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Full text of "Baedeker of the Argentine Republic : including also parts of Brazil, the Republic of Uruguay, Chili and Bolivia, with maps and plans of the Argentine Republic, of the town of Buenos Aires, of Montevideo, of Rosario, of the railway lines, and numerous illustrations"

La 



BAEi;i. 



OF THE 



mWM REP! 






BAEDEKER 

OF THE 

ARGEXTINE REPUBLIC 



n □ n 



n n 



Coliseum Theatre. {Chareas 1119. 




C] 



[] n D □ 



Victoria Theatre* {Yktoria 1380. 




Coiiim')iis Theatre. [Lihertad 001. 




San Alartiu Theatre, Calle Esmeralda, 257 




Opera Tlieatre, Calle Corrieiites, 860 




Politeama Theatre, Calle Corrientes, 1470 




Odeoii Theatre, Calle Esmeralda, 367 




T. C. A. 

ARGENTINE 
TOURING CLUR 

The traveller's help 



The traveller's help : : : : : 
: : : : : in South America 



OFFICE AND SECRETARY: 

ealle Florida, 25o. - BUENOS fllReS 

(ARGENTINE REPUBLIC) 



ARGENTINE NAVIGATION COMPANY 



Nicolas Mihanovich 



FLEET OF 325 SHIPS 

Luxurious mail and passenger steamships for navigation 
from 

Rio de la Plata, Uruguay 

Parana and Paraguay 



TUGS AND BARGES FOR SHIPMENT OF SALVAGE MATERIAL 

ADMIMSTBATIOX: 

ealles 25 de Mayo and eangallo.'-BUENOS HIRES 

Union Telephone: CENTRAL 515 and 1894 
Cooperative Telephone: 415 

= BRAI^eHES ===. 



Boca del Riachueloj Darsena Sud j Port de la Plata 

Pedro Mendoza 1305 llnfrontof thefiesguard Grand Dock 

U. T. (Boca), 326 \ U. T. (Buex Okokn) 857 | U. T. (Gran Dock) 44 

ROSARIO DE SANTA t^E; ASUNCION IN PARAGUAY 



WORKSHOPS: (South bank) BOCA-U. T. Barraeas 214 
CARMELO and SALTO (EASTERN Rep. of Uruguay) 




South ATLANTIC 



Founded in 1889, 



BY Miguel Mihanovich 
Transformed into a Joint-Stock 
Navigation Co. in 1909 



Line from Patagones and 
Viedma (Rio Negro), with 
scale at Bahia Blanca. 

Service for passengers and 
goods with 3 monthly de- 
partures. 



Line from Rio Grande do Sul, Pelotas and Porto Alegre 

(Brazil). 
Service for passengers and goods with weekly 

departures 

In these ports, service of transshipment and unloading 
is made with the Company's own gear 

Line from Rio de Janeiro, Paranagua and Antonina 
(Brazil). Service of goods and of the transport of four- 
footed animals by specially built ships. 

Unloading and Transshipment in the port of the Capital. 
Service with specially constructed modern gear. 

Quay and sheds at Carmen de Patagones (Rio Negro). 

Property of the Company. 



10 ships of 15,000 tons 
16 boats » 3,000 » 



1 Tug. 
4 baroes. 



FLEET 

Director and Administrator: MIGUEL MIHANOVICH 

i< 366, Calle Victoria, 368 >f 

BUENOS AIRES 



Union Telephone 
511, Avenida 



Telegrajihic address 
SUDATLAiVTICA ' 



Telephone Coop. 
3288, Central 



ARGENTINE IRON AND STEEL COMPANY 

(PEDRO VASENA & SONS) Ltd. 



Mechanical and constructional Engineering Workshops 

Capital £ 1,000,000 — 



-QuxDED IN 1870 Foundry of iron, bronzes and steel 

WOKKSHOPS — Calle Cocliabamba, 3055 

Union Telehpone: 3621-3622-3623 & 3624. Mitre. 
Cooperative Telephone: 13 —Patricios & 1046. West. 

Branch. LA PLATA: Thirteenth street between 58 & 59th street 













•„ 








3 


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is 








■ 


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;, . ■'.-.» :^;. v^.---> J,^ 


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Perspective view of the exterior part of the workshops of the Argentine 
iron and steel Company (Pedro Vasena & Sons) Ltd. 

ARTISTIC FORGE AHD METALLURGIC PRODUCTS IN GENERAL 

Iron and steel bars. I, L, T, U. iron bands, ingots for 
melting, GEEY and PROFIL NORMAL iron cramps, Tu- 
bes, steel and iron plates, shafting, iron wedges, metallic 
supports, Links, pulleys, gears, cofferwork, couplings, etc. 

Factory of nails, rivets French tacks, bolts, nuts 

"TIRAXTE" Chains 

Portland aud roman cement — Trellis-work for ceilings, etc. 

Central office: CaJle Alsina, 633 ^ Union Telephone, 5724, Avenue 

Correspondence to be addressed to the office in 
Calle Cocliabamba, 3075 

10 



LOSBON AND BI?E8 PLATE BAKI 

Chief House: London, 7 Princes St. 



IN BUENOS AIRES: 
399, Bartolome Mitre, 399 • 2122, Santa Fe, 2122 
IN BARRACAS (NORTH): 

701, Montes de Oca, 701 
IN THE "ONCE- TERMINUS: 

Street Pueyrredon, 301 (Buenos Aires) 
BOCA: Almirante Brown, 1159 

MONTEVIDEO: i",?,"/;rkio'5e^^^ 

Rosario, Bahia Blanca, Mendoza, Concordia, Tucu- 
man, Parana, Cordoba, Montevideo, Paysandu, Salto 
Oriental, Sao Paulo, Santos, Para, Pernambuco, Rio de 
Janeiro, Bahia, Curityba, Victoria (Brasil), Manaos, Valpa- 
raiso, Paris, Amberes, Agenda New York. 



DRAFTS AND BILLS 

TELEGRAPHIC TRANSFER 



PURCHASE d: SALE OF SECURITIES 

PAYMENT OF COUPONS AND DIVIDENDS ^ CUSTODY OF BONDS 

IDISCOXJJNTTS 

Payment of bills and promissory notes 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS GOLD AND PAPER MONEY 

Deposits on terms, 'A ni;)uths, gold and paper money 

» » » <) » )> » » » 

» » » 12 » » » >^ » 

3ame5 Dey and Harr? Scott, Managers. 



BANK OF COMMERCE 



229— San Martin— 233 <^ 

^-•••-^ 



Authorized Capital $ 5,000,000 Bealized Capital $ 5,000,000 

Deposits in current account, at sight, at fixed term and 
in savings bank. 

^^^^ ^1^.2^ iE2-.2^ '^s^s:^' 




Discounts and loans against 

security. Administration of 

i properties, Advances on rents. 

Collection of debts of all kinds. 



IT PAYS 



For deposits in paper mo- 
ney : 

Current account at sight. . 1 % 
At fixed temi of 90 days. . 4 % 
At fixed term of 180 days. 4 1/2 % 



At a larger term. 



Conventionally 



SAVINGS BANK 

YEARLY 



Alfer 60 days deposit: 

From 1 to 5 ,000 $ n/m at 

sight 5% 

From 1 to 10,000 $, with 
previous notice of 30 
days 5% 

Deposits in sealed go Id. By arrangement 

For further information apply 
to manager 

C. MALPELI 

MANAGER 



^ 



^sr^^ C^^^ <^5r^^ 



^ ^ -i< ^< >!< >^>Yr^<^^^^^^'>^'^::^^,<^,<^^^f^:>^^{ 



N. TOMMASI 

FOUNDED IX 1869 



ovvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvwwwwwwwv 



BUENOS AIRES, Calle General Lavalle, 1127 

y^9m^< 

Branch at 3Iilan (Italy). Via Tadino, 26 



VVA/Va\\a/VVVVV'VVVVVV\VVAAA/VVVV/VVV\\VVV\V'VVV 

Importation of stationery goods, and office 
requisites of all description 

Book Store.-Sehools supplied 

IN DIRECT RELATION WITH ALL 
THE LUROPEAN AND NORTH 
AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 



»••-<- 



Publishers of Spanish Books 



:4c^^>^>i<>;<>|<>|<:{<>{<:^^^>j<^>!<>l< >;-<>;< ^^^:^>!<>|<^ 



JACOB 8CHR0EDER 

BOOK-BINDING 
Calle Viamonte, l^-T^S 



Silner medal at the National 
Extiibition, 1898 



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Specia lties in fancy bindings, 
flexible and half - bindings. 



UNION TELEPHONE, 507, JUNCAL 




ERM OF THE ARGENTINE NATION 

Founded in 1891 

-i — .^ 1^ 



Central office- BUENOS AIRES 

Calle Rivadavia, 363 - 399 - - Calle Reconquista, 15-25 



Capital. . . $ paper 117,179,009-24 
Reserve . . $ gold 9,804,171*20 



O P E R A T I O X S 

Bills of exchange, Letters of Credit, Telegraphic Trans- 
fers, Purchase and sale of bonds. Payment of bills, effects, 
coupons and dividends, securities in deposit at fixed terms. 
Legal coins and gold, Saving's bank. Sale of drafts, 

OVER: 

Germany, Austria- Hungary, England, France, Spain, Ita- 
ly, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Finland, Belgium, Holland, 
Switzerland, Turkey, Servia, Roumania, Greece, Bulgaria, 
Asia, Africa, Oceania, United- States of North -America, Ca- 
nada, Chili. Bolivia, Brazil, and the Eastern Republic of 
Uruguay, etc., etc. 

The Bank of the Argentine Nation has branches in the 
following places: 

BRANCHES AND AGENCIES IN THE CAPITAL: 

Belgrano (Calle Cabildo 1900) corner of Calle Sucre; 
Boca del Riachuelo (Calle A. Brown 1101); 
Flores (Calle Rivadavia 7000), corner of Calle Pedernera 
(with agency at the New-Slaughter Houses (nuevos Ma- 
taderos). 
N°. 1— Calle Montes de Oca 1699, corner of calle Califor- 
nia 1101; 

» 2 — Calle Entre Rios 1201, corner of calle San Juan 1802, 

» 3 — Calle Corrientes 3399, corner of calle Gallo 401; 

» 4 — Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 920; 

» 5— Calle Rivadavia 2828; 

» 6— Calle Santa Fe 2138; 

» 7 — Calle Caseros 2[)2\), Parque de los Patricios; 

» 8 — Calle Triunvirato TiU; 

» 9— Calle Santa Fe 4254, Plaza de Italic; 

» 10— Calle BoedoH88; 

» 11 — Custom House of the Capital, 
Exchange office at the Hotel for Emigrants(Darsena Norte). 



BRANCHES IN THE INTERIOR 



Province of Buenos Aires; 

(Vj-acuclio 

Azul 

Bahia Blanca 

Balcarce 

Bolivar 

Bragado 

Cap. Sarmiento 

Chacabuco 

Cliascoinus 

Ohivilcoy 

Colon 

Coroncl Pringles 

Coronel Suai'ez 

Dolores 

Ensenada 

General Yillegas 

Juarez 

Junin 

La Plata 

Laprida 

Las Flores 

Lincoln 

Lobos 

Lujan 

Mar del Plata 

Mercedes 

Moron 

Navarro 

Necochea 

Nueve de Julio 

Olavarria 

Patagones 

Pthuajci 

Pergamino 

Puan 

Punta Alta 

Piamallo 

Rojas 

SaiadiUo 

San Fernando 

San Nicolas 

San Pedro 

Tandil 

Tornquist 

Trenque Lauqucn 

Tres Arroyos 

25 de Mayo 

Zarate 



Province of Catamarca: 

Catamarca 

Province of Cordoba: 

BeU-TiUe 
Cordoba 
Dean Funes 
Laboulaye 
La Carlota 
Rio Cuarto 
San Francisco 
Villa Dolores 
Villa Maria 

Province of Corrientes: 

Bella Vista 

Corrientes 

Curuzu-Cuatia 

E&quina 

Goya 

Mercedes 

Monte Caseros 

Paso de los Libres 

Santo Tome 

Province cf Entre Rios; 

Colo.i 

Concep. del Uruguay 

Concordia 

Diamante 

Gualeguay 

Gualeguaychu 

La Paz 

Nogoya 

Parana 

Kosario Tala 

Victoria 

Villaguay 

Province of Jujuy: 

Jujuy 

Province of Mendoza: 

Mendoza 
San Eafael 

Province of La Rioja: 

Chilecito 
Ilioja 



Province of Salta: 

Cafavete 
Salta 

Province of San Juan : 

San Juan 

Province of San Luis: 

Mercedes 
Sun Luis 

Province of Santa Fe: 

Caiiada de Gomez 

Casilda 

Fsperanza 

Galvez 

Rafiiela 

Keconquista 

Rosario 

Rufino 

San Carlos 

San Justo 

Santa Fc. 

Veuado Tuerto 

Villa Constitucion 

Province of Santiago del 
Estero: 

Santiago del Estero 

Province of Tucuman : 

Monteros 
'Tucumau 

National Territories: 

Comodoro Rivadavia 

Formosa 

General Aclia 

General Pico (P. Cent.) 

Neuquen 

Posadas 

Rcalico (P. Cent.1 

Resistencia 

Rio Gallegos 

Santa Rosa de Toay 

Trelew 

A'ictorica 

Viedma 



\A/VV\AA/X\a^VVVVV^AA/\aiA/VVVVVVVV\a'VVVVVVVVV\AAAA/VVVVV^ 

bfl PREUISORa 



FOLXDED I\ l«».j 



National Fire and Life 



s Insurance Compan? 



>-•••-<- 



GUARAXTEE FUXDS d^ lO^OOIIO 
.31ST, DECEMBER 1905 ^ 1Z^,^Z-Z-,±1Z- 



The oldest established 



Life Insurance Company in South America 

The one which has 



the greatest amount of Insurances of all 



the Argentine Companies 

THE TOTAL V:\IOU\TS d; 4A 449 /:AA 
AT PRESEXT TO: *^ '-t'U,"±'^Z,,UVU 

y-^ • •-<- 

OFFICES 

In the proiiiisos of the r.oiiipanx "s own property: 

274, Calle San Martin. -BUENOS AIRES 



^'VVVVVVVVVVVVVV\1A'V'VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV\VVVVV\\VVVAVVVVVVVVVVV\VVV\VA 



lUKOKKKR.— : 



PLAZA - HOTEL 

Corner of Calles Florida and Charcas 



UNION TELEPHONE 3,060, AVENIDA 
TELEGEAPHIC ADDRESS: OVICAR 



(ADMINISTRATION HOTELS 
CARLTOX & RITZ, London) 




^y Fresh, well - ventilated and 
\ agreeable, facing the Plaza San 



Martin and Rio. 



THE MOST ELE= 
GANT HOTEL IN 

WWWWWVXWWAa'VWWWWV 

SOUTH AMERICA 

'Vt\'W\'V\'VVA/VtWWAAAAAAA.WA,'> 

Tho PLAZA-HOTEL orchestra plays afternoons and evenings 



The five o'clock tea rendez- 
I vous of the aristocracy of Bue- 

'Vt\'W\'V\'WA/'WWWAAAAAAA.'VW,'> </ 11 OS AH'CS. 



■fe-: 



-.< 




JU AN GOT TUZZO & C 



NGRAVEIR 

FOUNDED IN 1884 = 



867, Calle Cangallo, 867. BUENOS AIRES 



Factory of medals, Artistic Plates and 
Wreaths in bronze 



Central Office: BUENOS AIRES, calle San Martin 200 

CORNER OF CALLE CANGALLO 



AAAAAAAAaA/VVVO/VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVAA'VVVVV/VAAAA/VVVV^^ 

BKANCHES: 
BUENOS AIRES: calk Rivadavia 2780 

LA PLATA: Avenida ludependencia, corner of 53 street 

ROSARIO (SANTA FE): calle San Martin 824 



Stationery wholesale and detail est^awarV^fo; 
Factory of Commercial Books consiVt'ng'of: 

^, ^ -^ , "CtRAND DI- 

Lithography n n n 1^%^%^^. 
D Printing and Photogravure ^rthe^'-^N" 

TENARY IN- 
DUSTRIAL EXHIBITION" We obtained the 'TIRST 
PRIZE", gold medal at the "CENTENARY UNIVERSAL 
EXHIBITION" for the Typewriter "COSMOPOLITA" for 
which we are sole agents in the Argentine Republic. 

The workshops of this house are mounted equal to the best 
in Europe, and the perfection of the work which comes 
from them, gives an exact idea of the awards obtained in 
the various competitions in which it has taken part, and 
where it always obtained the first place. 

The assortment of Stationery is immense and one may 
say, without exaggeration, that this establishment is the 
most important of its kind in South America. 



International C; ot Sleeping-cars and 

OF GREAT EUROPEAN EXPRESSES 



~#- 



The most rapid route for Paris, and in 
Central Europe 

IS THE SOUTH EXPRESS 

Comfortable trains consisting^ of sleeping-cars, dining-- 
cars between Lisbon and Paris. Journey made in 36 
hours. 

Connection with all ships arriving- at Buenos Aires. 

The Sleeping-Car C.» has established 

an agency for voyages in calle Florida, 718 
-z BUENOS AIRES ; 

where travellers will find all the necessary information 
and can procure railway tickets of the Sleeping-Car 
Company, and for the ships, thus securing- reserved 
appartments in the Company's Hotels. Official Guide 
El Viajero de Liijo. (Luxurious Travelling). 



nr iTiiy li mil ^i ii m\\ 

SOLE CORRESPONDENT IN THE REPUBLIC 

OF THE 

TESORO ITAUANO" m m m m 



AND Tin: ^ 



m m m r r'BANCO PI NAPOLI 

CENTRAL OFFICE: 

Calle Bartolome Mitre, 434=448 

BRANCHES: 

In the Ca pital: 

N°. 1, Calle Corrientcs corner of Calle Pueyrredon; 
N°. % Avenida Montes de Oca 2099; 
N°. 3, Paseo de Julio, 1258; 
N°. 4, Calle Pichincha, 272; 

In the Interior: 

Rosario de Santa Fe, La Plata, Bahia Blanca, Para- 
na, Concordia, Gualeguaychu, Gualeguay, Uru- 
guay, Victoria, Curuzu-Cuatia, La Paz, Resisten- 
cia (Cliaco). 



AGENCIES: 

Bahia Blanca, Port Iiigeniero White. 

Authorised Capital $ gold 8,000,000 

Paid-up Capital $ gold 7,250,000 

Eeserved funds $ gold 694,000 

Guarantee funds $ gold 1,400,000 

PAYMENT OF INTEREST 

For deposit on account 

current up to 100,000 $ gold 1 % per year 

For deposit on account 

current, up to 200,000 $ paper » » » » 

Exceeding these amounts, without interest 

S PAPER S GOLD 

At fixed term of 30 days 1 ^i » o 1 ' ' ° o 

» » » » 60 » 2 V/'.j " 2 ^'.. « 

» » » » 90 » 3 \.> ^ 3 ^-j 

» » » » 180 » 4 «o 4 o'o 

At a longer term By arrangement. 

INTEREST CHARGED 



For Overdrafts on current a/c. 



•S PAPER 

S 0/ 

» /o 



S GOLD 



■'^-^- 



The Bank delivers letters of credit, soils drafts and trans- 
fers by cable on all the principal cities in Europe, Xorth 
America, Brazil, Chili, Paraguay, and the Eastern Republic 
of Uruguay, also cheques on all parts of the Republic, or- 
ders of payment on all to^ns in. Italy that have postal ser- 
vice, and office. 

The Bank undertakes, on certain conditions; to administra- 
te Property, the purchase and sale of landed property and 
mortgages for the account of a third party, and undertakes 
all Banking transactions. 

Buenos Aires. V\ April 1913. 



J. Bernasconi-E. Belleli^j 

.AI A N A GERS . - - ^ ^ - 



Holiday Tours in the Argentine 

THE HILLS OF ALTAj GRACIA 

^SIERRAS HOTEL* 

Under the inanaoement of the CENTRAL ARGENTINE Rly) 




GOLF RIDING TENNIS DRIVING 

The best hotel in the hills. All modern conveniences. 
Electric light, steam laundry, reservoir, heaters, etc. 

Single rooms or suites, both with independent bath- 
rooms. Good attendance and cuisine. Charges moderate. 



Abundant amusement. Charming country. 

One night's journey from Blienos Aires. Comfortable 
dan up-to-date sleeping and dining cars. One hour from 
Cordoba by the new Branch. 



For full particulars apply to the 

Central Argentine Rly. 

C. H. Pearson Bartolome Mitre, 299 

rENERAL MANAGER BUENOS AIRES 



THOS, COOK & SON 

AGENCIA UNIVERSAL DE VIAJES 

zz 740, Florida, Buenos Aires 



steamship Passages booked by all Lines to Europe and 
other parts of the world. Plans of accommodation toge- 
ther with any other information will be forwarded on ap- 
plication. 

Railway Tickets. —Fro rn Landing port to any destina- 
tion. Tickets for circular Tours in Europe, Family, Kilo- 
metric, French, Spanish and Italian circulairs at reduced 
rates. 

Inclusive Independent Tours. — The most convenient 
way of Travelling suited to economical as well as luxu- 
rious travel. Travelling under this system one is relieved 
of the worries usually met with en voyage, as all the ne- 
cessary arrangements are made by us beforehand and the- 
refore the very best accommodation is assured at the Ho- 
tels. It includes: Travel Tickets for the Tours, meals en 
route, reserved Hotel accommodation, Transfers to and 
from Hotels, Sightseeing and Excursions with private guide 
a detailed daily itinerary showing times of Trains, etc. 

Tours arranged through Argentine, Paraguay and Uru- 
guay and to the celebrated Falls of Iguazu. 

Revista de viajes. — Monthly publication containing list 
of all the steamship sailings, specimen Tours and other 
useful information to intending Travellers. 

Cooks Circular Notes £ 5, £ 10, £ 20 each. The most 
convenient and safest method of carrying funds whilst 
travelling, payable everywhere. 

Letters of Credit also issued. 

Drafts sold on all ])rincipal cities of the world. 

Foreigne Moneys bought and sold al llie most favora- 
ble rates. 



CAFE PAULISTA 

SAINT PAUL (BRAZIL) 

O. Alves de Lima & Co. 



STREETS: 

Bartolome Mitre 490. 
San Martin 85. 
Corrientes 433. 
Corrientes 948. 
25 de Mayo 79. 
Brasil 1148. 
Chacabuco 281. 
Almirante Brown 12. 
Rivadavia 6976. 
Cabildo 2070. 



W 





BRANCHES 2 AND 3 

HEAD OFFICE, 

SALTA STREET 459 

Buenos Aires 



PURE, AROMATIC 
ECONOMICAL 



•► «-ff «* 



Rosario, Tncuman and Bahia Blanca 



SUPERVIELLE & C." 



BANKERS 



FOUNDED IN 1887 

(office at MONTEVIDEO, 423, CALLE 25 DE MAYO, 427) 




All Bank and Excliange 
operations. — Overdrafts. 
— Deposit funds at inte- 
rest at sight on fixed 
terms. Drafts and letters 
of credit on all cities and 
towns in Europe and 
America. — Purchase and 
sale of Bank notes and 
coins of all countries. — 
Custody of title deeds. — 
Renting of safes. Depo- 
sits for valuables. 

Correspondents in the 
principal establishments 
of credit. — Credit Lyon- 
nais, Conptoir National 
d ' Escompte de Paris, 
General Society, London 
County and Westmins 
ter Bank Limited, Banca 
Comercial Italiana, Ban- 
que Commerciale de Ba- 
le, etc., etc. 



_ . , .. Administration of Properties, Loans on 
5p6CiaI SGCllOn! Mortgages, sale and purchase of landed 
Property. 

150, calle San 3Iartin, 154— BUENOS AIRES 



SIERRAS HOTEL 



A L T A G R A C I A 



(3Ianaged by the Central Argentine Raihvay) 



THE MOST AGREEABLE SITE OX THE CORDOBA HILLS 



COMF ORT-CLEANLINESS-SUPERIOR KITCHEN 




ELECTRIC LIGHT O HOT AND COLD WATER 
4< STEAM LAUNDRY >¥ 



PRIVATE ROOMS AND SUITES 



GOLF, LAWN - TENNIS, ETC. 



For details appty to 

The Central Argentine Raihvay 

Calle Rartolome ]\Iitre, 299. — Riienos Aires 

C; H. PEARSON, General Manager 



MUTUAL SAVINGS SOCIETY 

"LA BOLA DE NIEVE" 

CORNER OF <:ALIJ:S (:A\(iALLO AM) 25 liK MAVO 



«La BoLA DE NiEVED is the Savings Bank which is 
convenient for all fathers of families who wish to provide for 
the future. 

One cannot spend and have money 

The best way for workmen to save: Bonds from 6 years 
up to 25. Monthly payment $ 2'50 to 12'50. Accumulation 
of interest. Drawings the 18th. of each month. 

Without economy no one can be rich 

and with it few people are poor 

Guarantee, in case of decease, to the subscriber of a bond 
for 1,000 piastres; whole payment of this bond to the family. 

Saving is the well-being of the home 

Building: Construction of houses on monthly iJuyment 
Never ask anybody to do for you what you can do yourself. 



SAVINGS-BANK 'W FIXED DEPOSITS 

WITH 5 AND 6 % INTEREST PER YEAR, 

ACCORDING TO THE TIME OF EXPIRY 

44T A DAf A Central Office: Buenos Aires, corner of CalIe^ Canga- 
LA DULA "o and 25 do :viayo. 

Branches: Rosario corner of Calles C6rdoba, and La- 
prida. 
— DE — Tucuman, Calle 25 de Mavo, 128. 

Mendoza. Calle Ode Julio, 1447. 
^^ I pi" \/ pr " General Urquiza, Calles Bebedero and Ce- 

COPY OF LETTER FROM L. AIABILLE All 

Buenos Aires, 16th. October. — I have had the pleasure of visiting «L.\ 
BoLA DE NiEVE» in Rosario, this institute renders the country tlie same ser- 
vice and the same benefits of security, well-being and dignity as in France. 
It represents the best form of mutuahty , and it is for tliis that it has all my 
esteem and good-wishes. — Leopold Mabilleau. 

29 



miOML COffANY OF miPORTS 



-r-- 




pXPRESO ^ ^ ^ ^ 
. VILLALONGA 



Administration: Streets Balcarce corner Moreno 
BLEXOS AIRES 

Delivery at destinati on.— By contract with 
the Railways, the company accept Goods and 
Orders to be delivered at destination or at 
the spot were the Company has an Agency. 
Please, see the guide «Express». 

Passages for Railways and Sh ips.— Without 
increase on prices. When ordering luggage to 
be collected, ask for Railw^ays tickets to faci- 
litate arrangements. 

Traffic to Chile and coasts of the Pacific. 
Cordillera road. — This service is exclusively in 
the hands of the Bureaus of the EXPRESO- 
VILLALOXGA, where the passages to San- 
tiago de Chile and Valparaiso are issued, for 
the Buenos Aires to Pacific Railway Co., and 
Transandine Railwavs. 



Removing and charging service. — The num- 
ber of carts having Ijeen increased, the con- 
dition of transport allows advantageous arran- 
gements. 

Maritime and river service. — Parcels and 
cargoes dispatched. Custom-houses, Remo- 
vals, International postal orders, Hiring of 
boxes for animals. Imports and exports. 

Goods against reimbursement. — A system 
recommended to tradesmen to secure sales, 
and to the puhlic, in order to have their 
purchases and orders made payable at the 
destination. 

Deposits for storing furniture, carpets^ 
etcetera. — Of great advantage for famihes 
being temporarily absent. 

Guide ^^EXPRESO,,, — The most useful one for 
commerce and travellers, on account cf the 
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THE 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 



TlAFDF.KrT?.— n 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



BAEDEKER 



UF THE 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 

BY 

ALBERT B. MARTINEZ 



Iiiclu(1iii(| also parts of 
Brazil, the Republic of Uruguay, Chili and Bolivia 



WITH MAPS AND PLANS OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, OF THE 

TOWN OF BUENOS AIRES, OF MONTEVIDEO, 

OF ROSARIO, OF THE RAILWAY LINES, AND NUMEROUS 

ILLUSTRATIONS 



4tli. EDITION 



BARCELONA 

R . S P E N A , Printer 

PROVENZA, 93, 95 AND 97 
1914 



Who' tliinks of travelling 
Must forget care. 
Rise at dawnr 
Not overburden himself. 
Proceed at a steady pace, 
And know how to listen. 

(French verse) 



PREFACE TO THE 4th. EDITION 



When, in the month of May, 1900, I published the first 
edition of this Baedeker, urged by high motives of national 
propaganda and advertisement, rather than by a selfish hope 
of personal profit, I was far from anticipating the extraor- 
dinary and rapid success that the work would meet with 
shortly afterwards. 

Thirteen years have passed since that date, and already 
four editions of the Baedeker of the Argentine Bepuhlic have 
seen the light: the first, of 5,000 copies, the two following, 
of 10,000 each, and the present, of which 15,000 copies will 
be printed, 7,500 in French and 7,500 in English. 

The Baedeker of the Argentine Bejynblic has paid all its 
own expenses, without any official aid, and I can affirm 
without boasting that 1 have rendered a signal service to 
the country. 

The different editions of this work circulate today in the 
principal towns in the world, giving exact and condensed 
information about the social, political, demographic, econo- 
mic and industrial state of the Republic, and showing the 
prospects of work and j^rosperity which are offered to any 
enterprising man, and at the same time facilitating the trajis- 
port of people into the interior of their own country. 

The principal travelling agencies, such as the celebrated 
firm of Thos. Cook iSc Son, the Wagons-Lits, in Europe, nu- 
merous steamship companies, and the most important book- 
sellers in the large European towns, have undertaken the 
sale of this book among their customers, which is a grea 
service rendered to the Republic. 

The present edition shows a notable improvement upon 
the preceding ones. Not only has the description of the old 
routes been completed, but new ones of great importance, 
which had been omitted from the previous editions, have 
been added. Besides, desiring that this ])ook should in time 
become an international Baedeker for travellers in South 
America, 1 have added routes in Bolivia, Ohili, Uruguay and 
Brazil. 

In conclusion, I must present my thanks to all the persons 



VI PKEFACE 

who have assisted in such a disinterested and efficacious 
manner in the compilation of this book. These persons are 
numbered by thousands, and it is for this reason that I 
abstain, to my great regret, from naming them. Let them all 
receive the expression of my sincere gratitude. 

Albert B. Martinez. . 

Buenos Aires, May 1913. 



PREFACE TO THE 3rd. EDITION 



The continuously growing and extraordinary success, 
almost unknown in the history of publishing, which the 
Baedeker of the Argentine Eepublic has had, a success shown 
by the fact that the 2nd. edition is on the point of being 
exhausted in the short space of two years; as well as all the 
reiterated representations which have been made to me from 
abroad as well as in this country, have decided me to 
publish another edition, in French, in order that it may cross 
the boundaries of the Spanish-speaking countries and circu- 
late in those which use the language of Corneille and Racine, 
and among the educated classes of Europe and North Ame- 
rica who understand this language; thus there will be brought 
to both an abundance of full and exact information of the 
state and progress of this country, which invites them to 
make its acquaintance. 

Besides this innovation, which represents a great step 
forward, the present edition of the Baedeker contains another 
improvement not less important: it includes important sec- 
tions on Brazil, Uruguay, Chili, and Bolivia, which will be 
augmented and completed in the course of time, as further 
editions of the book are published. 

Thus it has hai)pened that a work conceived and publish- 
ed from patriotic motives of disinterested national propa- 
ganda and as an intellectual pastime, rather than as a com- 
mercial enterprise, has, in the course of six years, assumed 
considerable proportions, owing to the favour of the public, 
which have enabled it to become an instructive work of an 
international character. 

It is the first Baedeker or Traveller's Handbook to appear 
in South America, and this part of the work, if not more 
important to iho traveller, is nevertheless important as re- 
gards bulk. 

For a long time the peoples who compose the South Ame- 
rican family have lived separated from one another, regar- 
ding one another with jealousy and mistrust, unless they 
were openly trying to destroy one another. But that was 
due, in several cases, to the great distances which separated 
them from one another, to the insufficient means of commu- 



VIII PKEFACE 

nication which were at their disposal for them to mix with 
one another and to know one another; and, in other cases, 
to political reasons originating in pretensions to military- 
preponderance, or to questions over the boundaries of the 
country inherited from the mother-country. 

The moment has now arrived, the greater part of the 
boundary questions having been settled, and the anta- 
gonisms and hatred having disappeared, to start a mo- 
vement of sympathy and friendship M^hich will one day 
yield as a result closer relations, both political and economic. 
For this it is necessary that the South American peoples 
should commence to know one another more intimately and 
to harmonize their interests. 

The present book, giving exact information about the 
South American countries and indicating the routes to follow, 
the means of communication, the cost of travelling and the 
natural beauties and attractions which exist, contributes, in 
its humble way, to consolidate this work of South American 
friendship and confraternity. 

As regards the Argentine Republic, the modifications in 
the itineraries are numerous, as well as the new routes which 
have been added; the amount of information on all points 
which is given to the tourist who wishes to travel across 
Argentina is so great, that this book appears, not as a new 
edition of a work already well known, but, one might almost 
say, as a book which is being published for the first time. 

I should now like to fulfil a duty, that of sincerely than- 
king the persons who, in different ways, have lent me their 
help with this work. But how can this be done? To enumerate 
them would be an endless task. A Baedeker is like a 
mosaic, composed of thousands and thousands of little pie- 
ces, some large, other almost imperceptible, but all indispen- 
sable and equally valuable for constituting the Avhole, pie- 
ces brought, some directly by their authors, others indirectly 
by those who write descriptions, journeys, itineraries, ar- 
tistic criticisms, or geographical and economic notes in the 
newspapers and reviews, without suspecting that someone 
is going carefully to collect them in order to form a book of 
them. 

It being impossible to name them, I present to my 
anonymous collaborators the expression of my sincere gra- 
titude. 

Albert B. Maktinez. 
Buenos Aires, June, 1907- 



PREFACE TO THE 2nd. EDITION 



Encouraged by the extraordinary success obtained by 
the first edition of the Baedeker of the Argentine Bepuhlic, 
whicli, as a literary pastime, and from disinterested motives 
of national propaganda, I first published four years ago, as 
well as to satisfy the repeated demands of several persons, 
I have decided to print this second edition, considerably 
augmented and illustrated with numerous illustrations and 
maps, plans of railways, towns, and official establishments in 
the Republic. 

If, in all the European countries, even in those whicli 
pass through few transformations, it s necessary to revise 
their Baedekers, because experience shows that these get 
out of date in a short time, how much more is this necessary 
in a country like ours, subject to rapid development and 
surprising internal progress as much from the urban point 
of view, as from the industrial and commercial ones? 

In the course of the journey which I have been obliged 
to make across the Argentine territory, to prepare this se- 
cond edition, either as a result of what I saw, or from inqui- 
ries I made, I passed from surprise to surprise as 1 saw the 
marvellous and astounding manner in w^hich the country 
was transforming itself, from its great capital down to the 
smallest hamlet; how regions, yesterday uncultivated and 
deserted, were being converted, as soon as the fertilising 
action of human labour, aided by the fiery breath of the loco- 
motive, had made itself felt upon them, into rich and pro- 
ductive lands; and also as I saw what an immense degree of 
progress was still being attained by populous and prosperous 
localities, in which, one would have thought, changes would 
have operated more slowly. 

For all these reasons, if the present edition of this Baede- 
ker is compared with the first, it will be seen that a great mo- 
dification has taken place, both in the old routes and in the 
new ones which have been added, so that it is a new book 
having little resemblanc** to the first. 

In the preparation of this Baedeker I have i)roiited by 
the materials offered me by the periodical })ress of this ca- 
pital, the magazines, the official departments, and private 
individuals all over the Kepublic. 



X PREFACE 

It is, therefore, more than the work of a single author, it 
is an anonymous work, or rather, a collective work, to which 
hundreds of authors have contributed without knowing 
that they were doing so. 

I hope that these latter will excuse me from naming them, 
that would be a difficult task to accomplish. 

I hope also that, when they see their work in this book 
they will not consider me a plagiarist, because one cannot 
be said to plagiarize lists and descriptions, but only literary 
phrases. 

Now, in conclusion, I must add that I shall thank all 
who send me corrections, amplifications, or point out errors, 
to the Municipal Statistics Office, Avenida de Mayo, 525, in 
order to improve successive editions of this book, which is 
rather a work of utility and national propaganda than of 
personal profit. 

Albert B. Martinez. 

Buenos Aires, March loth.. 1904. 



PREFACE TO THE 1st. EDITION 



The present Baedeker has been compiled with the intention 
of offering it as a respectful compliment to the President of 
the Eepublic of Brazil and to the distinguished personages 
who will accompany him on his intended visit to Buenos 
Aires, announced for the 29th. of the present May. Conceived 
and concluded in a short time, in the midst of absorbing 
official preoccupations, it has had to suffer, and it suffers, 
from faults and omissions which the author is the first to 
acknowledge, and which he will correct in the future, if the 
favour of the public permits him to issue a second edition. 
Works like a Baedeker are always being improved in the 
course of time, by a sort of chain of successive editions which 
permit errors to be corrected and descriptions enriched, 
while the whole keeps a perfect and logical harmony. The 
celebrated European Baedeker guides, which have today 
attained such a high degree of perfection, had also a modest 
origin. The same thing has happened in this country with 
the monumental Geographical Dictionary of Latzina, which 
has reached its third edition. 

Nevertheless, in spite of its faults, I venture to hope 
that the firs edition of the Baedeker of the Argentine w411 
supply a want which has made itself felt in the Republic. 

Journeys for commercial purposes, for health, for enjoy- 
ment or for rest, are growing more numerous among us every 
year, and have become a definite part of our national habits. 
The persons who cross the Argentine territory every year are 
reckoned in thousands, their journeys being made in all 
directions, either to reach the seaside resorts, or the moun- 
tains, in the dog-days, or to go to the thermal springs or 
warmer districts, in winter, or, finally, to enjoy the attrac- 
tions or distractions which a great capital has to off'er at 
the time when its social and artistic life are most active. 

Besides this, the Argentine Republic, as much by reason 
of the rapid growth of its population and by the facility 
with which its inhabitants assimilate the progress realized 
by advanced European nations in arts, sciences and indus- 
tries, as by the amount of material contort and moral sa- 
tisfaction which all travellers in the country receive, exer- 
cises everj^ day a stronger attraction on men of business or 



XII PREFACE 

men of luean.s of neigh bouriiig countries, and lias come to 
enjoy, although on a humbler scale, the same role which 
the capital of France fills in Europe. 

Up to the present no book has been published in the Re- 
public on the model of the Baedeker of Europe, which, be- 
sides describing the riches, natural and artistic beauties of 
the Republic, private and public buildings, and the principal 
industrial and farming establishments, might serve as a 
guide in order that natives of the country — who p.re always 
and everywhere very backward in knowing their own coun- 
try, especially amongst us — as well as foreigners who visit 
us, either for business or for pleasure, may be able pro- 
fitably, economically and without contretemps to travel over 
the vast stretches of Argentine territory. 

It is therefore for the sake of utility and national propa- 
ganda, rather than in the expectation of personal profit, 
which cannot be obtained by means of books here, that I 
have prepared the Baedeker which I place in public circula- 
tion today. 

But before concluding these lines, I must fulfil an agreea- 
ble duty in expressing my prof oundest gratitude to the persons 
who have lent me their valuable aid. I must mention, before 
all. Dr. Francis Latzina, who has permitted me to extract 
from his remarkable Dictionary the articles on the climate, 
the orohydrography, and several descriptions w^hich figure 
in the Guide; then Mr. Celso Elizalde, for his very complete 
description of the provinces of Tucuman, Salta and Jujuy; 
the distinguished art critic, Mr. Eduardo f^chiaffino, for the 
interesting visit to the Fine Arts Museum, of which he is 
Director; Mr. Charles Doynel, the engineer, for his descrip- 
tion of the Protestant churches of Buenos Aires; Messrs. An- 
gel Menchaca and M. Bernardez, for the inspired works on 
Argentine journalism and the Northern Cemetery M'hich 
they have written, respectively; Messrs. John Sarhy and 
Henry Carmona, for the descriptions of the Health Depart- 
ment and the iDort of the Capital, to wiiicli each one contri- 
buted; Mr. John Joseph Lanusse, for the description of the 
Misiones Territory and its cataracts. I must also thank the 
National Minister of Public Works, who has permitted me 
to make a special edition, at my ov/n expense, of the map of 
the railways which he had drawn up, and which appears in 
the guide, and, at the same time, the higher stafi^ of the Admi- 
nistration of Interior Taxes, for the precise information with 
which they have favoured me. And finally, I owe a debt of 
gratitude to all the numerous persons who, in dift'erent ways, 
have helped me with this work, and whose names I do not 
mention in order not to make an interminable enumeration. 

All the same, I must perform a dut}^ of literary honesty 



PREFACE XIII 

in declaring that the historical review of the Republic has 
been taken from the work of Ricardo Xaj)]), up to the da- 
te 1874, and completed by me up to the ])resent time; that 
I have extracted tlie history of l^uenos Aires from the in- 
teresting chronicle which the distinguished historian Mariano 
A. Pelliza wrote for the census of 1887; that 1 have taken, 
from the work of Dr. Eliseo Canton, the description and 
notice of the thermal springs, and from the work, unfortu- 
nately unfinished, of Mr. Joseph M. Drago, information 
about the farming establishments. 

I will conclude by saying that in making the criticisms 
contained in this book 1 have been actuated by a most ri- 
gorous impartiality. I beg that tourists will render me the 
service of pointing out errors or omissions which they may 
notice, and I ask hotel-keepers, proprietors of business 
houses, etc., not to have any faith in persons who mention 
the name of this book in order to obtain specially favourable 
terms. Communications may be addressed to the publisher, 
.1. Peuser. ^an Martin y Cangallo, Buenos Aires. 

Albert B. Martinez. 

Maij, 1900. 



CONTENTS 



IXTRODUCTIOX 



I. — Coinage. Travelling Expenses. Passports and 

Customs House. Language. Time 1 

II. — Steamers 5 

III. — Railways 8 

IV. — Hotels and Restaurants 13 

V. — Plan of a Journey 14 

VI. — Post and Telegraphs. Radiotelegrapliy in Ar- 
gentina 16 

VII. — Weights and Measures 18 

VIII. — Historical Review of the Argentine Republic. 19 

IX. — Climate of Argentina 24 

X.— Meteorological Service 32 

XI. — Mountain and river System 35 

XII. — Mines and Metalluvgv 37 

XIII.— Agriculture 42 

XIV.— Breeding 46 

XV.— Value of the Land 49 

XVI. — Colonization in the Argentine Republic 53 

XVII.— Population 56 

XVIII. ^ — Educational, Chaiitable and Correctiorial Es- 
tablishments 59 

XIX.— Industrial Establishments 62 

XX. — Industries 65 

XXL— Holidays 69 

CAPITAL 

1. — From Europe (o Biioims Aires 60 

A. — From Genoa to Buenos Aires 72 

B. — From Hamburg to Buenos Aires 76 

C. — From Southampton to Buenos Aires 78 

D. — From Bordeaux to Buenos Aires 79 

E. — From Marseille to Buenos Aires 80 

F. — From Trieste to Buenos Aires 84 

G. — From Amsterdam to Buenos Aires 86 



XVI CONTENTS 



2. — Buenos Aires 87 

Arrival. Hotels. Kestaurauts 87 

Apartments and Furnished Rooms 88 

Restaurants, Cafes and Inns 90 

Railways 93 

Tramways 100 

Street Cabs and Motor Cars 112 

Post and Telegraph. Parcels Post. Newspapers, etc. 114 

Theatres, Concerts, Clubs, etc 124 

Commercial Establishments and Shops 133 

Buenos Aires. — History 145 

Domestic Architecture 148 

Modern Building at Buenos Aires 155 

Topography and appearance of Buenos Aires 156 

Water Supply and Sewers 159 

Port of the Capital 164 

Museums, Libraries, etc 166 

Natural History Museum 166 

Fine Arts Museum. 170 

Private Exhibitions of Paintings 187 

National Historical Museum 194 

Museum of Arms 201 

National Agricultural Museum 203 

Libraries 204 

Recoleta Cemeter}^ 207 

Argentine Journalism 211 

Method of visitiny Buenos Aires 215 

Finding one's way about 215 

How to employ one's Time 242 

BUENOS AIRES 

ROUTES 

I. — From Buenos Aires to La Plata 246 

a) Via Quilmes 246 

b) Via Temperley 255 

From Buenos Aires to La Plata, Ensena- 

da, Rio Santiago and Ferrari 256 

II. — From Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanca 256 

a) Via General La Madrid and Coronel 
Suarez 257 

b) Via Ranches and Ranch 271 

c) Via Pringles 277 

d) Via Emb. Lobos, Bolivar and Saavedra. 279 



('Oxtp:nts XVII 

I'Aon 

III. — From liahiii Blaiicii to Touy 283 

IV. — From Bahia Blaiica to Justo Uaract 284 

V. — From Buenos Aires to General La ^Madrid 

and Pringles 285 

VI. — From Buenos Aires to Mar del Plata 286 

VII.— From Buenos Aires to Xecochea 292 

VIII. — From Buenos Aires to Xeuquen 295 

IX. — From Buenos Aires to Tandil .300 

X. — From Buenos Aires to Carhue 303 

XI. — From Buenos Aires to Toay 305 

XII. — From Buenos Aires to Navarro, 9 de Julio 

and Curaru 315 

XIII. — From Buenos Aires to Meridiano \ and to 

Telen 316 

XIV. — From Buenos Aires lo Villegas, Kealico 

and Bagual 318 

XV. — From Buenos Aires to El Tigre and the 

Delta of the Parana 320 

a) Via Nunez 320 

b) Via Coghlan 323 

XVI.— From Buenos Aires to Mendoza, San .luan 

and Chili 324 

XVII; — From Buenos Aires to San Rafael 347 

XVIII. — From Buenos Aires to Tierra del Fuego. . . 349 
XIX. — Through the Southern Part of the Argen- 
tine Republic 359 

XX. — From Buenos Aires to Tucuman 361 

XXI. — From Buenos Aires to Tucuman, Salta and 

Jujuy 375 

XXII. — From Rosario to Puerto Militar (Bahia 

Blanca) 377 

XXIII. — From Buenos Aires to Cordoba 378 

XXIV. — From Buenos Aires to the Sieras de Cor- 
doba (the Argentine Switzerland) 391 

XXV. — From Buenos Aires to La Rioja, Famati- 

na and Catamarca 391 

XXVI.— From Villa Maria to Villa Mercedes, La 

Toma and Villa Dolores 397 

XXVII. — From Buenos Aires to Santa Fe (Province 

of Santa Fe Railway system) 400 

COASTS OF THE ARGENTINE 

XXVIII. — From Buenos Aires to Entre Rios 404 

a) Coastal Line 404 

h) Inland Line 406 



XVIII CONTENTS 

PAGE 

XXIX. — From Buenos Aires to the Uijper Parana 
and to Asuncion (North -Eastern Ar- 
gentine Railway) 409 

XXX. ^ — Excursion to the Falls of the Iguazii 412 

XXXI. — From Buenos Aires to Asuncion and Para- 
guay (Province of Santa Fe Railway). 414 

XXXII. — Journey to Paraguay 417 

XXXIII.— Navigation of the Rio Bermejo 419 

THE SOUTHERN CHACO 
XXXIV.— Across the Forests of the Southern Chaco . 420 

INTERNATIONAL ITINERARIES 

XXXV.— From Buenos Aires to Sucre tC La Paz. . . 425 

XXXVI. — From Buenos Aires to Rio de Janeiro. . . 434 

XXXVII,— Montevideo 450 



MAPS AND PLANS 

-Argentine Republic 14 

Town of Buenos Aires 86 

-Town of La Plata 248 

-Southern and Western Railways 278 

Northern Railway 366 

Entre Rios Railway 407 

-Town of Montevideo 454 

-Railways working and in construction 480 



INTRODUCTION 



I. — Coinage. — Travelling expenses. — Passports and 
Customs. — Language. — Time. 

Coinage. — The monetary unit of the Argentine Republic 
is the gold ^^eso of 1*6 129 ten-thousandths of a gram, of the 
standard of 900 thousandths of fine gold, or the silver peso 
of 25 grams, of the standard of 900 thousandths of fine silver 
(Law of November 5th., 1881). The gold pieces which are 
coined are: the argentino, of the value of 5 pesos, weighing 
exactly 8*0645 grams, with 2/1000 tolerance, more or less, 
and 22 millimetres in diameter; the half -argentino, which 
is worth 2 i^ pesos, has an exact weight of 4*0322 grams, 
a tolerance oi 2/1000, and 19 millimetres in diameter. The 
silver pieces coined are of: 1 peso and 50, 20, 10 and 5 centa- 
vos. Besides these there are minted also pieces in nickel of 
a value of 20, 10, and 5 centavos. 

But, although the coined peso is the legal monetary unit 
of the Republic, in practice it is merely nominal, owing to 
the fact that the country has lived, and still lives, with very 
rare and brief intervals, under the regime of the legal circu- 
lation of paper money, which is the recognized tender for 
payments which have not been contracted in for a special 
money. 

The last law of non -conversion was promulgated in 
January, 1885; and, since then the depreciations which the 
paper peso has sufi:'ered have been enormous and violent. It 
will suffice to recall that there have been days (October, 1891) 
when its market value fell to $ 0*21 gold (which represents 
a depreciation of 464%) instead of the 100 centavos gold 
which it represented originally. 

In order to avoid the inconveniences which were produ- 
ced by the violent variations of the paper peso in relation 
to the gold one, as well as to be able to realize the conversion 
of paper money, a law of 1899 applied important resour- 
ces for the purpose of rendering the latter effective in the 
near future, and fixed as ade finite standard for conversion 
that of 44 centavos gold for each paper peso, that is to say 
a paper peso is worth 2*20 fr. (Is. 10 d.). 



2 TXTRODTTTTOX Coinacfe 

After this law tlie oxjeratioiis on tlie exchanges to which 
the value of the paper peso had been subject ceased; and 
since this time the value has remained firm and level at the 
standard fixed by the law of conversion. 

For the purpose of exercising the faculty which the Na- 
tional Conversion Bank possesses to exchange gold for paper, 
or vice versa, for those who wish to change, at the rate at 
which the conversion ought to be effected, the Conversion 
Bank has todav (January 1st., 1913) 1,115.000,000 francs 
(£ 44,600,000) in its coffers. 

Besides this, the same law decided to form a conversion 
fund, in order to be able, sooner or later, to make an effective 
conversion. This fund reaches at the present moment (Ja- 
nuary 1st., 1913) 150,000,000 francs, and it will increase in 
great proportion if, as there is reason to hope, the public 
administration applies itself to carrying out the law. 

The paper money is composed of notes of the value of 
$ 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50*; 100, 200, 500, and 1,000. These notes 
circulate throughout the Republic, and are received for the 
legal value they represent 

According to the last balance, of January 1st., 1913, the 
circulation of these notes reaches $ 800,000,000, paper. 

Foreign coins which circulate in the country have the 
following legal value, fixed by a decree dated December 2nd., 
1881, with respect to the unit established in the monetary 
law. 

Gold coins. — The Peruvian coin of 5 soles, of 8*0645 grams 
and of the standard of 9/10, $ 5. — The Spanish coin "of 25 
pesetas, of the same weight and standard, $ 5. — The Spanish- 
American onza, with 27 grams and a standard of 875/1000, 
$ 16 '275.— The Brazilian coin of 20,000 reis, with 17*926 
grams, and of the standard of 9/10 1/4, $ 11-320.— The 
United States eagle, with 16'711 grams and of the standard 
of 9/10, $ 10*364.— The Chilian condor, 15*253 grams and 
of the standard of 9/10, $ 9*455.— The Spanish doblon {al- 
fonso), of 8*336 grams and of the standard of 9/10, $ 5*166.— 
The English sovereign, with 7*980 grams and of the standard 
of 916 2/3, $ 5*040.— The French coin of 20 francs, with 6*541 
grams and of the standard of 9/10, $ 4. 

Silver coins. — The Chilian, Peruvian and Bolivian i)esos, 
with 25 grams and of the standard of 9/10 are worth $ 0*84. 
— The Bolivian peso with 20 grams and of the standard 
of 9/10, $ 0*67. 

The Mint (at the corner of Calle Defensa and Calle Me- 
xico) is an establishment which ought to be visited. Sin- 
ce 1881 up to the present date there have been struck there 
$ 31,722,623 in gold pieces, and S 2,805,939*60 in silver pie- 



Travelling expensps I X ^J' R () D U CT 1 X 3 

ces. The nickel money in circulation on X^oveniber 1st., 1912, 
consisted of 36,295,352 pieces of 5 centavos; 50,316,577 pie- 
ces of 10 centavos; and 27,906,465 pieces of 20 centavos; 
while of bronze there were 12,928,336 pieces of 1 centavo, 
and 37,671,012 of 2 centavos. 

The Mint also prints the postage stamps, stamped paper, 
Customs receipts, land tax receipts, and bank notes. The 
number of these latter, which were first issued in 1899, was 
in November, 1912, 229,235,283 notes, of a value of pesos 
3,268,161,180, of which the greater part has •^erved for the 
maintenance of those already in circulation. 

Travelling expenses. — The chapter corresponding to each 
province or locality affords the information necessary for 
each traveller to calculate approximately how much his ex- 
penses will amount to, for, the Argentine territory being so 
large, and the degree of progress at which each region has 
arrived being so different, the cost of living perforce differs 
and in consequence it is impossible to give any fixed rule. 

However, fares remain relatively unaltered, and it is 
I)ossible to estimate travelling expenses fairly closely. 

These may be estimated at 50 francs (£ 2) per day. 

Nevertheless the traveller would do well not to embark 
upon a voyage without taking a sum exceeding this average. 

Passports. — There is no need for them, as the Constitu- 
tion allows one to enter, leave and circulate freely upon Ar- 
gentine territory; but as a matter of precaution it would be 
advisable for the traveller to carry identification papers with 
him, in case the need for them — rare, but not impossible — 
should arise. 

Cusloius. — The usual ports of entry of over-sea ships are 
the capital (Buenos Aires), La Plata, Eosario, and Bahia 
Blanca, where there are the necessary customs authorities. 

The Custom- House officials are very courteous and tole- 
rant over the inspection of luggage, but the traveller will 
do well not to entrust to anyone, above all to a company, the 
duty of being present at this operation. 

The excise laws forbid the introduction among personal 
luggage of certain goods, such as commercial articles and 
others, subject to excise duty, and if the traveller has any 
of these he must declare them to the captain of his steamer 
before entering the port, in order that they may appear 
on the, manifest of the boat, or else declare them to the 
Custom House official before the latter examines his luggage. 

It is only permitted to introduce free of dutij the effects 
or clothing in the personal use of the traveller. 



4 INTEODUCTION Language 

Local tolls and taxes on consumption. — Fortunately none 
of these exist in the whole of the Kepublic. 

Language. — In Buenos Aires, a centre thoroughly cosmo- 
politan, as is shown by the composition of its population, 
nearly every language is spoken, and it is very easy to make 
oneself understood with English, French or Italian. In the 
remainder of the country the traveller may be certain that 
if he speaks French he will, in the urban districts, be able to 
overcome all difficulties which may present themselves, and 
to obtain any information he may desire. 

Time. — All the railway companies in the Republic employ 
the time of the meridian of Cordoba, adopted officially by 
the goverment of the nation. 

The difference between the meridians of Cordoba and 
Greenwich is as follows; 4 hours 16' and 45" later than at 
Greenwich. 

Thus, when it is midday at Buenos Aires it is 3 hours 
52' 51 " p. m. at London; 4 hours 2' 46" at Paris, 4 hours 47' 
at Berlin, 4 hours 43' 20" at Rome, and 3 hours 38' 42" at 
Madrid. 

Seasons. — The Argentine Republic, situated in the Wes- 
tern Hemisphere, embraces a superficial area of 2,885,620 
square kilometres, and extends over about 34 degrees of 
latitude; viz., from the 22nd. degree to the 56th., two de- 
grees, more or less, to the north of the Tropic of Capricorn, 
and more or less 10 degrees from the north of the Antarctic 
Polar Circle. 

On account of its great extent the Republic lies in the 
torrid, temperate and frigid zones. The southern extremity 
penetrates into the antarctic regions, while in the north 
perpetual summer reigns, yet without reading at the exces- 
sive heat of tropical countries. In the centre of the country 
the climate corresponds to that of Southern Europe, and is 
in consequence the most agreeable that one could wish. 

However, it is subject to many variations, on account 
of the altitude of each province, of the marked influence of 
certain winds, and also of the proximity of the Atlantic, 
the great fluvial arteries, and the Andes. 

In consequence of the vastness of the Argentine territory 
and of the different climatic zones which it occupies, it is 
impossible to indicate any particular season for visiting it: 
but if one wishes to know the principal towns, and principal- 
ly Buenos Aires, one ought to choose the period from May 
to October, which includes a part of Autumn, Winter, and 
a part of Spring, when the social and artistic life of the 
country is in full swing. 



steamers INTKODUCTION 5 

During the hot months (November to April) people emi- 
grate to the sea-side, the mountains, and the country houses 
(«Quintas», or «Estancias»); and this emigration is effected 
by all the rich families of the towns, and particularly those 
of Buenos Aires. It is for this reason that the towns lose the 
animation which they possess during the other months. 



II. — Steamers. 



The following are the most important steamship lines 
which provide a service from Europe to the Argentine Eepu- 
blic, as well as from Buenos Aires to Rio de Janeiro and ports 
in Patagonia and TierraMel Fuego. 

I. — The Eoyal Mail Steam Taclcet Co. — Agency, Calle 
Reconquista, 264. — Line between Buenos Aires, Brazil, 
Lisbon, Vigo, Cherbourg, and Southampton. 

Other steamers of this line start from Montevideo for 
Brazil, Las Palmas, Lisbon, Leixoes, Vigo, Corufia, La Palli- 
ce, La Rochelle and Liverpool. 

Steamers: Aragon, Arlanza, Araguaya, Asturias, Van 
Dyck, Avon, Vaiiban and Danube. 

This company possesses a line of steamers which provides a 
service between Buenos Aires and New York, with tranship- 
ment to Rio de Janeiro. 

Besides this it has mail boats for the Pacific, touching at 
Port Madryn, Port Stanley, Punta Arenas, Coronel, Talca- 
huano, Valparaiso, Corral, Ancud, Calbuco, Port Montt, 
Coquimbo, Caldera, Chafiaral, Antofagasta, Iquique, Arica, 
Mollendo, Callao and Panama. 

The company also issues tickets from Buenos Aires to 
Montevideo and Santos by steamer from Santos to Sao Paulo 
and Rio de Janeiro «by the most picturesque railway in the 
world», and return to Buenos Aires by steamer — or vice 
versa, at the price of £ 15, or $ 75 gold, 1st. class. 

II.— The Pinillos Co. — Spanish mail steamers. — Regular 
departures every 20 days. — Agents: Gonzalo Saens S: Co., 
Calle Maipii, 33. — Tickets for Cadiz, Malaga, Almerla, Va- 
lencia, Barcelona, Vigo, and Corufia, with transhipment at 
Cadiz on the steamer Betis, of the same company. 

III. — The Cie. Sud Atlantique. — Successor of the Messa- 
geries Maritimes. Agent: L. Grandwal and H. Desplanques, 
Calle Reconquista, 433. 

Two services every fifteen days between Bordeaux and 



6 IXTRODUCTIOX Steamers 

Buenos Aires, one a mail service by express boats, and the 
other commercial, by mixed boats, for passengers and mer- 
chandize. 

By the great transatlantic liners Lutecia, Gallia, Divona, 
Samara, Lieger and Burdigala. Rapid voyages in 13 or 14 
days. 

IV. — Lamport and Holt Line. — Direct sailings to New 
York. — Agents: T. S. Boadle <& Co., Calle Bartolome Mitre, 
478. 

Mail boats carrying first class passengers to Buenos Aires, 
Montevideo, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Trinidad, Bar- 
badoes and New York. 

Large and luxurious steamers fitted with every modern 
convenience. — 23 to 25 days' voyage from the Rio de la 
Plata to New York. Fare equal to that of the leading hotels. 
In certain steamers there is an electrical machine for 
washing and ironing linen, hairdressing saloon, wireless te- 
legraphy, etc. 

v.— The American Line Biver Plate. — Regular service 
between United States ports and the Rio de la Plata. — 
Agents: Joseph Chadwick <fc Son, Calle Alsina, 317. 

VI. — The Prince Line. — Steamers for Santos, Rio de 
Janeiro, and New Orleans. — Agents: Christophersoii Bro- 
thers, Calle Cangallo, 433. 

VII. — The Nelson Steam Navigation Co., Ltd. — Agents: 
Nelson <jc Wythes, Calle Cangallo, 309. — Direct sailings bet- 
ween Buenos Aires and London with new, fast and luxurious 
steamers. Touching at Rio de Janeiro and Cherbourg. Wire- 
less telegraphy. Weekly service to and from London. 

VIII. — The Royal Dutch Lloyd. — General Agent: W. Al- 
linson Bell, Calle Reconquista, 240. — Steamers to Santos, 
Rio de Janeiro, Lisbon, Vigo, Coruna, Boulogne, Dover and 
Amsterdam. — Twin-screw mail steamers. 

Principal steamers: Zeelandia, Hollandia and Frisia. 

In construction: Gebria and Tuhantia, of 14,300 tons each 
and 17 knots. 

IX. — The Spanish Transatlantic Co. — Agents: A. Lopez 
tfc Co., Calle Alsina, 756. 

Rapid service to Europe. Direct line between Barcelona 
and Buenos Aires. 

The principal steamers of this Co. are: Alfonso XII 
(12,000 tons), Alfonso XIII, Beina Victoria Eugenia and 
Infanta Isabel de Borbon (these two ships are the only ones 



ISteamers I N T KUDU (JT J () X 7 

in the South Ainerican service possessing four screws and 
turbines), Antonio Lopez, Manuel Calvo, Eeina 31 aria Cris- 
tina and P. cle iSatrustegui. 

It has also in construction, two steamers of 15,400 tons 
each, possessing four screws and turbine engines. 

These steamers are provided with all the latest impro- 
vements for the comfort of the voyager, and unite speed with 
the greatest comfort. 

They are fitted with wireless telegraphy. 

X. — The North German Lloyd. — Bremen Company. — 
Betw^een Buenos Aires, Vigo, Villagarcia and Coruna. 

Agency: Calle Reconquista, 297, corner of Calle Sarmien- 
to. — There is wireless telegraphy on board all the passenger 
boats. 

XI. — The Hamburg South American and Hamburg Ame- 
rican Lines. — Agents: A. M. Delfino S: Brother, Calle 8ar- 
miento, 448. 

Line to Montevideo, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Lisbon, Vigo, 
Southampton, Boulogne, and Hamburg. 

Rapid and luxurious vessels: Konig Wilhelm II, Cape 
Vilano, Cape Finistcrre, Bliivher, Cape Arcona, Konig 
Friedrich August, Cape Ortegal, Cape Blanco. 

These steamers offer every possible comfort to passengers. 

XII. — The A ustro- American Co. — Joint stock shipping 
company. — Agents: Christopherson Brothers. Calle San Mar- 
tin, 470. 

Line to Barcelona, Naples and Trieste; 12 y.^ days' cros- 
sing. 

Steamers: Kaiser Franz Josef I. — This is the most rapid 
transatlantic steamer touching at Buenos Aires. 

Fare for the crossing: 

For Barcelona, 1st. class, $ 189 gold; 2nd. class, $ 99 gold. 

For Naples or Trieste, 1st. class, $ 193 gold; 2nd. class. 
$ 103- 50 gold. 

Martha Washington, Laura and Alice, Argentina and 
Oceania, Sofia Holmberg, Francesca, Columbia and ^Ltlant((. 

XIII. — The Lloi/d Sitbaudo. — Agent: C. Lavarello, Calle 
Florida, 160. — To Barcelona and Genoa, touching at Santos. 
Steamers: Tomaso di Savoia and Principe di Vdine. 

XIV. — The Italian Lloi/d. — General agency: Callo Co- 
rrientes, 327. 

Steamers: Princijiessa Mafidda, Taormina, Mcndora^ 
Cordoba, Indiana and Luisiana. 



8 IXTRODUCTIOX Railways 

This company issues tickets to Paris via Barcelona; the 
voyage occupying 15 days, in connection Tvith the French and 
Spanish railways. 

The agency undertakes to see luggage through to Paris, 
without any trouble to the passenger, or delay in the 
service. 

XV. — La Yeloce, the Navigazione Generale lialiana, and 
the Italia. — Agents: A. M. Delfino and Brother, Calle Sar- 
miento, 488. 

Steamers: Savoia, Be ViUorio, Siena, Italia, Bavenna, 
Begina Elena, Vmhria, Bologna, Argentina, Brincipe Um- 
berto and Duca degli Ahruzzi. 

These vessels touch at Montevideo, Santos, Rio de Ja- 
neiro, Dakar, Las Palmas, Almeria, Barcelona, Xaples and 
Genoa. 



III. — Railways. 

On January 1st., 1913, the Argentine Republic possessed 
31,277 kilometres of railway in use, among which 19,554 
Avere wide gauge, 9,354 narrow gauge, and 2,309 middle gau- 
ge. Besides this network of railroads, it possessed 505 kilo- 
metres of light railways and steam tramways, which gives 
a total, on this same date of January 1st., 1913, of 31,780 
kilometres of line in use. 

In order to give an exact idea of the absolute and rela- 
tive importance of this system, we will compare these sta- 
tistics with those furnished by a few South American and 
European nations. And, in order that the comparison may 
be as exact as possible, we shall take as a base, not the last 
figures of the Argentine Republic, but those referring to the 
railway system which existed at the end of 1909. 

The comparison is based on the superficial area and the 
number of inhabitants of each state. 



Eailways 



IXTEODUCTION 






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10 IXTKODUCTIOX L'ailu-oj/.s 

These statistics sliow tliat, compared with the American 
states — leaving on one side the United States, whose colossal 
progress in railway material has put them far ahead of all 
the other nations of the earth — Argentina occupies the first 
place from the point of view of its railroads. It surpasses 
Mexico (16,144 kilometres) and Brazil (20,917 kilometres), 
which two American states, though the richest and most 
populous, possess a less extended railway system. And if in 
the same way Argentina is comx3ared with France, Italy, 
Spain, Belgium, Germany, and Austria- Hungary, one sees 
that it occupies the fifth position. 

With the exception of the state lines, the total length of 
which is 4,020 kilometres, all the others belong to private 
companies, of which almost all are English. The capital in- 
vested in the construction of the 31,277 kilometres of line 
in use on January 1st., 1913, amounts to 1,120,210,000 pesos, 
gold. In 1912 these railways gave a return of 119,333,796 
pesos. As the working expenses amounted to 75,680,837 pe- 
sos, gold, there was a profit of 43,652,959 pesos, gold, which 
represents 3*90 *^q of the capital employed. 

Of all the railway companies, the Southern Failwai/ is 
that which possesses the greatest length of line in use (5,759 
kilometres), while the next is the Central Argentine Rail- 
ivay Co., with 4,875 kilometres, and afterwards the Western 
Railway (2,865 kilometres), and the Buenos Aires and Paci- 
fic Faihvai/ M'itli 2,442 kilometres. 

In 1912 the railways of the Republic carried 68 million 
persons and 33 ^2 miihon tons of merchandize. (For fuller 
details see General plan of Railways, Avhich accompanies this 
work.) 

The rolling-stock of these different companies was com 
posed, on January 1st., 1913, of 3,381 locomotives, 3,143 
coaches, and 78,497 goods wagons and vans. 

During 1912 the sum of 126 million francs (£5,000,000) 
was paid in wages and salaries to railway employes. 

Wagons. — The Argentine railways do not possess a special type of wagons 
peculiar to themselves; the different companies have adopted the model 
in use in other countries. Thus, they have relatively small coaches, divided 
into compartments able to contain 6 or vS persons each, and also large coa- 
ches (similar to trams, but larger) containing 60 or 70 places, with doors 
at each end. For the long journeys, when it is necessary to pass the night on 
the train, luxurious and comfortable sleeping coaches are used, with nume- 
rous cubicles, which contain 2, 4, or 6 beds and are lighted by electricity, 
and provided with elegant wash-stands, a W. C, and a long corridor into 
which the compartments open. 

In some cases the large wagons are transformed for the night into com- 
fortable bed-rooms, containing a considerable number of beds. 

The rolling-stock of the Argentine railways is in no way inferior to the 
European and American ones; it has been manufactured entirely in British 
or United States workshops' 

In order to give a clear idea of the ample and luxurious rolling-stock at 



Failwayfi TXTRODUCTTOX 11 

tlir (lisixtsjil of tiir Arj^cnliiic rail\v:iys, il will siidicf lo slate that one single 
ftunpany, that oi the Southern Hallway, |)lai(<l one night- -that of I^asler 
Sunday, liUl — at the (lisp«)sal of travellers leavin{< liuenos Aires lor the 
sea-side station of ]Mar del I*lata, 2,070 commodious beds in luxurious com- 
partments. 

Durinj;^ recent years the Soutliorii Railway and the Oiitral Aroontine 
Railway have tidded luxurious Pullman saloons and restaurant cars to their 
trains on the lines from Buenos Aires to Mar del Plata and from Buenos 
Aires to Bosario respectively. 

The most striking peculiarity which the Argentine railways present con- 
sists of the lack of heating apparatus in coaches during long journeys made 
in winter over country where the thermometer falls considerably at ti- 
mes, and where the boisterous winds increase the cold; but it is to be hoped 
that these inconveniences will disappear in a while, and that the railways 
will possess that element of comfort which exists on all the European 
railways. 

Our railways also lack Pullman Vestibule Cars, or wagons furnished with 
galleries from which one can view the scenery. I^ut this deficiency is excu- 
sable if one takes into accoimt tliat these coaches are only seen in the United 
States on the line from New York to Chicago, named the "Pennsylvania 
Limited Trains 

But our want of observation cars is explained by the lack of pictu- 
resque scenery in the immense and monotonous Argentine country. On a 
few lines only would the cars be useful: on the North Argentine lines (ex 
Cordoba North-west), for example, or on the Transandine. Some companies, 
such as the Southern Bailway, let commodious and luxurious cars to per- 
sons who wish to travel imder special conditions on the Argentine railways. 

One may smoke only in the carriages specially reserved for smokers; 
these carriages bear the inscription: <'Se permite fumar> (Smoking allowed.) 
In the sleeping cars the lower berth is preferable to the upper one, and when 
the latter is not occupied one can have it taken down" by the attendant. In 
the ordinary trains there is generally a sleeping car reserved for ladies. On 
the great lines the trains are furnished with a restaurant car in which a 
repast (without wine) costs S 2 (wine S 1 the half-bottle). It is customary to 
tip the attendant who prepares the compartment and remains on guard 
during the night. 

Tickets. — There does not yet exist in the Bepublic a company or agency 
which sells circular tickets, available for a certain time and over different 
railw a>s, and the latter have not yet come to an agreement as regards issuing 
them. 

But it will come about, we hope, and shortly, because the extent of the 
territory and the progress of the railways demand it. Something of this sort 
has already been done, as the well-known firm of Thos. (^ook and Son, 
which has contributed so much to facilitate journeys on the I'Airopean Con- 
tinent, has established a branch in Buenos Aires (calle Florida 740), and 
proposes, not only to fulfil its mission in the Argentine Bepublic, but in the 
whole of South America. 

Besides this, several railway companies already issue tickets for a period, 
usually of five inonths, to visit the diOerent parts of the Bepublic. Thus, the 
Southern Bailway issues tickets for Mar del Plata, available from December 
to April. The same company also is"sues them for a visit to the Sierras de 
la Ventana Hotel, in the South of the province of liuenos Aires, with the 
right to rem.ain at the hotel for a certain time. The Central Argentine Bail- 
way issues tickets on the same conditions to reside at the Sierras-Hotel, at 
Alta Gracia (Cordolia). . 

The Buenos Aires and Pacific Bailway issues some giving the right to 
stay at the Puente del Inca Hotel, situated in the Cordillera of the Andes, 
province of ^Mendoza. 

Furthermore, the I-^xpress Villalonga (calle Balcarce 231)), and the l-^x- 
press La Confianza (calle Sarmiento, 308), issue tickets from Buenos Aires to 
Santiago dc Chile and Valparaiso (1,-1-11 km.), over dilTerent railways. 

As for circular tickets, as employed in F-urope, we have none yet. As is 
known, these tickets are issued for a trip, for example, from Buenos Aires 



12 INTRODUCTION Railways 

to any point in the Interior, stops being allowed en ronte, and returning by 
the same road or by another to the original starting-place. In Europe there 
exist also kiloinetric tickets, which are wanting here. With these tickets one 
can go a distance of 2,000 kilometres, for example, wherever one wishes, 
and for a period of one, two, or three months, according to arrangement. 
These tickets are subdivided into pieces, each one franking the traveller 
over 5 or 10 kilometres, which the employees of the line detach in proportion 
to the distance travelled. Distances less than 21 kilometres do not count, 
but those greater count as 5. A considerable reduction, which increases in 
proportion to the distance, makes this system a favourite one, as, like that 
of the circular tickets, it gives great advantages to the traveller, at the same 
time increasing the circulation on the railway. 

Some companies have an office in the centre of the town for the issue of 
single tickets and sleeping car tickets. It is always better to obtain one's 
sleeping car ticket in advance. The National Transport Company and the 
Express La Confianza also issue railway tickets. The following is a list of 
offices in the centre of the town: Southern Railway, calle Cangallo, 568; 
West of Buenos Aires Railw^ay, calle Cangallo, 552; Central Argentine, calle 
Bartolome Mitre, corner of calle 25 de ]\Iayo; Buenos Aires and Pacific, 
calle Florida, 753; Central Cordoba, calle Cangallo, 499, and in the Central 
Railway Office, calle Cangallo, 483. 

Usually a train's departure is announced by the guard blowing his whistle, 
and directly afterwards the engine replies with a stronger whistle and the 
train starts. 

The names of the stations are written in visible positions in large letters 
■on a sheet of enamelled iron. With the exception of the express trains, which 
are run on only a few hnes, the rails of which are canted, the speed of the 
remainder is moderate, and varies between 40 and 50 kilometres an hour. 

There are several dilTerent railway guides or time-tables, but the best 
are those of the firms of Kraft or .Jacob Pcuser. These railway guides, of 
small size, are very we'll composed and cost only S 0"10. The companies also 
distribute gratis copies of their time-table, very well printed. 

Abbre\1 aliens. — The majority of the Argentine railways are designated 
by the initial letters of their names, as follows: 

F. C. A. E. — State Railwav. 

F. C. A. N. S. C.^Xorth Argentine Railway (Section C). 

F. C. A. N. S. R. — North Argentine Railway (Section R.). 

F. C. B. A. P. — Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway. 

F. C. C. A. — Central Argentine Railway. 

F. C, C. C. — Central Cordoba Railwav. 

F. C. C. N. — North Central Railwav. 

F. C. C. E. and P. E. R. — Entre Rios Railway. 

F. C. G. O. A. — Great Western Argentine Railway. 

F. C. S. S. F. and C— Southern Santa Fe and Cordoba Railway. 

F. G. N. E. A. — North-East ern Argentine Railway. 

F. C. N. O. A. — North-West ern Argentine Railway. 

F. C. O. — Western of Buenos Aires Railway. 

F. C. O. S. F.— Western of Santa Fe Railway. 

F. C. P. S. F.— Santa Fe Provincial Railway. 

F. C. S. — Southern Railway. 

Luflflage.^On the Argentine railways travellers may carry free of charge 
50 kilos of luggage. The companies are very tolerant in the matter of 
excess of weight, when this is not excessive, and specially at times when the 
amount of luggage is not an inconvenience. There are several forwarding 
agents, among which the best known are the Express Villalonga and La 
Confianza, which will collect the luggage at one's domicile, take it to the 
railway station, and afterwards take it to its destination, charging a moderate 
commission. If the traveller does not wish to avail himself of this methoa, 
he can take his luggage himself, and get it registered at the offices which 
exist for this purpose at all stations; there, after they have been weighed, he 
.s given a receipt, with which he can claim them on arrival at the destina- 



Hotels and J^esiauranis INTRODUCTION 13 

tion after having paid according to the tariff. The principal hotels have 
also special employes, for either registering or withdrawing their customers' 
luggage. It is always advisable for the traveller to see that his luggage is 
conveyed by the train by which he travels. 

This service is organized with such regularity in some companies (that 
of the Southern Railway, for example), that on issuing the ticket, if the 
traveller wishes, they will advise the National Transport Company (Villa- 
longa), in order that the latter may fetch the luggage at the time fixed, and 
convey it to its destination, giving him a receipt to that effect. 

Steamers. — There are several lines of steamers, of which 
the most important is that of Nicolas Mihanovich (corner 
of Calles 25 de Mayo and Cangallo), for service on the seas 
and rivers of the Republic. The vessels of this company offer 
comfort and luxury which are equal to anything in Euro- 
pe, and the fares are not excessive. Those which ply bet- 
ween Buenos Aires and Montevideo, and those on the rivers 
of the interior particularly merit attention. Those of the 
southern seas touch at the following ports: San Antonio 
(West), Madryn, Camarones, Comodoro Rivadavia, Deseado, 
San Julian, Santa Cruz and Rio Gallegos. 

The HamburgrSouth American Company (Hamburg Sud- 
amerikanische) has also apportioned some of its good boats 
to services in the Southern seas, going to Tierra. del Fiiego, 
at the Southern extremity of the continent. 

These steamers touch at Montevideo, Bahia Blanca, San 
Bias, San Antonio (West), Arroyo Verde, San Jose, Pira- 
niides, Madryn, Rawson, Cabo Raso, Camarones, Visser, 
Comodoro Rivadavia, Mazaredo, Cabo Blanco, Deseado, 
Seabear Bay, San Julian, Santa Cruz, Gallegos, Punta Are- 
nas, Laptasia, Ushuaia, Almanza, Brown and Harherton. 

Dilkjenees. — The diligences which formerly served for 
internal trafic have made way for the railways, which, in all 
parts, are invading and conquering the desert. Today it is 
necessary to go very far — across the Pampas — to find dili- 
gences, and they serve to connect two points situated on 
different lines. 



lY. — Hotels and Restaurants. 

In the Argentine Republic the best hotels are to be found 
in Buenos Aires; and in this matter progress which is worth 
notice has been realized. Good hotels exist, furnished in the 
European style with all the conveniences usual to such 
establishments. 

Outside Buenos Aires, first-class hotels will be met with 
at Mar del Plata, the chief seaside resort in South America, 



14 TXTRODFOTIOX Vlan 

at Rosaiio do Santa Fo, at i'aliia Blaiica, among the moun- 
tains of the province of Buenos Aires (Sierras de la Ventana 
Hotel), in the town of Tucuman (Savoy Hotel), in the Cor- 
dillera of the Andes (Piiente del Inca Hotel), and in the Sier- 
ras of Cordoba, in the places called La Falda, Alta Gracia 
and Ascochinga. In the remainder of the country, where 
everyrhing is new and in a state of development, the hotel 
accomodation often leaves much to be desired. 

The price of hotels depends upon the style that one choos- 
es, but it may be said that they vary from $ 7 to S 20 
per day. 



V. — Plan of a Journey. 



The planning of a journey through the Eepublic naturally 
depends upon wTiat one wishes to see and the time one has 
at one's disposal. It is obvious that in a limited period one 
can visit only a part of such a vast country; nevertheless, 
the distances are today considerably reduced by the comfort- 
able organization of the railways for night journeys. The fol- 
lowing are the principal curiosities which one must not miss 
visiting unless it is unavoidable, if the season happens to be 
autumn or winter, (March 21st. to September 21st.), and the 
traveller is not afraid to face real inconveniences — for it is a 
case of a route recently opened to the curiosity of tourists — ■ 
first an excursion to the cataracts of the Iguazu, crossing the 
territory of Misiones, where the vegetation is luxuriant, and 
also a trip to the thermal baths of Eosario de la Frontera, 
passing through Tucuman, the garden of the Republic, to 
push on as far as Jujuy and the northern limit of the terri- 
tory. If the season is summer (December 21st. to March 21st.) 
one can visit the thermal baths of Cacheuta and of the Puente 
del Inca right among the Cordillera of the Andes, and cross 
the latter, or make an excursion among the mountains of 
Cordoba, called with reason the «Switzerland of Argentina)), 
to the Capilla del Monte, by the Xorth Argentine Railway, 
crossing the beautiful region in which is the «Dique San 
Roque». 

One can also go to Mar del Plata, the queen of watering 
places in Argentina and in Southern America, where the 
traveller will find, besides every comfort, a numerous and 
distinguished society. If the journey takes place in autumn, 
the Sierras de la Ventana Hotel, situated in the South of the 
province of Buenos Aires, in the sierras of the same name. 



MAP OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC AND THE NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES 



V. 




of a jo u rney I X T R D UCT I O X 1 5 

may also be tlie ol)joc*t of an excursion. One may also visit 
the Alt a (Iracia Hotel, situated in the midst of the nioun- 
hiins. Equally interestino- would he an excursion to Bahia 
lUanca, Avhicli is the great military port of the Eepublic, 
provided with two large dry docks for vessels of the national 
navy; and if circumstances permitted one could continue 
the excursion to the Kio Negro and to the X^euquen by the 
Southern Railway. 

If the traveller is fond of excursions, and has no fear of 
and is accustomed to meeting difficulties, he can make 
the journey which a young Argentinian, Aaron Anchorena, 
undertook in 1902, in the southern part of the Republic, 
and which is described in a book which he has published 
under the title of Graphic Description of Patagonia and the 
y alleys of the Andes. 

But above all, what the traveller, whatever may be his 
social position and turn of mind, must not forget, is to visit 
a large «estancia», (agricultural-pastoral establishment), for 
example: <(San Jacinto», the estate of Mr. Alvear; «San 
Juan», of Pereyra; «Chapdal Malal», of Martinez de Hoz; 
«Fontezuelas», or «Las Palmas», of Urquiza; the establish- 
ment founded at Santa Elena (Entre Rios) and at San Ja- 
vier (Santa Fe) by the well-known produce firm «Kemme- 
rich»; and several other establishments which will show him 
this original and interesting side of Argentine life. The 
observant traveller, who wishes to see with his own eyes 
the principal causes of the prosperity of Argentina, must 
also visit the Central Produce Market of the Country (Mer- 
cado Central de Frutos) where at shearing-time (X'ovember to 
May) the greatest quantity of wool is gathered that has yet 
been brought together in the world. 

Another interesting and instructive sight which one 
ought to see is the work of a meat -freezing establishment on 
a day when a large number of animals is slaughtered; and 
on this subject we venture to invite the tourist to see the 
Frigorifico La X^egra, La Blanca, or the Argentine Frigori- 
fico, the three situated near the Riachuelo. 

Xor would one lose one's time in going over a large agri- 
cultural establishment at the time of the wheat harvest 
and threshing (December to January); one can there see 
mountains of cereals formed by more than 60,000 sacks, or 
unbroken stretches of lucern, which sometimes reach 20,000 
hectares, belonging to a single tenant. 

Whatever may be the direction in which the traveller 
directs his steps, he will have to provide himself with a large 
supply of patience in order to stand the bad hotels and 
other inconveniences; and above all he must not make 
comparisons; either with any European country, or with 

nAKDK'vF.l!. — .") 



16 INTRODUCTION Postal and 

the United States, for lie must always remember that in 
Argentina every tiling is in course of formation. 



YI. — Postal and Telegraph Service. 



The postal services in the Argentine Republic are the 
following: 1st., that for ordinary letters, of a weight not ex- 
ceding 15 grams, for which the postage is 5 centavos; 2nd., 
that for postcards, for which the postage is 2 or 4 centavos, 
according to whether they are sent as samples or as cards; 
3rd., that for newspapers, paying l^ centavo per 50 grams 
or less; 4the., that for other printed matter, paying 2 cen- 
tavos per 100 grams or less; 5th., that for registered let- 
ters, paying 12 centavos in addition to the ordinary postal 
charges. For countries forming part of the Universal Postal 
Union ordinary letters pay 12 centavos per 15 grams, with 
an additional 12 centavos for registered letters; and 5 cen- 
tavos for postcards. Letters for Montevideo pay 17 centa- 
vos. In the country districts the letters are not delivered at 
the houses. 

Telegraph. — About half the telegraphic wires of the Re- 
public belong to the National Government, which at present 
possesses (1st. January, 1913) 30,447 km. of lines, the deve- 
lopment of which is 77,063 km. 

The provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Rios possess 
respectively a telegraph system of a length of 5,077 and 
1,224 kilometres, with a development of 8,007 and 2,209 
kilometres. 

The railways possess 62,053 kilometres of lines, with a 
development of 184,015 km. 

The private companies possess resjiectively: 

Rio de la Plata Telegraph Co km. 72 dev. 288 km. 

Pacific to Europe Telegraph Co. km. 685 dev. 1,370 km. 
Central South American Tel. Co. km. 1,529 dev. 4,354 km. 



Total km. 2,286 dev. 6,012 km. 

The cables of the above private companies have a length 
of 19,041 kilometres. 

The number of telegrams received or despatched during 
1912 was 13,529.258. 



Telegraph Service I XTRODUCTIOX 17 



ItiMliotoIefii-iipliv in titt' Arnoiitiiic It<'|)ii1)lic. 

The Argenlinc licpublic was tlu- lirst country in South America to adopt 
wireless telegraphy for its communications, and it is also associated with the 
various Racliotelegraphic Conventions whidi exist. 

In 1U(»;5 the lirst stations were installed on board two warships, and since 
then at short intervals stations have been placed on all the ships of the fleet, 
and today number forty-three. The apparatus employed in these installa- 
tion are of the systems <'Telefunken'> and < .Marconi>, their power and charac- 
teristics varying according to the class of ship on which they are installed. 

In October, 1908, the coastal stations at Darsena Norte (North Hasin), 
Recalada, and l'"aro de la Rada were opened for the public service, and these, 
with the stations Faro ^Nlogotes, Puerto Militar, Cabo Virgenes, Afio Nuevo 
and Ushuaia, inaugurated in 1910, form part of the great radiotelegraphic 
network planned to unite the whole of the Atlantic coast of the Republic 
with the Federal Capital, a network whose total length will amount to 1,700 
sea miles. 

There also exists at iNIendoza an intermediate station for communicating 
with Chili, and at Formosa, capital of the territory of the same name, there 
has lately been installed another, which will serve to communicate with the 
ships stationed at Asuncion. 

All these coastal stations are situated on telegraph lines, and the tariff 
charged is that sanctioned by the International Convention of Berlin. 

The apparatus employed in all these coastal stations is of the <Telefunken» 
type, and the personnel in charge of the service is a competent one be- 
longing to the Argentine Navy. 

All the national mercantile vessels which make the southern service are 
now furnished witli radiotelegraphic apparatus, so that they can be, by means 
of the coast stations, in constant communication with the land. 

There also exist, for military purposes, two stations, one situated in the 
«Campo dc ]\Iayo» (the field of manoeuvres), and the other at the War Oflice, 
in Buenos Aires. 

The total cost of all the stations on the coast and on the warships has 
been 186,820 pesos, gold. 

The tarifl sanctioned by the International Convention of Berlin is as 
follows: 

The total price per word payable by the sender, including transmission 
over the national telegraph lines, is 20 centavos, gold (lOd.). 

The minimum cost of a radiotelegram is S 2, gold (8s. Id.), that is to say, 
the cost of a radiotelegram of ten words. 

For ships sailing under the national liag which ply only along our coasts 
or on our rivers, there is substituted for this tariJT one of 25 centavos, paper 
(5id.), per word, the minimum price being S 2*50, paper (Is. 7d.). 

The coastal stations and those on board ship are obliged to exchange 
radiotelegrams, irrespective of the system adopted in their installations. 

In principle, the operator on board transmits his telegrams to the nearest 
coast station. 

Plowcver, the sender on board a ship has the right to indicate the coast 
station through which he desires to transmit his radiotelegrams. 

In this case, the operator on board will wait until the coastal station 
indicated is the nearest to tlie ship, and if tliis condition camiot be fulfilled 
no notice will be taken of the sender's recpiest, unless the transmission can 
be made without interfering with tlie service of other stations. 



1^ IXTRODUCTIOX Weights and Measures 

Coastal Radio telegraphic Stations Open to the Public Service. 



NAMES OF 


cteristics 
: stations 


imption 
rimary 
in K. W. 




System of 
generating 


System 
of 


Length 
of waves 


THE STATIONS 


11 


B^i 


|" = 


energy 


apparatus 


in 




5 c 


So S; 


O •- 






metres 


Darsena Norte. . . 


W.B.A 


2-8 


1-5 


Electricity 


Telefunken 
Sounding 


053 


Recalada Light- 










Sparli 




house 


W.R.C. 


1-8 


0-8 


Steam 






Mogotes Light- 








motor 


do. 


540 


house 


W.F.M 


2-8 


1-5 


Naphtha 
motor 


do. 


6S0 


Mihtary Port . . . 


W.P.M. 


2-8 


lo 


Electricity 


do. 


750 


Cape Virgenes. . . 


W.C.V. 


2-8 


1-5 


Naphtha 


Old 












motor jTelefunken 


780 


Ano Nuevo . . . . 


W.A.N. 


28 


1-5 


do. 1 do. 


900 


Ushuaia 


W.U.H. 


2-8 


1-5 


do. 


do. 


1.000 



VII. — Weights and Measures. 



The Argentine Republic has adopted the decimal metric 
system. 

As it may be of interest to Englishmen and North Ameri- 
cans, who have not adopted the metric system, to know the 
relation which this system bears to their weights and measu- 
res, I give here the respective values: 

1 mile--l km., 609 m.; 1 km. = 0-601 i\l.; 69 M. = l equa- 
torial degree. 

1 sea mile=l km., 852 m. 

1 knot =15-43 m. 

1 fathom = 6 feet=r828 m. 

1 yard = 3 feet = 0-91 m.; 1 m. = r093 yard. 

1 foot = 12 inches = 0-3048 m.; 1 m. = 3-28 feet. 

1 inch=12 lines = 0-026 m. 

1 pole (rod) = 5 ^^ yards = 5 m.; 1 decametre = 2-187 
poles. 

1 furlong = 220 yards = 200*2 m. 

1 acre=160 square poles = 4,840 square yards = 0-33 Ha.; 
1 Ha. = 3 '03 acres. 

1 square yard = 9 square feet = 0"836 mq.; 1 mq. = 1'20 
square yard. 

1 square foot=144 square inches = 0-093 mq. 



Historical Siimmari/ I X T ROD U(.'TI ON 19 

1 bushel = 8 gallons = 35-237 litres. 

1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 4'543 litres. 

1 lb. = 16 ounces = 450 grams; 1 ounce = 28 grains. 

VIII. — Historical Summary of the Argentine Republic. 

Not content with the sovereignty of a continent, Spain envied her rivals, 
tlie Portuguese, the supposed riches of the MoUica Islands, situated in the 
Malay Archipelago. With the object of obtaining them a passage was 
sought between the two oceans. An expedition was organized under the 
orders of .Juan Diaz de Solis. Starting from the port of Lepe, they arrived 
at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata and penetrated as far as the island of 
]Martin Garcia, which was the name of the second pilot. But Solis and his 
companions perished in an ambuscade, and the remainder of the expedition 
returned to Spain. ' 

Later the conquests of the Portuguese in the new continent awakened 
the ambitions of the Spaniards, and the government organized a new expe- 
dition under the orders of Diego Garcia, who started with the Venetian pilot 
Sebastian Gaboto, who had undertaken to look for a passage between 
the two oceans. A mutiny among the crew prevented them from realising 
their plan, and they cast anchor on the coast of the island of Saint Gabriel, 
in the Rio de la Plata. 

Gaboto made excursions into the interior of the country, and reached the 
limit of the Parana and of the Uruguay, where he noticed that the natives 
possessed silver ornaments and utensils obtained from exchanges with the 
natives of the interior. Gaboto assumed from this the existence of precious 
metals, and supposed that by following the course of the river he would 
discover gold and silver mines. He could not put his project into execution. 

Great dissensions arose among the two chiefs of the expedition, and each 
returned to his own country. Gaboto left a garrison at Espiritu Santo, at 
the mouth of the Carcarana; but this, attacked by the natives on account 
of an amorous intrigue of one of its chiefs, was partly destroyed, and the re- 
mainder took refuge at Saint Yincente, on the Brazilian coast. 

The exaggerated reports of preceding travellers of the riches of the 
country, led the Spanish (iovernmont to appoint as governor of the territo- 
ries discovered on the Rio de la Plata, Don Pedro de Mendoza, who orga- 
nized an expedition at his own exj^enso. It was he who, on February 2nd., 
1535, founded, on the right bank of the Rio de la Plata, the town of Buenos 
Aires, first called Santisima Trinidad, while the port was called Santa Maria 
de Buenos Aires. But, shut up in a small space, and unable to receive provi- 
sions from outside, Mendoza and his companions underwent all sorts of pri- 
vations on account of the hostility of ti\e natives. One day a large numb?r of 
the latter besieged Buenos .\ires," which was obliged to surrender, and Men- 
doza fled to Espiritu Santo, Gaboto's fortress. Thence he sent out armed 
expeditions under the orders of (Captain Ayolas, who discovered the present 
Republic of Paraguay, an important discovery for the ultimate conciuest of 
the territory of the Plata. Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, was founded 
'n 1537. 

Mendoza died while returning to his country. .Vvolas succeeded him as 
governor, but was killed in an ambuscade on his return from an expedition 
to the frontiers of Perii, his comi)anions perishing witii him. 

Those who had not accompanied Ayolas established themselves at 
.\sunci6n, which was tlien the principal settlement of the Spaniards, and 
named as governor Domingo !\lartinez Irala, wlio organized the colony with 
wisdom. However the Government sent out as governor Xiinez Gabeza de 
Vaca; at the end of a year the colonists revoltetl and sent him back to Spain. 
The government was obliged to confirm Iraki in the post of governor. It 
was t*edro l^a Torre, first bishop of tlie Plata, who brought out llie decree 
of nomination. 

After the death ol Irala, the viceroy of Peru, on which the colony of I. a 
Plata depended, named Ortiz Zarate gttveinor. 

During this lime there arrived in llie count rv .hiaa de Garav, who 



20 INTRODUCTION Historical 

in 1573 founded the town of Santa Fe, and who re-established tlie colony 
ox Buenos Aires, which had been abandoned. He may, therefore, be conside- 
red as the real founder of that town. This restoration was effected on the 
11th. of June, 1580. Four years later Garay was assassinated during a jour- 
ney to Santa Fe, and Vera y Aragon succeeded him; the latter retired in 1590; 
'under his government one of his captains had ensured free communication 
between Buenos Aires and Asuncion, and founded Corrientes. 

At this time several expeditions sailed up the La Plata, and founded the 
towns of Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Cordoba, Salta, Rioja, and Jujuy, 
while other conquerors, coming from Chili, established themselves at San 
Juan, ^lendoza and San Luis. 

In 1620 Paraguay was constituted a separate colony, and Buenos Aires, 
under the name of the Province of the Rio de la Plata, had a governor under 
the direction of the viceroy of Peru. The town of Buenos Aires rapidly 
grew in population and in riches; during this time the internal quarrels 
continued until General Bruno de Zavala took charge of the government. 
He received the order to protect the Spanish colony of Uruguay against the 
Portuguese, and to settle the internal quarrels of Paraguay. 

After having assured the safety of the inhabitants of Santa Fe against 
the aggressions of the natives, Zavala organized an expedition against the 
Portuguese who had disembarked at Montevideo, and obliged them to re- 
embark in 1724. 

The colony of Paraguay now rose in rebellion, and the royal commissio- 
ner, sent from Madrid, could not re-establish order. It was Zavala who 
suppressed the revolt, and founded the town of Montevideo (1726). 

Zavala died in 1735. After his death the country was not only agitated 
by internal dissensions, but was also attacked by the" Portuguese, w'ho settled 
at vSanto Sacramento, on the opposite bank of the river. They were driven out 
by Zeballos, whom Spain had just sent out as governor (1762). They then 
made an alliance wiht the English, but were no more fortunate, for Ze- 
ballos took possession of all the forts they possessed. However, Santo 
Saci'amento was given back to them by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Never- 
theless the Portuguese were so hostile to the Spaniards that in 1766 Zeballos 
returned from Spain with 9,000 men and 116 vessels, and the Portuguese 
surrendered at discretion. 

The king of Spain then decided to transform the colony into a vicei'oyalty 
with Zeballos at its head. He had imder his administration the Argentine, 
L'ruguay, Paraguay, and part of Bolivia. 

In 1767 a messenger from the king appeared in the colony of La Plata 
to expel the Jesuits from it. These latter embarked for Cadiz. 

The successor of Zeballos, Don Juan Jose de Vertiz, reigned from 1778 
to 1784, and did all he could to make the country prosper. From 1789 
to 1799 different viceroys followed one another, without anything note- 
worthy occurring. In 1800 :\Iarshal del Pino y Rosas was appointed. Under 
his government the first gazette of the Rio de la Plata was published. Del 
Pino encouraged public instruction and established various schools. 

Under Sobremonte, his successor, the first occupation of Buenos Aires by 
the English (27th. of July, 1806) took place. The viceroy fled to Cordoba, 
and it was a Frenchman, Captain Liniers, who organized the resistance, and, 
after numerous fierce and indecisive conflicts, forced the English to retire 
on August 12th., of the same year. A second English expedition was still 
less successful, for the English were obliged to give up any fresh attempt to 
capture the Spanish colony. 

The people of Buenos Aires, in gratitude, named Liniers viceroy, but 
the Spaniards preferred to appoint one of themselves, and therefore Balta- 
sar Hidalgo de Cisneros, sent by Spain, disembarked shortly afterwards at 
Montevideo. A worse choice could not have been made. Cisneros entered 
Buenos Aires in August, 1809. The recent independence of the United Sta- 
tes, as well as the short occupation of the country by the English, had turned 
the/minds of the people to thoughts of liberty. Nevertheless, the people 
would not have rebelled — for in spite of all they were attached to the mother- 
country — if they had been conceded some liberties. But the contrary was 
the case, -w-s* 

On the 10th. of May, 1810, the king of Spain having been dethroned, a 



Summary INTRODUCTION 21 

meeting of notable persons was called, which decided, on May 22nd., 1810, 
that tlie viceroy should have no further power, and named in his place a 
commission to administer the country, at the head of which the Spanish 
party placed Cisneros. The people did not want this conmiission, and named 
in its turn a Directorate; this nomination took place on May 2r}th., 1810, a 
day which Argentina celebrates each year with great rejoicings. The presi- 
dent of this directorate (Jimla) was Cornelio Saavedra. 

The directorate invited the provinces of the colony to join the move- 
ment, it organized the National (iuard and printed the Gaceta de Buenos 
Aires, which afterwards became celebrated. 

On their side, the Spaniards, under the orders of Elio, tried to resist. 
Liniers, who did not sympathize with the new state of things, marched on 
Buenos Aires, but he was captured and shot. 

The revolution rapidly gained ground, and the emissaries of the Junta 
Nacional were everywhere received with enthusiasm. 

The province of Paraguay alone did not wish to join the revolution. 
General Belgrano was sent against it to compel it to join, but without result. 
However, in the following year it in its turn freed itself from the Spanish 
yoke, and set up as an independant nation. 

General Elio still occupied .Montevideo, and the Spanish fleet blockaded 
Buenos Aires several times, causing considerable damage. During this 
time expeditions were sent by the Junta to Bolivia, and these covered tliem- 
selves with glory at Gotagaita and Suipacha. Shortly afterwards the army 
of the patriots, under Balcarce, was defeated at Iluaqui. The modified Junta 
Nacional sent out a fresh army, which, by order of Belgrano, but without 
the permission of the Junta, proclaimed that the national Ilag should be 
blue and white. 

On February 20th., 1812, Belgrano entered Salta after having completely 
routed the Spaniards. 

At this time there was hekl a congress of deputies from all the provin- 
ces, which adopted the Hag proclaimed by Belgrano and definitely established 
the coat of arms of the nation, which consisted of a Phrygian bonnet held 
up by two interlaced liands and illuminated by a sun. 

Then the fortunes of the patriots languished a little. Belgrano was beaten 
in two encounters, and Higher Peru was lost. 

The people did not lay down their arms for that. San Martin replaced 
Belgrano, and Alvear was placed at the head of the troops which were 
besieging Montevideo. A fleet, organized under the orders of Admiral Brown, 
completely defeated the Spanish fleet, and Montevideo capitulated. 

San Martin, for his part, also fought the Spaniards. He defeated the royal 
troops at Chacabuco, and by his victory at Maipu (April, 1818), assured the 
independence of Ghili. Then, leaving Valparaiso witli 1,000 men and 18 
vessels, he made for Peru, and at the end of several months occupied Lima, 
the headquarters of the Spanish domination in South America. Thus it 
may be said that all the nations in tliis part of America which speak Spanish 
owe their independence to Argentina. 

This part of the revolution was truly glorious for the country, harassed 
in the interior by internal troul)les and attacked by Spain, supported by the 
Holy Alliance, wliich wished to send troops to tlie Rio de la Plata, but was 
prevented from doing so by tiie energetic opposition of l^ngland. The his- 
tory of this period bears considerable analogy to the French Revolution, 
above all on account of the victories obtained by undisciplined patriots, 
actuated only by a love of liberty. 

The executive power passed shortly afterwards from the hands of Po- 
sadas to those of General Ahear, wlio in his turn retired, obhgeil to do so 
l)y a revolt among his troops. After Alvear came Ignace Alvarez Thomas, 
under whose government tlie National Gongress, meeting at Tucuman. 
proclaimed tlie independeiue of llie Inited Provinces, and appointed Ge- 
neral Pueyrretlon (hiector. In 181',>, after a new congress, PueyrredOn retired 
and .losi' Rondeau replaced lilm. Rut hi- couUl not stop the civilw ar, and 
in 1820 the Suprinie Diicctoriile eniied witli his fall. The Gon federation was 
dissolved; and cad jirovince goveined itself according to its own tastes, 
while the Gabildo of Buenos Aires took the power into his own hands. 

The same year, after the fall of some militmy leaders who had taken up 



22 IXTEODUCTIOX Ilhloriral 

the reins of government, General Martin Rodriguez was appointed governor 
of Buenos Aires, and in part re-established order. He named as minister 
Bernardino Rivadavia, the cleverest statesman of his times. Las Heras 
succeeded Rodriguez. A few months afterwards a new congress, held at Bue- 
nos Aires, chose Bernardino Rivadavia as president of the Confederated 
Republic of all the pi-ovinces. But he coidd not agree with the congress for 
the establishment of a constitution, and retired in 1827. Manuel Dorrego 
became governor of Buenos Aires. He came to an understanding with the 
most influential government of the interior, that of Cordoba, and tried to 
organize a new federation. He established peace, both in the interior and on 
the frontiers. 

In 1825 a war broke out between Argentine and Brazil, over a territory 
in Uruguay. General Alvear, after prodigies of valour, succeeded in defea- 
ting the Brazilian army, superior in nvmiber, while the Argentine fleet trium- 
phed at sea. Then, through the intervention of England, Uruguay was 
declared independent. 

In spite of his glorious conduct of the war against Brazil Dorrego had to 
give place to General Lavalle, in consequence of an insurrection. But Dorrego 
joined the chief of the federal troops in their campaign, and marched against 
Buenos Aires. Being captured, he was shot. This summary execution of Do- 
rrego made the provinces rise against Lavalle. Rozas put himself at their 
head. After a struggle in which no quarter was given there was an apparent 
reconciliation, following upon which the provincial assembly at Buenos 
Aires nominated Bozas governor. This first period of his rule passed without 
notable incident, and at the end he refused to be re-elected. General Bal- 
carce, and then Yiam.onte, succeeded him, but only for a short period. 

Rozas then accepted the dictatorship which was offered him, and go- 
verned savagely until his fall. Lavalle tried to deliver the province from the 
tyrant's yoke, but in vain. General de L'rquiza was more successful; he freed 
Montevideo, besieged by Rozas's troops, and completely defeated the latter 
at Monte Caseros in 1852. Rozas took refuge on an English ship, and fled to 
England, where he died. 

Urquiza was nominated governor of the Argentine Confederation by an 
assembly from the provinces, in which only Buenos Aires did not take part. 
Parana became the capital of the Confederation. 

The ephemeral administration of General Urquiza, which marks the 
beginning of the era of true national reorganization in the Argentine Repu- 
blic, has left in many directions profound traces on the history of the nation. 
It laid the foundations of the institutional, political, material and moral 
progress which will cement the nation's greatness. 

Unfortunately the passions which were burning at Buenos Aires, fanned 
by the ambitions of the political parties who were fighting for power,'broke 
up all the noble and patriotic aspirations of this administration, and civil 
war once more stained the country's soil with blood and divided the Argen- 
tine family. 

Happily the battle of Pavon, won by the Buenos Aires army under the 
command of General Bartolome Mitre against the forces of the Confederation 
directed by Genera! Urquiza, and the latter's patriotism, to which he always 
subordinated his own desires and dislikes, when it was a question of serving 
his country, placed the national unity upon a firm basis. 

In consequence the victorious general, Bartolome Mitre, was elected 
president of the Republic for six years, and Buenos Aires was named as 
provisional capital instead of Parana (18(32). 

The country owes much to Mitre, though unfortunately the war with 
Paraguay prevented him from effecting all the progress he might have done 
This war, in which Argentina took part in alliance with Brazil and L'ruguay, 
was directed against the dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano Lopez. 

Sarmiento replaced .Mitre in the presidency, and did a great deal for the 
intellectual and material future of the country. He extended the network 
of lailways and increased the number of telegraph wires. 

After Saruiiento, in 1874, came Nicolas Avellaneda, under whose pre- 
sidency the Republic took a great step forward and consolidated its credit 
abroad. 

Avellaneda's presidency had to fight from its very beginning against the 
revolution organized by the political i^arty whose leader was General ]Mitre. 



ISuminurii IN 1 ROD l.M "IM ( )X 23 

Some years later this revolution was renewed, and President Avellaneda 
disarmed it by means of the 'Conciliation* of tlie political parties. This pre- 
sidency was also troubled by tiie financial crisis which followed the abuse 
of credit and the inflation of values. Nevertheless, certain of his acts have 
won for him an honourable place in the nation's history. 

Under this presidency commenced the work of the conquest of the f'esert, 
which supplied to civilization lor working purjjoses 600,000 square kilome- 
tres of land which had previously been in the liands of savages. This worlt 
was finished and consolidated during his presidency by General Roca, Mi- 
nister of War during Avellaneda's presidency. Tlie latter also conmienced 
the federalization of Huenos Aires, making this town the definite and per- 
manent capital of the Hepublic. 

These two facts suffice to make the presidency of Avellaneda unfor- 
gettable. 

In the middle of the civil war Avellaneda ceded, in 18S0, the presidency 
to Cieneral Julio A. Roca, who completed Avellaneda's work as regards the 
capital and frontiers of the country, and made the country progress con- 
siderably. 

Juarez Celman, the successor imposed on the nation by Roca, did not 
finish his presidential term. Forced to retire in 1890, in consequence of an 
armed rising, he was replaced by Carlos Pellegrini, the vice-president, until 
the conclusion of the constitutional term in 1892. 

Nor could Dr. Louis Saenz Pena maintain himself in power, and in 1894 
the vice-president, Jose Uriburu took his place. 

On October 12th., 1898 General Roca returned to olTice for the second 
time to occupy the supreme magistracy of the country, in consequence of a 
tacit agreement between the political parties, arrived at in view of the fact 
that there were very strained relations with a neighbouring nation on the 
subject of territorial boundaries inherited from the mother-country, rela- 
tions which threatened to bring about an armed conflict. 

The most important events of this presidency were the monetary reform 
of 1899, which gave stability to the value of the paper peso, and put an end 
to the violent changes through which it passed and which had caused enor- 
mous damage to the econouiic life of the nation. 

General Roca, who, at the time of his first presidency (1880-1886), had 
decreed the forced circulation of paper money (1884), when there was no 
serious trouble in the economic organization to justify such a measure, 
and who, fifteen years later, suppressed it, was able, like the warrior Achilles, 
to heal with his lance the wounds he had made, and find out what a price 
the people have to pay for the mistakes of their rulers. 

In international alTairs, one must recognize as a triimiph of this presi- 
dency the settlement of the (juestion of frontiers willi Chili. 

On October 12th., 1901, Dr. Manuel Quintana succeeded General Roca, 
but he died on ?tlarch 12th.. 190r), and Dr. .loseph Figueroa Alcorta, then 
vice-president, became president of the Republic. 

The presidency of Dr. Figueroa Alcorta took j^lace during one of the 
periodsof greatest prosperity through which the Argentine people have passed. 
It was he who had the honour of presiding at the fetes commemorative of 
the first centenary of the National Revolution of 1810. 

On October 12th., 1910, he handed over the government to Dr. Roque 
Saenz Peiia, who, animated by a great antl noble ideal, has made universal 
suffrage his object, in the hope of realizing the political regeneration of the 
Republic. 

The moment has not yet come to judge whether events have fulfilled the 
desires of the government; i)ut in any case we sincerely hope that these latter 
will be converted into a fine reality, to the glory of the Argentine people 
and of the statesman who has supported the project. 



24 IXTKODUCTIOX Climate 



IX. — Climate of Argentina. 

Argentina belongs, in its total extent, if one excepts two little strips of 
land, one tropical and the other sub-tropical, and both in the north, to the 
Southern Temperate Zone. Owing to its shape the country extends over 
about 34 degrees of latitude, viz., from the 22nd. degi-ee to the 56th. degree, 
which at once makes it obvious that the climatic differences between the 
several parts of Argentine territory must be fairly perceptible, especially 
at the extremities. 

However, what exercises more influence on the climate of the country 
than the difference of latitude, is its situation, for it has at the east the ocean, 
and at the west the Cordillera of the Andes; and it is also these differences 
of altitude which characterize the formation of the soil. 

The two principal elements in the climate are the temperature and the 
rainfall, because they determine the abundance and quaUty of the vegeta- 
tion, which in its turn affects the prosperity of animal life. In order to ex- 
plain succinctly the conditions of the temperature in the Argentine Repu- 
bUc, I have chosen a dozen points, starting from Ushuaia, in the Tierra del 
Fuego, and finishing at Salta, in the sub-tropical region, at convenient dis- 
tances from one another, both in the matter of latitude and in that of lon- 
gitude, and I am giving their extreme, average monthly, and average annual 
temperatures. These figures aie the result of thermometric observations 
made at the different points during several years. Here is the comparative 
table of these temperatures: 



of Argent ilia 



INTKODUCTIOX 



25 



January 


March 


May 


July 




September 


November 


February 


April 


.Tune 


August 




October 


December 


USHUAIA. 


Extreme tempeiatuies : + 2e"8" and - 


- lU'.V^ ; annual average : CO" 


11-3^° 
10-17 


8-10" 2-93" O-gO" 
5-10 1-10 1-92 


4-620 9.120 
6-99 9-63 


CHUBUT. E 


xtrcme teini)eratui'LS : + IJ'J'?" and — 


lO'i^ ; annual average: lo'iP 


21-26 
20-12 


17-36 8-31 6-03 
11-47 5-32 6-85 


10-13 17-65 
14-39 19-52 


BAHIA BLA^ 


CA. Extreme temperatures : + 41'07° aiiu— 50° ; annual average : U 26" 


23-07 
22-12 


19-34 11-24 7-07 
14-38 8-11 g-48 


12-00 18-53 
14-96 21-37 


BUENOS AIK 


ES. Extreme tomperatures : + 3!J'5' am 


L — -I'O"; annual average: 17"1G' 


24-07 
23-23 


21-35 13-43 10-16 
16-93 11-16 12-05 


13-84 20-24 
16-36 22-63 


ROSARIO. Ii 


xtreme temperatures: + :i8"7' and — 


'2'S' ; annual average: 17 -'lO' 


23-85 
23-64 


21-53 13-39 11-71 
17-49 10-86 12-56 


14-35 20-33 
17-47 22-23 


MENDOZA. 


Extreme temperatures : + 41'o" and — 


7'5' ; annual average : IC'OO" 


23-21 
22-83 


20-02 1 10-53 7-35 
15-18 1 7-63 9-78 


12-37 20-99 
17-04 23-85 


CORDOBA. ] 


ilxtreme temperatures: + 44'0" and — 


8''J' ; annual average : 16'8')- 


23-01 
22-37 


20-32 12-35 10-00 
15-36 9-91 12-68 


15-03 20-23 
17-52 22-27 


LA RIOJA. 


Extreme temperatures : + li'G" and — 


0"0" ; annual average : 1!)'85" 


27-14 
25-42 


23-:4 13-71 j 12-16 
17-75 11-17 i 15-18 


18-90 25-23 
22-37 26-38 


SANTIAGO. 


Extreme temperatures : + 44''J' and — 


- 2"6"; annual average: ^Vi') 


27-85 

27-00 


24-52 16-77 14-06 
20-78 13-65 10-05 


19-63 26-44 
23-11 27-97 


CORRIENTES 


. Extreme temperatures: + ;!7"r and 


+ •'>': annual aver.ige : iT-M' 


26-56 
26-17 


25-21 18-01 15-71 
21-20 15-80 17-79 


19-12 24-02 
21-52 26-19 


TUCUMAN. 


Extleliie teiniur.ilures : + 40"()" :iMii - 


- ]'l"; annual avir.ii,e : l!)Ti 


25-3 
24-1 


22-6 15-3 12-3 
19-6 12-6 15-0 


18-2 23-2 
20-6 24-5 


SALTA. Kxl 


•emo teiiii" latnres : + i:!\r and — 


5'8'; annual averr.ge : 17Ti.".' 


22-13 1 
21-48 1 


19-84 
16-90 


14-12 

10-58 


11-41 

14-21 




16-73 I 
19-19 


21-57 

22-47 



26 



INTRODUCTION 



Climate 



Santiago is incontestably the warmest point in the Argentine; its extreme 
temperature, as well as its annual average, are, in tact, higher than those of 
Corrientes. Santiago owes its great heat not only to its latitude, but also to 
the salt lands and dunes which surround it. The place where the greatest ex- 
tremes of temperature are met with is C6rdoba, which has a truly continental 
climate: very hot summers and very cold winters. It owes that to its topogra- 
phical and geographical position. Situated in the heart of the Republic and 
surrounded by lands very barely covered with vegetation, its temperature in- 
creases very much in summer owing to the strong rays of the sun, and beco- 
mes very easily cold in winter owing to the radiation of the bare earth. The 
earth, denuded of all vegetation, behaves, as regards conduction of heat, 
like a metal whicli easily becomes intensely hot under the action of heat, 
but loses this heat as rapidly, as soon as its cause ceases. This also explains 
the condensing power of aqueous vapours suspended in the atmosphere 
possessed by cultivated or v.ooded areas. As these latter allow very little 
heat to escape there are formed above them cylinders, or rather, perpendicu- 
lar prisms of air, of a temperature much lower than that of the air surroun- 
ding them; it follows in consequence, that the aqueous vapours which tra- 
verse these cylinders or prisms under the influence of aerial currents are 
condensed by them into rain. One can therefore understand easily of what 
importance it is for every country to enlarge its cultivated and wooded 
stretches, which increase the frequency of rains and do away with extreme 
temperatures, thus softening effects. 

The distribution of the rainfall duringt he dilTerents easons atthe twelve 
points already mentioned is indicated in the following table, in averages. In 
this table summer includes December, January and February; autumn: 
>iarch, April and May; winter: June, July and August; spring: September, 
October and November. 



LOCALITY 



Vshuaia. . . . 

Chubut 

Bahia Bianca 
Buenos Aires 

Rosario 

Mendoza . . . 
Cordoba. . . . 
La Rioja. . . . 
Santiago. . . . 
Corrientes. . . 
Tucuman . . . 
Salta 



Summer 


Autumn 


\Yinter 


m. m. 


m. m. 


m. m. 


174-4 


177-8 


125-4 


46-0 


65-6 


42-0 


130-2 


135-7 


79-3 


231-9 


247-6 


175-4 


307-9 


264-6 


134-6 


32-6 


56-1 


20-7 


310-6 


144-3 


16-1 


148-9 


72-6 


20-0 


199-0 


165-8 


20-2 


444-3 


386-3 


150-3 


483-2 


283-6 


31-1 


35'J-3 


149-0 


2-5 



Annual 
Average 



Average 
number 
of days 
on which 
it rains 



110-0 


537-0 


156 


53-4 


207-0 





143-0 


488-2 


53 


239-3 


894-2 


e9 


274-6 


981-7 


77 


50-8 


160-2 





194-3 


665-3 


75 


55-9 


297-4 


63 


103-0 


488-0 


63 


320-1 


1301-0 


49 


205-3 


1008-2 


64 


66-6 


574-4 


— 



If one studies the rainfall records from a larger number of places than 
those given here one finds that from a climatic point of view the Argentine 
territory may be divided into three regions, viz., the coastal, the inland, and 
the Andine. 

The coastal region includes the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, 
Entre Rios and Corrientes. The average annual temperature is about 19 
deg. centigrade; it increases, from Buenos Aires, where it is 17 deg., by half 
a degree lor each degree of latitude going Iroin south to north. 

The average summer temperature is about 2'^ deg.; that of the autumn 18; 
that of the winter I'i; that of the spring 17; that of the warmest month 
( January; 26; and that of the coldest month (.July) 11 degrees. 

As the extreme limits of temperature of this region one may give -j- 42 
degrees and — 5, but with the remark that temperatures above 40 deg- 



of Argrniina TXT R OT>Vi TIO X 27 

are rare, and always of short duration, while a temperature of-f- 35 degrees 
is frequent from 1 to iJ o'elock in tlie afternoon during the months of Decem- 
ber, January and I'ehruary. 

A temperature 5 defj;rees l)elow zero is also rare, and if the thermometer 
descends below zero in tlie montlis of May, .June, .July and August, this 
happens only three or four limes a month, and with a clear sky. Snow on 
the coastal district is exceedingly rare, and often whole decades pass without 
a sign of it. 

As regards slight changes the coastal region depends upon tlie climate 
out at sea. One peculiarity of the Argentine climate in general is the (juick 
changes of temperature during the same day, and often in the course of a 
few hours, this difference being sometimes as much as 20 degrees centigrade. 
The season in which the temperature is most uniform is autumn, while 
spring is marked by great and rapid changes in the temperature. 

The coastal region, almost entirely Hat, is somewhat windy. Complete 
calms are not very frequent, while strong and even tempestuous winds are 
common all the year round. Tlie connnonest winds are from the north and 
the south, the former being much more fretpient than the latter. At Buenos 
Aires during the summer there is a regular succession of sea and land bree- 
zes, the former blowing during the night and the latter during the day. 

The northern winds are always warm, and generally suffocating. They 
have an influence on the nervous system of the human organism which causes 
neuralgic pains in the head, a complaint to which many persons become 
subject. 

\vhile the north winds are blowing the air becomes charged with electri- 
city until, at the end of several days, this insupportable state of the atmos- 
phere is ended by a storm, which rcrestablishes the etpiilibrium. There is 
also a strong wind from the south-west, called the pampero, which sometimes 
lasts only a few hours, but which, at others, lasts several days. These pam- 
peros, so called because they come from the direction of the Pampas, acquire 
at times the velocity of a veritable hurricane. 

In the harbour at Buenos Aires the pamperos are not so much to be 
feared as the south-cast winds which are always accompanied by strong 
tides; on the other hand the pamperos are only to be feared in the port of 
Montevideo, for in this port they produce the same etTect as the south-east 
winds at Buenos Aires. 

In general the south-east winds (suesladas) accompanied almost always 
by heavy rain and a thick atmosphere, and especially frequent during the 
months of May and October, are the most dangerous winds for the naviga- 
tion of the Piio de la Plata. 

Here is the relative frequency of the winds, according to 20 years' 
observations made at Buenos Aires. In every 1,000 winds which were re- 
corded from the 8 points of the compass figured: 

North lS2'o times 

North-east 139-3 -> 

East 166-9 

South-east 134*4 •> 

South 107-1 

South-west 134-1 » 

West .^9-3 ■> • 

North-west 73-3 >> 

Calms 3-1 

1,000 times 

The rainfall in the coastal region generally varies according to the la- 
titude. The average annual rainfall is, as has been seen, 894 nmi. at Buenos 
Aires; 974 mm. at Bosario; 949 at Parana; and 1,381 at Corrientes. The rain, 
as may be seen, is suITicient, but unfortunately it happens tliat its distribu- 
tion over the seasons and from one year to another is very irregular. 1-^or 
example, one does not iind that a dry year is followed by a rainy one, and 
this, as may be conceived, helps to augment tlie damage caused to agricul- 
ture and cattle by a previous drought. 

In the years 1829, 1830 and 1831 such droughts were sulTered as had 



28 IXTRODUOTIOX Climnie 

never been known before. At this time so little rain fell that even the 
thistles were dried up, while the losses the drought caused in cattle were 
estimated at a million and a half or even two million head of cattle of all 
descriptions. The edges of the streams and lagoons in the province of Buenos 
Aires were white with the bones of animals. Lagoons which liad never lost 
their water before, dried up, and large numbers of fishes died. The decompo- 
sition of so much organic matter led to the fear that a plague would be cau- 
sed. The drought was worst in llie northern part of the country surrounding 
Buenos Aires, and in the south of Santa I^'. 

It would appear that the occurrence of rain bears some casual relation 
to the sun-spots, and that it is more or less of the same duration, viz., 
11 or 12 years. Vegetation naturally depends upon the rains, so that it is 
very probable that the abundance of the harvest also follows the periods of 
the sun-spots. 

Observing the distribution of rain over the seasons, one finds that summer 
and autumn are the rainiest, while winter is the season in which it rains the 
least, though there are, of course, exceptions to this rule. 

At Buenos Aires there is rarely a month during which it does not rain, 
but going further north from this town, one notes that the winters beco- 
me drier and the summers rainier. Here the rain is generally torrentia 
and of short duration rather than fine and continuous. The rain often 
comes in the middle of a hurricane, accompanied by a copious fall of hail. 

The sky is, except at Buenos Aires, almost always cloudless. But in this 
town, during 20 years' observations made at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, it 
has been found that: 

The number of clear davs during the vear is 39 

') days with 50 % of clouds is 112 

» clear days with more than 50 "^'o of clouds is. 115 
» days with the sky completely covered is. . . 57 

» » without observation . . 42 

365 
The climate of the inland region, if one excepts the mountainous part 
of the provinces of Cordoba and San Luis, is chiefly distinguished from the 
coastal region by its greater dryness and by the extremes of its daily tempe- 
rature. In the plains the summers are warmer, and it is not rare for the tem- 
perature to rise to 40 deg., while the winters are marked by great frosts, 
due rather to the great radiation of the earth than to the cooling of the 
atmosphere. 

The north and south winds ai-e, as on the coast, the most frequent. The 
north winds are very warm, and on the dunes and salt lands have the name 
of zonda; they present all the characteristics of the simoon of the African 
deserts. Calms are frequent here during all seasons. Rain is rarer than on 
the coast, and falls almost exclusively in summer and autumn. The winter 
is, with very few exceptions, entirely dry. 

During a period of 15 years, from 1873-87, the average annual tempera- 
ture of C6rdoba, the climate of which is characteristic of the whole region, 
was 16"85oc., centigrade, the maximum was 44°, in January, and the mini- 
mum 8'9o, in July. The rainfall during the same period was 665'4 mm. an- 
nual average, while the maximum ,fall took place in the month of January, 
with 144 mm., and the minimum in July, with 2, 4 mm. The frequency of the 
winds, in every 1,000 cases, is as follows: 

North 21 times 

North-east 198 » 

East 52 » 

South-east 69 » 

South 138 » 

South-west 27 » 

West 7 » 

North-west 10 » 

Calms 478 » 



1,000 times 



of Arqeniina IXTRODUCTIOX 20 

The rains at Cordoba are sonielimes torrential; but they are tlien of short 
duration. Hailstorms are fro([uent in summer, but snow is rarely encoun- 
tered. It is not the same at Mendoza, however, which is on tiie borders of the 
inland and the Andine re}i,ions, and where snow falls every year flurins 
August, e\en thousii it ma>- not fall for long. I'.ain is less frequent at Men- 
doza than at Cordoba, and further north, at San Juan, La I'.ioja and Cata- 
niarca, it is still rarer than at Mendoza. 

One finds also that at these points winter is entirely devoid of rain. At 
San .Juan, La Rioja and Catamarca snow is unknown. The mountainous parts 
of the provinces of Cordoba and San Luis are, as a rule, more favoured with 
rain than arc the plains. In sununer especially, it rains nuich on the Sierra 
de C6rdoba, and in Ihat of San Luis it is precisely these rains that give 
birth to and feed the rivers numbered 1 to fj and their affluents. 

The province of Tucuman, which occupies the north of this region, has 
a sub-tropical character as far as rains are concerned. The winter is dry here 
also, but on the other hand it rains a good deal in summer, especially on the 
eastern slopes of the mountain of Aconquija, where, owing to this rain, a 
large and thick forest has sprung up. 

In the Andine region the climate varies much, according to the alti- 
tude however, great differences of temperature during the day, and 
an excessive dryness characterize this region. On the eastern slopes of the 
Andes, and on the northern plateaus, it never. rains. At these great altitudes, 
where the air is very rarified, there is in summer an intense heat where the 
sun strikes, while in the shade one has a sensation of cold. ITere a change of 
temperature of 20 degrees in the course of 24 hours is a thing of every-day 
occurrence. Hail is common in this region. At Tinogasta, Aniyaco and Fiam- 
bala (province of Catamarcii) I have observed the air so extraordinarily 
charged with electricity that al certain moments men and animals were 
converted into veritable Leyden jars. 

The part which the mountain of Acon{|ui.ja plays in this region is a re- 
markable one. On the west everything is desert and sterile, on account of 
the perpetual drought, while on the east there is a most luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, thanks to the frecjuent and copious rains. 

On the subject of the healthiness of the Argentine climate one might 
consult with profit the work, monumental of its kind, of Dr. Samuel Gache, 
entitled (Climatology of the Argentine Republics It is a book which reveals 
a great amount of work and professional erudition, even though I find it 
a trifle diffuse. The digressions are numerous and long, and certain details 
which might have been left on one side are treated at excessive, length but 
that does not tarnish the scientific reputation of the author nor detract from 
the value of the book. I belicA e that the latter would have been greater if 
the rich material it contains had been dealt with more synthetically, because 
its study and assimiiiation would then ha\e been easier. Dr. Cache has for- 
gotten that nowadays an author must write so that his readers may obtain 
in the least possible time the greatest possible amount of information; 
modern scientific literature whicli is not intended for a public entirely pro- 
fessional must, above all, be synthetic. Naturally, what has just been said 
does not affect the author, who only seeks to anuise and who may be as dif- 
fuse as he wishes. 

Speaking of the commonest diseases Dr. Gaelic says, to sum up, that 
typhoid fever is fairly conmion, especially in the capital and the province 
of Buenos Aires; that illnesses of the respiratory organs are conunon in the 
country, and he continues, on the subject of other illnesses: paludism 
(marsh poisoning) is endemic in the northern region: Tucuman, Salta, 
.Tujuy and the ^lisiones territory, as also the goitre in the centre and in the 
Andine provinces, above all at ."Mendoza; dysentery and infantile tetanos 
are frct[ucnt at Corrientes; tetanos and enteric fever at Santa Fe, tetanos 
and convulsive cough at Cordoba; gaslro-enteric fe\er and diphtheria at Ro- 
sario; small-pox, diphtheria and typhoid fever at Mendoza and Concepcion 
del Fruguay; gastro-intestinal diseases at San Luis; typlioidal affections and 
constipation at San .Juan (on account of the composition of the water); 
ophthalmia, quinsy, dysentery, enteric fever at Santiago del l\stero; and 
gastro-enteric feveV at I-a Rioja. Hydatids are frequent in the province of 
Buenos Aires, on account of the number of dogs. Cases of arthritis arc very 



30 IXTRODUCTIOX Climate 

numerous in the Argentine, and are clue, according to Gaclie, to Ihe excessive 
use of meat. 

Yellow fever has invaded Buenos Aires twice- in 185'.>, causing 108 
deaths, and in 1871, causing 17.084. Tlio ravages of cliolera were considera- 
ble in 18G8-9. It reappeared in 1883-87 in different localities, such as Buenos 
Aires, Mendoza, Salta, (latamarca and Jujuy. Epidemics of small-pox, which 
spread all over the Argentine, occurred in 1812, 1813, 1823, 1831, 1836, 
1837, 1842, 1847, and 1853. 

This is the general pathological aspect of the regions of the Rio de la 
Plata, according to IMoussy: 

He commences by declaring that the region is characterized by a great 
variety of morbid alTections; eruptive fevers are common, and among them 
scarlatina, which attacks inhabitants of the country more than strangers, 
holds the first place. These illnesses generally occur between March and 
November, with intervals of several years between each two successive re- 
crudescences. Illnesses of the nervous system predominate chiefly on the 
coast; irregularity is generally observed in the symptoms of these maladies. 
Tetanos is common among newly-born children, and traumatism among 
wounded persons. Equally common is neuralgia. 

Brain troubles, such as meningitis, apoplexy, etc., are noticed during 
the hot season. Softening of the brain is especially noted among foreigners. 
The abuse of alcohol produces a rapid and fatal action on the brain. De 
Moussy is of opinion that here there is considerably less lunacy than in Eu- 
rope, which I doubt, and that there are few persons born blind, and still 
fewer deaf-mutes. 

Quinsy and pleurisy are fre(juent in winter, and pleuro-pneumonia is 
sometimes epidemic in the interior, l^ulmonary phthisis is commoner on the 
coast, above all among mestizos, than in the interior. Heart trouble and swo- 
llen blood-vessels are also numerous, both among natives and foreigners. 

Gastralgia and gastro-enteritis are very common; chronic hepatitis is 
rare, and cancerous degeneration of the stomach is more frequent among 
foreigners than natives; dyspepsia is common among women who are sub- 
mitted to a regimen of unsuitable food, and arises chiefly from abuse of 
<anate>; dysentery sometimes shows itself on the coast towards the end of 
summer. 

Urinary affections are rare, as also is calculus. Among women semi- 
acute metritis frequently presents itself, but metro-peritonitis is rare after 
childbirth, which is generally easy. Leucorrhoea is frequent, and sometimes 
followed by cancer of the uterus. 

Semi-acute rheumatism abounds, especially on the coast, but gout is 
rare. Scrofulous illnesses are few. C.ancer is common, and its development 
rapid. SyphiUs is very wide-spread, not only in its acute state, but also in 
its secondary and tertiary states. 

Of all fevers typhoid is that which makes the greatest ravages; its symp- 
toms are well marked and its course irregular. 

Burning fever occurs occasionally on the coast, but never intermittent 
fever, properly so called. That occurs only on the parallel of 28 degrees of la- 
titude. 

The climate of the Argentine is, in spite of the great inconveniences cau- 
sed by the considerable mid rapid changes of temperature, and the dryness 
reigning in the greater part of the country, eminently healthy. ^Mortality is 
only high among children on account of the numerous hygienic faults which 
their mothers commit. Insuflicient care on the one hand, and irrational 
feeding on the other, cause the death of 25 '^, of children born, before they 
reach the age of one year. On the other hand mortality among adults is as 
low as that in the healthiest countries in the globe. 

On the occasion of the 1887 census of Buenos Aires, of which I was pre- 
sident, I made out tables of the mortality of the Argentine and foreign po- 
pulation of that capital, and I found that the average length of life of the 
latter was greater than that of the former, and that in certain groups of 
ages this difference was considerable. 

The average length of life of foreigners is superior to that of Argentines 
in average terms, as follows: 



of Argentina I XTPvODUl TIOX 31 

Persons of 10 vears and under 3-3 years. 

» 10 to 20 vears 1*2 > 

20 to 30 ' .> 3-6 * 

') 30 to 40 2-8 » 

» 40 to 50 2-0 » 

-> 50 to 60 ■> 0-8 •> 

» 60 to 70 .. OT) 

» 70 to 80 .. IT, , 

SO to 90 . 1-2 ' 

The maximum of this diflcrence occurs between the ages of 11, 12 and 13 
years, and tlie minimum at the age of 62 years. This is the best evidence 
of the healthiness of the climate that one could have, for, despite sharp cli- 
matic changes, the foreign population possesses a greater vitality than the 
indigenous one. 

The following is the average length of life at Buenos Aires in 1887: 



C/2 


Average 


length 


GT 


Average 


length 


C/2 


Average length 


% 


of life of 




of life of 




of hfe of 


> 


Argenti- 


Foreig- 


> 


Argenti- 


Foreig- 


a 


Argenti- 


Foreig- 




nes 


ners 




nes 


ners 




ne- 


ners 





27-4 




32 


24-9 


28-0 


64 


9-3 


10-3 


1 


34-3 


34-0 


33 


24-4 


27-4 


65 


9-4 


9-9 


2 


3S-4 


39-2 


34 


23-3 


26-7 


66 


8-9 


9-5 


3 


39-8 


41-8 


35 


23-3 


26-2 


67 


8-4 


9-1 


4 


40-5 


43-4 


36 


22-8 


25-5 


68 


7-9 


8-7 


5 


4U-9 


44-1 


37 


22-3 


24-9 


69 


7-5 


8-4 


6 


41-0 


44-4 


28 


21-8 


24-3 


70 


7-0 


8-0 


7 


4,/8 


44-3 


39 


21-2 


23-7 


71 


6-6 


7-7 


8 


40-5 


44-0 


40 


20-6 


23-1 


72 


6-2 


7-4 


9 


40-0 


43-5 


41 


20-1 


22-4 


73 


5-3 


7-2 


10 


33-7 


42-9 


42 


19-6 


21-9 


74 


5-4 


6-9 


11 


37-9 


42-3 


43 


Vyl 


21-3 


75 


5-1 


6-7 


12 


37-2 


41-6 


44 


18-6 


20-7 


76 


4-7 


6*5 


13 


36-5 


4i;-9 


45 


18-1 


20-2 


77 


4-4 


6-3 


14 


35-7 


40-0 


46 


17-6 


19-6 


78 


4-2 


6-0 


15 


34-9 


39-3 


47 


17-1 


19-0 


79 


4-0 


5-8 


16 


34-3 


38-5 


48 


16-6 


18-5 


80 


3-8 


5-6 


17 


33-6 


37-8 


49 


16-2 


17-9 


81 


3-6 


5-3 


18 


33-0 


37-1 


fO 


15-8 


17-3 


82 


3-5 


5-2 


19 


32-3 


36-4 


51 


15-4 


16-8 


83 


3-5 


5-0 


20 


31-7 


36-5 


52 


15-0 


16-2 


84 


3-4 


4-9 


21 


31-2 


35-0 


53 


14-6 


15-7 


85 


3-4 


4-3 


22 


30-5 


34-4 


54 


14-2 


15-1 


86 


3-4 


4-6 


23 


2a-9 


33-7 


55 


13-8 


14-d 


87 


3-4 


4-5 


24 


29-3 


33-1 


56 


13-3 


14-1 


88 


3-3 


4-3 


25 


28-8 


32-5 


57 


12-9 


13-6 


F9 


3-4 


4-1 


26 


28-2 


31-9 


ts 


12-5 


13-1 


93 


3-4 


3-8 


27 


27-7 


31-3 


59 


12-1 


12-6 


91 


3-4 


3-6 


28 


27-1 


30-6 


60 


11-6 


12-1 


92 


3-4 


3-3 


29 


26-6 


30-0 


61 


11-2 


11-6 


93 


2-6 


3-1 


30 


26-0 


29-3 


62 


10-8 


11-1 


94 


2-9 


3-0 


31 


25-5 


28-6 


63 


10-3 


10-7 


95 


2-5 


2-8 



Very aged persons, especially those of the female sex, who, as is well 
known, live more melhodically than men. are numerous. If persons who 
have passed 70 years are considered as being in this category, there is 
found, in the census of 1869, the following information with respect to the 
number of persons over 70 years of age for every thousand inhabitants, 
for each of the parts which compose the Argentine territory: 



32 IXTRODUCTIOX Meteorological 

City of Buenos Aires 9 per 1,000 

Province of Buenos Aires 9 „ 

» Santa Fe 6 » 

» Entre Bios 11 » 

» Corrientes 12 » 

» ( "ordoba 8 » 

» San Luis 9 » 

» Santiago 11 » 

» rvlendoza 8 » 

» San Juan 7 » 

» La Bioja 12 » 

Catamarca 8 » 

Tucumun 7 » 

Salta 17 » 

Jujuy 21 » 

Total for the Bepublic 9 per 1,000 

Tlie figure for the capital is calculated on the statistics of the 1887 census, 
and that of the province of Buenos Aires on that of the provincial census 
of 1881. 

Summing up, it may be said that the Argentines have in their climate a 
veritable treasure, as regards health of human beings, abundance of vege- 
tation, and multiplication of cattle, a treasure which is trulv worth all the 
others together. 

X. — Meteorological Service. 

Prediction of the Weather. 

The law which created the Argentine ^Meteorological Office was due 
to th^ representations of Dr. Gould, who, on his arrival in the countiy, 
in 1870, showed that the greater part of the Argentine territory was unknown 
as far as its climatic conditions were concerned. He proposed to the govern- 
ment the creation of a system of meteorological observations so far as the 
means which were available at that period permitted. The proposal received 
a favourable reception, and in September, 1872, the law creating the (Ar- 
gentine Meteorological Office, for the purpose of forming a regular system of 
meteorological observations throughout the Bepublic» was passed by the 
Congress. 

Towards the end of the same year the institution was organized, and 
began its work under the direction of its initiator. 

Dr. Gould remained at the head of the Office until his return to his na- 
tive country, that is to say, until the end of 1884, at which date it passed 
into the hands which still hold it today. 

L'ntil 1901 the work was limited to collecting the meteorological observa- 
tions furnished by the difTerent scattered points, and to publishing the 
results as far as the resources permitted. By thus patiently continuing this 
procedure for 30 years one has got to know the various climatic variations 
which obtain in nearly all the inhabited regions of the Bepublic, a knowledge 
very necessary to the study of the economic conditions of the country. At 
the same time the nation furnished its quota towards the internationai pro- 
gress of this branch of science. 

During the first years of the existence of this service the population was 
very much concentrated in the eastern part of the Bepublic, the fertile soil 
had hardly commenced to produce remunerative crops, and telegi-aph lines 
onl linked up the most populous centres, so that it satisfied the require- 
ments of the period; but in the face of the rapid development of agricultural 
and industrial interests during recent years one was obliged to recogiiize 
tlie necessity for extending its sphere of action, so that it might publish 
each day the state of the weather which obtained in all the districts sers^ed 
by the telegraph. *"| 

With this end in view there was organized at the beginning of 1902 



Service IXTRODFCTrOX 33 

a (Daily Weather Bulletin'), having at its service 40 stations for the obser- 
vation of the principal atmospheric elements, and 165 rain-gauging sta- 
tions; the observations were made at 2 p. m. In the month of September 
the hour of the observations was fixed at 7 a. m., and finally, on January 1st., 
1904, at 8 a. m. vSince the month of September of the same year telegrams 
have been sent out giving tlie observations made the previous evening 
at 8 p. ni. so that the observntions made at 8 n. m. and at S p. m. are received 
from all stations situated on the telegraphic lines, and the two charts for 
these two diflerent hours are executed simultaneously, but only that taken 
at 8 a. m. is published or put at the disposal of persons interested. 

At the present moment the Weather Report service embraces in Argen- 
tina and Paraguay 169 first-class and second-class stations (for the observa- 
tion of all the elements), and 1,250 rain-gauging stations; while in accordan- 
ce with agreements arrived at with other countries information is exchanged 
with six stations in Uruguay, one in Chili (Punta Arenas), and ten in Brazil. 
The northernmost station of the last-named country is Para, situated prac- 
tically on the equator, so that the Weather Report gives daily information 
about the principal atmospheric conditions from the equator to Punta 
Arenas, that is to say to the 54th. degree of southern latitude. 

In addition to the above-mentioned stations, the information from which 
is transmitted telegraphically, there are others in the more scattered regions, 
the information given by which is of profit to the agricultural or industrial 
interests. 

The following are the numbers of stations which operate under the direc- 
tion of the Central Bureau: 

1st. class stations, furnished with automatic registering instj'uments. 37 
2nd. » « in which observations of all the elements are made 

three times a day (8 a. m., 2 p. m. and 8 p. m.). 154 
3rd. »> » the same as the above, except for the barometric 

pressure 11 

4th. » » which only possess a rain-gauge 1,428 

Total 1,630 

This table does not include: the Central Station in Cordoba, provided 
with the most perfect instruments of different kins which serve for the 
control of all the apparatus in the different stations under the Office; and 
the station in Laurie Island (Southern Orkneys), which was left to the Go- 
vernment of the Republic by the Scottish Antarctic expedition in 1903, and 
in which hourly observations are obtained by means of automatic registe- 
ring instruments for all the elements, this station is in charge of a special 
commission relieved everj' year. 

The climatic conditions of the Orkneys show that these islands belong 
to the Antarctic meteorological system; resulting from this collection of 
widely separated stations the observations centralized by the olTice include 
the tropical, temperate and frigid zones, or, from the climatological point 
of view, this service embraces a region, the annual average temperature of 
which is 24 degrees C. in the north, imd 6 degrees in the south, or a normal 
difference of 30 degrees C. of temperature, over a stretch of 39 degrees of 
latitude. 

The number of stations of all classes that there are at present in the coun- 
try represents an average of one station to every 1,841 square kilometres, 
or a distance between each couple of 43 kilometres. In the five provinces 
which are most important from the point of view of productiveness the pro- 
portion is as follows: 

Buenos Aires, 1 station per (i 1 I sff. km., or 1 per 25 linear km. 
Santa Fe, 1 » » 809 » > •> 1 ^ 28 » » 

Cordoba, 1 » > 1,053 » » » 1 » 33 » -> 

Entre Rios, 1 •> - 944 » > » 1 » 31 * » 

Tucuman.. 1 » > 538 » » » 1 » 23 » » 

It is easy to estimate the inuiiediate importance of this immense network 
of stations, situated, for the most part, on the telegraphic lines, to the eco- 



34 IXTRODUCTIOX Meteorological Service 

nomic, agricultural, and maritime needs of the population near the coast, 
by its application to the daily prediction of the weather. The predictions 
have been actually published since the month of September, 1904, for observa- 
tions made at 8 a. m., and are good for the 3G hours following. It is necessary 
to take into account that during the first years it was necessary to establish 
records of the difTerent high or low pressures with their corresponding effects, 
in order to obtains a basis for predictions. 

Besides the terrestrial meteorological service, observations are now 
being made in the Atlantic, to the south of the K{|uator, by the ships which 
go up the estuary of the Rio de la Plata; and by means of these observa- 
tions knowledge has been obtained about a large number of atmospheric 
disturbances which originate in Antarctic regions, and whose effects are felt 
between the African and American continents, although these latter only 
feel the weakened effects of what has happened in the open sea. From the 
information already obtained by this service one can estimate the great 
interest it tias lor navigation and science in this part of the Southern Hemis- 
phere, and more particularly in the higher degrees of southern latitude in 
the Atlantic. 

Besides the meteorological stations which have been cursorily dealt 
with, the Office has under its charge the magnetic and hydrometric sections 
formed in 1904. 

The central magnetic station is situated at Villa Pilar, on the Rio Segun- 
do, in the province of Cordoba, and 52 kilometres to the south-east of the 
capital of that province. The observatory is composed of buildings specially 
constructed for the installation of the instruments necessary for the deter- 
mination, in a precise fashion, of the three magnetic elements, and for their 
photographic registration, as well as the instruments indispensable to the 
study of atmospheric electricity and solar manifestations which bear a re- 
lationship to the magnetic disturbances, at the same time studying the upper 
strata of the atmosphere by means of kites and balloons. 

The study of the determination of the elements of territorial magne- 
tism in the greater part of the central region of the Republic is already far 
advanced, and will be continued until the whole territory has been embraced, 
leaving points of reference established in each province or territory, for the 
control of compass indications. It is hoped that next year the studies will 
be sufficiently advanced to permit of the publication of a more detailed edi- 
tion of the map of isogons, which was published for the first time in 1908. 

In Laurie Island, in the Southern Orkneys, where the meteorological 
station is estabhshed, the commission is in charge of the magnetic observa- 
tory, which has been fitted out under the best possible conditions for obtai- 
ning the greatest possible measure of success, both with the instruments for 
absolute determinations and with the registering variometers. In the station 
which is to be established in Wandel Island, situated about 65 degrees of 
latitude south, apparatus for the magnetic constants will also be installed. 
So that the observations of the Pilar, united with those of the Orkneys and 
those of the new station, will, in view of the innnense surface embraced, give 
results of great value to this branch of science. 

As regards the hydrometric service which has been established, one can 
already appreciate its advantages, for its gauges have already been placed 
in all the principal lakes and rivers, as well as in those of less importance in 
the interior of the Republic, and in the rivers Parana, Higher Parana, Uru- 
guay, Paraguay, and La Plata. In this last system of rivers near the coast, 
the General Prefecture of the Ports of the Nation has co-operated, as far as 
possible, so that, thanks to the gauges previously placed by this administra- 
tion, the height of the waters is received daily by telegraph and published 
in the weather forecast, which specially mentions their depth at the principal 
points. 

This section is in charge, not only of tlie study of the importance of the 
water, but also of those which relate to its povver as a motive force and its 
other practical applications. The researches of this section supplement to a 
large degree the meteorological studies, for they indicate the relationship 
which exists between the fall on the river basins and «thalwegs'> and the mass 
of water carried down by the rivers. 

The programme of the work of each of these three sections, although 



Mount, and Biv. Sys . I X ^J^ R D U CT 1 X 35 

they are independent and provided with difTerent means of studying, tend 
towards the same end, for their results are compared one with another, and 
in many cases the alterations which are produced in one of the elements are 
those which engender the eflects manifested in others, and it is to be conclu- 
ded that the combined programme gives results more advantageous to the 
country and to the cause of science, than would three independent pro- 
grammes. 

XL — Mountain and River System 

The central part of the Republic, the most cultivated and most popu- 
ous, that which stretches between the Cordillera of the Andes, on the west, 
and the Parana and I.a Plata on the east, forms a plain which slopes slightly 
from the north-west to the south-east. It is scarcely interrupted by several 
depressions such as: the Salina Grande, which stretches the length of the 
line which divides the provinces of La Rioja, Catamarca and C6rdoba, and 
of which the central part is scarcely 150 metres above sea-level; the depres- 
sion which serves as a basin for the Mar Chiquita, in the northeast angle of 
the province of Cordoba; and a system of mountains called Mountains of 
Cordoba and of San Luis which after all is only a prolongation of the 
Mountain of Aconquija, in the same way that the Salina Grande establishes 
continuity between the Mountain of Ancasli (to the north) and that of Acha- 
la and Serrezuela (to the south). 

The inclination of the Argentine Plain remains well marked by the hyp- 
somctrical figures of the maps of the railways of the West, of the Pacific, 
of the Great Western Argentina, of the Central North and of the railway 
from Buenos Aires to Piosario, in their section from Sunchales to Tucuman. 
At the western extremity of this vast plain, on the frontier of Argentina 
and Chili, rises the Cordillera of the Andes with large and elevated plateaus 
and several lateral chains to the north and to the centre, and one single 
chain from which the land descends gradually towards the south. 

The Cordillera commences on the north by the great Plateau of Despo- 
blado (deserted) which is the continuation of that which forms the de- 
sert of Atacama and which, in the territory of .Tujuy, takes the name of 
Puna of Jujuy. Two great lakes exist on the heights of Puna. One is that of 
Toro, to the south, and the other that of Casabindo to the north; their 
waters are salt and they have abundant deposits of salt on their banks. 
This wild region, with its scanty pasturages, provides little food for cat- 
tle. I->oni this plateau which rises to a height of 3,500 metres, proceed va- 
rious chains of mountains whose summits are covered with perpetual snow. 
The western chain called Cordillera del Agua Calicnte, has its culminating 
point more to the south, in tlic snows of Cachi ((i,500 metres) and of .\cay 
(6,000); ths middle range has its summit in the snows of Castillo (6,000) 
and of .Jujuy; it forms the great wall of the valley of Humahuaca, while the 
chain nearer to the beginning formed by the mountains of Zenta and of 
Calilegua descends gradually from its elevation until it loses itself in the 
plain of Chaco. These ranges continue to the south and break up the ground 
of the province of Saita. The mountain range of .Jujuy which extends into 
the province of Salta and traverses it from the north to the south under diffe- 
rent names, but principally under those of the Plateau of (>achipampa and of 
the Mountains of Quilmes, penetrates into the province of Tucuman under 
the name of ^Jount of Aconquija. This last enters the province of Catamarca 
dividing into three branches which are: to the east, the mountains of Alto 
and of Ancasti; to the centre, those of Ambato, and to the west those of Atajo. 
The mountain of Ambato is extended in the province of I^ioja by the moun- 
tains of Mazan and of Velasco and nearer south in the province of San Juan, 
by the ^Mountain of La Iluerta. To the west of the ^Mountains of Velasco and 
joined to them by a transverse chain rises the Mountain Famatina, famous 
for its rich minerals. This veritable Andine chain whose culminating points 
are tiie snows of I'amatina ((),201 metres) and the Cerro Negro (4,500) is pro- 
longed to the south, in the province of San Juan, by the Mountain of Tontal 
and nearer south still by that of Paramillo, in the province of .Mendoza. In 
the province of liuenos Aires, far from every mountain, in the middle of a 



36 IXTEODUCTIOX Orohydr. Sistem 

vast plain, surrounding the two chains of hills, are the mountains named 
Tandil and Yentana (window). All the mountains of Argentina are more or 
less rich in usable mineral; but they are little worked at present. 

The hydrographic system of the Piepublic contains three great groups; 
that of the tributaries^'f the La Plata; that of the rivers and the water cour- 
ses which empty themselves in the basins, the lakes, or the lagoons, or lose 
themselves in the chalk cliffs of the coast, the salt-plains or in the porous 
soil of the Pampas; and finally those water-courses which flow into the 
ocean. 

To the first group belong all the rivers and the streams of ]Misiones, Co- 
rrientes, Entre Rios, Chaco, .Jujuy, and of Salta and part of the watercourses 
of Santa Fe, Cordoba, and of Buenos Aires. The second group is constituted 
by the basins of the provinces of Tucuman, Catamarca, Santiago, La Rioja, 
San Juan, ]Mendoza, San Luis and the greater part of that of Cordoba and a 
smaller part of that of Buenos Aires. The third group comprises a part of the 
watercourses of Buenos Aires and all the basin of Patagonia. The basin of 
Buenos Aires tlierefore belongs to all three groups. 

One must add to all these watercourses a great number of lagoons of 
fresh and salt water scattered principally over the provinces of Buenos 
Aires, the south of Santa Fe, of Cordoba, of San Luis and over the Pampa 
district; a great number of rivers and torrents which abound, above all in 
the provinces of Corrientes, and finally the Andine lakes, which are not rare. 
Here remain to be mentioned also the gorges which abound in the Pro\'in- 
ces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, C6rdoba, Santiago and Chaco. These gorges 
are erosions that the rain waters have made on the great slopes of the ground 
in the manner of river-beds and lead to depressions of the ground to form 
lagoons. At the season of the rains, they are filled with water and then assume- 
the aspect of a river, but for the greater part of the year they are dry. 

The Rio de la Plata is formed by the junction of the rivers Parana and 
Uruguay. It forms a large estuai-y, something like a gulf, which carries to 
the ocean the waters of a basin which has neai-ly 4 million square kilometres 
in area, and which occupies nearly a quarter of South America. The estuary 
is at the commencement, nearly 45 kilometres wide, but it spreads gradually 
until, 350 kilometres lov.er, between the capes Santa Maria, on the eastern 
side, and San Antonio or Punta Hasa on the Argentine side, it loses itself 
in the ocean. Between these two capes, there is a distance of about 180 kilo- 
metres and the estuary covers at this spot an area of about 35,000 square 
kilometres. 

The Parana rises with two principal arms, the Rio Grande and the river 
Paranahyba, on the western slope of Mount Espinhazo (Brazil) on one side, 
and on the southern slope of the Pyrenhos mountains on the other. Paraguay, 
the principal tributary of the Parana on the right bank, has its source fur- 
ther in Brazil, at 14 degrees south latitude, and 5S degrees longitude, west 
of Greenwich. El Pilcomayo rises in the mountain system of Despoblado and 
the Bolivian Plateau. The Bermejo also comes from the same system where 
it is formed by the union of several tributaries. The Rio Salado (salt) takes 
its source in the snows of Acay and of Cachi (province of Salta) the river 
Tercero, in the :Mount of Come'chingones, department of Calamuchita (Cor- 
doba) between the junctions of the Santa Rosa and of the Grande with their 
tributary the Durazno, and of the Cruz with its tributary the Quillinzo. 

The river Uruguay rises in the same chain of mountains on the Brazilian 
side, almost opposite the island Santa Catalina where the Parana has its 
origin. It enters the Argentine territory going in a westerly direction and re- 
ceives on its right bank the Pepiri-Guazu, it produces at 27° 20', a httle 
above the mouth of the river IVIberuy, the Salto Grande ( the great water- 
fall), whose waters fall from a height of 2 to 5 metres according to the rising 
of the river. Besides these, the Republic has many other rivers of lesser im- 
portance; as also a good quantity of lakes whose names may be seen in the 
article on hvdrographv of the Arqentine Geographical Dictionary, by 
Latzina (Year" 1899). 



Mines and MetaUiirg// INTRODUCTION 37 



XII. — 3Iines and Metallurgy 

The elevated regions of the Cordillera of the Andes — which forms the 
backbone of vSouth-America — as also the chains of mountains with their 
numerous and complicated topographical reliefs and the ramifications whicli 
exist in the Andine provinces, from the extreme south of Bolivia to the south 
of ^lendoza as well as the national territories of Xeuquen, of Chubut, of 
Santa Cruz and of the Tierra del Fuego down to the extreme south of the 
Republic, that is to say down to Cape Horn, are known as regions which 
contain a great quantity of minerals, such as are found in the more 
central provinces like San Luis, Cordoba, Tucuman and in the territories of 
Central Pampas and the Andes: in this last a great number of borax mines 
exist. The territory of INlisiones has mines of natural copper; but the veins of 
this metal are rare and the copper is found in small deposits. No investiga- 
tion has been made on this point: but as formerly it was occupied by one 
of the principal settlements of the Jesuits and as it is known that they posses- 
sed great quantities of gold, it is generally believed that the mines that the 
Jesuits owned were closed at the time of their expulsion. There has been no 
serious and continuous exploration made in this region and it is probably 
because of that, that the gold mines at this point have not yet been discove- 
red, though quarries have been found from whence the building materials 
can be extracted. 

Since far distant times the mines in the Andine provinces have been 
worked, specially in the north of the RepubUc; it is recognised that at the 
time of the domination of the Incas and the Aztecs great quantities of gold 
and silver and other metals were obtained from different regions more to 
the north, as it is easy to prove it by the remains which still exist in many 
places; but it is a w ell-known fact that up to the present time it has not been 
possible to discover the rich mines from whence the enormous quantities 
of gold that are known to have been found have come. 

Nevertheless there are not wanting traditions to allude to localities where 
it is supposed that these mines are hidden. It would not be difficult in fact 
to write a book on the abandoned gold mines that are said to exist in diffe- 
rent parts of the Republic. It is a Icnown fact that several companies have 
been formed to look for the lost gold mines, especially one of the best indi- 
cated, that in the mountains of Famatina in the province of Rioja. The 
time when these explorations of the mines were begun in the Argentine Re- 
public cannot be exactly determined: but the remains of certain special 
kinds of antique pottery show ^yithout doubt that the mining industry has 
existed there for a long time. We can then be sure that it was very advanced 
in that period of civihsation which can call itself the first epoch of mining 
industry. 

We may consider that the second epoch began with or after the Spanish 
conquest, as is shown clearly by the important works effected by Pizarro in 
the silver mines of Pizco and afterwards in the rich mines of Potosi. 

The vSpaniards continued to work the mines, and the operations that they 
attempted for this purpose, as well as the enormous quantities of precious 
metal extracted from the mines led the king of Spain to promulgate a law 
of the mines known under the name of Ordenanzas de las Minas. 

It is curious enough that, according to a document in the possession of 
the author of these lines, the king ordered the closure of all the gold and 
silver mines which existed in Spain. This law was in force in South America 
for a long time and in the Argentine Republic until 1887, the time of the pro- 
mulgation of a new law for the mines. 

After the declaration of the independence of the Argentine Republic the 
mines were taken some notice of, and work was done at intervals when the 
peace of the country allowed it. It is believed that the first registration of 
the mines was begun in 1810 by the viceroy Raltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. 
The registration was closed in 1825 and is now to be found in the official 
Archives of the province. The two Jesuit brothers, Leita and Echevarria, 
Aragons, who came to this country to look once more for the lost gold mines 
of the Jesuits in Famatina, province of La Rioja, figure on the Register as 



38 INTEODUCTIOX Mines 

asking three concessions of silver mines in the district of La Caldera, on 
the 31st. August 1810, although Martin de Moussy in his History of the Re- 
public has denied their existence. 

The provinces possessing mines are: Mendoza, San Juan, Catamarca, 
Salta, Jujuy, Tucuman, Cordoba, and San Luis. 

In all tlrese provinces with the exception of that of Tucuman concessions 
of mines have been accorded to several individuals; but many of these con- 
cessions are bound to be abandoned, because they have been obtained in or- 
der to make a speculation of them and not to be seriously worked. 

The principal metals obtained in the veins of the mines of different 
districts consist of gold, silver, galena and argentiferous lead, mixed some- 
times with antimony zinc and iron. No important iron mine has been disco- 
vered up to now, but mines of bismuth, copper and coal, lignite, rock-salt, 
etcetera, exist. The borax mines are found in the northern part of the Repu- . 
blic, that is to say in the pro\-inces of Salta, of Jujuy, and in the territory of 
the Andes. There exist also many other metals of commercial value which 
could be employed in building, in works of art, and for paving. In some 
mining districts such as the mountains of Famatina, copper mines abound, 
some of the veins of copper being mixed with silver or gold; they have been 
worked at intervals for a long time with good results. The same class of 
metal is found in the mining districts of San Juan, ^lendoza and Catamarca. 
One of the principal companies of this last province has worked mines of 
this class, that is to say ore containing gold and silver, in the mountains 
of Capillitas. This company was represented by Mr. Samuel Lafone Que- 
vedo, who, during about 35 years has had in his charge the direction of the 
mines and of the metallurgy in the district mentioned. The foundry which 
is near Pilcian, at a considerable distance from the mines, constitutes the 
biggest establishment of its kind in the whole of the Republic. 

The ore was transported by mules and smelted in the said establish- 
ment. Reverberatory furnaces were used, and the gold, the silver and the 
copper were refined to a high standard, and they as well as the inferior part 
of the copper obtained a high price in the English market. 

The mines and the establishment of which we have just spoken passed 
to an English company formed to work tlie mines and smelt the minerals 
in furnaces of various systems. This company has begun and made prelimi- 
nary studies in order to construct an alambre carril to transport economically 
the minerals from the mines to the smelting establishment. 

This alambre carril is divided into 4 sections, so that the company is 
able to transport all the minerals that it needs. More to the west in the pro- 
vince of Catamarca there is a long chain of mountains more or less parallel 
to the chain of the Andes where there are various districts which contain 
minerals, but which have not been worked properly. It is hoped however 
that with good railway communication in this province the various mining 
districts that it contains could be worked with profit. 

Tlie province of Rioja, to the south of Catamarca has always been consi- 
dered one of the principal producers of minerals of the Republic. 

In it is the famovis Mountain of Famatina, where several mining districts 
exist which contain minerals of dilTerent classes. Some of the districts, such 
as Cerro Negro, Calderas, Tigre, etc., contain silver mines of different types 
and qualities but the decline in the price of this metal has caused the owners 
of these mines to abandon the workings in several parts. With better means 
of communication it is beyond doubt that many of these silver mines could 
be worked. The principaf copper mines of this pro\ince are situated in the 
Mountain of La Mejicana, more than 18,000 ft. above sea-level. Probably 
the richest of the latter mines is that of <'Upulungos» which was worked for 
several years by Mr. William Trelvar: the ore was then transported to the 
establishment of Tilimuque to be treated. The ore was smelted in the rever- 
beratory furnace with a resultant high percentage of pure metal: it contained 
at least 60 to 65 "^o of copper with a fairly high proportion of gold and silver. 
In the good seasons the regnhis obtained good prices in the English market. 
Mr. W, Trelvar possessed also copper mines of great importance in a district 
called Rayos and now a shaft is being dug to commence upon some of the 
ACins in the district of San Pedro. 

This vein of ore contains a great quantity of copper, of gold and of 



and Metallurgi/ INTRODUCTION 39 

silver. In the region called El Oro> where there are many mines of this mi- 
neral, only a little one, that called Snn Giiillermo is being worked. In that of 
Agua Xegra, the copper mines are also worked. In several parts of Corrales, 
Rio Blanco, etc., there are mines which have been worked; it is believed 
that the most important is the Mariposa de Oro. 

In former times some exploiting was attempted in the region of Los Llanos. 
The mines are of a mixed kind, and the veins appear to contain copper, gold 
and silver. Recently they have awakened a new interest. Several years ago 
they were worked in the mining district of .laque near Vinchina, princi- 
pally those which contain copper, cobalt, and nickel. Lately tliese mines 
have been once more placed in a working condition. The most important 
exploitation is that of Messrs. Gare and Erickson. 

In 1904 La :Mejicana was put into a condition to be exploited. This mi- 
ning district belongs to The Famatina Copper and Gold Syndicate which 
has begvm this exploitation on a considerable scale with German capital. 
This company has already opened various galleries, and in this manner new 
veins have been discovered. About 300 miners are employed and the pros- 
pects are encouraging. Other mines in this district are also worked, they 
belong to M. .J. Cibils Buxarco; the mineral is smelted in the same place as 
the workings are. In the district of La JMejicana 50 concessions, more or less 
have been exploited, but now that the cable carril has been installed there 
is no doubt that the number will continue increasing, and that the mining 
industry in this region will take a great step forward. 

The next region, the nearest, going toAvards the North, is that of San 
Juan, where various concessions have also been accorded, but the number of 
those actually worked is comparatively few; the means of communication, a 
good market, and conveniences being lacking, as well as sufficient capital. 
A gold mine abandoned some time ago by an English company was subse- 
quently opened afresh by a French engineer M.^abatier who employs the 
process of cyanide for the extraction of the gold — a process which has given 
him some good results. 

The province of Mendoza is also remarkable for the different classes of 
mines which it contains. In this province only a few mines are worked at 
great intervals. There are petrol deposits, coal, copper and silver mines and 
a manganese mine which contains some gold; the best of these mines belongs 
to Dr. Salas; its ore is of a good quality and by a happy chance the che- 
mist of the Casa de la Moneda has discovered that the ash of this coal con- 
tains vanadic acid in a sufficient quantity to make from it a product of great 
value. 

The provinces of Jujuy and of Salta have a large number of gold mines, 
of copper, silver and some veins of auriferous quartz as well as deposits 
of lignite and of borate of limestone. The mines of borate of limestone, in 
this province, are worked by a Belgian Company with profitable results. 
The continuation of the Central Northern Railway as far as Bolivia will 
without doubt bring about a great mining development in this region. 

In the province of Tucuman there exist traces of an ancient establishment 
for the exploitation of mines of gold and silver which however have not 
excited attention. The mines of the province of San Luis have also been 
worked by some Argentine and foreign companies; but for these also the cost 
of transport was too high to leave an appreciable profit which would permit 
of continuing the exploitation on an extensive scale. The mines of galena, 
of copper and of gold arc those which predominate; there are also some de- 
posits of manganese. The mines of C6rdoba were sufficiently renowned in 
the past, but for various reasons the work in these mines was suspended. 
Lately, however, they have again attracted attention and a strong company 
has been formed at Buenos Aires in order to construct some establishment 
to smelt the minerals extracted from the mines of Cbrdoba and other pro- 
vinces. It is believed that this movement will give a great impetus to the 
mineral and metallurgic industry of the region. 

.\s we have already said there exists in the territory of the Andes a num- 
ber of estates which contain borate of limestone. This mineral is of very 
good quality; but the usual method of transport by mule is dear and uncer- 
tain; and in consequence tiie working of these mines, and the transport of 
the raw mineral to Europe does not allow of a large profit. Nevertheless if 



40 INTRODUCTION Mines 

the mineral was calcinated as at Jujiiy and in Chili no doubt the profit 
would be higlier. In the territory of the Central Pampas formerly various 
copper mines had been conceded; but they remained un worked: lately they 
have been applied for afresh and conceded. 

In the territory of Xeuquen there is a great mining movement; there 
have been many concessions and the majority of mines are being worked. The 
placers of gold (auriferous sand) and of auriferous quartz and the mines of 
galena are especially exploited. Many years ago coal of good quaUty was also 
found there, and for the purpose of exploiting the deposits of coal several 
concessions have been applied for. Probably we shall shortly hear them 
spoken of as a new discovery. 

In the territory of Rio Negro various mines have been conceded, and in 
that of Chubut the number rises to about 2,500; but these placers of gold 
have never been thoroughly examined even when a London syndicate 
sent several mining experts to attempt it. As generally happens, the little 
capital sent by the syndicate was absorbed before they were able to under- 
take any serious work. It is believed, nevertheless, that these mines will 
shortly arouse a new interest. In the territory of Santa Cruz and of Tierra 
del Fuego it is thought that there are some gold mines, and several of them 
have been examined. 

There is also in view the dredging of several watercourses in the South 
with special machines for the extraction of the gold which it is supposed must 
exist there. Encouraged by the results obtained in this dredging a company 
has been formed in Buenos Aires in order to explore and work the auriferous 
sands of various river-beds in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, La Rioja, and 
San Juan, with machines of the most recent type. The company has obtamed 
rights on several rivers of these provinces. 

In Buenos Aires also a company has been constituted for the extraction 
of salt from the salt lakes, of the province of Buenos Aires, and its operations 
are being effected at the present time on a large scale. The salt is refined in 
order to meet various demands and it has been proved that its quality is 
superior to that of the renowned salt of Cadiz. Therefore the Commissioner 
and the Spanish member of the judges' committee adjudicated to it awards 
in the Chicago Exhibition of 1893, in which the Company gained the highest 
award. The analyses made in this country and in England have proved that 
the Spanish Commissioner was not mistaken. Other salt lakes exist in the 
territory of Chubut; various concessions have been apportioned which were 
afterwai'ds transferred to some companies who ai-e working it. The same 
conditions obtain in the territory of Rio Xegro. 

The Argentine Republic has an immense ai-ea and contains considerable 
riches in mines, which if they are developed in a suitable steady and econo- 
mical manner will without doubt produce good results; but it cannot be 
asserted that all the mines will have an equal value. It is recognised by every 
one who inhabits the country that these mines are the most varied, the 
most extensive and the most important in any region in South America. 
But up to the present the lack of means of economical, rapid and efficacious 
transport from the distant regions where these mines are generally situated 
has caused a loss of ground in the v»orking of them. As the governments of 
the provinces cannot establish a good system of transport the attention of 
the Government has been directed toAvards this important matter. The 
first result of this intervention has been the construction of the cable carril 
of Chilecito in the mountains of La Famatina, in the province of La Rioja. 

In the south of the Piepublic at Comodoro Rivadavia there have been 
discovered some important petrol springs, of which the working, which is 
effected today with powerful machinery by the National Government, is 
destined to make a veritable economic revolution in the Republic, if, as 
everything leads one to hope, it is produced in the proportions which are 
expected. 

Up to the present only official workings have been sei'iously undertaken 
at Comodoro Rivadavia where the springs were discovered in December 
1907 by a boring of 540 metres known as Number 2; as for Number 1, made 
in 1904 to a depth of 175 metres it was not made with a view to the discovery 
of mineral oil. 

Since then the efforts of the Direction of Mines of the :Ministery of Agi-i- 



and Jletallurgi/ INTRODUCTION 41 

culture have been directed to opening up the springs fully. During the first 
three years and up to the end of 1910, in spite of the few tools and re- 
sources which were at their disposal they made 5 other, among which 
was that contracted borings by for private enterprise, which took fire on 
account of the great quantities of gas encountered at a depth of 180 metres. 
In all the other wells, petrol or gas was met with at depths of 540 metres, 
more or less, and that at last decided the Government to give great attention 
to these new natural riches. It was then that a law authorised the Govern- 
ment to reserve 5,000 hectares of petrolific land, and afterwards, when the 
boundaries of the area were fixed by the decree of December 24th., 1910, 
a commission, charged with the working of the deposits, was appointed. 

As a preliminary measure, the Commission visited the zone indicated in 
January 1911. The general impression of the Commission was excellent, 
when they saw the petrol flowing spontaneously from one of the wells. 
Number 7, an indication so favourable that there no longer remained any 
doubt that they had met with rich petrol-bearing areas and that the produce 
should be extracted by means of pumps. It is due to these impressions that 
the Commission resolutely started to accomplish its task. 

At the present moment (November 1912) the workshops are built, 
worked by a ]Mirlees-Diesel motor of 100 horse-power, which itself uses petrol; 
the warehouse depots, the buildings for the administration, those for the 
chief officers and for the workmen have also been built The old wells have 
been cleaned, and Numbers 8, 9 and 10 have been bored, all with suc- 
cess. Already at Comodoro Rivadavia there are 2 reservoirs of 6,000 cubic 
metres out of the four acfjuired, and one is partly fitted out: eight reservoirs 
of from 200 to 400 cubic metres for water and petrol; there has also been 
installed the material for the construction of a quay out to the deep water, 
a work which will be ended next February; 30,000 metres of pipes for 
conveying the water have been transported to Comodoro Rivadavia and 
8,000 metres of them has been placed. 

Resides this, there will arrive before the end of the year 1912 an installa- 
tion of pumps for raising 250 tons of petrol an hour, and others for 
con\ eying the petrol from the secondary reservoirs into the principal ones 
after extraction from the wells with suitable installations. At the end 
of 1912 the wells Numbers 11 and 12 lately begun will be finished, and at 
this date a chemical laboratory will be working under the direction of a 
specialist in order that the composition of the product may be ascertained, 
and finally they have acquired, and in the first months of 1913 will install, 
a distilling works for 100 tons a day destined for the extraction of the vo- 
latile matter of the petrol and to furnish to the navy a product free from 
all danger. 

As to the output of the wells, it is not yet possible to give an exact figiure, 
for, the storing reservoirs not being ready, the Commission has considered 
excessive pumping to be prejudicial, limiting the production to what is 
necessary to satisfy the demands of the Comodoro Rivadavia railway to 
the lake'of Ruenos Aires, which has already received more than 4,000 tons 
of petrol, and those of the establishments wiiich execute the work of explo- 
ration, besides those of the numerous firms who construct internal combus- 
tion engines who have wished to try the production. 

Nevertheless, the commission believe themselves able to affirm that it 
will be possible to extract during the first months of 1913 a minimum 
of 5,000 tons a month. 

Rut the result of the work done has an importance infinitely superior 
from another point of view, for not only have the preceding results been 
tested, but the eflect of the work has been to discover two other layers of 
petrol, the deepest of which at 589 metres has yielded on trial, 10 cubic 
metres of petrol in one hoiu-, and if by the boring, which they are still 
continuing, they discover others, it may be asserted that incalculable riches 
exist at Comodoro Rivadavia. 

To give an idea of this wealth we may say that at Raku the springs, 
which are far from being exhausted, have already produced 15(»,000 tons of 
petrol a hectare, or 133 millions of tons in 888 hectares. If one admits this 
quantity as a maximum for (Comodoro Rivadavia, the 300 hectares of petrol 
already' known would afford a provision of 45 million tons of petrol, of 



42 IXTRODUC TION Agriculture 

which the value, at the minimum price of 20 S a ton, represents 900 million 
pesos, or nearly 2 thousand million francs. 

It may be remarked that these calculations do not include the possibi- 
lity of finding layers of petrol which are lighter, and consequently of more 
value, for this petrol contains greater quantities of naphtha, of benzine, of 
petrol, etc., and that we refer only to an essentially combustible petrol. 



XIII.— Agriculture. 

Those who possess a complete economic and geographical knowledge of 
the Argentine Republic can affirm without hesitation, that few countries 
in the world are in a position analagous to that of Argentina which has ena- 
bled it to convert itself in a short time into a source of European grain supply. 

Argentina possesses an immense and fertile territory (3 million square 
kilometres): it is favoured by a temperate climate, and, in its great territo- 
ry, does not suffer extreme temperatures; it is watered by such great rivers 
that they are like seas, it enjoys the most agreeable and safest navigation 
in the world, which puts it in rapid communication with the centres of con- 
sumption of the Old World. It is admirably adapted to attempting and 
applying all kinds of cultivation. 

In order to appreciate to the full the importance of the extent to which 
agriculture can develop in Argentina, it is sufficient to consider this fact; 
that of more than 300 million hectares which compose the territory, in 
deducting the 30 % occupied by the woods, the rivers, the lakes, the towns 
and the villages, there remain available for agricultural and farming pur- 
poses 200 million hectares upon which 35 to 40 millions of inhabitants can 
live. 

The actual population (January 1st. 1913) of the Argentine Republic 
is 7 1 million inhabitants, and its cultivated surface in cereals and flax is 
11,943,816 hectares, without counting 8,363,216 hectares of other crops, 
which are distributed thus; plants fit for fodder, 7,408,855 hectares; arbori- 
culture, 608,626 hectares; industrial plants, 229,221 hectares; vegetable 
culture, 116,514 hectares. 

One sees how small the cultivated part is and what an unlimited area is 
open for the workers of the whole world who can here find well-being and 
fortune. On the other hand one understands how great the necessity is for 
the Republic to supply by means of immigration, men who are wilUng to 
work the immense spaces of its territory. This also explains why since the 
earliest times of the national organisation the chief preoccupation of states- 
men who have successively governed the country has consisted in attracting 
to this country the surplus of pAU-opeau populations. 

The history of colonisation in Argentina is short, said a competent author, 
but the results obtained show the excellent conditions of the comitry for 
the development of agriculture, from all points of view from which one con- 
siders the question; climate, fertility, the very low price of ground, means of 
communication, etc. 

In Argentina wheat, maize barley, oats, rice etc., are cultivated; the 
conditions of the climate and soil are excellent for maize in all parts of the 
country, but it naturally yields a produce of higher value in the hotter region, 
that is to say in the provinces and territories situated in the North. 

The other cereals yield abundant produce in the provinces of Ruenos 
Aires. Santa Fe, Entre Rios, and Cordoba. They are also cultivated, with ex- 
cellent results although in lesser quantities, in the provinces of Mendoza, San 
.Juan, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, and La Rioja, as well as in the na- 
tional territorio of the South, specially in Pampas, Chubut, Rio Negro, and 
others, because tlie climate of these regions is the best for the cultivation of 
cereals, and their soil is verv fertile. 



Agrieulture IXTRODUC^riOX 43 

In spite of that all the cereals are not cultivated in the same proportion. 
Prelcrence is given to wheal, which occupies perhaps half of the cultivated 
land of the Republic. Maize comes second, and fills a quarter of the culti- 
vated expanse. The other cereals arc cultivated on a smaller scale, and alto- 
gether occupy the other cpiartcr. 

The culture of cereals is carried out in Argentina according to absolutely 
primitive systems. For wheat, for instance, the ground is only prepared 
once a year, in May, .June, or .July; and is at once sown by hand, or by means 
of sowers, employing 60 to 70 kilogrannnes a hectare. 

No other work is done up to the harvest-time, which comes in the months 
of December and January. One portion of the wheat is kept for sowing the 
following year. 

Maize is sown in the spring, that is to say in September, or October, in 
furrows 40 or 50 centimetres apart, and in earth only once prepared. Virgin 
ground is worked twice before sowing. In some provinces the earth at the 
foot of the furrows is burnt, nevertheless, it is a custom which is beginning 
to disappear, because it is believed that it augments the possibilities of 
drought. When the heads of maize are rijie they are gathered by hand, in the 
months of March or April. It is threshed by means of machines worked either 
by hand or by steam: these last are the most used, principally in the province 
of Buenos Aires. 

The harvesting of wheat, of oats and of other cereals is done by means 
of reapers. 

There is no intensive cultivation of other cereals, owing to the scarcity 
of labour and the large tracts of land at the disposal of the agriculturist. 
With those means of culture which are chiefly in use good results are 
obtained, because the ground is very fertile. But if the I^uropean farmer 
who cultivates the soil of Argentina employs more rational and more perfect 
means it is beyond doubt that with a small increase of expense he will 
double the quantity of his produce. 

The production for each hectare naturally varies between one region 
and another of the Republic according to the fertility of the soil, the seeds 
employed, the methods of cultivation, etc. 

In those parts that have been cultivated for a long time, it is certain 
that a limited yield is obtained, although always remunerative because the 
elements of production, and especially the ground, are cheap. In the new 
colonies and in the raticnal territories, formed of virgin soil of a surprising 
fertility, the production per hectare is very great. One can say that the 
maximum and minimum of the production of wheat varies between 4,000 
and 1,000 kilos a hectare and that of maize between 7,000 and 3,000. 

Naturally these maxima and minima vary very much according to the 
source of the seed, the quality of the soil and the latitude. 

Russian and Hungarian wheat, sown in the south of the Republic, have 
yielded almost 1,500 kilos a hectare in the regions of Tres .\rroyos and Coro- 
nel Suarez. French wheat seed has yielded in the south-east of Buenos Aires 
as much as 82 kilos a hectolitre while barlctla has reached in the sout of 
that same province 85,200 kilos, reaped at Las Mariincias, in the region of 
General I.amadrid. At Cordoba, in the departments of Juarez Celman, Ter- 
cero Arriba, Tcrcero Abajf) and Bio IV, the produce upon an average was 
1,200 kilos a hectare and 83 kilos a hectolitre. In Chubut, in irrigated lands, 
86 kilos a hectolitre has been obtained. 

It must not be forgotten that good soil, that is to say lands suitable for 
giving good and abundant harvests arc very common in the Republic, and 
particularly in the southern part. 

Agriculture continually progresses, the production of cereals grows year 
by year; one can tell this by the quantity of agricultural machines imported 
during these last years: 



44 



IXTRODUCTIOX 



Agriculture 



YEAR 



1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
%, 1912 







WINNOWING 






PLOUGHS 


MACHINES 


THRESHERS 


Number 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Nun.ber 


Value 


66,404 


1,240,316 


790 


102,866 


909 


1,657,778 


84,948 


1,308,082 


785 


130,290 


1,136 


1,812,700 


58,196 


1,032,120 


194 


35,773 


490 


687,331 


29,775 


548,198 


98 


39,740 


969 


1,313,107 


69,034 


1,366,885 


240 


95,240 


1,576 


1,183,565 


99,556 


1,870,225 


297 


93,792 


807 


995,840 


83,483 


1,467,837 


286 


23,600 


1,127 


1,177,560 


48,089 


764,228 


606 


13t),624 


477 


585,497 



Thus, during the argicultural year 1911-1912, 11,943,816 hectares of 
cereals and flax were sown, and the result of the harvest for the principal 
cereals was the following: Wheat, 4,523,000 tons; flax, 572,400; oats, 
1,004,000; maize, 7,515,000; barley, 56,546. 

The value of these products was estimated by the Direction of Statistics 
and of Rural Economy of the ^Ministry of Agriculture at 407,692,200 pesos 
paper, or 896,922,840 francs distributed in the following way: 

Wheat 167,361,000 S paper. 

Flax 41 ,488,900 » » 

Oats 24,170,200 » » 

Maize 173,315,000 » » 

Barley 1 ,357,100 » > 

The value of the four principal agTicultural products, wheat, flax, maize, 
and oats, exported during the last four years 1909-1912 has been the follow- 
ing in millions of pesos gold: 



PRODUCTS 


1912 

97-7 
35 1 
110-6 
21-7 


1911 


1910 


1909 


Wheat 

Flax 


80-7 

33-6 

2-8 

11-7 


72-2 
44-6 
60-3 
8-2 


1060 
43-7 


:Maize 

Oats 


58-4 
101 



It is well to notice in passing that the value of the whole agi'icultural 
and pastoral production of the year 1911-1912 amounts, following the esti- 
mate made bv the said oflicial administration, to 1,123,830,100 pesos gold, 
or 5,619,150,500 francs (£ 224,766,020), an amount which is distributed in 
the following way: 

Value of the agricultmal and forest production '')" 2,912,190 

Value of the pastoral production 394,917,910 

Value of the mining production 42,000,000 

Value of shooting and fishing 14,000,000 



An amount which converted into pesos paper, at the rate of 227" 
gives 2,554,159,318 pesos paper. 



Agrieultnre IXTRODUCTION 45 



rulciiliition of tlio Expenses of I^xploitaCioii jhuI ol" the .Xfiriciiltiirul Yield 

It is very difficult to establish a calculation more or less exact of the 
expenses necessary to set up an agricultural establishment, just as it would 
be premature to prognosticate its yield, because all this is subject to many 
different influences which vary infinitely. 

However taking average figures I am now enabled to give, for a family 
of four or five people proposing to cultivate one hundred hectares of wheat, 
the following estimate, for the first year of working. 

2 Sulky ploughs ri28 francs. 

2 triple harrows 198 » 

1 roller 110 » 

1 reaper 990 » 

20 oxen 2,200 » 

2 horses 220 » 

2 carts 880 » 

Harness, chains, tools 220 » 

House, well, enclosure, corral 2 640 » 



Total 7,980 francs. 

(i: 320) 

The family or the colonist who does not possess any capital will easily 
find in Argentina rich proprietors or colonizers who will furnish him witli 
all the necessary animals, as well as the stock of tools, the seeds and the 
necessities of life. After the harvest the seed is set aside, the expenses are 
counted and the rest is divided into two equal part; one is given to the pro- 
pietor and the other remains as a profit to the colonist. It is in this fashion 
that the greater part of the immigrants have begun to earn money which 
has permitted them afterwards to become proprietors. 

If it is a case of immigrants with no family there is another form of 
working which also gives them excellent results: they settle with a colonist 
who is possessed of a certain amount of capital, as people interested in culti- 
vation, lending their co-operation from the time of the preparation of tlie 
ground (April) until the threshing. They receive, in payment of their ser- 
vices board and lodging plus (i or 7 *'„ of the raw produce of 100 hectares. 
They place out at interest the sums thus received during 3 or 4 years, and 
'then find themselves in a position to buy the necessary implements to be- 
come tliemselves holders of land. Three or four years later they buy land 
for which they pay pro rata, and are not long in becoming proprietors. The 
people who, in this way, are successful in acquiring vast expanses of land 
and have realised large fortunes, may be coimted by hundreds. 

When he has succeeded in becoming a proprietor the Argentine colonist 
or farmer has before him an assured future, because the profits which he 
obtains each year increase continually in geometrical progression, provided, 
of course, that he is not pursued by ill-luck, which is rare. To give an idea 
of the net profits it is possible to obtain I have made out the following cal- 
culation which, based on figures subject to some variations gives only an 
approximation, it is true, but one wliich is nevertheless of great value. 



46 IXTRODUCTIOX Breeding 



Approximate Calculation of Expenses and of the Produce of 100 lieetares 
sown witli wheat. 

Expenses'. 

Preparation of the ground, 2 dressings and 1 scraping, 100 hectares 

at 7*04 francs 704 

Sowing: distribution of seeds & scraping, 100 hectares at 0*88 francs. 88 

Seed: 6,500 kilos at 22 francs per 100 Idlos 1,430 

Harvest: mowing & cocl<ing, 100 hectares, at 13*20 francs 1,320 

Threshing: 120,000 kilos of grain at 2*20 francs for 100 kilos 2,640 

Sacks: 1,500 at 0*44 francs each 660 

Transport: to the depot, the port or the station, 120,000 kilos 

at 1-10 francs per 100 kilos 1,320 

Rent: 100 hectares at 26*40 francs (about) 2,640 

General expenses: repairs, stock of tools, amortization, management, 

machines, etc 1,320 

Total Expenses 12,122 

(£ 485) 

Receipts: 

Sale of 120,000 kilos of wheat at the rate of 15-40 francs per 100 kilos. 18,480 
Deduction of expenses of cultivation 12,122 

Net profits for the colonist 6,358 

(£ 254) 

The above named figures correspond to the estate «La Vizcaina» situated 
in the province of Bolivar, which is composed of 50,000 hectares of land 
given up to agriculture: it is the lai-gest agricultural estate in the Republic 
which belongs to a single person and is rented by a single tenant. It should 
be remarked that on the whole the country is high, it has never suffered 
from an invasion of locusts: that the layer of soil is thick and that the estate 
possesses within its bounds two railway stations besides a third one situa- 
ted 4 kilometres away which enormously facilitates the harvest freighting 

This statement does not exactly depict the situation of the farmer, for 
land destined for agriculture is let out for four years, and four years can give 
as many as 6 harvests (3 of wheat and 3 of maize) which diminishes the ave- 
rage expenses and in proportion increases the profits. 

As regards flax, one can use the same table, estimating the 100 l^ilos of 
seed at 9 pesos (20 francs), and the cost of threshing each hundredweight 
at 2-65 francs (1*20 S). 



XIY.— Breeding. 

After having spoken of agriculture and of its future, we should mention 
the second source of wealth of the Argentine Republic: Breeding. 

As a result of the rapid increase in the value of. the land, of the multipli- 
cation and the selection of cattle, the old methods of breeding underwent a 



Agricultural work. — Ploughing. 




Herd of heifers of pure race by cross-breeding. 
The establishment of Mr. J. Cobo. 




Herd of pure-bred cows. — The establishment of Mr. J. Cobo. 




Yorkshire mares and foals. — Establishment of Mr. J. Cobo, 



, — ■ - 


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^m \ 


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I 4 J 


^mSk^r^ ^^"^mlst 


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3 



Country scene. — (Province of Buenos Aires.) 




A herd of cows.— Establishment of Mr. J. Cobo. 



Breeding TNTKODUOTTOX 47 

radical Iransformalion tliroughout the c»ninliy several \ ears ago. The tra- 
ditional cslancid where the aiiiiiiais were pastured on vast tracks bounde<l 
Willi wire feacing, exposed to all inclemencies of weather, and having no pas- 
turage but the poor grass of the pampas, the cstancia, we say, is rapidly deve- 
loping into the carclullv-kept farm where artificial meadows and lucern- 
fields which sometimes reach the size of 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 hectares 
and more, are being created; that is to say, dimensions which appear extra- 
ordinary to a European. > 

The'scientific rearing and breeding of animals and the cultivation of the 
enclosed land, says a distinguished writer, has created a true pastoral 
industry (1). 

Stables and shed replace the old <'Corral». From the railway station the 
rich owner drives in a carriage to his estancia; the old and rustic dwelling 
has been converted into a country house, sometimes even into a castle, with 
its park and its garden. Some estancias exist about a hundred leagues from 
Buenos Aires which were veritable deserts in the hands of the Indians, and 
to-day are crossed by carriages harnessed in the English style, and 
where the owners receive their gues^ts in sumptuous dwellings where they 
dine in e^■ening dress. The European breeders have made the <gaucho» 
retreat to the confines of the desert. 

Nothing is more difTicult — and we will not make the attempt — than to 
say which are the most important breeding centres of the Republic, as re- 
gards their extent, the number and the kind of their animals, or the magni- 
ficent residences which their owners have erected there. \Vhat is certain is 
that these establishments may be counted by hundreds and even by thou- 
sands. 

However, although exposed to inevitable omissions we will cite the 
Estancia San Juan, founded by M. Leonard Pcreyra, at 40 kilometres from 
Buenos Aires; the Estancia San Jacinto, of Mrs. JNIarie Unzue do Alvear; 
the Estancia La Gloria, of the estate Santa Marina, situated at Laprida; 
the Estancia Huetel, of IMrs. Concepci6n Unzue de Casares; the Estancia 
.San Jacinto of M, Saturnino J. Unzue; the Estancia Las Palmas, of Colonel 
Alfred T. d«e Urquiza; the Cabaiia San Grcgorio, of the estate of Mr. Gregorio 
Villafane; the Estancia San Pascual del IMoro of Messrs. Adolfo and Rufino 
Luro; the Estancia Chapadmalnl, of Miguel Alfredo Martinez de Hoz. 

In all these establishments and in many others whicli we have not men- 
tioned in order not to extend this enumeration, thanks to the intelligent 
efforts of their owners to introduce into the country the best breeds of cattle, 
of sheep, and of horses from the most renowned lunopean establishments, 
one can see to-day breeding animals of great value, selected or imported by 
methods which have brought the stock to a high degree of perfection. 

All the breeders, even the smallest, have understood the great advantages 
which the selection of their animals by cross-breeding brings them, and that 
has caused considerable progress in the breeding. 

The statistics of importation for the last ten years are as follow: 



(1) M. P. Groussac, oCostumbres y Creencias populares de las Provin- 
cias Argentinass lecture given at the World's Congress of Chicago, June 
4th. 1893, and published in La Nacidn of October 23rd. 1893. 



48 



IXTKODrOTION 



Breeding 



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51 f5 





Value of ihe land 



TXTROnuC'TIOX 



49 



Tlieso fif^ures reveal l)y thoniselves the iniportaiicc wliieli the Argentine 
breeder attributes to the improvement of the t)recd of his animals. The prices 
paid for these animals are sometimes exaggerated, for 10,000 pesos, or 88,000 
francs have been paid for a bull; but the owners willingly go to this expense 
in the certainty that such progenitors will bring them considerable profits. 

The space at the disposal of the development of breeding in the Argen- 
tine Republic is still almost unlimited. In order to convince oneself of this, 
it is enough to remember that, on the 120,000 square leagues of the land 
two thirds, or about 80,000 leagues are lit for breeding and for agriculture. 

Of this immense expanse 30,000 square leagues may be cultivated at 
once with cereals and fodder in the coast provinces, in that of C6rdoba, and 
in the territory of the Pampas. There will remain then 50,000 leagues ex- 
clusively for breeding without counting the millions of animals which can be 
fed in the cultivated district on the intensive breeding principle. This area 
will allow of the existence of 10 million horned animals and of 200 million 
sheep. 

As to the stock of cattle of the Republic, the last serious and official in- 
ventory of which we know is that of the Agro-Pastoral Census of 1908, voted 
by the'Congress and executed by a Commission presided over by the author 
of these lines. 

This stock, according to a report of the General Direction of Statistics 
and Rural Economv was composed of the following seven principal species, 
on the 31st of December 1911: 

Species Number 

Oxen 28,786,168 

Horses 7,531,376 

Mules 465,037 

Asses 285,088 

Sheep 80,401 ,486 

Goats 3,915,086 

Pigs 1,403,501 

During the last four years the export of the principal products of breed- 
ing is represented by the following figures in pesos, gold: 



PRODUCTS 


1912 


1911 


1910 


1909 


Wool 


60-7 
40-6 
115-7 


50-5 
S9-1 
106-3 


58-8 
32-1 
96-4 


59-9 




27-1 


Other products 


92-1 



As to the number of living animals exported during the last five years 
they have been as follows: 

1908 882,362 Heads. 

1909 1,113,953 » 

1910 1,230,438 » 

1911 1,472,732 » 

1912 1,496,500 » 



XV. — Value of the land. 



Nothing is more difficult than to determine the value of the land in a 
country in the making like the Argentine Republic, where it undergoes con- 
siderable increases from one moment to another, not only owing to the 
general progress but also on account of sjiccial circunstances. such as the 



50 . IXTRODUOTION Vnlue of 

conslrucUon of a railroad, good harvests etc. In the same region, in the same 
district, t^Yo neighbouring fields have often a different value and this depends 
on the fact that they have or have not permanent water, that they are more 
or less good for agriculture, more or less near to a railroad, to a station, to 
a centre of population. 

For some years two new factors of increase in value should be added: the 
cultivation of lucern-grass and the existence of quebracho wood. 

When account has been taken of the great, the fabulous returns which 
fields of lucern give, every buyer of ground for agriculture finds out in the 
first place if there is water near at hand, that is to say if the supplies of sub- 
terraneous water are near the surface, for upon this the existence of the field 
of lucern depends for several years. If the investigation shows that there is 
water, the land acquires by this one fact an enormous value, compared with 
that which it would have if it was not fit to take lucern-grass. 

An important paper published at Buenos Aires in EngUsh, the Standard, 
said a short time ago that the prices of land in "Victoria (in Australia), where 
a hectare is worth from 270 to 560 irancs, compared with the prices paid for 
land suitable lor being so^^Tl with lucern in the Argentine Republic, that is 
to say in the south of Cordoba and at San Luis, where there is no invasion 
of rabbits or of drought, and which are half-way to the European markets, 
bring out the insignificant value of land in the Argentine. Even when they 
are situated near raihvav stations one can buy them for 55 or 66 francs a 
hectare (1). 

In order to justify this statement, the Standard made the following cal- 
culation: if we suppose an expenditure of 19'80 francs as the cost of sowing, 
of cultivating, etc., for one hectare of land (including the sowing of lucern 
at 9'SO francs for 10 kilos), the result is that the hectare comes to 74'80 
francs or 85'80 francs and the square league of lucern (work of one year and 
a half), at 198,000 francs on an average. Add 22,000 francs for fencing and 
irrigation, and the price of the square league of lucern comes to about 220,000 
francs. 

Here, now, is the return which this league may give, still according to 
the English paper: within this space one could put 4,500 three-year-old 
oxen to graze, buying them at the price of 110 francs and selling them again 
at the end of seven months at 198 francs; thus there would be a profit of 
88 francs on each animal or 396,000 francs gross profit, and deducting 
176,000 francs for expenses (the freight is 13 francs 20 per ox) there remains 
a net profit of 322,000 francs a league each year. If these are the results 
which the transformation of a piece of uncultivated land into a field of lucern 
can produce, it is not astonishing to see rural property becoming so quickly 
and so extraordinarily valuable. 

As for the quebracho, a very hard wood useful for building and giving 
an excellent tannin, the same phenomenal result is obtained. After having 
ascertained the considerable profits which are given by the making of the 
extract of quebracho and the splendid dividends distributed by the compa- 
nies which work it, seekers of business, desirous of applying their capital 
to fruitful enterprises, hastened to acquire quebracho forests, and from this 
it resulted that the price of these suddenly rose to heights until then 
unknown. Lands situated in Chaco, a region where quebracho abounds, and 
which, one year before, were sold at 2,200 francs a league (2,500 hectares) 
rose to the price of 22,000 francs, and this last price should not be conside- 
red as final. 

That which happens with lucern-grass and quebracho, also exists, though 
on a smaller scale, in the cultivation of wheat and flax, when after a fruitful 
harvest, the labourer or the farmer gets the necessary money to buy the 
field which he has cultivated, and pays a good price for it. There are some 
elements which go against all calculations made in advance and they do 
not permit one to decide the approximate price of land easily. 

A the present time there does not exist any basis upon which to fix this 
estimate. A field which is sold to-day for 60 francs a hectare, may be sold 

(1) To facihtate the comparison with the price of land in other coun- 
tries we have changed in this chapter the price into francs, the paper pesos 
being calculated at 2-20 francs. 



the land I X T il (J 1) U ( 'T I () X 5 1 

tomorrow for eighty, and the day after tomorrow for more than a hundred, 
and so on until it fetches a price wich puts the first vendor out of countenance 
and gives liim also the sad conviction that in selHng his land he has made a 
very bad bargain. For this reason the best thing to do at present is not to 
sell. 

The rise in value of rural and urban property has continued for more 
than forty years, and although there may be great fluctuations in the 
price, the basis of valuation has always been constant, this is owing to the 
increase of the population, to the consolidation of the political institutions, 
and, thanks to the very extensive railways, to the international tralTic which 
has attained a wonderful development, and, as a natural consequence, to 
the considerable increase of public riches. 

To judge correctly the whole importance of this increase in value one must 
turn back to the more than modest prices of rural property before the 
time when the range of prices was fixed. To confirm this statement it will 
suffice to recall that in the year 1879 in order to procure the funds necessary 
for the expedition which General Roca directed against the Indians of the 
desert, an expedition which resulted in the conquest of 24,000 leagues of 
land (GO million hectares), the Government offered for sale a large stretch 
of land at the price of 2,000 francs a league (2,500 hectares), payable in five 
years. But the decrease in value of these lands was so great, the belief that 
they had in being able to make them pay so uncertain, that very few accep- 
ted the offer. ]\Iany did it more from patriotic motives than as a remunera- 
tive investment. Others acquired the lands in order to pay a mark of personal 
deference to the men who were at the head of the Government. Now, one 
and all have been abundantly recompensed, since many of the lands that 
they bought for 880 francs a league are sold to-day at 660,000 and 880,000 
francs. More than one of the large private fortunes which exist in the country 
have been made in this way. 

This state of depreciation of rural property continued for ten years to 
such an extent that in order to mitigate the effects of this crisis before the 
debacle of 1890, the Government, which managed the affairs of the country 
so unfortunately had the unlucky inspiration to offer for sale in Europe in 
pursuance of the law of October loth., 1889, these same 21,000 miles of hmd 
wrested from the savages by the expedition of General Roca. The sale was 
effected at the price of 10 francs a hectare, half to be payable in cash and the 
rest two years afterwards. No limit was put to the power of acquisition of 
each buyer. The latter could acquire as much as his resources allowed of. 
The law, in order to palliate this incredible performance, promised to devote 
the total product of tiie sale to the conversion fund for the redemption of the 
celebrated guaranteed bank-notes. 

Happily providence, which lias more than once shown special pro- 
tection to Argentina, prevented this disastrous alienation of the lands from 
taking place. If it had been otherwise, the Republic would have sold for a 
mess of pottage a magnificent part of its territories, capable of sheltering 
more than one European nation and which would perhaps be to-day in the 
power of a foreign company or Government, thus causing the establishment 
of a new State within the State. 

The decrease in value of rural property still continued for some years. 
So in 1897 the Government sold to the highest bidder a large part of these 
better lands at a price of 1 peso 50 centavos a hectare (3,750 pesos a league); 
payable in five years with the option of paying in title decils which then 
cost about 75 to 100 pesos (1). 

This situation went on until 1902, a time which coincides with the solu- 
tion of the old question of the boundaries of Argentine and Chili, with the 
yield of abundant harvests, with the great development of breeding, first by 
the export of animals, and then by the sending of great quantities of 
frozen meat to the English markets, anil finally and above all by the stabi- 
lity that was given to the paper money by means of wliicli all interior com- 
mercial transactions arc rflected — by the Law of Mnnclarij Conversion. Then 
there was a frank and decisive movement for the valuation of real estate 
property in general, and of rural property in particular. 

(1) Tiie paper was tlien worlli 1"71 francs (Is. 5(1.). 



52 IXTEODUCTION Value of the land 

Since this movement began, the value of the land has increased, leaving 
the last price obtained well above the previous price, which seemed, if not 
final, at least stationary. In consideration of this fact, it is worth while to 
ask if this advance responds to permanent and justified causes, or if it is 
only the effect of a foolish speculation, which affected the real estate pro- 
perty, as, at another time, it affected the paper money. 

In reply to this question, 'Sir. Roman Bravo, one of the men of Argentina 
who know best all the sides of the complicated question of the valuation of 
the land — for he directs the firm which conducts the greatest number of 
transactions in this class of business — has summed up at our request, in the 
following terms, the causes which actually determine the advance which the 
value of the property has sustained (1). 

«The economic position of the country shows at each step signs of pro- 
gress. The growth of ports, the extension of the railways, the distri- 
bution of canals, the development of building in the principal towns of the 
Republic, all these show the spirit of enterprise which animates at the present 
moment the individual and the whole. Commerce and industries in full 
vigour come, for their part, to reinforce these elements of prosperity and 
well-being. 

»But where the best view of the material expansion and the intensity of 
the forces at work is made, is in the affairs of the soil. Without going back 
to the year 1904, it will suffice to refer to the transactions gone through in 
the first six months of 1905 to state that not only in the capital of the Re- 
public but also in the national territories and in the provinces, the period has 
been fruitful from the point of view of real estate. Since 1889, there has not 
been another more active, and, this time, the facts have an explanation, a 
logical and natural sanction. Breeding and agriculture have increased the 
sources of the national riches in such great proportions that, in a few years, 
the balance in favour of the country rose to nearly 100 million gold pesos. 
There is the effective cause of the increase in value of the land, a cause 
to which can be added the confidence we all have in the gradual development 
of the energies that work sets inaction in the favour of public tranquillity. » 

One of the most surprising examples of the increase in value of the land 
and the interest which its acquisition awakens is given us by the public 
official adjudication of the national lands, which took place in April, 1905. 

These sales took place for the account of those who had bought these same 
lands in analogous circumstances in 1897, and who had not paid in the terms 
stipulated by the law. Whatever, in the new auction, surpassed the price 
established at the time of the first sale, interest and other expenses having 
been deducted, belonged, according to the law, to the original buyer. The 
auction took place in the presence of a large company, composed of specu- 
lators, of capitalists, and of workers eager to place their money in a good 
investment, since in Argentina people are convinced that the best form of 
economy is the acquisition of land. The result of this auction was that in 
several sales double the original price was obtained, in others three times 
and even five times the value was paid. 

W^e will give as information some of the later sales of land either for 
agriculture or for breeding, sales effected in 1910 in various provinces: 

PROVINCE OF BUENOS AIRF:S: Department of Almirante Brown: 
145 hectares, 1,164, situated near :Marmol station (Southern Railway), 
sold at the price of S 3,101 a hectare. Department of Moreno: 144i hectares, 
situated at 30 ciiadras to the North-West of the village of the same name, 
soid for S 800 a hectare. Department of La Plata: 1,591 hectares, near to the 
Villa EUsa, sold at S 272 a hectare. Department of San Andres de Giles: 
1 ,186 hectares, situated 4 cuadras to the West of Espora, S 341 a hectare. 
Department of .lunin: 5,270 hectares, half a league to the South-West of 
Laforcade, S 131 a hectare. Department of Bahia Blanca, 6,219 hectares 
at 25 cuadras from Naposta, S 127 a hectare. Department of Trenque Lau- 
quen: 12,685 hectares on the banks of the river Egide, S 111 a hectare. De- 
partment of Saavedra: 4,752 hectares 2 leagues Iron Goyena, S 70 a hectare. 



(1) The business done by this auction house during the first six montJis 
of 1905 amounted to 27 million of paper pesos (59,400,000 francs). 



Colonisation IXTRODUCTIOX 53 

Department of Tandil: 633 i liectares at S 195 a liectare. nepartinent oT 
Guamini: 2,700 hectares at ^S 89. Department of Pergamino: 582*^ hectares, 
situated near to Rancagua, at S 265 a hectare. Department of Las Heras: 
334 hectares, situated at 30 cnadras to tlie North-West of Urrihelarrea, at 
S 190 a hectare. Department of Campana: 174 hectares on the Rio Parana, 
at S 524*20 a hectare. Department of Puan: 2,500 hectares near to Villa 
Iris, at the price of S 60 a hectare. Department of General Villegas: 2,000 
hectares at 2 leagues to the North of Villa Mauricio, at S 97'50 a hectare. 
Department of Balcarce: l,853t hectares at 4 leagues North-East of Balcarce, 
at the price of S 210 a hectare. 

PROVINCE OF CORDOBA: Department of .Juarez Celman: 4,909 hec- 
tares situated 2-k leagues to the North of Laboulaye, at S 65 a hectare. De- 
partment of General Roca: 4,363^ hectares at S 55 a hectare. Department of 
Tercero Abajo: 675 hectares, 9 leagues to the north of Villa .Maria, at the 
price of S 200 a hectare. Department of Rio Segundo: 675 hectares at S 160 a 
hectare. Department of Rio IV: 851 hectares at >> 16 a hectare. 

PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO DP:L ESTERO: Department of 28 de 
Marzo: 7,499^ hectares, at S 14 a hectare, and 6,508 hectares, situated near 
to the Station Seh a, at the price of S 37 a hectare. 

PROVINCE OF SAN LUIS: Department of La Capitale: 6,500 hectares 
at S 30 and 2,500 hectares at La Portefia, at the price of S 31 a hectare, 

PROVINCE OF SALTA: Department of Oran: 163,662 hectares at the 
price of $ 1'64 a hectare. 

PROVINCE OF LA RIOJA: Department of La Capitale: 15,800 hectares 
at S 4 a hectare. 

NATIONAL TERRITORY OF CENTRAL PAMPAS: Section VIII 
Fraction B.; lots Numbers 20 and 21: 15,000 hectares at S 18. 
There are also some lands at S 4 or 5 a hectare. 



XVI. — Colonisation in the Argentine Republic. 

The pleasing impression that is experienced in going over the Argentine 
country is so great, and it is so beautiful to see the work of colonisation which 
rapidly transforms the desert and covers the plains, until then void, with 
golden ears, that we put before the eyes of the reader of this Baedeker, like 
cinematographic views, some of the pictures which this progress presents. 

In the journey that we have just undertaken in the diflerent zones of the 
Argentine territory, we have found colonies of all kinds: and even we who 
thought to have set a geographical limit to the plough, since two years 
ago we established the centres of colonisation on the borders of Cordoba and 
vSan Luis, we have been surprised by this progressive advance of individuals 
who, defying the indolence and pessimism of «estancieros» used to «dolce 
far niente>> have forced the ploughshare in to zones considered un til tlien 
sterile and unproductive. 

We do not wish to speak of the provinces of Buenos Aires and of Santa 
Fe where the agriculturist has been for many years; these two provinces have 
only increased their cultivation without encountering dilTicuUies and in 
obedience to a law of expansion which lills those who have studied the de- 
velopment of this region with astonishnienl. But I wish to speak of the Pam- 
pas and San Luis. 

If several years ago one had asked any one of the Basques who rented 
lands in Section 1 or 2 of Central Pampas, if they were any good for any- 
thing else but pasturage for sheep, it is certain that the Basque would have 
laughed heartily and replied maliciously with some Basque slang expression 
with which he was familiar. 

At that time the lands were worked by primitive systems and the owners 
of 10 and 12 leagues did not sow artificial fodder for the winter for fear of 
losing the seed. It is true that this system did not demand uuicli [lersoual 



54 INTEODUCTJOX Colonisaiion 

labour. With throe stations one could look alter leagues ol land. The property 
was cheap. The sheep were born without one's bothering onesf If 

When colonisation extended and people began to cultivate the lands 
of Carlos Casares, of Pehuajo, of 1 renque Lauquen, Guamini and Drysdale, 
the agi-arian proprietors, those who, in a manner so little profitable, had 
worked the ground, had to Tesign themselves to being turned out. They gave 
place to agriculturists to whom they prognosticated that their work would 
be useless because of the bad quality of the land and the caprices of the cli- 
mate of the region. 

And this is the occasion before going any further to congratulate warmly 
the body of hardy workers, of veritable pioneers, who, without taking notice 
of pursued auguries of evil with faith and confidence, the titanic work of trans- 
forming the desert. 

Salliquelo, the great colony founded by Mr. Stroeder in the lands of 
Unzue, was followed by the colonics of Pichi Mahuida, San Antonio, Sol de 
Mavo, Catril6, Santa Elvira, of Messrs. P.olla, Spinelli and ]Mioglini, proprie- 
tors of the enterprise of colonisation 7? z'o dc la Plata, then the special colo- 
nisation of Messrs. Drysdale Bros, of 20,000 hectares situated on the boun- 
dary of the province of Buenos Aires and of Central Pampas. 

From Catrilo to Santa Rosa de Toay all is colonised at present; the pro- 
gress of this region is principally due to two intrepid Italian agriculturists, 
Messrs. Scala Brothers, owners bf a great colony situated at General Uri- 
buru (F. C. O.). 

To the north of Santa Rosa de Toay, there are also little stretches of 
land used for agricultural purposes, and it will not be long before the Pacific 
Railwai) completes, as it is announced, the prolongation of its line as far as 
Mendoza and belore the whole of this rich region, will be agriculturally 
worked, as soon as it has a gieat port for the purpose of exporting its pro- 
duce to foreign countries. 

The fertility of the land which is cultivated in this zone is enormous, 
although the price is still low in comparison to what it will be later owing 
to the great demand of the colonists, to its nearness to the great port of Bahia 
Blanca, and to the circumstance that it is rarely invaded by the the locusts 
which cause so much damage in the north. 

The principal colonies founded in this zone from Trenque Lauquen to 
Santa Rosa de Toay, are: the Colony Martin Fierro: it is composed of 15,000 
hectares. It has been sold by public auction to colonists, in small allotments; 
the Colony Drysdale: 20,000 hectares partly rented to and partly farmed out 
bv the agricultural colonists, who cultivate it at the rate of a\3out 200 hec- 
tares a family; the Colony Catrilo: 12,500 hectares divided into lots of 100 
hectares sold to colonists by the colonisation enteri)rise Rio dc la Plata; the 
Colony San Antonio: a league owned by the same company divided into sniall 
lots; the Colony Santa Elvira: 10,000 hectares: the Colony Sol de Mayo: 
2,500 hectares; the Colony Pichi Micua: 2,500 hectares of the same company 
sold to the farmers. 

The greatest stretch of land rented after that of Mr. Victorino de la 
Plaza, is that formed by the Francois Murature Colony, of the colonisation 
company Bio de la Plata, a colony of 27,500 hectares which is to-day entirely 
in the hands of the colonists. 

In a corner of this colony at the spot called *La Pulas the colonisation 
company has built a village in order to olTer facilities to colonists for making 
purchases, and in order that they may not be obliged to go Salliquelo or 
Catril6 to make them. 

Colonisation also extends to the points nearer to Bahia Blanca, as IriSj 
Alba, Bernasconi, etc. 

As one sees, the Pampas, far from being unproductive lands, as they 
were supposed to be net long ago, are to-day a centre of agricultural produc- 
tion, principally of lucern, fodder which grows and nourishes there with 
surprising results. The Pampas will be shortly the granary which provides 
the greater part of the world with cereals, when the proprietors of great 
stretches of land will divide them to allow them to be cultivated. 

We will now go to the south of the province of Cordoba, one of the richest 
zones, and at the same time until recently one of the least known in the 
Republic. 



ColonUalioh 1 N T E OD UCT 1 U X 55 

Speaking oiographically it is one of the most suitable zones for agricul- 
ture because it has a level surface with a soil formed of rich vegetable earth 
and with fresh water near the surface. 

The best lands of the region arc found in the department of Rio Cuarto. 
Ambroise Olmos' heirs have a large expanse there, entirely suitable for agri- 
culture. 

To the north of the principal railway line from Buenos Aires to the Pa- 
cific (station Mackenna) stretch remarkable lands belonging to Dr. Nicolas 
Avellaneda (about .^.6 leagues) which were largely let to breeders who paid 
500 to 800 pesos a year for a league. 

These fields, almost forgotten by their owners, attracted the attention of 
some of the colonists wlio determined to break them up; this commenced 
with El Tape, wliich has an area of <S leagues and is near to the line ol the 
Andine Railwaij from Villa Mercedes to i^io Cuarto. 

This ground, to-day the colony Maria Adela, was followed by the colo- 
nies of Maria Blanca, Cchslina, Domingo Fimen, Leona and Saltefia with a 
total area of 7.5,000 hectares. 

The construction ol the new branch line from Mackenna to Sampacho 
facilitates the colonisation and the sale of these lands very much, in which 
flourishing villages, with their corresponding stations, have sprung up. 

The lands ac(iuired by the River Plate Company «Rio de la Platan and 
directly broken up were La Leona and some others granted by ]Mr, Domini- 
que Funes, who died lately one of the most wealthv landlords in tliat coun- 
try. 

.\11 this zone, as far as the boundaries of Rio I' has the same appear- 
ance, the land becomes a little more sandy over an area of about 2 or 3 leagues 
on both sides of the river. Notwithstanding that, many prefer to purchase 
land for the cultivation of lucern which yields an incredible yearly produce 
because its root has the water -very near (1'50 meters deep)' and the plant 
never dies even during the greatest drought. 

The fertility of this soil is such, that some husbandmen affirm that they 
have had a wheat hai-vest without any rain during a whole year and only 
with the aid of the morning dew. 

One can really say that if husbandmen were to develop all their activity 
in the Argentine and have the necessary foresight which they show in other 
places where the yield of the land is not so generous, they would obtain 
very e?vtra ordinary and surprising results that would largely compensate 
their eflorts. But the agricultural work here, develops amidst a certain 
indolence created by the astonishing productiveness of the land. 

In the Northern part of Mackenna, in the province of San Luis many 
trials of colonisation have been made with the most satisfactory results. 
Villa Mercedes and its environs provide corn for the consumption to a por- 
tion of the Northern region ot San Luis and Mendoza. 

JMessrs. Castafios y Marino's mill which is very important, works day 
and night to provide San Luis and some other small towns in the province 
of Cordoba. 

San Luis is a veritable garden thougli many people in the Republic 
do not believe it: and amongst those persons are to be found, by an irony 
of fortune, the very natives of this province, who have been the lirst to 
discredit the excellence of its soil for agricultural purposes and the last to 
incorporate themselves in the colonial movement which has transformed 
this pro\ ince and has made the soil extraordinarily fruitful. 

The road from wSan Luis to Ikiena l-lsperanza is full ol cultivated lands 
amongst which the lucern abounds. 

During the last years this ^ast region has been considerably colonized. 

The «Buena l\speranza) composed of 130,000 hectares of excellent land, 
a colony founded by one of the most progressive men which the Republic 
has ever had, Mr. Lrnest Tornquist, unfortunately dead, is being entirely 
sold in small lots. 

The «Fortuna», anotlxcr valuable estate situated at the South of Buena 
Esperanza is destined for the same purpose as well as the numerous lands 
bordering on the Western and Pacilic Railway lines. 



56 INTRODUCTIOX Population 



XVII.— Population. 

The two chief factors in the growth of the Argentine population have 
been and are now still, that of the difTerence between the births and deaths 
and that of migration, that is to say, the surplus of the entrances over the 
departures from the country. 

With regard to the first there is no complete statistical information to 
estimate it in the past: but owing to the disastrous hygienic conditions of 
the urban districts, which are demonstrated by the numerous epidemics 
which have devastated them, the want of rational knowledge of bringing 
up children and on the other hand, the wars and the interminable revolu- 
tions that have taken place during many years one is not making a rash 
statement in affirming that this growth must have been very slow. 

However, in proportion as the country has been populated and civilized 
and as the above-mentioned causes have been modified, the vegetative 
growth of the population has been remarkably improved and it can be 
asserted now, with the statistical information at hand, that it is one of the 
highest known. 

Comparing, in fact, the growth of the ponulation in the whole Republic 
between the 1st. .Alay, 1895 (3,954,911 inhabitants), and the 31st. Decem- 
ber, 1912 (7,570,400 inhabitants), it can be seen that this growth, in the space 
of 17 years has been of 3,615.189 inhabitants and that three-fifths of 
this growth have been caused by the excess of births over deaths; the re- 
maining two-fifths being the excess of the immigration over the emigration. 

With regard to the growth of immigration it is well to call to mind 
a historical fact viz: that the first human populations which were imported 
and which preceded the great current of free immigration that llowed into 
the ports of this country three centuries later, were composed of negro 
slaves from Africa. 

There are three races that have taken part since then in the moral and 
physical genesis of Rio de la Plata, says General :Mitre, the European or 
Caucasian, as an active part, the native or American, as auxiliary, and the 
Ethiopian race as a complement. I'rom their fusion has resulted that ori- 
ginal type in which the European blood has prevailed by its superiority, 
regenerating itself constantly by immigration, and beside which that 
other mixed race of negro and white improving and assimilating the physi- 
cal and moral quahties of the superior race has grown. 

As regards the white element, very few men came to the River Plate 
during the first days of the conquest on account of the severe penalties 
under pain of whicli entrance was prohibited. We have no information about 
the exact number, but by means ol some fairly exact suppositions one 
can form an idea of the insignificant proportions that the immigration of 
European white elements assumed during that period. 

In 1744 there were 356 Europeans; in 1770, 456 foreigners and 1398 
Spaniards (I-:uropean). But when the revolution broke out, in 1810 the bar- 
rier which prevented the entrance of Europeans was removed and the lat- 
ter began to flow in in large numbers. In 1822 there were 3,749. The dicta- 
torship of Rosas also drove away the foreign element, but upon his fall from 
power and the establishment of a regular Government in 1852, the immigra- 
tory movement commenced again with more force. In 1854, during the se- 
cond quarter 2,524 men entered; in 1855, 5,912; in 1856, 4,672; in 1857, 
4,951; in 1858, 4,658; in 1859, 4,735; or during the 6 years, 27,452 immi- 
grants, that is, a great many more than the number of immigrants who en- 
tered during the twp centuries of colonial life. 

We do not consider it useful to weary the reader with the exhibition ot 
the partial figures which relate to the movement of immigration year by 
yeai-; it will be quite sufficient to say that from 1857 to 1912 inclusive, there 
entered the Republic 4,248,355 inunigrants from differentsho res; and that 
from 1871 (the year in wliich tlie recoiiUug of statistics was commenced) 



Fopulatiou IXTKODIJCTION 57 

to 1912 inclusive, 1,290,208 emigrants took their dci)arliire l)y the same lines. 
'J'hcre remain therefore, 2,058,1 il persons. 

Here are, as an indication, some numbers taken from some official sta- 
tistics that show which are the European countries having contributed on 
a large scale to maintain the current of immigration towards the Argentine. 

Immigration as per nationalities from 1S57 to 1012 inclusive: Italians, 
2,133,738; Spaniards, 1,207,802; French, 20(i,012; English, 51,660; Austro- 
Hungarians, 80,736; Germans, 55,068; Swiss, 31,624; Belgians, 22,186; other 
nationalities, 368,529. 

As will be seen hereafter in the table that ends this chapter, the growth 
of the population of the country has been very unequal in the various 
regions. Thus, it results that the provinces of the cast coast alone, 
possess 5,1 12,500 inhabitants that is, 68 per cent of the total population. 
Amongst the figures in that table, those of tlie cajiital, Buenos Aires, at- 
tract particularly the attention with its 1,126,500 inhabitants. 

But this disproportion In the growtli concentrated in Fiuenos Aires and 
the bordering regions to the detriment of distant regions is destined to dis- 
appear or at least to modify itself with the progress of agriculture and 
cattle-breeding which require more and more people every day. 

Happily for alK the ethnical composition of our i^opulation does not 
make us fear any complication between the races as is the case in certain 
countries, for instance in the I'nited States, and which is the cause of deep 
discord. Here we do not know anything about the Indian, Negro or Chinese 
problems. The Indians who live amongst us have been converted to the 
Catholic religion and have adopted its humanitarian principles; many of them 
have been killed by consumption and the rest have been incorporated 
in society as a powerful working element. The negroes who lived in the 
territory have been almost entirely eliminated according to that inflexible 
biological law which condemns the inferior organisms. During the struggle 
for independence they were the allies of the whites and they shed their 
blood on the same battlefields, but they... have disappeared. The yellow 
race has not yet come to knock at the door of the Bepublic, but in case it 
should, this door would remain closed to them, lor the Constitution imposes 
on the Government the duty of favouring white inmiigration against yellow. 

The basis of the population is luiropean, as anyone can see by the 
information given about immigration. All the civilized races of the earth 
have met here. We are not aware of any antipathy of race nor of any reli- 
gious antipathy either. But carrying out Sarmiento's programme, we say 
to all men who wish to settle on our soil: «Tliere exists here a whole 
•America with only one language, rivers and lands lor every onei>. The funda- 
mental code allows access to olTicial employment as well as to the profes- 
sions to all inhabitants, and the social customs open the doors of the fa- 
milies to every one who calls. Thus, on account of the composition of the 
population, tlie spirit of the legislation, and the hospitable customs of the 
inhabitants, the most modest man is able, like a drop of water in the depths 
of the ocean, lo rise to the surface by his own effort and shine in the 
pure light of the sky. 



58 IXTIIODUCTION Area and PopulaiiGn 

Area and Population of the Argentine Republic (1st. January, 1913) 



PROVINXES 
AND TERRITORIES 

I. — East and East. Coast 

1. Capital 

2. Buenos Aires 

3. Santa Fe 

4. Entre Eios 

5. Corrientes 

Total I 

II. — Centre: 

6. Cordoba 

7. San Luis 

8. Santiago del Estero . 

Total II.... 
III. — West or Andines: 
0. Mendoza 

10. San Juan 

11. La Rioja 

12. Catamarca 

Total III 

IV. — North: 

13. Tucuman 

If Salta 

15. Jujuy 

Total IV 

v.— Territories: 
I. — Northern. 

16. Misiones 

IT. Formosa 

18. Chaco 

II. — Cen.ral. 

19. Pampa 

III.— Western. 

20. Neuquen 

IV. — Southern. 

21. Rio Negro 

22. Clmbut 

23. Santa Cruz 

21. Tierra del Fuego... . 

Andes 

General total . . . 



Square km. 



Population 



186 

305.121 

131,906 

74,571 

84,402 



596,186 



161.036 

73.923 

103;016 



337.975 



146.378 
87!345 
89.498 

123.138 



446,359 



23.124 

161,099 

49.162 



29.229 
107.258 
136,635 

145,907 

109,703 



196,695 

242,039 

282.750 

21.499 



1.426.5W 

2.078,0a^ 

908,300 

388.1(Xl 

341.600 



Inhabitants 

to the 
square km. 



5.142.50<J 



.885,620 



625,70) 
123,100 
225.6m 



974.400 



245.000 

125.000 

93.a30 

114.000 



577.00) 



320.000 

190,000 

64,0)0 



574.000 



45..500 
17,0)0 
35,000 



95,000 

30,000 

35.0K) 

32,OX) 

7. OH) 

2.50) 

3.000 



7,570,40) 



7,669-4 
6-8 
6-9 



Edncaiion TXTPtODrrTTOX r)0 

XVIII. — Educational, Charity an<I Correctional 
Establishments. 

In the Argentine Republic the schools, prisons, hospitals, etc., are, for 
the most part, model estal^lishments which deserve to be visited by all 
of a scientific and philantropic bent. With regard to the manufacturing esta- 
blishments they are generally distinguished by their practical organisation 
and great production. 

-4. — Educational Establishments. 

Public instruction in the Argentine Republic is divided in three parts: 
primary, secondary and superior. The Government has introduced lately 
agricultural, industrial and artistic instruction. 

Primary instruction is compulsory for all children from 6 to 1-1 years 
of any nationality whatever. The schools are secular but that does 
not prevent the dilTerent ministers of public worship from teaching their 
religion out of class hours to the children whose parents wish it. Besides the 
public schools there are many other private ones under the inspection 
of the Ndtional Education Board (Consejo Xacional de Educaci6n). The 
instruction given at the public schools is gratuitous. In the provinces where 
there arc not sufficient funds to cover the expenses of primary instruc- 
tion the Government allows a subsidy in accordance with the laws. According 
to a recent law known by the name of Lainez Law the Board of Education 
can create and support entirely primary schools in all provinces, and that 
is what it is now doing. In tiiese same schools there are special classes 
for persons over 14 years of age, which are given during the day or in 
the evening, where arithmetic, reading, writing, elementary history, 
geography, etc., are gratuitously taught. Secondary instruction is not com- 
pulsory. In practice, it is gratuitous, for the only expenses are the fees for 
the annual examinations. The instruction given at the secondary schools 
consists of Spanish grammar and literature, philosophy, arithmetic, geome- 
triy, algebra (elementary), rectilineal trigonometry, physics, chemistry, na- 
tural Sciences and ancient, modern and contemporary history as well as 
modern languages, the teaching of which is higly developed in this coun- 
try. These schools or secondary colleges are 6 in number in the Capital and 
there is one in each province. 

.Since the foundation of the secondary schools the Ministry of Public 
Instruction has recognised the necessity of creating libraries in connection 
with these schools, as instruments of intellectual culture. These libraries 
are open to the public and any books can be borrowed if sufficient gua- 
rantee is gixen to the Head-master of the College. All the schools are also 
provided with a laboratory and a cabinet of physical and geometrical instru- 
ments, they also possess specimens for the study of natural sciences, nu- 
merous geographical maps, etc. 

The pupils enter generally between the ages of 12 and It and remain in 
these colleges 5 years. When these studies are finished in the national colle- 
ges, the pupils follow the courses of the difTcrent faculties in the universities. 
There are three of them in the Republic, that of C6rdoba, the most ancient, 
and those of Buenos Aires and La Plata recently founded. 

In these faculties are taught medecine, law, engineering, philosophy 
and arts. The medical courses last 7 years and those of other sciences 
6 years. 

A short period of study is required for the professions of chemist, mid- 
wife, dentist, surveyor and architect. The title of escribano publico (equi- 
valent to that of a notary public in I^ngland) is not given by the University 
Council, but by the Sunreme Court o/ Justice after an examination duly 
passed before the same. For the title of Doctor of Science (Physics, Natural 
Science, Alathematics) it is necessary to undertake other studies. 

The teachers in these different schools are persons competent to fulfill 
their duties. Many of them have passed through the Superior Normal School 



60 I>;TR0DUCTI0^" EducaUon 

which was founded in 1904 for Ihe professorship of the secondary schools. 
The others come from the normal schools. 

These are of two kinds: Elementary and Superior or Escnela de Alaes- 
iros and Escuela Normal de Profcaorcs. The instruction in these schools is 
absolutely gratuitous. In the first the courses last four years and in the se- 
cond six. Beside the technical instruction given in these schools considerable 
importance is attached to physical exercises. There are in the whole Re- 
public: 17 normal schools for women, 5 for men, one of them being of a 
higher grade and situated in the Federal Capital, and 12 mixed ones. The 
latter are situated in the provinces. 

For technical instruction there are several establishments created and 
supported by the National Government. The most important amongst 
them, are the Escuela Xacional de Comercio where commercial experts, 
translators and accountants are prepared: the Escuela Nacioncd de Comercio 
for young women where they receive an education which fits them for follow- 
ing the commercial profession; the Escuela Industrial de la Xacion, with 
proper worldng premises founded in 1897 with the object of giving to the 
young men who wish to study in it (281 in 19(»5) a theoretical and practical 
preparation suflicient to allow them to solve by themselves the technical 
problems most frequent in mechanics, building and chemistry, thus ena- 
bling them to become competent assistants to engineers, architects and direc- 
tors of industrial establishments; the Colegio Pio IX de Aries ij Oficios 
(Arts and Trades) founded and governed by the Salesian Fathers; the Fa- 
culty of Agriculture annexed to the University of La Plata; and the Faculty 
of Agriculture, dependent upon the University of Buenos Aires the building 
of which deserves to be known by all educated men and especially those de- 
voted to Agriculture and interested in its improvement; the Escuela de las 
Minus de San Juan; the two Escuelas de Comercio of Bahia Blanca; the Es- 
cuela de Viiicultura de Mendoza where the practical cultivation of the vine is 
taught; the Escuela de Pilotos; the Escuela Projesional de Mujeres (Women's 
Professional School) which turns out annually a number of women expert in 
the branches of «lingerie», ironing, glove-making, artificial fiowers, em- 
broidery, needlework, and artistic decoration; the two Escuelas Culinarias 
(Cookery-schools) for ladies, one of which is supported by the Sociedad de 
Santa Marta and the other by the City. The Government has also founded 
several Agricultural Schools for the study of AgTiculture and Horticulture. 
There is also an Escuela M Hilar and an Escuela Xaval which are respec- 
tively under the War Office and Admiralty. 

The are several important buildings for instruction in the Fine Arts, 
varying according to the different branches. 1-^or the teaching of draw- 
ing, painting and sculpture there is the Academia Xacional de Bellas Aries. 

Musical instruction is given by several Conservatoires, the most im- 
portant of which are the Conservalorio de Buenos Aires, the Conservatorio 
Argentino and the Conservcdorio de Santa Cecilia, frequented by numerous 
pupils. 

Besides these, the Argentine Government allows a great many bursaries 
(scholarships) to young men going to study m France, England, Italy, 
the United States and Germany. 

The young men who study in the private colleges are able, under 
conditions imposed by the Minister of Public Instruction, to pass their exa- 
mination in the National Colleges and obtain thus the necessary qualifica- 
tions to allow them to pursue their studies in the Universities. 

As will be seen, public instruction has greatly improved lately in the 
Argentine Republic. 

Any one desirous of knowing more details may read the «General Census 
of Education in the Argentine Republic) published in 1910 under the di- 
rection of D. Alberto B. Martinez. 

School Buildings. — For Public Instruction there are in the City of Bue- 
nos Aires numerous special buildings which, on account of their size, artistic 
value and comfort, and the materials employed in their erection, may be 
mentioned as real models of their kind. A visit to these establishments 
should be made. 

Amongst those especially remarkable are: the Escuela Rivadavia (Calle 



Prisons; Asylums I XT R ()D UCT 1 OX 61 

Bolivar, 1225); the Escuela Belorano (Snrmiento ^.'il.'i); tba Ksciicla Prcsi- 
dente Roca (Libertad and Tucunian), and tlio Escuela Sariuicnto (Callao 450). 
All these buildings attract the attention of visitors for their architectural 
beauty and their internal arrangement. 

The buildings containing the Escuela Zorrilla (Avenida de la Republica 
and Libertad), the Escuela Avcllaneda (Talcahuano and Viamonte); the Es- 
cuela General Mitre (Sarmiento and Centro America); the Escuela Pringles); 
the Escuela Belgrano (.Juramento and Cramer), and many others are also 
very noteworthy. 

In the month of May, 1902, the National Board of Education opened 15 
new and beautiful buildings for schools, many of which seem real palaces 
for their capacity, their beauty and the line architectural taste displayed in 
their construction. 

In Buenos Aires everything that concerns public and normal education 
is placed under the charge of a Conseio Sacional, which has been provided 
by the laws with special funds and a relative autonomy for their management. 

The evening schools for both sexes as well as those which belong to 
the army under the superintendence of the Consejo Nacional have 1912 
students in the capital which are comprised amongst the numbers already 
given. 

Amongst the private educational establishments those which call for 
notice are: the Colegio de San Jose, Azcuenaga 104; the Colegio del 
Salvador, Callao 542; the Colegio Lacordaire, Esmeralda 650, all of them 
for boys. The Colegio del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, Callao 1270; the two 
Colegios de la Santa Union de los Sagrados Corazones, Bivadavia 4871, and 
Esmeralda 739; the Colegio del Sagrado Corazon (Caballito, Victoria 4350), 
these four for girls. 

The private colleges, if they want to be incorporated among the national 
establishments must prove that they have competent professors in suffi- 
cient numbers; that they possess the instruments required for the study of 
sciences, and that they follow the educational programmes of the Natio- 
nal Schools. As soon as they are incorporated they are placed under the 
superintendence of the Conse/o Nacional de Educacion (National Board of 
Edducation). Visitors can see them by applying to the Board. 

In order that foreign readers may have a perfect idea of the conside- 
rable pecuniary efforts made by the Argentine I^epuhlic for the improve- 
ment of Public Instruction in all its degrees and forms, allow me to remind 
them that in the budget for 1913, the Public Instruction expenses amount to 
125,400,000 francs (£ 5,016,000), 99 million of which are devoted to ele- 
mentary education irrespective of the sum allotted to the provinces. 

The expenses for higher education amount to 13,822,952 francs (£ 552,918) 
and those belonging to the secondarv and Normal Instruction to 42,401,894 
francs (£ 169,635). 

B. — Prisons, Reforma lories, and Asylums. 

Prisons. — In Buenos Aires, the Penilenciaria Nacional where the system 
of isolation is not rigorously followed; this prison is situated in Calle Las He- 
ras 1580; on the 1st. of Januay 1913. there were 790 prisoners and accused 
persons under remand.^Co.sa de Correccidn para Muieres ij Menores (Befor- 
matory for Women and children), calles San Juan and Balcarce. — Carcel de 
los Encausados (Prisoners Waiting for Trial), calle Pasco, between Armenia 
and Caseros. 

In the Province of Buenos Aires, in Sierra Chica (Olavarria) there is the 
Penitentiary of the Province. — In Ushuaia, in the territory of Tierra del 
Fuego there is an establishment for prisoners sentenced to penal servitude.— 
In the island of Los l^stados, there is another one for the same purpose. 

Lunatie Asylums. — The only establishments of this kind existing are 
in the city of Buenos Aires and may be considered as model asylums. There 
names are: the .4si7o Xacional de Alienados, Brandzen 2200, and the Hospicio 
de las Mercedes, calle de Vieytes 301. In Lujan (Western Railway), there is 
an Open Door for lunatics under the direction of the Hosi)icio de las Merce- 
des. There is another one in course of erection at Oliva, in the province of 
C6rdoba (Central Argentine Railway). 



62 INTEODUCTIOX Tndusirial 

Doaf and Duutb Asjiisms. — Inslituto Nacional de Sonlo-mudos, Defensa 
llG.j-llT'J; Inslilulo de Sordo-Miidofi, Santa Fe 2858; Colegio de la Merced, 
Rcconquista 269. In these three asykims they follow the oral method. 

Blind Asyhims.-~In the Asilo de Iluerfanos (Mexico and .Tujuy t. — Ins- 
lituto Nacioncd de Ciegos for men aiid women (Rivadavia 6293). 

Other Asyhims. — Asilo de Mendigos (for beggars), Jum'n 2000; Asilo de 
Invalidos, Azcucnaga 1651; Asilo de Huerfanos (orphans),]\Iexico 2650; ^.sj- 
los de Maternidad (Lying-in Hospitals): del Korle, Paraguay 1252; del Snr, 
Tacuari 1620; del Oeste, Moreno 1859; Asilo de la Misericordia, Azcuenaga 
1648; Asilo de Infantes Abandonados, (Foundling Hospital), Belgrano 1685; 
Casa de los Infantes Asistidos (Home for Poor Children), Avenida Montes 
de Oca 150. 

Reformatories for Minors of botli sexes. — In the city of Buenos Aires 
the Asilo del Buen Pastor, San Eduardo 749, serves as a prison for minors 
sentenced by the judges. In JNIarcos Paz (Western Railway), the Colonia 
Nacional de Correccicn de Menores. In Claypole (Southern Railway), there is 
the Escucla Agricola Industrial, supported by the Society for the Protec- 
tion of Children. 

XIX. — Industrial Establishments. 

I. — Metallurgy and Building Materials. ^ — Mosaic: Arquim- 
bau and Salgueiro, Gaona, 1028-36; Furia Aquiles, Case- 
ro«, 3061; Benito Spinedi and Brother, Callao 660-66; Mar- 
clieselli Alberto, Montes de Oca, 1580; Enrique Pasi, Carlos 
Calvo, 3741; Qiiadri Martin, Clnibiit, 150-168; Florindo 
Manglii, Bernardo de Irigoyen, 1433-1439; Moore and Tu- 
dor, Maipii, 138. Mechanical Tin-plate and Printing on metals: 
A. J. de (I'ampo and Co., Estados Unidos, 1064-66; Julio 
Montaron, Garay 2344; La Acero Platense, production and 
Manufacture of Steel and Iron plates, Patricios 1959; La 
Cantabrica, Agricultural implements and iron and steel 
factory, Martin Garcia 665 and Espana 180. — Metallurgic 
Factory: Baillet F., Billingliurst 1352; Berger and Co., 
Paseo Colon 1380-1384; Blengino and Co., Brasil 833; Bo- 
lens, Montevideo 917; Buicli and Solari, Paseo Colon 1047; 
Caudano Fernando, Velez Sarsfield 163-167; Coppola Bro- 
thers, Bustamante 590; Delest, Lavalle 504; Fay and Casaz- 
za. Dean Funes 449; Fontana Brothers, Isabel la Catoli- 
ca 60; «Fundici6n Inglesa», Almirante Brown 340-360; Gen- 
tile Alfredo, Dean Funes 1328; Gibellia and Co., Mexico 3241; 
Gourinski Leon, Azopardo 1349; Hollmann Brothers, Yiey- 
tes 1273; Koch and Co., Serrano 574; Lugand Enrique and 
Co., Rio Bamba 841; Marjoribanks James, South bank of 
the Riachuelo; Merlini Pedro, Larrea 530; Mollon Adolfo, 
Rioja 1977; Questa Luis, Bulnes 250 and Potosi 3742; Rae, 
Jensen and Co., Corrientes 4233; Rezzonico Alberto and Co., 
Presidente 851; Salerno Roque, Australia 1056; Serre Bro- 
thers, Defensa 453; Sociedad Anonima Talleres Metahirgi- 
oos, Avellaneda; Stordeur, Alsina 2440; Vasena Pedro and 
Sons, Cochabamba 3055; Yen ier Paul and Philippe Levy, 



Estahlii^hmeyiis JXTRODUCTTOX 03 

Eivadavia 3077; Iron and Hroiize Foundry, and Woik.sliops 
<'La [Jni6n», Conientes 40r)6. - Medal Factoiies: Gos- 
tiizzo Juan and Co., Salguero 155; Ilorta and Co., Bartolome 
Mitre 744; C. and A. F. Rossi, Corrientes 4059. Scale 
Factories: Soresina and Colombo, Defensa 578; Maximo 
Mensaghi, Corrientes 2381.- Mechanical Carpenters and 
joiners: Louis Laverdet, ^^anta Rosalia 516-518; Martinez 
and Soclias, Rincon 657 and Mexico 3925.- -Kitchen Utensils 
Factory: Quito Baima, Cevallos 1636; H. P. Carstens, Santa 
Rosalia 414; Savio and Manghi, Belgrano 925. — Safe Fac- 
tories: Adolfo Bash and Co., Bartolome Mitre 472; Gus- 
tavo Bash, Sarmiento 494; Piuri and Colombo, Bernardo de 
Irigoyen, 1331. 

II. — Boots and Shoes. — Marti Brothers, Victoria 1099; 
Larrechea Brothers, Mendez and Co., Padilla 2050; «La Pla- 
tense», Salta 610; Pagola, Martinez and Co., Cochabam- 
ba 2860; Rodriguez, Marti and Co., Anchoris 225; Coopera- 
tive Footwear Society, Ltd., Montes de Oca 1786. 

III. — Carriages and Coaches of all Kinds. — Fegling Bro- 
thers, Bernardo de Irigoyen 745; Brague Brothers, Avenida 
Alvear 1622; Maturro and d'Allessandro, Solis 2153; Rohr 
and Capocci, Gallo 2019; Wal G. Gross and Co., Alsina 2049. 

IV.— Brushes.— Prahl and Co., Entre Rios 1993. 

V. — Breweries. ^ — Quilmes, Brasil 731; Biekert Ltd., Sar- 
miento 2827; Buenos Aires (Soc. Anon.), Cavia 260; Rio 
Segundo (Soc. Anon), Bartolome Mitre 349; Palermo (Soc 
Aiion.), Coronel Diaz 600; Germania (Soc. Anon.), Rivada- 
via 1068. ^ 

VI. — Tobacco. — Aime and Co., Tobacco Importers and 
Snuff Manufacturers, Bartolom6 Mitre 2158; Alvarez and Co., 
(Cigarrette Factory Trade-mark «Centenario»), Peru 752; 
F. Bernardez, Paseo de Julio 674; «Compania Argentina 
de Tabacos«, Humberto I 2001; «Compania General de Ta- 
bacos», Mexico 3486; «Compania Introductora de Buenos 
Aires», Avenida de Mayo 1083; Molina and Co. (Cigarettes 
«Tres Coronas» and «Neapolis»), Esmeralda 155; Piccardo 
and Co., Defensa 1278. 

VII. —Glass and Crystal.— Rigolleau Crystal Co., Ltd., 
Belgrano 550; Vicente Moglie and Co., Sarmiento 929; R. 
Pirlot and Sons, Acevedo 2415. 

VIII.— Leather. ^ — Walter Bergner, Defensa 335; A. Bu- 
tavand and Co., San Juan 1228; «La Erica», Monroe 1378: 
Mazzucchelli, Casals and Co., Belgrano 2371; Christian Sie- 
burger, Republiquetas 2055; Miguel Stecca^ Frias 181. 

KAKDKKKT!.— 8 



64 INTRODUCTION Jndusir. Esiahlish. 

IX.— Distilleries. — <(Cusemer», Ltd., ,^alta 1827; Pini, 
Brothers and Co., Saenz Pena 1066. 

X. — Electricity. — German Transatlantic Electrical Co., 
Sarmiento 971; The Rio de la Plata Electrical Industrial Co., 
Belgrano 432; The Anglo-Argentine-Electrical Co., Esmeral- 
da 188; The Argentine Electrical Co., Esmeralda 188; Empre- 
sa de Luz y Fuerza, Sarmiento 961; La Electrica del Norte, 
Lavalle 472; Siemens, Scliuckert and Co., Sarmiento 652; 
«Luz y Tranvias del Norte», Esmeralda 188; South American 
General Electric Supply Co., Sarmiento 531; The American 
Electrical Co., Reconquista 524. 

XL — Furniture. — L. F. Bottini, Cangallo 829; Georges 
Huguet, Santa Fe 1268; Kerrin and Hudson steel furniture, 
Tucuman 737; Jose Luraschi, Suipacha 284; Maple and Co., 
Carlos Pellegrini 328; Inocencio Rillo, Cangallo 645; H. C. 
Thompson and Co., Carlos Pellegrini 380; Fonterosa and Co., 
Alsina 1630; Hermann H., Estados Unidos 1022; Vicente 
Lupis, Salom 432; Molina and Co. (bronze fittings), Esme- 
ralda 155; Jose Pique, Sarmiento 1158; Waiss and Scornick, 
Bernardo de Irigoyen 1124; Donnell and Palmer, Moreno 562. 

XIL— Clothes.— Angel Braceras Ld., Cevallos 343; B. 
Belinky, Yerbal 6201; "S. Borok, (rubber articles) and Co. 
(shirts), Cabildo 549; Berger Curt and Co. (shirts), Es- 
meralda 184. 

XIII. — Hats. — Paul Brousson and Co., Estomba 2854; 
«Compania Nacional de Sombrereros», Uspallata 1112; A. 
Dominoni and Co., Monroe 1687; Charles Lagomarsinb 
and Co., Junin 51. 

XIV. — Textile Goods. — Baibieneand Antonini,Bartolome 
Mitre 972; Gratry American Establishments, Cangallo 466; 
The Buenos Aires Importation Co., Avenida de Mayo 1083; 
Bautista Comte and Co., Rivera 1679; Ashworth and Co., 
Herrera 1515; Barlaro Jose and Sons Monteagudo 661; 
Dell'Acqua Enrico and Co., Correrto Rivera and Darwin; 
Moreira Jose, Sons and Co., Humahuaca 1221. 

XV. — Dyers and Cleaners.— «Los Mil Colores», Conort 
and Fernandez, Herrera 572; «Tintoreria Nacional», Dockir 
A. and Co., Garay 1332; Duhalde, Pourtal^ and Co., Suipa- 
cha 140; «Lavadero y Tintoreria de Flores», Terrero 1640; 
Conort U., Santa Fe 1931; A. Pueta, Santa Fe 2151; Rial and 
Lopez, Bernardo de Irigoyen 330; Widmer and Dubois, 
Cerrito 560. 

XVL— Tinned Fruit and \ egetable Factories.— Ghigliotti 



Industries 



INTRODUCTION 



and do., FiMiikliii 075; II(>ra"i( 
hiiaca 1U28. 



A'ilaloiii ainl ('< 



Hull 



XVII. — Italian paste for soups. 

Bogota 84. 



Jose Lopez Delgado, 



XVIII. — Meat-Freezing Establishments. — « Compafiia 
Sansinena», San Martin 132; Armour, de la Plaia, Bartolo- 
me Mitre 519; «Frigorifico Argentino», Reconquista 36; Fri- 
gorificos «Santiago», San Martin 233; «La Blanca», Canga- 
llo 499; «La Negra», on the Southern Bank of the Riachuelo; 
Las Palmas Produce Co., San Martin 186; The La Plata Cold 
Storage Co., Bartolonie Mitre 383; The River Plate Fresh 
Meat Co:, Avenida de Mayo, 748. 

XIX. — Soap, Candles and Fat Factories. — Compania 
de Productos Conen, Bartolom^ Mitre 531; «La Industrial*, 
Yapeyii 817; Juan Pittaluga, Caseros 3472; Seeber Brothers 
and Co., Uspallata 2400; Farina Francisco (toilet soap), 
Triunvirato 1265; Hansen Julio (toilet soap), Canning 1255. 



XX. — Industries. 



The two chief industries in the Argentine Repuhlic that compose the solid 
basis on which the pubHc wealth stands are agriculture and cattlebreeding, 
the capital employed in them amounting to 8,790,249,291 pesos, paper 
money, or 19,338,"548,446 francs. 

The Argentine ])Ossesses, moreover, several other industries which have 
made great progress and which contribute also to wards the consolidation 
of the basis of the national wealth. 

Amongst these industries we can mention in the first place the freezing 
industry which prepares the meat for export. There are ten establishments 
devoted to this industry and the capital to they have at their disposal 
amounts 19,962,279 pesos gold money which makes about 100 million francs. 

The following table shows the quantities of meat exported by the various 
establishments during the period 1904-1912. 





Frozen Mutton: 


Frozen Beef: 


Refrigerated 


'year 


Tons 


Tons 


Beef: 
Tons 


1904 


88,610 


99,794 




1905 


78,351 


152,357 


_ 


1906 


67,388 


153,809 


_ 


1907 


69,785 


138,221 


— 


1903 


78,846 


174,552 


6,253 


1909 


66,495 


209,435 


1,222 


1910 


75,102 


245,266 


8,441 


1911 


85,916 


297.738 


15,096 


1912 


70,585 


316,299 


25,355 1 



66 IXTRODUOTIOX Influsines 

Another of the most i)rominent Argentine industries is that of tlie culti- 
vation of the sugar-cane. Tliere are 42 mills distributed in seven provinces 
30 of which belong to Tucuman. The capital sunk in land, plantations, 
buildings, machines and beasts of burden may be calculateds as follows: 

30 mills in the province of Tucuman, 89,500,000 pesos; 1 in Salta, 3 in 
Santa Fe; 1 in Corrientes; 3 in the territory, of El Chaco and one in the 
province of Formosa, 35,700,000 pesos. Total, 125,200,000 pesos, gold 
(£ 11,017,600). 

30,000 hectares planted with sugar-cane, 21,000,000 pesos; the sugar re- 
fmerv in Rosario which is worth 5,000,000 pesos, making a general total 
of pesos 151,200,000, gold (£ 13,306,000). 

The following is the production of sugar in the Argentine Republic 
during the period 1904-1912: 

Production: 
Year Tons 



1904 128,104 

1905. 137,343 

1906 116,287 

1907 119,445 

1908 161,688 

1909 127,322 

1910 148,571 

1911 181,200 

1912 150,000 



In 1904 the production exceeded the consumption and the mer- 
chants were able to export 17,311 tons of sugar. In 1905 they exported 
2,199 but in the following years the production was reduced and they were 
obliged to import from foreign countries the following quantities: 

Refined Sugar: Raw Sugar: 

Year kilograms kilograms 



1909 5,994,100 13,766,441 

1910 22,735,156 34,087,802 

1911 33,746,243 18,155,923 

1912 (25 December) 9,885,641 17,414,535 

We must also mention, amongst the great Argentine industries the 
wine industry. The capital employed in this industry is considerable: 
210,000,000 pesos, paper money, without counting the value of vineyards 
• — 57,329 hectares — or that of cellars, etc., which amounts to 65,376,511 
pesos. 

The following table is a recapitulationof the wine industry at the end 
of the year 1912. 



Industries 



INTRODUCTION 



67 











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68 



INTEODUCTION 



ln'lui>t>'i(^''i 




IIoUda>/s INTRODUCTION 69 



XXI.— Holidays. 

The fixed holidays are marked by the date and the movable feasts by 
the letter (m). 

Sundays; New Years' Day, 1st.. .January; the Circumcisi6n, 6th. .January 
Epiphany Thursday, I>iday and Saturday of Holy Week (m); Ascension 
Day (m); Saint Peter and Saint Paul, 29th. .June; the Assumption, August 
15th; All Saints' Day, November 1st.; the Immaculate Conception, Decem- 
ber 8th.; and Christmas December 25th. Besides these religious feasts there 
are two national holidays, May 25th. and .July 9th. and a civil one. Carni- 
val (Shrove Tuesday) (m). 

Moreover, each town has its patron saints' feast. Buenos Aires has San 
Martin's dav which falls on the 11th. November. 



1. — From Europe to Buenos Aires. 

The great majority of travellers from Europe to the Ar- 
gentine Republic land at the port of Buenos Aires and the 
rapid descriptions of the main lines to be followed and 
which are found here, present a certain interest. Some years 
ago a few steamers touched at the port of La Plata (Ense- 
nada) but now they arrive at the port of Buenos Aires 
itself. 

Here is some information which will be useful to tra- 
vellers. 

Money. — We think it will be interesting to our rea- 
ders if we give them some information about the money of 
the different countries situated on the route from fhirope to 
the Argentine. Let us take the franc, gold money, as a unit. 

The mark is worth about 1*23 fr.; the shilling l"2o; the 
pound sterling 25'25 fr.; the peseta 0*75 (paper and silver), 
the 25 pesetas gold coin, is worth 25 francs; the peseta 
contains 100 cenfimos; the lira is worth 1 franc; the standard 
in Portugal is the reis; 25 francs are equal to 4,500 reis in 
gold and 4,900 in paper or silver money; 10,000 reis are worth 
56 francs; the gold coins are of 5 and 10 thousand reis; those 
of silver are of 200, 500 and 1,000 reis and then there are the 
nickel and copper coins and banknotes. 

Brazil has, moreover, some coins worth 20 thousand 
reis gold and her silver coins are of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 reis. 
The money of Uruguay is the gold peso, which is worth 5' 15 
francs, and as regards the Argentine money we dcscrilx^ il 
niinutely on page I. 



70 CAPITAL From Europe 

The countries where Portuguese money is used are: 
Portugal and the Spanish town of Vigo, the Madeira Islands 
(Funchal), and the United States of Brasil; and those whe- 
re Spanish money is used are: Spain and Santa Cruz de Te- 
nerife. The franc is in use in France, Belgium and Dakar. 

The equivalences given above are approximate; in 
practice there is, however, little difference. The gold coins 
which travellers should take with them are, of course, those 
which are most conveniently changed for the money of the 
country which they intend to visit. 

Cabin. — It is necessary to bespeak in advance, either in 
Europe or in Buenos Aires, on account of the numerous de- 
mands made, one of the cabins situated on the left side of 
the fore-part or bow and with a_window looking on the sea. 
The traveller will not, then, suffer from the sun's rays during 
the afternoon. As it must be born in mind that travellers 
have to cross the tropics in whatever season they undertake 
the voyage, they will find it good and comfortable to chose 
their cabin from amongst those on the deck. 

Linen, Clothes. — Travellers must take with them very 
thin underclothes, especially flannel; but notwithstanding 
that they must not forget an overcoat. 

A mat of Indian esparto (Spanish grass) for the bolster 
or pillow renders excellent services. 

We advise also the use of a «camisera» (they can be 
bought at Franzi's, in Rome or Milan and at Mattaldi's, Flo- 
rida, 350, Buenos Aires) to put shirts in. 

Food.— On board almost all the steamers they give 
meat, fish and poultry preserved by means of freezing. 
Those who are not fond of this sort of food will do well to 
ascertain whether the steamer takes on board any living 
cattle or fowls for the passengers' food. 

AVireless telegraph. ^ — Most of the steamers going to the 
Eiver Plate are provided with a wireless telegraph which 
can be used by passengers at a fixed scale of charges. 

Time. — On approaching the Equatorial line, the traveller 
will remark that his watch gets about seven minutes slower 
per day as the steamer is going at a speed of 12 miles an hour. 
One can set one's watch right by the clock on board or by 
the hours struck by the bridge bell. It is necessary to take 
into consideration that the time is measured by periods of 
four hours, which correspond to the Officers'watches. One 
commences to count the hours, for instance from noon, at 
12'30 one bell is struck; at 1 o'clock, two bells; at TSO 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL 71 

two long bells and a short one; at 2, four bells separated 
into pairs by a longer interval at 2*30 four long bells and 
short one; at 3, six bells and so on until 4 o'clock when they 
strike eight bells in pairs. At four they begin again until 
8 o' clock, then at midnight and so on. 

This line across the Atlantic is much frequented, not a 
single day passes without one's seeing one or several stea- 
mers belonging to the different Companies plying to or from 
the Kiver Plate. 

The sight of a steamer is most interesting on board. (It 
is nice to have a field-glass.) The steamers of the different 
Companies are distinguished by the colours of their fun- 
nels: 

La Veloee.— Yellow funnel with a red star and 5 dots in 
the centre. 

Xavigazioiie Geiierale Italiaiia. — Black funnel with a 
white band in the centre. 

Royal Mail.^Yellow funnel. 

Haiuburg Sudamerikauische. — Yellow funnel for mail and 
j)assenger steamers and black for merchant steamers. 

Sud-Atlantique (which has replaced the Messageries Ma- 
ritimes). — Black funnel. 

Transports Maritiiiies a vapeur. — Black funnel with red 
band in the centre. 

The greatest depth found in tJie line is 2,500 fathoms and 
is situated, according to the English nautical charts, in 5"^ 
north latitude and 26" east longitude. 

The animal life at sea otters an amusement which breaks 
the monotony of the voyage. Various kinds of birds accom- 
pany the steamer. They are as a general rule bands of sea- 
gulls which follow the boat to pick up the remains of food 
thrown into the sea; but they disappear on the high seas 
and come back when the ship approaches the coast. 

Amongst the cetaceans, those of the doli|hin species are 
most in evidence, and especially porpoises which measure 
over 2 metres in length and follow in the wake of the stea- 
mer and sometimes jump out of the water. One also sees the 
dolphin properly so called and the swordjish which attains the 
length of almost metres; Mie latter is recognised by its 
dorsal iin which has the shape of a crescent. 

Whales are seldom to be met with. Amongst fishes those 
called «li3ing-fish» are to be seen in large (niantities in a 



72 CAPITAL Fmm Europe 

certain zone: tliey fly up to a certain height and sometimes 
even over the bridge. 

Voracious sharks follow the track of the steamer as well, 
especially in the hot regions and near the coasts. 

Phosphorescence isdue to millions of animalculae, with 
which the waters of the ocean are impregnated. This sight 
presents itself in all its splendour when the sky is dark and 
within the zone of high temperature. 

A. — From Genoa to Buenos Aires. 

Steamers belonging to the Navigazione Generalc lialiana, 
the Veloce, the Italia and the Transports MarUimes a VajJeur: 
distance, 6,406 miles. 

Astronomical difference 4 h. 50 m. between Genoa and 
Buenos Aires. The voyage lasts from about 18 to 23 days 
according to the company. 

Genoa. — The town is built in the middle of the sea and 
offers a view of incomparable beauty on the declivity of the 
Ligurian Alps the tops of which are crowned with fortresses. 
One of them, the Sperone, marks the highest point of the town 
(516 metres high). 

The port of Genoa, the largest in Italy and one of the 
most remarkable in Europe, forms a semicircle of 5 kilome- 
tres closed on the West by the Cape of San Benigno and the 
new breakwater and on the East by the old wharf. On the 
top of the hill of San Benigno's is the Linterna (the lan- 
tern) at an altitude of 126 metres. 

Genoa has splendid and broad streets: some of them are 
bordered with magnificent palaces built of marble, richly 
decorated in the interior which have earned for the city the 
surname of Superha (Proud). 

The centre of active life is the Piazza di Ferrari which is 
the meeting point of nearly all the electric tramway lines one 
of which goes to the Prinape station. Opposite this station is 
the Piazza Acquaverde, whence the via Balbi leads to the 
Piazza Annunziata; then there are the famous streets called 
Cairoli, Garibaldi, up to the Piazza Fontana Marose, Carlo 
Felice and the magnificent street known by the name of XX 
Settembre, bojrdered by high porticos; this is the main 
street of a whole modern aristocratic quarter which is in 
course of erection. 

San Lorenzo's Cathedral is worthy of special mention: 
the building was begun in the year 1110; it contains remark- 
able sculptures and paintings of great value. The church 
named La Annunziata splendidly decorated, and those of 
San Siro, Vigna, San Pedro and La Puerta, are also remark- 
able. 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL 73 

Ainongst the iiuinerous and superb palaces erected in 
this proud city, we may iiiention the Palazzo Rosso, in via 
Garibaldi, which contains a magnificent collection of pic- 
tures; the Palazzo Brasco, in the same street, remarkable for 
its ancient paintings and sculptures; and the Municipal and 
Gambaro palaces. 

Genoa possesses beautiful walks and gardens, amongst 
which we shall mention the Acquasola and the Di Negro villa 
situated near the Fotra on a hill whence a splendid panora- 
ma of the gulf is obtained. 

The town is growing daily: its new quarters are spreading 
more and more and the two streets that surround it from 
the mountains to the sea shore are such as a town can be 
proud of. The feverish activity of its inhabitants, the conti- 
nually progressive movement of its prosperous trade and in- 
dustry, the opening of new outlets and railways contribute 
to make this town one of the richest in Europe. 

The stay in Genoa, so attractive by itself becomes more 
enchanting still owing to the neighbourhood of the Eastern 
and Western «Rivieras». 

On the J^astern Riviera — stands Nervi a much frequented 
sea-side resort during the summer season for bathing, and fa- 
mous for its splendid villas and the mildness of its climate in 
winter; Becco, which springs up on a hill and a part of which 
is formed by Porto Fino, the ancient Portus Dalfini; Cama- 
gli a village devoted to fishing; Santa Margarita de Ligurio, 
a picturesque place on the sea shore; Iiappallo, a celebrated 
bathing place; Chiavari and its beautiful churches; Sestri 
Levante, situated in a magnificent bay; Spe.^ia, a for- 
tified town the seat of the most important dockyard in the 
kingdom. On the Western coast, a delicious winter station, 
there are several little towns amongst which we must men- 
tion Pegli, a famous l)athing place. The traveller can visit 
by special permission, the two sumptuous towns La Doria 
and La Pallavicini, in which the tropical flora is in full de- 
velopment; Savona, a very important town, industrial and 
commercial; Oneglia and Fovto Mauricio, maritime towns; 
San Fejiio, a celebrated winter residence: with numerous and 
splendid villas, richly ])lanted with palms; there are magnifi- 
cent hotels much frequented by foreign tourists and espe- 
cially by the English and Americans: Bordighera, celebra- 
ted for its palms, and VentimigJia ^\\\\c\\ marks the frontier 
between Italy and France. 

The departure from CJenoa is a sight that the traveller 
must not miss. As the steamer leaves the docks the town 
spreads itself in incompaiable beauty situated as in an am- 
])liithea1 le on the declivity of the Ligurian Alps the t()j)s ot" 
which ajjpcar cr()wn(Ml with powerful forlresses. 



74 CAPITAL From Europe 

One of these called the Sperone marks the most elevated 
point of the town (516 metres). The port of Genoa the fore- 
most of Italy is one of the most important in Europe; it forms 
a semicircle of nearly 3 kilometres; it is closed on the West 
by the Cape of San Benigno on which is a lighthouse 126 
metres high and by the new wharf; in the middle of the semi- 
circle are the Maritime Arsenal and the dry dock for repair- 
ing ships. The departure from the harbour lasts about half 
an hour and the steamer then enters the open Mediterranean 
Sea. Next day the steamer arrives at Barcelona. From Bar- 
celona the steamer goes directly to Tenerife or St. Vincent 
according to the itinerary she has to follow. 

The gulf of Lyons, which one must cross on the way to 
Barcelona is one of the most disagreeable features of the 
voyage because it is always rough and causes seasickness. 
This ailment is best combated by remaining in the open air, 
on deck, if possible. At Barcelona the steamers stop a few 
hours. 

Barcelona. — A renowned maritime and commercial city 
in active business communication with the principal Euro- 
pean ports; Barcelona can be rightly called the industrial 
capital of Spain. 

Its w^oollen and cotton stuffs, its printed cloth, its silks, 
velvets, embroideries, lace and fancy-trimmings are univer- 
sally appreciated. The town itself is defended against any 
possible attack by the batteries of the Montjuich fortress 
which commands the whole harbour, the town and its sur- 
roundings. 

The capital of Catalonia has spread to a considerable ex- 
tent outside its ancient walls which were demolished about 
half a-century ago, and day after day is changing its ap- 
pearance with magnificent modern buildings, broad streets 
and splendid avenues. It is a lively town not only on ac- 
count of its trade but also of the numerous amusements 
to be found. Its theatres and music-halls are celebrated, and 
dramatic companies and musical associations give daily per- 
formances in them. 

The mildness of its climate and the artistic appearance of 
its public buildings and private houses make it the more gay 
and charming. The main building is the Cathedral of pure 
gothic style, crowned by two high towers. Its interior, richly 
decorated, is composed of three naves separated by gothic 
columns remarkable for their height and elegance. A sub- 
terranean chapel contains the remains of Saint-Eulalie, the 
patron -saint of the city. The Sacristy contains a mons- 
trance of the most rare beauty and richness and the cloister 
is verv iiiteiestiii'i-. 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL 75 

The chiiichos called Santa, Maria del Mar, .Santa Ana, 
Santa ]\Iaria do los Reyes or del Pino and Santos Justo j 
Pastor are worth visiting. 

Also the magnificent liamblas, known throughout the 
world as being one of the most famous walks or boulevards, 
the fashionable Paseo de Gracia which leads to the beautiful 
suburbs called Gracia, San Gervasio, Bonanova, Sarrid and 
Vallvidrera; these magnificent suburbs, which now form 
part of the great metropolis are connected with the old city 
by means of electric rail and tramways and several fine roads 
for the use of the numerous motor-cars and carriages of all 
sorts that go to visit them. The Park with its beautiful zoolo- 
gical collection is also w^orthy of a visit. 

The Catalonian metropolis possesses as well several asy- 
lums, Hospitals and Charitable Institutes. 

The various lines of steamers going to South America 
have not a fixed calling-place; they stop either at Las Palmas 
or at Tenerife or St. Vincent. That depends as a rule on the 
advantages offered by the coal market. But if the traveller 
can he must chose one of the steamers stopping at the Gran 
Canaria, for this island is the most interesting of the whole 
group composing the Archipelago and possesses besides the 
best bay, the town of Las Pahnas situated on the banks of 
the Angostura river. This river becomes an impetuous to 
rrent during the rainy season. 

The harbour known by the name of La Liiz, where the 
big steamers anchor, is connected w4th the town by means 
of a tramway driven by steam, which covers the distance in 
less than half -an -hour. 

This town, and Trafira situated near it, are renowned 
for their picturesque situations. 

It is necessary to visit the cathedral of Las Palmas which 
contains some artistic and historical objects of great value, 
such as a chalice by Benvenuto Cellini, and the Museum 
which contains a remarkable collection of mummies and 
objects belonging to the first inhabitants of the island. 

There are a great many tropical fruits which can be ob- 
tained at a very low price. 

The traveller can also purchase clothes and reedle-work 
for the half of the prices asked by the women vendors going 
about. 

Santa Cruz de Teuerifo.— Here the steamers stop again 
to take coal. It is a very pretty town, the capital of Tenerife 
island famous for its volcano. The town contains about 
20,000 inhabitants. 

The ships anchor very near the wharf. The passengers can 
visit the town which presents a very picturesque aspect while 



76 CAPITAL From Buroj)c 

the .siirromuliiigs are bare of vegetation and wild and, like 
the whole coast of the Archipelago, of volcanic formation. 
In the fortress called San Pedro is kept as a curiosity the 
gun which caused Lord Nelson the loss of his arm when on 
the 25 July, 1797, he tried to take the city of Santa Cruz 
by surprise. If the traveller has sufficient time it will do him 
good to visit the winter station of Orotava as well as the 
main buttresses of the Teide peak which overlooks the 
town an^ which is not seen from the harbour, and presents 
an imposing aspect from a distance of 50 or 60 miles, rising 
from the surface of the Ocean in the form of a sugar-loaf. 
There is an electric tramway which reaches the fine place 
called La Laguna. — Holel Court. — Hotel charges in English 
money. 

St. Viiieeiit is one of the ports where the steamers stop 
again. This is perhaps the most remarkable place though it 
is the smallest and the least populated of the islands compo- 
sing the Archipelago of Cape Yerde; its climate is famous for 
being so healthy. There is a port called Puerto Grande for 
the use of vessels carrying either passengers or goods going 
from Europe to Brazil, and it is at the same time a coal- 
ing station for ships going to America or A frica. There is 
nothing curious to be seen. Passengers can see only a moun- 
tain peak which, it is said, looks like Napoleon's tomb. 

After this place, the steamers which take their departure 
from Genoa do not stop as a rule until they reach Monte- 
video, the capital of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. This 
beautiful and picturesque city is built on the spot where 
the Rio de la Plata (river Plate) enters the Atlantic. 

Montevideo is only a few hours' distance from Buenos 
Aires; the steamers plying between both ports start from the 
former between 6 and 7 p. m. and arrive at Buenos Aires 
next day earlj' in the morning. 

The port of Buenos Aires possesses 2 canals; one which 
starts from Riachuelo called canal del Sur and the other 
from the North Dock, called canal del IXorte. The length of 
the first is 19 km. and9 km. 80 m., that of the .econd. On 
the whole course of these 2 canals there are luminous buoys to 
show the way. At the entrance of the North Dock stands an 
elegant building belonging to the Oficina Xacional de Hidro- 
grafia. On the south side is the place for the inspection of 
luggage. 

B. — From Hamburg to Buenos Aires. 

The steamers belonging to the Hamhurg-Sud-Amerilca- 
nische-Dampscliiffahrsts-Gesellschaft a\] start from Hamburg. 
Difference of time from Bues Aires 6 h. 43 m. 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL 77 

The steiiiiiers (Jaj) Blanco, Cap Oilccjal, Cap Vilann, 
Koniff Friedrirh August take the following route: 

From Hamburg or rather from Cuxhaven, the star- 
ting point of the great liners, the steamers go Xorth- 
West and pass by the 3 lighthouse-boats in the Elbe: on 
the right hand-side the red rocks of Helgoland can be 
seen in the distance. On the south are several German, Bel- 
gian and Dutch lighthouses. The steamers stop at Dover, 
then at Boulogne-sur-mer where there are communication li- 
nes with the different parts of Europe. Boulogne is 4 hours 
from Paris and 1 Iq lio^irs from England. Near the town is 
the Grande Armee column with a statue of Napoleon I 
(53 m. high) in remembrance of the Boulogne encampment 
(1803-1805). Boulogne possesses good hotels and is a very 
interesting town to visit. From Boulogne the steamers 
go to Corunna (645 miles) or to Vigo (745 miles) and then 
to Lisbon (240 miles from Vigo). From this place, the stea- 
mers mentioned go directly to Montevideo (distance 5,230 
miles) and after to Buenos Aires. The Cap Blanco and Cap 
Ortegal take 16 days; and the Konig Friedrich August, 15. 

The other steamers of the Company Cap Frio, Cap Boca 
and Cap Verde follow the same route. 

The return voyage is made almost in the same way by 
all the steamers up to Europe, where some of them stop at 
Vigo, others at Lisbon, as on their outward journey, and when 
the vessels leave the port of Montevideo, they follow the coast 
up to Crt2^6> Po/ori?o remaining always in sight of the Urugua- 
yan coast; this voyage is much better especially since the 
erection of a new lighthouse in the Lobos Island, opposite 
Maldonado. This lighthouse is situated in 35° 1' 7" S. lat. and 
in 54° 54' 22 " long. W. of Greenwich. It is situated at an 
altitude of 66 meters above the sea level and it is visible at a 
distance of 23 12 ii^iles when the weather is clear. Its light is 
w^hite and revofving from 5 to 5 seconds. Under the main 
focus there is a search light which marks a reef situated at 
a 1/3 of a mile from the island. This light is red and covers 
the reef up to 2 miles West of the same. The lighthouse is 
provided with a semaphore. 

When the steamer has passed Cape Polonio the tra- 
veller loses sight of the coast and does not see it again 
until she reaches Cape Frio, 3 days afterwards, near 
Rio de Janeiro. The traveller sees besides, Cape San Tome 
and the Abrolhos islands (coral reefs) which the steamer 
leaves, however at 15-25 miles distance, because they are 
very dangerous. During this part of his voyage the traveller 
can observe magnificent sunrises as well a very pictu- 
resque formation of clouds and in winter especially he 
can see, every now and then, numerous whales. Further 



78 CAPITAL From Europe 

on. the traveller can distinguish at intervals the Brazi- 
lian coast, near Pernambuco covered with palm-trees. 
The traveller meets there also, in mid ocean fishermen 
who risk their lives trying to get fish in small craft called 
jangadas made with palms. A day or so, before crossing 
the Equator, the steamer reaches the Fernando Noronha 
island, a volcanic rock covered partially with vegetation 
which presents to the traveller a beautiful appearance. The 
altitude of the rock is 300 meters; this island has no light- 
house: thus the ships are obliged to leave it on one side .at 
night; it is provided with a telegraphic station and it served 
formerly as a prison for penal servitude. 

Further on towards the north of the Equator is Saint- 
PauVs Beef, bare of any vegetation, about 500 meters long 
by 20 high, inhabited only by bands of sea-birds. During 
the day the steamer can approach very near the island. 

The Cape Verde Islands are rocky and have a very 
scant vegetation; they are of volcanic origin and some are 
rather high. The only port frequented occasionally by the 
steamers which stop there to take in coal, is Porto Grande in 
the island of Sao Vicente; this port has no particular thing 
worthy of mention. 

After these islands the steamer calls at Tenerife, descri- 
bed already, or Madeira, the capital of w^hich is Funchal 
with 40,000 inhabitants. The money in circulation is Por- 
tuguese. The best hotel is the Monte Palace Hotel, whence 
the visitor obtains a splendid view over the town and sea. 

Afterwards, the steamer does not stop until it reaches 
the European continent. 



C. — From Southampton to Buenos Aires. 

The steamers of The Boyal Mail Steam Packet Co., one 
of the oldest and most renowned which come to the 'River 
Plate, take 21 days in their voyage (6,434 miles). The time 
at Southampton differs by 3 hours 48 minutes from that of 
Buenos Aires. 

The steamers belonging to this Company call either at 
one or another of the ports of St. Vincent, Tenerife or Ma- 
deira. Then, at Pio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo and 
Buenos Aires. On their return they stop at Cherbourg to 
land the passengers for Paris. 

Southampton.— J/o/eZs: Badley, opposite the station; 
South ^yestern a grand hotel; Matcham's Dolphin, Boyal 
Star, Crown Pier on the wharf; Dock Hotel, Flower's Tempe- 



io Buenos Aires CAPITAL 79 

ranee; Queen's Terrace; (too(hifje\s; Railway, near tlio station, 
Bar at the station. 

The steamer descends the Soiitlianiptoh Water and passes 
up the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the Hampshire 
coast. 

A fine sight is presented on the right by the old castle 
called Burst Castle and on the left by the Needles, three 
picturesque points (lighthouse: red light, revolving). The 
cape of Saiiit Albans a peninsula called Bill of Portland and 
the Star Point lighthouse (white light, changing) are on the 
right. The celebrated Eddystone lighthouse (with two lights, 
one fixed, and another revolving) is erected further on in 
Plymouth bay. 

Cape Lizard the westernmost point of England and the 
group of the Scilly islands, are the last points of European 
land to disappears. 

D. — From Bordeaux to Buenos Aires, 

This itinerary is followed by the steamers belonging to 
the Cornj^agnie Sud-Atlantique which has taken the place of 
the Messageries Maritimes, one of the oldest Companies going 
to the Argentine Republic. These steamers start from Bor- 
deaux every other Friday. The4:"astest steamers take 21 days 
(6,250 miles) from one port to the other. The time at Bor- 
deaux shows a difference of 3 hours 14 minutes from that of 
Buenos Aires. 

Bordeaux. — At 96 km. distance from the sea, on the river 
Gironde, which forms a magnificent port, it is one of the 
largest towns in France and at the same time one of the most 
interesting. From the bridge on the river Garonne which 
is a remarkably fine piece of work the sight embraces the 
whole port of which wharfs are bordered with monumental 
mansions. 

The steamers start from this port for the Atlantic line 
but on account of the difficulties of the river navigation for 
large ships, the steamers are obliged to go to Pauillac where 
they take the passengers brought from Bordeaux by a spe- 
cial boat. 

These steamers follow then the western coasts of Spain 
and Portugal, calling successively at Corunna which takes 
its name from the kind of lighthouse shaped like a column 
called Tierra de Hercules and which, it is thought, was 
erected by the Phoenitians. Vigo, the anchoring road of 
which is protected by magnificent strong forts and then 
Lisbon on the right bank of the Tagus at 20 km. from the 
mouth of this majestic river. 

The capital of Portugal is gracefully situated on a series 



80 CAPITAL From Europe 

of liill8. The streets of tlie old city are narrow and irregular 
whilst those of the low lying town along the river are broad 
and full of beautiful buildings. The Palacio das Xecessidades 
commands a beautiful view on the river and its gardens 
contain valuable botanical collections. Amongst the remar- 
kable buildings we must mention the Palacio Ajuda, 
where the royal drawing-rooms were held; the Cathedral, 
formerly a mosque; Sao Antonio; Sao Vicente de Fora where 
the sovereigns of the house of Braganza were buried; the 
Castello de Sao Jorge, the great aqueduct which crosses the 
whole valley of Alcantara, the Torre de Belen universally 
known for its architecture and lastly Circo dos Touros where 
the bullfights take place, a building which can hold a consi- 
derable number of spectators. 

Five days after, the steamer calls at Balcar, the harbour 
of which is very pretty and safe and has become, on account 
of its situation on the extremity of the Cape Yerde peninsula 
on the Senegal coast, the most important commercial place 
of the West Coast of Africa. Then the steamers start again 
for the Atlantic on their way to Pernambuco, on the Brazilian 
coast. This town is a very important business town and is 
situated at the confluence of the rivers Capibaribe and 
Beberibe which divide it into 3 quarters connected by 6 brid- 
ges. This town possesses nuftierous buildings such as the 
Governors Palace, the Arsenals, the Santa Isabel theatre and 
the three forts called Cinco Fontas, Buraco and Brum. 

The other ports of call in South America are: Bahia, the 
ancient capital of Brazil which possesses a anchoring road 
stead. The low town with its high houses crowded between the 
hill-side and the sea form a funny contrast to the high town, 
greatly extended, very modern and full of graceful villas. 
The ascent is by no means tiresome. Fio de Janeiro, built on 
a large bay, the most beautiful in the world excepting that 
of Constantinople (see the description of the town on the 
XXXVIth Eoute); Montevideo, the capital of the Oriental Re- 
public of Uruguay, a splendid city, very modern, admirably 
situated on the left bank and almost at the mouth of the 
River Plate. Another day only and the steamer arrives at 
Buenos Aires. 



E. — From Marseilles to Buenos Aires. 

The service is undertaken by the Societe Generate des 
Transports Maritimes a Yapeur. Paris 8, rue Menard (rue du 
4 Septembre); Marseilles, 3, rue des Templiers; Buenos Aires, 
Reconquista 429. Difference in time between the two pla- 
ces 4 hours 50 minutes. Average time taken on the voyage 



1o Buenos Aires CAPITAL 81 

20 days, Departuie from Marseilles of the steaniers not calling 
at Brazil, the 10th and 20th of each montli. 

Departure of those calling at Brazil the 24th of each 
mouth. Departure from Buenos Aires of the steamers not 
calling at Brazil the 8th and 18tli of each month; departure 
of those calling at Brazil, the 30th of each month. 

These steamers also take passengers for Naples and Ge- 
noa by transhipment. The steamers calling at Brazil start 
only from Marseilles. 

The steamers of this company which make the voyage 
directly when they start from Marseilles on tho 10th call at 
Montevideo, and those which start on the 2nd call at Bar- 
celona and Montevideo, 

When they call at Brazil they take 28 days on their 
voyage and stop at Valencia, Malaga, Gibraltar, Madeira, 
DaJcar, Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Montevideo. 

As the other journeys have been already described in 
the chapter about the various Companies we shall only des- 
cribe this one. 

Marseilles. — The first maritime port of France is a gay 
and pretty city and of a quite modern appearance since 
everything common or ugly that remained has been des- 
troyed. Thus of the ancient Marseilles founded by the 
Greeks, about 600 years B. C. not the slightest trace re- 
mains now. 

The relations with Algiers, Tunisia and the extreme East 
since the opening of the Suez canal have given a great im- 
pulse to trade in Marseilles. 

Twoni agnificent streets at right angles, cross the city: 
one starts from the old port and bears the name of Canne- 
biere, rue Noailles and Allies de Meilhan. These streets are 
very long and broad. The other one, which crosses the Canne- 
biere, leads to the famous promenade called the Prado, a fa- 
vourite resort of the Marseillese society. 

AVhat strikes the traveller most in Marseilles is its 
magnificent port, always, full of vessels of all nationalities 
where the turmoil of its busy life makes Marseilles the third 
port in Europe. 

Marseilles possesses beautiful churches amongst which 
the most remarkable are the Cathedral, St. -Mary Mayor 
erected in 1852-3 in a new byzantine style with a vast ter- 
race overlooking the docks: two of its towers are 460 ft. high 
and the interior is richly decorated. 

As regards the chief buildings we shall mention the 
Stock-Exchange on the Cannebi^re, built in 1852: it has a 
beautiful front and very pretty statues in the porticoes that 
surround it; the Palais de Longchamps which commands 



82 CAPITAL From Eiiroj^e 

the northern extremity of rue de la Madeleine is a magnifi- 
cent building in the Renaissance style, which contains the 
Fine Art Museum, with a collection of sculpture and pain- 
tings of modern artists. 

A'aleiiee. — A large town of 170,000 inhabitants; it is not 
really situated on the sea shore, but at a distance of 
about 5 km. and the port or Grao forms an independant 
agglomeration communicating with the city by means of 
electric tramways and a railway. 

Valence is very picturesque, and lively; certain monu- 
ments are very characteristic and the avenue Alameda is 
beautiful. 

Malaga: 110,000 inhabitants. — The large ships cast an- 
chor in the fore part of the port and are moored behind the 
great jetty; 10 or 15 minutes are sufficient to land at the 
centre, if the traveller does not wish to walk to the interior 
of the city by the jetty. 

The climate of Malaga is hot; the town itself is very in- 
teresting; the enormous mass of the Cathedral commands 
the whole city. This cathedral is worth a visit and certain 
old parts of this building are very remarkable. 

The wine merchants send their agents on board the stea- 
mers to take the passengers' orders. 

Gibraltar.— On arriving the sight is most striking; when 
the ship turns round Europe's Point the traveller sees first 
the wild cliffs and enormous crags of the East coast and 
afterwards the fortifications, the military port and the towm 
w^hich is situated on the West slope of the peninsula. The 
road stead is full of coal barges and vessels of all kinds. 

The trading steamers cast anchor far from the landing 
place and passengers will do well not to land if the wea- 
ther is doubtful; thus they will avoid being cheated by 
the boatmen. 

Gibraltar being a garrison town, a permission ticket to 
remain in town only until the evening gun-shot can be 
obtained by any one wishing to go on shore. If any passen- 
ger wishes to spend the night on shore, he must ask for 
a new permit. 

Gibraltar is a free port, and the traveller need not 
bother about custom-house duties on landing his lugga- 
ge which goes with him on landing as well as on going on 
board. 

The visitor finds, in Gibraltar, a good many selected 
objects from Morocco, Malta,, the East, etc. You must not 
think that vou will be allowed to visit the fortifications. On 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL 83 

the other hand it is not really worthwhile to visit them for 
there is nothing interesting. 

Madeira. — Funchal is the chief town in the island, and 
the only one of any importance and it is very picturesque: 
steamers cast anchor very near the shore on account of its 
great depth and the boats taking passengers, take them to 
the beach or land them at the small port situated on 
the west side of the town. Around Funchal there are splen- 
did drives in cars drawn by oxen, in sledges or on horse- 
back. The visitor will find in Madeira all kinds of articles 
of hosiery very carefully made; chairs, tables, baskets, the 
renowned embroideries, and the celebrated Madeira wine, 
at various prices, of course. 

Dakar. — Dakar is the landing and embarking place for 
all passengers going to or coming from Senegal. 

The road stead is beautiful and safe; the town is 
growing day by day. The Company's Agency is easily 
recognisable by the flag that is flying. For the transport of 
themselves and their luggage passengers must come to terms 
with the masters of the coasting boats who undertake that 
service. 

If a traveller lands he must take all sorts of precautions 
against the sun. The negro town is very interesting to visi. 

Bahia. — The ancient capital of Brazil with a splendid 
road stead; the low town, with its high houses crowded bet- 
ween the cliff and the sea forms are markable contrast with 
the high tow^n, vast, modern and full of villas. The visitor 
can ascend to it easily enough but there are not many points 
of interest. 

The Agency is in the low town near the landing place. 
On going on board the passengers take their luggage with 
them, and when they land their luggage is left on board. 
The authorities do not allow their taking it away imme- 
diately. 

Rio de Janeiro.— (See XXXVIth Route.) 

Santos. — This town is situated several miles in the in- 
terior on the right bank of an old river which has become 
an arm of the sea; it is properly speaking Saint Paul's har- 
bour. The view on entering is beautiful. If the traveller can 
dispose of some time he can go to St. -Paul, the capital of 
the State of this name which is a very large and pretty 
town; some trains run twice a day and the route abounds 
in interesting sites. 

Although the town is actually bordered by wharfs and 



84 CAPITAL From Europe 

docks the large vessels wliich do not make a long stay at 
Santos are but rarely, moored. From the road stead to the 
landing place it takes from ten to fifteen minutes accor- 
ding to the anchorage and the current. As regards luggage 
it is the same as in Rio de Janeiro. 

Montevideo. — Montevideo is a very easy place of call 
for passengers going to Buenos Aires: it is convenient for 
receiving and sending letters and telegrams and both 
towns are united by telephone. A daily service of comfortable 
and fast steamers allows the travellers who are in a hurry to 
reach Buenos Aires some time before the arrival of the large 
steamer. 

The town is beautiful, very modern, well drained; the 
climate is not so hot as that of Buenos Aires and the prome- 
nades ailed El Praclo and Paseo del Molino are very 
agreeable, but the large vessels are obliged, for want of 
water, to cast anchor far away from the shore. The trans- 
port from the steamer to the small steam-boats that make 
the service in the harbour becomes very difficult when the 
weather is bad. The project of the new port is now in 
good hands. 

The Agents tell the passengers, in delivering them the 
tickets, the exact time of departure of the steam boats 
flying the Company's colours on which the passengers 
from Montevideo are gratuitously received with their lug- 
gage. 

Passengers have to pay for their conveyance to their 
destination as well as for their luggage. 

The Agency is n.° 78, A., calle Colon. 

Buenos Aires. — The Company steamers arrive at Buenos 
Aires, in the new port, and that allows the passengers to 
embark or to land directly on the wharf and in the very 
heart of the town without the troublesome journey to the 
port of La Plata. 

On embarking the luggage is received on board on the 
eve of departure, and on its arrival it is placed in the 
Company's care in the Custom house departments where 
the passengers can go immediately on landing. The Custom 
house and other services are well organized. 

The Agency is n.° 429, calle Reconquista. 

F. — From Trieste to Buenos Aires. 

This service is entrusted to the steamers belonging to the 
Compagnie Austro-Americaine the Agents of which are: 
Christophersen Freres, calle San Martin 470. 

This Company, established not very long ago for the na- 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL S5 

vigatioii between the Austrian and River Plate ports, pos- 
sesses a very numerous fleet. Some of its steamers such as 
the Kaiser Franz Josef I are very fast (from Barcelona to 
Buenos Aires in twelve and a half days) and are provided 
with all modern appliances necessary to make the voyage 
agreeable and comfortable. 

These steamers which start from Trieste call at Naples, 
Barcelona, Tenerife, Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Buenos 
Aires the description of which we have given before and 
therefore we shall not repeat it. 

The principal steamers of this Company are, besides the 
Kaiser Franz Josef I, the Maria Washington, Laura and 
Alice, Argentina and Oceania, Sofia Hohenherg, Francesa, 
Colombia and Atlanta. 

Trieste. — This beautiful city is built on the gulf of the 
same name at the northern extremity of the Adriatic sea 
and it is the port nearest Central Europe. It is a very busy 
town on account of its numerous business transactions and 
is situated on the way from Central Europe to East, Africa, 
India, America, etc. Its development has been so rapid du- 
ring the last few years that it has been deemed necessary 
to build a new port in the large Muggia bay. 

Trieste possesses numerous and beautiful buildings, pub- 
lic and private museums, etc. 

The theatres are numerous as well, but the most impor- 
tant is the Verdi Theatre. The principal square is the Piazza 
Grande which overlooks the sea, and in which is situated 
the Town Hall, the Austrian Lloyd's Palace and that of the 
Government, The Corso divides the town into two: the old 
and the new town. It has a dreat many promenades in its 
surroundings, the prettiest of them being Barcola on the sea 
shore at the foot of green hills where there are many splen- 
did villas. 

Miramar's castle is the most interesting place in outer 
Trieste. There is a magnificent park which makes it or 
of the prettiest castles in Europe. 

The grottoes of San Canzian two hours from Trieste are 
also very interesting. 

Naples. — Naples is situated on the gulf of the same name 
at the foot of green hills, and it is one of the prettiest and 
richest towns in Italy. It possesses some artistic collections 
in its museums and public monuments of rare beauty. The 
panorama is one of the finest in the world. 

From Capodimonte, in the North to the old Castel delV 
Ovo in the South; from Mergellina in the West to the Granili 
in the East the town extends in an amphitheatre round a 



86 CAPITAL From Europe 

gulf of incomparable beauty; the sky and the waters are 
always blue, the graceful lines of the hills which are re- 
flected in the sea, the islands, and the imposing Vesubius 
form a spectacle of extraordinary scenic beauty. 

The Eastern portion of the town surrounded by the hills 
is the oldest and most densely populated. The West jjortion 
is built on a strip of land which enters the sea. At the foot 
of the hills, along the coast, between Via Caracciolo and 
Mergellina, is the prettiest walk in the world, from the aristo- 
cratic boulevard of La Toretta and La Eiviera to the beau- 
tiful Villa Xacionale with the important aquarium, and la 
Piazza della Victoria. 

Beyond the Corso is the new quarter called Vomero,. den- 
sely populated and communicating with the lower town by 
means of two cable railways. Further up, and on the hill 
bearing the same name is the St. Elmo's fortress. The view 
obtained at this spot is unrivalled. On descending from it 
the way leads to a grotto in Posillipo's hill and to the 
church of Our Lady of Piedigrotta where an annual festival 
which is most original and characteristic takes place. 

There is nothing so beautiful as Posillipo's hill with its 
villas, its palm groves, and pretty houses. On the eastern side 
of Castel deir Ova is Santa Lucia's quarter where the largo 
steamers cast anchor. It is the great industrial quarter with 
its vast factories and large working premises and the po- 
pular Mercato's quarter with the Royal Church. 

The Corso Garibaldi begins there and passes to the Piazza 
della Ferrovia, the most central and prettiest place in 
Naples. From thence starts the new street, Corso Umberto I. 
Some splendid buildings such as the University and the 
Stock Exchange are the ornaments of this street, From the 
Castel delV Ova, towards the centre of the town runs the 
Piazza del Plebiscito with magnificent fountains, two mo- 
numents, and on its larger side the Palazzo Reale and San 
Carlo's Theatre, one of the largest and most beautiful play- 
houses in Italy. 

Just opposite the theatre is the important museum called 
Umberto I and further on the Via di Roma with its modern 
palaces crosses the town in its whole length from the sea- 
shore up to the hills: this is the most elegant street in the 
town and it is the centre of activity. 

As regards important establishments we may mention 
the Royal Museum and the National Library. 

G. — From Amsterdam to Buenos Aires. 

The steamers belonging to the Lloyd Royal Dutch start 
from x^msterdam. These are the Hollandia, Frisia, Amstel- 



to Buenos Aires CAPITAL 87 

land, 3Iaasland, Delfland, Eemland, Rijnland and the 
Zaanland, all provided with every modern appliance for the 
comfort and security of passengers. 

After Amsterdam the first call is Dover (two hours 
from London by rail). The distance from Amsterdam to 
Dover is 147 miles and it is run in about 11 hours. 

After one hour's stoppage at Dover harbour the voyage 
continues down to La Rochelle-La Pallice (8 hours' rail 
journey from Paris). 

Then the steamer starts again and does not stop until 
it reaches Corunna (540 miles' distant) where it arrives 
two days after leaving La Rochelle-La Pallice. The stoppage 
is just long enough to allow the traveller to visit this inte- 
resting place and get an impression of a Spanish port. 

At dusk the steamer starts again for Vigo (135 miles) 
where she arrives in the morning of the following day. There 
the traveller has also sufficient time to visit the town. 

From Vigo the steamer continues her way to Lisbon (242 
miles) w^here she arrives on the fourth day after her start 
from La Rochelle-La Pallice. 

From Lisbon the steamers go directly to Rio de Janeiro, 
then to Santos and lastly to Buenos Aires. 



2. — Buenos Aires. 

Arrival. — Hotels. — Restaurauts. 

Arrival. — The steamers coming from Europe cast anchor 
near a covered dock w^here the passengers' luggage is inspec- 
ted. First-class passengers are separated from those belong- 
ing to the third. 

In this dock the passengers or their representatives must 
present themselves with the keys of their luggage in order 
that it may inspected by the Custom House oft'icers. On 
board all the steamers there are agents of the Compaqnie Xa- 
Honale de Transports (Expreso Villalonga) and of La Con- 
fianza who undertake to deliver the luggage at the passen- 
gers' residence after the inspection. These companies are 
very reliable, and the traveller can have full confidence 
in them. 

The Custom-house oft'icers are very polite and tolerant 
about the wearing apparel brought by passengers, who, not- 
withstanding must be careful not to introduce in their 
trunks or boxes any articles subject to duty. If the traveller 
has any such, lie must declare them to the officer on board 
in order to include them in the ship's declaration. "When the 
inspection is finished the traveller will find carriages to carry 



88 CAPITAL Hotels 

Mm wherever he wishes as well as taxi-cabs (see the tariff). 
In the docks where the luggage lies for inspection there are 
agents belonging to the principal hotels. 

Hotels. — There are numerous hotels in Buenos Aires 
situated in the principal streets and avenues with tariffs 
differing according to the luxuries they offer to travellers, 
who are able to reside in one suited to their means. 

The extraordinary improvement in hotels dates only 
from a few years ago. This improvement was begun — let me 
remind my readers — by the Eoyal Hotel (calles Corrientes 
and Esmeralda) with a building especially erected with this 
object and beautifully furnished. Then appeared succesively 
the Splendid Hotel (Avenida de Mayo and calle de Lima;) 
the Metropole Hotel (Avenida de Mayo and calle Salta), now 
Cecil-Hotel; the Phcenix Hotel (calle San Martin 780); the 
Grand Hotel {calle Florida 25); CaviezeVs Xeiv Hotel and the 
Paris Hotel (Avenida de Mayo and calle Salta). 

After these hotels there are the newly erected ones which 
show further remarkable improvement in their installation 
and internal organization, and home comforts that they 
offer to travellers residing in them. The Palace-Hotel (calle 
25 de Mayo 215) is a fine specimen of this progress, but the 
Plaza-Hotel is part of a splendid fourteen-story building 
(calles Florida and Charcas) with all the luxury and comfort 
of the best renowned European and Xorth-American esta- 
blishments of this kind. This hotel was built by a banker, 
the late Mr. Ernest Tornquist as a specimen of the national 
progress rather then a money making undertaking. 

Xot long ago, the Majestic-Hotel was opened; a magnifi- 
cent building appropriated for the purpose (Avenida de Ma- 
yo 1 31 7) and provided with every comfort. And lastly the 
recently opened grand hotel called Savoy Hotel installed 
in the immense buildings belonging to the family Saavedra 
Zelaya situated in the Avenida Callao and calle Cangallo. 
This hotel, owing to the considerable number of its appart- 
ments and their luxurious furniture, the order, foresight 
and comfort with which it is organized, is one of the best in 
the metropolis, and could hold its own amongst the first 
class establishments of its kind in any European capital. 
These hotels possess together over 700 rooms in which they 
can receive over 700 people. They are all provided with lifts 
electric light, bath rooms, heating and ventilation. The mi- 
nimum tariff per person is $ 12 per room every thing included 
and the charge increases according to the luxury and dimen- 
sions of the appartment taken. Here is a list of the hotels 
especialh recommended. 

Plaza-Hotel, corner of Florida and Charcas (Union Tele- 



Hotels CAPITAL 89 

fonica 3060, Libertad); Majestic-Hotel, Avenida de Mayo 
1317 (U. T. 3450, Libertad); Palace-Hotel, calle 25 de Mayo 
215-21 (U. T. 5640, Avenida); Savoy-Hotel, corner of Callao 
and Cangallo (U. T. 5800, Libertad); Grand Hotel, calle 
Florida 25 (U. T. 5160, Avenida); Paris Hotel, Avenida de 
Mayo 1161 (U. T. 3560. Libertad); Royal-Hotel, calle Co- 
rrientes 782 (U. T. 1209, Avenida); Caviezel's New-Hotel, 
Avenida de Mayo 915 (U. T. 2740, Libertad); Phcenix-Hotel, 
calle San Martin 780 (U. T. 4054, Avenida); Cecil Hotel, 
Avenida de Mayo 1201 (U. T. 3566, Libertad); Grand Hotel 
Frascati, Avenida de Mayo 1088 (U. T. 2063, Libertad); 
Hotel Americano, calle Cangallo 966 (U. T. 1697, Avenida); 
Chacabiico Mansion's, Avenida de Mayo 748 (U. T. 1952, 
Avenida); Hotel Colon, calle Chacabuco 221 (U. T. 1598, 
Avenida); Hotel de France, calle Esmeralda 116 (U. T. 512, 
Avenida); Gran Hotel Espana, Avenida de Mavo 916, 938, 
952 and 956 (U. T. 1075, 1811, 1943 and 2234, Libertad); 
Hotel Castilla, Avenida de Mayo 1204 (U. T. 2671 Libertad); 
Hotel Congreso, calle Callao 19 (U. T. 1809, Libertad); Hotel 
de Mayo, calle Victoria 402 (U. T. 900, Avenida); Hotel 
Galebo. calles Peru and Alsina (U. T. 2632, Avenida); The 
Garden Hotel, calle Callao 950 (U. T. 10, Juncal). In the 
outskirts of the capital we have: Hotel Carapachay, in Oli- 
vos (C. de F. Central Argentino), (U. T. 7, San Isidro); Park 
Hotel in Bella Vista (Pacifico and Lacroze), (U. T. 25, Bella 
Vista); La Delicia, in Adrogue (Sud, U. T, 54, Adrogue); 
Eden Hotel, in Olivos, Vicente Lopez station (U. T. 1000, 
Belgrano); Hotel del Prado, in Bella Vista (Pacifico), Quinta 
V. San Juan (U. T. 62, Bella Vista). 

THE PHCEXIX HOTEL (780 calle San Martin): The 
English Hotel of Buenos Aires, recently enlarged and redec- 
orated, large Drawing, Dining rooms, and Lounges, spa- 
cious Billiard room. Special service for receptions etc., Eng- 
lish speaking servants, charges inclusive and moderate. 

THE ALBION HOTEL (1168, Avenida de Mayo). Is an 
excellent moderate-priced hotel, noted for its cleanliness and 
comfort. Rooms with full pension can be had from S 6 (pa- 
per) a day. Telephone and lift service. The Hotel is un- 
der Swiss management and English is spoken. Proprietors, 
Messrs. Caviezel and Meuli. 

GRAN HOTEL ESLAVA (Avenida de Mayo 984/1000). 
Teleph. Coop. 1451 Central & Union 968 Libertad. 
Prop. Lima & Co. 
Excellent situation in the most beautiful street of the 
city and right in the centre of the business and shopping 



90 CAPITAL Kestaurants 

districts. The comfort and sanitary arrangements are abso- 
lutely modern and up to date. Wines and cooking have a 
deservedly good reputation*. Concerts every evening during 
dinner up to midnight. Prices moderate. 

Restaurants, Cafes and Beer -houses. 

Restaurants. — There are a great many of them in Buenos 
Aires: some serve meals at a fixed price and some d la carte; 
that is, the customer pays according to the charges marked 
in the bill of fare. The latter are preferable to the others on 
account of their luxury. 

We shall only mention some of them situated in the cen- 
tre of the town, although we do not mean to say they are all 
splendid or that there are not many others which are equally 
worthy of recommendation. 

As a general rule, the luncheon takes place between 
10 a. m. and 1 p. m., and the dinner between 7 and 9 p. m. 
In the restaurants a la carte or by the bill of fare, the customer 
can pay the waiter if he has not chosen to pay in the coun- 
ting house of the establishment. In the first-class restaurants 
it is the custom to give the waiter $ 0"50 as a tip and $ 0*30 
only in the others. 

Any one can lunch and dine in the hotels such as the 
Plaza Hotel, the Palace Hotel, the Paris Hotel, the Grand 
Hotel, the Majestic Hotel, etc. Some of them such as the 
Plaza Hotel, the Palace Hotel, the Majestic Hotel, the Paris 
Hotel and the Grand Hotel, give dinner-concerts at a very 
moderate charges. These dinners are open to all. 

Evening dress or dress jacket should be worn although the 
customer is not obliged to appear in it. 

The principal restaurants are: Rotisserie Sportsman, calle 
Florida 40; Rotisserie Harguindeguy, calle Esmeralda 331-333; 
the luxurious «Trianon», corner of calles Suipacha and Can- 
gallo; Rotisserie Argentine, corner of calles Lavalle and 
Talcahuano; Royal Keller, restaurant and beerhouse, grand 
orchestra, calle Corrientes 778 and calle Esmeralda 385. They 
charge for the meal, luncheon or dinner $ 1'25 and they sell 
tickets available for 10 meals at $ 13. Luzio Brothers, 
corner of Maipii and Sarmiento streets and corner of San 
Martin and Bartolome Mitre streets; Aue's Keller, calle Bar- 
tolome Mitre 650; Ferrari, caUes Uruguay and Sarmiento; 
Schafer and Sougnac, calle Bartolome Mitre 387; Viuda de 
Sempe, calle Cangallo 425; The Brunswick, calle Bartolome 
Mitre 387; Rotisserie-Bar Chantecler, calle Corrientes 439, 
open day and night. 

Cafes. — The number of coffee-houses is immense: thus. 



Cafes CAPITAL 91 

we shall uot mention all but will poiiil out the most impor- 
tant of these establishments: 

The most magnificent are to be found in the splendid 
Avenida de Mayo. During winter they are the meeting place 
of numerous people who remain in them until one o'clock in 
the morning and during the summer season, just as on the 
boulevards of Paris, the broad side walks are filled with 
small tables and chairs occupied by lively groups of ladies 
and gentlemen conversing and taking refreshments. The 
sight is very entertaining. 

The principal cafes in the Avenida, not including the 
hotels which are also cafes, are: Confiteria de Londres, 684; 
Cafe de Madrid, 701; Cafe Tortoni, 825; Cafe Central, 899; 
Gran Cafe Scala, 960; Gran Cafe Colon, 999; Cafe La Armo- 
nia 1002; Cafe del Teatro de Mayo, 1091; Cafe La Castellana 
(with a cinema), 1149; Cafe Centenario, 1355. 

Quite recentty numerous music-halls have been estab- 
lished in the capital. These houses possess excellent orches- 
tras and there is every evening a large audience of men 
and sometimes many representatives of the fair sex. The 
most frequented of them are; the Cafe Colon, Avenida de 
Mayo and calle Bernardo de Irigoyen; La Castellana, Ave- 
nida de Mayo 1149; the Tortoni, Avenida de Mayo 825; 
the Central, Avenida de Mayo, 899; La Giralda, corner of 
Eivadavia and Tacuari; the Guarany, corner of Corrientes 
and Esmeralda Streets; the Mogyana, corner of Corrientes 
and Suipacha; the Ideal Bar, corner of Corrientes and Liber- 
tad streets, etc. 

The coffee is, in general, very good and it costs only 
$ 0"15 per cup a small glass of brandy costs from $ 0*30 to 
$ 0'50 according to the brand; the syrops cost $ 0"25 and 
the icecreams $ 0'25. 

Besides these cafes there are some special and very 
elegant establishments for the sale of coffee. 

The principal houses of this kind belong to the «Brasile- 
na» and to the «Cafe Paulista». 

These establishments possess branches in calle Mai- 
pu 232; Carlos Pellegrini 189, Santa Fe 2437, Bernardo de 
Irigoyen 1090, San Martin 40, Bivadavia 2400: all belonging 
to «La Brasilena», and Salta 461; Bartolome Mitre 490, San 
Martin 85, Corrientes 433, Corrientes 948, 25 de ]Mavo 79, 
Rivadavia 6976, Cabildo 2070, Brasil 1148, Salta 459, Cha- 
cabuco 281, Almirante Brown 1374, Santa Fe 2411 and 
Floridc^ 156 belonging to the <*Cai'e Paulista». 

A cup of coffee costs $ 0*10 and the tip is $ 0"05. 

Beer-houses. — Beer is served in almost all caf^s and con- 
fectioner's but there are some special houses where the 



92 CAPITAL Conf eel loners 

lover of this drink will find excellent German and English 
beer as well as beers brewed in the country, Quilmes, Biec- 
kert and Palermo. 

We recommend especialy Luzio Bros, at the corner of 
Maipu and Sarmiento streets, San Martin and Bartolome 
Mitre streets and Aue's Keller, Bartolome Mitre 650. 

Luncheon. — It is served in the restaurants and besides 
these establishments we shall mention: The Five O'clock Tea 
Koom, calle Florida 76 and 329; the Confiteria del Aguila 
(room for ladies), Callao and Cangallo; the Confiteria del 
Gas, corner of Rivadavia and Esmeralda streets (special 
room for ladies); Lascano, Bartolome Mitre 502 (speciality 
in sandwiches); Luzio Bros, corners of San Martin and Bar- 
tolome Mitre streets and Sarmiento and Maipii streets 
(orchestra); the Confiteria Paris, Charcas and Libertad and 
Corrientes and Suipacha. 

Confectioners' shops. — The «Confiterias» are a speciality 
in Buenos Aires; they serve drinks the same as in the cafes 
and there they sell, also all sorts of cakes and sweets. Let us 
mention amongst the best, the following establishments of 
this kind: El Aguila, Callao and Cangallo streets; El Gas, 
corner of Esmeralda and Rivadavia; Jockey Club, corner of 
Cerrito and Sarmiento; Dos Chinos, corner of Alsina and Cha- 
cabuco streets; Colombo, corner of Esmeralda and Corrientes 
streets; Bias Mango, Florida 656; Del Molino, corner of Riva- 
davia and Callao; Paris, corner of Charcas and Libertad 
streets, etc. 

Confectionery -makers. — Excellent sweets are made in 
Buenos Aires. We recommend the traveller to taste the 
tomato's confiture unknown in Europe as well as the «du- 
raznitos de la Virgen» and the «dulce de leche«. The traveller 
will find the latter in the best milk-shops. Amongst the spe- 
cialists in this line w^e are able to mention: Gonzalez S., 
calle Salta 225; Xoel B. and Co., calle Defensa 983-993; 
Vitaloni Horace, calle Anchorena 991; Vicente Fangio, calle 
Cerrito 1194; Domingo Gonzalez, calle Rodriguez Pena 370; 
Manuel Santan, calle Charcas 1490; Silva Hermanos e In- 
festa, calle Pichincha 1550; Horacio Vitaloni and Co.. calle 
Humahuaca 1028-1044 (U. T. 889, Mitre); Daniel Bassi 
and Co., (late Codet's), calle Bartolome Mitre 2550 
(U. T. 534, Mitre). 

Chocolate ready made. — Besides these confectioners' 
shops they serve good chocolate at Vicente Rey's, calle 
Cangallo 916 (private room for ladies). 



Railways CAPITAL 93 

Milk-shops. -During tlio suiiiiner seafjoii milk is the fa- 
vourite beverage in Buenos Aires. This preference is due not 
only to the excellence of this product which is delivered to 
the public pasteurized and fresh, but also to the elegant 
rooms where it is served. The important Companies La 
Martona, La Granja Blanca, and La 5larina have established 
in the town numerous branches where milk is sold at O'lO a 
pint. In these rooms they sell also eggs, butter and cheese 
made in the said establishments. 



Railways. 

The metropolis does not yet possess any Elevated Rail- 
way like that of New York or any Metropolitan like that of 
Paris or the Tube of London, crassing the town from one 
end to another. 

But by virtue of a concession made by a national law, the 
Anglo-Argentine Tramways Co., which possess the greater 
part of the tramway lines in the metropolis is working now 
on a complete set of underground lines viz.: 

a) From Plaza de Mayo to Plaza Once de Septiembre. 

b) Prolongation of the former down to Plaza Primera 
Junta (Caballito). 

c) From Eetiro to Plaza Constitucion. 

d) From Plaza de Mayo to Palermo. 

The work on the first line, executed by Philipp Holz- 
mann and Co. Ltd., is almost finished, and by the end of 
this year the first underground tramway will run in Buenos 
Aires. 

The width of the tunnel where this tramway will run is 
sufficient to allow the laying of two Unes more just like those 
belonging to the level tramways in the town. The electric 
current is brought by overhead wires placed on the upper 
part of the tunnel, and the trolley will be of a special kind 
which will obviate the car's being shifted off the line. The 
side walls of the tunnel are built of stones, and on them 
rest the beams which support the brick vaults forming the 
roof that is situated very near the roadway in order that 
access to the stations may be as comfortable as possible. 

Another interesting point of this great work is the cros- 
sing of the tunnel of the 1st. line with the two tunnels of the 
2nd one, from the Retiro to the Plaza de la Constitucion. 

These two crossings are situated in the Avenida de Mayo 
corner of Chacabuco and Piedras. The accompanying plan 
shows the manner in which the three arteries for the traf- 
fic that the great metropolis will shortly possess cross. On 
the first level the Avenidad e Mayo is shown, on the second, 
the tunnel with a double track belonginff to the line from the 



94 CAPITAL l^niJwaj/s 

Plaza do Mayo to the Plaza Once, and on the third, and cut- 
ting the preceding at right -angles, the tunnel ot the line from 
the Retiro to the Plaza Constitucion. 

To these lines will be added later, and at a still lower 
level, the lines for goods trains which the Western Railway 
is constructing between the Once Station ant the Retiro, 
beneath the Calle Rivadavia and the Avenida de Mayo. 

In the above-mentioned plan may be seen the carriages 
which wil be employed on these underground railways. 
These carriages will be constructed with seats for 60 passen- 
gers, and considering that the traffic in the interior of the 
tunnel will be 45 trains per hour, it is seen that a total 
of 38,000 passengers can be transported in this space of 
time. 

Southern S: Port Eiiseiiada Railway. — Local agency, 564, 
Calle Cangallo; Administration, Plaza Constitucion; Infor- 
mation and telegraph office, 556, Calle Cangallo. 

This company serves the whole of the south of the pro- 
vince of Buenos Aires as far as the national territory of Xeu- 
quen, after a journey of 1,240 kilometres. 

The total length of all the lines of this company is 3,979 
kilometres; the following are the principal ones: 

Buenos Aires, Olavarria & Bahia Blanca (via Caiiuelas 
and Gen. Lamadrid), 680 kilometres; Buenos Aires & Bahia 
Blanca (via Pringles); Buenos Aires, Tres Arroyos ct Bahia 
Blanca; Buenos Aires & Xeuquen (via Bahia Blanca); Bue- 
nos Aires & Carliue; Buenos Aires <& Bolivar & Saavedra 
(via June. Lobos); Buenos Aires cfc Tandil (via Dolores);' 
Buenos Aires & Mar del Plata; Buenos Aires cfc Necocliea. 

The booking offices are situated at the entrance of a large 
kiosk, in the Constitucion Station, but tickets can also be 
obtained at the inquiry office, 556, Calle Cangallo. For 
night journeys one should book one's bed in advance, at 
one of the above places, in order to avoid delay. The sta- 
tion is provided with a buffet; the trains start from the 
platform situated on their right, and arrive at the one on 
the left. 

Dining-cars. — The trains doing the day service between 
the Plaza Constitucion, Ayacucho, Azul, Caiiuelas and 
Berraondo are provided with dining-cars; the night trains 
between Olavarria, Bahia Blanca, Neuqueu, Ayacucho dc 
Xecochea, Ayacucho, Coronel Dorrego, Bolivar Sc Saavedra, 
and Mar def Plata are also provided with them. (Price S 3 
per meal, without wine.) The trains forming the express day 
service to Mar del Plata contain Pullman and dining-cars. 

Central Arcjentine, Buenos Aires and Rosario Railway. — 



Eailways (JAPlTxVI. 95 

Adniiiiistiatioii, Inquiry OMce, etc., VdWv Bartolome Mi- 
tre, corner of Calle 25 de Mayo (Central Argentine Build- 
ings). The station is situated in the Paseo de Julio, corner 
of ]\Iaipu. 

Direct line to Kosario, Cordoba, Tucunuin, Tigre (Buenos 
Aires). Connections with the Santafecino Western Failway, 
for Candelaria as far as Juarez Celman; with the Compa- 
gnie Francaise des Chemins de Fer de la Province de Santa 
Fe, branch to Luduena; with the Santa Fe and Cordoba 
Railway, for Santa Rosa; with the Pacific Bailway, for 
Villa Maria; with the Argentine Great Western Pailway, for 
San Juan and Mendoza; with the Central Cordoha Pailicay, 
for Jujuy, Tucunian and Salta; with the Argentine Xor- 
thern Railway, via Cruz del Eje. 

Western Buenos Aires Railway. — Terminal station. 
Boulevard Pueyrredon, 120, and Calle Bartolome Mitre 
2815; Inquiry and booking office, Calle Cangallo 564. Line 
from Buenos Aires to Toay (Central Pampas, 615 kilometres); 
from Buenos Aires to La Plata, 88 kilometres; from Buenos 
Aires to Navarro, through Saladillo, General Alvear, 25 de 
Mayo and Bolivar (328 kilometres); from Buenos Aires to 
Pergamino (299 kilometres). 

Connections with the Central Argentine Railway as far 
as Rosario and Cordoba with the Andino and Pacific Rail- 
ivays as far as Mendoza and San Juan; excellent dining- 
cars for the long journeys. Ticket office in the large kiosk 
on the right of the entrance; there is also a buft'et. 

Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway. — Administration, Flo- 
rida 753; Inquiries, postal packets, telegraph and ticket 
office, Florida and Cordoba. 

The departure station is the same as that for the Central 
Argentine Railway. The central office for the distribution 
of tickets and registering luggage is situated in Calles Flo- 
rida and Cordoba, where also postal packets are received 
for all the stations on the line and the lines in connection 
with it. 

Direct line from Buenos Aires to Villa Jlercedes (Prov- 
ince of San Luis, 689 kilometres). 

Connections with the Argentine Great W ester }i Railway 
from Villa Mercedes to Mendoza and San Juan (1,202 kilo- 
metres) and from Mendoza to San Rafael (274 kilometres) 
and with the Transandiiie Railway from Mendoza to Las 
Cuevas (175 kilometres) in the Cordillera of the Andes. On 
the main lines there are sleeping cars and dining-cars. 

Buenos Aiies Central Railway.— Administration, in Cha- 
carita Station. 

This line (of narrow gauge) connects, by means of a ser- 

BAKOEJvER.— 10 



96 CAPITAL Faihvaijs 

vice combined with the tramways the centre of the town 
of Buenos Aires with the outlying villages of San Andres de 
Giles, Carmen de Areco, Salto, Capilla del Seiior and Zara- 
te, all in the province of Buenos Aires. 

The journey to Salto follows the following route. From 
the Chacarita, the terminus, one passes through the stations 
of La Paternal, School of Agronomy, Parada el Talar, Villa 
Devoto, Lynch, Parada Tropezon, Caseros, Pereyra, Bella 
Vista, General Sarmiento, Althimberger, Pihero, Toro, Pi- 
lar, Giles, Carmen de Areco, Kaylo, Tata, and one arrives 
at Salto. Total length of the journey, 178 kilometres; time 
taken, 4 hours 45 minutes. 

The journey to Zarate is effected in a similar manner. On 
arrival at Lacroze one takes a branch line which goes to the 
village of this name, passing through Parada Lavallen, 
Pavon, Desvio Orlando, Capilla, Escalada, and finally Des- 
tileria. Total distance of the journey, 103 kilometres. 

Another line connects them, by means of a ferry-boat 
crossing the Parana and transporting wagons and carriages, 
with the Entre Kios Eailway, and this arrangement enor- 
mously shortens the distance which separates the towns of 
this province from Buenos Aires. 

Central Cordoba Railway (Extension to Buenos Aires). — 
Direction, Administration and Offices, Calle Cangallo 499. 

The departure station is at the Retiro, Avenida Rosales 
and Calle Maipii. 

Direct line to Rosario, from Rosario to Cordoba, and by 
tl e Central Cordoba to Santiago and Tucuman. 

Connections with the North Central at Tucuman for 
Salta, Jujuy and La Quiaca; and with the Santa Fe Railway 
at Sorrento, for Santa Fe. 

Midland Buenos Aires Railway. — Local administration 
and offices, Calle 25 de Mayo 33. 

The departure station is at Puente Alsina. For travellers 
the terminus is at the Sola station, at the corner of Calles 
Velez Sarsfield and Olavarria. 

This line serves that part of the province of Buenos Aires 
composed of Buenos Aires and Carhue. 

Province of Buenos Aires General Railways Company. — 

General management, secretary, claims, and information 
office, corner of Calles Velez Sarsfield and Suarez. 

The terminus is at the corner of Calles Velez Sarsfield 
and Suarez. 

Line from Buenos Aires to Rosario and Nueve de Julio. 

Direct service to Santa Fe, in connection with the Santa 
Fe Railway. 



Tiailways CAPITAL «7 

The uiideiji round raihvays oi' the Western Halhvay (For 
passengers and goods). — The iiiidergroiind raihvays which 
the Western Railway has constructed are two, one for pas- 
sengers and the other for goods. These two undergrounds 
are entirely independent although built upon a common 
plan, the result of serious studies of the technical and eco- 
nomic aspects. 

The first, for passengers, although less important as an 
engineering work and as regards cost of construction, is 
that w^iich most interests the public of the capital and the 
suburbs served by the Western railway. 

This tunnel branches off from Western main line on the 
southern side of the Calle Sadi Carnot, and descending ra- 
pidly passes under several streets and buildings and arrives 
at a maximum depth of 13 metres, and finishes at the south- 
western angle of the Plaza Once de Septiembre, where it 
connects with the Anglo-x\rgentine Railway's system. 

The Western electric trains will occupy one side of each 
of the two central branches of the station, and those of the 
Anglo-Argentine will occupy another at the same level. In 
this way passengers transferring from one to the other at the 
moment of arrival, provided that the two lines run a service 
in connection, will not have the annoyance of waiting, nor 
the difficulty of running through tortuous passages, or 
going up or down staircases, inconveniences which are caused 
when the lines are at different levels, as happens in Paris 
and London. 

And if a change of train is necessary, it is because the 
gauge of the lines is different. 

The junction will be one of the largest stations in Buenos 
Aires, almost equal to that of the Once. It will have space 
for six trains: tw^o from the Western and four from the 
Anglo. For the construction of it and of the tubes, the Plaza 
del Once has been undermined almost to its whole extent 
at a depth of ten metres. When the work has been finished 
the square will be filled in again, and the gardens which are 
to ornament it will be laid out. 

The station will be situated partly under the Calles Puey- 
rredon and Rivadavia, and partly under the square, so that 
access to this latter can be had at the same level, which 
will render the old staircases useless. 

The Western tube for passenger trains has a double line 
with a length of 1,000 metres between the main line and the 
junction with the Anglo. 

System of construction. — Over half its length, that is to 
say in the part underneath the Plaza del Once and Calle 
Rivadavia, the excavation is being made from the surface; 



98 CAPITAL FaiJwaijs 

over tlie other half the way is being tunnelled by hand with- 
out the assistance of machinery. 

Along the whole distance of the tunnel a preliminary air 
gallery has been opened to facilitate the task of the w ork- 
men, a gallery which runs from one end of the works to the 
other. 

The transverse section of the tunnel presents a con- 
tinuous curve between the ends which rest on the ground. 
At its widest part it measures 9*20 m., while the height 
from the ground to the roof is only 6 metres. The tunnel- 
ling includes a large space for the lateral and upper cove- 
rings and for the ballast on which the lines are to lie, which 
gives the excavation a w idth of 1 1 metres and a height of 9 
metres. 

The tunnelling is done in pieces 5 or 6 metres in length 
by workmen who work at different heights in order that the 
work may be done more rapidly. In certain parts, according 
to the nature of the earth w^hich is being excavated, frame- 
work is placed to prevent the roof from falling in, until the 
arches are placed in position for the construction of the 
lining. 

This lining is a mixture of cement and stone, of a uniform 
thickness of 75 centimetres. The foundations, with a depth 
of r20 m., are 1'35 m. thick. 

It is estimated that this tunnel will be finished in June, 
1913. 

The tunnel for goods. — -Though of less interest to the ge- 
neral public, this tunnel represents work and outlay con- 
siderably greater than the preceding, on account of the 
technical difficulties which must be surmounted. 

Like that for the passengers, it starts from the main line 
of the Western Railway near the Calle Sadi Carnot, but 
towards the north it descends rapidly to pass under the Once 
station and the junction at a depth of 19 metres, and from 
there runs under the tunnel of the Anglo to the Plaza del 
Congreso. 

Under this square it takes a different direction, owing to 
the greater radius of the curve necessary for long goods 
trains, and under the Avenida de Mayo it bends, continuing 
under the Anglo tunnel to the Plaza de Mayo, where it again 
changes its direction in order to arrive at its terminus, the 
roads at the arbour, by the Calle Rivadavia. 

The depth of the goods tunnel differs in its relation to 
that of the Anglo at different points. The latter's level varies 
according to that of the streets under which it passes, so 
that its section presents an undulating line, while that of 
the AYestern Railway's goods tunnel has longer straight 
lines. 



Eailways CAPITAL 99 

It follows from this that the two tunnels are at certain 
points separated only by a thin partition of steel and ce- 
ment which serves as a floor for one and a roof for the other, 
as happens in the part between Calles Saenz Pena and San- 
tiago del Estero, while in other places there is a bed of 
earth 7 metres thick between the two tunnels. 

The goods tunnel crosses under Calles Callao; Piedras, 
and Chacabuco at such a depth and in such a fashion that 
future tunnels which are to be made under these streets pass 
between the two in construction, that is to say, above the 
goods tunnel and under the Anglo. 

For boring this tunnel, which is about four kilometres 
and a half long, different systems of construction, as requir- 
ed by the different conditions of the ground through which 
it will pass, will be employed. 

The transverse section of the tunnel for goods, has, for the 
greater part of its length, the form of a horse-shoe. 

As it has only a single line, its dimensions are less than 
those of the passenger tunnel; it is only 4'90 m. at its grea- 
test width and 5*55 m. high, dimensions sufficient for the 
largest and fullest wagons of the Western Railway. 

The work has been commenced at different points. The 
procedure for lining and excavating is the same as that em- 
ployed for the passenger tunnel. 

Electrification of the Urban section. — There will shortly 
be commenced the electrification of the urban section be- 
tween the Plaza del Once and the Moreno Station. 

From the new station which is to be constructed at the 
Caballito to the station at Liniers the four lines will pass un- 
der Calle Bella Vista and following roads, towards the west. 
In Calle Cucha-Cucha a high level bridge will be built. 

It is hoped that the electric trains between Moreno and 
the junction station at the Once will commence to run in 
June, 1914, and it is calculated that they will take 35 min- 
utes for the journey between the two stations. 

From Moron to the Once and vice versa they will take 
only 20 minutes, to which time it is necessary to add 10 mi- 
nutes for the journey from the Once to the JPlaza de Mayo. 
Cost of the worlc. — -The calculated cost of the work is 
28 million dollars, gold (£ 5,800,000), distributed in the 
following manner: 
Underground for passenger 

service $ 3,000,000 or £ 600,000 

Underground for goods ser- 
vice $ 6,000,000 or £ 1,200,000 

Trenches and improvements 

to the Caballito $ 7,000,000 or £ 1,400,000 

Electrification of the lines .. . $ 12,000,000 or £ 2,400,000 



100 CAPITAL Tramways 

Tramways. 

The tramways of Buenos Aires have reached a considera- 
ble degree of development, and they are so well organized 
that they have gained for the town the name of the «City 
of Tramways)). 

There are at present (January, 1913), four tramway com- 
panies, whose lines have a total length of 687 km. 52.5 me- 
tres. All these lines are electric, and 1682 cars are employed in 
the daily service. The lines run through all quarters of the ca- 
pital, and follow the streets going in a direction from north to 
south, as well as those going from east to west or in a 
diagonal direction. On the majority of the lines depar- 
tures take place every minute; and even during the night, 
though not at such frequent intervals, there is a service. 
The electric cars, the only ones in use at Buenos Aires, are 
spacious and can contain 35 passengers. The cars of the 
Lacroze Company, which run between the capital and 
Villa Devoto, are even more capacious, they will hold 100 
persons. All the cars are Avell lighted. The fare in the interior 
of the town is uniform, whatever may be the distance: $ 0*10 
per journey. Passengers are obliged to keep their tickets, 
and to show them whenever required to do so by employes 
of the Company. At each crossing the cars stop to allow pas- 
sengers to descend, but it is necessary to give the conduc- 
tor notice. On the front of the car, which is reserved for the 
driver, passengers packages may be placed, the driver 
usually" receiving a tip in return for the privilege. 

On the top the cars have a number indicating their di- 
rection (it is very useful for the traveller to pay attention 
to this number). They have also, in front, a small board 
indicating their itinerary. In one of the top corners there is 
a small bill bearing the word «Completo», which is visible 
only when the tram can take no more passengers. 

The day service generally commences at 3 "40 a. m. 
or 4 a. m. 

The extraordinary use made of the tramways is shown 
by the following figures, which also indicate their growing 
prosperity: in 1900, 101 millions of passengers were carried; 
in 1905, this number rose to 169 millions; in 1911, to 355 
millions, and in 1912, to 382 millions. 

This traffic is destined to assume still greater pro- 
portions, for new lines are continually being constructed, 
and already a part of the subterranean network, similar to 
that of Paris, is constructed or in construction, although 
it is not yet working. 

Anglo -Argentine Tramways. — Line No. I, between Velez 



Tramways CAPITAL 101 

Sdrsfield and Esmeralda. — Via Velez Sarsfield, Rivadavia, 
Rio Bamba, B. Mitre, Esmeralda and back via Cangallo, 
Junin, Rivadavia, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 2, between Liniers and the Plaza de Mayo. — 
Via Rivadavia, Rincon, Alsina, Bolivar, Plaza de Mayo, 
and back via Victoria, Pozos, and Rivadavia, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 2, between Liniers and Suipacha. — Via Rivada- 
via, Rio Bamba, B. Mitre and Suipacha, and back via Sui- 
pacha, Tacuari, Victoria, Pozos and Rivadavia, to the 
starting-point. 

Express between Plaza Once (Western Railway) and the 
Centre. — Via Bartolom6 Mitre and 25 de Mayo, and back 
via Cangallo, Pueyrredon, Rivadavia and Ecuador, to the 
starting-point, for the railway trains. 

Line No. 3, between Almagro and the Plaza de Mayo. — 
From Almagro (corner of Rivadavia and Marmol) via Riva- 
davia, Rincon, Alsina, Balcarce and the Plaza de Mayo, 
and back via 25 de Mayo, Cangallo, Junin, Rivadavia, Cas- 
tro Barros and Marmol, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 4, between Almagro and Plaza de Colon. — Via 
Rivadavia, Medrano, B. Mitre and the Plaza de Colon, and 
back via Victoria, Tacuari, Moreno, Maza, Belgrano and 
Marmol, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 5, between Flores and Betiro. — From Sud-Ame- 
rica via Rivadavia, Medrano, B. Mitre, Libertad, Viamonte, 
San Martin, Paseo de Julio, Maipii and Retiro, and back 
via Maipu, Paseo de Julio, Basabilbaso, Arenales, Talca- 
huano, Santiago del Estero, Victoria, Pozos and Rivadavia, 
to the starting-point. 

Line No. 6, between Caseros and Saiijil and the Plaza de 
Mayo. — Via Chiclana, Boedo, Caseros, Saenz Pena, Brasil, 
Piedras, Alsina, Balcarce and the Plaza de Mayo, and back 
via Victoria, Tacuari, Garay, Lima (East), Plaza Constitu- 
cion, Lima, Caseros, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 7, between Progreso and Jiijuy and the Plaza 
de 3£ayo.—yia, Jujuy, Constitucion, Cevallos, Alsina, Bal- 
carce and the Plaza de Mayo, and back via Victoria, Solis, 
Garay, Entre Rios, Armonia and Jujuy, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 8, between Recoleta {Plaza Intendente Alvear) 
and Plaza Constitucion. — Via Junin, Vicente Lopez, Juncal, 
Talcahuano, Santiago del Estero, Brasil and Plaza Constitu- 
cion, and back via Lima (East), Constitucion, Salta, Liber- 
tad, and Avenida Quintana, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 9, between Plaza Constitucion and Fetiro. — Via 
Brasil, Piedras^ Esjueralda, Juncal and Maipu to the Re- 



102 CAPITAL Tramwfnjs 

tiro, and back by Falucho, Florida, Charcas, Maipii, Chaca- 
buco, Garay, Lima, Brasil and Plaza Constitiicion. 

Line No. 10, between Barraeas (Tres Esquinas) and Plaza 
Alvear. — Via Pedro Mendoza, Patricios, Martin Garcia, 
Piedras, Esmeralda, Arenales, Libertad, Aveuida Quintana 
and Plaza Alvear, and back via Jiinin, Vicente Lopez, Pa- 
rana, Paraguay, Maipii, Chacabiico, Brasil, Defensa, Patri- 
cios, Santa Rosalia and Montes de Oca, to Tres Esquinas. 

Line No. 11, between Boca, Plaza de Mayo and Plaza Al- 
vear. — From Boca (Almirante Brown and Pedro Mendoza), 
via Pedro Mendoza, Xecocliea, La Madrid, Almirante Brown, 
Plaza Colon, Garay, Bolivar, Victoria, San Jose, L^ruguay 
and General Guido to Plaza Alvear, and back via Junin, 
Vicente Lopez, Juncal, Suipacha, Sarmiento, Av. Rosales, 
Paseo Colon, Victoria, Defensa, Brasil, Plaza Colon, Almi- 
rante Brown, to the starting-point. 

Line A"o. 12, between Boca, Plaza Constitucion and Plaza 
Once. — Via Almirante Brown, Paseo Colon, Garay, Lima, 
Brasil, Plaza Constitucion, Salta, Victoria, Jujuy and Plaza 
Once, and back via Pueyrredon, Sarmiento, Cerrito, Lima, 
Constitucion, Lima (East), Plaza Constitucion, Brasil, Pa- 
seo Colon and Almirante Brown, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 14, between Caridad Station and the Plaza de 
Mayo. — Leaving the Caridad station, via Belgrano, Balcarce 
and Plaza de Mayo, and back via 25 de Mayo, Corrientes, 
Callao, Cangallo, Pueyrredon, Plaza Once, Eivadavia, L'r- 
quiza and Caridad Station. 

Line No. 15, between Plaza Alvear and Plaza Constitucion. 
— From Recoleta via Junin, Vicente Lopez, Juncal. Cerrito, 
Lima, Constitucion and Lima (East) to Plaza Constitucion, 
and back via Brasil, Bolivar, San Martin, Tucuman, Libertad 
and Av. Quintana, to Recoleta. 

Line No. 16, between Parque Patricios and the Plaza de 
Mayo. — Via Caseros, Dean Funes, Belgrano, Rioja, Ecuador, 
B. Mitre, Pueyrredon, Sarmiento, Av. Rosales, and Rivada- 
via to the Plaza de Mayo, and back via 25 de Mayo, Corrien- 
tes, Pueyrredon, Rivadavia, General Urquiza, Belgrano and 
Rioja, to the starting-point. 

Line So. 17, between Puente de Barraeas and Cinco Es- 
quinas. — Via Vieytes, Puentecitos, Herrera, Pedro Mendoza, 
Montes de Oca, Bernardo de Irigoyen, Carlos Pellegrini, 
Arenales and Libertad to Cinco Esquinas, and back via 
Juncal, Suipacha, Tacuari, Garay, Lima, Plaza Constitu- 
cion, Bernardo de Irigoyen, Montes de Oca and Pedro 
Mendoza, to the Puente de Barraeas. 

Line No. 18, between Barraeas and Fetiro. — From Barra- 
eas (Vieytes and Puentecito), via Puentecito, Herrera, Sua- 
rez, Montes de Oca, Bernardo de Irigoyen, Carlos Pellegri- 



Tramways CAPITAL 103 

ni, Jiincal, Maipii and Retire, and back via Maipu, Paseo de 
Julio, Reconquista, Rivadavia, Balcarce, Victoria, Defensa, 
Patricios, Suarez and Vieytes, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 19, between the Flaza de Mayo and the Avenida 
La Plata. — Via Victoria, Defensa, Chile, Entre Rios, Inde- 
pendencia, Boedo, Garay, Castro, Pavon and Avenida La 
Plata, and back via Av. Chiclana, Garay, Pichincha, Bel- 
grano and Balcarce, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 20, between Caridad Station and the Plaza de 
Mayo. — Via Rioja, Ecuador, B. Mitre, Pueyrredon, Sarmien- 
to, and Plaza de Mayo, and back via Balcarce, Victoria, 
Defensa, Venezuela, Entre Rios, and Belgrano, to the Cari- 
dad Station. 

Line No. 21, between Crucesita, Avellaneda, Plaza Consti- 
tiicion and Plaza Once. — From Crucesita, via Av. Gen. Mi- 
tre, Vieytes, Puentecito, Herrera, Patagones, General Hor- 
nos, Lima (East), Pavon, B. de Irigoyen, Venezuela, Entre 
Rios, Belgrano, Rioja, Ecuador and Plaza Once, and back 
via B. Mitre, Suipacha, Tacuari, Caseros, Montes de Oca, 
Pedro Mendoza, Avenue General Mitre and Crucesita. 

Line No. 22, between Crucesita, Avellaneda and Plaza de. 
Mayo. — Via Av. Gen. Mitre, Vieytes, Puentecito, Herrera, 
Pedro Mendoza, Montes de Oca, Martin Garcia, Bolivar, 
San Martin, Sarmiento, Av. Rosales, Paseo Colon and Victo- 
ria to Plaza de Mayo, and back via Defensa Martin Garcia, 
Montes de' Oca, Pedro Mendoza, Av. Gen. Mitre and Cruce- 
sita. 

Line No. 23, between Plaza de Mayo and Boedo. — Via Vic- 
toria, Defensa, Moreno, Albert!, Garay and Chiclana to 
Boedo, and back via Boedo, Independencia, Bolivar, Alsina 
and Balcarce, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 24, between Velez Sdisfield Station (Province of 
Buenos Aires general Pailway Company) and Retiro. — Via 
Olavarria, V61ez Sarsfield, Av. Alcorta, Salta, Belgrano. Bo- 
livar, Plaza de Mayo, San Martin, Paseo de Julio, Maipii 
and Retiro, and back via Maipii, Paseo de Julio, Reconquis- 
ta, Plaza de Mayo, Rivadavia, Balcarce, Victoria, Defensa, 
Moreno, Lima, Plaza Constitucion, Lima, Paracas, Patago- 
nes, Av. x\lcorta, Velez Sarsfield, Olavarria, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 25, between Costa Rica and Gazcon and Boca. — 
From Costa Rica, via Gazcon, Cabrera, Gallo, Lavalle, Ju- 
niu, Bartolome Mitre, Av. Rosales, Plaza Colon, Aim. Brown, 
Dulce, Xecochea, Diamante, Ministro Brin, La Madrid, Ga- 
boto and Pedro Mendoza, and back by Xecochea, Dulce, 
Aim. Brown, Plaza Colon, Rivadavia, 25 de Mayo, Cangallo, 
Ombii, Tucuman, Anchorena, Cordoba, Soler and Costa 
Rica, to the starting-point. 



104 CAPITAL Tramways 

Line No. 26, between Avenida La Plata and Plaza de 
Mayo. — Via Avenida La Plata, Venezuela, Castro Barros, 
Belgrano, Balcarce, Plaza de Mayo, and back via 25 de 
Mayo, Corrientes, Castelli, Valentin Gomez, Billinghurst, 
Cangallo, Gazcon, Eivadavia (Almagro), and Avenida La 
Plata to the starting-point. 

Line No. 27, between Avenida La Plata and Plaza Colon. 
— Via Eivadavia, Rawson, Diaz Velez, Pringles, Sarmiento, 
Avenida Rosales and Plaza Colon, and back via Victoria, 
Defensa, Venezuela, Entre Rios, Belgrano, Liniers, Mejico, 
Avenida La Plata, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 28, between Boca, Plaza de Mayo and Eetiro. — 
Via Aim. Brown, M. Garcia, Bolivar, San Martin, Paseo de 
Julio, Av. Maipu and Retiro, and back via Maipii, Paseo de 
Julio, Reconquista, Rivadavia, Plaza de Mayo, Balcarce, 
Victoria, Defensa, Martin Garcia, Aim. Brown, Pinzon, 
Gaboto and Pedro Mendoza, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 29, between Avenida Alcorta and Plaza Colon. — 
Via Velez Sarsfield, Entre Rios, Constitucion, Cevallos, 
Mejico, Piedras, Esmeralda, Sarmiento and Plaza Colon, 
and back via Av. Rosales, Victoria, Santiago del Estero, 
Armonia, Entre Rios and Velez Sarsfield, to the starting- 
IDoint. 

Line No. 30, between Barracas Station and Viamonte. — 
From Barracas Station via Montes de Oca, Bernardo de Iri- 
goyen, Carlos Pellegrini to Viamonte, and back via Suipa- 
cha, Tacuari, Garay, Lima (East), Brasil, Bernardo de Iri- 
goyen and Montes de Oca, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 31, betiveen Plaza de Mayo and Belgrano. — 
Via San Martin, Charcas, Callao, Santa Fe, and Cabildo to 
Mendoza (Belgrano), and back via Mendoza, Obligado, Jura- 
mento, Cabildo, Santa Fe, Maipii, Paraguay and Reconquis- 
ta, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 33, between Chacabuco and Moreno and Puey- 
rredon. — Via Moreno, Piedras, Esmeralda, Charcas, Puey- 
rredon, Juncal, Anchorena and French, and back via Puey- 
rredon, Santa Fe, Maipii and Chacabuco, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 34, between Chacabuco and Moreno and Belgra- 
no. — Via Moreno, Piedras, Esmeralda, Charcas, Callao, San- 
ta Fe, Cabildo, Pampa, Cramer, to Mendoza (Belgrano), 
and back via Mendoza, 11 de Septiembre, Juramento, 
Av. Vertiz, Gutemberg, Santa Fe, Maipu and Chacabuco, 
to the starting-point. 

Line No. 35, between the Plaza de Mayo and Belgrano 
an^ Nunez. — From the Plaza de Mayo (Rivadavia and Pa- 
seo de Julio), via Paseo de Julio, Callao, Las Heras, Santa 
Fe, Cabildo, Pampa and Cramer to Republiquetas (Xiifiez), 



Tramwnijs CAPITAL 105 

and back via Eepubliquetas, Cuba, Monroe, 3 de Febrero, 
Mendoza, 11 de Septiembre, Av. V6rtiz, Gutemberg, Santa 
Fe, Las Heras, Callao and Paseo de Julio, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 36, between Eeconquista and Cangallo and Bel- 
grano. — Via Cangallo, Montevideo, Las Heras, Santa Fe, 
iGlutemberg and Av. V^rtiz to Juramento (Belgrano), and 
back via Cabildo, Santa Fe, Las Heras, Callao, Juncal, Ro- 
driguez Pena, Sarmiento and Eeconquista. 

Line No. 37, between the Plaza de Mayo and Belgrano.— 
From Rivadavia and Paseo de Julio via Paseo de Julio, Char- 
cas, Callao, Santa Fe, Plaza de Italia, 2.° Sarmiento, Cer- 
vifio, Av. Arana, Av. Vertiz, Pampa, Cramer, Congreso, 
Belgrano, and back via Cuba, Monroe, 3 de Febrero, Men- 
doza, 11 de Septiembre, Juramento, Av. Vertiz, Av. Arana, 
Cervino, 2.° Sarmiento, Plaza de Italia, Santa Fe, Maipu, 
Paraguay, and Paseo de Julio, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 38, between the Plaza Constitueion and Belgrano. 
— Via Brasil, Lima (East), Constitueion, Salta, Libertad, 
Av. Quintana, Junin, Las Heras, Plaza de Italia, Santa Fe, 
Cabildo, Mendoza, Belgrano, and back via Obligado, Jura- 
mento, Cabildo, Santa Fe, Plaza de Italia, Las Heras, Aya- 
cucho, Vicente Lopez, Juncal, Talcahuano, Santiago del 
Estero and Brasil, to the starting-point. 

Service between the Hipodromo Nacional, Avenida Vertiz 
and Pampa. — From Pampa and Avenida Vertiz via Pampa, 
Blandengues, to Congreso, and back by Blandengues and 
Pampa, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 42, between Plaza de Mayo and Flores. — Via 
Victoria, Plaza Colon, Carlos Calvo, Rio Cuarto, Provincias 
Unidas, and San Pedrito tX) Flores, and back via Rivada- 
via, Pedernera, Coronel Falcon, Carabobo, Rio Cuarto, Car- 
los Calvo, Boedo, Independencia, Plaza Colon, Rivadavia 
ajid Balcarce, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 43, between Boca and Plaza de las Flores. ^From 
Gaboto and Olavarria via Olavarria, Hernandarias, Suarez, 
Herrera, Patagones, Hornos, Brasil, Lima (West), Consti- 
tueion, Salta, San Juan, Boedo, Carlos Calvo, Rio Cuarto, 
Provincias Unidas, Ferrocarril, Gavilan, Yerbal, and Plaza 
de las Flores, and back via Sud America, Pedernera, Coronel, 
Falcon, Carabobo, Rio Cuarto, Carlos Calvo, Boedo, San 
Juan, Entre Rios, Constitueion, Lima (West), Lima, Para- 
cas, Ituzaingo, Herrera, Suarez, Irala, Olavarria, Moussy, 
Suarez, Gaboto. 

Line No. 4:4: between the Plaza de Mayo and the Avenida 
La Plata.— Vvon\ Balcarce and Victoria, via Victoria, Plaza 
Colon and San Juan to the Avenida La Plata, and back via 
Carlos Calvo, Artes y Oficios, San Juan, Kntje Rios, Hum- 



106 CAPITAL Tramways 

berto I, Plaza Colon, Rivadavia, and Balcarce, to the star- 
ting-point. 

Line No. 45, between Parque Pairicios and Nuevos Mata- 
deros {New Slaugliter-houses). — Via Caseros, 24 de Noviem- 
bre, San Juan, Boedo, Carlos Calvo, Rio Cuarto, Provincias 
Unidas, Murguiondo, Areco, San Fernando and Xiievos Ma- 
taderos, and back via San Fernando, Areco, Murguiondo, 
Provincias Unidas, San Pedrito, R. Falcon, Carabobo, 
Rio IV, Carlos Calvo, General Urquiza, Caseros, to the star- 
ting-point. 

Line No. 46, between Plaza de Mayo and Parque Patricios. 
■ — Via Balcarce, Victoria, P. Colon, San Juan, General Ur- 
quiza, and Caseros to the Parque Patricios, and back via 
Caseros, 24 de Noviembre, San Juan, Entre Rios, Humber- 
to I, P. Colon, Rivadavia and Balcarce, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 47, between Piiente Alsina and Defensa. — Via 
Av. Saenz, Saujil, Caseros, 24 de Noviembre, Chiclana, 
Garay, Entre Rios, Brasil, Lima (East), Pavon, Bernardo 
de Irigoyen, Cochabamba, Bolivar, to Alsina, and back via 
Defensa, Garay, Lima (East), Brasil, Lima (East), Chicla- 
na, Urquiza, Caseros, Saujil and Avenida Saenz, to the 
starting-point. 

Line No. 48, between Flores and Nuevos Mataderos (New 
Slaughter-Jwuses). — Via Pedernera, Provincias Unidas, Mur- 
guiondo, Areco, S. Fernando, to the Nuevos Mataderos, 
and back via S. Fernando, Areco, Murguiondo, Provincias 
Unidas, S. Pedrito, C. Falcon, to Flores. 

Notice. Through Tickets are sold for Nos. 42, 43 and 46. 

Line No. 50, between P. Patricios and Betiro (Bosario 
Bailwaij).— From the Parque Patricios via Caseros, Entre 
Rios, Callao, Santa Fe, Esmeralda, Juncal, Av. Maipii, to 
the Retiro, and back via Av. Maipii, Falucho, Charcas, 
Callao, Entre Rios, Caseros, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 55, between San Juan and Boedo and Betiro. — 
Via San Juan, Colombres, C. Calvo, Boedo, Independencia, 
24 de Noviembre, B. Mitre, Pueyrredon, Lavalle, Callao, 
Viamonte, Libertad, Juncal, A v. Maipii, to the Retiro, and 
back via Av. Maipii, Paseo de Julio, Reconquista, Cordoba, 
Talcahuano, Tucuman, Pueyrredon, Rivadavia, Catamarca, 
Independencia, Boedo, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 56, between Progreso and Jujuy and Paseo de 
Julio. — From Progreso and Jujuy, via Jujuy, Garay, Pi- 
chincha, Ombii, Andes, Las Heras, Callao, to Paseo de Julio, 
and back via Montevideo, Gen. Guido, Junin, Las Heras, 
Azcuenaga, S. Luis, Larrea, Alberti, Garay, Matheu, Pro- 
^Teso, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 58, between P. Constitucion, P. Once and Betiro. 



Tramways OAPTTAL 107 

—From the Plaza Constitucioii, via Brasil, Lima (Est), Ga- 
ray, Jujuy, Pueyircdon, Paseo de Julio, P. Colon, Garay, 
Lima (East), Brasil, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 59, between P. Constitucioii, Retiro and 1*. Once. 
— From the Plaza Constitucion via Brasil, P. Colon, Paseo 
de Julio, F. C. C. A. (Central Argentine Railway), con- 
tinuing through Paseo de Julio, Pueyrredon, F. C. 0. (Wes- 
tern Hailway), Rivadavia, Catamarca, Cochabamba, Al- 
berti, Constitucion, Lima (East), to the starting-point. 

Line No. 61, between P. Barracas and Plaza de Italia. — 
Via Vieytes, Puentecito, Herrera, P. Mendoza, Montes de 
Oca, Caseros, Gen. Hornos, Brasil, Lima (West), Garay, 
E. Rios, Callao, S. i^'e, to the Plaza de Italia, and back via 
S. Fe, Callao, Entre Rios, Brasil, B. de Irigoyen, Montes de 
Oca, P. Mendoza to the starting-point. 

Line No^ 63, beli: een Boca, Bdrsena and the Jardin Zoolo- 
gico. — Via Aim. Brown, Pinzon, P. Mendoza (Darsena), 
Brasil, P. Colon. E. Unidos, Entre Rios, Callao, Las Heras. 
Canning, Cabello, Acevedo, to the Zoological Garden, and 
back via Palermo, Cavia, Las Heras, Callao, Entre Rios, 
IiKicpendencia, P. Colon, Brasil, P. Mendoza (Darsena), 
Brandzen, Gaboto, P. Mendoza, to the starting-point. 

Li nc No. 64, between the Plaza de Mayo and the Plaza de 
Italia. — From the Plaza de Mayo via Paseo de Julio, Cor- 
doba, Agiiero, Soler, C. Rica, Almagro, Soler, Canning, Gua- 
temala, Thames, Charcas, Godoy-Cruz, F. C. P. (Pacific 
Railway), Santa Fe, to the Plaza de Italia, and back via 
Santa Fe, Maipii, Paraguay, Reconquista, Rivadavia to 
the starting-point. 

Line No. 65, beticeen the Plaza de Mayo and the Plaza de 
Italia.— Fiom the Plaza de Mayo via S. Martin, Charcas, 
Callao, S. Fe, P. de Italia, and back via Oro, Nicaragua, 
Gazcon, Cabrera, Anchorcna, Cordoba, Callao, Viamonte, 
Paseo de Julio, P. Colon, Victoria, Bolivar, to the starting- 
point. 

Line No. 68, between P. Constitucion and P. de Italia. — 
From the Plaza Constitucion via Lima (West), Pavon, Entre 
Rios, Mejico, Jujuy, Pueyrredon, Cordoba, Agiiero, Soler, 
Costa Rica, Almagro, Soler, Canning, Guatemala, Thames, 
Charcas, Godoy-Cruz (Pacific Railway), Santa Fe, Plaza de 
Italia, and back via S. Fe, Vj^le, Giiemes, Cor. Diaz, Charcas, 
Pueyrredon, Rivadavia, Saavedra, Independencia, E, Rios, 
Brasil, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 69, between P. Alvear and Velez-Sdrs field. 
■ — From the Plaza Alvear via Junin, V. Lopez, Parana, S. 
Pena, Garay, E. Rios, V. Sarsfield, Suarez, station of the 
Buenos Aires Railway, and back via Suarez, V. Sarsfield, 



108 CAPITAL Tramways 

E. Rios, ('oiLstitucion, San Jose, Uruguay, Gen. Guido, to 
the starting-point. 

Line No. 73, between P. Vatricios and the Jardin Zoolo- 
gico. — From Eioja and Casera, via Casera, Dean Funes, 
Garay, Boedo, S. Juan, Colombres, Salguero, Canning, Ca- 
bello, Acevedo, to the Jardin Zoologico, and back via Pa- 
lermo, Cavia, Canning, Gazcon, Artes y Oficios, fS. Juan, 
Boedo, Garay, Rioja, to the Parque Patricios. 

Line No. 14t, between Barracas and the Plaza de Mayo. — 
From Barracas (Yieytes and California), via California, 
Hernandarias, Dulce, Patricios, M. Garcia, Bolivar, Alsina, 
Balcarce, Plaza de Mayo, and back via 25 de Mayo, CangaUo, 
Maipii, Chacabuco, Garay, Lima (East), Brasil, Plaza Cons- 
titucion, Lima, Paracas, Ituzaingo, Herrera, Suarez, Vieytes, 
to the starting-point. 

Line No. 76, between Boedo and Plaza Alvear. — From Boe- 
do and C. Calvo via Pozos, Rio Bamba, Lavalle,^^allao, Gen. 
Guido, to the Plaza Alvear, and back via Junin, Rincon, 
Estados Unidos, Boedo, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 86, between Becotiquista and Villa Devoto. — 
From Reconquista and Cangallo, via CangaUo, Gallo, Diaz 
Velez, Gaona, Aiiasco, Av. S. Martin, Nueva York, S. Nico- 
las, Habana and Gualeguaychii (Yilla Devoto) Pacific Rail- 
way, and back via Moran, Av. S. Martin, Aiiasco, Gaona, 
Diaz Yelez, Sadi Carnot, Sarmiento, Reconquista, to the 
starting-point. 

Line No. 87, between Plaza Alvear and Chacarita. — From 
Plaza Alvear via Junin, Las Heras, Azcuenaga, Melo, Larrea, 
Gen. Mansilla, Canning, Rivera, Giribone, Usuahia, Triun- 
virato, and back via Triunvirato, Usuahia, Giribonne, Can- 
ning, Beruti, Anchorena, French, Andes, Las Heras, Callao, 
Guido, to the Plaza Alvear. 

Line No. 88, between Flores, Chacarita and Belgrano. — 
From Directorio and S. Pedrito, via Rivadavia, Bella Yista, 
Trelles, Garmendia, Av. del Campo, El Cano, Aviles, Cramer, 
Yirreyes, Amenabar, Sucre, to Av. Yertiz (Belgrano), and 
back via Juramento, Moldes, Yirreyes, Cramer, Aviles, 
El Cano, Av. del Campo, Garmendia, Trelles, Bella Yista, 
Curapaligiie and Directorio. 

Line No. 89, between Flores and Plaza de Italia. — From 
Avellaneda and Nazca, via Nazca to Bacacay, Boyaca, Gao- 
na, Aiiasco, Dungenes, Warnes, Canning; S. Fe, to the Plaza 
de Italia, and back via S. Fe, Canning, Warnes, Dungenes, 
Aiiasco, Gaona, Boyaca and Avellaneda. 

Line No. 94, between Plaza de Mayo and Chacarita. — 
From the Plaza de Mayo via Rivadavia, 25 de Mayo, Canga- 
llo, Diaz Y61ez, Gaona, Aiiasco, A v. S. Martin, Bella Yista, 
Trelles, Garmendia, Av. del Campo, El Cano, Triunvirato, 



Tramways CAPITAL 109 

and back via Tiiuiiviiato, IJ.shuaia, (liribone, Rivera, Cor- 
doba, Callao, Viainoiite, Paseo do Julio to the starting- 
point. 

Line A'o. 95, between Keconquista, Cangallo, and Chaca- 
rita. — Via Cangallo, Montevideo, Cordoba, Rivera, Giribo- 
ne, Ushiiaia, Triunvirato (Cemetery), and back via El Cano, 
Av. del Canipo, Garniendia, Trelles, Bella Vista, A. S. Mar- 
tin, Afiasco, Gaona, Diaz V61ez, Sadi Carnot, Sarmiento, 
Reconquista, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 96, between the Plaza de Mayo and Villa TJr- 
quiza.— From the Plaza de Mayo via 25 de Mayo, Cangallo, 
Montevideo, Cordoba, Rivera, Giribone, Usuahia, Alvarez 
Thomas, Acha, Bebedero, to Aizpurua (Villa Urquiza), and 
back via Aizpurua, Guanacache, Triunvirato, Monroe, Do- 
nado, Alvarez Thomas, Usuahia, Giribone, Rivera, Cordoba, 
Callao, Viamonte, Talcahuano, .Santiago del Estero, Alsina, 
Balcarce, to Rivadavia. 

Line No. 97, between the Plaza Constitucion and Belgrano. 
—From the Plaza Constitucion, via Lima (West), Pavon, 
Entre Rios, San Juan, Pozos, Rivadavia, Salguero, Cordo- 
ba, Rivera, Giribone, Ushuaia, Alvarez Thomas, El Cano, 
Aviles, Cramer, Virreyes, Amenabar, Sucre, A. Vertiz, Bel- 
grano (Central Argentine Railway), and back via Juramento, 
Moldes, Virreyes, Cramer, Aviles, El Cano, Alvarez Thomas, 
Ushuaia, Giribone, Rivera, Gazcon, Rivadavia, Rincou, 
Constitucion, Lima (East), Brasil, to the starting-point. 

Line No. 99, between Chacabuco and Moreno and Vclez 
Sdrsfield. — From Chacabuco and Moreno, via Moreno, B. de 
Irigoyen, C. Pellegrini, Cordoba, Rio de Janeiro, Chubut, 
Gaona, Boyaca, Avellaneda, Mercedes, Velez Sarsfield, and 
back via Bacacay, Boyaca, Gaona, Chubut, Rio d« Janeiro, 
Cordoba, Viamonte, Talcahuano, Lavalle, Maipu, and Cha- 
cabuco. 

Special line between Maldonado and Plaza de Mayo. — 
From Maldonado, Rivera and Darwin, via Ribera, Cordoba. 
Callao, Lavalle, Paseo de Julio, Plaza de Mayo, and back 
via 25 de Mayo, Cangallo, Montevideo, Cordoba, Rivera, to 
the starting-point. 

\ight Services. — Between La Boca and the Plaza de Mayo. 
— From La Boca, via Aim. Brown, P. Colon, Garay, Bolivar, 
Victoria, Piedras, Esmeralda, Sarmiento, Reconquista, to 
the Plaza de Mayo, and back via Defensa, Brasil, P. Colon, 
Almirante Brown, to the starting-point. 

Between Velez Sdrsfield and 25 de Mayo. —From Velez 
Sarsfield, via Rivadavia, Rio Bamba, B. Mitre, to 25 de 
Mayo, and back via Cangallo, Junin, Rivadavia, to the star- 
ting-point. 



110 CAPITAL Tramways 

Betiveen the Fuente de Barracas and 5 Esqainas. — From 
the Puente de Barracas, via Vieytes, Piieiitecito, Henero, 
P. Mendoza, M. de Oca, B. de Irigoyen, C. Pellegrini, Arena- 
les, Libertad, 5 Esquinas, and back via Juncal, Suipacha, 
Tacuari, Garay, Lima (East), Brasil, B. de Irigoyen, M. de 
Oca, P. Mendoza, to the starting-point. 

Between Chacabuco and Moreno, and Belgrano. — From 
Chacabuco and Moreno, via Moreno, Piedras, Esmeralda, 
Charcas, Callao, S. Fe, Plaza de Italia, S. Fe, Cabildo, Men- 
doza, Belgrano, and back via Obligado, Juramento, Cabildo, 
S. Fe, Maipii, Chacabuco, to the starting-point. 

Between Puente de Barracas and Plaza de Italia. — From 
Puente de Barracas, via Vieytes, Puentecito, Herrera, P. 
Mendoza, M. de Oca, Caseros, Gen. Hornos, Plaza Constitu- 
cion, Brasil, Lima (West), Garay, Entre Rios, Callao, S. Fe, 
Plaza de Italia, and back via Santa Fe, Callao, Entre Rios, 
Brasil, Plaza Constitucion, B. de Irigoyen, M. de Oca, P. 
Mendoza, to the starting-point. 

Lacroze Buenos Aires Tramway Company. — Line from 
Beconquista to Chacarita, Belgrano and Saavedra. — From 
Corrientes and Reconquista, via Corrientes, Triunvirato, 
Federico Lacroze and Cabildo, to Saavedra (Paroissien and 
Cabildo), and back via Cabildo, Federico Lacroze, Triunvi- 
rato, Corrientes, Callao, Lavalle to Reconquista. 

Line from Constitucion to Chacarita, Belgrano and Saave- 
dra. — From the Plaza Constitucion, via Lima, O'Brien, San- 
tiago del Estero, Progreso, Pozos, Pavon, Sarandi, Chile, 
Entre Rios, Callao, Corrientes, Triunvirato, Federico La- 
croze, Cabildo, to Saavedra (Paroissien and Cabildo), and 
back via Cabildo, Federico Lacroze, Triunvirato, Corrientes, 
Callao, Entre Rios Cochabamba, Lima, Constitucion, Lima 
(East), and Brasil, to the Plaza Constitucion (Southern 
Railway). 

Line from Beconquista to the Plaza de Italia. — From Re- 
conquista and Corrientes, via Corrientes, Callao, Viamonte, 
Ecuador, G. Mansilla, C. Diaz, Charcas, and Thames, to the 
Plaza de Italia, and back via Serrano, Paraguay, Rio Bam- 
ba, Lavalle, to Reconquista at the corner of Corrientes. 

Line from Constitucion to the Plaza de Italia. — From the 
Plaza Constitucion, via Lima, O'Brien, Santiago del Estero, 
Progreso, Pozos, Pavon, Sarandi, Chile, Entre Rios, Callao, 
Corrientes, Medrano, Cordoba, Almagro, Alvarez, Charcas, 
and Thames, to the Plaza de Italia, and back via Serrano, 
Paraguay, Medrano, Corrientes, Callao, Entre Rios, Cocha- 
bamba, Oima, Constitucion, Lima (East), and Brasil, to the 
Plaza Constitucion. 

Line from 25 de Mayo to Cahallito. — From Tucuman and 



Trnmiro!/.^ CAPITAL 111 

!2;") do Mayo, via 'rucumaii, liihcrf ad, Jjavalle, 'ralrahuano, 
(!oniciites, Mediano, B. Mitre and llio dc Janeiro, to Kiva- 
davia, and back via Rivadavia, Medrano, Corrientes, Callao 
and Lavalle,, to 25 de Mayo. 

Line from Reconquista to Villa Urquiza. — From Recon- 
quista to the corner of Corrientes, via Corrientes, Triunvi- 
rato, Central Buenos Aires Railway lines, Triunvirato, Be- 
bedero, Eclievarria, Naliuel Huapi, to Bucarelli, and back 
via Bucarelli, Guanacacha, Triunvirato, Central Buenos Ai- 
res Railway lines, Triunvirato, Corrientes, Callao, Lavalle, 
to Reconquista. 

Line from Constitucion to the Plaza de Italia {via Castro 
Barros). — From the Plaza Constitucion (Southern Railway), 
via Lima O'Brien, Santiago del Estero, Progreso, Pozos, 
Pavon, Jujuy, Constitucion, Castro Barros, Medrano, Cor- 
doba, Almagro, Alvarez, Charcas, Thames, to the Plaza de 
Italia, and back via Serrano, Paraguay, Medrano, Castro 
Barros, Venezuela, Maza, Humberto I, Entre Rios, Cocha- 
baniba, Lima, Constitucion, Lima (East), and Brasil, to the 
Plaza Constitucion, (Southern Railway). 

Line from Reconquista to Villa Alvear. — From Reconquis- 
ta at the corner of Corrientes, via Corrientes, Medrano, 
Cordoba, Almagro, Gorriti, to Godo}^ Cruz, and back via 
Godoy CruZ; Honduras, Medrano, Corrientes, Callao, Lava- 
lle, to Reconquista. 

Line from Reconquista to San Martin {in combination 
with the Buenos Aires Railway). — From Reconquista at the 
corner of Corrientes, via Corrientes, Triunvirato and the 
Buenos Aires Railway lines to Villa San Martin, and back 
via the Buenos Aires Railway lines, Triunvirato, Corri ntes, 
Callao, Lavalle, to Reconquista. 

Auxiliary Lines. — Between Reconquista and Maldonado. — 
Between Reconquista and Chacarita. — Between Constitucion 
and Federico Lacroze Statio7i. 

Tramway Service between the Port and Town of Buenos 
Aires. — Between Pnenie Alsina, Ddrsena Sud and the Retiro 
Station. — From Puente Alsina via Papola, Pavon, Mitre, 
P. Mendoza, Darsena Sud, Avenida Oeste, Avenida Rosales, 
to the Retiro (Central Argentine Railway), and back from 
Retiro via Av. Rosales, Av. Oeste, P. Mendoza, Mitre, Pavon 
and Papola to the starting-point. 

Connection to Lanus and Villa Recondo with the Rio de 
la Plata Tramway. — Night service from the Plaza de Mayo 
to Pinero, Puente de Barracas, to Puente Alsina. 

Southern Electric Tramways. — Line No. 101, Barraca 
to Plaza Colon. — From Puentecito Station, via S. Maria 

lUKOKKK ;.— 11 



ii^ CAPITAL Cahs 

Ties Esqiiiiias, S. Adelaida, Iriarte, Azara, Eocha, Hernan- 
darias, Dulce, Patricios, M. Garcia, C. Amarilla, Pasco Co- 
lon, Eivadavia, P. de Julio and B. Mitre, and back via Av. 
Rosales, P. Colon, C. Amarilla, M. Garcia, Irala, Av. del 
Valle, Gen. Hornos, Lamadrid, Universidad, Australia, 
S. Antonio, to Puentecito station. 

Line No. 102, Plaza Colon to Temperley. — Same route 
as No. 101 as far as Puentecito station, and thence via Pa- 
von, G. Rodriguez, R. Pena, Gascon, Goedo, to Av. Meeks 
(Temperley), and back via Av. Meeks, Laprida, Gazcon, 
French, Pavon, to the starting-point. 

Cabs. — Motor Cars. 

Nearly all the 2,279 cabs which are to be found for hire, 
either on the squares, or in the streets or railway stations, 
are Victorias open carriages with two fixed seats and one 
moveable one. By a curious anachronism there are at Buenos 
Aires, for the public service, no closed carriages, of the 
French coupe type, so that, during winter, the use of this 
method of locomotion extremely unpleasant. 

Besides this inconvenience, which is a blot upon the pro- 
gress made in so many other directions by the town of Bue- 
nos Aires, these carriages excel neither in comfort, nor in 
equipment, nor by the intelligence and amiability of the 
cabmen, who, as in other places, are very disobliging and 
always try, to ask more than the fare. 

Fare of street cabs (Taximeters). — 1st. class. — First 1,000 
metres, $ 1; each 400 metres afterwards, $ 0*10; each minu- 
te's waiting, $ O'lO. 

2nd. class. — First 1,000 metres, $ 0*60; each 500 metres 
adterwards, $ O'lO; each 5 minutes' waiting, $ 0*20. 

When on a straight course the taximeter marks $ 1*50, 
or more, the passenger must pay, to cover the return of the 
taxi, a supplementary charge of $ O'oO. 

When the taximeter is out of order and does not register 
the distance, one is charged whatever may be the length of 
the journey, at the rate of $ 1 per hour, and in the same pro- 
portion for a fraction of an hour. 

If luggage is carried, an extra charge of $ 0'60 is payable. 

The first class of carriages for hire includes open or closed 
carriages, provided with rubber tyres, complete harness, 
a small moveable seat. 

The second class includes open or closed carriages in 
good condition, with rubber or iron tyres and harness with 
breeching. 

Street motor cars (Taximeters). — From 7 a. m. to mid- 
7iight.—FoT the first 1,200 metres $ 0*50. For each 300 me- 



Motorcars CAPITAL 113 

ties or traction of IJOO iiictrcs attciw aids, $ O'lO. For caeli 
2 Vi iniiiutos' waiting-, $ O'lO. 

From midnight to 7 a. m. — For the tir«t 800 metres, 
$ 0*50. For each 200 metres or fraction of 200 metres after- 
wards, $ O'lO. For each 2 minutes' waiting, $ O'lO. 

Motor cars without taximeters. — The fare of these cars 
is usually fixed by agreement. 

The best ones are let out at $ 10 per hour for service 
outside the town; at $ 8 or | 7 for service inside the town; 
and at $ 25 for service to the theatres. Per month, for 9 
hours' service a day, $ 1000, and for 11 hours, $ 1,200. 

The following are the principal firms which let out motor 
cars on hire: 

Grand Garage Touring Club, Calle Esmeralda 465 (U. T. 
7, Libertad, and 15, Avenida); Casino, Calle Esmeralda 429 
(U. T. 727, Avenida); A la Razon, Calle Rivadavia 1757 
(U. T. 699, Libertad); Auto Cluh Lasartigue, Calle Lavalle 
2062 (U, T. 478, Libertad); Rivadavia (motor coaches), Calle 
Eivadavia 2071 (U. T. 3501, Libertad); Callao, Calle CaUao 
486 (U. T. 1337, Libertad); Mercedes (motor cars de luxe), 
Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 1676 (U. T. 450, Buen Orden); 
Moto Club, Calle Esmeralda 350 (U. T. 65, Libertad); Aija- 
cucho, Calle Ayacucho 850 (U. T. 30, Juncal); Garage del 
Oeste, Calle Alsina 3223 (U. T. 223, Mitre); Garage Franco- 
Argentina, Calle Laprida 1469 (U. T. 365, Juncal); Garage 
Italo- Argentina, Calle Lima 1536 (U. T. 1441, Buen Orden); 
Garage Colon, Calle A''iamonte 1101 (U. T. 915, Juncal); 
Grand Garage Moto Club, Calle Tres Sargentos 49 (U. T. 
2321, Avenida); Garage Auto- Club, Calle Lavalle 2062 (U. T. 
478, Libertad). 



114 



rAPITAL 



Posts and 



Posts and Telegraphs.^Parcels and Newspaper Post, etc. 

Posts and Telegraphs.— The postal administration occuijies an immense 
building, with facades and entrances on Calles Corrientes and Reconquista. 
The different oflices are distributed in the following manner: 



K 


^ i 




1 




A ' 

B 

1 








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G 


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D 

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A.— Parcels Post (Interior). 

Parcels must not exceed 5 kilos, nor 
be more than 60 centimetres long, nor 
more than 20 cubic decimetres in vo- 
lume. 

Rates. — One kilo or less, S 0*50; 
from 1 to 2 kilos, S 0*60; from 2. to 3, 
8 0-80; from 3 to 5, SI. 

For parcels with value declared, the 
same is paid as for letters or cash the 
value of which is declared. 

Charge for advising delivery, $ 0'12. 
For delivery at one's house one has 
to pay an extra charge of $ 0"25 per 
parcel. 

For parcels which are sent by post, to be paid for upon delivery (in places 
where this service exists), there is payable, besides the postage, a charge 
of 3 '^0 upon the amount to be collected, and the Administration makesitself 
responsible for the transmission of the monev. 



PLAN OF POST OFFICE 



B. — Telegrams (Inland and Abroad). 

The telegraph service of the interior of the Republic is performed by 
different lines, some belonging to the State, having a length of 30,447 kilo- 
metres with a development of 77,063 km., and others belonging to the Pro- 
vince of Buenos Aires and to the railwav companies, which form a total 
length of 68,130 km. with an development of 192,022 km. 

Telegrams must be written clearly and without abbreviations or altera- 
tions in the characters used in the Republic. 

International Service. — The foreign telegraphic service is performed also 
by the following companies: Agence Havas, Calle San Martin 312 (U. T. 9, 
Avenida); Centro y Sud-Amcrica, Calle Sarmiento 501; Rio de la Plata, Calle 
San Martin 287; Telegrafico-Teletonica del Plata, Calle Sarmiento 463 
(U. T. 12, Avenida). 

Wireless telegraphy. — Wireless telegraphic communications are made 
through the Compafiia Telegrafico-Telefonica del Plata, Calle Sarmiento 463. 
The charge is S 5-50 for the first 10 words. 

Rates within the Argentine Republic. — The minimum charge is for 10 
words, at 0*05 centavos per word, and 0'03 is charged for each word after- 
wards. The address, the text and the signature are counted. Urgent tele- 
grams are charged for at double rate. 

Telegrams with acknowledgement of receipt, pay, besides the amount of 
the telegram, O'SO for the acknowledgement or adVice of receipt. Multiple 
telegrams par O'SO for each copy of 100 words or fraction of 100 words. Co- 
pies of telegrams pay a fixed charge of S 1 minimum. Telegrams in cipher 
or in cryptographic letters or figures, which are admitted in accor- 
dance with the law of October 7th., 1875, imist pay quadruple fees. Tele- 



Telegruph.s CAPITAJ. 1 lo 

graphic conversations arc charged for at the rate of S 20 for the first 15 mi- 
nutes, and S 5 for each 5 minutes afterwards; above one hour S 10 is char- 
ged for each 5 minutes. No telegraphic conversation may last more than two 
hours. 

Telegrams in foreign languages may only be written in French, English, 
Italian, German, Latin or Portuguese, and they are charged at double the 
price of those written in Spanish. 

Inland telegraph orders up to the value of S 100 may be sent, 0'50 being 
charged on each S 50, besides a fixed charge of S 1 whatever may be the 
amount of the order; advice of payment is provided at S 0"70. 

The following are allowed free use of the national telegraph for public 
business: the President of the Republic and his ministers, the presidents of 
the «Suprema CortC'- of justice of the nation, the presidents of the two Cham- 
bers of Congress, the federal judges, officials to whom international treaties 
accord this concession, persons who reply to telegrams sent by the officials 
mentioned, and governors ot provinces and national territories when they 
communicate with government departments, etc. 

Addresses o£ Post Offices in the Capital.— The national post and tele- 
graph offices are situated at the following addresses: 
General Post Office: Corrientes and f\econquista. 
Branch Offices: 





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Brasil 

Corrientei 
Cliarcas . 
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San Juan 
Montes d 
Corriente 
Santa Fe 
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Corriente 
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118 CAPITAL ro8ls and 

Explauatiou of the sinns. — P. Post-office. — T. Telegraph-oHice. — V. 
Declared values (Registration of letters, etc.), inland and foreign. — v. De- 
clared values, inland only. — B. Postal and money orders, inland, telegraphic 
and foreign.— b*. Postal and money orders, inland and telegraphic. — b. 
Postal orders, inland only. — D. Distribution of correspondence and parcels. 
— d. Distribution of corresoondence only.^A. Boxes hept for keeping cor- 
respondence. — M. Service o'f messengers. — t. Sale of stamped paper. 

NOTE. — All the telegraph offices make the express delivery service in 
the city. Those which have not a telegraph receive telegrams or messages for 
express delivery. 

C. — Entrance. 

We find the following offices: 

1. Classification of Registered Letters. 

2. Classification of General Correspondence. 

3. Postmen's ofTice. 

On the left of the entrance is the staircase which leads to the first fioor, 
on which are situated the offices of the Director General, and Secretary Ge- 
neral, the telegraph office, the General Inspection office, the Treasurer's 
Department, the postal order office, the inland registered letter ofl'ice, and 
the sorting-office. 

On the second floor are the Administrative ofTices, the apparatus room, 
and the distribution room. 

D. — Sale of Postage Stamps, etc. 

Postage Rates, Stamps, etc. — 1. Argentine Republic. — Letters not excee- 
ding 20 grams or a fraction of 20 grams ai-e charged 5 centavos, paper; 
newspapers, periodical and reviews, for each 65 grams or less, J centavo; 
other printed matter, for each 100 grams or less, 2 centavos; business 
papers, for each 100 grams or less, 2 centavos; samples, for the first 100 
grams, 5 centavos. and for each additional 50 grams or fraction of 50 grams, 
1 centavo; for each express delivery at one's residence, in addition to the 
ordinary rates, 25 centavos; every kind of correspondence, of whatever 
weight or class, which is posted at the last minute must pay double charges. 
For values declared one has to pay the postage of the article registered 
plus 1 "o of its value, which may not exceed S 10,000 and for information of 
its deliverv (payable in advance) 0'12. No public official, not even the Pre- 
sident of the Republic, can frank letters, but correspondence proceeding 
from ,the public departments, on government service, bears an official 
stamp. 

2. — Abroad. — Coimtries in tlic Universal Postal Union. — Ordinary letters 
pay for each 20 grams or less, 12 centavos, paper; newspapers and other 
printed matter, for each 50 grams or less, 3 centavos; business papers, 
for each 200 grams or less, 12 centavos; samples, the first 50 grams, 
5 centavos, and for each additional 50 grams or fraction of 50 grams, 3 cen- 
tavos; letters for Chili, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil pay 10 cen- 
tavos per 20 grams. All correspondence, of whatever weight or class, which 
is posted at the last minute must pay double rates. For distribution by 
express 25 centavos is charged in addition to the ordinary postage. 

Postcards. — All inland postcards, whether for delivery in the same town 
or not, pay 4 centavos. 

\_^ Those for abroad pay: ordinary, 5 centavos; reply paid, 10 centavos, 
*^ Private trade postcards, without the heading «postcardi> or its equiva- 
lent, or with title entirely effaced or covered by postage stamps, will benefit 
by the reduced rates for <other printed inatler>>, and will pay only 2 cen- 
tavos. 

Besides the name of the addressee and that of the sender, it is permilled 
lo add the company's name, place of origin, date of sending, and a greeting 



Teh(jraph.s CAPITAL 119 

or salutation, such as are used on visiting cards, or cards of condolence, 
congratulation or thanks, etc., but nor exceeding 5 words. 

Cards which bear inscriptions other than those mentioned in the pre- 
vious paragraph will be treated in accordance with paragraph h of the rules 
of the P. E. (Executive Power), law -lOlCi. 

Stamps may be affixed to postcards on eitiier the back or the front; 
these stamps will be postmarked with tlie ordinary postal stamps, yet with- 
out the forwarding or receiving offices placing postmarks on the Views on 
the cards. 

These cards can be sent in envelopes, in order that they may arrive az 
their destination in good condition. 

They are to be sent as follows: the stamp is placed on the card, and in 
order that it may be visible, the envelope is to be cut in such a manner that 
the stamp can be seen without the envelope being opened. 

Postage Stamps. — The postage stamps at present in use are of the follo- 
wing values: S 0*005; O'Ol; 0*02; O'OS; 0-04; O'OS; 0*06; O'lO; 0'12; 0*15; 0-20; 
0-24; 0-.30; 0'50; 1; 5; 10; 20. 

Letter Cards: S 0-05; Envelopes: S 0*05; 0-12; Wrappers: S 0*005; O'Ol; 
0-02; 0-04. 

Postcards: S 0*04; 0'05; O'lO. Urban express delivery: S 0-.30; 0-60; 
Tickets for the expedition of articles by parcels post: S O'oO; 0'60; O'SO; 1. 

E. — Registered Correspondence. — Declared Values. 

P>egistercd correspondence must be presented at the post-olTice in en- 
velopes sealed with sealing-wax. A fixed charge of 8 0*12 is made, in addition 
to the ordinary postage. 

Declared values (Letters or parcels). 

Letters the value of the contents of which is declared may contain bank 
notes, mortgage bonds (<'ccdulas>), shares or titles of banks or joint stock 
companies, warrants for dividends or interest falling due, and, in general, 
all documents of value. 

In parcels the value of which is declared, one may enclose jewels and 
precious stones. 

The maximum that can be declared, for inland service, is $ 5,000, paper, 
and for the international service 10,000 francs (£ 400). 

Letters containing declared values must be placed in an envelope with 
seals in wax of the same colour; all tlie seals must be uniform, and must 
reproduce a mark peculiar to the sender. 

The envelopes must bo of clolli or of paper sufficiently strong and heavy. 
The seals must be five in number, one at each corner, and the fifth in the 
centre of the envelope. 

Envelopes with coloured borders arc not admitted. 

Parcels containing declared values may not exceed, for the purpose of 
declaration, -S 5,000, paper, for inland service, and 10,000 francs for the in- 
ternational service, the weight limit being 1 kilo. 

The parcel must take the form of a wooden box, properly closed. 

The minimum thickness of the sides of the box is eight millimetres. It 
may be 30 centimetres long, 10 wide, and 10 high. 

The box must be tied round witii a strong tape, crossing both above and 
below, and sealed on the four side faces with seals of wax of the same colour, 
marked with private signs; and one of the seals nnist cover the knot of the 
tape. 

The side where the address is wrillen and the opposite side must be 
covered with white paper, one lo receive the address and the postage stamps, 
and the other for the postmark-. 

Letters the values of which arc declared, arc charged •? 0-50 per 8 50 oj- 
less, in addition to llu' clinrge of s ()M2 for registration. 



120 C'APITAL Posts and 

Parcels with their values declared are charged, besides, a fixed amount 
of S 0-50. 

Advice of delivery, S 0*1 2. 

For sending a letter by the urban express delivery service, 25 centavos. 

F. — Foreign Correspondence. 

The letter having been stamped, it is placed in one of the boxes in room 
F. Letters are thrown from the room H, where the boxes have their opening. 

There is a special box for late fee correspondence; this correspondence 
pays double rates, whether it is inland or foreign. 

Printed matter and other postal articles are not admitted with late fees. 

G. — Inland Correspondence. 

It is necessary to be careful in posting inland correspondence, as the 
letter boxes are near those for foreign letters. Inland letters, thrown from 
room H, are received in room G. 

/. — Entrance for Mail Vans. 

Correspondence for the Capital. 

There exist two boxes for this correspondence, one for letters, and the 
other for printed matter. These two boxes are at the entrance to, and out- 
side, room J. 

r J.- Express delivery and messengers. 

The public may consign to the post, for delivery by express, in any parts 
of the Republic, any article of correspondence of postal origin. For this 
service is charged, besides the ordinary rates an additional amount of 
S 0-25. 

This correspondence must be presented at the counter, fully stamped, 
and must bear the inscription 'por expreso* (by express) in easily visible 
characters, in order that it may be delivered immediately, and in order not 
to impede the first object of the service. If it were deposited in a letter-box, 
it would still be delivered by express, but the post-office would not be res- 
ponsible for delay in collecting it from the box. 

Urban Express 

The Post-office has established a service of rapid communication inside 
the capital and in the suburbs, called the Urban Express. 

The messages must be written on stamped forms, which are supplied at 
the offices mentioned below, as also are the stamps and messengers neces- 
sitated by this new service. 

They must be handed in at the said offices, or given to Urban Express 
messengers, or posted in letter-boxes, taking into account the hours of 
collection which are marked on the boxes. 

It is advisable to write clearly, and not to put more than 20 words 
(including the address and the the signature), in order to avoid the message 
being sent by post. 

Replies may be entrusted to the messengers of the Urban Express. 

For a message of 20 words S 0'30 is charged. 

For the same message, with reply paid, S 0'60. 

The following are the names of the offices where an Urban Express ser- 
vice is provided: 

Adrogue. 

Alberli, Calle San .Juan .3082. 

Almagro, Calle Rivadavia 3955. 

Avcllaneda. 



Tcle.fjyap/i.s CAPITAL 121 

Banco de la Naci6n, Calle Rivadavia 371. 

Banfield. 

Belgrano, Calle Cabildo 1784. 

Bernal. 

Boca, Calle Almirante Brown 800. 

Bolsa, Calle Rivadavia ,321. 

Buenos Aires, Calle Corrientes 426. 

Caballito, Calle Rivadavia 5350. 

Ccntro America, Calle Piicvrred6n 1333. 

Centro Norte, Calle Corrientes 2920. 

Centro Sur, Calle Montes dc Oca 1745. 

Circulo de Armas, Calle Cangallo 801. 

Club del Progreso, Avenida de Mayo 633. 

Congreso, Calle Victoria 1849. 

Constituci6n, Calle Brasil 1049. 

Chacarita, Calle Malabia 340. 

Estacion, F. C. C. A., Retiro. 

Estaci6n, F. C. O., Once. 

Estaci6n, F. C. S., Constituci6n. 

Europa, Calle Chile 1825. 

Flores, Calle Rivadavia 7159. 

Florida, Calle Charcas 1658. 

Hacdo. 

Jockey Club, Calle Florida 559. 

Liniers. 

Lomas. 

Lorea, Calle Corrientes 2238. 

IMartinez. 

Ministerio, Casa de Gobierno, 

Mor6n. 

Nunez. 

Olivos. 

Once, Calle Bartolome Mitre 263G. 

Palermo, Calle Santa Fc 4012. 

Quilmes. 

Ramos Mejia. 

Retiro, Calle Falucho 41. 

San Fernando. 

San Isidro. 

San Martin. 

Temperley. 

Tigre. 

Tigre-IIotcl. 

Velez Sarsfield, Calle Rivadavia 7844. 

Victoria. 

Villa Ba Hester. 

Villa Devoto, Calle Esperanza 4249. 

Villa Urquiza, Calle Guanacache 750. 

K. — List of Correspondence. — Box \unibers. — Poste Resfautc. 

List of Correspondence. — Lists of correspondence at the post-office are 
posted up in room K, and if on consulting this list one finds one's name 
upoji it, one takes note of the number corresponding, and presents oneself 
with identification papers to claim the letter announced. 

Box Numbers.— In this room are also the P. O. B. for persons who wish 
to have their correspondence addressed to a number at the post-office. The 
charges for this service are as follows: 

Capital and chief towns of districts .S 10 for 6 months. 

Chief towns of sub-districts and principal oiTices. $ 7 for 6 months. 
Other olTices "$ 5 fur 6 months. 



122 CAPITAL Telephou'^ 

For the reception of books, newspapers or magazines from abroad, in 
quantities greater than 50 copies, S 30 per anmmi; for periods less than 
6 months, S 15. 

Poste Restante. — The oITice devoted to this service is situated on llie 
ground floor of the General Post OITice, and the entrance is at number 350, 
Calle Reconquista. This correspondence is not published on the lists, and is 
only given to addressees who can prove their identity. 

The public may have its correspondence addressed to initials, numbers, 
etc., and may insist that it shall be handed only to persons who present a 
similar envelope. This kind of correspondence is only delivered to addressees 
at the counter but in certain cases it may be forwarded to another office, 
though always to the "Poste Restante». 

Besides this building, the postal service also occupies a part of that of 
the old Customs House, at the corner of Calles Victoria and Balcarce. There 
are situated the offices of the Vice-Director General, international parcels 
post, the international service, the Archives, the Statistics, the Telegraphic 
Centre, and the workshops. 

There is also a garage and depot for vehicles in Calle Santiago del F.stero, 
1161, and in Calle San Juan 1349, and a general depot in Diaz Velez 125. 

Telephone. — The telephone is installed only in the capital 
towns, such as Rosario, Cordoba, Santa Fe, Tuciiman, La 
Plata, Bahia Blanca, Mendoza, etc. Buenos Aires is in com- 
munication with Montevideo (500 km.), Rosario (405 km.), 
San Nicolas (333 km.), Junin (320 km.), Pergamino (258 km.), 
Bahia Blanca (704 km.), Mar del Plata (400 km.), etc. 

The two companies, Rio de la Plata Telephonic Union, 
and the Co-operative Telephonic, which work Buenos Aires, 
have a capital of £ 554,000 and £ 58,400 respectively. The 
first has 38,850 lines and 35,300 subscribers. The second has 
7,956 lines and 7,250 subscribers. The two companies, but 
more especially the former, possess numerous call-offices 
in all parts of Buenos Aires from which one can telephone 
to subscribers ($ 0*20 each 5 minutes). 

Messengers. — For sending urgent letters, and also little 
parcels, there are several very well organized companies 
possessing a numerous staff. As they all have telephones one 
can communicate with them in this way to call a mes- 
senger, and the latter will arrive in a few minutes time, 
with or without bicycle, in accordance with the request. In 
general the charges of all the companies are as follows. 
From the house from which the message is despatched to a 
distance of 10 cuadras $ 0*20; from 10 to 15, 0*30; from 15 
to 20, 0*40; from 20 to 30, 0*50. Boca, Barracas, Palermo, 
Caballito, Los Corrales, 0'80; Flores, Belgrano, Chacarita, 
tramway included, $ 1. Messenger with bicycle, 0"60 per 
hour. Tip, $ O'lO or 0-20. 

The principal companies of messengers are: Mensajeros 
de la Capital, headquarters, Calle Corrientes 1556 (U. T. 
2358, Libertad), offices: (^alle Bartolome Mitre 479 (U. T. 
426, Avenida), Rivadavia 1190 (U. T. 3002, Libertad), 



Frhan E.rpre^s CAPITAL 123 

Maipu 440 (U. T. 31)10, Avoiiida), Lih«'ita(l 1027 (U. T. 1015, 
Juncal), Peru 363 (U. T. 1139, Avenida), Callao 224 (U. T. 
321, Libertad), Kivadavia 2854 (U. T. 455, Mitre), Cabildo 
1943 (U. T. 593, Belgrano); Mciisaieros Basconia, Calle lu- 
dependencia 993 (U. T. 1101, Buen Orden); Mensajeros 
Chic, Calle Cangallo 536 (IT. T. 4991, Avenida); Mensajeros 
Coraercio, Calle Chacabuco 186 (U. T. 109, Avenida); Men- 
sajeros Congreso, Avenida de Mayo 838 (U. T. 1698, Liber- 
tad); Mensajeros El Reitu, headquarters, Calle Defensa 153; 
offices: Calles Alsina 491 (U. T. 659, Avenida), Victoria 1075 
(U. T. 67, Libertad); Mensajeros La Rapidez, Calle B. Mi- 
tre 1848 (U. T. 401, Libertad); Mensajeros La Yascongada, 
Ca'le Entre Rios 275 (U. T. 3044, Libertad); Mensajeros Los 
Modernos, Calle Huniberto I 3100 (U. T. 2307, Mitre); 
Mensajeros Mercurio, Calle Esmeralda 462 (U. T. 2700, 
Avenida). 



Urban Express. 

National Telegraph. — This express serves for rapid com- 
munication between the capital and the suburbs. The tele- 
graphic offices are the following: Adrogue, Almagro, Avella- 
neda, Banco de la Xacion, Banfield, Belgrano, Bernal, Boca, 
Bolsa, Buenos Aires, Caballito, Centro America, Centro 
Norte, Centro Sud, Circulo de Armas, Club del Progreso, 
Congreso, Constitucion, Chacarita, Stations of the Central, 
Western, and Southern Argentine Railways, Flores, Haedo, 
Hipodromo, Jockey Club, Liniers, Lomas, Lorea, Marti- 
nez, Ministerio, Moron, Nunez, Olivos, Once de Septiembre, 
Palermo, Quilmes, Ramos Mejla, Retiro, San Fernando, 
San Isidro, San Martin, Temperley, Tigre, Tigre Hotel, Ve- 
lez Sarsfield, Victoria, Villa Ballester and Villa I^rquiza. 

Telegrams for the public lines may also be given to the 
telegraphists employed by the Urban Express, who will 
give a receipt for them. 

If the telegrams are posted in a letter-box it is necessary 
to take into account the hours of collection. The messengers 
of the Urban Exjjvess are provided with a form, which they 
must give without extra charge, to the recipient of a te- 
legram, in case the latter wishes to reply to the telegram 
he has received. Only 20 words are permitted, including the 
address and the signature, and it is necessary to be careful 
not to exceed this number, for if there are more than 20 
words the telegram is transmitted by post. 

Telegrams may be written in pencil, but must be easily 
legible. 



124 CAPITAL Theatres 

Theatres, Concerts, Sports, Clubs, etc. 

Theatres. — Colon (Calles Libertad and Tiicumaii; 'Phone: 
U. T. 27, Libertad). — Municipal, chiefly devoted to Itahan 
lyric opera; open from May to August; very beautiful and 
luxurious theatre, the first in South America; evening dress 
is obligatory for ladies and evening dress or dinner jacket 
for gentlemen; the season's subscription is generally divided 
into different days of the week for different tickets, and it 
is therefore difficult to obtain seats at the box-office; agen- 
cies sell tickets, charging a commission. The performances 
between May 25th. and July 9th. are gala performances, 
and the President of the Republic and other high officials 
are present. The theatre possesses a heating apparatus. The 
audience has not the commendable habit of meeting in the 
luxurious foyer during the intervals. (See the plan of this 
theatre among the advertisements). 

Opera (Calle Corrientes 860; 'Phone: U. T. 1170, Liber- 
tad). — Until the opening of the Colon this was the principal 
theatre, but today it is a theatre of second class. The Opera 
does not confine itself exclusively to any particular class 
of entertainment. There are played indiscriminately opera, 
drama, comedy and vaudeville, and also concerts are given. 

Odeon (Calle Esmeralda 367; 'Phone: 367; 'Phone U. T. 
2313, Avenida). — Small but well-appointed hall for comedy, 
which is the usual class of entertainment here. The fashio- 
nable season lasts from May to October. Each company 
charges its own prices. 

Coliseo Argentino (Calle Charcas llOQ; 'Phone: U. T. 
1115, Juncal). — Lyric operas and operettas are performed 
here, and the stage can be transformed into a circus ring 
about 12 metres in diameter. 

San 3Iar:in (Calle Esmeralda 257); 'Phone: U. T. 1520, 
Avenida). — This theatre belongs to no particular class; it 
serves for either opera, operetta, comedy, or acrobatic 
troupes. 

Politeama Argentino (Calle Corrientes 1470). — From May 
to August an excellent lyric opera company plays here re- 
gularly, and during the rest of the year all kinds of plays 
are given. 

Victoria (corner of Calles Victoria and San Jose; 'Phone: 
U. T. 211, Libertad). — No exclusive form of entertainment 
is given here; vaudeville and musical comedy are most 
usual. 

Buenos Aires (Calle CangaUo 1053; 'Phone: U. T. 3077, 
Libertad). — Principally devoted to comedy and Spanish 
vaudevilles. 



Circuses CAPITAL 125 

Aveni<Ia (Avoiiidti de Mayo 1222; 'Phone: U. T. 1095, Li- 
bcrtad). — Like the previous one. 

Nuevo (Calle Conientes 1528; 'Phone: IJ. T. 3678, Liber- 
tad). — Dramas and national comedies are played here. 

Argentino (Calle B. Mitre 1444; 'Phone: U. T. 1788, Li- 
bertad). — Like the previous one. 

Apolo (Calle Corrientes 1386; 'Phone: U. T. 938, Libertad). 
— Performances given by national companies. 

Nacional (Calle Corrientes 960; 'Phone: U. T. 912, Li- 
bertad). — Like the previous one. 

Comedia (Calle Carlos Pellegrini 244). — Devoted princi- 
pally to Spanish vaudevilles, giving performances in sections. 

3Iayo (Avenida de Mayo 1099; 'Phone: U. T. 308, Liber- 
tad). — Like the previous one. 

Variedades (Plaza Constitucion; 'Phone: L. T. 1303, Buen 
Orden). — Spanish drama and vaudeville. 

Marconi (Calle Rivadavia 2330; 'Phone: U. T. 2056, Mi- 
tre). — Italian opera and drama. 

Casino (Calle Maipii 336; 'Phone: U. T. 3500, Avenida). 
- — Cultivates the class of entertainment given at the French 
music-halls, including dances, popular songs, Acarian ga- 
mes, Roman fights; it is an imitation of the Folies Bergere, 
in Paris. One may smoke there and keep on one's hat during 
the performance. Entrance $ I'oO. 

Botjal (Calle Corrientes 829; 'Phone: U. T. 863, Libertad). 
— Same class of entertainment as at the Casino. 

Parisiana (Calle Lavalle 845; 'Phone: U. T. 3219, Liber- 
tad). — Same as the Parisian music-halls. 

Olimpo (Calle Pueyrredon 1463; 'Phone: U. T. 2677, Jun- 
cal). — Comedies and vaudevilles, in sections. 

Pueyrredon (Calle Rivadavia 6871; 'Phone: U. T. 786, Flo- 
res). — No particular class of entertainment. 

Circuses. — Coliseo Argentino (Calle Charcas 1109; 
'Phone: U. T. 1115, Juncal).— ^Iny/Ze^/zo (Calle Parana 436). 
• — Anselmi (corner of Calles LavaJle and Larrea). — Eeynaldi 
(corner of Calles Montes de Oca and Rocha). — Politeama 
Anselmi (Calle Boedo, between Calles Estados Unidos and 
Independencia). 

Performances in the Buenos Aires theatres begin at 9 
p. m. With the exception of the Colon, the Opera, and the 
Odeon, during the season, one can almost always find places 
at the box-oMce up to the last moment. Nevertheless, it is 
better to reserve them in advance, either by telephone, or 
by messenger. There are no special agencies for the sale of 
tickets. At the doors of several theatres are men who sell 
tickets for entrance. Only at the Colon, Opera and Odeon 
is evening dress compulsory: ladies must be decoUet^es and 



126 CAPITAL ('inemaio(jruplis 

be without hats, lii the other theatres when first-class com- 
panies are pla^aiig many men wear evening dress. This cus- 
tom has spread also to the higher-class cinematographs for 
benefit or other special performances. In the less important 
theatres the ladies wear visiting costumes with hats, but they 
are obliged to remove their hats during the performance. 
The Buenos Aires theatres generally are noteworthy for the 
elegance and luxury of the audience. The traveller should 
not miss seeing the Teatro Colon on a patriotic fete day, such 
as May 25th. or July 9th. 

Cinematographs. — Palace Theatre (Calle Corrientes 757; 
'Phone: U. T. Avenida). — High-class. Performances every 
evening. Matinees on Sundays and holidays. Parterre, with en- 
trance, $ 1 on week-days (except Saturdays) and at mati- 
nees; $ 1*50 on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays (evening per- 
formance). Orchestra under the direction of Mr. Ch. Marchal. 
—Little Palace Theatre (Calle Libertad 976; 'Phone: U. T. 
1324, Juncal). — High-class. Same prices as for the foregoing. 
Orchestra under the direction of Mr. Ch. Marchal. — Ateneo 
(Calle Corrientes 699; 'Phone: U. T. 204, Avenida).— Or- 
chestra under the direction of Mr. Maurage. — Cine-opera 
(Calle Corrientes 84:8).— Bio grafo Lavalle (Calle Lavalle 925). 
— American Biograph (Calle Suipacha 482). — Nacional Nor- 
te (Calle Santa Fe and Avenue Callao). — Cinematografo cle la 
Plaza del Congreso (Calle Rivadavia 1635). — Esmeralda (Calle 
Esmeralda 320). — Gran Biografo Corrientes (Calle Corrien- 
tes 1174). — Cinema Familiar El Sol de Mayo (Calle Entre 
Rios 641). — Imperial Biografo (corner of Calles Cangallo and 
Esmeralda); two performances every day. — Cine-Bore (Calle 
Sarmiento 1157). — Palais Eotjcd {Calle Rivadavia 1970).- 
Mundial Palacio (Calle Belgrano 1260). — Mascagni (Calle 
Corrientes 1550). — Cinema Padium (Calle Lavalle 731). 

The cinematograph is very much in vogue in Buenos Ai- 
res. Certain of the halls are very luxurious and are frequen- 
ted by a numerous and distinguished public. The best are 
the Palace Theatre, the Little Palace, and the Ateneo. 

Concerts. — Classical music is beginning to be cultivated at 
Buenos Aires, and the concerts given there are very success- 
ful and may be compared with those given in the large Eu- 
ropean capitals. 

This result is due, in the first place, to the fact that there 
are excellent lyrical companies in the Capital, which give 
the best productions of the Italian, French and German 
Theatres, and also to the number of musical societies, which 
each year incorporate a multitude of artistic elements, es- 
pecially prepared to appreciate the musical creations of 
the great masters. 



Coneerh. Sports r'AI'lTAL 127 

The concerts given by the «Sociedad Or(|uestal Bouac- 
rense», directed by Professor Cattelani, during the month of 
October, call attention on account of the homogeneity of 
their elements. The harp concerts organized every year 
during September or October by Professor Lebano, for phi- 
lanthropic purposes, with young ladies of good family, also 
deserve mention. Besides these, the different charitable so- 
cieties frequently organize concerts, almost always of high 
class, in order to obtain funds for their charities. The <(Socie- 
dad de Musica de Camara», whose chief performers are Profes- 
sors Auguste Maurage, Robert Torterolo, Eichard Rodriguez 
and Charles Marchal, also contributes in no small degree 
towards spreading the taste for music. It generally gives 10 
concerts from March to December, of which 8 are composed 
of chamber music and two are symphonic. Members pay a 
subscription of $ 4 per month, and have the right to buy at 
the booking-office not more than four extra tickets for each 
concert, at the minimum price of $ 1 each for the chamber 
music concerts and $ 2 for the symphonic concerts, besides 
their own season ticket. The Diapason society (Calle Tucu- 
man 543; 'Phone: U. T. 3863, Avenida), composed of ladies 
and gentlemen of the best society, has the same object as 
the foregoing. During winter, on Wednesdays, and on certain 
Sundays, from 5 to 7, performances of very good symphonic 
and vocal music are given. (Admission of members is made 
by secret ballot, the committee taking a vote on the demand 
of the members). The 2Iusica Municipal, under the direction 
of Professor Malvagni and composed of 100 professionals, is 
also an element in the education of the musical taste of the 
population. During the summer evening concerts are given in 
the hall of the «Sociedad Ruralo and on the principal squares 
and promenades, while in winter they are given during the 
daytime, with selected programmes. They are well attended. 

Sports. — The principal horse races take place at the Pa- 
lermo Hippodrome (race-course), under the auspices of the 
Jockey Club; they begin on March 4th., and conclude on 
December 30th. Foreigners of mark can easily obtain invi- 
tation to the members' stand. An entrance fee is charged for 
the other, or «popular» stands. The principal races are the 
{(National Prize» and the ((Carlos Pellegrini Prize» (formerly 
International). A considerable amount of money is laid on 
the races. 

Outside the capital, but distant only a few minutes, and 
served by several railway lines, are the Hurlingham Club, 
in the small township of the same name, near San Martin; 
the Lamas Jockey Club and the Longehamps Hippodrome 
(race course), in which races are frequently held. 

UAF.DK.KKR.— 12 



128 CAPITAL Sjmrts 

Skatiug. — At the Ice Palace (Paseo de la Eecoleta), 
skating on ice (from April to November), every day from 
9'30 a. m. to 12*15 p. m., and from 3'30 p. m. to 7 p. m. 
Evening on Thursdays and Sundays, from 9*30 p. m. to mid- 
night. (Entrance: day, $ 3; evening, $1). Elegant reunions. 
The Palacio de Novedades, Calle Florida 146. Open morning, 
afternoon and evening. Tuition free of charge. The Skating 
Bink, on the roof of the Casino (Calle Maipii 336). Every 
day from 4'30 p. m. to 7 p. m. 

Yachting. — The Argentine Yacht Club, headquarters 
at El Tigre (Central Argentine Eailway) in a house-boat 
anchored in the Rio Lujan. The Tigre Sailing Cluh, which 
is situated also at El Tigre (50 minutes from Buenos Aires). 

There also exist different societies which devote themsel- 
ves to rowing and sailing regattas. These are the principal 
ones: Buenos Aires Rowing Club, Argentine Rowing Club, 
«La Marina», Teutonia and the Tigre Boat Club. All these 
clubs, with the exception of «La Marina», are situated at El 
Tigre. «La Marina» is at the Darsena Sud (Southern Basin) 
in the port of the capital. On the Rio Lujan splendid boating 
excursions may be made; the scenery is very picturesque. 
Important rowing regattas take place in these waters on 
November Ilth.; boating excursions in the port of Bue- 
nos Aires are rendered impossible by the continuous traffic 
on the water. 

Cricket. — Numerous clubs exist for the popularisation of 
this game; the principal are: «Hurlingham», «Lanus», «Bel- 
grano», «Flores», «Quilmes», «Buenos Aires», «Banfield», 
«St. George», «San Isidro», «Lomas», «San Martin», and «Ba- 
rracas». 

Olympic Gaines. — Organized by the following societies: 
«Buenos Aires Gymnastic and Fencing Club», «National Asso- 
ciation of Physical Excercises for Young people», «English 
High School)), «Villa Ballester Athletic Club», and «Belgrano 
Athletic Association)). 

Golf.— Part of the British colony at Buenos Aires has 
imported this healthy game. The links at San Martin, Villa 
Devoto, Lomas de Zamora, Rivadavia, Mar del Plata, and 
those of the «Argentine Golf Club» (Palermo), magnificent 
courses several hectares in area, have been, and are frequen- 
tly, the scene of important meetings. 

Lawn Tennis. — There are many clubs devoting themsel- 
ves to the practice of this sport; the following are the princi- 
pal, with the address of the headquarters in Buenos Aires: 



Sports CAPITAL 129 

«Bueuos Aires Lawii Tennis f'lub», Calle Baitolonie Mitrf> 
299; «Belgrano Lawn Tennis (Uub», Calle Coriientes 951; 
«Flores)>, Calle Baitolonie Mitre 441; <'Lomas», Calle Bartolo- 
me Mitre 871; «Quilmes)>, Avenida de Mayo 671; « Villa De- 
voto)), CaUe 25 de Mayo 277. 

Cycling Clubs.— «Xational Cycling Club», Calle Triunvi- 
rato 887; «Argentine Cycle Union*, Calle Maipii 231; «Italian 
Cycling Club», Avenida Alvear 567; «Argentine Motor Club», 
((Argentine Cycle Club», and «United Cyclists' Club». 

There is an excellent cycle track in tlie Parque 3 de Fe- 
brero. 

Argentine Sports Society.— ^Its headquarters are situated 
on the road to Palermo, in the old Pavilion de las Rosas. It 
possesses, besides, a stadium at Palermo, in which athletic 
sports, football matches and horse-breaking take place. 

Gymnastic Clubs. — ((Gymnastic and Fencing Club», Calle 
Cangallo 1154; possesses a superb place at Palermo; ((Na- 
tional Association of Physical Exercises*), corner of CaUes 
White and Azopardo; ((Amateur Athletic Association of the 
River Plate», Calle Bartolome Mitre 475; ((Belgrano», Avenida 
de Mayo 748; ((English High Schoob, CaUe Santa Fe 3590; 
((Flores», Once Station; ((Lanus», Plaza Constitucion Station. 

Fencing Clubs. — ((Gymnastic- and Fencing Club)), Calle 
CangaUo 1154; ((Circulo de Armas», CaUe Cangallo 861; ((Joc- 
key Club», Calle Florida 559. The fencing room of this sump- 
tuous institution is under the direction of the masters Piui, 
Bai, Peme, Nigro and Gonzalez. ((Club del Progreso», Avenida 
de Mayo 633; ((Naval Centre», Calle Florida 316; the fencing 
room is directed by Professor Victor Ponzoni; and the 
((Circulo Militar», Calle Maipu 255. 

Target Shooting. — ((Argentine Federal Shooting Club»; 
possesses a superb range at Palermo. ((Swiss Target Shooting 
Society », with a fine range at Belgrano. ((Italian Target 
Shooting Society)), with a magnificent polygon at Villa De- 
voto. The ((Pigeon Club» (Calle Tagle 280), possesses a fine 
installation and a branch at Mar del Plata. 

Shooting practice for war-time, with ((Mauser» guns, is 
obligatory for all the citizens who form part of the active 
army. The Government has constructed numerous practice 
grounds in the principal towns of the Republic. Ammunition 
is supplied at cost price. 

Hunting. — Owing to the diversity of its climate and the 
composition of its soil the Argentine Republic is one of the 
richest countries in game. Up to the present hunting has been 



130 CAPITAL Sjyoris 

only a pastime for the inhabitants, and no indutitrial deve- 
lopment of it has been attempted, although its products 
already amount to several hundred thousand francs in the 
export accounts. 

In the woods and plains of the central and southern pro- 
vinces the hare and the partridge are found in abundance, 
as well as the ostrich, the alpaca and the wild cat, with a 
few pumas in the forests on the Pampas. In the Cordillera 
there are vicuiias and large birds of prey. In the northern 
districts, covered with tropical forests, are to be found the 
majority of the birds common to other tropical countries, 
especially the richly-plumed birds used for ladies' hats, and 
the puma and the jaguar. Otters are abundant in the ri- 
vers. 

On the plains hunting is very easy, and the greater part 
of the notable visitors who have come to the Republic for 
purposes of study and others, have devoted themselves to 
hunting in automobile or on horseback on the large es- 
tancias. 

In the forests of the north hunting expeditions are already 
beginning to be organized, and these expeditions have 
all the attractions of those of the Congo forests, without 
their inconveniences. 

Attempts have been made also to shoot some of the ha- 
res, which exist in an huge numbers and have become a 
veritable plague for agriculture and to export them, in cold 
storage. 

Hunting is regulated in the province of Buenos Aires for 
certain game considered useful, and is prohibited during 
a certain period of the year. The regulations for the year 1911 
had the following clauses in particular: 

«From December 1st. to March 31st. any form of hunting- 
is prohibited for the following classes of animals: Alpaca, 
Stag, Carpincho, Doe, Otter, Seal, Armadillo, Ostrich, Par- 
tridge, Goose, and Duck, 

)>Partridge shooting is absolutely forbidden during the 
whole of the year 1911 in Electoral Divisions 1 and 6; during 
the whole of the year 1912 in Divisions 3 and 5, and during 
the whole of the year 1913 in Divisions 3 and 4.» 

As may be seen, the restrictive decree deals only with 
animals which it is useful to preserve or which render useful 
services to agriculture. 

The following are the principal hunting clubs: «Hunters' 
Club)> (St. Hubert), Calle Defensa 368, Union Telephone 
3430, Avenida; «International Hunters' Club», Calle Peru 367, 
Union Telephone 4044, Avenida. 

Pelota. — This noble and virile exercise, of Spanish origin 



Sports CAPITAL 131 

is a favorite one at Buenos Aires. The principal centres are: 
«Gymnastic and Fencing Club», Calle Cangallo 1154; «Ar- 
gentiue Pelota Club», Calle Moreno 983», and «Front6n Bue- 
nos Aires», Calle Cordoba 1130, Union Telephone 4097, 
Juncal. 

Football. — This game is firmly established in the sporting 
life of the Republic, being played from Buenos Aires to Ju- 
juy, and being adopted everywhere in the country. One can 
call it the national game. 

The season lasts from April to September. There are nu- 
merous societies, but the most important is the «Argentine 
Football Association*. Games are played on Sundays and 
holidays, from April to September, in the fields of the 
«Sporting Society» (Palermo). 

The international matches are the most interesting; they 
are played under the auspices of this association, among 
amateurs. The matches arouse great interest, especially 
when the South African team takes part in them. 

Fox-Huiiting. — This sport, so fashionable in the large 
capitals of Europe, is also popular in Buenos Aires, under 
the patronage of the Hunting Club, an association formed 
by the most select society of the capital, men and women. 

In winter and in spring fashionable meets are held, either 
at the establishment Talar de Pacheco, near the station of 
the same name (Central Argentine), or at the establishment 
Villa Elisa, near the station of the same name (Southern 
Railway). 

Boxing. — This sport is beginning to spread in Argentina. 
The Argentine Boxing Club (Calle Florida 525, Union Tele- 
phone 2765, Avenida), gives frequent public exhibitions. 

Aviation. ~A military aviation school has been founded 
near the station of Palomar (Buenos Aires and Pacific Hail- 
way). The Argentine Aero Club (corner of Calles Guanaca- 
clie and 11 de Septiembre, Union Telephone 69, Belgramo) 
has a place at Belgramo. 

Excursions. — These are promoted by the Argentine Ex- 
cursion Club, Passage Roverano, 557, Bureau de Cedres. The 
subscription is $ 12. Two or three outings are undertaken 
every year. The number of members is 50. To become a mem- 
ber it is necessary to be proposed by two members. 

Argentine Touring Club. — This club, of recent creation, 
is to assist in the development of sports, especially motor-car 
touring; it therefore takes action with the authorities to get 



132 CAPITAL Civil Begistrars' Offices 

them to construct good roads, and it has published a Touring 
Club Guide, which renders great services to travellers. 

Clubs. — The following is a list of the principal clubs (to 
gain admission it is necessary to be introduced by a member): 
Jockey Club, Calle Florida 559 (Union Teleph. 2260, Aveni- 
da); Club del Progreso, Avenida de Mayo 633 (U. T. 4380, 
Avenida); Circolo Italiano, Calle Florida 8 (U. T. 601, Ave- 
nida); Circulo de Armas, Calle Cangallo 861 (U. T. 3423, Li- 
bertad); Club Espaiiol, Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 172 
(U. T. 2000, Libertad); Foreign Residents' Club, Calle Barto- 
lome Mitre, 478, 2nd. floor (U. T. 1194, Avenida); Club Fran- 
^ais, Calle Sarmiento 763 (U. T. 791, Avenida); English Club. 
Calle Bartolome Mitre 476 (U. T. 1234, Avenida); German 
Club. Calle Cordoba 731 (U. T. 417, Avenida); Argentine 
Chess Club, Calle Cangallo 833 (U. T. 2105, Libertad); Aus- 
tro- Hungarian Club, Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 557 (U. T. 
2857, Libertad); Circulo Militar Argentino, Calle Maipii 255 
(L". T. 415. Avenida); Club Social del Norte. Calle Santa Fe 
2372 (U. T. 611, Juncal); Circulo de la Prensa, Calle Sar- 
miento 431 (U. T. 3344, Avenida); Circulo Belgrano, Calle 
Obligado 1802 (U. T. 775, Belgrano); Junta de Historia y 
Numismatica Americana, Calle Victoria 328. 

Exhibitions of Paintings. — Xational Fine Arts Museum 
(Argentine Pavilion, Plaza San Martin); Fotografia y Galeria 
AVitcomb, Calle Florida 364, where pictures by Spanish 
masters are frequently exhibited; Amateur Photographers' 
Society, Calle Victoria 1360; The London Gallery, corner of 
Calles Cordoba and Florida. 

Among the best private collections must be mentioned 
that left by Mr. Jose P. de Guerrico, Calle Corrientes 537; 
that of Mr^ Lorenzo Pellerano, Calle Talcahuano 1138; and 
that of Mr. Antonio Santamarina, Calle Santa Fe 958. 

Civil Registrars' Offices.— As it may happen that a tou- 
rist is obliged to make a declaration of birth at a^registrar's 
office, it is as well to know that this declaration must be 
made by the father or nearest relation of the infant, and the 
midwife, within three days of the birth, under a penalty 
of a fine or imprisonment. 

The 20 civil registrars' offices are open to the pubUc from 
11*30 a. m. to 5*30 p. m., every day, including holidays, and 
on Sundays from noon to 2 p. m. The following are their 
addresses: 

Chief Office, Calle Paraguay 1050; sections: 1st., Calle Ri- 
vadavia 8151, with, a branch at Calle Esquiu 159;-2nd., Calle 
Rioja 1778; 3rd., Calle General Iriarte 566; 4th., Calle Aim. 
Brown 1078; 6th., Calle Belgrano 4139; 7th., Calle Bartolome 



Commercial Establish. CAPITAL 133 

Mitre 4309; 8tli., Calle Albert! 1256; 9th., Calle Ecuador 385; 
15th., Calle Malabar 348; 16th., Calle Xahiiel Huapi 5058; 
17th., Calle Lacroze 2469; 18th., Calle Gurruchaga 2164; 
Boca and Barracas section, Calle Montes de Oca 830; Belgra- 
no section, Belgrano. 

Commercial Establishments, Shops. 

There are few houses in Buenos Aires whose ground floors are not occu- 
pied by a commercial establishment or a shop. The principal shops are to 
be found in Calle Florida, which, until lately held the sceptre for good taste 
and elegance; but now-a-days, it is beginning to lose a little of its importance 
because of the competition of the beautiful Avenida de INIayo, on the wide pa- 
vements of which are installed luxurieous shops. The Calle Carlos Pellegrini 
has also acquired during these latter years a great importance owing to the 
exhibition in its shops of fancy articles, its jewellers' shops and its bazaars. 
Shortly, as the building continues, the population of the centre quarters 
will emigrate towards the outher districts and the streets which are being 
formed to-day, such as Callao, Rivadavia, Corrientes, Santa Fe, and San 
Juan, will become very important. The great establishments built in the 
principal streets attract by means of shop window display; others try to 
attract buyers by means of advertisement boards, carrying in great letters 
«Gran Liquidaci6n» or «Venta Forzosa% etc.; but it is well to distrust these 
announcements which, at bottom except for a few honourable exceptions, 
are frauds. 

Buenos Aires, a great capital owing to the luxury and the good taste of 
its nvmierous population (1,'126,500 inhabitants en .January 1st. 1913), 
possesses several establishments like those of other great capitals, such as 
the «Bon Marche» and the <-Louvre» of Paris, which offer to purchasers an 
infinite variety of objects and of wares, at prices, in general, lower than those 
of other establishments, for their large trade permits them to charge prices 
giving only a minimum profit on each article. Nevertlieless it must not be 
believed that their goods are always of better quality and cheaper than in 
the special establishments. The principal establishments which exist of this 
sort are: Gath and Chaves at the corner of Calles Florida and Bartolomc Mi- 
tre; and its two branches, one called cAl Palacio de los Xinoso, at the corner 
of the Calles Florida and Sarmiento, and the other <'x\l Palacio de las Damas», 
at the corner of the Calle Peru, and the Avenida de Mayo. «A la Ciudad de 
Londres'), at the corner of Calles Carlos Pellegrini and Corrientes; «A1 Pro- 
greso», at the corner of the Calles Bartolome Mitre and Esmeralda; «A la Ciu- 
dad de Mejico», at the corner of Calles Florida and Sarmiento; «A la Tienda 
San .Juan», at the corner of Calles Alsina and Piedras; the establishment of 
Avelino Cabezas, Calle Sarmiento 562, and the Coopcrativa Nacional de 
Consumos), Calle Suipacha 263-275; whose sales return considerable profits. 
At the present time the first place amongt hese establishments is held by 
Gath and Chaves, with its central establishment and its branches, wliich each 
day like a polypus stretches out its tentacles around all the little shops which 
are near to it. This important house, established in 1885 sells all articles. 
There are a large number of different departments, in which one can find all 
that is necessary for the toilet of men, of women, and of children, and also 
everything in the way of furniture, liousehold goods, clothing, etc. 

In recent times the establishment has developed marvellously. At the 
present moment (January 1st. 1913) there are employed for the sale of 
goods at the central housea nd in the branch establishments, 3,006 people, 
of whom 2,366 are men and 6 tO are women. 

There are also 295 employees (278 men and 17 women) employed conti- 
nuously in the workrooms. 

In 1911 these workshops turned out goods to the value of S 12,731,872, 
or £ 1,120,668. 

Besides its branches in the capita I. this house has branches established 



134 CAPITAL Ladies' Hals 

at Rosario, Cordoba, Baliia Blanca, La Plata, Mendoza, Tucuman, Parana 
and Mercedes (Buenos Aires), with a total number of employees amounting 
to 481 (434 men and 47 women). 

The total of the salaries paid to employees in 1911 amounts to S 5,658,383 
paper (£ 497,937), besides S 1,772,119 paper (£ 155,946), paid to workers 
working at home. 

In 1911 the establishment Gath and Chaves sold 8 35,216,087 paper 
(£ 3,099,015), worth of goods. 

Tejj-Rooms. — A short time ago there were established in Buenos Aires 
some Tea-rooms, worked in the same way as similar shops in Europe. 

Society people now take their afternoon <'teas> there. The best of these es- 
tablishments are, the Five O'clock Tea Room, Calle Florida 72, and its 
branch house in the luxurious establishment at Calle Florida 329; «RUMPEL- 
MEYER'S TEA ROOMS*, FLORIDA 221 (Ortiz Basualdo Building); Tea- 
Room Victoria, Calle 25 de Mayo 164, and the confectioners' «Del Gass) (at the 
corner of Calles Esmeralda and Rivadavia), and <Paris» (corner of Calles 
Chare and Libertad), which has special salons, luxvuiously furnished; and 
«The Squisite Saloons Calle Esmeralda 340. 

Confectioners. — The trade in confectionery is very great at Buenos Ai- 
res. For this purpose numerous luxurious shops are established. The sweets 
imported are from the best Swiss and Parisian factories. The bags, boxes 
and tins used for sale are nicely made up and of good taste, and prices 
vary according to the kind. Among these shops one must mention: «Aux 
Grandes ^larques'), Calle Florida 201, with a branch. Calle Esmeralda 209; 
during the summer the establishment has also a branch at Mar del Plata; 
the «Iris Blanco», Calle Cangallo 715; the «Grange>, Calle Esmeralda 239; 
the <'Jazmin», Calle Cangallo 599; the «Del Gas», at the corner of Calles 
Esmeralda and Bivadavia; (Del Aguila», Calle Florida 178, and «Paris», at 
the corner of Calles Charcas and Libertad. 

Ladies' Hairdressers.— ]\Iaison Gadan, Calle Florida 594, and Bartolome 
Mitre 943; liaison INIoussion, Calle Callao 302; ]Maison Auguste Lachaise 
and Fernand Yachon, Calle Esmeralda 370; Josephine Etchevcrria, Calle 
Lavalle 1530; Y. Guelfm, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 471; <L'Arte>, Calle Tucu- 
man 1539; Ernest IVIare, Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 649; Pierre Pucheu, 
Calle Bartolome Mitre 860; Antonia de Ribas, Calle Cerrito 538; Ruiz and 
Roca, Calle Rivadavia 601; Domingo Vitale, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 656; 
Lucila de Zabala, Calle Corrientes 3314. 

THE VICTORIA HAIR DRESSING SALOON. (Cangallo 324, corner Ca- 
lle 25 de Mayo.) The most up to date and modern establishment of its kind. 
Fitted out with the latest American hydraulic chairs and electric, massage 
machines. Sole agent for the celebrated <'B ^Y» St. Thomas Bay Rum recom- 
mended by physicians. Only high class soaps and perfumery sold. The most 
experienced men employed. Proprietors have Paris, London and New- York 
experience. 

Milliners. — Moussion, Calle Callao 302; Gadan, Calle Florida 594; Pa- 
ris Elegant, Calle Victoria 800; Noirat, Avenida de Mayo 1273; Palais de 
I'Elegance, Calle Bartolome Mitre 666; Aphessetche, Calle Carlos Pellegri- 
ni 1325; Souza, Calle Florida 474; Mme. Mcry, Calle Florida 635; Anglada, 
Calle Suipacha 343; Aragon, Calle General Urquiza 1717; Paulina Arauz, ■ 
Calle Solis 695; Banton, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 616; Barrio, Calle Bernardo 
de Irigoyen 589; Bartalena, Calle Esmeralda 562; Victorina Bazerque, Calle 
Lavalle 1015; Reminga Bersanino, Calle Bohvar 814; Bollatti, Calle Bartolo- 
me Mitre 1442; Emilia Bono, Calle Belgrano 1616; Gabriela Bonoron, Calle 
Uruguay 1052; Borello, Calle Bartolome Mitre 1427; Mme. Boston, Calle 
Peru 191; EmiHa Bottinelli, Calle Triunvirato 156; Luisa Bove, Calle Riva- 
davia 3743; Brafie, Calle Independencia 3312; Bustos, Calle Corrientes 1529; 
Enriquita Cenac, Calle Callao 336; Maria Cepero. Calle Bernardo de Irigo- 
yen 1223; Chastonay, Calle Charcas 1020; Lucia Cinat, Calle Tucuman 1788; 
Concepcion Cocuzzi, Calle Diaz Vclez 502; Francisca Coma, Calle General 



Jewellers' (.'APITAL I'.io 

Paz 2141; A. L. Coniin, Calle Lavalle 957; M. L. Cornetc, Calle Bernardo de 
Irigoycn 722; Maison Christofani, Calle Belgrano 1156; J. Kiriz and Compa- 
ny, Calle Cangallo 1114; .Juan Fava, Calle Cerrito 594; Marguerite Fernan- 
dez, Calle Bernardo dc Irigoyen 048; C. M. Firpo, Calle Santa Fe 2264; 
A. Franchelli, Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 1217; Vda. de Garate, Calle Esme- 
ralda 828; J. R. Garcia, Calle Bivadavia 2649; Luciana Garcia, Calle Sar- 
miento 1235; Gelabert Sisters, Calle Varcla 132; AUX GRANDS MAGASIXS 
DU LOUVRE, Calle Viamonte 741 (Agency); Esther Guardado, Calle Es- 
meralda 461; Ernesta Lami, Calle Florida 632; A. Larroque, Calle Callao 128; 
Augustine Lorenza, Calle Cordoba 1029; etc. 

Modes. — Aphesselche, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 1325; Fanny Arellano, Calle 
Arenales 1985; Harrods, corner of Calles Florida and 'lucuman ('Phone: 
2557, Avcnida). Ready made clothes and lingerie for women and children. 
A. S. Arlia, Avenida Alvcar 108; Victoria Arrondo, Calle Azcuenaga 48; An- 
gela Beaumont, Calle Charcas 1035; Julia Bellini, Calle Santa Fe 1447; Car- 
mela Benedetto, Calle Patricios 1820; Carolina Binelli, Calle Patricios 967; 
Angela Bizien, Calle San Jose 242; Jane Bruneaux, Calle Bartolome Mitre 
1553; .Jose Cateura, Calle Bartolome Mitre 1540; Cauget, Calle Viamonte 
1076; Esther Caviro, Calle Saenz Pena 1952; [Maria Chaillot, Calle Amenabar 
2144; Fanny Citron, Calle Rincon 57; Remy Corbellati, Calle Charcas, 1092; 
Flora Cortes, Calle Alberti 727; L. F. Cossari Calle Murmol 978; Maria Costa, 
Calle Corrientes 4381; Rosa Costa, Calle Saenz Pefia 1781; Mme. Couzier, 
Calle Tacuari 627; IVIaria D'Amico, Calle Santa Fe 1275; Berthe D'Angla, 
Calle Libertad 1371; J. E. Debots, Calle Alsina 1663; C. Di Gaudio and Sis- 
ters, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 1154; Vlanche Dominique, Calle Viamonte 1253; 
Ducca and Ferrari, Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 1172; Mme. Emilie, Calle Sui- 
pacha 1241; Julio Falcinelli, Calle Bivadavia 3515; Ernestina Ferraso, Calle 
Juncal 2383; Mme. Fortuny and Company, Calle Viamonte 1009; Celets 
Fricant, Calle Carlos Pellogrini 568; A. P. Gadan, corner of Calles Florida and 
Tucuman; F. Gardiol, Calle Florida 578; T. C. Gazzone, Calle Arenales 1022; 
Agency of the Grands Magasins du Louvre, Calle Viamonte 741; Mathilde 
Henry, Calle Suipacha 512; .Mme. Leonie, Calle Tucuman 1055; S. Lequerica, 
Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 1262. 

Cif/ars. — Gath and Chaves, angle of Florida and Bartolome Mitre; Los 
Distingiiidos, angle of Calles Florida and Cangallo; Cigarrcria Lusitana, 
angle of Calles Cangallo and San Martin; La Portena, Calle Bartolome Mi- 
tre 341; La Exposicion, Calle Florida 65; Cigarreria fie Londres, Calle Flori- 
da 6; La Cnbana, Calle Cangallo 411; Irou-Frou, Calle 3Iaipu 304; Jose A. 
Dupre, Calle Bartolome Mitre 700; Manuel Rivera, Calle Bartolome Mitre 
515; Galimberii, E. J., importations of Partagas Havana cigars, Calle Co- 
rrientes 556; Carsiensen, I^ampe and Company, representatives of the house 
of Upmann and Company, Calle ^'enezuela 883; Randle Giiillermo and Co., 
successors of Duhalde and Randle, Calle Lavalle 726; ^'ila^6 and Co., impor- 
ters of Havana cigars, Calle Maipu 532; Bunge, Ernesto and Born, represen- 
tatives of the Regie Italienne, Calle Bartolome Mitre 226. 

Silver and WTiite Metal Goods. — Bazar Frances, Calle Florida 16; Gath and 
Chaves, comer of Calles Florida and Bartolome Mitre; Bazar Ingles, Calle 
Peru 148; Mappin and Webb, Calle Florida 28-36; Bazar Colon, Calle Flo- 
rida 254; Anezin Brothers, corner of Calles Maipii and Corrientes; Peter and 
Bignoli, corner of Calles Carlos Pellegrini and Xarmiento: Lappas, national 
manufacture, Calle Florida 347. 

Jewellers'. — They are very numerous, but the principal ones are the 
following Fabre, Calle Florida 145 and 515; Fredenhagen, Calle Florida 363; 
Escasany, Calle Florida 84-88; Wust, Calle Florida 530; Carrasale, Calle 
Florida 457; The Manchester, Calle Florida 369; Barlow \V. D., Calle Flori- 
da 484; Garbarini, Calle Florida 14; Dartigue, Calle Florida 23; Samuel, Calle 
Florida 199; Podesta Brothers, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 365; Coats, Calle Flo- 
rida 320; Schoo, Calle Florida 538. 



136 CAPITAL Optics 

A. N. GUY. HIGH GLASS JEWELLER. CANGALLO 540 
English plate and jewellery from the best London houses. Wedding 
Presents. Expert in the mounting of precious stones. Jewellery repairs and 
designing and remodelling. Watch and clock repairs. Fine selection of 
loose stones. Prices lowest in B. A. 

Purchase of Second-hand Jewels. — People who wish to buy second-hand 
jewels can go to any special houses established for this purpose, such as La 
Esmeralda, Calle Esmeralda 421; La Royal, Calle Esmeralda 356, and Rettes, 
Calle San Martin 140. 

In these establishments purchasers can make vei-y good bargains if they 
are specially competent or if they are accompanied by someone who has 
a technical knowledge of these articles. 

Bronzes and Works of Art. — Bazar Costa, Calle Florida 122; Gath and 
Chaves, corner of Calles Bartolome Mitre and Florida; Fabre, Calle Florida 
145 and 515; Wust, Calle Florida 530; Biscagha and Maggio, Calle Florida 
531; Barlow, Calle Florida 484; Bazar Ingles, Calle Peru 148; Bazar Col6n, 
Calle Florida 254; Mappin and Webb, Calle Florida 28-36; Baron, Avenida 
de Mayo 621; Anezin, corner of Calles ^Nlaipii and Corrientes. 

Booksellers. — Nueva Libreria Europea, Calle Florida 323; Prudent and 
Co., Calle Victoria 721; Espiasse, Calle Florida 16; Peuser, Calle San Martin 
200; Lajouanne, Calle Peru 142; Dante Alighieri (Itahan Books), Calle Flo 
rida 344; Mendesky, Calle Florida 359; Roldan, Calle Florida 418; Loubiere, 
(French Books), Calle Esmeralda 378. 

THE ENGLISH BOOK EXCHANGE 

333 Calle Florida, Buenos Aires. 

Is a point of interest for all new-comers in Argentine; it is a large store 
situate on the principal street and is devoted entirely to the sale of English 
literature. Here may be obtained all the latest weekly newspapers and pe- 
riodicals, monthly magazines, etc. A special feature is the supply of the 
latest works of fiction in the cheap colonial editions. 

Postcards, photo views, plans, maps and view albums a speciality. 
Every class of printing and copperplate work. Books exchanged on a unique 
system. 

All these bookshops receive the latest European literary and scientific 
works by each steamer and receive subscriptions for the principal foreign 
reviews and newspapers. 

Geographical Charts. — Prudent and Company, Calle Victoria 721; Li- 
brairie Espiasse, Calle Florida 16;lPeuser, Calle San INIartln 200; Loubiere, 
Calle Esmeralda 378. 

Music. — Pianos: Drangosch and Beines, Calle Bartolome Mitre 1032; 
Bellucci, Calle Florida 315; J. A. Medina, Calle Florida 248; Neumann, Calle 
Florida, 415; Borgarello and Obiglio, Avenida de Mayo 839; J. M. Bana 
and Co., Calle Rivadavia 853; Gurina and Co., Calle Bartolome :Mitre 860; 
David Poggi and Son, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 418; L. Rivarola, Calle Barto- 
lome Mitre 882; C. J. E. Christi, Calle Cangallo 830; Breyer Brothers, Calle 
Florida 412. 

Scores. — In the same houses, specially those of Drangosch and Beines, 
Medina and Neumann. 

Professors of Singing. — Mme. Helene Thedoorini, Calle Libertad 1387; 
Goula, Calle Callao 390. 

Professors of Elocution. — Mme. Moreno de Arag6n, Calle C6rdoba 1235; 
Mme. Helfene Theodorini, Calle Libertad 1387. 

Opticians. — Lutz and Schultz, Calle Florida 240; Bono and Mandel, Calle 
Florida 348; Lambert, Calle Suipacha 246; Hess, Calle Florida 667; Bruschi, 



Furriers • CAPITAL 137 

Calle Bartolome Mitre 553; Caton, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 531; Cova, Calle 
Esmeralda 449; Barozzi, Calle Bartolome .Mitre 1012; Canare, Calle Flori- 
da 55; Murray (Pharmacy), corner of Calles Florida and Lavalle. 

WIDMAYER & CO. Calle Corrientes 727. Photo store. 

Films developed in 24 hours, prints in 2 days: Large se 
lection of Kodaks and every kind of photo goods. Pot-- 
cards". printing material. 

Hats (Men). — (Foreign Make). — The principal houses are: Thomas de 
March!, Calle Lavalle 1010; The Manchester, Calle Florida 385; Oath and 
Chaves, corner of Calles Bartolome Mitre and Florida; Mascort and Bonturi, 
comes of C:alles Florida and Cangallo; (national manufacture): Gath and Cha- 
ves, corner of Calles Florida and Bartolome Mitre; La Nacional, Calle Sar- 
miento 684; La Argentina, Avenida de Mayo 1001. 

Corsets. — Mme. Borel, Calle Suipacha 324; Camille (Corsetterie de Paris), 
Calle Viamonte 657; INIme. Chateau, Calle Cangallo 1168; F:!ena Conti, Calle 
Tacuari 892; Figueras de Walls, Calle Callao 687; Serafma Fraga, Calle Chile 
1540; Lconie Gaye, Calle Viamonte 676; Angela Leveratto, Calle Santa Fe 
1625; :Macchi Sisters, Calle Suipacha 323; Establishment <'Le Grand Chics 
Calle Santa Fe 1682; Establishment Biccardi, Calle Paraguay 989; M. Mer- 
cier, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 814; Vda. Petrel, Calle Victoria 685; .Jose Pollak, 
Calle Carlos Pellegrini 651; Eugenie Valadier, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 762; 
Vila Sisters, Calle Bivadavia 3839; «La Parisienne», Calle Cerrito 167, make 
a speciality in orthopedic corsets and belts to measure. 

Boots and Shoes for Men and Women. — Calabresi, at the corner of Calles 
Pefia and Guido; Arbelo and Bloise, Calle Corrientes 647; Arbelo and Co., 
Calle Corrientes 873; Bernasconi Brothers, Calle Victoria 665; Henri Bohigas, 
Calle Carlos Pellegrini 166; Eugene Fellner, Calle Sarmiento 1113; Ficazzola, 
Calle Corrientes 668; Curcio, Calle Florida 315; :Merlo, Calle Corrientes 1723 
Smart, at the corner of Calles Bartolom6 Mitre and Florida. 

Dresses and Mantles. — The price of these articles is very varied, and it 
depends, not only on the material and trimming of which they are made, but 
also on the name, more or less well-known, of the selling house. One can 
nevertheless, state that a town costume for a lady would cost in the best 
establishments, between 250 and 300 pesos (£ 22 to £ 26), and an evening or 
reception gown, between 600 and 800 (£ 53 to £ 70). 

But these same articles can also be obtained from shops less fashionable 
at far lower prices. The principal establishments are: Aphesetche, Calle Car- 
los Pellegrini 1325; Palace of Elegance, Calle Bartolome Mitre 666; Diaz, 
Alegre and Davoli, Calle Bartolome Mitre 784; Gadan, corner of Calles Flo- 
rida and Tucuman; Moussion, at the corner of Calles Callao and Cangallo; 
Gardiol, Calle Florida 578. 

Ladles' Tailors. — Lombardi, Calle Florida 744; Dominguez, Calle Flori- 
da 327; Paladino, Calle Bartolome Mitre 532. 

BABBEB, ELLIS & Cia., SUIPACHA 320. 
Private tailors. House founded by W. A. Hosburn from Henry 
Poole & Co., London. Union Teleph. 57i5, Libertad. 

Furriers.— Coats Isaac, Calle Cerrito 415; Garcia Antoine, Calle Sar- 
miento 436; Huber, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 373; Jonquieres, Calle Bolivar 
1229, and Calle Cochabamba 501; Linger, Calle Lima 325; L6pez, Calle Sar- 
miento 443; Bappaport, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 827; Talat Felix, Calle Can- 
gallo 475; ZalvToiski, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 536; Wencelblat, Calle Carlos 
Pellegrini 779. 

For the storing skins and furs: Establishment A. Prat, Calle Suipacha, 
140; and Jonquieres, Calle Bolivar 1229. 



138 CAPITAL Carpet — Cleaning 

Tobacco. — The trade in tobacco, raw or manufactured, is free in the 
Repubhc, but it is burdened with a double tax, one on importation at the 
customs house and the other, wlien it is sold for consumption. 

This article is burdened with a very heavy tax by the Argentine treasury. 
Thus, in 1911 the internal tax on tobacco produced S 25,573,254, paper, 
(£ 2,250,446). 

Nevertheless the consumption does not diminish, which is proved not 
only by the figures given above, but further by the fact that there are about 
2,180 establishments exclusively occupeed in the making up and sale of 
tobacco, without counting a great number of cafes, sweetshops, etc., which 
also sell it. 

There are many different brands of cigarettes, more or less well-known, 
but the best is without doubt, that of «43» which is not produced by any 
trust. 

According to the information we have received on the subject of tobac- 
co used in the making of cigarettes, the superior class (Havan tobacco) 
costs about S 16 a kilo, including duty. The middle class (Bahia) costs, 
with duty, from S 6*50 to S 7 a kilo. 

With a kilo one can make from 40 to 50 packets of cigarettes, of course 
the number depends upon the way in which the tobacco is cut, and the length 
and thickness of the cigarettes. 

Each little packet generally contains 14 cigarettes, so that the number 
of cigarettes that can be made with a kilo of tobacco is from 560 to 700, from 
which one deduces that a cigarette of Havana tobacco costs from 0*023 to 
0-028 and one of Bahia tobacco from 0-0093 to 0-021. 

The packets of cigarettes as sold cost 0-10 and 0-20 and the better ones 
from 0-30 to 0-50 a packet. 

In 1911 there were sold for consumption 338,025,065 packets of cigaret- 
tes, whose value was estimated bv the Administration of Internal Taxes 
at S 57,418,667, paper, (£ 5,052,843). 

These 338 millions of packets of cigarettes were very quicklv smoked and 
gave to the Public Treasury S 14,867,018, paper, (£ 1,308,279), this being 
all the visible result which remains. 

The packets which are most favoured by smokers are those at S 0*20 
(162 millions) and those at S 0-10 (124 millions). 

The comsumption of made-up tobacco, has grown to considerable pro- 
portions, so that in 1911 there were made in the countrv 278,788,209 cigars, 
of a value of S 7,599,231, paper, (£ 668,732). 

Flower-Selling. — Until lately there had not been any special flower mar- 
kets in Buenos Aires such as those in several cities in Europe. One was es- 
tabhshed in 1912 in the Plaza San Martin, which is held on holiday mor- 
nings. This market, due to the initiative of the ^Municipal Surveyor, has not 
yet given the looked-for results. Nevertheless horticulture has made great 
progress in recent years. The sale of flowers takes place in the gardens or 
depots of which there are several very elegant ones situated in the most 
central streets; they make sheaves and bouquets of great richness and beau- 
ty, with specimens of flowers from all countries which are mostly acclimatised 
at Buenos Aires. The decoration of tables, boudoirs and halls by means 
of flowers has become a custom which the greater part of the wealthy people 
have adopted. The quantity of sheaves and bouquets made up at' Buenos 
Aires is so considerable that one can call it with reason "The City of Flowers'). 

The principal establishments which occupy themselves with the sale 
of flowers are: La Magnolia, of Joseph Arzani,' Calle Lavalle 745 (U. T. 
3473, Avenida); Germain Hammerer, Calle Maipil 608; Joseph Chauvin, 
Calle Esmeralda 761; Hintermeyer at the corner of the streets Cangallo and 
Maipu. 

Carpet-aeaning. — There are several establishments for cleaning and 
disinfecting carpets, possessing very highly perfected machines. They also 
have a very competent stafi' to lift and remove carpets to the place 
where they are cleaned. Among the best one must mention: The National 
Transport Company, Calle Balcarce 256; Inocencio Hillo, Calle Cangallo 645; 
Mieli and Roesli, Avenida Alvear 1620; Francisco Folgan and Gonzalez, 



])orlors CAPITAL 131) 

Callc Las lleras 15J33; Cassels and Co., Calle Barlolome Milrc TiTO, \vlio pos- 
sess a pneumatic machine which cleans the carpets without raising them, 
by means of an india rubber tube wliicli is passed into the house from the 
road through the windows or doors. 

THE BRITISH KSTABLISHMENT (521 CANGALLO, Bs. As.) 
We clean Ladies' and Gentlemen's clothing by the latest European 
metliod. British workmen employed and clients are assured of rapid and 
accurate service. Phone us before 4 p. m. and have your dress suit returned 
like new by 7 p. m. — Telephone U. T. 1246, Avenida. 

Storinfl of Furniture. — For the storing of furniture there are also several 
companies, possessing installations ad hoc and having a very competent 
staff. 

These companies undertake to fetch the furniture of the inhabitants and 
carry it to their depots where they keep it with care and also insure it against 
fire by special arrangement with the insurance companies. The best are: 
The National Transport Company, Calle Balcarce 256; and Meili and Roseli, 
Avenida Alvear 1620. 

Hospitals. — The principal hospitals of Buenos Aires are: The Rivaduvia 
Hospital, Calle Bustamante 25.31, for women, the first of its kind, admits 
in-patients who find there comfortable rooms and careful service, it is prin- 
cipally concerned with operations. The boarding fees are S 3"5 or S 10 a day 
per person. For the right of operation S 50 is paid. The Clinical Hospital, 
Calle C6rdoba 2149, for men, women and children. San Roqiic, Calle General 
Urquiza 609, do. De Niiws (for children), Calle Gallo 1330-1340, receives 
in-patiens at S 50, 100, 150 and 200 a month. The Militari] Hospital, Calle 
Pozos 2145. The Ualian Hospital, Calle Gazc6n 450. The Spanish Hospital, 
Calle Belgrano 2975. The French Hospital, Calle Rioja 955. The British 
Hospital, Calle Perdriel 74. The German Hospital, Calle Pueyrred6n 1650. 
The Rawson Hospital, at the corner of Avenida Alcorta and the Calle Vieytes, 
The Hospital Muniz, Calle Uspallata 1550. The J. ^1. l-erndndez Hospital, 
Calle Cervino 250. The Pirovano Hospital, Calle INlonroe 3551. The Hospital 
Cosme Argerich, Calle Brandzen 555. The Hospital Teodoro Alvarez, Calle 
San Eduardo 2649. The Hospital J. M. Bosch, Calle Garay 3232. The Oph- 
thalmological Hospital, Calle Arenales 1462. The Hospital Liniers, Avenida 
Chicago (New slaughter-houses). The National Hospital for Aliens, Calle 
Perdriel 702. The Hospital Las Mercedes, Vieytes 301. 

Doctors. — Dr. Louis Giiemes, Calle Lavalle 733, general illnesses (it is 
necessary to obtain an appointment in advance, S 15). Consultations every 
day. Dr. .lose B. jNIartinez, Calle Santa Fe 2116, Women's and children's 
diseases. Consultations every day from 2 to 4 o'clock. Dr. Angel J. Villa, 
Calle Suipacha 362 (1st. floor)," Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 3 
to 5 o'clock. Women's diseases and abdominal surgery. Dr. .Jules Mendez, 
professor in the Faculty, Avenida de la Bepublica 70, surgery. Every day 
from 1 to 3 o'clock. Dr. Henri Bazterrica, professor in the Faculty, Calle 
Paraguay 930, surgery and women's diseases Every day from 2 to 4 o'clock. 
Dr. .J. M. Irizar, professor in the Faculty, Calle Rodriguez Pena 30, genito- 
urinary diseases and syphilis. Every day from 4 to 7 o'clock. Dr. Ehe Wal, 
Calle Corrientes 619. ."Modern braces, exclusive models for the treatment of 
rupture. Belts to counteract obesity. Dr. C. Seminario, Calle Esmeralda 875, 
on the staff of the Hospital San Roque, for skin and venero-syphitilical ma- 
ladies day from 2 to 5 o'clock. Dr. .lean Charles Lacroze, Calle Barto- 
lome Mitre 1374, from 4 to 6 o'clock. Women's diseases, consultations 
Mondays and Thursdays from 3 to 4 o'clock (kidney, bladder, and venero- 
syphilitical diseases). Dr. Aberaslury, Calle Corrientes 933, from 1 to 4 
o'clock. Skin and venero-syphilitical troubles. Dr. Benedit, Calle Bartolomc 
Mitre 1178, fron 2 to 4 o'clock. Kidney, bladder and urethral. Dr. Himiberto 
Carelli, Calle Melo 20, X Ravs and medical electricitv. Dr. Silvio Tatti, 
Calle Moreno 1786. Dr. Pacifico Diaz, Calle Cerrito 393, from 1 to 3 o'clock. 
Skin and venerea! troubles. Dr. Davison, Calle Corrientes 881, from 1 to 3 
o'clock. INIaladies of the heart. Dr. Pierre Simeone, Calle Alsina 760. Me- 



140 ' CAPITAL .Sanatoria 

dical Electricity. Dr. Francois Bianchi, Calle Suipaclia 547. Specialist of the 
Italian Hospital; ears, nose and tliroat. Dr. Louis Agote, Calle Tucuman 855, 
from 2 to 4 o'clock. -Internal trouble and children. Dr. E. Mollard, Calle 
Tucuman 939, every day from 1 to 5 o'clock, oculist, afTeclions of .the 
sight. Dr. .\raoz Alfaro, professor in the Faculty and head of the staff 
at the hospital for Children, Calle Larrea 1124. iNIonday, Tuesday, Thurs- 
day and Saturday from 2 to 4 o'clock. Dr. .1. M. Cabaliero, Calle Cangallo 
861. Women's diseases, diseases of the urinary canals, and abdominal sur- 
gery, from 2 to 4 o'clock. Dr. Pierre Lagleize, oculist, professor in the 
Faculty, Calle Bartolome Mitre, 1175. Every dav, -S 10. Dr. Ricardo Colon, 
CaUe Cangallo 1028. Dr. J. B. Gorostiaga, Calle Cordoba 1470. Dr. Gui- 
Uermo Rojo, Calle Tucuman 576 (U. T. 4577, Avenida), Ears nose and 
throat. 

Chemical Analysts. — Kelly and Nava, corner of Calles Santa Fe and Mon- 
tevideo; Nelson, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 178; Dr. Francois Lavalle, Calle Ri- 
vadavia 727; Malbran and Badia, Calle Florida 222. 

Pharmacies. — Gibson, corner of Calles Bartolome Mitre and San Martin; 
Murray and Aikens, corner of Calles Florida and Lavalle; Murray, Calle Re- 
conquista 158; Nelson,|[Calle Carlos*Pellearini 178. 

Manicurists and Pedieurists. — A. Corominas, Calle Esmeralda 91 (U. T.' 
1544, Central); Michel Bianchi, Calle Rivadavia 940; Joseph Galan, pedi- 
curist surgeon, Calle Corrientes 843; Ana Guarino, Calle Suipacha 283; Sara 
Bono, Calle Carlos Pellegrini 629; E. Iglcsias, Calle Florida 868 (U. T., 5873, 
Avenida). 

Dentists. — Dr. Nicasio Etchepareborda, professor in the Faculty of Me- 
dicine Calle Tacuari 341. — Dr. Antoine J. Guardo, head of the practical 
works at the School of Dentistry of the Faculty of Medicine, Calle Esmeral- 
da 764. — Guillaume A. Isard, Calle Cangallo 787. — Dr. A. Levinson, Avenida 
de Mayo 890. — Leontine Noel, Calle Bernardo de Irigoyen 1245. — Marie J. 
Serra, Calle Peru 275. — Webster, Calle Esmeralda 314. — Kimball and Small, 
corner of Calles Corrientes and Maipu. — Jean M. Dolesse, Calle Maipu 185 
(1st. floor).— A. Fernandez Sans, Calle Victoria 913.— CasuUo Bros, 
Avenida de Mayo 1111.— Kutin, North-American, Calle Florida 583. — Dr. A. 
Palermo, Calle Rivadavia 644. 

Masseurs. — Paul Brouty, Calle Santiago del Estero 361; visits chents. — 
Juan Bullo, Calle San Carfos 3565. — Rosa Faermann, Calle Viamonte 1512, 
professor of massage, specialist for the complexion, facial baths, electrical 
massages, special treatment for the stomach. 

Institute of Dr. Lacroze, Calle Bartolome Mitre 1374, medical electricity, 
treatments for rheumatism, gout, neuralgia, paralysis, skin troubles, impo- 
tence, neurasthenia. Application of Rontgen rays, radioscopy and radio- 
graphy medical gymnastics, baths of all sorts. 

Swedish Institute of Medical Gymnastics. — Directed by D. W. Helander, 
Calle Chacabuco 466. 

Sanatoria. — For some time there have been several Sanatoria estab- 
lished in Buenos Aires, very comfortably fitted up, and with everything 
necessary for the care of invalids. The following are some of the principal 
Sanatoria: ]Medico-Surgical Sanatorium, directed by doctors Francois 
Llobet, B. Sommer and A. J. Medina, Calle Viamonte 1583; receives patiens. 
— Sanatorium Rivadavia, Calle Rivadavia 6452, directed by its owner. 
Dr. Celestino S. Arce. — SanatoriumA rgentino for mental and nerve disea- 
ses, Calle Rivadavia 5120.— Sanatorium Buenos Aires, Calle General Ur- 
quiza 836. — De Seiioras (Women), directed by doctors Otamendi, Bafico 
and Miroli, Calle Juncal 1008. — Sanatorium Flores, for nervous and mental 
diseases, Calle Avellaneda 1862. — Sanatorium Gutierrez, Calle Rivadavia 
5611. — Sanatorium of Drs. Castro, Sole, and Ortega Belgrano, Calle Callao 
608. — Sanatorium of Drs. Passeron, Lagos Garcia and Arana, Avenida Al- 



mreets CAPITAL 141 

vcar 2050. — Sanatorium oT Drs. T^evilla, Arco and Poralta Ramos, Calle 
TucumSn 1G65. — Sanatorium La Paz, of Drs. Gricgcra and Castro, (>alle 
Bulnes 330. — ]Medico-Surgical Sanatorium of Drs. Axnaldi and Yaralla, Calle 
Cangallo 2226. — Sanatorium Palacio Arabe, Calle Suipacha 00. — Policli- 
nical Sanatorium, Calle Solis 1 163. — Surgical Sanatorium, of Dr. N. Repetto, 
Calle Corrientes 1943. — English Sanatorium, Temperley, Calle A. Brown 815 
(Temperley).— Sanatorium Caride (In-patients), Avenida IMontes de Oca 
1051. — Italian Sanatorium, Calle Peru 443 (U. T., 3254, Avenida), branch 
at Lomas de Zamora: receives in-patients. The invalids can be cared for and 
operated on bv their own doctors; consultations from 9 to 11 o'clock. — Inter- 
national Medical Institute, Calle Rivadavia 1161 (U. T., 130, Libertad), 
directed by Drs. R. Marin and J. M. Paez. Skin troubles; special sanatorium 
for these troubles. Consultations from 9 to 11 o'clock and from 1 to 5 o'clock. 
— Rivadavia Hospital (Women), Avenida Las Heras and Calle Bustamante, 
the firs to fits kind, admits in-patients who find comfortable apartments and 
careful service. — Hospital de Ninos (Children), Calle Gallo 1330, has all the 
latest hygienic improvements; receives in-patients. 

Banks. — Argentine National Bank, Plaza de Mayo and Calle Reconquis- 
ta. — Bank of London and Rio de la Plata, Calle Bartolome Mitre 399. — 
Bank of the Province of Buenos Aires, Calle San Martin 133. — German 
Transatlantic Bank, Calle B. Mitre 401.— British Bank of S. America, Calle 
B. Mitre 400. — London and Brazilian Bank, Calle B. Mitre 402. — French 
Bank of Rio de la Plata, Calle Reconcfuista 157.— Bank of Italy and Rio de 
la Plata, Calle B. Mitre 434.— Spanish Bank of the Rio de la Plata, Calle 
Cangallo 402. — Argentine Popular Bank, Calle B. Mitre 370. — German 
Bank of South America, Calle Reconquista 311. — «E1 Hogar Argentino> 
Bank, Avenida de JMayo 886. — Latin Bank of the Plata, Calle Cangallo 417. 
— New Italian Bank, Calle Reconquista 6. — Italian Popular Bank, Calle 
B. Mitre 437. — Rio de la Plata Bank, Calle Tacuari 16. — Franco-Argentine 
Bank of Mortgages, Calle B. Mitre 226. — National Bank of :Mortgages, Calle 
25 de Mayo 245. — Commercial Bank, Calle San Martin 229. — Anglo-South- 
American Bank, Calle Reconquista 78. — Bank of Castille and Rio de la 
Plata, Calle Chacabuco 82. — Bank of Galicia and Buenos Aires, Calle Can- 
gallo 445. — Bank Supervielle and Co., Calle San ]Martin 150. — Municipal 
Bank of Loans (Monte de Piedad), Calle Suipacha 675. — Franco-Itahan 
Bank, Calle Cangallo 299. — Swiss Argentine Mortgage Bank, Calle Canga- 
llo 499. — Mercantile Bank of Rio de la Plata, Avenida de Mayo, 646. — Fran- 
co-Argentine Bank of Discount, Call B. Mitre 661. 

Streets. — -The plan of the town of Buenos Aires, with its streets which cut 
each other at right angles, has something of the appearance of a chess- 
board, of which each block, called a «manzana'>, measures 130 by 130 me- 
tres. It is for this reason that it is very easy for a stranger recently arrived 
to find his way in the streets. The original roads, from a plan placed by 
the founder of the town, Don Juan de Garay, were 952 m. in breadth. 
Later, in 1822, Rivadavia widened certain among them, as: Callao, Entre 
Rios, Corrientes, C6rdoba, Santa Fe, Juncal, Independencia and San Juan, 
which are 25*90 m. in width. Calle Rivadavia divides the town into two 
parts; to right and to left of this road, the names of the others change. 
LTp to the Calle Callao, that is to say, over a length of 2,800 metres, the 
Calle Rivadavia is 9'526 metres wide; from the Calle Callao to the Plaza de 
Florcs, over a length of 7'920 metres, the width is 25*90 m.; from there to 
the end of the town there is still a length of 5,000 metres, which makes a 
total length of 15 kilometres. The Calle Santa Fe which runs parallel to that 
of Rivadavia is 12 kilometres long. Certain roads perpendicular to the pre- 
ceding; that is to say, going from North to South, have the following lengths: 
Carlos Pellegrini, Bernardo de Irigoyen and Avenida Montes de Oca, 8 ki- 
lometres; C.allao and Entre Rios 8*500 km.; Those which go from East to 
West are: Corrientes, 9 km.; C6rdoba, 10*500 km.; Belgrano, 6 k.; Indepen- 
dencia, 8 km.; San .Juan, 4*500 km.; Canning, 6 km. The names of the 
streets are written at thecorn cr of each on little enamelled iron plates, in 
white letters. The greater part of these names have been taken from episodes 
of the war of Independence, or have those of great men of the Republic. 



142 CAPITAL Mnseums 

The even numbers are found on one side and the odd on the other. Each 
«manzana> uses the numbers of a fixed hundred. The numbering of tlie 
streets leading from North to South begins at the Calle Rivadavia, and that 
of the streets leading from East to West at the port. 

Libraries and Reading Rooms. — National Library, Calle Mejico 560, open 
to the public from 11*30 to 4 o'clock, and from 8 to 10 in the evening. — ■ 
Mitre Library, Calle San :Martin 336, open from 2 to 4*30. — Municipal Popu- 
lar Library, Calle Corrientes 1615, open from mid-day to 5 o'clock and from 
8 to 10 in the evening (every day except Sundays and holidays). — Typo- 
graphic Society's Library, Calle Soils 707, open from 7 to 8 o'clock in the 
morning and from 7 to 10 in the evening. — Library of «La Prensao, Avenida 
de ^fayo 567, open from 2 to 7 and from 9 to 12 o'clock. — Popular Library 
of Belcfrano, at the corner of the streets Juramento and Cuba, open from 7"30 
to 10*30 in the evening. Special section for children under the direction of an 
instructress. — National Library of Masters, Calle Piodriguez Pena 953, open 
from 8 in the morning to 6 in the evening. — Velez Sdrsfield Public Library, 
Calle Rivadavia 7838, open from 8 to lO in the evening. — Library of the 
Women's National Council Calle Lavalle 1430, under a lady's direction; 
open from 8 in the morning to 8 in the evening. — Women's National Library, 
Calle Rodriguez Pefia 335, open from 8 in the morning to 10 in the evening. 

Newspapers. — Their number exceeds 500, counting daily, weekly, monthly 
reviews, fortnightly, etc.; a hundred of them represent the foreign colony, 
as La Pairia degli Italiani, The Stcm^dard, Roma, Deutsche La Plata Zeitung, 
Le Courrier de La Plata, El Diario Espahol, etc. Among the principal new- 
papers of the country, one must mention La Nacion, La Prensa, La Argen- 
tina and La Manana, morning papers; El Diario, La Gaceta de Buenos Aires, 
La Tribuna, El Tiempo, El Nacional, La Tarde and La Razon, evening 
papers. The greater part of the morning papers also publish extra numbers 
on the occasion of great patriotic fetes and of the New Year. La Nacion, 
La Prensa, La Argentina, El Diario, La Gaceta de Buenos Aires and La 
Razon publish daily portraits of celebrated men and photographic repro- 
ductions of important political and social events. In general the price of a 
copy of these newspapers is 8 centavos. 

Amongst the illustrated reviews, in the first rank are La Ilustracion Sud 
Americana, Caras y Caretas, P. B. T., Fray Mocho, Tit Bits and Magazine. 

Amongst the numbers of literary and scientific reviews we have: La Revis- 
ta de Derecho, Historia y Letras, Calle Victoria 536, founded and directed by 
Dr. Stanislas S. Zeballos (monthly publication, S 2*50 a copy); the Revista 
de la Facultad de Derecho; the Revista Argentina de Ciericias Politicas. 

Tcehuieal Reviews. — La Ingenieria, Calle I^lorida 230; La Tecnica; The 
River Plate Review; La Argentina Medica; Buenos Aires Hcuidels Zeitung; 
Anales de la Sociedad Rural, Calle Florida 316; El Lechero, a review of the 
milk industry, S 10 a year-; Revista Ferroviaria; Railway Gazette Sud Ameri- 
cana; La Reforma Comercial, bank, financial, insurance and commercial 
review; El Ferrocarril, Calle Peru 321; Anales del Circulo Medico; El Alundo 
Argentino; El Campo y el Sport. 

Bibliojiraphy. — Among the principal books written on Buenos Aires, we 
shall mention the following: Buenos Aires 70 anos atrds, by J. A. Wilde; 
Tradiciones de Buenos Aires, by P. S. Obligado; General Census of the Town 
of Buenos Aires, years 1904 and 1910; Estudio Topogrdfico e Historia 
deniogrdfica de Buenos Aires, by Alberto B. Martinez; Buenos Aires, by 
Manuel Bilbao. 

IMuseums and other Places of Interest. — National }»luseum of Fine-Arts, 
Argentine Pavilion in the Plaza San Martin, open everyday (except Monday) 
from 10 to 5 o'clock. — National Historical ^luseum, Calle Defensa, 1600, 
open Thursday and Sunday from mid-day to 4 o'clock. — ISIitre Museum, 
Calle San Martin 336, openThurdsay from 1 to 4 o'clock; the library and the 
archives are open every day, except holidays, from 1 to 5 o'clock. — General 
Garmendia's IMuseum of Amis, Calle Paraguay 1321. — Zoological Garden, 







zi ^ ^- ~ 



~^'i%'% 






t EtX 



— y. _• .^ 



Police CAPITAL 143 

Callc Las Ilcras and (^alle Serrano. — ^lunicipal liolanic Gaidcn, Calle Sania 
J'V, 3931. --Thr .\t?riciiltural Exhibilioii whicli takes place every yaw towards 
.September, under the patronage of the Argentine Rural Socictx', deserves 
the particular attention ot tlic (ravcller. as much by the quality as by the 
quantity of the i)roducts exhibiled. 'i'lie number of animals which are shown 
every year is about 4,000, all of the best breeds. The machines, the instru- 
ments, as well as all the agricultural products arc very remarkable, and on 
the whole the exhibition can bear comparison with the best in the world. 



Various Associations 

Arfjentina Rural Society.— Calle Florida 316. Devoted to the development 
of the agricultutal and pastoral interests of the country. It organises the 
annual exhibitions and fairs where the best products are found. They have 
a library of 4,000 volumes aiid a lecture room for lectures, which holds 
3f)0 people. Its installations in the Parque 3 de Febrero are remarkable. 
Entry forms must be obtained through a member.— Argentine Photographic 
Society. — Calle Victoria 1360. The works of this society of amateurs calls 
attention as much in the Republic as outside. The traveller would do well to 
visit the society, where he will find interesting stereoscopic views. — Ar- 
gentine Scientific Societij. Calle Cevallos 2G0. It embraces the intellectual 
element of the country. It publishes papers whose number of volumes 
edited up to now are 58; the members make constant visits to the important 
industrial esta])lishments; its library is well-filled; it has a room for lectu- 
res.— Jun/a Nocional de Jlisloria if Kuwisnu'dica. I'nder the patronage of 
of this meritorious association, various important historical works, comple- 
tely out of print have been reedited, as El Lazarillo de Ciegos Caminantes 
desde Buenos Aires hnsta Lima (1773), by Concolorcorvo; the Guia de Foras- 
ieros del Virreinato de Buenos Aijres, by Araujo (1803); Viaje de Llricli 
Schmiedel al Rio de la Plata (1534-1554): Jlistoria de las Revoluciones de la 
Provineia del Paraguaij, by Father Pedro Lozano (1721-1735), and 4 volumes 
of the Gacela de Buenos Ayres (1810-1814). — Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. Calle Moreno 452. Organises meetings for dissertations on literature, and 
lectures. — Italian Socielif «Uniane e Bencvolen:a>. Calle Cangallo 1368. Has 
more than 6,500 members who are helped by the society. This society has 
founded schools. In the building is a theatre and a library. — Italian. Na- 
tional Society. Calle Alsina 1465. For Mutual Aid. — The English Literary 
Society. Calle Cangallo 560. Gives conferences and musical and social re- 
unions 20 times a year. — Deutscher ]\l(innergesangvcrein (German Musical 
Society). Calle Cordoba 550. Gives 4 concerts annually. — Ncdional Council 
of Women. Calle General Lavalle 1430. — Ateneo 1 1 ispano- Americano, Calle 
Rivadavia 1391. Gives frequent conferences and has lectures on literary, 
historic and scientific subjects. 

The Arms of the Tomi of Buenos Aires. — The coat of arms and the es- 
cutcheon were given to Buenos Aires on October 20th. 1580, four months 
after the foundation of the town by Garay. This act was confirmed by the 
Council of the Indies on the demand of the procurator Reltran Hurtado; 
but the members of the (^abildo of 1649 did not know of these arms, and on 
November 5th. of the same year they gave it some others. This coat of arms 
is the origin of the town's actual one. 

The coat of arms of 1659 differed from the existing one in only carrying 
the anchor and the dove, whereas the other carried in addition the boats, 
which appeared in that of 1744; this latter is preserved in painting on wood 
in the National Historical Museum 

Police. — The Central Department of Police is situated in the emanzana* 
included between the streets Moreno, Belgrano, Lorea, and Cevallos. For 
the police service the capital is divided into 40 different sect ions with an equal 
number of police stations, and a certain number of necessary employees at 
the disposal of these. 

The Police and Fire Brigade of the Capital cost the National Treasury 

liAi;i>KKKlJ. — 13 



144 CAPITAL Legations and Consulates 

S 17,421,358, paper, per annum (£ 1,533,080). The Police Force includea 
5,958 men, inspectors, police clerks, sub-olTicials, corporals and men. 

The policing of the to\\Ti is also efTected by a public safety service, un- 
mounted, which contains 69 men, and another of mounted police numbering 
680. 

The investigation department, which is entrusted with important affairs, 
is composed of 554 men. 

The technical section is composed of 126 men. 

The police have also at their service a section of 230 men, composed 
of chief telegraphist, mechanics, wire-repairers and messengers, to look after' 
telegraphs and telephones. 

The police of the Capital are furnished with a whistle, whose calls have 
the following significance. 

1. — Urgent call from a policeman * 

2. — Street call from an officer ** 

3. — Call from sergeant at the police station — 

4.- — Alarm or inspection round — * 

5.— Help:— ** 

6. — Fire — *** 

7. — Call from an officer at a police station 

8. — Assembly — ■ — - — 

The star (*) represents a short whistle and the dash ( — ) a prolonged one. 

The police stations, with their police forces and detachments, are situated 
at the following points: 

Police Statlons.—lst., 25 de Mavo 567; 2nd., Bolivar 668; 3rd., Lavalle 
864.; 4th., Tacuari 762; 5th., Lavalle 1725; 6th., Solis 340; 7th., t.avalle 2629; 
8thh, Belgrano 2275; 9th., Sarmiento 3673; 10th., General Frquiza 550; 
lltl., Rio de Janeiro 492; 12th., Rivadavia 5150 (Caballito); 13th., Arena- 
les 1030; 14th., Bolivar 1411; 15th., Las Heras 261; 16th., Lima 1682; 17th., 
Charcas 2844; 18th., San Juan 1757; 19th., Alvarez 2367; 20th., Cochabam- 
ba 2673; 21st., Triunvirato 650; 22nd., corner of Azopardo and Chile 23rd., 
Rivera Indarte 50; 24th., Pinz6n 454; 25th., Chivilcov 56; 26th., :\Iontes de 
Oca 839; 27th., Santa Fe 5262; 28th., Vclez Sarsfield 170; 29th., Cabildo; 
2243- 30th., Presidente 648; 31st., Guanacache 558; 32nd., Yieytes 1567 
33rd., Colegiales 3751; 34th., Caseros 2724; 35th., corner of San .Julian and 
Fray Cayetano; 36th., Esquiu 169; 37th., Pareja 3328; 38th., Xuevos Ma- 
taderos; 39th., corner of Picpubliquetas and Cabildo; 40th., Cuzco between 
Yedia and Binon. 

Police force of Palermo fPropertv of Fernandez); Lorea detachment of 
police, Alsina 1332-1336; Alcaide, 2nd., division, 24 de Noviembre 63; Al- 
eadie, 3rd., division, Saenz Peiia 269; Refuge San ^liguel, Rio Bamba 562. 

Fire Briflado. — Principal station in the Central Department o fthe Po- 
lice, Calle Belgrano 1555, with detachments at Flores, Calle Coronet Fal- 
c6n 2255, at the Boca, Almirante Brown, a turning from the Calle Pedro 
jNIendoza. It is composed, comiting officers and soldiers, of 1,049 men. This 
corps has a military organization. The appliances which are used are of the 
most modern make. The number of fires extinguished during one year can 
be estimated at about 190 on an average. 

The technical furnishing and its service are excellent. A visit to the bar- 
racks of the fire-men offers a certain amount of interest. In 1912, the number 
of fires was 232 and the losses were valued at 10.689,345 francs. 



Legations and Consulates. 

America. 

Bolivia, Charcas 692, consulate, Charcas 2051. — Chih, Charcas 512, con- 
sulate, Avenida de Mayo 1297.— Cuba, Tucuman 1700. — Brasil, .Juncal 1635, 
consulate, Florida 183. — United States, Charcas 634, consulate, Suipa- 
cha 612. — Guatemala, Avenida Quintana 83. — Lruguay, Rivadavia 4314, 



// i^iorii of B u finos A i rps C A P I T A L 14 o 

consiilalo, Moreno 111. — Mexico, Sucre 20.")!, coiisiilnte, Corrientes 1008. — 
l\'n-{i{i5u;iy, P;ir;iguay ITM. — Peru, Pneyrrodon 121'3, consiiUile, J^eri'i 173. — 
Columbia, consulate, l-loricla 32. — CLosta Piica, consulate, Florida 222. — 
Equador, consulate, Corrientes 758. — San Salvador, consulate, Rivadavia 
108Q. — Panama, consulate, Uruguay 1226. 

Europe. 

Germany, Uruguay 871, consulate, Balcarce 270. — Austria-Hungary, 
Esmeralda 1358, consulate, Paraguay 1019. — Belgium, Sante Fe 2351, con- 
sulate, do. — Denmark, Arroyo 1001, consulate, Reconquista 367. — Spain, 
Chacabuco 869, consulate, do. — France, Avenida Quintana 325, consulate, 
Solis 147. — England, Maipi'i 1220, consulate, P«econquista 334. — Italy, 
Avenida Quintana 171, consulate, Detensa 379. — Norway, Reconquista 250, 
consulate, do.— Low-Countries, Corrientes 17(58, consulate, Bartolome Mi- 
tre 441.— Portugal, ^Majestic Hotel, consulate, Bartolome Mitre 1265.— Rus- 
sia, Tacuari 605, consulate, do. — Holy See, Rio Bamba 1227. — Sweden, 
General Giiido 140, consulate, do. — Switzerland, Giiemes 4059, consulate, do. 
— Turkey, consulate, Rio Bamba 1157. 

Asia. 

Japan, Santiago del Estero 1102, consulate, do. 

History of Buenos Aires. 
(Capital of the Argentine Republic.) 

The town of Buenos Aires was founded in 1535 by Pedro de Mendoza, 
but it was destroyed and depopulated twice. The date when it was defi- 
nitely founded was 1580 (.Jvme 11th.) by .lean de Garay. 

Garay's new town was composed principally of country houses, and there 
were a surprising number of horses, for they had multipHed during the 39 
years the town was abandoned. 

Garay thought that the future of Buenos Aires was assured, and his 
principal commerce would be horses. Conlident about this place he left to 
visit his other foundations in Pnraguay and Santa Fe. But he was surprised 
in an ambuscade by Indians and perished with all his followers. ^Vith him 
died one of the men most competent to place on a firm base the conquests 
which had been made. 

In the early times of its foundation, Buenos Aires was attacked by sea- 
pirates But their attacks were repulsed notably those of Thomas Cavendish, 
and later also those of the Dutch established in Brazil who tried to reduce 
the colonist founders to a state of subjection. 

In 1650 the houses of Buenos Aires were not more than 400 in number. 
Some were covered with tiles, and others with straw. But they had such 
long tie-beams and they were so low that the beams projected into the 
middle of the road at a height of less than 4 metres and made traffic diffi- 
cult. It was at this time that the Cabildo decided to order the inhabitants 
to keep their houses within a certain boimdary line, at the same time 
they commanded the vehicles to clear out of the streets and to behind the 
convent of Santo Domingo, where they then sold provisions. 

These 400 houses belonged, according to a census of the time, to 211 
owners; but counting the servants of the owners, travellers and otiier inha- 
bitants who had not the rights of the citv, the population of the town rose 
in 1664 to about 4,000 inliabitants. 

Here is a brief description of the impression gained by a tourist, Azcarate 
of Biscay, of the town of Buenos .\ires at this time. 

«The climate is temperate, very much like that of Andalusia, but not as 
hot; the rain is more frecjuent in winter than summer. The town is situated 
on high ground on the borders of the Rio de la Plata, in an angle of territory 
formed by a little river, the Riachuelo, which (lows into the I\io de la Plata 



146 CAPITAL Risiory of 

within a quarter oC a league ol' the town. It is not surroiuided by ram- 
parts nor fortified. It has only a little fort surrounded by a moat and here 
the governor resides with a ganison of 150 men, divided into three compa- 
nies eacli commanded by a captain; but these, nominated by the governor, 
Chang with so great a rapidity, that there is hardly a rich citizen who has 
not been captain. 

DThere is also a little fort at the mouth of the Riachuelo to protect em- 
barkments and disembarkments. 

i)The houses consist of a ground-floor and are covered with straw and 
reeds and made of mud. The rooms are very large, with great courts, and 
behind the big houses there are fruit or vegetable gardens, for the soil is very 
fertile. The inhabitants live very comfortably, and have an abundance of 
everything, with the exception of wine, which is dear. But one can have 
partridges for a penny each. 

oAll those who are at all well off are served by negroes and Indians, who 
are all slaves. Ihey are employed eitlier in the houses of their masters, or on 
their land. 

»The principal riches consist of cattle which multiply marvellously, and 
whose hides sell well. It was thus, that on our arrival, we saw 22 Dutch 
boats with a cargo of 18 or 14 million bull hides, each of a value of £ 33,000; 
these hides which cost them on an average five shillings are sold in Europe 
at 25 shillings and more. 

)>The <'eslancieros') (agrarian proprietors) are very rich, but those who are 
best off, are the men who sell merchandise to the Europeans. Many of these 
have fortunes of more than £ 60,000. One can estimate that the number of 
persons who arc allowed to carry arms (the slaves are not of that number) 
amounts with the garrison to ()00 men, who assemble on horse-back three 
times a year before the people on fete days. 

oAmong the militia, there ai'e many married men, who do not like 
fighting, but are for the most part addicted to pleasme. It is quite true to 
say that the women of Buenos Aires are generally very beautiful, with 
good figures, and have a good complexion. But they are jealous, ready to 
murder faithless husbands by poison or the dagger. 
»The women are more numerous than the men. 

»The bishop's diocese comprises Buenos Aires and Santa Fe. Eight or 
ten priests officiate in the Cathedral, also built of mud. The Inquisition is in 
force. There are members of all religious orders. There is also an almshouse for 
the poor people, but the country is so rich that this is little used, for po- 
verty hardly exists*. 

From the middle of the 17th. century, the buildings of the town began 
to be altered. They began to use the limestone from C6rdoba and also burnt 
bricks, as at present. The first brick-kiln used in Buenos Aires made bricks 
for the construction of the cathedral; but either they were of a poor quality, 
or the builders had need of experience, for the edifice fell and they were 
obliged to recommence it. 

In 1730, according to a letter of the Jesuit Cattaneo, Buenos Aires had 
become a town of 16,000 inhabitants, among whom 4 or 5 thousand were 
Spanish, The rest of the population was composed of slaves from Africa. 
The houses, built on the ground, were formed of four walls, they had only 
one window, sometimes none, getting the daylight from the door. But at 
this time the art of making burnt bricks was already introduced, and, in 1730, 
there were about 70 furnaces. 

The real originator of bricks was one Fernando Alvarez Toxero who, in 
1608, obtained from the Cabildo the necessary authorisation for this kind of 
industry. 

In 1778, there arrived from Spain, as governor of the colony, Jean .Jo- 
seph of Vertiz, who had already governed the colony before. 

It is to him that we owe the foundation of tlu? college San Carlos and the 
house for waifs. He began the lighting of the town, established the first 
printing-office, and metalled the roads. The traffic increased considerably 
and there was much commerce with the interior. The very hea\'y vehicles 
which passed between Buenos Aires and the interior, very often stuck 
in the mud oft hes treets and remained there in this position for whole 
days. It had become necessary to remedy this state of things; so much the 



Buenos Aires CAPITAL 147 

more as tlie town was in a slate of disorder whicli left nuich to be desired. 
In spile of the opposition of the Cabildo, who considered this state of things 
as good for the public health, altiiough epidemics had been very numerous 
at this time owing to the unhygienic condition of the town, Vertiz had his 
way and began the cleansing of the town and paved the central roads. 

The town thus was rejuvenated and beautified during the reign of this 
viceroy. 

In 1806, the Marquis of Sobremontc governed it, and his nomination was 
more due to court intrigue than to any personal merits. At this epoch the 
town possessed a very badly lighted theatre where the artistes of the country 
for the most part played Spanish pieces, but there were no great actors. They 
also had a bull ring, first in the Plaza IJelgrano, then at the Retiro. 

When the English fleet which came to attack the town was seen, the go- 
vernor was at the theatre with his family; he could find nothing better to 
do than to fly to C6rdoba where his friends were, for he had been gover- 
nor of that province. 

On June 26th., 1806, the linglish fleet anchored near Quilmes, and, 
after overcoming a faint resistance, entered the fortress of Buenos Aires 
almost without striking a blow. 

But Pueyrredon and Liniers, one at Montevideo and the other at San 
Isidro, organised a resistance, Pueyrred6n was beaten at Perdriel, because 
he had not finished his preparations. Liniers disembarked at San Fernando 
and joined Pueyrredon's expedition^ 

On August 12th., after heroic efforts, Liniers and Pueyrred6n assisted 
by a well drilled crowd of the inhabitants were able to recapture the for- 
tress from the English. 

But the following year, the English returned with a force of 11,000. The 
town had not more than 8,500 men and 100 cdnnons to send against them. In 
spite of all their elTorts the English were again beaten and their general was 
made prisoner. 

The English newspapers thus explained the defeat: «It is more than evi- 
dent that a populace such as that of Buenos Aires, animated by its first 
successes and by its nalicmal hatred, has been able to resist a surprise attack. 
Each house was a fortress and each street a barricade. A people of this sort 
must be invincible. It is quite dilTerent to attack a man in his own house and 
try and assault a fortress. When there is valour among men, it is in such cases 
that it should be shown). 

The invaders Ijaving been vanquished, they were obliged to come to 
terms, and to promise to give up the Rio de la Plata and to give up the town 
of Montevideo which they had taken. 

On account of these feats, Buenos Aires received from the Spanish king 
the title of Excellency, the members of the Cabildo that of Senoria, and Li- 
niers was named interim Vice-Roy. 

The municipal council which had so distinguished itself in the defence, 
crowned the triumph by various liberal philanthropic acts, among others the 
liberation of some of tlie slaves. 

The revolution of May 251 h., 1810, is the culminating event in the com- 
mencement of the XIX century for Argentina. 

The various victories achieved by the patriots in the course of the revo- 
lution were celebrated in the Capital by public rejoicings. Then came later 
Jean Manuel Rozas, of whom history cannot speak except to condemn. 

The general history of the Argentine Republic tells at length that of the 
tyrant and his fall. 

From that time by means of a Liberal constitution, the country has 
developed and Buenos Aires above all has been at the head of the progress. 

At the fall of Rozas, in 1852, Buenos Aires had 76.000 inhabitants, and 
a few years later, in 18!il had already 140,000; it followed up the increase 
with 401,000 in 1887, and 800,000, in 1900. At present (January 1st., 
1913), the town has 1.42S,0 12 inhabitants, and has taken its place among the 
great cities of the world. 



148 CAPITAL Domestic 



Douicstle Architecture. 

Its successive forms in Buenos Aires from the beginning to the present time, 
by Dominique Faustino Sarmiento. 

It is a long history that we have to recount. We will neither invent nor 
suppress anything. Each page of this history marks a progress, an epoch, a 
change of inhabitants, of occupations, of industries. 

Prologue: It is about 6 or 10 thousand years since the first human habi- 
tation was constructed in Buenos Aires, architecture truly of rather a rustic 
order, for the Doric and Ionic orders had not then been introduced into the 
country. This primitive architecture still exists, not in the suburbs of Bue- 
nos Aires, but at San Fernando, where the curious can study the transfor- 
mation of the tent of aforetime into an isolated hut, square, two metres high, 
with a thatched a roof of straw and «quinchoi> (quichua is the technical word 
for a wall), transformed in its turn into a house a little higher, with a small 
corridor, made of mud, which gave place to the house with French tiled roof, 
because the house has not a flat roof. 

This architecture has descended from the Indians, and is already an im- 
provement on the movable tent of the first inhabitants. After the conquest" 
the Indians planted their tents around the towns, and they then took the 
form of huts, where a whole family ate lived, and slept. 

The Romans were not much more advanced as to domestic comfort; 
their bedrooms, without other apartments, had, as one can see from the 
ruins, scarcely the necessary space in which to place a bed. 

They lived in the road, on the Forum, in the public baths, in the comitia 
in the theatre, in the circus, in the encampments. The slaves worked in order 
that these red, warlike and political ants might enjoy family life and meet 
one another out of doors. 

Birds and insects a few manunals and even fish, build habitations to live 
in, which shows a rudiment of intelligence and also a primitive idea of art. 
By the diversity of forms, one can see that each kind invented his own special 
architecture. 

Our maker of burnt bricks, our sympathetic companion and co-patriot 
made more progi-ess than the Indians ancestor, he also found a screen to 
oppose to the direct currents of air and rain, if the wind blew in the direc- 
tion of the entrance to the house. 

But the animals have remained in the first stages that they reached or 
have kept the traditions of the family, while that which distinguishes the 
man from the animal is his power to modify the architectural forms. 

And, nevertheless, this is not so true as it seems. In an English town the 
swallows have introduced improvements in their building, and do not know 
of those which have been introduced in other places or otlier countries, 
while in the country surrounding this town, one still finds old nests of the 
ancient and traditional order. It is about a century ago that a talented swal- 
low, as they are all travellers, saw in a country that it was traversing some- 
thing which called its attention and which it put into practice on returning 
to its own home and which the others imitated. 

By way of compensation, the Arabs, who arc an historical people who 
have made war on all the ancient continents, ruined empires, transplanted 
civilisations, and founded religions, preserved the tent of Abraham, of Jacob 
and of Ishmael, their ancestors, and who have six thousand years of history 
if they aie those who invaded Egypt, and have not altered even the height, 
or the shape of the patriarchal tent. ^Nlan also has an instinct to construct 
a tent, and even a hut for himself, just as the 'hornero> makes his oven, 
which is a more decent, more hygienic, and more sheltered dwelling. The 
refore the most civilized of the Argentinians before the conquest were but 
ants. 

When man became civilised, after yeai'S and years of strife and war with 
other tribes, who travelled or who left their country or who dominated, plun- 
dered and pillaged him, it was naluial, that the form of the houses should 
linve changed, and that the number of roonis sliould luive increased and that 



Architecture CAPITAL 149 

there should have been a certain appearance which indicates whence the 
builders come The Ionic order was introduced in Greece from Asia Minor, 
whence our domestic architecture was also brought. 

liuenos Aires was founded by the Spanish, destroyed by the Indians and 
was rebuilt at once. 

The first hamlet was burnt by the Indians. It was of straw and tum- 
bled down by itself. 

This was the model of the straw huts. The. cathedral of to-day had its 
origin in a thatched roof. 

What form had the first houses? Of what material were they built? The 
reply seems easy, however one must think well before saying anything with 
certainty. 

The first houses were of mud (a sort of mortar mixed with straw) and of 
burnt bricks, with a frame-work in gables covered with red tiles. 

Here and there Ihese old houses still exist, but they are very few in num- 
ber. From the place occupied by the house of the Azcuenagas, which forms 
a cross, one sees that this must be very ancient and was once of great splen- 
dour in its time, belonging to some magnate of the conquest. 

A rare thing, a house with a gable is older than that with the fiat roof, 
which shows that the population was Biscayan at the beginning and that the 
Andalusian element only predominated later. 

The houses of Chili are generally of mud bricks and tiles and in the 
country of Cordoba, one meets similar ones. 

The people used to cover them with branches of red willow which furnish- 
ed support in a triangular form to bear the weight of the roof. Later the 
commerce with Paraguay gave them trunks of red palm-tree which went 
across the rooms, of 6 varas length (a vara is equal to 0*866 m.) 

For fiat roofs, one must make a hard mortar of argamasa (a mixture of 
earth and sand with water); from that and from the baking of tiles the idea 
of burning bricks must have come, while the use of the tile was abandoned; 
the tile manufacturers had to become brick manufacturers, becauce the 
fact that private houses were mostly built of raw bricks in Peru and Chili un- 
til 1840, although there were rich people there, and abundant rains fell, shows 
that building was done at the commencement with raw bricks and tiles. 

We do not despise the adobe huts which had noble ancestors and have 
been transmitted to us from the ancient peoples by two diflerent ways: 
the palace of Semiramis at Babylon, and the surroundings of the famous 
temple of Karnac in Fgypt, are of raw bricks. The tumuli and other primi- 
tive constructions of the Indians of Lima who mummify their corpses in a 
sitting position are also of raw bricks. 

The use of adobe came to us from the east through the Arabs, and from 
the west through the Peruvian Indians. The North Americans knew of it in 
California, and, far from despising it. like practical men, they have applied 
ti with success to rural architecture in the other States. 

Tllb: FLAT HOOF 

There were not any other towns in .\merica besides Buenos Aires and 
Montevideo with fiat roofs. 

Lima has no need of roofs becanse rain never falls in this town. It is 
enough to cover the timber-work with earth alone in order to prevent the 
air from entering. In Spain there are only Cadiz, .Malaga, and a few other 
towns which build liouses witli fiat roofs. 

These are the ancient Arab towns, and it was this race which brought the 
art of building from the b'.ast. AVhat I say to you nows saifl Jesus to his 
Apostles, ccall upon the roofs of the houses). The inhabitants in hot clima- 
tes passed the evening together on the roof to take the air, pick their neigh- 
bours to pieces, to learn the news of the day, that is to talk scandal, from 
which has come the gazette, and its reporters in the parlour of religious 
convents. 

Thus it was at any rate in Lima, Chili antl other places, until a time not 
long ago. This work is now done by the l*ress. 

When 1 Mrri\ed at Moiitexideo in 1815, this patriarchal assembly on the 
roof still existed. Sefioritas reatling novels or gossiping on that which was 



150 CAPITAL IJomesiic 

passing in the street, without disturbing themselves if a cannon ball from 
the besiegers troubled the peace of the besieged town; and we think that the 
gossips of Buenos Aires must have known much of the many things which 
they told and which passed from i-oof to roof, as to-day from newspaper to 
newspaper, about the balls and other trifling matters of the time of Rozas. 

XIX CENTURY 

In 1795 there were three chimneys in Buenos Aires. The English conquest 
of 1806-1807 introduced several, for until then thebrasero (oriental also) gave 
out the little heat reciuired. 

At the beginning of this century we may say that domestic aixhitecture 
took conventional forms. The house was of a single floor with a flat roof or 
anti-wall and windows giving on the street which gave light to the principal 
rooms, for it was there that one received and the beauties showed themselves 
to the passers-by. It is a trace of Spanish architecture which still exists to-day. 

The house has generally three courts; the first is the biggest, and the 
most luxurious according to the wealth of the owners. Lemon trees and jas- 
min which adoni our ancient courts are a remnant of the tradition, either 
Spanish or Arabic or Italian, which is shown in the house of Diomedes at 
Pompeii and is still to be seen in Seville. 

We have not so clever as we think, m the construction of houses, as we 
wish them to be. People do not wish to do anything but that which their 
forefathers did, until other people come to change the traditions. 

Towards the end of the 18th. century, that is to say the century of 
Louis XV, a house appeared, that of the vice-roy, with castellated roofs and 
arabesques crowning it in place of the parapet; an imitation of this can 
be found at the corner of Florida and of Rivadavia, but it did not find 
many imitators. 

Was it at this time that houses of more than one floor appeared? 

This grave question leaves me perplexed and I appeal to others more 
learned than myself. There is however in the Calle Cangallo to-day, num- 
bers 428 and 430, a house with a double roof, above the doors of which are 
two little rooms with a little window a vara above the lintel of the street 
door which is suposed to bea house of only one floor. In Calle Sarmiento 
number 428 there are two houses which without tiles on their roofs tower 
up boldly and are really houses with more than one story. What grand 
people their inhabitants must have been! In various parts of the town one 
sees some of these first attempts to rise above the soil. 

Rivadavia had the grille of the front windows kept in a line doing 
away with the base of the Tuscan columns of the doors from the roads. 

Opposite the confectionery of the Aquila, one can find the firs edifice 
of several floors with architectural pretensions, the admiration of the time 
of 1830. It is a beautiful building which has its copy at the corner of Pie- 
dad and of Esmeralda; at this time the architectural movement was stopped 
because there came (1): 

ROZAS 

Was there an architecture of the time of Rozas? During his long govern- 
ment the domestic architecture took determined styles, crystallised and 
stopped short. The whole cuadra of the Casa of Gobierno and Palermo 
repeated the same style of building, with flat roofs (azotea) and iron grille 
to crowTi it in place of a balustrade. All the town insensibly followed the 
order of the day: doors of a red colour, flat roofs and grilles. They no longer 
built houses of more than one floor and they did not vary the style of ar- 
chitecture. 

There were no architects but they had masons. It seemed as if they had 
decided on this form of the house. Without the extravagance of the pri- 
mitive thatch, or the hollow form of the nest of the hornero (2), the houses 

(1) All these buildings have been replaced by modem ones. 

(2) The (hornero) is a bird of S. America whith builds with-mud n nest 
in the form of an oven. 



h> 



^jm 




v« 



PRIZE AWARDED BY THE MUNICIPALITY 
TO THE BEST FRONTAGE, COMPETITION OF THE YEAR 1903 




I. Architect A. Christopherscn. — ^11. Architect Luis A. Broggi. — III. Ar- 
chitects Emilio Mitre and Gustavc Duparc. — IV. Architect A, Alfred Mas- 
sua. — V. Prize Frontage: Calle Lima 1(542 48, Architect luhvard Le :Mon- 
nier. — VI. Architect A. Christopherscn. — VII. Architect A. Christopherscn. — 
VIII. Architect Luis A. Broggi. 



PRIZE ACCORDED BY THE MUNICIPALITY 
FOR THE BEST FRONTAGE, COMPETITION 1904. 








I. Architect August Plou. — II. Architect-Engineer Marcelino Carranza. — 
III. Architect Charles Nordmann. — IV. Architect Julio Dormal. — V. Archi- 
tect Luis Olivari. — VI. Prize Frontage: Calle Arenales 733. Architect Julio 
Dormal. — VII. Architect Edward Le Monnier. 



PRIZE ACCORDED BY THE MUNICIPALITY 
FOR THE BEST FRONTAGE, COMPETITION 190G. 




I. Calle Maipu 523, Architect Louis Dubois. — II. Avenida de Mayo 901, 
Architect C. Schindler.— Ill, Calle Libertad 1394, Prize Frontage: Archi- 
tect Edward Le Donnier. — IV. Calle Cangallo 1802, Architect Luis Dubois. — 
v. Avenida de Mavo 1199, Arciiitect G. Agostini. 



PRIZE ACCORDED BY THE MUNICIPALITY 
FOR THE BEST FRONTAGE, COMPETITION OF 1907 




I. Calle Rodriguez Pena 1740/48, Architect Luis Dubois. — II. Calle Ro- 
driguez Pefia, 1874, Architect-Engineer Arthur Prins. — III. Corners of Char- 
cas and Parana. Architect-Engineer Arthur Prins. — IV. Calle Cuyo 1334, 
Architect-Engineers Lanus and Hary. — V. Calle Juncal 1662, Architects 
Prins and Ranzenhofer. — VI. Prize Frontage: Calle Montevideo 1576, Ar- 
chitect-Engineers Lanus and Ary. 



PRIZE ACCORDED BY THE MUNICIPALITY 
FOR THE BEST FRONTAGE, COMPETITION OF 1908. 




I. Corner of Callcs Vianionlc and Montevideo, Archileel-Engineer Ar- 
thur Prins. — II. Calle Esmeralda 1058/70, Prize Frontage: Architect Luis 
A. Broggi. — III. Calle Paraguay 11GC;40, Architect-Engineer Arthur Prins. — 
IV. Calle Arenales 1901, Architect Alfredo Olivari. -V. Calle Callao 920, 
Frontage awarded extraordinary prize: Architect Pietro .lulio Zaeschke. — 
VI. Corner of Calles Callao 370-94, and Corrientes 1802, .-Vrchitect August 
Plou. 




I. Government House North-East Frontage, Plaza de Mayo. — II. View 
of the Hotel de Ville, Avenida de Mayo.— III. View of the Bank of the 
Argentine Nation, Plaza de Mayo. — IV. Avenida de Mayo. — V. View of 
the Cathedral, Plaza de Mavo. 



ZOOLOGICAI. GARDF.XS IN BUENOS AIRES 



t 



rt.^lw'P, 




I. Parrot Cage.— II. Island for the nests of waterfowl.- HI. Station 
of the small railway, llamas and saddled camels. — IV. Pavillion of the Ze- 
bus. — V. Cage of American monkevs. 



SQUARES AND WALKS OF BUENOS AIRES 




I. Congress Square. — II. Park «3 de Febrero. — III. Colon Wal 
IV. Recoleta Walk. 



Architecture CAPITAL 151 

of Buenos Aires were llie same for poor and rich, with their fronts facing the 
street. 

This tyranny produced anoliier cfTect. No more houses were built. 
In 1827, 157 were built, and thus the town renewed little by little the old 
buildings until 1840, the year of tlic Terror, when only 32 were constructed. 
The house is built in man's mind for his repose and for the new family, as is 
the nest of the birds; and when existence is menaced, men cease to construct 
living places. 

I have shown before the relation which exists between the number of 
houses of the time of Rozas and the political severities and his persecutions. 

In 10 years very few houses were built. In 1818, a palace was being built 
that aroused the attention of the curious. General Pacheco. abandoned the 
architectural model with only a ground floor, and built a beautiful edifice 
of two stories. Any one v.ith foresight would have deduced from that the 
fall of the tyrant. Something was stirring in tiie minds of men because they 
were able to break away from the unifonn rale of the supreme edi'e. 

The revolution followed . The fa^-iuics were whittncd, and 1 hey began to 
paint the doors and windows green , but the old form continued. In 1853, 
500 new houses were built. The number augmented annually according to the 
people's confidence in the future, and as wealth increased. 

A few houses with more than one floor rose here and tliere. Old Halbac 
built one with three stories, but no one imitated it. Who would wish to 
mount so high? 

EPOCH OF MITRE 

The iinmigrntion. 

We cannot talk of the Renaissance, the time of Louis XIV or Louis XV, 
when we wish to indicate the change in the exterior styles of the houses. In 
Europe, the Renaissance, for example, made fashionable the Grecian and 
Roman orders of architecture to replace the Gothic form. 

Here, there were different causes which brought about the revolution. 
Immigration begam and increased year by year. The immigrant did not at 
once build his house to Vive in he brought with him other styles, other 
ideas of building, and, further, professional knowledge. The architect began 
to replace the mason; labour abounded, prosperity grew and the masons 
who were generally Italians, introduced medallions, mouldings, friezes and 
arabesques. 

In place of the iron grille, consecrated by use, they put balustrades of 
plaster and Roman Hay between the parapets, in groups or alternately. 

The town grew visibly, the erection of scaffolding for the houses in cons- 
truction, spoiled the view the whole lengtli of the streets, as at Buffalo, 
Chicago and other North-American towns; houses of two stories abounded 
and took each day more space in the cuadra. Decidedly the house with a fiat 
roof lost its popularity and began to be considered unworthy of a free peo- 
ple. We ha begun to cease to be horneros by showing for the first time the 
human faculty of varying tlie forms of habitation, for as we have already 
seen, the tent, the hut, the house with a flat roof are plastic forms of the 
savage, of Arabs, neither more nor less than the nest is the invariable nes 
of the /jorncro; foreign immigralion alone, the architect of other countries, 
the Italian mason were able to overtlirow the oriental tradition that 
Rozas appeared to have detiiiilely fixed. 

IM'OC.ll SAr..Mli:NT(^ 
Hiiral AreliKeetiire. 

Tiie architecture of the town grew affecting the most developed and 
varied forms, but until lately (he environs of Buenos Aires have not had an 
aesthetic appearance because there are no leafi trees, nor usable roads. 

'I'he tramway made its first appearance in 1S(V.» anil overcame the nuid 
;m(l long dislances. The country house then appeared; gardens were organi- 
sed and mulliplied, owing to and the sljnuiles of expansion of comfort 



152 (UVPITAL IJomedw 

and of country holidays, architectural talent was put forth to construct 
villas, <<quintas», country liouses, chalets, castles which one day would be 
shaded by fir trees, planes, eucalyptus, and every kind of tree and exotic 
ornamental bush; andas the architects and the artists were French, English, 
Italian, German, the suburbs of Buenos Aires sbrow with an infinite variety 
of taste and style, more than any other country has, because each has its 
special style. It has so happened, that left to their own devices, some de- 
signers have constructed edifices which are not known elsewhere and which 
by this lucky accident beautify the country. 

Thanks to this, the suburbs of Buenos Aires to-day present a gay aspect. 
Instead of the degradation of the sumptuous town house into a poor hut 
which itself changes into a cottage with a thatched roof such as is found 
in the surrounding country of all the American towns except ^Montevideo 
and Rio de Janeiro the north side of the town, leaving on one side Bclgra- 
no and its cupola, crossing the park between the tall chimneys of factories 
of limestone, of beer, of bricks, of running waters, is a panorama which 
Reveals to the wondering traveller country houses and villas of wealthy peo- 
ple, already shaded by great trees and surrounded by flower-beds and 
gai-dens. 

Even more aristocratic is the entrance to the town by San Jose de Flores 
by a macadamised road with tram rails and shaded by majestic exotic trees 
and palms and two rows of gardens, of villas and of palaces. 

The great Calle Barracas, wide and long, is paved with granite. This 
street is destined to be the boulevard which will be in the heart of Buenos 
Aires when the Riachuelo becomes the principal port. 

In the town itself at the same time a veritable revolution took place 
Half the town was constructed in the three yeai's which preceded the crisis, 
and the excess of building was lareely responsible for the crisis. Only Chi- 
cago grew in equal haste. 

Lightheartedners, and the idea that this progress would not have any 
end, and that the immigrants would veach the number of 70,000 a year, and 
would continue increasing in number, led to the building of the hotels, the 
sumptuous houses, the great shops, the depots, the theatres, the opera hou- 
ses, the coliseums, to welcome and receive the people who were coming 
to us. Then the architecture of three stories appeared, until we were no 
longer in America but in Europe, and it was not the crisis which stopped 
this, but a municipal order which forbade the building of walls any 
higher than the width of the road. The town thus resembled the peacock, 
who was told to to look at its feet so as to humiliate it. What streetsi The 
Hottentots did not know of any uglier. 

At this epoch the curb-roof appeared in the streets of Maipvi and Lavalle. 

But they were not imitated, they were before their time. 

EPOCH AVELLANEDA 

When the gossips of the year 2,000 talk from balcony to balcony at the 
four corners of each road they will he vmaware of the fact that this was done 
during the administration of one called Avellaneda, who introduced this 
form, typical of the future province of Buenos Aires. 

Rivadavia had the corners of the I'oads cut in order to facilitate the pas- 
sing of the vehicles which had to turn in the narrow roads. 

And, in this hberal country, governed by laws, it has taken 52 years to 
get the order obeyed; in 1879 there were already more than 40 corners cut. 

The embellishment of the corners by means of a bow-window will soon 
make everyone obey the order. 

Besides that, the domestic architecture which accompanied the jutting- 
out balcony is the efflorescence of domestic architecture. 

What city in Europe has in its private houses decorations of an equal 
beauty and luxury! 

How many Corinthian, Doric and Ionic columns; how many friezes, me- 
daUions, balustrades, mouldings of all tastesi 

('Co ne sont que festons, ce ne sont qu'astragales.* 

Only a certain street of (ienoa presents such palaces in a short distance. 
1 will mention the houses in Inml of San Juan lliat of luiinber 538 at the 



Architeclure CAPITAL loli 

corner of Victoria, tliat of 301 Calle Cangallo. These leave those vvhicli were 
built before far behind, how beautiful, ornate, and and bright they are! 
It the zenith of domestic architecture, it can rise no further. 

Another ambition will introduce other alterations in the composition 
of the houses, which will sometimes consist of two or three floors, with a flat 
roof and Roman courts above. 

The Scnoritas no longer spend the evening by the ornamental grilles of 
the window. The shop has replaced the saloon; the glass window of the dra- 
pers of the jewellers has succeeded the grille, the Spanish window. 

The first floor or the ground floor is used for business in the streets of 
Florida and Victoria and in all the parts of the town where there is any pro- 
bability of finding buyers. The necessities of display, the luxury and the 
comfort lavished on the bazaar which is the modern forum, demand space; 
the ancientho use, which had a facade of at the most six varas was done 
away with, enlarged, entirely changed, even at the cost of supporting with 
iron columns the ceilings of the higher floors, in order to do away with the 
walls which upheld them. The first "patio> (court) is used partially, if not 
wholly, as a shop, and serves to draw the attention of the passers-by to 
the depths of the saloon which contains the marvels of human industry. 
If one were to-day to draw up an iconographic plan of the houses on either 
side of the Calle Florida one could hardly discern the primitive plan of the 
edifices to-day devoted to retail business, and the sale of luxurious and 
elegant articles. 

In the new buildings, the patios, or at least the first one, disappeared, or 
were narrowed or concealed, like atrophied organs which have ceased to be 
useful for whole generations. 

One day the patio will disappear completely, vanquished by double 
buildings or swallowed up by the frame-work of attics v/hich will cover the 
whole building. Buenos Aires will then be transformed from the Roman 
Arabic, and Spanish town that it was, into a (irecian city as regards exter- 
nal appearance and into a lYench and conmiercial one as regards the inte- 
rior, and the aspect of the boulevards of 12 varas in width. 

Families will abandon the surroundings of the cathedral, the convents, 
the Cabildo and the place of arms, which formed, as in the whole of Ameri- 
ca, the centre where the concjuerors established themselves. The quarters of 
San ]\liguel. Cathedral, Sur and Norte, are occupied by banks, offices the 
exchange, fancy and drapery shops. The vehicles, the tramways, and the 
dray-carts which pass make draffic impossible leaving neither domestic re- 
pose nor silence, for the air is charged with miasma, noises, tumult, with 
shrill sounds, and sometimes blasphemies. 

London, Liverpool, New York have abandoned the old part of the town to 
business, to oil, to cod-fish, to sugars, to molasses; and their neighbourhood 
to bronzes, to fashions, to shop wintlow displays, to hotels, to restaurants 
and to cafes. Families who desire (|uiet have moved into the new (juarters, 
airy and silent, into large and shady streets. Buenos Aires will one day de- 
mand from C.allao and the streets which Rivadavia laid out, the Calle Larga 
and that of Santa Fe, space and air for existence, and one day it will also 
take its selfishness into both hands and resolve once for alf to open two 
or three great boulevards, to make an end of the colonist spirit that it still 
keeps, and of roads of scmcely 12 varas, and footpaths of one vara which 
were fixed by the Spanish for all the towns of Latin America. Life is entirely 
impossible for a great nmdern town, with drays in the middle of carriages, 
for well-being grows, and the time has arrived for it to change to the 
democracy of the tram-way, electric light, running water, W.C.'s; baths; and 
the movement under all these forms, also grows, because all those who come 
and go are people and merchandise of the living world and continually 
change like other living beings. 

Buenos Aires is to-clay a vast prison where a plethoric people is suffo- 
cated, unable either to walk, or to slretcli their arms, or breatlie, ])ccause 
if they try to, they find the path too narrow, and they will be run over, if 
they do not pay attention, when they wish to lake a good breath of air. 
Having to lead this life, makes women grow fat. 

The i)a\ing is llu- linishiii^i stroke of (lie narrt)W roads; the architect in 
vain places his ornnmenis at the top of the Provincial Bank. The statues 



154 CAPITAL Domestic Architecture 

which crowned it were taken down, because as one pertinent person main- 
tained thougli the statues were there, it was impossible to see them from 
the pathway. The horses perish or are invalided by thousands on this horrible 
paving invented by Louis XI to martyrise his nobles: after small pox, ty- 
phus, cholera, the yellow fever which decimated the population, the doctors 
discovered still another disease peculiar to Buenos Aires; the narrowness of 
the roads (I speak of the town), the difficulty of respiration, short sight or 
myopy because everything is nearly in direct.contact with the eye, an uneasy 
mind for fear of colliding with something or someone in front of oneself, or 
ot being run over by a vehicle, or even, for a lady, of being in contact with 
something impure. What a pity! The girls of Buenos Aires used to be known 
by the majestic elegance of their carriage by the grace of the aristocratic lines 
of the figure, by the alert step, as if they were dancing a minuet while walk- 
ing. To-day as they go down these strait tubes which are still called foot- 
paths, they walk slowly, their hands ready to defend themselves from obs- 
tacles, shut in between the ranks of the curious who look at them in passing. 

When shall we have the pavements 7 varas wide, like the two sides of 
the Broadway, where the fashionable people of New York show themselves? 
or from 10 to 12, like the boulevards of Paris, which leave space for the stran- 
ger who takes his coffee while watching the human flood which passes talk- 
ing, gesticulating, coming and going at its ease. 

One finds a remedy to this evil in Venice in levelling down the roofs in 
order to allow people to pass who cannot go by the canals. Several iron 
bridges of a single arc would join one «man?:ana» to another. We shall have 
<'Rialtos» and the bridge of -Los Suspiros». Why not? In Xew York they build 
railways in the streets on splendid iron columns. The wagons pass at the 
height of the first storey and the street below is used for carriages and work- 
ing people who struggle to go forwards, for the poor unhappy ones who 
have to drag a cart, or misery, always go in fear of their lives. 

Such is the physiognomy of Buenos Aires to-day. If one could only found 
an insurance company for horses! Each day there are more than twenty 
accidents in the streets, a horse with its hoofs in the air, its eyes bhnded by 
grief and agony, under the weight of a twenty cwt cart which crushes its 
lungs... 

A ruffian strikes it on the head and twenty curious people silently as ist 
at the spectacle. 

EPILOGUE 

W^e have seen that the architecture of Buenos Aires has obeyed the im- 
pulses aroused by the ideas of its inhabitants or the invasion of a new 
people. 

The tent of the savage was transformed into a hut, then into a house of 
mud and unbaked adobe, then came a house with tiles from the north of 
Spain and after that the Arab flat roof. 

The numbers 426-2S of Calle Cangallo began the houses of more than one 
storey: that of Florida in 1831, those of architectural form. Then came the 
tjTariny which fixed on the house with the flat roof surrounded by iron gril- 
les. A palace, in 184S proudly lifted its head against the despotism of the 
unalterable rule. 

The immigration increased and with it the architect appeared. The town 
doubled its number of floors, grew, and was beautified. The rural architec- 
ture was modernized by tramways and all the European tastes have their 
representatives. 

During the enthusiasm which preceded the crisis, the houses began to be 
built with three floors. But the municipality restrained this lyrism; the 
curb-roof remains stationary. 

They began to make cut corners, then the balcony appeared and the 
Grecian architecture was at its zenith. 



Modern Buildinrj ' OAPTTAL 15;*} 



3Ioderii Building at Biieuos Aires 

by the eiiyiiiccr^ Charles M. ^loralos. 

Only a few years ago all the houses had only a ground floor; hence 
the impression which strucic the ICuropean traveller on arriving at the 
Argentine capital was of a decapitated town, extending over vast space, and 
extremely flat. The impression still remains, for, except for the central part, 
a great majority of the houses are low. On the other hand, if the aspect of 
the town is hardly magnificent the houses are, considered separately, gay 
and hygienic, for, this is due to their low elevatioo. they are well lighted and 
airy. But of the beginning of 1880 houses of several stories commenced to be 
general, with a more convenient distribution than that adopted up to then, 
and, specially in these last years, an infinite number of buildings have been 
constructed, scattered over all the town, with very grand proportions, and, 
for the most part, of the Italian Renaissance style. 

Many among them have curb-roofs. The adoption of this kind of roofing 
which, without doubt, gives a certain grace and elegance to the buildings, 
has taken place more on account of purely aesthetle considerations than 
for technical reasons — for in our clime there never falls any snow. 

One can say that this custom has been introduced by French and Ger- 
man architects principally, who have tried to thus reproduce the type of 
modern buildings of Paris, Cologne, Berlin, Dresden and other towns of 
their countries. 

It is beyond doubt that, from an aesthetic point of view, the town of 
Buenos Aires has been beautified in a notable way. The ancient houses 
with only a ground floor, with the flat roof and the facade deprived of all 
ornamentation, have been replaced in the central part by beautiful edifices 
of one, two, or more stories, well distributed whose facades are generally 
very beautiful. 

Lately the style of the epochs of Louis XIII and Louis XV and that of 
the so-called art nniweaii have been much used and abused. This last above 
all has been the origin in certain cases of buildings whose facades can be 
qualified as veritable extravagances, and in others owing to unskilful 
treatment, many bad mistakes have been made which it is to be hoped will 
speedily be done away with or modified. 

During these last years they have built several beautiful churches, such 
as the Chapel of Santa P'elicita, Avenida Montes de Oca, by the architect 
Ernest Bunge, the Church of the Piedad begun by the architect Nicolas 
Canale and finished by the architect .Jean A. Buschiazzo; the chapel of Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel, facing the plaza of that name, which is also designed 
by Jean A. Buschiazzo, and the chapel of the Holy Cross, architect Merry, 
at the corner of the Calles Urcjuiza and Estados Unidos. 

^In order to encourage the beautifying of the town, the municipal 
council has voted an order suggested by M. de la Carcova, by which the 
architect of the edifice which has the most beautiful facade is given a prize 
consisting of a gold medal and a diploma, and the proprietor is granted exo- 
neration from the payments of the tax of building. 

By means of this last recompense, one seeks to encourage the owners to 
employ an architect of recognised taste, in order that they may take part in 
the competition which, in accordance with the order, can accord to them 
this advantage. 

The prize is bestowed annually, and the Municipality place a bronze pla- 
que on the facade of the chosen house in order to make it known. 

Several years have passed since the voting of this order; the first (1903) 
was the house belonging to M. Barthelemy (iinocchio situated in the Calle 
Lima 1642/48. The architect was M. Edouard Le Monnier. 

This house although of modest proportions has a facade in the artistic 
modern French style. 

That same year a house in the Italian .style, built in Avenida Callao 1025 
by the architect Louis Broggi also was distinguished as meriting special con- 
sideration by the Jury. 



156 CAPITAL Tojjog. and Appearance 

In 100 I the prize \v;»s given to tlie palace of Mme. Madeleine Ortiz Ba- 
sualdo, situated in the Plaza San Martin, and overlooking the streets Are- 
nales, :Maipu and Basavilbaso. It was designed by the architect Jules Der- 
mal, who built other important edifices in the town, among others the Thea- 
tre of the Opera. 

The prize edifice in 1904 is of vast proportions, and it has a beautiful 
fagade which contributes to the gorgeous frame of the square opposite 
which it stands. 

In 1905 it was the facade of the building in the Calle Parera 119 (Louis 
Dubois was the architect) which obtained the prize; in 1906, the estate of 
the Calle Libertad 1391 (architect E. Le :Monnier); in 1907 the estate of the 
Calle Montevideo 1576 (architects Lanus and Hary); in 1908, the facade 
of the house in the Calle Esmeralda 1058-1070 (architect Louis A. Broggi). 
This vear on the demand of the Jury, another prize of the same class has been 
given for the facade of the estate of the Calle Callao 920 (architect Julio 
Jaeschke). 

All these buildings are beautifully constructed and contribute to the 
grandeur and embellishment of the town and to its transformation from a 
colonial town into a modern one. 

The Jury is composed of the following persons: Director General of the 
Department of Public Works of the Municipality, Director of the Bureau of 
Architecture of the said Department, a Delegate from the Faculty of the 
Exact Sciences, one from the Central Society of Architects, one fron the 
Society for Encouragement of the Fine-Arts, and one from the National 
Museum of Fine Arts. This Jury is presided over by the Municipal Surveyor. 
Fxom the photographs of buildings we give, one can see the progress that our 
town has made in building. And it does not stop there, for the visitor sees 
on all sides scaffoldings which, if they are not agreeable to the eye at the time, 
will be replaced soon by palaces or sumptuous dwelling places. 

Topography and General Appearance of Buenos Aires. 

Capital of the Republic. 

Buenos Aires, capital of the Argentine Republic is situated on the right 
bank of the Pdo de la Plata, which is at this spot 45 kilometres wide, and at 
34°, 36 minutes, 21 '4 seconds south latitude, and similarly at 58°, 21 mi- 
nutes, 33*3 seconds longitude west of Greenwich, and is 20 metres above 
sea-level. 

It stretches 200 kilometres to the west of Montevideo and 275 from the 
mouth of the Rio de la Plata in the Ocean. 

It has an area of 18,854 hectares, its greatest extent from North to South 
being 18 kilometres and from East to West 25 kilometres. 

The perimeter of the municipality is 62 h kilometres. 

Buenos Aires is, then, bv its area, one of the largest capitals in the world. 
It is larger than Paris (7,802 hectares); than Berlin (6,326 hectares); than 
Bordeaux (3,343); than Glasgow (2,442); than Edinburgh (2,376); than 
Hamburg (7,346); than Genoa (3,175) and than Vienna (5,540); but it is 
smaller than London (30,476); than Marseilles (22,336) and than New- 
York (76,347). 

In 1909 there were in Buenos Aires 111.135 houses, of which 104,747 
were built of brick, 4,526 of wood, 557 of iron and zinc, 218 of raw bricks 
and 1 ,087 without specification. 

These 111,135 houses contained 790,709 rooms. 

Of these houses, 91,257 had only a ground floor, 16,577 one storey, 2,547 
two stories, 599 three storeys, 146 four storeys, 92 five storeys, and 68 six 
storeys. 

As regards the population and its growth, few modern cities can be 
compared to it, unless they are the North-American towns. It suffices to 
say in order to be convinced of this, that in 1869 the town held 177,000 
inhabitants, and that 18 vears afterwards, in 1887, this figure had rea- 
ched 433,000, or an addition of 256,000 for that period; but the most 



of Buenos Aires OAPITAL loT 

imporlnnt progress is tluil ol' ISS? lo 1,S95, wlicn tiic popiiliilion incrtnscti 
by 2.*5(),()0(> iiilnibitanls in civilly cnrs. 'J'his extniorrlinfiry prof^ress lins conli- 
niiocl, since, in .Fanuarv 1*.)<)7, the popiilalion was 1,081,U0(» inhabitants and 
fuially has reached, .January 1st. l'.)i:5, 1,128,0 12. 

As to the composition of tlie population of Ikienos Aires, it is one of the 
most cosmopolitan centres which exist; it is, one can say, employing a simile, 
an oven into which are cast all the races of the earth. 

In 1909, date of the last census, in a population of 1 ,2.31,108 people, the 
number of foreigners amounted to 561,18.5 people of which 277,041 were 
Italians, 174,291 Spanish, 20,784 Uruguayens, 7,113 English and 2.5,751 
French. 

The principal streets of 30 metres width which Buenos Aires has are the 
following: — the Avenida de Mayo, opened to public service .July 9, 1894 (cost 
10 million pesos — £ 880,000) which goes from East to West in a length of 
1 i kilometres, bordered with splendid edifices, paved with asphalt and 
lighted with huge electric globes; those of Corrientes, San .Juan, Belgrano, 
Santa Fe, from the streets Entre Hios or (^allao towards the west. These 
avenues, still in formation, are destined in time to constitute veritable 
canals by which the traflic always crossing Buenos Aires will go. The Ave- 
nida Callao, which goes from North to .South, is similar to the preceding 
ones. 

Moreover the Municipal Surveyor with great foresight has, for se- 
veral years past, been enlarging the' streets Santa Fe, C6rdoba, Corrientes, 
Independencia and San Juan from the streets Entre Bios, Callao, towards 
the east, giving them a width which is proportioned to those of the avenues 
ordered by Bivadavia in 1822. 

In some of the streets, such as the C.alle Santa I-^e, the enlargement has 
already taken place in certain <manzanas», by means of considerable pe- 
cuniary sacrifices made by the Municipal Treasury. 

In others such as the Calle C6rdoba, the work is resclutely pursued, and 
it is hoped that results like those in Santa Fe will soon be obtained. 

It is beyond doubt that the opening of all these avenues, not only gives 
air and light to quarters of the town which are very densely populated, but 
it also will very rapidly change tiie topographical aspect by radically trans- 
forming the insulTicient plan made by the founder Garay. 

liesides these avenues the town possesses 97 parks, promenades, plazas 
with a total area of 10,727,448 square metres. Some of the recently construc- 
ted parks, such as the Centenary Park of 10 hectares, the West Park of 5"6 
hectares, the Olivera Park of 47"() hectares, are, as much by their extent as 
by their situation, beautiful public promenades which will make an orna- 
ment to the town of Buenos Aires, following in that the example of the most 
progressive modern metropoles. 

The Plaza de Mayo, in which the Palace of the Government, the Cathe- 
dral, the Municipal Management, the National Bank, and the Archbishop's 
Palace, are found, and out ofwhich the avenues diagonal to North and South 
besides the Avenida de ^layo lead, is one of the principal plazas in the town; 
it has English gardens, and plantations of planes which in summer give a 
delightful coolness. 

In the centre of this plaza, there is the monument commemorating the 
Argentine Independence, designed by the architects Gaetano Moretti and 
Luis Brizzolara. 

The Plaza del Congreso built in 1910 to commemorate the first centenary 
of the Bevolution de Mayo, is one of the most beautiful and largest open spa- 
ces of the capital. 

By its situation opposite the very modern Palace of Congress and at 
the end of the Avenida de Mayo, ancl by its extent (17,446 scjuare metres), 
as well as its monuments, statues and groups, and by its gardens, it is desti- 
ned to be the great plaza of Buenos Aires. 

In tlie centre of this plaza is the monument ordered by the Congress in 
commemoration of the BevoIuci6n de Mayo, from MM. Julien Lagau, sculp- 
tor, and Dr. Eugene dTIuicque. 

There is also on this plaza a statue to General Mariano Moreno. The 
great man is m a meditative attitude, and a condor stretches its wings 
overhim, a symbol of human thought. 



158 CAPITAL Tojiog. and Appearance 

There too is the great ccnlral station of the Metropolitan Tramway, 
whose first section connects the Plaza de Mayo with that of the Once de Sep- 
tiembre. 

Vs'c also have the Plaza General Lavalle with its beautiful gardens and 
the statue of the general of the same name, where the Palacio de .Justicia 
and the Teatro Colon are situated. The Plaza General San Martin (Calles Flo- 
rida and Cliarcas) is also worthy of attention on account of its gardens and 
the equestrian statue of General San ?Nlartin. On one of the sides of the plaza 
is the beautiful Argentine Pavilion, of iron and majolica, in which is installed 
the National Museum of Fine Arts. Tlie Promenade Alvear or Recoleta, which 
bears the name of the progi-essive surveyor who transformed the town, is 
one of the most beautiful ones. On this promenade is the magnificent monu- 
ment erected by the French residents in the Republic as atoken of goodwill. 

One must also mention the Parque 9 de Julio behind the Palace of the 
National Government and by the waterside, a very beautiful promenade 
planted with trees and ornamental bushes, on which remarkable statues 
and fountains are placed. The Pezama Park is a rendez vous during the hot 
weather. Finally the Parque 3 de Febrero, situated to the North East with 
an area of 367 hectares presented by the great statesman Sarmiento is the 
pride of Buenos Aires, and does not suITer in comparison with the Bois de 
Boulogne of Paris and Hyde Park in London or the Pincio of Rome. 

The streets of Buenos Aires are paved with wood or stone and often 
asphalt or bitumen. 

The sanitary works begun in 1871, on which have been spent without 
stint tens of millions of pesos, gold, and which still need 80 more million 
pesos, gold, (£ 6,000,000) before being completely finished, are destined to 
divert into the Rio de la Plata the produce of the sewers and to provide clean 
and abundant water for the inhabitants of the town. This service exercises 
a beneficial influence on the public health, since the principal consequence 
of its establishment has been to diminish the death rate generally and espe- 
ciallv those deaths caused bv infectious illnesses. Until recent vears the death 
rate was 28 0/00 (1890), wliile at present it is 15 0,00 (1912). 

For articles of consumption Buenos Aires has 34 markets, among which 
the ones known as the "Mercado Mode]o>, the <Abasto Proveedor», the cCiu- 
dad de Buenos Aires' (Calle Alsina 2390), are model establishments. 

All these markets as well as the butchers' shops of less importance, sold 
for consumption in 1912 the following articles: 137,629 oxen, 341,476 cows, 
261,162 calves, 87,267 pigs, 1,135,932 sheep, 3,361,337 fowls, 94,713 turkeys, 
geese, ducks, etc. 

The trade in imports and exports of the Republic, is done chiefly in 
the port of the capital. The total business for the Republic in 1912 was 
385 milUon pesos, gold (£ 77,000,000) in imports and 480 million pesos, 
gold, (£ 86,000,000) in exports; of this commerce, the share of Buenos 
Aires was 310 millions and 150 milhons of pesos, gold that is to sav 
£ 60,000,000 and £ 30,000,000 respectively. 

One can realise the many and important services that the municipal 
Administration has in its charge when one learns that the budget for the town 
reached nearly 46 miiUon pesos, paper, in 1913 (£ 4,048,000), without count- 
ing the budget of the police and the fire-brigade (about £ 1,560,000) and 
that of the Sanitarv works which are charged to the National Government. 

The town was lit in 1912 by 3,187 electric lamps, 17,901 gas jets, 2,301 
alcohol and 3,971 petrol lamps. 

The general aspect of Buenos Aires presents a fairly uniform physiogno- 
my, due to the drauglit of its plan and to the Spanish and Moorish style of 
its buildings. 

Nevertheless, in certain quarters of the centre, as in the Avenida de 
Mayo, the Avenida Quintana, the Avenida Alvear, the Calle Pueyrredon 
and others there is a modern elegant aspect, like that of the most advanced 
towns. The private edifices, the luxurious premises of the shops, the pave- 
ments of asphalt, give to Buenos Aires the cachet of the great metropolis. 

And if to that one adds the traffic in certain streets at certain times, such 
as the Calle Florida, the impression will be complete. 

What will be the ultimate aspect of Buenos Aires? It would be difficult 
to say, knowing the accelerated march of its progress and the inchnation 



Water supjf. and drain. CAP FT AT. 159 

of its architectural tastes. At this inoincnl, says a writer, to the f<jreigner 
who arrives at Buenos Aires, and goes through its streets, the town seems 
to be in process of construction; from the port, along the quays from which 
enormous buildings rise up heavilj-, vanguards of architectural giants, who in 
fifteen or twenty years at the most, will drive from the immense empty tracts 
of land, the webfooted birds that occupy them, and elevate on this vast ex- 
panse of ground, houses, towers, and chimneys, up to the most remote out- 
skirts of the town; up to the waste land which, on a day not far off, the hammer 
of the auctioneer will divide into lots and deliver up to the peaceful invasion 
of settlers, who will come to inliabit them; to the Soutii, which, although an 
unimportant district, has a flourishing population, which is building it up 
rapidly; to the West, which has converted itself into an immense chess- 
board, where buildings are being constructed on good, healthy and cheap 
land; to tlie slaughter houses, and the factories of the industrial towns; to 
the airy and gay houses of a European population; to the North, the chosen 
ground of the patricians and moneyed aristocrats; and in all directions, 
scaffolding intercepts the view and thorough-fares, and heavy carts laden 
with material for construction, iron girders, bricks, gravel and blocks of 
granite, roll along noisily over the streets of the town in construction. 

» Everybody builds, well or badly, modestly or sumptuously, cottages or 
palaces, and foundations are being excavated in the earth, walls rise up, the 
perspective of the open country recedes and is lost, the town spreads with 
feverish activity. In realitv neW buildings have been built from 1906-1912 
inclusive, to the value of 994.968,743 pesos, paper (Frcs. 2,188.931,2.35). 

»This refers to the periphery; in the centre, witliim the old urban radius, 
scaffolding no less demands its entanglement of wood; there one rebuilds, one 
transforms, one establishes, one lifts up houses like the trees in the virgin 
forest, which in their desire lor space reach up in the air to find perspec- 
tives and sun. The colonial town sees its ancient relics falling into ruins; on 
the venerable portico of masonry, under which one still seems to hear the 
great words of warriors, momumental pediments lift their curves: opening 
on to the andalusian court-yard, the ditTerent rooms of a modern house, are 
comfortably distributed, and the infinite diversity of the types, styles, adap- 
tations and extravagant caprices hide the last vestiges of the primitive ar- 
chitecture of Buenos Aires. 



Water supply and drainage. 



Two completely independent installations for the supply of water to 
Buenos Aires, exist at present, at a great distance one from the other. The 
two services have their intake from the River Plate, at a spot situated 
apposite Belgrano. The older of these services, dates from 1873 and is below 
the Recoleta. The other, which had not yet been inaugurated when this 
edition was published, is situated on the sfde of the Park (3 de Febrero* in 
front of Belgrano, and is known by the name of 'Vivero>. For the first of 
these installations, the intake of water is nearly 830 metres from the shore of 
the river and at a depth of 4 metres at low tide. At this spot, a well has 
been constructed 2'438 metres in diameter at the bottom, and 2'667 metres 
at the top, with a depth of 8 metres under the river bed. Round the well 
is a tower of 10*42 metres to the level of the axis of the entrance-mouths, and 
which rises to 4*977 metres above the highest flood (Santa Rosa"). This tower 
has four openings in its sides for the entrance of water to the central well. 
For the whole construction, machine-made bricks have been used with con- 
crete and granite for the arris and cornices of the tower. 

For the conveyance of the water of the intake to the elevating pumps, an 
aqueduct has been built. This can be divided into two: — Tiie first corresponds 
to the part comprised between the intake of the water and the banks of the 
river. It comes from tlie bottom of the central well, and goes in a straight line 
under the river bed up to the spot where another well (Xo. 2) has been built 
also of concrete and machine-made bricks. 

The section of the aqueduct under the river, is circular; its diameter 
is 1*524 metres with a length of 1.626 metres. 

lUKDK.KKH.— 14 



160 CAPITAL Water supplj/ 

From the well on the rivtr l).-iiil<, is ;i second aqueduct which conducts 
the water to I he well of the elcNaling pumps. This aqueduct is I,()8^» metres 
long and its seclion is elliptical. The large and small axis being H'OGS metres 
and 1 -524 metres respectively; in its course, there ai-e 10 wells which have been 
utilized in the construction, and now serve for cleansing purposes. 

The elevating machines which are situated in the north-west part of the 
estabhshment at the Recoleta, have the object of pumping the water from 
the aqueduct, to reservoirs where it remains until the sediment has settled 
down. There ai-e two of these machines, one is run by a vertical and the other 
by a horizontal motor, together working 12 pumps". The two can elevate in 
24 hours, — the horizontal one to a height of 15 metres, and the vertical one 
to a height of 14-50 metres. — 172,000 cubic metres. 

The first is of 156 H. P. and the second 236 H. P. The w^ater is raised to 
a distributing chamber, and from there passes to the clarifying reservoirs. 
In each reservoir there are walls open at one end, but alternately, so 
that the water which enters one depot is obliged to pass through zig-zag, 
and does Lhe same in the 2nd. & 3rd. reservoirs. Those which actually 
exist, forms two independent groups, united bv threes, the water passes from 
there into the outlet chamber. The total capacity is 145,022 cubic metres. 
By means of this slow flow through the reservoirs, the water deposits a part 
of the fine matter it contains, and thus arrives less turbid at the filters. 

From the outlet-chamber of the clarifying reservoirs, the water passes 
to the filters, through canals and clarifying chambers. 

The filter beds are composed of successive layers of large slate stones and 
sand of different thicknesses, with a final laver of sand 0'90 metres in thick- 
ness. 

In the establishment at the Recoleta, there are at present 8 filters with 
a total area of 41,416-40 metres. Each one is divided into three sections which 
can work separately and thus allow of surface cleaning. The water filtered 
from 3 of the said filters, passes directly to 3 reservoirs constructed under 
them, wliich have a capacity of 50,184 cubic metres. That which comes, 
from the other five filters, can be conducted by means of canals and aque- 
ducts to these same reservoirs or to cisterns, from where it can be pumiced 
by forcing pumps, and to which the water of the reservoirs flows also by 
means of another aqueduct. 

The pumping machinery house is also situated in the establishment at 
the Recoleta, on the side facing the Alvear Avenue. 

The pipes that conduct the water from the pumps to the great depot, are 
five in number, and have the following dimensions: Three have 8-61 cubic 
metres (24") and two have 0*838 cubic metres (33") and one or more can be 
isolated, without interrupting the service. 

The distributing depot from which come the principal pipes, constituting 
the main arteries of the net-work of distribution that extends through the 
part of the town which it supplies, is situated on the site between the C.ordo- 
ba, Rio Bamba, Ayacucho and Viamonte streets. Its area is 6,368 square me- 
tres and is composed of 12 reservoirs of iron, placed in fours in superposed 
tiers, these are at a height from the ground of 11-71 metres, 17-03 metres and 
22-37 metres respectively. 

The total capacity, when full up to the normal height of 3-60 metres, in 
round numbers is 72,000 cubic metres. 

In each tier, of the four compartments, two receive the water pumped 
which passes to two other reservoirs where it goes through the principal ca- 
nals which supply the net-work of distribution. The first ones face Cordoba 
street, and. the second ones Viamonte street. 

The four compartments communicate with each other, so that one can 
be isolatedw ithout paralyzing the service. Arrangements also exist that per- 
mit the water to be sent directly to the outlet station, without passing 
through the entrance reservoirs, and also to the" main arteries without any 
intermediate station. 

The service for the supply of water that is being constructed, has its 
intake of water situated at a point of the river near the prolongation of the 
Avenue Ombiies in front of tlie building of the auxilliary pumps, one thou- 
sand metres from the river, in a canal, the depth of which is 5 metres at low 
water. 



(in<J (lidiiiiH/r CAPITAL 161 

In liiis cniKiI, in I'lonl oir.flf^nuio, llic inlako lower Ii;is I)ccn l)iiill. The 
Works (»r Uie ncwinluUc oT wnter consist of u liexaf^onal lower of hydraulic 
masonry llio foundations of which rest on hard soil at a level of 0-00 metres, 
and its roof is 2()*2(» melres above the normal level and 4*40 metres above 
the level of the highest known Mood. 

In the interior, the tower contains 3 superposed chambers. The inferior 
one of cylindrical shape, r«S() metres in diameter and 7"75 metres in height 
is the outlet chamber of water for the aciueduct of 3 metres in diameter. The 
lloor of this chamber is at a level of (CS.") melres. 

The second chamber, also cylindrical, and of the same diameter and 
7 metres high, is the inflow chamber of the water from the river. The 
inllow is elTected by means of (5 openings in the walls of the tower. 

l^ach one of these entrances is made by a conduit divided into 2 parts 
by an access chamber in U\p upper tier of the tower. 

The exterior chamber is about l'~r> metres long by 3'2() metres wide, and 
5'50 metres high below the arch, with a section of 5'10 sfjuare metres. 

An iron gtating with bars of ()-(l25 metres in diameter, and with a dis- 
tance of ()"0() metres between each, prevents the entrance of objects floating 
near the banks of the river. At the interior end an arrangement exists per- 
mitting of the closing of the conduit, by means of plank doors which shut 
oIT the inflow of the water from the river. The horizontal lloor of this part is 
at a level of 8'9U metres. 

The second part is I'OO metre long by I'oO metre wide and 1*65 metre 
high below the arch, with a section of 2*35 sq. metres. The floor of this se- 
cond part is also horizontal and is at a level of 8*80 metres. 

It is separated from the access chamber by a sluice which is worked from 
the upper tier of the tower, and by means of which the inflow of the water 
to the entrance chamber can be interrupted. 

By means of two sluices in the interior of the tower, one or several of the 
access chambers can be made dry, when an inspection or the repairing of the 
sluices is necessary. 

The upper chamber of the tower is peserved for the working of valves. It 
is of hexagonal shape, the circle being 'J'.oO metres in diameter. The height 
is 3*80 metres and it can be entered by an iron door, the threshold of which 
is at a level of 15"80 metres. 

A fixed iron ladder, placed on the outside of the tower, allow's one to sec 
the height of the water in the river. 

The capacity of the intlow entrances is calculated so that at normal flood 
3,085 litres of water penetrates through each of them per second, which 
gives a total of one million six hundred thousand cubic metres of water 
in 24 hours. 

The walls are built of hydraulic concrete with a granite facing, between 
the concrete and granite is a lining of compressed bricks. 

Tlic intake nquodiiet. 

After the intake tower, the water passes to the elevating pumphouse, 
situated on the river bank through a circular subterranean conduit of 
1,24.0 metres in length, and 3 melres in diameter. Of this total length, 1,000 
metres are under the river-bed. 

On leaving the tower, the upper part of the aqueduct is at a level of .')'G0 
metres, so that above remains a bed of hard ground 1"80 metres in depth. 
It would not have been wise to construct this aqueduct at a higher level, for 
fear of an irruption of water during the construction. 

The ac|ueduct continues with a slight incline, so as to pass at I'GO metre 
above the old aqueduct, and arrives at the wells of the elevating pumps, at 
a level of 7'00 melres in Ihe lower part. Iix this way, it is easy to empty the 
aqueduct at no matter what time, by means of a portable pump which can be 
jilaced, in the tower, and by closing the valves. This operation was impossi- 
ble with the old aqueduct, when it was finished, because the inhllralions 
were very considerable. 

With ordinary low water, the output of the aciueduct into the wells of 
the elevating pumps, is at 8 metres level — 1.000,000 cubic metres in 21 hours. 



162 CAPITAL Wafer supply 

a quantity ■which added to the 200,000 cubic metres, supplied hy the old 
aqueduct, is sulTicient to provide for all necessities. 

It is possible at no matter what moment, to increase the quantity of 
water supplied to the town, as it is relatively easy to install new pumps, and 
construct new filters and depots, according to the exigencies of consumption, 
whilst it would be very difficult and expensive to build a new intake tower 
and a new sub-fluvial aqueduct. The sewers can be visited at dilTerent parts 
of the town with the authority of the Commission (corner of Charcas & Ca- 
llao streets) but this visit may be simplified, if made to the Conductor of 
Cangallo & Talcahuano streets, to the syphon of the Riachuelo or the esta- 
bhshment of Puente Chico. The system of drainage adopted in Buenos Aires 
is that known as circular or dynamic, with canalisation. The dilTerent matter 
in the sewers, dirty water and rain water is emptied into the River Plate. 
The conditions of altitude of the town with reference to the spot chosen for 
the discharge of the large main sewer, does not allow this to be done by 
simple gravitation; therefore, in certain very low places, it is necessary to 
elevate the sewage by means of pumps so as' to conduct it by the sole force 
of gravity towards the outlet into the river. 

Owing to this circumstance and to the fact that the rainfalls in Buenos 
Aires, sometimes reach the enormous figure of 120 mm. per hour, it was nec- 
essary to separate the torrential rain from the drain waters these last mixed 
with a portion that correspond to the ordinary rains. 

This separation is made by means of regulating chambers that allov/ all 
the drain water and rain water to pass that do not exceed 1/4" per hour 
the surplus passes into the storm conduit. There are 23 of these chambers. 

In view of the above reasons the drainage service adopted may be divided 
into four classes: 1st. The house sewers. 2nd. The main sewers. 3rd. The 
intercepting sewers, and 4th. The sewers for torrential rains. The first ones 
receive the excrement, rain and du'ty water of each house and convey them 
to the main sewers. 

These last, besides the produce of the first ones, receive the rain water 
from the streets. 

The intercepting sew'ers receive the drainage of the preceeding ones, by 
means of regulating chambers which, as we have mentioned, regulate the 
passage of sewage and the water from ordinary rains; the surplus is conducted 
by the sewers of the fourth class, to the river by the shortest route. 

Among the sewers of the 3rd. class the one that has the greatest capacity 
deserves special mention. For the drain service, the town has been divided 
into districts more or less extensive, so as to obtain a regular service of 
work. 

At the lowest point of each district, there is a regulating chamber, where 
all the main net-work that is established, discharges its drains into the in- 
terceptors which constitute the ramifications of the principal artery known 
as the maximum drain or sewer. 

To make description easy, it may be divided into three sections: The 
1st. has its origin in the streets Centro America and Las Heras, and extends 
up to the Riachuelo de Barracas; the 2nd. from this point up to the establish- 
men of Puente Chico. The 3rd. from the latter up to the mouth or outlet in 
the River Plate. These two last sections constitute the principal conduit 
The first section crosses from the north to the south of the old limits of the 
Municipality, as it was before it was federalised; on its way it receives the 
secondary interceptors which conduct all the sewage as well as the waters 
of the ordinary rains. It is 8,354"28 metres long and is circular in form, with 
a diameter of 1*44 metre at its commencement and 2 "21 metres a little before 
crossing the Riachuelo. 

The secondary sections are of elliptical, oval, circular and other forms 
varying from 1'37 metre in height by 0'914 metre wide, up to 0*229 metre 
in the circular ones (pipes of the pumps of the wells 28 & 29), they present 
a total extension of 13,447'17 metres. 

In all the net-work of the intercepting sewers, the produce of drainage and 
of the ordinary rain water is drained away by gravitation. But note must 
be taken however, that owing to the altitude of some districts not allowing 
of this drainage by gravitation, pumps are resorted to, to elevate the waters 
of the sewers up to the said net work. 



and drainage CAPITAL 163 

The Riachuelo is crossed by the maim sewer, by a syphon composed 
in the horizontal part, under the river, of three elliptical cast iron tubes 
encased in concrete, which end in supporting arches provided with cham- 
bers where two vertical branches consisting of six cast iron tubes and other 
accessories have their outlet, so as to ensure a regular service. 

In the continuation of the great sewer, included between the southern ex- 
tremity of the syphon and the pumping station at Puente Chico, the drainage 
is also effected by gravitation. 

This continuation consists of a conduit of circular section, built with 
bricks and concrete of 2"057 metres in diameter, is 7,930 Unear metres in 
length. The extremity falls into a separation chamber, where scraps, residues 
and sweepings pass to 2 wells, in which machines elevate them to a height 
of 14 metres, to direct them by means of gravitation towards their outlet 
in the River. 

The pumping station at Puente Chico, contains 4 machines, two of which 
have a force of 438 H. P. and are capable of elevating 118,150 cubic metres 
in 24 hours. The other two, 125,000 cubic metres with 488 H. P. 

The last section of the conduit begins at about 1,200 metres from the 
Puente Chico establishment, where the 3 cast iron pump pipes of 1*067 me- 
tre, discharge. From this point, the conduit is constructed in the same way 
as in the former section excepting in its passage of the stream Gimenez, and 
in the stretch which separates the outlet from the top of the ravine. The first 
is crossed by 3 pipes of cast iron of 1"967 metre in diameter, supported on 
columns with corresponding accessories, and the last stretch also by 3 pipes 
which rest directly on the soil with the exception of about 500 metres 
which separate the side from the mouth, where they are placed, by means of 
a double dike on piles and other appropriate supports. 

The length of the last section is 15,225 metres, whicli makes the total 
length of the conduit up to its mouth, 23,155 metres. The conduit is conve- 
niently ventilated by means of chimneys placed at certain intervals. The 
net-work of the collectors of the 2nd, class extends through all the streets of 
the healthy districts; they receive rain water by means of openings, to the 
number of 6,059, placed on the pavements. These openings have interceptors 
for the gases, and they are joined to the collectors by means of canals, the 
diameter of which varies from 0*152 metres to 0*229 metres. 

The length of the collectors, which are constructed in masonry and con- 
crete is 70,144 meters, and their diameters vary from 0*686 m. X 0*887 m. 
and 1*524 m. X 1*981 m. 

The conduits of torrential water which they convey to the river, are nine 
in number, 5 of them being of a very large size. 

On account of the construction of the port, six that go in the direction 
from west to east, run into a large collector, which empties itself on the north- 
east side of the outer dike. 

This collector has a length of 3,792 metres and its section, which at its 
commencement is 6 metres in diameter, widens and forms 2 or 3 lines of 
conduits, each one with a section of 7*50 metres in diameter at the mouth. 

The house drains empty themselves into the collectors by means of an 
outer connection of 0'152 metres in diameter which are joined to the first 
ones by means of a siphon; the interior drains are therefore independent of 
the outer ones. 

A ventilation pipe comes from the exterior or outer connection, which is 
placed on the wall of the frontage, and serves to ventilate the net-work of 
outer sewers together with the mouths and pipes for ventilation already 
mentioned. The interior arrangement of the sewers is the most perfect system 
known up to the present. 

DISTRICT OF LA BOCA AND BARRACAS 

In this district the system of drainage differs from that of the other di- 
stricts already described. The conditions of altitude do not permit of the 
conduction by gravitation of the drain water to the principal collector, with 
the exception of a small zone, and besides, as this district is at as lower 
level than the highest Hoods of the River, it has not been possible to make 
the large collector receive the rain waters. 



164 (^APITAL Fori of 

The consequence is that there, the sewers only receive dirty water and 
excrement. The district is sub-divided into 17 sub-districts, in each one of 
which a net-work of collectors has been established, which receive the sew- 
age and conduct it by gravitation towards a well, situated very low, from 
where the pumps moved by hydraulic power, discharge it into the large 
collector. 

A station of hydraulic machines situated at the comer of Admiral Brown 
and the Paseo Colon, distributes the driving power to the dllTerent pumps of 
the wells. 

The man-holes of the net-work of the collectors have an apparatus under 
the grating, a kind of bucket, which without interrupting the ventilation, 
hinders rain water from passing. 

The number of sewer services existing up to the 31st. of December 1912, 
was 37,780. Besicles these works, there are others in course of execution, 
very important works, destined to supply with drinkable water and with 
sewers for house and factory water, and for rain water, the whole part of 
the territory of tiie Federal Capital, which is unprovided forto-day. 

^loreover, a series of supplementary works have the object of ampli- 
fying & ameliorating the service in the zone already supplied with sanitary 
works, taking into account the actual defective conditions and the future 
necessities that the increase of population in this zone will exact. 

The total area of the Capital is 19,018 hectares, 3,002 of which are 
provided with sanitary works. If 610 hectares, corresponding to the Park 
<'3 de Febrero* are deducted, it is seen that the remaining area to be 
supphed with these works, is reduced to 15,406 hectares, making a little 
more than five times that of the old radius, as the zone provided with the 
service, is called. 

In order to calculate the capacity of the works planned, a population 
of 6.000,000 inhabitants is taken as a basis for the whole capital. Taking 
into consideration the increase observed in the former census, it is calculated 
that this is the population that will exist in the year 1952. Of these 6.000,000 
of inhabitants, two will belong to the old radius, and four to the part where 
the futur works will be, so that in this last part* of the town, there will be 
a population of 260 inhabitants per hectare. 

The coefficients taken for calculating the supply of water are 300 litres 
of water per person daily, supposing the quantity consumed during the hour 
of greatest consumption to be one twelfth of the c[uantity consumed in 24 
hours. For the sewers, it is supposed that, of the 30() litres of water consumed 
in 24 hours, 250 are carried of during the same time but, admitting that, 
during certain hours of the day this quantity reaches double the ave- 
rage. These cocfTicients are greater than those obtained during last year, 
as during the days of the greatest consumption the average per person was 
295 litres of which 70 or 75 ^,o reached the sewers maldng 206 to 220 
litres. 

These works of extension planned by engineer Agustin Gonzalez, a 
Director General of the Sanitary works of the Nation, have been calculated 
to cost 323 millions of pesos, paper (28*424 millions £), but those in course 
of execution (Dec. 1912) amount to 158 millions of pesos, paper (13"904 mil- 
lions £). 

Port of the Capital. 

The port of Buenos Aires can be divided into two parts: 1st. the Riachue- 
lo,a naturalp ort formed by the river of the same name, which, by means of 
dredging allows ships drawing 18 feet. to enter. This port occupies the south 
part of the town, and stretches from east to west, owing the windings of the 
course of the river. 

On the north of the river are the wooden quays, and south of the river 
the Southern Railway has constructed part of the piers necessary for their 
traffic. This part of the port is a valuable auxilliary to the real port of the 
Capital, and one can calculate the traffic annually at 1.200,000 tons. 2nd. 
Tlie port of the Capital which occupies the east part of the town, and runs 
from North to Soutli. It is composed of the two Darsenas (liasins) North and 
South. Between these two basins aie the docks which are numbered from 1 



1 he Capihil CAITI'AJ. l(j."> 

to 4. The works of the port were coiiimencecl in 1886 and (inished in 1897 
and at present important extension works are being carried on at an esti- 
mated cost of 25,000,(M)0 pesos, gold (5,(H)(),()()0 H) as the former ones 
are not sufTiciently large for the trade of the port. The dimensions of the 
docks and basins are as follows: South Darsena; 930 metres long by 1(30 
wide; Dock 1, 570 X 1^0; Dock 2, 570 X !<'<>; I^ock 3, G90 -f 160; Dock 1, 
630 X 160. The Xortii Darsena is an irregular polygon in shape, and its 
area is 154,000 scjuare metres. The depth of the water at zero from the gauge 
is; in the Darsenas 21' and in the docks 23' 9". The depth of the entrance 
channels is as follows: That of the North, 21' and of the Soutii IS'. The area 
is as follows: South Darsena 112,600 s(iuare metres; Dock 1, 91,200 s. m.; 
Dock 2, 91,200 s. m.; Dock 3, 110,100 s. m.; Dock 4, 100,800 s. m.; North 
Darsena, 1.54,000 s. m., making a total of 660,200 s. m. or 66 hectares of 
area for the port of the Capital. This port has 37 buildings of which 33 
are warehouses and 4, sheds; 11 of these warehouses are built of iron and the 
22 others, as well as the sheds are of masonry. The warehouses have a fron- 
tage of 5,162*70 metres their gross capacity is 1,033,326 tons of which (juan- 
tity 175,825 tons can be put in the basements, and 857,501 tons on the 
ground and other lloors. The length of the quays that can be utilised for load- 
ing or discharging operations, is 16,000 metres. — Kntrance channels: The 
port has 2 entrance channels, one to the Hiachuelo, known as the South 
Channel, and the other to the North Darsena, known as the North Channel. 
The 1st. is 10,700 metres long and 18 deep. This channel has two curves of 
2,000 metres radius. The North lias a length of 9,800 metres; with a depth of 
21' and is connected with that of the South at 900 m.; both are buoyed. The 
port also has two careening docks, one 150 metres and the other 180 metres. 
The hydraulic machinery of the port consists of: a central power house with 

2 motors of 450 H. P. each, and a very small power house with a motor of 
125 H. P.; the one is situated in the Boca and the other on the west side of 
Dock 4. The hydraulic piping that furnishes the motive force of the port is 
10,100 long and its maxinumi diameter is of 0*15 cm. There are 191 hydraulic 
cranes of 1*5 and 30 tons. The number of the intakes of hydraulic current 
is 4(32. There exist besides 40 lifts of 1,500 kilograms each; 14 capstans of 
5 tons; 30 of 1 ton; 17 hydrants; 5 swing-bridges, 4 of 20 metres opening 
and one of 25; 5 pairs of sluice gates and a floating crane of 35 tons. 

Surrounding the port there are 110 km. of railway lines by which 60,122 
cargo waggons entered during 1911. The depot for the waggons is 15 
km. long. 

The number of yessels that entered and departed during the year 1911 
was 35,611 of which 4,431 were from beyond the seas, the remaining 31,180 
being coasting boats. 

Two large grain-elevators have also been constructed, one in Dock 2. 
and the other in Dock 3.; both belonging to private companies. These instal- 
lations were recjuired to meet the rapidly increasing exportation of grain. 
They tend to dinimisli the impediments to the regular traffic of the port at 
the time of harvest. 

The following account will give an idea of the effectiveness of these ele- 
vators: by day and by night from 3 to 400 waggons are unloaded in the port, 
and each elevator can alone handle four times as much in ten hours. 

Etich elevator has a capacity of 30,(tOO tons of cereals in the bulk, and 
the granaries 55,000 tons in sacks; one can say that about 800,000 sacks of 
cereals can be stored in the deposits; the grain can be shipped either in sacks 
or loose. 

By means of the elevators, work can be carried on in bad weather as the 
loading is done under cover. Besides the economy in time, the elevators 
have other advantages, they clean the grain and dry it, and thus it arrives 
at the foreign countries in good condition: they also classify the grain. 

Alongside the elevators is a large flour mill (The Mill of the River Plate) 
for the preparation of flour. The cost of this mill was 7 I million francs. The 
elevators are under obligation to disinfect the sacks before returning them 
to their place of origin. The total cost of the elevators is about 25,000,000 
francs. l-:ach one can load 20,(t00 tons per dav, and their total cap:»city is 
300,000 tons. 

The eJevalors are model installations, equipped according to latest in- 



166 CAPITAL , Natural History 

ventions, and the tourist will feel highly interested when visiting them. The 
harbour is lit with electricity. There are 874 lamps. They are at a distance 
0^30 metres from each other. The dry docks are two in number, perpendicu- 
lar to the northern wet dock. The western one is 150 metres in length and 
will contain boats of 132 metres poop length, and the eastern one 130 and 
162 metres respectively; the short axis is 20 metres, the same for both; the 
transverse is greater by 23 metres; the height from the top to the bottom 
is 11 metres. The declination is 3 '^o- 

Museums. 

Natural History Museum. 

This museum, which is situated in Calle Peru and Calle Alsina, is prac- 
tically shut to the public owing to the state of ruin and abandonment of the 
building. All efforts made during these lasty ears by the learned director of 
the museum, Professor Ameghino, in order to subsidise this establishment , 
which is a sign of the intellectual culture of the country, and arrange for a 
building which would be appropriate to hold the rich collections which it 
possesses, did not have any result owing to the indifference shown by the 
public authorities. The new director. Dr. Angel Gallardo, has also been ma- 
king efforts to this end. We should feel happy to see him succeed better 
then his predecessor. 

Notwithstanding, and only from tlie point of view of instruction, we con- 
sider it interesting to give some information concerning the historical origin 
of this establishment. The idea of founding a musevun of natural history 
can be found in the first days of independence of this country. The first law 
authorizing the establishment of an institution of this kind under the name 
of ?\luseo Publico de Buenos Aires, was promulgated by the General Consti- 
tutional Assembly in ^fay 27th., 1812. Notwithstanding this great idea was 
realized but eleven years later. All kinds of difficulties, easy to be foreseen 
if one considers the administrative difficulties of the epoch; the continuous 
fight against Spanish domination and the arduous task of organizing a nation 
which had been without autonomy for several hundred years, were opposed 
to the execution of the said law. Nevertheless, notwithstanding the apparent 
oblivion into which the idea of founding a museum had sunk, there is no 
doubt that its initiators were sticking to the intention which was to show to 
the world that the Argentine republic was aspiring to take a place, not only 
politically speaking but also from the point of view of intellectual progress, in 
the ranks of civiHsed nations. As soon as the government had its freedom 
of action, the eminent statesman Bernardino Rivadavia proceeded to the 
Installation of the public museum through the decree of December 31st., 
1823, and at the same time to that of a school of physical science, and ap- 
pointed Dr. Carta to manage these two institutions. 

Two years later, in April 1826, the separation of both establishments was 
decided upon and a certain Ferrari was appointed director of the museum. 
Up to that date nothing or very little had been done to give shape and vita- 
lity to the new institution. As soon as Ferrari was in possession of his post, 
he proceeded to the organization in accordance with the existing disposi- 
tions. He brought many natural products to the museum, as well as a col- 
lection of 786 samples of minerals which had been sent for the study of phy- 
sics; he exhibited also various animals of the country, especially numerous 
specimens of birds and mammals which he prepared himself. But the mu- 
seum, notwithstanding the efforts of several well intentioned men, made but 
little progress. The institution had not succeeded in calling forth the public 
interest which had been expected, and the most decisive proof of this lies in 
the fact that, during a period of 10 years, from 1828 till 1838 but 214 objects 
were presented to the museum, the number of givers being 52. This informa- 
tion is furnished by the list of donations without any other explanation, the 
names of givers being thus ignored. In this same list several trophies of the 
civil war are to be noted, which had been given by Rozas and to which 
the tyrant attached great importance. 

During the terrible period from 1842 to 1852 there are but 60 objects 



3lMseum CAPITAL 167 

mentioned, given by 8 persons, but there is no doubt that the establishment 
must have lost during this period of fighting many more objects then it 
received. But it seems also that the objects were not only lost through theft 
or other causes; they were so much injured that they were completely 
useless. There was no management to look after the interests of this unfor- 
tunate institute as it ought have done. Its downfall was complete, as can be 
judged from the description of a French writer ^Ir. de Brossard, who visited 
it in 1847: <'The museum is composed of a section for natural history, the 
objects of which are deteriorating though want of care; of a collection of 
medals covered with dust and of some objects given by General Bozas 
to which he was very attached because they had been presented to him 
during his government or had some connection with the same.» Two years 
after the downfall of the tyrant, several persons, friends of natural science, 
seeing the poor state of the museum, decided to protect it and to work for 
its progress, and formed a society. A governmental decree gave this idea a 
practical shape on May 6th., when the Association of Friends of Natural 
History of the I^a Plata was founded. 

iMom that time onwards a new and important era commenced for the 
museum. 

According to the rules of the association, the rector of the University 
was at the same time its president; the museum was thus in close connection 
with this teaching institute, being located in the same building. Soon it 
aroused general interest. A great number of private persons made gifts of 
more or less value for the collections, whilst the provincial government fur- 
nished the necessary funds in order to procure glass exhibition-cases. From 
1854 to 1856, 2,052 zoological objects were bought, 68 botanical objects, 
752 mineral samples, 562 coins and several other objects connected with 
archoeology and ethnography. During the same year the association had 
15,000 pesos, cash, for the upkeep of the museum. Through this the impor- 
tance of this society in the life of the institute can be seen, and, if it is but 
just to mention this here, it is equally just to mention one of its most ac- 
tive members, INIanuel B. Trelles, who worked with courage to regenerate 
the decayed institute, and by whom a very interesting account was written 
when he was secretary, as well as other information which is put down on 
the Buenos Aires statistic registers, and the publication of several catalo- 
gues. — At this time the naturalist Auguste Bravard was working within 
the walls of the museum, though only from time to time, employing his acti- 
vity in every sense, classifying paleonthologic specimens; but when he was 
called to Parana he was obliged to abandon the commenced task, in order 
to found a state museum in this city. 

As -we have already mentioned, the Association of Friends of Natural 
History of the La Plata, did not omit any effort to reorganize the museum, 
but its task was nearly exclusively limited to the gathering of new specimens 
in order to embellish the collections and beg passing naturalists to give a 
scientific determination to the specimens without making use of the library. 
Thus the museum had an excellent management, but it lacked scientific 
direction. Seven years passed like this and the it was felt that a compe- 
tent director was wanted. The governor of the province, Bartolome 
Mitre and its minister, Dominiciue Faustino Sarmiento, decided to offer the 
director-ship to the celebrated German naturalist Charles German Conrad 
Burmeister, professor of the Halle I'niversity, whose tours through Brazil 
and the Bio de la Plata had spread scientific knowledge concerning the fauna 
and the flora of these regions. Doctor Burmeister who had already once 
offered his services to the Argentine government, accepted the offer and 
landed on September 1st., 1861, in Buenos Aires. The political changes which 
had occurred at this time, prevented him from occupying his post immedia- 
tely. He was appointed and installed nine months later by ministerial 
decree, as general director of the <'Museo Publico> as the institute is called in 
the nomination decree. 

When the German professor look possession of his post, the museum was, 
notwithstanding the elTorts of the Friends of Natural History of the La Pla- 
ta, but a simple exhibition room of specimens and curiosities of Nature. 
The honor of transforming it into a scientific institute deserving this name 
belongs to Burmeister. The learned man was equal to his task and soon one 



168 CAPITAL yalnral II istori/ 

could perceive the results of his presence at the head of the museum. From 
the beginning all his elTorts were directed towards the increase of the collec- 
tions of the museum by the largest number possible of natural specimens, 
especially those representing the Argentine fauna, and he classified according 
to a scientific basis all collections. The precious ornithological and especially 
the paleozoological one, show the great activity of the learned naturalist. 
What the paleozoological section owes to him, would have been sufTicient 
to procure universal reputation. One can say that he has unveiled an en- 
tire animal world which had been buried during antediluvian periods, to the 
eyes of the visitors. The fossil animals which are reconstituted and exposed 
in the room of the museum belong mostly to the pampa formation of 
Argentina. It would be difficult to find one equally complete in European 
museums. One can say that it is a real scientific treasure which Burmcister 
gathered here. 

He did not only procure this brilliancy to the museum through the fine 
collections, but also through the numerous literary works which he wrote 
during long years of patient research and the publication of which has brought 
to our knowledge with peculiar accuracy a great portion of the animal po- 
pulation which exists in Argentina and the fossil forms of beings which lived 
at most ancient epochs where the Argentine lands extend now and vhich then 
covered, to a depth of several metres the vast ocean of the Pampa. Several 
of his works were published in foreign scientific reviews and its largest part 
was published in a review edited by the museum itself and founded by its 
director under the title «Anales del Museo Publico (later Xacional) de i3ue- 
nos Aires», during the years 1864-1869, about which time the first volume 
was published and soon followed by two others under the same title. In these 
three volumes the researches of Burmeister concerning the fossil world as 
already mentioned, are put down in accurate descriptions accompanied by 
drawings of a master's hand which will always remain of highest importance 
for paleozoological studies. In 1881 , after the district of the capital had been 
federalised, the museum came like many others which had been up to that 
time under provincial management, under national management, but Bur- 
meister naturally remained as director. The museum took the name of «Mu- 
seo Publico Xacional) from that period onwards. When Burmeister decided 
in 1892, at the age of 95 years, to retire from the service, there was no want 
of candidates to take up his post, as soon as his decision became known, 
but the venerable savant could not bear the idea that an establishment 
which had caused so much work to him could pass into the hands of a person 
who perhaps would not be capable, or who would not have the necessary 
will to continue the work as he had started it: he desired as a successor a man 
in whose science he had confidence and designated Dr. Charles Berg as his 
successor. This gentleman had been his assistant as inspector of the museum 
(from 1873 to 1876) and later professor of the University and College of Buenos 
Aires (1875 to 1890) and director of the National Museum of Natural Histo- 
ry of Montevideo (1890 to 1892). His efforts to this effect were crowned with 
success and Dr. Berg was appointed director of the museum in 1892. The pro- 
gress of the museum during the 30 years of the Burmeister direction were 
great; out of an insignificant cabinet of natural specimens and curiosities, 
he had made a real museum of natural history which, through its collections 
and its library, could place itself next to the foremost institutes of this kind; 
but the learned director made a serious mistake in not paying sufficient 
attention to the exhibition arrangements, because, for the public wlio visits 
the museum as well as for competent persons who go to make researches there, 
or study there, the perfect presentation of the specimens is an important 
point. It is true to say that at that time the indispensable basis for good 
arrangements and the exhibition of the collections was missing and is still 
now missing; this means a large building with numerous rooms of good 
arrangement and sufficient light, as well as large glass exhibition cases fit 
for the exhibition of all specimens. Dr. Burmeister lived so to say, but for 
science itself, and he considered the museum the property of science and 
not of the public. He thought that all those visitors coming for purposes 
of study, would be satisfied if they would find the material they were looking 
for, and that visitors coming out of curiosity were not to be considered; it 
was sufficient if they could see what one would let them see. 



Museiun CATITAJ. 1 OIJ 

When, during the. years of pomp and great enterprises of 1888 and 
1889 friends of tlie government advised the same to build a special edi- 
fice for the museum, pledging themselves to look after its realisation 
Hurmeister did not want to follow this advice in any shape or form; accor- 
ding to him the museum was well where it was and he said: "I would rather 
be buried alive in it, than leave it>. It is very unfortunate that the great 
learned man thought thus! Such a necessary building could have been built 
then easily! \Yhen will it be built now? And the five or six hundred thousand 
pesos which would have been the costs of a new building, would have pro- 
cured lo this institute a building allowing convenient e\hibiti<Mi of valuable 
collections and placed the museum thus at the height of the best establish- 
ments of its kind, whilst at the same time numerous millions disappeared 
without leaving any other trace but an increase of public debt. Burmeis- 
ter's successor found liimself with a legacy rather dilTicult to handle. Public 
and press, which, during all these years seemed not to know the serious 
wants of the museum, started criticising the establishment, finding fault with 
the insufTicient light, with its incommodity and poor state. If the first re- 
proach was just, the latter was a mistake; the museum owned very rich 
collections, but they were badly arranged and partly invisible to visitors 
most of them were hidden in cupboards without glass windows or in 
boxes. The new director, seeing the impossibility of obtaining a suita- 
ble special building for several years, took steps in order to obtain from 
the govern ment in the interior of the edifice those changes which he 
judged indispensable, and during the time they were made, the museum 
was shut. 

The changes consisted mainly in the enlargement and adornment of the 
vestibule, the dingy and sad aspect of which produced so unfavourable an 
impression upon the visitor. 'J'he old wooden staircase leading to the first 
floor and the ascent of which was nearly dangerous owing to its perpendi- 
cularity and worn-out steps, was replaced by a marble staircase of great 
comfort. The ancient square tiles partly broken and worn out, forming 
the floor of tiie rooms and galleries, were replaced by mosaics; the windows 
on Calle Alsina, in the neighbourhood of which the precious fossil skeletons 
were placed, and the details of which one could not see for want of light 
were changed in order to give more light lo the room. 

The ceilings and walls which looked gloomy were changed and painted. 

The secretary's room which containerl also part of the library, was fitted 
out with a wooden floor. A system of pipes for running water was installed 
as well as a sewage system which was wanting in the museum up to that 
date. Some other less important repairs were made, though all \ ery neces- 
sary. At the same time glass cases were bought, as well as otiier furniture 
of absolute necessity for the exhibition of specimens wiiich had been hidden 
up to that time from the eyes of the public and for several collections which 
Dr. Berg had decided to form. 

During this period of cluuiges and reforms, the director was busy with 
the scientific organization of the museum. Several objects had to be changed 
from their places in order to be placed differently, either because they could 
not be seen, or because they were in the wrong place. 

The task of classification, from a modern systematic point of view was 
much more difficult, and this task is even now far from being finished, as 
may easily be imagined. But all that has been done in this matter during 
the last three years, as well as the installation of the herpetological, ichthyo- 
ogical and biological collections, all of which are entirely new, suggest a 
brilliant future. When the nuiseum was r(>oi)encd to tiie public on Septem- 
ber 3()th., 1894, it looked entirely transformed, although the faults of want 
of space and light had been but partly changed, and will never be done away 
with entirelv. The then director was Dr. Anieghino, and to-day it is 
Dr. Angel Gallardo. 



17 CAPITAL JIuseum 



Museum of Fine Arts. 

National Fine Art Museum. — This museum which was 
situated, during the publication of the preceeding edition of 
this work, at 783 Calle Florida, is located to-day provisio- 
nally, because the final building is not yet built, in the rooms 
of the Argentine Pavilion, on the Plaza San Martin (corner 
of Calle Florida and Arenales) which had been used to 
exhibit the Argentine products during the Paris Universal 
Exhibition of 1889. Space is wanting for the installation 
of the museum, and the hall is not appropriate, all the pain- 
tings of the collections are not on view, and those exhibited 
are under bad conditions of light and location. Besides this, 
everything in the museum is of a provisional and transi- 
tory character, to such an extent that, when we had propo- 
sed to form a catalogue of those paintings exhibited, the 
director of the institute, Dr. Cupertino del Campo, persua- 
ded us not to undertake this work, because the positions of 
the paintings were often changed. 

Nevertheless, as simple information, we believe it better 
to make the origin of this museum known, and indicate the 
principal paintings which are to be seen in the different 
rooms. 

The first collections of this museum, have their origin 
in the gifts of 81 paintings made by Adrien E. Kossi and in 
the private donations of the following persons: Denis A. Al- 
dao, J. B. Ambrosetti, Ateneo, Auguste Ballerini, Felix F. 
Bernasconi, Santiago Calzadilla, Mariana T. de Cambaceres, 
Convent of San Francisco (Cordoba), Correa Morales Lucio, 
Aristobulo del Valle, Jules Dormal, Dorrego de Ortiz Ba- 
sualdo, Magdalena Angele L. de Gallardo, Joseph Leon y 
Angel, Joseph Prudence de Guerrico, Raphael Igarzabal, 
Candido Lopez, Dominique D. Martinto, Maurice Mayer, 
Charles Albert Mayol, Philippe Mayol, Sylla Monsegur, 
Emile Xouguier. Raphael Obligado, ignes Ortiz Basualdo 
de Pefia, M. de Rawson Paz, Pierre Roberts, Edouard et 
Nicolas Schiaffino, Valentine Seminario de Mendilaharzu, 
Edouard Sivori, Charles Vega Belgrano, Vidich Mattea; in 
the works of art belonging to the State which were pre- 
viously scattered in the public administrations; in the acqui- 
sition of forty pictures which formed the gallery of Dr. Aris- 
tobulo del Valle, with the help of an important aid from the 
National Congress, and in the purchases lately realized by 
the Direction of the Museum, thanks to an increase of the 
Governmental subvention due to the intervention of Dr. Os- 
valdo Magnasco. 

Subsequently, thiough the disposition of the will of its 



of Fine Arts CAPITAL 171 

proprietor, the rich collection belonging to Mr. Parnienio 
T. Pifiero has been added to the museum; this was descri- 
bed in the former edition of this Baedelcy and is reproduced 
in this. 

Afterwards, Mr. Angel Roverano, who gave us so many 
proofs of his disinterestedness and of his exquisite artistic 
taste, left an important collection of pictures, so as to form 
the «Sal6n Roverano». 

Finally, in 1912, Dr. Charles Madariaga and his wife 
Mme. Josephine Anchorena de Madariaga, decided to pre- 
sent the museum with a collection of paintings of extraordi- 
nary artistic merit, to form a new salon, «Salon General 
Madariaga», which was inaugurated on the 18tli. Novem- 
ber of the same year, in the presence of the President 
of the Nation, the high officials, and a numerous public. 
It is sufficient to read the names of the artists who 
painted these pictures, to get an idea of the importance of 
the gift. 

We will now describe the works of art in the Museum, 
without indicating the salons where they are found, as that 
is not possible, because of the later salons formed, and for 
the reasons W'hich we have already given before. 

On entering the Museum, one sees at first some statues, 
of which the majority are reproductions in plaster, of mas- 
terpieces, the originals of which are to be found in the 
principal European museums. For this reason we will name 
the chief ones. These are: <(Moise» (Moses) and «La Pitie», 
by Michael Angelo; «Mater Dolorosa», by Germain Pilon; 
«Venus de Milo»; «Jaguar and Hare», by Antoine Barye; 
«Mme. Elisabeth)), by Augustin Pajou; of which the originals 
are in the Louvre, at Paris. «The Lion and the Serpent*), by 
Anthony Barye; «LTgo]ino», by Carpeaux; «Artliur V», by 
Peter Vischer; «]Psyche», of which the original is in the Mu- 
seum at Naples; «The Fates», by Phydias (Parthenon); «Tlie 
kiss», is an original plaster from the Master, Rodin; «Tlie 
Earth and the Moon», in marble; a rough model by Rogelio 
Iturtia, presented to the committee for the monument of the 
Independence of Argentine, and entitled <(Tlie people of May 
on the Marcli»; «^Iariano Moreno» and «Meditation», by Caf 
ferata; «Military valour», by Jean Arduino; «Abel», by Lucio 
Correa Morales; <(Grief)), by Arthur Dresco; «The first funeral: 
Adam and Eve carrying the body of Abel>> a beautiful mar- 
ble sculpture by Louis Barrier, given by Mr. Roverano: 
etcetera, etc. 

Salon Parnienio T. Pifiero. — This salon is on the ground- 
floor of the Arj^entine Pavillion. 



172 CAPITAL Museum 

In this t^.illcry llicir ;ii(> no ol'l ]iiclui«s in the true sense of llio word. 
AM lielonfj; to conleniporm y nrl. 'J'iic spnnisti school i)re(loniinat('s; the 
best painters ol tlic XtXlii. ccntiny, -who lia\ e been the glory ol Spain 
figure in this salon. There are also paintings of mastei's of other nations. 

Among these latter, hgure: <The vote>, Michetti, this is an admirably 
painted picture of correct drawing and exact tone; «The Angel of Death», 
Morelli, the angel is fantastical, but there is reality and beauty in the land- 
scape; «As talile»by the genius Palizzi,a picture of delicate realism; «The after- 
noon* and« The arrival of the d.iligence» by the celebrated Gustave Dore; some 
horses by Rosa Bonheur; some seascapes and small heads by Demartino. 

Among the Spanish works the principal ones are «The interrupted proces- 
sion') by Fortuny; "A popular* festival by Goya, a sketch; «The head of a stu- 
dent*, painted with vigour and amplitude; <'The return from the races* a 
watercolour by l-'abres; and «The return o.f the boats*, by Sorolla, a mag- 
nificent work of surprising truthfulness and superior merit. 

Another notable work is <Thc milkmaid of Asturias*, by Casto Plasen- 
cia, one of the most perfectly finished, attractive and emotional works of 
plastic art, for fineness and delicacy of touch and nobleness of line. 

Pinazo figm'es with a seascape; Puig Roda with a watercolour; San- 
chez Perrier, with the sketch of a historical picture; Jose Villegas with the 
sketch of his great painting, <A baptism in Seville*; Martin Rico, with a 
pretty landscape, of Galicia, and a small painting of Venice; Moreno Carbo- 
nero, with a pretty «Workwoman*;Barbudo with the celebrated «Grandmama's 
birthday*; ^leifren with a seascape of Cardagnes, a very interesting port off 
the coast of Catalunia; Padilla with his <Carnival of Rome*, in 1880; Garcia 
Ramos with a type of Andalusian woman; Casado del Alisal, with a fantasy 
from the nude from Mignon; Unceta, with an episode of the African war; 
Alvarez Gomar, with an Andalusian landscape; Daniel Hernandez, with 
two pigeons; Ribera, with his well-known picture «The opera cloak-; Renedito 
with a Venetian seascape; Galofre, with a farm in Aragon; Cusachs, with a 
military scene; INIasriera, with a study from the nude and a head; Urgell, w ith 
a melancholy landscape of Catalunia; Rosales, a head; Gessa, with two paint- 
ings of fruit, truly admirable; Benlliure, with an oil painting and a water- 
colour; Rermudo, with an energetic study of a head; Gimenez I^ernandez, 
with two paintings of fowls; Mancini, with a splendid head; and other ar- 
tists hat it is impossible to enumerate. 

Salon Rovoraiio. — This salon is on the ground-floor to 
the left. .Over the entrance door the forcible painting of 
Francisco Domingo: «Manolas» has been placed. In the in- 
terior of this salon this Spanish painter is represented by 
many good canvases: «Muleteer and his ass>>, «The flock», 
«The wine taster*, «The black-smith». As one enters the 
salon, the eyes are attracted by the beautiful and impressive 
canvas of Francisco Pradilla, «Dona Juana la Loca», (Jane, 
the mad woman), a powerful work and profound study; 
from the same Spanish painter we still have «The Trouba- 
dour)) and his «Portrait of himself». Upiano Checo, a con- 
temporary Spaniard with a forcible picture of « Horses at the 
drinking-fountain»; Antonio Falves, also a Spaniard pre- 
sents us with a beautiful oriental scene, and Rusinol con- 
ducts us through his graceful «Camino de las Rosas* (The 
Rose-way). Benlliure (Joseph) figures with an «Arab en- 
campment)); and Fortuny Mariano, with «The mountebanks's 
children)); Rosa Bonheur occupies one of the first places 
with her paintings of animals: «A fox)), «A deer» and «A bull». 
Another painter of animals, the Italian Jean Segantini, 



of Fin- J/7.V (■Al'rrAI> 17:; 

(1857-1890), figures uitli«A <(>\\». I>i(l;iii. ( hr (•<l<lnii(<.'d [);iiu- 
ter of flowers, shows us two brilliantly coloured pictures, 
and Schonheyder Kn oiler gives us a curious eftect of the sun 
on the trees, Luis de Servi, an Italian, has painted beautiful 
bunches of grapes, and Antoine VoUon, a Frenchman, a 
cluster of pears. In still-life, we have the paintings of Bail 
Franck and D. Bergori. De Penne gives us a hunting scene. 
Landscape is represented by Jules Breton, Trouillebert, and 
Quignon. Alphonse de Xeuville, the rival of Detaille,is repre- 
sented bytwo military pictures, «The Clarion)) and «The short 
ladder», like other pictures of this kind, we have soldiers 
entering a village of Arms, and an «Ofticer of Xapoleon», 
by Henri Regnault, the great painter killed at Buzenval 
in 1871. Galofre and Fraser have Qach a seascape. «0n the 
shore» is a beautiful composition by the Dutchman Koeck- 
koek. In religious paintings w^e have a very good one of the 
^^panish school of the XVI Ith. century entitled «The holy 
Family)), a «Jesus crucified)) and lastly a «Descent from the 
Cross», by Agustin Ribot, exhibited in the Paris Exhibition 
of 1900. Other pictures: «Head of a woman)), Eugene Carriere; 
«The Ogre», Thomas Couture; «La Fete-Dieu)), by Domin- 
go Morelli; «Fillette)), Frederick Humbert; «Tlie dog's din- 
ner)), Henriette Bonner; «Tlie infant)) and a <(Young Orien- 
tal)), by Jeanne Romania; a «Head», Palmaroli; a <(Rider», 
Fernand Roybet; «The squalb), Alfred Stevens; «The depar- 
ture of the Templar», a very good canvas by Gustave Dore, 
a « Venice)) fresh and pleasing by the French painter Felix 
Ziom, w^lio died recently; lastly, a w'ork by an Argentine 
wliich may certainly be placed amongst the best paintings 
of our day, so exact is the design and so delicate the colour- 
ing: «E1 Pebetero)), by Emile Artigue. 

Salon General Madarlaga. — This salon is not complete, 
as part of the pictures are still in Paris, from where Dr. Car- 
los Madariaga will send them so as to complete the gift. 

The pictures of this gift, that are now in the Museum, are 
scattered in the different salons of the ground-floor. One 
may see a <( Visit of mourning)), by Louis Alvarez, a fine pic- 
ture with the expressions very well studied; two large de- 
corative panels from the French School, a «Woman with 
a fowl)) of fine expression by Manuel Barthold; a «Copper 
cleaner)), by Franc^ois Bonvin; <(The shepherd», by P. Bouche; 
two fine views of Paris, «La Place de la Concorde» and «Les 
Champs Elysees», by Victor Bougairolles; a most beautiful 
«Sketch)>, by Cabanel (Alexandre); «The woman at the mir- 
ror)), Henry Caro-Delvaillo; a new^ canvas by Paul Chabas, 
«0n the river)), a seascape by Champeaux and a landscape 
by Charpin Albert; the energetic brush of Upiano Checa 



174 CAPITAL Museum 

is recognised iu <(The arrival of the conqueror»; Coiibert 
Gustave, the sea painter, gives us one of his best seascapes; 
Ben j amine Constant is represented by one of his chief works, 
«The Empress Theodora» one of the most beautiful paintings 
in the Museum. «The church candle-seller)>, by Dagnan Bou- 
veret, is a fine study of a Breton woman; Leon Delachaux 
shows a canvas in brilliant colours «Home life». «The messen- 
ger of Satan» in vivid colours by Dinet Alphonse; another 
beautiful canvas in rustic taste is «The dinner in Brittany», 
the young peasants with their rosy cheeks have a stamp that 
recalls the sweet melancholy of the old Celtic province; this 
picture is by the painter Henry d'Estienne; «Horses at lib- 
erty» and «The Promenade^) are two magnificent paintings 
by A. de Dreux; «0n the terrace», by Dupuy; «Sarah the 
bather», is a good canvas of delicate tones by the master 
Fantin Latour; three natural and fine paintings are «Faithful 
Guardians». «The end of the day» and «Going to the slaught- 
er», by Leon Herrmann; «Tlie interior of the stable», Lam- 
bert (Eugene); «01d bridge, San Miriato, Florence» is a beau- 
tiful painting of «Beautiful Venice», by Franck Lamy; a 
small «Portrait of a girl)>, by Mdlle. Ledoux; «The tavern», 
by Lix; the great painter Marais has three fine canvases of 
animals; «Cows at pasture», «Cows at pasture in Xormandy» 
which are some of the best of the collection; Martel Eugene 
has two rough studies in <'01d peasant*) and «The Tavern»; 
the portrait of General Juan Madariaga, by L. C. Massot is 
a real work of art; a <(Xude» a trifle too light, by Rene Me- 
nard; «The death of Pizarro», is an energetic painting by 
Graciano Mendilaharzu; «The Guardian Angel», by Xava- 
rrete is a very beautiful work; the portraits of Garibaldi and 
of Victor Emmanuel II, also «The sheep» are very good paint- 
ings; «The Chariot)), by C. Quinton, is of a natural character 
which is without reproach; «The wood-cutter and his dog)) 
are marked with the strong character of Jean Rafaelli; the 
((Presentation of Jacob to Isaao), by Jose de Ribera is a very 
remarkable work; «Portrait)) of a gentleman in the time of 
the French Revolution, by Henry Riesener; «Still Life», 
by Philippe Rousseau; ((Arabian horsemen)) of clear colour- 
ing by Rousseau Henry; ((Charles V)), Barbudo Salvador 
Sanchez, is remarkably fine; ((The Evangelist)), by Scheefier, 
is expressive; ((Les interieurs»), by William Schuer; ((The offer- 
ing)), by Francois Tattegrain is a beautiful picture, the ex- 
pression of each face has been studied with care; ((The la- 
bourer*) and above all ((The dance» a large decorative panel, 
are canvases of great beauty, due to the brush of Albert 
Thomas; ((The fisherman)), by Trouillebert is of fine colour- 
ing; «The mistical wedding "of Saint Catherine)), by Geor- 
ges Vasari, is of the XlVth century, and one recognises 



of Fin- Artfi CAPITAL IT-j 

the brush of a great painter; the «Fiiiious bull» is extraordi- 
nary, by Eugene Verboeckhoben; F. de Villefroy presents 
a beautiful herd of oxen in the «Rue d'Allemagne a la Vil- 
lette» the precise hand of Vollon (Antoine) is recognised in 
two pictures, «Still Life», «Marching day» and «Ships in the 
port)) are two good pictures by Ferd. Willaert; lastly, two 
landscapes, one by Woe Wyld and the other by Ren6 M6 
nard are also of value. 

Marcel Dclon, French school, «Painlings «Sculptiirc». Glass cases painted 
by an eminent specialist; the elegant purity of the design, the luminous de- 
licacy of the colours produces the idea sought after by the author. — I.ouis 
Testelin, French school, 1615-1655, <Lutte entre des amours et des en- 
fants) gift of Adrien R. Rossi. — Alfred Paris, French school, "Across the 
Pampa-) (Expedition to the Rio Negro, under the command of General 
.Jules A, Roca). This painting was executed in Paris, to decorate the Argen- 
tine Pavillion at the Universal Exhibition of Paris, from studies done in the 
Argentine by a painter, who had made a close study of the Argentine soldier 
and his horse. This explains why, in an inexact and unnatural composition, 
there are some verv true details. — Giuseppe de Rubelli, Italian school, "Fish- 
erman's boat), at Venice 1884, gift of Dionisio A. Aldao. — T.ouis Poilieux- 
Sainte-Ange, French school, <-The wreck of the Jeanette> Gift from Sylla Mou- 
segur. This large canvas measures 4 metres in height by 5,2. It was in the 
salon of Paris, in 1884. The scene represents the moment when the Comman- 
dant Long, gathering up the American flag, salutes the remains of the ^Tean- 
nette-) and is about to start with the shipwrecked on the Odyssey which cost 
him as well as 19 of his companions their lives. A precise work; composition, 
attitudes and colouring good. — Eduardo Martino, Italian scliool, «Iron-clad 
Almirante Rrown». One of the best and most complete paintings of the inde- 
fatigable artist. A beautiful sky, an exact sea, which seems to bee ut out 
in hard onyx, the work of a virtuoso, but deprived of unity, it has the 
second title of «I Paggi del mare>. — Alfred Ph. Roll, French 1846, medal of 
honour, Paris, 1900, « Agricultures 1889. — Teniers (David), oThe old man», 
1582-1649, Flemish school, "The good news>, gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Rossi, 
Italian school, <AlTliction>, gift from Felix F. and .lean A. Rernasconi. An 
expressive composition, eloquent and simple. — Pierre Francois "The King* 
(old man), French school, 1771-1862, "Mountain landscape» (1797), gift 
from Joseph P. Guerrico.- 1-^Iemish school (XV III century) "Fruits "Flow- 
ers and vegetables'), gift from Adrien R. Rossi. — Ignacio Manzoni, Italian 
school 1838. "Still Life-), gift from Adrien R. Rossi. 

Arthur Dresco, 1875, <Bacchante>, Statue in plaster, gift of the Ateneo. 
Rronze medal. Splendid debut of a young Argentine scidptor. A work of 
Jesuit origin "Rust of a saint) (ruins of Misiones), gift of Maurice Mayer, in 
wood. Another of the same, gift of .Jean R. Ambrosetti. 

Plaster, Egyptian art (1500 years B. G.) "Head of (^)ueen Taias wife of 
Amanophis III, (XVI II dynasty). The original, discovered in the ruins of 
Karnak, is in the Museum of Bulak (Egypt), gift of Delphine I>. de Viglione. 
— Arthur Dresco, Argentine, 1875, a study in plaster, 1898, gift of the author. 
— ^.Achille de Dominicis, Italian school, "Roue d'irrigation» (Verone). — In- 
geborg Westfeldt, Swedish, "Sunsets This pastel shows a first class colour- 
ing and technic. With the powder of the wings of a butterfly resting on the 
paper, it produces the sensation of immensity and the suggestion of move- 
ment. — Hilaire Degas, 1834, French school, "Harlequin dances*. This is with- 
out doubt, the most modern work in liie museum, the illustrious master 
of the impressionists is well represented witli his audacious pastel. It is cha- 
racteristic of the spirit that Degas calls "intentionnistes he seeks the inten- 
tions of gesture and nothing else, his works, which at first sight, appear to 
be hardly sketched, represent great labour, talent and observation. The 
scene is one of the most expressive, and scarcely allows of the necessary 
detail, the logical detail given by the movement of the dance and the great 
distance that separates us, the spectators, from the scene. — Jane l^leonov 

HAKDBKF.R. — 1'i 



176 CAPITAL Museum 

Benhani Hay, English, study for the pictui-e «A Florentine procession carrying 
a series of objects for destruction of Vanity by fires ^V century, 1867. 
- — Adolphe Steinlein, Swiss, <The amateurs and «The lovers». — Bellange 
(Jean Louis Hippolyte), French school, 1800-1866, cThe sentinel*, gift of 
Eominique D. Martinto. — Piazetta (G. B.), 1683-1754), Italian school, 
(St. PhiUp, St. Peter, St. Andrew). — Bernardo Cellentano, Italian school 
1835-1860 (attribution), «The Virgin and the Child.).— Demetrius Galanis, 
grecian, «The toilette). — Gaston Prunier, French, «The cemetery of PlogofT) 
(Finisterrel, 1903, <'Raz Point* (Finisterre). — Jean Leon Palliere, French, 
1923 (at Buenos Aires from 1838 to 1870). (Young Creole boys examining a 
dead partridge». — Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida, Spanish school, silver medal, 
Paris salon 1895. -A sea dog». Head done by a master, for the firmness of 
drawing, brilliancy of execution and intensity of life; a strong water colour 
equal to an oil painting. — Eduardo Sivori, Argentine, 1847. «Chacra la Por- 
tena at ]Moreno», <Baths at Moreno*, two water colours full of delicacy, 
characteristic of the surroundings of Buenos Aires, of which the transparency 
is perfect.- — Augusto Ballerin, Argentine, 1857. vCcrro de la Piedra movedizat 
(Hill of moving stone) at Tandil, sunset; the same subject, efTect in gi'ey; 
«Panorama of the mountains at Tandil.). Three water colours which illustrate 
a picturesque part of the province of Buenos Aires, and which show at 
the same time, this phenomenon of statics which has given it fame 
and merit; the water colour that shows the sunset on the hill, is a 
master-piece; all three are very true.- — Paul Renouard, French, gold medal, 
Paris <'Rosita ^Mauri's class at the (^pera.). Paris. — Agujari (Tita), Italian 
school, «Paul and Virginia*, gift of E. SchiafTino. — Sancha, Spaniard, «The 
eldest sister». — Henri Vollet, French, silver medal, Paris 1897, <iMenuisier 
anatemites (crayon drawing). — Paul Renouard, French, gold medal 1889, 
Paris, <Dancer.) and <'Dancer seated at the pianoi. — Pierre Puvis de Chavan- 
nes (1824-1898), medal of honour, salon of 1882, Paris. <'Head of a woman». 
The first decorator of the XIX century, is represented in the Museum, by a 
drawing in red chalk, of the sweet profile of a woman, given to his pupil, 
Edouard Schiafiino, doner of the work. — Gavarni (Sulpice Chevalier), 
(1801-1866), French school, <'...au :\Iont-de-Piete'>. The great satirist, who has 
poured treasures of observation and wit into hundreds of pages, and 
genial vignettes, has traced with his accustomed vigour, the silhouette of 
an extenuated woman, who goes weeping towards the Bank of the poor. — 
Gustave Dore (1833-1882), «Allegory of Peace»^ original cartoon, that makes 
allusion to the treaty of limits in 1881 between Argentine and Chile, executed 
at the command of the Argentine Government, to serve as model for the 
allegorical coat-of-arms, carried out by the goldsmith Froment Maurice and 
presented to the Minister of the United States, General Thomas Osborne, 
amicable mediator in the international negotiation. This water colour was one 
of the last done by the celebrated illustrator of Dante and Milton, the 
improvisor of a personal style, and possessing a dramatic notion of light 
and shade to the highest degree. — Alland Osterlind, Swede, silver medal, 
Paris 1889, «Alonc». — Diogene :Maillart, French school 1840, grand prize at 
Rome, (Portrait of Jean Richepin*. Expressive portrait of the celebrated 
poet in his costume of magnate. — Joseph Chelmonski, Russian, (Night Guar- 
dian). — Charles L. Lcandre. French, silver medal 1900, «The muse of Honore 
Daumier., 1900, 

Javier Maggiolo, Argentine, 1875, cThe :\Iodel>, 1900. — J. Granie, (Head 
of a woman.. — Nicolo Barabino, Italian school, 1831-1891, (-Standing monk), 
study, variation of the picture ('Christopher Columbus before the Council of 
Salamanca*, «.Man standing (study). — Ernest Meissonnier (1815-1891), 
French school, grand medal of honour. Universal Exhibition of 1855, Paris. 
♦Ambulant tinkers*, this magnificent study was considered, at the auction 
of the sculptor F>ucheres in 1853, (as the principal drawing that the author 
had ever done.>, and the Director of the Museum referring to the individua- 
lity of the artist said: «The ambulant tinker* is the true workman in the tra- 
de; examining his face one sees the attention he lends to all he does, as well 
as the profound track of the life he leads*, this painting has all the conditions 
that made of Meissonnier the glorious follower of Ter Borch and Pieter de 
Hooch. — Claudio Lastra, Argentine, dshmael in the desert*, Florence, 1855. 
— Albert Aublet, French school (1851), «To the salon*. — Palleja (Jose Miguel), 



of "Fine Aris CAPITAL 177 

Iruguavnn (l.S()l-1887),*"Heacl of a woman*, crayon sketcli, gift of K. Scliiaf- 
fino, anotluT bv the same author, «A negro's head), gift of J-:duardo Sivori. 
Rousseau (Theodore), French school, 1812-18r)7, A mills "A woodcutter 
making a fire., gift of M. Vidich. — Paul Albert Besnard, I'rench school, 1849, 
«Apparition). - Pfo Collivadino, Argentine, «Head of a young giri.> (drawing). 
— Auguste Corelli, italian school. (.Roman landscape-, water colour. — Eliseo 
Meifren, Spaniard, 18.'J7, 3rd. medal, Iniversal J-:xhibition in Paris, 1889, 
♦Allegory of the Spanish-American war*, gift of E. SchiafTino. 

SCULPTURE IN WOOD. — Figure of Jesuit origin, "St. Ignatius* (Ruins 
of jNIisiones), gift of .Jean B. Ambrosetti. 

Italian school. (1700). — <Judith viclorieusc d'Holopherne,« gift of Ra- 
phael Igarzabal. — Collection of portraits of Ignacio Baz, acquired by law 
number 4747 of the 26th. September 1905. — Reproductions ol the ♦Bre- 
viarum Grimam^ 

(rraciano I\Iendi!aharzu, Argentine, 1857-1893, «History», original cartoon 
for the decoration of the Chamber of Deputies in La Plata. — Id., id., A'eri- 
tas». — Pierre de Ryng, Flemish school (1650), (attribution), -Fruit, I'lowers, 
Vegetables and accessoriess gift of Adrien f:. Rossi. — Miguel Gonzalez, 
series of 22 episodes on the ^Concjuest vi Mexico by Hernan Cortes in 1519- 
1521 >. Oil painting on canvas with incrustations of mother-of-pearl. Proba- 
ble work of a Mexican painter executed imder the Spanish dominion. In- 
genious composition, cleverly carried out, by means of decorative, rapid and 
expressive characters. Clever working in of the mother-of-pearl. The gestures 
of the combatants resemble of F:gyptian art. This interesting series of 
ornamental pictures was given by a private person to the old Natural 
History Museum at the time when Dr. Burmeister was director, but there 
are no documents, nor references about this subject. — "Vase of pale blue 
Sevres porcelane>>, decorated with the reproduction of the picture of Fran- 
cois Le Moyne (168.3-1737, French school), called <.Aurore et Cephalc>. This 
beautiful vase, made in the factory at Sevres, was presented to the Argentine 
government. It comes from the Presidency of the Republic. — (School of 
Nicolas Poussins F>ench school (1594-1665), <'The indignation of Moses at the 
adoration of the goklen calfs gift of Adrien !•:. Rossi — another cMoses erec- 
ting the bronze serpents — Decio Villares, Brasilian, «Allusion to the Brasil- 
lian-Argentine fraternity % gift of the President of the Republic, Lieutenant- 
General .lules A. Roca "(1900). 

Ignatius Manzoni (Italian, 1802-1888), «Romeo and Juliettes gift of Adrien 
E. Rossi. — .lane Eleonor Benham Hay, FInglish, «Study of drapery for the 
picture «A Florentine procession carrying a series of objects for the destruc- 
tion of Vanitvs bv fire, XV century (1867). — Ignatius Manzoni, Italian, 
cGluttonvs gift of Adrien i:. P.ossi; another "Abstinences — Italian school, 
XVIII ccnturv, "Massacre of the Innocentss gift of .Joseph P. de Guerrico. 
^John Philip (1S17-18()7), luiglish school, member of the l^oyal Academy, 
«Young boy shaving himselfs This remarkable picture of a youth is pain- 
ted with a verv uncommon dash and passion.- — V. de Pol. l)as-relicf in 
bronze, "Head of D. F. SarmientO).— l'>ank Myers Boggs, North American, 
«The Thames near Greenwichs Paris Salon, 1887, An artist's vision and 
the sobriety of a master; the London climate with its livid appearance, where 
white is yellow, and grey proves the presence of coal, is admirably characte- 
rised in "this picture of skilful uniformity. The movement of the water, 
rising at the passage of a tug, which drags after it many barges, is thown 
with marvellous precision. - Massino Tapparelli, marquis of Azeglio 
(1801-1866), Italian school, "The podesta of Padua going to meet Fra Gio- 
vanni of Vicenzas gift of Adrien K. Rossi. The remarkable writer and italian 
statesman, who had, besides, all the cfualities of a landscape painter, is repre- 
sented in the :\Iuseum by an historical episode, in which the personages paint- 
ed, in spite oft heir fame, do not hinder one from appreciating the real beauty 
of a magnificent landscape, wisely carried out, of which the vaporous sky 
harmonises well with the uneven and woody ground. -Juan de Arellana, 
Spanish sculptor, 1614-167(), (attribution), "Flower vases gift of Adrien E. 
Rossi. — Severo Rodriguez Etchart, Argentine, 18»»5, sStill lifes — Pueyrred6n 
(Prilidiano P.), 1823-1860, Argentine, ^Assassination of Don Manuel Vi- 
cente Mazas 1839, gift of P. Guerrico. — Gustave Courbet, French school. 



178 CAPITAL Museum, 

silver medal, Paris Salon, «Tempestuous Sea». — One of many sUulies made by 
the master for his celebrated canvas «The wave*. This picture belongs to the 
Rufmo Varela collection, and was given to llie Museum by Dominic D. Mar- 
tinto, As the title indicates, under a tempestuous sky, the raging sea shows 
its enormous waves, livid and foaming, which rise gradually to the horizon 
The tones of this painting are theatrical, and well in accordance with its 
dramatic character. One sees the technical energy of this great painter. — • 
Martin L. Boneo, Argentine, 1834, «Head of an old man>», study from nature. 
— School of Francisco Guardi, Italian school, 1712-1783, "Landscape with 
ruins), gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Georgio Belloni, Italian, «Noon>> (seascape) 
gift of Felix E. and Jean A. Bernasconi. — EmiHo Longoni, Italian, «The sick 
sheep). — Adrien Van Ostade, Dutch school, 1610-1685 (attribution), «Dispute 
in a ta vern», gift of Joseph F. de Guerrico. — French school, 1799. *Lot and his 
daughters-), gift of do. do. — Victorien Bastet, frcnch school, 1832, «The 
abandoned ono, 1886 (marble bust). 

Niccolo de I'Abbata (1512-1571), ItaUan school, «Adam and Eve turned 
out of Paradises gift of Raphael Igarzabal. Beautiful painting which has 
sulTered from the ravages of time, and those of a vandalic restoration which 
mutilated the arms of Adam and those of the Angel. The elegant and refi- 
ned nude of Eve, and the infantile expression of her face, are preserved and 
emerge from the invading shadows. — Ignatius INIanzioni (1802-1888), Italian 
school, «The drinkers, gift of Adrien E. Rossi. This jovial personage who 
appeal's to have escaped from a Flemish kermesse, is a sample of what Man- 
zioni can paint, on finding himself before nature he gave full rein to his 
temperament. This painting is vigorous, saturated with the good humour of 
the Dutch and Flemish masters of impeccable arrangement, in the familia- 
rity of his aspect; the general tone is exact, the relief energetic, and the whole 
picture animated and excellent; «Susanna and the old men». — School of 
Tiepolo L., Itahan school, 1693-1770, «The triumph of Religions gift of Jo- 
seph P. de Guerrico. — Raphael CoUin (1850), French school, grand prize. 
Universal Exhibition of 1889, Paris, <Floreal.» The master-piece of Collin 
wiU remain as one of the most beautiful of contemporary paintings. Executed 
entirely in the open air, this figure is spontaneously "born, armed with all 
perfections. The unity of conception, is admirable as well as the harmony of 
execution in the subject; the impeccable drawing of this work gives it a place 
in no matter what epoch, as a model of elegant precision; the most subtile 
variations of form hidden under the skin, places this canvas in a rank 
apart, amongst the successes of the greatest masters. Puvis de Chavannes, 
when he visited the Salon said to the present Director: <I have just seen 
the nude by Collin; it is more than a graceful form, it is grace itself). — 
School of Guido Reni, Italian school, 1675-1742, <The rape of Europas gift 
of Raphael Igarzabal. — .lules Xel-Dumouchel, French, «The baths number 
1776 (salon 1887, Paris), gilf of Alexandre Amespil. — Antonio ^Nlancini, Italian 
school, gift of the family Gallardo. «Pensives painting of an artist affected in 
his mind. An excessively violent composition which is not in accordance with 
the subject. A trait of melancholy as if near to death, strays over the look 
of the young girl, and clashes with the violent colours of the whole. — Anna 
Schler, German school, 1879, <Roman landscapes gift of Adrien E. Rossi. 
— Edouard Richter, ('^Monna Belcolore surprised by Frank.) Paris Salon 
1879, gift of Charles Albert :Mayo]. — Dramatic episode of «La coupe et les 
levress from Alfred de Musset. Captain Frank, disguised as a monk surprises 
the lover of Belcolore, finds her faithless and threatens to kill her. A theatri- 
cal work of clever technic and brilliant rhetoric. — F. Van Leemputten, 
Flemish school, oFowls and ducks in the yard), gift of Adrien E. Rossi.— 
James Ward, English school, 1789-1859, «terrierss gift of Adrien E. Rossi. 

Van der Veiver, Flemish school, <• Flock of sheep in the fields), gift of Adrien 
E. Rossi. — Palamedes Stevens, Dutch school, 1607-1638, <Cavalry combats 
gift of do. do. Benjamin Xetter (1811), «Sheep.>. This beautiful work, on a 
similar subject, differs singularly from that by Brissot; a less synthetical 
vision of nature, a more laborious composition, and technical treatment 
which seeks the polish of enamel, giving to this work an EngHsh aspect 
although the author was French and a pupil of Leon Cogniet. — Philip Roos 
(Rosa de Tivoh), German school, 1655-1705, (Landscape with people and 
animalss gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Julia Wernicke (I860), Argentine, «Bulls». 



of Fine Alls CAPITAL ITU 

Nobody would think that this beautiful study, solid and energetic, is the 
work of a woman; the appearance of the hair of the animals is very exact, 
but it is not the same with the back ground of the picture, which is negligent 
and conventional, the tones are worthy of a master. -Priiidiano P. Puey- 
rredon (1828-188U), Argentine, cLavanderas en el Bajo Belgrano' (Washer- 
women in the lower Belgrano), (1865), given by .luan Calzadilla. 'J'his fore- 
runner of Argentine painters sterilises his personal aptitudes in an inade- 
(fuate way, but his example and his premature action have not been in 
vain for the evolution of taste, which has developed and been accentuated 
since then. The composition of the subject, the characterisation of the 
women and animals and also the landscape, reveals the observer and the 
artist; on the otiier hand the execution is weak and the representation in- 
consistent. Anyhow, it is a local page which merits to be preserved. — Ch. Oli- 
vier de Benne, French, 1831, 2nd. grand prize in 1857, silver medal 1889, 
«\Vhoop for the wild boar». — Schgoer (F.), ICnglish school, «A hunt in the 
XVIII century, gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Jan Van Snellinks (died in 1692), 
Dutch school, ('Departure for the hunt with a hawk> (XVII century). A copy 
of a work executed in France, in a lordly park, during the reign of Louis XIV. 
In the fore ground an ethiopian slave, half-naked, proudly conducts a white 
mule, richly harnessed and laden with provisions; behind this group, is a 
magnificent stone fountain, crowned with a Triton after the style of Ber- 
nini; near by, is a servant defending his doublet against the attacks of the 
falconer, so absorbed is he, that he does not perceive the nobles descending 
from the steps from the Pavillion; in the shade at the foot of the steps, the 
palfrey of the host is pawing. An elegant composition full of grace and taste, 
smooth and polished like enamel. — Fvariste A. Luminals, French school, 
1819-1896. «A hunt in the IV century^ gift of Philip .Alayol. — Al- 
brecht Adam, German, 1782, AVounded General), 1903. — Felix S. Brissot de 
Warville (1818), French school, silver medal, Paris Salon, «The Hock), «Sheep 
in the fields), two first class works, which characterise the two styles of the 
author; Brissot and Jacque are the two first specialists in France in the paint- 
ing of sheep. The flock belongs to the first epoch of this painter, when he 
treated indiscriminately, all sorts of animals. The luminous and diaphanous 
sky is the best thing in the picture; the cSheep in the fields>, is a fine pro- 
duction of his second style and shows the supreme freedom acquired in the 
course of his work, by the eminent animal painter. — Maurice Hagemans, 
Belgian «The sheepiokF). — F. Van Leemputten, Flemish school, «Fowls in the 
fields», gift of Adrien F2. Rossi. 

l<>rnand Cormon, French school, 1845, «The conquerors of Salaminc). 
An original sketch, of the great picture ordered by the French government 
for the sum of 130,000 francs, which obtained the medal of honour in the 
Salon of 1887. The original of the pictiu-e may be seen at the Luxembourg 
Museum. This canvas measures I'll metres by 1'90 metres; it is executed in 
light and shade, with some white and sepia, and constitutes the most finished 
lesson of artistic perception. Not only does the composition develop defini- 
tely, but all the gestures and figures arc impeccable and decisive. At the epoch 
of improvisation, through which we are passing, the aesthetic conception of 
Cormon will make more than one person meditate. Cavaleri Lodovico, dnte- 
rior of the Basilic of St. Andrew, at Carrarc). — Reynaldo ( iiudicc, 1853, Argen- 
tine, «The dinner of the poor* (Venice), Paris Salon 1885, A natural subject, 
destitute of all poetry, sinular to the paintings of Pelez, the painter of misery- 
but without the painful melancholy of (leolTroy the painter of abandoned 
infancy. Pictures(iue arrangement, clever tcchnic, and superficial observa- 
tion. — Jeanne Rougier, <>The month of MarV'>. — F.dward A. Sain, French 
school (1830), <.Spinner.>.— Sir David Wilkie (1785-1811), English school, 
member of the Royal Academy. «C)kl man reading*, gift of Arist6bulo del 
Valle. Beautiful specimen of the most spiritual Juiglish painter; each touch 
is expressive and sure; the sobriety of the composition reveals a master of 
humour. It can be said that Sir David has been the Tenicrs of the english 
school. The great Delacroix when he visited London in 1825, recognised him 
as a real genius.- Francisco P. Michctti, Italian school, 1851, -Head of a 
young girl>.--G. F. Barberi (Guercino), Italian school (1591-1666), <Magda- 
Jena>, gift of Magdalene Dorrego de (). Basualilo. — Pio Collivadino, Argen- 
tine, «The hour of reposo (Rome, 1903), gold medal at the Universal Exhi- 



180 CAPITAL Museum 

bition of St. Louis (1904).— G. E. Hicks, English school, «Cinderella.> (on 
exhibition in London at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1883). A conventional 
painting, but in reality, well arranged; the execution reveals much spontanie- 
ty and the tones, the eye of the colourist. A little less sentimental affecta- 
tion and this work would have been first class. The arrangement of the hands 
and body is really delicious. — Ignatius Manzoni (1802-1888), Italian school, 
• A battles Manzoni, who, besides other delicious qualities as colourist and 
his vein of improvisation, was a clever imitator of the styles of others, is 
shown in this battle, the proceeds of Salvatore Rosa, and enlivens with a 
graphic theatrical passion, as is his custom, a whole multitude of warriors 
on horseback. This does not prevent the general effect from being excellent. 
— Gustave Michel, French school, 1851, medal of Honour 1890, Paris, «Blan- 
che», in clay; head of a beautiful woman, of pure features, the melancholy 
smile brings the enigmatical style of Leonardo to memory The firmness o'f 
construction, allied to the exquisite delicacy of type, reveals a great artist. 
Fernand Cormon, French, 1845, medal of Honour, Paris 1887. «Electri- 
city-), 1889. — .lules J. Lefebvre, French, 1836, medal of honour, Paris 1886, 
♦Architectures 1889. — Ignatius Manzoni, Italian school, 1888, '<The fa- 
mily», gift of Adrien E. Rossi, id. id. <-Youth and old age», id. id. — A. Delia 
Valle, «La vuelta del ]Malon>. — Ernest Charton, French school, 1876, <E1 Ve- 
lorioD (Chile, 1840), gift of .Joseph P. de Guerrico. — Salvatore Rosa (1615- 
1673), Italian school, gift of Adrien E. Rossi. 'Alexander in the tent of Da- 
rius*. A grand composition, historically not true, but majestic and solemn, 
the tent of Darius has a veritable style; the back ground red, light and trans- 
parent, characterises the style of the artist. — Ernest de la Carcova, Argen- 
tine, 1867. AVithout bread and without work*, 1894, Grand prize in the Uni- 
versal Exhibition at St. Louis (1904). — Giacomo Favretto (1849-1887), 
Italian school, <Strolling musicians), Venice. The last of the great Venetian 
colourists who democratised his tastes and tendencies, abandoning the sump- 
tuosity of the Veronese and of Paris Bordone, to shed his light on the 
humble inhabitants of Venice, the master-painter in whose veins runs the 
blood of Goldoni is worthily represented in the ]\Iuseum by his (Strolling 
■Musicians). This is the daily life in the street of Venice, surprisingly life-like 
to a witty and ironical eye; it is a page of popular customs so complete 
that, in the future, it will help to recall an epoch, and the conditions of life 
in that town; the drawing is sure, spontaneous and precise; the fleeting touch 
seems to have wings to distribute itself with efficacy on all the faces and all 
corners, an accent of light, lightly sketched on the canvas, provokes a smile, 
makes an expression brilliant, and animates a person. The colour is dia- 
phanous and intense; the loud orange seems more vivid by the side of the pale 
blue of the sky, whilst a harsh red, a fiery carmine are dazzling in the vicinity 
of green, and all these strong tones discipline themselves, quell themselves, 
and dissolve in a general whole, without any discord in this rainbow concen- 
tration of colours. — Graciano :\Iendilaharzu (1857-1893), Argentine, silver 
medal, 2nd. exhibition of the Ateneo (1894), «The return homes gift of Va- 
lentine Seminario .Mendilaharzu. This is surely the chief work of the artist; 
it has been composed with love, calculated, and thought out in all its details, 
so as to produce the greatest possible impression without exaggerating the 
effects; this picture would call the attention of everybody, if the subject 
were bright instead of being sad, elegant instead of rustic, affected instead 
of simple; the conditions of the work, its transcendent merits pass unper- 
ceived, because in this intimate scene of simple life, taken from life, and de- 
veloped with its sad tenor, almost peaceful, with a sobriety worthy of the 
actors, art dissimulates itself, and effort disappears, fulfilling thus the 
greatest exigencies of works of art, in the strictest manner. — Armenise 
(Raflaelo) 1893, Italian school, <An Alchemists gift of Felix V. and Jean A. 
Bernasconi. — Albert Aublet, French school, gold medal Exhibition in Paris 
1889, (Near the Piano». A composition of which a different copy exists, in 
which the young Japanese, dressed like a European, occupies the seat of 
the auditress behind the piano. Aublet's painting distinguishes itself by its 
bright subject, the composition is delicate with the presence of .Japanese, 
chrysanthemums, which decorate the interior. In this small picture, in spite 
of the excessive finish and imjilacable back ground, with its complicated 
accessories, the figures resist and preserve their individuality and relief. 



of Fin? Ads , CAPITAL 181 

without being absorbed by Ihe furniture and decoration. — Sterner (Albert li.) 
North American, 'Before' the ball., gift of l-:d\vard Schiaffino.-Salvador San- 
chez Barbudo, Spanish school, 1850, "The convalescent*, typical work of a 
Spanish painter. The same model has served for all, men, cavaliers, clergy 
and cardinals: the same woman for the two principal ladies: these appear to 
be without life; the men smile with the sfime conventional smile; the back 
ground is a lacework in which the puerile arabesque takes the place of the 
absent surroundings. .\ metallic and hard composition. — Jose Villegas, Spa- 
nish school, 1848, < The minuet", acharming sketch inspired by Goya, in which 
the author uses harmonious greys. Confusion and manerism. — Raymond 
Monvoisin (1794-1870), French school, prize in Rome 1820, gold medal at the 
Salon in 1831. Went to Buenos Aires about 1842. -Louis XIV and .Mdlle. de 
La Valliere-). Sketch for his great picture, done with much spirit inspired by 
the legend of the oak in the forest of I'ontainebleau. Sumptuous colouring, 
expressive composition, simple and brilliant. — M. Alonso, terracotta. 

Luc Olivier Merson. French, 18 IG, gold medal, Paris 1889, -Physicss 
eChemistrV', 1889.— .Jules .1. Lefebvre, French, 1836 Medal of Honour, Pa- 
ris 1886, cSculpture), 1889. — .Jean I»aul Laurens, French school, 1838. <Study> 
gift of F:dward Sivori. — Castiglione .F. I?. Italian school (1(U6-1670), 'Chil- 
dren and Fauns). — Auguste Boyer, french school, 1824, (Innocence-". — Al- 
fred Roll, French school, gold medal in the Salon, Paris, 1877, <La femme au 
taureau» exhibited in Paris at the Exhibition of 1889 and in the Salon of 
1885. This great work is the most characteristic of the French painter. Roll 
appears to be exuberant in his robust temperament. In this woody corner, 
brightened with splendid light, one breathes, the nostrils dilate, the sen- 
suous emanation of the earth, of the fruitful mother, filled with clamorous 
life, panting like a forge under the torrid summer sun. A young bull, spotted 
with dark colour, playful and conscious of his strength, comes trotting, 
pushing before him, with his muzzle the body of a bacchante, splendid with 
youth and beauty, fair as the harvest, agitated and lovable, a living symbol 
of pastoral grace that enjoys with every thing. The whiteness of her body, 
splendidly built, appears partly shadowed by the leaves of the neighbouring 
trees and receives the fugitive caresses of the reflections, around her 
sometimes golden like amber, and sometimes dying away in tones of lilac. 
The harmony which results from all the elements co-ordinated so as to pro- 
duce the effect felt and foreseen by the author, arrives at the maximum of 
expression, and exhales in a triumphant chorus, the sensuous hymn to free 
life, happy and exuberant. The eminent critic Leon F'orcaud, member of 
the Superior Council of Arts in Paris, in his important introduction to the 
work of Roll, said: <In 1885, the artist marvellously prepared, exhibited a 
master-piece of exquisite painting; namely the admirable picture which 
remains in the memory of the connoisseur under the name of ♦La femme 
au taureau>. And further he goes on to say «the nude has inspired him to 
a great many magnificent studies, but "his decisive work in this style 
is <'La femme'au taureau>, of the Salon in 1885, which has gone to a collec- 
tion in the Argentine l\epublic. I saw this splendid nude figure, with fair 
hair gilded bv the sun and playing with a black bull. Are we in the presence 
of FLuropa or of Pasiphae? And after all what does it matter. Roll has more 
than legitimised his phantasy in presenting us with this picture of a seduc- 
tive and marvellous ability. We do not seek literature there, where the 
author only wished to make a painting. Let us admire this living flesh, so 
pearly, which is so resplendent in the clear light. <La femme au tau- 
reau')'is a first class work, which historians of art will mark down in their 
future books, and that is sulTicient.— l^varist V. Luminals (1819-1896), 
French school, gold medal I'niversal exhibition, Paris, 1889. «Rape> (Salon 
of 1890). This picture, as well as being a superb decorative panel, is a curio- 
sity as a work of rhetoric. Luminals has realised in this work, an achievement 
of composition, in operating the most ingenuous change of theme, even to 
transforming his picture into another perfectly distinct fn)m it. This paint- 
ing, or rather, the same canvas, framework and frame, flgured before in the Sa- 
lon of 1887, with number 1552, and called "Salvage >. The i)rimitive composi- 
tion (Salvager is completely transformed. The body of the drowned person, 
the shore and back ground have disappeared; there only remains the torso 
of the rescuer, the same gesture converted into that ofrane. The trousers 



182 CAPITAL 31 use urn 

nave disappeared, the bare legs open and vigorously actpress the flanks of 
a robust horse, in the of crossing a stretcth of water. The inert body of the 
drowned person, is transformed into that of a very beautiful woman who 
defends herself and who cries out. The absolute nude of the actors of this 
drama, the floating strand of red hair on the neck of the man, removes the 
scene and places it in the far away times of the Gauls. The simultaneous 
presence (unusual) of two stamps of the Salon, one of 1887, and the other 
of 1890 on the framework of the picture, together with the identity of the 
torso of the principal actor of whom the attitude, the figure, the gesture and 
movement are exactly the same, the position of this torso in the same place 
on the canvas, are three proofs which coincide in a way so evident, that it 
is not possible to doubt that, one finds oneself before the same canvas, mo- 
dified completely. This deduction is corroberated by the wear due to the 
scraping, precisely in the right centre of the group, where the superposition 
exists of two bodies equally white. The picture which was rubbed out was 
certainly inferior to this one, although picturesque and grand and painted 
in an energetic way. — Alexis J. Mazerolle (1826), French school, «Psyche at 
the stream». The elegant decorator Mazerolle has represented, in an exqui- 
site style, the seductive wife of Cupid, In the solitary density of a flowered 
wood, young Psyche wanders, smiling and ingenuous, attracted by the mur- 
mur of a crystalstream, she bathes her fingers in the running water, making 
her moth wings glitter palpitatingly. The beautiful body, ideally chaste 
seems to be modelled by the Graces, and the infantile face is illumined with 
the pure and candid expression of the eyes, as might be that of a flower. 
The splendid frame of foliage which envelops the goddess with its reflections 
has been so very well executed, that it exists in itself alone, outside of the 
principal subject. The painter, loving foliage seized the pretext to create 
large and beautiful leaves of translucid web, and iris with petals of silk. — 
Octave Tassaer (1800-1874), gold medal, in the Salon of 1849, Paris, «Venus 
and Cupid). The great painter of misery, who puts his highest qualities of 
drawing and colour, and the profound emotion of his aching soul, at the 
service of humble dramas which have for scenery, the dismantled garrets, 
and who ends his life voluntarily, asphyxiating himself, at the age of 73 
years. Alexander Dumas (son) who discovered his talent, has in his collec- 
tion, 40 works of the artist; the celebrated writer assures also of the preser- 
vation of his mortal remains m a tomb erected at his expense. The eminent 
critic Ernest Chenau, dedicated some emotional pages to the romantic 
painter; he wrote at the time of his death: AVell, Tassaert is one among 
the eight or ten artists of the century, whose works to day despised, 
posterity will gather, to place them in the Louvre, when no more notice 
will be taken of the present favourites of h^ortune.'> Among his subjects of 
a melancholy style he has left some of mystic and mythological style. 
<iVenus and Cupid» is like a cameo, and shows exquisite shades of 
tones on the nude flesh, analogous to the sky blue tint of old ivories. 
— Charles Chaphn ( 1815-1891 ), French school, «Pensive» a variation 
of the picture (Souvenirso, which is in the Luxembourg INIuseum; the 
exquisity decorator who has gathered up the brushes of Boucher, gives con- 
sistency to his fancy of languid juvenile grace. The audacious opposition 
of the shadow projected by the face on the rose cushion, although conven- 
tional and improbable, is within the harmony adopted by the artist. A real 
enchantment emanates from this strong evocation, subtle like a perfume. — 
Henry Gervex, French school, 1852, silver medal, Paris Salon of 1874. «Thc 
Parisian in her toilet chamber.* The celebrated painter of Rolla and of many 
other subjects in which he places the contemporary nude, with a modern 
accent which is the seal of the author; close by the fire he places a blonde and 
nude Parisian, so as to realise a series of shades in a tone of fine greys; two 
full tones divide the high image vertically; the cold light of the morning pe- 
netrates through the balcony and bathes the back of the woman; a transpa- 
rent and soft darkness which models the front of the body, is only interrupted 
in its monotony by the reflection of the fire; the white spot of the chemise 
that slips, and the abundant golden hair are the frank notes of this delicious 
silent symphony. — Luca Giordano (1632-1705), Italian school, «Apotheosis 
of Juditho. Beautiful study for a ceiling; this study is in the pagan style, 
(hat is, in the sentiment of the epoch. Luca Giordano, reveals himself 



of Fine .iW.s CAIM TAL 18.'] 

there in a most complete way as a notable decorator. The ligure occupies, 
in the rectangle of the canvas, just the position, that a professor would cer- 
tainly not have imagined, this would be asking much, but would have wished 
to discover so as to make a brilliant essay; Judith appears to be comfortably 
lying on a cloud; the head and the feet, the scinjitar and one of the angels wiio 
balances the composition, are at an e(|ual distance from each of the four sides 
of the rectangle, as if the compass had determined the position of the principal 
personage. Evidently this has been so, and this ought to be so; equilibrium 
is the capital point of the composition, but it does not appear so in an osten- 
sible and evident way; artifice demands modesty and dissimulation, mystery 
suffices to make one Ijelieve in chance. This nmcli for the composition, but 
now about tone and colour, the master is impeccal)le. Without doubt, all 
is ecpially calculated but with a supreme art. The true colourist, who is 
alone a good decorator, solves the (juestion of light in a perfect manner. 
The nude bosom, the covered body encircled with a magnificent gir- 
dle, the bent knee, accentuated by a golden garter worked with purple, 
and the bare foot, constitute a gradation of light, alternating with inter- 
mittent shadows, which dissipate the beauties in one corner of the picture; 
in the other, the dark line of the scimitar, the hand, an arm of which the 
sinuous outline interrupts a floating gau/e which interposes itself, the face 
of .Judith and the head of Holophern elevated in the air make alternatives 
of shade and light with the intermediate semi-tints of a pretty effective de- 
coration. For the science of the composition; and the profound sentiment of 
the distribution of colours, this would be the first decorative canvas in the 
Museum, taking into account this, that the sketch, for a canvas of such large 
dimensions, shows us this work only through a reducing glass, we must 
conclude that Judith, executed on a ceiling would easily fill the exigencies 
of decoration for a large building. vSome day when this Museum has its 
own building, then it would be wise to reproduce on the ceiling of the vesti- 
bule of honour, this wonderful allegory, in a natural size, as a homage to the 
author who painted it, and to which also the biblical symbol "to the art 
that triumphs over barbarity) is applicable. — Ignacio Manzoni, Italian 
school (1888), «March of slaves,') gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Gerard de Laires- 
se, Dutch school (1640-1711), «Combat des Centaures et des Lapithes aux 
noces de Hippodame», gift of Adrien E. Rossi.— Domenico Morelli, Italian 
school (1826), «Danae>. — Dominique L. Papety, French (1815-1849), grand 
prize in Rome, 1836, cAt the bath», gift of the Academy of Arts. — Nicolas 
Vloughels (1669-1737), French school. Director of the school of France at 
Rome in 1724, «Diana and I^ndemyon*, gift of Inos O. H. de Pena. The che- 
valier of Vloughels, comrade of Watteau, is a frivolous and light painter, 
but . graceful and amiable. 'J'his composition inspiretl by Veronese, is 
without doubt somewhat rougir in outline for so large a canvas. It has 
decorative sentiment and ati elegant iacilit>-. French school (1800), cThe 
bath». — Adrien Van Utrecht, Flemisli school (1 599-1 6.i2), «Tobie et TAnge-), 
gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — lerdinand Humbert, French (1842), medal of ho- 
nour, Paris, 1900. (Rapt de l)ejanire». — ^Raphael Collin, French, grand prize, 
Paris, 1889. «Nonchalance», 1904. 

Eugene (^iceri, French, 1813, H^hemin de Marlotte (l'ontainebleau)». — 
J. B. Corot, F>ench (1796-1875), «The Morning'). -Ricardo Garcia, Argentine, 
«The Afternoon) (Bretagne), Salon of 1901. Paris, silver medal at the Uni- 
versal Exhibition of St. Louis, 1904. — Rawley Mendes, o'lhc bay of Rio de 
Janeiro), 1900. — Ignatius Manzoni, Italian school, 188S, ^Mountain landscape* 
gift of Magdalene Dorrego de (). Basualdo Charles >[arko, German school, 
1895, ('Landscape) gift of l-juile Nouguier. - Fre<lerick Montenard, gold me- 
dal Universal F:xhibition of 1SS9, The port of IJuenos Aires'^ This picture 
of 2'24 metres 3'48 m. was painted in Paris from a photograph of the 
Riachuelo, for tlie Argentine Pavillion at the 1-^xhibition in 1899. liecause of 
the knowledge and practice in painting analogous subjects in the south of Fran- 
ce, this interpretation at a distance, has ase al of trutii that satisfies one. — 
Fernand C.ormon, I-'rench, 1815, medal of honour, Paris. 1887,\'Astronomy», 
1889. Filippo Carcano, Italian sciiool, 1840. (■I'ishermen on the shore>, gift 
of Angele L. de Gallardo, Joseph L. Gallardo and Angel Gallardo. — Angela 
della Valle, Argentine, "Un Potrero'\ Minister of Public Instruction, 1902.— 
Jan Roth (Roth of Italv), (1()10-1652), Dutch school, .'Italian landscape). A 



184 CAP 1 T AL M use urn 

pretty specimen of classical landscape which depicts a landscape in perspecti- 
ve between the spectator and the horizon, cleverly made to look far away by 
the large shadow projected, which bathes the ground. Both of Italy, rival of 
Claude Lorrain distinguishes himself by his warm and transparent tones, 
by the arrangement, richly copious, and above all by the <'Style'> of which the 
presence in the landscape proper, confirms once more the fact that there is no 
inferior aesthetic genre without inferior qualities. — Amedee Baudit, French 
school, "Farm road in the surroundings of Pons >, Paris Salon in 1877. Vision of 
a landscape passably dark that due to a dull palette, but of uncommon robust 
conditions in the arrangement of the ground, which seems to be cut in 
part with a soliditv that is impressive. — Martin A. Malbarro, Argentine, 
1868, *In full Nature". Minister of Public Instruction, 1902. — Eugene Gi- 
gnous, Italian school, 1850, «Autumn lanscapes gift of Felix Bernasconi. — 
Ernest Charton, French school, 1876, "Panorama de la Cordillera de los An- 
des*, gift of Josepti P. de Guerrico. — Giuseppe ^litizanetti, Italian, <<Twi- 
light». — August Ballerini, 1857, Argentine. <'La Cascada de Iguazu>>. An ori- 
ginal study painted on the site, which represents the wonderful Argentine 
cataract. Those who know the work of Ballerini, executed in the space of 
some years, those who recall the remarkable water-colours which give him 
fame, know that his impressions as landscape painter before nature, de- 
note an artist, well dowered, and a true virtuoso. Ballerini improvises, with 
brushes in hand on a determined subject, as others do with words; he sur- 
prises nature in her varying and most rapid moods, as if all his person, short 
and robust, were a mechanical receptacle sensitive to exterior images. A 
temperament exceptionally impressionable, he ought to satisfy himself in 
absorbing and assimilating the perfumes of things, without trying to pene- 
trate them; Hke others more or less famous, he patiently destroys what 
he constructed at first, and without apparent efTort. Finally, in talent he 
lacks judgement. — J. Stadler (died in 1856) German school, "Landscape*. 
A luminous and stony ground which seems to be striped in mosaics, and an 
airy and vaporous sky. The exquisite quality of tone and the freshness of 
colour produce a perfectly diaphanous efTect, which would seem to be in- 
compatible with the resourses of painting, if such examples did not exist 
to afTirm it. One of the most surprising is the «'Park of Sheeps by :\Iillet, 
with its hypnotising reddish moon hang ing in space. — August Ballerini, Ar- 
gentine, "Venice by night •>. — Lorenzo Delleani, "Surroundings of Turin>, gift 
of Ferrucio Stefani. — Paul Schmitt, French school, 1856, "Valley of Morin». 
Clear and simple vision of nature, expressed with the greatest simplicity. 
The eye passes over the course, and the spirit reposes in the transparent 
and fresh shade which invades the ground, and listens to the murmur of 
the foliage of the poplars. — Edmund Petitjean, French school, 1844. "The 
village of Antignv-Latour (Vosges), 1888. — Jean B. Corot, French, (1796- 
1875), "The afternoon*. — Francois L. Frang-ais (1814-1897), French school, 
medal of honour. Universal Exhibition in 1878, and Salon of 1890, Paris. 
"Shady River*, the illustrious landscape-painter, last representative of the 
Pleiades, who were called the School of Fontainebleau, has a magnificent 
study in the -Museum, dated 1884; it is really more than a study realised 
by the glorious artist, who died at a very advanced age consulting nature 
with fervour during his whole life. This canvas would be a beautiful 
study, intellectually for students, if it had not at the same time a fine 
manifestation of high painting. As the title indicates, the question is of 
the efTect of shade. The sun, is resplendent outside, and the contrast accen- 
tuates itself under the tint of green which covers the river; in the insters- 
tices of the foliage, the gold of the sunrays shines at great intervals, whilst in 
the calm twilight, the trunks of the trees elevate their skeletons; the accusto- 
med eve, after a moment of contemplation, distinguishes and determines as 
in a real forest, the thousand details of vegetation; the leaves are difTerently 
lighted, some directly and others by reflections; over the rocks which inter- 
rupt the flow of the river, is thrown a suspension bridge; in the water one 
distinguishes the naked bodies of two men who bathe, close to some waterli- 
lies, the green glaucous discs of which, float motionless and crowded to gether. 
The science of the drawing, the perspicacity of the observation, the free- 
dom of execution, places the old painter in a rank apart, who seemed to play 
the very flute of Pan, and found in a hollow of a poplar, the murmur of the 



of Fine Arts CAPITAL 185 

forest and ihev oices of captivating Dryads, his companions in work. — Leon 
Cj. Pelouse (1840-1892), French school, <Twilight». 'J'he lamented landscape- 
painter, pupil of I-"ran9ais, is represented in the Museum by one of his most 
beautiful works. The immensity of the profound and luminous sky, the great 
trees treated in simple masses, the whole conceivet with unity of vision, with- 
out vacillations and regrets, denotes the deliberate work of a master, 
resolute in his convictions. — Hliseo Meifren, Spaniard, 18.57, 3rd. medal at 
the Universal l^xhibition in 1889, Paris, *Silence». — Victor (iilbert, French 
school, <'A peasant watering", luigene Isabey, French, 1803-188(i, 1st. me- 
dal, Paris Salon, "Landscape of a village-. — Raymond Q. Monvoisin, French, 
1794-1870, prize of Home, 1820, «Study of a landscape*.— M. Alonso, <■ Woun- 
ded Indian*, in terra cotta. 

Adolphe Brune (1880), french school, «Saint Catherine praying*. The 
author of this picture, received the praise of Baudelaire, who compared 
him with Guercino and Carraci. The expression of candour and the fervent 
vehemence in the gesture of this praying virgin, shows an inspiration of 
good standard, united with artificial conceptions of juvenile grace. Unfortu- 
nately the preservation of the painting leaves much to be desired, above all 
the dark tones, painted with bitumen, are very much broken away. — Ger6- 
nimo Benet (Jesuit), Spaniard, 1700. <Allegory'of the life of St. Anthony of 
Padua*. — .Juan de Joanes ( 1 50,5-]. i79), Spanish school, <Fcce Homo*. The 
most remarkable canvas of the collection of Don Andres de Lamas, is a 
beautiful picture of the most beautiful. Secured as an original of Murillo, 
it conserved this designation until the direction thought it their duty to 
reattribute this magnificent work to the genius of .Juan de .Joanes. This error 
of designation was due to the analogy which exists between this ]\cce Homo 
and other works by the celebrated Spanish painter. The anatomical con- 
struction of this torso, the sensation of the skin adherent to the muscle, with 
such marvellous precision, the mystical expression of the tortured one, the 
harmonious sobriety of tone and the serenity of the composition, betokens 
an incomparable master. — Spanish school, 1700. «The Virgin of Buen Ayre» 
(La Virgen de Buen Ayre). A donation from the (Convent of San Francisco 
de Gordoba. The Virgin of the seamen, to her Buenos Aires owes its name; 
derived from the school of .Murillo. In the sub-title, it is mentioned that this 
image is venerated in the Royal College, Seminary of San Telmo de Sevilla, 
and that Don Louis Salcedo y Azcona, archbishop of Seville (1723) concedes 
indulgences in return for... etc. This canvas preserves the traces of cuts 
made across the canvas to fix in the silver jewels in Louis XV style, which 
adorn this image just like a barbarous icon; crowns, ear-rings, bracelets, 
necklaces and silver crosses.— .Joseph Meynier, French school, silver medal, 
Paris Salon, (The sleep of .Iesus'> and -The dead Christ*. This beautiful or- 
nament for an altar (This is a diptych) embraces in its two canvases the 
period of Christ's life; in the upper part the Divine Child sleeps tranquilly 
in the lap of His Mother, lulled by the voices of a choir of Angels; whilst 
lower down, as in a crypt, the inert crucified Body lies extended. This Christ, 
of a waxen pallor, and of noble form, lies full of august majesty. The 
drawing is impeccable, and the execution tender, as is due to the nature 
of the subject; the virgin is very human, but wanting in style, her face has 
too a modern seal, as if it were the portrait of a middle class mother. 

Graciano Mendilaharzu, Argentine (1857-1893), <«The head of St. John 
tne Baptist* one of the most complete paintings of the unfortunate and clever 
Argentine painter. This head of .John the baptist, enveloped in its traditional 
mystery, evokes the remembrance of great masters, the stylestet of Vollon 
and Bonnat whose advice Mendilahar/.u followed. Similar paintings make 
one regret the premature death of this talented jnunter, who has left 
beautiful pages in the book, recently luinted, of Argentine paintings. — Mateo 
Cerero (1(535-I«i85), "Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine*, gift of .\drien 
E. Rossi. — Barthelemv de Bruvn, German school, ♦.Vdoracion (le los Magos*, 
gift of Adrien K. Rossi. Copy of Raphael Sanzio, Italian school (1483-1520), 
«The Transfiguration*, gift from id., id. Jules .Joseph Meynier, l-'rench. 182l>, 
«Mary praying*, 1885, Paris Salon, 1885. .lacobo da Poiite, Italian school 
(attrrbutioii), <The Supper*, gift of .J. P. tie Guerrico. Daniel Crespi, Italian 
school (1590-1G3O), .-The Presentation to the temple in the arms of Sinfeon*, 
gift of .Vdrien I"^, Rossi. Spanish school, 1730, <-.\|tar of the Virgin Mary*, 



186 CAPITAL Mmeuiii 

preceding from ^Nlisiones. — School of Hans Memling, Flemish (1435-1495), 
«The Virgin and the Child» (Gothic-Flemish frame, composition of A. Bonetti). 
Raymond A. Monvoisin, French (1794-1870), prize of Home, 1820, «Don 
Juan Manuel de Rozas>, in 1842, found at Boulogne-siu'-Seine, in 1903.— 
Franklin Rawson, Argentine, <'Portrait of William Rawsons in 1839, gift of 
Paz M. Rawson. — Ignatius Manzoni, Italian school, 1888, -Portrait of a man>, 
gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Mariano Agrelo (1836-1891), Argentine, «Head of 
a mani) (academical study). Agrelo studied at Florence about 1861; he retur- 
ned to Buenos Aires in possession of the knowledge which is so evident in 
his canvas; he exhibited some nudes, which were received with such indif- 
ference, that his enthusiasm as an artist became cold for always. With Puey- 
rredon, Claudio Lastra, Sheridan, Franklin Rawson, Boneo,'he is the fore- 
runner of Argentine painting to whom opportunity emulation and the 
appreciation of the public, was denied for works that require, more than 
preparation and talent, namely pain and effort, the obligatory tributes 
of all creation. — Prilidiano P. Pueyrredon, Argentine, (1823-1870), "Por- 
trait of INliss Rozas», gift of Joseph P. de Guerrico. — Edward Schiafiino, 
Argentine, 1858, 3rd. medal at the Universal Exhibition in Paris, 1889, 
«Margo>), gift of J. T. del Valle. — Hyacinthe Rigaud, French school (1659- 
1743), ("Portrait of a woman>, gift of Carlos Vega Belgrano. — Bertha Burg- 
kan, French, «Head of a young girl>>, 1888. — Edward Sivori, Argentine, 1847, 
(•Portrait of the artist'), gift of the author. — Jean Paul Laurens, 1838, French 
school, medal of honour at the Paris Salon in 1877. cHead of an old man», 
XVI century. The austere and energetic painter of Merovingian dramas and 
of Inquisitorial tragedies, is represented in the ^luseum by the head of an old 
Jew, carefully arranged. — Alfred Roll, 1846, French school, gold medal, 
Paris Salon, 1877. (Portrait of Alexander Dumas» (son), gift of Aristobulo 
del Valle. A preliminary study for a very large sized portrait, which has not 
been finished. An excellent likeness of the celebrated writer, is seen front 
face with the flowing cravat, surprised by the painter in his favourite spot 
where he was accustomed to work. The expression of the face is admirably 
true, the Mongolian shaped blue eyes, looking in front of him, with the fixed 
tranquil gaze of a robust animal in repose. There are not many portraits 
of this class, where the inftividual temperament springs up and imposes 
itself on the spectator with this force. It is the most complete Dumas that 
wa know without excluding that of Bonnat. — French school, XVII century, 
((Portrait of a magistrate). Spiritual head, intensely impregnated with hu- 
manity. Young magistrate or galant abbe, this physionomy, feminine and 
ironical, imposes itself on the soul of the onlooker like some familiar guest. 
The arrangement is delicate and the material employed is also diaphanous 
and transparent. The anonymity which still envelopes the name of the 
author troubles and disquietens Uke the forgetfulness of a name that one 
has at the tip of one's tongue. — Charles van Loo, French (1705-1765) (attri- 
bution), cMary Leczinska», Queen of France. — G. B. Moroni (1520-1572), 
Italian school, ('Portrait of a Venetian archbishop') gift of Adrien E. Rossi. 
A vigorous painting of an energetic dignitary, whose menacing face would 
not be in accordance with the breviary he haspist closed, if one does not know 
that it treats of a militant prelate of the Italian Renaissance, priests' dress of 
which epoch scarcely dissimulated the soldier they cover. The face is want- 
ing in distinction, but above all it is haughty. — Domenico Morelli, Italian 
school, ((Portrait of a woman) an unfinished evocation of the image of a dame 
in 1860, whose simple attitude, crossed arms, and the vaguely ironical smile 
which animates her face, seem to indicate an intimate acquaintance of the 
artist. This painting is a preparation in the light tones preferred by ^lo- 
relli, and of which the conditions of feeling explain the signature of the ar- 
tist, and the date in one corner of the canvas. Alonso Sanchez (^ocllo, (1515- 
1590), Spanish school, ('Portrait of a princess), gift of Adrien E. Rossi. In- 
teresting likeness of a haughty princess, badly-treated by time, but the rare 
precision of the drawing is very visible, specially in the brocade dress and 
the jewels which profusely adorn it, to neutralise the ravages which have 
altered the face and hands. The absolute perfection of the representation of 
the jewels and embroidery nearly effaced, of the superb dress, makes one 
regret the vanislied beauties. — Bartolomeus van der Heist, (1613-1670), 
((Portrait of a BurgomasterD. This magnificent portrait was first attributed 



of Fine Arts CAPITAL 187 

Id two of the most celebrated painters; HeinbrancU and Rubens; the Direc- 
tion of the Museum has chosen in favour of a third name not less cele- 
l)rated, that of Melst, because it was considered to J)e the most probable. 
'I'he harnionv of the work, the tranquil dignity of the seated personage, 
the concentrated life in the face, the freshness of this same face (the hands 
are exquisite), make a superb example of fine painting.^ — Ignatius Manzoni, 
Italian school, 1888, "Ruv G6mez de Silva-), gift of Adrien E. Rossi. 

Cesare Riseo, Italian, «En el Palatino» (aqua-fortis), gift of the Minister 
of Public Instruction in Italy. — .Jules .Jacquet, 1877, "Mdme. Recamiers 
engraving. — L. Calametta, ,«the Virgin enthroned* (Palais Pitti). — Paul 
Ilelleu, French, Mdlle. F... (drv point etching). — Jean Veber, French, silver 
medal, 1900, «The law protects Fortune-) (Lithograf»h). — Ferdinand Gai- 
llard, French school, (1834-1887), (-Portrait of Leon XIII.>,1880, pen etching. 
— Richart Ranft, Swiss, (Young I.ady» (aqua-fortis in colours).— Albert 
Bertrand, French school, (The embarking at the Isle of Cytheraea», interpre- 
tation in colours, in aqua-fortis from the painting of Watteau, (French 
school), 1684-1721. Artist's proof, on Japanese paper, with the autograph sig- 
nature of the author. 

Edition Pellet, of 50 examples. -Jean Patricot, French school. Grand 
Prize in Rome, engraving, in 188(>, gold medal at the Salon of 1895, «Medea 
and Jason», interpretation in pen and aqua-fortis of the painting by Gustave 
Moreau (French school), 1826-1898, Artist's proof on parchment, signed by 
the author. Idem «Madame de Senonnes», interpretation in pen and aqua- 
fortis of the painting by Ingres (French school, 1870-1867), Artist's proof 
on parchment, with the signature of the author. — Jean G. Ville, -Abel 
Francois Poisson, Marquis de Marigny», engraving. — A. 'M. Gilli, Italian, 
(-Marguerite de Savoys aquafortis, gift of the Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion in Italy. — IVIalbeste and Dupreel, (The Emperor in stale costume*, 
designed by "Percier, engraving. — Eugene Carriere, French, grand prize 
1900, «:Mademoiselle Marguerite C...», lithograph. — Giovanni Battista Pira- 
nesi, Italian (composed of 1180 engravings), donation of the Minister of 
Public Instruction in Italy. — Manuel Robbe, French bronze medal, 1900, 
The bouquet of violetss pen sketch in drv colours. — Serafino Speranza, 
Italian, (Mumbcrt I, King of Italy> (pen), gift of the Minis ter of Public 
Instruction in Italy. — Lionel Le Couteau, French medal of honour, Paris, 
1899, (The Binders), by J. J. .Alillet (aqua-fortis, .Japan).- -.\lfred Muller, 
(Two little children playing in a gardens acjua-fortis in colours.— Paul Ber- 
thon, French. (Study of the nudes lithograph in colours. Edgard Chahine, 
Armenian, bronze medal, Paris 1900, cA Vagabonds atjua-fortis in colours. 
— -E. Armand Mathey-Doret, French school, (Portrait of Giovanna Torna- 
buoni), interpretation in pen with aqua-fortis from the painting by Ghir- 
landajo (Italian school 1449-1498) Artist's proof on parchment, with the 
autograph signature of the en graver. — -Alexander Lunios, French school, 
(-Flemish dancers-), gift of D. D. Martinto. Original lithograph in colours; 
first proof with the autograph signature of the author. — Alfred Brunet- 
Debaines, French medal of honour, Pris 1899. «Funeral of Sir David Wilkies 
by W. Turner (aqua-fortis, .Japan). 

Ruiz-Luna. cXeptimes Rome. -Aurelio de Figueiredo, Brazilian, ddly- 
les gift of the author, 1900. — F. Vinea, Italian school, (A Swisso (1882), gift 
of Lucio Correa Morales. Graciano Mendilaharzu, Argentine (1857-1893), 
"Onvx vase and L^lowerss gift of Carlos Vega Belgrano; id., id., «Bananas», 
id., id. — C. B. Tiepolo, Itahan (1696-1770), (attribution), ^Bishop martyr*, 
gift of Emile (ioldaiacena. — School of Guido Reni, Italiaji (1575-1642), 
(Aurora and Thytons gift of Adrien E. Rossi. — Paul Albert Besnard, 
French school, 1819, (-Copper Foundary*. -C. P. Deiker, German, *Dog's 
head), gift of Marguerite Krickow. 

Private galleries of paintings. 

(So as to develop this part of the work, we have thought it convenient 
to give a brief account of some of the pic tine galleries, which, although pri- 
vate, represent nevertheless, a rich collection of pictures and art objects, 



188 CAPITAL , Private 

they are accessible to amateurs and artists, who ask permission, of their 
respective owners, to visit them.) 

These galleries prove the existence of an artistic current, which high 
society increases each day more and more; thus proving that in the Argen- 
tine as much taste is cultivated with agricultural products as with the deli- 
cate flowers of art. 

Collection of Mr. Saiitamarina. — Santa Fe street No. 958. 

The collection belonging to Mr. Antonio Santamarina 
is one of the most beautiful and richest in Buenos Aires, and 
he who may visit it will be certainly astonished to find so 
many works of art signed by the best known names of 
Spanish and modern French painters, in a private gallery. 

Above all the family portraits draw one's attention, 
Mr. Santamarina Senior, and Mrs. Santamarina by Zu- 
loaga. 

The great painter of Spanish women has portrayed mar- 
vellously the gracious and bright smile, marked with feme- 
nine intelligence, of Mrs. Santamarina. And this painting, 
placed in a good position, seems to preside over this ar- 
tistic centre. 

The collection has besides, many canvases by this pain- 
ter, particularly a large picture which shows the type of 
a Spanish artiste on the stage. 

Like other Spanish painters, Sorolla and Bastida, are 
represented by two richly coloured canvases, which recall 
the vivid colours of the south of Spain. 

A beautiful young girl with garlands of flowers, bears 
the signature of Pradilla. Domingo paints conscientiously, 
Spanish women assiting at the performance in their boxes, 
form a mass of beauty. A drawing of Jimenez Aranda is 
found in a small canvas which represents an old man in a 
frock coat. Benedito, the brilliant pupil of Sorolla, is re- 
cognised in the picture which represents an old man and 
his son. Another picture of the same painter is in pretty 
colours. Barbudo and two good works of Goya are to be 
seen. Of serious colouring and strong expression with a pro- 
found study of details are the two ecclesiastics by Villegas, 
Another canvas that attracts attention, for the expression 
which seems to have been fixed instantaneously, is that by 
Casanova y Estorach, representing the head of a priest. 

In the principal gallery, two magnificent pictures by 
Eugene Carriere impress one, «Tlie Sculptor» and above 
all. a «Christ», in which the figures blend in the shadows, 
thrown with an intense effect, as desired by the artist. «The 
party of Bridge», by Caro Delvaille, is a charming whole, of 
expression and colour. The Breton scene by Simon is a fine 
study of the costumes and figures of the «Bigoudens» of the 
ancient province. Henner has filled with poetry his «Head 
of a young girl», and Raffaelli has painted vigorously a 



(ialleries C A 1^ I T A L 1 81) 

('Man coming to cut the trees». With Harpignies we assist 
at «Passing the ford» charmingly delicate, while by Neu- 
ville, pupil of Detaille, we have his hunters on foot, painted 
with a vigourous naturalness most surprising. We come 
back to poetry with the angelical figure of «Innocence)) by 
Bouguereau, and an intimate scene by Kibot. The nude 
woman, signed by Chaplin, is a good study in colours, and 
the ways of Roybet are recognised in the «Trumpeter», Jo- 
seph Bail, has a small picture, in which the light plays on 
copper, but it is weak in drawing and expression. Some 
good landscapes are signed by Le Sidaner, Thaulow and 
Bousseau. Ch. Jacque, as always, paints fine fowls and 
pigs; Defaux paints fowls, and Lhermitte, sheep. Ziem, 
shows a canvas full of sun and fresh colours, which makes us 
dream of fine rows in a gondola. Lastly to give a piquante 
note to this beautiful collection, Forain, the inimitable 
Forain, has sketched scenes in the wings that Zola night 
have described. 

A third gallery is formed with paintings by Tassaert 
<(Bad News» full of expression; «The Mill», by Jules Dupre; 
«Andresy», by Daubigny; <(The Market» by Isabey; There 
are works by Corot, Ziem, Dias, Delacroix whose «Mass 
over the tomb» is truly a master-piece; by Jongkind «Har- 
fleur»; Fromentin, Boudin, by Daumier «The Suitor» in 
which is seen the caustic spirit of the master; Brissot, Meis- 
sonnier who painted «A dragoon of the Spanish Army»; 
«La Toilette)), by Fantin-Latour; Ribot, Decamps, Carriere, 
Diaz, etc., all well-known names, which give an idea of the 
value of the collection. 

Lastly, the visitor will stop before the beautiful marble 
by Boucher, which adorns the vestibule, and then ends his 
visit with the impression of having seen one of the best co- 
llections that a private person may form, when he possesses 
indispensable wealth, and has good taste. 

Gallery of the heirs of Jose Prudeiieio de Guerrieo. — Co- 

rrientes, 537. 

This gallery is not only an amateur collection, it is a real 
Museum, in which a dilettante of refined taste has collected 
works chosen from great contemporary painters, and some 
of the old masters. It is considered one of the first galleries 
in South America. 

The dominant note is the french school. The most dis- 
tinguished interpreters of nature or the great landscape paint- 
ers such as, Gustave Courbet, Daubigny, J. B. Corot, Diaz, 
Harpignies; Trouillebert, Lhermitte, are represented by one 
or two canvases, of great merit. 

We will commence the desciiption of this beautiful gal- 



190 CAPITAL Privnie 

lery with the hall, constructed specially for this puriJose, and 
which is the entrance to Mr. Guerrico's sumptuous house. 

I. HALL. — A. ]\Ieissonnier, celebrated drawing of Mai'shal Key. — Jules 
Lefeb\Te, «Diana surpriseds from the Paris Salon, 1879, considered'the mas- 
ter-piece of this painter. .Jules Claretie speaking of this painting says; «The 
foreigner has taken the Diana which should have embellished our Luxem- 
bourg... In 1883, Lefebvre had the medal of honour which he should have 
received for his <Diana surprised* (see <Contemporai-y painters and sculp- 
tors*, by JulesCIaretie),Th.Veron, in his criticism on the Salon of 1879, says, 
'Why has <Diana surprised'*, been allowed to be taken away? The foreigner, 
more intelligent than the French administration, has had to pay its weight 
in gold for this work. Mr. Lefebvre is a poet in every sense of the word and 
has an elevated style.* <Gabriel Ferrier, <The Spring*, fine canvas of 
the Salon 1881, worthy to be admired, which comes from the Secresta 
collection. — Ziem, two large inimitable paintings. — Ch. Jacque, five pictures, 
all interesting, representing sheep, fowls, cocks and horses. — Eugene 
Lambert, two beautiful canvases representing kittens. — F. Roybet, a good 
picture. — Fortivny, two exquisite works. — Isabey, a seascape and the inte- 
rior of a church. — Hcnner, two paintings which attract one's attention. — • 
Ribot, «Head of a woman*, full of life. — Lynch, «Lady Godiva*. — Th. We- 
ber, a seascape. — Sanchez Barbudo, t.wo pictures that do not need describ- 
ing. — Kaemmerer, a painting full of sunshine. — Van Marcke, two cows. — 
Alfred Stevens, a sunset of much effect. — Louis Deschamps, the head of a 
young girl, and of a young mother. — R. Goubie, <'Brood mares*, from the 
Salon in 1889, R. de Madrazo, a beautiful head of a woman. — I. Boudin, 
a sailor. — L. Spiridon, two pictures, a picture by each one of the following 
masters: A. Vollon, Yongking, Esquivel, Emile Bayard, F. Yinea, Roman 
Rivera, A. Pasini, Heilbuth. — Edward de Martino, two historical pictures, 
the Naval combat, July the 30th., 1826, at half past ten in the morning, 
between the ships 25 de Mayo and Nicteroij, Caboclo and Itapnrua, 
The same combat at a quarter past one in the afternoon. Nothing remains 
except the ships 25 de ^layo and Caboclo. Besides all these pictures, the hall 
contains a beautiful collection of Marbles, bronzes, terracotta, antique fur- 
niture, armoury, ivories, all arranged with good taste. We call attention to 
a rare and valuable collection of bronzes, by A. L. Barye, among which 
figure: ^-Theseus fighting the minotaur >, <A panther seizing a deer* and seve- 
ral lions and tigers. A splendid terracotta by Gustave Dore. Two large de- 
corated Sevres vases. .\ large bronze by J. P. ^leme «Arab hunting with a 
falcon*. A marble by E. Fremiet: < Credo*. A bronze bust. (Diana , by Fal- 
guiere, A bronze, by Ed. Delesalle: «Samson* Two large marble statues by 
Antonio Tantardini. An antique Louis XY, chest of darwers. A splendid 
Regence desk with gilt bronze and carving. Several statues of bronze of the 
first Empire. 

IL DRAWING ROOM.- In this room which is furnished in the pure 
style of Louis XYI, made by the upholsterers in Paris, there are some paint 
ings of great merit: Ch. Chaplin, two pictures. — Eug. Lambert, «The in- 
vasion*. — C. Delort, <'The removal-, exquisite canvas and wellknowTi. — M. 
Cosman, «The singing lesson* and some water-colours, amongst which two 
are very well known and admired, by Marchetti. < Yesterday > and <To-dayi». 
— Y. Gilbert, <Flowers'. — Gaston Gerard, two small works of art. — Pes- 
cador Saldaha, a fan: <In Spain*. The glass cases in the drawing room, allow 
one to admire a collection of beautiful fans, miniatures and bonbonnieres 
of the XYIII century, some of which have well known names. 

III. OFFICE. — A collection of pictures by the celebrated G. Perez de 
Villamil. — Greuze, a small head. — Goya, a painting. — Yibrand de Geest, 
an admirable head. — Tiepolo, two important pictures, — Jean Horemans, 
«The cobbler*. — Domingo, a head. — Yan Hier, a seascape. — A canvas by 
Tintoretto and Charpentier. — Edward de Martino, a naval combat be- 
tween the Argentine and Brazilian fleets, on the 29th. July, 1826, at 
halfpast ten at night. One sees in the darkness the ships, 25 de Mayo and 



(iaUerles (^MMTAL 101 

Rio, lighting against lliroe Brazilian ships. The effect ot Uic night is very 
well interpreted. — In tlie glass cases of the office are many antique objects of 
the country, some have belonged to General .Jose de San :\Iartin, some to 
the Director General .Juan Martin de rueyrred6n and others to Doctor 
Manuel V. Maza. 

IV. VESTIBUl.lv. This vestibule joins llie olTice to the (Uning-room. 
Some very famous water-colours attract one's attention. Amonst them are 
to be seen the names of Barbudo, Rosa Bonheur, Corot, Allonge, H. Cook, 
Van der Meulen, two pastels by .Jean (ionziilez and Mieczyslaw Reyzner, 
also, some famous Italian water-colour painters such as: Signorini, Domi- 
nici, Favres, Randanini, Cervi, Renzo, Bisco Tiratelli. 

V. DINING ROOM. — Pictures by Villegas, Domingo Mufioz, Hernan- 
dez, Galofre, Barbazan, Mirallcs, de Martino, Munier, Deschamps, Andreotti, 
.Johannes Fyt, Giudici, etc. 

Gallery of Laurent Pellerano. — Talcalmano, 1138. 

The house of Mr. Laurent Pellerano, fit for paintings, 
with appropriate light and premises, is all a museum where 
one could organize quite well, one salon for classics, another 
international, and yet another national and local. 

(Repentance, oil-painting. --^iiacomo Grosso. Below the walls, a rivulet 
Hows tranquilly and on the terrace of a monastery one sees a virgin appear, 
white and of harmonious profile, whose silhouette stands out from the back- 
ground of meadows and forests; a young nun is leaning on the virgin. In the 
clearness of the wood one sees a castle farther away, where a gay wedding 
feast is being celebrated, the sounds of which reach the nun who meditates 
on the contrast of what she sees and what she is. All happens by the light 
of the moon, and is majestically painted. 

Tranquillo Cremona. «Melancholy> is in the epoch of his first style, and 
seems to be done with colours prepared with the powder of precious stones, 
so intense is' the brilliance of the painting which gives it life. A young head 
is sustained by fine hands delicate as a fiower, the expression is passionate 
and sad as if touched with some adventure of the famous Cupid. 

Morelli. «\Veepers>. This is a sketch from the picture where Morelli has 
represented .Jesus performing the miracle of the synagogue, which is called 
in the words pronounced by Christ: Talita Kumi. These women paid to 
weep at the funerals, cry with despair, in the sketch to which we allude, 
and have the proper expression of exaggerated and pretended sorrow, Mo- 
relli is a *par exceJlence» colourist, and is considered the chief of the modern 
Italian scliool of art. 

Guglielmo Ciardi. «The canal of the Giudeca*. It is in first rate style and, 
in spite of the simplicity of the means employed by the artist, who is one 
of the principal Italian painters, it is of striking reality. 

Michetti. «The little goats» (pastel). It is necessary to see this painting 
to appreciate the grace and transparency with which the artist has pain- 
ted it. 

G. Induno. (The Savoyarde> (oil painting). What a poetic figure! Beautiful 
and young, she wanders, singing to the notes of a viola, through the country 
that was green and which the snow has now whitened. The beautiful Savo- 
yarde shows in her singing that, the cold air that envelopes the country also 
it envelopes lier soul. What cold so superbely poetic. The snow, the viola 
and the wounded heart of a young and beauliful Savoyarde. This is a paint- 
ing, this is true art. 

Tito. «In the country* (oil painting); this is a model of difficult simplicity, 

Debat Ponsan. <.Pasturage, with a cow led by a child*. This is an admira- 
l)le painting as much for the landscape as for the figure. 

oLa Ciociara* (Romaine), by Mose Blanchi de Monza, of a fine tone; a 
very interesting picture; ^Kissing the setting sun», by Sartorelli, landscape 
of wonderful arrangement; «Fenaison», by Peppe Ciardi (oil); «At works 



192 CAPITAL Private 

by Delleani; this is a picture which triumphs by its colouring and arrange- 
rrient; «Scene of Brianza*, by F. Carcano, subject of Italian life on the moun- 
tains and a beautiful canvas for its composition;»<'The soothsayers by Ji- 
menez Aranda (oil); two dames listen attentively to an old woman who 
daring and unscrupulous, probes the future as she will also probe the pur- 
ses of her listeners. The design, colour, and expression of the faces are truly 
remarkable. 

«The Venetian markets by Favretto and a large canvas by Ussi, «An Ara- 
bian scene in the desert». 

In one word, in Mr. Pellerano's gallery one sees paintings by the following 
Italian artists: MorelH, Cremond, Favretto, INIichetti, Bezzi, Pagliano, Fon- 
tanesi, Barabino, Ussi, Luigi Serra, Grosso, Mancini, INIose Blanchi, Sarto- 
relli, Bignami, Camprianni, Gignous, Cortese, Danieli, Fra Giacomo, Bello- 
ni, INIentessi, Ballestrieri, Lancerotto, Longini, Volpe, Avanzi, Esposito 
Scattola, Coleman, Freviati, Armenise, Demartini, De ^lartino, Aureli, 
Casciano Formis, Leto Brancaccio, Ricciardi, Saecheri, Mengotti, Garicio, 
Attanasio, Capuano, Campi, Castegnaro, StefTani, Gabrini, etc.; of Spanish 
artists: Sorolla, .Jimenez Aranda, Barbudo, Benlliure, Senet, Gonzalo Bil- 
bao, Benedito, Martinez Cubells, Sala, Unceta, Mas y Fondevilla, Valles, 
Fuis Alvarez, IMeifren, Villegas, Ramirez, Capdevilla, Murillo; of French 
artists: Troyon, Jules Dupre, Sauzey, Couturier, Brissot, de Varville, Debat 
Ponsan, De. Gazourski, Schmitt; of Belgian artists: Erbo and Van Wyck; 
of Argentine artists: ;Maggiolo, Fader, Coppini, Orlandi, Forcignano, Quaran- 
ta, del IMonaco, Pollet, Mendez, Trejo, Villar, Bonifanti, Berisso, etc. 

Gallery of Mr. Jean Canter.— ^Office, Bartolome Mitre 
street 51. 

This is more than a gallery of paintings, because sculp- 
ture has also its place as well as pottery and engravings, 
represented by a series of costly objects in all styles from all 
periods and from all nations. 

The school of signatures which predominates is the Span- 
ish, which constitutes more than 80 % of the pictures; 
nevertheless the paintings that there are by painters of 
other nationalities would fill some collectors with pride. 

«]Melancholy» and (Towards the evenings by Danielli. — Two jewels of 
untold value, above all, the second one. 

oSeller of vegetabless by Koriuff, is superb; «Views of Venices by For- 
zigniano splendid; <Inundated landscape*, by Sartorelli; oBread and work*, 
by Sottorcornola, a brilliant study of realism; oThe taverns by Francisco 
Domingo, painting small in its dimensions, but very great in its artistic 
worth; <The banks of the Manzanares* (oil), by the same; (The look of wo- 
men, id.; «An old spaniard» and (Between two lightSD, by Sorolla. 

The picture (Between two lightss the object of many enthusiastic praises 
n Europe, represents a villager who has drunk so much as to make him 
ively, one sees him smile with an expression that is all a poem, and look at 
the cristal jug, which he holds in a not too steady hand. 

«An old Spaniards is perhaps still better than (-Between two lights-); 
the personage is neither sympathetic nor attractive, and nevertheless one 
turns away reluctantly, once one has commenced to scrutinise, it has the 
power to subjugate and enchant. 

«An old salt) and (He is going to eat you» also by Sorolla. This last repre- 
sents a nurse who holds a baby in front of a tiger skin with the mouth of the 
stuffed head open, thus making the baby look at it from a respectable dis- 
tance for fear that she will be eaten. 

Barbudo. — There are many painting by this master amongst which 
we will mention «Revant des prouesses»; "the painter of pretty colours 
reveals himself here more vigorously than in his other works and with 
a valour and nerve which one would not have thought him capable of, 
his are also «Between two favourites* a large sized picture, of beautiful 



Oalleries CAPITAL 103 

colours, in this picture there is a dog which is worth a Peru; «\ head* is 
also by l^arbudo, and it is reputed to be the best he has painted up to the 
present. 

Jimenez Aranda. -The desi{?ner, without rival, is represented by «The 
card-players», «The blind hcnv several lanrlscapes from Don Quixote and 
an «Eve>>. The two first are without doubt the best, they are of a sober and 
real colouring; there is a richness of detail that is surprising. 

Marcelino Unceta. — This painter has nearly a dozen pictures which are 
mostly on military subjects. The most notable are; <'A hero* an expressive 
composition and treated with taste. A group of officers contemplate the 
bodv of a soldier shrouded in the snow, on the snow one sees stains of blood. 
«The retreat of Pepe Botella» is also a good picture. <'ManaHivres» and an 
allegory of the «Bulls in the XIX century. -Piunning like powder» by 
Checa. — Represents a group of Arabian horsemen, galloping at full speed. 

«A streets by Casimiro Sainz, a beautiful work of light and colour. 

(The wasiierwomen», by Galofre, a picture rich in detail, and full of life 
and reality. 

<The bath», by Jose Villegas. — This is one of the most beautiful pictures 
in the gallery. The little friglitened face of the child, whom the mother 
will dip in the water, — in spite of the painting in perspective, suffice to 
place this canvas among the best, if the colouring and execution of the 
whole has not given it this rank already. — There arc also, «An interrupted 
lesson), «A street in C6rdoba» and ('Carmen*, by Villegas. 

Gonzalo Bilbao. — There is a water colour that attracts one's attention 
greatly, this is (Cafe chantant* where the superb figure of the dancer and 
that of the singer show up exquisitely. By the same painter there are two 
splendid oil paintings; ^La rezagada» and «^Ieditation>. 

Navarro. — Has different can\ ases which, lor their masterly tones, the 
sun which burns, and the most brilliant colours, attract attention. Amongst 
them comes first «A charge of the Arabian Cavalry*. This artist, like For- 
tuny, thirsts for colour and light, and found that the sky of Spain did not 
sutTice him, so he went to seek inspiration in the hottest part of Africa; he 
has depicted on his canvas, with extraordinary truth this savage nature, 
these figures and these customs full of voluptuousness and poetry. 

Benedito. — One of the best paniters of the younger generation, figures 
with his «Study of a head». 

IMeifren. — Has in this gallery more than twenty pictures. Amongst 
them '(The silence» is, without doubt the best work of this artist. 

Bcnlliure (.Jose). — ('Surroundings of Madrid*. 

Benlliure (Mariano). — cThe fall of the picador* a superb sketch, dedi- 
cated to iNI. Canter. There are also, in this gallery, <'The two guitar-players*, 
by Luque; water-colours by Garcia Rodriguez; <'Plucking the turkey*, by 
Garcia Bamos; «The square of San Marcos*, by ^Moreno Carbonero; «The 
masked woman*, by Ferran; a brilliant water colour by Puig Roda; an ex- 
quisite collection of dogs and cats by Gimenez Sola, and more then twenty 
scenes and views of Toledo by Vera. 

Vila and Prades, arc represented by a painting of large size entitled, 
«Sobre el arroz*. This treats of a country scene which occurs at the gates of 
Valencia. There are many people and it is admirably painted. 

("arlos Soto, a young argentine painter, who could be placeil in the 
rank of great masters, is represented by <:A feast in Seville* and by «The 
presentation of the new-born*. Soto is as brilliant as Barbudo, but less 
superficial and more correct. 

Maggiolo. — Has a pastel entitled AVork* which represents a black- 
smith in the act of hammering, with force, on a red iron. Of beautiful colour- 
ing and irreprochable design, this work is above all, an anatomical stutly 
of the first order and an attractive and suggestive allegory. 

Collection belonging to Messrs. Pedro M. and Juan Mo- 
reno. — Victoria street, No. 1542. 

The collection of Messrs. Moreno is very different to the 
ones we have mentioned. The visitor, accompanied by the 



194 CAPITAL yaiional Historical 

amiable owners, does not see, pass beiore his eyes, canvases 
signed by the best known masters, of different schools. 
Here, only one painter, Dionisio Fierros, fills the gallery 
and comes to life again in the midst of his friends, Messrs. Mo- 
reno. 

And in all these pictures, some of which are truly beau- 
tiful, an impression of the naturalness and simplicity of the 
means employed, is apparent. 

Firstly one sees, a portrait of Mr. Moreno, senior, of vi- 
gorous workmanship, and the traits carefully studied. This 
picture is very superior to the portrait of the artist by 
himself which may be seen in the gallery. The f)ainter is 
represented wearing an English cap and cape, which gives 
him the appearance of a Scotchman. 

His talent is to be found in the other portraits 
which Messrs. Moreno possess: «The Cure», «The smoker», 
«Cavalier)> (epoch of Philippe IV), and above all «The grand- 
father)). 

But the prettiest canvas in the gallery is certainly «Las 
Carrayas», in which the artist han rendered the movements 
and tones admirably. This work is the result of many stu- 
dies which are also in the collection, and which prove the 
love Fierros had for the sea, its rocks, its vague and pene- 
trating poetry. 

In another style, equally attractive, from the brush of the 
artist, are scenes of simple and rustic life. The types and 
feasts of Galicia, are real poems, it is the soul which he has 
produced, the soul of this province which he depicts. «An 
idyll» is of one colour, of admirable design and sentiment; 
«The return of the soldier», «May)), «La Muneira'), «La Rome- 
ria», «A bad year», etc., possessing all these same qualities. 

From his journey to Italy, Fierro brought several can- 
vases, «Anatolia» etc., but in these works there is not the 
same knowledge as in the scenes from Galicia. 

To sum up, Messrs. Moreno have, in a very large salon 
in which plenty of light penetrates, one of the most interesting 
galleries, the paintings of which he has had reproduced in 
an album, which is an artistic work in itself, and is edited 
by the house of Jacobo Peuser, of Buenos Aires. This album 
is consecrated to the life and works of Dionisio Fierros, the 
text is written by Mr. Leopold Basa, and speaks of the 
beautiful talent of the painter. 



National Historical Museum. 

This Museum is situated in the Lezama Park, and has 
an independant entrance on the Defensa street No. 1600; it 



Maseiim CAPITAL 19o 

is open to the public on Thursdays and Sundays from mid- 
day to four o'clock. 

The Museum consists of six salons and a gallery. All pos- 
sible space has been used for this museum, and the visitor 
sees at once the necessity of enlargement. The government 
has an idea of constructing a building worthy of this sanc- 
tuary of native glories. On the initiative of the present Di- 
rector, Mr. Adolph P. Carranza, it was created with a muni- 
cipal sanction in May 1889 and organised; it was inaugura- 
ted in a rented house in the Esmeralda street, the 30th. 
August 1890, with 191 objects only. 

This commencement of the Museum consisted of private 
donations, and trophies which were kept in the Govern- 
ment Palace, in the «Camara de Apelaciones» and in the Na- 
tural History Museum, where some antique objects have 
been deposited. 

The 15th. February 1891, it was transferred to Moreno 
Street No. 3.30, and its treasure has increased so as to double 
the historical pieces. It was nationalised in September 1891, 
and in the month of January of 1894 it was again dismantled 
and taken to the Santa Fe street where the offices of the 
garden of Acclimatation are to-day; the collection had attain- 
ed 1,500 objects which obliged it to be transported to the 
place it occupies to-day, in September 1897. This locality 
is also insufficient and a great number of objects cannot 
be exhibited for want of room. 

The entrance is through a garden, and a corridor adorn- 
ed with portraits of nobles, moulded in plaster, and 
some cannons of the XVTII century, among which one 
sees the mortar «Monasterio» founded at Buenos Aires in 
1813. 

The door to the left, gives access to the office, and that 
to the right, to the public salons. 

The library of the establishment, a gift of the same 
Mr. Carranza in 1893, has been greatly augmented and now 
counts 1,500 volumes of American history, without mentio- 
ning the rare and important manuscripts, which form a 
valuable collection. The numismatic section of the Museum, 
is rich, and possesses several rare examples of the military 
prizes in the epoch of the Independence, as well as com- 
memorative medals and others. 

In all there are 4,000 pieces. It is really regrettable that 
the want of space does not permit of making it a public 
exhibition. 

1st. SALOX. — On entering, to the left, the visitor finds the famous silver 
plate or slab with gold reliefs, voted for, and sent by the Cabildo of Oruro 
(Peru) (now in liolivia) in August 1807, to the ^lunicipality of Buenos Aires, 
^nd to General Liniers, to commemorate the reconqucst of llio town. Below 



196 CAPITAL National Historical 

this slab is the sword of General Beresford surrendered by him at the re- 
conquest of the town. On this slab was hung the shield, called oTarja de 
Potosi» not less famous, worked in gold and silver, and presented by 
the ladies of this town to the most noble general and patriot Manuel Bel- 
grano; many medals commemorative of his triumph at Salto and Tucuman 
hang also there. There ai-e also two standards, symbols of royal power; 
one, which is the oldest that is known, dates back to 1605, hoisted for 
the first time by Don ^lelchor Casco de Mendoza, descendant of the first 
conquerors, and the other, the more modern one, the last royal standard- 
bearer, Don Francisco Escalada, had in his charge. — Portraits in oils of the 
\aceroys: Pedro :\Ielo de Portugal, Antonio Olaguer Feliu, Gabriel de Aviles, 
Joaquin del Pino and Rafael de Sobremonte; portraits of other personages, 
swords of chiefs, coats-of-arms and views of Buenos Aires at different epochs. 
— The furniture of the royal standard-bearer, Don Francisco Antonio Es- 
calada, of the XVIII century, two pretty consoles with glass and adorned 
with crystals in the finest style, and the chest of drawers belonging to Brown, 
also the writing desk of Velez Sarsfield; oil portraits of the generals of the 
Independence, Xecochea, Mansilla and Colonel Olavarria. — On the parti- 
tion are the members of the first Junta (meeting) of the government, cons- 
tituted in May 1810 and episodes of the great emancipating revolution. — - 
Four pictures representing naval battles; the portraits of illustrious sailors: 
Brown, Azopardo, Bynnon, Espora; of Velez Sarsfield; generals, Gutierrez, 
etcetera and two fine views of the royal fortress of San Juan de Baltasar 
de Austria, at Buenos Aires. 

2nd. SALOX. — This adjoins the large salon by a large door, two antique 
tables are placed there, with feet like goat's feet, and some chairs work- 
ed in leather; a picture representing the encampment of Don Geronimo 
Matorras at Tucuman, in 1774; portraits of geographers, governors and tra- 
vellers: Christopher and Barthelemy Colomb, Pedro de Yaldivia, the bro- 
thers Nodal, Ihigo de Ayala, ^Magellan, who discovered the straits which 
bear his name, Grijalva, who discovered La Xueva Espafia, Ulderic Schnii- 
del, Hurtado de Mendoza, Diego de Mendoza, Diego de Almagro, Ponce 
de Leon, who discovered Florida, Hernan Cortes, Francisco Pizarro and 
others.^The plan of Buenos Aires in 1814, drawn up by Pedro Cervifio; the 
coat-of-arms of the same to\NTi restored on the order of the Cabildo in 1774; 
general and partial views, pictures of costumes and different objects; the 
uniform, sword and decorations of General Justo Jose de Urquiza; a 
view of Mendoza, taken in 1860, and different views of the ruins of the 
same town, the portraits of the members of the Constituent Convention 
in 1853, of the viceroy Santiago Liniers, of general William Carr Beres- 
ford, of the Dictator of Paraguay, Jose Gaspar Francia, the geologist Bra- 
vard, of brother Louis Bolahos, Doctor Pedro Medrano and Gonzalez Sa- 
lom6n. President of the famous popular society <Piestaiu-adora'> and others. 
— In an antique cupboard are to be found some of the plates and dishes 
belonging to General San ]\Iartin; some vases of the time, with the por- 
traits of Rosas and his wife Encarnaci6n Ezcurra, General Guido y I^az, 
Colonel Dorrego and of Bernardino Rivadavia; a miniature of king Ferdi- 
nand VII; the cup in which Bolivar took his last remedies, the spurs of the 
oppressor of Santiago del Estero, Juan Felipe Ibarra. A set of dominoes 
of the viceroy Olaguer FeUu; portions of tlie first rails laid down in the 
Argentine Republic; fans, antiques and curious, seals and combs. 

The spaces left free by the doors of the 1st. and 2nd. salons that give 
access to the 3rd. salon or rather, to the large hall, are occupied by 
some very interesting objects such as the silver statue of the English mi- 
nister George Canning, presented to Doctor Valentine Alsina in 1857; a 
model in wood of the Buenos Aires Cathedral, with the towers which it 
originally had; the beautiful coat-of-arms of Spain, in marble, which had 
been placed over the portico of the ancient fort of Buenos Aires; that of the 
Assembly of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata which took the place of 
the royal coat-of-arms in 1813, a real model of the National coat-of-arms; 
the clock which the 71st. regiment of Highlanders presented to the Hospital of 
Belermos in 1807, in recognition of the recovery of their wounded; a piece 
of furniture incrusted with mother of pearl, work of the Indians of Cuzco; 



Museum CAPITAL 197 

a what-not with pieces of porcelain belonging to (ieneral Urquiza, and 
some pictures and portraits. 

3rd. SALON. — ^If one considers that this hall is .50 yards long (about 
45 metres) then the didiculty of enumerating the different objects enclosed 
therein, will be understood. It is destined largely to the epoch of the nation- 
al Independence, although there are also objects corresponding to difte- 
rent periods of history, as in the other rooms. We will give a rapid account 
of this salon, so as to give the reader an idea of its importance. Besides, 
each piece has its written explanation, which, makes the examination 
easy. 

The first thing that attracts one's attention is the room where General 
.Jose de vSan ^Martin, the liberator of 3 republics, lived and died; his history 
has been written by general Bartolome Mitre, who distinguishes him as an 
example to his compatriots in his description of the warlike exploits of the 
great captain. The room has been re-arranged exactly as the general had it in 
his exile, with the same furniture and the same pictures and thuigs he 
used, all of which were given to the Museum by his heirs. And nothing can 
describe the impression that this room gives on contemplation. In the 
same salon several portraits of his are preserved; one is painted by the 
Peruvian Jose Gil, in Chili after the triumph of Chacabuco in 1818; 
one was engraved by Cooper in 1821; another by Whusen of London, one 
executed in 1827 with the national Hag, at Brussels, another by ^lardou- 
others original, and some reproductions are distributed in the establish- 
ment. There are, among the objects that belonged to him: two small writ- 
ing desks, two cases of pistols, a sextant, a telescope, a snuff-box and other 
objects. In the 4th. salon several important objects are to be found. Among 
the pictures representing combats and other deeds of note, we may mention: 
the battle of ^laipu, in oils, original by I'ernandez Villanueva, and a litho- 
graph of the same battle, done in London in 1819; one executed in Chile by 
Rugendas; another from London and of the same year, representing the 
battle of Chacabuco; a lithographic copy of the picture by W. Carlzen, 
which shows the passage through the Andes, an oil painting of the same 
subject by August Ballerini; an engraving of the battle of Suipacha; an oil 
painting of the battle of Ayacucho, painted in 1825 by .luan Correa Mora- 
les; the "Surprise of Tejar», by F. Alabes; the «Encampment of Plumerillos 
by Bouchet; the «Last moments of General San Martin>; the patriot of 
Bogota, Policaipe Salabarrieta, before going to his death; the naval com- 
bat on the 11th. April 1826, original in oils by Larrabide; different pictures 
of the combat of the Passage del Obligado; view of the ruins of the house 
where General San Martin was born in A'apoyu; another of the house where 
the Independence was sworn, and a collection of daguerreotypes represent- 
ing partial views of the town of Buenos .\ires in 1853. 

In this room are four Hags; that of the Bio de la Plata regiment, sur- 
rendered at Callao, and that which the brave Falucho would not surren- 
der, and which cost him his life; a fac-simile of the Jlag of the army of the 
Andes, the original of which is preserved at Mendoza; the flag that was 
brought triumphantly to Chile by Commander .Juan Manuel Cabot, with 
the North division detached from the same army in 1877; and the stan- 
dard of the corps of «I-os Migueletes) who served at the time of the English 
invasion in 1807. 

Want of space has necessitated the distribution of furniture in pla- 
ces where they could be arranged amongst other objects. We will men- 
tion in the first place, the benches of the Cabildo of Buenos Aires, mute 
witnesses of the Assembly of the 22nd. May 1810, the commencement of 
another nationality, confirmed the memorable day of the 25tli. of the 
same month, with the nomination of the first provisional Meeting of the 
Government; two pianos or harpsichords which belonged, the one to Mme. de 
Ezcurra, made in 1804, and the other to Mme. de Marmol, in 1797 several 
chests of drawers, cases for stationery and cupboards of the XVIII cen- 
tury, among these are to be seen different objects: a bronze cannon ta- 
ken from the English troops in 1807; the cofTins in which the remains of 
Bernardino Rivadavia and General Lavalli' were repatrited; the table on 
which this last, wrote the famous report of the deathofa Colonel Dorrego; 



198 CAPITAL yaiional Ilistoriad 

an ammunition box taken in the combat of El Obligado, a cannon of the 
XVII century, extracted from the excavations of the port; the manacles 
which were put on General Jose ^Nlaria Paz when he was imprisoned; objects 
of minor importance are to be found on the shelves and in cabinets: such as 
the ribbon of General Lavalle; a sword-belt which the liberator Bolivar 
wore at the battle of Bombona; a campaign-telescope belonging to General 
Belgrano and a bust in bronze of the same; the headdress of an officer of the 
grenadier horse guards, which belonged to General M. Escalada; lastly, the 
silver inkstand which served the never to bo forgotten secretary of the Jun- 
ta Mariano Moreno, soul of the revolution of May, to write his sensational 
decrees and many works. 

The portrait gallery of the Museum is very vast and a good number of 
the ancient painters who have worked in this country are represented: 
after Gil, in 1817, who painted the portrait of many of the officers of 
the Army of the Andes, Wutsen, Pellegrini, Lima, Alais, Garcia, Galli, 
Goulou, Carlzen, Carrandi, Fiorini and others, we will mention only 
a small number of those painters whose pictures are to be found in this 
salon, thus: paintings by Gil: General Thomas Guido and Rufino, his fa- 
ther; of ?Iilarion de la Quintana and of Blanco Encalada; of Nicholas 
Rodriguez Pefia, fore-runner of the Independence: of the colonels Conde, 
Medina, Melian, Aguirre (J. M.), Rojas Olazabal (Manuel), Hippolito Bou- 
chard, who, with <'La Argentina- took the Argentine flag to the remotest 
seas, and oi Sergeant-Major Francisco Diaz of the artillery in the liberating 
army. By Wutsen: the portrait of General Manuel Escalada, who was at 
the battle of Maipu. By Pellegrini, there are the portraits of Admiral Wil- 
liam Brown, Colonels Felix Olazabal and Francisco Doblas, of doctors 
Valentine Gomez and Santiago Figueredo, ex-rector of the Buenos Aires 
University; by Lima: a portrait of brother Justo Santa ^Maria de Oro; by 
Alais: one of Juan 3Ianuel Rosas, in private clothes; by Garcia: that of co- 
lonel Juan Esteban Rodriguez, of Tomas Anchorena and of doctor Anto- 
nio Saenz. By Galli there are the portraits of the inseparable friends (Colo- 
nels .Jose de Olavarria and Isidoro Suarez, the heroes ot ,Junin; by Goulou: 
the portrait of the impetuous colonel Brandzen, who ended his glorious 
life on the battle field of Ituzaingo; by Carlzen, those of Generals Jose 'Ma- 
tias Zapiola and colonel Pedro Ramos; by Carandi: one of colonel Martin 
Hidalgo, and lastly by Fiorini: those of colonels Juan Jose Hernandez, Isi- 
dro Quesada and Martin Lacarra, defender of Patagonia in 1827. 

In spite of the length of this account, we cannot pass over in silence the 
portraits of Generals Juan Martin de Pueyrred6n, Juan Gregorio de las 
Heras, Marcos Gonzalez Balcarce, Rudecindo Alvarado, Manuel Soler, 
Bernardo O'Higgins, Enrique Martinez, Juan Esteban Pedernera, Jose 
Rondeau, flannel Belgrano, Antonio Gonzalez Balcarce and colonels Pedro 
Conde, Ambro*io Cramer, Roman Deheza, Juan O'Brien, Miguel Cajara- 
ville, Pedro Ramos, George Velasco, Eusebio Necochea, Pedro .Jose Diaz, 
Felix Bogado, Hilarion Plaza, Vega, Aldao, Giiemes, Vidt, Pringles and all 
those whom the fatherland recognises for some deed, not only in war but 
also for some civic act. 

Distinguished dames have also a place of preference, where one may 
see the portraits of Tomasa de la Quintana, Remedies Escalada, Angela 
Castelli, ^Maria Sanchez de Thompson, Carmen Quintanilla de Alvear, Ru- 
fina Orma, Isabel Calvimontes de Agrelo, Encarnacion Andonaegui, Casilda 
Igarzabal, Juana Azurduy de Padilla, Magdalena Giiemes de Tejada, and 
others, also present, giving evidence of their faithful love for the native 
land. 

On special tables, are exhibited, the uniforms and decorations, of dis- 
tinguished military men such, as Rondeau, Zapiola, Pedernera, :MansiH^; 
Guido, Espejo, Soler, Paz, Pinto, Zarraga, Iriarte, Olazabal, etc., also their 
swords and those of the following: several belonging to :Martin Rodriguez^ 
three of Lavalle, one of O'Brien, another of Cajaraville Brown, Dorrego^ 
Felipe Pereira de Lucena, admiral Grau, the Peruvian, and a very renlark^ 
able one which lias belonged to generals Belgrano, Giiemes and Alvarado. 

In the last place, worthy also of attention, ere the walking-sticks which 
have belonged to illustrious personages; amongst them is that of the 
tyraMt of Paraguay, Gas^jar Erancia, that of Cornelio Saavedra president 



Museum (CAPITAL UH) 

of the first «Junta) of the government; the staff of command used by the 
governors of Buenos Aires and those used as a sign of authority by the 
sheriffs of the Cabildo, those used by generals Nariiio and Soublette, those 
of the Argentine generals Iriaj-te and Xazar and the one belonging to the 
noble Bernardino Rivadavia. 

It would be tiring to mention all the small objects which are placed on 
the shelves, such as medals, decorations, seals, jewels and weapons. 

4th. SALON. — In this salon one finds General San Martin in the full 
swing of his glory; his campaign sabre of moorish style, which served this 
redeemer of half America, is preserved with a profound respect, in a glass 
case, in the same way his uniform as Protector of Peru is also kept, the 
medals of Chacabuco and Maipi'i, the golden plaque and the diamonds of the 
Legion of ^Merit of Chili, which, were given to him by the Cabildo of liuenos 
Aires, one of gold enamel of Bailen, his gold epaulettes, his ribbons and 
silk bands, signs of his command, amongst which, a very simple one of pale 
blue with which he crossed the Andes; the classical <falucho'>, his canes, three 
seals of his use, his whistles, <'yesquero» and «ponchoi) and modest trunk and 
also his camp bed, lost at (^ancha Rayada and found at Maipu. 

Flags taken from the enemy adorn the walls and surround the other 
objects; these flags are under glass; one sees: that of the regiment of Tala- 
vera, that of the Dragoons of Chili, and a tattered one taken at Chacabuco; 
a flag and three standards taken at Maipu; those of the regiments of Bur- 
gos, Arequipa, and Concepci6n; the standard of the Dragoons of the Chillar 
and several others taken at Suipacha, Salta, at Tucuman, at Pasco, or in 
other actions of the war of the Independence. 

There are several from the campaign of Brasil, and the banner of the fa- 
mous 71st. English battalion, taken in 1806. — Plans of combat, pictures of 
battles, miniatures, decorations, some anonymous caricatures relating to 
San Martin,and lastly, the inkstand of the Inquisition of Lima, brought from 
Peru by San Martin, a no less interesting trophy, than the flags conquered 
at the point of the sword, bcciiuse it served to drown during more than two 
centuries, the liberty of conscience. 

GALLERY. — On leaving the 4th. salon, sixteen pictures are to be seen 
in the gallery which joins the 1st. salon with the 5th., they come from the 
Convent of San Francisco de Cdrdoba, portraits of missionaries who exer- 
cised their mission in South America, and on the lower part of the walls 
on both sides are episodes of the naval war and lithographs, the sabre of 
Bruno Maurice de Zavala, founder of Montevideo; two swords of the epoch 
of the conquest; a picture in oils, which represents the founders of the Church 
of the Merced, in this town, and who offered the building to Our Lady of 
Mercedes (de la Misericordia); a standard presented to Quiroga by the 
Dames of Mendoza, in 1831, and olher objects that belonged to him' also; 
a picture of the assassination of this same chief: three lithographs repre- 
senting different episodes of the battle of Caseros in 1852; another of the 
battle of Arroyo Grande; two of the battle of Catamarca in 1811; a view 
of the house at .Jujuy, where General Lava He died, in the same year; another 
of Palermo de San Benito; the marble slab which crowned the building of 
the New Custom House, and several views of the same building; view of 
the house in which Admiral Brown lived and died; an engraving represent- 
ing the entrance of the English in 1806; two photographs of the campaign 
house of White, where the general in command of the English troops, esta- 
blished his general quarters in 1807; pictures of the customs and views of 
this town to the number of fifty and proceeding from the collections by 
Pellegrini, Gregorio Garcia, G. Ibarra, and others. A numerous collection 
of portraits, amongst which, we will mention at random, Miranda, Bolivar, 
Sucre, General Colombien Jose Maria C6rdoba, Diego Alcorta. colonel 
Adolphus Davila, Dr. F. Zuviria, Florencio Varela, Luis Jose de la Peiia, 
Dr. Gregorio G6mez, Miguel Jose Cabrera, .lose .loaquin Olmedo, Dr. Do- 
mingo de Azcuenaga, brother Cayetano Rodriguez, (ieneral Julian Lagu- 
na. Angel Vicente Penaloza. I'^l Chacho. Dr. I'rancisco de Paula Ramiro, 
General ]Mariano Rol6n, (.ieneral .Juan Ouiroga, colonel Juan Cris6stomo 
Alvarez, General Laniadiid, Mamu'l .\ntonio de la Torre, XlVth. bishop 



200 CAPITAL Nat Historic. Museum 

of Buenos Aires, Don Jose Demaria, forerunner of the Independence of 
Paraguay, brother Buenaventura Hidalgo, colonel Domingo Sosa, and 
many others; the decorations of General Lavalle, red waistcoats, swords, etc. 

5th. SALON. — This salon adjoins the gallery and leads to the ves- 
tibule and staircase which descends to the 6th. salon. Here also, as in 
the other salons, there are flags which are worthy of mention; two Spanish 
Hags of the war of the Independence; those which served General Belgrano, 
in Peru; one embroidered for the troops of General Lavalle in 1839; that 
which served the regiment of «gallegos» (galicians) under the command of 
Pedro Cerviiio, in 1807; and the copy of the famous standard of the conque- 
ror Pizarra, wliich General San ^Martin brouglit from the town «Los Beyes». 

Three large pictures that attract attention: the review at Bancagua, the 
transfer of the remains of General Lavalle in Bolivia, through the ravine 
of Humahuaca, and tlie occupation by the troops of General Boca at Bio 
Negro. Others much smaller, representing the execution of Colonel Dorre- 
go, the combat at San Lorenzo, the fort of Buenos Aires, a drawing of this 
town by Juan de Garay, the genealogical tree of Ortiz de Zarate, portraits 
of ancient kings: Philippe V, Gabrielle of Savoy, Charles HI, and Marie- 
Anne of Austria; of Paulo Sanz, governor-intendant of Potosi; of Velez 
Sarsfield, M. Paz, Acosta, Derqui, Beresford, Bivera Domingo de Oro, bishop 
of Cuyo, brother Eufracio Quiroga Sarmiento, Pedro Le6n Gallo, Bernar- 
dino Bivadavia, Perdriel. Barcala, Laprida, L6pez y Planes, Gorriti, Al- 
varez Jonte, Admiral Grau, etc. 

Among the furniture may be mentioned an octagonal table with feet 
called goat's feet; another square one with turned legs; an armchair belong- 
ing to the Boyal Audience; two writing tables and chairs of the XVIII 
century. Among other objects worthy to be mentioned are: the remains of 
the printing press introduced into Buenos Aires by the viceroy Vertiz, and 
commonly called the <'Foundlings», a leaden slab commemorative of the 
founding of the Convent of Sisters Catalinas in 1727; logs of wood from 
the foundation of Corrientes in 1588; the gold embroirered shabrack that 
covered the horse of the royal standard-bearer of Buenos Aires; locks and 
keys of the ancient fort; a clock presented by General Beresford to the Ca- 
bildo in 1806 and an English mallet of the same epoch. 

The costume of the royal standard-bearer, Francisco Antonio Escala- 
da, the military cloak of Pedro Cerviiio and the dress-coat of Florencio 
Varela, showing the gash of the dagger of the assassin Cabrera who killed 
him, are placed in special glass cases. 

VESTIBULE AND STATBCASE.— All the space possible, has been 
used to advantage and the walls are literally covered with pictures; foiu* 
Spanish flags, and one from Paraguay, trophies of war: a table made with 
the foot of a chandelier carved in wood by the missions of Corrientes; 
the stern-post of the ship Marafiona, arrived at Buenos Aires in 1538, taken 
from the excavations of the port; a piece of wood from the Brazilian frigate 
Itaparica which surrendered to Patagones in 1827; five tomb-stones of the 
missions of 1751/82/86; engraved views of the mountain and town of Po- 
tosi in 1671; of Truxillo and Callao in Peru in the same year; of Lima in 1771, 
of Buenos Aires, in 1803; drawings engravings and lithographs of national 
customs: <E1 tambo en la rivera>, «La media caiia», «Gaucho in village cos- 
tume, ladies of Buenos Aires, landing carts, pedlars, mendicants, packs 
of hounds, the fort, cathedral of the Cabildo, avenues of poplars, etc.; 
a coat-of-arms of Salta, the funeral of Bivadavia, the Act of the Indepen- 
dence, plans, diplomas, letters, portraits of several persons, actors in the 
civil wars, or in the definite constitution of the country, among them one 
of life-size of General Urquiza, and small ones of Pastor Obligado, de La- 
madrid, of Quiroga, Ibarra, brothers Heredia, Borges, Bustos, Estanislao 
Lopez, Villafane, Allende, Aldao, Marco Avellaneda, Sola, Vilella, Bena- 
vides, Puch, Hornos, etc. 

6th. SALON. — This is tlie only one on the grovmd floor, and is reached 
by the staircase of which we have spoken. This room is destined to tro- 
phies and to pictures of the war of Paraguay; but, like the other rooms/ 



Museums of Arms CAPITAL 201 

there are also other objects of diflerent epochs, for which no better place 
has been found. One may contemplate more than 30 oil paintings relative 
to the long campaign of this war, painted by the Argentine artist C6n- 
dido L6pez, military eye witness of the deeds which he has reproduced, 
and wich would take too long to detail. On the principal wall one sees 
trophies, flags, some taken in war, and others of the Argentine troops ; 
who assisted in the campaign, others of the civil wars after 18."j2; there 
is also an embroidered silk with General Urquiza's name on it, and 
one borne by General Paz at the battle of Caaguazil, The chain that 
closed the pass of Humaita, drums, weapons and projectiles; plan of the 
combats at Riachuelo, I'ruguayana, Tuyuti, etc. The sketch of a crown 
in plaster dedicated to the Dictator L6pez, and several portrait sof him. 
Besides some English bullets shot against the fort in 1807 and cannon balls 
fromt he battle of Obligado; an ancient vine on the coat of arms of the town of 
Pergamino, the use of which was abolished in 1S81; an anchor made in El 
Chaco for the vessel El Mataco which was used for the exploration of the 
river Bermejo; a wooden box from El Chaco of the XVII century; aprons 
and tools of the sappers of the army of Rosas; some cannon, and amongst 
them, the one cast in 18.5() in Buenos Aires; lastly an original picture 
by .1. Blanes, representing the fire on the ship ^Americas etc., etc. The 
historical Museum preserves nearly the whole collection of the epoch of 
Rosas and many pictures and objects for which no space for exhibition 
has been found. 



Museum of Arms. 

Property of General Jose I. Garmendia (Paraguay 
street 1327). 

This collection of weapons which the general began to 
form in 1864 is composed almost entirely of gifts from per- 
sons of our society; it is quite a Museum. 

The weapons are authentic, as the documents prove, 
which explain their origin. People who desire to visit this 
museuin must get the permission of its owner. 

Sabres of the XV and XVI centuries. — 12 examples, nearly all with 
their respective marks and inscriptions. The type is that of the epoch, 
large double-edged blade. Daggers in the form of a cross, with straight 
arms and curved at the base, they have different ornamentations. Six exam- 
ples of rapiers of different styles, daggers and blades with their respective 
trade marks and inscriptions. Seven examples <«SchitavonaS'> Venetian swords 
of the XVII century; two which belonged to General .Mitre. Ten examples 
of swords of different shapes and daggers of the XVII century; 2() exam- 
ples of Swords, with shells for the protection of the hand of the XVI, XVII 
and XVIII centuries, amongst them there are weapons of real merit for 
the length of the blade, the inscriptions of the swords and the shells, above 
all those of the time of Phillip II of Spain. There one may study perfectly, 
the progress of this weapon from 1500 to 1700. 16 examples of court swords 
and battle swords, of the XVI, XVII and XVIII centuries; amongst them 
is to be found one belonging to Bartolonu- dc Bracamonte, a present from 
Ignatius Ezcurra, But one does not know if this sword was that of the per- 
sonage who came with iNIendoza, or of his son. There are also those belong- 
ing to Almodovar, Juan de Salcedo, .Juan de Alurralde, and others with 
names more or less mtelligible, amongst which there are some with curious 
devices like that which was found on a false blade that lengthened itself, 
once out of its sheath. «Mi sinal es el nome de Jesus» (My sign is the name of 
.lesus), and on the reverse «Me fizo Bonnepui en Alemania», another one had 
on it «^Ii sinal es el nome de Leonor> and several others. — Sabres, and swords 
of the XIX century. oO, of which one is the sword of Rosas with which 
he made the campaign to the desert; another which wys (or his own parti-. 



202 CAPITAL Museum of Arms 

cular use; one of General Quiroga; a consular sword belonging io Fulgencio 
Yedros; one of General Ramirez; one of General Madariaga; one of General 
Don Felix de Alzaga, the blade of which belonged to Charles III; two of 
General San Martin, one of the XVII century, the blade of which belonged 
to the famous swordsman from Toledo, Sebastian Hernandez, who fought 
at Bailen, with this sword. General San Martin made a present of it to his 
old aide-de-camp, Colonel Borgofio, who, in his turn gave it to the President 
of Chili, General Bulnes, whose son presented it to the Museum; the other 
sword was presented to the Governor of Mendoza, Luzuriaga, by General San 
Martin; one of the cacique Pincen; one of the cacique Saiwech; a small 
sword of the cabildo of Don Jaime Alsina; one id. of Don Jose I. de Gar- 
mendia and several others of less historical value. All these swords are 
mounted in silver, with the exception of those that belonged to Generals 
Alzaga and Alsina, and they are mounted in gold. Another, belonging to 
General Santos is adorned with precious stones. — Daggers and dirks of the 

XVI and XVII centuries. — Thirty, some of which are very remarkable; 
20 dirks of the XVIII and XIX"^ centuries. — Fire-arms, XVI and XVII 
centuries. — Nine very well decorated rifles; 30 rifles and others of the 

XVII & XVIII centuries. All these weapons are beautiful for their cons- 
truction and ornaments of gold and silver; amongst them are some mo- 
rocco, arabian, turkish, corsican, african, etc., ones. — Pistols *de rue- 
da*, XVI century. — 3 ornamented with ivory; 120 pistols and revolvers 
of the XVII, XVIII & XIX centuries, among them are many of great 
merit, because of their marks and adornments; there are those which be- 
longed to General Hornos, the Marquis of Puente Fuerte, of General Are- 
nales; one sees also a large number of short revolvers, one of which is a credit 
to the artist's talent for its original mechanism, there are also canes, dirks, 
and a great variety of curiosities of war. Halbards and lances of the 
XVII century. — 16 with their respective marks, of which some are chased; 
two have belonged to General Mitre. Lances of the XVII, XVIII & XIX 
centuries. — 46 specimens, amongst which some belonged to caciques; one 
sees those of El Chacho, colonel Acufia, colonel Avalos, Manuel Ocampo; 
aU those which have belonged to chiefs, are adorned with silver; some of 
these weapons are of less value than others, because of their form. — Artil- 
lery, year 1350. — 1 cannon (falconet), gift of Dr. Lamas; 1 cannon of chas- 
ed bronze, gift of colonel Panelo, and dating from the epoch of Phillip V; 
1 marine cannon, gift Mr. Jose C. Moyano; 1 small English cannon, gift of 
Mr. Cornel, and 1 small Armstrong cannon, gift of colonel Dantas; 1 naval 
<!falconet'> of the XVIII century, gift of Dr. Trelles; 1 ball from a falconet 
of the XV century found in the excavations of Port Madero; different pro- 
jectiles of the same origin and epoch, and. 1 gun of the XVI century. — 
Ballistas. — 1 wall gun, 1 hand gun and 1 imitation.— Wall arquebuses of 
the XVIII century. — 6 are curious for their size, and the trade mark. — 
Armour, cuirass and helmets. — Two of the XVII century; two id. Japanese; 
1 oriental; 2 cuirasses with helmets of the XVII century; 2 figures dressed 
in the costumes of the soldiers of the Pope; 1 cuirass of the XVII century; 
3 of the XVIII; a mail coat of the XVII century; 7 helmets of the XVII 
& XVIII centuries. Among this armoury there are pieces of great value. 
Escutcheons. — 7 of the XVI and XVII centuries; three are of imitation 
bronze; 1 other of chased steel which was the property of General Mitre. — 
Axes, maces, war whips of the XV, XVI & XVII centuries. — 4 war whips; 
5 axes and maces. — Oriental and Japanese weapons. — 7 sabres; 10 dirks, 
10 helmets, 3 pistols and 4 guns. — <'Kris Malayos». — 20 specimens. — Tur- 
kish and Moroccan dirks. — 30, nearly all ornamented with sliver. — Sabres, 
Morocco and yatagans. — 26, all beautiful pieces. — Sabres and Indian wea- 
pons. — 4 sabres, 1 dirk, 1 axe, 1 half-moon blade for decapitating, 80 dif- 
ferent weapons of all kinds and values, of which some are mounted in gold 
and silver; flags and standards, small lance flags which have belonged to per- 
sonages of this country. Besides, a collection of 150 antique spurs of the 
most curious kinds, Argentine, Chilian, Peruvian, most of them from the 
time of the conquest; stirrups, bits, and 11 cases of pistols of this centiu-y, 
of rare value, for their form and ornamentations.^ — One may also see flags, 
amongst which is that of the regiment «Sol de ^layo' which was commanded 
by :\Ianuel Ocampo and Machado; that of the regiment «de las Conchas*, 



Nal. A(jric. M use am CAPITAL L>(i:i 

that of the Provincial regiment, that of the regiment 9th. of July ("J de 
Julio), that of L6pez Jordan, that of the revolutionaries of Rio Grande, 
two Chilian ones, and that of Pav6n and others. 

National Agricultural Museum. 

The Agricultural Museum was formed after the Interna- 
tional Agricultural Exhibition of 1910. It was thought well 
to preserve the products that were exhibited, with the ob- 
ject of drawing greater benefits from the works and the sums 
which this exhibition would need. These specimens of the 
products of national agriculture served to form the Agricul- 
tural Museum, installed in the place where the exhibition had 
been, and for this purpose this locality was specially cons- 
tructed in Santa Fe street, and Plaza de Italia. 

The object of the Museum is an action of propaganda and 
instruction. Consultation and indications are given on the 
possibilities of undertaking such and such a culture, on the 
varieties of seeds and plants most appropriate to different 
zones, on the illnesses of plants and insects, and the means 
of fighting them, on the adaption of different races of beasts, 
on the sanitary care of animals, etc. Up to to-day it 
has not been possible to develop so great a scheme, 
as the budget of the Museij^m has not been from the very 
first more than 400 piastres a month for expenses of all 
kinds, and the salaries of the employees. After some time, 
with a budget that did not double the preceeding sum, some 
ameliorations commenced, and also the renovation of the 
collections; connections were formed with the interior and 
exterior, relations indispensable to the progress of the 
institution and the infiuence that this will have in the fu- 
ture. At present, proceedings are taking place for the re- 
newing of the different products and collections which cons- 
titute the six sections of the Museum, and also for complet- 
ing these same collections. These six sections comprise: 

Natural products, amongst which one sees wood, some 
minerals and other materials of extraction. 

Agricultural products: cereals (wheat, oats, barley, rice, 
maize); oleaginous products: (flax, earth nuts, etc.); tubers 
narcotic plants, such as tobacco; pseudo-alimentary plants, 
like yerba mate; aromatic plants, medicinal plants, textile 
plants and their fibres, etc. 

Products from the raising of animals: wools, skins, hair, 
feathers, bones, etc.; honey, wax, etc.; fishes and their 
products. 

Products of agricultural industry: flours and their deri- 
vatives, wines and alcohols, sugar, tannin, carbons, dried 
fruits and vegetables, preserves, etc. 

Agricultural machinerv and constructions. 



204 CAPITAL Lihmries 

Agricultural statistics and rural economy. 

Other sections will also be installed, in accordance with 
the means at disposal, amongst them, a room for permanent 
agricultural consultations, with an annexed laboratory for 
all kinds of agricultural products; a field for experiments in 
cooperation with cultivators, for the trial of seeds and 
above all for the production of seeds and plants suitable for 
propagation, so as to remit them, at cost price to agricul- 
turalists; a practical review^ edited in a simple style, on sub- 
jects easy to the least cultivated mind, so that its efficiency 
be greater, and the propaganda more beneficial. 

A great part of all this is still only a project, and the 
want of employees, reduces them to the classification of the 
collections got together. 

The Museum counts more than 20,000 specimens. 

The section of agricultural machinery ought to be en- 
largened, and the way to do it with economy is being 
studied, the same as for the station for trying the ma- 
chines, which must be obtained, and be placed at the dis- 
posal of the cultivators. 

The collections of wines and flours are just now being 
completed, and in a short time, the same will be done for 
sugars, the different varieties of cane sugar, etc., and other 
industrial products. And that the action of the Museum be 
as large and as profitable as can be, it is necessary that the 
public, producers, breeders, and traders help with this 
work, and that the products sent, are accompanied with all 
the information necessary to the visitor. 

The number of these visitors increases continually: from 
40 persons a day, the average now passes 250. 

The Museum exists scarcely two years, and as other 
similar establishments is the result of numerous years of 
work on the part of different professors, agriculturists and 
cooperators of all kinds. In spite of this, it occupies a good 
place amongst its equals, and only the Agricultural Museum 
of Berlin, and that of the Hungarian government in Buda- 
pesth surpass it. 

Libraries. 
Xational Library. — Mexico street, 560-566. 

This library was founded in 1810 by the famous revolutionary <'.Junta», 
who put it under the protection of their illustrious secretary, Dr. INIariano 
Moreno; the first librarians were Dr. Saturnino Segurala and brother Gae- 
tano Rodriguez. 

Before this date, in 1796, the prelate Don Manuel Azamor y Ramirez 
left at his death, his books, to found a library. In 1806, at the time of the 
first English invasion, this was on the point of being realised, but had to be 
put off. 



Libraries CAPITAL 205 

The idea of the "Junla- to oslablish a library in the town, was received 
with sympathy and enthusiasm, as much among the natives as among 
the foreigners, particularly the ]-]ngIish who made gifts of many books. 

For the installation, a house belonging to the .Jesuit Fathers was cho- 
sen, and it remained there up till 1902 when it was transferred to the beauti- 
ful site where it is at present, premises which will be enlarged by building 
on the adjoining site. This new building, although destined for the adminis- 
tration of the National J.otery, happily unites all the conveniences and desi- 
rable comforts for the noble object which it serves. The entrance, the vesti- 
bule, and staircase show that one finds oneself in a sumptuous building. In 
the library, there is an office for the director, a spacious reading room, and 
a depository for books. 

Moreover there is a beautiful lecture-hall in the shape of an amphithea- 
tre, which also does for classical concerts, conducted by Professor Albert 
Williams. 

The librarians of the National Library have all been eminent men in 
national history and literature: among them one may mention; Manuel 
Moreno, Marmol, Trelles, Quesada, and the present librarian Mr. Paul 
Groussac. 

The method for classification adopted, is that of lirunet simplified. 

In 182.3, during the direction of Moreno, the Librarv had 17,229 volu- 
mes at the public disposal; in 1882, ;i2,(K)(); in 1893, 61,70V; in 1904, 150,000; 
and at present it has 170,000 volumes and 10,000 manuscripts, more or less. 

In the year 1880, at the time of the federalisation of the town of Buenos 
Aires, this institution passed over to the Nation, and the government gave 
it all its attention, with the idea of placing it in a position to answer to the 
utmost, their purpose. Three volumes of the methodical catalogue of the 
National Library, have been published, with an introduction by Paul 
Groussac, and two other volumes of the Annals of the Library, in 1906 
the catalogue of manuscripts was published. In tlie winter, the library 
is heated. The hours are: P^rom the Kith, of April to 15th. of October, 11.30 
to 4 o'clock p. m. and from 8 o'clock to 10 in the evening; from the 16th. 
of October to loth, of April; from midday to five o'clock. 

Library and Milre Museum.— Among the important li- 
braries and museums in the town, is one that belonged to 
the much regretted General Bartolome Mitre, worthy of 
special mention. It is placed in the house of the General, 
San Martin street, 336, the house where he died, and which 
the National Congress has made National Monument, in 
recognition of the glorious services rendered to the Nation, 
by the illustrious general, statesman and writer, whose death 
has been the cause of sincere public mourning. 

The library constitutes a real bibliographical treasure, formed by Ge- 
neral Mitre, during fifty ywirs of an active and intellectual life. It is dis- 
tinguished principally by American works, and specially by a very rich 
collection of documents and manuscripts which served the general in writ- 
ing the (History of Belgrano» (3 volumes, 4th. and last edition, year, 1887, 
edited by Felix Lajouane) and the «History of San Martin) (4 volumes, 
2nd. edition corrected, year 1890, by the same editor), (or library of the 
newspaper La Nacion) two true monuments of the National historical lit- 
erature. The enumeration of the important and abundant librar>' of Gene- 
ral Mitre, absorbs a space, which we have not got to give, in this publica- 
tion; we advise the reader who wishes to have an idea, more or less, of it, 
to read the interesting pamphlet entitled: oA letter on American bibfio- 
graphy, addressed to Mr. Diego Harros Arana (I'na carta sobre la bi- 
bliografia americana, dirigida al .Sr. Don Diego Barros Arana) by General 
Mitre (Buenos Aires, printing offices of La Xacion, San Martin street, 344). 

Here, in these terms the General himself traced, in the said letter, the 
catalogue of his library: 



2«>() CAPITAL Jjibraries 

<My plan is nicLliodical, according to the sysleul of classilicalion that 
I have adopted, ha\ang in view the material which constitutes my collec- 
tion of books. 

♦The general material, is history, geography and ethnography, The 
different sections which form it, follow each other and link with each other 
in the order of the studies of an (Americanist), now geographical, now 
scientific. 

»Here is an idea of my work: Introduction. — It will be formed by the 
«Bibliografia Americana* or the knowledge of the books which will be stu- 
died. — First section. — Pre-colombian America, indigenous races and lan- 
guages, physical geography, aspect of the soil, botany, study of certain 
plants and of American culture. — Second section. — Discovery of America, 
geographical antecedents, Columbus and Vespuce, first writings of the- 
discovery, epic poems on the discovery. Third section. — America in ge- 
neral, history and geography, voyages and discoveries, etc. — Fourth sec- 
tion. — Rio de la Plata in general and in detail (will form 9 or 10 chapters). 
- — Fifth section. — Spanish America sub-divided geographically into repu- 
blics. — Sixth section. — Portuguese America. — Seventh section. — North 
America. — Eighth section. — American matters in which tlie question of lim- 
its forms the basis. — Ninth section. — Spain and America. — Tenth section. 
- — Rights, schedules, codes, constitutions, collection of treaties and special 
works on the same. — Eleventh section. — Manuscripts, on the Rio de la 
Plata, in detail, and on America in general, comprising my own historical 
archives, this will be a section that will take up many chapters, which I 
have not yet fixed. — Twelfth section. — Maps and engravings (the first will 
number more than a thousand). > 

It would be difficult and long to describe separately, each one of these 
sections. It sullices to say, that they contain all the best that has been pu- 
blished by the great intellectual Americans and Europeans on history, des- 
criptions' of voyages, natural sciences, literature, politics, journalism, and 
amongst the authors mentioned are several very ancient ones: Columbus, de 
las Casas, Rubalcava, Ulloa, Herrera, .lorge .Tuan, Del Techo; and of the 
modern ones: Roselly de Lorgnes, Robertson, Belloc, Harris, Munoz, for the 
history of America; Magallanes, Debrosse. Falkner, Feuillee, Humboldt, 
Stevenson> d'Urbille, Fitzroy and Arbigny for American voyages; Ruiz de 
Montoya, Gonzalez Holguin, Bertonio, Brasseur de Bourgbourg, for the 
linguistic section; Machoni, Xarque, Azara, Lozano, Charlevois, Demersay 
for the Paraguayan section; Ahar Ni'mez Cabeza de Yaca, Schmidel, Ruiz 
Diaz de Guzman,' Barco de Centenera for the section of the Rio de la Plata. 
In the geographical section there are maps taken from the first ones which 
were formed by Columbus and Vespuce after the discoveries; some are ge- 
neral; others are of the two continents; there is one of each country in Ame- 
rica, and also others giving details on the ramification of the Cordilleras or 
on the course of the rivers. A greater part of these maps, are editions already 
very old and in part worn out. 

Cupboards enclose the documents of great value. One may see adminis- 
trative papers of the time when Juan de Garay was captain-general and 
Chief .Justice for the whole government of Paraguay and the provinces of 
Rio de la Plata; these documents are signed 'by Garay himself, and are 
dated at Assumption; the almost complete collection of the manuscripts 
belonged to General San Martin; these manuscripts were sent to General 
Mitre by the grandson of San Martin. Then come, the documents of the 
time of Belgrado, of the epoch of discoveries and conquests, of EngUsh in- 
vasions, of the Argentine revolution; of the time of Rivadavia, of PuejTre- 
d6n, of Echevarria, Lavalle, Sarmiento, Azara, Facundo r)uiroga, etc., 
to which one must add the papers that treat on the war in Paraguay, and 
the political and military career of General Mitre. All these documents form 
a group of authentic witnesses of national historical life. :Mr. Emilio IMi- 
tre, according to the desire expressed by his father, has made a gift of this 
library to the Nation. 

Rivadavia Library {Popular del Jfitw-icfpio).— Conientes 
street, 1615. 




Panoramic view of Ruenos Aires. 




Congress Square (Buenos Aires). 



STATUES AND GROUPS THAT ADORN THE SQUAI\ES AND WALKS 
OF RUENOS AIRES 




I. Rodriguez Pena, Rodriguez Pena Square. — II. Ca'stelli, on the Plaza 
Constitucion. — III. INIonument of General Jose de San ISIartin, in the Plaza 
San Martin. — IV. Paso, Plaza Independencia. — V. Larrea, Charcas. 



STATUES AND GROUPS THAT ADORN Till-: SQUAI\i:S AND WALKS 
or BUENOS AIRES 




1. Statue of General Uavalle, in the Plaza Lavalle. — 2. Statue of Car- 
los Tejedor, in the park «'.i de I'Vbrero*. — 3. Remorse, Plaza del Congre- 
so. — 4. Sagunto, by Querol, Plaza Rodriguez Pena. — 5. Statue of I-^alu- 
cho, cross-way of Calles Rio de Janeiro and Lambare. — 0. Statue of Sar- 
niiento, intersection of Avenues Sariniento and Alvear. — 7. The first cold. 
Plaza del Congreso. 



STATUES AND GROUPS THAT ADORN THE SQUARES AND NYALKS 
OF BUENOS AIRES 




1. Statue of :\Iazzini, bv Monteverde, «Julio» Walk. — 2. Statue of Ed- 
ward Costa, Park «3 de Febrero-. — 3. A lion, Avenue Sarmiento in front of 
the Rural Exhibition. — 4. F^ountain of Lola Mora, <-Julio» Walk. — 5. Ve- 
nus.— 6. Statue of Adolphus Alsina, Plaza Libertad.— 7. Lioness, Avenue 
Sarmiento, in front of the Rural Exhibition. 



STATUKS AND (iP.OlPS 'illAT ADOP.N TIN-; SOIAIUIS AND WALKS 

oi- iui-:n()s aii'.i:s 




I. The reaper. Avenue Alvenr. — II. I'oimtain in the Zoological Gar- 
den. — III. Monument Nviiieh Spain presented to Argentina in testimony of 
fraternity, intersection of the Avenues Alvear and Sarmiento. — IV. Monu- 
ment to Christopher Columbus which the Italians residing in Buenos Aires 
presented to the Argentine Republic as a testimony oflraternity. Colon Walk. 
— V. Statue representing the lirst printing, which adorns the monument of 
Vieytes. — VI. Statue of llipolito ^'ieytes in the Park of Le/ama. 



STATUES AND GROUPS THAT ADORN THE SQUARES AND WALKS 
OF BUENOS AIRES 




I. Group of sculpture. — 2. Mausoleum of General Belgrano. in front of the 
Sto. Domingo church. — 3. The Sower, Avenue Alvear. — 4. The Captive. — 
5. The Spring. — 6. Faith. — 7. The Mower, Avenue Alvear. 



STATIES AM) C.ROIPS 1 HAT ADOilX 'J HI-: SQIARES AM) WALKS 
OI- riUENOS AIPJ-S 




I. A monument which the Spaniards residing in the Argentine presented 
to the country as a testimony of fraternity, intersection of the Avenues Al- 
vear and Sarmiento. — 2. Monument erected in honour of Mmiano Moreno in 
tlie Plaza del Congreso. — 3. The town of Buenos Aires protecting the aban- 
doned: Group phiced in front of the Municipal Loan bank, corner of Calles 
Suipacha and Viamonte. — 4. The secret: group placed in the vestibule of 
the Colon Theatre. 



MONUMENT WHICH THE FRENCH COLONY RESIDING 

IN THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC PRESENTED TO THE COUNTRY 

ON THE OCCASION OF THE FIRST CENTENARY OF THE REVOLUTION 

OF MAY, IN TESTniONY OF FRATERNITY 




I, Science. — 11. Industry. — III. Principal group. — lY. Agriculture. 
V. Arts, Plaza de France Avenue Alvear and Recoleta. 



Cemeieri/ of the necole'a OAPITAL ^07 

This was loiindcd the 20th. Mav ISTO, by the association «Heniaidiiio 
nivadavia>. In 1912, this Hbrary possessed 30,000 volumes; 24,550 per- 
sons came to consult 28,33(i works, during last year. 

The subscribers pays S 1*00 per month, and can have books sent to 
their houses. 

Library of the Society «Tipofjrafica Boiiaereiise>>. — Solis 

street no.' 707. 

Allows of books being sent to the houses, and is open from 7 to 10 o'clock 
in the evening. It receives all the newspapers, and all the reviews of the Ar- 
gentine Republic. The entrance is free. It has at present more than 6,000 
volumes. 

Library of the Medical Faculty.— Cordoba street, 2180. 

Open every day, and accessible to students, and to the public. Has more 
than 20,000 volumes. 

Library of the Faculty of Laws. — Moreno street, 350. 

The first one, which exists for works of law, in the Republic. Open every 
day for students and the public. 

National Library of Masters. — Kodriguez Pena street, 935. 

It has 25,000 works treating on education. Open to teachers, but those 
who do not belong to the educational career are admitted, on asking for 
permission. 

Library of «La Prensa». — Avenida de Mayo, 567. 

Among the important public institutions founded by this great organ 
of publicity, one finds a well furnished library, accessible to the public in 
general. It" is open every day and on holidays from 2 to 7 in the afternoon 
and from 9 to 12 in the" evening. 

Cemetery of the Reeoleta. 

It is almost full, this vast and taciturn city of eternally silent inhabi- 
tants. l^:nshrined in a smiling and fiowery part of the town (the delightful 
walk which bears the same name as the cemetery) it awakens tlie pious 
and pleasing idea of a survival of those who repose there, listening per- 
haps, at the bottom of their narrow colTins, to the cries of children who, in 
the autumn afternoons and summer mornings, frolic on the large grass-plot 
that comes up to the walls of the cemetery. All around, in the large Capital, 
is movement and agitation, in the endless anxiety of life; the silent necro- 
polis, resembles a sleeping water in the midst of the agitation of the hu- 
man current, or a peaceful haven where tired souls find refuge and peace, 
whilst on the other side of the walls, passing like an eternal and vague roar, 
is heard the busy working population. 

Facing the square, the cemetery extends over an area of 50,000 
square metres, having been augmented by a third, by the Intendent Al- 
vear, at the back, where the new section is, and where the most beautiful 
monuments are. 

On entering the chapel destined for the last rites, a gigantic marble 
Christ, by Monteverde, attracts the visitor and obliges him to stop and 
look at it. This Christ is executed according to the new way, that is to say, 
taking into account the attitude of the dying Christ. Instead of the clas- 
sical rigidity, which the old crucifixions maintained as if the figure were 
suspended by a miracle, without apparent weight or fiexion, the Christ 

li\F.nK.KF.R.-~17 



208 CAPITAL Cemeniery of 

by Mojaleverde, hangs heavily from the nailed hands, the liead half 
fallen forward, the body violently contracted, the legs twisted under the 
weight of the body, badly supported by the nails which traverse the feet, 
the toes of which, are some twisted, and others stretched, showing the mus- 
cular contraction in the painful agony. This Christ produces a profound and 
brusque impression, inasmuch as he is humanised in the physical suffering 
of the last moment. Then, one enters the cemetery (1). 

On taking the first steps, another magnificent marble makes one forget 
the Christ; it is a woman in mourning, dejected by an insupportable pain 
which transmits itself to him who looks at her. But it is a sadness with- 
out outburst, the intimate and profound pain of a believer. She is called 
<'La Dolorosa* and is placed on the tomb of Facundo Quiroga, «The terrible 
shadow* invoked by the apostrophe of Sarmiento. This is to the left, on 
entering (2). 

To the right, the tomb of a hero recalls the epic days of other times. 
This is the tomb of Colonel Brandzen, the stoic soldier of Ituzaing6. Near- 
by, many great men repose: Colonel ^Vlayer, whose tomb of iron in the 
gothic style, shows up amidst the whiteness of the surrounding monu- 
ments; that of Rodriguez Peiia, simple, as if to show that great men can 
need but small space; that of the artillery-man Piran with his type of ve- 
teran Frenchman. The monument of Lugones, of ^Mitre, Navarro Viola, a 
little further on, but always to the right, is a mutilated pyramid on the 
summit of which, a angel of bronze sits in a pensive attitude. This is the 
work of the artist Ballerini. Near this monument, is that of the young 
Dominico Sarmiento, student, writer and soldier, which represents the father 
depositing on the tomb of the unfortunate captain, an emotional book. 
The tomb of the lather is on the other side; it is dominated by a gigantic 
bronze bird which appears to take flight towards space, where it will escape 
the high thoughts of the mighty old man. His pupil, the great Alberdi is 
also there to the right, in a tomb of marble, on which the dry and bilious 



(1) I had occasion, in 1902-1903, in the different visits I made to 
Monteverde, in his studio, in the Piazza Independenza, Rome, to hear 
from the lips of the author all about this inspired work, and the casual 
origin of this novel form, employed by him. 

Monteverde said to me, that the model he placed on the cross with ex- 
tended arms, and feet reposing on the wood, could not maintain for suffi- 
cient time, the rigidity of the body, but that giving way to the weight of 
his body, he inclined heavily in the attitude that is represented in the statue 
The artist added: «This is the position I adopted for my work. It represents 
the Man-Christ who, to redeem his equals, dies resigned on the cross). And 
he gave the statue this new position (A. B. M.). 

(2) This beautiful statue, by the sculptor Tantardini, is not the origin- 
al, as one generally thinks, but it is a faithful copy of another which exists 
in Milan. 

When this sepulchre was constructed, and on the occasion of the placing 
of a commemorative slab by the family, a protest arose from the press and 
pubhc opinion. The poet Stanislas del Campo echoing this opinion wrote 
the following verses, which it is said were read before the tomb of Quiroga 
and increased the popular protest: 

'Que importa que la cinica insolencia 
»Ensalce el crimen, degradando el arte, 
»Si el cristal de la piiblica conciencia 
»Tal cual tuiste tendra que refle.iarte. 
»En el libro sagrado de la historia 
»Tienen su negra foja los tiranos; 
»Escamio ella sera de tu memoria, 
»;Oh sanguinario tigre de los llanos! » 

(What matters it, if cynical insolence praises crime, thus degrading art, 
if the crystal clear public conscience reflect you as you were. In the sacred 
book of history, tyrants have their black page. Yours will be full of con- 
tempt for your memory, oh sanguinary tigre of the plains!) (A. B. .M.). 



1he FecoJeta CAPITAL 209 

lonii of Iho eminent publicist cletnrlies itselt. In liiis part, t'lU-re are few 
monuments Unit attract one"s attention. Tlie l)uilciinK <»f the cemetery is on 
llie whole commonplace and of little merit, frefiucnlly rich, but of indige- 
nous art. More marble work, than statuary. Nevertheless, here and there, 
some monuments, are noteworthy^for remarkable details and occasionally 
for juxtapositions of value. Amongst them one may mention many gra- 
nite monuments, a material now employed in funeral art. Some of them 
deserve to be seen: a predilection for Egyptian art is to be noticed in the 
stone monuments; in all of them there isthe solemn heaviness and rigidity 
of line of this ancient style. There is also a pyramid where the remains of 
the poet Chassaing repose, who has elevated a monument for himself much 
more durable than that, by his verses to the Argentine tlag: 

Pagina eterna de argentina gloria, 
Melancolica iniagen de la patria. 
(Eternal page of argentine glory, melanholic image of the native land.) 

Among the granite tombs one may mention that of Elas Romero, and 
of Samuel B. Hale for theii- severe good taste, and really original, simple 
artistic beauty: the tombs of Huorgo, of Dr. Udaondo, Duggan, Dr. Emil? 
Agrelo are festooned with jasmine of the country, which animates, with its 
vivid green leaves and small starlike perfumed llowers, the aridness of the 
j^ranite; that of the family Leloir with a fine cupola supported by marble 
j)illars-. of Guillermo Lehmann, with applications of bronze and an angel 
of the same metal.- Grey granite has been used in preference. Hut now rose 
coloured granite, which is the most beautiful and least severe, is being em- 
ployed. There are many marble and granite tombs, among them one may 
ujention that of Mr. Lacroze, and that of Repetto, on the whole they have 
f^randeur and are not exempt of grace. At the back, on the walk which 
marks the limits of the burial ground, there is a line of fine monuments. 
The wall is low, and from the electric tramcar that runs round the out- 
skirts of the cemetery, ringing noisily its bell, one sees statues elevated, like 
brusfjue apparitions as if to surprise, with their eternally fixed eyes, the life 
that passes. The monument of Lucien Lopez is situated there with his 
symbolical statue so much discussed, in which Falguieres materialised 
the protest of life, of the fatherland, of thoughts before the brutal 
surprise of death. A woman seated on a log, ill-covered with a tunic, her 
arms crossed on the chest, and her hands contracted in ^■ehemence and 
mute paroxysm, reflected on her face, the bitter pain of the immense and 
unexpected loss. It is said that the woman is a little mannish, some what 
bony and muscular to excess, that the principal details are scarcely 
sketched, in, for instance the hair, which has been conimenced, but not 
finished. Nevertheless, her expression is superb and full of life; this is 
still more accentuated by this same apparent negligence, and by the want of 
aesthetic regularity and" the conventional beauty of the figure. There, the 
monument of Juclge Tedin is to be seen, a national homage to virtue, 
to rectitude and to the severe duty, which filled an entire life without one 
hour of weakness and violence. Here is the tomb of Viale, the passenger of 
the America who gave up his life-buoy in that terrible hour, and disappeared 
for ever under the waters, the remembrance of this, remains with men 
always, his quiet abnegation, more admirable than the heroism of the mar- 
tyr exalted by faitli, more difficult than the valour of a warrior, forced by 
duty and encouraged by glory; Viale, standing on his monument, throws the 
providential life-buoy; and at the base, there are two bas-reliefs in bronze, 
reproducing the episodes of this history, and terrible catastrophe. 

Near to this monument is that of Dr. del C.arril seated on a bench of 
marble, under a graceful moorish temple on the summit of which a figure 
of Time in bronze, watches the sand pass in his clepsydra. There also is 
the tomb of Eernand N'illanueva, the doctor-painter, fallen, during the 
bloody days of 1890. It is composed of three great blocks of marble; on the 
second, an angel of bronze is seated and meditates, holtiing between his fin- 
gers, the pen with which he writes on one of the stones, the beloved name 
and the fatal date. On the base one sees, the now useless palette and brushes 
of the painter of battles. 



210 CAPITAL Cemeicry ofihe Hecoleia 

By tlie side of the monument which we have described, is situated the 
tomb which brings to the memory of the easily forgetful, the revolution 
of 1890. It is composed of two masses resting against each other, the first 
one is of grey granite, bearing an allegorical group of the combatants in 
this strife: a civilian, a soldier of the line, a sailor and a cadet of the ^lilitary 
School, who hold in their hands the invincible flag, on the second pedes- 
tal, which is higher than the first, and of rose stone, is the revolutionary 
group, the Fatherland holds a dying being, who still grasps the sword, bro- 
ken in the battle. The whole is of a j-evere and spontaneous majesty. 

Quite close to this, is the tomb of Ayerza, monumental and rich, with 
allegories of Science and Charity, also that of Vincent Ocampo, one of the 
works of art of the cemetery: on steps of rose granite, is an urn at the back 
of which is a beautiful figure in marble, which has taken from the mew art* 
her exquisite beauties, without falling into alTectation. The arms are cros- 
sed, the expression fixed and obstinate, a starred band holds the flowing 
hair together, the tunic audaciously folded, as if tormented by a violent 
wind, refines, enlargens and spiritualises the celestial image, who holds in 
her right hand a long trumpet. This sincere work of art is assigned to Mon- 
teverde. 

The tomb of Velez Sarsfield ofTers an agreeable sight to the eye, in the 
midst of the profuse whiteness of piled up marble and the mediocrity of the 
greater part of the sepulchres. This tomb is very simple and without any ar 
chitectural novelty, but it is enlivened by two trellises of ivy, which surrounds 
with its leaves, light columns that sustain the cupola under which stands 
the bust of the eminent civilian, his severe features, portrayed in bronze. 

Then comes the most monumental and one of the most beautiful tombs 
of the Recoleta, this is that of Dr. i^rancis J. ^lufiiz, doctor and soldier, 
paleontologist and philanthropist. On this tomb, absorbing all interest, is 
the superb figure of a woman in bronze of two shades, she is seated at the 
foot of the monument, leaning her arms on the projecting sides with a na- 
tural and absorbing abandon. The woman is <Science» and is of imim- 
peachable beauty, with a soft yet penetrating expression, which, like a mys- 
terious light, is shed over her face and animates it like an internal breath, 
which makes one wait vaguely, after some minutes of contemplation, for 
life and movement. The vestment is of superb statuary elegance. The whole 
figure, breaths a superior majesty, which elevates the spirit towards other 
regions. On the steps of black marble, an elevated pedestal has on its sides 
remarkable bas reliefs that relate the episodes in the life of the great citizen. 
The monument is surmounted by his bust, which is worthy of the whole 
work. — Ximenes fecit. 

The monument erected to ^lanuel Quintana (Law of the Congress) is 
a beautiful mutilated pyramid in marble. The figure of Death in bronze 
appears on the front part. Tarther on, a magnificent group in marble (by 
Peynot) recalls the memory of Lartigau and the tragic event of the 14th. 
of November 1909. The victim is received in the arms of a woman with a 
sweet face, whilst the people are represented by another woman standing 
erect, with a gesture of repiilsion and anger. 

Returning by the central walk, seeking the exit, one sees in the distance 
several tombs, which for their artistic merit, or for the ashes of those they 
enclose, make the visitor go back to see them. That of Cramwell, signed 
by Calvi, represents a woman sleeping on a marble bed, with a child grace- 
fully inclining on her breast, amongst leafy flowers; that of ^larco Avella- 
neda, governor of Tucuman and promotor of the league of the Northern 
provinces against Rozas, who was decapitated at Metan. It is worth while 
to stop a moment, and see the tomb of Diego de Alvear who, in a peace- 
ful interior, realises the idea of eternal life, surrounded by the tender ado- 
ration of his four daughters, portrayed in marble, gracefufly surrounding 
the bust of their father; that of Florencio Varela, in front of that of 
Vincent Alsina, and that of Juan Cruz Varela, the most costly perhaps in 
the cemetery; this is a temple of marble, on the steps of which a woman in 
mourning, has fallen, full of pain; sobbing out her prayers, she embraces 
an urn in the form of a cup which encloses, perhaps, the perfume of a soul. 
The prostrate figure of bronze is of great merit. 

Near this central path, the visitor stops also to see the magnificent 



Argentine jouynalism CAPITAL 211 

monument of granite and marble erecterl to the memory of Dr. Jose Car- 
los Paz, the founder of the <'Prensa>. This is perhaps the most beautiful 
tomb in the Piecoleta, and due to the chisel of the French sculptor ('outant. 
On a foundation of marble, Death comes out of the tomb taking the road 
of life, guided by an angel. Two other angels are praying before the crypt. 
The entire whole, is a magnificent work. And so one wanders, towards the 
exit, not without resting the eye on the tomb of Roverano, an allegory 
of victorious self-help, happily conceived; on that of Ventura CoH, which 
has the robust Qgures of two beautiful children; on that of Rawson in the 
central part of the old outskirts, from which four diagonals run to the 
four angles of the cemetery. Rawson and Brown are neighbours in their 
tombs. The sepulchre of Rawson is simple and severe like his life, as sage 
and statesman, and has two valuable bas-reliefs; Rawson in his clinic, and 
Rawson in Parliament. 

Still a look must be given to the column of Brown, and then one goes 
out, stopping once more, before «La Dolorosa) by Tantardini, the master- 
piece, without doubt, of funeral art in Buenos Aires. 

Argentine journalism. 

The great institution of the Press — the most fascinating and directing 
force of modern society, — was, amongst us, like everything else born at 
the commencement of the last century, at first so poor and so preca- 
rious that even with the aid of a vivid imagination, one could not have 
foreseen what it would come to be, at the end of this venerable stage, in 
the hfe of humanity. 

The first printed paper that appeared in Buenos Aires, in the charac- 
ter of a newspaper publication was (April 1st., 1801). El Telegrafo Mercan- 
til, rural, polilico-economico c hisloriogralico del Rio de la Plata; pompous 
in title, but poor in matter, substance and appearance. It was founded 
by Colonel Francisco Antonio Cabello y Mesa, who did not lack titles 
nor empty phrases, inasmuch as he called himself the lawyer of the Ro- 
yal Council; the first newspaper writer of these provinces and of the king- 
dom of Peru, the general protector of the natives on the frontier of Xau- 
xa, etc. This small newspaper was a bi-weekly one, of 8 pages (more or 
less 13 X 20) printed with the poor implements of the Royal Printing Offi- 
ce of the Foundlings. 

As a curiosity, 1 will state that the first number only contained an arti- 
cle by the editor who lamented the few subscribers, and the many obstacles 
which he had overcome, and praised the Dulcamara (Bitter-Sweet) the 
famous ode to Parana, by Dr. ?ilanuel .lose Labardia; a small page of private 
announcements and the arrivals and departures of some coasting boats 
and ships in this port, and that of .Montevideo. 

This pubUcation — in spite of its insignificance — had the merit of initiat- 
ing something, and of representing a laudable effort, but it may be said 
that the real journalism of the Argentine was born with the Semanario de 
Agriculiura ij Comercio, by I llpolito V ieytes in 1802, in shape, like its pre- 
decessor, and printed at the same prinling office, but with Ijetter elements 
and written in a superior manner; with the Correo del Comercio de Buenos 
Aires, which Belgrano founded in January 1810, and which served him as 
a pretext to dissimulate meetings of patriotic revolutionaries; and princi- 
pally with La Gaceta de Buenos Aires, which appeared on tlie 7th. .June 1810, 
printed and published by M. .J. Gandarillos Sc Co, with good typographical 
material, the principal editor being the patriot, Mariano Moreno. This review, 
which was also weekly, and of the same shape as the others, doubled its size 
a year afterwards. 

In these first manifestations of periodicals, news — which is the nerve and 
source of life of modern journalism, — was almost nil, it was reduced to 
reporting the restricted life of the port; but politics, today historical, 
were very important, because they were in the hands of a group of patriots 
and they treated of the burning (piestion of tlie liberating revolution, 
and oncV triumphant, of tiie constitution and organisati )ti of n n;nv Wc- 
public. 



212 CAPITAL Argentine 

From thai time up to 1833, many newspapers saw the light and died, 
responding to poUtical exigencies, commercial interests, the ambition of par- 
ties, aspirations lor liberty and order, or to young and elevated ideals ^^Tit- 
ten with more or less certitude, knowledge and energy, with impulses more 
or less generous, but always advancing on the road to modern ideas, dealing 
with iniormation, criticism, polemics, literature, commerce and showing al- 
ready a tendency to the diffusion of encyclopaedic knowledge. — which to-day, 
makes great newspapers so interesting — inserting advertisements, enlarg- 
ing the size and increasing the frequency of their appearance. El Gritn del 
Slid (1812-1813); Los Amigos de la Patria ij de la Jiwentiid (1815-1816); 
El Americano (1819-1820); El Constitucional (1820); El Abogado Nacional 
(1818-1819); El Centinela (1823-1821); El Argos de Buenos Aires (1821-1825); 
La Abeia Argeniina (1822-1823); La Cronica politica ij Uteraria (1827); El 
Correo politico g mercantil de las Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata 
(1827-1828); El Amigo del Pais (1833); El defensor de los derechos del pue- 
blo (1833); and others, workers for light, wrestlers for ideas, phalanxes of 
abnegation and sacrifice in times when one left the pen to take up the 
sword, when one wrote with pistols in one's belt, and when one article might 
cut short one's life. There are others, modest but valiant forerunners and ge- 
nerators of the modern and very brilliant Argentine press. 

Unfortunately Piozas came, and one of his first acts, was to kill 
the newspapers; only the Gaceta Mercantil de Buenos Aires, remained 
(1823-1852) the organ of the Restorer of laws, and mirror of these days 
of terror. 

After Caseros, and on account of the great precept of liberty to print, 
proclaimed by the Constitution of 53, iournalism rose up again, making 
rapid strides, discussing all questions relative to the reorganisation of the 
country, attacking, pursuing anarchists of different classes, who from all 
parts rose up ambitious, provocative, retrograde and sanguinary. The 
newspapers develope; they enter into a new era, they enlarge their pages, 
they open their columns, they decentralise and fortify their action; they 
raise their voices, in all the corners of the country, and sometimes beyond 
its limits; they serve the industry and commerce; they diversify their 
information; they adopt all known forms and fulfill their complex and deli- 
cate mission, maintaining themselves at a height, and sometimes surpassing 
the level of civilisation, the life of which, they reflect. 

In this second period of the renaissance of Argentine journalism, with 
the immense rush that the fall of the tyrant produced, many newspapers 
made their appearance — which let the sentiments, so long compressed, over- 
flow^which sounded their ardent, bellicose note and disappeared: El Comer- 
cio. El Federal, La Avispa (with its original title: Publicacion al vapor, palo 
de ciego a quien no ande derecho). El Correo Argentina, Los Debates, all 
passed like a squall in 1852. 

The most illustrious champions, veritable pillars of tlie .journalism of 
that time were: El Nacional which appeared the 1st, May 1852, rising from 
the ruins of £/ Diario de la Tarde, continuing with a feuilleton of this paper, 
and the majority of its subscribers, and which according to the progi-amme 
signed by the great .Jurisconsul Dalmacio Velez Sarslield, had to collabo- 
rate in tlie work of the organisation of the Republic, undertaken by General 
Urquiza and in which the powerful pens of Sarmiento, .Juan Carlos Gomez 
WTote by the side of many others, and La Tribuna (1853-79) of liector and 
Mariano Varela which attained an extraordinary success. The following 
newspapers had their importance also: La Cronica (1854-5), by Juan Ramon 
:Muiioz and El Orden (1855-56) which was edited by Felix Frias and Luis 
Dominguez and in which Nicolas Calvo, Vincent Fidel L6pez and J. B. 
Peiia collaborated. 

In 1857, Los Debates appeared again edited by our great statesman Ge- 
neral Mitre, in 1862, it took the name of La Xacion Argentina and in 1870 
that of La Xacion under which, it is still such an honour to Argentine jour- 
nahsm, owing to the high rank which it undoubtedly occupies, as much for 
its editing, as for the literary and intrinsic worth of its contents. 

Many also were the abuses in journalism, and there were numbers of 
ephemereal pamphlets created for the propagation of (let.''rmined ideas, and 



journalism CAPITAL 213 

others bold and scandalous, engendered by passions, hatreds and ideas 
which happily could not take root in our intellectual soil. 

At present there are more thaji 400 newspapers, reviews and periodicals 
in the Argentine Republic, amongst wliich a hundred are foreign. La Xacion, 
La Prensa, El Diario, La palria degli llaliani. El Pais, El Tiempo, La Razon, 
La Arqenlina, La Gaceta dc liuenos Aires, El Nacional, La Tarde, Bucnns A ires 
Handels Zeitnng, Le Courrier de la Plata, Roma, The Standard and La Ma- 
riana have attained the highest degree of contemporary progress, in all that 
refers to elementary materials, illustrations typography, stereotype, rapidi- 
ty, paper and installation. La Prensa comes first with its really superb and 
magnificent palace, which rivals the best in North America, and has 
not its equal in Europe. This newpaper is the most popular, with its issue of 
150,000 copies, an issue which our ancestors of the Independence, and our 
first publishers, would have considered a fairy tale. 

The same cannot be said of our illustrated reviews which, excepting 
Caras y Caretas. La llustracion Sud-Americana, P. B. T., Til-Bits, Eraij Mocho 
and El Aliindo Arrjcntino, leave much to be desired, both in literature and 
illustrations, and are backward compared to European ones. 

The exigencies of journalism have changed greatly to-day, and the dut- 
ies wiiich it imposes, are each day, more arduous and difficult, and tlie ne- 
cessary preparation more special, owing to hfe being more complex, active, 
multiple, impressionable and strenuous, to the greater, more numerous and 
subtle gearing of our cosmopolitan organism, to the vaster, more sub- 
divided and particularised universal encyclopaedia of human knowledge 
and to the greater human curiosity that the press excites and directs. Argen- 
tine joiunalism, represented by the great organs I have cited, by El Diario, 
which has a unique rank, a personal physiognomy, and also by the nume- 
rous phalanx of pamphlets of a relative' importance, national and foreign, 
which I have not mentioned individually, so as to avoid ommissions, are on a 
level with the most advanced in the world. Its telegraphic service is remark- 
able, as also the correspondence service, which is in charge of the most ce- 
lebrated writers of the day. Our first newpapers are a kind of wonderful 
graphic mirrors, which allow us to see almost instantaneously news and facts, 
worthy of interest, that happen in every corner of the world, also the slight- 
est movement of nations at war, which, to the shame of humanity, is never 
wanting, up to the oscillations of values in the centres that regulate natio- 
nal commerce, also to the latest books by authors in vogue, the debut of 
a celebrated singer, the triumph of a painter, a musician, a comedian; this 
is the Argus of the fable that knows all, tells all, and comments on all. To- 
day, those who read it, not only are informed of all the national events 
from .Jujuy to Tierra del Fuego, of all work, of the gossip of private per- 
sons; of executive pov.er; of the Courts of .Justice; the town, politics, the 
world, but they travel as on an illustrated planisphere, or through the crys- 
tals of a cosmorama over, the heavens, seas, among towns, lands, people, scien- 
ces, arts, and all that is possible to, imagine. They study the past, describe 
the present and foretell the future. Can one ask for more? Yes, much more, 
for that which concerns the foundation, the essence of the mission of journa- 
lism, its supreme object, as a social, pohtical and educational institution, 
its elevated mission of an impeccable rectitude and morality, as a ba- 
rrier against the evil tendencies of mobs; yes, like a pulpit of clairvoyance and 
of justice, which guides new generations and offers tiiem noble examples 
to imitate, realising thus, that which one may call the ideal of the utmost 
perfection of journalism, the luminous goal from which we are still at a 
great distance. To attain this ideal, the press, in its propaganda of ideas, 
in its instruction, its ijnpulscs, ought, to my idea, always to follow the follow- 
ing programme: enlighten the judgement of the governors with sane, se- 
vere an(i prudent advice, that responds always to the necessities of the 
community, never to criticise, nor attack systeinatically, nor with interest; 
indicate the way to correct faults nnd errors; not to be an echo of individual 
ambitions or of business corporations and speculators, who pursue private 
interests, generally to the detriment of true popular good, and to "occupv 
themselves with that which is durable and stable, in the future projects 
of general politics, which the material, moral, intellectual anil sociological 
interests of the country require, so as to strengthen progress; defend in all 



214 CAPITAL Argeniine jounialiam 

their manifestations the fundamental dogmas of freedom, of democratic, 
institutions, without truce or violence, fortifying the dignity of the people 
and the consciousness of their rights, so that they consecrate themselves to a 
religion of honour and civic morals; not to pass over in silence pernicious 
dogmas, or corruption in whatever order or hierachy they may have been 
produced; enlighten the spirit of the legislators andjudges, control with a 
serene impartiality the motive of their acts, and discus'^ with a practical 
judgment the latest conclusions of science in all its phases, which are useful 
to the general developement of the Nation. The journalist pen ought to dif- 
fuse truth; reveal good sentiments; praise all that is noble and generous, 
stimulate work and the rational proportion of its remunerations; develope 
a taste for the beautiful in all its natural and artistic splendour and, lastly, 
inspire always, goodness and justice. 

This perfection, at which one has sometimes momentarily arrived, by 
accident, or in moments more or less transcendant or solemn, we will not 
succeed in attaining for some time yet, owing to the want of austere direction 
in the formation of character, independence and impartiality of opinions, 
of knowledge and of firmness in convictions, of true altruism and civic 
honour. 

The pages printed arc still too dominated by the spirit of lucre and use 
their prestige and force for individual advantage; these are the weapons 
of strife in favour of certain groups of all classes who form, reform and 
transform themselves at every moment, with the coming and going, and the 
collision of interests and passions of life; which defend the cause of the mo- 
ment without any other aim than that of the success and benelit, that it 
may bring them, sometimes stiwing up in its lowest depths, the envy, 
deceit and malice which unfortunately exist in the hearts of all men. 

However, the faults I have pointed out, are not our lot only, but belong 
to humanity and unlike the ideal I have depicted synthetically, are not 
the expression for noble aspirations for good; 1 conclude that Argentine jour- 
nalism follows its rising evolution and that its leading newspapers can 
figure without a stain, amongst the most advanced and most important in 
he v^ovld. 

Angel ^Ienchaca. 




Flock of piirc-brcd sheep. — EslaLlislur.ent of 'Sh: J. Cobo 
(Prov. of Euenos Aires). 




Flock of pure-bred sheep.— Establislrnent o!' Mr. J. Cobo. 




Rural Exhibition. — Parading the horses (Buenos Aires). 



Method of visiliug B. A. CAPITAL 



Method of visiting Buenos Aires. 

In order to visit the town the traveller must be in pos- 
session of certain information, including an attentive study 
of a plan of the town. His visit should commence with a 
walk round the town in order to find his whereabouts; this 
being indispensable for the purpose of knowing the ground 
w^ell. But this is easier than in any European town, because 
Buenos Aires resembles an immense chess-board, in which 
the streets cross one another at right angles. The direction 
of the latter, and the numbering (100 numbers per «cuadra>>), 
simplify this task still more. 

For the purpose of finding our way about the principal 
quarters of the town we will take the Plaza de Mayo as a 
starting-point. 

How to find one's way about. 

I. — From the Plaza de Alayo to the Plaza del Congreso. — 

On the Plaza de Mayo the traveller may engage a motor- 
car or cab (taximeter), and follow the Avenida de Mayo as 
far as the Plaza del Congreso. This square is of recent for- 
mation, and forms one of the extremities of the Avenida, 
on Calle Entre Rios. 

On the way, at the corner of the Avenida de Mayo and 
Calle Bolivar, he will pass the City Hall, where the Town 
Clerk's office is situated, that is to say the executive branch 
of the municipal administration; the other, the deliberative, 
is in Calle Peru, 272. 

The former is composed of the Town Clerk, nominated 
by the President of the Republic with the approbation of the 
Senate; holding office for two years and eligible for nomi- 
nation again. The deliberative branch consists of 22 coun- 
cillors elected by the people of the capital. 

The municipal budget for the year 1913 amounted to 
$ 47,000,000 (£ 4,136,000), without counting a large number 
of public services which are paid by the government, such 
as the police, fire brigade, elementary instruction, water 
supply, drainage, several hospitals and workhouses, etc. 

Near to the City Hall is the sumptuous building construc- 
ted by Dr. Jose C. Paz for his newspaper La Frensa, an edi- 
fice which the traveller must not omit to visit. It contains 
five floors; looking on to Calle Rivadavia there is a hall 38 
metres long and 8 metres wide, used for tlie distribution of 
the paper. On the ground floor are the managerial offices 
and the museum, looking out on to the Avenida and Calk' 
Kivadavia, with the medical and legal consulting-rooms. 



216 CAPITAL From the Flar.a dc Mayo 

The first floor is occupied by the editors' rooms and the large 
festival hall, which measures 30 metres by 8. The second 
floor is occupied by various offices. The third, composed of 
well furnished and luxurious suites of rooms, is intended for 
the reception of notablep ersonages who visit Buenos Ai- 
res. On the fourth floor are the composing-rooms, photo- 
graphers' rooms, etc. The tower of this superb building is 
surmounted by a statue at a height of 55 metres. It is pro- 
vided with an electric lamp, whose rays are visible at a great 
distance. 

The decoration of this fine building is of a most luxu- 
rious character. Dr. Adolf o A. Davila has been editor of 
La Prensa since 1877, and it is to him that the paper owes 
the greater part of the enormous progress it has made. 

Further on, but still in the Avenida de Mayo, at num- 
ber 633, is a superb building in which is installed the social 
institution Club del Progreso, founded in 1854, of which 
the most illustrious men in the country have been mem- 
bers. 

This building, in Louis XVI style, is 24 metres high 
above ground, and 34 metres above its foundations. 

It consists of two storeys in the basement, and four sto- 
reys above ground, in which the numerous different bran- 
ches of the club are distributed. 

The Club del Progreso possesses fine comfortable reading- 
rooms, conversation rooms, fencing-rooms, a well-stocked 
library, bath-rooms, a restaurant, etc. 

Travellers of distinction can easily obtain introductions 
or temporary tickets. 

Oppositethe Club del Progreso are the offices of El Dia- 
rio, the evening i3aper which has the larget circulation. Its 
editions illustrated in colours are noteworthy. El Diario, 
founded by Mr. Manuel Lainez, is of a special type. 

Luxurious and comfortable hotels abound in the Avenida 
de Mayo. Worthy of special mention are: «Paris Hotel», 
((Caviezel's New Hotel», «Hotel de Espana», «Hotel Eslava», 
«Chacabuco Mansions», «Hotel Frascati», «Majestic Hotel», 
«Hotel Castilla», «Metropole Hoteh>. 

Finally, at the western end, the Avenida finishes at Calls 
Entre Eios in the splendid Plaza del Congreso, opened in 
1910, in commemoration of the centenary of the Revolution 
of May, after the forcible sale of the properties included 
between Calles Victoria, Rivadavia, Entre Rios and Lorea. 

This square is one of the finest and largest in Buenos Ai- 
res. At one end of it is the superb architectural monument 
of the National Congress, which we shall describe later on. 
At the other end is the beautiful statue of Mariano Moreno, 
one of the loadinu- men in the Revolution of May, 1810. 



to the Plaza del Congrem <:APITAL 217 

In the centre may be seen the monument erected in honour 
of the first Argentine congress. The central station of the 
underground tramway of the Anglo-Argentine Tramways Co. 
is also situated in this square. 

At the intersection of the xVvenida de Mayo and the Calle 
Entre Rios is situated the Palacio del Congreso, where the 
representatives of the nation have met since May, 1906. 

This house of parliament is of vast proportions and offers 
to the view an aspect of severe magnificence. It is in the 
Greco- Roman style. At each corner is a projecting pavilion. 
In the centre the building takes the form of a semi-circle, 
while the wings, joined to one another by galleries with co- 
lumns, form with the remainder of the construction a whole 
which makes the Palacio resemble the Capitol at Washington. 

The Parliament House has four floors. The chief facade 
is set back 15 metres from the Calle Entre Rios, so that there 
is a kind of little square with two carriage-drives and a mo- 
numental staircase w^hicli gives access to the chamber of 
the law-givers. 

The ample and majestic portico gives access to the 
atrium of the parliament House by a single door which opens 
in the middle. On each side of the staircase is an equestrian 
statue. 

The plans for the building were drawn by Mr. Victor 
Meano, under whose direction the works were executed until 
the tragic death of this architect. 

The central cupola is a remarkable- engineering work; 
the feet alone, or rather, the pillars on which they rest, have 
a total surface of 300 metres, and are of granite. In order 
to strengthen this cupola, which weighs 30,000 tons, it was 
necessary to excavate the earth to a depth of 10 metres, 
and to construct another cupola, but inverted, also of stone; 
this cupola, looked at from above, makes one dizzy, and 
resembles a half of an immense egg-shell. 

The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies have indepen- 
dent halls for their sessions. 

That of the deputies has three rows of galleries for the 
public. The one on the first floor, above the president's 
chair is reserved for members of the Diplomatic Corps. There 
is special accomodation for ladies, which has introduced the 
good habit among the feminine element of coming to follow 
the parliamentary debates. 

The acoustic properties of this hall are very bad, and the 
heating apparatus insufficient. 

In the hall of the Senate there are two rows of galleries 
for the public; but they are of a very small size. 

The Congress building contains two secretary's offices, 
committee rooms, and a library. 



218 CAPITAL From the Plaza de Mayo 

The parliamentary session, for both houses, lasts from 
May 1st. to September 30th.; but this time is generally ex- 
tended by an extraordinary session decreed by the Cabinet. 

The sittings take place on Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays from 3 p. m. onwards, for the deputies, and on the 
other days for the Senate. 

The chamber of the Deputies is semicircular in form, 
and has places for 130 members and the 8 ministers. On each 
side of the president's chair are the desks of the two secre- 
taries. Above the president's chair is the stenographists' 
table (there are always two writing, and the report of the 
proceedings is published on the following day). The speakers 
address the Chamber from their places, after having first 
obtained permission to speak. During the proceedings an 
exemplary order and attention reign, especially as compared 
with what exists in the parliaments of other nations. 

The political parties have no special places assigned to 
them. The president of the chamber has no special dress, 
and the deputies attend bare-headed. Each deputy has be- 
fore him a little desk, furnished with a drawer. In the corri- 
dors is a collection of portraits (mostly bad) of the presidents 
and vice-presidents of the Republic. The deputies are elec- 
ted in the proportion of one for every 33,000 inhabitants or 
fraction not less than 16,500; the duration of their service 
is four years; half the Chamber is re-elected every two 
years; and the deputies are eligible for re-election. They 
receive a salary of £ 132 per mouth. 

The senate hall possesses seats for 30 senators and for 
the ministers. The vice-president of the Republic, in accor- 
dance with the constitution, is ex officio president of the 
Senate. 

Strangers of distinction can obtain entry cards for the 
special galleries from the secretary's office. 

II. — From the Plaza de Mayo to the Plaza San Mar J in, 
via Calle Florida. — The visitor should take a motor-car or 
cab (taximetre) to go to the Plaza San Martin via Calle 
Florida. 

Calle Florida. — This thoroughfare, which is only ten 
cuadras long (a little more than a kilometre) is, by reason 
of the great number of luxurious shops collected there, and 
the various sumptuous edifices which one may admire 
there, one of the principal streets of Buenos Aires; it follows 
a direction from north to south. Between Calles Bartolome 
Mitre and Cangallo is the Palacio Guerrero; at present the 
property of Gath and Chaves; between Corrientes and La- 
valle, on the left hand, there is the pretty Louis XV building 
of Julio Pena, opposite which is Juan Cobo's sumptuous 



to the Plaza San Martin CAPITAL 219 

property. Between Calles Lavalle and Tucunian is the Jockey 
Club, which is worth the visitor's attention. At the entran- 
ce, on the first landing of the monumental staircase is erec- 
ted the celebrated Diana, the work of the sculptor Fal- 
guieres. From this landing the staircase divides into two 
symetrical flights of stairs which lead to the gallery on the 
first floor; they are ornamented with pilasters and columns 
in Corinthian style which complete the ornamentation of 
this work of art, in which the onyx of the banisters, the 
stone from the quarries of Azul, of w^hicli the steps are made, 
the ivory grey colour of the balustrades and the stucco 
which covers the walls, imitating marbles of different co- 
lours, form a magnificent ensemble. 

This club possesses luxurious talking-rooms, playing- 
rooms, reading-rooms, fencing-rooms (professors Pini, Bai, 
Peme, Nigro, Carreras) and a billiard saloon. The restau- 
rant is the finest in Buenos Aires; it has a summer dining- 
room on the terrace, which is very cool. The provision of 
baths includes cold, hot, Turkish, Roman, and steam baths. 
Besides, there is a luxurious hairdressing saloon, with ma- 
nicure and pedicure. There is also an excellent library with 
the principal national and foreign magazines and important 
newspapers. The Jockey Club also possesses an excellent 
Mignon mechanical piano, at the service of members. 

The Jockey Club's Collectiou (of paintings). — ^This club, 
w^hich by its wealth is the first in the Republic, and in 
South America, has decorated its magnificent rooms with 
pictures by modern painters. For this purpose it has had 
sent out from Europe the best canvases of celebrated ar- 
tists, preference being given to French ones. It is really a 
pity that this collection cannot be visited by the public 
except by means of special authorization, for such a visit 
is a veritable artistic feast. The best of taste has been dis- 
played, not only in the acquisition of the pictures, but also 
in their arrangement in the rooms. 

We will only say a few words about them, but we will 
at the same time urge upon all those who can visit them to 
do so. 

«The Cannon-sliot», by Ziem, is a canvas with magnificent 
colouring; «Tlie Gentleman)), by Roybet, is a great achieve- 
ment, of great beauty; «Dread , by Leon Perrault, is striking 
by reason of the exactitude of the movement, as well as for 
the beauty of the design; two other little pictures, «Interior 
of a Barn», by the painter of animals Charles Jacque, and 
one of the nude, by Fantin-Latour, complete the decoration 
of the first room which we find on the first floor, on the 
right. 



220 CAPITAL The Jocley Club's Collect 

In tlie second, <(Drinkeis», by Roybet, is a true master- 
piece; the attitude of these drinkers is so natural that one 
would almost believe it an instantaneous photograph; the 
colouring is rich and leaves an agreeable impression. Another 
little picture, by Jimenez Aranda «A Good Story», shows 
some persons bursting with laughter over the reading of a 
risque' story; the lighting effect also contributes to increase 
the expression of the faces. 

In the large hall is the fine portrait of Carlos Pellegrini, 
painted by Bonnat, which is one of the great painter's 
best works. Opposite is «The Triumph of Love», one of 
Bouguereau's masterpieces; the delicacy of the design and 
the beauty of the persons make it one of the richest acqui- 
sitions of the collection. In this hall the painter De Martino 
has a canvas entitled «The Hercules and the Halcon Doubling 
Cape Horn»; it is a good picture, despite the impression one 
receives that the calmness of the sea is a trifle overdone. 
There are also a pretty «Landscape» by Harpignies and a de- 
licate <(Shepherdess» by Chialiva. 

In the next room «A Flock of Sheep», by Gaston Gui- 
gnard, gives an excellent idea of the calm which falls on 
the country at nightfall. A very richly-coloured canvas is 
signed Sorolla y Bastida, and represents « After the Bath». 

In the other room the latter painter, one of the best of 
the Spanish school, gives us a view of the beach at Malaga; 
the movement is extraordinary and the colouring very 
warm, and this picture gives a good idea of the bright co- 
lours of these beaches and of the rich sun of the South of 
Spain. «The Engagement Present», by John Gonzalez, is 
a painting in which the expressions of all the faces have 
been very carefully studied; the artist has omitted no detail, 
and one can inspect each one without finding anything to 
find fault with. There are also a «Spanish Interior», by Ben- 
lliure; a coast scene, by Pradilla, and a «Marriage», by Goya. 

The Jockey Club owns the Palermo race-course, where 
the largest and smartest sporting meetings in South America 
take place. 

The entry fee is $ 3,000 (£ 264). Distinguished foreigners 
can obtain a temporary entrance at the request of a member. 

At the corner of Calles Florida and Lavalle are the offices 
of the Ministry of Agriculture, in a modern building, the pro- 
perty of Mr. Saturnino Unzue. 

At the corner of Calles Florida and Cordoba is the Centro 
Naval, founded in 1882 by a group of young officers of the 
National Navy, and by civil servants and several other 
persons. There are reading-rooms, billiard- saloons, fencing- 
rooms, a library, and a small museum of models, chiefly of 
warships of the Argentine Navy. 



rid;sa de Mayo.— Palermo CA'P\Ts\J J 221 

Between Calles Viamonte and ('ordolja is a very fine 
building, as yet unfinished, known as the Bon MarcJie, at 
present the projjerty of the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway. 

Our Calle Florida, with all its luxurious jewellers, is a 
reproduction of the rue de la Faix, at Paris. Their windows 
contain a continual blaze of jew^els, w^hich causes the admi- 
ration of the women and the despair of their husbands. These 
jewellers' shops belong to Favre, Fredenhagen, Carrasale, 
Gustavo Wurst, Coats, Schoo, Barlow, and many others. 

In this street there are also several permanent exhibitions 
of paintings and sculptures, such as those at the corner of 
Calles Florida and Cordoba, and of Costa, betw^een Calles 
Bartolop-ie Mitre and Cangallo. 

Calle Florida leads finally into the Plaza General San 
Martin, one of the finest squares in the town on which has 
been erected the equestrian statue of General Jose de San 
Martin, the liberator of America. On one side of this square 
is the magnificent Argentine Pavilion, where the pictures 
and statues which formed the collections in the National 
Fine Arts Museum have been provisionally installed. 

At one of the corners of the square, that formed by Ca- 
lles Florida and Charcas, is the luxurious Plaza Hotel, one 
of the finest, both for its installation and for its service, of 
all those existing in Buenos Aires. At the corner formed by 
Calles Arenales and Maipii is to be seen the sumptuous re- 
sidence of the Basualdo-Dorrego family. A few metres 
away, at the corner of Calles Esmeralda and Arenales is the 
residence of Mrs. Mercedes Castellanos de Anchorena. Fi- 
nally, opposite this latter, and on the other side of the square, 
is the monumental residence of the publicist. Dr. Jos6 C. 
Paz, founder of La Prensa. 

III. — From the Plaza de Mayo to Palermo, via the Paseo 
(le Julio. — Another excursion which will help the tourist to 
find his way about can be commenced at the Plaza de Mayo 
to go to Palermo, via the Parque 9 de Julio, which is situated 
behind the Casa de Gobierno (Government House), and con- 
tinuing by the Paseo de Julio and the Avenida Alvear as far 
as the Parque 3 de Febrero (Palermo). 

The Parque 9 de Julio, which extends between Calles 
Belgrano and Corrientes, is designed on the model of the 
Champs Elysees at Paris, but it presents an advantage over 
these, in that it is of a great area, and near to the most 
thickly peopled part of the town. 

The park is divided by an avenue surrounded by gardens 
laid out in the renaissance style, like the Pink House (Go- 
vernment House). This avenue, which leads to the ponds, 
starts at a semicircular piece of open ground where it is 



222 • CAPITAL From the Plaza de Mayo 

proposed to erect a statue, x^robably one of Eivadavia. In 
the middle of the avenue tliere is a small circus with a foun- 
tain in the centre. This fountain was made in the workshops 
of the Hauts-Fourneaux et Fonderies du Val d'Osne Co., 
Ltd., of Haute-Marne, France. 

In the park, opposite Calle Cangallo, is the beautiful 
fountain executed by the Argentine artist Lola Mora. 

A short distance from this fountain is the beautiful sta- 
tue of the thinker and agitator Giuseppe Mazzini, the work 
of the sculptor Tantardini, presented to the town of Buenos 
Aires by the Italian residents. 

Where the Calle Corrientes crosses the Parque 9 de Ju- 
lio is the building w^here the General Post Office of the nation 
will be installed. 

Further on, on arriving at Calle Charcas, one finds the 
monument presented to Argentina by its Syrian population 
in commemoration of the first centenary of the K evolution 
of May (1810-1910). 

Continuing the ex^cursion through the Paseo de Julio, 
in the direction of Palermo, one comes, on arriving at the 
Avenida Callao, to the Japanese Park, an amusement centre 
during the summer, where numerous attractions are offered. 

Finally, on the left hand, and before arriving at the 
Plaza Intendente Alvear or Paseo de la Eecoleta, is the Ice 
Palace, where, during the winter numerous young people 
belonging to the high society of Buenos Aires go to skate 
on the ice. 

Leaving the beautiful Eecoleta on the left, with its noisy 
crowd of healthy children, who come there every day to 
play on the grass, we arrive before the very artistic monu- 
ment presented by the French residents of the Eepublic as a 
mark of confraternity on the occasion of the first centenary 
of the Eevolution of May. 

Opposite this monument, which is certainly the finest 
in Buenos Aires, is the establishment which contains the 
pumping and filtering apparatus for the water supply. This 
is the finishing-point of the aqueduct which brings the 
water from the Eio de la Plata for the supply of the town. 
This tunnel has done good service since the year 1872, but 
the extraordinary growth of the population, and, in conse- 
quence, of the consumption, has rendered it insufficient, 
and another subterranean aqueduct, 1,245 metres long and 
with a circular section three metres in diametre is just 
being finished in that section of the Parque 3 de Febrero 
known by the name of «Vivero)>. Of its total length, 1,000 
metres are situated under the bed of the river. This new 
aqueduct will give at ordinary low water a supply of 1,600,000 
cubic metres of water in 24 hours, a quantity which, with 




The Tijj,rc lU'i^atlas (Province of Buenos Aires). 



lo Palermo CAPrPAL 22:J 

the 200,000 cubic inctrrs Avliich (he ohl suh-iluvial iKiiUMluct 
can supply, is enough to satisfy with the greatest liberality 
all the necessities which can be foreseen for a long time. 

In this Avenida Alvear where we are now, and which 
is called the Champs Elysees of Buenos Aires, a name which 
it deserves more and more every day, are to be seen sump- 
tuous residences, such as that of the heirs of Mr, Mariano 
Unzue (on the left), and others not less beautiful are being 
built every day, such as those of Messrs. Errazuris (on the 
left), Christophersen (on the right), and those which are to 
be constructed in the «Barrio-Parque» on building lots sold 
by the municipality (Palermo Chico), (on the right), with 
the condition that buildings in accord with the esthetics 
and hygiene of the quarter w^ill be erected. 

Still in the same avenue, on the right hand, we find the 
«Pabell6n de las Rosas», at present let to the Argentine Sports 
Society, where there are frequently held games and sports 
meetings for the purpose of developing a love of physical 
exercise among the young people. 

Before entering the Parque 3 de Febrero, at the end of 
the Avenida Sarmiento, we pause before the fine monument 
presented by the Spanish residents of the Republic to com- 
memorate the first centenary of the Revolution of May. 

We arrive at last at the Parque 3 de Febrero (Palermo). 
This magnificent park (3,677,467 square metres) is frequen- 
tec^ daily by a numerous crowd who go there in motor-cars, 
cairiages, on horseback, or on bicycles. It is to Buenos Aires 
what the Bois de Boulogne is to Paris, Hyde Park to Lon- 
don, and Central Park to New York. The name 3 de Fe- 
brero (February 3rd.) recalls the victory which Urquiza 
gained over Rozas, a victory which put an end to the long 
dictatorship of the latter. Rozas lived at the point where 
the circus is now. The Avenida de las Palmeras (Palm- 
tree Avenue), is the great artery of the park; on the east 
are the Zoological Garden, the National Cycle-track, and the 
Restaurant Hansen; on the west the magnificent «Restaurant 
de los Lagos» (Lake Restaurant), the National Racecourse, 
the Argentine Horse Club, the Argentine Federal Shooting 
Club and the Rural Society's show-ground. 

Four statues have been erected in the park. The first, in 
the circus, is of Domingo F. Sarmiento, a work of the French 
sculptor Rodin, which was unveiled on May 2ath., 1900. 
«The bared head is held proudly up», says a writer, «tlie eyes 
are fixed on the boundless horizon; Faith is reflected in the 
serenity of the countenance; decisiveness is shown on the 
lips, and a sense of power is given out by his whole being. 
Before him laurels have fallen; he tramples on them and 
advances, proud and noble, sublime and triumphant. The 

U^KDKKKlt. — 18 



224 CAPITAL Parqiie 3 de Fehrero 

rigid muscles, the violent attitude, seem to indicate the efforts 
of the body, which struggles hopelessly on. The statue rests 
on a massive block of white marble, w^orked with a myste- 
rious and alluring art. Apollo, god of Light and Thought, 
advances, dispersing the Darkness, while the serpent Py- 
thon, symbol of ignorance and ugliness, writhes as he dies 
in the centre of a snowstorm which appears to be receding. 
The Superb God advances, his arms outstretched, in a su- 
preme effort to dissipate the clouds of ignorance which de- 
grade life and cause blindness. He arrives from afar, calm 
and strong, he raises his eyes with majestic grace, and his 
whole body seems to vibrate with an exquisite languor. » 

The second statue is that of Dr. Carlos G. Burmeister, 
unveiled on in October, 1900. It is opposite the Administra- 
tion House, and is the w^ork of the German sculptor Richard 
Aigner, who lives in Argentina. Burmeister has left behind 
hims scientific work of inestimable value. 

Among his best w^ork may be cited the <(Glyptodonte», 
which he w^as the first to reconstruct, and the «Pre-Colum- 
bian Horse», of w^hich he has left a completely finished spe- 
cimen. 

Burmeister was for several years director of the Natural 
History museum; his masterpiece is a book entitled The 
Creation. 

The third statue is of Dr. Eduardo Costa, unveiled on 
March 1 6th., 1902. Costa was an eminent lawyer and 
a remarkable statesman who rendered great services to the 
nation. 

The fourth statue has been erected, in memory of a poet, 
Hilario Ascasubi, author of some popular poems which have 
w on for him one of the first places in the literature of the 
nation. 

The Ru al Socitty's Show -ground,— One of the most im- 
portant installations to be found in the Parque 3 de Fe- 
brero, is the ground conceded by the Xational Government 
to the Argentine Rural Society, for the purpose of holding 
the interesting agricultural and fat stock shows which are 
organized there every year. 

These grounds have an area of 180,000 square metres, 
and have sufficient sheds to shelter 500 horned cattle or 
horses, while 736 more can be accommodated in the grounds 
and 3,500 sheep can be placed in the folds. 

There is also a piece of ground of 4,500 square metres 
with 4 stands in which there is room for 2,000 persons. 

For the exhibition of machines and agricultural pro- 
ducts, there are, near the entrance, three fine pavilions mea- 
suring 5,000 square metres, and other smaller ones; there is 
also an immense kiosk for the exhibition of diary produce. 



Argentine Jiacecoiirse CAPITAL 225 

These exhibitions ai<' generally held in September or 
October, and are aecompanied by horse competitions which 
are of great interest in social circles. It is necessary to attend 
these exhibitions if one wishes to form an exact idea of the 
immense progress which has been made in the breeding of 
sheep, cattle, and horses in the Republic. 

These exhibitions represent such a degree of perfection 
that they may be compared favorably, as regards both the 
quantity and the quality of the animals exhibited, with 
the most important in the world. 

In recent years an important dairy section has been ad- 
ded, in which are exhibited the most perfected machines 
employed in the manufacture of butter and cheese. The 
process of manufacture is also exhibited to the public. 

Means of transport. — One can get to the exhibition by 
means of the Anglo-Argentine electric tramway, which lea- 
ves the corner of Calle Rivadavia and the Paseo de Julio 
and passes through the Avenida Las Heras or the corner 
of Calles Rivadavia and San Martin, and thence through 
Calle Santa Fe. The fare is $ 0*10. One can also take a motor 
car or taxi. 

Argentine Racecourse {Palermo). — To the west of the Par- 
que 3 de Febrero is the principal racecourse in Buenos Aires, 
belonging to the Jockey Club. 

The Argentine Racecourse possesses installations which 
make it one of the best of its kind. The great stand, which 
is the principal building on the course is very elegant and 
comfortable. The racecourse is also provided witli all the 
necessary services and accessory buildings, such as stables, 
coach-houses, etc. 

There are meetings all the year round, but the principal 
ones take place from April to November. The most impor- 
tant are: the Jockey Club Prize (September 8th.), the Cup 
of Honour (September 16th.), the National Prize (October 
12th.), and the Carlos Pellegrini Prize (October 28th.), 
which are true social events. (These dates are subject to al- 
teration.) 

The two latter can be called more especially sporting 
events, for in the paddock, in the stands, in the pavilions, 
and, in fact, everywhere on the course, it is impossible to 
move on account of the crowd. 

Means of transport. — To get to the Argentine Racecourse 
without expense one can take the train at the Retiro station 
(Corner of Calle Maipu and the Paseo de Julio). 

These trains, run by the Buenos Aires and Rosario Rail- 



226 CAPITAL Federal Slhooting Range 

way, leave the Retiro at H'So, 12'20, 12'25 (special), and 
1*05. The return trains run at 3'28 and 5"28, and at the end 
of the races there is a special. 

If, on the contrary, one wishes to go in comfort, one can 
take a carriage ($ 15), or a motor car (cucaracha), or a cab, 
which are provided with taximeters. There is also a service 
of tramways to the races; these tramways leave from the 
Paseo de Julio, and bear the inscription «Carreras» (races); 
the fare is $ 0*10. 

The entrance to the race-course is as follows: General 
Stand, S 2-00; Paddock, $ T'OO; transfer to paddock, $ 5'00. 
Ladies: General Stand, $ TOO; Paddock, $ 3"00. 

Federal Shooting Mange.- — This fine range is situated in 
the north-west of the Parque 3 de Febrero, and has an area 
of 10,000 square metres; the building is 100 metres long 
and the faQade is ten metres longer. This facade is orna- 
mented with two towers 18 metres high, surmounted by 
battlements. 

A magnificent view is to be obtained from these towers. 
Between the towers, on a little flight of steps, I '50 m. high 
are three monumental glass and forged iron doors; they have 
a height of seven metres and give access to a vestibule 25 
metres long by 6 wide. 

The range has 38 targets, 8 at 50 metres for revolver 
shooting, 20 at 300 metres and 10 at 500 metres for rifle 
shooting. The targets are all double and movable; while 
one descends the other mounts; they are 2'50 m. high and 
2 m. wide; they consist of a base of wood covered with 
sacking. 

To prevent projectiles from leaving the range there are 
several screens and embankments. 

The entrance to the range is free, and there are always 
guns (rifle or revolver) and ammunition, at the disposal 
of the public. The club organizes national and international 
competitions which are famous. 

Means of transport. — Electric tramway, corner of Calle 
Rivadavia and the Paseo de Julio, or train at the Retiro 
station (Central Argentine). 

Gymnastic and Fencing Club. — This club possesses a 
magnificent gymnasium in the Parque 3 de Febrero, where 
its members can indulge in physical exercises. It frequently 
organizes competitions, which are well attended. 

Lake Eestaurant. — This is a town property rented by 
Messrs. Ponicio dt Co. In summer it is a meeting-place for the 



Argentine Golf Club CAPITAL 227 

best society. In winter, on holidays, numerous persons go to 
take tea there; and a good orchestra is Icept. The charges 
are $ 3 per meal. 

{<Vivero)> 8e<Mon. — A visit which one ought to make (by 
motor car) is to the «Vivero» section, only recently established 
Thick woods, lakes, and other natural beauties are to be 
found there. New buildings for the water supply machinery, 
and filter-beds and an aqueduct are being constructed there. 
These works are intended to augment considerably the quan- 
tity of water for the supply of Buenos Aires, in fact to such 
an extent that no inhabitant of the future town (whose 
population is estimated at eight millions) will be in want 
of this element, so important from the food and health 
points of view. 

In the higher part of the Parque 3 de Febrero is another 
public institution which must be mentioned, the Argentine 
Golf Club, which was founded on the initiative of the Argen- 
tine progressist, Ernest Tornquist, who unfortunately left 
us before he could finish the great services he could render 
to his country. The club, which is situated at Palermo, bet- 
ween Calles Pampa and Ombii, and Avenidas Alsina and Del 
Palomar, covers a surface of 43 hectares. The ground has 
been let to the club by the Municipality of Buenos Aires for 
a term of ten years. 

The Club numbers 130 members. The entrance fee is 
$ 300 for life members, 200 for active members, and 100 for 
country members. Diplomats, ladies and minors pay nothing. 
All the diiferent classes pay an annual subscription which 
varies according to the class. 

The length of the links is 5,300 yards. 

IV. — From the Plaza de Mayo to Palermo; via Calle Flo- 
rida, Plaza Lavalle, and Calles Cordoba and Santa Fe. — This 
is another very interesting excursion which we advise the 
tourist to make. 

Leaving the Plaza de Mayo, we take the Calle Florida, 
which we know already, and go to the Plaza Lavalle, one 
of the finest in Buenos Aires. In this square we shall see 
two monumental edifices which it is interesting to know: 
they are the Palacio de Justicia (Law Courts) and the Tea- 
tro Colon (Columbus Theatre). 

The Law Courts are on the site of the park and artillery 
barracks. 

The plan of the building was drawn by the French archi- 
tect Norbert Meillar, and the construction was undertaken 
by Messrs. Joseph E. Bernasconi Sz Co. 

The four facades are in the Neo- Greek style. The building 
consists of four large central bodies 40 metres high. 



228 CAPITAL Law 

The edifice lias seven storeys in its regular line, and nine 
in the advanced wings which detach themselves from the 
centre of each facade. 

The front flight of steps is in Calle Talcahuano, and the 
facade to which it conducts contains a portico in a peristyle 
and an ample vestibule from which starts the staircase which 
leads to the third floor, where is situated the Suprema Corte 
(fSupreme Court). The staircase divides on crossing the ves- 
tibule, leaving the light of the arc absolutely free. Two 
other large staircases, w^hich also lead to the third floor give 
access to the Courts by the north and south fa(,^ades. Besides 
this, there is a covered -in passage in Calle Lavalle which 
leads to the yard to which the prisoners are brought in 
carriages. 

On the principal floor, facing the corner of Calles Tucu- 
man and Talcahuano, are the oftices of the Camara Fede- 
ral (Federal Eoom) and the correctional and criminal courts, 
with their respective audience rooms and secretaries' offices. 
The whole is completed by a large hall for the juries, with 
an amphitheatre for 700 persons. 

All the floors are provided with capacity for eight courts 
each; each court comprises an audience hall, an office and a 
dressing-room for the judge, offices and dressing-rooms for 
the secretaries, and finally, oftices for the clerks. 

On the third floor, besides the Supreme Court, are the 
Commercial and Criminal Courts. The court-room of the 
Supreme Court measures 22 m. by 11*50 m., with a height 
of 18 metres. Outside its windows is a fine gallery which 
looks on to the square, on the opposite side of which are the 
Teatro Colon and the Escuela (School) General Roca. 

The Hall is the most magnificent part of the building: 
strong columns support the roof of this large, w^ell-lighted 
square. The Hall is completed by a lobby, 950 square me- 
tres in area. 

The basement is set apart for the Archives of the Courts, 
though it contains also a branch of the Banco de la Nacion 
and an office for the sale of oft'icial stamped paper. 

Six passenger lifts and two goods lifts complete the ins- 
tallation of the Law Courts. 



(luicle to the Palaeio de Justieia (Law Courts). 

{Corner of Calles Lavalle and Talcahuano). 

INDEX BY FLOORS 

Ground Floor. 

JZxcelenlisiina Cdmara de Coniercio (Commercial Court), 



Courts 



CAPITAL 



229 



First Floor. 

Aqentes Fiscales en lo Civil ij Comerrial {Civil and Commercial Pnhlic 
Prosecutors). 

Agcnte Fiscal (Public Prosecutor): Dr. L'ladislao Padilla. On Callrs I,a- 
valle and Talcahuano. 

Agonte Fiscal (Public Prosecutor): Dr. Alberto Estrada. On Calle La- 
valle. 

Criminal and Correctional Court. 

.Judge Dr. Jorge de la Torre, on Calle Lavallo. 

Second Floor. 



Correctional Courts. 

Judge Dr. Antonio V. Obligado. 

Secretary... Dr. Eduardo Lopez Jordan. 
» "^ Dr. Hector Kiernan Bermejo. 

Judge Dr. Antonio Lascano. 

Secretary... Dr. Merlo Amara. 

Offices of the Jueces de Inlormes (Investigating Magistrates). 

Magistrate. Dr. Eduardo Newton. 
Secretary... Dr. Manuel A. Romero. 

» Dr. Fernando M. Colombres. 

» Dr. Arturo Garaa Rams. 

Magistrate. Dr. Carlos F. Benitrs. 
Secretary... Dr. Horacio F. Costa. 

» Dr. .Jose ]Marc6 del Pont. 

» Dr. Salvador Lamesa. 

Magistrate. Dr. Jose Antonio de Oro. 
Secretary... Dr. Juan C. Avila. 

» Dr. J. Albarracin. 

» Dr. Angel Cordero. 

Magistrate. Dr. Servando Gallegos. 
Secretary... Dr. Juan J. Coria. 

» Dr. Luis Berrenechea. 

» Dr. Abelardo Ipanez. 

Second Floor. 

Offices of the Jueces de Informes {Investigating Maf/istralcs). 

Jaime Llavallol. 
David I'riburu. 
Antonio Delgado. 
N. Figueroa. 
Lucas Luna Olmos. 
Juan B. Consiglieri. 
Salvador Lyncii. 
.Juan B. Gimenez. 
Manuel S Beltran. 
Alberto Speroni. 
Ramon Porcel de Peralta. 
German Blasksley. 
.Juan del Canipiilo. 
Santiago A. Sasso. 
Enrique R. .Sobral. 
Jose J. Raggio. 
Ricardo Ortiz de Rosas. 



Magistrate. 


Dr. 


Secretary... 


Dr. 


» 


Dr. 


» 


Dr. 


Magistrate. 


Dr. 


Secretary... 


Dr. 


» 


Dr. 


» 


Dr. 


Magistrate. 


Dr. 


Secretary... 


Dr. 


» 


Dr. 


i> 


Dr. 


Magistrate. 


Dr. 


Secretary... 


, Di-. 


» 


Dr. 


» 


Dr. 


Magistrate. 


Dr, 



230 CAPITAL Law Courts 

Secretarv... Dr. Arturo :M. Castaneda. 

» Dr. Jose P. Calvo. 

» Dr. Carlos J. Guerello, 

Magistrate. Dr. Jorge H. Frias. 
Secretary... Dr. Julio Cesar Cano. 

» Dr. Epifanio Sosa. 

» Dr. Carlos Zunny. 

Soeoiid Floor. 

Fiscales en lo Criminal y Correcional (Public Prosecutors of the Criminal 
and Correctional CourUi). 

Fiscal (Public Prosecutor). Dr. Daniel Lynch. 

Secretary Dr. J. Severo Vera. 

Fiscal (Public Prosecutor). Dr. Carlos Avellaneda. 

Secretary Dr. Alberto Valdez. 

Fiscal (Public Prosecutor). Dr. Clodomiro Zavalia. 

Secretary Dr. Hector Ramos ^Nlejia. 

Fiscal (Public Prosecutor). Dr. Eduardo Na6n. 
Secretary 

lliird Floor. 

Primera Excelentisima Cdmara de lo Civil (First Civil Division). 

Segimda Excelentisima Camara de lo Civil (Second Civil Division). 
Judge: Dr. Aureliano Gigena, on Calle Lavalle, in the centre. 
General management and sub-management of the Courts. 
Judge: Dr. Baltasar Beltran, on Calle Tucuman, centre, third court. 

Fourth Floor. 

Judge: Dr. Ricardo E. Cranwell, Calles Uruguay and Tucuman. 
» Dr. Tristan M. Avellaneda, Calle Uruguay. 

'> Dr. N. Gonzalez del Solar, Calles Tucuman and Talcahuano. 

Correctional^ Tribunal. 

Judge: Dr. Pedro Argerich, Calle Lavalle, in the centre. 

Fourth Floor. 

Judge: Dr. MarceHno Melo, Calle Lavalle, in the centre. 

Fifth Floor. 

Agentes Fiscales en lo Civil y Comercial (Prosecutors in the Civil 

and Commercial Courts). 

Agente Fiscal (Public Prosecutor): Dr. Jeronimo Balarino, on Calle 
Lavalle, in the centre. 

Civil Court Judge's Office. 

Judge: Dr. Juan Carlos Lagos, Calles Tucuman and Talcahuano. 

Chambers of the Commercial Judges, 

Judge: Dr. Juan B. Estrada, in Tucuman street, to the centre. 
» Dr. Felix Martin y Herrera, Lavalle street. 

» Dr. Juarez Celman, Lavalle street. 

» Dr. .Julian V. Pera, Tucuman and Uruguay streets. 

* Dr. Roberto Repetto, Tucuman street. 



Colon Theatre CAPITAL 231 

The Colon Theatre is situated in front of the Palace of 
Justice. The exterior of this building shows three different 
styles of decoration: the first floor in the Ionic style; the se- 
cond, Corinthian; and the third, Attic, inclining towards 
the Corinthian. The height of the facades, from the ground 
up to the cornice is 24'70 metres; on this frame-work of 
iron, the jDrincipal body of the building, which is of granite 
and brick, elevates itself. 

The principal entrance is on to the Plaza Lavalle. From 
the vestibule, one conies to a hall, 14 metres by 28, wTiich 
has a height of 25 metres. In the central part, is a monumen- 
tal staircase 14 metres long, which goes up to the level 
of the orchestra stalls. Statues adorn the staircase. The 
play-house is one of the largest in the whole world. Its total 
length from one of the balconies is 75 metres, three metres 
longer than that of St. Carlos in Naples; the dimensions of 
the ground floor are 27"80 metres by 22"50 metres. It con- 
tains 900 fauteuils placed on seven grades. The hall can 
hold 3,750 spectators. The front of the stage is 18 metres 
broad by 1925 metres high. The interior vertical dimen- 
sion of the stage is 48 metres, from the foundations up to 
the arch. 

The theatre is perfectly lighted, heated and ventilated; 
moreover, it is constructed with incombustible materials. 
As regards acoustics, it is very good. Experiments were 
made for the first time by two Argentine amateurs, Mme, 
M. C. P. de M. and M. L. P. Lucero, in the month of 
December, 1906. (For other details, see the plan of the 
hall, section of advertisements). 

Before leaving the Plaza Lavalle, the tourist ought to 
visit the School of President Roca, which is situated at the 
corner of Tucuman and Libertad streets, and admire the 
beautiful palace belonging to Mr. Antonio Devoto (Lavalle 
street, 1280), also the monumental building constructed at 
the corner of Lavalle and Libertad streets, belonging to 
Mme. Maria C. Pinero de Martinez. This building is divided 
into 24 flats with every comfort, and the necessary service 
to secure a healthy and agreeable life: four lifts, heating, 
apparatus of compressed air for cleaning, wash-houses and 
steam machines for ironing, luxurious bath-rooms, a 
profusion of light and ventilation, splendid coal and gas 
kitchen ranges, rubbish incinerators, telephones, for the 
interior to communicate with the hall-porters, and with ithe 
exterior; it has also a well-arranged installation of electric 
lighting. It may be said that this building is the most com- 
plete of its kind that exists in Buenos Aires, where progress 
is verj^ much felt in this way. 

We will now leave the Plaza Lavalle and go with the tour- 



232 CAPITAL Faculty 

ist, by the nearest street to Cordoba street. At the corner 
of this street and Rio Bamba, we will stop a moment at the 
Depot for Distributing Water, for the interest it inspires 
as a mechanical work. This building is the highest point 
from which one may contemplate the town of Buenos 
Aires. To be able to visit it, it is necessary to get an au- 
thority from the President of the Commission (corner of 
Charcas and Callao streets). 

At a short distance to the West or towards Palermo, 
we find still two other buildings: the Faculty of Medicine 
and the Maternity Hospital. These two buildings are quite 
independent of each other; the first one, more especially 
destined to the Faculty, is in front of the Clinical Hospital, 
and the second one, formed of three pavillions united by 
galleries covered and closed in with glass, has its principal 
facade on Viamonte street. The Faculty faces Cordoba 
street, and has a length of 86 metres on Andes street. 
The part of the structure which has a frontage on to Cor- 
doba street, is composed of 3 perpendicular constructions, 
separated by two courts. The ground-floor has rooms re- 
served for the Dean and secretary, the professors' hall, the 
amphitheatre, the dissecting room, the histology class and 
other matters, the class for physics, chemistry and physiology, 
with their respective laboratories. The first floor is occupied 
by the salon of «grados)>, which is magnificently, but severely 
decorated, the library, the museum Montes de Oca, offices 
of the Dean and secretary, the laboratory of bacteriology 
and two class rooms. The theoretical courses are under 41 
titular professors. In the same locality, the two annexes 
of the Faculty, are installed: these are the schools for Phar- 
macy and Odontology; that for Obstetrics, where mid wives 
are taught, is in a building apart. 

One enters by means of a spacious vestibule, artis- 
tically decorated, with doors at the sides giving access 
to lateral galleries; there is also a splendid marble stair- 
case which leads up to the first floor. In front, is the 
large amphitheatre, furnished with 380 seats for the pu- 
pils, and a gallery in the upper part. At the back of the am- 
phitheatre, is a large picture, three metres by two, painted 
by Charles Leroy, and represents the «Meditation on Death)>. 
This is a good canvas given by Dr. Toribio Ayerza. The 
salon of «grados» has a ceiHng of real artistic merit: it repre- 
sents the Triumph of Science; below the cornice, one sees 
the portraits of deceased professors (by the painter, George 
Mindella). The canvases that adorn the walls, represent: Jen- 
ner inoculating the first vaccine; William Harvey, demons- 
trating the circulation of the blood; Pasteur, examining 
globules of microbe culture; Claude Bernard, practising arti- 



of Medecine CAPn'AL 23:5 

ficial circulation on a rabbit; Volta, discovering the battery, 
which bears his name, Lavoisier, preparing oxygen, Simpson, 
applying chloroform, Galileo, studying the oscillations of 
the pendulum, Ambroise Pare, binding up an artery and a 
sister of charity lending herser vices, and helping the wound- 
ed. The library is the richest in books of medicine, that 
exists in Buenos Aires; it has more than 20,000 volumes. 
This building satisfies all the exigencies of the three Insti- 
tutes which depend on the Faculty and which are the Nor- 
mal Institute of Anatomy, that of Pathological Anatomy, 
and that of legal Medicine and the Morgue. 

The Normal Institute of Anatomy occupies two pavil- 
lions for dissection in the practical school, in form of a T. 
united tranversely by a general sectian. Below the central 
ramification of one of the pavillions that to the left, a hall 
is installed, for the preparations destined for the museum 
of Normal Anatomy, which occupies the whole first floor 
looking on to Cordoba street, and which serves as comple- 
ment to the practical instruction. 

The pavillions for dissection, contain 72 tables for the 
students, and have their respective installations of wash- 
stands, dressing-rooms, etc. 

The Institute of pathological anatomy comprises the 
following sections: Microscopic pathologic Anatomy (section 
of post-mortem examinations) which is to be found installed 
in the basement of the left transversal side of the pavillions 
for dissection, as well as the annex section of the Museum 
of pathology which occupies the upper floor looking on to 
Viamonte street; Pathological Histology, chemical patho- 
logy, bacteriology, parasitology, branclies which, iinited in 
one complete harmony, constitute, with pathological phy- 
siology, a complete study of morbid lesions which lead, with 
sufficient preparations, to the researches of experimental 
medicine. 

The Institute of legal Medicine comprises the section of 
the Morgue, the amphitheatre for medico-legales post-mor- 
tems, toxicological chemistry and experimental toxicology. 
This Institutp has, like that of normal anatomy and patho- 
logy, its museum, that of legal medicine, which constitu- 
tes the historical and scientific account of Argentine crimi- 
nology. 

The Morgue, where the unidentified corpses of individuals 
are placed, possesses a series of refrigerating chambers, simi- 
lar to those in use in Paris and Lyon, for the preservation 
of the bodies at a low temperature. The ]Morgue, situated in 
the central part of the building in Junin street, comprises 
three sections which are: the basement, the ground-floor 
and the first floor, In the basement are the refrigerating 



234 CAPITAL Botanical 

chambers; the Morgue proper, is on the ground-floor: there is a 
hemicycle for the exposing of the corpses; it is separated from 
the public by means of glass, and it receives abundant light. 
The Morgue is entered from Junin street; on each side 
there are offices for the police and the police-magistrate. 

An amphitheatre has been constructed on the first floor 
which can hold 600 students. The Morgue has four entran- 
ces, the principal one is in Cordoba street, two are in Junin 
street, and one for funeral hearses in Viamonte street. In 
front of the building for distributing water, one finds the 
Normal School for lady-professors. This construction, which 
does not want in elegance, seems to be hidden by its colossal 
neighbour. The education given in this School is very com- 
plete; it has as an annex, a preparatory course, and a Kin- 
dergarten. The normal course lasts six years. 

After having visited all these establishments, then one 
directs one's steps towards Santa Fe street, which is three 
squares to the North. This is one of the finest and largest 
streets of the Capital, because it continues, perfectly paved, 
under the name Cabildo street, up to the town of Tigre. 
crossing Belgrano, Martinez, Olivos, San Fernando and Isi- 
dro. In this street, at No. 3795, near the park 3 de Febrero, 
the National Conservatory of Vaccination is situated, de- 
pendent from the National Department of Hygiene. This 
Conservatory provides the whole Republic, except the Pro- 
vince of Buenos Aires, with the necessary vaccine for the 
prevention of small pox. It is there, that children are vacci- 
nated, who are taken in thousands for the inoculation of 
the anti- variola serum, at this source of its production. 
Every week 6 to 7 heifers are treated, which produce 2,500 
doses of vaccine. 

At a short distance from there, at No. 3951, the principal 
entrance to the Municipal Botanical Gardens is situated; 
this is an important model establishment, formed and di- 
rected by the famous horticultural engineer Charles Thays. 
The installation is composed of: a house for the Direction, 
Museum, winter hothouses, herbarium for ferns, a principal 
Avenue, Avenue of «typas)> a Louis XV garden, a Roman 
garden, industrial and medicinal plants, botanical and horti- 
cultural collections, Argentine anthology, section for acclim- 
atization, fruit trees, herb «mate», general nurseries and or- 
namental plants, fish-ponds for study, school for arboricul- 
ture, European, North American, African, Asiatic, south and 
central American sections, and aquatic plants in general. 

Mr. Thays has been successful in concentrating, in a re- 
latively small space, the flora of the whole world, represen- 
ted by the most characteristic subjects. In the European 
section, for instance, he has succeeded so far, that on look- 



Gardens CAPITAL 235 

iiig at one flower bed, one has the inipre.ssioii of being befo- 
re a German, or Belgian landscape, whilst farther on, one 
may imagine oneself in Africa, Phigland, or in Norway, 
Close to a South African tree, the pines of Canada lift up 
their tops, and near by are thorny plants of richly coloured 
leaves, characteristic of the Indian flowers, and the palms 
from Sahara. The section natural to the country, is without 
doubt the most curious and complete. 

Each province here, has trees which typically represent 
it, from the «fagus antarticus» of Tierra del Fuego, to the 
cedar from Mendoza and Tucuman; one can see almost 
an immense Argentine forest in a very small space. The «cal- 
denses», carob-trees, « quebrachos », acacias, «jacarandas», 
etcetera, elevate their robust trunks, which promise rapid 
development, thanks to the constant care of the cultivator. 
Mr. Thays has been able to prove that these forest giants, 
which in their wild state grow slowly, because of the pover- 
ty of the soil that nourishes them, in the Botanical Gar- 
dens, grow quickly and they attain undreamt of proportions. 
The jacarandas, the acacias and the «t3'pas» are trees for 
adorning squares and avenues, and constitute a useful dis- 
covery on the part of Mr. Thays, and it is most beautiful to 
see the first bluish branches, making a contrast with the 
whitish leaves of the acacias and the golden ones of the 
«typas» which are the most beautiful of all, owing to their 
special shape. The collection of ferns natural to the country 
is immense and complete; one finds all regions represented, 
from the «banados» of the province of Entre Rios up to the 
«altiplanicies» from Jujuy and from the wooded plains of the 
South to the rocky parts of Mendoza. One may also mention 
the section of aquatic plants, which is remarkable. Mr. Thays 
has been able to obtain an example of the famous ((Victo- 
ria regia» (brought from Guarani) which prospers admirably 
in the small lake that adorns the Louis XV garden. 

On leaving the Botanical Gardens and taking the direc- 
tion of the Park 3 de Febrero, one sees the monument ereet- 
ed in the Plaza Italia, by the Argentines and Italians, uni- 
ted thus by a beaiitiful sentiment of fraternity, to the me- 
mory of General Giuseppe Garibaldi; it was inaugurated on 
the 2nd. June 1904. This fine monument, the work of the 
sculptor Macagnani, represents the hero on his horse. x\t the 
base, are two symbolical statues, the one represents Victory, 
who often crowned the hero with laurels, and the other. Li- 
berty, for whom Garibaldi spilt his blood. The bas-reliefs 
are remarkable. They represent episodes in the life of the 
glorious general. 

Continuing our excursion, we find ourselves in the Avenue 
of Las Heras and Serrano street, and see on the right, the 



236 CAPITAL Zoological Gardens 

Zoological Gardens, the Director is Clemeiite Onelli (entran- 
ce 10 cents.)' tlieie are also two other entrances: one in the 
Avenue Sarniiento; and the other in the Avenue Alvear. 

The houses which shelter the different species are very 
picturesque. The pavillions for Gorillas and Chimpanzees is 
a pretty Egj^ptian temple. That, for the Zebus (sacred bulls 
of India) is an fndian palace; the architecture is correct, with 
all the fantastic and characteristic lines of the great race 
already lost in its splendour. The Bear's pavillion is a superb 
building in which are a great variety of animals, from the 
Polar bear, to the little comical Black Bear from Malaya. 
The sight of the bears and cubs at play, is most amusing. 

The chalet of the Alpacas and asses is also very interes- 
ting in itself. The most imposing sight of the Garden is the 
pavillion of wild beasts, above all at the time of feeding, 
when the animals commence to roar. There we see the Afri- 
can lion, the Bengal tiger, Panthers, Jaguars with their young. 
The Elephants' pavillion, inaugurated the 3rd. February 
1904, attracts also one's attention for the good taste with 
which it is built. In 1906, an extremely rare event in the 
annals of Zoological Gardens in the whole world, took pla- 
ce: this was the birth of a small elephant (female) which 
received the name of «Pudda»; it was and still is the en- 
chantment and delight of the infantile inhabitants of the 
Capital. In the interior of the Gardens a small Decau- 
ville train circulates for the children; they may hire camels 
to ride, there is also a milk-shop for the sale of milk, a com- 
fortable Cafe belonging to the «Confiteria del AguilaD, where 
one can have tea, coffee, drinks, etc.; a Punch and Judy 
Theatre, that has shows every Thursday and Sunday for 
30 cents. There is also an instrumental concert on Thursdays 
and Sundays. 

Means of locomotion: there is an electric tramw-ay in the 
Paseo de Julio and Eivadavia street or in the Plaza de 
Mayo (this last passes through Santa Fe street). The num- 
ber of persons who visit the Zoo every holiday, may be 
calculated at about 50,000. On leaving the Zoo, we find 
ourselves in the park 3 de Febrero (Palermo), which we 
have described. 

Near the Zoological Gardens there is another national 
establishment, which is the 

National Penitentiary. — Decreed by the government of 
the Province of Buenos Aires, the 1st. August 1872, the 
Penitentiary was inaugurated in June 1877. In 1880, this 
penitentiary became the property of the Nation and took 
the name of «National Penitentiary*. 

The boundary of this building is formed by Las Heras, 



National Peniteneiary CAPITAL 237 

Juiical, (*oioiiel Diaz and Salguero streets, witli an area 
of 122,000 square metres, of wliieh 22,135 are built on. 
There is aeeoniodation for 704 prisoners, and it is en» 
dowed with all the required dependencies for this kind of 
establishment. It was organised for the application of the 
«Auburn» system that is to say, for the placing of each indi- 
vidual in a separate cell, during the night and hours of re- 
pose, and the work, in general, in the work-shops. Subsequent 
necessities have imposed modifications in the building. At 
present, a Director is at the head of the Penitentiary. The 
personel of the establishment comprises a total of 197 em- 
ployees. 

To-day, the Penitentiary serves not only for persons sen- 
tenced to solitary confinement but also for individuals con- 
demned to i^rison. The former occupy the cells, and the 
latter are lodged in 8 rooms which can accommodate 25 
prisoners each room. 

There are twenty three work-shops work in this establish- 
ment,, they are as follows: A printing office, comprising three 
sections; a workshop for binding, books in blank, lithography, 
photo-engraving, shoemaking, saddlery, factory of brushes, 
tailoring, electricity^ jewellery, iron and bronze foundry, car- 
pentry, masonry, bakehouse, kitchen, washhouse, horticul- 
ture and hair-dressing. Some of these workhshops are for 
the service of the establishment, but the majority, and most 
important, work only for the administrations of the Nation. 

The machinery is of the most modern, and the teaching 
is such, that on their release the condemned are capable of 
entering any particular industry. The results are satisfactory 
and cases of backsliding are very few. 

There is an office which is occupied in finding work for 
discharged prisoners. The School, in charge of a director and 
15 professors with diplomas, is open from 6-8 o'clock in the 
morning. Health and hygienic services, are under the direc- 
tion of 5 doctors, a dentist, a chemist, and assistants. This 
section comprises the Hospital and the Isolation ward, in se- 
parate buildings. The hospital has 5 rooms which hold 14 
beds in each. The Isolation w^ard can hold 14 beds. There are 
besides, rooms for the different medical services. An Insti- 
tute of Criminology for the study of this branch of science 
is also in the establishment, and the Institute publishes a 
review, and also helps the Direction. A chaplain is included 
in the personnel and has the religious services under his care. 
The chapel is situated in the centre of the establishment. 
Ministers of other religions have access to the establishment, 
if their presence is desired by a prisoner. In the interior, the 
wanders are civilians, the military guard has only to guard 
the walls. 



238 OAPITAL Mere. Centr, de Fruios 

V. — From the Plaza de Mayo to the Bridge of Barracas, 
following the River. — We still advise the tourist to make 
A new journey of orientation; this is to follow the Paseo 
Colon (situated at the back of the Government Palace; 
there are many lines of tramcars) up to the Bridge of Barra- 
cas. Thus one crosses the zone of the port, and one gets an 
idea of the immense commercial and maritime traffic. 

Before commencing this excursion, the tourist would be 
wise to read the description of the services of the port we 
give in this guide. Arriving at the terminus one sees a fine 
swing- bridge of iron, which was inaugurated in the month 
of August, 1902. This bridge if of great service to the cir- 
culation of pedestrians and carriages, but especially to the 
carts that go to the large depots of the «Mercado Central 
de Frutos') (Central Market of Products) which is to be 
found on the right bank of Riachuelo, with products of agri- 
culture and cattle destined for exportation. It is calculated 
that in summer 8,000 vehicles cross this bridge daily. This 
work is considered the most important construction of its 
kind in South America. 

Having once crossed the Bridge, the traveller finds him- 
self on turning to the left, on the south bank of Riachuelo, 
in front of Patricios street, where the freezing establishment 
«La Blanca» is established which was inaugurated in Septem- 
ber 1903. This building is imposing in aspect and surrounded 
with outhouses, shops and courts which complete the whole 
of the building. 

There is a large piscina where hundreds of animals are 
bathed, before being taken to the slaughter-house, and 
from there to the refrigerator, there are also rails for the cir- 
culation of automatic cars which carry the slaughtered ani- 
mals to the airing chambers, thus allowing of the flowing of 
the blood into the channels for that purpose. The machinery- 
room is remarkable: it has three large refrigerators, system 
Stern <& Co. of 200 H. P. two installations for electric lighting 
and a fire-engine. The next building, is where the boilers (3 in 
number and of 20 OH. P.) are installed, and near by is the store 
of ammonia. In the refrigerating chambers about 7,000 
oxen and 70,000 sheep can be frozen at one time, the 
ammonia is conducted to the four stages of which the 
chambers are composed by a conduit in serpentine form, 
which straightened out would measure 96 kilometres. The 
freezing -establishment exported in 1912: 94,499 quarters 
of frozen beef, 437,072 refrigerated and 373,295 frozen 
mutton. 

Continuing his excursion to the left, the traveller finds 
himself in front of a building of colossal and imposing pro- 
portions: it is the «Mercado Central de Frutos». This market. 



Freezings CAPITAL 230 

says ,Mr. (.'liarles Wiinier, in his book, The Argentine I' f pu- 
blic (Paris 1899) is the largest «Wool-Dock» of the world, 
and at the same time a depot, an exchange of commerce 
where sales and purchases are made of the products of the 
country. This building, of four floors, is made of iron and co- 
vered in, it has an area of 152,000 square metres, and 
was constructed at Barracas to the south, on the Riachuelo, 
by a joint-stock company averaging the sum of 4 millions 
155 thousand piastres or 20,775,000 francs. Different railway 
lines cross the market, going to the different parts. 
Seventy -two steam cranes and lifts work on the different 
floors; numberless waggons, 44 hydraulic presses, steam 
motors and machines complete the installation of this 
establishment. 

In the harvest of 1911-1912, up to the month of June, 
110 million kilograms of wool, caniet o this market, and in 
that of 1910, 109 million; in the preceeding years the cen- 
tral market received up to 140 million kilograms of wool. 

The largest quantity of wool that has been deposited in 
this Market, w^as on the 5th. February 1901, 17,854,739 
kilograms, besides this there were 700 waggons laden with 
2,200,000 kilograms of wool, which makes a total of kilo- 
grams 20,054,739; and the total capacity of the depot is 
26,000,000 kilograms. 

On the same south side of the Riachuelo, crossing the 
Barracas Bridge, the tourist will find, to the right, another 
large establishment: this is the freezing factory «La Xegra» 
which is worthy of mention. It was founded in 1883 by 
Mr. Sansinena; 630 workmen and 40 children over 14 years 
old, work here daily, 2,500 sheep and 250 oxen are killed 
daily. 

It possesses 4 refrigerators Stern & Co. of Glasgow (sys- 
tem Verge), 3 refrigerators Sulzer Bros, of Wintherthur, 
Switzerland (system Lande). 

Nothing is more curious, than to assist at the working of 
the refrigerator where all parts of the animals are utilised. 
Tongues, kidneys are sold in the market, the intestines 
are prepared speciall}^ for Germany and Italy: these two 
countries employ them for different industries and above 
all, for the manufacture of musical strings. The viscera are 
utilised in different ways, the fat that surrounds them is 
sent to the soap and candle factories. The refrigerator «La 
Negra» exported in 1912: 310,847 quarters of frozen beef, 
161,640 refrigerated and 719,767 frozen mutton. 

On the banks south of the Riachuelo, in the district of 
the capital, called «Valentin Alsina» is situated the large 
«Frigorifico Argentina*) founded by a Joint-Stock Company. 
This businers occupies an area of 125,000 square me- 

ItAI'.DKKKR. — 1i) 



240 CAPITAL Asijlum of the Mercedes 

tres, without counting the ground sown with lueern-grass, 
used for pasturing the animals before being slaughtered. 
The capital employed in this enterprise is 6,250,000 francs. 
It exported in 1912: 206,174 quarters of frozen beef, 145,731 
refigerated and 161,572 of frozen mutton. 

Near the banks of the Riachuelo, in Vieytes and Brand- 
zen streets is a public establishment, a model of its kind, 
which the traveller ought to study. It is the «Asylum of 
the Mercedes*). 

This is the only oHicial Asylum in the country for lunatics. At present 
it is considered the first hospital establishment in South America, for its 
number of inmates, as well as for its material constitution and for the mo- 
dern organisation of the difTerent services. It was founded in 1863; it is sit- 
uated on the high grounds in the extreme soulh-west of Buenos Aires, 
witli an area 136,000 square metres between the street Vieytes to the 
east, Brandzen to the south, the railway, and the grounds of the Hospital 
Rawson to the North. 

The building in itself is good; splendid pavillions were added in 1890. 
Its interior walks, well paved are bordered with plants and acacias. There 
are large parks and interior and outside gardens, with a great variety of 
plants and shrubs. 

It is lighted by electricity, and has a complete supply of water for 
ordinary ser\ ice and also in case of fire; there is, besides an artesian well 
with a steam pump. Its sanitary service is in communication with that 
of the town. 

The asylum has numerous departments divided in sections; of those 
under continuous supervision, for the quiet ones, the violent, semi-vio- 
lent, the infirm idiot children, epileptics, those slightly wrong in the head, 
called delinquents, etc.; each one of these sections has its refectory, its meet- 
ing hall, its dormitories and other dependencies. 

It has well installed work-shops for carpentry, the manufacture of brush- 
es and brooms, a printing shop, a steam wash-house, shoe-making, harness- 
making, lock-smiths, tailors (cut, making and repairs) and gas-fitters; if 
the lunatics are in the condition to do so, they also are occupied in masonry, 
l^ainting, agriculture and horticulture. There is also a band composed ol 1^3 
musicians (all lunatics) with a good repertory. The different sections for the 
inmates are comfortable and unite all hygienic conditions and spaciousness. 
Those for the indigent are also comfortable. 

The Asylum at present lodges (1st. .January, 1913) 1,922 lunatics of all 
categories. The interior organisation of the establishm.ent does not differ 
from that of similar European asylums. Its technical and administrative di- 
rection is in charge of a doctor, who obtains the post by means of a scientific 
examination. At present, and since 1892, the Director is Dr. Dominic Ca- 
bred, professor at the same time for the official teaching of Psychiatry in the 
asylum. 

*HThe sick are treated by doctors who reside in the asylum itself, and are 
helped by sisters of Charity, nurses, and practical assistants, forming 
a total of 200 employees. Among other things, the Asylum has a well-stocked 
pharmacy, a photographic room with interesting works, an anatomical 
pathological pavillion, a section for medicinal and hygienic baths with 
water service and a large piscina for swimming, temperate baths in each 
section of the asylum, kitchens for 1,300 poor persons, and another smaller 
one lor the patients and employees, a dispensary, a laundry, a complete 
g\'nmasim, a bowling alley, nine-pins, a parlour, a ball-room, a music- 
room, etc., billiards," a library and several games, dominoes, draughts, 
chess, etc. 

At a short distance from this Asylum, in Brandzen 
street, no. 2200 the National Hospital for lunatics is situated. 



The Arsenal CATITAJ. 241 

louiidcd ill J 8.35 Ijy a philanthropic coiiiiiiissioii apjiointed 
by the ]":<) vein men t of the province of Buenos Aires. At present 
it depends on the Society of Benevolence, which maintains 
it with the funds furnished by the National Government. 
This model establishment is divided into 11 sections, and 
contained, the 1st. January 1913, 1907 lunatics. 

If the tourist is interested in military things, he would do 
well to visit the Arsenal (Pozos street, between Garay and 
Brasil streets); an electric tram takes one through Callao and 
Entre Eios streets, in front of the door.) In the Arsenal, 
materials of war and for the army are made and repaired, the 
furniture of the barracks and of the greater part of the mi- 
litary establishments for which it has everything necessary. 
It is interesting to make the round of the carpentry works- 
hops and see the circular and articulated saws work. 

The workshops for armoury are very important and have 
the most perfect machinery. There the Remingtons and 
Mausers are cleaned, cannons repaired and their projectiles, 
plaques are engraved, moulds are chased for the manufacture 
of buttons for navy uniforms. These workshops also have a 
section for bronzing arms, and installations for galvanoplas- 
tic baths. The cartridge boxes for Mauser and Remington 
guns are very important, also the large depots for war ma- 
terial. The Arsenal is surrounded by large gardens planted 
with magnificent trees. In the Arsenal is a range for shoot- 
ing and for testing the artillery guns. The visit to these 
establishments ended, the tourist may direct his steps 
towards Callao and Entre Rios streets and to other impor- 
tant quarters, or visit the few museums that Buenos Aires 
has, for in this aspect of its intellectual and artistic 
life, it is relatively backward. Thus the result is that the 
rich collections which form the Natural History Museum, 
founded by the German sage Burmeister and laterly direct- 
ed by the Argentine sage Ameghino, cannot be shown to 
the public for want of an appropriate locality, because the 
old building at the corner of Peru and Alsina streets, is fal- 
ling to pieces. 

The National Museum of Arts, has no appropriate place, 
and the already rich collection of paintings and sculpture, 
has in part been placed in the Argentine Pavillion on the 
Plaza vSan Martin, which served for the exhibition of our pro- 
ducts at the Universal Exhibition in Paris, 1889. We hope, 
in a short time, owing to the great progress in the Argentine, 
to remedy all this, and that our city, which is without doubt 
for several reasons, the first in South America, will be also 
the first for its intellectual culture and artistic progress. 



242 CAPITAL ria-n do Mayo 



Employiiieiit of lime. 

After having made these journeys of orientation, the 
tourist can chose the districts which he wishes to study 
specially; he can now dedicate himself to study details, 
that is to say, visit the buildings, the Museums, squares, etc., 
which will be easy, because as with the Museums these 
beauties are still largely lacking in the town of Buenos 
Aires. For this reason, we do not employ the method used 
by guides of this kind, and we do not take street by street 
describing the details, we note only the places worthy of 
mention, without caring whether the places we speak of are 
situated side by side, or whether they have any relation to 
each other. 

The most animated, modern, elegant and richest part of 
Buenos Aires is that part north of Kivadavia street; this 
part of the town forms a strange contrast to that w^hich ex- 
tends south of Eivadavia street, to such an extent that one 
could say they are two quite different towns. North of Ei- 
vadavia street there are the most frequented and elegant 
cafes, the most modern luxurious buildings, the most beau- 
tiful squares and w^alks, theatres, clubs of the best, the 
most comfortable hotels and restaurants, bazaars, jewellers, 
and the best shops supplying all the latest novelties. Never- 
theless a reaction has begun in the south part, to which 
the Municipal Authorities contribute, for they are in fa- 
vour of suppressing the notable differences that exist be- 
tween these two important districts of the town. 

Plaza de Mayo (May Square). — Area, 17,446 metres. 
The historical square of Buenos Aires and of the w^hole Ar- 
gentine Eepublic. The ex-president of the Eepublic, Avella- 
neda, said with reason, that «the events of four generations 
have left a historical stamp in it». On the south side of the 
square, the ancient «Cabildo)> exists, from which burst the 
cry for liberty the 22nd. May, 1810, forerunner of the Inde- 
pendence, sealed by the Congress of Tucuman the 9th. 
July 1816. In the centre of the square, a monument comme- 
morative of the Eevolution of May, is being erected at pre- 
sent, it has been decreed by the Congress and will enclose 
the ancient pyramid of masonry. 

In the South-East corner, is an equestrian statue of Ge- 
neral Belgrano. Several fountains, illuminated on feast days 
by multicloured lamps, and English gardens adorn this 
square. In front of the Avenida de Mayo a beautiful group 
in marble, acquired in Paris, was placed in 1906, this group 
represents the towm of Buenos Aires, in the shape of a woman 
at the moment when she is being crowned by Progress; at 



The Government Palace (WPITAL 243 

her side, a child representing the Future, leaves off reading 
in a book it has in its hand, to look at the Town receiving 
from Progress, triumph and honour. Near this square is also 
one of the principal stations of the underground tramway. 

Sometimes, unfortunately too seldom, there is music 
in the square. 

On the Plaza de Mayo, are the following buildings: 

The Government Palace (east side) AVhen, in 1580 Don 
Juan de Garay founded the town, he undertook the divi- 
sion of the ground among its first inhabitants, and fixed 
the boundaries, and in the region of the port, the site of 
the fortress which must serve to defend the new town. 

In 1595, the building of the fortress commenced: but it 
was only in 1718, under the administration of the gover- 
nor Bruno Maurice de Zaballa that the great walls were 
commenced, which were finished in 1720 these were the same 
that were preserved up till 1853, when they were de- 
molished, and replaced by the building known as the Adua- 
na Vieja (old Custom House) which was also demolished 
in 1894. 

The building is constructed with bricks on a piece of 
ground that forms a parallelogram; the facades cut at right 
angles, and measure 125 metres on Balcarse street, by 
81 metres on the east side. (Paseo Colon). Seen from the 
port, this building presents a grand sight with its four 
floors, terraces and balconies. It has on its highest part a 
group of gigantic statues, the work and composition of the 
sculptor Blanchi. Seen from the Plaza de Mayo, it may be 
noticed that the Government House has no harmony, nor 
architectural style, as two wings are united by an arch. This 
is because one of the wings was built at one period, and the 
other at another for Post and Telegraph offices (this part 
looks on to Victoria and Balcarce streets). 

It being impossible to reproduce the complete plan of the 
building, because of its great extent, we will give only 
some details of the most interesting parts. In the first place, 
we may mention the two large reception and banqueting 
halls of the Presidency. 

The latter is richly furnished in the Louis XV style, 
the centre chandelier, executed in the country by Azaretto, 
is a magnificent work of art. In the drawing room there is 
a splendid marble statue representing the Argentine Repu- 
blic, and on beautiful pedestals are the busts of the Presidents 
of the Nation. The building contains many libraries, of which 
the principal is that of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 
In iron cases, are preserved all the tr(»aties of the Ivepublic 
with foreign nations since 1811; some iwc lenl works ol" urt; 



244 CAPITAL The Ejcehange; Cathedral 

these are the treaties which are superbly written on parch- 
ments and sealed with enormous wax seals. 

The President of the Repub ic has his private residence 
in the building. This residence was inaugurated by Dr. Ro- 
que Saenz Peha and his wife. The President of the Republic, 
the ministers of Home affairs, Foreign affairs, of Culture 
(religion), Finance, Public Works and the Marine have their 
offices in the Palace. The Ministers of Justice, of Public 
Instruction, of Agriculture and AYar occupy offices outside 
the Government Palace. 

The exchange (North side).— The first institute of this kind 
that existed in Buenos Aires, was inaugurated in 1840, un- 
der the name of Sala de Comercio, and consisted exclu- 
sively of the members of the English colony. In 1854, the 
Exchange was transfered to a place situated at a corner of 
San Martin and Cangallo streets; in 1862 it was established 
in the premises occupied to-day by the exchange counting- 
house. Lastly, in 1885, it was established in the locality 
which it occupies today. To have an idea of the importance 
of this establishment in the economic life of the Nation, 
it is sufficient to say that in 1912, the sum of all the opera- 
tions amounted to 386,517,834 paper pesos; in these opera- 
tions, the schedules on mortgages are represented by a sum 
of 256,585,572 piastres, public title-deeds by 101,155,244 
pesos. 

The Bank of the Nation has its offices at the corner of 
the Plaza de Mayo, and Reconquista street. It is the most 
important bank in the Republic. Founded in 1891, it has 
rendered great services to Commerce. It possesses more 
than 150 branches over the whole Republic, which gives 
enormous facilities for agricultural transactions. It is used 
for all banking business. The above figures give an idea 
of the importance of the establishment. The deposits 
on the 31st. December 1912 amounted to 478,326,771 paper 
pesos (dollars); bills had been discounted or funds advan- 
ced to a value of 419,629,018 paper pesos; its cash-balance 
was 37,802,050 pesos gold or 130,860,991 paper pesos, and 
its capital of 125 millions paper pesos. 

Cathedral (North side). — Like the majority of the church- 
es in this capital, built in the XVIII century, it consists 
of a central navC; two lateral naves, a transept, the whole 
united by arches. 

A large cupola in the form of a hemi-sphere, is covered 
outside with white and blue squares, Spanish fashion. In the 
interior, the size of the naves is good, but spoilt by too many 
pillars. The side chapels do not give any special importance 
to the Cathedral; they are insignificant, particularly from 
(in artistic point of a^cw. What attracts special attention, is 



Cathedral (lAPITAL 245 

the tomb whicli contains the remains of General San Martin 
and that of the Archbishop Aneiros. 

The third chapel to the right has been transformed into 
a sepulchre for General San Martin. The small cupola di- 
vided into «cainous» receives light from the upper part, and 
distributes it to the whole chapel, the plan of whicli is octo- 
gonal. The floor is white marble, and the walls of marble 
and stucco are of different colours. Between the columns of 
different kinds, are the niches which still wait for the sta- 
tues of those, for whom they are destined, and two semi- 
circular recesses have benches placed for visitors. Four mar- 
ble slabs have the names of: Lima, Chacabuco, San Lorenzo, 
and Maipii engraved. In the centre of the chapel is the impos- 
ing tomb which contains the remains of the famous general, 
on a large pedestal of marble from the Levant, stands ano- 
ther block of rose marble which serves as base to a large 
bronze coffin of an elegant form. Four blocks of marble, 
without any moulding, project from the pedestal; there of 
them have large statues of white marble, chiselled by the 
celebrated French sculptor Carrier-Belleuse. The one which 
occupies the centre is Liberty, the two others represent. 
Labour and Commerce. The block at the back, has only lau- 
rel wreaths, palms and a bas-relief representing the battle 
of Maipu. The crest of the Republic adorns the front; tho- 
se of Chili and Peru, the sides. The sentiment aroused by 
the whole w^ork which is of real artistic worth, is of respect 
and admiration. 

In the chapel on the right of the transept, is the tomb 
of the archbishop Frederick Aneiros, chiselled by the sculp- 
tor V. de Pol. Some slabs at the back of the wall show a 
weak and an inopportune decoration in gothic style. The 
lines of the pedestal are not very good. The statue is bet- 
ter. Monseigneur Aneiros dressed in religious vestments, is 
praying. 

The paintings that adorn the ceiling of the central navo 
and sides are painted by the artist Francisco Parisi. 

The organ of the Cathedral conies from the renowned 
factory of Ludwigsburg (Germany) like that of the Merced, 
and is in a tolerablv uood condition. 



246 BUENOS Al 11 EtS 1st. Bo ate 

I 

From Buenos Aires to La Plata. 

The journey from Buenos Aires to La Plata can be 
made by three differents routes, two belonging to the South- 
ern Railway, and the other to the Western Eailway in con- 
nection witli the Southern. 

We will describe these three routes separately, 

I. — From the Plaza Coiistitueion to La Plata. 

{Via Quilmes.) 

The station (Calles Brasil and Lima) is in the square 
of the same name, and the departure takes place from a 
high level platform; a bridge is crossed, and then a viaduct, 
and the train enters the station of Barracas al Norte. Ave- 
llaneda, which follows, is, like Barracas, a suburb of the 
Capital forming ail integral part of it. Sarandi and Villa 
Dominico offer nothing of remark. At Wilde is the beginning 
of the works for the outlet of the Buenos Aires sewers, 
which finish at Bernal, where are the force pumps which 
raise and turn into the river the matter brought by the 
sew^ers. 

Quilmes (19 kilometres from Buenos Aires), is the most 
important township on the journey. Its name is derived 
from a tribe of Calchaquies Indians who were taken there 
after being defeated in 1670. On June 2oth. 1806, the En- 
glish General Beresford disembarked there at the head of 
2,000 soldiers, to conquer Buenos Aires. Admiral Brown 
defeated the Brazilian fleet there on February 24th., 1827. 

The town has a population of 15,000 inhabitants; it 
possesses a church of Gothic style, an hotel (Progreso), 
numerous cabs (fare | 0"40 and $ 0*30 the drive inside the 
town), a distillery, and an important brewery known under 
the name of theCerveceria Argentina Quilmes. The limited 
liabilitv company which owns this brewery has a capital 
of % 600,000, gold, (£ 120,000). The brewery has a monthly 
output of 30,000 hectolitres of beer. There is a vineyard a 
league away from the railway. There are also a post office 
and two telegraph lines, as well as two telephone offices. A 
library (5,000 volumes) situated in Calles Mitre and 3 de Fe- 
brero, is open to the public every day. Several doctors, a 
dentist, and several chemists practice in the town. There are 
also several social clubs and mutual help societies. The fol- 
lowing newspapers are jiublished there: El Provincial, La 




Xational University of La Plata and annexes. — 1. Coat of arms of the 
University of La Plata. — 2. Plan of the La Plata Museum. — 3. .Aluseum of 
La Plata exterior view. — t. Library of the Faculty of Natural Sciences. — 
5. Museum of La Plata minerological section. — G. .Museum of La Plata, sec- 
tion of Zoology — -7. ^Museum of La Plata comparative anatomv section. — 8. 
Museum paleontological section. — 9. Museum of La Plata anthropological sec- 
tion. — 10. Glyptodonts of the La Plata Museum. 



1st. lloiite BUENOS AIKES 247 

Voz del Pueblo, La Nueva Epoca, La Lectura and La Verdad. 
An electric tramway, opened in January, 1905 unites Quil- 
mes with Buenos Aires (Barracas, Ocanipo). The departures 
take place every 9 minutes from o'24 a. m. till 12*45 a. m. 
the next morning. 

Ezpeleta is a station of little impotance. At Berazategui 
is the Rigolleau Glass Factory and two small factories of fish- 
oil. The next stations are Fldtanos, Conchitas and then Pe- 
reyra, whence starts a branch line to the port of the Ensena- 
da. Near Pereyra is the important «Estancia)) San Juan (of 
the heirs of Leonard Pereyra), which has an area of 3,750 
hectares. The establishement contains horned cattle (Durham 
and Hereford), sheep (Oxfordshire, Southdown, Lincoln, and 
RambouUet, French, German and Xorth American cross- 
breds), horses (Trakenen, Arab, Cleveland and Yorkshire Coa- 
ching), and pigs. This live stock has obtained numerous and 
ghih awards in the different exhibitions. 

Not far from Villa EJisa, the next station, are important 
breeding establishments belonging to Messrs. J. Bell, T. 
Bell, A. Bell, R. Castells, A. Larranaga and J. Gorostiaga. 

After having passed Ringiielet and Tolosa, we arrive at 
La Plata. 

This town, capital of the province of Buenos Aires, was 
founded on November 19th., 1882, when the province was 
separated from the historical capital, Buenos Aires, which 
became the permanent and legal residence of the national 
authorities. La Plata is situated 57 kilometres south-east 
of Buenos Aires, and 5 kilometres from the port of the En- 
senada. 

The town is superbly planned: large and beautiful ave- 
nues, cut by diagonal bouhn-ards, frequently broken by large 
squares, give this great town an air of distinction which is 
rarely found in other urban centres, old or new, of Spanish 
origin; they are usually remarkable for their darkness and 
narrow tortuos streets, rather than for the opposite qualities. 

The proximity of Buenos Aires, whose progress has been 
extraordinary, is the cause of the state of stagnation of the 
13ort of La Plata in spite of the fact that it has deeperwa 
ter, and that numerous railway lines crossing one of the ri- 
chest districts in the KeiJublic converge there. 



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1st. Route IJUENOS AlEES 249 

Hotels. — Sportsman, Gaij, Argentino, Comercio, Espawt, L'rangais, pri- 
ces by arrangement. 

Restaurants. — Fablel, Rcpiihlica, Suizo, Del reij, etc. 
Banks. — Nacional, 7th. and 54th, streets; Provincial, 7th., 46th. and 
47th. streets; National Morlf/age, ."iltli., 4th. and 5th. streets; Italian and 
Rio de la Plata, 47th., and 7tli. streets; Spanish, of the Rio de la Plata, 
7th., 49th. and 50th. streets; Popular la Plata, 47th., 7th. and 8th. streets; 
Im Defensa del Ilogar, 4<)th. anfl 6th. streets; Provincial Mortgage (in liqui- 
dation), 50th., 6th. and 7th. streets. 

Doetors. — Drs. IJelon (nose, throat and ears), Badi (ditto), Gibert (con- 
finements and women's diseases), Cometto, Gallastegui, (iarat, Alsina, Mo- 
lla, Villanueva, Dourfjuet, Bejarano, Abella, Centurion and .Jerez (general 
practicioners). 

Dentists. — Drs. Brouffan, Torrent, Cook arid Abella. 

Sanatorlums. — Dr. Badi's, 6th. and 53rd. streets and 79th. diagonal 
street; Dr. Alsina's, 51st. street, between 2nd. and 3rd. streets. 

Hospitals. — Italian, 51st., 29th. and 30th. streets; Misericordia, 71st. 
street and 74th. diagonal street; for infections diseases, 115th. and 70th. 
streets; for children, 14th., 66th. and 67th. streets; Military, 67th. and 1st. 
streets. First aid corps, 51st., 2nd. and 3rd. streets. 

Clubs and Soeietie«.- JocAey Club, 53rd. street, between 8th. and 9th, 
streets; La Plata, 53rd. street, between 7th. and 8th. streets; Gimnasia ij 
Esgrima, 51st. street, between 4th. and 5th. streets; Rcpublicano Espafiol, 
47th. and 10th. streets; Basque, 73rd. diagonal street, between 10th. and 
11th. streets; Football Estudianies, 56th. to 58th. street, and 1st. and 115th. 
streets Football, La Plata, Bois; La Plata Nautical, Rio Santiago; Buenos 
Aires Yacht Club, Rio Santiago; Law Siudens' Centre, 7th., 45th. and 46th, 
streets; Bookkeepers' Centre, 7th., 45th. and 46 th. streets; Fine Arts, 7th., 
46th. and 47th, streets; Club Fran(;ais, 4th,, 45th. and 46th. streets; Mutual 
Aid, Circolo Napolitano, 49th., 11th. and 12th. streets; do. Fratellanza, 
74th. diagonal street, 3rd. and 4th. streets; do. Itcdiano, 12th., 54th. and 
55th. streets; do. Espahola, 6th., 47th. and 48th. streets; Spanish Social 
Club, 51st., 7th. and 8th. streets; various Masonic Lodges, a Catholic work- 
men's Circle, etc. 

Libraries.— A'a</o/iaZ, 6th. 47th. and 48th. streets; School, 8th., 57th. 
and 58th. streets. 

Xeivspapers. — Verdad, El Dia, El Argentina, Buenos Aires, Repi'iblica, 
Censor, Pueblo, La Reforma, Bolelin Oficial, La Provincia and the illus- 
trated magazine La Ciinlad. 

Racecourse. — La I^luta, 45th. and 118th, streets. 

Theatres. — Olinipo, 10th., 46th. and 47th. streets; Argentino, 53rd,, 
^9th. and 10th, streets; Del Lago, in the wood. 

Tramways. — La Plata and luisenada system. This conpany serves 
the town, Tolosa and Homos. The fare is S O'lO. The fare to the (Cemetery 
is S 0*15. All these lines are run by electric trams. The service to the En- 
senada., tlie fare for which is S 0"20, is run by animal traction, which will 
soon be replaced by electricity. The Municifjal I'rbano electric tramways 
inside the town charge S O'lO. Tlie National Tramway gives a service from 
the town to the suburbs in electric cars, fare S 0'l(i. 

Cabs.— Cab fares are as follows: Direct drive, up to 15 cuadras, S 0"50; 
per hour, S 1. There are also motor cabs for hire, which do the service from 
La Plata to Buenos Aires over the magnificent road which connects the 
two towns. 

Post and Teleflrapli.- National post and telegraph, 48th. street and 
74th. diagonal street, between 10th. and lltli. streets. Provincial telegraph, 
7th., 49th. and 50th. streets. International telegraph, 47lh., 7th. and 8th. 
streets; olTice at tlie port. Southern Bailway telegraph, at the station. 



ruhlic walhs.Thv Thizii Primeia Junta with splendid 

eiocttMl in ineniory 

'' Mit House 

in trout 



lUihlic wdlks.- 'Y\w IMiiza Piinieia Junta with 
•iardens, and in the contro. a inonunient erected in 
of \\w «Junta de May()'>, is in front of the (lovernniei 
and tlio I'rovincial railianu'iii . Tlie I*la/.n Moreno, 



250 BUENOS AIRES 1st. Route 

of the Municipal Buildings. The Plaza de Italia, in the cen- 
tre of which is a monument erected to the Italo-Argentine 
confraternity. The Park is the most select part of La Plata; 
in the middle of the Lake (El Lago), which is situated in 
this park, is an isle of considerable size, which is splendidly 
illuminated, and on which a theatre and a restaurant have 
been constructed. The lake is constantly furrowed by gon- 
dolas or little boats, and it is peopled by aquatic birds, and 
on its banks are beautiful gardens and caves, etc. 

Zoological Garden. — In the Park is a fine Zoological Gar- 
den, w^hose collection, w^hich is already important, grows 
daily. 

National University. — This is one of the largest and 
finest buildings in the town. It is situated between 49th., 
47th., 1st. and II5th. streets, on an area of about 25,000 
square metres. 

Hallway Station. — This occupies six blocks, and has its 
entrance on 44th. and 1st. streets. 

Beggars' Asylum. — This building is situated between 
I4th., 15th., 64th. and 65th. streets, and is owed to the 
generosity of the philanthropist Placide Marin. 

Astronomical Observatory. — The La Plata Astronomical 
Observatory, founded in 1883 by the Government of the 
Province of Buenos Aires, is now under the care of the La 
Plata National University. 

This establishment occupies an inmense area in the Park, 
and is composed of a central building devoted to the offices 
and apartments, surrounded by different pavilions in which 
the instruments are installed. These are all of French make, 
and were bought in 1883 by the director. Dr. Francisco 
Boeuf, who died in 1889, and since then by the other direc- 
tors. 

Among the instrument i in the Observatory, the most 
noticeable, on account of its dimensions, is the large P2qua- 
torial, with an opening of 43 cm., by Gautier, of Paris; and 
there are also the large Meridian circle, and the small Equa- 
torial, by the same maker. 

The Observatory also possesses a telescope, provided 
with an 80 cm. reflector, and a double lunette for photo- 
graphing the sky, of the normal type of 333 cms., adopted 
by the international committee on the celestial map; various 
clocks and accurate chronometers by Fenon, and other 
smaller astronomical, geodesic and meteorological instru- 
ments. 



1st. Route BUEXO^^ AIRES 251 

L(i Plata Museum. InatiilUtd in llio Bos([ue de La Plata, 
in the neighbourliood of tho town. Founded on September 
17tli., 1884. Cab fare, $ 1. Open on holidays from 10 to 4. 

This is the founder's description of the edifice and the 
objects it contains: 

«Plan N.° 1 gives an idea of the exterior. The reader 
will find a detailed description of the interior in the first 
number of our «Annals», but the following remarks may 
give a general idea of it. 

The prolonged circle which the biological ring presents, 
which commences in mystery and ends with man, is accor- 
ded, in this museum, an area of nearly 2,500 square metres, 
divided into fifteen large halls opening into one another 
with wide doorways. The central part, destined provisio- 
nally to mankind, in their pre-Columbian physical and moral 
evolution, covers 1,200 square metres; the library, and pre- 
sent fine arts section, 300 square metres. 

The workshops, general laboratories and depots, situat- 
ed on the ground floor, under the principal galleries, have 
an area of 3,500 square metres. Here are to be found the 
locksmith's, the joinery, the workshops of j)^l6ontology, 
comparative anatomy, zoology, taxidermy, modelling, prin- 
ting, lithography, phototypy and other systems of repro- 
duction 

The style of architecture, without being unique and pure, 
is, nevertheless, adequate, as is the decoration, to which 
I have tried to give an archaic American character, without 
spoiling the Greek lines. The greater part of the decoration 
has yet to be finished, especially the allegorical figures which 
crown the monument; however, a few of the great jnen of 
science already adorn with their busts the central fronts: 
Aristotle, Lucretius, Descartes, Buffon, Linne, Cuvier, 
Lamarck, Humboldt, Darwin, Owen, Broca, Burmeister; 
these will be accompanied by those of illustrious savants 
and travellers who have had the soil of the Republic as 
the theatre of their work, such as Felix de Azara, Alcide 
d'Orbiny, Aim6 Bompland, Robert Fitz Roy, Augusta Bra- 
vard, etc. 

The form given to the biological and geological galleri( s 
permits one easily to make a gradual examination of the 
exhibits installed there. 

Before beginning the description of the Museum by 
rooms we will give a few details of its scientific divisions. 

The first and most important of these divisions is that 
of anthropology and ethnology. For Argentina the following 
regions have been adopted: the Chaco, the Parana, the cen- 
tral region, the Pampa, the Andes and Patagonia. The majori- 
ty of the cases are occupied by skulls of natives of the Argen- 



252 BUENOS AIEES 1st. Boufe 

tine, and, by means of these skulls and of others found in 
Bolivia, some very interesting scientific deductions have 
been made. For instance a very remarkable case of the 
trepanning operation on the skull of a native of Bolivia 
has been discovered, which tends to show that the origin 
of this operation is very remote. Other specimens present 
cases in which rickets, tuberculosis, and other diseases have 
left their traces. A case of general ostitis (inflammation) of 
the long bones of a skeleton in an Araucanian native, which 
is to be seen in the Museum is extremely interesting, and 
deserves attention. In one of the cases is a synoptical table 
of the skeletons of the principal tribes of the Argentine. 

Another object of great interest is the mummy of a 
Patagonian native, discovered in the Walishu Cave on the 
banks of the Argentine Lake. Ethnology is represented by 
objects having belonged in far back times to the peoples 
of South America; stone axes, stone balls for gymnastic 
exercises, etc. 

The most varied and numerous collection which a mu- 
seum can offer to its visitors is undoubtedly that of the 
animal kingdom, or zoological section, the exhibits in which 
range from inferior organisms, at times imperceptible to the 
naked eye, to perfectly developed types, a number of which 
are of gigantic dimensions. The enormous cetaceans which 
form part of this Museum present an imposing aspect. The 
largest is, incontestably, the Miramar whale, which is one 
of the largest known. Its skeleton measures 32 metres in 
length. The head, which is more than 6 metres long, is placed 
in the centre of the vestibule. On account of its great size 
the skeleton has not been reconstructed, as there was no 
hall large anough to contain it. 

Beside the human skeleton are to be seen those of three, 
anthropomorphous monkeys: the gorilla, the orang-outang 
and the chimpanzee. 

It is impossible to detail here all the exhibits in this Mu- 
seum, which has a universal reputation. 

The geological and mineralogical section contains mi- 
nerals from all parts of the world, specimens of fine marble, 
primitive rocks, pieces of aeroliths among which two are 
entire; they have been found in the country and are of 
great value. There is a collection arranged according to 
provinces of fossils, rocks and minerals from the earliest 
times to the present day. 

The paleonthological section contains specimens of fos- 
sil plants found in the Republic. There are to be seen 
plants of the carboniferous formation from Mendoza and 
of the later chalk age from Cerro Guido, in the territory 
of Santa Cruz. At this place dicotyledons of mesozoic form- 



1st. 'Route BUEX08 AIRES 2o3 

atioH have been discovered for the first; time, and tliis 
hnd produced a great sensation in botanical circles. 

This section includes only specimens found in the Repu- 
blic. A notable collection, unique in the wold for the number 
of its complete skeletons, is that of 'the toothless fossils 
of the Pampa formation. 

Archaeology, which includes the artistic and industrial 
manifestations of American man, is undoubtedly the grea- 
test attraction. 

In this section are preserved more than 20,000 objects. 
Among then is to be found the greatest variety of forms 
and apparent uses, from the roughest and without doubt 
most ancient, which must have been used by the quaternary 
inhabitans of these regions, to the most highly perfected 
ones, as much by the details of their manufacture as by 
their general aspect and form: arrows, lances, the celebrated 
«bolas arrojadizas') (balls for throwing). These last must 
have been used by giants, on account of their weight. Great 
numbers of them have been found in the Chubut, with 
large axes, which leads one to suppose that the inhabitans 
of these regions must have been excessively strong and ro- 
bust. There are also two funeral urns and collections of «cal- 
chaques», unique in the variety of types they include, such 
as Peruvian «huacos;, etc. 

The whole Museum is worthy the best P^uropean pro- 
totypes. A detailed description of it would more than fill 
several pages of this guide. It is certainly a visit which the 
tourist ought to make, and one that will interest him great- 
ly, even if he is not very versed in natural sciences. 

The following is the arrangements: 

HALL I. — (Entrance to the right of the central rotunda). — There are 
six large mural pictures representing scenes of Nature in Argentina and of 
the life of the Indian natives. It contains samples of archaic earths from 
the Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, the mountains of tlie province of Buenos 
Aires, and from those in the interior of the Repuhlic, wiiicli are the base 
of the Argentine soil. There are to be seen the remains of the first organisms 
which science has discovered, tliose mysterious organisms of tlie primary 
formations, gathered at Mendoza and San Juan. Then come the Molluscs 
and trilobites, etc., of the Silurian ages, and several vestiges of plants of 
the carboniferous epocli in the same regions. The Jurassic molluscs from 
the summit of the F:spinacito (4,750 metres high) and from Puente del 
Inca, two points in the Cordillera of the Andes, and other similar forms 
gathered in the territory of the Neucpien; the crustaceous fishes and plants 
of the ligneous formations of Mendoza, San Luis and Patagonia; the remains 
of the gigantic dinosaurs of the cretacea from Limay and Xeuquen (Patago- 
nia), the plants and araucarias on whicli they fed, as well as the most an- 
cient known mammals on our earth, which belong to this epoch, are preser- 
ved in this hall. A varied collection of minerals shows the richness of the 
veins, which, in the epochs mentioned, were deposited in the caves on 
the mountains by the contractions of the earth's crust. 

HALL II. — A unique collection of the tertiary mammals of Patagonia, 
to the number of nearly 200 specimens: remains of molluscs, crustaceans. 



254 BUEXOS AIRES 7s/. Foute 

fishes, biids and reptiles from the same districts, some of the latter as 
large as the largest dinornises; models of remains of mammals from the Pa- 
rana, and 100 samples of molluscs and zoophytes from the marine tertiary 
formations of the country. It also contains the fauna lost and discovered 
by Darwin on Mount Hermoso; remains of fishes, enormous tortoises, and 
birds, among which, for all we know, are the largest that have ever flown 
in the air (Mesenbriornis Milne Edwardii), and also remains of nearly 100 
different kinds of mammals, some of great size, such as the Dasypon, Hoplo- 
phorus, Panocthus, Daedicurus, Scelidotherium, Mylodon, Megatherium, 
Trigodon, Toxodon giant rodents, like the great Megamy sand the Hy- 
drocoerus Lydenerii. In the same Hall there are also several valuable 
remains which seem to date from the latter part of the tertiary epoch, dis- 
covered at Catamarca; among them are especially worthy of notice diffrent 
shells of the Hoplophorus and a skull of the Megatherium. 

HALL III. — (It forms the rotunda, on the right, with an area of more 
than 500 square metres). — It is occupied by numerous marsupials and eden- 
tata from the Pampa, with the exception of the Megatheria, It also contains, 
restored, ten shells and eight skeletons of different Glyptodons, four Maylo- 
dons, two Lestodons and one Scelidosaur; and also about a hundred skulls 
pelves, complete sets of bones, and thousands of difierents bones. 

HALL IV.— ^This is devoted to the ^Megatheria. There are two restored 
skeletons of the Megatherium Americanum, unfortunately incomplete, and 
a large number of pieces of other species. Also a great quantity of more 
or less complete remains of Grypotherium. 

HALL V. — Here are kept the remains of the Toxodontides and ^lacro- 
cephala of the Pampa; this section is the richest of its kind. Two skeletons 
of Toxodons and two of Macrocephala have been mounted. The skulls, 
mandibles, and other parts of the skeleton are also very numerous and fa- 
cilitate the complete study of these animals, representatives of types ex- 
clusively South American, and totally extinct. 

HALL VI. — Horses of the Pampas and a few of their precursors; a few 
remains of Tapiroids and extinct stags. 

HALL VII. — (Lateral). Various shells of Glyptodons, two Mylodons, 
and a large number of other specimens. 

HALL VIII. — Numerous remains of Mastodons of different kinds, of 
which some are colossal. 

HALL IX. — Important collection of rodents, carnivora, etc.; the human 
inhabitant of the Pampa is represented by some remains, which, however, 
are not numerous. 

HALL X. — Remains of fossilized whales. 

HALL XL — Occupied by inferior animals; present-day insects, Crus- 
tacea and molluscs. 

HALL XII. — Fishes and reptiles preserved in spirit. A few skins and 
skeletons. 

HALL XIII. — (Second semi-rotunda). Mounted birds and mammals 
which inhabit the southern regions, and the beginning of a coUection of 
nests. 

HALLS XIV and XV. — Section of compai'ative osteology. — There are 
nearly 300 skeletons and several hundred skulls of mammals and birds 
of the Southern Hemisphere, and a few rare specimens, for comparison, 
from the Xorthen Hemisphere. In the first line figure the skeletons of 
four Baleinoptera, the largest of which measures 2m. 30; in order to save 
space they have been suspended from the ceiling, as have the other cetacea, 
among which are skeletons of the Orca Magallanica and of the Hyperoodon 
Burmeistrii. The skeleton of the Stenorhyncus Septonyx is a fine specimen. 
A human skeleton in the last hall terminates the biological chain commenc- 
ed with the problematic organisms. 

In the lower central part, to the left of the great rotunda, in a hall 
with an area of 400 metres is installed the gallery of anatomical anthropo- 
logy. It contains nearly a thousand skulls and eighty skeletons, nine-tenths 
of them being natives of South America, from the man of the ice age to 
the last to be conquered (1880). 

In the corresponding hall on the right the traces which remain to us 
of man's first steps in agriculture, the stone age of the nomadic man, are 



Ut. Route BUEXO.S AIRES 255 

represented by eull«rlions, unique up to llie presenl, from LVuguay, C6r- 
doba, the province ol Hiienos Aires, and Patagonia. 

In the central rotunda, along the corridors and staircases, are to be 
'found antiquities paitly gathered in Argentine territory and Paraguay. 

On the first floor, on the right, situated above the liall of anatomical 
anthropology, are shown ancient and modern archeological and ethnogra- 
phical comparative collections, and the chief collectiones one of «clUmu» 
ceramics from Trujillo (Peru), composed of more than 800 vases. 

The edifice is surmounted by a hall of fine arts, in which figure some 
fine canvases, reproductions of the most celebrated sculptures of ancient 
genius, and another apartment occupied by the library of the Museum. 



II. — From Buenos Aires to La Plata. 

{Via Temperley.) 

Southern Railway. Station in the Plaza Constitucion. 

The journey from Buenos Aires to Temperley is described 
later in the itinerary from Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanca, 
to which we refer the reader. 

At Temperley the train takes the La Plata branch, 
and passes through the stations of JIdrmol, Claypole, where 
the commission directing the «Defenders of Children* has 
established an agricultural colony for orphan children, Flo- 
rencia Varela, which contains two mutual aid societies, 
one Italian and the other Spanish, a social club, a post- 
oMce and two telegraph offices (national and provincial), 
a daily newspaper, El Municipio, and a review Beflejos 
Varelenses. The Argentine Biological Institute has a fac- 
tory of serum and chemical products there, and there is 
a beet sugar factory. Next come Basques, J. M. Gutierrez, 
Villa Elisa, Binguelet, Tolosa and La Plata. 

From La Plata, to go to Magdalena, the traveller passes 
through the stations of Circunvalaeion, B. Elizalde, Arana 
and I. Correas. 

In this district there are numerous dairies and cheese 
factories, turning out some very famous cheeses (of the 
«pate gras» and «Holland» kinds). Not far from the station 
I. Correas is the estancia La Trinidad, of an area of 5,000 
hectares, and possessing 2,000 head of horned cattle, 600 
sheep and 300 horses , all fine animals. 

From Bavio a branch leaves for Alvarez Jonte and Fun- 
ia Bieles. 

After having passed through J. Arditi one arrives at 
La Magdalena, a town of 15,000, founded in 1730 five 
kilometres from the coast and from the anchorage of Ata- 
laya, where the railway terminates. 

La Magdalena possesses a hospital, situated 15 cuadras 
from the square a librarj^ (Alberdi) of 2,000 volumes, and 
a daily newspaper, El Cenienario. 

BAKDEKKH. — 20 



256 BUENOS AILLS 2nd. Bouie 

Ilolels.— Co/o?i and Espafioh prices according to arrangement. 

Breeding Establishments. — Estancia E. A. Thompson, of 13,000 hectares, 
of which 200 are cultivated; San Rafael, belonging to E. A. .Jonco, 1,500 
hectares, of which 1,100 are cultivated; El Desiino, J. M. Miguens, 5,400 
hectares, of which 100 arc cultivated; San Jacinto, C. Egues Estella, 1,500 
hectares, of which 220 are cultivated. In these establishments breeding 
is chiefly confined to fine animals, horned cattle, horses and sheep. 

Provincial Bank, in the square. 

Post-office, and Provincial and Railway Telegraph offices. 

Doctors.- — Patricio Brenan and Ezequiel Ruiz. 

Cabs.— S 0.50 per person from the station to the town. 

Theatre Espanol; Italian and Spanish mutual aid societies; Club Co$- 
mopolila. 

III. — From Buenos Aires to La Plata, Ensenada, 
Rio Santiago and Ferrari. 

(Western Bailway in connection ivith Southern Bly.) 

The departure station is on the Plaza Once de Septiem- 
bre, Calles Bartolome Mitre and Pueyrredon. The train 
passes through the stations of Haedo, San Justo, Tablada, 
Santa Catalina and Mdrmol and turns towards the south in 
order to reach La Plata. This trip lasts 2 hours and 15 mi- 
nutes. 

From Pereyra to Ensenada (F. C. S.). — From Pereyra the 
line branches off to reach Ensenada, passing though Punta 
Lara, a small place near which the farm «La Esperanza>> is 
situated, it covers 3,500 cuadras and has about 300 head of 
cattle and 500 horses. At Ensenada the National Bank has 
a branch; there are also some society clubs and mutual aid 
associations, a library of the Southern Students' Association 
and a newspaper: La Opinion. 

From La Plata to Rio Santiago (F. C. S.). — The train pas- 
ses through the stations of Tiro Federal, Dock Central, 
where the boats lay to and where the meat freezing esta- 
blishments of the «Cold Storage Co.», are located and then 
arrives at Kio' Santiago. 

From La Plata to Ferrari (F. C. S.). — The train passes 
through the stations of Tolosa, Einguelet, J. Hernandez, Ro- 
mero, Abasto where the slaughter houses are situated which 
provide the meat for La Plata, Gomez and finally Ferrari. 



II 

From Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanca. 

(Southern Eailway.) 

The central station of the Southern Railway, called Cons- 
titucion Station, is situated in the square of the same name, 
at the junction of Calles Brasil and Lima. Constitucion Sta- 



2nd. -Route - BUEXOS ATRKS 257 

tioii has several platloriiis for the arrival and deparfure of 
trains. There are also two booking offices for the sale of 
tickets, 'fravellers who are obliged to spend the night in the 
train must take a ticket for the sleeping car in advance, either 
at Constitucion Station, or at the enquiry-office, Calle Can- 
gallo 556, or at the National Transport Co. (Express Villa- 
longa, Calle Balcarce 256). They niay be obtained from this 
company by telephone. 

In order to travel alone in a compartment of two beds, 
one has to pay for one ticket and a half and also for the two 
beds; in order to have at one's disposal a compartment of 4 
beds one has to pay for 3 tickets and for 4 beds; one can also 
order a special car by paying for 10 tickets and for the cor- 
responding beds. All trains with a long distance run have 
dining-cars. Tips are expected. 

The Southern Railway has 4 different lines to Bahia Blan- 
ca. — 1, Via General La Madrid and Coronet Sudrez. — Depar- 
ture every day at 9"30 p.m.; arrival at 2"30 p.m. the follow- 
ing afternoon. 

2. Via Banchos and Bauch. — Departure every day at 
9'15 p.m.; arrival at 4.20 p.m. 

3. Via P?mj7?es. —Departure every day at 6"35, p.m.; 
arrival at 9 '25 a. m. 

4. This line is not direct, but can be used all the same. 
It runs from Buenos Aires to Saavedra via Lobos Junction 
and Bolivar. Departure every day at 8 '20 p.m. arriving 
at Saavedra at 1 1 "25 a.m. It w411 be remarked that the most 
practical route is the third one permitting the journey to be 
made within 14 hours. We will describe these different 
routes in the above-mentioned order. 

I. — From Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanca. 

{Via General La Madrid and Coronel Sudrez.) 

One leaves from Constitucion Station (Calles Lima and 
Brazil) passing rapidly through Barracas al Norte and Ave- 
llaneda arrives at Lanus (9 km.) 

Lanus is a small town reached from Buenos Aires by a 
tram line (Lanus to the Plaza de Mayo 0-20 S) there are 
two tram lines with animal traction for local service (tariff 
0*10 $). Several societies have been formed: Social Club, 
Centro Gallego, XX Septiembre, mutual aid associations etc. 
The newspapers are: El Impartial, La Bazon, and El Ileraldo. 
The Telephonic Union of Buenos Aires has extended as far 
as here as well as the Cooperative Co. There are also two 
cloth factories. At a small distance from Lanus we find 
Talleres, so called because the Southern Railwav Co. has 



258 BUENOS AIRES ' 2nd. Eoute 

its factories here, a large number of workmen being em- 
ployed. 

Banjield is soon passed and one arrives at Lomas de Za- 
mora (15 km.), a town of 20,000 inhabitants much visited 
by the Buenos Aires populations and where numerous cot- 
tages have been built. The town is lit with electric light and 
its streets are well paved. It is connected with Buenos Aires 
by the electric tram line from Temperley. 

Hotels. — Jockey Club and La Pa: (tariff by arrengement). 

Doctors. — Drs. A. Garona, T. Cerrutti, Raphael Grigera, Henri Rezaval, 
Francois Castro and Jean Basco. 

Banks. — Provincial Bank, Banco Espahol del Rio de la Plata, de Galicia 
and Buenos Aires. 

Societies. — Spanish and Italian Mutual Aid Associations and Sporting 
Club. 

Newspapers. — El Imparcial, El Independienle, La Razon, El Pueblo, La 
Paz, El Fas Tras, Nubes Rosadas. 

Public Library and Municipal Hospital; post, telegraph and telephone. 

Breeding establishments. — La Laguna, of the Sansinena Co.; Spindola, 
of Pablo Spindola and La Granja, belonging to Louis Guillout (fowl breeding). 

The town has also running water. 

Temperley (17 km.) is a centre of railway lines and has a 
station for the Southern and Western Railways. It is a well 
patronized summer resort, the importance of which is ra- 
pidly growing. It is connected with Buenos Aires by an elec- 
tric tram line charging $ 0*40 (Plaza de Mayo). 

A horse tramway exists between Temperley and Tur- 
dera. At Temperley the train turns towards Canuelas and 
passes through a region which is very appropriately called 
the <(region of dairies» because the milk industry is very de- 
veloped there. We pass the stations of Turdera and Llava- 
llol where are situated the Agricultural School of Santa Ca- 
taUna, depending on the La Plata University, the important 
brewery Bieckert and the asylums and schools of the Basque 
Philanthropic Society «Euskal Echea)) which were opened 
on November lOth., 1912. After this we pass the stations of 
Monte Grande, Ezeiza, Tristan Sudrez, Maximo Paz, Vicente 
Casares and finally Canuelas. 

At a distance of 20 minutes from the station at Maxi- 
mo Paz there is the establishment known as Villa Maria, 
property of Dr. Celedonio Pereda. This establishment covers 
2,100 hectares of very fertile land. It is a model farm which 
should be visited to obtain an exact idea of the progress 
made in breeding in the republic. 

At the station U. Casares there is the Estancia 8an Mar- 
tin, owned by the sucessors of Mr. Y. L. Casares. It covers 
7,700 hectares and breeding and trainingof Morgan, Hackney 
Shire, and Clydesdale races are in favour. There are cows of 
the Durham breed, as well as of Holstein and Swiss breeds 



2nd. Route BUENOS AIRES 259 

which provide for reproduction and exportation. The sheep 
are of the Lincoln and Negrete breeds, and the pigs and also 
of pure breed. 

The famous establishment La Martona is part of this es- 
tancia. This establishment provides a large part of the milk 
used in Buenos Aires and manufactures butter for exporta- 
tion and for consumption in the country. Not very far away 
there is also the estancia San Carlos belonging to Mr. Charles 
Villatte Olaguer, also breeding cattle, horses and pigs. 

La Celia belonging to Messrs. Raoul Echeverry and Al- 
bert Ibarra, is an important establishment for butter manu- 
factory equipped with all modern machinery and producing 
700 kilos of butter per day. The farm covers 1,140 square 
cuadras. 

La Campana covers 5,000 hectares and has 6,000 head 
of horned cattle and 10,000 head of sheep. 

La Figura, of Messrs. Joseph Crotto and Son covers 
7,500 hectares, and has 6,000 horned cattle, 1,000 horses, 
20,000 head of sheep. 

Two miles from T^. Gasares is the estancia El Ombu, pro- 
perty of M. Eicart Hogg, with a very fine herd of horned 
cattle of pure breed. 

Canuelas, chief town of the district, was founded in 1837. 
Its name is said to come from the fact that, during his expe- 
dition in 1779, the Viceroy Vertiz found some water-gras 
(canas) in the river there. The population numbers about 
10,000 inhabitants. On June 23rd., 1829, General Lavalle 
had an interview here with the chief commander General 
Don Juan Manuel Rozas in order to put an end to the civil 
war. The station is the terminus for numerous daily trains 
leaving for or arriving from the federal capital. 

From an aesthetic point of view, Canuelas is one of the 
rare provincial towns whose streets are kept in good ordm* 
and which has fine buildings. The surfaces of the principal 
avenues Lara, Buenos Aires, and Rivadavia are perfectly 
curved the sidewalks measure 2*75 m. in width. There are three 
squares of which the finest is that called Buenos Aires, a 
church and a town hall of good style; there are also excellent 
slaughter houses at the disposal of the inhabitants. Water 
is provided by an artesian well the depot -reservoir of which 
holds 30,000 litres. Caiiuelas possesses a theatre, a hospital, 
two political clubs and two societies, of which one is Italian 
the other Spanish; two hotels: La Union and the Hotel Lara. 
There are three doctors: Drs. Alzugaray, Ovejero and Go- 
mez. There is a telephone connection with Buenos Aires. The 
region is chiefly a cattle-breeding one, and there are nume- 
rous dairies. 

Ahott is the station which follows Canuelas and is sur- 



260 BUEXOS AIRES 2nd. Eoiite 

rounded by numerous estancias of which the principal are 
owned by E. Buchanan, Calvo Adrian, Campos Ricardo, 
Castro Lauro, Craig David. Craig Gregoria, Craig Tomas, etc. 
Monte is a village founded in 1779 and chief town of the 
district since March 19th., 1801. 

Hotels. — Sportsman, Jardin, Argentine, Monasterio; tariff S 4 per day. 

Restaurant. — Italiano. 

Doctors. — Jose N. Latane. and Arsenio Colombres. 

Hospital. — Zanon Videla Dorna. 

Soeieties.^Club Social, Unione e Bcnevolanza (mutual aid association) 
also Spanish and cosmopolita ones. 

Newspapers. — La Vox de Monte, Brisas de Monte. 

Breeding establishments. — El Rosario, covering 12,000 hectares, of which 
1,500 are cultivated, 4,000 horned cattle and 12,000 head of sheep. Cantre- 
ros, covering 5,000 hectares of which 1,000 are cultivated land, 2,000 
horned cattle and 3,000 head of sheep; San Pascual, covering 5,000 hectares, 
of which 700 are cultivated, 2,500 horned cattle, and 2,500 head of sheep; 
San Zenon, covering 4,000 hectares of which 2,000 are cultivated, 1,500 
horned cattle and 3,500 head of sheep; San Pablo, covering 3,500 hectares 
of which 200 are cultivated, 2,000 head of horned cattle and 1,500 head 
of sheep. 

Commercial firms. — La Constancia, El Colono, El Sol Argentino, which 
deal in general commerce. 

The next stations are: Videla Dorna, Gorchs, VileJay Coronel 
Boerr, belonging all to the district «Las Flores» (The Flowers). 
The town of Las Flores is very nice and thoroughly deserves 
the name it bears. It is situated on the banks of the White 
Lagoon. In 1857 the part called «Our Lady of Carmen was 
founded. The name of the town is derived from that of the 
river 5 leagues away, which was so called by the expedi- 
tion of Vertiz who camped on its banks, because it was flo- 
wered with daisies and marguerites. The town is well pro- 
vided with trees and its wide and straight streets show a rare 
foresight on the part of its founders. It is, besides, all sur round- 
ed by woods of walnut willows and acebos (a kind of holly). 
The principal buildings are: the Town Hall, the Police Sta- 
tion, the Spanish Theatre, the Italian Club, the Church, the 
Protestant Church, the National Bank, the Hospital, etc. 
The market is a construction of steel and cement. A band 
plays on Thursdays and Sundays. The three newspapers are: 
La Reaccion, El Trahajo, and El Argentino. The land is al- 
ready very much cut up and has reached a considerable 
value. Agriculture has made great progress within the last 
few years; cereals are mostly grown, besides potatoes, which 
latter give good results, also lucerne as water is found at a 
depth of 2 to 3 metres. Fruit is also grown in abundance and 
every year great quantities of pears are exported to Brazil. 

Hotels. — «Plaza Hotel* and oXational Hotel) with cold and hot water 
bath service; sArgentino*. Tariff S 5 per day. 

Mail Coach Service. — From Newton Station to Pila and from Las Flores 
to Canado (tariH S 5). 



'Jnd. Route BUENOS AIRES 261 

Promenades. — Plaza ^fontero with large aardens, avenues and a lake 
called «Difunto Maniicl>, Paseo Col6n and Pla/a Bartolome Mitre. 
^ t Theatre. — «E1 F-spanoU in Calle Clarmen, between Caseros and Col6n. 

Church. — «Our Lady of Carmen» in the principal square. 

Cabs. — In the interior of the town S 1 per hour, fare from the station to 
the town 8 1 during the day and S 2 at night. 

Factories. — Steam-mill, a factory of patent foods, an ice factory, and a 
soap factory, etc. 

Post and telegraph. — Calle Buenos Aires; provincial telegraph Calle Car- 
men. 

Banks. — Branch offices of the National Bank and of the Provincial Bank. 

Doctors. — Drs. Domingo Arostegui, Manuel Cortes, Antonio Lombardo 
and Ramon Acosta. 

Dentist. — Teodoro Tomatti. 

Breedino Farms. — Oveland, belonging to Arturo Z. Paz, 12,500 hectares; 
Verbena, belonging to Duche and Goncalvez, 1,250 hectares; La Graciela, 
belonging to Jose M. Paz and covering 1,250 hectares; La Xaranja, belonging 
to Julio Meiloc and covering 5,000 hectares; La Camijana, belonging to J. de 
la Fuente and covering 10,000 hectares; FA Quemado, belonging to Dr. Agui- 
rre and covering 2,500 hectares; El Trigo, beloging to A. Devoto and cove- 
ring 10,000 hectares; Sol de Mayo, belonging to Carabassa and covering 
6,250 hectares. In all these farhis agriculture also is carried on. 

From Las Flores to Azul. — After Las Flores follow the 
stations La Naranja, Pardo, Miramonie and finally Cachari. 

Caehari was founded only a few years ago, ]Mr. Jean An- 
drade being one of its first inhabitants. To-day the village 
counts 1,000 souls. It is a village which will certainly become 
an important town as the agricultural progress during recent 
years is a good sign. There are three hotels: Cachari, Vascon- 
gado, and Artesano. A band plays on Sundays and holidays; 
there is a newspaper El Progreso, and soon the National Bank 
will have a branch here. The village has a telephonic connec- 
tion with Buenos Aires. 

The following stations are: Parish, called after the name 
of one of the founders of the Southern Railway; Shaw and 
Azul (km. 288). 

Azul is a town of 20,000 inhabitants, and was founded 
in 1832 by Colonel Pedro Burgos. In 1834 the parish of Our 
Lady of the Rosary was founded. The fort which is the origin 
of the actual town, was called «Fuerte Azul de San Serapio» 
(Blue Fort). The Indians called the spot where the town is 
built «callvu», which means blue. 

Hotels. — Argentino, Col6n, Otto, Zanatta (tariff S 5 per day). 

Restaurants. — Zabalita, Grasi, De los Estancieros, Ferrari, Adot. 

Promenades. — Plaza C.ol^n, General Rivas, Avenida Mitre; the river 
Azul deserves a special trip. 

Music. — A band plays on Thursdays and Sundays. 

Banks.^Commercial Bank and branches of the National and Provincial 
Banks. 

Doctors. — Drs. Pintos, Bardier, Keller, Soriano, Soriani. 

Dentist. — Gallastegui. 

Sanatorium Ganlioni and Town Hospital. 

Societies. — Union Club, Spanish Club, Spanish Mutual Aid Association, 
French Philanthropic Association, Argentina, Garibaldina, Dante, and Nea- 
politan Club. 



262 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. Iloate 

Popular Library of 6,000 volumes and open daily except on holidays. 

Newspapers." — El Imparcial, El Orden, El Ciudadano, La Tarde/ 

Post Office in centre of town. 

Telephonic communication with Buenos Aires and local service. 

Farms and Breedinfj establishments. — San Roman, covering 10,000 
hectares; Siempre Amigos, 10,000 hectares; La Devona; La Corina; El Rezreo 
La Isabel, 15,000 hectares; San Manuel, etc. 

From Azul to Olavarria. — Station Nieves. — Near this sta- 
tion is the farm La Escocia, belonging to M. David Maitland, 
who is devoting himself to the breeding of horned cattle 
and of sheep, and whose products are renowned; the estan- 
cia San Jose, of M. Joseph M. Lier, covering 2,500 hecta- 
res who devotes himself more particularly to the care of 
the animals during winter; La Chica, of M. Rogaciano Za- 
pata covering 1,200 hectares, where horned cattle are bred; 
La Aurora, belonging to Tomas Huarte covering 3,000 hec- 
tares, wintering of animals; El Generoso belonging to Jaruffi 
Z. Marrota, 1,000 hectares. 

Hinojo Station.— Sm3i\l town of about 1,000 souls, but 
very progressive. This town owns a small library of 1,800 
volumes, open daily (Sarmiento Library), a newspaper El 
Independienie, an Italian mutual aid association, and is 
connected by telephone with Buenos Aires. The principal 
farms and breeding establishments are: La Armonia belong- 
ing to Urbano Domeq and covering 5,000 hectares, 2,000 
horned cattle, 7,000 head of sheep; La Isolina owned by 
Esteban Lauge, covering 10,000 hectares, 4,000 horned 
cattle and 3,000 head of sheep; La Tomasa owned by Anto- 
nio Villa, covering 2,500 hectares and having 700 horned 
catUe and 1,600 head of sheep. 

In the neighbourhood of Hinojo the quarrying industry 
has developed remarkably, and numerous stone quarries are 
fully worked. The Cerro Negro, which is not yet being work- 
ed, offers a promising furture for this industry owing to 
the quality of its granite, which will have a sure market in 
Buenos Aires and in other towns, for the construction of 
high class buildings. 

From Hinojo there is a branch line leading to Sierras Ba- 
jas, famous for its limestone quarries. 

Olavarria (339 km.). — The neighbourhood of this town is 
rich in calcareous stone and granite. 

A mail coach service leads to Bolivar. 

The fare for carriages is $ O'oO in the interior and ac- 
cording to arrangement outside. 

Hotels. — -Grand Hotels oArsentino Hoteb, (Hotel Xacional*. (-Hotel 
Universoo, tariff S 4 per day. 

A band plays on Thursdays and Sundays. 

Banks. — Commercial Bank of Olavarria, branches of the National and 
Provincial Banks. 



2nd. Route BUENOS AIRES 263 

Doctors. — Drs. Jose M. Amado, Fernando Anaya, M. A. Laniadrid, Al- 
fredo Blanco, Alfredo Olivieri. 

Dentist.— Pedro Alcalde. 

There is a town hospital. 

Societies.— (Centro Recreativo», «Centro Espaiiols Spanish, Italian and 
French INIutual Aid associations. 

A library is being formed, and owns already 2,000 volumes; it is open 
daily. 

Newspapers. — El Popular and La Razdn. 

Post and National Telograph Office one cuadra from the Plaza Olavarria, 
and the Provincial Telegraph OfTice is 3 cuadras from the same place. 

Curiosities. — Speaking of natural beauties, the river «Tapal(iue> may be 
mentioned. The valleys and the surrounding hills are very picturesque, and 
especially the «Sierras Bajas* and the lagoons <'Blanca Grande^ and «Blanca 
Chica*. 

Farms and Breedinjj establishments. — «Santo DomingO), belonging to 
Arieu Bros., 5,000 hectares, 1,000 horses, 3,000 head of sheep and 700 
liorned cattle; (La Victoria*, belonging to Martin Nazar covering 7,500 hec- 
tares, 1,700 horses, 17,000 head of sheep, 6,000 horned cattle; ^San Anto- 
nio), 5,000 hectares, of which 1,000 hectares are cultivated, 700 horses, 
2,500 head of sheep and 1,500 cattle. 

From Olavarria to Saavedra. — The first station after Ola- 
varria is Pourtale, near which are the important farms «Las 
Toscas» belonging to Esteban Laiige, 20,000 hectares, 400 
horses, 30,000 cattle, 55,000 head of sheep; «Arroyo Corte>> 
to J. A. Graciarena 25,000 hectares, 3,000 horses, 5,000 cat- 
tle and 45,000 head of sheep; «E1 Foso», to Luis E. Reynoso, 
7,500 hectares, 500 horses, 10,000 cattle and 25,000 head 
of sheep. 

The following stations: Mufioz, Focha and Martinetas, are 
all breeding centres surrounded by large farms. 

Then comes General La Madrid (426 km.) chief town of 
the department of the same name. 

Mall Coach Service! — One coach goes to Arboledas Station and another 
to Las Bandurrias; fare S 0*50 per league per person. 

The fare for carriages is S 0'50 in the interior of the town or S 1 per hour 

Hotels.— «Argentino», oEspana) and «Vasconia». 

Banks. — Commercial Bank and Provincial Bank, in the centre of the 
town. 

Doctors. — Drs, S. Salcedo and Luis T. Pifieyro. 

Societies. — French and Italian Mutual Aid Association, «Club Centro 
Commercial of Gen. La Madrid'*. 

Newspapers.— EZ Malrilense and La Voz del Pueblo. 

Farms and Breedinfl cstabilslinients. — (iLa Gama», belonging to C. La- 
placette, covering 3,100 hectares, 1,200 cattle and 50 horses; «K1 Champ», 
belonging to Lucinde A. Rivadeneira, 4,000 hectares devoted to agriculture. 

«La Colina-) has a local telephone service, and two mail coach services, of 
which one goes to La Pampa and the other to Krabbs Station; the fares arc 
respectively S 5 and 3'50 per person. There is a cosmopolitan mutual aid 
association and a recreative club. 

Breedinrf establishments.— «La Colihas belonging to Mr. E. Santamari- 
na, 32,000 hectares, 5,000 hectares cultivated 20,000 cattle, 60,000 head of 
Jiheep and 400 horses; < l-.l lluascar», belonging to M. J'cchera, 12,500 hec- 
tares, 6,000 hectares cultivated, 3,000 cattle, 5,000 head of sheep and 200 
horses; «La Fe», belonging to Mr. G. Williams, 12,500 hectares, 1,000 hectares 
cultivated, 15,000 cattle, 6^000 head of sheep and 300 horses. 



264 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. Route 

One passes afterwards through <(Pineyro» in order to 
reach «Coronel Suarez» (490 km.). 

Formerly called «Sauce Corto», «Coronel Suarez» is to-day 
the centre of a rich agricultural country. An important Rus- 
sian colony is located near there. The town is continually 
growing more and more important, and the day is not far 
off when it will be one of the principal towns in this immense 
plain of agriculture in the south of this province. 

Mail Coach Service. — There is one to the estancia «La Laura», the fare 
being $ 4. 

Hotels. — «Roma», «Espana') and «HeJvecia>; S 4 per day. 

Restaurants. — «Los Bascos*, ('Restaurant de la Estaci6n», and «Ita]ia». 

Music. — A band plays on Sundays and holidays. 

Banks.— Branch offices of the National Bank and of the Spanish Bank. 

Doctors. — Drs. O. Federicci, C. V. Lozada, A, P. Politis, and E. Harriott. 

Miscellaneous. — Hospital -Caridado. — A theatre. — Spanish, French, Ita- 
lian and German mutual aid associations. — Spirting club «Blanco y Negros. 
— A library of 2,500 volumes open daily. 

Newspapers.— EZ Fiscal and La Razon. 

National and Provincial Telegraph, and local telephone service. 

Cabs. — Fare, S 0'50 for a direct trip inside the town, and S 1'50 per Jiour. 

Manufactories. — A flour-mill «San Joses a factory of potted meats, «La 
Industrial*; a tannery; a steam furniture factory, etc. 

Agricultural and breeding establishments. — <(La Curumalan», limited com- 
pany, covering 17,500 hectares, of which 10,000 hectares are cultivated, 
4,000 horses, 5,000 cattle, 8,000 head of sheep; «San Jose» owned by Alber- 
di Jose, 10,000 hectares, 2,500 hectares being cultivated, 400 horses, 300 
cattle, 10,000 head of sheep; «San Gregorioi>, owned by a limited company 
and covering 7,500 hectares of cultivated land. 

Curamaldn which is next to Coronel Suarez, has a name 
of Indian origin, «currumalal» (black court) or «curamalal» 
(stone court). 

In Curumalan there is an important breeding establish- 
ment of the same name. The limited company which is 
running it, was founded in 1903, with Mr. Ernest Tornquist 
as president. It bought from Messrs. Baring Bros. 238,077 
hectares of land suitable for breeding and agriculture for the 
sum of 20,176,880 francs. A large part was sold again at a 
good profit as land is increasing daily in value. 

To-day the company owns 8,000 hectares of cultivated 
land and 44,000 head of sheep, 14,000 cattle and 2,500 
horses. 

Arroyo Corto and Pigiie are the next two stations. 

Pigile is the centre of an important French colony com- 
ing for the most part from the Aveyron and the sur- 
rounding departments. The town is already an important 
centre, having about 7,000 inhabitants. There are 4 hotels: 
<(Vazcongado», <(Central», «Pigue» et «Uni6n», $ 4 per day; 
a French mutual aid association, and an Italian one. There 
are two newspapers: El Reflector and El Independiente. A 
telephone service connects the town with Saavedra and with 



2nd. Route BUP:N0S AIRES 265 

Baliia Blanca. A mill grinds part of the grain of the 
neighbourhood. 

Saavedra is the capital of the department of same name, 
and its most important town. This is the terminus of the 
Southern Railway coming from Lobos, 25 de Mayo, Bolivar, 
Guamini, and Carhue. 

Hotels. — «La Uni6n'> and «La Plata*. 

Banks. — «Popular Spanish Banlo; the National and Provincial Banks 
have agents. 

There are a Spanish mutual aid association and two Italian ones, and a 
social club. 

Newspapers. — El Fiscal and La Semana. 

National and Provincial Post and telegraph olTices. 

There is a local telephone and one connecting the town with Bahia Blanca 
and difTerent other points in the country. 

Agricultural and breeding establishments. — «La Tiu-igueta), owned by 
Pedro Spinola, 12,000 hectares of which 4,400 are cultivated land, 5,000 
head of sheep; «La I.andladc), owned by Francisco Mendez, 5,000 hectares 
of which 2,000 are cultivated, 2,000 head of sheep; «La Goteadas owned by 
Mr. Cazuet, 1,000 hectares of cultivated land; «La Gruta», 2,000 hectares 
cultivated land. 

From Saavedra to Bahia Blanea. — After having passed 
through the station of Dafaiir where important farms are to 
be found, and also several granite quarries, one arrives at 
Tornquist, a flourishing little town founded by Mr. Tornquist 
in 1880. Agriculture has been extending largely in the neigh- 
bourhood, and within the last few years, land has been increas- 
ing in value greatly. The town has a good hotel «La Uni6n» 
($ 5 per day) a branch office of the National Bank, a hospital, 
called «Ernest Tornquist», several clubs and mutual aid asso- 
ciations (Spanish and Italian) a town library of 1,200 volu- 
mes, a newspaper El Diario and is connected with Bahia 
Blanca by telephone. The principal breeding establishments 
are: «La Ventana», owned by M. Tornquist; «Las Vertientes», 
and «La Esmeralda», owned by M. Lainez; and «La Constan- 
cia», owned by M. V. Picada. 

Tres Picos, Garcia del Bio, Naposta and Viticola are sta- 
tions surrounded by rich agricultural and breeding establish- 
ments. Finally one arrives at Bahia Blanca. 

Bahia Blanca (680 km.) is the chief town of the district 
of same name. Formely this was but a fort built in 1828 as 
a point of protection in the war with Ihe Indians. In 1836 it 
was established a ward of Our Lady de la Misericordia and 
in 1865 it became capital of the district. If one reckons its 
age from the first military inhabitants onwards, it counts 
84 years, that means the age of an old man or the life of a 
generation. From that time until 1882 it simply vegetated, 
and its real birth is to be reckoned from this date. It made 
then slow but continuous progress which is still now only at 
its beginning, because it is the capital of this entire southern 



266 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. Route 

region of the republic which is not yet developed and 
whose riches it is difficult to estimate. But a quarter of a 
century was sufficient to make it change from simple town- 
ship to an important town. Some statistics will give an idea 
of this marvellous development. 

In 1880 the custom offices received 92 pesos, paper. 

In 1882 the imports amounted to 366,028 pesos, gold; 
in 1890 to 4,306,998; in 1897, to 2,794,345; in 1905, to 
7,505,288 and in 1911, to 8,167,164. 

The amounts of export show a still greater increase. 

In 1880 and 1881 the export trade did nor exist. In 1882 
export goods show an amount of 2,653 dollars, gold; in 
1887, 1,119,757; in 1894, 4,230,921; in 1899, 13,051,409; in 
1904,26,693,203; in 1905,42,864,245. In 1911, the amount 
of exports fell to 25,645,280 dollars, gold, but this fall was 
only momentary, owing to the loss of the agricultural pro- 
duce of the year before, and the information we have 
concerning part of the year 1912, forecasts a maximum 
which has not been reached before. 

The traffic, as measured by tonnage, of the ships entering 
the harbour, has passed from 202, 116in 1901 to 746,435inl910, 
which shows an increase of 268 % during these ten years. 

This increase of the harbour traffic is mainly owing to 
the increase of corn exportation which has been consider- 
ably developed during the last years. This increase will 
continue for a long time in the same proportion, as there 
are immense portions of land in the south of the province 
of Buenos Aires, in the territory of the Pampa and in the 
other southern territories to be developed, and cultivated 
as corn fields. 

At Bahia Blanca the lines of the Southern Railway join 
(via Tres Arroyos, Pringles and Azul), with those from Neu- 
quen belonging to the same company, the one from Bahia 
Blanca to the North-West, of the Buenos Aires Pacific Co., 
and the one from Rosario to Puerto Belgrano of the French 
company. 

Besides the military port, Bahia Blanca possesses one 
for commercial navigation and three others for ocean na- 
vigation. That of Engineer White is the most important; 
11 steamships can anchor there; it belongs to the Southern 
Railway Co. which has made importants installations there. 

Puerto Galvdn is the property of the Buenos Aires and 
Pacific Company and improvements are now being made 
there. 

Puerto Belgrano, of the Compagnie Fran9aise has just 
been finished. 

There are also a great many depots existing with a large 
traffic in wool, leather and corn. 



2nd. Boute BUENOS AIRES 267 

Much capital has been invented in the coiiiiiiercial hrnis 
of the place and the old fort of 1828 is now an important 
town destined to become the Liverpool of the Argentine Re- 
public. 

Bahia Blanca is 280 kilometres from General Acha and 
800 from Villa Mercedes. It has a population of about 
40,000 inhabitants. 

Climate. — Its climate is dry; it has but 200 mm. of rain 
during the year. In summer the thermometer has risen to 
42° C. in the shade, and in winter it has fallen to 3° below 
zero. The average temperature in summer is between 22° 
and 29°; the one in winter is between 1 and 5°. There is no 
fixed time for rain. 

Topography and aspect of Bahia Blanca. — Like all 
towns of Spanish origin, Bahia Blanca is laid out after the 
manner of a chess board, that is to say that its streets cross 
each other at right angles. Its buildings, of agreeable aspect, 
and its straight and w ell-kept streets, attract, the attention 
of the foreigner. Those in the centre are well paved. 

The traffic in the town is surprising. Calles San Mar- 
tin, Chiclana, Alsina and O'Higgins are continuously full of 
vehicles of all kinds and remind one of Buenos Aires. The 
commercial buildings are all close together there. The fur- 
nishing of the houses shows the want of taste and luxury 
of the inhabitants. 

Bahia Blanca is surprising in its rapid progress for one 
who sees it after some time of absence; one who sees it 
for the first time can but admire its splendid edifices, its 
luxurious shops, its numerous commercial firms and the 
animation of its streets and promenades. 

It has been called the Argentine Liverpool, and if is not 
yet so, it will certainly become so within a short w^hile, owing 
to the tremendous increase of its population and its astound- 
ing progress. 

Bahia Blanca possesses numerous hotels and restaurants, 
luxurious cafes, several financial establishments, beautiful 
squares, amongst others those of Bernardino Rivadavia 
covering 4 manzanas (about 5 hectares). It has two churches 
and several chapels, telegraph and telephone. 

The district has an area of 255 square leagues of which 
the greater part is pasture land for cattle; agriculture is 
also making rapid progress and every year the cultivated 
area of land increases; at present one can reckon about 
30,000 hectares used in corn culture. Much lucern is also 
sown. 

Newspapers. — Bahia Blanca, El Censor, El Tribiino, Espaiia, Hoja del 
Pueblo, La Niieva Provincia, Proyeccinnes, Revisla Comercial de Bahia 
Blanca. 



268 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. J^ouie 

Banks. — (German-Transatlantic Bank>, <'Ang!o-South American Bank>>, 
<Banco Espanol del Rio de la Plata*, <'E1 Hogar Argentine , 'Banco d' Italia 
y del Rio de la Plata), «Bank of London and of River Plates «Xational Bank), 
♦Provincial Bank», «Popular Espafiol». <.Segiiros sobre Creditos). 

Hotels. — «Apolo», «Central", «Comercio), ♦Continental", <(Espaiia», «E1 
Nuevo Galileos, «Fernandez RufinoD, <'Frances», <'Granieri Vicente», «Inter- 
nacional», «La Centrals "Los Vascoss «La Vasconia», <«Liverpool>), «Lopete- 
gui», <'Royal». <'Santa Isabel), eSportsmans «Sud-AmericanO'> (Limited Com- 
pany). 

Hospitals. — *Town Hospital*, *Depot for First Aid^ ((Sanatorium Bahia 
Blanca». 

Theatres and Concerts. — ((Circo Variedades», cColiseo", <Col6ni). 

Naval port. — This naval port is situated 35 kilometres south-west from 
Bahia Blanca on the Southern Railway line and at about 1 km. from the 
station. It is one of the most considerable works built in South America 
during these last years. The works were commenced on June 2nd 1898 being 
controlled by the firm Dirks, Dates and Von Hauten, after the plans designed 
by engineer Louis Luiggi, an authority on the matter. These works were 
terminated in 1905. 

•Harbour. — The naval port of the fleet has an anchorage to which for- 
merly the llag-ship cSan iMartin» was attached. This anchorage can now be 
used by any vessel waiting to enter the arsenal. Another anchorage, which 
is now in a bad state, is being repaired. These two buoys are formed by 
three anchors of 5 tons to which a chain is attached measuring .3 inches 
and equipped with a small buoy which, in normal conditions is fixed to 
the vessel using the anchorage. Three other buoys have been planned with 
demarcation buoys for the masonry works sheltering the port. Commu- 
nication between the port and the naval station, besides that of small 
steamboats of the post or harbour service, is carried on by an optic tele- 
graph annexed to the telegraph office which possesses a permanent day and 
night time table so that vessels may always communicate with the na- 
tional telegraph ofTice. 

Entrance Channel. — This entrance channel to the marine arsenal has been 
dredged throughout. It has a width of 80 metres at the end with a depth of 
9'50 metres at high tide and 6*50 m. at ordinary low tide. The total length of 
the channel from the port up to the entrance of the outer harbour is about 
2,500 metres and the vessels pass throuhg it in ten minutes. The four bat- 
tleships of the Argentine Republic have already passed through the canal 
as well as several foreign vessel amongst others the «Iowa» belonging to 
the North American fleet and the (California* which boats are the longest 
and widest in America. All of them made their entry and way out without 
any difiiculty. The route of the vessels in the canal is marked by buoys put 
in two lines and at a distance of 50 metres from each other; they show the 
line of 25 feet of ground at ordinary high tide. Four light-buoys are being 
prepared to mark the route during the night. 

Outer harbour and quay of manoeuvres. — The ouJer harbour, the landing- 
quay and the manoeuvre-quay, facing the dry-dock, are now ready for the 
requirement of the Argentine fleet, that is to say that the landing-quay-basin 
has been dredged to the extent of 200 to 300 m., with a depth of 9'50 m. so 
that at exceptionaly low tide the vessels do not touch the ground. In this zone 
three buoys have been placed as well as several moorings; three buoys 
have been built able to receive 5 large vessels laying. This landing zone 
will be dredged completely in the near future as has been arranged in the 
project and plans. 

Dry-doek. — The dry-dock is entirely finished and already working. It 
was opened on March 9th 1902 by the president of the republic. The dock 
has a length ot 222 metres and can be used up to 215*30 m. measured be- 
tween its floating gates placed at their furthest limits. If the gate is placed 
with its groove outside, a length of 217'65 m. can be obtained. The width of 
the dock is 27 metres at the entrance at the height of the coping, and 
26 m. at the height of the ordinary high tide and 23'54 m. at the bottom. The 
depth is 10 m. at medium high tide and 10'50 m. a ordinary high tide. 

For some time it was believed that these dimensions would be suffi- 
cient for any ship afloat, whether it was a man of war or a commercial boat 



2nd. Route BUENOS AIRES 260 

to enter the dry dock of the naval port: but naval architecture especially 
military ship building has made such enormous progress within the last ten 
years, since building the enormous dreadnoughts, that one saw very soon 
that the size of tlie dock was insufficient and that the republic would have 
to enlarge it if the newly built vessels had to enter the dock. Therefore a 
new dock is at present being built. 

Machinery. — The maciiines of the dock are; two large motors of 100 II. P 
each of which drive directly two large centrifugal pumps capable of emp- 
tying the dock within less than three hours. If a man of war is in the dock 
(in this case the mass of water to be removed is less) it can be emptied in 
two hours. It will be seen that in case of emergency a vessel can enter the 
dock at high tide, be put on dry ground, looked over, cleaned and be let 
out at the next high tide. 

The dock is provided with hydraulic capstans often tons for manoeuvring 
of the vessels and two hydraulic cranes of 5 and 1 * tons respectively for 
the handling of material, etc. 

The dock is lit with electricity and this light can be distributed on board 
a vessel in the dry dock if its dynamos do not work. There is a mechanical 
workshop for urgent repairs, several sheds for the residence of the wokmen 
employed in the dock, and for the management service of the navy; that is 
how important repairs like those of the ^Cahfornia' could be undertaken. 

Landinjj-uharf. — On the east-side of the dry-dock there is a wharf where 
the large vessels can land. This wharf is 250 m. longs and the deptli of the 
water is 39 feet at low tide. Two battleships can enter simultaneously in this 
wharf in order to do repairs above the water line, change their cannons, 
boilers, or in order to transport heavy weights on board. For this propose 
a hydraulic crane of triple power has been installed, 10, 20 and 30 tons, besi- 
des three other cranes of 5 and 2 i tons. There have also been installed two 
other cranes of greater power and another hydraulic accumulator for the use 
of the quay for commercial purposes. 

On one side of the quay a depot for goods has been built, covering 70 m. 
length and 36 width and divided into three sections. A railway connects the 
port with the Southern Railway. 

Marine Hospital. — Two buildings of the Marine Hospital are already 
being used in connection with an annexed building for pharmacy, disinfec- 
tion, ice machine, freezing cupboard and other objects indispensable in a 
modern hospital. 

Running water. — In the entire military zone there is a system of canals 
for distributing running water, leading from three filtering galleries which 
are located in the large sand zone of Colina Alta. The galleries extend over 
a total of 900 meters, and working alternately tliey can yield every hour 
from 25 to 30 tons of excellent water, of a hygrometric degree according to 
French system (total hardness) of between 6 and 7 and a permanent settle- 
ment of between 35 to 40 parts in 100,000 of water. Two sets of pumps work- 
ed by steam, each one having its own boiler, extract the water from these ga- 
lleries and send it to two regulating reservoirs located in the lower part of 
the central ofTice. From these reservoirs the water passes into the canals 
which lead to the hospital, houses, tank and public springs. Water can also 
be sent direct to boats in the dock by the nozzles on board. There is a spe- 
cial reservoir of 100 tons to feed immediately the tank or the tank-boats 
and there is another similar one near the civil camp. All in all there are al- 
ways about 700 to 800 tons of water at hand and ready for use in these de- 
pots. The largest quantity of water provided at one time has been of 
1,200 tons for the vessel <'Pampa> within 30 hours, whilst she was taking in 
coal. This water system is arranged in such a way as to be united to the 
canal from Sauce Grande to Bahia Blanca. 

Miscellaneous. — A building has been opened for public service called 
<.Castillo de Vigilancia» whicli looks like a castle; it is used for the offices and 
clerks' rooms of the police. The watch tower having a height of 50 metres 
is used for teleoptic and radiolelegraphic signals in order to communicate 
with the fleet. On the ground lloor are the large water depots used for the 
difTerent parts of the naval station. Houses and other buildings have been 
erected for residential purposes for all employed in the naval port. All the- 
se buildings are provided with a system of pipes for running water fed by 



270 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. Route 

a service of force pumps and caiials from Golina Alta. Besides, all buildings 
have a complete drainage system, independent of the one of tlie hospital 
and turned into the sea. There is also a special building for post and tele- 
graphs, and there is a school built by subscription amongst the work- 
men in memory of the imfortunate King Humbert. Large tree plantations 
in full development contribute to render the military zone agreeable and to 
consolidate the sandy gromids. Besides there have been built powder-stores, 
the mihtary ammimition stores fore aimons and vessels, a shooting range 
and all other accessory services of a naval arsenal. 

Fortification works, — Of the dilTerent fortresses which have been placed 
according to the general plan on the banks of the entrance, and the batteries 
on the shores of the bay, the five batteries of the northern embankment 
have been built and armed with Krupp cannons of 240 mm. These batteries 
are under the direction of the coast artillery corps and ai-e fully armed. 
There have been also three batteries of Krupp hoNvitzers of 280 mm. built, 
protected by some secondary batteries armed with Krupp -cannons of 210 
and 100 mm. and they complete the line of defence of the naval port. 

Stratcjjie railway.— The railway which unites the different batteries with 
the naval arsenal and the latter with the Southern Railway, has a length 
of 28 km. including the different side-lines to the batteries and three storing 
lines for military trains as well as a manoeuvring triangle in order to make 
a train turn round without taking its engine away. The railway passes the 
river Pareja which is more or less an estuary with 12 feet of water at high 
tide on a bridge of 220 m. long. The government has authorized the substi- 
tution of electric engines, getting their power from the central station in the 
batteries, for steam engines. 

Stratcflie telegraph, semaphores and light-houses. — The southern strate- 
gic line used to maintain communication between the vessels of the navy 
and the naval port (through semaphores and wireless telegraphy) extends 
its radius up to Magellan Straits. It is besides comiected with several points 
of coast-guards fitted out with semaphores and light-houses. Two of the 
light-houses planned in the general plan— Penguin Island and Atio Xuevo 
Island, — lend their services for navigation; another has been built at cape 
Las Virgenes and four others at Monte Hermoso, Banco Lobos, (Puerto Bel- 
grano) Punta Delgada, and Cabo Dos Bahias (Chubut). The works were at 
the commencement partly executed by the government but the most im- 
portant work was done by the firm Dirks, Dates and Van Hawten. 

Imaiigration. — A very good idea of the government has changed lately 
the conditions of development and progress in the town and region of Bahia 
Blanca. Up to lately, all boats bringing crowds of immigrants into the 
country, who land every year, and almost every day, on Argentine terri- 
tory, had their main centre in Buenos Aires so that part of these immigrants 
stayed in that city where they fovmd a more or less remunerative work, if 
they did not increase the number of the unemployed; in any case they con- 
tributed to making salaries go dowTi. The National Government, anxious 
to make the social and economical progress of the republic larger, saw the 
mistake of this monopolizing of immigration, which it was necessary to 
correct, and since has been encouraging the shipping companies to disembark 
immigrants as near as possible to the spot where they are likely to find work. 
Thus hotels for immigrants have been built in the ports of Rosario and 
Bahia Blanca. In the first of these ports those who want to go to northern 
regions, disembark, and in the second those wanting to join the workers of 
the southern countries. In this manner the workman is immediately put on 
the way towards the centres who are in want of labour and docs not stay 
where aheady the struggle between work and capital may be felt. These 
measures, though but very recent, have already shovvTi good results, and last 
year part of the immigrants entered the republic without passing through 
Buenos Aires, and without having been attracted by the sight of the ca- 
pital, going where sure work, and later, riches, was waiting for them. 



..^^^^^-^^ 



JNOSAERES 




:2nd . lio ute B U E X O S A I R E S 271 

II. — From Buenos Aires to JLSaliia Blaiieu. 

(Via Batichos and Bauch.) 

Leaving the station on the Plaza Constitucion, we follow 
the route we have already been describing up to Temperley, 
and there we take the side-line of Altamirano and arrive at 
Adrogue. 

Adrogue is a small town founded in 1872 by Don Esteban 
Adrogue, it is the chief town of the district of Almirante 
Brown. The inhabitants of Buenos Aires make it a centre 
of excursions. It has a good hotel «Las Delicias) ($ 5 and 
6 per head) and several restaurants amongst which are «E1 
Recreo» and «E1 Centro». In the South-East of the station, 
in an appropriate place is the Hospital Lucio Melendez. 
There are several societies; Club Social, Workmen's Club, 
Italian Mutual Aid Association, Orpheon Almirante Brown, 
etcetera, a newspaper is edited every week, «E1 Criterio». 

There is a post office with telegraph and telephone (com- 
munication with Buenos Aires and other localities). 

On the main square a statue has been put up to Admiral 
Brown, who has also given his name to the region. 

Burzaco, Longchamps, Glew and San Vicente are the 
next stations. 

San Vicente is the chief town of the region of the same 
name, situated on the banks of a lagoon. The town was 
founded in 1734 by Jean Peroa. 

Doctors. — Drs. Jos*^ L6pez Tojos, and Manuel Ricci. 

Tramway. — From the station to tJie village. 

Miseellaiioiis. — Throe societies of mutual aid; two newspapers: La Opi- 
nion and La Evolncion. — Postal, telephonic and telegraphic service. 

Farms and brcedinfl establishments. — Manantiales>, 'Las Mercedes*, 
«San Eliseo) and «La Fortuna*. 

Domselaar, Ferrari, and Jeppener are small agricultural 
villages which produce more especially milk, cheese and 
butter (important establishment «La Pro.vincial» at Jep- 
pener). 

Altamirano, which is next, is a railway centre. A Line goes 
to General Guido, Maipii and Tandil, of which we shall 
speak later. It is also an agricultural and breeding centre. 
The principal farms are; those of Gregorio Lecazuabar (2,500 
hectares, 3,000 cattle), Luis Urdaniz (850 hectares, 500 cat- 
tle), P. AVale (850 hectares, 1,000 cattle), J. Cowen (625 hec- 
tares, 800 cattle), Baptiste Bordenave (625 hectares, 750 
cattle), J. Placet (625 hectares, 1,000 cattle), Antonio Ferra- 
ri (625 hectares, 500 cattle), Joseph Urricarriet (625 hecta- 
res, 500 cattle), Fernand Daguerre (625 hectares, 400 cat- 

li\K,1>KKKT{. — 21 



272 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. Bouie 

tie). Widow of Gaiat (350 hectares, 400 cattle), Juan Bidar- 
te (250 hectares, 300 cattle). 

Alegre and then Banchos follow Altamiiano. Banchos is 
now an important village, it possesses three newspapers: 
Voz de Banchos, El Bien del Pueblo and El Mercurio. There 
is also a branch of the National Bank and of the Popular 
Spanish Bank; Italian, Spanish and French associations; six 
Jiotels, one post office, telegraph and telephone (communica- 
tion with Buenos Aires), two doctors: Messrs. Luis GanduUa 
and Lestelle Tessonne. 

We may mention the following agricultural and breeding 
establishments: «La Josefina», of Pedro Pajes, 12,500 hec- 
tares, 5,000 hectares cultivated, 1,000 cattle, 500 head of 
sheep; Espartillar, a limited company, 20,000 hectares, 
4,000 cattle and 10,000 head of sheep; «La Matilde», of 
Diego Gibius, 5,000 hectares, 1,000 cattle and 2,000 head of 
sheep; «La Aurora», of Julio Dantas, 10,000 hactares, 500 
cattle, 2,000 head of sheep; «La Industrial)), manufactures 
ice and butter. 

T illanueva, Bonnement, and General Belgrano are impor- 
tant stations for farming and breeding. General Belgrano 
is the chief town of the district of the same name. The town 
has two hotels: «La Uni6n» and the «Lombardo»; a branch 
of the National Bank and one of the Provincial Bank; two 
weekly papers: El Imparcial and El Bueblo; a post office 
and telegraph and telephone connect it with Buenos Aires, 
Olavarria, Dolores, Chascomus and La Plata. 

The principal farms and breeding establishments are: 
«La lnvernada», of Juan Giribone, 5,000 hectares, 500 culti- 
vated; «La Yigilancia», of Jorge de la Fuente, 2,500 hectares 
breeding of cattle; «Chacabuco», of Pedro Chapar, 2,500 
hectares of which 700 are cultivated land; «Martin Garcia», 
of Dr. Obligado, 1,800 hectares; «E1 Trebol», of Jose A. de 
Carabassa, 5,000 hectares of which 1,600 are cultivated; «La 
Atalaya», of the successors of Aranz, 7,500 hectares cultiva- 
ted land; «La Florida», of Vicente Rodriguez, 7,500 hectares 
for breeding purposes; «San Carlos», of Carlos Stegmann, 
5,000 hectares for agriculture; «Las Achiras de AbaJo», of 
Martin Nazar, 2,500 hectares of which, 1,000 are cultivated; 
<<La Merced», of Pedro Nazar, 2,500 hectares of which 1,000 
are cultivated; «Las Achiras de Arriba», of Norberto Ancho- 
rena, 5,000 hectares for breeding purposes; «La Luisa», of 
Jose M. Trilles, 2,500 hectares of which 900 are cultivated; 
«La Verdi», of Carlos Nemeyer, 2,500 hectares for breeding 
purposes; «La Providencia», of Adrian Burugeno, 1,250 hec- 
tares for breeding purposes; «Los Eucaliptos», of Carmen 
Amarillo, 1,250 hectares of which half is cultivated land; 
«Santa Elena», of Emeterio Amarillo, 1,250 hectares, half 



2nd. T^oute BUKXO^;AIEES 27.3 

cultiv^ated; «.Sai)ta Naicisa», ol" tht'. succcssois of Manuel S. 
Aguirre, 5,000 liBctaies of which 700 are cultivated; «La Cos- 
ta», of Marcelino Amaiillo, l,2r)0 hectares of cultivated land; 
and «Poronguitos», of Stegmann Bros., 2,500 hectares for 
breeding purposes. 

The train then passes through Chas. Newton and Rosas 
which are agricultural and breeding centres, and then arrives 
at Las Flores, which we have mentioned in our former 
route. 

The stations of Plaza Moniero, Martin Colman, Miranda, 
Chapaleofu, which we find after Las Flores, are also agricul- 
tural and breeding stations. Then w^e arrive at Rauch, chief 
town of the district of the same name, and a rather important 
station. There are several hotels in Ranch: «Libertad», ((Ame- 
ricano)), «Amistad» and «La Paz»; a tow n band plays on Sun- 
days; there are branch offices of the I^rovincial Bank, two 
doctors: Messrs. Aveleyra and Hernandez; a weekly paper 
?Jl Imparcial; a post and telegraph office. 

Egaha, Be la Caiial, are two stations of little importance 
Tandil (.329 km.) on the contrary is already a great centre. It 
is a town of about 15,000 souls chief town of one of the most 
important regions of the province of Buenos Aires. It was 
founded in 1822, at which time there w^as a fort on the fron- 
tier serving as a base in the campaigns against the Indians. 
The name of the towni and the region comes from that of a 
cacique as it seems, who used to camp on the river side 
(which also bears the same name). The Jesuit Falkaner w^ho 
lived in the mountains of Tandil in the middle of the 18th. 
century, says thatTandil means in the language of the Indians 
of that region and time «elevated mountain». The town has a 
catholic church and chapel and two dissenting churches, a 
hospital (Ramon Santamarina) a library (Bernardino Riva- 
davia) of 1,500 volumes, open daily to the public: several 
newspapers: El Eco del Tandil, El Municipio, La Comuna, 
El Clarin; a post office, telegraph and a local telephone ser- 
vice; a band which plays on Thursdays and Sundays; a 
branch of the National Bank and one of the Provincial Bank 
and the Commercial Bank of Tandil; several hotels of which 
the principal are: the Hotel Roma, Hotel Fran^ais, and nu- 
merous restaurants; the doctors are: Ricardo Lopez, Gatti, 
J. C. Tuculete, A. Alton; Dr. A. Castilla is an established 
dentist. 

We will only mention as agricultural and breeding es- 
tablishments: <(Bella Vista»>, of Mr. Santamarina; «La Merced-), 
of Julio Pefia; and «Los Bosques-), to M. C. Figueroa, each 
covering 12,500 hectares of which 1,500 are cultivated, 
200 horses, 1,200 cattle and 25,000 head of sheep each. 



274 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. l^oute 

The region of Taiidil is also iiiiportaut througli its stone 
quarries. 

In the neighbourhood of the town of Tandil there are 
some fine stone quarries: La Puerta del Diahlo is formed by 
two monoliths of 15 to 20 metres; El Peligro, La Sierra Ja- 
ckal and Los Gauchos are also formed by curious and enor- 
mous blocks. The waterfall of the mountain and the spring 
which receives its waters from the abrupt sierras of Bilbao 
ought also to be visited. 

The two rocks El Centinela and El Carancho are very 
remarkable. The first can be seen at a distance of three 
leagues, it is situated on the edge of a precipice and has a 
base of one square metre. The second has a base of 5 metres 
and its form is that of a heart growing out of the ground, 
in connection with which several more or less tragic legends 
are circulated. 

But of all these curiosities, the one which was considered 
the most remarkable, up to lately in the region of Tandil, 
and of the entire Argentine Republic, was the famous Bo- 
cking-stone. This stone, 4 metres high and 5 metres in dia- 
meter at its base, had the form of a paraboloid and osci- 
llated under the force of the winds. It was the rendez- 
vous of all tourists visiting the province and was known the 
w^orld over. The inhabitants of Tandil were proud of it and 
local commerce made every year a nice profit out of this. 
On February 29th. 1912 it lost its balance and fell down 
without any apparent cause. There has been talk of a 
criminal action and it is possible that this is true. But as 
one can see by the photograph which represents it as it used 
to be before its fall, its base which was held it up, was ra- 
ther small and the action of bad weather and other atmos- 
pheric causes must some day have made it lose its balance, 
and caused its fall. 

After this catastrophe, which brought consternation into 
the entire region of Tandil, the question of putting the stone 
into its former position, was studied, but it was soon seen 
that this would be impossible. It is evident that it would 
have been impossible to find out the specific weight of each 
part of the stone, and consequently determine with mathe- 
matical accuracy the centre of gravity and conditions of the 
balance of the stone. The idea of a reconstruction of this real 
wonder of Nature has consequently been abandoned. 

Gardey, Vela and Lopez are agricultural and breeding 
centres. Juarez, chief town of the district of the same name, 
is a small flourishing town of about 5,000 inhabitants. It 
was founded in 1875. 

Hotels. — oArgentino*, «Eslava'>, «Americano», «E1 Sol», <'E1 Centra?*, 
«XX Septiembre», cEspanol-). 



2nd. Route BUENOS AIRES 275 

Cabs. — Tariff $ O'oO in the interior of the town and 8 2 per league in th? 
country. 

Itanks. — Branches of the National Bank and the Provincial Bank. 

Soeietics:. — Club Social, and .Spanish, Italian and cosmopolitan mutua 
aid associations. 

Newspapers. — El Nacional, El Independiente, El Ilogar, El Feniv. 

Doctors. — T. Moreno, J. Munoz, M. Catren, C. de Tominassi, .J. Landa. 

Hospital. — Adollo Alsina. 

Post office and provincial telegraph, telephone communication with 
Bahia Blanc a. 

iManufactures. — Two steam mills. 

Aflrleult#ral and breedinj/ establishments. — That of Messrs. G. Udaondo, 
22,500 hectares; .1. M. Fernandez, -10,000 hectares; Martin .lacobo, 20,000 
hectares; Alzaga Bros., 10,000 hectares; successors of Urioste, 7,500 hectares. 

Up to Tres Arroyos we find the small stations of Alzaga, 
Gonn, Chaves, Vazquez and Barrow. 

Tres Arroyos (510 km.) is a modern town lit with electri- 
city, having a post office, telegraph and telephone for local 
service and communicating with Juarez and Bahia Blanca. 

Mail Coach service: From Tres Arroyos to Rincon, leaves 
on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays; returns on Mondays, 
Wednesdays and Fridays; from Tres Arroyos to El Cristiano 
and Santa Catalina Rossetti, leaves every other day and 
returns the two following days; from Tres Arroyos to Prin- 
gles leaves on the 1, 6, 10, 14, 18, 23, and 27th., returns on 
the 3, 8, 12, 16, 20, 25, and 29th. of every month; from Tres 
Arroyos to Paso del Medano, leaves and returns every two 
days; from Tres Arroyos to Puente del Quequen, leaves on 
Tuesdays and Fridays, returns on Sundays and Thurs- 
days; from Tres Arroyos to La Alfalfa (in connection 
with the mail coach service of Pringles), leaves on 1, 5, 9, 
13, 17, 21, 25 and 29th., returns on 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27 
and 30tli. of each month; from Tres Arroyos to Medano, 
leaves and returns every two days; from Tres Arrovos to 
La Sortija, leaves on 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and'28th., 
returns on 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26 and 29th. of each 
month; from Tres Arroyos to Cristiano, leaves Tres Arroyos 
and returns on the same days as the preceeding one; from 
Tres Arroyos to Santo Toribio, leaves the 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 
20, 23, 26, and 29th., returns on the 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 
24, 27, and 30th. of each month. The fares of these mail 
coach services are fixed by arrangement and vary according 
to the state of the route. 

Agricultural and Breeding establishments. — El Rincon, 
belonging to Horatio Anasagasti, 7,000 hectares of which 
1,500 are cultivated, 22,000 head of sheep 1,200 cattle, 800 
horses; Villa Carucha of Dario B. Anasagasti, 7,000 hec 
tares, of which 900 are cultivated, 12,000 head of sheep 1,000 
cattle, 200 horses; another belonging to Martin Etcheverria, 
2,500 hectares. 15,000 liead of sheep and 1,000 cattle; Manuel 
lturrahh\ 2,500 liectares of whicli 800 are cultivated. 0.(M»o 



'216 BUEXOS AIRE.S 2nd. Eouie 

head of sheep; Santa Elena belonging to Andres Xaveyra, 
7,250 hectares of which 700 are cultivated, 2,500 head of 
sheep; La Juanita, to Mariano Unzu6, 13,000 hectares of 
which 3,000 are cultivated, 20,000 head of sheep 1,000 cat- 
tle, 1,500 horses; one to Elena Santamarina, 4,500 hectares 
of which 700 are cultivated, 7,000 sheep, 200 cattle, 250 hor- 
ses; San 'Jose, to Maria Santamarina, 13,000 hectares of 
which 2,500 are cultivated, 15,000 head of sheep 1,200 cattle, 
1,750 horses; La Poponita, to Petrona Bourdenx and Jose 
Arias, 2,500 hectares of which 1,000 are cultiv^ed, 5,000 
sheep one to the successors of Anselmo Llanos, 3,200 hectares 
of which 1,500 are cultivated, 5,000 sheep; Dos Anas, to Elena 
Santamarina, 12,000 hectares of which 200 are cultivated, 
11,000 sheep; 700 cattle and 300 horses; La Genovesa, to the 
successors of J. Ortiz, 5,000 hectares of which 700 are culti- 
vated, 7,000 sheep; 800 horned cattle, 200 horses; La Alicia, 
to Bellocq Bros., 3,600 hectares of which 1,500 are cultiva- 
ted, 5,000 sheep; one to Maria L. de Bellocq, 4,200 hectares 
of which 3,200 are cultivated, 5,000 sheep; 1,800 horses; one 
to Mendeburu and Carlos Perez, 15,000 hectares of which 
7,000 are cultivated, 18,000 heads of sheep 1,700 horned 
cattle and 200 horses; San Eduardo to Claudio Molina, 
16,250 hectares, of which 1,000 are cultivated, 5,000 sheep; 
7,000 horned cattle, and 300 horses. ♦ 

Cascal'ares, Irene, Aparicio and El Perdido are small 
stations busy with agriculture and especially breeding. 

Cabs.— Fare for direct trip S 1; by the hour S 1'20. 

Hotels. — «Puchuh'is>, <Franyais», «Amistad» <Comercios «E1 Sol.>, tGernia- 
nia»; tariff S 6 per day. 

Musical band. — A band plays on the municipal square on Thursdays and 
Sundays. 

Banks. — Commercial Bank; branch offices of the National and of the 
Pro\ancial Bank, and of the Banco Espafiol del Rio de la Plata. 

Doctors. — Drs. Gran, P. Tunon, M. Reves, Hiialde. 

Dentist. — J. S. Oleri. 

Hospital. — Tres Arroyos. 

Newspapers. — La Voz del Pueblo, Buenos Aires, Justicia, La Reforma, 
Sarmier.to and El Avisador. 

Dorrego (609 km.), is the chief town of the district of 
same name. The town li^s a branch office of the Provincial 
Bank, post and telegraph service and a telephone for local 
service. Three newspapers are published: La Yerdad, El Pro- 
greso and El Badical. 

Ajjricultural and breeding establishments. — <'Tres de Febrero», belonging 
to Urquiza Bros., 15,000 hectares, 3,000 horned cattle, 16,000 sheep; «Las 
Cortaderas', to Maria A. de Chapar, 21,000 hectares, of which 11,000 are 
under wheat and oats, 15,000 horned cattle, 13,500 sheep; <La Sirena», 
to Ignacio Sanchez, 20,000 hectares of which (5,000 are cultivated with 
wheat and oals, 20,000 sheep and 1(>,(HU) liorncd cattle; 'Kl Recreo», lo 
Silviano Dufaur, 000 hectares grown witli wlieat and oats; La Sirena^ to 
\\ Gastaujbide, 4,500 hectares, of wiiicli 2 ooo arc ciillivated, 7 OOU horned 
cattle and 8,0UU slieep. 



2nd. Rvuic liUKNO.S AIRE.S 277 

Near Doirego is the lighthouse of «Recalada», built ac- 
cording to the plans of Luis Luiggi. Its height is 85 metres 
up to the platform and the lantern is 7 "50 m. more. Light 
which is sent out in a S8E. direction can be seen at a distance 
of 54 miles. The guarding of the lighthouse is left in the hands 
of three men who live in a small house near the light-house 
which may be used as a shelter by the shipwrecked. This 
lighthouse is the most powerful in South America and one 
of the foremost in the whole world. 

Near Calvo there is a very picturesque bridge called 
<<Las Mostazas», then come San Roman, Bajo Hondo and one 
arrives at Bahia Blanca which we know alreadv. 



III. — From Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanea. 

{Via Pringles.) 

This line is the shortest. One leaves at 6.35 p. m. and arri- 
ves at Bahia Blanca at 9.25 a. m. 

Up to now this is the line which has been the most ex- 
pensive to build of all lines in the province of Buenos Aires, 
as it crosses the Sierra de la Yentana. The company has 
spent over 21 million francs, but the journey has been shor- 
tened by three hours. 

We have described the route up to Olavarrla (332 km.). 

At Olavarrla the train branches off towards the south 
and passes through the stations of Santa Luisa, Duraiionci, 
Santa Elena, Yoluniad (which were constructed a few years 
ago and which are agricultural and breeding centres), and 
arrives at Laprida (419 km.). 

This village has been rapidly growing and is the centre of 
a rich agricultural region; its commerce is important. It 
has several hotels, a branch of the National Bank, a so- 
cial club, a newspaper La liazon, a mail coach service to 
Juarez (fare $ 12 per head). The principal agricultural and 
breeding establishments are: La Gloria, belonging to Santa- 
marina and Son, covering 25,000 hectares; Chillalauquen, 
to A. A. Leloir, covering 27,500 hectares devoted to agri- 
culture and breeding (20,000 sheep, 4,000 horned cattle, 
1,200 horses). 

Then come the stations of Ilermanas, Faraguil, Krabbe, 
Reserva, and Pringles (490 km.). Coronel Pringles is a small 
town of about 5,000 inhabitants chief town of district of 
the same name and an in»portant agricultural and breeding 
centre. During those last years agriculture has been making 
considerable progress, which has consequently been followed 
by an increase of value of land. The aspect of the town is 
an aui«'('ab](> one and its lavinii- out is !!io!l<«rii. 



278 BUENOS AIRES 2nd. Route 

Hotels. — ("Imperials «La Paz* and «Comercio»; tariff $ 6 per person 
per day. 

Banks. — Commercial del Azul and branch of the National Bank. 

Xeivspapors. — Pringles, La Razon. 

Miscellaneous. — Town Hospital, band playing on Sundays, post tele- 
graph and telephone (local service and connection with Bahia Blanca; 
grain-mill, alimentary paste factory, electric light, etc. 

Stegman, Pcralta, Sauce Grande and Sierra de la Ventana are small 
stations with some attractions. 

At the station Sierra de la Ventana the Sierra de la Ventana Estate and 
Hotel Co. has built a magnificent hotel. This hotel is situated 22 km. from 
the station of Sauce Grande and is open from December to April. From 
Buenos Aires the return fare is S 30 per person. 

The hotel can hold 200 guests, and possesses every imaginable comfort; 
a banquet liall, a grand promenade hall, golf, tennis, cricket, polo, moun- 
tain climbing, radium waters; it is one of the most agreeable summer resorts 
with a view of hilly landscapes, and a moderately healthy climate. 

TarifTs are as follows: 

Bedroom with one bed and full board S 11 per day. 

Bedroom with one bed, full board and a private bathroom, $18 per day. 

Bedroom with two beds and full board for two persons, S 24 per day. 

Bedroom with two beds and full board for two persons including private 
bath, S 26 per day. 

wSuite of 3 bedrooms, vestibule, bathroom and terrace, all on the front 
side of the hotel, price according to agreement. 

Board and room for servants S 6 per day. 

There are also special arrangements made for families for the season. 

The management of the hotel is in the hands of Mme. de Sempe of the 
Cafe de Paris in Buenos Aires. 

Sierras de la Ventana (The Window :Mountains). — The most picturesque 
part and the largest and most fertile valleys extend along the river Ventana. 

Leaving from the station of Tornquist one can reach the 
junction of the Sauce Chico and Ventana rivers, by following 
this latter up towards the east. Before reaching the Molino, 
where the valley becomes smaller, and near the ruins of an 
ancient fort, there is a very large valley, and very fertile too, 
growing still wider towards north, along the river San Juan, 
a tributary of the Ventana, and towards the south down to 
the Naposta Grande Mountains, where the rivers come 
from. 

On the Ventana river an irrigation dam has been built 
for the lucerne fields and the Sant Pablo river flows into the 
Ventana. Following the San Juan River towards the north, 
one reaches a small hill where the Barril River comes from, 
which then first runs towards the north and takes afterwards 
a westerly course in order to join the Sauce Chico. 

The Sierra de la Ventana Mountains are very picturesque: 
they can certainly not be compared with the Swiss moun- 
tains because of their want of lakes, but one can compare 
them with those of Saxony, or those around Wiesbaden, 
or the Rocky Mountains. The ascent of the Righi or 
the Pilat, which is made by funicular railways is less 
picturesque than the one of the Sierra de la Ventana 
peaks, as there the sky is mostly obstructed by fog, whilst 



2nd. Route BUENOS AIRES 279 

here the sky is always clear and the plains can be overlooked 
at great distances. 

Vegetation and population only are wanting, but wheat 
fields can be seen on the sides of the hills, and rivers fall 
in cascades from the hills which are covered with willows 
and form a very agreeable landscape. A little higher up after 
San Pablo, the Ventana valley becomes smaller and one can 
see the famous Ventana (window) showing up against the 
sky forming a white background. The height of the Albra 
Peak is 470 metres, that of the Tornquist 285 and that of the 
Naposta Mountains 523. 

To ascend the Ventana one can go by coach up to a 
point at a distance of 30 km. from Tornquist and from 
there go on walking, passing a hill between the road and the 
mountain. The way up is very long and difficult in its last 
part, as the mountain is steep at the side and one must have 
good practice in climbing. It is easier to get along on horse- 
back through the Abra (pass) of the Ventana and follow the 
mountains up on one side in order to make the ascent from 
the North-West. In this manner one can geter up 223 metres 
on the Ventana, naturally with some difficulties, as there 
is neither way nor path. From there it is very easy to con- 
tinue on foot; this side of the mountain is covered with 
grass and it is rare to find the quartz exposed. The ascent 
lasts less than two hours from the source of the Sauce Gran- 
de, and one can even go back to Tornquist the same day. 
At Sierra de la Ventana there is an hotel of the same name, 
under the management of the Southern Railway, a luxu- 
rious and comfortable hotel which is one of the most impor- 
tant in the Republic. 

After Sierra de la Ventana w^e only find the small stations 
of: Estomha, Cabildo, Corti, Calderon, then Griinbein, and 
finally Bahia Blanca. 

IV. — From Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanea. 

(Via Lohos, Junction, Bolivar and Saavedra.) 

This route which is not direct and which is the longest, 
can be used all the same by the traveller who wants to know 
one of the richest regions of the province of Buenos Aires. 

The Southern Railway Co. issues no tickets for Bahia 
Blanca by this route, and one must divide the trip into two, 
the first part up to Saavedra and from there take the line 
from General La Madrid to Bahia Blanca. 

We have already described the route up to Ganuelas: 
from there tlH^ train goes to TiObos, ]>assing through the small 
station of V rihclnncd. Lohos is a junction of railway lines 



280 BUENOS AIRES Jnd. Route 

from which different lines branch off which we shall mention 
later on. The town is the chief town of the district of the 
same name, which district is rapidly increasing its popula- 
tion owing to the fertile land. Agriculture is progresing daily 
and is taking slowly the place of breeding; the result is the 
division of land and its considerable increase of value. 

Lobos is a small town having doing an important trade. 
It has some fine buildings and is well laid out. Its popula- 
tion numbers 24,000 inhabitants. 

Hotels. — Jardin (tarilT S 6 per day) and Munoz (tariff S 5 per day). 

Doctors. — INTessrs. A. Hiriart, J. Diaz and A. Lombardo (children). 

Societies. — Club Lobense, Italian, Spanish and French mutual aid asso- 
ciations. 

Social Clubs.^ — Argentine Club. A fine building of majestic aspect. It has 
a hall for festivities, restaurant, bar, billiards. It is the centre of high society 
of Bahia Blanca. 

Circulo de Ai-nias. — Installed in a fine large building and has a fencing 
hall and gymnasium. 

Italian' riub. — In a hall of fine architecture and well fitted out. It is the 
centre of the Italian- Argentine society. 

Spanish Mutual Aid Association. — It owns a large and elegant hall with 
a nice room for festivities where the members and their families meet re- 
gularly. 

Italian Society «Unita'>. — Owns a very artistic hall and is the centre where 
a large part of the high society of the Italian colony meets. 

Newspapers. — FA Conservador (Saturdays), La Cronica (Sundays), and 
Por la Palria (Thursdays). 

Miscelhmeous.— Branch of the National Bank; town hospital and town 
library open daily (2,000 volumes); post, telegraph and telephone (connection 
with Buenos Aires). 

Agricultural and breeding establishments. — La Catalina, belonging to 
Antonio Batilana, 3,000 hectares of which 1,000 grow wheat and 1,000 
oats; San Jiian, to B, Jagliaro, 1,200 hectares of Vvhich 600 grow wheat and 
400 oats; La Florida, to M. Cassett, 1,500 hectares, 1,000 horned cattle, 
3,000 sheep; La Morada, to E. N. Moore, 7,000 hectares, 3,000 horned cattle 
and 7,000 sheep. 

Manufactures — Corn-mills San Salvador and Kl Galileo; patent food 
factory of Agustin Arata; soap factory of Fernando Nicolini; tannery of 
Gaddi'and Co. 

The stations of Carhoni, Elvira, Ernsstina, Pedernales, 
Norherto de la Biestra, Martin Berraondo, centralise the agri- 
cultural and breeding products of this region. 

25 de Mayo is one of the most important towns in the 
province of Buenos Aires, as well for its population, 37,000 
inhabitants, as for its commerce. Rozas founded the town 
in 1846 on the lake Mulitas, during the war with the Indians. 

Mail coach service. — La Constante goes from 25 de Mayo to Bragado; 
S 5 per person. 

Hotels. — Galileo (-S 5 per day), Espana, Hispano-Aroeniino (.$ 4 per day). 

Banks. — Branches of the National Bank, l^rovincial Bank, Italian Bank, 
and Bio de la Plata Bank. 

Clubs. — Social, Olimpo and Progrcso. 

Library. — El Popular, 1,000 volumes; F:1 Publico, 1,500 volumes^ and El 
Olimpo, SOO volumes; these libraries are open daily to the public. 

Newspapers. — El Imjxurial, El Ileraldo and Figaro Saiirict . 



211(1. Moute B I' ENDS AIKES 281 

Miscellaneous. — Hospital, post, telegraph and local telephone, water and 
sewerage, industrial school, etc. 

Doctors. — Drs. Francisco Destefano, Enrique Herraiz, Silvestre Araoz 
de Lamadrid, Enrique Artussi. 

Factories. — Furniture-factory of .John Rossi, soap-factory of .Juan Vac- 
caro, Carriage-factory of La Primavern. 

Aar.cuUural and brecdinf] establishnionts. — Iluelel, belonging to Concep- 
ci6n U. de Casares, 65,000 hectares, of which 2.500 is cultivated land, 2,000 
horses, 15,000 homed cattle, 10,000 sheep; Santa Clara, of Felix G. de Al- 
zaga, 10,000 hectares of which 3,000 are cultivated, 1,000 horses, l,.50O hor- 
ned cattle and 10,000 sheep; El Socorro, of Mercedes B. de Unzue, .35,000 
hectares cultivated land; Britns, of Dr. F:nrique A. Keen, 10,000 hectares 
of cultivated land. 

Xot far from 25 de Mayo, in the establisliiuent Huetel, 
there is the Campo la Verde, where a fight took place in 1874; 
the churchyard still exists with the tombs of the soldiers 
killed in this battle. 

Up to Bolivar we find the stations of Islas, Y aides, Mos- 
colli, Iluetel, Bel Yalle,.Hale and Un^uc, agricultural centres 
devoted to grain growing and fruit trees, and also to breeding. 

Bolivar (330 km.), is the chief town of the district of the 
same name. The town was founded in 1887 under the name 
of San Carlos de Bolivar. It is already an important town 
of some 24,000 inhabitants. 

Mail coach service. — Four leaving Bolwar, Bella Vista, Carlos Casares, 
General Alvear, and Handerson. 

Hotels. — Paris Hotel, Vizcaino, and Comercio, tariff according to arran- 
gement. 

Banks. — Branch of the National Bank, Provincial Bank and Popular 
Spanish Bank. 

\euspapers. -L« Defcnsa, La Letj, Figaro, La Juslicia, Libre E.vamen, 
La Cronica, El Rnido, Hrlios (magazine). 

Doctors. — Soils Rogelio, Fabio Garcia, J. Salces, Carlos Doroqui, .1. Mon- 
teverde. 

Miscellaneous. — Bolivar Hospitak band, Spanish Theatre, Library I'ni- 
ted Friends, post, telegraph and telephone (La Bahiense); Club United 
l^>iends (foot-i)all); Association Italia Fnita, I'ior di INlaggio, and Spanish 
Mutual Aid Association. 

Factories. — Corn-mill and patent food faclorv Lautre; cheese factory 
Boscobel of Olero F^duardo and Co. 

Agricultural and breedincf establishment*. -La CarmelUa, of Herrera 
Vega, 35,000 hectares, 14,000 horned cattle, 17,000 sheep, 80 horses; La 
Florida, of Alfredo Pena, 17,500 hectares, 5,000 horned cattle, 12,000 
sheep and 1,000 horses; Miran^ar, of :Mariano Irrutia, 10,000 hectares, 600 
horned cattle, 2,000 sheep, 150 horses; El Clardon, of the Bros. Conesa, 
7,500 hectares, 3,000 cows, 7,000 sheep, 250 horses; Bella Vista, of IMeaca 
!\Iodesta, 5,000 hectares, 2,000 cows, 5,000 sheep, 300 horses; San Juan, 
of .J. Nelson, 20,000 hectares, 7,000 cows, 10,000 sheep, 1,.500 horses. 
These establishments liave rented 10,000 hectares for corn growing. 

./. F. Ibarra, Torrecita and Pirovano are small stations also devoted to 
agriculture and breeding. 

Daircaux (102 km.) is an important centre. 

Hotels. — Universal, La N'izcaina. 

Doctor. — flannel Arigos. 

Newspaper. --/i/ Eco de Caserns. 

Mutual aid associations. One I'rcnch, an Italian nud a Spanish one. 

Post, telegraph and leleplione (La liahiense). 

AririciiKural and breeding establishments. — /)jV: Laynnit^i, of Daireaux 
and Molina, 10,00(» lurlarcs, 3,000 cows, 4,500 sheep, .500 horses, 000 pigs; 



282 BUP:N0S aires 2nd. Boiite 

Los Dos Marius, de J. Laurens, 8,750 hectares, 7,000 cows, 6,000 sheep, 
300 horses; Vichadero, of Guillermo Walker, 7,500 hectares, 5,000 cows, 
6,000 sheep, 300 horses, 200 pis?s; San Martin, oi Bernardo Duhau, 10,000 
hectares, 4,000 cows, 8,000 sheep 200 horses; La Linda, of Jose and 
Felix Soage, 5,000 hectares, 1,000 cows, 4,000 sheep, 150 horses; Las 
Naranjas, of A. J. Perez, 7,500 hectares, 2,500 cows, 3,000 sheep, 480 
horses; Estancia Uri irle I3ros., 5,000 hectares, 1,000 cows, 2,000 sheep; 
1,000 pigs; Estancia Ana Candelaiia, of Duhau, 7,500 hectares, 5.000 cows, 
2,000 sheep, 500 horses, 700 pigs; agriculture covers about 40,000 hectares 
of grain culture. 

La Larga, near wliicli the estancia of the same name is si- 
tuated, and which is owned by General Julio Roca (57,500 
hectares), 44,000 cows, 28,000'sheep, 1,000 horses). 

Manuela, Bonifacio, Alamos, and Guamini. Near Boni- 
facio is the lake Alsina, of about 12,500 hectares, where the 
pejerrei/, is fished. 

Guamini (12,000 inhabitants) is the chief town of the 
district; the city posesses several hotels: La Union, La Ara- 
gonesa. La Valenciana, Hotel Espana, Hotel Italia, etc., 
a branch of the Provincial Bank, one of the Spanish Bank, 
a newspaper. El Fivadavia, several clubs and mutual aid 
associations; a telegraph post and telephone office; a hos- 
pital; a corn mill, and numerous agricultural and breeding 
establishments in the neighbourhood. 

Passing then Arroyo Venado, one arrives at Carhue 
(315 km.) an important junction of railroads where the lines 
of the Southern, Western and Midland join. We will speak 
of these lines later on. 

Carhue, in the Indian language means: village which had 
a fort formerly. This town was founded by General Lavalle 
on the right side of the river Pigiie, which falls into Lake 
Epequen. In 1895 Carhue counted 1,422 inhabitants but has 
developed considerably since. To-day it is an important 
commercial town as well as the centre of a very prosperous 
agricultural region. 

j\Iail eoaeh service. — From Carhue to Rivera, S 5; from Carhue to Maza 
S 8; Hotel Americano, S VoO per day. 

Doctors. — Drs. Ram6n Razguin, Emilio V. Cabello. 

Banks. — Branch offices of the Provincial Bank and of the Spanish Bank. 

Miscellaneous.— Plospital; newspaper La Reforma; Club Carhue; Italian, 
and Spanish mutual aid associations; post, telegraph and telephone. 

Aqricultural and breedinfl establishments. — La Conce^ icion, of T'elix de 
Alzaga, 1,500,000 hectares, 30,000 horned cattle. 

After having passed the small station of Erize, we arrive at Pudn (567 km. 
chief town of the district of the same name. 

Hotels. — Del Pueblo (S 4 per dav). La Vascongada, El Porvenir, De Fran- 
ce (S 3*50 per day). 

Doctors. — Drs. Manuel Cisterna, Teodoro Gandia. 

Miscellaneous. — A municipal band, a hospital (^larcelino Ugarte); a 
newspaper La Verdad; a foot-ball club; a society entertainment association; 
an Italian and a Spanish mutual aid association; a post office, telegraph, 
telephone service with Bahia Blanca and surrounding villages. 

Agricultural ostahlishnionJs.— Ln Jnca, Eslamin l.elaincndi, etc., breeding 
sheep, horned callle, and cultivating grain and liu- nio. 



Srd, Route BUENOS AIRES 283 

Curiosities. — El Pdicdon dc Alsiiut, wliicli exists since the limes of the 
conquest of the desert, 'liie JtiKe and river Rio Bmnhn, 10 cuadras from the 
village, in the middle ot wliieh lliere is a very picturesque island full of 
mountains. 

Alta Visia, from w'liicli point a line branches oil" towards 
Darragueira, passing through Viboras, Azopardo and Tres 
Cuervos, small agricultural and breeding centres. 

After Alta Vista comes Goyena and finally Saavedra, 
where we arrive at 11 '25 a. m., and where we have to take 
the train coming from General La Madrid and which leaves 
Saavedra at IToO a. m. in order to reach Baliia Blanca 
at 2-30 p. m. 



Ill 
From Bahia Blanca to Toay. 

{Pacific Failway.) 

The immense development of grain culture andespecially 
of wheat and oats, in the south of the province of Buenos 
Aires and in the Pampa territory, has made Bahia Blanca 
the foremost export port for corn. Besides the lines of 
the Southern Railway w^hich carry the products of the south 
of the Buenos Aires province towards this port, the Pacific 
possesses two lines which, extending outside this province, 
keep within the territory of the Pampa; these lines are the 
one from Bahia Blanca to Toay and the one from Baliia 
Blanca to Justo Daract. 

In order to travel from Bahia Blanca to Toay, one can 
take the trains which, leave on Tuesdays, Thursdays and 
Saturdays at 6'30 a. m. and arrive at Toay at 5"15 p. m. or 
the one leaving on Friday at 10*10 in the morning in order 
to arrive at lOTo in the evening. Return trains leave Toay 
on Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays at 12"50 p. m. and 
arrive at Bahia Blanca at 10 "45 in the evening and on Sa- 
turday a train leaves Toay at 6 "20 in the morning arriving 
at Bahia Blanca at 5*40 p. m. 

All these trains have a dining-car. 

The train passes through a coimtry which at first is dry 
and arid and where cultivation does not produce anything 
like the results obtained in the north of the Buenos Aires Pro 
vince, but the corn produced here is some of the finest in the 
world. The stations we pass are Borden, Villa Olga, Venan- 
cio, Nueva Roma, Berraondo, San German where the estan- 
cia San Ram6ii is situated which is owned by M. Ramon 
Lopez Lecube, famous for his pure breeds. Then we find 
Rondeau and Villa Iris and we enter the real agricultural 



284 BUEXOS AIEES 4ih. Fouie 

]egioii Avhicli starts at the border of tlie Buenos Aires Pro- 
viiiee and tlie territory of the Paiupa. At San Araiiz station 
we are in this territory and then we find Villa Alba and the 
important centre of Bernasconi w^hich is surrounded by 
large and rich farms. A mail coach goes to San Miguel and 
another to Cuchillo. 

The other stations as- far as General Acha are Abramo, 
Hucal, Peru, Epupel, Unaniie and Gamay. 

General Acha is a small town founded in 1882, by Colonel 
Manuel Campos. It is situated on the site of the old fort 
Adolfo Alsina. The town would be very nice if its edifices 
were finished, but it is probable that one will have to wait 
some time for that. The main square is that of General Bel- 
grano in the centre of which there is a pyramid with a statue 
on top of it, representing Liberty. This pyramid was erected 
in 1882. Acha was formerly the capital of the Pampa. 

The neighbourhood of General Acha is not very fertile, as 
it is mainly composed of sandy soil. 

After General Acha we find the stations of Vtracdn, 
Quehue, Naico, CachiruJo, and then reach Toay, of which 
we have spoken elsewhere. 

These stations are centres of corn culture which are ra- 
pidly developing. Besides that the woods of the neighbour- 
hood are also a source of wealth not to be despised. 



IV 
From Bahia Blanca to Jiisto Daract. 

This line has been built recently, but its traffic is very 
considerable all the same. It serves not only for corn trans- 
port, in a very fertile country, but it is also the route by 
which wine is transported from San Rafael and Mendoza. 

On this line the stations which are situated at the junc- 
tions of the lines coming from Buenos Aires have been get- 
ting a certain importance and have been rapidly increasing. 
We shall speak about them in the course of describing these 
lines. Concerning the others, the little time since their foun- 
dation has not permitted them to increase much; they are 
mostly small agricultural and breeding centres with some 
commercial firms and some public buildings. 

Up to Nueva Roma, we are following the same line as 
formerly. Then we pass Chasico, Pelicura, and Lopez Lecuhe 
from which point a branch leads to Villa Iris. The following 
stations are: Felipe Sold, Sden::, Bordenave, and Darraguei- 
ra, a town which we describe in another chapter, Gorriti, 
Gascon, Huergo and Bivera also on the branch to Salliquelo 



m. nouie • BUENOS AIRES 285 

and l)obl((.s; Arano, Thames and M<iza on the branch of 
Tres Lonias to Maza, F. Muratnre, Iwanowsky and Catrilo, 
on the line from Buenos Aires to Toay; Relino, Miguel Cane, 
Quemu-Queniu, Trili, Dorila and Pico on the line from Bue- 
nos Aires to Telen; Speluzzi, Vertiz, Chanilao, Falucho and 
Realico, on the line from Buenos Aires to Vagual; Watt and 
Huinca llenauco on the line from Buenos Aires to San Ra- 
fael; Nazca, Canada Verde, Larsen, V. Moderna, Pegasano, 
Lecueder and Villa Valeria where the branch coming irom 
Laboulaye, El Pamj>ero, Mod. Bizarro, El Mangrullo and 
Justo Daract, ends. 

At Justo Daract the line joins the one coming from Bue- 
nos Aires to Mendoza, and the trains connect with those of 
this line. 



From Bueuos Aires to General La 3Iadrid and Pringles. 

The train leaves from Constitution Station at 7*20 in the 
morning. We know the route up to Lobos where we arrive 
at 9'25 a. m. The train leaves Lobos at 9*40 and passes 
through Salvador Maria to Roque Perez. 

Hotels. — Espolosin, ^Matiolo; tariff S 3"50 per day. 

Doctors. — Drs. Balba and Rottjcr. 

Bunks. — Branches of the National Bank and of the Commercial Bank 
of Argentina. 

Miscellaneous. — Hospital Perez; newspaper El Pueblo; post and tele- 
graph. 

Farms. — Blarfuier, 7,500 hectares of which 1,800 grown with oats and 
llax; Dr. Perez, 8,125 hectares of which 2.500 oats, 2,000 sheep; Coltrinari, 
1,700 hectares of wheat, oats and flax culture. 

Passing through corn fields and prairies where immense 
flocks of horned cattle and sheep are feeding, we pass 
the stations of Del Carril and Cazon, and arrive then at the 
nice little town of Saladillo. 

Saladillo has a nice square and wide streets lit with elec- 
tricity. 

Hotels. — Otamendi and Listoc; tariff S .3-50 per day. 
Doctors. — Eniparanza, Oneto, Piobles, Dougall. Laborde. 
Banks. — Branch ofTices of the National Bank and of the Provincial Bank. 
Mutual Aid Associations. — The Mutual Italian, French and Spanish 
Associations. 

Xcwspapers. — El Orden and El Arqcnlino. 

Miscellaneous. — A band plays on Tluirsdays and Sundays; municipal hos- 
pital, post, tcbgraph and local telephone. 

Agricultural and Brcediufi Eslabllshnient«. — Santa Paula, of Bruno Sel.a- 
egui, 7,500 hectares of which 4,100 hectares are cultivated, 2,500 cows, 
,000 sheep, 500 horses; Maria Elena, of Dr. M. Arana, 2,500 hectares, 
,300 cultivated, 1,000 cows, 5,000 sheep. 250 horses; Cabana San Bias, 



286 BUEXOS AIRES Oth. l^oufe 

o[ Gimeiiez Paz, 3,750 hectares, 1,300 cultivated, 2,000 cows, 1,500 sheep 
and 350 horses; San Pedro, of S. Roca, 3,750 licctares, 1,300 hectares of 
agriculture, 1,500 cows, 2,000 sheep, 500 horses; Santa Isabel, of Enrique 
Sojo, 3,750 hectares of which 1,300 are cultivated, 3,000 cows, 300 horses, 
Maria Antonieia, of S. Toledo, 22,500 hectaies of which 7,S00 are cultiva- 
ted, 3,000 cows, 20,000 sheep, 3,000 horses. 

We pass then tlirough Barrancosa, at J. M. Jlicheo and 
finally arrive at General Alvear. 

General Alvear is situated on the right side of the Bio de las 
Flores; a line branches off there, passing through the small 
stations of Yerbas, Tapalque, Altona and CroUo, and leads 
to Olavarria. If one leaves at 7 "20 a.m. from Constitution, 
one arrives at 1'12 at General Alvear; one leaves again at 
l'2o p.m. in order to arrive at Olavarria at 5*40 in the 
evening. 

Mail Coaeh Service. — A line exists to Bolivai- (S 8 per person). 

Hotels. — Dos de Mayo, Hispano Argentino, Las Cuatro Xaciones, ta- 
riffs by arrangement. 

Doctors. — Urbano and Altala. 

Miscellaneous. — ^Municipal band. Club El Progreso, newspaper El Pro- 
greso, post and telegraph office. 

-Xflrioultural and Breeding Establishments. — San Salvador del Valle, of 
Jose Olazo, 10,500 hectares, 500 cultivated, 150 horses, 9,000 cows, 1,500 
sheep; Chaplan, of Urquiza, 7,500 hectares, 2,500 cultivated, .500 horses, 
4,000 cows, 25,000 sheep; La Parva, oi Enrique Mattch, 10,000 hectares 
500 cultivated, 200 horses, 6,000 cows, 30,000 sheep; La Josefina, 10,000 
hecrares, 50 horses, 7,000 cows, 2,000 sheep; San Jnan, of J. C. Giribone, 
10,000 hectares, 3,000 cultivated, 200 horses, 5,000 cows, 10,000 sheep; 
Santa Rosa, 7,500 hectares, 100 horses, SOO cows, 3,000 sheep; La Paloma, 
of Ortiz Bros., 7,500 hectares, 500 hectares of cultivated land, 500 horses, 
7,000 cows and 12,000 sheep; La Fro/jcio, of Grotto Bros., 20,000 hectares, 
500 cultivated, 500 horses, 30,000 cows; San Vicente, of C. Casal, 5,000 hec- 
tares, 500 hectares cultivated, 300 horses, 1,000 cows, 15,000 sheep. 

Up to General La JIadrid the train passes an agricultural 
and breeding region, stopping at the stations Emma, San 
Bernardo, Espigas, Blancagrande, Eecalde, Iturregui, Quilco, 
and at 8*15 p.m. it enters the station of General La Madrid. 

From General La Madrid to Pringles. 

Leaving at 8 '30 a.m., from General La Madrid, the train 
reaches Eringles at 11 "58 a.m. passing through the small 
stations of Lastra, Libano, and Pontaat. 



VI 

From Buenos Aires to 3Iar del Plata. 

During the summer season the Southern Railway Co. 
organizes a train service for Mar del Plata in the following 
manner: 







Mar del Plata. — 1. Rambla. — 2. Entrance to the Rambla. — 3. The 
Esplanade of tlie Rambla. — 4. Seashore. — 5. Maritime NYalk. — 6. Ran- 
queting Hall of Social Club. 



6th. Boute BUEXOS AIRES 287 

Departures from Constitution Station: 7 '10, 2 '45 p.m., 
8*30 p.m., and 10 p.m.; arrivals at Mar del Plata: 4 p.m., 
9*22 p.m., 6*27 a.m., and 7*17 a.m. respective!}-; arrivals at 
Mar del Plata South: 9*15 p.m. and 7.30 a.m. The train 
of 2*45 (day service) leaves on Tuesdays, Thursdays and 
Saturdays. The 10 p.m. night train leaves daily except 
on Sundays. The ordinary trains of 7*10 a.m. and 8*30 
p.m. leave every day. 

Departures from Mar del Plata South: 2*10 and 10*10 
p.m.; 8*40 a.m. 2*25 p. m., 8*45 and 10*30 p.m. Arrivals at 
Constitution Station: 6*20 and 9 p.m., and 7*5 and 7*35 a.m. 

The 2*10 p.m., day express, leaves on Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays. The lO'lO p.m., leaves every day ex- 
cept Saturdays, and the ordinary trains of 8 a.m. and 8'45 
p.m. leave every day. 

All these trains, and more still the special trains, have 
sleeping and dining-cars and are fitted with every desirable 
comfort. 

It is well to reserve berths and seats in advance, to make 
sure of having them when the train leaves. 

Berths in the night trains and seats in the other trains 
can be reserved at the inquiry office of the Southern Rail- 
way (Cangallo 556), at Constitution Station, or at the Na- 
tional Transport Co., (Expreso Villalonga), Calle Balcarce 
256 (telephone 4975 to 4977, Union Telefonica, Avenida), 
or at Express A B C, Calle Lavalle 456 (tel. 3849), Avenida, 
Union Tel.; at the JExpress La Confianza, Calle Sarmiento 
315, (Telephone Union Tel. 955, Avenida), or at the Express 
Rapidez, Calle Bartolom6 Mitre 1848 (Union Tel. 401, Li- 
bertad), at the agency of Thos, Cook and Son, Florida 
Street 740 where berths can be reserved. 

The Southern Railway Co. hands the travellers, besides 
the tickets, which are obtained from their Inquiry Office, 
a special baggage-check, which makes the giving up of the 
tickets unnecessary (as was done formerly) to the express 
companies like Villalonga or La Confianza which undertake 
to fetch the baggage at the traveller's residence. 

By paying for 3 seats and 4 berths, one has a right to a 
compartment of 4 berths, and by paying for 1 ^2 seats and 
2 berths, a right to 2 berths. The tickets with berth for Mar 
del Plata, available from December to April, in the night 
trains, are return-tickets. In the night-trains, the price of 
a return-ticket is $ 30; in the Pullman it is $ 25 and $ 7, in 
addition. 

The meal, as well in the night as in the day-trains costs 
$ 2 per person without wine. The traveller has a right to 
50 kg. free luggage. Attendants expect tips. Up to Maipii 
we have described the route. At this station the train leaves 

bakdkkVi!.— 2"J 



288 BUENOS AIRES 6ih. lioute 

the Taiidil line iu order to reach the coast. Up to Mar del 
Plata there is no important centre. The station of Armas, Pi- 
rdn, Vidal, Yivorata, Cobo, and Camet, which one finds on 
this route, are colonisation centres devoted to agriculture 
and breeding. 

Mar del Plata (399 km.), the queen of seaside resorts of 
Argentina and South America, can be compared with New- 
port in the United States oi North America It is situated in 
the south of the province of Buenos Aires, on the Atlantic 
Ocean, 32° 2' latitude South, and 57° 39' longitude West of 
the meridian of Greenwich. It is an important and progressive 
town which possesses all perfections of modern cities, hav- 
ing about 25,000 inhabitants. It has large avenues, splendid 
squares, electric light, splendid hotels and casinos, etc. The 
town is composed of two parts: the centre is the commercial 
part like in all other Argentine towns, the other part, on the 
seas shores, is the portion preferred by the bathers. This latter 
is mostly composed of cottages surrounded by gardens and 
villas with nice parks, and is the residence for the summer 
season of the families of high society in Buenos Aires. 
Although the climate is not always mild and uniform, the 
town being exposed to sudden changes of temperature, which 
render the stay sometimes disagreeable, it has all the same 
an splendid reputation in the entire country and the 
reason is because it has been built with a view to perfect 
comfort and distractions for all those who visit it. 

History: Up to 1879 the district of General Pueyrredon 
to which Mar del Plata belongs, formed part of that of Bal- 
carce. The actual town did not exist; there was but a small 
school, a mill which never worked and the chapel of Saint 
Cecilia. In 1879 M. Patricio Peralta Ramos asked for and 
obtained the permission to build Mar del Plata, the plans 
of which we owe to the engineer Charles de Chapeaurouge. 
This initiative of M. Peralta Ramos was much helped by 
M. Pierre Luro, who, having bought half of the ground which 
is covered to-day by the actual town founded the centre 
from which it has sprung. This work he- carried out with 
perseverance, energy and intelligence together with his sons 
Jacques and Joseph, M. Jules P. Celesia, and later M. Ernest 
Tornquist. Since 1910 the Social Club, under the presidency 
of Mr. Adolphe Davile, has given a great impulse to progress 
in the town. M. Pierre Luro built a brick-kiln, opened stone 
quarries in the hill by the church, at the sea side, built de- 
pots, the quay of wood M'hich is used for maritime purposes, 
a mill, the Hotel del Progreso, and several portions of the 
actual Grand Hotel. This is the start of Mar del Plata. 

Hotels. — Bristol Hotel, verj- select, with casino, theatre, reading rooms, 
billiard-rooms, concerts on the seaside (S 16 per day). — Grand Hotel, less 



6th. Uoute BUENOS AIRES 289 

luxurious liut uevertlicless very comfortable, facing tlie above (tai-ilT by 
arrangement).- -Roval Hold (tariff bv arrangement. )^ — Victoria Hotel. -7- 
Comfortable Hotel (id.).— Hotel Universal (S 12 per day). 

Restaurants. — Espana, Palermo, Anglais. 

The Social Club, situated on the Hambia, posesses a very fine restau- 
rant for its members. 

Pensions and boardinfi-hoiises. — During these last years a great many 
pensions have been opened and several of tliem offer all kinds of comfort to 
the traveller at lower prices than in the hotels. The most important are: 

Pension dc. Famille, corner of Calle 25 de Mayo and ("alle C6rdoba; 
Pension Robillunl, Calle Rivadavia, between Calle Santa Fe and Calle Entre 
Rios; Pension Crinelli, Calle Santiago del Estero 1951; Royal Pension, Calle 
San Juan, between Calles 25 de Mayo and 9 de .Julio; Alaison de Pension, 
Calle Rivadavia, corner of Calle Santiago del P^stero; Maison de Pension, 
between Calles San Luis and Mitre; Pension Renec, corner Calles Rivadavia 
and Corrientes; Pension Barnils, Calle Rclgrano 2662. In these pensions the 
price varies between 5 and 8 pesos per day per person, five o'clock tea no 
included, and no wine. This is the tarilT for travellers occupying one roomt 
As this is very difficult and generally the rooms contain two beds, the travel, 
ler will have to pay from S 12 to 16 per day for a room if he wants to be alone- 

Soeial Club. — Tlie main and most elegant meeting place of Mar del Plata 
Society is the Social Club, installed in a most splendid and comfortable 
building of its own in Avenida J'edro Luro very near the sea. 

This club is managed by a limited company of 3 million pesos, paper. 
In its rooms only members and their families are allowed, as well as those 
who obtain a temporary entrance by paying a fee. This great social centre 
ofTers all kinds of comfort and distractions to its members and to those ad- 
mitted temporarily: 

1 . A good restaurant service: 

2. Gambling rooms; 

3. On Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, from 5 to 7 at night, great 
concerts by an orchestra under the direction of professor Ernest Drangosch; 

4. Every day at tea time, an excellent orchestra; 

5. Special bath rooms for ladies and gentlemen with sea water, fresh, 
water. Cold or warm; 

6. A large swinmiing pool with a professor; for children and adults; 

7. Fencing lessons every day from 10 to 11 a. m. by professor Rossi; 

8. Every day from 8 to 10 a. m. gymnastic lessons for the children of 
members; 

9. Every day from 3 to 4 p. m. shooting practice with Mauser rifles; 

10. Every evening from 9 to 11 cinematograph with excellent orchestra; 
11 A rich library with the principal national and foreign papers and 

magazines; 

12. On the terrace of the building an equatorial telescope for observing 
the Southern sky. 

13. A hair dressing saloon, also for massage and facial treatment; 

14. Very diligent , polite and respectful attendance. 

During Carnival time the (Mub oilers two fancy dress balls to the young 
ladies which are notable for their elegance and the good taste in costumes. 
It is also a great element of progress for the town because it has started 
the building of the new Rambla out of ils own resources and credit, and 
has paid out of its own funds for the paving of the streets and avenues, as 
well as numerous other works which contribute to the development of the 
town . 

The Club is open from the 1st. of December to the 1st. of April. 

Only the shareholders and the subscribers for season tickets of S 50 are 
admitted into the salons. The shares are not quoted as the club does not pay 
any dividends. Those of the last issue of a nominal value of S 1,000 were 
sold with a S 500 premium. 

Promenades. — The South Esplanade is a nice avenue of 30 metres wide, 
with very convenient sidewalks, lit with electricity and cemented. It starts 
at the look-out at Punta Piedras and finishes at tlie Golf Club links, having 
a length of 4 km. From the Esplanade one has asplendid view of the 
Ocean, and it is the favorite rendez-vous bathers the Northern Es 



290 BUENOS AIRES 6th. Fouie 

planade is a fine as the other; it starts at the shore near the Social Club, and 
finishes at that of La Perla. 

Belvedere of Punta Piedras.— Owing to the generous initiative of i\I. Er- 
nest Tornquist, who was in his time one of the great factors of progress 
of Mar del Plata, the magnificent park of the Promenade General Paz has 
been prolonged up to Punta Piedras (Stony Point) where a look-out has been 
built. This gallery is a very agreeable excursion point. 

Liflhthouse. — Near Mar del Plata, at the point known as Punta Mogoies, 
there Is a first class lighthouse, with flashes every minute followed by total 
eclipses. This light is visible at a distance of 22 sea miles from the bridge of 
a vessel. From the masts the light can be seen at a distance of 20 to 30 miles. 
The lighthouse is built on a hill 26 metres above the sea and 250 metres from 
the shore. The tower is of a circular form, measures 30 metres in height having 
a diameter of 9 metres at the base and 3'50 at the upper part. It is entirely 
built of steel and has a base 2*40 metres high formed by stone blocks mea- 
suring 40 to 60 centimetres. In the interior a spiral staircase turns round a 
central tube in which a lift circulates in order to transport the necessary 
objects for the lantern. The ground-floor is composed of a vestibule and 4 
rooms for the attendants; above the same there is a floor used as a depot for 
small objects. Above the lantern there is the room of the night guard. 

A visit ot this lighthouse is free of charge, and is one of the obligatory 
promenades of Mar del Plata; the price of the fare by cab is 10 pesos. 

Ravine de la Loberia.— This ravine is formed by steep rocks from the 
top of which one can see, at a distance of 40 metres below, flocks of seals and 
sea lions of the size of a young bullock. These animals having been very ex- 
tensively hunted, their number has considerably diminished and though one 
can see still now-adays a respectable number, the flocks do not amount to 400 
like ia old times. 

Works of the new Port. — Near the lighthouse there is the spot where the 
works have been started for the construction of the Mar del Plata harbour 
for boats of great tonnage. The budget of these works has been estimated at 
9 million pesos, gold, (£ 1,800,000). The construction of this port will permit 
the boats bound for the Pacific to gain 14 hours permitting them to put in 
here instead of in Montevideo. 

IVIarlllme Asylum. — At a distance of 5 km. from Mar del Plata, towards 
La Perla beach, an asylum for weak children was opened during the season 
1911-1912. It owes its origin to I\Imes. Angela Inzuede Alvear and Concepci6 
Unzue de Casares. It can hold 300 children and is patronised by the Buenos 
Aires Benevolent Society. 

Piaeon-Shootino. — Not far from the hotels there is a p igeon shooting stand 
of very modern style frequented during the season by a numerous and 
select company. 

Churches. — Chapel Saint Cecilia, belonging to the family Peralta Ramos, 
built to the north of the town, on the most elevated part of the hill. San Pe- 
dro, on the Plaza America, magnificent building in the Gothic style, after 
the plans of Pierre Benoit. Stella Maris, built on the hill side of the Maritime 
Boulc\ ard, by public subscription and patronized by the elegant and rich 
population of the bathing resort. 

Tramways. — There is a steam tram line connecting the two stations of the 
Southern Railway passing through the Pedro Luro Avenue, Calle Saint 
Martin and others\ (Fare, S 0"15). 

Banks. — Branch offices of the Banco de la Nacion, de la Provincia and 
Espanol. 

Doftors. — Drs. Alio, Galarce, Botana, .Jara, Bellatti, Constantino. 

Dentists. — Alio, Patrone. 

Hospital. — Mar del Plata; town Library open daily. 

Aewspapers. — La Capital, El Progreso.La Opinion. During the season 
the principal Buenos Aires papers post the latest telegrams of all the world 
round up at their oflices. 

Post ofjice, provincial and national telegraph; telephone, connecting Mar 
Plata with Balcarce, ]\Iiramar, Buenos Aires and others. 
Garaoe and carriajje sheds. — <La Portefia», Avenue Pedro Luro 2337. — 
Carriages and automobiles on hire, modern carriages, riding-horses for pro- 
menades. 



6th. Route BUENOS AIRES 291 

Charges: for stabling and attendance to 2 horses and storage of carriage 
$ 200 per month; automobile garage and cleaning S 100. 

Commereiiil firms. — On the Rambla the following commercial firms have 
installed themselves: Aux Grandes Marques, French sweets; No. 13G; Maison 
Rodie, modiste and dressmaker. No. 50; H. Upman, Havana cigars. 
No. 13-1; J. Verde & Pipage, corals and cameos, No. 47; Nandor Rusznask 
painting-shop. No. 49; Domingo Vitale, ladies hair dresser. No. 135; Trotta 
and Carabella, hair dresser and perfumery, Rambla Vieja; Maison Simon, 
lace and millinery, Rambla Vieja; La Argcnlinn, glove-manufacturers, Ram- 
bla Vieja; Maison J. Laborde, furs. No. 132; Maison Pacault, lace and furs. 
No. 140; Grimaldi Emage, Subirana <Sc Co., opticians and photographers, 
No. 149; Rcrnar Soeurs, No. llfi; A. P. Gadan Son Succ, No. 48; Maison L. 
Adhemar, dressmakers, No. 133; Maison Martin Soulcs, modistes and head 
wear; Rambla Vieja; Fonseca Havana cigars. No. 115; Palais de VEUqan- 
ce, Rambla Vieja; Dra. S. de Costafart, skin specialists. No. 119; Aux Doiqls 
de Fdes, Havana cigars. No. 126; G. Moussion, ladies hair dresser; Al Jaz- 
min del Cabn; Espinosa Rros.; dresses and millinery; Maison Henry, mani- 
cure and pedicure; Maison Lerpand and Leonard, blouses and hats; Pauline, 
modiste; Genaro Persico, fresh fruit; Rocco Relgiorno, fancy articles; Eugenio 
Proust, natural flowers and plants; Rambla Bristol. 

Photoflraphers.— On the Rambla there is a branch office of Garro and 
another of the Sociedad Fotogr.^lica Argentina de Aficionados. In town the 
photographer Ulderico Carnaghi at the corner of Calle San .Juan and Calle 
San ]\Iartin. 

Ttathing establishments. — On the Rambla there are different establish- 
ments specially arranged for sea water baths for the use of those who do not 
want to bathe in the sea. 

Music. — The splendid Social Club offers its members and their families 
fine concerts at tea time every day from 5 to 7 p. m. On Tuesdays, Thurs- 
days and Saturdays from 5 to 7 p. m. there are symphonic and classical con- 
certs unter the intelligent direction of Professor Drangosch. Rehearsals of 
these concerts take place on Mondays, Wednesdays and I'>idays at 9*30 p. m. 
up to midnight. 

On the Rambla there are several bars, cafes and restaurants have good 
string orchestras accompanied sometimes by singers, from 5 to 8 p. m. 

Cinematoflraphs. — On the Rambla there are two cinematographs: The 
Lepage and the Atlantique open from 3*30 p. m. to 7 p. m. and from p. m. 
to midnight. 

At the Club Social, on certain evenings there are cinematograph shows 
for the families of the members. At the Teatro Col6n, under the management 
of Max Gltickmann successor to Lepage, there are cinematograph shows every 
day. 

Gamblinn. — At the Club Social there are several <l\oulettes» going on 
every day from 3 to 8 and from 9 to 1, patronised by high society. 

Mar del Plata raee eoiirsc. — The Mar del Plata .jockey Club possesses a 
magnificent race course where there are numerous races during the season. 

Golf. — Alar del Plata has also a very important golf club which is also 
very much in fashion. It is the rendez-vous of most renowned players. The 
entrance fee in summer is for the club S 20 for gentlemen and S 10 for ladies. 
On$ can apply for admission at the club itself or at Buenos Aires Calle Mai- 
pu 144. During the summer season the hall of this club is the rende/-vous 
of a most select company going there for tea, lunch and golf parties. Every- 
thing necessary for golf playing can be obtained at the club at reasonable 
prices. As the club is about 5 km. from the beach, one goes there by carriage. 
The price of a return fare is S 15. The caddy who carries the golf bag re- 
ceives S 0*50 to S per player. 

Mail ooaeh service. — From Mar del Plata to Balcarce and Necochea two 
mail coaches at S 6 and 8 per person. 

Breeding establishments. — Chapadmalal, of Mme. Martinez de IIoz, 
22,500 hectares, 25,000 sheep, 8,500 cows, 2,000 horses; La Colwena, of 
the Bros. Viera, 8,000 hectares, 2,000 cows; La Peregrina, of Domingo IIo- 
guilor, 21,000 hectares, 22,000 sheep, 5,000 cows, 1,000 horses; El Boquc- 
rdn, of Louis Colombo, 18,000 hectare?, 10,000 sheep, 1;500 cows and 000 
horses. 



292 BUEXOS AIRES ?th. lloute 

From Mar del Plata to Miramar. 

A train leaves Mar del Plata at 6*40 in the morning and 
another at 3 '50 p. m. for Miramar; these trains arrive res- 
pectively at 7 '50 a. m. and 5 '50 p. m. They pass through 
the two small stations of Chapadmalal and Dionisia. 

Miramar is a nice small bathing resort suffering from the 
competition of its large neighbour. 

Hotel. — La Amisiad, tarifl S 5 per day. 

Doctor. — Dr. Gallini. 

Cabs.— Fare S 1 per trip and in town; for the neighliourhood according 
to arrangement. 

SooJeties. — Club Social, Spanish and Italian Societies. 

\cwspaper. — La Voz de Miramar. 

A municipal band plays on Sundays. 

Post oflice is at 3 cuadras from Plaza Pueyrrcdon. 

Telephone. — La Union Telefonica (connections with Buenos Aires and 
other towns); La Mar Platense (connections with Mar del Plata and Balcar- 
ce and neighbourhood). 



VII 
From Buenos Aires to Necochea. 

During the summer season the Southern Railway Co. 
organizes a train service to Xecochea as follows: ' 

The journey can be made by three different trains: 

The first leaves on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays of 
every week from the station on the Plaza de la Constitucion 
at 2 '57 p. m. and arrives at Ayacucho the following day 
at 2 '45 in the morning and at Xecochea at 7 '55 a. m. The 
second one leaves on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sat- 
urday at 8 p. m. and arrives at Ayacucho at 2'45 a. m. 
the next day, and at Xecochea at 7.55 a. m. The third 
leaves on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays at 8 '30 p. m. 
and arrives at 4 '45 next morning at Ayacucho and at 10 a. m. 
at Xecochea. These trains have every comfort one can de- 
sire: dining cars, sleeping cars etc. 

It is well to reserve berths and seats in advance in order 
to make sure of having them when the train leaves. These 
berths and seats can be reserved at the Information Office 
of the Souther Railways (Calle Cangallo 556), at the station 
de la Plaza de la Constitucion, or at the Xational Transport 
(Expreso Villalonga), Calle Balcarce 256 (telephone 4975 
to 4977, Union Telefonica, Avenida); at the Express ABC, 
Calle Lavalle 456 (telephone 3849, Avenida, Union Telef.) at 
the Expres La Confianza, Calle Sarmiento 315 (Union Telef. 
955; Avenida); or at the Express Rapidez, Calle Bartolome 
Mitre 1848 (telephone 401, Libertad, Union Telef.); the 



7th. Route BUENOS AIRES 293 

agency of Tlios. Cook & Son, Calle Florida 740 will reser- 
ve berths. 

By paying for 3 seats and 4 berths, one has a right to a 
compartment of 4 berths; and by paying for 1 i^ seats 
and 2 berths, a right to one of 2 berths. 

The tickets, including berth, for Necochea, valid from 
December to April, in the night trains, are re urn tickets. 

The price of a return ticket is % 35. 

Meals, both in the day trains and in the night trains 
cost $ 2 per person without wine. 

The traveller has a right to 50 kgs. free luggage. 

The attendants expect tips. 

We know the route up to Ayacucho which we have 
described before. 

Erom there we pass through the stations of San Ignacio, 
Bamos Otero, and Bosch, in order to arrive at Balcarce 
(420 km.). 

Balcarce (21,000 inhabitants) is the principal town of the 
region of the same name, a region where the Tandil moun- 
tains spread out. The principal sierras are called del Moro, 
de Pefia, de Herrera, del Volcan de Arrascaete, del Panal, 
de la Brava, etc. The town was founded in 1876 and has a 
population of more than 5,000 inhabitants. The principal 
culture is the potato, but corn is also taking an important 
place. The estancias are very numerous and very prosper- 
ous. The aspect of the surrounding hills is very picturesque. 

Mail eoaeh serAiee. — From Balcarce to Mar del Plata (2 mail coaches) 
fttre S 8 from Balcarce to El Venado fare S 6. 

Hotels. — Sigin KK, Espana, Gran Hotel, S 5 per day; La Estacion S 4 
per day. 

Banks. — Branch offices of the Banco de la Xaciun and of the Banco Es- 
panol del Rio de la Plata. 

IJoetors. — Drs. Emilio Isasmendi, Felipe Possati, Guillermo Quiroga and 
Jose Astelarra. 

Newspapers. — El Imj)arcial and La Tribima. 

Miscellaneous. — Town band, town hospital, post tele.2raph and telephone. 

Aorieiiltural and breeding cstablishincnl*<.— 7:Z Vcrano, of Cipriano Xew- 
ton; La Vigilancia, of Guillermo Luro; La Brava, of B. Ginocchio; Martin 
Garcia, of .J. D. Errecaborde; San Martin, of .Jean Lahite; Santa Rosa, of 
Elias Casado; Sierra Larga, of S. Lozada; Ojo de Agna, of Chevalier; etc. 

Up to Loheria we find the stations of Finos, SanAgustin, 
Nutrias and Moro. 

Loheria is the chief town of the district; it is a small town 
of 14,000 inhabitants and rather important; from there a 
line branches off towards Tres Arroyos. A train leads directly 
from Buenos Aires (Plaza de la Constitucion) to this latter 
town. This train leaves at 8 p. m. on Mondays, Wednesdays, 
Fridays and Saturdays arriving at 6"45 a. m. next morning 
at Loberia and leaving again at 7 "7 arrives at Tres Arroj'os at 
10*50 a. m. From Loberia to Tres Arrovos we liiid the small 



294 BUENOS AIRES 7tli. Boiite 

stations of Loheria Nueva, San Jose, Dulce, Cooper, San 
Cayetano, Ochandio, Mayol and Barrow. 

Mail eoach service. — From Loberia to Claraz and from Loberia to the 
estancia of Luis Burgos; fare $ 0'50 per league. 

Hotels — Americano and Victoria, S 4 per day. 

Banks. — Banco de la Provincia, Popular Espanol, Comercial Argentino. 

Doctors. — Alfredo Treglia, Francisco Bartrono. 

Newspaper. — La Raz6n. 

Miscellaneous. — A town band; hospital Campos; Club Social, French, 
Spanish and cosmopolitan mutual aid associations; post, telegraph and te- 
lephone. 

Breedinfl establi shments. ^La Independencia and La Luisa, of Arce Bros., 
17,500 hectares, 2,000 cows, 3,000 sheep, 2,500 hectares cultivated land; La 
Margarita, of Pieres, 2,500 hectares, 1,500 cows, 2,000 sheep and 300 hect- 
ares cultivated land. After Loberia cones Pieres and finally Qiieqiien-Ne- 
cochea 527 km.). 

Quequen and Necochea. — The river Quequen Gtande 
separates these two large bathing resorts. Quequen was 
founded in 1895 by Arana and Larabian and has a good 
reputation. 

Necochea is a fine town of 21,000 inhabitants and posses- 
ses fine buildings, banks, town-hall, church, etc.; commercial 
firms are very important and numerous; there are also mills 
and numerous cottages, which make it look bright. 

Beach. — Several boulevards lead from the town to the 
beach situated on the Atlantic. The most important of these 
boulevards is the one ending at the port which is being built 
at the mouth of the Quequen, a harbour which will be one 
of the principal ports of the region. The river sides present 
splendid panoramas and the beach is competing with the 
one at Mar del Plata. 

Hotels. — Among the most important we mention tlie Necochea Hotel 
which has 150 rooms, large dining rooms and fine halls for festivities. The 
tariff is S 8per day per person. Then there is La Perla, opened in 1911, hav- 
ing 70 comfortably furnished apartments, splendid dining rooms, rooms 
for festivities, permanent orchestra, warm and cold baths, electric light, 
gardens and bathing cabins on the beach. This hotel is specially recommen- 
ded tor its cooking which is excellent, and for accomodations made for fa- 
milies. Its tariff is S 7 per day per person; a special tariff is granted for chil- 
dren, and varies according to^ their age. 

Tramways. — There is a tramway-line from the town to the beach, ser- 
ving all the'^hotels. One can obtains carriages and horses at moderate prices. 

Promenades. — ^The principal ai-e: The Grottos, Punta Negra, and on the 
Bio Quequen the cascades of Diaz Velez called generally El Puente and Los 
INlanantiales. The latter are very picturesque and one can pass agreeably 
a whole day there. They are at but a small distance from the liotels. 

Banks. — Branches of the Banco de la Nacion and of the Banco El Hogar 
Argentino. 

Doctors. — -Perreyra, Deheza, Sabelli. 

Dentist. — Bomero Diaz. 

Town band, hospital General Diaz Velez, numerous clubs and societies, etc. 

Newspapers. — Necochea, El Pueblo. 

Post, telegraph and telephone. 

Mail coach service. — From Necochea to San Jose, 14 leagues S 8; to San 
Enrique Zabala, 16 leagues, S 8; to San Martin, 11 leagues, .? 6. 



8th. Boute BUENOS AIRES 295 

Breeding cstablislinieuts. — Estancia of Jose Alasola, 12,500 hectares, of 
which 600 are cultivated, 7,000 cows, 16,000 sheep, 650 horses; of de Goin, 
5,000 hectares, 1,500 cows 5,000 sheep and 200 horses, etc. 



VIII 
From Buenos Aires to Neuquen. 

Up to Bahia Blanca we have seen that the tourist had 
the choice between three lines which are direct and one which 
is not direct. 

From Bahia Blanca the trains of the same Southern 
Railway Co. leave, by which the traveller has arrived, for 
Neuquen, on Tuesdays and Sundays at 9"50 in the morning 
and on Thursdays at 8 "30 in the evening and reach Neuquen 
Station at 10"50 in the evening and 9'oO next morning res- 
pectively. To return, the trains leave on Fridays at 7 "20 in 
the evening and arrive at Bahia Blanca en Saturdays at 
8*35 in the morning and Mondays and Wednesdays at 5" 15 
in the morning, in order to arrive the same day at 6'2 in the 
evening. 

From Bahia Blanca to Rio Colorado. 

In this part of the route we pass through sterile regions 
of dreary and monotonous aspect: sand or salt fields alter- 
nate wuth low ground covered from time to time with poor 
grass which is no good for the cattle. Lakes and salt waters 
complete the dreary aspect of this country. 

Therefore the entire region between Bahia Blanca and 
the Rio Colorado is desert. The stations we find are: Spurr, 
Cuarteros, Argerich, Mascota, Medanos, Nicolas Levalle, 
Algarrobo, Sayus, Gaviotas and Tlio Colorado. At Cuarteros, 
at a distance of 12 km. from Bahia Blanca, are the establish- 
ments of the important society Sansinena of frozen meat, 
the same which has established the La Negra at Barracas. 
From Bahia Blanca one can reach this freezing establishment 
by a small boat and a small railway unites it to the estab- 
lishment. The company possesses aport for its own use. At 
Cuarteros there is also an establishment for cleansing wool 
d- a tannery. 

At Argerich, in the property of Dr. Juan A. Argerich, 
the Minister of Agriculture had an artesian well dug, which 
has a considerable production. The national government has 
also opened an agricultural school in this locality. 

Medanos is a rather important agricultural centre. The 
principal agricultural establishments are: La Colonizadora, 
limited company owning 17,000 hectares cultivated land. 



296 BUENOS AIRES 8th. Route 

wheat and oats; Stroeder and Co. 5,000 hectares of wheat 
and oats; Navarre, 15,000 hectares of wheat and oats; La 
Esmeralda, 5,000 hectares of wheat, oats and luzerne, etc.; 
Besides in the breeding establishments in the neighbourhood 
the number of sheep is 140,000, 10,000 cows, and 6,000 
horses. 

From Medanos a mail coach leads to Patagones 40 lea- 
gues distant; the fare is $ 40. Rio Colorado is a sheep breed- 
ing centre, there are 50,00,000 heads. 

From the Rio Colorado to Neuquen. 

From Rio Colorado to Choele-Choel, we find the small 
stations of Juan de Garay, PicM MaJiuida, Fortin Uno, 
and Benjarnin Zorrilla. 

Choele-Choel is a village of some importance on the Rio 
Negro, the waters of which have been used for agricultural 
purposes. From there the train follows the Rio Negro in a 
valley which becomes more important every day from an 
agricultural point of view and especially for the production 
of fruit and grapes. (1) We pass through the stations of 
Darwin, Chirrvpay, Chelforo, Chichinales, Bio Negro, Allen 
Cipolleti, and we arrive at Neuquen. 



(1) The eminent writer Jules Huret, in his last book <>De la Plata a la 
Cordillere des Andes» has described in the following manner the important 
irrigation works which have been executed in this region by the national 
government and the railway companies: 

«We are nearly at the confluence of the Neuquen and the Limay which 
join to form the Rio Negro, in the region where the lai'ge hydraulic works 
which have been planned by the federal government, are going to be exe- 
cuted. 

» In 1898, under the administration of General Roca, a decree entrusted 
to the Italian engineer Cesar Cipoletti the study of the Rfos Neuquen, Li- 
may and Negro, in order to regulate them and to irrigate their valleys. These 
studies where taken up again by the engineer Severini, to whom they were 
entrusted by M. Ramos ^^lexia, the active and devoted minister of Public 
Works, during the last presidency and they are now on the point of being 
finished. 

»Such a work, I was told in Miraflores by M. Ramos jMexia, would be much 
more difficult in an old country like Europe where it would interfere with 
many interests and be complicated through important material and techni- 
cal difficulties. 

»In these virgin lands the engineers can work in full liberty and change 
Nature as they like. 

»I am going to explain clearly what I have understood about the grand 
plans the realization of which is going to transform soon an entire region. 

»The Neuquen and the Limay, coming down from the Andes, are torrents 
which are periodically swollen by the snow melting in the high Andine re- 
gions. At the end of autumn the first snow mixed with rain falling in the 
mountains, increases tliem considerably. In spring when the neoados melt, 
another much more important swelling is produced. The entire Rio Negro 
naturally feels this. When the waters run low, it divides into an infinity of 
arms running roxmd islands and sand banks. W^hen the rises come, it is a 
large wild stream, indomitable, having such a rapid current that is very 
difficult to ascend it. One can judge the extreme variations in its masses of 



Sth. Roaie BUP:N0S AIRE.S 297 

The territory of the Neuquen is ruled by a governor, named by the Na- 
tional Executive Power. Its area is 109,081 square kilometres and its popu- 
lation 29,000 inhabitants. In this territory communication is difficult, 
expensive and uncomfortable, therefore the number of tourist coming to visit 
the same, is very small. On the day when these inconveniences disappear, 
it will be one of the favorite regions of the republic. Nearly at the confluen- 
ce of the Limay river and of the Neutpien, the railway passes over a magni- 
ficent bridge 700 metres long divided into 7 portions and 3 metres above 
the water. It has cost S 1.30,000. 

The territory of the Neuquen, especially its southern region, has impor- 
tant sheep rearing farms. Lucerne culture has been taking the place of 
natural prairies in many places, and the cstancias are cross breeding 
with much success. Corn has also been tried and givien good results. Po- 
tatoes and yam are also being cultivated successfully. This is the result of 
intelligent agricultural processes which commence to show the contrary 
of the idea that the Neuquen territory was arid and improper for any kind 
of culture. The railway companies have understood the importance of this 
territory and several have already obtained land concessions. The railway 
lines which would bring into rapid communication Argentine and Chili, 
through the most accessible passes of the Cordilleras as, for instance, the 
«Pino Hachado) which is on the projected prolongation of the Neuquen line 
we have been speaking about, v.ould not only contribute to the general pro- 
gress, but would also call forth summer excursions, as this region like many 
others of our country, which are unknown yet, is one of the most picturesque 
and possesses sites which may be compared to those of Switzerland. From 
the interior of the mountains where cows and goats are grazing on the sides, 

water: in December and January that is to say during summer time, in 
the Piio Negro only 250 cubic metres of water flow past per second at 
Choele-Choel. In winter it reaches 9,000 cubic metres! Besides there are floods 
every ten years, and its inundations are terrible. 

»These masses of water must consequently be regulated and therefore 
the tributaries must be changed, or at least those of the two rivers Limay 
and Neuquen which form the liio Negro at its source. 

»For the Limay, the work was easy enough. It has its source in one of the 
large lakes of this Andine region: the Nahuel Huapi, where we have just 
come from. It was consequently decided to dam the outlet of the lake by 
sluices an<l to increase the dej^th for a distance of a league. The waters 
leaving the lake are thus regulated and at the same time the bulk of the 
Rio Limay. 

> After this the regulation works of the Rio Neuquen were left to be accom- 
plished yet. In this case there was no regulating lake. But fortunately, nearly 
at the confluence of the Neuquen and the Limay, there is an immense ovoid 
hollow, a natural wash-basin of colossal dimensions, 40 metres deep and of 
a diameter of 15 km. called «La Cuenca Vida!'>. I was conducted there through 
a dreary dry plain covered with bushes and thickets and shghtly undulated. 
From the top of a hill we discovered this magnificent reservoir which can 
hold, it seems, 5 milliards of cubic metres (*). 

This is what has been decided upon in order to use this happy opportu- 
nity. About 30 km. north of the confluence of the Limay and the Neuquen, 
a dam will be built of a width of 300 metres, a kind of vast viaduct with 
numei-ous sluices (**). 

.»The water gathering behind the bai* is partly conducted towards an 
irrigating canal in the valley for agricultural use. The remainder is led 
towards the (iuenca Vidal where it will be stored. During the ordinary rises, 
the bar is opened and the waters of the river takes its natural course. During 
the extraordinary rises, the water surplus is sent into another large drain- 



(*) The Assuan reservoir can hold 1 milliard 500 million cubic metres. 

(**) The Neucfuen is a very rapidly flowing torrent and its incHne is 
about 2 p. c. It would therefore have been difTicult to build a fixed dam. 
Therefore an open bar like the Cairo one, has been preferred. Its foundations 
will be of cement and cast iron. 



298 BUEXOS AIRES 8th. Route 

coal, oil, iron, copper, etc., would come forth; perfect methods would take 
the place of those actually used in order to extract the gold of the rivers. 
The mineral waters springing forth at the foot of its volcanos and the the- 
rapeutic qualities of which are well known to-day, would create health re- 
sorts where people in feeble health could come to be strengthened. Timber 
commerce would greatly extend in the forests of ancient trees, which are at 
present used only by local constructors. 

Among the natural beauties worth mentioning, is the lake Nahue/ 
Huapi. It is situated on the frontiers of the Xeuquen territory, of Rio 
Negro and Chili. The altitude of this large fresh water lake is 537 metres 
above the level of the sea. At the west side is the Tronador, a high volcano of 
the Cordilleras which separates the Xahuel Huapi lake on the Chili, side from 
Todos los Santos. The lake extends from N. W. to S. E. and covers 800 square 
kilometres, having a total length of bank 6f 250 km. The 300 metres fathom 
line does not touch bottoms at several places, even sometimes near the bor- 
der. The south of the lake is nearly completely bare of any vegetation. On 
this side the lake has but two important tributaries: the Nireco (water of the 
Nire) and the Nirenau (a tributary of the same). It communicates with lake 
Carre-Lauquen (green sea or Gutierrez) by means of the Rio Grande, and with 
Lakes Moreno, Frias, Veinticinco de Enero, Albarracin. There are 26 islands 
and 4 islets^ among the first named there are: Victoria, Villegas, IVIascardi 
and Diez Arenas. 

The lake Nahuel Huapi was discovered about the year 1610 by the mis- 
sionaries of Chiloe who established a small mission station on its borders, 
which was completely destroyed in 1655. Four years later Father Nicolas 
Mascardi re-estabhshed the mission on the largest of the islands but it decli- 

ing canal which ends also in the Cuenca Vidal. Thus the great floods are 
reduced to 1,500 cubic metres per second. I have explained that this gigantic 
basin can hold if entirely full, 5,000 millions of cubic metres. With 10 metres 
of water depth only, one can store about 3,000 million cubic metres. 

»A marvellous and grand enterprise, as it will be remarked. It has been 
calculated that no less than 2 years are necessary to fill the basin partly. The 
engineer Severini has undertaken to accomplish the works in 3 i years. The 
bar and the complementary works, that is to say the two canals, will only 
cost 7 million francs. This is little for such a work. 

»What will become of the water stored in this reserA'oir and how can it 
be brought into the plain in order to irrigate? 

»The Cuenca Yidal has no natural outlet. Rut a difference in its level and 
that of the eastern \alley permits of conducting the water through a tunnel 
of 20 i metres depth and a length of 5 km. under a plain which separates it 
from the valley. When coming out of this tunnel, the water will form a wa- 
terfall which will be used to turn a turbine of 30,000 H. P. and an elevating 
engine. This will bring the water into the plain and irrigate the desert. 
After this, the water, having provided motive power, will return to the Rio 
Negro, where it will maintain the navigableness of the stream and will be 
used also for irrigation all along its course. 

»This Cuenca has consequently a triple destination and aim: to receive 
the water which will be flowing over the bar, make use of same to irrigate 
those parts of the plain situated higher then the canals along its course and 
which through their altitude could not be irrigated; finally it will be used as 
a storage and control the navigability, the irrigation and motive power 
during the periodical floods of the Rio. 

»Regulation and irrigation works sustain each other, as it will be remarked. 
The Cuenca will provide water for 300,000 hectares. And, through other 
works, the irrigation of 500,000 hectares more is announced. 

»Once this land irrigated, the Rio Negro will become another Nile valley 
with its reservoir, its bar and its fertilising mud (*).» 



(*) The valley of the Rio Negro is about 527 km long, and about 
11 km. wide, covering 550,000 hectares, of which about 380,000 can be ex- 
cellently cultivated. The valley of the Neuquen has 51,600 hectares, those 
of the Limay and CoUonciir.i 31;000 hectares. 



8th. Route BUENOS AIRES 299 

ned at the death of the missionary (1G03) aiul, although it was repopulated 
in 1705 it was leading a poor existence up to 1718 at which lime it had to be 
abandoned, owing to the hostility of the Indians, ihe lake was explored 
in 1792 by Menendez and, by order of the intendent of Llanquihuc, in 1850. 
The lake is separated from the coast of the Pacific by a distance of 205 km. 

This lake is of an incomparable beauty, its blue and limpid waters, its high 
mountains covered with snow and deep forests, and especially the solitude 
and imposing silence of its fjords communicate a unique enchantment to 
the landscape such as the tourist does not find in the populated mountains 
of Switzerland, 

The majestic mountain of the Tronador, covered with snow from its 
basis, dominates the region and announces itself from a far distance by a 
thundering noise caused by the fall of big ice-blocks detaching themselves 
from its sides, which noise has given it its name. 

M. F. P. Moreno has made a present to the nation of part of the land 
which had been presented to himself, in order to create in the Nahuel Iluapi 
a large national park in the manner of the one in the United States. M. Al- 
pheus ]Mahone returning from a \ oyage abroad, has therefore brought eggs 
of salmon and trout in order to populate the lake and also with all other 
kinds of fish of the republic. Tims the lake has now three kinds of salmon 
and trout. On the borders of the lake there are splendid landscapes, like the 
port Blest-Gana, the Tronador, from the Peulla to Lake Frias. The Southern 
Railway Co., in order to develop the progress of this region as well as to 
bring tourists into these countries, has had a Hotilla built, composed of small 
steamers for the navigation of the river Limay, between the terminus sta- 
tion of the Neuquen and the mouth of the CoUen Cura. These steamers 
transport travellers and goods within 17 km. from the magnificent and not 
much known lake Nahuel Huapi. 

On the other hand, the government had studies made concerning a rail- 
way line which, leaving San Antonio in Tilli Bay, will follow the river San- 
guel then the Genna, in the colony of 17 de Octubre and will end at the lake 
Nahuel Huapi. One part of the railway is already built. 

In the middle of the lake Nahuel Huapi, there is the Island Victoria, 
property of M. Anchorena. This island is nearly covered by thick woods. 
Avenues and roads have been opened in the forest and from time to time 
sheds and huts have been put up for the hunting season. In the southern 
part of the island is the port of Anchorena where some German immigrants 
live. 

In the Neuquen territory there are also the famous thermal baths of 
Copahue which have national renown. 

At the foot of the Cordillera, in 37° 48' latitude and 71° 15' longitude 
and at a height of 3,000 metres, in the Trolope valley where the rivers Agrio 
and Trolope run, the thermal sources of Copahue will be found. In order to 
reach them from Patagoncs, one has to follow the Rio Negro, passing through 
the villages of Pringles, Conesa, Choele-Choel, General Roca, Limay, Codi- 
hue, and Norquin. The ditTerent rivers of Copahue form lower down the La- 
guna Verde. The water of this lagoon has a temperature of 35° to 40° and is 
composed of alkaline carbonates and sulfates which have produced excellent 
results for stomachic illnesses. About 100 metres from the lagoon there is 
a ferruginous source with a temperature varying between 60°, 75* and 80° 
sometimes arriving at 90° and 95°. The bathing season starts in December 
and finishes at the end of March. During the remainder of the year, the 
neighbourhood is covered with snow. Copahue is an extinct volcano, 5 km. 
oil the springs, of 4,000 m. altitude. Its crater is accessible. The trip to Nahuel 
Huapi Lake can be made more easily, and this is as trange anomaly of the vast 
extension of the Argentine territory, from the Chili side, passing twice 
through the Cordillera of the Andes. From Buenos Aires to Valparaiso, 
via Mcndoza, then the South American Steamship Co. makes the voyage 
every week up to Puerto Montt. The trip lasts 10 days. l>om there' the 
Compafiia Andina has a weekly service to San Carlos, on Nahuel Huapi 
Lake. This trip lasts 2 i days. This part of the voyage is very picturesque. 
From Puerto Montt to Llanquihue Lake it takes 3 hours by cab. The lake can 
be crossed in 4 hours on as mall steamer. Between this lake and that of Todos 
los Santos (2 hours on horseback) the road passes through the lava of tlie 



300 BUEXO.^ AIRES 9th. noute 

volcano Osorno, in the midst of a magnificent panorama. After 4 more hours 
one crosses another lake. And after a trip of 2 hours on horseback one reaches 
Casa Pancjue at the foot of Tronador. The excursion to the glaciers, very 
interesting, lasts half a day. In 2 hours on horseback one passes the Cordillera 
at Perez Rosales Pass and reaches the lake F'ias, on Argentine territory. This 
lake is crossed by boat in an hour, and another hour's walk brings us to 
Puerto Blest at the far west end of Xahuel Huapi Lake. A steamboat trans- 
ports the excursionists to San Carlos in 4 i hours. The excursion from Bue- 
nos Aires to the lake Xahuel Huapi lasts 10 days and the price is about 
S 300. The return can be made on the Limay in 6 days by boat up to Xeu- 
quen, terminus station of the Southern Railway line. One descends the stream 
in steam boats which have been specially built in San Carlos. Within 16 mi- 
les of the lake are the famous water falls which constitute the only danger 
for navigation. One can avoid them by stepping out of the boat some 
minutes before and going on board again some distance lower down. The land 
journey from the lake to Xeuquen is less dangerous and can be accomplished 
in a dozen days. 



IX 

From Buenos Aires to the Tandil. 

The train leaves from tlie station on the Plaza de la Cons- 
titucion at 7 '10 in the morning and at 8 "30 in the evening, 
and the arrival at the Tandil. is at 5 "20 in the evening and 
6 "25 in the morning respectively. 

We know the route up to Altamirano. From there the 
train reaches Chascomus and passes Gandara station. 

Chascomus (113 km.) chief town of the department of 
the .same name, has a population of 23,000 inhabitants, it 
is situated on the borders of a lagoon. 

^lail coach service. — Between Chascomus and Pila (fare S 6 per person). 

Hotels. — Americano and Colon; tariff, S 4 and 5 per day. 

Doctors. — Drs. de la Sotta, E. Tagle, J. Zubizarreta, T. Ibarre. 

Miscellaneous. — Hospital San Vicente de Paul (men); Regatta Club; So- 
cial Club; Foot-ball Club; Popular Library at the Social Club, open daily; 
post, telegraph and telephone (Uni6n Telef6nica); newspaper El Argentina. 

Agricultural and brcedlncj establishments. — Las Mulas and Los Jagiieles, 
belonging to R. Xewton, 10,000 hectares; Alameda, of. F. Girado, .5,000 hec- 
tares; Los 'Mananliales, of .J. de la Serna, 12,500 hectares; La Barranca, 
of C. Sonachaga, 7,500 hectares; Averias, of T. de Anchorena, 5,000 hecta- 
res, 3,700 hectares are devoted to corn, maize and flax culture. 

History.— The first foundation of the town dates from the middle of 
the 18th. century. In 1777 captain Becbeze obtained permission to transfer 
the first village from the spot called El Zanjon^* on the right side of the river 
Samborombon, to the spot where it is now situated. In 1865 Chascomus was 
the terminus point of the Southern Railway. The revolutionary troops of 
Castelli saw themselves forced to fight the forces of Prudence Rozas at the 
side of the lagoon on Xovember 7th. 1839; this was a terrible fight in which 
Rozas was victorious; Castelli was made prisoner and immediately decapi- 
tated, and his head planted on the top of a pike, was exhibited on one of the 
public squares of Dolores. The troops of Pierre Rozas were disbanded at 
the same spot on January 25th. 1853 by those of General Paz. 

In his vocabulary of the Pampa language lieutenant - colonel Barbara 
says: Chascomus comes from the word Chadicemu which means «salted 
water). 

In September 1912 an equestrian statue was unveiled in honour of 



0th. Uoiiie BUENOS AIRES 301 

General San Martin on I he principal s(|uaie of Chascomus; it is a reprofUictioii 
of the one existing on the Piaza San Martin in Buenos Aires. 

We then find the stations of Adela, Monasterio, Lezama, 
Guerrero, CasteUi, 8evigne and Dolores. 

Dolores (204 km.) is a small town of 18,000 inhabitants, 
which will become an important centre when the port of 
San Borombon has been built, at a distance of 6 or 7 miles. 
It is the law court centre of the districts of the south of the 
province. The neighbourhood is extremely fertile, and the 
mild climate is very suitable for the culture of fruit trees es- 
pecially peaches. There is an important prison at Dolores. 

Mail coach services. — From Dolores to Lavalle and from Dolores to Hi- 
nojales; fare by arrangement. 

Tramways. — A line leads from the centre of the town to the station and 
another to the cemetery; tariff S 0.15. 

Hotels. — Francia, Libcrlad and Roma; tariff S 6. 

Banks. — ^Branches of the Banco de la Nacion, de la Provincia and Espa- 
nol del Rio de la Plata. 

Doctors. — Drs. Llanos, Etchevarne, Lecot, Sosa, Arago. 

Newspapers. — La Patria, El Nacional, La Tarde. 

Miscellaneous. — A band, hospital (San Roque); the clubs El Progreso 
and l^nione; mutual aid associations La Italia, La Union Italiana; Centra 
Comercial e Industrial; masonic lodge 18 Septiembre; post, telegraph and 
telephone. 

Agricultural and breeding estahlishmcnts.- — Properties of: Pacheco and 
Anchorena, 20,000 hectares; 4,400 cows, 7,000 sheep, 400 horses; 700 hec- 
tares of flax and maize. Manuel de Urrubelarrea, 15,000 hectares, 3,000 
cows and 10,000 sheep, 100 horses and 300 hectares of maize and wheat. 
Manuel de la Serna, 7,500 hectares, 1,000 cows, 6,000 sheep, 150 horses 
and 50 hectares of corn; Francisco Ochoa 5,000 hectares, 1,400 cows, 3,000 
sheep, 200 horses, 100 hectares of corn. Fernando Iturriaspe, 10,000 hec- 
tares, 2,000 cows, 6,400 sheep, 150 horses. Angelinetta, Teriggi & Co., 
2,500 hectares, 1,000 cows, 2,000 sheep, 300 horses and 140 hectares of 
oats and potatoes. Antonio Gamez, 12,500 hectares, 2,000 cows, 4,000 sheep, 
350 horses and 200 hectares of oats and potatoes. 

History. — Dolores was founded in 1818 by Pueyrrcd6n, but it was depo- 
pulated several times up to 1825, at which time Antonio Gonzalez, Ram6n 
Lara and Juan Sosa settled down here witli their families and thus became 
the first inhabitants. The territory for the building of the town was given 
by Julio Carmona. On October 19th. 1830, when tlic insurrectional move- 
ment began, against the tyrant Kozas, tiie southern revolutionists of the 
region of Dolores elected as their chief and proclaimed as military comman- 
der of Dolores, Don Pedro de Castelli. After having been defeated at the 
Laguna de Chascomus, on November 7th. of same year, Castelli saw that 
ruin was unavoidable if he stayed at Dolores, and left for Monies Grandes 
and the coast in order to embark with a small troop of volunteers. In the 
evening Castelli and his companions camped at the spot called El Potreri- 
lln with the intention of slopping there imtil daylight, not knowing that the 
people of Rozas where on his heels. Whilst his mates where camping 
Castelli lay down under a tree withou