a half owner of the paper. 
The former owner was so anxious to get 
the paper back that he refused to take the 
money offered him, and a legal tender had 
to be made, and he was obliged in the end 
to take it. 

The campaign was waged with the ut- 
most vigor, the Democrats and Greenback- 
ers having ''fused" on the county ticket, and 
through their untiring efforts they suc- 
ceeded in electing one of their candidates, 
the treasurer, by a small majority, The 

candidates and the votes each polled were as 
follows: Sheriff, William Kelley, Rep., 
407; William Marin, Dem., 355. Clerk and 
register, C. J. Manlelow, Rep., 559; A. J. 
Teed, Dem., 518. Treasurer, R. D. Cudde- 
back. Rep., 399; E. Shay, Dem., 499. Prose- 
cuting attorney, D. A. Rice, Rep., 537; E. F. 
Sawyer, Dem., 521. Circuit court commis- 
sioner, D. E. Mclntyre, Rep., 544; E. F. 
Sawyer, Dem., 523. 

It will thus be seen that the largest ma- 
jority any candidate on the Republican 
ticket received was fifty-two for Sheriff 
Kelley. Mr. Kelley died before the time 
arrived for him to assume the duties of his 
office, January i, 1879, and a special election 
was held on the first Monday of April to 
fill the vacancy, at which election Charles 
C. Dunham w^as elected, receiving five hun- 
dred and seventy-nine votes to four hundred 
and four cast for E. Harger and two hun- 
dred and thirty-two for Frank Weaver. 

On the 5th of August, 1878, George A. 
Mitchell, the founder of the village of Clam 
Lake (now city of Cadillac), met with a 
fatal accident on the streets of that village. 
The village was yet in its infancy and the 
main streets were incumbered with the 
stumps from which the pine trees had been 
cut. Mr. Mitchell had a shingle mill at 
that time on Pine street, and while return- 
ing to his home from the mill he was thrown 
from his buggy, his head striking against 
a stump by the roadside, rendering him un- 
conscious, from which state he never fully 
recovered. He died August 8, and his death 
was a sev^ere blow to the community. He 
was a very public-spirited mail, having do- 
nated sites for the different churches in the 
village and giving liberally of his means 
toward the erection of church buildings. 



When the war of the Rebellion commenced 
he was given the appointment of paymaster. 
He proved such a competent and energetic 
official that when the war closed he had 
risen to the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel. 
During his services in this position he re- 
ceived and paid out millions of dollars for 
the government, and it was said of him that 
his accounts always balanced to a cent. It 
had been one of his greater desires to see 
the county seat located in Clam Lake and 
he had reserved block "F" of the original 
plat for such purpose, but his death came 
nearly four years before its arrival. 

About this time E. Shay, mentioned 
heretofore as having been elected county 
treasurer in the fall of 1878, invented a 
logging engine which practically revolu- 
tionized logging operations. Hitherto all 
logging had been done with teams and 
sleighs in the winter and with "big wheels" 
with occasional *'tram,'' or "pole,'' roads in 
the summer. With this new invention it 
was possible to haul long trains of log cars 
over considerable grades and at much less 
expense than with teams, and to extend 
lumbering operations to a much greater dis- 
tance from the mills, or water courses, with 
profit, than could possibly be done by 
handling the logs with teams. With the aid 
of this new means of conveying forest prod- 
ucts to the mills, the mill owners of Cadillac 
began to enlarge their holdings of timber by 
purchasing tracts in adjoining counties, and 
thus the lumljering business, which it was 
thought could not last more than eight or 
ten years, has continued until the present 
time, with timber enough still in sight to 
keep the mills of Cadillac busy for the next 
fifteen or twenty years. It was not long 
after the inauguration of the narrow-gauge 

railroad logging that it was found practica- 
ble to move logs on the standard railroads, 
and this business has now grown to such gi- 
gantic proportions that the railroads find it 
almost impossible to furnish cars enough to 
supply the demand and logs are often car- 
ried a hundred miles to be manufactured. 

The extension of one of these logging 
railroads, running northeasterly from Cad- 
illac, gave Lake City, in Missaukee county, 
her first railroad connection with the out- 
side world. This was known as the Cadillac 
& Northeastern Railroad, and for several 
years it ran regular passenger trains to Lake 
City. The Grand Rapids & Indiana Rail- 
road finally extended its Long Lake branch 
to Lake City, and the Cadillac & Northeast- 
ern discontinued its passenger trains, but 
was still used for logging purposes until the 
summer of 1901, when, having exhausted 
the supply of timber through which it ran, it 
was abandoned and its rails and rolling 
stock were used in building and equipping 
a similar road which is now penetrating the 
forests in a northwesterly direction from 
the city of Cadillac, supplying the mills and 
chemical plant of Cummer, Diggins & Com- 
pany with the necessary material to keep 
them in constant operation. 

The Greenback heresy had somewhat 
lost its hold upon the people in 1880 and as 
a result the Republican county ticket nomi- 
nated that year was elected by old-time ma- 
jorities, except the treasurer, for which 
office the vote was quite evenly divided, and 
also on prosecuting attorney, for which 
office there were three candidates, D. A. 
Rice running as an independent candidate. 
The candidates and the vote for each is here- 
with given: 

Judge of probate, H. N. Green, Rep., 



926; I. N. Carpenter, Dem., 707. Sheriff, 
C. C. Dunham, Rep., 1190; W. H. Gushing, 
Dem., 404. County clerk, T. J. Thorp, 
Rep., 852; J. Crowley, Dem., 495; C. J. 
Mankleton, Ind., 301. Register of deeds, 
T. J. Thorp, Rep., 774; J. Crowley, Dem., 
502; C. J. Mankleton, Ind., 300. Treas- 
urerr, John Mansfield, Rep., 878; H. C. Mc- 
Farlan, Dem., 755. Prosecuting attorney, 
S. J. Wall, Rep., 738; J. B. Rosevelt, Dem., 
292; D. A. Rice, Ind., 600. 

The legislature which convened in Janu- 
ary, 1 88 1, passed an act creating the twenty - 
eighth judicial circuit, composed of Benzie, 
Kalkaska, Missaukee, Roscommon and 
Wexford counties. The first judge of the 
new circuit was John M. Rice, who was 
appointed soon after the act creating the 
circuit took effect, but resigned in April, 
1882. His successor was Silas S. Fallass, 
then living in Cadillac, who served out the 
balance of the term for which Judge Rice 
was appointed and the next full term of six 
years. Wexford county has been honored 
by furnishing a judge for the twenty-eighth 
judicial circuit ever since its first organiza- 
tion until the present time. The several in- 
cumbents have been John M. Rice, Silas S. 
Fallass, Fred H. Aldrich and Clyde C. Chit- 
tenden, who is now serving his third year 
on the bench. 

Great improvements had been made in 
the county for the first ten years of its ex- 
istence as a county, as shown by the census 
of 1880, which showed a population of 
sixty-eight hundred and fifteen, compared 
with thirty-one hundred and ninety-four at 
the state census of 1874 and seven hundred 
and eighty in 1870. Many pieces of land 
were purchased by new settlers from the 
railroad company, and from the state, which 

had reserved several thousand acres of the 
farming lands in the county, under an act 
authorizing the reservation of a large 
quantity of land for the support of an agri- 
cultural college. This last class of lands 
could be purchased then for three dollars 
per acre, and only one-quarter of this was 
required at the time of purchase, the balance 
to run as long as the purchaser chose to let 
it run, by paying interest at the rate of seven 
per cent, per annum. The railroad lands 
were for a long time sold on one-quarter 
payment at time of purchase and balance in 
four or five annual payments. The price 
of the railroad lands varied according to 
location, but none were sold for less than 
six dollars per acre. 

Many people have thought that the 
land-grant system was a great injury to the 
county, but in the light of experience this 
claim will hardly stand close scrutiny. Had 
all the land in the county been subject to 
homestead entry the timber would largely 
have disappeared, as farming would have 
been the chief industry, and the vast forests 
of hardwood would have been swept away 
to enable the homesteaders to raise the 
necessaries of life. In looking over the 
county at the present time one may see hun- 
dreds of farms upon which once stood a 
splendid growth of hardwood, nearly all of 
which disappeared long before it had any 
commercial value. By occasionally raising 
the price of their lands the state and the 
railroad company had to keep most of their 
lands until the time was ripe for the utiliza- 
tion of the hardwoods and hemlock with 
which they were principally covered, and 
this paved the way for the present most 
prosperous times the county has ever seen, 
when hemlock and hardwood lumbering dis- 



tributes more money throughout the county 
and furnishes a better market for the prod- 
ucts of the farm than did the pine lumbering 
in its palmiest days. 

*'The poor ye have always with you," 
and consequently all counties have to take 
care of such indigent persons as live within 
their borders. The county had erected a 
commodious poor house, as heretofore 
noted, but the location did not suit those 
who were bent on moving the county seat 
to Cadillac. It happened that the superin- 
tendents of the poor were obliged to take 
care of a family by the name of Root, in 
consequence of the husband and father hav- 
ing been sentenced to the state prison for 
quite a long term of years. The family con- 
sisted of the mother and six or seven chil- 
dren, ranging from one to fourteen or fif- 
teen years of age. The superintendents de- 
cided that the county should be reimbursed 
for the cost it might be put to in caring for 
the family, so they took a mortgage on the 
farm, subject to a mortgage that had already 
been given. The result was that the county 
had to foreclose its mortgage and take care 
of the first mortgage, and thus it was that 
the county came into possession of the pres- 
ent poor farm. As early as 1880 an effort 
was made to have the old county farm sold 
and make a poor farm out of the "Root 
farm,'* but without success. At the annual 
meeting of the board of supervisors in 1881 
a resolution was adopted making the chair- 
man of the board a committee of one to 
receive proposals for the sale of the poor 
farm. A sale was effected as the outgrowth 
of this action, the price agreed upon being 
nineteen hundred and twenty-five dollars, 
less than the buildings' had cost, to say noth- 
ing of the hundreds of dollars that had been 

expended in clearing and fencing the land. 
Of this amount one thousand dollars was 
paid in cash and a mortgage given for the 
balance. The county was obliged to fore- 
close the mortgage and several years later 
sold the farm again for eighteen hundred 

At the same session of the board which 
took action to sell the old poor farm pfovis- 
ion was made for putting the buildings on 
the Root farm in condition to care for such 
paupers as might have to be permanently 
supported by the county, and the next year 
a large and well-equipped building was 
erected and furnished for this purpose. 
Hitherto all expenses for the support of the 
poor had been borne by the county at large, 
but at the annual meeting of the board of 
supervisors a resolution was passed reviving 
the distinction between town and county 
poor. Under this arrangement each town 
had to support its^ own poor, and only 
transient poor were cared for by the county. 
The towns could send their paupers to the 
county house and have them cared for there 
by the week, or could hire them supported 
elsewhere if they preferred. As it took a 
year to gain a residence in the county to 
make the expense of an indigent person 
chargeable to any town or city, and as the 
support of such had to be borne by the 
county at large in the meantime, and the 
towns had to bear their share of this ex- 
pense, as well as the expense of caring for 
their own poor, the arrangement was not 
very satisfactory and only remained in force 
a couple of years before the distinction was 
abolished, since which all poor expenses 
have been borne by the county. 

The valuation of the county as fixed hy 
the board of supervisors at its annual meet- 



ing in 1882 was $3,676,739.25. This was 
a fine showing for the county in view of the 
fact that thousands of acres of pine land 
had been denuded of its forests, and the ktm- 
ber had been shipped out of the county dur- 
ing the preceding ten years, and augured 
well for the future greatness of the county 
as an agricultural community. 

At this meeting of the board a resolution 
was also passed to submit to a vote of the 
people at the April election of 1883 the ques- 
tion of bonding the county for five thousand 
dollars for the purpose of building a county 
jail at Cadillac. The proposition was car- 
ried by a vote of eight hundred and eighty- 
eight to six hundred and sixty-nine, but a 
question arising as to the legality of the 
passage of the resolution of the board, the 
matter was again placed before the people 
at the spring election in 1884 and was again 
carried by a vote of eleven hundred and nine 
to nine hundred and five, but the bonds were 
never issued. 

When the county seat was removed to 
Cadillac the second story of the building 
then owned by Fred S. Kieldsen was rented 
for county offices and court room. This 
building stood on the site now occupied by 
the city hall. The county continued to oc- 
cupy the second floor until 1887, when it 
rented the second floor of the Laber & 
Cornwell building, which it occupied for 
several years. When the Masonic fraternity 
decided to erect a temple in Cadillac a com- 
mittee was appointed to confer with the 
board of supervisors with a view to having 
the second story of their proposed building 
fitted especially for the use of the county, 
provided the county would contract to rent 

it for a period of ten years at a rental to te 
agreed upon between the contracting par- 
ties. This arrangement w^as carried out, and 
in March, 1890, the county moved into its 
new quarters, where it has remained until 
the present time. The new quarters con- 
sisted of a large court room, a commodious 
supervisor's room, a suite of three rooms 
for the clerk and register of deeds, two 
rooms for the prosecuting attorney and one 
each for the judge of probate, sheriflf, treas- 
urer and superintendent of the poor. One 
or two attempts have been made to have the 
board of supervisors pass a resolution sub- 
mitting to the people the question of bonding 
the county for the purpose of building a 
court house, but without success. 

At the election in 1882 the ^Republican 
party was again successful on its entire 
ticket except prosecuting attorney, the can- 
didates of the two parties and the vote given 
for each being as follows: Sheriflf, David 
C. Cook, Rep., 726; Horton Crandall, Dem., 
288; F. Weaver, Ind., 427. County clerk, 
T. J. Thorp, Rep., 881 ; James Crowley, 
Dem., 566. Register of deeds, T. J. Thorp. 
Rep., 887; James Crowley, Dem., 568. 
Treasurer, John Mansfield, Rep., 1079; C. 
T. Chapin, Dem., 352. Prosecuting attor- 
ney, E. F. Sawyer, Rep., 562; J. B. Rose- 
velt, Dem., 32; D. E. Mclntyre, Ind., 689. 

The salary of the prosecuting attorney 
was raised to twelve hundred dollars at the 
October session of the board of supervisors, 
which induced Mr. Mclntyre to enter the 
race for that office as an independent can- 
didate, and so strenuous did he wage his 
campaign that he won by more than a hun- 
dred plurality. 




The one great hindrance to the rapid 
development of the county was the lack of 
facihties for reaching a market. The whole 
western half of the county had to drive 
either to Cadillac or Manton, on the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad, to reach a 
market for a load of potatoes or any other 
farm product. To some the distance was 
over twenty miles, necessitating a two-days 
trip. The roads were rough and the hills 
sandy, and thirty or thirty-five bushels of 
potatoes was all a team could draw. By the 
time the farmer had paid for his expenses at 
the hotel over night he would not have much 
left out of his load of potatoes unless they 
brought more than, twenty-five or thirty 
cents per bushel. Under these circumstances 
it is not strange that there was a lack of 
"push'' on the part of the farmers. 
About the only farm product that there was 
any money in was hay. The close proximity 
of the lumbering camps afforded a ready sale 
for all the hay the farmers could spare, 
at a good price, sometimes running as high 
as twenty dollars per ton. The fact that 
hay always found a ready sale caused many 
farmers to keep their land seeded to grass 

so much that it greatly impoverished the 
soil and thus retarded future farming, as a 
light soil once run down is very hard to 
again put into condition to raise good crops. 
During the winter of 1883-4 the survey- 
ors of the Chicago & West Michigan Rail- 
road visited northern Michigan, taking ob- 
servations as to the most desirable route for 
the extension of their road. They visited 
Sherman and looked up the approaches to 
the Manistee river from the north and 
south, and expressed themselves as well 
satisfied with the feasibility of crossing at 
that point and following the valley of the 
Wheeler creek northward, running a little 
east of Wexford Corners and then drop- 
ping over into the Boardman river valley, 
thus making an easy grade into Traverse 
City. The people in the western part of the 
county were greatly elated over the pros- 
pects of having a railroad near their farms, 
but railroads have queer ways and their 
building is accompanied often with vex- 
atious delays, and so it happened that when 
the Chicago & West Michigan Railroad was 
built several years later it took an entirely 
new route and did not touch Wexford 



county ; in fact, it was run so far west as to 
be of very little practical benefit to the farm- 
ers of the county. 

In the meantime the Toledo, Ann Arbor 
& North Michigan Railroad Company had 
been organized and had started in to build 
a road to some point on the eastern shore of 
Lake Michigan. The projectors of this un- 
dertaking were the Ashleys, of Toledo — 
father and two sons, Harry and James, or 
*'Jim," as he was familiarly called. Neither 
of these parties had much money of their 
own, but they had enterprise and push, 
especially "J™/' ^^'^^ could overcome more 
difficulties and surmount more obstacles 
than half a dozen ordinary business men, 
and it was largely through these qualities 
that the road was completed, though its 
building covered a period of several years, 
and more than once it was said, "The Ash- 
leys have got to the end of their rope and 
the road will never go any farther ;" but still 
the next year would witness another exten- 
sion, and so, little by little, the work pro- 
gressed. In the summer of 1886, through 
the promise of thirty-five thousand dollars 
on the part of the city of Cadillac, the work 
of extending the road from Mt. Pleasant, 
its then terminus, to Cadillac was under- 
taken. A large force of men were put to 
work at various points along the line and 
before September the laying of rails was 
commenced. This work progressed from 
both ends of this section, the rails being 
brought to Cadillac over the Grand Rapids 
& Indiana Railroad to use in laying the 
northern end of the section. Winter set in 
before the last rail was laid, and some of 
the grading and several miles of track lay- 
ing was done when the snow covered the 

ground to a depth of several inches. But 
notwithstanding the cold and the snow the 
first train over the new extension reached 
Cadillac within the time agreed upon, Janu- 
ary I, 1887, and its arrival marked a new 
era in the county's history. 

To fittingly celebrate this event the rail- 
road company gave a free excursion to 
Alma and a free dinner at the celebrated 
Wright Hotel at that place, inviting many 
of the prominent men of the city and the 
county at large, and the city arranged for 
a grand banquet at the Hotel McKinnon 
when the party, including railroad officials 
and the railroad commissioner of the state, 
should return in the evening. 

The night preceding the day fixed for 
the excursion a heavy snow storm set in, 
accompanied with a gale of wind, and when 
morning dawned the streets and sidewalks 
in Cadillac were piled so full of snow that 
it was impossible for ladies to get to the 
train, and a number of the gentlemen who 
otherwise would have taken the trip staid 
at home an account of the drifts. As the 
road ran nearly all the way to Farwell 
through the woods, there was not much diffi- 
culty experienced in making the run to 
Alma, but the storm continued all day and 
it was not without some misgivings that the 
return journey was begun. A delay of over 
two hours in starting was caused by a wreck 
on a branch of the D. L. & N. Railroad, 
which crossed the Toledo, Ann Arbor & 
Northern Michigan Railroad just north of 
the station at Alma, by which a freight car 
was thrown upon the track just where the 
two roads intersected each other, and it had 
to be removed before the excursion train 
could start. Some of the excursionists were 



wise enough to return to the village, a half 
mile distant, and purchase a lunch, fearing 
they would be late at the banquet in Cadillac. 
At last, just as it had begun to grow 
dark, the train pulled out. By the time 
it had reached Clare, on the Flint & Pere 
Marquette Railroad, those who had not 
provided themselves with a lunch at Alma 
made a rush for the lunch room kept 
at that station, and soon had purchased 
everything eatable in sight. Here a tele- 
gram was sent to those in charge of the 
banquet at Cadillac that the train would 
arrive there about nine o'clock. Soon 
after leaving Farwell the train ran into a 
snow bank and came to a dead stop. Half 
a hundred men jumped out in the snow, 
tore boards from the fence beside the track, 
and by dint of stamping and pushing away 
the snow from the engine, the train was 
soon" started again. All went well while on 
a down grade to the crossing of the Mus- 
kegon river, though progress was slow ow- 
ing to the fact that eight or ten inches of 
snow had fallen during the day and there 
having as yet been no freight trains over the 
new road the engine had to push its way 
through this fresh snow all the way. After 
crossing the Muskegon river there was a 
long up-grade to make, and while using all 
the steam possible to push through the snow 
and make the grade, the train suddenly came 
to a stop. Investigation disclosed the fact 
that the rails had spread and the engine was 
off the track. All the balance of the night 
the trainmen worked to get the engine on 
the rails again. The tall form of ^'J^"^ ' 
Ashley could be seen directing the work and 
assisting the men in their efforts to fix the 
track and right the engine. The accident 
was caused by the carelessness or negligence 

of the track layers, who had failed to prop- 
erly spike the rails to the ties, and in the ex- 
tra pressure caused by the resistance of the 
snow the engine had found a weak spot and 
left the rails. The train was going at such a 
slow rate that there was hardly a jar felt by 
those on board, and at first they would 
hardly believe it could be so. When it was 
realized that a long time would be required 
to get under way again, all hope of getting 
a taste of the banquet at the Hotel McKin- 
non was banished and those who were for- 
tunate enough to have provided themselves 
with crackers and cheese proceeded to satisfy 
their appetites for the time being, hoping 
that Cadillac would be reached in time for 
breakfast. As before stated, it was long- 
after daylight when everything had been 
gotten ready for a start, but by this time the 
engine's supply of water and coal was nearly 
exhausted and a trip must be made to Cadil- 
lac for a supply before it could haul the train 
in. It should be stated that as yet there was 
no telegraph line erected along the road, 
and as the accident occurred about half way 
between Farwell and Cadillac, in a dense 
forest devoid of roads or settlers, it was 
therefore impossible to communicate with 
any one. If it had been thought that it 
would take all night to get started, a mes- 
senger could have been dispatched to Cadil- 
lac and another engine and better appliances 
could have been sent to the rescue; but of 
course it was expected that it would not take 
more than an hour or two to get under way 
again, but hour after hour went by without 
witnessing sticcess on the part of the work- 

The engine found great difficulty in 
reaching Cadillac, and by the time it had 
received its supply of coal and water, re- 



turned to the train and hauled it to the city, 
it was considerably after noon, and those 
of us who lived in the northern part of 
the county had just time to eat a hasty 
meal before taking the train on the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad for home. The 
managers of the banquet at Cadillac, after 
waiting until after ten o'clock p. m. with- 
out hearing from the train, proceeded with 
the programme so far as they could without 
the expected guests, but it is said to have 
been a very dull affair, caused in part by the 
absence of the railroad officials and partly 
by the thought which filled all minds that 
a dreadful accident had happened to the 
train. All in all it was an eventful trip, but 
notwithstanding the night spent in the 
woods everybody was in good spirits on the 
train except the trainmen and road officials, 
who were so vexed at the mishap that none 
of them would '^crack a smile.'' 

During the summer of 1887 the road 
was completed as far as Marietta and graded 
some distance west of that place, and the 
following year it passed on through Wex- 
ford county, reaching Frankfort in the fall 
of 1899. The Ashleys bought a piece of 
land and platted the village of Marietta in 
1888, the name being a combination made 
from Marry Ashley and the name of his in- 
tended wife, Henrietta Burt. The village 
of Boon was platted about the same time, 
and the next year witnessed the platting of 
the village of Mesick. A year or two after 
this the village of Yuma was platted, mak- 
ing four villages as the direct result of the 
building of the Toledo, Ann Arbor & North- 
ern Michigan Railroad, as it was called, but 
now known as the Ann Arbor Railroad. 
This road, penetrating as it did one of the 
best farming sections of the county, gave a 

new impetus to the farming industry, and 
since its coming a marked and steady 
growth of that industry has been noticeable. 
Not only did it open up a more direct and 
less expensive market for the shipment of 
farm products but it stimulated the lumber- 
ing business to such an extent that the de- 
mand for the products of the farm for the 
mills and camps greatly increased the home 
market and correspondingly the prices re- 
ceived for such products. The lumbering 
operations growing out of the building of 
this road being largely confined to the hard- 
wood of the county, resulted in causing the 
clearing of thousands of acres of land and 
transforming them into productive farms, 
as every acre of hardwood land, when once 
cleared, makes good farming land. 

In taking up the political history we find 
that quite a change occurred in political 
supremacy in the county in 1884. The re- 
verses to the Republican party in that elec- 
tion were not entirely political but were 
more the result of personal and sectional 
matters than of party feelings. The Wex- 
ford County Pioneer, owned by J. H. 
Wheeler, had always been very strenuous 
in its efforts to prevent the removal of the 
county seat from Sherman, but when it was 
taken to Manton by a combination between 
Manton and Cadillac, it declined to further 
fight against what it deemed to be the in- 
evitable sequence — its final removal to Cad- 
illac. For this reason its editor stood in 
great disfavor among the people who wished 
to have the county seat always remain in 
Manton. The editor'^ position, that the 
removal to Manton was only a stepping 
stone on the way to Cadillac, was amply 
proven by subsequent events as narrated in 
the county-seat chapter elsewhere herein, 



but nevertheless it cost him several hundred 
votes in the fall election of 1884, causing his 
defeat for the office of county treasurer. 

Personal reasons also entered into the 
defeat of Col. T. J. Thorp for clerk and 
register. It was largely through his leader- 
ship that the county seat went to Manton, 
and it was under his generalship that the 
records and property of the county were re- 
moved from Manton the morning after the 
vote on the question of removal to Cadillac 
had been taken, thus preventing injunction 
proceedings. This was enough to cause 
party allegiance to give way to personal 
prejudice, and it thus transpired that the 
Republicans only elected one candidate on 
their entire county ticket by an actual ma- 
jority, though some others were elected by 
pluralities. The following is a list of candi- 
dates, with the vote given for each : Judge 
of probate, H. M. Dunham, Rep., 835 ; W. 
P. Smith, Dem., 740; J. Crowley, Ind., 682. 
Sheriff, C. C. Dunham, Rep., 1,034; E. I. 
Bowen, Dem., 716; E. George, Ind., 487. 
County clerk, T. J. Thorp, Rep., 1,075; G. 
A. Cummer, Dem., 1,160. Register of 
deeds, T. J. Thorp, Rep., 1,048; G. A. Cum- 
mer, Dem., 1,160. Treasurer, J. H. 
Wheeler, Rep., 778; James Haynes, Dem., 
1,470. Prosecuting attorney, D. A. Rice, 
Rep., 8to; J. B. Rosevelt, Dem., 678; D. 
Mclntyre, Ind., 726. Circuit court com- 
missioner, C. C. Chittenden, Rep., 1,576; 
J. R. Bishop, Dem., 639. 

During the two years which succeeded 
this election sectional feeling had become 
somewhat allayed, and in consequence the 
Republican ticket, with one exception, was 
elected at the November election of 1886. 
This exception was for the office of clerk 
and register, the incumbent, George A. 

Cummer, defeating the Republican nomi- 
nee, S. J. Wall, by one hundred and forty- 
nine votes. The election was confined 
entirely to the two parties. Republican and 
Democratic, though the Democrats had 
placed a Republican on their ticket for 
prosecuting attorney. The candidates of 
each party and vote received by each were 
as follows: Sheriff, C. C. Dunham, Rep., 
1,318; W. Geibert, Dem., 578. County 
clerk, S. J. Wall, Rep., 888; George A. 
Cummer, Dem., 1,029. Register of deeds, 
S. J. Wall, Rep., 884; George A. Cummer, 
Dem., 1,010. Treasurer, E. Harger, Rep., 
1,045; E. J. Haynes, Dem., 874. Prose- 
cuting attorney, C. C. Chittenden, Rep., 
1,051 ; D. A. Rice, Dem., 904. Circuit court 
commissioner, C. S. Marr, Rep., 1,049; J- 
R. Bishop, Dem., 839. 

A much larger vote was polled in 1888, 
it being a presidential election, and great 
efforts were put forth by both parties to win, 
if possible. The Republicans went outside 
of the city for the first time in six years for 
a candidate for sheriff, nominating W. L. 
Sturtevant, of Sherman, and the Democrats, 
to checkmate this move to solidify the rural 
vote for a rural candidate, nominated B. 
Woods, also of Sherman, and a boon com- 
panion of the Republican nominee, as their 
candidate for that office. The vote was 
large, as the canvass had been waged with 
great spirit on both sides, but the Republi- 
cans came out victors on their entire ticket, 
as follows : Judge of probate, H. M. Dun- 
ham, Rep., 1,460; H. B. Sturtevant, Dem., 
1,035. Sheriff, W. L. Sturtevant, Rep., 
1,392; B. Woods, Dem., 1,140. Clerk and 
register, S. J. Wall, Rep., 1,283; George A. 
Cummer, Dem., 1,266. Treasurer, E. Har- 
ger, Rep., 1,501; C. E. Haynes, Dem., 



1,038. Prosecuting attorney, C. C. Chit- 
tenden, Rep., 1,588; D. A. Rice, Dem., 598. 
Circuit court commissioner, E. E. Haskins, 
Rep., 1,526; J. R. Bishop, Dem., 1,085. 

After the county seat was removed to 
Cadillac efforts were soon made to have the 
county buy a lot and build a jail, and twice 
had the matter been brought before the elect- 
ors in the form of a proposition to bond the 
county for that purpose, but the bitterness 
resulting from the two removals of the 
county seat was for a time so great that the 
matter was finally compromised by the 
county agreeing to rent a jail and sheriff's 
residence if one was erected according to 
plans and specifications to be furnished by 
the county. That was done and the matter 
remained in statu quo until the annual meet- 
ing of the board of supervisors in 1887, 
when a resolution was adopted by the board 
providing for the purchase of the jail prop- 
erty and providing for submitting to the 
electors of the county at the annual town- 
ship meeting in April, 1888, the question of 
raising by tax the forty-two hundred and 
fifty dollars agreed upon as the purchase 
price. The vote on this proposition was ten 
hundred and fifty-one in favor of it and eight 
hundred and forty-six against. So the 
question was carried and the county soon 
after became the owner of a jail and sher- 
iff's residence. 

The coming of the Toledo, Ann Arbor 
& Northern Michigan Railroad gave such an 
impetus to the settlement of the county that 
the census of 1890 disclosed the fact that 
the population of the county had more than 
doubled since 1880, the total being sixteen 
thousand, eight hundred and forty-five as 
compared with sixty-eight hundred and fif- 
teen in 1880, the increase thus being a little 


more than ten thousand in ten years, or an 
average of over a thousand a year. Few 
new counties in the state could show such 
a wonderful growth at a corresponding 
period of its history. The growth was also 
of a permanent character, as the transient 
lumbering operations along the Manistee 
river had moved on up the river until they 
had passed the limits of the county. 

The Republican party, having made a 
clear sweep with its county ticket in 1888, 
has carried the elections for every county 
office since that year except the office of 
treasurer in 1890, when J. W. Ransom, 
Democrat, defeated Rinaldo Fuller, Repub- 
lican, by a plurality of forty-nine votes. The 
candidates of the parties that year and votes 
cast for each were as follows : Sheriff, W. 
L. Sturtevant, Rep., 1,020; F. D. Seeley, 
Dem., 817. Clerk and register, S. J. Wall, 
Rep., 1,005; L. M. Patterson, Dem., 842. 
Treasurer, R. Fuller, Rep., 905; J. W. Ran- 
som, Dem., 944. Prosecuting attorney, C. 
C. Chittenden, Rep., 1,777; no Democratic 
candidate. Circuit court commissioner, R. 
F. Tinkham, Rep., 1,810; no Democratic 

The following tables will show who were 
nominated by the leading parties. Republi- 
can and Democratic, and the vote given for 
the several candidates of each party cover- 
ing the period from 1892 to 1902 inclusive: 

1892 — Judge of probate, John Mans- 
field, Rep., 1,365 ; C. E. Cooper, Dem., 1,199. 
Sheriff — C. C. Dunham, Rep., 1,377; J- P- 
Kundsen, Dem., 1,192. County clerk, S. 
J. Wall, Rep., 1,400; Lewis R. Bishop, 
Dem., 1,165. Register of deeds, S. J. 
Wall, Rep., 1,400; Lewis R. Bishop, Dem., 
1,165. Treasurer, E. Harger, Rep., 1,342; 
J. W. Ronsom, Dem., 1,207. Prosecuting 



attorney, D. A. Rice, Rep., 1,413; no Demo- 
cratic candidate. Circuit court commis- 
sioner, Fred S. Lamb, Rep., 1,408; no 
Democratic candidate. 

1894 — Sheriff, C. C. Dunham, Rep., 
1,443; Barton Colvin, Dem., 744. County 
clerk, S. J. Wall, Rep., 1,411; Charles H. 
Bostick, Dem., 801. Register of deeds, S. 
J. Wall, Rep., 1,442; J. B. Yarnell, Dem., 
767. Treasurer, E. W. Wheeler, Rep., 
1,423; William E. Dean, Dem., 442; Will- 
iam Hoag, Ind., 338. Prosecuting attorney, 
D. A. Rice, Rep., 1,489; I. C. Wheeler, 
Dem., 516. Circuit court commissioner, 
Fred S. Lamb, Rep., 1,510; H. B. Sturte- 
vant, Dem., 470. 

1896 — Judge of probate, John Mans- 
field, Rep., 2,019; E. F. Sawyer, Dem., 
1401. Sheriff, George A. Troy, Rep., 1,774; 
James Mather, Dem., 1,648. County clerk, 
Henry Hansen, Rep., 2,036; George S. 
Stanley, Dem., 1,383. Register of deeds, 
P. W. Hinman, Rep., 1,995; C. D. Phelps, 
Dem., 1,436. Treasurer, E. W. Wheeler, 
Rep., 2,074; William E. Dean, Dem., 1,350. 
Prosecuting attorney, Fred S. Lamb, Rep., 
2,032; L C. Wheeler, Dem., 1,394. Circuit 
court commissioner, Elwood Peck, Rep., 
2,044; H. B. Sturtevant, Dem., 1,374. 

1898 — Sheriff, George A. Troy, Rep., 
1,326; James Mather, Dem., 924. County 
clerk, Henry Hansen, Rep., 1,376; George 
S. Stanley, Dem., 869. Register of deeds, 
P. W. Hinman, Rep., 1,496; C. H. Bos- 
tick,. Dem., y2y. Treasurer, J. H. Wheeler, 
Rep., 1,401; James Whaley, Dem., 842. 
Prosecuting attorney, Fred S. Lamb, Rep., 
1,481; J. R. Bishop, Dem., 748; Circuit 
count commissioner, Elwood Peck, Rep., 
i,.495; L C. Wheeler, Dem., 726. 

1900 — ^Judge of probate, Fred S. Lamb, 

Rep., 2,183; James R. Bishop, Dem., 1,226. 
Sheriff, Silas W. Huckleberry, Dem., 2,232; 
Herbert Kellogg, Dem., 1,132. County 
clerk, David F. Garver, Rep., 2,162; W. S. 
Randall, Dem., 1,186. Register of deeds, 
Henry Hansen, Rep., 2,204; William H. 
Gray, Dem., 1,139. Treasurer, J. H. 
Wheeler, Rep., 2,069 *' J- -^- Gustafson, Dem., 
1,277. Prosecuting attorney, Fred C. 
Wetmore, Rep., 2,515; no Democratic can- 
didate. Circuit court commissioner, D. A. 
Rice, Rep., 2,504; no Democratic candidate. 

1902 — Sheriff, S. W. Huckleberry, Rep., 
1,379; M. J. Compton, Dem., 470. County 
clerk, D. F. Garver, Rep., 1,315; B. C. 
Dean, Dem., 537. Register of deeds, Hen- 
ry Hansen, Rep., 1,346; G. A. Frederick, 
Dem., 504. Treasurer, C. C. Daugherty, 
Rep., 1,226; J. A. Gustafson, Dem., 433. 
Prosecuting attorney, F. C. Wetmore, Rep., 
1,397; ^^o Democratic candidate. Circuit 
court commissioner, J. R. Bishop, Rep., 
1,374; no Democratic candidate. 

By an amendment to act No. 147, of 
session laws of 1891, made at the legisla- 
tive session of 1893, ^^^ office of county 
commissioner of schools was made elective, 
the first election to take place on the first 
Monday of April, 1893, and every two years 
thereafter, and term of office to begin July 
first following the election and continue for 
two years. At the first election under this 
law George E. Herrick, of Cadillac, was 
elected by a vote of 1,108 to 787 for J. E. 
Wood, at that time principal of the Sherman 
schools. ' 

In 1895 H. C. Foxworthy was elected 
to this office over L. A. Tibbitts, the vote 
being 1,076 for Mr. Foxworthy to 446 for 
Mr. Tibbitts. Mr. Foxworthy was re- 
elected in 1897, his opponent being Charles 



D. Phelps and the vote being 1,418 for Fox- 
worthy and 898 for Mr. Phelps. He was 
also a candidate for a third term in 1899, 
but was defeated in the convention by C. 
C. Slemons, of Sherman, who received the 
nomination and was elected by a majority 
of 528 over Genette E. Chick, his Demo- 
cratic opponent. Mr. Slemons was renomi- 
nated in 1 90 1 and elected by a vote of 1,664 
to 2>7^ for his opponent, Miss Renie Torry, 
of Cadillac. 

At the Republican county convention in 
1903 William A. Faunce received the nomi- 
nation for this office and at the Democratic 
county convention Miss Renie Torry, who 
had a few days previously been nominated 
by the Prohibition county convention, was 
endorsed for this office and a strong effort 
made throughout the county to secure her 
election. The result was 1,204 votes for Mr. 
Faunce and 1,123 for Miss Torry, giving the 
former a majority of 81. 




Sherman, being the oldest village in the 
county, naturally comes first in historical 
order. In 1869 San ford Gasser had that 
portion of the south half of the southeast 
quarter of section 36, in town 24, north of 
range 12 west, lying east of the Manistee 
river, platted and gave it the name of the 
village of Sherman. The place at that time 
contained but one house and one business 
place, a grocery kept by Lewis J. Clark. 
The village being at the corner of four 
townships, though situated in only one of 
them, there was one other house near the 
corner of the village, owned and occupied 

by Dr. John Perry, as he was familiarly 
called, though it was a mystery how he came 
to be called doctor, unless it was because he 
owned a set of ''turn-keys" (the usual in- 
strument for pulling teeth in those days) 
and occasionally pulled a tooth for an af- 
flicted pioneer. At all events he was the 
first ''doctor" in the county and also the first 
postmaster at Sherman. He also built the 
second saw-mill in the county on the stream 
now known as Cole's creek, one mile east of 
the village. This he operated for about a 
year, after which he sold it to H. B. Sturt- 

When Sherman was made the county 
seat by the act organizing the county, quite 



a building boom was inaugurated. L. P. 
Champenour, the first county clerk, J. H. 
Wheeler, the first county treasurer, and T. 

A. Ferguson, the first resident prosecuting 
attorney, each erected houses in the summer 
of 1869. Maqueston Brothers also had a 
large store building erected, as elsewhere 
noted. There were several other buildings 
erected during that summer, and there 
began to be quite a village in fact as well 
as in name. 

A change of postmasters took place in 
1869, L. J. Clark succeeding Mr. Perry, 
since which time the following persons have 
had the office in the order named : E. W. 
Stewart, J. S. Walling, C. E. Cooper, H. 

B. Sturtevant, H. F. Campbell, J. H. Wheel- 
er, I. N. Carpenter, E. W. Wheeler, 
Mabel Ramsey, L. P. Champenois and 
the present incumbent, R. D. Frederick, pro- 
prietor of the Sherman Pioneer. The office 
is now the third in point of business in the 
county, Cadillac and Manton being the first 
and second in the order named. 

It soon developed that locations on lands 
adjoining the village plat were more desir- 
able for residence purposes than those plat- 
ted, and the larger portion of the village has 
been built upon unplatted lands. In 1882 
a tract of land in the northeast corner of sec- 
tion I in Springville township was platted 
as Crippin's addition to Sherman and nearly 
all of 4:hese lots are now occupied. The vil- 
lage was situated on the Newaygo and 
Northport State Road and near the Manis- 
tee river, the distance to the river being less 
than half a mile in a western direction and 
a little more than three-fourths of a mile to 
the north. When the work of clearing the 
river for running logs had been completed 
and lumbering operations were extended up 

the river to the extensive pine forests a lit- 
tle east of the village, Sherman was on 
the direct line between Manistee and the 
lumber camps, and this fact, coupled with 
the fact that it was almost impossible to haul 
supplies all the way from Manistee, gave the 
merchants of Sherman a very large and lu- 
crative trade. Occasionally some jobber 
would run' behind and leave the sitore- 
keepers with bad debts on their hands, but 
these failures were very few! and not of a 
serious nature. 

Sherman had the honor of having the 
first newspaper published in the county, the 
Wexford County Pioneer, owned and edited 
by C. E. Cooper and A. W. Tucker. After 
running the paper together a few years Mr. 
Tucker sold out his interest to Mr. Cooper, 
who continued in control until 1877, when 
he sold it to C. S. Marr, who conducted it 
for a little more than a year. It then went 
into the hands of H. F. Campbell and J. H. 
Wheeler, where it remained until January, 
1880, when Mr. Campbell sold his interest 
to Mr. Wheeler, who thus became the sole 
owner. Mr. Wheeler published the paper 
for twelve years, at the end of which 
time he sold it to R. D. Frederick, who still 
retains it. In politics it has always been Re- 
publican, though efforts were made at one 
time to make it a Greenback paper, and at 
another to purchase it and make it Demo- 

The first business venture where Sher- 
man now stands was made by Lewis J. 
Clark, who built a small frame building and 
put in a small stock of goods suitable for a 
new country trade. This building was 
erected in the summer of 1868, and was the 
first frame structure of any kind built on the 
south side of the Manistee river in the coun- 



ty. The first hotel was started by Sylvester 
Clerk in a log building that was orignally 
put up by the man who homesteaded the 
land on which the village was platted. 
When this land was first located as a home- 
stead there was not even a highway south of 
the river. The state road had been chopped 
out, but not cleared for travel and the roads 
made by the few settlers on the south side 
of the river wound aroimd through the 
woods wherever they could be made passi- 
ble. It was not until after the organization 
of the county that the work of stumping and 
grading the state road was completed. It 
is not much wonder, therefore, that the 
first man to settle on this piece of land should 
have got homesick and abandoned it. Soon 
after the hotel was started a frame addition 
was put up and for at least two years it was 
the only hotel in the village. The original 
log part of this relic of pioneer days still 
stands, though long since enclosed with lum- 
ber to give it the appearance of a frame 
building. The first term of the circuit 
court for the county was held in this same 
building, as was also the first meeting of 
the board of supervisors. 

The first lawyer to locate in Sherman, 
aside from T. A. Ferguson, who was ap- 
pointed prosecuting attorney soon after the 
county was organized, was E. W. Stewart, 
who located in the village in 1870. The 
first resident preacher was Jonas Denton, 
who arrived in 1871. The first practicing 
physician was H. D. Griswold, who located 
in the village in 1872. Mr. Denton organ- 
ized the First Congregational church in 
1872 and his work was taken up by Rev. 
R. Redeoff in 1873, through whose efforts* 
a church edifice was erected in 1874 and 
dedicated October 11, of that year. Mr. 

Redeoff was pastor of the church until 1877, 
when he removed to Rockford, Michigan, 
remaining there several years. Returning 
to Sherman in 1880, he resumed his pasr- 
toral work and continued to serve the 
church for seventeen years, making twenty- 
one years' service in all. During his ab- 
sence the pulpit was filled by Rev. William 
P\ Esler the first year and by Rev. J. W. 
Young the next two years. Mr. Young was 
ordained at Sherman July 2, 1878. The 
present pastor is Rev. A. Bentall, whose 
work commenced in October, 1899. Mr. 
Bentall was also ordained in the Sherman 
church in May, 1902. 

The Methodist Episcopal church socie- 
ty was organized in 1870 and preaching ser- 
vices were held once in two weeks by Rev. 
Thomas Cayton. At the conference held 
that year Rev. A. L. Thurston was assigned 
this work, often traveling sixteen miles 
through rain and snow, heat and cold, 
from his homestead in Selma township, to 
fill his appointments. The next year Rev. 
John Hall was designated as "supply'' for 
the Sherman charge, and in 1872 the socie- 
ty, secured its first resident minis-ter. Rev. 
W. R. Stinchcomb. Preaching services 
were held each alternate Sunday in conjunc- 
tion with the CongregaticttMii it^lety, first 
in the school house unfll the Congregational 
church was built, then in the church part of 
the time and a part of the time in the court 
house until the year 1881, when they built 
a house of worship. This, was enlarged and 
somewhat remodeled in 1897, giving it a 
much greater seating capacity and greatly 
improving its appearance. 

When the village of Sherman was plat- 
ted there was no road to the west leading to 
the Fletcher grist-mill, as such a road 



would require the bridging of the Manistee 
river, consequently those Hving on the south 
side of the river were obHged to come to 
Sherman and follow the state road nearly 
two miles north and then go west and south 
to the mill, making the trip nearly four 
Imiles longer than it would be if they could 
go directly west from Sherman. In 1872 
the board of supervisors made an appropria- 
tion to aid the construction of a bridge over 
the river west of the village and the new 
route to the grist-mill was opened up, much 
to the gratification of the settlers living 
south and east of Sherman. 

The constant increase of settlers in the 
county and the ever-increasing area of cul- 
tivated lands soon taxed the capacity of the 
little grist-mill on the Fletcher creek beyond 
its limit, and large quantities of grain had 
to be sent to Traverse City for milling. 
Several efforts were made by the people of 
Sherman to induce some one to put up a 
good gristing mill near that village, and 
finally a couple of gentlemen of Clam Lake, 
named Shackleton and Bennett, were in- 
duced to undertake the work. A suitable 
building was to be erected by the citizens of 
Sherman and donated to these gentlemen 
on condition that they would put in the nec- 
essary machinery and operate it. The mill 
was built in the fall of 1876, J. H. Wheeler 
having the contract for the building and the 
dam being put in by W. E. Dean and Daniel 
Baldwin. The machinery was furnished and 
placed in position by Butterworth & Lowe, 
of Grand Rapids. The mill was forty by 
fifty feet in size and three stories high, with 
a capacity of two hundred and fifty or three 
hundred bushels of grain per day. Under 
charge of Mr. Bennett, who was a practical 
miller, having learned his trade in Scotland, 

the mill proved of inestimable value to the 
farmers, not only a large share of those in 
Wexford county, but a goodly number of 
those living in the southern tier of town- 
ships of Grand Traverse county and in the 
northeastern part of Manistee county. 

Early in 1878 the mill burned down, 
which so discouraged the proprietors that 
they sold the property to L H. Maqueston, 
who was just then closing out his mercantile 
business in the village preparatory to re- 
moving to the city of New York. This pur- 
chase changed his whole business career, as 
he commenced at once to build the mill, . 
putting up a better and more commodious 
structure than the one burned down and 
equipping it with the most improved appli- 
ances for a custom and merchant mill. He 
re-stocked his large store and was active 
and liberal in everything that tended to the 
development of the village and the farming 
interests surrounding it. One of the monu- 
ments to his memory and generosity swings 
in the l>elfry of the Congregational church 
in Sherman, being a fine bell, costing two 
hundred and fifty dollars, donated by him to 
the church. An untimely death overtook him 
in March, 1886. It was on Sunday and an 
alarm of fire had called out the villagers, the 
fire being in a house near the center of the 
village. Mr. Maqueston energetically 
joined in the efforts to subdue the flames, 
which attempt in a short time proved suc- 
cessful. He then went to his hotel for din- 
ner, after which he went to his store, as was 
his custom Sunday afternoons, for a nap. 
An hour or so later some one wishing to see 
him went to the store door and called to him, 
but without response. At length the door 
was forced open and he was found lying 
on one of the counters dead.' The sad news 



spread through the village like wildfire and 
a throng of people hastened to the store to 
see for themselves if the report was true, 
llie shock w^as great to the community, and 
the loss equally so. The remains were sent 
to New York for burial, and as a mark of 
respect and keen sorrow, nearly the whole 
village followed the hearse to Manton, six- 
teen miles distant, where his lifeless form 
was taken on its last journey eastward. 

In 1887 an act was passed by the legis- 
lature granting a charter to the village, and 
the first village election was held on the 5tl"i 
day of May, 1887. One of the principal 
objects in securing the charter was to enable 
the village to issue bonds for the purpose of 
securing the Toledo, Ann Arbor & Northern 
Michigan Railroad, which was then being 
pushed from Harrietta on to Frankfort. 
The lx)nds were issued and delivered to the 
railroad company, but owing to a decision 
of the supreme court of the state just prior 
to that time it found difficulties in negotiat- 
ing them, and they were finally returned to 
the village authorities. The result was that 
the proposed ''spur" was never built, al- 
though it has appeared on the county atlas 
for the past twelve years. The failure to 
get this railroad connection was another se- 
vere blow to Sherman, as it made possible 
the building up of another trading point, the 
village of Mesick, thus dividing the business 
wdiich should have all gone to one towai to 
have made it grow and prosper. 

By a recent action of the village it has 
again voteil to issue its bonds for five thou- 
sand dollars with which to grade a street 
through the village. This has been done 
in the interests of the Manistee & North- 
eastern Railroad, which now proposes to 
build a line running within the corporate 

limits of the village. If this plan succeeds 
Sherman will continue to be the largest 
village in the northwestern part of the coun- 
ty, but will never be wdiat it w^ould have 
been had it secured connection w4th the Ann 
Arbor Railroad when that road first passed 
through the county. 

After the county seat left Sherman the 
court house was purchased by the school dis- 
trict and l)y a few changes was converted 
into a very convenient school building. The 
school attendance had increased to such an 
extent that it became necessary as early as 
1887 to employ three teachers, and in 1896 
it was formally made a graded school. The 
village now has a population of about five 
Inindred, has three large general stores, 
three hotels, two hardware stores, two drug 
stores, tw^o blacksmith shops, two churches, 
one large floin*ing-mill, two grocery stores, 
besides a bank, a millinery store, saw and 
planing mill, saloon and other necessary 
ivdjuncts to a modern village. It is situated 
on the table land, some eighty or a hundred 
feet above the Manistee river, and is sur- 
rounded by one of the very best agricultural 
districts in the country. 

In 1897" the Ann Arbor Railroad built 
a spur (or rather the people of Sherman 
built it and presented it to the railroad com- 
pany) which came within a mile of Sherman 
to the w^est, where a little burg has sprung 
up sometimes called West Sherman, and 
sometimes Claggetville, from Claggett, the 
name of the man in whose interests the spur 
w^as built, and who erected a large stave and 
heading mill, with dry kiln and storing 
sheds, the entire plant and yards covering 
several acres of ground. This plant has al- 
ways been operated from Sherman, the pro- 
prietors and many of the laborers living in 



that village. The place has grown to be a 
great shipping point for potatoes, wheat, 
lumber and logs, and all freight for Sher- 
man in car lots is unloaded at this point. 
The officials of the railroad are now contem- 
plating the erection of a station on this spur, 
so that all freight and railroad business for 
Sherman may be done there instead of go- 
ing to Mesick, nearly three miles distant. 

The first secret society organized in 
Sherman was Powhattan Tribe No. 12, Im- 
proved Order of Red Men. This was a be-^ 
nevolent and social organization, after- 
wards taking up the life insurance idea so 
prevalent now with nearly all secret orders. 
This tribe was instituted through the efforts 
of C. S. Marr, a young attorney who had 
then just entered upon the practice of law 
and had located in Sherman in the spring 
of 1876. The organization was perfected 
in May of that year and flourished for a 
number of years, some of its members be- 
ing prominently identified with the great 
council of the state and the United States. 
One of its members, J. H. Wheeler, served 
one term as great sachem of the great coun- 
cil of the state and was representative of the 
state in the great council of the United 
States at three of its annual sessions, one 
at Philadelphia, one at Atlantic City and 
one at Springfield, Illinois. 

This order took its name and much of 
its ritualistic work from the aborigines of the 
country, its officers being sachem, prophet, 
sagamore, chief of records, keeper of wam- 
pum, etc., its candidates for admission, 
pale faces, and its members, warriors. Its 
ceremonial work was unique and impressive, 
and was pronounced by those competent to 
judge as superior to that of many of the 
older orders. It is a little strange that a 

branch of such an order should not have 
succeeded in Sherman when the order at 
large has been constantly growing and 
counts its membership in the United States 
by the tens of thousands, but the average 
American is always looking for something 
new and novel and with the coming of the 
Grange, the Odd Fellows, the Masons and 
other secret orders the old love was cast oft* 
for the new in many instances, and this, with 
the death and removal of some of the prom- 
inent workers in the tribe, caused its ranks 
to grow so thin that at last it resolved to 
surrender its charter, which it did, in 

The Patrons of Husbandry was the next 
order to establish a branch in Sherman, 
which was done in February, 1877. ^'^i^ 
branch was known as Sherman Grange No. 
6;^2, and also had a large membership and 
regular attendance for a number of years, 
but at last, like its predecessor, the Red 
Men, it ^'folded its tents" and disappeared. 

Next came the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, under the title of Sherman 
Lodge No. 336, which was instituted in 
March, 1880. This lodge is still in a flour- 
ishing condition, and now has its auxiliary 
Rebekahs. The lodge owns its own hall and 
has a good membership. 

T. A. Ferguson Post No. 226, Grand 
Army of the Republic, was the next to per- 
fect an organization in Sherman, the date 
being March 4, 1884. The name has since 
been changed to ''Abram Finch Post,'' in 
honor of an old soldier who located a home- 
stead on section 12, in Springville township, 
and who' died about the time the county was 
organized. As none but ex-soldiers of the 
war of the Rebellion can belong to this order 
its ranks are yearly growing thinner and 



it too will ere long be but a memory. It has 
been the inspiration of many observations 
of the beautiful Memorial day exercises of 
the order and for this alone its passing will 
sadden the hearts of the many who have wit- 
nessed these heart-felt tributes to fallen 
comrades in arms. 

The work of instituting a lodge of Free 
and Accepted Masons was undertaken in 
1884 and a dispensation secured as the pre- 
liminary step to organization, which in due 
course of time was effected. It has had a 
steady and continuous growth, notwith- 
standing the fact that the charter mem- 
bership was that much tabooed number thir- 
teen, and now has one hundred members in 
good standing. It owns the entire second 
story of the E. Gilbert store building, which 
is divided into lodge rooms, ante rooms, 
kitchen and* dining room, all tastily fitted 
and well furnished. An auxiliary Eastern 
Star was organized several years ago and 
now has a membership of eighty-one. 

As the years passed organizations mul- 
tiplied and there is now Maqueston Tent 
No. 654, Knights of the Maccabees; Our 
Choice Hive, Ladies of the Maccabees; 
Sherman Lodge No. 212, Knights of 
Pythias; Sherman Camp No. 5514, Mod- 
ern Woodmen of America. For a number 
of years the Good Templars kept up an or- 
ganization, and the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union have for many years 
had an organization in the village and also 
a county organization. 

An old saying that "blessed be nothing" 
can well be quoted by Sherman just now, as 
it has no lawyer. While the county seat re- 
mained there it always had one, generally 
two and sometimes three lawyers, and they 
all lived, therefore the people had to sup- 

port them. Since the county seat was re- 
moved, the village has been without a law- 
yer most of the time, and there was very lit- 
tle litigation, for it took money and time to 
go to Cadillac to see a lawyer, and the time 
nearly always had such a cooling effect on 
the angry, would-be litigant, that his bet- 
ter manhood asserted itself, and thus many 
a law-suit was avoided and much useless ex- 
pense prevented. 

Of doctors there have nearly always 
been two for the past twenty years, and 
sometimes three or four ; at the present time 
there are two: Dr. E. A. McManus and 
Dr. D. L. Rose. In other professional call- 
ings may be found S.. Gasser, real estate 
dealer; R. D. Frederick, insurance agent; 
J. H. Glover, phoitographer, and A. S. 
Moreland & Son, bankers. 


The second village to be started in the 
county was the village of Clam Lake. As 
previously stated, it was situated at the 
eastern end of Little Clam lake, from which 
it derived its name. The name of this lake 
has but recently been changed to Lake Cad- 
illac by act of the legislature. The village 
of Clam Lake was platted in July, 1872, 
since which time there have been many addi- 
tions and subdivisions platted until now the 
city of Cadillac, a name adopted when the 
village became a city, covers nearly ten times 
as much territory as did the orignal plat. 
In fact if the lands attached to the city in 
1895 ^o enable it to build and control a road 
way or boulevard around the lake were tak- 
en into consideration, the area of the pres- 
ent city would be more than twenty-five 
times as great as was the original plat. 



In 1879 an addition was platted, called 
sub-division of outlots 5 and 6. Cobb and 
Mitchell platted their first addition in Au- 
gust, 1880, and their second and third addi- 
tions in September, 1881. • May and Mitch- 
ell's addition was platted in November, 1881, 
and in May Cummer and Haynes platted 
an addition. The next month three other 
plats were recorded, viz : A plat of the 
northwest quarter of section 3, township 
21 north, range 9 west; a plat of the south- 
west quarter of section 3, township 21 
north, range 9 west, and a plat of the north- 
east quarter of section 33, township 22 
north, range 9 west. 

J. Cummer & Sons platted their first ad- 
dition in October, 1882, and in November, 
1883, an addition was platted by Cummer 
and Gerish. Cobb and Mitchell platted a 
fourth addition in April, 1884, and a year 
from that time a plat of the subdivision of 
block F in the original plat was recorded. 
This block F had been left entire when the 
village was first platted and it was to be 
donated to the county, provided the county 
seat was removed to Cadillac. This was the 
same block so often mentioned in resolu- 
tions presented to the board of supervisors, 
as will be seen by consulting the proceedings 
of that body. 

In 1886 another plat, subdividing block 
105 of the Cummer and Haynes addition, 
was filed. In July, 1888, C. K. Russell 
filed the plat of the subdivision of outlot 14, 
and a couple of months later J. Cummer & 
Sons filed a plat of their second addition. 
In 1 89 1 Johnson's addition was platted and 
in 1892 the plat of the southeast quarter of 
section 33, township 22 north, range 9 west, 
was filed. In June, 1893, ^^e Improvement 
addition was platted and in August of the 

same year S. W. Kramer's addition was re- 
corded. In November, 1893, another plat 
was recorded called Crawford's subdivision 
of block 7 of May and Mitchell's addition. 

January 30, 1894, J. Cummer & Sons 
platted their third addition. In March, 
1899, Pollard's subdivision of parts of 
blocks E and F of Cobb and Mitchell's sec- 
ond addition was platted and in the same 
month there was a plat filed called ''Assess- 
ment Plat Number One," covering a large 
number of lots that had been sold by metes 
and bounds, not being in any of the numer- 
ous plats theretofore made. The plat of 
Diggins' first addition was filed in April, 
1902, and in December of that year Chit- 
tenden and Wheeler platted an addition con- 
taining about one hundred and twenty lots, 
making twenty-six additions and subdivis- 
ions since the original plat was made, be- 
sides the addition secured through the leg- 
islature extending the city limits around the 

The first effort to clear away any portion 
of the forests which covered the ground 
where the city of Cadillac now stands was 
for the building of camps used in the con- 
struction of the extension of the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad. Col. J. C. 
lludnutt was the railroad company's civil 
engineer at that time and when he was or- 
dered to swing around the eastern end of 
Little Clam lake, instead of passing between 
the two lakes, as was first intended, he con- 
cluded that it meant the building of a town 
at that point. With this idea in view, he 
decided to buy any or all land bordering 
on the eastern shore of the lake and for this 
purpose he started for the government land 
ofiice, then located at Traverse City, in the 
fall of 1 87 1, to ascertain what there was 



in that locality that could be purchased. The 
only road to Traverse City then was the 
State road, running through Sherman, and 
as the stage was the only conveyance it took 
two days to make the trip from the northern 
end of the railroad, which was then just 
this side of Big Rapids, to the land office. 
The Colonel stopped over night in Sher- 
man and in conversation with some of the 
business men of that village casually re~ 
marked that he was on his way to 
the United States land office ''to buy a 
city." I. H. Mequeston, one of Sher- 
man's first merchants, lx)arded at the 
hotel and, overhearing this remark of the 
Colonel's, adroitly drew out the facts that 
the ''city" was yet in embryo, but that it 
was to be built on the eastern shore of the 
Little Clam lake, so while the Colonel was 
enjoying a much needed night's rest, Mr. 
Maqueston started for Traverse City, where 
he arrived in the middle of the night. How 
he found the residence of the register of the 
land office or how much he gave him to 
leave his warm bed and go to the land office 
at that unseemly hour of the night will 
probably always remain a mystery, as both 
have been dead for many years, but certain 
it is that wdien Col. Hudnutt reached the 
land office the next day he discovered the 
fact that government lots i, 3 and 5 of sec- 
tion 4, in Clam Lake township, or rather 
what is now Clam Lake township, had been 
sold to L. J. Clark and L H. Maqueston, 
of Sherman. This was the land upon which 
the original village of Clam Lake was plat- 
ted. The village has now become the city 
of Cadillac, so that Mr. Hudnutt's facetious 
remark about buying a city, proved the truth 
of the old adage that "many a truth is spok- 
en in jest." Messrs. Clark and Maqueston 

sold their "city" purchase to George A. 
Mitchell, who soon after platted it into the 
village of Clam Lake. 

Even before the arrival of the first regu- 
lar train, which w'as on February 20, 1872, 
and months Ijefore the village was platted, 
there began to be evidences of a village. Rude 
log houses and hotels were constructed, the 
first hotel being the Clam Lake House, sit- 
uated near where the Ann Arbor depot now 
stands. Another large log hotel, known as 
the Mason House, was commenced late in 
the fall of 1 87 1 and was nightly filled with 
travelers before the cracks between the 
logs had been sufficiently "chinked" and 
"mossed" to keep out the snow. Beds and 
even cots for the nightly crowds were out 
of the question, and it was sometimes hard 
to secure room to lie on the floor and sleep. 

It is said that with the crowds came the 
saloon and that the first establishment of the 
kind consisted of a barrel of whisky and 
the top of a pine stump sawed ofif square on 
which to set the glasses and bottles, but 
when it is remembered that there was then 
a prohibitory liquor law upon our statute 
books, it is quite doubtful that the law was 
so openly defied as this would indicate. 

The writer drove over from Sherman to 
make the first arrests in the new burg for 
violation of the liquor law. This was early 
in 1872, when the Mason House was yet 
unfinished, and he had to sleep on its bare 
floor. In the morning he looked up the 
two places complained of, one of which 
stood on the ground now included in the 
city park and the other near the present site 
of the Michigan Iron Works. He foimd no 
evidences of liquor selling, yet the parties 
were convicted of the oflfense, the proof 
showing that the work of selling had been 



slyly instead of openly done, which leads 
him to believe that the *'pine stump and bar- 
rel of whisky'' story is considerably over- 

The first saw-mill was built by a Mr. 
Yale in the fall of 1871, the site being near- 
ly *the same as that now occupied by what is 
designated as Cobbs and Mitchell's little 

A postoffice was established in January, 
1872, with John S. McClain as postmaster. 
His successors have been as follows, in the 
order named: H. F. May, Byron Ballou, 
J. A. Whitmore, J. Nixon, James Crowley, 
Byron Ballou, L. J. Law and S. J. Wall, 
who is now serving his second term. The 
office passed into the presidential class in 
1878 and become a second-class office in 
1 88 1. Free delivery service was inaugu- 
rated in 1 90 1. The present force in the em- 
ploy of the government in the office is Post- 
master Wall, Assistant A. V. Harmer, who 
fills the position of money order and regis- 
try clerk, Mailing Clerk Judd Miller, a de- 
livery and stamp clerk, an assorting and sep- 
arating clerk and three carriers, besides one 
substitute carrier whose work depends upon 
the sickness or disability of the regular car- 
riers. The salaries paid are as follows: 
Postmaster, $2,400, assistant postmaster, 
$1,000, mailing clerk, $900, delivery and 
separating clerks, $700 each, carriers, $850 
each, making a total of $8,250, besides, the 
extra compensation to the substitute car- 
rier. The total receipts of the office for the 
quarter ending March 31, 1903, was $3,- 
890.56. Under directions from the post- 
office department, all mails received and dis- 
patched for seventy days ending May 12, 
1903, were weighed, the total weight for 
that time being 67,947 pounds, which did 

not include the mail deposited for local de- 
livery or that sent out on the daily and tri- 
weekly star routes which run out from the 
city in three different directions. 

In giving the history of the early days 
of Clam Lake (now Cadillac) no more re- 
liable source of information can be found 
than the files of the local newspaper, there- 
fore we shall quote liberally from the first 
issue of the Clam Lake News, the first news- 
paper to be published in the village. The 
paper was founded in 1872 by C. L. Frazier. 
Later S. S. Fallass became interested finan- 
cially in the paper and was an editorial con- 
tributor. It was afterwards sold to J. A. 
& O. Whittemore. In 1878 it was under 
the management of Rice & Chapin and in 
1 88 1 Mr. Terwilliger took Mr. Rice's place 
as one of the managers and in the latter part 
of that year it was entirely under the man- 
agement of Mr. Chapin. In 1882 J. W. 
Giddings succeeded to the management of 
the paper. Mr. Giddings having been 
elected to the state senate, the ownership of 
the News went into the hands of the News 
Publishing Company. C. T. Chapin, after 
severing his connection w,ith Ithe News, 
formed a partnership with Mr. Sill and 
started the Saturday Express, the first num- 
ber appearing in December, 1886. In the 
following May this paper consolidated with 
the News and the paper was thenceforth 
known as the News and Express. The new 
paper remained in the hands of the News 
Publishing Company until December i, 
1897, when the present publisher, Hon. 
Perry F. Powers, became the owner. It 
was started as a six-column folio, later en- 
larged to a six-column quarto and is now a 
seven-column quarto and has a daily edi- 
tion in its second volume. It has always 



been a strong advocate of Republican prin- 
ciples and a supporter of Republican candi- 
dates, except on one occasion when it sup- 
ported the nominee of the Demo-Greenback 
party for member of the house of represent- 
atives in the state legislature, but as this was 
solely on account of county-seat matters, 
the candidate being a resident of the village 
of Clam L.ake, it had some excuse for the 
position it took in that campaign. 

It may be well in this connection to 
briefly note the other newspaper ventures 
that have been started in the village and city 
since the starting of the News in 1872. The 
first to make its appearance was the Daily 
Enterprise, launched in the summer of 
1880. It had not much excuse for an exist- 
ence at that time except the one object of 
creating sentiment favorable to the removal 
of the county seat to Cadillac, but it soon 
found that a newspaper of one idea was a 
difficult thing to interest the people with 
and consequently it was not very long lived. 

The next paper to make its appearance 
was the Cadillac Weekly Times, which 
made its first bow to the people of Wexford 
county in June, 1882, under the manage- 
ment of A. Rindge. At first it was a seven- 
column folio, but in a few months was en- 
larged to a seven-column quarto. The paper 
was soon afterwards merged into the Mich- 
igan State Democrat, a paper that had been 
started in Detroit by M. T. Woodruff, who 
transferred it to Cadillac. In December, 
1 89 1, it was purchased by its present owner, 
George S. Stanley. As its name indicates, 
it has always been Democratic in politics 
and has labored zealously for its party. Its 
owner has been nominated for various coun- 
ty and city offices and was once elected may- 
or of the city. He is thoroughly alive to the 

interests of his home city and is an earnest 
and active worker in everything that tends 
to its growth and prosperity. 

The Wexford County Citizen made its 
appearance in August, 1884. It was. edited 
and published by H. M. Enos and printed in 
the job office of C. T. Chapin. It only lived 
about nine months and was not much missed 
when it was discontinued. 

The Arbitaren made its advent in 
March, 1890. It was a weekly paper pub- 
lished exclusively for Scandinavian readers 
by C. E. Thornmark and printed in the 
State Democrat office. After about four 
years of existence in Cadillac it was re- 
moved to Grand Rapids, .but still supplied 
its Cadillac readers for some time after its 

The Cadillac Globe was launched in the 
newspaper field in September, 1898, by J. 
M. Terwilliger. Two years later Mr. Ter- 
williger took in a partner, R. W. Craw- 
ford, and the paper is still managed by them. 
In the spring of 1901 they started a daily 
edition, which they continued to publish for 
about a year, finally selling their interests 
in the daily to the publishers of the Daily 
News. The Globe has never taken a very 
active part in politics, being rather neutral 
in that line, though leaning to the Demo- 
cratic side of the fence. It has a good cir- 
culation and a good advertising patronage 
and is no small factor in the upbuilding and 
onward progress of the city. 

We will go back now to the first issue 
of the Clam Lake News, which was on the 
first day of June, 1872. The village was 
very new then, which may have had some- 
thing to do with the naming of the paper the 
News, for there was not a superabundance 
of matter out of which to put up a good 



newsy paper; nevertheless its first issue was 
a notable one, being the initiatory step in a 
career that has brought success to its pub- 
lisher and a worthy record for itself. In 
that first issue its editor gave an extended 
review and summary of the village, which we 
quote at length : 

*'But little more than seven months 
since, the place where the village of Clam 
Lake now stands was but a dense forest and 
the voice of a human being was seldom 
heard. The site being on the Grand Rapids 
& Indiana Railroad, upon the banks of one 
of the most beautiful lakes in Michigan and 
a proper distance from large places on 
either side, the spot was selected as a desir- 
able place for a town. George A. Mitchell, 
the original prime mover and proprietor of 
the village plat, commenced operating here 
sometime in October last. Since that time 
he has I^een an earnest and faithful worker 
in the interests of the place. The liberal 
spirit which he has manifested in all his 
dealings has won for him many warm 
friends. The village plat covers about eigh- 
ty acres of ground. It borders on the west 
, and commands a beautiful view of Little 
Clam lake. The railroad divides the town 
into two nearly equal parts and the depot 
is situated in the most central portion. 

*'The village now contains about one 
hundred and twenty-five families and a pop- 
ulation of upwards of six hundred actual 
settlers. The lakes called the Little and Big 
Clam cover an area of about eight square 
miles; the distance intervening between the 
two is about sixty rods. The channel be- 
tween the lakes is from two to five feet 
deep and from one to two rods wide. The 
work of clearing it of logs and old rubbish 
is now progressing and when opened it will 

be navigable for steamers of considerable 
size and will be very convenient for floating 
logs that may eventually come from the 
Big Lake and through this channel to the 
mills. These lakes abound largely with ex- 
cellent varieties of fish and the country 
around wath wild game, affording a grand 
field for hunting and fishing. The land bor- 
dering on these lakes and for several miles 
around is covered with a heavy growth of 
pine that will be tributary to them and here 
worked into lumber. 

'The capacity of the mills now in opera- 
tion and the two large ones soon to start will 
be about four million feet per month. At 
this rate it is estimated that it will take fif- 
teen years to consume the pine. Taking this 
into consideration, the pleasant locality for a 
town, and the excellent farming lands in 
the vicinity that will be tributary to the place 
and support it when the pine is gone, you 
may judge for yourself what the future of 
Clam Lake will be. We make mention of 
the following more important places of busi- 
ness : 

''Saw^ Mills — The mills that are now in 
successful operation are those of J. R. Hale 
and Slinger & Company; the first named, 
the Pioneer mill, has been running some five 
or six months. It is now being finished up 
in good shape, some new and much-needed 
machinery has been added and is now 
capable of cutting about twenty-five thou- 
sand feet per day. The latter, Slinger & 
Company's new and improved portable mill, 
is doing a good business, with a capacity of 
about twenty-five thousand feet per day. 
The above named mills are both under the 
management of Mr. Lydle, who has been 
doing everything in his power to supply the 
great demand for lumber. 



"The new mills of Shockleton & Green 
and Harris Brothers are expected to be 
ready to start by the middle of this month 
and when completed will be a credit to the 
town and to the builders. The first named 
is thirty by ninety-six feet, two stories high, 
and a boiler house fourteen by thirty-six 
feet. There are two boilers, eighteen feet 
long and forty-four inciies in diameter. The 
cylinder is fourteen inches in diameter and 
twenty-four inch stroke. It will contain 
one large circular with top saw and gang 
edger. It is expected to be capable of cut- 
ting forty thousand feet per day. Messrs. 
Shockleton & Green are energetic business 
men and every part of their mill is built in 
a substantial and business-like manner. 

''Harris Bros.' mill, which is also expect- 
ed to be ready for operation by the middle of 
this month, will, when completed, compare in 
every respect with any mill in northern 
Michigan. The main building is thirty-six 
by one hundred and fifteen feet, two stories 
high, and attached to this is a boiler house 
twenty-eight by fifty feet, which is to con- 
tain three large boilers twenty feet long and 
four feet in diameter. The cylinder is 
tw^enty inches in diameter and forty-eight 
inch stroke. The capacity of the engine will 
be one hundred and fifty horse power to six- 
ty pounds of steam. This mill will have one 
large circular, a gang of forty saws and one 
edger with three saws. It will contain all 
the latest and most improved labor-saving 
machinery and neither time nor money will 
be spared to make it a first-class mill. Capt. 
Silas Pelton, of Grand Rapids, has had full 
charge of the mill from the beginning and 
his work proves him to be a man of much 
mechanical skill and ingenuity. 

''Mercantile EstablishmeInts — 

Among the most important of which we 
would make special note is that of Messrs. 
Holbrook & May, who keep a well-selected 
stock of everything in the line of dry goods, 
groceries and provisions. They are ener- 
getic business men and are having a lively 
trade, which they well deserve. The next of 
importance is the general hardware store of 
W. li. Hicks & Company. They keep a 
first-class stock and propose to sell at Grand 
Rapids prices. Mr. Hicks is a young man 
of energy and ability and is deserving of 
patronage. Messrs. Cornwell & Labor have 
a large store in Messrs. Mosser & White's 
building, well stocked with flour, feed, gro- 
ceries and provisions. They are having a 
good trade. L. Ballon, on Mason street, 
also dealer in flour, feed and groceries and 
provisions, is doing a lively business. He is 
a young man of good business tact and is 
bound to succeed. Mr. Bunyen, on Lake 
street, keeps a good line of groceries and 
provisions. He was among the first set- 
tlers in the place and is deserving of patron- 
age. Messrs. Sanders & Morrow are large 
dealers in dry goods and groceries. Messrs. 
Russell & White have opened a meat market 
on Lake street and their stock is new and 
fresh from Grand Rapids every day. Dr. 
Leeson has his drug store in successful op- 
eration. Mr. Studley has opened a first- 
class restaurant on Mason street. Messrs. 
Reed & Ferris have a large blacksmith shop 
and are doing a prosperous business. D. 
F. Duval has a boot and shoe shop on Ma- 
son street. 

"We have at present four hotels, all of 
which are doing a prosperous business. The 
Mason House, so well known to the public, 
is being thoroughly overhauled. The rooms 
are all being newly ceiled, papered and fin- 



ished in the most comfortable manner. The 
walls, which are now known to be made of 
logs, are to be sided on the outside so that 
it will appear to be a log building no more. 
Mr. Mason is a pleasant and obliging land- 
lord and is ready to do anything for the 
comfort and entertainment of all who are 
so fortunate as to stop with him. He has 
placed on the lake for the entertainment of 
his guests a fine pleasure boat that is truly 
delightful to ride in. The tables are spread 
with the very best the market affords and 
ever^^thing presents a tidy and tasty ap- 
pearance. The American Hotel, on Mitch- 
ell street, nearly opposite the depot on the 
east, quite recently opened, presents a fine 
appearance and is acknowledged by every 
one as having first-class accommodations. 
The building is thirty by sixty feet and two 
stories high. Messrs. Teller & Parks, pro- 
prietors of the Clam Lake House, are still 
occupying their old quarters on Lake street. 
Their new building on Mitchell street is now 
enclosed and will soon be ready for occu- 
pancy. When finished it will be the largest 
and decidedly the handsomest building in 

''Messrs. Sanders & Walker have pur- 
chased the new building of Bremyer Broth- 
ers and are putting in a stock of groceries 
and provisions. Abbott & Turner have 
opened their new store on Mason street, 
having a good line of groceries and confec- 
tioneries. Larcom & Motts have their new 
building on Lake street inclosed and when 
it is finished it is to be occupied by them for 
a fruit and vegetable store. Lamb & Cole 
have erected a new building on Mitchell 
street. They intend putting in groceries 
and provisions. Dr. Dillenback has the 
frame up for his new drug store on Mitch- 

ell street. Mr. Bunyea, on Mitchell street, 
is enclosing his large building to be used for 
groceries. Mr. Born has recently purchased 
the building occupied by Mr. Tracy for a 
dwelling and is fitting it up for a dry goods, 
boot and shoe store. Mr. Kirkbride is put- 
ting on the finishing touch to his new fur- 
niture rooms on Harris street, in which you 
may expect to see a full line of furniture. 
C. B. Earl is making ready to lay the foun- 
dation of a large store on Mason street im- 
mediately east of the railroad, in which he 
proposes to keep for sale sash, doors, blinds, 
glass, paints, oils, etc. Mr. Vaughn has 
purchased of R. P. Thurber the large store 
and boarding house block which is to be 
painted outside and the rooms now occupied 
for a boarding house are to have a general 
overhauling and to be fitted up in the most 
improved manner. The number of new 
buildings that are being erected each week 
would have to be reckoned by the dozen. 

"A lot has been selected and given by 
Mr. Mitchell for the erection of a school 
building. It covers one whole block, lying 
on an elevation commanding a most beau- 
tiful view of the town. The contract has 
been let for the building of a temporary 
house to be used for a season, when a build- 
ing is to be erected that will be an ornament 
to the village. The Presbyterian and Meth- 
odist societies have selected lots, which have 
been given by Mr. Mitchell for church pur- 
poses. A movement is already on foot to 
build suitable edifices for public worship.'* 

This is indeed a pretty good showing for 
a village less than a year old. - No wonder 
that the editor goes into raptures over the 
beauty and grandeur of the scene. No one 
who has not gazed upon a beautiful, mir- 
ror-like lake, surrounded by an unbroken 



forest of tall pines and picturesque cedars 
and hemlocks, can form anything like a cor- 
rect idea of the picture afforded the early 
settlers in the village of Clam Lake. It 
seems almost sacrilege that such beauty of 
scenery should have had to yield before the 
insatiable maw of the woodman's ax and the 
saw-mill's glittering teeth, but the marts of 
commerce have no sentiment or romance, and 
nature's loveliness must be yielded up to the 
demands of business, and the glory of her 
forests and the grandeur of its solitudes 
must be laid waste that man may reap for- 
tunes out of what it has taken her centuries 
to produce. If the denuded lands had been 
turned into waving wheat fields there would 
have seemed to be some recompense for the 
ruthless slaughter of the forests, but to see 
the vast areas of lands covered with noth- 
ing but stumps and a slubby growth of 
bushes, makes one wish that the task of 
cutting away the great forests of pine had 
been much less rapidly done, so that the 
present and future generations could have 
had a glimpse of their royal beauty and 
sublimity. But how useless it is to moralize. 
In looking over the foregoing extract 
from the News we find that a few, a very 
few, of the names therein mentioned are 
still familiarly known in Cadillac — the city 
to which the village of Clam Lake has 
grown. Dr. Leeson is still doing business 
in the city, and, though not the owner of a 
drug store, is engaged in the manufacture 
of ''Tiger Oil," a medicine of well recog- 
nized merits which has found a way into 
nearly every state in the Union. The Doc- 
tor can boast of being a charter member of 
two organizations which will doubtless re- 
main as long as the city continues to exist. 
One is the Methodist Episcopal church and 


the other the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. He is hale and hearty and may 
be seen almost any summer day going to or 
returning from his farm, situated two miles 
out of the city. Mr. Cornwell, mentioned in 
the items quoted relative to Cornwell & La- 
bar, is still in the same business as then, the 
firm name now being J. Cornwell & Sons. 
Mr. Labar severed his connection with the 
firm some eight or ten years ago, moved to 
the southern part of the state and has since 
gone to his long rest. Mr. Harris, of the 
firm of Harris Brothers, long years ago re- 
tired from the mill business and now lives 
in a modest home on the street bearing his 
name. His bowed form and whitened locks 
are frequently seen on the streets, and 
though not engaged in business, he will re- 
count the struggles and triumphs of an early 
business life in the village of Clam Lake 
with a great deal of zest to any one who 
wishes to question him about the early days 
in the history of the village. Mr. Born is 
still an active business man of the city, his 
chief occupation being that of moving build- 
ings from place to place or raising them and 
putting under new foundations. Of the 
many others named in this article, some are 
dead, many entirely forgotten, some doing 
business in other states and other sections 
of this state, and one — Dr. Dillenbeck — is 
an inmate of the Northern Michigan Insane 
Asykim, where he has been for some twelve 
or fifteen years. 

At the conclusion of its first volume the 
News published a review of the year. In 
this review mention is made of the burning 
of the first brick made in the village and 
also of the erection of the Haynes planing 
mill. This was built by the father of the 
present owners. It has been greatly enlarged 



and capacity increased until it is now one 
of the best equipped mills of the kind north 
of Grand Rapids. One item mentions the 
fact that "on the extreme south of the vil- 
lage is the mill owned by J. W. Cobbs, a fine 
mill for its size, and doing a very handsome 
business. Its capacity is about thirty-five 
thousand feet per day." 

Some years later Mr. Cobbs associated 
himself with Mr. Mitchell, the firm being 
known as Cobbs & Mitchell. Their mill 
property was enlarged and later a second 
mill was erected, the two having been in 
constant operation from that time until the 
present, with timber enough in sight to last 
twelve or fifteen years. Their timber now 
comes mostly from Charlevoix county, 
where they have large tracts of the finest 
hardwood and hemlock lands in the state, 
with a sprinkling of pine intermixed. Their 
output is now nearly all hemlock and hard- 
wood, the latter being sold in the finished 
product of maple flooring, to manufacture 
which they have here one of the largest 
maple-flooring plants in the world. 

The Methodists and Presbyterians each 
erected church buildings in 1873, an item 
in the News of June 7, 1873, reading as fol- 
lows: "A little less than four weeks ago 
the first work was done on the Methodist 
Episcopal church, yet last Sunday's serv- 
ices were held there and will continue to 
be in the future." In September a new bell 
was put in the tower of the church. It 
weighed five hundred pounds and cost one 
hundred and twenty-five dollars. In 1888 
the society commenced the erection of its 
present brick edifice, and in December, 1889, 
the dedicatory services were held. The new 
structure cost about eight thousand dollars. 
The society now has a membership of about 

three hundred, has a large Sunday school, 
an Epworth League, a Woman's Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society and is in excel- 
lent condition financially. Its present pas- 
tor. Rev. E. A. Armstrong, is serving his 
fourth year. Touching the earlier history 
of this society, it is related that the first serv- 
ice held in the village of Clam Lake was in 
the evening of December 10, 1871, and the 
society was organized in 1872 by Rev. A. 
L. Thurston, the total membership at that 
time being seven; one of the charter mem- 
bers. Dr. J. Leeson, still has his name on the 
church books and is an active worker for 
the cause he has so long labored for. 

The First Presbyterian church was or- 
ganized in 1872 through the efforts of Rev. 
John Redpath. This society also built a 
church in 1873. A recent fire damaged the 
building to such an extent that services 
therein have been discontinued and at a 
recent meeting of the society it was decided 
to build a new house of worship this year 
at a cost of about twenty thousand dollars. 
The growth of the society recently had 
shown that a larger church building was 
needed and this work will now be hastened 
in consequence of the fire. The present 
pastor. Rev. A. W. Johnstone, Ph. D., is 
now serving his tenth year in the pulpit, 
which is ample evidence of the esteem in 
which he is held by his parishioners. The 
church has the usual auxiliary societies and 
a well attended Sunday school. 

It was not until the year 1882 that the 
Congregationalists made an effort to organ- 
ize a society in the village. The work was 
accomplished through Rev. C. H. Beals, and 
in January, 1883, a society consisting of 
thirty members was organized. The first 
board of trustees was composed of Jacob 



Cummer, N. L. Gerish, J. G. Mosser, E. F. 
Sawyer and F. H. Messmore. In the sum- 
mer of that year a church edifice was erected 
and dedicated December 14, 1883. A par- 
sonage was also built that year, the com- 
bined cost of the buildings being eight thou- 
sand five hundred dollars. An annex was 
built in 1884 for kindergarten purposes and 
since that time, through the liberality of Mr. 
and Mrs. W. W. Cummer, a free kindergar- 
ten has been maintained. The church now 
has a membership of one hundred and sixty- 
nine, has a large Sunday school, a Junior 
Endeavor society, a Ladies Aid and Home 
and Foreign Missionary society. The pres- 
ent pastor, Rev. F. M. Hollister, succeeded 
Rev. N. S. Bradley, wdio had served the 
society from the summer of 1895 until his 
resignation in 1901 to accept a call from 

The Free Methodists organized a society 
in the summer of 1875, through the work of 
Rev. L. D. Russell, and a church building 
was erected the same year largely through 
his efforts. There are now about fifty mem- 
bers and they have a well-attended Sunday 

A Swedish Evangelical Lutheran church 
was organized in 1874 and a church build- 
ing started in 1876, but was not dedicated 
until 1882. It has a very large membership, 
one of the largest Sunday schools in the city, 
a Ladies society, the Willing Workers, 
composed of girls under fifteen years of age, 
the Sorosis society, the Men's Aid society 
and the Little Boys' society. Besides these 
they have a semi-monthly gathering of all 
the young people of the church, at which 
religious and literary programs of interest 
are rendered. The present pastor. Rev. Carl 
A. Tolin, has served the congregation since 

the summer of 1899, succeeding the Rev. 
N. Gibson, who had labored seven years for 
the society. 

A Baptist society was organized in 1876, 
but several years passed before a church 
building was erected. In 1883 the Swedish 
members of the society, about one-half of 
the total membership, withdrew for the pur- 
pose of organizing a Swedish Baptist 
church. This somewhat crippled the parent 
church for a time, but it soon recovered the 
lost ground and is now in a thriving condi- 

The Swedish Baptist church was organ- 
ized on the 23d of June, 1883, with a mem- 
bership of twenty-nine. In 1888 a church 
was built under the pastorate of Rev. Erick- 
son. The membership now numbers nearly 
one hundred and fifty, with a largely at- 
tended Sunday school. 

The St. Ann's Catholic church was or- 
ganized in 1 88 1 and through the efforts of 
the first resident priest, Rev. Milligan, the 
church building, which for some time had 
been in process of construction, was com- 
pleted in 1883. The present priest. Rev. 
L. M.. Prud'homme, last year interested his 
parishioners in the matter of building a new 
brick church and the work was at once be- 
gun, and with systematic effort will be ac- 
complished the present summer, when they 
will have one of the finest houses of wor- 
ship in the city. 

The Swedish Mission church is an in- 
stitution of the fatherland, having been 
started in Sweden some twenty-five years 
ago. In almost every Swedish commun- 
ity of any considerable size in this country 
may be found a Swedish Evangelical Mis- 
sion church. A church was organized in 
this city in 1880 and in 1882 a church build- 



ing- was erected. The church has a mem- 
bership of about one hundred and fifty, a 
Sunday school with over one hundred mem- 
bers and is in a nourishing condition. The 
doors of the church are open nearly every 
evening in the year, where any one, be he 
resident or transient, may find welcome and 

In August, 1884, a German Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran ImmanueL church was organ- 
ized. The society as yet has no church 
building, but services are regularly held at 
the parsonage. The present pastor, Paul 
C. Nofi^ze, has ministered to the church since 

The Seventh Day Adventists had a 
few members here for years, and during 
the summer of 1899 an extra effort was 
made to increase their membership. So 
well did they succeed that in the fall of that 
year they decided to purchase a building 
for church purposes and they now own the 
building formerly known as the Salvation 
Army barracks. 

There are those who have religious be- 
liefs differing from any of these denomi- 
nations here mentioned, living in the city, 
but none of sufficient numbers to be able 
to form societies. Perhaps the most num- 
erous in this respect are those who believe 
in the Christian Science idea. Services 
are regularly held by these adherents on 
the second floor of the State Bank building. 
The 'Latter Day Saints also have regular 
weekly services. 


The first school in the village of Clam 
Lake was in the spring of 1872 in a build- 
ing owned by Mosser & White. A frac- 

tional district had been organized from parts 
of Clam Lake and Haring townships, and 
in June of that same year a small building 
had been erected on the square donated by 
Mr. Mitchell for school purposes. The 
school census taken in September of that 
year gave the number of children of school 
age — between five and twenty years — at one 
hundred and five. The fall and winter terms 
following were taught by C. L. Frazier, with 
Miss Nettie Brink as assistant. An addi- 
tion to the school building was built in 1873 
and the spring term opened with George 
Addison as principal and Miss Born as as- 
sistant. Rev. W. L. Tilden, the Methodist 
Episcopal pastor, taught the winter term of 
1873-4. In 1874 the school was under the 
management of VV. A. Fallass, who came 
from Lowell, Michigan. 

With the constant increase of population 
the need of more school room became an 
absolute necessity and in the summer of 
1876 a new building was erected. This 
building was twenty-eight by sixty-two 
feet in size and two stories high, each 
floor being divided into two rooms. The 
cost of the building above the foundation 
was three thousand six hundred dollars, ex- 
clusive of the seats and desks, which were 
of the ''Triumph" patent, being the first 
introduction of the patent seats and desks 
in the county. The first term in the new 
building was under the professorship of 
PI. S. Groesbeck, who had for his assistants 
Miss Hattie Caswell and Miss Carrie Sip- 
ley. Mr. Groesbeck continued in charge for 
two years, his successor being Prof. F. C. 
Pifer, who remained but one year, being 
succeeded by Prof. H. M. Enos. 

In the meantime it had been found neces- 
sary to make additions to the school build- 



ing, the original rooms now becoming so 
overcrowded that it was impossible to seat 
the increasing number of scholars seeking 
admission. The erection of a larger school 
building was seen to be an absolute necessity 
in the near future and the matter was ab- 
ruptly forced ui)on the school board by the 
destruction of the school building by fire in 
the winter of 1880. During the summer 
of 1 88 1 a new and much larger building was 
erected, which was thought to liave suffi- 
cient capacity to meet tlie growing needs of 
tlie city for many years to come, but in a 
few years it was found necessary to provide 
ward buildings, which have been added from 
time to time until each ward has a school 
house of its own. Fire again destroyed the 
central scliool building in 1890, when the 
present commodious brick structure was 
erected, which is as fine a school building 
as can be found anywhere north of Grand 

Professor Enos was succeeded by A. A. 
Hall in 1885 ^'^'^^ "^ Y^^^ '^^^^ Prof. A. S. 
Hall was engaged and continued in charge 
of the school for three years. In the fall 
of 1889 Prof. E. P. Church was engaged 
and his services were so satisfactory that 
he was kept for four years. Prof. George 
R. Catton succeeded Mr. Church and held 
the position for three years. Prof. J. H. 
Kaye succeded Mr. Catton in 1896 and has 
continued in charge of the schools until the 
present time. 

The whole number of children of school 
age in the city is nineteen hundred and thir- 
ty-one and the number attending school for 
a period of three months during the last 
school year was eighteen hundred and sixty. 
The number of teachers employed the pres- 
ent year is thirty-four, not counting a music 

teacher or Professor Kaye. There was 
spread upon the tax rolls of the city last 
year for school purposes the sum of $19,- 
693.00 and the sum of $5,269.50 was re- 
ceived from the state primary school fund. 
The first and fourth ward school buildings 
will soon be replaced with new and larger 
ones, as the buildings are now overcrowded. 
At the commencement exercises in 1903 
the graduates numbered twenty-nine, which, 
with one exception, was the largest class 
ever graduated, the exception being the class 
of 1902, which numbered thirty. The names 
of the graduates are as follows : Georgia 

E. Jackson, Olivia May Johnson, Kate Hel- 
len Ballon, Bessie L. Troutman, Clyde A. 
Saunders, Frank Morris Hecox, Susan A. 
Florer, Winnie Alice Kaiser, Chas. V. Crom- 
well, Edna Sayles Law, Amaryllis M. Cotey, 
Corinne W. Foster, Essie May Bland, Grace 
Ellen Spencer, Helen Amanda Kelley, Doug- 
las Campbell, Arthur V. Gibson, Audrey 

F. Dillenbeck, Gene Lulu Romig, Henry P. 
Grund, Bessie Hodges, Elida K. McGillis, 
M. Veronica Murray, Rosalie L. Kelleher, 
Maud M. Carpenter, Genia Belle Torrey, 
Archibald Thomson, Oscar Abel Peterson 
and William F. Campbell. 

The first one in the list graduated from 
the classical and also from the Latin courses ; 
the next six from the Latin; the next six 
from the scientific; the next four from the 
English preparatory and the last twelve 
from the English. 

The first doctor and druggist in the vil- 
. lage was Dr. John Leeson. He made a trip 
to the new town in November, 1871, but 
the outlook was so discouraging that he 
passed but one night in the place, sleeping 
on the floor at that, in the kitchen of the 
Clam Lake House, He returned in March, 



1872, bought a lot and put up a building, in 
which he started the first drug store. Be- 
fore he had his building ready for occu- 
pancy he occupied a room in which J. S. 
McClain kept a small stock of groceries and 
also the postoffice. This building stood on 
Mason street. 

From the best information we can se- 
cure it appears that Holbrook & May started 
the first store on the site of the new village. 
This was in March, 1871, and was in a little 
log building near the shore of the lake. They 
afterwards put up a two-story store build- 
ing on the corner of Mason and Mitchell 
streets, in which they did a thriving busi- 
ness for a number of years. 

In the first issue of the Clam Lake News 
we see no mention of lawyers, but during the 
year two law firms were established, Fal- 
lass & Sawyer and Rice & Rice. It appears 
that the first attorney was S. S. Fallass, who 
came in the fall of 1872. The next one was 
D. A. Rice, who came for the purpose of 
securing the nomination for prosecuting at- 
torney, but found that the convention had 
been held a few days before his arrival and 
Mr. Fallass had secured the nomination. 

The members of the bar now living in 
the city are: J. R. Bishop, E. E. Haskins, 
Fred S. Lamb, D. E. Mclntyre, C. F. Bur- 
ton, E. F. Sawyer, George S. Stanley, S. 
J. Wall, Fred Wetmore and Circuit Judge 
C. C. Chittenden. From the city members 
of the bar four attorneys have been raised 
to the circuit court bench of the twenty- 
eighth judicial circuit, viz : Hon. S. S. Fal- 
lass, Hon. J. M. Rice, Hon. F. H. Aldrich 
and the present judge, Hon. C. C. Chitten- 
den. For more than twenty years in suc- 
cession the circuit judge of the district to 

which Wexford county belongs has been a 
resident of Cadillac. 

It would be impossible to give in detail 
the vast lumbering operations that have 
built up and still largely sustain the thriving 
city by the lakes. For nearly thirty-two 
years, summer and winter, and many times 
day and night, has the work gone on. Some 
idea may be formed of the vast proportions 
of this business from a present description 
of the mills and factories. For years the 
Cummer interests ran two mills, cutting 
from two hundred thousand to two hundred 
and fifty thousand feet of lumber per day. 
Two years ago one of these mills ceased do- 
ing business, for the reason that the pine 
timber had become exhausted. The other 
mill runs on hardwood and hemlock, cut- 
ting about sixty thousand feet of the for- 
mer or one hundred and thirty thousand 
feet of the latter per day. To this 
firm belongs the distinction of having 
first replaced their circular saws with 
band saws. This at first was looked upon 
as a foolish experiment, it being the 
universal opinion of mill men that the band 
saw could not stand the rapid "feed'' neces- 
sary to turn out such a large quantity of 
lumber per day, but the trial proved a suc- 
cess, and revolutionized the mill business 
throughout the country. Not only could 
lumber be manufactured as rapidly and as 
evenly with the band saw as with the cir- 
cular or gang saws, but the saving of tim- 
ber in consequence of the difference in the 
thickness of the saws is nearly enough to 
pay the expense of manufacturing the lum- 
ber, and it was not long before all the larger 
mills in the country were using band saws. 
This firm manufacture a large portion of 



their beech and maple lumber into flooring, 
having a large planing-mill in connection 
with their plant. They also have five pairs 
of retorts for making charcoal out of the 
refuse from cutting their hardwood lumber 
and also from the wood they cut out of such 
timber as is not suitable for lumber. They 
have a chemical plant in connection with 
the charcoal business, which turns out wood 
alcohol, acetate of lime and coal tar. The 
output of these per day is as follows: Six 
hundred gallons of wood alcohol and ten 
thousand pounds of acetate of lime. The 
coal tar is used for fuel, consequently no 
account is kept of that. They make about 
three thousand bushels of charcoal per day. 

Cobbs & Mitchell have two saw-mills 
with a capacity of one hundred eight thous- 
and feet of hardwood or one hundred eighty 
thousand feet of hemlock per day. Both 
mills were run entirely on pine until that 
timber was all cut out and now only hard- 
wood and hemlock, with occasionally a little 
pine mixed in, is cut. After the pine in 
tliis county had all been cut, they purchased 
one hundred and fifty million feet in Grand 
Traverse county and later sixty million feet 
in Kalkaska county, which was brought here 
for manufacture. Since turning their atten- 
tion to hardwood they have added a maple- 
flooring mill and dry kilns to their estab- 
lishment in this city, where they make from 
fifty thousand to sixty thousand feet of 
beech and maple flooring per day. 

The firm of Murphy & Diggins have a 
saw-mill with a capacity of about thirty-five 
thousand feet of lumber per day, nearly all 
of which is hemlock and maple. Wilcox 
Brothers have a saw-mill capable of cuttijig 
some twenty-five thousand feet per day. 
They also manufacture a patent basket and 

use quite a large quantity of timber each 
year for that purpose. Last year the firm 
of Williams Brothers built a large last- 
block factory, with a saw-mill attachment. 
The last-block business consumes about two 
hundred thousand feet of maple timber per 
year, while their saw-mill will cut forty 
thousand feet of lumber per day. They do 
not expect to do continuous business with 
the lumber mill, but use it to cut such timber 
as will not make last-blocks. Mitchell 
Brothers have a handle factory which re- 
quires about two million feet of beech and 
maple timber per annum. They only oper- 
ate a part of the year, but when running- 
turn out about forty thousand handles per 
day. The Oviat Veneer Works require two 
milHon feet of timber ])er annum to supply 
their plant. They use beech, birch, maple, 
basswood, ash, oak, cherry and elm timber. 
The Cadillac Tie & Shingle Company have 
a plant with saw-mill attachment, capable of 
turning out twemty thousand feet of lumber 
and forty thousand shingles per day. 

A little computation will show what a 
large amount of timber it requires each day 
to keep the mills and factories of Cadillac 
in operation, and the army of men given 
employment in the mills and camps by the 
lumber interests centered in this city. 

Haynes Brothers have a large custom 
planing mill and in connection keep all kinds 
of lumber, mouldings, door and window 
frames, also shingles, lath, doors and win- 
dows. The Cummer Manufacturing Com- 
pany do a large business in making ladders, 
potato crates and numerous small articles 
for household and office use. 

The Michigan Iron works is an insti- 
tution that the city may well be proud of. 
It does everything in the shape of iron and 



steel working, from the building of a loco- 
motive down. It has a foundry where cast- 
ings weighing several tons can be made. 
William Haynes has a boiler shop in the 
same block as the iron works and turns out 
boilers and smoke stacks for all kinds and 
sizes of plants, as well as locomotive boil- 

Another manufacturing business of 
which the city may well be proud is the City 
Flouring Mills. The property is owned by 
J. Cornwell & Sons, successors to Labor & 
Cornwell. The business is the outgrowth 
of the small beginning made in 1872, men- 
tion of which, under the name of Cornwell 
& Labor, is heretofore given in the extract 
from the first copy of the Clam Lake News. 
It has grown to such proportions that the 
firm keep a man on the road constantly, sell- 
ing its products at wholesale to the dealers 
along the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad 
and Ann Arbor Railroad. They buy wheat 
along the whole northern lines of these rail- 
roads, have an elevator of their own at Shep- 
ard for wheat, and besides these sources of 
supply they receive many car loads" of wheat 
and all of their corn from Chicago and other 
western points. This firm also does a whole- 
sale and retail grocery business, having two 
stores in the city. 

The first system of water works was 
inaugurated by H. N. Green in 1878. The 
mains laid at that time were of wood bound 
with iron, the largest having only six inch 
bore for water. In 1893 a franchise was 
granted to W. W. Cummer., to furnish a 
water supply for thirty years. The old 
wooden mains were replaced with iron pipes, 
the principal ones having a water capacity 
of twelve inches diameter. A stand pipe 
wa3 built upon one of the highest elevations 

in the city and this is kept filled with water 
at all times, to guard against any mishap to 
the pumps or engines. There are now over 
ten miles of water mains in the city and the 
average daily consumption of water is about 
a million and a quarter gallons. 

About the time that Mr. Cummer secured 
the water franchise he started in the electric 
lighting business, using the same building 
that contained the pumping outfit for his 
dynamos. This branch of the business grew 
rapidly and it was not long before every 
business place and many of the residences 
had been supplied with electric lights. A 
little later street lights were put in place 
which gave the newly fledged city quite a 
dignified appearance. 

A year ago a gas company was organ- 
ized and gas mains were laid in the princi- 
pal streets and a large number of people 
have substituted gas for electricity, while 
some use both. Gas is furnished for heat- 
ing as well as lighting purposes, and the 
hardware stores now have a good trade in 
gas stoves and ranges. 

Cadillac, like all other cities, is blessed 
with an abundance of secret societies. The 
two which have the longest existance are 
Clam Lake Lodge No. 231, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons, and Viola Lodge No. 259, 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, which 
were both organized in the spring of 1875. 
The list that follows is a long one, but we 
will give the names so that the reader can 
see what a town can do in the matter of 
secret orders when it sets itself about it. 
There is Cadillac Chapter *No. 1^03, Royal 
Arch Masons; Cadillac Chapter No. 177, 
Order of the Eastern Star; Cadillac En- 
campment No. 93, Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows; Twin Lake Lodge No. 198, 



Rebekahs; Cadillac Lodge No. i8i, Anci- 
ent Order of United Workmen ; Cadillac 
Branch No. 131, Catholic Knights and La- 
dies of America ; The Ancient Catholic For- 
resters Association ; Court Lodge No. 300, 
Independent Order of Foresters ; Com- 
panion Court Dewey No. 181, Inde- 
pendent Order of Foresters; Ruby 
Council, F. A. A. ; Washington Post No. 
444, Grand Army of the Republic; Cadillac 
Council, Royal and Select Masters; Twin 
Lake Camp No. 1596, Modern Woodmen 
of America ; Cadillac Lodge No. 46, Knights 
of Pythias; Eureka Division No. 67, Loyal 
Guards; Cadillac Tent No. 232, Knights 
of the Moilern Maccabees; . Cadillac Hive 
No. 698, Ladies of the Modern Maccabees ; 
Estella D. Hive No. 368, Ladies of 
the Modern Maccabees ; Cadillac Lodge 
No. 172, O. M. P.; Cadillac Royal 
Circle; Gotha Lodge No. 5, Swedish 
United Sons of America; Wexford Lodge 
No. 674, Brotherhood of Railroad Train- 
men, and possibly others whose names 
we .have been unable to learn, besides un- 
ions of carpenters, clerks, barbers, cigar- 
makers, masons, etc. 

Tw^o years after the village of Clam 
Lake was platted the question of having the 
village incorporated was submitted to the 
electors living in the territory to be included 
in the village, on the 15th of April, 1874, 
and was carried almost unanimously, there 
being but one negative vote to seventy-two 
in favor of the proposition. This action 
was taken tinder the provision of the general 
village incorporation law, and in accordance 
with that law the circuit judge, upon being- 
notified of the result of the election, made 
an order declaring the village of Clam Lake 
duly incorporated. The first village election 

was held on the nth day of May, 1874. 
The first village president was J. Shack- 
leton and the first clerk, David A. Rice. The 
first board of trustees were L. O. flarris, F. 
W. Hector, Daniel McCoy, George Hoi- 
brook, A. N. McCarthy and J. W. Cobbs. 

It was only a couple of months after this 
election that the supreme court declared the 
general village incorporation law to be tm- 
constitutional, and the new village officers 
were thrown out of a job. The following 
winter, however, an act was passed by the 
legislature reincorporating the village. The 
same president as before was elected, and 
some of the same trustees, but E. F. Sawyer 
was elected clerk. 

In the winter of 1877 ^ffoi'ts w^ere made 
to get a city charter under the name of 
''City of Cadillac" and an act was intro- 
duced in the state legislature for that pur- 
pose. So skillfully was this work done that 
Wexford county had a city within its boun- 
daries before half a dozen of the citizens, * 
outside of those living in the village of Clani 
Lake, knew it. The first city election was 
held on the first Monday of April, 1877, at 
wdiich the following officers were elected : 
Mayor, George A. Mitchell ; marshal, Hor- 
ton Crandell ; clerk, Lorenzo Ballou ; treas- 
urer, D. F. Comstock; collector, Horton 
Crandell; street commissioner, Charles Cole; 
school inspectors, Levi O. Harris, three 
years, Jacob Cummer, tw^o years, Charles 
M. Ayer, one year; justices of the peace, 
H. N. Green, four years, E. F. Sawyer, 
three years, J. B. Rosevelt, two years, Rob- 
ert Christensen, one year ; alderman at large, 
M. J. Bond, two years, D. W. Peck, one 

The following is a list of those who have 
held the office of mayor since Mr, MitchelFs 



second term in 1878, viz: Jacob Cummer, 
one year; D. McCoy, four years; B. Bal- 
lon, one year; E. L. Metheany, two years; 
F. H. Huntley, one year; James Haynes, 
one year; J. H. Hixon, one year; James Mc- 
Aclam, one year ; W. W. Cummer, one 
year; L. J. Law, one year; Fred A. Dig-gins, 
six years; S. J. Wall, two years; George S. 
Stanly, one year, and C. C. Donham, who 
is now serving his second year. 

The city has a neat little park, covering 
about a block, located between the Ann Ar- 
bor and Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad 
tracks, which commands a fine view of the 
lake. Last year a tract of land near the 
western end of Lake Cadillac was purchased 
for park purposes. This will, when prop- 
erly fixed up, be a fine place for picnics and 
pleasure drives, and from it a good view 
of the entire city will be afforded. 

A driving park association was organ- 
ized last year and immediately secured forty 
"acres of land adjoining the city plat, and 
had quite a large proportion of it stumped 
before winter set in. This spring the work 
was renewed and the stumping is nearly 
all done and the grading well under w^ay. 
A contract has been let for the erection of 
a grand stand and other buildings, and it 
is expected that the grounds and track will 
be in readiness for speed contests before the 
summer is over. 

As early as 1876 a bank was started 
by D. F. Comstock and since that time tlie 
city has had very good bank facilities, with 
the exception of a brief period following the 
failure of Rice & Mesmore, which occurred 
in 1883. In December, 1883, ^ ^^w bank 

was started, known as the D. A. Blodgett 
& Company Bank, with D. F. Diggins as 
manager. Mr. Diggins retired in 1892, and 
Henry Knowlton was selected as his suc- 
cessor. In 1895 Mr. Blodgett decided to 
withdraw from business in Cadillac, and it 
was then that the Cadillac State Bank was 
organized. The officers were F. J. Cobbs, 
president; S. W. Kramer, vice-president, 
and Henry Knowlton, cashier. The same 
officers have been re-elected from year to 
year until the present time. In 1901 the 
stockholders decided to erect a new bank 
building, more in keeping with the times and 
affording better facilities for the transaction 
of its constantly "increasing busiiiess. The 
work of putting up the new brick building 
was begun early in the summer and in De- 
cember it was ready for occupancy. The 
outside walls are faced with yellow brick, 
giving the building a very attractive ap- 
pearance. The inside finishings and fur- 
nishings are of elegant design and modern 
in every particular, and the stockholders are 
justly proud of their new banking house. 
Mr. Knowlton has several times had the 
pleasure of showing its meritorious appoint- 
ments to parties from other towns who were 
contemplating building, and in every case 
the visitors were much pleased with the con- 
venient arrangements for business adopted 
in its construction. The new building oc- 
cupies the same site as the old, on the corner 
of South Mitchell and West Cass streets. 
Some idea of the extent of its business may 
be had from its last financial statement, is- 
sued February 6, 1903, which was as fol- 
lows : 




Loans and Discounts, 

Bonds, Mortgages and Securities, 

Premium paid on Bonds, 


Banking House, 

Furniture and Fixtures, - - - - 
U. S. Bonds, - - - $ 20,000.00 

Due from Banks, - - 104,171.86 
U. S. and Nat. Bank Currency, 11,244.00 
Gold Coin, .... 14,100.00 
Silver Coin, - - - 4,255.85 

Nickels and Cents - - 859.24 







Checks and Cash Items, 

I 154.630.45 

$ 772,825.42 


Capital Stock paid in, . - . 

Surplus Fund, 

Undivided Profits, . . . . 

Commercial Deposits, - $ 211,960.78 
Certificates of Deposit, - - 325,480.14 
Savings Deposits, - - 135,877.47 

$ 50,000.00 


$ 673,318.39 

$ 772,825.42 

In July, 1902, the People's Savings 
Bank was organized, with Charles E. Rus- 
sell, president; C. H. Drury, vice-president, 
and George Chapman, cashier. The capital 
stock was fifty thousand dollars, all paid in. 
Its statement issued May 15, 1903, shows 
deposits of $123,192.70; loans, $137,384.- 
18, and total resources, $177,381.18. This 
shows a wonderfiil growth of business for 
the ten months the bank has been running. 

The population of the city in now about 
seven thousand, having been 4,461 in 1890 
and 5,997 in 1900. The last three years 
have witnessed a more rapid growth than 
any like period in the history of the town. 

At the last city election it was voted to 
bond the city for thirty-five thousand dol- 
lars for public improvements, it being well 

understood that this money was to be used 
in securing more factories. 

A Board of Trade was organized early 
in the spring of 1903, the main object of 
which was to have charge of the matter of 
properly expending the money raised for 
public improvements. Heretofore this work 
had been looked after by the Commercial 
Club, but at a largely attended meeting of 
the business men of the city it was thought 
best to organize a Board of Trade, and the 
preliminary steps were then taken to accom- 
plish this object. The work has since been 
completed and the organization duly incor- 
porated under the state law. 

With the impetus which will be given 
to the growth of the city by the expenditure 
of the money raised on the bonds voted, the 
city will more than likely reach the ten 
thousand mark at the next United States 
census. Residences by the score were built 
during the year 1902 and a large number 
will be erected during the present year. 


We find it stated from what seems to 
be reliable authority that the village of Man- 
ton was started in 1872, but the first plat 
to be recorded was the Railroad Plat of 
1874. Previous to this there seems to have' 
been another plat, which was called Cedar 
Creek, but it was not recorded until 
after the Railroad Plat had been recorded. 
In September, 1881, Seaman & Maqueston 
platted an addition and in October, 1883, 
another addition was platted, known as the 
Dodds addition. Two more additions were 
platted in 1884, one by Mr. Wiles and one 
by Mr. Huff. 1885 witnessed the platting 
of two more additions, one by H. B. Sturte-- 



vant and one by Frank Weaver. Billings' 
addition was added in 1886, Sturtevant &: 
Harger's addition in 1897 ^^^^^ ^^^^ Manton 
Development Association plat was made in 
1902. It will thus be seen that the village 
has had a very uniform and substantial 
growth since its first organization. It is 
surrounded by a splendid farming country, 
which affords a sure and steady business for 
its merchants. Besides the farming indus- 
try it has always had a healthy and remun- 
erative manufacturing business. 

Ezra Harger and George Manton were 
the first persons to see the advantage of hav- 
ing a village at this point, having reached 
tliat point on a prospecting trip in the sum- 
mer of 1872. Mr. Harger purchased twenty 
acres of land and put up the first building in 
the place, which he filled with merchandise 
in the fall. William Meares also became in- 
terested in the place during the same fall 
and both he and Mr. Manton put up store 
buildings before the winter set in. Mr. 
Manton was a shoemaker by trade, and his 
stock of goods was mostly in that line, and 
he also had a shop in the rear end of the 
store for making and repairing footwear. 
The next year a saw-mill was erected and 
a hotel. 

The first religious service held in the 
new village was held in the railroad depot 
by the station agent, H. Brandenburg, in 
the winter of 1872-3. Mr. Brandenburg 
was a Methodist, and during the summer 
of 1873 organized a class of eighteen mem- 
bers. He was appointed local "preacher in 
August of that year. 

The first school building in the village 
w^as erected in 1873. ^ term of school had 
previously been taught in a private dwelling 
house by Mrs. O. J. Golden. 

The village made a rapid growth for 
the next two or three years, one very im- 
portant reason beino: that as soon as regular 
trains had commenced running over the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad and a 
passable road could be made through to 
Sherman, the mail route w^as changed, and 
instead of running from Cadillac to Sher- 
man and on to Traverse City, the route was 
from Manton to Traverse City, via Sher- 
man, until the railroad reached Traverse 
City, and then it w^as simply from Sherman 
to Manton. Not only was this daily mail 
route a great help to Manton, but that vil- 
lage was the only shipping point for the 
whole country for six miles on either side 
of a line directly west of Manton clear 
through the county and for eight or ten 
miles into Manistee county. These condi- 
tions helped the merchants and the hotels 
of Manton to a wonderful degree and con- 
tinued until the ))uilding of the Toledo, yVnai 
Arbor & Northern Michigan Railroad 
through the county in 1889. And thus it 
happened that we see the village spoken of 
in 1877 as having three good hotels and 
five general stores. A second saw-mill had 
been built previous to that time, also a plan- 
ing mill. So rapidly had the village grown 
that the legislature of 1877 passed an act 
incorporating the village, but it was not un- 
til February 11, 1878, that the first village 
election was held. 

The same year Manton Lodge No. 347, 
Free and Accepted Masons, was orgaiiized 
with twelve charter members. A Wom- 
an's Christian Temperance Union was or- 
ganized the same year. lii May, 1881, Ris- 
ing Star Lodge No. 99, Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, was organized, but after 
a few years of activity went to pieces. O. 



P. Morton Post, Grand Army of the Re- 
public, was mustered in April 26, 1882, and 
has had a good membership ever since that 
time, though for the past few years its ranks 
have been perceptibly thinned by death. An 
Odd Fellows lodge was organized as ear- 
ly as March, 1882, but with only six char- 
ter members. The village now has a tent 
of Knights of the Modern Maccabees, a 
hive of Ladies of the Modern Maccabees, 
a lodge of Modern Woodmen of America 
and a Knights of Pythias lodge. 

A pretty good idea may be had of the 
village from the number of teachers employ- 
ed in its public schools and the number of 
pupils in attendance. There are eight teach- 
ers employed and the pupils number two 
hundred and ninety. The village has a fine 
school building and its schools rank second 
in the county in size and number of teach- 
ers employed. The present officers of the 
village are Charles H. Bostick, president; 
Arthur Bulkley, clerk; George M. Brooks, 
treasurer; N. A. Reynolds, assessor; An- 
drew J. Bennett, street commissioner, and 
Richard Newland, marshal. In 1895 the 
village inaugurated a water-works system, 
and in 1901 it instituted an electric light 
plant. Both of these, we believe, are owned 
and operated by the village. 

In the line of manufacturing industries 
we find the stave and heading factory of 
Andrew McAfee, employing from thirty 
to forty men; the last-block factory of the 
Williams Brothers Company, turning out 
four thousand five hundred to five thousand 
last blocks per day and employing about 
forty men. M. Northrup has a saw and 
planing-mill and lumber yard. He employs 
from ten to thirty men, and turns out about 
twenty-five thousand feet of lumber per day 

while running his mill, which is only a part 
of the year, on account of the difficulty in 
getting logs in the summer time. The Man- 
ton flour-mill, ow^ned by Phelps & Baker, 
has a capacity of ninety barrels of flour and 
twenty tons of feed per day. They employ 
five to seven men. The Manton Produce 
Company have a grain elevator and produce 
warehouse and also a mill for grinding feed. 
They have storage room for ten thousand 
bushels of grain and produce, and employ 
from five to ten men. The Rotary Seed 
Planter Manufacturing Company is of re- 
cent origin, and is composed of Orson D. 
Park and H. G. Hutzler. They are the 
patentees and are just commencing to manu- 
facture the machines for the market. They 
are very sanguine that they have an article 
that will find a ready sale when once put on 
the market, and its merits thoroughly tested. 
The Manton Tribune was established in 
October, 1879, but for some time the press 
work was done in Cadillac. The first edi- 
tor and publisher was Marshal McLure, • 
but in a short time it passed into the hands 
of A. J. Teed, of Cadillac. Mr. Teed kept 
it but a short time, selling out to C. E. 
Cooper, formerly owner of the Wexford 
County Pioneer, and a practical newspaper 
man, who soon made the paper worthy of a 
liberal support, which the people of Manton 
have ever since given it. In Septeiliber, 
1883, it was purchased by H. F. Campbell. 
Mr. Campbell was postmaster at that time 
and upon the expiration of his term of of- 
fice sold the paper back to Mr. Cooper, who 
was also Mr. Campbeirs successor as post- 
master. Mr. Cooper continued in control of 
the paper until August, 1893, when he sold 
it to H. G. Hutzler, its present owner. It 
was started as a five-column folio, but has 



been enlarged two or three times, being now 
a six-column quarto. It has always been 
Republican in politics except the last few 
years it was in Mr. Cooper's hands, when it 
was Demo- Greenback, Its present owner 
is deputy state oil inspector for the district 
to which Wexford county belongs. 

Early in 1873 ^ postoffice was estab- 
lished at Manton with O. P. Carver as the 
first postmaster. His successors have been 
H. M. Billings, H. Brandenburg, M. P. 
Gilbert, H. F. Campbell, C. E. Cooper, Frank 
Weaver, C. E. Cooper and V. F. Huntley, 
the present incumbent, who is now serving 
his second term. The office passed into the 
presidential class in February, 1899. The 
salary of the postmaster is fourteen hundrerl 
dollars per year, with six hundred and 
twenty-six dollars for his assistant and 
three hundred dollars for one clerk. 

There is a rural delivery route starting 
from the office and covering twenty-three 
miles in its rounds. The carrier is H. C. 
Forworthy. This is the only rural delivery 
route in the county. 

There has been considerable agitation 
over the subject of building a beet-sugar 
factory at Manton, but nothing definite has 
yet been done. Several experiments in the 
matter of raising sugar beets have been tried 
with very satisfactory results, and a beet- 
sugar factory for the village is more than a 


The village of Harrietta was platted in 
April, 1889, by the Ashleys, who were build- 
ing the Toledo & Ann Arbor Railroad. 
Gaston and Campbell platted an addition in 
April, 1890, and a year later the Ogden ad- 

dition was platted. The first "boom" the 
town liad was upon the arrival of Gaston and 
Campbell, who built a saw-mill and manu- 
facturing establishment for the purpose of 
making novelties from the hardwood with 
which the village was surrounded. They 
bought expensive machinery and quite large 
tracts of land and started out with every 
prospect of success but the hard times over- 
took them and failure followed. Had they 
waited four years longer their enterprise 
would doubtless Imve i)rove(l a success and 
the village of Harrietta would no doul^t have 
been double its present size. 

Harrietta, like all villages of any pre- 
tensions, had to have a newspaper, and one 
was started in 1891. Its life was of but 
short duration, however, and in less than two 
years the village was without an ''organ." 
Another attempt in this line was made in 
1893, ^^^^^j 1^'^^ ^'^^ fi^st effort, this also proved 
a failure. Sometime in 1894, Sam O. Coo- 
ley started a newspaper in the village, but 
he soon left the place for a more sympathetic 
community. Soon after this John C. Stone 
started the Harrietta News, which lie con- 
tinued to publish until 1897, when he sud- 
denly disappeared and of course the paper 
was discontinued. 

For something like a year the Harrietta 
Messenger has now been running under the 
management of Tom R. Campbell. There 
is every indication that this last newspaper 
effort will be more successful than its pred- 
ecessors, and that the citizens of Harrietta 
and the surrounding towns will have a home 
paper that they can feel a pride in. The 
local newspaper is something that a thriving 
village can ill afford to be without, and, 
though the calling is not a very lucrative one 
in small villages, there are always those 



ready and willing to undertake the task of 
running a country paper, and, when properly 
managed, nothing does more for the pros- 
perity of a village than the village newspaper. 

Soon after the coming of the railroad a 
set of charcoal kilns were built and a chemi- 
cal plant for the manufacture of wood alco- 
hol erected, and for several years these were 
kept in active operation, day and night. 
These were finally removed to Yuma, six 
miles further north, and this, too, was a se- 
vere blow to the village. A shingle mill was 
built and kept in operation for several years 
until the timber for that product had be- 
come exhausted, when it moved away. 

With all of these discouragements, the 
village has still held its own and now it is 
promised a brighter future. 

There is a fine trout stream, the Slagle 
creek, running through the edge of the vil- 
lage, and two years ago the state fish com- 
missioners decided that it was just the place 
for a fish hatchery. The necessary land was 
accordingly purchased and last year the work 
of clearing out the stream, building the nec- 
essary dams and chutes, and erecting build- 
ings was begun. The work is now w^ell un- 
der way, the state having expended some 
five thousand dollars last year, with a proba- 
ble expenditure of three or four thousand 
dollars the present year. It is proposed to 
make this one of the best fish hatcheries in 
the state, which will call for a yearly out- 
lay of several thousand dollars, all of which 
tends to brighten the future prospects of the 

Soon after the starting of the village the 
vSpringdale postoffice, which for years had 
been kept at a private house about a male 
north of the site of the village, to accommo- 
date the farming community in that vicin- 

ity, w^as moved to the new village and its 
name changed to that of the village, Harri- 

The village was incorporated in 1891, 
under the name of Gaston. This so vexed 
the railroad officials that they threatened to 
take up the station unless the name was 
changed back to Harrietta. x\ccordingly in 
1893 an act was passed by the legislature 
changing the name to Harrietta. At the first 
election after the passage of the act incor- 
porating the village, the following officers 
were elected, viz: President, John A. Bar- 
ry; clerk, Thomas H. Jackson; treasurer, 
J. Stewart Hood; assessor, Joseph Z. Stan- 
ley. The present village officers are Will 
C. Barry, president; Charles S. Ogden, 
clerk; H. J. VanAuken, treasurer; John A. 
Barry, assessor. 

Among the industries of the village are 
the following: The Harrietta Stove Com- 
pany, established in 1891 by Ben F. Craig 
as manager, who has since become sole own- 
er of the plant. He pays out a large simi 
each year for stock and in wages, thus con- 
tributing in no smiall degree to the prosperity 
of the village. 

The Fellers Brotjiers have a saw-mill and 
also a stave-mill. They are now putting a 
planer and matcher in the mill, something 
the village has long felt the need of. This 
concern commenced operations in 1897 and 
have run almost constantly since that time. 
Their pay-roll each month contributes a 
large amount to the business volume of the 

The Harrietta Brick Company \vas or- 
ganized in 1893 by Frank D. Gaston and S. 
P. Millard. Mr. Gaston soon after retired 
and Robert Wilson, of Cadillac, became a 
member of the company. After a few years 



Mr. Millard sold out to William Heath, 
so that the firm now is Wilson & Heath. 

The village has a lodge of Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, No. i86, a Rebekah 
Lodge, No. 253, a tent of the Knights of the 
Modern Maccal^ees, and a hive of the Ladies 
of the Modern Maccabees. The population 
of the village is nearly six hundred. 

The village of Boon was platted in Ap- 
ril, 1889, and in August, 1893, a plat of 
Bennett's addition was filed. The village 
was never incorporated. It has two saw- 
mills and a bowl factory, and the usual places 
of business found in all small villages. 

In February, 1890, the village of Mes- 
ick was platted. This village now has one 
saw-mill and a handle factory. For sev- 
eral years the Williams Brothers operated 
a branch of their last-block business at this 
point, but last year the equipment of their 
plant in Mesick was moved to their new^ 
scene of operations in Cadillac. The village 
now has a weekly newspaper, the Sun, which 
is in the fourth year of its existence. One 
or two former efforts in the newspaper busi- 
ness had failed, but the Sun seems to l)e 
still shining as invigoratingly as ever. This 
place, since its birth, has been the railroad 
station at which has been done all the rail- 
road business for the village of Sherman, 
situated two and a half miles northeasterly 
from the station, except bulk freight, which 
has been loaded and unloaded at the Clog- 
gett spin*, a mile and a half north of the sta- 
tion. A little over a year ago the inhabi- 
tants of the village petitioned the board of 
supervisors to l>e incorporated, and the board 
granted the petition. The first village elec- 
tion was held on the 5th day of March, 1902, 
at which the following officers were elected, 
viz: President, R. M. Harry; clerk, F. E. 

Rice; treasurer, W. W. Galloway; assessor, 
B. C. Halstead. " The same officers were 
re-elected at last spring's election, except 
that J. M. Donnelly was elected treasurer in 
place of W. W. Galloway. 

llie village has a nice, large school build- 
ing, in which two teachers are employed for 
nine months of the year. The Seventh-Day 
Advent society have a good church build- 
ing in which regular services are held. There 
is also a tent of the Knights of the Modern 
Maccabees, a hive of the Ladies of the Mod- 
ern Maccabees and a camp of the Modern 
Woodmen of America, all in a flourishing 

In June, 1893, the village of Yuma was 
platted. This village is about half way be- 
tween Harrietta and Mesick. The village 
was the outgrowth of the removal of the 
Jenney coal kilns an|d chemical plant from 
Plarrietta to this point. The proprietors of 
these plants had made a purchase of a large 
tract of land, heavily timbered with hard- 
wood near the railroad at this point, and de- 
cided that is would be cheaper to move the 
plant to the timber than the timber to the 
plant. For a few years succeeding the start- 
ing of the village a saw-mill was in opera- 
tion, but that ceased to do business some 
seven or eight years ago, since which time 
the plants above mentioned have constituted 
the only manufacturing business in the place. 
The lumber camps in the vicinity and the 
farming interests have afforded a fairly goad 
trade to the stores of the place, and, being 
surrounded by a good farming country, it 
will always be a market and shipping point 
for farm products, even after the charcoal 
and chemical business, which brought it into 
existence, ceases to exist. 

The villao^e of Wexford never had a vil- 



lage plat. From time to time building lots 
were sold by metes and bounds, and in this 
way it has slowly but surely grown in busi- 
ness importance until it has become an in- 
despensable trading point for the surround- 
ing community. It has never haid any manu- 
facturing industry except a small saw-mill 
located al)out half a mile south of the center 
of tlie village. A part of the village is in 
Grand Traverse county, the main street east 
and west through the village being the county 
line. In 1878 the Methodist Episcopal so- 
ciety l)uilt a church building in which regu- 
lar services have been held most of the time 

I. r^oust was the first merchant in the 
place, having commenced the grocery busi- 
ness, in a small way, back in the 'seventies. 
He kept adding to his stock little by little 
until finally he carried quite a full stock of 
general merchandise with his groceries. He 
lield the postoffice for about twelve years. 
He was quite a musician and organized a 

martial band and for many years ''Foust's 
Band" could be seen at all the gatherings 
where outdoor music was needed. He died 
about fifteen years ago and his son '^Collie" 
succeeded to the business. The place lias 
several secret societies, as follows : Fort- 
ney Tent No. 565, Knights of the Modern 
Maccabees; Murrea Hive No. 263, Ladies 
of the Modern Maccabees; Wexford Camp 
No. 8647, Modern Woodmien of America, 
and A. P. Earl Post, Grand Army of the 

There is a small cluster of buildings sev- 
en miles south of Cadillac and it was given 
the name of Hobart many years ago, and is 
still called the village of Hobart. For a 
good many years there was a custom 
mill in the village, but last year it ceased to 
do business and was moved out of the county. 
There is at present no manufacturing indus- 
try there and the only places of business are 
the postofiice and a country store. 



B. W. Hall, as heretofore noted, was 
the first settler in Wexford county. He was 
l)orn in Steuben county, New York. His 
father removed to Cattaraugus county, New 
York, in 1856, wdiere he died soon after 
locating in his new^ home, leaving a widow, 
two sons and a daughter, the children all 
under eighteen years of age. Benjamin, the 


subject of this sketch, was of a roving dis- 
position and soon left home to seek his for- 
tune in the west. He settled first in south- 
ern Michigan, where he lived until after 
the breaking out of the war of the Rebel- 
lion, and after the passage of the pre-emption 
law^ he came to the w^ilds of Wexford coun- 
ty, arriving in the fall of 1863. It was 



then out of the question to get lumber with 
which to build a house, and it was equally 
diflicult to build a log house, as there were 
not enough men within twelve miles of his 
homestead to roll the logs into a house, so 
he built a shanty with elm bark, where he 
and hi$ wife lived for nearly two years. His 
wife then ran away with a Mr. Anise, and 
Mr. Hall rented his farm and went east to 
visit relatives, where he remained for nearly 
two years. Soon after his return he mar- 
ried again, but this union was not pleasant 
and after a few years a separation was se- 
cured through divorce proceedings. A few 
years later a third matrimonial venture was 
made, which proved more lasting than either 
of the others, the death of Mr. Hall in 1894 
alone causing the separation. Mr. Hall, 
like many a lad of that period had meager 
opportunities for gaining an education, yet 
in his later years he was honored with near- 
ly all the offices in the gift of his townsmen 
at different times. He was industrious and 
frugal, and left his family a farm of one 
hundred and sixty acres, eighty of which 
were under cultivation. 

Dr. John Perry was another early pi- 
oneer in Wexford county, arriving almost 
simultaneously with Mr. Hall. He, like Mr. 
Hall, was a native of New York state, and 
migrated to southern Michigan when the tide 
of emigration set in to the new states and 
territories of the west, a term given all the 
country west of the great lakes. He lived 
a year or two in Grand Traverse county 
before coming to Wexford county. He lo- 
cated a homestead in Antioch township, on 
section 6j a part of which is now included in 
the village of Sherman. He died in 1875 
at the age of eighty-two years. 

Robert Myhill was a son-in-law of Dr. 

Perry, and came to the county soon after the 
arrival of Mr. Hall and Mr. Perry. He set- 
tled on section 24 in Wexford township, 
where he remained until his accidental death 
in the spring of 1868. He had donated a 
site for a school house in the northeast cor- 
ner of his farm and the neighbors had set 
a day for cutting away the timber, prepara- 
tory to erecting a school-house. At this 
''bee" Mr. Myhill was struck by the limb of 
a falling tree, crushing his skull, causing 
death, though he lived for over twelve hours 
after the injury. 

William Masters was another early set- 
tler in the county, arriving in the autumn 
of 1863. He came from Steuben county, 
New York, and settled on section 12, in 
what is now Wexford township. He was 
noted for his hospitality, and many an early 
settler found food and shelter beneath his 
roof, ''without money and without price." 
His home was headquarters for mail to and 
from Traverse City, and when the postoffice 
department was prevailed upon to establish 
the first postoffice in the county he was ap- 
pointed the first postmaster. He served one 
term as county treasurer, and filled various . 
township offices in his township. Largely 
with his own hands he felled and cleared 
the heavy timber from over a hundred acres 
of his homestead. For a number of years 
he kept a small grocery, which was of the 
greatest value to those of the settlers who 
were without teams, as most of them were, 
thus enabling them to get the necessaries of 
life near enough so that they could pack 
them to their homes. He died in 1887, at 
the ripe age of eighty-three years, and was 
sincerely mourned by all the early settlers in 
the northwest part of the county. 

William E. Dean was one of the early 



pioneers in the county, coming from Chau- 
tauqua county, New York. He located a 
homestead on section 2, in the present town- 
sliip of Spring ville, in 1865. He was the 
second supervisor from that township, which 
then consisted of six surveyed townships, 
Antiocli, Boon, Henderson, Slagle and 
South Branch having been organized out 
of the territory originally comprising the 
township of Springville. Mr. Dean served 
as supervisor many years in succession, and 
inidou1)tedly held that office more terms 
than any other person has held a similar of- 
fice in the county. He was prominent in the 
order of Patrons of Husbandry, when that 
order was in its palmy days in the country. 
He was twice nominated for the office of 
county treasurer by the Democratic party, 
but was both times defeated. His death oc- 
curred at his home on the old homestead in 
June, 1903. 

Harmony J. Carpenter came to " the 
county in 1865, and settled on section 6, 
in what is now Antioch township. He also 
came from Chautauqua county, New York, 
where he had lived for many years. He 
was in feeble health and well on in years 
when he came to the county, so that clear- 
ing away the forests to make a farm was 
slow work for him, but by perseverance he 
at length succeeded in making a good sized 
clearing on his homestead. He was one 
of the early mem1)ers of the Congregational 
church at Sherman, and served the church 
many years as deacon and trustee. He died 
in 1889 and his wife, who married several 
years after his death, died in 1898. 

Andrew Anderson came to Wexford 
county from Canada in 1886, settling on 
section 10, in what is now Hanover town- 
shiji. He was the first shoemaker to arrive 

in the county, and the work he did in that 
line helped him greatly in clearing up his 
farm. After the village of Sherman got 
well started he removed to that place and 
worked at his trade, keping a few goods 
in his line on sale, his wife at the same time 
running a little millinery store. Later he 
purchased an interest in a saw-mill at Sher- 
man, which however burned down in a short 
time after his purchase. He then purchased 
an interest in what was known as the Wheel- 
er mill in Hanover township, which he held 
for a few years. He also bought forty acres 
of railroad land adjoining the mill property 
for a home, the burning of the saw-mill 
having caused him to lose his old home, 
obliging him to start anew. Mr. Anderson 
was of Scotch descent and when the First 
Congregational church of Sherman was or- 
ganized he and his wife were charter mem- 
l}ers. He represented his township on tlie 
board of supervisors several years and held 
various other township offices at different 
times. He died in 1895, his widow sur- 
viving him only about a year and a half. 

S. C. Worth came to the county in 1866, 
taking up a homestead on section 20, in the 
present township of Hanover. He was a 
candidate for judge of probate at the first 
election for county officers in the county, 
but from the fact that some of the ballots 
were written (there was no printing press 
in the county in those days) with the full 
name and some with the initials only, he was 
defeated. He was afterwards appointed to 
the office of superintendent of the poor, serv- 
ing several years. He also served a number 
of years as supervisor and several terms as 
town treasurer and justice of the peace. He 
was among the early California gold seekers, 
and made the trip overland before the trans- 



continental railroads were thought of. Some 
seven or eight years ago he moved to Em- 
met county, this state, where he died in 

Charles Dalchow was a native of Ber- 
lin, Prussia, where he was born in 1825. 
He emigrated to America in 1857 in conse- 
quence of one of those political upheavals 
that were of such frequent occurrence, half 
a century ago, in some of those petty coun- 
tries that now constitute the German em- 
pire. He first settled in St. Joseph county, 
this state, coming to this county in 1871. 
He was a farmer by occupation, though fre- 
quently elected to different offices. His 
death occurred in 1896 at the age of seventy- 
one years. 

H. D. Griswold was the first practic- 
ing physician in the county. He was born 
in Jackson county, Michigan, in 1840. He 
commenced the practice of medicine in his 
native county soon after graduating from 
the State University at Ann Arbor in 1865. 
For several years he was connected with the 
newspaper business, having been a reporter 
for several different papers, and in widely 
separated fields, working in Detroit, St. 
Louis and Chicago. He came to Wexford 
county in 1872, and for many years was the 
only physician in the northwestern part of 
the county. He was an uncompromising 
Democrat and was ahvays one of the coun- 
cilors of his party, and for many years chair- 
man of the party's county committee. His 
death occurred in 1899. 

Ezra Harger was born in Portage coun- 
ty, Ohio, in 1838. When the President 
made the call for seventy-five thousand 
three-months men to put down the rebellion, 
in April, 1861, he enlisted in the Fourteenth 
Ohio Infantry. Some three months after 

the expiration of his three months service 
he enlisted in the Fifteenth United States 
Infantry. Fie was discharged in 1864, and 
soon after re-enlisted for three years and 
served until February, 1867. He came to 
Wexford county in 1872, locating a home- 
stead and also platting a piece of land which 
is now a part of the village of Manton. In 
1874 he was elected county treasurer and 
held that office for four terms during his 
life. He was chairman of thq Soldiers' 
Relief Commission several years; served as 
supervisor, clerk and treasurer of his town- 
ship at different times and was chairman of 
the Republican county committee several 
years. He was a member of the Free & 
Accepted Masons and at his death, which 
occurred in 1899, was buried under the aus- 
pices of that order. 

Isaac N. Carpenter, Wexford county's 
first judge of probate, was born in Chautau- 
qua county, New York, in 1838. He came 
to Wexford county in the fall of 1865, lo- 
cating a homestead on section 26, in what is 
now Wexford township. Besides his serv- 
ice as probate judge, he was several years 
supervisor of his township, and also held 
the office of justice of the peace many years, 
and township clerk several times. He was 
appointed postmaster at Sherman during 
President Cleveland's first administration, 
serving four years, after which he removed 
with his family to the new state of Wash- 
ington, where he died several years ago, the 
exact date of his death not being obtaina- 

I. H. Maqueston, the county's first gen- 
eral merchant, was born in Rockland coun- 
ty. New York, in 1847. He came to the 
county in the spring of 1869, soon after the 
county was organized, remaining a citizen 



of the county until the time of his death, ex- 
cept one year which he spent in New 
York city. He was a successful merchant, 
a lover of fishing and hunting, and fully 
alive to everything that tended to benefit 
his home village. He rebuilt the Sherman 
grist-mill after its destruction by fire, and 
for several years did a successful milling 
business. His death occurred in March, 
1886, from heart failure, he being in the 
prime of life and apparently in the best of 
health up to an hour or two before his 
death. He was somewhat of a land dealer, 
at one time owning a part of the site of the 
present city of Cadillac, and owned sev- 
eral hundred acres of land in the county at 
the time of his death. 

Sylvester Clark came to Wexford coun- 
ty in the spring of 1869, locating at Sher- 
man and starting the first hotel in the coun- 
ty seat town. It was kept in a log house 
wdiich w^as originally erected for a dwelling 
house, but which Mr. Clark remodeled in- 
to a hotel. Soon after starting this busi- 
ness a separation occurred between him and 
his wafe, which was follow^ed by divorce. 
A few years later he married the widow of 
Abram Finch, all old soldier who came to 
the county in 1866, and only lived two or 
three years after his arrival. She still 
lives in Sherman and often at the reunions 
of the old settlers tells of being treed by a 
bear, when she and her first husband were 
living on their homestead, and how her 
little dog kept nipping at the bear's hind 
feet, thus detracting his attention and enab- 
ling her to get far enough up the tree to be 
out of reach. After his second marriage 
Mr. Clark took up farming and continued 
in this occupation until the infirmity of age 
obliged him to give it up. He then moved 

into Sherman village, and lived there until 
the winter of 1901, when he went to the Pa- 
cific coast, thinking it would improve his 
physical condition. In this he was disap- 
pointed, as he lived but a few weeks after 
reaching his journey's end. 

Lewis J. Clark, though not a relative of 
Sylvester Clark, was one of the early pion- 
eers of the county. He was a carpenter and 
joiner by trade and came to the county in 
the employ of George W. Bryant, of Trav- 
erse City, who owned a piece of land at the 
point where the Newaygo and Northport 
state road crossed the Manistee river. Mr. 
Bryant had a small clearing made near the 
bank of the river, and erected a good sized 
building intended for a hotel, and it was 
used for a short time for that purpose. Mr. 
Clark did the work of building the house 
and rented it for a while, putting in a stock 
of groceries. In 1868 he severed his connec- 
tion with Mr. Bryant and put up the first 
frame building in the village of Sherman, 
moving liis stock of groceries into it as soon 
as it was ready to occupy. He afterwards 
went into the drug business, putting up an- 
other building for that purpose and moving 
the old one and using it as an addition to the 
drug store. Mr. Clark was a very obliging 
gentleman, and was liked by every one. As 
an evidence of this fact, he was unanimously 
recommended for postmaster, though a 
strong Democrat, and was appointed by a 
Republican administration. He died in De- 
cember, 1877, and was buried under the aus- 
pices of the Independent Order of Red Men, 
of which he was a member, and was sincerely 
mourned by the entire community. 

Frederick S. Kieldsen, for many years 
a prominent merchant in Cadillac, was born 
in Denmark in 1849, arriving in Cadillac 



in 1872. He was a shrewd business man, 
and after enlarging his mercantile stock to 
his satisfaction purchased a large farm, 
built a good farm house and large barns and 
at one time had a dairy of forty-five cows, 
mostly Holsteins. He was a lover of hors- 
es and kept some fine specimens on his farm. 
He suffered some severe reverses during the 
panic following the second election of Grov- 
er Cleveland, and subsequently retired from 
business. He died quite suddenly in 1891, 
leaving a widow and two children. 

John G. Mosser was born in Canada 
in 1840. He early learned the carpenter 
trade and at the time of the building of the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad secur- 
ed the position of foreman of the bridge 
building part of the construction, and stayed 
with the company until the road reached 
Petosky. He then settled in Cadillac and 
engaged in house building, and later went 
into the brickmaking business, at length go- 
ing into the regular contract building occu- 
pation and keeping a stock of builder's ma- 
terial. He superintended the construction 
of nearly all the larger buildings in the city, 
including churches, school houses, stores, the 
Masonic Temple and many private residen- 
ces. He secured a good many contracts for 
work in other counties and had a constant- 
ly increasing business. He disappeared sud- 
denly from the city in 1893, and it was a 
long time before any of his friends knew of 
his whereabouts, and it w^as at first sup- 
posed he had committed suicide, but at 
length his wife received a communication 
from Alberta, Canada, in 1896, conveying 
the information that he had died there and 
had told his companions where his wife and 
family lived. Mr. Mosser represented his 
ward for many years on the board of su- 

pervisors, and was several times honored by 
being elected as chairman of the board. 

James Haynes started the first planing- 
mill in the county, coming to the village 
of Clam Lake (now city of Cadillac) in 1872. 
He was born in New York in 1825, moving 
to Michigan with his father's family in 
]836. His mill was destroyed by fire in 
1877, ^^^' ^^ showing the energy with which 
Mr. Haynes conducted business, it is re- 
lated that in just fifty-nine days after the 
fire another mill had been erected, the ma- 
chinery purchased and placed in position 
and the mill ready for business. Some time 
before his death Mr. Haynes associated his 
three sons with him in the business, the firm 
being known as James Haynes & Sons. One 
of the sons retired before the death of the 
father, the other two remaining and suc- 
ceeding to the business, which they still 
continue. Mr. Haynes held several im- 
portant village and city offices and served 
a part of one term as county treasurer, death 
overtaking him during his incumbency of 
the office in 1889. 

Austin W. Mitchell came to Wexford 
county in 1879 and his first business venture 
was the purchase of a tract of pine land 
about four miles north of the city. This 
timber was manufactured by Bond & Kysor 
and quite a little village sprung up where 
their mill was located, the place being known 
on the railroad maps as Bond's Mill, bur 
not a vestige of the place is left except the 
railroad siding. Mr. Mitchell was a member 
of the firm of Mitchell Brothers, who still 
do a heavy lumbering business in Missau- 
kee county and have a large handle factory 
in Cadillac. An incompatible domestic con- 
dition evidently preyed upon his mind to 
such an extent that his friends persuaded 



him to take a trip across the ocean to see 
if it would not bring a change for the bet- 
ter. Accordingly he set sail from San Fran- 
cisco in the spring of 1902 in company with 
his physician, Dr. C. E. Miller, of Cadillac. 
When five days out Mr. Mitchell very sud- 
denly and unexpectedly leaped over the side 
of the ship and almost immediately sank to 
the bottom. It was a great blow to his 
friends in this city and county, of whom he 
had a large circle. 

David A. Rice was one of the first at- 
torneys to locate in the village of Clam 
Lake. Mr. Rice first studied medicine with 
a view of becoming a physician, but changed 
his mind and took a law course at the uni- 
versity at Ann Arbor. He was admitted to 
the bar in Oceana county in 1870. At the 
commencement of the war of the Rebellion 
he enlisted in the Sixty-fifth Illinois Volun- 
teers'. He was taken prisoner at the time of 
the surrender of Harper's Ferry, was 
paroled and several months later exchanged, 
when he again joined his regiment, serving 
until the close of the war. He served the 
county as prosecuting attorney eight years 
in all, held dififerent offices under the village 
and city organization, and also filled the 
office of supervisor of his ward one or two 
terms. He died at Ypsilanti, this state, in 
the fall of 1 90 1. 

Byron Ballon was one of the very first 
to settle in the village of Clam Lake; in 
fact, he came several months before the vil- 
lage was platted. He was l^orn in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in 1827. He came with his fa- 
ther to Ypsilanti, Michigan, in 1830, the 
journey being made with an ox team, as 
there was no public conveyance to be had 
in those days in that section of the state. 
It is related that food became so scarce the 

first year that they had to resort to pound- 
ing corn on a stump preparatory to cooking 
it for the family. At the death of his father 
he went to live with an aunt in Kalamazoo 
in 1839, where he learned the trade of car- 
penter. His first business venture in this 
county was in the hardware line with John 
M. Cloud, the firm being known as Cloud 
& Ballou. Mr. Ballou was a radical Repub- 
lican and often took the stump in the inter- 
ests of his party. Though not a gifted 
speaker, he could tell the plain truths in such 
a matter-of-fact way that they carried con- 
viction. He was for several years chairman 
of the Republican county committee, twice 
held the office of postmaster in Cadillac and 
Clam Lake village, and was once elected 
mayor of the city. After severing his con- 
nection with Mr. Cloud, he conducted a 
flour and feed store in the city for several 
years until he was forced to abandon work 
1)y reason of the infirmity of age. His death 
occurred in the winter of 1902. 

Samuel F. Long was another early set- 
tler in the village of Clam Lake, coming in 
the spring of 1873. ^^ was born in Frank- 
lin county, Pennsylvania, in 1820. When 
twenty-two years of age he moved to Ohio, 
and one year later to Michigan. In the 
summer of 1862 he enlisted in the Sixth 
Michigan Cavalry, first serving with the 
Army of the Potomac and later was in the 
scouting service in the Shenandoah Valley, 
Virginia. He was discharged in July, 1865. 
For the first five years after coming to Clam 
Lake he was in the employ of the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company. The 
next year he had charge of the H. N. Green 
water works, after which he had charge of 
M. H. Bond's grocery business for about 
two years. He held the office of justice of 



the peace for eight years, at the same time 
doing something of a real estate and collec- 
tion business. He died in 1896^ leaving a 
widow and five children. 

Holden N. Green w^as also an early pio- 
neer in the village of Clam Lake; in fact, he 
arrived on the shore of Little Clam lake, 
now Lake Cadillac, nearly a year before the 
village was platted. He first engaged in the 
lumber business in 1871, and continued his 
operations in that line until 1878. It was 
during this latter year that he undertook 
the work of supplying the city wnth water. 
His engine house and pumps were built at 
the foot of West Harris street, nearly or 
quite on the site now occupied by the steam 
laundry. He operated this plant about 
fourteen years, during which time the build- 
ing was once destroyed by fire. Judge 
Green acquired his title by a four-years 
term as probate judge of Wexford county. 
He was born in Rushville, New York, in 
1827, and when quite young he, with the 
rest of his father's family, moved west, 
which meant in those days anywhere west 
of the western line of New York state. He 
was at one time engaged as mail carrier to 
and from Chicago, when that city was a 
mere hamlet. He married in Chicago and 
a short time afterward went to Manistee, 
and was there when that county was or- 
ganized, and became its first prosecuting at- 
torney. During his last five years' resi- 
dence in Cadillac his health so failed him 
that he was obliged to give up all work and 
remain indoors most of the time. Mr. 
Green served two or three terms as a mem- 
ber of the board of supervisors of Wexford 
county, taking part in the memorable 
county-seat struggle that was waged for 
nearly a dozen years. During the latter part 

of 1893 he removed to Ypsilanti, where he 
remained until the summons of death 
reached him, in December, 1895. 

Henry F. May was one of the early 
business adventurers in the village of Clam 
Lake (now city of Cadillac), being a mem- 
ber of the firm of Holbrook & May, who 
engaged in the mercantile business in the 
new village in 1871. Mr. May was born in 
Plymouth, Michigan, in 1842, receiving a 
common school education at that place. 
After coming to Clam Lake he was fre- 
quently elected to different offices, serving 
as village treasurer, village trustee, county 
superintendent of the poor and member of 
the Cadillac city ])oard of education. Ln 
1878 he was elected to represent the Wex- 
ford-Grand Traverse district in the lower 
house of the Michigan legislature. A few 
years after he removed to Grand Rapids, 
where he lived until 1899, when death put 
an end to a long and useful career. 

Jonathan W. Cobbs came to .Clam Lake 
village in 1872 from Butlerville, Indiana, 
where he had been engaged in the manufac- 
ture of hardwood lumber for a number of 
years. His first business venture in the new 
village was the purchase of what was then 
known as the Hall saw-mill, the first one 
built at Clam Lake. At first he ran the mill 
in cutting timber for George A. Mitchell, 
but in 1877 he formed a partnership with 
William W. Mitchell, the firm name from 
that time being Cobbs & Mitchell. The firm 
prospered to a wonderful degree, and finally, 
in 1899, ^h^ fi^i'^'^ was incorporated under the 
laws of the state. The firm purchased large 
tracts of pine land soon after its organiza- 
tion, and to give an idea of the extent of 
their lumbering operations while engaged in 
cutting pine, we quote from what has here- 



tofore been compiled relative to shipment of 
lumber in the 'eighties: ''In 1880, 14,053;- 
000 feet; 1881, 21,612,000 feet; 1882, 20,- 
966,000 feet; 1883, 26,924,000 feet; 1884, 
to June 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 1 ,000 feet. Lumber in 
yards, 17,000,000 feet." Mr. Cobbs died 
September 28, 1898, at the age of sixty-nine 
years, his son, Frank J. Cobbs, president of 
the Cadillac State Bank, succeeding his fa- 
ther in. the firm. A more detailed account 
of their present lumbering operations will 
be found in another part of this work. 

A. M. Lamb, a former resident of Cad- 
illac, was one of the very early pioneers in 
Wexford county, having taken up a home- 
stead in 1865. At the death of his first wife, 
which occurred in the early - 'seventies, he 
came to what w^as then the village of Clam 
Lake and w^ent into business. About the 
same time he w^as appointed one of the coun- 
ty superintendents of the poor, which office 
he held for several years. He finally sold 
out his Inisiness in Cadillac and removed to 
Grand Rapids, where he did a commission 
business for a number of years. He then 
came back to Cadillac, and was engaged in 
the fruit commission business for some time, 
finally returning to Grand Rapids, wdiere he 
died in 1902. 

Georgiana L Wheeler came to Wexford 
county wdth her husband, J. H. Wheeler, in 
the fall of 1865, their westward journey 
1)eing their wedding trip, as they started 
from western New York immediately fol- 
lowing their ma^Tiage ceremony. They 
came by ])oat from Buffalo to Traverse City, 
leaving the lake l)oat at Northport and mak- 
ing the trip up the Traverse Bay in the lit- 
tle ''Sunny Side," the first boat owned and 
operated by Traverse City interests on the 
bay, and it took a week to make the trip at 

that time. They arrived in Wexford county 
the last day of October. They began house- 
keeping with one .chair, a rocker, and one 
bed, using Mr. Wheeler's tool chest for a 
table until he could make one of ])ine boards. 
He also soon made a set of splint-bottom 
chairs and another rocker, and they were 
soon cosily established in their new home. 
Mrs. Wheeler was a school teacher and a 
music teacher, and in later years took an 
active part in temperance work and con- 
tributed occasionally to the columns of the 
Wexford County I^ioneer after that paper 
•was established, and when her husl^and be- 
came the owner of the paper she did a large 
amount of the work on its local columns, 
besides editing the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance LTnion department. Her untimely 
death, in 1882, was a shock to the wdiole 
community and her funeral was attended by 
the largest gathering ever, to that time, 
seen in Sherman on such occasions. The 
following is taken from the columns of the 
Pioneer having the account of her death : 
"Not many refined and talented young ladies 
of the present day, who delight in social 
intercourse and pleasant surroundings, 
would think that they could go away back 
into an almost unbroken wilderness, one 
hundred and twenty-five miles from the 
nearest railroad, wnth six months of the 
year practically closed to all outside com- 
munication, except the slow, tedious over- 
land mail, which only enabled a person to 
get an answer to a letter after four or five 
weeks of anxious waiting, their little log 
house, twelve by sixteen feet in size, con- 
stituting kitchen, pantry, bed-room, sitting- 
room and parlor, the only partitions being 
imaginary lines on the puncheon floor; their 
nearest neighbor half or three- fourths of a 



mile distant, and the only road thereto being 
a hne of blazed trees through the dense for- 
est. Yet true love conquers all difficulties 
and laughs at all privations, and when man's 
strong arm is nerved by a noble woman's 
love, the densest forest will melt away; 
houses, mills and work shops will grow up. 
and the grandeur of happy homes and noble 
aspirations will so fill the heart that their 
memory can never be effaced. Such the 
love, such the privations, such the fruition 
and such the memory/' 

We give place to the following little 
gem, written a year after Mrs. Wheeler's 
death : 

I've been out to the old homestead to-day, Georgia, 

but 'twas with sad and lonely heart 
That I viewed the scenes of bygone years — their 

memory seemed to dart 
Like a gleaming blade through the misty shade of the 

half forgotten past, 
And .carry me back on its glimmering track to the 

pleasures that could not last. 

I saw once again the little log house with its bark- 
covered' roof as of yore; 

Its one tiny window, its one narrow door, its old 
fashioned, rude punchc on floor; 

The tall trees all 'round thickly studding the ground, 
so the sunlight could scarcely creep in, 

And you, my fond wife, the joy of my life, making 
sunshine and gladness within. 

How the warmth of that glorious sunlight 'round the 

heart's deep emotions did twine! 
Its brightness made my life so happy! Its reflex 

brought pleasure to thine! 
And life's silv'ry stream, like a beautiful dream, 

stretched forth to our wondering gaze 
'Neath the magical flame that silently came through 

the glint of its soul-stirring rays. 

Oh, those happy old pioneer days, Georgia! What 

pen can their grandeur recall? 
What artist can paint half their beauties? What 

poetic rapture enthrall 
The senses, and make such echoes awake, in the heart, 

'though 'tis saddened and lone, 
Like the memory of days we see through the haze, of 

the years that are faded and gone. 

Ah, yes, they have gone to decay, Georgia! Their 

phantoms are all that remain; 
The heart, then so light and so buoyant, now beats to 

a mournful refrain; 
For the beauties of youth, with its freshness, its truth, 

its hope, its ambition, its trust, 
Have perished and died, and lie side by side with the 

forms that now moulder to dust. 

Yet, I would not forget those glad days, Georgia, 

their mem'ry's too sacred and dear — 
Though they bring to the heart keenest anguish, and 

moisten the eye with a tear — 
I cherish them still. The heart will e'er thrill, as the 

vision recurs to its gaze. 
Of the joys that were ours in those happy hours — 

those blissful old pioneer days. 

Rinaldo Fuller came to the county in 
1880, settling in the village of Manton, 
where he soon went into the drug business. 
He was born in Canada in 1841, lived sev- 
eral years in Ontonogan, Michigan, and two 
years in Ingham county. He then went 
west to Kansas, where he remained two and 
a half years. He served three or four terms 
as president of the village of Manton, two 
terms as township treasurer, besides various 
other local offices. He was the Republican 
candidate for county treasurer in 1890, but 
was defeated by James Ransom in the 
Democratic landslide of that year. Soon 
after he sold out his business at Manton 
and removed to Traverse City. He went 
into the drug business again at Interlocken, 
Grand Traverse county, where he died a few 
years ago. 

James M. Brown was born in Chatau- 
qua county. New York, in 1825. His par- 
ents removed to Pennsylvania 'in 1835 and 
to Ottawa county, Michigan, in 1844. He 
kept a hotel at Byron, Kent county, Michi- 
gan, five years and was -engaged in mercan- 
tile business for several years before he 
came to this county in 1873. ^^ '^^P^ ^ 
little hotel at Manton the first year after his 



arrival, and then purchased a farm one mile 
west of that village, and for several years 
led the dual life of landlord and farmer. He 
was county superintendent of the poor six 
years, and filled the office of justice of tlie 
peace and other township offices for several 
years. His death occurred in 1899 at his 
home in Cedar Creek. 

F. A. Jamison was one of Manton's suc- 
cessful merchants, having located in that 
village in 1877. At first he engaged in the 
grocery business only, but later added dry 
goods and boots and shoes. He was born in 
Ottawa county, Michigan, in 1842, and 
died at his home in Manton in 1891. 

Hon. Thomas A. Ferguson was born in 
Iosco, Livingston county, Michigan, Sep- 
tember 2, 1839. He enlisted in the spring 
of 1864, serving in the Army of the Cuni- 
berland. Was promoted to first lieutenant, 
and mustered out at the close of the war in 
1865. Soon after his return from the arniy 
he entered the law department of the Michi- 
gan University, at Ann Arbor, where he 
was graduated in 1869. He came to Wex- 
ford county in the summer of that year, 
being the first lawyer to settle in the new 
county just organized. He was appointed 
prosecuting attorney of the county and held 
the office until December, 1872. He was 
elected a member of the house of representa- 
tives, Michigan legislature, in 1872, and re- 
elected in 1874. He removecF from Sher- 
man to Manton in 1877, ^^^^^ went into the 
lumbering business under the firm name of 
Brandenburg, Backus & Company. The firm 
failed in a short time after he became inter- 
ested in it, and investigation showed that 
it was on the verge of collapse when he was 
induced to go into it. He then commenced 
to deal in pi;ie lands, and was quite suc- 

cessful. Mr. Ferguson was left a widower 
in 1874, his wife dying December 19th of 
that year, leaving an infant daughter, now 
the wife of V. C. Wall, proprietor of the 
Wexford County Grist Mill at Sherman. 
He never remarried. Mr. Ferguson was an 
active and shrewd politician, taking part in 
all political campaigns. He was chairman 
of the Republican county committee at the 
time of his death, which occurred in 1883. 
Leroy P. Champenois was born April 
19, 1840, near Adrian, Michigan. His fa- 
ther was one of the early settlers in that 
part of the state, and during the 'fifties, 
when the agitation of the slavery question 
was at its height and the Dred Scott decis- 
ion and the fugitive slave law had so 
aroused the anti-slavery people of the 
northern states, he kept a station on what 
was called the "underground railroad.'' 
Many well-informed people of today will 
not comprehend what was meant by the 
'^underground railroad." It was simply 
this : When a slave managed to escape 
from his master and reach the northern 
bank of the Ohio river he knew, in nine 
cases out of ten, just where he could find a 
friend who would shield him from the 
search of his master and would convey him 
or pilot him to some other friend farther 
toward Canada, where he could not be 
reached by his enraged and baffled master. 
Sometimes these fugitives were carried in 
w^agons underneath loads of hay or straw ; 
sometimes in boxes or barrels, and some- 
times they were piloted, during the darkness 
of the night, through forests and fields, 
avoiding the public highways in the fear of 
coming in contact with the slave hunter or 
his equally dangerous ally, the northern 
''doughfaces," for be it known that the fugi- 



tive slave law made every sheriff and con- 
stable in the whole country a slave hunter 
and every northern jail a slave pen. These 
stopping places for the poor escaped slave 
were called ^'stations," and this stealthy 
manner of transportation was called the 
'\inderground railroad/' Leroy early im- 
bibed this intense anti-slavery feeling of his 
father, and when the cry of war sounded 
through the country, at the firing upon Fort 
vSumter, he was one of the first to respond 
to Lincoln's call for seventy-five thousand 
three-months men. He participated in the 
first battle of Bull Run, and at the expira- 
tion of his first term re-enlisted for three 
years. When the matter of organization of 
negro regiments was undertaken he secured 
a commission as lieutenant and w^as trans- 

ferred to one of those regiments. He was 
severely wounded in one of the engagements 
near Holly Springs, losing all of his right 
hand except the thumb and index finger, 
and upon his recovery was assigned to a 
position on the staff of General Smith, 
where he served until the close of the war. 
He came to Wexford county in 1866, and 
settled in w^hat is now Wexford township. 
At the organization of the county, in 1869, 
he was elected the first county clerk and 
register of deeds, which office he held for 
two years. He held various township 
ofiices, served two terms as county school 
examiner, and four years as postmaster at 
Sherman. He died at his home in Sherman 
in 1902, leaving a widow who survived him 
but a few months. 



Thomas J. Thorpe came to Wexford 
county in the fall of 1871, and took up a 
homestead in the township of Selma. It 
was then necessary to come by way of Trav- 
erse City, and it took two full days to go 
from that place to Mr. Thorpe's homestead. 
Mr. Thorpe was born in Allegany county. 
New York, in 1837. From a sketch of Mr. 
Thorpe's early life we quote the following: 
*'At the breaking out of the Rebellion he 
enlisted in the Eighty-fifth New York Regi- 

ment; served with distinction during the 
Peninsular campaign; was wounded twice 
during the -seven-days fight when General 
McClellan changed his base of operations 
from the Pamunky to the James river, once 
at Fair Oaks and again at Malvern Hill; 
in 1862 he was made lieutenant colonel of 
the One Hundred and Thirtieth New York 
Infantry. After the battle of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, his regiment was mounted 
and afterwards known as the famous First 



New York Dragoons, and took an active 
part in all the great cavalry battles until the 
close of the war. In June, 1864, he was 
w^ounded and taken prisoner at Travi 11 ion, 
Virginia. On tlie Fourth of July of that 
year, while a prisoner in the stockade at 
Macon, Georgia, Colonel Thorpe made a 
Fourth of July speech, which was inter- 
preted as incendiary, and for which he was 
taken out of the stockade to be hung, but 
the Confederate authorities became con- 
vinced from the demonstration made by the 
two thousand prisoners in the stockade that 
the safety of the city of Macon, as well as 
the lives of their guard, would be better con- 
served by returning him to the stockade, 
which was done at the close of that day. In 
December, 1864, 1^^ was made a full colonel 
of his regiment for meritorious conduct on 
the field. July 17th of the same year he 
was honorably discharged from the service 
of the United States, after a service of four 
years and seventeen days, during which time 
he participated in forty-six engagements." 

After a stay of over a year in the county, 
Colonel Thorpe w^ent back east, and for 
iive years he had charge of a large public 
school in the city of Buffalo, New York. He 
tlien went into the school book business 
for the A. S. Barnes Publishing Coni- 
pany, of New York, covering several 
middle and western states, and making- 
two trips to the Pacific coast. He re- 
turned to his Wexford county farm in 
1879, and in 1880 was elected clerk and 
register on the Republican county ticket, 
lie was re-elected in 1882, and was re-nomi- 
nated in 1884, but defeated by George A. 
Cummer. He took an active part in the 
struggle which resulted in tlie removal of 
the countv seat from Sherman to Cadillac 

via Manton. He w^as a talented speaker and 
could hold an audience, no matter what the 
sul)ject under discussion might be. In politi- 
cal campaigns his services were in great de- 
mand, Ijoth in his home county and in sur- 
rounding counties. After his defeat for a 
third term as clerk and register he removed 
to Chicago, where he remained several years 
and at last went into the educational work, 
which was his delight. 

Silas S. Falloss was the first attorney to 
settle in the village of Clam Lake, arriving 
in the summer of 1872. He was elected 
prosecuting attorney the same fall. lie 
served one term as circuit judge and was a 
member of the board of supervisors for sev- 
eral years. In 1884 lie removed to Chicago 
and resumed the practice of law in that city, 
making that his home until the present time. 

John Mansfield was born in Connecticut 
in 1842. At the breaking out of the Civil 
war he enlisted in the First New York Cav- 
alry and served to the end of the war. He 
came to Wexford county in 1872 and took 
up a homestead on section 12, in w^hat is 
now Boon township, at the same time pur- 
cliasing another quarter section adjoining 
tlie homestead, later buying another eighty- 
acre piece, making four hundred acres in all. 
Being a practical farmer and a hard worker, 
he soon had sufiicient land cleared to 1)egin 
to realize a ])rofit from the crops he raised. 
Being of Irish descent, he had great faith in 
potatoes, and devoted a large part of his 
land to the cultivation of that crop, raising 
from five hundred to four thousand bushels 
a year. Another crop he found very profit- 
able was hay. Being in close proximity to 
the lumber camps in the vicinity of Cadil- 
lac on the east and the Manistee river on 
the west, he could start out on a winter's 



morning with a load of hay or potatoes, 
dispose of it at camp and reacli home l^y 
nightfall. He served his township several 
years as supervisor, and in 1880 was elected 
county treasurer, serving two terms. In 
1894 he was elected judge of probate, filling 
the office for eight years. At the expiration 
of this service he sold his farm and removed 
to Newaygo county, where he still resides. 

Capt. C. K. Russell came to Cadillac in 
1879, purchasing the American House, 
^\'hich lie managed for over fifteen years. 
He was a native of New York, where he 
was 1)orn in 1826. He start