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Full text of "History of Detroit and Wayne County and early Michigan:"

iiiiipiiiiii 




aiOGRAPHieitfe 




HISTORY 



OF 



Detroit Wz^ayne County 



EARLY MICHIGAN 



A Clironologrical Cyclopedia of tlie 




PAST ANO PRESENT 

Bjy SILAS ^RMER, City Historiographer 
"native here and to the manner born'' 



a*. PUBLISHED BY 

SILAS FARMER & CO 

Corner of Monroe Avenue and Farmer Street, Detroit 

FOR 

MUNSELL & CO., NEW YORK 
1890 



Copyright, 1884, by Silas Farmer. 
Copyright, 1889, by Silas Farmer. 
Copyright, 1890, by Silas Farmer. 

All Rights Reserved. 



Electrotyped and Printed by 
The Detroit Free Press Company. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



The insertion of biographical sketches in the first edition of this work was suggested to the 
author, but it was deemed best to postpone the preparation of such material until the subject 
could be given greater attention. 

The successful sale of the first edition, and the gratifying demand for a second, has now 
given opportunity for this addition, which is certainly appropriate in a local history ; for without citi- 
zens there would be neither city nor history, and brief biographies of representatives of various classes 
of its business and professional men wnll give a fairly representative idea of the city. 

Some of the biographies are of necessity brief, as no other facts could be obtained. In 
gathering material for several of the biographies, I am indebted to Lanman's Red Book of 
Michigan, to the American Biographical History (Michigan volume), and to the Magazine of 
Western History. 

Many other names might have appeared with propriety ; indeed, other biographies were pre- 
pared, and other portraits engraved, which, almost at the last moment, were omitted, as it was found 
that they would increase the volume to an unreasonable size. 

In addition to the large amount of entirely new matter, the work as a whole has been 
thoroughly revised. 

The Author. 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



In preparing the third edition of this work, the aim has been to embody all the desirable facts 
that could be obtained, concerning the history of the several townships of the county. 

Diligent efforts have been made to secure material, very many of the older residents have been 
interviewed, and all the township records examined. 

The history of each township is so related to the general history of the county, and to Detroit, 
that very many facts that might as appropriately have been given in the township histories, are given 
in various Chapters in the first volume, and to these, and especially to Chapters twenty, twenty-one 
and twenty-two, the reader is referred. 

The author assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the personal sketches at the close of 
the volume, as they were collected by the firm of Munsell & Co., for whom this third edition is 
printed. 

The Author. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART XIII- BIOGRAPHICAL. 



CHAPTER XC. 

Mayors of Detroit.— Solomon Sibley — Elijah Brush — John R. Williams — Henry J. Hunt — John 
Biddle — Jonathan Kearsley — Marshall Chapin — Levi Cook — Charles C. Trowbridge— Andrew 
Mack — Henry Howard — Augustus S. Porter. — Asher B. Bates — DeGarmo Jones — Zina Pitcher- 
Douglass Houghton — James A. Van Dyke— Frederick Buhl— Charles Howard — John Ladue — 
Zachariah Chandler — John H. Harmon — Oliver M. Hyde— Henry Ledyard— John Patton— Chris- 
tian H. Buhl — William C. Duncan — Kirkland C. Barker — Merrill I. Mills — William W. Wheaton— 
Hugh Moffat— Alexander Lewis — George C. Langdon — William G. Thompson — Stephen B. 
Grummond — Marvin H. Chamberlain — John Pridgeon, Jr. 1031-1050 



CHAPTER XCL 

Governors, Senators, Bankers, and Capitalists.— Russell A. Alger — John J. Bagley — Henry 
P. Baldwin — Lewis Cass — S. Dow Elwood — Jacob M. Howard — James F. Joy —Henry B. Led- 
yard — James McMillan — Hugh McMillan — John S. Newberry — John Owen — David Preston — 
Thomas W. Palmer — Francis Palms — Martin S. Smith — William H. Stevens — William B. 
Wesson — William Woodbridge. ^ 105 1-1077 



CHAPTER XCII. 

Authors, Editors, Publishers, Physicians and Military Officers— Hugh Brady— James B. Book 
— William H. Brearley — J. Henry Carstens — Henry A. Cleland — George Dawson — Arent S. 
DePeyster — John Farmer — Charles Hastings — Edward W. Jenks — Herman Kiefer — Alexander 
Macomb — Frederick Morley - Rollin C. Olin — John Pulford — William E. Quinby — James E. 
Scripps — John P. Sheldon — Morse Stewart — Francis X. Spranger — John Trumbull — William 
A. Throop — Henry O. Walker — Anthony Wayne — Richard S. Willis — Orlando B. Wilcox — 
Hal C. Wyman — Charles C. Yemans. 1078-1109 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XCIII. 

Judges and Lawyers.— John Atkinson — Levi Bishop — James V. Campbell — Don M. Dickinson — 
Julian G Dickinson — Samuel T. Douglass — D. Bethune Duffield — Henry M. Duffield — Edmund 
Hall — DeWitt C. Holbrook — George H. Hopkins — Willard M. Lillibridge — George V. N. Lothrop 

— William A. Moore — George F. Porter — Ralph Phelps, Jr. — James A. Randall — Charles L 
Walker— Edward C. Walker — William P. Wells — Albert H. Wilkinson — James Witherell — 
Benjamin F. H. Witherell. 1110-1134 

CHAPTER XCIV. 

Merchants.— Henry J . Buckley — James Burns — William K. Coyl — Thomas F. Dudley — William 
H. Elliott— James L. Edson— Jacob S. Farrand — John Farrar — Benjamin F. Farrington — 
Dexter M. Ferry— Aaron C. Fisher — Richard H. Fyfe— Rufus W. Gillett — Henry Glover- 
Jeremiah Godfrey — Bruce Goodfellov^ — Theodore P. Hall — George H. Hammond — Samuel 
Heavenrich — Emil S. Heineman — Chauncey Hurlbut — Joshua S. Ingalls — Charles S. Isham — 
Richard Macauley — Thomas McGraw — Nicol Mitchell — George F. Moore — James V. Moran — 
Cyrenius A. Newcomb — Henry A. Newland — Thomas Palmer — George Peck —James E. Pittman 

— William Reid — William D. Robinson — Alanson Sheley— Osias W. Shipman — Aaron L. 
Watkins — Frederick Wetmore —-George C. Wetherbee — H. Kirke White. 1 135-1 174 

CHAPTER XCV. 

Manufacturers and Inventors.— William S. Armitage — Absalom Backus, Jr. — Carleton A. Beardsley 

— Thomas Berry— Calvin K. Brandon — William A. Burt — Wells Burt — John Burt — George 
S. Davis — Solomon Davis — Alexander Delano — Jeremiah Dwyer — Jacob B. Fox — George 
H. Gale — John S. Gray — Thomas F. Griffin — Gilbert Hart — Samuel F. Hodge — F. A. Hubel— 
James McGregor— Joseph B. Moore — Michael J. Murphy — David O. Paige — Hervey C. Parke — 
Hazen S. Pingree — David M. Richardson — Fordyce H. Rogers — Frederick Stearns — Joseph 
Toynton — J. Hill Whiting. 1 175-1207 

CHAPTER XCVI. 

Land Dealers, Lumber Manufacturers, Vessel Owners, Railroad and Insurance Mana- 
gers, Etc.— Francis Adams — James A. Armstrong — Stephen Baldwin — Edmund A. Brush — 
William N. Carpenter — John P. Clark — E. W. Cottrell — Darius Cole — Alfred A. Dwight — 
Eralsy Ferguson — Moses W. Field — George S. Frost — J. Huff Jones — Edward Lyon — Charles 
Merrill — Franklin Moore — Stephen Moore — John B. MuUiken — Joseph Nicholson — Charles 
Noble — Charles W. Noble — Charles L. Ortmann — Samuel Pitts — John E. Potts —Henry P. Pulling 

— David R. Shaw — Elliott T. Slocum — Giles B. Slocum — John D. Standish — Isaac N. Swain — 
Anson Waring — Jared C. Warner — Deodatus C. Whitwood — Eber B. Ward - Emily Ward. 

I 208- I 236 

CHAPTER XCVIl. 

Merchants and Manufacturers.— John Brennan — Conrad Clippert — Victor Colliau — Sidney B. 
Dixon —Walter John Gould — DeWitt C. Gage — John Allen Gray — William A. Gray — Anthony 
F. Grosfield — Edward W. Leech — Charles H. Preston — John V. Ruehle — Henry Spitzley. 

1 237-1 244 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 



CHAPTER XCVIIl. 

Township and Biographical.— Brownstown. — Canton : Biographies of John Huston, Orlando R. 
Pattengell, Robert Crawford Safford.— Dearborn : Biographies of Elizur R. Carver, William Daly, 
James Gardner, Edward Sparrow Snow, John B. Wallace. - Ecorce : Biographies of Jerome Holland 
Bishop, George Clark, Thomas D. Evans, James T. Hurst, F. A. Kirby, Walter C. Lambert, The- 
ophilus J. Langlois, Hyacinthe F. Riopelle, Alexis M. Salliotte.— Greenfield : Biography of James 
McFarlane.— Grosse Point : Biography of Amandus Vandendriessche. — Hamtramck : Biographies of 
Christopher Damitio, John E. Edwards — Huron.— Livonia : Biography of William M. Shaw.— Mon- 
guagon : Biographies of James Woodruff Clark, John Clee, Isaac Callendar Saunders, Phineas Earll 
Saunders. — Nankin : Biography of Ebenezer O. Bennett. — Plymouth : Biographies of Jared S. Lap- 
ham, Theodore C. Sherwood, John Marcus Swift.— Redford : Biographies of Felix Gauthier, George 
C. Gordon, George C. Lawrence. — Romulus. — Springwells : Biography of Joseph H. Clixby. — Sump- 
ter. — Taylor. — Van Buren. 1 247-1 383 

Personal Sketches, 1385- 1473 



PART XIII. 



BIOGRAPHICAL, 



CHAPTER XC. 



MAYORS. 



SOLOMON SIBLEY was born in Sutton, Massa- 
chusetts, October 7, 1769. He came to Detroit very 
soon after the Territory was surrendered by the 
English, and in January, 1799, was elected a mem- 
ber, from Wayne County, of the General Assembly 
of the Northwest Territory, and was largely instru- 
mental in procuring the passage of the Act of 1802, 
incorporating the town of Detroit. 

In recognition of his services the electors of the 
town, at the first election, conferred upon him the 
freedom of the corporation, and after the second 
election he became Chairman of the Board of Trus- 
tees, and under the first city charter of 1806, was 
made Mayor of the city. 

He also held numerous other offices, serving as 
Auditor of the Territory from 18 14 to 18 17, was 
United States Attorney from 181 5 to 1823, and 
Delegate in Congress, from Michigan, from 1821 to 
1823, and one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of the Territory from 1823 to 1837. 

The recital of the offices he filled, is abundant 
indication of the esteem in which he was held, and 
in ability he was the peer of any who were then in 
office in the Territory, or citizens of Detroit. 

He was married in October. 1802, to Sarah 
Whipple Sproat. They had eight children, as fol- 
lows : Colonel Ebenezer Sproat Sibley, of United 
States Army; Katherine Whipple, wife of C. C. 
Trowbridge ; Henry Hastings Sibley, ex-Governor 
of Minnesota; Augusta, wife of James A. Arm- 
stong ; Mary, wife of Charles S. Adams ; Alexan- 
der Hamilton Sibley; Sarah Alexandrine Sibley, 
and Frederic Baker Sibley, of Detroit. 

Solomon Sibley died at Detroit, April 4, 1846. 



poration, and in the same year served also as super- 
visor. 

In 1805 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the Legionary Corps of Territorial Militia, and un- 
der the Act of 1806 was appointed the second Mayor 
of Detroit. 

In 1 806 he was also appointed Treasurer of the 
Territory, and served until December 13, 18 [3, and 
from 181 1 to 1 8 14 also held the office of United 
States Attorney. 

After the surrender of Detroit to the English, in 
i8r2, Colonel Brush with other citizens was com- 
pelled by General Proctor to leave the Territory. 
Reaching Toronto, then known as York, he met 
his brother-in-law, a British officer, through whose 
interposition he was paroled, and sent within the 
American hnes. 

In October, 181 3, with General Harrison's troops, 
he re-entered Detroit, and in December, 18 [3, he 
died. 

Colonel Brush married Adelaide Askin, a daughter 
of John Askin, of Detroit, and in 1806 became the 
owner of the Askin, afterwards known as the Brush 
Farm. 

He left three sons and a daughter. 

JOHN R. WILLIAMS was born at Detroit, May 
4, 1782, and was the only son of Thomas Williams, 
a native of Albany, New York, who came to Detroit 
in 1765, and married a sister of the late Joseph 
Campau. 

He received an appointment in the Army in 1796, 
and entered the service under General Wilkinson, 
at Fort Marsac, on the Cumberland River, in Ten- 



ELIJAH BRUSH was born at Bennington, Ver- 
mont, and came to Detroit in 1798. His father 
was a Colonel in the Revolutionary Army, and 
took part in the battle of Bennington. 

Elijah Brush graduated at Dartmouth College, 
began the study of law, and was admitted to the 
bar. He first practised his profession in Detroit. 

In 1803, within five years after he arrived in 
Detroit, he was elected a trustee of the town cor- 



In 1799 he resigned, at the solicitation of Mr. 
Campau, and returned to Detroit, to engage in 
business. They formed a partnership to engage in 
the Indian trade, and Mr. Williams went to Mon- 
treal to purchase goods. While on board a small 
sloop at Queenstown, he became engaged in an 
altercation with a Frenchman named La Salle, a de- 
scendant of the renowned navigator and explorer. 
It resulted in their fighting a duel across a table, in 



I032 



MAYORS. 



which La Salle was shot and severely wounded, 
Mr. Williams was arrested and carried to Montreal. 
where he remained under bail for several months, 
but was finally discharged. 

In 1802 he returned to Detroit, and embarked in 
the fur trade and general mercantile business. 

During the war of 1812 he was made Captain of 
an artillery company. At the time of Hull's sur- 
render he became a prisoner, but was paroled, and 
moved with his family to Albany, where he re- 
mained until 181 5, w^hen he returned to Detroit and 
resumed business. 

In the year 181 5 he was appointed Associate Jus- 
tice of the County Court, and in 18 18 was made 
one of the County Commissioners, and in the same 
year was also appointed Adjutant General of the 
Territory, and served until 1829. 

He was the author of the City Charter of 1824, 
and served as the first Mayor under it, and was 
elected to the same office in 1830, 1844, 1845, and 
1846. 

He served as President of the Constitutional Con- 
vention held at Ann Arbor in 1835, and was active 
at all times in all political matters. 

He was also always interested in military affairs, 
and at the breaking out of the Black Hawk war was 
in command of the Territorial troops, and went to 
Chicago to aid in defending the western settlements. 

He owned a large amount of real estate, and his 
name and the names of members of his family are 
perpetuated in the names of several of the streets of 
the city. 

He married Mary Mott, daughter of Major Ger- 
shom Mott, on October 25, 1804. 

They had ten children, viz.: Ferdinand ; Theo- 
dore ; G. Mott ; Thomas ; John C. ; James Mott ; J. 
C. Devereux ; Elizabeth, first wife of Colonel John 
Winder ; Cecilia ; Mary C. A., married first to David 
Smart, second to Commodore J. P. McKinstry ; she 
died in 1876. 

Mr. Williams died at Detroit, October 20, 1854. 

HENRY JACKSON HUNT was the eldest son 
of Colonel Thomas Hunt, of . the Revolutionary 
Army, afterwards Colonel of the Second Regiment 
of the United States Army, who died in St. Louis. 
It fell to the lot of his son, Henry Jackson Hunt, to 
care for the orphaned children. 

He came from New York to Detroit soon after 
the Americans obtained possession, and served as 
Colonel of the Militia during most or all of the time 
from 1800 to i8r3. 

He was a leading merchant and also held various 
offices ; was one of the Judges of the County Court 
in 181 5, City Assessor in 1 81 7, Trustee of the Uni- 
versity in 1821, one of the Trustees of the C<^rpora- 
tion of Detroit in 1823, and in 1826 was elected 



Mayor of the city, and died on September 15, 1826, 
before the expiration of his term of office. 

He was universally esteemed as a citizen and was 
prominent in all the literary, philanthropic, and re- 
ligious projects of his time, and few persons in 
Detroit were as well and favorably known. 

He was almost universally spoken of as Henry I. 
Hunt, but his middle name was Jackson. 

He had but few relatives in Detroit. Cleveland 
Hunt, a nephew, is the only representative left in 
the city. 

JOHN BIDDLE was born in Philadelphia in 
March, 1792. 

He was the son of Charles Biddle, Vice-President 
of Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War, and 
a nephew of Commodore Nicholas Biddle, of the 
Revolutionary Navy. 

He graduated at Princeton College, and a few 
years later entered the United States Army. 

During most of the War of 1812 he served un- 
der General Scott upon the Niagara frontier, 
during a portion of the time attached to his staff, 
and was promoted from a Captain of Artillery to 
the position of Major. His brother. Major Thomas 
Biddle, was also in the United States Army, and 
served in the same campaigns, and an older 
brother. Commodore James Biddle, was a noted 
naval officer. 

At the close of the war. Major Biddle was sta- 
tioned at Detroit. After some years he resigned his 
commission and went east. 

In 181 9 he married Eliza F. Bradish, of New 
York, and, returning to Detroit, made quite exten- 
sive purchases of lands. 

In 1823 he was appointed Register of the Land 
Office for the district of Detroit, and held the office 
until 1837. 

In 1827 and 1828 he served as Mayor of Detroit, 
and from 1829 to 1831 was a delegate in Congress 
from Michigan, and in 1841 served in the State 
Legislature. He took great interest in political 
matters, and was President of the convention which 
framed the State Constitution of 1835. He was a 
fine scholar, wrote easily and fluently, and his lit- 
erary productions were always valuable. 

He was a member of St. Paul's P. E. Church and 
interested in all the general religious and philan- 
thropic reforms and efforts of his time. He was 
President of the original corporation that built the 
Michigan Central Railroad, and also in 1838 Presi- 
dent of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank. 

In his later years he spent much of his time on 
his farm, which covered the site of the present city 
of Wyandotte, and also traveled extensively. On 
his return from a trip to Europe, in 1859, he .spent 
the summer at White Sulphur Springs, Virginia, 




MARSHALL CHALIN. 



MAYORS. 



^033 



where he died suddenly on August 25, after taking 
a cold bath. 

He had a large family several of whom survived 
him. Among these were the widow of General 
Andrew Porter, William S. Biddle, Major James 
Biddle and Edward I. Biddle. 

JONATHAN KEARSLEY was born in Dau- 
phin .County, Pennsylvania, on August 20, 1786, 
and was the son of Captain Samuel Kearsley, an 
officer of merit and distinction in the Revolutionary 
war. The son graduated at Washington College, 
in Pennsylvania, in May, 181 1, and about a year 
later, on July 6, 181 2, he was commissioned by 
President- Madison as a First Lieutenant in the 
Second Regiment of Artillery. He was soon after 
appointed Assistant Deputy Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral and attached to the staff of Colonel Izard, at 
Philadelphia. 

In 1 813 he was appointed Adjutant of the regi- 
ment commanded by Colonel Winfield Scott, after- 
wards Lieutenant-General Scott. He accompanied 
this distinguished officer at the storming of Fort 
George, crossing the river in the same boat. He 
was shortly after engaged in the battle at Stony 
Creek, and was brevetted Captain for his gallant 
conduct on that occasion. 

He also served as Garrison Major under General 
Porter and Brigadier Major under General Wil- 
liams, He was with the army in the descent of the 
St. Lawrence under General Wilkinson, and partici- 
pated in the action at Chrystler's Field. 

On April 21, 1 81 4, he was transferred to the 
Fourth Rifles, and during the following summer 
was in the left division of the northern army, until 
in a skirmish on August 20, preceding the sortie at 
Fort Erie, he was so badly wounded that it 
became necessary to amputate his leg. He was 
subsequently commissioned Assistant Adjutant- 
General with the rank of Major, to take effect from 
the day of the action in which he was wounded. 
Soon afterwards he was appointed to the charge of 
the State Arsenal at Harrisburg and was also made 
a Collector of the internal revenue taxes. 

On March 20, 18 19, he was appointed Receiver 
of Public Moneys at Detroit and removed to this 
city. He held the office until 1850. He also served 
as Recorder of the city in 1826 and as Justice of 
the Peace in 1827. 

In 1829 he was elected Mayor of the city, and 
from 1836 to 1850 served as one of the Regents of 
the University. 

Major Kearsley was twuce married. The name of 
his first wife was Margaret Hetich, daughter of 
George Hetich, of Chambersburgh, Pennsylvania. 
-They had three children, one of whom died in 
childhood; a son, Edward R. Kearsley, lives in 



Crawford County, Ohio, and a daughter, the late 
Mrs. M. Howard Webster, lived in Detroit. 

The second wife of Mr. Kearsley, Rachel Valen- 
tine, was the daughter of Robert Valentine, of 
Chester County, Pennsylvania. She died on Janu- 
ary 6, 1859. Mr. Kearsley died on August 31 of 
the same year. 

MARSHALL CHAPIN, M. D., was born in 
Bernardstown, Massachusetts, February 27, 1798, 
and was the son of Caleb and Mary Chapin, who 
had nine children. His ancestors lived in and about 
Springfield and the Connecticut River Valley for 
over 200 years. His father was a physician, but 
owned and operated a farm. 

The family removed to Caledonia, New York, and 
after having attended the usual schools of that day 
Mr. Chapin took a medical course at Geneva. He 
subsequently sludied with his uncle. Dr. Cyrenius 
Chapin, of Buffalo, New York, and graduated at 
the age of twenty-one. 

In 1 819 he established, with the help of his uncle, 
the first drug store in Detroit. Very soon after 
coming to the city he became prominent in public 
life. He served as Alderman at large in 1826 and 
1827, and as Mayor of Detroit in 1831 and 1833, 
and as Chief Engineer of the Fire Department in 
1832. 

In 1832, during the first visitation of the cholera, 
he was appointed City Physician and won golden 
opinions from all classes by his faithfulness and de- 
votion ; and two years later, when the scourge again 
appeared, he was equally active and efficient. 

In addition to his professional labors he gave 
close attention to his drug store, and under the firm 
names of J. Owen & Co., T. & J. Hinchman, and 
T. H. Hinchmaji & Sons, the business has been 
continuously maintained ; but for more than two 
score of years has been exclusively a wholesale 
establishment. 

As a physician Mr. Chapin was greatly beloved, 
and he invariably refused all compensation for his 
services from those not readily able to pay. 

He was married in 1823 to Mary Crosby. They 
had four children. Their names were: Louisfi, 
who married Theodore H. Hinchman ; Helen, who 
married Norton Strong; Charles, who died when 
twelve years old; and Marshall, now dead» who 
served as a Colonel in the Union army. 
Dr. Chapin died December 26, 1838. 

LEVI COOK was born December 16, 1792, at 
Bellingham, Massachusetts, and came to Detroit in 
181 5. The same year he became one of the Trus- 
tees of the city and continued to hoM from one to 
several offices almost every year thereafter. 

In 1822 he served as City Treasurer; from 1824 



I034 



MAYORS. 



to 1827 as County Commissioner ; as Superintend- 
ent of the City Poor in 1827 and 1828, and also as 
Alderman at large in 1828. He served as Treas- 
urer of the Territory from 1830 to 1836, and as 
Chief Engineer of the Fire Department during the 
same period. In 1834 he was Supervisor of Detroit, 
and in 1835 and 1836 Mayor. In 1838 he repre- 
sented Wayne County in the House of Representa- 
tives, and in 1840 and 1841 served on the Board of 
Review of the city. 

He was prominently connected with various 
banking organizations, was a Director in the Farm- 
ers' and Mechanics' Bank in 1829, and President 
from 1838 to 1845. He was a leading and very 
influential member of the Masonic body, and was 
tall, portly and commanding in appearance. He 
married Eliza Sanderson. 

He died December 2, 1866, but left neither wife 
nor children. 

CHARLES CHRISTOPHER TROWBRIDGE 

was born in Albany, New York, on December 29, 
1800, and was the youngest of six children. His 
father, Luther Trowbridge, who died in 1802, was 
a native of Framingham, Massachusetts, and when 
the Revolution broke out was a law student, but 
immediately volunteered in the army. 

At the age of seventeen he received an Ensign's 
commission in the Massachusetts' line and contin- 
ued in the service until peace was declared, when 
he retired with the rank of Brevet Captain and 
Quartermaster. 

"^ After the war he settled at Albany, where his 
wife (whose maiden name was Elizabeth Tillman) 
had relatives. Here he held various offices, was 
prominent in public affairs, and died greatly re- 
spected . 

After his death the children were scattered, 
Charles C. finding a friend in Major Horatio Ross, 
of Owego, who proposed to initiate him into mer- 
cantile life. In accordance with this plan his first 
year was spent at Elmira; the next year he was 
taken into the family of Major Ross, where he was 
treated as a favored son. 

The business troubles that followed the peace of 
181 5 ruined his patron's business, and the creditors 
put the property into the hands of Mr. Trowbridge, 
who was then not quite eighteen years old, and he 
went down the Susquehanna with a cargo of salt, 
gypsum and lumber, disposed of it in Pennsylvania 
and came back safely with the proceeds. The next 
year Mr. WilHam A. Ely, of Owego, engaged him 
to go as supercargo to Havre de Grace and Balti- 
more. 

Shortly after his return from Baltimore he decided 
to seek a home in Michigan. Some of his friends, 
through the intervention of Rev. John Monteith, 



secured him an appointment under Major Thomas 
Rowland, who was then holding various offices, and 
in the fall of 18 19 Mr. Trowbridge came to Detroit. 

He was soon on intimate terms with the best and 
most influential persons in the city, and in 1820 was 
selected as one of the party to accompany Governor 
Cass on his exploring expedition to Lake Superior. 
The trip made Mr. Trowbridge intimately ac- 
quainted with Governor Cass, and he became and 
continued through life a kind and helpful friend. 

On his return from the expedition Mr. Trow- 
bridge was sent with Colonel Beaufait, an Indian 
interpreter,' to make a payment to the Saginaw In- 
dians, and soon after his return he began to act as 
private secretary to General Cass, and in that capa- 
city wrote from dictation various public documents 
and literary productions, and was also employed in 
other positions of great responsibility. 

In 1 82 1 he was made Secretary of the Board of 
Regents of the University, holding the office until 

1835. 

In December, 1823, he was employed by the Sec- 
retary of War under the direction of General Cass 
to take down, from the Indians, statements of the 
relation of different tribes to each other, and the 
character and resemblance of their customs and 
languages. 

In December, Mr. Trowbridge set out for White 
River to spend the winter with William Conner, a 
Delaware interpreter and agent who lived about 
eighteen miles from the towai of Indianapolis. On 
returning from the winter's work he employed him- 
self, at General Cass's request, in visiting the old 
French people and taking down their recitals of 
events occurring during the Pontiac War. During 
this same year he w^as sent to Fort Wayne to make 
further investigation among the Miamies. 

In 1825 Mr. Trowbridge was made cashier of the 
Bank of Michigan, serving until 1836, and as Pres- 
ident in 1839. In 1833 he, with several Boston 
capitalists, laid out the village of Allegan. He was 
also interested during the next few years in many 
similar enterprises. In 1844 he was made President 
of the Michigan State Bank, and continued to serve 
until the winding up of its affairs in 1853. He then 
became Secretary and Treasurer and afterwards 
President of the Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Com- 
pany, and its successor, the Detroit & Milwaukee 
Railway Company. 

The only political offices he held were those of 
Alderman of Detroit in 1833 and Mayor in 1834. 
During this period he greatly served the city by the 
introduction of system in the keeping of the various 
accounts. 

The early months of his mayoralty were burdened 
by cares growing out of the prevalence of the chol- 
era. While the plague remained he gave personal 




ASHER B. liATES, 



MAYORS. 



1035 



attention without stint to tlie suffering, and when it 
ceased he resigned the office of Mayor. 

He was one of the organizers of Elmwood Cem- 
etery — one of the original trustees — and remained 
actively interested as an officer of the corporation 
until his death In 1847 he was influential in secur- 
ing large donations from Detroit and Michigan for 
the starving poor of Ireland. 

He took a lively interest in everything w^hich was 
calculated to promote intellectual, moral and relig- 
ious culture, was active in the promotion of various 
local schools and seminaries, served as President of 
the Detroit Association of Charities, and indeed 
there seemed no limit to his cheerful helpfulness 
in any and every department of social and religious 
reform. 

He was always attentive to the poor and found 
time to receive kindly and entertain cheerfully the 
numerous visitors who sought information or help 
from him. 

He was one of the earliest members of St. Paul's 
Protestant Episcopal Church and subsequently one 
of the organizers of Christ Church, and from the 
time the Diocese of Michigan was organized was a 
member of the standing committee, and w^as also a 
member of every General Convention of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church from 1835 up to the time 
of his death. 

In all of the affairs and interests of the church of 
his choice he took a deep and continuous interest, 
and was also always evidently gratified at the 
growth and progress of other evangelical denomi- 
nations ; indeed, he did not know how to be narrow 
or mean-spirited, and his nature was broad and 
generous in an eminent degree. 

The esteem in which he was universally held was 
emphasized in a remarkable manner in the banquet 
tendered him on the occasion of his eighty-third 
birthday, and participated in by a class of citizens 
whose very presence was in itself an honor. 

Within a few months after this event, on April 3, 
1 883, the public was called upon to mourn his de- 
cease. 

He was married in 1826 to Miss Catherine Whip- 
ple Sibley, eldest daughter of Judge Solomon Sib- 
ley. She died on March 24, 1880. 

Mr. Trowbridge left five children, viz. : Mrs. 
Sidney D. Miller, Mrs. William D. Wilkins, Mrs. 
George Hendrie, Miss Mary Trowbridge and Mr. 
Harry Trowbridge. 

ANDREW MACK was the son of Stephen 
Mack and was born in New London, Connecticut. 
In his early manhood he became a sailor and event- 
ually captain of a vessel, and sailed three times 
around the world. 

In 1808 he took a drove of sheep from the east 



to Cincinnati and settled there, and in the war of 
1 81 2 was captain of a company and subsequently a 
member of the Assembly of the State of Ohio. He 
came to Detroit about 1830, and in that year kept 
the Mansion House Hotel. He was connected with 
the Territorial militia and was generally known as 
Colonel Mack. In 1830 he was one of the proprie- 
tors of the Detroit Free Press, and in 1834 was 
elected Mayor of the city to fill out the unexpired 
term of Mr. Trowbridge, who resigned. 

From 1829 to 1839 he served as Collector of Cus- 
toms, and in the latter year represented Wayne 
County in the State Legislature. 

He eventually moved to a farm on the St. Clair 
River, in the town of St. Clair, and died there in 
1857, when seventy-five years of age. 

The business enterprises in which he was en- 
gaged and the positions he held indicate that he was 
capable, energetic, and well-informed. 

HENRY HOWARD, who served as Mayor dur- 
ing 1837, came here with Ralph Wadhams from 
Geneva, New York. They were in partnership in 
the dry goods trade in the old Smart Block, and 
subsequently had a warehouse at the foot of Ran- 
dolph street. 

Mr. Howard served as Alderman at large in 1834, 
and at the time he was Mayor was in the lumber 
business and lived at No. 290 Woodbridge street 
east. He also served as State Treasurer from 1836 
to 1839. 

AUGUSTUS S. PORTER was born in Canan- 
daigua. New York, January 18, 1798 ; graduated at 
Union College in 1818 ; studied law as a profession, 
and practiced for twenty years in Detroit. He was 
Recorder of the city in 1830 and was elected Mayor 
in 1838, and in the same year w^as one of the pro- 
prietors of the Daily Advertiser. 

In 1840 he was elected United States Senator 
from Michigan and served until 1845. 

In 1846 he removed to Niagara Falls, the resi- 
dence of his father. 

In 1866 he was a delegate to the Philadelphia 
National Union Convention. He died about 1873. 

ASHER B. BATES was born at Le Roy, Gen- 
esee County, New York, on May 2, 18 10. He came 
here as early as 1831. 

In 1833 he was serving as a Justice of the Peace, 
and in 1835 was City Attorney. In 1838, on the 
resignation of Augustus S. Porter, he was elected 
Mayor of the city. 

In the summer of 1848 he went to the Sandwich 
Islands, where he became Attorney-General, and 
remained until 1863 or 1864, when he moved to San 
Francisco, where he died on June i, 1873. 



1036 



MAYORS. 



He was married to Lucilla Beals in Canandaigua, 
New York, on October 24, 1832. She died at De- 
troit in 1839, leaving one son, Dudley C. Bates, now 
a resident of San Francisco. 

He was married to Elizabeth G Judd, of Troy, 
Oakland County, Michigan, on December 6, 1843. 
She was living in 1887. 

DE GARMO JONES was born at Albany, New 
York, November 11, 1787, and came to Detroit a 
few years subsequent to the War of 1812, and soon 
became, and for many years remained, a prominent 
factor in many of the business enterprises of De- 
troit and Michigan. 

It was through his sagacity and means that the 
plaster beds on the Grand River were first brought 
to light. 

He purchased at an early period the farm that 
bears his name, and it made him and his heirs 
wealthy. 

He was one of the first stockholders of the Bank 
of Michigan, was one of the contractors for the 
building of the old Capitol, and was largely inter- 
ested in vessels at an early date. He was also 
engaged in the forwarding business and owned and 
occupied a large warehouse. 

In 1835 he was one of the first Directors of the 
Detroit & St. Joseph, now the Michigan Central 
Railroad. He served as Alderman at large in 1827, 
1830, and 1838; as Adjutant-General of the State 
during part of the year 1829; as Mayor of the city 
in 1839, and as State Senator in 1840 and 1841. 

He was well educated, active in moral reform, a 
Trustee of the First Protestant Church in 1820, 
and universally esteemed. 

He died November 14, 1846. 

His son, bearing the same name, served with 
credit as an officer during the Rebellion. 

ZINA PITCHER, M. D., was born at Fort Ed- 
wards, Washington County, New York, April 14, 
1797. He received a common-school education, 
and at the age of twenty went to the Castleton 
school to attend a course of medical lectures 

After having completed his term at Castleton he 
went to Woodstock, Vermont, where he graduated 
in 1822, and was shortly afterwards appointed by 
President Monroe Assistant Surgeon in the United 
States Army. He was subsequently promoted by 
President Jackson to the position of Surgeon. 

While in the army he saw much service in the far 
southwest, the south and the southeast, as well as 
in the country of the Great Lakes In 1835 he 
became President of the Army Medical Board, and 
upon his resignation, after fifteen years' service, his 
rank was within two or three of that of Surgeon- 
General. 



In 1836 he fixed his permanent residence in De- 
troit, and from 1837 to 1852 served as Regent of 
the University of Michigan, and took an active part 
in the organization of the Medical Department. 

In 1840, 1 84 1 and 1843 he served as Mayor of 
Detroit; in 1845 as County Physician; in 1847 as 
City Physician, and from 1848 to 1867 he was the 
physician and surgeon of St. Mary's Hospital, and 
from 1857 to 1 861 of the United States Marine 
Hospital. 

During all these years he did not neglect his en- 
gagements as a private practitioner, and found time 
to prepare various professional and literary papers 
for publication, and to attend at least nine of the 
annual meetings of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, and was president of the meeting held in De- 
troit. 

As a physician he was a type of the best ever 
produced — careful, skillful, gentle, kind and cour- 
teous ; his very presence was reassuring to his 
patients, and few, if any, ever had occasion to re- 
gret that they were under his care. 

Throughout his long residence nn Detroit he pos- 
sessed the confidence of the whole people. His in- 
tegrity, probity and faithfulness to every obligation 
were proverbial. In social life he was ever the cour- 
teous gentleman. 

He died on April 4, 1872, leaving two children, 
Nathaniel Pitcher and Mrs. L. E. Higby. 

His name is fitly preserved in the name of one of 
our streets and in the Pitcher School. 

DOUGLASS HOUGHTON was born in Troy, 
New York, September 21, 1809. He was educated 
for a physician at the Rensselaer Institute and grad- 
uated in 1829. The following year he was ap- 
pointed Assistant Professor of Chemistry and 
Natural History in the Institute , and while occu- 
pying this position he came to Detroit, by request 
of a number of citizens, to deliver a course of lec- 
tures on scientific subjects. 

In 1 83 1 he was appointed surgeon and botanist 
to the expedition sent out by the Government to 
explore the sources of the Mississippi River. On 
his return he settled in Detroit and practised as a 
physician. 

In 1833 he was elected President of the Young 
Men's Society, and in 1837 was appointed State 
Geologist, and continued to hold the position until 
his death, doing much to develop the resources of 
the State, and being instrumental in attracting the 
attention of many capitalists to its mineral wealth. 
He also served as one of the Professors in the Uni- 
versity. 

He was a member of the National Institute in 
Washington, of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory, and an honorary member of the Royal Anti- 



MAYORS. 



1037 



quarian Society of Copenhagen and of many other 
scientific and literary associations. He served as 
Mayor of the city in 1842. 

He was drowned in Lake Superior, near the 
mouth of Eagle River, during a violent storm, on 
October 13, 1845. The body was recovered and he 
was buried at Detroit on May 15, 1846. His death 
was deemed a great public loss. 

Houghton County in Michigan is named after 
him and fitly perpetuates his memory. 

Three children are living — Douglass Houghton, 
Jr., of Detroit ; Mrs. Harraun, of Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, and Mrs. F. E. Morgan, of Coldwater. 

JAMES A. VAN DYKE, for many years a 
prominent member of the Detroit bar, and closely 
identified with the earlier history of the Fire De- 
partment, was born in Mercersburg, Franklin Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, in December, 181 3, and was the 
son of William and Nancy (Duncan) Van Dyke. 
His education commenced under private tutors at 
Mercersburg, and at the age of fifteen he entered 
Madison College at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, grad- 
uated in 1832, and commenced the study of law in 
the office of George Chambers, at Chambersburg, 
Pennsylvania, where he remained one year. He then 
went to Hagerstown, Maryland, where he continued 
his legal studies under the direction of William 
Price, and subsequently went to Baltimore, where he 
remained some months. 

In 1834 he came to Detroit, entered the law office 
of A. D. Eraser, and within six months was admit- 
ted to the bar, and entered upon the practice of his 
profession. In 1835 he formed a partnership with 
Charles W. Whipple, which lasted until the lat- 
ter's election in 1838 as one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court. Mr. Van Dyke then entered into 
a partnership with E. B. Harrington, which contin- 
ued until the death of Mr. Harrington in 1844, after 
which Mr. Van Dyke became a partner of H. H. 
Emmons, which relation lasted until the practical 
retirement of both gentlemen from general practice 
in 1852. Mr. Van Dyke was then appointed attor- 
ney of the Michigan Central Railroad. 

In 1835 and again in 1839 he was appointed City 
Attorney, and in 1840 received the appointment of 
Prosecuting Attorney of Wayne County. During 
the two years he held the latter office he conducted 
the criminal prosecutions with such energy and 
success as to merit public approval. In 1843 he was 
elected an Alderman from the Third Ward, and 
again elected to the same position in 1844. His pub- 
lic services as chairman of the Committee of Ways 
and Means at this period, when the city was in finan- 
cial straits, was especially beneficial to Detroit and 
did much to avert financial disgrace. His subse- 
quent election as Mayor in 1847 enabled him to 



perfect the system of recuperation he had so well 
commenced, and to mature permanent plans for the 
future prosperity of the city, and his entire admin- 
istration was marked by close and careful superin- 
tendence of city affairs. From 1853 until his death 
he served as a member of the first Board of Com- 
missioners of the Detroit Water Works. 

He was best known, however, from his connec- 
tion with the early history of the Detroit Fire De- 
partment. His name was enrolled on the list of 
members composing Protection Fire Company No. 
I, the first duly organized company in Detroit, and 
until his death no man in the city took a more active 
interest in building up and extending the usefulness 
of the P'lre Department. He served as President of 
the department from 1847 to 185 1, and to his finan- 
cial tact, energy and determination, no less than to 
an honest pride in the Fire Department, all citizens 
are greatly indebted. In 1840 he framed and pro- 
cured the passage of the law incorporating the Fire 
Department, and it was largely his efforts that 
secured the erection of Fireman's Hall. His death, 
which occurred May 7, 1855, was an especially 
severe loss to the Fire Department, the feeling 
being fitly expressed in the following resolutions 
adopted by its officers : 

" Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Van Dyke the Fire Depart- 
ment of Detroit has lost one of its benefactors ; that his name is so 
closely interwoven with its fortune, from its origin as a benevo- 
lent and chartered organization, through the vicissitudes of its 
early and precarious existence until its successful and triumphant 
development as one of the prominent institutions of the city, that 
it may with truth be said that its history is almost comprised 
within the limits of his active participation in its affairs. 

'"''Resolved^ That as a fireman, beginning and serving his full 
term in one of the companies of this city, his aim seemed to be 
rather to discharge well the duties of a private than to accept the 
proffered honors of this company, save as trustee in the Board. 
But of those duties he had a high appreciation, deeming it a 
worthy ambition, as inculcated by him in an address to the de- 
partment, ' to dedicate one's self to the work with heart brave and 
steadfast, tenacious of obedience to law and order, with an ele- 
vated and stern determination to tread only the paths of recti- 
tude.' " 

In order to further honor his memory the Fire 
Department issued a memorial volume containing 
the proceedings of the department, of the Detroit 
baf, and of the Common Council, relative to his 
death, as well as several tributes to his memory 
from those who knew him best. As a lawyer, Mr. 
Van Dyke occupied a leading place at the Detroit 
bar. He early gained notoriety as a ready and pow- 
erful debater, and showed marked ability and taste 
in his public addresses. By his learning, talents and 
perseverance, and more than all else by his spotless 
integrity, he rapidly obtained the highest honors of 
his profession and had an enviable reputation as a 
sound, judicious lawyer and able and eloquent ad- 
vocate. Few men had in so strong a degree the 



1038 



MAYORS. 



power to win and retain friends; and among his 
professional brethren he was not only respected for 
legal ability, but was beloved as a friend and com- 
panion. He was courteous in manner and of win- 
ning and gentlemanly deportment. The following 
tribute of respect to his memory was adopted by his 
associates of the Detroit bar at a time when the bar 
of Detroit had a larger proportion of worthy and 
honorable men than it now contains : 

^^ Resolved^ That we, who have been witnesses and sharers of 
his professional labors, can best give full testimony of the 
genius, skill, learning and industry which he brought to that 
profession to which he devoted the chivalrous fire of his youth 
and the ripe powers of his manhood, in which he cherished a 
manly pride, and whose best honors and success he so rapidly and 
honorably achieved. 

*' Resolved, That while we bear this just tribute to the fine in- 
tellect of our deceased brother, we turn with greater pride to 
those generous qualities of his heart which endeared him to us all 
as a companion and friend, which left tender memorials with so 
many of his younger brethren of grateful sympathy and assist- 
ance, rendered when most needed, and which made his life a 
bright example of just and honorable conduct in all its relations. 

^* Resolved, That though devoted to the profession of his 
choice, yet he was never indifferent to the wider duties devolved 
upon him in society at large ; and he filled the many public sta- 
tions to which he was called by the confidence and esteem of his 
fellow-citizens with an earnestness, purity, and ability which 
were alike honorable to himself and useful to the public." 

For many years he occupied throughout the State 
of Michigan a prominent position politically as a 
conservative Whig, but with the exception of his 
election to the mayoralty he never suffered his name 
to be used as a candidate for public office. His 
sympathies were easily excited. His donations to 
charitable and religious objects were generous and 
liberal, and his home life ideal in its domestic hap- 
piness. In the early prime of life he had gathered 
riches, fame, and honors to an extent rarely found 
save in connection with gray hairs. He left a name 
dear to his friends and a rich inheritance to his 
children, consecrated by the remembrance of the 
genial qualities and virtues with which he was so 
richly endowed. 

He was married in 1835 to Elizabeth Desnoyers, 
daughter of Peter J. Desnoyers. They had eleven 
children. Philip J D., their third son, died in 1883. 
He was a lawyer by profession and in great measure 
inherited his father's legal ability. He was Prose- 
cuting Attorney for two terms. The living children 
are : George W. ; Mrs. William Casgrain ; Rev. 
Ernest, pastor of Pro-Cathedral Catholic Church; 
Mrs. Henry Brownson and Madame Van Dyke, Su- 
perior of Sacred Heart Convent, Grosse Pointe. 

FREDERICK BUHL was born in Butler Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, November 27, 1806. His parents 
were natives of Saxony and emigrated to this coun- 
try prior to their marriage. Frederick was the sec- 
ond son in a family of eleven children and received 



comparatively little schooling. At the age of sixteen 
he went to Pittsburgh to learn the jeweler's trade, 
but ill-health forced him into other pursuits, and in 
1833 he came to Detroit, where he formed a part- 
nership with his brother, C. H. Buhl, and embarked 
in the fur and hat business. The firm remained in 
existence for tw^enty years. At th^^end of this time his 
brother retired and Mr. Buhl continued alone, until 
he became one of the largest shippers of furs in the 
country, as well as an importer and manufacturer of 
everything pertaining to furs. For many years this 
house was known under the firm name of F. Buhl 
& Co., Mr. Buhl being actively connected with the 
firm until February, 1887, when the business was 
sold to his son, Walter Buhl, and is now conducted 
under the name of Walter Buhl & Co. 

For more than half a century, Mr. Buhl has occu- 
pied a prominent position among the active, aggres- 
sive business men of Detroit. Possessed of quick 
discernment, sound business judgment, with the 
power of close application, accompanied with cease- 
less energy, he has accumulated a comfortable for- 
tune. During the years of his business life he has 
occupied many positions of trust and honor. He and 
his brother, C. H. Buhl, have both served as Mayors 
of the city ; and it is doubtful if there is another in- 
stance in the country where two brothers have both 
occupied the highest municipal office in the gift of 
* their fellow-citizens. Frederick Buhl served as 
Mayor in 1848 and C. H. Buhl in i860 and 1861. 

Frederick Buhl has been connected with various 
business enterprises pertaining to Detroit. He has 
been Director of the State Bank ; President of the 
FortWayne&Elmwood Railway Company; Director 
of the Second National Bank of Detroit, and Presi- 
dent of Harper's Hospital. He was one of the orig- 
inal Directors of the Merchants' Exchange and 
Board of Trade organized in 1847, and has ever 
been ready to lend a helping hand to all commend- 
able public projects. 

A consistent Christian, he has rendered willing 
and substantial aid to religious and charitable work. 
From its incipiency he has been a warm friend of 
Harper's Hospital ; as an officer rendering valuable 
aid in its management by his wise counsel, while his 
contributions of time and money have been gener- 
ous and liberal. As a public official his course was 
marked by good judgment and a firm and inflexible 
purpose. Public station or official position was not 
congenial to him, and only assumed when to have 
refused would have been an evasion of duty. As a 
business man his life has been marked by singular 
probity, honor, and high-mindedness. Positive and 
direct in all things, no one could put a doubtful 
construction on his actions. He is benevolent and 
kind of heart and in social life is affable and ap- 
proachable. 




g;f;>?.../< 



MAYORS. 



1039 



He has found leisure amid the cares of business 
to travel quite extensivel}' through Europe and the 
United States. Of a robust constitution, which right 
living has kept unimpaired, his more than four- 
score years rest lightly upon him, and he enjoys 
mental and physical vigor which belies his years. 

He was married in 1836 to Miss Beatty, of Butler 
County, Pennsylvania, and has had five children. 
His wife died March i, 1884. The oldest son, Cap- 
tain F. A. Buhl, entered the Union Army at the 
breaking out of the civil war. He was wounded 
and died at Annapolis, Maryland, in September, 
1864. The remaining children all live in Detroit. 

CHARLES HOWARD was born August 7, 
1804, in Chenango County, New^ York. When a 
lad his parents moved to Port Jervis, New York, 
where they remained several years. Mr. Howard 
began business in Sackett s Harbor and afterwards 
moved to Oswego, where he invested in marine in- 
terests, and for a long time was a member of the 
well-known firm of Bronson, Crocker & Co. 

In 1840 Mr. Howard came to Detroit and en- 
gaged in the forwarding and commission business. 
Subsequently, he and N. P. Stewart engaged in 
business, as railroad contractors, and constructed a 
large portion of the Detroit, Grand Haven & Mil- 
waukee Railroad between Pontiac and Corunna. 

From 1846 to 1 851 he was President of the 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, and in 1849 be- 
came the first President of the Peninsular Bank and 
served until 1857. In 1848 he was elected Mayor 
of the city, and his administration was careful and 
conservative. In business life he was methodical, 
active and generous. 

On December 10, 1834, he married Margaret 
Vosburg, who w^as a direct descendant of Everar- 
dus Bogardus, the first minister in Manhattan, now 
New York City. He died November 6, 1883, leav- 
ing two children Mrs. William J. Waterman and 
Bronson Howard, the well-known dramatic author. 

JOHN LADUE was the son of Peter and Mary 
(Xallman) Ladue, and was born November, 1803, 
at Lansingburgh, New York. 

He was married in 1827 to Mary Angel, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Angel, of New York. In 1847 he 
came to Detroit and engaged in the manufacture of 
rcorocco leather and in wool buying. He soon be- 
came popular with the business men, and within 
three years after his arrival was elected Mayor. 

During his term of office there was much excite- 
ment over the arrest of a fugitive slave, and Mayor 
Ladue was compelled to request the military to 
preserve the peace. His action met the approval of 
many citizens, and a vote of thanks was tendered 
him by the council. 



He died in 1854. His wife and the following 
children are living: John T.. E. A., Charlotte M., 
George N , and Austin Y. Ladue. 

ZACHARIAH CHANDLER was born in Bed- 
ford, New Hampshire, December 10, 181 3. He 
came to Detroit in December, 1833, and engaged in 
the dry goods business. His first store was on the 
site of the present Biddle House; from there he 
moved to the block on the west side of Woodward 
avenue between Woodbridge and Atwater streets. 
The establishment which he founded has been 
managed under different firm names, but for many 
years past has been conducted under the firm name 
of Allan Shelden & Co. Mr. Chandler was very 
successful in his business affairs and was known as 
a wealthy merchant within a few years after his 
arrival in Detroit. He was also known as a public- 
spirited citizen, and in 1848 served as Treasurer of 
the Young Men's Benevolent Society, and in the 
same year was influential in the building of several 
plank roads that greatly served the city In 1851 
he was elected Mayor of Detroit, and in 1857 suc- 
ceeded Lewis Cass as United States Senator. 

As an aggressive, fearless Republican he soon 
made himself felt and feared in the Senate. He 
had courage of a high order, and a fearlessness and 
frankness of utterance that were especially needed 
at the time he took his seat in the Senate. The 
administration of President Buchanan began simul- 
taneously with his career as a Senator, and the 
vacillation and shuffling of the President afforded a 
sharp contrast to the boldness and high patriotism 
of Mr. Chandler. 

Among the principal speeches which he made 
during the administration of President Buchanan 
were those in opposition to the admission of Kansas 
under the Lecompton Constitution ; in opposition to 
the annexation of Cuba to the United States , and 
in favor of appropriations for the construction of a 
ship canal through the St. Clair Flats. He also 
made a vigorous protest against the partisan char- 
acter of the standing committees of the Senate 
under Democratic rule. 

Mr. Chandler was re-elected to the Senate in 1863 
and in 1869, and in all served eighteen years. It 
was upon his motion in December, 1861, that a 
joint committee of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives on the conduct of the war was appointed. 
This celebrated committee was continued until 
after the close of the war, many changes taking 
place among its members; but Mr. Chandler re- 
mained and was always the ruling spirit, and his 
abilities and methods were effective in securing the 
unity of the Republican party in its war measures. 
When the Republican party obtained control of 
the Senate, Mr. Chandler was made Chairman of 



1 040 



MAYORS. 



the Committee on Commerce, and held that position 
until March 3, 1875, when his term expired. He 
was at all times an earnest and efficient supporter 
of the administration of President Lincoln and also 
of President Grant, and possessed their full confi- 
dence. 

The most notable speech delivered by Mr. Chand- 
ler was in relation to the conduct of the war. In 
this he severely criticised General McClellan's mili- 
tary Career as Commander of the Army of the 
Potomac, and his speech undoubtedly had much to 
do with the transfer of General Grant to that com- 
mand. 

Mr. Chandler had no sooner entered political life 
than he showed that he possessed great ability as a 
politician, and when his advice was followed, party 
success was generally assured. He was among the 
foremost of those who favored the overthrow of 
slave power, the preservation of the integrity and 
honor of the country, and the protection by law of 
all the rights of the humblest citizen. He was 
Chairman of the Union Congressional Committee 
for four years, and was a member of the National 
Republican Committee* in 1876. 

On October 19, 1875, he was appointed by Pres- 
ident Grant, Secretary of the Interior, and held the 
position until after the inauguration of President 
Hayes. His careful and personal administration of 
affairs in connection with the position was a sur- 
prise to all, and gained him praise even among 
those of opposite political faith. He introduced and 
carried out a series of reforms in the Indian Depart- 
ment, the Land and Pension Offices, and exhibited 
an amount of personal knowledge concerning the 
affairs of his office, and displayed a moral courage 
that were like a revelation to corrupt officials. 

Mr Chandler died on November i, 1879, at Chi- 
cago. He left a wife and one daughter, the wife of 
Eugene Hale, Representative to Congress from 
Maine. 

JOHN H. HARMON was born in Portage 
County, Ohio, June 21, 18 19. His father, John 
Harmon, a native of Connecticut, emigrated to Ohio 
in 1800, and was for many years the publisher of a 
newspaper at Ravenna. The son entered his fath- 
er's office and became an accurate and skilful 
printer. In 1838 he came to Detroit and was em- 
ployed on the Detroit Free Press. Four years later 
he became one of the publishers, and continued as 
such until 1850. In his career as a publisher and 
journalist Mr. Harmon was very prosperous, and he 
personally exerted a wide influence in political mat- 
ters. He served as an Alderman in 1847, and in 
1852 was elected Mayor of Detroit, serving two 
years. 

In 1853 he was appointed by President Pierce, 



Collector of the Port of Detroit, and served for four 
years. From 1857 he spent most of his time in 
Washington City, and was an influential factor 
in connection with much of the national legislation. 
He was always prominent as a Democrat, and his 
personal acquaintance with the prominent and pub- 
lic men of the nation was probably unequaled. 

He was married in 1841 to Miss Sarah S. Rood. 
He died on August 6, 1888, leaving three children, 
namely, John Harmon, Mrs. S. H. Bell and Miss 
Emma Harmon. 

OLIVER MOULTON HYDE, born at Sud- 
bury, Vermont, March 10, 1804, was the third son 
of Pitt William Hyde, a descendant of William 
Hyde, a noted landlord of Norwich, Connecticut, 
who emigrated to this country in 1633. His earlier 
years were spent at the homestead acquiring such 
education as a village school and the seminary at 
Castleton could afford. 

When twenty-three years of age he married Julia 
Ann, daughter of Daniel Sprague, of Poultney, and 
subsequently engaged in the dry goods business at 
Castleton, Vermont ; but feeling a desire to engage 
in more extended enterprises, when about thirty 
years of age he sold out his store in Vermont 
and removed to Mt. Hope, New York, where he 
established and successfully managed two large 
blast furnaces. 

After a few years he became possessed with what 
was known in those days as the " western fever," 
and being influenced by his brother-in-law, Benja- 
min F. H. Witherell, he located in Detroit. Here, 
in 1838, he first engaged in the hardware trade, 
opening a store on Woodward near Jefferson ave- 
nue. Subsequently he established an extensive 
foundry and machine shop on At water street near 
Riopelle, where for several years he manufactured 
engines and steamboat machinery. In 1852 he 
associated himself with Captain Eber B. Ward in 
the construction of a floating dry-dock, a venture 
that was at that time considered of much import- 
ance. The dock was launched amid great excite- 
ment on December 10 of that year. • 

Mr. Hyde's personal popularity and admirable 
capacity for business brought him into official posi- 
tions that were oftentimes assumed much against 
his inclination. Being a staunch member of the 
Whig and afterwards of the Republican party, he 
was frequently forced to accept office in political 
emergencies to save his party from defeat. 

He was repeatedly a member of the Common 
Council, was elected Mayor of Detroit in 1854, serv- 
ing again in 1856 and 1857, and was Collector of the 
Port under the administrations of Presidents Tay- 
lor and Fillmore. 

During his term as Mayor, in 1857, he recom- 



MAYORS. 



104 1 



mended the establishment of a House of Correc- 
tion, and his communication to the Common Coun- 
cil is the first link in the chain of events that 
secured the establishment of the present Detroit 
House of Correction, which has a national reputa- 
tion for its completeness and the satisfactory results 
it has exhibited. 

Mr. Hyde had rare energy of character, untiring 
industry, wonderful application and activity ; and 
with great aptitude for business he accomplished 
very much more than many persons would have 
done under the same circumstances. 

His private life was simple and unostentatious, 
and his home was at the disposal of any one claim- 
ing his acqaintance, however humble, his unbounded 
hospitality often causing comment. Upon one occa- 
sion, while on his way home from the City Hall 
building, expecting to meet at dinner the Mayor of 
London, Ontario, who with his son had that morning 
arrived as guests, he was accosted by a man with 
carpet bag in hand, evidently just from the country, 
requesting to be shown the way to Hyde's. Mr. 
Hyde replied that he was then going in that direc- 
tion, and as they walked along he engaged the 
stranger in conversation, and learned that he had 
been assured by country acquaintances of a hearty 
welcome if he applied directly to the Hyde home- 
stead. Much to the stranger's surprise, on being 
seated at the dining-table, he found his companion 
of a few moments before to be also his host, and 
upon his right was the Mayor of London. This latter 
gentleman, not being accustomed to such open hos- 
pitality, could hardly understand it. 

On November 25, 1863, in the zenith of his popu- 
larity and usefulness, Mr. Hyde was stricken with 
paralysis. From that time, though only partially 
disabled by this first shock, he was almost en- 
tirely confined to the house. Four years later a 
second shock resulted in his being made completely 
helpless. In this condition he remained for three 
years. Although so suddenly and completely sep- 
arated from active life and the busy world, he pre- 
served in a remarkable degree the pleasant, genial 
disposition which characterized his former years. 
He was cheerful, uncomplaining, interested in the 
affairs of his household and in the outside world, 
keeping himself thoroughly posted on what was 
transpiring. 

Upon the breaking out of the civil war, he deeply 
deplored his inability to be of some service. Believ- 
ing, however, that an earnest expression by the older 
citizens would result in an increased interest on the 
part of those younger and more able, he aided in 
organizing a company of the older citizens, styling 
them the "Silver Greys." The qualifications for 
membership were that the applicant should be over 



fifty years of age, and prepared to enter service, 
should occasion require. 

During the entire war the office of Mr. Hyde was 
at the disposal of the United States Recruiting Ser- 
vice. He lived to see the successful termination of 
the struggle for national existence, and in the early 
morning of June 28, 1870, he quietly passed away 
without pain or struggle. 

He is remembered chiefly as a kind, charitable 
neighbor and as a man of warm affections and un- 
bounded liberality. Few citizens who have passed 
away have been more generally mourned. Hun- 
dreds had been aided by him. By advice, by sym- 
pathy, by gifts of suitable and necessary articles, by 
credit, and by the loan of money, he had, in innu- 
merable instances, aided those whom he knew or 
believed to be deserving. His charities were so 
large and frequent as sometimes to lead to his own 
personal embarrassment, but he never closed his 
hand or heart to the appeal of distress. The relief 
that he gave was not through public channels, or by 
recorded subscriptions, or through the instrumen- 
tality of societies ; he gave directly on personal ap- 
plication, after an examination of the necessities 
and merits of the applicant. His nearest friends, 
even his own family, never knew the full extent of 
his benefactions. 

The love and esteem of his fellow-citizens were 
cordial in the extreme, and frequently found expres- 
sion in gifts of rare value. His intimate friends 
included the most prominent men of that period ; 
among them were Zachariah Chandler, Lewis Cass, 
William A. Howard, Horace Greeley, and others. 

Besides his widow, there survived him two sons 
and a daughter. The oldest son, Henry S. Hyde, is 
a resident of Springfield, Massachusetts, and is one 
of the most prominent men of his State, ranking 
alnong the highest in banking and other financial 
circles. The daughter, Hattie S., is the wife of Asa 
D. Dickinson, a resident of New York. The young- 
est son, Louis C, was with his father through his 
entire sickness, and afterwards joined his brother in 
Massachusetts in one of the largest manufacturing 
interests in New England. 

HENRY LEDYARD, one of the early Mayors 
of Detroit, was born in the City of New York on 
the 5th of March, 18 12. Among his ancestors were 
men who had occupied important positions of public 
trust, and who had achieved distinction in the ser- 
vice of the country. His grandfather, Benjamin Led- 
yard, was Major of a New York regiment of infantry 
in the Revolutionary war, and was one of the original 
members and founders of the New York State So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati in 1783. He was a cousin 
of John Ledyard, the traveler, and of Colonel Wil- 



I042 



MAYORS. 



liam Ledyard, who, while in command of Fort 
Oris wold at Groton, Connecticut, was treacherously 
killed by a British officer at the time of the memor- 
able massacre of the garrison in 1781. 

His father, Benjamin Ledyard, was a well-known 
lawyer of New York City. His mother was Susan 
French Livingston, a daughter of Brockholst Liv- 
ingston, who graduated at Princeton in 1774, served 
as aide-de-cainp to General Schuyler and General 
St. Clair, and became a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1778. 
After the close of the Revolutionary w^ar Brockholst 
Livingston practised law in New York City until 
1802, when he became one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court of New York, an office which he 
held until his appointment as one of the Associate 
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States 
in 1807. He held this office until his death in 
1823. 

Henry Ledyard's great-grandfather was William 
Livingston, the third son of Philip Livingston, who 
was the second lord of the manor of Livingston, 
and whose eldest son was the third and last lord of 
the manor, and whose second son, Philip, was one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
William Livingston graduated at Yale College in 
1 74 1, became a member of the Middle Temple, 
London, in 1742, a member of the Colonial Assem- 
bly of New York in 1759, from his brother's manor 
of Livingston (which at that time had the privilege 
of representation under its patent), removed to New 
Jersey in 1772, was a member of the Colonial Con- 
gress from New Jersey in 1774-75' and was recalled 
from Congress, June 5, I775' to take command of 
the New Jersey forces as Brigadier-General. He 
became Governor of New Jersey in 1776, and held 
that position continuously until his death in 1790. 

After graduating from Columbia College in 1830, 
Henry Ledyard entered upon the practice of the law 
in the City of New York. 

When General Lewis Cass was appointed Minis- 
ter to France, Mr. Ledyard was attached to the 
Legation. A gentleman of elegant manners and 
high culture, he was eminently qualified for a diplo- 
matic position. In 1839 he became Secretary of 
Legation, and in 1842 Charge d' Affaires, a posi- 
tion which he filled for about two years with credit 
to himself and to the satisfaction of his country. 
On the 19th of September, 1839, he married Matilda 
Frances, daughter of General Cass. 

On his return to this country in 1844, Mr. Led- 
yard took up his residence at Detroit, where for 
nearly twenty years he took an active and promi- 
nent part in all that concerned the welfare of that 
city. In 1845 he was one of the founders of the 
State Bank ; in 1846, one of the original promoters 
and trustees of Elmwood Cemetery, serving for 
many years as its Secretary. In 1 846-47 he was a 



member of the Board of Education, and was largely 
instrumental in introducing and establishing the 
system of Union Schools which has ever since been 
in operation. 

The year 1847 was a memorable one on account 
of the dreadful destitution which prevailed in Ire- 
land. Contributions for its relief were called for all 
over the country, and Mr. Ledyard, in conjunction 
with Mr. C. C. Trowbridge, was especially active 
and successful in gathering funds and supplies to 
be forwarded from Detroit and other parts of Mich- 
igan. 

He was one of the first to realize the great ad- 
vantages to be gained by the city through improved 
means of communication with the interior of the 
State. In 1848 he became one of the promoters 
and corporators of the first Plank Road Company 
organized in Michigan, and for many years he was 
a director in the various enterprises of this charac- 
ter. In 1849-50 he was a member of the Board of 
Aldermen, and when the Board of Water Commis- 
sioners was organized he was one of the original 
Commissioners named in the act creating the Board, 
of which he continued to be a member from 1853 
to 1859. In 1855 he was elected Mayor of Detroit, 
and in 1857 State Senator. 

When General Cass became Secretary of State 
under Mr. Buchanan's administration, Mr. Ledyard 
accompanied him to Washington, where he re- 
mained until 1861. He then removed to Newport, 
Rhode Island, and continued to reside there until 
his death in 1880. 

Mr. Ledyard was distinguished by a deep sense 
of public duty and a broad and well-considered 
charity, and during his residence in Newport he 
found employment for his active and energetic tem- 
perament in untiring efforts to promote the public 
good. He became a member of the Commission 
appointed by the Mayor to prepare a new charter 
for the city. Chiefly through his efforts, a large 
fund was raised for the establishment and main- 
tenance of the Newport Hospital, and he became 
its first President. He also took a prominent part 
in the organization and maintenance of various 
societies for the relief of the poor and unfortunate. 
Although a great sufferer during the later years 
of his life, his zeal for the welfare of others showed 
no abatement. No considerations of personal dis- 
comfort or inconvenience deterred him from his 
active efforts of benevolence. He was a daily vis- 
itor at the hospital which he had established, and 
many a sufferer within its walls gained renewed 
hope and life from his tender sympathy and cheer- 
ful words of encouragement. It was said of him 
that his presence in the hospital was felt as a bene- 
diction. 

A great lover of books, and possessed of a fine 



MAYORS. 



1043 



and critical literary taste, he was an earnest advo- 
cate of the usefulness of public libraries as a means 
of education for the people, and for many years he 
took an active interest in the management of that 
venerable institution in Newport, the Redwood 
Library, and was at one time its President. In 
works such as these the last twenty years of his life 
were passed. 

His death occurred on the 7th of June, 1880, at 
London, during a brief visit to Europe. 

JOHN PATTON was born in the county of 
Down, Ireland, March i. 1822, and is one of the six 
children of James and Eliza (Cathcart) Patton, both 
of Scotch descent. At eight years of age John 
Patton came with his father to Albany, New York, 
and they were followed by the mother and the rest 
of the children the ensuing year. 

At seventeen years of age John was apprenticed 
to the trade of carriagesmith, and in 1843 came to 
Detroit, followed his calling for two years, and then 
started in business for himself; the same year, 
on March 3, 1845, he married Eliza J. Anderson. 
His business grew, and he carried on the business 
of carriage manufacturing on a large scale, and 
continued it until a few years ago. 

Mr. Patton has a genial nature, and that he has 
the faculty of making friends is evident by the 
numerous offices he has held. He was Chief Engi- 
neer of the Fire Department from 1852 to 1854, 
and President of the department from 1855 to 1857. 
In 1853 and 1854 he was Alderman from the Third 
Ward, and in 1858 and 1859 Mayor of the city. 
From 1864 to 1869 County Auditor, in 1869 and 
1870 Sheriff of the county, and since 1880 he has 
been a Justice of the Peace. 

CHRISTIAN H. BUHL is one of the oldest mer- 
chants of Detroit, there being few others having as 
many years of active experience in mercantile life. 
His record covers a period of fifty-five years, and 
during all of that time he has been continuously 
identified with the city as a leading merchant. His 
father, Christian Buhl, was born in Germany in 
1776, came to America in 1802, and settled in 
western Pennsylvania, where he died in 1864. He 
was a merchant and farmer, and gave his sons not 
only a common school education, but a business 
training that has been well improved. 

Christian H. Buhl was born in Butler County, 
Pennsylvania, May 9, 181 2. The first business he 
learned was that of a hatter. At the age of twen- 
ty-one he was proficient in the trade and set out to 
explore the west, reaching Detroit in 1833, where he 
decided to remain, and joined his brother Frederick 
in the manufacture and sale of hats and caps. De- 
troit was then too small a town to support two per- 



sons exclusively engaged in the hat and cap business, 
and the two brothers engaged also in the fur trade, 
and in this department Christian H. was, at first, 
the leading spirit. Their operations in furs stead- 
ily broadened and strengthened, and ere long 
covered the entire northwest. In 1842 they 
joined the successors of the American Fur Com- 
pany in the purchase of furs throughout Canada 
and the states bordering on the Great Lakes, and 
for ten years they carried on an extensive and profit- 
able business. The combination then temainated, 
and in 1855 Christian H. Buhl retired from the firm 
of F. & C. H. Buhl, and with Charles Ducharme 
established a wholesale hardw^are store. They soon 
succeeded to the extensive trade of Alexander H. 
Newbold and Ducharme & Bartholomew, and 
created one of the most extensive establishments in 
the west. In 1873 Mr. Ducharme died, and was 
succeeded in the firm by Theodore D., a son of Mr. 
Buhl. A second son, Frank H., was subsequently 
admitted, the firm since then being Buhl, Sons 
&Co. 

In 1863 Mr. Buhl and others bought the Wester- 
man Iron Works at Sharon, Pennsylvania, and the 
name was then changed to the Sharon Iron Works. 
At these works upwards of one thousand men are 
employed, and the average daily output is over one 
hundred tons of merchant bar, sheet and pig iron, 
and nails. The firm also mine coal quite extensively 
for use at these works and for the market. 
In 1864 Mr. Buhl purchased a controlling interest 
, in the Detroit Locomotive Works, and put not only 
more capital but renewed vitality into the concern, 
and for fifteen years or more it was largely profitable 
to the stockholders and of much advantage to the 
city. In 1880 these works were incorporated as the 
Buhl Iron Works, with Mr. Buhl as President. 

About 1 88 1 he organized the Detroit Copper and 
Brass Rolling Mill Company, and serves as Presi- 
dent. The corporation began in large buildings on 
the corner of Larned and Fourth streets, but in a few 
years outgrew these limits, and in 1887 new works 
were constructed on the River Rouge, near the city 
limits, and the business is carried on with greatly 
increased facilities. 

In addition to other enterprises, Mr. Buhl has had 
much to do with Michigan railways. He was chiefly 
instrumental in the building of the Detroit, Hillsdale 
& Indiana and the Detroit, Eel River & Illinois 
Railroads, and for many years was President of 
both companies. 

He has also been actively connected with the 
banking history of the city. In 1845 he, with sev- 
eral others, revived the old Michigan State Bank, 
and thirty-eight years later took a prominent part 
in the organization of the Second National Bank of 
Detroit, and when its charter expired assisted in 



I044 



MAYORS. 



organizing its successor, the Detroit National Bank, 
and in 1887 was elected President of the same. 

He has large interests in real estate, and has been 
exceptionally fortunate in securing desirable loca- 
tions. 

Mr. Buhl has been a Republican since the birth 
of the party, and has taken a strong interest in 
political affairs, but has never in any sense been a 
politician. In 1851 he was elected Alderman from 
the Second Ward, and from i860 to 1862 was 
Mayor of the city, and it was during his term that 
the erection of the present City Hall was begun. 

Mr. Buhl has always responded to the demands 
of charity, and has made liberal donations to De- 
troit institutions. He also gave a very valuable and 
complete law library to the University of Michigan. 
He was one of the original promoters of the Art 
Museum, a Trustee of the original Detroit Medical 
College, and is prominently identified with the Fort 
Street Presbyterian Church. 

He was married in 1842 to Miss Caroline De- 
Long, of Utica, New York. They have had five 
children, two of whom are now living — Theodore 
D., who has charge of the firm's interests in De- 
troit, and Frank H., who lives at Sharon, Pennsyl- 
vania, and looks after the branch of their business 
located in that place. 

WILLIAM C. DUNCAN was born in Lyons, 
New York, May 18, 1820. His father's family re- 
moved from Lyons to Rochester, New York, about 
1825, where he remained until 1841, when he 
secured employment on one of the passenger 
steamers plying on the lakes. While thus engaged 
Mr. Duncan aided in taking the " Julia Palmer " 
across the Portage at the Sault Ste. Marie. She was 
the first side-wheel steamer that ever floated on 
Lake Superior. 

In 1849 Mr. Duncan became a permanent resi- 
dent of Detroit and engaged in the brewing busi- 
ness. He was elected an Alderman in 1853 and 
served for five )^ears, and in 1861 was elected Mayor 
of the city, serving in 1862 and 1863. In the fall 
of 1862 he was elected State Senator. 

In 1865 Mr. Duncan engaged in the banking 
business, the firm being Duncan, Kibbee & Co. 
They soon dissolved, and he gave his attention to 
the care of the property he had accumulated, and 
twice visited Europe for health and recreation. He 
died December 19, 1877. 

KIRKLAND C. BARKER was born September 
8, 181 9, in East Schuyler, Herkimer County, New 
York. He was the second son of Mason Barker, 
who emigrated from Massachusetts to Central New 
York early in this century. The elder Mr. Barker 
was a practical builder and a contractor for the 



buiding of canals and railroads. He died at the age 
of seventy-three years. His wife survived him some 
years, but also died at the age of seventy-three. 

The son, Kirkland C. Barker, received the rudi- 
ments of an English education in the old red school 
house of his native village, and when fourteen 
years of age attended a manual labor school at 
Whitesboro. After leaving this school he entered a 
store at Frankfort, New York, and served as clerk 
for about a year, and then went to Utica, where he 
filled a similar position. 

When he was eighteen years of age he went 
to Cleveland, Ohio, where in the house of a relative 
he found a home, and obtained employment in a 
public warehouse. His business ability was soon 
recognized and he was often sent to New York in 
charge of a vessel. 

Leaving the house in Cleveland, he became a 
traveling salesman for a tobacco house at Logans- 
port, Indiana, but lived in Detroit. After becoming 
well acquainted with the trade he determined to go 
into business for himself, and while on his way to 
New York for goods he stopped at Utica and there 
entered into partnership, and established stores in 
Detroit and New York and a factory in Jersey City. 
The business did not prove successful and the part- 
nership was dissolved. Mr. Barker then concluded 
to start anew in Detroit. He was successful in his 
plans, paid off the indebtedness of the old firm, and 
established the firm of K. C. Barker & Co., the pre- 
decessor of the American Eagle Tobacco Company. 

Mr. Barker served as Alderman of the First 
Ward in 1863, ^^^ in 1864 was elected Mayor of 
the city, serving two years. 

^He was married in 1847 to a daughter of Gilbert 
Bedell, of Ann Arbor. He died on May 20, 1875. 
His death was in part the result of an accident. 
While sailing a small yacht opposite his residence at 
Grosse Isle he had an attack of apoplexy and fell 
into the water. The boat capsized, and when he 
was taken out of the river life was extinct. He left 
a wife, two sons, and a daughter— Mrs. Charles B. 
Hull 

MERRILL I. MILLS was born November 4th, 
1 81 9, in Canton, Connecticut, and was one of the 
many sons of the far east who have had much to do 
with the development and prosperity of the city. 

In obedience to his father's desire that he should 
enter a professional life, he took a course at the 
Connecticut Literary Institute at Suffield, prepara- 
tory to a course at Yale. He, however, had little 
taste for college life, and expressed strongly his 
preference for a business career, and in 1833 he 
joined his father in the manufacture of gunpowder. 
For five years he was actively engaged in the prac- 
tical departments of that business, and in 1838 went 




Yd {'^ c / /7^ c 




MAYORS. 



1045 



to Southern Alabama, as the representative of his 
father in a mercantile establishment there located. 
In 1840 he was called home by his father's illness, 
and for the next five years remained in Canton, de- 
voting himself to the management of his father's 
business. 

By this time New England methods had ceased 
to suit his ambition. He had gained practical expe- 
rience as a merchant and manufacturer, and turned 
to the west as an inviting field for more extended 
enterprises. He carefully studied the field and its 
prospects, and, determining to give his attention to 
merchandising through the west, he set out in 1845 
for Fort Wayne, Indiana. The close of navigation 
stopped the transit of his goods at Detroit, and this 
fact caused a radical change in his original purpose. 
He saw in Detroit a promising city, and without 
much delay decided to locate here. Establishing 
himself as a dealer in Yankee Notions, he pushed the 
business energetically, and extended his trade to 
many points in the west. He employed a number 
of teams and wagons, and they traversed the inte- 
rior of several western States, and especially the fur 
regions. He exchanged his goods largely for furs, 
and incidentally built up a fur trade of extensive 
proportions, shipping liberally to foreign markets. 
Prosperity attended his efforts and he became one 
of the best known traders in the States of Michi- 
gan, Ohio and Indiana. 

About 1850 he began the manufacture of cigars, 
sold large quantities throughout the west, and con- 
tinued the cigar and fur business, in connection with 
later and more important enterprises, up to the time 
of his death. In 1861 he joined the late Frank Nevin 
in the manufacture of tobacco. This enterprise was 
prosperous from the beginning, and the firm contin- 
ued until the death of Mr. Nevin in 1878. Mr. Mills 
then took as an associate the late W. H, Tefft, and 
organized the Banner Tobacco Company, of which 
he was chosen president and manager. 

He was also prominently identified with other 
manufacturing interests. In 1867, with W. H. 
Tefft and Jeremiah Dwyer, he organized the 
Detroit Stove Works, and in 1872, with Charles 
Ducharme and Jeremiah Dwyer, the Michigan 
Stove Company. He was made vice-president of 
each company and held both positions until his death. 
He organized and was for many years president 
of the Detroit Transit Railway Company. He was 
also vice-president of the Frankfort Furnace Com- 
pany, the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Com- 
pany, and president of the Eldredge Sewing Machine 
Company of Chicago, and was for many years a 
director of the First National Bank of Detroit. 

He was active in public affairs whenever his aid 
and counsel were needed. In politics he was a 
staunch Democrat, and was a prominent factor in 



the political field. In 1857 and 1858 he was chair- 
man of the Democratic State Committee. During 
the late war he was among the most earnest 
workers in the cause of the Federal Union. His 
means, his influence and his time were all enlisted 
in the recruiting and equipment of regiments in 
Detroit. He sewed as Mayor of the city in 1866 
and 1867, and his administration was marked by 
watchfulness and a conscientious regard for the 
promotion of all measures that promised to Uenefit 
and develop the best interests of the city. In 1868 
he was the Democratic nominee for Representative 
to Congress from the First District. The District 
had. in i S66, given a Republican majority of four 
thousand five hundred. Mr. Mills was not elected, 
but he won a notable triumph in reducing the Re- 
publican majority to fifteen hundred. He was sub- 
sequently a member of the. Board of Estimates, and 
in 1876 was a delegate-at-large to the Democratic 
National Convention which nominated Samuel J. 
Tilden for the Presidency. The same year he was 
appointed by Governor Bagley one of the Centen- 
nial Commissioners for the State of Michigan, but 
except that in 1881 he served as one of the first 
Board of Park Commissioners, the Centennial year 
marked his retirement from politics. He had partici- 
pated to the full extent of his inclinations, and was! 
content thereafter to leave to others the winning of 
honors in that field. 

About 1 880 the cares of a busy life brought indi- 
cations of failing health, but, like all active spirits, 
he protested against yielding to the statement that ( 
his physical infirmities called for a halt. He did, 
however, in obedience to the advice of his physician, 
journey to Manitou Springs, Colorado. The journey 
proved a fruitless one, and he returned home in a 
feeble condition, and, amid his family and friends, 
passed away, September 14th, 1882, leaving as sur- 
vivors his wife and two children. 

The extended and important business interests 
left by Mr. Mills fell at once in charge of his son, 
Merrill B. Mills, who had entered upon a business 
career at an early age, and his father's death con- 
sequently found him fully equipped for the duties 
which had devolved upon him. He is president of 
the Banner Tobacco Company ^nd Frankfort Fur- 
nace Company ; treasurer of the Michigan Stove 
Company; vice-president of the Detroit Stove 
Works ; a director in the Detroit Transit Railroad 
and in the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Com- 
pany. 

WILLIAM W. WHEATON was born in New 
Haven, Connecticut, April 5, 1833, and is the son of 
John and Orit C. (Johnson) Wheaton, and a direct 
descendant of Captain William Wheaton, of Revo- 
lutionary celebrity. He attended school in Hart- 



1046 



MAYORS. 



ford and also in New Haven, and at the age of 
sixteen entered the wholesale house of Charles H. 
Northam & Co., of Hartford. 

In 1853, when twenty years old, he came to De- 
troit, and entered the employ of Moore, Foote & 
Co., wholesale grocers. In 1855 he became the 
junior partner of the firm of Farrand & Wheaton, 
wholesale druggists and grocers. From 1859 to 
1862 Mr. Wheaton was in business by himself. In 

1862 the firm name was Wheaton & Peek, and in 

1863 he established the firm of Wheaton, Leonard 
& Burr, the firm changing in 1869 to Wheaton & 
Poppleton. 

In 1867 Mr. Wheaton was elected Mayor of the 
city, and re-elected in 1870, serving two terms. He 
subsequently served as chairman of the Democratic 
State Convention. 

In 1873 and for several years following he served 
as treasurer and general agent of the Marquette 
and Pacific Rolling Mill Company, and of late years 
has been engaged in a variety of enterprises. 

HUGH MOFFAT, late Mayor of Detroit, was 
born at Coldstream, Scotland, in the year 18 10. 
Early in life he migrated to the United States, 
settling first in the City of Albany, New York. In 
the year 1837 he sought to better his fortune by 
moving to the City of the Straits. Commencing 
business here as a carpenter, he soon achieved emi- 
nence in his employment through the erection of 
many of the prominent buildings of other days. 
Some of these structures still stand as monuments of 
his honest skill. In later years he was the architect 
and superintendent of the elegant and substantial 
building that bears his name. 

From the building business he, in 1852, drifted 
naturally into the lumber trade, purchasing large 
tracts of pine land and in his own mill transforming 
the rough logs into lumber, continuing alone in the 
business in 1878, when he formed a copartnership 
with his son Addison, and Florance D. Fatherly, 
the latter having been, for many years previous, a 
confidential employee and faithful friend. In con- 
nection with his business, one of his last enterprises 
was the erection of a very extensive and complete 
saw-mill, one of the best in the State. It occupies 
the same site as his two previous mills, the first of 
which was burned, and the second removed to make 
room for the new structure. 

In the lumber traffic Mr. Moffat was even more 
successful than in his previous occupation, and year 
by year he saw his wealth increase. This, how- 
ever, did not have the effect of making him 
either haughty or vain. He always retained a pro- 
found sense of a common brotherhood with all sons 
of toil. Connected with this feeling was an abhor- 
rence of all sham or pretense. If a man was really 



willing to work and could prove his willingness, he 
could always depend on fair treatment and honest 
compensation ; but if there seemed a disposition to 
shirk a duty or conceal indifference, it was sure to 
be reproved in words that would scorch and wither. 
He was an early and active member of the old 
Fire Department Society, and influential in the 
Mechanics' Society when it was in its best estate. 
He was also a leading member of and served as 
president of St. Andrew's Society. 

A typical Scotchman, he was as sturdy and strong 
as one of the oaks in his native land. He had little 
sympathy with the weak and vacillating, but once 
convince him that a person or a cause was worthy 
or deserving and his sympathies were w^arm and 
active. Always acting upon the idea that what was 
worth doing was worth doing well, all w*ho did 
business with him found that his part was honestly 
performed — that his word was as good as his bond. 
He possessed unbending courage, high intelli- 
gence and marked firmness of purpose. Enjoying 
his privileges as a responsible citizen, he acted with 
the Republican party, but he was in no sense a 
' politician, and his party fealty never interfered with 
or hindered him in the discharge of any public duty. 
These characteristics specially fitted him for the 
position he was destined to occupy. 

In 1 87 1 his fellow-citizens elected him Mayor, 
because they thought his firmness and integrity 
were then particularly needed. It certainly seemed 
as though he came "to the kingdom for such a 
time." A crisis was at hand in municipal affairs, 
and it is certain that no Mayor, before or since, had 
so good an opportunity to serve the taxpayers of the 
city, and also to serve the best and purest of all 
faiths, and no one could have more fully and per- 
fectly met the responsibility than did Mr. Moffat. 

During the first year of his service as Mayor he 
undoubtedly saved hundreds of thousands of dollars 
to the citizens by reason of his numerous vetoes of 
resolutions for paving the streets, the resolutions 
vetoed being clearly drawn in the interest of those 
who would have made large fortunes by foisting 
upon the public a score of new-fangled and untried 
methods of paving. 

A second occasion in which he demonstrated his 
fitness for the position of Mayor occurred in con- 
nection with a proposal and effort to compel the city 
to purchase grounds in Hamtramck for a park. It 
seemed clearly evident that a majority of the citizens 
did not approve of the proposed purchase; and 
although a majority of the Common Council favored 
the proposition and ordered the issue of bonds to 
make the purchase. Mayor Moffat, with true Scotch 
grit, refused to sign the bonds, declared that the 
Council could not compel him to do so, and when 
legal process was invoked to compel him to sign 



MAYORS. 



1047 



them, he, at his own expense, carried the case to the 
Supreme Court, and a decision was rendered which 
clearly stated that the Legislature had no power to 
direct that the city issue bonds for a purpose not 
necessarily connected with the government or good 
management of the city, and that the Council were 
in error in assuming that the issue of the bonds was 
mandatory. Mayor MoiTat was thus triumphant 
and unjustifiable legislation was very properly re- 
buked. 

The question of Sunday observance and a decent 
respect for the proprieties of American civilization 
was also a leading issue during his mayoralty. 
The subject came up in the form of a resolution 
passed by the Common Council authorizing the 
saloons to keep open on Sunday afternoons. Al- 
though repeatedly passed, Mayor Moffat did not 
dodge the issue, but each time vetoed the resolution 
which authorized and attempted to legalize the 
business of selling liquors on Sunday. For his 
action on this question he merits grateful remem- 
brance from all who have at heart the best interests 
of the city. 

After having served two terms as Mayor, Mr. 
Moffat's characteristic traits became so well known 
that citizens generally spoke of him as "Honest 
Hugh Moffat," and this cognomen is one of the 
noblest legacies that he left. 

He died August 6, 1884. Several of the courts 
immediately adjourned as a mark of respect and 
various associations passed resolutions testifying to 
his worthy life. 

Mr. Moffat was married three times. His first 
wife, whose maiden name was Margery McLachlan, 
was of Scotch descent, and her parents came from 
Callander, Stirlingshire. They were married at 
Albany, November 23, 1836. She died June 16, 
1856. His second wife, a cousin of the first, was 
Miss Isabella McLachlan. They were married on 
July 14, 1859, at New York. Ten years later, in 
August, 1869, she passed away. Her remains were 
taken to Greenwood, Long Island. On January 21, 
1879, he married Mrs. Julia E. Hubbard, sister of 
Thomas W. Palmer. She died November 20, 1880. 

His son, Addison Moffat, died about two months 
before his father, leaving as his widow Mrs. Grace 
Buhl Moffat. 

Hugh Moffat left three daughters and one son, 
viz., Mrs. George McMillan, Mrs. Edward W. Bis- 
sell. Miss Alice E. Moffat and William Moffat, all 
of them residents of Detroit. 

ALEXANDER LEWIS v^as born at Sandwich, 
Ontario, October 24, 1822, and is the son of Thomas 
and Jeanette (Velaire) Lewis. The family on the 
father's side were originally from Wales and came 
to this country early in the seventeenth century. 



The mother's family, as the name shows, were from 
France. 

Thomas Lewis was born at Three Rivers, Cana- 
da, and his wife at the locality formerly known as 
Ottawa, part of which is now Windsor. 

Alexander Lewis came here when a boy of fif- 
teen on May i, 1837, and began clerking in the 
store of E. W. Cole & Co., on the corner of Wood- 
ward avenue and Atwater street, remaining about 
two years, and then entering the employ of G. & J. 
G. Hill, Druggists, on Jefferson avenue, between 
Woodward avenue and Griswold street. 

Two years later he left this firm and went to 
Pontiac, where he remained until 1843, when he re- 
turned to Detroit and entered the forwarding and 
commission warehouse of Gray & Lewis, the firm 
consisting of his brother Samuel Lewis, and Hor- 
ace Gray. Two years later, in 1845, he went into 
the forwarding and commission business with H. P. 
Bridge, under the firm name of Bridge & Lewis. 
They began at the foot of Bates street on the east 
side, and from there removed to the foot of Ran- 
dolph street. The firm continued seventeen years, 
and then, in 1862, Mr. Lewis established himself in 
the flour and grain business at Nos. 44 to 48 West 
Woodbridge street, and continued there until 1884, 
when he gave up active connection with that line of 
business, and since then has devoted himself to the 
care of various property interests. 

He is one of the directors of the Detroit Fire and 
Marine Insurance Company and of the Detroit 
National Bank, is President of the Detroit Gas 
Light Company, and is largely interested in real 
estate. 

He served as President of the Board of Trade in 
1862, as Police Commissioner from 1865 to 1875, as 
Mayor of the city in 1876 and 1877, and as one of 
the Commissioners of the Public Library from 1881 
to 1887. 

Mr. Lewis was elected as Mayor of the city under 
circumstances of the highest possible honor. The 
distinct issue in the election was as to whether the 
laws should be observed, and especially whether the 
law providing for the proper observance of the Sab- 
bath, should be enforced. Mr. Lewis, as the candi- 
date of those who favored law and order, was sup- 
ported almost unanimously by the religious and 
moral elements of the community, was triumphantly 
elected, and fully and squarely and repeatedly op- 
posed the violation of law, successfully carrying out 
the desires of those who elected him. As a leading 
and influential member of the Democratic party, he 
thus conferred upon it a lasting laurel. 

He believes in his party, but evidently holds that 
the title of true manhood and good citizenship is a 
higher title than that of a partisan. He is eminently 
a reliable and responsible citizen, and compels the 



1048 



MAYORS. 



respect of all with whom he comes in contact. He 
is a member of the Roman Catholic Church and 
one of the oldest members of the original parish of 
Ste. Anne's. 

He was married on June 10, 1850, to Elizabeth J. 
Ingersoll, daughter of Justus Ingersoll. They have 
had thirteen children, eight of whom are living : 
Ida Frances, wife of W. P. Healy, of Marquette ; 
Edgar L., of Detroit ; Josephine, wife of Clarence 
Carpenter ; Hattie I., wife of Cameron Currie ; 
Harry B., Julia Velaire, Marion Marie and Alexan- 
der Ingersoll. 

GEORGE C. LANGDON was born in Geneva, 
New York, in 1833. He attended school in Batavia, 
New York, and afterwards in Farmington, Connec- 
ticut, where he remained until he was eighteen years 
old He then became a clerk in the wholesale dry 
goods house of Lord, Warren, Slater & Co., of New 
York. After about a year he returned to Geneva, 
and his father, who was largely interested in Mich- 
igan lands, sent him to Flint to engage in farm- 
ing. He remained there three years and then came 
to Detroit and entered Gregory's Commercial Col- 
lege, where he soon mastered the art of bookkeep- 
ing. After leaving the college he obtained a position 
as bookkeeper in the Copper Smelting Works at 
Springwells, and was afterwards bookkeeper for S. 
H. Ives & Co., bankers. "From there he went into 
partnership with Captain Carey in the commission 
business. 

In 1864, with N. G. Williams, he purchased the 
Central brewery, which was operated under the 
name of Langdon & Co. In 1870 he became sole 
proprietor of the business, and a few years later he 
sold out and engaged in business as a maltster. 

In 1877 he was elected Mayor of Detroit and 
served during 1878 and 1879. 

He married Miss Fannie Vallee, of this city. She 
died in May, 1887, leaving two daughters. 

WILLIAM G. THOMPSON was born in Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania, July 23, 1842. His father was 
a lawyer in that city. Mr. Thompson was educated 
at Amherst College, Massachusetts. 

In 1 86 1, at the age of nineteen, he enlisted in the 
Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry for three months. 
When his term of enlistment expired he removed to 
Toledo at his mother's request, who imagined that 
he would have less chance of contracting the war 
fever in a western city. But when Colonel Arthur 
Rankin organized a lancer regiment he came here, 
received a commission as First Lieutenant, and 
spent the w^inter of 1861-62 in Detroit. The lancer 
regiment was disbanded and he went back to Lan- 
caster, and was subsequently appointed an aide-de- 
camp with the rank of Second Lieutenant in the Sixth 



New Jersey Infantry. He was severely wounded 
at Chancellorsville and won his grade as First 
Lieutenant by gallantry on the field. 

When his regiment was mustered out in 1 864 he 
studied law in New York for a time, and then came 
to Detroit and entered the law office of D. B. & H. 
M. Duffield. In 1867 he was admitted to the bar, 
and in the same year he married Adelaide Mary 
Brush, daughter of the late E. A. Brush. Mrs. 
Thompson died in 1875, leaving one daughter. 

In November, 1878, Mr. Thompson married 
Adele Campau, daughter of the late D. J. Campau. 

He served as one of the first Board of Estimates 
in 1873, as Alderman of the Third Ward in 1874 
and 1875, and as Mayor of the city from 1880 to 



STEPHEN BENEDICT GRUMMOND, of 

Detroit, widely known in connection with extensive 
interests in lake navigation, was born near what is 
now Marine City, on the St. Clair river, September 18, 
1834, and is the son of Stephen Benedict and Mary 
(Harrow) Grummond. His father, who was born in 
the western part of New York State, came to Michigan 
in 1807 and settled near Marine City, where he was 
engaged in farming, and kept a general store, the 
first on the river. He was successful in business, 
accumulated a competency, and was respected as an 
influential and useful citizen. He died in 1856. His 
wife, who died in 1 877, was of Scotch descent, and 
was the daughter of Alexander Harrow, who came 
to Michigan while it was under British rule. For 
many years he was connected with the English 
navy as commander of His Majesty's sloop •' Wel- 
come " and other war vessels. He became one of 
the best known navigators of the lakes, and ren- 
dered efficient services to the English government. 
S. B. Grummond's early life was passed in St. 
Clair county. Possessing a restless and ambitious 
nature, at the age of fifteen he began his business 
career by securing a position on a vessel engaged 
in lake navigation ; but when navigation closed, 
spent the winters at school. At the age of twenty- 
one, with the savings from his own industry and a 
little aid from his father, he purchased a vessel and 
sailed her for several years. In 1855 he retired from 
the command, came to Detroit, bought another ves- 
sel, and has ever since been engaged in buying, selling 
and running vessels of various kinds. His business 
has extended from year to year, until at the present 
time he is one of the principal owners of lake ves- 
sels, and his line of boats is well known and 
largely patronized. He is the proprietor of Grum- 
mond's Mackinac Line of steamers, and does the 
largest tug and wrecking business on the lakes. 
His efforts have resulted in the accumulation of a 
large fortune, which is invested in Detroit real 





^/72-^^^t 




MAYORS. 



1049 



estate and in various business enterprises. His 
success can be attributed to thorough mastery of 
his business, practical experience in all its details, 
good judgment and judicious management. 

Originally a member of the Democratic party, ever 
since the election of Abraham Lincoln he has been 
an earnest supporter of the Republican party. His 
connection with political affairs as a public officer has 
not been the result of any desire on his part for politi- 
cal honors. Official trusts have only been assumed 
upon the urgent request of friends, and when he 
honestly believed the public good would be advanced 
thereby. In 1879 he was elected a member of the 
Board of Estimates, and at the expiration of his 
term in 1881 was elected a member of the newly 
created City Council or Upper House for the long 
term. After two years'service in this capacity he was 
made without solicitation on his part, and even 
against his wishes, the unanimous choice of his party 
as its candidate for Mayor. He was successfully elec- 
ted, and during his term of office fulfilled the duties 
of the position in such a manner as to win the ap- 
proval of the best element of the city. A practical 
business man, his administration was marked by the 
same good sense and sound business principles which 
in his private career had ensured success. He used 
all his influence towards getting the city affairs into 
a sound financial condition, and against public 
clamor had the courage to veto measures he be- 
lieved against the public good ; the result in almost 
every case has proved that the course he favored 
was both wise and prudent. His administration 
met the approval of the people generally, regardless 
of party. Near the close of his term of office the 
Detroit Free Press, the leading Democratic paper 
in the State, said: ** He has been in the main 
an excellent Mayor, and has discharged the duties 
of his office, as he understood them, with painstak- 
ing fidelity, entire honesty, and no greater display 
of partisanship than would be naturally expected of 
an official chosen by partisan vote." This, from a 
paper politically opposed to him, was praise indeed. 
As a business man, Mr. Grummond's main power 
lies in the spirit of perseverance with which his 
plans are pursued. That his undertakings, both in 
public and private affairs, have been sagacious, is 
undeniable, and his success in various directions 
has vindicated his business foresight. He is inde- 
pendent and courageous, but modest and unassum- 
ing ; dislikes publicity, finds his chief enjoyment in 
the prosecution of his numerous business ventures, 
but is public spirited and progressive in his ideas, 
and readily gives his support to deserving public 
enterprises, and by his ability and integrity com- 
mands the confidence of his fellow citizens^ 

He was married December 12, 1 861, to Louisa B. 
Prouty, of Detroit. They have had eleven chil- 



dren, seven of whom are living, four girls and three 
boys. 

M. H. CHA^MBERLAIN was born in Wood- 
stock, Lenawee County, Michigan, November 5, 
1842. His father, Philonzo Chamberlain, was born 
in New York State in 1804, and, at the age of 
eighty-four, is hale and hearty. Mr. Chamberlain 
is of the English family of Chamberlain, whose 
descendants came to America early in old colonial 
times. His great-grandfather was^ a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war and fought at Bunker Hill and 
on other bloody fields. The gun used by him at 
Bunker Hill is now in the possession of the family, 
who jealousy guard it as a memorial of great value. 

Mr. Chamberlain's maternal ancestors came from , 
Scotland. His mother was born in New York State 
in 1798 and died in Detroit, January 25th, 1884. 
Early in life she and her husband settled in Niagara 
County, New York, and in 1835 removed to Michi- 
gan, purchasing a farm in Lenawee County. Their, 
next home was in Litchfield, Hillsdale County, and 
in the spring of 1869 they located in Detroit. 

M. H. Chamberlain is the youngest in a family of 
eight children, six boys and two girls, seven of 
whom are living. He attended a district school 
until about fifteen years of age. In the winter of 
1859-60 he taught school in Lenawee County, and 
in the spring of i860 entered Hillsdale College. 
Soon after leaving college he taught school in Oak- 
land County. In 1864 he came to Detroit, attended 
a commercial college until May, 1865, and then took 
a position in the office of F. A. Stokes, on the 
corner of Jefferson avenue and Wayne street. 
During the first year he was employed as book- 
keeper,, and the year following as traveling salesman. 
In November, 1867, he, with his brother, Mr. A. H. 
Chamberlain, purchased Mr. Stokes' interest in the 
business, and the firm of M. H. Chamberlain & Co. 
was formed. Starting with comparatively small 
capital and only a few months' experience in the 
business, their success has been quite remarkable, 
and in their line they are among the leading firms 
in the country. 

In the spring of 1873 the Chamberlains organized 
the Fearless Tobacco Company. Mr. M. H. Cham- 
berlain continued as a partner until March, 1876, 
when he sold his interest to his brother. In 1874 
Mr. M. H. Chamberlain, with others, organized the 
Commercial Travelers' Association of Michigan, 
and he was elected its first president. 

In 1882 he was elected to the City Council, and 
in 1885 was made president of that body. In the 
fall of 1885 he was elected Mayor of Detroit on the 
Democratic ticket by a majority of about eighteen 
hundred over the Republican nominee. 

When a boy he was a recognized leader among 



I050 



MAYORS. 



his playmates. At school he was always prominent 
in debate, is said to have been very fond of speech- 
making, and is possessed of a remarkable memory. 
He is agreeable, well-informed, tenacious in follow- 
ing out a purpose, and possessed of excellent 
judgment. These characteristics, with other ad- 
vantages, had naturally much to do with his election 
to the position of chief municipal officer of the city. 
He was married to Miss Ellen Wilson, of Niagara 
County, New York, in 1876. 



JOHN PRIDGEON, Jr., was born at Detroit, 
August I, 1852, and is the son of John and Emma 
(Nicholson) Pridgeon. His father is of English 
descent and has been for many years largely inter- 
ested in vessels of various kinds. 

John Pridgeon, Jr., attended the public schools of 



Detroit, and about 1 87 1 was first employed as clerk 
on one of his father's boats, continuing in this posi- 
tion about five years. 

From 1876 to 1879 he was agent at Port Huron 
of the Chicago and Grand Trunk line of steamers 
running between Chicago and Point Edward. When 
this line was discontinued he came to Detroit and 
has since been interested with his father in their ex- 
tensive business of buying, selling, and operating 
tugs, sailing vessels, and propellers 

In 1885 he was elected a member of the City 
Council, serving two years, and in the fall of 1887 
was elected Mayor of the city. 

He was married in December, 1874, to Cora 
Edgar. She was born in Pittsburgh. They have 
had two sons, neither of whom are now living. His 
wife is a member of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal 
Church. 




I 




L - V- ^ 



CHAPTER XCI. 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS, AND CAPITALISTS. 



RUSSELL A. ALGER, recently Governor of 
Michigan, was born in the township of Lafayette, 
Medina County, Ohio, February 27, 1836. On the 
paternal side the genealogy of the family can be 
traced through English channels to the time of 
William the Conqueror. . The earliest of the name 
in this country was John Alger, the great-grand- 
father of R. A, Alger. He served in the Revolu- 
tionary war and took part in many of its battles. 
Russell Alger, the father of R. A. Alger, married 
Caroline Moulton, a descendant of Robert Moulton, 
of England, who came to Massachusetts in 1627 in 
charge of a vessel laden with ship-building material 
and having a number of skilled carpenters as pas- 
sengers. It is probable that the first vessel built in 
Massachusetts was constructed by Mr. Moulton. 
Both in England and America the Moultons are 
numerous and many of them have attained distinc- 
tion. 

The Alger family went to Ohio in 1 800 and took 
a leading part in the development of that now great 
State. When he was eleven years old, the parents 
of R. A. Alger died, leaving dependent upon him a 
younger brother and sister. With a cheerful and 
heroic spirit, an important element in his after suc- 
cesses, he at once engaged in farm work, and during 
the greater part of the next seven years worked 
upon a farm in Richfield, Ohio, saving his money 
and applying it for the benefit of his brother and 
sister. In the winter, during the suspension of farm 
work, he improved his time by attending the Rich- 
field Academy, and by self-denial and hard work 
he obtained a good English education, and at the 
age of eighteen secured a position as a teacher, 
and taught school during the winter months for 
several years. 

In March, 1857, he entered the office of Wolcott 
& Upson, at Akron, Ohio, and began the study of 
law, remaining until 1859, when he was admitted to 
the bar by the Supreme Court of Ohio. Soon after- 
wards he removed to Cleveland and entered the law 
office of Otis & Coffinbury, remaining but a few 
months, and retiring in the fall of 1859 on account 



of ill-health caused by hard study and close confine- 
ment. This retirement from the pursuits of a pro- 
fession which had proved uncongenial was final, as 
he soon after removed to Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
where he engaged in the lumber business. He had 
but fairly begun to obtain a foothold in business 
when the war with the South began, and in August, 

1 86 1, he responded to his country's call, and from 
the time of his enlistment until he left the service 
the record of his heroic military service is a record 
of honor. He first enlisted in the Second Michigan 
Cavalry, and in the autumn, when that regiment 
was mustered into service, he was commissioned as 
Captain and assigned to the command of Com- 
pany JZ. 

His first important service occurred on July i, 

1862, at the battle of Booneville, Mississippi. That 
engagement, which was one of the most important 
minor battles of the war and fought against tremen- 
dous odds, arose from an attack made by General 
Chalmers, of the Confederate service, with seven 
thousand mounted men— eleven regiments and por- 
tions of regiments— upon Colonel Philip H. Sheri- 
dan with two small regiments, the Second Iowa and 
the Second Michigan Cavalry. Sheridan's command 
from the start fought desperately. Seeing that he 
was outflanked and in danger of being surrounded, 
he sent ninety-two picked men, commanded by 
Captain Alger, with orders to make a circuit and 
charge the enemy upon the rear with sabers and 
cheers. The cheers were to be the signal for Sheri- 
dan to simultaneously charge the enemy in front. 
The brave ninety-two charged as ordered and 
Sheridan immediately dashed upon the front, and 
so w^ell executed were the two movements that the 
Confederate forces- broke and ran. One hundred 
and twenty-five of the enemy's killed were buried 
upon the field, and a large number of their wounded 
were carried away. The ninety-two sent on this 
forlorn hope lost forty-two killed and wounded. 
Captain Alger was both wounded and captured, 
but escaped in the confusion of the rebel stampede. 
For his gallant service in the battle he was pro- 



I052 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



moted to the rank of Major, and it was in this bat- 
tle that Colonel Sheridan gained his earliest fame 
and was soon after promoted to the rank of Briga- 
dier-General. 

Major Alger continued to merit the approval of 
his superior officers, and on October i6, 1862, was 
promoted to the Lieutenant- Colonelcy of the Sixth 
Michigan Cavalry, and on June 2, 1863, to the 
Colonelcy of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, his regi- 
ment being in General Custer's famous Michigan 
cavalry brigade. 

On June 28, 1863, Colonel Alger's command 
entered the village of Gettysburg, being the first of 
the Federal forces to reach that place and receive 
definite information as to the movements of the 
enemy. In the great battle, then so little expected, 
v^rhich was fought at the very doors of Gettysburg, 
he with his regiment did most effective service. In 
General Custer's official report of the part taken by 
the cavalry at Gettysburg, the name of Colonel 
Alger frequently appears, and acknowledgment is 
marfe of the distinguished part he bore in the en- 
gagement. On July 4, 1863, during the pursuit of 
the enemy which followed the battle. Colonel Alger 
led the advance with the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, 
and when near Monterey, on the top of South 
Mountain, Maryland, with great daring and equally 
great confidence in his men, he dismounted, crossed 
a bridge guarded by more than 1,500 infantry, and 
succeeded in capturing the enemy's train, together 
with 1,500 prisoners. 

On July 8, 1863, at the battle of Boonsboro, he 
was so severely wounded as to be unable to assume 
command of his regiment until the following Sep- 
tember. His subsequent famous charge with his 
regiment at Trevillian Station, Virginia, on June 11, 
1864, when with only three hundred men he cap- 
tured a large force of the enemy, is memorable as 
one of the most brilliant and daring deeds of the 
war. General Sheridan's report concerning this 
engagement, on file in the War Department, says : 

" The cavalry engagement of the eleventh and twelfth was by 
far the most brilliant one of the present campaign. The enemy's 
loss was very heavy. My loss in captured will not exceed one 
hundred and sixty. They are principally from the Fifth Michi- 
gan Cavalry. This regiment, Colonel Russell A. Alger com- 
manding, gallantly charged down the Gordonville road, captur- 
ing 1,500 horses and about 800 prisoners, but were finally sur- 
rounded and had to give them up." 

During the winter of 1863 and 1864 Colonel 
Alger was assigned to special service, reporting 
directly to President Lincoln, and while so engaged 
visited nearly every army in the field. 

It was his fortune to serve in or command regi- 
ments better armed than most, and they were fre- 
quently engaged in fatiguing and perilous service. 
At first he served in the west and south, but from 
the invasion of Maryland by General Lee in 1863 



until the day of his retirement. Colonel Alger was 
with the Army of the Potomac and in constant 
service except when disabled by wounds. His bri- 
gade accompanied General Sheridan to the Shenan- 
doah Valley in 1864, and served through that cam- 
paign. On September 20, 1864, he resigned on 
account of physical disability, and was honorably 
discharged, having during his period of service 
taken part in sixty-six battles and skirmishes. At 
the close of the war he was made Brevet Brigadier- 
General for gallant and meritorious services to rank 
from the battle of Trevillian Station, and on June 
II, 1865, he was made Brevet Major-General for 
gallant and meritorious services during the war. 

When he returned from the field of strife he re- 
moved to Detroit, and in company with Franklin and 
Stephen Moore engaged in the lumber trade, deal- 
ing especially in long pine timber, and also in 
pine lands. After a few years the firm of Moore, 
Alger & Co. was succeeded by the firm of Moore & 
Alger and then by R. A. Alger & Co., which con- 
tinued until 1874, when the corporation of Alger, 
Smith & Co. was organized with General Alger as 
President. In these various business associations 
he has displayed remarkable ability, and the cor- 
poration of which he is the head has become the 
largest operator in pine timber in the world. The 
corporation own extensive tracts of pine lands in 
Alcona, Alger, Chippewa, and Schoolcraft counties 
in the Upper Peninsula, and on the Canadian shore 
of Lake Huron. In addition to the interests above 
named. General Alger is President of the Manis- 
tique Lumber Company, organized in 1882 with a 
capital of $3,000,000. He also has large investments 
in red wood lands in California and Washington Ter- 
ritory, and in the pine lands of Wisconsin and 
Louisiana, and is largely mterested in an exten- 
sive cattle ranch in New Mexico, and is President of 
the company. He is President and the largest 
stockholder in the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena 
Railroad, and owns a large amount of stock in the 
Peninsular Car Company, the Detroit National and 
State Savings Banks, in which he is a Director ; he 
is also a stockholder in the Detroit Copper and 
Brass Rolling Mills, and in several other extensive 
corporations. Coming to Detroit at the close of the 
war, rich only in honors gained in fighting the bat- 
tles of his country, he entered the business world, 
and by his exceptional native abilities he long since 
gained a foremost place among the business men of 
Michigan. He is a man of strong will, resolute 
courage, great tenacity of purpose, a high order of 
financial generalship and rare administrative ability. 
When a course of action has been determined upon, 
he is self-reliant and trustful of his own judgment, 
and inspires others with perfect confidence in his 
capacity to accomplish what he undertakes. He is 




u 



7 I •^) / 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAl'ITALISTS. 



1053 



not discouraged or baffled even by the most formid- 
able obstacles, but is fertile in resources, prompt in 
action, energetic in execution and uniformly suc- 
cessful. 

He has been a Republican ever since he reached 
his majority, and constantly active in the service of 
his party. Though possessed of a strong taste for 
politics, his time has been so completely engrossed 
by business responsibilities that until recent years he 
avoided the cares of office. He was a delegate to 
the Chicago Convention of 1884 that nominated 
Blaine and Logan, and in 1884 was elected Gover- 
nor of Michigan. His administration of state 
affairs was in all respects equally as successful as 
his management .of his personal interests, and that 
is almost ideal. Keen, sagacious and penetrating, 
the business interests of the state were carefully 
guarded and all the charitable and educational in- 
stitutions fostered, protected and enlarged. Com- 
bining the practicalities of a thorough business 
man with the training of a lawyer and the experi- 
ence of a soldier, his state papers were models of 
clearness, simplicity and force. At the end of his 
term he laid aside the duties of his gubernatorial 
position, secure in the confidence of the people, 
whose good opinion he had so richly earned. In 
1888 he was a leading candidate for the presidential 
nomination, and if he had been a resident of a 
really doubtful Republican State would probably 
have received the nomination. 

In personal appearance General Alger is tall, 
slender in form, with an erect, dignified bearing. 
He is quick and incisive in speech, never brusque, 
but approachable, courteous and considerate toward 
all. He begets and retains warm friendships, and 
those who are numbered among his friends and 
confidantes are sure to be profited by his judgment 
and helpfulness. Although so deeply engrossed 
with business duties, he is a lover of books and a 
devoted patron of art, and is among the first to re- 
spond to deserving public enterprises. Possessed of 
a generous and sympathetic nature, he is ever atten- 
tive to the needs of those less fortunate than him- 
self, and does not wait for others, but seeks out 
opportunities for doing good, and thousands of 
people have reason to feel grateful for timely bene- 
factions received from him. In public life and in 
his private affairs his achievements, coupled with 
his irreproachable life, reflect credit upon the state 
and city of his adoption. 

He was married in 1861 to Annette H. Henry, of 
Grand I'apids. Their family consists of three 
daughters and three sons. 

JOHN JUDSON BAGLEY, formerly Governor 
of Michigan, was born at Medina, Orleans County, 
New York, July 24, 1832. He was a descendant of 



the Bagley family who came from England early in 
the seventeenth century. His grandmother, Olive 
Judson, was a daughter of Captain Tim^othy Jud- 
son, a soldier of the Revolution. The Judsons 
were a prominent family in Connecticut, descended 
from an old English family in Yorkshire, who came 
to America in 1634 and first settled in Concord, 
Massachusetts. There were many ministers in the 
family, among them the Rev. Adoniram Judson, the 
noted foreign missionary. Mr. Bagley was also a 
direct descendant of Rev. Thomas Hooker, who 
came from Hertfordshire, England, and established 
the first church in Connecticut. 

John Bagley, the father of Governor Bagley, was 
born in Durham, Greene County, New York. He 
established himself in business at Medina, but 
afterwards moved to Lockport. His wife was a 
native of Connecticut, a woman of education and 
refinement, with great strength and force of charac- 
ter. Both parents were devout and active members 
of the Episcopal Church. John was one of a family 
of eight children, and his mother intended to edu- 
cate him for the ministry ; but financial reverses 
came to the family, and they found what in those 
days was considered a fortune suddenly swept away. 
Michigan had recently been admitted as a State, 
and John's father, hoping to regain what he had 
lost, moved from Lockport to St. Joseph County, in 
this state, stopping a few months at Mottville, and 
then going to Constantine, and from there to 
Owosso, in Shiawassee County. 

John J. Bagley attended school at Constantine, 
White Pigeon and Owosso. He began his business 
life in a country store in Constantine, and after the 
family moved to Owosso he was engaged as clerk 
in the firm of Dewey & Goodhue. In these coun- 
try stores everything was sold from calico to drugs, 
and here he received his early business training. 
The hours of work were early and late, but a little 
time could always be found for reading and study. 
When fourteen years of age he left Owosso and 
X found employment in the tobacco store and factory 
of Isaac S. Miller, in Detroit. 

In 1853, when twenty-one years of age, he estab- 
lished a manufactory of his own on Woodward 
avenue, below Jefferson, and started the well-known 
•* Mayflower " brand of fine-cut chewing tobacco. 
As his business prospered he engaged in other 
important enterprises. He possessed wise fore- 
thought, good judgment, and keen perception, 
grasped great affairs and managed them with a 
skill that commanded confidence and success. 

He was one of the organizers of the Michigan 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, and served as 
President from 1867 to 1872 ; was one of the orig- 
inal stockholders and for several years President of 
the Detroit Safe Company ; he was a corporator of 



I054 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



the Wayne County Savings Bank, and one of the 
charter members of the American National Bank ; 
helped to organize the Merchants* and Manufac- 
turers* Exchange, and was actively interested in the 
creation of Woodmere Cemetery, and served as its 
first President. 

Soon after he cast his first vote he was elected a 
member of the Board of Education from the Third 
Ward in the City of Detroit, and remained a mem- 
ber from 1835 to 1858. He served as a member of 
the Common Council in i860 and i86r, and did 
much to secure the establishment of the Detroit 
House of Correction, and was one of its first Inspec- 
tors. As a member of the Council he recognized 
the necessity of a more thorough and efficient police 
system for the city. For him to see was to act, and 
he rested not till the plan which he drafted was a 
law, and the present metropolitan police system 
organized. He was one of the original Commis- 
sioners and remained on the Board from February 
28, 1865, to August 24, 1872. In all public affairs 
he weighed carefully the opinions of others, formed 
his own convictions and followed them. 

Long before he had attained his majority he was 
a pronounced Whig, although his father was a 
Democrat. He was an active Republican from the 
organization of the party, his name appearing 
among the signers to the call for the Convention 
which organized the Republican party, and he was 
one of the most zealous and efficient in the prelim- 
inary work of the organization. In 1 868 he was 
made chairman of the Republican State Central 
Committee. 

At the breaking out of the rebellion he was one 
of the most active citizens of Michigan in every- 
thing looking to a vigorous prosecution of the war. 
During those sad days he seemed to lead a double 
life. All the time and energy that any man should 
give to business he gave to his, and yet he seemed 
to devote all his time to his party, his state and his 
country. He was frequently at Washington and 
with the armies in the field, giving aid, comfort and 
counsel when most needed. 

In 1872 he became the Republican candidate for 
Governor and was elected by nearly 60,000 major- 
ity, receiving 1,400 more votes than the Grant 
electors, a plurality which at once proved the 
strength of the party and his personal popularity. . 
He was renominated in 1874, and although the 
Democrats swept the whole country that year, car- 
rying more than two-thirds of the House of Repre- 
sentatives and electing a Governor in Massachu- 
setts, Governor Bagley's personal popularity saved 
Michigan to his party by a majority of 6,000 over 
the Democratic candidate. In January, 1880, he 
was a candidate for United States Senator from 
Michigan, and came within one vote of receiving the 



nomination by the Republican caucus of the Legis- 
lature. 

While serving as Governor he manifested the 
same intelligent force that had made his many busi- 
ness ventures a success. With a zeal rarely found 
he gave both time and money to promote the wel- 
fare of the various educational and charitable insti- 
tutions of the state, and his gifts were always made 
for such definite objects that it was evident careful 
thought and a well recognized need had prompted 
the gift. During his administration the State 
Militia was reorganized, a new life infused into its 
membership, and for the first time it was placed 
upon a serviceable footing. He was an earnest 
advocate of the tax system as applied to the liquor 
traffic, in place of the then inoperative prohibitory 
system, and presented strong reasons for the change. 
The State Reform School was through his efforts 
relieved of many of its prison features, and made 
more of an educational institution. 

The law providing for a Board of Charities and 
Corrections, and the present system of dealing with 
juvenile offenders through county agents, was orig- 
inated during his administration, and received his 
hearty support. He inspired and directed a wise 
ameliqration in the methods of the Reform School, 
the State Prison and the House of Correction, and 
by his personal influence and private benevolence 
adorned their walls with beautiful pictures, stocked 
their library shelves, and regaled them with luxu- 
ries not provided by the State, the influences of which 
have left their imprint for personal good upon thou- 
sands of characters. 

He was one of the original Board of Control of 
the State Public School at Coldwater, and suggested 
and applied many important changes in its organi- 
zation. The plans of the building were adopted 
and the institution located there, when he was a 
member. He subsequently, as Governor, became 
an ex-officio member of the Board and acted as 
such up to the time of the opening of the school for 
the children in May, 1874. After retiring from the 
Board he was a frequent and welcome visitor, and 
every Christmas day the scholars were remembered 
in a substantial manner. A fountain was given them, 
to ornament the grounds, illustrative of child life, 
and one thousand dollars as a perpetual fund, to be 
held in trust by the Board and its successors, the 
interest each year to be expended on Christmas for 
the individual benefit of the children. This gift i-s 
known as the KJittie Bagley fund, in memory of'' a 
little daughter of the donor, who died some years 
before her father. 

Among the notable measures of his administra- 
tion was the entire revision of the general railroad 
laws and the bringing of all the companies under 
the supervision of a State Commissioner. As 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1055 



chairman of the State Centennial Board he worked 
indefatigably to insure the success of Michigan's 
representation in Philadelphia, giving largely of his 
own private means for that purpose. 

His state papers were models of compact, busi- 
ness-like statements, bold, original and full of prac- 
tical suggestions, and his administration will long 
be considered among the ablest in this or any other 
State. The planting of "Centennial trees " was 
one of the many " happy thoughts " that he formu- 
lated while Governor, and the idea was approved 
and acted upon all over the Union. During 
his leisure hours, especially during the last few 
years of his life, he devoted much time to becoming 
acquainted with .the best authors, and biography 
was his delight. He was a generous and intelli- 
gent patron of the arts, and his elegant home was a 
study and pleasure to his many friends, who always 
found there a hearty welcome. He never flagged 
in any task he undertook, but w^orked unceasingly 
and with a determination that knew no such word 
as fail. It led him to labor beyond his strength, to 
do in a brief time what he might better have taken 
months or years to accomplish. Such determina- 
tion won rapid success, but it caused the wick to 
burn low and go out at an age when most men are 
just beginning to see a bright prospect ahead. His 
nature was many-sided, and there was something 
in him with which everybody could feel at home. 

Every line of his genial face was honest and true, 
and his clear eyes looked through all hollowness or 
sham. He had a very tender love of home, and one 
of his favorite mottoes was, " East or West, Home 
is best." The city where he lived was his larger 
home, to which he always returned with satis- 
faction, and for the welfare of which he loved to 
labor 

Although born and educated as an Episcopalian, 
he connected himself with the Unitarian Church as 
most nearly expressing his ideas ; but his interest 
was not confined to that denomination. Wherever 
good men and women met and worshiped the Liv- 
ing God, there was his church ; such he was ever 
ready to join in every good word and work. For 
many years he was connected with the Unitarian 
Conference as Vice-President and President. 

In 1855 he married Miss Frances E. Newbury, of 
Dubuque, Iowa, whose father, Rev. Samuel New- 
bury, a Presbyterian clergyman, w^as one of the 
pioneers in the establishment of the educational in- 
stitutions of the State, helping to do in Michigan 
what his friend and correspondent, Horace Mann, 
did in Massachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Bagley had 
eight children. Seven of them are living and in 
Detroit, namely : Mrs. Florence B. Sherman, John 
N. Bagley, Mrs. Frances B. Brown, Margaret, Olive, 
Paul Frederick and Helen Bagley. 



W'ith a large, powerful frame and great bodily 
strength. Governor Bagley seemed the embodiment 
of health and cheerfulness, until the winter of 
1876-77, when he felt the first indications that his 
strength was giving way, and at no time afterwards 
was he a well man. In September, 1880, he had 
a slight stroke of paralysis, and from this he never 
fully recovered. Early in the spring of 1881 he 
journeyed to California to try the climate of the 
Pacific coast, but it brought no permanent relief, 
and he died in San Francisco, July 27, 1 881, at the 
age of forty-nine. 

Governor Bagley 's will was characteristic of the 
man, containing bequests for many local charities. 
Catholic and Protestant being alike remembered. 
He also made generous gifts to all who had been in 
his employ for five years or more, and left the sum 
of $5,000 with which to erect a public drinking 
fountain in Detroit. The fountain was erected on 
the open square at the head of Fort street west, 
and was unveiled on May 30, 1887. The hundreds 
who daily quench their thirst at this elegant memo- 
rial are constantly reminded of the liberal donor. 

HENRY P. BALDWIN. Ex-Governor and Ex- 
United States Senator, is one of the oldest living 
residents of Detroit, his residence covering a period 
of fully fifty years. He traces his ancestry in this 
country to Nathaniel Baldwin, an English Puritan, 
who settled in Milford, Connecticut, in 1639. One 
of his descendants was the Rev. Moses Baldwin, 
who in 1757 received the first collegiate honors that 
Princeton College bestowed, and for upwards of 
half a century was pastor of a Presbyterian church 
in Palmer, Massachusetts, where he died in 1813. 
One of his sons, John Baldwin, who graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1791, and died in North Providence, 
Rhode Island, in 1826, was the father of Henry P. 
Baldwin. 

On the maternal side the ancestry of Mr. Baldwin 
is traced to Robert Williams, a Puritan, whose place 
of settlement in 1638 was Roxbury, Massachusetts. 
The Governor's maternal grandfather was the Rev. 
Nehemiah Williams, a Harvard graduate. He was 
pastor of the Congregational church at Brimfield, 
Massachusetts, for the space of twenty-one years, 
and died at that place in 1 796. 

Henry P. Baldwin was born at Coventry, Rhode 
Island, February 22, 18 14. He received a public 
school education, supplemented by a brief academic 
course. The death of both his parents forced him, 
at an early age, into active service for the gaining of 
a livelihood. He went into a store as clerk and re- 
mained there until twenty years of age, when he 
engaged in business on his own account at Woon- 
sqcket, Rhode Island. 

Three years later, in 1837, he made a visit to the 



I056 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



west, and during that trip became so impressed with 
the commercial advantages of Detroit that, in the 
spring of 1838, he located permanently in the city. 
His career as a merchant covered a record of many 
years. Beginning in a small way, he broadened his 
business plans and pushed them rapidly forward 
with unfaltering energy. He became a prosperous 
and progressive citizen and identified his name with 
the mercantile history, not only of Detroit, but of 
the West. Retiring, a few years ago, from active 
participation in the establishment he founded, he 
left it to his successors as a valuable heritage. 

From the year i860 Mr. Baldwin has been prom- 
inently identified with the political history of the 
State. He was chosen to the State Senate and 
served during the years 1861 and 1SS2. During his 
term of service he was chairman of the Finance 
Committee, a member of the Committee on Banks 
and Corporations, and chairman of the Select Joint 
Committee of the two Houses for the investigation 
of the acts of the State Treasurer. He was like- 
wise chairman of the legislative committee charged 
with the important work of improving the Sault Ste. 
Marie ship canal. This was the chief work in the 
line of internal improvement then under the control 
of the State, and Mr. Baldwin was influential in the 
prosecution of the work. 

In 1868 he was elected by the Republican party 
to the office of Governor of Michigan, and two 
years later re-elected, thus serving four years as the 
chief executive of the State. The period of his 
incumbency was marked by the establishment and 
improvement of several public enterprises. He 
assisted materially in the advancement and in broad- 
ening the scope of the State Charities. He founded 
the State Public School for Dependent Children, 
which is a model of its kind. He also secured the 
permanent organization of a commission to super- 
vise the State Charities and Penal Institutions. 
He recommended the establishment of the Eastern 
Insane Asylum, the State Board of Health, and the 
State House of Correction. He obtained appro- 
priations for the enlargement of the University and 
was instrumental in the erection of the elegant 
State Capitol building at Lansing. He not only 
recommended the* appropriation for its construc- 
tion, but the contracts for all the work were let 
under his administration, and he appointed the 
building commission under whose direction and 
supervision the Capitol was begun and completed. 

During his last term the fires of 1871 destroyed 
the city of Chicago, and other fires swept, with 
devastating consequences, through the State of 
Michigan. Governor Baldwin issued a call to the 
State of Michigan on behalf of the western me- 
tropolis, and it is a matter of history that that call 
was nobly answered. Soon afterwards he issued a 



similar appeal in aid of the people of his own State,, 
and supplemented it with such admirable and sys- 
tematic methods for the collecting of donations and 
administering relief, that within three months he 
was enabled to make the gratifying public announce- 
ment that no further aid was needed. 

In 1876 Mr. Baldwin served as a member of the 
Republican National Convention which nominated 
R. B. Hayes for the Presidency. In 1879 the sud- 
den death of Senator Zachariah Chandler created a 
vacancy in the United States Senate, and Mr. Bald- 
win was appointed to fill the position, and did so 
with great credit and ability. In addition to other 
engagements Mr. Baldwin has, for nearly forty 
years, been conspicuously identified with the bank- 
ing history of Detroit. He was a director in the old 
Michigan State Bank up to the time the charter of 
the bank expired. In 1 863, upon the organization 
of the Second National Bank of Detroit, he was 
chosen its President and remained so until the re- 
organization of the institution in 1883, as the De- 
troit National Bank, when he was again elected 
President, which position he retained until 1887, 
when he resigned because of proposed absence on 
on extended tour to the Old World. 

His connection with the affairs of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of Detroit has had much to do 
with the remarkable prosperity of that denomina- 
tion. When he first came to Detroit he joined St. 
Paul's Church, which was then the sole occupant of 
the Protestant Episcopal field in Detroit. He was 
soon chosen vestryman and warden, and has ever 
since filled important positions in connection with the 
church. In 1858 he, with other churchmen, organ- 
ized a new parish called St. John's. In 1859 work 
was begun upon the church building, chapel, and 
rectory, at the corner of High street and Wood- 
ward avenue, and a very large proportion of the 
entire expense of the undertaking was cont ibuted 
by Mr. Baldwin, with whom it has ever been a prin- 
ciple to bestow a liberal portion of his income in 
religious enterprises. In the history of the Diocese 
of Michigan he has been an important factor. For 
more than forty years he was a fellow-member, 
with Charles C. Trowbridge, of the Standing Com- 
mittee of the Diocese, and with him bore the 
burden of active labors in an endeavor that achieved 
much in the way of useful and valuable results, and 
both of them were continuously appointed to repre- 
sent the Diocese in the General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Mr. Baldwin is still 
a member of the Standing Committee of the Dio- 
cese. 

In 1852 his health led him to seek rest and recrea- 
tion abroad, and he made an extended tour of the 
European continent. In 1864 and 1865, accompa- 
nied by the Rev. Mr. Armitage, Rector of St. 




^-^^^^ 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS. BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1057 



JohnV, he made a second European trip. In the 
winter of 1862 and 1863, in pursuit of relaxation 
from business cares, he made a sea voyage to Cali- 
fornia via the Isthmus. The steamer in which he 
was a passenger was captured near the West Indies 
by the Alabama, a Confederate vessel. This mis- 
hap resulted in a detention of two days, but the 
captives were finally released upon the officers of 
the steamer giving a bond to pay ransom money 
after the acknowledgment of the independence of 
the Confederate States ; fortunately for the officers 
of the steamer, and for the country as well, the 
conditional pledge never became an obligation. 

In addition to his connection with the political, 
religious and financial history of the city and State, 
Mr. Baldwin has had much to do with the social 
life of the city. He served as President of the 
Young Men's Society, and also of St. Luke's Hos- 
pital and Church Home, and has for several years 
been President of the Michigan Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Monument Association. He has been promi- 
nently identified with the Detroit Museum of Art, 
his interest in art matters is not of a recent date, 
and for a number of years he has possessed many 
valuable works obtained by himself, and by Major 
Cass while United States Minister in Rome. 

His social qualities make his company desirable. 
He is frank and outspoken, but dignified, courteous 
and generous, and any one who has him for a coun- 
selor and friend is fortunate indeed. 

LEWIS CASS, second Governor of the Territory 
of Michigan, was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, 
October 9, 1782, and his ancestors w^ere among the 
early pioneers of that State. His father. Major Jona- 
than Cass, joined the Patriot Army the day after the 
skirmish at Lexington, and fought for the indepen- 
dence of the Colonies at Bunker Hill, Trenfon, 
Princeton, Germantown, Saratoga and Monmouth. 

Lewis Cass received a classical education in Exe- 
ter Academy, and after teaching school for some 
time in Delaware, his father being then stationed 
there under General Wayne, he set out, in his nine- 
teenth year, for the Northwest Territory and crossed 
the Alleghanies on foot. He studied law under 
Return J. Meigs at Marietta, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1802, His success was rapid, and in i8o6 
he was in the Legislature of Ohio. 

The following year he was appointed Marshal of 
Ohio, and filled the office until the War of 1 8 1 2, 
when he resigned his commission, and, at the head 
of the Third Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, marched 
to the frontier, and there is every reason to believe 
that, if he had been in command instead of Gover- 
nor Hull, Detroit and Michigan would not have 
been surrendered. In the subsequent recapture 
of the city he rendered efficient service, and at the 



close of the campaign was appointed Governor of 
the Territory, serving until 1831, a period the length 
of which has rarely or never been equalled in the 
governorship of any territory. Soon after his ap- 
pointment as Governor he removed his family to 
Detroit. One of the earliest acts passed under his 
administration was the law of 1 8 1 5 which restored 
the control of local affairs to the people of Detroit. 

In the year 1820, w^ith the approval of the Secre- 
tary of War, he organized a canoe expedition to 
Lake Superior and the source of the Mississippi, 
with the special object of establishing friendly rela- 
tions with various Indian tribes. The expedition 
w^as notably successful, and as on previous occasions 
Governor Cass proved himself an adept in manag- 
ing the wily and much-dreaded red men. During 
his administration he negotiated no less than twen- 
ty-one treaties wnth the Indians. 

In 1831 he became Secretary of War under Pres- 
ident Jackson, and served until 1836, when he was 
appointed United States Minister to France. Dur- 
ing his residence at the French court the English 
Government sought to secure the adoption of a 
treaty by the several European powers that would 
have conceded the " right of search " as to Ameri- 
can vessels. Mr. Cass was determined to defeat 
the project and made a formal protest against the 
ratification of the treaty by France, and wrote a 
pamphlet on the " Right of Search," which was 
generally read by European statesmen, and as a 
result the treaty was defeated. While serving as 
United States Minister, General Cass visited vari- 
ous portions of Europe and also Palestine. He 
returned to this country in 1842. 

In 1845 he was elected to the United States Sen- 
ate, but resigned in 1848 when nominated for the 
Presidency, but the next year was re-elected as 
Senator, serving until 1857, and then entering the 
cabinet of President Buchanan as Secretary of 
State. The cares and anxieties of the office during 
the closing period of Buchanan's administration, and 
General Cass's lack of sympathy with the methods 
of the President, caused him to resign, and he re- 
turned to Detroit quite feeble and broken in health. 
The writer well remembers a brief interview with 
him soon after his return. He seemed to be op- 
pressed with the dangers that threatened the Gov- 
ernment and with tears in his eyes said : " Sixty 
years ago I crossed the Ohio river with all that I had 
in the world tied in a handkerchief. Since then I 
have witnessed the unparalleled growth of this great 
nation and have been greatly honored by the peo- 
ple, but now it almost seems as though they were 
willing to destroy it or let it crumble into ruin." 

Fortunately for all people his fears were not 
realized. He grew somewhat stronger physically, 
and, on April 25, i86i, addressed a public meeting 



I058 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



in favor of the presentation of the Union and was 
permitted to witness the close of the war. He died 
on June 17, 1866. 

For over sixty years he was a prominent figure in 
the military and political life of the nation and 
was almost uniformly successful in his undertakings. 
He was a careful student, an elegant writer, and 
thoroughly familiar with the literature of his day. 

While residing at Detroit he was actively inter- 
ested in various literary endeavors, wrote num- 
erous articles for the North American Review 
and delivered addresses on a variety of topics. He 
was the author of a volume, entitled " France, its 
King, Court, and Government," and the Detroit 
Gazette, the first successful newspaper in Detroit,was 
begun and continued under his special patronage. 

Socially he was warm-hearted and of great ser- 
vice to those privileged with his acquaintance. 
He was an earnest believer in the Christian faith 
and was one of the corporators of the First Prot- 
estant Society of Detroit. His possession of the 
Cass farm, the name of one of the public schools 
and also the name of a leading avenue, perpetuate 
his memory in Detroit, and the State has recently 
provided for the placing of his statue in the capi- 
tol at Washington. 

S. DOW ELWOOD was born on Christmas-day, 
1824, in Otsego County, N. Y., near the historic 
Mohawk Valley, and is the son of Daniel and Hannah 
(Bushnell) El wood. His paternal ancestors emi- 
grated from Holland early in the seventeenth century; 
and his mother's family were pioneers in New Eng- 
land. While he was still an infant his father died, and 
a few years later his mother remarried and moved to 
Oneida Castle, N. Y., where she died in 1838. His 
parents were in modest circumstances and after 
their death he was left alone in the world. For- 
tune, however, interposed in his behalf and he 
found a home, with all that the most sacred and 
tender significance of the word suggests, in the 
family of a friend and neighbor, by the name of 
Patten. Though many years have passed he does 
not fail to cherish the memory of the noble souls 
who gave him so abundantly of their love and care. 
Mrs. Patten still lives, and it is one of his valued 
privileges to contribute to the comforts and pleasures 
of her declining years. 

He attended school at Oneida Castle, and a few 
years later, at the age of eighteen, in the same 
building, he found himself the proud occupant of 
the master's chair. That spot is one of the loveliest 
in the most attractive section of the Empire State, 
and as the scene of his childish struggles and the 
arena where his ambitions first took form, it is revis- 
ited as often as his busy life will permit, and always 
with increasing" interest. 



In 1844 he moved to Rochester, N. Y., where two 
paternal uncles, John B. and Isaac R. Elwood, and 
his two older brothers were living. He soon found 
employment as clerk in a grocery house, and the 
following year received an appointment as clerk in 
the United States Post Office. He remained in 
this position about a year and was then promoted 
to the position of U. S. Railway Mail Agent, and 
continued in this office without interruption until 
March 7, 1849. A Whig administration then suc- 
ceeded the Democratic under which his appoint- 
ment was made, and he was removed. In Sep- 
tember, 1849, he joined the Argonauts and sailed 
to California in search of the "Golden Fleece." 
Reaching California he engaged in trading in the 
mines and also established an Express between San 
Francisco and the southern mining region via 
Stockton. The California episode covered a period 
of one year, at the close of whicK he returned to 
Rochester, and in February, 185 1, was married to 
a daughter of the Hon. E. M. Parsons. 

He soon after came to Detroit and engaged in 
the book and stationery trade, continuing in it until 
1866. He then sold out and visited the Canadian 
oil region and, as a careful survey of the grounds 
satisfied him that it possessed favorable business 
prospects, he opened a banking office at Petrolia, 
where he remained about four years, prospering 
steadily. 

In 1 87 1, having in the meantime resumed his resi- 
dence in Detroit, Mr. Elwood interested several busi- 
ness men in the establishment of the Wayne County 
Savings' Bank. This institution has grown to large 
proportions and is regarded as one of the strongest 
financial institutions of Michigan's metropolis. Its 
deposit account aggregates $4,000,000, and it has 
been in every sense a notable success. It is due to 
Mr. Elw^ood to say that he has been its principal 
manager from its organization to the present, and 
to it he devotes all of his business hours and most of 
his thought. 

Politically, Mr. Elwood is a Democrat. His 
earliest remembered affiliations and convictions 
were of the democratic order, and he has been 
uninterruptedly loyal to that party. He is extreme- 
ly averse to notoriety, and it is a matter of common 
knowledge that he has, more than once, put aside 
the offer of political preferment and declined many 
a nomination that would have been equivalent to an 
election— the sole exception in the way of office hold- 
ing being a three years' term in the Board of Alder- 
men — serving from 1863 to 1866— most of that time 
in the President's chair. The sincerity of his politi- 
cal preferences is so fully believed, and so resolutely 
has he always defended them, that even those most 
opposed to him in these matters are glad to be en- 
rolled among his personal friends. His sagacity as 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1059 



a politician and his devotion to his principles were 
abundantly illustrated during his career as chair- 
man for six years, of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee of Michigan. 

When the Young Men's Society of Detroit was 
in its best days, he was at its head as President. 

As the possessor of abundant means, in a charac- 
teristic and unobtrusive way, he has all his life 
been a liberal giver, a bountiful friend. In his per- 
sonality, he is affable and among his intimates, dis- 
tinctly " sociable." He never forgets to be courte- 
ous, kind and considerate, and not only enjoys the 
companionship of his friends, but attaches them 
strongly to himself. 

For many years he has been an adherent of the 
Unitarian Church and a regular attendant upon its 
services. Mr. Elwood's family is composed of his 
wife and one daughter, now nearing womanhood. 

JACOB M. HOWARD was born in Shaftsbury, 
Vt., July 10, 1805, and was educated at the Acad- 
emies of Bennington and Brattleboro, and at Wil- 
liams College, where he graduated in 1830. He 
studied law and engaged in teaching for about two 
years and in 1832 came to Detroit ; was admitted 
to the bar in 1833, and was soon prominent among 
the leading young men of the city. In 1834 he was 
made City Attorney and in 1838 was a member of 
the State Legislature ; from 1841 to 1843 he served 
as Representative in Congress ; in 185 1 he appeared 
for the people in the great trial known as the Rail- 
road Conspiracy Case; in 1854 he was elected 
Attorney-General of the State and was twice 
re-elected, serving in all six years. In 1862 he was 
elected as U. S. Senator from Michigan, in place of 
K. S. Bingham, deceased, and in 1865 was elected 
for the full term, serving until 1871. 

While acting as Senator he served as chairman of 
the Committee on the Pacific Railroad, and as one 
of the Committee on Military Affairs, Judiciary 
Private Land Claims, and Library, and also as one 
of the Special Joint Committee on the Recon- 
structed States. 

He received from Williams College, in 1866. the 
degree of LL. D., and was a delegate to the Phila- 
delphia " Loyalists' Convention" of the same year. 

In 1847 he published a translation of the " Secret 
Memoirs of the Empress Josephine." He drew up 
the platform of the first convention of the Republi- 
can party in 1854, and is said to have given the 
party its name. Whether this be so or not, there 
can be no doubt that he was one of the ablest leaders 
the party ever possessed, and. indeed, his equals 
were few in number. During the war for the 
Union he rendered the country great service by his 
ability and patriotism, and all felt that when he 
died a statesman had passed away. 



He died on April 2, 1871. His .wife's maiden 
name was Catherine A. Shaw. The children liv- 
ing^ at the time of his death were Mrs. Mary E. 
Hildreth, wife of Joseph S. Hildreth, Col. J. M. 
Howard, of Litchfield, Minnesota; Hamilton G. 
Howard, Charles M. and Jennie D. Howard, now 
Mrs. Samuel Brady. 

JAMES F. JOY, whose name for nearly fifty 
years has been a household word in Detroit and for 
nearly the same length of time also well known 
throughout the country, is of New England an- 
cestry, and was born in Durham, New Hamp- 
shire, December 2d, 18 10. His father, James Joy, 
was a man of much enterprise and intelligence, was 
decided in his opinions and character, a Federalist 
in politics, and a Calvinist in religion, whose influ- 
ence for good w^as felt by all to whom he became 
known. He had a large family, and the characters 
and careers of his children were largely shaped by 
his influence, teaching, and example. He was a 
blacksmith by trade, but later in life became a 
manufacturer of scythes. The maiden name of his 
wiie was Sarah Pickering. 

James F. Joy attended a common school until he 
was sixteen and w^as then sent to an academy, and 
in two years was well fitted for the college course 
and able to enter Dartmouth College, He gradu- 
ated there at the head of his class in 1833 and im- 
mediately commenced the study of law in the Har- 
vard Law School at Cambridge, with Judge Storey 
and Professor Greenleaf as his instructors. After 
remaining there a year he became principal of the 
academy at Pittsfield, in his native state, and re- 
mained there some months. He was then ap- 
pointed tutor in the Latin language in Dartmouth 
College, which position he retained for about a 
year. He then resumed the study of law at Cam- 
bridge ; was admitted to the bar in Boston, and 
immediately went west, landing in Detroit in Sep- 
tember, 1836. Here he entered the office of Augus- 
tus S. Porter, where he remained till May, 1837, 
when he opened an office for himself, and in the 
fall of that year George F. Porter became associated 
with him as a partner in business. They continued 
in practice for about twenty-five years, and were 
eminent in their profession. Their most important 
early client was the old Bank of Michigan, and sub- 
sequently "The Dwights," so-called, then well 
known men of ability and wealth who were en- 
gaged in banking in Massachusetts, Michigan, and 
Ohio. About this time Gen. Jackson removed the 
public money from the United States Bank, the 
state banks became its depositories, and the Bank of 
Michigan received about $1,200,000 of government 
money. These public funds were deposited in local 
banks all over the country, and as a result there 



io6o 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



was vast speculation everywhere, and soon a panic 
and almost universal bankruptcy. The Dwights 
undertook to sustain the Bank of Michigan, they 
loaned it about $400,000, and took its suspended 
debt, secured by mortgages, on the property of its 
debtors. All of these assets came into the office of 
Joy & Porter for collection, and the litigation grow- 
ing out of these collections was a source of much 
profit and gave the firm a wide reputation as 
lawyers. 

In 1846 when it was proposed to sell the Michi- 
gan Central Railroad to a corporation, Mr. Joy 
was employed in the interest of the proposed com- 
pany. He largely framed its charter and organized 
the company which purchased the road of the State, 
and undertook to build it through to Chicago. It 
was the important litigation of that company in 
Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois which drew Mr. 
Joy away from his practice in Detroit. He was also 
compelled to shape the legislation in Indiana and Illi- 
nois, under which the road was finally extended to 
Chicago. The history of the controversy, with re- 
gard to the extension of the road to Chicago, is full 
of interesting detail, and its importance was such 
as to compel Mr. Joy to make railway law a special- 
ty, and he soon became, and for a long time contin- 
ued, perhaps the most noted lawyer in railway liti- 
gation in the country.and for many years his prac- 
tice was both extensive and profitable. From serv- 
ing as their counsel he was drawn into their man- 
agement, and by degrees became prominent in ex- 
tending railway connections, and in their manage- 
ment and construction. One of his principal clients 
was the Illinois Central Railroad Company, and the 
entrance of their road into Chicago was attended 
with much difficulty and litigation. The most cele- 
brated suit, however, which he was called upon to 
manage was that of George C. Bates against the 
Michigan Central and Illinois Central Railroad 
Companies, involving the title to all the station 
grounds of both companies in that city. The occa- 
sion of the suit was as follows : In the early days 
of Chicago, before the harbor was built by the 
Government, the Chicago River, at its mouth, ran 
south for more than a mile below where the harbor 
now is. Outside of the river and between it and 
the lake was a wide sand bar; this bar had been 
platted into city lots and contained a good many 
acres of land. The Government excavated a chan- 
nel across it, and built its piers directly through it 
into the lake. As the pier was extended the south- 
ward current (produced by the winds on the west 
side of the lake running south past the end of the 
pier) caused an eddy on the south side which began 
to wear away this sand bar, and in the course of six 
or eight years it entirely disappeared. 

When the Illinois and Michigan Central Com- 



panies reached Chicago they located their station 
grounds in the lake exactly where this sand bar had 
been, deposited earth upon it, raised it and erected 
freight and passenger houses upon the ground. 
Mr. Bates bought up the titles to the lots and 
property located on the sand bar, and brought a 
suit to recover the grounds. A very interesting 
and important question then arose as to who really 
owned this land. Mr. Joy took the position that 
when the water had gradually worn away the 
land all private titles went with it, and that when 
it all had disappeared under the water all private 
ownership to it, however perfect, was lost, and that 
the railway companies, having occupied the site 
under the authority of the State, and filled it up, 
were the legal owners. The litigation as to its 
ownership was long and complicated. It was twice 
tried by and finally settled by the United States Su- 
preme Court, the position of Mr. Joy being sustained. 
The value of the property involved was about 
$2,000,000. It is a curious fact that the law rela- 
tive to riparian rights is based upon a decision made 
at Rome in the time of Augustus by Trebatius, a 
learned praetor, to whom Hbrace addressed one of 
his satires. The principles of the decision of Tre- 
batius were adopted by the English courts, and its 
authority prevailed in the Chicago case, which is 
one of great celebrity. 

Mr. Joy now became extensively identified with 
the railway interests of the country, and was 
largely engaged in extending their lines. He or- 
ganized and for many years was at the head of the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Com- 
pany. Under his charge it was planned and con- 
structed to Quincy and Omaha. The country 
through which it passed was rich but largely un- 
developed, but soon after the road was built, it was 
rapidly settled, and the enterprise, all the time he 
was connected with it, was the most successful 
and profitable to its security holders of any simi- 
lar enterprise in the country, and it has been 
good property ever since. The railroad from Kan- 
sas City to the Indian Territory is one among many 
enterprises of the kind that he promoted. With 
other inducements to build it was a tract of 800,- 
000 acres, called the neutral lands, belonging to 
the Cherokee Indians. These lands, by a treaty 
between the Senate, the Indian Nation, and him- 
self, Mr. Joy purchased. The road was to be built 
across these lands, which were, to some extent, 
occupied by lawless squatters, who undertook to 
prevent the construction of the road unless Mr. Joy 
would give them the lands they occupied. Their 
demands led to violence, the engineers of the road 
were driven off, and ties and timber designed for 
the road were burned. It was only through the 
aid of two cavalry companies of United States 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1061 



troops, stationed there by the Government, that he 
was enabled to complete the road. He also built 
the first bridge across the Missouri River at Kan- 
sas City, and the building of the bridge gave a 
great impetus to the progress of that now large and 
prosperous city. While he had been acting as 
counsel for the Michigan Central Railroad Company, 
he became connected with the project of building 
the Sault St. Mary's Canal. The Government had 
granted the State of Michigan 750,000 acres of land 
to aid in the construction of the canal. The grant 
was several years old and various attempts had 
been made to induce parties to take the land and 
build the canal. About 1857 Mr. Joy, in connection 
with J. W. Brooks, then managing the Michigan 
Central, concluded to undertake the work. The 
requisite legislation was secured, and they organ- 
ized a company to undertake the enterprise, and a 
contract was made with the authorities of the State 
to build the canal and take the land in payment. 
The work was undertaken, and within two years 
from the date of the contract the first ship canal be- 
tween Lake Superior and the St. Mary's River was 
open, and the advantages of the route thus opened 
are not second to those afforded by the more cele- 
brated, but not more useful, Suez Canal. 

After having been several years connected with 
roads farther west, Mr. Joy, about 1867, returned to 
Michigan and became President of the Michigan 
Central Railroad Company, which had many years 
before employed him as its counsel. The great 
civil war was over, and the country was beginning 
to spring forward to new life. Not much progress 
had been made in railroads in Michigan for ten 
years. The Michigan Central was an iron instead 
of a steel road. Its equipment was about the same 
as it had been ten years before, but its business had 
increased very largely, and it was necessary that it 
be rebuilt with steel rail and newly equipped. It 
was equally desirable to so shape and control the 
railway construction of the State, that it should be 
the least detrimental to, and most promote the 
interests of the Michigan Central, which was by 
far the most important road in the State. In ac- 
cordance with his plans the Michigan Central was 
rebuilt, largely double-tracked, and every depart- 
ment renewed and enlarged and made adequate to 
the demands of the times. This was done at great 
cost, steel rails then costing in gold something more 
than $130 per ton. During these years^ Mr. Joy 
promoted the building, and finally obtained control, 
of the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw road from Jack- 
son to Saginaw and Mackinac, and also of the road 
from Jackson to Grand Rapids. He also raised 
the money for and built the Detroit & Bay City 
Railroad, in order to secure the best connection 
between Detroit and the northern part of the State 



by connection with the road to Mackinac. All 
these lines were secured for the Michigan Central, 
thus continuing its prestige as the most important 
road in Michigan. While they promote the inter- 
est of the country through which they run, these 
several roads have also largely contributed to build 
up the city of Detroit. Meantime the parties who 
had undertaken to build the Detroit, Lansing & 
Northern road, failed in their effort. Mr. Joy then 
took up the enterprise, raised the money, built the 
road, and it has become an important element in 
the prosperity both of the State and city. Several 
other enterprises, valuable to the State and the west, 
are also the result of his efforts and of his ability 
to command capital. The last public enterprise 
with which he has been connected is the effort to 
secure a connection with the Wabash system of 
railroads for Detroit, and provide adequate station 
buildings and grounds in Detroit for its business. 
In furtherance of the object he, with Messrs. C. H. 
Buhl, Allan Shelden. James McMillan, R. A. Alger 
and John S. Newberry, of Detroit, furnished most 
of the money with which to build the road from 
Detroit to Logansport, and Messrs. Joy, Buhl, Shel- 
den, McMillan and Newberry built the Detroit 
Union Depot and Station Grounds, and the rail- 
road through the western part of the city connecting 
with the Wabash road. These local facilities are 
now partly leased to the Wabash Company, and 
furnish adequate grounds, freight house and eleva- 
tor for the accommodation of the business of Detroit 
in connection with that railway. It rarely happens, 
that a few men such as Mr. Joy and his associates 
are able and willing to hazard so much in promot- 
ing the interests of the city and State in which they 
live. 

Mr. Joy's life has been a very busy and useful 
one and oi great advantage to the city and State 
in which he lives, and to the city of Chicago and 
the country west as well. Few men have had it in 
their power for so many years, to guide and direct 
the investment of so large an amount of capital. 

Although Mr. Joy has led so active a life, and 
been engaged in so many and important enterprises, 
he has not neglected mental recreation and im- 
provement, but has at all times kept up his early 
acquaintance with the ancient classics and with 
those of modern times as well. His large library 
contains the choicest literature of both ancient and 
modern times, including all the Latin and French 
classics. His chief recreation in all his busy life 
has been in his library, and his case is a rare in- 
stance of a busy life closely connected with books, 
not only in his own, but in foreign and dead lan- 
guages. He has been often heard to say that he 
would willingly give $1,000 for the lost books of 
either Livy or Tacitus. He attributes much of the 



io62 



GOVERiNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



freshness of his mind, and even much of his heahh, 
to his recreation in his library. 

Notwithstanding he is nearing fourscore his 
health is robust, and his faculties all seem as per- 
fect as at any time in his life. His strength holds 
good and he is, perhaps, as active and vigorous in 
business as at any time in his career. He has had 
the happy faculty of always putting business out of 
his mind when the hour for business was past, and 
has never carried his cares home with him. In his 
long life he has met with many and large losses, but 
it is believed that however great they may have 
been there never was an evening when he would 
not lose all thought of them in reading the pages of 
some favorite author. He is a man of regular 
habits, has never used tobacco in any form, and 
has never been in the habit of drinking anything 
stronger than coffee and tea. During most of his 
life he has been in the habit of taking exercise for 
an hour or two each day, and his favorite method is 
walking. 

He has never sought political honors, but when 
it became evident that there was to be a great civil 
war he was elected to the Legislature. He ac- 
cepted the position and aided in preparing the 
State for the part it was to take in that great con- 
test. He was in old times a Whig, but in time be- 
came a member of the Free Soil party, and after- 
wards an earnest Republican. 

Mr. Joy has been twice married. The name of 
his first wife was Martha Alger Reed. She w'as the 
daughter of Hon. John Reed, of Yarmouth, Massa- 
chusetts, who was a member of Congress for sev- 
eral years, and served also as Lieutenant-Governor 
of that State. Tha maiden name of his second wife 
was Mary Bourne, who was a resident of Hartford, 
Connecticut. The children of Mr. Joy are as follows: 
Sarah R., wife of Dr. Edward W. Jenks ; Martha 
A., wife of Henry A. Newland ; James, Frederick, 
Henry B., and Richard Pickering Joy. 

HENRY BROCKHOLST LEDYARD, son of 
Henry and Matilda (Cass) Ledyard, was born at 
Paris, France, on February 20th, 1844, during the 
residence of his father in that city as Secretary of 
the United States Legation. 

After the return of his father to Detroit, he at- 
tended the- excellent and well known school of 
Washington^ A. Bacon. From here he went to 
Columbia College at Washington, where he spent 
two years, and from there to the West Point Mili- 
tary Academy. He was appointed as a Cadet at 
Large by President Buchanan in 186 1. He entered 
as a. cadet on July ist, 1 861, graduated on June 
23d, 1865, ^^d on the same day, by two different 
commissions, was appointed Second and then First 
Lieutenant in the Nineteenth U. S. Infantry. 



He was first sent to Fort Wayne near Detroit, 
from thence to Augusta, Georgia, with recruits, and 
then to Newport Barracks, Kentucky, where he 
served during October and November, 1865. From 
November 20th, 1865, to September 6th, 1866, he 
was Quartermaster of his regiment, and from Sep- 
tember 6th, 1866, to November 2d, 1866, he was 
Quartermaster of the third battalion. 

During this period he w^as at Newport from No- 
vember, 1865, to March, 1866, on frontier duty at 
Little Rock, Arkansas, in May and June, 1866, in 
charge of rebel prisoners at Columbus, Ohio, from 
June 15th to July loth, 1866, and then again at Lit- 
tle Rock in July, August and September, acting 
during a portion of the time as Chief Commissary 
of the Department of the Arkansas. 

From October, 1866, to February, 1867, he was 
at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Meantime, on Sep- 
tember 2 1 St, 1866, he was transferred to the Thirty- 
seventh Infantry, and served as Quartermaster of the 
regiment from November 2d, 1866, to February 25th, 
1867. He was then transferred to the Fourth Artil- 
lery and served on General Hancock's staff as acting 
Chief Commissary of Subsistence of the Department 
of the Missouri in the field in an expedition against 
hostile Indians on the plains. In 1867 he was 
ordered to West Point as Assistant Professor of 
French, and in 1868 joined his battery at Fort Mc- 
Henry, Maryland. 

Three years later, in 1 870, when the army was 
reorganized, seeing but little prospect of promotion, 
and acting under the advice of Gen. Sherman, he 
obtained leave of absence for six months and en- 
tered the Engineering Department of the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, then under construction. His pre- 
ference being for a connection with the operating 
of a railway rather than with its construction, he 
applied for a position with James F. Joy, then the 
foremost railway manager of the country, being 
President of the Michigan Central, Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, and several other important 
western railroads. Mr. Joy, who had been for many 
years a warm personal friend of his father's, offered 
him a position as clerk in the office of the Division 
Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad. He entered the service of that company 
in July, 1870, and in November of the same year re- 
signed iTis commission in the army, and was hon- 
orably discharged from the service, in accordance 
w^ith the Act of Congress. Two years afterwards 
he was made Assistant Superintendent of the road, 
and in 1873 became Division Superintendent of the 
Eastern Division. 

In October, 1874, Mr. Joy offered the position of 
General Superintendent of the Michigan Central 
to W. B. Strong, then Assistant General Superin- 
tendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1063 



road (now President of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Railroad). Mr. Strong accepted the 
position, and persuaded Mr. Ledyard to accompany 
him as Assistant General Superintendent, and in 
the following spring he also assumed the duties of 
Chief Engineer. In 1876 Mr. Strong resigned to 
accept the General Superintendency of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and Mr. Led- 
yard was appointed as his successor. The appoint- 
ment came from Mr. Joy, and Mr. Ledyard ascribes 
much of his success to the valuable aid and wise 
counsel of this experienced financier. 

In 1877, Mr. Ledyard was made General Mana- 
ger of the Michigan Central Railroad, and in 1883 
on the retirement of W. H. Vanderbilt from active 
railway management, succeeded him as President 
of the corporation, being probably the youngest 
President in the country of so large a corporation. 

His military and engineering education give him 
special qualifications for the position he occupies, 
and these with rare administrative ability, insure 
method and accuracy in all that he attempts. 
These qualities largely account for his rapid ad- 
vancement to his present position. It would be 
difficult to find in the United States his superior in 
knowledge in all departments of his work, as he is 
one of the few skilled railroad presidents in the 
country. His memory is amazing with regard to the 
history of railroad agreements, bonds, pools, and 
other complexities, which during the last twenty 
years have become such an intricacy that few minds 
can disentangle or trace them ; his memory is 
equally good in general intellectual and literary 
matters. 

It is his nature to be aggressive, and he keeps his 
railroad in the front rank by instinctively doing in 
advance what necessity would compel later on. His 
labors are in the highest degree intelligent, and he 
mastered all the details of the whole intricate and 
comprehensive system of railway management. He 
does not fear responsibility, but having confi- 
dence in his own powers, he readily assumes addi- 
tional responsibilities, his grasp becoming more 
comprehensive and his abilities rising as occasion 
demands. Although of a nervous temperament, he 
is by no means a nervous man, but his feelings are 
constantly on the alert. It is not his habit to con- 
sult others on the bearing of facts and conditions. 
His natural perception is remarkably quick and ac- 
curate ; he grasps readily the ideas of others and 
has a wonderful retentive memory concerning all 
things brought to his attention, and is always 
prompt and self-reliant, and there is apparently no 
limit to his powers of endurance, and yet he is al- 
ways eminently modest,, neglecting almost con- 
stantly rights and honors belonging to him as the 
president of a great and wealthy corporation. 



He is especially careful of the interests of others, 
gives patient consideration to all suggestions of pro- 
posed improvements and almost by intuition selects 
those of value. His prompt methods of doing busi- 
ness, and the rapidity with which he arrives at a 
decision, causes him to be sometimes misunder- 
stood, but this, only for a moment, or by those who 
have no real opportunity of knowing him. Those 
who are brought into close relationship with him 
always learn to appreciate his courtesy and the con- 
sideration which he constantly bestows upon the 
welfare of all the employes of the road, and they 
know that he is as lenient as is possibly consistent 
with wise and judicious management. 

Socially, Mr. Ledyard is distinguished for sincer- 
ity and a thorough devotion to his friends. He 
has little love for the formal round of fashionable 
living, prefers home to all other places, and at his 
own fireside, or with a circle of familiar spirits, his 
kindly sentiments, genial humor, and rare intellect- 
ual gifts make him a delightful companion and a 
universal favorite. 

He was married on October 15th, 1867, to Mary 
L'Hommedieu, of Cincinnati, daughter of Stephen 
L'Hommedieu, the projector, and for twenty-five 
years the President of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton Railroad. Their children are Matilda Cass, 
Henry, Augustus Canfield, and Hugh. 

JAMES MCMILLAN was born May 12, 1838, 
at Hamilton, Ontario, and is the son of William and 
Grace McMillan of Scotland, who emigrated to 
Canada and settled in Hamilton in 1836. William 
McMillan was a man of exceptionally strong and 
symmetrical character and of the highest integrity. 
His business connections were wide and his identi- 
fication with many important enterprises made his 
name well known throughout Ontario. From th& 
inception of the Great Western Railway Company 
until his death in 1874, he was one of its officers. 

James McMillan began his educational course in 
the grammar school at Hamilton, a preparatory 
institution of the Toronto College, presided over by 
Dr. Tassie, an able and well known teacher. At 
the age of fourteen, having acquired a thoroughly 
practical education, he began his remarkably suc- 
cessful career. Entering a hardware establishment, 
he spent four years in learning the detail of the busi- 
ness, and then removed to Detroit and obtained a 
situation in the wholesale hardware store of Buhl & 
Ducharme. At the end of two years' service he was 
appointed to the position of purchasing agent of the 
Detroit and Milwaukee Railway. While perform- 
ing these duties he attracted the attention of an ex- 
tensive railroad contractor and was employed by him 
to secure men, purchase supplies, and care for the 
finances in connection with the execution of a large 



1064 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS. BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



contract. At this time he was only twenty years 
old, but proved abundantly able to fulfill the duties 
required of him, and the experience gained during 
this period was especially profitable as a prepara- 
tion for his future career. When the contracts 
upon which he was engaged were completed, he 
again obtained the position of purchasing agent of 
the Detroit and Milwaukee Railway. 

In 1864 Mr. McMillan associated himself with 
Messrs. Newberry, Dean and Eaton, in the forma- 
tion of the Michigan Car Company, from which has 
grown the immense industrial enterprises which 
have made the names of Newberry & McMillan 
famous in financial circles throughout the country. 
Among the most important of their enterprises are 
the Detroit Car Wheel Company, the Baugh Steam 
Forge Company and the Detroit Iron Furnace 
Company. Of all these immense concerns Mr. 
McMillan is president and the principal owner. 
The business of these establishments varies from 
$3,500,000 to $5,000,000 annually, and the number 
of employees averages over 2,500. Mr. McMillan's 
car building enterprises have not been confined to 
Detroit. He was long prominently connected and 
heavily interested in car works at London, Ontario, 
and St. Louis, Missouri, both of which enterprises 
are indebted largely to his sagacity and administra- 
tive ability for their success. He is also largely 
interested in the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic 
Railway, and has been its only president. In addi- 
tion to this line he is actively engaged in the further- 
ing of other railroad lines that are destined to be 
of great service both to Northern Michigan and 
Detroit. He is a large stockholder in the Detroit 
and Cleveland Steam Navigation Company, in the 
Detroit Transportation Company, and in other 
freight and passenger lines, and is a director in the 
First National Bank, and the Detroit Saving Bank, 
besides being largely interested in other banks. 
He is prominently connected with the Detroit City 
Railway Company, with the D. M. Ferry & Co. 
Seed Company, the Detroit Railroad Elevator, the 
Union Depot Company, and with numerous other 
large enterprises in Detroit and elsewhere. For 
many years he has owned a large amount of cen- 
trally located business property, and the business 
blocks he has erected have added greatly to the 
architectural beauty of the city. In fact his aggres- 
sive energies have been felt in many directions and 
wherever exerted have been rewarded with large 
and merited success, and thousands of individuals 
and the city at large have been profited by the re- 
sults of his sagacity. He has not sought to keep 
his gains to himself, but has always liberally and 
judiciously expended a large share of them for the 
promotion of the public good. * 

Added to the strong sense and clear foresight 



derived from his Scotch parentage, he obtained a 
business training that step by step has prepared 
him for every change and made him master of each 
successive situation. An executive ability of com- 
manding character, with wonderful power of concen- 
tration upon any given subject, capacity for compli- 
cated details, ability to keep in mind the whole 
field of his immense interests without losing sight 
of a single important link in their best and most 
profitable relation, serve in a measure to explain the 
results he has secured. He is quick and sure in 
his judgment of character, trusting fearlessly when 
he has once given his confidence, thus enlisting ' 
the loyal and sympathetic support of those who 
labor with him. He is ready in decision, broad, 
clear and liberal in his views and wise and just in 
administration. Thoroughly quiet and unostenta- 
tious in manner, he has a heartiness of greeting and 
a genuine love of humor, that makes him an agree- 
able friend. Despite the arduous work he has per- 
formed, he has kept the physical man in the best of 
conditions, and as a result his natural kindliness of 
disposition remains unchanged, and he never shows 
the fatigue or impatience that so often repel. At 
all times approachable and agreeable, he is an ideal 
business man. His charities are numerous, un- 
ceasing and extensive. He is a member of the 
Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church and is nota- 
bly liberal, not only to that church, but to other 
denominations, and indeed to religious and philan- 
thropic movements of any kind. One of his most 
recent benefactions is the gift of $100,000 for the 
erection of a Free Homoeopathic Hospital in De- 
troit. He is ever ready to lend a helping hand and 
many young men have cause to remember his time- 
ly assistance. 

A Republican in politics, he has been actively 
interested and influential in the success of his party, 
giving freely of both money and time. For several 
years he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Committee, and his genius for thorough organiza- 
tion was a valuable factor in securing party vic- 
tories. He is regarded not only as a consistent and 
very valuable party man, but as one of no slight 
authority upon general political matters. He has 
thus far refused the proffered nomination by party 
friends to high and responsible official position, con- 
tenting himself by aiding effectively in the election 
of his friends, but it is none the less certain that 
his abilities admirably qualify him for any position 
in the gift of the State or Nation. 

Although only in middle life, he has reaped a 
princely fortune and is secure in the respect and 
esteem of his fellow citizens. 

He was married in i860 to Mary L. Wetmore of 
Detroit. They have five children living, four sons 
and one daughter. The eldest son graduated from 




^y / / . r.:2 yy-^y . ' y//^-r^ /^/^^ . - , 



GOVERNORS. SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



IO6.S 



D 



Yale College and is interested in various enterprises 
in connection with his father. The second son 
graduated also from Yale and is now studying law. 

HUGH McMillan is among the foremost of 
the comparatively few young business men of De- 
troit who have won distinction in the establishment 
of large business enterprises. His business life has 
exhibited tireless energy, unyielding perseverance, 
a keen foresight of events and the intelligent use of 
definite means to accomplish a well defined pur- 
pose. He was born at Hamilton, Ontario, Septem- 
ber 28, 1845, and is a son of William and Grace 
McMillan, both natives of Scotland. His father 
was born in Glasgow, where for several years he 
was engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1836 he 
emigrated to Canada, settling in Hamilton ; became 
one of the first officers of the Great Western Rail- 
way Company, and continued as such until his death 
in 1874. He was a man of broad ideas, great moral 
courage, perfect confidence in his own judgment, 
well informed and possessed of a genial sunny dis- 
position, good presence, and ready natural wit. 
Through his extensive business transactions he be- 
came well known throughout Ontario and was 
everywhere highly esteemed. 

Hugh McMillan, the fifth son in a family of six 
sons and one daughter, began his educational 
course in the public school and continued his stud- 
ies until he graduated in Phillips' Academy, at Ham- 
ilton. Early in life Mr. McMillan determined to 
devote his energies to a business career and at the 
age of fourteen obtained a clerkship in the Great 
Western Railway, and after two years' experience 
as bookkeeper was induced in 1861 to go to Detroit. 
Here he became a clerk in the office of the General 
Superintendent of the Detroit and Milwaukee Rail- 
way, and remained in the employ of the road for 
three years, and then thinking that a mercantile life 
offered greater inducements than a railroad career, 
he became a clerk in the hardware store of Du- 
charme & Prentice. In 1872 he became associated 
with his brother, James McMillan, accepting the 
position of Secretary of the Michigan Car Company, 
which was just beginning to assume large propor- 
tions. Those essential qualities of executive ability, 
good judgment and quick perception, so requisite in 
the building up of extensive enterprises, were soon 
manifested, and his indefatigable exertions contrib- 
uted greatly to the success of the company. Some 
years after he became connected with the company 
he was made Vice-President and General Manager, 
positions which he still retains. In the Detroit Car 
Wheel Company and the Baugh Steam Forge Com- 
pany, established about the same time, connected 
with the Michigan Car Company and virtually under 
the same management, he has been greatly influen- 



tial. He is Vice-President and Manager of the 
former and Vice-President and Treasurer of the last 
named corporation In every stage of the rapid 
growth of these establishments, the personal energy 
and arduous labors of Mr. McMillan have been 
manifest. A fair idea of the growth and present 
condition of the three enterprises with which Mr. 
McMillan is so inseparably connected can be gained 
by the fact, that during the first year of his connec- 
tion with the Michigan Car Company 2,000 cars 
were built, while of late years the yearly product 
has averaged over 7,000. The business of the 
establishments named aggregates several millions of 
dollars yearly, and thousands of employees are con- 
stantly engaged. 

In the construction of the Detroit, Mackinac & 
Marquette Railroad, Mr. McMillan was a leading 
spirit. This road is 150 miles in length, extends 
through a large part of the upper peninsula of 
Michigan, and opened up a tract of country prac- 
tically a wilderness, and to-day flourishing vil- 
lages exist and valuable land is being rapidly 
devoted to profitable farming purposes, greatly aid- 
ing the material wealth and prosperity of the State. 
It was commenced in 1877 and finished within 
two years, and from its inception Mr. McMillan 
was a director, secretary and treasurer. During 
1886 a syndicate of Chicago, Detroit and New York 
capitalists formed the Duluth, South Shore & At- 
lantic Railway Co., with a capital of $10,000,000, 
for the purpose of purchasing the road and con- 
structing some two hundred miles of additional 
road in order to connect it with the western ter- 
minus of the Northern Pacific line at Duluth and 
eastern railroads at Sault Ste. Marie. As the finan- 
cial agent of the syndicate, Mr. McMillan in Octo- 
ber, 1886, completed the negotiations for the pur- 
chase of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Rail- 
road of the bondholders for a sum exceeding 
$3,000,000. This undertaking is opening for busi- 
ness and settlement a large area of ne'Cv country 
and cannot fail to be of great benefit to the State 
of Michigan. 

In the organization and development of the 
Michigan Telephone Company in 1877, Mr. Mc- 
Millan was actively engaged, and by his personal 
exertions obtained, fortunately for those who lis- 
tened to him, many subscriptions to its stock when 
doubts were entertained of the success of the 
undertaking. Of this corporation, which owns and 
controls the entire telephone business of the State 
of Michigan, he is secretary and treasurer. 

The establishment and prosperity of the Com- 
mercial National Bank of Detroit is also largely 
owing to his business sagacity and financial direc- 
tion, and he has been its President from the begin- 
ning. When the establishment of this bank was 



io66 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



determined upon, few were able to foresee the suc- 
cess which has accompanied it during the seven 
years of its life, a success accompanied by so large 
a share of public confidence that it has been for 
some time past recognized as one of the leading 
institutions of Detroit. Mr. McMillan feels a 
natucal pride in the establishment and develop- 
ment of this bank, and it is not among the least of 
his successes. He is also an active director and 
large stockholder in the State Savings Bank of De- 
troit, an institution which is recognized as one of 
the most reliable and conservative in the country, 
and is the depository for thousands of mechanics 
and working people in the city of Detroit and 
throughout the entire State of Michigan. 

The various interests enumerated comprise but 
a small part of the complicated and varied enter- 
prises in which he is engaged. He is Vice-Presi- 
dent and Treasurer of the Detroit Iron Furnace 
Company and of the Newberry Furnace Company ; 
Vice-President and General Manager of the De- 
troit Pipe and Foundry Co., Vice-President of the 
Detroit Iron Mining Co., and of the Fulton Iron 
and Engine Works, and President of the Ham- 
tramck Transportation Co., and Red Star Line of 
steamers. Mr. McMillan is also officially, or as a 
director, connected with and largely interested in 
the following substantial and successful corporar 
tions: The Detroit Railroad Elevator Company; 
Detroit Electrical Works; Detroit & Cleveland 
Steam Navigation Co.; Duluth & Atlantic Trans- 
portation Co.; Mackinac Transportation Co.; and 
the Detroit Transportation Co. The qualities which 
have contributed to his success embrace not only the 
highest order of executive ability, but quick appre- 
hension, easy grasp of details, a retentive memory and 
keen sagacity. The ability to thoroughly systema- 
tize every department of large enterprises and to select 
capable subordinates has had much to do with his 
success. Naturally unostentatious, a lover of books 
and society, his friends find him at all times an 
affable and agreeable companion. He was Presi- 
dent of the Detroit Club for three years. His home 
on Jefferson avenue and country residence near 
Lake St. Clair reflect a cultivated and artistic taste. 
He is a member and officer in the Jefferson Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, and takes an active interest 
in its welfare. He was married May 2, 1867, to 
Ellen Dyar. They have one daughter and three 
sons. 

JOHN STOUGHTEN NEWBERRY, for many 
years one of the chief factors in the industrial 
affairs of Detroit, was born at Waterville, Oneida 
County, New York, November 18, 1826, and was 
the .son of Elihu and ^oda (Phelps) Newberry, 
both of English parentage and natives of Windsor, 



Connecticut. His father was a descendant of 
Thomas Newberry, who emigrated from England 
in 1625, and settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts. 
John S. Newberry, at the age of five, accompanied 
his parents to Detroit, and a few years after to 
Romeo, Michigan. His rudimentary education 
begun at Detroit was continued at Romeo, where he 
prepared for the Michigan University, and graduated 
in 1845, taking the honors of his class. He early 
developed a taste and aptitude for the practical sci- 
ences, and following the natural bent of his mind 
acquired a thorough knowledge of civil engineering 
and surveying, and for two years was employed in the 
construction department of the Michigan Central 
Railroad, under Colonel J. M. Berrien. He subse- 
quently spent a 3^ear in traveling, and then entered 
the law office of Van Dyke & Emmons. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1853, and at once com- 
menced practice with that energy and ability which 
distinguished him in all his undertakings. At that 
time the commerce of the lakes was just beginning 
to assume an importance in maritime affairs, and 
appreciating the future possibilities of admiralty 
business, he devoted his attention to that branch of 
practice, and as the maritime interests increased in 
importance, he acquired a large practice in the 
United States Courts. He was one of the first to 
contribute to the legal literature of the West an 
authoritative compilation of admiralty cases arising 
on the lakes and western rivers. This volume was 
of great practical use, and still serves a valuable 
purpose as a standard work of reference. At 
different times Mr. Newberry was associated with 
several prominent practitioners of the Detroit bar. 
He was first a partner in the law firm of Towle, 
Hunt & Newberry, later on he was associated with 
Ashley Pond, under the firm name of Pond & 
Newberry, and then as Pond, Newberry & Brown, 
the latter member being Henry B. Brown, the 
present judge of the United States Circuit Court at 
Detroit. After Mr. Pond withdrew from the firm, 
the style was changed to Newberry & Brown. It 
was while a member of this firm that Mr. New- 
berry's attention was turned to manufactures. In 
1863 James McMillan, then purchasing agent of the 
Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad, became associated 
with him in a contract with the Government for the 
building of a large number of cars for use in the 
Southern States for the transportation of soldiers 
and munitions of war. This venture proved a suc- 
cess, and was the beginning of the several immense 
industrial enterprises with which he became con- 
nected. 

In 1864, Mr. Newberry assisted in the establish- 
ment of the Michigan Car Works, and at that 
time withdrew from the practice of law, that his 
time and energies might be fully devoted to this 




^/^ . , , 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1067 



interest. In this great enterprise his business 
ability was tested in many ways, and aided by his 
strict surveillance the business grew rapidly, and 
at the time of his death was the largest manufac- 
turing establishment in Detroit. He was also 
largely and influentially interested in the various 
industrial undertakings operated in connection with 
the Michigan Car Company, such as the Detroit 
Car Wheel Company, the Baugh Steam Forge 
Works, the Fulton Iron and Engine Works, the 
Missouri Car Company of St. Louis, the Detroit 
Mining Company, and the Vulcan Furnace Com- 
pany, at Newberry, Michigan. He was also a direc- 
tor and treasurer of the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena 
Railroad, a director .in the Detroit, Mackinac & 
Marquette Railroad Company, as well as in the De- 
troit and Cleveland Navigation Company, the Ham- 
tramck Navigation Company, the Detroit Transporta- 
tion Company, and the Detroit National Bank, and 
had a financial and advisory connection in numerous 
other interests. As a business man he possessed 
rare ability ; his judgment concerning the merits of 
new and untried enterprises was seldom at fault ; 
his intuitive power of foreseeing the possibilities of 
every venture, gave him boldness in the execution 
of plans which needed only time to vindicate their 
wisdom. His self-control was perfect; he never 
lost his balance, and no matter how harassed or 
perplexed he might be, he held himself beyond any 
exhibition of temper or impatience. He had that 
magnetic power over men which commands esteem, 
and is only possessed by men of great character 
and force. His name was the synonym of business 
strength and integrity. So well managed were all 
his business ventures, involving millions of invested 
capital, that at his death they were in a condition to 
be continued without change. 

In political affairs he was at first a Whig, but 
from 1856 was a member of the Republican party. 
In 1862 he was appointed by President Lincoln the 
first Provost Marshal for the State of Michigan, 
with the rank of Captain of Cavalry. This position 
he held for two years, and during that time he had 
charge of two drafts, and enrolled and sent to the 
field the drafted men and substitutes. During his 
busy life he had little time had he possessed the 
ambition for political position. He sought political 
preferment but once, when he was elected to Con- 
gress from the First District, and served with credit 
for a single term, his most notable effort being an 
able speech on the national finances. At the end 
of his term of service he declined a renomination, 
and from that time until failing health compelled 
him to desist, his time, energies and ability were 
given entirely to the management of his various 
business interests. 

About two years before his death, Mr. Newberry 



was attacked by a complication of ailments, which 
baffled medical skill. After traveling extensively 
to vaix as health resorts, in hope of receiving 
relief, he returned home, where the last few months 
of his life were passed, surrounded by his family 
and friends. He died on January 2, 1887. The 
death of one who had been so thoroughly identified 
with the greatest industrial enterprises of his city 
and State, called forth widespread expressions of 
genuine sorrow ; and this was especially true 
in Detroit. For many years his life had been 
closely interwoven with the city's growth and pros- 
perity, while his active mind, tireless energies, and 
rapidly accumulating wealth gave him a prominent 
place among the citizens of Michigan, and his hon- 
est and high-minded business methods inspired 
unlimited confidence and trust. At the age of 
fourteen he united with the First Congregational 
Church of Romeo, but during the entire period of 
his residence in Detroit he was a member of the 
Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, to which 
denomination he was a most liberal contributor, and 
for many years a worker in benevolent enterprises. 

He accumulated one of the largest estates in 
Michigan, and his wealth was invested in channels 
which gave prosperity and comfort to thousands of 
his fellows. He was generous in support of every 
public enterprise, and one of the last acts of his life 
was to join with James McMillan in the establish- 
ment of a Homoeopathic Hospital in Detroit, to the 
endowment of which he contributed $100,000. By 
his will more than half a million was bequeathed to 
various charitable objects. Of his personal charac- 
teristics much indeed might be said. He was a 
man of fine attainments, and by study and extensive 
travel had acquired a wide and varied education. In 
social life he was generally regarded as austere and 
unapproachable, but those who enjoyed his friend- 
ship knew that he possessed a kindly disposition, 
and his family life was pleasing in its love and de- 
votion. He lived a pure and noble life ? was brave, 
generous, and true to his convictions of duty, and 
the work he accomplished for the good of his city 
and State gives him a worthy place among the most 
distinguished citizens of Michigan. 

He was twice married, first in 1855 to Harriet 
Newell Robinson, of Buffalo, who died within a 
year, leaving one son, Harry R. Newberry. In 1859 
he married Helen P., daughter of Truman P. Handy, 
of Cleveland, by whom he had three children, Tru- 
man H., John S. and Helen H. Newberry. 

JOHN OWEN was born near Toronto, Canada 
West, March 20, 1809, His father died when Mr. 
Owen was quite young, and in the year 1818, with 
his mother, he came to Detroit. Soon after coming 
here he began to attend school in the old University 



io68 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



building on Bates street, paying for his tuition by 
services rendered the preceptor. 

When twelve years old he became an errand boy 
in the drug store of Dr. Chapin, remaining with him 
several years, and making himself so useful that 
v^hen only twenty years old he was taken in as a 
partner, his energy and faithfulness being placed 
against the capital of his former employer. Sub- 
sequently the firm became J. Owen & Co. In 1853 
he retired from trade, and the present firm of T. H. 
Hinchman & Son is the successor of the old firms of 
Chapin & Owen and J. Owen & Co. 

After he retired from mercantile life, Mr. Owen 
gave 'his attention largely to vessel and banking 
interests. He was one of the earliest and largest 
stockholders in the Detroit and Cleveland Steam 
Navigation Company, and for many years president 
of the corporation. He is also largely interested in 
the Detroit Dry Dock Company. He v^^as presi- 
dent of the Michigan Insurance Co. Bank, and of 
its successor, the National Insurance Bank, and in 
1857, vi^hile serving as president of the first named 
institution, it was the unbounded personal confidence 
that the people had in him that enabled the bank 
to go safely through those perilous times, and his 
integrity and good name was the wall that pre- 
vented the financial breakers from overwhelming 
not only the bank but scores of individuals as well. 
It was also fortunate that he was at the head of 
the State treasury from 1861 to 1867, for in the first 
years of the war, without his personal credit and 
well known honesty, it would have been almost 
impossible for the State to have met the demands 
then made upon it in paying for the equipment of 
the troops. 

Aside from the office of State Treasurer, the only 
public offices he has held were those of Alderman at 
Large in 1836, and of the First Ward in 1844 and 
1845. He also served as one of the School Direc- 
tors in 1 839 and 1 840, as Commissioner of Grades 
from 1859 to 1870, and as one of the Board -of 
Water Commissioners from 1865 to 1879. From 
1 841 to 1848 he was one of the Board of Regents of 
Michigan University. During his earlier years he was 
a member of the Volunteer Fire Department, serv- 
ing as foreman of Company No. i in 1837, and as 
president of the Department Society from 1841 to 
1 843. He has also been actively interested in various 
philanthropic and patriotic societies, serving as 
treasurer of a State Temperance Society in 1837, as 
president of the Michigan Soldiers' Relief Society 
in 1864, and as trustee and treasurer of the cor- 
poration of Elm wood Cemetery from its organiza- 
tion, for over forty years. 

His connection with the Central Methodist Epis- 
copal Church as trustee and treasurer covers even 
a longer period, and he diu more than any other 



person during a period of nearly fifty years to pro- 
tect and preserve its credit, by the prompt payment 
of all bills, without regard to the possession of 
church funds at the time. During all this time he 
was recognized as the foremost member in the 
State of the church of his choice, and contributed 
very largely to its building up, not only in Detroit, 
bCit in the State at large. He is one of the prin- 
cipal trustees of Albion College, and has given 
largely to that institution. 

His benefactions have not been confined within 
denominational lines, but whenever time and influ- 
ence and means could help solve social problems, 
he has been ready to help. His long residence in 
the city, his upright life and careful judgment, and 
the many services he has rendered the public, have 
made his name a synonym for character and worth, 
and he occupies a position that comparatively few 
attain. 

DAVID PRESTON was born September 20. 
1826, in Harmony, Chautauqua County, N. Y., and 
was the son of Rev. David Preston, for thirty years 
a member of the Erie Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He was educated in that vicin- 
ity and his earliest occupation was that of a teacher, 
in which he continued four years. 

In 1848 he came to Detroit and -found employ- 
ment in the banking office of G. F. Lewis. He 
remained with him four years, his total salary for 
that time being $950. Out of this amount he saved 
a few hundred dollars, and in May, 1852, began 
business as a banker and broker. From the very 
outset he was successful, and from time to time 
was compelled to change his location in order to 
obtain room to meet the demands of his growing 
business. His longest tarry and most successful 
years were while located on the southeast corner of 
Woodward avenue and Earned street, and while 
there located, in connection with S. A. Kean, he 
established a banking office in Chicago. During 
his stay in the location named, John L. Harper was 
a partner with him, the partnership being dissolved 
in 1 88 1. The Chicago bank was organized as a 
National bank in 1 884, and the Detroit bank as the 
Preston Bank in 1885, and after his death reorgan- 
ized as the Preston National Bank. 

During his entire career as a banker Mr. Preston 
possessed the almost unlimited confidence of the 
public, and even those who differed from him in 
judgment were compelled to respect his evident sin- 
cerity and honesty of purpose. In addition to his 
banking business he was a very large dealer in pine 
lands as well as in city real estate. 

The only municipal office he ever held was that 
of Alderman of the fifth Ward of Detroit in 1872 
and 1873. He voted and worked with the Repub- 




cmm€<j 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, RANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1069 



iican party until a few years prior to his death when 
he gave his time, and money, and influence, to the 
full, to the cause of Prohibition, and this not as an 
office-seeker, but because he believed that through 
that party the liquor traffic could be destroyed. 
His labors were ardent, unceasing, and laborious, 
especially in trying to promote the adoption of a 
constitutional amendment to prohibit the sale of 
liquors, and there is little doubt but that those labors 
were the immediate cause of his death. His health 
had been poor for several years and he had made 
two trips to Europe to secure needed rest. Both 
journeys resulted in good, but he was not strong 
enough to endure the fatigue of the duties which his 
prominence in the church and in the cause of prohibi- 
tion imposed upon him,' and he might have said truth- 
fully, " the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." 

It is safe to say that up to the time of his death 
no other person in Detroit was as widely known, 
for general and generous benevolence. He gave 
liberally, he gave unostentatiously, he gave system- 
atically, he gave constantly, and it may be doubted 
whether he ever refused any legitimate call for aid. 
The local charities, patriotic memorials, and bene- 
volences of every kind were all gladly aided. In 
his own denomination he stood at the head of all 
the givers in the State. Through his own efforts, 
in 1873, he raised $60,000 for Albion College, and 
in the raising of funds for the building of the 
various Methodist Episcopal churches of Detroit he 
was particularly useful. His manner of presiding 
and his methods at any meeting where money was 
to be raised were peculiarly his own. His appeals 
were unique and sometimes wonderfully thrilling 
and persuasive, and he not only induced others to 
give, but always gave himself. Although a zealous 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, he was 
large hearted in his feelings towards those of other 
creeds and often helped in their plans. 

In 1869 ^I'^d 1870 he served as president of the 
Y. M. C. A., and was always interested in its work. 
Personally he was simple hearted and approachable, 
with a warm and kindly nature. He was -often 
humorous in his remarks and yet apparently al- 
ways devotional and considerate. His place was 
rarely vacant, either in the public services or in the 
prayer meeting. He held for many years the 
offices of trustee and class leader in the Central 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and his departure was 
regarded as a personal loss by the entire member- 
ship. He died on Sunday, April 24, 1887. 

He was married to Jane B. Hawk, of Conneaut, 
Ohio, on May 5, 1852. They had a large family of 
children of whom seven are now living. Their 
names are : William D., Frank B., and Ellery D., 
Mrs. F. W. Hayes and Misses Minnie, Mabel and 
Bessie Preston. 



THOMAS WITHERELL PALMER was born 
in Detroit, January 25th, 1830. and is the only sur- 
viving child of the nine children of Thomas and 
Mary A. (Witherell) Palmer. Part of his boyhood 
was spent in the village of Palmer, now the city of 
St. Clair, where he attended a school taught by Rev. 
O. C. Thompson. He subsequently entered the 
University of Michigan, but owing to ill health did 
not fully complete his course and received no degree 
until he had proved his fitness for it by travel and 
experience in the broader university of the world. 

On leaving Ann Arbor he visited Europe, traveled 
through Spain on foot, and subsequently spent sev- 
eral months in South America. Returning to De- 
troit in 1853, he engaged in buying and selling pine 
lands, and soon became a partner wnth the late 
Charles Merrill, a large operator in pine lands and 
lumber. Mr. Merrill, Mr. J. A Whittier and Mr. 
Palmer w-ere engaged for years in the manufacture 
of lumber at East Saginaw, and on Mr. Merrill's 
death the business was continued under the old firm 
name of C. Merrill & Co., Mrs. Palmer inheriting 
her father's interest. Mr. J. B. Whittier has since 
been added to the firm. 

In addition to other business interests, Mr. Palmer 
is a director in the American Exchange National 
Bank, the Wayne County Savings Bank, and the 
Security and Safe Deposit Company, and the Gale 
Sulky Harrow Company, and is interested in the 
Detroit Steam Navigation Company, the Michigan 
Lake Navigation Company, the Frontier Iron Works, 
the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company, the 
Iron Silver Mining Company of Leadville, Colorado, 
and other important and profitable enterprises. 

He is fortunate in being able to have no less than 
three residences. One of them, an elegant house 
with extensive grounds is in Detroit, another a log 
house, that cost many thousand dollars, is located a 
few miles out of the city in Greenfield, on his farm of 
about ^ mile square, a third, a palatial establish- 
ment, is located in Washington. His log house, and 
the 657 acre farm upon which it is located, are his 
especial pride. Here he has scores of valuable Per- 
cheron horses, and Jersey cows, and all the appur- 
tenances of a large stock farm, which is kept up in 
the most admirable manner. 

Mr. Palmer's natural disposition did not lead him 
into public life, but he has been gradually pushed 
into it, and once in the arena he has been kept there. 
His first political office was as one of the first Board 
of Estimates elected from the city at large in 1873. 
In 1878 he was elected to the State Senate from the 
city of Detroit, and while there he introduced, and 
pushed to its passage, the bill creating the reform 
school for girls, and aided by Representative E. W. 
Cottrell, he secured the passage of the bill provid- 
ing for a bouleva d about the city of Detroit. He 



1070 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



also served as chairman of the caucus which nomi- 
nated Z. Chandler to the United States Senate. In 
1883 he was elected by the Legislature as the suc- 
cessor of Thomas W. Ferry in the United States 
Senate. In this body he ranks easily with its best 
speakers and most influential members. 

One would think that with means to gratify every 
wish, and with strong literary tastes, he would be 
unwilling to serve in any position involving so much 
self-denial and labor. He, however, seems to enjoy 
what to many would be martyrdom, and being inde- 
pendent in all his thoughts and actions, he is able 
to serve his native commonwealth as well as any of 
its previous Senators could have served it in the 
same period. 

A thorough philosopher, he accepts the inevitable 
gracefully, and somehow or other reaches the goal. 
Some would say of him he is "lucky," but his luck 
is of the kind that is born of sound judgment and 
a general mastery of the situation. 

His addresses give evidence not only of wide 
reading but of extensive travel, thoughtful observa- 
tion and a clear conception. His thoughts and words 
are neither plain nor monotonous, but full of bright- 
ness, beauty, and vigor, and abundant in sentiment 
and sagacity. His language is always clear, choice, 
forcible, elegant, and especially noticeable for per- 
fect classical allusions and abundant historical 
references. His illustrations and figures are his 
own, and always appropriate, effective, and pleasing. 
He is by turns humorous, grave, and pathetic, and 
his addresses withal are packed with facts, and if 
need be, with statistics, in support of his positions. 

His principal addresses, and the occasion of their 
delivery, have been as follows : Oration on Decora- 
tion Day, May 30, 1879, at Detroit; speech on Uni- 
versal Suffrage in the Senate, February 6. 1885; 
response at reunion of the Army of the Cumber- 
land, at Grand Rapids, on "The Soldier as a 
Schoolmaster," September 17, 1885; speech on 
" Governmental Regulation of Railroads," in Sen- 
ate, April 14, 1886; speech on "Dairy Protection," 
in Senate, July 17, 1886; eulogies on "John A. 
Logan, of Illinois, and A. F. Pike, of New Hamp- 
shire," in Senate, February 9 and 16, 1887 ; address 
on " Relation of Educated Men to the State," 
delivered at the semi-centennial celebration of the 
University of Michigan, June 29, 1887; "The Sol- 
dier Dead," a response made at the banquet of the 
Army of the Tennessee, at Detroit, September 1 5, 
1887 ; speech in support of his bill for the restric- 
tion of immigration, January 24, 1888; address at 
Arlington Cemetery, Virginia, May 30, 1888, on 
*'The Nation's Dead and the Nation's Debt." He 
was the first to suggest the erection of a soldiers' 
monument in Detroit, and was the first secretary 
of the organization that secured the erection of that 



memorial. Mr. Palmer has also for many years 
served as president of the Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Animals. 

In his social life he is an excellent conversation- 
alist and entertains generously. He is broadly 
philanthropic, earnestly patriotic, and thoroughly 
democratic in all his thoughts and doings. In reli- 
gious views he is a cosmopolite, believes in all the 
virtues, and practices most of them, and perhaps 
all. An ardent admirer of his mother, he com- 
memorated her memory in a church largely erected 
at his expense. He makes friends, not through his 
wealth, but because his wealth does not prevent him 
from acting the part of a whole-souled, manly man. 
He is so universally esteemed, that nothing but 
strict party discipline would prevent those of oppo- 
site political faith from praising and endorsing him. 

He was married on October 16, 1855, to Miss 
Lizzie P. Merrill, who makes and retains friends 
universally, and although they have no children, 
they contrive, by gathering in young and old, to 
keep the spirit of youth in their home. 

FRANCIS PALMS, for many years the largest 
land owner, and one of the most prominent factors 
in the commercial affairs of Michigan, was born at 
Antwerp, Belgium, in i^io. His father, Ange 
Palms, was a commissary in the French army, while 
the first Napoleon was in the zenith of his power. 
Mr. Palms followed the fortunes of his great com- 
mander until the disastrous battle of Waterloo put 
an end to the Emperor's career. He then returned 
to Antwerp, and engaged in manufacturing and 
conducted an extensive business. In 1831 the en- 
tire establishment was destroyed by fire, and he 
gathered the remnant of his fortune and with a 
family of four sons and two daughters came to 
America, settling in Detroit in the summer of 1833. 
The father remained here a few years, and then 
with all his family, except Francis and his daugh- 
ter, the late Mrs. Daniel J. Campau, he removed to 
New Orleans. Establishing himself in a manu- 
facturing business, he remained there until his 
death, in 1876, at an advanced age. Of his children 
the only one now living is Ange, who resides in 
Texas. 

Francis Palms received a liberal education in the 
public schools of Antwerp, and when a young man 
of twenty-three began his business career in Detroit 
as a clerk for a Mr. Goodwin, but soon after com- 
menced the manufacture of linseed oil at the corner 
of Gratiot Avenue and St. Antoine Street, Dis- 
continuing this enterprise in 1837, he entered the 
employ of Franklin Moore & Co., wholesale gro- 
cers, and remained in their service until 1842, when 
he became a partner in the reorganized firm of 
Moore, Foote & Co., remaining four years, and 




tz^' 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



IO71 



during this period acting as financial manager of 
the house. His connection with this firm proved a 
profitable one, and upon his retirement, with the 
capital he had accumulated, he began buying and 
selling land. Perhaps the largest of his early land 
transactions was the purchase of 40,000 acres of 
government land in Macomb and St. Clair counties, 
a venture made when the State of Michigan was 
still suffering from the panic of 1836-7. In the tide 
of prosperity ten years later his lands were readily 
sold, and it is said he realized from this trans- 
action alone between $300,000 and $400,000. The 
success of this venture was the stepping-stone to 
great wealth. It revealed to him the vast possi- 
bilities lying in the pine forests, which then cov- 
ered nearly three-quarters of the State of Michi- 
gan. He immediately invested all his means in 
pine lands, obtaining the title to immense tracts in 
the States of Michigan and Wisconsin, and became 
not only the largest land owner in the northwest, but 
possibly the largest individual land owner in the 
United States. At one time he owned a large tract 
of timber land in Wisconsin, on a river which another 
company unlawfully assumed to control and ob- 
structed, rendering navigation impossible. Mr. 
Palms ordered his foreman to get force enough to cut 
away the obstructions. The foreman repUed that 
the opposing company had 250 men. Mr. Palms 
then said, "get 1,000 men if necessary, but the river 
must be opened." The contest cost him $250,000; but 
the river being opened his lands increased in value 
$800,000. In many cases he sold only the timber, 
and retained the fee interest, especially when there 
was any evidence of mineral deposit. His foresight 
in this was evinced by the subsequent discovery of 
many valuable mines in lands thus retained. All of 
his vast property was under his personal care and 
supervision. Aided by careful and thorough meth- 
ods, and a wonderful memory, with little assistance 
he was able to thoroughly grasp and manage every 
detail. A few years ago, finding his business very 
much extended and involving an immense amount 
of attention, he began contracting his land business 
and investing in Detroit city property. He built 
the block on Jefferson Avenue now occupied by the 
Heavenrich Brothers, and also the large block occu- 
pied by Edson, Moore & Co., on the corner of 
Jefferson Avenue and Bates Street ; the block oppo- 
site the Michigan Exchange ; two large blocks on 
Gratiot Avenue, and numerous smaller business 
buildings in various parts of the city. -He was also 
largely interested in manufacturing enterprises and 
touched the business life of Detroit at many points, 
and wherever his energies were directed he was 
a helpful factor. For many years he was the presi- 
dent and largest stockholder in the People's Sav- 
ings Bank, and in the Michigan Stove Company ; 



president of the Michigan Fire and Marine Insur- 
ance Company, and interested in the Galvin Brass 
and Iron Company, the Union Iron Company, the 
Vulcan Furnace and the Peninsular Land Company. 
His largest railroad investment was in the Detroit, 
Mackinac & Marquette road, of which he was vice- 
president and director. He also had large interests 
in other railways in the Upper Peninsula. 

In 1875 Mr. Palms was prostrated by a paralytic 
stroke, and from that time his physical force gradu- 
ally declined. His mind, however, remained vigor- 
ous, and to the very end he participated in numerous 
business projects. For several weeks preceding his 
death he suffered from disease of the heart, but 
attended to his usual business, and only two days 
before his death walked from his residence to the 
People's Savings Bank, to attend a meeting of the 
directors. He died on Wednesday, November 4, 
1886. Long one of the most prominent characters 
of Michigan, his death called forth wide comment. 
The officers and stockholders of the People's Sav- 
ings Bank, with whom he had been long and inti- 
mately associated, adopted the following tribute to 
his memory: 

Resolved^ That we learn with deep sorrow and regret of the 
death of our late president and associate, Francis Palms. He 
was a man of high honor, strict integrity of character, and 
" honest in all things," diligent in the fulfillment of every duty, 
and punctual In the discharge of every obligation. Character- 
ized by gentleness and amiability of manner, and of a modest and 
retiring disposition, he was incapable of inflicting injury on any 
man, yet in defense of justice and fair dealing he exhibited cool 
and stern determination, unflinching courage, and remarkable 
strength of character. Clear-headed and prompt in arriving at 
conclusions, patient, persevering and resolute in purpose, he was 
a man of indomitable will, of great intellectual force, of broad 
and comprehensive mind, and of unusual foresight. 

Physically Mr. Palms was of slight figure and 
rather below the medium height. The expression 
of his face indicated a man of great character and 
force. He was polite, affable, and approachable, 
never haughty or arrogant, and self-conceit or false 
pride was foreign to his nature. Every person 
intent upon, business, no matter how trifling the 
matter to be presented, was invariably treated with 
attention. Among his friends he was social, and 
being a man of classical education and an accom- 
plished linguist, he was a delightful companion with 
those who shared his full confidence. In religious 
faith he was a Catholic, and a regular attendant 
at the church of SS. Peter and Paul. He was 
married in 1836 to Miss Martha Burnett, a lady of 
refinement and culture. They had one son, Francis 
F. Palms ; shortly after his birth Mrs. Palms died, 
and three years later Mr. Palms married the daugh- 
ter of the late Joseph Campau, by whom he had 
one daughter, Clothilde Palms. Soon after his 
father's second marriage, his son became an inmate 
of his grandfather's family at New Orleans, and on 



1072 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



the outbreak of the war of the rebellion he entered 
the Confederate Army, and remained in the field 
until the war ended in 1865. For several years 
prior to his father's death he was closely associated 
with him in the management of his various enter- 
prises, and inherits his father's genial and careful 
nature. The Palms estate, aggregating in value 
several millions of dollars, was equally divided 
between Francis F. Palms and his sister, Clothilde 
Palms. 

MARTIN S. SMITH was born at Lima, Liv- 
ingston County, New York, November, 12, 1834. 
His parents, Ira D. and Sarah Smith, were natives 
of Columbia County, New York. When M. S. Smith 
was but a small child his parents removed to Gene- 
sec, Livingston County, New York, and when he was 
ten years old, he accompanied them to Michigan, , 
where they located near Pontiac. His early education 
was received in the district school. When fourteen 
years old he commenced work in a clothing store 
at Pontiac and was afterwards employed in the 
office of the Pontiac Gazette, then owned by Wil- 
liam M. Thompson. At end of two years he left 
the Gazette to accept a position in the dry goods 
store of J. C. Goodsell, where he remained about a 
year. 

In 1 85 1 he came to Detroit, and after one year's 
service in the dry goods house of Holmes & Co., he 
became a clerk in a jewelry store, and after nearly 
eight years' experience in this line of trade, during 
which he became proficient in every department of 
the business, he purchased with limited capital the 
stock and business of his employers and began 
business for himself. As the result of his diligence 
and thoughtfulness his success was rapid and unin- 
terrupted, and for many years the house of M. S. 
Smith & Co., of which he was long the recognized 
head, has held the first place among the jewelry 
firms of Michigan. From the small trade of 1859 
the business has increased to about half a million 
dollars yearly. Their first store was located at 
No. 51 Woodward Avenue. In 1863 it was moved 
to the northwest corner of Woodward and Jeffer- 
son Avenues, remaining there until 1 883, when the 
fine building on the corner of Woodward Avenue 
and State Street was completed and occupied. In 
1879 the firm was incorporated under the name of 
M. S. Smith & Co., and at that time Mr. Smith 
retired from its personal management and has since 
devoted his time to other important business inter- 
ests. 

His substantial and well earned success in the 
jewelry trade gives but a limited idea of the versa- 
tility of his business capacity. For many years his 
active energies have been directed to other chan- 
nels, where his success has been even more marked. 



In 1874 he became a member of the lumber firm 
of Algef, Smith & Co., which owns extensive tracts 
of land in Alcona, Alger, Chippewa and Schoolcraft 
Counties, in the Upper Peninsula, as well as in Can- 
ada, on the north shore of Lake Huron, and deal 
very extensively in long timber. Mr. Smith is also 
one of the directors and treasurer of the Manistique 
Lumber Company, which was organized in 1882 with 
a capital of $3,000,000 and owns 80,000 acres of tim- 
ber land. He is president of the American Eagle 
Tobacco Company, president and treasurer of the 
Detroit and St. Clair Plank Road Company, vice- 
president of the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Rail- 
way Company, vice-president of the American Ex- 
change National Bank, and also vice-president of 
the State Savings Bank, and a director in the Mich- 
igan Mutual Life Insurance Company, and in the 
Woodmere Cemetery Association. In all these 
various enterprises the force of his personal efforts 
and wise counsel have been helpful factors and have 
largely conduced to their success. 

Indomitable will and energy, unflagging indus- 
try and clear perception, have placed him among the 
foremost of the business men of Michigan. In the 
conduct of his business he has been always progres- 
sive, almost to radicalism, and has gained the first 
and largest profit from the adoption of new lines of 
policy, in \vhich others followed after their safety 
had been proven by his success. He possesses the 
business courage which comes from faith in his own 
abilities and judgment. A self-made man in the 
best sense, he is unassuming in demeanor, but firm 
and persevering in a course he decides to be right. 
Thorough and earnest in every undertaking, all his 
affairs are conducted with systematic exactness. 
There has been nothing sensational or speculative 
in his career, and he has used his large fortune in 
ways that have contributed much to the material 
advancement of Detroit, and is enthusiastic in every 
undertaking by which the best interests of the city 
can be advanced. A natural lover of art and a dis- 
criminating critic, his daily occupation for many 
years compelled an attention to its details which 
would have educated a less sensitive eye and he 
has naturally given generous encouragement to the 
art movement in Detroit, aiding in securing the 
erection of a permanent museum. 

Personally he is an agreeable, courteous gentle- 
man, and easily makes warm friends. Generous 
and warm hearted, and possessing a kindly and 
sympathetic spirit, he has been a liberal contributor 
to all worthy and benevolent enterprises. He is a 
regular attendant at the Fort Street Presbyterian 
Church, but is in no sense denominational in his 
sympathies and gifts. In sterling good sense, 
genuine public spirit, thorough integrity and a pri- 
vate life above reproach, he is one of the very best 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1073 



representatives of Detroit's most honored citizens. 
He is prominently identified with the masonic fra- 
ternity and has filled the office of Grand Treasurer 
of the Grand Commandery of Michigan. His politi- 
cal affiliations have been with the Republican 
party, but he has manifested no ambition for politi- 
cal honors and has never held an elective office. 
In 1872 he was appointed Police Commissioner to 
succeed the late Governor John J. Bagley, and has 
held the position ever since. 

He was married in 1862 to Mary E. Judson of 
Detroit. 

WILLIAM H. STEVENS is the grandson of 
Phineas Stevens and the son of Phineas Stevens, Jr., 
and was born September 13, 1820. Phineas Stevens 
served as a soldier in the Revolutionary War, 
and after the war settled in the city of Geneva, 
New York, and there became the proprietor of a 
large landed estate, upon which he raised his fam- 
ily. In the war of 1812 he and four of his sons 
enlisted, served during the war,and were honorably 
discharged in 1816. 

One of the sons, Phineas Stevens, Jr., married 
Rhoda Glover ; entered into the lumbering business 
on the Chemung, Canisteo, Conhocton, and Tioga 
rivers and their tributaries, and from year to year 
increased his business until he became one of the 
largest lumber and timber dealers in western New 
York. His first son Alexander C. Stevens, was born 
in 1818, and was also engaged in the lumber trade, 
and about the year 1827, when he had a very 
large stock of lumber, timber and shingles, a finan- 
cial panic swept over the country, and his stock, 
which he had rafted to tide-water, would not bring 
what it cost at the point where it w^as manufactured, 
and within two or three years the falling off in the 
price of his goods, caused him to lose all that he had 
made and left him in debt, and under the iniquitous 
laws of that period, as he could not pay, he was 
sent to jail, and his family left in such straitened 
circumstances that his wife was obliged to engage 
in various sorts of employment in order to support 
the family. 

His son, William H. Stevens, at the age of eleven 
engaged with a farmer and worked for his board 
for two years. When thirteen years old he com- 
menced to learn locomotive engineering; served 
four years in the shop and on the road and was 
soon promoted to run a wrecking train. He then 
secured a freight train, and finally, before he was 
eighteen years old, ran a passenger train. After- 
wards he served as head fireman on a steamboat ply- 
ing between Horseheads and Geneva, and followed 
that occupation during the season. At the close of 
navigation he commenced to learn the business of a 
locomotive fireman on a railroad running between 



Geneva and Rochester, New York, and in the 
spring of 1839 was again employed as fireman on a 
steamboat running between Buffalo and Chicago. 
In all these operations Mr. Stevens was not merely 
learning a business, but was employed in solving the 
problem of burning Blossburg bituminous coal for 
steam purposes on locomotives and steamboats, 
and he solved thcL problem so successfully that the 
Blossburg coal interests became of immense value. 
During the year 1839 he quit steamboating and 
in the spring of 1840 began taking cattle and 
horses from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to Wiscon- 
sin. In the winter of 1841 he returned with the 
remnant of his herd to Chicago, and wintered them 
on prairie hay. After selecting and breaking a 
team for his own use, he traded off the remainder of 
his herd for land warrants and located government 
lands near Chicago and also near Big Foot Prairie, 
on Geneva Lake. At the last named place he broke 
up the prairie and farmed for about three years, and 
then went on an exploring expedition in the North- 
west, and finally settled in the Lake Superior region, 
where he remained for twenty years, being em- 
ployed in exploring timber lands and in mining. 
After being identified with explorations as a w^oods- 
man and axeman for some time, he became an ex- 
plorer of pine lands, becoming acquainted with 
scientific and experienced men and gathering valua- 
ble information in regard to timber, minerals and 
the geology of the district. His abilities were soon 
recognized, and he entered into an arrangement 
with several parties, under which he was to explore 
for, select and obtain the title to valuable lands and 
become jointly interested with the parties who fur- 
nished the capital, they agreeing to give him 
twenty-five per cent, of the profits arising from said 
explorations. This arrangement continued until 
1 86 1, during which period he gave his undivided 
time and attention to the exploring, working, open- 
ing and developing of the mines that he had discov- 
ered. Between 1861 and 1864 he closed up Jhis 
accounts after a faithful service of about twenty- 
five years with the parties forming the association, 
his proportion of the profits during the period 
amounting to about 1300,000. In the meantime, in 
1857, he was married to Ellen Petherick, and in 1862 
he concluded to wind up his mining business and 
remove to Philadelphia, his wife's first home in this 
country. After living a retired life for a year or two, 
he again entered into active business, and hearing 
very favorable representations of the mines and 
minerals in the Oregon mountains, and after study- 
ing the mineralogy and vein phenomena of that great 
range, he again entered the field, and with rare 
energy and determination he for many years en- 
dured great risks, privations and dangers in making 
geological examinations in search of metalliferous 



1074 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



zones, mineral deposits and lodes, examining a range 
of country extending north and south from Oregon 
Territory to Old Mexico, and east and west from 
Colorado to Nevada, traversing a range of moun- 
tain country of an area of about a thousand miles 
in length by about six or seven hundred miles in 
breadth, which for the most part was an unbroken 
mountain wilderness. During his explorations he 
met with many hostile tribes of Indians, with whom 
he had to contend for the right of way through their 
country, and he was often involved in skirmishes 
with their war parties, greatly delaying his plans 
and sometimes reducing him almost to starvation. 
During his travels for weeks and months he de- 
pended for his support entirely upon his pistol and 
fish-hook. He was also oftentimes in great peril from 
the desperadoes of the West, who lie in wait upon 
the trails, and who do not stop at murder if neces- 
sary to secure their booty. In what was literally the 
" wild West," he traveled hither and thither in search 
of mineral deposits with varied success, experiment- 
ing with various kinds of minerals, gold, silver, lead 
and copper, and considering their accessibility and 
prospective value, sometimes settling down at cer- 
tain points for one, two, or three years, and mak- 
ing it profitable, and at other times losing. He also 
often experimented with new methods of separating, 
refining and treating ores of various kinds and fre- 
quently made a perfect failure of what was repre- 
sented as a very available process. His success in the 
discovery and development of argentiferous lead 
mines in Montana was quite satisfactory in quality 
and in value, but not quite so in points of accessi- 
bility, as it was about four hundred miles over the 
mountain ranges, valleys, canyons and rocks, and 
the locality could be reached only with mule teams. 
Concluding to make further researches for minerals 
more accessible, he left the Montana mines for future 
consideration and development and visited Utah, 
New Mexico and Colorado. While in Colorado he 
discovered several valuable locations and in 1873 
located the most accessible and promising one near 
Ore City, now known as Leadville, and between the 
years 1873 to 1876, he built an extensive canal or 
ditch, some fourteen miles in length, for the pur- 
pose of placer mining. In the meantime, in 1875, 
he discovered the so-called carbonate of lead mines 
in that district. In 1875-6, he continued his ex- 
plorations in the placer mines and also to some 
extent developed his carbonate of lead mines. The 
development proving satisfactory, he made applica- 
tion to the government for title, made expenditure 
sufficient to comply with the law, secured his gov- 
ernment title and began to ship ore from the mine. 
Wiien it was discovered by others that he had se- 
cured the title to mineral lands of value, opposition 
began to be manifested by the bunkos, mine-jumpers 



and highwaymen who had flocked to that country 
during the war. Their endeavors caused much liti- 
gation and heavy expenditure to defend the rights 
of the legal and moral owners of the mining estates, 
as well as of the corporations which succeeded 
them. In the end, however, the company which 
had been organized was successful not only in 
defending their rights, but in the management and 
working of the mine. 

The company which Mr. Stevens organized is 
known as the Iron Silver Mining Company, and has 
realized from the sale of ore over six millions of 
dollars. Over $2,444,000 of this amount has been 
earned profits and dividends, and has been di- 
vided among its shareholders. In the meantime, 
during all the period alluded to, Mr. Stevens was 
engaged in various other enterprises. He is a large 
land proprietor, with heavy interests in steam- 
boats and in manufacturing concerns, and has an 
extensive stock farm near Detroit. He is also a 
leading stockholder and the President of the Third 
National Bank. 

Notwithstanding the great amount of hard work 
that he has performed and the many privations he 
has endured, he is still active and vigorous, and 
while he has accumulated a large fortune he has 
exercised so much self-denial in obtaining it that he 
is entitled to all the satisfaction and comfort it can 
bring. Personally he is rather blunt in his address, 
but is thoroughly reliable and is using his means in 
a way that is an advantage to others as well as to 
himself. 

WILLIAM BRIGHAM WESSON was born in 
Hardwick, Worcester County, Massachusetts, March 
21, 1820, and is the son of Rev. William B. Wesson, 
who for many years was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church of Hardwick. The family is easily 
traced for two hundred years in New England, and 
some of the name have lived in the same town, and 
in the same homestead, for nearly a century. The 
English ancestors are traced for several centuries. 
The ancient records of the English cathedral of 
Ely show their names in regular order back to the 
twelfth century. The American branch of the fam- 
ily dates from the arrival of Wm. Wesson, who 
came from Ely in 1636, and settled in Hopkinton, 
twenty miles from Boston. His descendants parti- 
cipated in the French and Indian wars, and in the 
war of the Revolution, and were engaged in many 
skirmishes with the Indians, and as the country 
grew prosperous and settled, numbers of the family 
established new homes here and there in various 
parts of New England and the west. 

Mr. W. B. Wesson's connection with Detroit 
dates from the year 1833. He came when a lad of 
thirteen with his brother-in-law, the late Moses F« 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALL^TS. 



1075 



Dickinson. Soon after his arrival he attended a 
private school taught by D. B. Crane, in the old 
University building, on Bates Street, and when a 
branch of the University was opened in the same 
building, he continued his studies under the same 
roof, and, in 1841, entered the literary department 
of the University at Ann Arbor, being the first 
member of the Sophomore class, and the only one 
that year. Before he had completed his studies he 
was taken ill and compelled to take a rest at his 
old home in Hardwick, where he remained for six 
months. 

On his return he entered the law office of Van 
Dyke & Emmons, at Detroit, and two years later 
was admitted to the bar. His attention, however, 
was almost immediately attracted to the possibilities 
connected with the real estate business, and he soon 
formed a partnership with Albert Crane, and entered 
actively upon an uninterrupted career of success. 
Their business early assumed such proportions that, 
practically, they had no competitors. They became 
the pioneers in the business of subdividing large 
tracts of land and disposing of the lots, and were 
the first to sell lots upon long time, with only asmall 
payment down. This method not only created a 
brisk demand for their property, but by encouraging 
persons of limited means to become lot holders, 
they stimulated habits of thrift and industry, and 
thereby greatly served hundreds of their fellow- 
citizens. There are many persons in Detroit to-day 
owning comfortable homes who probably would 
not be so well situated but for the opportunities 
offered them by Messrs. Crane & Wesson. 

Their methods also greatly aided the manufactur- 
ing interests of the city, because of the encourage- 
ment afforded to laboring men to obtain a home, and 
many were drawn hither and remained here because 
of these opportunities. So widely and favorably 
known did their firm become, that they soon had 
their hands full of business, investing for others as 
well as for themselves. They operated not only in 
Detroit, but in Chicago as well ; and after twenty 
years, when they dissolved partnership, Mr. Wes- 
son's share of the business amounted to over half a 
million dollars. 

Mr. Crane removed to Chicago and Mr. Wesson 
retained the Detroit business, and continued it with 
constant success, increasing his capital several times 
over. He has himself erected over a thousand 
buildings, and probably owns more improved and 
productive property than any other person in Detroit. 

The names of scores of streets, dedicated with- 
out cost to the city, fitly perpetuate the record of 
his extensive landed transactions. His long experi- 
ence in real estate matters has made his judgment 
almost infallible as to present and prospective values 
of real estate in any part of Detroit or its vicinity, 



and his knowledge is frequently utilized in the set- 
tling of landed estates, and in the determining of 
values for various purposes. His investments, how- 
ever, have not been wholly in the line of real estate, 
and he has found time to engage in various public 
enterprises. He was for several years president of 
the Detroit, Lansing & Howell Railroad, and aided 
materially in securing its completion, and it may be 
stated, as a remarkable fact, that his services were 
rendered to the company for a series of years with- 
out drawing the salary attached to the office, and 
he declined to receive any pay for his services. He 
was also prominent in the building of the Grand 
River and Hamtramck street railroads. He has 
served as president of the Wayne County Savings 
Bank and of the Safe Deposit Company since the 
organization of these corporations. He is also 
president of the Detroit Safe Works, and director 
and large stockholder in the First National Bank. 
He is also a large holder of railroad stocks, and 
owns both wild and farming lands in many counties 
in Michigan, besides real estate in other States, and 
hundreds of pieces of valuable property in Detroit, 
which he is continually improving. 

His political faith is that of a strong Republican, 
but he takes little active part in political life. He 
has been frequently solicited to run for Congress, 
and could have easily secured a nomination if he 
would have accepted. In 1872 he was nominated 
for State Senator, and although the district was 
strongly Democratic, he w^as elected by a large 
majority, carrying every ward and town in the dis- 
trict. As State Senator he proved so useful a friend 
to the University that the faculty, without his pre- 
vious knowledge of their purpose, conferred upon 
him an honorary degree. 

Notwithstanding the care of his varied and ex- 
tensive business interests, Mr. Wesson never seems 
to be hurried; each item of business receives its 
proper share of attention, and each caller as well ; 
he treats all with uniform courtesy, and no one 
is ever made unpleasantly conscious of the fact that 
he is dealing with a person possessed of large 
wealth. He is apparently always even-tempered, 
friendly, and has no hard lines in his face or dispo- 
sition. He is always liberal, kind-hearted, gener- 
ous, and scrupulously unostentatious. He is a 
member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

In his intellectual life he keeps pace with the best 
thought of the day, and his library gives abundant 
evidence of personal and skilled selection. His 
residence at W"essonside, on the river, in the extreme 
eastern part of the city, is unsurpassed by any in 
Detroit in its elegance and in the beauty of its loca- 
tion. The grounds embrace eight acres, slope 
gently towards the river, and include all that one 
could wish in way of trees and flowers, with boat- 



1076 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



ing facilities and various other enjoyments amply 
arranged for. 

Mr. Wesson married Lacyra Eugenia Hill, eldest 
daughter of the late Lyman Baldwin, in 1852. His 
only surviving child is Mrs. Edith W. Seyburn, wiie 
of Lieutenant S. Y. Seyburn, of the Tenth United 
States Infantry. Mr. Wesson died June 18, 1890. 

WILLIAM WOODBRIDGE was born in Nor- 
wich, Conn., August 20, 1780. His father, Dudley 
Woodbridge, was a graduate of Yale College, and 
educated for the bar, but the breaking out ot the 
Revolutionary War about the time he was ready to 
practice, closed the courts of justice, and he aban- 
doned his profession, and became one of the ** minute 
men " of Connecticut. After the war he emigrated 
from Norwich, Conn., to the Northwest Territory, 
and became one of the earliest settlers of Marietta, 
removing his family there as soon as a residence 
could be provided. Three of his children, including 
William, were left at school in their native 
State, until a few months before St. Clair's defeat 
in 1 791, when William was brought to Marietta, 
and for a time attended a school in the Block 
House, taught by a Mr. Baldwin. lie remained 
four or five years in the Territory, spending a year 
at school among the French colonists, at Galliopolis. 
From there he w^ent back to Connecticut, where he 
remained until 1799. He then returned to Marietta 
to assist his father, who was then engaged in mer- 
cantile affairs. As the population increased his 
father's business enlarged, and he constructed a ves- 
sel, loaded it with furs, and, taking advantage of the 
freshets, sent it to France, making a successful voy- 
age. This ship w^as the first square-rigged vessel 
that ever descended the falls of the Ohio. 

In 1802 William commenced reading law and sub- 
sequently entered the celebrated Litchfield, Conn., 
law school, w^here he remained nearly three years, 
and was then admitted as a member of the bar of 
Connecticut, and soon after, upon his return to 
Ohio, he was admitted to the bar of that State, 
and immediately commenced his professional ca- 
reer. 

In 1807 he was sent as a Representative to the 
General Assembly of Ohio, and took a leading part 
in the discussion of many important questions. 
Early in 1 808 he was appointed Prosecuting Attor- 
ney for the county in which he resided, and 
held the office until he removed from the State. 
In 1809 he was elected a member of the State 
Senate, an office which he continued to occupy for 
five years. • Late in the autumn of 18 14 he received 
notice of his appointment, by President Madison, 
as Secretary of the Territory of Michigan, and in 
addition was also appointed Collector of Customs 
at Detroit. 



In 1 8 19 he was elected delegate to Congress 
from the Territory of M ichigan, and during his term 
in Congress the project of fitting out an expedition 
for exploring the Indian country around the bor- 
ders of Lake Superior and along the valley of the 
upper Mississippi w^as matured and determined 
upon. Through his efforts also. Congress made ap- 
propriations for the Chicago and Grand River Roads, 
and for the road through the Black Swamp. After 
his return to Detroit in 1820, he again became Sec- 
retary of the Territory of Michigan, holding the 
office altogether for eight years, and oftentimes in 
the absence of Governor Cass, performing the duties 
of Governor. 

In the beginning of 1828, Judge James Witherell, 
who had been for many years the presiding Judge 
of the Territory, resigned his position, and Mr. 
Woodbridge was appointed by President John 
Quincy Adams as his successor. Mr. Woodbridge 
entered upon his duties in 1828, was made the pre- 
siding Judge of the court, his associates on the 
Bench being Henry Chipman and Solomon Sib- 
ley, both of whom were men with whom it was 
a source of gratification to be associated, and 
it has been said that the Bar of Michigan, at that 
particular period, was not surpassed in ability by 
that of any State in the Union. The term of 
office of Mr. Woodbridge expired in January, 1832, 
and he resumed the practice of his profession. 

In 1835 he was elected a member of the conven- 
tion to form a State constitution, and was the only 
Whig elected in the district in which he resided, 
and one of the only four members of that party in 
the convention. He was also a member of the 
first State Senate of 1837, and two years later was 
elected Governor of the State. He entered upon 
his duties as Governor in January, 1840. 

In 1 841 he was elected as United States Senator 
from Michigan, and took his seat on the fourth of 
March. From the beginning of the session he en- 
tered with activity into its proceedings. He was 
made chairman of the committee on the Library of 
Congress, and was appointed a member of the 
standing committees on Agriculture, Claims, Com- 
merce, Manufactures, and Public Lands. The re- 
ports submitted by him on various subjects were 
numerous and invariably commanded attention, and 
the Journal of the Senate shows that during his six 
years of service, he was attentive and industrious. 
His senatorial term ended in 1847, and he returned 
to Detroit, resumed his professional pursuits and 
cultivated the extensive farm that still bears his 
name. In addition to the offices named, he held 
various city, county and State offices and served as 
Trustee of the University. He was always inter- 
ested in the educational and religious welfare of the 
city, was one of the first officers of the local Bible 




/^^^^^^ 




^^-^^^-^^^^-^^=^3^ 



GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



1077 



Society, president of the association that established 
the first Sunday school in Detroit, and one of the cor- 
porators of the First Protestant Society, and in later 
years gave several lots in order to encourage the 
erection of churches of various denominations. In 
his business career he was actively connected v^ith 
the organization of the Bank of Michigan, the first 
successful bank in Detroit. It is a notable fact 
that with his own hand, as Collector of Customs, 
he noted the arrival at this port of the first steam- 
boat that ever moved through the river. 

A deep grief came to him by the decease on Feb- 
ruary 19, i860, of his talented wife. They were 
married on June 29, 1806, at Hartford; his wife's 
maiden name was Juliana Trumbull ; she was a 
daughter of John Trumbull, the author of " McFin- 
gal," and other poems. She was born in Hartford, 
Connecticut on April 23, 1786, was highly edu- 
cated and inherited a large share of the genius of 
her father. 

Mr. Woodbridge had a frail constitution and did 
not long survive his wife ; he died on October 20, 
1 86 1. The United States District Court, then in 
session, the Bar of Detroit, the Grand Jury, and 
other public bodies immediately adopted resolutions 
in testimony of the public bereavement. In one 
of the addresses Senator Howard gave the follow- 
ing personal testimony as to his worth: '* He was 
a man of very thorough professional attainments, 
familiar with all the standard English writers, and 
with the principles of English and American law. 
He loved law books, and especially old ones, and 
delved with alacrity into the oldest reports and 
treaties. But it must not be inferred that he was 
inattentive to modern decisions, whether English or 
American, or to the general progress of the science 
of jurisprudence. He was a scholarly, able man. 
In the conduct of a case at the bar, though always 
earnest and persevering, he was uniformly cour- 
teous. No opponent ever had cause to reproach 
him with the slightest remissness in his intercourse 



as counsel. His learning, his wit, and his gentlemanly 
manner always won for him the admiration of the 
bench, the bar, and the bystanders. He was not, 
perhaps, the most powerful advocate in analyzing 
testimony and exposing falsehood or improbabilities, 
but rather relied for success upon his points of law, 
which he certainly put with great force and clear- 
ness, and yet his efforts before a jury were so per- 
suasive, kind and smooth that he seldom lost a ver- 
dict. His taste was highly cultivated and refined, 
and rather easily offended by coarse expressions or 
unbecoming conduct." 

He was always prominent at the term of the 
Supreme Court, and took part in most, if not all^ 
the important cases of his time. In writing, his 
style was clear, perspicuous and attractive, and in 
all his literary productions he represented the best 
intelligence and most cultivated thought of his New 
England ancestry. His law library was very com- 
plete and valuable, and he prized it as the apple of 
his eye. He was uniformly distinguished for cour- 
tesy, mtegrity. fidelity, learning, industry, and great 
ability. As a lawyer, he w^as faithful to his clients, 
but always in subordination to his conviction of 
what was required by law and justice ; strong in his 
dislikes and frank in the expression of them, they 
were always founded in his own sincere views of 
what was equitable and proper. He possessed 
great social and conversational powers, and could 
sit for hours at a time and discuss a subject with 
the utmost vivacity. His love for his family was 
deep, strong, fervent, almost passi(Snate. He was 
a great lover of the quiet of home and was emi- 
nently kind, patient, and loving in all his intercourse 
with his family and with his neighbors also, and was 
sincerely loved by all who knew him intimately. 

At the time of his death he had three living chil- 
dren, namely : Mrs. Henry T. Backus, Dudley B. 
Woodbridge, and Wm. Leverett Woodbridge. A 
daughter, Mrs. Lucy M. Henderson, died about six 
months before her father. 



CHAPTER XCII. 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



HUGH BRADY, Major-General U. S. A., was equipment of troops and shipping supplies to the 



born at Standingstone, Huntingdon County, Penn- 
sylvania, July 29, 1768, and was the fifth son 
of John and Mary Brady. His father was a Cap- 
tain in the Twelfth Pennsylvania Regiment of the 
Revolutionary army. He, with two of his sons, 
was killed by the Indians, and his wife left a widow 
with two sons. 

As he grew to manhood, Hugh frequently joined 
small parties who retaliated on the Indians for their 
misdeeds, and early gained an insight into their 
manners and habits of warfare. In 1792 he re- 
ceived from General Washington a commission as 
Ensign in General Wayne's army, was made Lieu- 
tenant in 1794, and took part in his celebrated 
western campaign of that year. In 1 799 he received 
from President Adams an appointment as Captain, 
and subsequently undertook the improvement of a 
lot of land located on a branch of the Mahoning 
river, about fifty miles from Pittsburgh. He re- 
mained there until 1807, and, becoming convinced 
that his fortune could not be made at farming, he 
removed to Northumberland, where he remained 
until 1 81 2, wheil he received a commission from 
Mr. Jefferson, and again joined the army. He was 
soon promoted to the command of the Twenty- 
second Regiment of Infantry, and received, at the 
battle of Lundy's Lane, a wound which disabled him 
for further service during the war. 

In 181 9 he was transferred to the Second Infan- 
try, then stationed at Sackett's Harbor, New York. 
In 1822 he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General for ten years' faithful service. In 1828 he 
was in command at Detroit, and in 1837 was placed 
in command of Military Department No. 7, having 
his head-quarters at Detroit. He continued in com- 
mand seven years, and during this time superin- 
tended the removal of several tribes to the country 
west of the Mississippi river, and did much to allay 
the troublesome border difficulties known as the 
"Patriot War." 

At the breaking out of the Mexican war, although 
past the age for active field service, he took a 
prominent part, superintending the raising and 



seat of war. He was made a Major-General in 
1848. 

As a soldier, he was eminent for his bravery and 
faithfulness ; and as a citizen, he was free from re- 
proach, and won the esteem of those with whom 
he was associated. 

He was married in October, 1805, to Sarah 
Wallis. They had six children, namely : Sarah 
Wallis, wife of Colonel Electus Backus; Samuel 
Preston; Mary Laithy, wife of Colonel Electus 
Brady ; Elizabeth Hall ; Jane, wife of Captain James 
L. Thompson ; Cassandra, wife of B. J. H. With- 
erell. He died at Detroit, April 15, 1851, his death 
being caused by his horses running away, 

JAMES BURGESS BOOK, M. D., was born at 
Palermo, Halton County, Canada, November 7, 
1844, and is the son of Johnson and Priscilla Book, 
both of German descent. His father was an exten- 
sive speculator in real estate and laid out several 
towns in Halton County. 

The son received his education at the Milton 
County Grammar School, from which he graduated 
in 1858. The same year he entered the literary 
department of the Toronto University, and at the 
end of the Sophomore year began a course o£. study 
in the Medical College connected with the Univer- 
sity ; but before completing the course, having 
decided that it would be to his advantage to gradu- 
ate elsewhere, he left that institution and entered the 
Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. He graduated from there in March, 1865, 
and then returned to Toronto and completed his 
medical course at the University. In the fall of the 
same year he began the practice of his profession at 
Windsor, Ontario, but after a few months he 
crossed the river, settled in Detroit, and for a year 
pursued professional duties with good success. 
Anxious, however, to still further perfect and extend 
his knowledge of medical science, he went to Europe 
in 1867 and attended a full course of lectures at 
the celebrated Guy's Hospital Medical School, one 
of the oldest medical institutions in London or the 



[1078! 




/v. y^^^____iz^^y^ ^ 




AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. lO/Q 



world. His studies were further supplemented by 
a year's attendance at the ficole de Medecin of 
Paris, and with three months' practical experience in 
the General Hospital at Vienna. 

In 1869 he returned to Detroit,and as a result of 
thorough preparation, coupled with exceptionally 
good professional judgment, his practice has grown 
to large proportions. He served as Professor of 
Surgery and Clinical Surgery in the Michigan Medi- 
cal College until that institution consolidated with 
the Detroit Medical College, forming the Detroit 
College of Medicine. After the consolidation he 
continued to serve as Professor of Surgery, and is 
one of the largest stockholders in the college. From 
1872 to 1876 he was surgeon of St. Luke's Hospi- 
tal and is now attending surgeon of Harper Hospi- 
tal, and has been surgeon-in-chief of the D., L. & 
N. R. R. since 1882. He is a member of the 
Wayne County Medical Society, of the Medical and 
Library Association, and of the State and Ameri- 
can Medical Associations. He is also medical 
director of the Imperial Life Insurance Company of 
Detroit, organized in 1886. 

He is a frequent contributor to the medical jour- 
nals,and among the more important of his contri- 
butions may be named, an article on " Nerve 
Stretching," recounting a series of experiments in 
this comparatively new departure in surgery. The 
titles of some of his other articles have been as fol- 
lows : " Old Dislocations, with Cases and Results," 
" The Influence of Syphilis and Other Diseases," 
" Fever Following Internal Urethrotomy," "Idio- 
pathic Erysipelas," "Malarial Neuralgia," and 
" Inhalation in Diseases of the Air Passages." 

Although his practice is general in its character, 
it is more especially in the difficult and delicate 
branches of surgery that he excels. In this depart- 
ment he has gained deserved distinction and has 
an enviable reputation in his profession. A nota- 
ble instance of his skill was furnished in 1882, when 
he successfully performed an operation before the 
students and faculty of the Michigan College of 
Medicine, requiring the removal of the Meckels 
ganglion. It was the only case of its kind ever 
treated with success in the w^est and but few simi- 
lar instances are reported in surgical history. Dr. 
Book is a close and careful student of medical sub- 
jects and professionally a hard worker. A sincere 
liking for his profession, an extended and diversified 
course of instruction in this and other countries, 
and the experience of many years of practice, have 
given him a prestige equalled by few among the 
many notable physicians of Detroit. 

Dr. Book has taken an active interest in home 
military organizations and was elected Surgeon of 
the Independent Battalion of Detroit in 1881, and 
since that organization became a part of the Fourth 



Regiment of the State militia, he has served as 
Regimental Surgeon. He is a Republican in poli- 
tics but has never taken an active interest in politi- 
cal affairs. In 188 1 he was elected an Alderman of 
the Third Ward at the first election held under the 
present division of the city wards. He resigned his 
aldermanic position in 1 882 to accept the position 
of Police Surgeon, an office he still retains. Socially 
agreeable, frank and candid in his manner, he 
makes friends easily, and retains their esteem. 

WILLIAM HENRY BREARLEY was born 
July 18, 1846, at Plymouth, Michigan, and is the 
son of Joseph and Hannah (Van Etten) Brearley, 
who were both natives of Lyons, New York. Their 
children were John Harrison who died in 1832, 
E. Cordelia, Kate, Sarah A., who died in 1842, a 
son who died in infancy in 1844, William H. and 
Minnie. 

James Brearley, an early English ancestor, was 
born at York, England, in 151 5. One of his de- 
scendants, John Brearley, the great -great-great- 
grandfather of Joseph Brearley, came to America 
with the Duke of York about 1680, and became the 
possessor of several thousand acres of land between 
the Three and Five Mile Runs on the Assanpink 
River, midway between Trenton and Princeton, and 
also of a tract of sixteen hundred acres ten miles 
south of Newton, New Jersey, besides a 500 acre 
plantation on the Delaware river, near the Washing- 
ton Crossing. He died near Trenton, New Jersey, in 
17 10. He was a slaveholder and his house is still 
standing five miles west of Trenton and is over two 
hundred years old ; a " new part " was added to it by 
General Joseph Brearley in 1784. The most prom- 
inent representative of the family was Judge David 
Brearley, who was born in 1745 ^"^ died in 1790. 
He was a Colonel in the Continental Army and after- 
ward the first Chief Justice of New Jersey. He 
was a grand master of the masonic bodies of that 
State, and one of those who, in 1787, framed and 
signed the Constitution of the United States. 

Joseph Brearley and Hannah Van Etten were 
married May 12, 1830, and removed to Plymouth, 
Michigan, in 1837, and there, on August 8th, 1852, 
the mother died, leaving the care of the two younger 
children to the two older sisters, who continued this 
responsibility until 1859, when the eldest, Cordelia, 
married Rev. A. C. Merritt, now of South Haven, 
Michigan, and the next in age, Kate, now Mrs. H. 
A. Ford, of Detroit, went with the two younger 
children to the State Normal School at Ypsilanti. 

The instruction of his sisters at home and about 
three years in the public school at Plymouth, enabled 
W. H. Brearley, at the age of thirteen, to enter the 
second class at the Normal School, he being several 
years younger than any other member of the class. 



Io8o AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



On account of delicate health, the summer of i860 
was spent on a farm near Coldwater. He returned 
to the Normal School in the fall, but as his health 
again failed he resumed farm work, this time with 
his brother-in-law. Rev. A. C. Merritt, near Flint, 
Michigan. On the breaking out of the war in the 
spring of 1861, he attempted to enlist in the 14th 
and then in the i6th Michigan Infantry, but his 
father's permission could not be obtained, as he 
was but fourteen years of age. He, however, felt 
an increasing conviction that his duty required him 
to become a soldier,and walked four miles several 
times a week, in the evening, to Flushing, to get 
the Detroit daily papers, that he might obtain and 
devour the war news. In May, 1862, when fifteen 
years old, he learned through Professor Austin 
George of the organizing of a company among the 
students of the Normal School. This time permis- 
sion to enlist was reluctantly given by his father, and 
on August 1 5th, he was enrolled as a member of 
Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry, being smug- 
gled in through an "error" of the enlisting officer, 
who entered his age on the rolls as 18. The day of 
large bounties had not then been reached, and the 
company was officered by an election at a company 
meeting when the older and more advanced pupils 
were complimented with being selected as officers. 
On August 27 the regiment took part in the demoh- 
stration in honor of the return, on that day, of Gen- 
eral O. B. Wilcox, and in the evening, after having 
been well drenched by a heavy fall of rain, they em- 
barked on the Cleveland steamer en route for Wash- 
ington, sleeping on the wet lower deck. Reaching 
Washington, the 17th Michigan began active service 
at once by participating in the battles of South 
Mountain and Antietam on September 14 and 17, 
1862, and continued with the 9th Army Corps, going 
in January to Newport News, thence west to Ken- 
tucky, and then down the Mississippi to Vicksburg, 
back again to Kentucky and over into Tennessee, 
and finally back to the Army of the Potomac in the 
east, where Mr. Brearley participated in all the 
engagements of the " Grant " campaign. This 
service included the twenty-four battles of South 
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburgh, the siege of 
Vicksburg, Blue Springs, Lenoire Station, Camp- 
bell Station, siege of Knoxville, Wilderness, Ny 
River, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Bethesda Church, 
Cold Harbor, Petersburgh, The Crater, Welden 
Railroad, Ream's Station, Poplar Springs Church, 
Pegram Farm, Boydton Road, Hatcher's Run, Fort 
Steadman, and the final assault on Petersburgh, be- 
sides many skirmishes. At the close of the war 
the regiment returned to Detroit, arriving June 7, 
1865, and on July 10 following it was paid off and 
discharged. 
Soon after his return Mr. Brearley entered Gold- 



smith's Business College, went through the course of 
studies and was subsequently engaged in the office of 
the Detroit Locomotive Works, afterwards known 
as the Buhl Iron Works, where he remained nearly 
five years. He spent the winter of 1870 and 1871 
in Kansas, and after returning to Detroit visited 
New York, Philadelphia, and Boston in the interest 
of the Detroit Tribune, Post, and Free Press, and 
three months later he was offered and accepted an 
engagement on the Tribune, by which he was to 
receive a stipulated salary and a percentage upon all 
the advertising receipts in excess of the highest 
average received for several years preceding. The 
year following the receipts of the Tribune were 
nearly doubled. His success and income, however, 
led to complications that were followed by the with- 
drawal of both Mr. J . E. Scripps and himself, and 
they united in establishing August 23, 1873, the 
Detroit Evening News. 

Mr. Scripps edited and printed the paper and 
Mr. Brearley was its sole customer for advertising, 
paying his own canvassers, bookkeeper and collec- 
tor, and taking his own risk upon all accounts. 

The paper was started about two weeks before the 
"panic" of 1873, which brought scores of business 
houses to bankruptcy and nearly swamped the new 
enterprise. The point of danger was. however, at 
length passed and the tide of success set in. 

After being connected with the paper fourteen 
years, on May i, 1887, Mr. Brearley withdrew from 
the News, and seven days later purchased the entire 
stock of the Detroit Journal, a rival evening paper, 
which had been established September ist, 1883, 
and which under Mr. Brearley 's management and 
an editorial force that is second to none in Detroit, 
has achieved a leading position. 

Mr. Brearley 's connection with the Detroit Mu- 
seum of Art is indicated elsewhere in this work. 
He began by interesting Thomas W. Palmer, James 
McMillan and others in the project, and on Decem- 
ber 6, 1882, at a meeting of ladies called at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. James F. Joy, Mr. Brearley gave an 
outline of his plans for an Art Loan Exhibition, to 
awaken an interest in art, to be followed by the 
raising of money and establishing a permanent 
Museum of Art. He personally advanced the 
$10,000 needed to erect the building, and the exhibi- 
tion was carried through successfully, and created 
an interest in art that was before unknown in the 
city. Mr. Brearley was subsequently the principal 
instrument in raising $roo,ooo for the erection and 
endowment of the Museum, giving about one tenth 
of the whole amount himself. There can be no 
question but that to him more than to any other 
person is to be attributed the successful completion 
of the project, and he succeeded by dint of sheer 
purpose and untiring determination. 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1081 



He is a member of the First Baptist Church and 
is active in various departments of church and 
Sunday school work. In 1878 while Associational 
Superintendent of Sunday school work, he visited 
the thirty-three Sunday schools of the IMichigan 
association, and noticing the lack of convenience 
for holding their services, he designed and copy- 
righted a set of six church plans, which have been 
adopted by over 120 churches in all parts of the 
country. In 1872 he invented for the use of news- 
paper men a diary of peculiar construction which 
he calls an "oflBce systematizer," and over fifteen 
hundred are in use in various newspaper offices. 

In 1877 he inaugurated a series of summer excur- 
sions to the White Mountains and sea-shore, and 
during the seven years ending in 1 883, he took east 
thirteen largely patronized excursions. He origi- 
nated and planned the successful national organi- 
zation, known as the American Newspaper Pub- 
lisher's Association, with head-quarters now at 104 
Temple Court, New York. Its first meeting was 
held at Rochester on February 11, 1887, and dur- 
ing its first year he was one of the executive com- 
mittee and served as secretary. He also suggested 
the idea of a Press Brotherhood, prepared a ritual 
for the same, and an organization was effected on 
July 26, 1887, and at this and also at the meeting of 
June 30, 1888, he was elected president of the so- 
ciety, which is in a prosperous condition and 
expected to spread throughout the United States. 

He is a member of the Detroit, Grosse Pointe 
and Rushmere Clubs, and of the Michigan Yacht 
Club ; also of Detroit Commandery of Knights 
Templars, and of Detroit Post G. A. R. His busi- 
ness career abundantly evidences his business fore- 
sight and push, and his success in overcoming ob- 
stacles in various directions, shows that he pos- 
sesses high courage and an obstinacy of devotion to 
whatever he undertakes, that could hardly fail to 
win. 

As is usually the case with those who possess 
such marked persistency of purpose, he does not 
count upon every person as a friend, but his record 
will bear examination, and he has proved a better 
citizen for Detroit than many who have had larger 
opportunities. He is genial among his friends, lib- 
eral in his gifts to worthy objects, and zealously* 
alive to all the interests recognized as contributing 
to the well-being of society. 

He was married August 27, 1868, to Miss Lina 
De Land, of East Saginaw, daughter of Milton B. 
De Land. Their oldest son, Harry C, born Octo- 
ber 2, 1870, is assistant manager of the Detroit 
Journal. Their three other children are named 
Rachel, born May 30, 1873, Benjamin W., born 
September i, 1881, and Margareft, born September 
2, 188^. 



J. HENRY CARSTENS, M. D., of Detroit, was 
born June 9, 1848, in the city of Kiel, in the Ger- 
man province of Schleswig-Holstein. His father, 
John Henry Carstens, a merchant tailor, was an 
ardent revolutionist and participated in the various 
revolts in the memorable years of 1848-49. He 
had been captured and was in prison when his son 
was born ; after some months he was released and 
began attending to his business, but fearing that 
he might be again imprisoned, he packed up a few 
goods, and with his family left in the dead of the 
night for America, and on his arrival settled in 
Detroit, where he has since remained. One of his 
grandfathers was an architect and builder, another 
a ship builder; many of his uncles, with other rela- 
tives, were officers in the army and navy, and nearly 
all of them participated in the revolution and were 
forced to leave Germany and come to the United 
States. 

J. H. Carstens is the eldest of two children. His 
earlier education was received in the public schools 
of Detroit, supplemented by six years' attendance at 
the German-American Seminary. While receiving 
instruction at the latter institution, his parents lived 
on a farm four and a half miles from the city, 
which distance he was compelled to walk twice a 
day. He evinced even as a boy an eager desire for 
intellectual work, excelled as a student and took 
high rank in his studies, especially in those pertain- 
ing to natural sciences and mathematics. Before 
he had attained his fifteenth year, he was com- 
pelled to engage in business, and after some time 
devoted to lithography, he entered the drug store 
of Wm. Thum, and afterwards served in Duffield's 
drug store, and with B. E. Sickler. He became 
proficient in the various details of the business, 
served one year as prescription clerk in Stearns's 
drug store, and then began the study of medicine, 
his name being the first on the matriculation book 
of the Detroit Medical College. Even before gradu- 
ation he had charge of the college dispensary, and 
after his graduation in 1870, he was immediately 
put in charge of the dispensary, and a few years 
later held the same position in St. Mary's Hospital 
Infirmary. He was appointed lecturer on Minor 
Surgery in the Detroit Medical College in 1871, and 
afterwards lecturer on Diseases of the Skin, and 
Clinical Medicine. 

He has lectured on almost every branch of medi- 
cal science, the most important subjects so treated 
being, Diseases of Women and Children, Differen- 
tial Diagnosis, Nervous Diseases, Physical Diagno- 
sis, Pathology, Chemistry, Materia Medica, and 
Therapeutics. His taste and practice gradually 
tended to the diseases of women, and after holding 
the professorship of Materia Medica and Therapeu- 
tics in the Detroit Medical College for some years, 



1082 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS. MILITARY OFFICERS. 



in 1 88 1 he accepted the professorship of Obstetrics 
and Clinical Gynecology, a position he has ever 
since held, and on the consolidation with the Michi- 
gan College of Medicine, he was appointed to the 
same position in the Detroit College of Medicine. 
As a lecturer on medical subjects he has performed 
most satisfactory labors, is thorough in his investi- 
gations and in the application of knowledge gained 
by practical experience and unremitting research. 
He is terse, clear, and practical, and easily wins the 
respect of those who come under his teaching. 

In view of the experiences of his father, it is but 
natural that Dr. Carstens should have a strong 
taste for politics. Ever since he has been old 
enough to understand the political situation in this 
country he has been a staunch Republican. Before 
his twentieth year he delivered political speeches, 
and this he continued for many years, speaking in 
either English or German in many parts of the 
State of Michigan. In 1876 he was elected chair- 
man of the Republican City Committee, and at the 
same time was a member of the County Committee. 
During the year he held the§e positions, he materi- 
ally assisted in securing Republican control of the 
city and county. Both as an organizer and as an 
earnest, effective worker, he has rendered valuable 
aid in gaining victories for his party, and has been 
often tendered party nominations. He has, how- 
ever, thus far refused to become a candidate for 
office, with the exception of a nomination as mem- 
ber of the Board of Education, to which he was 
elected in 1875 and re-elected in 1879. ^n 1877 he 
was appointed president of the Board of Health, 
and during his term of office rendered valuable 
assistance in checking the spread of small-pox, 
which was then prevalent. On the organization of 
the Michigan Republican Club, he was elected a 
director. His rapidly increasing professional duties, 
of late years, have prevented active political work, 
and with the exception of an occasional speech, his 
whole time has been devoted to his profession. His 
contributions to medical literature have been vari- 
ous and extended. 

He has reported many clinical lectures and has 
translated various articles from German and French 
medical journals. Among the more important of 
the articles written by him may be named : Cleft- 
palate and Iodoform, Medical Education, Embol- 
ism, Vaccination, Household Remedies, Phantasia, 
Clinical Le:tures, A Case of Obstetrics, Dysentery 
cured without Opium, Strangulated Hernia, Hem- 
orrhoids, Clinical Lectures on Gynecology, A Case 
of Epilepsy caused by Uterine Stenosis, Three Cases 
of Battey's Operation, Uterine Cancer, Menorrha- 
gia and Metrorrhagia, Cancer, Ergot in Labor, 
Mechanical Therapeutics of Amenorrhoea, A Dif- 
ferent Method of Treating a Case of Freshly Rup- 



tured Perinaeum, Fibroid Tumor Removed by Lapa- 
rotomy, Vesico-Vaginical Fistula, Loewenthal The- 
ory of Menstruation, Mastitis, Laceration of the 
Cervix Uteri, A small Book on Amenorrhoea, 
Dysmenorrhoea and Menorrhagia. Nearly all of his 
articles have been extensively copied by medical 
journals in this country, and some by European 
journals. He holds the position of gynecologist 
to Harper Hospital, attending physician at the 
Woman's Hospital and obstetrician of the House 
of Providence. He is a member of the American 
Medical Association, and of the Michigan State 
Medical Society, of which he was vice-president in 
1885, president of the Detroit Medical and Library 
Society, a member of the Detroit Academy of 
Medicine, and of the British Gynecological. Society, 
honorary member of the Owosso and Kalamazoo 
Academy of Medicine and the Northeastern District 
Medical Society, and vice-president of the Ameri- 
can Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 

His advance as a physician has been steady and 
sure; he has been a continuous student and a hard 
worker ; his practice has grown into an extensive 
and remunerative one and he finds his time and 
hands fully occupied. He has given to certain dis- 
eases close and special attention and has worked 
out for them peculiar, independent, and success- 
ful modes of treatment. Among his professional 
brethren he holds the place due to his talents and 
manly character, and is ever ready to aid any enter- 
prise that may be originated for the good of the 
public. Although his professional duties are oner- 
ous, he finds time for general reading and keeps 
well informed in a wide range of intellectual cul- 
ture ; is thorough and earnest in all that he under- 
takes, and has the undivided good will and respect 
of the community in which he dwells. 

He was married October 18, 1870, to Hattie 
Rohnert. who had for some time been a teacher 
in one of the public schools. 

HENRY ALEXANDER CLELAND, M. D. 
of Detroit, was born in Sterling, Scotland, March 
14, 1839, and is the son of Henry and Mary Young) 
Cleland, and a lineal descendant of William Cleland, 
the covenanter, who during the sixteenth century 
was a conspicuous character in the war of the cov- 
enanters, having great influence as a leader of the 
West country Whigs. In 1689, when the extortion 
and persecutions of Viscount Dundee, to whom King 
James entrusted the management of affairs in Scot- 
land, had justly aroused the anger of the covenant- 
ers, it was William Cleland, then living in Edin- 
burgh,who became the recognized head of the move- 
ment which for a time threatened to destroy the 
forces of Dundee. At that time, says Lord Macau- 
ley in his History of England, ** the enemy whom 




^ 



\. 



^WvV 



c 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISH BRS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1083 



Dundee had most to fear was a youth of distin- 
guished courage and abilities, named William Cle- 
land. * * * Cleland had, when little more than 
sixteen years old, borne arms in the insurrection at 
Bothwell Bridge. He had since disgusted some 
virulent fanatics by his humanity and moderation, 
but with the great body of Presbyterians his name 
stood high. With the strict morality and ardent zeal 
of a puritan he united accomplishments of which few 
puritans could boast: his manners were polished 
and his literary and scientific attainments respect- 
able. He was a linguist, a mathematician, and a 
poet, and his poems written when a mere boy, 
* * * showed considerable vigor of mind." 
He was killed in 1689, at the age of twenty-seven 
years. His namesake, an uncle of Henry Cleland, 
was for many years a prominent merchant of 
Wishaw, Lanarkshire. The ancestors of Dr. Cle- 
land's mother were farmers for many generations 
in the town of Stirling of the immediate vicinity. 

Henry Cleland spent the earlier years of his life 
in London, England, where he learned the business 
of a cutler and instrument maker. At the age of 
twenty-five he went to Stirling and began business 
for himself, and died there in 1844, at the age of for- 
ty-five, leaving his widow with eight children and 
with but limited means for support. The family 
remained at Stirling until 185 1, where Henry A. 
recefved his rudimentary education in the grammar 
school. The family then removed to Glasgow, and 
here for one year young Cleland attended St. James's 
Parish School. He then became an errand boy in 
a paint and music store, but diligently pursued 
his studies, attending the evening schools and the 
Mechanics' Institute, and later, the Andersonian 
University, and managed to secure not only a good 
English education, but a fair knowledge of the 
classics, physics, and natural sciences. Believing 
that superior advantage existed in America for 
advancement, he left Scotland in 1858 and came 
to Detroit, where an elder brother, named Wil- 
liam, had located a few years previously. Here 
he at first secured employment in the insurance 
office of M. S. Frost, but after a few months' service, 
he entered the office of Dr. Richard Inglis, to take 
charge of the financial management of his practice, 
and upon his advice soon began the study of 
medicine, and in 1859 became a student in the Med- 
ical Department of the University of Michigan. He 
graduated in 1861, and soon after enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Co. I, 2d Regiment of Michigan Infantry, 
and after a short period of service was made hospi- 
tal steward. During the Peninsular Campaign of 
Gen. McClellan he acted as assistant surgeon of 
his regiment, and was slightly wounded at the bat- 
tle of Williamsburgh. At the battle of Charles City 
Cross Roads, he was taken prisoner, and for four 



weeks was confined at Libby Prison, when he was 
exchanged, rejoining his regiment just prior to the 
second battle of Bull Run. He continued with his 
regiment until the battle of the Wilderness, when he 
resigned his commission and returned to Detroit to 
take charge of the medical practice of Dr. Inglis, 
who on account of ill health desired to retire from 
professional work. Since then Dr. Cleland has 
been constantly engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession, and it has steadily grown in extent. He 
has a natural liking for his calling, and possesses an 
untiring, painstaking, and studious nature; these 
qualities with a high order of skill, good judgment, 
and pleasing address, attract confidence and trust, 
and easily account for his success. ' He is modest 
and retiring in his nature, and his patients esteem 
him,not only as a physician but as a friend. He has 
cultivated a family practice, and his professional 
labors have resulted in securing a large competence 
which has been judiciously invested in real estate in 
Detroit. His time is thoroughly engrossed in his 
professional duties and he finds little opportunity 
for any projects not connected with his profession. 

He is a member of the State Medical Associa- 
tion, and is a charter member of the Detroit Acad- 
emy of Medicine, the oldest medical society of 
Detroit. In 1873 he went to Europe, and remained 
one year, spending considerable time in the hospi- 
tals of London, Edinburgh, and Paris. At one 
time he was a member of the staff of St. Mary's 
Hospital, and is now connected with Harper Hos- 
pital. He was married in 1865 to Agnes M. Cowie, 
daughter of Wm. Cowie, President of the Detroit 
Dry Dock Engine Works, and sister of Dr. Henry 
Cowie, Dentist, of Detroit. 

GEORGE DAWSON was born at Falkirk, 
Scotland, March 14, 18 13. His father was a book- 
binder, and resided near Edinburgh. He was mar- 
ried in 1 8 10 to Mary Chapman and removed to 
Falkirk, where George was born. The father came 
to America in 18 16, and found employment in New 
York. Two years later he removed to Toronto, 
and subsequently to Niagara County, New York. 
While there, when he was eleven years old, George 
was entered as an apprentice in the printing busi- 
ness in the office of the Niagara Gleaner, and 
remained two years. 

In 1826, with his father, he went to Rochester, 
where he entered the office of the Anti-Masonic 
Inquirer, then conducted by Thurlow Weed, and 
in March, 1830, he aided Weed in starting the 
Albany Evening Journal. In 1836 he became ed- 
itor of the Rochester Daily Democrat, but in Sep- 
tember, 18 39, left it to become editor and proprietor, 
with Morgan Bates, of the Detroit Daily Advertiser, 
and continued to manage that paper nearly three 



1084 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFI ICERS. 



years, and his labors on the Advertiser had very 
much to do with the prosperity of the Whig cause in 
Michigan. After the fire of 1842 had destroyed 
the Advertiser office, he sold out to his partner, and 
returned to Rochester to resume control of the 
Democrat, and subsequently went to Albany and 
again connected himself with the Journal. 

In i86[ he was appointed postmaster of Albany, 
and served six years. He retired from editorial 
work on the Journal on September 2, i832. 

He ranked high as a journalist, was elegant and 
and graceful in his style, and made a very honora- 
ble record. He was domestic in his tastes, fond of 
angling, and wrote a little work "On the Pleasures 
of Angling." As a politician he firmly adhered to 
his principles, but was always gentle and pleasant 
in asserting them. He became a member of the 
Baptist church in 1831, and ever remained an 
earnest and consistent Christian. He married 
Nancy M. Terrell in June, 1834, and died on Feb- 
ruary 17, 1883. 

COLONEL ARENT SCHUYLER DE PEY- 
STER, whose name is associated with Detroit 
during its early occupancy by the British, was the 
second son of Pierre Guillaume de Peyster, of New 
Amsterdam. His ancestors were driven from 
France by the persecutions of Charles IX. and sev- 
eral of them settled in Holland. 

Johannes de Peyster, the founder of the family in 
this country, was an eminent merchant in New 
York in the seventeenth century. He was born at 
Harlem early in that century, and in 1653, although 
he had just arrived in this country, he offered an 
amount only exceeded by twelve of the richest set- 
tlers, toward erecting the city palisades. He died 
about 1686, after a long life of activity and useful- 
ness. His second son, Isaac, was for many years 
a member of the Provincial Legislature, and one of 
the aldermen of New York from 1730 to 1734- 
His third son, Johannes, in 1698-9 was at the same 
time Mayor of the City of New York and a Repre- 
sentative of the municipality of the Provincial 
Legislature. The fourth son, Cornelius, was the 
first Chamberlain of the city, and was Captain of 
the Fifth Company of Foot, in the regiment of 
which his eldest brother was Colonel. 

Colonel de Heer Abraham de Peyster, the eldest 
son of Johannes, was a prominent politician, and 
possessed of great wealth, being one of the largest 
owners of real estate in his native city. He was 
born in New Amsterdam, July 8, 1657. On April 
5, 1684, at Amsterdam, in Holland, he married 
Catharine de Peyster. He filled many prominent 
offices, and died on August 2, 1728. His eldest 
daughter, Catharine, married Philip van Cortlandt, 
whose son was the well-known Lieutenant-Gov- 



ernor Pierre van Cortlandt, of Croton. His second 
daughter, Elizabeth, married John Hamilton, Gov- 
ernor of the Province of New Jersey. His seventh 
son, Pierre Guillaume, married Catherine Schuy- 
ler, sister of Colonel Peter Schuyler, famous for 
his influence over the five nations of Indians. 
The second son of Pierre Guillaume was Colonel 
Arent Schuyler de Peyster, whose picture accom- 
panies this article. His nephew, namesake, pro- 
tege, and intended heir, was a veritable rover, by 
sea and shore. In the course of his wanderings, 
he sailed twice around the world, doubled the Cape 
of Good Hope fifteen times, visited most of the 
Polynesian Islands, and in passing from the western 
coast of America to Calcutta, discovered the group 
of islands since known as the DePeyster or Peyster 
Islands. He married Sarah Macomb, the sister of 
Major General Alexander Macomb, of the United 
States army. He had in his possession an elegant 
testimonial given by the merchants of Michilimack- 
inac to his uncle, as a token of their grateful appre- 
ciation of his efforts to protect and prosper com- 
merce, and conserve the English interests in that 
region. 

The funds collected for the testimonial were sent 
to England to secure a service of plate, but the 
gift never reached the hands for which it was 
intended. By the time the silver was shipped, the 
Revolutionary War was raging throughout the 
thirteen colonies, and a privateer belonging to 
Salem, Massachusetts, captured the vessel and the 
silver also. The service remained in the family 
of the owner of the privateer for some years and 
was eventually distributed among various persons. 
The punch bowl forming part of the service was 
sent to New York to be sold, and was purchased 
by Captain de Peyster ; in the course of its wan- 
derings the cover had been lost. The bowl is 
about fifteen inches high and nearly fifty inches in 
circumference ; it is said to have cost a hundred 
guineas, and a more beautiful specimen of the 
silversmith's art is seldom seen. It bears a figure 
of a tortoise or turtle, which was the emblem of 
Mackinaw, and in French the following inscrip- 
tion : 

Thine image, Tortoise, ever will a-fond memorial be, 

My sphere of duty and my home were six long years with thee. 

From the Merchants 
Trading at Michilimackinac, 
To A. S. DE Peyster, Esq. 

Major to the King's or 8th Regiment, as a testimony of the high 
sense they entertain of his just and upright conduct, and the 
encouragement he gave trade during the six years he commanded 
at that post. 

Colonel de Peyster came to Detroit in 1776. and 




iTi^e^ 




AUTHORS, EDITORS. PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1085 



was here most of the time up to 1784, and his con- 
nection with this city is alluded to in various places 
in other parts of this work. Soon after the conclu- 
sion of the Revolutionary war he settled in Dum- 
fries, the native town of Mrs. de Peyster. During 
the French Revolution, his zeal and talents were 
called into exercise for the training of the first regi- 
ment of the Dumfries volunteers, Robert Burns him- 
self being a member of the company, and a warm 
friend of the commanding officer. 

Colonel de Peyster was tall, soldier-like, and 
commanding ; in his manners, easy, affable and 
open; in his affections, warm, generous and sincere; 
in his principles, and particularly in his political 
creed, firm even to inflexibility. He died on No- 
vember 26, 1822. The' remains were interred in 
bt. Michael's churchyard. 

The late Frederick de Peyster, President of the 
New York Historical Society, was a relative; his son, 
the well-known author. General J. Watts de Pey- 
ster, has preserved many memorials of his distin- 
guished ancestor. 

JOHN FARMER, engraver and publisher, was 
born at Half Moon, Saratoga County, New York, 
on February 9, 1798. His paternal ancestors for 
two generations bore the same christian name and 
were natives of Boston, Massachusetts. 

His father removed from Boston to Long Island 
about 1770. He was a staunch, w^arm and zealous 
friend of the American cause, and upon the British 
invasion of Long Island in 1776 he was captured 
and confined, at first in a dungeon and then on one 
of the British prison ships, and when released was 
so nearly dead that only the most careful medical 
attendance preserved him. In order to secure his 
release, Richard Sands, of the well-known firm of 
Prime, Ward & Sands, of Brooklyn, with Joshua 
Cornwall and Henry Sands, gave bonds in the sum 
of ;£i,5oo, for his continuance within the British 
lines during the war. After the war he married 
Catharine Jacokes Stoutenburgh, widow of Dr. 
Abraham Stoutenburgh, and settled in the town of 
Malta, Saratoga County, New York. 

His%on, the engraver and publisher, was edu- 
cated in the vicinity of and at Albany, New York, 
and taught a Lancasterian school in that city. By 
invitation of Governor Cass and the Trustees of the 
University of Michigan, he came to Detroit from 
Albany in 1821 to take charge of one of the Uni- 
versity schools, the said schools being the nucleus 
of the present University of Michigan. 

Within two or three years after his arrival at 
Detroit, Mr, Farmer was engaged in surveying and 
preparing hand-made maps of the territory. In 1825 
he published the first map of Michigan, and the 
certificate of copyright bears the signature of Henry 



Clay, who was then Secretary of State. He sub- 
sequently published, under various titles, twelve 
different maps of Michigan, Lake Superior, and 
Detroit, most of them being engraved by his own 
hand, and all who are acquainted with his works 
concede that they have never been excelled, and 
rarely if ever equaled in accuracy and completeness. 
He was a remarkably elegant penman, and as a 
surveyor and draftsman had no superior in his da^r,. 
In 1831 he compiled and drew for the Governor 
and Judges the first and only map transmitted by 
them to Congress, and that map is to this day the 
only legal authority and guide as to the surveys in 
the older portions of the city. It was accepted by 
Congress as authoritative and is reproduced in 
Volume V of the American State Papers, Public 
Land Series. In January, 1835, he issued the first 
published map of the city, which showed the size 
and correct outlines of the several lots. 

His early maps of the Territory and State were 
sold by the thousands in all the leading eastern cities, 
and are conceded to have been greatly influential 
in promoting the extensive immigration to Michi- 
gan between the years 1825 to 1840. In 1830, at 
Albany, New York, he issued the first Gazetteer of 
Michigan , a work relatively as complete as any 
gazetteer since issued. He served repeatedly as 
District, City, and County Surveyor, and laid out 
many of the earlier roads and villages. 

He had much to do with early educational 
matters in Detroit and was the first chairman of the 
first Board of School Inspectors in the city and was 
continued in the office of chairman for four succes- 
sive years, retiring in 1842. He subsequently 
served as a member of the Board of Education, and 
also as City Treasurer in 1838. 

He was one of the corporators of the first Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church of Detroit and one of its 
earliest trustees. He took an active part in discuss- 
ing the interests of, and in moulding the affairs of 
the city, especially during the years from 1830 to 
1850, and was energetic and successful in whatever 
he undertook. He was intense in his convictions, 
and in expressing his opinion was always clear and 
forceful. He was an early advocate of the abolition 
of slavery, and would have sympathized with any 
and every effort made by the slaves to secure their 
freedom. 

In his profession as an engraver and publisher, he 
had a passion for accuracy and a tireless energy 
that hesitated at no expenditure of time or money 
to secure perfection of detail, and accuracy of in- 
formation, and it may well be doubted whether any 
person ever labored more assiduously in the prose- 
cution of their vocation. He seemed to love work 
for work's sake and seldom spent less than twelve 
to fifteen hours per day at his desk. 



Io86 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



As a neighbor and friend he was trusted and 
esteemed, and to him home was the most desirable 
of all places. He was married on April 5, 1826, to 
Roxana Hamilton, of Half Moon, Saratoga County, 
New York. Her father. Dr. Silas Hamilton, with 
his father and brother, were in the Revolutionary 
army and participated in the battles of Bennington, 
Ticonderoga, and in other campaigns. 

Mr. Farmer died on March 24, 1859, leaving 
three children, John H., Esther A., and Silas Farmer. 
His wife is still living, and has been a resident of 
Detroit for over sixty years. 

CHARLES HASTINGS, M. D., was born in 
Junius, Seneca County, New York, September i, 
1820. In early youth he was thrown upon his own 
resources, and by his industry and studious habits 
acquired the education which fitted him for his 
chosen profession. He studied medicine with Dr. 
N. W. Bell, at Geneva, New York, and graduated 
at the Columbian (allopathic) College of Medicine, 
and also at the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical 
College. 

After practicing for some time in Cleveland and 
going through the cholera epidemic at Sandusky, 
where he was at one time reported as dead, he 
came to Detroit in 1852 and practiced here for over 
thirty-four years, and at the time of his death was 
the oldest homoeopathic physician in the city. In 
1853 he was appointed by the Board of Auditors, 
County Physician, and was the first of his school to 
receive an appointment to that position in Detroit. 
He was subsequently an officer of the Detroit 
Homoeopathic Institute, and did much to sustain 
it. He was also a prominent member of the State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. 

His practice was large and required close and 
laborious application, but in the midst of exhaustive 
professional duties he devoted much labor to the 
defense of the principles which underlie his school 
of practice, and was among the ablest exponents of 
those principles, both in professional success and 
in the strength and cogency of the arguments 
which he employed. He wrote many letters and 
articles which bear marks not only of his scholar- 
ship and comprehensive knowledge, but above all, 
of that candor and courteous demeanor toward 
opponents which always distinguished him. He 
read many papers upon different medical topics 
before the societies to which he belonged, and took 
a leading part in their discussions and always 
aimed to elevate the standard of the profession. 
He was an avowed opponent of all superficial and 
sensational methods in connection with the pro- 
fession of medicine, which he ever regarded as a 
sacred trust, and was always planning for the wel- 
fare of the profession and particularly of his patients. 



Possessing a knowledge of both schools, he was free 
from the prejudices of either, and was liberal and 
catholic both in his sentiments and aims. 

He was influential in getting the homoeopathic 
department established in the State University, and 
by his weight of character, no less than by his suc- 
cess in practice, did much to remove the preju- 
dice which had existed against the system he repre- 
sented. Though known as a strict homoeopathist, 
he had the respect and confidence of the profession 
generally, and w^as often called to consult with allo- 
pathic physicians. He had a quiet and somewhat 
retiring disposition and made but few intimates, but 
by those who knew him best and in his family, where 
he was a kind father and devoted husband, he was 
dearly loved. 

St. John's commendation of Gains ; '* Thou doest 
faithfully whatever thou doest to the brethren and 
strangers," applied with truth to Dr. Hastings. 
The characteristic of his self-centered, well-poised, 
reticent nature, was faithfulness. To his patients, 
his steady, discriminating watchfulness, was a source 
of comfort and confidence. % It was no unusual thing 
for him, when anxious about a patient, to go dur- 
ing the time between midnight and morning, when 
the tide of life runs low in the human frame, to the 
house, and whatever the weather, to watch outside. 
If all seemed quiet and the indications favorable, he 
returned to his house, and the patient was never 
conscious of the visit. The tenderness and endur- 
ing patience endeared him in an unusual degree to 
those that depended upon his skill for themselves 
or those dear to them. 

During his many years of practice in Detroit, 
many of the families to whom he had ministered 
continuously had experienced various vicissitudes of 
fortune ; to those to whom reverses had come he 
was an unfailing friend — sympathy, counsel, medi- 
cal service and help were given as freely and cheer- 
fully as though prompt payment and future reward 
depended upon it, and he possessed the love and 
veneration of many of his patients. 

Into his inner religious life few were admitted, 
but it is known that the desire for a higher faith 
was ever present. The integrity of his life and 
intense scorn of sham or cant, gave to his manner, 
at times, an austerity that might have impressed 
strangers with an idea of harsh judgment and im- 
patience of opposing opinions, but those that knew 
him, knew how instantaneously and genially he 
responded to any truth or goodness in the lives or 
words of others, and how strongly he held to truth 
wherever found. 

Those who knew how bravely he responded in 
his early manhood to the urgent call from cholera 
infected Sandusky, and how unselfishly, without 
thought of reward, he gave weeks of work and 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1087 



nearly gave his life, honor him as his heroism de- 
serves. It may be said of him that he was faithful 
to every trust, faithful in every relation of life, 
faithful to his own clear idea of right, and faithful to 
the end. 

He was married in 1849 to Miss Anna E. Coman, 
of Luzerne, New York. She died in Detroit in 
1859, and in 1861 he was married to Miss Mary L. 
Kirby, daughter of Geo. Kirby of Detroit. He died 
May 23, 1886, leaving his widow and four daughters, 
Mrs. Louis Hayward and Misses Louise M., Lizzie 
K. and Sarah B. Hastings. 

EDWARD W. JENKS, physician and surgeon, 
was born in Victor, Ontario County, New York, in 
1833, and is the son of Nathan and Jane B. Jenks. 
His father was of Quaker descent and a leading 
merchant of Victor for many years, and became the 
purchaser of large tracts of land in Northern Indiana, 
particularly in LaGrange County, where he laid out 
the village of Ontario. In 1843 he removed there 
with his family, and established and endowed the La- 
Grange Collegiate Institution, which for many years 
maintained a high reputation in Indiana and adjoin- 
ing States. At this institute Edward W. Jenks 
received his earlier school training, which was sup- 
plemented by instruction under private tutors. 

He began the study of medicine in the medical 
department of New York University, but before 
completing the course his health failed and he was 
obliged to return home. In July, 1855, he left 
home, expecting, after spending a vacation in 
New England, to resume his studies in New York 
University, but was induced by friends to attend 
the Castleton Medical College, which he did in the 
latter part of the summer and autumn of 1855, 
graduating in November, 1855, and immediately 
proceeding to New York to carry out his long 
cherished purpose ; but after remaining at the Uni- 
versity about a month he found himself so much 
enfeebled by long confinement and study that he 
followed the advice of friends and returned home, 
and was soon employed in a country practice, 
which greatly improved his health. From 1853 
to 1 864 he was engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine in LaGrange County, Indiana, in the ad- 
joining county of St. Joseph. Michigan, and in 
Warsaw, New York, then the home of some of his 
family. After the establishment of Bellevue Hos- 
pital College in New York, chiefly owing to the fact 
that his former preceptor, the distinguished surgeon 
Dr. James R. Wood, was one of the professors in its 
faculty, he entered this institution instead of return- 
ing to the New York University. In 1 864 he received 
the Ad Eundem degree from Bellevue Hospital Col- 
lege, and during the same year removed to Detroit. 
Here he rapidly secured a large practice and re- 



ceived the recognition genuine ability is sure to 
command. He was one of the founders and for 
four years one of the editors of the Detroit Review 
of Medicine, the predecessor of the present Ameri- 
can Lancet, and in 1868 was elected Professor of 
Obstetrics and Diseases of Women, and President 
of the Faculty of the Detroit Medical College, of 
which institution he was the projector and one of 
the founders. He held the chair of surgical 
diseases of women in Bowdoin College, Maine, lec- 
turing in that institution each year in the spring 
months after the close of the college session in 
Detroit. He resigned in 1875, owing solely to the 
labor it involved. He was for many years surgeon 
in the department for diseases of women in St. 
Luke's and St. Mary's Hospital and consulting sur- 
geon of the Woman's Hospital of Detroit. From 
its organization till his resignation in 1872 he was 
one of the physicians of Harper Hospital. For sev- 
eral years he was Surgeon-in-Chief of the Michigan 
Central Railroad and President of the Michigan 
State Medical Society in 1873, and after his removal 
to Chicago was elected an honorary member 
thereof. He has also been President of the Detroit 
Academy of Medicine, is an honorary member of 
the Maine Medical Association, of the Ohio State 
Medical Society, of the Toledo Medical Associa- 
tion, the Cincinnati Obstetrical Society, the North- 
western Medical Society of Ohio and of several minor 
medical organizations. He is corresponding mem- 
ber of the Gynecological Society of Boston, a Fellow 
of the Obstetrical Society of London, England, an 
active member and one of the founders of the 
American Gynecological Society, and of the Detroit 
Medical and Library Association. In 1878 he was 
chairman of the obstetrical section of the American 
Medical Association. 

In 1879 Albion College conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of LL.D , and in the same year he 
was selected to fill the chair of medical and surgical 
diseases of women and clinical gynecology in the 
Chicago Medical College, which the distinguished 
surgeon, Dr. W. H. By ford had resigned, to accept 
a similar position in another medical college. The 
selection of Dr. Jenks was warmly endorsed by 
medical journals all over the country. The Michi- 
gan Medical News said : " During the past year 
a similar position has been offered him in no fewer 
than three of the leading medical colleges in the 
country, and his conclusion to go to Chicago is the 
result of mature deliberation. While congratulat- 
ing Dr. Jenks on his advancement, we cannot but 
regret the removal from our midst which his 
appointment will necessitate. During his residence 
of fifteen years in this city Dr. Jenks, besides estab- 
lishing a national reputation in his specialty, has 
not been * without honor in his own country,' but 



1088 AUTHORS. EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



has by his uniformly courteous demeanor and his 
scholarly attainments won the respect and admira- 
tion of the profession of this city. In leaving for 
his new and enlarged field of labor he will carry 
with him the kindest regards and the best wishes 
of all with whom he has had either professional or 
social relations. Few men remove from a place 
and leave so few enemies behind." Dr. Jenks re- 
moved to Chicago and entered upon his new field 
of labor in October, 1879, and in addition to his 
college duties, opened an office and soon estab- 
lished a lucrative private practice. His health now 
became impaired, and in 1882 he was obliged to 
resign his position in the medical college. During 
the same year he established a private hospital for 
the treatment of the diseases of women at Geneva, 
Illinois,'but continued to reside in Chicago. Suc- 
cess followed his labors, but his health was not 
equal to the strain, while the climate of Chicago 
did not agree with him or with his family, and in 
1884 he returned to Detroit, where he has since 
resided. In 1888 he was nominated by the Medical 
Faculty of Michigan University to fill the chair of 
Obstetrics and Gynecology. 

While Dr. Jenks has been successful as a general 
practitioner, it is to the departments of obstetrics 
and gynecology that he has devoted special atten- 
tion, and in these departrnents he has gained a 
national reputation as a skillful operator, teacher, 
and author. His numerous articles on these sub- 
jects have been widely circulated, and are consid- 
ered valuable additions to medical literature. 
Among the most important of these contributions 
may be named : " The use of Viburnum Pruni- 
folium in Diseases of Women," a paper read before 
the American Gynecological Society, and reprinted 
by nearly all American and very many European 
medical journals ; *' The Cause of Sudden Death of 
Puerperal Women," a paper read before the Ameri- 
can Medical Association ; *' Perineorrhaphy, with 
Special Reference to its Benefits in Slight Laceration 
and a Description of a New Mode of Operating," "On 
the Postural Treatment of Tympanites Intestinalis 
following Ovariotomy," " The Relation of Goitre 
to the Generative Organs of Women," "Atresia," 
a paper read before the Chicago Medical Society 
in 1880; *' The Treatment of Puerperal Septicemia 
by Intra-Uterine Injections, " The Practice of Gyne- 
cology in Ancient Times," translated and published 
in the Deutsche Archiv fiir Geschichte de'r Medi- 
cin und Med. Geographic, by Dr. Kleinwachter, to 
which an extended introduction is given, warmly 
commending the research and investigation of Dr. 
Jenks; "On Coccygodynia," a lecture before the 
Chicago Medical Society in 1880; "New Mode of 
Operating in Fistula in Ano," "Report of a Suc- 
cessful Case of Caesarean Section after Seven Days' 
Labor," "Contribution to Surgical Gynecology," 



read before the Illinois State Medical Society in 
1882. He is also one of the contributors to I'ep- 
per's System of Practical Medicine, one of the 
largest treatises by American authors. During the 
last year he has written two articles for the i- ystem 
of American Gynecology, a work of two volumes 
just prepared by well known specialists in this 
branch of medical science. He is also a contributor 
to the Physician's Leisure Library Series on the 
" Disorders of Menstruation." 

Some of the most distinguished members of 
the medical profession have expressed in high terms 
their appreciation of his professional excellence. 
Said Dr. Ihaddeus A. Reamy,of Cincinnati : "His 
reputation as a writer is so thoroughly interna- 
tional that we need not speak of it, for I could 
add nothing to it. His articles show great re- 
search, especially in classic history along the line 
of obstetrics and gynecological art and literature. 
He has long since proved himself an able teacher. 
He is a skillful operator in gynecological and ob- 
stetric surgery." " I have known Dr. Jenks," says 
Dr. W. H. By ford, "for many years as a writer, 
teacher and gynecologist. His reputation in all 
these IS national in extent." 

In 1887 Dr. Jenks established a private home for 
the medical and surgical treatment of diseases 
of women, at 626 Fort Street West, known as 
" Willow Lawn," putting into execution a plan 
which he has long entertained. He has given 
himself to his profession with undeviating atten- 
tion, and has not allowed the allurements of public 
or political life to come between him and his work. 
His chief relaxation from professional duties is 
found in study and investigation, ranging through 
a wide range of literary subjects. His extensive 
medical library is the result of patient, careful work 
of years, and his varied collection of books reflects 
a cultivated literary taste rarely found in one who 
has gained distinction as a specialist. Naturally a 
student, a lover of books, a great reader, and pos- 
sessed of a fluent command of language, he is a 
graceful writer, an entertaining lecturer, and an in- 
structive conversationalist. 

He is a strong, positive character, arrives at a con- 
clusion after careful deliberation, but has the moral 
courage to readily change a line of action when 
convinced he is in the wrong. The social element in 
his character is strong and conspicuous. Not that 
he cares for what is generally termed society, but 
in the little coterie where friend is knit to friend by 
sincere affection, his light is always brilliant. He is 
charitable, but with judicious selection and from a 
sense of duty, and never with vulgar and ostenta- 
tious parade. His home, his family, and all the 
quiet comforts of the domestic circle are dear to 
him. Here all the reserve of his nature among 
strangers vanishes and he reveals the genial, social 








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AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1089 



side of his nature and that kindness of heart which 
endears him to those who know him best. 

He was first married in 1857 to a daughter of 
J. H. Darling, of Warsaw, New York, who died 
soon after his removal to Detroit. In 1867 he mar- 
ried Sarah R. Joy, eldest daughter of James F. Joy. 
They have two children, a son and a daughter. 

HERMAN KIEFER, M. D., was born Novem- 
ber 19, 1825, at Sulzburg, Grand Dukedom of 
Baden, Germany, and is the only son of Dr. Conrad 
and Frederica Schweyckert Kiefer. His academic 
and professional studies were thorough and liberal. 
He first attended the high school of Freiburg, 
beginning at his ninth year, and afterwards in turn 
those at Mannheim and Carlsruhe, completing his 
preparatory course at the age of eighteen years. 
He then began the study of medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Freiburg, continued the following year at 
Heidelberg, and later attended the medical institu- 
tions at Prague and Vienna. At various times he 
was under the instruction of such distinguished 
masters of medical science as Arnold, Henle, Opp- 
holzer, Stromeyer, Pitha, and Scanzoni. and in 
May, 1849, was graduated with the highest honors 
upon his examination before the State Board of 
Examiners at Carlsruhe. Such a degree received 
from such a source implies a prolonged and assidu- 
ous study, which America is but now beginning to 
appreciate, and, in a modified degree, to imitate in 
its requirements. The venerable institutions at 
which Dr. Kiefer spent fifteen years of his boyhood 
and young manhood, stand before the educated 
world as favorable examples of the vast and perfect 
machinery, by the agency of which, Germany has 
so well earned the name of being a nation of 
scholars. 

There is very slight probability that Dr. Kiefer 
would ever have become an American but for one 
agency— the same which has given to the United 
States much of the best blood and best brains of 
Germany — that of revolution. He had scarcely 
received his doctorate when the revolution of 1849 
occurred. In common with thousands of his fel- 
lows among ^he educated youth of his country, he 
embraced the side of the people with all the ardor 
and enthusiasm of his years, flinging his future 
carelessly aside to espouse the cause of a down- 
trodden race, against the almost invincible power 
of organized authority. He joined the volunteer 
regiment of Emmendingen, and was at once ap- 
pointed its surgeon. With that regiment he was 
present at the battle of Phillipsburg, on June 20, 
1849, and at that of Upstadt, on the twenty-third 
of the same month. It was at the former engage- 
ment that Prince Carl, afterwards Field-Marshal of 

Germany, was wounded and narrowly escaped cap- 



ture by the regiment to which Dr. Kiefer was 
attached. 

When the revolution was suppressed, Dr. Kiefer, 
in common with thousands of others, was com- 
pelled to flee the consequences of his patriotic ser- 
vice. He took refuge in the city of Strasburg, then 
under the dominion of the French Republic, of 
which Louis Napoleon was President. Even there 
he did not find a safe asylum, for the Republic de- 
clined to shelter the refugees from Baden. . The 
spies of Napoleon— a tyrant under the cloak of 
popular leadership — discovered his place of con- 
cealment, arrested him, and he was again compelled 
to fly. Making his way to the sea-board he took 
passage upon a sailing vessel for the United States, 
leaving port August 18, and arriving in New York 
on the nineteenth day of September, 1849. 

America was then far less cosmopolitan than 
now, and lacked much of having attained its pres- 
ent advanced standard of professional and general 
scientific attainment. It did not present a promis- 
ing field to a highly educated German, and we can 
imagine that the necessity for leaving behind him 
the possibilities of success and distinction in his*^ 
own country must have been a bitter one to an 
ambitious young man, fresh from the scholastic 
atmosphere of Heidelberg and the gaiety of Vienna. 
Still, there was no question of the necessity, and he 
made the best of it. After a brief sojourn in New 
York, he turned his face westward, intending to 
estabHsh himself permanently in St. Louis. On 
the way, however, he met a countryman who had 
lived for several years at Detroit, and was led to 
change his intention and turn aside to that place. 

The population of Detroit in the autumn of 1 849 
•was little more than twenty thousand. Michigan 
was still provincial, and neither social nor business 
methods had outgrown the crudity of its earlier 
days. Less than five months before, Dr. Kiefer 
had stood before the state examiners at Carlsruhe, 
and received his diploma, with no other thought 
than that he should live, w^ork, and die in Father- 
land. Since then he had been a soldier, a fugitive, 
and now found himself, by force of circumstances, 
an alien in tongue and blood, facing fortune in a 
very American western city. 

He opened an office for the practice of his pro- 
fession on October 19, 1849, and. in spite of all his 
disadvantages, soon won a pronounced success. 
His practice, almost from the first, was sufficient 
for his needs, and grew year by year, until it came 
to be exceedingly absorbing and lucrative. 

Dr. Kiefer has always held very dear, and given 
every efTort to preserve the spirit and the literature 
of the Teutonic race. That he is also a thorough and 
loyal American is only an apparent anomaly. His 
devotion to the country which gave him shelter in 



icgo AUTHORS, p:ditors, publishers, physicians, military officers. 



his exile, is not at all impeached by his desire to see 
the language, the grand literature, and the social 
and historical traditions of Germany, perpetuated 
among his compatriots. 

He has always taken a deep interest in educa- 
tional matters. He was one of the founders of the 
German- American seminary, a school incorporated 
by the State for finished instruction in all depart- 
ments of learning, to be given equally in the Ger- 
man and English language, so far as practicable or 
desirable. Of this institution he was President and 
Treasurer from the time of its foundation, in 1861, 
until 1872, when he resigned, and severed all con- 
nection with it, because of a disagreement with 
other members upon what he regarded as a vital 
matter of educational ethics. It has always been 
his belief that no teaching of religious doctrine or 
creed should be introduced into school instruction. 
His associates proposed to make the seminary a 
sectarian institution, and his withdrawal was the 
consequence. 

During the years 1866 and 1867 Dr. Kiefer was 
a member of the Detroit Board of Education, and 
used his utmost influence to induce that body to 
introduce the teaching of German into the public 
schools of the city. He made repeated efforts in 
this direction, urging his point upon the grounds of 
the practical utility of the language, and also as a 
right which German citizens were justified in de- 
manding. In spite, however, of his utmost efforts, 
he failed to secure the desired legislation. 

In 1882 Dr. Kiefer was elected a member of the 
Public Library Commission, to fill a vacancy for a 
period of one year;" in 1883 he was re-elected for 
the full term of six years. When he assumed this 
office there were very few German books in the 
library, and the fine and thoroughly representative 
collection of works in that language now upon the 
shelves, was almost entirely selected and purchased 
under his personal supervision. Considering the 
number of volumes and the sum expended, it 
would be difficult to find a library which better 
illustrates the thought and literary methods of Ger- 
many, in science, history, and the belles lettres, and 
Dr. Kiefer deserves the thanks, not only of Germans, 
but of all scholars and investigators, for the import- 
ant service thus rendered. 

Dr. Kiefer is a member of the Wayne County 
and the State Medical Societies and the American 
Medical Association. He is recognized at home 
and by physicians throughout the country as a skill- 
ful, successful, and scientific physician. Until 
recently he has been devoted to his practice with 
the greatest assiduity, finding time only for the 
public services mentioned. This close attention to 
his professional duties has prevented his making 
any elaborate contributions to medical literature, 



but his papers in various periodicals devoted to the 
interests of his profession, have been many, and 
have done no little to spread his reputation in other 
cities and States. 

For many years Dr. Kiefer has held a repre- 
sentative position among the German citizens of 
Detroit and Michigan, and has, upon all occasions, 
been their champion. In all his public life he has 
endeavored, by tongue and pen, to convince the 
public that the German born population of the 
United States should be respected as fully equal to 
the native born people. He claims nothing for his 
countrymen as Germans, but as citizens of the 
United States defends their rights to the fullest 
political and social recognition. Among the claims 
which he makes for them are recognition of their 
language and social customs, and the right to pur- 
sue their happiness in any way which shall not 
infringe upon the equally sacred rights and liberties 
of others. In his own family Dr. Kiefer has paid a 
tribute to Germany by insisting upon the exclusive 
use of its language, and this influence he has sup- 
plemented by educating several of his children in 
the schools of his native land. 

He has been an active member of many of the 
German societies of Detroit, and has represented 
his countrymen upon various important occasions. 
He took a prominent place at the Singers' Festival 
held at Detroit in 1857 ; at the festival commemo- 
rative of Schiller's centennial in the year 1859; at 
the festival of Humboldt in 1869; and in 1871, 
when all German America was wild with joy at the 
successful ending of the Franco-German war, he 
acted as President and orator of the day at the 
peace celebration held by the German citizens of 
Detroit on the first day of May. 

In politics Dr. Kiefer has been a steadfast and 
consistent Republican since the organization of that 
party in 1854. There is nothing in his character 
that would render "trimming" or vacillation pos- 
sible to him, no matter how dearly his political 
allegiance might cost him. During the futile cam- 
paign made by the Republicans in 1854, he was 
chairman of the German Republican executive 
committee of the State of Michigan. In 1872 he 
was one of the Presidential electors of the State, 
and in 1876 was a delegate to the Republican Na- 
tional Convention held at Cincinnati. At that 
convention, when after four ineffective ballots the 
delegates were seeking to unite upon a compromise 
candidate, he was influential in inducing the Michi- 
gan delegation to give their united support to Ruth- 
erford B. Hayes. In every Presidential campaign 
from 1854 until 1880, he worked actively for the 
success of the Republican party, going upon the 
stump and exerting his influence very effectively 
among the German citizens of the State. He is an 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 109I 



eloquent speaker, recognized by all as holding his 
opinions with as much honesty as tenacity, and his 
leading position among his compatriots gives him 
an influence which has been invaluable to the Re- 
publican party. 

In spite of his long and arduous service. Dr. 
Kiefer has held but one federal office, and that very 
recently. During the month of July, 1883, he was 
appointed by President Arthur Consul to Stettin. 
Once before, in 1873, he had revisited his native 
land, spending six months in travel, but his return 
as an official representative of the United States to 
the Fatherland, which he left as a political fugitive 
less than twenty-five years before, was an especial 
gratification to him. 

The office, too, was much to his taste. He did 
not make a holiday of his residence at Stettin, but 
gave a close attention to his duties and an intelli- 
gent study to political, social and trade conditions, 
the results of which he transmitted to the Secretary 
of State in a large number of valuable reports, 
many of which were published by the Government. 
Among these may be named his " Report on Beet 
Sugar," published in Volume XXXIX of the United 
States Consular Reports ; " Report on Base Burn- 
ers," in Volume XL ; *' Report on the Extension of 
European Trade in the Orient," in Volume XLII ; 
" Report on American Trade with Stettin," in Vol- 
ume XL VI ; " Report on Agricultural Machinery," 
in Volume XLVIII ; " How Germany is Governed," 
in Volume L ; "Report on Labor in Europe," pub- 
lished by the Department of State in a separate 
volume. These are by no means all the reports 
made by Dr. Kiefer, during an official service of 
but eighteen months, and they furnish a sufficient 
evidence of the activity and zeal with which he per- 
formed his duties. 

Upon the election of a Democratic president, Dr. 
Kiefer was one of the first officials to resign his 
office. This he did in a characteristic letter, ad- 
dressed to the Department of State immediately 
after the election, and while the cabinet, of course, 
was still Republican, in which he expressed his 
unwillingness either to be "a victim of the political 
guillotine or to see civil service reform managed by 
the Democrats." 

On the twenty-first of January, 1885, he retired 
from his office. For several months thereafter he 
remained in Europe, traveling extensively upon the 
continent. In September of the same year fie 
returned to America, and, upon his arrival at Detroit, 
was complimented with two formal receptions — one 
tendered by his fellow physicians and the other by 
German residents of the city. He brought with 
bim, from his brief official life, an enviable reputa- 
tion for the zeal and ability with which he had dis- 



charged its duties. During 1886 he made a pro- 
longed visit to California. 

Dr. Kiefer was reared a Protestant, but his views 
have greatly changed, and he now disavows any 
religious belief, holding that every individual must 
be judged purely by his own acts. 

Soon after coming to America, Dr. Kiefer was 
joined by his mother, who was accompanied by 
Francesca Kehle, to whom he was affianced in Ger- 
many. The two were married July 21, 1850. 
During the year 185 1 his father also came to Detroit, 
but both father and mother returned to the old 
country after a brief residence in America. Dr. and 
Mrs. Kiefer have passed together nearly thirty-six 
happy and prosperous years. They have had seven 
sons and two daughters, and of these five sons and 
one daughter are now living. These children are : 
Alfred K. Kiefer, who is connected with the Wayne 
County Savings Bank of Detroit; Arthur E., Man- 
ager of the Detroit Edge Tools Works ; Edwin H., 
a resident of New York ; Edgar L., of the firm of 
Kiefer & Heyn, of Detroit; Minnie C, the wife of 
Dr. C. Bonning, Dr. Kiefer's partner, and Guy 
Lincoln, now at Ann Arbor University. 

For the foregoing biography we are indebted to 
the Magazine of Western History. 

ALEXANDER MACOMB, Major-General U. 
S. A., was born in Detroit on April 3, 1782, and 
was the son of Alexander Macomb, a prominent 
merchant of Detroit in Revolutionary days. His 
mother's maiden name was Catharine Navarre. He 
received a good education and in 1779 was enrolled 
as one of the " New York Rangers," a volunteer col- 
onial corps. He subsequently served on the staff of 
General North, and with General Wilkinson in the 
southwest, and was for a time connected with the 
Academy at West Point, where he compiled a 
treatise on martial law% which was published in 
1809. 

He became a Captain in 1805, a Major in 1808, 
commanded an artillery corps in 181 2, and won 
special renown at the battle of Plattsburgh in Sep- 
tember, 1 814, receiving the thanks of Congress, 
accompanied by a gold medal. From 181 5 to 1821 
he was in command of Military District No. 5, with 
head-quarters at Detroit. In 1821 he was made 
Chief Engineer of the Army and removed to 
Washington. Before leaving Detroit he was pre- 
sented by the citizens with a silver tankard and 
several engravings as a testimonial of their esteem 
and regret at his departure. In 1835 he was made 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United 
States. He was universally respected as a model 
and accomplished soldier, a worthy and honorable 



1092 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



citizen and a useful and agreeable friend. He was 
married on July i8, 1803, to his cousin, Catharine 
Macomb, the third daughter of Wm. Macomb, of 
Detroit. She died in September, 1822, and on 
April 27, 1827, at Georgetown, D. C, he married 
Mrs. Harriet Balch Wilson. He had twelve chil- 
dren, as follows : Catharine, wife of John Mason, 
of Virginia ; Alexandrine, wife of General Henry 
Stanton, U. S. A; Czarina Carolina, wife of Gen- 
eral John Navarre Macomb, the sixth child of J. N. 
Macomb and Christina Livingston; Alexander Sara- 
nac, husband of Susan Kearney, daughter of Gen- 
eral Philip Kearney, of New York; William Henry 
Alexander, husband of Mary Eliza Stanton, second 
daughter of General Henry Stanton ; Jane Octavia, 
wife of Lieutenant Morris L. Miller, U. S. Artillery, 
and Sarah, married first to Captain H. W. Stanton, 
of the U. S. Dragoons, and after his death to J. C. 
Devereux Williams, of Detroit. The other chil- 
dren, Robert Kennedy, Alexander Catawba, Anna 
Matilda, Francis Alexander Napoleon and Oc- 
tavia Eliza were unmarried. Only Mrs. Alexan- 
drine Stanton and Mrs. Jane Octavia Miller are 
living. 

General Macomb died in Washington on June 25, 
1 841. 

FREDERICK MORLEY, the Nestor among the 
newspaper publishers of Detroit, was born in Derby, 
England, December 23, 1 82 1 . His father was a Bap- 
tist minister and with his family came to this country 
in 1830. Their first home was in Wayne County, 
New York, and in an adjoining county, at Seneca 
Falls, Mr. Morley learned the " art preservative of 
all arts." In 1841, when only nineteen years of age, 
he became one of the, publishers of the Wayne 
County Whig, issued at Lyons, New York^ and four 
years later, in May, 1845, ^^ Palmyra, in the same 
county, he established a new paper named the 
Courier. 

In 1853 he left New York State and came to 
Detroit, and a few months later engaged with 
Rufus Hosmer in the editorial management of the 
Detroit Inquirer, which was first issued on January 
18, 1854. During his connection with the Inquirer 
he had much to do with the work that inspired the 
Republican movement of 1854 and brought it to 
the front, and in point of fact is one of the several 
fathers of the Republican party. 

Mr. Morley retained his position with the paper 
until a month or two prior to its consolidation with 
the Free Democrat, when he left to engage in the 
book and stationery trade, under the firm name of 
Kerr, Morley & Company. His love for the edi- 
torial tripod soon took him back into the profession, 
and in 1858 he became editor and publisher of the 
Daily Advertiser, and continued in the position 



until near the close of the year 1861, when he sold 
out his interest to Messrs. Geiger and Scripps. 

In May, 1862, he was appointed Assistant Adju- 
tant General under the administration of (iOvernor 
Blair, and initiated and organized the system which 
gave to the State its detailed military record, and 
after five years in the office, in April, 1867, he 
retired. In the meantime the Daily Post had been 
established as a Republican paper by persons who 
were dissatisfied with the management of the 
Advertiser and Tribune. It was edited by Carl 
Schurz, and the first issue was dated March 27, 
1866. Differences, however, arose between him and 
the stockholders, and after serving one year, on 
March i, 1867, Mr. Morley became his successor 
and also had the care of the business management, 
continuing in charge of the paper for nine years, or 
up to January i, 1876. 

During this period it is safe to say that no other 
paper in Detroit approached the Post in complete- 
ness of its news, attractiveness of its make-up and 
general typographic excellence, and as a stalwart 
Republican organ it was never excelled. While at 
the head of the Daily Post, Mr Morley also from 
1 87 1 to 1876, served as Register of the United 
States Land Office of Detroit. After leaving the 
paper he was appointed by President Grant and 
confirmed by the Senate, as Consul General to 
Egypt, but personal reasons induced him to decHne 
the position. 

During 1881 and 1882 he served as Commis- 
sioner of Immigration for the State of Michigan, and 
in the discharge of his duties aided by the efficient 
and accomplished Assistant Commissioner, Charles 
K. Backus, prepared the most complete compen- 
dium of the advantages and resources of the State 
ever issued. It was circulated very extensively, 
especially in the Eastern States, and probably no 
public document was ever of more service to the 
State. 

In the fall of 1883 he became editor and business 
manager of the Post and Tribune, and held the 
position until August, i, 1884, when he withdrew 
from active participation in the conduct of any 
newspaper. He ever and anon, however, finds 
himself writing out some interesting reminiscences, 
and his matter is so instructive and entertaining, 
and style so clear and captivating, that whatever he 
is willing to write, the public are willing to read. 

Always unpretentious and always able and ready 
to convey information upon many subjects of inter- 
est, he is an excellent conversationalist and has the 
rare gift of being an equally good listener, and is 
thus doubly qualified to serve his friends and asso- 
ciates. He was married at Lyons, New York, on 
January 12, 1843, to Eleanor Ninde, daughter of 
Rev. Wm. Ninde, a Protestant Episcopal minister 



•^ 




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AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1093 



of Maryland, and aunt of Bishop W. X. Ninde of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

ROLLIN CHARLES OLIN, M. D.. of Detroit, 
was born near Waukesha, Wisconsin, August 17, 
1 839 His parents, Thomas H. and Sarah (Church) 
Olin, were of Welsh-Irish descent, and their ances- 
tors settled in Vermont at an early date. The 
great-great-grandfather of R. C. Olin settled in 
Rhode Island, and was a revolutionary soldier 
under General Greene. Thomas H. Olin was a 
farmer, and when his son was five years old, re- 
moved with his family to Waukesha, and was for 
several years engaged in the milling business. He 
afterwards settled on a farm in Northfield. Minne- 
sota, where he remained Until a short time before 
his death, in July, 1883. His wife is still living and 
resides with her son in Detroit. 

R. C. Olin remained at home during his earlier 
years, receiving the best educational advantages 
that the schools of his native place afforded, and 
subsequently attending for one year Carroll College 
at Waukesha. He then decided to adopt the calling 
of a teacher, and as a preparation to that end en- 
tered the State Normal School at Winona, Minne- 
sota. At the end of his second term the war of the 
rebellion began, and in August, 1 861, he enlisted as 
a private in Company B, of the Third Minnesota 
Infantry. Promotions to a Second Lieutenancy and 
then to a First Lieutenancy soon after followed, and 
while acting in the latter capacity he took part in 
the battles of Pittsburgh Landing, Shiloh, and Mur- 
freesboro. In the last named engagement his regi- 
ment was captured, and all of the officers then pres- 
ent except Lieutenant Olin and two others, were 
sent to Libby Prison. Lieutenant Olin was paroled 
with the regiment and sent to the parole barracks 
at St. Louis, remaining until September, 1862, when 
the regiment, wdth himself as the only commis- 
sioned officer present for duty, was ordered to the 
Minnesota frontier to aid in subduing an insurrec- 
tion of the Sioux Indians, his command forming 
part of the Army of the Northwest, commanded by 
General Pope. During the campaign Lieutenant 
Olin was appointed Judge Advocate of the military 
commission which tried four hundred Sioux In- 
dians for insurrection, twenty-eight of whom w^ere 
executed. While acting as commander of the 
regiment in the notable encounters at Yellow 
Medicine and Lone Tree Lane, where many Union 
soldiers were killed, Lieutenant Olin attracted the 
favorable attention of General Sibley, and after this 
campaign he was appointed on his stafT as Adjutant 
General, with the rank of Captain, and served in 
this capacity during General Sibley's subsequent 
expedition against the Indians on the Missouri River 
in 1863, in which three pitched battles were fought. 



In the winter of 1862-3, General Sibley took up 
his headquarters at St. Paul, Minn., where he re- 
mained until the opening of the campaign in May, 
1863. In September he returned to St. Paul, 
where he remained until relieved by General John 
M. Corse, to whose staff Captain Olin was trans- 
ferred. In February, 1865, Captain Olin resigned 
from the army and in the spring of the same year 
he went to Savannah, Georgia, with the intention 
of embarking in the lumber business, but being 
unable to secure a favorable opening, returned to 
St. Paul, and in partnership with E. H. Burrit estab- 
lished a bookstore, which was continued until 1 868, 
w^hen he went to Owatonna, and for four years was 
employed as teller of a bank. He then came to 
Detroit and began the study of medicine, and after 
a full course of instruction in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Michigan, he graduated 
in 1877. He adopted the homoeopathic school of 
medicine, and immediately after graduation entered 
upon the duties of his profession in Detroit, and in 
a comparatively few years has gained an extensive 
practice, being remarkably successful. 

He is possessed of unusual power of applica- 
tion, quick discernment, and is ready in analysis, 
qualities that are specially helpful in medical prac- 
tice. He is essentially a family physician, and 
enjoys in a marked degree the confidence and 
respect which should be possessed by those holding 
such a relation. His success is largely due to the 
devotion with which he has adhered to his work, 
and to the trust his ability and conscientious fidelity, 
have inspired in his patients. The tenets of his 
medical principles are founded on broad, liberal, and 
honest convictions, and he is far removed from the 
unjustifiable prejudices which animate many of his 
profession. He is a member of the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of Michigan, and of the 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. His standing, and 
the regard in which he is held by his professional 
brethren in the State, was attested by his election 
as President of the State Society in May, 1887, and 
he is also a member of the military order of the 
Loyal Legion. 

The rapid growth of his practice, and the demand 
it has made upon his time, have given him little op- 
portunity for work outside of his professional duties, 
but he takes a commendable interest in all projects 
of a public nature. He is a Republican in politics, 
and is in hearty accord with the efforts of his party. 
He is of a sanguine temperament, kindly and genial 
in nature, and a citizen of irreproachable character. 
Among the members of the medical fraternity of 
Detroit, of every school of practice, he is no less 
respected for professional attainments than for his 
personal worth. 

He was married at St. Paul, Minnesota, on Octo- 



1094 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



ber 30, 1865, to Georgie A. Dailey. She died at 
Detroit on September 8, 1881, and on June 15, 1887, 
he married Grace Eugenie Hillis, of Syracuse, New 
York. 

JOHN PULFORD, Colonel United States Army 
and Brevet Brigadier-General, was born in New 
York City, July 4, 1837, and is the seventh son of 
Edward and Sarah Lloyd (Avis) Pulford ; the 
former a native of Norwich and the latter of Bris- 
tol, England. They emigrated to New York City in 
1833, and in 1838 removed to Essex county, Ontario, 
and engaged in farming. 

John Pulford was educated in the public schools 
and when thirteen years of age came to Detroit ; 
sailed on the lakes in the summer and in the winter 
read law. In 1854 he became proprietor of a hotel 
and continued the business until the breaking out 
of the civil war, when he and Edward T. Sherlock 
organized a military company, tendered their ser- 
vices to the General Government and Mr. Pulford 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the Fifth Michi- 
gan Volunteer Infantry. He entered upon service 
June 19, 1 861, in the camp of instruction at Fort 
Wayne, Michigan, where he remained until Sep- 
tember II, and was then with his regiment ordered 
to the front. During the fall and winter following 
he aided in constructing Forts Richardson and Lyon, 
part of the defenses of Washington south of the 
Potomac. In March, 1862, he left with the Army 
of the Potomac for Fortress Monroe, Virginia, 
doing camp and picket duty in front of Hampton. 
In April, 1862, he moved with his company and 
regiment to Yorktown and assisted in the construc- 
tion of earthworks, preparatory to laying siege to that 
place, and while there performed important picket 
duty. At Williamsburgh,Virginia, on May 5, he par- 
ticipated in a charge on the enemy at the point of the 
bayonet, and captured the works and a number of 
prisoners. In this charge over three hundred Con- 
federates were killed by the bayonet in front of his 
regiment, and soon after this engagement he was pro- 
moted to a Captaincy. He took part in the battle of 
Fair Oaks, his company acting as skirmishers, and 
losing heavily. He was also engaged in all the move- 
ments of the Army of the Potomac in the seven 
days' fight before Richmond, including Peach Or- 
chard, Charles City, Cross Roads, and Malvern Hill. 

Soon after he went into action on the morning of 
July I, he was struck by a partially spent cannon- 
.ball which fractured his collar-bone and broke his 
jaw. He was left on the battle-field for dead, cap- 
tured by the enemy and taken to Richmond, where 
he was kept a prisoner for eighteen days, when he 
was exchanged and taken to the hospital at Balti- 
more. After ten w^eeks spent in the hospital, he 
was so far reco\tred as to be able to return to duty. 



His friends had procured a detail for him on the 
recruiting service, but he refused to listen to any 
proposition which would take him away from his 
command and active field duty. On the 13th of 
December he was in the battle of Fredericksburgh, 
remaining on the battle-field until the i6th. 

His company and regiment suffered severely 
during this engagement, and the regimental com- 
mander having been killed. Captain Pulford, al- 
though one of the junior captains, -was soon after- 
ward appointed Major, the officers of the regi- 
ment having petitioned the Governor for his promo- 
tion. He took part in what is known as Burn- 
side's mud march, in the Battle of the Cedars, on 
May 2, 1863, in which he assisted in the capture of 
the Twenty-third Georgia Infantry ; and in the bril- 
liant night charge when Stonewall Jackson was 
killed. This was one of the shortest and most ter- 
rific encounters of the war, as the charge was made 
to reopen communication with the army from which 
the Third Corps had been cut off late in the even- 
ing. The next day he was engaged in the battle of 
Chancellorsville, where Lieutenant-Colonel E. T. 
Sherlock was killed, after which Major Pulford 
assumed command of the regiment, although suffer- 
ing severely from a w^ound he had received. 

The officers of his regiment now petitioned the 
Government to appoint him Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the regiment, and he w^as appointed, his commis- 
sion dating from Ma}'- 3, 1 863, He was next engaged 
with his command in several skirmishes with the 
enemy on the march to Gettysburgh, and opened 
the engagement at that place in front of the First 
Division, Third Corps. After the regiment had 
been assembled from the skirmish line, they fought 
as heavy infantry in almost a hand to hand con- 
flict, and Colonel Pulford was severely wounded in 
the thigh and slightly in the right hand, and his 
horse was killed, but the Colonel did not leave the 
field nor his command. Of the fourteen officers of 
his regiment present in this battle, eleven were 
either killed or wounded. The brigade commander, 
in his report of this engagement, says : " The un- 
flinching bravery of the Fifth Michigan, which sus- 
tained a loss of more than one-half of its members 
without yielding a foot of ground, deserves to be 
especially commended." 

Colonel Pulford with his regiment, also partici- 
pated in the battle of Wapping Heights, the regi- 
ment acting as flankers and skirmishers during 
the march from Gettysburgh to White Sulphur 
Springs. On the i6th of August, 1863, he went in 
command of his regiment, to New York City, as a 
guard against threatened resistance to the draft, 
and thence to Troy, for the same purpose, return- 
ing to the Army of the Potomac, September 18, 
1863, He was in command through the actions at 




Vv./, //^. 



; ■,//;.,,•,./ .'/J;/,/' //,■,,'>''/ . 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. IO95 



Auburn Heights, Kelly's Ford, Locust Grove and 
Mine Run. His regiment having re-enlisted as a 
veteran organization, Colonel Pulford took it to 
Detroit, where a public reception was given them. 
They returned to the Army of the Potomac on the 
19th of February, 1864, and Colonel Pulford partici- 
pated in all the actions and movements of that army, 
including the battle of the Wilderness, at which time 
he was severely wounded, his back being broken 
and both his arms partially disabled. On June 
loth, 1864, he was appointed Colonel of the Fifth 
Michigan Veteran Volunteers Infantry, Colonel 
Beech having been mustered out of the service on 
account of having been absent from duty two years 
by reason of wounds received. The Third Michi- 
gan Infantry Volunteers having been consolidated 
with the Fifth Michigan Infantry, Colonel Pulford 
commanded the regiment in the siege of Peters- 
burgh, from June 27, 1864, to April 3, 1865. Dur- 
ing the greater portion of the time he was in com- 
mand of Fort Davis, having as a garrison the Fifth 
Michigan Infantry, the First Regiment of United 
States Sharp-shooters, the One Hundred and Fifth 
Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry and a battery of 
artillery. 

He was general officer of the day for the Second 
Corps at the engagement at Deep Bottom, Virginia ; 
was engaged at Petersburgh, July 30, command- 
ing the Second Brigade, Third Division, Second 
Corps; he commanded Birney's Division of the 
Tenth Corps, for a short time, at the battle of 
Strawberry Plains, Virginia ; the Fifth Michigan at 
the Battle of Poplar Springs' Church ; the first line 
of battle of the Second Brigade, Third Division, 
Second Corps, at Boydton Plank Road, October 
27, 1864, where he was wounded in the right knee. 
At Hatcher's Run, on March 25, 1865, he com- 
manded the Fifth Michigan, together with the First 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, and at Sailors' 
Creek and New Stone, Virginia, the Fifth Michigan 
Infantry, and was general officer of the day for the 
Third Division, Second Corps, at the surrender of 
the insurgent armies at Appomattox Court House, 
April 9, 1865. ^^ June, of the same year, he was 
appointed by the President, Brigadier -General of 
the United States Volunteers, by brevet, to rank as 
such from the 30th of March, 1865, " for gallantry 
in action and efficiency in the line of duty and 
commissioned to date, March 13, 1865, for good 
conduct and meritorious services during the war." 
After the general review of the armies of the 
United States at Washington, he proceeded in 
command of the Fifth Michigan and several other 
Western regiments, to Louisville, Kentucky, and 
commanded the First Brigade, provisional division, 
Army of the Tennessee, at Jeffersonville, Indiana. 
The Fifth Michigan Regiment, having been mus- 



tered out of service on July 5, 1865, he brought it 
to Detroit, where it was disbanded on July 17th. 

Returning to private life, in October following 
Colonel Pulford was admitted to the bar, but hav- 
ing acquired a strong taste for military life, he 
applied for a commission in the regular army, and 
on February 23, 1866, was appointed Second, and 
afterwards First Lieutenant, Nineteenth Unfted 
States Infantry, being assigned to the command of 
Company G., third battalion of that regiment. On 
the 28th of April following he was stationed at 
Newport Barracks, Kentucky. He was in com- 
mand of his company en route to and at Little 
Rock, Arkansas, until August 3, and was soon 
after assigned to the command of the post at Du- 
vall's Bluff, Arkansas. On the 21st of September 
he was transferred to the Thirty-seventh United 
States Infantry, stationed at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, and engaged in General Hancock's expe- 
dition against hostile Indians, and commanded a 
detachment of troops who were guarding the 
United States mail route from Indians, between 
Forts Lyon and Aubrey, Kansas. He was Acting 
Quartermaster, Commissary of Subsistence and Dis- 
bursing Officer from November i, 1867, until ]\Tay 
31, 1869. He was awaiting orders and on recon- 
struction duty in Mississippi until December 13, 
1869 ; on recruiting duty at Newport Barracks and 
Atlanta, Georgia, and awaiting orders until Decem- 
ber, 1870. 

Under section 32 of the Act of Congress, ap- 
proved July 28, 1866, on a record of six wounds 
received in action, he was retired on the rank of 
Colonel United States Army. He risked his person, 
as an officer, in double as many engagements and 
actually commanded a regiment in more battles 
than the oldest regiment of the regular United 
States army ever participated in from the time of 
the original organization of the army in 1790. He 
received four out of six wounds while doing another 
officer's duty in battle. In 1873 he w^as appointed 
by Governor Bagley as Judge Advocate of Michi- 
gan. He was reduced to the rank of a Lieutenant- 
Colonel by the operation of the so-called " Craw- 
ford Act," of IVJarch 3, 1875, and unjustly remained 
for several years under the mortification of being 
reduced from a rank fairly w^on by conspicuous gal- 
lantry and a steady fidelity to duty which resulted 
in a permanent disability of the severest and most 
painful character. 

His disability being fully proved by the testimony 
of the late Dr. D. O. Farrand, as w^ell by other 
eminent surgeons, on a showing of the facts to 
Congress, that body very justly, by a special act on 
March 13, 1878, restored him to the rank of Colo- 
nel United States Army retired. It is eminently 
true that he possesses an army record that many a 



IC96 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



West Pointer might covet. In 1856, he married 
Sarah L. Lee, daughter of Peter Lee, of Detroit. 
She died in 1875, leaving one son and three 
daughters. In 1883 Colonel Pulford married Mrs. 
Emma Cady, daughter of Alexander Cady. a mer- 
chant of Rochester, New York. They have one 
son, John Pulford, Jr. 

WILLIAM EMORY QUINBY was born in the 
town of Brewer, Maine, December 14, 1835. His 
father's name was Daniel Franklin Quinby and his 
mother's maiden name, Arazina Reed. They were 
married in 1834 and moved to Detroit in 1850, 
where he, in connection with J. K. Wellman, estab- 
lished a periodical known as Wellman's Literary 
Miscellany. Mr. Quinby had charge of the editor- 
ial department and secured a list of contributions 
that would be notable even in this day of greatly 
increased literary activity. In 1851 Mr. Quinby 
became one of the owners and in 1853 sole pro- 
prietor. The magazine was subsequently sold to 
other parties and finally discontinued. 

These facts indicate a natural beginning of the 
literary tastes of William E. Quinby. Coming with 
his father, he attended the literary department in 
connection with Gregory's Commercial College, in 
the Odd Fellows' Hall on Woodward Avenue, and 
was also employed in the office of " The Miscel- 
lany." After his father sold the magazine he 
entered the University at Ann Arbor and graduated 
in the class of 1858. He then took up the study of 
law and the following year was admitted to the bar, 
and for part of two years practiced his profession. 
His inclinations, however, were towards literary 
work, and when in 1861 Wilbur F. Storey, then 
publisher of The Free Press, tendered him a position 
on the paper, he gladly accepted the offer and since 
then his connection with the paper has been con- 
tinuous. 

In 1 86 1 Henry N, Walker became proprietor 
and he made Mr. Quinby managing editor, and 
in 1863 Mr. Quinby purchased a quarter interest 
in the paper. In 1872 Mr Walker retired from 
the active business management and Mr. Quinby 
was chosen general manager. He soon purchased 
another quarter of the stock of the corporation and 
in January, 1875, bought a large part of the remain- 
ing stock, and since that date has been the chief 
owher and manager, and under his direction The 
Free Press has attained a circulation and influence 
enormously in advance of any previously possessed. 
His plans and management have made the paper 
and the city in which it is published a household 
name, not only in all parts of the United States, 
but in the British Isles as well, and indeed all over 
the world where there are any large number of 
English speaking people, and in this respect it is 



without a rival in either England or America. The 
success attained by Mr. Quinby indicates the posses- 
sion of extraordinary executive ability, rare literary 
and commercial foresight, great comprehensiveness 
of detail, a fine sense of adaptation of means to an 
end, and a distinct and definite grasp of all the 
forces needed to insure success, and the paper of 
which he is the head, with its Detroit and London 
editions, has achieved a success that is without a 
parallel. Only clear, practical and well devised 
plans could have secured the result that has been 
obtained. 

Personally -Mr. Quinby is as modest as he is 
energetic. He seems destitute of self-assurance 
but is full of nerve and confidence ; is always suave, 
patient, methodical and at the helm. He is a warm 
friend, an agreeable companion, a graceful writer 
and reliable in judgment. He was married on 
April 4, i860, to Adeline Frazer. They have six 
children, namely : Theodofe E., who is one of the 
editorial staff of the Free Press, Henry W., Wini- 
fred, Herbert, Florence and Evelyn. 

JAMES E. SCRIPPS was born in London, 
England, March 19, 1835, and is the son of James 
Moggs and Ellen Mary (Saunders) Scripps. The 
records of Trinity parish, Ely, Cambridgeshire, Eng- 
land, as far back as 1609, contain the names of 
members of the family, who then spelled their 
name Crip and Crips, but as early as 1633 they 
began to spell it as it is now written. The father 
of J. E. Scripps was a bookbinder and emigrated to 
America with his family in 1844, settling in Rush- 
ville, Illinois, where, on November 26, 1844, he mar- 
ried, as his third wife, Julia Adeline Osborn, who 
was born at Ogdensburgh, New York. He pos- 
sessed great mechanical ingenuity, coupled with 
rare skill, a high order of intelligence, and was of 
irreproachable character ; he died at Rushville on 
May 12, 1873. 

James E. Scripps came to Detroit from Chicago 
in 1859. In October, 1861, he, with M. Geiger and 
S. M. Holmes, became proprietors of the Daily 
Advertiser, and in July, 1862, Mr. Scripps was made 
general manager. In February, 1865, he purchased 
a large amount of additional stock, and under his 
management the paper was very successful. Be- 
lieving that he saw a favorable opening for a cheap 
evening paper, he retired from the Advertiser, and 
on August 23, 1873, issued the first number of the 
Detroit Evening News. The paper was almost 
immediately successful, and its circulation increased 
so enormously and constantly that he soon made 
an ampfle fortune, and his wealth is constantly 
increasing. 

He is inclined to liberality, and has made large 
gifts to the Museum of Art, and in many ways has 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1097 



been a helpful factor in promoting the growth of 
the city. In addition to his regular literary work, 
he was one of the publishers in 1873 of a very 
complete State Gazetteer, and the same year issued 
an outline History of Michigan in pamphlet form. 
His letters from Europe, printed in the Evening 
News during 1881, were republished in book form 
in 1882, under the title of "Five Months Abroad." 
He was married at Detroit on September 16, 1862, 
to Harriet Josephine Messinger. They have had 
tive children, four of whom are now living. Their 
names are Ellen Warren, Anna Virginia, James 
Francis, and Grace Messinger Scripps. 

JOHN P. SHELDON, founder of the Detroit 
Gazette, the first successful newspaper published 
in Detroit, was born in 1792, and came to the city 
from Rochester. New York, in 181 7. Prior to his 
arrival here, he had served in the militia during the 
war of 181 2, and in 18 14 was working as a printer 
in Utica, removing from there to Rochester, and 
then to Detroit. 

During Mr. Sheldon's management of the Gazette, 
he maintained a very independent attitude, and on 
one occasion, for certain strictures upon the Supreme 
Court of the Territory, he was fined, hut refusing 
to pay the fine he was arrested and confined in 
jail. The fine was subsequently paid by his friends, 
and he was released. While in jail he continued 
to edit his paper, and his connection with it was 
continuous until 1 830, when the office of the paper 
was destroyed by fire, and the publication ceased. 
On June 2, 1831, within a month after it was first 
issued, Mr. Sheldon became editor of the Detroit 
Free Press, remaining about six months. 

In 1833 he was appointed Superintendent of the 
lead mines west of the Mississippi, and removed to 
Willow Springs, Wisconsin. From 1835, to 1840 
he served as Register of the United States Land 
Office, at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and subse- 
quently for many years was a clerk in one of the 
departments in Washington, resigning in 1861. 

During his residence at Detroit he held various 
public offices, serving as one of the Trustees of the 
city, in 1823, as one of the County Commissioners 
from 1822 to 1825, and as Alderman at Large in 
1828. He died at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. 
Thomas Drummond, of Winfield, Illinois, on January 
19. 1871. 

MORSE STEWART, A. M., M. D., was born 
July 5, 181 8, in Penn Yan, Yates County, New York. 
He is the third son of George Dorrance Stewart, a 
lineal descendant in the third generation of Robert 
Stuart, who came from the north of Scotland to 
Connecticut in 1725, with his wife, whose maiden 
name was Elizabeth Dixon. 1 heir first and only 



surviving child was Samuel Stewart, of New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, who married Elizabeth Ken- 
nedy. Of this marriage there were twenty-four 
children, eighteen of whom reached mature life, 
and ten lived to be over seventy-three years of age. 
Samuel Stewart was a man of liberal fortunes and 
godly life. He was hospitable and brave and lived 
upon his estate in the comfort and luxury of his 
time, and established well his many children around 
him, or on less stubborn soil. His second son, 
Samuel Stewart, Jr., with the enterprise that was in 
the blood, located in St. Lawrence County, New 
York, near Ogdensburgh, where nine children grew 
up about him. The eldest son, George Dorrance, 
having the true spirit of a pioneer, pushed west- 
ward into Yates County, New York, where he laid 
the foundation of a great fortune, in lands and busi- 
ness enterprises. He died at the age of forty-two 
years, leaving four sons and three daughters, the 
eldest but nine years of age. 

Morse Stewart, when eleven years of age, was 
sent by his mother, Mrs. Harriet Benham Stewart, 
to the High School at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 
an admirable and justly celebrated academy for 
boys, established by Rev. Chester Dewey, D. D., 
who had attained a wide reputation as a scientist. 
At the end of three years he passed from the 
hands of this gentleman into those of Professor 
David Malen, whose training fitted his pupil 
to enter Hamilton College at the age of sixteen. 
Four years later he made choice of the medical 
profession, and after some preliminary study with 
Dr. Samuel Foot, of Jamestown, New York, he 
attended two courses of lectures in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, of Western New York. 
His third course was taken at the Geneva Medical 
College. At the close of the session of 1840-41, 
he passed an examination for his degree of Doctor 
of Medicine, and soon after came to Detroit and 
spent some months in professional study under 
Dr. Zina Pitcher, returning to the Geneva Medical 
College in the autumn of the same year, and tak- 
ing a further partial course. 

After this thorough preparation, on November 
15, 1842, he left his home for Detroit, where he 
had decided to locate. Arriving here on the 19th, 
he found the late Wm. N. Carpenter on the dock 
waiting to welcome him, and the friendship which 
began at the time of his first visit continued until 
they were separated by Mr. Carpenter's death. At 
that early day the medical profession of Detroit 
was represented by a most distinguished looking 
body of men, all of them in their prime. ^ Under 
these circumstances it was not easy for the young 
physician with his painfully distant and cold man- 
ner to gain a foothold, but being in possession of 
means and indomitable perseverance, they carried 



lOgS AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



him through seven years of waiting and then he 
stood secure. 

During those first seven years his patients were 
almost exclusively the extremely poor, who often 
needed pecuniary assistance as well as medical 
attendance. Realizing to the full these needs of 
the poor, Dr. Stewart in 1848 was one of the prime 
movers in establishing the Young Men's Benevo- 
lent Society of Detroit, and for several years it 
accomplished great good among worthy emigrants 
who had stranded here during their first winter in 
America. 

Upon his arrival in Detroit Dr. Stewart made the 
acquaintance and secured the friendship of the late 
Rev. George Duffield, D.D., became at once one 
of his parishioners, and in 1852 married his only 
daughter, Isabella Graham Duffield, who after 
thirty-six years of a notably useful life, having been 
instrumental in the establishment of many useful 
charities, and all through her life having been full 
of deeds of charity, on May 27, 1888, was called 
from earth. The year previous to his marriage Dr. 
Stewart had purchased a home on the corner of 
Congress and Brush Streets, and there five of his 
children were born. Morse Jr., George Duffield, 
Isabella Graham Bethune and Mary Bronson. A 
sixth child, Robert, was born after the removal of 
the family to the Stuart homestead, at No. 440 
Jefferson Avenue. 

On Congress Stn^et Dr. Stewart's practice grew 
to very great proportions. It is said that every 
generation has its doctor, but in this case three 
generations have had the care of the same physi- 
cian. Dr. Stewart's cases for forty-five years show 
that many a mother, daughter, and granddaughter 
have known his skillful aid, and side by side with 
the record of new lives runs the sadder duty of 
closing forever the eyes of the aged, or speeding 
some parting soul with the breath of prayer. The 
minister or priest and the doctor went hand in hand 
through the cholera season of 1849 ^^^ 1854, and 
through the various epidemics of small-pox, conta- 
gious fevers, diphtheria, etc. 

When Dr. Stewart came to Detroit there were no 
medical societies, and no protective legislation in 
Michigan for medical men, and therefore no means 
of ascertaining a man's fitness for, or worthiness of, 
fraternal relations. To meet this deficiency the 
profession came together and organized the Syden- 
ham Society. After its demise in 1848, the Wayne 
County Medical Society was organized. Of this 
society Dr Stewart was repeatedly president and 
continuously a member until 1876, when it dis- 
banded. 

His political views like his religious convictions 
are the result of earnest thought and thorough 
principle. In his youth he saw manifested in the 



church of which he was a member, the bitter and 
malignant spirit of abolitionism, and so cast his 
first vote and interest with the Whig party, and 
when the affiliation of the Whigs with the Aboli- 
tionists brought forth the Republican party, he 
enrolled himself as a member of the Democratic 
party, believing that it represented the only con- 
^servatism in the country. He was one of the 
"sixty -nine" who, in 1856, publicly came out and 
declared and defined their separation. During the 
years from i860 to 1870, the political intolerance 
of the party in power amounted almost to ostra- 
cism, but in those very years Dr. Stewart found the 
largest measure of success and usefulness. 

In 1868 Dr. Pitcher waited upon Dr. Stewart 
and tendered him in the name of the truest men in 
the medical profession, an invitation to prepare and 
read an article on criminal abortion. It was a dis- 
tasteful subject and involved sharp definitions of 
right and wrong that were sure to prove offensive, 
but his paper met with the warmest encomiums 
from eminent medical men and journals, and placed 
him mentally, morally, and as a scientist, in the 
front rank of his brethren. His hard and increas- 
ing labors, however, left him no time for the literary 
work he was so well calculated by his experience 
and attainments to perform. A few monographs 
and addresses indicate what it might have been. 

To him the advancement of scientific benevolence 
has always been an object of practical interest and 
desire. It was as the result of a suggestion made 
by him that the Rev. Dr. Duffield turned the con- 
tributions of Walter Harper from the channel of 
a trades' school for boys, to that of a Protestant 
hospital. Dr. Stewart also furnished the data for 
the medical requirements of a well conducted hos- 
pital, and they are embraced in the deed of trust. 
He also aided in inducing Mrs. Nancy Martin to 
bestow her gifts in the same direction. 

Even when most occupied Dr. Stewart found 
time from 1 860 to 1 862 to act as a chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of the First Protestant Society 
(First Presbyterian Church). Assuming this duty 
when the church was in an unfinished state and 
the society in debt, at the end of his term of 
office he tendered his resignation with the building 
in perfect order and full provision made for the 
debt. 

In 1874 the burden of work which had been car- 
ried day and night for thirty-three years, with 
scarcely a week's intermission, began to tell even 
upon his wiry and elastic constitution, and his 
medical advisers ordered a period of positive rest 
abroad. The year from the spring of 1875 to 1876 
was therefore spent with his family in England 
and on the Continent. During this season of rest 
he studied the system and teaching of the medical 





/ rXV,-// ^^; 



AUTHORS. EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1099 



universities of Wurtzburg and Heidelberg, and 
took a prolonged course of the water and baths 
of Kissengen. Wintering in Dresden, his tastes 
led him to a somewhat close observation of that 
admirable art gallery, which was supplemented 
during his stay in Paris. by an equal interest in the 
gallery of the Louvre. Returning home with en- 
tirely restored health, he has since been enabled to 
pursue his profession with undiminished vigor. 

In 1874 he was largely instrumental in perfect- 
ing the organization of the Association of Charities, 
and has greatly furthered public interests on many 
occasions, but he has never sought personal honors, 
and such as he has received were pressed upon him. 
In 1 880 an epidemic of small-pox having broken out 
in Detroit, Drs. Stewart, ■ Flinterman, and Foster 
were named by the Common Council as a tempor- 
ary Board of Health, and asked to look after the 
thorough vaccination of the city, as well as the 
management of the small-pox cases. 

There being at that time no hospital for infec- 
tious diseases, one of tents was at once extempor- 
ized, which, with the nursing and care of the Sisters 
of Charity, gave very successful results. The suc- 
ceeding year the Mayor named Dr. Stewart as one 
of the three physicians constituting the permanent 
Board of Health. Here as elsewhere he has been 
faithful to his duty, and tenacious as to the rights 
and responsibilities of that Board, and has spared 
no pains or personal service to preserve the city 
from pestilence, and to establish sanitary regula- 
tions to prevent the introduction or spread of dis- 
ease. 

Believing in the high and dignified value of the 
profession of medicine, he early determined to see 
it recognized and respected in his own city as both 
a science and an art, and knowing that men valued 
what they paid for, he led off in 1864 by increas- 
ing the standard of his own charges a hundred per 
cent., which example resulted in the adoption of a 
Fee Bill by the Wayne County Medical Society, 
which has continued to be the standard of charges. 

Dr. Stewart began life as he will close it, with a 
nervous temperament, that has often made his 
words sharper than the thought behind them. 
Governed by a self-sacrificing singleness of pur- 
pose that demanded his own work to be honest, 
clear and thorough, he has been content with noth- 
ing less in others. Intolerant of shams, no trim- 
mer, fearless in maintaining what he believes to be 
the side of justice and truth, it is scarce to be won- 
dered that he has often found arrayed against him 
the influence of money and place. Integrity and 
truthfulness have been in all his transactions with 
his fellows, a high and scrupulous sense of honor 
governing every thought, as well as act. Success 
with such a character is achieved in spite of preju- 



dice, and the many antagonisms it is sure to en- 
counter. Dr. Stewart stands secure in the esteem 
of his patients and of the public as well, because 
he has gone forward promptly, habitually, and con- 
scientiously during all the years to his daily duty, 
with an eye single towards God and towards man. 

FRANCIS XAVIER SPRANGER, M. D., is 
the son of Lawrence and Mary (Schuster) Spranger 
and was born in the kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, 
on March 13, 1840. His parents emigrated to 
America when he was nine years old and soon 
after he entered the Benedictine College at Carroll- 
town, Pennsylvania. He then took a course in Latin 
and at seventeen years of age commenced the 
study of medicine under the direction of Dr. H. 
Hoffman, and afterward became the pupil of Dr. J. 
M. Parks, of Cincinnati, Ohio. In August, 1862, 
he graduated with the degree of M. D, at the 
Cleveland Homoeopathic College, and immediately 
established himself in Detroit, where he has since 
continued the practice of his profession. He was 
one of the organizers of the Detroit Homoeopathic 
College, and Professor of Pathology and Physical 
Diagnosis during its four terms, and President of 
the college during the last term. He believes that 
'' shnilia siniilibus curantur'' is an essential, but 
not the only law of cure, and also believes that no 
physician should adhere exclusively to one theory 
or mode of practice, but should be cosmopolitan in 
his profession, accepting all facts which experience 
furnishes, regardless of the source from which they 
emanate. Like other sincere physicians, he is con- 
scious of the fact that his first duty is to his patient, 
and that "pathics," ** isms " and " ethics " are only 
of subordinate importance. Dr. Spranger has a 
very large practice, to which he devotes his entire 
time, and among his patrons he has a large 
number of the wealthiest and most influential 
citizens. His consulting practice is very large and 
possibly unrivalled in the city, and many patients 
come from distant places. He has always made 
a special study of diseases of the heart alid 
lungs, and his large practice and many years 
of experience have furnished him sufficient material 
for the practical study of diseases to make him a 
diagnostician second to no other. He is a member 
of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, the 
State Medical Society, and the Detroit College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, and is connected with a 
number of benevolent, musical and social societies. 
An ardent lover of music, he introduced and made 
the zither popular in Detroit, and as an amateur 
performer on that instrument has few equals. 

In social life he is of an affable, genial tempera- 
ment, and is sure to win the confidence, esteem and 
even warm regard of those who become acquainted 



1 100 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



with his abilities and character. He dislikes all 
sham and pretense, has never taken any promi- 
nent part in politics or sought for public position. 
In 1868 he was appointed one of the city physicians 
and held the office for six months, or until the term 
expired. 

In 1854, in company with his parents, he visited 
Nicaragua, and was present at the bombardment of 
Grey town, on July 14 of that year. He was mar- 
ried in 1858, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Miss 
Mary Sattig. They have had seven children, four 
of whom are living. 

JOHN TRUMBULL, author of "McFingal," 
and the only son of a Congregational minister, 
was born April 24, 1750, at Watertown, Connec- 
ticut. He was an exceedingly precocious child, 
and at the age of seven years was qualified to 
enter Yale College, but on account of his youth 
did not enter until he was thirteen years old. He 
graduated, in 1767, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts, and for the three years following served as a 
tutor, turning his attention chiefly to polite litera- 
ture, and the Greek and Latin classics. He and 
Timothy Dwight were tutors at the same time, 
became intimate associates, and were lifelong 
friends. 

In 1772 he published the first part of a poem 
entitled " The Progress of Dullness," but having 
determined to enter the legal profession, he was 
admitted to the bar in 1773. He then went to 
Boston and continued his legal studies under John 
Adams. While in Boston he wrote an " Elegy on 
the Times," in sixty-eight stanzas. It treated of the 
Boston Port Bill, the Non-importation Associations, 
and the strength and future glory of the country. 
In 1774 he went to New Haven, where he remained 
and practiced his profession until he moved to 
Hartford, where he became distinguished for his 
knowledge and ability as an advocate. 

His ** McFingal " was completed and published 
at Hartford in 1782. Mr. Trumbull was soon 
afterwards associated with Humphreys Barlow and 
Dr. Lemuel Hopkins in the production of a work 
which they styled "The Anarchiad." It contained 
bold satire, and exerted considerable influence on 
the popular taste. 

In 1789 Mr. Trumbull was appointed State Attor- 
ney for the county of Hartford, and in 1792 repre- 
sented that district in the Connecticut Legislature. 
His health failing, he resigned his office in 1795, 
and until 1798 refused all public honors. In May, 
1 800, he was again elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature, and in the following year appointed 
a Judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut. 
From that time he abandoned party politics, as 
inconsistent with judicial duties. In 1808 he was 



appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of Errors, 
which office he held until 18 19. In 1820 he revised 
his works, and they were published at Hartford by 
Samuel P. Goodrich. 

He removed to Detroit with his wife in 1825. 
They made their home with their daughter, Mrs. 
William Woodbridge, wife of Governor Woodbridge. 
The maiden name of Mr. Trumbull's wife was 
Sarah Hubbard. She was the daughter of D. Lev- 
erett Hubbard, and it is a curious and well authen- 
ticated fact that she was a lineal descendant of 
William the Conqueror, King of England. 

Mr. Trumbull died on May 10, 1831, and his 
remains are now in Elmwood Cemetery. 

He is recognized as being, after Phillip Freneau, 
the earliest American poet, and his "McFingal" 
was the most popular of all the poems of revolu- 
tionary days. It passed through thirty editions in 
America, and was twice reprinted in England. 
The city of Detroit was honored by his residence 
here for the last six years of his life, and honors 
itself by preserving his memory in the name of one 
of its finest avenues. 

WILLIAM A. THROOP, was born at Schoha- 
rie Court House, Schoharie County, New York, 
July 26, 1838. Seven years later, with his parents 
he removed to Syracuse, New York, and in 1855 
came to Detroit, where his parents had removed 
some years previously. 

Soon after his arrival in Detroit, he entered the 
bookstore of John A. Kerr & Co., and retained 
this position until President Lincoln called for 
75,000 volunteers, when he was the first citizen in 
Detroit to respond, enlisting for three months as 
Second Lieutenant of Company A, First Michigan 
Volunteer Infantry, on April 16, 1861, four days 
after the first gun was fired upon Fort Sumter, 
and the next morning after the President's procla- 
mation. His regiment arrived in Washington on 
May 16, 1 86 1, being the first troops west of the 
Alleghanies to arrive at the capital. It was assigned 
the honor of leading the Union forces on the soil of 
Virginia, and on May 24, 1861, drove in the enemy's 
picket, capturing 150 rebel cavalry and the city 
of Alexandria. In the battle of Bull Run on July 
21, Lieutenant Throop and his comrades in General 
Heintzelman's division, were in the hottest of the 
fight. 

Lieutenant Throop's period of enlistment expired 
on August 7, 1 86 1, and ten days later he again en- 
listed and was mustered in as Captain of ( ompany 
F, of the First Michigan Volunteer Infantry. I' tir- 
ing the winter of 1 86 1 -2, this regiment was assigned 
to duty at Annapolis Junction, to guard the railroad 
between Washington and Baltimore. In the fol- 
lowing spring his command moved to Fortress 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. l lOI 



Monroe, and joined the Army of the Potomac, and 
Capt. Throop thus shared in the engagements which 
followed at Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mills — where 
he was severely wounded — Peach Orchard, Savage 
Station, Turkey Bend, White Oak Swamp, Malvern 
Hill, and Harrison's Landing. At Gainesville, on 
August 29th, 1862, Captain Throop was especially 
distinguished in the heroic charges made upon the 
enemy's batteries on the Warrenton and Centerville 
turnpike, where eight officers and half of the regi- 
ment fell. For his bravery and daring in this 
engagement he was promoted on August 30, 1862, 
to the rank of Major. He subsequently partici- 
pated in the battle of Antietam and Shepard's Ford, 
and in the fierce winter contests of the same year 
at Fredericksburgh and United States Ford. 

At Falmouth, Virginia, on March 18, 1863, he 
was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the First Michigan Regiment and at the same 
time his command was assigned to the first brigade, 
first division, fifth Army Corps of the Potomac. 
This brigade, by eleven successive days of continu- 
ous field service, before and during the hard fighting 
at Chancellorsville, won the appellation of the 
" Flying Brigade." This service was followed, after 
a few days' rest, by participation in the battles of 
Kelley's Ford, Aldie, Ashley Gap and Gettysburgh. 
In the latter battle the Colonel of the First was 
wounded soon after the opening of the engagement, 
and the command of the regiment was assumed by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Throop. In this battle the 
First Michigan did most effective service, and as a 
part of the Fifth Corps, against overflowing num- 
bers, stubbornly resisted the enemy, and thus 
enabled General How^ard to hold Gettysburgh, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Throop, though wounded in the 
first day's fight, not only held his place on the 
memorable July 3d, but joined in the pursuit of the 
enemy on July 5 ; shared in the action at Williams- 
port, July 12; recrossed in Virginia, July i8th; and 
aided in driving the rebels through Manassas Gap 
in an engagement at Wapping Heights, on July 
2 1 St. He afterwards took part in the battles of 
Beverly Ford, and a few days later, with his com- 
mand, joined the Eighteenth Massachusetts, and 
with a squadron of the Second Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry crossed the Rappahannock, and occupied the 
town of Culpepper, doing provost duty. 

In February, 1864, he, with two hundred and 
thirteen of the First Michigan, re-enlisted as veter- 
ans, and in the following April returned to their 
former camping ground at Beverly Ford, and formed 
P&rt of the Third Brigade, first division, in Grant's 
great campaign of 1864. At the battle of Cold 
Harbor, Lieutenant-Colonel Throop received a 
third wound, and at the siege of Petersburgh, July 
3o» 1864, his fourth wound in action. Two days 



after the latter battle he was commissioned Brevet 
Colonel of United States Volunteers, for brave con- 
duct and efficient service in the battles of the cam- 
paign, and took command of the First Brigade, first 
division, of the Fifth Corps. On November, 30, 
1864, he w^as appointed acting inspector of the 
first division of the Fifth Corps, and on January 
6, 1865, was honorably discharged. He faced 
bravely the dangers of more than fifty battles, and 
bore the scars of four wounds. The first, received 
at Gainesville, proved more serious than at first sus- 
pected, and was lasting in its ill effects. Never a 
day of his subsequent life was he free from pain on 
account of this injury. On March 13, 1865, he was 
commissioned Brevet Brigadier-General United 
States Volunteers, for attention to duty and disci- 
pline, and in 1 866 was tendered by the Secretary of 
War an appointment as Captain of the Twenty- 
eighth Infantry, regular army, but declined on ac- 
count of business engagements. 

After the war he returned to Detroit, and engaged 
in the stationery business.^ On September 12, 1870, 
he was appointed by Governor Baldwin, Quarter- 
master-General of the State of Michigan. This 
office he efficiently filled for five successive years, 
and during this time devoted much time and atten- 
tion to bringing into existence the State museum. 
In 1873 he was appointed Receiver of Taxes of the 
city of Detroit ; held the office for four years, and 
then devoted himself principally to real estate busi- 
ness and the collection of war claims. A few months 
prior to his death he again engaged in the stationery 
trade. 

He was highly esteemed as a business man, was 
scrupulously honest in every transaction, and pos- 
sessed the warm friendship of many of Detroit's 
best citizens, while his heroic services as a soldier 
entitle him to grateful remembrance. He was mar- 
ried July 30, 1866, to Mary J. Porter, only daughter 
of the late George F. Porter. He died October 2, 
1884, leaving his wife and one child, who bears his 
name. 

HENRY O. WALKER, M. D., w^as born in 
Leesville, Michigan, December 18, 1843, and is the 
son of Robert E. and Elizabeth (Lee) Walker, 
both of whom were natives of Yorkshire, England. 
His father was born February 22, 18 16, came to 
America in 1837, and settled in Wayne County. 
He was a farmer and brick manufacturer, and was 
for many years engaged in both avocations at Lees- 
ville, where he still resides. His wife was born 
December 13, 1818. She came to America with 
her parents in 1833, and they were among the earli- 
est settlers of Leesville, which is named in honor 
of her father, Charles Lee, who died at an advanced 
age in 1869. He was highly respected, a man of 



I 1 02 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



devout religious convictions, an influential member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and well known 
in all the community as " Father Lee." 

Until his sixteenth year Henry O. Walker lived 
at home assisting in the labors of the farm and in 
the manufacture of brick. His rudimentary educa- 
tion was received by attendance at the district 
school during the winter months. In 1859, when 
the Detroit High School was established, he was 
one of the first students. After remaining at the 
High School two years he attended Albion Col- 
lege, returning home at the end of a year, and for 
a year following taught a district school, after which 
he returned to Albion College and pursued his 
studies through the Sophomore year, and then after 
spending one term at the Medical Department of 
the Michigan University, he entered the office of Dr. 
E. W. Jenks. and at the same time received a practi- 
cal experience in surgery and medical practice at 
Harper Hospital, then used by the United States 
for invalid soldiers. 

In January, 1866, when the hospital was opened 
for ordinary patients. Dr. Walker became its first 
house surgeon. After several months' service he 
entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New 
York, from which he graduated on February 28, 
1867. Returning to Detroit he immediately opened 
an office, and has been in continuous practice ever 
since. 

He was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy in 
the Detroit Medical College in 1869, and served 
until 1873. From 1873 to 1879 he was Lecturer 
on Genito-Urinary Diseases in the same institution, 
and in 1881 was elected Secretary of the College, 
member of and Secretary of the Board of Trus- 
tees, and in the same year was appointed Professor 
of Orthopedic Surgery, Genito-Urinary Diseases, 
and Clinical Surgery, positions which he retained 
until the amalgamation of the Detroit and Michigan 
Medical College and the creation of the Detroit Col- 
lege of Medicine. In the new College he was elected 
a member of and Secretary of the Faculty and Board 
of Trustees, and was appointed and still retains the 
same professorship he had so ably filled in the De- 
troit Medical College. 

In 1873 and 1874 he was City Physician. He has 
also served as County Physician and member of the 
city Board of Health. He was for several years a 
member, and has served as Secretary and President 
of the Academy of Medicine. He is a member 
of the Detroit Medical and Library Association, 
and was President in 1887. At the annual meeting 
of the Michigan State Medical Society, in 1887, 
he was elected one of its Vice-Presidents. He is 
also a member of and one of the Vice-Presidents 
of the American Medical Association, and at the 
meeting held in 1884, at Washington, D. C, was 



Secretary of the Surgical Section, and at the meeting 
of the medical editors at New Orleans, in 1885. 
was elected President. He is surgeon of Harper 
and St. Mary's Hospitals, and of the Polish Orphan 
Asylum, and consulting surgeon in the Detroit 
Sanitarium. From 1872 to 1874, he was surgeon 
of the Michigan Central Railroad, and for several 
years has been surgeon of the Wabash Railroad. 

While Dr. Walker has been engaged in a general 
medical and surgical practice, it is more especially 
in the line of surgery that he excels, and in many 
instances of perilous delicacy, requiring the highest 
order of skill, he has performed successful surgical 
operations, which have attracted wide attention, and 
deservedly given him a leading position in his pro- 
fession. In 1 882 he established the Detroit Clinic, 
a medical journal, with which the Detroit Medical 
News was subsequently merged in the Medical Age. 
His contributions to medical literature have been 
numerous, and have mostly pertained to surgery, 
especially in the line of genito-urinary subjects. In 
the latter branch of medical science he has been a 
most devoted student, and the results of his inves- 
tigation and practical experience have greatly en- 
riched the field of surgical science. The high 
standing he enjoys for professional abilities has 
been attained by patient, persistent endeavor, allied 
to natural aptitude for his calling. 

No member of his profession has pursued his 
work with more singleness of purpose, and to the 
exclusion of conflicting interests, and the position 
he holds, both as a physician and citizen, has been 
attained by his own exertions. Affability and con- 
geniality, with trusted friends, are prominent traits 
in his character, and his frank and candid nature 
invites trust and insures warm attachment. In 
every relation of life he has made an honorable and 
manly record. He was married November 13, 
1872, to Gertrude Esselstyn, of Detroit. They 
have one son, Elton, born December 15, 1874. 

ANTHONY WAYNE, Major-General U. S. A., 
was born at Waynes borough, Chester County, 
Pennsylvania, January i, 1745. His grandfather, 
Anthony Wayne, a native of Yorkshire, England, 
commanded a squadron of dragoons under King 
William, at the battle of the Boyne, and held vari- 
ous civil offices. He emigrated to Pennsylvania in 
1722, and his son, Isaac, was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Legislature, and served as an officer in sev- 
eral expeditions against the Indians. He was a 
man of great industry and enterprise, and not only 
carried on an extensive farm, but a tannery as well, 
which was probably the largest in Pennsylvania. 
Both the farm and tannery became the property of 
Anthony Wayne on the death of his father, in I774- 

Anthony was educated at a school kept by his 




AN IHONN \V:\\NI', 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILI FARY OFFICERS. I 103 



uncle, and at noon, in place of the usual games, he 
had the boys engaged in throwing up redoubts, 
skirmishing, and other warlike practices, and was 
inclined to neglect his studies. His uncle com- 
plained to his father, and he reprimanded Anthony 
severely, and from that time there was a marked 
change for the better in his habits. From his 
uncle's school he went to the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy, where he remained two years, devoting most 
of his time to his favorite studies of mathematics, 
mechanics, optics, and astronomy. 

When he was eighteen years old he returned to 
Chester County and began business as a surveyor. 
While thus employed, he became acquainted with 
Dr. Franklin, and a strong friendship soon sprung 
up between them, which continued through life. 
Through the influence of Mr. Franklin he secured 
an appointment as agent of a Philadelphia associ- 
ation, formed to purchase and settle a tract of land 
in Nova Scotia. He visited there in 1765, and 
again in 1766, and superintended the affairs of the 
colony until the following year, when he returned 
to Pennsylvania, married a daughter of Bartholo- 
mew Penrose, an eminent merchant of Philadelphia, 
and established himself on a farm in his native 
county. He was soon holding various county offi- 
ces, and took an active part in the troubles between 
Great Britain and the colonies. In 1774 he was 
one of the Provincial Deputies who met in Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the affairs of the country. 
In the same year he was elected a member of the 
Legislature, and in the summer of 1775 was ap- 
pointed a member of the Committee of Safety, with 
Dr. Franklin and others; but in STeptember he 
relinquished all civil employment, and devoted his 
time to military drill and the study of tactics. • He 
then set about raising a regiment of volunteers, and 
was elected their Colonel. 

Meantime the congress, sitting at Philadelphia, 
called upon each of the colonies for a certain num- 
ber of regiments to reinforce the Northern army, 
and Wayne's regiment was selected as one of the 
four required from Pennsylvania, and he was com- 
missioned by Congress on January 3, 1776. Early 
in the spring he proceeded wath his regiment — 
already one of the best disciplined in the service— to 
New York, and soon after was ordered to join 
General Sullivan in Canada. 

His first engagement with the enemy was at 
Three Rivers, and in that disastrous battle his 
intrepidity in attack, and his skill in covering the 
retreat, were equally conspicuous. On the with- 
drawal of the American army from Canada, the 
fortresses Ticonderoga and Mount Independence 
were committed to his care, with a garrison com- 
posed of his ow^n and four other regiments. He 
remained in charge of these posts until May, 1777, 



and in the meantime was promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General. He then joined General Wash- 
ington in New Jersey, and assisted him in driving 
the enemy from that province. At the battle of 
Brandy wine, on September 11, he commanded a 
division of the army, and was stationed at Chadd's 
Ford to oppose the crossing of the river by Howe's 
right wing. He fought until after sunset, and was 
then compelled to retreat to escape being flanked 
by Cornwallis. Nine days after, while seeking an 
opportunity to cut off the baggage train of the 
British army, he was attacked by superior numbers, 
guided by American tories, and defeated near Paoli, 
with some loss. The disaster was, at Wayne's 
request, made the subject of a court-martial, and 
he was found to have done everything that could be 
expected of a brave and vigilant officer. 

During the ensuing winter, when the American 
army was suffering intensely at Valley Forge. 
Wayne was dispatched to New Jersey, within the 
British lines, for supplies, and succeeded in bring- 
ing into camp several hundred head of cattle, 
together with a number of horses suitable for cav- 
alry service, and a large quantity of forage. His 
bravery and skillful maneuvering at the battle of 
Monmouth also contributed largely to the success 
of the American arms. On July 10, 1779, an inter- 
view took place between Washington and Wayne, 
in which they discussed the project of storming 
Stony Point. In the course of their conference, 
Wayne expressed his willingness to undertake the 
perilous enterprise, and is said to have remarked, 
" General, if you will only plan it, I will storm Hell." 
No record has been found of his storming the 
latter place, but, on the night of July 15, 1779, he 
surprised the fortification at Stony Point, and took 
the entire garrison prisoners. This was the most 
brilliant affair of the war, and for desperate daring 
has never been excelled. It occurred at a gloomy 
period in the colonial struggle, and greatly revived 
the patriots of the revolution. The victory was 
deemed so great that resolutions of thanks were 
passed by Congress, and the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania, and W^ayne was greatly applauded. 

His services in the north were exceedingly valu- 
able, and in January, 1780, he displayed remarkable 
skill and decision in the suppression of a mutiny 
which broke out at Morristown. because of the 
poor food and clothing supplied to the troops. In 
February of that year he was ordered to join the 
Southern army, and at the battle of Green Springs, 
Virginia, July 6, 1780, by a prompt attack with a 
part of his brigade, he prevented a meditated 
maneuver that would probably have been disastrous 
to the force under Lafayette, and by this move he 
aided in the subsequent capture of Cornwallis at 
Yorktown. Soon after that event General Wayne 



1 104 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OP^FICERS. 



received orders to prepare to join the Southern 
army under command of General Greene. 

He reached the camp of the army about June i, 
1782. On February 19, 1782, he crossed the Savan- 
nah river, and effected a landing in Georgia, and 
after routing large bodies of Indians, on their way 
to re-enforce the British, he succeeded in driving 
the enemy from the State. For these services the 
Legislature of Georgia gave him a vote of thanks, 
and granted him a large and valuable tract of land. 
He continued v^ith the army at the South until 
the month of July, 1783, when he took passage for 
Philadelphia, and subsequently retired to his farm 
at Waynesborough, and also took measures to 
improve his Georgia lands. He began the move- 
ment to improve the navigation of the principal 
rivers of Georgia, and proposed the connection of 
the waters of the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay 
by canal. 

He was brevetted a Major-General by Congress, 
October 10, 1783, and in 1784 and 1785 served in 
the General Assembly of Pennsylvania. In 1787 
he was elected a member of the convention which 
adopted the Constitution of the United States. In 
April, 1792, after the defeat of Generals Harmar 
and St. Clair, he was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the United States Army. On May 25 he 
was furnished by the Secretary of War with the 
instructions from the President to conduct a war 
against the hostile Indians in the West, and on 
August 20, 1794, he gained a brilliant victory over 
the Miamis, compelling them to sue for peace. He 
was shortly afterwards appointed commissioner to 
treat with the Indians of the Northwest, and to 
take possession of all forts held by the British in 
that territory. 

The ability, determination and promptitude with 
which he managed affairs, impressed the hostile 
tribes with a dread, which operated as a wholesome 
restraint long after his death. In pursuance of his 
duties, General Wayne reached Detroit early in 
August, 1796, and was presented with an address 
by the citizens, who selected the name of Wayne 
for the new county established during his stay in 
Detroit. This was doubtless the first county in the 
United States named after him, but now there are 
numerous counties by this name in the Western 
States. Having put things in a proper state, he left 
Detroit between November 14 and 17, 1796, for 
Presque Isle. On the way, on the 17th, the day 
before he landed, he was seized with an attack of 
the gout, and on December 15, 1796, he died. His 
remains were temporarily deposited at Presque 
Isle, from whence they were removed in 1809, by 
his son, Isaac Wayne, to the cemetery of St. David's 
Church, near his old farm in Chester County. 
General Wayne was one of the most brilliant 



officers of the revolution, and brave to a fault, inso- 
much that he gained the sobriquet of " Mad 
Anthony," yet he was really discreet and cautious, 
fruitful in expedients, quick in detecting the purpose 
of an enemy, instant in decision, and prompt in 
execution. In person he was above what is termed 
the middle stature, and was well proportioned. He 
had dark hair, his forehead was high and hand- 
somely formed, his eyes were of a dark hazel color, 
intelligent, quick, and penetrating. His nose ap- 
proached the aquiline. The remainder of his face 
was well proportioned, and his whole countenance 
fine and animated. His natural disposition was 
exceedingly amiable. He was ardent and sincere 
in his attachments, of pure morals, and his manners 
were refined. 

RICHARD STORRS WILLIS is a descendant 
of George Willis, a Puritan of distinction, who 
arrived from England as early as 1626, took the 
Freeman's oath in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and 
was elected as deputy to the General Court in 1638. 
Richard Storrs Willis was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, February i o, 1 8 1 9, and is the son of Nathan- 
iel and Hannah (Parker) Willis, and the youngest 
brother of Nathaniel Parker Willis and " Fanny 
Fern." He belongs to a long line of editors and 
authors whose record extends back in unbroken suc- 
cession for one hundred and twenty-five years and in- 
cludes many of the most popular writers our coun- 
try has produced. It is a singular coincidence 
that from 1776 to 1800 his grandfather, Nathaniel 
Willis, edited,, three newspapers : The Independent 
Chronicle, The Potomac Guardian and the Sciota 
Gazette; from 1803 to i860 Nathaniel Willis, his 
father, founded and edited three newspapers : The 
Eastern Argus, The Boston Recorder (the first 
religious newspaper in the world) and The Youth's 
Companion (the first newspaper for youth) ; from 
1830 to 1866 Nathaniel Parker Willis, his brother, 
edited three papers : The New York Mirror, The 
Corsair and The Home Journal ; and from 1851 to 
1863 Richard Storrs Willis edited three papers : 
The Musical Times, The Musical World and Once 
a Month. 

Richard Storrs Willis was a student at Chauncey 
Hall, later was at the Boston Latin School, and 
entered Yale College in 1837. In his sophomore 
year he was chosen President of the Beethoven 
Society, which was composed of all the musical 
talent of the college, its members doing service at 
the chapel choir, and furnishing the music at the 
annual commencements. Mr. Willis composed 
industriously for the college choir and orchestra, 
and arranged and harmonized many German part- 
songs, the words of which were translated for 
the purpose by the poet Percival. Among other 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



II05 



instrumental pieces he wrote the " Glen Mary 
Waltzes," which for a quarter of a century were 
published by Oliver Ditson & Co. After graduat- 
ing in 1 84 1 Mr. Willis went to Germany and de- 
voted himself to the study of musical science at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main. He completed an elabor- 
ate course in harmony and musical form under the 
direction of the venerable Schnyder von Warten- 
see, and in Leipzig a course on counterpoint and 
instrumentation with Hauptmann, Professor in the 
conservatory, and Cantor of the "Thomas Schule." 
Subsequently he had the good fortune to pass a 
summer in the Taunus Mountains in company with 
Mendelssohn, the poet Freiligrath, Gutzkow, the 
dramatic author, and the .professor-poet, Hoffman 
von Fallersleben. Mendelssohn reviewed some of 
the work Mr. Willis had done with Schnyder, and 
revised his compositions. These manuscripts 
bearing Mendelssohn's pencil marks, together with 
a canon which the great composer wrote in Mr. 
Willis's album at parting, form a highly valued 
souvenir. While passing a winter in Homburg, 
Mr. Willis's familiarity with German enabled him to 
do some literary work for Gustav, the reigning 
landgrave of Hesse- Homburg, who conferred upon 
him a diploma with the honorary title of Professor. 

Returning to America after six years of absence, 
Mr. Willis visited Yale College and for a time 
occupied himself with a class of tutors and pro- 
fessors who desired to practise colloquial German. 
He afterwards went to New York, where he became 
connected with the press, and wrote for the Albion, 
the Tribune, the Musical Times and the Catholic 
World. He subsequently bought and edited the 
Musical Times, which later on was consolidated with 
the Musical World. After some years he started a 
magazine called Once a Month. It was devoted to 
the fine arts. He also wrote a work entitled "Our 
Church Music," which met with high commendation 
from the London Athenaeum. He next brought out 
a volume of " Church Chorals " and numerous " Stu- 
dent Songs," and ** Miscellaneous Lyrics." During 
the war he competed for a prize offered for the best 
national song, and his "Anthem of Liberty," to 
which he also composed the music, was pronounced 
best by the committee. Richard Grant White, in his 
subsequent collection of these songs gave it enthusi- 
astic praise. Mr. Willis afterwards wrote the song 
"Why, Northmen, Why.?" and others of a patri- 
otic type which were rehearsed in schools and sung 
at public gatherings. 

In 1 85 1 Mr. Willis married Miss Jessie Cairns, of 
Roslyn, Long Island. Mrs. Willis died in 1858. 
Her pure and lovely nature is tenderly delineated in 
her husband's "Memorial," and the pages also con- 
tain lines from William Cullen Bryant, "Fanny 
Fern " and other eminent persons. In 186 1 Mr. Willis 



married Mrs. Alexandrine Macomb Campau, of 
Detroit. During a four years' residence in Europe, 
where he went for the education of his children, 
while residing in Nice, he collected his national 
songs and miscellaneous lyrics into a volume, 
entitled " Waif of Song," which was published by 
Galignani, of Paris. The first volumes of the book 
were sold during the Nice carnival of 1876, for the 
benefit of the poor, by Mrs. Willis, who presided 
over the American Kiosque in the public square. 

While in Europe, Mr. Willis's three daughters 
Annie, Blanche and Jessie, married three officers of 
the United States flag-ship "Franklin," then lying 
near Nice, under command of Admiral Worden. 
Annie married Lieutenant Ward ; Blanche. Lieu- 
tenant Emory (since then widely known as com- 
mander of the " Bear " in the Greely relief expedi- 
tion) ; and Jessie, Lieutenant Brodhead, son of the 
gallant Michigan cavalry colonel in the War of the 
Rebellion. 

During late years Mr. Willis has resided almost 
continuously in Detroit, and has devoted his time 
to Hterary pursuits, publishing among other works 
a volume of lyrics, entitled " Pen and Lute." In 
1887 he was elected one of the Commissioners of 
the Public Library. He is thoroughly identified 
with the city, and his recognized ability, high social 
position and pure character, have made him a well- 
known and esteemed citizen. 

ORLANDO B. WILCOX, Brigadier-General, 
and Brevet Major-General United States Army, was 
born at Detroit, April 16, 1823. He graduated 
from West Point in 1847, was appointed Second 
Lieutenant Fourth Artillery and served in the Mexi- 
can war as Lieutenant in Lloyd Tilghman's Mary- 
land Volunteer Battery, and in Lovell's Fourth 
Artillery Battery on expedition to Cuernaraca, 
Mexico, and in 1850 was with the same battery 
under General Sumner in his campaign against the 
Arrapahoe Indians, and was then on sea- coast and 
lake artillery service up to 1856. 

During the Burn's Riot in Boston, in 1854, he 
rendered valuable service in preserving the peace. 
On January i, 1858, he resigned his commission 
and commenced the practice of law at Detroit, and 
continued therein until the war with the South 
began. He was among the first to offer his ser- 
vices to the Government, and on May i, 1861, 
was appointed Colonel of First Michigan three 
months' volunteers, and with his regiment left the 
city for Washington on May 1 3. He participated 
in the capture of Alexandria and Fairfax Court 
House, and at the first battle of Bull Run, on July 
2 1 St, commanded a brigade composed of the First 
and Fourth Michigan, the Eleventh New York 
Fire Zouaves, and the Thirty-fourth Pennsylvania. 



I Io6 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



In this engagement he was badly wounded, cap- 
tured, and held as prisoner of war, being part of 
the time in the hospital at Richmond, at Charles- 
ton, 3. C. Jail, Castle Pinkney, Columbia Jail, 
Libby Prison and Salisbury Prison as hostage for 
privateers, etc. He was released on August i8, 
1862, and returned to Detroit on August 27. His 
return being anticipated, arrangements were made 
for giving him a public welcome, and it is safe to 
say that no such hearty and general welcome was 
ever before extended to any citizen of Detroit. 
There was an immense procession, arches were 
erected and an address of welcome delivered. In 
testimony of his gallantry at Bull Run he was 
appointed Brigadier-General August 20, 1862, to 
rank from July 21, i86r. 

After his release he served with distinction at the 
battles of South Mountain and Antietam, in com- 
mand of the First Division of the Ninth Corps, and 
in command of the Ninth Corps at the first battle of 
Fredericksburgh. He marched in command of the 
Ninth Corps to Kentucky and commanded succes- 
sively the Ninth Corps and the District of Central 
Kentucky and the District of Indiana and Michigan 
during the drafts riots and Morgan's Raids, and 
the District of the Clinch, in Cumberland Mountains, 
East Tennessee, holding communication open be- 
tween Kentucky and East Tennessee, during the 
siege of Knoxville and successfully repulsing sepa- 
rate attacks at Walker's Ford and Strawberry 
Plains, and remained in command of the Division 
of the Ninth Corps to the end of the war. He 
fought in the battles of the Wilderness and at 
Spottsylvania ; was in skirmishes on the Talopot- 
omy, battle of Bethesda Church and participated in 
attacks on and operations around Petersburgh, and 
in actions on Norfolk and Weldon roads, and at 
Gurley House ; was at Pegram Farm and Hatcher's 
Run, and at the seige of Petersburgh, his division 
was the first to break through and receive the actual 
surrender of the city. He commanded the Detroit 
Department of the Lakes, with headquarters at 
Detroit, from December 26, 1865, to January 15, 
1 866. He was brevetted Brigadier-General for " gal- 
lant and meritorious service in the battle of Spott- 
sylvania Court House," and Major-General "for 
services in the capture of Petersburgh," and Major- 
General of volunteers for his participation *' in the 
several actions since crossing the Rapidan." On 
January 15, 1866, he was mustered out of volunteer 
service and returned to Detroit. On July 28, fol- 
lowing he was reappointed in the regular service as 
Colonel of the Twenty-ninth Infantry, and was 
afterwards transferred to the Twelfth Infantry. 
From November, 1866, to March, 1869, he com- 
manded the District of Lynchburgh, Va. From 
April, 1869, to April, 1878, except fifteen months' 



recruiting service as Superintendent, he commanded 
a regiment on the Pacific coast and then served 
in and commanded the Department of Arizona 
for four years and a half, suppressing Indian hos- 
tilities of Chimehuevas, Apaches, etc., in Arizona 
and Southern California, operating in New Mexico, 
on Mexican frontier, Colorado and Gila Rivers, etc., 
and received therefore the thanks of the Legislature 
of Arizona. From September, 1882, to October, 
1886, he was in command of his regiment and post 
at Madison Barracks, New York. He was pro- 
moted to be a Brigadier-General on October 13, 
1886, and assigned to command of the Department 
of the Missouri. On April 16, 1887, he retired 
from active service and returned to Michigan, stop- 
ping for a time in Ann Arbor and then going to 
Washington, D. C, where he is acting as Superin- 
tendent of the Army and Navy Bureau Department 
of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New 
York. 

In his earlier life he found time to indulge in lit- 
erary pursuits and is the author of stories entitled, 
"Walter March" and "Foca." He also wrote 
" Instruction for Field Artillery." 

He was first married in August, 1852, to Marie 
Louise Farnsworth, daughter of the late Elon 
Farnsworth. His children by this marriage are 
Lieutenant Elon F. Wilcox, Sixth Cavalry, United 
States Army ; Marie Louise, wife of Lieutenant S. 
C. Miller, Twelfth Infantry ; Grace North, wife of 
E. T. Comegys, Assistant Surgeon United States 
Army ; Orlando B. W., Jr., law student at Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and Charles McAllister, cadet at 
Orchard Lake N'lilitary Academy. After the death 
of his first wife in November, 1881, he married 
Julia Elizabeth Wyeth, daughter of John McRey- 
nolds, of Detroit. They have one child, Julian Wil- 



HAL C. WYMAN, M. D., was born March 22, 
1852, at Anderson, Indiana. His ancestors emi- 
grated to New^ England in 1638, and his father. Dr. 
Henry Wyman, was one of the early physicians of 
Michigan, and gained distinction not only by his 
successful practice, but more especially as a sani- 
tarian. He was the chief originator of the so-called 
" Swamp Land Laws " of Michigan, under which 
the swamps were drained and the healthfulness of 
the peninsula vastly improved, and among the early 
benefactors of Michigan there was no man, per- 
haps, to whom the inhabitants are more deeply 
indebted. 

Hal C. Wyman was educated in the public 
schools and at the Michigan State Agricultural 
College. He began the study of medicine with his 
father, and subsequently attended the medical 
department of the University of Michigan, and 




^Xy*^^'^^'^ /v^-^^^- 




AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. II07 



graduated in 1873. He then went to Europe and 
studied medicine and surgery in the schools of 
Edinburgh, Berlin, and Paris, and on his return 
commenced practice at Blissfield, Michigan. Leav- 
ing Blisstield he assisted in the organization of the 
Fort Wayne Medical College, in Indiana, in which 
he held the chairs of Pathology and Clinical Surgery 
until 1879. He was then invited to Detroit to fill 
the chair of Physiology in the Detroit Medical 
College, and after a time accepted the same chair 
^;n the Michigan College of Medicine, and dis- 
charged the duties it involved until 1885, when 
he resigned in the interest of a large and in- 
creasing practice, which has since occupied his 
e^ntire time. 

In 1886 he was appointed by the Trustees of 
the Minnesota Hospital College, at Minneapolis, 
Special Lecturer on Surgical Physiology, and early 
in the same year Governor Luce, of Michigan, 
appointed him a member of the State Board of 
Charities and Corrections. The Michigan State 
Board of Agriculture conferred upon him the 
degree of Master of Science for researches and 
investigations in animal physiology. He is full of 
philanthropic zeal, and is the founder and President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Detroit Emergency 
and Accidental Hospital, one of the most useful 
humanitarian institutions in the city. He is also 
Professor of the Principles of Surgery and Oper- 
ative Surgery of the Michigan College of Medicine 
and Surgery, established in 1888. He is a member 
of the local State and National medical societies, 
and holds honorary titles from leading foreign 
medical and scientific societies. In all that pertains 
to medical science, Dr. Wyman is a close and 
thorough student, and is a notably successful prac- 
titioner. While familiar with the various branches 
of medicine, his special studies have been in sur- 
gery, and his writings and numerous scientific 
papers have been mainly upon surgical subjects. 
His practice is also largely surgical, and by his 
skill and success he has attained .high rank in the 
profession, both at home and abroad. Profession- 
allv and socially he is one of the most genial of 
men, and society loses much from the unremittmg 
labor which his large practice imposes upon him. 
He is thoroughly conscientious in his practice, care- 
fully, zealously and studiously considers the welfare 
of his patients, and is large-hearted in all his deal- 
ings with them. He has large capacity for the 
discharge of professional work, and is a ready, 
fluent, and effective speaker, as well as an able, 
scholarly, and vigorous writer. 

He was married October 30, 1879. to Jennie L. 
Barnum, of Adrian, Michigan. They have three 
daughters. Gladys Prudence, Carrie Louise, and 
Jennie Abigail Wyman. 



CHARLES CHESTER YEMANS, M. D., was 
born at Massena Springs, St. Lawrence County, 
New York, May 24, 1834. His ancestors were 
among the pioneers of New England. His grand- 
mother Yemans was a daughter of Judge Daniel 
Carpenter and sister of Governor Dillingham, of 
Vermont. His father, William Yemans, was born 
at Norwich, Vermont, in 1810, He was a builder 
by profession and erected rolling m'ills at Wyan- 
dotte, Chicago, Milwaukee and in other cities. His 
mother's maiden name was Nancy Lockwood. At 
the time of her marriage she was teaching school 
at Massena Springs. 

The name Yemans is prominent among the origi- 
nal settlers of Taunton, Massachusetts, and Tolland, 
Connecticut, and as early as 1742, the name was 
spelled interchangeably Yemans, Yeomans or You- 
mans. The grandfather of C, C. Yemans moved 
from Tolland, Connecticut, to Norwich, Vermont, 
and from there in 1836, his son William Yemans 
moved with his family to Russell, Geauga County, 
Ohio, and thence in the following year to Chagrin 
Falls, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, where the family re- 
mained ten years. His wife died at Chagrin Falls 
in 1846. and the next year the father removed to 
Cleveland. Ohio, leaving C. C. Yemans at the home 
of a farmer, where he was expected to work for his 
board and have the privilege of a few months' 
schooling during the winter. Not relishing this 
arrangement, the son during 1847 secured the posi- 
tion of cabin boy on board the screw steamer Bos- 
ton, Captain Munroe, plying between Buffalo and 
Chicago, and continued on the lakes for seven years, 
becoming acquainted, by actual experience, with all 
the hardships and .privations connected with a 
sailor's life. 

During the winter months of this period he lived 
for the most part at Chagrin Falls and attended the 
public school and Ashbury Seminary. In 1854, 
by means of money saved from his pay as a sailor, 
he entered a private academy at Chagrin Falls, 
conducted by the Rev. F. D. Taylor. From this 
institution he graduated in April, 1855, sailed part 
of the following season as master of a vessel and 
in the autumn began teaching a winter school 
in Flat Rock. Wayne County, Michigan. The fol- 
lowing summer he resided at Wyandotte, super- 
intending for his father the erection of the rolling 
mill at that place. The succeeding winter he taught 
school at Ecorse, and afterwards in Wyandotte and 
Trenton, pursuing as best he could the preparatory 
studies for the University. At this time valuable 
assistance was rendered him by Dr. E. P. Christian, 
of Wyandotte, with whom he began the study of 
Latin, and also by Dr. Nash, with whom he studied 
algebra and logic. In the fall of 1859 he began a 
classical course in the Ypsilanti Union Seminary, 



I lo8 AUTHORS. EDITORS, PUBLISHERS. PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 



under the tuition of Prof. Estabrooke, remaining 
two terms and then going to Dearborn, where he 
taught for one year. Returning to Ypsilanti he pur- 
sued his studies until the fall of 1861, and was then 
prepared to enter the University, but not having 
sufficient means he was compelled to abandon his 
cherished plan and instead thereof he entered the 
ministry the same fall as a member of Detroit Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, his first 
pastoral appointment being at Southfield, Oakland 
County. 

In the fall of 1862, before his pastoral term had 
ended, he volunteered as a private soldier, and was 
soon afterward mustered into the Union service as 
Second Lieutenant of Company D, Twenty-fourth 
Michigan Infantry, commanded by Colonel Henry 
A. Morrow. The Twenty-fourth Regiment was 
brigaded with the Second, Sixth and Seventh Wis- 
consin and Nineteenth Indiana, which brigade was 
known as the Iron Brigade, and took part in the 
battle of Fredericksburgh. In February, 1863, 
Lieutenant Yemans was appointed an aide-de-camp 
on the staff of General Meredith and acting assist- 
ant inspector general, and as such participated in the 
battles of Fitzhugh Crossing and Chancellorsville. 
After the battle he was taken ill with a fever and 
sent to Georgetown Hospital, and in July, 1863, 
to St. Mary's Hospital, Detroit. In August follow- 
ing, though far from well, he rejoined General 
Meredith at Cambridge City, Indiana, and after 
remaining about a month, his health continuing 
feeble, by the advice and recommendation of Ex- 
Surgeon-General Dr. Tripler, he resigned his staff 
commission, a step he has since regretted as ill- 
advised. After his resignation he resumed his. 
ministerial duties and was appointed pastor of the 
Methodist church at Minnesota Mine, Lake Supe- 
rior, and was subsequently stationed at Commerce, 
Plymouth, Negaunee and Ishpeming. At the two 
latter places he secured the erection of churches 
that now have large and prosperous congregations. 
In 1867 he served as secretary of Detroit Confer- 
ence, in session at Ann Arbor, and in 1870 was 
appointed associate pastor with Rev. W. X. Ninde. 
D. D., at the Central Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Detroit, and in this year Lawrence University, at 
Appleton, Wisconsin, conferred upon him the hon- 
orary degree of A. M. 

Having previously studied and practiced under 
preceptors during his residence in the Lake Superior 
country by assisting the mining surgeons, during 
his pastorate at Detroit he continued the study 
of medicine in the Detroit Medical College and 
graduated in 1872. The same year he was ap- 
pointed city physician, served for three months, 
and was then appointed assistant surgeon under Dr. 
James A. Brown to the Detroit House of Correc- 



tion, serving as such until 1876. He was then 
made surgeon-in-chief, a position he retained until 
1 880, when he resigned his commission in order to 
devote his time to private practice. During his 
term as assistant surgeon he rendered especially 
valuable service to the institution through two 
epidemics of small-pox. In 1873 he was appointed 
assistant demonstrator of anatomy, and m 1875 lec- 
turer on chemistry in the Detroit Medical College, 
and in 1882 was appointed United States Pension 
Surgeon. He was one of the organizers of the 
Michigan College of Medicine and held from the 
first the position of professor of diseases of the 
skin, resigning May ist, 1887, for the purpose of 
devoting his entire time to special practice m derma- 
tology. He is a member of the Detroit Academy 
of Medicine and was its Vice-President in 1876, 
and in September, 1887, was elected President He 
is a member of the Wayne County Medical Society, 
atul was its President for two successive years ; 
and is also a member of the Detroit Medical and 
Library Association and of the Michigan Medical 
A ssociation. 

His practice has been general in its character, 
but has pertained largely to the diseases of the skin, 
a branch of medical practice to which he has given 
attention, and in the treatment of which he has 
been very successful. He has written several arti- 
cles pertaining to this subject which have been 
widely circulated and favorably noticed by several 
medical journals. 

He is a member of Fairbanks Post No. 17, G. A. 
R , and of the military order of the Loyal Legion, 
and President of the Twenty-fourth Michigan Vete- 
ran Association. During the period of the great 
Chicago and Michigan fires in 1 87 1 he had charge 
of the contributions made by the Young Men's 
Christian Associations of the State in aid of the 
sufferers, and was very energetic and successful in 
securing and distributing the needed goods and 
money which relieved thousands of cases. Of late 
years he has been an extensive purchaser of real 
estate in the northeastern part of the city, and 
numerous advantages in the way of new streets and 
other improvements have been obtained as the re- 
sult of his exertions and good judgment. While 
these improvements have contributed to -his own 
financial advancement, his projects have been of a 
character to profit others also ; and as a business 
man his counsel is often sought. In 1887 he was 
the Republican candidate for Mayor of Detroit. 

It is greatly to the credit of Dr. Yemans that he 
has obtained his position solely by his own exer- 
tions. He had neither patrimony nor influential 
friends to aid him, but he has been persistently 
studious and laborious, and these qualities have 
perhaps served him better than would other ad- 







■7 /...-^'^ vc.^'?^^-^^ 



AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS. MILITARY OFFICERS. 1 109 



vantages. During the years when he was slowly 
building up the present large practice, he made 
substantial use of his knowledge of Greek, Latin, 
German, and mathematics, supporting his family in 
part by giving private instructions to a number of 
young men in Detroit who have great reason to 
thank him for his patient care and attention. He 
has rare powers of persuasion, penetration and push, 
and has triumphed over obstacles that would have 
conquered hundreds of weaker spirits, but aided by 
a competent helpmate and with unfaltering courage, 
he has gone steadily forward, and though he may 
have enemies there can be no doubt of his ability 
to win and retain the friendship of many persons 
who are as warm and appreciative as any could 
desire. 

He was married at Flat Rock, Michigan, in 
April, ,1856, to Miss Mary Chamberlain ; they have 
had four children. Dr. Herbert W. Yemans, their 



eldest son, was born in 1857; graduated from the 
Detroit Medical College in 1878, and the same year 
was appointed surgeon of the English steamship 
Palestine. Resigning his position when on the 
other side of the Atlantic, he entered the medical 
department of Strassburg University, where he 
remained a year and a half, becoming an accom- 
plished German scholar. He then returned to 
Detroit and for a year continued his medical studies. 
In July, 1877, he was appointed surgeon m the 
United States Marine Hospital Service, and was 
assigned to duty at Sitka, Alaska. He has made 
two voyages into the Arctic Ocean under the direc- 
tion of the government, and is now located at 
Galveston, Texas. A daughter, Thena, now Mrs. 
Robert Henkel, resides in Detroit. A son, Charles, 
was killed in 1875, in a raih'oad accident. ^ ^^ird 
son, C. C. Yemans, Jr., is in school at Saratoga 
Springs, N. Y. 



CHAPTER XCIIL 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



JOHN ATKINSON was bom at Warwick, 
Lambton County, Canada, May 24, 1841. His 
father, James Atkinson, was born in Ireland, Janu- 
ary I, 1798, and was a man of liberal education and 
a surveyor by profession. He married Elizabeth 
Shinners in 1823. She was born in the County of 
Clare, near the city of Limerick, Ireland. Her 
mother, Lucy O'Brien, was a distant relative of 
William Smith O'Brien, the distinguished leader in 
the Irish Rebellion of 1848. In 1832 James Atkin- 
son, with his family, emigrated to the New World, 
first settling at Prescott, Canada, afterwards at 
Toronto, then at Warwick, and finally at Port 
Huron, Michigan. During the earlier years of his 
experience in the West, his profession afforded him 
but limited employment, and with all the vigor 
and energy of the early pioneer, he turned his atten- 
tion to clearing land. During the latter years of 
his life, especially while at Port Huron, where he 
located when his son John was thirteen years old, 
he devoted his time entirely to surveying. He had 
eleven children, nine of whom reached maturity. 
Patrick, the eldest, during the War of the Rebel- 
lion, was a member of Company C, Twenty- 
second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, was captured 
at the battle of Chickamauga, September 20, 1863, 
and died in Andersonville Prison, June 22, 1864. 
OBrien J., the eldest living son, was the first gradu- 
ate of the Michigan Law School, and is practising 
law at Port Huron. Thomas is a carpenter, at the 
same place. William F., a lawyer at Detroit, served 
in the Rebellion as Captain of Company K, Third 
Michigan Volunteer Infantry. James J., also a 
lawyer in Detroit, was Adjutant of the regiment in 
which his brother William served. 

The early education of John Atkinson was mostly 
obtained at home, under the direction of his father 
and mother, both of whom were liberally educated, 
and had taught school in Ireland. He commenced 
the study of law when he was less than sixteen, in 
the office of William T. Mitchell and Hkrvey 
McAlpine, of Port Huron. He took care of the 
office and did all the copying required in an ex- 



tensive business, receiving a salary running chrough 
the years of his minority, of from $60 to $100 per 
year. Through the kindness of the firm he was 
allowed to be absent for two terms of six months 
each, which he spent at the law school at Ann 
Arbor, where he graduated m 1862. The day he 
became of age he was admitted to practise in the 
Supreme Court, sitting in Detroit, and immediately 
began business in partnership with William T. 
Mitchell, with whom he had previously studied. 

He, however, had hardly entered upon the duties 
of his profession before the War for the Union began 
to assurhe the magnitude of a great conflict, and to 
engage the attention of every well-wisher of his 
country. On July 25, 1862, Mr. Atkinson was com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant, and in the following 
ten days he organized Company C, of the Twenty- 
second Michigan Infantry, of which company he 
was elected Captain. This company left for the 
front September 4, 1862, under the command of 
• ex-Governor Moses Wisner, became a part of the 
brigade of General Judah, and was placed on the 
heights of Covington for the defense of Cincinnati, 
then threatened by General Kirby Smith, of the 
rebel army. At the end of a month it was sent 
upon an expedition against General John Morgan, 
passing through Williamstow^n, Cynthiana, Mount 
Sterling, and Paris, reaching Lexington, Kentucky, 
about the last of October. It was then assigned to 
the brigade of General Green Clay Smith, and to 
the division of General Q. A. Gilmour. Up to this 
period several skirmishes had taken place, but no 
pitched battles. While with General Gilmour, the 
regiment took part in the battle of Danville, and in 
the campaign which followed, including the slight 
engagements at Lancaster and Crabb Orchard. In 
the early part of 1863, the Twenty-second regi- 
ment was sent to Nashville, and joined the Army 
of the Cumberland, serving in the division of 
General James E. Morgan. At the time of the 
advance upon Chattanooga, Captain Atkinson was 
assigned to staff duty on the staff of General R. S. 
Granger, which position he held at the time of the 



[11 10] 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



IIII 



battle of Chickamauga and therefore did not take 
part in that engagement. Immediately after this 
battle he rejoined his regiment at Chattanooga, as 
Captain of Company C, and was in command at 
the siege of that place. The first important battle 
participated in by his regiment occurred during the 
efforts made to open up communication with Gen- 
eral Hooker's army, approaching from Alabama. 
The Twenty-second regiment had charge of the pon- 
toon bridge where General Sherman and his army 
crossed the Tennessee river, but was in the reserve 
during the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout 
Mountain. After the latter battle it was assigned 
to the reserve brigade, and attached to General 
Thomas' headquarters, and with him participated 
in all the fighting from Chattanooga to Atlanta. 
In front of Atlanta Captain Atkinson was pro- 
moted to be Major of the Twenty-second regiment, 
and assigned to recruiting service in Michigan. He 
came to Detroit, and late in the summer of 1864 
was placed in command of the camp at Pontiac, 
with instructions to organize the Thirtieth regiment 
Michigan Volunteers. During the following thirty 
days he organized seven companies, four of which 
were assigned to the Fourth Michigan Volunteers, 
then being reorganized at Adrian, and the remain- 
ing companies to the Third Michigan, being re- 
organized at Grand Rapids. Major Atkinson was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of the latter regiment on 
October 13, 1864, the rank to date from July 29, 
1864. He accompanied the Third regiment to the 
Army of the Cumberland, stationed at Nashville, 
and participated in the engagements with Hood's 
army, on its way to Nashville, at Decatur, Alabama. 
His regiment formed a part of the force defending 
Murfreesboro against General Forrest's cavalry, 
during the battles of Franklin and Nashville. After 
the battle, the Third regiment moved with the Army 
of the Cumberland to Chattanooga, and into East 
Tennessee as far as Jonesboro, and was at the lat- 
ter place at the time of the surrender of General 
Lee's and General Johnston's armies. From there 
the Third returned to Nashville, and was immedi- 
ately sent to New Orleans, to take part in the 
campaign against General Kirby Smith. It remained 
at New Orleans until August, 1865, when it was 
sent to Indianola, Texas. From there it was ordered 
to San Antonio, Texas, where it remained until 
mustered out of service in the spring of 1866. 
Colonel Atkinson participated in all these marches 
and maneuvers, and while at Austin, Texas, served 
on the staff of General Custer as Judge Advocate. 
He was mustered out of the service February 24, 
1866, and his military career then ended, except as 
he served as Captain of the Detroit National Guards 
in 1872. 
Shortly before leaving the service, on February 



I, 1866, while at San Antonio, Colonel Atkinson 
married Lida Lyons, a native of Texas, daughter of 
Dr. James H. Lyons, a surgeon in the Southern 
army, and at one time Mayor of San Antonio. 

He now returned to Port Huron and renewed his 
law practice in partnership with John S. Crellen and 
his brother, O'Brien J. Atkinson. Mr. Crellen died 
soon after, and Cyrus Miles took his place as part- 
ner, but the partnership was soon dissolved, and 
Colonel Atkinson entered into partnership with 
Anson E. Chadwick, under the firm name of Chad- 
wick & Atkinson. They continued together until 
1870, when Colonel Atkinson came to Detroit. 
Here for one year he practiced alone, after which 
he formed a partnership with General L. S. Trow- 
bridge, which continued until 1873, when Colonel 
Atkinson became editor and manager of the Daily 
Union, a Democratic journal, of which he had 
become the principal owner. He proved himself 
to be a fearless and able journalist, but the venture 
was not a financial success, and at the end of three 
months the publication was discontinued, leaving 
Colonel Atkinson deeply in debt, and although he 
could have legally avoided liquidating certain obli- 
gations, his sense of honor would not permit such a 
course, and he eventually discharged every dollar of 
the indebtedness, Returning to the practice of law 
he became a partner with John G. Hawley, under 
the firm name of Atkinson & Hawley. In 1875 
James J. Atkinson, his brother, was admitted to the 
firm, and in 1876, having been elected Prosecuting 
Attorney, Mr. Hawley retired from the firm. J. T. 
Kenna was next associated with the firm as partner, 
remaining until 1881, when he retired, and William 
F. Atkinson was admitted, and the next year 
Colonel Atkinson retired. In 1883 he formed a 
partnership with Judge Isaac Marsden, who had just 
resigned his position as one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court of Michigan ; this last partnership 
continued until March i, 1887, when Colonel Atkin- 
son retired from the firm and gave up office practice. 
At present, while still active in the profession, he 
confines himself entirely to the trial of important 
cases. 

He takes an active interest in politics, and acted 
with the Democratic party until 1881, although he 
frequently protested against and sometimes actively 
opposed its candidates. 

He was appointed Collector of Customs at Fovt 
Huron by Andrew Johnson in 1866, served until 
March 4, 1867, and was rejected by the Senate 
on purely political grounds. He was nominated 
for Attorney-General in 1870, and for State Senator 
in 1872, but declined both nominations. He was, 
however, left upon the ticket, and defeated with his 
party. He was elected a member of the Board of 
Estimates, and served one term, during which he 



I I 12 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



opposed the abolition of the Central Market and 
advocated the purchase of Belle Isle. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Atkinson assisted the Republicans 
in their municipal campaign, and helped to elect 
William G. Thompson Mayor over William Brodie. 
In 1882 he supported the Republican State and local 
ticket, and in 1 883 received the unanimous vote of 
the delegates of W^ayne County in the Republican 
Convention for Justice of the Supreme Court, but 
declined to be a candidate. 

In 1884 he was nominated for Congress in 
Wayne County on the Republican ticket, but his 
opponents used the fact that he was a Roman Cath- 
olic very successfully against him, and he was de- 
feated by a large majority. In 1 887, Wayne County, 
after a spirited contest, gave him fifty-nine out of 
her sixty-nine votes in the Republican Convention 
for Justice of the^ Supreme Court. He received 
nearly three hundred votes in all, but was defeated 
by Judge James V. Campbell. 

In his profession Mr. Atkinson has never fol- 
lowed any specialty. He has been engaged in 
many important land cases, has gone through sev- 
eral great will contests, and has been particularly 
prominent in defending libel cases. He defended 
the News in its great case with Hugh Peoples, in 
which it was successful, and in its equally great 
case with Dr. Maclean, in which it was beaten. He 
has defended Luther Beecher in many cases brought 
by ex-Mayor Wheaton, and has always succeeded 
in preventing a recovery. 

One of Mr. Atkinson's most important cases was 
the defense of Mr. Babcock, of St. Johns, for accus- 
ing a Congregational minister of not believing the 
Bible to be the work of God. Under his cross- 
examination, the plaintiff made such admissions 
that the jury found the charge sustained. In the 
practice of his profession, as in his political life, 
Mr. Atkinson has provoked some strong antago- 
nisms. Like most men of warm temperament, he is 
sometimes unnecessarily severe, using words which 
he afterwards deeply regrets. Other characteristics, 
however, coupled with his really superior abilities, 
make him a desirable friend, and among his associ- 
ates he is deemed a most agreeable companion. 

For the land of his ancestors he cherishes the 
most tender feelings of sympathy, and as a member of 
the American Land League has taken a warm and 
active interest in the struggles made by the conserva- 
tive leaders of Ireland, to mitigate, if possible, by 
peaceful measures, the horrors of English misrule. 
During the summer of 1886 he made an extended 
tour through Ireland, not alone for recreation, but 
more especially to become, by personal investigation, 
familiar with the conditions of the people. He 
returned increasingly convinced of the injustice 
'with which Ireland has been treated by the English 



Government, and can well afford to entertain an 
opinion, the truth of which is conceded even by 
Gladstone. 

Since his residence in Detroit, Mr. Atkinson has 
been a member of St. Patrick's Catholic Church. 
He has had ten children, seven of whom are living^ 

LEVI BISHOP was born at Russell, Hampton 
County, Massachusetts, October 15, 181 5. His 
father, Levi Bishop, and his mother, Roxana 
(Phelps) Bishop, w^ere both descendants of early 
puritan settlers of New England. His father was 
an independent farmer and gave his son the usual 
advantages afforded by the schools of that period 
and locality. When hardly twenty years old the 
speculative fever of 1835 drew him to the west, 
and on June ist of that year he arrived in Michigan. 
After prospecting here and there he located perma- 
nently in Detroit in 1 837, and two years later began 
the study of law in the office of A. S. Porter, subse- 
quently studying in the office of Judge Daniel 
Goodwin. Within three years, in 1842, after passing 
a highly creditable examination, he was admitted to 
the bar. He became almost immediately prominent 
in his profession ; was made a Master of Chancery 
by the Governor on March 3, 1846, and appointed 
to a similar office in connection with the United 
States Courts on June 19, 185 1. He early became 
zealously interested in the cause of public education 
and served as a member of the Board of Education 
continuously for ten years, from 1849 to 1859, and 
from 1852, for a period of seven consecutive years, 
was the President of the Board, holding the office 
for nearly twice the length of time that any pre- 
decessor or successor enjoyed the honor. No one 
in all the years labored more effectually and intelli- 
gently than he to promote the welfare of the 
schools. The memory of his labors is appropriately 
commemorated in the school building which bears 
his name. 

His time was always gratuitously given in pub- 
lic affairs and he rendered services without fee or 
reward that in later years have cost the city many 
thousands of dollars. He was compelled under the 
system then prevailing, to assume heavy responsi 
bilities and disburse large amounts of money, and 
every trust, either public or private, was faithfully 
and honestly administered. His connection with 
educational affairs was fitly closed with his election 
as Regent of the State University. He held the 
position from 1858 to 1864, and was influential in 
various ways in promoting the welfare of the insti- 
tution. 

In 1855 he was president of the Young Men's 
Society, then in the zenith of its usefulness and 
strength. From 1 876, up to the time of his death, 
a period of six years, he held the position of City 




\ 



^v^v 



:\^v\\v\^ 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



1113 



Historiographer, and did much to awaken interest 
in historic research. He was chiefly instrumental 
in the organization of the Wayne County Pioneers 
Society in 1871, and served as its president for ten 
years. He may also be properly styled the founder 
of the State Pioneer Society, as his efforts, more 
than those of any other person, secured its establish- 
ment. He presented many valuable papers and 
documents to both societies and his presence was 
much sought at local gatherings of pioneer citizens. 
Through his literary productions he achieved 
more than local fame. His most elaborate work, an 
epic poem in twenty-eight cantos, descriptive of 
Indian life and character in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, is entitled, " Teuschsa Grondie." 
It was published in an octavo of about 600 pages and 
at least three editions were issued. He also wrote 
many other poems and prose articles on a variety of 
historic subjects, besides translating several French 
plays, and was especially well versed in French lit- 
erature and conversed with ease in that language. 

His abilities were recognized outside of his own 
circle, and he was honored with a membership in 
the Royal Historical Society of Great Britain, and 
in 1876 was appointed a delegate to the Interna- 
tional Congress of Americanists, at Luxembourg. 
In 1 861 he went abroad and traveled entensively 
on the continent, and his letters home, published in 
the Advertiser, showed that he possessed rare 
powers of observation and description. 

It should not be forgotten, however, that his 
connection with the law preceded and kept pace 
with his special literary pursuits. As a lawyer he 
evinced great natural ability. He was a diligent 
student, a comprehensive thinker, always loyal to his 
clients, fond of debate, and almost invincible before 
a jury with language that was forcible and elegant. 
He possessed an indomitable will, with a deter- 
mined and courageous spirit, that overcame any 
obstacle. He was high-spirited, ardently inter- 
ested and absorbed in whatever he undertook, but 
always genial and accommodating, and a strong and 
devoted friend. Politically he was a Democrat, 
and during 1863 and 1864 served as chairman of 
the State Central Committee. His religious con- 
victions were strong and clear, and he was a regu- 
lar attendant upon the services at St. Paul's Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church. 

He married Janet M. Millard, daughter of Col- 
onel Ambrose Millard, of Tioga, Pennsylvania. He 
died on December 23, 188 r, at the residence on 
Jefferson Avenue, where the family had lived for 
many years. 

JAMES VALENTINE CAMPBELL, for near- 
ly a generation a judge of the Supreme Court of 
Michigan, was born in Buffalo, New York, on Feb- 



ruary 25, 1823. As his name shows, he is of 
Scotch descent, and there are family traditions of 
an ancestor who, under an arrangement with the 
crown, brought many Scotch emigrants to this 
country. These colonists settled in eastern New 
York, a region in which to this day the Campbell 
clan is conspicuous. The judge's father, Henry M. 
Campbell, married Lois Bushnell. She was born 
and brought up in Vermont and belonged to a 
family whose name was familiar in New England 
from the days of the Mayflower. Its most fatnoiio 
representative is, perhaps, the celebrated Congrega- 
tional divine, Horace Bushnell. who was a first 
cousin of the judge. 

Henry M. Campbell removed to western New 
York before the War of 1 8 1 2. During that war the 
family suffered considerable loss, and in 1826 they 
moved to Detroit. Mr. Campbell had been a 
county judge in New York and a like judicial posi- 
tion was conferred on him in Michigan. He sent his 
two sons, Henry and James V., to St. Paul's College, 
at Flushing, L. I., an Episcopal institution of high 
rank, and presided over by the late Dr. Muhlenberg. 
James V., the younger of the two, graduated in 
1 841, returned home and studied law with the firm 
of Douglass & Walker. In 1844 he was admitted 
to practice and became one of the firm. The senior 
partner, Samuel T. Douglass, afterwards one of the 
judges of the Supreme Court, married Elizabeth 
Campbell, the judge's sister. Henry N. Walker, 
the other partner, became Attorney-General. Both 
were early reporters of Michigan decisions and 
there is reason to believe that much of the work on 
Walker's Chancery Reports was done by the junior 
member of the firm. About this time the Univer- 
sity of Michigan was reorganized and Mr. Camp- 
bell became the Secretary of the Board of Regents 
and continued to serve for a number of years. 

When the Law Department was established in 
1858 he was appointed to the Marshall professor- 
ship and held it for twenty-five years, and in 1866 
the first honorary degree of Doctor of Laws that 
the University conferred, was bestowed upon him. 
He was always efficient in all efforts for the ad- 
vancement of education and letters. In 1848 he 
was elected as a member of the Board of Education 
of Petroit, and served also from 1854 to 1858, and 
one of the schools for many years has very fitly 
been designated by his name. 

He was long a member and served as President 
of the Young Men's Society of Detroit in 1848. 
This organization, though now defunct, was a power 
in its early days and established a large and valuable 
library. In 1880, when the Public Library was put 
under the control of a commission. Judge Camp- 
bell was made president of that body and still con- 
tinues to hold the position. 



III4 



LAWYERS AND JUDGES. 



In 1858 the Supreme Court of the State was first 
organized as an independent body,- and although 
less than 35 years old, Mr. Campbell was chosen 
one of the four judges, and has since been four 
times re-elected and is now in his fifth term, hav- 
ing served continuously "for thirty years. His 
opinions begin in the fifth volume of the reports and 
are to be found in more than sixty of the regular 
series. When Judges Christiancy, Cooley, and 
Graves were his associates the court ranked among 
the first of the final tribunals of the several states. 
It has been considered doubtful if it was surpassed 
by even the National Supreme Court. Judge 
Campbell's most conspicuous characteristics, while 
on the bench, have been his conscientious adher- 
ence to the common law, his familiarity with the 
English decisions, and his jealous protection of the 
rights of local self-government. 

The language of his decisions, as is apt to be the 
case with those who are familiar with classical and 
foreign tongues, is extremely simple. He is a 
ready, rapid and fluent public speaker, even when 
he has had little chance for preparation. He is as 
ready in literary composition, and his brethren of 
the bench have often marveled at the rapidity with 
which he wrote. He is frequently called upon for 
addresses on public occasions, and a number of 
these have been issued in pamphlet form. He has 
also contributed to various periodicals. 

His only extended work is a handsome octavo 
entitled, "Outlines of the Political History of 
Michigan." It was produced in the course of a 
few months in 1875-6, and in compliance with an 
official request, that he should write an account of 
the State for the Centennial year. Although pre- 
pared in a short time it is the most complete and 
comprehensive history of Michigan ever issued and 
contains much rare and valuable material not found 
elsewhere. In addition to his public literary work 
he has also often amused himself and entertained 
his children at the Christmas season by describing 
in verse, that is sometimes suggestive of Scott and 
sometimes of Macauley, the dress, customs, and 
traditions of the early inhabitants of Michigan. 
Several of the historical poems, through his courtesy 
were reproduced in the original edition of Farmer's 
History of Detroit and Michigan, 

Since his judicial life began he has of course held 
no so-called political office, but in December, 1886, 
by appointment of Governor Alger, he represented 
the State at the meeting held in Philadelphia to 
arrange for celebrating the Centennial of the Na- 
tional Constitution. 

He has always been ready to identify himself 
with, and aid every benevolent, patriotic, religious, 
and literary endeavor. He has been a vestryman 
of St. Paul's for many years and whenever neces- 



sary for the good of the church has taken an active 
and conspicuous part in its management. Indeed 
his relations to St. Paul's recall the interest that 
Chief Justice Jay used to show in old Trinity, and 
like Chief Justice Jay, his efforts and example have 
been in opposition to inroads of mere ritualism. 
He has been for thirty years the secretary of the 
Standing Committee of the Diocese. 

Both nature and education have combined to 
make Judge Campbell one of the notable citizens 
of Detroit. He is wonderfully gifted with the art 
of pleasing and profiting thos^ who are privileged 
with his acquaintance. His manner is so agreeable, 
his spirit so friendly, and his ability to instruct so 
varied, that one easily respects and admires him, 
and he is apparently always at leisure to do a favor or 
furnish information, and those who come in contact 
with him would be cold blooded indeed if they did 
not learn to love him for his courtesy and kind- 
ness. 

He was married November 8, 1849, to Cornelia, 
a daughter of Chauncey Hotchkiss, the descendant 
of an old Connecticut family. She was born at 
Oneida Castle, New York, August 17, 1823 and 
died at Detroit, May ?, 1888 They have had 
six children, five sons and a daughter who took 
her mother's name. Two of the sons, Henry M. 
and Charles H., are lawyers, practicing in Detroit; 
James V. is a banker, Douglas H. is a devoted 
naturalist, who has made a specialty of botanical 
„ studies which he has followed in Germany ; Edward 
D. is a mining engineer and metallurgist. 

Judge Campbell died March 26, 1890. 

DON M. DICKINSON was born at Port On- 
tario, Oswego County, New York, January 17, 1846. 
His father and mother were both of long lines of 
sturdy American descent. One of his ancestors 
was with General Wolfe when that brave officer fell 
on the Heights of Abraham, and another withstood 
the rigors of Valley Forge with Washington. 

His father was Colonel Asa C. Dickinson, a man 
of sterling ability, capacity and character, who came 
to Michigan in 1848, and was a resident of the city 
of Detroit for nearly forty years. His mother was 
a daughter of the Rev. Jesseriah Holmes, a latter- 
day Puritan clergyman of Pomfret, Conn., widely 
known and esteemed for his learning and devout 
piety. 

The younger Dickinson came to Detroit with his 
parents in 1852, when he was six years old, and has 
ever since made the city his home. His earlier 
education was acquired in the public schools. He 
proved a bright, studious, persevering, successful 
scholar. After passing through the public schools 
of Detroit he studied under a private tutor and 
prepared for the University of Michigan. He 




t^^^^..- 




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LAWYERS AND JUDGES. 



III5 



oraduated from the Michi8:an University Law 
School in the class of 1867, but was unable to spare 
the necessary time to finish the classical course at 
the same institution. 

In his young manhood he had for a time to en- 
oage in manual labor to acquire the means for his 
education, and it is the testimony of those cogmzant 
of the fact that he worked with characteristic zeal 
and energy. 

As soon as he became of age he began the prac- 
tice of the law in Detroit. Soon afterward, June 
15, 1869, he was married at Grand Rapids to Miss 
Frknces' Piatt, daughter of Dr. Alonzo Piatt, and 
granddaughter of the late Dr. Phillip Brigham. 

Extraordinary capacity for and thoroughness m 
work, with a courage never shaken, fine knowledge 
of the law and alertness of mind, added to thorough 
integrity and fidelity to trust, were the qualities with 
which Mr. Dickinson engaged in the practice of his 
profession at the age of 21. He early showed re- 
markable aptitude in the conduct of cases and for 
business management, which, combined with clear- 
headedness and great energy, soon brought him 
prominently into public notice. He rose very rap- 
idly in his profession and soon became a leading 
practitioner in the courts. Before he was twenty-five, 
he was one of the prominent, and before he was 
thirty, one of the most prominent members of the 
^lichigan bar. 

For nearly eighteen years Don M. Dickinson has 
been on one side or the other of nearly every im- 
portant case in or from Michigan, and his clientage 
has for a long term of years been the largest in the 
State, and one of the largest in the Northwest. 
The diversity and importance of his cases have 
taken him many times into the Supreme Courts of 
other States, and he has long been prominent at the 
bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
Among the many famous litigations in which he 
has been counsel there may be mentioned the 
great ship canal cases involving property now 
worth $20,000,000, and a series of suits lasting 
nearly a decade, involving a conflict of juris- 
diction between the Federal and State courts ; the 
Campau will case, the Ward case, the Mamie-Gar- 
land collision cases, the Pewabic Mine case, and the 
Bates case against the People's Savings Bank. All 
of these causes reached the Supreme Court of the 
United States, except some of the will cases, and 
Mr. Dickinson was signally successful in all of 
them. A great number of minor cases have been 
taken by him to the Supreme Court with marked 
success. In the famous case of Paris et al. vs. 
Wheeler et al., in the Supreme Court at Washing- 
ton, he defeated the Michigan Prohibitory law by a 
position originated by him, and which he clung to 
in the face of general professional opinion, until 



success was achieved, with that tenacity which is 
one of the distinguishing characteristics of his life. 
In the State and Federal cases referred to most of 
the leaders of the bar were against him, and three- 
fourths of the Federal and the county circuits, the 
Federal courts, with a full bench, including Justice 
Swayne, were the other way. The United States 
Supreme Court, on the preliminary hearing, in 
which the brilliant Senator Matt. Carpenter was 
with Mr. Dickinson, clearly ruled against his posi- 
tion. He kept steadily on his way, however, and 
finally in the Le Roux case he triumphed with a 
unanimous bench and an opinion which itself ac- 
knowledged the courts' error at the earlier hearing, 
and the correctness of the fundamental principle 
for which Mr. Dickinson had contended in favor of 
the independence of the State courts of Federal 
control. His most widely known, and perhaps his 
greatest effort at the bar, up to the present time, 
was his brief and argument for Drawbaugh in the 
noted telephone cases. His oral argument is 
printed in full in 126th U. S. Supreme Court Re- 
ports. While the defense was overruled by a ma- 
jority of four to three, yet of the many defenses in 
the Supreme Court in these cases the Drawbaugh 
case was the only one not overruled by a unanimous 
bench, and for that defense Mr. Dickinson made 
the only brief. Senator Edmunds, also counsel for 
Drawbaugh, offered Mr. Dickinson a portion of his 
time on the argument, and afterwards many times 
compUmented his effort in the highest terms. Asso- 
ciate Justices Field, Harlan and Bradley dissented, 
and their opinion is on the lines and theory of Mr. 
Dickinson's brief. 

In the Palms will case— a cause ciVebre in Detroit 
—Mr. Dickinson gave the will a rigid examination, 
and embodied his views in an elaborate written 
opinion to the contestant, in which he expressed the 
belief that the will was valid. After this the contest- 
ant insisted that he should proceed with the contest, 
offering a large retainer. He declined because of 
the opinion he entertained, and assured her that her 
suits would fail. The Supreme Court ultimately 
ruled substantially in accordance with Mr. Dickin- 
son's opinion, and the contestants wasted $50,000 
in a suit that he advised against. 

While Mr. Dickinson's services have always com- 
manded large retainers, and while he has built up a 
great business, he has not been counsel for great 
corporations and monopolies, and he is singularly 
free from legal associations with them. In many 
notable instances his services have been enlisted 
against them, and he has won a large number of 
important cases against corporations. 

Mr. Dickinson has often tendered valuable ser- 
vices to deserving claimants who were not able to 
properly compensate him, won their just causes for 



11(6 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



them, and declining compensation, received in re- 
turn only the gratitude of his clients for his great- 
heartedness. 

In the fall of 1889 he undertook the task of se- 
curing the rights of the homesteaders who had 
settled on the forfeited land grants of the Ontonagon 
& Brule railroad, in the Upper Peninsula, fought 
their cases gallantly through all the higher courts, 
and saved them from eviction from their humble 
homes, without rendering any bill for his services. 

Mr. Dickinson, while yet a young man, made a 
close study of the Constitution, and formed strong 
political convictions before he attained his majority. 
His interest was enlisted in political affairs before 
he was 21, and as soon as he reached that age an 
active participation begun which has never since 
lagged. Profoundly believing in the fundamental 
principles of his party, Mr. Dickinson is a Democrat 
after the order of Thomas Jefferson, and his ideal 
living representative of the ancient and immortal 
principles of Democracy is Grover Cleveland. He 
cast his first vote for Horatio Seymour in 1868, and 
has been a sturdy, consistent, self-reliant and pro- 
gressive Democrat ever since. His elevation to 
prominence in public life was as rapid as his rise at 
the bar. In 1872, at the age of twenty-five, he was 
chosen by the Democratic State Convention a mem- 
ber of the State Central Committee for the First 
Congressional District, and was subsequently made 
Secretary of the committee. In this capacity he 
took a leading part in the Michigan campaign for 
Horace Greeley. He threw himself into the work 
of the canvass with ardor and energy, and did the 
hardest portion of the campaign work. While the 
Democratic party was conspicuously unsuccessful 
at the polls that year, the canvass laid the founda- 
tion for the remarkable growth w^hich it showed in 
Michigan within a few years. The young Demo- 
crat, who is the subject of this sketch, had been 
personally devoted to Horace Greeley, and was so 
deeply grieved over the death of that distinguished 
man after the great disappointment of his life, that 
he resigned his position as Secretary of the State 
Central Committee, in a letter in which he criticised 
those members of his party who had not supported 
Greeley. This letter was long afterward sought to 
be used to show a lapse from the Democratic faith 
at that time, but the publication of his pathetic 
tribute to Greeley, and stirring and prophetic words 
about the future of his party, and the clear nega- 
tion of any thought of affiliation with the Republi- 
can party, only served to increase the number ol his 
friends. 

Instead of withdrawing from the party, he re-af- 
firmed his fealty to it, under the revivifying and 
progressive leadership of Tilden, and he continued 
to take higher rank among its leaders in the State. 



Mr. Dickinson was chosen Chairman of the 
Democratic State Central Committee of Michigan in 
the great campaign of 1876. He was then twenty- 
nine years old, and the youngest man ever elevated 
to this party eminence in the State He conducted 
a brilliant campaign for Tilden that year. The 
Democratic party was for the first time thoroughly 
organized in the State, and the splendid canvass 
made by the young chairman resulted in almost 
doubling the Democratic vote cast at the preceding- 
Presidential election, and in hammering the vast 
Republican majority of nearly 60,000 down to less 
than 15,000. The Democratic vote was 5,000 in 
excess of the highest vote ever before polled by the 
Republicans. From this time Michigan began to 
be considered a doubtful State, and from this time 
Mr. Dickinson was universally recognized as the 
leader of his party in the State. Before the cam- 
paign he became personally acquainted w4th the sage 
of Gramercy, and one of his trusted national lieuten- 
ants, and the warm friendship began between them 
which did not terminate until the death of the hero 
and martyr of the stupendous wrong of 1876, ten 
years afterward. 

Mr. Dickinson was elected first delegate -at-large 
to the Democratic National Convention at Cincin- 
nati in 1880, and acted as Chairman of the Michi- 
gan delegation on the floor of the convention. 

He strongly advocated the nomination of Gover- 
nor Cleveland for the Presidency in 1884, and was 
Chairman of the State Convention that elected the 
delegates to the National Convention of that year. 
At the convention he was unanimously chosen 
Michigan's representative upon the National Demo- 
cratic Committee. In this new post of party duty 
Mr. Dickinson rendered splendid service, and in 
the campaign of that year the Republican majority 
almost reached the vanishing point. 

Michigan entered upon an era of unprecedented 
political importance in the spring of 1885, and for 
the next few years she reaped many more political 
rewards than had fallen to her lot in previous years, 
and became of much more importance politically 
than she had been for many years. These facts 
were due largely to the exercise of the growing 
influence of the Michigan member of the National 
Committee with the new administration. Mr. T^ick- 
inson in every way merited the confidence reposed 
in him by the President when he accepted him as a 
special adviser and representative in Michigan. 
Not only were the offices within the State filled 
with representative men of ability and excellent 
reputation, but the State received an unusually 
large number of first-class Federal appointments 
general in their character. Among these may be 
mentioned the Mission to Russia, Governorship of 
Alaska, Supreme Justiceship of the District of 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



1 1 17 



Columbia, Inter-State Commerce Commissioner, 
Commissi'onership .of Patents, Assistant Indian 
Commissionership, Mission to Belgium, British 
Treaty Commissioner, and a large number of other 
important places. 

Mr. Dickinson had throughout his life persis- 
tently refused the use of his name for any elective 
or appointive public office. He had never asked or 
anticipated reward for his political services. What 
he did was done for the love of doing. He had a 
reputation as one of the finest political organizers 
in the United States, and — what was far more 
ui^ique — of being a prominent politician, who would 
neither ask nor accept a public place. 

The Legislature of 1885 was the closest politi- 
cally that the State had chose'n for many years, and 
the campaign in 1886 was a very animated one. 
Many leading Democrats announced Mr. Dickinson 
as their choice for United States Senator in the 
event of the election of a Democratic Legislature, 
and he was accepted with pleasure by the party as 
its prospective Senator. All this, however, was 
without either his assent or approval, and in the 
middle of the campaign he clearly defined his posi- 
tion in a letter to the Democracy of the State, pub- 
lished in The Detroit Free Press, in which he said : 

" Such a candidacy would be false to the wishes 
1 have professed for the last twelve years— smce 
the redemption of Michigan, and the election of a 
Democratic Senator have seemed to me probable. 
Since then I have never been conscious of any 
faltering in my hope, of any abatement in my trust, 
that when victory should come the party would 
adorn the House of Senators by placing there one 
of the Silver Greys who taught us and led us in 
the dark days of disaster and defeat, when the only 
light of the way was high principle, and the only 
reward of good fighting a clear conscience." 

His name was also several times considered by 
President Cleveland for important places, and their 
tender prevented only by Mr. Dickinson's assurance 
that he preferred private life. 

In the fall of 1887 President Cleveland tendered 
Mr. Dickinson the position of Postmaster-General 
in his Cabinet. Mr. Dickinson was at first averse 
to accepting the trust and declineld it. As one of 
the most distinguished men of Michigan has put it 
"he idealized President Cleveland as the Hving 
representative of all that he believed good for the 
people according to his convictions on fundamental 
principles of government. But when the President 
tendered him this position he declined it, and only 
reconsidered the refusal and took the office when 
he became convinced that the President felt that he 
actually needed him." And even then he only ac- 
cepted it upon the assurance that he would not be 
called upon to continue in the service of the Presi- 
dent after the end of that term. 



Mr. Dickinson's name was sent to the Senate as 
the successor of Gen. Wm. F. Vilas, as Postmaster- 
General, Dec. 5, 1887. After a delay of about six 
weeks, caused by the consideration of the Lamar 
case, he was unanimously confirmed by the Senate 
on the motion of Thomas W. Palmer, then 
senior Senator from Michigan. He was the young- 
est member of President Cleveland's Cabinet, and 
the fourth citizen of Michigan to attain a seat at 
the great round table of a President of the United 
States. He was seven years younger than Gen. 
Lewis Cass when he entered the great Jackson's 
Cabinet as Secretary of War, and thirty-three years 
younger than the same ripe statesman and scholar 
when he became the premier of James Buchanan. 
Mr. Dickinson was also seven years younger than 
Governor Robert McClelland when he entered 
Pierce's Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, and 
twenty years younger than Zachariah Chandler, 
when he took his seat in the same capacity under 
President Grant. 

In the dual capacity of member of the Presi- 
dent's privy council, and executive officer of one of 
the most important departments of the government, 
Mr. Dickinson became one of the chief figures of 
the strong, virile administration of President Cleve- 
land. In the larger field of duty as an adviser of 
the President upon great questions of national 
executive policy, he rendered distinguished public 
service. 

A warm personal friendship existed between 
President Cleveland and Mr. Dickinson, and he 
served " the Great Chief" with entire devotion and 
singleness of purpose. No President ever received 
a more loyal and unselfish service than that ren- 
dered Grover Cleveland by Don M. Dickinson. 

The Post-office department is one of infinite 
detail, but Mr. Dickinson thoroughly mastered its 
work. He did not depend on the machinery of 
Assistants Postmasters-General, Chiefs of Division, 
etc., etc., as had been the case with many of his 
predecessors. He was something more than a 
mere writer of autographs at the foot of official 
communications to Congress, formal reports and 
the other state papers of his department. His 
signature was attached to no official document until 
he was thoroughly familiar with it. He was un- 
doubtedly one of the most indefatigable workers 
in any of the modern Cabinets. 

The Post-office department, under Mr. Dickin- 
son's administration made a better showing than 
ever before in its history. The business of the 
department not only greatly increased, but it was 
conducted at less expense. He made hundreds of 
influential friends throughout the country by his 
energetic and statesmanlike conduct of his high 
office. He was business-like, courageous and forci- 



iii8 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



ble. He was the first Postmaster-General to strike 
the mammoth mail subsidy jobs in Congress. 
Perhaps his strongest state paper was a letter 
against steamship subsidies which he 'sent to the 
House of Representatives, and which carried a 
large Republican vote in the House against the bill, 
after it had passed the Republican Senate as a 
party measure. The bill failed in the House by a 
large majority and the Postmaster-General was 
universally credited with having caused its defeat. 

During his term the great western strike of 1888 
occurred, and while it was in progress Postmaster- 
General Dickinson established an important pre- 
cedent relative to the transportation of the mails by 
railway corporations. He took the position that 
the Postoffice department had nothing to do with 
the strike of the engineers, and that the Atchinson, 
Topeka & Santa Fe road was under contract for 
the transportation of the mails, and it was its duty 
to transport them. The railroad company sought 
with some adroitness, to transfer the contest from one 
between itself and its engineers to one between the 
engineers and the government. But in the corres- 
pondence between the department and the railroad 
officers, the Postmaster-General declined to become 
a party to the contest between the corporation and 
its striking employees. 

Postmaster-General Dickinson simply declared 
that the mails must go. If the company did not 
move them the department would adopt other 
methods. But in any event the mails would go. 

The striking engineers tendered their services to 
man the necessary engines to transport the mails, 
and the department signified its confidence in the 
striking workingmen by saying that it would use 
them. 

The railroads were thus placed in a position 
where they could not decline to carry the mails. 
They then demanded extra compensation for trans- 
porting them on the ground that they were obliged 
to run trains especially for them. But this Post- 
master-General Dickinson declined to allow, hold- 
ing that the railroad company's contract required 
it to transport the mails " at the prices therein pro- 
vided.*' 

The railroad corporation then unconditionally 
surrendered. It wisely concluded that it would ac- 
cept the services of its striking engineers and for- 
ward the mails. Thus the valuable precedent was 
established that the railroads of the country must 
carry out their contracts with the government, par- 
ticularly in connection with the transportation of 
the mails, under all circumstances, and that the 
strikes of the engineers or other employees of any 
company does not relieve them from the responsibil- 
ity. It also demonstrated that the government had 
confidence in the integrity of striking workmen. 



As Postmaster-General, Mr. Dickinson was an 
earnest advocate of the postal telegraph, of gov- 
ernment proprietorship of public buildings as a 
means of stopping the wasteful rent system, op- 
posed the authorization of indemnity and guarantee 
corporations created under state laws to become 
sureties on official bonds required by Federal 
statutes, and favored many other decided reforms in 
the department, a large number of which were 
carried into effect during his administration. 

Prior to the assembling of the Democratic na- 
tional convention of 1888 the name of the Post- 
master-General was widely discussed for the nomi- 
nation for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket with 
President Cleveland. Chairman Barnum, of the 
Democratic National Committee, Hon. W. L. Scott, 
and many others of the most conspicuous Demo- 
crats in the country declared in favor of his nomi- 
nation. When the convention met there was a 
strong undercurrent favorable to his selection. 
But the Michigan delegation, which was devoted to 
him, did not present his name to the convention, 
thus serving him with more fidelity than if his name 
had been offered. The Michigan delegated voted 
for Allen G. Thurman, of whose nomination Mr. 
Dickinson had been one of the original and most 
earnest advocates. 

During the campaign Mr. Dickinson visited 
Michigan for a short time, and made a few notable 
speeches, one of which— a peculiarly forcible review 
of James G. Blaine's public career— played an im- 
portant part in the canvass, and was credited with 
being one of the strongest speeches of the year. 

Postmaster-General Dickinson retired from the 
Cabinet, March 5th, 1889, as he had intended to do 
in the event of the President's re-election. He soon 
afterward made a short trip to Cuba with President 
Cleveland and some of his late associates in the 
Cabinet, and then returned to his home in Detroit. 

He refused several brilliant offers to engage in 
practice in New York, preferring to continue at the 
head of the old firm of Dickinson, Thurber & 
Stevenson, in Detroit, and to enjoy a great and 
constantly increasing business, the income of the 
firm being larger than ever before. 

He has always taken a keen interest in the wel- 
fare of his city, and has been one of the most public- 
spirited of its citizens. No man iri the city has 
warmer or a greater number of personal friends. He 
is closely identified with nearly every enterprise 
designed to promote the prosperity of Detroit, and 
has in addition to his fame as a statesman and great 
counselor, gained a reputation as a public-spirited, 
progressive citizen in all the extensive ramifications 
of his business. 

Ten years ago a prominent Michigan man writ- 
ing of the subject of this sketch said : " He has 




^f U/ tiJ>. 



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JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



I 119 



habits oi patient, intelligent and thorough research, 
intense application and splendid judgment.^ His 
generosity leaves no room for jealousy ; his fairness, 
no cause for carping, and his inbred courtesy de- 
mands kind regard. The primary cause of his 
success is his unswerving integrity. The right 
never appeals to him in vain for a defender, and the 
wrong never finds in him an advocate. He has 
energy, clear judgment and personal magnetism. 
Witii his cultured mind, generous heart, unsullied 
reputation and masterful purpose, he is destined to 
stand among the guardians of the country." 

What was true then is true now. It is even 
more true, for the things predicted of Don M. 
Dickinson have transpired. He has taken his place 
among the foremost citizens of the Republic. His 
reputation is national as a man of brilliant attain- 
ments, intellectual rectitude, convictions on funda- 
mental principles of government, fealty to the Gos- 
pel of the Constitution and abiding faith in the wis- 
dom of the people. 

His political career is regarded by his friends in 
his state and throughout the country as having but 
just begun. ^' H- ^^' 

JULIAN G. DICKINSON, attorney and coun- 
sellor at law, was born at Hamburg, New York, 
November 20, 1843. His parents were William 
and Lois (Sturtevant) Dickinson, and of their family, 
Julian G. and Dr. J. C. Dickinson, of Detroit, are 
the only survivors. In 1852 the family removed 
from New York to Michigan ; residing at Jonesville 
until 1857, and at Jackson until 1865. 

Julian G. Dickinson received his rudimentary 
education in the Union Schools of Jonesville and 
Jackson. He enlisted July 10, 1862, as a volunteer 
in the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, which joined the 
Army of the Cumberland near Louisville, Kentucky, 
in October, 1862. He served three years with that 
command in the field, and participated in eighty 
battles and in ten thousand miles of marching. 
He was appointed Sergeant -Major, and after the 
battle of Kingston, Georgia, upon recommendation 
of his commanding officer for " good fighting and 
attention to duty," was commissioned First Lieuten- 
ant and Adjutant of the regiment. He participated 
in General Wilson's campaign with the Cavalry Corps 
from Chickasaw, Alabama, to Macon, Georgia, and 
was commended for "bravery and efficiency." He 
was present on the staff of General B. D. Pritchard at 
the capture of Jefferson Davis, and arrested that 
distinguished fugitive who was seeking to escape 
from his camp in female attire. For this service he 
was mentioned to the Secretary of War by General 
I'ritchard and General J. H. Wilson, was commis- 
sioned Brevet Captain United States Volunteers, 
and was subsequently commissioned Captain of 



Cavalry by Governor Crapo. At the close of the 
war on August 15, 1865, he was mustered out of 
service. 

In October of the same year he entered the Law 
Department of the University of Michigan, and in 
1866 came to Detroit, and entered the law office of 
Moore & Griffin, where he remained until 1868. 
He was admitted to the bar, upon examination 
before the Judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan 
at the October term of 1867. In 1868 he formed a 
law partnership with Horace E. Burt, under the firm 
name of Dickinson & Burt, and acquired a success- 
ful practice. In 1 870 he became a partner with Don 
M. Dickinson, the firm name being Dickinson & 
Dickinson; dissolved in 1873. He was for some 
years interested in the banking business of E. K. 
Roberts & Co., of Detroit, having the largest interest 
in that house until 1877. In 1882 he was admitted 
to the bar in the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and conducted the first case on an appeal to 
that court from a judgment of the Supreme Court 
of Michigan. Besides his practice in the courts he 
is counsel for a large and important clientage. 
The record of his cases in the Supreme Court is 
highly creditable for the character and importance 
of the cases and for the honorable and successful 
manner in which they have been conducted. 

A hard and close student and a careful observer, 
he is not disposed to lower the standard of his pro- 
fession, and his manifest aim is to do justly and to 
promote the real welfare of his clients. In disposi- 
tion, he is known by his friends to be warm-hearted 
and appreciative. 

He was married June 25, 1878, to Clara M., 
daughter of H. R. Johnson, of Detroit. They have 
four children, William H., Alfred, Thornton, and 
Julian. Both Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson are mem- 
bers of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church. 

SAMUEL T. DOUGLASS, one of the oldest 
living members of the Detroit Bar, was born at 
Wallingford, Rutland County, Vermont, February 
28, 1 81 4, and his ancestors were among the early 
settlers of New England. While he was a child his 
parents removed to the village of Fredonia, C hau- 
tauqua County, New York, where he received an 
academic education and studied law in the office of 
James Mullett, for many years a judge of the Su- 
preme Court of New York. In the year 1832 Mr. 
Douglass went to Saratoga and continued his law 
studies under the preceptorship of the distinguished 
Esek Cowen. 

. Five years later he removed to Detroit, where he 
was admitted to the bar and soon after began to prac- 
tice at Ann Arbor. In 1838 he returned to Detroit 
and became a member of the firm of Bates. Walker 
& Douglass, his partners being Asher B. Bates and 



iiigA 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



Henry N. Walker. Mr. Bates retired about 1840 
and the firm became Douglass & Walker, so con- 
tinuing until 1845. when James V. Campbell, who 
had been a student in the office, was admitted to 
partnership, the style of the firm being " Walker, 
Douglass & Campbell. In 1845 Mr. Douglass be- 
came State Reporter, and two volumes of reports 
bear his name. In 1851 he was elected Judge of 
the Circuit Court of the Third Circuit, and during his 
term served not only as Circuit Judge, but as one of 
the judges of the Supreme Court, which was com- 
posed of the judges of the several circuit courts. 
He took his seat as Judge of the Supreme Court on 
January i, 1852, and served until 1857, when a 
change in the political control of the State caused 
his retirement, and he resumed his profession. As a 
lawyer he has been almost uniformly successful, 
and has been connected with many of the most 
important cases in the State ; he is especially strong 
in analysis and argument, and is often retained in 
equity cases. He is an excellent judge of human 
nature and when he gave more attention to jury 
trials had great influence over a jury, due rather to 
his thorough mastery of his case, and his candor, 
sincerity and earnestness, than to the graces or arts 
of oratory. As an adviser, he is calm, thorough 
and conscientious, and when he has thoroughly 
mastered a case and decides upon the course of 
procedure, it is quite safe to look for favorable 
results. His written opinions upon law points are 
models of clearness and completeness ; he con- 
structs carefully and evidently with laborious and 
painstaking care. 

He was one of the earliest members of the Board 
of Education, serving in 1843 and '44, and also in 
1858 and '59, and has always taken special interest 
in the advancement of the school system. During 
his last term on the School Board, the litigation 
with the county was instituted which resulted in the 
obtaining, by the city, of a large amount of money 
which had accrued from fines and penalties, and 
which had previously gone into the county treasury 
and been diverted to other purposes than those 
contemplated by law. The money belonged of 
right to the district library funds, and the result of 
the litigation, in which Mr. Douglass took an active 
part, secured a large amount of money for the Pub- 
lic Library of Detroit. Aside from the offices 
already named, the only public positions he has 
held were those of City Attorney for a few months 
in 1 842 and President of the Young Men's Society 
in 1843. 

His political allegiance has always been given to 
the Democratic party, though always with frank 
avowal of his dissent from what he deemed its 
errors; and he can hardly be said to have been 
an active politician. His duties as a judge and his 



extended legal practice, prevented his entering for 
any length of time, into the arena of active political 
life. 

He has always been a student and interested not 
only in legal lore, but in the wide range of subjects 
interesting to all persons of culture. His tastes 
have especially led him to the study of natural 
science and this fact in part, doubtless, originated in 
his early and intimate acquaintance with his relative, 
Dr. Douglass Houghton, with whom he made some 
exploring tours in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 
when it was almost entirely unsettled. His delight 
in nature and in the infinite opportunity that occa- 
sional retirement affords for reflection and rest, has 
been abundantly satisfied in the management of a 
farm on Grosse Isle, which he has owned for over a 
quarter of a century and upon which much of his 
time has been spent. 

Socially, he is frank, courteous and agreeable. 
He is independent in thought and speech, an inter- 
esting companion and a true-hearted friend ; these 
qualities, with sterling integrity and mental vigor 
and ability that are universally conceded, are en- 
dowments that justify the esteem in which he is 
held. 

He was married in 1856 to Elizabeth Campbell, 
sister of Judge James V. Campbell. They have 
three children. Their names are Mary C, the wife 
of Dr. Fred. P. Anderson, of Grosse Isle ; Benja- 
min Douglass, a civil engineer now in charge of the 
bridges of the Michigan Central Railroad and its 
connections, and Elizabeth C, now the wife of 
Louis P. Hall, of Ann Arbor. 

DIVIE BETHUNE DUFFIELD was born in 
Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, August 
29, 1 82 1, and is the son of Rev. George Duffield, 
D. D., and Isabella Graham (Bethune) Duffield. As 
a child he was a remarkably apt scholar-. Entering 
the preparatory department of Dickinson College, 
at his native place in his early youth, at the age of 
twelve, he was prepared to enter the Freshman class 
of the collegiate department. The rules of the 
College forbade the admission of students less than 
fourteen years of age, and without doubt to his 
subsequent advantage he was compelled to curb 
his ambition. After the removal of his parents 
to Philadelphia, in 1835, he studied in that city 
and entered Yale College with the class of 1840. 
Unforeseen family circumstances compelled him to 
leave without then completing his college course , 
but he afterwards received the degree of A. B. froni 
Yale. From the first, he manifested a taste for tne 
study of both ancient and modern languages, poUte 
literature and English composition in prose an 
verse, the gratification of which has formed tn^ 
relaxation and unfailing pleasure of his life. 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



I II9I 



familiarity with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin has 
increased with every year, and in French and Ger- 
man he is proficient. In 1839 he came to Detroit, 
his father, the year previous, having been settled as 



pastor 



of the First Presbyterian Church. Soon 



after his removal here he became a student m the 
law ofhce of Bates & Talbot, both of the firm being 
leading members of the Detroit bar. His experi- 
ence as a law student gave him renewed longings 
for Yale and a profession, and in 1841 he entered 
the law department of the Yale Law School, and 
graduated after taking the courses of both classes, 
and before he had attained his majority. ^ The 
greater portion of the same year he spent in the 
Union Theological School of New York, when, his 
health failing, he returned to Detroit, and in the fall 
of 1843 was admitted as a member of the bar of 
Detroit. 

In the spring of 1844 he formed a law partner- 
ship with George V. N. Lothrop, afterwards Minis- 
ter of the United States to Russia. This connection 
continued until 1856. After the dissolution of the 
partnership, Mr. Duffield continued alone in his pro- 
fession until after the war, when his youngest brother, 
Henry M. Dufheld, became his legal partner, and 
this relationship continued for ten years. The firm 
for several years past has been composed of himself 
and son, Bethune Duffield, under the firm name of 
Duffield & Duffield. 

Mr. Duffield is a habitual worker, and his career 
has been constantly marked by industry, ability and 
success. In 1 847 he was elected City Attorney, and 
for many years he was a Commissioner of the United 
States Court, these being the only offices he has ever 
held in the fine of his profession. For a score of 
years or more he has been the Secretary of the 
Detroit bar, an office which, with his own high 
standing, has long made him a leading and one of 
the most widely known lawyers of the city. In 
1847 he was elected a member of the Board of 
Education of Detroit, and his services were almost 
continuous in that body until i860, and during sev- 
eral of these years he was President of the Board. 
During this period he recast the w^hole course of 
study in all the departments and grades, providing 
for the regular progression of the pupils, and the 
chief features of his plan are still in force. He was 
especially active in securing the establishment of 
the High School, and so thoroughly was he identi- 
fied with its origin that he is frequently referred to 
as the "Father of the High School." As Presi- 
dent of the Board he took a leading part in the 
successful effort to compel the city to pay over to the 
Library Commission the moneys received from fines 
collected in the city criminal courts. The favor- 
able result of this litigation made possible the 
excellent public library of which Detroit is justly 



proud. After his temporary retirement from the 
Board, in 1855, in consequence of a contemplated 
trip to Europe, the Board of Education, in token 
of appreciation of his services in behalf of educa- 
tional interests, named the then new Union school 
building on Clinton street the "Duffield Union 
School." 

In addition to the labors incident to a large pro- 
fessional practice, he has found opportunity to lend 
a helping hand in nearly all matters affecting the 
moral, mental and religious interests of the com- 
munity. From his early manhood he has been an 
active'member and is officially connected with the 
First Presbyterian Church, of which his father was 
so long pastor, and has ever been actively interested 
in Sunday-school work, and particularly in mission 
schools, of which he was one of the earliest advo- 
cates. 

In the various phases of temperance reform he 
has been especially prominent. He was the first 
President of the Red Ribbon Society, which in 
1877 had 8.000 members in Detroit. He is in sym- 
pathy with all efforts that restrict or regulate the 
traffic, and has especially championed the so-called 
Tax Law of Michigan, which is believed by many 
of the best and purest of citizens to be one of the 
most effective of instrumentalities in the diminishing 
of the traffic and curtailing its power for evil. 
Believing thus, he in 1887 opposed the prohibi- 
tory amendment to the Constitution of the State in 
numerous pubHc addresses, and his opposition did 
much to secure the defeat of the measure. All 
citizens who are acquainted with him know that he 
was thoroughly conscientious in his views, and that 
he has always been zealously foremost in advocating 
and urging the adoption of all measures which 
could be clearly shown would conserve the greatest 
good of individuals or the State ; and it is doubtful 
if any citizen on any question has acted more con- 
scientiously than did Mr. Duffield in this campaign. 
He rendered valuable aid at the time of the 
organization of the Harper Hospital, perfected its 
incorporation, and for several years was its Secre- 
tary. He was also an active member of the Young 
Men's Society, and its President in 1850. 

In politics he was a Whig from the time he cast 
his first vote until the organization of the Republi- 
can party in 1856, when he became, and has since 
remained, an active and leading member of that 
party. He has persistently declined to become a 
candidate for office, save the purely local ones 
already mentioned, but has upon the stump and 
rostrum, in every important political campaign since 
he became a voter, earnestly and eloquently advo- 
cated his party candidates, freely giving his time 
and service to the work. 
During the war he was especially active in sup- 



1 1 19c 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



port of the Government and the cause of the 
Union. As a speaker and writer, he constantly 
sought to uphold the Federal cause, and did much 
to encourage enlistments and inspirit both soldiers 
and citizens in the great struggle for the Union and 
the Constitution, 

Mr. Duffield's literary accomplishments have 
made him widely known. Naturally gifted with 
fine literary taste and discrimination, his education 
and home influences tended to its development. 
While quite a youth he was a contributor to the 
Knickerbocker Magazine, published by Willis Gay- 
lord Clark, and has since written occasionally for 
other periodicals, in prose and verse, and as early 
as 1 860 was classed among the prominent poets of 
the West. Not a few of his fugitive pieces have 
been published in various Eastern publications, but 
not always has he received the proper credit. 
Though often solicited he has as repeatedly refused 
to publish his collected poems, and those which 
have seen the light have been such as he believed 
timely and calculated for some distinctive end. Of 
the latter class may be mentioned, his historical 
poem, " The Battle of Lake Erie," delivered upon 
the occasion of the laying of the corner stone of 
the Perry monument at Put-in -Bay, a poem at the 
opening of the Law School building in Ann Arbor, 
and his ** National Centennial Poem," delivered at 
the celebration in Detroit, on July 4, 1876, each 
of which were highly commended as having per- 
manent value. In quite a different vein is his "De 
Art Medendi," prepared for the fourteenth annual 
commencement of the Detroit Medical College, a 
poem combining wit, humor, feeling and reverence, 
and described as suggesting the nonchalant after- 
dinner verse of Dr. Holmes. His various poems 
delivered before the bar of Detroit are of similar 
character, and are pleasantly remembered by his 
professional brethren. For many years he has 
been privileged with the friendship of Premier 
Gladstone — a distant relative of his mother — and the 
acquaintance has been cemented by occasional cor- 
respondence. This fact easily accounts for his 
poem of "America to Gladstone," a warm tribute 
from an ardent admirer. 

With his professional brethren Mr. Duffield has 
always stood in the front rank, as well for legal 
attainments as for industry and fidelity, and that 
high professional courtesy which is characteristic of 
the true legal gentleman. In his professional labor 
he is prompt, clear and incisive, and a constant 
worker, his literary labor being merely as a pastime. 
He comes to conclusions only after mature deliber- 
ation, is positive in his convictions, and bold and 
independent in defending them. When he espouses 
any cause it is done earnestly and without regard to 
personal results, and no citizen is more implicitly 



trusted or stands higher in the estimation of his 
fellows than he. His private and professional life 
is without blemish, and in all respects he is a true, 
high-minded. Christian gentleman. 

He was married in 1854 to Mary Strong Buell, 
daughter of Eben N. Buell, of Rochester, New 
York, and his family consists of two sons, George 
Duffield, already prominent as a member of the 
medical profession, and Bethune Duffield, his part- 
ner and associate in business. 

HENRY M. DUFFIELD was born in Detroit, 
May 15, 1842. His father. Rev. George Duffield, 
D. D., was born at Strasburg, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, July 4, 1794. He came to Detroit in 
1838, and until his. death, in 1868, was the honored 
and influential pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church. Shortly after his arrival he was appointed 
Regent of the State University, and no man did 
more to shape and promote that now widely-known 
institution of learning. The father of Rev. George 
Duffield was at one time a prominent merchant of 
Philadelphia, and for nine years Comptroller-Gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania. His grandfather was the 
celebrated Rev. George Duffield, who in conjunction 
with Bishop White served as Chaplain of the first 
Congress of the United States, and subsequently 
of the Continental Army. A reward of ^50 was 
offered by the British for his head. His fame as a 
preacher and fearless and eloquent advocate of 
liberty is well known to all students of American 
history. Isabella Graham (Bethune) Duffield, the 
mother of Henry M. Duffield, was born October 22, 
1799, and died in Detroit, November 3, 1871. She 
was a daughter of D. Bethune, a prominent mer- 
chant of New York city, and a grand-daughter of 
the widely known Isabella Graham, whose memory 
is fragrant in the churches of Scotland and America. 
Her brother, George W. Bethune, was the dis- 
tinguished orator and lecturer of New York. 

Henry M. Duffield received his earlier education 
in the public schools of Detroit, graduating from 
the " Old Capital " school in 1858. After one year's 
instruction in the Michigan University, in 1859 he 
entered the junior class of Williams College, Massa- 
chusetts, then under the management of Mark 
Hopkins. He graduated in 1861, and enlisted as a 
private in the Ninth Regiment Michigan Infantry 
in August of the same year, being the first student 
from Williams College to join the Union army. A 
short time after enlistment he was made Adjutant 
of the regiment. While acting in this capacity he, 
with his regiment, in July, 1862, participated in the 
bloody fight with the forces of the rebel General 
N. B. Forrest, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and 
during the engagement was by the side of his brother, 
General W. W. Duffield, when the latter was twice 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



III9D 



wounded, and as then supposed mortally. So severe 
and close was the contest that it was impossible to 
carry his brother from the field until the repulse of 
the enemy. In this battle Colonel Duffield was 
taken prisoner, but was exchanged in September of 
the same year. After his release he was detailed as 
Assistant Adjutant-General of all the United States 
forces in Kentucky. He was afterwards appointed 
Assistant Adjutant -General of the Twenty-third 
Brigade, Army of the Cumberland. In the cam- 
paign from Nashville to Chattanooga in 1863, he 
was attached to the headquarters of General Geo. 
]h Thomas and was present at all the important 
battles of the campaign, including Stone River and 
Chickamauga. At Chattanooga, on October 23, 
1863, during the siege of that town "by the rebel 
forces under General Braxton Bragg, he was pro- 
moted to Post Adjutant. As Post Adjutant of 
Chattanooga he issued, by order of General John 
G. Parkhurst, commander of the post, the orders for 
the Chattanooga United States cemetery, giving 
particular directions as to its purpose and plan of 
management. The general plan was subsequently 
adopted by General Thomas, and from it grew the 
system of national cemeteries which are at once a 
testimonial to the heroic devotion of the gallant 
solch'ers buried therein, and to the gratitude of their 
countryman. 

When Major-General George H. Thomas assumed 
command of the Department of the Cumberland, 
Mr. DufField was appointed on his staff as Assistant 
Provost Marshal General of the department, in 
which capacity he served until the end of his term 
of service. During the memorable campaign of 
General Thomas from Chattanooga to Atlanta, 
Colonel Duffield was detailed as Acting Provost 
Marshal General vice General J. A. Parkhurst, dis- 
abled, and participated in nearly all the hard fought 
battles of this gallant Union commander, including 
Resaca, Missionary Ridge, Peach Tree Creek, and 
Jonesboro, a campaign which resulted in the final 
capture of Atlanta. During the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, which was one of the most severe engage- 
ments in which he took part, he was wounded. 
His term of service ended at Atlanta, and he was 
mustered out October 14, 1864. 

Returning to Detroit in November, 1864, he 
began the study of law in the office of D. Bethune 
I^uffield, and in the following April was admitted 
to practice. Soon afterwards he formed a partner- 
ship with his brother, D. Bethune Duffield, which 
continued until i8;6, since which date Colonel 
Nuffield has had no associate partner. His position 
as a lawyer is a desirable one, and as counsel in 
n^any important cases he has achieved notable 
triumphs, both in the highest court in the State and 
in the Supreme Court of the United States. He 



was attorney for the Board of Education of Detroit 
from 1866 to 1 87 1, and it was at his suggestion 
and under his conduct, that the Board brought suit 
against the city and county to recover the fines col- 
lected in the municipal courts for the benefit of the 
library fund. The case was strongly defended by 
William Gray, Theodore Romeyn and other emi- 
nent lawyers. The Circuit Court decided against 
the claims of the Board, but upon appeal to the 
Supreme Court this decision was reversed, and a 
judgment entered for the Board. As the fruits of 
this litigation upwards of $27,000 for back fines was 
collected, and the right of the Board of Education 
to all future fines was fully established. This 
decision had much to do in preparing the way for 
the larger usefulness of the public library. 

In 1 88 1 Colonel Duffield became City Counselor, 
serving three years, and during this time repre- 
sented the city unaided in all its litigation, both in 
the Supreme Court of the State and of the United 
States. During this period, among the most import- 
ant cases argued and won for the city were : The 
Mutual Gas Light Company vs. Detroit, in which 
the opposing counsel were Edward W. Dickerson 
and George Ticknor Curtiss; the City Railway tax 
cases, defended by F. A.. Baker and George F. 
Edmunds. Both of these cases were argued in the 
United States Supreme Court, and involved large 
amounts pf money and important principles of law. 
In his private practice Colonel Duffield has been 
connected with some of the most important cases 
which have arisen in the legal history of Detroit. 
He assisted in the argument of the famous Reeder 
farm cases, and in the Rothschild tobacco fraud 
case. He succeeded in defeating the claims of the 
holders of the notorious ♦• Stroh-Hudson-Windsor 
crooked paper," and as solicitor of record in the 
Hunt and Oliver litigation, which was pending for 
seventeen years in the Circuit and Supreme Court 
of the United States, he obtained a final decision 
favorable to his clients in the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 

Colonel Duffield possesses naturally those quali- 
ties of mind indispensable to a high degree of suc- 
cess in the legal profession. In temperament he is 
cool and collected, and in the midst of the most 
exciting and trying ordeals, readily detects the weak 
and strong points of a case. To this admirable 
quality he unites a retentive memory, power of close 
and continued application, and convincing and per- 
suasive abilities as an advocate. That he has 
succeeded in gaining a foremost place among his 
professional brothers in Detroit is but the natural 
sequence of the best use of these powers. 

He is a Republican in political faith, and for 
more than twenty years has been an active and 
helpful factor in the efforts of his party in this 



II20 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



State. He was nominated for Congress by the 
Republican convention of this district in 1876, 
against General Alpheus S. Williams, the Demo- 
cratic nominee, and although defeated in the election 
ran 1,300 votes ahead of his ticket. The use of his 
name has also been solicited by his party as candi- 
date for Circuit Judge, Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the State, as well as for high political posi- 
tions, but he has uniformly declined. 

He has been a member of the Military Board of 
Michigan since 1874, and from 1880 to 1887 was 
President of the Board, and takes a warm interest 
in the State militia. He has also been an active 
trustee of the Michigan Military Academy for the 
past ten years; is interested in several business 
enterprises in Detroit, being a stockholder in the 
Bell Telephone Company, of Massachusetts, the 
American Exchange National Bank, the Detroit 
Bar Library, Detroit, the Rio Grande Live Stock 
Company, and the Eureka Iron Company. 

He is a member of the Society of the Army of 
the Cumberland, and was the orator at the annual 
meeting of 1887. 

He was married December 29, 1863, to Frances 
Pitt§. They have had seven children, Henry M., 
Jr., born August 9, 1865, at present a student in the 
class of 1890 in Harvard College; Samuel Pitts, 
born January 22, 1869, and Divie Bethune, born 
March 3, 1870, both attending Philip's Academy, 
Exeter, Massachusetts ; William Beach, born March 
2, 1 87 1, died* July 10, 1876; Francis, born October 
23. 1873; Morse Stewart, born September 29, 1875, 
and Graham, born November 21, 1881. 

EDMUND HALL was born on the 28th of 
May, 1 8 19, at West Cayuga, New York. His father 
was of that family of Halls which traces back to 
Wallingford, Connecticut, and which, in revolution- 
ary times, was sufficiently divided to furnish a Signer 
to the Declaration of Independence, while the Sign- 
er's cousin, who was Mr. Hall's grandfather, was an 
energetic adherent of the British. His mother's 
ancestry ran through the Worths and Folgers to the 
first white couple married on Nantucket. 

With his mother, brother, and three sisters Mr- 
Hall came to Michigan in 1833, their route being by 
the Erie canal to Buffalo, and from there by schooner 
to the mouth of the Detroit river, where they landed, 
settling where Flat Rock now stands. They were 
pioneers and poor, but energy and hard work made 
them independent enough to face even the panic of 
1837 without flinching. Some time before that 
crisis, it had been the cherished hope of the mother 
that her oldest boy should have a college training, 
and it was in the midst of the hard times that he 
acquired it. The nearest preparatory school was 
at Elyria, Ohio, and there he fitted for Oberlin. 



Six months' work in 1835, at eight dollars a month, 
furnished the first instalment of funds to pay the 
cost of a higher education, and his alternate labors 
as a stone mason and as a country school teacher 
supplied him with funds until in 1843 he was gradu- 
ated with high standing. 

Mr. Hall has had little to do with party politics, but 
has always taken a deep interest in the great 
reformatory agitation w^hich resulted in the over- 
throw of slavery. As early as 1841, and while a 
student, he canvassed the State as an anti-slavery 
lecturer, and again, in 1844, when studying law, he 
went on the stump as a volunteer champion of 
Birney, the candidate of the liberty party. 

In political economy, however, he was trained as 
a free trader and in consequence a Democrat. But 
the great anti-slavery uprising could not for any 
length of time leave an Oberlin student on any low 
plane of party politics. Still, it was as a Democrat 
that he was chosen to the only office he ever held, 
that of School Inspector in the Board of Education 
of Detroit, from 1859 to 1863. 

He studied law in the office of George E. Hand, 
was admitted to the bar in 1847, and began practice 
in company with Judge Hand, but subsequently 
practiced for many years alone, until the increasing 
demands which his varied real estate investments 
and other business enterprises made upon his atten- 
tion rendered professional labor impracticable. 

While in the Board of Education he did the pub- 
lic a very distinguished service as one of the principal 
agents in the establishment of a free public library 
upon the constitutional and statutory basis of the 
fines collected in the Police Court. The police 
judge had regularly absorbed the fines he had 
imposed, so that there was a heavy deficit for which, 
as matters stood, the county was accountable to 
the city. The supervisors would not make good 
the squandered fund unless compelled to, and pro- 
ceedings were instituted in the Supreme Court to 
compel them. The Board of Education was the 
moving party, and their case was successfully pre- 
sented in a brief drawn up by Mr. Hall. Ihe 
critical character of this proceeding,— for a lower 
court had already ruled against the library,— fairly 
entitles him to such credit as belongs to one of the 
founders of a great public institution. He was 
Secretary of the Board the same year, and the 
records of. that body show an elaborate plan which 
he drew up for the working of the library. 

It was at about this time that he began his lum- 
bering operations. His principal camp is in Isabella 
county, though he has large interests in pine lands 
in the northern part of the State, besides a mill and 
salt works at Bay City. He keeps a large farm, 
well stocked with Jerseys and short horns, at Gib- 
raltar, where he first landed as a boy, and there he 





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JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



1 121 



has a country house where he spends the most of 
each summer. 

He has been twice married, first in 1846, to Miss 
Emeline Cochran, of Frederick, Ohio, who died in 
1879, leaving a married daughter, Mrs. Henry A. 
Chancy. Her only son, George Edmund Hall, died 
in 1875. In 1881 Mr. Hall married Mrs. Mary H. 
Vreeland. They have had one child, whose name 
is Frederick. 

DEWITT C. HOLBROOK was born in Riga, 

Monroe County, New York, on August 22, 1819. 
His father, Benajah Holbrook, was formerly a resi- 
dent of Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and 
emigrated to New York early in the century. His 
son, D. C. Holbrook, received the usual education 
supplied through the district school, and in August, 
1832, came to Michigan, and was engaged in his 
brother's store in Plymouth. In June, 1836. he 
came to Detroit a total stranger in search of employ- 
ment, served as clerk in a dry goods store until 
July of that year, and then obtained a situation in 
the Detroit postoffice, where he remained until 
December, 1837. He next became a teller in the 
Detroit City Bank, remaining until 1840, when he 
entered the office of the late Alexander D. Eraser 
as a law student. Mr. Eraser stood in the very 
front rank of lawyers composing the Detroit bar, 
which, in those days, was almost entirely composed 
of men of finished education, nearly every one 
being a graduate of an Eastern college. Mr. 
Fraser was a severe legal instructor, eminent as a 
chancery lawyer, and in his office and under his eye 
Mr. Holbrook, by the time he finished his term of 
study, had ripened into an accomplished lawyer, 
and he has maintained that reputation through a 
professional life of forty years or more. 

Soon after his admission to the bar in 1843, he 
was appointed Assistant Register of the old Court 
of Chancery, which office he held until January i, 
1847, when he became County Clerk. He was 
nominated for the last office without his knowledge, 
and was the only candidate elected on the Whig 
ticket. He served in this capacity for two years, 
and, under the law, was also at the same time Clerk 
of the Circuit Court, and when his term ceased he 
had an extensive knowledge of the practice of the 
courts of chancery and of law. On January i, 
1849, he entered into partnership with Alexander 
Davison, and commenced the practice of law. He 
subsequently engaged in practice in connection with 
William A. Howard and Levi Bishop. Mr. Howard 
withdrew in 1 860, and for some five years the busi- 
ness was carried on by Holbrook & Bishop. In 
1872 Mr. Holbrook was appointed City Counsellor, 
which office he creditably filled for six years. 

His industry, faithfulness and loyalty to his clients, 



accompanied always with a fearlessness that quailed 
before no opposition, and a spotless integrity, not 
only endeared him to his clients but commanded, 
at all times, the respect of his fellows, and the confi- 
dence of the entire community. 

Added to these traits of character there might 
also be accredited to him those graces that are 
born of a generous heart, and which adorn every 
man who wears an open genial nature. No one 
who knows Mr. Holbrook well would hesitate to 
bear testimony to the uprightness of his character, 
the industry of his daily life, his faithfulness to all 
trusts and duty, and all would award him the record 
of an able lawyer, upright citizen, and honorable 
man. 

Mr. Holbrook was married to Mary A. Berdan, 
September 26, 1850. She died in 1858, leaving one 
son, De Witt C. Holbrook, Jr., of Montana Terri- 
tory, and three daughters, Mrs. Col. F. W. Swift, 
Mrs. Frank Walker, of this city, and Mrs. White, 
wife of Rev. John H. White, of Joliet, Illinois. 

GEORGE H. HOPKINS, the son of Erastus 
and Climene (Clark) Hopkins, was born in the 
township of White Lake, Oakland County, Michigan, 
November 7, 1842. His ancestors were among 
the earliest setters in Connecticut, coming from 
Coventry, Warwick County, on the Sherbourne, 
England. The name was originally spelled Hop- 
kyns. The family, according to Burke, was of estab- 
lished antiquity and eminence, enjoyed for a long 
series of years parliamentary rank, served a suc- 
cession of monarchs, and acquired civil and mili- 
tary distinction. In the sanguinary wars of York 
and Lancaster, which for thirty years devastated 
the fair fields of England, this family is tradition- 
ally stated to have taken a prominent part, and to 
have experienced the inevitable consequences— incar- 
ceration, decapitation and confiscation. They were 
prominent in the affairs of Coventry in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, one William Hopkins, 
Jr., having been Mayor in 1 564, and persecuted for 
heresy in 1554. He had two brothers, Richard and 
Nicholas, both Sheriffs of the same town in 1554 
and 1 56 1 respectively. Richard had two sons, 
Sampson, his heir, and William, proprietor of the 
lordship of Shortley. Sampson was Mayor in 1609. 
He had three sons. Sir Richard, Sir William, and 
Sampson, the latter being Mayor of Coventry in 
1640. The eldest became eminent at the bar, at- 
tained the rank of Sergeant at Law, was Steward 
of Coventry, and represented that city in Parlia- 
ment at the Restoration. Their estate, by inter- 
marriage, passed to General Northey in 1799, and he 
assumed the surname and arms of Hopkins upon 
inheriting the estate of his maternal ancestor, who 
was known as Northey Hopkins of Oving House. 



II22 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



The early Hopkinses of New England are of this 
family. 

The date of the arrival of John Hopkins, the 
progenitor of the Connecticut line, is not definitely 
known, but it was not far from the year 1632. About 
that time the increasing numbers of the colonists 
suggested the formation of new settlements farther 
westward, and as a result Hartford colony was 
established, and in the colonial records John Hop- 
kins is spoken of as the original owner of the 
lands then settled. The line of genealogical pro- 
gression from John Hopkins to Erastus, the father 
of the subject of this sketch, is as follows : John 
Hopkins, who was made a freeman of Cambridge 
March 4, 1635, removed to Hartford the same 
year, and died in 1654, leaving a widow, Jane, 
and children, Stephen, born about 1634, and 
Bertha, about 1635. The widow married Nathaniel 
Ward, of Hadley. Bertha, in 1652, married Samuel 
Stocking, of Middletown, and subsequently James 
Steele, of Hartford. Stephen married Dorcas, a 
daughter of John Bronson. He died in October, 
1689, leaving six children, John, Stephen, Ebenezer, 
Joseph, Dorcas, wife of Jonathan Webster, and 
Mar3% who married Samuel Sedgwick. His widow 
died May 13, 1697. The son John had eight chil- 
dren, one of whom, Samuel, was i graduate of Yale 
College in 171 8, and a minister of West Springfield. 
Another son, Timothy, was the father of Samuel 
Hopkins, the celebrated divine, known as the founder 
of the Hopkinsian School. He was the author of 
several well-known works, and a prominent charac- 
ter in Mrs. Stowe s ** Minister's Wooing." The 
widely known Mark Hopkins, President of Wil- 
liams College, was of the same family. Another 
son was named Consider. He had a son, Consider, 
Jr., whose son Mark was the father of Erastus Hop- 
kins and grandfather of George H. Hopkins. Three 
of his uncles were in the Continental army during 
the Revolutionary War. One was captured by the 
British and starved to death in the " Jersey Prison 
Ship " in New York harbor, and another was killed 
by Tory " Cow Boys " while at home on a furlough. 
Erastus Hopkins was born in Oneida County, 
New York, in 1804, and moved with his family from 
Steuben County, New York, to White Lake, Michi- 
gan, in 1834, going in an emigrant wagon the whole 
distance. He cleared a farm in the wilderness, and 
lived to see the entire neighborhood settled, remain- 
ing upon the farm until his death in 1876. His 
wife died in 1864. His son, George H. Hopkins, 
was at home till his eighteenth year, and then be- 
came a student at the Pontiac Union School for two 
terms, and in the winters of 1860-61 and 1861-62 
taught a district school in Oakland County. In 
April, 1862, he entered the Michigan State Normal 
School, but in August of the same year left that 



institution to enter the Union army, enlisting in the 
Seventeenth Michigan Infantry in a company largely 
composed of students of the University and of the 
Normal School, and remained with his regiment 
until the close of the war. It was known as the 
** Stonewall " regiment, and saw as severe cam- 
paigning and fighting as any regiment in the Union 
service. Mr. Hopkins's brother, Dan G. Hopkins, 
a member of the same company, was mortally 
wounded in the celebrated charge of the regiment 
at South Mountain, September 14, 1862. Another 
brother, William W., was a member of the Fifth 
Michigan Cavalry. The Seventeenth Michigan was 
in active service in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, 
Mississippi, at the siege of Vicksburg and Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, and again in Virginia during the 
last year of the war. 

Soon after the close of the Rebellion, Mr. Hopkins 
returned to the Normal School and graduated in 
the class of 1867. He afterwards entered the 
Michigan University, remained one year in the 
Literary Department, and graduated in the Law 
Department in 1871. In 1870 he was Assistant 
United States Marshal, and took the United States 
census in one representative district of Washtenaw 
County, and in a portion of a district in Lapeer 
County. After his admission to the bar he entered 
upon the practice of his profession in Detroit, and 
for eight years was assistant attorney of the Detroit 
& Milwaukee Railroad Company. During Gover- 
nor Bagley's term of four years he was his private 
Secretary, and at Governor Croswell's request served 
again in the same capacity. 

At the State election of 1878 he was nominated 
by the Republicans on the legislative ticket, made 
an exceptionally strong run and was elected, though 
the city went Democratic on the State ticket. In 
the legislative session of 1879 he was Chairman of the 
Committee on Military Affairs, and also served on 
the Committee on Railroads. He was re-elected 
to the Legislature in 1880, and served through the 
session of 1881 and the special session of 1882, 
and was again re-elected in 1882. In the session 
of 1 88 1 he was Chairman of the Committee on 
the University and a member of the Committee 
on Railroads and Apportionment. On the organi- 
zation of the session of 1883 he was chosen 
speaker pro tempore, and as presiding officer made 
a most commendable record as an able parlia- 
mentarian. He was also Chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee and member of the Committees on State 
Library and the State Public Schools. During his 
legislative career Mr. Hopkins was an active and 
earnest worker, and recognized as a safe and careful 
leader. His previous services in the office of the 
chief executive made him familiar with the needs 
and requirements of the State, and his experience 



gjj^,,« •^■•vr- 




t"^^-/ /^^-^.^^^ . 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



II23 



in State affairs caused his counsel to be often 
soLii^ht. As Chairman of the Committee on Mili- 
tary Affairs he was prominently instrumental in 
securing the passage of the laws by which in- 
creased provisions were made for the maintenance 
of the State militia under which it is now so 
admirably organized. He also rendered valuable 
aid in the passage of the law for the erection of a new 
University library building. On all local measures 
his actions were wise and liberal, and revealed a 
painstaking interest and good judgment. He was 
the author of the bill for the purchase of Belle 
Isle, and secured its passage against the most 
strenuous opposition of many of the leading citizens 
of Detroit. 

Although largely interested in corporations, he has 
always insisted that corporations should bear their 
full share of the burden of taxation, and is the 
author of several laws which have put many thou- 
sands of dollars annually into the treasury, and 
thereby reduced the taxes to be paid by individuals. 

The law providing for the jury commission of 
Wayne County, which has done much to improve 
the jury system for the city and county, is one among 
many of the acts of a local nature which he secured 
for his constituency. 

Mr. Hopkins has always been a Republican, and 
has for many years been an active spirit in party 
management. During the political campaigns of 
1882 and 1884, he was Chairman of the Wayne 
County Republican Committee, and proved himself 
an efficient organizer and manager. He also served, 
in 1878, as Chairman of the State Central Commit- 
tee, and again, in 1888, conducting the campaign 
in Michigan, which closed so successfully for the 
party by the election of General Benjamin Harrison 
as president. He has always taken a warm interest 
in military matters, and served as one of the military 
staff during the administration of both Governors 
Bagley and Alger. For several years prior to the 
death of Governor Bagley he was intimately asso- 
ciated with him in the management of various busi- 
ness enterprises, and by his will was made one of his 
executors and trustees. The duties connected with 
this trust are so onerous that he has been obliged to 
retire from the general practice of his profession, and 
most of his time is now devoted to the care of the 
Bagley estate. He is interested in numerous busi- 
ness projects in Detroit, being director and treasurer 
of the John J. Bagley & Co. Tobacco Manufactory, 
and the Detroit Cyclorama Company ; director in the 
Detroit Safe Company, Standard Life and Accident 
Insurance Company, Michigan Wire and Iron 
Works, Lime Island Manufacturers' Company, the 
Woodmere Cemetery Association, and the Longyear 
Iron Mining Company, and was one of the incor- 
porators and a director of the American Banking 



and Savings Association, and of the American 
Trust Company. 

In the management of the complicated business 
enterprises with which he has been entrusted, Mr. 
Hopkins has displayed singularly good judgment 
and commendable faithfulness and integrity, and 
the honorable position he holds has been justly won 
by personal worth and a high degree of business 
tact and ability. 

WILLARD MERRICK LILLIBRIDGE was 
born at Blossvale, Oneida County, New York, April 
26, 1 846, and is a son of Ira and Sophronia (Merrick) 
Lillibridge, whose ancestors settled in Rhode Island 
and Connecticut as early as the year 1700. His 
great-grandfather, Rev. David Lillibridge, was a 
Baptist minister at Willington, Connecticut, and 
served in the French and Indian War, and his grand- 
father, Clark Lillibridge, was a soldier in the War of 
the Revolution. His father settled at Blossvale 
about 1824, and reared a large family. Willard 
M„ the youngest but one, attended school at Bloss- 
vale, prepared for college at Whitestown and Caze- 
novia Seminaries, entered Hamilton College in 
1865, and graduated in 1869. Soon after graduat- 
ing he accepted the position of Superintendent of 
Public Schools at Plattsburgh, New York, which 
position he held for two years. In 1871 he went to 
St. Louis, where he spent one year in the study of 
law and then came to Detroit, completed his studies 
in the office of Walker & Kent, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1873. He entered at once upon the 
practice of his profession, and has continued it ever 
since, practicing alone until 1 880, w^hen he became 
the head of the firm of Lillibridge & Latham, and 
so continued until 1887, when the firm was dis- 
solved, and Mr. Lillibridge has since practiced by 
himself. 

He has been almost uniformly successful, and 
has built up a prosperous law business, having a 
large clientage among the business firms and cor- 
porations of the city. 

He is a studious, hard-working lawyer, is well 
read in all the principles of law, and familiar with 
books and authorities. He has a clear and forcible 
style, and a pleasing manner at the bar, and suc- 
ceeds by the thoroughness of his preparation and 
his devotion to the interest of his clients. He has 
been engaged in many important cases, among 
which may be mentioned the Southworth will case, 
tried in the United States Circuit Court at Milwaukee 
in 1883, and the mandamus case of Richardson 
against Swift, argued in the Court of Errors and 
Appeals of Delaware, in 1886. 

Mr. Lillibridge is a diligent student of classical 
and general literature, believes in a broad culture, 
and is liberal in his opinions. 



II24 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



In political faith he is a Republican, but not a 
politician. In 1874 and 1875 he served as a mem- 
ber of the Board of Education of Detroit, but has 
not sought nor desired office. 

He is quite largely interested in real estate, is a 
stockholder in several corporations, and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the corporation of Samuel F. Hodges & Co., 
foundrymen and machinists. 

He was married December 5, 1882, to Katharine 
Hegeman, daughter of Joseph Hegeman, of New 
York. They have one daughter, Aletta A. Lilli- 
bridge. He and his family attend St. John's Epis- 
copal Church. 

GEORGE VAN NESS LOTHROP was born 
in Easton, Bristol County, Massachusetts, August 8, 
181 7. He received a classical education and gradu- 
ated at Brown University, in 1838, and the same 
year entered the Harvard Law School, then in 
charge of Judge Story and Professor Greenleaf. 
Within a year, his health becoming somewhat 
impaired, he left school, came to Michigan to recu- 
perate, and made his home with his brother, Edwin 
H. Lothrop, of Prairie Ronde, Kalamazoo County. 
He remained two or three years, occupying himself 
partly in farm work. In the spring of 1843 he came 
to Detroit, and resumed the study of law in the 
office of Joy & Porter. 

While yet a student, and before his admission to 
the bar, by special permission of the Supreme Court, 
on the application of James F. Joy, he appeared in 
the celebrated case of the Michigan State Bank 
against Hastings and others. So ably was his side 
of the case presented that the Judges openly ex- 
pressed their admiration of the effort, and predicted 
for him a brilliant career. In the spring of 1844 he 
was appointed a Master of Chancery for Wayne 
County, and in company with D, Bethune Duffield 
commenced to practice in Detroit, the firm continu- 
ing until 1856. In April, 1848, he was appointed 
Attorney-General of the State, and held the office 
until January, 1851. 

About this time the subject of a division of the 
public school moneys between the public and Cath- 
olic schools was quite actively discussed, and the 
regular nominees of the Democratic party at the city 
election of 1853 were generally believed to be in 
favor of such division. In opposition to any such 
plan, Mr. Lothrop was nominated on an independent 
Democratic ticket, and elected by a large majority. 

He was one of the Michigan delegation at the 
Charleston National Convention in i860, and was 
active and earnest in support of the Douglas senti- 
ment in that body. 

From July, 1863, to May, 1872, he served as one of 
the inspectors of the Detroit House of Correction. 
In 1867 he was a member of the State Constitutional 



Convention; in 1873 he was tendered, but declined, 
an appointment as a member of the Constitutional 
Commission, and from 1880 to 1886 served as one of 
the Commissioners of the Public Library of Detroit. 

In May, 1885, soon after President Cleveland was 
elected, he nominated Mr. Lothrop as United States 
Minister to Russia, and he was duly confirmed by 
the Senate. His acceptance of this office, and con- 
sequent temporary departure from Detroit, called 
forth many expressions of regret. He was so 
universally esteemed as a high-minded citizen and 
friend, and his eminent legal and social qualities so 
generally known and appreciated, that his absence 
made a noticeable vacancy both in legal and in 
social circles. Many evidences of this feeling were 
manifested, and it is certain that no United States 
Minister ever went abroad accompanied with warmer 
or more hearty good wishes, and no one ever left 
behind a greater number of appreciative citizens, 
neighbors, and friends. In the fall of 1888 he re- 
signed his position, and on his return to Detroit was 
tendered a public reception, and warmly welcomed. 

Mr. Lothrop has always been zealously interested 
in whatever concerns the moral or literary welfare 
of the city. In 1853 he served as President of the 
Young Men's Society, and for several years served 
as President of the Detroit Association of Chari- 
ties. 

During a quarter of a century he was attorney of 
the Michigan Central Railroad Company, and at 
various periods of time was counsel for the Detroit 
& Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 
and Detroit, Lansing & Northern Railroads. 

He is a holder of considerable real estate, both in 
Detroit and in the neighboring townships, and has 
besides some investments in bank, railroad, and 
other stocks. 

His reputation as a lawyer is not confined to his 
own State, but is really national. In Michigan he 
has few peers. It seems almost needless to say 
that such a reputation has not been gained without 
reason ; indeed there are many reasons for his 
standing at the bar. With a mind clear and pene- 
trating, with ability to grasp great questions, and at 
the same time consider the smallest details, with a 
graceful and fluent vocabulary of the purest and 
most classical English, and with physical vigor and 
a presence and manner that would command atten- 
tion in any place, he is both naturally, and by study, 
fitted for the position he occupies. In addition to 
all these qualities, he is so transparently sincere, 
courteous, kind, and genial, that he easily wins 
esteem. 

In all literary matters his taste and discernment 
are highly cultivated, and he aims to keep abreast 
with the progress of scientific research. 

He has frequently been the choice of his fellow 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



II25 



citizens of the Democratic party for the highest politi- 
cal honors, and all who know him must concede his 
ability to fill any position in the gift of the people. 

He was married at Detroit, on May 13, 1847, to 
Almira Strong. They have four sons and two 
daughters; the sons, George Howard, Charles 
Bradley, Henry B., and Cyrus E., all living in De- 
troit and well known in its society. The daughters 
are named Anne and Helen. The first named in 
October, 1888, became the wife of Baron Barthold 
Hoyningen Huene, First Lieutenant of the regiment 
of Chevalier Guards of Her Majesty, the Empress 
of all the Russias. 

WILLIAM AUSTIN MOORE was born near 
Clifton Springs, Ontario County, New York, April 
17, 1823. He was the seventh son and eighth child 
of William Moore and Lucy Rice. His ancestors- 
on his father's side were of Scotch-Irish descent. 
His great-great-grandfather was one of the McDon- 
ald clan which was slaughtered at the massacre of 
Glencoe, in Argyllshire, Scotland, on the morning of 
February 13, 1692. His great-great-grandmother, 
after the murder of her husband, concealed herself 
and two daughters in a malt kiln, and on the night 
following the murder gave birth to a son, whom she 
named John. The widow, with her children, fled 
to Ireland, and settled at Londonderry, where they 
remained until 171 8, when they emigrated to 
America, and were among the first settlers of Lon- 
donderry, New Hampshire. John subsequently 
married and had a family of seven children, the 
third of whom William, married Jane Holmes, on 
December 1 3, 1 763, and removed to Peterboro, New 
Hampshire. He was in the War of the Revolution, 
and fought at the battle of Bennington, July 19, 
1777. They had twelve children. The youngest, 
William Moore, was the father of the subject of this 
sketch, and was born April 9, 1 787, At the age of 
eighteen he removed to Phelps, Ontario County, 
New York, where, on November 7, 1806, he mar- 
ried Lucy Rice, formerly of Conway, Massachu- 
setts, and who was a niece of the eccentric Baptist 
preacher, John Leland, of Cheshire, Massachusetts. 
William Moore was a farmer by occupation, and 
held various local offices. He was in the War of 
181 2, and was at the burning of Buffalo and at 
the sortie at Fort Erie. In the summer of 1831 
he removed his family to Washtenaw County, 
Michigan, and was one of the early settlers of that 
section. In 1832 he was appointed justice of the 
peace, which office he held until Michigan became 
^ State, and afterwards held it by election for 
twelve years. He was a member of the convention 
called for the preparation of the first constitution 
0^ Michigan, a member of the first Senate after 



Michigan became a State, and represented Wash- 
tenaw County in the House in 1843. 

William A., during his boyhood, worked on his 
father's farm, and his earliest educational advan- 
tages consisted of a few weeks' schooling during 
the winter. When he was twenty years of age, he 
determined to follow the profession of law, and in 
April, 1 844, he began a preparatory course of study 
at Ypsilanti, where he remained two years. He 
then entered the freshman class of the University of 
Michigan, and graduated in 1850, a member of the 
sixth class which left that institution. For a year 
and a half after graduation he taught school at 
Salem, Mississippi. In April, 1852, he prosecuted 
the study of the law in the oflftce of Davidson & 
Holbrook, and was admitted to the bar on Jan- 
uary 8, 1853. He immediately entered upon the 
practice of his profession, in which he has since 
been actively engaged, and by incessant, persever- 
ing and painstaking labor, has built up a profitable 
business. When he began his professional career, 
admiralty practice formed an important feature in 
the legal business of Detroit, a branch of work to 
which he gave special attention and in which he be- 
came proficient. For many years no important col- 
lision case was tried in the State of Michigan in 
which he was not retained, and he was often called 
to Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago and Milwaukee in 
his practice. 

From deep-seated convictions Mr. Moore has 
ever been a staunch supporter of the Democratic 
party, but his tastes do not run in the line of public 
station or political office. The only offices he has ever 
held have been those pertaining to local government. 
From 1859 to 1865 he was a member of the Board 
of Education, and during this period he served two 
and one-half years as secretary and three and one- 
half years as president of the Board. He has been the 
attorney of the Board of Police Commissioners since 
1879. In 1 88 1 he was appointed a member of the 
Board of Park Commissioners, and was re-appointed 
in 1884. He was twice elected president of said 
Board, but resigned before the expiration of his 
second term, it was thought, because his action on 
the question of the sale of beer and other intoxicat- 
ing drinks on Belle Isle Park was not approved by 
the City Council, which refused all appropriations 
until the sale of beer should be permitted, although 
his action was sustained by the best public senti- 
ment of the city. He was one of the organizers of 
the Wayne County Savings Bank, and of the De- 
troit Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and has 
been a member of the board of directors, and the 
attorney of both of said corporations since their 
organization. He is also one of the directors of the 
American Exchange National Bank. From 1864 to 



1 1 26 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



1868 he was Chairman of the Democratic State 
Central Committee, and was the Michigan member 
of the Democratic National Executive Committee 
from 1868 to 1876. 

During the late civil war he was a warm friend 
of the Union cause, and while disagreeing with 
many of the measures and methods pursued by the 
administration, he never wavered in his allegiance to 
the government. He gave liberally to aid in secur- 
ing enlistments and for the relief of the wounded, and 
since the close of the war has ever been among 
the foremost in every movement in recognition of 
the service of the veterans, and is now a trustee of 
the Soldiers' Monument Association. 

Public-spirited and progressive, he readily aids 
every movement designed to advance the welfare of 
his fellows. He was one of the promoters of the 
Art Loan Exhibition, was one of the founders and 
a contributor for the erection of the Museum of Art, 
and is now its treasurer. 

As a lawyer he has achieved success in the trial 
of cases, but is especially in demand and appre- 
ciated as a counselor. He unites to a judicial and 
independent character of mind, long familiarity with 
the principles of law, excellent foresight, sound 
judgment, and above all, unquestioned integrity — 
qualities which admirably fit him to act the part of 
conciliator and harmonizer of conflicting interests. 
His convictions are slowly formed, but a stand 
once taken is not abandoned for any mere ques- 
tion of policy or expediency. All his influence 
has been cast on the side of morality, good govern- 
ment, obedience to law, and the elevation of his fel- 
lows. No responsibility that has ever been laid upon 
him has ever been neglected or betrayed. Many 
persons with far less of worth have attracted a 
larger share of public attention, but there are few 
who have done more to conserve in various ways 
the best interests of the city. Reared in the Chris- 
tian faith, he has always had deep reverence for 
religious principles, and since 1877 has been a mem- 
ber of the Lafayette, now the Woodward Avenue, 
Baptist Church. His friendships are strong and en- 
during, and in both public and private life he is a 
cultivated, genial Christian gentleman. 

He was married December 31, 1854, to Laura J. 
Van Husan, daughter of the late Caleb Van Husan. 
They have one son, William V., who is now asso- 
ciated with his father in the practice of his profession. 

GEORGE F. PORTER, for many years one of 
the leading lawyers of Detroit, was born in the 
town of Broome, New Hampshire, in 1803. The 
educational privileges of his youth were limited to 
the district schools of his native town. At an early 
age he left home to begin life's battles for himself, 
and from the savings liis industry acquired, he se- 



cured the means for obtaining a liberal education, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar and soon after, 
in 1829, emigrated to the Territory of Michigan, and 
settled in Detroit. Here he immediately secured a 
responsible position in the counting room of Dorr 
& Jones, at that time one of the leading mercantile 
houses of Detroit. In this establishment he ac- 
quired those accurate business habits which dis- 
tinguished him through life. After spending some 
years with Dorr & Jones, he was employed by the 
old Bank of Michigan, and for several years was 
cashier of the branch at Kalamazoo. 

In 1837 he became associated with James F. Joy 
in the well remembered legal firm of Joy & Porter, 
which continued for nearly twenty years, and dur- 
ing that period was represented in most of the 
important litigations in the courts of Detroit and 
Michigan. Mr. Porter's commercial accuracy, ex- 
cellent business methods and high attainments as 
a lawyer were of great value to the firm, and were 
in a large degree the cause of its success. His 
portion of the work of the firm pertained almost 
solely to office practice, and as a counselor and 
interpreter of intricate, difficult and close questions 
of law, requiring deep penetration, a wide general 
knowledge and a certain judicial quality of mind, he 
particularly excelled. He was an indefatigable 
student, and was naturally of an analytical and 
critical mind — qualities which made his opinion 
much sought and esteemed. The firm of Joy & 
Porter became the oldest legal partnership in De- 
troit, and was not dissolved until Mr. Porter's health 
began to fail and Mr. Joy became prominently con- 
nected with railroad management. Mr. Porter was 
one of the agents of the State in negotiating the 
sale of the Michigan Central Railroad ; was promi- 
nent in the reorganization of the Michigan State 
Bank in 1845, and was one of the first directors of 
the first free school system established in Detroit. 
He was also one of the original anti-slavery men 
of Michigan, having been one of the organizers and 
officers of the first anti-slavery society formed in 
the State. His interest in the great political ques- 
tion was deep, and during the days when to be 
opposed to slavery was to arouse the popular preju- 
dice, he manfully and unequivocally took sides 
against a state of affairs the existence of which he 
believed to be a national disgrace. He did not live 
to see slavery abolished, but in the beginning of 
the national struggle which it aroused, and which 
he foresaw meant its downfall, he gave his loyal 
support to the Union cause. 

He was a firm believer in Christianity, a consist- 
ent supporter of every good cause, and in every 
relationship of life an exemplary citizen, husband 
and father. For several years before his death his 
health had been gradually failing, and his death, 




'/ J '-i' ( ( 'h . 



Lczn 










iU 




JL^W.. ^- 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



I127 



which occurred on August 21, 1862, was lamented 
as a public calamity. His prudence, energy, and 
close attention to business, enabled him to acquire 
a competency, but he left a name more precious 
than his fortune, and the record of a life of punctil- 
ious honesty in spirit and deed, a business and per- 
sonal career without spot or shadow, and an exam- 
ple worthy of imitation. 

Mr. Porter was married October 26, 1828, to 
Eliza Smith Gove, of Rutland, Vermont, who died 
in January, 1879. The result of this marriage was 
eight children, but two of whom survive, Arthur C. 
Porter and Mary J. Throop, widow of the late Gen- 
eral William A. Throop, of Detroit, Michigan. 

RALPH PHELPS, Jr., was born in Detroit, on 
November 14, 1859. He is the son of Ralph and 
Jane Phelps, and his ancestry in America dates 
back to the time of the War of the Revolution. He 
was educated in the public schools of Detroit, 
graduated from the High School, subsequently going 
to Ann Arbor, where he attended the law department 
of the University of Michigan and graduated in 
March, 1879. He immediately entered upon the 
practice of law and rapidly acquired a large client- 
age. In 1883 he was elected by the largest majori- 
ty of any member to the Upper House of the old 
Common Council, and two years after taking this posi- 
tion was unanimously elected President of that body, 
fulfilling the duties of the office in a manner highly 
satisfactory to his colleagues and creditable to him- 
self. Whilst President of the Council he was 
called upon to act as Mayor for a considerable time 
on account of the illness of Mayor Chamberlain. 
During his term as President of the Council plans 
for a new post-office building were submitted to the 
people of Detroit. These plans showed a very 
common-place building proposed to be erected upon 
half of the block bounded by Fort and Lafayette, 
Wayne and Shelby Streets. Much dissatisfaction 
being generally expressed both on account of the 
plans and site, Mr. Phelps, as acting Mayor, called 
a meeting of the citizens to protest against them 
and to take steps to secure a structure in keeping 
with the demands and necessities of Detroit. As a 
result of this meeting a Citizens Post- Office Com- 
mittee of ten persons, with Mr. Phelps as one of 
the number, was appointed to take charge of the 
matter, and by their activity and persistence in 
Washington, together with assistance they received 
from the members of Congress of this district, they 
succeeded in having the appropriation largely in- 
creased, secured the whole of the block for a site, 
and had new plans prepared. Much credit is due 
^r. Phelps for the great assistance he rendered in 
securing these results. 
In 1 886 he was elected Treasurer of Wayne 



County, receiving the largest majority of any can- 
didate of either party, and two years later was re- 
elected by a majority nearly four times larger, hav- 
ing a majority of 5,833 votes. His management of 
the office has given universal satisfaction, and almost 
any political office seems within his reach. 

In the fall of 1889, he went to London, England, 
as the representative of large Detroit brewing in- 
terests, and successfully closed negotiations for the 
sales of several of the breweries of this city, a busi- 
ness transaction which had been long pending be- 
tween Detroit brewers and English capitalists. 
He is now a director and legal adviser for the 
Goebel Brewing Company, which, controls four 
breweries, and is also a director and counsel for the 
Detroit Electric Light and Power Company, which 
has secured the contract for lighting the city 
for the next three years. 

He is a prominent secret society man, and belongs 
to nearly all the leading organizations. He is a 
member of Detroit Lodge, No. 2, F. & A. M.; Mon- 
roe Chapter, R. A. M.; Monroe Council, No. i, R. 
& S. M.; Detroit Commandery, No. i,K. T.; Michi- 
gan Consistory, A. & A. S. R., 32°, and a Mystic 
Shriner, and is also Treasurer and leading member 
of the benevolent order of Elks of this city. 

He is also a member of the Detroit Board of 
Trade, and of the Rushmere and other Clubs. For 
five years, from 1884 to 1889, he was President of 
the Detroit Light Infantry, the crack military 
company of Michigan, and during his term of office 
the agitation for a new armory was started which 
resulted in the erection of the fine and commodious 
quarters which the company now occupies on 
Congress Street. 

Mr. Phelps possesses an accommodating spirit, 
and a frank, open-hearted disposition that makes 
him exceedingly popular. These traits of character, 
coupled with strong purpose, and much more than 
average ability, make him a leader in whatever 
project he becomes interested. He possesses 
strong financial instincts, which have been trained 
from an early year by the management of large 
business interests, which, owing to his father's poor 
health, had devolved in a great degree upon him. 
His integrity as a business man and lawyer is un- 
questioned, and his fidelity to friends and uniformly 
polite treatment of all with whom he comes in 
contact, has secured to him a host of friends. 
He is progressive and enterprising, and is always 
warmly interested in anything that concerns the 
welfare of his native city, and his success in the 
past gives promise of greater achievements in the 
future. 

JAMES ANDRUS RANDALL was born in 
Detroit, on December 15, 1848, and is a son of 



1128 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



James Janeway and Caroline M. Randall. He was 
educated in the old Capitol School, near which the 
home of his father stood, and at the Goldsmith, 
Bryant & Stratton Business College. He gradu- 
ated from the latter when but sixteen, and went to 
Nashville, Tennessee, for a visit. While there. 
Governor Brownlow took a great fancy to him, and, 
despite the disparity in their years, the two became 
fast friends. As an evidence of esteem the Gover- 
nor issued to young Randall a commission as Major 
in the Sixth Tennessee Volunteers, and later de- 
tailed him to serve on the executive staff. 

Returning to the north in 1866, Mr. Randall 
read law in Earned & Hebden's office, was admitted 
to the bar in 1869, and began practicing before he 
was a voter. He had always been fond of politics, 
and when he had made a name by handling suc- 
cessfully several large cases, he found himself 
agreeably drawn into the fascinations of political 
life. He was a Democrat, and, in 1874, his party 
made him Circuit Court Commissioner. He so well 
fulfilled the duties of the office that be was twice 
re-elected, each time by largely increased majori- 
ties, and in 1881 his friends wished to present his 
name to the Democratic nominating convention as 
one of the judges of the Third Judicial District, to 
fill a then existing vacancy, but he declined. 

A year later, however, he came before the regular 
convention called to nominate a candidate for the 
full term, but he was not its choice. In the spring 
of 1 887 he was chosen by an overwhelming major- 
ity of the hundred and twenty delegates to the 
Democratic judicial convention, called for the pur- 
pose of placing in nomination a bench of four 
judges, and was nominated three successive times, 
but was counted out by unscrupulous tellers, and 
the officers of the convention, which had been organ- 
ized against his candidacy. 

In the fall of 1887 he was chosen a member of 
the Board of Estimates, and in 1888 elected to the 
lower house of the State Legislature, where he at 
once became leader of the Democratic minority. 

Mr. Randall has always been a firm believer in 
the splendid possibilities of Detroit, and has labored 
unceasingly to make those possibilities realities. 
His chief work has been for public improvements. 
In 1884 he took hold of the almost unknown 
Boulevard project, and was chiefly instrumental in 
advancing it to its present state. 

A prejudiced Council, ignoring the claims of the 
grand Boulevard, considered $15,000 to be suffi- 
cient for the work of improvement during the year 
1888, while they allowed $231,000 for continuing the 
improvements on Belle Isle Park. As a member of 
the Board of Estimates, Mr. Randall denounced 
the disparity between the two appropriations, and 
despite the fact that a large majority of the Board 



had been elected as anti-boulevarders, and the per- 
sistent opposition of one of the leading journals of 
the city, his masterly and eloquent presentation of 
the merits of the Boulevard as a necessary public 
improvement, and the unjust discrimination made 
against it in favor of Belle Isle Park, he had the 
Park estimates cut down to $15,000 to harmonize 
with the Boulevard allowance. 

Mr. Randall next went to the Legislature and 
passed a bill consolidating the Park and Boule- 
vard Commissions so as to avoid future antagonism 
between those two public improvements ; intro- 
duced and passed a bill authorizing Detroit to issue 
bonds to the amount of $500,000 for the purpose 
of improving the Boulevard, and drafted the bill 
authorizing the issue of $400,000 in bonds to com- 
plete the improvements of Belle Isle Park. But Mr. 
Randall's legislative labors were not concentrated 
upon these measures alone. The Democratic mi- 
nority in the House of Representatives, recognizing 
his fitness, nominated and voted for him as their 
candidate for speaker of the House. 

He was the means of passing the bill allowing 
Detroit to issue $500,000 in bonds for constructing 
new trunk sewers. He introduced and passed the 
new registration law for Detroit ; he framed and in- 
troduced a general election law for Detroit, the 
adoption of which would insure pure elections, the 
registration feature of which passed the House. 
He fought hard for the passage of his bill repealing 
the law taxing mortgages and other mere evidences 
of debt, and fought valiantly for its adoption ; 
and, in short, gave intelligent attention to all meas- 
ures of importance that came before the Legislature, 
and rendered capable service on the judiciary and 
municipal corporations committees. 

Mr. Randall, though a lawyer, has many other 
business interests. He is a large holder of real 
estate, is Vice-President of the Cole Conduit Com- 
pany, of Detroit, also of the Detroit Graphite 
Electric Company, a director in the Put-in- Bay 
Hotel Company, First Vice-President of the Home 
Loan and Building Association, and is a director in 
and large owner of the Kansas City News. 

Personally he is of a jovial disposition, accepting 
both reverses and success with philosophic calm. 
He is the personification of frankness in everything, 
a strong speaker, and effective ; a ready debater, a 
♦ logical thinker, a good fighter and a hard hitter. The 
secret of his success lies in his steady perseverance 
and resolute determination. Of a portly build, he 
has a fresh blonde complexion, a pleasant face and 
distinguished appearance. Although compara- 
tively a young man, he has attained prominence 
both in the professional field and in business pur- 
suits. 

W. C. G. 




C J 0^^'.^. 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



1128a 



JOHN WINDER, of Detroit, was born at 
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in 1805, His father, 
James Winder, was a native of Virginia, and his 
mother a native of New Jersey. He received a 
thorough EngHsh education in his native town, and 
in 1824 left home for Detroit, in the employ of Major 
Thomas Rovvdand, who was then United States 
Marshal. In 1826 he was appointed Clerk of the 
Supreme Court of the Territory, and held the office 
until 1840 In 1837 he was appointed Clerk of the 
United States Circuit and United States District 
Courts for Michigan. He held one of these offices 
until 1870. He is a man of robust constitution, is 
social and genial in nature, and has a host of friends. 

CHARLES I. WALKER, one of the best 
known and most prominent lawyers of Detroit, was 
born at Butternuts, Otsego County, New York, 
April 25, 1814. He is a descendant of a sturdy 
old New England family, admirably fitted for the 
furnishing of such elements as are needed to 
command success amid the hindrances of a new 
and growing country. His grandfather, Ephraim 
Walker, was born in 1735, ^^^ married Priscilla 
Rawson, a lineal descendant of Edward Rawson, 
who graduated from Harvard College in 1653, and 
for nearly forty years was secretary of the Colony 
of Massachusetts, and while holding the office took 
a bold stand against the usurpation of Governor 
Dudley. He built a family mansion on the corner 
of Westminster and Walker streets, at Providence, 
Rhode Island, and there, during the year 1765, 
Stephen Walker, the father of C. I. Walker, was 
born. In 1790 he married Polly Campbell, who 
died in 1795, leaving two children. In the follow- 
ing year he married Lydia Gardner, a Quakeress 
of Nantucket, who became the mother of eleven 
children, of whom C. I. Walker was the ninth in 
order of birth. Of this large family, the youngest 
had reached the age of twenty-one before death 
invaded the household. Stephen Walker was a 
house builder, a man of thrift, energy and high 
principle, who gave his children every advantage in 
his power. A writer in the " Book of Walkers " 
says : " He was a man of fair abiHties, sterling 
good sense, honest, temperate, and remarkably 
industrious. He labored for the good of his family, 
and his ambition was to train them in the path of 
honor, usefulness and piety." His wife "was 
strong in person and character ; a woman of inex- 
haustible energy and resources, and the care of 
thirteen children set lightly upon her." The family 
resided at Providence until 18 12, when they re- 
moved to Butternuts, where the boyhood of Charles 
I. Walker was passed. 

He obtained his primary education in the district 
school in his native village, supplemented by one 



term at a private school at Utica, New York. At 
the age of- sixteen he became a teacher, and a few 
months later entered a store connected with a cot- 
ton mill at Cooperstown, New York, where he 
remained four years. In 1834 he left this employ- 
ment and made his first journey to the West, going 
as far as St. Joseph, and on his way passing through 
Detroit. In the spring of 1835 he returned to 
Cooperstown, and on his own account engaged in 
mercantile business, but sold out the following 
year to remove to the West. In prospecting for a 
home he visited Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and 
Iowa, and finally settled at Grand Rapids, where 
he became a land and investment agent and built up 
a good business, but the suspension of specie pay- 
ment and the period of financial depression which 
ensued, compelled him to discontinue. In Decem- 
ber, 1836, he was elected a member and was chosen 
secretary of the Territorial Convention to consider 
the question of the admission of Michigan into the 
Union. He was subsequently for two years editor 
and proprietor of the Grand Rapids Times, the 
only paper then published in that now thriving city. 
In 1838 he was elected justice of the peace, and 
then left journalistic life and began the study of 
law under the guidance of the late Chief Justice 
Martin. In 1840 he was elected a member of 
the State House of Representatives from the dis- 
trict comprising Kent, Ionia, and Ottawa Counties, 
and the territory to the northward not yet included 
in any county organization. In the fall of the fol- 
lowing year he removed to Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in order to complete his law studies. He 
became a student in the law office of Henry 
Morris, afterwards a judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, remained in Springfield until the spring of 
1842, and then studied law under the preceptorship 
of Dorr Bradley, of Brattleboro, Vermont. In the 
following September he was admitted to the bar, 
and at once entered into partnership with Mr. 
Bradley. In 1845, Hon. Daniel Kellogg, of Rock- 
ingham, Vermont, having been elected justice of 
the Supreme Court, Mr. Walker obtained his prac- 
tice and business, remaining in Rockingham three 
years, and upon the completion of a railroad to 
Bellows Falls, Vermont, he removed to that place. 
By this time he had acquired a large and growing 
practice, extending into the adjoining counties, but 
the West attracted him, and in 1851 he returned to 
Michigan and settled in Detroit, where his brother, 
E. C. Walker, had already established a successful 
legal business. They entered into partnership, and 
in July, 1853, Alfred Russell was admitted as a 
partner, the firm name being Walkers & Russell. 
Their practice was principally in collections and 
commercial business, and Mr. Walker, desiring to 
devote himself principally to trial of causes and 



1128b 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



argument of law cases, withdrew from the firm in 
January, 1857, since which time he has had no 
partner in the practice of his profession. 

Soon after his second coming to Michigan, Mr. 
Walker began to direct his attention to the early 
history of his adopted State. In 1854 he was 
elected president of the Young Men's Society, 
which at that time wielded a strong influence. 
During 1854 he delivered the opening lecture of the 
society course, taking for his subject " The Early 
History of Michigan," in the preparation of which 
he was assisted by General Cass. In 1857 he was 
prominent in the re-organization of the Historical 
Society of Michigan. In July, 1858, on the one 
hundred and fifty-seventh anniversary of the found- 
ing of Detroit, Mr. Walker read an elaborate paper 
devoted to the " Life of De La Motte Cadillac and 
the First Ten Years of Detroit." Among his 
other historical papers are " The Early Jesuits of 
Micljigan," "Michigan from 1796 to 1805," and 
" The Civil Administration of General Hull." In 
1 87 1 he read before the Historical Society of Wis- 
consin a paper on "The Northwest Territory 
During the Revolution." It excited wide attention 
from the many interesting facts it contained— never 
before printed ; was published in the third volume 
of the Wisconsin Historical Collection, and has 
since been reprinted in the collections of the Pio- 
neer Society of Michigan. Mr. Walker's taste for 
historical research led to the collection of a choice 
library of books and manuscripts relating to the 
early history of Michigan and the Northwest, which 
were of real service to the author of this work 
in the preparation of the first edition of the His- 
tory of Detroit. 

Mr. Walker has taken a warm and active inter- 
est in educational matters ; was elected a member 
of the Board of Education in 1853, and during 
much of the time since then has been officially 
connected with the Board, serving as president at 
two different times. His vote and influence are 
ever given to the broadest and most liberal pro- 
visions in all matters relating to educational affairs. 
In the spring of 1859 he was appointed one of 
the professors in the law department of the Michi- 
gan University, a position which he ably filled for 
fifteen years, and then failing health and the de- 
mands of business forced him to resign. On the 
death of Judge Witherell in 1867, Mr. Walker was 
appointed by Governor Crapo judge of the Wayne 
County Circuit Court to fill the vacancy. At the 
time of his acceptance of the office a proposition 
to increase the salaries of circuit judges was pend- 
ing in the Constitutional Convention, but, upon its 
rejection by the people. Judge Walker, after hav- 
ing held the office about ten months, resigned, as 
he could not afford to sacrifice a lucrative practice 



for the small salary then attached to this judicial 
position. Since that time he has devoted himself 
very closely and laboriously to his large law prac- 
tice, and though now past three score and ten, is 
regularly at his desk or in court, clear and vigorous 
in mind, and with bodily strength apparently equal 
to many years of work. 

Under a joint resolution of the Legislature in 
1869, he was appointed by Governor Baldwin one 
of the commissioners to examine the penal, reforma- 
tory and charitable institutions in Michigan, visit 
such institutions in other States, and report the 
results to the Governor. The commissioners made 
extensive examinations and an elaborate report, 
which led to the passage of a law creating a Board 
of State Charities, of w^hich Judge Walker was ap- 
pointed a member and acted as chairman many 
years. He represented the Board at the National 
Prison Reform Congress at Baltimore in 1872, and 
at St. Louis in 1 874. Into the scientific considera- 
tion of the great problems of charity and correction, 
Judge Walker has gone with his whole heart, and 
has been justly recognized as an authority in vari- 
ous branches of these important questions. 

He was reared in the faith of the Quakers, and 
continued to observe their forms until he left home. 
He then became a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. When at Grand Rapids he gave his aid 
in the organization of an Episcopal Church, was one 
of its officers and a regular attendant while a resi- 
dent there. While in Vermont he attended the 
Congregational Church, and on returning to Detroit 
became a member of the First Congregational 
Church. He is not strongly denominational in his 
feelings, his church relationships having been deter- 
mined principally by circumstances. 

Politically he has ever been a Democrat. He is 
a strong believer in the morality and advisability of 
free trade, and an equally strong opponent of the 
centralization of political power. When twenty- 
one years of age, he was a member of the Anti- 
Slavery Convention at Utica, New York, which was 
broken up by a mob, but reassembled' at Petersboro 
by the invitation of Garret Smith. While an inflex- 
ible anti-slavery man, he was in sympathy with the 
Free Soil party in 1848, and supported Van Buren. 
He was a hearty supporter of the government war 
measures from 1861 to 1865, ^^^ ^^ the war meet- 
ings held in that critical time to raise funds or vol- 
unteers to prosecute the war he was a frequent and 
influential speaker. 

Personally he has a pleasant, agreeable manner, 
with inflexible integrity and strong common sense. 
His life has been characterized by faithfulness in 
every trust committed to him. His private life has 
been without reproach, and in public affairs he has 
been unusually active, influential,and useful. 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



II29 



He was married in 1838 to Mary Hindsdale, sis- 
ter of Judge Mitchel Hindsdale, a pioneer of Kala- 
mazoo County. She died in May, 1864. In May, 
1865, he married Ella Fletcher, daughter of Rev. 
Dr. Fletcher, of Townshend, Vermont. By his first 
wife he had one son and by his second, two chil- 
dren, the younger of whom, a son, is a student at 
Yale College. 

EDWARD CAREY WALKER, the youngest 
of the thirteen children of Stephen and Lydia 
Walker, was born at Butternuts, Otsego County, 
New York, July 4, 1820. At an early age he be- 
came an inmate of the family of his brother Fer- 
dinand Walker, then living at Hamilton, Madi- 
son County, New York. He prepared for college 
at the academy of that place, but at the age of fif- 
teen left his studies to accept a position in an engi- 
neer corps engaged in building the Chenango canal 
under the charge of William A. McAlpine, after- 
wards so distinguished as an engineer. After two 
years' service, a broken knee, the result of being 
thrown from a carriage, unfitted him for further 
work in his chosen profession, and in September, 
1837, still suffering from his injury and obliged to 
use crutches, he came to Detroit to visit his sister, 
Mrs. Alexander C. McGraw. Mr. McGraw advised 
him to renew his studies, and offered to send him 
to college at his own expense. He accepted the 
offer, attended the branch of the University then at 
Detroit, conducted by Rev. Chauncey W. Fitch, 
afterwards Chaplain in the United States Army, 
and in 1840 entered the junior class of Yale College 
and graduated with honor in 1842. 

He then returned to Detroit, taught school for a 
time in the branch of the University, and then be- 
gan the study of law in the office of Joy & Porter^ 
and subsequently spent a year in study under Judge 
Story at the Harvard law school, and w^as admitted 
to the bar in 1845. ^^ ^t once began the practice 
of his profession in Detroit and has since continued 
therein with success and honor. In 1850, at his 
request, he was joined by his brother, Charles I. 
Walker, under the partnership name of C. I. & 
E. C. Walker. In 1853 Alfred Russell became a 
member of the firm, and so continued until i860, 
when he became United States District Attorney. 
In the meantime, in 1857, C. I. Walker retired 
from the firm, and for fifteen years following 
Charles A. Kent was associated as a partner with 
E. C. Walker, under the firm name of Walker & 
Kent. At the present time, and for several years, 
JVTr. Walker's only son, Bryant, has had a partnership 
interest in his father's legal practice, Walker •& 
Walker becoming the firm name. 

Mr. Walker's practice has largely pertained to 
commercial business and the management of prop- 



erty interests for eastern parties. His knowledge 
and skill as a lawyer, combined with his high per- 
sonal integrity, have eminently fitted him for this 
branch of practice. In matters connected with 
land titles, and in questions affecting the rights and 
responsibihties of corporations, his counsel is much 
sought and highly esteemed. Painstaking labor, 
persevering and incessant effort, have been rewarded 
by a large and profitable business in the line of his 
profession. 

He has manifested a warm interest in educa- 
tional matters, and has particularly interested him- 
self in the advancement of the Detroit public 
schools. For many years he was a member and 
Secretary of the Board of Education of Detroit, 
and thougli during late years not officially connected 
with the Board, he has been enthusiastic in support 
of all measures designed to increase the efficiency of 
the educational institutions of the city. He has ever 
been active in benevolent and reformatory work, 
freely giving his time and money to every project 
he deemed to be for the public good. He is a 
strong advocate of temperance, and in 1846 was 
secretary of one of the first temperance societies 
organized in Detroit, and through the various 
phases of this reform has been a staunch sup- 
porter of the principle of total abstinence. He has 
served as president of various literary and religious 
societies, and has long been a member and elder 
of the Fort Street Presbyterian Church, and actively 
interested in the management of the church. 

He is a Republican in political faith, was for four 
years Chairman of the Republican State Central 
Committee, and has had many opportunities to 
enjoy political honors, but for the most part has 
declined, preferring the more congenial work of his 
profession. In 1863 he was elected by the popular 
vote of the State a regent of the University of Mich- 
igan, and drawing by lot the short term, served two 
years, and was then re-elected for eight years, and 
again elected for the same period in 1873. ^^ was 
chosen to represent the city of Detroit in the Legis- 
lature of 1876, his most important service during 
his term being as chairman of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee of the lower house. 

During the War for the Union he was a persist- 
ent and conscientious supporter of the federal gov- 
ernment, and gave liberally of time and money to 
aid the Union cause. He was one of the organizers 
in 1863 and chairman of the Michigan Branch of 
the United States Christian Commission, which 
sent delegates to the hospitals and fields, and ex- 
pended over $30,000 in ministering to the welfare 
and comfort of the Union soldiers. As a member 
of the commission, Mr. Walker personally spent six 
weeks in caring for the wounded after the battle 
of the Wilderness. 



II30 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



During a residence of half a century in Detroit, 
Mr. Walker has sought and served the public weal 
in many ways, and every trust, either of a public 
or private nature, committed to him, has been zeal- 
ously guarded and faithfully executed. He pos- 
sesses naturally a kindly, sympathetic, and genial 
nature, that kindles responsive feelings in those with 
whom he becomes associated. All his influence is 
on the side of morality, temperance, good govern- 
ment, obedience to law, and the elevation of his 
fellow citizens. Other citizens have attracted a 
larger share of public attention, but few persons 
have exerted a more helpful or manly influence in 
the community where he has so long resided, and 
where he is justly respected and esteemed. 

He was married in 1852 to Lucy Bryant of Buf- 
falo, New York. They have had two children, 
Bryant, now his father's associate in business, and 
Jessie, wife of Rev. Wallace Radcliffe, D. D., of 
Detroit. 

WILLIAM PALMER WELLS, the son of Noah 
Burrall and Phoebe Palmer (Hewitt) Wells, was born 
at St. Albans, in Franklin County, Vermont, Febru- 
ary 15, 1 83 1. His father, a lineal descendant of 
Thomas Wells, an early Governor of Connecticut, 
was born in Old Canaan, Litchfield County, Con- 
necticut, in 1794, and settled in St. Albans, Ver- 
mont, in 181 2, where he was engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits until his death in 1857. His mother 
was born in Pawlet, Vermont, in 1801, and was 
a descendant of the Palmer family of Stonington, 
Connecticut. She died at Detroit in 1882. 

William P. Wells took a preparatory college 
course at the Franklin County Grammar School at 
St. Albans, and then entered the University of 
Vermont at Burlington, and after spending four 
years, graduated with the degree of A. B. in 185 1. 
After graduation he commenced the study of law 
at St. Albans. In 1852 he entered the law school 
of Harvard University, and in 1854 graduated with 
the degree of LL. B., receiving the highest honors 
of his class for a thesis on ** The Adoption of the 
Principles of Equity Jurisprudence into the Adminis- 
tration of the Common Law." The same year he 
received the degree of M. A. from the University of 
Vermont, and in 1854 was admitted to the bar of 
his native State at St. Albans. In January, 1856, 
he settled in Detroit, entering the law office of 
James V. Campbell. In March following he was 
admitted to the bar of Michigan, and in November 
of the same year became a partner of James V. 
Campbell, the partnership continuing until Judge 
Campbell's accession to the bench in 1858 as one 
of the judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan. 
From that time to the present Mr. Wells has con- 
tinued the practice of law alone in Detroit. His 



legal talents early won just recognition, and his 
practice has extended to all the courts of the State 
and United States. He has been counsel in many 
of the most important litigations of the past twenty- 
five years, notably in cases involving the constitu- 
tionality of the War Confiscation Acts, heard in 
the Supreme Court of the United States in 1869 
and 1870. 

He was a member of the Legislature of Michigan 
in 1865-6, as a representative from the city of De- 
troit. As a member of the Committee on Elections, 
he took an active part in the contested election cases, 
and made a report strongly urging the Legislature 
to follow the decision of the Supreme Court upon 
the ** Soldier Voting Law." 

He was a member of the Board of Education of 
Detroit in 1863-4, and chairman of the Committee 
on Library. In the latter capacity he made an 
elaborate report in favor of the foundation of a 
library which became a basis for the plan of the 
present Public Library, and at its opening in March, 
1865, he made the principal address. 

In 1874-5, during the leave of absence of Judge 
Charles I. Walker, Kent Professor of Law in the 
University of Michigan, Mr. Wells was appointed 
to the vacancy. On Judge Walker's resignation in 
1876, Mr. Wells was appointed to the professor- 
ship, a position he held until December, 1885, 
when he resigned because of the interference of its 
duties with his legal practice. The subjects assigned 
to this professorship, and of which Mr. Wells had 
charge, were Corporations, Contracts, Commercial 
Law generally. Partnership, and Agency. Upon his 
resignation an address was presented him by the 
students, and resolutions of commendation adopted 
by the Regency. 

From January i, 1887, to the close of the col- 
lege year, Mr. Wells held the position of Lecturer 
on Constitutional History and Constitutional Law 
in the University of Michigan, temporarily dis- 
charging the duties of Judge Cooley, Professor of 
American History and Constitutional Law in that 
institution. In June, 1887, he was again called by 
the Regency to the Kent Professorship in the law 
school, and he now holds that position. The sub- 
ject of Constitutional Law was added to those of 
which he has charge. 

Outside of his professional work, Mr. W^ells has 
given attention to general studies within the wide 
range of intellectual culture, and is often called 
upon for addresses upon literary and other occa- 
sions. At the commencement of the Law Depart- 
ment of the University of Michigan, in 1870, he de- 
livered an address on " The Public Relations of the 
Legal Profession," and in 1875 one on "The Relations 
of Educated Men to American Politics,' ' before the 
Associate Alumni of the University of Vermont ; in 




c 



72, 



O 



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JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



II31 



1876 on "The Civil Liberty of New England" 
before the New England Society of Ann Arbor, 
and on '* The Relations of Lawyers to the Reform 
of the Law," at the commencement of the Law De- 
partment of the University of Michigan in 1883. 
At the Legislative Reunion at Lansing in June, 
1886, he delivered an address upon "The Legisla- 
tive Power in a Free Commonwealth;" also memo- 
rial addresses in Detroit, on Decoration Day, 1883 
and 1884. 

Always an earnest advocate of the free trade 
policy, he is vice-president of the American Free 
Trade League, and an honorary member of the 
Cobden Club of England. 

He was one of the earliest members of the 
American Bar Association, organized in 1878, which 
holds its annual session at Saratoga, N. Y., and for 
several years has been a member of the General 
Council ; and in 1 888 was elected chairman of the 
General Council. At the meeting in 1886, he pre- 
sented a paper on " The Dartmouth College Case 
and Private Corporations," which has been re- 
printed from the transactions of the Association, 
and widely circulated, attracting much attention. 

Among the members of the legal profession, Mr. 
Wells stands in the front rank. As an advocate, a 
lecturer, and a gentleman of broad and liberal cul- 
ture, he holds a place among the best, and his legal 
attainments, tested by long practice in important 
cases, justified his selection as an associate with 
Judges Cooley and Campbell in the law faculty of 
the University. 

His legal studies, however, have not fully en- 
grossed his attention, and the intervals of freedom 
from pressing professional duties have been devoted 
to following avenues of intellectual culture opened 
by a liberal education. 

Naturally a clear and vigorous thinker, and pos- 
sessing the valuable gift of clear and forcible ex- 
pression, he needed only the opportunities he has 
enjoyed to secure eminence as an orator, alike at 
the bar, in the political arena, and in the halls of the 
University. 

For his duties in connection with the University 
he possesses special fitness, and it is by that work 
that he will be most widely remembered. The 
professional successes of a lawyer, however useful 
or beneficial, are comparatively ephemeral, but the 
teacher who has been the means of giving an intel- 
lectual impetus, and who has imparted the clear 
light of absolute knowledge to the inquiring mind, 
is sure of being held in grateful remembrance. 
That Mr. Wells has been greatly successful as a 
professor is conceded by all who have any knowledge 
of the University, and especially by the students 
who have been fortunate in having him as an 
instructor. His abilities are such as to command 



acquaintanceship with many persons distinguished 
in professional and political life. 

He has long taken an active and leading part in 
party politics; he is, however, always dignified, self- 
respecting and courteous to his political opponents, 
and incapable of descending to the ignoble practices 
so common in the political arena. 

His party affiliations have always been with the 
Democratic party, and he has been prominent and 
active in its councils and efforts in Michigan. Dur- 
ing the War for the Union he was a strong War 
Democrat and ably supported the Government in 
the suppression of the Rebellion. In 1866 he was a 
delegate from Michigan to the Union National Con- 
vention in Philadelphia. In 1868 he was a mem- 
ber of the Democratic State Central Committee, 
and in 1883 and in 1888, President of the Demo- 
cratic State Convention. Often urged by his 
party, especially since its accession to control in the 
Federal Government, for high positions, he has 
steadily refused to seek office. His religious affili- 
ations are with the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and he is a member of St. Paul's Parish. 

He was married October 14, 1857, to Mary 
Campbell, youngest daughter of Henry M. Camp- 
bell. They have had four children, of whom only 
one, Charles William, is now living. 

ALBERT HAMILTON WILKINSON was 
born at Novi, Oakland County, Michigan, Novem- 
ber 19, 1834. His father, James Wilkinson, was of 
English descent, and was born in Henderson, Jeffer- 
son County, New York, February 24, 1800. In 1825 
he purchased from the Government a tract of land in 
Novi, upon which, as one of the earliest pioneer 
farmers, he continued to reside until his death on 
February 3, 1872, The maiden name of his wife was 
Elizabeth Yerkes. She died in 1863. Her ancestors 
w^ere of German descent, and came to America in 
the Colonial period. James Wilkinson had six chil- 
dren, five of whom reached mature age. The eld- 
est was Harmon, who died at the age of nineteen. 
The other children, in their order after A. H. Wil- 
kinson, w^ere James Milton, now a banker at Mar- 
quette, Michigan ; Melissa, wife of Homer A. Flint, 
Register of the Probate Court of Detroit ; William 
Lewis, deceased, and Charles M., a lawyer, at 
Minneapolis. 

Albert H. Wilkinson was reared in the country, 
but early in life evinced a taste and desire for a pro- 
fessional career. His education began in the dis- 
trict school, and was continued at the Cochrane 
Academy, at Northville, Michigan, conducted by 
the father of the late Lyman Cochrane, first Judge 
of the Superior Court of Detroit. After leaving 
Northville, Mr. Wilkinson conducted a winter school 
in Milford Township, Oakland County, and subse- 



II32 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



quently entered the State Normal School at Ypsi- 
lanti, being one of the earliest students of that insti- 
tution at Its opening in the spring of 1853. At the 
end of a year and a half he left the Normal School 
to accept the position of principal of the Union 
Graded School at Centreville, St. Joseph County, 
Michigan. Being determined to perfect himself in 
his studies, he remained only five months at Centre- 
ville, and then, for the purpose of studying Greek, 
went to Rufus Nutting's Academy at Lodi Plains, 
Washtenaw County. From there, in 1 855, he entered 
the Michigan State University, graduating in the 
classical course in 1859. He then attended the law 
department of the University, remaining during the 
school year, afterwards studying in the office of 
Judge M. E. Crofoot, of Pontiac, and in June, i860, 
was admitted to the bar. 

In the fall of i860, and for a short period there- 
after, he practiced in partnership with Henry M. 
Look, and afterwards with Oscar F. Wisner. In 
August, 1861, he came to Detroit, and for the follow- 
ing five years continued the practice of law with 
W. P. Yerkes, Probate Judge. On January i, 1866, 
with Hoyt Post, he established the law firm of Wil- 
kinson & Post, which was continued until 1873, when 
Mr. Post retired, and Mr. Wilkinson formed a part- 
nership with his brother Charles M., under the firm 
name of A. H. & C. M. Wilkinson. In 1877 Mr. 
Post again became a partner of the firm, and from 
that time until 1884, when Charles M. Wilkinson 
retired, the firm was known as Wilkinson, Post & 
Wilkinson. Since 1884 it has been Wilkinson & 
Post. Mr. Wilkinson's practice has been general, 
but of late years has pertained largely to the settle- 
ment of estates. 

His party affiliations have been with the Repub- 
lican party. He has been a member of the School 
Board from the Fifth Ward, and from 1873 to 1877 
served as Judge of Probate. 

He was one of the organizers of the Michigan 
Mutual Life Insurance Company and of the Mich- 
igan Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and has 
been attorney and director of both companies. He 
was also one of the organizers of the Michigan 
Savings Bank, and has always been its attorney. 

When quite young he became a member of the 
Baptist Church, and is art earnest and influential 
spirit in that organization, and for several years has 
been a trustee and deacon in the First Baptist 
Church. He has been active in Sunday School 
work, and for many years was Superintendent of the 
First Baptist School, and also of the Clinton Avenue 
Mission School. He assisted in the organization 
and was the first president of the Detroit Baptist 
Social Union. His reputation in the community is 
that of an upright, consistent Christian gentleman, 
an honest, painstaking lawyer, a good neighbor and 



a firm friend, and he has received and fulfilled many 
important trusts faithfully and honorably. 

He was married July 4, 1859, to Elvira M. Allen 
a graduate of the State Normal School in 1858. 

JAMES WITHERELL was born in Mansfield, 
Massachusetts, June 16, 1759. His ancestors came 
from England between 1620 and 1640. In June, 
1775, when only sixteen years old, he voluntarily 
enlisted as a private in a Massachusetts regiment, 
and served at the siege of Boston and entirely 
through the War of the Revolution. He was severely 
wounded at the battle of White Plains, was at the 
battles of Long Island, Stillwater, and Bemis 
Heights, and present at the surrender of Burgoyne. 
He was also with the army at Valley Forge when 
it endured the severest of its sufferings, and the fol- 
lowing summer fought at the battle of Monmouth. 
During the latter part of his services he held a 
commission of Adjutant in the Eleventh Massachu- 
setts Regiment. He witnessed the execution of 
Andre, at Tappan, and with other soldiers partici- 
pated in the final disbanding of the Continental 
Army in 1783, at New^burg. 

On being mustered out of service, he found him- 
self in possession of seventy dollars in Continental 
scrip. With this sum he settled in Connecticut, 
studied medicine, and after about five years re- 
moved to Vermont and engaged in the practice of 
his profession. Here he rose rapidly in the esteem 
of his fellow-citizens, and was called upon to fill a 
number of public offices. He served in the Legis- 
lature of Vermont from 1798 to 1803, w^as County 
Judge for the two following years, and State Coun- 
cillor for the three years following 1804. In 1807 
he was elected to Congress, and in 1808 had the 
pleasure of voting for the Act which abolished 
the slave trade. While in Congress, on April 23, 
1808, he was appointed by President Jefferson one 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Terri- 
tory of Michigan. Soon afterwards he resigned 
his seat and started for the then almost unknown 
region. Arriving here, he found the duties of his 
office arduous and perplexing. He w^as not only 
one of the Chief Judges, but the Governor and 
Judges together constituted the Territorial Legisla- 
ture, and they also acted as a land board in adjust- 
ing old land claims, and in laying out anew the 
City of Detroit. From the time of his arrival in 
Detroit until his decease. Judge Witherell was 
prominent in all public affairs. As one of the 
Judges he did more than any one else to squelch the 
fraudulent Detroit Bank, and he aided materially 
in bringing the chaotic laws of the Territory into 
somewhat of symmetry, and was the author of the 
"Witherell Code." 

His family, who had been residing at Fair Haven, 



■^^ 





7 



'U Ui 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



II33 



Connecticut, did not come to Detroit until 18 10, and 
tliey remained only about a year, the unsettled state 
of affairs with the Indians, and their threatening 
attitude, causing them to return to Vermont. The 
next year after their return the War of 181 2 began, 
and Judge Witherell, who, in the absence of Gov- 
ernor Hull, was the only Revolutionary oflicer in 
the Territory, was placed in command of the Terri- 
torial militia. On the arrival of General Hull and 
the almost immediate surrender of Detroit, Mr. 
Witherell refused to surrender his corps, but al- 
lowed them to disperse. He, with his son, James 
C. C. Witherell, who was an officer in the volunteer 
service, and his son-in-law, Colonel Joseph Watson, 
became prisoners, and were sent to Kingston, On- 
tario, where they were released on parole. They 
tlien went to West Poultney, Vermont, and after 
being exchanged, the Judge returned to his duties, 
and continued in the same office until February i, 
1828, when he was appointed Secretary of the Ter- 
ritory. 

Judge Witherell was about six feet in height, 
erect in form, and possessed a positive character. 
His correspondence shows great facility of expres- 
sion, a wide range of words, and that he was a stu- 
dent of books and men is abundantly evident. It 
was said of him, by one of the most eminent states- 
men of the age, that " he possessed as pure a heart 
and as sound an intellect as is ordinarily given to 
human nature." His sterling integrity, moral worth, 
and prompt attention to official duties, made him an 
acceptable judge. He was a man of few words, 
but of clearly defined opinions, and possessed an 
almost inflexible will. These qualities of mind, guided 
by his strong common sense, enabled him to exert 
a leading influence in whatever position he was 
placed. 

In 18 1 3 he bought what is known as the Wither- 
ell Farm, and resided upon it until 1836. He then, 
removed to a residence on the site of the present 
Detroit Opera House, where he died on January 6, 
1838. 

The Legislature was then in session in the city, 
and both it and the Supreme Court of the State 
passed eulogistic resolutions, and adjourned as a 
mark of respect. 

Judge Witherell was married to Amy Hawkins, 
on November 11, 1780. She w^as born in Smith- 
held, Rhode Island, and was a descendant of Roger 
Williams. Her father's name was Charles, her 
mother's maiden name, Sarah Olney. They had 
six children: James C. C, born July 14, 1791 ; he 
entered Middlebury College in 1803, but went with 
the family to Detroit, arriving in a government 
sloop on June 20, 18 10; he died at Poultney on 
August 26, 1 81 3. Sarah Myrawas born September 
^ 1792, married Colonel Joseph Watson, and died 



in Poultney, March 22, 181 8. Betsey Matilda was 
born in 1793, niarried Dr. E. Hurd, and died at 
Detroit in 1852. Mary Amy was born in October, 
1795, married Thomas Palmer in 182-1, and died in 
Detroit, March 19, 1874. Benjamin F. H. was 
born in 1797, and died June 22, 1867. James B. 
was born May 12, 1799, became a midshipuian in 
the United States Navy, and died of yellow fever 
on board the United States ship Peacock, during 
a passage from Havana to Hampton Roads. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN HAWKINS WITH- 
ERELL was born at Fair Haven, Vermont, August 
4, 1797, and was the second son of Judge James 
Witherell, one of the Judges of the Territorial Su- 
preme Court of Michigan. 

He was educated chiefly in the East, under the 
tuition of Dr. Beaman, and in 1 8 1 7, on the permanent 
removal of his father's family to Detroit, he com- 
menced the study of law m the office of Governor 
Woodbridge. In 18 19 he was admitted to the bar 
of the Territorial Court, and entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession in Detroit. On the motion of 
Daniel Webster, he was subsequently admitted to 
the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
He began almost immediately to be sought for 
public office, and was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace in 1824, and Recorder of the city in 1828. In 
1834, and during the most of the year 1835, he served 
as Judge of Probate and from 1835 to 1839 was 
Prosecuting Attorney for Wayne County. In 1843 
he became District Judge of the Criminal Court, the 
district consisting of the counties of Wayne, Wash- 
tenaw, and Jackson, and held the office for four years, 
and until the Court was abolished by the Constitu- 
tion of 1850. In 1857 he was chosen Circuit Judge 
of Wayne County to fill the vacancy made by the res- 
ignation of Judge Douglass, and was re-elected to this 
office for tw^o successive terms, serving in all some 
ten years. During his term as Circuit Judge he also, 
in 1858, under the law, served as one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court, and from 1862 to 1864 was 
Judge of the Recorder's Court. In addition to the 
above he served as a member of the convention of 
1836 at Ann Arbor, which resulted in securing 
the admission of Michigan as a State; he was 
also a member of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1850. He served as State Senator in 1840 and 
1 841, as Regent of the University in 1848, and 
as Historiographer of the city of Detroit from 1855 
to 1867. He also held at various periods of time 
the military offices of Judge Advocate General. 
Brigadier-General, and Major-General of the militia, 
and was President of the Soldiers' and Sailors* 
Monument Association at. the time of his death. 
He w^as President of the State Historical Society 
for many years, and wrote numerous articles illus- 



1 134 



JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 



trative of the history of Michigan, and in his day 
no one was better acquainted with the history of 
Detroit than himself. Many of his recollections 
were published in the Detroit Free Press, over the 
signature of Hamtramck, and a number of them 
were republished by the State Historical Society of 
Wisconsin. He was one of the corporators of the 
First Protestant Church of Detroit, and one of the 
first trustees of the First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, organized in 1822. He was active and 
influential in all moral reforms, helped to organize 
the Bible Society in 1831, and was one of the earli- 
est to aid in establishing the common school system 
of the city. 



In his prime he was over six feet in stature, genial 
and kindly in his disposition, and universally es- 
teemed as an upright and honorable man, and had 
a host of warm personal friends, especially among 
the French residents. He was married in 1824 to 
Mary A. Sprague, of Poultney, Vermont. They 
had four children, namely, Martha E., James B., 
Harriet C. M., and Julia A. His wife died in August, 
1834, and in 1837 he married Delia A. Ingersoll. 
They had one child, Charles I. Witherell. The wife 
and mother died in 1847, and in 1848 he married 
Cassandra S, Brady, who died in March, 1863. Mr. 
Witherell died on June 26, 1867. 



CHAPTER XCIV. 



MERCHANTS. 



HENRY JAMES BUCKLEY was bom in the 
city of Baltimore, in 1822, and in 1838 came to De- 
troit, and entered the employ of Gurdon Williams 
& Co., produce merchants and forwarders, who 
were largely interested in the Detroit and Pontiac 
Railroad, then in process of construction. The 
same firm were pioneers of the Lake Superior trade, 
and loaded and sent the first propeller that ever 
cleared for that region, and, in addition to all their 
other enterprises, were tfie owners of the Bank of 
Pontiac. 

Growing out of his connection with the firm, Mr. 
Buckley, in 1839, served for a time as conductor on 
the railroad, and, subsequently, as teller in the Bank 
of Pontiac. At this time he was only seventeen 
years old, but he had given such satisfactory proof 
of his integrity and business talent that he won the 
unlimited confidence of his employers. The amount 
of labor performed by him would seem incredible, 
to those unfamiliar with his astonishing capacity 
for business at that time, and which was even more 
fully exemplified in his after life. He performed 
almost the entire official business, ^oth of the bank, 
and the railroad, regularly going the rounds of the 
stores and warehouses, to look after shipments, when 
the other duties of the day had been performed. 

In 1854, the firm of Gurdon Williams & Co. 
withdrew from the business of produce and for- 
warding, and were succeeded by a new firm, con- 
sisting of G. O. Williams, H. J. Buckley and N. G. 
Williams. Further changes took place in i860 and 
1864, and, after the last date, the style of the firm 
became " Buckley & Co.," their operations being 
carried on at the identical stand at the foot of First 
Street where Mr. Buckley had commenced work. 
The business of the house steadily increased, and 
with its growth, Mr. Buckley became by degrees 
closely identified with the interests of the Upper 
1 eninsula, and invested a large share of his earn- 
ings in developing the resources of that important 
portion of the State. 

His proclivities were proverbially of an adven- 
turous character, and the many mining enterprises 
of that region presented a fine field for their exer- 



cise. He operated, however, with tact and good 
judgment, seldom risking largely where the invest- 
ment was not proved judicious by actual results, 
and very few copper mines were ever started to the 
development of which his means and influence 
were not contributed. His landed property in the 
mining region grew to large proportions, and his 
interests there, at the time of his death, were doubt- 
less more diversified than those of any other man 
ever connected with the Lake Superior trade. 

He was alwaj^s well versed in mercantile values 
and shrewd in making a bargain, and, when made, 
no man was ever more faithful in abiding by a con- 
tract. He had a high ideal as to what constituted 
mercantile integrity, and would sacrifice thousands 
of dollars rather than forfeit his honor, and this not 
in a vainglorious spirit, but simply as a matter of 
integrity. 

He belonged to the Democratic school of politics, 
and although warm and enthusiastic, his preferences 
and convictions were never tainted by bigotry. At 
the State election, in 1870, he was a candidate for 
Representative in the State Legislature, and al- 
though some of his colleagues upon the ticket were 
men of great personal popularity, he received more 
votes than any other candidate on the ticket, and 
was one of the two Democratic Representatives 
chosen. In 1865 he was unanimously elected 
President of the Board of Trade. 

He was a genial companion, and his manner was 
always deferential, which rendered him a pleasing 
associate, and it is worthy of note that in social life 
he never spoke sneeringly or deprecatingly of others. 
If he could not speak well of the absent, he would 
say nothing. 

He was married on November 3, 1858, to Mary 
Williams of Detroit. She is still living, and also 
their four children— Mary, Henry, Cornelia Wil- 
liams and James Pinkney. Henry resides in San- 
tiago, California. Mr. Buckley died November 27, 
1 870. The Board of Trade and other bodies passed 
highly commendatory resolutions, and the attend- 
ance of business men at his funeral was the largest 
seen up to that time in Detroit, and included over 



C"35l 



II36 



MERCHANTS. 



sixty members of the Board of Trade, who marched 
in procession the entire distance to the cemetery. 

JAMES BURNS was born November 10, 1810. 
At the age of nine years he left his home in Lewis 
County, New York, started in life for himself, and 
in 1826 commenced to learn the trade of a car- 
penter and joiner, in Turin, New York. Subse- 
quently he attended the Louisville Academy, 
studying in the winter, and in the summer working 
at his trade. 

In 1834 he came to Detroit, where he pursued his 
trade for a year. The succeeding year he traveled 
on horseback over a large part of the wilds of 
Michigan, and bought for himself and others large 
amounts of wild land. 

He afterwards became clerk in the dry goods 
house of Olney Cook, and after two years' service 
became a partner, under the firm name of Cook & 
Burns. For seven years they transacted business 
in a store on Jefferson avenue, where the Old 
Masonic Hall now stands, and during that time 
their establishment became one of the best known 
business houses in the city. After several years 
Mr. Cook retired, and T. L. Partridge was taken 
into partnership, and the firm then became James 
Burns & Co., and under this name carried on a very 
successful business for fully twenty years. In 1850 
the business was removed to the east side of Wood- 
ward avenue, just north of Jefferson avenue. In 
1866 Mr. Partridge retired, and Lucien A. Smith 
was admitted as partner, the firm name chang- 
ing to Burns & Smith, and remaining thus until 
1874, when Mr. Burns retired, having been in 
the dry goods business in Detroit for nearly forty 
years. 

In 1 86 1, when the first Board of Review for the 
city was provided for by the Legislature, Mr. Burns 
was nominated by Mayor C. H. Buhl as a member 
of the Board, was confirmed by the Council, and 
served in this position twelve years, having been 
nominated and re-nominated by five successive 
Mayors and appointed by five successive Councils 
of different political principles from his own. He 
resigned in 1873, when elected as Representative in 
the State Legislature. As a member of that body 
he was appointed upon the Committee of Ways 
and Means, and on many of the most prominent 
special committees, and strove to make himself use- 
ful rather than conspicuous. 

In 1873 he erected the Burns Block on Griswold 
street, and in 1877, with Mr. Buhl, he erected a 
block on Woodward avenue, on the site of the old 
Odd Fellows' Hall. 

In 1876 he was appointed, by the Governor, a 
member of the Board of Coi\trol of the State Public 
School at Coldwater, and in 1877, was elected Presi- 



dent of the Board, retaining the position for several 
years. 

Mr. Burns was married on April 20, 1838, to 
Aurilla A. Bacon. They were members of the 
Central Methodist Episcopal Church of Detroit for 
over forty years, longer than any other married 
couple in a membership of over seven hundred. 
During this time the location of the church was 
changed three times, each time being moved north- 
ward on Woodward avenue. Mr. Burns filled 
many of the most prominent positions in the church, 
and always gave largely towards its support. 

As a business man, Mr. Burns's unfailing char- 
acteristics were industry and integrity. As a citizen, 
he took a spirited interest in everything that tended 
to the prosperity of the city, doing much towards 
its material improvement by the erection of fine 
buildings, and contributed freely of his means to 
worthy and benevolent enterprises. In all his inter- 
course with others he was plain and unassuming ; 
his advice and judgment on business matters was 
frequently sought, and he was eminently methodical 
in the management of his own affairs, and trusted 
and esteemed as a man and a Christian. 

He died on December 7, 1883. His daughters, 
Mrs. Henry A. Newland, Mrs. Rev. J. M. Buckley, 
and Mrs. A. M. Henry, all died before him. His 
wife and three grandchildren are still living. 

WILLIAM KIEFT COYL only son of James 
CoyI, sea captain, and Lydia (Hicks) Coyl, was born 
in New Haven, Connecticut, February 1 3, 1 808. The 
first years of his life were spent in New York City 
with relatives, descendants of the early settlers of 
New Amsterdam, after one of whom he was named. 
Among his earliest recollections was the crowd 
which ran through the streets crying Peace ! Peace ! 
after the War of 1 81 2 which left him fatherless. In 
his tenth year he went to live upon a farm near New 
Haven, where in spite of a toilsome life and few 
opportunities for study open to a country boy at that 
time, he managed to obtain a fair education. 

It has been truly said that " the man is best edu- 
cated who by any means has made his powers 
available," and energy, clear thinking, and prompt 
decision, were qualities brought West by this young 
New Englander. His first location was with Mr. 
John Deusler, near Canandaigua, New York, where 
he learned the trade of making grain cradles and 
other farming utensils. In his twenty-second year he 
came to Birmingham, Michigan, built a saw mill, and, 
in connection with Mr. John Benjamin, commenced 
the manufacture of agricultural implements, and 
there produced the first iron plows made in this State. 

While in Birmingham he married Jane Bell, 
and shortly after, in 1836, moved to Detroit. His 
first enterprise here was the bu'lding of the " check- 




^///'■ 




W^A^ 



<_^^ / '' ' * c< <^^^ / //-/ r 



/ 



MERCHANTS. 



1137 



ered store " on Wood bridge street, between Wood- 
ward avenue and Griswold street, where he carried 
on a grocery and hardware business, and kept the 
adjoining hotel. To this house, in February, 1838, 
many of the wounded in the Patriot War were 
brought for surgical treatment, receiving from him, 
and other well known citizens, substantial aid and 
sympathy. 

The records of the Pioneer Society show, that it 
was mainly through his " energetic efforts in raising 
money and employing teachers," that District School 
No. I was opened and kept in operation. His 
account book of 1838 contains an interesting state- 
ment of the running expenses of this small beginning 
of our present fine public schools. Other entries in 
the old book show that this gratuitous work was done 
at a time when he was sustaining heavy losses in 
the so-called wild-cat money of the time. Later on he 
moved to Woodward avenue, where he was burned 
out in the memorable fire of 1842. An estimate of 
this loss closing with the pathetic words, " I have 
lost all that I ever made, and now begin again," re- 
minds one of Emerson's definition of manly cour- 
age :— " It is directness, the instant performance of 
that which he ought." 

In 1844 he moved to the then farthest up-town 
store, on the corner of Woodward avenue and Cam- 
pus Martins, conveniently near the Pontiac and 
Michigan Central depot's, fronting on the Campus. 
Here he shipped green and dried fruits, cheese, and 
other produce of Eastern States, to dealers in the in- 
terior of Michigan, and later on, was the first to under- 
take the shipping of fresh meat to Boston. His busi- 
ness increasing, he moved to the warehouse at the 
foot of Bates street, and afterwards to the foot of 
Wayne street, also occupying the north half of the 
Michigan Central freight depot, on Third street, 
where he stored and shelled over half a million 
bushels of corn, the first important shipment of 
grain ever received from the interior of Indiana. 
The biography of any old merchant is also a 
history of the business methods of his time, and 
the books kept by Mr. Coyl show that the grain, 
produce and forwarding business was then carried 
on in an entirely different manner from transac- 
tions ingrain at the present day. Farmers brought 
their produce directly to the warehouse, where, 
^n one busy day, six thousand bushels of grain 
were bought and paid for, the teams waiting to be 
unloaded extending, in a double line, from the dock 
to the Franklin House, at the corner of Bates and 
Larned streets. The capacity of the largest vessels 
then running to Buffalo and Oswego was about 10,000 
bushels, and it took forty-eight hours to load this 
amount, by means of box-shaped hand-carts. New 
inventions have lightened labor and increased trade, 
^ut a wise writer has said *' the machine unmakes 



the man." The qualities then brought into exer- 
cise in overcoming difficulties, attending to number- 
less details, and in handling many men, developed 
strong characters ; men of unquestioned integrity, 
who took especial pride in the fact that they "always 
paid one hundred cents on the dollar." 

Mr. Coyl was of a retiring disposition, and, although 
an earnest whig in early life, had no desire to become 
prominent in local politics or societies. The only 
office he ever held was that of member of the Board 
of Estimates. In 1856 he retired from active busi- 
ness in the city, and became interested in Iowa lands. 
In i860 he built the block corner of Woodward Ave- 
nue and Campus Martins, subsequently improving 
other property, and, with business caution, entering 
into all plans for the welfare of the city. 

When the war opened, his two sons were among 
the first to respond to the call for volunteers. Wil- 
liam H. Coyl, a student of scarcely twenty when 
commissioned Major, left a brilliant record as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the 9th Iowa Infantry, and Judge 
Advocate of Kentucky. He died in 1866 of disease 
of the lungs, the effect of a wound received at 
the battle of Pea Ridge. During the war, Mr. 
Coyl spent much time in seeking out and assisting 
sick and friendless soldiers, and, in later life, a 
fondness for young men became characteristic. His 
pleasant office made attractive with means for social 
games and current literature became a resort for 
young men of all professions. Such companionship, 
like mercy, "is twice blessed." He found diversion 
and kept pace with the times in reading and dis- 
cussing with " the boys " the social, scientific, and 
religious questions of the day. In him they found 
a sympathetic friend, and often a wise helper, but 
he was so quiet in his benefactions that few oesides 
the recipients knew of them. 

He died August 13, 1883. Samuel B. Coyl, and 
a daughter, Jean L., are the only surviving children. 

THOMAS ROBERT DUDLEY was born in 
Hunton, Kent County, England, December 1 1, 1833, 
and is the son of Robert and Elizabeth (Boughton) 
Dudley. His paternal ancestors lived in Kent for 
centuries, while his mother represented one of the 
oldest Yorkshire families. His father, a prosperous 
farmer, died in early manhood, leaving his widow 
with three children, of whom Thomas was the 
youngest. The family after the father's death lived 
with the children's grandfather, Robert Dudley. 

Thomas R. Dudley attended the village school 
until he w^as ten years old, and then entered the 
Clapton School, of London, where he remained five 
years. Equipped with a fair education, he then be- 
gan his business career as clerk in a provision store. 
While thus engaged, a gentleman from Cincinnati, 
connected with the provision trade, visited his em- 



II38 



MERCHANTS. 



ployer, and, in his hearing, spoke so enthusiastically 
of the opportunities for advancement for young men 
of energy in the New World, that Mr. Dudley deter- 
mined to start for America as soon as possible. 

He induced his brother, George P., to agree to ac- 
company him, and in 1851, drawing from the bank 
the small sum of money left them by their father, 
they secured passage on a packet ship plying be- 
tween Liverpool and Philadelphia, and after a voyage 
of forty-five days, landed at the latter city, where 
Thomas soon secured employment in a banking 
house. In the meantime, his brother obtained a 
situation in a furniture factory, but, in 1852, came to 
Detroit, and here he was shortly after joined by 
Thomas, where the latter immediately began to 
learn the wood carving trade, in the furniture factory 
of Weber & Stevens. After serving his appren- 
ticeship, he entered the sale department, and for 
twenty-three years, through the several changes in 
the personnel of the firm, remained with the same 
house, serving in all departments of the business. 

In January, 1876, he went to Philadelphia, and, 
with George W. Fowle, began the manufacture of 
fans, on an extensive scale. The venture was not 
particularly successful, and was discontinued in 
September of the same year. Mr. Dudley then re- 
turned to Detroit, and opened a small wholesale and 
retail furniture store, in the Strong Block, on Jef- 
ferson Avenue. 

With a perfect knowledge of the demands of his 
trade, acquired by long experience, rapid success 
followed his undertaking, and his trade increased so 
rapidly, that in the following M^rch, it became neces- 
sary to secure larger quarters, and he removed to 
1 29 Jefferson Avenue. At the same time George 
W. Fowle became a partner, under the firm name of 
Dudley & Fowle. Their business continued to 
grow until it has reached really large proportions. 
The warerooms consist of seventeen floors, each 
80x100 feet in dimensions, and their sales amount 
to nearly a quarter of a million dollars annually, 
and extend over Michigan and several adjacent 
States, giving employment to a large number of 
men. Active and progressive, the members of this 
firm have made the name of their house well-known 
to the trade, and in the space of ten years, from a 
small beginning, with limited capital, they have 
attained a leading position in the furniture trade of 

• Detroit. This is due in great measure to the energy 
and business sagacity of Mr. Dudley, who has been 
untiring in his exertions, and his efforts have ex- 
hibited good judgment. 

He has invested largely in real estate, and by the 

^ erection of many fine residences has aided in beau- 
tifying the city. Socially he is a genial companion, 
and personally enjoys the friendship of a wide cir- 
cle of friends, while his business integrity com- 



mands the respect of the commercial community. 
He is a Democrat in politics, but, aside from loyally 
supporting the candidates and principles of his 
party, has taken no active part in politics. Although 
not a member of any religious denomination, he is 
an Episcopalian from early training and faith, and 
renders substantial support to religious and charit- 
able work. His business partner, Mr. Fowle, was 
born in Geneva, New York, but for many years has 
been a resident of Detroit, and in numerous ways 
has aided the prosperity of the firm. 

Mr. Dudley married Sarah Marie Lawhead, of 
Brighton, Michigan. They have had three children. 
Charles Edward, the only one living, is an assistant 
in his father's business. 

WILLIAM H. ELLIOTT was born near Am- 
herstburg, Ontario, October 13, 1844, and was 
employed on a farm and m a store until he was 
fourteen years old. His education was obtained 
in the schools of that locality. His parents, James 
and Elizabeth (Pastorius) Elliott, removed to Kings- 
ville, a small village in Essex County, where his 
father engaged in mercantile business and in milling. 

At the age of sixteen William H. entered a store 
at Amherstburg, where he remained until 1864, when 
he came to Detroit and engaged as clerk in a small 
dry goods store on Jefferson avenue. In 1866 he 
became a clerk for George Peck, in one of the stores 
on Woodward avenue which he himself now occu- 
pies. In 1 87 1 he was admitted as a partner with 
Mr. Peck, the firm being George Peck & Co. The 
partnership continued until 1880, when Mr. Elliott 
withdrew from the firm and established business 
for himself at 139 Woodward avenue. In 1884 he 
bought out a dry goods store adjoining him, known 
as No. 137, in which he had been engaged as 
clerk in 1866, and by this operation more than 
doubled the volume of his business. He continued 
to prosper, and m 1887 added the next store on the 
west, and his establishment now includes the three 
stores, 135, 137 and 139 Woodward avenue, and is 
one of the largest retail houses in Detroit. 

His success has been really remarkable, and it is 
noticeable that it has been achieved in the same 
locality, and literally in the same block, where his 
business life has been chiefly spent. This has given 
him a large acquaintance with the purchasing pub- 
lic, with whom he has always been popular, and 
whose confidence he early secured by honorable 
dealing, and has as surely kept. He has adhered 
strictly to a cash business and to the one-price rule, 
and has never been sensational in his advertisements 
or methods. Although diligent in business, and 
successful in building up a large trade, he has not 
been lacking in public spirit nor unmindful of duties 
and interests in other directions. Since 1884 he has 





^^./v// 






MERCHANTS. 



1 139 



been a director in the Dime Savings Bank ; since 
1886 a director in the Imperial Life Insurance Com- 
pany, also treasurer and director of the Thomson- 
Houston Electric Light Company, and from its 
organization a director in the Preston National 
Bank. He is the President of the Michigan Club, 
and one of the trustees of Harper Hospital, also a 
member of the Detroit and Grosse Pointe Clubs. 
Much of his leisure time is spent in looking after his 
farm and improved stock in Oakland County. 

He is a Republican in politics, and an earnest 
supporter of every movement that gives promise of 
good to the city or nation. As a business man, he 
ranks among the ablest in the city. Coming here 
without means, he has carved out his own fortune 
by energy, enterprise, good management and cour- 
teous demeanor tov^ards all, and there are few if 
any but rejoice in the success which has crowned 
his efforts. He is esteemed as a manly man, a 
trustworthy citizen, and a devoted friend. Liberal 
towards all worthy charitable objects, he has shown 
himself especially helpful to deserving young men, 
who by good conduct have commended them- 
selves to his confidence. He has been twice married, 
first in 1870, to Lena Caverly, who died in March, 
1 87 1 . On April 21,1 874, he was married to Fidelia, 
daughter of the late Rev. Dr. William Hogarth, 
formerly pastor of the Jefferson Avenue Presby- 
terian Church, of which congregation both himself 
and his wife are members. 

JAMES LAFAYETTE EDSON was born at 
Batavia, Genesee County, New York, July 31, 1834. 
His father's name was Lewis M. Edson. His 
mother's maiden name was Sarah A. Flint. They 
had five children, three boys and two girls, James L. 
being the eldest. The family were descendants of 
early puritans, the mother being from Massachusetts. 

The elder Mr. Edson contracted the yellow fever 
while on a visit to the South, and never fully recov- 
ered from its effects, and in consequence of this 
fact he and his family made frequent changes of 
residence while searching for a favorable climate. 
They finally located at Akron, in New York, about 
twenty-five miles east of Buffalo, and there, in 1859, 
the father died. The two brothers of J. L. Edson, 
John M. and Dallas M., enlisted in the War of the 
Rebellion, the former dying at Fortress Monroe, and 
the latter a few days after reaching home. The 
"bother and one sister, Mrs. Charles M. Rich live at 
Akron, New York. 

The year following his father's death, James L. 
Edson, who was then sixteen years old, became a 
clerk in the store of Charles M. Rich, the leading 
n^erchant in the village. He was in the employ of 
^r. Rich four years and then went to Buffalo, where 
'^e remained about a year. While in Buffalo he 



became impressed with the larger business oppor- 
tunities afforded in the West, and determined to 
make a venture elsewhere. With this idea he left 
Buffalo, without deciding definitely as to where he 
would settle; and on December 7, 1855, arrived in 
Detroit. Reaching this city an entire stranger, and 
with but little means, he sought employment and 
secured a situation with James Stephens, in the then 
widely advertised and well-known ** Checkered 
Store," located on the site now occupied by the 
stores of J. L. Hudson. He remained in this 
establishment about two years, and in 1857 secured 
a place in the large wholesale dry goods house of 
Orr, Town & Smith, who had succeeded Zachariah 
Chandler & Co., at 23 Woodward avenue, Mr. 
Chandler, who had been elected to the United 
States Senate, retaming an interest as special part- 
ner. In the spring of 1866 Mr. Edson was admit- 
ted as a partner in the business, the name of the 
firm being changed to Allan Shelden & Co., the 
partnership continuing for six years. In Febru- 
ary, 1872, in connection with George F. Moore, 
Ransom Gillis, Charles Buncher and Stephen Bald- 
win, Mr. Edson organized the firm of Edson, 
Moore & Co. They began business at Nos. 188 
and 190 Jefferson avenue, on the west side of Bates 
street, and in 1882 removed to the building Nos. 194 
to 204 Jefferson avenue, which was erected espe- 
cially for their occupancy. 

In this place the success of the firm has been 
quite exceptional, and no house of the kind in 
Detroit does a larger business, and few dry goods 
houses in the West sell as many goods yearly as 
are marketed by their establishment. The extent 
of the business affords ample scope for business 
management of the highest order, and the success 
achieved affords abundant evidence of the possession 
of these qualities by the persons chiefly interested. 

In social life, Mr. Edson is known as a warm 
friend and generous companion. He is liberal in 
his benefactions, appreciative of good endeavors, 
discriminating in judgment, and is highly esteemed 
as a progressive, successful and public-spirited citi- 
zen. Politically he is a Republican, and has served 
as President of the Michigan Club. In addition to 
his regular business interests, he is a large share- 
holder in the Brush Electric Light Company, and a 
director in the People's Savings Bank. 

He was married in August, 1857, to Julia A. 
Collins. They have two living children, Mary A. 
and Lillian E. A third daughter, now deceased, 
was the wife of E. T. Adams. 

JACOB S. FARRAND was born in Mentz, 
Cayuga County, New York, May 7, 181 5. His 
parents came to Detroit in May, 1825, but after a 
few months removed to Ann Arbor. While living 



1 140 



MERCHANTS. 



at Ann Arbor, Mr. Farrand, then a boy of thirteen, 
carried the mail on horseback between Detroit and 
his home. Two years later in 1830 he came to De- 
troit, where he secured employment in the drug 
store of Rice & Bingham. After six years' service, 
having attained his twenty-first year, he formed a 
partnership with Edward Bingham and embarked 
in the drug business and continued therein for five 
years. He was then appointed deputy collector of 
the port and district of Detroit, then extending below 
the city and around the shores of Lakes Huron and 
Michigan and including the city of Chicago. Dur- 
ing the year of 1841 he also served as military sec- 
retary of the Governor. After four years' service 
as deputy collector he again entered the drug 
business and has since continued actively engaged 
therein. 

As senior member of the wholesale drug firm of 
Farrand, Williams & Co. he has seen ihe business 
grow from a few thousands yearly to an amount 
exceeding $1,000,000 annually. The high standing 
of the house in commercial circles has been largely 
due to the untiring energy, careful management and 
unsullied business probity of Mr. Farrand. His 
active energies have also been directed to other busi- 
ness channels where equal success has followed his 
endeavors. For many years he has been treasurer 
of the Detroit Gas Light Company ; a director of the 
Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company ; at 
present vice-president, and from its organization a 
director of the Wayne County Savings Bank ; from 
the beginning connected with the Michigan Mutual 
Life Insurance Company and for many years its 
president. For years he has been a director of the 
First National Bank and was its president from 1868 
to 1883, holding the position at a time w^hen able 
financial management and the full confidence of the 
people were especially needed. His wise counsel, 
good judgment and far-seeing ability as well as 
his personal worth inspire the fullest trust in all the 
institutions under his control. 

In a monograph on Banking in Michigan, pre- 
pared by Theodore H. Hinchman, he pays Mr. 
Farrand the following well deserved tribute , " Jacob 
S. Farrand was president of the First National Bank 
from the death of S. P. Brady in 1868 until the ex- 
piration of its first term in 1 883. He is of medium 
height, slender with strong regular features and 
pleasing address. His well known reliability and 
integrity commended the bank to public favor and 
aided in securing to it a large business. Careful, 
conscientious, faithful attention to duties, combined 
with good sense, entitled him to a high position as 
a bank officer. His kindly deportment and benev- 
olent impulses have won many friends. He is one 
of those rare good tempered persons who have no 
quarrels and consequently have no enemies. At the 



same time he is not over credulous or liable to 
imposition." 

His taste and disposition do not run toward pub- 
lic station nor official life, but on several occasions 
he has waived his personal preferences and accepted 
public duties. From i860 to 1864 he was a mem- 
ber of the Common Council. During this period he 
served for one year as president of the Board and 
for a short time was acting mayor. When the Met- 
ropolitan Police law was enacted he was appointed 
Police Commissioner for the long term and served 
eight years all the time as president of the Board, 
after which he was solicited to continue in office but 
declined a re-appointment. For twenty years he has 
been a member of and has served as president of 
the Board of Water Commissioners. He has ever 
evinced a warm interest in educational projects, and 
as a member of the Board of Education was for sev- 
eral years a helpful factor in securing liberal pro- 
visions for the maintenance of public schools, and is 
president of the Detroit Home and Day School. 

From boyhood Mr. Farrand has been a member 
of the first Presbyterian Church of Detroit, and 
since 1856 an elder. His efforts in religious and 
charitable work have been founded on deep and 
conscientious convictions of duty. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee to the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church, which met at Dayton, 
Ohio, in 1863, ^t New York in 1869, ^^^ at Detroit 
in 1873. He took a prominent part in the action 
which brought about the union of the new and old 
schools of Presbyterians of the United States, hav- 
ing been a member of the joint committee on re- 
union appointed by the Assemblies in 1866 and also 
of the committee of conference on the same subject 
appointed by the Assemblies of 1869. He was on 
the committee for the reorganization of the Board 
of Home Missions and for many years was receiving 
agent in Detroit for the American Board of Commis- 
sioners of Foreign Missions. In July, 1877, he was 
a delegate to the Pan Presbyterian Alliance held at 
Edinburgh, Scotland. In local church work in con- 
nection with the Presbyterian denomination, he has 
been as active as the most critical could desire, both 
by gifts of money and of personal service. For 
many years he has been a Sunday school teacher, in 
one of the most needy fields of mission labor and in 
temperance work was active at an early day, when 
to be so was to be singular, and his labors in this 
direction and in favor of Sunday observances are 
w^ell known matters of record. He has been from 
the first actively and earnestly interested in the 
furtherance of the interests of Harper Hospital 
serving as trustee and for several years as President 
of this most worthy institution. He is also a trustee 
of the State institution known as the Eastern Asy- 
lum for the Insane at Pontiac. 



^ V^-^^V^- 





wro, 




rox. 



MERCHANTS. 



II4I 



Mr. Farrand is simple in his taste and habits, 
modest and retiring in disposition, conscientious and 
careful in his doings. His religious views are the 
result of the clearest and most deliberate convic- 
tions, but he is full of generous and charitable im- 
pulses and includes in his fellowship all who believe 
in and practice the Christian virtues. As a business 
man he is conservative and cautious, yet when he 
has once embarked in an enterprise he has the 
courage to see it through to the end. He is one of 
those who know how to be independent without 
being obstinate. Although conservative, he is not 
harnessed to dogmas or rules ; is seldom aggressive, 
but is never crowded from the platform of his own 
judgment. He never arouses antagonism by arro- 
gant or dogmatic pursuance of a project, but a 
course of action decided upon, although pursued 
with persistency would be so manifestly fair as to be 
accepted by all the right thinking as wise and just. 
In matters of great interest, and in times of great 
excitement, his equanimity is undisturbed and his 
judgment unclouded. His deep interest in the 
material prosperity of Detroit has been proved in 
many ways. Personally he is genial and pleasant, 
enjoying the society of his friends, and living 
loyally up to every duty of his public, business, and 
private life. More could be said of him in com- 
mendation ; less could not and do justice to one 
who for so long a period has rendered constant, 
devoted, and efficient service to many agencies that 
have aided in the enlightenment and uplifting of his 
fellow-citizens. 

He was married August 12, 1841, to Olive M. 
Coe, of Hudson, Ohio, daughter of Rev. Harvey 
Coe, a pioneer of the Western Reserve, well known 
to many of the older citizens of this city. Their 
children are: Mary C, wife of Rev. James Lewis, 
of Joliet, Illinois; W. R. Farrand, J. S. Farrand, Jr., 
and Ollie C, wife of R. P. Williams. 

JOHN FARRAR, of Detroit, traced the family 
ancestry to John Farrar, of Lancashire, England, 
who, with his younger brother Jacob, settled at and 
Were among the first proprietors of Lancaster, 
Massachusetts, which town was incorporated on 
May 18, 1653. On the twenty-fourth of Septem- 
ber, 1653, they were leaders and signers of what 
Was called " a covenant for the better preserving of 
l^he purity of religion and themselves from the 
infection of error, and for- the exclusion of excom- 
niunicants or otherwise profane and scandalous per- 
sons, or anyone notoriously erring against the doc- 
tnne and discipline of the churches and the State 
and the government of the commonwealth." Dm- 
^ng King Phillip's War, on February 10, 1675, the 
town was nearly destroyed by the Indians and sev- 
eral of the family were killed by them. The Far- 



rars of Lancashire, England, are descended from 
the Farrars or Farrers of Eawood Hall, Halifax, 
Lords of the Manor Wortley, in Yorkshire, of which 
family the head in 1863 was James Farrar, of Ingle- 
borough County, York, Deputy Lieutenant for 
West Riders and County Durham, and formerly 
Member of Parliament of South Durham. From 
this Yotkshire family came Robert Farrar or Far- 
rers, Bishop of St. David and Canon of St. Mary's, 
who was martyred in the reign of Queen Mary. 
They were descended from Henry de Ferrers, 
son of Walchelin de Ferriers, who was a Nor- 
man Knight, and a conspicuous leader in the army 
of William the Conqueror in 1066; his name is on 
the roll of Battle Abbey and in the Doomsday 
book. The Lordship of Etingdon was given him in 
Normandy after the conquest. He was created 
Lord of Tutbury, County of Stafford, and his son 
Robert, Earl of Derby, by King William. The 
family originally took its name from Ferriers, a 
town in the Gastenois, France, celebrated for its 
iron mines. Arms, crests and mottoes are numer- 
ous in the early history of the family. The de- 
scendants of John and Jacob Farrar have been in all 
the w^ars incident to the United States ; have served 
as judges and filled various professorships at Dart- 
mouth, Andover and Cambridge. 

John Farrar, of Lancaster, Massachusetts, died 
November 3, 1669. His son John was born in 
England between 1640 and 1650 and had a son 
John who was born about 1670, who left a son also 
named John, born about 1700. He married Anna 
Chandler. In 1758 he joined the British Army 
under General Braddock and is supposed to have 
been killed at the taking of Quebec in 1759. His 
son John, born about 1732, married Anna Whit- 
ney ; he was in the War of 1776. His son. Captain 
Asa Farrar of Rush, now Avon, New York, form- 
erly of Lancaster, Worcester County. Massachu- 
setts, was born in Northfield, Massachusetts, June 
16, 1760, died at Avon, January 18, 1829. He 
married Dorinda Pearsons, a relative of Rev. 
Abram Pearsons, first President of Yale College. 
In May, 1777, at the age of seventeen, he joined the 
Continental Army and was three years in Captain 
Hodskin's company, under Colonel Timothy Bige- 
low, and three years in Colonel Crane's regiment of 
Massachusetts Artillery, and for his services re- 
ceived a pension. 

His son, John Farrar, of Detroit, was born June 
27th, 1793, ki Rutland, Massachusetts, but spent 
his childhood with his parents on their farm at 
Rush, New York. His education, which included 
private instruction in surveying and architecture, 
was completed at Canandaigua, New York. On 
July I, 1 81 2, when nineteen years old, he entered 
the American Army and served in Captain James 



1 142 



MERCHANTS. 



McNair's company of Colonel Philetus Swift's regi- 
ment of volunteers. He was stationed at Black 
Rock, on the Niagara frontier, most of the time 
during the summer and autumn of that year. On 
the sixteenth of October, the sailors, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Elliott, boarded and cut loose 
the brig " Adams" and the schooner " Caledonia," 
then lying at anchor at Fort Erie, to send them 
over Niagara Falls. The " Adams" grounded on 
Squaw Island and was burned and the " Caledonia" 
landed off Long Battery. In this affair John Far- 
rar took a prominent part. While serving under 
General Scott he participated in and was wounded 
at the battle of Lundy's Lane and at the close of 
the campaign was among the troops left to guard 
the Niagara frontier and remained there through 
the winter of 18 13. For these services he received 
a pension and a grant of land. 

On June 15, 181 5, at Canandaigua, New York, 
he became a member of the Masonic body. In the 
two following years, business called him to Canada, 
where he gained many friends through his connec- 
tion with that society. He received the degree of 
Master Mason on November 6, 1820, at Ontario 
Lodge, No. 23. He subsequently became a mem- 
ber of Zion Lodge, No. i, at Detroit; filled all the 
offices and was one of the founders of Detroit 
Lodge, No. 2. The petition for the charter of this 
last Lodge was signed by John Farrar, Levi Cook, 
John Mullett, Marshall Chapin, Jeremiah Moors, 
Charles Jackson, and three others. During the 
anti-Masonic excitement their lodge meetings were 
discontinued, but after a lull of fourteen years they 
aided in re-establishing Masonry and administered 
the Royal Arch degree from memory, each one 
recalling a part of the ceremony. John Farrar was 
High Priest of Monroe Chapter in 1825-26, a 
Knight Templar and a member of Monroe Coun- 
cil, R. A. S. M., and various other bodies of the 
order and Senior Grand Warden of the Grand 
Lodge of Michigan. At the time of his death he 
was one of the oldest members in the United States, 
and a year before was received with honors-at the 
Grand Chapter. 

He arrived at Detroit, May 22, 181 7, and be- 
came a useful citizen and merchant. During ter- 
ritorial times he was an intimate friend of Gen- 
eral Cass and was chosen by him to represent the 
territory in the erection of the Court House or Capi- 
tol, which duties he performed from October i, 1826, 
to July I, 1827. Prior to this he had given most of 
his time to building and surveying and was fre- 
quently called upon to pass judgment on structures 
for the city, territory or State. He was alderman 
at large in 1828, '31 and '36, assessor and collector 
of the Second Ward in 1843-44; was collector in 
1832, '38 and '48. He was one of the first projec- 



tors of the Detroit Mechanics' Society and was 
their bondsman for the construction of their first 
building on Griswold Street. He was President 
and Secretary of that society in 1836, and 1841 to 
1853, and from 1854 to i860, and librarian for the 
thirty years preceding his death. He favored edu- 
cation ; was one of the committee who selected the 
University grounds at Ann Arbor, and in 1834 was 
one of the committee that established the first dis- 
trict school in Detroit ; it was conducted by Charles 
Wells in the old academy on Bates Street. He 
was commissioned to the second lieutenancy in the 
militia by acting Governor Stephen T. Mason, on 
May 23, 1832, and was first lieutenant in Captain 
Charles Jackson's Dragoons in the Black Hawk 
War of 1832, under General John R. Williams, and 
one of the escort that accompanied Colonel Edward 
Brook, Major Charles W. Whipple and Major M. 
Wilson, to Chicago, to assist in the protection of 
that town from the Indians. The command es- 
caped conflict but were voted thanks by the cor- 
poration of Chicago for the prompt response to 
their call for help. They remained some weeks 
awaiting developments of the war, and during the 
time made a reconnaissance of Napier settlement, 
a point then threatened by the Indians. After the 
capture of Black Hawk they returned. For his ser- 
vices in this war, Mr. Farrar received a grant of 
land. 

After his return he purchased a building on the 
corner of Bates and Atwater Streets, the last named 
street then being the chief business thoroughfare, 
and in 1836 opened a general store with dry goods, 
hardware and groceries, doing what was then con- 
sidered a thriving business. At the great fire of 
April 27, 1837, the store and all its contents were 
burned. 

Mr. Farrar was brought up a rigid Puritan but 
became a more liberal thinker and in 1831, wathtwo 
others, purchased the First Presbyterian Church 
and removed it to the corner of Bates Street and 
Michigan Grand Avenue, with the expectation of 
its being used as a Universalist Church, but the 
project failed and the building was sold to and 
occupied by the Trinity Catholic Church. He was 
thoughtful of the needs of others, a liberal giver to 
charities and a great entertainer, and many families 
emigrating to Western homes found an asylum with 
him. His homestead was at the corner of Bates 
and Farrar Streets, which latter street perpetuates 
his name. 

He had a very retentive memory, possessed a 
fund of information on matters connected with the 
military and political history of the United States, 
and took great delight in relating incidents con- 
nected with his personal and ancestral history, to 
relatives and intimate friends. He was naturally of 




(\.'' ^^ ^'^ / •/,. 



MERCHANTS. 



IH3 



a retiring disposition and although importuned to 
become a candidate for prominent positions, he 
steadfastly refused, yet he filled several municipal 
offices with honor and trust and with a zeal that 
was eminently characteristic. He was a Whig in 
politics and when that party ceased, became a 
Republican. 

He married his first wife, Mrs. Hannah Mack, on 
March 27, 1822. She died at Avon, New York, 
November 6, 1824. They had one daughter, De- 
lecta Ann, who married Rev. Jackson Stebbins, of 
Iowa On May 29, 182$, he married Anna Mul- 
lett, of Darien Centre, New York. She was born 
at Halifax, Vermont, September 4, 1792, and died 
at Detroit, July 18, 1872. She was a sister of the late 
James Mullett of Fredonia, and Buffalo, New York, 
and of John Mullett, one of the pioneers of Detroit, 
from whom the Mullett farm and street take their 
names. Their parents, Robert and Elizabeth Gib- 
bons Mullett were from Milton Abbas, England, 
and descendants of William Malet de Graville, 
whose name appears on the roll of Battle Abbey. 

John Farrar died at Detroit, January 14, 1874, 
aged 80 years. He was buried in Elmw^ood Ceme- 
tery with Masonic honors. The children of John 
and Anna Farrar were Francis Mullett Farrar and 
Chileon Cushman Mullett Farrar, of Buffalo, New 
York ; Huldah Mullett Farrar, wife of Jerome B. 
Starring, of Detroit ; Harriet Mullett Farrar, of De- 
troit, and John Perry Farrar, of Chicago, 111. 

BENJAMIN F. FARRINGTON, for several 
years one of the leading wholesale grocers of 
Detroit, was born near Albany, New York, June 
30, 1834, and w^as the son of Robert and Clarissa 
Farrington. When he was five years old he accom- 
panied his parents to St. Clair, Michigan, where, 
after completing a brief course of instruction in the 
public schools, he became a clerk in a dry goods 
store. He remained at St. Clair until 1855, when 
be secured employment as clerk in the general 
merchandise store of J. L. Wood & Co., at Lexing- 
ton, Michigan, and his services were so highly 
appreciated that in 1862 he was offered and accepted 
an interest in the business. 

Three years later, as he desired to enter a wider 
field, he severed his connection with the above firm, 
and came to Detroit. For three years, from 1865 
to 1 868, he served as traveling salesman for Under- 
wood, Cochrane & Co., boot and shoe dealers. In 
1868, with A. D. Pierce and Hugh McMillan as 
partners, under the firm name of Pierce, Farrington 
& McMillan, he embarked in the dry goods business, 
fhey occupied for a short time a store on the east 
side of Woodward avenue, just below Jefferson 
avenue, but subsequently removed to ^'j and 79 
Jefferson avenue. Here, in 1870, their store was 



destroyed by fire, after which the affairs of the firm 
were amicably settled, but business was not resumed. 
During the same year Mr. Farrington, with J. T. 
Campbell as partner, established a coffee and spice 
store on Woodward avenue, just south of the Finney 
House, under the firm name of Farrington, Camp- 
bell & Co. They soon removed to a store under the 
Michigan Exchange, and from there, in 1878, to 
Nos. 73 and 75 Jefferson avenue. In 1880 Mr. 
Campbell retired, and the firm name was changed 
to B. F. Farrington & Co., and in 1883 the business 
was removed to the large and commodious business 
stores at Nos. 54 and 56 Jefferson avenue, which had 
been erected by Mr. Farrington. 

He was one of the organizers of the Merchants' 
and Manufacturers' Exchange, a man of great busi- 
ness ability, and of indefatigable energy. In a few 
years he succeeded in building up a large and 
profitable business, and it is doubtful if any com- 
mercial house in this section of the country made 
more rapid and substantial progress in the same 
period of time. The personal labor he expended in 
accomplishing this was done at the expense of 
health. His overtaxed physical force produced an 
affection of the brain, which resulted in his sudden 
death on November 2, 1886. He was an exemplary 
citizen, an honorable, straightforward business 
man, and of irreproachable moral character. His 
disposition was kind and genial, and his sunny 
temperament made him socially an agreeable com- 
panion, and he possessed many warm friends. 

Mr. Farrington was married September 23, 1862, 
to Emma Fletcher, of Mount Clemens, Michigan, 
who still survives him. Their one child, a son, died 
in infancy. 

DEXTER MASON FERRY was born at 
Lowville, Lewis County, New York, in 1833, and is 
a son of Joseph N. and Lucy (Mason) Ferry. The 
name marks the family as originally French, yet its 
first appearance in America was in 1678, when 
Charles Ferry came from England and settled in 
Springfield, Massachusetts. Dexter Mason, mater- 
nal grandfather of D. M. Ferry, represented for 
several terms the ultra-conservative district of Berk- 
shire, in the Massachusetts Legislature, and w^as a 
cousin of the late Governor George N. Briggs, of 
that State. The paternal grandparent of D. M. 
removed from Massachusetts to Low^ville,New York, 
where his father, Joseph N. Ferry, was born, reared 
and lived until his death in 1836. Shortly after his 
death the family removed to Penfield, eight miles 
from Rochester, in the county of Monroe, New 
York. 

D. M. Ferry passed his boyhood at Penfield, 
and at the age of sixteen began life on his own 
account by working for a neighboring farmer at the 



1 144 



MERCHANTS. 



moderate wages of ten dollars a month, spending 
two summers in this way, attending the district 
school during the winters. In 1851 he entered the 
employ of Ezra M. Parsons, who resided near Roch- 
ester, his object being to secure the benefits of 
the more advanced schools of that city. The fol- 
lowing year, through the influence of his employer, 
he obtained a position in the wholesale and retail 
book and stationery house of S. D. Elwood & Co., 
of Detroit, where he was first errand boy, then 
salesman, and at last bookkeeper. 

In 1856 he was one of the organizers and junior 
partners of the firm of M. T. Gardner & Co.. seeds- 
men. The partnership so formed continued until 
1865, when Mr. Gardner's interest was purchased, 
and Mr. Ferry became the head of the firm. 
Eventually the firm of D. M. Ferry & Co. was 
formed, composed of D. M. Ferry, H. K. White, 
C. C. Bowen, and A. E. F. White. Mr. Ferry, 
however, is the only person who has been continu- 
ously connected with the business from its begin- 
ning in 1856. In 1879 the organization absorbed 
the Detroit Seed Company, and the business was 
incorporated, retaining the name of D. M. Ferry & 
Co., with a capital of $750,000. Mr. Ferry retained 
the largest amount of the stock, and became the 
president and manager. 

To build up this, the largest and most successful 
seed establishment in the world, has required im- 
mense labor and skillful business methods and 
mercantile generalship of the highest order. The 
business was begun on a very small scale in a Monroe 
Avenue store ; its entire sales for the first year were 
about six thousand dollars, and its market was 
confined to a very limited territory. To-day the 
sales extend to almost every township in the United 
States and Canada, and even reach many foreign 
countries, and have amounted to over a million and 
a half dollars in one year. The importations from 
English, Dutch, French, German and other Euro- 
pean concerns, are the largest of any house in this 
line of trade in the country. The corporation sup- 
plies over eighty thousand merchants with a complete 
assortment of seeds for retailing, and also ships large 
amounts to dealers and jobbers in bulk, the ship- 
ments averaging more than three car loads of seeds 
every day in the year. The concern grows enormous 
quantities of seeds, but the great proportion of the 
stock is raised and cared for under contract by seed 
farmers in many parts of the United States and in 
various sections of Canada and Europe. 

On the first day of January, 1886, their four- 
story brick warehouse, containing about five acres 
of floor space, was destroyed by fire. The build- 
ing occupied the easterly half of the large block 
bounded by Brush, Croghan, Lafayette and Ran- 
dolph Streets, and every building save one was 



destroyed. The loss by this fire was the most 
severe ever suffered in Detroit, and of this the 
Ferry Company's share reached the sum of nearly 
a million of dollars. The recuperation from this 
stunning blow was amazing, and is to be credited 
to the presence of mind and unlimited resources of 
Mr. Ferry and his corps of able assistants. From 
every source of supply, seeds were gathered and 
hurried to Detroit. Several large buildings were 
leased, and the various departments of the company 
were organized, and within a few days, work was 
going on with almost its normal efficiency, an 
accomplishment which best illustrates the business 
energy which has ever characterized Mr. Ferry's 
career. Not one of their great army of customers 
knew by any delay, failure or defect of quality, that 
on the first day of the year the whole working ma- 
chinery of the company was swept out of existence. 
A new six-story warehouse, larger and more com- 
plete than the old, was erected in 1887, on the site 
of the one destroyed, and is elsewhere shown. 

The building up of this great industry, which is 
far-reaching in its influence, and contributes not 
only to the prosperity of Detroit and to an army of 
employes, is doubtless a more beneficent factor in 
commercial affairs throughout the country than 
almost any other establishment in the West. In 
its management from the beginning, Mr. Ferry has 
had a decisive influence, and that its great success 
is largely attributable to his persistent energy, saga- 
city, integrity and rare talent for organization and 
administration, is freely and readily acknowledged 
by those most conversant with its beginning 
growth and development Through this extensive 
commercial establishment his name and work 
have been made more widely known than those of 
almost any other merchant in the United States. 
His efforts have been justly rewarded in the accumu- 
lation of a large fortune, nearly all of which is 
invested in various financial and manufacturing 
enterprises in Detroit. His most prominent real 
estate investment is the magnificent five-story iron 
building on Woodward Avenue,' erected in 1879, 
and occupied by Newcomb, Endicott & Co. He is 
the largest stockholder in the National Pin Company, 
established in 1875, ^^^ has been its president from 
the first. He is a director and vice-president of 
the First National Bank ; was one of the organizers, 
and from the beginning has been a trustee of the 
Wayne County Savings Bank, and of the Safe 
Deposit Company. He aided in organizing the 
Standard Life and Accident Insurance Company of 
Detroit, of which he is president. He is also presi- 
dent of the Gale Sulky Harrow Manufacturing 
Company; vice-president of the Michigan Fire 
and Marine Insurance Company, and director of 
the Detroit Copper Rolling Mill Company, the Fort 



MERCHANTS. 



IH5 



Wayne & Elmwood Railroad Company, and of 
several other corporations. 

His own taste, as well as the engrossing demands 
of a great business, have prevented Mr. Ferry from 
entering the field of active politics. He is a strong 
and steadfast Republican, but has rarely been a 
candidate for an elective office, and has held public 
place only when it came without solicitation on his 
part. He was made a member of the Board of 
Estimates in 1877-8, and at the end of his term 
declined a renomination. In 1884 he was appointed 
a member of the Board of Park Commissioners by 
Mayor Stephen B. Grummond. During his term 
he strongly opposed the sale of beer and other 
intoxicants on Belle Isle Park, and with William A. 
Moore, another member of the Board, defeated such 
a prostitution of this public recreation ground, and 
his course met the approval of the best public 
opinion of the city. His term of office expired in 
1885, and he was again nominated by Mayor Grum- 
mond. His conscientious and praiseworthy action in 
regard to the intrusion of beer in Belle Isle Park, 
which had earned him the gratitude of the respect- 
able element of the community, had, however, 
excited the enmity of the small poHticians who sat 
in the Council, and his nomination by the Mayor was 
defeated. This action was denounced, not only by 
the public press regardless of party, but by a large 
' mass meeting held in April, 1886, which adopted a 
resolution thanking Messrs. Ferry and Moore for 
their stand in the interest of the public good. 

With commendable public spirit he gives his 
influence freely to every project, business, social or 
charitable, that promises to be of public benefit, and 
his private charities are large, discriminating, and 
entirely lacking in ostentation. In 1868 he became 
connected with the management of Harper Hospital, 
and in 1888 was elected Vice-President of Grace 
Hospital, and is also a trustee of Olivet College. 
He has taken much interest in the art movement in 
Detroit, and w^as one of the original contributor to 
the building fund, by which has been insured to the 
t'ity a permanent museum of art. 

He was reared in the Baptist faith, and when 
quite young united with that church. In later 
years he became connected with the Congregational 
denomination, and is now a trustee of the Second 
Church of Detroit. He is broad and liberal in 
religious views, and strongly opposed to extreme 
sectarianism. 

No person in Detroit is more important as a fac- 
tor in its commercial prosperity, and Mr. Ferry's 
success has been so justly earned, and so well does 
he use it, that none begrudge him his good fortune, 
and all rejoice that Detroit possesses such a citizen. 
He is natural and unaffected in manner, and one to 
whom false pride is unknown. Always affable and 



pleasant, he is kind and considerate to those in his 
employ, and easily wins their confidence and respect ; 
is equally popular with the public at large, and 
possesses a host of close friends. He is an indus- 
trious student, and even while deep in the cares of 
business, finds time to keep up with the current 
thoughts of the day. His life, public and private, 
viewed from all sides, furnishes us with one of the 
best types of mercantile life to be found in any 
country. 

He was married October i, 1867, to Addie E. 
Miller, of Unadilla. Otsego County, New York. 
They have four children living, three daughters and 



AARON CODDINGTON FISHER, the fourth 
son in the family of twelve children of Jeremiah and 
Hannah (Coddmgton) Fisher, was born in Somer- 
set County, New Jersey, September 22, 1820. His 
father w^as a descendant of Hendrick Fisher, of 
Bound Brook, New Jersey, who was born in 1703, 
the year that Hendrick Fisher, Sr., arrived at that 
place. 

The elder Hendrick Fisher died on October 17, 
1749. From an old number of the Messenger of 
Somerville, New Jersey, we gather the following 
particulars concerning the son: Hendrick Fisher 
was a man of earnest piety, and much respected. 
He was one of the founders of Queen's, now Rut- 
ger's College, and was a noted man in the province 
for many years. He possessed great intelligence 
and energy, and was always on the patriotic side in 
every controversy, and of an irreproachable charac- 
ter. He earnestly supported his pastor— the Rev. 
Theodore J. Frelinghuysen--in his efforts to intro- 
duce a strict evangelical life in his church, and per- 
haps no person had more influence than he had in 
securing the results that were reached. When the 
oppressive acts of the King and Parliament aroused 
the Colonies to resistance, he, in company with Jo- 
seph Borden and Robert Ogden, represented the 
province of New Jersey in the Congress known as 
the " Stamp Act Congress." He was a delegate to 
the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, which met 
at Trenton in May, 1775, of which important body 
he was elected President, and in his opening ad- 
dress set forth in a forcible manner the grievances 
of the American Colonies. He was Chairman of 
the Committee of Safety, exercising legislative au- 
thority during the recess of Congress, and held other 
offices of honor and trust. He was a member of 
the Assembly previous to the breaking out of the 
Revolution, and in the Provincial Congress at Tren- 
ton, in December, 1775, moved that the delegates 
to the General Congress be instructed to use their 
influence in favor of a Declaration of Independence, 
and when the immortal document was received, he 



1 146 



MERCHANTS. 



was the first to read it to his neighbors and con- 
stituents. When he had finished, so great was 
their joy, that they mounted him on their shoulders 
and paraded him through the street (there was but 
one — the great Raritan Road) in triumph. The 
old bell of " Kets " Hall, which then hung in the 
belfry of the Presbyterian Church, was rung, cannon 
were fired, and the patriots drank toasts at the bar 
in the tavern of Peter Hardending. He died on the 
tenth of May, 1779, leaving two sons, Jeremiah and 
Hendrick. The former was probably the great- 
grandfather of A. C. Fisher. The mother of the last 
named was born in New Jersey in 1792, and his par- 
ents were married in 181 1. 

About the year 1825 the family moved from New 
Jersey to Genesee County, New York, and lived 
there about twelve years. In 1837 they moved to 
Monroe County, Michigan, where they remained 
three years, and then moved to Mount Vernon, 
Ohio, remaining there seven years, and then in 1847 
coming to Detroit. Here, in 1853, the elder Mr. 
Fisher died, and on April 16, 1883, the wife and 
mother also passed away. 

In his youth Aaron C. Fisher attended school in 
the winter, and in the summer worked on the farm. 
As he grew to manhood he not only provided for 
himself, but assisted his parents also. Wages at 
this time were so low that, at the age of seventeen, 
he worked a whole month for a barrel of flour. At 
this period he was already learning the rudiments 
of his subsequent occupation as a builder, and was 
employed in a brickyard at sixteen dollars per 
month and his board. When he had reached his 
eighteenth year he began to feel anxious to settle 
down in some permanent occupation and in the 
Spring of 1839, seeing no other opening, he com- 
menced to learn the business of an iron molder 
and served an apprenticeship at the business, fol- 
lowing the same nearly seven years, but disliking 
this occupation he began to look around for one 
that suited him better. His elder brother being a 
bricklayer and builder in Mount Vernon, Ohio, 
where he was then living, he at intervals turned his 
attention to the art of bricklaying and became a 
thorough and practical workman. 

In 1847 he came with his father's family to De- 
troit, and during the first year after his arrival here 
he worked about six weeks at molding in O. M. 
Hydes' foundry near the old Water Works. He 
then turned his attention to building, and in the 
year 1848 entered into partnership with his brother 
Elam, who was also an expert bricklayer, and the 
firm soon became prominent builders and con- 
tractors. The partnership continued under the 
name of E. & A. C. Fisher for about seventeen 
years, and was dissolved in 1865. During the con- 
tinuance of the partnership the firm erected many 



prominent structures, and scores of buildings of 
their erection are still standing ; among them may 
be named the building on the northwest corner of 
Jefferson Avenue and Griswold Street, occupied by 
A. Ives & Son, bankers, also the block opposite on 
the northeast corner, erected for the late John S. 
Bagg ; they also built the " Rotunda,*' formerly 
standing on the site of the present Newberry & 
McMillan Building ; also the north half of the Mer- 
rill Block, formerly known as the Waterman Block, 
on the corner of Woodward Avenue and Larned 
Street. Later on they built the north half of the 
entire block on the east side of Woodward Avenue, 
between Congress and Larned Streets, also the 
block on the corner of Monroe Avenue and Farmer 
Street, running down to the Kirkwood House. 
They also erected the residence of the late Zachariah 
Chandler, the Fort Street Congregational Church, 
the First Presbyterian Church, on the corner of 
Farmer and State Streets, and the Fisher Block, 
facing the Campus Martins. 

After the dissolution of the partnership in 1865, 
A. C. Fisher carried on the business on his own 
account until the Spring of 1867, and then, with 
David Baker, he embarked in the carriage hard- 
ware trade, under the firm name of Fisher, Baker & 
Co. The firm continued until March i, 1882, when 
Mr. Fisher sold out his interest to Baker, Gray & 
Co., and since that date he has given his entire 
time to the care of his own large landed interests 
and to the administration of the large estate left in 
his care by his deceased brother Elam. Mr. Fisher 
is modest, quiet, and retiring in disposition, prompt 
in his business engagements, faithful in the dis- 
charge of whatever trusts are confided to him, and 
is in every way a worthy and estimable citizen. 

He has been a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church since he was eighteen years old, and for 
the last thirty-five years has been an official and 
leading member of the church in Detroit, and at 
present is President of the Board of Trustees of the 
Central Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a lib- 
eral giver, conscientious in his duties, and a wise 
counsellor. Until five years ago he voted with the 
Republican party. He then united with the Pro- 
hibition party, and upon this issue ran for State 
Treasurer in 1886, and gives, and lives, and labors 
in the hope of the final triumph of Prohibition. 

He was married March 21, 1844, to Eliza L. 
Willis. They have had three children, Adelaide, 
Mrs. Lottie F. Smalley and Mrs. Charles B. Gray. 
The last named is the only one now living. 

RICHARD HENRY FYFE traces his ancestry 
to Scotland. His grandfather, John Fyfe, the first 
of the family who adopted the present mode of 
spelling the name, was a son of John Fiffe, of the 



MERCHANTS. 



1147 



county of Fife, in Scotland. He emigrated to 
America about a year before the commencement of 
the Revolutionary War, and served in the colonial 
forces while the seat of war was near Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. On February i, 1786, he married Elizabeth 
Strong, and shortly after moved to Otter Creek, 
Salisbury, Vermont. His wife represented one of 
the most distinguished of the early New England 
families, and several of his descendants have been 
eminent in literature and science. John Strong, the 
progenitor of the American branch of this family, 
came from England, settled in Massachusetts in 
1730, and assisted in founding the town of Dor- 
chester. 

A history of the descendants, written by Benjamin 
W. Dwight, forms a large volume, embracing 
nearly 30,000 names. It says : " The Strong family 
has been one of the largest and best of the original 
families of New England. They have 'ever been 
among the foremost in the land to found and favor 
those great bulwarks of our civilization, the church 
and the school. Many have been the towns, the 
territories and the states into whose initial forms 
and processes of establishment they have poured 
the full current of their Hfe and strength. Few 
families have had more educated or professional 
men among them. The list includes scholars, 
physicians, lawyers, teachers, preachers, judges, sen- 
ators, and military officers." John Fyfe died on 
January i, 1813, and his wife, in November, 1835. 
They had seven children, four sons and three 
daughters. The youngest, Claudius Lycius Fyfe, 
was born January 3, 1798. On April 6, 1825, he 
married at Brandon, Vermont, Abigail Gilbert, 
whose parents were among the first settlers of 
Genesee County, New York. His early life was 
spent in agricultural pursuits, but his latter years in 
the leather and tanning business. He removed 
with his family to Knowlesville, New York, in 1830, 
three years later he moved to Chautauqua County, 
New York, and then back to Knowlesville. In 1837 
he emigrated to Michigan. Soon afterwards he re- 
turned to New York, but eventually settled at 
Hillsdale, Michigan, where his last years were 
passed. His wife died in 1848, and he in 1881. 
They had six children, all girls except the youngest, 
Richard Henry, who was born at Oak Orchard 
Creek, Orleans County, New York, January 5, 1839. 

After his parents returned to Michigan, Richard 
H. Fyfe attended school at Litchfield, but at the age 
of eleven, through unfortunate business specula- 
tions of his father, he was obliged to begin life's 
battle for himself, and became a clerk in a drug 
store at Kalamazoo, and subsequenily at Hillsdale. 
During his period of clerkship at the above places 
he spent much of his leisure time in study, and 
although his business has demanded close attention, 



he has always taken time for reading and study, 
and is more than usually well informed in current 
and general literature. 

In 1857 he came to Detroit from Hillsdale and 
entered the employ of T. K. Adams, boot and shoe 
dealer. He remained with Mr. Adams about six 
years, after which he served in a similar position 
with the firm of Rucker & Morgan, who were in 
the same line of trade. In 1865, with the savings 
which his industry and economy had accumulated, 
he purchased the business of C. C. Tyler & Co., 
who had succeeded T. K. Adams. The establish- 
ment was located on the site of store No. loi 
Woodward Avenue, still occupied by Mr. Fyfe. 
With limited capital, he was environed by difficulties, 
but through native pluck and careful business man- 
agement from year to year his business steadily in- 
creased, until he is at the head of his line of trade in 
Detroit. 

Commencing with a small retail and custom 
trade, the latter branch of his business has grown 
to such proportion that at the present time he 
probably manufactures more of the finest grade of 
custom boots and shoes than any other concern in 
the United States. On the site where he began 
business, a five-story building, 22x100 feet in dimen- 
sions, was erected in 1875. In 1881 he bought out 
the boot and shoe establishment of A. R. Morgan, 
successor to Rucker & Morgan, located at 106 
Woodward Avenue, and from that date until 1885 
conducted a branch establishment at that location. 
At the latter date he opened a branch store at 183 
and 185 Woodward Avenue, and at these two 
establishments about one hundred persons are 
employed. Since 1873 Mark B. Stevens has been a 
partner in the business, under the firm name of 
R. H. Fyfe & Co. Mr. Fyfe's success in business, 
although rapid, has been healthy and natural. He 
has been both progressive and practical, giving his 
whole time and attention to building up, enlarging 
the scope and improving the character of his work. 

He was married October 27, 1868, to Abby 
Lucretia Albee Rice, daughter of Abraham W. 
Rice. She was born in Marlboro, Massachusetts. 
A member of no religious denomination, Mr. Fyfe 
is in hearty sympathy with all church work. For 
the last twelve years he has been a Trustee of the 
Westminster' Church, and has been largely instru- 
mental in promoting the financial welfare of that 
organization. He served for a number of years as 
a Trustee of the Michigan Medical College, in the 
success of w^hich he took great interest, and did 
much towards strengthening that institution by 
aiding in introducing practical business methods into 
its management. He was instrumental in effecting 
its consolidation with the Detroit Medical College, 
which resulted in the establishment of the prosper- 



1 148 



MERCHANTS. 



ous and successful Michigan College of Medicine, 
of which he is also a Trustee. 

Politically Mr. Fyfe has generally acted with the 
Republican party, but aside from representing his 
party in State and other nominating conventions, he 
has had little to do with party management. Socially, 
he is a pleasant and affable gentleman, and a 
prominent member of the Detroit, Lake St. Clair 
Fishing, and the Grosse Pointe Clubs, but is best 
known as a successful, self-made business man, and 
one who extends willing and ready aid to all projects 
that pertain to the advancement of the city. 

RUFUS W. GILLETT was born at Torring- 
ford, Litchfield County, Connecticut, April 22, 1825. 
On the paternal side his ancestors were French 
Huguenots, while his mother represented one of 
the early Puritan families. John Gillett, the first of 
the name in America, came from England, and 
settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1634, and 
was the founder of a family which has given to New 
England and other parts of the country a large num- 
ber of enterprising business men, and a number of 
prominent and influential members of the clerical 
p.nd medical profession. Mr. Gillett's grandfather, 
John Gillett, was a minute man at the battle of 
Bennington, and served as Lieutenant of a company 
until the close of the War of the Revolution. 

John Gillett. the father of Rufus W. Gillett, was 
born in Torringford in 1776, and died there in 
1857. He was a farmer, but engaged in numerous 
other business enterprises, possessed rare good 
judgment, and was a prominent factor in the poli- 
tical history of his native town and county. He 
was a man of sterling integrity, his judgment was 
consulted in all local public affairs, and he held 
the most important town offices, and for twenty 
years represented the county in the State Legislature. 
For many years he was the home agent for a land 
company in Ohio. His wife's maiden name was 
Mary Woodward. She was a daughter of Dr. 
Samuel Woodward, for many years a leading phy- 
sician of Torringford, whose ancestors settled in 
Massachusetts in 1632. Four of his sons were 
physicians, and all of them became well known in 
New England as possessing a high degree of pro- 
fessional ability. The family was also related to 
Judge A. B. Woodward, at one time Chief Justice 
of the Territory of Michigan. 

The boyhood days of Rufus W. Gillett were 
passed upon a farm. He was educated at the com- 
mon school and public academy of his native town, 
and at the age of seventeen years, became a clerk in 
a country store at Litchfield, Connecticut, where he 
remained two years. The next five years were 
spent as a merchant and farmer in his native town, 
and for the three years following he served as 



agent of New York and Connecticut cutlery manu- 
facturing companies. In 1856 he was appointed 
Secretary and Treasurer of the Woolcotville Brass 
Company, retaining the position until January, 
1862, when he came to Detroit. Here he embarked 
in the grain commission business, as a partner of 
A. E. Bissell, under the firm name of Bissell & Gil- 
lett. This partnership was continued for six years, 
after which Mr. Gillett, with Theodore P. Hall as 
partner, founded the well known grain commission 
house of Gillett & Hall. The business interests of 
this firm have grown in volume from year to year, 
until at the present time the extent of their opera- 
tions excel those of any firm in the same line in the 
State. Besides their regular commission business, 
they buy large quantities of corn and oats in 
Missouri, Kansas, and other Western States, for 
eastern sale and for export. 

Mr. Gillett has been prominent in the manage- 
ment of the affairs of the Chamber of Commerce, 
and has served as President for several successive 
years. He has been President of the Preston Na- 
tional Bank since its organization. He is Vice- 
President of the Detroit Copper and Brass Rolling 
Mill Company. He is also Vice-President of the 
Gale Harrow Manufacturing Company, a Director 
in the Standard Insurance Company, and is con- 
nected with several other business interests in 
Detroit. He was one of the corporators and is 
President of the Woodmere Cemetery Association. 
Politically he has always been a Democrat, but 
although interested in the maintenance of good 
government, has preferred to discharge his political 
duties as a private citizen. R epeatedly offered party 
nominations in the municipal government, he has 
always refused to become a candidate. He has, 
however, served on the Board of Estimates, and, in 
1880, was appointed one of the Board of Fire Com- 
missioners, which position he still occupies. 

During his quarter of a century's residence in 
Detroit, he has been eminently successful in busi- 
ness, and has the full confidence of the business 
public. His evenness of temper and natural 
affability attracts friends, making him socially popu- 
lar and his company desirable. In business matters, 
that person is fortunate indeed who can command 
his esteem and co-operation. He comes from a 
long lived ancestry, from whom he inherited a robust 
constitution, and he continues so hearty and vigor- 
ous that he has seemingly many years of active life 
before him. 

Mr. Gillett was married May 26, 1847, to Chariotte 
M. Smith, a daughter of Nathaniel Smith, a mer- 
chant of Torringford, who was postmaster for over 
forty years. He held many other responsible posi- 
tions, and was a prominent citizen of that part of 
the State for many years. Mr. Gillett has had three 





fy^ 



MERCHANTS. 



1149 



children. The eldest, Mary Woodward, married 
Henry K.Lathrop, Jr., of Detroit ; the second, Charles 
Smith, died at Detroit, October 18, 1876, at the age of 
twenty-six years. The youngest daughter, Hattie 
Winchell, married William R. Ellis, of Detroit. 

HENRY GLOVER was born April 30, 181 2, in 
De Ruyter, Madison County, New York, a State to 
which Michigan is indebted for a large portion of 
its staunch and sturdy citizens. His mother died 
when he was but two years of age ; his father was 
a mechanic in moderate circumstances but gave his 
sons a good common-school education. His best 
gift, however, was a robust and sound constitution, 
and the invaluable principle of early self-reliance, 
with habits of industry and strict integrity, which 
were instilled by example, as well as by precept. 

At twelve years of age, Henry Glover was 
apprenticed to the tailors' trade, and by the time he 
was twenty-two, by close application and economy 
he had saved $700 — no small amount for a young 
man to have earned and saved in those days when 
wages were so light. Feeling the necessity of a 
better education than he possessed, which feeling 
he attributes to the early adoption of the Christian 
faith, and which has permanently influenced his life, 
Mr. Glover determined te add to -his prospects of 
usefulness and success by securing such intellectual 
discipline as was within his reach. He therefore 
entered the academy at Homer, New York, and spent 
several years in diligent study, paying his way with 
the money he had saved. After his academic course 
he went to Syracuse, and engaged in the dry-goods 
business, but did not meet with much success, 
owing to his lack of capital and his limited mercan- 
tile experience. Believing that he possessed the 
elements of success, he determined to seek new 
fields where the outlook was more encouraging, and 
consequently embarked at Buffalo for the West, 
on the steamer De Witt Clinton. 

After a trip of three days' stormy weather, Mr. 
Glover landed in Detroit, on October 15, 1836. 
The town then numbered but six thousand in- 
habitants. He put up at the American Hotel, kept 
by Petty & Hawley, located on the present site of 
the Biddle House, and at once commenced business 
as a merchant tailor, determined from the start to 
keep the best goods only and to do the best work. 
He often saw dark days, but little by little he added 
to his small savings and laid the foundation of a 
comfortable fortune. He had no inclination for 
political honors, the only office he ever held being 
that of School Inspector. In 1843 he became a 
member of the firm of Smith, Glover & Dwight, 
the firm doing a large business in handling general 
merchandise and lumber. After about two years 
Mr. Glover withdrew from the firm and resumed 



his former business. In religious belief he has ever 
been a staunch Baptist, having united with that 
denomination in Ithaca, New York, in 1831. He 
has been steadfastly loyal to the truth as held by 
that denomination, but gladly fraternizes with all 
Christian believers. He possesses strong convic- 
tions of truth, and conscientiously adheres to what 
he believes to be right, whether popular or not. 
During all the years of his residence in Detroit he 
has been looked to and relied on for contributions 
to denominational and other charities, both in the 
city and in the State. 

Having confidence in the future of the city, 
he invested in real estate, and was soon able to 
retire from mercantile life. He was among the 
first, if not the first, to see the possibilities of Jeffer- 
son Avenue as a wholesale and jobbing street, and 
in 1865, when the greater portion of the avenue was 
lined with mediocre stores and shanties, he bought 
of Daniel Scotten a lot corner of Jefferson Avenue 
and Wayne Streets, then covered with rookeries of 
the worst possible character. These were cleared 
away and a substantial brick block erected. It was 
first occupied by John James & Son, hardware 
dealers, who were probably the first jobbing firm in 
that neighborhood, if not on the avenue. Mr. 
Glover also built a four story building on the oppo- 
site side of the avenue, and a large brick dwelling 
on the corner of Fort and Sixth Streets, and a sub- 
stantial dwelling-house on Edmund Place, where 
he resides. 

During the fifty-one years that he has been iden- 
tified with Detroit, he has seen it grow from little 
more than a village to the most beautiful metropo- 
lis of its size in the country, and to-day may take a 
pardonable pride in reflecting that he has been, to 
some considerable extent, influential in its growth 
and prosperity, and it can be conscientiously said of 
him -that what he has done, he has tried to do 
well. 

He was married, in 1839, to Miss Laura Dwight, 
an estimable lady, who nobly discharged the duties 
of wife and mother, and who actively engaged in 
all works of charity. They began housekeeping 
at the corner of Lafayette Avenue and Griswold 
Street, where the McGraw building now stands, 
directly in front of which was the Michigan Central 
Depot. He has had seven children, two of whom 
died in infancy, and two others, Frank D. and Arthur 
Y. Glover, in early manhood, when full of promise for 
the future. Three children are still living. Two 
of them, James H. and George D. Glover, being 
engaged in drug manufacture. The daughter, 
Clara, is the wife of John M. Nicol, cashier of the 
American Banking and Savings Association. All 
of the children are residents of Detroit. He was 
married the second time, in 1885, to Miss Imogene 



II50 



MERCHANTS. 



S. Dimmock, of Maine, a cultured and Christian 
woman. 

JEREMIAH GODFREY, who was one of the 
oldest and most respected citizens of Detroit, was 
born in Thompson, Sullivan County, New York, 
February i6, 1814, and was the seventh son of a 
family of thirteen children, all of whom lived to 
mature age. His ancestors were English, and came 
to America prior to the Revolution. 

Mr. Godfrey came to Detroit in 1835, and en- 
gaged in the painting business, forming a partner- 
ship, in 1838, with John Atkinson, under the firm 
name of Atkinson & Godfrey. They were located 
at the corner of Earned Street and Jefferson Ave- 
nue until the year 1850. 

At an early day Mr. Godfrey connected himself 
with the volunteer Fire Department, and performed 
active service until the present system was organ- 
ized. In 1843, nearly ten years before his retire- 
ment from active business, he was selected as 
Assessor for the Sixth Ward. In 1853, the year 
after he retired from business, he served as Collec- 
tor for the Fifth Ward. The satisfactory way in 
which he performed the duties of these offices, his 
excellent judgment in the valuation of real estate, 
and his superior business ability, caused him, in 
1 86 1, to be selected as one of the members of the 
first Board of Review, under a new system of 
assessing property. He held this position until 
1863, when, on the invitation of the late Francis 
Eldred, then City Assessor, he entered that office, 
and remained during that gentleman's administra- 
tion, a period of three years, and continued in a simi- 
lar relation with Mr. A. A. Rabineau for the five years 
following. Upon the resignation of Mr. Rabineau, 
Mr. Godfrey was unanimously chosen by the coun- 
cil to fill the unexpired term, and was afterwards 
appointed by the Mayor as the head of the depart- 
ment, remaining three years longer, thus making 
in all some twenty years* continuous service in that 
office. In the administration of public affairs Mr. 
Godfrey applied the same rules of economy that he 
practiced in his private business. His broad and 
correct judgment, his unswerving integrity, and his 
excellent business habits, rendered his services in 
municipal affairs of great value, and the City of 
Detroit never possessed a public servant who 
labored more conscientiously than did Mr. Godfrey 
for nearly a quarter of a century. He seemed to have 
a genius in real estate matters, and his judgment in 
that line of business was regarded as infallible. 
While looking over his paper one morning in January, 
1 85 1, he noticed that the property on the southwest 
corner of Woodward and Grand River Avenues 
was advertised for sale. He immediately started 
out, and, within an hour, purchased the property. 



and soon after began the erection of the block which 
bears his name, 

Mr. Godfrey was a staunch Democrat and al- 
ways acted with that party, with the single excep- 
tion of the campaign of i860, but held in supreme 
contempt all arts of the politician which looked 
toward personal advancement. He always mani- 
fested a keen interest in everything that affected 
the public welfare ; his purse was always open to 
calls for charity, and he contributed to many public 
enterprises. He was married December 29, 1836, 
to Mrs. Sophronie Fletcher, of Detroit. He died 
March 9, 1882. His wife, one daughter, Mrs. Jesse 
H. Farwell, and one son, Marshall H. Godfrey, sur- 
vive him. 

BRUCE GOODFELLOW, the present head of 
the widely known house of Mabley & Company, has 
contributed largely, by his energy and enterprise, to 
the successful progress of mercantile interests in his 
adopted home. He was born October 6, 1850, in 
Smith's Falls, Ontario. His paternal grandfather 
( William), the pioneer of the family in America, 
was born in Scotland, in 1783, came to this coun- 
try in 1822, made a settlement at Smith's Falls, 
Canada, and died in 1855. His son, Archibald, was 
born in Hawick, Scotland, in 181 1, and lived in 
Canada from 1822 to his death in 1877, and was for 
many years a well known government contractor, in 
charge, mainly, of canals. He was married, in 1836, 
to Martha Kramer. She was a native American, 
but of German ancestry. Her father, Laurence 
Kramer, was born in Germany, in 1745, ^'^s an officer 
in the German army, and later in the British army. 
He saw General Wolfe fall at Quebec, and served 
under General Burgoyne during the American 
Revolution. He died in 1839. She has resided 
upon the old homestead at Smith's Falls fifty- three 
years. 

Bruce Goodfellow, the son of Archibald, even in 
his youth, had a stirring, restless, and ambitious 
spirit. He chafed under the restraints of school 
discipline, and at the age of fourteen left home 
rather than remain under the control of the peda- 
gogue who taught the Smith's Falls Grammar 
School. Having somehow conceived a desire for 
work connected with machinery, he induced the 
proprietor of a woolen mill to give him employment, 
and his experience of woolen fabrics dates from 
that time. His father, however, soon appeared upon 
the scene, intending to compel his return home. 
Bruce begged to be allowed to stay and earn his 
own living, and the mill proprietor joined in the 
appeal, promising that if the boy was left with him 
he would make a man of him. His father finally 
coilsented, and Bruce entered fully upon an inde- 
pendent career, and from that day depended for a 




/ 



•■ / ) 



I ' / / I ( /r K ■/ /'/V fV ^^ 



MERCHANTS. 



II5I 



livelihood solely upon himself, and refers with par- 
donable pride to the fact that, since he reached his 
fourteenth year, he has not owned a dollar that he 
did not earn himself. For eighteen months he 
divided his time at the mill between carding and 
bookkeeping, and then, tiring of the business, he 
determined to seek his fortune elsewhere. His father 
desired and offered to give him a classical education, 
but Bruce preferred to enter active life at once, and 
journeyed by canal to Kingston, where his courage 
was sorely tested, for he tramped the streets of 
Kingston two days vainly searching for work, and 
finally, almost disheartened, he set out for Toronto 
in search of what he had failed to find in Kings- 
ton. This time he was successful, but the position 
was neither lucrative nor pleasant, it being that 
01 a bundle boy in a store, at three dollars a week, 
and as it cost him four dollars a week for board, 
it was apparent that at that rate his fortune would 
be long on the way. Faithful service, however, 
soon brought increased compensation and valu- 
able experience, and when his employers failed he 
immediately obtained a place as salesman with a 
haberdasher, and subsequently served as salesman 
in the same line of business in Toronto, Coburg, 
and Peterboro, and having risen to the dignity of 
a salary one thousand dollars a year, he began to look 
toward the States as a field big with promise of 
larger reward, and decided to go to Chicago. While 
on the way thither, he turned aside at Detroit, to 
look up a brother then living here, and was so 
pleased with the city that he decided to remain here 
permanently. His brother being the only person in 
Detroit known to him, the finding of employment 
was a difficult as well as a discouraging task, but 
he was bound to have work, and for want of some- 
thing better, became a peripatetic vender on the 
streets of a patent ink eraser, and was afterwards 
the first salesman in Detroit of the patent folding 
dinner basket, now in common use. Although 
fairly successful in these ventures, the business did 
not suit him, and he was glad of a chance to work as 
clerk, at eight dollars a week, for George Gassman, 
a Jefferson Avenue tailor, and it is an interesting 
fact that, a few years later, Mr. Gassman was in his 
employ. 

In September, 1870, while Mr. Goodfellow was 
at C. R. Mabley's store on a business errand, Mr. 
Mabley noticed him and said : " Young man, where 
are you from, and where have you worked ?" " I'm 
from Canada, and have worked for Hughes & Co.. 
of Toronto." " Well enough, my boy ; if you are 
good enough to work for Hughes, you're good 
enough to work for me." As the result of' that 
conversation, he entered Mr. Mabley's employ the 
same month, as a clerk in the furnishing department, 
and within two weeks was placed in full charge of 



the department. Mr. Mabley was evidently increas- 
ingly pleased with his protegi, and when he opened 
the furnishing store under the Russell House, in 1 8; 5, 
Mr. Goodfellow was given full charge, and was 
afterwards appointed general manager of the entire 
concern. In February, 1884, when the firm of 
Mabley & Company was incorporated, Mr. Good- 
fellow was chosen Secretary and Treasurer. On 
June 30, 1885, C. R. Mabley died, and Mr. Good- 
fellow succeeded him as President of the company. 
The estate retained Mr. Mabley's interest in the 
business until May 3, 1886, when it was purchased 
by the stockholders, Mr. Goodfellow remaining at 
the head of what is well, known as one of the best 
and most important business enterprises in Detroit 
or Michigan. The trade of the house reaches into 
the far and near portions of the State, and attracts 
many thousands of people yearly to the metropolis. 
The successful administration of its affairs requires 
great judgment, energy, and business nerve, and in 
these Mr. Goodfellow is not lacking. He was 
nurtured and trained under watchful eyes, came 
rapidly forward in the grades of promotion, and being 
ever mindful to improve the opportunities of expe- 
rience, was peculiarly competent to fill the place 
made vacant by the death of Mr. Mabley. The con- 
tinued prosperous management of the business of 
Mabley & Company afford ample evidence that no 
similar house is more ably or safely directed. Mr. 
Goodfellow has conducted the affairs of the com- 
pany so successfully that the business has steadily 
increased, the sales for the year 1887 amounting to 
upwards of a million and a quarter of dollars. In 
1887 he was appointed one of the Commissioners 
of the Detroit Fire Department, succeeding Jerome 
Croul. 

Mr. Goodfellow was married April 7, 1884, to 
Mrs. T. W. Davey, of Windsor, Ontario. Although 
his early life was a constant struggle, his ambition 
and indomitable will showed him the road, and 
urged him forward, and he has been remarkably 
and deservedly successful. His spirit is of the sort 
that would make him a leader everywhere and in 
everything, and all who have business or social 
intercourse with him willingly concede that he well 
deserves all the good that has or may come to him. 

THEODORE PARSONS HALL was born at 
Rocky Hill, near Hartford, Connecticut, December 
15, 1835. He is a lineal descendant of John Hall, 
of Coventry, Warwickshire, England, who arrived 
at Boston. Massachusetts, in 1634, joined Rev. Mr. 
Davenport's New Haven Colony in 1638, and be- 
came one of the founders of Wallingford, Connecti- 
cut, when that town was "set off" from New 
Haven in 1669. The cemeteries of Wallingford 
and its adjoining town, Meridan, bear abundant 



II52 



MERCHANTS. 



testimony to the number and worth of John Hall's 
descendants in the past, and Yale College has in- 
scribed among her honored graduates the names of 
a score or more of them. In recent days N. K. Hall, 
Postmaster -General under President Fillmore; 
Admiral A. N. Foote, Professor Asaph Hall, the 
astronomer, and many others of like note have 
traced their descent from this early settler of Con- 
necticut. 

His grandson, John Hall, one of the Colonial 
judges and governor's "assistant," was one of 
the wealthiest and most influential of the early 
Colonists. Among the children or grandchildren 
of the latter, were Lyman Hall, Governor of Georgia, 
and signer of the Declaration of Independence; 
Benjamin and Elihu Hall, Kings' attorneys, judges, 
and prominent in the Revolution ; Colonel Street 
Hall and Rev. Samuel Hall (Yale, 1716), first minister 
of Cheshire, Connecticut. 

Eunice Hall, sister of the preceding, was the wife 
of the Colonial Governor, Jonathan Law. Rev. 
•Samuel Hall married Anne Law, daughter of the 
Governor by his first wife, Anne Eliot (a grand- 
daughter of Rev. John Eliot, the Apostle, and of 
Wm. Brenton, Governor of the Colony of Rhode 
Island). Brenton Hall, founder of Meriden, was a son 
of Rev. Samuel Hall and father of Wm. Brenton 
Hall, M. D. (Yale, 1786). The latter resided at 
Middletown, Connecticut, where he is remembered 
for his heroism during an outbreak of yellow fever. 
He married Mehitable, daughter of Major- General 
Samuel Holden Parsons, a descendant through her 
mother, Mehitable Mather, of the families of Rev. 
Cotton Mather and Governor Mathew Griswold, of 
Connecticut. General Parsons was in command of 
the Connecticut troops during .the Revolutionary 
War, and later was appointed by Washington first 
Chief Judge of the Northwest Territory. He set- 
tled at and was a founder of Marietta, Ohio. 

The son of Dr. Wm. B. Hall was Samuel Holden 
Parsons Hall, State Senator of New York and Judge 
of the Court of Errors after 1846. He was a man 
of wealth, interested in educational matters, a pro- 
moter and director of the Erie Railway, and various 
other lines centering at Binghamton, New York, 
where he resided. His wife w^as Emeline Bulkeley, 
of Cincinnati, a lineal descendant of Rev. Peter 
Bulkeley, founder of Concord in 1635, and of Rev. 
Charles Chauncey, President of Harvard College. 

Theodore P. Hall, the subject of this sketch, was 
a son of Samuel H. P. and Emeline Bulkeley Hall. 
His ancestors, as may be seen from the foregoing, 
were of New England Puritan stock, and practiced 
the old faith with earnestness and zeal. Mr. Hall 
received his preparatory education at the academies 
of Binghamton and Albany, New York; entered 
Yale College in 1852, graduating in 1856, in the 



class with Judge H. B. Brown, Hon. Chauncey M. 
Depew, General Wager Swayne, Judge Benjamin 
D. Magruder, and others of note. He subsequently 
spent a year in the study of law, assisted in the 
management of a newspaper, acquired some bank- 
ing experience in the Central Bank of Brooklyn, 
New York, and later in the office of Thompson 
Bros., brokers of Wall Street. In 1859, with L. E. 
Clark and others, he established the State Bank of 
Michigan, which was later merged into the Michi- 
gan Insurance Company and First National Bank 
of Detroit. 

In 1863 Mr. Hall entered into active business on 
the Detroit Board of Trade, and for twenty years, 
since 1868, has been in partnership with Rufus W. 
Gillett, under the firm name of Gillett & Hall, for 
years the leading commission grain house of De- 
troit. Of late he has retired from active participa- 
tion in the affairs of the firm and has devoted his 
time to travel, literary pursuits, and to the improve- 
ment of his handsome place at Grosse Pointe. 

He enjoys making researches in the fields of his- 
tory, biography, and genealogy, and is a member of 
several historical societies. He possesses excellent 
taste, fine powers of analysis and description, with 
a rare ability in the way of generalization. He 
often lays his friends -under obligation because of 
work done in their behalf, and for their advantage, 
and the public is probably unfortunate in that his 
possession of abundant means precludes the pecu- 
niary stimulus which might compel him to engage 
in definite and continuous literary labors. He is 
emphatically a lover of books, has accumulated a 
choice library, and possesses a scholarship compe- 
tent to appreciate a wide range of subjects and 
authors. Socially he is modest, free-hearted, agree- 
able, and makes warm friends. 

He was married to Alexandrine Louise Godfroy, 
of Detroit, January 11. i860. They have three 
married daughters, Marie Stella, wife of Wm.Tone 
St. Auburn, of California ; Josephine Emeline, wife 
of Lieutenant R. J. C. Irvine, of Augusta, Georgia ; 
Nathalie Heloise, wife of James Lee Scott, of Balls- 
ton, New York ; also three unmarried daughters, 
Alexandrine Eugenie, Marie Archange Navarre, 
and Madeleine Macomb. Their only son, Godfroy 
Navarre, died in 1885. 

The Godfroy family were among the early French 
settlers of Canada, coming from near Rouen, Nor- 
mandy. Several branches of the family were 
ennobled by Louis XIV. for bravery in the early 
Indian wars. The founder of the Detroit branch 
was married at Trois Rivieres, Canada, in 1683, 
and his eldest son, Jacques Godfroy, came to De- 
t roit with the founder, Cadillac, and died here in i TP- 
His son Jacques, born at Detroit, 1722, married the 
daughter of a French officer stationed at 1* ort Font- 




; 



/i < V . u 







^c 



MERCHANTS. 



1x53 



chartrain (Detroit). The latter's son, Colonel Ga- 
briel Godfrey, also born here under French rule in 
1758, was Colonel of the first regiment of Territorial 
troops organized here, and was Indian agfent for 
forty years. His son, Pierre Godfroy, one of the first 
Representatives chosen when the State was organ- 
ized, was the father of Alexandrine Godfroy (Hall), 
who is also lineally descended through her mother 
from Robert Navarre, first French Interdant and 
Notaire Royal, at this place. The name of Godfroy 
is a familiar one in the Records of Detroit, and is 
attached to two of the old farms now included 
within the limits of the city. 

GEORGE H. HAMMOND, for years one of 
the most extensive dealers in dressed beef in the 
world, was born at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, May 
5, 1838, and his parents, John and Sarah (Huston) 
Hammond, were of Puritan ancestry. His mater- 
nal grandfather, a native of Maine, served eight 
years as a soldier in the War of the Revolution, and 
lived to be ninety-four years old. The father of 
George H. Hammond was a builder, and erected 
numerous houses in the vicinity of his home. 

Until his tenth year, George H. Hammond at- 
tended the common schools, and then, preferring 
business to school life, began making leather pocket- ^ 
books for a Mr. Barrett, of Ashburnham, Massa- 
chusetts, a few miles from his native place. His 
employer soon gave up the business and Mr. Ham- 
mond, then only ten years old, continued it for 
about a year, employing twelve girls, and doing a 
profitable business. Steel clasp pocket-books then 
began to supersede leather goods, and he discon- 
tinued the business, and for a few months was 
employed in a butcher shop, and then for three 
years following, worked at Fitchburg, in the mat- 
tress and palm leaf hat factory of Milton Frost, at 
a salary of forty dollars per year, with the privi- 
lege of going to school three months in each year. 
At the age of fifteen, he purchased the business of 
his former employer, but at the end of six months 
sold out and came to Detroit, arriving here in 1854. 
For a short time after his arrival he was engaged 
in his old occupation, and then for two years and a 
half he worked in the mattress and furniture fac- 
tory of Milton Frost. He then started a chair 
factory on the corner of Farmer and State Street. 
Six months later, when he was only nineteen years 
old, the establishment was destroyed by fire, and 
after settling with the insurance company, he found 
his entire capital to consist of thirteen dollars, and a 
note for fifty dollars. With this amount he at once 
opened a meat store near the southwest corner of 
Howard and Third Street, and the venture was an 
immediate success. In i860 he erected a brick 
building on the adjoining corner, to meet the de- 



mand of his trade. His business rapidly increased, 
and in 1865 he removed to No. 38 Michigan Grand 
Avenue, where he built up a large and prosperous 
establishment. In the meantime he engaged exten- 
sively in beef and pork packing, forming in 1872. 
a partnership with J. D. Standish and S. B. Dixon, 
under the firm name of Hammond, Standish & Co. 
The firm erected large packing houses on Twen- 
tieth Street, and the business grew so extensive, 
that for several years preceding Mr. Hammond's 
death, they did the largest business of the kind in 
the city. One of the latest ventures of the firm 
was the establishment of one of the largest and 
most complete meat stores in the city, on Cadillac 
Square, opposite the Central Market. 

Although substantial success followed Mr. Ham- 
mond's exertions in his regular line of trade, it is 
chiefly in connection with the transportation of 
dressed beef that he exhibited the largest business 
capacity. From the incipiency of the undertaking 
until he changed the method of carrying on the 
beef trade of the United States, his energy was the 
chief factor in the undertaking. The problem of 
how to preserve meats, fruits, and like perishable 
products for any length of time in transportation, 
without affecting their quality or flavor, had been 
practically unsolved until 1868, when William Davis, 
of Detroit, built the first successful refrigerator car, 
and until 1869, tried in vain to induce capitaUsts to 
take hold of the invention. Finally Mr. Hammond - 
had a car fitted up expressly for carrying dressed 
beef to the eastern markets. The experimental 
trip was made in May, 1869, from Detroit to Bos- 
ton, and was a complete success. Mr. Hammond, 
with characteristic boldness aud far-seeing business 
sagacity, soon after purchased the right to the ex- 
clusive use of the invention, and with Caleb Ives 
formed the dressed beef transportation company 
of Hammond, Ives & Co., which a few years 
after was changed to the firm name of George 
H. Hammond & Co. They commenced with one 
car, and the second year eleven were required ; the 
third they used twenty-one, the number yearly 
increasing until, at the time of Mr. Hammond's 
death, eight hundred cars were in constant use 
in their fresh meat trade with the Atlantic coast, 
and they sent three ship-loads weekly to trans- 
Atlantic ports. They established slaughter houses 
at Hammond, Indiana, and Omaha, Nebraska, 
actually founding and building the first named city, 
which now has a large population and all the usual 
accompaniments of a thriving city. At this immense 
establishment, fifteen hundred to two thousand 
head of cattle are killed each day, the business 
transacted reaching the sum of $12,000,000 to 
$ 1 5.000,000 annually. The creation of this business 
was almost entirely due to the enterprise and sagac- 



II54 



MERCHANTS. 



ity of Mr. Hammond, and the results accomplished 
have been of great benefit to the commercial world. 
In many respects Mr. Hammond was a remark- 
able man. He scarcely had a boyhood ; beginning 
hfe's battles when ten years old, before he was 
twenty he carried upon his shoulders responsibili- 
ties that would test the powers of many mature 
men. His practical business training was supple- 
mented while yet in his teens, by a course of study 
in Goldsmith's Commercial College, begun and com- 
pleted in the evening, after the toil of the day was 
finished. These studies, with his practical business 
experience, gave him a knowledge of accounts that 
was of immense value. He was shrewd and careful, 
but clear business perception gave him courage and 
boldness. At forty-eight he had not only become 
one of the wealthiest men of Detroit, but one of the 
best known business men in the United States, and 
the central figure in a gigantic system of operations 
of which few people in Detroit realized the extent and 
which revolutionized the beef trade of the country, 
and made his name well known and respected in 
commercial circles in Chicago, New York, and Bos- 
ton. He was a large real estate owner, investing 
extensively in suburban property in and near Detroit, 
and realized so fully that his success was gained 
here, that he desired that the city should be advan- 
taged by his success. He was Vice-President of 
the Commercial National Bank, a director in the 
Michigan Savings Bank and Detroit Fire & Marine 
Insurance Company, and in innumerable ways was 
a reliable factor in the prosperity of Detroit. 

In the full tide of his success, when wealth and 
honor had rewarded his efforts, and when seeming- 
ly he could be so illy spared from the management 
of the great interests his geniu3 had developed, the 
end came suddenly and unexpectedly. Naturally of 
a strong, robust physique, the hard work and un- 
remitting toil of many years appeared to fall lightly 
upon him, but disease of the heart, baffling medical 
skill, terminated his life on December 29, 1886. 
He was confined to the house only a few days, and 
although he knew the shadow of a great danger 
overhung him, he faced it bravely, and as death 
came he was prepared to calmly accept whatever 
might befall. 

His death caused deep and genuine sorrow 
wherever he was known, and the community in 
which he had long lived, mourned the loss of one 
whose name was the synonym of business honor, 
whose private life was unexceptionable, and whose 
future promised so much of good to the public. 

He was not a member of any church, but made 
especially liberal gifts to church enterprises, and his 
contributions to charitable and benevolent objects 
were many, but unostentatious. He was reserved 
m manner, and gave his confidence only to a few. 



whom he implicitly trusted and in whom he created 
unbounded faith. His chief pleasures were found 
in the domestic circle, and he was able to leave the 
perplexing, annoying cares of business outside of his 
home, where he was the ideal father and husband. 

He was fond of travel, going twice to Europe 
with part of his family, visiting also California and 
the South, and frequently visited for pleasure or 
business, various parts of the United States. 

Dying in the prime of life, he left the impress 
of his work upon the commercial history of his gen- 
eration, and to his family the rich legacy of a spot- 
less reputation. 

He was married in 1857, to Ellen Barry. They 
had eleven children, eight .of whom are living. 

SAMUEL HEAVENRICH was born in Frens- 
dorf. Bavaria, June 15, 1889, and is the son of 
Abraham and Sarah (Brull) Heavenrich. His 
parents were both natives of Bavaria, his father 
being born in Frensdorf, in 1799, and his mother in 
Lichtenfels, in 18 10. 

Mr. Heavenrich attended school in his native 
town until twelve years of age, and was then sent 
for two years to a school at Regensburg (Ratisbon\ 
Germany. In 1853 he left home, came to this 
country, and took up his abode in Detroit, where he 
has since remained. Upon his arrival here he 
entered the store of S. Sykes & Company, wholesale 
and retail clothiers, near the southeast corner of 
Jefferson Avenue and Bates Street, the firm subse- 
quently removing to No. 92 Woodward Avenue. 
He employed his evenings to good advantage, 
studying English and bookkeeping at Cochran's 
Business College, and improved so rapidly that he 
became of great service to his employers, and 
remained with the firm for seven years, during the 
last year as junior partner. 

In 1 862 he bought out the firm of S. Sykes & Com- 
pany, and took in as a partner his brother, Simon H., 
who had been in business at Leavenworth, Kansas, 
forming the firm of Heavenrich Brothers, which has 
continued since that time. In 1867 they gave up 
the retail trade, and devoted their entire attention 
to the manufacturing and wholesale business, and 
in the spring of 1871 found themselves so crowded 
for room that they removed to the stores known as 
134 and 136 Jefferson Avenue. Their business 
continued to prosper, and on February i, 1881, they 
moved into their present elegant and commodious 
quarters at 138 and 140 JefTerson Avenue. The 
building was erected by the late Francis Palms, 
expressly for their use, and is a model of excellence. 
It is six stories high, is neariy fire proof, and extends 
from Jefiferson Avenue through to Woodbridge 
Street. Here the business of the firm has grown to 
enormous proportions ; they employ about three hun- 




::^/ i^x^/ - y\ 



X-^ -^^Vt/^f^t^^yi^ 



X 



MERCHANTS. 



1155 



dred and fifty hands, and manufacture an immense 
amount of men's, youth's, boys', and children's 
clothing, most of the cutting being done by steam 
cutting machines, the only ones of the kind in the 
State, and well worth an inspection. They will cut 
through two inches in thickness of cloth, and make 
two thousand revolutions per minute. The button- 
holes in all of their goods are made in the basement of 
the building, on machines run by an electric motor. 
Their sample room is a model of excellence, and is 
second to none west of New York. It occupies 
the entire second floor, and contains a sample of 
every piece of goods they have in stock. By their 
thrift, perseverance, and strict attention to business, 
both members of the firm have acquired a com- 
petency, and their business represents a capital of 
about $250,000. 

Mr. Samuel Heavenrich was a member of the 
Detroit Light Guards for six years, but has mingled 
but little in general public affairs. Inclined to be 
conservative, he has uniformly declined the use of 
his name for political offices, but his courtesy, 
integrity, fidelity, industry, and great natural ability, 
are such that any trust committed to him would be 
carefully and successfully administered. He has 
been President of the Phoenix Club for five years, 
and is a director of the American Exchange 
National Bank, President of the Marine City Stave 
and Salt Company, and Vice-President of the 
Dexter Consolidated Iron Mining Company, and 
has held various offices in other corporations. 

He has ever manifested a special interest in the 
welfare of young men, and has been a benefactor 
to many. Possessing a social and genial disposi- 
tion, his habits have often caused him to forego his 
own pleasure in order to be of service to others. By 
systematic efforts of this sort he has helped to 
brighten the path of many less fortunate than him- 
self. His friends and acquaintances are well aware 
that any service he can render, when they are sick 
or in need, will be heartily and cheerfully rendered, 
without considering his personal ease or comfort. 
He is a highly worthy representative of the Hebrew 
nationality, is a member of the Congregation Beth 
EI, and commands the esteem of his business asso- 
ciates and of the public generally. 

He was married March 21, 1866, to Sarah Troun- 
stine, at Cincinnati. She is a daughter of John 
and Elizabeth (Guiterman) Trounstine, of Bavaria. 
They have had six children, namely, Blanche, Wal- 
ter S., John A., Carrie H., Edith R., and Herbert S., 
all of whom are living at home with their parents. 

EMIL SOLOMON HEINEMAN was born 
December ir, 1824, at Neuhaus on the Oste, near 
^he port of Hamburg. His father, Solomon Joa- 
chim Heineman, was born in 1780, in the Bavarian 



village of Burg Ellern, where his ancestors had 
lived in peace for many years, until compelled to 
seek another habitation through the religious intol- 
erance which was then directed against persons of 
the Protestant and Jewish faith, to the latter of 
which Mr. Heineman's family had always subscribed. 
Seeking a home in the more northerly part of 
Germany, near the seaport of Hamburg, where 
cosmopolitan ideas had prevented the lodgment 
of intolerance, he established himself at Neuhaus, 
and by hard work and honest endeavor became 
in time the foremost merchant of the place, and 
amassed what was then a more than comfortable 
fortune. He held for many years an honorable 
civil appointment from the government He mar- 
ried Sarah, the daughter of Leeser Franc and 
Regina Josef, and became the father of ten children, 
Emil S. being the fourth of five brothers. 

It those days it was the custom, upon the expira- 
tion of his school days, to send a boy to some 
tradesman in another city, either to be taught a 
handicraft or to be given a business education. 
Accordingly, in 1840, when he was sixteen years 
old, E. S. Heineman was sent to the city of Olden- 
burg to learn the practical duties of business. The 
Revolution q( 1848 raised hopes in the hearts of 
young men that Germany would become a united 
and great nation, but the reaction in 1850 dispelled 
these hopes, and Mr. Heineman determined to seek 
his fortune in the New World. Obtaining a reluc- 
tant consent from his father, he took passage on 
the Washington, the pioneer trans-Atlantic steamer, 
and after a phenomenally short trip of two weeks, 
landed in New York in the spring of 1851. Going 
from there to Cincinnati, after a short stay in the 
latter city he came to Detroit, where he secured 
employment in David Amberg's clothing store, in 
the old Smart Block, on the present site of the Mer- 
rill Block. His fellow clerk here was Edward Brei- 
tung, afterwards a prominent resident of the North- 
ern Peninsula, and its representative in Congress. 

The commercial training and the instruction in 
the English language ~ which Mr. Heineman had 
received at home, enabled him in 1853 to engage in 
business on his own account, in the same block 
where he began as a clerk. The fire which in 1854 
destroyed the old Presbyterian Church, and the 
block in which his business was located, necessi- 
tated his removal, and for many years he occupied 
one or more of the stores under the National 
Hotel, now known as the Russell House. At the 
outbreak of the Civil War, he became interested in 
furnishing military clothing to the State, and later 
to the General Government, and after this time was 
engaged solely in the wholesale trade. His two 
brothers-in-law, Messrs. Magnus and Martin Butzel, 
were admitted to partnership in 18^2, and the firm, 



II56 



MERCHANTS. 



since known as Heineman, Butzel & Company, 
removed to the upper floors adjoining Messrs. 
G. & R. McMillan's present store, remaining there 
until 1 87 1, and then removing to their present loca- 
tion on Jefferson Avenue. Thus for thirty-five 
years Mr. Heineman has been engaged in mercantile 
life in Detroit, and during this period has witnessed 
almost the entire growth of the city's industries. 

He has been eminently a business man, and 
while not neglecting political duties, has never 
accepted party nomination or appointment, but has 
been a staunch Republican ever since the founding 
of that party. He has been connected with many 
of the representative corporations of the city, and 
was among the first subscribers to the Detroit Fire 
and Marine Insurance Company, and one of its 
directors since its organization. In like manner he 
became an original subscriber to, and director of the 
Michigan Life Insurance Company, and of the Fort 
Wayne and Elmwood Street Railway Company, of 
which he is at present Treasurer. He is known as 
a conservative in his business and investments, and 
judicious in his selection of real estate. In 1885 he 
erected a fine building on Cadillac Square, and has 
always had faith in the growing prosperity of the 
city, is known as a public-spirited citizen, and no 
more worthy representative of his nationality can 
be found anywhere. 

Mr. Heineman, is almost as active as ever in 
business, not remiss in social duties, and is a man 
of quiet tastes and retiring disposition, to whom 
home presents the highest ideal of happiness. Al- 
most any afternoon, in summer, he may be seen 
busy among the flowers in his garden, which is 
one of the most attractive in the city, and its care 
is one of his favorite pastimes. He is a lover of 
books, and has given some attention to numis- 
matics, having a very interesting and valuable col- 
lection of coins. 

He was married in 1861, to Fanny Butzel, of 
Peekskill. New York. The year following he pur- 
chased his present homestead on Woodward Ave- 
nue. He has two sons and two daughters. 

CHAUNCEY HURLBUT was born in Oneida 
County, New York, in 1803, and came to Detroit 
with Cullen Brown in 1825. He worked at his 
trade of harnessmaker for a few years, and then in 
company with Jerry Dean, carried on a saddlery 
and harness Store for three years. Mr. Hurlbut 
then decided to go into the grocery business with 
his brother-in-law, Alexander Mc Arthur. The lat- 
ter soon left the city, and in 1837, Mr. Hurlbut 
built the store at 50 Woodward Avenue, where he 
engaged in the general grocery trade and continued 
in business up to a short time before his death. 

From the year 1839 he served almost continu- 



ously in some public capacity. He was successive- 
ly foreman, chief engineer, and president of the old 
Fire Department. From 1839 to 1841 he was 
Alderman from the Second Ward. In 1835 he was 
President of the Mechanics' Society. When the 
Board of Trade was organized in 1847, Mr. Hurl- 
but was chosen one of the directors. He was one 
of the original stockholders in the Second National 
Bank, and was a director during the twenty yea is 
of its existence. At the time of his death he held 
the same position in its successor, the Detroit Na- 
tional Bank. He was a Sewer Commissioner froiT! 
1857 to 1859. In 1861 he was appointed as one 
of the Water Commissioners, serving two years 
and being appointed over and over again after that 
time. From 1872, until his death, he continuously 
held the presidency of the Board and gave almost 
his entire attention to the improvement of the De- 
troit Water Works system. 

His public duties were all fulfilled with a sturdy 
adherence to the maxim that " public office is a 
public trust." In 1841 he returned to the President 
of the Fire Department a warrant for one hundred 
dollars, which had been sent him for services as 
chief engineer, remarking that he was a believer in 
Franklin's doctrine, that no man should grow rich 
by emoluments of office. Mr. Hurlbut was an 
ardent Republican from the organization of the 
party, and a regular contributor to campaign funds. 
He was not demonstrative in his politics, however, 
and seldom attended caucuses or other party meet- 
ings. He was noted for his remarkable memory, 
and his extensive reading on historical and scientific 
subjects, had made his mind a cyclopoedia of facts. 

He died on September 9, 1885, and his widow 
followed him a few months later. He left almost 
all of his estate, nearly a quarter of a million dollars, 
to the Board of Water Commissioners, to be ex- 
pended in maintaining a library and improving the 
grounds belonging to the commission. 

JOSHUA S. INGALLS was born in the town 
of Johnson, La Moille County, Vermont, February 
12, 1833, and is a son of Simeon and Rhoda 
(Smith) Ingalls. His ancestors came from England, 
and settled at Andover, Massachusetts, in 1690. 
His father was a farmer, and his son passed his 
earlier years upon the farm. 

The dull, prosaic life of the average New England 
farmer's boy, and the limited school advantages 
there obtainable, however, illy suited his active 
temperament, and at the age of fourteen he left 
home, determined to secure an education by his 
own efforts. Going to Johnson village, a few miles 
from his father's residence, by working after school 
hours and during vacations he obtained three years 
tuition at the Johnson Academy. Deeply regret- 




('II AT NCI -.N m Rl I'.r I'. 







^^^ 



MERCHANTS. 



1157 



ting his inability to pursue his studies further, he 
then began his business career by becoming a clerk 
in a general country store at Concord, Massachu- 
setts, conducted by John Brown. His diligence, 
close attention to duties, and natural business apti- 
tude, won the confidence of his employer, and at 
the end of a year he provided him with capital to 
start a general store at Acton Centre, Massachu- 
setts. He managed the store for a year, and then 
disposed of his interest for a farm. Subsequently 
he was employed as a salesman in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, and at Akron and Cleveland, Ohio. At 
the latter place, after several years as clerk in a 
crockery store, he became a partner in the firm of 
Fogg. Ensworth & Company, crockery merchants. 
The business was successfully continued for two 
years, and then in i860 the firm was dissolved, and 
Mr. Ingalls entered into partnership with Philip 
Thurber, under the firm name of Thurber & Ingalls, 
and established a crockery and glass store at Jack- 
son, Michigan. At the end of a year and a half 
Mr. Thurber retired, and A. A. Bliss became a 
partner, under the firm name of Bliss & Ingalls. 
They continued together until 1 869, when the firm 
dissolved. 

In the meantime, as early as 1862, Mr. Ingalts 
had established at Jackson the first oil agency ever 
started in the State of Michigan. He continued it 
with success until 1869, when he went to Cleve- 
land, and in partnership with a Mr. Olliphant opened 
a crockery store. This venture did not prove 
advantageous, and in 1872 the firm discontinued 
business, and Mr. Ingalls spent the next two years 
as a traveling salesman for a Cleveland crockery 
firm. In 1875 he came to Detroit, and with C. C. 
Bloomfield established the oil agency of Ingalls & 
Company. The business was almost immediately 
successful. In 1884 the company was incorporated 
as Ingalls & Company, and in 1886 was consolidated 
with the Standard Oil Company, under the corporate 
name of the Ingalls Oil Company, and is now the 
distributing agency of the Standard Oil Company 
for the State of Michigan. The development of 
the business in Detroit is largely due to Mr. 
Ingalls's business foresight and judgment, and 
through his efforts, Detroit has become one of the 
largest distributing points for kerosene oil in the 
whole country. 

Since 1882 Mr. Ingalls has also been largely 
interested in an extensive lumber company, of which 
ne has been the President since its organization, 
and is now sole manager and owner, and makes 
jarge shipments of Michigan pine to the New Eng- 
land and Eastern States. Mr. Ingalls's business 
success is the result of persistent and hard work. 
^^ is independent and self-reliant, and, when 
determined on a line of action, pursues it with bold- 



ness and vigor. Although on two occasions his 
earlier business ventures turned out disastrously to 
himself, he allowed no one else to be a loser, but, 
when prosperity was again achieved, he paid in full 
every dollar of his old indebtedness, an example of 
absolute honesty worthy of universal imitation. 

He has never held public office, but takes a deep 
interest in political movements, and is an enthusi- 
astic Republican. Honest and straightforward in 
business transactions, with excellent financial abili- 
ties, pleasing address and courteous manner, he is a 
good type of the business men who create and sus- 
tain the commerce of the city. 

He was married in 1862 to Amelia H. Thurber, 
of Syracuse, New York. She died in 1885, and the 
following year their daughter, Florence, married 
Oakes Ames, of Boston, Massachusetts. Mr. In- 
galls's home being broken up, he decided to retire 
from active business and make his home in New 
England. Leaving Detroit in 1887, he went to 
Boston, and before many months was again per- 
suaded into business Hfe, and became one of the 
proprietors of the Albion, Michigan, Milling Com- 
pany, and controls its large New England business. 

CHARLES STORRS ISHAM was born in 
Hudson, Ohio, January 16, 1835. He is a son of 
Warren and Melissa (Parsons) Isham, who had 
four children, namely, Warren, deceased ; Jane L., 
widow of the late David Crane, of New York ; 
Maria P., who in 1847 married Wilbur F. Storey, 
of the Chicago Times, and is now residi^ig in 
Europe, and Charles Storrs Isham, who was the 
fourth and youngest child. 

Warren Isham, the father, was a Presbyterian 
minister, and a writer of considerable note. He 
was born at Watertown, Jefferson County, New 
York, was a graduate of Union College, and estab- 
lished, at Hudson, the Ohio Observer, the first 
religious newspaper in Ohio ; he published it until 
1 835. He w^as afterwards widely known in Michigan 
as the editor of the Michigan Observer, and also of 
the Michigan Farmer. In these papers he displayed 
marked ability. About 1853 he published a volume 
of travels in Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land, 
and also a volume entitled " The Mud Cabin," an 
expose of the lower stratum of English life. Both 
of these works were quite popular and financially 
successful. The last years of his life were spent at 
Marquette, Michigan, where he published the Mar- 
quette Journal, and was engaged in other literary 
work. He died at that place in 1863. His wife, 
Melissa Parsons Isham, was related to the Bard- 
wells of England. She was born in Belchertown, 
Massachusetts, in 1800; was a woman of strong 
character, great family pride, an earnest Christian, 
and unwearied in her devotion to the welfare of her 



II58 



MERCHANTS. 



children. She died in Detroit in 1880. Several of 
the family inherited the literary taste and talent of 
their father. Warren, the eldest son, attracted 
much attention as a writer in connection with the 
editorial staff of the Detroit Free Press and the 
Chicago Times. His writings were noted for the 
humor which they contained, and he especially 
distinguished himself as war correspondent of the 
Chicago Times during the early years of the war. 
Some of his communications were disapproved by 
General Grant, and he was imprisoned several 
months, but released without any charges being 
preferred against him. He was then re-employed 
on the staff of the Times, and promoted to the 
chief editorial charge under Mr. Storey. In 1863, 
soon after his father's death, he went to Marquette 
to see about his father's affairs, and on the return 
trip, on board of the ill-fated steamer " Sunbeam,'* 
was lost on Lake Superior. As a writer, he owed 
little to study or application, but with the spontan- 
eity of true genius he excelled in whatever he under- 
took, and his earliest efforts had all the ease and 
polish of a practiced writer. 

Charles Storrs Isham was brought to Detroit by 
his parents when he was a small child, and before 
the age of six attended the private school of Mrs. 
Campbell, now Mrs. Solomon Davis. When he 
was six years old, his parents removed to Jackson, 
where he attended school six years, and afterwards 
spent one year in the schools of Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts. At the age of fourteen he was placed in a 
store at Jackson, Michigan, and remained three 
years. He then returned to Detroit, and from 
1852 to 1854 was engaged as traveling agent for 
the Free Press. The following year and a half he 
spent in traveling in Louisiana and Texas, and 
gained much knowledge of the condition of the 
Southern States during a most interesting period. 
In the fall of 1856 he entered the wholesale dry 
goods house of Carter, Quinine & De Forest, in 
New York City, and w^as engaged as clerk, and 
during the winters as traveling salesman for the 
house in the West. He occupied the position 
about four years, and then engaged with a merchant 
to go to Galveston, Texas, with the intention of 
making his home in the South ; but, just as he was 
about to depart, he received a telegram from his 
brother Warren, urging him to come to Detroit ; 
he concluded to do so, was released from the en- 
gagement, and came here. During the first three 
years of his residence he was engaged in the dry 
goods store of Farrell Brothers, the predecessors of 
Newcomb, Endicott & Company. In 1864 he 
formed a partnership with George I. Major, in the 
commission and forwarding business, under the firm 
name of Major & Isham. This firm has been in 
business twenty-four years, and is one of the few 



in the city that has remained unchanged for that 
length of time. 

Mr. Isham has attended strictly to his business, 
and has not sought outside work or duty of any 
sort. In politics he is a Democrat. As a business 
man he is prudent and conservative, sound in 
judgment, and of large energy and perseverance ; 
his integrity is undoubted, and he is genial and 
courteous towards all with whom he comes in 
contact. He has traveled extensively in the United 
States, and in 1884 made a trip to Europe, spending 
a large part of the year at different points on the 
continent. 

He was married July 9, 1864, to Lucy B. Mott, 
daughter of the late John T. Mott, of Detroit. 
They have four children, Charles Storrs, Jr., Fred. 
Stewart, Jennie M., and Warren Parsons. Charles S., 
now in the commission business in this city, spent 
two years on the Chicago Times as a reporter and 
foreign correspondent, and was entrusted with the 
special correspondence of the paper in Mexico. 
Fred. Stewart graduated from the High School at 
sixteen, and at once became a reporter for the 
Detroit Free Press, remaining there until 1884, 
when he went to Europe. He spent one year in 
Paris, a year at Munich, and two years in London, 
studying art and music under the best masters. 
While in London he made his first venture in book 
authorship, in an ingenious novel entitled " The 
Twice-Seen Face." It has passed through the 
first edition and is entering upon the second. 

Mr. and Mrs. Isham are both members of the 
Westminster Presbyterian Church. 

RICHARD MACAULEY was born in Roch- 
ester, New York, November 28, 1838, and is the 
son of Richard and Jane (Maguire) Macauley. 
His father was one of the early millers at Genesee 
Falls, an interest which had much to do with the 
building up of the city of Rochester, which is 
known everywhere as the Flour City. 

Mr. Macauley was educated in the public schools 
and at the Academy in Rochester, and was known 
as a diligent student. He was offered a college 
education, but preferred to enter at once into active 
business life, and in 1859 became a clerk in the 
large dry goods store of Hubbard & Northup, at 
Rochester, where he secured an excellent business 
training, and was brought into social and religious 
circles which largely shaped his future. While thus 
engaged he became a member of the Fifty-fourth 
Regiment of National Guards, which was occa- 
sionally called into active service until the close of 
the war. In 1864 he resigned his commission of 
Captain in the regiment, and went to Cairo, Illinois, 
where he engaged in the wholesale and retail book 
and stationery business, his employers doing a large 




¥ 



7 c'l'i^y.^ 






MERCHANTS. 



1159 



business throughout the West and South. Mr. 
Macauley, however, was not able to endure the 
malaria prevalent in that region, and the next year 
returned to Rochester and secured employment in 
the wholesale millinery house of Edward Wamsley, 
as traveling salesman in the Lake States. In visiting 
Detroit, he saw that this was a favorable location 
for a wholesale millinery house, and in 1870, in 
connection with his former employer, he established 
the first exclusively wholesale millinery house in 
Michigan, under the firm name of Macauley & 
Wamsley. Two years later he bought out his 
partner's interest, and with his brother, Alexander 
Macauley, formed a new firm under the style of 
Macauley Brothers. One year later his brother 
retired from the firm, and the business was contin- 
ued under the name of Richard Macauley for eight 
years with unabated success, and he gained a high 
reputation with merchants, importers and manu- 
facturers at the East, and with the trade generally 
throughout the West, as a successful merchant in a 
line of trade in which others had frequently failed, 
and which requires exceptional forethought and 
judicious management. In 1 880 he admitted Edwin 
Jackson, of Toledo, and his brother, Alexander 
Macauley, into the firm, which w^as changed to 
Richard Macauley & Company. Since then there 
has been no change, except the retirement of Mr. 
Jackson in 1887, and the success of the house has 
been permanent and continuous, and it has grown 
to be the largest of the kind in the State. In addi- 
tion to his interest in the Detroit house, Mr. Macau- 
ley owns the entire interest in, and is the manager 
of a similar house in Toledo, which is quite as suc- 
cessful as the one in Detroit. 

Mr. Macauley has given his close attention to 
business interests, is both cautious and enterprising, 
a good judge of mercantile values, and an excellent 
financier. He has mastered the details which ensure 
success, and feels a just pride in the fact that he 
has always met his obligations fully and promptly. 
He is highly esteemed for his social qualities and 
for his integrity of character. He is a member of 
the Detroit Club and also of the Michigan Club. 

In political faith he is a Republican, and is public- 
spirited in all matters pertaining to the prosperity 
of the city. He is a director in the American Bank- 
ing and Savings Association, and in the American 
Trust Company, and a stockholder in the Detroit 
National Bank. 

He was married July 9. 1867, to Josephine A. 
Foster, daughter of George D. Foster, a prominent 
merchant of West Winfield, New York. Her 
mother's maiden name was Emerancy B. Thurston, 
a direct descendant of Edward Thurston, one of 
the early colonists of Rhode Island, in 1642. They 
have three children, George Thurston, Fanny Wood, 



and Richard Henry. All of the family are mem- 
bers of St. John's Episcopal Church. 

THOMAS McGRAW, the widely known wool 
merchant, was born at Castleton. on the River 
Shannon, County of Limerick, Ireland, September 
17, 1824. His father, Redmond McGraw, emi- 
grated to America, landing at Quebec in 1825, and 
subsequently purchased a tract of land in Essex 
County, New York, and after clearing it and find- 
ing it undesirable, he removed to a point near 
Ogdensburgh, where he repeated his experience. 
From this farm he removed to Canada, buying land 
near St. Thomas, sixty miles from Detroit. In 1835 
he sold out his interests in Canada and emigrated 
to Michigan, and settled in the township of Canon, 
Wayne County, where he passed the remainder of 
his days. His previous changes of location were 
doubtless caused by the fact that in the old country 
the possession of lands was the most reliable wealth 
that one could have, and as he had been the finan- 
cial manager of a very large estate for many years 
previous to his emigration, it w^as very natural that 
his ambition should be in the direction of a land- 
holder, and having no reliable knowledge of the soil 
and climate of the different sections of America, it 
was only by several trials that he at last found in 
Michigan the location he desired. He was a man 
of liberal education and personal culture, and a 
steadfast upholder of the Protestant religion. He 
was born in Ireland in 1777, and died at Canton 
in 1852. His mother's family were German Luth- 
erans; her maiden name was Elizabeth Faught. 
She died about three years after her arrival in 
America. 

Thomas McGraw did not inherit his father's taste 
for agriculture, and the greater portion of his time 
until 1840, was spent in study at school and at 
home. From some romantic source he obtained 
a favorable idea of a sailor's life, and made up 
his mind to go to sea. At the age of fifteen he 
set out to become a sailor, and reached the city 
of Rochester, New York, before he quite made 
up his mind that a life spent upon the ocean would 
not be desirable. In that city he engaged as clerk 
with a substantial merchant at a salary of ninety- 
six dollars a year. During his stay in Rochester 
of a year and a half, he attended a night school, 
and devoted nearly all his leisure moments to study. 
In the fall of 1841 he returned to his home in 
Michigan. The next year he entered into partner- 
ship with his brother in clearing twenty acres of 
land. In the fall of the year they sowed the land 
to wheat, but the enterprise turned out disastrously, 
as the severe frost of the following June destroyed 
the crop, the damage being general throughout the 
State. 



ii6o 



MERCHANTS. 



In 1843, at the age of nineteen, Mr. McGraw 
came to Detroit and took a place as clerk in the 
office of the Pittsburgh Iron Company, where he 
remained four years. Leaving Detroit, in 1847, he 
purchased a small stock of general merchandise, 
and opened a store at Novi, Oakland County. That 
cownty and those adjoining are noted for their pro- 
ductions of fine wool, and Mr. McGraw soon drifted 
into the wool trade. It was not long before this 
interest became so extensive that his general mer- 
cantile business was only a convenient appendage, 
and he was compelled to seek a more central 
location, and removed to Detroit in April, 1864. 
Soon after coming here he opened a branch house 
in Boston, Massachusetts His business success 
has been remarkable, and he has been the largest 
buyer of wool outside of the Atlantic cities. 
Although an attentive listener to the opinions of 
others, he makes a thorough canvass of the infor- 
mation bearing on any question or transaction he 
is contemplating, and his mind once made up, he 
never wavers, and, is ever on the alert until the 
enterprise he has undertaken is finished. His 
reputation as a wool merchant is such throughout 
New England that his grades of wool are preferred 
by manufacturers, as they have uniformly been 
found to be of the very best quality. His system 
is such that he transacts his large wool business 
with ease, and in 1887 his wool purchases amounted 
to about five million pounds. 

He has, for years, taken a great interest in Detroit 
and its institutions, and his chief investments are 
in business and real estate in the city. He is the 
largest stockholder in the Globe Tobacco Company, 
and has for many years been its President. He was 
one of the organizers, and for five years President 
of the Michigan Savings Bank, and for twenty 
years a stockholder, and for seven years a director, 
of the American National Bank of Detroit. In 1876 
he purchased the Mechanics' Block, expending 
large sums for its general improvement, making it 
thoroughly modern in accordance with the require- 
ments of the times. He has provided in the building, 
for the free use of its occupants, a fine library of 
three thousand volumes, known as the McGraw 
Law Library, and has arranged to lay aside a certain 
sum each year for the extension and improvement 
of this library, to the end that it may be one of the 
leading libraries of its kind. 

In politics Mr. McGraw is independent, but usu- 
ally acts and votes with the Republican party. He 
was for two years a member of the Board of Esti- 
mates of Detroit. 

During August and September, of 1886, Mr. 

McGraw made a trip to Europe, visiting Germany, 

Belgium, France, England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

In 1848 he married Sarah I. Seldon, grand- 



daughter of Rodman Hazard, a well known figure 
in the earlier history of Western Massachusetts, and 
noted throughout New England as a pioneer 
woolen manufacturer, and also a politician, having 
served upwards of twenty years in the State Legis- 
lature. One of his lineal descendants was in 
Frankfort, Germany, during the late Civil War, and 
used his influence in the early part of the conflict 
to induce German bankers to purchase American 
bonds. 

Mr. McGraw is most esteemed by those who 
know him most intimately. He is appreciative of 
whatever is truest and best in those with whom he 
comes in contact, and his old time courtesy and 
friendly spirit make it pleasant for those who have 
social or business relations with him. He is a 
member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, but 
his love for Christianity is broader than his love for 
any one church, and this is doubtless the truest 
loyalty. 

NICOL MITCHELL, for many years one of 
the most extensive builders and contractors of 
Detroit, was born at Kilsythe, near Sterlingshire, 
Scotland, November 19, 1821. There he spent his 
youth and early manhood, and served an appren- 
ticeship at the carpenter's trade. 

In 1847 he emigrated with his family to America, 
coming directly to Detroit. Here he secured em- 
ployment as a journeyman with Hugh Moffat, and 
subsequently rose to be foreman, and when Mr. Mof- 
fat abandoned the work of a contractor to engage 
in other pursuits, Mr. Mitchell succeeded to a por- 
tion of his business. A few years after he formed 
a partnership and engaged in building with a Mn 
McDuff, under the firm name of Mitchell & McDuff. 
In 1 863 he became a member of the firm of Mor- 
hous, Mitchell & Bryam, and for several years there- 
after was more extensively engaged in building than 
any other firm in Detroit. His connection with the 
firm ceased in 1874, when Mayor Moffat ap- 
pointed him a member of the first Board of Public 
Works, a position for which his practical experience 
as a mechanic rendered him eminentl^^ fitted. He 
served in this capacity four years, and at the close 
of his term, one of the Detroit daily papers voiced 
the opinion of the community in saying : " Mr. 
Mitchell, who, after four years of faithful service on 
the Board of Public Works, now retires to private 
life, is one of the kind of men that few cities are 
lucky enough to obtain as officers. A successful 
builder, of enterprise and workmanlike capacity, 
he was selected for a position that he has filled to 
the satisfaction of the whole community." 

At the expiration of his term he again gave his 
entire attention to building, and during the latter 
years of his life most of his time was devoted to the 





/^ ^^^ . ' /^^ .->-^::^^i^-^ 



MERCHANTS. 



1 161 



superintendency of the erection of buildings for 
Messrs. Newberry & McMillan, and during thirty 
years he personally superintended the construction 
of many of the largest buildings in Detroit. The 
following were erected under his supervision : 
The Detroit Opera House, Fort Street Presby- 
terian Church, Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, 
Central Methodist Episcopal Church, St. Joseph s 
Catholic Church, St. Patrick's Catholic Church, 
Young Men's Hall, Michigan Central Elevator No. 
2, the Union Depot Elevator, the Wabash Elevator, 
and numerous business blocks. His last work Was 
in connection with the erection of the Detroit, Grand 
Haven and Milwaukee Elevator. 

He was one of the organizers of the Michigan 
Savings Bank, and from the first one of its direc- 
tors, and from June, 1878, its vice-president 

He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Repub- 
lican party, but never a seeker after political honors. 
In religious and charitable work he was earnest 
and active. He was emphatically a God-fearing 
and devoted Christian gentleman. He became con- 
nected with the United Presbyterian Church at its 
organization, and for over thirty-five years served as 
an elder. He was a valued member of the Detroit 
Commandery of Knights Templar, and of the St, 
Andrew's Society. In the latter society he was 
three times elected to the presidency. His " brither 
Scotsmen " in their tribute to his memory, record 
their high appreciation of his " excellent business 
ability, rare mechanical skill, sterling integrity, and 
unflinching devotion to duty." 

For nearly a year preceding his death Mr. 
Mitchell had been in ill health, but attended to his 
business as usual until March 29, 1887, when he 
was stricken with paralysis, and a few days later 
sank into apparent unconsciousness, from which he 
never rallied. He died April 10, 1887. His death 
was mourned by a wide circle of friends, to whom 
his many admirable traits of character had become 
well known. 

His long residence in Detroit and prominent 
identification with important trusts faithfully dis- 
charged, had made him one of the best known 
and respected characters in the city. He was prac- 
tical, straightforward, hard-working, and conscien- 
tious, with an unsullied reputation. He loved the 
vigorous pursuits of his trade, and in the man- 
agement of large bodies of men was remarkably 
successful. His kindness and consideration for 
others were his strongest characteristics. Without 
early educational advantages or influential friends, 
by his individual worth and energy, he won a de- 
serving place among the successful business men 
of Detroit. He was married to Lillie Kirk wood, at 
Stedingshire, Scotland, December 5, 1845. They 
had four children. Their eldest son, William, died 



in Detroit in 1881, at the age of thirty-one years. 
The remaining children are Jessie Dean, wife of 
W. R. Hamilton, Margaret C, and John K., a civil 
engineer of Detroit. 

GEORGE F. MOORE, wholesale dry goods 
merchant of Detroit, was born in Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts, December 10, 1832, and is one of 
the twelve children of John and Clara Moore, and 
of New England ancestry. His grandfather on 
the paternal side came from Holland, and was 
among the earliest settlers of Berkshire County, 
and his descendants have left an honorable impress 
upon the commercial and political life of New 
England. Mr. Moore's mother was of Scotch de- 
scent, but her ancestors came to America prior 
to the Revolutionary War. John Moore was a 
man of sturdy character, and infused into his chil- 
dren those sound principles which have given them 
honorable and useful positions in the world. He 
dealt largely in lands, and was also engaged in the 
coal and timber trade, owning large tracts of land in 
Berkshire County. He possessed natural business 
ability, good judgment, was animated by honest 
and conscientious motives, was highly respected 
and esteemed, and as a business man was quite 
successful. He removed with his family to Bata- 
via. New York, in 1847, and died there in 
1858. 

His son, George F. Moore, was educated in the 
public schools of Berkshire and Batavia, and at the 
age of eighteen began his commercial career as a 
clerk in the dry goods house of Wells & Seymour, 
of Batawa, with whom he remained three years. 
He then went to Buffalo, New York, and for a year 
was in the employ of Howard, Whitcomb & Co. 
His next engagement took him to New Orleans 
and Memphis, where he spent the winter of 1854. 
In 1855 he returned to Buffalo, and for three years 
was in the service of his former employer. His 
business career in Detroit dates from 1859. In that 
year he entered the dry goods store of Town & 
Shelden, by whom he was employed for six years, 
when he and James L. Edson, were admitted as 
partners. The firm name was Allan Shelden & 
Co., the late Senator Zachariah Chandler being a 
special partner.. In 1872 Mr. Moore and Mr. 
Edson retired from the firm and established the 
present wholesale dry goods house of Edson, 
Moore & Co. They began business in a building 
erected for them on the southwest corner of Jef- 
ferson avenue and Bates Street, where they re- 
mained until 1882, when the growth of their busi- 
ness demanding larger quarters, the building on the 
opposite side of Bates Street and on the corner of 
Jefferson Avenue was erected for their use. The 
growth of their business to its present commanding 



1 162 



MERCHANTS. 



position among the wholesale houses of the North- 
west, has been rapid, at the present time their sales 
exceed those of any dry goods house in the State, 
and their establishment is one of the largest con- 
cerns in its line west of New York City. In view 
of these results, it is needless to say that Mr. 
Moore has had a remarkably busy life, or that 
he possesses excellent business capacity and judg- 
ment. An important factor in his career has been 
his practical experience since early manhood, with 
the line of business in which he is engaged . Start- 
ing in life without assistance, save what his own 
industry and worth had justly earned, he has 
gained a deserving place among the most success- 
ful merchants of Detroit. The life and labgr of 
even the most successful business man, made up 
of daily rounds of duty, would seem to furnish little 
of note to the biographer, but it should be oftener 
kept in mind that the growth and good of the 
nation, and of each individual citizen, is secured 
through the development of commercial enterprise, 
rather than by the ready eloquence of mere politi- 
cal place hunters. The mercantile community 
increases the consumption of raw material by open- 
ing new avenues of trade, and by pushing the sale of 
various products, while the political representative 
often hinders legitimate commerce by crude legisla- 
tion and unbusiness-like schemes in the interest of 
his party. 

The personal supervision of extensive interests 
has given Mr. Moore but limited opportunity to 
engage in other pursuits, but no citizen has shown, 
in more substantial ways, his deep interest in all 
enterprises pertaining to the good of Detroit. Pro- 
gressive and public-spirited, his aid is never refused 
to any deserving projects. He possesses far-seeing 
business judgment, the power to thoroughly grasp 
complicated details, is careful and methodical, and 
steadily and persistently follows a course he has 
decided upon, and is not easily turned from a pro- 
ject his judgment approves. His integrity is un- 
questioned, and upon his business honor there is 
no stain. Personally he is reserved in manner, but 
with those who possess his full confidence he is genial 
and companionable. He is warmly attached to his 
friends, his home and the domestic ties are especially 
dear to him, and his chief enjoyment is found in 
the family circle. For many years he has been a 
member of the First Presbyterian Church, and is 
generous in his donations to religious and charita- 
ble objects. 

He was married in 1855 to Adela S. Mosher, 
daughter of Amasa A. and Susan Mosher. They 
have had five children, Edward H. (deceased). 
George F, Jr., Willis Howard, Harriet L., deceased 
wife of John Arthur Heames, and Adela S., wife of 
J. Ledlie Hees. 



JOHN VALLfiE MORAN was born in Detroit, 
December 25, 1846. He is descended from French 
ancestors, who were among the early immigrants 
to the St. Lawrence Valley. Pierre Moran, the 
founder of the family in America, was born at 
Batiscan, in 1651, and married Madeline Grimard, 
in 1678. Their descendants were numerous in 
Canada, and many of them noted as clergymen, 
lawyers, and landed proprietors. The name was 
originally spelled Morand, and it so appears in 
some of the old records. One of the sons of 
Pierre Moran, Jean Eaptiste, was married at Quebec, 
in 1707, to Elizabeth Dubois. Their son, Charles, 
settled at Detroit in the year 1734. In 1767 he 
married Marguerite Grimard Trembley, whose 
family possessed the seigneurie de Trembley as 
early as 1681. She died in 1771, leaving two sons, 
the younger of whom, Charles, w^as born in 1770, 
and married, in 1794, Catherine Vissier, dit Laferte, 
whose only child was the late Judge Charles Moran. 
The latter was born April 21, 1797, and was married 
in 1822 to Julie De Quindre, by whom he had five 
children, of whom only the youngest is living, Mary 
Josephine, wife of Robert E. Mix, of Cleveland, 
Ohio. Judge Moran married for his second wife 
Justine McCormack, of New York. They had five 
children — James, who died unmarried ; William B. ; 
John Vallee ; Catherine, wife of the late Henry D. 
Barnard ; and Alfred T. Judge Moran died October 
13, 1876, leaving to the above named children and 
his widow one of the most valuable estates in the 
city. 

John Vallee Moran, the third son, received his 
rudimentary education in Ste. Anne's Church School, 
then taught by the Christian brothers ; he after- 
w^ards attended the old Barstow School, and the 
private school of P. M. Patterson ; completed a 
course in higher mathematics at the Detroit High 
School, and finished his commercial education by a 
course at Sprague and Farnsworth's Business Col- 
lege in Detroit. While thus acquiring a theoretical 
knowledge of business, he had some experience in 
its practice in connection with the affairs of his 
father's estate. 

In 1 867 he became a clerk in the grocery house 
of Moses W. Field & Company, at the foot of 
Griswold Street. In 1869 he assumed the position 
of assistant bookkeeper in the wholesale grocery 
house of John Stephens & Company, subsequently 
became shipping clerk in the wholesale grocery 
house of Beatty & Fitzsimons, which place he re- 
tained for two years, at the expiration of which time 
he purchased the interest of the late Simon Man- 
dlebaum, in that establishment, and became a 
partner, the style of the firm being Beatty, Fitz- 
simons & Company. The firm continued without 
change until Mr. Beatty died, in August, 1885 ; the 




(I'^c'r 7^. 



// 



i c c ^ c 



MERCHANTS. 



I 163 



business was then reorganized, and in March, 1887, 
the firm was changed to Moran, Fitzsimons & 
Company, and the house is recognized as one of the 
most prosperous in the city. 

Mr. Moran has also been active in many other 
enterprises. For many years he was a director in 
the Merchants and Manufacturers' Exchange, which 
his firm took a leading part in organizing, and 
which has been of great benefit to the city. He 
was one of the organizers of the Gale Sulky Harrow 
Company, and one of its first directors. He aided 
in establishing Ward's line of Detroit and Lake 
Superior Transportation Steamers, and has been 
a Director and Secretary of the company since 
its organization. In 1887 he assisted in organiz- 
ing the American Banking and Savings Associa- 
tion, and the American Trust Company, the 
latter being the first institution of the kind in 
Michigan. He is a Director and Vice-President of 
both companies. He was also one of the organizers 
of the Detroit Club, and was its first Treasurer and 
one of its first Board of Directors. He is an enthusi- 
astic boatman, and has been prominently connected 
with the Detroit Boat and Yacht Clubs, and was a 
member of the Northwestern Amateur Rowing 
Association as a Director, and its President in 1886. 

His political affiliations are with the Democratic 
party. By appointment of the Mayor, he served as 
a member of the Board of Inspectors of the House 
of Correction for two terms, from 1880 to 1886, and 
was President of the Board in 1880, and also in 
1885. 

He has been from infancy a member of SS. Peter 
and Paul's Church, is a member of the Parochial 
School Building Association of that church, and of 
the St. Vincent de Paul Society. 

He is methodical and careful in all his business 
transactions, uniformly courteous, and with an 
attractive manner that easily wins confidence, while 
his sterling worth enables him to retain as friends 
those with whom he comes in contact. He is a good 
organizer, easily comprehends the minute details of 
what he undertakes, and is remarkably successful 
'n his business enterprises. His moral character is 
unblemished ; he possesses a high sense of honor, 
IS both just and generous, and few among the 
younger business men of Detroit are more deserv- 
edly popular and influential. 

He was married November 25, 1880, at Memphis, 
Tennessee, to Emma Etheridge, only daughter of 
Emerson Etheridge, of Tennessee. Their children 
^^e: Frances Valerie, Justine Semmes, Charles 
Emerson. Etheridge, John Bell Loyola, James 
Granville and Marie Stephanie. 

CYRENIUS ADELBERT NEWCOMB, son 
Colonel Hezekiah Newcomb, was born November 



10, 1837, in Cortland, New York. His grandfather, 
Hezekiah Newcomb, was a well known and influ- 
ential citizen in Northwestern Massachusetts, and 
represented Bernardstown and Leyden in the State 
Legislature or General Court of Massachusetts, for 
more than twenty years. His father. Colonel 
Hezekiah Newcomb, also served the State in the 
same capacity, and was a widely respected teacher, 
and later on was commissioned as Colonel of one of 
the regiments of the New York Militia. His mother's 
maiden name was Rounds. The ancestry of the 
Newcomb family is easily traced for hundreds of 
years. The Harlein manuscripts in the British 
Museum gives the names of the Newcombs of 
Devonshire from the year 1 1 89. The early history 
of the Newcombs in this country is connected with 
various portions of New England and eastern 
Canada. In the family connection is the name of 
Abigail Mather, daughter of the noted Rev. Increase 
Mather. Her mother was the daughter of the cele- 
brated Rev. John Cotton. The earliest known 
American member of the family, Captain Andrew 
Newcomb, lived in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1663, 
and probably emigrated there from Wales or Devon- 
shire. The family, at an early day, were large 
land owners at Martha's" Vineyard and in other 
parts of New England, and even in Arcadia, being 
drawn there by the King's proclamation of 1761. 
They occupied some of the lands from which the 
French were so remorselessly driven. The old town 
records of the far east disclose the fact that differ- 
ent members of the family, at various periods, 
held all the offices within the gift of the people. 

The Newcombs were originally loyal church 
members of the old Puritan stock, but in later years 
some of them became prominent members of the 
Methodist and Presbyterian Churches. Several 
were college graduates at an early day, and the 
ministerial, editorial, and educational professions, 
as well as the guild of authors, are all represented 
in the connection, and some of the family have 
made large gifts to schools and colleges. Travelers 
and scientists of note are also in the genealogical 
list. During the Revolutionary War, some mem- 
bers of the family served on the Union side, and 
others under the British colors. Among the soldiers 
of the War of 181 2, and also in the War with the 
South, they are also represented. 

After receiving the usual education afforded by 
the schools of New England, Mr. C. A. Newcomb 
began his business career in Hannibal, New York, 
but when twenty years old he went to Taunton, 
Massachusetts, where for some nine years he 
served as clerk in the dry good stores of N. H. 
Skinner & Company, and, becoming a partner, 
continued two years longer. He then, in 1868, 
removed to Detroit, and with Mr. Charles Endicott 



1 164 



MERCHANTS. 



purchased the dry goods establishment and good 
will of James W. Farrell, and under the firm name 
of Newcomb, Endicott & Company, the business 
remained in the Merrill Block, at the stand occupied 
by their predecessors, for one year. To the surprise 
of citizens generally, the following year the firm led 
the march of business up Woodward Avenue, by 
moving to and occupying the ground floor of the 
then new Opera House Building, facing the Campus 
Martins. Remaining here ten years, in 1879 they 
again led the van in the march northward, and 
moved to the large building erected for their occu- 
pancy by D. M. Ferry, on the east side of Woodward 
Avenue, just below State Street. Even here they 
do not find sufficient room for their ever increasing 
business. Various plans have been considered for 
enlarging the capacity of their establishment, which 
is already the largest of the kind in the city. As 
an indication of the extent of their business, it may 
be mentioned that of kid gloves alone, although 
they are not a distinct specialty, their sales have 
reached as high as forty thousand dollars in a single 
year. 

In addition to his extensive interests in connection 
with this establishment, Mr. Newcomb is a large 
stockholder in, and President of, the Imperial Life 
Insurance Company, the Detroit Nut Lock Com- 
pany, and the Michigan Railway Supply Company, 

Mr. Newcomb w^as one of the organizers of the 
Universalist Church, and contributed largely towards 
the erection of the elegant church occupied by that 
society. He can be counted upon as interested in 
whatever concerns the moral welfare of his fellow- 
citizens, and, in a practical way, to further every 
institution that promises to be an advantage to the 
city. 

He is pronounced in his temperance sentiments, 
and in the campaign of 1887, in favor of an amend- 
ment to the constitution prohibiting the manufac- 
ture or sale of liquor, was an active and influential 
factor. As a business man, he is modest, sensible, 
and successful; and conscientiously endeavors to 
fulfill the duties belonging to good citizenship. 

In 1867 he married MaryE. Haskell, daughter of 
William Reynolds Haskell, of Hartford, Connecticut. 
Their children are named William Wilmon, Cyrenius 
Adelbert, Mary Queen, and Howard Rounds. Mrs. 
Newcomb died November 17, 1887. 

HENRY A. NEWLAND, senior partner in the 
wholesale fur house of Henry A. Newland & Com- 
pany, of Detroit, is the son of Adolphus Thayer 
and Lucinda (Smith) Newland, and was born at 
Hammondsport, Steuben County, New York, March 
17, 1835. When quite young, his parents removed 
to Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, where he 
attended the High School, continuing his studies 



until he began his very successful mercantile career 
by becoming a clerk in the store of William H. 
Cuyler, where he remained seven years. 

In February, 1854, he came to Detroit, and 
entered the house of F. Buhl & Company, whole- 
sale hatters and furriers. Within three years he 
had made himself so useful that in 1857 he was 
admitted as a partner in the establishment, and 
three years later the name of the firm was changed 
to F. Buhl, Newland & Company. As a member 
of this firm, he held a very responsible position, and 
attended largely to the purchasing of the goods, 
and was chief manager of the European branch of 
their large operations, traveling extensively and 
attending annually the large fur sales at London and 
Leipzig. 

In 1880 he retired from the firm above named, 
and established the house of Henry A. Newland & 
Company, which at once took the leading position in 
their line, and is now the largest fur house west 
of New York, employing from one hundred and 
twenty-five to one hundred and fifty persons. It 
exports raw furs extensively, and Mr. Newland con- 
tinues his annual trips to the leading fur markets of 
Europe. 

In 1865 Mr. Newland was appointed by Governor 
Crapo a member of the State Military Board, and 
aid-de-camp to the Governor, with the rank of 
Colonel. He served in this capacity during Gover- 
nor Crapo's first term, and as chief of his staff during 
his second term. 

Mr. Newland is recognized as one of the most 
enterprising and successful of the business men of 
Detroit. He is possessed of excellent business 
judgment, gives close attention to all the depart- 
ments of his establishment, and is one of the best 
buyers and judges of furs in the whole country. 
In addition to his regular business, Mr. Newland is 
interested in the Crystal City Glass Works, of 
Bowling Green, Ohio. 

His abilities, and the position he has secured, have 
not made him unsocial, but on the contrary he is 
always affable, courteous, willing to accommodate, 
and, as a natural result, makes many friends, and 
is a member of the Detroit and Grosse Pointe Clubs. 

He was married March 11, 1862, to Emily A. 
Burns, daughter of James Burns. She died June 
18, 1 87 1. Their only surviving child is Helen L. 
Newland. On March 7, 1877, Mr. Newland mar- ^ 
ried Martha Alger Joy. daughter of James F. Joy. 
Mr. and Mrs. Newland have one living child, Mary 
Joy Newland. 

THOMAS PALMER, one of the pioneer Amer- 
ican merchants of Detroit, was born in Ashford, 
Windham County, Connecticut, February 4* '7^9' 
The Palmers were among the earliest of the Pun- 






l.....-/^<y^"^ .^^^^"-^--^-^ 



MERCHANTS. 



I 165 



tan pioneers. William Palmer, the first of the 
name that arrived in this country, came in the ship 
Fortune, in 1821, and settled in what is now Dux- 
bury, Massachusetts. Walter Palmer followed in 
1629, coming with John Endicott, who had in 
charge six ships, containing upwards of four hun- 
dred persons. Walter Palmer was one of the 
original founders of Charlestown, Massachusetts, 
but after various removals finally settled m Pawca- 
tuch, no^ Stonington, Connecticut, where he was 
appointed constable in 1658. He died there in 1661, 
aged seventy-six years, leaving twelve children, 
and from these children have sprung over sixty 
thousand Palmers, whose records are preserved, 
except in a few instances. The list of descendants 
contains the names of a large number of persons 
who occupy prominent places in history, among 
whom are General Grant, a descendant from Walter 
Palmer's eldest daughter Grace, General Joseph 
Palmer, of Boston Tea Ship notoriety, who served 
during the War of the Revolution, and who was an 
intimate friend of John Adams. Many other notable 
names are included in various branches of the family, 
numbers of the name being clergymen, judges, and 
civic officers. 

Thomas Palmer's father married a Miss Barber, 
and they had six sons and three daughters. The 
grandfather, Thomas Barber, was engaged in the 
Indian trade, and came to Detroit as early as 
1763, bringing goods from Hartford, hauling them 
from Hartford to Schenectady with oxen, freighting 
them by boats up the Mohawk, and thence via 
Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, and down the outlet 
to Oswego, and from there by Lakes Ontario and 
Erie, to Detroit. The goods were bartered with 
the Indians for furs, and then in turn the furs were 
transported over the same long and tedious route to 
Hartford. 

The story of these adventures, told to his grand- 
sons, kindled in the minds of at least two of them, 
a desire to seek their fortunes in the West, and in 
the spring of 18 12. Thomas and Friend Palmer 
brought a stock of goods from the East, and 
opened a store about twenty miles below De- 
troit, at Amherstburg, Ontario. On the declaration 
of war, which occurred soon after, they were both 
imprisoned as American citizens ; but after five 
weeks' confinement, were liberated and put ashore 
upon the American side, near Monguagon. They 
then walked to Detroit, joined a company of volun- 
teers commanded by Shubael Conant, and were 
present at the surrender of Detroit to the British. 
After the surrender, being permitted to return to 
Maiden and secure their goods, they went to Can- 
andaigua, New York, where they established a 
store, remaining about four years. 

In 1 816, Thomas Palmer returned to Detroit, and 



opened a store, under the firm name of F. & T. 
Palmer, Friend Palmer remaining in charge of the 
store at Canandaigua. The two brothers also 
established a branch store at Ashtabula, Ohio, 
built flouring mills at Scio, New York, and for a 
number of years did a very large and profitable busi- 
ness. They became contractors for public works of 
various kinds, and constructed many of the roads 
leading out from Detroit. They also built and 
owned a number of vessels, among which were the 
"Tiger" and "Young Tiger," the former com- 
manded by the well-known Captain Blake. 

In 1820 Thomas Palmer built the first brick store 
erected in Detroit, and in 1823 was one of the con- 
tractors for the building of the Court House or 
Capitol, which in recent years was occupied by the 
High School. For erecting the building they re- 
ceived the ten thousand acre tract and several 
hundred city lots. The crisis of 1824 brought ruin 
to Thomas Palmer's financial prospects, but he suc- 
ceeded in paying all his debts, and was soon engaged 
in new ventures. In 1828 he purchased the site of 
the present city of St. Clair, erected saw-mills and 
laid out a village, which was known as Palmer, and 
did a large lumbering business there for many 
years. From 1845 to 1847, Mr. Palmer was inter- 
ested in various Lake Superior enterprises, but they 
did not prove profitable. During this period he 
coasted from Sault Ste. Marie to the head of Lake 
Superior, and back, In a six-oared boat. 

For several years following 1849, he was engaged 
in a general land and insurance business. 

During his earlier life in Detroit he was promi- 
nent in the discharge of the duties of a good citizen. 
He served as a trustee of the city in 18 19, as 
an Alderman at large from 1826 to 1830, as asses- 
sor in 1 83 1, and also at various times filled other 
minor offices. In social life he was notably genial 
and kind-hearted, and even in his business affairs 
humorous and almost playful. If he had been less 
easy and lenient with those who were his debtors, 
it would have doubtless been to his pecuniary 
advantage. He loved an active life, and enjoyed 
doing business because of the active life it gave 
him, rather than for the rewards that he obtained 
or desired. He was one of the corporators of the 
First Protestant Church of Detroit, and was always 
interested in the religious and benevolent welfare 
of the city. In every trial he acted the part of a 
true man, and throughout life his conduct was irre- 
proachable. In politics, Mr. Palmer was a Whig, 
but became a Republican upon the organization of 
that party, and ever took much interest in its success. 

In 1 82 1 he married Mary A. Witherell, daughter 
of Judge James Witherell. They had nine children, 
of whom only Thomas W. Palmer, of Detroit, is 
living. Of the other children, Julia £., who mar- 



ii66 



MERCHANTS. 



riecl H. W. Hubbard, and after his death became 
the wife of Hugh Moffat, died on November 20, 
1880. Mary W., wife of Henry M. Roby, of Mon- 
roeviile, Ohio, died in 1854; Sarah C, died unmar- 
ried, in 1859. Thomas Palmer died on August 3, 
1868, and his wife on March 20, 1874. 

Mrs. Palmer was for sixty years a prominent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of De- 
troit, and in health, active in various Christian and 
benevolent enterprises. 

Her memory is fitly preserved in the beautiful 
edifice known as the Mary W. Palmer Memorial 
Methodist Episcopal Church, erected in 1884. 

GEORGE PECK, the founder of one of the 
oldest and largest dry goods establishments in the 
State, is a lineal descendant of William Peck, who, 
on account of religious persecutions, emigrated from 
London in the year 1637, and became, in 1638, 
with Governor Eaton, Thomas Buckingham, Rev. 
John Davenport, and other sturdy New England 
characters, one of the founders of the colony of 
New Haven. Who that has the blood of the Puri- 
tans is not proud of their upright and courageous 
lives! The State of Michigan is especially to be 
congratulated that their descendants, in such large 
numbers, have here found a home. 

George R. Peck was a farmer, in the town of 
Lyme, Connecticut, and there, on the fifth of Novem- 
ber, 1834, his son George was born. His boyhood 
was spent on the farm, one of those rocky home- 
steads so common in New England. He was edu- 
cated in the district school and at Essex Academy. 
Owing to an accident, which deprived him of the 
partial use of one arm, he was obliged to seek some 
light occupation, and on August 23, 1850, he entered 
the dry goods store of J. B. Wells, of Utica, New 
York, commencing in the lowest position. He 
gained the confidence and respect of his employer, 
and was rapidly advanced, and could have obtained 
an interest in the business, but in the winter of 
1856-7 his health failed, and he was compelled to 
give up his position. He then sought to recruit his 
health by traveling through the States of Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Returning from 
the trip and stopping at Utica, New York, he entered 
into partnership with J. W. Frisbie, and on August 
6, 1857, they opened a dry goods house at 167 
Jefferson Avenue, Detroit. They had hardly opened 
before the great financial panic of that year swept 
over the country, and thousands of firms were ruined. 
By the hardest of work, however, they were able to 
weather the storm, and continued in business for 
three years. The firm was then dissolved. 

On November i, i860, Mr. Peck started in busi- 
ness alone at 137 Woodward Avenue, and at first 
it scented as if fortune was certainly against him, 



for the following year was probably one of the most 
trying to American merchants that was ever known. 
The War with the South began ; the banks every- 
where failed ; gold and silver disappeared, and it 
is safe to say that no one then foresaw what the 
end would be. Mr. Peck and his wife, however, 
hazarded every dollar that they possessed, and were 
able, through fortuitous circumstances, to continue 
in business, and at length fortune smiled, the era 
of high prices was inaugurated, and after that time 
he was prospered, the only drawback being an 
extensive robbery of silks which occurred on Feb- 
ruary 8, 1864. In October, 1871, he moved to the 
new stores, 155 and 157 Woodward Avenue, con- 
tinuing in business until February, 1877, when he 
retired on account of failing health. 

He always conducted his business in an honora- 
ble manner, and so carefully was it managed that 
he has never asked one day's favor of a creditor. 

Mr. Peck is President of the Michigan Savings 
Bank and of the Edison Illuminating Company, 
and a director in the Detroit Fire and Marine 
Insurance Company, and in the Pioneer Bank of 
North Branch, Michigan. He is a leading member, 
and for fifteen years has been one of the Trustees, 
of the First Presbyterian Church. His record is 
that of a careful, successful, and reliable merchant, 
willing to promote, to the extent of his ability, all 
legitimate enterprises that look to the prosperity or 
social advancement of the city. He is a Republi- 
can in politics, but has never desired or held any 
political office. 

He was married October 28, 1858, to Sarah F. 
Butler, daughter of Samuel F. Butler, of Grand 
Rapids, Michigan. It may be mentioned, as a 
singular coincidence, that she was a direct descend- 
ant of Thomas Buckingham, one of the founders 
of the New Haven colony who came over in the 
ship Hector, with his ancestor, William Peck. Mrs. 
Peck died February 14, 1872, leaving four children, 
Julia E., George B., Minna F., and Barton L. 

JAMES E. PITTMAN has been identified with 
Detroit since 1843. His active life covers a space 
of upwards of forty years, during more than half of 
which he has been connected with the military his- 
tory of the city and the nation. The record of his 
career is the history of a busy and energetic life, and 
although he has reached three score years, the 
characteristics of middle life are still conspicuous, 
and give promise of vigorous continuance for many 
years. 

Mr, Pittman was born in Tecumseh, Lenawee 
County, Michigan, September 5, 1826. His ancestry 
is English, and on the paternal side of Quaker stock. 
His father was born in Philadelphia, in 1 796, and 
early in life settled in Kentucky. From thence he 





./',^^,r...eV 



cZ^cZr^ 



(^.■C^ 



MERCHANTS. 



II67 



moved to New England, and later on lived success- 
ively in Jefferson and Canandaigua Counties, New 
York. His ambition pointed, however, to the West, 
and he soon became one of the pioneers of Michigan, 
and located in Tecumseh. His restless energy was, 
however, still unsatisfied, and, in 1834, he, with 
his family, migrated to Texas. In the Border War he 
joined the army at Austin (now Houston), remained 
in the service about a year, and then, finding the 
country too unsettled, he and his family returned 
to Tecumseh. He died at Ontonagon in 1868. His 
son, James E. Pittman, after returning to Tecumseh, 
at nine years of age, attended a private school, and 
subsequently entered the local branch of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. Among his fellow students 
were William Gray, Witter J. Baxter, and Joseph 
Estabrook. 

At the age of seventeen, Mr. Pittman came to 
Detroit, and entered the service of Lawson, Howard 
& Company, grain and commission merchants, at 
the foot of Shelby Street. When the Mexican War 
begun, Mr. Pittman was a member of the Brady 
Guard, afterwards succeeded by the Grayson 
Guard, and now well known as the Detroit Light 
Guard, and in December, 1847, he enlisted in the 
First Regiment Michigan Volunteers, and was made 
Adjutant of the regiment under Colonel T. B. W. 
Stockton and Lieutenant-Colonel Alpheus S. Wil- 
liams. The regiment marched nearly all the way to 
Cincinnati ; from there went by boat to New Orleans, 
and thence by sailing vessel to Vera Cruz, where they 
were formed into a division under General Bank- 
head, United States Army, and were sent to garrison 
Cordova and Orizaba. The next summer, peace 
being declared, Mr. Pittman returned to Detroit, 
arriving in July, 1848. Soon after reaching home, 
he was mustered out of service, and entered E. W. 
Hudson's commission house on Shelby Street. 
Resigning his position here in 1852, he formed a 
partnership with Edmund Trowbridge and J. Huff 
Jones, in the commission and forwarding business, 
under the firm name of Pittman, Trowbridge & 
Jones. In 1855 the partnership was dissolved, and 
Mr. Pittman joined the late Dr. E. M. Clark in 
establishing a commission and coal business. In 
1856, as Dr. Clark contemplated a European tour, 
he withdrew, and the business was conducted 
by Mr. Pittman until May, 1885, when he accepted 
the appointment of Supermtendent of Police. 
When Mr. Pittman entered the employ of E. W. 
Hudson, in 1848, he was the only one dealing in 
hard coal in the city, and in 1856, when he entered 
the coal business on his own account, there were 
but two or three other dealers in Detroit, 

When President Lincoln called for State troops, 
in 1 86 1, Mr. Pittman, with other leading citizens, 
was summoned by Governor Blair to a confer- 



ence at the Michigan Exchange. As the result of 
this conference, General Alpheus S. Williams was 
appointed to organize troops for the State, with 
William D. Wilkins, Henry M. Whittlesey, and 
James E. Pittman as staff officers. Soon after this, 
Mr. Pittman was made a Paymaster of State troops, 
with rank of Colonel. This appointment attached 
him to the Governor's staff, and in that capacity he 
went to the front and paid off the first four Michi- 
gan regiments. In the fall of 1861, a School of 
Instruction was established at Fort Wayne, where 
the commissioned and non-commissioned officers 
of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Michigan regiments 
were drilled, and Colonel Pittman was made second 
in command. General Williams was soon appointed 
Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and, with Wilkins 
and Whittlesey, left for the front, leaving Colonel 
Pittman in command. The following winter he was 
appointed Inspector-General of State troops, and 
went with Governor Blair to different parts of the 
country. In the summer of 1862 he was detailed 
to organize the Seventeenth Regiment of Michigan 
Infantry, and, after having done so, turned the 
command over to General Withington. At this 
period, and for some time thereafter. Colonel Pitt- 
man was a member of the State Military Board. 
In 1865, with Governor Crapo, he went to Washing- 
ton to attend the grand review of the Union troops. 
The war having ended, Colonel Pittman resigned 
his military appointment, and again entered earnestly 
into business. 

About 1868 Mr. Pittman was appointed, by Gov- 
ernor Baldwin, one of the Trustees of the Michigan 
Asylum for the Insane, at Kalamazoo. He has 
also served as one of the Inspectors of the Detroit 
House of Correction. His extended military expe- 
rience, and the practical knowledge gained by 
twelve continuous years of service as one of the 
Commissioners of Police, by appointment of various 
Governors, give him especial fitness for his present 
position as Superintendent of Police. His appoint- 
ment dates from May i, 1885. 

He is an active member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. He was married in Pennsylvania in 
1851. 

WILLIAM REID, wholesale and retail paint 
and glass merchant of Detroit, was born in Mersea, 
Essex County, Ontario, August 19, 1842. His 
father, John Reid, was a shipbuilder by trade, and 
previous to leaving for America, superintended the 
building of vessels for his father, who owned a ship- 
yard at Stranraer, Scotland, and afterwards on the 
Clyde. His mother's maiden name was Margaret 
Bennett. Both of his parents were born in Scot- 
land, but emigrated to this country in 1835, settling 
at first in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and about 1 840 



ii68 



MERCHANTS. 



removing to Western Canada. His father some 
time later purchased a farm in Tilbury East, Kent 
County, Ontario. , 

William Reid passed his earlier years working on 
a farm and attending the public school. He came 
to Detroit in 1861, attended school for a brief 
period, after which he returned to Canada and 
taught school until 1863. He then returned to De- 
troit, took a course of practical instruction in book- 
keeping and commercial business, and early in 1864 
secured a clerkship in the office of a prominent law 
firm of East Saginaw, remaining until the following 
November, ^hen on account of ill health he was 
compelled to relinquish work and return home. 
During the greater part of the following year his 
health was such as to confine him to his bed, but 
by October he had so improved that he accepted 
the position of bookkeeper for the painting and 
decorating firm of Laible, Wright & Hopkins, of 
Detroit. After about a year's service, Mr. Laible 
and Mr. Hopkins retired from the firm and Mr. Reid 
was admitted as partner, under the firm name of 
Wm. Wright & Company. Their business at this 
time was carried on at 197 Jefferson Avenue, but in 
1868 they removed to 108 Woodward Avenue. In 
1 87 1 Mr. Wright retired and Mr. Reid and Mr. B. C. 
Hills assumed control of the business under the name 
of Reid & Hills. By this time their business had 
so increased that they were compelled to open branch 
stores at Nos. 12 and 14 Congress Street East, 
which were devoted to the paint and glass portions 
of their business In January. 1879, the firm was 
dissolved, Mr. Reid retaining the sole control of the 
business pertaining to the paint and glass trade, 
and continuing the same at the Congress Street 
stores. Under his energetic management the busi- 
ness increased so rapidly that in 1882, the present 
wholesale stores. No. 73 and 75 Earned Street 
West, were built expressly to meet the demands of 
his trade, the old quarters on Congress Street 
being retained as retail stores. 

An important feature of the business is the plate 
glass trade, and from 1867 to 1884, nearly all the 
plale glass purchased by the firm was purchased of 
New York importers, and for a few years preceding 
1884, partly from American manufacturers, and by 
them cut to such size as wanted. In 18S4 Mr. 
Reid made a new departure and purchased several 
car loads of American and imported plates, direct 
from the factories, in sheets as manufactured, thus 
obtaining as good figures and standing as the New 
York importers. This bold move offended some of 
the manufacturers, who for years had controlled 
the sales of plate glass in the West, and they deter- 
mined to destroy his business, and as a means to 
this end. at a meeting of the managers of the four 
American plate glass factories, representing several 



millions of capital, held at Chicago, it was deter- 
mined to reduce the price of plate glass in Michi- 
gan and adjoining territory, twenty to twenty-five 
per cent., and as the margin on plate glass is only 
about five per cent., they concluded he would be 
forced to return to his former method of obtaining 
supplies. They also insisted that the American 
factory which had entered into a contract to supply 
Mr. Reid with glass, should cancel the agreement. 
Mr. Reid, however, did not despair. A conference 
was held with the managers of the factory w^ho had 
agreed to furnish him with glass, and he convinced 
them of the unfairness of reducing prices in Michi- 
gan, and the injustice of the means by which it was 
proposed to crush fair and honorable competition. 
As the result of this conference, they withdrew 
from the combination, and he was selected as 
one of a syndicate to take their entire product. 
Although thus successful in his plans, Mr. Reid did 
not attempt to compete in the territory where the 
remaining three factories for some time maintained 
reduced prices to their own loss, but he extended 
his sales from Buffalo to Kansas City, and from 
Duluth to New Orleans, in fields where fair prices 
and just competition prevailed, and the unfair at- 
tempt to destroy legitimate competition, used 
against Mr. Reid, resulted in making Detroit as 
good a plate glass market as there is in the country, 
and he now sells more glass in a single month than 
he did formerly in a year. 

In addition to his sales of plate glass, Mr. Reid 
is a large dealer and importer of fancy window 
and colored glass, keeping the largest and best 
assorted stock west of New York City. 

As a business man he has shown great energy 
and sagacity, and has proved himself not only able 
to develop, but successfully manage large enter- 
prises. He is careful and methodical, but has 
had the courage to undertake business ventures 
that some men would not dare to attempt. Always 
affable, cool and clear-headed, he naturally makes 
a favorable impression upon those with whom he 
comes in contact. He has devoted himself to his 
business with such a singleness of purpose that it 
has made him a thorough master of every detail, 
and in his line of trade his firm stands at the head 
of all establishments west of New York City. He 
was reared as a Presbyterian, but is now an adher- 
ent of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Politically 
he is a Republican, but takes little part in party 
management, and has no desire for political honors. 
He was married to Mary Powell, of Detroit, 
November 9, 1869. They have had seven children, 
five of whom are living. 

WILLIAM D. ROBINSON was born in Eng- 
land, March 21, 1839. His father occupied a high 




^!%i2^'^?^2-c::<-*^'«'Z^-__ 



"^ 



MERCHANTS. 



1 169 



position under the English Government, and con- 
trolled several very extensive sugar plantations in 
the West Indies. His grandfather was for many- 
years President of the Grand Trunk Canal Company 
of England. 

William D. Robinson, learned the retail shoe 
business in Rochester, New York, and from there 
he went to Binghamton, New York, and acquired a 
thorough knowledge of the wholesale and manu- 
facturing business, and came to Detroit in 1862, and 
for a short time represented a manufacturing house. 
Upon severing his connection with this firm he 
went to Boston, Massachusetts, and entered the 
large manufacturing establishment of Underwood, 
Cochrane & Company, taking charge of the sales 
of the house in the Western States. In the spring 
of 1865 he proposed to the firm foopen a wholesale 
house at Detroit, and the same year they established 
a store at 116 Jefferson Avenue, under the firm 
name of Underwood, Cochrane & Company, the 
resident members of the firm being William D. and 
Henry S. Robinson, who had the entire charge of 
the business. 

In 1867 the firm was dissolved, and the Messrs. 
Robinson, with James Burtenshaw, bought out the 
interests of the Boston partners, and formed a new 
firm, under the style of W. D. Robinson, Burtenshaw 
& Company, which continued until 1875. During 
this time they built up a large jobbing and manu- 
facturing trade. In 1875 the firm was dissolved, 
W. D. Robinson continuing the jobbing interest, 
under the style of W. D. Robinson & Company, at 
180 and 182 Jefferson Avenue, until 1887, and was 
succeeded by the- New York and New England 
Shoe Manufacturers* Selling Company, located 
at 47 Jefferson Avenue. Mr. Robinson's connec- 
tion with the last named firm closed in 1888, and 
he has since devoted his attention to real estate, 
and to several corporations in which he has become 
interested. 

He is conservative yet bold and enterprising in 
his business transactions, abreast with modern ideas 
and improvements, and a close observer. 

He was married December 22, 1862, to Abigail, 
daughter of M. Dyer, of Rochester, New York. 
They have two sons, Charles W. and Edwin S. 
The former is in the real estate business. Both Mr. 
and Mrs. Robinson are members of Grace Episco- 
pal Church. 

ALANSON SHELEY, of Detroit, was born at 
Albany, New York, August 14, 1809. When nine 
years old, he went to Jefferson County, New York, 
^ith his grandparents, who settled in the woods 
^nd commenced clearing a farm. Here, until he 
^as sixteen, he assisted his grandfather in the labors 



of the farm, attending, as opportunity offered, the 
district school. His first important ent,erprise was 
the taking of a raft of timber from Fisher's Landing, 
on the St. Lawrence River, to Quebec, successfully 
" shooting " the rapids, and disposing of the raft at 
good prices. At the age of sixteen, he commenced 
learning the trade of a stone-mason and builder, 
and at the end of three years' apprenticeship was 
employed as a foreman in the construction of the 
Rideau Canal, in Canada. 

In the summer of 1831 he started from Buffalo, 
on the steamboat " William Penn," and came to 
Detroit, then the farthest westerly point to which 
steamboats carried passengers. The following year 
he received an appointment from the United States 
Government to superintend the erection of a stone 
lighthouse at Thunder Bay. The structure then 
erected is still standing, and is the only one on the 
lakes, erected at that date, that is now in use. 
After the completion of the lighthouse, he returned 
to Detroit, and for several years followed the busi- 
ness of a builder and contractor. In 1835 he 
became general manager of the Black River Steam 
Mill and Lumber Company, chartered by the Terri- 
torial Government the previous year. He remained 
with the company until the expiration of its charter 
in 1855, and for the three years following carried 
on the lumber business on his own account. In 
1859 he entered into a partnership as one of the 
firm of Jacob S. Farrand & Company, wholesale 
and retail druggists. The present extensive and 
well known firm of Farrand, Williams & Company, 
with which Mr. Sheley is connected, represents the 
maturity of the same establishment. During the 
earlier growth of the business, Mr. Sheley was 
especially active in its financial management, and 
contributed valuable aid by his good judgment, 
tireless exertions, and the influence of his widely 
recognized moral worth. He is a director and 
shareholder in the First National Bank, largely 
interested in the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, in the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company, and in the Detroit and Cleveland Steam 
Navigation Company. He is also an extensive real 
estate owner in Detroit and Port Huron, and has 
some valuable pine land investments. 

Politically, he has ever been an active factor in 
his city and State. In early life he was a Whig, 
but assisted in the organization, in 1854, "under 
the oaks " at Jackson, of the Republican party, and 
has since been one of the staunchest supporters of 
the principles which it has advocated. During a 
most active business career, actuated by commend- 
able public spirit, he has served the city and State 
in several important official positions. For five 
years he was a member of the Common Council of 
the city, and for ten years a member of the Sewer 



1 170 



MERCHANTS. 



Commission and Board of Review. In the latter 
position, his plain honesty and knowledge of real 
estate values were of decided worth to his fellow- 
citizens. He represented the first district of Michi- 
gan in the State Senate two terms, serving in the 
sessions of 1867-68, and 1871-72, and his practical, 
liberal, and broad-minded views of public questions, 
and pure and disinterested motions, made him a 
valuable legislator. He is one of the oldest sur- 
viving members of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Detroit, of which for many years he was ruling 
elder, and for over forty years either assistant or 
Superintendent of its Sunday-school. He has taken 
an active part in building up numerous religious 
institutions, and has contributed liberally to their 
support. 

Strong in his personal friendship, and of gener- 
ous impulses, he is always ready to extend a helping 
hand to a friend, or to relieve distress. In personal 
appearance he is over six feet in height, and of 
large proportions. He has always been a man of 
great muscular strength, united to fearless physical 
courage. In early manhood he was very fond of 
athletic sports, particularly of wrestling. Some of 
the older citizens of Detroit remember the election 
skirmishes and collisions which took place at the 
old City Hall, when the partisanship of the electors 
was heated to a boiling point. In these contests 
Mr. Sheley was invariably the recognized leader of 
the Whig faction. In 1837, at the first ^State elec- 
tion, Messrs. Stillson, Mason, and McKinstry, lead- 
ing Democrats, with their followers, took possession 
of the polls, and would not allow the Whig voters 
to deposit their ballots. Among the Whigs present 
were Zachariah Chandler, Alanson Sheley, John 
Owen, Jacob M. Howard, George C. Bates, and 
Asher Bates. In a skirmish which ensued, Mr. 
Sheley was a tower of strength, but the pressure 
was such that he retreated to the National Hotel, 
then located on the site of the present Russell 
House. There, placing his back to the wall, he 
withstood, almost alone, the combined assault of 
those who sought to molest him. 

His moral courage has ever been as conspicuous 
as his physical bravery. A cause he considers 
right, he would defend without wavering, should he 
stand alone. With great force of character, indom- 
itable perseverance, and rugged determination, he 
has been especially active in the temperance move- 
ment, through the various progressive steps of this 
reform, aiding both by personal work and by the 
contributions of money. No braver defender of 
the cause of temperance, or more consistent advo- 
cate of right principles, can be found in all the city. 

Notwithstanding his advanced age, he possesses 
vigorous health, and personally attends to his numer- 
ous business engagements with zeal and promptness. 



He lives on spacious grounds on Stimson Place, 
where, surrounded by his children and their families, 
he is quietly and unostentatiously spending the latter 
years of a long and useful life, honored and revered. 
He was married on September i, 1835, to Ann 
Elizabeth Drury. They have had eight children, 
three of whom are living, two daughters, Mrs. D. W. 
Brooks and Mrs. L E. Clark, and a son, George A. 
Sheley, who enlisted in February, 1 863, as private in 
the First Michigan Light Artillery. He was pro- 
moted in August, 1863, to a Second Lieutenancy. 
His regiment formed a part of General Burnside's 
Ninth Corps, in East Tennessee, but was after- 
wards joined to the Twenty-second Corps. He was 
wounded while scouting in West Virginia, in May, 
1864, and discharged, on account of wounds, in 
September of the same year. 

OSIAS W. SHIPMAN was born at Pierstown, 
Otsego County, New York, January 29, 1834, and 
is the son of Horace and Abby Ann (Williams) 
Shipman. Soon after his birth, his parents removed 
to Norwich, Chenango County, New York, where 
for five or six years his father engaged in milling 
and in the manufacture of lead pipe, after which he 
removed with his family to Fort Plain, New York, 
and there, at the Fort Plain Seminary, O. W. Ship- 
man received the principal portion of his school 
education. After a residence of four years at Fort 
Plain, he accompanied his parents to a large farm in 
Union, Broome County, New York. They resided a 
year at Union, and then his father purchased from 
his brother Orlando a grist mill, plaster mill, and 
farm, at Athens, Pennsylvania, and removed there, 
leaving O. W. Shipman and an elder brother to 
manage the farm at Union. After two years of 
great success and an immense amount of hard 
work, they joined their father at Athens, where the 
subject of this sketch remained until his twenty-first 
year. He, with another young man, then engaged in 
the grocery trade at Waverly, a short distance from 
his father's home, but soon bought out his partner's 
share and continued the store alone, and by the 
exercise of good business judgment, and untiring 
exertion, he rapidly established an extensive trade, 
and for several years his annual sales exceeded 
1125,000 per year. During the extended strike of 
the Erie Railroad employees in 1870, Mr. Ship- 
man's services were secured by the company to 
assist in operating their line in opposition to the 
strikers. His efforts in this direction were particu- 
larly valuable to the company, but he aroused the ill- 
will of the former railroad employees and some of 
the more lawless, in retaliation, set fire to his busi- 
ness block and it was completely destroyed. He 
immediately rebuilt, on a more extensive plan, one 
of the largest and finest business houses in Waver- 




c 




MERCHANTS. 



I 171 



ly, but in 1872 sold out his business and went to 
New York City, and in the interest of New York 
capitalists, visited Utah to inspect a silver mine, in 
which, on a favorable report being received, they 
proposed to invest a large sum of money. Mr. 
Shipman being convinced that the mine was com- 
paratively worthless, so advised them, and saved 
them from heavy losses. These same parties were 
then building a railroad from Newark, Ohio, to the 
Shawnee coal fields. Mr. Shipman purchased a 
quarter interest in the Shawnee Coal Company, and 
after the completion of the railroad, had charge of 
the coal-fields and shipping department at Shaw- 
nee, and during the latter years of his connection 
with the business, which extended to 1880, he had 
brought the mines up to the capacity of one hun- 
dred car loads of coal per day. 

In 1874 he established a coal agency in Detroit, 
but through lack of management on the part of the 
resident operator, the venture failed of success. 
During the following year Mr. Shipman removed to 
Detroit and personally took charge of the business 
in this city. His relations to the coal company, 
and the railroad facilities he enjoyed by his con- 
nection with the Newark and Shawnee road, made 
the development of an immense trade possible, 
and to-day he is the most extensive coal dealer 
in the State of Michigan, and disposes of 6oo,cxx) 
to 7oo,ocx) tons yearly, representing a value of over 
$1,500,000. He supplies several railroads with 
coal, and his trade extends through Michigan, sev- 
eral Western States and to Canada. He deals in all 
kinds of coal and firewood, and has recently opened 
a mine of his own in Athens County, Ohio. He 
is President of the Frontier Iron & Brass Company, 
and connected with the Fire Proof Paint Company, 
of Chicago, and is a stockholder in the Commer- 
cial National and the American National Banks of 
Detroit. 

As a business man he is possessed of indomita- 
ble purpose, is persistent in every undertaking, and 
cannot be contented unless he has developed every 
possibility in any enterprise he has undertaken, and 
he devotes all the power and energy he possesses to 
achieve his purposes. His exe^utive^and^adnMiis- 
trative abilities have been tested in many ways, 
^nd he has been found equal to every occasion. 
In the commercial community he is justly recog- 
nized as an upright bu^ness man, while his private 
"fe is above reproach. For many years he has 
taken an active interest in the Masonic fraternity, 
and has secured the highest degrees possible to be 
obtained in the United States. He is a member of 
St. John's Episcopal Church, and for three years 
has been a vestryman. 

He was married in June, 1856, to Emily L. Corn- 
stock, of Newark Valley, New York. They have 



two daughters, Mrs. F. B. Stevens and Mrs. H. S. 
Lewis, of Circleville, Ohio. 

AARON LANE WATKINS was born at Water- 
loo, New York, December 26, 1824, and is the son of 
Stephen and Jane (Clark) Watkins, who were both 
natives of Philadelphia, They settled in Waterloo 
at an early day, and had eleven children, three of 
whom are living— Aaron L., Charles, and Julia 
Chamberlain, widow of the late J. P. Butterfield, 
of Goshen, Indiana. 

Aaron Lane Watkins lived at Waterloo until he 
was twenty-two years old ; he was educated at the 
public schools of that village and in the Canandai- 
gua Academy, where he acquired some knowledge 
of the classics and a good English education, his 
tastes inclining him to mathematics and the exact 
sciences. After finishing his education he taught 
school for a time in his native town, and then, as 
he had determined to enter the legal profession, he 
studied law at Waterloo, New York, and in 1847 
came to Detroit and completed his studies in the 
office of Chancellor Farnsworth, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1848. Soon after his being admitted 
to practice, he went to Grand Rapids for the pur- 
pose of engaging in law business with Lucius Pat- 
terson, of that city, but being called to New York, 
he spent" a year there, and on his return to Detroit 
was for two years engaged in teaching in the pub- 
lic schools. In 1852 he entered the insurance office 
of Bachman & Fisher, as accountant and book- 
keeper, remaining for some time, and then again 
served as teacher, and from 1855 to 1864 was prin- 
cipal of the junior department of the Barstow School. 

In 1864, with Mr. C. H. Wolff, he engaged in the 
manufacture and sale of trunks, under the firm name 
of Watkins, Wolff & Company, continuing until 
1870, when he sold his interest and retired from the 
firm. During his connection with the firm they 
conducted a large business, that was successful in 
its financial results. Since his retirement from the 
firm, Mr. Watkins has not been in active business, 
but in 1870 became a special partner in the firm of 
H. F. Swift & Brother, wholesale druggists, and has 
remained with them and their successors, Swift & 
Dodds, and John J. Dodds & Company, until the 
present time. He has also been engaged in the 
settlement of several estates. 

He is possessed of excellent business qualifica- 
tions and of strict integrity, is conservative in the 
use of his means, but gives to charitable objects 
which commend themselves to his judgment. Lead- 
ing rather a quiet and retired life, he spends a share 
of his time with his books, and is well-informed, 
both in current and general literature. In political 
faith he is a Republican, but takes no active part in 
political affairs. 



I I 72 



MERCHANTS. 



He was married January 31, 1854 to Climena D. 
Walker, daughter of Levi Walker, of Lyons, New 
York. They have one child, Jennie Clark Watkins. 

FREDERICK WETMORE was born in W" hites- 
town, Oneida County, New York, on August 7, 
1 81 3. He was a son of Amos and Lucy 01m- 
stead Wetmore, who were both natives of Con- 
necticut. In company with the family of Judge 
White, they removed to Whitestown after the War 
of the Revolution. Amos Wetmore was a farmer 
and mill owner, operating both a grist and saw mill. 
His eldest son, Charles P. Wetmore, was the father 
of Charles H. Wetmore, of Detroit, of Mrs. James 
McMillan, and of the late Mrs. Cleveland Hunt. 

Frederick Wetmore was the seventh child of a 
family of six sons and three daughters. In his youth 
he prepared for college, but ill health prevented 
him from pursuing his studies, and at the age of 
seventeen he went to Pittsburgh, and acted as clerk 
for his elder brother, who was engaged in the 
crockery business. In 1836 he entered into the 
transportation business at Pittsburgh, on his own 
account, continuing it until the fall of 1841. About 
this time, in traveling to New York, he formed the 
acquaintance of two English crockery manufac- 
turers. They proposed to join him in business at 
Detroit, and an arrangement was made by which 
they shipped their goods direct to his establishment. 
In 1844 he bought out the interests of his English 
partners, and for ten years conducted the business 
alone. His nephew, Charles H. Wetmore, then 
became his partner, under the firm name of F. Wet- 
more & Company. 

For a period of forty-two years, Mr. Wetmore 's 
name was familiar to the people of Michigan, both 
in business circles and in social and moral enter- 
prises. He was identified with Detroit during the 
period of its growth, from a frontier town to its 
present proportions as a metropolitan city — its rail- 
road communications and chief commercial interests 
being developed in his day. He saw the popula- 
tion several times doubled, with its streets, avenues, 
parks, and all public and private improvements of 
the city, keeping pace with its progress in popula- 
tion. It may be truly said of him : All this he saw 
and part of it he was, for he was active in many 
ways in promoting the welfare of the city, as well 
as honorable and successful in his own private 
affairs. 

Aside from his mercantile pursuits, he dealt 
largely in real estate, owning a farm near Detroit 
and property in the city, and also in Chicago. As 
a business man he was strictly honest and upright 
in all his dealings, and proverbially polite and 
courteous towards all with whom he came in con- 
tact. 



He was a Republican in politics but took no 
active part in political affairs. His religious con- 
nection was with the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian 
Church, of which he was an elder for many years. 
Both in the church and in all his domestic and 
social relations, his life was singularly pure and 
exemplary, and he possessed a marked individuality 
of character, which impressed itself upon all who 
were brought into intimate relations with him. His 
natural diffidence caused his voice to be seldom 
heard in the public meetings of the church, but his 
counsel and advice were always sought in matters 
pertaining to its welfare. 

It was an invariable rule with him to leave his 
business behind when he left the store, and whether 
at home or in society, he was always ready to 
enjoy the domestic or social intercourse of the 
hour, and his unusual memory, large fund of in- 
formation and uniform courtesy, made him a 
desirable companion at all social gatherings. In 
his own family these traits were none the less con- 
spicuous, and he was respected and loved for traits 
of character that constrained admiration and regard. 

Mr. Wetmore was twice married. His first 
wife was Cornelia P. Willard, a niec^ of Judge 
Piatt, formerly a resident of Detroit. They were 
married at Albany, New York, in 1845 ; Mrs. Wet- 
more died in 1843, leaving two sons, one of whom 
died in infancy, the other, Edward W. Wetmore, 
late Professor of Chemistry and Philosophy in the 
Detroit High School, is now at Essex, Connecticut. 
On August 15, 18,50, Frederick Wetmore was mar- 
ried to Anna Mary Curtenius, of Lockport, New 
York, a lineal descendant of Peter T. Curtenius, of 
Revolutionary fame, who led the assault on the 
monument of George III. in Bowling Green, in the 
city of New York. They had six children, four 
of whom, Blanche, Ernest Curtenius, John Olm- 
stead, and Frederick Amos, are living. 

Mr. Wetmore, during early life, traveled exten- 
sively in the United States, and some years ago 
made an extended tour in Europe. He died March 
25, 1883, in the seventieth year of his age. 

GEORGE COLLIDGE WETHERBEE, of 
Detroit, was born at Harvard, Worcester County, 
Massachusetts, July 27, 1840, and is the son of 
Zophar and Sarah (Collidge) Wetherbee. An apti- 
tude for hotel business seems to be inherent in the 
family. His grandfather formerly kept a hotel at 
Harvard, and subsequently, for more than forty 
years, his father was proprietor of the same house. 
Two of the brothers of Mr. Wetherbee have gained 
a wide reputation as successful managers of two 01 
the finest hotels in New York, Gardner Wetherbee 
being proprietor of the Windsor, and Charles Weth- 
erbee of the Buckingham Hotel. Another brother, 



MERCHANTS. 



I 173 



Frederick Wetherbee, is connected with a whole- 
sale dry goods house in the same city. Their 
parents are still living, the father at the age of 
eighty-four, and the mother at the age of seventy- 
nine. 

The early life of George C. Wetherbee was with- 
out special interest. He attended the district school, 
and being of an active, restless disposition, engaged 
in various employments in his native village. At 
the age of eighteen he went to Boston, and entered 
a provision store, where he remained about a year 
and a half, when an injury to his knee obliged him 
to stop work and return home, where he remained 
until the breaking out of the War with the South. 
Almost at the beginning of the strife, he enlisted as 
a private in Company H, Twenty-third Massachu- 
setts Volunteer Infantry, for a period of three years, 
or until the close of the war. His regiment formed 
a part of General Burnside's command, and was • 
stationed for a few months at Annapolis, Maryland, 
then at Hatteras Inlet, and participated in the cap- 
ture of Roanoke Island and Newburn, North 
Carolina. At the latter place Mr. Wetherbee was 
detailed as commissary of the company. After 
about eighteen months' service, during which he 
participated in all the campaigns and engage- 
ments of his regiment, he was promoted to a First 
Lieutenancy by Governor John J. Andrew, of Massa- 
chiisetts, and was shortly after assigned to duty as 
acting Assistant Commissary of Subsistence, on 
the staff of General Foster, and ordered to Roan- 
oke Island. Here his services again commanded 
approval, and on August 19, 1863, he received 
a commission from President Lincoln, as Captain 
and Assistant Commissary of Subsistence of United 
States Volunteers. Subsequently, w^hen General 
B. F. Butler came to Fortress Monroe, and began 
the formation of the Army of the James, Captain 
Wetherbee was ordered to report to him, and was 
there attached to the staff of General Devens. He 
served with the Army of the James during the 
memorable campaign which included the capture of 
City Points, the especially severe fighting at Cold 
Harbor, and the capture of Richmond by the com- 
bined armies of the James and the Potomac. In the 
advance on and capture of the latter city, Captain 
Wetherbee acted as volunteer aid in General De- 
vens's divisioti, and while there, in July, 1865, he 
resigned and was honorably discharged. His mili- 
tary career was reco|^nized by the award, on June 
24» 1865, of the brevet r^nk of Major for meritorious 
services. 

After a visit of tWo months At home, in the fall 
of 1865 he canie to Detroit^ and With the small sum 
oi money saved frortl his pay in the service, he 
engaged in the produce business, but it proved a 
disastrous investment and he lost nearly all his sav- 



ings. He then embarked in the grocery business on 
Woodward Avenue, where the Godfrey Block now 
stands, with S. S. Farquhar, under the firm name 
of Farquhar & Wetherbee. Continuing the busi- 
ness with success for nearly two years, he then sold 
out and purchased C. M. Garrison's interest in the 
wooden and willow ware store of \\ illiam Saxby & 
Company, then located nearly opposite the Board 
of Trade building, on Woodbridge Street. In 1873 
he purchased Mr. Saxby's interest in the business, 
at which time the late Governor John J. Bagley 
became a special partner, and the firm name of 
George C. Wetherbee & Company was adopted. 
In 1876 Mr. Wetherbee purchased Mr. Bagley 's 
interest, and continued the business alone until 
1882, when it was incorporated, since which time 
he has been President and general manager. Their 
manufacturing plant, located on Vinewood Avenue, 
is one of the largest and most complete of its kind 
in the West. In 1873 Mr. Wetherbee began the 
manufacture of brooms at the State Prison, at 
Jackson, and this branch of his business has grown 
to be the most extensive broom factory in the State, 
more than 30,000 brooms being turned out every 
month. In 1883 he was chiefly instrumental in the 
organization of the United States Truck Company, 
of which he is President. The success of this 
enterprise has been great and rapid. He is also 
President of the Novelty Brush Company, organized 
in 1887. Over one hundred and twenty-five men 
find employment in these enterprises, including six 
traveling salesmen. Their wooden and willow ware 
trade is confined principally to Michigan and por- 
tions of Indiana and Ohio, while the market for 
their trucks and brushes extends throughout the 
United States. 

He is the President and principal owner of the 
Michigan Elevator and Engine Company, and is 
also a director in the Manufacturers' and Mutual 
Insurance Company, of Detroit, and in the Thomas 
Ink and Bluing Company, of Canada, also a director 
and treasurer of Detroit Vise Company. He is a 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Post 
No. 348 ; a member of the Loyal Legion, and of 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

The success Mr. Wetherbee has achieved in a 
line of manufacture requiring untiring and close 
application to innumerable details, is the best evi- 
dence of his excellent business capacity. He has 
been the main factor in the creation and develop- 
ment of several enterprises, which have not only 
placed him among the successful manufacturers of 
Detroit, but have materially added to the prosperity 
of his adopted city. 

He is a regular attendant, and for many years 
has been a Trustee, of the Unitarian Church. His 
untiring industry, power of close and continued 



1174 



MERCHAN IS. 



application, broad business views, and a reputation 
for unquestioned honor and honesty, have been the 
secret of his success. He possesses decided con- 
victions, and is not afraid to express them, but has 
also a warm and social nature, and wins and retains 
the regard and friendship of business associates. 

He was married January 22, 1867, to Mary E. 
Phelps, of Springfield, Massachusetts. They have 
two children, a son and a daughter. 

HENRY KIRKE WHITE, of the firm of D. M. 
Ferry & Co., seedsmen, was born in Unadilla Cen- 
ter, Otsego County, New York, May 26, 1839. His 
ancestors were English, and settled in Connecticut 
at a very early date, his parents living there until 
1834, when they removed to Unadilla Center, New 
York. Mr. White was next to the youngest in a 
family of six sons and one daughter, and was 
named after the well-known author. 

At three years of age he was sent to live with an 
uncle and aunt whose home had been made deso- 
late by the loss of their only child. The attach- 
ment became so great that he continued as a mem- 
ber of their household, and attended the district 
school at that place until about ten years of age. In 
1 849 his uncle's family removed to North Walton, 
Delaware County, New York, and he accompanied 
them, and there continued his studies until his 
uncle's death, in 1853. His parents then desired 
him to return home, but, although only fifteen, he 
decided to start out for himself, and the following 
summer hired out as a farm hand at six dollars a 
month and board. In the fall of that year he re- 
turned to North Walton, making his home with his 
aunt, attending the winter term of school, and 
doing general farm work for his board. The 
school was of a very high order, and his studies 
embraced chemistry, algebra, Latin, and other high 
branches not usually taught in a district school. 
He was a close student, and midnight often found 
him pouring over his studies by the light of a pine 
knot or a tallow dip. The next summer found him 
working upon a farm with wages increased to ten 
dollars a month. The savings of the six months' 
labor this season enabled him to pursue his studies 
at the academy at Gilbertsville, Otsego County, 
during the winter. Here he made rapid progress, 
studying night and day. At the close of this term, 
his funds being entirely exhausted, he again hired 
out for four months in the summer, and attended 
the fall term at the academy. In the winter of 
1856 and '57, when but seventeen years old, he 
taught school, at the same time continuing his 
studies. His services, as a teacher, were sought 
for the following winter, but, believing that the 



western country possessed superior advantages for 
young men, he started westward on October i, 
1857, with twenty-five dollars in his pocket. Arriv- 
ing in St. Louis, he found that he had but one 
dollar, and with that he purchased a ticket to 
Summerfield, Illinois. Soon after reaching this 
place he secured a teachership in a neighboring 
school, which place he held for a year and a half, 
when, his health becoming impaired through the 
miasma of that section, he decided to visit the 
home of his youth. 

Stopping at Detroit to visit friends, he was 
offered a position with M. T. Gardner & Company, 
the predecessors of the now famous seed house of 
D. M. Ferry & Company. He began work for the 
first named firm at tw^enty-five dollars a month, and 
and this was the turning point in his life. Believ- 
ing in the future of the seed business, he continued 
in their employ, with gradually increasing compen- 
sation each year, and in 1865 he was admitted as a 
member of the firm. In 1879 the firm was merged 
into a corporation and Mr. White was elected 
treasurer, which office he has since held. The his- 
tory of this house since 1859, is largely connected 
with his own. He has devoted his entire time, 
energy, and thought, to its honor and advancement, 
contributing his full quota towards bringing it up to 
its present state of prosperity. 

In 1877 Mr. White made a European tour, visiting 
all the principal places of interest, and in 1884 again 
went abroad, accompanied by his family. In Jan- 
uary, 1886, he was called home on account of the 
destruction of the seed house by fire, on the first 
day of that month, his family remaining until July 
following. Mr, White and family spend the greater 
part of the summer at the charming village of 
Siasconset, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, where 
he owns fourteen cottages, thirteen of which he rents 
to families by the season. 

He is a director and large stockholder in the 
Merchants and Manufacturers' National Bank, a 
director in the Michigan Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company, the Gale Sulky Harrow Works, the 
Acme White Lead and Color Works, the Leonard 
Glass Works, and the Detroit Home and Day 
School. He is also a stockholder in the Detroit Gas 
Company, and Vice-President of the Eagle Iron 
Works* He is a member and trustee of Westmin- 
ster Presbyterian Church, and gave largely towards 
its erection, and is also a methodical and liberal 
giver to all worthy causes, giving systematically and 
conscientiously. He was married to Christine 
Amanda Fortier, in Monroe, Michigan, November 
19, 1863. They have had six children, four of 
whom are now living, three sons and one daughter. 




/yZy^-^-j^o-yp^ / xJaUy^ 



Ciyt^^ 




CHAPTER XCV. 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



WILLIAM SMEAD ARMITAGE was born in 
Vernon, Oneida County, New York, June ii, 1830, 
and was the son of William and Rosina Armitage. 
The family were of New England ancestry, but 
had been residents of Oneida County for many years. 
He was educated at Vernon Academy and also at- 
tended Cazenovia Seminary. In 1853 he entered 
into mercantile business at Verona, and was thus 
employed until 1865, serving also as Postmaster at 
Verona from 1861 to 1865. In 1867 he removed 
to Oneida, New York, and became a partner in the 
firm of Seeley & Armitage. They soon became 
the leading and most influential establishment in 
Oneida, and did a very large and prosperous busi- 
ness. At the end of five years Mr. Armitage 
retired from the firm, and came to Detroit to act as 
Secretary and Treasurer of the American Plate 
Glass Company. Their works were located at 
Crystal City, Missouri, and formed one of the many 
mammoth corporations organized by the late Cap- 
tain Eber B. Ward. 

After the death of Captain Ward, Mr. Armitage 
became Secretary and Treasurer of the Eureka 
Iron Company, of Detroit and Wyandotte, a»d 
acted in that important and responsible position 
until 1885. ^^ that year the corporation known as 
the Galvin Brass and Iron Works was organized, 
and Mr. Armitage was made its Secretary and 
Treasurer, and remained in charge of its interests 
until shortly before his death. 

Mr. Armitage was prominent among the business 
men of Detroit, and was especially at home in 
manufacturing enterprises, and well informed in all 
the details pertaining to the manufacture of iron 
and brass. He was a man of sterling integrity and 
was the thoroughly trusted custodian of various 
large and important interests, and proved faithful 
to every trust. Always energetic, active, methodical 
and painstaking, he was not satisfied unless he knew 
that all the affairs with which he had to do were 
well and properly conducted. In social life he was 
modest and unassuming, with strong domestic tastes, 
and a courteous and winning manner, which en- 
deared him to all with whom he was associated. 



He was an earnest and devout member of the 
First Presbyterian Church, of Detroit, and his 
decease was greatly regretted by all who had any 
knowledge of his worth and many excellencies. 
He died January 28, 1887. His wife and one 
daughter are si ill living. 

ABSALOM BACKUS, Jr.. was born in Her- 
kimer County, New York, September 7, 1824, and 
is the son of Absalom and Mary (Hildreth) Backus. 
He attended a common district school until fourteen 
years of age, and a more advanced school for three 
subsequent winters, in the city of Auburn, New 
York. At the age of twenty-one, he engaged in 
building a telegraph line from Syracuse to Niagara 
Falls, uniting Canada and the United States by a 
wire across the river at Queenstown, opposite 
Brock's monument, and building a line eight hun- 
dred miles long in Canada, reaching to Little 
Mettice, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

In 1848 he married Sarah E. Stevens, of Pratts- 
burgh, Steuben County, New York, and settled in 
Auburn, New York, as a contractor and builder. 
In 1853 he moved to Chaumont, Jefferson County, 
New York, and engaged in the grain, lumber, and 
farming business. During the war he rendered 
substantial aid to the Union army by assisting to 
raise troops, pledging to many men who enlisted to 
care for their families, which pledge was faithfully 
fulfilled. In 1867 he moved his family and settled in 
Detroit. The same year, in association with his 
brother Albert, he formed the firm known as Backus 
& Brother, built a gang saw mill and large improve- 
ments at Au Sable, Michigan, and established 
in Detroit a lumber yard and planing mill, at the 
foot of Eleventh Street, on the site of the old 
Richardson match factory. In 1872 he built a 
large brick planing mill at what is now the foot of 
Twelfth Street, and purchased and improved a 
dock at the foot of Eighteenth-and-a-Half Street, 
Detroit, and also built mills at Taymouth and 
Harrisville, Mich., and a hardwood mill in Indiana. 
In 1875 he sold the Au Sable mill to J. E. Potts, 
and the Harrisville mill to George L. Colwell. In 



[1175] 



1 1/6 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1877 he bought out his brother Albert's interest in 
the business, and associated his two sons with him 
in business at Detroit, under the name of A. Backus, 
Jr. & Sons, and in 1885 a stock company was 
formed. On October 24, 1882, the planing mill 
was destroyed by fire, entailing a heavy loss, but it 
w^as rebuilt and in full operation on March 4, 1 883. 

In rebuilding the planing mill, Mr. Backus con- 
structed a furnace on a perfect combustion princi- 
ple, which proved a great success, has been applied 
to a large number of furnaces burning coal, and 
bids fair to revolutionize steam making. He has 
secured letters patent for the invention in the United 
States and also in foreign countries, covering his 
application of this principle of perfect combustion, 
and after years of patient toil and large expendi- 
tures of money, he bids fair to reap his merited 
reward. The Backus Perfect Combustion Furnace 
has been shown to possess great merit, and has 
proved a perfect smoke consumer and a large 
economizer of fuel. 

Besides the interests above* enumerated, Mr, 
Backus is engaged in several farm improvements, 
where he has shown great skill as an organizer, and 
any work planned by him may probably be safely 
imitated by others. Like many other self-made 
men, he started in life with no capital save integrity 
and industry, with a purpose to be prudent and tem- 
perate in all things, and he has the satisfaction of 
knowing that his success is the result of his own 
thoroughness and practical business methods. He 
is known and recognized as a live man of energy, 
with an irreproachable and honest purpose that 
almost invariably commands success. He is par- 
ticularly fortunate in having reared two sons, who 
are fully competent to foster and increase the busi- 
ness he has established. 

CARLETON ABBEY BEARDSLEY is the 
second son of Lockwood H. and Catherine (Myer) 
Beardsley, and was born in Castile, New York, 
October 4, 1852. His father was born in Scipio, 
Cayuga County, New York, March 21, 1822, and 
now lives at Springfield, Oakland County, Michi- 
gan. 

C. A. Beardsley lived w^ith his parents in Livings- 
ton County, New York, from 1852 to 1866, when 
the family removed to Pontiac, Michigan. His 
early life was spent with his parents on the farm in 
Western New York, where he was given the advan- 
tages of a district school, improving his opportuni- 
ties with the utmost diligence. In May, 1868, he 
removed with his parents to Pontiac, Michigan, 
where he entered the graded school. Here he was 
applying himself closely, when sudden reverses in 
his father's business made it necessary for him to 
aid himself. Accordingly, in the winter of 1869 



and 1870, he taught a district school at Bald 
Eagle Lake, Oakland County, for a term of four 
months, receiving as a salary the meagre sum 
of $126. The effort proved a very successful one, 
and so well satisfied was the county superintendent, 
that he recommended Mr. Beardsley as competent 
to take charge of the schools at Central Mine, Lake 
Superior, where he went and conducted a success- 
ful school. Upon returning home, flattering induce- 
ments were held out to him to enter mercantile life, 
and in preparation therefor, on April 4, 1873, he 
entered the Ohio Business University at Toledo, 
and after graduating, returned to Pontiac, where he 
re-entered his classes in the High School, and by 
alternately studying and teaching, he was enabled 
to graduate in 1875. His vacations while teaching 
were spent in the law office of A. C. Baldwin, and 
in the year 1877, he w^as admitted to the bar, and 
the following year entered the University of Mich- 
igan, graduating from the law department in 1878. 

In 1880 he removed to Detroit, since which time 
he has pursued the practice of law, also dealing 
largely in real estate, and engaging in the manu- 
facture of furniture, which, in a large degree, 
absorbed his time and took him from his prac- 
tice. His factory has turned out only the finest 
grade of furniture, and of a design and finish unex- 
celled in the United States. It has employed one 
hundred and thirty skilled workmen and five travel- 
ing salesmen. 

He is a member of the Union Lodge of Masons, 
an honorary member of the Detroit Light Infantry, 
and of the Pontiac and Cass Lake Aquatic Club, 
and of several other social organizations. He is a 
member of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and has been a liberal contributor to all worthy 
objects. In business affairs he is eminently progres- 
sive and enterprising, and socially agreeable and 
well informed. 

He was married April 2, 1879, to Sarah Hance, 
of Farmington, Michigan, daughter of Mark and 
Susan Hance. They have had four children, two of 
whom are living. 

THOMAS BERRY, son of John and Catharina 
Berry, was born at Horsham, England, February 7, 
1829, and was the fifth child in a family of ten 
children. His father, who had been engaged in the 
tanning business, emigrated to America in 1835, 
and settled in Elizabeth, New Jersey, resuming his 
regular occupation. His son, Thomas Berry, was 
educated in the private schools of Elizabeth, but at 
an early age began to learn the business of his 
father, and continued therein, going in 1852, to 
Richmond, Virginia, and there and in other locali- 
ties in the same State, managing branch establish- 
ments owned by his father. He was thus employed 





Oi €/(riJb ^fUc^<n-iU^^,^£^ 



r 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



II77 



until 1856, when he came to Detroit, where his 
parents had removed a short time previously. 

For a year and a half following his removal to 
Detroit, he was not engaged in any regular occu- 
pation, but spent the time in visiting different 
sections of the country. Meantime, his brother, 
Joseph H., had begUn the manufacture of varnish at 
Springwells, and in 1858, Thomas became asso- 
ciated with him, and they have since constituted 
the firm of Berry Brothers. The business was 
continued at Springwells a few years, and then re- 
moved to the present location, on the corner of 
Leib and Wight Streets. Here, from a small fac- 
tory with limited resources, their business has grown 
from year to year, until at the present time they are 
more extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
every grade of varnish than any other firm in the 
world. They have eight branch houses located at 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Roches- 
ter, St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Chicago, and the 
value of their products amounts to about $1,000,000 
annually, furnishing employment to one hundred 
and fifty persons. Their goods find a market in 
every State in the Union, and in all the principal 
foreign countries. In this connection, it may be 
mentioned as a notable fact, that Detroit has an 
unusual number of men of great organizing capac- 
ity and undaunted perseverance, who have materi- 
ally advanced the prosperity of the city by building 
up large manufacturing enterprises, and probably 
no city of its size has so many widely known busi- 
ness establishments. 

In politics Mr. Berry was originally a Whig, but 
since 1856 he has been a member of the Republi- 
can party. The management of extensive business 
interests has, however, prevented his participating 
very largely in political affairs, but a keen and 
lively interest in the maintenance of good city gov- 
ernment, has led him to serve in several local 
offices. In 1876-7, he was a member of the Board 
of Estimates from his ward, and in 1880 a member- 
at-large. In 1881 he was elected one of the coun- 
cilmen, served three years, and was re-elected in 
1884. He was also one of the Poor Commissioners 
m 1 880, and served as president of the board. 

Besides his connection with the varnish business, 
he is a stockholder in the Detroit Linseed Oil Com- 
pany, a joint partner with his brother Joseph H , in 
the Combination Gas Machine Company, a director 
of the Citizens' Savings Bank, and is interested in 
several minor business enterprises in Detroit and 
elsewhere, and serves as one of the trustees of the 
Michigan College of Medicine. He is a member of 
the Masonic order, belonging to Zion Lodge, Mon- 
roe Chapter, and to the Detroit Commandery No. i, 
of Knights Templar. 

He was married in i860, to Janet Lowe, a 



daughter of John Lowe, of Niagara, Canada. They 
have had five daughters, four of whom are living. 

CALVIN KNOX BRANDON was born at 
New Carlisle, Ohio, September 6, 1841, and is the 
son of George S. and Nancy (Craighead) Brandon, 
and is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. His paternal 
grandfather, Templeton Brandon, was born in 
Scotland, came to America when a boy, and settled 
in Adams County, Pennsylvania, where he became 
a prosperous farmer. His son George S., who was 
born in 1803, was engaged in milling and farming 
until 1842, when he removed to Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana, and became one of the earliest settlers of that 
city, and was a prosperous merchant. He was a 
man of strong character and of devout piety, and 
for many years was an elder i-n the Presbyterian 
Church of Indianapolis, presided over by Dr. Gur- 
ley, afterwards the distinguished Chaplain of the 
United States Senate. He died on August 22, 
1847. His wife, who survived her husband only 
one month, came of a family renowned in the 
ecclesiastical and civil history of Scotland and 
America. Her great-grandfather, John Craighead, 
was the youngest son of Rev. Thomas Craighead, 
a native of Scotland, where he was educated as 
a physician, but soon abandoned his profession, 
studied divinity, and for several years was pastor of 
a Presbyterian church. In consequence of the 
oppression endured by members of his church, he 
emigrated to America in 171 5, and settled near 
Boston, Massachusetts. In 1733 he removed to 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and was very 
active in planting and building up churches in that 
region. He died while in the pulpit at Newville, 
Pennsylvania, at the close of a sermon, in April, 
1739. He was an eloquent preacher, with marked 
ability, original in thought, and fearless in the ex- 
pression of his opinions. His numerous descend- 
ants dwell principally in the East and Southwest, 
where many of them have occupied positions of 
honor and responsibility. His son. Rev. Alexander 
Craighead, w^as a bold and advanced champion of 
American civil liberty. For several years he 
preached in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, but in 
1749 removed to Virginia, and in 1756 to Sugar 
Creek, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, where 
he died in 1766. During his residence at the latter 
place, he did much to inculcate sentiments of politi- 
cal liberty among the people of his parish, and to 
him the people of that region were indebted for the 
training which placed them in the forefront of 
American heroes and patriots. His church was 
the oldest in the upper country, and the parent of 
the seven churches that formed the convention 
at Charlotte, North Carolina, which on May 20, 
1775, issued the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 



1 1 78 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



pendence, the first decided avowal of the right of 
organized hostility to English rule, and the princi- 
ples then enunciated were substantially embodied 
in the Declaration of Independence adopted by the 
first American Congress. 

After the death of his father and mother, C. K. 
Brandon went to Adams County, Pennsylvania, and 
passed his boyhood upon a farm, going to country 
schools in the winter. At the age of fifteen he 
went to Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, and 
for two summers continued at farm work. He 
then entered Farmer's College, at Bellefonte, Centre 
County, Pennsylvania, and remained one year, and 
at the age of nineteen went to Macomb, McDon- 
nough County, Illinois, to look after some land 
belonging to his father's estate. While there, 
President Lincoln's call for troops was issued, and 
on April 13, 1861, he enlisted for three months, in 
Company A, Sixteenth Regiment, Illinois Infantry, 
but was mustered in on April 26 for three years' 
service, and in May following, his regiment was 
among the first troops of enlisted volunteers to 
enter the State of Missouri. The Sixteenth Regi- 
ment was in General Pope's command during the 
summer of 1861, and in the winter of 186 1-2, 
guarded the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, and 
subsequently participated in engagements at Pal- 
myra, Monroe, Shelbina, Shelbyville, Liberty and 
Blue Mills Landing, at the siege of New Madrid, 
capture of Island No. 10, skirmishes before Corinth, 
and at the battle of Farmington. At the end of his 
period of service, Mr. Brandon went to Quincy, 
Illinois, and secured a position as clerk in a 
wholesale dry goods store, but soon after enlisted 
in the Fourteenth Regiment Illinois Veterans, 
and was chosen Captain of Company E. Shortly 
after he was detailed as commissary of subsistence 
and general ordinance officer of General Stolbrand's 
brigade of the Seventeenth Army Corps, and served 
in this capacity until mustered out of service in Sep- 
tember, 1865. 

Upon leaving the service he removed to Saline 
County, Missouri, and purchased a stock farm, 
which he conducted for six years, and then sold out 
and came to Detroit. His first service here was in 
the employ of the Detroit Car Works. In 1875 he 
became purchasing agent of the Detroit Stave and 
Heading Works, then owned and conducted by 
Frederick Buhl. In 1877 he purchased Mr. Buhl's 
interest in the business, since which time the 
growth of the concern has been rapid and remuner- 
ative. In 1879, R. S. Keys became a partner with 
him, under the firm name of Brandon & Keys, and 
in 1883 the business was incorporated as the Detroit 
Stave and Heading Works. Its officers have since 
been C. K. Brandon, President; J. P. McLaren, 
Vice-President, and R. S. Keys, Secretary and 



Treasurer. The business has been a marked suc- 
cess, and its growth has been largely due to Mr. 
Brandon's energy and careful management. Their 
plant, one of the largest in Michigan, is located on 
the corner of Clark Avenue and the Michigan Cen- 
tral Railroad, and covers an area of over twelve 
acres ; 10,000,000 staves and over 700,000 heads are 
manufactured yearly, and find a ready market all 
over the United States, and in portions of Europe. 
From seventy-five to one hundred men are em- 
ployed. 

Of late years Mr. Brandon has been largely in- 
terested in real estate operations, especially in 
Hamtramck and Springwells, and is the owner 
of a number of houses in various parts of the city. 
A few years ago he purchased fifty-eight acres of 
land in Hamtramck, divided it into city lots, and it 
has proved a valuable investment. He is President 
of the Fontaine Crossing and Signal Company, of 
Toledo, Ohio, and of the East Detroit and Grosse 
Pointe Railroad, and is financially interested in vari- 
ous other enterprises in Detroit. 

He has been a Republican in political faith ever 
since he has been a voter, and was elected a Repre- 
sentative to the State Legislature from the Third 
District, in 1 884, by a majority of nearly 300. The 
most important local measure which came up dur- 
ing his term, was the question of the annexation of 
Hamtramck, Greenfield, and Springwells to Detroit, 
which he strongly favored, and was successful in 
effecting. He is a member of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, the Loyal Legion, and of Detroit 
Masonic Commandery No. i . He is a member of 
the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, and for 
several years has been one of its trustees. 

Habits of trained industry, unquestioned honor 
and honesty, broadness of views, united with 
enough conservativeness to prevent his taking 
undue risks, and great executive ability, are the 
strongest traits in his character. Personally he is 
of quiet, retiring disposition; thoroughly domestic 
in his tastes, fond of his home, and finds his great- 
est pleasure in the family circle. 

He was married October 24, 1867, to Louisa, 
daughter of A. W. Russel, one of the best known 
and most respected citizens of Lancaster City, 
Pennsylvania. They have had seven children, five 
of whom are living, three boys and two girls. 

WILLIAM AUSTIN BURT was born in Wor- 
cester County, Massachusetts, June 13, 1792. His 
ancestors, representing both English and Scotch 
races, settled in New England early in the seven- 
teenth century, and he possessed the strong charac- 
teristics, mental and physical, of his forefathers. 
Self-denial, earnestness of purpose, ambition to 
excel, loyalty to relatives, friends, and his own con- 




(^.A/a y/z/J^--^'^^^' 



yi 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1179 



victions, and steadfast adherence to right in all 
things, were prominent traits in the character of his 
ancestors and himself. 

As a boy, he possessed strong intellectual powers, 
coupled with remarkable mechanical ability, and 
fortunately he was able also to use either hand 
with equal dexterity, nature evidently having de- 
signed him for an inventor. The correctly-geared 
mills, whittled out with his jack-knife, with which 
he did the churning for his mother, and his 
miniature saw mills, made both for entertainment 
and use, w^ere completed while pursuing his studies 
in navigation, land surveying, music, and stenog- 
raphy. A note book, which he kept when but 
seventeen years of age, now in possession of his 
grandson, Hiram A. Burt, of Detroit, shows that at 
that early age he had fully conquered all the 
methods of land surveying then practised ; was far 
advanced in the study of navigation and astronomy ; 
a fair theoretical musician, and that he had invented 
for his own use, and nearly perfected, a system of 
stenographic writing. It will be noted, also, that 
his education had been acquired chiefly through his 
own efforts, for, aside from about two months at the 
public school, he received no other training in any 
educational institution. He was not only studious 
and thoughtful, but also patriotic, serving in the New 
York militia for sixty days, in 181 3, and again for 
sixty days in the spring of 18 14. He was married 
on July 4, 1 81 3, to Phoebe Cole. In 181 5 and 18 16 
he was Justice of the Peace, School Inspector, and 
Postmaster, in Erie County, New York. 

He was possessed of a courageous and adventur- 
ous spirit, with an almost boundless ambition to see 
and know, and in 181 7, in quest of a personal knowl- 
edge of the West, before the days of the Erie Canal, 
or the era of steamboats or railroads, he made the 
journey from Buffalo to Cincinnati (by way of 
Pittsburgh), thence to JefTersonville, Indiana, Vin- 
cennes, and St. Louis, then back to Vincennes, 
and to Fort Wayne, Fort Meigs, Detroit, and by 
sailing vessel to Buffalo. Twice during the suc- 
ceeding seven years he made trips to Michigan, 
and finally, in 1824, settled in the township of 
Washington, Macomb County, Michigan. He began 
business as a land surveyor, mill builder, and farmer, 
and endured the personal discomforts and hard 
manual labor, and practised the self-denial that fell 
^0 the lot of all pioneers. To these labors he added 
habits of diligent study, and the varied experiments 
of an eager, far-seeing mind, never contented unless 
using its utmost effort towards achieving its best. 
His facilities for experimental work were very lim- 
ited, and consisted of a few carpenters' and black- 
smiths' tools and utensils. Iron was scarce and 
^'ery dear, and brass was almost unobtainable ; there 
Were no foundries near at hand, and the various 



metals were not offered in the many convenient 
shapes now so common. 

In order to fully employ his time, he built mills 
here and there, wherever his services were sought, 
and whenever he wanted a tool for any special 
purpose, he produced it at his own forge, or bench, 
and it generally proved that his tools were entirely 
new additions to the tools of craftsmen. Among 
these earlier tools and inventions was a compass 
for striking an oval of varying diameters, a T square 
of unique construction, and a " typographer," or 
type-writing machine. The " typographer " was 
conceived in 1828, patented in 1829, the patent 
having the signature of President Andrew Jackson. 
The typographer was further perfected in 1830, and 
the records of the Patent Office show that he was 
the first inventor of a mechanical type-writer. The 
instrument was exceedingly simple in construction, 
but for beauty and perfection, the work done by it, 
as shown by letters written on it in 1830, is not 
equalled by any modern type-writer. 

Before he had been three years in the Territory, 
his abilities were generally recognized, and in 1826 
and 1827 he was elected a member of the Territorial 
Council. In 1832 he was appointed District Sur- 
veyor by Governor Porter, and about the same time 
he was appointed Postmaster at Mt. Vernon, Michi- 
gan, which office he held for twenty-four years. In 
1833, when he was forty-one years old, he was made 
Deputy United States Surveyor for all the district 
northwest of the Ohio River, and held the position 
until his decease. In 1833 he was also appointed 
one of the Commissioners of Internal Improvements 
for Michigan, and on April 23, of the same year, 
was appointed an Associate Judge of the Circuit 
Court. He held this last position with much credit 
for several years, and was familiarly addressed as 
Judge up to the time of his death ; but it was as a 
surveyor and inventor that he gained his greatest 
renown. As a member of the Board of Internal 
Improvements, he opposed the visionary schemes of 
that day, such as the canals at Saginaw and Grand 
Rapids. As a Government Surveyor, he was noted 
for integrity, faithfulness, skill, and correctness. 
Under date of October 8, 1834, M. T. Williams. 
Surveyor-General of the Northwest Territory, wrote 
to Senator Lucius Lyon, as follows : " Your friend, 
Mr. Burt, proves to be an excellent surveyor ; for a 
first contract, he has returned the most satisfactory 
work I have yet met with." 

Mr. Burt had as assistants all of his sons, namely, 
John, Alvin, Austin, Wells, and William ; he also 
employed other young men, sons of his neighbors, 
all of whom he trained, and some of them gained 
enviable reputations as land surveyors. During the 
several years that he was employed by the Govern- 
ment, Mr. Burt and his sons surveyed much of the 



ii8o 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



States of Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and 
Minnesota, including the sites of the present cities 
of Milwaukee, Rock Island, and Davenport. On 
January 14, 1840, he was deputized to survey the 
Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and to connect there- 
with the geological survey then in progress under 
Dr. Houghton. This work required the services of 
Mr. Burt and his sons for about ten years, and it 
was while doing this work that he discovered and 
reported on fourteen different deposits of iron ore, 
which, in his opinion, constituted about one-seventh 
of the total amount. 

Later developments show that his estimate was 
approximately correct. In a letter to his wife, 
written July 11, 1846, telling of his work in the 
Upper Peninsula, he said : " We have found five 
very extensive beds of iron ore, of an excellent 
quality, enough, I think, if worked, to build a rail- 
road around the world." Mr. Burt's associate, Dr. 
Douglas Houghton, having met a sudden death, 
the labor of preparing the geological report of the 
survey then in progress, fell to Judge Burt. It is 
published in Part 3, Executive Document No. i, of 
Thirty-first Congress, first session, and bears testi- 
mony to the thorough character of his knowledge 
and work. In a letter, written May 17, 1835, he 
says : " The aberrations of the needle are truly 
perplexing. I have to correct very many of my 
north and south lines, and it is most annoying, 
this inability, as yet, to discover a method for 
doing away with the difficulty or the cause 
thereof." Under date of April 29, 1835, when 
engaged on the Government surveys in and about 
the city of Milwaukee, he wrote to one of his 
assistants, as follows : "I arrived here to-day, 
having finished the north tier of townships as far 
west as the town lines are run. The aberrations of 
the needle were worse in my last township than in 
any other I have yet surveyed. * * * In one 
instance I had to increase the variation one degree 
for two miles, to keep parallel ; the next two miles 
needed no increase of variation, and for two miles 
more the variation decreased twenty and thirty sec- 
onds. The changes are mysterious, and will prob- 
ably remain so until some accidental discovery 
reveals the secret." It thus appears that up to 
1835 ^^* Burt experienced all the annoyances met 
with by other land surveyors, in surveying trapezoidal 
tracts, but, unlike them, he was not satisfied to re- 
main without a remedy for the trouble, and all of 
his correspondence shows that he was trying hard 
to evolve a method to do away with the inaccuracies 
and annoyances due to a sole reliance upon the 
magnetic needle. 

Aided by knowledge obtained during many 
years of work throughout the Northwest Territory, 
he continued to study and experiment, and at last 



his researches resulted in the production of the solar 
compass. In 1835, in order to test its principles, 
he made a model of this instrument, and in the 
latter part of the same year the first solar compass 
was made under his supervision, by W. J. Young, of 
Philadelphia, then the best known and most expert 
mathematical instrument maker in this country. 
The new instrument was submitted to a committee 
of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, and after a full examination of its principles 
and merits, they awarded the inventor a premium 
of $20 and a Scott's Legacy Medal. Like most 
new inventions, the solar compass proved to be 
susceptible of improvement, and five years later 
Mr. Burt submitted a new solar compass to the 
same Institute, and their committee reported that 
it was a decided improvement, both as to accuracy 
and simplicity. Mr. Burt, however, was not per- 
fectly satisfied, and in 1851 he exhibited, at the 
World's Fair, in London, a Solar compass still fur- 
ther improved as to scope, accuracy and simplicity. 
This instrument then, and since 1850, was known 
as Burt's Improved Solar Compass, and in its 
development and construction. Judge Burt was 
greatly assisted by the suggestions and mechanical 
skill of his sons, and it may be said to represent 
the result of their joint labors. For this compass 
a premium medal was awarded by the Committee 
on Astronomical Instruments, and the inventor was 
personally complimented by the Prince of Wales. 
The premium medal was accompanied by the fol- 
lowing certificate : 

I hereby certify that Her Majesty's Commissioners, upon the 
award of the jurors, have presented a prize medal to WilHam A. 
Burt, for a solar compass and surveying instrument, shown at 
the exhibition. Albert, 

President of the Royal Commission. 

Hyde Park, London, October 15, 1851. 

While in London, Mr. Burt had the pleasure of 
meeting and making the acquaintance of Sir David 
Brewster, Hugh Miller, Sir John Herschel, and 
other celebrities in the realm of science, the ac- 
quaintanceship was continued, by means of corres- 
pondence, for many years, and proved a source of 
much pleasure. 

The usual rewards of the inventor did not fall to 
Judge Burt in his lifetime, nor have they since been 
reaped by his heirs. 

It is a matter of record, that the great value of 
the solar compass to the United States Government 
became established at about the time when in order 
to preserve an inventor's rights, and secure his 
reward in the usual manner, a renewal of the patent 
should have been sought. Judge Burt went to 
Washington for this purpose, but, with the simplicity 
characteristic of him, was easily persuaded by the 
Government land officials to believe that if he 




{Tk^Ou /t-w;^^- 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



I181 



would allow his invention to become public prop- 
erty, the Government, as the principal beneficiary, 
would, through Congress, make suitable pecuniary 
recognition. 

The petition then filed by Mr. Burt, the inventor, 
and since his decease several times renewed by his 
heirs, has been favorably reported on by every 
committee of Congress to which it has been re- 
ferred, and a bill has several times passed one or 
the other branch of Congress making appropriation 
of money in recognition and satisfaction of this 
most just claim, but has failed to be given full legal 
enactment. 

That millions of money have been saved to the 
Government in the cost of making original surve5rs, 
through the adoption of the solar compass, -is a fact 
well known to all surveyors-general and deputies 
engaged in this branch of the Government service. 

For fifty years the United States had exclusive use 
of the solar compass. It seems to have been orig- 
inated for its special purpose, and, in fact, to grow 
out of the necessity felt by Judge Burt, during his 
experience as a deputy United States surveyor, for an 
instrument that should do more accurate work than 
the common surveyors' compass then in use. 

That a government founded upon, and actuated 
by equitable principles, should have so long neglec- 
ted to do justice to him or his heirs is hardly credit- 
able, but it is to be hoped that the merits of the 
invention, and the advantages derived therefrom, 
will soon be appropriately recognized and rewarded. 

A second important invention of Mr. Burt's, the 
Equatorial Sextant, was the outcome of his studious 
endeavor to apply the principles of the solar 
compass to navigation. On his return from Europe, 
in 1 85 1, with the idea of perfecting his plans for this 
instrument, Mr. Burt took passage on a sailing ves- 
sel, for the purpose of making observations at sea. 
The trip was eminently successful, and his studies 
and experiments brought forth a perfect equatorial 
sextant. He thus gave to the sailors on the track- 
less sea, facilities equal to those furnished by the 
solar compass to the woodsmen in the trackless 
forest. 

At this time he retired from active work as a sur- 
veyor, and moved to Detroit, to devote himself to 
giving instruction in its use. He also gave instruc- 
tions to a class of lake captains in astronomy and 
navigation, and in the use of his equatorial sextant, 
and a number of these captains made successful 
winter trips across the Atlantic with their fore and 
aft lake schooners, to the great astonishment of the 
"old salts." 

In 1852 he was chosen a member of the Michigan 
Legislature, served during the session of 1852-53, 
and improved the opportunity to advance the 



project of a canal about the falls of the St. 
Mary's River of which he was one of the orig- 
inal and most earnest advocates. He was made 
chairman of the joint legislative committee on the 
subject, and it was largely owing to his intelligent 
and energetic efforts that the St. Mary's Falls Ship 
Canal was constructed, upon what was then deemed 
an extravagantly liberal scale. 

On August 18, 1858, he was suddenly stricken 
down with heart disease. He died possessing the 
universal respect of all his fellow men, peacefully 
and contentedly, attended by his wife, who had done 
well her part during the forty-five years of their mar- 
ried life, and he never neglected to award to her 
much of the credit of his success. Mrs. Burt did 
not long survive her husband ; she died, on August 
23, 1864, and was laid by his side in the pleasant 
little rural cemetery at Mt. Vernon, where they had 
lived for so many years. A few years later their 
remains were removed to Elmwood Cemetery, in 
Detroit. 

Mr. Burt was not only fertile in ideas, on scien- 
tific and mechanical subjects, but he also possessed 
clear and decisive convictions on religious and 
political subjects, and had the courage to uphold 
them. Theories in any direction would not satisfy 
him ; each new topic was taken up with the deter- 
mination to fully comprehend its meaning and drift, 
and then to enforce its truth. He was not fanati- 
cal, however, and no man was more prompt to 
acknowledge error of judgment, or more hearty in 
expressions of satisfaction over the discovery of an 
error. 

In company he was modest and unassuming, 
but able to hold his own with any one in a discus- 
sion, and in conversation was brilliant and well 
informed on a wide range of subjects. He was a 
consistent and firm believer in the doctrines of the 
Baptist Church, and was one of the organizers of 
the Society at Mt. Vernon, Michigan. 

In politics he was a Jeffersonian Democrat, but 
aside from the ordinary part taken by every good 
citizen, did not actively participate in poHtical affairs. 

He was a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
one of the founders, and the first Master of the 
third Masonic lodge organized in Michigan. 

WELLS BURT was born in the village of 
Wales Center, Erie County, New York, near the 
city of Buffalo, on October 25, 1820, and was the 
fourth son of Wm. A. Burt, widely known as the 
inventor of the solar compass, who came with his 
family to Michigan in 1825, and settled in Wash- 
ington, Macomb County. The son attended the 
district schools of that locality through his boyhood, 
but received his best education through intercourse 



Il82 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



with his father, who was a man of rare intelligence 
and a diligent student, especially in scientific direc- 
tions. 

As Wells Burt grew to manhood he learned the 
science of surveying from his father, who was 
engaged in extensive surveys of the public lands 
under contracts from the government, and gained 
practical knowledge by accompanying him as one 
of his assistants. Later he took contracts from the 
government himself for the surveying of thousands 
upon thousands of acres of the public lands of 
Michigan and Wisconsin. In the performance of 
his duties he was painstaking and exact to an un- 
common degree, and this trait of faithfulness and 
conscientiousness was manifested throughout his life, 
in all his business relations and his intercourse with 
those about him. His work in the wilds of north- 
ern Michigan in those early days, was fraught with 
many hardships and dangers', often his little party 
of surveyors being the first white men who had in- 
truded upon the domain of the Indian tribes of that 
region. But there was also compensation for these 
trials, for through his work he became thoroughly 
acquainted with the mineral resources of the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan, and was thus enabled to 
make investments which laid the foundation for a 
considerable fortune. He had no ambition to gain 
great wealth, and not having very robust health, 
preferred for many years to lead a quiet life, com- 
paratively free from the anxieties and cares of more 
active business life. He was, however, one of the 
organizers of the Union Iron Company of Detroit, 
established in 1872, and for ten years its presi- 
dent. He was also largely interested in the Lake 
Superior Iron Company, of Ishpeming, and the 
Peninsular Iron Company, of Detroit, and a holder 
of stock in the Third National Bank and the Ameri- 
can Banking and Savings Association of the same 
city, besides being connected with various enter- 
prises in other places. 

He was married on February 19, 185 1, to Amanda 
F. Beaman, of Rochester, Oakland County, their 
early married life being spent in Washington, Ma- 
comb County. In 1865 they removed to Ypsilanti, 
that better opportunities might be afforded for 
the education of their children. In 1 88 1 Mr. Burt 
came to Detroit, building a beautiful home on 
Woodward Avenue, where he died suddenly of 
neuralgia of the heart, on November 29, 1887. 

At the time of his death he was a member of the 
First Baptist Church of Detroit. He rarely gave 
outward expression to his deepest feelings, and his 
religious life was quiet and undemonstrative, but 
those who knew him had many evidences of his 
kindly, loving nature, and Christian character. He 
was a devoted, considerate husband and father, a 
true friend, and a good citizen. 



He performed many acts of benevolence, and gave 
largely of his money to church and charitable objects 
in Detroit and elsewhere. 

He left a widow and five children, namely : W. 
Clayton Burt, Mrs. Henry L. Jenness, Miss Helen 
E. Burt, Mrs. Elstner Fisher, of Detroit, and Mrs. C. 
Van Cleve Ganson, of Grand Rapids. 

JOHN BURT was born in Wales, Erie County, 
New York, April 18, 1814, his father, Wm. A. Burt, 
was the inventor, and patentee of the solar compass. 
The family emigrated to Michigan in 1 824, coming on 
the steamer Superior from Buffalo, and landing in 
Detroit on May 10, and were soon settled in a log 
house in Washington township, Macomb County, 
The father's business frequently called him away 
from home, and, as the eldest of five sons, 
the mother depended chiefly upon John for assist- 
ance, and for six years he was a very active helper 
in pioneer life. At sixteen years of age, having 
developed strong mechanical instincts and ability, 
he was employed by his father to assist him in 
building saw-mills. His first lessons in mathe- 
matics, surveying, engineering,- astronomy, and 
navigation, were received from his father, but he 
also attended the district school. 

In 1835, when twenty-one years of age, he married 
Julia A. Calkins, daughter of a respected and influ- 
ential farmer. They settled on a farm and remained 
five years. Mr. Burt was then persuaded by his 
father to accompany him as assistant in the work of 
conducting the linear and geological surveys in the 
Upper Peninsula. He was fully acquainted with 
the use and operation of his father's solar compass, 
and after one season's experience in the woods on 
May 18, 1 84 1, was appointed a Deputy United 
States Surveyor, and from 1840 to 1851 he was 
engaged continuously on Government surveys in the 
Upper Peninsula. In 1848 he subdivided the 
Jackson Mine district under a government contract 
and discovered a number of new iron deposits, in- 
cluding the Republic and Humboldt mines. He 
also located accurately several others, discovered by 
Dr. Houghton in 1845. 

The most remarkable instance known or recorded 
of the magnetic influence possessed by bodies of 
iron ore occurred while he was running the west 
boundary line of T. 46 N. R. 30 W., in which the 
great Republic Mine is located. This body of ore 
affected the needle for a distance of 6 miles, and 
nearly all bodies of iron ore in that region, whether 
outcropping or not, attracted the magnet, hence the 
ease with which their presence was indicated by the 
solar compass, and to its use is justly awarded the 
credit of the early discovery of the great mineral 
wealth of Northern Michigan, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, and other portions of the West. While Mr. 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1183 



Burt was surveying the iron regions of the Upper 
Peninsula he obtained and preserved specimens of 
iron ores and kept notes of where they were 
found, together with the topographical and geologi- 
cal features and botanical peculiarities of their sev- 
eral locations. These notes were turned over to 
Messrs. Foster & Whitney, United States Geolo- 
gists, and in their report of 185 1, they give him due 
credit. 

The valuable knowledge obtained by ten years of 
work in such a region led him in 1851 to take up 
what proved to be his life work, namely ; the devel- 
opment of the mineral resources of Northern Mich- 
igan. He foresaw that the cheap transportation of 
the ores by lake was to be the greatest factor in 
their development. He knew that ore in abundance 
was within comparatively easy reach ; with prophetic 
ken he saw the extent of the demand which would 
come, and in fact he comprehended as no one else 
did, the wondrously beneficial influence the develop- 
ment of that country would have on the general 
welfare of the country especially as to the States 
west of the Alleghanies. Mr. Burt's intimate ac- 
quaintance with the ore lands of the Upper Penin- 
sula, naturally caused him to desire the ownership 
of a portion thereof, but under the so-called Mineral 
Land Act, the prices had been so increased as to pre- 
clude his purchasing. He therefore applied to the 
Land office at the "Soo" for an opinion from the 
Attorney General of the United States as to the char- 
acter of the iron ore lands and as to wiiether they 
were rightly classed as mineral lands. He was in- 
formed that iron ore lands did not come under the 
head of mineral lands, and the officials at Sault Ste. 
Marie were instructed to offer and sell such lands, 
as agricultural lands, at $1.25 per acre. The first 
lands entered under that decision were those en- 
tered by Mr. Burt and the entry constitutes a part 
of the 1 5,000 acres, now owned by the Lake Su- 
perior Iron Company. It is conceded that the sell- 
ing of the iron ore lands at the reduced rate and 
the railroad and canal enterprises originated and 
pushed to completion by Mr. Burt, were the three 
prime factors in the present advanced civilization, 
improvement, and wealth of the Llpper Peninsula. 
Mr. Burt greatly desired that the people of his own 
State should have control of these lands, and sought 
earnestly to interest Zachariah Chandler, Henry N. 
Walker, Eber B. Ward, H. P. Baldwin, and other 
citizens in his plans, and offered to sell them a 
three-eighths interest in his purchase, including 
^he property of the present Lake Superior Iron 
Company now worth several millions of dollars, 
^tid a large share of the site of the present city of 
Marquette for the sum of $50,000. They apparently 
lailed to comprehend the advantages offered and 
thus lost an opportunity seldom within reach. Mr. 



Burt then visited Pittsburgh, where his exhibits and 
appeals were also unappreciated. The elder Mr. 
Schoenberger, then the most prominent iron manu- 
facturer in Pittsburgh, said to him; "we have an 
abundance of good ores in Pennsylvania and have 
no need of your Michigan ores, besides we will not 
see a ton of Michigan ore in Pittsburgh market in 
our day." Mr. Burt replied, " Mr. Schoenberger, 
you will have it here in five years at the farthest, and 
beg for it." In just four years from that time Mr. 
Burt had the satisfaction of seeing 4,000 tons of 
Lake Superior iron ore pass through the St. Mary's 
Falls Ship Canal, some of it consigned to Pittsburgh. 
In the summer of 1851 he returned to Carp River, 
where the city of Marquette is located, with a force 
of thirty men, built a dam across the river and 
also a saw-mill, the first erected in that region, 
preparatory to the erection of a forge for the manu- 
facture of blooms. While at this work Mr. Burt 
was casually visited by the late Heman B. Ely of 
Cleveland, whom he imbued with his own sanguine 
ideas of the future of the iron interests of that 
country. Mr. Ely was a railroad man, and it was 
proposed that they should join forces in the construc- 
tion of a railroad from the lake to the mines. This 
was a project Mr. Burt had long had in mind, and 
the proposition being acceded to, Mr. Burt, Mr. 
Ely, and his brothers, John F., Samuel P. and George 
H. Ely began the railway and completed it in 1857. 
Meanwhile, Mr. Burt, the late Captain E. B. Ward, 
and other gentlemen, foreseeing that the railway 
would be of little immediate value without a way to 
get ore laden vessels through the Sault Ste. Marie 
river, revived the idea of a ship canal around the 
rapids in that river, and in the winter of 1851 and 
1852 visited Washington, and. with Mr. Burt's room 
as headquarters, besieged Congress for a grant of 
money or land to aid the State in building a canal, 
and a grant of 750,000 acres of land was made by 
Act of August 25, 1852, the conditions of which 
were accepted by the State on February 5, 1853. 
Under a contract entered into April 5, 1853, between 
the State Commissioners and Messrs. Joseph Fair- 
banks, J. W. Brooks, Erastus Corning, August Bel- 
mont, and others, the canal was completed and 
turned over to Mr, Burt, as its first Superintendent, 
on May i, 1855, and on June 18, following, he had 
the extreme satisfaction of passing the steamer 
Illinois, Captain Jack Wilson, as the first boat 
through the canal. During the remainder of the 
navigation season, of about five months that year, 
four thousand four hundred and seventy-four tons 
of ore were passed through the canal, and in 1887 
nearly two and one-half millions tons were passed 
through. The history of the canal, and the stu- 
pendous growth in the ore trade of the Upper 
Peninsula, is well known, but it is not so generally 



ii84 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



known that Mr. Burt was the first to recognize the 
need of enlarging the canal, that he was foremost in 
all movements to improve it, and that all grants and 
appropriations made by the Government were chiefly 
obtained through his tireless energy and masterly 
exhibits and arguments. It is also true that the 
then largest single lock in the world, the canal lock, 
begun in 1870 and completed in 1881, was built 
after a plan devised and patented by Mr. Burt. 

Meantime, from the summer of 1851 to 1857, 
besides pushing the canal project, Mr. Burt gave a 
great deal of time and energy to the construction of 
the Iron Mountain Railway, and the improvements 
at Marquette. After completing his agreement 
with the Ely Brothers, of Cleveland, contracts were 
made with the Jackson Iron Company, and with the 
Cleveland Iron Company, to carry iron over the 
road for one dollar per ton the first two years, after 
which fifty cents per ton was to be paid, until, by a 
graduating scale, each company should ship, per 
annum, more than one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand tons, when the price was to be reduced to 
thirty cents per ton. No charter w^as then obtain- 
able, as the State had no railroad law, but with 
these contracts, obtained chiefly by Mr. Ely, as a 
basis for business, the building of the road was begun 
as a private enterprise. The lumber for the docks, 
offices, and other buildings of the railroad company 
was sawed in Mr. Burt's Carp River mill, and sold 
for ten dollars per thousand, while the lowest price 
elsewhere was twenty-five dollars per thousand. In 
June, 1852, Mr. Burt contracted with the railway 
company to extend their road two miles farther to 
the Burt, now the Lake Superior mine, and the 
railroad company agreed to carry ore for him at the 
figures named in the contracts with the Jackson and 
Cleveland companies. 

Mr. Burt was also the prime mover in the organi- 
zation of several iron manufacturing companies, all 
of which use Lake Superior ores. He was a director 
for thirty-three years in the Lake Superior Iron 
Company, now incorporated for its second term of 
thirty years ; was President of the Peninsula Iron 
Company, of this city, for thirty years, and also 
President of the Marquette Furnace Company, 
the Carp River Furnace Company, and of the Burt 
Free Stone Company, of Marquette. On February 
12, 1855. a general railroad law for Michigan was 
approved by the Governor, and three days later a 
railroad company was organized under the name of 
the Iron Mountain Railroad Company, with Mr. 
Burt as President. The passage of the railroad 
law was opposed by all the old railway companies, 
but was secured through the efforts of Mr. Burt, 
his father William A: Burt, and Heman B. Ely. 
During the United States Congress of 1855 and 
1856, John Burt, aided by the late W. B. Ogden, of 



Chicago, obtained land grants to aid in the construc- 
tion of the Bay de Noquette & Marquette road, from 
Little Bay de Noquette to Marquette, the Marquette, 
Houghton & Ontonagon road, and the Michigan & 
Wisconsin State Line road. 

It will be noticed that thirty-four years ago he 
had formulated a railway system for the Upper 
Peninsula, his plans being fulfilled by the completion 
and operation of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlan- 
tic, the Milwaukee & Northern, and the Peninsula 
division of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroads. 
The latter road was built with the grants given 
for construction of the Bay de Noquette & Mar- 
quette and State Line roads. Mr. H. B. Ely died 
in 1856, and Mr. Burt, on February 15, 1857, was 
elected President of the Bay de Noquette & Mar- 
quette Railroad, and in 1858 the road was completed 
to the Lake Superior Company's mine, locally called 
the Burt mine ; this railroad and the Iron Mountain 
Road were then consolidated, and from that time to 
the present it has been a very successful enterprise. 
Mr. Burt withdrew from the company in 1863. 

In 1855 he bought the Lake Superior Journal, 
then published at Sault Ste. Marie, moved it to 
Marquette, and published the paper four years, 
when he sold out to Warren Isham. The paper is 
now known as the Marquette Mining Journal. 

It was not alone as an explorer, financier, and 
organizer, that Mr. Burt excelled ; he had a good 
record as an inventor. He obtained his patent for 
the canal lock, heretofore alluded to, on May 28, 
1867. On January 19, 1869, he obtained a patent 
on an improvement in the manufacture of iron, by 
the use of pulverized oxide of iron in the puddling 
furnace, and his process is largely used in puddling 
iron throughout the country. On May 25, 1869, he 
obtained a patent for the manufacture of crude 
blooms, using oxide of iron by running molten pig 
metal on to the oxide while in the crucible. On 
September 7, 1869, he obtained a patent for the 
manufacture of pig iron, and on December 28, 1869, 
a patent for a finishing case for railway bars. He 
also obtained a patent for purifying blast furnace gas, 
which is successfully used in many furnaces. On 
March 27, 1877, and on October 29, 1878, he was 
granted patents for a system of ventilation, which 
has been introduced, in a modified form, in the 
Capitol at Washington. On April 24, 1 883, he was 
granted a patent on charcoal furnaces, or retorts, 
for distilling wood and obtaining charcoal for fur- 
nace use. 

In politics he acted with the Democratic party 
until the passage of the fugitive slave law, and the 
birth of the Republican party, when he aided in the 
organization of that party, and continued to work 
with and for its prosperity as long as he lived. In 
J»868 he was an elector at large for the Republi- 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



I 185 



cans of Michigan, and was honored by the Electoral 
College with the duty of delivering to the President of 
the Senate the vote of the State for Grant and Colfax. 

Physically Mr. Burt was tall and well built, with 
a frank, pleasant face, and a very engaging manner. 
He was a close and almost constant student, and 
like his father, could not be contented with mere 
theories. Although to some of his contemporaries 
he seemed visionary, yet he was only enthusiastic, 
and this because he saw in advance of his times. He 
was extremely systematic in his business methods, 
and in all of his dealings, was the soul of generosity, 
and quick to recognize and make allowance for 
disappointment or misfortune on the part of any 
with whom he had business relations. 

To his own kith and kin and to those whom he 
held as his friends, he was always helpful, and with- 
out thought of pay, he directed many persons to 
tracts of land, the purchase of which made them 
wealthy. He possessed a thoroughly religious 
spirit, an even temper, and was eminently a trusty 
friend and an agreeable companion. At the very 
early age of sixteen he was baptized, and united 
with the Baptist Church. From that time he felt 
a deep interest in the cause of Christ, and con- 
tributed liberally to all the churches with which he 
had been connected, and other churches, in his 
denomination and outside of it, received liberal 
gifts from him. The First Baptist Church, in Mar- 
quette, felt especially indebted to him for his 
generous gifts to them, and after his death the fol- 
lowing resolutions were passed by that church : 

Resolved^ That we extend to the relatives of Brother John 
Inirt our deepest sympathy in their sad and sudden bereavement. 
That we remember with gratitude his gift to us of a church edi- 
fice and ground at an early day in the history of our church and 
city That we remember his earnest words of encouragement 
and his prayers full of faith in the final triumph of God's people 
and of His cause. 

That in his passing away we mourn in common with our State 
and the denomination. 

On Thursday, December 3, 1885, he and his wife 
celebrated their golden wedding at the handsome 
family residence at Detroit. The gathering brought 
their friends to the number of several hundred, 
from all parts of the State and letters of congratu- 
lation and good wishes were received from all over 
the country, and many testimonials of rare value 
were presented. A few months later, on August 16, 
1886, the community was made sad by the an- 
nouncement of his sudden death. He died as he 
had lived, full of religious trust, leaving his wife and 
three children, namely : Hiram A. Burt, Alvin C. 
Burt, and Minnie C, wife of Robert Leete. 

GEORGE S. DAVIS was born in the city of 
I^etroit, May 7, 1845, and is the son of Solomon 
and Anne H. (Duncan) Davis. His ancestors were 



among the earliest settlers of New England, and 
were prominent among the active defenders of the 
American colonies during the War of the Revolu- 
tion, and distinguished for their piety, honesty, good 
habits, and longevity. 

Mr. Davis was educated in the common schools 
of Detroit, entering the High School the second 
term after its opening, and graduating from that 
institution in the year i860. Having the choice of 
a college education and a professional life, or a 
commercial career, he decided, on account of the 
limited means of his father, to engage in mercantile 
life, and accordingly entered the wholesale drug 
house of Farrand, Sheley & Company, and sys- 
tematically studied the drug business, remaining 
with that firm until 1867, when he purchased an 
interest in the firm of Duffield, Parke & Company, 
manufacturing pharmacists. In 1 871 the firm name, 
after the retirement of two partners, was changed 
to Parke, Davis & Company, under which title, 
both as a firm and a corporation, the concern has 
since been known. The enterprise suffered severely 
during its earlier history, through strong competition 
and want of proper capital, and though greatly 
crippled by the condition of commercial affairs 
incidental to the panic of 1873, it passed safely 
through the crisis, steadily gaining in prestige and 
strength. From the year 1877 it has been phenom- 
inally successful, and now ranks as the largest 
concern of its kind in the United States, if not in 
the world, and has commercial relations with all 
countries. 

The history of the growth of this business, from 
its incipiency through the various stages of its exist- 
ence to its present world-wide reputation, is partly 
detailed in connection with the chapter on manu- 
factures, and forms one of the most interesting 
portions of the manufacturing history of Detroit. 
The creation of the forces and agencies which 
built up this enterprise, over obstacles almost 
unsurmountable, form the best index to the charac- 
ter and ability of those who have been instrumental 
in its development. That its success is largely due 
to the individual efforts of Mr. Davis, will be readily 
admitted by those most intimately connected with 
its growth. Coming into active participation in its 
management at an early period of its history, when 
it was of small capacity, and unknown beyond a 
small radius, he gave it a personal supervision and 
care which has been persistent, well directed, and 
unflagging. With unusual executive ability, great 
energy, intuitive knowledge of character, and broad 
and liberal business judgment, united to a certain 
boldness and courage, without which great business 
success is rarely attained, he has been an essential 
factor in achieving the success that is now estab- 
lished. 



ii86 



MANUFACTURERS AlsTD INVENTORS. 



The business was incorporated in 1875, with Mr. 
Davis as Secretary and Treasurer. He is also Presi- 
dent of the Michigan Phonograph Company, Vice- 
President of the Imperial Life Insurance Company, 
and is interested in several other business corpora- 
tions. In addition to his business as a manufacturer, 
as is shown in detail elsewhere in this work, he is 
one of the most extensive medical publishers in the 
United States, and scores of serial issues, valuable 
brochures, and books of interest to the medical and 
scientific world, bear his imprint as publisher, and 
owe to him the inspiration of their authorship. 

He possesses large real estate interests, particu- 
larly in Grosse Pointe, where he has not only estab- 
lished the nucleus of a suburban village, but has 
also an extensive stock and dairy farm. 

He is a Republican in political faith, and earnestly 
interested in the success of his party, but with the 
exception of two years' service in the Board of 
Education, has never held public ofifice. He has 
been publicly mentioned for various important 
official positions, particularly as member of Congress, 
Mayor, and Park Commissioner, but is in no sense 
an office seeker. He is a director in the Grosse 
Pointe Club and a member of various social clubs, 
military and other organizations, and socially is 
warm-hearted, affable, unassuming, and courteous, 
and worthy of the esteem in which he is held. He 
is an attendant of the Fort, Street Presbyterian 
Church, is liberal in his contributions to public 
objects, and has few equals of his years among the 
successful business men in the city or State. He is 
unmarried, and lives with his father's family. 

SOLOMON DAVIS, one of the oldest residents 
of Detroit, was born at Rockingham, Vermont, 
March 17, 1792, and was the first son of Joshua and 
Rhoda (Balcom) Davis. The first of the family, on 
the paternal side, in America, came from England, 
and landed in New England about the year 1670. 
After the manner of many of the pioneers, he 
moved from place to place, and was actively engaged 
in the various wars with the Indians. Nathaniel 
Davis, the grandfather of Solomon Davis, was born 
in the town of Petersham, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 13, 171 5. He married Susanna Hubbard, who 
was born April 10, 1720. They settled in Barre, 
Massachusetts, where most of their children were 
born. They afterwards, about the year 1758, 
located at the place now called Charleston, in New 
Hampshire. It then contained but four log houses, 
which, on their arrival, Were found to have been 
ravaged by the Indians, the windows and doors 
were open, and the floor strewn with various relics 
pertaining to household occupancy. This fact aided 
in determining his decision to join the forces raised 
for the war against the French and Indians. He 



entered the service, and was wounded in one of the 
skirmishes in his right shoulder, but succeeded in 
avoiding capture. At the close of the war he pur- 
chased a farm at Rockingham, Windham County, 
Vermont, where he cultivated the soil under great 
difficulties, being continually exposed to Indian 
attacks, and constantly compelled to guard against 
them. He subsequently purchased a larger and 
better farm on the north side of the Williams 
River, near the town of Rockingham, where he 
resided until his death. He was a very pious man, 
puritanical in turn, and possessing the fighting 
qualities so desirable among the early settlers. He 
had seven children, three girls and four boys. His 
wife was drowned in 1770, while trying to ford the 
Williams River, at Chester, Vermont. Joshua 
Davis, his fourth child, was born February 29, 1750. 
Remaining at home in his earlier youth, he assisted 
his father until the opening of the Revolutionary 
War, and then just prior to the battle of Bunker 
Hill, he joined the colonial forces, and while acting 
on the staff of the commanding general was 
severely wounded by a musket ball. On recover- 
ing from his wound, he was assigned to a company 
of the Green Mountain boys of Vermont, and 
arrived upon the field just after the battle of Ben- 
nington. He subsequently served in the army 
under Gates, Arnold, Washington, Lafayette, and 
Greene, being actively engaged in many of the 
battles of the Revolution, and was present at the 
surrender of Burgoyne. At the close of the war he 
purchased a farm near Newfane, Vermont, and 
there at the age of forty married Mrs. Myrick nee 
Rhoda Balcom. She was a descendant of an Eng- 
lish family, which originally resided in a small 
hamlet in England, called Balcombe, a name derived 
from the Saxon, signifying a dale or hollow at the 
foot of hills or highland. The Balcom family are 
all long lived, and from the first settlement in 
America have resided in Sudbury, Massachusetts. 
John Balcom, the first of the family in America, was 
born in 1657, and died in 1742. 

Henry Balcom, the father of Rhoda Balcom, was 
born in 1742. He was accidentally killed in 1840, 
being thrown from his horse and dragged some dis- 
tance with his foot in the stirrup. He married 
Kesia Stowe in 1761, and had eight children and 
fifty-nine grandchildren. He served in the Revo- 
lutionary War in various capacities, from the day 
of the battle of Bennington to the close of the war. 
His father moved with his family from Sudbury, 
Massachusetts, to Newfane, Vermont, very early, 
if not prior to the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary War. After the Revolutionary War he 
moved with his family from Newfane, Vermont, to 
Oxford, Chenango County, New York, where he 
remained the rest of his life. He was accidentally 





t^/ 




MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



I187 



killed at the age of seventy-two years, by being 
thrown from his horse. He had seven children 
and fifty-nine grandchildren. Two of the latter, 
Lyman and Ransom, were appointed to the bench, 
and served as Judges of the Supreme Court of the 
State of New York, in which State their numerous 
descendants have principally settled. 

Rhoda Balcom, wife of Joshua Davis, died in 
August, 1802, and in 1804 he married Mary Blake, 
of Rockingham. It is an interesting fact, as show- 
ing her health and vitality, that at the age of ninety 
she rode forty miles on horseback in one day. She 
died July 21, 1852, at the age of ninety-two years. 
Her husband, Joshua Davis, had five children, three 
boys and two girls. He died at Newfane, June 
24, 1838. 

After obtaining as thorough an education as the 
facilities of that day in Vermont afforded, Solomon 
Davis engaged in farming, and continued in that 
occupation until 181 3, when, taking advantage of 
the restrictions placed upon commercial relations 
with England by the embargo, and the existing 
need of woolen goods in this country, he invested 
what capital he had in a woolen manufactory, at 
Weathersfield, Vermont, and continued the business 
until about 1826, when the resumption of commer- 
cial relations with Great Britain, and competition 
with English manufacturers, compelled him and 
many other American woolen manufacturers, to 
suspend. Mr. Davis, however, paid all his debts in 
full, but had only twenty dollars left as the result 
of his industry up to that date, and on June 8, 1830, 
he crossed the Green Mountains on foot, obtained a 
passage by canal boat to Buffalo, and then em- 
barked on the steamer Superior for Detroit, arriving 
here on the 24th of June following. 

Shortly after his arrival in Detroit, he obtained 
the position of Superintendent of the Detroit Hy- 
draulic Company, organized to supply the city with 
water. He superintended the laying of the iron 
and wooden pipes, which, though but three inches 
in diameter, were considered sufficient for the 
necessities of the city at that time. During the 
year he returned to Vermont, and brought back his 
family. Early in 1833 he established a brass 
foundry, and continued in this line of business until 
1879, when he gave up active work. He reared a 
large family amid comfortable and pleasant sur- 
roundings, and in a long life of patient, persistent 
industry, conscientious devotion to duty, and in an 
honest, manly character, he gives them an inherit- 
ance which is above price. At ninety-six years of 
age he is hale and hearty, and possesses remark- 
able vigor of mind and body. 

He was married in 1825, to Anne H. Duncan. 
They had eight children, four girls and four boys, 
five of whom, three daughters, Mrs. George F. 



Turrill, Mrs. Charles Ketchum, of Detroit, and 
Mrs. Charles S. Bartlett, of Chicago, and two sons, 
George S. Davis, and James E. Davis, of Detroit, 
are living. The mother died on May 28, 1848, and 
on March 11, 1852, Mr. Davis married, as his second 
wife, Mrs. Elvira A. Campbell, of Detroit. She is 
still living, in the best of health and spirits' and in 
full possession of her faculties, at the advanced age 
of eighty-four years. 

ALEXANDER DeLANO, one of the leading 
manufacturers of Detroit, was born in Oneida 
County, New York, April 25, 1842. His ancestors 
were Huguenots and came from France to this 
country early in the eighteenth century, first settling 
in Massachusetts and afterwards removing to Ver- 
mont. His father, SafTord S. DeLano, was born in 
St. Albans, Vermont, in 1800. While a young man 
he located in Massachusetts. In 1840 he moved to 
Oneida County, New York, where he remained about 
eight years. In 1848 he removed to Brooklyn, New 
York, embarked in mercantile business, and died 
four years later. His wife, Clarissa Cook DeLano, 
w^as born in Berkshire, Massachusetts, in 1800, and 
died at Detroit in 1884. 

Alexander DeLano was the youngest son of eight 
children, and until about fifteen years of age at- 
tended school in Brooklyn, New York. In 1857 he 
started West and at Mt. Clemens, Michigan, 
engaged as clerk in the dry goods store of Moore 
Stephens, where he remained about four years. In 
July, 1 86 1, he enlisted at Fort Wayne, in the Fifth 
Michigan Infantry, the regiment being assigned to 
the Army of the Potomac. At the front, Mr. 
DeLano was soon made Regimental Quartermas- 
ter Sergeant, but on account of deafness, contracted 
in the service, he was unable to fill a higher rank 
which was offered and the same reason caused him 
to be honorably discharged in 1863. In the latter 
part of 1863 he located in Buffalo, New York, and 
engaged in the hard timber trade. In 1868 he came 
to Detroit and entered the employ of James McMil- 
lan, in the Michigan Car Works, where he remained 
ten years. 

In 1878, in connection with J. S. Newberry, he 
organized the Detroit Car Spring Company, of 
which he was made treasurer and general manager, 
and in 1881, with others, organized the Detroit 
Steelworks. In 1 883 these two corporations were 
consolidated under the name of the Detroit Steel 
and Spring Works, and Mr. DeLano was chosen 
president and manager. The company employ 
over three hundred men and turn out from five to 
six hundred tons of manufactured steel per month. 

JEREMIAH DWYER was born in Brooklyn, 
New York, August 22, 1837. When he was 



ii88 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



scarcely a year old, his parents removed to Detroit 
and settled on a farm in the township of Springwells, 
about four miles from the city, remaining there 
until 1848. In that year, while his father was 
driving a team of spirited young horses near the 
railroad, they were frightened by a locomotive and 
ran away, and Mr. Dwyer was thrown out and 
killed. The family then consisted of his wife, his 
son Jeremiah, and two younger children, James 
Dwyer, now manager of the Peninsular Stove Com- 
pany, and one sister, now Mrs. M. Nichols. 

After his father's death, Jeremiah, though only 
eleven years of age, tried for a year or two to aid 
his mother in managing the farm, but found it 
unprofitable work, and finally his mother, feeling 
the necessity of giving her children better educa- 
tional advantages than could be had in that vicinity, 
sold their country home, and purchased a residence 
in Detroit. With the other children Jeremiah now 
enjoyed a few years' training in the public schools, 
but as their means were limited, he found it neces- 
sary to obtain employment, which he secured in 
the saw and planing mill of Smith & Dwight, 
where he remained about a year. At that time it 
was quite difficult to get an opportunity to learn 
a trade, but through the influence of friends, Mr. 
Dwyer secured an opportunity to learn the trade of 
moulding at the Hydraulic Iron Works, then con- 
ducted by Kellog & Van Schoick, and afterwards 
owned and managed by O. M. Hyde & Co., with 
the late Captain R. S. Dillon as superintendent. 
Mr. Dwyer had to agree that he would serve four 
years as an apprentice and make good all lost time, 
and did so to the satisfaction of his employers, 
receiving at the expiration of his apprenticeship a 
letter of recommendation which he still prizes 
highly. 

At the conclusion of his apprenticeship he worked 
as journeyman in several eastern stove foundries, 
perfecting himself in his trade. He then returned 
to Detroit, and on account of poor health, resulting 
from too close confinement to his trade, accepted 
a position on the D. & M. R. R. for about a year, 
and was then offered a position as foreman in one 
of our leading foundries. About the same time a 
reaper works and stove foundry was started on the 
corner of Mt. Elliott Avenue and Wight Street, by 
Ganson & Mizner, but for some reason was not 
successful, and the property coming into the hands 
of T. W. Mizner, he made Mr. Dwyer a proposi- 
tion to engage in the stove business, and finally 
they made an arrangement under the firm name of 
J. Dwyer & Co., which continued about two years. 
W. H. Tefft then bought Mr. Mizner's interest, but 
the firm continued under the old name for about a 
year, and in 1864 M. I. Mills joined them and they 
formed a stock company, under the name of the 



Detroit Stove Works, with Mr. Dwyer as manager. 
In 1869 he superintended the construction of the new 
Detroit Stove Works in Hamtramck, and in the 
winter of 1870, through over anxiety and exposure 
in moving to and starting up the new works, he 
took a severe cold which settled on his lungs, and 
by advice of his physician he went South. Fearing 
he would not return, he sold his interest to his 
brother James, but after spending some time in the 
South, he returned home in the summer of 1871, 
and through* the persuasions of Alfred and Charles 
Ducharme, decided to again ^engage in stove 
manufacturing. Associating himself with Charles 
Ducharme, and with Richard H. Long as secretary, 
in the fall of 1871 they bought the Ogden & Rus- 
sel property, at the foot of Adair Street, at the 
outlet of the " Bloody Run," and immediately com- 
menced getting materials together for a new stove 
manufactory. The winter setting in early, they 
were unable to start their building as at first ex- 
pected, and during the winter of 1871-72, the late 
M. I. Mills proposed to put in his property front- 
ing on Jefferson Avenue and Adair Street, at first 
cost, and join them in this enterprise. His offer 
was accepted, and a few months later they were 
joined by Geo. H. Barbour, and formed the Michi- 
gan Stove Company, the officers being Charles 
Ducharme, president ; M. I. Mills, vice-president ; 
George H. Barbour, secretary; R. H. Long, superin- 
tendent, and Jeremiah Dwyer, manager. As the 
spring opened they pushed the erection of their 
buildings on the corne?- of Jefferson Avenue and 
Adair Street, as fast as possible, and here improved 
and extended their works and facilities as the times 
would warrant, till to-day this establishment will 
compare favorably with any works in the world in 
quality and quantity of their goods. At the death 
of Mr. Ducharme, Francis Palms was elected 
president, and on the death of M. I. Mills, in 1882, 
Mr. Dwyer was made vice-president and manager, 
and after the death of Mr. Palms, in 1886, Mr. 
Dwyer became president, which office he still holds. 
He was among the first organizers and is still a 
director of the People's Savings Bank, is vice-presi- 
dent of Bucks' Stove and Range Company, of St. 
Louis, Mo., and a stockholder in several other 
enterprises. * 

In the early days of the old volunteer Fire De- 
partment, he took an active part and for a number 
of years was foreman of No. 7, and later was one 
of the trustees of the Fire Department Society. 

He holds to the Roman Catholic faith, and is a 
worthy representative of that church. In politics 
he is a staunch Democrat, but though often solicited 
to be a candidate, has been too much engrossed in 
business to take an active part in politics, 'enter- 
tains no ambition for the distinctions of office, and 





/ ^ 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1 189 



with the exception of serving one term on the 
Board of Estimates, has held no public position. 

He is liberal-minded in his views on religion and 
politics, and generous to all charitable institutions ; 
is possessed of sound judgment, and has achieved 
great success as a manager of men. He is patient, 
untiring, industrious, modest and practical — a man 
of deeds rather than words. He has never over- 
reached nor attempted what w^as beyond his 
capacity to accomplish, is exceedingly cautious in 
all business matters, and his work is always so 
methodical that its results may be anticipated with 
reasonable certainty. Possessed of a quick and 
active disposition, with great force of character and 
genial and happy temperament, he commands the 
respect of all with whom he is associated. 

He was married November 22, 1859, to Mary 
Long, daughter of John Long and Elizabeth (Bais- 
ley) Long. They have one daughter and seven 



JACOB BEALE FOX was born in Louisville, 
Kentucky, January 12, 1831. His father was of 
English descent, and died while in California, where 
he had gone to try and build up his failing health. 
The son attended school but little after he was 
eleven years of age, as he was compelled to earn 
his own living. 

During the War with Mexico, he enlisted as a 
soldier in the First Kentucky Regiment, and upon 
his return from the war, visited California with his 
father, and soon afterwards started a confectionery 
business in New Albany, Indiana, but thinking to 
better his prospects in Kalamazoo, Michigan, he re- 
moved there in 1856, and ten years later came to 
Detroit, and with Jacob Bristol established a whole- 
sale confectionery establishment, under the firm 
name of J. B. Fox & Company. 

In 1869 the firm of William Phelps & Company 
became interested in the establishment, and in 1 870 
it was consolidated with the firm of Pilgrim & Gray, 
and the firm of Gray, Toynton & Fox established. 
They soon became the largest and most successful 
confectioners in Detroit, and were widely known for 
the extent and quality of their productions. Mr. 
Fox personally superintended the manufacturing 
department, and invented quite a number of 
machines for use in the manufacture of confection- 
ery, among them one for stamping out lozenges. 

He was a man of strict integrity, was a genial 
companion, and had the confidence of all who knew 
him. His health becoming impaired, he went South, 
and while visiting at his sister's, at Samuel's Station, 
in Nelson County, Kentucky, he was taken violently 
ill, and died there on May 16, 1881. 

He was married in 1853, to Marian Epperson, a 
relative of President Polk. They had three chil- 



dren, two of whom died, George L. Fox, of Detroit, 
being their only surviving child. On July 12, 1877, 
he married Mary S. McGregor, a direct descendant 
of Rob Roy, the noted Scottish chieftain. They 
had two children. Mrs. Fox and one son, John 
Murray Fox, are living. 

GEORGE H. GALE was born in Barre, Ver- 
mont, February 23, 1826. His grandfather. Brooks 
Gale, was one of the first two settlers of Barre, the 
other being David French; they were both from 
Massachusetts. George Gale, the father of George 
H. Gale, was born in Barre, Vermont, and married 
Harriet Stone. He moved to Hillsdale County, 
with his family, in 1837, and in 1840, established the 
first plow works in that county, at Moscow. 

George H. Gale began to care for himself at the 
age of ten. He had attended a common school 
and made the best use of his few opportunities. In 
1845 he removed to Kalamazoo, and engaged with 
Allen Potter in the hardware business, remaining 
there until 1849, when he went by the overland 
route to California, and there engaged in mining 
and other operations for four years. In 1854 he 
returned to Kalamazoo, and resumed the hardware 
business with Mr. Potter, continuing until 1867. 
Meantime, as early as 1855, he became identified 
with the manufacture of agricultural implements, in 
connection with his brothers, Charles, H. J., N. B., 
and Horatio Gale, who had works at Kalamazoo, 
Jonesville, and Albion, Michigan. George H. Gale 
is a stockholder in the Gale Manufacturing Com- 
pany, at Albion, and in 1883 took a leading part in 
the organization of the Gale Sulky Harrow Com- 
pany, of Detroit, became its general manager, and 
early in January, 1884, removed his residence to this 
city. 

The Gale Sulky Harrow is founded upon a 
patent obtained by his brother, Horatio Gale, in 
1880. The company own the entire right to manu- 
facture, and have shops for the manufacture of 
harrows in Canada. Their works, in Detroit, are 
located on Milwaukee Avenue, in the most advan- 
tageous position for the railroads, and they have 
contributed materially to the building up of that 
part of the city. They can turn out one hundred 
harrows a day. 

Mr. Gale, having assisted his brothers in the 
development of the patent, has devoted his energies 
to the organization and management of a company 
that should utilize it and give its practical benefits 
to the agriculturists of the country. In this he has 
been very successful. He is a thorough business 
man, trained in the school of experience, active, 
clear-headed, and self-reliant. His opinions are 
not borrowed from others, but are the result of 
investigation and consideration. He is courteous 



IIQO 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



and obliging in his intercourse with all, an excellent 
organizer of labor, and a successful financier. He 
is a Republican, and formerly gave much time to 
politics in the Fourth District, but since coming to 
Detroit has devoted himself exclusively to business, 
and to the interests of his family. 

He was married November 5, 1855, to Ellen S. 
Brown, of Kalamazoo, and has three daughters, 
Elnora, Winifred, and Blanche. 

JOHN S. GRAY was born in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, on October 5, 1841, and with his parents, 
Philip C. and Amelia Gray, came to America when 
he was eight years old. His father was a crockery 
merchant in Edinburgh, where his ancestors had 
lived for many generations. They sailed from Liv- 
erpool on April 6, 1849, ^^d soon after arriving 
here, settled on a farm in Wisconsin. They soon 
found that farm life did not agree with them, and 
therefore sold the property, and in May, 1857, moved 
to Detroit. John S. Gray, who was now sixteen 
years old, attended the Capitol School, taught by 
Professor Olcott, and upon the opening of the High 
School, was one of the first pupils, remaining until 
the fall of 1858. In the winter of that year he 
engaged in teaching at Algonac, and while thus 
employed, his father purchased a small toy store 
on the west side of Woodward Avenue, near Larned 
Street. 

In the spring of 1859, he entered his father's 
store, and began a business career that has been 
remarkably successful. In 1861 they sold out the 
stock of toys, formed a copartnership with C. Pel- 
grim, under the firm name of Pelgrim, Gray & 
Company, and manufactured candy in a small way 
until January, 1862, when the store and stock were 
destroyed by fire. They immediately reopened at 
143 Jefferson Avenue, with much enlarged capacity 
and increased trade. Soon after this the elder Mr. 
Gray retired from the business, and Messrs.#Pelgrim 
& Gray received into partnership Joseph Toynton, 
who had previously been in the employ of William 
Phelps & Company, wholesale grocers, and in 1865, 
on the retirement of Mr. Pelgrim, the style of the 
firm was changed to Gray & Toynton. The busi- 
ness continued to increase so as to require an 
enlargement of their building, which was accord- 
ingly made, and in the spring of 1870, J. B. Fox 
was admitted as a partner, the style of the firm 
becoming Gray, Toynton & Fox. In the fall of 
1870, the demands of their business compelled them 
to seek larger quarters, and they purchased and 
removed to the building on the southeast corner of 
Woodbridge and Bates Streets, where they still 
remain, three separate enlargements having been 
made to accommodate their ever increasing trade. 
In the spring of 1881 both Mr. Toynton and Mr. 



Fox died ; the respective interests of the deceased 
partners were soon after withdrawn, -and the firm 
was succeeded by an incorporated company, under 
the same name and style. Since 1881 an adjoin- 
ing store has been required to accommodate the 
business, which gives employment to from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred hands, according 
to the season, and is the largest establishment of 
the kind in Michigan. Mr. Gray has been Presi- 
dent and manager of the corporation since its 
organization. As a business man, he ranks among 
the first in the city, both as to efficiency and pro- 
bity of character. He is careful and economical, 
yet bold and enterprising, possessing a rare combi- 
nation of push and conservatism that has made his 
success certain and continuous. He is well read in 
general literature, a close student in several lines of 
thought, and withal an earnest student of the Scrip- 
tures. In politics he is liberal and independent, 
and in the old anti-slavery days was an Abolitionist. 
He has been a member of the Christian Church 
since 1857, and an active worker in missions and 
Sunday-schools. 

To recruit his health, he made an extended tour 
through Europe and the East in 1872, visiting 
Egypt, Palestine, and other parts of Asia Minor, as 
well as his old home in Scotland. He derived so 
much benefit that he renewed the trip, in part, in 
1883, visiting Scotland, France, and Italy, and his 
health was greatly improved. 

He married Anna E. Hayward, at Beloit, Wis- 
consin, on October 31, 1864. They have three sons 
and one daughter. The eldest son, Philip H., is in 
the office of the company at Detroit ; the second 
son, Paul, is a student in the University of Michi- 
gan ; the others are at home. 

THOMAS F. GRIFFIN was born in Limerick, 
Ireland, December 18, 1826. When about eleven 
years old, he determined to seek his own and a 
better fortune in the New World. Accordingly, in 
the spring of 1838, he left Limerick for Liverpool, 
and at the latter place took passage for America. 
On the arrival of the vessel at Quebec, he worked 
his way to Rochester, New York, and that place 
came near being his permanent residence, for he 
remained there thirty-five years. His first occupa- 
tion in Rochester was at general work, in a flour 
mill. He stayed at this employment about three 
years, and during the winter months attended the 
Rochester High School. After leaving the mill, he 
worked at various occupations, and finally, in 1843, 
went as an apprentice for Messrs. Traver & Bene- 
dict, proprietors of the old Rochester foundry, 
agreeing to remain with them four years. This 
connection proved a fortunate one. The firm was 
highly reputable and well known in connection with 




} / 



•'c 



V, '//o', 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



II9I 



the building of the Rochester & Auburn Railroad. 
By the time he had served his apprenticeship, he 
was competent to take charge of the foundry, where 
he remained for over a quarter of a century. 
Meanwhile, in 1848, soon after his apprenticeship 
ended, he married, and has six children, two sons 
and four daughters. 

Mr. Griffin, as early as 1844, within a year from 
the time he entered the foundry, was engaged 
in making the old-fashioned split-hub wheels, 
zinced and banded with wrought bands around the 
hubs. Three years later, the first solid hub and 
double plate car wheels were made in Rochester, by 
Mr. Washburne, of Worcester, Massachusetts, and 
almost immediately Mr. Griffin's employers pro- 
cured wheel patterns, core boxes, and chills, and 
began the manufacture of said wheels. Since that 
date, the time and thought, the energy and experi- 
ence of Mr. Griffin have been ceaselessly devoted to 
the making of chilled wheels, and for many years 
before leaving Rochester, he made them under con- 
tract. That he has been remarkably successful in 
producing superior wheels, and in immense quanti- 
ties, is a fact well known to all interested in the 
rolling stock of railroads. His success has not been 
alone his own ; his two sons, after completing their 
education, preferring the business of their father 
above any other, entered it with the purpose of 
fully mastering all the details. With this idea 
Thomas A. entered the foundry in 1868, and P. H. 
Griffin the following year. Both of them, by prac- 
tical, personal work, became thoroughly familiar 
with the business, and together father and sons 
have pushed the business to its present large pro- 
portions. 

Mr. Griffin's coming to Detroit grew out of a 
visit paid to the city by one of his sons. An inter- 
view with Mr. James McMillan resulted in their 
removal to Detroit early in January, 1873, under a 
contract with the Michigan Car Company, to put 
the Detroit Car Wheel Company's shops, at Grand 
Trunk Junction, in working order, and manufacture 
all their car wheels and castings, for a term of five 
years. Mr. Griffin succeeded in having them in 
full operation in April of the same year. 

After the completion of the shops, he remained 
with the company four years, and in September, 
1877, erected a foundry of his own, in its present 
location on Foundry Street, adjoining the Michigan 
Central Railroad tracks. Commencing with only 
thirty chills and nine men, and turning out but 
eighteen wheels per day, and no other castings of any 
kind, the business has steadily increased until the 
works at Detroit occupy about five acres of ground, 
with a foundry seven hundred feet long and sixty- 
five feet wide, besides other buildings, and can turn 
out all kinds of chilled wheels and castings, of both 



iron and brass. Their capacity is two hundred and 
fifty wheels per day, or seventy-five thousand per 
year. They also turn out about seven thousand 
five hundred tons of castings, and employ from two 
hundred to three hundred men, and sell to the 
principal railroads in the United States and Canada. 

An associated corporation, known as the Griffin 
Wheel and Foundry Company, of Chicago, is con- 
trolled and managed by Mr. Thomas A. Griffin, 
and manufactures about three hundred wheels per 
day. The Ajax Forge Company, of Chicago, is 
also under his management, and produces various 
kinds of railroad necessities, such as frogs, crossings, 
rail braces, links, pins, etc. This company employs 
about three hundred men. The extensive foundry 
in Buffalo, established under the name of Thomas 
F. Griffin & Sons, which is managed by Mr. P. H. 
Griffin, is also a part of their system of foundries, 
and has a capacity of fifty thousand wheels per 
year and seven thousand five hundred tons of cast- 
ings, and employs from one hundred and fifty to 
two hundred men. The St. Thomas Car Wheel 
Company, of Canada, of which Mr. P. H. Griffin is 
also manager, is conducted by the Messrs. Griffin, 
they owning two-thirds interest of the business, and 
Mr. C. Sheehy, of Detroit, one-third. This estab- 
lishment has a capacity for two hundred and fifty 
wheels per day, and about one thousand five hun- 
dred tons of castings yearly. These concerns have 
an average capital of $80,000. 

The Griffin Car Wheel Company, of Detroit, was 
organized in October, 1877, with a capital of 
$30,000, all paid in. On March 20, 1880, it was 
increased to $50,000; in July, 1881, to $100,000; 
and in January, 1884, to $150,000. The officers, 
from 1877 to 1 88 1, were: Thomas F. Griffin, 
President; Dr. D. O. Farrand, Vice-President; 
Thomas A. Griffin, Secretary; and P. H. Griffin, 
Treasurer. 

After the death of Dr. Farrand, T. A. Griffin 
became Vice-President, and P. H. Griffin, Secretary 
and Treasurer. In 1886, Mr. P. H. Griffin removed 
to Buffalo, to take charge of the interests there an4 
at St. Thomas, and since then Thomas F. Griffin 
has been President and Treasurer; Thomas A, 
Griffin, Vice-President : E. A. Wales, Secretary ; 
and -Joseph P. Cullen, Superintendent. The suc- 
cessful management of large business operations 
has naturally increased Mr. Griffin's native self- 
reliance. He has, however, been conservative in 
his plans, but also quick to take" advantage of favor- 
able opportunities, and has been especially favored 
in having in his sons the help of capable and pro- 
gressive coadjutors. He is a member of the Catholic 
Church, but liberal in his feelings towards those of 
another faith, and socially, as well as in his family, 
is a warm-hearted and appreciative companion and 



iig2 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



friend. As a business man, his record is without 
reproach, and is a notable example of success 
achieved by individual exertion. 

GILBERT HART was born at Wallingford, 
Rutland County, Vermont, August ii, 1828, and is 
the son of Irad and Lucinda (Wright) Hart. His 
American ancestors were natives of New England, 
his grandfather, Amasa Hart, was born at Walling- 
ford, Connecticut, and went to Vermont prior to 
the Revolution. 

The early life of Gilbert Hart was spent on a 
farm. His father died when he was fifteen years 
old, but his health had been so feeble for many 
years before his death, that the care of the house- 
hold devolved in part upon his sons. Gilbert Hart 
remained in Vermont until the breaking out of the 
War of the Rebellion, and then in November, 1861, 
he enlisted for three years in the Third Company 
of Vermont Sharp-shooters, of which he was elected 
Captain. This company, after its muster in the 
Union service, became Company H, of the Second 
Regiment of United States Sharp-shooters, and 
formed a part of the Army of the Potomac. Cap- 
tain Hart served through the campaign of 1862, 
and a portion of the winter of 1863. His health 
then failed, and being physically unfit for service, he 
was honorably discharged in January, 1863. 

After his discharge he returned to East Dorset, 
Vermont, and in 1865, came to Detroit. He pos- 
sesses natural mechanical genius, and* his attention 
being directed to the manner of producing emery 
wheels, he worked out several improved methods of 
manufacture, securing various patents, including one 
for a process of strengthening, which has proved 
superior to all other methods in execution of work ^ 
and durability. He commenced the manufacture of 
emery wheels in a limited way in 1871, and the 
business has steadily grown in extent until at the 
present time it is the largest emery wheel manu- 
factory in the United States, and the only one west 
of Pennsylvania. The plant on Field Avenue, fur- 
nishing employment to about fifty men, is complete 
in every particular, nearly all the appliances used in 
the manufacture of emery wheels and the machinery 
connected with their use, being the result of Mr. 
Hart's ingenuity. The productions are sold all 
over the United States, wherever metal is worked. 
Mr. Hart is the sole proprietor, and in the de- 
velopment of this field of industry has labored 
persistently and arduously, and his success is aljke 
creditable to his mechanical ingenuity and business 
ability. 

In 1884, with C. A. Strelinger, he founded the large 
retail hardware store of C. A. Strelinger & Com- 
pany ; he has also become financially interested in 
various business enterprises in Detroit, and in 1888, 



was elected the first president of the newly organized 
Central Savings Bank. His time and energies, 
however, are chiefly given to the manufacturing 
interest of which he is the creator, and in which he 
takes a pardonable pride. 

He is a strong Republican in politics, but is not 
an active participant in political affairs. He is a 
member and a regular attendant at the Unitarian 
Church, is an appreciative friend, has a generous 
nature, is devoid of all pretense or show, naturally 
retiring in disposition, thoroughly domestic in his 
tastes, and possesses the fullest confidence of all 
who know him. 

He was married in February, 1858, to Calista 
Giddings, of Cavendish, Vermont. They have but 
one child, Frederick P., born in July, 1875. 

SAMUEL F. HODGE was born in Cornwall, 
England, March 6, 1822. His father was head 
blacksmith in a notable mine, and the son naturally 
gravitated into, and, in fact, grew up in the same 
line of business. Educated under the eye of his 
father, he was early initiated into active work, and 
when but seventeen, was at the head of one of the 
shops in his native place, and continued in Cornwall 
until 1849, and then, being determined to better his 
condition, he bid a temporary adieu to his wife and 
his two children, and emigrated to America, landing 
at New Orleans in the early part of the year. At 
New Orleans he took passage on a steamer for the 
north, and made his first stop of any moment, at 
Toledo. He soon decided to leave there and came 
to Detroit. 

Soon after his arrival here, on November 19, 1849, 
a fire destroyed the officers' quarters at Fort Wayne, 
near the city, and Mr. Hodge was engaged to 
demolish the walls, in order to prepare the way for 
a new structure. His work was satisfactorily per- 
formed, and, his abilities becoming known, he was 
engaged to make the wrought iron work used in 
connection with the building of the fort, and was so 
employed until 1851, and in the meantime he sent 
over for his wife and children. He was next em- 
ployed as foreman in the iron foundry of DeGraff & 
Kendrick, located on the corner of Earned and 
Fourth Streets, remaining with them until 1854, 
and then engaging with their successors, the Detroit 
Locomotive Works. He remained with this estab- 
lishment until 1858, when he left to go into business 
on his own account. The time was favorable for 
such an adventure. The development of the Lake 
Superior mines had begun to assume importance, 
and there was an active demand for improved 
methods of reducing the ore. Mr. Hodge's early 
experience now served him well, and being familiar 
with mining methods in Cornwall, he resolved to 
devote his attention to mining machinery. Opening 




(^O^n^'fiJ/f/U 



/6'£ 




^•///^vy ///^ ^A^^^^ 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



193 



an office, he was soon supplying various mines with 
their mining equipment, and, in fact, served as 
mining expert, and filled the place of a consulting 
engineer for several companies. 

In 1863, the business changes incident to the War 
with the South led him to discontinue his business 
as a contractor, and he engaged directly in manufac- 
turing. With William Cowie, T. S. Christie, and 
William L. Barclay, he organized the firm of 
Cowie, Hodge & Company, and commenced the 
manufacture of steam engines and heavy machin- 
ery, at the corner of Atwater and Rivard Streets. 
After two years the firm changed to Hodge & 
Christie, and four years later Mr. Hodge became 
sole proprietor of the establishment. His business 
was continuously prosperous, and in 1 876 he erected, 
on Atwater Street, the very extensive and complete 
establishment known as the Riverside Iron Works. 
It has a plant second to that of none other in the 
city, and possesses the advantage of an extensive 
river frontage, and all modern appliances for the 
speedy and perfect execution of work. For seven 
years after the completion of this establishment he 
conducted it alone, and then, desiring relief from 
some of the responsibility of its management, he 
secured the formation of a corporation, under the 
name of Samuel F. Hodge & Company, and served 
as President of the same. Meantime, from 1871 
to 1879, he served as one of the Board of Water 
Commissioners, and could have had other important 
offices had he been willing to accept them. The 
story of his life clearly indicates great force of 
character, and mental endowments of a high order. 
He mastered easily all details connected with the 
science of mechanics, thought his way clear through 
the most difficult problems, and was practically, as 
well as in theory, acquainted wath the various 
details of his business. He was quick to notice any 
carelessness on the part of his workmen, and equally 
ready to commend and reward those whose endeav- 
ors were worthy of notice. His business success 
was almost unvarying and entirely the result of his 
own patient and diligent endeavors. 

He was not only a worker but a student, and kept 
abreast of the times in the reading pertaining to 
his occupation ; he was also a lover of the old Eng- 
lish classics, and his close reading gave him rare 
powers of language, and in a controversy upon 
mechanical subjects, with any foeman worthy of 
his steel, there was no uncertainty as to the result. 
He was fearless in his advocacy of what he deemed 
the truth, scrupulously honest, and his business 
life was without a stain. He died on April 14, 1884, 
leaving a wife and five children, his son, Harry S. 
^odge, succeeding him as President of the foundry 
corporation. 



FREDERICK A. HUBEL was born at Noerd- 
lingen, Bavaria, January i, 1846. His parents, 
John and Lisette (Moetzel) Hubel, came to America 
during the year 1852, and soon after their arrival 
settled in St. Clair, St. Clair County, Michigan, re- 
maining there until the spring of 1853, when they 
moved to Missouri, near Council Bluffs, Iowa. They 
remained there only about a year, returning in 
1 854 to St. Clair, where the elder Mr. Hubel engaged 
in the grocery business. He died in 1871, leaving 
a widow and five children, Frederick A., Charles, 
Barbara, John, and Augusta. Frederick A. at- 
tended the public school at St. Clair until 1862, 
and then, at the age of sixteen, engaged as an 
apprentice in a prescription drug store in Detroit, 
and during the summer and fall of the following 
year served as cabin assistant on a lake surveying 
vessel. The following winter he attended the high 
school at Ann Arbor, Michigan, preparatory to 
entering the University, but his health failed and he 
was obliged to give up his studies, and by the advice 
of his friends, in the spring of 1864, he engaged as an 
apprentice at sheet metal work, remaining four and 
a half years. In the fall of 1868 he again engaged 
as clerk in the drug business in Detroit, and in 1871 
returned to Ann Arbor University to take a special 
course in chemistry. After his return to Detroit, in 
July, 1873, he began, in a limited way, the manufac- 
ture of perfumes and extracts. 

Early in 1874 his attention was called to empty 
gelatine capsules, as an article which might 
possibly be profitably manufactured in connection 
with his other products. He immediately began 
to experiment in their manufacture by hand, with 
the assistance of one boy, and continued in this 
way for over a year, and in 1875 invented and 
completed the first machine for the manufacture 
of capsules. He continued to improve his meth- 
ods of manufacture, adding from time to time 
new machinery for various details, of the w^ork, 
all of which he designed and protected by letters 
patent. In 1876 he employed six persons, and in 
1888 employed one hundred and fifty. In his fac- 
tory, shown elsewhere in this work, he manufactures 
ten sizes of capsules, and sells his entire product to 
Parke, Davis & Company, who supply the trade. 

Mr. Hubel is progressive but cautious in his 
business methods, and remarkably successful, and 
is justly entitled to credit as the originator and 
patentee of valuable machinery for the rapid manu- 
facture of a valuable product, by w^hich one can 
take medicines without of necessity tasting any of 
their disagreeable compounds. 

He was marrred to Camilla Scholes, of Detroit, 
in 1878. They have four children, Maud, Fred- 
erick, Gertrude, and Camilla. 



1 194 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



JAMES McGregor was born at Kincardine, 
Scotland, May lo, 1830, and bears the same name 
as his father. On the paternal side he is descended 
from Highland ancestry. His father who was a 
farmer, pursued the trade of millwright and joiner in 
connection with his farm labors, and emigrated to 
Canada in 1858, settling on a farm near Hamilton, 
where he remained until his death in 1876. 

The boyhood of his son, James McGregor, was 
passed at Kincardine, where he obtained a 
thoroughly practical education in the excellent par- 
ish schools of that place. He then, under his 
father's direction, commenced a regular apprentice- 
ship as a millwright and joiner. After acquiring 
his trade he worked at different places in Scotland 
and England until 1855, and then came to America 
and settled in Hamilton, Ontario, where he obtained 
employment in the car department of the Great 
Western Railroad, remaining four years, the last 
two as foreman. He then went to Sarnia and took 
charge of the car department of the Great Western 
Railroad at that place, where he remained vmtil 
March, i860, when he came to Detroit and became 
superintendent of the car department of the Detroit 
and Milwaukee Railroad, then under the general 
management of W. K. Muir, retaining this position 
until March, 1879, when he was made general 
superintendent of the Michigan Car Works, a post 
he has since most ably filled. With long practical 
experience in the line of his present work, great 
natural mechanical skill, and unusual executive 
force in the management of a large body of men, 
he has become a valuable factor in the prosperity of 
the concern with which he is connected. During 
the period he has held his present position, the 
capacity of the works has been many times enlarged, 
at first manufacturing but three cars per day ; the 
works now produce thirty-two per day. Mr. Mc- 
Gregor is interested with the direct general manage- 
ment of the entire working force of over two 
thousand men, a work requiring a perfect knowl-* 
edge of every detail of the business, and the exercise 
of constant thought and care, as well as the posses- 
sion of rare judgment and tact. In the performance 
of these complicated duties, he has been conspicu- 
ously successful, and has gained an enviable repu- 
tation among the car builders throughout the United 
States. His time is entirely given to his work with 
a singleness of purpose and aim which, in a measure, 
accounts for the high degree of. success he has 
attained. 

He is financially interested in several business 
enterprises, and is the owner of a large farm near 
St. Clair, on the river, in the cultivation of which 
he takes great pleasure, and which forms his chief 
diversion. He is thoroughly identified with Detroit, 



hot only by residence and prominent connection 
with its greatest inanufacturing interest, but in 
numerous ways has shown himself a public-spirited 
citizen, and an eminently worthy representative of 
Scotch manliness, thrift, and persistent energy, and 
has achieved a position alike honorable to his ances- 
try and to himself. Socially, he is an agreeable, 
affable gentleman. He is a member of the St. 
Clair Fishing and Shooting Club, has been for many 
years a member of the Central Presbyterian Church, 
and for the last twelve years one of the trustees. 

He was married in 1851 to Susan Christie, of 
Scotland. They have had seven children, six of 
whom are now living. His eldest son, James C. 
McGregor, assists his father at the Michigan Car 
Works. 

JOSEPH BERTHELET MOORE was born in 
Detroit, September 15, 1846, and is the son of J. 
Wilkie and Margaret (Berthelet) Moore. The first 
of his paternal ancestors in America, General Wil- 
liam Moore, came from London, England, in 1770, 
settled at Bolton, Massachusetts, and was a brave 
and distinguished officer in the Revolutionary War. 
He married Sarah Coolidge. Their son Aaron 
married Mary Wilkie, of Schenectady, New York, 
a descendant of Wilkie, the famous artist of Scot- 
land. J. Wilkie Moore, son of Aaron and Mary 
(Wilkie) Moore and the father of J. B. Moore, was 
born at Geneva, New York, May 13, 18 14. He 
came to Detroit in 1833, when Michigan was a ter- 
ritory, the city of Detroit then containing but 2,600 
inhabitants. After serving as a clerk for several 
years, he opened a general store on Jefferson Ave- 
nue, and a few years later went into the real estate 
business, and was quite successful. He was in 
the United States Custom Service for fourteen 
years, for three years secret agent of the revenue 
department, and afterwards United States Consul 
at Windsor. He was married in 1843, to Margaret 
Berthelet, daughter of Henry Berthelet, a leading 
merchant of Detroit in its earlier days, a large prop- 
erty owner, and a citizen of wealth and influence. 
The Berthelets, who were natives of Southern 
France, were early settlers in Detroit. Mr. Moore 
still resides here, but for several years has lived a 
retired life. 

Joseph B. Moore was educated in the public 
schools, and graduated from the High School in 
1862. He entered upon a mercantile career by 
becoming cashier in the retail dry goods store of 
E. S. Parker, known as the People's Store, after- 
wards conducted by H. Greening. His next posi- 
tion was as assistant bookkeeper for Allan Shelden 
& Company. A desire to engage in the banking 
business caused him to leave this position, and being 
unable to find a favorable opening in Detroit, in 1866 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



ii95 



he went to Milwaukee, and became corresponding 
clerk, and soon after teller in the First National Bank 
of that city. Remaining there two years, he returned 
to Detroit and entered the First National Bank as 
discount clerk, a position he held for ten years. 
Meantime, in 1875, Messrs. Jarvis & Hooper had 
established a manufactory of fertilizers at the foot of 
Leib Street, and in 1878, Mr. Moore resigned his 
position in the bank, and purchased Mr. Hooper's 
interest in the firm. Th^ business at the time was 
conducted in a comparatively limited way. Upon 
Mr. Moore's connection with it, the capacity of the 
works was enlarged, additional capital invested, and 
the company incorporated with a capital of $80,000. 
Deming Jarvis was made president, and Mr. Moore 
secretary and treasurer. The demand for their 
productions grew rapidly, and in 1882 it was found 
necessary to seek larger quarters. The capital 
stock was then increased to $300,000, and eighty 
acres of land on the river Rouge, in Springwells 
township, were purchased, upon which there was 
erected an extensive plant, especially adapted for 
the purpose required. The products of the works 
consist of various kinds of fertilizers, with all grades 
of glue and bone black, and in the manufacture of 
the latter article, they produce a larger quantity than 
any other factory in the world. Thirty tons, or 
three car loads of animal matter are ground up 
every day. These are obtained from all over the 
country, but of late years the principal source of 
supply has been from the prairies of Texas and 
the far West. The annual value of their products 
exceeds $1,000,000, and over two hundred persons 
are employed. 

Mr. Moore was indefatigable in the building up 
of this industry, and the success of the enterprise is 
largely due to his energy, good judgment, and 
intelligent effort. He was individually entrusted 
with almost the entire management of the concern, 
and the results have been eminently satisfactory. 
His entire time, up to 1887, was given to the 
undertaking to the exclusion of conflicting business 
interests, a fact which, in a measure, explains his 
success. In 1887 he became cashier of the newly 
organized Peninsular Savings Bank, and under his 
excellent management the bank has been remarka- 
bly successful, reaching during its first year, a high 
place among the best of the banking institutions 
of the city. 

He is a member of St. Aloysius Catholic Church, 
and for many years has been President of the 
Board of Trustees of Mount Elliott Cemetery. 

Politically, Mr. Moore has always been an earnest 
and active Republican, and has been a helpful fac- 
tor in securing victories for his party in local and 
State elections. As Chairman of the Detroit and 
the Wayne County Republican Committees, he has 



evinced excellent ability as an organizer, and is a 
skillful and successful worker. He represented the 
old Ninth Ward in the City Council during 1877-78, 
and was appointed a member of the Poor Commis- 
sion in 1880 by Mayor Thompson, and re-appointed 
for another term in 1884 by Mayor Grummond, 
and again re-appointed, for a third term, in 1888, by 
Mayor Pridgeon. By virtue of the latter office, he 
is one of the County Superintendents of the Poor 
of Wayne County, to whoni is entrusted the care 
and management of the Poor House and Insane 
Asylum at Wayne. As a public official he has been 
painstaking and efficient. 

Personally he is an agreeable and pleasant gen- 
tleman, social and warm-hearted. He is a member 
of the Detroit and Grosse Pointe Club^, also presi- 
dent of the Detroit Catholic Club, and in all that 
constitutes an upright business man, a public-spirited 
citizen and a progressive, useful member of the 
community, is a worthy type of the younger business 
element of Detroit. 

He was married May 21, 1878, to Elizabeth W. 
O'Hara, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

MICHAEL JOSEPH MURPHY was born at 
Sarnia, Canada, February 22. 1851, and is the son 
cff James and Catherine Murphy. Both of his 
parents were natives of Ireland, and were born at 
Limerick, where their ancestors lived for genera- 
tions. His father came to America in 1832, and 
became one of the earliest settlers in Lambton 
County, Canada, where he remained until 1844, 
when he removed to Iowa County, Wisconsin, 
remaining there until 1849, when he returned to 
Canada, and settled on a farm near the city of 
Sarnia, where he was married and still resides. 

His son, M. J. Murphy, after receiving the edu- 
cational advantages of the excellent public schools 
of his native place, came to Detroit in 1868, and 
attended Goldsmith's Commercial College, and after 
completing his course, spent nearly a year in that 
institution as a teacher. He then served as book- 
keeper for C. H. Dunks, manufacturer of bed 
springs, and at the end of a year secured employ- 
ment as bookkeeper in the Second National Bank 
of Detroit, continuing in such capacity until the 
latter part of 1872, when he purchased the manu- 
facturing establishment of his former employer, 
C. H. Dunks, then located on Griswold Street, 
opposite the present Brunswick Hotel. At this 
time the manufacture of bed springs, in a limited 
way, constituted the sole business of the factory. 
Under Mr. Murphy's energetic efforts, the business 
rapidly increased in extent, and was soon removed 
to 32 Woodward Avenue, where he remained two 
years. The quarters formerly occupied by the 
Detroit Chair Factory, on the corner of Fourth and 



1 196 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



Porter Streets, were then secured, and in 1878 the 
manufacture of chairs was there undertaken. This 
line was not only an immediate success, but gradu- 
ally superseded the former product of the factory, 
and for several years has constituted the sole article 
of manufacture. The superior quality and finish 
of his work speedily created an extensive market, 
and business grew so rapidly that, although addi- 
tional buildings had been repeatedly erected to 
increase the capacity of his works, larger quarters 
were found necessary. To meet this demand, in 1B85 
eight acres of land were purchased, upon which 
two large four-story brick buildings were erected, 
the capacity of which has since been increased by 
the erection of other buildings, giving a floor capacity 
of one hundred and thirty-two thousand square 
feet, forming one of the best arranged and equipped 
factories of its kind in the country, and giving em- 
ployment to three hundred persons. The daily 
product is one hundred dozen chairs, while the 
value of the annual production exceeds $300,000. 
These goods are sold all over the United States, 
but chiefly in the States of Michigan, Indiana, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Although 
known up to 1884 as the manufacturing establish- 
ment of M. J. Murphy & Company, Mr. Murphy 
was the sole owner and manager. At the date 
named, a stock company was formed under the 
same name, with a capital of $75,000, with Mr. 
Murphy as President and Treasurer. Every year 
since its establishment the concern has shown a 
steady increase in the extent and quality of its 
productions, with a constantly increasing market. 
In a comparatively few years Mr. Murphy, virtually 
single handed, has created an establishment which 
is a material source of prosperity to Detroit, and it 
is needless to say he has been an earnest, persever- 
ing and intelligent worker. 

The secret of success in most enterprises can be 
traced to the individual effort of some one man, 
and in no instance is this more conspicuous than in 
this establishment. Its growth and development 
are the best testimonials of the ability of Mr. Mur- 
phy. The forces which have contributed to his 
success have been concentration of energies to one 
object, together with persistent and well directed 
efforts, and ability to forecast business events and 
to devise means to promptly meet them, coupled 
with a high order of executive capacity. Few men 
of his age, dependent solely upon their own exer- 
tions, have reached a higher position in the manufac- 
turing world. He is rather inclined to be cautious, 
but adheres closely to a stand once taken, and wins 
confidence by his fidelity to every obligation. 

He is of generous impulses and pleasant disposi- 
tion, and socially an agreeable companion. Naturally 
independent in character, the usual party ties and 



prejudices have little influence over his actions. In 
business sagacity, integrity, and unsullied private 
character, he is an excellent representative of the 
younger element in the commercial activity of 
Detroit. 

He was married in 1877 to Eliza Gleeson, of 
Sarnia, Canada. They have four sons and two 
daughters. 

DAVID OSGOOD PAIGE was born in Weare, 
Hillsboro County, New Hampshire, September 
14, 1833, and is the son of Osgood and Martha 
(Blaisdell) Paige. His father was born at Weare, 
February 18, 1794, and died in July, 1878. His 
mother was born January 26, 1797, at Hopkinton, 
New Hampshire, and died in September, 185 1. 
The family trace their ancestry back to John Paige, 
born in Dedham, England, in 1586, and came to 
this country with Governor Winthrop, in 1630, 
settled in the town of Dedham, Massachusetts, and 
from there his sons settled in Maryland, New^ York, 
and New Hampshire. Osgood Paige, father of 
D. O. Paige, inherited the original homestead, in 
Weare, and was one of the largest landholders in 
Hillsboro County. He was a man of ability and 
influence, strong and active in his religious convic- 
tions, and an earnest advocate of temperance and 
other moral reforms. In 1841 the family removed 
to Manchester, which at that time was in its infancy, 
and promised to become one of the largest manu- 
facturing cities in the country. Here, as a child, 
D. O. Paige came under the influences surrounding 
manufacturing enterprises, and being naturally of 
an inventive and mechanical mind, early and 
earnestly sought employment, during his school 
vacations, in various manufacturing establishments, 
where he became familiar with the processes and 
the operation of machinery in the manufacture 
of fabrics. At the age of sixteen he finished his 
studies at the Highland Lake Institute, at Andover, 
and immediately apprenticed himself to the Amos- 
keag Machine Shops, where he learned the machinist 
trade in its various branches. 

At the age of nineteen he was tendered, and 
accepted, a position as foreman and contractor in 
the Essex Machine Shop, at Lawrence, Massachu- 
setts, where he remained five years, constantly 
building up for himself a reputation as a mechanic. 
Before he left he was offered, if he would remain, 
the assistant superintendency of the works, which 
employed at that time about twelve hundred men. 
He declined the offer, believing that the West prom- 
ised a larger and rhore remunerative field to a 
young man who was willing to work, and early in the 
spring of 1 857 went to Dayton, Ohio, and for one year 
took charge of R. Dutton & Company's agricultural 
implement shops. While there he invented and 




7 



*- '^-'/ /' /( ^ 



) 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



II97 



patented an improvement in wheat drills, which 
afforded him a handsome revenue for several years. 
The disastrous panic of 1857 so stagnated the 
manufacturing business, that Mr. Paige decided to 
accept a position offered him by the American 
Patent Company, of Cincinnati, and was placed at 
the head of the department for giving practical 
tests to newly invented machinery and making 
mathematical calculations for mechanics. While 
in this business, he became interested in the devel- 
opment and manufacture of bank locks and safes, 
and obtained a position with Hall, Carroll & Com- 
pany, where he remained until 1865. During the 
AVar of the Rebellion, this firm not only manufac- 
tured safes and locks, but did a large amount of 
work for the Government, altering muskets into 
rifles, building army wagons, etc., the care of which 
came largely upon Mr. Paige. 

In July, 1865, Mr. Paige decided to come to 
Detroit, and in company with John J. Bagley and 
Z. R. Brockway established the manufacture of 
safes, vault and jail work. They organized the 
Detroit Safe Company, and immediately commenced 
work, with Mr. Paige as manager. The company 
organized with a capital of twenty thousand dollars, 
and have steadily increased until they are now one 
of the largest manufacturing establishments in the 
State, and their products are known all over the 
world. Mr. Paige is General Manager and Treas- 
urer of the company, and to his efforts, ingenuity, 
and mechanical skill are due the success they have 
attained. 

He has never sought or wished political honor, 
is prominent socially, and in matters of business 
and with his friends, is always agreeable and 
pleasing. He has the power of largely impressing 
others with his own ideas, is a ready talker, and 
thoroughly well informed ; WTites forcibly and well 
on mechanical matters, has the best executive 
ability, readily grasps the details that make for 
success, and by his acquaintances is esteemed as 
a valuable and reliable friend. 

Mr. Paige and his family, consisting of his wife 
and two children, Frederick O. and Glenna B. 
I^aige, are members of the Woodward Avenue 
Baptist Church. Mr. Paige w^as first married Janu- 
ary 31, 1 86 1, and to his present wife, January 10, 
1 87 1. Her maiden name was Abbie H. Rogers. 
She is the daughter of Amos and Eunice (Hatch) 
Rogers ; her grandfather. Major Amos Rogers, 
was killed in the battle of Lake Champlain, during 
the War of 181 2. 

HERVEY COKE PARKE traces his more 
immediate ancestry to the ancient city of Bristol, 
England. Early in the last century, his great- 
grandfather, Daniel Parke, left that interesting 



seaport where the waters of the Severn and the 
Avon mingle with the sea, and sailed for the New 
World. On his arrival here, he settled on the Con- 
necticut, in the parish of Middle Haddam. He had 
two children, whose names were John and Daniel. 
It seems evident that the traditions and habits of 
his native city clung to him in his new home. Com- 
ing from the place that furnished the first ship 
which touched the continent, and from where 
Sebastian Cabot passed his early days, from a city 
full of sea-going life and enterprise, he could not 
but imbibe its spirit, and if not manifest in him- 
self, he certainly transmitted to his son John a high 
appreciation of maritime affairs. This son was 
born in Middle Haddam, and was widely knowm as 
an extensive ship-builder at that place, and also 
engaged in trade with the West Indies. He married 
Cleantha Smith, and in honor of his wife, one of 
his brigs bore the name of Cleantha. His children 
were Hervey Parke, Ezra Smith Parke, Mrs. 
Cleantha Storm, and Mrs. Lucintha Curtis. 

In 1 8 16, with his family, he removed from Con- 
necticut to New York, and settled in the town of 
Camden, Oneida County. His son, Ezra Smith 
Parke, who had been educated in the local schools 
and academies of Connecticut, studied medicine 
with one of the older physicians of Oneida County, 
and eventually completed a professional course at 
Hobart, then knowm as Geneva College, where he 
graduated on June 14, 1819. The year following he 
married Rhoda Sperry, whose family were formerly 
residents of Connecticut, and, like the Parkes, had 
found a home in New York. The Sperry family 
were, and are well known in connection with the 
manufacture of clocks in the State of Connecticut. 
In October, 1822, Mr. Parke emigrated to Michigan, 
settling at Bloomfield, in Oakland County, and here, 
on December 13, 1827, Hervey Coke Parke was 
born. He was named after his uncle. Captain 
Hervey Parke, well known in connection with the 
earlier government surveys of Michigan. 

The ancestors of Mr. Parke were members either 
of the English or Protestant Episcopal Church, but 
as the church of his choice had no organization in 
New York, in the neighborhood where his father 
settled, the family became connected with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and continued this 
relation after the removal to Michigan. Whether in 
Connecticut, New York, or Michigan, the family 
regulations, especially'on Sunday, were modeled after 
the style of the early Puritans, although somewhat 
toned down by the spirit of generous patience and 
love. Filling to full measure his duties as a physi- 
cian, his father attended unceasingly and conscien- 
tiously to the daily round of duties that a country 
physician in a new and developing country is called 
upon to perform, but with all his labors there was no 



iigS 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



accumulation of wealth, and in 1856, when, through 
a singular epidemic, he and his wife both passed 
away, the legacy of a good name and the loving 
remembrance of a kind father, was the chief inheri- 
tance of his children. 

Two years before his father's death, Hervey C 
Parke went to Buffalo and found employment with 
a friend of the family, spending a portion of his 
time in study. An exceptionally good school, with 
excellent principals, at Bloomfield, and the oppor- 
tunities at Buffalo, were so well improved that he 
was well qualified to teach, and from this time 
earned his own support. Returning to Michigan 
in 1846, before his father's death, he entered Bid- 
well's hardware store at Adrian, but within two 
years was compelled through ill health to relinquish 
his position. He now returned to Oakland County, 
and soon secured a position as teacher near his 
old home, and taught the winter term successfully, 
leaving this service with much added self-control 
and a firmer grasp on the studies he had himself 
pursued. From 1848 to 1850, he was employed in 
the store of W. M. McConnell, of Pontiac. His 
employer was a careful, conscientious, and success- 
ful merchant, and the practical business training 
gained in his establishment was of much advantage. 
In consequence of ill health, Mr. Parke gave up 
this situation and sought health and employment in 
Lake Superior, securing a position as financial 
manager of the Cliff Mining Company. He was 
for eleven years in this place, and made his home 
at the mine. In this last position he gained not 
only health, but, aided by careful business habits, 
acquired means as well. In 1866, while still a resi- 
dent of Keweenaw, he married Fannie A. Hunt, 
daughter of James B. Hunt, who served two terms 
in Congress, being one of three Michigan represen- 
tatives from 1843-47. The year following his 
marriage, Mr. Parke removed to Portage Lake and 
engaged in the sale of mining hardware. He con- 
tinued in this line for four years, with much success, 
and then sold out in order to remove to Detroit. 
Taking passage on the ill-fated Pewabic, he with 
his family, were on board when she collided with 
the Meteor, in Lake Huron. After the accident, 
Mr. Parke and his family were transferred to the 
Meteor, and thus escaped the fate that overtook the 
Pewabic and his original fellow passengers. 

About a year after his arrival in Detroit, he 
entered into partnership with S. P. DufField, M. D., 
under the firm n'ame of Duffield, Parke & Company, 
manufacturing chemists. The firm continued about 
two years, and was succeeded in 1868 by that of 
Parke, Davis & Company, composed of Hervey C. 
Parke, George S. Davis, John R. Grout, and Wil- 
liam H. Stevens, Mr. Parke then, as now,having a 
third interest. In 1876 the firm incorporated under 



their original title, and the original paid up capital of 
$50,000 was increased to $500,000, all of the origi- 
nal parties being stockholders, except Mr. Grout, 
whose heirs sold his interest to the other partners. 
In February, 1887, the capital was increased to 
$600,000. Several of the principal employees, with 
a justice much rarer than it should be, have from 
time to time been admitted as sharers in the pros- 
perity of the establishment. Mr. Parke has been 
the president and acting treasurer of the corpora- 
tion from its beginning. The character of their 
business demands the utmost integrity in the pre- 
paration of their manufactures. In many cases, 
life itself depends upon the genuineness and 
strength of a compounded drug, and this fact 
ennobles the occupation until it almost vies with that 
of the clerical profession in the opportunity it affords 
for truth and honesty. They have introduced, 
and sell, immense quantities of several rare and 
valuable remedies that had only a local reputation 
and were generally unknown until their researches 
brought them into notice. In order to obtain a 
knowledge of all valuable medical agents, they 
have a staff of expert botanists and chemists, whose 
whole time is given to travel and research the 
world over, for whatever has medicinal value. It 
is literally true that the products of the establish- 
ment are regularly sold and used in all civilized 
countries, and Detroit may boast that the buildings 
in which they are prepared are, of the kind, the 
largest and most commodious in the world. 

Thoughtfulness, probity, geniality, and enterprise, 
have all been factors in their success, and Mr. 
Parke ascribes to his partner, Mr. Davis, a full share 
of credit for the position the business has attained. 

Aside from his business, Mr. Parke's chief em- 
ployment consists in furthering the interests of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, with which he has 
been connected for over a quarter of a century. 
During most of this period he has been a member 
of St. John's Church, and for more than twelve 
years a vestryman. He is one of the trustees of 
the Diocesan fund for the Diocese of Eastern 
Michigan, a trustee of St. Luke's Hospital and 
Orphans' Home, and one of the leaders in the De- 
troit City Mission of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, which aims especially to carry the gospel 
to the most neglected portions of the city. 

He is known as a liberal giver, not only to worthy 
objects connected with his own church, but gener- 
ally, and this is natural to him, for his instincts are so 
broad and generous that he could not well do other- 
wise than appreciate and aid in furthering any good 
objects by whomsoever inaugurated or established. 

His first wife died in 1868, leaving three daughters 
and two sons. Five years later he married Mary 
M. Mead, daughter of James E. Mead, of Almont, 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1 199 



Michigan. They have had fivor children, four of 
whom are living. 

HAZEN S. PINGREE is a lineal descendant 
of Moses Pingry, who came from England in 1640, 
and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. For the 
first one hundred and forty years, nearly all of the 
American branch of the family lived in Ipswich, 
Rowley, and Georgetown, Massachusetts. Toward 
the close of the last century, the family had so 
increased in number, that many of the name sought 
and obtained new homes in other parts of the Bay 
State, and in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, 
and Nova Scotia, and at the present time descend- 
ants of the family are found in nearly every part of 
the Union. The history of New England furnishes 
abundant proof that the early male members of this 
family were men of character and influence, and of 
industrious and frugal habits. An extended history 
of the family, by William M. Pengry, says : " No 
family has made better citizens than the descend- 
ants of Moses Pingry. Trained, as most of them 
have been, to habits of industry, frugality, and 
uprightness, descended from Puritan ancestry, and 
embracing much of their strictness, they have 
always been law-abiding, and ready to contribute of 
their property and influence to promote the public 
welfare." The family name for the first two gen- 
erations was uniformly spelled Pengry ; since then 
the spelling has been greatly diverse, with a strong 
tendency, during latter years, to adopt the style 
hereafter used in this article. 

Hazen S. Pingree was born at Denmark, Maine, 
August 30, 1842, and is the fourth child of Jasper 
and Adaline Pingree. His father was a farmer, and 
resided at Denmark from the time of his birth in 
1806 until 1 87 1, when he came to Detroit, where he 
died in 1882. Hazen S. Pingree resided with his 
parents until fourteen years of age, when he went 
to Hopkinton, Massachusetts, and secured employ- 
ment in a shoe factory. Here he learned the trade 
of cutter, at which he worked until August i, 1862, 
when he enlisted as a private in Company F, First 
Massachusetts Regiment of heavy artillery. This 
regiment was assigned to duty in the Twenty-second 
Army Corps, and its first service was rendered in 
defense of the Nation's capitol. During General . 
Pope's Virginia campaign the regiment was ordered 
to the front, and participated in the battle of Bull 
Run, on August 30, 1862. It afterwards returned 
to duty in defense of Washington, and remained 
there until May 15, 1864, when the time of service 
of this regiment having expired, Mr. Pingree, with 
enough others re-enlisted to keep up the organiza- 
tion of the regiment, which was then assigned to 
the Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Corps, 
^^ the Army of the Potomac, and took part in the 



battles of Fredericksburg Road, Harris Farm, and 
Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, North 
Anne and South Anne. At the battle of Spottsyl- 
vania Court House, his regiment opened the 
engagement, and lost five hundred men, killed and 
wounded. On May 25, 1864, Mr. Pingree and a 
number of his comrades, while reconnoitering, were 
captured by a squad of men commanded by 
Colonel Mosby. As prisoners of war, they were 
brought before that rebel officer, who exchanged 
his entire suit of clothes with Mr. Pingree, but 
afterwards gave back the coat, remarking that his 
men might shoot him for a "Yank," a result he 
certainly did not desire. After his capture, Mr. 
Pingree was confined for nearly five months at 
Andersonville, and for short periods was confined 
at Gordonsville, Virginia; Salisbury, Nortk Caro- 
Hna ; and Millen, Georgia. At the latter place, in 
November, 1864, he was exchanged, rejoined his 
regiment in front of Petersburg, and soon after 
took part in the expedition to Weldon Railroad, and 
in the battles of Fort Fisher, Boydton Road, 
Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, Farnsville, and Appo- 
mattox Court House. From the battle of the 
Wilderness to the fall of Richmond, his regiment 
lost one thousand tw^o hundred and eighty-three 
men and thirty-eight officers. It was complimented, 
in special orders by Generals Mott and Pierce, for 
particular gallantry in the last grand charge on 
Petersburg, in which it took a leading part. Mr. 
Pingree 's second enlistment was for three years, or 
the close of the war, and when the surrender of 
Lee took place, his regiment was in close proximity. 

He was mustered out of service on August 16, 
1865, and shortly after his discharge came to 
Detroit. Here for a short time he was employed 
in the boot and shoe factory of H. P. Baldwin & 
Company. 

Deciding to embark in business for himself, in 
December, 1866, with C. H. Smith, he purchased 
the small boot and shoe factory of a Mr. Mitchell, 
on the corner of Croghan and Randolph Streets, 
the entire capital represented by the firm of Pingree 
& Smith, when established, being but $1,360, The 
first year they employed but eight persons, and the 
value of their production reached only $20,000. 
After a few months* they removed to the Hawley 
Block, on the corner of Woodbridge and Bates 
Streets, where they remained two years. During 
the following three years they occupied the Farns- 
worth Block, on Woodbridge Street, and in 1871 
they moved to the southeast corner of Woodbridge 
and Griswold Streets, using at that time but one- 
half of the building. 

Their venture was a success from the very start, 
and has shown a steady increase from year to year. 
For years they have maintained their position as 



I200 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



the most extensive boot and shoe manufacturers in 
the West, and their factory is excelled by but one 
or two in the United States. Over seven hundred 
persons are employed, and their weekly pay-roll 
amounts to between $5,000 and $6,000. The value 
of their annual products amounts to about $1 ,000,000. 
Their sales extend all over the West, but are 
more especially confined to Ohio, Michigan, and 
the Northwestern States. From the beginning of 
this enterprise, Mr. Pingree has had general super- 
vision over the complicated details of the entire 
establishment. Mr. Smith retired from the firm in 
1883, but the firm name, Pingree & Smith, has been 
retained. Mr. Pingree's success has been the result 
of hard work and good management. 

In social life he is large hearted and generous, a 
faithful friend, and a good citizen. He has confined 
his energies almost solely to the advancement of his 
business, but has ever evinced a commendable pub- 
lic spirit, and a willingness to do his full share to 
promote all public projects. 

He was married February 28, 1872, to Frances A. 
Gilbert, of Mount Clemens, Michigan. They have 
three children, two daughters and a son. 

DAVID M. RICHARDSON is descended from 
English ancestors, who came to this country about 
two hundred years ago, and settled in Woburn, 
Massachusetts. His grandfather on the paternal 
side was a soldier in the War of the Revolution. 
His father, Jeremiah Richardson, was born in New 
Hampshire, December 30, 1795. Soon after the 
close of the War of 18 12, at the age of nineteen, he 
settled in the town of Concord, Erie County, New 
York, thirty miles south of Buffalo, then an almost 
unbroken wilderness. Having but limited means, 
he contracted with the old Holland Land Company 
for one hundred acres of land. He made his way 
to the locality and commenced the work of making 
a home. Four years later he returned to Vermont, 
and on November 29, 18 18, was married to Anna 
Webster, and soon thereafter returned with his wife 
to his wilderness home. His wife died in 1832, and 
he subsequently married Jane Ann Woodward, 
who died in 1868. He lived on the old home- 
stead until his death in 1879. His son, D. M. 
Richardson was born at Concord, January 30, 1826, 
and until his twenty-first year remained at home, 
and during the greater portion of the time assisted 
his father in farm labors. He received a thorough 
education in the public schools, and at the Spring- 
ville academy, in his native town, and at the age 
of twenty began to teach in the district schools 
of Erie County during the winter months. His 
time was thus occupied until the spring of 1847, 
when he went west to view the country, and possi- 
bly locate a future home. He prospected in the 



States of Illinois ^d Wisconsin, which were at that 
time but sparsely settled, and at Burlington, Iowa, 
began teaching a select school. Towards the close 
of the summer he was taken ill with cholera, then 
prevalent in that section, and in September of that 
year, while still suffering from the effects of dis- 
ease, he started for Milwaukee, journeying by stage 
from Burlington to Peoria, by steamer to La Salle, 
by canal to Chicago, and thence by steamer to 
Milwaukee. There in November, 1852, he estab- 
lished a school and met with such success that at the 
end of the summer term he erected a brick build- 
ing, three stories high, on the corner of Mason and 
Milwaukee Streets, and conducted a school therein 
which was incorporated as the Milwaukee Academy. 
This undertaking w^as successfully continued until 
December, 1853, when the building was destroyed 
by fire, and he suffered a loss of over $10,000. 
Prior to the fire, 300 pupils were receiving instruc- 
tion in the academy, and five assistant teachers 
were employed. After its destruction the citizens 
offered to rebuild the institution at their own ex- 
pense, but ]\Ir. Richardson, after careful considera- 
tion, having determined to embark in mercantile pur- 
suits, declined the offer, and with a capital of five 
hundred dollars, left him after closing up the busi- 
ness of the academy, went to Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, where he established a wholesale and retail 
grocery on King Street, and for two years did a 
very profitable business. 

On January i, 1856, he sold out and came to 
Detroit, and with J. W. Hibbard as partner, under 
the firm name of J. W. Hibbard & Company, started 
the first match factory in this city, on Wood- 
bridge Street, at the foot of Eleventh Street. On 
January i, 1858, Mr. Hibbard retired, and M. B. 
Dodge became a partner, under the firm name of 
Richardson & Company. This firm continued 
until May i, 1859, when Mr. Richardson assumed 
entire control of the business. On Sunday night, 
June 3, i860, the factory was destroyed by fire, 
inflicting a heavy loss, leaving Mr. .Richardson 
deeply in debt, about $19,000 worse off than noth- 
ing. He effected an amicable settlement with his 
creditors by agreeing to pay twenty-five per cent. 
of his indebtedness, but within six years he had 
re-imbursed every creditor in full. After the fire, 
with the assistance of his friend, N. W. Brooks, he 
rebuilt on the same site, and the forepart of the 
following September he again began manufacturing. 
In March, 1863, he purchased the site occupied by 
his present factory, on the corner of Woodbridge 
and Eighth Streets, and in the fall of 1863 erected 
the main brick building. During 1864, he erected 
a large brick warehouse and as the growth of 
the business demanded, several additional buildmgs 
have been built, until at the present time the factory 



„^l i/ , 




/^a^ ^^ 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



I20I 



is one of the largest and best equipped of its kind 
in the country, and gives employment to about 300 
persons. Mr. Richardson was sole proprietor of the 
business until April i, 1875, when a stock company, 
known as the Richardson Match Company, was 
formed, which continued the business until 1881. 
when the concern was purchased by a syndicate 
known as the Diamond Match Company, Mr. Rich- 
ardson being the Detroit manager. Mr. Richard- 
son was a pioneer in this industry in the West, and 
perhaps did as much to make it an important 
branch of manufacture as any one man in the 
United States.. Prior to the beginning of his estab- 
lishment, matches were mostly made by hand, but 
in no locality had the business become extensive. 
He did much to develop the methods of making 
matches by machinery, the- only mode now em- 
ployed, and from 1865 until 1880, his establishment 
was the largest and most complete in the United 
States. The extent of his business will in part be 
realized by the fact that from 1865 to 1883, he 
paid internal revenue taxes to the amount of over 
$5,000,000. 

In 1876 Mr. Richardson, with several capitalists, 
organized the Union Mills Company. Their flouring 
mill, erected on Woodbridge Street, was at that time 
one of the largest and finest ever built in the United 
States. Mr. Richardson, the largest stockholder, 
personally superintended the building of the mill. 
Operations were begun in 1876, but the undertaking, 
for causes beyond Mr. Richardson's control, was 
not successful, and as he had become almost sole 
owner of the concern, assuming heavy liabilities 
in doing so, at a time when every business was 
greatly depressed, he was compelled to suspend and 
make an assignment for the benefit of his creditors. 
In less than two years after his failure, he made 
satisfactory arrangements with every creditor, and 
was enabled to continue his old business, which had 
temporarily passed into other hands. 

During all his busy life, Mr. Richardson has been 
a close student of the causes which tend to foster 
and protect the manufacturing interests as the great 
source of national prosperity. As the result of his 
studies upon social, political, and economic ques- 
tions, he has prepared several pamphlets containing 
valuable facts and suggestions upon these topics, 
which have been widely circulated and warmly 
commended. 

Among the subjects which early enlisted his 
attention was the system of internal taxation 
adopted by the government for the purpose of rais- 
ing money to carry on the Civil War. These taxes 
were particularly burdensome to the manufacturing 
interests. After the war closed, the manufacturers 
naturally desired to be at least in part relieved from 
the burdens that had been imposed upon them. 



The question was how to relieve the productive 
industry of the country without impairing the ability 
of the government to meet its obligations.. To the 
solution of this question, Mr. Richardson gave 
much time and attention, and in December, 1866, 
as chairman of the committee on internal revenue 
taxation, appointed by the Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion of Detroit, he wrote a report on the subject, 
but his advanced ideas did not meet with approval. 
The following January he proceeded to Washing- 
ton, and spent several weeks in examining the 
methods and sources of revenue of European 
countries, and the prospective necessities of taxa- 
tion in our own country, and as the result of his 
researches, in March, 1867, he made a report to the 
Detroit Manufacturers' Association, in which he 
advised that "taxation should be so levied as to 
exempt all articles of prime necessity to the great- 
est extent possible, and remain upon articles of 
luxury, where it will be the least obnoxious to 
the people." His report included a list of ten 
sources from which he claimed sufficient revenue 
could be levied to meet all obligations of the gov- 
ernment. This report, which was published, caused 
considerable discussion all over the country, and 
in October, 1867, he submitted an abbreviated 
report, embracing the essential conclusion of the 
original report, and it was adopted by the Detroit 
Manufacturers' Association, and that body issued a 
call for a national convention of manufacturers to 
consider the questions at issue. The convention was 
held at Cleveland, on December 18 and 19, 1867, and 
was attended by over six hundred leading manu- 
facturers, from twenty-four States, estimated to 
repH*esent over $400,000,000 of manufacturing 
capital. Mr. Richardson's report, as adopted 
by the Detroit Association, was adopted by a com- 
mittee of this convention, reported to, and adopted 
without change by the convention, with only six 
dissenting votes, and a committee was appointed to 
present the report to Congress. A similar conven- 
tion, of over fifteen hundred New England manu- 
facturers also adopted Mr. Richardson's report 
without material change, and the laws in relation to 
the internal revenue, passed by the Congress of 
1868, embody the essential provisions which he pro- 
posed. The prosperity which followed was largely 
due to the relief thereby offered the manufacturers, 
and as Mr. Richardson did so much to bring about 
these results, it is his due that the facts be made 
knowm. 

In December, 1869, he issued a pamphlet en- 
titled, " A Plan for Returning to Specie Payment, 
without Financial Revolution," in which the plan 
adopted by the government several years after was 
outlined, but which was not entered upon until after 
the panic of 1873. During recent years he has pre- 



I202 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



pared and extensively circulated, several pamphlets 
suggesting methods for the creation of foreign 
markets, for the surplus products of American indus- 
try. As an important aid in this direction, he has 
urged the construction, at government expense, of 
the interoceanic canal, via Lake Nicaragua. He 
has also advocated the adequate defense of our sea 
coast and a strong navy, the encouragement of 
ship-building and of ocean commerce by establish- 
ing mail transportation in American ships to the 
leading commercial centers, and suggests various 
industrial policies which would tend to the better- 
ment of the laboring and producing classes. He is 
also in favor of liberal government aid to public 
schools, especially for the late slave-holding States 
and Territories, and of stringent legislation for the 
suppression of polygamy. 

In political faith Mr. Richardson is a Republican. 
The first elective office held by him was that of a 
member of the Board of Education of Detroit, 
representing the Ninth Ward during the years 
1863 and 1864. During this period the public 
school system of the city was greatly improved and 
the High School established in the old Capitol 
building. 

In 1872 Mr. Richardson was elected to the State 
Senate from the Second Senatorial District, receiv- 
ing a majority of 1,377 votes over his opponent. 
During his term he served as chairman of the com- 
mittee on the State Public School for Indigent Chil- 
dren, at Coldwater, Michigan, and was especially 
instrumental in securing an appropriation for the 
purchase of additional land and in increasing the 
amount of appropriation for the erection of a suitable 
building and the equipment of the same. He also 
served as chairman of the committee on the State 
Capitol. As a member of the committee on the State 
University, he successfully labored in securing an ap- 
propriation to complete University Hall, and to pro- 
vide for the erection of a new laboratory ; he also 
aided in obtaining the law for a tax of one-twentieth 
of one mill for the support of the University. He 
was a member of the committee on railroads, and 
aided in creating the law relative to the establishment 
of a Railroad Commission, and the fixing by statute 
the rates of fare to be charged by railroads within 
the State, and of the law that lands granted to rail- 
road companies should not be exempted from 
taxation after the grants had been earned. He also 
aided in securing the passage of laws establishing 
the Board of Public Works of Detroit, creating the 
Board of Estimates, permitting the city to issue 
$1,000,000 in bonds to build new w^ater works, and 
establishing the Superior Court of Detroit. 

Mr. Richardson is a member of the First Con- 
gregational Church, with which he has been con- 
nected since 1856. In 1867 he assisted in organiz- 



ing the Ninth Avenue Union Mission School. 
During the erection of the building, completed in 
1868, at a cost of $8,000, he was chairman of the 
building committee, and, for the first ten years, acted 
as superintendent of the Sunday-school. The 
building was subsequently moved to the corner of 
Trumbull Avenue and Baker Street, and formed 
the nucleus of the Trumbull Avenue Congregational 
Church. Both this church and also the Woodward 
Avenue Congregational Church, found in him a 
liberal supporter. 

Mr. Richardson has been twice married. His 
first wife was Ellen L. Hibbard, daughter of I. W. 
Hibbard, whom he married November 23, 1854. 
She died December 20, 1868. Their daughter, 
Laura M., was born July 14, 1356, and died March 
26, 1876. His second wife was E. Jennie Holliday, 
a daughter of William Holliday, of Springfield, 
Erie , County, Pennsylvania. They were married 
May 23, 1 87 1, and have had two children, David 
M. Jr., who was born May 30, 1873, and died May 
I, 1876, and Arthur J., born August 12, 1876. 

FORDYCE HUNTINGTON ROGERS was 
born in Detroit, October 12, 1840, and is the son of 
George Washington and Jane Clark (Emmons) 
Rogers. His father was born at Vergennes. Ver- 
mont. December 14, I799. and was a descendant 
of Russell Rogers, who came from England and 
settled in Vermont prior to the Revolutionary War. 
He and other members of the family were ardent 
patriots, and took an active part in the war. George 
W. Rogers, who had been engaged in the manufac- 
ture of stoves at Vergennes, came to Detroit in 1840, 
and after his arrival in Michigan established and for 
several years conducted a general merchandise store 
in Pontiac. where he died in i860. Mrs. George W. 
Rogers was a daughter of Adonijah Emmons, and a 
sister of Judge H. H. Emmons, a distinguished mem- 
ber of the Detroit bar, and one of the circuit judges 
of the United States courts. Mrs. Rogers died soon 
after the birth of her son Fordyce H. Rogers. His 
father's second wife was Harriet L. Williams, a 
daughter of Oliver Williams, a trader in Detroit 
and vicinity prior to the War of 1812. 

Fordyce, or as he is usually called. Ford H. 
Rogers, was educated in the public schools of 
Pontiac; came to Detroit in 1856 and entered the 
store of T. H. & J. A, Hinchman, wholesale drug- 
gists, where he remained one year. The follow- 
ing year he was employed in the clothing store of 
Eagle & Elliott. He then went to San Francisco, 
where an elder brother had preceded him. and 
was engaged in various occupations until the sum- 
mer of 1859, when he secured a position with a 
water company in the mining district of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains. In the fall of the same year 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1203 



he returned to Pontiac, and until 1861 was engaged 
in mercantile enterprises at Lapeer and Detroit. The 
Civil War having then broken out, in June, 1861, he 
was the first man to join Col. Thornton F. Broad- 
head, and assisted in raising the First Michigan Cav- 
alry, which was mustered into service in August 
following. Mr. Rogers, who at this time was a 
minor, was commissioned as Second Lieutenant, 
but soon after the regiment arrived in Washington 
he was appointed First Lieutenant and Battalion 
Adjutant. The regiment w^as assigned to the Army 
of Virginia, under Gen. Banks, and lay in camp at 
Frederick, Maryland, a considerable portion of the 
winter of i86i-'62, its principal service subsequently 
being on the Upper Potomac, in the Shenandoah 
Valley, and near the eastern slope of the Blue 
Ridge. It saw very active service, especially dur- 
ing the summer of 1 862, when it was assigned to 
Gen. Pope's division and formed a portion of Gen. 
Beauford's brigade. Lieut. Rogers, who was nat- 
urally of a restless and adventurous disposition, 
grew impatient under the inaction of army life, and 
at his own solicitation was frequently entrusted 
with scouting parties, engaged in secret patrols and 
special duty. His service in this line of duty proved 
in many instances of great value to the Union 
forces, and upon one occasion while Gen. Beau- 
ford's brigade w^as on a cavalry raid in the vicinity 
of the Rapidan River, he performed an almost 
invaluable service to the Union army. While on 
the march, and in close proximity to a large force 
of the enemy, Lieut. Rogers, left the lines and pur- 
sued two mounted rebel officers. The latter, in 
their flight, led him near the headquarters of Gen. 
J. E. B. Stewart, who, with his staff officers, being 
warned of the supposed approach of Union forces, 
beat a hasty retreat. Lieut. Rogers, who was now all 
alone, pursued Gen. Stewart for some distance and 
fired two shots at that rebel officer. He then en- 
tered the deserted headquarters and secured a 
haversack containing all the papers of instruction 
from Gen. Lee to Gen. Stewart, then in command 
of the cavalry advance guard of the rebel army. 
These papers furnished valuable information to the 
Union army and revealed plans of the rebel com- 
manders, which once known were easily averted, 
but otherwise- would have been far-reaching in their 
disastrous effects and might have led to the cap- 
ture of Washington. 

Lieut. Rogers participated with his regiment in 
all its engagements until he was mustered out of 
service at Washington, September 1 1 , 1 862. Shortly 
after he was mustered out he was tendered the rank 
of Major in both a Michigan and New York cavalry 
regiment, but declined. 

After the close of his army experience he re- 
turned to California, and was variously occupied 



in San Francisco until 1865, w^hen he served as 
bookkeeper in the Pacific Bank of San Francisco ; 
was soon after made paying teller, and from 1 867 to 
1872 was cashier. He then became interested in 
mining and stock brokerage, and at one time was 
secretary and treasurer of thirty mining companies. 
In 1879 he returned to the east and for nearly two 
years was a member of the American Mining 
Board of New York City. In 1880 he returned to 
Detroit and purchased the Detroit White Lead 
Works. The works had been established since 
1865, but at the time of Mr. Rogers's purchase, 
through poor management was very far from being 
a profitable concern. Associating Ford D. C. 
Hinchman and Horace M. Dean in the enterprise, 
the business was incorporated under the name of 
the Detroit White Lead Works. The reputation 
of the corporation was soon established on a firm 
basis, and in a remarkably short time the liberal 
policy and business-like methods of the managers 
resulted in building up an extensive business. Year 
by year additional buildings have been erected to 
meet the demands of their varied line of manufac- 
tures, and at the present time their plant is one of 
the most complete and best arranged for the pur- 
poses required, and one of the best in the country. 
Mr. Rogers, as treasurer and manager of the com- 
pany, has been indefatigable in his exertions, and 
the business management has been entrusted almost 
entirely to him ; and to his judgment, ingenuity, and 
energy, the corporation is largely indebted for the 
success attained. He is possessed of great executive 
force, is shrew^d and careful in his business habits, 
and the evidence of his work is seen in every branch 
of the business, but especially is this true in the 
selling department, where unlimited competition 
makes success no easy problem. Fifteen salesmen 
are employed, and their goods find a ready market 
all over the country. 

Personally Mr. Rogers is of a frank, open, gener- 
ous, social disposition, has a wide circle of friends, 
and is respected and esteemed not only for his busi- 
ness ability, but for those qualities of mind and 
heart that distinguish a good citizen and a helpful 
considerate friend. He is progressive and liberal 
minded and a sure supporter of every deserving 
public enterprise. He is a charter member of the 
Loyal Legion, member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, Lake St. Clair Fishing Club, Detroit Club, 
and a thirty-second degree Mason. Growing out 
of his former occupation as a bank cashier, one of 
his amusements has been to collect specimens of all 
the bank notes of the so-called Wild-Cat banks 
of 1837, and he has succeeded in obtaining a col- 
lection numbering several thousand specimens, and 
by reason of the various facts they exhibit, the col- 
lection is of great historic value. 



I204 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



Politically he has always been a Republican, and 
has been an earnest worker in securing victories for 
his party, but has never held an elective office. His 
time has been devoted to business interests with such 
singleness of purpose, that early in life he has 
achieved a worthy place among the successful 
manufacturers of Detroit. He was married in 1868 
to Eva C. Adams, a daughter of Dr. Samuel Adams, 
the pioneer drug merchant of San Francisco, and a 
niece of Rev. Nehemiah Adams, D. D., for forty-four 
years a pastor of the old Essex Street Church of 
Boston, and an author of considerable repute. 

FREDERICK STEARNS, for many years a 
wholesale and retail druggist, and manufacturer of 
pharmaceutical preparations in Detroit, was born 
fifty-eight years ago, at Lockport. New York. He is 
of Puritan blood, being a lineal descendant of Isaac 
Stearns, who, with Governor Winthrop, and Sir 
Richard Saltenstall, and other colonists, settled 
Watertown, Massachusetts. The farm which was 
occupied by this ancestor is now part of Mount 
Auburn Cemetery. On the maternal side he is a 
descendant of Samuel Chapin, one of the earliest 
settlers of Springfield, Massachusetts. Mr. Stearns 
early evinced a natural liking for the calling of a 
druggist. Speaking of his youthful days, he once 
said: "One of my earliest memories is looking 
into the windows of Dr. Merchant's Gargling Oil 
drug store, and wondering at the mystery of the 
white squares of magnesia and the round balls of 
cosmetic chalk." 

At fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to the 
drug firm of Ballard & Green, in Buffalo, New 
York. For two years he was the only help the 
firm had, acting as errand boy, clerk, soda water 
maker, etc., and was unquestionably one of the 
busiest boys of that time in Buffalo. He received no 
wages the first year, and, because of the failure of 
the house, the same pay the second year. At the 
end of his apprenticeship, having read, smelt, and 
tasted everything that came in his way, he made 
up his mind that what he did not know about the 
drug business could not be taught. A better situa- 
tion, with another and more advanced preceptor, 
soon took away this conceit. After attending a 
course of lectures at the University of Buffalo, 
he entered the store of A. I. Mathews, a prominent 
retail druggist of Buffalo, with whom he remained 
several years, during the last three as a partner. 

In i853he married Eliza H. Kimball, of Mendon, 
New York, and in the following year, on account 
of a favorable impression made at a former visit, 
he decided to locate in Detroit. He arrived at 
Windsor, January i, 1855, on a bitter cold day, and 
walked across the river on the ice. Soon after his 
arrival here he was joined by his wife, with their 



first child, Frederick K. Stearns, and in April fol- 
lowing, with L. E. Higby, he opened a retail drug 
store at 162 Jefferson Avenue, in the middle of the 
block, owned by Zachariah Chandler, where the 
stores of Allan Shelden & Company are now located. 
In 1859 they removed to enlarged quarters in the 
Merrill Block, and in 1863 to the Porter Block, on 
the southwest corner of Woodward Avenue and 
Earned Street, and here Mr. Stearns bought Mr. 
Higby 's interest. 

To be a manufacturer of such pharmaceutical 
preparations, both official and non-official, as were in 
use as medicine, was always Mr. Stearns's ambition. 
and in 1856 he commenced as a manufacturer 
in a very limited way, with one room, a cooking 
stove, and one girl, as a helper. It was his custom 
at that time, with a small hand bag, filled with 
samples of his products, to canvass towns on 
the railroads leading west from Detroit, obtain- 
ing such orders as the druggists of the interior 
were willing to give to a young house struggling to 
establish a trade for its productions, in a market 
completely filled with Eastern and foreign brands. 
From this small beginning has gradually grown a 
manufacturing business which now reaches large 
proportions. During these early years, much of 
the time which otherwise would have been leisure 
was given to investigation in the line of his profession, 
and many papers, the result of these studies, 
were published in various pharmaceutical journals 
and society transactions. Introducing steam power, 
and milling and extracting machinery, much of 
which was of his own design, he commenced manu- 
facturing on a larger scale. It was at first difficult 
to introduce his products in the place of goods 
already established, but these difficulties were gradu- 
ally overcome. In 1 87 1, Mr. Stearns's manufacturing 
establishment was twice destroyed by fire, the second 
fire resulting in considerable financial loss, but the 
laboratory was established a third time, on part of 
the property owned by the Detroit Gas Light Com- 
pany, on Woodbridge near Sixth Street. During all 
this period he continued his business as a retail 
druggist and dispensing pharmacist, retaining, by 
choice, a prominent interest in his profession, and 
being vitally alive to its promotion. In pharmacy, 
however, as in other arts and trades, abuses are liable 
to creep in ; the want of suitable legislative control, 
the then lack of protection for the educated pharma- 
cist from the uneducated or unqualified person, who 
might choose to enter upon the business of selling 
drugs, and the employing of irregular means, thus 
lowering the standard and the dignity of the calling, 
were all hindrances to the best development of the 
art of pharmacy. The practice of quackery, the 
supplying of secret or so-called patent medicines, 
which forced upon the druggist the keeping of 




1 j>''^^^;^*>2>^^ 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1205 



numberless worthless and high cost compositions, 
of little profit to the pharmacist, were also evils 
stultifying the professional attitude of the druggist, 
and rendering him to a great extent, a mere trader 
in quackery. In the correcting of these evils, 
which have threatened to overwhelm pharmacy as a 
profession and a means of livelihood, Mr. Stearns 
has rendered valuable service. When he opened 
his first store in Detroit, he determined not to sell 
any secret quackery in the way of patent medicines, 
looking for the ready support and sympathy of the 
regular medical profession in so doing; but after 
one year's trial, he found the public had become so 
accustomed to buying patented medicines, that it 
was impossible to conduct his business without 
supplying everything or any article which the pub- 
lic looked to find in a drug store. He was, there- 
fore, compelled to deal in patent medicines, but 
he always sought, by every means in his power, 
to lessen the evil. In 1876 it occurred to him 
that one means for destroying patent medicine 
quackery w^ould be to put up ready made prescrip- 
tions, suitable and useful for common ailments, in 
neat and portable form, without secrecy ; to put 
the receipt plainly on the label, with simple direc- 
tions and explanations, and to trust to the good 
sense and intelligence of the customer to take such 
ready made medicines, rather than secret nostrums. 
This idea, acted upon, was an immediate success in 
his own retail trade, and in that of his near friends 
and neighbors. This departure was then, and is still, 
known as the " New Idea." The development of 
this system has resulted in the establishment of an 
immense trade, and to-day nearly every retail drug- 
gist in good standing in the United States and 
Canada, representing over sixteen thousand estab- 
lishments, are customers of the Stearns's laboratory. 
The one room, 12x12, of 1858, has been increased 
to four acres of flooring in the works now occupied 
on Twenty-first Street ; the one helper to over four 
hundred helpers ; instead of the occasional traveler, 
with his little grip, and that one himself, there are 
now thirty-five traveling agents constantly employed; 
from a retail business of $16,000 per year, the busi- 
ness has grown to sometimes more than that dsily : 
the area visited for trade has expanded from a small 
portion of Michigan to the *' whole unbounded con- 
tinent," and sales are also made in the Spanish 
American Republics, the West Indies, and in many 
English colonies, and notably in Australia. The 
works on Woodbridge Street, above alluded to, 
became too stinted in room, even after every avail- 
able building in the vicinity was obtained, and in 
1 88 1 and 1882 the new works now occupied were 
erected, and are described in another portion of 
this work. After forty years of an active business 
life, with its usual cares, disappointments, and with 



some success, Mr. Stearns, in 1887, retired from the 
management of the business, leaving it in the hands 
of his sons. Frederick K. and William L., and of the 
younger associates, who have been with him many 
years. If he is proud of one thing, it is of the 
establishment on a firm basis of a legitimate and 
extensive business, which is an active and practical 
opponent of quackery in medicine. 

He has led a remarkably busy life, and his 
success has been the result of hard w^ork, united to 
clear and well poised judgment. A man of the 
most positive conviction, he pursued a purpose 
believed to be right, regardless of consequences, 
with a force and directness liable to arouse the 
antagonism of men of narrow views and prejudices. 
He is among the first to depart from established 
custom or practice when new and better methods 
of procedure are discovered, and it makes but little 
difference to him whether he is followed or not. 
Convinced that he is right, he has the moral cour- 
age to fight alone, and this admirable quality has 
been the main secret of his success. To him 
nothing is more distasteful than sham and super- 
ficiality. He is a man of liberal opinion, and has 
taste and culture, without a trace of pedantry or 
touch of imperiousness. He is a natural critic, but 
his criticisms are intelligent, penetrating, and just. 
He has been a public benefactor, because he has 
been a creator and promoter of enterprises which 
have aided in many ways the public good, and is 
liberal minded toward every good project to advance 
the best interests of Detroit. 

Somewhat reserved among strangers, with trusted 
friends he is a congenial companion. His business 
career has been honorable, and no one holds more 
securely the confidence and respect of Detroit's 
commercial community. 

JOSEPH TOYNTON was. born July 26, 1839, 
at Brothertoft, four miles west of Boston, Lincoln- 
shire, England. He was the son of William and 
Elizabeth (Ketton) Toynton. His father was a 
well-to-do farmer, and he received a good common 
school education. His mother died in 1852, and 
his father in 1873. 

On March 3. 1853, he left England for the 
United States, and for about one year after his 
arrival here he made his home near Rochester, New 
York. In 1854 he came to Detroit, and entered 
the employ of William Phelps, then a prominent 
manufacturer of confections, where he remained 
eleven years, and acquired a thorough practical 
knowledge of the business. In 1865 he resigned 
his position and the house of Gray, Toynton & Fox 
was established, which at once became the leading 
establishment of the kind in the West. 

In 1 860 he married Margaret Hayes, daughter of 



I206 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



John and Mary (McMarrah) Hayes. He died July 
6, 1881, after a very brief illness, Mr. Toynton 
was a man of strict integrity in all the relations of 
life. His genial nature made him a large circle of 
friends, and his unswerving honesty made his word 
as good as his bond. 

He was a leading member and for many years 
one of the trustees of the Central Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

He was a prominent Mason, a member of Union 
Lodge of Strict Observance, and of Detroit Com- 
mandery. One of his Masonic brethren, in speak- 
ing of his death, has well said : ** He came to this 
country, and to this city, poor in purse, but rich in 
the qualities which go to make up the successful 
business man, the honest citizen, the faithful clerk, 
the humane employer, the loving and indulgent 
husband and father, and the consistent Christian. 

The lesson of his life is one of fortitude, industry, 
fidelity, humility, charity, kindness, and humanity in 
all the relations of life. Follow him wherever you 
would, in the family, the church, in his social rela- 
tions, or into the counting-house, and you would 
find the same elements of character dominating 
his life work. Rising from poverty to a condi- 
tion of comparative wealth, from the position of 
servant to that of proprietorship in a large and 
successful business enterprise, he never, in his treat- 
ment of others, forgot the hardships of either 
poverty or service." 

JOHN HILL WHITING, grandson of Dr. J. L. 
Whiting, an early physician and merchant of Detroit, 
and the eldest son of John Talman Whiting and 
Mary S. (Hill) Whiting, was born at Sault Ste. Marie, 
Michigan, October 11, 1852. His parents removed 
to Detroit in 1855. Mr. Whiting receivq^i the best 
education that the public schools afforded, and in 
1869 became assistant salesman, at Ecorse, for the 
Detroit River Lumber Company. He remained 
there one year and then came to Detroit, where he 
was employed for a short time by the lumber firm 
of D. A. Ross & Company. 

In 1870 he entered the employ of the Detroit Car 
Wheel Company, for the purpose of learning the 
business of moulding and casting car wheels, and 
general foundry business. He, at first, acted in the 
capacity of timekeeper and general assistant in the 
office, devoting a portion of each day to work in 
the foundry, moulding, pouring iron, and in other 
mechanical labor, devoting his evenings to office 
work. About three years after he entered the 
employ of the company, the Moulders Union, of 
which he was not a member, raised objections to 
non-union men being employed, and Mr. Whiting, 
not wishing to antagonize the company, stopped 



work in the foundry until, through change of Super- 
intendents, the influence of the union became so 
weakened that he returned to the foundry without 
opposition. The output of the company was at 
first quite small, but under skillful management it 
became a very large and important enterprise. Mr. 
Whiting kept pace with its growth, developing 
talents and aptitudes unthought of at the beginning. 
In one sense it may be said that the business made 
him what he is, for it gave him the opportunity to 
develop his peculiar genius for organizing and 
directing labor. On the other hand, his skill, 
ingenuity, and practical judgment, made him an 
important factor in the success of the corporation. 

In 1880 he was appointed Assistant Superin- 
tendent, and later, in the same year, under the 
trying circumstances of a strike, which took out the 
Superintendent, he was selected to fill the vacancy. 
His naturally retiring disposition led him to shrink 
from the responsibility, and he accepted it with 
many misgivings ; but having accepted it he soon 
proved equal to his task, and has since shown him- 
self equal to all the duties which the position 
imposed upon him, and has remained in charge of 
the works, as Superintendent, The growth of the 
business may be indicated by the fact that in 1870 
the capacity of the works was about sixty-five car 
wheels a day, and fifteen tons of castings ; now it 
is four hundred and twenty-five car wheels a day, 
and one hundred tons of castings, and the corpora- 
tion employs between seven and eight hundred men. 

In addition to the superintendency of this estab- 
lishment, Mr. Whiting is Superintendent of the 
works of the Detroit Pipe and Foundry Company, 
which produce about fifty tons of cast iron pipe 
daily, and employ about one hundred and fifty 
hands. He is also Vice-President of the Detroit 
Foundry Equipment Company, which controls sev- 
eral patents particularly adapted to the improved 
manufacture and handling of car wheels. He is 
the inventor of the " Improved Cupola," the 
"Overhead Steam Crane," a " Transfer Truck," a 
'• Device for Operating Foundries," and a "Revers- 
ible Friction Gearing," patented in 1884 and 1885. 
He is a stockholder in all the companies above 
mentioned, and also in the Michigan Car Company, 
the Detroit Iron Furnace Company, and the Vulcan 
Iron Furnace Company, located at Newberry, 
Michigan. 

During the seventeen years of his connection 
with the Detroit Car Wheel Company, he has shown 
a character for manliness, integrity, and generosity, 
which has won the esteem and confidence of all his 
associates. He has for years made the question of 
the successful handling of labor a study, and has also 
studied to devise methods and appliances to facilitate 
profitable production. As his responsibilities have 




i re. I V c ( -75 



'^"/^ Vi-'^^^ 




-^Uvvtb cVcAwvO'^CvvA' 



V 



MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 



1207 



increased, with the enlargement of the business 
intrusted to his care, he has developed a capacity 
adequate to meet them, and now handles a large 
force of men with as much ease as he formerly 
controlled a small number. He, however, attributes 
much of his success to the suggestions,' appreciative 
courtesy, and generosity, with which he has been 
treated by the chief stockholders in the corporations 
in which he is engaged, whose confidence has been 
fully and cheerfully given. 



Mr. Whiting is a Republican in political faith, 
but has been too closely identified with business to 
take any part in political affairs. 

He was married February 7, 1883, to Carrie 
Florence Spence, daughter of Dr. T. R. Spence, 
formerly of Detroit. They have two daughters, 
Florence Hill and Barbara. He and his wife are 
members of the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian 
Church. 



CHAPTER XCVI. 



LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, VESSEL OWNERS, INSURANCE AND 

RAILROAD MANAGERS, ETC. 



FRANCIS ADAMS is a descendant of the 
Adamses of Braintree, Massachusetts, and is the 
son of Moses and Nancy (Phillips) Adams. He was 
born at Ellsworth, Maine, September 13, 1831, and 
at the age of eight years began to care for himself, 
with such varied experiences as commonly fall to 
the lot of energetic boys when thrown upon their 
own resources. When he was nineteen he came to 
Michigan, but returned to Maine the same year, 
and in 1853 went to California, where he was 
engaged in mining and other operations for nearly 
four years. 

In 1857 he settled in Michigan and entered into 
partnership with N. W. Brooks in the lumber busi- 
ness. The firm did a large and successful business, 
operating mills at Detroit, Saginaw, and Jackson, 
until the death of Mr. Brooks in 1872. Mr. Adams 
then retired from the lumber business, arid has 
since been engaged in caring for his property, with 
occasional ventures in lumber, real estate, and 
building. He is a stockholder in the Detroit Na- 
tional Bank and Wayne County Savings Bank, 
and has been a director in the latter corporation 
since its organization. 

He has always been a Republican, and while in 
California voted for John C. Fremont, there being 
but thirty-seven Republican votes out of over seven 
hundred in the precinct. The only public offices 
he has held have been in connection with the city 
government. From 1873 to 1876, and in 1879 ^^^ 
1880, he was a member of the Board of Estimates. 
In 1868, and again in 1871 and 1872, he served as 
a member of the Board of Aldermen, and has also 
served as one of the Board of Park Commissioners. 
His services in the Council w^re highly appreciated 
for his knowledge of municipal law, and his sound, 
practical judgment. 

As a business man, he ranks above the average ; 
possesses a good deal of natural energy, and his 
self-reliance has been developed and strengthened 



by the experiences through which he has passed. 
He investigates for himself, is firm in his opinions, 
and yet, when convinced of an error, no one yields 
with readier grace. He is honorable and upright 
in his dealings, and of unimpeachable integrity. 

He was married in February, 1862, to Annie M., 
daughter of James Graves, of Holden, Maine, and 
has three daughters, Evelyn F,, Annie G., and Mary 
L. His wife died April 3, 1885, and on November 
17, 1887, he married Isabella Duncan, of Detroit. 

JAMES A. ARMSTRONG, the eldest son of 
Orrin M. and Beulah (Hine) Armstrong, was born 
in Washington, Litchfield County, Connecticut, on 
November 21, 1805. When a boy, he lived part 
of the time with his grandfather, James Armstrong, 
after whom he was named. He attended a common 
school, and soon after the death of his father, 
entered a store at Newburgh, on the Hudson River. 
There and in that vicinity he spent his time until 
1832, when he came to Detroit. 

As a young man, he had a bright intellect, and 
was strictly moral and industrious, and on his 
arrival here, obtained a situation in the forward- 
ing and commission house of Oliver Newberry, 
where he remained many years, and subsequently 
went into the forwarding and commission business 
on his own account. He afterwards formed a part- 
nership with A. H. Sibley, and later on became junior 
partner in the firm of Nickles, Whitcomb & Arm- 
strong. In 1846 he organized the forwarding house 
of James A. Armstrong & Company, and for many 
years did a large business. 

From 1857 to 1862 he was the General Freight 
Agent of the Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad Com- 
pany, and at the close of his term of service the 
officers of the company presented him with a token 
of their appreciation and esteem, in the shape of a 
fine gold chronometer watch, bearing an appropriate 
inscription, and dated May 29, 1862. Soon after 



[1208] 



LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, ETC. 



1209 



this he closed his business in Detroit, and went to 
Buffalo, where, with Henry P. Bridge, of Detroit, 
he engaged in the business of forwarding and com- 
mission. The relation continued until 1866, when 
he returned to Detroit, as the General Agent of the 
Western Insurance Company, and remained such 
until the Chicago fire of October, 1871, broke up 
the company. After this, and until his death, he 
held the offices of Secretary and Treasurer of the 
Detroit Car Loan Company, the Detroit Car Com- 
pany, and of the Marshall Car Company. 

He was an active member of the Detroit Board 
of Trade, and one of its original organizers. 

He possessed superior business capacity, and 
was scrupulously honest and exact, his accounts 
showing that when he used the company's stationery 
and stamped envelopes, for personal correspon- 
dence, he charged them to himself at their full price, 
a little account book, in his own writing, furnishing 
curious evidence of his exactness in these matters. 
It is the uniform testimony of those who knew him 
most intimately, that as a business man, husband, 
father, and citizen, his character was without re- 
proach, and few men in social or business circles 
have commanded more fully the esteem and confi- 
dence of their contemporaries, or left behind them a 
brighter example. 

He was eminently a charitable man, and showed 
his kindness to the poor in many practical ways, and 
was always ready to serve a friend, spending much 
time, for which he received no compensation, in 
looking up and locating lands in Michigan for 
parties desiring to purchase or settle in the State. 
From about 1842, until his death, he was a member 
of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, and was a zealous 
and consistent churchman. 

He was married in the autumn of 1839, to 
Augusta, daughter of Judge Solomon Sibley. She 
lived only until March, 1841, and on February 10, 
1847, he married Mary E. Bates, daughter of 
Phineas P. Bates, of Canandaigua, New York, and 
sister of George C. Bates, of Detroit. He died 
March 13, 1874, leaving his widow and three chil- 
dren. 

STEPHEN BALDWIN was born July 31, 1834, 
in Lincoln, England, and is the son of Thomas and 
Hannah (Pickering) Baldwin. Thomas Baldwin, 
with his family, came to New York in 1835, and 
went to Chautauqua Lake, where they remained 
until the summer of 1836, when they removed to 
Oakland County, Michigan, where they made their 
permanent home. 

Stephen Baldwin lived on the farm, attending 
the best schools of Pontiac until he was seventeen 
years old, and then for a short time taught school 
in Oakland County, and subsequently attended Cor- 



son's Select School, at Birmingham. In 1861 he 
entered the establishment of Messrs. Flower & 
Newton, dealers in agricultural implements at Pon- 
tiac, where he remained for a short time, and in the 
fall of the same year engaged in the produce and 
commission business in Pontiac, continuing therein 
until 1864, when his love of enterprise took him to 
the oil regions, and he engaged in various successful 
ventures until 1866. Meantime, in 1865, he assisted 
in organizing the Second National Bank of Pontiac, 
in which he was a large stockholder and director, 
continuing his connection therewith until 1869, when 
he withdrew. During most of this time Mr. Bald- 
win was also engaged in buying pine lands, in lum- 
bering, and for a time, in the manufacture of cloth. 
In 1870, in connection with Leander S. Butterfield, 
he bought the stock and interest of the Detroit 
Paper Company, and removed to Detroit, where he 
has since resided. In 1872 he dissolved his con- 
nection with the Paper Company, and in February 
of that year he helped to organize the wholesale dry 
goods house of Edson, Moore & Company, in which 
he has since been a special partner. It is one of 
the largest and most successful business houses in 
Michigan. In 1883 he aided in organizing the 
wholesale millinery house of Black, Mitchell & Com- 
pany, now W. H. Mitchell & Company, in which he 
was a special partner until July i, 1887. During all 
the time since 1867, he has retained his lumber 
business, handling large tracts of pine land, both in 
Michigan and in Canada, and is at present a 
member of the firm of Baldwin & Nelson, his part- 
ner being Ephraim Nelson, of Cheboygan, Michigan. 
Mr. Baldwin is also largely interested in the Mineral 
Land Company of the Upper Peninsula. 

As a business man he has few superiors. Far- 
sighted, experienced, bold, active, and energetic, 
his quick perception, keen intellect, and marvelous 
knowledge of the detail of many branches of busi- 
ness, make him a safe counselor and a successful 
financier. He is able to generalize rapidly and to 
reach conclusions, which, to slower minds, might 
seem hasty, but his judgments are unusually sound, 
and in scarcely any instance has he made a failure 
in his investments. He believes in integrity and 
fair dealing as the foundation of business success, 
and has the reputation of having well illustrated 
these principles in all his business transactions. He 
is public-spirited as a citizen, liberal toward worthy 
benevolent objects, and has used his means freely 
in helping deserving young men to start in business. 
In political faith he is a Democrat, and opposed to a 
protective tariff ; has never sought or held any elec- 
tive office, but since July i, 1885, has been one of 
the inspectors of the Detroit House of Correction. 

He was married October 28, 1868, to Gertrude, 
daughter of Augustine Hovey, of Pontiac, Michigan. 



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LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS. ETC. 



EDMUND A. BRUSH, the eldest son of Elijah 
Brush, was born in 1802, graduated at Hamilton 
College, and upon his return home assumed active 
charge of his father's estate. He was admitted to 
the bar, but never practised law. Mr. Brush was 
early identified with the management of Detroit's 
municipal affairs. He was City Register in 1823, 
Recorder in 1832 and 1833, and in 1852 was selected 
by the Legislature as a member of the Board of 
Water Commissioners, then created for the purpose 
of enlarging the city Water Works. His services 
were given to this interest for more than sixteen 
years, and his counsel and efforts were of great 
value. In all departments of city administration he 
was actively and zealously interested, and pro- 
moted many measures that tended to the public good, 
and checked, in a vigorous way, much that promised 
evil. He assisted in the organization of the volun- 
teer fire department, of which body he was an active 
member, and was a leading spirit in the promotion 
of several railroad lines centering in Detroit. 

His large estate, however, enlisted the most of 
his attention, and made him one of the very 
w^ealthiest landholders that Detroit possessed. In 
the sale of city lots, he almost invariably made it a 
condition that the improvements thereon should be 
in thorough keeping with advanced and liberal 
enterprise, thus aiding ^not only himself but the 
city generally. 

The habits which Mr. Brush formed as a student, 
during his college days, he maintained to the end 
of his life. He was devoted to literature, but also 
found much enjoyment in the amenities of social 
life. His friendships were strong and deep, and in 
a large circle he was an honored figure. While 
quite set in his ways of doing things, he was any- 
thing but cold-hearted and ungenerous. He did 
not parade his charities, but gave very largely and 
wisely, and relieved many destitute families. He 
never took advantage of his tenants, nor enforced 
forfeitures against them, or deprived them of the 
protection of a home when misfortune prevented 
them from meeting their engagements. 

He married Eliza Cass Hunt, daughter of General 
John E. Hunt, and niece of General Cass. They 
had five children, only one of whom is living. The 
death of the others fell with crushing force upon 
the heart of Mr. Brush, and his grief was so intense, 
that it is believed his own death was thereby has- 
tened. He died suddenly, July 10, 1877, at Grosse 
Pointe, leaving his wife and one son, Alfred E. 
Brush. The next nearest relative is a daughter of 
William G. Thompson, whose first wife was a 
daughter of Mr. Brush. 

WILLIAM N. CARPENTER, the eldest child 
of Nathan B. and Betsey Carpenter, was born at 



Cooperstown, New York, July 22. 1816. His par- 
ents removed to Detroit in 1825, and his father, who 
died in 1868, was at the time of his death one of 
the oldest and best known citizens. He was a 
prominent member of the Masonic fraternity and 
of the Mechanic Society, and occupied various posi- 
tions of honor and trust connected with the city 
government. 

William N. Carpenter was educated in the public 
schools of Detroit, and at the age of thirteen be- 
came a clerk in the store of Franklin Moore, with 
whom he was afterwards associated as partner. 
He was also employed in the store of Elliott Gray. 
After acquiring a good commercial education, he 
began business for himself, opening a dry good 
store on the south side of Jefferson Avenue, be- 
tween Bates Street and Woodward Avenue. His 
business venture was soon rewarded with a sub- 
stantial success, and in 1834, having accumulated a 
considerable fortune, he retired from mercantile 
life. 

His naturally active temperament, however, de- 
manded employment, and he soon found congenial 
fields for his business energieajn jDther enterprises. 
With ex-Governor Bagley, he became interested in 
the manufacture of tobacco, and during the earlier 
history of the extensive tobacco factory of J. J. 
Bagley & Company, he did much to establish the 
business on a prosperous basis. He also became a 
large stockholder in the Peninsular Stove Company, 
was for several years vice-president, and by his 
assistance in the management of its affairs, con- 
tributed greatly to the success of the corporation. 
For many years also he was a director of the Peo- 
ple's Savings Bank. In connection with ex-Governor 
Henry H. Crapo, he engaged extensively in the 
lumber business, and owned large tracts of pine 
land in the town of Vassar, Michigan. He was 
also a stockholder and officer in the Eureka Iron 
Company and held considerable real estate in De- 
troit. In 1879 he erected the large store on the 
southwest corner of Woodward and Jefferson Ave- 
nues. In his varied business projects he evinced 
excellent business judgment, and his keen business 
foresight, added to strict integrity, made him a 
wise counselor and one whose advice was often 
sought. 

He is, however, best remembered because of the 
possession of the qualities which characterize a 
good and useful member of society. He was a 
man of large benevolence, and a judicious friend 
to the really needy. He believed in organized 
charities, and as a member of the executive board 
of A ssociated Charities, was ever ready by personal 
labor and pecuniary contributions, to further that 
organization. His benevolence was free from osten- 
tation. He had faith in the practical usefulness of 




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LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, ETC. 



T2I 1 



the church, and supported it with his fortune, per- 
sonal labor, and by the example of a life of singular 
purity and faithful devotion to duty. Early in life 
he united with St. Paul's Episcopal Church, and at 
the time of his death his membership in the church 
antedated that of any other person in the diocese. 
In 1845 he became one of the founders of Christ 
Church, and remained continuously a member of the 
vestry, and for twenty-nine years served as warden. 
The highest offices it was possible for the church to 
confer upon a layman, were frequently bestowed 
upon him. He served as trustee of the diocese, 
deputy to the general convention, and member of 
the standing committee of the diocese. The direc- 
tion made in his will that $25,000 of his estate be 
appropriated to the building of a free chapel or 
church, was in accordance with a long cherished 
purpose, and the carrying out of the project will 
furnish a most fitting monument to his memory. 

During the latter years of his life, Mr. Carpenter 
devoted much time to travel, both in his own and 
foreign countries. He was deeply interested in the 
development of the commercial interests of the 
Southern States, and was pecuniarily interested in 
the reclamation of portions of the Everglades of 
Florida, in furthering orange culture, and in pro- 
moting the extension of railroads in that State. 
The only political office he held was that of mem- 
ber of the Board of Estimates. 

He was married in 1845 to Amanda Gibbs, 
daughter of William Gibbs. of Skaneateles, New 
York. They had five children, two of whom died 
in infancy. The names of those living are : Rev. 
Samuel B. Carpenter, archdeacon of the Episcopal 
Church of south Florida ; Edith, wife of Rev. S. H. 
Gurteen, of New York, and Clarence Carpenter, 
treasurer of the Peninsular Stove Company of De- 
troit. 

Mr. Carpenter's death on November 10, 1885, 
was the result of an accident, which shocked the 
entire community. While driving, his horse be- 
coming frightened, ran away, and he was thrown 
from the carriage, and sustained injuries from the 
effects of which he soon died. His sudden and 
tragic death, while in the possession of good health 
and with apparently years of usefulness before him, 
caused universal sorrow among a host of friends. 
Expressions of sorrow came from many portions of 
the State, and warm tributes of respect w^re paid 
to his memory by the various business corporations, 
religious and charitable organizations with which 
he was identified. 

JOHN PERSON CLARK was born on the 
Hudson River at a small town a few miles below 
Catskill, on April 10, 1808, and was the son of John 
and Sarah (Person) Clark. His parents, in 1812, 



moved to Black Rock, near Buffalo, where his 
father was carrying on the grocery business, at the 
time the British crossed the river and burned the 
city of Buffalo. 

His father, with a few neighbors, procured a 
small cannon, and from a bluff back of the town, 
fired on the troops as they were crossing the river. 
Before the war had closed, the family moved to 
Cleveland, Ohio, and the elder Mr. Clark engaged 
in keeping a hotel. He was a member of the 
Masonic order, and the lodge met in one of the 
rooms on the second fioor of the hotel, and in order 
to drown the voices, so that what was said could 
not be understood by the uninitiated, they rolled a 
large cannon-ball over the floor during their meet- 
ings. 

In 1 81 8 the family moved to what is now known 
as Wyandotte, and attempted farming, but after a 
three years' struggle, gave it up, and bought tim- 
bered land three miles back from the river, and 
there three of the brothers cleared up a farm. John 
P. Clark, at this time, was only thirteen years old, 
but learned to build a comfortable log house, with- 
out nails or boards. He worked out by the day or 
month, and, at the age of sixteen, could do as 
much work as a man. While yet a boy, he con- 
cluded that it was not necessary to be as extremely 
poor as many were with whom he was acquainted, 
and therefore he eagerly improved every opportunity 
for employment, and when not engaged at farming, 
went to Ohio, and worked upon one of the canals 
at $13 per month and his board. It was then cus- 
tomary to furnish w^iiskey to the men three or four 
times a day, and Mr. Clark partook with the others. 
The taste of the liquor was at first very unpleasant. 
He soon found, however, it was becoming palatable, 
and therefore decided to leave it entirely alone, and 
holding to his resolution, he came back to Michi- 
gan, richer in both experience and money. The 
only schooling he was able to obtain was in the 
winter, when he was not employed on the farm. In 
1825 his father died, and left five small children. 
The older sons, however, kept the farm, and ran it 
for the support of the children. 

The year after his father's death, Mr. Clark 
bought a part interest in a fishing company, and 
continued to have investments in that business until 
his death. His first shipments were made to vari- 
ous places in Ohio, where he had attended school. 
The lack of facilities for traveling in those days, 
and Mr. Clark's energy, is illustrated in the fact 
that, in 1828, he started from Mount Vernon, Ohio, 
and traveled through the Black Swamp to Perrys- 
burg, on the Maumee River, on foot. At the latter 
place he met some acquaintances that he had known 
in Cleveland, and with them formed a company to 
fish on the Maumee River, with a seine, w^hich he 



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LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, ETC. 



had made the winter previous. The Maumee River 
was a noted spawning ground, and there were great 
numbers of fish in that locaHty. Upon one occa- 
sion, Mr. Clark went to a small island up the river, 
and in three nights speared twenty-one barrels of 
fish. The following year he went into the fishing 
business on his own account, hired a number of 
men, and continued in the business of fishing for 
twelve seasons. While he was fishing he worked 
two crews, one at night and one during the day, 
and seldom slept more than twenty minutes at a 
time. On one occasion he and his men put up one 
hundred barrels in a day, Mr. Clark himself doing 
all the coopering. In the spring of 1832 he bought 
some timber land, and supplied wood for the fish 
trade along the canal, and during the year built a 
a barge. The next year, with his own barge, he 
busied himself with towing on the canal. 

In 1836 he went on an exploring tour to Lake 
Michigan, traversing the distance from Green Bay 
to Milwaukee many times, and nearly always on 
foot. The Indians in that region showed him 
where they and their fathers before them caught 
fish in the fall and winter. They usually smoked 
and dried the fish which they caught, and then put 
them into sacks and carried them to their wigwams. 
They also sliced and dried their potatoes for winter 
use. Profiting by the knowledge he had gained, 
Mr. Clark, the next year, returned to Lake Michi- 
gan, and engaged actively in fishing, and in the 
spring of 1838 he employed fifty men, and went 
into the business on quite an extensive scale. At 
this time his brother George and Mr. Shadrack 
Gillett were associated with him. In the same 
year he purchased a vessel, and has owned one or 
more ever since. From being a vessel owner he 
naturally drifted into the business of repairing ves- 
sels, and in 1850 he relinquished part of his fishing 
business, came to Detroit, and built a dry dock, 
erected a saw-mill, and built and repaired vessels. 
He also raised sunken vessels. For some years past 
the shipyard has been leased to other parties, and a 
number of the largest vessels on the lakes have been 
built in his yard. Up to the time of his death, he was 
engaged to some extent in fishing, and had ponds 
or pools along the river where his fish were stored» 
and occupied one fishing ground that he located 
fifty-six years ago. He employed between forty 
and fifty men, and, in addition to his other busi- 
ness, cultivated five extensive farms. He was one 
of the oldest residents in this locality, and was in 
every sense the architect of his own fortune. By 
his perseverance and his constant personal super- 
vision of his business, he accumulated a handsome 
property. Like almost all men who achieve suc- 
cess in any sphere of life, he doubtless made some 
enemies, but he also made warm and strong friends. 



Mr. Clark was married to Susan E. Booth, on 
February 20, 1838. She was born in England, on 
June I, 181 5, and died on May 18, i860. Their 
children were Avis S., Alice E., Alvin S., Florence 
M., Arthur J., Walter B., Norman S. On February 
19, 1863, Mr. Clark married Eliza W. Whiting. She 
was born in Amherst, Vermont. She died January 
14, 1883. Mr. Clark died on September 3, 1888. 

DARIUS COLE was born in Wales, Erie 
County, New York, October 11,1818. His parents, 
Benjamin and Ruth Cole, removed from Rhode 
Island to Erie County just before the War of 181 2, 
and settled on a new^ farm. They had four chil- 
dren, Melissa, Phoebe, Benjamin, and Darius, who 
is the youngest and the only surviving member 
of the family. His father died when he was six 
weeks old, and his mother, with the assistance of 
hired help, cleared the farm, and supported the 
family until her death, in 1824. After her death, 
Darius, who was then six years old, went to live 
with his grandfather on an adjoining farm, and 
remained there until he was sixteen. Although 
his health was quite poor, he worked and saved 
a small sum of money, with which he came to De- 
troit in September, 1835, and for a year he worked 
on a farm in Macomb County. 

In the fall of 1836 he went with his uncle. Judge 
William A. Burt, on a surveying expedition west of 
the Mississippi River, to what was then known as 
the Black Hawk purchase, in Iowa Territory. He 
was there about eighteen months, and then re- 
turned to Detroit, and went with Mr. Burt to survey 
the tract of country lying between Cheboygan and 
Manistee, on the Straits of Mackinac. For the 
six months which intervened between these expe- 
ditions, he kept a grocery on the site of the old 
Board of Trade Building, at the corner of Shelby 
and Woodbridge Streets, which he abandoned on 
account of failing health. In the fall of 1839 he 
made another venture in the mercantile business at 
Lexington, Michigan, and continued there with fair 
success until 1850. In that year he became inter- 
ested in the steamboat business, with which he has 
ever since been identified. He first bought the 
James Walcott (afterwards rebuilt and called the 
Scott), and put her on the Saginaw River. She 
was the first steamboat that plied between what 
is now Bay City and Saginaw. In 1855 he 
bought the steamer Columbia, started the first line 
between Detroit and Saginaw, and extended it to 
Cheboygan and points along the lake shore. His 
enterprise had much to do in settling that part 
of the country, and the early settlers of that region, 
and their goods and provisions, were principally 
conveyed by his line of boats. In 1852, Captain 
Ward put on the Huron, the initial boat of his line, 




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LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, ETC. 



I213 



and soon after added the Forest Queen. Deter- 
mined not to be outdone, Captain Cole, in the 
winter of 1856, purchased the Northerner, the finest 
boat that had yet appeared on the lakes, and put 
her on his line in the spring. While making her 
first trip on Lake Huron, with a heavy cargo and 
some two hundred persons, including passengers 
and crew, on board, she was run into and sunk by 
Captain Ward's steamer, the Forest Queen, the ves- 
sel and cargo being a total loss, and the second 
engineer drowned. The passengers and crew were 
saved. The next year Captain Cole fitted up the 
Columbia, which had been laid aside, and