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Full text of "The Baloch race. A historical and ethnological sketch"

UC-NRLF 




*B 52 141 

Viatic £oriet» monograph 

VOL. IV. 



T9 



THE BALOCH RACE. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL 
SKETCH. 



BY 



M. LONGWORTH DAMES. 



LONDON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

22, ALBEMARLE STREET, W, 
1904. 



^t 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



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VOL. IV. 



THE BALOCH RACE 



H frtstortcal anfc lEtbnoloatcal Sfeetcb, 



BY 



M. LONGWORTH DAMES. 



LONDON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

22, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 
1904. 






THE BALOCH EACE 

A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 



The name Baloch is used in two distinct ways by travellers 
and historians. In the first place, it is employed as in- 
cluding all the races inhabiting the geographical area shown 
on our maps under the name of Balochistan ; and in the 
second place, as denoting one especial race, known to them- 
selves and their neighbours as the Baloch. It is in the 
latter signification that I employ the word. I take it as 
applying to the Baloch race proper, not as comprising 
Brahois, Numrls and other tribes of Indian origin, nor any 
other races which may be found within the limits of the 
Khan of Kilat's territory, or the Province of British 
Balochistan. On the other hand, it does comprise the 
true Baloch tribes outside those limits, whether found in 
Persia on the west, or in Sindh and the Panjab on the 
east. In the native use of the word, apart from modern 
political boundaries, Balochistan includes Persian Baloch- 
istan, the Khanat of Kilat, and the British Districts of 
Dera Ghazi Khan (with.the adjoining mountains), Jacob- 
abad, and part of Shikarpur as far as the Indus. Applying 
the test of language, the true Baloches may be considered 
as those whose native language is (or was till recently) 
Balochi, and not Brahoi, Persian, Sindhi, Jatki, or Pashto. 
The spelling and pronunciation of the name have varied 
considerably, but the Baloches themselves only use one 
pronunciation — Baloch, with the short a in the first syllable 

1 



398858 



$ - ^ ? V c tt.A / \the baloc a race 

and the o in the second. The tendency of Modern Persian 
to substitute u for an older o everywhere has had its effect 
in Western Balochistan, where the pronunciation Baluch 
is, I believe, heard. The sound o is historically older, and 
is recognised in old Persian dictionaries. 1 Other tribal 
names, such as Koch, Hot, Dodai, are also frequently 
given wrongly as Kuch, Hut, Dudai. 

The pronunciation of the vowel in the first syllable as a 
short i is unknown among the people themselves, but 
common in India. The form Biluch or Biluch (Belooch) 
may be conveniently retained for such fragments of the 
race as are detached from the main stock and found 
isolated in India, such as the criminal tribe of the North- 
West Provinces and the Eastern Panjab, the camel-men 
of Lahore, or the Pashto-speaking Biluch of Paniala in 
Dera Isma'll Khan. 

The adjectival form Balochi is properly applicable to the 
language only, and not the people, who know themselves 
only as Baloch, which occasionally takes a plural form, 
Balochan, but generally is used either for the individual, 
or collectively for the race. The form ' the Baluchis ' or 
* the Beloochees ' frequently found is a mistake. 

The Baloch race, in the present day, is divided into two 
main groups, which may be called : 

1. The Sulaimani Baloches ; 

2. The Mekrani Baloches. 

These groups are separated from each other by a compact 
block of Brahoi tribes, which occupy the country around 
Kilat. These Brahois are generally classed under two 
heads — as Jahlawans, or Lowlanders, and Sarawans, or 
Highlanders. 2 Although some Baloch tribes are occasion- 

1 See Vuller's ' Lexicon Persico-Latinum,' s.v. He quotes the 
Farhang-i-Shu'uri for the sound o. 

2 From the Balochi words jahld, below, and sard, above, and wan, 
a man, which corresponds with the Persian ban or ivan, as found in 
Farsiivan, bdghban, nigahban, jpdsbdn, darwdn, fllwdn, etc. Tl\e 
derivation of Fdrsiwdn from Fdrsi-zaban is incorrect. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 3 

ally included, it may be said that, on the whole, the Jahla- 
wans and Sarawans are Brahois, and make use of the 
Brahoi or Kirdgall language, while both groups of Baloches, 
the SulaimanI to the north-east, and the MekranI to the 
south-west and west, speak the Balochi language in distinct 
but mutually intellgible dialects. 1 

The Baloches found throughout Sind and the Panjab 
are an extension, by conquest and colonization, of the 
SulaimanI Baloches, and are more or less assimilated by 
their Indian neighbours, while those of Sistan must be 
classed rather with the MekranI tribes. 

The tribal organization in Mekran and Sistan, with 
which I have no personal acquaintance, seems from all 
accounts to be much the same as that still prevailing 
among the tribes of the Sulaiman Mountains. Many of 
the same tribal names, such as Bind, Hot, Lashari, 
Maghassl, Buledhi, are found in both tracts, but the notes 
which here follow apply primarily to the north-eastern 
or SulaimanI tribes only. 

The complete tribal organization is still retained by 
those tribes which inhabit the Sulaiman Mountains south 
of the thirty-first parallel of latitude to the plain of KachI, 
and westwards to the Bolan Pass, the plain of KachI itself 
(called on our maps Gandava or Kach-Gandava), and the 
territory stretching from the mountains and from KachI 
towards the Indus, in some cases as far as the Indus itself, 
in others stopping short of it. The tribe is known by the 
name of titman, and is presided over by a chief known as 
Tumandar. The post is hereditary, and is always held by 
a member of one family belonging to one clan of the tribe. 2 

1 In the introduction to my ' Sketch of the Northern Balochi Lan- 
guage ' (extra number J. A. S. B„ 1880) I described the two dialects 
as mutually 'almost unintelligible.' I am now of opinion that this 
was too strongly expressed, as I have myself, speaking the northern 
dialect, been able to understand, and make myself understood by, 
persons speaking the MekranI dialect. 

2 The clan to which the chief belongs is known as the phagli-logli, or 
house of the turban, the tying on of the turban being the outward sign 

1—2 



4 THE BALOCH RACE 

Each tuman is made up of several distinct clans, known as 
phara (a Sindhi word meaning section or share), and these 
are again subdivided into septs known as phalli. 1 

The name tuman is from the Turkish tuman, ten thousand, 
which appears to have been first used as an apellation of 
the nomad tribes of Persia in the time of the Seljuk Sultans. 
Among the Baloches it is not so old, and never occurs in 
the heroic ballads which relate to the events of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. The oldest name for a tribe found 
in the poems is bolak, 2 also, like tuman, 3 a word of Turkish 
origin (T. buluk, a band or crowd). This word seems 
rather to refer to the original clans, and not to the modern 
composite tribe or tuman, which is built up of several clans, 
connected one with another mainly by acknowledging a 
common chief. Within the clan the members are supposed 
to be of the same kindred, and as a rule the nucleus of the 
tuman consists of a few clans which consider themselves to 
be closely connected by blood. These have served as a 
centre of attraction for other less powerful or unattached 



of assuming the chieftainship. The phagh-logh answers to the Khan- 
khel in Pathan tribes. Such sections are the BalachanI among the 
Mazaris and the Kaheja among the Bughtis. 

1 Among the Marrls the clans are known as takar (from Sindhi 
takaru, mountain ?), the septs as phalli, and the smaller subdivisions 
as phara (' Balochistan Census Report,' p. 122). 

2 This word frequently enters into Turk! place-names in Adhar- 
baijan, etc., such as Kum-buluK, Kizil-buluk, etc. It is found among 
the Afghans (Utman-bolak, near Peshawar), and a clan of Eind 
Baloches near Sibi is still called the Ghulam Bolak. It must not be 
confounded with the Turk! bulilq, a spring, which also occurs in place- 
names. 

3 These words tuman and bolak illustrate the Baloch tendency to 
shorten final syllables, and throw back the accent to the penultimate 
—e.g. : 

Tuman from Tuman. 
Bolak ,, Buluk. 
Pdttan ,, Patlidn. 
BdJckhal „ Baqqal. 
Jaghdal ,, Jat-gal. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 5 

clans, which have lost their original tribes either through 
internal quarrels or through the tribe having been defeated 
and broken up. The new tie is not always a very strong one, 
and such members of a tribe are the first to leave it if it 
is defeated, and look for a more powerful protector. Some- 
times mere discontent with the chief, or an internal feud, 
is sufficient to drive a clan from one tuman to another. 1 

The oldest poems say that there were forty-four bolaks, 
of which forty were Baloches, and four were servile tribes 
dependent on them. There is no complete list of these 
bolaks. The oldest poem mentions seventeen Baloch and 
three servile clans, and a few others mentioned in other 
old ballads bring the number up to twenty-six, in addition 
to which three tribes with whom the Baloches were at war — 
the Langahs, Nahars, and Kungs — are mentioned. 2 Some 
of these tribes are not now known, and most of them are 
found as clans only, and not as organized tumans. The 
only names among them now found as tumans are Bind, 
Lashari, Drishak, Mazari, Dombki, and Khosa, to which 
list should be added the Hot tribe still found in Mekran, 
although broken up in the north. Many considerable 
tumans, such as the Lund, Leghari, Bozdar, Bughti, 
Kasrani, Buledhi (or Burdi), and Jakrani, do not appear 
at all in the older poetry. 

The septs, or phallis, are the units out of which the 
larger organizations are built up, and may be compared 
to the gotras of a Hindu caste. In a few cases one of 
the larger clans composing a tuman appears to be rather 
a subordinate tribe than a clan, and has its own important- 
sections, not all necessarily of the same blood. Sometimes 
there are more than one in this position. These may con- 
veniently be known by the name of ' subtumans.' Such are 
the Haddiani section of the Legharis tribe, the Durkanis 

1 As regards the political or military organization of the tribe 
compare Mr. Hughes-Buller's remarks on pp. iv and 8, and also in 
chap. viii. of the ' Balochistan Census Eeport, 1892.' 

2 For details of these clans, see Appendix I. 



b THE BALOCH RACE 

and Lasharis among the Gurchanis, the Ghulamanis among 
the Bozdars, the Shambanis among the Bughtis, and the 
Mazaranis among the Marris. These subtumans are very 
independent, and not so obedient to their Tumandars as 
the ordinary clans. In many tumans one section, either 
clan or phalli, is found which has a hereditary feud with 
the chief, and is in habitual opposition to him. The 
Jindanis among the Khosas, the Haibatanis among the 
Legharis, and the Mistakanls among the Mazaris are 
examples of this. In spite of this, however, the general 
feeling in a Baloch tribe is in favour of supporting the 
chief's authority, and if he is a moderately good man 
according to the Baloch standard, just, generous, and of 
an even temper, he can generally enforce it without much 
difficulty. What a really able and straightforward man 
can do is shown by the history of Nawab Sir Imam Bakhsh 
Khan, K.C.I.E., the Tumandar of the Mazaris, a tribe 
formerly considered irreclaimable robbers and pirates on 
the Indus who have now settled into a law-abiding and 
loyal tribe, and over whom he still successfully presides, 
though blind and eighty years of age. 1 

The Baloches are nomads by instinct, and still prefer 
the wandering and pastoral life wherever it is possible, but 
the population tends more and more to become fixed as 
cultivation extends. But town life does not suit them, and 
although the Tumandar has in every case a fixed residence, 
it never becomes the nucleus of a Baloch town. Where 
the chief has selected an already existing town with a non- 
Baloch population of Hindu traders and Indian Moham- 
medan artizans, this population continues much as it was 
before. Few Baloches live in the towns ; they prefer the 
open country. Their villages are collections of mud or 
stone huts, and in the mountains, where the population is 
still nomadic, a village or lialk consists of a number of little 
enclosures 3 or 4 feet high, built of loose stones. On 

1 I regret to have to state that Sir Imam Bakhsh Khan has died 
since the above remarks were written. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 7 

these a temporary roof is spread, generally composed of 
matting (thaghard) made of the leaves of the phish 
{Chamcerops Ritchieana) ; and when the community moves 
to another grazing ground, the roof is carried off, and the 
walls left standing for another occupation. Often recesses 
or ledges in cliffs are utilized, and no walls are necessary. 
Their wealth consists in camels, cattle, sheep, and goats, 
and their life is absolutely primitive and uncivilized. Yet 
the arts of carpet-making and embroidery flourish among 
them, and lead one to compare them to the Turkoman 
tribes, with whom they must at some time in their history 
have been in contact. Eobbers they were and to some 
extent still are ; to be a successful leader in raids and cattle- 
theft was a title to esteem, and Rahzan or highwayman was 
a title of honour. 

Such are the Baloches, and they have been described so 
often and with so much detail by so many travellers and 
frontier officers from Pottinger, Ferrier, and Masson to 
Sir T. Holdich and Major Moles worth Sykes, that it is 
unnecessary for me to go into further details. What I 
wish to consider now is the question of the origin and 
history of this remarkable race, what their position is 
among the races of mankind, and how they came to 
occupy the countries where they now dwell. These are 
by no means simple questions, as will appear from the 
variety of opinions which have been held upon them by 
persons well qualified to judge. Briefly, the origins 
favoured by one or the other are as follows : 

1. The Turkoman origin, as advocated by Pottinger and 
Khanikoff ; 

2. The Arab origin (probably the theory most frequently 
held by travellers), strongly advocated of late by Sir T. 
Holdich ; 

3. The Bajput origin, as put forward by the late 
Dr. Bellew ; and 

4. The Iranian origin, favoured by Sir K. Burton, 
Lassen, Spiegel, and others. 



o THE B A LOCH RACE 

Opinions as to the appearance of the Baloches have 
varied as much as those regarding their origin. Pottinger 
compared them to the Turkomans, 1 while Khanikoff detected 
a strong resemblance to the Kirghiz, probably to one of the 
least Mongolian in appearance of the tribes included under 
this name. Pottinger denied all resemblance to the Arabs, 
while, on the other hand, many travellers speak of their 
Arab features. Sir T. Holdich, who advocated their Arab 
origin in a paper on the ' Arabs of the North- West Frontier,' 
read before the Anthropological Society in 1899, considers 
the resemblance both in character and appearance very 
strong. Sir E. Burton, who knew the Baloches well and 
had an almost unrivalled acquaintance with the Arabs, did 
not favour this view. He says : 2 ' His appearance bears 
little resemblance to that of Ismail's descendants. The 
eye is the full, black, expressive Persian, not the small, 
restless, fiery Arab organ ; the other features are peculiarly 
high, regular, and Iranian ; and the beard, unerring in- 
dicator of high physical development, is long and lustrous, 
thick and flowing.' 

The general vague idea that the Baloches have Arab 
features seems to be based mainly on the fact that they 
have long aquiline noses, which are supposed to look 
Jewish ; and they are, therefore, assumed to be Semitic 
and Arabs. But this is not the Arab type. The latter is 
well described by Von Luschan, 3 who remarks that the 
Beduins must be considered as pure descendants of the 
Old Semitic race : ' They have long, narrow heads, dark 
complexion, and a short, small, and straight nose, which 
is in every respect the direct opposite of what we are 
accustomed to call a typical Jewish nose.' To this it may 
be added that the Arab nose is very commonly depressed 
at the root, a characteristic hardly ever found among the 
Baloches. The great abundance of hair and beard among 

1 Pottinger's ' Travels in Beloochistan,' 1816, pp. 268, 269. 

2 Burton's ' Sind Eevisited,' 1877, vol. ii., p. 159. 

3 Quoted in « Man Past and Present,' by A. A. Keane, 1900, p. 502. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 9 

the Baloches is not an Arab feature. The hairiness is 
often extreme, and I have on several occasions seen 
Baloches whose backs were covered with hair. 

Resemblances in general character and in customs, both 
to the Arabs and the Turkomans, have been pointed out. 
On the whole, the resemblance to the Turkomans seems 
the strongest, but that to the true Persian nomads is 
strongest of all. In any case, it must be remembered that 
a nomadic life in a parched-up country is likely to develop 
similar customs, even in distinct races. The fondness for 
horses characterizes the races of Central Asia and the 
Persian Plateau as strongly as the Arabs. The Baloches, 
when we first hear of them, were mounted archers, like the 
Parthians ; they wore long red boots ; they had striped 
rugs and carpets — all characteristics referring rather to 
Northern Persia than Arabia. When they came to close 
quarters they alighted arid fought on foot, like the warriors 
of the Shahnama, a custom they still maintain. In one 
point of character they differ strikingly from the Arabs. 
They are an open-hearted race, easily pleased, and fond of 
jokes and laughter, while in religious matters they are 
free from fanaticism, sensible and tolerant, and willing 
to discuss opinions with an open mind. Their numerous 
ballads, legends, and traditions are singularly free from 
the supernatural element. It would be hard to find a 
greater contrast than that which they offer to the intense, 
concentrated, fanatical Arabs. 1 

1 Since these remarks were written my attention has been drawn to 
Colonel E. Mockler's paper on the ' Origin of the Baloches ' in J. A. 8. B., 
1895. His contention is that the mass of the Baloch are the ancient 
inhabitants of Mekran, and are identical with the Gedrosii of the 
Greeks, and that the Kinds are not in origin Baloch at all, but Arabs 
of the 'Alafi tribe. He considers it probable that they are descended 
from the sons of Al Harith al Alafi, who fought against Al Hajjaj, and 
were finally driven into Sindh about a.h. 86. Their descendants were 
well known in Sindh for two hundred years later. Colonel Mockler also 
is of opinion that the supposed origin from Aleppo (Halab) is connected 
with the name 'AlafI. While it is quite possible that some families 



10 THE BALOCH RACE 

Dr. Bellew's attempt to identify the Baloches with the 
Rajputs was based on philological grounds only, 1 and, as 
far as I am aware, no comparison has been made as to 
their appearance. Indeed, it would not be easy to make 
out any strong resemblance. The difference between the 
Baloch and the Mohammedan Rajput or Jatt of the Indus 
valley is very clearly marked, both physically and mentally, 
and I need not enlarge upon it. 

There remains the theory that the Baloches are Iranians, 
and this I believe to be the true one. Burton's views have 
already been alluded to, and Lassen, Spiegel, and Trumpp 
have come to the same conclusion. I shall here endeavour 
to show that it is borne out by anthropological and histori- 
cal inquiries, and by evidence derived from the legends and 
language of the people themselves. 

The Eastern Iranians are considered by modern anthro- 
pologists to be what is generally, for want of a better name, 
called the Aryan race, and to be strongly affected by that 
branch of the Caucasian race which has been named Homo 
Alpinus, which extends through Central Europe and Asia 
Minor to the highlands of the Hindu Kush. 2 One of the 
most distinguishing features of this race is its consistent 
brachycephaly, and its purest examples are found among 
the Tajiks of Turkestan and the Ghalchas of the Hindu 
Kush. The Baloches seem to be an offshoot of this race. 
They certainly, as I shall show further on, came into their 
present locations in Mekran and on the Indian border from 
parts of the Iranian plateau further to the west and north, 
where they would naturally have been associated with 

among the Rinds or other tribes are descended from these or other 
Arab settlers, I do not think that there is sufficient evidence to justify 
the adoption of this theory, or to separate the Rinds in origin from the 
mass of the Baloch race. As regards the connection between Baloch 
and Gedrosia, see p. 22. 

1 See below, p. 14. 

2 Ujfalvy, 'Les Aryens au Nord et au Sud de l'Hindou Kouch.' 
The subject is exhaustively discussed in this work. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 11 

other Iranian nomads, such as the Bakhtiarls of the 
present day. They have brought with them a language 
of the Old Persian stock, with many features derived from 
the Old Bactrian rather than the Western Persian, and 
have intruded into a region which was always in ancient 
times regarded as part of India, and not of Persia, and 
which, both before and after the Mohammedan conquest, 
was peopled by Indian tribes — Bajputs, Jatts, and Meds. 
But the Baloches still retain their brachycephaly, although 
Afghans to the north, Indians to the east, and Arabs to 
the south and on the Persian Gulf are all dolichocephalic. 

The Arabs have a mean cephalic index of from 74 to 76, 
and the Afghans about the same. The natives of India 
have a still lower index. Twenty-three castes of the North- 
West Provinces, as given by Mr. Eisley, average 72*8, and 
seven of the Punjab 73 'l. 1 Mr. Bisley gives the index for 
the Baloches as 80, but this is misleading, as his figures 
include several Baloches from Lahore and the neighbour- 
hood, where they have long been assimilated by their 
Indian surroundings, and have lost all their national 
characteristics. Taking only the Baloches of the Trans- 
Indus districts as fairly representative of the race, I find 
the mean index to be 81*5. This is most remarkable, as 
no cephalic index approaching 80 is to be found throughout 
Northern India for two thousand miles, till we reach the 
Thibetans of the Darjlling Hills or the aboriginal tribes 
beyond Chittagong. 

The Tajiks of different parts of the Iranian plateau 
have an index varying from 81 to 84, the Darwazis 81*4, 
and the Ghalchas 85. The figures given by M. de Ujfalvy 
for Bakhtiarls, Kurds, and Gilanis are 88, 86, and 84, 
although these are based on too small a number of cases 
to be altogether trustworthy. The index of the Bombay 
Parsis, who have kept distinct amid their Indian neigh- 
bours, is 82-3. The curve for 60 Tajiks given by M. de 

1 Kisley, ■ The Tribes and Castes of Bengal,' vols. i. and ii. : Anthro- 
pometric Data. 



12 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Ujfalvy is given here for convenience of comparison with 
that of 45 Baloches from the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan 
and Dera Ismail Khan. The correspondence is certainly 
striking, the highest index in each case being the remark- 
able figure 95 or 96. x 

The nasal index for the same 45 Baloches is 68*8. 
It is clear, therefore, that as far as the shape of the head 




Bo go 

Graphic Curve of Cephalic Indices of 60 Tajiks. 




7*f So 9® 

Graphic Curve of Cephalic Indices of 45 Baloches. 

is concerned the Baloches must be classed with the brachy- 
cephalic Iranians, and not with the dolichocephalic Arabs 
or Indians. This applies to the Baloches west of the 
Indus, while those who have settled east of that river show 
a tendency to approximate to the Indian type. 2 

1 Nur Hassan of Dera Ghazi Khan. Cephalic length, 155 ; breadth, 
148 ; index, 95'4. 

2 Since the above remarks were written I find that Professor Keane, 
in ' Man Past and Present' (Plate XI., p. 554), gives a Baloch as an 
illustration of the Lowland Tajik type. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 13 

In their organization and customs they certainly show 
signs of Turkoman influence, probably without much 
mixture cf blood. The adoption of Turk! names for tribes 
(tu man, bolak, el, and ulus), for beasts of burden (lagh 
and olak, T. uldgh), and certain proper names (Chakar, 
Sanjar, Ghazan, Zangi), points towards such a contact, 
probably in the time of the Seljuk monarchy. 

In his remarks on Sir T. Holdich's paper, ' The Arabs 
of our Indian Frontier,' 1 Mr. Kennedy gave it as his 
opinion that the Baloches might be descended from the 
Sakas, who settled in Drangiana, and gave it its later name 
of Sakastene (Sijistan, Slstan). That the Baloches may 
be descended from the Sakas, or from some other race of 
Central Asian invaders, is no doubt possible, but I do not 
think that we have at present sufficient evidence on which 
to base any definite conclusions. M. de Ujfalvy finds the 
descendants of the Sakas in the Baltis of Baltistan, and 
supposes them to be a remnant of that race left behind 
during the invasion of India by the Karakoram passes. 
The Baltis are, like the Baloches, a race of horsemen, 
with abundant curly hair ; but, on the other hand, they 
are extremely dolichocephalic, having a mean index as low 
as 72. In spite of this, however, it might be quite 
possible for the Baloches to be derived from the branch 
of the race settled in Slstan if we could prove that that 
province was the cradle of the Baloch race. But although 
I formerly believed that this was the case, I have been 
obliged by historical evidence to come to the conclusion 
that their connection with Sistan is of comparatively 
modern date, and that their origin must be looked for 
further north, in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea — 
in ancient Parthia, in fact. Some connection with the 
Parthians seems possible, even probable ; but more than 
this cannot be asserted. In any case, even if the Baloches 
have originally sprung from some Scythian or non-Iranian 
race, they have long since been absolutely assimilated by 
the Iranians. 

1 Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1899, vol. xxix., p. 18. 



14 THE BALOCH RACE 

Sporadic cases of the settlement of Arab families among 
the Baloches probably occurred during their residence in 
Karman and Mekran, as such cases occurred throughout 
Persia, Turkistan, Afghanistan, and Northern India ; but 
in such cases the ultimate effect on the general population 
is but small. Isolated instances of the survival of Arab 
features may perhaps be pointed out, and it seems to be 
the general opinion of travellers in Mekran that the 
families of the chiefs show such features rather than the 
greater number of their tribesmen. But among the tribes 
along the Indian Frontier — 'the Arabs of the Indian Border,' 
as Sir T. Holdich calls them — with whom I can claim a 
long and intimate acquaintance, I am convinced that there 
is no such distinction. The typical and characteristic 
Baloch face is found equally among chiefs and tribesmen, 
and true Arab features are very rare. 

The Rajput origin advocated by the late Dr. Bellew 1 
deserves some consideration, but his attempt to prove that 
all Baloches, jointly with a very large section of Pathans, 
were of Indian descent was doomed to failure. If he had 
confined himself to stating that there are some Rajput and 
Jatt elements in the present Baloch nation, and that the 
Pathan tribes of the Sulaman range are, to a considerable 
extent, of Indian origin, he would have obtained general 
assent ; but he attempted to show, on philological grounds 
mainly, that every tribe or clan whose name he could 
ascertain was descended from some Indian caste or got, 
and he displayed a good deal of ingenuity in comparing 
these names with those of their supposed Indian pro- 
genitors. 

He commences with the name Baloch, which he con- 
siders identical with the Balaecha (Balaicha) clan of the 
Chauhan Rajputs, and at the same time he finds a clan 
of the Afghan Durrani named Bahrech, which he identifies 
with another Chauhan clan, the Bharaecha (properly, 

1 'Ethnography of Afghanistan,' by H. W. Bellew, C.S.I., 1891, 
pp. 171, 172, and 175-187, 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 15 

Bhuraicha). Leaving the Afghan identification, with 
which I cannot deal here, that of the words * Baloch ' and 
1 Balaicha ' rests on no evidence except the similarity of 
the sounds. Even on philological grounds it is improb- 
able, for although original o and u are frequently 
converted in Balochi into e and 7,' the reverse process 
never takes place. This objection applies also to the 
derivation from Mlechha (see p. 21). The Chauhans were 
at no time one of the Rajput tribes occupying the Indus 
Valley, either in Sindh or the Pan jab. The great mass 
of Chauhans is still found on the site of their ancient 
kingdom, in Karnal and Ambala, in the United Provinces 
and Eastern Rajputana. The Varaich, who probably 
represent the Balaicha clan, are at present a strong 
Musalman Jatt community in the Gujrat and Sialkot dis- 
tricts of the Pan jab. There is no evidence whatever that 
they migrated westward at any time, and forsook their 
fertile plains for the arid ridges and plateaus of Mekran. 
But, although Baloch is now the name for the whole race, 
and has been so since it has been known to history, 
Dr. Bellew thought that the Baloch were originally only 
a branch, and that the whole race was known as Bind, 
a name which he derives from the Bann of Kach. His 
words are : ' The name " Bind " is a territorial designation 
applied to the Baloch or Balaecha and other Chohan 
Rajput tribes, whose original seats were in the Chohan 
country on the banks of the Loni,' the actual meaning of 
the words ' Rind ' and ' Baloch ' being thus reversed. Rind 
is, in fact, the title of one branch of the Baloch, as I shall 
show below, and is a nickname, like many other tribal 
names, meaning ' scoundrel ' or ' cheat ' (like the Indian 
Thag). Nor is there any evidence to show that the 
Chauhans were ever settled on the river Loni, nor in the 
neighbourhood of the Rann of Kach. 

Dr. Bellew then proceeds to consider what he calls the 
three main divisions of the Baloch — viz., the Brahol, the 
Numri, and the Rind. I shall not follow him as regards 



1G THE B A LOCH RACE 

the first two, neither of which has any right to the name 
Baloch. They differ from the true Baloch in every respect, 
and I am only dealing with the latter, which Dr. Bellew 
here calls Bind. The true historical name is Baloch, and 
I shall be able to show how the Binds obtained their 
prominence among the Northern Baloches, which has led 
to the confusion of names. "When he comes to the Baloch 
properly speaking, he gives a list of forty-two names of 
tribes, which he proceeds to deduce from various Indian 
originals. I say Indian, as he does not confine himself to 
Chauhans, or even to Bajputs, but includes Brahmans, 
Jatts, and low-caste tribes. Out of the forty-two names, 
eleven are unknown to me — viz., Bari, Utan, Kaodai 
(perhaps a Sindhi method of writing Korai), Katwar, Korwa, 
Landi, LattI, Malai, Men, Sajodi, and Baksh. The last- 
named perhaps stands for Baksham, a Brahoi tribe and 
small Baloch clan. None of these can be found either as 
tribal or clan names. 

Of the remainder, six — viz., Gichkl, Khetran, Lorl, 
MamasanI, Med, and Marwari — cannot strictly be called 
Baloch. 

The Gichkl are an assimilated tribe of Mekran, now 
speaking the Balochi language, and commonly classed as 
Baloch ; but they are known to be of comparatively recent 
Indian origin— some accounts say Sikh, and some Bajput. 
Their settlement in Mekran was not earlier than the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. It is very likely that the 
tribe comprises some true Baloch elements. Dr. Bellew 
makes Gichkl equivalent to Kajki, and derives it from the 
Kachwaha Bajputs, which is clearly impossible on philo- 
logical grounds. The termination kl, commonly used in 
Sindhi to form adjectives (such as Balochki, Jatki, BrahuJki, 
etc.), shows that the name must be of Sindhi origin. 

The Khetrans are also a tribe of undoubtedly Indian 
origin, occupying a tract in the Sulaiman Mountains, 
between the Baloch and Pathan tribes, and still speaking 
their original Indian language — a dialect peculiar to them- 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH \7 

selves and akin to Sindhi and Jatkl, with which I have 
some acquaintance. It is hardly necessary to observe that 
their name cannot be derived, as Dr. Bellew supposes, 
from Khater, ' mercantile Eajpiit,' but means ' cultivator,' 
and must be referred to Khetr (Skr. Kshetra), ' a field.' 

The Med, or Medh, are the aboriginal, non-Baloch 
fisher tribe of the Mekran and Sindh coast, known long 
before the appearance of the Baloches, who use the name 
as a term of contempt ; and those near the Indus apply it 
to the fishermen of that river, and couple it with the name 
Machhl. A bard, in hurling a taunt at his adversary of 
another tribe, tells him that Medhs and Machhls are not 
fit companions for Mir Hamza ! 

The Lori are the same as the Doms, the hereditary 
minstrels of Indian origin, known in Persia and Balochi- 
stan under this name Lori, or Luri — that is, probably, 
natives of Lur, or Luristan. The picturesque legend told 
in the ' Shahnama ' of their introduction from India into 
Persia by Bahram Gor is well known. They are attached 
as bards to Baloch tribes, but are not, and do not pretend 
to be, of Baloch blood themselves. Their customs and 
appearance are those of the Doms or Mirasis of India. 

The Marwaris are the well-known Indian banking caste 
originating in Marwar. I do not know how the name 
found its way into a list of Baloch tribes. 

The Mamasam of Sistan are, I believe, Brahois, and not 
Baloch. This is Dr. Bellew's own opinion (see ' From the 
Indus to the Tigris,' 1874, p. 257). 

The remaining twenty-five names on his list are Baloch, 
but a large number of well-known names is omitted. A 
few specimens of the method of derivation, on which the 
argument as to their Indian origin is founded, will be 
sufficient. 

In the list occur two names, Bolida and Burdi. These 
refer in reality to the same tribe, the Buledi or Buledhi, 
a name derived undoubtedly from the Boleda Valley in 
Mekran. Burdi is the Sindhi form, due to the fondness of 

2 



18 THE BALOCH RACE 

that language for changing I to r and throwing the 
accent back to the antepenultimate ; but the Burdls of 
Sindh are never spoken of in BalochI by any other name 
than Bulerf/ii. Dr. Bellew gives distinct origins for the two 
names. He says : ' Bolida (mentioned by Ptolemy) is the 
same as the Puladi or Faoladi of the Hazarah, and has 
given its name to a district in Mekran. The original name 
seems to have been Bol, Bola, or Pola (whence the Bol 
temple of Multan, Bolan Pass, and Piilaji 1 Shrine not far 
from it) for Bala Brahman, and the form Bolida 2 is the 
SindhI correlative of the Hindi Bolika, of the Bola, Pola, 
or Bala.' Dr. Bellew explains Burdi as representing the 
Bhurta Solanki Kajput. So that the Buledhi tribe in 
one form of its name is Bala Brahman, and in the other 
Bhurta Bajput. 

Another example is the name Nutkani, as to which 
Dr. Bellew observes : * Natka or Natkani is for Nat Indian 
tribe of gypsies, conjurers, rope-dancers, etc' This is a 
most baseless conjecture. The name is not Natka or Nat- 
kani, but Nutkani, as pronounced by outsiders, and Noe?/m- 
kani in Balochi. Anl is the genitive plural termination 
used to form patronymics. Nod/mk is a common proper 
name of Baloches, a diminutive of Nod/i, ' a cloud,' a 
word which enters into other proper names, as Nodfto, 
Nod/ibandagh. NocZ/iakani or Nutkani simply means ' the 
descendants of Norf/iak.' 

Mazarl means the son of Mazar, the ' tiger,' a true 
Baloch form. Dr. Bellew identifies the tribe with the 
Mysarl, 'Indian Desert Tribe.' I have not been able to 
obtain any information as to the Mysarl, but the name, 
if correctly given, looks like a corruption of Maheswari (like 
Mysore, from Mahes'war). Dr. Bellew also derives the 
Pathan tribe of the Sulaimans, known as Zmari, from a 
Hindu tribe Maisari, perhaps the same. He does not note 

1 The correct form of this name is Phuleji .3»«nsTl . 

2 It may be noted that da denotes the genitive in Panjabi, but is 
not a SindhI termination. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 19 

that Mzarai or Zmarai in Pashto means the same as Mazar 
in Balochi, ' a tiger.' 

It is not necessary to go further through this list. I can 
only find one case among all those given by Dr. Bellew in 
which a Baloch tribe is really connected with the Indian 
ancestry assigned to it — that is, the case of the Jakrani from 
the Jakhar Jatts, a tribe of comparatively late adoption 
into the Baloch confraternity. 1 

There are, however, cases of adoption of Indian tribes 
not noticed by him. The most important of these is the 
case of the Dodai and their descendants, the modern 
Gurchani tribe, who are, undoubtedly, to a great extent 
sprung from the Somra Bajpiits of Sind, as I shall show 
further on. 

It is, no doubt, also possible to urge that the tribes which 
bear territorial names derived from localities in Mekran 
may have been derived from the original Jatts of that 
region, and not from the Baloch invaders, but there is no 
evidence that this was the case. There are several names 
of this type, for instance : 

Buled/il, from Boleda. 

Lashari, from Lashar. 

Magassi, from Magas. 

Kulachi, from Kolanch. 

Gishkhauri, from the Gish Khaur, the name of ' a 

torrent.' 
Dashtl, from one of the numerous Dashts, or tablelands, 

found throughout the country. 
Kahiri from the name of a ' torrent,' so-called from 

the Kahir (Prosojris spicige?*a), which grows along 

its course. There are several so called. 

The Buledhi have been alluded to already. The Lashari 
are one of the main divisions of the Baloch race, and the 
Magassi a tribe generally classed as a branch of the 
Lashari. It may be noted that Magas is a place situated 

1 See Eastwick, « Dry Notes from Young Egypt,' 1851, p. 110. 

2—2 



20 THE BALOCtl RACE 

in a tract of country called Lashar in Persian Balochistan. 1 
MagassI is sometimes used as a term interchangeable with 
Lasharl ; Ferrier (' Caravan Journeys,' p. 431) divides the 
Baloches of Slstan into Nervuis (Naruis), Rinds, and Mekses 
(i.e., Magassis). 

KulachI is probably from the Kolanch Valley in Mekran. 
This tribe, once powerful, but now of small importance, has 
left its name on the map. The town of KulachI, in Dera 
Ismail Khan, though now belonging to the Gandapur 
Afghans, bears it, and the great seaport of Karachi has 
the same name, with the usual SindhI change of I to r. 

The name of the Kahlrls, who are in the present day 
a Levitical tribe with certain peculiar attributes, is probably 
derived from one of the Kahiri torrents. The legend given 
in the Tarlkh-i-M'asumI (1600 a.d.) 2 derives the name 
direct from the Kahlr-tree, asserting that one of the 
ancestors of the tribe rode on a tree of this sort, making 
it move like a horse when he struck it with a whip. 

Perhaps the KalmatI should be added to this list. Sir 
T. Holdich supposes them to derive their name from 
Kalmat, and this is, prima facie, probable. They are stated 
to be a peculiar tribe with certain religious superstitions 
attached to them, and it seems possible that their name 
may be derived from the KarmatI or Karmatian heretics, 
who were driven into Mekran by Mahmud of Ghaznl and 
Muhammed bin Sam. 3 Neither Kahiri nor KalmatI are 
probably Baloches by origin, though long associated with 
them and mentioned in old ballads. 

It is not necessary to go further into Dr. Bellew's lists of 
subdivisions or of what he calls Jat Baloches. Only two 
Baloch tribes, the Jatoi and Jakrani, are included in the 
latter list. The rest are the names of miscellaneous Indian 
tribes with no claim to be called Baloch. 

I may here allude to the derivation of the word ' Baloch ' 

1 I owe this information to the kindness of Major P. Moles worth 
Sykes. 

2 E. D. i. 238. 3 E> d #j ^ pp> 459^ 492. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 21 

from the Sanskrit * Mlechha,' which Mr. Crooke brought for- 
ward in the discussion on Sir T. Holdich's paper above 
alluded to. The derivation is not a new one. Von Bohlen 
suggested it long ago, and Lassen dismissed it 1 as resting 
on an unsupported guess. He added : ' It is sufficient to 
remark that Mlechha was never specially used in Indian 
writings of the non-Indian races to the west of the Indus, 
but applied to all barbarians without distinction. Also the 
difference between the two names is so great that no com- 
parison should be made without the strongest reasons.' 

To this it may be added that the word Baloch was in 
use long before the movement of the tribes to the Indian 
frontier, or even into Mekran. It is found in the Arab 
chroniclers of the early part of the tenth century and in 
the * Shahnama,' and its origin should be sought rather in 
Persia than in India. 

No explanation of the name Baloch as yet given appears 
to be satisfactory. Natives of India in the present day say 
that it comes from * bad-log,' or bad people, regarding which 
explanation no remarks are necessary ! The Baloches 
themselves say it is a corruption of * bar-luch,' bar meaning 
the wilderness, and luck naked, owing to their progenitor, 
the offspring of Mir Hamza and a peri, having been 
found abandoned in the wilderness. 

K. B. Hetu Earn, in his ' Balochi-nama,' says : ' In the 
language of Halab, dwellers on the skirt of the hills and 
in the mountains are called Baloch.' 2 

Ferrier (' Caravan Journeys ') says it is from be, without, 
and leuct, naked. 

Colonel E. Mockler 3 mentions another popular derivation 
of the name, according to which Baloch is compared to 
Bad-roch, or ■ evil day.' This is another of the punning 
and abusive nicknames given to the race by others who 
had suffered from their depredations. Colonel Mockler, 

1 *Z.f. d. K. d. M.; 1842, Band iv., p. 102. 

2 Douie's 'Trans, of Balochi-nama,' p. 115. 

3 J. A. S. B., 1895. 



22 THE BALOCH RACE 

however, thinks that Badroch, or Badrosh, in Balochi may 
be taken as ' equivalent to Gadrosh, or Gadros, of the 
more ancient Pehlevi, or Zend, and to Gadros-ii, or 
Gedrosii, of the Greeks. Badroch, from the interchange- 
ability of the liquids r and I, is equivalent to Badloch, 
out of which the d must naturally drop, leaving Baloch 
equivalent to " the Gedrosii." ' 

With regard to this derivation, it may be remarked that 
no such word as ' bad ' or gad ' is found in the ancient 
languages, and that while a modern g or gw often 
represents in Persian (and still more often in Balochi) an 
original v, the reverse process is unknown. An ancient 
G, such as is found in the name Gedrosia, dating from 
the fourth century B.C., can hardly be represented by a 
By as in Baloch. If I have been successful in showing 
that the Baloch name was not known in Mekran before the 
thirteenth century, it seems a useless task to attempt 
to associate them with the Gedrosii of sixteen hundred 
years before. 

Baloch is a Persian word, which, in addition to its use 
as a proper name, means, as explained in the Burhan-i- 
Qati' and other dictionaries, a cockscomb or crest. It 
seems possible that the proper name was originally a nick- 
name derived from the use of such a crest or badge ; many 
tribal names are uncomplimentary nicknames, like our 
Whig and Tory, and others applied to religious sects. A 
passage in the ' Shahnama ' affords some support to this 
theory. In the enumeration of the warriors of Kai 
Khusran's army, the poet comes to the Baloch led by 
Ashkash, and in one text he describes them as 

1 Intent on war, with exalted cockscomb crests.' 1 This 

1 This passage is an example of the extraordinary variety of read- 
ings in the text of the ' Shahnama.' 

In Mohl's text the passage reads (ii., p. 586), 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 23 

may be considered as evidence that in the traditions or 
poems made use of by Firdausi the Baloches were repre- 
sented as wearing such crests, and as the words ' Baloch ' 
and ' Khoch ' have the same meaning, it seems that Baloch 
must be a nickname. 

The reputation of being raiders and robbers which the 
Baloch have always borne among their neighbours has 
earned them many uncomplimentary epithets, which are 
found among the tribal names. 
The following are examples : 

Kind (Per.), knave, debauchee, wanderer. 
Lund (Per.), similar meaning. A legend explains it 
as meaning ' fool,' but I cannot find that the word 
ever bore this signification. 
Khosa (Sindhi), a robber ; also a fever. 
Man (Sindhi), a plague or epidemic. 
Leghar (Balochi), foul or dirty. 
The name of the Koch, the race always coupled with the 
Baloch in the earliest accounts, also means ' nomad ' in 
Persian (cf. Pashto Kochai, ' a wanderer '). 

Some of the clan names also are either nicknames or 
(possibly) have a totemic origin. I may mention the 
following : 

Syah-phad/t (Blackfeet), a clan of the Durkani Gur- 
chanis. 

which he translates : ' II etait accompagne des braves de Cutch et de 
Beloudjistan, qui sont avides de combats comme des betters.' 

Vullers, in his Persian Dictionary (s.v. ^oJl^L*), gives it as quoted 
above in the text, and this also is the reading of the oldest MS. of the 
poem in the British Museum (21,103, addl., f. 70). In his edition of 
the ' Shahnama,' however, Vullers does not give this reading, but the 
following (ii. 780), 

which is also given in the Bombay lithographed edition. 

Macan's Calcutta edition omits the whole passage as to the number- 
ing of the armies, which is of great interest throughout. 

The words ^f and &y> both mean ' ram,' but as gjS ends in a g 
and not e, it is improbable as a rhyme to t^f. The reading in the 
text seems preferable to both. 



24 THE BALOCH RACE 

Gul-phad/i (Flowerfeet), a clan of the Drlshaks. 
Gandagwalagh (the small red ant), a clan of the 

Durkanl. 
Syah-laf (Blackbellies), all the Mazaris, with the 

exception of the Balachani. 
Kalphur (an aromatic plant, Glinas lotoides), a clan of 
the Bughtis. 
The tribal names Hot (hero) and Mazari (sons of tigers) 
are examples of epithets of another kind. 
Bozdar means goatherds. 

The Balochi is, as is well known, an Iranian idiom, 
nearly related to modern Persian, but at the same time 
showing many points of resemblance to the Zend, or Old 
Bactrian, rather than to the Old Persian. 1 The vocabulary 
has borrowed a large number of words from the neigh- 
bouring settled races speaking Modern Persian on one side, 
or the Indian idioms Sindhi and Jatki on the other. 
Brahoi has furnished a few words, and has itself borrowed 
extensively from Balochi. The Arabic element is not 
very extensive, and mainly consists* of such religious and 
abstract terms as are common to all Muhammadan nations. 
Most of these have been introduced through the medium 
of Modern Persian. Had the Arab element been an im- 
portant or ruling one, we should expect to find the words 
relating to government, tribal organization, war, weapons, 
horses, and other matters in which the ruling caste of a 
nomad race mainly concerns itself, largely derived from 
the Arabic, much as in English the corresponding class of 
words is derived from Norman-French. But hardly a 
single word of this class comes from Arabic, though Sindhi 
has been drawn on to some extent. Most words of this 
class belong to the original Iranian element ; a few are 
Turkish. 

Certain indications as to origin may also be deduced from 

1 'Die Sprache der Bahitschen,' by W. Geiger, No. VI., in the 
• Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie,' gives a full summary of the 
literature of the subject. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 25 

the proper names in use among Baloches. All Muham- 
madans have to a great extent abandoned their original 
nomenclature, and adopted the system of religious names 
drawn from the Qur-an, the various divine names, the 
Prophet, the early Khalifas, and other persons famed in 
the history of the religion. Nevertheless, original names 
have survived in many languages, especially in Persian ; 
and Persian, as well as Arabic names, are in use through- 
out India, Afghanistan, and Balochistan. There is among 
the Baloches also a very large and important element 
which cannot be derived from either of these sources. 

I have made a list of 190 proper names, including all 
the names I have found in the older poetry and in the 
genealogies. Of these only fifty-three are Arabic names, 
twenty are Persian or compound Persian and Arabic (as 
Dost Muhammad, Imam Bakhsh, etc.), four are Turkish, 
and twenty- three seem to be of Indian origin, although 
mostly not identical with modern Hindu names. The 
remaining ninety are names peculiar to the Baloches, of 
which a good many are capable of explanation from 
Balochi or from the older Iranian languages, and I am of 
opinion that the Arabic element is less important than 
among most Muhammadan races. 

The names of places afford little information. The 
Baloches, as recent immigrants into Mekran and the 
Sulaimans, have accepted most names as they found them. 
The majority seem to be of Indian origin. A few Balochi 
names are found, such as Suhraf (' red water '), Syahaf 
(' black water '), Geh (' good '), Nafuskh (' step-daughter '), 
Chighard ('acacia'), Dehgwar, Gandakindaf; and names 
commencing with the letters gw, such as Gwadar, Gwattar, 
Gwajak, Gwarokh, are probably of Baloch origin, as gtv in 
that language stands for an original v or w, which in 
modern Persian becomes b. The total number of such 
names is small. 

The Balochi language is rich in terms for the natural 
features of a mountainous country — mountains, streams, 



26 THE BALOCH RACE 

valleys, spurs, cliffs, passes, etc. The only apparently 
Arabic word among these is Khaur, * a torrent bed ' (Ar. 
Klior), found also in Pashto, in the form Khwar. The 
common Arabic words wadl and jebel, which are to be 
found from the Persian Gulf to the Atlantic Ocean, never 
occur away from the coast which is navigated by Arab 
sailors. 

History and Legend. 

The first mention of the Baloches in history is found in 
the Arabic Chronicles of the tenth century, the fourth 
of the Hijri era ; but Firdausi, whose great poem, the 
* Shahnama/ was finished in a.h. 400, refers to an earlier 
period than any of these. The latter part of this poem, 
relating to the Sassanians, must be regarded as mainly 
historical — at least, as much so as the narratives of the 
prose chronicles, such as those of Mas'udi and Tabari and 
the Bauzatu's-safa, which embody quite as much legendary 
matter as the * Shahnama.' The earlier part of the 
' Shahnama ' is, of course, mainly mythical. The Baloches 
are introduced as forming part of the armies of Kai Kaus 
and Kai Khusrau ; and this means no more than that their 
name occurred among others in the ballads or legends 
which Firdausi drew upon. Kai Kaus is shown as em- 
ploying ' the warriors of Pars and of the Koch and Baloch, 
the troops of Gilan and of the plain of Saroch.' 1 The 
passage describing the assembly of the warriors by Kai 
Khusrau for his expedition against Afrasyab is also note- 
worthy : 2 

'After Gustaham came Ashkash. . . . His army was 
from the wanderers of the Koch and Baloch, intent on 
war and with exalted cockscomb crests, whose back none 
in the world ever saw. Nor was one of their fingers bare 

2 See supra, p. 22. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 27 

of armour. . . . His banner bore the figure of a tiger. . . .' 
This passage is interesting as showing the crest borne by 
the Baloches, alluded to above as possibly explaining the 
meaning of their name. 1 

The allusion under Naushirvan is more important 
historically. This King is not a mythical personage, he is 
the Chosroes of the classical writers who fought against 
Justinian, and was only kept within bounds by the genius 
of Belisarius; and Firdausi described his exploits as accu- 
rately as was possible to him. He represents Naushirvan 
as making war against the Alans, who lived near the 
Caspian Sea ; he then transports him suddenly to the 
river of Hindustan (no doubt the Indus), whence he 
returned after receiving the submission of the people. On 
his return he was met by the news that the country was 
being laid waste by the Baloches and Gilanis, and deter- 
mined to subdue them. Turning first against the Baloches, 
he learnt from a Dehkan that his predecessor, Ardashir 
(presumably Ardashir Babakan), had in vain tried to 
subdue them. Naushirvan, however, surrounded their 
mountains with his troops, and ordered them to destroy 
every Baloch, 2 great or small. This was carried out, so 
that there was not a Baloch left on the mountains, and 
their oppressions and tyranny disappeared. (This is the 
reading of the oldest MS. ; 3 but the text used by Mohl 
reads ^o^ r^, * the oppression of the Koch,' instead of 
ev > o°/ r**"* ' oppression and grief.') Later on, however, 
we find that the Baloches were by no means exterminated, 
but were serving in Naushirvan's army, and, together with 
the men of Gil, were drawn up armed with golden shields 

1 Major P. Molesworth Sykes has drawn my attention to the fact 
that the tiger-banner also furnishes a valuable indication as to the 
home of the Baloch, the tiger being found only on the shores of the 
Caspian. 

2 Some MSS. have ' every Koch,' and some add ' the Kurds ' as 
well. 

3 British Museum, 21,103, addl. Dated about a.h. 675. 



28 THE BALOCH RACE 

to receive the ambassador of the Khaqan of Chin. On 
another occasion we find that the King's friends and free- 
men marched towards Adhar-badagan (Adharbaijan) with 
a force made up of contingents from Gilan, Dailaman, the 
mountains of the Baloch, the plain of Saroch, and the 
swordsmen of Koch. Then, in some texts, but not in the 
best MS., follows a passage to the effect that up till that 
time, since the world was the world, there had never been 
a single Koch who did not pillage and burn the towns. 1 
The narrative, after relating the conquest of the Baloches 
by Naushirvan, continues to give an account of his war 
against the men of Gil and Dailam — that is to say, of 
Gilan and Adharbaijan. This association of the Baloch 
with the races near the Caspian Sea seems to make it 
probable that they were then located in a more northerly 
province than Karman, where they are next heard of. 
Firdausi must have drawn this description from the 
traditions. Had he been describing the Baloch simply as 
they were in his own time, he would certainly have shown 
them as occupying Karman and the Lut, and plundering 
the routes leading towards Sistan and Khurasan ; there 
would not have been any especial association with the 
Gllanis. 

The fact that the names of Baloch and Koch are 
frequently coupled by Firdausi is not necessarily a proof 
that this was anything more than a method of speaking 
prevalent in his day. In the oldest MS. of the poem 
the name * Koch ' occurs very seldom, and not at all in the 
passage describing the conquest of the Baloch by Nau- 
shirvan. It is probable that in many passages later 
copyists introduced the name, as the phrase ' Koch and 
Baloch ' had become customary in their time ; and this 
association of names was due simply to the fact that the 
two races had settled near each other in Karman, although 

1 It is worth noting that all the passages in which the name Koch 
appears are subject to great variation in the MSS., while the name 
Baloch appears throughout without variation. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 29 

(as the allusion in Yakut shows) they were by no means on 
friendly terms. 

The cause of the migration of the Baloches to Karman 
may have been their conquest by Naushlrvan, or more 
probably the invasion of the Ephthalites or White Huns, 
which took place at that period, and who are also alluded 
to in the ' Shahnama ' under the name of Hayital. The 
Arab conquest of Karman took place in a.h. 23, or only 
sixty-five years after the death of Naushlrvan. The con- 
quest was carried out by 'Abdu'llah, under the orders of the 
Khali! 'Umar ; and all the accounts agree that the Arabs 
found the mountains of Karman occupied by a race known 
as Koch (in Arabic Qufj or Qufs), and some add the 
Baloch. None of the authorities are contemporary or 
nearly so. The earliest writers who deal with the subject 
are : Al-Bilazuri, who died in a.h. 279 (a.d. 892) ; Tabari, 1 
who wrote about a.h. 320 (a.d. 932) ; Mas'iidl, whose work 
is dated a.h. 332 (a.d. 943) ; and Istakhri, circa a.h. 340 
(a.d. 951). The first two of these, in describing the con- 
quest, only mention the Koch or Qufs ; while Mas'udi and 
Istakhri, whose works are geographical and deal with their 
own times, speak both of Koch and Baloch. Weil 
(' Geschichte der Chalifen,' i. 95), following Tabari, only 
mentions the Kufedj or Kufess. Elliott and Dowson 
(i. 417) state that when 'Abdullah conquered the capital of 
Karman, the aid of the men of Kuj and Buluj (i.e., Koch 
and Baloch) was in vain solicited by the Karmanls. The 
authority for this statement appears to be the Tarlkh-i- 
Guzida, which was not written till a.h. 730 (a.d. 1329), 
and has not much weight. The best geographical authori- 
ties are Istakhri and Mas'udi, the valuable work of IdrisI 
(a.h. 543— a.d. 1151), and the gazetteer of Yakut, who 
wrote in a.h. 615, but relies on earlier authorities. 

It may be considered as established that the Baloches 
were settled in Karman at the commencement of the fourth 
century of the Hijra ; and it is possible, but not proved, 
1 Zotenberg's ' Tabari,' iii. 516, etc. 



30 THE BALOCH RACE 

that they were already settled there when the Arab con- 
quest took place three hundred years before. The Baloch 
occupied a territory adjacent to that of the Koch, but were 
quite distinct from them. Mas'udi 1 only says that he is 
not able to give any account of the Qufs, the Baloch, and 
the Jatt (Zutt), who dwell in the regions of Karman. He 
is the only writer who mentions Jatts in Karman, all other 
accounts showing them as occupying Mekran at that period. 
Istakhri gives fuller details. 2 He describes the Koch as 
living in the mountains, while the Baloch inhabited the 
desert. Both races spoke languages of their own distinct 
from Persian, which was the ordinary language of Karman. 
The version translated by Ouseley puts the desert inhabited 
by the Baloch to the south of the mountains, and towards 
Mekran and the sea ; and one passage in the Arabic version 
bears this out — viz. : ' Karman is bordered on the east by 
Mukaran, and the desert between Mukaran and the sea 
towards the Bulus (Baloch) '; but further on it says : ' The 
Bulus live on the tableland of the Qufs Mountains, and no 
one else enters these mountains ; they have cattle and 
tents like the Beduin, and the routes through their country 
are not unsafe.' ' The Qufs,' it says, ' are believed to be of 
Arab descent, and live under their own chiefs.' Further 
south, again, lives another race, apparently distinct from 
both Koch and Baloch. According to the Persian version 
they inhabit the mountains near Hurmuz, and are robbers, 
said to be Arabs by origin ; while in the Arabic version we 
read : * The inhabitants of the Qaran or Barfen 3 Mountains 
were Zoroastrians during the rule of the Amawl Khalifas ; 
they would not submit, and were more cunning than the 
inhabitants of the Qufs Mountains. They were converted 
under the rule of the 'Abbasi Khalifas.' This race is 
evidently the Ahwas or Hawas of Idrlsi. The Persian 

1 Mas'udi, French translation, iii. 254. 

2 Mordtmann's 'Istakhri' (Hamburg, 1845, pp. 77, 78), and Ouseley's 
'Ibn Haukal,' pp. 143, 146. (This is a Persian version of * Istakliri.') 

3 The S-^jLUJU*, or Cold Mountains, according to IdrTsT. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 31 

version adds that Qufs in Arabic is the same as Koch in 
Persian, and that these two peoples — one in the mountains 
and the other in the desert — are commonly spoken of 
jointly as Koch and Baloch. Both versions agree in 
describing the Baloch as better behaved than their neigh- 
bours, and as not infesting the roads ; but it is impossible 
to accept this statement as fact. It is perhaps due to the 
accidental use of a negative by a copyist, and one authority 
has probably reproduced it from another without question. 
Istakhri also, in his account of Sijistan, gives a list of 
the provinces of that country, among which two (Nos. 19 
and 22) are described as ' country of the Baloch ' (u*^). 1 
The desert infested by the Baloch seems in reality to have 
been not that to the south of the Karman Mountains, but 
the great desert now known as the Lut, which lies north 
and east of Karman, and separates it from Khorasan and 
Sistan. Idrisi, who was a careful writer, says that the 
Koch Mountains were inhabited by a savage race— a sort 
of Kurds — while the Baloch live to the north, and some 
to the west of them. 2 He adds that they are pros- 
perous, have much cattle, and are feared by their neigh- 
bours, and also confirms the statement that they do not 
infest the roads. Yakut is in substantial agreement with 
Idrisi. 3 He also compares the Koch to the Kurds, and 
quotes an Arabic poem as follows : ' What wild regions 
have we traversed, inhabited by Jatts (Zutt), Kurds, and 
savage Qufs !' He gives a long account of the Qufs, quoted 
from er-Bohini, in which he traces them to pre-Islamic 
Arabs of Yemen, and says they have never had any 
religion, either pagan or Muhammadan. He speaks of 
them as irreclaimable savages, and says it would be well 
to exterminate them. He adds that they do show some 
respect to 'All, but only out of imitation of their neigh- 
bours. This gives rise to a suspicion that they may have 

1 Mordtmann's ' Istakhri,' p. 115. 

2 Jaubert's ' Edrlsi,' i. 428, 429. 

3 I owe the reference to Yakut to the kindness of Mr. Ellis. 



32 THE BALOCH RACK 

been Shias, and that er-Kohinl had some grudge against 
them. Yakut also quotes el-Bishari as classifying the 
mountains of Karman into those of the Koch, the Baloch, 
and the Qaran, which corresponds with the description of 
Istakhri. He says that the Koch (Qufs) are tall, slender 
people, who call themselves Arabs, given to all sorts of 
wickedness, barbarous and cruel, and living by plunder. 
The Bulus were formerly the most terrible of the maraud- 
ing tribes, but were destroyed by Adad-u'd-daula, 1 who 
also slew a great number of the Qufs. They call them- 
selves Musalmans (this apparently refers to the Qufs), but 
are more bitter against Musalmans than are the Greeks 
and Turks. 

Yakut speaks of the Baloch under a separate heading 
(u^)> and gives a more favourable account of them. He says 
they resemble the Kurds, live between Fars and Karman, 
and are dreaded by the savage Qufs, who fear no one else. 
The Baloch, he says, are richer and more civilized than 
their neighbours, live in goatskin tents, and do not plunder 
and fight like the Qufs. 

In addition to Adadu'd-daula Dailami, his uncle Mu iz- 
zu'd-daula, who died a.h. 356, also came into collision with 
the wild tribes of Karman, called by some Kurds and by 
others Koch and Baloch. He lost his left hand and the 
fingers of the right in conflict with them, and was thence 
known as Aqta* (^» l ), or maimed. 2 

The Baloch, no doubt, possessed horses and raided far 
afield, as their descendants have done ever since. They 
crossed the desert into Khorasan and Slstan, and the 
fact that two of the provinces of Slstan were already in 
Istakhri' s time known as Baloch country shows that they 
had begun to establish themselves there. During the reign 
of Mahmud Ghaznawi they roused the wrath of that 
monarch by robbing his ambassador on the way to Kar- 
man, between Tabbas and Khabis. Mahmud sent his son 

1 The Dailami (Buwaihl), who reigned a.h. 338-372 (a.d. 949-982). 

2 Tarikh-I-Yafai, quoted by Baverty, ' Tabakat-i-N&sirl,' i. 60 (note). 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHXOLOGICAL SKETCH 33 

Mas' lid against them, who finally defeated them near 
Khabls, which lies on the edge of the desert, at the foot 
of the Karman Mountains. 1 On another occasion these 
robbers were disposed of by allowing them to capture 
several loads of poisoned apples, which they devoured. 
The chronicler approves of this as a pleasant and ingenious 
scheme for getting rid of them. 

Firdausi, who lived at this time at Tus, near Meshhed, 
in Khorasan, must have been familiar with the name of 
these marauders, and this knowledge must have given 
point to the descriptions in the ' Shahnama ' already 
alluded to. It is possible that permanent settlements may 
have been made by the Baloches in Khorasan as well as 
in Sistan. Even in the present day, according to Lord 
Curzon, there is a considerable Baloch population as far 
north as Turbat-i Haidari. 2 

Certain it is that soon after the above-quoted accounts 
were written there was a wholesale migration of the 
Baloches from Kerman, and there is some reason to 
believe that before establishing themselves in Mekran and 
on the Sindh frontier they made a temporary settlement 
in STstan. Such a movement had already begun, as the 
names of the provinces in Sistan given by Istakhri show ; 
and later on the author of the ' Tabakat-i-Nasiri ' notes 
that he halted in Sistan at a place called Gumbaz-I-Baloch, 
a slight indication, but sufficient to show their presence 
in the country. There is, however, no historical evidence 
as to what happened to the Baloches during this period 
previous to their appearance in Sind, which is first men- 
tioned in the middle of the thirteenth century. 

It seems probable that there were two movements of the 
Baloch race in this period, each of which corresponded 
with a conquest affecting a great part of the Asiatic world. 
The first was the abandonment of Karman and the settle- 
ment in Sistan and Western Makran, corresponding with 

1 Jamfu'l-hikayat in E. D., ii. 193, 194. 

2 Curzon's ' Persia,' 1892, i. 203. 

3 



34 THE BALOCH RACE 

the Seljuq invasion and the overthrow of the DailamI 
and Ghaznawl power in Persia ; the second move was to 
Eastern Mekran and the Sindh border, corresponding with 
the invasions of Changiz Khan and the wanderings of 
Jalalu'ddm Mangbarni in Makran. 

This second movement introduced the Baloches first 
into the Indus Valley, and prepared the way for the third 
and last migration, by which a great portion of the Baloch 
race was precipitated into the plains of India. The last 
movement corresponds in its commencement with the 
conquests of Taimur, and in its later developments with the 
invasions of India by Babar and the Arghims. 

Although historical data are wanting, their place is to 
some extent supplied by tradition, which among the 
Baloches, especially the tribes of the Sulaiman Mountains, 
is full and circumstantial, and contained in numerous 
heroic ballads of ancient date. 1 The traditional narrative, 
as far as it possesses any value, may be said to commence 
with the sojourn in Sistan. Before that the legend simply 
asserts that the Baloches were descended from Mir Hamza, 
the Prophet's uncle, and from a Pari, and that they took 
part in the wars of 'All's sons against Yazld and fought 
at Kerbela. This is merely the introduction, the descent 
from some Muhammadan notable or from someone men- 
tioned in the Qur-an, which is considered necessary to 
every respectable Musalman race, just as the Kalhoras of 
Sindh and the Daudpotras of Bahawalpur claim descent 
from ' Abbas, and the sons of Hindus converted to Muham- 
madanism are called Sheikh, and blossom into Qureshis of 
the purest blood. Between Kerbela and Sistan there is a 
gap, and the settlement in the latter is really the starting- 
point of the legend. The Baloches are represented in the 
old ballads, as I have always heard the tale related, as 
arriving in Sistan and being hospitably received by a King 
named Shamsu'd-dln. After a time another King arose 

1 As far as I am aware, all the ballads of this nature have been 
collected among the Northern Baloshes, and none in Mekran. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 35 

named Badru'd-dln, who persecuted and drove them out. 
Now, there really was a Malik of Sistan, an independent 
ruler of the dynasty claiming descent from the Saffaris, 
named Shamsu'd-dm, who died in a.h. 559. He is de- 
scribed as a cruel tyrant, hated by his people. 1 It is quite 
possible that he may have utilized the services of the 
Baloches, who were certainly settled to some extent in 
Sistan at this time, as mercenaries to uphold his power. 
Badru'd-dm is not so easily identified. 

About thirty years after Shamsu'd-din's death Sistan 
became tributary to the Ghorl kings (a.h. 590), who main- 
tained their power until Changiz Khan devastated the 
country, but the Maliks of Sijistan continued to rule 
under them. There was a Badru'd-dln KidanI among the 
Maliks of Ghiyasu'd-din Ghori, but it is impossible to say 
whether he ever had power in Sistan. But it seems most 
probable that the convulsions attending Changiz Khan's 
invasion forced most of the Baloch tribes out of Sistan, 
and also drove east any who may have still lingered in 
Karman. The whole legend is by some authorities located 
in Karman, and not in Sistan. 2 But I have never myself 
met with this version among the Baloches. That a great 
migration among the tribes took place at this period does 
not admit of doubt. Within thirty or forty years we read 
of Baloches raiding in Sindh, where they had previously 
been unknown. 

The legend is to the effect that Badru'd-dln demanded 
a bride from each of the forty-four bolaks of the Baloches. 
They pretended to agree, but sent him forty-four boys 
dressed as girls, and themselves marched out of the 
country to avoid his vengeance when the deception was 
discovered. He, however, sent the boys back to their 

1 See Raverty's ' Tabakat-i-Nasirl,' i. 189. 

2 See Hetu Ram, ' Belochi-nama.' Trans. Douie ; Lahore, p. 161, 
1885. H. R. gives the name of the Baloch leader, under Sham- 
su'd-din, as Ilmash Rumi, and that of his son, under Badru'd-dln, 
as Gul Chir&fjfh. 

3—2 



36 THE BALOCH RACE 

families, but pursued the tribes into Kech-Makran, and was 
defeated by them there. In Makran the Baloches fought 
against a ruler named Harm or Harun, probably an Arab 
of the coast, as the place where the fight took place is 
named Harm-bandar, or the port of Harun. Another 
name in the ballads is Jagin, which is a place on the 
coast of Makran, not far from Jask. The original tribes 
of Makran seem to have been mainly Jatts, and at the time 
of the Arab conquest they are frequently alluded to under 
the name of Zutt ; and no doubt some Arab settlements 
had been made then, as now, on the coast. That some 
of these tribes were destroyed and others absorbed and 
assimilated by the Baloch invaders is extremely probable, 
but we are without any information as to what extent this 
took place. But the legendary account refers the origin 
of the main divisions of the Baloch race to this period. 
Mir Jalal Khan, son of Jland, is said to have been ruler 
over all the Baloches. He left four sons, named Kind, 
Lashar, Hot, and Korai, and a daughter named Jato, who 
was married to his nephew Murad. These five are the 
eponymous founders of the five great divisions of the race, 
the Kinds, Lasharis, Hots, Korais, and Jatois. There are, 
however, some tribes which cannot be brought within any 
of these divisions, and accordingly we find ancestors duly 
provided for them in some genealogies. Two more sons 
are added to the list — All and Bulo. From Bulo are 
descended the Buled/us, and from All's two sons, Ghazan 
and f Umar, are derived the Ghazani Marrls and the 
'Umaranis (now scattered among several tribes). I may 
here note that the genealogies given in the * Tuhfatu'l- 
Kiram 1 seem to be apocryphal, and are not in accordance 
with Baloch tradition. It is there asserted that Jalalu'd- 
dln was one of fifty brothers, and that he received one-half 
of the inheritance, the rest taking half between them, and 

1 See E. D., i. 336. This is the tradition alluded to by Colonel 
Mockler (J". A. S. B., 1895, par. i., p. 34). The ' Tuhfatu'l-Kiram ' is 
a late eighteenth-century compilation. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 37 

that, while the descendants of the other brothers mingled 
with the people of Makran, those of Jalalu'd-dm came 
to Sindh and Kachhi, and their descendants are spread 
through the country. The actual tradition of the Baloches, 
however, represents that the tribal divisions originated in 
the performance of Jalal Khan's funeral ceremonies. Kind 
had been appointed by his father successor to the Phagh 
or Eoyal Turban, and proposed to perform the ceremonies 
and erect an asrolch, or memorial canopy. His brother 
Hot, who was his rival, refused to join him, whereupon 
the others also refused ; each performed the ceremony 
separately, ' and there were five dsrokhs in Kech.' Some 
of the bolaks joined one and some another, and so the five 
great tribes were formed. In reality it seems probable 
that there were five principal gatherings of clans under 
well-known leaders, and that they became known by some 
nickname or descriptive epithet, such as the Binds (' cheats'), 
the Hots ('warriors'), the Lasharis ('men of Lashar '), 
etc., and that these names were afterwards transferred to 
their supposed ancestors. The Buled/iis, or men of Boleda, 1 
probably joined the confederacy later, and the same may 
be said of the Ghazanis and Umaranls. One very im- 
portant tribe — the Dodai — is not included in any of these 
genealogies, the reason being that this tribe is undoubtedly 
of Indian origin, and that its affiliation to the Baloch stock 
did not take place until the movement to Sindh had begun. 
To explain this it is necessary to return to the historical 
narrative. 

Sindh was under the rule of the Bajput tribe of Somra, 
which had succeeded to the power of the Arab conquerors. 

1 Colonel Mockler (J. A. S. B., 1895, p. 35) suggests the Arabic 
name Budail as an origin for Bulaidi, either directly or through 
the town of Bulaida. This is quite possible, as such transpositions 
are not uncommon. It seems most probable that the tribal name 
comes from that of the place, which, again, may be from Budail. 
This name, in its original form, is not now found as a proper name 
among Baloches, but may be represented by the modern Battel or Batil. 



38 THE BALOCH RACE 

There is a long list of Somra kings in the Chronicles, no 
less than five of whom bore the name of Doda. The 
chronology is very uncertain, but Doda IV. seems to have 
reigned about the middle of the thirteenth century 
(a.h. 650). 1 In the time of his father Khafif a body of 
Baloches entered Sindh, and allied themselves with two 
local tribes, the Sodhas and Jharejas. When Doda IV. 
succeeded, the Baloches and Jharejas forsook the Sodha 
alliance, and supported him. In the time of Umar, the 
next king, we again find the Baloches entering into a com- 
bination with the Sammas, Sodhas, and Jatts (Jharejas), 
but this did not last long. The Sammas made terms for 
themselves, and their allies had to submit, which probably 
means that the Baloches retired into the mountains. 
There is no evidence that they made any permanent settle- 
ment in the plains at this time. In the reign of Doda V. 
the Somra rule was finally overthrown, and the power 
passed into the hands of the Sammas, who established 
what is known as the Jam dynasty. This event took place 
probably at the end of the thirteenth century, while 'Alau- 
'd-din Khalji was reigning at Delhi. A story, evidently 
derived from popular folklore, is told in the Tarikh-i- 
M'asumi (written circ. a.d. 1600) about Doda's extraordinary 
adventures. 2 He wins the favour of Sultan Maudud of 
Ghazni by his power of seeing through men's bodies, 
which enables him to fish out two snakes which the Sultan 
had swallowed, and is finally restored to his dominions. 
Possibly the legend referred originally to Doda I., who 
lived while the Ghaznavl dynasty still existed (his death 
is placed in a.h. 485, while Mas'ud III. was reigning). 3 
This story begins with the escape of Doda from his enemies 
and his crossing the river Indus. 

1 See Tarikli-i-M'asumT, E. D.,i.; also E. D., i. p. 484, appendix ; 
Muntakhabu't-tawarikli, Ibid. 

2 E. D., i. 221. 

3 Raverty, J. A. S. B., 1892, p. 225 (note), says that Doda was 
contemporary with Abdu'r-rashld of Ghazni (a.h. 440). He does not 
mention the authority. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 39 

To turn now to the Baloch legend of the origin of the 
Dodais. Doda Somra was turned out of Thatha by his 
brethren, and escaped by swimming his mare across the 
Indus. He came half frozen in the morning to the hut of 
a Eind named Saihe, who took him down from the mare, 
and, to revive him, put him under the blankets with his 
daughter Mudlio. He afterwards married him to Mudho, 
and, as the ballad says, ' For the woman's sake the man 
became a Baloch, who had been a Jatt, a Jaghdal, a 
nobody ; he dwelt at Harrand under the hilis, and fate 
made him the chief of all.' His descendants were the 
Dodai tribe, which took a leading place among the Baloches 
in the South Pan jab, and his son Gorish gave his name to 
the Gorshanl, or Gurchani, tribe. 

It may be conjectured that at the break-up of the Somra 
power a section of the tribe, headed by their chief Doda, 
allied itself with the Baloches, who were then in Mekran 
and in the mountains adjoining Sindh, and, becoming 
gradually assimilated, ultimately took their place as a 
Baloch tribe. Although they are Baloches in appearance, 
and speak the Balochi language, it has always been 
recognised that the Gurchanis (now the principal tribe of 
Dodai origin) are not of pure blood. The Mir ranis, another 
Dodai tribe long of great importance, whose chiefs were 
for two hundred years Nawabs of Dera Ghazi Khan, are 
now broken up and decayed. 

In addition to the five main tribes and the others just 
mentioned, there are also a few tribes of lower status 
which are supposed to represent the four servile bolaks, 
which were associated with the forty Baloch bolaks. These 
are the Gopangs, Dashtis, Gadhls, Gholos, and perhaps 
some others. The Baloch nation, therefore, as it appeared 
in the fifteenth century, on the eve of the invasion of India, 
was made up of the following elements : 

(1) The five main bodies of undoubted Baloch descent — 
viz., the Bind, Lashari, Hot, Korai, Jatoi ; 

(2) The groups afterwards formed in Mekran — viz., the 
Budedhls, Ghazanls, and 'Umaranls ; 



40 THE BALOCH RACE 

(3) The Dodais ; and 

(4) The servile tribes. 

And since that period the Gichkis in Mekran, and the 
Jakrams in Sindh, seem to have been assimilated in com- 
paratively modern times. 

Nothing more is heard of the Baloches in Sindh after 
the fall of the Somras for nearly a hundred and fifty years, 
although there may have been occasional raids which are 
not recorded. Their next appearance there is in the reign 
of Jam Tughlaq (a.d. 1423-1450), when they are recorded as 
raiding near Bhakhar. There was at this period a new 
feeling of restlessness abroad, of which Taimur's invasion 
of India was the instigating cause, as the conquests of the 
Seljuqs and of Changiz Khan had been of the earlier 
movements. The remains of the once powerful Tughlaq 
monarchy of Dehll disappeared, and a succession of feeble 
rulers allowed the Lodl Afghans to seize the sovereignty, 
and opened a tempting prospect to needy adventurers from 
beyond the border. This led to invasions of India from 
three distinct sources. First, those of Baber and his 
Turks, so-called Mughals, which culminated in the estab- 
lishment of the Mughal Empire; secondly, those of the 
Arghuns, headed by Shah Beg, w 7 hich established a tem- 
porary dynasty in Sindh, sweeping away the Samma Jams ; 
and, thirdly, that of the Baloches, which, though it did 
not establish any dynasty, contributed a more important 
element to the population of Northern India than either of 
the others. 

Before their final descent into India the Baloches seem 
to have been in occupation of the Kilat highlands, now 
held by the Brahols. It seems at least probable that their 
wars with the Brahois had some connection with their 
onward movement, but their own tradition tells us nothing 
of it. It is commonly asserted by writers on the subject 
that a Hindu tribe called Sewa was in possession of Kilat, 
and that they called in the services of the Brahois to 
protect them against the Baloches. Some hold the Brahios 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 41 

to be aborigines of the country, and this idea seems to be 
based on the fact of their language containing a strong 
Dravidian element, but they themselves claim, like the 
Baloches, to have come from Halab. It is at least a theory 
worthy of some consideration that they are identical with 
the Koch, the neighbours of the Baloch in Karman. The 
Koch, as we have seen, were often described as very like 
the Kurds, and were sometimes even called Kurds. There 
is still a powerful tribe among the Brahols bearing the 
name of Kurd, or Kird, and a clan of Kirds is even found 
among the Baloch Mazarl. The Brahoi language is still 
called by the Baloches Kur-gali, or Kir-gall — that is, the 
language of the Kurds — although it has no connection with 
the Kurdish language, which is an Iranian dialect with 
some points of resemblance to Balochl. It is, however, at 
present impossible to do more than state, as a probability, 
that the Brahols came from the west, and that their 
occupation of the highlands had something to do with the 
Baloch descent on the plains. The separation between the 
Northern Baloches and those of Mekran dates from this 
period. 

The movement of the tribes took on this occasion a 
northerly direction, their objective being rather Multan and 
the Southern Panjab than Sindh strictly 30 called. 

The Bajput tribe named Langah, 1 long since converted 
to Muhammadanism, had established an independent 
kingdom at Multan under their chief Bai Sehra (a.h. 847 
= a.d. 1443), who took the title of Qutbu'd-dm. He was 
succeeded in a.h. 874 by his son, Shah Husain, who 
reigned till a.h. 908 (a.d. 1502). It was during his reign 
that the first settlement of Baloches in the Panjab was 
made by Malik Sohrab Dodai, who came to Multan with 
his sons Ghazi Khan, Fath Khan, and Ismail Khan, 
and a large number of Baloches. Shah Husain en- 
couraged them and gave them a jagTr extending from 

1 Firishta calls them Afghans, but there seems no doubt that they 
were Kajputs. 



42 THE BALOCH RACE 

Kot Karor to Dhankot, evidently on condition of military 
service. Other Baloches, hearing of this, came flocking 
in, and gradually obtained possession of the whole country 
between Sltpur and Dhankot — that is to say, the present 
district of Muzafargayh between the Indus and the Chanab. 
The chief authorities for these events are Firishta's history 
of the Kings of Multan and the Tabakat-i-Akbari. 1 Firishta 
calls the newcomers both Dodais and Baloches, and says 
that they came from Kech and Makran. Soon after this 
two brothers belonging to the Samma tribe, Jam Bayazid 
and Jam Ibrahim, who had quarrelled with Jam Nanda 
(or Nizamu'd-dln), the Samma ruler of Sindh, came as 
refugees to Shah Husain, and also obtained jagirs — viz., 
Uchh and Shor (i.e., Shorkot, now in the Jhang district). 
Jam Bayazid became a person of great influence and com- 
mander of the Shah's armies. After Shah Husain's death 
and the accession of Shah Mahmud he went into rebellion. 
A temporary reconciliation took place, but there seems to 
have been a good deal of friction between Malik Sohrab 
Dodai and Jam Bayazid. This circumstance is connected 
with the second settlement of Baloches under Mir Chakar 
Bind, whose name is celebrated among all Baloches up to 
the present day. 

Mir Chakur Kind 2 and his son Mlrza Shahdad (or, accord- 
ing to some, his two sons Shahld and Shuhda) came from 
Slvi (Slbi) seeking service and lands. Malik Sohrab Dodai, 
out of jealousy, prevented Shah Mahmud from accepting 
his services ; whereupon Jam Bayazid took up his cause, 
and assigned him lands from his own jaglr of Uchh. 
According to the legends, Mir Chakur had two sons named 
Shahzad and Shaihak. Shahzad was of miraculous origin, 
his mother having been overshadowed by some mysterious 

1 E. D., v. 470. 

2 The name is variously written. Briggs, in his translation, gives 
Mir Jakar Zand ; the lithographed Lucknow edition of Firishta 
gives ^ji.yj£ oUe J** ; while the British Museum MS., No. 6572, Or. f. 
614, gives it as 4Uij£y*.j*». The Tarlkli-i-Sher Shahl (in E. D., iv. 
389-397) gives Chakur Bind correctly. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 43 

power. A mystical poem in Balochi on the origin of 
Multan is attributed to him, as well as one on the sack of 
Dehli. It is remarkable that Shahdad is said by Firishta 
to have been the first to introduce the ShI'a creed into 
Multan. The rivalry between the Kinds (Cbakur's tribe) 
and the Dodals is also the subject of many poems. 

Other poems, forming the bulk of the legendary ballads, 
deal with the war which took place between the Einds and 
Lasharis and also between both of them and the Turks, 
and assert that it was the loss of Sibi and Kachhi which 
forced Mir Chakur and his Einds to migrate to the 
Pan jab. To understand the true meaning of these legends 
it is necessary to go back to the invasion of Sindh by the 
Arghuns — the Turks of the Baloch story. The Arghuns 
were a Mughal family who claimed descent from Changiz 
Khan. Zu'n-nun Beg Arghun rose to power as Minister 
under Sultan Husain Baikara of Herat, one of the 
descendants of Taimur. He obtained the Government of 
Qandahar, where he made himself practically independent. 
The first invasion of Kachhi, by way of the Bolan Pass, 
took place in a.h. 890 (ad. 1485). Shah-Beg commanded 
on behalf of his father, and penetrated as far as the 
Indus; Jam Nanda, the Summa Chief, opposed him and 
defeated and drove him back at Jaluglr in a.d. I486. 1 
After Zu'n-nun Beg's death in war against the Uzbegs, Shah 
Beg, who succeeded him, was driven oat of Qandahar by 
Babar in a.d. 1507, and took refuge in Shal and Mustang 
at the head of the Bolan Pass, where he must have come 
into contact with the Baloches. Shah Beg ultimately lost 
Qandahar, and determined to build up a new throne for 
himself in India. He invaded Sindh in a.h. 917 (a.d. 1511) 
and a.h. 927 (a.d. 1520), overthrew the Sammas, and 
established his power. 2 He enlisted the services of some 
of the hill-tribes, probably Baloches, and we also read of 

1 For a good sketch of the history of this period, see General 
Haig's ' The Indus Delta Country,' 1894, p. 84. 

2 See also Erskine's ' Lives of Babar and Humayiin,' 1854, i. 352, 
etc. ; and the Tarikli-I-M'asumi in E. D., i. 236. 



44 THE B4L0CH RACE 

a force of 3,000 Baloches serving under Jam Feroz ; so 
that it is probable that rival Baloch tribes fought on 
opposite sides. This is borne out by Baloch legend as 
to the rivalry between the Binds and Lasharis, in which 
the Turks under Zunu (Zu'n-nun Beg) and the King of 
Sibi, Jam Ninda, play an important part. 1 The Kinds were 
under Mir Chakur, and the Lasharis under Gwaharam, who 
were rivals for the hand of the fair Gohar, the owner of 
large herds of camels. Gohar preferred Mir Chakur, and 
this led to a quarrel. A horse-race, in which the Binds 
are stated to have won by trickery, precipitated the out- 
break. Some Lasharis killed some of Gohar's young 
camels, and Chakur thereupon swore revenge. A desperate 
war began, which lasted for thirty years. At first the 
Binds were defeated, and they seem to have called on the 
Turks for aid, but after various fluctuations Chakur with 
most of his Binds left Sibi, and made for the Panjab. 
The Lasharis remained at Gandava, and some Binds main- 
tained their position at Shoran, both places not far from 
Sibi in the plain of Kachhi. These events constitute the 
Iliad of the Baloch race, and form the subject of numerous 
picturesque ballads which have been handed down verbally 
to the present day. 2 

It has been shown above how Mir Chakur arrived at 
Multan, and how the rivalry arose between the Binds and 
the Dodals. The legendary lore deals with this subject 
also, and it is stated that Chakur joined Humayun after- 
wards on his march to Dehll, and at last settled down at 
Satgarha (in the Montgomery District of the Panjab). His 
tomb still exists there, and there is a considerable Bind 

1 One ballad represents Chakur as taking refuge with Sultan Shah 
Husain of Harev (i.e., Sultan Husain of Herat). 

2 Some of these I published with a translation in my • Sketch of the 
Northern Balochi Language' (J, A. S. JB., extra number, 1881), and 
others in ' The Adventures of Mir Chakur,' included in Temple's 
' Legends of the Punjab,' vol. ii. Others have been printed and 
translated by the Kev. T. J. L. Mayer (Fort Munro and Agra, 1900 
and 1901). 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 45 

settlement in the neighbourhood. In the Tarikh-i-Sher 
Shahi of 'Abbas Khan, a valuable authority, we find 
Chakur Eind established at Satgarha in Sher Shah's time, 1 
and the Baloches in possession of the whole Multan 
country, from which Sher Shah expelled them. It is 
evident that they would have been on this account disposed 
to join Humayun in his expedition to recover his kingdom 
from the Afghans, and although there is no historical 
evidence of the fact, the legend makes it very probable 
that they did so. 

It is not very clear how the Baloches came to be in 
complete possession of the Multan country. Shah Bug 
Arghun, after overthrowing the Sammas of Sindh, turned 
his arms against the Langahs of Multan, and was opposed 
at Uchh by an army of Baloches and Langahs. He was 
victorious, and advanced on Multan in a.h. 931 (a.d. 1524) 
where Shah Mahmud Langah was reigning. The army 
which opposed him is said to have been composed of 
Baloch, Jat, Bind, Dodal and other tribes. 2 The Shah was 
poisoned by Sheikh Shuja', his son-in-law, and the his- 
torian says : ' The army, which consisted chiefly of 
Baloches, being thus deprived of its head, the greatest 
confusion reigned.' The son of the deceased king was 
placed on the throne, but the place fell into the hands 
of the Arghuns. 3 The conquest of Dehli by Babar followed 
almost immediately, and Shah Beg admitted his supremacy. 

It is evident that the Baloches were in great force in the 
South Panjab at this period, and they were in complete 
possession of the country, as has been seen, in Sher Shah's 
time. The Binds seem to have spread up the valleys of 

1 E. D., iv. 399, etc. 

2 Tarkhan-nama in E. D., i. 314. Dodai should evidently be read 
for Dadi. 

3 Darmesteter (' Chants des Afghanes,' p. 172) mixes up the Arghuns 
and the Baloch. He says : ' Elle (i.e., la dynastie des Langahs) est 
renversie par la dynastie belucie des Arghuns, et la tribu des Langahs 
est exterminee.' The Langah tribe still exists in the neighbourhood 
of Leia. 



46 THE BALOCH RACE 

the Chenab, the Bavl, and the Satlaj, and the Dodais and 
Hots up the Indus and the Jehlam. Babar found the 
Baloches, as he states in his autobiography, as early as 
a.d. 1519 at Bhera and Khushab ; and it may be inferred 
that these were Dodais, for when Sher Shah arrived at 
Khushab in a.d. 1546, in pursuit of Humayun, he was 
met by the three sons of Sohrab Khan — viz., Ismail Khan, 
Fath Khan, and Ghazi Khan — and he confirmed to them 
the ' country of Sindh,' by which must be understood 
Sindh in the local use of the word — that is, the lands lying 
along the Indus, the Derajat, where these brothers had 
formed settlements. 1 The three towns of Dera Isma'il 
Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Dera Fath Khan still bear 
their names, and Ghazi Khan's tomb is at the village of 
Churatta, near Dera Ghazi Khan. The date is lost, but 
it bears an inscription of Akbar's time. Ismail Khan had 
to give up the lands belonging to a holy man named 
Sheikh Bayazid Sarwani, of which he had been in posses- 
sion since the time of the Langahs, and received in 
exchange the pargana of Ninduna in the Ghakhar country. 2 

In Akbar's time there are occasional notices of expedi- 
tions against the Baloches. They do not seem to have 
entered his military service as the Persians, Mughals, and 
Afghans did, and Baloch names are conspicuous by their 
absence in the list of mansabdars in the Ain-i-Akbari, in 
which only one name occurs — viz., Pahar Khan Baloch, 
commander of two hundred. Even this name is not 
Balochi in origin. 

After the Binds had left Kachhi the Lasharis seem to 
have accompanied Shah Beg Arghun and his successor 
Shah Husain in his wars against Jam Feroz, whom he 
pursued towards Gujarat, as the legend represents them 
as invading Gujarat, and afterwards returning to Kachhi 
and obtaining a grant of Gundava from the king. The 

1 Tarlkh-i-Sher Shahi, E. D., iv. 388. 

2 The author of the ' Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi,' who records this, was 
grandson of Sheikh Bayazid. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 47 

MaghassI tribe, a branch of the Lasharis, still occupy that 
neighbourhood. Other Lasharls must have joined the 
invaders of the Pan jab, as a strong Lashari clan is still 
attached to the Gurchanis (Dodais), and the Jistkanis, a 
clan of the Lasharls, established a principality at Mankera, 
in the Sindh-Sagar Doab. In fact, the early successes of 
the Binds and Dodais seem to have led to something like 
a national migration. The poems describe it in picturesque 
language : 

* The noble Kinds were in Bampur, in the groves of 
Kech and Makran, with the Dombkis, the greatest house 
among the dwellings of the Baloches. The Binds and 
Lasharls made a bond together and said : " Come, let us 
leave this barren land ; let us spy out the running streams 
and sweet waters, and distribute them among us ; let us 
take no heed of tribe or chief." They came to their homes, 
the chiefs called to their slaves, " Loose the slender chestnut 
mares from their stalls, saddle the young fillies — steeds 
worth nine thousand — drive in the camels from the passes." 
The warriors called to their wives : " Come ye down from your 
castles, bring out your beds and wrappings, carpets and red 
blankets, pillows and striped rugs, cups cast in the mould, 
and drinking-vessels of Makran ; for Chakur will no longer 
abide here, but seeks a far land." So the generous Binds 
rode forth in their overcoats and long red boots, with 
helmets and armpieces, bows and quivers, silver knives 
and daggers — forty thousand of them rode at the Mir's call.' 

So they swarmed down into the plains, seizing the fertile 
lands and grazing-grounds, and always, if possible, keeping 
near to a screen of hills as a shelter. 1 Some tribes wan- 
dered far afield. Among the first must have been the 
Chandyas, who gave their name to the tract known as 

1 The extent of the migration may be judged from the fact that a 
recent census (1891) showed 985,000 Baloches in Sind and the Panjab. 
Only 80,000 have been enumerated in the Kelat territory, while the 
figures for Mekran and Persian Balochistan, not accurately known, 
may be roughly put at 200,000. 



48 THE BALOCH BACE 

Chandko along the Indus, just where the Panjab and Sindh 
meet. The Hots pressed northwards, and settled with the 
Dodais at Dera Ismail Khan, which they held for two 
hundred years, until deprived of it by Pathans ; and the 
Kulachls founded the town which bears their name near 
by. It now belongs to the Gandapur Afghans, but the 
Kulachls still inhabit the countryside. The Jistkanis, 
as has been seen, settled in the sandy waste of the central 
Sindh- Sagar Doab, and south of them the Mirrani Dodais, 
who were also Nawabs of Dera Ghazi Khan till the time of 
Nadir Shah. Mazaris are still found at Chatta Bakhsha 
in Jhang. The Kinds are in large numbers in the districts 
of Multan, Jhang, Muzafargarh, Montgomery, and Shahpur ; 
the Jatois and Koriiis are spread over the same districts, 
while the Gopangs and Gurmams are concentrated in 
Muzafargarh. These represent the descendants of the 
tribes which followed Mir Chakur, but others stayed behind, 
and some are said to have turned back from Tulumba in 
Multan and recrossed the Indus, wishing to keep near the 
mountains. Chakur is said to have incited the Dodais to 
attack the tribes that refused to follow him, and this war 
is also the subject of many ballads. The tribes which 
remained on the right bank of the Indus are those which 
have retained their language and their tribal constitution, 
while the rest have in varying degrees become assimilated 
to their Jatt and Eajput neighbours ; and as those who 
speak BalochI say : ' Those who followed Chakur have 
become Jatts, while those who stayed behind have remained 
Baloches.' And this also explains the prominence obtained 
by the Binds. The Hots, Jatois, and Korais passed on, 
and their descendants are found scattered, as I have already 
stated. Most of the Lasharis stayed behind in Mekran or 
Kachhi. But the organized tumans, which remain to the 
present day in the Sulaimans and the Derajat — viz., the 

Marri, 

Bughti (including Shambani), 

Mazari, 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 49 

Drlshak, 

Lund (two tumans), 

Leghari, 

Khosa, 

Nutkani, 

Bozdar, 

Kasrani 
— are mainly Einds ; while one — viz., the 

Gurchani 
— is Dodal, with Eind and Lashari clans attached to it. 
Of the tribes in Kachhl and Northern Sindh, the following 
are Einds : 

Eind (of Shoran), including the 

Ghulam Bolak of Sibi, 

Dombki, Umarani, 

Khosa, Chandya. 
The MaghassI are Lasharis, the BuledJd (or Burdi) a 
separate Baloch stem, and the Jakrani assimilated Jatt; 
the Kahhi, possibly Sayyids by origin, also now assimilated. 
The Buledhi seem to have accompanied the Einds into 
the Sulaiman Hills ; and there the country, now occupied 
in part by Harris, Bughtis, and Gurchanis, was long a 
bone of contention between them and the Gorgezh Einds, 
and probably the Kalmati, too. The struggle between 
Gorgezh and Buledhi forms the subject of song and legend. 1 
After they were expelled from the hills they settled near 
the Indus, where they had many wars with the Mazari 
Einds. Their country is known as Burdika. One of the 
songs attributed to Balach Gorgezh in his war with the 
Buledhis is worth quoting, as it expresses the very spirit 
of the Baloch of the mountains : 

* The mountains are the Baloches' forts ; these hills are 
better than an army. The lofty heights are our comrades, 
the pathless gorges our friends. Our drink is from the 
flowing springs, our cups the leaf of the phish, our beds 

1 See the story of ' Balach and the Buledhis in Folklore,' 1893, 
p. 200. 

4 



50 THE BALOCH RACE 

the thorny brush, the ground our pillow. My horse is 
my white sandals. For my sons you may take the arrows, 
for my brethren the broad shield, for my father the wide- 
wounding sword.' 

The Gorgezh have also passed away from the country 
where this struggle took place, and only a fragment of the 
tribe is now found at Thali, near Sibi. The Kalmatis 
afterwards held the country, and were succeeded by the 
Hasani, who were broken up about seventy years ago by a 
combination between the Marrls and Bughtls. Only a 
small body of Hasanis now remains as a clan among the 
Khetrans. The deserted villages of the Hasanis may still 
be seen on the plan of Nesao. 

The settlement of the Baloches in Sindh was very 
extensive, and perhaps a quarter of the population of that 
country claims Baloch descent, but, like those settled in 
the Panjab plains, they are more or less assimilated to 
their Indian neighbours. The Talpur (properly Talbur) 
Amirs who ruled Sindh after the overthrow of the Kalhoras, 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century, are believed to 
be descended from a branch of the Legharis of Chotl, near 
Dera Ghazi Khan, where there is still a Talbur phalli. 1 
They seem to have been in a humble position when they 
first came to Sindh, nor is the Leghari phalli one of any 
importance. The name occurs in a fragment of an old 
ballad in a list of servile tribes, said to have been presented 
by Mir Chakur to his sister Banarl as a wedding portion, 
and set free by her : 

' The Kirds, Gabols, Gadahls, the Talburs, and the 
Marrls of Kahan, all were Chakur's slaves, and he gave 
them as a dowry to Banarl on the day of washing her 
head (i.e,, seven days after the wedding) ; but she set them 
free, and would not accept the gift in God's name.' 

Leech gives another version of this, including a tribe 

1 See the interesting account, by Mir Naslr Khan Talpur, of 
Haidarabad, in Eastwick's 'Dry Leaves from Young Egypt,' 1851, 
Appendix VI. Also General Haig's ' Indus Delta Country,' pp. 121, 122. 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 51 

named Pachalo, and a third version adds ' the rotten-boned 
Bozdars '; but evidently a rhyme like this is liable to be 
varied according to the prepossessions of the reciter. 
Leech's version, however, was obtained at Kalat fifty years 
before mine, and my two versions were obtained from 
different tribes, so that it is probable that the names, in 
which all agree, are old. The word ' talbur ' means ' wood- 
cutter,' from tell, ' a branch,' and bur-agh, ' to cut.' A 
Lund bard, with a great command of genealogies, traces 
Mir Bijar Khan Talpur to an eponymic Talbur, grandson 
of Bulo, which would make them BulecZ/iis in origin ; but, 
as already stated, the Amirs themselves considered that 
they were Legharis. 

Most of the clans which took part in the great migration 
left some of their members behind, and in Mekran at the 
present day are found Einds, Lasharls, Hots, Gishkaurls, 
and Buledis. The great Naushirvani tribe may perhaps be 
classed as Baloch, although generally stated to be Persians. 
The Buledis retained for long an important position as the 
ruling race in Mekran, but in the early eighteenth century 
they were displaced by the Gichkis, a tribe said to be of 
Indian origin, and variously stated to be descended from 
Sikhs or Bajputs. They are now classed as Baloches, and 
speak the Balochi language. This affords a later instance 
of assimilation, of the same nature as that which took 
place with regard to the Dodais in earlier times. 

But little detailed information as to the Baloch tribes of 
Mekran 1 is to be gathered from the accounts of travellers. 2 
As to Sistan also, accounts are vague and contradictory 

1 Unfortunately, Mekran was not included in the scope of the census 
of 1901, and Mr. Hughes-Buller's report, issued in 1902, does not give 
any details as to the tribes of this province. 

2 The best accounts are those of St. John in ' Eastern Persia,' 1876 ; 
Bellew (regarding Sistan) in ' From the Indus to the Tigris,' 1874 ; 
Goldsmid (in ' Eastern Persia ') ; Ferrier (' Caravan Journeys ') ; and 
Pottinger (1816). There is nothing in the works of Macgregor or 
Floyer. Major Molesworth Sykes has lately paid attention to this 
subject. 

4—2 



52 THE BALOCH RACE 

It is, however, generally admitted that the Baloches hold a 
position of great importance there, though not considered 
aboriginal. Ferrier, however, thought that the Baloches 
were the aborigines of Slstan, and classed them as follows : 

Nervuis (Nahricis), 

Kinds, 

Meksis (i.e., Maghassis), 
and he also includes the Sarbandis as Baloches ; but this 
seems doubtful. The Sanjaram or Tokl are, all agree, an 
important Baloch tribe, but it is left doubtful whether the 
Mamassanis are Baloch or Brahul. The Shahrkis and 
Sarbandis are said to have been brought into Slstan by 
Nadir Shah, but that is no reason for holding them non- 
Baloch ; and the name of the Shahrkl chief, Mir Chakar, 
certainly points to a Baloch origin. 

It cannot evidently be asserted that any of the Baloch 
tribes now in Slstan have maintained their position ever 
since the first settlement there. It is more probable 
that they are later immigrants from Mekran or Persian 
Balochistan. 

It is not my object at present to go at length into the 
later history of the Baloches. I hope that I have suc- 
ceeded in giving some idea of their origin and wanderings, 
and in showing how they came to occupy the positions 
they now hold. Briefly, the conclusions I have come to 
are as follows : 

1. That the Baloches are an Iranian race, judging by 
their physical and mental characteristics, and that they 
should be classed with the Tajiks and other original races 
of the Iranian tableland. 

2. That historically they may be traced first to the north 
of Persia, in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea, in the 
time of the later Sassanians. 

3. That their settlement in Kerman probably did not 
take place till after the Muhammadan Conquest, and that 
in Slstan not before the beginning of the tenth century. . 

' 4. That the movement into Slstan and Western Mekran 



A HISTORICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SKETCH 53 

was probably caused by the Seljuq invasion, and that the 
further advance eastwards was due to the pressure of Changiz 
Khan's conquests. 

5. That the final move into the Indus Valley took place 
during the period of unrest and disruption of governments 
which followed on Taimur's conquests, and that it syn- 
chronized with the invasions of India by Babar and the 
Arghuns. 

It may be added that the Baloch settlement in Sindh 
and the South- West Panjab has profoundly affected the 
mass of the population beyond the limits of the tribes 
which are nominally Baloch. Traces of Baloch blood are 
frequently met with among the Jats and Rajputs, who are 
Musalman by religion ; and not only among them, but 
even among the commercial Hindu population in the 
Trans-Indus tracts, where Baloch features are strikingly 
common in Aroras of the villages and smaller towns. 

In Appendix I. I give a list of the clans, or bolaks, 
mentioned in the early heroic poems, with some notes as 
to their present distribution, and also of the more im- 
portant tribes not so mentioned. 

Appendix II. contains a list of the organized tumans 
now existing, with the clans of which they are made up, 
and, in some cases, the phallis or septs also. 

Appendix III. consists of genealogies derived from the 
legends, and from verbal statements of Baloches who are 
reputed among their people to have a good knowledge of 
such matters. My principal authorities have been Ghulam 
Muhammad, Balachanl Mazari, of Rojhan ; Baga, Shala- 
mani Lashari (Gurchanl), of the Sham ; and Ahmad Khan 
Ludhiani, Gadharoani Lund, of Rohrl. The Marri pedigree 
is abstracted from the very full tree given by Colonel 
0. T. Duke in his ' Beport on Thal-Chotiali and Harnai ' 
(Calcutta : Foreign Department Press, 1883). Pedigrees of 
the descent of the Talpur Amirs of Sindh from the Leghari 
Talpurs will be found in Eastwick's ' Dry Leaves from 
Young Egypt,' London, 1851. 



APPENDIX I. 

I. Clans, or bolaks, named in early poetry, with particulars 
as to present distribution. 

Bulmat. — Mentioned in one poem as at war with the Kal- 
matl. Not now known. 

Chandya. — Now found chiefly in Upper Sindh, in the tract 
known as Chanduka or Chandko. Part of this tract 
is held by Mazarls. Chandyas are also numerous in 
the districts of Muzafargarh and Dera Ismail Khan. 
There is a Chandya clan in the Leghari tribe — Dera 
GhazI Khan. 

Daslitl. — Mentioned as a servile tribe. Now found scattered 
in small numbers through Dera GhazI Khan, Dera 
Isma 11 Khan, and Muzafargarh. 

Dodal. — This once important tribe is not now found under 
this name. Its most important representatives are 
the Mir rani of Dera GhazI Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, 
and Jhang, and the GurchanI tribe, of which the most 
important part, including the Shaihakani, HotwanI, 
KhalilanI and Alkani Durkani clans, is of Dodal 
descent. 

Dombkl, or Domkl. — Said in the ballads to be the ' greatest 
house among the Baloch.' Chakur speaks of them as 
great in ' guftar ' — i.e., song or speech — and they are 
still called the ' Daptar,' or recorders of Baloch 
genealogy. Owing to this fact and the similarity of 
name, some accuse them of being Doms ; but their 
high rank, admitted by all, seems to preclude this 
idea. A satirical GurchanI bard says : ' The Dombkls 
are little brothers of the Doms.' Their present head- 
quarters are at Lehri in KachhI. Their name is said 
by some to be derived from a river in Persia named 
Dumbak. 

54 



APPENDIX I 55 

Drishak. — Now an organized tribe in Dera Ghazi Khan. 
Headquarters at i^sni. Said to be descended from a 
companion of Chakur, nicknamed ' Drishak,' or 
' strong,' from holding up a roof that threatened to 
collapse on some Lasharl women who were prisoners. 
Possibly connected with Dizak in Mekran. 

Gabol. — A servile tribe, now of small importance. Found 
mainly in Muzafargarh. 

Golo, or Ghola. — A servile tribe ; said to have fought 
against Chakur; now the principal clan among the 
Buledhi. 

Gopang. — A servile tribe, now scattered through Muzafar- 
garh, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Kachhi, chiefly 
the former. 

Gorgezli. — A branch of the Einds, formerly of great power, 
but much reduced through their wars with the 
Buledhi ; now found at Thali in Sibi, and considered 
a clan of the Dombki tribe. 

Hot. — One of the original main sections of the Baloch. 
Very widely spread. They form a powerful tribe still 
in Mekran, and ruled at Dera Isma'il Khan for two 
hundred years. Part of the Khosa tribe and the 
Balachani Mazaris are said to be of Hot descent. They 
are found also wherever the Baloches have spread, 
and are numerous in Dera Ismail Khan, Muzafargarh, 
Multan, and Jhang. Name sometimes wrongly spelt 
Hut. 

Jatol. — One of the original main sections. Not now an 
organized tribe, but found wherever the Baloches 
have spread, chiefly in Muzafargarh, Montgomery, 
Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Isma'il Khan, Jhang, Shahpur, 
and Lahore ; also in Northern Sindh, near Shikarpur. 

Jistkdnl. — Formerly a powerful tribe in the Sindh Sagar 
Doab, with headquarters at Mankera, and still 
numerous there. Found as a clan in the Gurchani 
and Drishak tribes. Believed to be a branch of the 
Lasharis. 

Kalmat, or Kalmatl. — Formerly of great importance, and 
fought with the Maris ; now found at Pasni in Mekran, 
and in Sindh. A Levitical tribe, probably non-Baloch. 
Derived either from Khalmat in Mekran or from the 
Karmati (Karmatian) heretics. 

Kird, or Kurd. — The name of a powerful Brahoi tribe. 
Found as a clan in the Mazari tribe. Mentioned in 



56 THE BALOCH RAGE 

a ballad as one of the slave tribes given by Chakar to 
Banari, his sister, and set free by her. 

Khosa. — A very important tribe forming two distinct 
tumans — one near Jacobabad in Upper Sindh, and the 
other with its headquarters at Batil, near Dera Ghazi 
Khan. Also a sub-tuman of the Kinds of Shoran, and 
a clan of the Lunds of Tibbi. Said to be mainly of Hot 
descent. The Isani clan of the Dera Ghazi Khan tribe 
is of Khetran origin, and the small Jajela clan, prob- 
ably aboriginals of the Jaj Valley, which they inhabit. 

Kordi. — One of the main original sections ; not now an 
organized tuman, but found wherever the Baloches 
have spread in the Panjab, principally in Muzafargarh, 
Multan, and Dera Isma'Il Khan. Still form a tribe in 
Mekran (spelt by some Kaudal). 

Lasharl. — One of the main original sections, said to have 
settled in Gandava after the war with the Einds, and 
to be now represented by the Maghasis of Jhal in 
Kachhl. Some Lasharls in Kachhl keep their own 
name, and form the largest clan-of the Maghassi tribe. 
Others are found in Mekran and Slstan, where they 
are identified with the Maghasis. The Jis'tkanls 
also are of Lasharl descent. There is a strong sub- 
tuman of Lasharls in the GurchanI tribe, and other 
Laeharis of DrigrI in Dera Ghazi Khan are apparently 
Jatts, and Lasharls only in name. Lasharls are found 
wherever the Baloches settled in the Panjab, chiefly 
in Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Isma'il Khan, Muzafargarh, 
and Multan. 

Mazarl. — An organized tribe of importance, with its head- 
quarters at Bojhan, in the south of Dera Ghazi Khans. 
The ruling clan, the Balachani, are said to be Hots, 
and the remainder of the tribe, with the exception of 
the Kirds, Binds. The name is apparently derived 
from Mazdr, 'tiger,' like the Pathan ' Mzarai.' 

Mlrdli. — Becorded as having fought with the Binds against 
the Lasharls. Probably identical with the Mehrall 
clan of the Binds of Kachhl ; sometimes identified with 
the Buledhi. 

Namurdl. — Not now found except as a phalli in the Bozdar 
tribe. 

Nohy Nuliam. — Not now found. Said to have been on the 
side of the Lasharls against the Binds. 

Phuzh. — A clan of Binds to which belonged Bijar, one of 



APPENDIX I 57 

Chakur's companions. They were of great importance, 
and the name is said by some to be an old name of 
the whole Eind tribe. Now found at Kolanch, in 
Mekran, and in small numbers in Kachhi, or near the 
Bolan, but not elsewhere. The Bijaram Marris are 
supposed to be descended from Bijar Phuzh. 

Rashkanl. — Mentioned once, probably as a subsection only. 
Now found only in small numbers near Quetta, and 
classed as a clan of the Binds. There is a large 
Brahoi tribe of Bakshani. 

Bind, — The most important of the main divisions of the 
Baloches, and sometimes loosely used to include others. 
Most of the tribes of Bind descent are known by their 
distinctive names, but the Binds of Mand in Mekran 
and Shoran in Kachhi adhere to the name Bind, 
which is also used by large numbers of Baloches out- 
side the tumans in Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Isma'il 
Khan, Muzafargarh, Multan, Jhang, Shahpur, and 
Montgomery. The Ghulam Bolak of Sibi is a clan 
of Binds. There is also a Bind clan in the Lund 
tribe of Tibbi in Dera Ghazi Khan. 
II. To this list the following names may be added of 

tribes not mentioned in the ancient poems, but now of 

importance. 

Organized Tumans. 

Bughtl. — A tribe made up of various elements, mainly of 
Bind origin, having its headquarters at Syahaf (also 
called Dera Blbrak and Bughtl Dera), in the angle of 
the Sulaiman Mountains, between the Indus and 
Kachhi. Said to be descended from Gyandar, cousin 
of Mir Chakur. Gyandar's son, Baheja, is said to 
have given his name to the Baheja clan, but the name 
appears to be of Indian origin. The No£/?ani clan 
have Levitical powers. The Shambanl are a sub- 
tuman, sometimes considered distinct from the Bughtl. 

Buledhl (Buledl, Bule^/a, BurdI). — Derived from Boleda, in 
Mekran, and long the ruling race until ousted by the 
Gichki. Found also near the Indus in Upper Sindh, 
in the tract called Burdika, and in the Kachhi 
territory of Kalat. 

Bozdar, — A tribe living in the Sulaiman Mountains, north 
of Dera Ghazi Khan. Probably partly of Bind descent. 
The name means * goatherd.' 



58 THE BALOCH RACE 

Gur chant. — A tribe of mixed origin, having its headquarters 
at Lalgarh, near Harrand, in Dera Ghazi Khan. The 
principal part of the tribe is Dodai (q.v.). The Syahphadft 
Durkani are Einds; the Pitafi, Jogani, and Chang 
probably partly Bind ; the Lashari sub-tuman (except 
the Gabols and Bhands) and the Jistkani are Lasharis ; 
the SuhrianI and Holawani are Bulethis. This seems 
to be the composition of this tribe. There is a 
Gurchani clan among the Lunds of Son. 

Hasanl. — A tribe of uncertain origin, which at one time 
occupied a considerable part of the country now held 
by the Marris. They were destroyed in wars with the 
Marris, and a fragment only remains, now forming a 
clan among the Khetrans, near the Han Pass. Colonel 
0. T. Duke considers that they were Pathans by origin, 
but it seems probable that they were, like the Khetrans, 
an aboriginal Indian tribe, but more thoroughly 
assimilated by the Baloches. The remaining Hasanis 
speak Balochi, not Khetrani. 

Jakranl. — A tribe now in Kachhi and North Sindh. Prob- 
ably of Jatt origin, though some deduce them from 
Gyandar (see under Bughti). There is a Syahpharf// 
clan among them, probably of Bind origin (see under 
Gurchani). They are said to admit the supremacy of 
the Bind Chief of Shoran. Ahmad Khan derives the 
Jakrams from Gyandar, the ancestor of the Bughtis 
(Appendix III., v.). 

Kahlrl. — A small tribe in Kachhi, now classed as Baloch, 
but probably non-Baloch in origin. Mentioned in the 
Tarlkh-i-M'asumi (a.d. 1600). The author derives the 
name from the Kahir-tree {Prosopis spicigera), which 
was ridden as a horse by one of their ancestors (E. D., 
i., p. 238). 

Kasranl — Sometimes written Qaisarani, as it is supposed 
to be a patronymic from Qaisar, but always pronounced 
Kasranl. The most northerly of all the organized 
tumans, occupying part of the Sulaiman Mountains 
and the adjoining plains in Dera Ghazi Khan and 
Dera Isma'll Khan. Of Bind descent. 

Leghari. — An important tribe, with its headquarters at 
Choti, in Dera Ghazi Khan. Also found in Sindh. 
The name is derived from ' Leghar,' dirty, and various 
legends are told to explain it. The ancestor Koh- 
phrosh, whose name was changed to Leghar, was by 
descent a Bind. The principal part of the tribe is 



APPENDIX I 59 

descended from him. The Chandya clan is separate, 
and the Haddianl and Kalois, the sub-tuman of the 
mountains, are said to be of Bozdar origin. 

Lund. — A large tribe divided into two tumans, both in 
Dera Ghazi Khan — the Lunds of Son and the Lunds 
of Tibbi. Both claim descent from All, son of Behan, 
Mir Chakur's cousin. The Son Lunds are a large 
tribe living in the plains, with their headquarters 
at Kot Kandiwala. This tribe contains a clan of 
Gurchanls. The Tibbi Lunds are a small tribe with 
a clan of Lunds and one of Khosas, to which a third 
clan, called Bind, but of impure blood, is also attached. 

Mam. — One of the best known among Baloch tribes for 
their marauding propensities. Of composite origin. 
The Ghazanl section are supposed to be descended 
from Ghazan, son of Ali, son of Jalal Khan, and the 
Bijaranls from Bijar, who revolted against Mir Chakur. 
The Mazaranis are said to be of Khetran origin, and 
the Loharanis of mixed descent. No doubt some Jatts, 
and also some Kalmatis, Buledhis, and Hasanis have 
been absorbed, and perhaps some Pathan elements 
also among the Bijaranls. 

Rdtsdnl. — A powerful Brahoi tribe, said by some Baloches 
to be of Baloch descent, and traced to Bais, cousin of 
Mir Chakur. This genealogy is, perhaps, only due to 
the similarity of name. 

Shambdnl. — A small tribe, sometimes classed as a clan of 
the Bughti occupying the hill country adjacent to the 
Bughti and Mazari tribes. Traced, like the Lunds, to 
Behan, cousin of Mir Chakur. 

Umardni. — A small tribe in Kachhi, and also a clan or 
sept of the Maghassl, Marrl, Lund, and Khosa tribes. 

Zarkdni. — Another name for the Bughti (q.v.). It is 
noticeable that a neighbouring Kakar Pathan clan (of 
Kohl) bears the name Zarkan. 

Tribes not organized as Tumans. 

Ahmdaiu. — A tribe formerly of importance, with its head- 
quarters at Mana, in Dera Ghazi Khan. There is also 
a large Ahmdani clan among the Sorl Lunds, and 
among the Haddianl Legharis. The Mana Ahmdanis 
are said to descend from Gyandar (see Appendix 
III., v.). 

Gishkhauri. — Now found scattered in Dera Isma'il Khan 
and Muzafargarh, also in Mekran. Said to be descended 



60 THE BALOCH RACE 

from one of Chakur's companions, nicknamed Gish- 
khaur, who was a Kind. The name appears to be 
really derived from the Gishkhaur, name of a torrent 
in the Boleda Valley, Mekran, so this tribe is probably 
of common descent with the Buledhl. There is a 
Gishkhaurl sept among the Lasharl sub-tuman of the 
Gurchani, and a clan among the Dombkl. 

Tdlpur, or Talbur. — The well-known tribe to which the 
Amirs of Sindh belonged, still represented by the Mini 
of Khairpur. Identified by themselves, and by most 
other accounts, with the Talbur clan of the Legharis, 
but by some derived from an eponymic Talbur, grand- 
son of Bulo, and hence supposed to be of common 
origin with the Bulerf/as. 

Pitdfl. — Of uncertain orgin. Found in considerable 
numbers in Dera Isma'Il Khan and Muzafargarh, and 
as a clan of the Gurchanls in Dera Ghazi Khan. 

Nutkdm, or Nodhakdnl. — A compact tribe, which till quite 
lately was organized as a tuman, occupying the country 
of Sangarh, north of Dera Ghazi Khan. 

Kulachl. — Probably derived from Kolanch, in Mekran. 
They accompanied the Dodais and Hots, and settled 
near Dera lsma'11 Khan. The town of Kulachl still 
bears their name, and they are most numerous in that 
neighbourhood. There seems some probability that 
they were a branch of the Dodal. 

Gurmdnl. — This tribe is scattered through Dera Ghazi 
Khan, Dera Isma'Il Khan, and Muzafargarh, but 
nothing is known of its history. 

Mashori. — An impure race, now found mainly in Muza- 
fargarh. There is a Masori clan among the Bughtl, 
but there is probably nothing in common between 
them. 

Mastoi.— Probably one of the servile tribes, though not 
mentioned in old poems. Found mainly in Dera 
Ghazi Khan, where they have no social status. 

Kwpchanl. — Mainly in Dera Isma'Il Khan. 

t~t v_ J- In Dera Ghazi Khan. 

idajam J — 

Suhrdm. — In Muzafargarh. 

Laskdm. — In Muzafargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Dera 

Isma'Il Khan. 
Qanclrdnl. — In Muzafargarh. 
Kalol. — Found as a clan among the Legharis of Dera 

Ghazi Khan and the Kachhl Binds. 



APPENDIX II. 

ORGANIZED TRIBES OR TUMANS. 

The following list of tribes still organized as tumans, with 
their clans, and, wherever possible, their septs or sub- 
sections, has been compiled from various sources. For 
the information regarding the tribes of the Dera Ghazi 
Khan district and the adjoining hill country I am mainly 
responsible, but I have also drawn on Bruce's * Notes on 
the Baloch Tribes of the Dera Ghazi Khan District.' The 
details regarding the tribes of Kachhi, and some of those 
regarding the Marris and Bughtis, are taken from Mr. 
Hughes Buller's recently issued report on the Balochistan 
census, which has enabled me to fill in the gaps in the list 
of the Northern Baloch tribes. I would draw especially 
attention to the full details given of the Dombki, Maghassl, 
and Rind tribes. Unfortunately, the Balochistan census 
did not extend into Mekran, and no details of subdivisions 
can be given for this country, nor for Persian Balochistan, 
although the Rind, Hot, Lashari, Korai, Gichki, and 
Buledl there form large organized tribes. The same 
remark applies to Slstan and Kharan. I am also without 
full details as to the Khosas, Jakranis, and Burdis (Bulec?/us) 
of Northern Sindh. 



Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Bughti, or 


Raheja. 


Bibrakzai. 


Zarkanl. 




Karmanzai 

Kasmani. 

Mandwani. 

Sahagani. 

Syahinzai. 

Jobhazai. 



61 



62 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Bughti, or 


Nothani : 


Haibatanl. 


Zarkani 


1. Zimakani, or 


Mehranzai. 


(continued). 


Durragh. 


Chakrani. 




2. Pherozani. 


Chandramzai, 

Haiwanl. 

Nohkani. 

Pherozani. 

Phish-bur. 

Kamezai. 

Shalwani. 

Sundrani. 




Mason. 


Bagriani. 

Bakshwani. 

Pherozai. 

Gurriani. 

Jafarani. 

Nohkani. 




Kalphur. 


Hotakani. 
Fadlani. 




Phong, or 


f Darwani. 
\ Gyandaram. 




MondranL 






Hajiani. 






Phong. 




Shambani, or 
Kiazai. 


i Kiazai. 

< Shambani. 
( Saidani. 


BuleeZM, or 


Gola. 




Burdl. 


Jafuzai. 

Kahorkhani. 

Kotachi (Kulachi ?). 

Lulai. 

Pitafi. 

Baite. 




Bozdar. 


Bakhri. 

Eustamani. ■ 

Dulani. 

Ladwani. 

Chakarani. 

Sihani. 

Shahwani. 

Jafirani. 







APPENDIX 


II 


Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Bozdar (con- 


Jalalani. 




tinued. 


Namurdi. 






Ghulamani (sub- 


J Bijaranl. 




tuman). 


( Kajani. 


Dombkl, or 


Baghdar. 


Aim am. 


Domkl. 




Chhatani. 
Pherozani. 
Isiani. 
Jaroi. 
Moral. 
Philani. 
Ranozai. 
Thathetani ( 
lani ?). 




Bhand. 


Bhand. 




Brahimam. 


Bozerani. 

Gajani. 

Hastiani. 

Kasmani. 

Mastiam. 

Nahani. 

Rakhiani. 




Dinar!. 


Ishkani. 
Murldani. 




Dirkhani. 


Dirkhani. 




Gabol. 


Gabol. 




Ghaziani. 


Ladhiani. 
Ghaziani. 




Gishkhauri. 


Gishkhauri. 




Gorgezh. 


Gorgezh. 




Hara. 


Hara. 




Jambani. 


Jambani. 




Khosa. 


Pachizai. 
Sahjani. 




Lashari. 


Lashari. 




Mahamdani. 


Birmani. 
Isabani. 
Mirwani. 
Nihalzai. 




Mirozai. 


AUahdadzai. 

Bhutani. 

Dildarzai. 



63 



(Thathi- 



64 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Donibki, or 


Mirozai {continued). 


Hasilkhanzai. 


Domkl {con- 




Hotiani. 


tinued) . 




Jalalkhanzai. 
Muhammadkhan zai 
Tharozai. 




Shabkhor. 


Changwani. 

Jahlwanl. 

Shabkhor. 




Singiani. 


Singianl. 




Sohriani. 


Chakrani. 

Dadrani. 

Dilawarani. 

Kasmani. 

Mazarani. 

Mirdadzai. 

Shahozai. 

Sohrabzai. 




Talani. 


Fazlani. 

Khairoani. 

Nod/iwani. 




Wazirani. 


Atrani. 

Mandwani. 

Wazirkhanzai. 




Gadani. 


Gadani. 



Drishak. 



Karmani. 

Mingwani. 

Gulpha^. 

Sargani. 

Arbani. 

Jistkani. 

Isanani. 



Gurchani. {a) Dodai Gurchariis. 



1. Shaihakani : 
Khakhalani. 
Shakhalani. 



Jalabani. 

Bakarani. 

Mankani. 

Dodani. 

Sheikhani. 

Mehani. 

Babulani. 

Mithani. 





APPENDIX 


II 


Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


GurchanI 


2. Hotwanl. 


San jam. 


(continued). 




Babulani. 

Chutiani. 

ManakanT. 

Kasmani. 

Kulanganl. 




3. Khalllanl. 


Bakrani. 

Bahadurani. 

Gorpatanl. 




(fr) Rinds, or Lasharls. 




4. Bazglr. 


Maparwanl. 
Pabadanl. 
Dalalanl. 
Brahimani. 




' 5. Jistkani. 


Dadani. 

Fathiani. 

Kinganl. 

Phaujwani. 

Dilsharf/mnl. 

Gharam. 




6. Pitafl. 


Jar warn. 

Hatmanl. 

Katalanl. 


CO 




Brahimani. 


c3 ' 




Matkani. 


•S 

■eS 




Janglanl. 


■fl 




Sarmoranl. 


p 




Thulranl. 




7. Jogianl. 


~\ Mewanl. 
J Ahmdanl. 




8. Chang. 






Kinganl. 






Kohnanl. 




9. Holawanl. 


Vadanl. 
Ludani. 
Matkani. 




\ 


Harwanl. 




10. Suhrani. 


Mirakani. 

Musanl. 

Sawani. 




[c) 11. Durkani, 


AlkanI . 




(sub-tuman) 


Gandagwalagh 
5 



65 



66 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 
Gurchani 
(continued). 



Clan. 



(d) 12. Lashari 

(sub-tuman), 



Sept. 
Salem am. 
Zahriani. 
Zaveranl. 
Zawadhanl. 
Eri. 

Jandanl. 
Phirukani. 
Syahphadh. 
Ghattani. 
Thalowani. 
Melohar. 
Omarani. 
Sagharwani. 
Nohkanl. 
Langrani. 
Kahlri. 
Eawalkani. 
Nihalani 
Sulemanl. 
Gandsar. 
JalalanT. 
Badulani. 
Jumbrani. 
Bangulani. 
MordanT. 
Gabol. 
Bhand. 
Gwaharamani, 
Sandhalani. 
Hagdadani. 
Gurkhavani. 
Shalamani. 
Saranganl. 
Nihalani. 
Gishkhauri. 



Jakrani. 



Salivani. 

Sawanari. 

Syahphadh 

Majanl. 

Solkani. 

Mulkani. 

Sadkani. 





APPEND] 


:x ii 


Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


JackranI (con- 


Karorkani. 




tinued). 


Dirkanl. 




Kasranl. 




C Alanl. 




Lashkaranl. 


< Lakhnl. 
( Bustamanl. 




Eubadan. 


j Mamdanl. 
( Eubadan. 




Budani. 


Budani. 




WasuanL 


Wasuanl. 




Legharl. 


( Lailani. 
1 Shahlani. 




Khepdin. 




Jarwar. 


Jarwar. 




Bada. 


J Tahorl. 

( WasmananI, 


Khosa. 


Balelani. 

Jangel. 

Jindani. 

Jiani. 

Jarwar. 

Hamalani. 

Tombiwala. 

Mihrwani. 

Isiani. 

Haiti. 

Jajela. 

Lashari. 

Umarani. 





67 



N.B. — The above are the clans of the Dera Grhazi Khan 
tuman. I have not been able to obtain the names of the 
clans of the Khosas of North Sindh. 



Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


larl. 


1. Alianl. 


Dodiani. 

Muridani. 

Pheroani. 

Nidamani. 

Malhani. 

Jamalkhanani. 

Brahimani. 

5-2 



68 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Leghari (con- 


2. Jogiani. 


Mirzianl. 


tinued). 




Sangarani. 
Mastoi. 




3. Bughlani. 


Kustamanl. 
Sirkani. 




4. Haibatani. 


Haibatani. 




5. Bamdani. 


(In Sindh.) 




6. Hijbani. 


Bijarani. 
Shahani. 




7. Talbur. 


Gurmani. 
Bijarani. 




8. Chandya. 


Chandya. 




9. Kaloi. 


Nangri. 
Suhrilni. 




10. Haddiani 






(sub-tuman). 






(1) Ahmadani. 


Anglani. 

Baharkhani. 

Haidarani. 

Hajiani. 

Khaniani. 




(2) Buloani. 


Anglani. 

Bagariani. 

Baglani. 

Buloani. 

Bijarani. 

Hajiani. 

Ismailani. 

Jakhwani. 

Jangwani. 

Jariani. 

Khedrani. 

Sarbani. 

Shadiani. 

Shahani. 




11. Batwanl. 


Hajiani. 
Shahani. 


Lund 


1. Lund. 




(of Tibbi). 


2. Khosa. 

3. Kind. 


J Chandya. 
( Khosa. 





APPENDIX II 




Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Lund 


1. Haidarani. 


Haidarani. 


(of Son). 


2. Ahmdani 


Ludani. 

Mahmdani. 

Moriani. 

Gumrani. 

Dangwani. 

Jangwani. 




3. Gorchani. 


Gorchani. 




4. Kalian!. 


Musarani. 

Balkan!. 

Bakarani. 

Sabzani. 

Hotwani. 

Gajani. 

Beg. 




5. Gadharoam, or 


Gadharoam. 




Garazwanl. 


Ludhianl. 
Phulani. 
Turbani. 
Sihani. 




6. Zariani. 


Zariani. 




7. NuhanT. 


Nuhanl. 


Marri. 


1. Ghazanl. 


Bahawalzai 

{Chiefs 1 Section) 

Tingianl. 

Aliani. 

NocMbandaghani, 

Muhandanl. 

Churl. 

Lori-khush. 

Mazarani. 

Ispahan!. 

Badani. 

Jarwar. 

Zhing. 

Langani. 

Chhilgari. 

Mehakani. 

Shahani. 

Murghiani. 




2. Bijarani. 


Kalandaranl. 



69 



70 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 
Marri (con- 
tinued) . 



Clan. 



Sept. 

Salarani. 

Sumrani. 

Phirdadanl. 

Mandwani. 

Eamkani. 

Khalwani. 

Kungrani. 

Shaheja. 

Phawadl. 

Eamkani. 

Kaisarani. 



3. Loharani. 



4. Mazaram. 



Khunarani. 

Sherani. 

Mahmdani. 

Gusrani. 

Durkani. 

Jalambani. 

Jindwani. 

Melohar. 

Sarangani. 

Hijbani. 

Changulani. 

Manikani. 

Mehkanl. 

Badani. 

Allan!. 

Sherani. 



Mazari 



1. Balachani. 



Gulsheranl. 

Mistakani. 

Azadani. 

Machiani. 

Haidaranzai. 

Saidanzai. 

Khudadadani. 

Haibatani. 

Badani. 

Bad/ielanl. 



APPENDIX II 



71 



Tribe. Clan. 

Mazarl (con- { 2. Kustamani 
tinned) . 



Syah-laf 
Mazarls. 



3. Masidani. 



\ 4. Sarganl. 



Sept. 
Phirukani. 
Marani. 
Adiani. 
Harwani. 
Bungrani. 
Abdulani. 
Kaisaram. 
Shabarkam. 
Minglani. 
Darwani. 
Sarwani. 
Nadhani. 
Chonglanl. 
Zimakam. 
Miriam. 
Gulab. 
Lalani. 
Gulani. 
Isiani. 
Gulrani. 
Bannu. 
Talbur.^ 
Salatani. 
Lulal. 
Dulanl. 
Nohkani. 
San jar anl. 
Saindani. 
Shaheja. 
Vahani. 
Nod/iakam. 
Latani. 
Haurani. 
Sureja. 
Garani. 
Tukuranl. 
Bhamboram. 
Mirakanl. 
Pohthani. 
Isani. 
Jaurakani. 
Samlani. 
Shulanl. 
Sargani. 



72 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 


Clan. 


Sept. 


Mazari (con- 




Jaloi. 


tinued) . 


5. Kird. 


Kird. 


Kind (of 


1. Azdl. 




Kachhi). 


2. Badini. 

3. Bijarzai. 

4. Buzdar. 

5. Chakarani. 






6. Chandya. 


Chakarani. 

Dangezai. 

Ishaqzai. 

Phuluzai. 

Chandya. 




7. ChhalgarL 






8. Chawalani. 






9. Dinar! Israni. 






10. Pherozal. 






11. Gabol. 






12. Gadal. 


Saral. 




13. Gadrl. 






14. Ghulam Bolak. 


Alianl. 

Choliani. 

Jagianl. 

( Khiani. 
Isabani^ Mandwanl, 

( Nindwani. 




15. Gorlshianl. 






16. Gurchani. 






17. Gurgezh. 






18. Gurgezai. 






19. HadakarJ. 


Umrani. 




20. Hadwar. 






21. Hothanzai. 






22. Indra. 


Chamra. 
Haslanl. 




23. Isani. 






24. Jamall 


Chhalgarl. 




(sub-tuman). 


Mundram. 

Newari-wens. 

Jamall. 




25. Jatoi. 


Brahimani. 

Biilani. 

Hajihanzai. 



APPENDIX II 



73 



Tribe. 
Eind (of 
Kachhl) — 
continued. 



Clan. 



26. Kahiri. 

27. Kalwani. 

28. Karmiizai. 

29. Khosa 

(sub-tuman). 



30. KaloL 

31. Kulachi. 

32. Kolank. 

33. Kuchik. 



34. Leghari. 

35. Lasharl. 

36. Lund. 

37. Masori. 

38. Mehrall. 

39. Mugheri. 

40. Muradkhel. 

41. Nahar. 

42. Nakhezai. 

43. NausherwanL 

44. Nindwani. 

45. Paindzai. 

46. Phirukani. 

47. Pitafi. 

48. Phugh. 

49. Phuzh. 

50. Eaheja. 



Sept. 
Jamalani. 
Lahorzai. 
Pherozani. 
Sheh. 



Bakhrarri. 

Ganani. 

Sakhani. 

Shahani. 

Umarani. 

Khosa. 



Chotai. 

Syahphadh. 

JalambanT. 



Mehrani. 
Mirozai. 

Han j wan i. 



Jogl. 

Badlzai. 

Sahakani. 

Sanani. 

Sekani. 

Sharkani. 

Shaihakani 



51. Kahejo. 

52. Kakhshani, 

53. Eamezai. 



74 



THE BALOCH RACE 



Tribe. 
Kind (of 
Kachh!)- 
continued. 



Clan. 

54. Kozi. 

55. Eustamani. 

56. Sohriani. 



57. Sarkhi. 

58. Shaheja. 

59. Shar. 

60. Sundrani. 

61. Sohriani (2). 



Sept. 



Bagarzai. 

Hajlhanzai. 

Nindwam. 



Kahin. 



Maghassi. 



1. Bulam. 



2. Muradani. 



3. KalandaranL 



4. Tahirani. 



1. Bhutan!. 

2. Bijarani. 

3. Bangulani. 

4. Boltl. 

5. Chandrama. 

6. Faslani. 

7. Gadhi. 

8. Gagran. 

9. Gola. 

10. Hisbanl. 

11. Jagirani. 

12. Kotohar. 

13. Lashari. 



Bambuwanl. 

Mundwani. 

Nihalzai. 

Sumarzai. 

Bandlani. 

Janbani. 

Mirzai. 

Mundhani. 

Sadikanl. 

Hamamanl. 

Hazurani. 

Nurani. 

Ahmadanl. 

Allah-bakhsh-zai. 

Budrani. 

Nurani. 

Wazlrani. 



Jigani. 



Haidarani. 
Hisbani. 



Alkai. 

Bhangarani. 

Bhutan!. 



APPENDIX II 



75 



Tribe. 



Clan. 



MaghassI 
(continued). 



14. Laskanl. 

15. Mirzani. 

16. Muhamdani. 

17. Mugherl. 



18. Eaheja. 

19. Shabrani. 

20. Shahmurzai. 

21. Shambam. 

22. Syahzai. 

23. Tarihali. 

24. Umrani. 



25. Wasdani. 



Sept. 
Dmarzai. 
Gajani. 
Gorani. 
Jahawanl. 
Jam. 
Laklani. 
Manghiani. 
Mianzai. 
Muhamdani. 
Sumram. 
Tajanl. 
Tumpani. 
Wasuwani. 



Bamberani. 

Bhand. 

Hajija. 

Jamra. 

Kalani. 

Khor. 

Mirozai. 

Kehanzai. 

Sarajani. 



Shambani 
Safrani. 



Abdulzai. 

Bhirani. 

Bhutan!. 

Dilawarzai. 

Gorshani. 

Jongani. 

Paliani. 

Sobhani. 



Umrani. Subdivisions not re- 

corded. 



APPENDIX III. 

GENEALOGICAL TABLES SHOWING THE CONNEC- 
TION OF THE VAKIOUS TRIBES ACCORDING 
TO BALOCH TRADITION. 

I. 

Mir Jalal Khan. 
I 



I ! I I I I I 

1. Bind 2. Lashar 3. Koral. 4. Hot 5. Jato 6. Bulo. 7. All 

(see II.). (see VII.) . (see (daughter) 

VIII.) =Murad 



(nephew). 



Buledhi 
tribe. 



I I 

Ghazan. Umar. 

Ghazani clan Umarani tribe, and clan 

of Marrls (among Lunds, Khosas, 
(see XL). Marrls, etc.). 



N.B. — The following tables show the descent of the existing tribes 
from the above. 



76 



APPENDIX III 



77 



ii. 



Descendants of Eind. 



Rind. 



Razman. 
I 



Nau Nasir Din. 



I 
Husain. 



I 
Pheroz. 

I 
Kalo. 



Ahmad. 

I 
Gilo. 

I 

I 
Kaim. 

I 
Chauro. 

I 



Naubat. 

The Leghari 

tribe 

(see IV.)- 



Pheroshah. 
I 



Sahak 
(see III.). 



Ya'qiib. 



Kasrani 
tribe. 



I 
Bahar. 

I 
Blvaragh = 
daughter of the 
King of Khorasan. 

Gishkhaur . 



Shau-ali = Bano. 

(Bano left a widow 

= Bozdar, a 

goatherd.) 

The Bozdar tribe 

and the Haddiani 

and Kaloi Legharis. 



I 
Barkhurdar. 



Fath. 



Shakhal. 



Gishkhaun 
tribe. 



Masti. 

1 
The Mastol 
clan. 



Mazar. 

The Mazari 
tribe (Syah- 
laf Mazaris ) 



78 



THE BALOCH RACE 



III. 



Sahak (see II.). 
I 



Shaihak. 

i 



i 

Hasan. 



Mir Chakar. 



Hamal. 



Shahzad. 



Shaihak. 



Muham- 
mad. 

I 
Mahm- 

dani 

(Dombkl 

clan). 



Bahadur. 

I 
Fath. 



Mazar. 

„ i • 

Gadam. 

Brahimani 

and GadanI 

clans of 

Dombkl. 



Brahim. Rehan. Jland. Nohak. Gyan- 

dar. 
| 
Jindani Nohani, Bughti 
clan clan of tribe 
(Khosa). (Bughti). (see 

v.). 



I I 



Mir- 
Han. 



Rais. Hamal. 



AH. 

Lund tribe 
and Sham- 
banl, sub- 
tribe (Bughti) 
(See VI.). 



I 
Sher'all. 

I 

Ghulam 

Bolak 

Rinds. 



Raisani 

tribe 

(now 

Brah- 

oi).i 

I 
Bashk'ali. 

I 
Syahpha^7t 

Durkani 
(GurchanI). 



Hamal- 

ani 

clan 
(Khosa) 

and 
Rash- 

kani 
of Mek- 



1 Said to be of Afghan origin in Balochistan Census Report, 1902, 
pp. 100, 103. 



APPENDIX III 79 



IV. 



Naubat(see II.). 

I 
Brahim. 

I 
Mubarak. 

I 
Koh-phrosh, alias Legliar. 



I I I I 

All. Rustam. Sirak. Haibat. Kamdan. 

I I J I I 

Aliani RustamanI Sirkani Haibatani Rarndani 

clan. clan. clan. clan. 



Clans forming the main body of the Leghari (Legharis 

tribe of Dera Ghazi Khan. of Sindh). 

(Probably the JogianI clan should be added to these. The other 
clans given above in Appendix II. do not belong to the original 
Legharis). 

V. 
Descent of the present Bughti Chief from Gyandar (see III.). 

Gyandar. 

Raheja. 1 

I 
Kalo. 

Blvaragh, or Blbrak. 

I 
Salem. 

I 
Gola Shah. 

Nohakh. 

I 
Fath Muhammad. 

r 

Salem. 

Ghulam Murtiza. 
I 



Nawab Sir Shahbaz Khan, K.C.I.E., Gauhar Khan, etc. 

present Tumandar. 

N.B. — Ahmad Khan states that the Jakranis and the Ahmdanls of 
Mana also descend from Gyandar. 

1 Hence Raheja clan. 



80 



THE BALOCH RACE 



VI. 
Pedigree of Lund and ShambanT Chiefs from AlI (see III.). 

All. 
Isa. 



I 
Adam. 

Kharo. 

I 
Adnakh. 

I 
Haidar. 

Shadan. 1 

I 
Sori. 2 

I 



I I 

Husain. Mlro. 

I 
Durrakh. 



Lashkar. 

I 
Dilawar. 

I 
Manik. 

Muhammad. 

I 
Fazl Khan. 

Ghulam Haidar. 



! 

Chutta. 

Allahdad. 

I . 
Husain. 

I 
Juma. 

I 
Sharbat. 

Shambo.' 

Mihrab. 

I 
Gaman. 

I 
Daulat. 

I 
Hot. 

I 
Fauja. 

| 
Sobha. 

I 



Muhammad 
Khan, late 
Tumandar. 



Ahmad Khan, 

late Tumandar 

of Lunds. 



Ghulam 
Muhammad. 

I 
KechI Khan, 
Tumandar of 
ShambanTs. 



Gwaharam. 



Daughter— Meh- 

rullah Khan, 

Tumandar 

of Marris. 



1 Hence the town of Shadan Lund. 

2 Hence the name Sori Lund. 
8 Hence the name ShambanT. 



APPENDIX III 



81 



VII. 

Descendants of Lashar (see I.). 



Nodhbandagh. 

Gwaharam. 

I 

The Lashar I, 

clan of Kachhi. 



Bakar. 
Kamen. 

Mubarak. 

I 
All. 

I 
Bhut. 1 

Mag. 2 

Shekho. 

I 
Bakhu. 

I 
Muhammad. 

I 
G ah war. 

I 
Kaisar. 

Adnakh. 



Mlro. 

Karm All. 

I 
Naubat. 

I 
Massti. 

i 

Husain. 

I 
Kehan. 

I 
Salem. 

! 

Shahbaz. 

I 
Jassfi. 

I 
Lashar. 

I 

The Jistkani, 

chiefs of Mankera. 



Mlhan. 

I 
Kaisar Khan, 
Tumandar of the Maghassls of Jhal. 



VIII. 

Descendants of Hot (see I.). 
Hot. 



Sahak. Punnu. 

= daughter of Bizan, chief 

of the Syah-laf MazarTs, 

and elected chief of the tribe. 

The BalachanI Mazaris 
(see IX.). 



Khosagh. 

I 
Hamal. 

The Khosa tribe 

(see X.). 



1 Hence the Bhutani clan of Maghassls. 

2 Hence the name MaghassT. 



82 



THE BALOCH RACE 



IX. 

The Pedigree of the Mazari Tumandar (belonging to the 
Balachani Clan, from Sahak (see VIII.). 

Sahak. 



Balach. 1 
Radho. 



I 
Shadhen, succeeded on 
death of Radho. 

I 
Bhando. 



I 
Badhel. 

I 

I 
Bakar. 



I 
Dost 'All. 

Sher Muhammad. 

Dost Muhammad, 
Titular Tumandar. 



i I 

Paindagh. Shaho. 



Balach. 



Hamal I. 

Mitha I. 

I 
Padheli (i.e., 

I 
Mitha II. 

I 
Hamal II. 

I 
Mitha III. 

Gulsher. 

Shah All. 

I 
Hamal III. 

Bahram Khan. 

I 



Fath All). 



Nawab Sir Imam Bakhsh 

Khan, K.C.I.E., 

Actual Tumandar. 

I 

i 

Sardar Bahrain KhaD, 
and others. 



Raham Khan. 

Tilii Khan, 
and others. 



1 Hence the name Balachani 



APPENDIX III 



83 



x 

Pedigree of Khosa Chiefs, from Hamal (see VIII. 
Hainal. 

Haji. 

I 
Samtno. 

I 
Di gh aro. 

Khawan-Khash, alias Bhawa. 
I 



Balel 
(Balelani clan). 



I 

Umar 

(Umarani clan). 



Jla 
(JlanT clan). 



Hamal 
(Harnalani clan). 



Sikandar Khan. 

I 
Mubarak Khan. 



I 
Badhel, or Batil. 1 

Said. 

I 
Yusuf. 

i 

Jawanak. 
Ghulam Haidar. 

Bakurdar. 

I 
Kaura Khan. 2 



Ghulam Haidar. 

I 

Sardar Bahadur Khan, 

present chief. 



Dost Muhammad. 



1 Hence the town of Batil, tribal headquarters. 

2 See account by Herbert Edwardes in 'A Year on the Punjab 
Frontier,' 1849. 



6-2 



84 



THE BALOCH RACE 



XI. 

Pedigree of Marri Tumandar from Ghazan (see I..) 
Ghazan. 



Rahim. 

I 
Mitha. 

Murad Bakhsh. 

I 
Jallab. 



Satak. 

I 
Kaisar. 

I 
Darya. 

I 
Dost 'AH. 

Bahawal. 

_ I 

I 
Mubarak. 

I 



Doda. 

I 
MTr Muhammad. 



Dost 'AIT. 

Baloch. 

I 
Mir Hazar. 



Ghazan Khan, 
late Tumandar. 



Nawab Mehrullah Khan, 
present Tumandar. 

I 
Khair Bakhsh. 



XII. 
Dodai Pedigrees. 
Bhung, Somra. 

After several generations. 

I 
Doda. 



Gorish 

(GurchanI tribe). 

I 



Shaihak. Hoto. Khalll. AH. 



Shaiha- 
kani 
clan. 



Hotwani 
clan. 



Khall- 
lani 
clan. 



Alkani 

Durkanl 

clan. 



Ghazi 
Khan. 

I 

The 

Mirranls 

of Dera 

Ghazi 

Khan. 



Sohrab. 



Ismail 
Khan. 

I 

The 

Mirranls 

(of Leia). 



Fath 
Khan. 

Probably 

the 

Kulachi 

tribe. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



I. TEAVELS AND EXPLOKATIONS. 

Pottinger : ' Travels in Beloochistan.' London, 1815. 

Masson : ' Travels in Balochistan, Afghanistan, etc.' 4 vols. 

London, 1844. 
Ferrier : ' Caravan Journeys.' London, 1857. 
Eastwick : ' Dry Leaves from Young Egypt.' London, 1851. 
Belle w : ' From the Indus to the Tigris.' London, 1874. 
Burton: ' Sind Be visited.' London, 1877. 
St. John, Lovett : 'Eastern Persia.' 2 vols. London, 1876. 
Floyer : ' Unexplored Balochistan.' London, 1882. 
Napier : ' Administration of Scinde.' 1851. 
Holdich : ' Our Indian Borderland.' London, 1900. And other 

writings. 
Curzon : ' Persia.' 2 vols. London, 1892. 
Macgregor : ' Wanderings in Balochistan.' London, 1882. 
Molesworth Sykes : ' Ten Thousand Miles in Persia.' London, 

1902. 

II. ETHNOGRAPHY. 

Ujfalvy : ' Les Aryens au Nord et au Sud de l'Hindou Kouch.' 

Paris, 1896. 
Bellew: ' Ethnography of Afghanistan. ' London, 1891. 
Risley : ' Tribes and Castes of Bengal.' Calcutta, 1891. 
Ibbetson : ' Outlines of Punjab Ethnography.' Calcutta, 1883. 
Holdich : ' The Arabs of our Indian Frontier ' {Journal of the 

Anthropological Institute, vol. xxix., p. 18). 
Lassen: Z.f. d. K. d. M. t Band 4, pp. 87-122. Bonn, 1842. 
Bruce : ' Notes on the Baloch Tribes of the Derajat.' Lahore, 

circa 1870. 
Hughes: 'Balochistan.' London, 1877. 

Duke : ' Report on Thai Chotiali and Harnai.' Calcutta, 1883. 
Raverty : ' Notes on Afghanistan.' Calcutta, 1880. 
Hughes-Buller ; ' Report on Census of Balcchistan.' Bombay, 1902. 

85 



86 THE BALOCH RACE 



III. HISTORY. 



Elliott and Dowson : ' The History of India.' 8 vols. London, 

1867- 1877 (especially vols, i., ii., and v.). Referred to as ' E. D.' 
Ferishta's History. Text published by Newal Kishor, Lakhnau. 
Erskine : ' Babar and Humayun.' 2 vols. London, 1854. 
Raverty: 'Translation of Tabakat-i-NasirT.' London, 1881. 
Jaubert : ' Geographie d'Edrisi.' Paris, 1836. 
Ouseley's ' Ibn Haukal ' (i.e., Istakhrl). 
Zotenberg: 'Chronique de Tabari.' Paris, 1872. 
Mordtmann : * Istakhrl. ' Hamburg, 1845. 
Mas'udI. 9 vols. Paris (French translation). 
Yakut's Geographical Dictionary (French translation). 
Haig : ' The Indus Delta Country.' London, 1894. 
Mockler : ' The Origin of the Baloch.' J. A. S. B., 1895. 

IV. POETRY AND LEGEND. 

Dames : ' Sketch of the Northern Balochi Language.' Calcutta, 1881 
(J. A. S. B.). 

Dames : ' Balochi Text-Book.' Lahore, 1891. 

Hetu Ram : ' Biluchi-nama. 5 Lahore, 1881. 

Douie : Annotated translation of above, omitting the poems. Cal- 
cutta, 1885. 

Mayer : ' Baloch Classics.' Fort Munro and Agra (privately printed), 
1900. 

V. LANGUAGE. 

In addition to the above given under IV., the works of Mockler and 
Pearce should be consulted for Mekrani, and those of Gladstone and 
Bruce for Northern Balochi. A complete list will be found in 
Geiger : 'Die Sprache der Balutschen ' (Grundriss d. Ir. Phil.), 
Strassburg, 1898, which is the best general work on Balochi. 



INDEX 



Adadu'd-daula, DailamI, 32 

Adharbaijan, 23 

AhlkanT clan of Durkanl, 84 

Ahmad Khan Ludhiani, 53 

Ahmdani tribe, 59 

'AlafI (Arab tribe), 9 

Alans, 27 

Aleppo, 9 

AlianI clan, 67, 79 

Anthropometry of Baloches, 11, 

Arab names, 25 

Arab origin of Baloches, 7, 14 

Arab type, 8, 9, 11 

Arabic words in Balochi, 24 

Arghun Dynasty, 40, 45 

B. 

Baber's Autobiography, 46 

Badru'd-dln of Slstan, 35 

Baga ShalamanI, 53 

Bahrech (Durrani Afghans), 14 

Balachani Mazaris, 4 

Balaicha Chauhans, 14 

Baloch, denned, 1 

Balochi dialects, 3 

Balochi language, 24 

Baloch, origin of name, 15, 21-23 

Baltls, 13 

Baltistan, 13 

Bellew, Dr. H. W., 7, 14 

Bhera, 46 

Bilazuri, 29 

Biliich tribe, 2 

Bolak, 4, 5 

Bolan Pass, 3 

Boleda Valley, 19 

Bozdar tribe, 5, 6, 24, 49, 57, 77 

Brahoi element in Balochi, 24 

Brahoi race, 1-3, 40, 41 



Bughti tribe, 5, 6, 49, 57, 78, 79 
Buledhi or Buledi tribe, 3, 5, 17- 

19, 36, 37, 51, 57, 76 
Bulmat tribe, 54 
Burdi. See Buledhi 
Burdika, 49 
Burton, Sir K., 8 



C. 

12 Chakur, Mir, 42 45 

; Chandko, 48 

j Chandya tribe, 47, 49, 54 
Changiz Khan, invasions of, 34, 35 
Chatta Bakhsha (Jhang), 48 
Chauhan Bajputs, 14, 15 
Crooke, Mr. W., views of, 15, 21 
Curzon's ' Persia ' 33 



D. 

Dasht, 19 

Dashtl tribe, ±9, 39, 54 

Dera Fath Khan, 46 

Dera GhazI Khan, 1, 39, 46 

Dera Isma'Il Khan, 46 

Dhankot, 42 

Dodal tribe, 2, 54, 84 

Dodal tribe, history of, 37-39 

Dodal tribe, rivalry with Kinds, 42 

Dom (minstrel tribe), 17 

Dombkl tribe, 5, 49, 54, 78 

Drlshak tribe, 5, 49, 55 

Duke, Colonel O. T., 53 

DurkanI clan, 6, 78, 84 



E. 

Eastwick, 50, 53 

Ephthalites, or White Huns, 29 

ErI clan, 66 



87 



88 



THE BALOCH RACE 



F. 

Fath Khan, Dodal, 41, 46 
Ferrier's ' Caravan Journeys,' 7, 20, 

21, 52 
Firdausf s Shahnama, 21, 22, 26-28 
Firishta's History, 42 



Gabol tribe, 50, 55 

GadhI tribe, 39 

Gandagwalagh, clan of Durkanls, 24 

Gandava, 3, 46 

Gedrosia, 9, 22 • 

Gedrosii, 9, 22 

Ghalchas, 10, 11 

Ghazani clan, 36, 76 

Ghazi Khan, Dodal, 41, 46 

Gholo tribe, 39, 55 

GhulamanI Bozdars, 6 

Ghulam Bolak clan, 4, 49, 78 

Ghulam Muhammad Balachani, 53 

Gichki tribe, 16, 51 

Glsh Khaur, 19 

Gishkhauri tribe, 19, 59, 77 

Gil, 27, 28 

Gllanl, 27, 28 

Gopang tribe, 39, 48, 55 

Gorgezh clan, 49, 55 

Gulphadh, clan of Drishaks, 24 

Gurchani tribe, 6, 39, 49, 58, 84 

GurmanI clan, 48, 60 

H. 

Haddianl Legharis, 6, 77 

HaibatanI Legharis, 6, 79 

Haig, General, quoted, 43 

HajanI clan, 60 

Hamza, Mir, 17, 21, 34 

Harln, 36 

HasanI tribe, 50, 58 

Hetu Ram, R. B., 21, 35 

Hindu Kush, tribes of, 10 

Holdich, Sir T., 7, 8, 20 

Hot tribe, 2, 3, 5, 36, 39, 46, 48, 55 

HotwanI Gurchani, 84 

Hughes -Buller, Mr. R. (Census 

Report), 5, 51 
Husain, Shah, Langab, 41, 42 

I. 

Idrlsl, 29, 31 

Imam Bakhsh Khan, Nawab Sir, 6 

Iranian origin of Baloch, 7, 13 



Isma'il Khan Dodal, 41, 46 
Istakhrl, 29, 31 

J. 
Jacobabad District, 1 
Jagin, 36 
Jahlawan, 2 
Jakhar Jatt, 19 
JakranI tribe, 5, 19, 58 
Jalal Khan, Mir, 36 
Jam Dynasty (Sammas of Sindh), 

38 
Jatki element in Balochi, 24 
Jatol tribe, 20, 36, 48, 55 
Jatts among Baloches, 14, 38 
Jatts in Mekran and Kerman, 30 
Jhareja tribe, 38 
JindanI clan, 6, 78 
JistkanI tribe, 47, 48, 55, 81 

K. 

Kach-Gandava, 3 

Kachhl, 3 

Kahlrl tribe, 19, 20, 49, 58 

Kai Kaus, 26 

Kai Khusrau, 26 

Kalhoras of Sindh, 50 

Kalmat, 20, 49, 50, 55 

Kalmati tribe, 20, 49, 50, 55 

Kaloi clan, 60, 77 

Kalphur clan of Bughtir, 24 

Kaodai-Koral, 16 

Karachi, 20 

Karmatians, 20 

KasranI tribe, 49, 58, 77 

Kennedy, Mr. J., views of, 13 

Kerman, the Baloches in, 14, 29 

Khabls, 32 

KhalllanI Gurchanls, 84 

Khanikoff, views of, 7, 8 

Khetran tribe, 16, 17 

Khosa tribe, 5, 23, 49, 56, 81, 83 

Khushab, 46 

Kirdgall (Kirgall) or Brahoi lan- 
guage, 3 

Kird. See Kurd 

Koch race, 2, 23, 26-31 

Koch race compared with Brahoi, 
41 

Kolanch, 19 

Koral tribe, 36, 56, 48, 56 

Kot-Karor, 42 

KulachI, tribe and town, 19, 20, 48, 
60 



INDEX 



89 



Kung tribe, 5 
Kupchani clan, 60 
Kurd tribe, 31, 41, 55 

L. 
Langah, tribe and dynasty, 5, 41, 

45 
Lashar, 19 

Lashari tribe, 3, 6, 19, 36, 56, 81 
LaskanI clan, 60 
Lassen, views of, 7, 21 
Leghari tribe, 5, 6, 23, 49, 58, 79 
Lori (minstrel tribe), 17 
Lund tribe, 5, 23, 49, 59, 78, 80 
Luschan, Dr. von, views of, 8 
Lut (desert), 28, 31 

M. 

Magas, 19 

MaghassI tribe, 3, 19, 20, 49, 81 

Mahmud of Ghaznl, 20, 32 

MamasanI tribe, 17, 52 

Marri tribe, 4, 23, 48, 59, 76, 84 

Marwaris, 17 

Mashor'i, 60 

Masori clan of Bughti, 60, 62 

Masson, travels of, 7 

Mastoi clan, 60, 77 

Mas'udi, 26, 29, 30 

MazaranI clan, 6, 70 

Mazarl tribe, 4-6, 18, 48, 56, 70, 71, 

77, 81, 82 
Med, Medh, 17 
Mekran, 10, 14, 51 
Meksi-MaghassI, 52 
Mirali tribe, 56 

Mirrani clan of DodaI,_39, 48, 84 
Mistakani clan of Mazari, 6 
Mlechha, 15, 21 
Mockler, Col. E., 9, 21, 22, 86 
Muhammad bin Sam, 20 
Multan, 41-45 

N. 
Nahar tribe, 5 
Nahrui tribe, 52 
NamurdI clan, 56 
Naushirvani tribe, 51 
Naushirvan, Sassanian King, 27 
Nervui-Nahrm, 52 
Nicknames, 23 
Nodhakanl. See Nutkani 
Nodhbandagh, 18 
Nodh, Nodho, 18 
Noh. See Nuhani 



Nuhani tribe, 56, 78 

Numris, 15 

Nutkani tribe, 18, 49, 60 

P. 
Parthia, Parthians, 9, 13 
Phalli, denned, 4-6 
Phara, denned, 4 
Phuleji (Piilaji), 18 
Phuzh clan of Rinds, 56 
PitafI clan, 60 
Pottinger's travels, 7, 8, 85 
Proper names of Baloches, 25 

Q. 
Qaisaranl. See KasranT 
Qandrani clan, 60 
Qufj. See Koch 
Qufs. See Koch 

R. 

Raheja clan of Bughti, 4, 61, 79 

Raisani clan, 59, 78 

Rajput origin of Baloch discussed, 
7, 10, 14-19 

Rakhsh, Rakshani (Rashkani) clan, 
16, 57, 78 

Ramdani Legharis, 79 

Rann of Kach, 15 

Raverty's ' Notes on Afghanistan,' 
85 

Raverty's 'Tabakat-i-Nasiri,'32, 33, 
38 

Rind tribe, 3, 5, 36, 37, 57 

Rind tribe, distribution of, 48, 49 

Rind tribe, origin of name of, 15, 23 

Risley's ' Tribes and Castes of Ben- 
gal,' 11 

Rustamani clan of Legharis, 79 

S. 
Saka race, 13 
Sakastene, 13 

Samma Rajput tribe, 38, 42 
SanjaranI tribe, 52, 60 
Sarawan Brahois, 2 
Sarbandi tribe, 52 
Satgarha, 44, 45 
Shah Beg, Arghtin, 45 
Shahnama of Firdausi quoted, 21, 

22, 26-28 
Shahrk! tribe, 52 
Shaihakani Gurchani, 84 
ShambanI clan, 6, 59, 78, 80 
Shamsu'd-din of Sistan, 35 



i$Q: : 



T^HE BALOCH RACE 



Shikarpur 1 

Shor, 42 

Shorkot, 42 

Sindhi element in Balochi, 24 

Sindh-Sagar Doab, 47 

Sirkani clan of Legharis, 79 

Sistan (Sijistan) Baloches in, 3, 13, 

31-35, 51, 52 
Sitpur, 42 
Sodhas, 38 
Sohrab Dodai, 41, 84 
Somra Rajputs, 19, 37, 38 
Spiegel quoted, 7, 10 
SuhranI clan, 60 
Syah-laf Mazarls, 24, 77 
Syah-phfidh Durkanis, 23, 78 
Sykes, Major P. Molesworth, 

quoted, 7 

T. 
Tabari's History, 26, 29 
Tabakat-i-Nasiri, 32, 33 
Taimiir's invasions, 34 
Tajiks, 10-12 

Takar (subdivision among Marrls), 4 
Talpurs of Sindh, 50, 60 
Tarikh-i-Ma f sumI, 38, 43 
Tarlkh-i-Sher-Shahi, 42, 45 



Tarkhan-nama, 45 
Trumpp, Dr., 10 
Tuhfatu'l-Kiram, 36 
Tuman, denned, 2, 3 
Tumandar, 2, 3 
Turbat-i-Haidan, 33 
Turk! words in Balochi, 13 
Turkomans, comparison with, 7, 9 

U. 

Ujfalvy, M. de, 10, 12 
UmaranT tribe, 36, 37, 49, 76 

W. 

Weil's ' Geschichte der Chalifen,' 29 
White Huns, 29 



Yakut's geography quoted, 29, 31, 

32 

Z. 
Zarkan (Kakar Afghans), 59 
ZarkanI=Bughti, 59 
Zmarai Afghans, 19 
Zu'n-nun Beg Arghun (Zunu), 43, 

44 
Zutt = Jatt, 30 



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