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Copyright MCMXI by Oliver Dltson Company 


THE present work has been prepared in response to many 
inquiries and a frequently expressed need for a concise dictionary 
in one volume, compact in size and moderate in price, that shall 
include biographical sketches of eminent musicians and persons 
connected with musical work, past and present, with special 
attention to Americans. 

No attempt has been made to present lengthy sketches of the 
great masters, as there is abundant material in the larger diction- 
aries and the many biographies now on the market. The aim has 
been rather to gather data about musicians, especially contem- 
poraries, who are not mentioned in the books previously published. 
This material has been taken from magazine and newspaper 
articles, clippings from various sources and from available works 
of reference. When possible, data have been secured direct from 
the subjects of the sketches. These latter have been made as 
concise as possible, yet sufficiently comprehensive to show the 
main facts in a musician's career, those which contributed toward 
musical development, such as early environment, education (both 
literary and musical), various fields of professional activity, com- 
positions, literary works, etc. 

The Editor and the Publisher are greatly indebted to Miss 
Marguerite Barton, of Boston, who rendered valuable assistance 
in gathering the material upon which the sketches were based and 
in preparing the first draft of the manuscript. 

Care has been exercised to include only authenticated dates. 
When the available material did not agree the Editor has chosen 
the date most inherently probable. In the case of Russian com- 
posers, when possible, dates have been made to conform with the 
calendar as used by Western Europe, instead of the " old style " 
followed in Russia. 

It will be esteemed a favor if readers will call our attention to 
positive errors. With the best intentions in preparing the original 
manuscript, and the utmost care in proof-reading, errors may have 
been made. 


BOSTON, MASS., November, 1910. 




a as in fat. i as in pine. 

a as in fate. o as in not. 

a as in father. 6 as in note, 

a as in fair. 6 as in move, 

e as in met. 6 as in or. 

e as in mete. *6 

e" as in err. ii like u in quip, almost whistled; 
i as in in. German vi. 

* 6 has a rounder sound than the 6 in or, and is followed by the French 
nasal n. 


g as in gap. z as in zoo. 

fi like first n in onion. r is usually trilled in French, except 

s as in see. at the end of some words. 

An accent (d') after a consonant in French names indicates that this is to 
be sounded. 

The preceding phonetic table gives the approximate sounds of 
the French letters as nearly as the English language will permit. 
It is impossible to reproduce the exact shades and differences of 
vowel sounds, or of the nasal sounds, of the French language. 
They can be learned only from a competent, native instructor; 
and, even so, great care must be exercised in the choice of a teacher, 
that he be not a provincial, but one who is a native of Tours 
or of Paris. 

The chief peculiarity of French pronunciation, as opposed to 
English, is the absolute absence of any stress or emphasis upon any 
syllable of a word. The less emphasis (or accent, as it is termed 
in French) used, and the more evenly the syllables are pronounced 
(all of even length, and weight, and pitch) the purer the pronun- 
ciation. It is for this reason that the purest French is that spoken 
in the towns of Tours, Chinon, Loches, Amboise, and a few others, 
in the old province of la Touraine, now known as the department 
of Indre-et-Loire. There the language is spoken by everyone with- 
out the least syllabic emphasis and without any drawling. 

While in other respects the language as spoken in Paris by the 
educated classes is excellent, yet the Parisians have a tendency 
to drawl their words somewhat. However, since Paris society 


sets the style in speech, as in all other things French, so Parisian 
French is considered to be super-excellent. 

Apart from their other peculiarities of accent, Americans and 
English are readily recognized by their sing-song, inordinate 
drawling way of speaking. This is well exemplified by the word 
"Trocade'ro," pronounced (English) Trocade'ro, while in French 
it is Tro-ca-da-ro all the syllables of even pitch and equal 
length, without any emphasis. 

The syllables, therefore, of all these names should flow rapidly 
from one to the other, without any syllabic stress whatever, and 
without dwelling upon any final syllables. 

In the case of the phonetics (6-a) for ois, oil, they must be 
pronounced smoothly like one composite vowel (wah). 

As a general rule final consonants are never pronounced 
(except the letters c, f, I) save in some names of foreign origin. 
When a final s is preceded by an e it is sounded, as well as the 
final s in names from the Catalan, Basque, and Spanish. "Gil 
Bias," for example, the Parisian newspaper, is pronounced zhil'- 
blas' both the I and the s being sounded, because of Spanish 

Formerly II was pronounced as in William. This is no longer 
the custom, and the sound of y is given to II; Ih (Paladilhe) takes 
the same sound. 

J, ge, and gi, have the sound of zh. Gn is like n in onion. 
S, between two vowels, is pronounced like z. Ch has always the 
sound of sh, save in some words of foreign origin. 

Difficult sounds to acquire are the so-called nasal combinations 
of an, am, en, em, in, im, ain, aim, on, om, un. From following- 
printed phonetics many have treated these as guttural sounds 
and pronounced them as ang, ong, etc., while others have gone to 
another extreme and placed them in the nose. As a matter of 
fact they are semi-nasals; that is, the letter n is not plainly pro- 
nounced, but it is sketched, as it were, by projecting it towards 
the upper pharynx, or towards the nasal cavities (but not in them), 
in the same way that the covered or head tones are correctly pro- 
duced in singing. In like combinations the letter m is treated 
in the same way and has the same sound as the letter n. 

Finally, too much attention cannot be given to the practice 
of speaking on the lips, with the lips, and with a forward forma- 
tion for att the syllables. It is only by observing this recommen- 
dation that a fluent, pretty, and accurate accent can be obtained. 
It is the only way to acquire the letter u, that most difficult 
vowel for English speakers by the forward, whistling position 
of the lips. 



(Including other Slavonic Nationalities) 

As a rule the emphasis lies upon the penult; for example, 
David'off . Exception is made when the first syllable (or syllables) 
has a definite meaning as in Glazounoff, where glaz means "the 

Another exception is when the final syllable "off" does not 
indicate the genitive, like the French "de," but is part and parcel 
of the name itself; for example Rachman'inoff, from rachmannyi, 
meaning "heavy, awkward"; or Reb'ikoff, from rebyonok, "a 

In many names ending in "eff " or "ev" the pronunciation is 
not that of the English short "e," but about that of "off"; for 
example: Alabieff is pronounced A-la-byoff, three syllables; 
Soloviev is Sol-o-vyoff; but Taneiev is Tan-e-yeff. 

The ending " vitch," " witsch," means "the son of," if it occurs, 
as it always does, in a man's forename or Christian name; it is 
then not emphasized. In a family name, however, the emphasis 
changes from the antepenult to the penult; for example, Gabrilov'- 
ich, Gregorov'ich. 

The i in a diphthong (ia, ie), has the force of y; for example, 
Liadov is pronounced Lya'doff ; Liapounoff becomes Lya'pounoff ; 
Taneiev, Tane'yeff; Scriabine, Skrya'bin. 


op. Opera 

orch. Orchestra 

org. Organ 

orgt. Organist 

gt. Pianoforte 

hilh. Philharmonic 

pst. Pianist 

qt. Quartet 

Roy. Royal 

sch. School 

Soc. Society 

sop. Soprano 
symph. Symphony, Symphonic 

th. Theatre 

Univ. University 

via. Viola 

vln. Violin 

vlt. Violinist 

































Mus. B. 

Bachelor of Music 

Mus. Doc. 

Doctor of Music 





Abbey, John, org. builder, b. Whilton, 
Eng., Dec. 22, 1785; d. Versailles, 
Feb. 19, 1859. Trained under Davis 
and Russell; went to France at invi- 
tation of S6b. Erard; improved 
French organs by English mechan- 
ism; among many orgs. built first in 
Paris Ope'ra. Left sons E. and J. 
in same business. 

Abbott, Emma, dram. sop. b. Chicago, 
Dec. 9, 1850; d. Salt Lake City, Jan. 
5, 1891. After early struggles as 
concert singer and guitar player, was 
assisted by Clara Louise Kellogg; 
studied under Erani in N. Y., San 
Giovanni and Delle Sedie in Europe; 
d6but, London, May, 1876; Ameri- 
can d<but, N. Y, Feb., 1877; won 
great success in Europe and America. 

Abeille (ab-a-ye 1 ), Johann Christian 
Ludwig, pst., orgt., condr., compr. b. 
Bayreuth, Ger., Feb. 20, 1761; d. 
Stuttgart, Mar. 2, 1838. Composed 
2 operas, harpsichord and chamber 
music, and school songs. 

Abel (ii-bel), Karl Friedrich, last viola 
da gamba player, compr. b. Co then, 
Ger., 1725; d. London, June 20, 
1787. Trained by father, Christian 
Ferdinand (at court of Co then, 1720- 
1737) and at the Thomasschule, 
Leipzig, by J. S. Bach; lived in Lon- 
don after 1759; gave concerts there 
with J. C. Bach; composed concertos, 
sonatas, etc., and works (many un- 
published) for viola da gamba. J. B. 
Cramer a pupil. 

Abel, Ludwig, vlt., compr., condr. b. 
Eckartsberge, Thuringia, Jan. 14, 
1835; d. Neu-Pasing, near Munich, 
Aug. 13, 1895. Pupil of Ferd. 
David; leader of Munich orch.; 
teacher at Royal School of Music; 
composed violin method, studies, etc. 


Abert (a-bert), Johann Joseph, compr. 
b. Kochowitz, Bohemia, Sept. 21, 
1832. Educated as chorister at 
Gastdorf, at Leipa monastery, pupil 
at Prague Cons, under Kittl and 
Tomaczek; member of Stuttgart 
court band, 1852-1888; composed 
symph., symph. poem Columbus, 4 
operas, songs, etc. Son Hermann 
mus. historian. 

Abranyi (a-bran'-ye), Kernel, compr., 
writer, b. Szent Gyorgz Abranyi, 
Hungary, Oct. 15, 1822; d. Bu- 
dapest, Dec. 20, 1903. Pupil of 
Chopin and Kalkbrenner; founded 
first Hungarian music journal 1860; 
prof, at Nat. Mus. Acad., Pesth; 
promoter of national music; com- 
posed songs, choruses, etc., in na- 
tional vein. Son Emil (b. 1880), 

Abt (abt), Franz, compr. b. Eilenburg, 
Ger., Dec. 22, 1819; d. Wiesbaden, 
Mar. 31, 1885. Son of a clergyman, 
studied music instead of theology, 
at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, and 
at Leip. Univ.; capellmeister at Bern- 
burg, Zurich, and Brunswick, 1841- 
1882; visited America, conducted 
choral society concerts, 1872; retired 
1882. Composed over 500 works, 
forgotten pf. pieces, 7 secular can- 
tatas, innumerable songs and part- 
songs, distinguished for melodic 
facility rather than depth. Some 
songs, as Wenn die Schwalben heim- 
warts ziehn, are so popular that they 
have become veritable folk-songs. 
Son Alfred (1855-1888) conductor. 

Ackte (ak-ta/), Aino, dram. sop. b. 
Helsingfors, Finland, Apr. 23, 1876. 
Mother, Emmy Stromer, popular 
opera singer, and father, condr. and 
teacher, first trained her; she studied 
under Duvernoy, Paris Cons., 1894- 
1897, winning 3 prizes; d6but Oct. 


1897, at Paris Ope"ra; member Paris 
Ope"ra, and 1904 of Metropolitan, 
N. Y. 

Adam (ad-on), Adolphe Charles, opera 
compr. b. Paris, July 24, 1803; d. 
there, May 3, 1856. Studied at 
Paris Cons, under Boieldieu; founded 
Theatre National; was ruined by 
Revolution of '48; succeeded father 
(Louis) as teacher Paris Cons. 1848; 
composed graceful ballets and 53 
sparkling light operas; Le postilion 
de Longjumeau (1836) still widely 
popular; Le brasseur de Preston 
and Leroi d'Yvetot deserve revival; 
published essays. Souvenirs d'un mu- 
sicien, and Dernier s souvenirs. 

Adam (ad-on), Louis, pf. teacher, b. 
Miittersholtz, Alsace, Dec. 3, 1758; 
d. Paris, Apr. 8, 1848. Taught 
himself harp, vln., and composition; 
formed own pf. style from study of 
German masters; taught pf. Paris 
Cons. 1797-1842, Kalkbrenner and 
Harold among pupils; published pf. 
music and method. 

Adam de la Halle [or Hale], (ad-on de"- 
la-al'), trouvere. b. Arras, abt. 1240; 
d. Naples, 1287. His works, chan- 
sons, etc., of great historical value, 
especially Le jeu de Robin et de 
Marion, an early forerunner of 
comic opera. 

Adamowski (a-dam-of'-ski), Josef, 'cel- 
list, b. Warsaw, Poland, 1862. 
Pupil of Fitzenhagen and Tchaikov- 
ski (in comp.); member of Bost. 
Symph. Orch. 1889-1907. His wife, 
Antoinette Szumowska (tsu-mof- 
ska), pst. b. Lublin, Poland, Feb. 
22, 1868. Pupil of Strubel, Michal- 
ovski in Poland, and of Paderewski 
in Paris; first Boston appearance 
1895; successful concert-player, es- 
pecially delicate and sympathetic. 
Timothee, vlt. b. Warsaw,- Mar. 24, 
1858. Studied Warsaw Cons, and 
Paris Cons, under Massart; success- 
ful concerts in Europe and America; 
member Bost. Symph. Orch. 1895- 
1907; condr. of popular summer 
concerts; leader of Adamowski Quar- 
tet (varying members) and of A. 
Trio (with his brother Josef and 
the latter's wife). 

Adams, Charles R., dram. ten. b. 
Charlestown, Mass., 1848; d. W. 


Harwich, Mass., July 3, 1900. Pupil 
of Barbieri; sang in opera in Berlin, 
Vienna, London, and N. Y.; after 
1879 taught in Boston. 

Adams, Stephen, see Maybrick, Michael. 

Adams, Thomas, orgt., compr. b. Lon- 
don, Sept. 5, 1785; d. there, Sept. 15, 
1858. Pupil of Busby, superintend- 
ent of Apollonicon Concerts, orgt. 
at several churches; composed vol- 
untaries, fugues, etc., and anthems. 

Adler (ad'-ler), Guido, writer. b. 
Eibenschiitz, Moravia, Nov. 1, 1855. 
Educated Vienna Cons, under Bruck- 
ner and Dessoff; teacher at Vienna 
Univ. and Prague; founder, with 
others, of Vierteljahrschriftfur Musik- 
wissenschaft, 1884; editor of Denk- 
maler der Tonkunst in Oesterreich. 

Adler, Vincent, pst., compr. b. Raab, 
Hungary, Apr. 3, 1826; d. Geneva, 
Jan. 4, 1871. Studied with his 
father and with Erkel in Vienna 
and Paris; prof, at Geneva Cons. 
1865; composed pf. music. 

Aegidius (e-jid'-ius), Johannes, theor- 
ist. Spanish Franciscan friar about 
1270; wrote Ars musica. 

Agazzari (a-gat-za'-re), Agostino, com- 
pr. b. Siena, Dec. 2, 1578; d. 
there, Apr. 10, 1640. Influenced by 
Viadana; composed masses, motets, 
etc., one of first to give instructions 
about execution of figured basses. 

Agostini (a-gos-te-ne), Paolo, compr. 
b. Valerano, 1593; d. Rome, Sept., 
1629. Pupil of Nanino; among first 
to employ large numbers of voices 
in divided choirs; composed ch. mus. 
which combines marvelous contra- 
puntal skill with real beauty. 

Agramonte (a-gra-mon'-te), Emilio, 
condr., singing teacher, b. Puerto 
Principe, Cuba, Nov. 28, 1844. 
Studied in Spain and Paris, singing 
with Roger, Selva and Delle Sedie; 
teaching and conducting choral 
societies in N. Y. since 1868. 

Agricola (a-gri'-co-la), JohannFriedrich, 
orgt., writer, b. Dobitz, Saxony, 
Jan. 4, 1720; d. Berlin, Dec. 1, 1774. 
Studied under J. S. Bach; court 
composer to Frederick the Great; 
successor of Graun as director of 



Royal Chapel; wrote music of no 
lasting value, and critical works of 
some historical interest. 

Agricola, Martin, theorist, b. Sorau, 
Saxony, 1486; d. Magdeburg, June 
10, 1556. Music teacher and cantor 
at Magdeburg; wrote many treatises 
of great value to history of instru- 
ments and notation. 

Agujari (a-go-ya'-re), Lucrezia (16- 
cra-tsi-a), sop., known as La Bastar- 
della. b. Ferrara, 1743; d. Parma, 
May 18, 1783. Pupil of Lambertini; 
d6but Florence 1764; extraordinary 
success throughout Italy, owing to 
wonderful range (up to C in altis- 
simo) . 

Ahna (a'-na), Heinrich Karl Hermann 
de, vlt. b. Vienna, June 22, 1835; 
d. Berlin, Nov. 1, 1892. Pupil of 
Mayseder and Mildner; dbut Vien- 
na, 1847; leader Berlin Royal Orch., 
1868; teacher Royal High School 
for Music; member Joachim Quartet. 
Sister Eleonore, dram, mezzo sop. 

Alabieff (a-la-byof), Alexander Alexan- 
drovitch, corner, b. Moscow, Aug. 
16, 1787; d. there, 1852. Composed 
many songs in melodious, popular 
style, of which The Nightingale is 
especially well known. 

A. L., see Lehmann, Amelia. 

Alard (al'-ar'), Jean Delphine, vlt., 
compr. b. Bayonne, Mar. 8, 1815; 
d. Paris, Feb. 22, 1888. Pupil of 
Habeneck at Paris Cons.; teacher 
there 1843-1875, Sarasate among 
pupils; leader royal orch.; published 
vln. method, Etudes, concertos, etc. 
for vln.; edited Les MaUres Classigues 
de Violon. 

Albani (al-ba-ne), [pseud, of Mile. 
Marie Louise Cecile Emma Lajeu- 
nesse], dram. sop. b. Chambly, 
Canada, Nov. 1, 1850. Daughter 
of a harp professor, she was taught 
singing at convent, and sang in 
cathedral choir in Albany, N. Y. 
Studied with Duprez in Paris and 
with Lamperti m Milan; de"but 
Messina 1870; first London appear- 
ance 1872. Has sung with great 
success in opera throughout Europe 
and in U. S., in a repertory which 
varies from Lucia, to Isolde; is an 
especial favorite in London and 

England, where she has sung in many 
oratorios, at festival concerts. 

Albert (d'al'-bar), Eugen Francis 
Charles d', pst., compr. b. Glasgow, 
Apr. 10, 1864. Son of Charles Louis 
Napoleon d'Albert (1809-1886), com- 
poser of dance music and teacher 
of dancing. Eugen at first father's 
pupil; elected to scholarship at Nat. 
Training School, London, studied 
there under Pauer, Prout, Stainer 
and Sullivan; early compositions 
produced at concerts; having won 
Mendelssohn Scholarship, went to 
Vienna, studied with Richter, and 
Liszt at Weimar; married Teresa 
Carreno, and after divorce, 1895, 
singer Hermine Fink; now having 
repudiated all English antecedents, 
lives in Germany, except for occa- 
sional successful concert tours. Dis- 
tinguished as pianist by great 
breadth and nobility of style, es- 
pecially in interpreting Beethoven; 
as composer, fluent and earnest, but 
lacking in marked individuality; 
composed symphony, 2 pf. concertos, 
chamber music and 9 operas. 

Alberti, Domenico, compr., voc., pst. 
b. Venice, 171-, d. 1740. Pupil of 
Lotti; won fame as a singer and 
harpsichord player, and wrote a 
number of operas in the prevailing 
style and sonatas which were popular 
with dilettanti. He is credited with 
the invention of the so-called Alberti 
bass, an accompaniment figure much 
in use in his time and later. 

Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg, orgt., 
teacher, b. Klosterneuberg, Austria, 
Feb. 3, 1736; d. Vienna, Mar. 7, 
1809. Studied under Emmerling; 
court orgt. Vienna, 1772; had dis- 
tinguished career as teacher; among 
his pupils were Beethoven, Hummel, 
Weigl, and Seyfried. Very few com- 
positions are printed but his theo- 
retical work Grundliche Anweisung 
zur Komposition, 1790, is widely 

Aldrich, Henry, compr. b. Westmin- 
ster, 1647; d. Oxford, Dec. 14, 1710. 
Scholar, architect, dean of Christ 
Church, collected large mus. library, 
wrote theoretical works, composed 
many anthems and services, as well 
as glees and catches. 


Aldrich, Richard, author, musical critic. 
b. Providence, R. I., July 31, 1863. 
His father a gifted musical ama- 
teur; showed aptitude for music as 
a boy; educated at Providence High 
School and Harvard College, gradu- 
ated 1885; studied music there with 
Prof. J. K. Paine; 1888-89 in 
Europe for study, giving much atten- 
tion to music; entered journalism, 
Providence Journal, 1885, acting as 
musical critic; 1889 in Washington, 
D. C., private secretary to U. S. 
Senator Dixon, music critic for. 
Washington Star; in 1891 joined 
the staff of New York Tribune and, 
with other work, acted as assistant 
to H. E. Krehbiel until Oct. 1902, 
when he became regular musical 
critic for the Times, a position he 
still fills (1910); translated Lilli 
Lehmann's Meine Gesangskunst 
(English title How To Sing); wrote 
A Guide to Parsifal, a Guide to the 
Ring of the Nibelung; contributor 
to various magazines. 

Alembert (al'-on-bar'), Jean le Rond d', 
theorist, b. Paris, Nov. 16, 1717; 
d. there, Oct. 29, 1783. Wrote works 
on mus. theory according to Ra- 
meau, investigations in acoustics, 
history of mus., and mus. articles in 
his monumental Dictionnaire Ency- 
dopedique, 1751-72. 

Alfven (alf'-ven), Hugo, vlt., compr. b. 
Stockholm, 1872. Pupil at Stock- 
holm Cons.; under government aid, 
studied with Ce"sar Thomson, at 
Brussels. Composed 2 symphonies, 
choral works, songs, etc. 

Alkan (al'-kon), [pseud, of Charles 
Henri Valentin Morhange], pst., 
compr. b. Paris, Nov. 30, 1813; d. 
there, Mar. 29, 1888. Pupil at Paris 
Cons, of Zimmermann 1819-1830, 
winning many prizes; pf. teacher in 
Paris after 1833. Published 2 con- 
certos, several sonatas and other pf. 
pieces, among them eludes of amaz- 
ing technical difficulty. 

Allegri (al-la'-gre), Gregorio, compr. b. 
Rome, 1584; d. there, Feb. 18, 1652. 
Pupil of Nanini, member of Papal 
Choir, composed Miserere in 9 parts, 
which was performed annually at 
Sistine Chapel, (written down from 
memory by Mozart in 1770). 


Allen, Charles N., vlt. b. York, Eng., 
1837; d. Boston, April 7, 1903. 
Studied under Saenger in Paris; first 
vlt. Paris Grand Ope>a; in Boston 
after 1871; organized Beethoven 
Club; joined Mendelssohn Quin- 
tet, 1877; member of Philharmonic 
Orch. Bost., of Harvard Mus. Ass'n, 
Boston Symph. Orch. H. K. Hadley 
among pupils. 

Allitsen, Frances, compr. Gained schol- 
arship at Guildhall School of Mus., 
studied there under Gadsby, win- 
ning prize for orchestral composi- 
tion; d6but as concert singer, Lon- 
don, 1882; since failure of voice 
has composed exclusively; published 
many charming songs, of great vari- 
ety of subjects. 

Almenrader (al-men-ra'-der), Karl, bas- 
soon virtuoso, b. Ronsdorf, near 
Diisseldorf, Oct. 3, 1786; d. Bie- 
brich, Sept. 14, 1843. Self-taught; 
prof, at Cologne Mus. Sch.; mem- 
ber of orchestras at Frankfort and 
Biebrich; made improvements in his 
instrument, wrote treatise on it and 
method and mus. for it. 

Alpheraky (al-fe-ra'-ky), Achilles N., 
compr. b. Charkov, 1846. Com- 
posed charming pf. mus., mazurkas 
and characteristic oriental pieces, 
and more than a hundred songs. 

Alvarez (al'-va-reth), [pseud, of Albert 
Raymond Gourron], dram, tenor, b. 
Bordeaux, France. After military 
service as bandmaster, studied, at 22, 
with A. de Martini in Paris; debut in 
Paris, 1892; first London appearance, 
1893; first American appearance, 
Boston, Feb. 7, 1899; later at Paris 
Ope'ra, where he has created many 

Alvary (al-va'-ry), Max [pseud, of M. A. 
Aschenbach], dram, tenor, b. Diissel- 
dorf, May 3, 1858; d. Datenberg, 
Thuringia, Nov. 7, 1898. Son of 
celebrated painter; pupil of Stock- 
hausen; d6but, Weimar, 1881; great 
success, especially in Wagner roles; 
member Metropolitan Opera, N. Y. 
1884-1889, 1891. 

Alypios (a-lip'-ios), Greek writer, about 
360 A. D. Chief source of informa- 
tion about vocal and instrumental 
notation of Greek scales. 


Amati (a-ma'-ti), celebrated family of 
violin-makers, founders of Cremona 
School. As a whole, their violins 
mark advance on the Brescia School 
in beauty of shape and delicacy of 
tone. Andrea (abt. 1530- Apr. 10, 
1611), eldest, pupil of Brescia mak- 
ers, originated improvements on 
their work; very few of his violins 
are extant; they are small, graceful, 
clear in tone but not strong. His 
brother Nicolo (fl. 1568-1635) made 
basses chiefly. .Andrea's sons, An- 
tonio (1550-1638) and Geronimo 
(1551-1635), improved on their fa- 
ther's work; Geronimo especially 
seems to have designed his violins 
with particular care for geometrical 
accuracy and graceful beauty; they 
are sometimes larger than his father's 
and have a similarly sweet tone. His 
son, Nicolo, b. Sept. 3, 1596; d. Aug. 
12, 1684, most famous even in his 
own day, increased still further the 
grace of outline and added the needed 
power and intensity of tone; he 
made, also, some violins on a larger 
model (known as grand Amatis) and 
beautiful tenors and 'cellos. Though 
his son Geronimo (1649-1740) was 
an inferior maker, Nicole's work was 
carried on to perfection by his pupils 
Andrea Guarnerius and Antonio 

Ambros (am'-bros), August Wilhelm, 
historian, b. Mauth, near Prague, 
Nov. 17, 1816; d. Vienna, June 28, 
1876. Nephew of Kiesewetter; stud- 
ied law and entered government ser- 
vice; wrote pamphlet on aesthetics 
and history of music from begin- 
nings to time of Palestrina, a remark- 
ably accurate and authoritative 
work, unfortunately unfinished at 
his death; prof. Prague and Vienna 
Cons.; composed some music. 

Ambrose, Saint, b. Treves, 333; d. 
Milan, Apr. 4, 397. Bishop of Milan 
from 374; arranged revised mode of 
singing service for Milan Cathedral 
about 384; had much influence in 
development of orderly ritual in 
Western Church; introduced antiph- 
onal singing and established a plain- 
chant, which cannot now easily be 
distinguished from Gregorian; wrote 
many beautiful rhythmical hymns, 
but not the Te Deum to which his 
name is often attached. 


Amiot (a'-mi-6), writer, b. Toulon, 
1718; d. Pekin, 1794. Jesuit priest, 
missionary to China. Translated 
and wrote works on Chinese music. 

Anderton, Thomas, compr. b. Bir- 
mingham, Apr. 15, 1836; d. Edg- 
baston, Sept. 18, 1903. Teacher of 
mus.; conducted singing classes and 
orchestral concerts; 1874 became 
editor of paper, gave mus. lectures, 
wrote cantatas, John Gilpin's Ride, 
Wreck of the Hesperus, etc., and 

. songs. 

Anerio (a-na'-rio), Felice (fe-le'-che), 
compr. b. Rome, abt. 1560; d. there, 
abt. 1630. Pupil of Nanini; suc- 
ceeded Palestrina as compr. to Papal 
Chapel, 1594; composed masses, 
motets, madrigals, etc. 

Anger, Joseph Humfrey, orgt., compr. 
b. Ashbury, Eng., 1862. Mus. train- 
ing under private teachers; Mus. Bac. 
Oxford 1889; orgt. Bristol, 1891 at 
Ludlow, and musicmaster in King 
Edward VI School there; 1893 head 
of theory dept. Toronto Cons., orgt. 
Ch. of the Ascension; works include 
Psalm 96, madrigals, pf . pieces; auth- 
or of Treatise on Harmony. 

Anglebert (ongle'-bar'), Jean Baptiste 
Henri d', clavecinist, compr. b. abt. 
1628; d. Paris, Apr. 23, 1691. Pupil 
of Champion; chamber musician to 
Louis XIV; 1689 published Pieces 
de Clavecin, collection of contempo- 
rary airs for harpsichord and org., 
with preface which gives valuable in- 
formation about playing ornaments 
of the time. 

Animuccia (a-ni-mo-che'-a), Giovanni, 
compr. b. Florence, abt. 1500; d. 
Rome, 1571. Pupil of Goudimel; 
predecessor of Palestrina at the Vati- 
can and also in the movement to- 
ward greater clearness in music ; from 
Laudi, hymns of praise which he 
composed for Oratorio of St. Philip 
Neri, modern oratorio takes its 
name, and A. gets title " Father of 

Anschiitz (an'-shiitz), Karl, condr. b. 
Koblenz, Feb., 1815; d. New York, 
Dec. 30, 1870. Son of Johann 
Andreas (1772-1856, pst., condr., 
compr.); pupil of Friedr. Schneider; 
director of school founded by father; 



conducted in London and New York 
where he made an attempt at Ger- 
man opera in 1862. 

Ansorge (an'-sor-ge), Konrad Eduard 
Reinhold, pst. b. Buchwald, Silesia, 
Oct. 15, 1862. Pupil at Leip. Cons.; 
of Liszt, 1885; many successful 
tours in Eastern Europe and Amer- 
ica; teacher in Klindworth-Schar- 
wenka Cons, in Berlin; comp. pf. 

Antipov (an-te-poff'), Constantino, com- 
pr. b. Jan. 18, 1859. 

Aprile (a-pre-le), Giuseppe, contralto, b. 
Bisceglia, Apulia, Oct. 29, 1738; d. 
Martina, 1814. Pupil of Avos; sang 
in principal theatres of Germany and 
Italy after 1763; taught singing in 
Naples, Cimarosa among pupils; 
composed songs, and a method, with 
solfeggi, still valued. 

Apthorp, William Foster, critic, b. 
Boston, Mass., Oct. 24, 1848. Pupil 
of J. K. Paine at Harvard, and of B. J. 
Lang; taught pf. and harmony; 
wrote dramatic and mus. criticisms 
for several magazines and papers, 
especially Boston Transcript (1881- 
1903); edited program-books of 
Bost. Symph. Orch. 1892-1903; pub- 
lished essays, translations, etc.; 
removed to Europe 1903. He con- 
tributed much by pleasant and witty 
writings to the development of mus. 
interest and mus. culture in Boston. 
Wrote Hector Berlioz, Autobiography 
and Musical Grotesques, Musicians 
and Music Lovers, By the Way, The 
Opera, Past and Present, etc. 

Aptommas, John, harpist, b. Brid^- 
end, Eng., 1826. Thomas, his 
brother, also harpist, b. Bridgend, 
1829; in N. Y. 1851-56. Both 
remarkable players and teachers; 
composed for harp; wrote history 
of the harp. 

Arban (ar'-bon), Joseph Jean Baptist e 
Laurent, cornet player, b. Lyons, 
Feb. 28, 1825; d. Paris, Apr. 9, 
1889. Teacher at Paris Cons. 1869- 
1874; inventor of several wind 
instruments; wrote method and 

Arbuckle, Matthew, cornet player, b. 
1828; d. New York, May 23, 1883. 
Came to America about 1853; leader 

of military bands in Troy and Wor- 
cester; went to front with 24th 
Mass.; asst. of P. S. Gilmore in 
concerts and in Peace Jubilee; band- 
master in N. Y. 

Arcadelt, Jacob, compr. b. Nether- 
lands, abt. 1514; d. Paris, between 
1570 and 1575. One of the Nether- 
land musicians who taught in Italy; 
singingmaster at St. Peter's, 1539; 
member of Papal Choir, 1540-1549; 
went to Paris with Duke of Guise, 
1555; published while in Italy five 
books of madrigals on which fame 
chiefly rests; in Paris composed 
masses and church music; well- 
known Ave Maria attributed to 
him, probably not correctly. 

Archer, Frederick, orgt., condr. b. 
Oxford, England, June 16, 1838; d. 
Pittsburg, Oct. 22, 1901. Taught by 
his father; also student in London 
and Leipzig; concert orgt. and con- 
ductor in London; orgt. Brooklyn, 
1881, and N. Y.; founded and 
edited Key- Note, 1885; conductor 
of Bost. Oratorio Society 1887; 
founder of Pittsburg Orch. and con- 
ductor, 1896-1898. Excellent orgt., 
composed method, works for org., 
songs, etc.; by innumerable concerts 
did much to popularize good music, 
both for organ alone and for orch. 

Archytas (ar-ke'-tas), mathematician, fl. 
Tarentum, abt. 400-365 B. C. Dis- 
ciple of Pythagoras, probably first 
to fix ratio of the third; extant 
writings only fragmentary. 

Arditi (ar-de'-ti), Luigi, impresario, b. 
Crescentino, Piedmont, Italy, July 
16, 1822; d. Brighton, England, 
May 1, 1903. Studied at Milan 
Cons.; at first violin player; com- 
posed overture and opera, 1841, 1842; 
debut as director of opera, 1843; 
went to Havana, 1846; brought 
Havana Opera Co. in 1847-50 to 
N. Y. and other Am. cities, con- 
tributing much to early growth of 
interest in opera; after 1858, con- 
ducted in London and toured with 
many companies in many capitals. 
Composed vocal and pf. pieces; II 
Bacio, waltz-song, universally known. 

Arens (ar-enz), Franz Xavier, condr. b. 
Neef, Prussia, Oct. 28, 1856. Came 
to America at 11 as immigrant; in 
midst of hard work studied mus. 



with his father and Singenberger 
in Milwaukee; then with Rhein- 
berger, Wiillner, and others in Ger- 
many; conducted in Cleveland and 
Indianapolis; vocal teacher in N. Y. 
since 1896; founded (1900) People's 
Symph. Concerts, a successful at- 
tempt to give good orch. concerts, 
with simple instruction, at low rates. 

Arensky (a-re"n-ski), Anton Stepano- 
vitch, compr. b. Novgorod, July 30, 
1862; d. Terioki, Finland, Feb. 25, 
1906. Son of a physician; pupil of 
Johannsen and Rimsky-Korsakov at 
St. Petersburg Cons.; prof, of 
harmony and comp. Imperial Cons. 
Moscow 1883; member of Council of 
Synodal School of Church Mus.; 
conductor, succeeding Balakirev, of 
Imperial Court Choir, 1895-1901; 
instructor at St. Petersburg Cons. 
Composed 3 operas, cantatas, songs, 
2 symphonies, chamber music (pf. 
trio especially well-known). Supe- 
riority appears chiefly in chamber 
mus. and songs; operatic style is 
said to be a compromise between 
declamatory and melodic; church 
mus. rather florid; often made 
effective use of folk-tunes. 

Ariosti (a-ri-os'-te), Attilio, compr. b. 
Bologna, 1660; d. there, abt. 1740. 
Composed opefa Dafne, 1686, at 
Venice; conducted court theatre, 
Berlin; went to London, 1716; wrote 
Muzio Scevola with Bononcini and 
Handel; outshone by Handel, was 
honorably dismissed from Italian 
opera, 1727, and withdrew to Italy. 
Composed 15 operas, 2 oratorios, and 
possibly volume of cantatas. 

Aristides (ar-is-ti-des), Quintilianus, 
writer, fl. Greece, abt. A. D. 160. 
One of most satisfactory writers on 
Greek music; author of treatise in 
three books in which the theory of 
the Aristoxenean School is presented 
in detail. 

Aristox'enos, writer, b. Tarentum, abt. 
354 B. C. To him we owe almost 
entirely our knowledge of ancient 
Greek music. He came in con- 
tact with Socrates, was pupil of 
Xenophilus, the Pythagorean, and of 
Aristotle. "His services to music 
consisted in, firstly, the accurate de- 
termination of the scope of musical 
science lest it should on the one hand 

degenerate into empiricism or on 
the other hand lose itself in mathe- 
matical physics; and, secondly, in 
the application to all the questions 
and problems of music of a deeper 
and truer conception of the ultimate 
nature of music itself. By these 
two discoveries he accomplished a 
revolution in the philosophy of the 
art." (H. S. Macran. The Harmon- 
ics of A., Oxford, 1902.) 

Armes, Philip, orgt. b. Norwich, Aug. 
15, 1836; d. Durham, Feb. 10, 1908. 
Son of a singer, chorister at Norwich 
and Rochester Cathedrals; asst. 
orgt. at latter under J. L. Hopkins; 
orgt. at Chichester and Durham; 
introd. mus. at Univ. of Durham 
and was professor there; composed 
3 oratorios, services, etc. 

Armstrong, Nellie, see Melba. 

Armstrong, William Dawson, teacher, 
compr. b. Alton, 111.. Feb. 11, 
1868. Studied under Clarence Eddy, 
G. M. Garrett, Chas. Kunkel, E. R. 
Kroeger, and others; has held vari- 
ous positions as orgt. and teacher 
in St. Louis and Alton; composed 
a large number of works in nearly 
all forms, orchestra works in MS., 
and 2 operas, The Specter Bride- 
groom (presented in St. Louis) and 

Arnaud (ar-no), Abbe Francois, theor- 
ist, b. Aubignan, July 27, 1721; d. 
Paris, Dec. 2, 1784. Wrote essays 
on various subjects, ardently sup- 
ported Gluck in partisan war about 
his reforms. 

Arne (arn), Thomas Augustine, compr. 
b. London, Mar. 12, 1710; d. there, 
Mar. 5, 1778. Learned to play 
harpsichord and vln. by secret prac- 
tise; having gained father's consent, 
he began open career by setting to 
mus. Addison's Rosamund; married 
Cecilia Young, favorite opera singer, 
1736; set to music Comus, As You 
Like It, Tempest, adapted for 
English use Metastasio's Artaserse; 
composed and arranged in all music 
for about 50 pieces. Chiefly distin- 
guished for many charming songs, 
notably the Shakespearean lyrics 
and Rule Britannia (the Finale of 
Alfred, 1740). His sister, Susanna 
Maria, afterwards Mrs. Gibber, was a 



famous actress. His son, Michael 
(1741-1786), was also a composer of 
dramatic music and songs. 

Arnold, Samuel, compr. b. London, 
Aug. 10, 1740; d. there, Oct. 22, 1802. 
Educated as chorister under Gates 
and Nares; remarkable early talent 
for composition; wrote about 40 
operas, oratorios, etc.; most impor- 
tant work editing Cathedral Music, 
collection of services by English 

Arnoldson, Sigrid (seegree), dram. sop. 
b. Stockholm, Mar. 20, 1863. Daugh- 
ter of Oscar A. tenor (1843-1881); 
pupil of M. Strakosch; de"but, 1886, 
Moscow; prima donna in St. Peters- 
burg, London (as successor of Patti, 
1888), Paris, Budapest, and the 
Netherlands, New York, 1893; then 
in Paris. 

Artchibousheff (ar-chib'-oo-shoff), Nich- 
olas Vassilievitch, pst., compr. b. 
Tsarskoye-Selo, Mar. 7, 1858. Law- 
yer as well as musician; studied with 
Soloviev and Rimsky-Korsakov. 

Arthur, Alfred, singing teacher, b. 
Pittsburg, Oct. 8, 1844. Pupil in 
Mus. School, Boston, of Baker, 
Arbuckle, etc., at Bost. Cons, of 
Eichberg; choirmaster, conductor of 
Vocal Society, director of school of 
music in Cleveland; composed 3 
operas, vocal studies, etc. 

Artot (ar'-to), Marguerite Josephine 
Desiree Montagney, dram. sop. b. 
Paris, July 31, 1835; d. Berlin, Apr. 
3, 1907. Daughter of Jean Desire 
Montagney (Sept. 23, 1803-Mar. 25, 
1887), who was also called Artot, as 
were his brother, Alexandre (1815- 
1845), and their father, Maurice 
(1772-1829), all musicians. Mar- 
guerite was pupil of Mme. Viardot- 
Garcia; concert d^but Brussels, 1857; 
opera de"but, Paris, 1858, where she 
was engaged at Meyerbeer's request; 
toured as star throughout Europe, 
especially successful in Italian opera. 
Her voice from mezzo soprano be- 
came after persistent practise of 
high enough register for the great 
soprano parts. 

Asancheyski (az-an-choff'-ski), Michael 
Paulovitch von, compr. b. Moscow, 
1838; d. there, Jan. 24, 1881. Studied 

composition at Leipzig under Haupt- 
mann and Richter and piano at 
Rome with Liszt; lived in Paris, 
1866-70; director 1871-76 St. Peters- 
burg Cons, to which he gave valu- 
able library; retired 1876; published 
sonata for pf. and 'cello, trio, etc. 

Ascher (ash'-er), Joseph, compr. b. 
Groningen, Holland, June 24, 1829; 
d. London, June 4, 1869. Pupil of 
Moscheles; court pianist to Empress 
Eugenie; fashionable pianist and 
composer of drawing-room pieces 
which were extremely popular, es- 
pecially song Alice, Where Art Thou ? 

Ashton, Algernon Bennet Langton, pst, 
compr. b. Durham, Eng., Dec. 9, 
1859. Pupil 1875-79 at Leipzig 
Cons, of Jadassohn and Reinecke 
and at Frankfort, 1880-81, of Raff; 
prof. Royal Coll. Mus., London, 1885; 
has written mus. of almost every 

Asioli (a-se'-6-li), Bonifacio, compr. b. 
Correggio, Aug. 30, 1769; d. there, 
May 18, 1832. Of inconceivable 
precocity in composition; took les- 
sons of Morigi at Parma; lived in 
various Italian cities; prof, of coun- 
terpoint and censor at new Milan 
Cons. 1808; composed 7 operas, 
masses, songs, symph., etc.; wrote 
also several remarkably accurate 
and clear text-books on harmony 
and counterpoint. Biog. by Conti. 

Astorga (as-tor'-ga), Emanuele, Baron 
d', compr. b. Palermo, Dec. 11, 
1681; d. Prague, Aug. 21, 1736. Son 
of insurgent Sicilian nobleman who 
was executed in 1701; pupil of F. 
. Scarlatti and further trained in 
music, by the assistance of a powerful 
patroness, at monastery in Astorga, 
Spain, whence he obtained title; led 
a life of romantic adventure in courts 
of Parma, Vienna, and Spain; com- 
posed opera Dafne, famous Stabat 
Mater for 4 voices, and many beau- 
tiful cantatas. 

Attenhofer (a-ten-ho'-fer), Karl, teacher, 
condr. b. Wettingen, Switzerland, 
May 5, 1837. Pupil of D. Elster, 
and of Richter and others, at Leipzig 
Cons.; condr. of various choral 
unions; composer of choral music, 
songs, etc. 



Attwood, Thomas, compr. b. London, 
Nov. 23, 1765; d. Chelsea, Mar. 24, 
1838. Chorister under Nares and 
Ayrton; studied in Italy (by assist- 
ance from George IV, then Prince of 
Wales) under Cinque and Latilla 
and in Vienna under Mozart; orgt. 
at St. Paul's and Chapel Royal; orig- 
inal member Philharm. Soc.; friend 
of Mendelssohn. Composed music 
for 21 plays, famous church music, 
numerous popular songs and glees. 

Auber (6-bar'), Daniel Frangois Esprit, 

compr. b. Caen, Jan. 29, 1782; d. 
Paris, May 12, 1871. Son of a 
painter who had gone into trade 
after the Revolution, he refused to 
follow any line but that of his talent. 
His first dramatic music, resetting 
of Julie, attracted attention of Cher- 
ubini who assisted his further de- 
velopment. First opera to gain 
public performance was Le Sejour 
d' Amour, 1813, but success was first 
won by La Bergere Chatelaine, J820. 
Increasing skill in clever treatment 
of light comic opera style is shown 
in series ending with Le Mafon, 1825. 
With first grand opera La Muette de 
Portici (Masaniello), 1825, he at- 
tained greatest height; in this work, 
says Apthorp, he brought all the 
brisk, nimble dash of his style to 
bear on a tragic subject. He outdid 
himself, showing unwonted dramatic 
fire, picturesqueness in orchestra- 
tion, skilful handling of choral 
masses. The old forms are there, 
but managed with dramatic ap- 
positeness. This opera, with Ros- 
sini's William Tell and Meyerbeer's 
Robert le Diable, changed the rper- 
toire of the Paris Ope>a; the produc- 
tion in Brussels was the signal for 
revolutionary riots which ended in 
separation of Holland and Belgium. 
Most popular opera at home and 
abroad was Fra Diavolo, 1830. For 
many years A. composed about one 
opera a year, most frequently to 
libretti by Scribe, sustaining his 
powers at a remarkable level of 
graceful tunefulness and polish. He 
succeeded to Gossec's chair in the 
Academy, 1835; followed Cherubini 
as director of Cons. 1842. 

Audran (6-dron), Edmond, compr. b. 
Lyons, April 11, 1842; d. Tierceville, 

Aug. 17, 1901. Son of Marius Pierre, 
operatic tenor and song composer 
(1816-1887); pupil at Ecole Nieder- 
meyer, Paris, with prize for com- 
position; orgt. at Marseilles, 1861; 
composed a mass, motet and songs, 
but is known as composer of many 
successful examples of ope>a-bouffe, 
37 in all, of which the best known to 
Americans are Olivette and La Mas- 
cotte; Le Grand Mogol, Les Noces 
d' Olivette, La Cigale et la Fourrni, 
Miss Helyett, and La Poupee were 
especially popular both in French 
and English versions. 

Auer (ou'-er), Leopold, vlt. b. Veszprim, 
Hungary, May 28, 1845. Pupil at 
the Prague and Vienna Cons.; of Joa- 
chim, 1863-65; conductor in Dussel- 
dorf and Hamburg 1863-67; since 
1868 at St. Petersburg as solo vio- 
linist to the court, prof, at Cons, 
and occasional conductor of Im- 
perial Mus. Assn. Exceptionally 
fine violinist, with noble style and 
extended repertoire; teacher of Mis- 
cha Elman; Tchaikovski's concerto 
dedicated to him. 

Augustine, Saint, writer, b. Tagaste, 
Numidia, Nov. 13, 354; d. Hippo, 
Algeria, Aug. 28, 430. Bishop of 
Hippo, one of the fathers of the 
Latin Church, friend of St. Ambrose. 
His writings give valuable informa- 
tion about the condition of music 
in the early church and especially 
about Ambrosian chant; his work en- 
titled De Musica treats of rhythms 

Aulin (ou-lin), TorJ vlt. b. Stockholm, 
Sept. 10, 1866. Pupil of Emile Sauret 
and Ph. Scharwenka in Berlin; since 
1889 concertmaster Royal Opera, 
Stockholm; founded famous Aulin 
Quartet, 1887; distinguished virtuoso. 

Aus der Ohe (ous'-der-o-e), Addle, pst. 
Father professor in Hanover Univ.; 
pupil under Kullak at age of 7 by 
advice of Von Billow; played with 
orch. in Berlin at age of 10; pupil of 
Liszt from 12 to 19; American dbut, 
1886. Successful career as concert 
pianist of unusual strength and 

Avison, Charles, compr., writer, b. New- 
castle-upon-Tyne,1710; d. there, May 
9, 1770. Pupil of Geminiani, organist 



in Newcastle, 1736; composer of 
instrumental music, concertos and 
sonatas; author of Essay on Musical 
Expression, 1752, pamphlet which was 
strongly and successfully assailed by 
W. Hayes; edited Marcello's Psalms 
with English words. Mentioned in 
Browning's Parleyings. 

Aylward (al'ward), Theodore, compr. b. 
about 1730; d. London, Feb. 27, 
1801. Organist in London; prof, in 
Gresham College, 1771; asst. director 
of Handel Commemoration, 1784. 
Composed g^ees and catches very 
popular in his day, and some unpub- 
lished church music. 

Bach (bak). Distinguished family of 
musicians bearing this name were 
descended from Hans Bach who lived 
at Wechmar about 1561; his son, 
Veit (d. 1619), was fond of music and 
Veit's son, Hans (b. about 1580; d. 
Dec. 26, 1626), was a professional 
musician, the real founder of the 
family. The sons of Hans settled in 
different towns, Johannes (1604- 
73) in Erfurt, Heinrich (1615-92) 
in Arnstadt, and Christoph (1613- 
61) at first in Erfurt, and later in 
Arnstadt. Almost all the members 
of the family were musicians; even 
those who at first turned to law or 
some other study end.ed their lives 
in musical service; some were vio- 
linists, more were organists, two at 
least, Johann Michael (1648-1694) 
and his nephew, Johann Nikolaus 
(1669-1753), experimented in instru- 
ment making and made improve- 
ments in pianoforte construction; 
almost all of them were, to a greater 
or less extent, composers. In private 
life the family seems to have been 
characterized by devotion to a high 
standard of moral purity and quiet 
dignity an attitude maintained 
with remarkable consistency. This 
mood found most frequent expres- 
sion in the composition of church 
music of a lofty elevation and of 
organ and piano music of conspicu- 
ous clearness and intellectual inge- 
nuity. For detailed accounts of all 
the Bachs, see Philipp Spitta's Johann 
Sebastian Bach, 3 vols.; Grove's 
Dictionary, Vol. I; Eitner's Quellen- 
Lexikon. The most noted will be 
mentioned here in alphabetical order. 

Bach, Johann Christian. There were 
two of this name of whom the earlier 
(1640-1692) was the son of Johannes 
in Erfurt. The later, b. Leipzig, 
1735; d. London, Jan. 1, 1782, was 

known as the Milanese or English 
Bach. He was eleventh son of Joh. 
Sebastian; after his father's death 
he lived with brother Karl Philipp 
Emanuel in Berlin, studying piano 
playing and composition. He went 
to Milan, became pupil of Martini 
and was organist at the Cathedral 
there 1760-1762; in Italy he com- 
posed sacred music and some operas. 
In 1762 he went to London, where 
he gave subscription concerts in 
partnership with Abel, 1765-1782; 
married Cecilia Grassi, the singer; 
composed several successful operas 
in light Italian style, and elegant, 
brilliant pianoforte works. 

Bach, Johann Christoph. There were 
several of this name: One (1645- 
1693) was son of Christoph and 
twin brother of Joh. Ambrosius, a 
violinist, who devoted himself with 
his uncle Heinrich to church music 
at Arnstadt. Another (1671-1721) 
was a brother of Joh. Sebastian, a 

Sjpil of Pachelbel, and organist at 
hrdruf. Another (1685-1735) was 
the son of Joh. Aegidius (1645-1717) 
of Erfurt, both directors of the town 
music. The most famous, b. Arnstadt, 
Dec. 8, 1642; d. Eisenach, Mar. 31, 
1703, was the son of Heinrich of 
Arnstadt and uncle of Joh. Sebastian. 
He was the greatest of the older 
generation, one of the most famous 
organ players and contrapuntists of 
his day, and was highly regarded as 
an individual by all; as a composer 
he was neglected by contemporaries 
outside of his family, but he is now 
considered of great importance for 
his individuality in solving problems, 
his high sense of form, and depth of 
expression. There are extant of his 
some instrumental works and 9 



Bach, Johann Sebastian, b. Eisenach, 
Mar. 21 (or 22), 1685; d. Leipzig, 
July 28, 1750. Grandson of Chris- 
toph who was town musician to 
Count Schwarzburg and prominent 
in town music at Arnstadt; son of 
Job. Ambrosius (1645-1695), violin- 
ist, who settled in Eisenach in 1671, 
and of Elizabeth Lammerhirt of 
Erfurt. At the age of ten, both 
parents having died, Seb. went to 
Ohrdruf where he lived and studied 
with his brother Johann Christoph; 
this elder brother is reputed to have 
been harsh, denying to the eager 
youth access to a volume of music, 
and taking away from him a copy 
which he had made in secret by 
moonlight. After the death of this 
brother Seb. went on his own 
responsibility to Liineberg where he 
became a chorister and received 
free instruction in other branches; 
he paid great attention to the work 
of the organist Bohm and walked 
often to Hamburg to hear Reinken; 
he also walked to Celle where he had 
an opportunity to hear French music 
in the royal chapel. By similar 
persistence and application he in- 
creased his skill on the violin and 
pianoforte, as well as in composition. 
After a few months at Weimar, he 
became organist at Arnstadt in 1703. 
In 1705, having walked to Ltibeck 
to meet Buxtehude, he overstayed 
his leave of absence in his enthusi- 
asm, until the church authorities at 
Arnstadt were angry. Further ap- 
pointments followed: in 1707 he 
was organist at Miihlhausen; in 
1708 court organist at Weimar, in 
1714 concertmeister there; in au- 
tumn vacations he made many 
professional tours to other cities, 
Kassel, Halle, and Dresden (where 
he challenged the French organist 
Marchand who, at the last moment, 
refused to meet him); in 1717 he 
was made capellmeister and director 
of chamber music to Prince Leopold 
of Co then; in 1723 he succeeded 
Kuhnau as cantor at the Thomas- 
schule, Leipzig, and became organist 
at two principal churches there, 
without entirely severing his con- 
nection with Cothen. He remained 
at Leipzig 27 years, with frequent 
visits to Dresden and a memor- 
able one to Potsdam at the request 

of Frederick the Great, whom he 
amazed by his skill in improvising. 
He became blind in 1749. His char- 
acter was like that of his family in 
general, one of conspicuous upright- 
ness, cheerful simplicity and marked 
singleness of purpose. He married 
twice: first, in 1707, his cousin Maria 
Barbara Bach, daughter of Johann 
Michael; and secondly, in 1721, 
Anna Magdalene Wulken. His home 
life was always happy and he took 
pleasure and satisfaction in the edu- 
cation of his 13 children and the 
(frequently musical) pleasures of 
his domestic circle. Beside his own 
sons he had many distinguished 
pupils among whom were Krebs, 
Agricola, Kirnberger, Marpurg and 
Vogler. Always eager to embrace 
every opportunity of hearing great 
contemporaries (he twice journeyed 
to Halle in vain attempts to meet 
Handel), he was in every way inde- 
fatigably industrious. Before 1717 
he was chiefly occupied in writing 
organ music; during the time at 
Cothen he composed instrumental 
music, concertos, suites, etc. and 
the Wohltemperirtes Clavier, 1722, 
1724; the Inventions and Sym- 
phonies for clavier, 1723; in the 
Leipzig period he wrote almost all 
of the more than 200 extant church 
cantatas. The St. John Passion 
was performed in 1724, the Matthew 
in 1729, the B minor Mass between 
1732 and 1738. All of his music 
commands admiration by the dis- 
play of masterly contrapuntal skill, 
by the fertility and dexterity of his 
methods; but his is more than the 
skill of the juggler, in that he really 
combines the different parts into 
an organic whole which has a definite 
meaning of its own. By the " con- 
stant application of matchless tech- 
nic to the highest artistic ends," 
he is able to find the " right word 
for every occasion," so that he 
completely satisfies ' people of the 
most dissimilar tastes. The skill of 
all his successors rests on knowledge 
of his works, and their charm is still 
inexhaustible. Historically also his 
music is of vast importance; he 
settled the dispute between the old 
church modes and the modern har- 
monic scales; his works represent 



a fusion of both systems, but the 
modern one predominates. More- 
over he required " equal tempera- 
ment " for instruments with fixed 
intonation, and had a great influ- 
ence on the technic of piano 
playing by introducing a new system 
of fingering. He was appreciated 
by his contemporaries as an organist 
only; it was not until 1829 that 
Mendelssohn drew general attention 
to his compositions. The Bach- 
Gesellschaft, founded in 1850 by 
Schumann, Jahn, and others, issued 
a definitive edition of his complete 
works in 146 volumes. 

Bach, Karl Philipp Emanuel. b. Wei- 
mar, Mar. 8, 1714; d. Hamburg, 
(Sept.) Dec. 14, 1788. Called the 
Berlin or Hamburg Bach, son of Joh. 
Sebastian. Studied law at Frank- 
fort and Leipzig Universities, but 
abandoned it for music in which he 
had been thoroughly instructed by 
his father. He entered the service 
of Frederick the Great in 1738, and 
continued therein until 1767 when 
he succeeded Telemann as director 
of church in Hamburg. He was 
one of the most brilliant composers 
of a period which prized brilliance 
more than profundity. His instru- 
mental music is especially valuable 
because it shows the origin of the 
modern forms which Haydn and 
Mozart were to bring to perfection. 
He composed a great number of 
works in almost every form. 

Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann. b. Wei- 
mar, Nov. 22, 1710; d. Berlin, 
July 1, 1784. The eldest and ap- 
parently the most talented son of 
Joh. Sebastian, trained by his father 
and, in violin playing, by Graun. 
He distinguished himself in mathe- 
matics at Leipzig Univ. and held 
posts as organist and musical director 
at Dresden and Halle. In 1764 he 
was dismissed from his post because 
of his dissolute habits and died in 
want. He was a brilliant organ- 
player, a profound theoretician, a 
famous improviser, a skilful and 
fluent composer and at the same 
time the one black sheep of his 
race. Most of his compositions 
exist in manuscript only. (See, 
especially, Eitner's Lexikon.) 

Bache, Francis Edward, compr. b. 
Edgbaston, Birmingham, Sept. 14, 
1833; d. there, Aug. 24, 1858. 
Showed unquestionable talent as a 
child; studied under Bennett and 
in Leipzig under Hauptmann and 
Plaidy. Composed before untimely 
death 2 operas, concerto, trio, etc. 
His brother, Walter, pst. b. Edg- 
baston, Birmingham, June 19, 1842; 
d. London, Mar. 26, 1888. Studied 
piano and theory with Stimpson and 
with Plaidy, Moscheles, Reinecke, 
and Richter. Pupil in Rome, after 
1862, of Liszt of whom he became 
ardent disciple and whose works he 
largely introduced to English public. 
Prof, of pf. at Royal Acad. Mus. 

Bachmann (bak'-man), Georges, compr. 
b. about 1848; d. Paris, Dec. (?) 1894. 
Composed many light pf. pieces. 

Backer- Grbndahl (bak'-er-gren-dal'), 
Agathe Ursula, pst., compr. b. Hol- 
mestrand, Norway, Dec. 1, 1847; d. 
Christiania, Aug., 1907. Pupil of 
Kjerulf and Lindemann, of Kullak, 
Von Biilow, and, later, of Liszt; 
married 1875 O. A. Grondahl, of 
Christiania (b. 1847), singing teach- 
er; has toured successfully in Scan- 
dinavia, London, and Paris. Com- 
posed charming songs, pf . pieces, etc. 

Backhaus (bak-hous), Wilhelm, pst. 
b. Leipzig, Mar. 26, 1884. Pupil of 
A. Reckendorf at Leipzig Cons, and 
of d' Albert; won Rubinstein Prize 
for pf. playing, 1905; prof, of pf. at 
Manchester (Eng.) Royal Coll. of 
Music; remarkably popular with 
London audiences, but German 
critics say that his amazing technical 
ability is not used for artistic ends. 

Badarczevska (ba-dar-chef'-shka), Tek- 
la, compr. b. Warsaw, 1838; d. there, 
1862. Composed " salon " pf. works, 
popular in their day, now practically 
forgotten, except La Priere d'une 
merge (The Maiden's Prayer). 

Baermann (bar'-man), Carl, pst. b. 
Munich, July 9, 1839. Grandson of 
Heinrich Joseph (1784-1847), friend 
of Weber and Mendelssohn, and son 
of Karl (1820-1885), both clarinet 
players of distinction; studied under 
Lachner and Liszt; d6but at 15; 
teacher in Royal Mus. Sch. in 
Munich; came to America in 1881; 



has attained high rank as teacher in 
Boston, among pupils being C. H. 
Morse, Mrs H. H. A. Beach and 
F. S. Converse; his few published 
works, mostly for pf., are worthy 
expressions of his sound, conserva- 
tive spirit. 

Bai [or Baj], (ba'-i), Tommaso, com- 
pr. b. Crevalcuore, about 1650; d. 
Rome, Dec. 22, 1714. Tenor singer 
and maestro in Vatican choir; fol- 
lower of Palestrina; composed Mis- 
erere sung alternately with those of 
Allegri and Baini in Holy Week. 

Bailey, Lilian, see Henschel, Mrs. 

Bailey, Marie Louise, pst. b. Nashville, 
Oct. 24, 1876. Studied 1889 with 
C. Reinecke in Leipzig Cons., win- 
ning scholarship; later with Leschet- 
izky; de"but at Gewandhaus 1893; 
played with Damrosch orch., and 
toured successfully in U. S. and 
Canada; at present in Vienna. 

Baillot (ba-yo), Pierre Marie Fran$ois 
de Sales, vlt. b. Passy, Oct. 1, 1771; 
d. Paris, Sept. 15, 1842. Remark- 
able early talent; first instruction 
from Italian Polidori; in 1780 pupil 
of Sainte-Marie, who insisted on 
severe taste and exactness; in 1783 
studied under Pollani; 1791 through 
influence of Viotti became first violin 
- at Th. Feydeau, Paris; 1791-1795 
seems to have neglected music for 
small government appointment; pro- 
fessor at new Cons. 1795; after 
further study with Catel, Reicha 
and Cherubini, he made tour to 
Russia and later others to England, 
Holland, Switzerland and Italy; in 
1821 leader of orch. at Grand OpeYa; 
1825 solo player in royal band. He 
had many distinguished pupils, 
notably Habeneck, Mazas, the two 
Danclas, etc. Composed many 
works, chiefly very difficult vln. 
pieces, preludes, quartets, etc.; his 
chief works are L'art du Violon 
(1834) and Methode de Violon, pub- 
lished jointly with Rode and Kreut- 
zer, still standards. 

Baini (bae-ni), Giuseppe, compr., writer, 
b. Rome, Oct. 21, 1775; d. there, 
May 21, 1844. Pupil of his uncle 
Lorenzo, and of Jannaconi whom he 
succeeded 1817 as maestro of St. 
Peter's; composed Miserere sung in 

turn with those of Allegri and Bai at 
Sistine Chapel. He lived entirely 
in spirit of 16th century music and 
his chief work is life and criticism of 
the works of Palestrina (1828), not 
wholly accurate by standards of 
modern scholarship. 

Baker, Benjamin Franklin, teacher, b. 
Wenham, Mass., July 16, 1811; d. 
Boston, Mar. 11, 1889. Sang in 
churches in Salem, Portland, and 
Boston; 1841 succeeded Lowell 
Mason as teacher of music in public 
schools; was vice-president Handel 
and Haydn Society; established 
Boston Music School; edited Boston 
MusicalJournal; composed cantatas, 
part-songs, etc. 

Balakirev (ba-la'-ke-reff), Mili Alexei- 
evitch, compr., pst. b. Novgorod, 
(Dec. 31, 1836, O. S.) Jan. 2, 1837; 
d. St. Petersburg, June 24, 1910. 
Early youth passed in the country, 
where Oulibishev,_ author of Life of 
Mozart, instructed him in music; 
went at age of 20 to St. Petersburg 
where he met Glinka, and the 
younger composers, Cui, Mous- 
sorgski, Borodin and others. B. 
became the peculiarly influential 
center of a small group, some of 
whom were older than he in years, 
to whom he gave instruction in 
analysis of older masters and counsel 
in appreciation of the new espe- 
cially Schumann, Liszt, and Berlioz. 
He also exerted a great influence 
toward " national " music, by col- 
lecting folk-songs and by urging 
use of characteristic rhythms and 
ideas. In 1863 B. founded a free 
school of music; before retirement 
in 1872 he was director Russian 
Musical Society, and director of 
singers at Imperial Chapel. His 
own works are few in number; the 
principal ones are symph. poems 
Thamar and Russia, overture and 
music to King Lear, symph. in C 
major, two series of songs, and pf. 
pieces nearly all of which demand 
the ability of a virtuoso most not- 
able being the fantasia Islamey. 
" His romances are distinguished by 
pure and large melodies, by elegant 
accompaniments, often by passion 
and great interest." [Cui.] " He 
is an orchestral magician; he suc- 
ceeds, by harmonious wedding of 



timbres, in giving changing and sur- 
prising color to sound. He excels 
in the descriptive poem, the instru- 
mental tale." [Bruneau.] Though 
he has written nothing for the stage, 
his most remarkable compositions 
are those with a definite program, 
as the symph. poems and Lear. 

Balatka, Hans, condr. b. Hoffnungs- 
thal, Moravia, March 5, 1827; d. 
Chicago, Apr. 17, 1899. Pupil of 
Sechter and Proch at Vienna; came 
to America 1849; founded and con- 
ducted Milwaukee Musikverein, 
conductor of Chicago Philh. Soc. 
1860, and various societies in Mil- 
waukee, St. Louis and Chicago; dis- 
tinguished among pioneers of music 
in the West. 

Baldwin, Samuel Atkinson, orgt., compr. 
b. Lake City, Minn., Jan. 25, 1862. At 
12 moved to St. Paul where he was 15; studied in Europe 1880-84 
(with one year at home) at Dresden 
Cons, with G. Merkel, Nicode', Risch- 
bieter, and Wullner; orgt. Chicago 
1885-89; orgt. dir. of choral ass'n, 
St. Paul 1889-95; orgt. in New York 
1895, in Brooklyn since 1902; head 
of dept. of mus. in Coll. of City of 
N. Y., 1907, where he gives semi- 
weekly recitals; compositions include 
songs, anthems, 18th Psalm for voices 
and orch., cantata Triumph of Love, 
concert overtures, suite for orch., 
and symphony. 

Balfe, Michael William, compr. b. 
Dublin, May 15, 1808; d. Rowney 
Abbey, Hertfordshire, Oct. 20, 1870. 
Son of William (died 1823), a danc- 
ing master; he first learned to play 
the violin for dancing as a pupil of 
Meadows and O'Rourke (Rooke); 
articled pupil of C. E. Horn in 
London; played in theatre band; 
went to Italy 1825 where he studied 
with Paer and Federici; in Paris 
Rossini engaged him as baritone in 
Italian opera and he sang in London 
and Paris with success until about 
1833; after 1835, he composed 
operas, managed, and conducted 
them in London, Paris, and Berlin; 
retired to country 1864. First 
dramatic composition was ballet La 
Perouse 1827; first English opera 
Siege of Rochelle 1835; his suc- 
cesses thereafter were almost con- 
tinuous; he wrote about 30 operas, j 

the one most widely known to-day 
being The Bohemian Girl, first pro- 
duced 1843. Macfarren (quoted in 
Grove) says B. possessed quick- 
ness of ear, readiness of memory, 
executive facility, fluent invention, 
remarkable and experienced com- 
mand of orchestra, and, on the other 
hand, want of conscientiousness; 
that in his music, however, " the 
element which makes it evanescent 
is that which also makes it popular." 

Banister, John, vlt. b. London, 1630; 
d. there, Oct. 3, 1679. Taught rudi- 
ments by his father, sent to France 
by Charles II; leader of the King's 
band 1662; first musician to estab- 
lish successful concerts in London, 
holding them at his own house every 
afternoon 1672-1678. Composed mu- 
sic to " Circe," songs, and lessons 
for violin. Son John (1677-1735) 
distinguished violinist in days of 
first Italian operas. Henry Charles 
(1831-1897) successful teacher of 
harmony and instructive writer. 

Banti-Giorgi (ban'-ti-ge-or'-gi), Brigida, 
dram. sop. b. Crema, Lombardy, 
1758; d. Bologne, Feb. 18, 1806. 
Discovered singing in street cafe", 
she was engaged for Paris Ope"ra, 
where she made d6but; 1799-1802 
made great success in London; Sac- 
chini, Piozzi, Abel all tried to teach 
her in vain; she remained to the last 
a natural singer, learning parts by 
ear, but singing them with great 
effect; favorite in England 1789- 
1798, when succeeded by Mrs. 
Billington. (See article by C. Lozzi, 
Rivista Musicale Italiana, 1904.) 

Bantock, Granville, compr. b. London, 
Aug. 7, 1868. Pupil of F. Corder at 
Royal Acad. of Music 1889 winning 
Macfarren Scholarship; while still 
a student he had works performed; 
editor of New Quarterly Music 
Review 1893-96; tour of the world 
as conductor of Gaiety Th. Com- 
pany 1894-95; conductor of various 
companies and orchestras, in New 
Brighton, near Liverpool, where he 
effected great improvements, at Ant- 
werp and Birmingham; principal 
Sch. of Mus. Birmingham and Mid- 
land Institute since 1900; succeeded 
Edward Elgar as professor in Bir- 
mingham University 1908; has al- 
ways shown himself hospitable to 



work of young composers, and to 
those of British composers. His own 
compositions, cantatas, large choral 
works, symphonic poems, pf. pieces, 
etc. are usually of marked oriental 
coloring (often dealing with Eastern 
subjects) and of romantic tone; he 
combines a remarkably sure orches- 
tral technic with subtlety of feel- 
ing for tone, color and great poetic 
sensibility (Newman); he prefers the 
looser forms of program music. 

Barbieri (bar-bi-a'-ri), Francesco Asen- 
jo, compr. b. Madrid, Aug. 3, 1823; 
d. there, Feb. 17, 1894. Pupil Madrid 
Cons., clarinetist in theatre orch., 
chprusleader at opera; secretary and 
chief director of society for encourag- 
ing the Zarzuela, the distinctly na- 
tional Spanish type of operetta, of 
which he wrote 75; edited coll. of 
15th century songs; critic and 
teacher at cons., promoter of good 

Bardi, Giovanni, Count of Vernio. b. 
1534; d. 1612. Patron of music in 
Florence in 16th century, at whose 
house took place the earliest per- 
formances of opera; may have writ- 
ten words for some. 

Bargiel (bar'-gel), Woldemar, compr. 
b. Berlin, Oct. 3, 1828; d. there, 
Feb. 23, 1897. Son of Adolf (died 
1841) teacher of music and of di- 
vorced wife of Fr. Wieck, so he was 
Clara Schumann's step-brother; 
trained by parents and at Leipzig 
Cons, by Hauptmann, Moscheles, 
Gade, etc.; teacher at Cologne; 
director 1865 of society for promoting 
music at Antwerp; teacher at Berlin 
Hochschule 1875. CarefuJ if not 
romantically inspired composer of 
the school of Schumann; works in- 
clude pf. pieces, orchestral works, 
and choral works, especially settings 
of 13th and 23d Psalms. 

Barnard, Charlotte Alington [known as 
Claribel], song compr. b. Dec. 23. 
1830; d. Dover, Jan. 30, 1869. 
Taught by Holmes; married Chas. 
C. Barnard, 1854; composed over 
100 popular songs Five o'clock in 
the morning, I cannot sing the old 
songs, etc. 

Barnard, D'Auvergne, compr. b. Isling- 
ton, London, Apr. 24, 1867. Though 
not of musical parents, early showed 

gifts as choir boy in Temple Church; 
trained there by E. J. Hopkins; 
self-taught as pianoforte player, 
gained many appointments as ac- 
companist; began composition at 
19; soon after became widely known 
as compr. of songs Bid Me to Love 
and Plains of Peace; under various 
pseudonyms has written over 100 
songs and 200 pianoforte pieces; of 
dance music under name " Clo- 
thilde," most popular perhaps is 
waltz Whisper and I shall hear. 

Barnby, Sir Joseph, compr. b. York, 
Aug. 12, 1838; d. London, Jan. 
28, 1896. Son of Thomas, organ- 
ist; himself organist and choir- 
master at age of 12; entered Royal 
Acad. of Mus. 1854; organist at 
several London churches; director 
of Barnby's Choir, inaugurated by 
Novello 1867-1872; conducted daily 
concerts also for Novello 1874-^75; 
conductor London Mus. Society 
1878-86; precentor at Eton 1875- 
92; principal Guildhall School 1892; 
conductor Royal Choral Society. 
Wrote very large number of hymn 
tunes, services, part-songs, etc., more 
or less uninspired; chiefly of im- 
portance for introducing works of 
Bach and Gounod into England; 
he also conducted first performance 
of Parsifal 1884. Gained widest 
reputation as a choral leader, and 
maintained his high standard every- 
where by force of character and per- 
sonality. " Of his music sweetness 
rather than strength is its salient 
characteristic. Technically it is 
masterly. ... He will be known as 
the composer of the most popular 
part-song ever written, Sweet and 
Low ." (Monthly Mus. Record 1896.) 

Barnett, John, compr. b. Bedford, 
Eng., July 1, 1802; d. near Chelten- 
ham, Apr. 17, 1890. Of Prussian- 
Hungarian parentage. Son of Ber- 
nard Beer, watchmaker, second 
cousin to Meyerbeer; showed 
marked ability as singer as child; 
articled at 11 to S. J. Arnold; de'but 
on stage 1813; taught also by Horn 
and Price; from 1825-1831 com- 
posed several musical farces, best of 
which was The Pet of the Petticoats; 
1834 published collection of songs; 
produced successive operas, The 
Mountain Sylph 1834 first English 



opera in style of Weber, extremely 
successful, Farinelli 1839, etc.; 
taught singing after 1841. His 
nephew John Francis, compr. b. 
London, Oct. 16, 1837. Studied 
Royal Acad. Mus. winning scholar- 
ship twice; de"but 1853; studied 
with Moscheles, Plaidy, and Haupt- 
mann at Leipzig Cons.; played at 
Gewandhaus 1860. Composed suc- 
cessful cantatas, The Ancient Mari- 
ner 1870 and many others for English 
festivals, also symph., pf. pieces, 
etc.; published Musical Reminis- 
cences and Impressions 1908 (?). 

Barrett, William Alexander, writer, b. 
Hackney, England, Oct. 15, 1836; 
d. London (?), Oct. 17, 1891. Chor- 
ister and organist; writer on church 
music; author of Life of Balfe; joint 
editor with Stainer of Diet, of Mus. 
Terms; editor of Monthly Mus. 
Record and of Mus. Times for 1887. 

Barri, Odoardo, see Edward Slater. 

Barth (bart),KarlHeinrich, pst., teacher. 
b. Pillau, Prussia, July 12, 1847. 
Pupil of father, of Steinmann and 
of Von Biilow, Tausig, etc.; teacher 
at Stern Cons., Berlin, 1868, and 
. at Royal High School 1871. Ad- 
mired in solo concerts in Germany 
and England and also in trio con- 
certs with De Ahna and Hausmann. 

Bartlett, Homer Newton, compr. b. Ol- 
ive, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1845. Precocious 
talent; pupil of S. B. Mills, Braun, 
Jacobsen, etc.; organist at various 
N. Y. churches ; has composed a great 
many songs and pf . pieces, a cantata, 
sextet, etc. His work is always skil- 
ful, often brilliant (especially in or- 
chestration) ; at its best, as in A Love 
Song, I Hear the Brooklet's Murmur, 
etc., it is original, rich, and sincere; 
best known work for piano, Polka di 

Bartlett, James Carroll, compr., tenor, 
b. Harmony, Maine, June 14, 1850. 
Entered N. E. Cons. 1869 where he 
studied singing under O'Neill, pf . and 
theory under Stephen Emery; later a 
pupil of Guilmette and Shakespeare ; 
1875-76 went on first professional 
tour with Camilla Urso; was musical 
director for Edwin Booth and Bar- 
rett; singer and teacher in Boston; 
orgt. at Worcester; composer of 
graceful, singable songs. 

Basil, Saint, b. Cesarea, 329; d. there, 
379. Bishop in Cappadocia; said 
to have introduced congregational 
singing and antiphons which Am- 
brose learned from him. 

Bassani (bas-sa-ne), Giovanni Battista, 
vlt., compr. b. Padua, about 1657; 
d. Ferrara, 1716. Pupil of Castro- 
villari; maestro at Bologna Cathe- 
dral; distinguished violinist, teacher 
of Corelli; composer of 6 operas, 
sonatas, suites, etc. 

Bassford, William Kipp, pst., orgt. b. 
New York, April 23, 1839; d. 1902. 
Pupil of S. Jackson; successful con- 
cert tours as pianist; organist, com- 
poser and teacher in N. Y. 

Bassi (bas-se), Luigi, dram, baritone, 
b. Pesaro, 1766; d. Dresden, 1825. 
In Prague 1784-1806, and again, 
after stay in Vienna, in 1814; 
director of Dresden Opera under 
Weber; B. was singer for whom 
Mozart wrote Don Giovanni. 

Bateson, Thomas, compr. b. England, 
about 1575; d. Dublin (?), Mar. or 
April, 1629 (30) . Organist at Chester 
Cathedral 1599 and after 1608 of 
Trinity Cathedral in Dublin; re- 
ceived mus. degree from Trinity 
College late in life, being the first 
mus. graduate there. His fame rests 
on two sets pf madrigals for 3, 4, 
5, and 6 voices, which give him 
a high place among Elizabethan 

Batiste (ba-test), Antoine Edouard, 
orgt. b. Paris, Mar. 28, 1820; d. 
there, Nov. 9, 1876. Son of a come- 
dian, page in chapel of Chas. X; 
after 1830 went to Cons, where he 
won four first and four second prizes 
and in 1840 the 2d Prix de Rome as 
Hal6vy's pupil; appointed deputy 
teacher at Cons, while still a student; 
held many classes; also orgt. at St. 
Nicolas des Champs and notably at 
St. Eustache 1854-1876. Educa- 
tional works, introd. to solfeggio 
method, etc., of great value; organ 
compositions, once popular, are not 
now so highly rated. 

Battishill, Jonathan, compr. b. Lon- 
don, May, 1738; d. Islington, Dec. 
10, 1801. Chorister under W. Sav- 
age and his articled pupil; assistant 
of Dr. Boyce at Chapel Royal; 



harpsichord player at Covent Gar- 
den, married Miss Davies, singer; 
with M. Arne composed Almena; 
later when organist in different 
churches, composed several anthems 
and many favorite catches and songs. 

Battmann (bat'-man), Jacques-Louis, 
orgt. b. Maasmunster, Alsace, Aug. 
25, 1818; d. Dijon, July 7, 1886. 
Qrgt. at Belfort and Vesoul; wrote 
method and works for harmonium, 
works for piano, and treatise on 

Bauer (bou'-er), Harold, pst. b. Lon- 
don, Apr. 28, 1873. Son of an Eng- 
lish mother and German father, he 
first studied vln. with his father and 
Pollitzer; de'but as vlt. London, 
1883; after successful tours for 9 
years, settled in Paris, 1892, where 
by persistent application with some 
instruction from Paderewski he 
gained extraordinary technical abil- 
ity as pianist; in 1893-94 he toured 
Russia and since then has continued 
remarkably successful throughout 
Europe and America (including 
South America); his first appear- 
ance in America was witn the 
Boston Symph. Orch. Dec. 1, 1900. 

Baumbach (bourn '-bak), Adolph, compr. 
b. Germany, 1830 (?); d. Chicago, 
1880. Piano pieces and a collection 
of quartets for church choir. 

Baumf elder (boum'-f elder), Friedrich, 
pst. b. Dresden, May 28, 1836. 
Pupil of Otto and Joh. Schneider, 
and at Leipzig Cons, of Moscheles, 
Hauptmann, etc.; composer of 
brilliant salon music; director at 
Schumann Smgakademie in Dresden. 

Bausch (boush), Ludwig Christian 
August, vln.-maker. b. Naumburg, 
Jan. 15, 1805; d. Leipzig, May 26, 
1871. Maker and repairer of violins, 
especially famed for his bows, in 
Dresden, Dessau, Wiesbaden, and 
Leipzig. Sons Ludwig (182971871) 
at first in N. Y. then in Leipzig and 
Otto (1841-1874) continued busi- 
ness, now owned by A. Paulus at 
Markneuki rchen . 

Bayer (by-er), Josef, vlt., compr. b. 
Vienna, Mar. 6, 1852. Educated 
at Realschule, Handelsakademie, 
and Vienna Cons.; capellmeister at 

Vienna Opera; has composed a great 
deal of dance music and several 
operettas and opera-ballets. 

Bazzini (bat-ze'-ne), Antonio, vlt., 
compr. b. Brescia, March 11, 1818; 
d. Milan, Feb. 10, 1897. Pupil of 
Camisoni; played in principal towns 
of Italy, France and Spain; lived in 
Germany 1841-45; 1873 prof, of 
comp. at Milan Cons.; director 1882. 
Composed opera Turandot, sacred 
cantatas, symph., overtures, Saul 
and King Lear, and vln. pieces. 
Works show graceful Italian spirit 
deepened by German influence. 

Beach, Amy Marcy Cheney (Mrs. H. 
H. A.), compr. b. Henniker, N. H., 
Sept. 5, 1867. She inherits musical 
ability from her mother's family 
and mathematical accuracy from 
her father's; has the gift of absolute 
pitch; from early childhood was 
remarkably precocious in memory 
for tunes and interest in them. 
Lessons on the piano began with 
her mother at the age of six and 
were continued at eight in Boston 
under E. Perabo, J. W. Hill, and 
C. Baermann; she studied harmony 
with Prof. Hill in 1881-82, and 
studied counterpoint, fugue, and 
instrumentation by herself, making 
her own translations of Gevaert and 
Berlioz. First public appearance in 
Boston 1883; played with Bost. 
Symph. Orch. Mar. 28, 1885; since 
marriage with Dr. H. H. A. Beach 
1885 she has played only rarely in 
public. She began to compose as a 
mere child; her first large work was 
a mass in E flat 1892; then followed 
Eilende Wolken, a scene from Schil- 
ler's " Mary Stuart "; Festival Ju- 
bilate for chorus and orchestra, for 
the dedication of the Woman's Build- 
ing at the Chicago World's Fair, 
1893; the Gaelic symphony 1896; 
a violin sonata 1896; there are also 
many pf. compositions and songs. 
Goetschius says " the salient char- 
acteristics of Mrs. Beach's style [are] 
strong, passionate conception and 
powerful emotional impulse tem- 
pered and controlled by never- 
failing command of the means of 
expression, hand in hand with an 
exquisite sense of melodic and rhyth- 
mic beauty." In larger works her 
technical skill often leads to an 



overweight of elaborate detail; she 
is at her best in the smaller forms 
(songs and pf. pieces) where her 
delicate sense of melody finds charm- 
ing and sincere expression. 

Beaumarchais (bo-mar-sha) , Pierre-Au- 
gustin-Caron de, librettist, b. Paris, 
Jan. 24, 1732; d. there, May 19, 1799. 
Dramatist from whose plays were 
drawn libretti for Mozart's Marri- 
age of Figaro and Rossini's Barber 
of Seville. 

Beaumont (bo-mon), Paul, compr. b. 
Mayence, Jan. 13, 1853. Son of flute- 
player in orchestra; showed early 
inclination for music; entered at 14 
office of B. Schott's Sons, publish- 
ers, who assisted him in his educa- 
tion and have published many of 
his works; compositions largely for 
piano, many of them for young 

Beck, Johann Heinrich, vlt. b. Cleve- 
land, Sept. 12, 1856. Studied at 
Leipzig Cons., violin, and composi- 
tion with Reinecke and Jadassohn; 
after return to Cleveland estab- 
lished violin school and works in 
large forms, overtures to Lara and 
to Romeo and Juliet, music-drama 
SalammbS, etc., all unpublished, per- 
formances of which from Ms. have 
excited great admiration. 

Becker, Albert Ernst Anton, compr. b. 
Quedlinburg, June 13, 1834; d. 
Berlin, Jan. 10, 1899. Pupil at 
Quedlinburg of Bonicke and in 
Berlin of Dehn; teacher of comp. 
at Scharwenka Cons.; composed 
many works for orch. with vln. and 
with org., songs (Friihlingszeit), and 
especially symph., grand mass, and 
oratorio Selig aus Gnade, and a 

Becker, Hugo, 'cellist, b. Strassburg, 
Feb. 13, 1864. Son of Jean (1833- 
1884) eminent violinist; pupil of 
father, and on 'cello of Grutzmacher, 
De Swert and Piatti; first appear- 
ance Leipzig; solo 'cellist in Frank- 
fort opera 1884-*86, and teacher in 
Cons, there when not engaged on 
numerous and successful tours as 
soloist and as member of Frankfort 
Quartet led by H. Heermann; first 
appeared in Boston, Jan. 12, 1901, 

with Bost. Symph. Orch. Playing 
is described as of " classic nobility." 

Bedford, Herbert, see Lehmann, Liza. 

Beer, Jakob Liebmann, see Meyerbeer, 

Beethoven (ba'-to-ven), Ludwig van, 
compr. b. Bonn, Dec. 16, 1770 (gave 
date himself as 1772); d. Vienna, 
Mar. 26, 1827. Grandson of Ludwig, 
bass singer and capellmeister in 
electoral band; son of Johann, tenor 
singer, and of Maria Magdalene 
Laym (nee Keverich). B. was edu- 
cated in common schools until age 
of 14, after which he received nc 
regular instruction; about 1780 a 
friend, Zambona, taught him Latin, 
French, and Italian, and helped him 
in other branches. His musical edu- 
cation was more thorough; at first 
his father taught him violin and 
piano playing with great strictness 
and severity; after 1779 he was the 
pupil of Pfeiffer, music director and 
oboist; he learned to play the 
organ from Van den Eeden and 
from his successor Neefe. In 1782 B. 
became Neefe's deputy as organist; 
in 1783 cembalist for rehearsals of 
the opera orchestra; in 1784 assist- 
ant organist; and in 1788 he also 
played 2d viola in orchestra of 
theatre and at church under Reicha's 
leadership. In 1787 he went to 
Vienna and excited much interest 
as a pianist; Mozart, hearing him, 
foretold that he would have a great 
future. About 1790 his home life 
became very miserable because of 
the death of his mother and the 
bad habits of his father; he had 
made, however, some good friends, 
notably Count Waldstem, who gave 
him early encouragement, and the 
refined and cultured family of Von 
Breunings. In 1792 the elector sent 
Beethoven to Vienna for study. 
Dissatisfied with instruction he re- 
ceived from Haydn, the impatient 
Beethoven took lessons from Schenk 
at the same time, without Haydn's 
knowledge. He also took regular 
lessons in counterpoint, etc. from 
Albrechtsberger, whose strict for- 
malism disapproved of the student's 
originality; he also received " hints " 
on vocal style from Salieri and on 



quartet writing from Aloys Forster. 
In 1795 he first played in public in 
Vienna, and until the end of his 
life he lived there, with occasional 
trips to other cities and frequent 
excursions to the country. Events 
are not many in his later years; after 
about 1800 he was increasingly 
troubled by deafness which became, 
about 1816, so bad that his playing 
and conducting were most un- 
pleasant. After 1818 he was the 
guardian of his brother's son, an 
apparently worthless youth whose 
incapacity, wildness, and ingratitude 
caused his uncle serious distress of 
mind. His first years in Vienna 
were prosperous, but after about 
1810 his affairs did not go so well, 
though he was never, it seems, as 
near actual want as some of his 
expressions have led biographers to 
think. Beethoven was short, thick- 
set, and very strong. He was 
unceremonious in manner, often 
brusque and rude, easily irritated 
by real or fancied slights and often 
boisterous over his own practical 
jokes. He seems to have been 
unpopular with his fellow-musicians, 
but he made good friends among the 
members of the Vienna aristocracy, 
who bore with his strange ways. 
As a player, he was chiefly remark- 
able for the fertility of his ideas in 
improvisation and for depth of ex- 
pression. He was an indefatigable 
worker and his many note books 
(one of which he had always with 
him) bear witness to the number of 
his ideas and to their slow and pains- 
taking development. 

Beethoven's works have been 
divided by Von Lenz into three 
periods, according to their style, 
not according to strict chronology. 
The first period, extending roughly 
to 1800, includes the works which 
are like those of his teachers and 
contemporaries, the earlier string 
quartets, piano sonatas, etc. The 
second period, up to about 1815, 
was the freest and fullest; the 
works here include the third to 
the eighth symphonies, Fidelia, Eg- 
mont, Prometheus, pf. concertos in 
G and E flat, vln. concerto, the great- 
est sonatas, etc. During this period 
B. was unhampered by illness and 
family cares and his originality and 

powers of execution had full play. 
Fidelia, first produced in 1805, was 
practically rewritten for its per- 
formance in 1806 and again for 1814. 
The third period includes the ninth 
symph., the Missa Solemnis, the 
great string quartets, etc.; this is a 
period of struggle in his life, and, 
in his music, of loftiness and eleva- 
tion which at times seem almost too 
great to be contained. The notable 
characteristics of his music as a 
whole are inexhaustible originality 
of musical idea, and power of mighty 
expression coincident with a regard 
for the existing sonata form. To 
his contemporaries B. was a daring 
innovator because of the freedom 
of his modulations and his habit of 
fusing into one whole the different 
parts of a movement or a work, and 
of introducing new material in 
unusual places, and, moreover, be- 
cause he regarded music preemi- 
nently as a vehicle of expression 
rather than as an exhibition of skill. 
To his successors, however, he 
belongs to the " classic " age, 
because although he filled the con- 
ventional forms more deeply than 
any other with noble thought, he 
still did so with constant regard to 
the form.- He represents the great- 
est achievement on both sides, con- 
sideration for purity of form, and 
expression of high thought. 

Behnke (ban'-ke), Emil, teacher, b. 
Stettin, 1836; d. Ostende, Sept. 17, 
1892. Lived in London; taught 
and wrote about voice training and 
voice production, wrote Mechanism 
a/the Human Voice (1880) and other 

Behr (bar), Franz, compr. b. Liib- 
theen, Mecklenburg, July 22, 1837. 
Under pseudo. William Cooper, 
Charles Morley, Francesco d'Orso, 
has published many popular and 
instructive pf. pieces. 

Behrend (bar'-end), Arthur Henry, b. 
Danzig, Oct. 2, 1853. Composer of 

Beliczay (be-li'-chay), Julius von, com- 
pr. b. Komorn, Hungary, Aug. 10, 
1835; d. Pesth, Apr. 30, 1893. 
Originally an engineer; studied with 
Joachim, Hoffmann and Krenn; 



taught mus. theory at Acad. of Mus. 
Pesth. Composed mass, symph., 
string quartets, etc. 

Be Hermann, Johann Friedrich, writer. 
b. Erfurt, Mar. 8, 1795; d. Berlin, 
Feb. 4, 1874. Wrote works explan- 
atory of theory and practise of music 
among the Greeks. His son, Johann 
Gotfried Heinrich, compr. b. Berlin, 
Mar. 10, 1832; d. Potsdam, Apr. 10, 
1903. Pupil of Grell and at the 
Royal Inst. of Church Mus.; teacher 
of singing; prof, of mus. at Berlin 
Univ. Composed many vocal works 
and wrote theoretical and historical 
works and articles. 

Bellini (bel-le'-ni), Vincenzo, opera- 
compr. b. Catania, Sicily, Nov. 1, 
1801; d. Puteaux, near Paris, Sept. 
23, 1835. [Many authorities give 
these dates as Nov. 3 and Sept. 24, 
respectively.] Son of organist, who 
gave him first lessons; sent by 
nobleman to Naples Cons.; his first 
opera produced 1825 while still a 
student; 1826 Bianco, e Fernando, 
written on commission, had success 
at Naples and II Pirata in 1827 
excited enthusiasm at Milan and 
all over Europe a result partly due 
to singing of Rubini for whom tefior 
part was composed. After La Stran- 
iera and Zaira, a flat failure, in 1829, 
his version of Romeo and Juliet, 
/ Capuletti ed i Montecchi (1830) was 
followed by his masterpieces La 
Sonnambula and Norma in 1831. 
The former is the work most fre- 
quently heard nowadays; the part 
of Amina has been a favorite with 
debutantes; the simplicity of the 
plot and the extreme tunefulness of 
the music are the qualities most 
praised. In 1833 B. went to London 
and to Paris where he received assist- 
ance and advice from Rossini; he 
produced there in 1834 / Puritani. 
He was an eager and hard worker. 
Pougin says: " His complete igno- 
rance of theoretical rules and of the 
resources which a clever musician 
may gain from them, his almost 
absolute lack of knowledge of form 
and his naive and still almost affected 
disdain for it, were the very reasons 
for his creating for himself a special 
form, which, although awkward and 
lacking in movement and variety, 
was essentially personal." The 

modern auditor, however, is not 
compensated for the monotonous 
lack of ingenuity in his orchestration 
by the tender sweetness of his melo- 
dies, though singers of the Italian 
School will long delight in his arias. 

Bemberg (ban-bar') , Herman, compr. b. 
Paris, Mar. 29, 1861. Son of consul 
from Argentine Republic; pupil at 
Paris Cons, of Dubois and Massenet; 
has written songs, a cantata, comic 
opera Le Baiser de Suzon and opera 
Elaine, produced London 1892 and 
N. Y. 1894. 

Benda, Georg, compr. b. Jungbunz- 
lau, Bohemia, June 30, 1722; d. 
Kostritz, Nov. 6, 1795. Son of Hans 
Georg; pupil of father and of brother 
Franz (1709-1814) violinist and com- 
poser; 2d violin in royal band in 
Berlin; capellmeister to Duke of 
Gotha; traveled to Italy, Paris, 
and Vienna. Composed church and 
instrumental music, 5 operas, and 
4 melodramas, (i.e., plays where 
spoken words are accompanied by 
music). Rousseau may have in- 
vented the form but B. brought it to 
success. Other brothers Johann 
(1713-1752) and Joseph (1724-1804) 
both violinists; son Friedrich Lud- 
wig (1746-1792), composer. 

Bendall, Wilfred Ellington, compr. b. 
London, Apr. 22, 1850. Pupil of 
Lucas and Silas, and at Leipzig 
Cons.; now living as teacher and 
composer in London; has written 
'operettas, songs, etc. 

Bendel, Franz, pst., compr. b. Schon- 
linde, Bohemia, Mar. 23, 1833; d. 
Berlin, July 3, 187*4. Pupil of 
Proksch and of Liszt for five years; 
visited America as pst. for Peace 
Jubilee; teacher in Berlin. Com- 
posed pf. pieces, concerto, trio, 
etudes, etc. 

Bendix, Max, vlt. b. Detroit, Mar. 28, 
1866. Pupil of Jacobsohn, but after 
15 his own master; left family and 
supported himself by odd jobs at 
theatres and concerts in Philadel- 
phia; in Damrosch orch., N. Y.. 
1887; concertmeister of Germania 
Orch.; concertmeister for Thomas 
1886-1896; organized Max Bendix 
Quartet; since 1896 teaching and 
solo playing in New York; Chicago 



Bendix, Otto, pf. teacher, b. Copen- 
hagen, July 26, 1845; d. San Fran- 
cisco, March 1, 1904. Pupil of Ree, 
Gade, Kullak, and Liszt. After 
1880, settled in Boston, taught at 
N. E. Cons.; founded Cons, in San 
Francisco. His brother Victor 
Emanuel, pst., compr. b. Copen- 
hagen, May 17, 1851. Pupil of 
Gade; teaching pf. in Copenhagen, 
and conducting choral society. Com- 
posed pf. pieces, and 3 symphonies. 

Bendl, Karl [Karel], compr. b. Prague, 
April 16, 1838; d. there, Sept. 20, 
1897. Pupil of Blazok and Pitsch 
at Organists' School; chorusmaster 
in opera at Amsterdam, 1864; con- 
ductor of choral soc. Composed 
5 operas, choruses, pf. music all 
tending to expression of Czech senti- 
ments; with Smetana and Dvorak 
he gained recognition for the Czech 
in art. 

Benedict, Sir Julius, compr. b. Stutt- 
gart, Nov. 27, 1804; d. London, 
June 5, 1885. Son of Jewish banker; 
pupil of Abeille, then of Hummel, 
pupil and proteg6 of Weber 1821- 
1824; conductor at Vienna 1823 and 
at Naples; after visiting Paris, 
settled in London 1835; conducted 
there operas, concerts, and festivals; 
came to America with Jenny Lind 
in 1850; knighted 1871. Com- 
posed in almost all forms, successful 
operas, especially Brides of Venice 
1843 and Crusaders 1846, sym- 
phony, cantatas, pf. pieces, etc. 
Walker (History of Music in Eng- 
land) says " works of Balfe . . . 
and Benedict are all far more worthy 
of name of opera than any work of 
Bishop and his contemporaries." 

Benevoli (ben-e-vo'-li), Orazio, compr. 
b. Rome, 1602; d. there, June 17,1672. 
Pupil of Ugolini (some say of Nanini) ; 
resided in Vienna 1643-45; maestro 
di cappella at various churches and 
finally 1646 at Vatican. Composed 
great deal of church music, chiefly 
remarkable for skill and ingenuity 
in managing a great many parts; 
for example, a mass and hymn in 
56 parts (vocal and instrumental), 
and a mass for 48 voices in 12 choirs. 

Bennet, John, compr. b. Lancashire 
(?) 16th century. [1570-1615.] His 
madrigals are included in famous 

English collections from 1599-1614; 
admiration of posterity for his 
charming work has not made it 
possible to discover any details of 
his life. 

Bennet, Theodore, see Ritter, Theo- 

Bennett, George John, compr. b. 
Andover, Hants, Eng., May 5, 1863. 
Studied at Royal Acad. of Mus. 
under G. A. Macfarren and others 
and in Germany under Kiel, 
Barth, Rheinberger, and Bussmeyer. 
Teacher at Royal Acad., organist at 
several places, now at Lincoln 
Cathedral; conductor Lincoln Festi- 
vals. Composed serenade, overtures, 
trio, pf. pieces, etc. 

Bennett, Joseph, writer, b. Berkeley, 
Gloucestershire, England, Nov. 29, 
1831. Organist at Westminster 
Chapel, etc.; author of many Eng- 
lish libretti; wrote analyses for 
programs of Philh. Soc., Monday 
and Saturday Popular Concerts 
1885-1903; edited Concordia; has 
contributed to various journals, 
written several books (History of 
Leeds Festival, etc.); now music 
critic on London Daily Telegraph. 

Bennett, Sir William Sterndale, compr. 
b. Sheffield, Apr. 13, 1816; d. 
London, Feb. 1, 1875. Son of 
Robert, organist at Sheffield and 
composer; grandson of John, lay 
clerk at Cambridge, where B. lived 
after father's death in 1819; member 
of King's College Chapel Choir 1824; 
pupil at Royal Acad. of Mus. of 
Lucas, Crotch, Holmes, and Cipri- 
ani Potter; played concerto of his 
own at Acad. concert at age of 17; 
in 1836 in response to invitation 
from Mendelssohn whom his playing 
had interested and by the financial 
aid of the firm of Broadwood he 
went to Leipzig for a year; there he 
met both Schumann and Mendels- 
sohn; 1849 founded Bach Soc.; 
1856-1866 conductor of Philh. Soc.; 
1856 prof, of mus. at Cambridge; 
1866 principal of Royal Acad.; 1871 
knighted. Composed pf. music (3 
concertos, caprice for pf. and orch., 
sonata, studies, etc.) of a character 
remarkably consistent with the gen- 
ius of the instrument; cantata The 
May Queen and oratorio The Woman 



of Samaria, songs, anthems, etc. 
on the whole very little for one of his 
ability. " The character of all his 
art [was] that of high finish of form 
and grace of expression, not without 
deep feeling at times, but marked 
in general rather by a calm and 
placid beauty, and appealing to the 
fancy, the sentiment, and the 
intellect, rather than to the more 
passionate emotions." [Grove.] 

Benoist (b6-n6-a), Francois, orgt. b. 
Nantes, Sept. 10, 1794; d. Paris, 
May 6, 1878. Pupil of Paris Cons. 
1811-1815; Grand prix de Rome 
1815; orgt. at Chapel Royal; prof, 
of organ at Cons.; 1819-1872, chefdu 
chant at Ope"ra; pensioned 1872. 
Wrote 2 operas, ballets, organ works. 

Benoit (be'-no-a), Pierre-Leonard-Leo- 
pold, compr. b. Harlebecke, Bel- 
gium, Aug. 17, 1834; d. Antwerp, 
Mar. 8, 1901. Studied at Brussels 
Cons, under Fe'tis; wrote opera and 
music to melodramas; theatre- 
condr. 1856; won government grant 
1857; after study in Germany 
conducted at Paris; after 1867 
director Antwerp Cons. He wrote 
many songs and pf. pieces and 
many large choral works, Lucifer 
and De Oorlog (War) being perhaps 
best known. His scores are large, 
sometimes majestic through mere 
weight; their real grandeur and 
impressiveness is sometimes marred 
by B's " blind nationalism," his 
desire to free himself from all out- 
side influence; he worked for many 
years to establish a school of Flemish 
composers, although there seem to 
be few distinctive traits. 

Berber, Felix, vlt. b. Jena, Mar. 11, 
1871. Pupil at Dresden Cons, and 
pf Brodsky at Leipzig Cons.; 1889 
in London; 1891-96 concertmaster 
at Magdeburg, 1898-1902 at Ge- 
wandhaus, Leipzig; 1904 teacher in 
Royal Acad. in Munich. 

Berens (ba'-rens), Hermann, pst. b. 
Hamburg, Apr. 7, 1826; d. Stock- 
holm, May 9, 1880. Pupil of 'father 
Karl, flutist (1801-1857), of Reis- 
siger, and Czerny; went to Stock- 
holm 1847; founded Quartet Soirees, 
conducted at court and theatres, 
taught comp. at Academy. Com- 
posed opera, overtures, chamber 

music and songs. His technical 
work, Neueste Schule der Geldu- 
figkeit, Op. 61, is much used. 

Berger, Francesco, pst. b. London, 
June 10, 1835. Pupil of L. Ricci, 
Lickl, Hauptmann and Plaidy; prof, 
of pf. at Guildhall School and Royal 
Acad.; director and secretary of 
Philh. Composed one opera, masses, 
part-songs, and First steps at piano- 

Berger, Ludwig, pf. -teacher, b. Berlin, 
Apr. 18, 1777; d. there, Feb. 16, 
1839. Pupil for harmony of Giirr- 
lich, for pf. of Clementi with whom 
he traveled to St. Petersburg, to 
Stockholm and London 1815; in- 
fluenced by Field; taught in Berlin, 
after 1815, among others Taubert, 
Henselt, Fanny and Felix Mendels- 
sohn, wrote pf. studies of value and 
considerable music of various kinds. 

Berger, Wilhelm, compr. b. Boston, 
Mass., Aug. 9, 1861. Of German 
parentage he left America when 
only a year old; studied 1878-82 in 
Berlin Hochschule with Kiel; lived in 
Berlin as teacher; 1903 capellm. at 
Meiningen and composer, chiefly of 
choral works and chamber music, 
popular Lieder. 

Bergmann, Karl, condr. b. Ebers- 
bach, Saxony, 1821; d. New York, 
Aug. 16, 1876. Pupil of Zimmer- 
mann and Hesse. Came to America 
1850 with Germania Orch., which he 
later conducted till 1854; also con- 
ducted Handel and Haydn 1852- 
54; and Philh. Orch., N. Y. 1855- 
1876 (1855-66 alternately with Eis- 
feld), and Germ, chorus " Arion." 
Introduced much important music 
to America; Theodore Thomas's 
tastes and talents developed under 
B's influence (Krehbiel, in Grove). 

Bergonzi (bar-gon-tsi), Carlo, vln.- 
raaker at Cremona, about 1716-55; 
best pupil of Stradivari, whose 
models he imitated; especially dis- 
tinguished as a 'cello-maker. Son 
Michel Angelo, nephews Niccolo and 
Carlo all makers of no importance. 

Beringer (ba-ran-zha), Oscar, pst. b. 
Fiirtwangen, July 14, 1844. Pupil 
until 19 of elder sister, then at 
Leipzig Cons, of Plaidy, Moscheles, 
and Reinecke, and at Berlin of 



Tausig and Weitzmann. Teacher of 
pf. playing in Berlin and London, 
since 1894 at Royal Academy, 
published some pf. music and very 
valuable technical exercises, also 
Recollections (1908). Brother Robert 
(b. 1841) also pst., and lecturer. 

Beriot (ba-ri-6), Charles Auguste de, 
vU. b. Louvain, Feb. 20, 1802; d. 
Brussels, Apr. 8, 1870. Pupil of his 
guardian, Tiby, a provincial teacher; 
precocious public performance of 
Viotti concerto at age of 9; went to 
Paris, 1821, and studied " under 
advice of " Viotti and Baillot; 
brilliant success in Paris, Brussels, 
and London until 1830; concert 
tour for five years throughout 
Europe with Malibran, who became 
his wife in 1836. After her sudden 
death the same year, he retired until 
1840. In 1842 refused offer of 
professorship at Paris Cons., and 
accepted one in 1843 at Brussels 
Cons., which he kept until failure 
of eyesight in 1852; became totally 
blind in 1858. Violinist of the 
modern French-Belgian school, of 
brilliant technic and facility. 
Compositions, once very popular 
(seven concertos, various duos bril- 
lants for pf. and vln., etc.) are pleas- 
antly melodious, but superficial in 
style; he wrote also a method and 
exercises. Vieuxtemps one of his 
pupils. Son Charles (b. 1833) pst. 

Berlioz (bar-li-6z') , Louis Hector, com- 
pr. b. La Cote St. Andre, near 
Grenoble, Dec. 11, 1803; d. Paris, 
Mar. 8, 1869. Son of a country 
doctor, forbidden to think of music 
as a career, he received almost no 
training; had studied Catel's Har- 
mony and learned to play flageolet 
before coming to Paris in 1822 as 
medical student. Despite violent 
opposition from his parents, who 
finally stopped his allowance, he gave 
up medicine for music, and, after 
some lessons with Lesueur, he was 
admitted to Paris Cons, in 1823. 
There he combined personal dislike 
for the director, Cherubini, with the 
romanticist's deep scorn for con- 
ventional methods and academic 
theories. After a continuous strug- 
gle for seven years against opposi- 
tion from every side added to 
extreme poverty (he supported 

himself at one time by singing in the 
chorus of a theatre), his heroic per- 
sistence was rewarded when, in 
1830, his cantata La mort de 
Sardanapale won him the Prix de 
Rome. During eighteen months' 
stay abroad, he composed Sym- 
phonie fantastique, Lelio, La captive, 
and planned the overtures to Lear 
and Le Corsair. He married in 1833 
Henrietta Smithson, an Irish actress, 
whose career was soon after ended 
by an accident; and B. had another 
seven years of struggle gaining liveli- 
hood for self and family by writing 
criticisms and musical essays. In 
scant spare time he composed 
Harold en Italic, Symphonic funebre, 
Romeo et Juliette, opera of Ben- 
venuto Cellini, the Requiem, and 
several songs. 

After separation from his wife, 
having by this time begun to receive 
some money for his works, he trav- 
eled in Germany, Russia, and Eng- 
land appreciated everywhere but 
in Paris. The works of this period 
are Le traite d' instrumentation, La 
damnation de Faust, and Tristia. 
His Te Deum for the exhibition 1855 
at last aroused some recognition from 
Paris, and in 1856 B. was elected to 
the Academy; in 1859 made librarian 
of Cons. He married singer Martin 
Recio, but end of his life, despite 
success of opera Beatrice et Benedict, 
was lonely and sad; Les Troyens, 
1863, which he considered his mas- 
terpiece, had only a short run. 

His critical writings are still of 
value for sound judgment and strik- 
ing expression; Memoir -es is one of. 
the great autobiographies. His inter- 
est in literature revealed by the titles 
of his works is shown, too, by his 
preoccupation with the intellectual 
meaning, the idea to be expressed 
by the music. He is chiefly remark- 
able, however, for the great rich- 
ness and variety of his orchestral 
" color " effects. Philip Hale says 
(Modern French Songs): "He was 
the inventor, the creator of the 
modern orchestra, and there is 
nothing in the history of music more 
remarkable than the courage, the 
audacity, the imagination of this 
man, who was without marked 
melodic gift, without a thorough 
technical education, and without 



practical mastery of any one im- 
portant instrument. He shaped the 
future of orchestral expression." 

Bernacchi (ber-nak'-ki), Antonio, sing- 
er, b. Bologna, about 1690; d. there, 
Mar. 1756. Pupil of Pistocchi; 
gained fame in Italy; sang in Lon- 
don 1717 and returned " esteemed 
best singer in Italy " 1729; revived 
the custom of adorning singing with 
roulades, thus openly sacrificing 
expression to technical execution; 
after about 1730 taught in Italy, 
among others, Raff, Mancini, and 

Bernard (bar-nar'), [Jean] Emile [Au- 
guste], compr. b. Marseilles, Nov. 28, 
1843; d. Paris, Sept. 11, 1902. 
Pupil at Paris Cons, of Marmontel, 
Reber, and Benoist, winning prizes 
for pf ., counterpoint, and org. Organ- 
ist at Notre-Dame des champs. 
Serious, meditative composer of 
works in various forms, suite for 
violin and piano, Divertissement for 
wind instruments, etc. 

Bernard!, Francesco, see Senesino. 

Bernhard der Deutsche [or Bernardino], 
orgt. at St. Mark's, Venice,. 1419-45; 
reputed inventor of organ pedals, 
but since evidence has shown that 
pedal organ existed in Frankfort in 
1418, B's credit is limited to having 
introduced them in Italy. 

Bertini (ber-te'-ni), Henri- Jerome, pst., 
compr. b. London, Oct. 28, 1798; 
d. Meylan, near Grenoble, Oct. 1, 
1876. Taken to Paris in infancy, 
taught by father, and brother Benoit 
Auguste (b. 1780; date of death un- 
known) pupil of Clementi; played 
in public at 12; repeated successful 
tours from Paris to Germany and Eng- 
land until retiring in 1859. Many 
compositions distinguished from su- 
perficiality then in vogue ; chief work 
of value his technical studies. 

Berwald, William Henry, compr., teacher. 
b. Schwerin-Mecklenburg, Dec., 1864. 
Studied at Munich and Stuttgart 
under Rheinberger and Faisst; 
conducted orch. in Russia for two 
years; came to U. S. 1892; profes- 
sor pf. and theory at Syracuse Univ. 
Has published pf. pieces, songs, part- 
songs and anthems. 

Besson (bes'-son), Gustave Auguste, 
instr .-maker : . b. Paris, 1820; d. there, 
1875. Early in 1838 began series of 
inventions improving valves, bore, 
etc., of wind instruments; greatest 
invention, 1859, Prototype System, 
by which perfection of tone is 
secured for bass instruments by the 
mechanical process of construction. 

Best, William Thomas, orgt. b. Car- 
lisle, Eng., Aug. 13, 1826; d. Liver- 
pool, May 10, 1897. Son pf solicitor, 
pupil of cathedral organist Young; 
abandoned original intention of 
becoming civil engineer in 1840 and 
devoted himself to study of organ. 
Various appointments in and near 
Liverpool; after about 1860 was 
much in demand as solo player, at 
London Monday Popular Concerts, 
at Albert Hall, at Handel Festivals, 
etc.; went to Sydney, Australia, 
1890; retired 1894. Remembered 
as brilliant solo player, who early 
insisted on Bach and older masters; 
wrote org. mus., Art of Organ Play- 
ing; edited many classics for org. 

Bettini, see Trebelli. 

Bevan, Frederick Charles, orgt. b. 
London, July 3, 1856. Pupil of 
Willing and Hoyte; several church 
appointments; after studying sing- 
ing with Schira, Deacon, and Walker, 
became 1877 gentleman of Chapel 
Royal; composed several popular 

Bevignani (bev-in-yan'-e) , Enrico, con- 
dr. b. Naples, Sept. 29, 1841. 
Pupil in composition of Albanese 
and Lillo; produced successful opera 
Caterina Bloom, 1863; conductor 
in London since 1864, at Co vent 
Garden since 1870; also in Russia 
and at Metropolitan, N. Y. 

Beyer (bl'-er), Ferdinand, compr. b. 
Querfurt, July 25, 1800; d. May- 
ence, May 14, 1863. Composer of 
easy pf . music of the sort apparently 
which pleases the young person by 
facile tunefulness, without any real 
idea; many opera transcriptions. 

Biber (be'-bar), Heinrich Johann 
Franz von, vlt., compr. b. Warten- 
burg, Bohemia, Aug. 12, 1644; d. 
Salzburg, May 3, 1704. Ennobled 
by Emperor Leopold, 1690; also in 
service of Archbishop of Salzburg; 



apparently skilful performer, judg- 
ing by technical difficulty of his 
writings, and a composer of more 
artistic and deeper feeling than any 
German contemporary. 

Biedermann (be'-der-man), Edward 
Julius, orgt. b. Milwaukee, Nov. 8, 
1849. Son of A. Julius who taught 
him; after study in Germany has 
held various appointments in N. Y. 
and has taught there. 

Biehl (bel), Albert, compr., teacher, b. 
Rudolstadt, Germany, Aug. 16, 1833. 
Has published songs, pf. pieces, and 
especially valuable technical exer- 

Billema (bil-la-ma), Carlo, pst., compr. 
b. Naples about 1822, and his 
brother Raffaele (1820-1874) both 
brilliant psts. and composers of 
salon music. 

Billings, William, compr. b. Boston, 
Oct. 7, 1746; d. there, Sept. 29, 1800. 
Apprentice to a tanner, with slight 
general education and no musical 
training, he was led from his work 
by genuine enthusiasm for music; 
published in 1770 New England 
Psalm Singer and in 1778 Singing 
Master's Assistant, both works of 
some influence in fostering an early 
interest in original music; it is said 
that he introduced use of pitch-pipe 
and that he first used violoncello in 
church in N. E. Elson says: " One 
can forgive Billings his hundreds of 
errors of harmonic construction 
because of his devotion to his chosen 
art and to his country." 

Billington, Elizabeth [Weichsel], dram, 
sop. b. London, about 1768; d. 
Venice, Aug. 25, 1818. First taught 
by father, clarinet player, and later 
by Joh. Chr. Bach; appeared in 
concerts as child; in 1784 married 
James Billington, double-bass play- 
er; dramatic dSbut in Dublin; 1st 
appearance in London, 1786; sang 
there, except for two seasons in 
Italy, until 1817 when she retired. 
Though a poor actress, her personal 
beauty and wonderful voice with 
range of 3 octaves brought her 
great success. 

Binchois (ban-sho-a), Egidius [or Gilles 
de Binch], compr. b. Binche, near 
Mons, about 1400; d. Lille, 1460. 

At first a soldier, then in holy orders 
where he rose to some prominence. 
Known as a composer of secular 
songs, usually in 3 parts, of the 
school of Dufay. 

Bird, Arthur, pst., compr. b. Cam- 
bridge, Mass., July 23, 1856. Pupil 
of Haupt, Loeschhorn and Rohde, 
Berlin, 1875-77; orgt. and teacher 
at Halifax, N. S. 1877-81; pupil of 
H. Urban 1881, and of Liszt 1885-86; 
successful concert 1886, in Berlin 
where, with exception of one visit to 
America, he has since lived; won 
Paderewski Prize 1901.. Works in- 
clude symph., 3 orchestral suites, 
an opera Daphne, pf. pieces, etc. 

Bischoff (bish'-of), Hans, pst., teacher. 
b. Berlin, Feb. 17, 1852; d. Nieder- 
schonhausen, near Berlin, June 12, 
1889. Pupil of Kullak and Wuerst; 
teacher at Kullak and Stern Cons.; 
conductor Monday concerts of Sing- 
akademie; edited works by Kullak, 
compositions by Bach, etc. 

Bischoff (bish-off), J. W., orgt., compr. 
b. Chicago, 1850; d. Washington, D. 
C., June 2, 1909. Blind from infancy; 
educated at Wisconsin Institute for 
the Blind, and at Fond du Lac; 
musical talent, inherited from accom- 
plished father, trained by W. W. 
Ludden and Carlo Bassini for sing- 
ing and Creswold of London for org. ; 
orgt. at 1st Cong, church in Wash- 
ington, D. C., from 1875; especially 
successful as teacher of singing; 
composed about 150 songs, piano 
pieces and anthems. 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley, compr. b. 
London, Nov. 18, 1786; d. there, 
Apr. 30, 1855. Pupil of Bianchi; 
early talent for writing; first con- 
spicuous success Circassian Bride 
1809; compr. and director at Co vent 
Garden, King's Theatre, V.auxhall; 
conductor Philharmonic Society; 
professor at Edinburgh and Oxford. 
Composed or arranged about 125 
works, including abridgments of 
Rossini and others, music for Shakes- 
peare's plays. Also famous for glees 
and songs, whether single or in larger 
works, notably Home, Sweet Home 
in Clari (1823). Wife Anna (1814- 
1884), daughter of singingmaster 
Riviere, appeared as singer in 
London; eloped with harpist Bochsa 



1839 and toured almost all the rest 
of her life in America and remote 

Bispham, David Scull, singer. b. 
Philadelphia, Jan. 5, 1857. At first 
an amateur, singing in private per- 
formances at church, and local 
oratorios; studied with Vannuccini, 
Lamperti and Shakespeare 1886- 
1889; delmt London 1891; after 
1897 member of opera companies 
in London and New York; has sung 
all the leading baritone roles; and 
has been very successful, too, in 
giving concerts of an individual 
artistic quality; distinguished as a 
singer who is also an excellent actor. 

Bitter, Karl Hermann, writer. b. 
Schwedt-on-Oder, Feb. 27, 1813; 
d. Berlin, Sept. 12, 1885. Studied 
law and finance at Berlin and Bonn 
Univ., held various official positions 
culminating in that of Minister of 
Finance 1879-1882. Many literary 
works, biographies of the Bachs, 
studies on Mozart, Gluck, Handel, etc. 

Bizet (be-za), Georges [real name 
Alexandre Cesar Leopold], compr. 
b. Paris, Oct. 25, 1838; d. Bougival, 
near Paris, June 3, 1875. Pupil at 
Paris Cons. 1848-1857, piano with 
Marmontel, harmony with Zimmer- 
mann, composition with Halevy; 
won Prix de Rome 1857; wrote 
various operas, Vasco di Gama (not 
performed), Les pecheurs de perles 
(1863), LajoKe fille de Perth (1867), 
Djamileh (1872), none of which was 
a great success. In orchestral music 
overture to Patrie, incidental 
music to Daudet's L'Arlesienne and 
suites formed from it, the suites 
Roma and Jeux d'enfants he was 
more successful at the time, and the 
popularity of these works and of his 
too few songs has increased. With 
Carmen, produced Mar. 3, 1875, he 
reached greatest height; opera was 
not at first successful, but frequent 
statement that Bizet's death was 
due to its failure seems to be a senti- 
mental exaggeration. His music is 
essentially dramatic in its sharpness 
of outline, sense of contrast, and in 
the definite appropriateness of char- 
acterizing phrases. He was thor- 
oughly modern in his appreciation 
of tone values and orchestral color 
and in his technical skill. 

Blake, Charles Dupee, orgt., compr. b. 
Walpole, Mass., Sept. 13, 1847. 
Pupil of J. C. D. Parker, J. K. Paine, 
and others; orgt. at Bromfield St. 
and Union Ch. Boston; composed 
pf. music, songs, opera, etc. 

Blanc (blon), Claude [called Claudius], 
compr. b. Lyons, March 20, 1854; 
d. there, June 13, 1900. Pupil of 
Duprato, Bazin, and Massenet at 
the Paris Conservatory; 1st har- 
mony and accomp. prize 1875; 2d 
Grand prix de Rome, 1877; director 
School of Music, Marseilles, 1887- 
89; chorusmaster Paris Opera; com- 
posed operatic works and songs. 

Blangini (blan-je'-ne), Giuseppe Marco 
Maria Felice, singer, teacher, b. 
Turin, Nov. 18, 1781; d. Paris, Dec. 
1841. Choir boy at Turin Cathedral 
1789; pupil of Ottani; precocious 
'cellist and composer; at Paris 1799 
became fashionable teacher; pro- 
duced operas in Paris, Munich and 
Kassel; chapelmaster to Princess 
Borghese, music director to King 
Jerome ; height of demand as teacher 
in Paris after 1814; prof, at Cons.; 
lost prestige after 1830. Wrote 30 
operas, 174 romances, etc., and auto- 
biography, Souvenirs (1834). 

Blass (bias), Robert, dram. bass. Pupil 
pf Stockhausen at Frankfort; debut 
in Lohengrin at Weimar; sang at 
Bremen, London, 1899, Dresden 1900, 
and New York 1900. 

Blauvelt, Lillian Evans, sop. b. New 
York, March 16, 1873. Played vio- 
lin in public at age of eight; at 
fifteen became pupil of Bouhy in 
N. Y. Cons.; after 1889 sang in 
concerts in France, Belgium, and 
with conspicuous success in Russia; 
dramatic d6but Brussels 1891; sang 
in concerts with increasing success 
in U. S., Italy, and England where 
she first appeared in drama in 1903; 
married W. F. Pendleton 1899; she 
has a pure, clear voice, which she 
uses intelligently. 

Blaze (blaz), Frangois Henri Joseph 
[called Castil-Blaze], writer, b. Cav- 
aillon, Dec. 1, 1784; d. Paris, Dec. 
11; 1857. Taught by his father; 
went to Paris to study law, became 
pupil at Cons, but gave up practise 
of law for musical criticism in 1820; 



beside influential contemporary com- 
ment as critic for the Journal des 
debate and the periodicals, he wrote 
several books mostly relating to the 
history of the opera and attendant 
arts in France, translated words of 
many German operas, arranged con- 
siderable music and composed 3 
operas and smaller pieces of no 
great distinction. 

Blech (blek), Leo, compr. b. Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Apr. 21, 1871. After try- 
ing a business career, studied music 
for one year at Hochschule in Berlin 
under Rudorff and Bargiel; con- 
ductor at Aix Theatre 1893-96, with 
lessons from Humperdinck in vaca- 
tion; 1899-1908 capellm. at Prague; 
achieved European fame in 1902 
by one-act opera Das war Ich; has 
also written symph. poems, choruses, 
etc. and 4 or 5 operas. 

Blind Tom [Thomas Greene Bethune], 
musical phenomenon, b. near Co- 
lumbia, Georgia, about 1849; d. 
Hoboken, N. J., June 17, 1908. 
Parents slaves of James N. Bethune, 

" whose name he took; blind and 
idiotic from birth, about 1860 he 
displayed remarkable powers . of 
playing and improvising on the 
piano; he is said to have repeated 
difficult music after one hearing 
and to have supplied secondo parts 
to new airs; gave many concerts 
and exhibitions. 

Bliss, Philip Paul, compr. b. Clearfield 
Co., Pa., July 9, 1838; d. Ashtabula, 
O., Dec. 29, 1876. Few advantages 
of schooling, worked on farms and 
lumber camps; after three seasons 
at Genesee Normal Acad. of Music 
under Perkins and Zundel, he became 
music teacher; held conventions 
with G. F. Root in Chicago and 
the West after 1865; after 1874 
associated with D. F. Moody as 
evangelist; wrote a great many 
stirring revival hymns, Pull for the 
Shore, Hold the Fort, etc. 

Blockx (bloks'), Jan, compr. b. Ant- 
werp, Jan. 25, 1851. Pupil of 
Callaerts and Benolt in Flemish 
Mus. Sch. and of Brassin; also 
studied at Leipz. Cons.; in 1886 he 
became teacher of harmony at 
Antwerp Cons, and in 1902 director; 
also director of Cercle artistique 

and other musical societies; has 
composed Flemish songs, chamber 
music, etc. but is chiefly known for 
a series of successful operas, Milenka, 
Princesse d'auberge, Thiel Uylen- 
spiegel, and La fiancee de la mer 
which have gained for him a wider 
and wider circle of admirers. He is 
one of the promoters of Flemish 
" national " music, but his own 
works are liberally modern. 

Bloomfield-Zeisler (zis'-ler), Fanny, pst. 
b. Bielitz, Silesia, July 16, 1866. 
Parents moved to Chicago 1868; 
taught by Ziehn and Wolfsohn and 
appeared in public 1876; Mme. 
Essipoff having heard her play 
advised her to go to Leschetizky, 
with whom she studied 1878-1883; 
married Sigmund Zeisler 1885; since 
1883 she has played constantly at 
concerts in all parts of U. S., with 
frequent tours in England and 
Germany; her virile force, highly 
developed technic, and musicianly 
comprehension have made her tours 
invariably successful. 

Blow, John, compr. b. N. Colling- 
ham, Nottinghamshire, 1648; d. 
Westminster, Oct. 1, 1708. One of 
first set of choristers at Chapel 
Royal at its reestablishment 1660; 
while a chorister studied under 
Hingeston and Chr. Gibbons and 
composed anthems; orgt. at West- 
minster Abbey 1669-1680 when he 
gave up post to Purcell, possibly 
voluntarily; resumed it 1695-1708; 
master of children and orgt. at 
Chapel Royal 1674; held other 
appointments (see Grove); prolific 
composer of more than 100 anthems, 
many for special occasions; pub- 
lished (1700) collections of airs for 
harpsichord and Amphion Anglicus, 
collection of songs, etc., a masque 
(1687) and fourteen services. His 
fame has been overshadowed by 
that of his pupil, H. Purcell, and 
much of his music has not been 

Blumenfeld (blo-men-felt), Felix Mikh- 
ailovitch, pst. b. Kovalevska, Rus- 
sia, Apr. 23, 1863. Studied 1881-85 
at St. Petersburg Cons, under Stein; 
taught there since 1885, prof. 1895; 
since 1898 director St. Petersburg 
Opera; distinguished performer, 



compr. of songs, and music for pf. 
and pf . and orchestra, which, though 
skilful and touched by national feel- 
ing, is said to be lacking in variety 
and personality. Brother Sigismund 
(b. Dec. 27, 1852) also pst. and 
compr. of pf. music. 

Blumenschein, William Leonard, compr. 
b. Brensbach, near Darmstadt, Dec. 
16, 1849. Father vlt. in orch. and 
compr. of dance music, mother 
excellent singer; family moved to 
Pittsburg, Pa., 1851; B. sang in 
choir and concerts, studied vln., 
guitar, cabinet org., and pf.; at 
Leipzig Cons. 1869-72, pf. and 
theory under Paul, Richter, and 
Reinecke, directing under Ferd 
David; taught pf. and singing in 
Pittsburg with success; now orgt. 
and condr. of Philharmonic Society 
in Dayton, O.; has conducted vari- 
ous societies, and was chorusmas- 
ter of Cincinnati Festivals under 
Thomas 1891-96; has composed 
chiefly in smaller forms, pf. pieces, 
songs, and protestant ch. music, 
with considerable success. 

Boccherini (bok-ke-re'-ne), Luigi, com- 
pr. b. Lucca, Feb. 19, 1743; d. 
Madrid, May 28, 1805. Taught by 
father and Abbe' Vannucci; played 
'cello in theatre orch.; became 
famous as player and compr. from 
early travels with vlt. Manfredi in 
Italy and southern France; after 
great success in Paris 1768, went to 
Madrid and became compr. to 
Infanta; 1787-97 compr. to Fr. 
Wilhelm II of Prussia; at his death 
B., having fallen from favor, in 
Spain where he lived in increasing 
poverty (except for a short period 
under patronage of Lucien Bona- 
parte) until his death. B. composed 
467 instrumental works, mostly for 
two or more instruments, and some 
vocal works; chiefly remarkable as 
a contemp. of Haydn with whose 
chamber music B's bears compari- 
son in charming simplicity and facile 
melody, though it lacks force and 
sense of contrast. His Minuet is 
well known. 

Bochsa (bok'-sa), Robert Nicolas 
Charles, harpist, compr. b. Mont- 
m6dy, Aug. 9, 1789; d. Sydney, Jan. 
6, 1856. Son of Carl (d. Paris, 1821), 

oboe player and music seller; pupil 
of father on flute and clarinet; ap- 
peared in public at 7, opera per- 
formed before he was 16; pupil at 
Paris Cons, of Catel and Mehul, 
and on the harp of Nadermann and 
Marin whose instructions he soon 
outgrew, as he " revolutionized " 
harp playing; harpist to Napoleon 
and to Louis XVIII; fled from 
France before charge of forgery, 
gave lessons in London, to Parish- 
Alvars, Chatterton, etc.; prof, of harp 
and secretary Roy. Acad. of Mus. 
from which post he was dismissed; 
managed annual concerts in London ; 
eloped 1839 with Anna Bishop; 
extensive tours in Europe and 
America. Prolific composer, chiefly 
of works for harp of transient 

Bock, see Schroder-Devrient. 

Bocquillon (bok-i-yon), see Wilhem, 
G. L. 

Boehm (bem), Joseph, vlt. b. Pesth, 
Mar. 4, 1795; d. Vienna, Mar. 28, 
1876. Pupil of father and of Rode; 
played in Vienna, toured Italy; prof, 
at Vienna Cons. 1819-1848; mem- 
ber imperial band 1821-1868; chiefly 
famous as teacher of Ernst, Hellmes- 
berger, L. Straus, Joachim, and Auer. 

Boehm, Theobald, flute player, b. 
Munich, Apr. 9, 1794; d. there, 
Nov. 25, 1881. Court musician at 
Vienna and composer of works for 
his instrument; chiefly famous for 
inventions in construction of flutes 
and other wind instruments; his 
system increases mechanism and 
alters tone of flute, but makes its 
accurate range wider and its tones 
more even. 

Boekelman (be'-kel-man) , Bernardus, 
pst. b. Utrecht, Holland, June 9, 
1838. Pupil of his father, and at 
Leipzig Cons, of Moscheles, Richter 
and Hauptmann, and at Berlin of 
Weitzmann and Von Billow; since 
1866 teaching in New York, and at 
Farmington, Conn. Composed for 

gf. and edited analytical edition of 
ach, printed in several colors, which 
is very valuable. 

Boellmann (bo-el-man') , Leon, orgt., 
compr. b. Ensisheim, Alsace, Sept. 
25, 1862; d. Paris, Oct. 11, 1897. 


Pupil of Gigout at Niedermeyer 
School; orgt. at Ch. of St. Vincent 
de Paul; remarkable org. player; 
composed music in almost every 
form, all graceful, clear, pure in 
style; best known single comp. 
Variations symph. for 'cello and orch. 

Boethius, Anicius Manilas Torquatus 
Severinus, writer, b. Rome, about 
475; d. there (?), 524. Counsellor of 
Theodoric, ' executed for treason; 
philosopher and mathematician ; 
wrote treatise De Musica on Greek 
music, chief source of information 
during Middle Ages. 

Bohlmann (bol'-man), Theodor Hein- 
rich Friedrich, pst. b. Osterwieck 
am Harz, June 23, 1865. Studied 
with Barth, Klindworth, d'Albert, 
and Moszkowski; successful concert 
tours in Germany; prof, at Cin- 
cinnati Cons, after Sept. 1890. 

Bohm (bom), Carl, pst., compr. b. 
Berlin, Sept. 11, 1844. Pupil of 
H. Bischoff, Mmes. Reissmann, and 
Geyer. Composer of salon music; 
living in Berlin. 

Boieldieu (bo-a-el'-di-^), Francois Adri- 
en, compr. b. Rouen. Dec. 15, 
1775; d. Jarcy, Oct. 8, 1834. Son of 
an unhappy marriage between an 
archbishop's secretary and a milliner; 
taught exclusively by Broche, orgt. 
at cathedral, pupil of Martini, whose 
brutal treatment caused his pupil to 
run away to Paris; after being 
brought back B. composed opera 
to words by his father, produced in 
Rouen, and several successful songs; 
operatic career in Paris began with 
Les deux lettres 1796; after great 
success of Le calife de Bagdad 1800, 
and of some chamber music, B. was 
' made prof, of pf. at Paris Cons. 
1800; as a result of a jest from Cher- 
ubini about his " undeserved " suc- 
cess, he submitted to instruction from 
Me"hul and probably from Cherubini, 
the marked results of which appeared 
in Ma tante aurore 1803; possibly 
as result of unhappy marriage with 
the dancer Mafleuroy, B. spent 8 
years in Russia, as conductor of 
Italian opera; returned to Paris 
1811, brought out Jean de Paris 1812 
and La dame blanche, his master- 
piece, 1825. He had been prof, of 
comp. at Paris Cons, since 1820; 


retired in 1828, but failure of Les 
deux nuits 1828 and temporary 
cessation of pension due to change 
in government forced him to resume 
teaching 1834. One of greatest 
French comprs. of ope'ra comique; 
especially in later period, his char- 
acteristic touches, poetic grace, and 
freshness of melody are such that 
Elson calls him " a French Mozart." 
Son by second wife, Adrien Louis 
Victor (Nov. 3, 1815-July 9, 1883), 
pupil of father, composer of several 
successful comic operas, mass, etc. 

Boise (bois), Otis Bardwell, orgt. b. 
Oberlin, O., Aug. 13, 1845. Edu- 
cated at public schools of Cleveland ; 
orgt. at 14; pupil in Leipzig of 
Hauptmann, Richter, and others, 
and in Berlin of Kullak; later 
advised by Liszt, orgt. in Cleveland, 
and N. Y.; teacher in N. Y. and 
from 1888 to 1902 in Berlin; Brock- 
way and Huss among pupils; now 
prof, in Peabody Conservatory, 
Baltimore; composed orch. works, 
harmony method, and author of The 
Masters of Miisic. 

Boi'to (bo-e-to'), Arrigo, compr. b. 
Padua, Feb. 24, 1842. Son of an 
Italian painter and a Polish mother, 
brother of an architect and critic; 
studied at Milan Cons, under Maz- 
zucato with so little success at first 
that he narrowly escaped dismissal; 
composed with Faccio very successful 
cantata, of which the score is lost; 
apparently for lack of initiative 
self-confidence B. gave Jip music for 
critical and literary work in Paris 
and Milan until 1868 when the 
managers of La Scala offered to 
produce his Mefistofele. The work 
was hastily completed and its pro- 
duction was the occasion of an almost 
riotous demonstration; the work 
is undoubtedly original and has 
moments of tremendous force; it 
differs from Gounod's Faust in that 
it includes both parts of Goethe's 
poem, and its great length is not 
justified by intensity of sustained 
interest or by technical mastery of 
effects. In a revised form the opera 
had considerable success at Bologna 
and Milan in 1875. It is said that 
Boi'to has completed two other 
operas, Nerone and Orestiade, neither 
of which has ever been performed; 



the greatest admiration is expressed 
by those who have heard portions of 
the works, but their characteristics 
are wrapped in a curious mystery. 
B., under anagram Tobia Gorrio, has 
published charming poems and has 
written several admirable librettos 
notably those of Verdi's Othello and 

Bonawitz (vitz), Johann Heinrich, 
compr. b. Durkheim-on-Rhine, Dec. 
4,1839. Pupil at Li6ge Cons.; after 
sojourn in America gave concerts in 
London and Paris 1861-66; con- 
ducted Popular Symphony Concerts 
in N. Y. 1872-73, and after failure of 
that undertaking gave concerts with 
some success throughout U. S. 
Produced two operas in Philadel- 
phia 1873, 1874, and since 1876 has 
lived in Europe. 

Bonci, Alessandro, operatic tenor, b. 
Casena, Italy, 1874?. Educated in the 
Rossini Conservatory at Pesaro, under 
Pedrotti and Felice Coen; in three 
years he was called to the position of 
solo tenor in the church of Santa 
Maria, in Loreto, one of the most 
prominent churches in Italy with an 
exceptionally high musical standard; 
after six years of hard work he com- 
pleted his studies and became the 
leading tenor at the Royal Theatre 
in Parma; from this place he went 
to a theatre in Milan and finally to 
the famous La Scala Theatre in the 
same city. His European tours in- 
cluded all the leading cities; he also 
won great success at Buenos Ayres, 
and later at the Manhattan and 
Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York. In the season of 1910-1911 
he made a concert tour of the United 

Bononcini (bp-non-che-ne), [Buonon- 
cini], Giovanni Battista, opera compr. 
Son of G. M. Bononcini (1640-167.8) 
church compr. b. Modena, 1660, 
date and place of death uncertain, 
probably Venice in 1750; pupil of 
nis father and Colonna, and Buoni 
('cello); 1690 at Vienna as court 
'cellist; Rome 1694 producing his 
first opera; at Vienna 1699-1703; 
Berlin 1703-<)5; again at Vienna and 
various Italian cities; in London as 
rival to Handel 1716-1731; falling 
into the hands of an alchemist he 

was swindled out of his fortune and 
never recovered his once high posi- 
tion; lived at Vienna and Venice 
until his death. He is credited with 
22 operas, a number of church 
works, madrigals and divertimenti. 

Bontempi, Giovanni Andrea Angelini, 
compr. b. Perugia, about 1630; d. 
Bruso, July 1, 1705. Adopted name 
B. from his godfather; artificial 
soprano, asst. capellmeister to Hein- 
rich Schiitz in Dresden; 1690 back 
to Perugia; wrote 3 operas, 2 theoret- 
ical works and a history of music. 

Booth, Josiah, org., compr. b. Cov- 
entry, March 27, 1852. Studied at 
Coventry and Oxford and at Roy. 
Acad. Mus. London, under Brinley 
Richards and Macfarren; org. at 
Banbury 1867, orgt. at Crouch End 

Boott, Francis, compr. b. Boston, June 
24, 1813; d. Cambridge, Mar. 1, 1904. 
Attended school in Waltham; grad. 
Harvard 1831; never in active 
business; lived abroad after 1847; 
studied comp. with Picchianti in 
Florence; composed, under name 
Telford, mass, Miserere, songs ( Here's 
a Health to King Charles, etc.). 

Borch, Gaston, compr., 'cellist. b. 
Guines, France, March 8, 1871. 
Father prominent in mining and en- 
gineering affairs; received instruction 
in languages, and in music under 
Massenet, in Paris, and under Grieg 
in Norway; conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society of Christiania and 
of the Musikverein, Bergen; came 
to the United States and is now 
(1910) a member of the faculty of 
the Pennsylvania College of Music, 
Philadelphia; compositions include 
three operas, symphony, piano con- 
certo, orchestral works, piano pieces, 
songs and choruses, about 150 num- 
bers in all. 

Bordese (bor-da'-ze), Luigi, compr. b. 
Naples, 1815; d. Paris, Mar. 17, 
1886. Studied at Naples Cons.; 
failed as dramatic composer; after 
1850 taught singing and composed 
innumerable songs, vocalises, wrote 
2 methods. 

Bordogni (bor-don'-yi), Giulio Marco, 
singer, b. Gazzaniga, 1788; d. Paris 
July 31, 1856. Pupil of Mayr ; 



d6but at Milan 1813; singer in 
Paris 1819-33; teacher at Cons. 
1819-24, 1830-56, Sontag among 
pupils; published vocalises, etc. 

Bordoni, Faustina, see Hasse, F. 

Borodin (bo-ro-din') , Alexander Por- 
phyrievitch, compr. b. St. Peters- 
burg, Nov. 12, 1834; d. there, Feb. 
27, 1887. Illegitimate son of Prince 
of Imeretia; brought up with every 
advantage; student of medicine and 
science; army surgeon; professor 
of chemistry, founder of School of 
Medicine for women and lecturer 
there. In 1862 B., then merely an 
amateur, became one of the circle 
influenced by Balakirev; in 1877 
visited Lis/t and described him 
vividly in letters afterwards pub- 
lished. He began to compose his 
1st symph. in the same year that 
he met Balakirev and before his 
untimely death he had composed a 
second symph., part of a third, 2 

?uartets, a suite, the symph. poem 
n the Steppes of Central Asia, several 
songs and an opera Prince Igor, 
finished after his death by Rimsky- 
Korsakov and Glazounov. His best- 
known works are the symph. poem 
and the quartets. His songs are 
full of national feeling; in his oper- 
atic work, however, he did not 
follow his " school " in their extreme 
fondness for recitative. 

Borowski, Felix, compr. b. Mar. 10, 
1872, at Burton, Eng. Father, a 
Polish nobleman who fled to England 
during the Polish rebellion, was his 
first teacher on the piano and violin; 
after a general education at private 
schools in London and Tunbridge 
Wells he began the study of the 
violin with Jacques Rosenthal and 
later with Adolf Pollitzer in London, 
musical theory with Dr. Charles W. 
Pearce; in 1888 he went to the 
Cologne Conservatory (Germany), 
where he studied theory and com- 
position with Gustave Jensen, violin 
with Georg Japha and piano with 
Ernst Heuser; on his return to 
England he was first a violin teacher 
at Aberdeen, and during this time 
brought out his first published com- 
positions, the mazurkas in C major 
and C minor; in 1894 he located in 
London devoting his time principally 

to composition, the most striking 
v/ork of the period being A Rus- 
sian Sonata which attracted the 
attention of Grieg. In 1897 he ac- 
cepted the position of professor of 
composition in the Chicago Musical 
College, and has resided in that city 
up to the present time (1910); in 
addition to the composition classes 
he taught violin for several years 
and has conducted the classes in 
history of music. He has been 
Chicago critic for the N. Y. Musical 
Courier, of the Chicago Evening Post 
and is now (1910) connected with 
the Record- Her old, and at one time 
prepared the program notes for the 
Theodore Thomas Orchestra. Com- 
positions cover various branches: 
Marche Triomphale and two suites 
for orchestra, and two pieces for 
string orchestra; Suite in E minor, 
two sonatas, and small pieces for the 
organ; for the piano, a Russian 
Sonata, seven Preludes and more 
than 60 smaller works; for violin, 
a number of pieces of which Adora- 
tion is the best known; six songs; a 
concerto for piano and orchestra in 
D minor and a string quartet in A 
minor are still in manuscript. 

Bortnianski (bort-nyan'-ski), Dimitri 
Stepanovitch, compr. b. Gloukoff, 
1752; d. St. Petersburg. Sept. 25 
(9ct. 8), 1825. Studied with Galup- 
pi and followed him to Italy by aid 
of Empress Catherine; composed 
operas in Italy; but on return to 
Russia in 1779 became director of 
the choir in St. Petersburg (which 
became " imperial choir " in 1796), 
for wh. he composed 45 psalms and 
a mass; he first reduced Russian 
church music to system, and made 
his choirs famous by care in select- 
ing remarkable voices and training 
them to great skill. 

Berwick, W. Leonard, pst. b. Wal- 
thamstow, Essex, Feb. 26, 1868. 
Son of Alfred, amateur 'cellist and 
friend of many musicians; first 
lessons at age of 5; later pupil of 
Bird and Clara Schumann; dbut 
Frankfort 1889; since then popular 
in London concerts (some with 
P. Greene); he is said to be espe- 
cially great as a player of Liszt and 



Bossi, Enrico Marco, orgt., compr. b. 
Salo, Apr. 25, 1861. Son of orgt.; 
studied at Liceo Musicale, Bologna, 
and at Milan Cons, under Pon- 
chielli and Fumagalli; orgt. at 
Como, teacher at Naples; teacher, 
director, and conductor at Venice, 
1902 director of Liceo Musicale; 
made early attempts at dramatic 
composition, but boldness and sever- 
ity of his style is better shown in 
numerous cantatas, org. pieces, and 
oratorio Le Paradiso Perduto. He 
is considered the most proficient 
performer on the organ in Italy. 

Bottesini (bot-tes-se'-ne), Giovanni, 
double-bass player, compr. b. Crema, 
Dec. 24, 1823; d. Parma, July 7, 
1889. Son of clarinet player; singer 
in choir; entered Milan Cons, at 
age of 11, studied harmony and 
comp. with Basili and Vaccai, d. 
bass with Rossi; traveled with 
Arditi; member of orch. at Havana 
many years; conductor at Paris, 
1855-57, in London 1871, and -at 
numerous other places (conducted 
1st performance of Aida at Cairo). 
Composed 6 operas, an oratorio, 
quartets; had marvelous skill as a 

Boucher (bo-sha), Alexandra Jean, vlt. 
b. Paris, Apr. 11, 1778; d. there, 
Dec. 29, 1861. Appeared at court at 
age of 6, and at concerts at 8; 1787- 
1805, solo vlt, to Charles IV of 
Spain; later gave concerts through- 
out Europe; successful both because 
of his really fluent playing and 
because of his cheap methods of 
advertisement; he called himself 
" L'Alexandre des violons." 

Bouhy (bo-e), Jacques, Joseph Andre, 
singer, teacher, b. Pepinster, Bel- 
gium, June 18, 1848. Pupil at 
Li6ge and Paris Cons.; d6but at 
Paris 1870; created many impor- 
tant parts, among them Escamillo 
in Carmen; 1885-89 head of N. Y. 
Cons.; returned to stage 1890 but is 
now (1910) teaching in Paris. 

Bourgault-Ducoudray (bdr'-go-dii-ko- 
dra), Louis Albert, compr. b. Nantes, 
Feb. 2, 1840; d. Vernouillet, July 4, 
1910. Finished legal studies 1859; 
entered Cons., as pupil of A. Thomas; 
won Prix de Rome in comp. 1862; 
has written 3 operas (Thamara. Paris 

1891), orchestral pieces, Stabat Mater, 
etc.; chief work has been study of 
early primitive music and revival 
of it; has published collection of 
Greek folk-lore and written about it; 
lecturer on history of music at Cons, 
since 1878. 

Bouval (bo-val'), Jules Henri, compr., 
orgt. b. Toulouse, June 9, 1867; 
pupil of Dubois and Massenet at the 
Paris Conservatory; 1st prize for 
harmony 1889, honorable mention 
for Prix de Rome 1893; organist of 
St. Pierre de Chaillot; composer of 
dramatic works, ballets and songs. 

Bovy, C. S., see Lysberg, C. S. 

Bowman, Edward Morris, orgt., theorist. 
b. Barnard, Vt., July 18, 1848. 
Pupil of Wm. Mason and J. P. 
Morgan; orgt. in St. Louis; studied 
in Berlin with Bendel, Rohde, Haupi, 
and Weitzmann and in Paris with 
Batiste; again in St. Louis, with 
period of study in England; founder 
of Amer. Coll. of Musicians; orgt. 
in N. Y., professor at Vassar 1891- 
1895; condr. of various choirs in N. Y. 
and Brooklyn; has translated and 
prepared for English use Weitz- 
mann's Manual of Music Theory. 

Boyce, William, orgt., compr. b. Lon- 
don, Feb. 7, 1710; d. Kensington, 
Feb. 7, 1779. Chorister at St. Paul's; 
articled pupil of M. Greene, later 
pupil of Pepusch; held various org. 
appointments in London; com- 
posed many fine anthems, serenatas 
and odes; increasingly deaf from 
early years, after 1769 he devoted 
himself to editing Cathedral Music, 
collection of services by English 

Brackett, Frank H., compr. b. Fall 
River, Mass., Apr. 8, 1859; studied 
at Harvard University under John 
K. Paine, and under John W. Tufts; 
commenced professional work as 
singer, organist, and composer in 
1881, filling positions as organist in 
Boston, Somerville, Dorchester, and 
other suburbs; compositions num- 
ber about 300, including piano pieces, 
songs and anthems; lives at Ash- 
mont, a suburb of Boston. 

Bradbury, William Batchelder, compr. 
b. York, Me., Oct. 6, 1816; d. Mont- 
clair, N. J., Jan. 7, 1868. Pupil of 


S. Hill, L. Mason, and at Leipzig of 
Hauptmann and Moscheles. Taught, 
wrote, conducted conventions, made 
pianos, composed 2 cantatas, edited 
collections of music which (The Key- 
note, The Jubilee, etc.) were enor- 
mously popular. 

Braga (bra-ga), Gaetano, 'cellist, b. 
Giulianova, June 9, 1829; d. Milan, 
Nov., 1907. Pupil of Ciandelli for 
'cello, Mercadante for comp. at 
Naples Cons.; lived and played in 
many capitals; friend of Rossini 
and others but died in poverty; 
composed 3 unsuccessful operas, a 
method, and several smaller pieces, of 
which Angel's Serenade most popular. 
" He wrote with much intelligence 
but more feeling." 

Braham, John, tenor, b. London, 1774; 
d. there, Feb. 17, 1856. Son of poor 
Jews (real name probably Abraham) ; 
pupil of Leoni; d6but 1787; later 
pupil of Rauzzini, second d6but 1796; 
after period of success on the Conti- 
nent, he enjoyed career of great 
popularity in England 1801-1826; 
composed several operas and wrote 
parts for himself in many others; 
lost fortune in speculations; many 
songs still popular, as Death of Nel- 
son; toured America 1840. 

Brahms (brams), Johannes, compr. b. 
Hamburg, May 7, 1833; d. Vienna, 
Apr. 3, 1897. Son of Johann Jacob 
(1806-72), oontrabassist at Ham- 
burg theatre, he studied with his 
father and Cossel until he was ten, 
then with Marxsen pianoforte and 
some theory. He appeared in public 
in 1849, at a concert of Wachtel's 
and at one of his own. Touring 
through North Germany with Rem- 
enyi in 1853 he met Joachim who 
introduced him to Liszt and Schu- 
mann, both of whom greeted him 
enthusiastically, S. in a famous 
article Neue Bahnen (New Paths). 
From 1854-1858 B. was court con- 
ductor at Lippe-Detmold, then he 
returned to Hamburg where he 
stayed except for occasional concert 
trips until 1860 when he went to 
Winterthur. In 1862 he moved 
finally to Vienna; he conducted at 
the Singakademie for one season and 
at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 
for three, 1872-75; the rest of his life 


with some holiday trips and increas- 
ingly rare public appearances was 
taken up by composition. 

The early accounts of his playing 
describe it as fluent and brilliant, 
but later, perhaps from lack of care, 
it became incoherent and blurred. 
Schumann's enthusiasm for his early 
pf. pieces was not shared by all, and 
there was much discussion about 
them and about the first pf . con- 
certo, which B. brought out himself 
in Leipzig in 1859. The early 
chamber music, two orchestral sere- 
nades (1860), the German Requiem 
(1865, and with added movements 
1868), Variations on a theme by 
Haydn made his name familiar to 
audiences, so that his first sym- 
phony (not produced until 1876) 
was awaited with great eagerness. 
Its appearance caused a renewal of 
discussion; B. was accused of imi- 
tating Beethoven, and praised for 
continuing the master's work. He 
was also used, with some injustice, 
to support the cause of absolute 
music against the ardent Wagner- 
ites. His later orchestral works, 
Akademische and Tragische over- 
tures, the 3 other symphonies, 3 
other concertos, later chamber music 
have placed him beyond question 
among the great masters. His songs 
once declared " un vocal " are uni- 
versally recognized as expressing the 
soul of the poetry. Present discus- 
sion of him is between those who 
complain of lack of color, of the 
appreciation of the sensuous quali- 
ties of music, a dry formalism and 
those who exalt the intellectual con- 
tent, the purity of form, originality 
of scheme, and technical skill. His 
admirers find broad and deep emo- 
tional feeling, an impersonal passion 
subordinated to a lofty sense of 
form. To Hadow, Brahms fulfils 
the desire for " a composer who 
while he maintains and develops the 
harmonic traditions of the Romantic 
School shall even more devote him- 
self to the restoration and evolution 
of musical structure, who shall take 
up the classical form where Bee- 
thoven left it .... and raise it 
to a fuller organization." So Hun- 
eker calls him " the greatest con- 
trapuntist after Bach, the greatest 
architectonist after Beethoven." 



Brambach (bram-bak), Kaspar Joseph, 
compr. b. Bonn, July 14, 1833; d. 
there, June 20, 1902. Studied under 
A. Zur Nieden and Ferd. Hiller and 
at Cologne Cons., where later he 
taught; director and teacher at 
Bonn. Composed secular cantatas 
Fruhlingshymnus, Prometheus, etc., 
pf. concerto, and chamber music. 

Brandeis (bran-dls), Frederick, pst., 
compr. b. Vienna, July 5, 1835 
(or 1832?); d. New York, 1899. 
Pupil of J. Fischhof, Czerny, Rufi- 
natscha, and of Meyerhofer in N. Y.; 
debut N. Y. 1851; toured as pst., 
various positions as orgt. Several 
comp. for orch. and chamber music. 

Brandt (brandt), Marianne [pseud, of 
Marie Bischof], dram, contralto, b. 
Vienna, Sept. 12, 1842. Pupil of 
Frau Marschner at Vienna Cons, and 
of Viardot-Garcia in Paris; de"but 
Graz 1867; Berlin 1868-86; sang 
Kundry in Parsifal 1882, alter- 
nating with Materna; 1886-1890, 
N. Y.; now teaching in Vienna. At 
her best during Berlin period, com- 
pass of voice so extensive that she 
sang both soprano and contralto 

Brassin (bras-san), Louis, pst., compr. 
b. Aix-la-Chapelle, June 24, 1840; d. 
St. Petersburg, May 17, 1884. Son 
of baritone, who changed name from 
De Brassine, nephew of Drouet, 
flute player; pupil at Leipzig Cons, 
of Moscheles; teacher 1866 at 
Stern Cons, in Berlin, at Brussels 
Cons. 1869-78, and at St. Petersburg 
Cons. 1878-84. Appeared early in 
public, and made tours with brothers 
Leopold (1843-1890) pst. and Ger- 
hard (b. 1844) vlt. Louis composed 
Ecolemoderne du piano, pf. eludes, 
transcriptions, 2 operas, etc. 

Braun, Mrs. A., see Brema, Marie. 

Bree (bra), Jean Bernard van, vlt., 
compr. b. Amsterdam, Jan. 29, 
1801; d. there, Feb. 14, 1857. Pupil 
of Bertelmann; orch. player at Am- 
sterdam; founded " Cecilia " 1840; 
director of music-school ; composed 3 
operas, masses, cantatas, chamber 

Breitaer (brit-ner), Ludovic, pst. b. 
Trieste, Mar. 22, 1855. Studied at 
Milan Cons, and with Rubinstein 

and Liszt; composed music to 
Wilhelm Meister, song cycles, etc.; 
established and conducted Phil- 
harmonic Society in Paris; visited 
America in 1900. Went to Berlin 
1909 to teach in the Stern Cons. 

Brema (bra-ma), Marie [pseud, of 
Minnie Fehrmann], dram, mezzo 
sop. b. Liverpool, Feb. 28, 1856. 
Father of German origin, mother 
from Virginia; early taste for music 
not cultivated until after marriage 
to A. Braun 1874; after study with 
Henschel, d6but at Monday Pop. 
Concert 1891 under name of Bremer; 
dram. de"but same year; first appeared 
at Bayreuth 1894; since then has sung 
Wagnerian roles with success in Eng., 
America, and Paris ; has created parts 
in many operas and oratorios, chiefly 
at English festivals where her rich 
voice has made her a great favorite. 

Breslaur (bres-lowr), Emil, teacher, b. 
Kottbus, May 26, 1836; d. Berlin, 
July 27, 1899. Studied at Stern 
Cons.; teacher at Kullak's Acad.; 
founder and director of Piano- 
Teachers' Seminary; editor of Kla- 
vierlehrer, and author of several 
important books on pf. playing and 
pf. literature. 

Breval (bra-val'), Lucienne [pseud, of 
Bertha Agnes Lisette Schilling], dram, 
sop. b. Berlin, Nov. 4, 1869. 
Pupil of Warat, Obin, Giraudet at 
Paris Cons., where she took first 
prize for opera 1890; de"but 1892, 
Paris Ope"ra, where she has since 
sung, except for season at Ope"ra 
Comique in 1901; in America 1900, 

Breville (bra-vil'), Pierre Onfroy de, 
compr., condr. b. Feb. 21, 1861. 
Pupil at the Paris Conservatory and 
of C6sar Franck; studied for the 
bar and a diplomatic career; music 
critic Mercure de France 1898-1901; 
teacher at Schola Cantorum; com- 
positions include orchestral and 
choral works, masses, motets, songs, 
piano and organ pieces. 

Brewer, John Hyatt, orgt., compr. b. 
Brooklyn, Jan. 18, 1856. Boy 
soprano in several churches, pupil 
Navarro (harm.) and Buck and 
others (org.); various positions as 
orgt. in N. Y.; active member of 



many musical societies; has con- 
ducted several choral societies; 
teaches singing, org., and theory. 
Has composed church and organ 
music, glees, songs, and choral works, 
suite for orchestra (Ms.). 

Bridge, Sir John Frederick, compr. b. 
Oldbury, near Birmingham, Dec. 5, 
1844. Chorister in Rochester Cathe- 
dral, where his father became lay 
clerk in 1850, articled to John 
Hopkins, orgt.; held various org. 
appointments at Windsor (where he 
was pupil of J. Goss), at Manchester, 
and finally at Westminster Abbey 
as deputy 1875 and in full 1882; 
in consequence of this office he had 
charge of the music for Queen 
Victoria's jubilee 1887 and King 
Edward's coronation 1902. He took 
degree Mus. Doc. at Oxford 1874; 
was knighted 1897 and has received 
many honorary titles. He taught 
at Owens College while in Man- 
chester, is Gresham Prof., prof, at 
Univ. of London, examiner in sev- 
eral colleges. Composed oratorios, 
anthems, etc., collected " Abbey 
Chants," wrote Primer of Counter- 
point, etc. " His works show the 
vivacity of his mercurial tempera- 
ment." [Grove.] His brother, 
Joseph Cox B., orgt. b. Rochester, 
Aug. 16, 1853. Pupil of Hopkins, 
and pupil and assistant of brother 
at Manchester; Mus. Doc. Oxford 
1885; since 1877 orgt. at Chester 
Cathedral; prof. mus. Durham 
Univ. 1908; revived Chester Fes- 
tivals, founded Chester Mus. Soc. 
Composed festival cantatas, sym- 
phony, pf. music, songs, and part- 

Brink, Jules ten, compr. b. Amster- 
dam, Nov. 4, 1838; d. Paris, Feb. 6, 
1889. Pupil of Dupont in Brussels, 
Richter in Leipzig; director Lyons 
1860-68, after that in Paris; wrote 
symphonic poems, one-act opera, etc. 

Brisson (bris'-son), Frederic, pst. b. 
Angouleme. Dec. 25, 1821; d. 
Orleans, June or July, 1900. Pupil 
of Garandet; an elegant pianist,- 
a distinguished performer on har- 
monium, for which he wrote much; 
published, beside operetta and organ 
method, more than 150 slight pf. 

Bristow, George Frederick, compr. b. 
Brooklyn, Dec. 19, 1825; d. New 
York, Dec. 13, 1898. Studied in 
London with Macfarren; condr. 
Harm. Soc., Mendelssohn Union, 
orgt. in several churches, head of 
mus. dept. N. Y. public schools, 
original member and condr. of N. Y. 
Philharmonic. Composed opera Rip 
Van Winkle 1855, a cantata Niag- 
ara, and symphonies, quartets, etc. 
Made an early stand for American 

Brirton, Thomas, amateur, b. Higham 
Ferrers, or Wellingborough, North- 
ampton, about 1651; d. London, 
Sept. 27, 1714. Known as " Musical 
Small-coal Man," because he dealt 
in coal; 1678 established weekly 
concerts over his shop and a musical 
club for practise, both frequented 
by aristocratic and famous people, 
Handel, Pepusch, etc. Also known 
in book collecting circles. 

Brockway, Howard A., compr., pst. b. 
Brooklyn, Nov. 22, 1870. Studied 
pf. with Kortheuer and in Berlin 
1890-1895 with Earth and O. B. 
Boise; conducted concert of own 
works Berlin, 1895; teaching in 
New York, and Peabody Conserva- 
tory, Baltimore. Equipped by un- 
usually thorough training, he has 
composed early in difficult forms, 
symph., symph. ballad, romanza for 
vln. and orch., etc. Sylvan Suite for 
orch. best known. 

Brodsky, Adolf, vlt. b. Taganrog, 
Russia, Mar. 21, 1851. Studied at 
Vienna Cons. 1862-63 with J. Hell- 
mesberger, of whose quartet he 
became a member; studied also with 
Laub in Moscow, where he taught 
at Cons.; condr. at Kieff 1879; taught 
at Leipzig Cons. 1882-83, in N. Y. 
1891-94, in Berlin 1894, at Manches- 
ter Royal Coll. pf Mus., of which he 
became director in 1895. 

Broekhoven (bre'k-ho-fen), John A., 
teacher, theorist, b. Beek, Holland, in 
1852. Prof, pf harmony and coun- 
terpoint at Cincinnati Coll. of Music; 
has written text-books, Suite cr6ole 
for orch., overture Columbia, etc. 

Bronsart, Hans von [really B. von 
Schellendorf], condr. b. Berlin, 
Feb. 11, 1830. Studied at Berlin 



Univ., lessons in theory from Dehn, 
piano with Kullak and Liszt; con- 
ducted " Euterpe " Leipzig; " Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde " Berlin; is 
"Hofmusikintendant" Berlin; comp. 
opera Der Corsdr, symph., well- 
known pf. concerto. His wife Inge- 
borg (nee Starck) pst., compr. b. St. 
Petersburg, Aug. 24, 1840. Pupil 
of Henselt and Liszt; first concert 
at 12; married Hans von B. 1862; 
composed 3 operas, pf. music in 
all forms. 
Broschi (bros-ke), Carlo, see Farinelli. 

Broustet (bro-sta), Edouard, pst. b. 
Toulouse, Apr. 29, 1836. Studied 
with Stamaty, Litolff, and Ravina; 
after tours to St. Petersburg, Spain, 
and Portugal, settled in Toulouse 
where he has composed pf. concerto, 
chamber music, pf. pieces. 

Brown, Obadiah Bruen, teacher, b. 
Washington, D. C., July 2, 1829; 
d. Maiden, Mass., Mar. 5, 1901. 
Pupil in Boston of Zerrahn, Parker, 
David Paine; in Leipzig of Lobe 
and Plaidy; teacher in several Mass. 
state normal schools, orgt. in Bos- 
ton; director of music, public 
schools, Maiden; edited several 
collections for school use, composed 
choruses, anthems, etc. 

Bruch (briik). Max, compr. b. Cologne, 
Jan. 6, 1838. Mother (nee Almen- 
rader), a singer, guided his education; 
first lessons in theory from Breiden- 
stein at Bonn; having gained four- 
year scholarship at Frankfort-on- 
Main, studied under Hiller, Rein- 
ecke, and Breuning; taught and 
brought out first operetta at Cologne; 
produced opera Loreley on libretto 
written for Mendelssohn at Mann- 
heim 1863; has held various posi- 
tions as director at Coblenz, of Stern 

Singing Soc. Berlin, of Liverpool Har- 
monic Society, of Orchesterverein at 
Breslau; married singer Emma Tuc- 
zek 1881; came to America 1883, 
brought out Arminius at Boston by 
Cecilia Society. Has composed 
several cantatas of epic nature, 
Odysseus, Arminius, AchUleus, 
Frithjof; his Fair Ellen a favorite 
with choral societies; songs; 3 vln. 
concertos, of which the 1st, in G, is 
very popular; pieces for 'cello (nota- 
bly Kol Nidrei a Hebrew melody). 

His music is marked by clearness and 
purity of melodic idea and unusual 
skill in combinations of vocal and 
orchestral masses. 

Bruckner (brok-ner), Anton, orgt., 
compr. b. Ansfelden, Austria, Sept. 
4, 1824; d. Vienna, Oct. 11, 1896. 
Earliest lessons from father, a 
village school-master; while orgt. 
at Linz Cathedral after 1855 he 
studied in Vienna with Sechter and 
Kitzler; 1867 orgt. in Vienna and 
prof, at Cons., 1875 lecturer at 
Univ.; 1869 and 1871 played in 
France and England as org. virtuoso. 
His compositions include a string 
quartet, 3 grand masses, a Te Deum, 
8 symphonies, and 3 movements of 
a 9th. He lived, even in the capital, 
the simple life of a villager, dis- 
tressed by the violent hostility 
which his works aroused, but never 
permitting this to move his earnest 
persistence. He was a devoted 
adherent of Wagner's theories and 
in his symphonies he aimed to 
apply them to absolute music. 
Much of the hostility which he 
encountered was due to the fact 
that he was regarded probably 
against his wish as the symphonist 
selected by the Wagnerites to oppose 
Brahms. Viewed apart from their 
contemporary critical quarrel, his 
music appears as a somewhat uneven 
combination of passages showing 
power, nobility, and imagination 
with passages of tedious length and 
heavy and pedantic dryness. 

Briill (briil), Ignaz, pst., compr. b. 
Prossnitz, Moravia, Nov. 7, 1846; 
d. Vienna, Sept. 17, 1907. Pupil of 
Epstein, Rufinatscha, and Dessoff; 
successful concerts in Vienna and 
other cities, notably in London in 
1878; teaching in Vienna after 1872; 
opera Das goldene Kreuz, Berlin 
1875, had wide success in other 
cities; has composed 9 other operas, 
a symph., an overture, 3 concertos, 

Brume! (bru-mel'), Anton, compr. b. 
about 1480; d. about 1520. Pupil 
of Okeghem; lived at courts of 
Dukes of Sora and Ferrara; com- 
posed at least 15 masses, motets, 
and other sacred music; said by 
contemporaries to have excelled by 



industry rather than genius; wrote 
a comp. in 8 parts, each in different 
church mode. 

Bruneau (brii-no), [Louis Charles Bon- 
aventure], Alfred, compr. b. Paris, 
Mar. 3, 1857. Of musical parents; 
studied at Paris Cons, 'cello with 
Franchomme, comp. with Massenet; 
critic for Gil Bias and Figaro; 
conductor Op4ra Comique 1903. 
Has composed overture, 3 choral 
symphonies, 2 collections of songs, 
and a Requiem mass beside the 5 
operas which are his chief works. 
Of these Le reve, L'Attaque du mou- 
lin, Messidor and L' Ouragan are on 
texts either written by Zola or based 
on his works, the last two being in 
prose. Music at first was considered 
very difficult and harsh, because of 
effort made at accurate delineation of 
characters, which is strikingly suc- 
cessful; each work has a characterized 
and influential setting, like the storm 
in L' Ouragan, which gives atmos- 
pheric unity. Has published also 3 
volumes of acute musical criticism. 

Brunner (broo-ner), Christian Trau- 
gott, orgt., condr. b. Briinlos, Erzge- 
birg, Dec. 12, 1792; d. Chemnitz, 
Apr. 14, 1874. Organist and con- 
ductor of choral societies; composed 
instructive pf. pieces, variations, etc. 

Bucalossi (boo-ca-los'-si) , Ernest, compr. 
Composed from early years; pupil at 
Royal Acad. Mus.; in 1881 succeeded 
his father as conductor at London 
theatre; conductor with traveling 
company; compr. of popular dance 
music, notably La Gitana waltz. 

Buck, Dudley, orgt., compr. b. Hart- 
ford, Conn., Mar. 10, 1839; d. Oct. 
6, 1909, at Orange, N. J. Pupil of 
Babcock, at Leipzig Cons, of Plaidy, 
Moscheles, Hauptmann, and Rietz, 
at Dresden of Schneider, and at 
Paris; organ appointments in Hart- 
ford, Chicago, Boston (where his 
recitals as orgt. of Music Hall Ass'n 
had great influence), and in N. Y.; 
asst. cOndr. of Thomas Concerts, 
N. Y.; director of Apollo Club; 
retired from all but theoretical and 
comp. work 1902. Composed ora- 
torios Golden Legend, Light of Asia, 
cantatas Legend of Don Munio, Cen- 
tennial Meditation of Columbia (for 
Exposition 1876), several excellent 

short sacred cantatas, songs, anthems, 
org. pieces. His music shows skill, 
intelligence, freedom from pedantry, 
and much of the elements of popu- 
larity. Has had wide influence in 
extending respect for American music 
and in training younger men, Chad- 
wick, Gleason, Eddy, Neidlinger being 
his pupils. 

Buhlig, Richard, pst. b. Chicago, 1880 
of German parents. Went to Vienna 
1887 as pupil of Leschetizsky. 
D6but 1900, London 1905, in the 
U. S. 1907. Thoughtful and serious 
artist, of unusual executive ability. 

Bull, John, orgt., compr. b. Somerset- 
shire, about 1563; d. Antwerp, Mar. 
12 (13?), 1628. Pupil of Blitheman; 
orgt. at Hereford Cathedral and 
1591 of Chapel Royal; Mus. Doc. 
Oxford 1592; Gresham Prof, of 
Mus. 1597; in service of Prince 
Henry 1611 although Roman Cath- 
olic; 1613 left England without leave 
under questionable circumstances, 
and in 1617 became orgt. at Ant- 
werp Cath. Comp. anthems and 
music for org. or virginal " unequal 
in character, and generally more 
ingenious than beautiful." So brill- 
iant a performer that he has been 
called " the Liszt of his age." 

Bull, Ole Borneman, vU. b. Bergen, 
Feb. 5, 1810; d. Lyso, near Bergen, 
Aug. 17, 1880. Father, physician, 
who disapproved of musical career, 
but uncle and other members of 
family eager amateurs; lessons from 
Paulsen and Lundborg, but mainly 
self-taught; abandoned study of 
theology at Univ. of Christiania to 
conduct mus. society there; at 
Paris 1831, by hearing Paganini 
inspired to great efforts, which with 
poverty brought on illness; 1832 he 
reappeared in public and thereafter 
had great success in Europe and 
especially in the U. S.; 1848 founded 
national theatre in Bergen; 1870 
again in U. S., where he married a 
second time, and where he lost a 
considerable fortune in an attempt 
to found a colony for his poor 
countrymen. Technical skill was 
fairly amazing and gave adequate 
expression to the patriotic spirit of 
the North in his compositions, which 
were the only ones he played. 



Bullard, Frederic Field, compr. b. 
Boston, Mass., Sept. 21, 1864; d. 
there, June 24, 1904. Gave up study 
of chemistry; studied 4 years with 
Rheinberger in Munich; taught in 
Boston after 1892; published many 
expressive songs, anthems and vig- 
orous part-songs, some of which, Stein 
Song, etc., are very popular. 

Billow (bii-lo), Hans [Guido]von, pst., 
condr. b. Dresden, Jan. 8, 1830; d. 
Cairo, Feb. 12, 1894. Taught pf. 
and harmony at 9 by Wieck and 
Eberwein; studied law at Leipzig 
Univ., counterpoint with Haupt- 
mann; adopted Wagner's radical 
theories after performance of Lohen- 
grin at Weimar; followed him to 
exile and learned conducting from 
him; pupil of Liszt at Weimar; 
first tour 1853 in Germany and 
Austria; held various appointments 
as teacher (Stern Cons. 1855, etc.); 
court pst., and condr. in several 
places, notably Meiningen, where he 
brought the orch. to height of 
excellence 1880-85; married 1857 
Cosima Liszt (later the wife of 
Wagner) from whom he separated 
1869; married actress Marie Schan- 
zer 1882; gave 139 concerts in 
America 1875-76. His wonderful 
power of intellectual analysis of 
music not only appeared in his 
finished playing but is preserved in 
his admirable critical editions, as 
those of Beethoven's sonatas and 
such pianoforte arrangements as 
that of Tristan and Isolde. His 
phenomenal memory enabled him 
to do justice to the largest possible 
repertoire; he also set the fashion 
of conducting without score. His 
playing seems to have been a tri- 
umph of careful analytical prepara- 
tion combined with an apparently 
spontaneous emotional expression. 

Bungert, August, compr. b. Miilheim- 
on-Ruhr, Mar. 14, 1846. Pupil of 
Kufferath and at Cologne Cons.; 
music director at Kreuznach; fur- 
ther studies in counterpoint with 
Kiel in Berlin 1873-81; living in 
Italy since 1882. Has written pf. 
quartet which took prize in Flor- 
ence 1878, comic opera produced 
Leipzig 1884, etc.; his great \vorks 
are two dramatic cycles not yet 

completed based on the Iliad and the 
Odyssey, after Wagnerian models; 
Odysseus Heimkehr, first part pro- 
duced 1896, excited considerable 

Buonamici (bu-o'-na-me'-che), Giusep- 
pe, pst. b. Florence, Mar. 19, 1846. 
First taught by uncle Ceccherini; 
by Von Billow and Rheinberger at 
Munich Cons. 1868-70; teacher 
there 1870-73; conductor of choral 
soc. in Florence, and founder of trio 
society and teacher there; his great- 
est work is editing of Beethoven 
sonatas and composition of technical 
studies based on difficulties in 
Beethoven. Son Carlo, b. Florence, 
June 20, 1875. Pupil of mother and 
father, and of Van Zeil at Wiirzburg; 
came to Boston 1896, as teacher and 
concert pianist ; 1908, with Felix 
Fox, founded Fox-Buonamici School. 

Buranello, see Galuppi. 

Burdett, George Albert, orgt. b. Boston, 
June 17, 1856, Trained under J. W. 
Hill, and Paine at Harvard where he 
was graduated with ' ' highest musical 
honors" in 1881; studied in Germany 
under Haupt in Berlin and at Han- 
over; since 1895 orgt. at Central Ch., 
Boston; founder of Am. Guild of 
Orgts., first dean N. E. Chapter; 
published anthems, organ music, and 
pf. pieces. 

Burgmuller (bu rg-mii Her), Johann 
Friedrich Franz, compr. b. Regens- 
burg, 1806; d. Beaulieu, France, 
Feb. 13, 1874. Composer of pf. music 
mainly for young people and useful 
early studies Brother Norbert (1810 
-1836), composer of great promise 
but immature achievement. 

Burgstaller, Alois, dram, tenor, b. Holz- 
kirchen, Sept. 27, 1871. Pupil of 
Kniese; Bayreuth 1894-1901; Metro- 
politan, N. Y., 1902-08, first Parsifal 
in N. Y. 1904. 

Bunneister (bur-ml-ster), Richard, com- 
pr., pst. b. Hamburg, Dec. 7, 1860. 
Studied with Liszt in Weimar, 
Budapest or Rome 1880^1883; teach- 
er in Hamburg Cons; director of pf. 
at Peabody Conservatory, Balti- 
more, 1885-1897; then in New 
York, now in Europe; a brilliant 
pianist and compr. of skill; has 
written symph. poem, etc., re-scored 



Chopin's F minor concerto, added 
orch. part to Liszt's Concerto Pathe- 
tique, etc. 

Burmester, Willy, vlt. b. Hamburg, 
Mar. 16, 1869. First pupil of father, 
later of Joachim; brilliant player 
of virtuoso class; made debut when 
a child; has toured since 1886; in 
1890 conductor at Sondershausen ; 
greater success on the Continent than 
in England or America. 

Burnand, A. B., see Strelezski, Anton. 

Burney, Charles, writer, b. Shrews- 
bury, Apr. 12, 1726; d. Chelsea, 
Apr. 12, 1814. Pupil on org. of 
Baker and Arne; orgt. at various 
provincial stations; Mus. Doc. Ox- 
ford 1769, F. R. S. 1773; composed 
music for few dramas, sonatas, can- 
tatas, etc., adapted The Cunning 
Man from Rousseau's Devin du 
village. Chief works are Present 
State of Music in France and Italy, 
Present State of Music in Germany, 
the Netherlands, etc., which are 
accounts of his own tours, and his 
General History of Music, in 4 
volumes, 1776-89, which contains 
much information and reflects ad- 
mirably the 18th century point of 

Burrowes, John Freckleton, writer, b. 
London, Apr. 23, 1787; d. there, 
Mar. 31, 1852. Pupil of Horsley; 
for 40 years orgt. in London; com- 
posed forgotten instrumental music; 
wrote much used Piano Primer. 

Burton, Frederick Russell, compr. b. 
Jonesville, Mich., Feb. 23, 1861; d. 
Sept. 30, 1909, Lake Hopatcong, 
N. J. Graduated at Harvard 1882; 
organizer and condr. of Choral 
Society at Yonkers, N. Y.; mus. crit. 
N. Y. Sun; composer of Hiawatha, 
dramatic cantata based on actual 
Indian themes, as result of special 

Busby, Thomas, writer. b. West- 
minster, Dec., 1755; d. London, 
May 28, 1838. Pupil of Knyvett 
and Battishill; orgt. at Newington. 
Composed oratorio The Prophecy 
on Pope's Messiah and music for 
other odes and some plays; wrote 
several musical articles and essays, 
Dictionary of Music, History of 

Music (compiled from Hawkins and 
Burney), and 3 volumes of Concert- 
room and Orchestra Anecdotes, of 
much interest about contemporaries. 

Busch (bush), Carl, compr. b. Bjerre, 
Denmark, Mar. 29, 1862. Studied 
at Cons., vln. with Tofte, comp. with 
Hartmann and Gade; played in 
orch. and studied in Paris under 
Godard and Gounod; settled in 
Kansas City 1889; established Phil- 
harmonic Orch. there; composed 
works for orchestra, symphonic 
rhapsody, symphony, vln. music, the 
dramatic cantatas League of the Alps, 
King Olaf, and songs. 

Busnois (bii-no-a), Antoine, compr. 
b. Picardy, France; d. Bruges, Nov. 
6, 1492. Pupil of Okeghem, musi- 
cian in service of Charles the Bold; 
cited as authority by contemporary 
theorists; 2 magnificats, a mass, 
and some secular songs are extant. 

Busoni (bu-zo'-ni), Ferruccio (fer-ru- 
chi-o) Benvenuto, pst., compr. b. 
Empoli, near Florence, Apr. 1, 1866. 
Father played clarinet, mother (Anna 
Weiss) pianist gave him first les- 
sons; d6but Vienna. at age of 9, 
studied there with Hans Schmitt and 
in Graz with Remy (Meyer); at 17 
so successful in Italy that a medal 
was struck in his honor by Florence 
and he was elected a member of 
Accademia Filarmonica at Bologna; 
1886 Leipzig; teaching Helsingfors 
1888; at Moscow 1890, after taking 
Rubinstein prize; at Boston, Mass. 
1891-93; in 1894 located in Berlin; 
1908-1909 at Vienna, with occa- 
sional tours; about 1905 established 
Orchestral Evenings with new and 
seldom heard works which he 

Bussler, Ludwig, theorist, b. Berlin, 
Nov. 26, 1838; d. there, Jan. 18, 
1901. Son of Robert, painter, 
author, and statesman, grandson of 
Karl, singer; choir boy under Von 
Hertzberg; taught theory by Dehn 
and Grell, instrumentation by Wie- 
precht, teacher of theory at Berlin. 
Theatre conductor there; musical 
critic for National Zeitung. Has 
written many useful books on har- 
mony and composition, several of 
which have been translated into 



Butt, Clara, contralto, b. Southwick, 
near Brighton, Eng., Feb. 1, 1873. 
Pupil of Rootham at Bristol; 1889 
of J. H. Blower at Royal Coll. of 
Mus., where she gained scholarship; 
de"but London 1892; studied with 
Bouhy at Paris 1895; voice of great 
depth and beauty and commanding 
stage presence have made her much 
in demand for festivals and concerts; 
many compositions written for her, 
among them Elgar's Sea Pictures. 
Married, 1900, R. Kennerley-Rum- 
ford, baritone, b. London, Sept. 2, 
1870. Pupil of Henschel, Beume, and 
Sbriglia; d6but London 1893; known 
as fine, really artistic singer. 

Butter field, James Austin, compr. b. 
Hertfordshire, Eng., May 18, 1837; 
d. Chicago, July 6, 1891. Taught by 
father, a 'cellist, learned to play vln. 
before 10; sang in Harm. Soc. of town, 
where he studied mus. of Handel's 
and other oratorios; at 15 deputy 
leader of orch.; parent's refusal to 
allow him to follow music drove him 
to U. S., where he settled in Chicago 
at 19; taught vln. and singing; 
induced parents to emigrate; pub- 
lished journal in Indianapolis; taught 
in Chicago 1867-80, conducted Chi- 
cago Jubilee 1873; 1880 director of 
Norwich (Conn.) School of Vocal Art; 
1888 returned to Chicago; composed 
many popular songs (When You and 
I were Young, Maggie, etc.), conven- 
tion singing books, cantatas, notably 
the spectacular Belshazzar. 

Buxtehude (bux-te-hii-da), Dietrich, 
orgt., compr. b. Helsingor, Denmark, 
1637; d. Lubeck, May 9, 1707. 
Father Johann, orgt. died 1674, may 
have been his teacher; 1668 became 
orgt. at Marienkirche, Lubeck, and 
held the post until his death; 1673 
organized Abendmusiken, concerts 
on Sunday afternoons in Advent of 
concerted pieces for chorus and 
orchestra and organ works. These 
concerts were deservedly famous and 
widely influential (Bach walked 50 
miles to hear them). As composer, 
he is important for having developed 
purely instrumental music, even 
before Bach, in his organ works and 
clavier pieces. Many of the clavier 
pieces are lost; two vols. of organ 
works published by Spitta; also wrote 
a large number of vocal works. 

Byrd, William, compr. b. London, 
Eng., 1542 or 1543; d. there, July 4, 
1623. Said to have been pupil of 
Tallis; orgt. at Lincoln Cathedral 
about 1563; shared post of orgt. at 
Chapel Royal with Tallis; and 
these two also held patent for selling 
and publishing music; held his 
position and estates, by singular 
favor, although he and his family, as 
Catholics, were in constant danger 
of prosecution. Composed madri- 
gals, masses, and services for the 
Catholic ritual as well as a collection 
of music for the virginal, published 
in the Fitz William Virginal book 
and in Lady Nevill's work. 

Cabezon, Felix Antonio de, orgt., harp- 
sichord player, b. Madrid, Mar. 30, 
1510; d. there, May 24, 1566. 
Blind from birth, yet eminent per- 
former; chamber musician to Philip 
II; arranged works of other men 
for his instruments; edition of his 
works by Pedrell include ricercari, 
motets, exercises, chiefly for organ. 

Caccini (ka-che'-ni), Giulio [known as 
Giulio Romano], compr. b. Rome, 
about 1550; d. Florence, Dec., 1618. 
Pupil of Scipione della Palla in 
singing and lute playing; served 
Duke of Tuscany as singer after 
1578; followed Galilei in composing 

for single voice; then composed solos 
in recitative form, performed with 
great success in houses of Bardi 
and Corsi in Florence; then, after 
some detached dramatic scenes, col- 
laborated with Peri in producing the 
first real opera, Euridice, 1600; in 
treatise Le Nuove Musiche C. ex- 
plains theory of recitative on which 
was based the new form of which he 
was, though not the inventor, an 
early supporter. 

Cady, Calvin Brainard, teacher, b. 
Barry, 111., June 21, 1851. His father 
was a pioneer minister in the West, 
so that the boy's early education 


was in the old-fashioned country 
singing school and convention 
choruses; graduated from Oberlin 
(Ohio) Conservatory of Music, 1872; 
went to Leipzig and studied with 
Plaidy, Paul, Richter, and Papperitz; 
taught music in public schools of 
Oberlin 1870; teacher of piano and 
harmony, Oberlin Conservatory, 
1874; prof, of music, University of 
Michigan, 1880-88; in charge of 
work with children and teachers, 
Chicago Conservatory of Music, 
1888-1894; lives in Boston, head 
of School of Music Education, and 
also lectures on musical pedagogy 
at Institute of Musical Art, New 
York and Teachers' College, Co- 
lumbia University. Author of a 
course in Music Education, in three 
volumes, and Student's Reference 
Work; was a charter member of the 
Music Teachers' National Associa- 
tion, founded in 1876. The main 
object of his professional labor is 
" to establish music as a genuinely 
educational subject and to bring out 
its correlation with other major 
subjects of study." 

Cadman, Charles Wakefield, compr. b. 
Johnstown, Pa., Dec. 24, 1881; 
moved to Pittsburg 1884; musical 
education under Pittsburg teachers, 
Walker, Steiner, Oehmler and Von 
Kunits, with advice and criticism 
from Emil Paur; first published 
compositions, semi-popular style, in 
1898; became interested in the 
music of the American Indians and 
spent considerable time among them, 
securing material for use in com- 
position and in a lecture recital 
American Indian Music Talk; organ- 
ist East Liberty Presbyterian Church 
and musical critic of Pittsburg Dis- 
patch; contributor to musical peri- 
odicals; published works include 
The Vision of Sir Launfal, male 
voices, Four American Indian Songs, 
song cycles The Morning of the Year, 
Sayonara, Three Moods for orchestra, 
organ pieces, songs, part-songs and 
piano pieces; lives in Pittsburg. 

Caffarelli (kaf-fa-rel'-li), [pseud, of Gae- 
tano Majorano], singer. b. Bari, 
Naples, Apr. 16, 1703; d. Santo 
Dorato, near Naples, Feb. 1, 1783 
[Eitner; others give Nov. 30, 1783]. 
Son of peasants, adopted name C. 


in gratitude to Caffaro or Cafaro, 
who first aided him; studied five 
years with Porpora; debut Rome 
1724, followed by brilliant success 
in Italy and Paris; appearances in 
London 1737-38 seem to have been 
disappointing; purchased dukedom 
and title of Santo Dorato; rival of 
Farinelli whom some say he excelled 
in slow airs and chromatic scales; 
many stories are told of his ridiculous 
vanity and presumptuous pride. 

Caldara (kal-da'-ra), Antonio, compr. 
b. Venice, about 1670; d. Vienna, 
Dec. 28, 1736. Chorister at St. 
Mark's; pupil of Legrenzi; held 
various posts in Italy and Spain 
before becoming vice-capellmeister 
in Vienna under Fux; composed 
dignified church music, showing 
florid tendency of times; very pro- 
lific, having written 36 oratorios, 66 
operas, besides smaller works. 

Caldicott, Alfred James, compr. b. 
Worcester, Eng., Nov. 26, 1842; d. 
near Gloucester, Oct. 24, 1897. 
Chorister Worcester Cath., articled 
pupil of Done; studied at Leipzig 
Cons, under Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
etc.; orgt. in Worcester, teacher of 
harmony at Royal Coll., and director 
at Albert Hall and theatres in 
London; composed cantatas (Widow 
of Nain 1881), operettas, part-songs. 

Caletti-Bruni, see Cavalli, Francesco. 

Calkin, John Baptiste, orgt., compr. b. 
London, Mar. 16, 1827; d. Apr. 15, 
1905. Pupil of father James C.; orgt. 
and precentor in several churches; 
teacher at Guildhall School of Music; 
composed anthems, glees, etc. 

Callaerts (kal'-lar-ts') , Joseph [Jacques], 
orgt. b. Antwerp, Aug. 22, 1838; d. 
there, Mar. 3, 1901. Pupil of Lem- 
mens at Brussels Cons.; orgt. at Jesuit 
College 1851-56; later of cathedral at 
Antwerp and teacher of org. at music 
school; composed comic opera, sym- 
phony, cantata, masses, etc. 

Callcott, John Wall, compr. b. Ken- 
sington, Nov. 20, 1766; d. Bristol, 
May 15, 1821. Son of builder, first 
intended to be surgeon; learned 
music from observation and ac- 
quaintance with Henry Whitney, 
orgt. at Kensington, Arnold, Cooke 
and Sale, without receiving any 



regular instruction; member of orch. 
of Academy of Ancient Music; com- 
posed for Catch Club in 1789, win- 
ning all four prizes offered by them; 
studied instrumental music under 
Haydn 1791; Mus. Doc. Oxford 1800; 
began a dictionary, published Musi- 
cal Grammar 1806; mind failed 1807; 
chief works glees. His son William 
Hutchins C. (1807-1882) also compr., 
chiefly of anthems, and his grandson 
William Robert Stuart C. (1852-1886) 
orgt. of great promise. 

Calve (kal-va), Emma, dram. sop. b. 
Aveyron, 1864 [1866?]. Real name de 
Roquer; daughter of simple peas- 
ants; educated at convent in Mont- 
pellier; left at 15, renouncing relig- 
ious aspirations to help support 
family; after study in Paris under 
Puget's direction, made concert 
debut at charity concert, Nice, 1881, 
in place of Cruvelli; debut Brussels 
1882; after year's study with 
Marchesi made Paris de"but at Th. 
Italien, Dec. 16, 1884; sang at 
Ope>a Comique 1884-86 and in 
Milan without great success; after 
more study in Paris with Mme. 
Laborde, created Santuzza in Cav- 
alleria Rusticana 1890, returned to 
Opera Comique, singing her great 
part, Carmen, first in 1892; ap- 
peared in London and New York 
1893, toured Russia and Spain 
1894-95; created parts in La Navar- 
raise 1894 and Sapho 1897; not 
only singer of wide and well-founded 
popularity, but actress of unusual 
originality, as is shown in Carmen 
and Marguerite. 

Cambert (kon'-bar'), Robert, compr. 
b. Paris, 1628; d. London, 1677. 
Pupil of Chambonnieres; orgt. at 
St. Honore", intendant of music to 
Anne of Austria; composed La 
pastorale, first French opera after 
Italian fashion, 1659; when Perrin 
received letters patent for establish- 
ing national opera in 1669 Cambert 
was associated with him; comppsed 
Pomone 1671, and other works; after 
32 years, driven from France by 
intrigues of Lully, he became master 
of music to Chas. II of England. 

Camp, John Spencer, orgt., compr. b. 
Middletown, Conn., Jan. 30, 1858. 
Graduated Wesley an Univ. 1878; 

studied mus. with Parsons, Shelley, 
Buck and Dvorak; dir. Hartford 
(Conn.) Philh. Orch.; orgt. and 
choirmaster 1st Cong. Ch., Hartford; 
founder Guild of Organists; com- 
posed cantatas, orch. works, string 
qt., pf. and organ pieces, songs, 
anthems and services. 

Campagnoli (kam-pan-yo-li), Barto- 
lomeo, vU. b. Cento, Sept. 10, 
1751; d. Neustrelitz, Nov. 6, 1827. 
Pupil of Dall' Ocha, Guastarobba, 
and Nardini; led various bands in 
Italy, finally conductor at Gewand- 
haus, Leipzig, 1797-1815; gave suc- 
cessful concerts in Italy; friend of 

Campana (kam-pa'-na), Fabio, compr., 
singing teacher, b. Leghorn, Jan. 14, 
1819; d. London, Feb. 2, 1882. 
Educated at the Liceo in Bologna; 
produced several unsuccessful operas; 
settled in London about 1850; 
taught singing there and produced 
operas Almina 1860 and Esmeralda 
1869 which seem to have been 
successful more because of the casts 
than the music. 

Campanari (kam-pa-na'-ri), Giuseppe, 
dram, baritone, b. Veneto, Italy, 
1859. First a 'cellist in orch. at 
La Scala, Milan, and in Boston 
Symph. Orch. until 1893, when 
he definitely became opera singer; 
member of Hinrichs Opera Co., of 
Metropolitan after 1899; successful 
in many concerts; now living in New 
York. His brother, Leandro, vlt. 
b. Rovigo, Oct. 20, 1857. Studied at 
Milan Cons.; after European tours, 
made American d6but with Bost. 
Symph. Orch. 1881; teaching and 
playing as member of orch. in Boston 
until 1887; teacher in Cincinnati 
College of Music 1890-97; director 
and concert-conductor at Milan; has 
written text-books and songs. 

Campanini (kam-pa-ne'-ni), Italo, dram . 
tenor, b. Parma, June 29, 1846. 
d. Vigatto, near Parma, Nov. 22, 
1896. Studied at school of Griffini, 
and at Cons, of Parma; debut, 1869, 
Odessa; after study with Lamperti, 
won success at production of Lohen- 
grin at Florence 1871; sang in 
London 1872-1882; toured America, 
lived several years in New York. 



Campra (kon-pra), Andre, opera compr. 
b. Aix, Dec. 4, 1660; d. Versailles, 
July 29, 1744. Pupil of Guillaume 
Poitevin; master of music Toulon 
Cathedral 1680, at Aries 1681, 
at Toulouse, 1683-1694; thence 
he went to Paris, filling several 
church appointments, leaving to 
begin a secular career as opera com- 
poser; conductor Royal Orchestra 
1722; he wrote 18 works for the 
stage, a number of cantatas and 

Cannabich, Christian, vlt., condr. b. 
Mannheim, 1731; d. Frankfort, 
Feb. 22, 1798. Son of Matthias, 
flute player; pupil of Stamitz and 
in Italy of Jommelli; leader of orch. 
at Munich 1765; condr. at Mann- 
heim 1775; by bringing this orch. to 
then unequalled height of exactness 
he raised standard of expressive 
power; friend and admirer of 
Mozart; successful teacher; compr. 
of some popular symphonies and 

Cantor, Otto, compr. b. Kreuznach, 
Prussia, 1857. Pupil of Lux, Mann- 
stadt, and Rupp; living in London; 
compr. vocal music. 

Capocci (ka-pot'-chi), Gaetano, orgt. 
b. Rome, Oct. 16, 1811; d. there, 
Jan. 11, 1898. Pupil of Sante 
Pascoli, Fioravanti, and Cianciarelli; 
orgt. at S. Maria Maggiore, and, 
after 1855, director at the Lateran; 
published large amount of facile, 
conventional church music. His son 
Filippo, also orgt. b. Rome, May 11, 
1840. Learned org. and harmony 
from father whom he succeeded at 
the Lateran 1875; under influence 
of Guilmant developed technique 
to degree which has won him fame; 
compositions, original, and modern 
in idea, consist of organ works and 
an oratorio. 

Capoul (ka-pol), Joseph Amedee Vic- 
tor, dram, tenor, b. Toulouse, Feb. 
27, 1839. Pupil at Paris Cons, of 
Rvial, and Mocker under whom 
gained 1st prize in light opera; 
d6but 1861 at Ope>a Comique, where 
he stayed until 1872; sang in Eng- 
land 1871-75, and Am. 1879-80; 
prof, of operatic singing in Nat'l 
Cons. N. Y.; now stage director at 
Paris Ope>a. 

Caracciolo (ka-ra-chi-6'-lo) , Luigi Maria, 
compr., teacher, b. Andria, Bari, 
Aug. 1, 1847; d. London, July 22, 
1887. Pupil of Cesi, Conti, and 
Mercadante at Naples Cons. ; teacher 
in Dublin 1878-1881, and London; 
comp. opera and many popular songs 
( Un Sogno fu!, etc.). 

Carestini (ka-res-te'-ni), Giovanni [call- 
ed Cusanino], singer, b. Monte 
Filatrano, Ancona, about 1705; d. 
there, 1760. At age of 12, Cusani 
family at Milan became patrons, 
hence his stage name; debut Rome 
1721; sang at various places in 
Italy until 1733, when he made 
English d6but. Engaged by Handel 
from 1735 when he left England to 
retirement in 1758; sang with brill- 
iant success at Venice, Berlin, St. 
Petersburg, etc. Voice at first 
soprano, became strong, deep con- 
tralto of wide range. 

Carey, Henry, compr. b. about 1690; 
d. London, Oct. 4, 1743. Reputed 
son of Marquis of Halifax; mostly 
self-taught, though he had lessons 
from Linnert, Roseingrave, and 
Geminiani; taught and wrote music 
for farces, and also words to some 
for which Lampe wrote music 
chiefly burlesques and ballad operas; 
claim that he wrote God save the 
King has never been proved or 
disproved; his greatest work is 
charming, original ballad, Sally in 
our Alley. 

Carissimi (ka-ris'-se-me), Giacomo, com-*, 
pr. b. Marino, near Rome, about 
1604; d. Rome, Jan. 12, 1674. 
Maestro at Assisi 162428, and at 
S. Apollinare, Rome, 1628-1674; 
among his pupils were A. Scarlatti, 
Kerll, Bernnard, M. A. Charpentier; 
though many of his works are lost, 
it is known that he contributed 
largely to the development of 
recitative with a more expressive 
and varied accompaniment than 
that of his predecessors; his cantatas 
show that he transferred to church 
music the pathetic emotional style 
of dramatic music; his fluent melo- 
dies are among the earliest examples 
of characteristic Italian song. 

Carl, William Crane, orgt. b. Bloom- 
field, N. J., Mar. 2, 1865. Pupil of 
S. P. Warren, Mme. Schiller (pf.) 



and Guilmant; orgt. in N. J. and 
N. Y.; founder of Am. Guild of 
Orgts.; successful concert player; 
compiled collection of org. mus. 

Carmichael, Mary Grant, pst., compr. 
b. Birkenhead, Eng. Studied under 
O. Beringer, W. Bache, Hartvigspn, 
and Prout; excellent accompanist; 
composed many songs, The Stream 
song-cycle, Snow Queen operetta; 
translated Ehrlich's Celebrated Pian- 
ists and other works. 

Caron (ka-ron), Rose [Lucile, nee 
Meuniez], dram. sop. b. Monerville, 
France, Nov. 17, 1857. Married 
before entering Paris Cons, in 1880; 
studied there until 1882, taking 
minor prizes, also with Sasse in 
Brussels; dbut Brussels 1882; from 
then to 1900 sung there and in Paris; 
1902 prof, of singing at Cons. 

Carr, Frank Osmond, compr. b. York- 
shire about 1857. Mus. Doc. Oxford 
1891; composed farces and success- 
ful comic operas Morocco Bound 
1893, His Excellency 1894 (book 
by W. S. Gilbert). 

Carre (kar-ra), Albert, director, b. 
Strassburg, June 22, 1852. Studied 
at Strassburg Lycee; actor in Paris; 
director of several Paris theatres, 
finally 1898 of Opera Comique, 
where he has brought forth a dis- 
tinguished series of new and im- 
portant operas. 

Carrefio (kar-ra'-nyo), Teresa, pst. b. 
Caracas, Venezuela, Dec. 22, 1853. 
Father, Minister of Finance, her 
first teacher; afterward studied 
with L. Gottschalk in New York, 
with G. Mathias in Paris, and with 
Rubinstein; after d6but and tour 
at age of 9, gave concerts until 
about 1875 when she went on the 
stage; on tours with opera com- 
panies, she played, sang, and, at 
one time, conducted; resumed work 
as concert pst. 1889; married E. 
Sauret 1872, G. Tagliapietra 1892, E. 
d' Albert 1895, and A. Tagliapietra 
1902; composed Venezuelan national 
anthem, string quartet and piano 
pieces; known as a strong, virile 
performer, with masterly technic; 
E. A. MacDowell her pupil. Daugh- 
ter Teresita Carrefio Tagliapietra, 
also pst., debut 1906. 

Carrodus, John Tiplady, vlt. b. Braith- 
waite, Yorkshire, Jan. 20, 1836; d. 
London, July 13, 1895. Father violin 
player and leader of amateur society; 
C. for 6 years pupil of Molique; 
member, for many years leader, of 
Coven t Garden orch.; also leader 
of Philharmonic Orch.; leader, with 
Wilhelmj, at Wagner Festival 1877; 
excellent teacher, at National Train- 
ing School for Mus., etc.; recitals in 
England and S. Africa; pioneer of 
classical mus. in Eng. 

Carulli (ka-rul'-le) , Ferdinando, guitar 
player, b. Naples, Feb. 10, 1770; 
d. Paris, Feb., 1841. Self-taught, 
he worked out modern methods of 
guitar playing, and attained remark- 
able technic; lived in Paris after 
1808, teaching, playing; composed 
more than 300 pieces, and method. 

Caru'so (ka-ru-zo), Enrico, dram, tenor. 
b. Naples, Feb. 25, 1873. Son of 
a mechanic, and brought up to 
father's trade; as choir boy pupil 
of Vergine, and later of Lamperti 
and Concone; after singing at 
Caserta, made Naples debut 1896; 
began career, Milan, 1898; success- 
ful seasons at St. Petersburg, Buenos 
Ayres, Milan, and Monte Carlo 
followed; first appearance London 
and New York 1903; though not 
distinguished as an actor, C. has a 
powerful and rich voice, especially 
suited for brilliant performance of 
Italian opera, both old and new. 

Carvalho (kar-va-lo), [really Carvaille], 
Arthur Leon, opera manager, b. 
Port Louis, He de France, Jan. 18, 
1825; d. Paris, Dec. 29, 1897. 
Educated at Paris Cons.; played 
small parts at Ope>a Comique, 
manager of other theatres and of 
Ope>a Comique from 1876 to time 
of fire in 1887, after which he was 
tried and condemned to prison but 
acquitted on appeal and reinstated 
1891 . Married in 1853 Marie Caroline 
Felix-Miolan, dram. sop. b. Mar- 
seilles, Dec. 31, 1827; d. Puys, July 
10, 1895. Entered Paris Cons. 1839, 
first prize in 1847; dbut 1850; favor- 
ite at Op6ra Comique from 1872-75, 
1879-85; at Opera 1875-79. 

Gary, Annie Louise, contralto. b. 
Wayne, Me., Oct. 22, 1842. Studied 
after 1859 with Wetherbee and 



Wheeler in Boston and with Corsi in 
Milan; de"but Copenhagen 1867, 
sang in Scandinavia 2 years, study- 
ing in vacations with Viardot- 
Garcia; after further study in Paris 
with Strakosch and Bottesini, came 
to U. S. for 3 years in 1870; extreme- 
ly popular in opera and concerts in 
America, in London, and St. Peters- 
burg; married C. M. Raymond 
and retired 1882; now living (1910) in 
Norwalk, Conn. 

Casals (ka-zal'), Pablo, 'cellist, b. 
Veudrell, Catalonia, Spain, Dec. 30, 
1876. Pupil of father on ore.; 
studied pf., vln., and clarinet; 'cello 
with Jose" Garcia in 1887; on pension 
from the queen, studied at Madrid 
with Jesus de Monasterio and Tomds 
Breton; prof, of 'cello at Barcelona 
Univ.; founded chamber music 
society there; member Paris OpeYa 
Orch. 1895-98; de"but as soloist 1898; 
member of Lamoureux Orch. 1900; 
concert tours in Europe, U. S. 1901 
and 1903, and S. America; published 
symphonic poems, works for org. 
and 'cello. 

Castil-Blaze, see Blaze, F. H. J. 

Castle, William, opera tenor, b. Eng., 
Dec. 22, 1836; d. Chicago, March 31, 
1909; studied in N. Y., London and 
Milan; de" but 1858; in concert 1861; 
retired from stage 1891; director 
of opera dept. Chicago Musical 
College; best known for his work 
in Maritana, Bohemian Girl, Fra 
Diavolo, II Trovatore and The Hugue- 

Castrucci (kas-tru'-chi), Pietro, vlt. 
b. Rome, 1689; d. Dublin, Mar. 7, 
1752 [according to records quoted 
Mits. Times, Oct., 1904; others give 
Rome, 1769]. Pupil of Corelli; 
came to London 1715; leader of 
Handel's opera orch. 1718; invented 
and played on violetta marina, like 
viola d'amore; composed vln. con- 
certos and sonatas; forced out of 
place by Handel, who wrote a 
concerto with a second part so 
difficult that Clegg's execution mor- 
tified C.; died in great want. 

Catalani (ka-ta-la'-ni), Alfredo, compr. 
b. Lucca, June 19, 1854; d. Milan, 
Aug. 7, 1893. Early composed for 
church; studied at Paris Cons, and 

at Milan; composed 5 operas 
(Dejanire and La Watty especially 
successful), symph. poem Ero e 

Catalani, Angelica, dram. sop. b. 
Sinigaglia, May 10, 1780; d. Paris, 
June 12, 1849. Taught at convent 
of Santa Lucia at Gubbio; d6but at 
Venice 1795; sang with success at 
Milan and other Italian cities, at 
Lisbon 1804, where she married 
Valabregue; tremendous popular 
success in London 1806-1813; man- 
aged Theatre Italien in Paris 1814- 
1817, with neither artistic nor 
financial success; until retirement 
1827 sang in concerts throughout 
Europe; voice was of extraordinary 
strength and range, she excelled in 
chromatic scales and bravura pas- 
sages, and was accused of lack of 
expressiveness and over-ornamen- 
tation; earned large sums of money, 
which she scattered in charity and 
extravagant living. 

Catel (ka-tel'), Charles Simon, compr. 
b. L'Aigle, Orne, France, June 10, 
1773; d. Paris, Nov. 29, 1830. 
Studied under Sacchini, Gobert, and 
Gossec in Ecole Royale, which be- 
came Paris Cons.; accompanist and 
teacher there; accomp. at Opera 
1790; prof, of harmony at Cons, when 
founded 1795, inspector 1810-14; 
wrote military music for Garde 
Nationale, of which he was director, 
and pieces for Revolutionary occa- 
sions; wrote 11 operas 1802-1819, 
Les bayaderes best known, none 
especially successful; treatise on 
harmony, for some time standard. 

Cavaille-Coll (ka-va-ya-kol'), Aristide, 
org. builder, b. Montpellier, Feb. 
2, 1811; d. Paris, Oct. 13, 1899. 
Son. of Dom. Hyacinthe [1771-1862] 
also org. builder; came to Paris 
1833; built orgs. at St. Denis, St. 
Sulpice, Madeleine, and other fa- 
mous churches in France, Holland, 
etc.; invented improvements and 
wrote some articles. 

Cavalieri (ka-val-i-a'-ri), Emilio del, 
compr. b. Rome, about 1550; d. 
Florence, Mar. 11, 1602. Inspector 
of arts under Fernando de Medici; 
one of earliest to support music for 
voice with harmonic instrumental 
accomp., stilo rappresentivo, and to 



use figured bass; his Rappresenta- 
zione di Anima e di Corpo, 1660, 
regarded as first oratorio; contrib- 
uted largely to development of 
opera; wrote 4 operas. 

Cavalli (ka-val-li), Pietro Francesco, 
compr. b. Cremo, Venice, 1599 or 
1600; d. Venice, Jan. 14, 1676. 
Real name Caletti-Bruni, Cavalli 
name of patron; singer at St. 
Mark's under Monteverde; organist 
there; wrote many operas (27 
extant), of greater expressive and 
rhythmic force than those of Monte- 
verde; orgt. of merit and compr. of 
valued church music. 

Cecilia, Saint, martyred Rome, about 
229. Despite religious vows com- 
pelled to marry Valerianus, she 
converted him and his brother to 
Christianity; all three put to death; 
church built on site of her house 
about 821; though early writers 
make no mention of her musical 
skill, C. has been patron saint of 
art since very early in 16th century; 
celebrations of her day, Nov. 22 
(in Normandy by Puys, or contests, 
in England by specially written odes, 
in France by newly composed 
masses), have called forth much 
famous music. 

Cederstrom, see Patti, Adelina. 

Cellier (sel-ia), Alfred, compr., condr. 
b. Hackney, London, Dec. 1, 1844; 
d. London, Dec. 28, 1891. Son of a 
French teacher, chorister under 
Helmore; orgt. at 2 churches; condr. 
at Belfast, Manchester, and London 
(Opera Comique 1877-79 and Prom- 
enade Concerts, with Sullivan, 1878- 
79); wrote several operas, greatest 
successes Dorthy 1886, and The 
Mountebanks; lived in America and 
Australia, London after 1887. 

Cesi (cha-ze), Beniamino, pst. b. 
Naples, Nov. 6, 1845; d. 1907. 
Studied at Naples Conservatory 
under Mercadante and Pappalardo; 
private lessons from Thalberg; prof, 
there after 1866; concerts in Italy, 
France, Egypt; wrote pf. pieces, 
songs, method, unpublished opera. 

Cesti (chas'-ti), Marc Antonio, compr. 
b. Florence, 1620; d. Venice, 1669. 
Pupil of Carissimi; maestro di 

capella, Florence, 1646; member of 
Papal Choir 1660; vice-capellmeis- 
ter Vienna 1666. Though an eccle- 
siastic, some say a Franciscan, wrote 
several operas of which it has been 
said that he improved the monoton- 
ous style of operas by introducing 
adapted church music; best known 
operas are La Dori and II porno d'oro. 

Chabrier (sha-bri-a), Alexis Emmanuel, 
compr. b. Ambert, Jan. 18, 1841; 
d. Paris, Sept. 13, 1894. While 
studying and practising law studied 
pf. with Wolff and harmony with 
Hignard, but was mostly self- 
taught; devoted himself to music 
after 1879; chorusmaster under 
Lamoureux 1884-85; wrote 2 suc- 
cessful operettas, 2 operas, Gwendo- 
line 1886 and Le.roi malgre lui 1887, 
one unfinished opera Briseis 1899, 
pf. pieces, and widely known orch. 
rhapsody Espana; during last years 
brain was diseased; ardent admirer 
of Beethoven and Wagner, whose 
works he helped introduce into 
France; his own music shows skill 
in orchestration and strong, original 
sense of rhythm and color, at times 
leading to extravagance and at other 
times to beauty and delicacy. 

Chadwick, George Wnitefield, compr. 
b. Lowell, Mass., Nov. 13, 1854. His 
family, though of musical tastes, did 
not encourage adopting music as a 
profession, and his studies with his 
brother, Dudley Buck, Geo. Whit- 
ing, and Eugene Thayer were carried 
on coincidently with public school 
education and office work up to 
1876, when he became head of 
musical department of Olivet Col- 
lege, Mich. In one year he saved 
enough to go to Leipzig where he 
studied at Cons, with Reinecke and 
Jadassohn and in 1879 with Rhein- 
berger at Munich. In 1880 came 
to Boston, taught composition at 
N. E. Cons., of which he became 
director in 1897; conducted Boston 
Orch. Club, Springfield Festivals, 
Worcester Festivals; orgt. Second 
Church. As a teacher C. had great 
influence, among his pupils having 
been H. W. Parker, Wallace Good- 
rich, H. K. Hadley, etc.; he has 
written a text-book on harmony, 
and as director has introduced in 
the N. E. Cons, the high standards 



and something approaching the 
" atmosphere " of foreign schools. 
As a composer he has been most 
versatile; in the larger forms his 
comic opera Tabasco (1894) was 
widely successful, the lyric drama 
Judith, given as an oratorio 1901, 
with its graphic orchestration is his 
most ambitious work, but his over- 
tures, string quartets, esp. E minor, 
and F. symph. most widely known 
and most admired of his instrumental 
works. One of the most celebrated 
American composers, C. gives typ- 
ical expression to the qualities of 
American music in the deliberate- 
ness, learning, and wide variety of 
his work. 

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, writer. 
b. Portsmouth, Eng., Sept. 9, 1855. 
Son of naval officer, educated in 
France and at Cheltenham; student 
of natural science and philosophy 
at German univ.; living in Vienna 
since 1881; admirer of Germanic 
civilization, and of Wagner, he has 
written articles in several languages, 
and studies of principle in Das 
Drama R. Wagners and Richard 
Wagner 1897. Married a daughter 
of Wagner. 

ChambonniSres (shon-bon-ni-ar'), 
Jacques Champion de, harpsichord 
player, b. about 1600; d. 1670. 
Father Jacques and grandfather 
Antoine distinguished orgts.; C. 
first harpsichord player to Louis 
XIV; Anglebert and elder Couper- 
ins his pupils; playing excelled 
in delicacy of touch; compositions 
praised for correctness of style, ele- 
gance of melody, and appropriate- 
ness of ornaments. 

Chaminade (sham-i-nad') , Cecile 
[Louise Stephanie], pst., compr. b. 
Paris, Aug. 8, 1861. Pupil of Le- 
couppey, Savart, Marsick, and God- 
ard. Since dbut at 18 she has won 
distinction as virtuoso in France 
and England; her compositions 
include Callirhoe (ballet-symph.), 
Les Amazones ( symph. lyrique), 
popular Concertstuck for pf. and orch., 
and many agreeable songs and pf. 

Eieces (Scarf Dance, etc.) which show 
er charming talent better than 
larger works; made tour of U. S. 
as pst. 1908. 

Chanot (sha-no), Francois, vln.-maker. 
b. Mirecourt, 1787; d. Brest, 1823. 
Son of vln.-maker, entered army as 
engineer; during temporary retire- 
ment, made vln. of a new model 
shaped like guitar, without sound- 
post, based on theory that fiber of 
wood should be kept as long as 
possible to increase vibratory power; 
mstr. was pronounced by Institut de 
France 1817 not inferior to most 
famous vlns., but decision not sup- 
ported by quality of other vlns. on 
same model made by C's brother 
Georges (1801-18), skilful vln.-maker. 
G's wife, nee Florentine Demoliens, 
also vln.-maker, assisted him in his 

Chapman, William Rogers, condr. b. 
Hanover, Mass., Aug. 4, 1855. 
Educated in N. Y.; after trip to 
Europe in 1875 orgt. there and for 
10 years teacher of vocal mus. in 
public, schools; conductor Apollo 
and Rubinstein Clubs and of an- 
nual Maine festival, where his force 
as choral condr. is shown. 

Chappell, William, editor, b. London, 
Nov. 20, 1809; d. there, Aug. 20, 
1888. Son of Samuel, who founded 
firm of Chappell and Co. 1812; Wm. 
inherited share in business 1834; 
projected 1840 and encouraged Mu- 
sical Antiquarian Society; edited 
Dowland's songs, and Collection of 
National English Airs, with hist, 
accounts of songs, very valuable 
for Shakesperean and earlier songs; 
some inaccuracies about Scotch 
songs removed in later editions under 
other titles Popular music of the 
olden time, etc. 

Chapuis (sha-pti-i), Auguste Paul Jean 
Baptiste, compr. b. Dampierre-sur- 
Salon, Apr. 20, 1858. Pupil of 
Dubois, Massenet, Ce"sar Franck at 
Paris Cons., where he took several 
prizes; orgt. at St. Roch, Paris; 
teacher of harm, at Cons, since 1894, 
inspector of mus. in Paris schools 
since 1895; composed opera Enguer- 
rande, not very successful. 

Charpentier (shar-pan-ti-a), Gustave, 
compr. b. Dieuze, Lorraine, June 
25, 1860. Worked as factory assist- 
ant; after success at Lille Cons 
studied at Paris Cons. 1881-87 under 
Massart (violin), Pessard (harmony), 



and MasseiMst; won Grand prix de 
Rome 1887 with scene lyrique Didon. 
Orch. suite Impressions d'ltalie 
became popular for daintily pict- 
uresque orchestrations; La vie du 
poete, symph. drama for orch. soli 
and chorus, struck the note of 
protest, later given more full expres- 
sion in Louise, roman musical (said 
to be first of a trilogy), produced at 
OpeYa Comique 1900, widely else- 
where on the continent and in N. Y. 
1908; the opera is musically skil- 
fully composed, of marked original- 
ity, and freedom from conventional 
models; it is also remarkable for 
its libretto, in which C. himself has 
expressed his socialistic interest in 
the working girl as an individual 
and his enthusiasm for Montmartre; 
music is skilful, vivid, and, like his 
theories, effective, but not deeply 
original or convincing. 

Chausson (shos-son), Ernest, compr. 
b. Paris, 1855; d. Limay, June 12, 
1899. Pupil of Massenet at Paris 
Cons, and of Ce"sar Franck; secre- 
tary of Socie'te' Nationale de Mus- 
ique; composed Le Roi Arthus, 
opera, 1903, 2 smaller dramatic 
works, several songs, 3 symph. 

Eems, of which Viviane is best 
own, a string quartet, etc. Broad- 
minded admirer of works of Wagner 
and of contemporaries; mood of his 
music is that of an " affectionate, 
dreamy sensitiveness," not weak but 
seeming self -consciousness. 

Cherubini (ker-u-be'-ne), Maria Luigi 
Carlo Zenobi Salvatore, compr. b. 
Florence, Sept. 14, 1760; d. Paris, 
Mar. 15, 1842. > Taught by his 
father, cembalist in theatre, by B. 
and A. Felice, Bizarri, and Castrucci, 
then sent to Milan by Duke (after- 
wards Emperor) Leopold to study 
with Sarti, from whom he gained 
thorough proficiency in part-writing 
after manner of Italian contra- 
puntists. Between 1780-1784 he 
composed 8 operas gaining consider- 
able renown in Italy; 1784-86 he 
was in England, for one year com- 
poser to the King. After another 
year in Italy, he settled in Paris in 
1788; his first French opera Demo- 
phoon was not very successful, but 
it foreshadows his later work. 
From 1789-92 he conducted the 

" Bouffons," Italian opera estab- 
lished in Paris by the Queen's hair- 
dresser, Leonard; and in 1791 pro- 
duced Lodoiska, whose rich ensem- 
bles and striking harmonic effects 
made great impression. Up to 1804 
he composed his most popular operas 
Medee 1797, Les deux journees 
1800, Anacreon 1803. Summoned 
to Vienna 1805, he met Beethoven, 
but, embittered by failure of his 
plans, returned to France, where 
after 1809 he composed chiefly 
sacred music. He had been ap- 
pointed inspector when the Cons, 
was founded in 1795, but gained no 
higher honors owing to Napoleon's 
dislike of him; after the restoration 
he gained honor and wealth and in 
1822 became director of the Cons.; 
resigned 1842. As teacher and au- 
thor of Counterpoint and Fugue, C. 
influenced Auber, Halevy, Carafa, 
etc.; the qualities of his music 
chaste learning, lofty and pure 
spirit which kept his dramatic 
music from exerting a wide influ- 
ence are the very qualities which 
make his church music admirable. 

Chevalier (she-val'-ya), Albert Onesime 
Britannicus Gwathveoyd Louis, 
singer, b. Notting Hill, London, 
Mar. 21, 1862. D6but as comedian 
1877, toured with Kendals and Hare; 
private entertainer; since 1891 mu- 
sic-hall performer of great popularity 
in England, provinces, and America; 
specialty coster songs, many of 
which are composed by brother 
Auguste, under pseudonym Charles 

Cheve (she-va), Emile Joseph Maurice, 
teacher, b. Douarnenez, Finistere, 
1804; d. Paris, Aug. 26, 1864. 
Physician; married Nanine, sister 
of Aime' Paris, and with her wrote 
numerous pamphlets in support of 
Galin-Paris-Chev6 system of mus. 
instruction and sight reading, by 
which numbers are used to represent 
the notes of the scale; bitterly 
attacked Conservatoire professors 
for opposing the system. 

Chevillard (she'-ve-yar'), Paul Alex- 
andre Camille, compr. b. Paris, Oct. 
14, 1859. Son of Pierre Alexandre 
Frangois (1811-1877), famous 'cellist, 
teacher at Paris Cons., founder of 



Soci6t6 des derniers quatuors de 
Beethoven; pf. pupil at Cons, of 
Mathias, chiefly self-taught in com- 
position; assistant and successor 
1899 of Lamoureux as director of 
concerts; has composed 2 symph. 
poems, some songs, and chamber 
music remarkable for its dignity 
and personal charm. 

Chladni (klad'-ne), Ernst Florens Fried- 
rich, physicist, b. Wittenberg, Nov. 
30, 1756; d. Breslau, Apr. 3, 1827. 
Student of law and medicine at 
Leipzig, abandoned them for phys- 
ics, especially acoustics; discovered 
tone-figures, made by vibrations in 
sand scattered on glass, and made 
other discoveries relating to acoustic 
properties of buildings, classifica- 
tion of instruments, etc.; also 
invented clavicylinder, in which 
sound was produced by friction on 
glass, much praised by Napoleon 
but of no musical importance. 

Chopin (sho-pan), Frederic Francois, 
compr. b. Zelazowa Wola, near 
Warsaw, Feb. 22, 1810 [some auth. 
give Mar. 1, 1809]; d. Paris, Oct. 
17, 1849. His mother was a Pole, 
but his father was a native of 
Nancy, France, who having failed 
in business and retired from the 
army, taught French at several 
schools, and at a boarding-school 
of his own, where his son received 
his rather slight general education. 
He had thorough musical instruc- 
tion from Adalbert Zywny, and, 
while at the Warsaw Lyceum, from 
Joseph Eisner. In 1818 he won 
much praise by playing a Gyrowetz 
concerto in public; in 1825 he pub- 
lished the rondo Op. 1; in 1829 gave 
a successful concert in Vienna, and 
in 1830, after three farewell concerts 
in Warsaw, he had a not very suc- 
cessful tour across Europe, arriving 
in Paris early in 1832. He soon 
formed many friends among literary 
and musical circles, such as Balzac, 
Heine, Liszt, Cherubini, Bellini, 
Meyerbeer, etc. Up to 1835 he 
gave infrequent recitals, which seem 
to have declined in popularity. As 
a performer he was at his best only 
in his own music, and from the 
contradictory reports of contem- 
poraries emerges an impression 
that his playing was remarkable i 

for quality of touch and tone, 
smoothness and delicacy, rather than 
force; his use of tempo rubato, 
strongly condemned by some as a 
sentimental exaggeration, was evi- 
dently a technical device well con- 
trolled and may have been one 
source of the haunting charm of his 
performance. C. visited Germany 
again in 1835-36, when he met 
Mendelssohn and Schumann, and 
in 1837 and again at the time of the 
Revolution of '48 he visited and 
played in England, returning to 
Paris about a year before his death. 
Throughout his life C. was beloved 
by many women, the most famous 
of them being the novelist George 
Sand (Mme. Dudevant); his inti- 
macy with her lasted from 1837-47; 
in her Hiver a Majorque, Histoire de 
ma vie and Lucrezia Floriani 
(where one of the characters repre- 
sents Chopin), and in many works 
of and about the period, the details 
may be read. From about 1837 C. 
was troubled with the pulmonary 
disease of which he finally died; 
much evidence has been produced 
to refute the once current idea that 
he was always a neurotic invalid; 
but the frequency of such contem- 
porary remarks as Berlioz's " II se 
mourait toute sa vie " prevents us 
from thinking of him as actually 

His works are practically all for 
the pianoforte. A posthumous vol- 
ume of 17 Polish songs, mostly 
arrangements of old tunes, is his 
only vocal music; one pf. trio Op. 8, 
a polonaise Op. 3, sonata Op. 65, and 
duet for pf. and 'cello represent 
chamber music, and even here 
Franchomme rearranged probably 
the 'cello parts. In the two con- 
certos for pf. and orch., Op. 11 in E 
minor and Op. 21 in F minor, the 
orchestration is so thin that later 
composers and editors have rewritten 
it. But in his own field of solo piano 
music, between 1833-47, he effected 
a real and permanent revolution, 
and it is interesting to note that this 
accomplishment was deliberate and 
self-conscious, and moreover recog- 
nized by his contemporaries. Schu- 
mann's review of Op. 2 in 1831,-with 
the phrase "Hats off, gentlemen! 
a genius! " started the vogue in 



Germany, and in Paris admiration 
for him and his music was decidedly 
deeper than mere fashion. His 
music shows thorough knowledge of 
construction, and inexhaustible orig- 
inality; its content is romantic in 
its restlessness, its lack of conven- 
tionality, its predisposition toward 
despair; it is intensely personal, not 
because it voices C's particular 
feelings, but because it expresses the 
intimate moods of individual hearers. 

Chorley, Henry Fothergill, critic, b. 
Blackley Hurst, Lancashire, Dec. 15, 
1808; d. London, Feb. 16, 1872. 
Wrote some novels, plays, and 
literary reviews; translated libretti, 
and wrote those of Amber Witch, 
Kenilworth, etc.; on staff of the 
Athenaeum 1830-1871 wrote mus. 
criticisms and other papers; also 
wrote books Modem German Music, 
etc. Though not a trained musi- 
cian, and often prejudiced, notably 
against Schumann and in favor of 
Mendelssohn, works reflect inter- 
estingly intelligent contemporary 
attitudes; Autobiography and Let- 
ters published. 

Choron (sho-ron), Alexandra Etienne, 
theorist, b. Caen, Oct. 21, 1772; 
d. Paris, June 29, 1834. Student of 
languages and mathematics, applied 
himself with great earnestness to 
mus. theory; music publisher 1805; 
director Grand Opera, 1816-17; 
founded and directed 1824-1830 
Institution royale de musique, clas- 
sique et religieuse, where many 
famous musicians, Dietsch, Duprez, 
Rosine, Holz, etc., were trained; had 
influence also on Fe"tis, Kastner, etc.; 
wrote books on mus. theory and 
education, dictionary of musicians, 
translated Albrechtsberger's treatise. 

Chouquet (sho-ka'), Adolphe Gustave, 
writer, b. .Havre, Apr. 16, 1819; d. 
Paris, Jan. 30, 1886. From 1840-60 
teaching in New York; after 1871 
keeper of museum at Paris Cons., 
of which he published catalogue; 
beside contributions to French mus. 
papers, wrote valuable Histoire 
general de la musique dramatique en 
France 1873. 

Chretien (kra'-ti-an), Hedwige Louise 
Marie, compr. b. Compiegne, France, 
July 5, 1859. As pupil of Guiraud 

and Lenepveu, took prizes at Paris 
Cons, in solfeggio, harmony, coun- 
terpoint, composition, and piano; 
rehearser of solfeggio at Cons.; mar- 
ried P. Gennaro 1887; has com- 
posed chamber music, mus. for wind 
instrs., pf., and songs. 

Chrysander (kris-an'-der), Carl Franz 
Friedrich, historian, b. Liibtheen, 
Mecklenburg, July 8, 1826; d. 
Bergedorf, Sept. 3, 1901. Ph. D. 
University of Rostock; devoted 
most of his life to study of Handel, 
whose works he edited with con- 
summate accuracy and wisdom for 
the Handel Gesellschaft, working 
quite alone after 1860; biog. of 
Handel remains unfinished; part 
editor of Vierteljahrsschrift fur 
musikwissenschaft with Adler and 
Spitta; contributed to Allgemeine 
Zeitung articles extolling Handel 
above all musicians, protesting 
against re-editing, and opposing 
modern tendencies in music. 

Chwatal (kva-tal), Franz Xaver, compr. 
b. Rumburg, Bohemia, June 19, 
1808; d. Soplbad (Elmen), June 24, 
1879. Music teacher at Merseburg 
and Magdeburg; wrote 2 pf. meth- 
ods and more than 200 pf. pieces. 
Brother, Joseph (b. 1811), organ 
maker in Merseburg, made several 
valuable improvements in mechanism 
of org. 

Cilea (chi-la-a), Francesco, compr. b. 
Palmi, Calabria, 1867. Despite 
opposition of father entered Cons, 
at 14, where won gold medal for 
orch. suite; began early to write 
operas; L ' Arlesiana 1897 and Adri- 
enne Lecouvreur, Milan 1902, New 
York 1907, especially successful; 
resigned prof, harmony at Royal 
Inst. Florence 1905. 

Cimarosa (chim-a-ro'-za) , Domenico, 
compr. b. Aversa, Naples, Dec. 17, 
1749; d. Venice, Jan. 11, 1801. Son 
of poor people (his father was a 
mason) he received education in 
charity school of Minorites and at 
Cons. Santa Maria di Loreto, where 
he studied under Manna, Sacchini, 
and Piccini. After his first opera 
was produced in 1772, he lived alter- 
nately in Rome and Naples, his 
works growing in popularity until 
he rivaled Paisiello; after 3 years 



as court composer in St. Petersburg, 
he went as court capellmeister in 
1792 to Vienna, where he pro- 
duced his masterpiece II matri- 
monio segreto. Returning to Naples, 
he was banished for sympathizing 
with the Revolution in 1799. 
Though his operas are said to be 
of purest Italian vein of melody 
without monotony, and with deli- 
cacy of humor surpassed by none 
but Mozart, only Matrimonio se- 
greto among 66 has survived. 

Cipollone (chip-o-lo-ne), Alfonso, com- 
pr. b. Fara S. Martino (Chieti), 
Nov. 25, 1843. Pupil of Ruta at 
Naples; teaching at Teramo; has 
composed songs, chamber music, 
and pieces for pf. 

Claassen (Idas-sen), Arthur, condr. b. 
Stargard, Prussia, Feb. 19, 1859. 
Studied at music school in Weimar 
under Miiller-Hartung, A. W. Gott- 
schalg, and B. Sulze; attracted 
interest of Liszt 1878; condr. at 
Gottingen and Magdeburg; condr. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Arion and other 
societies, established Claassen Mu- 
sical Institute for classical music 
only; has composed choruses, orch., 
and chamber music. 

Claribel, sec Mrs. C. C. Barnard. 

Clark, Rev. Frederick Scotson, orgt. b. 
London, Nov. 16, 1840; d. there, 
July 5, 1883. Taught by his mother 
and by Sergent in Paris; orgt. in 
London at 14; studied with E. J. 
Hopkins and at Royal Academy with 
Bennett, Goss, and others; founded 
London Organ Sch.; after taking 
.orders he studied abroad, returning 
to London 1875; skilful player on 
org. and harmonium; versatile compr. 
for both instruments. 

Clarke, Hugh Archibald, compr. b. 
near Toronto, Aug. 15, 1839. Pupil of 
father James Patton C. (1808-1877, 
prof, of music in the University of 
Upper Canada, and a Mus. Doc. 
Oxford, orgt.). Moved to Philadel- 
phia 1859; orgt. in several churches; 
conducted The Abt Singing Society; 
prof, of music Univ. of Penn. since 
1875; W. W. Gilchrist among pupils; 
composed music to Aristophanes' 
Acharnians, and to Euripides' Iphi- 
genia in Tauris, an oratorio Jerusa- 
lem, pf. pieces, etc.; has written 

text-books on harmony and counter- 
point, Music and the Comrade Arts 
and Highways and Byways of Music; 
as lecturer and educator his mature 
scholarship has been widely felt. 

Clarke, Jeremiah, orgt. b. London (?) 
before 1669; d. there, Dec. 1, 1709. 
Chorister under Blow; orgt. at Win- 
chester College, St. Paul's Cathedral, 
joint orgt. at Chapel Royal; com- 
posed several anthems, the original 
music to Dryden's Alexander's Feast, 
now lost, music to several plays, 
cantatas, and songs; remembered 
because of original psalm-tunes and 

Clarke, John Whitfeld [afterwards 
known as Clarke- Whitfeld], compr. 
b. Gloucester, Dec. 13, 1770; d. 
Holmer, near Hereford, Feb. 22, 
1836. Pupil of Ph. Hayes; orgt. at 
Ludlow, Dublin, Armagh, Cam- 
bridge; prof, at Cambridge; com- 
posed services, anthems, an oratorio, 
etc.; first arranged Handel's ora- 
torios for voice and pf.; edited 
Beauties of Handel, Beauties of 
Purcell, and many others. 

Clarke, William Horatio, orgt. b. New- 
ton, Mass., Mar. 8, 1840. Educated 
at Dedham; orgt. there, and in 
Boston at Berkeley St. Church and 
Tremont Temple 1878-87; superin- 
tendent of schools in Dayton, O.; 
after 1887 gave private lessons; 
retired from professional life 1892; 
written works on construction of 
org., short voluntaries, anthems, 
essays (Cheerful Philosophy for 
Thoughtful Invalids, etc.). 

Clausz - Szarvady (klous-shar-va-di) , 
Wilhelmine, pst. b. Prague, Dec. 13, 
1834; d. Paris, Sept., 1907. Studied 
at Proksch Inst.; tour to Dresden 
and Leipzig 1850; although noticed 
by Berlioz she did not attract atten- 
tion in Paris until about 1853, 
after which had great success there 
and in London and Germany; 
executed classic music, Scarlatti, 
Bach, and Beethoven with con- 
scientious fidelity and comprehend- 
ing spirit. 

Clay, Frederic, compr. b. Paris, Aug. 3, 
1840; d. Great Marlow, Bucks, Nov. 
24, 1889. Son of James C., M. P.; 
studied at Paris under Molique and 



at Leipzig under Hauptmann; held 
post in Treasury; taught music in 
London; composed several success- 
ful operas and songs. 

Clemens, Charles Edwin, orgt. b. 
Plymouth, Eng., Mar. 12, 1856. 
Pupil of Weeks, Martin, and Pauer 
at Royal Coll. of Mus.; orgt. at 
Davenport at 11, of Eng. church at 
Berlin, teacher in Scharwenka Cons.; 
since 1895 in Cleveland, O., teach- 
ing, lecturing at Western Reserve 
Univ., condr. Singers' Club; pub- 
lished Pedal Technique, and Modern 
School for Organ, of great value. 

Clemens Jacob [called Clemens non 
Papa to distinguish him from Pope 
Cl. VII], compr. b. about 1500; 
d. Vienna (?) before 1558. Definite 
facts of life unknown, probably dir. 
of mus. at Antwerp Cathedral; 
a prolific and versatile compr. of 
Netherland School; his numerous 
masses and motets are extraordi- 
narily melodious for his day, without 
lacking contrapuntal skill. 

Clement, Edmond, operatic tenor. Ed- 
ucated at the Paris Conservatoire 
where he won first prize at eighteen 
years of age, making his dbut in 
Mireille at the Opera Comique, of 
which company he was a member 
up to the time he came to New York 
Metropolitan Opera House, during 
the season of 1909-1910. 

Clement (kla-man), Felix Auguste, 
historian, b. Paris, Jan. 13, 1822; 
d. there, Jan. .23, 1885. Studied 
music secretly; orgt. at Sorbonne 
and director at Sainte Chapelle; 
edited early music; wrote method 
for plainsong, a history of music 
and one of religious music, and 
Dictionnaire lyrique (1868, supple- 
ments to '81, re-edited by Pougin 
1897), valuable reference list of 
operas, with dates of performance,etc. 

dementi, Muzio, pst., compr. b. 
Rome, 1752; d. Evesham, War- 
wickshire, Eng., Mar. 10, 1832. 
Father a silversmith with musical 
tastes had child taught early by 
orgt. Buroni and Cordicelli; at 9 C. 
won position as orgt. in competitive 
test; later taught by Carpani and 
Santarelli. Performance of mass 
composed at 14 attracted attention 

of Peter Beckford, who took boy 
to England to be educated. In 1770 
C. burst upon London as remark- 
ably equipped pst. and from 1777- 
1780 was cembalist at Italian opera. 
In 1781 traveled to Paris and ulti- 
mately to Vienna, where he and 
Mozart played together in rivalry; 
though the victory was awarded 
to neither, C. thereafter adopted 
smoother and less mechanical 
methods of playing. On return to 
England C. gained large fortune 
from interest in mus. publishing 
(both with others and at establish- 
ment of his own), and by teaching. 
In 1802 he took John Field to St. 
Petersburg, taught Meyerbeer, and 
met Beethoven who admired his 
works in Germany, and in 1810 
returned to England for most of the 
rest of his life. As a teacher he had 
wide influence on Field, Cramer, 
Berger, Moscheles, Meyerbeer, etc.; 
as a player and composer, he estab- 
lished modern pf. playing. His 
sonatas fixed the form of pf. sonata 
and his Gradus ad Parnassum, 100 
pf. studies, are still indispensable to 
a thorough training. He wrote 
about 100 sonatas, other pf. pieces, 
some unpublished orch. mus.; his 
works are marked by precision of 
form, fresh quickness of movement, 
and lack of sentimentality. 

Clough-Leighter, H., compr. b. Wash- 
ington, D. C., May 13, 1874. Studied 
harmony and pf. with mother at 
five, and later with Henry Xandcr 
and Humfrey Anger. Boy soprano; 
organist at fifteen, holding positions 
in Washington and Providence; de- 
voted chiefly to composition of 
church and secular cantatas and 
songs, some with orchestral accomp. ; 
lives in Boston. 

Clutsam, George H., pst., compr. b. 
Australia. Member of concert com- 
pany; accompanist for Melba in 
English tour 1893. Compositions 
include symph., songs, etc. 

Coates, John, tenor. Educated Brad- 
ford Grammar Sch.; first London 
appearance Savoy Th. 1894; for 
5 years leading parts in comic opera, 
with two trips to America ; attracted 
attention 1900 when singing in The 
Gay Pretenders; first appearance at 



Covent Garden 1901, since then in 
Cologne, Berlin, Paris, and at most 
important English festivals. 

Cobb, Gerard Francis, compr. b. 
Nettlestead, Kent, Oct. 15, 1838. 
Educated at Marlborough College 
and Trinity Coll. Cambridge, of 
which he became Fellow 1863; Pres. 
of Camb. Univ. Mus. Soc.; Chair- 
man of Board of Mus. Studies. 
Musical education in Dresden; pub- 
lished anthems, part-songs, songs, 
suite, etc. 

Coenen (ke-nen), Willem, pst. b. 
Rotterdam, Nov. 17, 1837. Trav- 
eled in S. America and W. Indies; 
since 1862 settled in London; com- 
posed oratorio Lazarus, etc. Brother 
Franz (1826-1904), vU., pupil of 
Vieuxtemps and Molique who, after 
tours in S. America, became direc- 
tor of Amsterdam Cons.; resigned 

Coerne (kern), Louis Adolphe, compr. 
b. Newark, N. J., Feb. 27, 1870. 
From 6 to 10 he studied chiefly violin 
in Stuttgart and Paris; after prep- 
aration in Boston public schools, 
studied at Harvard under Paine 
and at same time with F. Kneieel; 
1890-93 with Rheinberger in Munich ; 
played abroad, at Chicago Exposi- 
tion, orgt. in Boston, Cambridge, 
Buffalo, and Columbus, also director 
of choral societies; 1903 mus. dir. at 
Smith Coll.; at Olivet Coll. 1909; 
prof . Univ. Wisconsin 1910; composed 
2 operas Woman of Marblehead 
and Zenobia (Bremen 1905), symph. 
poem Hiawatha, played in Cam- 
bridge 1894, and many smaller works, 
of which those for the org. are 
especially praised for contrapuntal 
skill; published Evolution of Modern 
Orchestration 1908. 

Cole, Belle, contralto, b. Chautauqua, 
N. Y.; d. London, Jan. 5, 1905. 
Taught by her father; soloist N. Y. 
church, contralto with Thomas mu- 
sical festival tour 1883; popular at 
concerts and festivals in England; 
successful tours to Australia, New 
Zealand, and round the world; U. S. 

Cole, Rossetter Gleason, compr., teacher. 
b. Clyde, Mich., Feb. 5, 1866. As a 
boy he showed talent for composition, 

but his systematic training did 
not begin until he was fifteen; 
educated in the public schools of 
Ann Arbor, Mich., and graduated 
from the University of Michigan in 
1888, taking the theoretical course 
in music as part of his college work 
for the degree of Ph.B.; taught in 
the High Schools of Ann Arbor and 
Aurora, 111., for two years and then 
went to Berlin; pupil in composition 
of Max Bruch; prof, of music Ripon 
College (Wis.) 1892-94; Grinnell 
College (Iowa) 1894-1901; teacher 
in Chicago 1901-1907; prof, of 
music, University of Wisconsin, 
1907-09; lecturer on music, Colum- 
bia University Summer Session, 
1908-1910; President of Music 
Teachers' National Association 1903, 
1909, 1910; lives in Chicago; pub- 
lished compositions number about 
60; well-known works are Novellette 
in Gb, and From a Lover's Note-Book 
for piano, the songs Auf Wiedersehen, 
A Kiss and A Tear, and Dearie and 
the musical recitations King Robert 
of Sicily and Hiawatha's Wooing. 

Cole, Samuel Wlnkley, teacher, b. 
Meriden, N. H., Dec. 24, 1848. 
Studied with J. W. Tufts and at 
N. E. Cons.; orgt. at Portsmouth 
and Boston; teacher of sight-sing- 
ing N. E. Cons, since 1883; super- 
visor of public school music in 
Dedham 1886-1906 and in Brook- 
line since 1884; director of People's 
Singing Class and conductor Peo- 
ple's Choral Union in Boston, and 
has been very successful with these 
organizations; author of books on 
sight-singing and public school text- 
books; charge of music Boston 
Univ. since 1906. 

Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel, compr. b. 
London, Aug. 15, 1875. Father, 
West African, a physician, mother 
English; studied vln. at 6 with 
Beckwith and later at Royal Coll. 
of Mus., where he also studied comp. 
under C. V. Stanford; living in Lon- 
don; teacher in Trinity College and 
conductor of the Handel Society; 
attained early remarkable success, 
commissioned at one time to write 
for three festivals; compositions: 
triple cantata on portions of Long- 
fellow's Hiawatha, charming in sim- 
plicity, vigor and unusual rhythms; 


cantatas Meg Blane, Endymioris 
Dream, etc.; an oratorio The Atone- 
ment, Five Choral Ballads with or- 
chestra; nonet for piano, strings and 
wind, quintet for clarinet and strings, 
string quartet, Five Negro Melodies 
for violin, 'cello and piano; symphony 
in A minor, orchestral rhapsody En- 
dymion, Ballade in A minor, Solemn 
Prelude for orchestra; incidental 
music to Herod, Ulysses, Nero and 
Faust; some forty songs, 24 Negro 
Melodies transcr. for piano; various 
piano solos, anthems and part songs, 
and works in large and small form 
for violin with orchestra or piano. 
Visited United States in 1904, 1906 
and again in 1910 to direct the first 
production of Bamboula Rhapsody 
Dance for orch. at the Norfolk 
(Conn.) Festival. 

Collan, Karl, compr., author, b. Jan. 3, 
1828; d. Helsingfors, Sept. 2, 1871; 
dr. phil. and librarian at the Uni- 
versity; translated the Kalevala, 
the national epic of Finland, into 
Swedish; compositions are mainly 

Colonna, Giovanni Paolo, compr. b. 
Brescia or Bologna about 1637; d. 
Bologna, Nov. 28, 1695. Son of 
Antonio, org. maker; studied at 
Rome under Carissimi, Abbatini, 
and Benevoli; orgt. at Rome and 
Bologna; four times president of 
Accademia Filarmonica; Bononcini 
among pupils; wrote one opera 
Amilcare 1693, 2 books of motets, 
6 oratorios, etc. 

Colonne (ko-lan'), Judas [called Edou- 
ard], vlt., condr. b. Bordeaux, July 
24, 1838; d. March 28, 1910. Took 
prizes in harmony and violin at 
Paris Cons.; first violin at Ope'ra, 
resigned to establish Concert Na- 
tional, later Concerts du Chatelet, 
famous for production of works of 
Berlioz and younger French com- 
posers; condr. at exhibition of '78, 
at Grand Ope'ra 1892, in London 
1896. Married Eugenie Elise Ver- 
gin (b. 1854), singer and successful 

Concone (con-co'-ne), Giuseppe, teacher. 
b. Turin, 1810; d. there, June 1, 
1861. Taught singing and pf. in 
Paris 1832-48; orgt. court choir at 
Turin; published 2 operas, pf. music, 


and especially solfeggi and vocalises, 
which are not only valuable but 
melodious and free from monotony. 

Conradi (kon-ra'-di), August, compr. 
b. Berlin, June 27, 1821; d. there, 
May 26, 1873. Pupil of Rungen- 
hagen; orgt. at Berlin; intimate of 
Liszt in Weimar, condr. in various 
cities and at various Berlin theatres; 
composed 8 operas, 5 symphonies, 
made many arrangements and pot- 
pourris, by which chiefly he is known. 

Conti, Gioacchino [called Gizziello], 
singer, b. Arpino, Naples, Feb. 28, 
1714; d. Rome, Oct. 25, 1761. 
Celebrated soprano, named after nis 
teacher, Gizzi; debut Rome 1729; 
famous in Italy and successful in 
London in 1736 where he supported 
Handel; 1753 withdrew to Arpino. 

Converse, Charles Crozat, compr. b. 
Warren, Mass., Oct. 7, 1832. Studied 
at Leipzig law, philosophy, and music 
with Richter, Hauptmann, Plaidy, 
etc.; practised law in Erie, Pa.; now 
living in New Jersey; has published 
under names Karl Redan, C. O. 
Nevers, C. E. Revons; chief works 
American Overture on Hail Columbia, 
widely popular hymn What a friend 
we have in Jesus, etc. 

Converse, Frederick Shepard, compr. 
b. Newton, Mass., Jan. 5, 1871. 
After graduating from Harvard 
where he studied with Paine, he 
continued with Baermann and Chad- 
wick, then at Royal School in Munich 
with Rheinberger; returning to 
Boston 1898, taught at N. E. Cons. 
and at Harvard College (1906- 
1907); chief works are sonata for 
vln. and pf.; string quartet, pf. 
pieces, symphony, Festival of Pan 
romance for orchestra; two poems 
for pf. and orch., La Belle Dame 
sans Merci, ballad for barit. and orch., 
Mystic Trumpeter, fantasy for orch., 
Pipe of Desire, opera (Boston 1906), 
Job, oratorio 1907. C's music is 
scholarly and often freely modern. 

Cooke, Benjamin, compr., orgt. b. 
London, 1734; d. there, Sept. 14, 
1793. Son of music publisher, pupil 
of Pepusch; deputy orgt. at West- 
minster at 12, orgt. 1762; Mus. Doc. 
at both Cambridge and Oxford; asst. 
director of Handel commemoration 



1784; resigned conductorship of 
Acad. of Ancient Mus. to Arnold; 
beside excellent church music, com- 
posed especially fine glees (Hark, 
hark! the lark) and canons. 

Coombs, Charles Whitney, orgt., compr. 
b. Bucksport, Me., Dec. 25, 1859. 
Studied 12 years in Germany and 
England, piano with Speidel, com- 
position with Draeseke, Jansen, and 
John; orgt. at Amer. Ch. in Dresden, 
now in New York. Composed 
cantata Vision of St. John, several 
sacred and secular songs, some very 

Cooper, George, orgt. b. Lambeth, 
London, July 7, 1820; d. London, 
Oct. 2, 1876. Son of asst. orgt. at 
St. Paul's, at 11 he took services for 
his father and at 13 held first of 
many positions at different London 
churches, asst. at St. Paul's and 
finally 1867 orgt. at Chapel Royal; 
chief publications valuable organ 
arrangements, Organist's Manual, 
etc.; an able executant, he helped 
to familiarize audiences with Bach 
and others; left no compositions of 
his own. 

Coquard (kok-ar'), Arthur, compr., crit., 
teacher, b. Paris, May 26, 1846; d. 
there, Aug., 1910. At first lawyer, 
secretary, and librarian, he studied 
with Cesar Franck; mus. dir. at 
Institut des jeunes aveugles 1891-99; 
author of a pamphlet on Ce"sar 
Franck (1891) and of De la musique 
en France depuis Rameau 1891; com- 
positions include operas, incidental 
music to plays, orchestral works, 
chamber music, motets, organ pieces, 
and songs. 

Corder, Frederick, compr., writer, b. 
Hackney, London, Jan. 26, 1852. 
Forbidden to study music until after 
18, finally obtained Mendelssohn 
Scholarship 1875 at Royal Acad. 
and studied with F. Hiller at Co- 
logne; on return, as condr. at 
Brighton Aquarium, raised concerts 
there to high level ; teacher of comp. 
and curator at Royal Acad.; has 
composed several operas, some suc- 
cessful cantatas, Bridal of Trier- 
main, Sword of Argantyr, and songs; 
has done good work as critic, and 
translator, notably of Wagner li- 
brettos. Son Paul W. (b. 1879), 

also composer. Pupil of father in 
comp. and of Beringer and Matthay 
in pf.; teacher at Royal Acad.; 
comp. for piano, an opera, fantasy, 
and orch. works. 

Corelli, Arcangelo, vlt., compr. b. 
Fusignano, Italy, Feb. 12 or 13, 
1653; d. Rome, Jan. 10, 1713. 
Pupil in vln. of Bassani, counter- 
point of Simonelli; after traveling 
in Germany and possibly in France, 
settled in Rome about 1685, under 
patronage of Cardinal Ottoboni, 
a charming and amiable man, a 
connoisseur of pictures, who was a 
favorite in Roman society and his 
Monday concerts important events; 
he had many famous pupils, among 
them Locatelli, Geminiani, Baptiste. 
In 1708 he yielded to urgent invita- 
tion of King of Naples, but his 
playing did not please the King and 
he made some humiliating mistakes. 
The discovery that Valentini had 
become popular in Rome seemed to 
him so much an added mortification 
that his health gave way. Without 
being an innovator, he established 
vln. technic upon a firm basis. 
His works, several sets of twelve 
sonatas for vln. and other instru- 
ments, are of great historical im- 
portance, as early examples of less 
severely contrapuntal manner, after- 
ward developed by Bach. 

Corey, Newton J., orgt., lecturer, teacher. 
b. Hillsdale, Mich., 1861. Parents 
were talented amateurs; showed 
musical inclinations as a boy, 
" picking up " instruction in a desul- 
tory way until at the age of thirteen 
he had a course of lessons in pipe 
organ playing; organist in Hillsdale 
College until 1880, when he went to 
Boston to study music; pupil under 
J. C. D. Parker, B. J. Lang, S. B. 
Whitney, G. W. Chadwick, and W. 
F. Apthorp; graduate of literary 
department of Hillsdale College; 
began professional career in Boston 
1881 as organist in various churches; 
in 1891 went to Detroit as organist 
of Fort St. Pres. Church which posi- 
tion he still fills (1910); has played 
organ recitals in the leading American 
cities, and has given many lecture 
recitals since 1885, being the first to 
introduce lecture recitals with the aid 
of stereopticon views of Richard 



Wagner and his operas; his lecture on 
Edward MacDowell has also been 
well received; musical editor Detroit 
Saturday Night. 

Cornelius, Carl August Peter, compr., 
writer, b. Mayence, Dec. 24, 1824; 
d. there, Oct. 26, 1874. Grand- 
nephew of painter of same name; 
failure as actor turned his attention 
to music; studied with Dehn 1845- 
1850; in 1852 went to Weimar, 
where became intimate with Liszt 
and an ardent worker in the New 
German School which propagated 
Wagner's theories; C. wrote many 
articles, esp. in Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik; failure of his opera Barbier 
von Bagdad caused Liszt to leave 
Weimar; C. met Wagner at Vienna 
and followed him to Munich as 
reader to Ludwig and teacher at 
Cons.; composed 2d opera Cid, 
prod. 1865 and 3d Gunlod (orches- 
trated after his death and prod. 
1891), as well as many songs, some 
of which have charm despite occas- 
ionally forced writing. 

Cornell, John Henry, orgt., writer, b. 
New York, May 8, 1828; d. there, 
Mar. 1, 1894. Studied in N. Y. 
and abroad; orgt. several churches 
in N. Y.; conservative compr. of 
church mus.; author of useful edu- 
cational works, notably Theory and 
Practice of Musical Form. 

Cortesi (kor-ta'-si), Francesco, teacher. 
b. Florence, 1830; d. there, Jan. 3, 
1904. Studied at Bologna under 
Rossini, etc., conducted, composed 
light dramatic works; head of vocal 
dept. in gov't school in Florence 
after 1880. 

Costa, Sir Michael [Andrew Agnus], 
condr. b. Naples, Feb. 4, 1808; 
d. Brighton [London?], Apr. 29, 1884. 
Taught by his father Pasquale, 
himself a composer, by Tritto, 
and Zingarelli; in 1829, having 
already composed 4 operas, a can- 
tata, an oratorio, 3 symphonies, and 
a mass, he was sent to Eng. to con- 
duct comp. of Zingarelli's, but was 
allowed only to sing in it; from 
1830-46 he conducted opera in 
London, producing several operas, 
Don Carlos being the best; he 
conducted the Philharmonic, Sacred 
Harmonic Society, Birmingham and 

Leeds Festivals, Her Majesty's Opera 
after 1871. Beside opera and ballets, 
wrote oratorios Naaman, Eli. Son 
Carlo (1826-1888), teacher of theory 
at Naples Cons. 

Couperin (ko-pe"-ran), distinguished 
family of French musicians, all of 
whom were orgts. at St. Gervais, 
Paris. First musical generation con- 
sisted of three brothers, sons of 
Charles I and Marie of Chaume in 
La Brie. Louis, the eldest (1630- 
1665), was 1st vlt. in the king's 
band and left 3 harpsichord suites. 
The second was Francois I (1631- 
1698); his son was Nicolas (1680- 
1748), and his son in turn Armand- 
Louis (1725-89), who, in addition to 
the family post, was orgt. at two 
other churches, at the private 
chapel, and one of four orgts. at 
Notre Dame; he published some 
music for harpsichord and violin. 
His two sons Pierre Louis (d. 1789) 
and Francois Gervais (d. 1823?) were 
the last to hold position. 

The third of the 3 sons of Charles I, 
Charles II (1638-1669), was the 
father of the greatest, Francois II, 
surnamed Le Grand, b. Paris, Nov. 
10, 1668; d. there, 1733. He was 
pupil of Thomelin; orgt. at Ver- 
sailles 1693, at St. Gervais probably 
before 1693; clavecinist and organist 
to the king 1701. He was the first 
great composer for the harpsichord 
as distinct from the organ; by the 
melodic content of his music, his 
wealth of idea, sense of what was 
suitable to his instr. he had impor- 
tant influence on his time; tried to 
represent customs of his country (rus- 
tic fetes, etc.) in music, even to give 
Eictures of individuals famous in 
istory and mythology; especially 
perfected rondo form. 

Couppey, Le, see Le Couppey. 

Courvoisier (kor-vo-a-zi-a), Carl, vlt. 
b. Basel, Nov. 12, 1846; d. Liverpool, 
Apr., 1908. Pupil at Leipzig Cons, 
of David and Rontgen, and of Joa- 
chim; while conducting in Frank- 
fort studied singing with G. Barth; 
condr. of theatre and choral soc. in 
Dusseldorf; teacher of singing in 
Liverpool since 1885; has published 
symph., vln. concerto, etc., and 
valuable Die Violintechnik. 



Coussemaker (kos-mak-ar'), Charles 
Edmond Henri de, ivriter. b. Bailleul, 
France, Apr. 19, 1835; d. Bourbourg, 
Jan. 10, 1876. Father, a judge; 
showed precocious ability on pf., vln., 
and 'cello; while studying at Douai 
Lycee learned harmony from Mo- 
reau, and later comp. from Reicha 
and others in Paris; while acting as 
judge in various towns, he carried 
on valuable researches in musical 
history, especially harmony of the 
Middle Ages. 

Coverley, Robert, compr. b. Oporto, 
Portugal, Sept. 6, 1863. Studied 
composition in London with Ludwig, 
Jacquinot, and Weisthill, etc.; came 
to New York 1884, returned to Lon- 
don 1897; has composed many pf. 
works and very many widely popu- 
lar songs. 

Coward, Henry, chorus condr. b. Liver- 
pool, Nov. 26, 1849. From 9-22 
worked in Sheffield at cutlery; from 
22-39 taught school, having pre- 
pared himself in spare time; at 39 
devoted himself to music; Mus. Doc. 
1894; compositions, cantatas, etc. 
of no importance compared to re- 
markable success, due to original 
methods, as a trainer of choruses, 
evidenced especially in Sheffield 
Mus. Festival. 

Cowen, Frederic Hymen, compr. b. 
Kingston, Jamaica, Jan. 29, 1852. 
Very early showed love for music; 
pupil in England of Goss and Bene- 
dict; gave a concert 1859; 1865 won 
but abandoned Mendelssohn Scholar- 
ship; studied at Leipzig Cons, with 
Plaidy, Moscheles, Reinecke, etc.; 
after few appearances in Eng. 1866, 
went to Berlin 1867, where he studied 
conducting under Kiel; accompanist 
under Mapleson and Costa; 1888- 
1892 condr. of Philharmonic Soc.; 
1888 condr. at Melbourne Exhibi- 
tion, also at Manchester, Liverpool, 
and various festivals; reappointed 
at Philharmonic 1900, he instituted 
valuable reforms. He has composed 
4 operas, all of which have been per- 
formed, and several successful can- 
tatas, The Rose Maiden, The Cor- 
sair, chamber music, suites, over- 
tures, and 5 symph., of which No. 3 
" Scandinavian " first brought C. 
into prominence in 1880. No. 4 

"Welsh" also has interest gained 
by local color, which C. handles with 
dexterity and ease. 

Cowles, Eugene, singer, compr. b. 
Stanstead, Canada. Father, a phy- 
sician, and mother were both excel- 
lent singers; showed early aptitude 
for music, studied vln.; educated at 
Stanstead Wesleyan College; at 19 
went to Chicago, clerk in First Na- 
tional Bank, studied singing and 
harmony with A. E. Ruff, sang in 
church choir and concerts; 1888 
joined the Bostonians as leading 
basso, making dbut as Squire Ban- 
tam in Dorothy; with the Bostonians 
ten years, created role of Scarlett 
in Robin Hood; sang with Alice 
Nielsen, Fritzi Scheff and others; 
1910 with Victor Herbert's opera 
Sweet Sixteen. Has written many 
songs, the most successful being the 
ballad Forgotten; also five bass songs, 
A Gipsy King am I, etc. 

Cramer (kra-mer), Johann Baptist, pst., 
teacher, b. Mannheim, Feb. 24, 
1771; d. London, Apr. 16, 1858. 
Son of Wilhelm (1745-Oct. 5, 1799), 
vlt. and condr.; brother of Franz or 
Frangois (1772-1848), vtt., and of 
Carl (b. 1780), pst. Brought to Lon- 
don when a year old, he always 
considered it as home. He was 
taught by his father, by Benser, 
Schroeter, Clementi, and, though he 
had some lessons in thorough-bass 
from Abel, taught himself composi- 
tion. After d6but as player in 1781, 
he made professional tours on the 
Continent, spending some time in 
Munich and Paris, earning fame as 
player and teacher. In 1824 he 
established a publishing house still 
known as Cramer & Co. He retired 
in 1835. His playing was remark- 
able for his legato touch and his 
ability to distinguish inner parts; 
Beethoven admired it above all 
others. His music, sonatas, etc. is 
solid and often dry; his chief claim 
to fame rests on his polished and 
solid studies, which are second only 
to dementi's in practical usefulness, 
without loss of musical interest. 

Crescentini (kres-shen-te'-ni),Girolamo, 
singer, b. Urbania, near Urbino, 
Feb. 2, 1766; d. Naples, Apr. 24, 
1846. Gibelli trained his beautiful 



mezzo soprano voice, and after his i 
de"but in Rome in 1783 he sang in 
London (where he had no success) j 
and all the Italian capitals; Napo- ] 
leon heard him at Vienna and 
engaged him for Paris where he sang 
1806-12; after 1816 taught at 
Naples. One of the last of his 
school, he was evidently of the finest, 
for his singing is praised not only 
for richness of tone but for force of 
expression; he also composed songs, 
vocalises, and method. 

Cristofori, Bartolommeo di Francesco 

[incorrectly written Christofani], in- 
ventor of pf. b. Padua, May 4, 
1653; d. Florence, Mar. 17, 1731. 
Harpsichord maker in Padua; in- 
duced to go to Florence by Prince 
Ferdinand, son of Grand Duke 
Cosimo III; after Prince's death, in 
charge of instruments he had left. 
In 1711 Maffei published an account 
of four " gravicembali col piano e 
forte " which C. had made, and gave 
diagram to show the action of the 
key, lever, hopper, and hammer 
upward against the string, in place 
of quills which plucked the strings 
in the usual harpsichord. The exist- 
ence of this diagram and of actual 
instruments bearing C's name as 
" inventor " and dates as early as 
1720 and 1726 seem to prove the 
right of the instrument to its Italian 
name by proving C. the actual 
inventor of its distinguishing feature. 
(But see Schroeter, C. G.) 

Croce (kro-che), Giovanni dalla, compr. 
b. Chioggia, about 1557; d. Venice, 
May 15, 1609. Pupil of Zarlino, 
chorister and leader at St. Mark's; 
maestro 1603; also ordained priest; 
composed madrigals, motets, fine 
but not remarkably original; Triaca 
Musicale, volume of comic part- 
songs in Venetian dialect, including 
dialogue between cuckoo and night- 
ingale, has unique interest. 

Croft [or Crofts], William, compr. b. 
Nether Ettington, Warwick, 1678 
(baptized Dec. 30); d. Bath, Aug. 
14, 1727. Chorister in Chapel Royal 
under Blow; orgt. at St. Anne's, at 
Chapel Royal, and (1708) at West- 
minster, and composer to Chapel 
Royal; Mus. Doc. Oxford 1713; 
composed many fine anthems and 

psalm tunes; published 1712 Divine 
Harmony, words of anthems with 
historical account; 1724 Musica 
Sacra, 30 anthems of his own, first 
volumes, he says, engraved in score 
on plates; at least first in England. 

Cross, Michael Hurley, orgt. b. Phila- 
delphia, Apr. 13, 1833; d. there, 
Sept. 26, 1897. Pupil of B. Cross, 
Meignen, etc.; orgt. at St. Patrick's, 
the Cathedral, and for 17 years at 
Holy Trinity; director of societies 
in Phila. and N. Y.; had many 
pupils (J. G. Huneker among them) 
and great influence on musical life 
in Phila. 

Crotch, William, compr. b. Norwich, 
Eng., July 5, 1775; d. Taunton, 
Dec. 29, 1847. Son of a carpen- 
ter, his extraordinary precocity (he 
played on a small organ at a little 
over 2, and performed in public at 4) 
was the subject of articles by Daines, 
Barrington, and Burney; he studied 
music and theology at Oxford; was 
orgt. and prof, at Oxford Univ., 
lectured at Mus. School; 1822 1st 
principal Royal Acad. Composed 
3 oratorios, one at age of 14, glees, 
odes (Methinks I hear most popular), 
Elements of Mus., etc. 

Crouch, Frederick Nicholls, 'cellist, b. 
London, July 31, 1808; d. Balti- 
more, Md., Aug. 18, 1896. Pupil 
of grandfather and father, of Bochsa, 
and at Royal Acad. of others; 
'cellist in various orch. in England 
and America after 1849; condr. 
Mrs. Rush's Saturday Concerts, 
Phila.; founder unsuccessful acad. 
in Washington; Confederate soldier; 
teacher in Baltimore; famous as 
composer of Kathleen Mavourneen. 

Crow, Edwin John, orgt. b. Sitting- 
bourne, Kent, Eng., Sept. 17, 1841; 
d. Dec., 1907. Pupil of E. J. Hop- 
kins; orgt. of 3 churches in Leicester, 
and Ripon cathedral; Mus. Doc. 
1882; comp. cantata and ch. music; 
examiner for Incorp. Soc. of Mus. 

Crowest, Frederick J., writer, b. Lon- 
don, 1850. For some years had 
success as tenor, under name of 
Arthur Vitton. Orgt. and compr., 
but chiefly known as author of 
readable books of biography and 



anecdote, The Great Tone Poets, 
Phases of Musical England, Story of 
British Music, etc. 

Cruvelli, Johanne Sophie Charlotte, 
singer, b. Bielefeld, Mar. 12, 1826; 
d. Nice, Nov., 1907. Real name 
Criiwell; sister Friedericke Marie 
(1824-1868); enjoyed short-lived suc- 
cess as natural singer; Sophie's 
voice beautiful but full of faults 
owing to lack of training; brilliant 
d6but Venice 1847; partial failure 
in London 1848 (due to greater 
charms of Jenny Lind) was fol- 
lowed by success in Paris, where she 
was finally engaged at the Ope"ra 
1854; married Count Vigier and 
retired 1856; especially successful 
in Verdi's operas; her great triumph 
at Paris in '51 was in Ernani. 

Cui (kooi'), Cesar Antonovitch, compr. 
b. Vilna, Poland, Jan. 18, 1835. 
By profession a military engineer, 
he is an authority on fortification 
on which he lectures at the Artillery 
School; in 1857 his early taste for 
music was revived by meeting with 
Balakirev, whose disciple he be- 
came; chief works are Angela 1876, 
Flibustier 1889, 4 orch. suites, about 
200 songs, and pf. pieces. Despite 
fact that he is exponent of theories 
of New Russian School (La musique 
en Russie) his own music lacks 
. definite national coloring; he in- 
clines to small and elaborated forms, 
even in larger choral works, with a 
resulting feeling of affectation; crit- 
ical writings of value to Russia, in 
calling attention to German music, 
and of interest to others in their 
revelation of Russian opinions. 

Cummings, William Hayman, singer, b. 
Sidbury, Devon, Aug. 22, 1831. Chor- 
ister in St. Paul's, singer in the Tem- 
ple Ch., Westminster, Chapel Royal; 
opera singer 1870; concert singer 
at various festivals, in U. S. 1871; 
teacher at Royal Acad. and prin- 
cipal 1896-1910 Guildhall School; 
founder of Purcell Society; author 
of Life of Purcell, Primer of Rudi- 
ments of Mus., biog. diet., the usual 
compositions, cantata, part-song, 
etc.; learned in antiquarian details. 

Curschmann, Karl Friedrich, compr. 
b. Berlin, June 21, 1804; d. Lang- 
fuhr, near Danzig, Aug. 24, 1841. 

Turned his attention from law to 
music in 20th year; after study 
with Spohr and Hauptmann settled, 
with occasional concert tours, in 
Berlin; before Schubert and Schu- 
mann were known, composed about 
90 simple songs, melodious and 
worthy of the place they have held 
in the amateur's repertoire. 

Curwen, John, teacher, b. Heckmond- 
wike, Yorkshire, Nov. 14, 1816; d. 
Manchester, May 26, 1880. A non- 
conformist minister, seeking simple 
method of teaching people to sing, 
he adopted system invented by Miss 
S. A. Glover, which he developed as 
Tonic-Sol-Fa method; gave up min- 
istry 1864; Ass'n founded 1853, and 
College 1875, opened 1879; numer- 
ous publications relate chiefly to 
the method and to the art of teach- 
ing; many arrangements in Sol-Fa 
of masterpieces. 

Cusins, Sir William George, orgt. b. 
London, Oct. 14, 1833; d. Remou- 
champs (Ardennes), Aug. 31, 1893. 
Chorister at Chapel Royal, pupil of 
Ftis at Brussels Cons., and of 
Potter, Sterndale Bennett, etc. at 
Royal Acad.; orgt. Queen's Private 
Chapel; vlt. Roy. Italian Opera; 
prof. Royal Acad. and Guildhall; 
examiner Queen's Coll. and Nat'l 
Training Sch.; condr. Philharmonic 
1867-83; composed 2 concert over- 
tures, oratorio, marches, etc. 

Cutter, Benjamin, compr. b. Woburn, 
Mass., Sept. 6, 1857; d. May 10, 
1910. Son of physician; studied vln. 
with Eichberg and harmony with 
Emery, comp. with Seifriz in Stutt- 
gart; member of Bost. Symph. Orch. ; 
teacher of vln. and harmony N. E. 
Cons.; has written text-books on 
harmony and vln. playing, chamber 
music, a cantata Sir Patrick Spens, 
a Mass in D, Harmonic Analysis, 
and How to Study Kreutzer. 

Cuzzoni (koot-zo'-ne), Francesca, dram, 
contralto, b. Parma or Modena, 
about 1700; d. Bologna, 1770. 
Pupil of Lanzi; debut Venice 1719; 
appeared in London 1722, where she 
married Sandoni, attained such suc- 
cess in Handel's operas that she 
became rival of Faustina; in 1728, 
dismissed by being offered a guinea 
less than Faustina, sang in Venice, 



and again in London in 1734, and 
for an unsuccessful benefit in 1750; 
imprisoned for debt in Holland, she 
ended her life in Bologna as a button- 
maker, in great poverty. 

Czerny (char'-ni), Carl, pst., teacher. 
b. Vienna, Feb. 20, 1791; d. there, 
July 15, 1857. Taught by his 
father, Wenzel, and by Beethoven, 
who took great interest in him; 
influenced by acquaintance with 
dementi and Hummel; professional 
tour planned for 1804 having been 
abandoned he gave up concert play- 
ing and remained in Vienna all his 
life, except for a short trip to Leip- 
zig 1836, one to Paris and London 
1837, and one to Lombardy 1846. 
His gentle nature shrank from the 
harshness of the world and he lived 
with his parents in a charming 

domesticity which Beethoven envied 
and wished to share; his days and 
nights were filled with industrious 
work. He was a most prolific com- 
poser; beside nearly a thousand 
printed compositions, he left many 
Mss. Though he composed in all 
forms, the only works now used are 
his pf. studies which are of perma- 
nent value. His great success as a 
teacher is shown by the fact that 
he taught Ninette von Belleville 
(Mme. Oury), Jaell, Thalberg, Doh- 
ler, Theod. KulJak, and Liszt. 

Czibulka (tche-bool'-ka), Alphons, 
compr. b. Szeges-Varallya, Hun- 
gary, May 14, 1842; d. Vienna, Oct. 
27, 1894. Pst., condr. at Karl- 
theater; bandmaster Viennese regts.; 
composed pf. music, dance music, 
and 6 operettas. 

Dalayrac (da-la-rak'), Nicolas, compr. 
b. Muret, Haute-Garonne, June 13, 
1753; d. Paris, Nov. 27, 1809. Musi- 
cal tastes persisting despite his 
father's efforts to turn him to law 
or the army, he became pupil of 
Langl6; wrote first operetta Le petite 
souper 1781 and thereafter wrote 
one or two a year, even Curing the 
Revolution; about 60 in all, which 
seem to have been popular, but 
none permanent, Les deux Savoyards 
perhaps best known; also distin- 
guished as chess player. 

D'Albert, Eugen, see Albert, Eugen d'. 

Dalcroze, Emile Jaques-, compr. b. 
Vienna, July 6, 1865. Of Swiss 
parentage, educated at univ. and 
cons, of Geneva; pupil of R. Fuchs 
and Bruckner at Vienna, and of 
Delibes in Paris; teacher at Geneva 
Cons. 1892; comp. 2 operas and 3 can- 
tatas, a boldly revolutionary vln. con- 
certo, popular string quartet, and, 
especially, various collections of 
songs, Chansons enfantines, Chez 
nous, etc., which are extremely pop- 
ular in Switzerland and Germany be- 
cause of their humorous and local 
characteristics; author of a method 
of training children which embodies 
rhythmic movements; removed to 
Dresden, 1910. 

Damm, G., see Steingraber. 

Damoreau (da-mo-ro), Laure Cinthie, 

[nee Montalant], singer, b. Paris, Feb. 
6, 1801 ; d. there, Feb. 25, 1863. Pupil 
at Paris Cons, at age of 7; debut 
Paris at 18 as Mile. Cinti; sang in 
London with indifferent success 1822; 
had success at Opra 1826-35, espe- 
cially in parts which Rossini comp. 
for her (Siege de Corinth and Moise) ; 
at Ope>a Comique 1835-43, where 
Auber also wrote for her; married 
actor Damoreau 1827; retired 1843, 
but made tours after that to U. S., 
St. Petersburg, etc.; prof, at Cons. 
1833-34, 1836-56; published songs 
and method. 

DaMotta (da-mot' -ta), JoseVianna, pst. 
b. Isle of St. Thomas, Africa, 1868. 
Went at early age to Lisbon, where 
studied at Cons.; after d^but at 14 
King Ferdinand sent him to Berlin, 
where he studied with Ph. and X. 
Scharwenka; later with Liszt, Schaf- 
fer, and Von Biilow; successful tours 
in Europe and S. America 1902; com- 
posed for pf. and orch. (Portuguese 
Scenes, and Rhapsodies)', written on 
Von Biilow, Liszt, etc.; now in Berlin. 

Damrosch (dam'-rosh), Leopold, condr. 
b. Posen, Oct. 22, 1832; d. New 
York, Feb. 15, 1885. Took degree 



of M.D. at Berlin Univ., but did 
not practise; pupil of Ries, Dehn, 
and Bohmer; appeared as solo vlt. 
Magdeburg 1855; leading vlt. at 
Weimar 1855-59, where he became 
intimate with Liszt and Wagner, and 
where he married singer Helene v.on 
Heimburg; 1859-60 condr. Breslau 
Philh.; toured with Von Billow and 
Tausig; 1871 called to N. Y. to con- 
duct Arion Soc.; organized Oratorio 
Soc. and Symphony Soc.; conducted 
Philharmonic 1876-77; conducted 
first Mus. Festival N. Y. 1881; toured 
West 1883; established and con- 
ducted season of German opera at 
Metropolitan; his wonderful organ- 
izing powers and keen interest in 
newer music inspired and encouraged 
music in N. Y. His son Frank also 
condr. b. Breslau, June 22, 1859. 
Pupil of his father, Pruckner, Mosz- 
kowski, etc.; condr. Denver Chorus 
Club 1882-85; chorusmaster at Met- 
ropolitan 1885-91; condr. of Mus. 
Art Soc., and many other organiza- 
tions; 1892 organized People's Sing- 
ing Classes, for instruction of wage- 
earners in sight and chorus singing, 
an institution which has been ex- 
tremely successful. Now director of 
Institute of Musical Art, N. Y. His 
brother Walter Johannes, condr., 
compr. b. Breslau, Jan. 30, 1862. 
Studied with his father, Draeseke, and 
Von Biilow; asst. condr. Metropoli- 
tan under father and Seidl; condr. 
Oratorio and Symph. Soc.; 1894 or- 
ganized Damrosch Opera Co., which 
gave German opera throughout U. S. 
until 1899; condr. Metropolitan 
1900-1902; Philh. 1902-03; New 
York Symphony Orchestra; com- 
posed opera The Scarlet Letter, one 
of few American operas actually 
produced (Boston, 1896). 

Dana, Charles Henshaw, orgt. b. West 
Newton, Mass., Feb. 7, 1846; d. 
Worcester, Feb. 5, 1883. Pupil of 
Dresel in Boston; studied in Paris 
and Stuttgart; d6but as pst. Stutt- 
gart and in America in Worcester; 
orgt. at Ch. of Immaculate Con- 
ception, Boston, and in Worcester; 
composed church music and songs. 

Dana, William Henry, teacher. b. 
Warren, O., June 10, 1846. Pupil 
of Aug. Haupt, and at Kullak's 
Cons., Berlin, and Royal Acad., 

London; director Dana's Mus. Inst. 
in Warren; one of founders Mus. 
Teachers' Nat'l Ass'n; has published 
text-books on harmony and orches- 
tration and church music. 

Dancla (don-kla) , Jean Baptiste Charles, 
vlt., compr. b. Bagneres, Dec. 19, 
1817; d. Tunis, Nov. 8 or 9, 1907. 
At Paris Cons, studied with HaleVy 
and Berton, vln. with Baillot; 1834 
member Op6ra Comique orch.; made 
prof, at Cons. 1857-1892; famous for 
playing at Soci6t6 des Concerts and 
at his Quartet Soire'es; his 130 com- 
positions are graceful and well suited 
to his instrument but are not of en- 
during worth; Etudes of value; as a 
player he was last representative of 
old French school; many pupils, 
among them C. Loeffler and Adam- 

Danks, Hart Pease, compr. b. New 
Haven, Apr. 6, 1834; d. Philadel- 
phia, Nov. 20, 1903. Pupil of L. E. 
Whiting; in Chicago 1854-64, then 
in N. Y.; singer and director in sev- 
eral churches, prolific compr. of songs 
and hymns; one operetta, Pauline, 
produced 1872. 

Dannreuther (dan'-roi-ter), Edward 
George, condr., writer, b. Strass- 
burg, Nov. 4, 1844; d. London, Feb. 
12, 1905. Taught by F. L. Ritter in 
Cincinnati, by Richter, Moscheles, 
and Hauptmann at Leipzig Cons.; pf. 
teacher in London; founder and 
condr. London Wagner Soc.; has 
written on Wagner, translated some 
of his works, and written articles on 
various subjects. His brother Gus- 
tav, vlt. b. Cincinnati, July 21, 1853. 
Studied with De Ahna and Joachim 
in Berlin; member of (Boston, Mass.) 
Mendelssohn Quintet Club on tour 
1877-1880; of Bost. Symph. Orch. 
1880-82; condr. in Buffalo and under 
Damrosch in N. Y.; well known as 
teacher and member of excellent 
Dannreuther Quartet. 

Da Ponte, Lorenzo, librettist, b. Ceneda, 
near Venice, Mar. 10, 1749; d. New 
York, Aug. 17, 1838. While poet 
laureate to Joseph II wrote librettos 
for Mozart's Don Giovanni and Cosl 
fan tutte; career in London as poet to 
Ital. Opera and after 1805 in America 
as impresario and teacher of Italian. 



Daquin (da-kan), Louis Claude, orgt. 
b. Paris, July 4, 1694; d. there, June 
15, 1772. Pupil of Marchand, orgt. 
at St. Antoine at age of 12; 1727 won 
in competition with Rameau position 
of orgt. St. Paul's, which he held till 
his death; published pieces for harp- 
sichord, Coucou being one, a volume 
of Noels, for the organ or clavichord, 
and a cantata. 

Dargomyzski (dar-go-mizh'-ski), Alex- 
ander Sergeivitch, compr., pst. b. in 
prov. of Toula, Russia, Feb. 14, 1813; 
d. St. Petersburg, Jan. 29, 1869. 
Educated in St. Petersburg; of good 
family; for four years in gov't service; 
taught as an amateur by Schober- 
lechner, and deeply influenced by 
friendship of Glinka; composed 
Esmeralda 1839 (prod. 1847) and 
Roussalka 1856, and many beautiful 
and expressive songs; after visit to 
France and Germany became asso- 
ciated with Balakirev and New 
School, of whose doctrines his opera 
The Stone Guest has been called 
" The Gospel "; in this work (or- 
chestrated after D's death by Rim- 
sky-Korsakov and performed 1872) 
older forms are abandoned entirely 
for continuous recitative. Though 
none of his works were especially 
successful, D. is regarded by some 
as the apostle of a new cult. 

David (da-ved), Felicien Cesar, compr. 
b. Cadenet, Vaucluse, Apr. 3, 1810; 
d. St. Germain-en-Laye, Aug. 29, 
1876. Of precocious talent, he was 
educated at the Maitrise of St. Sau- 
veur at Aix, where in 1829, after 
three years in Jesuit college and one 
as theatre condr., he became maitre 
de chapelle; 1830 entered Paris Cons, 
where he studied with Millot and 
F4tis, and took private lessons of 
Reber; 1831-33 lived with a brother- 
hood of St. Simoniens; 1833-35 wan- 
dered with some of the brothers to 
Egypt and the East; the strong im- 
pressions received were expressed 
in Le desert, " ode symphonic," 1844, 
which had great success; later he 
composed 7 or 8 operas, of which 
Lalla Rookh was perhaps most suc- 
cessful; 1869 succeeded Berlioz as 
member of Academy and librarian of 
Cons. Le desert best expression of 
his characteristic note of picturesque 
and melancholy quiet. 

David, Ferdinand, vlt. b. Hamburg, 
June 19, 1810; d. near Klosters, Swiss 
Alps, July 18, 1873. Of precocious 
talent he studied with Spohr and 
Hauptmann at Kassel; 1827-28 mem- 
ber of orch. at Berlin Theatre; 1829- 
35 in Russia, as member of private 
quartet, and concert player; by in- 
fluence of Mendelssohn was ap- 
pointed concertmaster of Gewand- 
haus Orch. 1836, and, when Cons, 
was opened 1843, teacher of vln. As 
teacher he had wide influence over 
many distinguished pupils, among 
them Joachim and Wilhelmj; as a 
player he combined solid technic 
with remarkable facility of expres- 
sion; as a leader and especially as a 
quartet player he was unrivaled. 
He wrote a valuable Violin School, 
edited numerous works of older 
masters, composed for vln., 2 sym- 
phonies, etc.; had great influence 
over compositions of others, esp. 
Mendelssohn's vln. concerto. 

Davidov (da-vid'-off), Charles, 'cellist. 
b. Goldingen, Courland, Mar. 17, 
1838; d. Moscow, Feb. 15, 1889. 
Studied mathematics at Moscow 
Univ., 'cello with Schmidt in Mos- 
cow and Schuberth at St. Peters- 
burg; debut 1859 at Leipzig where he 
became 'cellist in Gewandhaus Orch. 
and teacher at Cons.; 1862 'cellist 
at St. Petersburg Opera, professor, 
and 1876-86 director St. P. Cons.; 
wrote admirable method, concertos, 
symph. poem, etc. 

Davies, Benjamin Grey, tenor, b. 
Pontardawe, near Swansea, Wales, 
Jan. 6, 1858. Son of an engineer; 
chorister in Wales ; at 20 he earned 
a prize which enabled him to 
study at Roy. Acad. with Fori and 
Randegger; operatic debut 1881; 
then in various English opera com- 
panies; married Clara Perry 1885; 
since about 1890 has been increas- 
ingly in demand for festival and 
concert engagements to exclusion of 
dramatic work. 

Davies, [David Thomas] Ffrangcon, 
baritone, b. Bethesda, Carnarvon, 
Dec. 11, 1860. After taking M.A. 
from Oxford he took orders, but relin- 
quished them later; received instruc- 
tion in singing at Guildhall School 
from Latter and from Shakespeare 



and Randegger; concert and operatic 
debuts 1890; since 1893 has kept to 
concert and festival singing. 

Davies, Fanny, pst. b. Guernsey, June 
27, 1861. Pupil at Leipzig Cons, of 
Reinecke, Jadassohn, and Paul (pf.), 
and of Clara Schumann, from whom 
she learned "accurate technique, full 
tone, and power of phrasing " that 
have made her concerts successful 
since her d6but in England in 1885; 
chiefly distinguished as player of 
Schumann and Brahms. 

Davison, Arabella, see Goddard. 

Dawson, Frederick H., pst. b. Leeds, 
July 16, 1868. Taught by his father 
and by Ch. Halle at whose concerts 
he appeared in 1890 encouraged by 
Rubinstein; later continued suc- 
cess as a concert player. 

Day, Dr. Alfred, theorist, b. London, 
Jan., 1810; d. there, Feb. 11, 1849. 
After studying medicine in London, 
Paris, and Heidelberg, practised in 
London; after years of reflection 
published 1845 Treatise on Harmony, 
which urged reforms in terminology, 
in bass-figuring, and offered original 
propositions about permitted dis- 

Dayas (das), William Humphries, teach- 
er, b. New York, Sept. 12, 1864; d. 
Manchester, May 3, 1903. Studied 
in N. Y. with Mills, Joseffy, etc., in 
Germany with Kullak, Haupt, and 
Liszt; taught at Cons, of Helsingfors, 
Wiesbaden, and Cologne; comp. org. 
sonata, string quartet, pf. mus., etc. 

De Ahna, see Anna, Heinrich Carl 
Hermann de. 

Debussy (de-bxis'-si), Claude Achille, 
compr. b. St. Germain, Paris, Aug. 
22, 1862. As pupil of Guiraud at 
Paris Cons, won Prix de Rome with 
cantata L'enfant prodigue; his La 
demoiselle elue, setting of Blessed 
Damosel for female chorus and orch. 
was refused as too modern in style; 
in later works for orch. Prelude to 
L'apres-midi d'un faune, Nocturnes, 
Le mer, in pf. pieces, in many songs 
which well suit words by Verlaine, 
Baudelaire, etc., and in opera Pelleas 
et Melisande (Paris 1902, N. Y. 
1907) he has continued to develop 
an original method whose purpose 

is to underline the emotion of the 
words (in the opera the voices carry 
continuous recitative above orches- 
tral phrases), to hint mysteriously 
at elusive moods. Technically his 
melodies are not remarkable in 
themselves; his "utterance is purely 
harmonic," and ultra-modern, con- 
fined by no traditions, limited in its 
ceaseless modulation by no estab- 
lished key-relations. 

Dehn (dan), Siegfried Wilhelm, writer. 
b. Altona, Feb. 25, 1799; d. Berlin, 
Apr. 12, 1858. Law student at 
Leipzig Univ.; studied music with 
Klein in Berlin; 1842, at Meyer- 
beer's recommendation, made libra- 
rian of musical portion of Berlin 
Royal Lib,; scored, copied for press, 
and edited many works of Lassus, 
Bach, and earlier musicians; edited 
Cecilia 1842-48; wrote several im- 
portant treatises on matters of 
research and mus. theory of which 
he was successful teacher; Glinka, 
Kullak, and Anton Rubinstein were 
among pupils. 

Deiters (di'-ters), Hermann, writer, b. 
Bonn, June 27, 1833; d. Coblenz, 
May 1, 1907. Studied law and 
philology, held various appoint- 
ments; beside important contribu- 
tions to mus. papers on Beethoven, 
Schumann, etc., published in 1880 
first authoritative life of Brahms; 
chiefly notable for translation into 
German of A. W. Thayer's great 
Life of Beethoven, pub. 1866-79, and 
for revision. 

De Koven, [Henry Louis] Reginald, 
compr. b. Middletown, Conn., Apr. 
3, 1859. Educated in Europe, degree 
from Oxford Univ.; studied in 
early years with Speidel at Stuttgart, 
later with Lebert, Pruckner, and 
Hauff , singing with Vannuccini in 
Italy, and operatic comp. with 
Gen6e and Delibes; mus. critic in 
N. Y.; his first successful operetta 
was The Begum 1887; Robin Hood, 
the third (1890), is still popular after 
more than 3000 performances; later 
works Fencing Master, Rob Roy, etc., 
though successful have not touched 
this highwater mark; composer of 
over 150 songs (Oh. promise me) and 
incidental music. 

Delacour, Victor, see Smith, E. S. 



De Lattre, Roland, see Lasso, Orlando di. 

Delibes (de~-leb'), Clement Philibert Leo, 
compr. b. St. Germain du Va'l, 
France, Feb. 21, 1836; d. Paris, 
Jan. 16, 1891. Studied solfeggio, pf., 
org., comp. at Paris Cons, under 
Benoist, Bazin, A. Adam, at same 
time singing at the Madeleine; 1853 
accompanist at Th. Lyrique; orgt. 
at several churches, at St. Jean, St. 
Frangois 1862-71; 1863 accom- 
panist; 1865-72 2d chorusmaster 
at Op6ra; 1881 prof, of comp. at 
Cons.; after 1855 wrote successful 
short comic operas Le jardinier 
et son seigneur, etc.; also comp. 
part-songs, melodies, Bonjour Suzon, 
etc.; Le roi I' a dit 1873 and Lakme 
1883 most successful of longer 
works ; chief distinction lies in charm- 
ing and original ballets Coppelia 
1870, Sylvia 1876. 

De Lisle, Rouget de, see Rouget de Lisle. 

Delius (da-lius), Frederick, compr. b. 
Bradford, Eng., 1863. In 1884 went 
to Florida to be orange grower, 
studied mus. alone; 1886-88 studied 
at Leipzig Con's.; since then has 
lived in Paris and Fontainebleau; 
concert of own works London 1899; 
opera Koangu produced Elberfeld 
1904; Village Romeo and Juliet 
produced Berlin 1907; has com- 
posed for orch. Norwegian Suite, 
Life's Dance, Paris; for voice with 
orch. Seven Danish Songs, Whit- 
man's Sea-drift, Mass of Life from 
Nietsche's Zarathustra, Dowson's 
poems, a pf. and a vln. concerto; 
highly praised for originality of 
expression, arrived at independently. 

Delle Sedie (del'-la-sa-di-a), Henri, 
baritone, teacher, b. Leghorn, June 
17, 1826; d. Garennes-Colombes, 
Nov. 29, 1908. While. still student 
of Galeffi, Persanola, and Domeni- 
coni imprisoned as revolutionist; 
d6but Florence 1851; after singing 
in Italy engaged at Th. Italien, Paris 
1861; prof, at Cons. 1867-71; pub. 
valuable Arte e fisiologia del canto, 
in Eng. as Vocal Art; voice was 
remarkable for its color and range 
of emotional expression; many fa- 
mous pupils. 

Del Valle de Paz (der-va-la-da-paz'), 
Edgardo, pst., compr. b. Alexandria, 
Egypt, Oct. 18, 1861. Studied at 

Naples Cons, with Cesi and Serrao, 
after tours in Italy and Egypt 
settled in Florence, where he directs 
La nuova musica, and teaches in 
Cons.; pub. method, orch., chamber, 
and pf. music. 

De Munck, Francois, 'cellist, b. Brus- 
sels, Oct. 6 r 1815; d. there, Feb. 28, 
1854. Pupil and successor of Platel 
in Brussels Cons.; after tours in 
Germany 'cellist in London theatre, 
but returned to Brussels 1853. Son 
Ernst (b. Dec. 21, 1840) 'cellist. 

Dennee (den-na'), Charles Frederick, 
compr. b. Oswego, N. Y., Sept. 1, 
1863. Studied at N. E. Cons. pf. 
with A. D. Turner, and, after an 
interval, harm, with S. A. Emery; 
later pf. with Mme. Schiller; 1888 
accident to wrist made him give up 
playing; teaches successfully at 
Cons, as Turner's successor, and has 
written Progressive Technic; also 
composed comedy operas Little Red 
Riding-hood, Children's Festival, and 
many pf. solos and duets. 

Denza (den-tsa), Luigi, compr. b. 
Castellammare di Strabbia, Feb. 24, 
1846. Studied at Naples Cons, with 
Serrao and Mercadante; living in 
London since 1879; director of 
Lond. Acad. of Mus., teacher of 
singing at Royal Acad.; comp. 
unsuccessful opera, and over 500 
songs, many in Neapolitan dialect, 
of which Funiculi-Funicula has at- 
tained universal popularity. 

Deppe (dep'-p6), Ludwig, pf. teacher. 
b. Alverdissen, Lippe, Nov. 7, 1828; 
d. Pyrmont, Sept. 5, 1890. Pupil 
of Marxsen and Lobe; founded and 
conducted singing society at Ham- 
burg; court capellm. Berlin 1886-88; 
conducted court orch., and Silesian 
mus. festivals; account of his 
method in Amy Fay's Music Study 
in Germany. 

Depres, Josquin (zhos-kan-da-pra), 
compr. b. Hainault, Burgundy, 
about 1450; d. Conde", Aug. 27, 
1521. Name given in many forms 
Despres, Dupr6, Del Prato, etc. 
Chorister, pupil of Okeghem, singer 
in Sistine Chapel 1471-84, and in 
Ferrara; considered by contempo- 
raries and by historians greatest of 
Netherland School, because first to 



bring real beauty out of intricate 
counterpoint; comp. many masses, 
some motets, and some French 

De Reszke, see Reszke, De. 

Destinn, Emmy [real name Kittl], dram, 
sop. b. Prague, Feb. 26, 1878. Pupil 
of Loewe-Destinn whose name she 
took; de"but 1898 at Berlin; engage- 
ments there, at Bayreuth (1901), and 
at Paris; N. Y. d<5but 1908. 

De Swert (de-svarf), Jules, 'cellist. 
b. Louvain, Aug. 15, 1843; d. 
Ostende, Feb. 24, 1891. D6but at 
9; pupil of Servais at Brussels 
Cons.; after tours and positions at 
Diisseldorf and Weimar became 
concertmaster, solo 'cellist, prof, at 
Hochschule, Berlin 1869-1873; after 
further tours director of Ostende 
Mus. Sch.; prof, at Bruges and Ghent 
Cons.; comp. 2 operas, symph., con- 
certo and other 'cello works. 

Diabelli (de-a-bel'-li) , Antonio, compr. 
b. Mattsee, near Salzburg, Sept. 6, 
1781 ; d. Vienna, Apr. 7, 1858. Choir 
boy at Michaelbeurn and Salzburg; 
studied for priesthood and entered 
monastery; when convents were sec- 
ularized went to Vienna; encouraged 
in music by Michael and Joseph 
Haydn; composed an opera, cantatas, 
etc., and many sonatinas and easy 
pieces still popular; 1818 entered 
publishing business, assumed control 
1824; published much of Schubert's 
music, treating the composer rather 

Dibdin, Charles, compr. b. Southamp- 
ton, March (baptized Mar. 4), 1745; 
d. London, July 25, 1814. Chorister 
at Winchester Cathedral; taught by 
orgts. Kent and Fussell the rudi- 
ments of music; at 15 went to 
London, became singing-actor at 
Covent Garden; composed Shep- 
herd's Artifice, pastoral, 1762; acted 
at Birmingham, Vauxhall, Drury 
Lane, where he composed The 
Padlock and other successful pieces; 
after various unsuccessful ventures 
as manager and the tour described 
in his Musical Tour of Mr. Dibdin, 
he gave in London " table entertain- 
ments," in which he sang, played, 
acted, and accompanied; many 
famous songs (such as Tom Bowling) 
included in these pieces; after 1805 

he was supported by pension and, 
when that failed, by a public sub- 
scription; composed nearly 100 
operas and plays with music; his 
sons, Charles and Thomas, were 

Dick, Charles George Cotsford, compr. 
b. London, Sept. 1, 1846; d. 1895. 
Studied at Worcester Coll. Oxford; 
wrote successful operettas Our 
Doll's House 1876, Doctor D. 1885, 
and some children's operas, pf. 
pieces, etc. 

Dickinson, Edward, teacher, b. W. 
Springfield, Mass., Oct. 10, 1853. 
Studied mus. at N. E. Cons. 1871-72 
with J. C. D. Parker and S. A. 
Emery, private lessons from F. H. 
Torrington and later from Thayer; 
grad. Amherst Coll. 1876, A. M. 
1881; orgt. at Springfield and 
Elmira, N. Y.; private teacher and 
director of mus. Elmira Coll. 1883- 
92; in Berlin, mus. hist, under Ph. 
Spitta and Wm. Langhans, pf. with 
Klind worth; at Oberlin Coll. since 
1893 as instructor and prof, of 
history and pf. playing; since 1905 
prof, of mus. hist, and criticism 
exclusively (probably only American 
prof, with so specialized a field); 
also has classes for students at 
Cons.; has written Study of History 
of Music and very valuable Music 
in the History of the Western Church. 

Dickson, Ellen, compr. b. Woolwich, 
1819; d. Lyndhurst, July 4, 1878. 
Under pseud. "Dolores" composed 
popular songs. 

Didymus (did'-i-mus), writer, b. Alex- 
andria (?), B. C. 63. Author of 
treatise on harmony, only preserved 
in epitome by Porphyry and quota- 
tions by Ptolemy; the " comma of 
D." is the difference between the 
major and minor whole tone (81:80) 
which he recognized. 

Diehl (del), Louis, compr. b. Mann- 
heim, 1838. Teaching in London; 
married pst. Alice Mangold 1863; 
compr. of songs and operettas for 
amateurs, Our Bazaar, etc. 

Diemer (di-a-mar), Louis, pst., comp. 
b. Paris, Feb. 14, 1843. Studied pf. 
at the Paris Cons, with Marmontel 
(1st prize 1856), with Ambroise 
Thomas and Bazin in comp., also 



winning prizes; played with success 
in concerts; as prof, of pf. -playing 
at the Cons., where he succeeded 
Marmontel in 1887, he formed a 
number of distinguished pupils; his 
compositions include two piano con- 
certos, chamber music and a number 
of fine piano pieces. 

Dippel, Andreas, dram, tenor, b. Kassel, 
Nov. 30, 1866. Pupil of Hey, Leoni, 
and Rau; singer at Bremen 1887-92, 
Bayreuth, Vienna, London, and 
Berlin; popular in New York for 
several seasons; with Gatti-Casazza, 
manager of Metropolitan Opera 1908, 
where D. had charge of German 
opera; 1910 manager Chicago Opera 

Ditters von Dittersdorf, Karl, vlt., 
compr. b. Vienna, Nov. 2, 1739; 
d. Rothlhotta, near Neuhaus, Bo- 
hemia, Oct. 24, 1799. Taught by 
Konig and Ziegler and, after admis- 
sion to band of Prince von Hildburg- 
hausen, by Bonno and Irani; 
accompanied Gluck on tour to 
Italy 1761; on return defeated 
Lolli; intimate with J. Haydn; 
successor of Michael Haydn as 
director at Pressburg, where he 
wrote first opera Amore in Musica; 
as capellm. at Johannisberg, set up 
theatre and wrote many operas and 
oratorios (Davide); on various visits 
to Vienna opera Doktor und Apotheker 
(only one surviving) was performed, 
and in 1786 symphony on Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, remarkable early 
program music; real comic vein 
gave him contemporary popularity; 
his Autobiography pub. 1801. 

Dodd, John, maker of vln. bows. b. 
Stirling, 1752; d. Richmond, Surrey, 
Oct. 4, 1839. Called the "English 
Tourte " whose bows he equaled in 
excellence, but not quite in elegance; 
his bows have single fault of being 
too short; unwilling to share his 
secrets he would have no pupil; and 
persisting in refusal to sell them died 
in poorhouse; father Edward and 
brother Thomas both made violins. 

Doebber (ddb-ber), Johannes, compr. 
b. Berlin, Mar. 28, '1866. Studied 
at Stern Cons, under Radecke, Buss- 
ler, and Agghazy; taught pf . Kullak's 
Cons.; capellm. at Kroll's Theatre, 

at Darmstadt, and at Coburg-Gotha; 
composed 6 operas (Die Grille 1899, 
etc.), few pf. pieces, several songs. 

Doehler (dealer), Theodor, pst., compr. 
b. Naples, Apr. 20, 1814; d. Florence, 
Feb. 21, 1856. Studied at Naples 
with J. Benedict, at Vienna with 
Czerny and Sechter; pst. to Duke 
of Lucca from 1831; 1836-48 made 
several tours to Germany, Holland, 
London, Paris, and Russia; after 1848 
lived in Florence, ennobled, married 
Russian countess; chief works for 
pf.; etudes de concert, etudes de salon, 
etc., showy but empty. 

Doering (deV-ing), Carl Heinrich, pf. 
teacher, b. Dresden, July 4, 1834. 
Pupil at Leipzig Cons, of Haupt- 
mann, Plaidy, and Richter; taught 
in Leipzig and Dresden Cons, since 
1858; distinguished compr. and ad- 
mirable teacher; composed many 
valuable collections of studies and 
special exercises. 

Dohnanyi (don-an'-yi), Ernst von, pst. 
b. Pressburg, Hungary, July 27, 
1877. Educated at Gymnasium 
where his father, prof, of math., 
taught him music; later studied with 
C. Forstner, and, after 1894, at 
Royal Hungarian Acad. of Mus. with 
Thoman (pf.) and Koessler (comp.); 
at Budapest symph. in F took king's 
prize 1897; after few lessons from 
d 1 Albert de"but Berlin 1897; won 
distinguished success in Germany, 
Austria, England 1898, U. S. 1899, 
1900; of late years living in Berlin; 
has devoted more time to comp. than 
performance; works include symph., 
pf. solos, pf. quintet, string quartet, 
etc., which show fertility of inven- 
tion and ingenuity and skill of com- 

Dolby, Helen, see Sainton-Dolby, Char- 
lotte Helen. 

Dolores, see Dickson, Ellen. 

Domrner, Arrey von, writer, b. Danzig, 
Feb. 9, 1828; d. Treyse (Thuringia), 
Feb. 18, 1905. After some time as 
theological student, after 1851 
studied at Leipzig with Richter, 
lobe, and Schellenberg; taught at 
Leipzig; resided in Hamburg after 
1863; critic to Correspondent; with- 
drew to retirement at Marburg 1889; 
wrote Elemente der Musik, Handbuch 
der Musikgeschichte. 



Donati (do-na'-ti), Baldassaro, compr. 
b. Venice, about 1530; d. there, June, 
1603. Chorister, choirmaster, maes- 
tro at St. Mark's; especially dis- 
tinguished as compr. of madrigals 
and motets, of which several collec- 
tions are extant. 

Donizetti (don-i-tset'-ti), Gaetano, 
compr. b. Bergamo, Nov. 29, 1797; 
d. there, Apr. 8, 1848. Father, a 
weaver, wished him to be lawyer or 
teacher; studied at Naples Cons, 
with Mayr, and at Bologna Liceo; 
to escape demands of father entered 
army; composed first opera in quar- 
ters at Venice; his fourth Zordide di 
Granata won him exemption from 
further service; after series of suc- 
cessful but imitative operas, com- 
posed Anna Bolena, 1830, for Pasta, 
Rubini, and Lablache; Elisir d'a- 
more 1832, Lucrezia Borgia 1833, Lu- 
cia di Lammermoor 1835 followed; 
director Naples Cons. 1837; left 
Milan angered by judgment of 
censor against Poliuto; went to 
Paris, where were produced La fille 
du regiment, La favorita, Linda di 
Chamounix, Don Pasquale; stricken 
with paralysis 1845, from which he 
never recovered. He wrote in all 
about 67 operas, many merely imita- 
tive of his contemporaries Bellini 
and Rossini, some distinguished by 
great originality of melody and 
skilful composition of concerted 
numbers; Lucia probably the most 
famous and the one that is now most 
often given, largely because of 
famous sextet. 

Dont (don), Jacob, vlt. b. Vienna, Mar. 
2, 1815; d. there, Nov. 17, 1888. 
Son of 'cellist Joseph Valentin (1776- 
1833); pupil at Vienna Cons, of 
Bohm and elder Hellmesberger; 
played in orchestras and as soloist; 
distinguished as teacher at Vienna 
Cons, of Auer, Gregorowitch, and 
others; pub. very valuable Studies 
for Violin. 

Door (dor), Anton, pst. b. Vienna, 
June 20, 1833. Pupil of Czerny and 
Sechter; successful tours in Italy and 
Germany; court pst. at Stockholm 
1857; teacher at Imp. Inst. Moscow 
1859, at Cons. 1864; 1869 at Vienna 
Cons.; now teaching in Vienna; 
among pupils are Fischoff, Mottl, 

Steinbach, etc.; has made valuable 
editions of older works, and intro- 
duced new ones. 

Dorn, Eduard, see Rockel, Joseph Leo- 

Dorn, Heinrich Ludwig Egmont, compr., 
writer. b, Konigsberg, Nov. 14, 
1804; d. Berlin, Jan. 10, 1892. While 
law student studied music at Konigs- 
berg, later at Berlin with Berger 
and Klein; director at Leipzig, where 
he taught Schumann 1829-31; 1843 
dir. at Cologne, founder of Rhein- 
ische Musikschule which became 
Cologne Cons.; director of Rhein- 
ischeMus. Festivals; capellm. Royal 
Opera Berlin 1849-69; wrote 13 
operas (Die Nibelungen 1854 best 
known), church music, orch. works, 
etc.; edited Berliner Post, contrib- 
uted to Berliner Musikzeitung, wrote 
autobiog. Aus.meinem Leben, 

Dowland, John, compr. b. Westmin- 
ster, 1562; d. London, Apr., 1626. 
Distinguished lute player; in service 
of English ambassador at Paris 
about 1580, became Roman Catho- 
lic; Mus. Bac. Oxford 1588; left 
England because of religion, traveled 
in Italy and Germany; lutenist to 
Christian IV of Denmark 1598; re- 
turned to England 1605 and finally 
in 1609; 1612 King's musician; works 
1st, 2d, 3d Books of Songs of 4 parts 
with Tablature for the Lute, etc., re- 
ferred to by Shakespeare. Son 
Robert (15987-1641?) also lutenist 
and compr. 

Draeseke (dra'-se-ke), Felix August 
Bernhard, compr. b. Coburg, Oct. 7, 
1835. Pupil of Rietz at Leipzig 
Cons.; friend of Liszt and member of 
" New German School " at Weimar; 
teacher at Lausanne Cons. 1864-74 
(with one year with Von Biilow at 
Munich Cons.) ; lived in Geneva and 
1884 became teacher at Dresden 
Cons.; early works too radical to be 
popular, but later more in classic 
style, especially 3 symph., overtures 
(Das Leben ein Traum), and chamber 
music have won success. 

Dragonetti, Domenico, double-bass play- 
er. b.Venice, Apr. 7, 1763; d. London, 
Apr. 16, 1846. Few lessons from 
Berini, but largely self-taught; after 
playing in several Italian orchestras, 



went to London 1794, where he 
was engaged at King's Theatre; 
with Lindley, the 'cellist, his com- 
panion for 52 years, played at An- 
cient Concerts, Philharmonic, etc.; 
played at Beethoven Festival, Bonn, 
1845; friend of Haydn and acquaint- 
ance of Beethoven; compr. of works 
for own instr. and for the voice; re- 
markable for technical virtuosity 
and for depth and steadiness of tone. 

Dresel (dra-sel), Otto, pst. b. Ander- 
nach, 1826; d. Beverly, Mass., July 
26, 1890. Pupil of Hiller at Cologne 
and of Mendelssohn at Leipzig; 
came to N. Y. 1848; settled in Boston 
1852, where as teacher and player 
he contributed very largely to the 
awakened appreciation of German 
music, especially works of Bach and 
songs of Franz; published only a few 

Dressier, Louis Raphael, compr. b. 
N. Y. City, Dec. 8, 1861. (Father, 
William Dressier, a composer of some 
distinction.) Graduated Lyons Col- 
legiate Institute, N. Y. City, 1877; 
educated in music by his father, be- 
ginning professional work at 16; or- 
ganist and choirmaster, All Souls' 
Unitarian Church; editor The World's 
Best Music; composer of successful 
songs, anthems; conductor of choral 
societies and glee clubs; connected 
with Charles H. Ditson and Co., mu- 
sic publishers, New York City. 

Dreyschock (dri-shok), Alexander, pst. 
b. Zak, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1818; d. 
Venice, Apr. 1, 1869. Appeared in 
public at 8; later pupil of Tomaschek 
in Prague; from 1838-1862 tours 
through Germany, Austria, Paris, 
London, and Russia; 1862 prof, at 
St. Petersburg Cons., director of j 
Imperial School, court pst.; retired j 
to Italy 1868; played chiefly his own 
compositions which are not now in- 
teresting; though cold as an inter- 
preter he was remarkable for tech- 
nical ability, esp. for facility in play- 
ing octaves, and for solo work in the 
left hand. His nephew Felix, pst. b. 
Leipzig, Dec. 27, 1860. Son of Rai- 
mund, vU. (1824-1869); studied at 
Berlin Hochschule with Ehrlich, ! 
Taubert, and Kiel; now prof, at 
Stern Cons.; successful as performer 
and as compr. of pf. pieces. 

Dubois (dii-bo-a), Clement Francois 
Theodore, compr. b. Rosnay, Marne, 
Aug. 24, 1837. After teaching at 
Rheims studied at Paris Cons. 
After 1853 under Marmontel, Be- 
noist, Bazin, and Ambroise Thomas; 
took 1st prizes in all departments and 
Prix de Rome 1861; maitre de cha- 
pelle at Ste. Clothilde, orgt. at Made- 
leine 1877, prof, of harm, at Cons. 
1871, of comp. 1891; member of 
Acad. 1894, director of Cons. 1896- 
1905. Numerous compositions in- 
clude oratorios (Les sept paroles du 
Christ, Le paradis perdu), operas 
(Aben Hamet, Xaviere), songs, pf., 
and org. pieces, orch. works (over- 
ture to Frithjof, etc.); music is 
conscientious rather than inspired; 
successful as teacher. 

Ducis (du-se), Benoit [Benedictus Ducis], 
compr. b. Bruges, about 1480; date 
and place of death unknown. Pupil of 
Josquin Depres; orgt. at Antwerp; 
went to England 1515; some say 
lived in Germany later, but no certain 
facts; there are extant some 80 songs, 
and several part-songs and motets; 
not to be confounded with Bene- 
dictus Appenzelders, Swiss musician 
of later date. 

Dufay (dii-fa), Guillaume, compr. b. 
Hainault (?), about 1400; d. Cambrai, 
Nov. 27, 1474. Chorister in Papal 
Chapel 1428; in service of Duke of 
Burgundy 1437; took holy orders, 
1437 became canon at Cambrai; one of 
the most distinguished of early French 
contrapuntists; many of his works 
(masses, motets, chansons, etc.) still 
extant; also said to have introduced 
white (open) notes and to have made 
other changes in notation. See Stai- 
ner's Dufay and his Contemporaries 
for account and examples. 

Duiffopruggar (dwef-fo-pru-gar), [Tief- 
fenbriicker], Caspar, instrument-mak- 
er, b. Freising, Bavaria, 1514; d. 
Lyons, before Dec., 1571. Reputation 
as first maker of violins was destroyed 
by Vidal who brought proof that 
instruments attributed to him were 
made by Vuillaume after 1827; D. 
made violas da gamba and lutes in- 
laid after certain fashion. 

Dukas (dii-ka), Paul, compr. b. Paris, 
Oct. 1, 1865. Pupil at Paris Cons, 
after 1882 of Dubois, Mathias, and 


Guiraud; second Prix de Rome; 
musical critic of Gazette des beaux 
arts and Revue hebdomadaire; works 
include overtures Lear, Goetz von 
Berlichingen, Polyeucte, symphony, 
distinguished pf. sonata, variations, 
etc.; symph. poem L'apprenti sor- 
cier, ingenious orchestral scherzo, 
best known work outside of France; 
also opera Ariane et Barbe-bleue; 
shows unusual technical ability in the 
expression of ultra-modern ideas. 

Dulcken (dul-ken), Ferdinand Quentin, 

B?<. b. London, June 1, 1837; d. 
ew York, 1902. Pupil at Leipzig 
Cons, of Mendelssohn, Moscheles, 
Gade, etc., and at Cologne of F. 
Hiller; prof, at Warsaw Cons.; 
lived in Paris and N. Y.; made 
tours with distinguished artists Wien- 
iawski, Vieuxtemps, Remenyi, Essi- 
poff, etc. 

Dunham, Henry Morton, orgt. b. 
Brockton, Mass., July 27, 1853. 
Pupil of J. C. D. Parker and Whit- 
ing; graduated from N. E. Cons, 
and Boston Univ. Coll. of Mus.; 
taught in both; published Organ 
School and many works for instr.; 
as orgt. at Ruggles St. Ch., Shaw- 
mut Ch., and Harvard St., Brookline, 
has given many recitals in Boston 
and elsewhere. 

Dunkley, Ferdinand Luis, orgt. b. 
London, July 16, 1869. Pupil of 
G. A. Higgs, and at Trinity Coll. 
London, under Parry, etc., at Royal 
Coll.; after holding several positions 
in England became teacher of mus. 
at St. Agnes's School, Albany, N. Y. 
and orgt. there; later moved to 
New Orleans; in 1909, Vancouver, 
B. C.; composed cantata, Wreck of 
the Hesperus, many songs, and orch. 
suite which won prize at Promenade 
Concerts 1889. 

Dunn, John F., vlt. b. Hull, Feb. 10, 
1866. Pupil of brother; played in 
theatre orch. at 11; studied at 
Leipzig Cons, with Schradieck, Jad- 
assohn and Richter; after concerts 
in Germany, made London de"but 
1882; since has played with success 
throughout England. 

Dunstable, John, compr. b. Dunstable, 
Bedfordshire, about 1370; d. Wai- 
brook, Dec. 24, 1453. Nothing 
known of life, and comparatively 


few works extant, but referred to 
by contemporaries in terms of 
highest praise; an early contem- 
porary of Dufay and Binchois; a 
leader in their school of contra- 
puntal composition, a forerunner of 
Okeghem and others. 

Duparc (dii-park), Henri, compr. b, 
Paris, 1847. Studied for the bar, 
and music with Csar Franck; 
became a disciple of Wagner's ideas; 
on account of ill health retired from 
active professional work; although 
he wrote in the large forms he has 
been most successful with his songs. 

Dupont (dii-pon), Auguste, compr. b. 
Ensival, near Lie"ge, Feb. 9, 1828; 
d. Brussels, Dec. 17, 1890. Educated 
at Li6ge Cons., toured as pst., 
taught at Brussels Cons, after 1850; 
compositions slight but pleasing. 

Duprez (dii-pra), Gilbert Louis, dram, 
tenor, b. Paris, Dec. 6, 1806; d. 
there, Sept. 23, 1896. Studied at 
Choron's Inst.; d6but 1825 without 
marked success; after further study 
in Italy reappeared at Paris Ope"ra 
1836; prof, declamation Cons. 1842 
to 1850, when he founded school of 
his own; retired 1855 from stage; 
compositions, operas, mass, etc., of 
no importance, works on singing of 
great value. 

Durand (dii-ron), Marie Auguste, orgt., 
publisher, b. Paris, July 18, 1830; 
d. May, 1909. Pupil of Benoist; 
held various organ appointments in 
Paris; in partnership with Schone- 
werk, and alone, published large 
amount of mod. French music. 

Durante (du-ran'-te) , Francesco, compr. 
b. Fratta Maggiore, Naples, Mar. 15, 
1684; d. Naples, Aug. 13, 1755. 
Studied at Naples under Greco, and 
under A. Scarlatti at Cons. San 
Onofrio; director in 1718; maestro 
Santa Maria di Loreto; composed 
church music of " Neapolitan 
School," animated and strong, rather 
than inspired; had many distin- 
guished pupils, Duni, Jommelli, 
Sacchini, Pergolese, Paisiello. 

Dussek (du'-shek), Johann Ladislaus, 
compr. b. Czaslav, Bohemia, Feb. 
9, 1761; d. Saint Germain-en-Laye, 
Mar. 20, 1812. Educated at Jesuit 
Coll., where he studied music and 



acted as orgt.; continued mus. 
studies while student of theology at 
Prague; orgt. at Mechlin, Amster- 
dam, The Hague; after studying 
with C. Ph. E. Bach won renown 
as pianist; played at many Euro- 
pean courts; driven from Paris by 
the Revolution returned in 1808; 
remarkable for his singing touch on 
the pf., and in comp. for early ex- 
pression of Bohemian spirit, and 
for extending resources of piano 
toward greater richness; important 
works are largely for pf., concertos, 
sonatas, fugues, etc. 

Duvernoy (dti-var-no-a), Jean Baptiste, 
compr., teacher, b. Paris (?), 1797 (?) ; 
d. Passy, 1880. After about 1825 
published large number of pf . works, 
of which Weitzmann says that they 
belong to a class of works which 
" though easy to play sounded brill- 
iant in the ears of amateurs," and 
which are musically superficial. 

Dvorak (dvor'-zhak), Antonin, compr. 
b. Miihlhausen, Bohemia, Sept. 8, 
1841; d. Prague, May 1, 1904. 
Father an innkeeper wished him to 
be a butcher; having learned vln. 
from schoolmaster went at 16 to 
Prague Org. School, where he studied 
under Pitzsch, while he played vln. 
in orch.; later played viola at 
National Theatre; studied scores 
borrowed from Smetana; 1873 comp. 
hymn for male chorus which won 
gov't pension; 1877 approbation of 
Brahms led to hearing in Germany; 
Slavonic dances 1878, Stabat Mater 

1883 firmly established him; 1890 
prof, at Prague Cons.; 1892-95 
director of Nat'l Cons. New York; 
thereafter lived and composed in 
Prague. His music is marked by 
strong national spirit, love of exotic 
color, odd rhythms, " sudden excur- 
sions in tonality," curious melodic 
intervals; but it is on the whole 
simple in intention, never morbid, 
seldom intellectual; he composed 
several symphonic poems, concerto 
for vln, for pf., for 'cello, string 
quartets, and five symph.; the 5th 
symph. Aus der neuen Welt, quartet 
Op. 96 and quintet Op. 97 are based 
on themes of negro type. 

Dwight, John Sullivan, critic, b. Bos- 
ton, Mass., May 13, 1813; d. there, 
Sept. 5,- 1893. Grad. at Harvard 
1832; entered ministry 1836; mem- 
ber of Brook Farm Community; after 
1848 returned to Boston; one of 
founders of Harv. Mus. Ass'n; 1852- 
1881 edited Dwight's Journal of 
Music, which published essays by 
Thayer and others, criticisms and 
records of awakening musical life in 
America; D's taste was good, though 
intolerantly classical. 

Dykes, Rev. John Bacchus, compr. b. 
Kingston-upon-Hull, Eng., Mar. 10, 
1823; d. St. Leonard's-on-Sea, Jan. 
22, 1876. Pupil of Skelton and 
Walmisley; educated at Cambridge; 
canon and precentor at Durham 
Cath., andcondr. of mus. soc.; compr. 
of some especially good hymn tunes 
(Lead, Kindly Light). 


Eames (ams), Emma, dram. sop. b. 
Shanghai, China, Aug. 13, 1867, of 
American parentage. Brought to 
Maine at 5; taught by her mother, 
by Clara Mungerin Boston 1883-86; 
by Marchesi and Pluque (stage 
deportment) 1886-88; although en- 
gaged at Ope>a Com. in 1888 did not 
make d6but until 1889 at Ope>a 
where she sang 2 years; London 
de"but 1891, New York same year; 
since then regularly appearing in 
both cities; though an indifferent 
actress, lacking in emotional power, 
her beautiful voice has made her 
successful in an extended repertoire; 

married 1891 artist Julian Story, 
from whom she separated 1907. 

Eberl (a-berl), Anton, pst., compr. b. 
Vienna, June 13, 1766; d. there, 
Mar. 15 (or 11), 1807. Lived in St. 
Petersburg 1769-1800, then in Vien- 
na; two operas produced 1782 and '83 
made him friend of Mozart and 
Gluck; concert tour with Mozart's 
widow; lived and traveled in Russia 
1796-1800 and 1803, and Germany; 
composed other operas, chamber 
music, songs, etc.; distinguished as 
pst. and as compr., by contemporaries 
classed very high. 



Eccard (ek'-kard), Johannes, compr. 
b. Miihlhausen, Thuringia, 1553; d. 
Konigsberg, 1611. Pupil of Von 
Burgk and of Orlando di Lasso; 
capellm. at Konigsberg and Berlin; 
eminent as compr. of sacred songs 
for 4 and 5 voices, written with real 
religious feeling as well as musical 

Eck (ek), Franz, vlt. b. Mannheim, 
1774; d. Strassburg, 1804. Pupil 
of brother Johann Friedrich (1766- 
1809); member of Munich Orch.; 
director and solo player at St. 
Petersburg court concerts; teacher 
of Spohr 1802-03; insane at time of 
death; powerful and skilful per- 
former, but poor interpreter. 

Eckert (6k'-ert), Carl Anton Florian, 
compr. b. Potsdam, Dec. 7, 1820; 
d. Berlin, Oct. 17, 1879. Prodigy 
at 6; educated under patronage of 
Forster by Rechenberg and Greulich 
for pf., Botticher and Ries for vln., 
and Rungenhagen for comp.; wrote 
opera at 12, oratorio at 13; studied 
with Mendelssohn at Leipzig, 1839; 
accompanist at Th. Italien, Paris 
1851, condr. 1852; capellm. Vienna 
1853, Stuttgart 1860-67, Berlin 
1869; came to U. S. with Sontag; 
of numerous comp. only few songs 
have lasting interest; distinguished 
as condr. 

Eddy, Clarence, orgt. b. Greenfield, 
Mass., June 23, 1851. Pupil of 
J. G. Wilson, and Dudley Buck, of 
Haupt and Loeschhorn in Berlin; 
after tour of Europe, settled in 
Chicago 1874 as orgt., director of 
Hershey School of Mus. Art., condr. 
Philharm. Vocal Society, etc., organ- 
ist Tompkins Ave. Church, Brooklyn, 
1908-1910; frequent tours in Amer- 
ica and Europe; composed chiefly 
for org. ; as player distinguished for 
extent of repertoire. 

Edwardes [or Edwards], Richard, compr. 
b. Somersetshire, 1523; d. Oct. 31, 
1566. Poet, playwright, scholar, 
master of children at Chapel Royal, 
member of Lincoln's Inn; one 
madrigal, In going to my naked bed, 
one of the finest extant. 

Edwards, Henry Sutherland, writer, b. 
Hendon, Middlesex, Sept. 5, 1829; 
d. London (?), Jan. 21, 1906. Author 
of History of Opera, Life of Rossini, 

The Prima Donna, etc.; critic for 
St. James Gazette, and special corre- 
spondent abroad; works are pleas- 
antly readable, but not scientifically 

Edwards, Julian, compr. b. Man- 
chester, Eng., Dec. 11, 1855; d. 
Yonkers, N. Y., Sept. 5, 1910. 
Pupil of Oakeley and Macfarren; 
1880 produced overture Corinne; 
condr. Eng. Opera Co. 1883; in 
N. Y. 1888; compr. of several comic 
operas: Magic Kiss Boston 1894; 
Brian Boru N. Y. 1896, Princess 
Chic 1900, etc. 

Eeden (a-den), Jean Baptiste van den, 
compr. b. Ghent, Dec. 26, 1842. Pupil 
at Ghent and Brussels Cons.; director 
at Mons Cons. 1878; works, opera, 
oratorios, Jacob van Artevelde, trilogy 
Judith, etc.; also suite, songs, etc. 

Ehlert (a'-lert), Louis, compr., writer. 
b. Konigsberg, Jan. 23, 1825; d. 
Wiesbaden, Jan. 4, 1884. Pupil of 
Schumann and Mendelssohn at 
Leipzig Cons.; studied at Vienna 
and Berlin; condr. of Societa 
Cherubini at Florence; teacher in 
Tausig's school in Berlin; tutor to 
princes in Meiningen; lived in 
Wiesbaden; comp. symph., sonatas, 
and overture; wrote Letters to a Lady 
and Letters from the Tone World. 

Ehrlich (ar'-lik), Alfred Heinrich, pst., 
writer, b. Vienna, Oct. 5, 1822; d. 
Berlin, Dec. 29, 1899. Pupil of 
Henselt and Thalberg; court pst. at 
Hanover; lived in London and 
Frankfort; taught at Stern Cons, 
in Berlin, Dreyschock a pupil; music 
critic for several journals, editor 
Tausig's Studies, compr. unimpor- 
tant pf. works, and author of inter- 
esting books on pf. playing. [Not 
the author of Celebrated Violinists and 
Celebrated Pianists, who used pseud. 
A. Ehrlich.] 

Eibenschiitz (I-ben-sheetz), Albert, pst. 
b. Berlin, Apr. 15, 1857. Pupil of 
Reinecke and Paul at Leipzig Cons.; 
prof. Mus. School at Charkoff, 
Russia, at Leipzig Cons. 1880-84, 
at Cologne 1893, at Stern Cons. 
1896. Cousin Dona (b. Pesth, May 
8, 1873), pst. Pupil of Mme. Schu- 
mann; great favorite in London 1891- 
1902, where she married. 



Eichberg (Ik-berg), Julius, vlt., compr. 
b. Diisseldorf, June 13, 1824; d. 
Boston, Jan. 18, 1893. Pupil of 
Rietz, and, at Brussels Cons., of 
F^tisand De Be>iot; prof . at Geneva 
Cons.; came to N. Y. 1857; director 
Museum Concerts, Boston, 1859- 
1866; director Boston Cons., super- 
intendent public sch. mus., founder 
School for Vln.; wrote 4 operettas, 
Doctor of Alcantara, The Two Cadis, 
etc., chamber music, and vln. method. 

Eitner (It'-ner) , Robert, editor, writer, b . 
Breslau, Oct. 22, 1832; d. Berlin, Jan. 
22, 1905. Pupil of Brosig; taught 

Rf. in Berlin; distinguished as care- 
il and accurate editor of music of 
16th and 17th centuries, notably 
works of Sweelinck, Publikationen 
alterer praktischer und theoretischer 
Musikwerke, and Quellenlexikon iiber 
die Musiker und Musikgelehrten 

Elgar, Sir Edward William, compr. b. 
Broadheath, near Worcester, Eng., 
June 2, 1857. Son of W. H. Elgar, 
orgt., vlt., and music dealer; while 
a mere boy he assisted his father 
at org., attended meetings of Wor- 
cester Glee Club, often conducting; 
few vln. lessons from Pollitzer in 
London in 1877, almost only regular 
instruction; as member of Three 
Choirs orch., as conductor of band 
at County Lunatic Asylum 1879-84, 
member of Stockley's orch. at Bir- 
mingham, condr. of Worcester Ama- 
teur Instrumental Soc., and orgt., 
he had exceptionally wide chances 
of intimate acquaintance with vari- 
ous instruments; London from 1889, 
in Malvern 1891-1904, when he 
moved to Hereford, taught, con- 
ducted, and composed; came to 
America 1905 to receive degree at 
Yale, 1906 to direct Gerontius at 
Cincinnati; prof, of mus. Birming- 
ham University, 1904-1908. Several 
cantatas had been given in Wor- 
cester, notice was first attracted to 
him by Scenes from King Olaf 1896; 
after that Imperial March, Banner 
of St. George 1897, Sea Pictures and 
Orch. Variations 1899 showed in 
ascending scale his originality of 
expression and mastery of orches- 
tral resources; Dream of Gerontius 
(Birmingham, 1900), his most im- 
portant work up to that time, has 

been criticised as lacking sublimity 
and unity, and has been highly 
praised for beauty of certain parts, 
especially by R. Strauss and Conti- 
nental critics; at 3-day Elgar Fes- 
tival (London, 1904) were produced 
old works, new overture In the 
South and The Apostles, first given 
at Birmingham 1903, first and 
second parts of uncompleted trilogy, 
the second part being The Kingdom; 
military march Pomp and Circum- 
stance has swing of real popularity; 
his first symphony (1908) awakened 
both favorable and unfavorable 

Ella, John, vlt. b. Thirsk, Yorkshire, 
Dec. 19, 1802; d. London, Oct. 2, 
1888. Son of vlt., became lawyer, 
but at 19 turned to music; lessons 
in vln. from Ferny, in harm, from 
Attwood, and comp. from Ftis in 
Paris; member of orch. at King's 
Theatre 1822, and of Philharmonic, 
Antient Music Soc., etc. until retire- 
ment 1848; 1845-1880 established 
and directed morning concerts of 
chamber music; 1850-59 similar 
mus. winter evenings; analytical pro- 
grams, written by himself, intro- 
duced at these concerts were not 
of his invention, but here first 
attracted notice; wrote for Athe- 
nceum.etc.; 1855 lecturer at London 
Inst.; author of Mus. Sketches at 
Home and Abroad. 

Ellis, Alexander John [real name 
Sharpe], writer, b. Hoxton, June 14, 
1814; d. Kensington, Oct. 28, 1890. 
Educated at Cambridge; at first in- 
terested in philology; after mus. les- 
sons under Donaldson at Edinburgh, 
began extensive investigations into 
scientific aspect of tones, chords, 
and pitch; translated Helmholtz' 
On the Sensations of Tone; contrib. 
many papers to Royal Soc. and to 
Mus. Ass'n; published Basis of Music, 
Pronunciation in Music, Speech in 

Elsenheimer (el'-sen-hlm-er), Nicholas 
J., compr., teacher, b. Wiesbaden, 
June, 1866. Taught by his father 
and Jakobsthal; LL.D. at Heidel- 
berg; came to America 1890; 1891 
prof, theory and mus. lit. at Cin- 
cinnati Coll. of Mus.; now living in 
N. Y. ; comp. part-songs, cantatas 
Valerian, Belshazzar. 



Eisner, Joseph Xaver, compr. b. Grott- 
kau, Silesia, June 29, 1769; d. 
Warsaw, Apr. 18, 1854. Son of 
carpenter and instr. maker; origin- 
ally intending to be doctor; had 
lessons in harm, from Forster, after 
visit to Vienna in 1791 became 
member of theatre orch. at Briinn, 
condr. at Lemberg, and 1799 at 
Warsaw, where he composed 22 
operas in 20 years; 1815 founded 
soc. which resulted in Cons.; works 
in many styles, popular in Poland; 
was the teacher of Chopin. 

Elson, Louis Charles, critic, b. Boston, 
Mass., Apr. 17, 1848. Pupil of 
Kreissmann in singing and at Leip- 
zig of Gloggner-Castelli in theory; 
editor of Vox Humana, critic on 
Musical Herald, mus. editor of 
Boston Courier, later and until pres- 
ent, of Advertiser; prof, of theory, 
lecturer on orch. and history N. E. 
Cons.; extremely popular as lect- 
urer; author of Curiosities of Music, 
Theory of Music, German Songs 
and Song-writers, National Music of 
America and Its Sources, History 
of American Music, Elson's Music 
Dictionary, etc.; most original work 
has been in connection with early 
Am. music; all his work is interest- 
ing and readable. His son Arthur 
also writer, b. Boston, Nov. 18, 
1873. Studied at Boston schools, 
Harvard, and Inst. of Technology; 
has been teacher of textile chem- 
istry in Atlanta and of drawing at 
Mass. Inst. of Tech. and at New 
Hampshire College; studied mus. 
with father and J. K. Paine; frequent 
contributor to papers and magazines; 
wrote Critical Hist, of Opera, Orches- 
tral Instruments, Woman's Work in 
Music, Modern Composers of Europe, 
and Music Club Programs from all 

Elterlein (el-ter-Hn), Ernst von [pseud, 
of Ernst Gottschald], writer. b. 
Elterlein, Saxony, Oct. 19, 1826. A 
lawyer, author of popular analysis 
of Beethoven's sonatas for pf. 

Elvey, Sir George Job, compr. b. Can- 
terbury, Mar. 27, 1816; d. Windles- 
ham, Surrey, Dec. 9, 1893. Chorister 
at Canterbury Cath.; pupil of broth- 
er, Stephen, compr. (1805-1860), and 
of Potter and Crotch; 1835-1882 

orgt. of St. George's, Windsor; condr. 
Glee and Madrigal Soc.; 1834 won 
Gresham Prize; 1840 Doc. of Music; 
1871 knighted; works chiefly an- 
thems, The Lord is King, Sing O 
Heavens, etc. 

Elwart, Antoine Aimable Elie, compr., 
writer, b. Paris, Nov. 19, 1808; d. 
there, Oct. 14, 1877. Chorister at St. 
Eustache, ran away from apprentice- 
ship and played in theatre orch.; 
pupil at Cons, of F6tis and Lesueur; 
Prix de Rome 1834; asst. prof, and 
prof, at Cons. 1832-1872; condr. 
concerts in Paris; retired 1871; com- 
posed 3 oratorios, music for Alcestis, 
chamber and orch. music, etc.; wrote 
Duprez, sa vie, etc., treatises on 
theory, and interesting records, 
Histoire de la Societe des Concerts 
and Histoire des Concerts populaires. 

Emerson, Luther Orlando, compr., 
condr. b. Parsonfield, Mass., Aug. 
3, 1820; now living (1910) at Hyde 
Park, near Boston; a pioneer in 
American musical work for the 
masses, compr. of church music, 
condr. of conventions, indefatigable 
compiler of collections of songs and 
hymns, The Romberg Collection, The 
Wreath, etc. 

Emery, Stephen Albert, teacher, b. 
Paris, Maine, Oct. 4, 1841; d. Boston, 
Apr. 15, 1891. After lessons from 
Edwards in Portland, studied with 
Plaidy, Richter, and Hauptmann at 
Leipzig and with Spindler at Dres- 
den; came to Boston 1866; taught 
in N. E. Cons, from 1867; prof, of 
harm. Bost. Univ. Coll. of Music; 
asst. editor Mus. Herald; composed 
some songs, wrote text-books, Studies 
in Pf. Playing and Elements of Har- 

Enckhausen (enk-how-sen), Heinrich 
Friedrich, orgt. b. Celle, Aug. 28, 
1799; d. Hanover, Jan. 15, 1885. 
Pupil of Aloys Schmitt, and his 
successor as court orgt. and director 
of Singakademie ; composed opera 
Der Savoyard; orch., church mus., pf. 
mus., and book of chorals. 

Engel, Carl, writer, b. Thiedenweise, 
near Hanover, July 6, 1818; d. 
Kensington, Eng., Nov. 17, 1882. 
Studied with Enckhausen and Hum- 
mel; 1846 gave pf. lessons in Man- 
chester, Eng.; soon after moved to 



London; collector of books and rare 
instruments; author of Music of 
Most Ancient Nations, Introduction 
to study of National Music, Musical 
Instruments of All Countries, A Cata- 
logue of Instr. in South Kensington 
Museum (designed to be accomp. by 
lengthy notes), Musical Myths and 
Facts, etc., all accurate and at same 
time readable. 

Engelmann, Hans, compr. b. Berlin, 
1872; father and uncle professional 
musicians; began musical education 
at seven, pupU of Reinecke, Loesch- 
horn, Mashel, and Hermann Mohr; 
received a good literary education 
before coming to the United States 
in 1892; located in Philadelphia 
where he still lives (1910); profes- 
sional work consists of teaching, con- 
ducting and composing; his compo- 
sitions number over 1200 pieces, 
mostly intended for teaching pur- 
poses; has written some successful 
pieces in the salon style, notably 
Forget-me-nots and Melody of Love. 

Enna, August, compr. b. Nakskov, 
Denmark, May 13, 1860. Almost 
entirely self-taught; about 1880, 
when member of small traveling 
orch., composed 1st opera A Village 
Tale; played for dancing and taught 
in Copenhagen until in 1883 became 
condr. of provincial company; some 
compositions attracted attention of 
Gade who helped him to study in 
Germany 1888-89; after his return 
opera Die Hexe met with great suc- 
cess; Cleopatra was unsuccessful 
until its second season; Aucassin 
and Nicolette 1896 and vln. con- 
certo have continued his popularity. 

Epstein (ep-stln), Julius, pst., teacher, 
b. Agram, Aug. 7, 1832. Pupil of 
Lichtenegga, Halm, and Rufinatscha; 
prof, of pf. at Vienna Cons. 1867, 
Briill and Sembrich among pupils. 
Daughters Rudolfine, 'cellist, and 
Eugenie, vlt., toured Austria and 
Germany 1876-77. 

Eratosthenes (er-a-tos'-then-es), writer. 
b. Cyrene, 276 B. C.; d. Alexandria, 
Egypt, 195 B. C. Custodian of 
Alexandria Library; wrote on mathe- 
matics; Katasterismoi contains notes 
on Greek music, but his work on 
music is lost, except for quotations 
in Ptolemy. 

Erk, Ludwig Christian, compr. b. 
Wetzlar, Jan. 6, 1807; d. Berlin, Nov. 
25, 1883. Lessons from father Adam 
Wilhelm, orgt. (1779-1820) and from 
Andr; 1826, as prof, at seminary at 
Moers on Lower Rhine, started 
festivals of popular and part-song 
music; 1836 prof, of royal seminary, 
Berlin; 1843 founded Manner gesang- 
verein; 1857 director of mus.; 1877 
resigned; collection Deutsche Lieder- 
hort (vol. 1 Modern Folk-songs; vol. 2 
those of 13-18th centuries) of great- 
est value; published several other 

Erkel (ar-kel), Ferencz, compr. b. 
Gyula, Hungary, Nov. 7, 1810; d. 
Pesth, June 15, 1893. Taught by 
father; gave pf. recitals; condr. of 
traveling company; 1838 of Nat'l 
Theatre, Budapest; first opera Bath- 
ori Maria 1840 at once success- 
ful, but greatest success was Hun- 
yady Laszld 1844; of later operas, 
Bank Ban 1861 most popular; 
founder of Philh. Concerts and prof, 
of instrumentation at Nat'l Acad.; 
his numerous songs, like most of his 
operas, are too intensely national 
in feeling to have cosmopolitan 

Erlanger (ar'-lon-zha), Camille, compr. 
b. Paris, May 25, 1863. Pupil at 
Paris Cons, of Delibes; Prix de Rome 
1888; won success with St. Julien 
I'hospitalier, dram, legend 1894; Le 
juif polonais opera 1900, and Le fils 
de I etoile 1904, moderately success- 
ful; orchestral music and some songs. 

Ernst, Alfred, writer, b. Perigueux, 
April 9, 1860; d. Paris, May 15, 
1898. Wrote, beside many articles, 
L'oeuvre dramatique de Berlioz, and 
several books on Wagner, whose 
theories he defended and whose 
Nibelungen Ring and Meistersinger 
he translated. 

Ernst, Heinrich Wilhelm, vlt. b. 
Briinn, Moravia, May 6, 1814; d. 
Nice, Oct. 14, 1865. At Vienna 
Cons, studied comp. with Seyfried, 
vln. with Bohm, later with Mayseder; 
on his first tour at 16 followed Paga- 
nini about to learn his style; after 
6 years in Paris 1832-38, he toured 
throughout Europe until he settled 
in London about 1850; playing re- 
markable for technical ability and 



strerfgth of tone; compositions, Ele- 
gie, Carnaval de Venise, are brilliant 
and difficult. 

Eschmann (esh'-man), Johann Carl, 
pst. b. Winterthur, Switzerland, 
Apr. 12, 1826; d. Zurich, Oct. 27, 
1882. Pupil of Moscheles and Men- 
delssohn; teacher at Kassel and 
Zurich; composed some pf. music 
and valuable method Wegweiser 
durch die Klavierliteratur. 

Esipoff, Stepan [pseud, of Burnand, 
Arthur Bransby], compr. b. Croydon, 
Eng., Dec. 5, 1859. Composer of 
popular vocal and instrumental 

Essipoff, Annette, pst. b. St. Peters- 
burg, Feb. 1, 1851. Pupil at St. P. 
Cons, of Wielhorski and Leschetizky; 
1874 began series of successful con- 
cert tours, playing in London, Paris 
1875, America 1876; wife of Leschet- 
izky, later divorced; 1885 pst. to 
Prussian court; 1893-1908 prof, at 
St. P. Cons.; playing marked by 
unusual skill and artistic feeling, 
sometimes exaggerated. 

Este [pron. and often spelled East], 
Michael, compr. Conjecturally son of 
Thomas. Comp. madrigals, anthems, 
duets for viols, and Ayerie Fan- 
cies of four parts that may be sung 
as well as played; best-known madri- 
gal How Merrily We Live; retainer 
of Lady Hutton; Mus. B. Cambridge 
1606; master of choristers Lichfield 

Este [or Est or East], Thomas, printer. 
Important early English publisher 
and printer; greatest work Whole 
Booke of Psalmes, " with tunes, in 
four parts," harmonized by 10 noted 

Eyken (l-ken), Jan Albert van, orgt. 
b. Amersfoort, Holland, Apr. 26, 
1823; d. Elberfeld, Sept. 24, 1868. 
Pupil at Leipzig Cons, and at Dres- 
den, of Schneider; orgt. at Amster- 
dam 1848-1853, when he became 
orgt. and prof, in mus. school at 
Rotterdam; till death at Elberfeld; 
successful concert player, compr. of 
excellent org. mus. and of Lucifer 
(tragedy), chamber music and songs. 

Faelten (fel'-ten), Carl, pst., teacher, 
b. Ilmenau, Thuringia, Dec. 21, 1846. 
Studied with Montag and Schoch, 
chiefly learned from association with 
Raff at Frankfort Cons.; after 
military service in Franco-Prussian 
war taught in Raff's Cons., and after 
1882 at Peabody Inst. Baltimore; 
1885 taught at N. E. Cons., of 
which he was director 1890-1897, 
when he founded school of pf. play- 
ing in Boston. 

Fahrbach (far-bak), Philipp, compr. b. 
Vienna, Oct. 25, 1815; d. there, Mar. 
31, 1885. Pupil of Lanner, condr. 
of orch. of his own and of military 
band; compr. of operas and popular 
dance music. Son Philipp compr. 
b. Vienna, 1843; d. there, Feb. 15, 
1894. Bandmaster at Pesth, suc- 
cessor of father in Vienna; also pro- 
lific compr. of popular marches and 
dance music. 

Fairlamb, James Remington, compr 
b. Philadelphia, Jan. 23, 1837; d. N. 
Y., April, 1908. After being orgt. in 
several churches studied at Paris 

Cons, and in Florence; II. S. con- 
sul at Zurich; orgt. in New Jersey 
and New York, notably St. Ignatius'; 
has composed 2 operas and consider- 
able sacred music. 

Faisst (fist), Emmanuel Gottlob Fried- 
rich, orgt. b. Esslington, Wurttem- 
berg, Oct. 13, 1823; d. Stuttgart, 
June 5, 1894. Taught himself org. 
before 9; after studying theology 
continued to work alone with Men- 
delssohn's advice; 1844 settled in 
Stuttgart where he gave concerts; 
founded soc. for classical ch. music 
and with others Cons, of which he 
became director; composed cantatas, 
motets, org. mus.; edited, with 
Lebert, Cotta Ed. classical pf. mus. 

Falcke (falk), Henri [Theodore Oscar], 
pst. b. Paris, Feb. 27, 1866. Pupil 
of Saint-Saens, Massenet, Dubois, 
and Mathias at Paris Cons., taking 
1st prize in pf.; studied also in Ger- 
many; combines methods of both 
countries in successful teaching, pub- 
lished Ecole des arpeges, pf. pieces, 


Faning, Joseph Eaton, compr. b. 
Helston, Cornwall, May 20, 1850. 
Pupil at Roy. Acad. of Mus., of 
Bennett and Steggall; Mendelssohn 
Scholarship 1873; Mus. Doc. Camb. 
1900; teacher at Royal Acad. and 
Guildhall School; director of mus. 
at Harrow School 1885-1901; condr. 
London Male Voice Club and Madri- 
gal Society; composed 2 operettas, 
symph., anthems, part-songs, the 
popular Miller's Wooing, and the 
Song of the Vikings. 

Farinelli (fa-ri-nelli), [pseud, of Carlo 
Broschi], singer, b. Naples, Jan. 24, 
1705; d. Bologna, July 15, 1782. 
Artificial soprano, taught by Por- 
pora, early favorite in Naples under 
name " il ragazzo "; d6but in Rome 
1722 was followed by success in 
other Italian cities; defeated in 
contest with Bernacchi at Bologna, 
he took lessons of B.; after second 
visit to Vienna 1731 added to 
bravura abilities those of pathetic 
expression; went to England in 
1734 to lend his aid to Porpora and 
Senesino in their opposition to 
Handel; after their victory F. re- 
mained in London for 2 years win- 
ning great fortune; 1736 went to 
Spain where he cured Philip V of 
melancholy by singing, and remained 
as his pensioner; in 1759 he was 
sent to Bologna where he lived in 
elegant seclusion; probably the most 
wonderful of all singers in the sono- 
rous richness and skilful manipula- 
tion of his voice. 

Farmer, Henry, vlt. b. Nottingham, 
Eng., May 13, 1819; d. there, June 25, 
1891. Self-taught player on vln. and 
org., in music business for 50 years; 
orgt. and condr. of Sacred Harmonic 
Soc. in Nottingham; compr. of mass 
and vln. concertos, author of New 
Violin School, and other methods. 

Farnaby, Giles, compr. b. Truro, Corn- 
wall, about 1560 (?); d., place and 
date unknown, prob. after 1620. 
Graduated Mus. B. Oxford 1592; 
contributed to Este's Whole Booke 
of Psalmes, published canzonets, and 
some pieces included in Fitzwilliam 
Virginal Book. 

Farrar, Geraldine, sop. b. Melrose, 
Mass., Feb. 28, 1882. Studied with 
Mrs. J. H. Long in Boston, with 

Trabadello in Paris, and Lilli Lfehmann 
in Berlin; d6but Berlin Oct. 15, 1901, 
followed by engagement at Royal 
Opera; N. Y. debut 1906; remark- 
able popularity in Berlin, continued 
in N. Y. 1906-1910. 

Farwell, Arthur, compr., publisher, 
writer, b. St. Paul, Minn., Apr. 23, 
1872. Graduated Mass. Inst. of 
Technology 1893; studied with 
Homer Norris in Boston and Hump- 
erdinck, Pfitzner and Guilmant in 
Europe; lecturer on mus. at Cornell 
Univ.; founder 1901 of " Wa-Wan 
Press," which aimed to issue original 
American music, whether that of 
Indians or of ultra-modern com- 
posers; F. himself has composed 
pieces on Indian themes, songs, etc. 
and written many articles on Indian 
music; 1909 in New York on edi- 
torial staff of Musical America; 
1910 music commissioner for public 
parks and recreation piers, N. Y. 

Fasch (fash), Carl Friedrich Christian, 
compr. b. Zerbst, Nov. 18, 1736; 
d. Berlin, Aug. 3, 1800. Son of 
capellm. Johann Friedrich (1688- 
1758); cembalist to Frederick the 
Great, as C. P. E. Bach's assistant 
1756 taught during Seven Years' 
War; capellm. at opera 1774-76; 
established choral reunions which led 
to Singakademie; composed 16-part 
mass, and some other works, most of 
which he had burned before his death. 

Faulkes, William, orgt., pst., compr. b. 
Liverpool, Nov. 4, 1863. Pupil of 
Wm. Dawson and of Dillon-New- 
man; orgt. and teacher at Liver- 
pool since 1886; composed pf. con- 
certo, vln. concerto, chamber mus., 
pf. and org. pieces. 

Faure (fo-ra), Gabriel Urbain, compr. 
b. Pamiers, Ariege, May 12, 1845. 
Pupil of Niedermeyer, Dietsch, and 
Saint-Saens; orgt. at Rennes, at 
several churches (finally Madeleine) 
Paris; 1896 prof, counterpoint and 
fugue at Cons.; director there 1905; 
inspector of Beaux-Arts 1892; has 
written music to several plays 
(Pelleas et Melisande, Promethee), 
a symphony, opera, cantata (La 
Naissance de Venus), pf. pieces, and 
especially beautiful songs, notably 
La bonne chanson, En priere, Au 
cimetiere, Les roses d'Ispahan; music 



is distinguished for original harmonies, 
and depth of expression, especially 
in songs. 

Faure (for'), Jean Baptiste, dram, 
baritone, b. Moulins, Allier, Jan. 15, 
1830. Choir boy at Madeleine under 
TreVaux; pupil at Cons, of Ponchard 
and Moreau-Sainti, winning 1st prize 
for comic opera; sang with success at 
Ope'ra Comique 1852-60, at Ope"ra 
1861-76; taught at Cons. 1857-60; 
after 1876 sang in concerts; published 
valuable L'art du chant; his voice 
was remarkable for its range, flexi- 
bility, and adaptability to different 
roles; composer of The Palms; mar- 
ried 1859 Caroline Letebvre (b. 1828) 
singer at Opera Comique. 

Faustina, see Hasse, Faustina. 

Favarger (fa-var-zha), Rene, compr. 
b. Paris, 1815; d. Etretat, near 
Havre, Aug. 3, 1868. For many 
years teacher in London; compr. of 
graceful and popular pf. pieces. 

Fay, Amy, pst., writer, b. Bayou 
Goula, Miss., May 21, 1844. Pupil 
of Tausig, Kullak, Deppe, and Liszt; 
related experiences with different 
methods in popular Music Study in 
Germany; teaching in New York. 

Fayrfax, Robert, compr. b. Bayford, 
Hertfordshire, 1470(7); d.St.Albans, 
Feb., 1529. Mus. Doc. Cambridge 
1504; gentleman of the chapel under 
Henry VIII ; accounted chief musician 
of time by contemporaries; composed 
masses, motets, two songs, etc. 

Feo (fa-o), Francesco, compr., teacher. 
b. Naples, about 1685; d. after 1740 
(?). Pupil and successor of Ghizzi 
at Naples Cons, della Pieta; com- 
posed opera L'Amor tirannico and 
five others; chief importance .in 
church mus., masses, etc. 

Ferrabosco, Alfonso, compr. b. Bologna, 
about 1525; d. Turin, May 8, 1589. 
Settled in England 1562, already at- 
tached to queen's service; while in 
disgrace at court accused of murder- 
ing musician attached to Sir Philip 
Sidney; 1568 again in queen's favor; 
traveled abroad, returned 1572, left 
the country 1578; wrote much 
admired madrigals, pieces for lute, 
music for masques, etc. Son Alfonso 
(1575-March, 1628) compr. of music 
to Jonson's masques. 

Ferrari (fer-ra-ri), Gabrielle, pst., compr. 
b. Paris, pupil of Ketten in piano 
and Duprato in composition; also 
studied with Dubois and Gounod; 
appeared in public as a virtuoso at 
twelve to fourteen years of age; 
her compositions consist of orchestral 
suites, piano pieces and songs. 

Fern, Baldassare, singer, b. Perugia, 
Dec. 9, 1610; d. there, Sept. 8, 1680. 
Artificial sop.; choir boy in service 
of Cardinal Crescenzio at Orvieto, 
and later 1665-80 of Ferdinand III 
at Vienna; retired to Italy 1675; 
surpassed in brilliance, endurance, 
quality of tone, pathos of expres- 
sion; probably greatest singer that 
ever lived. 

Fesca, Alexander Ernst, pst. b. Carls- 
ruhe, May 22, 1820; d. Brunswick, 
Feb. 22, 1849. Son of Friedrich 
Ernst (1789-1826), distinguished vlt.; 
pupil of Rungenhagen, Schneider, 
and Taubert; concert tours 1839-40 
of brilliant success; composed 4 
operas, chamber mus., and songs, all 
of which gave promise. 

Festa, Costanzo, compr. b. Rome, 
about 1490; d. there, Apr. 10, 1545. 
Singer in Pontifical Chapel 1517- 
1545; composed in style somewhat 
like Palestrina's, motets, madrigals 
(of which Down in a flow'ry vale 
was long most popular in England), 
Te Deum, still sung at election of 
new pope. 

Fetis (fa-tis'), Frangois Joseph, his- 
torian, theorist, b. Mons, Belgium, 
Mar. 25, 1784; d. Brussels, Mar. 26, 
1871. After lessons on org. from 
father, and on vln., and after preco- 
cious compositions, studied at Paris 
Cons, under Rey, Boieldieu, and 
Pradher; 1803 in Vienna; published 
symph. overture, octets, sonatas; 
began study of hist, of notation, 
uncompleted; revised ritual of Ro- 
man church, never published; after 
loss of wife's fortune orgt. and 
teacher at Douai; 1821 prof, at 
Paris Cons.; 1827 librarian there; 
1827-1832 edited Revue musicale; 
1833 director of Brussels Cons.; 
music of transitory interest; wrote 
useful manuals of song, pf. play- 
ing, etc., classical text-book on 
counterpoint and fugue, very re- 
markable Biographic universelle des 



musiciens, Histoire generate de la 
musique, Musique mise a la portee de 
tout le monde, many articles and 
reviews, all marred by partiality of 
judgment, but all distinguished by 
clearness of statement, originality 
of thought and research. 

Fibich (fe'-bik), Zdenko, compr. b. 
Seborschitz, Bohemia, Dec. 21, 1850; 
d. Prague, Oct. 10, 1900. Studied 
at Vienna and Prague, composed 
and conducted symph. at 14; pupil 
at Leipzig Cons, of Moscheles, 
Richter, and Jadassohn; greatly 
influenced by Schumann; studied 
with V. Lachner at Mannheim; 
after 1874 in Prague, teaching, con- 
ducting at theatre and at Russian 
church; retired 1881; wrote about 
700 works, operas, chamber music, 
symph. poems, songs, etc.; as nation- 
al compr. less important than Sme- 
tana or Dvorak. 

Fiedler (fed-ler), August Max, pst., 
condr. b. Zittau, Dec. 31,. 1859. 
Lessons from father; first appear- 
ance at 10; won scholarship at 
Leipzig Cons, where studied with 
Reinecke, Paul, and Jadassohn; 
1882 teacher at Hamburg Cons., 
since 1894 director; cpndr. in Ham- 
burg of concerts of his own and of 
Philharmonic Soc., and as guest in 
St. Petersburg, Dresden, Berlin,' 
London, and Italy; condr. N. Y. 
Philharmonic 1904, Boston Symph. 
Orch. (1908-11); has comp. symph., 
songs, pf. and chamber mus. 

Field, John, pst., composer, b. Dublin, 
July 26, 1782; d. Moscow, Jan. 11, 
1837. Son of vlt., grandson of orgt. 
who was first teacher and a merci- 
lessly severe one; apprenticed to 
Clementi in London, where he dis- 
played pf. for sale and received pf. | 
lessons; de'but London 1794; ac- 
companied C. to Paris 1802, to 
Germany, then to Russia where he 
remained on C's return 1804, and 
where he won great success as 
player and teacher; 1823 similar 
success at Moscow; 1832-33 toured 
to London, Paris, and Italy, there 
unappreciated and ill he was taken 
back to Moscow by Russian family; 
especially important in pf. playing 
and pf. music as link between ' 
Clementi and Chopin; of his many \ 

compositions most important are 
poetic, graceful Nocturnes which led 
way to all later free compositions; 
as performer remarkable for ful- 
ness of tone, variety of expression, 
and repose of manner. 

Fielitz (fe-lits), Alexander von, compr. 
b. Leipzig, Dec. 28, 1860. Pupil of 
Kretschmer and Schulhoff ; 1886-87 
condr. under Nikisch; prof, at Stern 
Cons, in Berlin, and theatre condr. 
at Zurich and Leipzig; for several 
^ears at a Chicago conservatory; 
then returned to Berlin; compr. of 
two orch. suites and many songs 
(cycle Eliland). 

Fillmore, John Comfort, teacher, b. 
New London, Conn., Feb. 4, 1843; 
d. there, Aug. 15, 1898. Stud- 
ied with G. W. Steele at Oberlin 
Coll., and at Leipzig Cons.; director 
at Oberlin, Ripon Coll., Milwaukee, 
and Claremont, Cal.; author of 
History of Pianoforte Music, with 
biog. sketches, etc., and Study of 
Omaha Indian Music; articles on 
mus. history and Indian music in 
Etude and Music, his researches in 
which were based on personal investi- 
gation for several years. 

Finck, Henry Theophilus, writer, b. 
Bethel, Mo., Sept. 22, 1854. Lived 
in Oregon, graduated at Harvard 
where he studied with Paine; went 
to 1st Bayreuth festival 1876, 
studied in Munich; also student 
of anthropology and psychology; 
author of Romantic Love and Per- 
sonal Beauty, Wagner and his Works, 
Chopin and Other Essays, Songs and 
Song Writers, Life of Grieg, etc.; 
critic for N. Y. Evening Post; his 
Wagner and his Works has had great 
influence in spreading cult in U. S. 
Success in Music (1910) a mine of 
practical suggestion to musicians. 

Findeisen (fint'-I-sen), Otto, compr. b. 
Brunn, 1862. Capellm. at Leipzig Th.; 
compr. of successful operettas, Der 
alte Dessauer 1890, Kleopatra 1897. 

Fioravanti (fi-or-a-van'-ti), Valentino, 
compr. b. Rome, Sept. 11, 1764; 
d. Capua, June 16, 1837. Studied 
under Jannaconi and Sala; first 
opera produced Rome 1784; wrote 
about 50 others, most popular Le 
Cantatrice villane 1806 and / virtuosi 



ambulanti, Paris 1807; 1816 maestro 
at St. Peter's; ch. music of poorer 
quality than really original though 
superficial operas. 

Fiorillo (fi-o-ril'-lo) , Federigo, vlt., compr. 
b. Brunswick, 1753; d., after 1823 
when he was still living in Paris. 
Taught by father Ignazio, Neapoli- 
tan, condr. of opera; went to Po- 
land 1780; 1785 played at concerts 
spirituels in Paris; 1788 in London 
played viola in Salomon's quartet; 
after 1794 left London, lived in 
Amsterdam and Paris; of many 
compositions Caprices or Etudes de 
violon are of great value to vlts. 

Fisher, William Arms, compr. b. San 
Francisco, Apr. 27, 1861. Studied 
with J. P. Morgan, Horatio Parker, 
Wm. Shakespeare and with Dvorak 
at Nat. Cons. N. Y., where he also 
taught; since 1895 living in Boston, 
musical editor for Oliver Ditson 
Company; compr. of attractive songs, 
anthems, etc. 

Flagler, Isaac Van Vleck, orgt. b. 
Albany, N. Y., May 15, 1844; died 
March 16, 1909. Studied under 
H. W. A. Beale, Batiste in Paris, 
etc.; orgt. in Poughkeepsie, Chicago, 
Albany, and Auburn; orgt. and 
lecturer at Chautauqua; org. teacher 
and lecturer at Syracuse and Cor- 
nell Univs., at Utica Cons.; pub. 
pieces and collections for org. 

Flemming, Friedrich Ferdinand, compr. 
b. Neuhausen, Saxony, Feb.28, 1778; 
d. Berlin, May 27, 1813. Practising 
doctor of medicine, member of 
Zelter's Liedertafel, for which he 
wrote choruses, notably music to 
Horace's Integer vitce. 

Floersheim (fle"rs-him), Otto, compr. 
b. Aix-la-Chapelle, Mar. 2, 1853. 
Studied with F. Hiller at Cologne; 
in N. Y. after 1875; editor Musical 
Courier 1880; manager of Berlin 
branch for a number of years; 
compr. of pf. pieces and small orch. 
works, Consolation, etc. 

Floridia (flo-re'-dia), Pietro, compr. 
b. Modica, Sicily, May 5, 1860. 
Studied at Naples with Cesi, Serrao, 
Polidori, and Rossi; comic opera 
successful in 1882; toured Italy as 
pst.; taught in Palermo Cons.; 
dir. Bergamo Cons.; 1902 elected 
dir. of Benedetto Marcello Cons., 

Venice; came to N. Y. 1904; later 
teacher at Cincinnati Coll. Mus.; 
opera Maruzza success at Venice 
etc., 1894, La Colonia libera 1899, 
Padletta, produced at Cincinnati 1910. 
Composed beside pf . pieces, suite, etc. 

Flotow (flo-to), Friedrich Freiherr 
von, compr. b. Teutendorf, Meck- 
lenburg, Apr. 27, 1812; d. Darm- 
stadt, Jan. 24, 1883. Study in Paris 
with Reicha begun 1827, interrupted 
by July Revolution 1830; wrote 
first opera Pierre et Catherine in 
retirement; after return to Paris 
1836 began long series of operas 
produced with varying success in 
Paris, Berlin, and London; with- 
drew to estate near Vienna about 
1868; has certain gift for tuneful 
melody, but lacks originality of 
rhythm and skill in orchestration; 
Martha and Alessandro Stradella 
only operas which have lived; are 
both revised from earlier versions. 

Foerster (fe>s-ter), Adolf Martin, 
teacher, compr. b. Pittsburg, Pa., 
Feb. 2, 1854. Taught by his mother 
and at Leipzig Cons, by Richter, 
Papperitz, Grill, etc.; after teaching 
at Fort Wayne, Ind., settled in Pitts- 
burg as teacher of singing and 
compr.; compr. occasional music 
(Festival overture, Dedication march), 
orch. music, songs, etc. 

Foerster (fe>ster), Alban, compr. b. 
Reichenbach, Ger.,Oct. 23, 1849. Pu- 
pil at Dresden Cons., dir. Singakad- 
emie at Neustrelitz; 1881 teacher 
and dir. at Dresden; 1903 prof, and 
court Dessau; composed 
chamber music, instructive pf. works 
and 3 operas. 

Foley, Allan James [known as Foli], 
bass. b. Cahir, Tipperary, Ireland, 
Aug. 7, 1835; d. Southport, Eng., 
Oct. 20, 1899. Lived in Hartford, 
Conn., as boy; pupil of Bisaccia at 
Naples; after de"but at Catania 
1862 played in Turin, Milan, Paris, 
and London, where he continued 
for several seasons after 1865; sang 
also in America, South Africa, Russia, 
etc.; also successful in concerts; voice 
of unusual range and power. 

Foote, Arthur William, compr. b. 
Salem, Mass., Mar. 5, 1853. Pupil 
of B. J. Lang, S. A. Emery, and J. 
K. Paine; graduated at Harvard 



1875; 1878-1910 orgt. in Boston; 
composed symphonic poem Fran- 
cesco, da Rimini, cantatas Wreck of 
the Hesperus, Skeleton in Armor, 
chamber music; lacking in directness 
and dramatic force necessary for 
larger works, he has shown great 
skill in composition and grace and 
ease of melody in orchestral suite in 
D minor, in string quartet, pf . quin- 
tet, and in songs, notably some set- 
tings of Shakesperean words; has 
also had wide influence on mus. cul- 
ture in Boston as a teacher, and as 
president of Cecilia Society; influ- 
ence always tending toward a sober, 
intelligent classicism. 

Forchhammer (fork-ham-mer), The- 
ophil, orgt. b. Schiers, Gray Cantons, 
July 29, 1847. Pupil at Stuttgart 
Cons.; orgt. at Magdeburg; compr. 
of org. mus.; author of Fuhrer durch 
die Orgel-Ltteratur. 

Forkel, Johann Nikolaus, writer, b. 
Meeder, near Coburg, Feb. 22, 1749; 
d. Gottingen, Mar. 17, 1818. Son 
of shoemaker; chorister at Liineberg; 
chorprafect at Schwerin; began to 
study law at Gottingen, but became 
orgt. and mus. director of Univ.; 
works on theory and history of 
music not always accurate and large- 
ly out-of-date; his AUgemeine Liter a- 
tur der Mus., and his Ueber Joh. Seb. 
Bach's Leben, Kunst und Kunst- 
werke are interesting as the first of 
their respective classes. 

Formes (for'-mes), Karl Johann, boss. 
b. Mulheim-pn-Rhine, Aug. 7, 1816; 
d. San Francisco, Dec. 15, 1889. Son 
of sexton, member of choir; sang at 
concerts for Cathedral fund at 
Cologne 1841, where he made oper- 
atic delmt 1841; sang at Mannheim, 
London 1852-57; in America 1857; 
then alternating between continents; 
Berlin 1874; remarkable voice and 
good presence apparently were not 
developed to the highest point possi- 
ble. Brother Theodor, tenor (1826- 
1874), also successful singer in Ger- 
many, came with K. J. to America. 

Foster, Muriel, contralto, b. Sunder- 
land, Eng., Nov. 22, 1877. Pupil of 
Anna Williams at Royal Coll. of 
Mus. 1896-1900; winning prizes and 
scholarship; since d6but at Bradford 
1896 has gained increasing popularity 

at English concerts and festivals; 

girt of Angel in Dream of Gerontius 
usseldorf 1902, and London 1903; 
has toured in Germany 1902, Canada 
and U. S. 1904. 

Foster, Myles Birket, orgt., compr. b. 
London, Nov. 29, 1851. Son of artist 
Birket; after being articled to Hamil- 
ton Clarke was pupil at Roy. Acad. 
of Mus. of Sullivan, Prout, and 
Horton (org.); various org. appoint- 
ments in London; mus. editor to 
Boosey, publisher; composed symph., 
cantatas for children, Cinderella, 
Beauty and the Beast; songs, a service 
and about 40 anthems; author of 
Anthems and Anthem Composers. 

Foster, Stephen Collins, compr. b. 
near Pittsburg, July 4, 1826; d. New 
York, Jan. 13, 1864. Student at 
Athens Acad., Pa., and Jefferson 
Coll., but his own mus. teacher; 
learned to play flageolet at 7; comp. 
waltz at 14, published Open thy Lat- 
tice, Love 1842; between 1845-1864 
he wrote about 175 songs, almost all 
to words of his own; many of these 
were introduced to public at " min- 
strel shows "; Old Uncle Ned, Mas- 
sa's in the cold, cold ground, Ellen 
Boyne (tune to which was set John 
Brown's body), The Old Folks at 
Home (or Swanee River) are few of 
best known; his songs have so largely 
the simple pathetic melodies of real 
folk-song that his frequent use of the 
negro dialect has led to an assertion 
that he borrowed his tunes from 

Fox, Felix, pst. b. Breslau, May 25, 
1876. Began study of music at an 
early age; family moved to Boston, 
U. S. A., in 1881; returned to Ger- 
many for study in 1892, at Leipzig 
Cons, under Jadassohn and Reinecke; 
received Helbig Prize on graduation 
when he performed Widor's F minor 
concerto; later spent two years in 
Paris with Philipp where he appeared 
in various concerts and played for 
the first time in Paris. MacDowell's 
Sonata Tragica; after he returned to 
U. S. in 1897 made concert tour sea- 
son 1897-98; located in Boston as 
teacher and pianist, playing recitals 
in various cities; 1898 with Carlo 
Buonamici organized the Fox-Buo- 
namici Piano School in Boston. 



Franchetti (fran-ket'-ti), Alberto, Ba- 
ron, compr. b. Turin, Sept. 18, 1860. 
Pupil of Coccon and Magi, of Drae- 
seke at Dresden, and at Munich 
Cons.; though skilful in orchestra- 
tion and brilliant handling of spec- 
tacular scenes, owes presentation 
of operas largely to means and posi- 
tion [Grove]; composed symph. and 
operas, Asraele 1888, Germania 1902. 

Franck, Cesar (sa-zar' fron), Auguste, 
compr. b. Liege, Dec. 10, 1822; d. 
Paris, Nov. 8, 1890. Studied at 
Lie"ge Cons.; gave concerts at 11; at 
Paris Cons. 1835-1842 under Zim- 
mermann on pf., Berton comp., 
Benoist org.; took prizes in all but 
was prevented by father from com- 
peting for Prix de Rome; taught in 
Brussels 1842^44, then in Paris 
where he became orgt. at Ste. Clo- 
thilde in 1857 and teacher of org. at 
Cons, in 1872; his works include 
operas Hulda, Ghiselle; oratorios 
Ruth et Boaz, La redemption, Les 
beatitudes; symph. poems Psyche 
(with chorus), Les Bolides, Le chas- 
seur maudit, Les Djinns (for pf . and 
orch.), symph. in D min., chamber 
music, notably sonata for vln. and pf ., 
and quintet for pf. and strings; pf. 
mus., two operas, and songs. Little 
appreciated during his life, he lived 
quietly in Paris delighting in his hard 
work, his org. playing, and his classes 
in org. and comp. where he taught 
most of the noteworthy members 
of the present generation, d'Indy, 
Chausson, Ropartz, Holmes, and 
others. His compositions are dis- 
tinguished for simplicity of spirit 
and absolute sincerity of expression; 
for the utterance of a calm, strong, 
uplifting, resigned philosophy; his 
org. music breathes lofty mysticism, 
his chamber music is of almost or- 
chestral richness; technically the 
qualities of his style are abundance 
of melody, richness and originality 
of harmony, architectural dignity 
of rhythm ; its defects are monotony, 
occasional too great length. (See im- 
portant life by his pupil, d'Indy.) 

Franck, Melchior, compr. b. Zittau, 
about 1573; d. Coburg, June 1, 1639. 
Lived in Augsburg 1601, Nuremberg 
1602, capellm. to Duke of Coburg 
after 1603; composed sacred and 
secular songs, now mostly unknown; 

paid special attention to instrumental 
accomp. of his songs, which prede- 
cessors had neglected; extraordi- 
narily prolific, with great influence 
on contemporaries. 

Franco, early writer on mus., commen- 
tator on and possibly inventor of 
time-table in music; for statement 
of arguments for and against the 
existence of three of the name and 
identity of any one with philosopher 
of llth century see Grove and articles 
there referred to. 

Franz (frantz), Robert, compr. b. 
Halle, June 28, 1815; d. there, Oct. 
24, 1892. Son of Christoph Franz 
Knauth (surname dropped with 
royal permission in 1847); learned 
pf. ana org. playing in secret, against 
wishes of parents who grudgingly 
permitted him to have instruction 
from Schneider in Dessau 1835-37; 
on return to Halle, enforced leisure 
was spent in profitable study of Bach, 
Handel, etc.; 1st set of 12 songs, pub. 
1843, won praise from Schumann, 
Mendelssohn, and Liszt; received 
various appointments at Halle, orgt., 
condr. of Singakademie, mus. air. 
at Univ. ; deafness which had begun 
in 1841 and nervous disorders dating 
from 1858 forced him into retirement 
in 1868; his pecuniary needs were 
relieved by fund from concerts given 
in Germany by Helene Magnus, 
Joachim, Liszt, etc., and in America 
by Lang, Dresel, etc.; wrote some 
articles and arranged accomp. for 
much of Bach and Handel; pre- 
eminent as compr. of songs, of which 
he wrote about 350, remarkable 
for unswerving fidelity to meaning 
and text of poems, and extraordinary 
variety of expression, from simplic- 
ity and tender pathos to romantic 
suggestions of subtler moods. 

Frescobaldi, Girolamo, orgt., compr. b. 
Ferrara (baptized Sept. 9), 1583; 
d. Rome, Mar. 2, 1644. While youth- 
ful chorister under Luzzaschi was 
known as singer and orgt. ; at 
Mechlin 1607; at Antwerp 1608, 
where he published collection of mad- 
rigals; orgt. at St. Peter's in Rome 
after 1608 except period 1628-33 
when he was court orgt. at Florence; 
Froberger a pupil 1637-41; his 
works, madrigals and toccatas, etc., 
for org. are of great value foi 



" daring innovations in harmony, new 
developments in fugal form, and 
improvements in notation." [Baker.] 

Frey (fri), Adolph, compr., pst. b. 
Landau, Rheinfahr, Germany, Apr. 
4, 1865. Graduated at Stuttgart; 
studied with Mme. Schumann, 
Brahms, and Faisst; mus. teacher 
and accompanist to Prince Alexan- 
der Friedrich of Hesse; prof, of music 
at Syracuse University, N. Y. 

Friedheim (fred'-hlm), Arthur, pst. b. 
St. Petersburg, Oct. 26, 1859. Early 
completed university education; di- 
rected theatre orch. in Dresden; 
attracted attention of Liszt, whom 
he followed to Weimar, Rome, and 
Naples; successful career as pst. 
throughout Europe; in America 1891 ; 
teacher Chicago Coll. Mus. 1897; 
now living in Munich. 

Fries (frez), Wulf Christian Julius, 'cel- 
list, b. Garbeck, Holstein, Germany, 
Jan. 10, 1825; d. Roxbury (Boston), 
Mass., Apr. 29, 1902. Taught him- 
self; played in theatre orch. in Bergen 
after 1842; also at Ole Bull's concerts ; 
came to Boston 1847; 1847-1870 
member of Mendelssohn Quintet 
Club, with A. Fries, Gerloff, Leh- 
mann, and Greiner; also member of 
Mus. Fund Orch. and Harvard Mus. 
Ass'n; played with Rubinstein 1873; 
after about that year ceased exten- 
sive traveling, but continued to play 
in public at intervals up to 1901. 

Froberger, Johann Jakob, orgt. b. 
Halle, 1605(7); d. Hericourt, Haute- 
Saone, France, May 7, 1667. Court 
orgt. to Ferdinand III at Vienna 
1637-1657, except 1637^11 when he 
was studying with Frescobaldi at 
Rome; visited London 1662; at last 
in service of Duchess of Wurttem- 
berg on her French estates; wrote 
many toccatas, etc., for org. 

Frost, Charles Joseph, orgt. b. West- 
bury-on-Trym, Eng., June 20, 1848. 
Pupil of father, Cooper, Goss, and 
Steggall; several positions as orgt.; 
Mus. Doc. Cambridge 1882; teacher 
at Guildhall School; composed can- 
tata By the Waters of Babylon, Festi- 
val Te Deum, org. music, etc. 

Frugatta (fru-gat'-ta), Giuseppe, pst. 
b. Bergamo, May 26, 1860. Pupil 
of Bazzini and Andreoli at Milan 
Cons.; prof, there and at Collegio 

reale; pst. of considerable fame and 
compr. of chamber mus. which has 
won prizes in Milan and in London; 
also of pf. works, Croquis poetiques, 
Pastels, etc. 

Fry, William Henry, compr. b. Phila- 
delphia, Aug. 10, 1813; d. Santa 
Cruz, Sept. 21, 1864. Son of pub- 
lisher; pupil of Meignen; began to 
compose early, and in 1845 produced 
first American opera Leonora, after- 
ward given in N. Y. 1858; also wrote 
symphonies, cantatas, and 2d opera 
Notre Dame de Paris 1863; chiefly 
notable for influence on musical 
taste in America; as foreign corre- 
spondent and musical editor of N. Y. 
Tribune and as lecturer. 

Fuchs (fooks), Karl Dorius Johann, 
pst., critic, b. Potsdam, Oct. 22, 
1838. Pupil of father, Von Billow, 
Weitzmann, and Kiel; 1871-75 living 
at Berlin; 1875-79 at Hirschberg; 
after 1879 condr. of Gesangverein at 
Danzig; orgt. and teacher; author 
of several works, chiefly with Rie- 
mann of Praktische Anleitung zum 
Phrasieren 1886 (N. Y. 1892) ; as per- 
former of great intellectual inten- 
sity, with breadth of phrasing. 

Fuchs, Robert, compr. b. Frauenthal, 
Feb. 15, 1847. Brother of Johann 
Nepomuk (1842-1899), dir.; pupil 
and prof, since 1875 at Vienna Cons.; 
composed 2 operas, pf. concerto, 
trios, etc., but especially 5 serenades 
for string orch. widely popular. 

Fursch-Madi (fursh-madi) .Emmy, dram, 
sop. b. Bayonne, France, 1847; d. 
Warrenville, N. J., Sept. 20, 1894. 
Pupil at Paris Cons.; sang in Paris, 
created Alda in Brussels; visited 
America 1874, London 1879; later 
seasons in New York. 

Fux (fooks), Johann Joseph, theorist. 
b. Hirtenfefd, Upper Styria, 1660; 
d. Vienna, Feb. 13, 1741. Nothing 
is known of his early life or studies; 
after 1696 he held various positions as 
orgt. and capellm. in Vienna; wrote 
operas and not very original church 
music much of which not published; 
chief works a re Gradus ad Parnassum, 
dialogue on theory and practice of 
composition, studied and followed 
by many distinguished successors, 
and Missa canonica, and an o cappetta 
mass, containing all kinds of canons. 



Gabriel [Mary Ann], Virginia, compr. 
b. Banstead, Surrey, Feb. 7, 1825; 
d. London, Aug. 7, 1877. Pupil of 
Thalberg and Molique; composed 
cantata Evangeline, several operas, 
Widows Bewitched, Who's the Heir? 
etc.; and many songs; married 
1874 G. E. March who wrote many 
of her librettos. 

Gabrieli (gab-ri-a'-li), Andrea, compr. 
b. Venice, about 1510; d. there, 
1586. Pupil of Willaert, chorister 
and later 2d orgt. at St. Mark's; 
teacher of his nephew, Giovanni, 
Hasler, and Sweelinck; of great 
fame in Germany and Netherlands 
as well as in Italy; composed 
Cantiones Sacrae, Psalmi Poeni- 
tentiales, masses, ricercari, etc., for 

Gabrieli, Giovanni, compr. b. Venice, 
1557; d. there, Aug. 12, 1612 or 1613. 
Pupil of his uncle and 1st orgt. of 
St. Mark's; teacher of Schiitz and 
Michael Praetorius; unusual contra- 
puntal skill is shown in motets of 
16 and 19 parts; difficulty of parts 
suggests that they were to be played 
rather than sung [Grove]; especially 
remarkable for handling of two or 
more choirs of voices in dialogue 
form, and for variety of accom- 

Gabrilovitch (ga-bril-o'-vitch), Ossip 
Salomonovitch, pst. b. St. Peters- 
burg, [Jan. 26] Feb. 7, 1878. After 
first pf . lessons from brother, studied 
under Tolstoff at St. Petersburg 
Cons., where he was advised and 
superintended by Rubinstein; won 
Rubinstein Prize 1894; studied with 
Leschetizky and Navratil at Vienna; 
since 1898 has had successful career 
as virtuoso, playing in America 1900, 
1901, 1902, 1903, and every year 
since 1906; has published some 
small pf. works. Married, 1909, 
Clara Clemens (daughter of " Mark 
Twain"), concert singer. 

Gabussi (ga-boos'-si), Vincenzo, compr. 
b. Bologna, 1800; d. London, Sept. 
12, 1846. Pupil of Mattei; pro- 
duced 3 operas without great success, 

one, Ernani, Paris 1841; 1825-1840 
taught singing in London; chiefly 
known for vocal duets. 

Gade (ga-da), Niels Wilhelm, compr. 
b. Copenhagen, Feb. 22, 1817; d. 
there, Dec. 21, 1890. Refused to 
follow father's trade of instrument- 
maker; after study under Wexschall, 
Berggreen and Weyse, became vlt. 
in royal orch. at Copenhagen, where 
he gained much from practical 
experience; Ossian overture, on 
approval of Spohr and Schneider, 
won prize 1841 and royal stipend for 
travel; except for trip to Italy, 
G. lived in Leipzig 1842-48, as 
friend of Schumann and Mendels- 
sohn; assistant and successor 1847 
of latter as condr. at Gewandhaus; 
after 1848 lived in Copenhagen as 
orgt., condr. of Musikverein, court 
capellm., prof.; though somewhat 
influenced by his friends the German 
romanticists, G's music has some 
originality, and a Scandinavian flavor 
of its own; he was the precursor of 
composers who have more definitely 
brought out that flavor and the one 
who aroused international interest in 
Northern music. He wrote 8 symph., 
many part-songs, and cantatas Com- 
ala, Erlkonigs Tochter, etc. 

Gadsby, Henry Robert, compr. b. 
Hackney, London, Dec. 15, 1842; 
d. Putney, Nov. 11, 1907. Instruc- 
tion received as member of St. 
Paul's choir from W. Bayley all he 
had; orgt. at Brockley; prof, of 
harmony at Queen's Coll., London, 
prof, at Guildhall, member of Philh. 
Soc.; composed many cantatas, The 
Lord of the Isles, etc., part-songs, etc. 

Gadski, Johanna [Emilia Agnes], dram, 
sop. b. Anclam, Pomerania, June 15, 
1871. Pupil of Schroeder-Chaloupa; 
de"but Berlin 1889, followed by 
engagements in Berlin, Mayence, 
Bremen, concerts in Holland; Amer- 
ican season with Walter Damrosch 
1895, subsequent seasons at Metro- 
politan, London after 1899; 1899 
at Bayreuth; married H. Tauscher, 



Gaforio (ga-fo'-rio), [sometimes spelled 
Gafori, Gafuri, etc.], Franchino, theor- 
ist, b. Lodi, Jan. 14, 1451 ; d. Milan, 
June 24, 1522. Lived in many Italian 
cities, Mantua, Verona, Naples 
(whence he was driven by plague), 
finally at Milan, where he was singer 
and master of boys in cath., first 
singer in choir of Ludovico Sforza, 
founder of music-school; writings 
on theory valuable at time, histor- 
ically interesting for evidence in 
contest between schools of Milan 
and Bologna. 

Gagliano (gal-yi-a'no), Marco da, 
compr. b. Gagliano, near Florence, 
about 1575; d. there, Feb. 24, 1642. 
From father's name called Marco di 
Zanobia, but family name really 
quite unknown. Pupil of Bati, 
became maestro at S. Lorenzo; 1607 
founder of Accademia degV elevati 
in Florence; his opera Dafne, 
performed Mantua 1607, an early 
example of effort toward dramatic 
expression in music; wrote responses 
for Holy Week, madrigals, etc. 

Galilei (ga-li-la'-i), Vincenzo, writer. 
b. Florence, about 1533; d. there, 
about 1600. Father of Galileo G., 
the astronomer; distinguished lute- 
player, vlt.; one of those who dis- 
cussed revival of Greek dramatic 
theories at house of Count Bardi in 
Florence; said to be one of first who 
composed music for single voice 
with instr., experiment which led 
to opera; wrote discourses chiefly 
directed against his former teacher, 
Zarlino, and his theories about the 
scale and tuning of lutes. 

Galin (ga-lan), Pierre, theorist, b. 
Samatan, Gers, P>ance, 1786; d. 
Bordeaux, Aug. 31, 1821. Teacher 
of mathematics at Bordeaux, who 
invented Meloplaste, method of 
teaching sight-reading adopted by 
Galin-Paris-Chev6 system; it con- 
sists in referring all notes to the 
tonic (" movable do " principle), and 
in using figures to represent the 
various notes of the scale. 

Gallico (gal'-le-co), Paolo, pst. b. 
Trieste, May 13, 1868. Debut with 
recital at 15; a pupil at Vienna Cons. 
of Epstein, won several prizes; after 
success on Continent settled in N. Y. 
1892, as teacher. 

Galuppi (ga-loop'-pi), Baldassare [called 
II Buranello], compr. b. Burano, near 
Venice, Oct. 18, 1706; d. Venice, 
Jan. 3, 1785. First lessons from his 
father; after failure of an opera, 
studied under Lotti; 1741 visited 
England, went twice to St. Peters- 
burg; was maestro at St. Mark's, 
director of Cons., and orgt. besides 
compr. of some 74 operas, many 
written to librettos by Goldoni, all 
quite obsolete; composed also for 
harpsichord. (Poem by R. Browning 
does not refer to any particular 

Gand (gan), Charles Nicholas Eugene, 
vln.-maker. b. Paris, June 5, 1825; 
d. Boulogne-sur-Seine, Feb. 5, 1892. 
Son of Charles Frangois, eminent 
maker and remarkable repairer of 
vlns.; pupil in vln. "playing of 
Baillot at Cons., 1st prize 1839; 
partner of his brother Charles 
Adolphe and after C. A's death of 
Bernardel brothers; among most 
distinguished of modern makers; 
keen knowledge of old instr. 

Ganne (gan), Gustave Louis, compr. 
b. Buxieres-les-Mines?, Allier, France, 
Apr. 5, 1862. Pupil at Paris Cons, 
of Dubois and Franck; condr. orch. 
Nouveau Theatre Paris; compr. of 
waltzes, marches, songs, ballets, comic 
operas Rabelais, Les saUimbanques, 
Hans, the Flute-player. 

Gansbacher (gens'-bak-er), Johann 
Baptist, compr. b. Sterzing, Tyrol, 
May 8, 1778; d. Vienna, July 13, 
1844. Studied under Albrechts- 
berger, and under Vogler at Vienna 
and Darmstadt, where Meyerbeer 
and Weber were companions; after 
wandering life as soldier part of 
time, capellm. in Vienna 1823; com- 
posed 216 works, masses, offertories, 
marches, serenades, etc.; only few 

Gantvoort (gant'-vort), Arnold J., 
teacher, b. Amsterdam, Dec. 6, 1857. 
Came to U. S. 1876; taught in 
various places; 1894 head of normal 
dept. for public school music teachers, 
Cincinnati Coll. of Mus.; has pub- 
lished public school readers. 

Ganz (gans), Rudolf, pst. b. Zurich, 
1877. First appearance as 'cellist at 
10; began study of pf. at 16 with 



uncle, Eschmann-Dumur; later stud- 
ied pf. and comp. with Busoni, at 
one of whose concerts he appeared 
as soloist and compr. 1899; 1901- 
1905 taught in Chicago; resigned 
to lead virtuoso life. 

Ganz, Wilhelm, pst. b. Mayence, 
Nov. 6, 1833. Son of chorusmaster 
at theatre in London, where he 
settled in 1850; pupil of Eckert, 
Anschiitz, etc.; after 1856 accom- 
panist for Jenny Lind and for many 
other prominent singers; 2d vln., 
joint condr. at Wylde's New Phil- 
harmonic Soc. Concerts, continued 
1880-83 as Ganz's Orch. Concerts 
where many works were first per- 
formed; prof, of singing at Guildhall 
School of Music. 

Garat (ga-ra), Pierre Jean, singer, b. 
Ustaritz, Apr. 25, 1764; d. Paris, 
Mar. 1, 1823. Pupil of Beck at 
Bordeaux; studied law at Univ. of 
Paris, but abandoned it; private 
secretary to Count of Artois, favorite 
of Marie Antoinette; after Revolu- 
tion sang at concerts Feydeau; 
prof, of singing at Cons, after 1799; 
taught Roland, Nourrit, and Mile. 
Duchamp whom he married; his 
remarkable voice included both 
tenor and baritone registers; prodig- 
ious memory on which he chiefly 
relied rather than on knowledge. 

Garcia (gar-si' -a or gar-the'-a), Manuel 
del Popolo Vicente, singer [real name 
Rodriguez]. b. Seville, Jan. 21, 
1775; d. Paris, June 9, 1832. 
Cathedral chorister, pupil of Ripa 
and Almarcha; known as singer, 
condr. and compr. at 17; great 
success in Paris 1808-1811; 1811- 
1816 in Naples, singer in Murat's 
chapel, profiting by advice from 
Anzani, composing, singing in Ros- 
sini's operas (part of Almaviva was 
written for him); 1816 in Paris, 
until Catalani's mismanagement 
drove him in 1817 to London; 1819- 
24 again in Paris, then again in 
London until 1825 when he brought 
family and troupe to N. Y., where 
they gave Italian operas with great 
success; after short season in Mex- 
ico, of the profits of which they were 
robbed, returned to Paris, where 
G. continued to compose and teach; 
his own children Marie [see Malibran ] 

and Pauline [see Viardot-Garcia], 
Nourrit, Rimbault among pupils; 
of his 43 operas none is remembered. 
His son, Manuel Garcia [Patricio 
Rodriguez], teacher, b. Madrid, Mar. 
17, 1805; d. London, July 1, 1906. 
After lessons from his father and 
F6tis, went to N. Y. as bass in 
father's troupe; 1829 taught in 
Paris, among his pupils were Jenny 
Lind, Henriette Nissen, Catherine 
Hayes, Mme. Marchesi, Santley, 
Son tag; invented laryngoscope; 
wrote Memoire sur la voix humaine; 
taught at Paris Cons. 1842; leave 
of absence 1849, resigned 1850; 
1848 teacher at Royal Acad. Lon- 
don, where he remained until 1895; 
hundredth birthday celebrated with 
international compliment. 

Garden, Mary, dram. sop. b. Aberdeen, 
'Scotland, Feb. 20, 1877. Came to 
Chicago very young; pupil of Mrs. 
Duff, of Bangor, Me.; coached by 
Trabadello and Fugere at Paris; 
d6but at Opra Comique in Char- 
pentier's Louise, 1900, led to engage- 
ment; created Melisande and other 
parts; one of few foreign singers 
really accepted by French audiences; 
N. Y. debut Manhattan Opera, 1908, 
reengaged 1909-10. 

Garlandia, Johannes de, writer, b. 
England, or Ireland, about 1190. 
Studied at Oxford and Paris; 1218- 
1232 at Toulouse; after 1229 at 
Univ.; still living in Paris 1245; 
poet and grammarian as well as 
author of treatises on mus. theory 
and notation, printed in Cousse- 
maker's Scriptores. 

Garrett, George Mursell, compr. b. 
Winchester, Eng., June 8, 1834; d. 
Cambridge, Apr. 8, 1897. Pupil of 
Elvey and Wesley; orgt. at Madras 
1854-1856; 1857 at St. John's Coll. 
Camb.; 1873 orgt. to Univ.; Univ. 
lecturer and examiner; condr. St. 
John's Mus. Soc.; composed ora- 
torio Shunammite and distinguished 
church services. 

Gasparo da Salo (gas-pa'-ro-da-sa-lo'), 
[family name Bertolotti], vln.-maker. 
b. Salo, province of Brescia, about 
1542; d. Brescia, April 14, 1609. 
After about 1563 gained renown at 
Brescia as maker of viols, viola da 
gambas, and contrabasses; said to 



have modernized form of vln. by 
giving / holes present shape, etc.; 
vlns. of his make not remarkable. 

Gastaldon (gas-tal'don), Stanislas, com- 
pr. b. Turin, Apr. 7, 1861. Has 
published since early youth great 
number of popular pf. pieces, fan- 
tasias, etc.; composed one-act opera 
Le Pater 1894. 

Gatty, Sir Alfred Scott, compr. b. 
Ecclesfield, Yorkshire, Apr. 25, 1847. 
Son of vicar; studied at Cambridge; 
poursuivant of arms, Herald's Col- 
lege, London, 1880; composed 2 
operettas, Sanford and Merlon's 
Christmas Party, Not at Home, songs 
and books for children, many other 
songs and pf. pieces. 

Gaul, Alfred Robert, compr. b. Nor- 
wich, Eng., Apr. 30, 1837. Choris- 
ter in Cath., then articled to Dr. 
Buck; various appointments as orgt.; 
condr. Walsall Philh. Soc.; teacher 
of harmony at Birmingham and 
Midland Inst.; works include can- 
tatas Hezekiah, Ruth, many psalms 
and tunes of popular sentimentality; 
The Holy City best known work. 

Gauntlett, Henry John, orgt. b. Wel- 
lington, Shropshire, July 9, 1805; d. 
Kensington, London, Feb. 21, 1876. 
Though showing early aptitude for 
music (was orgt. in his father's 
church at 9) he became lawyer and 
practised until about 1842, holding 
various positions as orgt. at same 
time; brought about introduction of 
C organ in Eng., instead of old F 
and G instruments; drew attention 
to Gregorian music; compiled many 
collections of psalm-tunes, composed 
favorite hymn-tunes. 

Gavinies (ga-vi-ne-az'), Pierre, vlt. b. 
Bordeaux, May 11, 1728; d. Paris, 
Sept. 9, 1800. Appeared in Paris 
1741 at Concerts spirituels; directed 
them 1773-77; teacher at Cons, after 
1795; called French Tartini; although 
probably inferior to T. in originality 
and. ability, yet G. had great influ- 
ence, as result of virtuosity, in found- 
ing French school; composed 24 Mati- 
nees, difficult and interesting studies, 
also other vln. works and one opera. 

Gayarre (ga-yar-ra), Julian, dram, 
tenor, b. Roncal or Pampeluna, Jan. 
9, 1844; d. Madrid, Jan. 2, 1890. 
Son of blacksmith, educated by 

Eslava at Madrid Cons.; de"but at 
Varese followed by engagements in 
Rome, Milan, Vienna, St. Peters- 
burg, South America, and London 
(1877-1881), and in Madrid, where 
he founded a school of singing for 
poor youths. 

Gaynor, Mrs. Jessie L., compr. b. St. 
Louis, Mo., Feb. 17, 1863. Early pf. 
lessons from Mrs. Ralston, later 
theory and pf. from Maas, and 
theory with C. B. Cady, A. J. Good- 
rich, and A. Weidig; also had vocal 
lessons with J. D. Mehan, and Ida 
Lurig in Berlin; taught in Iowa 
City, in Chicago, and at school of 
her own in St. Joseph, Mo., where 
she now lives (1910); composed a 
great number of songs and pf. pieces; 
though she has written some songs 
for adults (Album of Rose Songs), her 
specialty is works for children and 
about them; beside many single 
songs (Discontented Duckling, etc.) 
she has written a Mother Goose 
operetta The House that Jack Built, 
and has had share in many collec- 
tions, Songs of the Child World, 
Melody Pictures for Little Players, 
Lilts and Lyrics for Kindergarten, etc. 

Gebhard, Heinrich, pst. b. Germany, 
1878. Studied with a local bandman, 
moved to the U. S. 1888, the family 
locating in Boston, where he became 
a pupil of Clayton Johns in piano 
playing, theory, and composition; 
later studied four years in Vienna 
with Leschetizky; began his profes- 
sional career in Boston in 1900; since 
then has played with the leading 
orchestras and chamber music organ- 
izations, and is considered one of the 
foremost American pianists; while 
he presents excellent interpretations 
of the classics he is especially inter- 
ested in the works of modern com- 
posers, such as Strauss, Faure", 
D'Indy, Franck, Loeffler and Con- 
verse; his compositions include a 
string quartet, a sonata for violin 
and piano (performed at Vienna), 
and a number of piano pieces. 

Gedalge (zha-dalzhe'), Andre, compr. 
b. Paris, Dec. 27, 1856. Pupil at 
Cons, of Guiraud; 2d Prix de Rome 
1886; composed several successful 
operas, Le petit Savoyard, etc., 2 
symph., pf. concerto, and Traite de 


Geibel (gl-bel), Adam, compr., orgt. 
b. Neuenhein, near Frankfort, Ger- 
many, Sept. 15, 1855. Became blind 
in infancy; came to America 1862; 
studied at Penna. Inst. for the Blind 
until 1874, chiefly org. with D. D. 
Wood; taught there until 1901; orgt. 
in Philadelphia since 1873; publisher 
Geibel and Lehmann, 1887-1906, 
then as A. G. Mus. Co.; since 1902 
was lecturer on his own life; known 
as compr. since 1875 of songs, pf. 
pieces and choruses; some of the very 
popular ones are Over the Hills at 
Break of Day, My Kentucky Babe, 
etc.; cantata The Nativity has been 

Gelinek, Hermann Anton [called Cer- 
vetti], compr. b. Horzeniowecs, Bo- 
hemia, Aug. 8, 1709; d. Milan, Dec. 
5, 1779. Priest who fled from mon- 
astery and lived in Naples under 
name C., gaining distinction as vlt. 
and compr. of vln. and church music. 

Geminiani (jem-in-i-a'-ni), Francesco, 
vlt. b. Lucca, about 1680; d. Dublin, 
Sept. 17, 1762. Pupil of Lunati, 
Corelli, and possibly of A. Scarlatti; 
after playing in band at Lucca, came 
to England 1714, where he estab- 
lished himself as teacher and infre- 
quent concert player; lived in Dublin 
1736-42, in Paris 1749-55, otherwise 
in London; important as introducer 
of Corelli's method and vln. tech- 
nic into England, as author of Art 
of Playing the Violin, first written 
method; wrote other theoretical 
treatises, and composed vln. music, 
esteemed at time very difficult. 

Gemiinder (ge-mun'-der), August [Mar- 
tin Ludwig], vln.-maker. b. Ingel- 
fingen, Wiirttemberg, Mar. 22, 1814; 
d. New York, Sept. 1, 1895. Pupil 
of father; after working in several 
places, shop of own at Regensburg; 
came to America 1846; first estab- 
lished at Springfield, Mass., and 
after 1860 in .N. Y.; international 
reputation as maker; especially 
expert in copying old violins. 

Genee (zhe"-na), Franz Friedrich Rich- 
ard, compr. b. Danzig, Feb. 7, 1823; 
d. Baden, near Vienna, June 15, 
1895. Son of music director at 
theatre; first studied medicine; pupil 
in mus. of Stahlknecht at Berlin; 
capellmeister at theatres in many 


cities, finally at Vienna, from 1868 
to retirement 1878; clever author of 
librettos of which he wrote many, 
some with F. Zell [pseud, of C. Wal- 
zelj. Composed popular but transi- 
tory operas (Nanon, etc.). 

Georges (zhor-zhe), Alexandre, compr., 
orgt., teacher, b. Arras, Feb. .25, 
1850. Pupil at the Ecole Nieder- 
meyer, Paris, where he took prizes; 
orgt. of St. Vincent de Paul and 
teacher at the Ecole Niedermeyer; 
compositions include operatic and 
choral works, incidental music to 
plays, orchestral pieces, and songs. 

Gerardy (zha-rar'-di), Jean, 'cellist. 
b. Spa, Belgium, Dec. 7, 1877. Pupil 
of Bellman and at Verviers Cons.; 
after occasional appearances as solo- 
ist, made tours as virtuoso after 
1888; has played in England, France, 
Germany, Russia, Australia, America 
(3 times) notably with Marteau and 
Ysaye and with Kreisler and Hof- 

Gerber (ger-ber), Ernst Ludwig, lexicog- 
rapher, b. Sondershausen, Sept. 29, 
1746; d. there, June 30, 1819. Son 
of Heinrich Nikolaus (1702-1775), 
compr., orgt.; pupil and successor of 
father as orgt. and court secretary; 
beginning with idea of bringing up 
to date Walther's Lexikon, he wrote 
under considerable difficulties His- 
torisch-biographische Lexikon der 
Tonkiinstler 1742, enlarged and cor- 
rected 1812; though necessarily out 
of date, his work is foundation of all 
succeeding ones, and still has value. 

Gericke (ge'-rik-g), Wilhelm, condr. 
b. Graz, Styria, Apr. 18, 1845. 
Pupil of Dessoff at Vienna Cons.; 
theatre condr. at Linz, 2d condr. of 
Vienna court opera; condr. of Gesell- 
schaft concerts after Brahms 1880; 
1884-89 condr. of Bost. Symph. 
Orch.; 1889-95 again of Gesellschaft 
concerts, and 1898-1906 again of 
Bost. Orch.; to his remarkable effi- 
ciency in drilling the Boston Orch. 
owes perfection of ensemble; as in- 
terpreter, though sometimes ac- 
cused of dryness, he was painstaking 
and broad-minded. 

Gerlack (ger'-lak), Theodor, compr. 
b. Dresden, June 25, 1861. Student 
at Berlin Univ. ; pupil of Fr. Wiillner; 
cantata Luthers Lob der Musica 



brought him into notice; theatre 
condr. in Sondershausen and in 
Posen, now at Carlsruhe; composed 
chamber mus., several cantatas, suc- 
cessful opera Matteo Falcone. 

German, Edward [pseudonym of James 
E. German- Jones], compr., condr. b. 
Whitchurch, Shropshire, Feb. 17, 
1862. Early organized local band, 
for which he arranged and composed 
music and for whose concerts he 
taught himself to play vln. solos; in 
1880 took lessons of Hay, and entered 
Royal Acad., where he studied org. 
under Steggall, vln. under Weist- 
Hill and A. Burnett; taught vln. 
there; vlt. in several theatre orch.; 
1888 mus. director of Globe Th., 
London, where he began to write 
incidental music; among this music, 
Henry VIII (for the Lyceum 1892) 
is notable and has become popular 
as suite; completed Sullivan's music 
for The Emerald Isle 1901 ; composed 
Princess of Kensington 1903, Tom 
Jones 1907. 

Germer (gar'-mer), Heinrich, pf. teacher. 
b. Sommersdorf, Saxony, Dec. 30, 
1837. Pupil at Berlin Akademie; 
after a period of teaching; settled 
in Dresden where he has been busy 
teaching and writing valuable books 
on pf . playing. 

Gernsheim (garns'-hlm), Friedrich, pst., 
compr. b. Worms, July 17, 1839. 
After lessons on pf. from mother, 
Pauer, and Rozenheim, and in theory 
from Hauff, he studied at Leipzig 
Cons, under Moscheles, Richter, etc., 
and then for a year in Paris; teaching 
at Saarbruck and Cologne, conductor 
at Rotterdam, teacher at Stern Cons. 
1890-97; and director Stern Gesang- 
verein 1890-94; composed 4 symph., 
concertos for pf. and vln., choral 
works, and chamber music. 

Gerster (gars'-ter), Etelka, dram. sop. 
b. Kaschau, Hungary, June 25, 1857. 
Pupil of Marchesi at Vienna Cons.; 
de"but Venice 1876; success at Genoa, 
Marseilles, Berlin 1877, Pesth (where 
she married impresario Gardini), 
London, and America (1878, 1883, 
1887); last appearance in London 
1890; after period of retirement at 
Bologna, opened school for singers, 
Berlin, 1896; remarkable for colora- 
tura singing and dramatic ability. 

Gesualdo (zha-swal'-do) , Carlo, Prince 
of Venosa, compr. b. about 1560; 
d. Naples, 1614. Pupil of Nenna; 
one of so-called chromaticists (Ban- 
chieri, Vincentino, etc.); in seeking 
to establish Greek system, came upon 
many originalities; chiefly notable 
for better adaption of music to words. 

Gevaert (ga-vart'), Franjois Auguste, 
compr., writer, b. Huysse, near Oude- 
narde, July 31, 1828; d. Brussels, 
Dec. 24, 1908. Son of a baker, who 
finally permitted him to follow 
marked musical bent; studied 1841 
at Ghent Cons., under Mengal and 
Sommere; while orgt. at Jesuits' ch., 
compositions won praise and 1846 
prize for 2 years' travel; after pro- 
ducing 2 operas, went to Spain, 
whence reports on Spanish music are 
of value, to Italy and Germany; after 
series of successful operas, became 
chef de chant at Acad. of Mus., Paris, 
until war closed Ope'ra 1870; 1871 
director Brussels Cons.; composi- 
tions include operas and cantatas 
for national occasions; important 
works are researches in history, 
Histoire et theorie de la musique 
dans I'antiquite, Les origines du chant 
liturgique, collections Les gloires 
d' Italic, etc. and Trailed' instrumenta- 

Giardini (zhiar-de'-ni), Felice de, vlt. 
b. Turin, Apr. 12, 1716; d. Moscow, 
Dec. 17, 1796. Chorister at Milan 
Cath.; pupil of Paladini for singing, 
comp., and harpsichord, of Somis for 
vln.; after playing in theatre orch. in 
Rome and Naples, appeared in Lon- 
don with great success about 1750; 
became leader of Ital. opera there 
1752, manager 1756 and 1763-65, 
and again after period of concert 
giving and leading other orch., 1782- 
83; 1784 retired to Italy; 1790, after 
failure of comic opera in London, 
took troupe to Russia; not much 
success as composer or manager; as 
virtuoso he was remarkable for brill- 
iancy and absolute purity of into- 

Gibbons, Orlando, compr. b. Cam- 
bridge, 1583; d. Canterbury, June 
5, 1625. Chorister at King's Coll. 
1596-97; orgt. Chapel Royal 1604; 
Mus. Bac. Cambridge 1606 and Mus. 
Bac. and Mus. Doc. Oxford 1622; 
1623 orgt. at Westminster Abbey; 



1625 composed music for reception of 
Henrietta Maria at Canterbury, 
where he died suddenly; of his music, 
Fantasias, especially those printed 
in Parthenia (first music for virginal 
1611) are as masterly as anything 
before Bach; his madrigals (The 
Silver Swan, O That the Learned 
Poets, etc.) and anthems show the 
influence of Italian music and an 
effort to adapt the music to expres- 
sion of the words. His son Christo- 
pher, orgt. b. London (baptized 
Aug. 22), 1615; d. there, Aug. 20, 
1676. Chorister in Chapel Royal 
and under uncle, Edward, at Exeter 
Cath.; orgt. at Winchester Cath. 
1638-1644 when he joined royalist 
army; 1660 orgt. at Chapel Royal, 
and at Westminster Abbey; com- 
posed some motets, but is said to have 
been more distinguished as performer. 

Gigout (zhi-go), Eugfcne, orgt., compr. 
b. Nancy, Mar. 23, 1844. Pupil at 
maltrise of Nancy Cath. and at 
Niedermeyer School in Paris, where 
he also taught for more than 20 
years, and which he reentered as 
prof, of org. 1902; 1863 became orgt. 
at ch. of St. Augustin; 1885 founded 
famous school for org., with state 
subsidy; very successful as concert 
orgt. throughout Europe, as teacher, 
and as composer chiefly of org. 
music, notably Album gregorien. 

Gilchrist, William Wallace, compr. b. 
Jersey City, Jan. 8, 1846. Pupil of 
H. A. Clarke at University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia; after teaching 
in Cincinnati, choirmaster in Phila. 
1873-1877; teacher at Phila. Mus. 
Acad.; at present (1910) engaged in 
private teaching in Philadelphia; 
founder and condr. of Mendelssohn 
Club, Phila.; has composed widely 
notable choral works, 4Qth Psalm 
which won Cincinnati Festival prize, 
Legend of Bended Bow, and others, 
songs of considerable charm, Heart's 
Delight, Dirge for Summer, Bugle 
Song, etc., orchestral and chamber 
music, mostly unpublished, showing 
originality and skill in orchestration, 
and much valuable church music. 

Gillet (zhil'-la), Ernest [Vital Louis], 
'cellist, b. Batignolles, Sept. 12, 1856. 
Pupil at Niedermeyer School and 
at Cons., 1st prize 1874; 'cellist 

at Grand Opera 1875-82; living in 
London; compr. of dance music, no- 
tably popular Loin du bal. 

Oilman, Lawrence, music' critic, author. 
b. Flushing, N. Y., July 5, 1878. 
Educated at New York public schools 
and Classical School, Hartford, 
Conn., studied drawing and portrait- 
painting; later, landscape-painting 
with Wm. M. Chase, and illustration 
at Art Students' League, N. Y. City, 
on staff of N. Y. Herald 1896^98; 
self-taught in musical theory, piano 
and organ playing, and composition; 
music critic of Harper's Weekly 
since 1901; assistant editor of same 
since 1903; author of the following 
books: Phases of Modern Music 
(1904); Edward MacDowell (1905); 
The Music of To-morrow (1906); A 
Guide to Strauss' Salome (1907);" 
Stories of Symphonic Music (1907); 
A Guide to Debussy's Petteas et 
Melisande (1907); Aspects of Mod- 
ern Opera (1908); Edward Mac- 
Dowell: A Study (1909, a revised 
and enlarged edition of volume pub- 
lished in 1905), contributor to maga- 
zines; member of the National Insti- 
tute of Arts and Letters in 1908; lives 
in New York City. 

Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield, condr. b. 
near Dublin, Dec. 25, 1829; d. St. 
Louis, Mo., Sept. 24, 1892. Member 
first of Irish, then of English band 
with which he came to Canada 1849; 
condr. of military band in Salem, 
Mass.; organizer and condr. 1859 of 
Gilmore's Band in Boston; band- 
master in Federal Army at New 
Orleans, gave grand festival 1864; 
conducted Nat'T Peace Jubilee 1869 
and World's Peace Jubilee 1872, 
both at Boston; in these festivals the 
numbers of the chorus and orchestra 
were large (in the last 2000 in orch. 
and 20,000 in chorus) and orch. was 
reinforced by actual cannon, bells, 
etc.; traveled from N. Y. with band 
in U. S., 1878 to Europe; arranged 
much music, composed popular songs. 

Gilson (zhil-son), Paul, compr. b. 
Brussels, June 15, 1865. Studied 
at Brussels Cons, under Cantillon, 
Duyck, and Gevaert; 1889 Prix de 
Rome; prof, harmony at Antwerp 
Cons, after 1902; dir. Brussels Cons. 
1910; composed choral works Sinai, 



Francesco da Rimini, ballet La Cap- 
tive, operas, works for orch., of which 
symph. poem La Mer is most widely 
known (played in Brussels 1892, Lon- 
don 1896, Boston 1893, part only, 
1898 whole); smaller orch. works 
played in Chicago and Cincinnati; 
modern harmonization combined 
with originality and force of ideas. 

Giordan! (zhior-da-ne), Giuseppe [called 
Giordanello], opera compr. b. Naples, 
1744; d. Fermo, Jan. 4, 1798. Pupil 
of the Lore to Cons.; in London as 
teacher and comp. 1772-82; returned 
to Italy, devoted himself to dramatic 
composition; in 1791 became master 
of music at Fermo Cathedral; wrote 
about 30 operas, chamber music, 
piano pieces, songs and sacred works; 
known by his song Caro mio ben. 

Giordano (zhior-da'-no), Umberto, 
compr. b. Foggia, Aug. 26, 1867. 
After much opposition from artisan 
parent, pupil of Serrao at Naples 
Cons.; while still pupil, an opera won 
commission from Sonzogno, the pub- 
lisher, for Mala Vita (Rome 1892); 
later opera, Andrea Chenier, Milan 
1896, N. Y. 1896, Berlin 1898, Lon- 
don 1903, greatest success of younger 
Italian school; vulgarity of first 
opera apparently due to libretto, as 
later ones, though realistic and melo- 
dramatic, are more refined. 

Giorza (zhiort'-sa), Paolo, compr. b. 
Milan, 1838. Pupil of his father 
(orgt. and singer) and of LaCroix; 
with exception of one opera, has 
composed much ballet and dance mu- 
sic, in which he has been remarkably 
successful, also church music; lived in 
the U. S. for a number of years. 

Gladstone, Francis Edward, orgt. b. 
Summertown, near Oxford, Mar. 2, 
1845. Pupil of S. Wesley; many 
positions as orgt. in Anglican and 
after conversion 1887 at Rom. Cath. 
churches; Mus. Doc. Cambridge 
1879; prof, of counterpoint Trinity 
College, London, 1881; of harmony 
and counterpoint Royal Coll. Mus. 
1883; composed services, masses, 
org. mus. and Organ Students' Guide, 
A Wet Sheet and Flowing Sea for 
chorus and orch., sonatas, etc. 

Glareanus (gla-re-a'-nus), Henricus, 
[pseud, of Heinrich Loris], writer, b. 
Glarus, Switzerland, June, 1488; d. 

Freiburg, Baden, Mar. 28, 1563. 
Studied theology at Cologne, mus. 
under Cochlaus; poet laureate under 
Maximilian I; friend of Erasmus; 
taught and lectured on history and 
literature in Paris, Basle, and Frei- 
burg; chief work Dodecachordon, 
valuable source for history of men- 
surable music, notation, etc., named 
from claim for 12 modes instead of 8. 

Glasenapp (glaz'-e-nap), Carl Friedrich, 
writer. b. Riga, Oct. 3, 1847. 
Student of philosophy at Dorpat; 
headmaster at Riga since 1875; 
ardent partisan of Wagner, wrote 
Wagner- Lexikon and Richard Wag- 
ner's Leben und Werken (5 vols. 1882- 
1904, not yet completed) of which 
translation and adaptation by Ash- 
ton Ellis appeared 1900-1904. 

Glazunov (glaz'-6-noff), Alexander Con- 
stantinovitch, compr. b. St. Peters- 
burg, Aug. 10, 1865. Son of pub- 
lisher and bookseller; early lessons 
from Jelenovsky; studied at uni- 
versity; Balakirev advised him to 
study composition and theory with 
Rimsky-Korsakov; also befriended 
in Russia by A. Rubinstein, and 
abroad by Liszt, he gained for his 
works an audience at Weimar, at 
Paris, at concerts of Exhibition of 
'89, several of which G. conducted, 
and in England; condr. of Russian 
symph. concerts; since 1899 prof, of 
instrumentation at St. Petersburg 
Cons.; though belonging to circle 
of Balakirev, he has never hotly 
espoused its theories; indeed, he 
claims to be a follower of Brahms in 
his emphasis on pure form and " his 
later works seem to be more academic 
in spite of fondness for ballet; his 
early symphonic poems are romantic 
in feeling; his music is remarkable 
for mastery of technical resource; 
his form is lyrical and transparent; 
his harmonic treatment, while not 
striking, is effective; his instrumen- 
tation is varied and sonorous; his 
ideas come with ease and are often 
lacking in significance, but he has 
gained in self-restraint." [E. B. Hill.] 

Gleason, Frederick Grant, compr. b. 
Middletown, Conn., Dec. 17, 1848; 
d. Chicago, Dec. 6, 1903. After 
lessons from Dudley Buck in Hart- 
ford, studied at Leipzig Cons, under 


Moscheles, Plaidy, and Richter, at 
Berlin with Loeschhorn and Haupt, 
at London with Beringer; after 
several appointments as orgt., settled 
in Chicago 1877 as successful pf. 
teacher, finally director Auditorium 
Cons.; critic for Tribune, wrote 
operas, orch. mus. (played at World's 
Fair and by Thomas's Orch.), can- 
tata Culprit Fay, etc.; especially 
skilful at harmonic effects. 

Gliere (gli-ar'), Reinhold Moritzovitch, 
compr. b. Kiev, Jan. 11, 1875. 
Pupil of Taneiev and Ivanov at 
Moscow Cons. 1894-1900; com- 
posed 2 string quartets which at- 
tracted attention in and out of 
Russia, sextet, symph., played by 
Russian Symph. Orch. in N. IT. 

Glinka, Michail Ivanovitch, compr. b. 
Novospaskoi', near Smolensk, June 1, 
1804; d. Berlin, Feb. 15, 1857. 
During early years on father's coun- 
try estate showed great sensitiveness 
toward mus.; while at school in St. 
Petersburg 1817-22 took pf. lessons 
from John Field and C. Meyer and 
vln. from Bohm; 1824-28 held 
gov't position; composed in ama- 
teurish way; 1828-33 living in Italy 
for health; admired works of Bellini 
and Donizetti; 1833 went to Berlin 
where Dehn gave him first real 
instruction in theory; on return to 
Russia 1834 set to work on long- 
nourished plan of writing national 
.opera; result Life for the Czar per- 
formed 1836 with great success; 
second opera Russian and Ludmilla 
1842, not quite so successful; 1844 
in Paris met Berlioz who admired 
his works; after trip to Spain 
returned to St. Petersburg, where 
he turned attention to old church 
modes; died when on visit to Dehn. 
Pioneer of modern Russian music 
he established Russian opera upon 
basis of supremacy of voice, and, 
though he used leit-motiven before 
Wagner, he kept them in voice- 
parts only; he first used Russian 
folk-songs, but he used them more 
as an imitator than as a copyist; he 
gained effect of local color by using 
melancholy progressions, rhythms 
of 5 and 7 beats, etc.; his orches- 
tration was simple, but vigorous 
and rich. 


Glover, Sarah Ann, writer, b. Nor- 
wich, Eng., 1785; d. Malvern, Oct. 
20, 1867. Her Manual of Norwich 
Sol- Fa System 1845 contains ac- 
counts of sol-fa notation, her inven- 
tion, which was afterwards developed 
by John Curwen. 

Glover, Stephen Ralph, compr. b. 
London, 1812; d. there, Dec. 7, 
1870. Music teacher; 1840-70 
composed about 1200 works, almost 
all very popular, frivolous, and for- 
gotten, with the exception of one 
or two, such as " What Are the Wild 
Waves Saying ? " 

Gluck (glook), [French, gliik], Christoph 
"Willibald, Ritter von, compr. b. 
Weidenwang, near Neumarkt, in 
Upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714; d. 
Vienna, Nov. 15, 1787. Father was 
gamekeeper on estates of Prince 
Lobkowitz at Eisenberg, where G. 
was taught in village school; at 12 
sent to Jesuit School at Kommotau 
he learned vln., harpsichord, org., 
and singing; 1732 at Prague studied 
under Czernohorsky, learned 'cello, 
supporting himself by singing in 
church, playing vln. at village dances 
and concerts; 1736 at Vienna met 
Prince Melzi, who, as his patron, 
sent him to Italy, where he studied 
4 years under Sammartini; 1741- 
45 produced nine operas in different 
Italian cities with such success that 
in 1745 he was invited to London 
as compr. for Haymarket; the failure 
there of two operas and pasticcio, 
and scorn of Handel for his ignor- 
ance of counterpoint are said to have 
led G. to examine his own faults; 
observation of Rameau's operas in 
Paris, subsequent study of esthetics 
after visit to Dresden and Hamburg 
led to dissatisfaction with Italian 
opera; 1749-67 he produced in 
Vienna many operas, the only im- 
portant one being Orfeo ed Euridice 
1762; with Alceste 1767, and Paride 
ed Elena 1770, he definitely broke 
with old traditions according to well- 
thought-out theories which he made 
clear in prefaces to published scores 
(1769-70); unappreciated at home, 
encouraged by Bailly du Rollet of 
French embassy (librettist of Iphi- 
genie), went to Paris to produce 
Iphigenie en Aulide; only the influence 
of Marie Antoinette, former pupil 



of G's, seems to have enabled him 
to withstand violent opposition; 
successful performance revolution- 
ized at one blow French opera; 
Orphee 1774, and Alceste 1776, 
rearrangements of earlier works, 
continued success; Armide 1777 
showed power in tender as well as 
tragic styles; partisans of Piccinni 
and old Italian music attacked G. 
by pamphlets and in other ways 
until the -" war " actually divided 
French society; G. continued, with 
Iphigenie en Tauride 1779, and Echo 
et Narcisse 1779; forced by ill 
health to retire to Vienna 1780. 
Newman says, in Gluck and the 
Opera, that " his theories of sub- 
ordinating music entirely to poetry 
were really neither new nor practical. 
But to have insisted on the necessity 
for making the verbal basis sound 
and sane; to have repressed the 
vanity and egotism of singers and 
to have galvanized the orchestra to 
life; to have struck away all the 
pernicious excrescences that dis- 
figured the aria and to have made 
it a genuine expression of passion; 
to have made the overture elu- 
cidatory of coming drama; and 
given unity to what had before been 
a mere pasticcio was no small 

Gobbaerts, Jean Louis, compr. b. 
Antwerp, Sept. 28, 1835; d. Saint- 
Gilles, near Brussels, May 5, 1886. 
Pupil of Brussels Cons.; under 
pseudonyms Streabbog, Ludovic, 
and Levi produced some 1200 pf. 
pieces, some very popular. 

Godard (go-dar'), Benjamin Louis Paul, 
compr. b. Paris, Aug. 18, 1849; d. 
Cannes, Jan. 10, 1895. Vln. pupil 
of Hammer, and, at Paris Cons,, 
of Reber and Vieuxtemps; after 
several successful songs, 2 vln. 
concertos, and some chamber music, 
his dram, symph. Tasso took prize 
offered by city of Paris 1878; wrote 
several descriptive symph., Sym- 
phonic Ugendaire, Symph. orientate, 
etc.; also 8 operas, 6 performed, of 
which Jocelyn 1888, Le Dante 1890, 
and La vivandiere (after his death 
1895) were most successful; con- 
ducted Concerts modernes as successor 
to Concerts populaires 1885, but with- 
out success. 

Goddard, Arabella, pst. b. St. Servans, 
St. Malo, Jan. 12, 1836. At six had 
lessons from Kalkbrenner in Paris, 
and later from Mrs. Anderson and 
Thalberg in London where she ap- 
peared 1850; after further study 
with J. W. Davison (whom she 
married 1859) made formal d6but 
1853; until retirement 1880, played 
with success in London and in 
Germany; made tour of world 
(America, Australia, and India) 
1873-76; style was marked by 
classical reserve and high regard 
for interpretation of composer's 

Godfrey, Daniel, bandmaster, b. West- 
minster, Sept. 4, 1831; d. Beeston, 
near Nottingham, June 30, 1903. 
Father and two brothers also 
military bandmasters, as are his 
son and two of his nephews; pupil 
on flute in Royal Acad. Mus.; band- 
master Grenadier Guards 1856-1896; 
brought this band to America 1872; 
1896 formed own band; composed 
successful military waltzes. 

Godowsky (go-dof'-ski), Leopold, pst. 
b. Wilna, Russia, Feb. 13, 1870. 
Precocious ability as compr.; first 
appearance as pst. 1879 followed 
by tour in Russia, Poland and Ger- 
many; studied at Berlin Hoch- 
schule under Bargiel and Rudorff; 
American tour with Musin 1884; 
after study with Saint-Saens, made 
tours in France, England, again in 
America; married Frieda Saxe 1901; 
director of Chicago Cons. 1895- 
1900; reappearance in Berlin placed 
him in front rank of technical vir- 
tuosos; 1909 head of Master School 
for Piano-playing, Vienna Conser- 
vatory; composed Chopin arrange- 
ments (studies on Chopin), concert 
Etudes, remarkable for brilliancy. 

Goepp (g6p), Philip H., writer, b. 
New York, June 23, 1864. Studied 
in Germany, 1872-77; grad. at 
Harvard 1884; studied law at Univ. 
of Penna., Philadelphia, member of 
Pennsylvania bar; devoted himself 
to music 1891, teacher, pst. in 
Philada.; commentator for pro- 
grams of Philadelphia Orch.; author 
of Symphonies and Their Meaning, 
editor of Annals of Music in Phila., 
contributor to Atlantic Monthly. 



Goetschius (ge"t'-shi-us), Percy, teacher. 
b. Paterson, N. J., Aug. 30, 1853. 
Pupil in Stuttgart Cons, of Lebert, 
Pruckner, Doppler, and Faisst; 
taught English classes there, substi- 
tuted for Faisst, charge of women's 
classes 1885; critic for several Ger- 
man papers; 1890 prof, of harm., 
pf. playing, Syracuse Univ.; 1892 
charge of comp. dept. New England 
Cons.; 1896-1905 private teacher in 
Boston, orgt. in Brookline; 1905 prof, 
of harmony Institute of Musical Art, 
N. Y.; books Theory and Practice of 
Tone-relations, Homophonic Forms 
of Musical Composition, Lessons in 
Music Form, and others of great 
value; comp. chiefly church music. 

Goetz (g6tz), Hermann, compr. b. 
Konigsberg, Dec. 17, 1840; d. Hot- 
tingen, near Zurich, Dec. 3, 1876. 
After lessons from Kohler, studied 
at Stern Cons, under Stern, Von 
Biilow, and Ulrich; orgt. at White r- 
thur 1863-1870, though living after 
1867 in Zurich where he gave lessons; 
retired because of ill health in 1870; 
success of opera Die Zahmung der 
Widerspenstigen (The Taming of the 
Shrew, based 'on Shakespeare's play) 
at Mannheim 1874 first attracted 
attention to grace and charm of his 
works, chief among which are pf. 
sonata for 4 hands, pf. concerto, and 
often-played symph. in F; while not 
strikingly original, his work is skilful 
and charming. 

Goldbeck (gold'-beck), Robert, pst. b. 
Potsdam, Apr. 19, 1839; d. St. Louis, 
May 16, 1908. Studied with Kohler 
and Litolff ; brought out opera Sol- 
dier's Return London 1856; 1861 went 
to N. Y.; 1867 founded a cons, in 
Boston, 1868 one in Chicago; 1871-78 
in St. Louis, condr. of Harmonic Soc. 
and co-director of Beethoven Cons.; 
N. Y. 1880-85; comp. 2 other operas, 
pf. concerto, chamber music. 

Goldmark (gold'-mark), Karl, compr. 
b. Keszthely, Hungary, May 18, 
1830. Son of cantor in Jewish syn- 
agogue; after lessons from village 
schoolmaster, studied at Vienna 
Cons, under Jansa, Bohm, and 
Preyer 1844-48; concert of works 
Vienna 1857, another in Pesth 1859, 
settled in Vienna as pf. teacher 1860; 
overtures Sakuntala and Penthesilea 
had attracted favorable notice; opera 

Die Konigin von Saba Vienna 1875, 
on composition of which he had 
spent 10 years, won deserved suc- 
cess in Germany, Italy, Spain; 
produced in N. Y. 1905; other operas 
are Merlin 1886, Das Heimchen am 
Herd (based on Dickens's Cricket on 
the Hearth) 1896, Go'tz von Berlich- 
ingen 1902; has also written male 
choruses, vln. concerto, chamber 
music, symph., etc., all marked by 
skill in production of effect. 

Goldmark, Rubin, compr. b. New 
York, 1872. Nephew of Karl; pupil 
of Livonius, Door, and Fuchs, and 
in N. Y. of Joseffy and Dvorak; lives 
and teaches in New York. Com- 
posed Theme and Variations for 
orch., played under Seidl, Hiawatha 
overture played by Bost. Symph. 
Orch., pf . trio, cantata, etc., pf . pieces. 

Goldschmidt, Jenny Lind, -see Lind, 

Goldschmidt, Otto, pst., condr. b. Ham- 
burg, Aug. 21, 1829; d. London, 
Feb. 24, 1907. Pupil of Schmitt and 
Grand, Mendelssohn at Leipzig 
Cons., and Chopin; placed at con- 
cert given by Jenny Lind London 
1849; 1851 succeeded Benedict as 
condr. of her American concerts; 
married her 1852; after her death 
1887 teaching in London; became 
vice-principal Royal Acad. of Mus. 
1863, founded Bach Choir 1875; 
conducted several festivals; com- 
posed cantata, pf. concerto, etc. 

Goltermann, Georg Eduard, 'cellist, b. 
Hanover, Aug. 19, 1824; d. Frank- 
fort, Dec. 29, 1898. Son of orgt., 
pupil of Prell and Menter; 1850- 
52 concert tours; 1852 director at 
Wiirzburg, 1853 at Frankfort; now 
retired; composed popular concerto 
and other pieces for 'cello. Not to 
be confused with August Julius G. 
(1825-1876), prof, of 'cello at 
Prague 1850-62, and member of 
Stuttgart court band 1862-1870. 

Gombert (gon-bar), Nicolas, compr. b. 
Bruges, about 1495; d. after 1570. 
In service of Emperor Charles V as 
master of choristers in emperor's 
chapel, and after 1537 in imperial 
chapel at Madrid; though young 
when Josquin Depre_s died, G. is con- 
sidered his chief pupil; aided in devel- 
oping interest in emotional truth of 



music and in secular music; his own 
works are charmingly simple descrip- 
tive pastoral or hunting scenes. 

Gomez, Antonio Carlos, opera compr. 
b. Campiners, Brazil, July 11, 1839; 
d. Para, Sept. 16, 1896. Pupil of 
Rossi at the Milan Cons., wrote a 
number of operas, some of them 
quite successful; in 1895 appointed 
director of Para Cons. 

Goodrich, Alfred John, theorist, b. 
Chilo, O., May 8, 1847. Self-taught, 
except for few lessons from father; 
taught at Grand Cons. N. Y., at 
Fort Wayne, Ind., Cons.; and at 
Beethoven Cons. St. Louis; then 
in Chicago as writer and teacher; 
1905 in New York; in London, 1909- 
10, Paris, 1910-11; published Ana- 
lytical Harmony, Musical Analysis, 
etc., of great value and originality. 

Goodrich, 'Wallace, orgt. b. Newton, 
Mass., May 27, 1871. Pf. pupil of 
Clouston and Petersilea, org. of 
Thayer, Gow, chiefly of Dunham; 
orgt. in Newton at 15; N. E. Cons., 
harmony and counterpoint under 
Chadwick, theory under Elson, 
under Rheinberger at Munich and 
Widor at Paris, where he closely 
studied church music; repetiteur at 
Leipzig theatre; teacher org. and 
comp. N. E. Cons, since 1897; orgt. 
at Trinity Church from 1902-1908; 
condr. Worcester festivals 1902- 
1907; organizer and condr. Jordan 
Hall Orch. concerts 1907 and of 
Choral Art Society 1901-1907; condr. 
Cecilia Society 1907-10; asst. condr. 
Boston Opera Co. 1909. 

Goodson, Katharine, pst. b. Watford, 
Hertfordshire, June 18, 1872. After 
childish appearances, studied at 
Royal Acad. of Mus. under Beringer 
and in Vienna with Leschetizky 
1892-96; English debut 1896, pro- 
vincial tour 1897, Berlin 1899, N. Y. 
1908; toured with Kubelik 1902, 
'03, '04; married Arthur Hinton 1903. 

Gordigiani (gor-dizh-i-a-ni), Luigi, 
compr. b. Modena, June 12, 1806; 
d. Florence, Apr. 30, 1860. After 
slight education, composed pf. pieces 
under German pseuds. Zeuner and 
Von Fiirstenberger; aided by two 
Russian princes, composed and pro- 
duced several operas; chief fame 
rests on Canti Populari Toscani, 

either musical settings of actual 
folk-songs or skilful imitations of 
their spirit. 

Goria, Alexandre Edouard, pst. b. 
Paris, Jan. 21, 1823; d. there, July 6, 
1860. Pupil at Paris Cons, of Lau- 
rent, Zimmermann, and Dourlen 
1830-39; compr. of popular pf. music, 
fantasias, paraphrases on operatic 
themes, and some meritorious itudes. 

Gorno, Albino, pst., compr. b. Casal- 
morano, Italy. Studied at Milan 
Cons.; accomp. to Patti on American 
tour 1881-82; teacher of pf. Cincin- 
nati Coll. of Mus.; composed can- 
tatas, concert studies, etc. 

Goss, Sir John, compr. b. Fareham, 
Hants, Dec. 27, 1800; d. Brixton, 
London, May 10, 1880. Son of orgt.; 
chorister at Chapel Royal under J. S. 
Smith, pupil of Attwood; orgt. at 
several churches, 1838 of St. Paul's; 
compr. to Chapel Royal; knighted 
1872; Mus. Doc. Cambridge 1876; 
composed about 27 anthems, many 
glees, edited several collections of 
hymns, psalms, etc.; wrote Introd. 
to Harmony, etc.; " music is always 
melodious and beautifully written 
for the voices, and is remarkable for 
a union of solidity and grace, with a 
certain unaffected charm." [Grove.] 

Gossec (gos'-sek'), Francois Joseph, 
compr. b. Vergnies, Belgium, Jan. 
17, 1734 [ace. to record of birth 
referred to in Hellpuin's Gossec; 
but Eitner and historical documents 
of Paris Cons, give 1733]; d. Passy, 
Feb. 16, 1829. Name variously 
spelled Gosse, Gossez, Gosset; son of 
farmer; chorister at Antwerp Cath.; 
going to Paris 1751 with letters to 
Rameau, became condr. of private 
orch. of La Popeliniere; here he com- 
posed first symphonies, performed 
1754 (Haydn's were not written until 
1755); while attached to household 
of Prince de Cond, composed 1760 
Messe des morts, famous for innova- 
tion of a concealed orchestra in ad- 
dition to one in church; founded 
Concerts des amateurs 1770, revived 
Concerts spirituals 1773, condr. of 
Academic 1780; inspector of Cons. 
1795, and teacher of comp. there 
until 1814; member of Institute from 
foundation 1795; composed many 
successful operas, and wrote music 



for several occasions under the Revo- 
lution; but chief fame rests on such 
innovations as that in the Requiem 
and in the origins of the symphony; 
suffers from having been the imme- 
diate precursor of greater composers 
in every line. 

Gottschald, Ernst, see Elterlein, E. von. 

Gottschalk, Louis Moreau, pst. b. New 
Orleans, May 8, 1829; d. Rio de 
Janeiro, Dec. 18, 1869. At 12 went 
to Paris where he studied under 
Charles Halle", C. Stamaty, and Mal- 
eden; gave successful concerts in 
France and Switzerland 1845-52; 
tour in U. S. 1853, so successful that 
Strakosch engaged him for tour cov- 
ering almost every town in U. S. and 
Spanish America; death caused by 
over-exertion. Brilliant and roman- 
tic player, especially admirable in his 
own works, almost all of which had 
Spanish atmosphere; also composed 
2 operas and orch. works. 

Gb'tze (get-ze), Karl, compr. b. Weimar, 
1836; d. Magdeburg, Jan. 14, 1887. 
Pupil of Topfer, Gebhardi, and Liszt; 
chorusmaster at Weimar; theatre 
condr. Magdeburg, Berlin, etc.; com- 
posed 4 operas, symph. poem. 

Goublier (go-bli-a), Gustave, compr. 
b. Paris. Actor at 17, pst. with 
Houdin; saxophone player in band 
of artillery school at Vincennes dur- 
ing military service; orch. leader at 
Parisian casinos, finally at Eldorado 
and Folies Bergeres; composed music 
for ballets, " revues," ope>a balls, 
and many songs, Les yeux, Son 
amant, Si vous ne m'aimez plus, and 
popular Credo du paysan. 

Goudimel (go-di-mel'), Claude, compr. 
b. Vaison, near Avignon, France, 
about 1505; d. Lyons, Aug. 24, 1572. 
Long supposed to have been head of 
mus. school in Rome where Pales- 
trina and others studied, but latest 
evidence (Brenet: C. Goudimel, 
1898) shows that he was probably 
never in Rome. Composed masses 
and songs and notably music for the 
psalms in Huguenot psalter; lived 
Metz and Lyons, killed in St. Bar- 
tholomew massacre. 

Gounod (go-no), Charles Frangois, 
compr. b. Paris, June 17, 1818; d. 
there, Oct. 17, 1893. Father painter 

and engraver, mother an accom- 
plished pst., who gave him his first 
lessons; studied at Lyc6e St. Louis, 
entered Cons. 1836; pupil of Paer, 
Lesueur, and Halevy; 1839 Grand 
prix de Rome; studied Palestrina in 
Italy, and composed mass; after 
visiting Austria and Germany be- 
came orgt. at Missions etr anger es in 
Paris; studied theology arid thought 
of taking orders; after 5 years of 
seclusion, performance of Messe 
solennelle in G, in London 1851, 
brought him into prominence; on 
commission from Opera, wrote Sapho 
1851; his first operas, though praised 
for musical skill, were not popular 
successes; as condr. of Orpheon, a 
union of singing societies and schools, 
1852-60, he wrote for them several 
choruses and 2 masses; with Faust 
1859 he attained European fame as 
compr., and, after Philemon et 
Baucis 1860, Mireille 1864, etc., 
almost touched the same height 
again in Romeo et Juliette 1867; 1870- 
75, during the war, G. lived in Lon- 
don, where he founded Gounod's 
Choir (afterwards called Albert Hall 
Choral Society, later Royal Ch. Soc.), 
appeared at Philharmonic and Crys- 
tal Palace Concerts; after return to 
Paris operatic work was less and less 
successful; chief works of this period 
are oratorios intended for English 
audiences, Redemption, Birmingham 
1882, and Mors et vita Birmingham 
1885; the songs, There is a green 
hitt far away and Nazareth show 
best of popular melody. Pougin 
speaks of the characteristics of his 
genius as a musical phrase, new in 
form and characteristic in outline; 
harmonies rich, refined, sometimes 
unexpected; ingenious instrumenta- 
tion full of color, grace, and elegance, 
and the full enchanting language of 
passion; emotional and passionate 
he always was, even in his religious 
music, and at his worst this quality 
degenerates into weak sentimental- 
ity; at his highest, it is the garden 
scene in Faust. 

Gourron (gor'-ron), A. R., see Alvarez. 

Gouvy (go-ve), Louis Theodore, compr. 
b. Goffontaine, near Saarbruck, July 
3, 1819; d. Leipzig, April 21, 1898. 
After taking degree at Metz, be- 
came law student at Paris before he 



received any musical teaching; he 
studied with Elwart, and in Ger- 
many and Italy; lived in Paris after 
1846, with frequent visits to Ger- 
many whither he moved about 1894; 
composed 7 symphonies, concert 
overture, serenade for strings, much 
chamber and pf. mus.; several dra- 
matic cantatas on classical subjects 
(Elektra, Iphigenia, etc.); graceful 
and melodious; music has been pop- 
ular in Germany, but its lack of 
force makes its duration improbable. 

Gow, George Coleman, teacher, b. Ayer 
Junction, Mass., Nov. 27, 1860. 
Studied music with Blodgett at 
Pittsfield and Story at Worcester; 
grad. Brown Univ. 1884 and Newton 
Theological Seminary; instructor of 
harm, and pf. at Smith Coll., and 
since 1895 prof, of mus. at Vassar 
College; studied in Berlin with Buss- 
ler 1892-93; has published songs and 
text-book on harmony. 

Graben-Hoffmann (gra-ben-hof'-man), 
Gustav, compr. b. Bnin, Posen, Mar. 
7, 1820; d. Potsdam, May 21, 1900. 
Left profession of teacher to study 
singing in Berlin; studied also under 
Hauptmann in Leipzig; taught sing- 
ing in Potsdam, etc., finally in Berlin; 
wrote method and many very popu- 
lar songs. 

Gradener (grad'-e-ner), Hermann Theo- 
dor Otto, teacher, compr. b. Kiel, 
May 8, 1844. Son of Karl Georg 
Peter G. (1812-1883), 'cellist, teacher 
of singing at Vienna and Hamburg 
Cons., compr. of chamber music; 
pupil of father and at Vienna Cons.; 
orgt., vlt. in court orch., teacher of 
harm, at Cons, in Vienna, and since 
1899 prof, of harmony and counter- 
point at Vienna Univ. ; condr. Singa- 
kademie; compositions all instru- 
mental, show especial individuality 
in chamber mus. 

Grandval (gran-val), Marie Felicie 
Clemence de Reiset, Vicomtesse de, 
compr. b. Saint R6my des Monts, 
France, Jan. 20, 1830; d. Paris, Jan. 
15, 1907. Began study at 6; at 12 
pupil of Flotow in composition; later, 
after 2 years' study with Saint-Saens, 
she was able to compose in almost 
every form, sometimes under pseuds. 
Valgrand, Blangy; composed several 
operas, of which Mazeppa (Bordeaux 
1892) is the strongest, masses, and 

other religious music, and oratorio 
Ste. Agnes; she is praised for force, 
individuality, and correctness of style . 

Grasse, Edwin, vli. b. New York, Aug. 
13, 1884. Became blind in infancy; 
pupil of Cesar Thomson, in Brussels, 
where he took prize 1901; debut in 
Berlin 1902; concerts in Vienna, 
London and many German cities 
have won for him high praise, es- 
pecially for perfection of tone and 
depth of feeling; composed symph. 
and suite for orch.; vln. concerto; 
sonata, polonaise, and suite for pf. 
and vln., 2 pf. trios, 2 pf. etudes. 
Resident of New York City. 

Graun (groun), Karl Heinrich, compr. 
b. Wahrenbriick, Saxony, May 7, 
1701; d. Berlin, Aug. 8, 1759. Pupil 
at Kreuzschule at Dresden, singer to 
town council, pupil of Petzoldt and 
J. C. Schmidt; also composed for 
school choir; 1725 tenor at Dresden 
opera; 1726 composed Pollidoro, with 
great success, and 5 other operas; 
under patronage of Frederick the 
Great composed 50 Italian cantatas; 
after 1740, as capellmeister of Italian 
opera in Berlin, composed about 28 
operas, many of which were success- 
ful; most enduring work, however, is 
sacred, a Te Deum, and remarkably 
strong oratorio Der Tod Jesu, per- 
formed annually at Berlin. 

Gray, Hamilton [pseud, of William 
Price Hartwell Jones], baritone, compr. 
b. Flint, Eng., Oct. 17, 1871. 

Greatorex, Thomas, orgt. b. North 
Wingfield, Derbyshire, Eng., Oct. 5, 
1758; d. Hampton, near London, 
July 18, 1831. Pupil of B. Cooke 
and prote'ge' of Earl of Sandwich; 
orgt. at Carlisle; follower of young 
Pretender in Italy; teacher of music 
in London; 1793 condr. of Concert 
of Antient Mus.; with others revived 
vocal concerts; 1819 orgt. at West- 
minster Abbey; condr. of several fes- 
tivals; composed and arranged much 
music for various concerts, arranged 
Parochial Psalmody, composed glees. 

Grechaninov (gret-cha-ne'-noff), Alex- 
ander Tichonovitch, compr. b. Mos- 
cow, Oct. 25, 1864. Studied at Mos- 
cow Cons, until in 1890 he entered 
St. Petersburg Cons.; pupil of Rim- 
sky -Korsakov; composed quartet, pf. 
pieces and " some songs with very 


expressive melodies, and happy a 
cappella choruses. He has some 
affinities with Schubert." [Pougin.] 

Greco (gra'-co), [or Greece], Gaetano, 

teacher, compr. b. Naples, about 
1680; d. (unknown). Pupil and suc- 
cessor of A. Scarlatti at Cons, dei 
Poveri; teacher also at Cons, of San 
Onofrio; Pergolesi, Vinci, and Du- 
rante his pupils; only few composi- 
tions for harpsichord are known. 

Greene, Edwin, compr. b. Gloucester, 
England, Dec. 8, 1856. Entirely 
self-taught in mus.; orgt. at 14 and 
held various appointments until 40, 
when he became invalid; compr. of 
songs which, he says, " do not aim 
at the classical but are written sim- 
ply and solely for the people"; also 
writes verses, some of which he has 
set to music. 

Greene, Harry Plunket, bass. b. Old 
Connaught House, Co. Wicklow, 
Ireland, June 24, 1865. Studied at 
Stuttgart under Hromada and Goet- 
schius, at Florence under Vannuccini, 
and at London under Welsh and 
Blume; d6but London 1888; since 
then has been very popular at Lon- 
don concerts and recitals, as intelli- 
gent interpreter of songs and oratorio 
parts; visited America 1893 and later 
seasons with success. 

Greene, Maurice, compr. b. London, 
1695 [1696?]; d. there, Dec. 1, 1755. 
Chorister under C. King; org. pupil 
of R. Brind; orgt. at St. Dunstan's, 
St. Andrew's, St. Paul's 1718, Chapel 
Royal 1727; friendship with Handel 
broken off by discovery of similar 
friendship with Bononcini; prof, of 
music, Cambridge Univ. 1730; 1743 
published Forty Select Anthems 
which give him high rank among 
English church composers. 

Gregh (greg'), Louis, compr., publisher. 
Composed and produced several 
successful vaudeville operettas, Un 
lycee de jeunes filles, Patard, Patard 
et cie, and a number of songs. Lives 
in Paris. 

Gregoir (greg-6-ar), Edouard Georges 
Jacques, compr., writer, b. Turnhout, 
near Antwerp, Nov. 7, 1822; d. 
Wyneghem, June 28, 1890. Studied 
with his brother Jacques Mathieu 
Joseph G., pst. (1817-1876); at 


Biberich under Rummel; gave suc- 
cessful concerts, toured with sisters 
Milanollo 1842; 1851 settled in 
Antwerp where he composed several 
operas and oratorios, choruses, music 
for pf. and harmonium; wrote many 
articles and books, chiefly researches 
into history of music in Netherlands. 

Gregorov'itch, Charles, vlt. b. St. 
Petersburg, Oct. 25, 1867. Studied 
with Besekirskij, Wieniawski, and 
Joachim; d6but at Berlin 1886; 
concertmaster at Helsingfors; has 

Elayed successfully in Europe, Eng- 
md, and on two trips to America. 

Gregory I, Pope. b. Rome, 540; d. 
there, 604. Pope in 590. There has 
been much discussion whether G. 
personally supervised collection of 
church music known as Gregorian 
or whether it takes its name from 
the time merely; general verdict 
seems to be that he had a large 
personal share; collection includes 
music for the mass and other services 
of the Church; important not only 
because of wonderful, austere beauty 
of music itself but also because, 
together with the Ambrosian collec- 
tion and a Spanish collection, this 
church music represents theory of 
music current in early Middle Ages. 

Grell, Eduard August, compr. b. Ber- 
lin, Nov. 6, 1800; d. Steglitz, near 
Berlin, Aug. 10, 1886. Pupil of 
father, an orgt., of Kaufmann and 
Zelter; orgt. Nikolaikirche 1817, at 
cathedral 1839, choirmaster there 
1843-45; vice-director at Sing- 
akademie 1832, teacher of comp. 
1851, director 1853-1876; 1838 
royal mus. director, 1858 professor. 
Learned musician and excellent 
teacher who held that vocal music 
was only music of importance; 
composed mass in 16 parts, choral 
works; wrote Aufsatze und GiUachten. 

Gretchaninov, see Grechaninov. 

Gretry (gra-tri), Andre Ernest Modeste, 
compr. b. Lie'ge, Feb. 18, 1741 [ace. 
to Gre'try himself, Brenet's Life, and 
Conservatory documents; but Rie- 
mann, Pougin, etc., give Feb. 8]; 
d. Montmorency, near Paris, Sept. 
24, 1813. Father vlt.; chorister at 
6 in St. Denis Collegiate ch. whence 
his severe masters dismissed him 
at 11; taught by Leclerc, Renekin, 


and Moreau; inspired by perform- 
ances of Italian opera co., he com- 
posed 6 symphonies and mass; by 
aid of Canon du Harlez studied in 
Rome, but was always impatient 
of instruction in counterpoint; after 
9 years in Rome, and one in Geneva, 
arrived in Paris where after two 
years more he obtained libretto for 
Le huron which won instant suc- 
cess 1768; Luctte 1769 (which con- 
tains song Oil peut-on etre mieux 
qu'au sein de sa famille, which has 
been called French Home, Sweet 
Home) repeated success; and about 
50 other operas followed; he was 
honored by his contemporaries, 
admitted to the Institute 1795; 
appointed inspector at Cons., but 
resigned within year; pensioned by 
Napoleon, retired to the " Hermit- 
age " where Rousseau had lived; 
he wrote his own Memoires very 
entertainingly; the real founder of 
French school of comic opera in his 
real appreciation of the importance 
of the text and his almost too great 
insistence on clear declamation. 
(See especially M. Brenet: Gretry.) 

Grieg (greg), Edvard Hagerup, compr. 
b. Bergen, June 15, 1843; d. Bergen, 
Sept. 4, 1907. After first lessons 
on pf. from his mother, he began to 
compose at age of 9; on advice of 
Ole Bull sent to Leipzig Cons., 
where he studied composition with 
Hauptmann, Richter, and Reinecke, 
pf. with Wenzel and Moscheles; 
after further study with Gade at 
Copenhagen and influence of Hart- 
mann there, he at last broke away 
from German traditions; his Scan- 
dinavian feeling was stimulated by 
friendship with compr. Richard 
Nordraak; after N's death 1866, 
G. founded and conducted mus. 
union in Christiania; 1865 and 1870 
he visited Italy and saw much of 
Liszt at Rome; 1879 played pf. 
concerto at Leipzig; except for 
occasional trips to Germany, and 
visits to England in 1888, ^89, '94 
(when he received degree of Mus. 
Doc. at Cambridge), and 1896, he 
lived quietly at Bergen. His works 
are not very numerous, about 100 
songs, some 20 groups of pf. pieces, 
the two suites based on Peer Gynt, 
Aus Holbergs Zeit (suite), two 


Nordische Weisen for string orch., 
Sigurd Jorsalfar, sonatas for pf. 
and vln. and for pf. and 'cello, and 
the pf. concerto are the most promi- 
nent. " His music is lyrical, inti- 
mate, exotic, suggestive, of striking 
finesse; there are phrases polished 
like gems, melodies of perfect pro- 
portion, cadences consummate as 
novel. Its defects are shortness of 
musical phrase and too frequent 
repetition; he was satisfied with the 
dialect of folk music which fitted 
his personal expression." [D. G. 
Mason.] But that he gave adequate 
expression to his personal feeling 
and to his national emotion, that he 
contributed the " essential quality 
pf naive and spontaneous romance," 
is surely enough. 

Grisi (gre'-ze), Giulia, dram. sop. b. 
Milan, July 28, 1811; d. Berlin, 
Nov. 29, 1869. Taught by sister 
Giuditta, mezzo sop. (1805-1840), by 
Celli, and Guglielmi; first appear- 
ance at 17; admired by both Rossini 
and Bellini; ran away from engage- 
ment at Milan; d6but 1832 at 
Italian Opera, Paris, where she sang 
until 1849; first London appearance 
1834; sang in London for many 
seasons, with Rubini, Lablache, and 
later with Mario who became her 
second husband; visited U. S. 1854; 
did not sing at all 1861-66, and 
thereafter chiefly in concerts. 

Grodzki, Boleslaus, compr. b. St. 
Petersburg, Oct. 13, 1865. Studied 
law, held public office, but resigned 
to devote himself to musical journal- 
ism and composition of songs, 
choruses, and pieces for pf. and vln. 
and 'cello; grouped by Pougin with 
those whose own originality is not 
strong enough to break with 
" Russian School." 

Grb'ndahl, Agathe, see Backer-Gron- 
dahl, A. 

Grove, Sir George, writer, b. Clapham, 
Surrey, Aug. 13, 1820; d. Sydenham, 
London, May 28, 1900. Civil engi- 
neer by profession, shared in light- 
house construction in Jamaica, 
Bermuda, and Chester; Secretary 
of Soc. of Arts 1850; as contributor 
to Smith's Diet, of the Bible made 
two trips to Holy Land; active 
interest in Crystal Palace Concerts, 



contributed analytical notes to pro- 
grams for about 40 years; 1868 
editor of Macmillan's Magazine; 
1873 began to edit Diet, of Music 
and Musicians; 1878 visited Amer- 
ica with Stanley; 1882 organized 
and directed Royal Coll. of Mus.; 
though untrained in musical prac- 
tice or theory, he became, by sheer 
dint of listening, an intelligent and 
sympathetic critic; his most original 
musical writing is contained in the 
article in his Diet., on Schubert, whose 
works he rearranged by a theory of 
his own. 

Gruenberg (griin-barg), Eugene, vlt. 
b. Lemberg, Galicia, Oct. 30, 1854. 
Studied at Vienna Cons, with 
Heissler (vln.), Bruckner, Dessoff, 
and Hellmesberger; member of 
Leipzig Gewandhaus Orch., of Bos- 
ton Symph. Orch. 1891-1898, teacher 
of vln., viola, and ensemble 
at N. E. Cons.; composed symph., 
suite, dances, and songs; written 
manual and theory of violin playing. 

Gruenfeld, Alfred, pst. b. Prague, 
July 4, 1852. Pupil of Hoger, 
Krejci, and at Kullak's Acad. in 
Berlin; living in Vienna as court 
pianist and imperial chamber vir- 
tuoso; makes frequent successful 
tours throughout Europe. His 
brother, Hermann, 'cellist, b. Prague, 
Apr. 21, 1855. Studied at Prague 
and Vienna Cons.; teacher at 
Kullak's Acad. Berlin. 

Griitzmacher (griitz'-mak-er), Friedrich 
Wilhelm Ludwig, 'cellist, b. Dessau, 
Mar. 1, 1832; d. Dresden, Feb. 22, 
1903. Pupil of father, Drechsler, 
and Schneider; 1848 in orch. in 
Leipzig attracted notice of David; 
1849 first 'cellist at Gewandhaus 
Orch.; teacher at Leipzig Cons.; 
chamber virtuoso at Dresden 1860, 
instructor at Cons. 1877; of wide 
influence as teacher (of Hegar, 
Becker, etc.), editor and reviver of 
classic works, author of valuable 
studies; composer for his instrument. 

Guadagnini (gwa-dan-ye'-ni) , Lorenzo, 
vln.-maker. b. Piacenza (?), about 
1695 (?); d. Milan, after 1760. 
One of prominent family of makers 
extending from 18th century to 
present; pupil of Stradivari, with 
whom he worked at Cremona; 

successfully followed his master; 
his instruments are bold in design, 
model inclined to flatness, with 
scroll of considerable originality, 
powerful, rich tone. Son Giovanni 
Battista (1711-1786) made vlns. 
more closely imitated from Stradi- 
vari than his father's; his woods 
are remarkable, but his varnish is 
not so mellow as Lorenzo's. 

Guarnerius (gwar-na'-rius), family of 
vln.-makers at Cremona. Andrea, 
b. 1626; d. Dec. 7, 1698. Pupil of 
N. Amati. Violins at first like 
A's, later flatter with some changes 
in sound holes; his son Giuseppe 
(1680-1730) altered shape still fur- 
ther; greatest of them was Giuseppe 
Antonio, nephew of Andrea, called 
G. del Gesu because of mark I. H. S. 
on instruments, b. June 8, 1683; 
d. about 1742. Pupil, probably, of 
cousin Giuseppe, follower of Gasparo 
da Said; works of three periods: 
1st variable, experimental; 2d beau- 
tiful instruments, with remarkable 
amber varnish; 3d, bolder and heav- 
ier model. 

Guglielmi (gool-yel'-mi), Pietro, compr. 
b. Massa di Carrara, May, 1727; d. 
Rome, Nov. 19, 1804. Taught by 
father (maestro di cappella to Duke 
of Modena), by Durante in Cons, 
di San Lorenzo; first opera, Turin 
1755, followed by many successes; 
after period in Dresden and London 
on the return to Naples in 1777, 
reconquered popularity which had 
been lost to Paisiello and Cimarosa; 
maestro at Vatican 1793; most 
famous operas La betta pescatrice, 
La serva innamorata, oratorio Deb- 
bora e Sisera show fertility of 
invention; son Pietro Carlo (1763- 
1827) also composed operas. 

Guido d' Arezzo (gue-do da-ret'-zo), 
tlieorist. b. Arezzo, about 995; d. 
Avellano (?), May 17 (?), 1050 (?). 
Monk in Benedictine monastery 
near Ferrara; invented new system- 
of teaching music which, some say, 
caused him to be driven from 
monastery; summoned to Rome and 
commended by Pope John XIX 
(possibly previously by Pope Bene- 
dict VIII); became abbot at mon- 
astery of Sante Croce, where he 
died; his inventions have been ques- 
tioned, but he seems clearly to have 



introduced staff of four lines, one 
between and one above two lines 
previously used; also apparently 
reconstructed scale on principle of 
hexachords and diagram to explain 
them by joints of left hand, known 
as Guidonian hand; thirdly, in- 
vented solmisation, use for notes 
of scale of syllables do re mi, etc., 
taken from Latin hymn. 

Guilmant (gil'-mon), Alexandra Felix, 
orgt. b. Boulogne, Mar. 12, 1837. 
Pupil of father Jean Baptiste G. 
(1793-1890), and of Lemmens, in 
harmony of Carulli; orgt. at 16; 
teacher in Boulogne Cons, at 20; 
1871 orgt. of La TrinitS, Paris; 1896 
prof, at Cons.; visited United States 
in 1893, 1897 and 1904; founded 
organ concerts at Trocadero and 
Schola Cantorum in Paris; has 
published org. symphonies, sonatas, 
etc., masses, motets, several collec- 
tions L'organiste pratique, etc.; one 
of most prominent orgts., he has had 
great influence everywhere by the 
virtuosity of his own playing and 
through his many pupils. 

Guiraud (ge-ro'), Ernest, compr. b. 
New Orleans, June 23, 1837; d. 
Paris, May 6, 1892. Pupil of father, 
Jean Baptiste G. (1803- about 1864), 
also winner of Prix de Rome; pro- 
duced opera at New Orleans at 15; 
studied at Paris Cons, under Mar- 
montel and Halevy; Grand prix de 
Rome 1859; played at Concerts 
populaires; 1876 prof, of harm, and 
accompaniment at Cons.; composed 
opera Sylvie and several other 
ballets and operas, none of which 
was very successful. 

Gulbranson, Ellen (nee Norgren); 
dram. sop. b. Stockholm, March 3, 
1863. Pupil at Stockholm Cons., 
and in Paris of Marchesi and Elena 
Kenneth; d6but Stockholm, concert 
1886, opera 1889; married G.; be- 
came known in Germany about 1892; 
played Brunnhilde at Bayreuth 1896. 

Gumbert (goom-bert), Ferdinand, 
compr. b. Berlin, Apr. 22, 1818; d. 
there, Apr. 6, 1896. Pupil of Fischer 
and Clapius; d6but as tenor at Son- 
dershausen; sang 1840-42 as bari- 
tone at Cologne; studied comp. with 
C. Kreutzer; settled in Berlin as 
teacher and compr.; wrote several 

operettas and numerous songs (Bis 
der Rechte kommt, Thou art my 
Dream, etc.). 

Gungl (goong'l), Joseph, compr. b. 
Zsambek, Hungary, Dec. 1, 1810; d. 
Weimar, Jan. 31, 1889. Oboe player 
and bandmaster in Austrian artil- 
lery; 1843 orch. of his own in Berlin, 
which he brought to America in 1849; 
Royal Mus. Director 1850; infantry 
bandmaster 1858; lived in Munich 
1864-76, then in Frankfort; dance 
music extraordinarily popular. 

Gura (goo'-ra), Eugen, dram, baritone, 
b. Pressern, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1842; 
d. Aug. 26, 1906. After lessons at 
Polytechnic and Akademie at Vienna 
and in Munich Cons., debut in 1865 
at Munich; sang at Breslau, Leipzig 
(where he was extremely popular), 
Hamburg and Munich; sang in first 
complete production of Ring der 
Nibelungen, Bayreuth 1876; retired 
from stage 1895. 

Gurlitt, Cornelius, compr. b. Altona, 
near Hamburg, Feb. 10, 1820; d. 
there, June 17, 1901. Pupil of Rein- 
ecke (father of C. Reinecke) and 
Weyse; orgt. at Altona; prof, in 
Hamburg Cons.; royal mus. director 
1874; composed 3 operas and cham- 
ber music, but is chiefly known as 
writer of instructive pf. pieces, 
wherein his " gift of pure melody, 
knowledge of steps of pedagogics, 
easy and refined form of expression 
and acquaintance with power of the 
forming hand " made him remark- 
ably successful. 

Gye, Mrs. E., see Albani, Emma. 

Gyrowetz (zhi-ro-vets), Adalbert, compr. 
b. Budweis, Bohemia, Feb. 19, 1763; 
d. Vienna, Mar. 19, 1850. Early 
lessons from father, choirmaster; 
studied law at Prague; as private 
secretary to Count von Funfkircher, 
compositions were performed; won 
favor from Mozart m Vienna; after 
2 years' study in Naples with Sala, 
went to Paris and claimed author- 
ship of some symphonies credited to 
Haydn; produced opera, gave con- 
certs, met Haydn in London; capell- 
meister Vienna court opera 1804-31; 
friends gave benefit concert to re- 
lieve poverty 1843; composed 30 
operas, 19 masses, over 60 sympho- 
nies, and other works now obsolete. 




Habeneck (a'-be-nek), Francois An- 
toine, condr. b. Mezieres, Ardennes, 
Jan. 22 [ace. to documents of 
Paris Cons. Jan. 23 and June 1 are 
also given], 1781; d. Paris, Feb. 8, 
1849. Father, member of army band, 
gave him vln. lessons; early composi- 
tions without instruction; pupil of 
Baillot at Paris Cons.; member of 
orch. at Opera Comique and Ope>a; 
leader at latter; founder and condr. 
1828-48 Socie'te' des concerts du 
Cons.; director and condr. at Op6ra; 
prof, of vln. at Cons.; among pupils 
Alard and Leonard; great influence 
in introducing Beethoven's music in 

Haberbier (ha-ber-ber), Ernst, pst. b. 
Konigsberg, Oct. 5, 1813; d. Ber- 
gen, Mar. 12, 1869. Pupil of father, 
orgt.; 1832 became teacher at St. 
Petersburg, court pst. there 1847; 
gave concerts in London 1850; brill- 
iant success in Paris 1852, and 
thereafter alternately between St. 
Petersburg and Moscow; taught in 
Bergen after 1866; died while play- 
ing at concert; system of pf. playing 
based on division of difficult passages 
between two hands; his Etudes poe- 
sies are highly esteemed. 

Haberl (ha'-berl), Franz Xaver, theor- 
ist, b. Oberellenbach, Bavaria, Apr. 
12, 1840; d. Regensberg, Sept. 7, 
1910. Studied in seminary at Pas- 
sau; took priest's orders 1862; 
mus. dir. at seminary; orgt. at Rome 
and 1871-82 at Ratisbon, where he 
founded famous school of ch.mus.; 
edited Musica Sacra, works of Pales- 
trina (Breitkopf and Hartel Edition) ; 
other collections; one of greatest 
authorities on church mus. and its 

Hadden, James Cuthbert, orgt., writer. 
b. Banchory-Ternan, near Aberdeen, 
Sept. 9, 1861. Studied under private 
teacher; after 1882 orgt. in several 
places, 1889 in Edinburgh, where he 
still lives; frequent contributor to 
periodicals, author of lives of Handel, 
Haydn, Mendelssohn, and Chopin, 
editor of Scottish Musical Review. 

Hadley, Henry Kimball, compr. b. 
Somerville, Mass., Dec. 20, 1871. 
Pupil of father; studied vln. in Bos- 
ton with H. Heindl and C. N. Allen; 
harmony with Emery, counterpoint 
with Chad wick; 1894-95 studied 
comp. in Vienna with Mandyczewski; 
1896-1904 dir. music dept. St. Paul 's 
School, -Garden City, L. I., and orgt. 
in New York; Dec. 1897 1st sym- 
phony Youth and Life produced in 
New York under Seidl; 1899 prize 
cantata In Music's Praise; 1901 2d 
symphony The Four Seasons won 
Paderewski Prize for American com- 
position and N. E. Cons. Prize; 1906 
3d symphony; also composed 3 comic 
operas, 3 serious overtures; 3 ballet 
suites, 6 ballades for chorus and 
orch., string quartet, string trio, 
sonata for vln. and pf., quintet for 
strings and pf., Symphonic Fantasia, 
tone poem Salome, lyric drama Mer- 
lin and Vivien, opera Safie produced 
at Mayence 1909, The Culprit Fay, 
rhapsody for orch., won prize in 1909 
of Nat. Fed. of Music Clubs; many 
anthems, part-songs, pf. pieces and 
over a hundred songs; 1905-09 in 
Europe; 1908 condr. at Mayence 
Opera; 1909 condr. Seattle Symph. 
Orch. His music is praised for skilful 
construction, vitality and freedom 
from morbidness. 

Hadow, William Henry, writer, b. 
Ebrington, Gloucestershire, Dec. 27, 
1859. Educated at Oxford; studied 
mus. at Darmstadt and under C. H. 
Lloyd; fellow, tutor, lecturer on mus., 
examiner in Litterae Humaniores at 
Oxford; has composed charming 
songs, etc., but is chiefly noted for 
Studies in Modern Music, Primer of 
Sonata Form, A Croatian Composer 
(sketch of Haydn), and other writ- 
ings in which he treats the subjects 
with literary skill and broad cul- 
ture; editor Oxford History of Music 
and author of volume on Viennese 

(han'), Jacob H., pst., teacher, b. 
Philadelphia, Dec. 1, 1847; d. 1902? 
Early interest iii mus.; orgt. in Chi- 
cago while pupil of Ziegfeld, Mason, 



etc.; manager of several traveling 
concert companies; dir. Female Sem. 
at Coldwater, Mich. 1866-69, and 
(after study with Richter and Plaidy 
in Leipzig) dir. of mus. at Mich. 
Female Seminary at Detroit 1872- 
74; founder and dir. of Detroit Cons. 
1874; successful teacher; composed 
some pf. pieces, songs, etc. 

Hahn (an'), Reynaldo, compr. b. Ca- 
racas, Venezuela, Aug. 9, 1875 [or 
1874]. Pupil at Paris Cons, of Dubois, 
Lavignac, and Massenet; 1st opera 
given at Ope'ra Comique 1898; pub- 
lished charming songs (Chansons 
grises, Chansons espagnoles, etc.); 
opera La Carmdite 1902; incidental 
mus. for Esther. 

Hale, Philip, critic, b. Norwich, Vt., 
Mar. 5, 1854. After early music les- 
sons, orgt. in Northampton, Mass.; 
graduated Yale 1876; member of 
Albany bar 1880; lessons from D. 
Buck 1876; in Europe 1882-87 with 
Haupt, Faisst, Rheinberger, and 
Guilmant; orgt. Albany, Troy, Rox- 
bury, Mass. 1889-1905; critic on sev- 
eral Boston papers, notably Journal 
1891-1903, Herald after 1903; writer 
of notes Bost. Symph. Orch.. pro- 
grams since 1902; Boston corre- 
spondent Musical Courier 1892-98; 
editor Musical Record, New Music 
Review, etc. 

Halevy (al-a-vi), Jacques Frangois 
Fromental Elie, compr. b. Paris, 
May 27, 1799; d. Nice, Mar. 17, 1862. 
Parents Jews, real name Levi ; entered 
Paris Cons, at 10, pupil of Lambert, 
Berton, and Cherubini; Prix de Rome 
1819; 1827 produced one-act opera 
and became prof, of harm, and 
accomp., counterpoint and fugue 
1833, composition 1840 at Cons.; 
among pupils were Gounod, Masse", 
Bizet, etc.; in 1829 Clari and Le 
dilettante d' Avignon were successful; 
chef de chant at Ope'ra 1830-46; com- 
pletion of Harold's Ludovic 1832, 
production of La Juive and L' Eclair 
1835 brought him to height of fame; 
member of Institute 1836; he con- 
tinued to produce operas with some 
success even after Meyerbeer's Hu- 
guenots (1836) had turned the fashion; 
his operas contain many tender 
melodies and show great dramatic 
power, chiefly in differentiation of 

character, but many passages are 
vague, obscure, or monotonous; his 
instrumentation, though interesting 
to musicians, is often too refined 
or strained for popularity; published 
pleasant essays, Souvenirs et por- 
traits, and Derniers souvenirs. 

Halir (ha-leV), Carl, vlt. b. Hohenelbe, 
Bohemia, Feb. 1, 1859; d. Berlin, 
Dec. 21, 1909. After lessons from 
father, studied under Bennewitz at 
Prague Cons., then under Joachim 
at Berlin; violin in Bilse's orch., 
concertmaster at Konigsberg, Mann- 
heim, Weimar 188494; leader at 
Berlin Court Opera 1894-1904; 
teacher at Hochschule after 1894; 
successful trip to U. S. 1896-97; 1897 
joined Joachim Quartet; married 
Therese Zerbst, singer; esteemed all 
over Europe as soloist and quartet 
player of distinction. 

Hall, Charles King, compr., writer, b. 
London, 1845; d. there, Sept. 1, 1895. 
Orgt. at several London churches; 
author of School for the Harmonium 
and No vello's Harmonium Primer; 
composed church mus. and popular 
operettas A Christmas Stocking, The 
Naturalist, etc. 

Halle, Adam de la, see Adam de la Halle. 

Halle (hal'-la), Sir Charles [real name 
Carl Halle], pst., condr. b. Hagen, 
Westphalia, Apr. 11, 1819; d. Man- 
chester, Eng., Oct. 25, 1895. Son of 
orgt.; played in public frequently as 
child; stud, with Rinck and G. Weber 
at Darmstadt; in Paris after 1836, 
studied with Kalkbrenner, became 
friend of Chopin, Liszt, Berlioz, and 
Cherubini; Revolution of 1848 drove 
him to England; 1857 founded and 
directed Manchester Orch.; remark- 
able condr., he brought orch. to 
London and did much to introduce 
music of Berlioz; also after 1852 gave 
pf. recitals, among first in London, 
at which he showed himself remark- 
able Beethoven player; correct but 
somewhat cold player; married for 
second wife Wilma Maria Franziska 
Neruda, known as Norman-Neruda, 
vlt. b. Briinn, Mar. 29, 1839. Pupil 
of Jansa; de"but Vienna 1846; played 
with sister, pst., and with father, 
orgt., and brother, 'cellist; 1849 
appeared in London; 1864 sensational 



success in Paris; married Ludwig 
Norman; prolonged popularity in 
London, after marriage with Halle, 
went with him to Australia; Ameri- 
can tour 1899. 

Hallen (hal-len), Anders, compr. b. 
Gothenburg, Sweden, Dec. 22, 1846. 
Pupil of Reinecke, Rheinberger, and 
Rietz; condr. Musical Union, Goth- 
enburg, and of Philharmonic concerts 
and royal opera, Stockholm; com- 
posed operas, Hexfattan 1896; ballad 
cycles Vom Pagen und der Konigs- 
tochter, Traumkonig und sein Lieb, etc. 

Hallstrom (hal'-strain), Ivan Kristian, 
compr. b. Stockholm, June 5, 1826; 
d. there, Apr. 10, 1901. Student of 
law; librarian to Crown Prince; 
director of school of mus. 1861; com- 
positions are national in subject as 
well as in style; has written several 
operas Der Bergkonig (most success- 
ful), and cantata Die Blumen, which 
took prize at Stockholm. 

Hambourg, Mark, pst. b. Bogutchar, 
S: Russia, May 30, 1879. Pupil of 
father, pf. teacher, and of Lesche- 
tizky; as youthful prodigy known 
as Max H., gave concerts in 1891; 
reappeared at Vienna Philharmonic 
concerts, having played in Australia 
the year before; 1896 again in Lon- 
don; since then popular in many 
cities; first appearance U. S. 1899 
and successful concerts here 1900, 
1902, etc. ; makes his home in London ; 
possessed of prodigious memory and 
amazing technic; is said to be 
" temperamentally akin to Rubin- 

Hamerik, Asger [properly Hammerich], 

compr. b. Copenhagen, Apr. 8, 1843. 
Early aptitude for music encouraged; 
pupil of Gade, Haberbier, and in 
1860 of Von Billow; abandoning pf. 
studies, studied comp. in Paris with 
Berlioz whose only pupil he claims to 
be and whose substitute as condr. he 
often was; 1872-98 director of Pea- 
body Cons., Baltimore, where he gave 
pf. concerts; composed 6 symphonies, 
Po6tique, Tragique, etc., and 2 choral 
trilogies, 4 operas; occasionally bom- 
bastic, but often genuinely lyrical 
and really humorous. 

Hamilton, Clarence Grant, teacher, 
author, b. Providence, R. I., June 9, 
1865. Educated in local schools 

and Brown University (A.B. 1888; 
A.M. 1900); began the study of 
piano playing at an early age, chief 
teachers being Edward Hoffman and 
Arthur Foote; studied organ and 
theory with H. C. Macdougall and 
theory with G. W. Chadwick; taught 
mathematics and language at a 
boys' school in Providence, and 
piano, privately; associate professor 
of music, Wellesley College, 1904; 
organist Congregational Church, 
Wellesley; officer of Music Teachers' 
National Association, N. E. Chapter 
American Guild of Organists; pub- 
lished compositions include songs, 
piano pieces, and anthems; author of 
Outlines of Music History and Piano 
Teaching: Its Principles and Prob- 
lems; articles in musical magazines. 

TTatnma, Benjamin, compr. b. Fried- 
ingen, Oct. 10, 1831. Studied with 
Lindpaintner at Stuttgart where he 
became director of new mus. school, 
after having lived in Paris, Rome, 
and Konigsberg; comp. an opera, 
part-songs, etc. 

Hammerschmidt (ham'-mer-shmit) , An- 
dreas, orgt., compr. b.Briix, Bohemia, 
1611; d. Zittau, Oct. 29, 1675. Pupil 
at Schandau of Stephan Otto; orgt. 
at Freiburg and 1639 at Zittau; 
originality makes him of importance 
in development of Lutheran ch. mus. 
before Bach; composed Geistliche 
Concerten, Geistliche Madrigalen, Dia- 
log zwischen Gott und einer glaubigen 
Seele (form afterward developed into 
Bach's cantatas and Handel's orato- 
rios), Fest-Buss-und Danklieder (32 
hymns, some of which are still in 
use), masses, etc. 

Hanchett, Henry G., pst., author, b. 
Syracuse, N. Y., Aug. 29, 1853. 
Father an amateur church organist, 
mother a choir singer; began music 
study at six years, played in public 
at eight; graduated Syracuse High 
School, 1871; N. Y. Homoeopathic 
Medical College 1884; pupil in music 
of Ernst Held, A. J. Goodrich, 
Wm. H. Sherwood, Theodor Kullak, 
Wm. Mason, A. K. Virgil; teacher 
at various schools of music, including 
Beethoven Conservatory, St. Louis, 
Metropolitan Conservatory and 
Adelphi School of Musical Art, New 
York; director (1910) of musical 
department National Park Seminary, 



organist Syracuse, N. Y., St. Louis, 
New York, and suburban towns; 
musical director at Monteagle, Tenn., 
and De Funiak Springs, Fla., 
Chautauquas; lecturer on music for 
the Brooklyn Institute and New 
York City Board of Education; has 
given lecture recitals throughout 
Canada and the United States; 
author of several medical and the 
following musical books: Teaching 
as a Science and The Art of the 
Musician; inventor of the Sostenuto 
or tone-sustaining pedal in general 
use in grand pianos; a founder of 
the American Guild of Organists. 

Handel, Georg Friedrich, compr. b. 
Halle, Saxony, Feb. 23, 1685; d. 
London, Apr. 14, 1759. Son of 
surgeon-barber who, wishing the 
son to be a lawyer, refused him all 
musical instruction; but the boy 
learned to play on a clavichord 
which was concealed in the garret; 
at 8 he played before Duke of 
Weissenfels so well that the latter 
overcame the father's objections. 
After some lessons from Zachau, he 
met Ariosto and Bononcini at 
Berlin, and so impressed the elector 
by playing and improvising that 
he wished to send him to Italy, but 
father still hoped that he would 
study law; after father's death, he 
did enter Halle University 1702, 
being at same time orgt.; at Ham- 
burg 1703-1706, he played in orch. 
under Keiser, became friend of 
Mattheson and quarreled with him; 
composed 4 operas, of which Almira 
was most successful. In Italy 1706- 
1710 he produced operas and sacred 
music at Naples, Florence, Rome, 
and Venice; 1710 after few months 
as capellmeister to elector of Han- 
over he went to England, and 
produced Rinaldo; he was again in 
England 1712-1714, when elector 
became George I, and Handel made 
peace with king only after com- 
position of the beautiful Water 
Music. After producing his last 
German work, The Passion, in 
Hanover, he became chapelmaster 
to Duke of Chandos, for whom he 
wrote the Chandos anthems, etc. 
In 1720 undertook direction of 
Italian Opera for a society known 
as the Royal Acad. of Mus.; engaged 

company including Senesino, and 
produced Radamisto. Opposition to 
his success on part of Bononcini and 
Ariosto led to Muzio Scevola, for 
which each one composed one act; 
continued enmity of Bononcini, 
aided by personal enemies of Handel, 
caused division of London society; 
1729 partner of Heidegger at King's 
Theatre; defection of Senesino and 
acquisition by opposition of such 
singers as Cuzzoni, Farinelli, and 
Faustina Bordoni, with her husband 
Hasse, pressed H. hard; on Heideg- 
ger's retirement, his rivals gained 
King's Theatre and Handel went to 
Co vent Garden. H. became bank- 
rupt 1737, and the other company 
met no better fate. In 1738 he 
turned to English oratorio, produc- 
ing Saul, Israel in Egypt 1739, 
Messiah 1742 in Dublin, 1743 in 
London, Samson 1743, and others. 
Although again bankrupt 1744, he 
persisted in composition until blind- 
ness 1752, and even thereafter, 
Triumph of Time and Truth 1757. 
He wrote about 40 operas and 
about 30 oratorios and occasional 
anthems, odes, etc.; edition of his 
works edited by Chrysander in 94 
volumes 1859-94 is final. Person- 
ally H. was proud, sensitive, im- 
patient, given to terrible bursts of 
rage and profanity, yet generous to 
singers and those associated with 
him, and to the poor. He frequently 
plagiarized themes of other com- 
posers, partly owing to contem- 
porary carelessness in such matters 
and partly because of an individual 
lack of delicacy. His operas are 
similar to those composed at the 
tune in France and Italy and not 
much better; his instrumental music 
is not so original as that of Bach or 
Couperin; even his organ music is 
not supreme. He excels in oratorio 
only; there his power of producing 
broad and massive effect has full 
sway, and his limitations lack of 
delicacy and fine discrimination and 
tendency toward mechanical means 
are not conspicuous. Comparison 
with Bach rests on their being born 
the same year, not on any real 
resemblance between the laborious, 
subtle, incessantly original work of 
the retired organist and the conspicu- 
ous achievements of Handel. 



Handle, Robert de, writer. Author of 
treatise commenting on that of 
Franco of Cologne, dated 1326; 
deals with notation, time-values, 
and modes of rhythm, showing 
unsettled state of notation. (See 

Handrock (hand-rok), Julius, pst., 
compr. b. Naumburg, June 22, 
1830; d. Halle, Jan. 5, 1894. Lived 
chiefly in Halle, as pf. teacher; 
compositions mostly for pf. and 
generally of an educational char- 

Hanscom, E. W., compr. b. Durham, 
Me., Dec. 28, 1848. Studied in 
native state, with two periods in 
London, Berlin, and Vienna; has 
published various secular and relig- 
ious songs and choruses. 

Hanslick, Eduard, critic, b. Prague, 
Sept. 11, 1825; d. Baden, near 
Vienna, Aug. 6, 1904. Son of bibliog- 
rapher, student of law and philos- 
ophy; stud. pf. with Tomaschek; 
doctor's degree Vienna 1849; tutor 
in aesthetics and mus. hist. Vienna 
Univ. 1856, prof. 1870; public 
lecturer 1859-63, critic to Wiener 
Zeitung 1848-49, Presse 1855-64, and 
Neue Freie Presse; first book Vom 
Musikalisch-Schonen, epoch-making 
in its insistence on the limitations 
of mus. to musical ideas, was fol- 
lowed by many others; an ardent, 
often violent opponent pf Wagner 
and Liszt and equally violent sup- 
porter of Brahms and Schumann. 

Hardelot (ar-de-lo), Guy d' [pseud, of 
Mrs. W. T. Rhodes, nee Helen Guy], 
compr. b. Hardelot Castle, near 
Boulogne-sur-Mer. Composed songs 
chiefly French, with wide range of 
feeling, and skill in composition; 
Sans toi, Almond Blossoms, A 
Bunch of Violets are well known; 
visited America with Calve; living 
in London. 

Harding, Henry Alfred, orgt., writer. 
b. Salisbury, July 25, 1856. Pupil 
of Abram, Keeton, and Corfe; Mus. 
Doc. Oxford 1882; examiner for 
Soc. of Musicians; orgt. and director 
at Sidmouth, later at Bedford; 
compr. of setting of Psalm 106, 
morning service, etc., author Analy- 
sis of Form as displayed in Beethoven's 
Sonatas, and Musical Ornaments. 

Harknes, see Senkrah, Anna L. 

Harris, Sir Augustus [Henry Glossop], 

impresario. b. Paris, 1852; d. 
Folkestone, Eng., June 22, 1896. 
Originally actor, asst. stage manager 
under Mapleson 1873; leased Drury 
Lane Theatre, London, 1879, pro- 
duced pantomimes and melodramas; 
managed annual visits of Carl Rosa 
Co. and in 1888 began long career 
as manager of Co vent Garden; 
made opera again the fashion in 
London, introducing many new stars 
and new works. 

Harris, William Victor, compr. b. 
New York, Apr. 27, 1869. Pupil of 
Blum, Courtney, Schilling, and 
Seidl (conducting); orgt. in Brook- 
lyn and N. Y.; condr. choral 
societies in Utica and N. Y.; coach 
at Metropolitan Opera 1892-95; asst. 
condr. to Seidl at Brighton Beach 
1895-96; living in N. Y.; vocal 
teacher and compr., chiefly of songs. 

Harriss, Charles Albert Edwin, orgt., 
compr. b. London, Dec. 15, 1862. 
Chorister and orgt. at early age in 
England; living since 1883 at 
Montreal, orgt. at Ch. of St. James 
the Apostle; founder of madrigal 
society; compr. of opera, cantata, 
much church mus.; had great 
influence in increase of musical 
interest in Montreal and Canada 

Hart, John Thomas, vln.-maker. b. 
Westminster, Dec. 17, 1805; d. 
there, Jan. 1, 1874. Pupil of Gilkes, 
and careful student of Italian violins, 
in which he dealt as expert. His son 
and business successor, George, vln.- 
maker, writer, b. London, Mar. 23, 
1839; d. near Newhaven, Apr. 25, 
1891. Stud, at Royal Acad. with 
Sainton and Macfarren; author of 
very valuable work, The Violin, 
its Famous Makers and Their Imi- 
tators 1875, and less authoritative 
The Violin and Its Music 1881. 

Hartmann, Johan Peter Emilius, compr. 
b. Copenhagen, May 14, 1805; d. 
there, Mar. 10, 1900. Grandson of 
Johann Ernst H. (1726-1793), compr. 
of Danish national hymn; son of 
August Wilhelm, orgt.; his father's 
assistant; at first a lawyer; taught 
in Copenhagen Cons, of which he 



was director 1840; Royal capellm. 
1849; compr. of 4 successful operas 
(Die Ravnen 1832 was first), sym- 
phonies, incidental music; first 
exponent of Scandinavian national 
music; Gade was his son-in-law. 
His son Emil, compr. b. Copen- 
hagen, Feb. 21, 1836; d. there, July 
19, 1898. Pupil of father and Gade; 
court orgt. 1871 to retirement 1873; 
1891 director of Mus. Society; 
composed several operas and instr. 

Hartmann, Arthur, vlt. b. Mat6 Szalka, 
Hungary, July 23, 1881. Came to 
America as infant. Educated here 
entirely, chiefly as pupil of C. M. 
Loeffler; went to Berlin unheralded 
1902, and after successful d6but 
played in various cities; lives and 
teaches in Paris 1909, more praised 
for unique quality of tone than for 

Hasler [or Hassler], Hans Leo von, 
compr. b. Nuremberg, 1564; d. 
Frankfort, June 8, 1612. Eldest of 3 
sons of Isaac H., town musician; 
studied with father and with A. 
Gabrieli in Venice; first German 
compr. who studied in Italy; 1585 
orgt. to Count Fugger; 1608 to 
Christian II of Saxony; composed 
Latin motets and masses, which 
were said to unite beauty of Italian 
and German art; holds same place 
in German art that Palestrina does 
in Italian; brothers Jacob (1566- 
1601), orgt., and Caspar (1570-1618), 
orgt., clavier player, editor of collec- 
tion of church music. 

Hasse (has-s6), Johann Adolph [Peter], 
compr. b. Bergedorf, near Ham- 
burg [baptized Mar. 25], 1699; d. 
Venice, Dec. 16, 1783. Taught by 
his father; influence of poet Ulrich 
Konig led to engagements as singer 
at Hamburg and at Brunswick, 
where he produced only German 
opera; 1724, after few lessons from 
Porpora, became pupil of A. Scar- 
latti; having composed serenade 
sung by Tesi and Farinelli was com- 
missioned to write Italian opera 
which made him popular; known 
as il caro Sassone; met and married 
Faustina Bordoni for whom he 
composed famous works; 1731 direc- 
tor of Dresden opera, successful 
despite rivalry of Porpora; about 

1740 visited London, but did not 
wish to be rival to Handel; after 
losses in siege of Dresden, withdrew 
to Vienna, where for the third time 
he found a formidable rival in Gluck, 
and saw possibilities of eclipse in 
Mozart's beginnings; retired to 
Venice about 1773. Composed over 
100 operas, church music, concertos, 
with much .delightful melody. His 
wife Faustina Bordoni, dram, mezzo 
sop. b. Venice, 1700; d. there, 
Nov. 4, 1783. Studied with Gas- 
parini and B. Marcello; d6but 1716; 
sang at Venice, Naples, Florence, 
Vienna, London under Handel 
(1726-30), where she astonished 
by facility, rapidity, dexterity in 
taking breath, and power of sustain- 
ing notes; after marriage with 
Hasse 1730, went with him to 
Dresden and thence to Venice. 

Hastings, Frank Seymour, compr. b. 
Mendham, N. Y., May 31, 1853. 
Son of clergyman; early played org., 
studied composition and singing in 
such leisure as could be snatched 
from business; composed chiefly 
songs, of which Red, Red Rose has 
had large sale, as well as anthem 
Just as I am. 

Hastings, Thomas, writer, compr. b. 
Washington, Conn., Oct. 15, 1787; 
d. New York, May 2, 1872. Self- 
taught; editor Utica Recorder; after 
1832 organized church choirs and 
taught psalmody in N. Y.; wrote 
History of Forty Choirs and Dis- 
sertation on Musical Taste; com- 
posed hymn-tunes. 

Hastreiter (has'-tri-ter), Helen, dram, 
contralto, b. Louisville, Ky., Nov. 
14, 1858. Studied with Lamperti; 
married Dr. Burgunzi, physician; 
living in Genoa; has been great 
favorite in Italy. 

Hatton, John Liptrot, compr. b. 
Liverpool, Oct. 12, 1809; d. Margate, 
Sept. 20, 1886. Self-taught, except 
for mere rudiments; went to Lon- 
don 1832; condr. at Drury Lane 
1842; brought out operetta there; 
1844 prod. Pascal Bruno in Vienna; 
1848 visited America; director at 
Princess's Theatre, London, 1853-58; 
composed much incidental music, 
songs (many under pseud. Czapek), 
cantatas, etc. 



Hattstaedt, John J., pst., teacher, b. 
Monroe, Mich , Dec. 29, 1851. 
Father a clergyman; early showed 
inclination toward music; studied 
in the U. S. and in Germany; began 
his professional career in Detroit, 
locating in Chicago in 1875, as 
teacher of piano in the Chicago 
Musical College; founded American 
Conservatory of Music, Chicago, in 
1886, of which he is president and 
teacher of the classes in advanced 
piano playing; lectures on musical 
pedagogy and aesthetics; contributor 
to musical magazines; wrote a 
history of music. 

Hauck (howk), Minnie, dram, sop. 
b. New York, Nov. 16, 1852. Pupil 
of Curto at New Orleans, of Erani 
at N. Y.; debut Brooklyn 1866; 
after further instruction from M. 
Strakosch, sang in London 1868, 
Paris, and Vienna where she became 
great favorite; engaged at Berlin 
1874-77; at Brussels, at London, 
(where she was first Carmen); mar- 
ried E. V. Hesse-Wartegg 1881; 
made three trips around the world, 
appearing in many roles; retired 
1896 to Lucerne. 

Haupt (howpt), Carl August, orgt. b. 
Kuhnau, Silesia, Aug. 25, 1810; d. 
Berlin, July 4, 1891. Pupil of A. W. 
Bach, Klein, Dehn, Schneider; orgt. 
several Berlin churches, finally at 
Parochialkirche; director mus. in- 
stitute; famous for fine improvisa- 
tions; many famous pupils, among 
them J. K. Paine, Eugene Thayer, 
Clarence Eddy. 

Hauptmann (howpt'-man), Moritz, theo- 
rist, compr. b. Dresden, Oct. 13, 
1792; d. Leipzig, Jan. 3, 1868. Son 
of state architect; pupil of Grosse, 
Scholz, and Morlacchi; 1811 became 
friend and pupil of Spohr; 1812 vlt. 
Dresden court orch.; 1815-20 teach- 
ing in Russia; member of Spohr's 
orch. at Kassel; on recommendation 
of Mendelssohn and Spohr, ap- 
pointed director at Thomasschule 
and prof, of counterpoint at Leipzig 
Cons. ; valued teacher of pupils from 
all over the world, Joachim, Von 
Billow, Sullivan, Ferd. David, Dud- 
ley Buck, C. C. Converse, etc! In 
his compositions, as in his teaching, 
he emphasized unity of idea and 
symmetry of form; wrote chiefly 

part-songs, motets, canons, etc., 
widely popular with choral societies; 
also wrote abstruse but valuable 
Nature of Harmony and Rhythm. 

Hausegger (how'-seg-ger), Siegmund 
von, compr. b. Graz, Aug. 16, 1872. 
Taught by father, Friedrich H., 
teacher of theory Graz Univ., and 
by Pohlig, and at Styrian Musik- 
verein; capellm. Graz, Bayreuth, and 
condr. Kaim Orch. Munich, from 
1903-06 condr. Museum Concerts 
at Frankfort; composed part-songs, 
grand mass, opera Zinnover (Munich 
1898); symph. poems, Dionysische 
Fantasie, Barbarossa, and Wieland 
der Schmied, excited attention as 
interesting examples of ultra-modern 
German orchestration. 

Hauser (how'-ser), Miska, vlt. b. 
Pressburg, Hungary, 1822; d. Vien- 
na, Dec. 9, 1887. Studied with 
Matalay, Kreutzer, and, at Vienna 
Cons., with Mayseder and Sechter; 
from 1840-74 appeared in Europe, 
America, and Australia as virtuoso; 
wrote Wanderbuch eines dsterreich- 
ischen Virtuosen about Am. tour; 
composed Lieder ohne Worte for 

Hausmann (hows'-man), Robert, 'cel- 
list, b. Rottleberode, Harz Mts., 
Aug. 13, 1852; d. Vienna, Jan. 19, 
1909. Studied at Brunswick under 
Th. Muller, and at Berlin Hoch- 
schule with Wm. Muller, under 
Joachim's direction; further lessons 
from Piatti; member of Hochberg 
Quartet 1872-76; teacher at Hoch- 
schule; member of Joachim Quartet 
after 1879. 

Havens, Charles Arthur, orgt. b. Essex, 
N. Y. 1842. Studied in Boston; orgt. 
in Chicago for 36 years at 1st Baptist 
Church, where his choir is an impor- 
tant part of the service; compr. of 
over 150 church compositions from 
simple gospel songs to elaborate 

Hawkins, Sir John, historian, b. Lon- 
don, Mar. 30, 1719; d. Westminster, 
May 21, 1789. By profession attor- 
ney; 1740 member of Academy of 
Antient Music, 1749 of Johnson's 
Club; 1752 of Madrigal Society; upon 
marriage to wealthy woman, retired 
to Twickenham, where, among other 
activities, he wrote his History of 



Music; first vol. came out in same 
year (1776) with that of Burney, 
whom contemporaries considered 
superior but whom posterity judges 
less trustworthy. 

Hawley, Charles Beach, compr. b. 
Brookfield, Conn., Feb. 11, 1858. Of 
musical family; studied in New York 
with Webb, Buck, Mosenthal, and 
Rutenber; bass soloist and orgt. in 
several churches; member of Men- 
delssohn Glee Club, for which he has 
composed many part-songs (My 
Love's like a Red, Red Rose, Bugle 
Song, They Kissed) ; also many songs 
of charming melody. 

Haydn (hldn), Franz Josef, compr. 
b. Rohrau-on-the-Leitha, Austria, 
Mar. 31 (baptized Apr. 1), 1732; d. 
Vienna, May 31, 1809. Son of 
Mathias H., wheelwright, sexton, 
orgt., and singer, and his wife Maria, 
formerly a cook; by recent evidence 
Kuhac shows that H's ancestors were 
Croatians and that his inheritance 
is therefore Slavic, not Teutonic, a 
theory to which Croatian folk-song 
in his music and his fondness for 
irregular rhythms give support; of 
12 children 3 were musicians and 
there was simple singing at home; 
at 5, owing to influence of cousin, 
J. M. Frankh, H. was sent to school 
at Hamburg, where for two years, 
though neglected and flogged, he 
was taught rudiments of music, 
playing on vln. and some other instr.; 
1740 taken by Reutter to Vienna as 
chorister at St. Stephen's, where he 
learned singing, vln., and clavier; 
though he received no instruction in 
composition, he studied Fux's Gradus 
ad Parnassum and a work by Mat- 
theson by himself, and composed a 
great deal; 1748 supplanted as singer 
by brother Michael, he was set 
adrift without help from the school; 
assisted by friends, he gave lessons, 
studied C. P. E. Bach, and composed 
1st mass; through influence of Metas- 
tasio, obtained distinguished pupil, 
through whom he met Porpora; as 
P's accompanist, met Gluck and 
other contemporaries; 1755 at house 
of Baron Fiirnberg he composed his 
first quartet and what was really his 
first symphony (the term was loosely 
used before his time for any con- 
certed instrumental piece); 1760 

married most unhappily, while in em- 
ploy of Count Morzin; 1761 became 
2d capellmeister under Werner, to 
Prince Esterhazy, as 1st capellm. 
after Werner's death 1766 to Prince 
Nicolaus E., who succeeded in 1762. 
H. had ample opportunity and en- 
couragement for further composi- 
tion; except for brief annual visits 
to Vienna, his time was passed at 
Eisenstadt, where he composed about 
30 symph., 40 quartets, and nearly 
all his operas; his works became 
known and admired all over Europe; 
he made many friends chief of whom 
was Mozart, between whom and H. 
there was mutual affection and 
support. In 1790, on death of Prince 
Nicolaus, musicians were dismissed, 
though Haydn's pay was continued. 
He yielded to pressure of Salomon 
and visited London in 1791, where 
he composed the " Salomon sympho- 
nies," received degree from Oxford 
and honor from all classes; 1792 in 
Vienna again, where he gave lessons 
to Beethoven; 1794 he went again 
to England, and returned 1795 to 
reorganize the Esterhazy musical 
forces. Composed Austrian national 
hymn, Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser 
1797. And in his old age produced 
Die Schopfung (Creation) 1798 and 
Die Jahreszeiten (Seasons) 1801. 
His last years were prosperous and 
happy, except for his concern for 
his country. Though unattractive 
in appearance, he was genial, kindly, 
and humorous, so amiable that the 
term " Papa Haydn " was widely 
applied. His operas and his early 
songs are not often played, his ora- 
torios are closely second to Handel's; 
his masses and The Seven Words on 
the Cross are still valued for the 
sincerity of their religious sentiment. 
But chiefly H. is important as giving 
final form to symphony and quartet, 
as "father of orchestral music." His 
own works, though they sometimes 
seem simple and lacking in emotional 
depth, are remarkable for the amaz- 
ing variety of themes, the gaiety of 
spirit, the accurate sense of structure, 
and delicate, acute feeling for detail. 

Haydn, Johann Michael, compr. b. 
Rohrau, Sept. 14, 1737; d. Salzburg, 
Aug. 10, 1806. Brother of F. J.; 
remarkable for sop. voice when 


chorister at Vienna; orgt.; capellm. 
at Grosswardein; 1762 concert- 
master and director to archbishop, 
and orgt. at Salzburg; married singer 
Maria Magdalena Lipp; lost property 
under French occupation but was 
assisted by brother and Empress 
Maria Theresa; at his school of comp. 
taught Reicha, Weber, etc.; refused 
offers of Prince Esterhazy to make 
him vice-capellm. of his chapel in 
hope of reorganization at Salzburg; 
excellent church compr., admired by 
contemporaries, but overshadowed 
by his brother; his modesty pre- 
vented him from publishing, but 
many works are extant, notably 
masses, graduals, offertories, some 
orchestral works and org. preludes. 

Haynes, Walter Battison, orgt., compr. 
b. Kempsey, Worcestershire, Nov. 
21, 1859; d. London, Feb. 4, 1900. 
Pupil of Prout and at Leipzig Cons, 
of Reinecke and Jadassohn; won 
Mozart scholarship; orgt. at Syden- 
ham and Chapel Royal, Savoy; 
director of mus. at Borough Poly- 
technic; prof, of harmony at Royal 
Acad.; composed symph., chamber 
mus., 2 cantatas for women's voices, 
and Elizabethan Lyrics. 

Hays, William Shakespeare, compr. 
b. Louisville, Ky., July 19, 1837; 
d. Louisville, July 22, 1907. Wrote 
his first song at 16, and in all several 
hundred, almost all widely sold; 
Evangeline, My Sunny Southern 
Home, Molly Darling, etc.; also 
occupied with editorial work for 

Heap, Charles Swinnerton, pst., compr. 
b. Birmingham, Apr. 10, 1847; d. 
there, June 11, 1900. Chorister, 
pupil of Monk; winner of Mendels- 
sohn Scholarship 1865, studied at 
Leipzig under Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann, Richter, and Reinecke; fur- 
ther under Best in Liverpool; condr. 
of Birmingham Philharmonic Union 
1870-1886; of Birmingham Festival 
Choral Society after 1895; chorus- 
master for festival 1897; examiner 
for Camb. Univ.; composed chamber 
mus., overtures, cantatas (Maid of 
Astolat), and several organ pieces. 

Hedouin (a-do-an), Pierre, writer, b. 
Boulogne, July 28, 1789; d. Paris, 
Dec. 1868. Studied law in Paris, 


practised in Boulogne; chef du 
bureau at Ministry of Public Works, 
Paris, after 1842; contributed to 
periodicals, wrote novels, librettos, 
composed some songs; chief mus. 
writings are about Monsigny, Gr6- 
try, Lesueur, Paganini, Gluck, etc.; 
articles collected in Mosa'ique. 

Heermann (har-man), Hugo, vlt. b. 
Heilbronn, Mar. 3, 1844. Pupil of 
de Meerts, de B6riot, and Fetis at 
Brussels Cons., and in Paris; 1865 
concertmaster at Frankfort; 1878 
teacher at Hoch Cons, there; founded 
Heermann Quartet, with Naret-Kon- 
ing, Welcher, and Becker; has given 
many concerts in Germany, France, 
and England; in America 1903; ad- 
mired especially as quartet player. 

Hegar (ha-gar), Friedrich, condr., 
compr. b. Basle, Oct. 11, 1841. 
Pupil at Leipzig Cons, of Haupt- 
mann, Richter, David, and Plaidy; 
after leading orch. in Warsaw and 
Gebweiler, living in Paris and Lon- 
don, settled 1863 in Zurich, where he 
became condr. of Subscription Con- 
certs and of Choral Soc., founded 
mus. sch.; composed choral works, 
Hymne an die Musik, Waldlied, Die 
Trompete von Gravelotte, etc. 

Hegner (hag'-ner), Anton, 'cellist, b. 
Copenhagen, Mar. 2, 1861. Studied 
at Copenhagen Cons., played there 
and in Germany with great success; 
now living in New York; composed 
'cello concertos, quartets, about 60 

Hegner, Otto, pst. b. Basle, Nov. 18, 
1876. Pupil at Basle of Fricker, 
Huber, and Glaus; appeared as 
prodigy in several German cities, 
m England and America 1888; 1904 
teacher at Hoch Cons, in Frankfort; 
has composed chiefly for pf. 

Heinrich (hln'-rik), Max, baritone, 
compr. b. Chemnitz, June 14, 1853. 
Studied with Klitzsch at Zwickau 
and at Dresden Cons.; taught in 
Philadelphia, Alabama, at Royal 
Acad. London 1888-93; successful 
at large concerts in N. Y. 1882-88; 
then located in Chicago, where he 
gave " farewell recital" 1903, re- 
moving to Boston; now (1910) settled 
in New York; composed picturesque 
songs, setting to Poe's Raven, etc. 



Heller (el-lar'), Stephen, pst., teacher, 
compr. b. Pesth, May 15, 1815; d. 
Paris, Jan. 14, 1888. Pupil of 
Brauer, played in public at 9; 
studied with Halm at Vienna; gave 
concerts 1827-32 in Hungary, Po- 
land, and Germany; falling ill on 
the way, was adopted by wealthy 
family in Augsburg where he worked 
at composition; 1838 at Paris, mem- 
ber of Liszt-Chopin circle, popular 
as player and teacher; except for 
visits to London in 1849 and 1862, 
lived in Paris; his early compositions 
were praised by Schumann; his 
works, all for pf., consist of Etudes, 
Preludes, etc., and series of pieces 
the names of which show romantic 
attitude, Promenades d'un solitaire, 
Nuits blanches, etc.; studies still 
very popular for grace and fluency, 
without triviality of thought and yet 
without great difficulty. 

Hellmesberger, Georg, vlt. b. Vienna, 
Apr. 24, 1800; d. Neuwaldegg, near 
Vienna, Aug. 16, 1873. Pupil of 
Bohm and Forster at Cons.; teacher 
there 1821-1867, of Joachim, Ernst, 
Auer, etc.; condr. at Imperial Opera 
1829; pensioned 1867. His son 
Georg, vlt., compr. b. Vienna, Jan. 
27, 1830; d. Hanover, Nov. 12, 1852. 
Studied comp. with Rotter; concert- 
master at Hanover about 1850; 
brought out 2 operas. His brother 
Joseph, vlt., condr. b. Vienna, Nov. 
23, 1829; d. there, Oct. 24, 1893. 
Infant prodigy as vlt.; vln. prof. 1851- 
1877, director 1851-1893 of Cons.; 
condr. Gesellschaft Concerts 1851- 
59, when he resigned in favor of Her- 
beck, resuming positioi>for one year 
in 1877; concertmaster at Imperial 
Opera, capellm. to emperor; quartet 
concerts 1849-1887, important for 
arousing interest in Beethoven's quar- 
tets. His son Joseph, vlt. b. Vienna, 
Apr. 9, 1855; d. there, Apr. 26, 1907. 
Solo player at opera, prof, at Cons., 
leader of quartet after his father, 
compr. of 6 operas and 6 ballets. 

Helmholtz (helm-holtz), Hermann Lud- 
wig Ferdinand von, scientist. b. 
Potsdam, Aug. 31, 1821; d Charlot- 
tenberg, Sept. 8, 1894. Studied 
medicine at Berlin, was prof, of 
anatomy, physiology at several Ger- 
man Universities, finally 1871 prof, 
of natural philosophy at Berlin; 

important mus. work is Sensations of 
Tone as a Physiological Basis for 
the Theory of Music, 1863, translated 
by Ellis 1875; by experiments with 
resonators, etc., H. determined quali- 
ty of musical sounds, the value of 
summational tones (the tones gen- 
erated by 2 notes sounded together), 
and he established the physiology 
of the minor chord, of hearing of 
musical tones, and of distribution of 
harmonic intervals. 

Henderson, William James, critic, b. 
Newark, Dec. 4, 1855. Graduated 
from Princeton 1876; self-taught in 
music; compr. of several operettas; 
critic on N. Y. Times, and later Sun; 
author of many valuable and enter- 
taining books: How Music Devel- 
oped; Orchestra and Orchestral Music; 
Richard Wagner; Modern Musical 
Drift, etc. 

Hennes (hen'-nes), Aloys, pf. teacher, 
b. Aix-la-Chapelle, Sept. 8, 1827; 
d. Berlin, June 8, 1889. Post-office 
official; later pupil at Rhenish 
School, Cologne, of Hiller and 
Reinecke; taught in various cities, 
after 1872 at Berlin; 1881 teacher 
at Scharwenka's Cons.; his Klavier- 
unterrichtsbriefe contains bright edu- 
cational pieces; daughter Therese 
(b. Dec. 21, 1861), successful pst. 

Henning, Karl, vlt. b. Halberstadt, 
Feb. 26, 1807; d. Zeitz, Oct. 1, 
1865. Director of music in military 
service; 1837 city musical director 
in Zeitz; published 2 Scfiools for vln., 
one for 'cello, and compositions and 
teaching pieces for his instr. His 
sonTheodor, b. Langensalza, Oct. 11, 
1837. Pupil of Hauptmann and 
David; director city orch. at Nord- 
hausen; associated with father in 
preparing vln. methods. 

Henschel (hen'-shel), [Isidor] Georg, 
compr., singer, condr. b. Breslau, 
Feb. 18, 1850. Early training in 
music; sang and played in public 
1862, before entering Leipzig Cons. 

1867, where he studied under Mos- 
cheles, Reinecke, Richter, and 
Goetze; after 1870 studied with 
Kiel and Schulze at Berlin; sang 
in concert perf. of Die Meistersinger 

1868, at Cologne Festival 1874, in 
England 1877 at concerts and 
recitals, with great success; married 



1881; first condr. Boston Symph. 
Orch. 1881-84; after that living 
in London, teaching at Royal 
Acad., conducting London syniph. 
concerts, etc., and singing at impor- 
,, tant festivals; composed choral 
works and songs, incidental music to 
Hamlet, opera Nubia (Dresden 
1899), Requiem in memory of his 
wife, since whose death he has 
practically retired. His wife Lillian 
June Bailey, soprano, b. Columbus, 
O., Jan. 18, 1860; d. Kensington, 
London, Nov. 4, 1901. Pupil of 
C. Hay den, of Mme. Viardot, and 
Mr. Henschel; extremely success- 
ful as singer of light songs, and, 
later, in concerts with her husband, 
as interpreter of depth and beauty. 

Hensel, Fanny Cacilia, pst., compr. 
b. Hamburg, Nov. 14, 1805; d. 
Berlin, May 14, 1847. Elder sister 
of Mendelssohn, accomplished pst., 
composer of several songs, six of 
which were published with her 
brother's; married the portrait- 
painter Hensel 1829; intimacy be- 
tween brother and sister was so 
close and affectionate that shock of 
her sudden death is said to have 
hastened his. 

Henselt, Adolf von, pst. b. Schwa- 
bach, Bavaria, May 12, 1814; d. 
Warmbrunn, Silesia, Oct. 10, 1889. 
Pupil of Frau von Flath at Munich; 
assisted by allowance from King to 
study with Hummel at Weimar and 
with Sechter at Vienna; 1838, after 
great success in Germany at private 
concerts only, owing to poor health 
went to St. Petersburg, where he 
was musician to the empress, teacher 
of princess, inspector of mus. edu- 
cation, etc.; developed strictly le- 
gato touch and gained richness of 
sound by holding down notes of 
arpeggios; invented exercises for 
stretching hands over wide-spread 
chords; though he appeared very 
rarely, he was hailed as one of 
greatest players of his time; his 
compositions are Etudes, difficult 
and of real musical value, some 
minor pieces, and famous F minor 

Herbeck, Johann Franz von, condr. 
b. Vienna, Dec. 25, 1831; d. there, 
Oct. 28, 1877. Son of tailor, self- 
taught, with exception of few lessons 

in summer from Rotter; at Vienna 
choir director, chorusmaster for 2 
societies; condr. of Gesellschaft con- 
certs, court capellm., 1870-75 direc- 
tor at Imperial opera; compr. of 
part-songs, church music; influen- 
tial as condr. in bringing out many 

Herbert, Victor, compr. b. Dublin, 
Ireland, Feb. 1, 1859. Grandson of 
novelist Samuel Lover; educated at 
Stuttgart Cons.; 'cellist in Stutt- 
gart court orch.; 1886 'cellist at 
Metropolitan Opera, N. Y.; played 
at Seidl's concerts, acted as asst. 
condr. and under Thomas; 1894-98 
bandmaster 22d Regiment; 1898- 
1904 condr. Pittsburg Symph. Orch.; 
now living in New York; has com- 
posed 2 'cello concertos, Suite 
Romantique, symph. poems, but is 
chiefly known as compr. of fluent, 
melodious, skilfully constructed op- 
erettas, Serenade, Babes in Toyland, 
Mile. Modiste, etc. 

Hering (har-ing), Carl Friedrich August, 
vlt. b. Berlin, Sept. 2, 1819; d. 
Burg, near Magdeburg, Feb. 2, 1889. 
Pupil of Ries, Lipinski, and Tomas- 
chek; vlt. in Berlin royal chapel, 
founder of Sonatenverein and music 
school; wrote Methods. 

Heritte-Viardot (e-rit'-ve-ar'-do), Lou- 
ise Pauline Marie, singing teacher. 
b. Paris, Dec. 14, 1841. Daughter 
of Louis Viardot and Pauline Garcia, 
wife of consul-general Heritte; 
teacher at St. Petersburg Cons., at 
Hoch Cons., Frankfort, and in 
Berlin; composed operas, cantatas, 
vocal exercises, etc. 

Herman, Reinhold Ludwig, vlt., compr. 
b. Prenzlau, Sept. 21, 1849. Studied 
at Stern Cons, with Ehrlich, Kiel, 
and Stern; taught and conducted 
in N. Y. 1871-78; director Stern 
Cons. 1878-81; then again in N. Y., 
condr. Liederkranz, prof, of sacred 
history at Theol. Seminary; condr. 
Handel and Haydn Soc., Boston, 
1898-99; returned to Berlin. Com- 
posed cantatas, chamber music, etc. 

Hermann (har-man), Friedrich, vlt., 
compr., teacher, b. Frankfort, Feb. 
1, 1828; d. Leipzig, Sept. 27, 1907. 
Pupil at Leipzig Cons, of David, 
Mendelssohn and Hauptmann; 1846- 
75 played viola at Gewandhaus and 



theatre orch.; 1848 teacher at Cons.; 
compr. of symph. and chamber mus., 
and editor Peters' and Augener's 
publications of classical music for 
stringed instruments. 

Hermann, Robert, compr. b. Berne, 
Switzerland, Apr. 29, 1869. After 
studying medicine at Geneva, entered 
Frankfort Cons. 1891; left after few 
months; with encouragement from 
Grieg, studied with Humperdinck, 
and by himself; 1910 living in Leip- 
zig; compositions, some of which 
on production in Berlin caused 
different opinions, include symph., 
overture, songs, quintet, Variations 
pour rire, etc. 

Herold (e-rol'), Louis Joseph Ferdi- 
nand, compr. b. Paris, Jan. 28, 
1791; d. Themes, a suburb of 
Paris, Jan. 19, 1833. Son and pupil 
of Frangois Joseph, himself a pupil 
of C. P. E. Bach and pf. teacher, 
but early aptitude not encouraged; 
1806 entered Paris Cons, where he 
was pupil of Louis Adam, Catel 
and M6hul; Prix de Rome 1812; 
pst. to Queen Caroline at Naples, 
where he brought out first opera 
1815; returned to Paris 1815, met 
success with Les rosieres 1817; pst. 
and chorusmaster at Italian Opera; 
1827, as chef du chant at Op6ra, 
wrote successful ballets; after period 
of instrumental comp. and imitative 
operas, returned to his own style 
with success; greatest works are 
Zampa 1831 (overture is universally 
familiar) and Le pre aux clercs, 
widely known in France; his Ludovic 
was finished by HaleVy; his music is 
pleasant, graceful, his instrumenta- 
tion clever; his own dramatic sense, 
often hampered by poor librettos, 
was fully equal to expression of fine 

Hervey, Arthur, writer, b. Paris, Jan. 
26, 1855. Parents Irish; studied 
with B. Tours and Marlois; aban- 
doned purpose of entering diplomacy 
1880; critic of Vanity Fair 1889-92 
and later of London ( Post; com- 
posed one-act opera, several sets of 
songs, a scene for baritone and 
orch. and a concert overture; wrote 
Masters of French Music (1894), 
French Music in the 19th Century 

Herz (harts), Henri, pst., compr. b. 
Vienna, Jan. 6, 1806; d. Paris, Jan. 5, 
1888. Pupil of his father, of Hunten, 
and of Pradher and Reicha at the 
Paris Cons.; won 1st pf. prize; 
followed Moscheles' style of playing; 
made successful tour as virtuoso; 
in 1842 prof, at Paris Cons.; 
American tour 1845-51; established 
a successful pf. factory; resigned 
from Cons. 1874; wrote over 200 
compositions some of them very 
successful, because they catered to 
the popular taste of the period; his 
experiences during his American 
tour are described in Mes voyages en 
Amerique (1866). 

Herzogenberg-Peccaduc (hert-zo'-gen- 
berg pec'-ca-dook), Heinrich, Baron 
von, pst., compr. b. Graz, June 10, 
1843; d. Wiesbaden, Oct. 9, 1900. 
Studied at Vienna Cons, with 
Dessoff; 1874 founded Bach-Verein 
in Leipzig with Spitta, Von Holstein, 
and Volkland; 1875 director; 1885- 
92 prof, of comp. at Berlin Hoch- 
schule; head of Meisterschule for 
composition; works include mass, 
psalms, large choral works, sympho- 
nies, chamber mus. (especially vln. 
sonatas), songs, etc. Married Eliza- 
beth Stockhausen (1848-1892), pst. 

Hess, Willy, vlt. b. Mannheim, July 14, 
1859. Studied with father, profes- 
sional vlt.; 1865-72 in America; 
toured with Thomas Orch. when 9; 
1872-76 played in Holland, Belgium, 
Germany, and France; 1876-78 pupil 
of Joachim; concertmaster at Frank- 
fort 1878, prof, at Rotterdam 1886, 
leader in Halle Orch. at Manchester 
1888; at Cologne 1895 as leader of 
Giirzenich Orch. and Quartet and 
prof, at Cons.; 1903 prof, at Royal 
Acad. London; 1904-1907 and 1908- 
1910 concertmaster Boston Symph. 
Orch.; leader of Boston Symph. 
Quartet, and 1908 of Hess-Schroeder 
Quartet; prof, at Berlin Hochschule 

Hesse (hes'-sS), Adolf Friedrich, orgt. 
b. Breslau, Aug. 30, 1809; d. there, 
Aug. 5, 1863. Son of org. builder; 
studied with Berner and E. Kohler; 
stipend granted by Breslau author- 
ities enabled him to visit Leipzig, 
Kassel, Hamburg, Berlin, and Wei- 
mar; gave concerts, became friend 



and pupil of Hummel, Rinck, and 
Spohr; 1827 till time of death orgt. 
at Breslau; director symph. con- 
certs there; 1844 at Paris, 1846 in 
Italy, and 1852 in England; play- 
ing won admiration; composed 
chamber and org. mus. 

Heuberger (hoi'-bar-ger), Richard Franz 
Joseph, compr., crit. b. Graz, Styria, 
June 18, 1850. Civil engineer, de- 
voted himself to mus. after 1876, 
when he became choirmaster Vienna 
Gesangverein ; 1878 condr. Singa- 
kademie; 1881 critic for several 
papers; 1902 teacher at Cons.; 1904 
editor Neue Musikalische Presse; 
composed cantatas, ballets, operas, 
orchestral works; author of life of 

Hey (hi), Julius, singing teacher, b. 
Irmelshausen, Lower Franconia, 
Apr. 29, 1832. At first art stu- 
dent; then pupil of Lachner, and 
Schmitt; worked under Von Biilow 
at Munich Sch. of Mus. (established 
by Ludwig according to plans of 
Wagner whom H. admired); after 
Von Billow's departure, not succeed- 
ing in reform of German singing, 
resigned 1883; his Deutscher Gesangs- 
unterricht expounds Wagner's views 
on vocal training; since 1887 in 
Berlin; many pupils now on German 

Heymann (hi '-man), Carl, pst. b. 
Filehne, Posen, Oct. 6, 1854. Son 
of Isaac H., cantor at several cities; 
studied with Hiller, Gernsheim, 
Breunung at Cologne Cons, and 
with Kiel; successful beginnings as 
concert pst. abandoned from ill 
health; mus. director Bingen, court 
pst. Hesse; 1877-80 teacher at 
Hoch Cons., Frankfort; has ap- 
peared since as virtuoso, though ill 
health persists; composed mus. for 
pf. brilliant but not empty; Mac- 
Dowell among pupils. 

Hildach (hil-dak), Eugen, baritone, b. 
Wittenberge-am-Elbe, Nov. 20, 1849. 
First vocal lessons at 24; studied 
with Frau El. Dreyschock at Berlin; 
married fellow-pupil Anna Schubert, 
mezzo soprano (b. 1852) ; both taught 
at Dresden Conservatory, 1880-86; 
since then devoted to concert sing- 
ing; composed attractive songs and 

Hiles, Henry, compr., writer, b. Shrews- 
bury, Dec. 31, 1826; d. Worthing, 
Oct. 20, 1904. Held several ap- 
pointments as orgt., finally St. 
Paul's, Manchester; Mus. Doc. 
1867; lecturer on harmony, etc. at 
Owens Coll. and Victoria Univ., 
later at Manchester Coll. of Mus.; 
1885-88 editor Quarterly Mus. Re- 
view; composed anthems, services, 
2 oratorios, 3 cantatas; wrote 
Grammar of Music and several 
works on harmony. 

Hilf, Arno, vlt. b. Bad Elster, Saxony, 
Mar. 14, 1858; d. Aug. 2, 1909, at 
Bad Elster. Lessons from father, 
Wilhelm Christoph, and from David, 
Rontgen, and Schradieck at Leipzig 
Cons.; 1878-88 teacher at Moscow 
Cons., 1888 at Sondershausen; 1889- 
1891 leader of Gewandhaus Oreh., 
Leipzig, and of quartet; 1892 1st vln. 
teacher Leipzig Cons. 

Hill, Junius Welch, pst. b. Hingham, 
Mass., Nov. 18, 1840. Pupil of 
J. C. D. Parker in Boston, and of 
Moscheles, Hauptmann, Reinecke, 
etc., at Leipzig Cons.; orgt. at 
various Boston churches; prof, of 
mus. at Wellesley College 1884-97; 
teacher in Boston; retired, removing 
to Los Angeles; composed some 
choruses and pf . pieces. 

Hille (hil'-la), Gustav, vlt. b. Jerichow- 
am-Elbe, May 31, 1851. Pupil of 
Wuerst and Joachim; 1879 member 
Mendelssohn Quintet Club, Boston, 
with which he toured 9 months; 
then at Philadelphia Mus. Acad.; 
later co-dir. of Leefson-Hille Cons., 
Philadelphia; 1910 returned to Ger- 
many; composed concertos and 
solos for vln. 

Hiller, Ferdinand von, compr. b. 
Frankfort, Oct. 24, 1811; d. Co- 
logne, May 10, 1885. Of wealthy 
Jewish family; pupil of Hofmann, 
Schmitt, and Vollweiler, later of 
Hummel; played in public at 10; 
at 15 in Vienna with Hummel; saw 
Beethoven on his death-bed; in 
Paris 1828-35 teaching, part of the 
time at Choron's school, giving con- 
certs with Fe"tis and Baillot; 1836 
conducted Cacilienverein, Frank- 
fort; 1839, aided by Rossini, brought 
out opera at Milan; 1840 invited 
by Mendelssohn to superintend 



oratorio Die Zerstorung Jerusalems 
in Leipzig; 1841 studied church 
music with Baini; 1843-44 conducted 
at Gewandhaus; 1847 capellm. at 
Dusseldorf; 1850 at Cologne where 
he organized Cons.; conducted 
Giirzemch concerts and festivals; 
1852-53 conducted Op6ra Italien at 
Paris; 1884 retired; over 200 com- 
positions, 6 operas, 6 cantatas, 
much choral and instrumental mus.; 
lectured and wrote articles about 
the many great men whose lives his 
touched: Erinnerungsbldtter (1884). 

Killer, Johann Adam [real name Hiiller], 
compr. b. Wendisch-Ossig, near 
Gorlitz, Dec. 25, 1728; d. Leipzig, 
June 16, 1804. Pupil of Homilius 
at Dresden; while at Leipzig Univ. 
gave music lessons, played flute, and 
sang; 1758 went as tutor to Leipzig, 
where he revived Subscription Con- 
certs and developed them into Ge- 
wandhaus Concerts which he con- 
ducted; 1771 founded school of 
singing; 1789-1801 mus. dir. at 
Thomasschule; inventor of Singspiel, 
German form of short comedy 
operetta, of which he wrote 13 
(Lottchen am Hofe, Der Dorfbarbier, 
etc.); also composed church music 
and wrote several historical and 
instructive works. 

Hiller, Paul, orgt. b. Seifersdorf, Nov. 
16, 1830. Orgt. at Breslau since 
1870; compr. of pf. pieces, songs, etc. 

Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich, pst., 
compr. b. Treuenbrietzen, Branden- 
burg, Nov. 20, 1765; d. Berlin, 
June 8, 1814. When student of 
theology at Halle, fine pf. playing 
won him patronage of Frederick 
Wm. II, who sent him to Dresden 
for 3 years' study with Naumann, 
and to Italy for 2 years more; made 
him chamber compr. and court cap- 
ellm.; traveled to Stockholm, St. 
Petersburg, France, and England; 
retired to Pyrmont 1806; composed 
several occasional cantatas, etc.; 
several very popular operas (Fan- 
chon das -Leyermadchen is the best), 
many songs, etc., melodious and well- 
written, now obsolete. 

Hinckley, Allen, opera basso, b. Bos- 
ton, Oct. 11, 1877. Father a min- 
ister; student at Amherst College 
and University of Pennsylvania; 

musical education begun in Phila- 
delphia where he sang in several 
churches; with the encouragement 
of Walter Damrosch he took up 
serious work with Oscar Saenger in 
New York; his professional debut 
was at Hamburg, Germany, where 
he remained until engaged for the 
Metropolitan Opera Company in 
1908; sang several seasons at Covent 
Garden, London, and at Bayreuth, 
being recommended by HansRichter; 
a member of the Metropolitan Opera 

Hinton, Arthur, compr. b. Beckenham, 
Kent, Nov. 20, 1869. Studied at 
Royal Acad. with Sainton, Sauret, 
and Davenport; sub-prof, of vln.; 
further study with Rheinberger in 
Munich; condr. theatre orch. in 
London, etc.; composed opera, orch. 
fantasia, 2 scenes from Endymion, 
2 symphonies, pf. sonata, concerto, 
etc. Married Katherine Goodson, pst. 

Hipkins, Alfred James, lecturer, writer. 
b. Westminster, June 17, 1826; d. 
Kensington, June 3, 1903. From 
1840 to death in pf. business with 
Broadwood & Sons; always tuned 
pianos for Chopin in England; 
authority on history of pf.; reviver 
of interest in harpsichord and clavi- 
chord, on both of which he played; 
also authority on scientific matters 
of temperament and pitch; inter- 
esting lecturer, contributor to Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica, Grove's Diction- 
ary, author of Musical Instruments, 
History of the Pianoforte, etc. 

Hirsch (hersh), Carl, compr. b. Wend- 
ing, Mar. 17, 1858. After studying 
in Munich, held various positions 
as teacher, cantor, etc.; director at 
Mannheim, Cologne, and of several 
societies at Elberfeld; compr. of 
many very popular choruses, chiefly 
a cappella, and of cantatas. Die 
Krone im Rhein, Landsknechtsleben, 

Hobrecht, see Obrecht, Jacob. 

Hoffman, Richard, pst. b. Manchester, 
Eng., May 24, 1831; d. Aug. 17, 
1909. Pupil of father, De Meyer, 
Moscheles, Rubinstein, Thalberg, 
and Liszt; came to New York 1847; 
toured U. S. with Burke, vlt. 1848; 
solo pst. with Jenny Lind; played 



with Gottschalk and Von Btilow; 
remarkable as teacher; noteworthy 
as compr. of about 100 songs, pf. 
pieces, etc. 

Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor [Amadeus] 
Wilhelm, writer, compr. b. Konigs- 
berg, Jan. 24, 1776; d. Berlin, June 
25, 1822. Studied music with 
Podbielski while law student; trans- 
ferred from position of assessor at 
Posen because of caricatures; 1806 
reduced by war, gave music lessons 
in Warsaw; theatre director Bam- 
berg 1808; 1810 wrote articles to 
Allgemeine Musikzeitung over name 
"Kapellmeister Kreisler"; condr. 
at Leipzig and Dresden 1813-14; 
from 1816 to death held judicial 
position in Berlin; composed several 
operas (Scherz, List, und Roche to 
Goethe's words, Undine his best), 
a symph., chamber mus.; known in 
literature as writer of fantastic tales. 

Hofmann, Heinrich [Carl Johann], 
compr. b. Berlin, Jan. 13, 1842; d. 
Gross Tabarz, July 16, 1902. Studied 
at Kullak's Acad. with Grell, Dehn, 
and Wuerst; successful pf. player 
and teacher; devoted to composition 
after 1869, when first opera was 
successful; wrote 7 operas, many 
cantatas, orch. works, notably Un- 
garischen suite and Frithjof symph. 
beautiful pf. duets, etc. 

Hofmann, Josef Casimir, pst. b. Cra- 
cow, Jan. 20, 1876. Son of capell- 
meister and operetta composer; pupil 
of father; appeared as prodigy in 
Germany and America 1885-87; pre- 
vented by Soc. for Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children from giving 
more concerts, he pursued studies 
in Berlin under Urban and Moszkow- 
ski and under Anton Rubinstein in 
Dresden; 1897 resumed life of travel- 
ing virtuoso and has appeared with 
success in many lands; has composed 
concerto and some pf. pieces; striking 
qualities of his playing are keen 
intelligence, transparent interpreta- 
tion made possible by amazing tech- 
nical skill, and total lack of morbid- 

Hoi, Richard, orgt., compr. b. Am- 
sterdam, July 23, 1825; d. Utrecht, 
May 14, 1904. Studied with Mar- 
tens and Bertelman; traveled in 
Germany; director choral soc. at 

Amsterdam, and director of Society 
for Promotion of Music; 1862 city 
orgt. at Utrecht, later cathedral orgt. 
and director of music school; condr. 
at The Hague and Amsterdam ; com- 
posed church music, 2 symphonies, 
orch. music, cantatas, etc. 

Holbrooke, Josef Charles, compr. b. 
Croydon, July 6, 1878. Pupil at 
Royal Acad. of F. Cprder and West- 
lake; since 1898 entirely devoted to 
composition, chiefly of orchestral 
works in form of free symphonic 
poems, on such subjects as The 
Raven, The Masque of the Red Death, 
Fantastic Variations; large choral 
work The Bells, Birmingham Festi- 
val 1907, with actual bells, etc., in 
orchestra excited discussion. 

Holden, Oliver, compr. b. Shirley, 
Mass., Sept. 18, 1765; d. Charles- 
town, Sept. 4, 1844. At first a car- 
penter; began to write music about 
time of moving to Charlestown, 
1787; trained choir to sing Ode to 
Washington 1789; after 1792 con- 
ducted music store, published and 
composed music; first collection 
America's Harmony; in Union Har- 
mony 1793 first appeared Coronation, 
most famous tune. 

Hollander (hol'-lender), Alexis, pst. 
b. Ratibor, Silesia, Feb. 25, 1840. 
Studied with Schnabel and Hesse at 
Breslau, with Grell and A. W. Bach 
at Berlin Royal Acad., and with 
Bohmer; instructor at Kullak's Acad. 
1861; condr. Cacilienverein 1864; 
composed chamber music, duets, 
choral and pf. works (6 Intermezzi 
for left hand, etc.); edited Schu- 
mann's pianoforte works and pub- 
lished method for the voice. 

Hollander, Gustav, vlt. b. Leobschutz, 
Upper Silesia, Feb. 15, 1855. Early 
public appearance as pupil of father 
a physician; studied 1867-69 at Leip- 
zig Cons, with David and 1869-74 
at Berlin Hochschule with Joachim 
and Kiel; 1874 principal teacher at 
Kullak's Acad.; gave concerts with 
Carlotta Patti, with Scharwenka 
and Griinfeld; 1881 at Cologne, 
leader of Giirzenich concerts and 
teacher at Cons.; 1895 director 
Stern Cons. Berlin; 1896 concert- 
master at Hamburg; successful tours 
on Continent; works chiefly for vln. 



Hollins, Alfred, orgt., pst. b. Hull, 
Sept. 11, 1865. Totally blind; edu- 
cated at Wilberforce Institution at 
York, at Royal Normal College, Nor- 
wood, where he took pf . lessons from 
Hartyigson and org. from E. J. 
Hopkins; studied with Von Billow 
at Berlin; after several distinguished 
appearances, visited U. S. with F. 
J. Campbell in 1886 and again 1888; 
held various appointments as orgt., 
finally at Edinburgh; concerts in 
Australia 1904; has composed an- 
thems, org. pieces, a few songs and 
piano pieces. 

Hollmann, Joseph, 'cellist, b. Maas- 
tricht, Holland, Oct. 16, 1852. Pupil 
of Keller; under patronage of king 
at Brussels Cons, as pupil of Servais, 
Boisselet, and F6tis, winning 1st 
prize; at Paris pupil of Jacquard and 
Savart; toured Scandinavia and 
Germany with Strakosch and Ulman, 
U. S. with Wolff 1892 and 1906; 
numerous compositions for his in- 

Holmes (ol'-mez), [originally Holmes], 
Augusta Mary Anne, compr. b. 
Paris, Dec. 16, 1847; d. there, Jan. 
28, 1903. Of Irish parentage; early 
appearance as pst.; first comp. under 
name Hermann Zenta; studied comp. 
with Lambert, instrumentation with 
Klos<; after 1875 pupil of Csar 
Franck; gained 2d place in compe- 
tition for city of Paris prize in 1878 
with Lutece, and honorable mention 
in 1880 with Les argonautes; com- 
posed other symphonic poems (Ir- 
lande, Polognej, several odes (Ludus 
pro patria, Hymne a la paix), opera 
La montagne noire (Grand Ope>a, 
Paris 1895); often wrote words for 
own music; showed " force rather 
than grace, vigor rather than deli- 
cacy, rare sentiment for melody, 
breadth of phrase, care for form; 
individuality of idea above most 
women." [Pougin.] 

Hoist, Eduard, compr. b. Copenhagen, 
1843; d. New York, Feb. 4, 1899. 
Came to New York about 1874; 
actor, playwright, teacher of dancing, 
composer of comic opera Our Flats, 
music for military band Battle of 
Manila, etc., and much music for pf. 
of the sort suggested by such titles 
as Dance of Demons, etc. 

Homer, Sidney, compr. b. Boston, 
Mass., Sept. 9, 1864. Studied with 
Chadwick in Boston and with Rhein- 
berger, Abel, etc. in Munich; taught 
harmony and lectured on sympho- 
nies, Wagner operas, etc. in Boston; 
composed songs; 1895 married Louise 
Dillworth Beatty, dram, contralto. 
b. Pittsburg. Pupil of Misses Whin- 
nery and Groff in Phila., of W. L. 
Whitney and S. Homer in Boston, 
and after marriage, of Konig and 
Lhdrie in Paris; debut at Vichy 1898; 
London 1899, American de"but San 
Francisco 1900; member of Metro- 
politan Opera Co., N. Y. since 1900. 

Hood, Helen, compr. b. Chelsea, Mass., 
June 28, 1863. Pupil of B. J. Lang, 
Chadwick, and in Berlin of Moszkow- 
ski; living in Boston; composed 
songs, sacred and secular, works for 
vln. and pf., trio for vln., 'cello and pf . 

Hopekkk, Helen, pst. b. Edinburgh, 
May 20, 1856. Studied with Lich- 
tenstein and A. C. Mackenzie, and 
after 2 years at Leipzig, with Lesche- 
tizky at Vienna; debut Gewandhaus, 
Leipzig, 1878; after successful con- 
certs in London 1879 and later in 
Boston and New York 1883 and 
1890, in Edinburgh and Vienna 1887 
(where she studied composition with 
Navratil and orchestration with 
Mandl), settled in Boston 1897; mar- 
ried W. Wilson; successful teacher; 
gives occasional interesting recitals; 
has composed, beside songs and pf. 
pieces, pf. concerto and Concertstuck 
for pf. and orch., other orch. works, 
vln. sonata, etc. 

Hopkins, Edward John, orgt., compr. 
b. Westminster, June 30, 1818; d. 
London, Feb. 4, 1901. Chorister 
at Chapel Royal under Hawes; pupil 
of Walmisley in harm, and counter- 
point, but self-taught as orgt.; vari- 
ous appointments as orgt., finally 
1843-1898 at Temple Church, Lon- 
don, where he raised music to very 
high point; composed excellent an- 
thems, edited madrigals, wrote The 
Organ, Its History and Construction. 

Horneman (hor'-ne-man), Johan Ole 
Emil, compr. b. Copenhagen, May 
13, 1809; d. there, May 29, 1870. 
Compr. of stirring songs: Der Tapf- 
ere Landsoldat and King Christian 



Stood by Lofty Mast (naval song 
which first appeared in Hartmann's 
opera Fiskerne 1775) are national 

Horvath (hor-vat), Geza, compr. b. 
Komaron, Hungary, May 27, 1868. 
Pupil of L. Schytte, etc., at Vienna; 
director of music school there; 
librarian of ass'n of music school 
proprietors; published over 60 easy 
pf. pieces. 

Howard, George H., teacher, b. Norton, 
Mass., Nov. 12, 1843. Studied with 
J. W. Tufts and B. F. Baker at Bost. 
Mus. School, with Moscheles, Pap- 
peri tz, etc. at Leipzig Cons., with 
Haupt and Kullak in Berlin; taught 
at Boston Mus. School, at Michigan 
Cons, at Olivet, and at N. E. Cons.; 
1891 organized Boston School for 
Teachers of Music of which he is 
director; able teacher and lecturer. 

Hoyte, William Stevenson, orgt., compr. 
b. Sidmouth, Sept. 22, 1844. Pupil 
of Goss and Cooper; orgt. in various 
London churches, finally at All 
Saints' since 1868; successful recitals 
both as orgt. and pst. in London and 
Scotland; prof, of org. at Royal Coll. 
since 1888, at Royal Acad. 1893, of 
pf. at Guildhall; composed Book of 
Litanies, choral wedding service, 
church and organ music. 

Hubay (ho-bi), Jeno [known as 
Eugene Huber], vlt., compr. b. 
Budapest, Sept. 14, 1858. Pupil of 
father Carl (1828-1885), professor 
at Pesth Cons.; appeared as prodigy 
at 11; with stipend from state, 
studied 5 years with Joachim ; success 
at Pasdeloup concerts in Paris 1878 
led to friendship with Vieuxtemps; 
1882 prof, at Brussels Cons.; 1886 
succeeded father at Pesth; widely 
praised as soloist and quartet player; 
compr. of successful opera Luthier 
de Cremone, concertos, sonatas, and 
pieces for vln. of which Scenes from 
the Czardas are universally popular. 

Huber (ho-ber), Hans, compr. b. 
Schonewerd, Switzerland, June 28, 
1852. Pupil at Leipzig Cons, of 
Richter, Reinecke, etc.; taught at 
Alsace, then at Basle nius. school, 
of which he became director 1896; 
his works include operas (Kudrun, 
Der Simplicius, etc.), cantatas, con- 
certos, sonatas and smaller works, 

and 3 symphonies, No. 1 Tell symph. 
and No. 2 celebrating the paintings 
of Bocklin. 

Hucbald [or Hugbaldus, Ubaldus, etc.], 
writer, b. about 830; d. St. Amand, 
near Tournay, June 25 (or Oct. 21), 
930 (or June 20, 932). Ordained 
priest 880; pupil of uncle, director 
of school at Nevers; probably author 
of treatises De harmonica institu- 
tions, Musica enchiriadis, etc., though 
doubts have been cast on fact of his 
authorship; writings give earliest 
clear statement of the beginnings of 
music for several voices; originated 
idea of representing the rise and fall 
of tones by marks placed between 
lines, beginning of notation. 

Hue (u), George Adolphe, compr. b. 
Versailles, May 6, 1858. Pupil at 
Paris Conservatory of Reber and 
Paladilhe, prizes in 1879, 1881, 1885; 
compositions include orchestral, ope- 
ratic and choral works, and songs. 

Hueffer (heffer), Francis, writer, b. 
Munster, May 22, 1843; d. London, 
Jan. 19, 1889. Student of philology 
and music in London, Berlin, Leip- 
zig, and Paris; Ph.D. from Gottingen; 
settled 1869 in London where he was 
critic on Times, editor of Academy; 
assisted English opera by writing 
librettos for Mackenzie and Cowen; 
greatly furthered cause of Wagner 
in England by articles, by Life of 
Wagner and by translation of Letters 
of Wagner and Liszt; wrote many 
vols. in Great Musicians Series, 
studies on music of the troubadours, 

Huhn (hune), Bruno [Siegfried], pst. 
b. London, 1871. Pupil of Miss S. 
Taunton; toured Great Britain, then 
in 1889 Spain, Egypt and Australia; 
1891 in New York, further study 
with S. B. Mills and Alberti; played 
there 1896; self-taught orgt., has 
held various positions in N. Y.; re- 
markable as accompanist; compr. of 
songs, church and pf. music. 

Hullah (hul-la), John Pyke, teacher, 
writer, b. Worcester, Eng., June 27, 
1812; d. Westminster, Feb. 21, 1884. 
Studied with Horsley and Crivelli; 
comp. several successful operas, 
Barbers of Bassora 1837, etc.; after 
observing Wilhem's classes in Paris 
in 1830, he started (1841) popular 



classes for schoolmasters and others 
by system of vocal music adapted 
from Wilhem's; these classes, though 
bitterly opposed, were attended by 
about 25,000 people; 1844-74 prof, 
of vocal music, King's Coll., London; 
1870-73 condr. Royal Acad. stu- 
dents' concerts; 1858 orgt. at Char- 
ter House; composed many charming 
songs (Oh that we two were May- 
ing, The Three Fishers, etc.), ele- 
mentary text-books, and accounts 
of his method; The History of Mod- 
ern Music, Transition Period of 
Musical History. 

Hughes, Rupert, author, compr. b. 
Lancaster, Mo., Jan. 31, 1872. 
Father and mother were well-trained 
musical amateurs; brother, Felix 
Hughes, a teacher of singing, Cleve- 
land, O.; sister (Mrs. Herbert 
Witherspoon) sang professionally in 
Europe under the name Jeanne 
Grela. H. showed early aptitude 
for music by skill in reading music 
at sight and at ten made his first 
efforts at composition, first published 
pieces being issued while he was in 
college; studied music with Wilson 
G. Smith at Cleveland, Edgar Still- 
man Kelley, New York, and Charles 
W. Pearce, London; but most of his 
theoretical studies have been self- 
directed; graduated from Western 
Reserve University (A.B.) and at 
Yale (A.M.); connected editorially 
with New York and London papers 
and magazines, but later devoting 
his time to the writing of plays, 
books, magazine articles and short 
stories; published works are Zal, a 
musical novel; The Musical Guide, 
(encyclopaedia); The Love Affairs 
of Great Musicians; Famous Ameri- 
can Composers; editor of Songs of 
Thirty Americans (Musicians Libra- 
ry) ; published compositions consist of 
a few songs; lives in New York City. 

Humfrey [or Humphry or Humphrys], 
Pelham, compr. b. London, 1647; 
d. Windsor, July 14, 1674. Chorister 
at Chapel Royal; sent abroad by 
Charles II to study under Lully; 
1672 master of children at Chapel 
Royal and compr. to king; composed 
some fine songs, church music in 
new style learned in France; said 
to have been excellent lute player; 
fondness for minor keys is remarkable . 

Hummel (hoom-mel), Johann Nepo- 
muk, pst., compr. b. Pressburg, 
Hungary, Nov. 14, 1778; d. Weimar. 
Oct. 17, 1837. Son and pupil of 
Joseph H., director of Imperial 
school of military music, and later 
condr. at Vienna; there Johann 
attracted attention of Mozart who 
took him into his house as pupil for 
2 years; debut at concert given by 
Mozart in Dresden 1787; after tour 
with father through Great Britain 
(where he took some lessons of 
Clementi in London) and Denmark, 
studied further in Vienna with 
Albrechtsberger, with advice from 
Haydn and Salieri; 1804-11 suc- 
cessor of Haydn as capellm. to 
Prince Esterhazy; 1816 court capellm. 
at Stuttgart, 1819 at Weimar; in 
frequent leaves of absence visited 
St. Petersburg, Paris, and London, 
where he conducted German opera 
co. for season of 1833. Composed 
127 works, of which some concertos, 
rondos, sonatas, a nonet, and a mass 
are still played; teacher of Czerny, 
Henselt, and Thalberg; successful 
everywhere as performer and inter- 
preter, especially noted for extem- 
Eore playing, in which he is said to 
ave excelled Beethoven; is variously 
said to stand between old school of 
tradition and new one of virtuosity, 
and to have founded the new by his 
delight in execution, his pleasure in 
" orchestral " effects, and self-con- 
scious effort; his method was of 
value, but is now out of date. 

Humperdinck, Engelbert, compr. b. 
Siegburg, near Bonn, Sept. 1, 1854. 
Student of F. Hiller at Cologne Cons, 
where he won Mozart Stipend which 
enabled him to go to Munich; there 
he studied with Lachner and Rhein- 
berger; winning the Mendelssohn 
Prize in Berlin, he went 1879 to 
Italy; met Wagner at Naples, fol- 
lowed him to Bayreuth and assisted 
in production of Parsifal 1881; 
Meyerbeer Prize 1881 enabled him 
to go to Italy; taught in Barcelona 
Cons.; in Cologne Cons., at Hoch 
Cons, in Frankfort and in Stock- 
hausen's school; musical critic for 
Zeitung; retired to Boppard 1896; 
1900 head of Meisterschule for 
comp. in Berlin; Humoreske for 
orch. in 1880 attracted attention, 



maintained by other orch. works 
(Maurische Rhapsodic) , choral works 
Das Gliick von Edenhall, etc., opera 
Hansel und Gretel (Weimar 1893, 
and since then heard nearly every- 
where); in this charming fairy-tale 
opera H. shows himself a follower 
of Wagner in choice of subject, in 
use of characteristic themes reveal- 
ing the motives and thoughts of the 
characters, all handled with extreme 
deftness; later operas Dornroschen 
and Die Konigskinder have not 
been equally successful. 

Huneker, James Gibbons, critic, b. 
Philadelphia, Jan. 31, 1860. Pupil 
of Michael Cross and in Paris of 
Th. Ritter and Doutreleau; settled 
in New York 1888; teacher at Na- 
tional Cons.; writer for Musical 
Courier, dramatic critic N. Y. Sun 
1902-1906; author of Mezzotints in 
Modern Music, Life of Chopin and 
collection of stories on musical 
themes, Melomaniacs, Visionaries, 
etc. - 

Hiinten (tin-ten'), Franz, pst. b. Co- 
blenz, Dec. 26, 1793; d. there, Feb. 22, 
1878. Studied with his father (orgt.), 
at Paris Cons, with Pradher, Cheru- 
bim, and Reicha, but took no prizes; 
became fashionable composer and 
teacher in Paris; 1836 removed to 
Coblenz; pf. works, fantasias, sere- 
nades, etc. commanded amazing 
prices but are now practically un- 
known; wrote also method for pf. 

Huss (hoos), Henry Holden, pst., compr. 
b. Newark, N. J., June 21, 1862. 
Studied with father, with O. B. 
Boise and at Munich Cons, with 
Rheinberger; 1889 gave concert of 
own works in New York, where he 
lives, as teacher and compr.; has 
written Death of Cleopatra (soprano 
and orch.), Seven Ages of Man (bari- 
tone and orch.), vln. concerto, and 
pf. concerto, trio, sonatas. 

Hiittenbrenner (hu-ten-bren-ner), An- 
selm, pst. b. Graz, Styria, Oct. 13, 
1794; d. Ober-Andritz, near Graz, 
June 5, 1868. From early years stud- 
ied singing, pf., and harmony with 
Grell; studied law in Vienna in 1815, 
and composition with Salieri; fellow 
pupil of Schubert, intimate of Beetho- 
ven; from 1816 to retirement in 1820 
successful as pst. ; 1852 condr. Styrian 
Musikverein; prolific compr., 9 mass- 
es, 3 symphonies, over 500 songs. 

Hyllested, August, pst. , compr. b . Stock- 
holm, June 17, 1858. Early appear- 
ances as pst. 1863, 1869; pupil of 
Dahl, and at Royal Cons, at Copen- 
hagen of Neupert, Hartmann, Gade, 
etc.; 1875-76 director of orch. and of 
mus. soc.; further study with Kiel, 
Kullak, and Liszt; concerts in Eng- 
land, in New York 1885; 1886-91 
asst. dir. Chicago Mus. Coll., 1891-94 
director in Gottschalk Lyric School; 
after further tours in Scandinavia, 
returned to Chicago 1897 ; composed 
for pf., orch., and songs. 

niffe, Frederick, orgt., condr. b. 
Smeeton-Westerby, Leicestershire, 
Feb. 21, 1847. 1883 orgt. St. John's 
Coll., Oxford; condr. Queen's Coll. 
Mus. Soc.; composed oratorio Vis- 
ions of St. John the Divine, services, 
overtures, etc. 

Djinsky (il-yin-sky) , Alexander Alex- 
androvitch, compr. b. Tsarskoye- 
Selo, Jan. 24, 1859! Studied at Berlin 
with Kullak and Bargiel; 1885 pro- 
fessor at Philharmonic Soc. music 
school, Moscow; composed 3 orch. 
suites, symphony, music to Oedipus 
Rex and to Tolstoi's Tsar Feodor, 
2 cantatas, one opera, pf . pieces, and 

Imbert (an-bar) de la Tour, Jean Bap- 
tiste Georges, tenor, b. Paris, May 
20, 1865. Pupil at Paris Cons., 1st 
prize 1890; de1but Geneva 1891; en- 
gagements at Opera Comique, Paris, 
Brussels, and Geneva; U. S. 1901 
with Grau Co. 

d'Indy (dan-di'), Paul Marie Vincent 
[called Theodore], compr. b. Paris, 
Mar. 27, 1851. Studied law at re- 
quest of family and at same time pf . 
with Dimmer and harmony with 
Lavignac; after serving as volunteer 
in Franco-Prussian war, selected 
music as profession; kettle drum- 
mer in orch. of Ass'n artistique 
des concerts du Chatelet, then 


chorusmaster; org. class at Cons. 
1872-75, taking first access-it; long a 
faithful and thorough pupil of C. 
Franck; 1873 met Liszt at Weimar; 
1875 overture Piccolomini performed 
at Pasdeloup concerts; 1882 one-act 
opera produced; 1885 won Paris 
prize with Charii de la cloche; 1887 
chorusmaster for Lamoureux con- 
certs, having charge of chorus for 
first Paris performance of Lohengrin; 
with Franck and others founder of 
Soc. nationale de musique; refused 
prof, at Cons. 1895; with Bordes and 
Guilmant founded 1896 Schola Can- 
torum of which he is director and 
prof, of comp.; visited America 1905, 
where he conducted a few concerts of 
Bost. Symph. Orch. Has composed 
operas Fervaal, L'Etranger, symph. 
on a mountain air (with pf.), symph. 
No. 2, symph. poems Wdttenstein, 
Istar, La foret enchantee, variations 
for saxophone and orch., chamber 
music, and some pf. pieces; author 
of very valuable study of life and 
works of C. Franck; has written a 
Course in Musical Composition of 
which two volumes were issued up to 
1910. He is present leader of the 
school of modern French composers; 
he has great harmonic and contra- 
puntal skill and a keenly intellectual 
mind; his music is, perhaps, almost 
too abstract, too free from emotion. 

Isaak (e'-zak), Heinrich, contrapuntist. 
b. Germany (Netherlands?) about 
1450; d. Florence, 1517. Name is va- 


riously spelled Izac, Ysaak, Yzac; 
called in Italy Arrigo Tedesco; 1477- 
90 orgt., and director in household of 
Lorenzo the Magnificent; later in 
Rome; later at court of Maximilian 

1 at Vienna; composed masses, and 
sacred and secular songs, many of 
which are very beautiful. 

Isouard (iz'-6-ar), Niccolb [called Nic- 
colo de Malte], compr. b. Malta, Dec. 
6, 1775; d. Paris, Mar. 23, 1818. 
Studied under Amendola, Sala, and 
Guglielmi, while holding position in 
bank; 1795 produced 1st opera; orgt. 
and capellm. to Maltese Order; after 
writing operas at home, went 1799 
to Paris; Boieldieu's return from 
Russia stimulated his best effort in 
J cannot et Colin and Joconde; wrote 
in all about 50 operas, many masses, 
motets, etc.; death hastened by envy 
at Boieldieu's election to Academy. 

Ivanov (e-va-noff), Michael Michailo- 
vitch, compr. b. Moscow, Sept. 23, 
1849. Studied with Tchaikpvski 
and Dubuc and with Sgambati and 
others; since 1876 critic and fre- 
quent contributor to several journals; 
has composed symph., symph. poem, 
requiem not published, a ballet and 

2 operas; author of Pushkin in Music 
and translator Hanslick's Vom Mu- 
sikalisch Schonen into Russian. 

Ivanovici, compr. Roumanian national- 
ity; d. 1902. Inspector-gen, of Rou- 
manian military mus.; compr. of 
famous waltzes. 


Jackson, Samuel P., orgt. b. Man- 
chester, Eng., Feb. 5, 1818; d. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., July 27, 1885. Son of 
org. builder, learned father's trade, 
and studied pf. with Moran, har- 
mony with Thornton in New York, 
whither he moved 1825; teacher of 
pf. and org.; editor of Gems for 
Organ, popular Org. Voluntaries. 

Jackson, William, of Exeter, compr. 
b. Exeter, May 28, 1730; d. there, 
July 12, 1803. Pupil of Silvester, 
orgt. at cath., and of Travers in 
London; teacher at Exeter, 1777 orgt. 
and choirmaster at cath.; composed 

music to Lycidas, to Dying Christian 
to His Soul, church music, several 
collections of canzonets ( Time has not 
thinn'd my flowing hair for 2 voices 
was very popular), wrote Observations 
on state of music in Eng., essays, and 
was also landscape painter. 

Jackson, William, of Masham, orgt. b. 
Masham, Yorkshire, Jan. 9, 1815; 
d. Bradford, Apr. 15, 1866. Son of 
miller, self-taught on org. and other 
instruments and in harmony; orgt. 
at 16; 1839-52 in business as tallow- 
chandler, but found time to compose 2 
oratorios, Deliverance of Israel, Isaiah, 



a prize glee, etc.; 1852 music seller in 
Bradford, condr. of Choral Union and 
Festival Choral Soc.; composed can- 
tata The Year, church music, glees, 
etc., compiled Bradford Tune Book. 

Jacobsohn (ya'-k8b-son), Simon E., 
vlt. b. Mitau, Kurland, Dec. 24, 
1839; d. Chicago, Oct. 3, 1902. 
Studied at Leipzig Cons.; leader of 
orch. at Bremen 1860, of Thomas's 
Orch., N. Y., 1872; teacher at Cin- 
cinnati Cons.; then in Chicago. 

Jadassohn (yad'-a-son), Salomon, 
compr., teacher, b. Breslau, Aug. 13, 
1831; d. Leipzig, Feb. 1, 1902. Stud- 
ied with Hessler, Liistner, and Bro- 
sig (harm.), at Leipzig Cons. 1848, 
with Liszt at Weimar 1849, and with 
Hauptmann at Leipzig 1853; taught 
in Leipzig, condr. of Euterpe con- 
certs, after 1871 teacher of composi- 
tion, etc., at Leipzig Cons., where he 
had wide influence; his many text- 
books on various branches of har- 
mony, Harmonielehre, Kontrapunkt, 
Kanon und Fuge, etc., have all I 
been translated into English, some I 
into other languages; his method : 
was conservative, but not narrow; | 
his own compositions illustrate his | 
skill in composition and considerable 
brilliancy of idea; they include 4 
symphonies, overtures, pf. concerto, 
quartets, 5 cantatas, motets, etc. 

Jaell (yal), Alfred, pst., compr. b. 
Trieste, Mar. 5, 1832; d. Pans, Feb. 
27, 1882. Son and pupil of Eduard 
J. ; from d6but as prodigy of 11 at 
Venice, continued to travel and play; 
1845-46 lived in Brussels, then in 
Paris, then in America 1852-54, then 
played everywhere in Europe; 1856 
court pst. to king of Hanover; pub- 
lished some original waltzes, noc- 
turnes, etc., and many transcriptions 
from modern composers; playing re- 
markable for elegance rather than 
force. In 1866 married Marie Traut- 
mann, also pst. b. Steinseltz, Alsace, 
Aug. 17, 1846. Pupil of Herz at Paris 
Cons., winning 1st prize 1862; trav- 
eled with husband; composed con- 
certo, Valses melancoliques, Valses 
mignonnes, etc., and valuable book 
on Touch in pf. playing. 

Jahn (yan), Otto, writer, b. Kiel, June 
16, 1813; d. Gottingen, Sept. 9, 1869. 
After study in Germany and France, 

was lecturer on philology at Kiel, 
1842 prof, of archaeology at Greifs- 
wald, 1847 director of archaeological 
museum at Leipzig, 1855 director of 
museum and prof, of archaeology at 
Bonn ; greatest work Life of Mozart (4 
vols. 1856-59, Eng. transl. 3 vols. 
1882); authoritative work, first to 
treat musical subject in modern criti- 
cal comparative fashion; materials for 
life of Haydn went to Pohl, those for 
Beethoven to Thayer; wrote other es- 
says on music, note on Mendelssohn's 
Paulus, and composed some songs. 

Janko (yan'-ko), Paul von, inventor. 
b. Totis, Hungary, June 2, 1856. 
Studied at Vienna Polytechnic and 
at Cons., with Bruckner, etc.; in- 
vented pf . keyboard 1882, with 6 rows 
of keys, so arranged that any note can 
be struck in 3 different places; keys 
are also narrower so that greater 
range is acquired; it is an adaptation 
of an earlier chromatic keyboard, and, 
though adopted by some psts., has 
not become popular success; J. lived 
in Constantinople after 1892. 

Jannequin (zha-ne'-kan), Clement, 
compr., living in either Germany or 
France in 16th century; nothing is 
known of life, as apparently he was 
not attached to any court circles, 
or to any church; pupil of Josquin 
Depres; follower of Gombert in 
descriptive or program music; com- 
posed very few masses and motets, 
but several hundred secular songs 
(La Bataille, descriptive of the battle 
of Marignan, and a song on street 
cries of Paris very popular). 

Janotha (ya-no'-ta), Natalie, pst. b. 
Warsaw, June 8, 1856. Studied 
with Joachim and Rudorff at Berlin, 
then with Clara Schumann and 
Brahms, and for harm, with F. Weber 
and Bargiel; d6but Leipzig 1874; 
court pst. to German emperor; com- 
positions chiefly for pf . 

Jansa (yan-sa), Leopold, vlt. b. Wil- 
denschwert, Bohemia, Mar. 23, 1795; 
d. Vienna, Jan. 24, 1875. Pupil of 
Jehada, Zizius, Worzichek, and E. 
Forster; 1823 chamber musician to 
Count von Brunswick; 1824 member 
of imperial orch. at Vienna; 1834 
director of mus., prof, of vln. at 
Vienna Univ.; banished for share in 
benefit for revolutionists, lived in 



London 1849-68; then, at amnesty, 
returned to Vienna; less distinguished 
as virtuoso than as teacher; Lady 
Hall6, one of pupils. 
Januschowsky (yan-u-shof'-ski), Geor- 
gine von, dram. sop. b. Austria, about 
1859. D6but about 1875; sang at 
Stuttgart, Freiburg, etc.; Vienna 
1877, at Leipzig 1879, in New York 
1880; at Mannheim and Wiesbaden; 
prima donna Vienna Opera 1893-95; 
married Ad. Neuendorff, New York 

Jaques-Dalcroze, see Dalcroze. 

Jarvis, Charles H., pst. b. Philadelphia, 
Dec. 20, 1837; d. there, Feb. 25, 1895. 
Appeared in public at 7; founded 
Phila. Quintet Club 1862; conducted 
orch. concerts and gave historical 
recitals; well-known teacher. 

Jedliczka (yed-lich-ka), Ernst, pst. 
b. Pultava, Russia, June 5, 1855; d. 
Berlin, Aug. 3, 1904. At first 
student of engineering; lessons from 
N. Rubinstein, Tchaikovski, and 
Klindworth at Moscow; taught there 
at Cons. 1879-86; then at Klind- 
worth - Scharwenka Cons., Berlin, 
1886-88; then at Stern Cons.; re- 
markably successful teacher. 

Jehin (zha-an), [Jehin-Prume], Frangois 
Henry, vti. b. Spa, Belgium, Apr. 
18, 1839; d. Montreal, May 29, 1899. 
Pupil of Servais at 4; of his uncle F. 
Prume in Li6ge Cons., at Brussels 
Cons, of De Be>iot, Leonard, and 
F6tis, of Vieuxtemps and Wieniaw- 
ski; de'but Dresden at 16, and tours 
in Russia and Germany with great 
artists; 1862 vlt. to king of Belgium; 
1863 traveled in Cuba, Mexico, 
U. S., and Canada, and married 
singer Rosita del Vecchio; finally 
settled 1887 in Montreal; prof, at 
Trafalgar Inst., founder of Artistic 
Ass'n, etc.; retired 1896. Took place 
of Vieuxtemps as head of " Belgian 
school " of vlts., teacher of Ysaye. 

Jensen (yen-sen), Adolf, compr. b. 
Konigsberg, Jan. 12, 1837; d. Baden- 
Baden, Jan. 23, 1879. Self-taught 
at first, later pupil of Marpurg and 
Ehlert; 1856 teaching in Russia; 
capellm. Posen 1857; in Copenhagen 
1858-60, with Gade; Konigsberg 
1860; Berlin 1866-68, teaching at 
Tausig's school until ill health com- 
pelled him to retire; ardent admirer 

of Schumann, with whom he corre- 
sponded just before S's death. His 
songs resemble Schumann's in their 
original and poetic melody and 
appropriateness of setting, as well 
as in romantic charm; pf. works, too, 
are lyric in quality. His brother 
Gustay (1843-1895), vlt., pupil of 
Joachim, teacher at Cologne, compr. 
and editor of vln. works. 

Joachim (yd-d,-kim), Joseph, vlt. b. 
Kittsee, near Pressburg, June 28, 
1831; d. Berlin, Aug. 15, 1907. Be- 
gan vln. study at 5 with Szervaczin- 
ski with whom he appeared in public 
at 7; 1841 at Vienna Cons, studied 
with Hauser, G. Hellmesberger, the 
elder, and Bohm 1843; after brilliant 
appearances at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipzig, and in London, he settled 
quietly in Leipzig under friendly in- 
fluence of Mendelssohn and instruc- 
tion of David; 1849 concertmaster in 
Weimar, but his disposition and 
theories were so much opposed to 
those of Liszt that in 1854 J. became 
condr. of concerts and solo vlt. to 
king of Hanover, where he stayed 
till 1866; married Amalie Weiss 1863; 
1868 organizer and director of new 
department of Berlin Royal Acad. 
of Arts Hochschule fur Ausiibende 
Tonkunst (High-school for Practical 
Music); here he taught great num- 
bers of pupils; established Joachim 
Quartet 1869 (Schiever, De Anna, 
Kruse, Halir successively played 2d 
vln.; De Ahna, Rappoldi, Wirth, via.; 
Wm. Miiller and Hausmann, 'cello). 
J's compositions are earnest, even 
melancholy; Hungarian concerto 
most famous; has composed 2 other 
concertos, 4 overtures, few pieces 
for vln. and orch. and for via. and 
pf.; playing was distinguished for 
classical repose and dignity of man- 
ner and spirit, flawless accuracy, 
breadth, and fidelity of interpreta- 
tion, entire freedom from virtuosity 
merely as such; repertoire as soloist 
and quartet player limited by same 
earnestness and loftiness of ideal. 

John of Fornsete, compr. d. Jan. 19, 
1239(?). English Benedictine monk 
of 13 century, from Forncett in Nor- 
folkshire, who dwelt in monastery at 
Reading in Berkshire; Coussemaker 
attributes to him the composition 
of old English canon Sumer is 


icumen in; for summary of argu- 
ments concerning this authorship 
see Grove's Diet., Vol. 4. 

Johns, Clayton, compr. b. Newcastle, 
Del., Nov. 24, 1857. Studied archi- 
tecture in Phila.; 1879-82 studied 
music in Boston with J. K. Paine 
and W. H. Sherwood, and 1882-84 
in Berlin with Kiel, Grabow, and 
Rummel; after 1884 in Boston, 
teaching (H. Gebhard among pupils) 
and composing; has written Berceuse 
and Scherzino for strings, some 
small choral works, about 100 pf. 
pieces, but is best known here and 
abroad by songs, many of which have 
great charm, without over-complex- 
ity of mood or manner; noteworthy 
for selection of good poetry as text. 
Author of Essentials of Piano Play- 
ing (1909), 

Johnson, Herbert, singer, compr. b. 
Middletown, Conn., 1861; d. Bos- 
ton, July 21, 1904. Early showed 
talent for music and was a chorister 
in St. Stephen's P. E. Church, Prov- 
idence,' R. I.; studied first with local 
teachers, and later in Boston, where 
he commenced his career as a church 
singer in the Brookline Baptist 
Church. When the male quartet of 
the Ruggles St. Baptist church was 
organized in 1879 he was selected 
as solo tenor and director of the 
music of the church; during the 
twenty-two years of its existence 
the quartet was probably the most 
popular organization of its kind in 
the U. S. It was disbanded in 1901, 
after which he was successively 
tenor at the King's Chapel and 2d 
Universalist Church. Organized and 
directed the Johnson Quintet Club, 
a successful concert club. During 
his professional career he sang with 
the leading choral societies of New 
England. His best known composi- 
tion is the sacred song Face to Face. 

Jommelli (yom-mel-le), Nicola, compr. 
b. Aversa, near Naples, Sept. 10, 
1714; d. Naples, Aug. 25, 1774. 
Pupil of Mozzillo, Durante, Feo, 
Leo, Prato, and Mancini; produced 
first opera at 23 under pseudonym 
Valentino; later successes in Naples, 
Rome, Bologna, where he was as- 
sisted by Martini, and Venice where 
he became director of cons.; 1745 in 


Vienna, friend of Metastasio; 1749- 
54 maestro of St. Peter's at Rome; 
1754-69 capellm. in Stuttgart; failed 
in Naples to win success by later 
operas; sometimes called "the Ital- 
ian Gluck"; perhaps greatest of 
immediate predecessors of Mozart 
in dramatic naturalness (he aban- 
doned the da capo aria) and greater 
consideration for orchestral color 
and variety; composed about 50 
operas (Artaserse, Armida, Demo- 
foonte, etc.), several oratorios and 
cantatas, a famous miserere, etc. 

Jonas (ho-nas), Alberto, pst. b. Ma- 
drid, June 8, 1868. Studied with 
Olave and Mendizabal, and at Ma- 
drid Cons., at Brussels Cons, with 
Gevaert; debut Brussels 1880; 
studied under Rubinstein at St. 
Petersburg Cons, part of 1890; 
tours in England and on Continent; 
1894 head of pf. department Univ. 
of Michigan; Berlin 1908. 

Joncifcres (zhon-si-ar'), Victorin de 
[pseud, of Felix Ludger Rossignol], 
compr. b. Paris, Apr. 12, 1839; d. 
there, Oct. 26, 1903. At first stu- 
dent of painting; 1859 began to 
study mus. with Elwart, and in 
Leborne's class at Cons.; comp. inci- 
dental mus. to Hamlet 1863; opera 
Sardanapale 1867, and second opera 
1869 not very successful, nor were 
later works, though Dimitri attracted 
attention and Chevalier Jean suc- 
ceeded in Germany; critic for La 
Liberte after 1871, and contributor 
to other papers; president of Soc. des 
compositeurs de musique; also com- 
posed Symph. roma-ntique, suites, vln. 
concerto, etc. 

Jones, Edward German-, see German, 

Jordan, Jules, tenor, teacher, b. Willi- 
mantic, Conn., Nov. 10, 1850. 
Living in Providence since 1870; 
studied with Osgood in Boston, 
Shakespeare in London, Sbriglia 
in Paris; choirmaster Grace Ch., 
Prov., condr. of Arion Club; Mus. 
Doc. Brown Univ.; has composed 
opera, cantata, minor vocal works; 
successful teacher. 

Joseffy (yo-sef-fy), Rafael, pst. b. 
Hunfalu, Hungary, July 3, 1853. 
Early studies under Brauer in Buda- 
pest, followed by lessons at Leipzig 



Cons, from E. F. Wenzel, and in 
Berlin from Tausig; summers of 
1870-71 in Weimar with Liszt; ctebut 
Berlin 1872; successful appearances 
in Vienna and elsewhere; since 1879 
in N. Y. where he has taught, and 
in about five years' practical retire- 
ment 1891-96; lives at N. Tarry- 
town, a suburb of New York City; 
developed from the brilliant virtu- 
osity of his first period into a riper 
and more poetic musician; published 
School of Advanced Pf. Playing 1902. 

Josquin Despres, see Deprfes. 

Journet (zhor'-na), [Hippolyte Jules] 
Marcel, bass. b. Grasse, Maritime 
Alps, July 25, 1869. Studied with 
Obin at Paris; de"but Montpellier 
1893, followed by engagement at 
Brussels; Metrop. Op., New York, 
since 1900; Coveht Garden, London, 
since 1898. 

Jousse (zhos), J. b. Orleans, France, 
1760; d. London, Jan. 19, 1837. 
Went to London at Revolution; 
taught singing and pf. there; wrote 
several text-books, Lectures on Thor- 
ough-bass, Catechism of Music. 

Juch (yook), Emma Antonia Justine, 
dram. sop. b. Vienna, 1861. Parents, 
naturalized Americans, returned to 
N. Y. 1864; at public schools and 
when working in store, J. used spare 
time for singing lessons, from Mme. 
Murio-Celli; concert appearance, 
New York 1881, led to 5 year engage- 
ment with Mapleson for Italian 
Opera in London; sang with Th. 
Thomas for 3 seasons of Wagner 
concerts; later organized English 
opera company of her own with 
which she toured U. S.; not often 
heard after marriage to F. L. Well- 
man; her voice was pure and strong, 
and she was an intelligent actress. 

Jude, William Herbert, compr. b. 
Westleton, Suffolk, Eng., 1851. Orgt. 
at Liverpool, founder of Purcell Soc. 
there; editor Monthly Hymnal; orgt. 
1889 in Manchester; lectured in Eng- 
land and Australia; composed oper- 
etta Innocents Abroad, revival songs, 

Julien (zhii-li-an), or Jullien, Louis 
[Georges] Antoine [Jules], condr. b. 
Sisteron, Basses-Alpes, Apr. 23, 
1812; d. Paris, Mar. 14, 1860. Son 
of bandmaster; entered Paris Cons. 

at 21, as pupil of Le Carpentier and 
HaleVy; impatient of instruction, 
1836 became condr. of concerts of 
dance music at Jardin Turc; 1838 
went to London because of debts 
and there established series of con- 
certs given every season 1842-59, 
opened shop for sale of own music, 
leased theatre, brought out own 
opera at great expense; brought 
orchestra to America 1853; finally 
arrested in Paris for debt; died in 
insane asylum; compr. of quadrilles 
of great popularity, sensational 
condr., overfond of " monster " 
bands, yet introduced many good 
works to audiences. 

Jullien (zhiil-li-an), Jean Lucien 
Adolphe, critic, b. Paris, June 1, 1845. 
Son and grandson of literary men; 
studied law at Paris and music with 
Bienaim6; in early articles bravely 
declared himself an admirer of Schu- 
mann and Wagner; 1873 critic for 
Journal des debats; authority on 
18th century music; early works 
deal with its various phases; wrote 
also elaborate Life of Wagner and 
Life of Berlioz; frequent contributor 
to Le Menestrel and other journals. 

Jungmann (yung'-man), Albert, compr. 
b. Langensalza, Prussia, Nov. 14, 
1824; d. Pandorf, near Vienna, Nov. 
7, 1892. Studied with Korner and 
Leibrock; prof, at St. Cecilia Acad. 
Rome; 1853 manager for publishing 
firm C. A. Spina and of succeeding 
firm Jungmann and Lerch; composed 
400 songs and light pf. mus. 

Jtingst (yiingst), Hugo, condr. b. 
Dresden, Feb. 26, 1853. Pupil at 
Dresden Cons.; founder 1876 and 
condr. of Dresden Choral Soc. ; condr. 
of Julius Otto Soc. and of Acad. 
Gesangverein; composed about 60 
male choruses. 

Juon (yu-on), Paul, compr. b. Mos- 
cow, Mar. 8, 1872. Pupil at Mos- 
cow Cons, of Hrimaly, Taneiev, and 
Arensky, at Berlin Hochschule of 
Bargiel; settled in Berlin 1897; has 
composed 2 symph., chamber music, 
short pf. pieces, which are said to 
combine Slav material with German 
treatment; has published Harmonie- 
lehre and German translation of the 
life of Tchaikovski by the latter's 




Kahn (kan), Robert, compr. b. Mann- 
heim, July 21, 1865. Studied with 
E. Frank, V. Lachner, Kiel, and 
Rheinberger; received help from 
Joachim in Berlin 1885; 1890 in 
Leipzig, founded Ladies' Choral 
Union, 1893 teacher of comp. at 
Berlin Hochschule; compr. of cham- 
ber mus., several works for female 
chorus, and Mahomets Gesang for 
mixed chorus and orch. 

Ka janus (ka-ya-nus), Robert, condr. b. 
Finland, Dec. 2, 1856. Studied at 
Leipzig Cons., Paris, and Dresden; 
founded Philharmonic Orch., Hel- 
singfors; founder and condr. of 
symph. chorus; compr. of symph. 
poems, suites, etc., on national airs; 
first representative of Finnish na- 
tional music. 

Kalinnikov (ka-lin'-m'-koff), Basil Ser- 

feievitch, compr. b. Voina, Russia, 
an. 13, 1866; d. Yalta, Crimea, 
Jan. 11, 1901. Studied at Moscow 
Cons, with Ilyinski and Blaramberg; 
2d condr. at Italian opera, Moscow, 
1893, but obliged by ill health, pos- 
sibly brought on by early privation, 
to retire in 1894 to Crimea; com- 
posed 2 symphonies (one in G min. 
best known), music to Tolstoi's Tsar 
Boris, 2 symph. poems, some 
chamber music; works show healthy 
national spirit and freshness of 

Kalisch, see Lehmann, Lilli. 

Kalkbrenner, Friedrich Wilhelm 
Michael, pst., compr. b. near Berlin, 
1788; d. Enghien, near Paris, June 
10, 1849. Son of Christian K., also 
musician; 1798-1802 pupil at Paris 
Cons, of L. Adam and Catel; 1813 
played in Berlin and Vienna, met 
Hummel and Albrechtsberger, of 
whom he took lessons; 1814-23 popu- 
lar teacher in London; 1823 partner 
Pleyel pf. factory; as player dis- 
tinguished for smooth suppleness; as 
teacher, adapted Logier's chiro- 
plast, aimed at independent action 
of fingers and wrist; so vain that he 
offered to make an artist of Chopin; 
composed 4 pf. concertos, some 

sextets, quintets, etc., many fantasias, 
variations, etc., all very popular in 
his day; a Method with really good 
exercises, especially for left hand. 

Kalliwoda (kal-li-vo'-da), Johann Wen- 
zel, vlt., compr. b. Prague, Mar. 21, 
1800; d. Carlsruhe, Dec. 3, 1866. 
Pupil of Pixis in Prague Cons.; 
played in theatre orch. 1816-22; 
capellmeister to Prince Furstenberg 
1823-53, then retired; composed 2 
operas, 7 symph., overtures, orch. 
fantasias, vln. concerto, chamber, 
vln. and pf. mus., and songs. Son 
Wilhelm (1827-1893), pupil and suc- 
cessor of father. 

Karasowski (ka-ra-sof-ski), Moritz, 
writer, b. Warsaw, Sept. 22, 1823; 
d. Dresden, Apr. 20, 1892. Pupil of 
Kratzer; 'cellist in opera orch. at 
Warsaw 1851; traveled 1858-60; 
royal chamber virtuoso Dresden 
1864; wrote History of Polish Opera, 
Life of Mozart, Chopin's Youth, 
Life of Chopin. 

Karganoff (kar-gan'-of), Genari Osip- 
ovitch, pst. b. Kashetin, Caucasus, 
Apr. 30, 1858; d. Rostroff-on-the- 
Don, Feb. 23, 1890. Studied with 
Reinecke and ' Brassin at Leipzig 
Cons.; prof, of pf. at Tiflis; chiefly 
notable for characteristic Russian 
romances for pf. 

Karl, Tom, tenor, b. Dublin, Jan. 19, 
1846. Pupil of H. Phillips in Eng- 
land and of Sangiovanni and Triulzi 
in Italy; after singing in Italy sev- 
eral years, came to America with 
Parepa Rosa; 1872 entered comic 
opera with Pinafore; long a member 
of the Bostonians Co.; retired from 
stage 1896; 1899 director of Operatic 
School of Acad. of Dramatic Arts, 
N. Y. 

Kastner, Johann Georg, compr., writer. 
b. Strassburg, Mar. 9, 1810; d. Paris, 
Dec. 19, 1867. Studied with Maurer 
and Romer; became orgt. at 10; 
studied for church in Lutheran 
Seminary, but at 20 became band- 
master; brought out 4 operas, and 
1835 was sent by town to Paris 
where he studied under Berton and 



Reicha, and where he lived there- 
after; 1837 published treatise on 
instrumentation (superseded by Ber- 
lioz's), methods for various instru- 
ments; originator of national band 
competitions (Paris Exp. 1867); 
contributor to magazines, compr. 
of several operas, the biblical Der- 
nier roi de Juda considered best; 
also wrote Livres-Partitions, sym- 
phony-cantatas preceded by disser- 
tations, Les danses des marts, La 
harpe d'Eole, Les voix de Paris, etc., 
more valuable for information than 
for music. 

Kauffman (kowf-man), Fritz, compr. 
b. Berlin, June 17, 1855. Studied 
natural science and became drug- 
gist; 1878 entered Berlin Hochschule 
as pupil of Kiel, took Mendelssohn 
Prize; after year in Vienna, taught 
and composed in Berlin; 1889 condr. 
of Gesellschaft concerts at Magde- 
burg; 1893 royal music director; 
composed songs, choruses, opera, 
symph., concerto, chamber music 
and pf. pieces. 

Kaun (kown), Hugo, compr. b. Berlin, 
Mar. 21, 1863. Studied with Raif 
and Kiel at Berlin Hochschule; 
teaching, conducting, and composing 
in Milwaukee, U. S., after 1884; 
1902 returned to Berlin; composed 
symph. An mein Vaterland; symph. 
poems, Minnehaha and Hiawatha,; 
2 operas, quartets, trio, octet, etc. 

Kayser (kl'-zer), Heinrich Ernst, vlt., 
teacher, b. Altona, Apr. 16, 1815; 
d. Hamburg, Jan. 17, 1888. His 
educational works for the violin, 
Etudes, Op. 20 and 30, Studies in 
Shifting, Op. 28, and a Method are 
highly valued. 

Keiser (kl'-zer), Reinhard, compr. b. 
Teuchern, near Weissenfels, Jan. 
(baptized 12), 1674; d. Hamburg, 
Sept. 12, 1739. Educated by father, 
church compr., and at Thomasschule, 
Leipzig, under Schelle; 1692 pro- 
duced pastoral Ismene and opera 
Basilius; went to Hamburg 1694 
where he lived for 45 years, produc- 
ing about 116 operas; 1700 organizer 
of winter concerts, combination 
feasts of music and food; 1703 direc- 
tor of opera; 1709 married into 
nobility; 1719-21 at Stuttgart; 1723- 
28 capellm. to king of Denmark; 

1728 canon and cantor at Hamburg 
cathedral; great influence on Ger- 
man opera due to his efforts at real 
dramatic expression wherein he first 
broke away from French and Italian 
models, and in his original use of 
popular German subjects; contempo- 
rary popularity was great; also com- 
posed oratorios, cantatas for Christ- 
mas and other occasions, church 
pieces, divertimenti, etc. 

Keler, Albert von [called Keler-Bela], 

compr. b. Bartfeld, Hungary, Feb. 
13, 1820; d. Wiesbaden, Nov. 20, 
1882. After trying law and farming, 
turned to music 1845; pupil at 
Vienna of Sechter and Schlesinger; 
vlt. at theatre; 1854 condr. of Gungl 
Orch. at Berlin; 1855 succeeded 
Lanner as condr. of band in Vienna; 
1863 condr. Kurorch. at Wiesbaden; 
retired 1873; compr. of showy, brill- 
iant dance music. 

Keller, Mathias, compr. b. Ulm, Wiirt- 
temberg, Mar. 20, 1818; d. Boston, 
1875. Studied at Stuttgart, and 
later under Lindpaintner and Sey- 
fried; bandmaster for 7 years; came 
to Phila. 1846; 1st vln. at several 
theatres; then in Boston, not very 
prosperous; composed American 
hymn Speed our Republic to which 
O. W. Holmes set new words Angel 
of Peace for its successful revival at 
Peace Jubilee. 

Kelley, Edgar Stillman, compr. b. 
Sparta, Wis., Apr. 14, 1857. Pupil 
of Merriam and Eddy, and at Stutt- 
gart Cons, of Seifriz and others; 
1880 in San Francisco as orgt., 
teacher, and critic; composed inci- 
dental music to Macbeth, comic opera 
Puritania (and conducted orch. for 
performances); Chinese suite Alad- 
din, based on careful study of Chinese 
music as are some of his songs, no- 
tably Lady picking mulberries; inci- 
dental music to Ben Hur shows 
erudition beyond deserts of play; 
taught and lectured in N. Y. (Univ. 
Extension lectures 1896) ; later moved 
to Berlin. 

Kellie, Lawrence, tenor, compr. b. 
London, Apr. 3, 1862. Student of 
law; 1884 studied at Royal Acad. 
and privately with Randegger; de'but 
1886, recitals 1887; songs (7s it too 
late? All for thee, etc.) very popular 


Kellogg, Clara Louise, dram. sop. b. 
Sumterville, S. C., July, 1842. 
Training from her mother, and in 
New York after 1856; d6but there 
1861, London 1867, followed by 
engagement; 1868-72 touring U. S.; 
1872-74 singing in London; 1874 
organized English opera co., super- 
vised everything herself from trans- 
lations of librettos to training of 
chorus, singing 125 nights in one 
season; after 1881 appeared chiefly 
in concerts; married her manager, 
Carl Strakosch, 1887, and soon after- 
ward retired. 

Kelly, Michael, tenor, compr. b. Dub- 
lin, Dec., 1762; d. Margate, Oct. 9, 
1826. Sang as lad in Dublin, and 
appeared in Arne's Cymon; pupil at 
Naples of Fenaroli and Aprile; sang 
in Italy and Vienna, where he met 
Mozart and sang in Nozze di Figaro; 
sang in London after 1787; 1789 ap- 
peared as compr. of several pieces; 
1802 opened music shop; bankrupt 
1811, opened wine shop; entertaining 
Reminiscences published 1826. 

Kemp, Robert [known as Father Kemp], 
condr. b. Wellfleet, Mass., June 6, 
1820; d. Boston, May 14, 1897. 
Shoe dealer in Boston, who organized 
and conducted Old Folks' Concerts 
1854; published Autobiography 1868. 

Kennerly-Rumford, Robert Henry, bari- 
tone, b. London, Sept. 2, 1870. 
Studied with Henschel and Blume 
and 1894 in Paris with Sbriglia; 
de"but London 1893; popular festival 
and concert singer in England; 1900 
married Clara Butt [q. vj. 

Kerl [Kerll, Kherl], Johann Kaspar 
(von), orgt., compr. b. Adorf, Saxonv, 
Apr. 9, 1627; d. Munich, Feb. 13, 
1693. After study in Vienna under 
Valentini, sent by Ferdinand III to 
Italy, where he was pupil of Caris- 
simi; 1656-73 court capellmeister at 
Munich; taught at Vienna, court 
orgt. there 1677, returned to Munich 
1684; details of his life uncertain; 
remarkable for original resolution 
of discords; composed org. works, 
masses (one entirely on black notes), 

Kern, Carl Wilhelm, compr. b. June 
4, 1874, at Schlitz, Hesse-Darm- 
stadt. Father, Carl August K., 


organist and compr., supervised the 
early education of his son, who later 
studied under Friedrich Lux, organ 
virtuoso at Mayence; came to the 
U. S. in 1893; teacher in Elmhurst 
College, near Chicago, where he 
continued his musical studies; other 
positions were at the Springfield, O., 
School of Music, Dennison Univer- 
sity, and the Baptist University, 
Dallas, Tex.; located in St. Louis 
1904, teacher in the Strassberger 
Conservatories and musical editor 
for the Shattinger Music Co.; com- 
positions consist of piano pieces, 
songs, anthems and organ works. 

Ketten, Henri, pst. b. Baja, Hungary, 
Mar. 25, 1848; d. Paris, Apr. 1, 1883. 
Pupil of Marmontel and HaleVy; 
compr. of light pf. pieces.; successful 

Ketterer, [Nicolas] Eugfene, pst. b. 
Rouen, July 7, 1831; d. Paris, Dec. 
18, 1870. Pupil of Marmontel at 
Paris Cons, where he took 2d prize 
in solfeggio 1847 and accessit in pf. 
1852; brilliant success as pst. and 
compr. of many fantasias, caprices, 

Key, Francis Scott, poet. b. Frederick 
Co., Md., Aug. 9, 1780; d. Balti- 
more, Jan. 11, 1843. During British 
invasion 1814, K., then lawyer in 
Washington, went into enemy's lines 
to effect exchange of captured friend; 
detained on frigate during attack on 
Fort McHenry, anxiety about result 
inspired words of Star-spangled 
Banner, to be sung to old drinking 
tune Anacreon in Heaven; K's col- 
lected poems published 1857. 

Kiel (kel), Friedrich, compr. b. Puder- 
bach, Oct. 7, 1821; d. Berlin, Sept. 
14, 1885. Learned rudiments from 
father, taught himself pf. and comp.; 
vlt. in band of Prince von Wittgen- 
stein; studied with Kummer at 
Coburg and Dehn at Berlin, under 
stipend from Friedrich Wilhelm 
IV; gave private concerts of own 
works; 1862 perf. of Requiem by 
Stern Gesangverein brought him 
prominence; 1865 taught comp. in 
Stern Cons, and 1870 at Hochschule; 
his compositions, masses, motets, 
quartets, pf. pieces, songs, are 
soundly classical; great success as 


Kienzl (kentsl), Wilhelm, compr. b. 
Waizenkirchen, Upper Austria, Jan. 
17, 1857. Studied at Graz, Prague, 
Leipzig, and under Liszt at Weimar; 
1879 degree Ph.D. at Vienna with 
dissertation on Declamation which 
attracted notice of Wagner; lived 
in Bayreuth 1879; capellmeister in 
several places, Amsterdam, Ham- 
burg, Munich 1892-93; then devoted 
to comp. at Graz; operas Urvasi, 
Heilmar der Narr, Don Quichote, and 
especially Der Evangelimann (Berlin 
1895) which has had tremendous suc- 
cess, in popularized Wagnerian form 
akin to Humperdinck's Hansel und 
Gretel; also many songs and pf . pieces. 

Kiesewetter (kes'-e-vet-ter), Raphael 
Georg, Edler von Weisenbrunn, 
writer. b. Holleschau, Moravia, 
Aug. 29, 1773; d. Baden, near Vienna, 
Jan. 1, 1850. Attached to Ministry 
of War and Imperial councillor; 
pupil of Albrechtsberger and Hart- 
mann; enthusiastic amateur, patron, 
and collector of music scores; author 
of many works on music, most im- 
portant being researches into Greek 
music, Guido von Arezzo, and Die 
Musik der Araber. 

King, Julie, see Rive-King, Julie. 

King, Oliver A., pst. b. London, 1855. 
Pupil of Barnby, Holmes, and at 
Leipzig Cons, of Reinecke; pst. to 
Princess Louise; visited Canada and 
New York 1880-83; prof, of pf. at 
Royal Acad.; composed 3 cantatas, 
symph., overtures, concertos, etc. 

Kinkel, Johanna [nee Mockel], compr. 
b. Bonn, July 8, 1810; d. London, 
Nov. 15, 1858. Pupil of Bohmer in 
Berlin; married publisher Matthieux 
1832 but soon left him; married 
poet Gottfried Kinkel 1843; com- 
posed cantata and operetta; wrote 
Acht Briefe an eine Freundin iiber 

Kirchner (kirkh'-ner), Fritz, pst. b. 
Potsdam, Nov. 3, 1840; d. there, 
May 11, 1907. Studied with Kul- 
lak, Wiierst, and Seyffert at Kullak's 
Acad. where he taught 1864-89; then 
in Madchenheim, Berlin; composed 
educational music, chiefly for pf. 

Kirchner, Theodor, compr. b. Neu- 
kirchen, Saxony, Dec. 10, 1823; d. 
Hamburg, Sept. 18, 1903. Pupil of 


Becker in Leipzig; 1843-62 orgt. at 
Winterthur; 1862-72 teaching in 
Zurich; 1873 director of Wiirzburg 
Cons.; lived in Leipzig; 1883-90 
teacher at Dresden Cons.; then 
moved to Hamburg; works almost 
entirely for pf. in style of Schumann, 
short, with descriptive titles, yet 
far from merely imitative; Album- 
blatter and Nachtetiicke especially 

Kirnberger, Johann Philipp, theorist. 
b. Saalfield, Thuringia, Apr. 24, 1721; 
d. Berlin, July 27, 1783. Pupil of 
Kellner, Gerber, and, 1739-41, of 
J. S. Bach; taught and conducted 
at Leipzig, in Lemberg; after study 
with Tickler, became vlt. in Royal 
Orch. Berlin; 1754 capellmeister to 
Princess Amalie; composed correct 
but cold fugues, etc., developed some 
incorrect theories about tempera- 
ment; most important work Die 
Kunst des reinen Satzes 1774-79. 

Kistler, Cyrill, compr. b. Gross-Aitin- 
gen, near Augsburg, Mar. 12, 1848; d. 
Kissingen, Jan. 2, 1907. School- 
teacher in various places; 1876 pupil 
at Munich Cons, of Wiillner, Rhein- 
berger, and F. Lachner; 1883 teacher 
of theory and org. at Sondershausen 
Cons.; 1885 principal of private 
music school at Kissingen and pub- 
lisher; 1884-94 editor of Mus. Tages- 
fragen; opera Kunihild (1884, re- 
vived 1893) excited some attention, 
composed on Wagnerian principles; 
wrote also other operas not very 
successful, part-songs, marches, etc., 
and harmony based on Wagner. 

Kittl, Emmy, see Destinn, Emmy. 

Kjerulf (kye-rulf ), Half dan, compr. b. 
Christiania, Sept. 15, 1815; d. there, 
Aug. 11, 1868. Student of law; 1840 
teacher of music; 1850 by govern- 
ment grant studied at Leipzig under 
Richter; after unsuccessful efforts 
to establish concerts in Christiania, 
he devoted himself to composition; 
works are chiefly songs (with few pf. 
pieces) , of Scandinavian mood, tender 
melancholy, charming simplicity and 
genuine worth. 

Klafsky [Lohse-K.], Katharina, dram, 
sop. b. St. Johann, Hungary, Sept. 
19, 1855; d. Hamburg, Sept. 22, 
1896. After childhood of poverty 
and service, sang in Komische Oper 


chorus at Vienna; after lessons from 
Marches!, returned to stage; short 
retirement after marriage, followed 
by small parts at Leipzig, London, 
etc.; 1882 member of Neumann's 
Wagner Company; took principal 
parts at Hamburg; sang also at 
Bremen, London, Munich, etc.; 
Festival 1894, etc.; married 3d time 
Otto Lohse 1895; came to U. S. with 
Damrosch Co. 1895; distinguished 
in Wagner roles, especially Briinn- 

Klauser (klow'-zer), Karl, editor, b. 
St. Petersburg, Aug. 24, 1823. 
Studied in Germany, but chiefly 
self-taught; came to U. S. 1850; 
1856-83 mus. director at Miss Por- 
ter's School, Farmington, Conn.; 
editor and arranger of many edi- 
tions of classic comps. and joint 
editor Famous Composers and Their 

Klauwell (klow'-vel), Otto, writer. 
b. Langensalza, Thuringia, Apr. 7, 
1851. Studied at Schulpforta, and, 
after service in Franco-Prussian 
war, at Leipzig Cons, under Richter 
and Reinecke; Ph.D. at Univ. with 
dissertation on development of 
canon; 1874 taught at Cologne Cons.; 
1884 director of Teachers' Seminary 
there; besides compositions, opera, 
overture, etc., has written on history 
of music and on pf. playing. 

Kleeberg (kla-berg), Clotilde, pst. b. 
Pans, June 27, 1866; d. Brussels, 
Feb. 7, 1909. Pupil of Mmes. Retz 
and Massart at Paris Cons., winning 
1st prize 1878; de"but at 12 with 
Beethoven C minor concerto at 
Pasdeloup concerts; 1883 played in 
London and in following years in 
Berlin and Vienna, everywhere with 
success; married sculptor C. Samuel 
1900; " sympathetic, delicate, truly 
womanly executant of Schumann 
and Chopin." [Bie.] 

Kleffel, Arno, compr. b. Possneck, 
Thuringia, Sept. 4, 1840. Pupil in 
Leipzig at Cons, and privately of 
Hauptmann; director mus. soc. 
Riga 1863-67; capellmeister at thea- 
tres in various cities, 1873-80 in 
Berlin, 1886-92; 1894-96 teacher of 
theory Stern Cons. Berlin; 1897- 
1904 at Cologne; settled in Berlin 
1904; composed opera, incidental 


music to Faust and to Die Wichtel- 

mdnnchen, overtures, pf. pieces, 

(mostly short, some instructive), 
songs, etc. 

Klein (kiln), Bruno Oscar, compr. b. 
Osnabrlick, June 6, 1858. Pupil of 
father (orgt.), of Rheinberger, Wiill- 
ner, and Baermann at Munich Cons. ; 
came to America 1878; after travel- 
ing, giving concerts, settled in New 
York 1883; pf. teacher at Convent 
of Sacred Heart, orgt. at St. Francis 
Xavier 1884-94, prof, of counter- 
point at Nat'l Cons. 1887-92; 
occasional concerts in Germany; 
composed opera Kenilworth, Ham- 
burg 1895, pf. works, etc. 

Kleinmichel (klin'-ml-khel), Richard, 
pst., compr. b. Posen, Dec. 31, 1846; 
d. Charlottenburg, Aug. 18, 1901. 
Studied with father, at Hamburg, 
and at Leipzig Cons.; taught in 
Hamburg and Leipzig, where he 
became director of Stadt Th. 1882; 
married Clara Monhaupt, dram, sop.; 
lived in Magdeburg, then in Berlin; 
composed 2 operas, both performed 
at Hamburg, 2 symphonies, cham- 
ber mus., valuable pf. Etudes, and 
arrangements from Wagner; many 
years joint editor of Signale. 

Klengel, Julius, 'cellist, b. Leipzig, 
Sept. 24, 1859. Pupil of Hegar and 
Jadassohn; 'cellist in Gewandhaus 
Orch. since 1874; teacher at Cons, 
since 1881; member of Gewandhaus 
Quartet; remarkable for unexcelled 
technical skill; gifted teacher; compr. 
of 3 'cello concertos and solo pieces. 
Brother Paul K., condr. b. Leipzig, 
May 13, 1854. Pupil at Cons.; Ph. 
D. Leipzig Univ. with dissertation 
on aesthetics; condr. Euterpe Con- 
certs 1881-86; 2d court capellmeister 
Stuttgart 1888-93;- condr. of Arion 
Chorus, Leipzig, from 1893 to present 
except from 1898 to 1903, when he 
conducted Deutscher Liederkranz 
in New York. 

Klindworth (klint'-vort), Karl, pst., 
teacher, b. Hanover, Sept. 25, 1830. 
Played vln. as child, but could not 
afford lessons; from 17-19 condr. 
traveling opera troupe; then taught 
in Hamburg; 1852 received assist- 
ance which enabled him to study 
with Liszt at Weimar; 1854-68 in 
London as pst., teacher, organizer 



of artistic but unsuccessful concerts, 
gradually gaining, himself, in popu- 
larity; 1868-84 prof, of pf. at Mos- 
cow Cons., where he accomplished 
his greatest works, pf. score of Wag- 
ner's Ring des Nibelungen and com- 
plete edition of Chopin's works; 
then in Berlin, joint condr. with 
^Joachim and Wullner, of Philhar- 
*monic concerts and condr. of Wag- 
nerverein, founder of music school, 
which united with Scharwenka Cons. ; 
1893 retired to Potsdam as private 
teacher; has made arrangements of 
Tchaikovski's Pathetiqiie, etc., edited 
Beethoven's sonatas, rescored Cho- 
pin's F min. concerto, composed 
etudes for pf ., Polonaise fantaisie, etc. 

Klotz, vln. -makers, Mittenwald, Bava- 
ria. Earliest Mathias, b. June 11, 
1653; d. Aug. 16, 1743. Possibly pupil 
of Stainer, and of Nicolo Amati in 
Cremona for many years; wood of 
his vlns. is good but often worm- 
eaten; varnish is stiff. Son Sebas- 
tian, b. Jan. 18, 1696; d. after 1743, 
greatest of family; vlns. like Stain- 
er's, varnish thicker and better than 
father's. His son Aegidius, 1733- 
1805, when he took pains, one of best 
makers of his time. Lutgendorff 
gives 16 others of the family, mostly 
named Sebastian, Mathias, Georg, 
or Aegidius. 

Klughardt, August [Friedrich Martin], 

condr. b. Cothen, Nov. 30, 1847; 
d. Dessau, Aug. 3, 1902. Studied 
with Blassmann and Reichel at 
Dresden; th. condr. at Posen, 
Liibeck, Weimar; court music direc- 
tor at Weimar, Neustrelitz, and 
Dessau; influenced by Liszt but not 
extreme in following him; composed 
4 operas, 5 symph., 2 suites, 5 over- 
tures, chamber mus., symph. poem 
Leonore, pf. mus. etc. 

Knecht, Justin Heinrich, orgt. b. 
Biberach, Wiirttemberg, Sept. 30, 
1752; d. there, Dec. 1, 1817. Pro- 
fessor of literature and music director 
at Biberach 1771-1807; court direc- 
tor at Stuttgart 1807-1809, when he 
resigned because of intrigues at 
court; rival of Abt Vogler as orgt. 
and theorist; wrote books on har- 
mony, methods for org. and pf., 
Luthers Verdienst um Musick und 
Poesie; of his compositions only 

interesting one is Tongemalde der 
Natur,. symphony treating of same 
subjects as Beethoven's Pastoral. 

Kneisel (knl'-sel), Franz, vlt. b. 
Bucharest, Roumania, Jan. 26, 1865. 
Son and pupil of bandmaster; pupil 
at Bucharest Cons., and at Vienna 
Cons, of Griin and Hellmesberger, 
winning 1st prize; concertmaster at 
Hofburg Th., of Bilse's Orch., Ber- 
lin, and 1885-1903 of Boston Symph. 
Orch.; 1902-03 condr. Worcester 
Festivals; 1905 vln. prof, at Insti- 
tute of Mus. Art in N. Y.; 1886 
founded Kneisel Quartet; other 
members have been E. Fiedler, O. 
Roth, K. Ondricek, J. Theodorowicz, 
J. Roentgen 2d vln.; L. Svecenski, 
via.; F. Giese, A. Hekking, A. Schroe- 
der, W. Willeke, 'cello; quartet has 
accomplished much in revealing 
beauties of chamber mus. to Ameri- 
can audiences. 

Kniese (kne'-zg), Julius, condr. b. 
Roda, near Jena, Dec. 21, 1848; d. 
Dresden, Apr. 22, 1905. Pupil of 
Stade, Brendel, and Riedel; direc- 
tor of Singakademie, Glogau, 1871- 
76; condr. of singing society, Frank- 
fort 1 ; director at Aix; after 1882 
chorusmaster for festival perform- 
ances at Bayreuth, 1889 director 
of preparatory school for singers 
there; composed opera, symph. poem, 
4 books of songs. 

Knight, Joseph Philip, compr. b. Brad- 
ford-on-Avon, July 26, 1812; d. 
Great Yarmouth, June 1, 1887. 
Org. pupil of Corfe; first songs pub. 
under pseud. Philip Mortimer; 
while living in U. S. 1839-41 pro- 
duced most famous songs (Rocked 
in the Cradle of the Deep, Why Chime 
the Bells?) ; vicar and orgt. at Scilly 
Islands; after marriage spent some 
years abroad; composed about 200 
songs, very popular in his day. 

Knorr (knore), Julius, pf. teacher, b. 
Leipzig, Sept. 22, 1807; d. there, 
June 17, 1861. Student of philology 
at Leipzig; debut Gewandhaus 1831; 
friend of Schumann, editor of Neue 
Zeitschrift 1834-35; introduced pre- 
liminary technical exercises in pf. 
teaching; wrote various " schools " 
and methods, and a guide to the 
literature of piano instruction. 


Kobbe (kob'-ba), Gustav, writer, b. 
New York, Mar. 4, 1857. Pupil of 
A. Hagen and Mosenthal; graduated 
at Columbia College 1877, Law 
School 1879; living in Morristown, 
N. J.; frequent contributor to maga- 
zines of articles on stage, singers, 
and actors; published Wagner's Life, 
My Rosary and other poems, Opera 
singers, The Pianolist, etc. 

Kocian (kot'-si-an), Jaroslav, vlt. b. 
Wildenschwert, Bohemia, Feb. 2, 
1884. Father, schoolmaster, gave 
him lessons at 3$; pupil at Prague 
Cons, of Sevcfk and Dvorak; since 
1901 has played with great success 
in Europe and in America. 

Koczalski (koshal'-ski), Raoul Armand 
Georg, pst., compr. b. Warsaw, Jan. 
3, 1885. Pupil of his mother and 
Godowsky; played as prodigy at 4 in 
Warsaw and in subsequent years in 
European capitals; court pst. to 
Shah of Persia; said to have played 
1000 times before 1896; several 
compositions, fantasias, waltzes, etc. 

Kbhler (ke-ler), Christian Louis Hein- 
rich, pst., compr. b. Brunswick, 
Sept. 5, 1820; d. Konigsberg, Feb. 
16, 1886. Pupil of Sechter, Sey- 
fried, Von Booklet, etc., at Bruns- 
wick arid Vienna; director at several 
theatres; after 1847 teacher and 
founder of school for pf. and theory 
at Konigsberg; contributor to Sig- 
nale; though he composed 3 operas, 
symph., cantata, etc., chief works are 
didactic studies and pf. methods; he 
develops technic in mechanical divis- 
ions, for the fore-arm, the wrist, etc. 

Kolling (ke'-ling), Carl W. P., compr. 
b. Hamburg, Feb. 28, 1831. Com- 
posed opera Schmetterlinge, Ham- 
burg 1891; composed attractive pf. 
pieces; teaching in Hamburg; came 
to U. S. and located in Chicago. 

Kb'nnemann, Arthur, compr. b. Baden- 
Baden, Mar. 12, 1861. Pupil of 
father (condr.) and of Krasselt; 
cpndr. at several theatres; director 
since 1887 of music school and orch. 
soc. at Mahrisch-Ostrau; composed 
7 operas, works for orchestra, scherzo, 
suite, overture, etc., and songs. 

Kontski, Antoine de, pst. b. Cracow, 
Oct. 27, 1817; d. Ivanitshi, prov. of 
Novgorod, Dec. 7, 1899. Pupil of 


Markendorf at Warsaw and of Field 
at Moscow; lived in Paris until 1851, 
Berlin until 1853, St. Petersburg 
until 1867, then in London; visited 
U. S. in 1885-86 and again on tour 
round the world 1896-98; his playing 
and his compositions were alike 
delicate and brilliant but superficial; 
3 brothers, Apollinaire, Charles, 
Stanislas, all vlts. 

Kopylov (kopil'-off), Alexander, compr. 
b. St. Petersburg, July 14, 1854. 
Vocal instructor in Royal Court 
Choir; classed by Pougin among 
those faithful to the conventional 
Russian school; composed symphony, 
scherzo for orch., 2 quartets, several 
choruses, and songs. 

Korbay (korbay'), Francis Alexander, 

tenor, pst. b. Pesth, May 8, 1846. 
Pupil of Volkmann (comp.), G. Roger 
(singing) and Liszt, his godfather, 
(pf.); sang Budapest Nat'l Th. 1865- 
68; toured Germany, England, and 
America, as concert pst. until 1871, 
where he was able to give song 
recitals to own accomp.; taught and 
lectured in N. Y.; 1894-1903 prof, 
of singing Royal Acad., London, 
where he has since lived; composed 
Nuptiale for orch., songs, and tran- 
scriptions of Hungarian folk-songs. 

Korestchenko, Arseni Nicolaievitch, 

compr. b. Moscow, Dec. 18, 1870. 
Pupil of Taneiev and Arensky, win- 
ner of gold medals at Moscow Cons, 
where he now teaches counterpoint 
and form; has composed 3 operas 
(2 for one act, prod. Moscow 1900, 
.1902), ballet, symphonic lyrique, etc. 

Koschat, Thomas, compr., bass. b. 
Viktring, near Klagenfurt, Aug. 8, 
1845. While studying natural 
sciences at Vienna, joined opera 
chorus, cathedral choir, etc.; 1871 
wrote words in Carinthian dialect 
and music pf quartets for men's 
voices of which he has written over 
100 (Forsaken the best known); 
organized Karnthner Quintet 1875; 
composed Liederspiel Am Worthersee, 
Singspiel, and opera. 

Kossmaly (kos-ma'-li), Carl, writer, 
b. Breslau, July 27, 1812; d. Stettin, 
Dec. 1, 1893. Pupil of Berger, Zelter, 
and Klein; th. condr. at various 
German cities, at Stettin 1846-49; 



wrote Schlesisches Tonkunstler Lexi- 
kon, works on Mozart, against Wag- 
ner, and contributed often to the 
Neue Zeitschrift, etc. 

Kotzeluch (kot'-ze-look), Leopold Anton 
[properly Leopold Antonin Kozeluh], 
pst. b. Wellwarn, Dec. 9, 1752; d. 
Vienna, May 7, 1818. While law stu- 
dent at Prague, composed ballet under 
tuition of cousin Johann Anton K., 
which was so successful that he 
turned to music 1771; music teacher 
to Archduchess Elizabeth at Vienna; 
chiefly memorable for disagreeable 
behavior toward Mozart whom he 
succeeded as court compr. 1792; 
his numerous works, 25 ballets, 30 
symph. 50 concertos, etc., are no 
longer of interest. 

Kotzschmar (kotz'-shmar), Hermann, 
teacher, compr. b. Finsterwalde, Ger- 
many, July 4, 1829; d. Portland, 
Me., 1909. Pupil of father on org. 
and several wind instr., of his uncle 
Hayne for pf . and J. Otto for comp. ; 
member of royal body-guard band 
and of Dresden opera orch.; came 
to America with Saxonia Band 1848; 
orgt. in Portland, Me., after 1849; 
condr. of choral societies; compr. of 
church quartets, slight pf. pieces. 

Kowalski (ko-val'-ski) , Henri, pst. b. 
Paris, 1841. Pupil of Marmontel 
and Reber; gave concerts in Ger- 
many, England, and America 1869; 
composed an opera, produced with- 
out success, Paris 1877, and rather 
superficial pf. pieces; wrote A 
trovers I'Amerique giving sarcastic 
observations on America. 

Kraus (krows), [Conrad Ferdinand 
Hermann] Ernst, dram, tenor, b. Er- 
langen, Bavaria, June 8, 1863. Pupil 
of Galliera at Milan and of Schi- 
mann-Regan at Munich; concert de- 
but Munich 1893; opera d6but Mann- 
heim 1893; engaged at Mannheim 
and Berlin; came to Metropolitan, 
N. Y. four seasons; 1901 at Bayreuth; 
specialty, Wagner roles; now with 
the Berlin opera. 

Krause (krow'-za), Anton, pst., condr. 
b. Geithain, Saxony, Nov. 9, 1834; 
d. Dresden, Jan. 31, 1907. Pupil of 
Dietrich, and at Dresden of Wie'ck, 
Reissiger, and Spindler; pst. delmt 
Geithain 1846; further study in 
Leipzig Cons, under Moscheles, etc., 

1850-53; condr. Leipzig Lieder- 
tafel, director of Gesangverein at 
Barmen 1859 to retirement 1897; 
composed several songs, Princessin 
Ilse (for declamation with pf.), and 
very many melodious pf. studies. 

Krause, Emil, pst. b. Hamburg, July 
30, 1840. Pupil at Leipzig Cons, of 
Hauptmann, etc.; 1860 teacher pf. 
and theory at Hamburg; 1885 at 
Cons.; published pf. method with 
exercises, sonatas, variations, 3 
cantatas, etc. 

Krause, Martin, pst., teacher, b. Lob- 
stedt, near Leipzig, June 17, 1853. 
Studied with father, Fuchs, and at 
Leipzig Cons, with Wenzel and 
Reinecke; after some time spent in 
teaching, giving successful concerts, 
and an attack of nervous prostration, 
became diligent disciple of Liszt 
1883-85; with Siloti and others 
founded 1885 Lisztverein, of which 
K. is manager; teacher and writer in 

Krebs, Johann Ludwig, orgt. b. Buttel- 
stadt, Thuringia, Feb. 10, 1713; d. 
Altenburg, Jan., 1780. Pupil of fath- 
er, orgt., and 1726-35 private pupil 
at Leipzig Thomasschule of J. S. 
Bach, who said K. was his best pupil; 
orgt. at Zeitz, Zwickau, and Alten- 
burg; works include Clavieriibungen, 
sonatas, suites and preludes, etc. 

Krebs, Mary, pst. b. Dresden, Dec. 5, 
1851; d. there, June 27, 1900. Pupil 
of her father, Karl August K. (1804- 
1880), pst., compr.; debut Gewand- 
haus, Leipzig, 1865; up to the time 
of her retirement from the concert 
stage she was well received in the 
leading European musical centers. 

Krehbiel (kra'-bel), Henry Edward, 
writer, b. Ann Arbor, Mich., Mar. 
10, 1854. Studied law at Cincinnati, 
turned to journalism, with music as 
specialty; mus. critic for Cincinnati 
Gazette; editor N. Y. Mus. Review; 
since 1880 mus. critic for N. Y. Tri- 
bune; beside discriminating and 
broad-minded criticism, has written 
many magazine articles, program 
notes for N. Y. concerts, and several 
books: first, historical records, such 
as Notes on Choral Mus. and Oratorio 
Soc. of N. Y., Review of N. Y. Mus. 
Seasons 1885-90, The Philharmonic 



Society of N. Y., etc.; 2dly, aids 
to students, How to Listen to Music, 
transl. of Technics of vln. playing, 
etc.; 3dly, more humanistic, Music 
and manners in the 18th century; 
Chapters of Opera; American con- 
tributor to Grove's Dictionary. 

Kreisler (krls'-ler) , Fritz, vlt. b. Vienna, 
Feb. 2, 1875. Pupil of Hellmesberger 
at Vienna Conservatory and of 
Massart and Delibes at Paris Cons., 
winning 1st prize 1887; after success- 
ful tour in America with Rosenthal 
1888-1889, studied medicine, art, 
military science; resumed vln. with- 
out brilliant success at first, but 
at d6but Berlin 1899 and on tour 
in America 1900-1901 with Hofmann 
and Gerardy, established position as 
leading vlt.; playing is remarkably 
vital and broad, and his programs 
varied; has arranged many of the 
early violin classics. 

Kretschmer (kret'-shmer), Edmund, 
compr. b. Ostritz, Saxony, Aug. 31, 
1830. Studied with J. Otto and 
Joh. Schneider at Dresden; 1863-97 
court orgt.; founder and condr. of 
Cacilia Singing Soc.; compr. of im- 
portant operas, Die Folkunger and 
Heinrich der Lowe. 

Kretzschmar (kretz'-shmar), August 
Ferdinand Hermann, writer. b. 
Olbernhau, Jan. 19, 1848. Pupil 
of J.. Otto at Dresden and of Richter, 
Paul, etc., at Leipzig Cons.; 1871 
Ph.D. with dissertation on Guido 
d'Arezzo, and teacher of org. and 
harm, at Cons.; condr. of several 
societies in Leipzig, mus. director in 
various towns, 1887 music director of 
Leipzig Univ., condr. Riedel-Verein, 
organizer of Academic Orch. Con- 
certs; retired from conducting 1898; 
dir. Royal High School for Music, 
Berlin, 1909; valuable contributions 
to periodicals, published lectures 
on Cornelius, etc., and Fuhrer durch 
den Concertsaal, 3 vols., analyses of 
musical works. 

Kreutzer (kroit'-zer), Conradin, compr. 
b. Messkirch, Baden, Nov. 22, 1780; 
d. Riga, Dec. 14, 1849. Studied 
with Rieger and Weihrauch; medical 
student 1799-1800; after production 
of 1st opera at Freiburg, spent 5 
years in Switzerland as pst. and 
singer; 1804-1811 at Vienna, 2 yrs. 

pupil of Albrechtsberger; capellmeis- 
ter Stuttgart 1812; to Prince von 
Furstenberg 1817-1822, at Leipzig 
theatres intermittently 1825-40, at 
City Th. Cologne 1840-46; there- 
after in Vienna. Of his 30 operas 
only Doc Nachtlager in Granada, 
Der Verschwender, Jery und Bately 
have survived; of other works some 
choruses are noteworthy (Die Kapelle, 

Kreutzer, Rodolphe, vlt. b. Versailles, 
Nov. 16, 1766; d. Geneva, Jan. 6, 
1831. Pupil of father, vlt. in the 
court orchestra and of Stamitz; at 
16 father's successor, 1790 solo vlt. 
at Th. Italien where he produced 1st 
opera; Lodoiska, best of his 40 operas, 
prod. 1791; prof, of vln. at Cons. 
1795; 1797 tour through Holland, 
Germany, and Italy; 1798 at Vienna, 
where he probably met Beethoven, 
who dedicated to him vln. sonata, 
Op. 47 (called Kreutzer sonata); on 
return to Paris, wrote famous vln. 
method, with Rode and Baillot; 1801 
solo vlt., 1816 2d condr., 1817 1st 
condr. at Ope>a; chamber musician 
to Napole'on and to Louis XVIII; 
retired 1825, embittered by loss of 
influence; composed 15 quartets, 19 
concertos, and many other works for 
vln., of which 40 Etudes ou Caprices is 
universally recognized as invaluable. 

Kroeger (kre^-ger), Ernest Richard, 
compr. b. St. Louis, Aug. 10, 1862. 
Study of pf. and vln. began early, 
but until 23 music was secondary 
interest; his training has all been in 
America; has been orgt., condr., head 
of a college of mus., chief of Bureau 
of Mus. for St. Louis Exposition of 
1904; composed symph., symph. 
poem Sardanapalus given by Seidl, 
overture Hiawatha with genuine 
Indian themes, given by Thomas 
Orch., overture Thanatopsis, Ten 
American Sketches for piano (portray- 
ing Indian, negro, mountains, prairie, 
etc.), some chamber mus., ana many 
pf. pieces, and songs. 

Krogmann, C. W., compr. b. Danvers, 
Mass. Lived in Boston since third 
year of age; mother was an organist 
and other members of the family 
were cultivated musical amateurs; 
graduated from Boston High School; 
musical education carried on under 
mother and Henry Koerber, of 


Boston; began writing music at the 
age of twelve, but published nothing 
until 1896; compositions include 
about 300 different pieces for piano 
and voice, many of them having 
marked educational value as well as 
vogue among teachers. 

Krug (kroog), Arnold, compr. b. Ham- 
burg, Oct. 16, 1849; d. there, Aug. 
4, 1904. Pupil of father, Gurlitt, 
Reinecke; winning Mozart scholar- 
ship 1869, studied with Kiel and 
Frank in Berlin; pf. teacher at Stern 
Cons., Meyerbeer scholarship en- 
abled him to study in France and 
Italy; 1878 organizer of Gesang- 
verein at Hamburg, teacher at Cons, 
after 1885, condr. of Altona Singakad- 
emie; compr. of symph., overture 
Otello, suite, choral works (Sigurd, 
Nomadenzug, etc.), and excellent pf. 

Kruse (kroo'-za), Johann Secundus, 
vlt. b. Melbourne, Mar. 23, 1859. 
Appeared in public at 9; pupil of 
Joachim at Berlin Hochschule, where 
he later taught; 1882 solo vlt. and 
sub-condr. Berlin Philharmonic ; 
1891 leader Bremen Philh.; 1892-97 
member of Joachim Quartet; 1897 
in London founded quartet, 1902- 
1904 organized several important con- 
certs, revived Saturday Popular, etc. 

Kubelik (ku'-be-lik), Jan, vlt. b. 
Michle, near Prague, July 5, 1880. 
Excellently taught by father, a gar- 
dener, 1892-98 at Prague Cons, as 
pupil of Sevcfk; dbut 1898 at Vienna 
triumphant success; prolonged tour 
on Continent; phenomenal success in 
London at Richter concert, June 
1900, led to season in which he cap- 
tured all the musical and social 
honors; American tour 1901-02, and 
1902-03, though widely advertised, 
did not attain the same success; 
called a modern Paganini. K's 
playing is most remarkable in pas- 
sages of difficult technic, rather 
than in those of emotional beauty. 

Kiicken (ku'-ken), Friedrich Wilhelm, 
compr. b. Bleckede, Hanover, Nov. 
16, 1810; d. Schwerin, Apr. 3, 1882. 
Son of peasant; pupil of brother-in- 
law Liihrss and Aron; member of 
Duke's orch.; in Berlin 1832, studied 
under Birnbach; 1841 in Vienna 
under Sechter; 1843-46 in Paris 


under HaleVy; 1851-61 capellmeister 
at Stuttgart; 1861 resigned; pro- 
duced several operas, but is chiefly 
known as compr. of very popular 
songs (Ach war's moglich dann, The 
Swallows, etc.). 

Kufferath (kuf'-fer-at), Hubert Ferdi- 
nand, ps. b.Miihlheim, June 11, 1818; 
d. Brussels, June 23, 1896. Pupil of 
brothers Johann Hermann K. (1797- 
1864) and Louis K. (1811-1882) and 
of Hartmann, David, and Mendels- 
sohn; condr. male chorus at Cologne 
1841^14; teacher of royal family in 
Brussels; after 1871 prof, counter- 
point and fugue at Cons.; wrote 
symphonies, concertos, and other pf. 
music and Praktische Chorschule; son 
Maurice (b. Jan. 8, 1852), able writer, 
editor of Guide Musical. 

Kuhe (koo'-8), Wilhelm, pst. b. Prague, 
Dec. 10, 1823. Studied with Proksch, 
Tomaschek, andThalberg; settled in 
London 1845; promoter of annual 
Brighton Festivals 1870-82; 1886- 
1904 prof, at Royal Academy; com- 
posed graceful pf. music, operatic 
fantasias, etc.; published Recollec- 
tions, 1896. 

Kuhlau (koo'-lou), Friedrich [Daniel 
Rodolph], compr. b. Ulzen, Han- 
over, Sept. 11, 1786; d. Copenhagen, 
Mar. 12, 1832. Taught harmony 
by Schwenke at Hamburg; went to 
Copenhagen 1810 to escape conscrip- 
tion; taught pf. and theory, was 
royal chamber musician, court com- 
poser; produced popular operas, 
music to Heiberg's Elverhoe, pf. 
concertos, sonatas, and sonatinas 
which are still much admired and 
valuable, especially for beginners. 

Kuhnau (koo'-nou), Johann, compr. 
b. Geising, Saxony, Apr. 6, 1660; 
d. Leipzig, June 5, 1722. Pupil of 
Hering and Albrici at Dresden 
Kreuzschule; cantor at Zittau; 1682 
went to Leipzig, where he was orgt . 
at St. Thomas's; 1701 mus. dir. of 
Univ., and cantor, preceding Bach; 
wrote books on musical theory, 
motets, etc.; greatest clavier compr. 
before Bach; memorable as first 
compr. of sonata as a piece in several 
movements, not collection of dance 
tunes; his Biblische Historien nebst 
Auslegung in sechs Sonaten also 
early example of program music. 



Kullak (kool'-lak), Theodore, pst., 
teacher, b. Krotoschin, Posen, Sept. 
12, 1818; d. Berlin, Mar. 1, 1882. 
Student of medicine, and at same 
time of music with Agthe and Dehn; 
later studied in Vienna with Czerny, 
Sechter, and Nicolai; 1846 court pst. 
in Berlin; 1850 with Stern and Marx 
founded Berlin Cons., later Stern 
Cons.; 1855 founded own school, 
where many famous pupils (Schar- 
wenkas, Sherwood, Mees, Stern- 
berg, etc.) were trained; composed 
much effective pf. music and valu- 
able instructive works, notably School 
of octave-playing. Son Franz, teacher. 
b. Berlin, Apr. 12, 1844. Studied 
with father, Wieprecht, and Liszt; 
1867 taught pf. and orch. in father's 
academy,which he directed from 1882 
until its closing in 1890. 

Kunkel, Charles, compr., pst., teacher. 
b. Sippersfeld, Germany, July 22, 
1840. Early study directed by his 
father (who came to the U. S. in 
1848), later he was a pupil of Gott- 
schalk and Thalberg; with his brother 
Jacob, he won special recognition 
for ensemble playing; located at St. 
Louis, Mo. where he still lives (1910) ; 
his list of compositions is a large one; 
probably the best-known piece is his 
Alpine Storm; wrote also under the 
nom de plume Carl Sidus; at the 

death of his brother in 1882, he 
became head of the publishing busi- 
ness of Kunkel Bros, and editor of 
Kunkel' s Musical Review; author 
of Royal Piano Method. 

Kunkel, Jacob, pst., compr., pub. b. 
Kleiniedsheim, Germany, Oct. 22, 
1846; d. St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 16, 1882. 
Musical education mainly directed 
by his brother Charles; founder of 
publishing house of Kunkel Bros., 
St. Louis, and of Kunkel's Musical 
Review; composed drawing-room 

E'eces which had considerable popu- 

Kunz (koonts), Conrad Max, compr. 
b. Schwandorf, Dec. 30, 1812; d. 
Munich, Aug. 3, 1875. Studied with 
Stuntz at Munich; founded with 
others and conducted Munich Lied- 
ertafel; composed many very popular 
vocal quartets, and 200 Canons for 
pf., short technical studies. 

Kwast (kvast), James, pst. b. Nijkerk, 
Holland, Nov. 23, 1852. Taught by 
father, by Bohme, at Leipzig Cons, 
by Reinecke, Richter, etc., at Berlin 
by Kullak and Wuerst, and at Brus- 
sels by Brassin and Gevaert; 1874 
teacher at Cologne Cons., 1883 at 
Hoch Cons., Frankfort; composed 
concerto, trio, and other pf . mus. 

Labitzky (la-bit'-ski), Joseph, compr. 
b. Schonfeld, Bohemia, July 4, 1802; 
d. Carlsbad, Aug. 18, 1881. Pupil 
of Veit at Petschau; 1st vln. Marien- 
bad orch. 1820, of Carlsbad orch. 
1821: toured S. Germany with own 
orch.; after study with Winter in 
Munich, leader, of Carlsbad orch. 
1835, and later went with this band 
to England, Russia, etc.; composed 
dance music in style of Strauss. Sons 
August (1832-1903), condr., associate 
director with father, and Wilhelm, 
vlt., lived in Canada. 

Lablache (la-blash), Luigi, bass. b. 
Naples, Dec. 6, 1794; d. there, Jan. 
23, 1858. Pupil of Valesi at Cons, 
della Pieta de'Turchini; 1818 de"but 
at San Carlino Th., Naples; married 
Teresa Pinotti; appeared at Messina, 

Palermo, Milan 1817-22, Venice, 
Vienna, finally Paris, and London 
1830, after which he was recognized 
as greatest bass of time; sang con- 
tinually in Paris and London until 
retirement in 1856. Voice remark- 
able for range of 2 octaves (Et> to 
e'b), for flexibility, volume, and bell- 
like quality; though of enormous 
bulk, was admirable actor; greatest 
part Leporello in Don Giovanni. 

Lachner (lak'-ner), Franz, compr. b. 
Rain, Upper Bavaria, Apr. 2, 1803; 
d. Munich, Jan. 20, 1890. Pupil of 
father, orgt., of Ett in Munich, and 
of Stadler, Sechter, and Weigl in 
Vienna, earning his living mean- 
while as orgt. and vlt.; intimate with 
Schubert, acquainted with Beetho- 
ven; capellmeister at Vienna, and 



founder of Philh. concerts, capellm. 
at Mannheim 1834, at Munich 1836, 
general court director there until 
retirement 1862; wrote 4 operas, 
8 orch. suites, 8 symph., etc. Bro- 
thers Ignaz, condr., compr. (1807- 
1895) and Vincenz, compr. b. Rain, 
July 19, 1811; d. Carlsruhe, Jan. 22, 
1893. Studied with father and with 
brothers; succeeded Ignaz as orgt. 
at Vienna 1831 and Franz as court 
capellm. Mannheim 1836-1873; 
condr. of German opera London 
1842, opera in Frankfort 1848; lived 
in Carlsruhe after 1873, taught in 
Cons, after 1884; composed popular 
part-songs (Alt Heidelberg, etc.). 

Lack (lak), [Marie] Theodore, pst., 
compr. b. Quimper, Finistere, 
France, Sept. 3, 1846. Studied at 
Paris Cons, with Bazin and Mar- 
montel; since 1863 teaching in Paris; 
officer of Acad. 1881, of public in- 
struction 1887; published large num- 
ber of educational and technical 
works of all degrees of difficulty, and 
salon pieces noteworthy for charm 
of melody and individuality. 

Lacombe (la-konbe'), Louis [pseud, of 
L. Trouillon], compr. b. Bourges, 
Nov. 26, 1818; d. St. Vaast-la- 
Hougue, Sept. 30, 1884. Studied at 
Paris Cons, with Zimmermann; 1st 
prize 1831; 1832 tour as pst.; 1834-39 
in Vienna, pupil of Czerny, Seyfried, 
etc.; after 1839 in Paris, teaching, 
composing popular pf. music, 3 
operas (La Madone only prod, during 
his life), prize melodrama with 
choruses Sapho, 2 dram, symph. 
(Manfred, Arva), etc.; wrote essay 
on Philosophic et musique. 

Lacome (la-corn'), Paul [properly Paul 
Jean Jacques Lacome de 1'Estalenz], 
compr. b. Houga, Gers, France, Mar. 
4, 1838. After study in native place , 
came to Paris where his operetta 
won prize; composed several popular 
operettas (La marechale Chaudron, 
Les quatrefittesAymon, etc.), works for 
wind instruments, pf. trio, org. mus. 
and songs (notably Estvdiantina) . 

Lafont (la-fon), Charles Philippe, vlt. 
b. Paris, Dec. 1, 1781; d. near Bag- 
neres-de-Bigorre, Aug. 14, 1839. 
Studied with uncle Bertheaume, 
Kreutzer, and Rode; after many 
concert tours, chamber musician at 

St. Petersburg 1808; court vlt. in 
Paris 1815; 1816 contest with 
Paganini at Milan; 1831-39 long 
tour with pst. Herz; composed 7 
vln. concertos, about 200 vocal 
romances, 2 comic operas, etc. 

Lalo (la-lo), Edouard [Victor Antoine], 
compr. b. Lille, Jan. 27, 1823; d. 
Paris, Apr. 22, 1892. Vln. pupil at 
Lille Cons, of Baumann; 1st in Paris 
in Armingaud-Jacquard quartet; 
composed operas Fiesque (never per- 
formed), La Jacquerie (finished by 
Coquard, perf. 1895), Le roi d'Ys 
(1888, most notable for power and 
characterization); 2 vln. concertos 
(especially Symph. espagnole for vln. 
and orch.), Rhapsodie norvegienne, 
etc.; ballet Namouna from which two 
orch. suites were arranged; notable 
especially for orchestration of delicate 
and picturesque originality. 

Lambert, Alexander, pst. b. Warsaw, 
Nov. 1, 1862. Pupil of father Henry, 
at Vienna Cons, of Epstein, at Berlin 
of Urban in comp.; after concerts in 
New York 1881, in Germany and 
Russia, pupil for few months of 
Liszt; came to America 1884; gave 
concerts until 1892; 1888 director 
N. Y. Coll. of Mus.; compositions 
for pf. and technical works. 

Lambillotte (lan-bi-yof), Louis, writer, 
compr. b. Charleroi, Hainault, Mar. 
27, 1797; d. Vaugirard, Feb. 27, 1855. 
Orgt. at Charleroi and Dinant; mas- 
ter of chapel of St. Acheul at Jesuit 
Seminary; became Jesuit 1825; com- 
posed 4 masses and other church 
music; published Antiphonaire de 
St. Gatt with notes, and essays on 
plain song. 

Lamond', Frederick A., pst. b. Glas- 
gow, Jan. 28, 1868. Pupil of brother 
David; orgt. at Laurieston; studied 
at Raff Cons., Frankfort, with 
Max Schwarz, etc., then with Von 
Billow and Liszt; d6but Berlin 1885; 
Glasgow and London 1886; Russia 
1896, Paris 1899, U. S. 1902; es- 
pecially distinguished as player of 
Beethoven; gives recitals entirely of 
B's sonatas. 

Lamothe (la-mot), Georges, compr. b. 
1837; d. Courbevoie, near Paris, Oct. 
15, 1894. Skilful organist; compr. 
of popular dance music. 



Lamoureux (la-mo-re"), Charles, condr. 
b. Bordeaux, Sept. 21, 1834; d. Paris, 
Dec. 21, 1899. Studied at Paris 
Cons, with Girard, etc., winning 1st 
prize 1854; solo vlt. at Th. Gymnase, 
then at Opera; with Colonne, Adam, 
and Pilet founded society for cham- 
ber music 1860; founded Soc. de 
1'harmonie sacree 1873, which gave 
excellent performances of old and 
new oratorios; sub-condr. Concerts 
du Cons. 1872-77; condr. of Ope>a 
Comique 1876-77; of Ope>a 1877-79; 
founded 1881 Nouveaux Concerts, 
known as Lamoureux Concerts, 
especially important for presentation 
of many works of new French school 
and contemporary Germans; 1887 
managed 1st perf. of Lohengrin in 

Lamperti (lam-par'-ti), Francesco, 
singing teacher, b. Savona, Italy, 
Mar. 11, 1813; d. Como, May 1, 1892. 
Studied at Milan Cons., where he 
taught 1850-75; then gave private 
lessons; published books and exer- 
cises on singing; followed old Italian 
method, aiming at pure tone pro- 
duction; among many famous pupils 
are Albani, Sembrich, Campanini, 
Cruvelli, Artot, Win. Shakespeare. 
His son, Giovanni Baptista L., also 
singing teacher, b. 1840; d. Berlin, 
March 18, 1910. Known as the 
" Younger Lamperti," and an expon- 
ent of his father's methods. Taught 
first in Milan, then in Paris, and later 
in Dresden; Sembrich one of his 
pupils; wrote solfeggi and vocalises, 
ana The Technics of Bel Canto, origi- 
nally in German, translated into 
English 1905. 

Landowska (lan-dof'-ska), Wanda, pst., 
harpsichord player, b. Warsaw, 1877. 
Pupil of Michalowski at Conserva- 
tory and of Urban and Moszkowski; 
has played much in European cities, 
specializing on the harpsichord; lives 
in Paris, author of Bach et ses inter- 
preter (1906) and La musique an- 
cienne (1908). 

Lang, Benjamin Johnson, pst., condr. 
b. Salem, Mass., Dec. 28, 1837; d. 
Boston, Apr. 3, 1909. Studied with 
his father, F. G. Hill, Jaell, Satter, 
and Liszt (1885); orgt. in Boston at 
Old South Church and King's 
Chapel, and for Handel and Haydn 
Soc. 25 years; condr. of H. and H. 

Soc. 1895-96, of Apollo Club 1868- 
1901, of Cecilia Society 1874-1907, 
of Chickering Production Concerts 
1904; teacher of Apthorp, Foote, 
Nevin, etc.; of great importance to 
musical life in Boston as organizer 
of these societies and as condr. of 
important and new works (from 
Bach's B minor Mass to Elgar's 
Gerontius) and as organizer of special 
productions such as concert per- 
formances of Parsifal 1891 and 1903; 
at his best as choral condr. and in 
executive accomplishment. His 
daughter Margaret Ruthven, compr. 
b. Boston, Nov. 27, 1867. Studied 
with father, and, in Munich, vln. 
with Drechsler and Abel, comp. with 
Gluth in Munich and Chadwick in 
Boston; composed 2 overtures, arias 
with orch., performed by American 
orchestras, but is most successful in 
smaller works for pf. and songs, many 
of which have been published. 

Lange (lang'-a), Gustav, compr. b. 
Schwerstedt, near Erfurt, Aug. 13, 
1830; d. Wernigerode, July 19, 1889. 
Studied with A. W. Bach, Grell, and 
Loeschhorn; composed several hun- 
dred effective pf. pieces, which have 
been very popular. 

Langey (lang'-e), Otto, 'cellist. b. 
Leichholz, Oct. 20, 1851. Studied 
with Specht, Ullrich, Cabisius, and 
Fritze; 1877 played in London under 
Halle" and Richter; directed operas 
and concerts; since 1889 teaching in 
N. Y.; issues Langey Tutors, special 
studies for different orch. instru- 

Langhans (lang'-hans), Friedrich Wil- 
helm, writer, b. Hamburg, Sept. 21, 
1832; d. Berlin, June 9, 1892. Pupil 
of David and Richter at Leipzig 
Cons, and of Alard at Paris; vlt. at 
Leipzig Gewandhaus; after living in 
several cities, settled in Berlin 1871; 
teacher of hist, of mus. at Kullak's 
Cons. 1874, at Scharwenka Cons. 
1881; composed unimportant vln. 
music, wrote valuable hist, works, 
chiefly Geschichte der Musik des 17, 
18, und 19 Jahrhunderts, as continua- 
tion of Ambros's history. 

Lanner, Joseph [Franz Karl], compr. 
b. Oberdobling, near Vienna, Apr. 
12, 1801; d. there, Apr. 14, 1843. 
Self-taught in vln. and comp.; led 


quartet in which Joh. Strauss played 
viola; organized orch. for which he 
composed dance music and with 
which he gave concerts in Austria; 
alternately with Strauss condr. at 
court balls; originated modern Vien- 
nese waltz; his dance music deser- 
vedly popular in his day, full of 
national gaiety and personal charm. 

Lara (la'-ra), Isidore de, compr. b. 
London, Aug. 9, 1858. Real name 
said to be Cohen; studied at Milan 
Cons, winning 1st prize for comp. 
at 17; composed love songs which 
won great drawing-room popularity; 
after 1892 known as opera compr., 
chiefly of Messaline which had suc- 
cess at Monte Carlo and London 
1899, and New York 1902, with Calve 
in leading role. 

Lassen (las'-sen), Eduard, compr. b. 
Copenhagen, Apr. 13, 1830; d. 
Weimar, Jan. 15, 1904. Moved to 
Brussels at 2; studied at Cons, there, 
winning Prix de Rome 1851; 1857 
Liszt brought about production of 
his opera in Weimar; Lassen suc- 
ceeded Liszt as court capellmeister 
1861-95; produced Tristan und 
Isolde 1874, first time outside Munich; 
composed 2 other operas, 2 sympho- 
nies, music to several plays, notably 
to Goethe's Faust, Te Deum, etc. 

Lasso, Orlando di [Roland de Lattre, 

Orlandus Lassus], compr. b. Mons, 
Hainault, 1532; d. Munich, June 14, 
1594 [other dates are b. 1520 or 1530; 
d. 1595]. As boy chorister at Mons 
said to have been thrice kidnapped 
because of beautiful voice; visited 
Sicily, Milan, Naples, Rome, where 
he was director of mus. at St. John 
Lateran 1541 or 1551; visited Eng- 
land about 1554; then settled in 
Antwerp until 1556 or '57, when he 
became director of chamber mus. for 
Duke of Bavaria; remained at 
Munich until death, except for 
visits to Italy and France (to court 
of Charles IX, 1571). Composed 
about 1600 sacred pieces ana 800 
secular ones; his sons published 
Magnum opus musicum (motets and 
madrigals) in 1604; complete edi- 
tion under editorship of Haberl and 
Sandberger for Breitkopf and Hartel, 
begun 1894, will fill 60 volumes; 
Seven Penitential Psalms possibly 


most famous work; " genius towered 
above that of all his contemporaries 
except Palestrina; L. exhibited the 
greater breadth and fertility, though 
he was not as essentially ideal in 
purely ritual music; his warmth of 
human sympathy made his impress 
upon progress wider." [Pratt.] 

Laub (loub), Ferdinand, vlt. b. Prague, 
Jan. 19, 1832; d. Gries, Tyrol, Mar. 
17, 1875. Studied with Mildner 
at Prague Cons.; played in public 
regularly after age of 9; went to 
Vienna, Paris, and London; concert- 
master at Weimar 1853; at Berlin, 
concertmaster of court orch., leader 
of quartet, teacher at Stern Cons.; 
at Moscow 1866-74, prof, at Cons., 
1st vln. in Musikgesellschaft; re- 
markable for powerful playing of 
large repertoire; composed solo pieces, 
well-known Polonaise, etc. 

Lavallee (la-val-la), Calixa, pst. b. 
Vercheres, Canada, Dec. 28, 1842; 
d. Boston, Mass., Jan. 21, 1891. 
Pupil of father, of Marmontel and 
Bazin at Paris Cons.; debut at 10; 
solo pst. with Gerster's first Ameri- 
can tour; settled in Boston; promi- 
nent in Mus. Teachers' Nat'l Ass'n; 
gave recitals of American composers' 
works; composed 2 operas, oratorio, 
symph., and many smaller works; 
best known pf. piece The Butterfly. 

Lavignac (la- vi-nyak), [Alexandra Jean] 
Albert, writer, b. Paris, Jan. 22, 
1846. Carried off many prizes as 
pupil at Paris Cons., where he be- 
came teacher of solfeggio 1881, and 
prof, of harmony 1891; valuable 
works on solfeggio and on musical 
dictation; widely known for La 
musique et les musiciens, of which it 
has been said that it is the one book 
for a student to own if he can have 
but one, and for Voyage artistique 
a Bayreuth (transl. as The Music 
Dramas of R. Wagner) one of best 
thematic and literary guides to the 
operas of Wagner; Musical Education 
(1902), Les gaietes du Conservatoire; 
associate editor Dictionnaire encyclo- 
pedique, to be issued by Conservatory 
at Paris. 

Lavoix (la-vo-a), Henri Marie Francois, 
writer, b. Paris, Apr. 26, 1846; d. 
there, Dec. 27, 1897. Called "L. fils" 
to distinguish from father, custodian 


of numismatics at Paris Nat'l Li- 
brary; grad. Paris Univ.; studied 
harm, and counterpoint with Cohen; 
librarian Nat'l Library after 1865; 
contributor to Revue et gazette musi- 
cale; author of Les traducteurs 
de Shakespeare en musique, and his- 
torical works, especially Histoire 
de I' instrumentation, and Histoire 
de la musique. 

Lawes, Henry, compr. b. Dinton, near 
Salisbury, Dec., 1595; d. London, 
Oct. 21, 1662. Pupil of Coperario; 
1625 epistler and gentleman of Chap- 
el Royal; music teacher in family of 
Earl of Bridgewater; reinstated in 
all positions at Restoration 1660; 
wrote music for Milton's Comus and 
other masques, paraphrases on the 
psalms, and Ayres and Dialogues for 
1, 2, and 3 voices; admired by con- 
temporaries as singer as well as 

Lazarus, Henry, clarinet player, b. 
London, Jan. 1, 1815; d. there, Mar. 
6, 1895. ' Pupil of Blizard and Chas. 
Godfrey, Sr.; debut 1838; 2d clar. 
at Sacred Harmonic Concerts; 1840, 
on death of Willman, 1st clar. there, 
at opera, and at important concerts 
and festivals; prof, at Royal Acad. 
and at Military School of Music; re- 
tired 1891; composed clar. pieces. 

Lebert (la'-bert), Siegmund [pseud, of 
S. Levy], teacher, b. Ludwigsburg, 
Dec. 12, 1822; d. Stuttgart, Dec. 8, 
1884. Studied at Prague Cons, with 
Tomaschek, D. Weber, and Proksch; 
taught in Munich; 1856-57 with 
Faisst, Stark, Brachmann, and Spei- 
del founded Stuttgart Cons.; pub- 
lished, with Stark, Grosse Klarier- 
schule, edited classic pf. works; had 
many famous pupils, but method is 
no longer in favor. 

Lebrun (le-bran), Paul Henri Joseph, 
compr. b. Ghent, Apr. 21, 1861. 
Pupil at Ghent Cons, of A. Samuel 
and Ch. Miry; Prix de Rome 1891; 
succeeded Miry as teacher of theory 
at Ghent; director of Orphe"on at 
Cambrai, and of Cercle artistique; 
composed opera La fiancee d'Abydos, 
prize symph. and other orchestral 
works, choruses, etc. 

Leclair (le'-klar), Jean Marie, vlt. b. 
Paris, May 10, 1697; d. there, Oct. 
22, 1764. Ballet dancer at Rouen; 


balletmaster at Turin; Somis, at- 
tracted by his compositions, induced 
him to study vln.; in Paris after 1729 
obtained insignificant post at opera 
and royal orch.; after 1736 private 
teacher and compr.; murdered, for 
no discovered reason; compositions, 
notably 48 sonatas for vln., are of 
great value, equaling in originality 
and charm and exceeding in diffi- 
culty most contemporary works. 

Lecocq (le'-kok'), Alexandra Charles, 
compr. b. Paris, June 3, 1832. 
Pupil at Paris Cons, of Bazin and 
HaleVy, winning 2 prizes; 1857, with 
Bizet, won prize offered by Offen- 
bach for opera buff a; after repeated 
failures, period as teacher and orgt., 
won success with Fleur de the 1868, 
closely followed by La fille de Mme. 
Angot and Girofle-Girofla; com- 
posed over 40 comic operas in style 
of Offenbach, skilful but never deep 
in construction, full of delightful 
gaiety and spirit. 

Le Couppey (16-ko-pa), Felix, pst. b. 
Paris, Apr. 14, 1811; d. there, July 
5, 1887. Studied at Paris Cons, 
with Dourlen; asst. teacher there 
1828, prof. 1843, substitute for Herz 
1848; wrote instruction books for 
pf. A B C du piano, Ecole du mecan- 
isme, De I'enseignement du piano 
(Advice to Young Teachers). 

Lefebure-Wely (le'-fa-biir-va'-li), Louis 
James Alfred, orgt. b. Paris, Nov. 
13, 1817; d. there, Dec. 31, 1869. 
Pupil of father, orgt. at St. Roch, 
and successor at 14; pupil at Paris 
Cons, of Benoist for org., Berton 
and HaleVy for comp., and privately 
of Adam and S6jan; orgt. at Made- 
leine 1847-58, at St. Sulpice 1863- 
69; remarkable orgt. ; especially for 
original improvisations; compr. of 
almost all styles, notably of fan- 
tasias for org., offertories, an O Salu- 
taris, etc.; notable player on and 
compr. for harmonium. 

Legrenzi (le-grent-zi), Giovanni, compr. 
b. Clusone, near Bergamo, about 
1625; d. Venice, May 26, 1690. 
Pupil of Pallavicino; orgt. at Ber- 
gamo, maestro di cappella at Ferrara, 
director Cons, dei mendicanti at 
Venice, later maestro at St. Mark's, 
where he reorganized and enlarged 
orch.; composed operas, motets, and 



instrumental music of various kinds; 
strengthened orch. accompaniment, 
composed early chamber music, es- 
pecially vln. sonatas. 

Lehmann, Amelia, see under Leh- 
mann, Liza. 

Lehmann (la'-man), George, vtt. b. 
New York, July 31, 1865. Studied 
at Leipzig Cons, with Schradieck, 
Hermann, Jadassohn, etc., and at 
Berlin with Joachim; traveled as 
soloist and leader of quartet; leader 
Cleveland orch. 1886-89; teaching in 
N-. Y.; 1907 in Berlin; critic for 
Musical America, etc.; author of True 
Principles of Art of Violin Playing. 

Lehmann, Lilli, dram. sop. b. Wiirz- 
burg, May 15, 1848. Pupil of 
mother Marie, prima donna at 
Kassel; de"but at Prague; engaged at 
Danzig, Leipzig 1870, and life en- 
gagement at Berlin Opera 1876; 
sang Bayreuth 1876; appeared Lon- 
don in 1880 and successive seasons; 
broke Berlin contract to stay in 
America where she sang 1885-92; 
after illness reappeared at Bayreuth 
1896; has since then sung in Amer- 
ica; married Paul Kalisch, tenor, 
1888; great dramatic artist, espe- 
cially in Wagner operas; published 
Meine Gesangskunst, 1902. 

Lehmann, Liza [real name Elizabetta 
Nina Mary Frederika], compr. b. 
London, July 11, 1862. Daughter of 
painter Rudolf L. whose wife, also 
compr., nee Amelia Chambers, com- 
posed and arranged many songs 
under initials A. L. Liza studied 
with mother, Randegger, Rannkilde, 
MacCunn, etc.; de"but as concert 
singer 1885, followed by success 
until marriage to Herbert Bedford 
(b. 1867), compr. of opera and 
several arias for voice and orch.; 
compr. of song-cycle In a Persian 
Garden, and other cycles and songs. 
Visited U. S. in 1909, 1910. 

Le Jeune (le-zhe"n), Claude, compr. b. 
Valenciennes, 1540 for 1528]; d. 
Paris, Sept. 23, 1564. Lived in 
Paris; compr. to the king for a short 
time; beside French songs his chief 
composition is setting of psalms 
(occasionally to melodies used by 
Goudimel) with simple and beautiful 
accompaniments, work much used 
in Switzerland and Germany. 

Lekeu (le-ke), Guillaume, compr. b. 
Neusy, Belgium, Jan. 20, 1870; d. 
Angers, Jan. 21, 1894. Pupil at 
Verviers Cons, and in Paris of Franck 
and d'Indy; composed symph. poem 
Hamlet, fantasia for orch., sonata for 
vln. and pf., trio, and unfinished pf. 
quartet of singularly poetic promise. 

Lemaire (le-mar'), Jean Eugene Gaston, 
compr. b. Sept. 9, 1854. Pupil of 
the Ecole Niedermeyer; music critic 
1888; compositions include orches- 
tral works, ballets, pantomimes and 
operettas, piano pieces and songs. 

Lemare (le-mar'), Edwin Henry, orgt. 
b. Ventnor, Isle of Wight, Sept. 9, 
1865. Student and fellow at Royal 
Acad., and fellow of Royal Coll. of 
orgts.; several appointments at Car- 
diff, Sheffield, and London; 1902-04 
orgt. and director at Carnegie Hall, 
Pittsburg; returned to London; dis- 
tinguished as performer, especially 
in producing orchestral effects; com- 
positions for org. 

Lemmens (lem'-mans), Jacques Nico- 
las, orgt. b. Zoerle-Parwys, Belgium, 
Jan. 3, 1823; d. Castle Linterport, 
near Malines, Jan. 30, 1881. Pupil 
of father, of Van der Broeck, at 
Brussels Cons, of F6tis, winning 1st 
prize, at Breslau at gov't expense 
of A. Hesse; 1849 prof, at Cons.; 
teacher of many famous pupils 
(Mailly, Callaerts, etc.); after mar- 
riage 1857 to Helene Sherrington 
(b. Oct. 4, 1834), singer (pupil at 
Brussels, concert singer in England, 
in opera after 1860), L. lived in Eng- 
land; 1879 opened training school 
for church orgts. and choirmasters 
at Mechlin; many valuable composi- 
tions, method, notable for influence 
toward bettering of org. and in- 
creasing interest in Bach. 

Lemoine (le-mo-an), Henri, pf. teacher, 
publisher, b. Paris, Oct. 21, 1786; 
d. there, May 18, 1854. Pupil at 
Cons. 1798-1809; very successful pf. 
teacher; 1817 succeeded to publishing 
business of father Antoine Marcel L. 
(1763-1817), guitar and viola player, 
th. condr. at Paris. Henri published 
educational pf. works, an elementary 
method, simple harmony, etc.; pub- 
lishing business continued by his son 
Achille Philibert L. (1813-1895), and 
grandsons Henri L. and Leon L. 



Lenepveu (le'-nd-ve), Charles Ferdi- 
nand, compr. b. Rouen, Oct. 4, 1840; 
d. August, 1910. In Paris as law stu- 
dent, studied solfeggio with Savard; 
prize cantata induced him to study 
with A. Thomas at Cons., where he 
won Prix de Rome 1865; opera Le 
Florentin, accepted 1867, performed 
1874 without success; Vetteda in 
London 1882; also composed several 
works (cantata, hymn, ode, etc.) 
on Jeanne d'Arc; teacher of harmony 
at Cons. 1880, prof. 1894; more suc- 
cessful as teacher than as compr. 

Leo (la'-6), Leonardo, compr. b. San 
Vito degli Schiavi, Brindisi, 1694; 
d. Naples, Oct. 31, 1744. Pupil at 
Cons, della Pieta de' Turchini of 
Provenzale and Fago (probably not 
directly of Scarlatti and Pitoni); 
2d maestro at Cons, and 1st at 
Cathedral; 1st orgt. at royal chapel 
1725; master at Cons, di San Ono- 
frio, where he taught Piccinni, Jom- 
melli, etc.; beside about 60 operas, 
full of brilliant life and humor, com- 
posed masses and church music 
(notably a Miserere); advance over 
other Neapolitans in sureness of 
harmonic effects. 

Leonard (la-6-nar), Hubert, vU., teacher, 
b. Bellaire, near Li6ge, Apr. 7, 1819; 
d. Paris, May 6, 1890. Pupil of 
Rouma at Liege, of Habeneck at 
Paris Cons.; vlt. at theatres, at Ope>a 
Comique and Ope>a; after successful 
tour in Germany, where he first played 
Mendelssohn's concerto, became prof, 
at Brussels Cons. 1848-1867; then 
taught in Paris. Composed 5 vln. 
concertos, other vln. mus.; wrote 
several methods and studies, espe- 
cially in double-stopping. 

Leoncavallo (la-on-ca-viil'-lo) , Ruggiero, 
compr. b. Naples, Mar. 8, 1858. 
Pupil at Naples Cons, of Cesi for pf., 
of Ruta and L. Rossi for comp.; first 
opera Chatterton not at first success- 
ful; gave singing lessons and played 
at cafe concerts; 2-act opera Pagli- 
acci produced Milan 1892 made 
him famous at once; later operas are 
Medici (1st of trilogy, written before 
Pagliacci), La Boheme, Zaza, Der 
Roland (composed under commis- 
sion from, almost in collaboration 
with, Emperor William III of Ger- 
many); skilful in appreciating and 
I) ringing out an effect, he depends 

somewhat too much on superficial 
brilliancy; in the almost perfect 
union of dramatic force and realistic 
truth of Pagliacci he touched by far 
his highest point. 

Leroux (16-ro), Xavier Henri Napoleon, 
compr. b. Velletri, Italy, Oct. 11, 
1863. Studied at Paris Cons, with 
Dubois and Massenet, winning sev- 
eral prizes, finally Grand prix de 
Rome 1885; prof, of harm, at Cons, 
after 1896; composed incidental 
music to Cleopatre, Les perses, operas 
Astarte, La reine Fiammetta, etc., 
and some church music. 

Leschetizky (les-che-titz-ki), Theodor, 
pst., teacher, b. Lancut, Austrian 
Poland, June 22, 1830. Taught by 
his father in Vienna, by Czerny and 
Sechter; noticed as pst. 1845 while 
still student of philosophy at Univ. ; 
after professional tours, taught at 
St. Petersburg Cons. 1852-1878; 
after that teaching in Vienna; mar- 
ried to Annette Essipoff 1880-92; 
composed some pf. pieces and one 
opera; renowned as teacher of Pad- 
erewski, Siloti, and very many 
others; method, expounded by his 
assistant Malwine Bre'e in Ground- 
work of L. Method, consists in per- 
fect control of each finger independ- 
ently of others, and careful intellec- 
tual analysis of music to be played; 
aims to develop individual artist by 
adaptations of method to his needs. 

Leslie, Henry David, condr. b. London, 
June 18, 1822; d. Llansaintfraid, 
Wales, Feb. 4, 1896. Studied with 
Chas. Lucas; 'cellist in Sacred Har- 
monic Soc.; secretary 1847 and 
condr. 1855-61 of Amateur Mils. 
Soc.; condr. of choir formed by J. 
Heming, afterward called Leslie's 
Choir, 18557-78 and 1885-87; choir 
took 1st prize Paris 1878, and gave 
many successful concerts; L. was 
condr. Herefordshire Philh. Soc. and 
director of short lived Nat'l Coll. of 
Mus.; composed several oratorios, 
cantatas (Judith, Holyrood, etc.) and 
large number of part-songs. 

Lessmann, W. J. Otto, editor, b. Ru- 
dersdorfer, Jan. 30, 1843. Studied 
with Ritter, Von Billow, Kiel, etc.; 
taught at Stern Cons, and at Tausig's 
acad.; head of pf. school of own; 
director of mus. dept. at school in 



Charlottenburg; owner and editor 
1881-1907 of Allgemeine Musik- 
Zeitung; composed several songs. 

Lesueur (le'-sii-er), Jean Francois, 
compr. b. Drucat-Plessiel, Feb. 15, 
1760; d. Paris, Oct. 6, 1837. Choris- 
ter at Amiens Cath.; at 14 became 
master of mus. at S6ez Cath., and 
then held similar position at Paris, 
Dijon, Tours, finally 1786 maitre de 
chapelle at Notre Dame; had some 
instruction from Roze and advice 
from Sacchini; at Notre Dame he 
gave elaborate performances of de- 
scriptive and dramatic mus. ; defended 
himself in several pamphlets; 1788- 
1792 spent in retirement; inspector 
of Cons. 1795-1820; prof. 1817; 
maitre de chapelle to Napoleon and 
Louis XVIII; composed 5 operas 
(Ossian ou les hordes most famous), 
cantatas, masses, etc.; teacher of 
Berlioz (of whose descriptive " pro- 
gram " mus. his was forerunner), 
A. Thomas, Elwart, Gounod, and 
many others. 

Levi (la'-ve), Hermann, condr. b. 
Giessen, Nov. 7, 1839; d. Munich, 
May 13, 1900. Studied with V. 
Lachner and at Leipzig Cons.; 
director at Saarbriicken, Rotterdam, 
Carlsruhe, and Munich 1872-1896; 
famous condr. of Wagner operas, led 
1st perf. of Parsifal at Bayreuth 
1882; resigned 1896 on account of 
mental disease. 

Leybach (ll'-bak), Ignace, pst., orgt. 
b. Gambsheim, July 17, 1817; d. 
Toulouse, May 23, 1891. Studied 
with Pixis, Kalkbrenner, and 
Chopin; orgt. at Toulouse Cath.; 
distinguished pst., composed much 
salon music; music for org. and for 
harmonium, L' Organiste pratique, etc. 

Liadov (lya'-doff), Anatol Constan- 
tinovitch, compr. b. St. Petersburg, 
May 11, 1855. Studied with father, 
and with Johannsen and Rimsky- 
Korsakov at Cons., where he taught 
harmony, etc., after 1878; also 
teacher at Imperial Chapel; capell- 
meister there till 1869; after 1894 
condr. mus. soc. concerts; with 
Balakirev and Liapounov investi- 
gated folk-songs for Geogr. Soc.; 
compositions chiefly for pf . mostly in 
characteristic style of Russian school, 
with occasional humorous touches. 

Liapounov (lya'-poo-noff ), Sergius 
Michailovitch, compr. b. Jaroslav, 
Nov. 30, 1859. Studied at Nijni- 
Novgorod and with Klindworth and 
Hubert at Moscow Cons.; asst. 
director Imperial Chap. 1894-1902; 
collected folk-songs with Liadov and 
Balakirev for Geogr. Soc.; composed 
symphony, ballade for orch., con- 
certo for pf., and many smaller pf. 
works; edited collection of national 

Lichner (likh'-ner), Heinrich, condr., 
compr. b. Harpersdorf, Mar. 6, 
1829; d. Breslau, Jan. 7, 1898. 
Studied with Karow, Dehn, Baum- 
gart and Hesse; cantor, orgt., condr. 
of Sangerbund at Breslau; prolific 
but not original compr. of psalms, 
songs, pf. pieces, etc. 

Lichtenberg (lich'-ten-berg), Leopold, 
vlt. b. San Francisco, Nov. 22, 1861. 
Pupil of Beaujardin, Lambert, and 
Wieniawski, both in U. S. and in 
Brussels; after season with Thomas 
in N. Y., toured for 3 years in Europe 
and America; member Bost. Symph. 
Orch.; head vln. dept. National 
Cons, in N. Y. since 1899. 

Liddle, Robert William, compr. b. Dur- 
ham, Mar. 14, 1864. Chorister at 
Durham; pupil of Dr. Armes; orgt. 
at N. Berwick and at Southwell 
Minster since 1888; compr. of church 
music and songs. 

Lie (le), Sigurd, compr. b. Norway, 
May 23, 1871; d. Christiania, Sept, 
30, 1904. Studied at Leipzig Cons.; 
condr. in Bergen; after study in 
Berlin, condr. of choral soc. in 
Christiania; good vlt. and compr. of 
great promise, shown in a symph., 
several orch. and chamber works, 
songs, and pf. pieces. 

Liebling (leb'-ling), Emil, pst. b. Pless, 
Silesia, Apr. 12, 1851. Pupil of 
Kullak, Ehrlich, Dachs, and Liszt; 
came to America 1867, 1872 and 
finally 1875; teaching, playing, etc. 
in Chicago; valued contributor to 
several journals; excellent teacher; 
successful in lectures with pf. illus- 
trations where wide repertoire is of 
value; compr. of pf. mus. 

Liebling (leb-ling), Georg, pst. b. Ber- 
lin, Jan. 22, 1865. Studied with Kul- 
lak, Urban, and Dorn; taught at 


Kullak's Acad. 188(^85; after tour 
of Germany, with Liszt at Weimar 
for 2 years; ctebut in Berlin 1884; 
since then virtuoso; compr. of orch. 
overture, concerto, pf. mus., etc. 

Lind, Jenny, soprano, b. Stockholm, 
Oct. 6, 1820; d. Wynd's Point, Mal- 
vern, Eng., Nov. 2, 1887. Studied 
under Berg and Lindblad at Court 
Th. school; d6but 1838; after fur- 
ther lessons from Manuel Garcia in 
Paris, sang at Ope'ra 1842, but was 
not engaged; d6but Berlin 1844 fol- 
lowed by triumphal tour through 
Germany; London d6but 1847; be- 
came concert singer 1849; toured U. S. 
1850-52, married O. Goldschmidt ; 
after living quietly in Dresden, went 
to London 1856; last public perf. 
1870; known as " Swedish Nightin- 
gale "; by sensational advertising 
treating of her many private virtues, 
her success in Eng. and U. S. was 
unreasonably inflated; voice is de- 
scribed by discriminating critics as 
bright, sure, and of a certain " thrill- 
ing" quality. 

Lindblad (lint'-blat), Adolf Fredrik, 
compr. b. Lofvingsborg, Sweden, 
Feb. 1, 1801; d. there, Aug. 23, 1878. 
Studied with Zelter in Berlin; lived 
in Stockholm after 1827; directed a 
music school until 1861; composed 
numerous songs with Swedish na- 
tional feeling, which were made pop- 
ular by singing of his pupil, Jenny 

Lindpaintner (lint'-pant-ner), Peter 
Joseph von, compr. b. Coblenz, 
Dec. 9, 1791; d. Nonnenhorn, Lake 
pf Constance, Aug. 21, 1856. Stud- 
ied with Winter, and, while th. 
director at Munich, with Gratz; after 
1819 director at Stuttgart where he 
made orch. famous; composed about 
21 operas (Der Vampyr best known), 
music to Faust, to Schiller's Song of 
the Bell. 

Lindsay, M., compr. b. Wimbledon, 
Eng. Composer of songs and ballads, 
somewhat in style of "Claribel"; 
Home They Brought Her Warrior 
Dead, and Bridge are well known; 
now Mrs. J. Worthington Bliss. 

Linley, Thomas, compr. b. Wells, Eng., 
1732; d. London, Nov. 19, 1795. 
Studied with Chilcot and Paradies; 
conducted oratorios at Drury Lane; 


1775 composed, with son, music for 
Duenna by Sheridan, his son-in-law; 

1776 became part owner and man- 
ager of Drury Lane Th.; composed 
music for many plays, madrigals, 
etc. Three daughters Elizabeth Ann 
L. (Sheridan's wife), Mary L., and 
Maria L., all singers. Son Thomas L., 
vlt., compr. b. Bath, 1756; drowned, 
Grimsthorde, Lincolnshire, Aug. 7, 
1778. Studied with Boyce and with 
Nardini at Florence, where he became 
friend of Mozart; vlt. in Bath con- 
certs; collaborator with father. 

Lipinski, Karl Joseph, vlt. b. Radzyn, 
Poland, Oct. 30 (or Nov. 4), 1790; d. 
Urlow, near Lemberg, Dec. 16, 1861. 
Had only few lessons from father; 
1810 concertmaster, 1812-14 leader 
at Lemberg Th.; 1817-18 played 
with Paganini, but in 1829 they met 
again as rivals, 1839-^61 concert- 
master in Dresden; distinguished for 
broad tone and skilful double stop- 
ping; compositions, Military con- 
certo, etc., are no longer played. 

Listemann (list'-6-man), Bernhard 
[Friedrich Wilhelm], vtt. b. Schlot- 
heim, Thuringia, Aug. 28, 1841. 
Studied with Ullrich, David, Vieux- 
temps, and Joachim; concertmaster 
Rudolstadt 1859-67; came to Amer- 
ica with brother Ferdinand L., vlt. 
(b. 1841); traveled with De Meyer; 
leader Thomas orch., N. Y. 1871-74; 
founder, condr. Boston Philharmonic 
Club, of Bost. Philh. Orch. 1879-81 ; 
concertmaster Symph. Orch. 1881- 
85; founder of L. quartet and L. 
concert co.; 1893, head of vln. dept. 
Chicago Coll. of Mus.; removed to 
Boston 1907; returned to Chicago 

Liszt (list), Franz, pst., compr. b. Raid- 
ing, near Odenburg, Hungary, Oct. 
22, 1811; d. Bayreuth, July 31, 1886. 
Son of Adam L., steward in service 
of Prince Esterhazy; pf. pupil of his 
father; after first public appearance 
at 9, several noblemen contributed 
sums for future education; at Vienna 
1821-23 pupil in pf. of Czerny, and 
in comp. of Salieri and Randhart- 
inger; highly praised by Beethoven 
and many others; 1823 at Paris, 
refused admission to Cons, as for- 
eigner, continued comp. with Reicha 
and Paer, took no more pf. lessons; 
1824/25 played with great success 



in London; 1825 operetta Don San- 
cho produced in Paris; 1825-27 tours 
in Eng. and Switzerland; 1827 death 
of father made his support necessary 
for family and 1827-39 he lived in 
Paris, where he was in demand as 
teacher and player and where he was 
one of brilliant artistic circle includ- 
ing Lamartine, Victor Hugo, George 
Sand, Berlioz, Chopin, etc.; beside 
the influence of these individuals and 
the general romantic movement, he 
was much interested in Saint-Simon- 
ism but, apparently, never joined 
its numbers; at this time occurred 
his union with Countess d'Agoult 
(Daniel Stern); 1839-47 traveled 
widely over Europe establishing 
position as greatest of pf. virtuosos 
in long series of extravagant suc- 
cesses; 1849-51 lived in Weimar, as 
conductor of Court Theatre; here 
he accomplished much for modern 
music by performing new works, and 
with the Princess of Sayn- Wittgen- 
stein made his house and Weimar 
musical center; period of greatest 
teaching and most important com- 
position; 1859 left Weimar because 
objections were made to Cornelius's 
Barber of Bagdad; friendly relations 
were afterward established so that 
from 1861 till death he divided time 
between Pesth, Weimar, and Rome; 
at latter city his early fondness for 
church reasserted itself and 1879 he 
was admitted to the minor orders of 
the priesthood and gained title 
Abbe". As a man L. was distin- 
guished among artists for breadth of 
taste, and deep and real sympathy 
for fellows expressed in most prac- 
tical ways. As pst. he was greatest 
that ever lived; his playing was re- 
markable for " quiet brilliance of 
rapid passages," for beauty of feeling 
as well as for amazing skill; Wagner 
said of it that it was " production, 
not reproduction." As teacher, he 
was often severe, always inspiring; 
results must not be judged without 
remembering that visitors at classes 
were sometimes allowed, and that, 
apparently, many of these claimed 
to be pupils. As conductor, he was 
as marvelous as at the piano in 
interpreting the real intention and 
ideas of the composer; to his catho- 
licity of taste many owed encourage- 
ment; among works which he 

brought out at Weimar are Wagner's 
Lohengrin, Tannhduser, and Flying 
Dutchman, and works by Berlioz, 
Schumann and Schubert. As com- 
poser for pf., much of his work 
transfers to pf. orchestral effects, 
sometimes at a ' loss artistically; 
his transcriptions, however, never 
err in spirit, seldom in taste; for the 
voice he wrote 5 masses, 9 oratorios 
(2 unpublished), church music and 
some great songs. Gollerich, in his 
book Franz Liszt (1908), gives a full 
catalog listing both published and 
unpublished works. Some of the 
figures are as follows: Orchestral 
works, original and arrangements, 
69; chamber music, 47; pf. and orch. 
16; pf., original and arrangements, 
822; melodramas, 8; organ, 47; part- 
songs, 31; songs and ballads with 
orchestra, 18; songs with piano, 90. 
His greatest achievement as compr. 
is invention of form known as " sym- 
phonic poem," much used by later 
comprs.; his own Dante and Faust 
symphonies, Episodes from Lenau's 
Faust, etc. illustrate his need of the 
exterior suggestion of a program and 
his "transformation" of themes. 
His literary works, except those relat- 
ing to Wagner, have only incidental 
interest; the Life of Chopin is un- 
trustworthy, the Music of the Gypsies 

Litolff (lit'-olf), Henri Charles, pst., 
publisher, b. London, Feb. 6, 1818; 
d. Bois le Combes, near Paris, Aug. 6, 
1891. Son of Alsatian vlt.; pupil of 
Moscheles; dbut at Co vent Garden 
at 12; cast off by family for marriage, 
wandered on Continent, giving suc- 
cessful tours; after separation from 
1st wife, lived and played in several 
cities; married widow of Meyer, pub- 
Usher in Brunswick, whose business 
he took over; published Collection 
Litolff, first cheap, trustworthy edi- 
tions of classics; 1860 left business 
to adopted son Theodor, and de- 
voted nimself to composition in 
Paris; composed several operas 
(Heloise et Abelard, Les templiers), 
overtures, concerto-symphonies, brill- 
iant and characteristic pf. pieces. 

Lloyd, Charles Harford, orgt., condr. 
b. Thornbury, Oct. 16, 1849. Mus. 
B. at Oxford 1871, Mus. Doc. 1891, 
founded Univ. Mus. Club; orgt. at 



Gloucester Cath. 1876, at Christ 
Church, Oxford 1882; condr. Three 
Choirs festivals 1877, 1880; 1882 
condr. Choral Soc. Oxford; taught 
Royal Coll. Mus. 1887-92, at Eton 
1892; composed several cantatas and 
part-songs, of real melodic originality. 

Lloyd, Edward, tenor, b. London, Mar. 
7, 1845. Chorister at Westminster 
Abbey under J. Turle; voice turned 
to tenor without breaking; chorister 
at Cambridge and Wells; gentleman 
of Chapel Royal 1869-71; after that 
devoted to festival and concert ap- 
pearances until retiring 1900; in U. 
S. 1888; distinguished for singing 
Wagner selections and for creating 
many new parts, such as those in 
The Redemption, Mors et Vita, . The 
Golden Legend, The Dream of Ger- 

Lobe (lo'-ba), Johann Christian, teacher, 
compr. b. Weimar, May 30, 1797; 
d. Leipzig, July 27, 1881. Pupil on 
flute of A. Riemann and E. A. Mtiller; 
soloist at Gewandhaus 1811; mem- 
ber Weimar orch. 1811-42; founded 
mus. school; in Leipzig as editor of 
Allgemeine Mtisik Zeitung 184648, 
and of other journals; author of 
books on theory and composition, 
and of Musikalische Brief e, Aiis dem 
Leben eines Mtisikers, interesting 
for critical comments and sketches 
of contemporaries. 

Locatelli (loc-a-tel'-li), Pietro, vlt. b. 
Bergamo, 1693; d. Amsterdam, Apr. 
1, 1764. Studied with Corelli at 
Rome; after much traveling, gave 
regular concerts in Amsterdam; per- 
formed marvelous feats of technic, 
especially in double-stopping; com- 
posed sonatas for flute, sonatas, 
caprices, and concertos for vln., for 
trio, and for quartet. 

Locke, Matthew, compr. b. Exeter, 
Eng., 1632; d. London, Aug., 1677. 
Chorister at Exeter Cath., pupil of 
E. Gibbon and possibly also of W. 
Wake; compr. to Charles II, and 
after conversion to Roman Catholi- 
cism, orgt. to Queen Catherine; com- 
Ksed music for Davenant's and 
yden's plays and alterations of 
Shakespeare; music for Macbeth 
1672, long supposed to be his, is 
now claimed, but without absolutely 
final proof, as work of Purcell; wrote 

" consorts " for several instruments, 
airs, etc., and pamphlets against 
Salmon, who proposed discarding 
clefs in notation. 

Loeffler (lef'-ler), Charles Martin [Tor- 
nov], vlt., compr. b. Miihlhausen, 
Alsace, Jan. 30, 1861. Pupil in vln. 
of Leonard, Massart, Joachim, in 
conip. of Guiraud and Kiel; played 
in Pasdeloup's orch., in Prince Der- 
vier's at Nice and Lugano, where he 
was associated with Ce"sar Thomson; 
came to N. Y. and to Boston, where 
he was 1st violin at Boston Symph. 
Orch. 1882-1903; teaching (A. Hart- 
mann his pupil) and comp. in Boston; 
composed songs, symph. poems (La 
mort de Tintagiles, Les veittees de 
I' Ukraine, Avant que tu ne t'en aittes, 
VittaneUe du diable, A Pagan Poem), 
sextet, octet, works for wind instru- 
ments and for vln. He has " certain 
affinities with the French school [in 
poetry as in music] whose essential 
traits are finesse, a passion for the 
recondite, a scrupulous avoidance of 
too definite, too facile patterns, an 
exquisite mastery of harmonic and 
orchestral color; yet he is himself a 
potential force of singular potency 
[the potency of a] refined inspiration 
and vivid individuality." [L. Gilman.] 

Loeschhorn (lesh'-horn), Carl Albert, 
pst., writer, b. Berlin, June 27, 1819; 
d. there, June 4, 1905. Studied with 
L. Berger, Grell, and A. W. Bach at 
Royal Inst. for church music, where 
he taught pf. after 1851; gave cham- 
ber concerts in Berlin, published 
excellent pf. music, and many valu- 
able studies for pupils of ah 1 grades, 
and guide to pf. literature. 

Logier (lo'-zhi-a), Johann Bernhard, 
inventor, b. Kassel, Feb. 9, 1777; d. 
Dublin, July 27, 1846. Flute pupil 
of Weidner, taken to England at ten 
by a gentleman; flutist in regimental 
band, orgt. at Westport, Ireland, 
bandmaster, music-seller and th. 
director in Dublin; invented chirp- 
plast, machine for holding hands in 
proper position at pf.; 1823-26 in 
Germany on invitation of gov't to 
explain invention from which he 
made fame and money; 1826 re- 
opened Dublin shop; published meth- 
ods and explanations of system and 
few compositions. 


Low (lev), Joseph, pst. b. Prague, 
Jan. 23, 1834; d. there, Oct. 5, 1886. 
After successful tour 1854, lived in 
Prague 1856 to death, whence he 
sent forth nearly 500 light pf . pieces, 
many of them melodious and espe- 
cially adapted to use of children. 

Loewe (16'- va), Johann Carl Gottfried, 
compr. b. Lobejiin, near Halle, Nov. 
30, 1796; d. Kiel, Apr. 20, 1869. 
Taught by father and by Turk, 
at Francke Inst., Halle, where L. 
received royal stipend; entered Halle 
Univ. and Naue's Singakademie; 
prof, and cantor at Stettin 1820-1866, 
with many and frequent trips to other 
parts of Germany, to England, etc.; 
composed 1 opera, 17 oratorios, but 
chiefly ballads for voice and pf.; 
practically established ballad as artis- 
tic form by infusing it with dramatic 
feeling and applying principle of 
leading motive. 

Logroscino (16g-ro-she-no), Nicola, com- 
pr. b. Naples, about 1700; d. there, 
1 763- Pupil of Durante ; collaborator 
with Leo 1738; compr. of great 
number of successful operas; 1747 
taught music at cons, in Palermo; 
superior to predecessors in comic 
feeling; reputed, apparently without 
just cause, inventor of concerted 
number at close of act. 

Lolli (lol'-le), Antonio, vtt. b. Ber- 
gamo, about 1730; d. Palermo, 1802. 
Self-taught; leader at Stuttgart, 
favorite of Empress Catherine, St. 
Petersburg, 1773-78, in Paris 1779 
and thereafter in Spain, Austria, 
Germany, and England; wonderful 
performer, but ignorant of other 
qualities necessary to a musician. 

Longhurst, William Henry, compr. b. 
Lambeth, London, Oct. 6, 1819; d. 
Harbledown, near Canterbury, June 
17, 1904. Chorister at Canterbury 
Cath. under Skeats, Elvey, and 
Jones; lay clerk there, asst. orgt. 
and orgt. 1873 to retirement 1898; 
Mus. Doc. 1875; composed oratorio, 
cantata, services, etc. 

Loomis, Harvey Worthington, compr. 
b. Brooklyn, Feb. 5, 1865. Studied 
with Dvofdk at N. Y. Nat'l Cons., 
where he won scholarship, and also 
with Mme. Schiller; composed very 
successful music pantomimes whicn 


have been given by amateurs and 
at special performances in N. Y.; 
written incidental music for plays, 
songs, duets, and a cantata for chil- 
dren; lectures on Indian music and 
transcriptions of it. 

Lortzing, Gustav Albert, compr. b. 
Berlin, Oct. 23, 1801; d. there, Jan. 
21, 1851. Son of actor, an actor 
himself in small parts; except for 
few lessons from Rungenhagen, 
musically self-taught; singer Leipzig 
Th. 1833-44, condr. of opera there 
1844 and again 1849; capellmeister 
Berlin Th. 1850; his operas did not 
bring him appreciation or a liveli- 
hood; yet they were successful and 
distinguished for humor and melodi - 
ousness, and some still hold the stage 
(notably Czar und Zimmermann, 
Der Wildschutz, Regind). 

Lotti, Antonio, orgt., compr. b. Venice, 
about 1667; d. Venice, Jan. 5, 1740. 
Son of court capellmeister at Han- 
over; pupil of Legrenzi at Venice; 
produced opera at 16; chorister 1687, 
2d orgt. 1692, 1st orgt. 1704-36 at 
St. Mark's; visited Dresden 1717-19; 
composed some 20 operas in older 
style of Handel's predecessors, and 
much distinguished church music 
(Miserere is performed every Maundy 
Thursday at St. Mark's). 

Lucca (look'-ka), Pauline, dram. sop. 
b. Vienna, Apr. 25, 1841; d. Paris, 
Feb. 28, 1908. Early remarkable 
for beautiful voice; pupil of Usch- 
mann and Lewy; member of chorus 
at Vienna opera 1856-59; prima 
donna at Olmiitz, Prague, Berlin 
1861-72; in America 1872-74; there- 
after sang in London, Madrid, St. 
Petersburg, Vienna, where she lived 
after retiring 1890; married Baron 
von Rhaden, and after divorce Major 
von Wallhofen; very remarkable 
voice, with range of 1\ octaves, and 
unusual powers of real characteriza- 
tion, made her especially admired in 
operas of Meyerbeer, Auber, HaleVy, 

Ludwig (lood'-vig), August, editor, 
compr. b. Waldheim, Saxony, Jan. 
15, 1865. Studied at Cologne Cons. 
and Munich Cons.; remarkable for 
attempt to complete Schubert's 
"Unfinished" symphony by adding 
two movements, Philosophen Scherzo 



and Schicksals Marsche, performed 
Berlin 1892; compr. of other orch. 
works, songs, etc.; editor Neue Ber- 
liner Musik Zeitung 1894-97; author 
of Geharnischte Aufsatze uber Musik. 

Lully (liil'-li), Jean Baptiste de, compr. 
b. Florence, 1633; d. Paris, Mar. 
22, 1687. Learned violin and guitar 
from Franciscan monk; at 13 in 
service of Mile, de Montpensier 
in whose kitchen he was one day 
playing and being overheard was 
transferred to her private band; 
expelled for satire; after some in- 
struction from Mertu, Roberdet, 
and Gigault, became member of 
King's band; 1652 director of small 
band which eclipsed the older; 1653 
as court composer, composed 
masques, etc.; 1672 obtained letters 
patent from king for Acade"mie royale 
de musique (which still exists as 
Grand Ope'ra); the similar privilege 
granted 1669 to Perrin and Cambert 
was revoked, so L. " stole " the 
credit of originating the opera; his 
first work Les fetes de I' Amour et de 
Bacchus 1672, and the 19 succeeding 
ones (Thesee, Psyche, Armide, etc.) 
rank as the first French operas; in- 
troduced accompanied recitative and 
established French standard of cor- 
rect declamation; strong sense of 
dramatic effectiveness and gift for 
rather sweet melodies enabled him 
to make success and to have high 
standard despite certain monotony of 
rhythm and thinness of orchestration. 

Lumbye, Hans Christian, compr. b. 
Copenhagen, May 2, 1810; d. there, 
Mar. 20, 1874. Compr. popular 
dance music, called " the northern 
Strauss "; condr., until 1865, of orch. 
with which he made frequent tours; 
galops, marches, etc. very popular 
with orchestras of the sixties. 

Lunn, Louisa Kirkby, mezzo sop. b. 
Manchester, Eng., Nov. 8, 1873. 
Pupil of Greenwood and of Visetti 
at Royal Coll. of Mus., with Bouhy 
in Paris; d6but as student 1893 led 
to engagement at Covent Garden 
until 1896; with Carl Rosa Co. 1897- 
99; married W. J. K. Pearson; since 
1901 at Covent Garden; 1902 at 
Metropolitan, N. Y., in various con- 
certs, and again 1904 as Kundry in 
English performance of Parsifal by 
the Savage Co. 

Lupot (lii-po), Nicolas, vln.-maker. b. 
Stuttgart, 1758; d. Paris, Aug. 13, 
1824. Of family of makers; his 
grandfather Laurent (1696-1762) 
worked at Lune'ville and Orleans; 
his father Francois was at Stuttgart 
1758-70, then at Orleans; Nicolas 
made vlns. before he was 20; prob- 
ably worked for Pique, opened shop 
in Paris 1798; without attempting 
originality, copied Stradivarius vlns. 
and 'cellos, sometimes making sets 
of 5 for quintet; called " French 
Stradivarius "; succeeded by son-in- 
law Gand. His brother Francois 
(1774-1837), maker of bows. 

Lussan (lus-son), Zelie de, dram. sop. 
b. New York, 1863. Pupil of her 
mother; concert de"but 1879, opera 
d6but with Boston Ideals 1885-88; 
with Carl Rosa Co. in Eng. 1889; 
greatest parts Carmen and Mignon; 
with a brilliant but not great voice, 
won by piquant charm of personality; 
appeared in vaudeville 1908. 

Lussy (liis-si), Mathis, writer, b. Stans, 
Switzerland, April 8, 1828; d. Jan. 
21, 1910. Studied with Businger 
and Nageli; instead of studying 
medicine in Paris, taught pf. there 
after 1847; chiefly known as author 
of Exercises de mecanisme, Traite de 
I'expression musicale, Histoire de la 
notation musicale (with E. David, 
which took Paris Acad. prize 1882), 
and a Short Treatise on Musical 

Luther (looth-eer), Martin, reformer, 
compr. b. Eisleben, Nov. 10, 1483; 
d. there, Feb. 18, 1546. Relation to 
music consists in reforms there as in 
other matters of religious practise; 
after leaving the Wartburg, issued 
Formula missae, objecting to long 
graduals; order for German mass, 
compiled with capellmeister C. Rupff 
and cantor J. Walther, first used 
1524, calls for German creed and 
certain German hymns; L. himself 
sang and played flute; aside from 
his wide influence in spreading Prot- 
estant hymns in Germany, he wrote 
words to several and music to 
few; although all claims for him as 
compr. have been denied, it seems 
sure that he wrote chorale Ein feste 
Burg ist unser Gott and probably 
some 11 others. 



Luzzi (loot'-zi), Lviigi, compr. b. 
Olevano di Lomellina, Mar. 28, 1828; 
d. Stradella, Feb. 23, 1876. At first 
medical student at Turin; composed 

3 operas (2 performed), symphony, 
funeral march, pf. music, hymns, 
many inspired songs. [Baker.] 

Lvoff or Lwoff (Ivof), Alexis Feodor- 
ovitch, compr. b. Reval, June 6, 
1799; d. estate near Kovno, Jan. 7, 
1871. Maj.-gen. and adj. to Em- 
peror Nicholas; succeeded father as 
director of Imperial Chapel 1837-61; 
excellent vlt., organized successful 
string quartet; made collection of 
chants of Greek ritual; composed 

4 operas, vln. concerto, caprices for 
vln., and church music but especially 
the Russian national hymn God Save 
the Czar, written 1833; retired 1867. 

Lynes (1ms), Frank, orgt., compr. b. 
Cambridge, Mass., May 16, 1858. 
Studied at N. E. Cons., and with 
Lang and Paine, and at Leipzig 
with Reinecke, Richter, Jadassohn; 
has filled various organ positions 
in Boston; compositions include 
successful songs, piano pieces, cho- 
ruses, etc, 

Lysberg [originally Bovy, known as 
Bovy-Lysberg], Charles Samuel, pst., 
compr. b. Lysberg, near Geneva, 
Mar. 1, 1821; d. Geneva, Feb. 15, 
1873. Studied with Chopin and 
Delaire in Paris; teacher of pf. at 
Geneva Cons.; composed an opera 
given at Geneva 1854, and popular 
light pf. pieces, such as Le reveil des 
oiseaux, Le chant du rouet, romantic 
sonata L' Absence. 


Maas (mas), Joseph, tenor, b. Dart- 
ford, Kent, Jan. 30, 1847; d. London, 
Jan. 16, 1886. Chorister at Roches- 
ter Cathedral; pupil of J. L. Hopkins, 
Mme. Bodda-Pyne, and Sangiovanni ; 
d6but London 1871; in opera 1872; 
member Kellogg's Opera Co. in Amer- 
ica, of Carl Rosa's in Eng. ; not a very 
good actor, he was more popular at 
concerts and festivals, where his fin- 
ished style placed him in first rank. 

Maas, Louis Philipp Otto, pst., compr. 
b. Wiesbaden, June 21, 1852; d. 
Boston, Mass., Sept. 18, 1889. 
Studied at Leipzig Cons, with Rei- 
necke and Papperitz; and with Liszt; 
taught at Leipzig Cons. 1875-80; 
came to Boston 1880; condr. Philhar- 
monic concerts 1881-82; teacher at 
N. E. Cons.; composed symph. On 
the Prairies, inspired by tours in West, 
overtures, suites, pf. concerto, etc. 

MacCarthy, Maud, vlt. b. Clonmel, 
Ireland, July 4. 1884. Lived in 
Sydney, New South Wales; pupil of 
Arbos from 9 to 15, for two years 
after de'but in 1894; after successful 
concerts in London, played in U. S., 
in New York 1898 and with Boston 
Symph. Orch. 1902, 1903; tours in 
Germany, Scandinavia, and Italy; 
gave up violin playing for theosopny 
about 1905. 

MacCunn, Hamish, compr. b. Green- 
ock, Scotland, Mar. 22, 1868. 
Studied at Royal Coll. of Mus. under 
Hubert Parry; overture Land of 
Mountain and Flood brought him 
into notice 1887; 1888-94 prof, at 
Royal Coll.; condr. of Carl Rosa Co. 
for some years, and of various light 
opera companies; composed operas 
(Jeanie Deans, etc.), several over- 
tures; music almost entirely on 
Scotch subjects, full of individual 
Scotch feeling. 

Macdougall, Hamilton Crawford, orgt., 
teacher, b. Warwick, R. I., Oct. 15, 
1858. Pupil in Boston of J. C. D. 
Parker, S. B. Whitney, B. J. Lang, 
and in London of E. H. Turpin and 
Royal Coll. teachers; orgt. in Provi- 
dence and Brookline; since 1900 prof, 
of music at Wellesley College; 1908- 
09 and 1910-11 special lecturer on 
music at Brown Univ.; extension 
lectures (public) on music, Provi- 
dence, 1910. Composed music for 
women's voices and pf. (Studies in 
Melody Playing); contributor to 

MacDowell, Edward Alexander, pst., 
compr. b. New York, Dec. 18, 1861; 
d. there, Jan. 23, 1908. Studied with 
Buitrago, Desvernine, and Teresa 
Carreno; at Paris Cons. 1876-79 



with Marmpntel and Savard, at 
Frankfort with Heymann and Raff; 
chief teacher of pf. at Darmstadt 
Cons.; 1882 played for Liszt at 
Weimar and by L's influence and 
that of Raff M's works were played 
at Allgemeiner Deutscher Musik- 
verein at Zurich; after 4 years in 
Wiesbaden, he lived in Boston, Mass. 
1888-1896; prof, of music at Colum- 
bia Univ. N. Y. 1896-1904; 1905 
afflicted with brain disease from 
which he- never recovered; an excel- 
lent teacher and individual player. 
As compr. ranks among highest in 
America, though he protested against 
distinctions by nationality; follower 
of Raff's romanticism; composed 
symph. poems Hamlet and Ophelia, 
Lancelot and Elaine, Lamia, In Oc- 
tober, and most notable Indian 
Suite, in which he used native airs 
and in which his orchestration is at 
its best; more distinguished as 
compr. for pf. of four imposing 
sonatas, Tragica, Eroica, Norse, 
and Keltic, many groups of very 
charming short sketches, each ex- 
pressing the mood of some scene or 
some poem; same exquisite expres- 
sion of mood marks his songs, for 
many of which he wrote the 

Macfarlane, William Charles, orgt., 
compr. b. London, Oct. 2, 1870. 
Parents moved to New York 1874; 
M. was chorister in Christ Church, 
New York, 1880-85; studied music 
with his father and S. P. Warren; 
gave org. recitals New York, 1886, 
and later in many other cities; orgt. 
Danbury, Conn., and various New 
York churches; Temple Emanu-El 
1898, St. Thomas's Episcopal 1900, 
both of which positions he now 
holds (1910); condr. Yonkers Choral 
Society 1902; founder of Amer. 
Guild Org.; compositions include 
org. mus., cantata The Message from 
the Cross, songs, anthems, and part- 

Macfarren, Sir George Alexander, 

compr., writer, b. London, Mar. 2, 
1813; d. there, Oct. 31, 1887. Pupil 
of his father, George M., dramatist, 
of Lucas and of Potter at Royal Acad. 
Mus., where he became prof. 1834 and 
principal 1876; failing eyesight, re- 
sulting in blindness, did not interfere 

with his teaching; prof, of mus. 
at Cambridge Univ. 1875; knighted 
1883; works include 9 performed 
operas, 4 oratorios, 6 cantatas, 8 
symphonies, much church music, 
chamber music, songs, etc.; wrote 
Rudiments of Harmony, Lectures 
and Addresses and several other 
studies. Life by H. C. Banister. His 
wife Natalia (nee Andreae), singer, 
teacher, translator of songs, librettos, 
etc. His brother Walter Cecil, pst. 
b. London, Aug. 28, 1826; d. there, 
Sept. 2, 1905. Chorister at West- 
minster Abbey under Turle; studied 
at Royal Acad. with his brother, 
Holmes, and Potter; taught there 
1846-1903, conducted concerts 1873- 
80; director Philharmonic Soc.; suc- 
cessful concert pst.; composed several 
overtures, pf. sonatas and other 
pieces, part-songs, etc.; edited pf. 
works of Mozart, sonatas of Beetho- 
ven, and series of Popular Classics. 

Macirone (ma-ki-ro'ne), Clara Angels, 
pst. b. London, Jan. 20, 1821. 
Taught at Royal Acad. by Potter, 
Lucas, Holmes, and Negri; teacher 
there and at schools for girls; condr. 
of local society; compr. of church 
music and many successful part- 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Campbell, 

compr. b. Edinburgh, Aug. 22, 1847. 
Of musical family, father and grand- 
father both ylts.; studied with 
Ulrich and Stein at Sondershausen 
Cons.; played in band there; at 
Royal Acad. on King's Scholarship, 
pupil of Sain ton, Jewson, and Lucas; 
1865-73 played vln., taught, con- 
ducted at Edinburgh and elsewhere; 
1878-88 chiefly in Florence, with 
occasional seasons of conducting in 
England; 1888 principal Royal Acad. ; 
1892-99 condr. Philharmonic Soc.; 
knighted 1895; composed for pf. and 
violin, several operas (His Majesty, 
Colomba, The Rose of Sharon), can- 
tatas (Tlie Cotter's Saturday Night, 
etc.), 2 Scottish Rhapsodies for orch., 
a Scottish concerto for vln., La belle 
dame sans merci ballad with orch., 
London Day by Day suite; best work 
marked by strong national feeling, 
and individuality. 

MacKinlay, Mrs. J., see Sterling, An- 



Macy, James Cartwright, compr. b. 
New York City, June 27, 1845. 
Family belongs to the early colonists 
of Massachusetts and New York; 
early education received from par- 
ents; in 1857 he entered the Elmira 
(N. Y.) Academy; when the Civil 
War broke out he enlisted and served 
throughout the conflict; took up the 
study of music again 1866-70, and 
began composing; his long list of 
works includes pieces for the piano 
and other instruments as well as all 
the vocal forms, songs, school songs, 
part-songs, anthems, cantatas, oper- 
ettas, etc.; his translations and adap- 
tations of opera librettos, foreign 
songs, etc. are notable as part of his 
work during many years' connection 
with American musical publishers, 
especially Oliver Ditson Company, 
of Boston; wrote two plays, The 
Buckeye and Two Lives, successfully 
given in many of the large cities; 
author of Young People's History 
of Music. 

Maelzel (mel'tsel), Johann Nepomuk, 
inventor, b. Ratisbon, Aug. 15, 1772; 
d. at sea on voyage to America, July 
21, 1838. Son of org. builder; in 
Vienna 1792, taught mus. and con- 
structed automatic trumpeter and 
Panharmonicon for which Beetho- 
ven wrote orch. battle piece Vittoria; 
M. made ear-trumpets for Beetho- 
ven and others; adapted idea of 
Winkel, of Amsterdam, into metro- 
nome in 1816; traveled far, exhibit- 
ing his inventions. 

Maggini (ma-zhe'-ni), Giovanni Paolo, 
vln.-maker. b. Botticino Marino, Aug. 
25, 1580; d. Brescia, about 1632. 
Apprenticed to Gasparode Salo; early 
vlns. resemble his master's and are 
often too much decorated; later ones 
are more individual and are of 
value especially because of well- 
chosen wood, cut in a way of his 
own. Son Pietro Santo also dis- 
tinguished maker. 

Mahillon (ma-e-yon), Charles Victor, 
writer, b. Brussels, Mar. 10, 1841. 
In firm with father as manufacturer 
of wind instruments; editor Echo 
Musical 1869-86; honorary custodian 
museum of instr. at Brussels Cons, 
since 1876; author of valuable 
catalogue, of Elements d'acoustique 
musicale el instrumental^, etc. 

Mahler (ma'-ler), Gustav, compr., condr. 
b. Kalischt, Bohemia, July 7, 1860. 
Pupil at Vienna Univ., and at Cons, 
of Epstein and Bruckner; condr. at 
several theatres, capellmeister at 
Kassel 1883-85, and at Prague as 
Seidl's successor, where he gained 
wide knowledge of scores by Wagner, 
etc.; asst. of Nikisch at Leipzig 1886- 
88; director of opera at Pesth 1888- 
91, thoroughly reforming it; capellm. 
at Hamburg 1891-97; since 1897 di- 
rector of Vienna Opera, 1898-1900 
condr. of Gesellschaft concerts; 
condr. at Covent Garden 1892, and 
at Metropolitan (N. Y.) 1907-09; 
remarkably strong and individual 
as condr.; composed operas and can- 
tatas, but chiefly eight symphonies of 
imposing architectural construction 
and individuality of content. 

Maillart (ma-e-yar), Louis [called Aime], 
compr. b. Montpellier, Mar. 24, 
1817; d. Moulins, May 26, 1871. 
Studied at Cons, with Elwart, 
Leborne, and Guerin; Prix de Rome 
1841; of his 6 operas, cantatas, etc. 
surviving work is Les dragons de 

Mailly (ma-e-yi), Alphonse Jean Ernest, 
orgt. b. Brussels, Nov. 27, 1833. 
Studied with Girschner at Brussels 
Cons., where he became teacher of 
pf. and org. 1868; praised by Berlioz 
as virtuoso; composed sonatas, etc. 
for org., and orch. works; living at 
Brussels (1910). 

Mainzer (mln'-tser), Abbe Joseph, teach- 
er, b. Treves, Germany, May 7, 
1807; d. Manchester, England, Nov. 
10, 1851. Educated at cathedral 
maitrise, ordained priest 1826; ex- 
iled during Polish revolution, went 
to Brussels, to Paris 1834, where he 
taught popular classes and edited 
Chronique musicale, to London and 
Manchester 1847, where he estab- 
lished people's singing classes, wrote 
Music for the Million, edited M's 
Mus. Times which became present 
Musical Times of London. 

Maitland, John Alexander Fuller, 
writer, b. London, Apr. 7, 1856. 
Educated at Camb. Univ.; critic for 
Pott Matt Gazette, Guardian, and 
Times; author of Eng. Music in 
XIX Century, lives of Joachim and 
Schumann, etc.; editor of Fitzwittiam 



Virginal Book, of revised ed. Grove's 
Dictionary, translator of Spitta's 
Bach, etc. 

Malherbe (maT arbe), Charles Theodore, 
compr., writer, b. Paris, Apr. 21, 
1863. Law student and member of 
bar; pupil of Danhauser, Wormser, 
and Massenet; Danhauser's secre- 
tary on tour of public school inspec- 
tion 1880-81; asst. archivist to Paris 
Ope>a 1896, archivist 1899; editor 
of Menestrel, contributor to other 
journals; compr. of unimportant 
music, author of books on Wagner, 
notes on several operas, Histoire de 
la seconde Salle Favart, etc.; editor 
of works of Rameau. 

Malibran (mal-i-bron) , Maria Felicita, 
dram, contralto, b. Paris, Mar. 24, 
1808; d. Manchester, England, Sept. 
23, 1836. Daughter of Manuel 
Garcia; played child's part in opera 
at Naples at 5; after few lessons from 
Panseron, pupil of her father; dbut 
London 1825 followed by improve- 
ment and success in New York; un- 
happy marriage to Malibran lasted 
only a year; 1827 reappearances in 
Paris and London established posi- 
tion as chief singer of time; reputa- 
tion and prices which she commanded 
increased steadily; 1836 married De 
Beriot, the vlt., with whom she had 
been associated since 1830; early 
death caused by fall from horse and 
over-exertion; charm seems to have 
been peculiar timbre of her voice 
(recognized as defective in middle 
registers), and great force of indi- 
vidual fascination; subject of many 
romantic anecdotes. 

Mailing, Otto Valdemar, compr. b. 
Copenhagen, June 1, 1848. Studied 
with Gade and J. P. E. Hartmann; 
condr. of choral societies; orgt. in 
Copenhagen; teacher of theory at 
Cons.; compr. of symph., overture, 
and other orch. works; Danish 
choruses, national pf. pieces, etc. 

Mancinelli (man-chi-nel'-li), Luigi, 
compr., condr. b. Orvieto, Feb. 5, 
1848. Pupil in 'cello of Sbblci at 
Florence, with few lessons in comp. 
from Mabellini; 'cellist in theatre 
orch. in Florence and Rome where 
he became condr. in an emergency; 
principal of Bologna Cons. 1881-86; 
condr. in London 1886-88, at Madrid 

1888-95; afterwards in London and 
at Metropolitan, N. Y. 

Manney, Charles Fonteyn, compr. b. 
Brooklyn, Feb. 8, 1872. Chorister 
and soloist in Brooklyn; studied 
theory with Wm. A. Fisher in N. Y., 
and after coming to Boston, in 1898, 
with Wallace Goodrich and P. Goet- 
schius; composed anthems, songs, pf. 
pieces, and sacred cantatas. 

Manns (mans), August [Friedrich], 
condr. b. Stolzenburg, near Stettin, 
Mar. 12, 1825; d. Norwood, London, 
Mar. 1, 1907. Pupil of Urban; clari- 
net in bands at Danzig and Posen, 
vlt. in Gungl's orch. at Berlin; condr. 
in Berlin, Cologne, and finally 1855 
at Crystal Palace, London, where he 
changed wind band into full orch. 
and conducted Saturday concerts 
1856-1901, where he introduced and 
made known many valuable works. 

Mara (ma'-ra), Gertrude Elisabeth, 
soprano, b. Kassel, Feb. 23, 1749; 
d. Reval, Jan. 20, 1833. Daughter 
of musician Schmeling, learned to 
play vln. alone; taken at 9 as prodigy 
to Vienna and to London where she 
was taught singing by Paradies; 
under instruction of J. A. Hiller at 
Leipzig she became first great German 
singer; engaged for life at Dresden; 
married unworthy 'cellist Mara; 
1780 escaped or released from tyran- 
ny of King Frederick II, went to 
Vienna, Munich, and Paris, where 
she sang in rivalry with Todi; 1784- 
1802 won great popularity in London, 
singing at Handel Festival and other 
concerts; retired to Moscow, lost all 
her property in fire 1812; taught in 
Italy, failed totally on last appear- 
ance in London 1819; voice of re- 
markable range, stage presence al- 
ways hampered by disease contracted 
in childhood. 

Marbeck [or Merbecke], John, compr., 
orgt. b. 1523; d. Windsor, about 
1585. Chorister and orgt. at Wind- 
sor; condemned to death as heretic 
and narrowly escaped burning 1544; 
under Edward VI, free to declare 
opinions, published (1550) Booke of 
Common Praier Noted, in which 
plain chant was adapted to the new 
ritual; published also commentaries 
and a few hymns; escaped later per- 
secutions and held position as orgt. 



Marcello (mar-chel'lo), Benedetto, 
compr. b. Venice, July 24, 1686; 
d. Brescia, July 24, 1739. Venetian 
nobleman, of high education, pupil 
of Lotti and Gasparini; lawyer and 
gov't official at Venice, Pola, and 
Brescia; his greatest work is musical 
setting for one to four voices of 
Giustiniani's paraphrases of Psalms 
I-L; also poet of distinction and 
author of satirical essay II teatro alia 

March, Mrs. G. E., see Gabriel, Virginia. 

Marchand (mar-shon), Louis, orgt. 
b. Lyons, Feb. 2, 1669; d. Paris, 
Feb. 17, 1732. Orgt. at Versailles; 
exiled 1717, became court orgt. at 
Dresden to king of Poland; chal- 
lenged to competition with J. S. 
Bach, fled from the ordeal and re- 
turned to Paris where his brilliant 
talents brought him renown and 
income as teacher; died in want. 

Marchant, Arthur William, orgt., compr. 
b. London, Oct. 18, 1850. Mus. 
Bac. Oxford 1879; held several posi- 
tions as orgt. in England, in Denver, 
Col. ,1880-82; after 1895 at Dumfries, 
Scotland; composed services, an- 
thems, songs, etc.; written Primer, 
500 Fugue Subjects and Answers, 
Voice Culture. 

Marchesi de Castrone (mar-ka'-zi-de- 
kas-tro'-na), Salvatore [properly S. 
de C. Marchese della RajataJ. baritone, 
teacher, b. Palermo, Jan. 15, 1822; 
d. Paris, Feb. 20, 1908. Student of 
law and music under Raimondi, Lam- 
perti, etc . ; after exile 1848 made d6but 
New York; after study with Garcia 
had success in London; after mar- 
riage sang in England and on Conti- 
nent and taught in several places 
with his wife; compr. of some songs, 
translator of libretti, author of vocal 
method and vocalises. His wife Mar- 
chesi de Castrone, Mathilde, teacher. 
b. Frankfort-on-Main, Mar. 26, 1826. 
Daughter of merchant Graumann, 
after the loss of whose fortune she 
adopted music as profession; studied 
in Vienna with Nicolai and in Paris 
with Garcia; 1849 success as concert 
singer in London; married 1852; 
taught at Vienna Cons. 1854-61, at 
Paris 1861, at Cologne Cons. 1865- 
68, at Vienna Cons, again 1868-78, 

then privately until 1881, when she 
finally returned to Paris; famous 
teacher of pure style of song, she has 
had many famous pupils, lima de 
Murska, Gerster, Melba, etc.; pub- 
lished many vocalises, a method, and 
reminiscences Marchesi and Music. 
Her daughter Blanche, Baronne Cac- 
camisi, asst. of mother, concert singer 
of some success in England; operatic 
dSbut Prague 1900; recitals in U. S. 
1899, etc. 

Marchetti (mar-ket'-ti) , Filippo, compr. 
b. Bolognola, Feb. 26, 1831; d. 
Rome, Jan. 18, 1902. Student of 
music from 12th year; pupil of 
Conti at Naples 1850-54; 1st and 2d 
operas, 1856, both successful; after 
period of ill success, moved to Milan 
1862, where his Romeo e Giulietta 
was successful 1865, although Gou- 
nod's was given at same time; Ruy 
Bias, best work 1869, followed by 
unsuccessful works; after 1880 teach- 
ing; principal Reale Accad. di Santa 
Cecilia in Rome 1881, dir. Liceo 
there 1885. 

Marchettus of Padua, theorist, living 
in Cesena about 1270; d. about 1320. 
In service of Rainier, Prince of 
Monaco, living at Cesena and Ve- 
rona; wrote 2 treatises, important 
in history of notation; his system 
of amplifying current methods was 
so complex that it was abused as 
foolish by contemporaries. 

Marenzio (ma-rent'-seo) , Luca, compr. 
b. Coccaglia, about 1556; d. Rome, 
Aug. 22, 1599. Studied at Brescia 
with Contini, in service of Sigismund 
III of Poland, and of Cardinal Aldo- 
brandino; maestro and cantor at 
papal chapel; unsurpassed as compr. 
of madrigals of which he published 
about 15 books; great effect on con- 
temporary English music. 

Maretzek (ma-ret'-zek) , Max, impre- 
sario, b. Briinn, Moravia, June 28, 
1821; d. Pleasant Plains, Staten 
Island, N.Y., May 14, 1897. Studied 
with Seyfried in Vienna; condr. in 
Germany, France, London, and after 
1848 in New York, Mexico, and 
Havana; composed 2 operas (Ham- 
let, The Sleepy Hollow, N. Y., 1879); 
wrote Crotchets and Quavers, and 
Sharps and Flats, accounts of own 



Margis (mar-zhi), Alfred, compr. b. 
Colombes, near Paris, Oct. 30, 1874. 
Pupil of Chavagnat,etc.; early talent 
shown in Valse bleue composed at 
19, while in military service; then 
followed series of successful popular 
dances and songs Valse mauve, 
Christmas valse, music to several 
plays, revues, etc., and songs Roses 
de France, etc. 

Marie (ma-re), Gabriel Prosper, condr. 
b. Paris, Jan. 8, 1852. Studied solfeg- 
gio, pf . and harmony at Paris Cons. ; 
pst., drummer, and chorusmaster at 
Lamoureux concerts; chef d'orch. at 
several theatres and at Guilmant con- 
certs at Trocade"ro; composed works 
for orch. and for string instr. 

Mario (ma'-reo), Giuseppe, Cavaliere 
di Candia, dram, tenor, b. Cagliari,- 
Sardinia, Oct. 17, 1808; d. Rome, 
Dec. 11, 1883. After 10 years in 
Turin military service, became offi- 
cer in Piedmontese guard; in Paris 
1836, popular amateur, was per- 
suaded to go on stage, and after 
brief study with Bordogni and Pon- 
chard, made d6but 1838; went over 
to Italian opera 1840; sang with 
Tamburini, Lablache, and chiefly 
with Grisi, whom he married; re- 
tired 1867; noted not only for ex- 
quisite singing but for rare beauty 
of voice and distinguished presence. 

Marks, James Christopher, compr. 
b. Armagh, Ireland, May 4, 1835; 
d. Clifton, July 17, 1903. Chorister 
at Armagh Cath. under R. Turle; 
deputy orgt. .there; orgt. and choir- 
master at Cork 1860; condr. Cork 
mus. soc.; compr. of oratorios, ser- 
vices, etc. Son, same name, b. July 
29, 1863; orgt. at Cork, compr. of 
anthems, services, part-songs, etc.; 
removed to New York, orgt. there. 

Marmontel (mar-mon-tel'), Antoine 
Francois, compr., teacher, b. Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, July 18, 1816; d. 
Paris, Jan. 17, 1898. Pupil at Paris 
Cons, of Zimmermann, Dourlen, 
HaleVy, and Lesueur; 1837 teacher 
of solfeggio, 1848-87 of pf.; among 
pupils were Bizet, d'lndy, Dubois, 
and many others; pf. music is chiefly 
instructive, Etudes de mecanisme, 
etc.; writings on pf. playing and 
teaching, Les pianistes celebres, Virtu- 
oses contemporains, etc. 

Marpurg (mar-poo rg'), Friedrich Wil- 
helm, theorist. b. Marpurgshof, 
near Seehausen, Nov. 21, 1718; d. 
Berlin, May 22, 1795. Secretary to 
Gen. Rothenberg at Paris (1746-49); 
acquaintance of Rameau; lived at 
Berlin and Hamburg; director of 
lottery at Berlin 1763; critical writ- 
ings distinguished for moderation 
and good taste; wrote treatises on 
composition, church music, Abhand- 
lung von der Fuge (exhaustive treat- 
ment of subject, his greatest work), 
Historisch- Kritische Beitrage, his- 
tory of organ, method for pf., etc. 

Marschner (marsh'-ner), Heinrich Au- 
gust, compr. b. Zittau, Aug. 16, 
1795; d. Hanover, Dec. 14, 1861. 
Early admired as singer and pst.; 
in Leipzig as law student was per- 
suaded to .become musician and 
studied with Schicht; invited to 
Vienna 1817, is said to have been 
aided by Beethoven; production of 
operas at Pressburg led to appoint- 
ment at Dresden 1823 as joint condr. 
with Weber and Morlacchi; capell- 
meister Leipzig 1826-31, at Han- 
over 1831-1859, when he retired. 
Most famous operas are Der Vampyr, 
Der Templar und die Judin, Hans 
Heiling (greatest); among German 
romantic comprs. M. is usually 
placed next to Weber, with whose 
works his show great similarity; 
orchestration is brilliant and effec- 
tive, and his flow of melody unceas- 
ing both in operas and in ballads 
and choruses, some of which are still 

Marsick (mar-sik), Martin Pierre 
Joseph, vlt. b. Jupille, Belgium, 
Mar. 9, 1848. Studied at Liege 
Cons, with Desire"-Heynberg, at 
Brussels Cons, with Leonard, at 
Paris Cons, with Massart, and at 
Berlin with Joachim; d6but at Con- 
certs populaires 1873; prof, of vln. 
at Paris Cons. 1892-1900; long 
artistic tours in Europe and in U. S. 
1895-96; faultless but not emotion- 
ally moving as performer. 

Marston, George W., orgt., compr. b. 
Sandwich, Mass., May 23, 1840; d. 
there, Feb. 2, 1901. Studied with 
J. E. Tufts in Portland, Me., and 
on two trips to Europe; lived in 
Portland as teacher of pf., organ and 
harmony (H. A. Norris among 



pupils); composed church music, 
songs (Could ye come back to me, 
Douglas, Marguerite, etc.). 

Marteau (mar-to), Henri, vlt. b. 
Rheims, Mar. 31, 1874. Son of 
musical parents; pupil of Bunzl, 
then of Leonard; 1884 d6but in 
Vienna; 1885 chosen by Gounod to 
play at Joan of Arc centenary; 
studied at Paris Cons, with Marsick, 
winning 1st prize 1892; came to U. S. 
1893, 1898, 1906, played in Russia 
1897-99; prof, at Geneva Cons. 1900; 
succeeded Joachim as head of violin 
dept. in Berlin Hochschule 1908; one 
of the great artists of his generation; 
especially noteworthy for absence 
of affectation combined with great 
ability and wide range of expressive 

Martin, Sir George Clement, compr., 
writer, b. Lambourne, Berkshire, 
Sept. 11, 1844. Pupil of J. Pearson 
and Stainer; orgt. to Duke of Buc- 
cleugh, master of choristers at St. 
Paul's, London, 1874, deputy orgt. 
1876, orgt. 1888; teacher of org. at 
Royal Coll.; composed services, Te 
Deum for orch., arranged also for 
military band, Te Deum sung at 
Queen's Jubilee on steps of St. Paul's; 
knighted 1897. 

Martini (mar-te'-ni), Giovanni Battista 
[or Giambattista, known as Padre M.], 
compr., theorist, b. Bologna, Apr. 
24, 1706; d. there, Oct. 4, 1784. Pupil 
of father, vlt., Predieri, and Riccieri; 
maestro di cappella at church of San 
Francisco; took orders 1729; aided 
by Perti and Zanotti became author- 
ity on music, mathematics and his- 
tory; largest library of time; con- 
sulted as teacher by great contem- 
poraries, Gluck, Mozart, Gr6try, 
etc.; compr. of church music, author 
of history of ancient music, etc. 

Martucci (mar-toot'-chi), Giuseppe, pst., 
compr. b. Capua, Jan. 6, 1856; d. 
June 1, 1909. Studied with father, 
trumpet player; after d6but as child 
pst., studied at Naples Cons, under 
Cesi, Serrao, and L. Rossi; profes- 
sor there 1874, director of Societa del 
quartette and other concerts; director 
of Liceo, Bologna, 1886, and of Cons, 
in Naples 1902; composed 2symph., 
pf. concerto, chamber music and pf. 
pieces; distinguished as virtuoso. 

Marty (mar-te'), Eugene Georges, 
compr. b. Paris, May 16, 1860. At 
Paris Cons, took Grand prix de 
Rome 1882; director vocal ensemble 
classes Cons. 1892-1904; chorus- 
master Eden Th. 1892, Grand Op6ra 
1893; condr. Ope>a Comique 1900; 
since 1901 at Cons.; composed 
symph. poem Merlin enchante, over- 
tures, pantomimes, operas, songs, etc. 

Marx, Adolf Bernhard, theorist, b. 
Halle, May 15, 1795; d. Berlin, May 
17, 1866. Gave up legal position for 
music; pupil of Turk and Zelter; 
with Schlesinger founded Berliner 
Allgemeine Musik Zeitung (1824-30), 
which helped cause of German mus.; 
lecturer, prof, and mus. director at 
Berlin Univ.; with Kullak and Stern 
founded Stern Cons. 1850; retired 
1856; wrote Die Lehre von der mus. 
Komposition, Beethovens Leben und 
Schaffen, Gluck und die' Oper, and 

Marzials (mar'-tsi-al), Theophile Jules 
Henri, compr. b. Brussels, Dec. 21, 

' 1850. Pupil of M. L. Lawson in 
London, where he was made supt. of 
mus. dept. at British Museum in 
1870; good baritone singer; compr. 
of several popular songs (Twicken- 
ham Ferry, Three Sailor Boys, That 
Sweet Story of Old, etc.). 

Marzo (mart'-so), Eduardo, compr. b. 
Naples, Nov. 29, 1852. Pupil of 
Nacciarone, Miceli, and Pappalardo; 
came to New York as pst. 1867; con- 
ducted opera companies, accom- 
panied Mario, Sarasate, and others; 
orgt. in New York; teacher, singer, 
composer chiefly of church music, 
songs, compiler of vocal works. 

Mascagni (mas-can'-yi) , Pietro, compr. 
b. Leghorn, Dec. 7, 1863. Became 

Eupil of Soffredini in secret, against 
ither's wishes; befriended by uncle, 
and later by Count Florestano; pupil 
of Ponchielli and Saladino at Milan 
Cons. ; conducted several small opera 
companies, finally settling as teacher 
and condr. of local society at Cerig- 
nola; 1899 won prize offered by 
Sonzogno, Milan publisher, for one- 
act opera with his Cavatteria Rusti- 
cana (perf. 1890); this brought him 
at once universal renown; the dra- 
matic force and intense emotionalism 
of the music have been called cheap 



sensationalism by later cooler judg- 
ment, but the work is still popular, 
and has had influence in encouraging 
one-act works and developing a 
somewhat crude realism in music; 
later operas have been less and less ' 
successful; they are L'Amico Fritz ! 
1891, I Rantzau 1892, Ratdiff 1894, 
Zanetto and Silvano 1895, Iris 1898, j 
Lemaschere 1901, Arnica 1905; direct- j 
or of Cons, at Pesaro 1895-1903, when 
delayed return from unsuccessful tour 
in U. S. caused him to be replaced, j 

Mascheroni (mas-ker-o'-ni), Angelo, 
compr. b. Bergamo, about 1856; d. j 
there, April, 1905. While studying j 
law, took lessons of Boucheron; i 
capellmeister 1883 at Pordenone, j 
188571893 at Rome; chosen 1894 by 
Verdi to conduct first perf . of Falstaff 
at Milan and in other cities; com- 
posed opera Lorenzo, 1901. 

Mason, Lowell, teacher, b. Medfield, 
Mass., Jan. 8, 1792; d. Orange, N. J., 
Aug. 11, 1872. Self-taught, directed 
church choir at 16; clerk at Savannah 
1812-27, teaching, conducting mean- 
while, under influence of F. L. Abel, 
with whom M. made collection of 
psalm tunes published 1822 with- 
out his name as Handel and Haydn 
Society's Collection of Church Music; 
came to Boston 1826, as director of 
music at three prominent churches; 
1827 pres. and condr. H. and H. Soc.; 
1832 with Webb established Acad- 
emy of Music (for popular classes 
and concerts); 1838 taught in public 
schools; also established teachers' 
conventions in several places; re- 
moved to New York 1851; influence 
of his classes, collections, and manuals 
was very wide and largely promoted 
increase of good music taste. His son 
Mason, William, pst., teacher, b. Bos- 
ton, Mass., Jan. 24, 1829; d. New 
York, July 14, 1908. Pupil of H. 
Schmidt in Boston (where he played 
in 1846), of Mpscheles, Hauptmann, 
and Richter in Leipzig, of Drey- 
schock in Prague, and of Liszt in 
Weimar; after appearances abroad, 
returned to U. S. 1854; made first 
tour of pf. recitals alone; founded 
chamber music concerts in N. Y. 
with Theodore Thomas; honorary 
Mus. Doc. Yale 1872; long and 
successful career as teacher of 
Sherwood, RiveVKing, Mathews and 

many others; author of valuable pf. 
methods, Pianoforte Technics and 
Touch and Technic; his playing was 
distinguished for remarkable accu- 
racy and delicacy of touch; influen- 
tial in introducing in America works 
of Brahms and Schumann; Memories 
of a Musical Life contains many anec- 
dotes of his great contemporaries. 

Mason, Daniel Gregory, writer. 
iss., Nov. 


Brookline, Mass., Nov. 20, 1873. 
Graduated Harvard 1895; studied 
music in Boston, N. Y., and Paris; 
composed pf. music; wrote ' From 
Grieg to Brahms, Beethoven and his 
Forerunners, The Romantic Com- 
posers, The Orchestral Instruments 
and How to use Them (1909); edited 
Masters in Music 6 vols. 1903-06; 
contributor to Outlook and Scribner's 
as well as to musical periodicals. 

Mason, Luther Whiting, teacher, b. 
Turner, Me., Apr. 3, 1828; d. Buck- 
field, Me., July 14, 1896. Self- 
taught; supt. of public school music 
in Louisville and Cincinnati; in- 
vented " National System " of 
graded instruction by charts and 
books; 1865 reformed music in Bos- 
ton primary schools; 1879-82 supt. 
of school music in Japan, where such 
music is now called " Mason-song." 

Massart (mas-sar), Lambert Joseph, 
vU. b. LiSge, July 17, 1811; d. Paris, 
Feb. 13, 1892. Pupil of Delavau 
who persuaded town of Liege to send 
him to Paris; there refused admission 
to Cons, as foreigner, became pupil 
of R. Kreutzer; fine but shy per- 
former; prof, at Paris Cons. 1843- 
1890; among many famous pupils 
were Wieniawski, Sarasate, Marsick, 
Loeffler, etc. Wife, nee Louise Aglae 
Masson (1827-1887), teacher of pf. 
at Cons. 

Masse (mas-sa), Felix Marie [called 
Victor], compr. b. Lorient, Mar. 7, 
1822; d. Paris, July 5, 1884. Studied 
at Paris Cons, with Zimmermann and 
HaleVy; Grand prix de Rome 1844; 
after publishing successful Melodies 
and Romances, composed operas, of 
which Les noces de Jeannette 1853 
was by far most successful; La reine 
Tapare and Miss Fauvette and others 
well received; 1860-1876 chorusmas- 
ter at Ope>a; 1866-80 prof, of comp. 
at Cons.; member of Institute 1872. 



Massenet (mas-se'-na), Jules Emile 
Frederic, compr. b. Montaud, near 
St. Etienne, May 12, 1842. Studied 
at Paris Cons, with Laurent, Reber, 
Savard, and A. Thomas; 1st prize 
pf. 1859, fugue and Prix de Rome 
1863; prof, of comp. at Cons. 1878- 
1896; 1878 member of Academy; 
compr. of several orch. suites, pf. 
concerto, oratorios (Eve, La terre 
promise, etc.), incidental music to 
several plays, and about 20 operas, 
of which the most noted are Don 
Cesar de Bazan, Le Cid, Herodiade, 
Esclarmonde, Thais, Manon, La 
Navarraise, Le Jongleur de Notre 
Dame; introduced orch. accompani- 
ment to connecting dialogue in 
Manon; otherwise music, though 
skilful, often charming, and always 
popular, contains neither the force 
nor individuality which promises 

Materna, Axnalie, dram. sop. b. St. 
Georgen, Styria, July 10, 1847. 
Daughter of schoolmaster; delbut 
Graz about 1864; after marriage 
with actor Karl Friedrich, appeared 
in operetta in Vienna, finally at 
Vienna Opera 1869; from then until 
retirement 1897 sang all great Ger- 
man roles, especially Brunnhilde; 
first Kundry in Parsifal 1882; sang 
in N. Y. 1882, at Wagner Festival 
1884, and several seasons at Metro- 
politan after 1885; possibly "greatest 
of German women singers." [Lahee.] 

Mathews, William Smythe Babcock, 
writer, b. New London, N. H., May 
8, 1837. After study at home, in 
Lowell, and Boston, taught pf. at 
Macon, Ga., and other Southern 
towns; frequent contributor to 
Dwight's Journal and to Chicago 
papers after settling there 1867; 
edited magazine Music, largely col- 
ored by his personal opinions, but 
none the less interesting; wrote Out- 
lines of Musical Form, How to Under- 
stand Music, Popular Hist, of Mus., 
The Masters and their Music, 100 
Years of Music in America, Music, 
Its Ideals and Methods, The Great in 
Music; and several other instructive 
works; 1910 removed from Chicago 
to Denver, Col. 

Mathias (ma-ti-a), Georges Amedee 
Saint Clair, pst., compr. b. Paris, Oct. 
14, 1826. Studied with Savard, 

Bazin, and Halevy at Cons., and with 
Kalkbrenner and Chopin; prof, at 
Cons. 1862-87; composed symph., 
overtures, useful pf. eludes, etc. 

Mathieu (ma-ti-e), Emile Louis Victor, 
compr. b. Lille, Oct. 16, 1844. 
Studied at Louyain, at Brussels 
Cons, with Fe"tis, Dupont, twice 
winning 2d Grand prix de Rome, 
1867-73 prof, at Louvain Mus. 
School, 1881-98 director; 1873-74 
chef d'orch. at Th. du Chatelet, 
Paris; since 1898 director of Ghent 
Cons.; compr. of several operas, can- 
tatas, 3 grand Poemes lyriques et 
symphoniques for which he wrote the 

Mattel (mat-ta'-i), Tito, compr. b. 
Campobasso, near Naples, May 24, 
1841. Pf. pupil of Maggpni, Thai- 
berg, etc.; prof, at Sta. Cecilia Accad. 
in Rome at 11; after tours in Europe, 
settled in London 1865; condr. at 
Her Majesty's Theatre; composed 
2 operas, ballet, and much brilliant 
pf. music. 

Mattheson (mat'-te-son), Johann, 
writer, b. Hamburg, Sept. 28. 1681; 
d. there, Apr. 17, 1764. Of extraor- 
dinary versatility, student of law, 
of languages, orgt., pst., singer, actor, 
and ambassador; sang and conducted 
at harpsichord at Hamburg opera; 
benefactor of Handel until their 
quarrel; 1715-28 director and cantor 
at cathedral where he contributed 
to development of church cantata; 
retired because of deafness; several 
compositions, none extant; impor- 
tant for many writings, chiefly for 
biographies of contemporary musi- 
cians and Der vollkommene Kapell- 

Maunder, John Henry, orgt., compr. 
b. Chelsea, London, Feb. 21, 1858. 
Studied at Royal Acad.; orgt. at 
Sydenham and Forest Hill; accomp. 
for Sims Reeves and others; 
trained choir for Henry Irving's 
Faust; composed operetta, cantatas, 
(From Olivet to Calvary, etc.) several 
anthems, services, etc. 

Maurel (mo-rel), Victor, baritone, b. 
Marseilles, June 17, 1848. Studied 
at Paris Cons, with Vauthrot and 
Duvernoy; d^but 1868 at Opera; 
after seasons in Italy, Spain, Amer- 
ica, St. Petersburg, etc. returned to 



Opera 1879-1894 (1883-84 he man- 
aged with Corti vain attempt to 
revive Italian Opera in Paris); at 
Ope"ra Comique 1894-1904, with 
occasional appearances as actor; 
published L' Art du chant and Dix 
ans de carriers; greatest roles are 
Don Juan, Rigoletto, and logo in 
Verdi's Otello; distinguished for 
excellence of dramatic impersonation 
even after voice became worn; 
teacher in New York 1909. 

Maybrick, Michael, baritone [under 
pseud. Stephen Adams], b. Liver- 
pool, Jan. 31, 1844. Studied org. 
with Best, pf. with Plaidy and 
Moscheles, harm, with Richter at 
Leipzig, and singing with Nava at 
Milan; successful in English, Ameri- 
can and Canadian concerts, especially 
in own songs, of which several are 
very popular ( Nancy Lee, Blue Alsa- 
tian Mountains, etc.). 

Mayer (ma-yar), Charles, pst. b. 
Konigsberg, Mar. 21, 1799; d. 
Dresden, July 2, 1862. Studied with 
mother and in St. Petersburg with 
Field, whose playing his closely 
resembled; after tour to Paris with 
father, clarinetist, 1814, became suc- 
cessful teacher in St. P.; after tour 
to Stockholm, Copenhagen, etc., 
settled in Dresden 1850; composed 
about 900 pieces, chiefly for pf . ; Polka 
bohemienne, once very popular, Ma- 
zurka in F sharp maj. included by 
Klindworth in 1st ed. of Chopin's 

Maylath (mi'-lat), Heinrich, pst. b. 
Vienna, Dec. 4, 1827; d. New York, 
Dec. 31, 1883. Studied with his 
father; after Continental tours, lived 
in Russia, and after 1867 in New 
York; compr. of instructive pf. music 
and excellent concert pieces. 

Mayseder (mi'-za-der), Joseph, vlt., 
compr. b. Vienna, Oct. 26, 1789; d. 
there, Nov. 21, 1863. Studied with 
Suche and Wranitzky; ddbut 1800; 
2d vln. in Schuppanzigh quartet; 
member of court orch. 1816; solo vlt. 
court opera 1820, imperial chamber 
virtuoso 1835; though he was a fasci- 
nating player in elevated style, he 
never went on tours, seldom gave con- 
certs, after 1837 never played in pub- 
lic ; many distinguished pupils ; about 
63 compositions, dignified in style. 

Mazas (ma-zas), Jacques Fereol, vlt. 
b. Beziers, Sept. 23, 1782; d. there, 
1849. Studied at Paris Cons, with 
Baillot, 1st prize 1805; member of 
orch. at Italian opera; traveled in 
Europe, returning to Paris 1829-37; 
director of music school at Cambrai 
1837-41; wrote effective compo- 
sitions for vln., duets for stringed 
instruments especially valued, meth- 
ods for vln. and viola, and 3 operas. 

Mead, Olive, vlt. b. Cambridge, Mass., 
Nov. 22, 1874. Studied vln. early, 
with Eichberg and later with Kneisel; 
played with considerable success at 
many concerts, with Boston Symph. 
Orch. 1898, 1899, 1900, 1904; leader 
of Olive Mead Quartet. 

Mees (mas), Arthur, condr. b. Co- 
lumbus, O., Feb. 13, 1850. Studied 
in Berlin with Kullak, Weitzmann, 
and H. Dorn; condr. Cincinnati May 
Festival chorus, and of societies in 
N. Y., Albany, etc.; 1896 chorus 
condr. to Thomas Orch.; writer of 
program notes N. Y. Philharmonic 
1887-96, and Chicago Orch. 1896- 
97; condr. Worcester Festival 1908; 
published Choir and Choral Music 

Mehlig (ma'-lig), Anna, pst. b. Stutt- 
gart, June 11, 1843. Pupil of Lebert 
and of Liszt; d6but about 1866; very 
successful especially in England and 
in America 1869-70; since marriage 
to Falk of Antwerp has lived in 
partial retirement. 

Mehul (ma-til), Etienne Nicolas, compr. 
b. Givet, Ardennes, June 22, 1763; 
d. Paris, Oct. 18, 1817. Son of a 
cook, learned to play org. from blind 
orgt. and was made orgt. at convent 
at 10; became novice at monastery 
of Lavaldieu in order to take lessons 
of Hauser, whose deputy he became 
1777; pf. pupil of Edelmann in Paris 
after 1778; inspired by performance 
of Iphigenie en Tauride 1779, be- 
came disciple of Gluck who per- 
suaded him to turn to operatic 
comp.; after first success at Th. 
Italien with Euphrosyne et Coradin 
in 1790, M. produced 24 operas in 
17 years, of which Stratonice, Uthal, 
and especially Joseph are note- 
worthy; also composed several polit- 
ical chants; inspector of Cons, and 
member of Academy 1795; though 



his symphonies were unimportant, 
his operatic overtures (that to Le 
jeune Henri, for example) are supe- 
riortothoseof contemporaries; operas 
as whole show ingenuity, skill, re- 
finement, and individuality in orches- 
tral combinations and force of dra- 
matic feeling carefully expressed in 
accordance with the theories of 
Gluck; his inspiration was not always 
equal to his ability. 

Meinardus (mi-nar'-dus), Ludwig Sieg- 
fried, compr., writer, b. Hooksiel, 
Oldenburg, Sept. 17, 1827; d. Biele- 
feld, July 10, 1896. On advice of 
Schumann, turned from 'cello play- 
ing to composition; studied at Leip- 
zig Cons., privately with Riccius, 
with Liszt and with Marx; condr. at 
Glogau; pf. teacher Dresden Cons. 
1865-74; lived in Hamburg until 
1887, when he became orgt. at Biele- 
feld; composed oratorios (Simon 
Petrus, Luther in Worms, etc.), 
choral ballads, etc., orch. and cham- 
ber music; wrote autobiography, 
books on Mattheson, Mozart, history 
of German music. 

Melba, Nellie [pseud, of Nellie Ann- 
strong, nee Mitchell], dram. sop. b. 
Melbourne, Australia, May 19, 1859. 
Early instructed in music, but father 
objected to professiqnal appearance; 
after marriage in 1882 to Capt. Arm- 
strong, studied with Mme. Marchesi 
in Paris for one year; debut Brussels 
1887 was followed by brilliant suc- 
cesses in London, Paris, St. Peters- 
burg, Italy, and America (where she 
sang first in New York 1893), and 
Australia 1902; her voice is remark- 
ably even throughout its range of 
1\ octaves, unusually flexible, and 
brilliant and silvery in tone; her 
repertoire includes the Italian roles, 
many French ones (Juliette is one 
of her favorites), Elsa being the only 
Wagnerian one. 

Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (men'-del-spn 
bar'-tol-dy), Jacob Ludwig Felix, 
compr. b. Hamburg, Feb. 3, 1809; 
d. Leipzig, Nov. 4, 1847. Grandson 
of philosopher Moses Mendelssohn 
and son of banker (who added Bar- 
tholdy to name in memory of his 
brother-in-law), removed to Berlin 
1812, where Felix and sister Fanny 
showed early talent for music; 
taught by their mother and L. 

Berger on pf., Henning vln., and 
Zelter theory; Felix played at con- 
cert 1818, entered Singakademie 
1819; weekly Sunday gatherings at 
father's house gave him remarkable 
opportunities to hear his own com- 
positions played by small orch.; 
taught by Mme. Bigot on first visit 
to Paris 1816; met many of great 
contemporaries on second visit 1825; 
1826 composed overture to Mid- 
summernight's Dream; studied at 
Berlin Univ.; 1824 had lessons from 
Moscheles; 1829 produced Bach's 
St. Matthew Passion at Berlin Singa- 
kademie and thus revived interest 
in Bach's works; 1829 made his first 
trip to London, where he brought out 
his first symphony; trip to Scotland, 
where he received impressions ex- 
pressed in Hebrides Overture, Scotch 
symph., etc.; after long visit to Italy 
and to Paris, again in London; on 
return to Berlin failed to get position 
as condr. of Singakademie; 1833-35 
town musical director at Diisseldorf , 
conducting Lower Rhenish Festival 
1833, Cologne 1835, and making 3d 
trip to London; 1835 became condr. 
at Gewandhaus Concerts in Leipzig, 
position in which he attained very 
great influence on musical life of all 
Europe; 1837 married Ce"cile Char- 
lotte Sophie Jeanrenaud, with whom 
he lived a singularly happy life; 
1843 with others founded Leipzig 
Cons, and drew to it such teachers 
as Hauptmann, David, and Schu- 
mann; Fr. Wilhelm IV of Prussia 
repeatedly tried to draw M. to Ber- 
lin, where he lived for a while in 1841, 
1842 as Royal Mus. director and in 
1845, but he seems never to have 
been as happy or as successful there 
as in Leipzig; he made in all ten trips 
to London, where he was most popu- 
lar; his death followed shortly after 
that of his sister Fanny and is said 
to have been hastened by that shock. 
M. was a conductor of rare power 
and discernment, a performer of 
surprising ability and expressiveness, 
a generous critic and teacher, and 
an individual of very great personal 
charm, much of which appears in his 
published letters. A versatile compr., 
he wrote oratorios St. Paul and 
Elijah, overtures, music to Antigone, 
First Walpurgis Night, Midsummer- 
night's Dream, Athalia, (Edipus in 



Colonos, 4 symph., vln. and 2 pf. 
concertos, chamber mus., of which 
the pf. trios rank high, many pf. 
pieces, notably Songs without Words 
and many brilliant concert pieces; 
songs, part-songs, psalms, etc., comic 
opera Son and Stranger, and parts of 
opera Lorelei. 

Menter, Sophie, pst. b. Munich, July 
29, 1848. Daughter of 'cellist 
Joseph M. (1808-1856); studied at 
Munich Cons, with Leonhard, Schon- 
chen, later with Lebert, Niest, Von 
Biilow, Tausig, and Liszt; after suc- 
cessful tour, appeared at Gewandhaus 
in Leipzig 1867; studied further with 
Tausig and Liszt; married 'cellist 
Popper 1872, divorced 1886; taught 
at St. Petersburg 1880-87; after that 
made her home in Tyrol, playing 
occasionally in concerts. 

Mercadante, Giuseppe Saverio Raffaelle, 
compr. b. Altamura, Sept. 17, 1795; 
d. Naples, Dec. 17, 1870. Studied 
with Zingarelli at Naples; early in- 
strumental works won praise from 
Rossini; after success of L'Apoteosi 
d'Ercole 1819, composed series of 
operas for different Italian cities; 
1833 maestro di cappella at Novara, 
1839 at Lanliano; 1840 director of 
Naples Cons.; 1862 became blind; 
composed masses and cantatas, 
hymn to Garibaldi, funeral symph. 
to Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti; most 
notable opera II Giuramento. 

Merkel, Gustav Adolf, compr. b. 
Oberoderwitz, Saxony, Nov. 12, 
1827; d. Dresden, Oct. 30, 1885. 
Studied with Schneider and Otto 
and to some extent with Schumann 
and Reissiger; orgt. at Dresden; 
taught in Cons, there after 1861; 
condr. of Singakademie 1867-73; 
compositions almost all for org., of 
great nobility, especially sonatas and 

Mersenne (mer-sen'), Marie, writer, b. 
Oize, France, Sept. 8, 1588; d. Paris, 
Sept. 1, 1648. Franciscan monk; 
received full orders 1613; taught 
philosophy at Nevers; studied mathe- 
matics and music in company with 
Descartes, etc., at Paris; wrote sev- 
eral treatises of which most impor- 
tant is Harmonic universelle, describ- 
ing contemporary instruments and 
theories, etc. 

Merulo [properly Merlotti], Claudio, 
[called da Correggio], orgt., teacher, 
b. Correggio, April 8, 1533; d. Parma, 
May 4, 1604. Studied with Menon 
and Donati; orgt. at Brescia; 2d 
orgt. 1557 and 1st orgt. 1556-86 at 
St. Mark's, Venice; publisher there; 
court orgt. to Duke of Parma; re- 
nowned as player; compositions 
(toccatas, etc.) of importance as 
showing change to newer style which 
culminated in Frescobaldi. 

Merz, Karl, teacher, b. Bensheim, near 
Frankfort, Sept. 10, 1836; d. Woos- 
ter, O., Jan. 30, 1890. Studied with 
father and Kunkel; came to U. S. 
1854; taught in Lancaster, Pa., 
Oxford and Wooster, O.; 1873 editor 
of Cleveland Musical World; col- 
lected essays, Music and Culture, 
show thoughtful analysis. 

Messager (mes'-sa-zha), Andre Charles 
Prosper, condr., compr. b. Montlu- 
con, France, Dec. 30, 1853. After 
studying at Niedermeyer school, 
became pupil of Saint-Saens; orgt. 
in several churches; condr. at Ope>a 
Comique 1898; " artistic director " 
at Covent Garden, London, 1901-07; 
Paris Opera 1907; completed score 
of Bernicat's Franfois les bos bleus 
and has composed long series of 
comic operas (La basoche, Les p'tites 
Michu, Veronique most successful) 
which, though lacking in originality, 
are able and pleasing. His wife, nee 
Dotie Davis, was pupil of Barnett 
and Silas in London and of Messager 
in Paris; under pseud. Hope Temple, 
composed operetta The Wooden 
Spoon and songs. 

Metastasio (met-a-staz'-eo), Pietro 
Antonio Domenico Bonaventura [real 
name Trapassi], poet. b. Rome, Jan. 
3, 1698; d. Vienna, Apr. 12, 1782. 
Power of improvisation as child at- 
tracted patronage of Gravina, who 
educated him and changed his name; 
court poet at Vienna after 1730; 
librettos so much in demand that 
some were set by 30 different comprs. ; 
used by Gluck, Handel, Mozart (La 
clemenza di Tito) and others; also 
composed and sang. 

Methfessel (met'-fessel), Albert Gottlieb, 
compr. b. Stadtilm, Thuringia, Oct. 
6, 1785; d. Heckenbeck, near Gan- 
dersheim, Mar. 23, 1869. Chamber 



musician at Rudolstadt; court cap- 
ellmeister Brunswick 1832^2 when 
he retired; composed an opera and 
an oratorio; published in Liederbuch 
and Liederkranz many songs for 
male chorus which are still popu- 
lar. Brother Friedrich M., compr. 
(1771-1807); relative Ernst M., condr. 
(1802-1878) must not be confused 
with condr. of same name at Winter- 
thur (1811-1886). 

Metra (ma-tra), Jules Louis Olivier, 
condr., compr. b. Rheims, June 2, 
1830; d. Paris, Oct. 22, 1889. Son 
of actor and actor himself; pupil of 
Roche; vlt., 'cellist, double-bass 
player in Parisian theatres; after 
short time as pupil of Elwart and 
A. Thomas at Paris Cons., conducted 
orch. at several theatres and balls at 
Ope"ra Com., Folies-Bergeres and 
Ope"ra; composed operettas, ballets, 
and very popular waltzes (Le tour 
du monde, La bague, etc.). 

Meyer (ml'-er), Leopold von [sometimes 
de], pst. b. Baden, near Vienna, 
Dec. 20, 1816; d. Dresden, Mar. 5, 
1883. Pupil of Fischhof and Field; 
debut 1835; long tours through 
Europe and America; played chiefly 
his own brilliant but empty com- 
positions; of great ability but much 
given to extravagant posing; famous 
waltz Souvenir de Vienne. 

Meyer-Helmund (mi'-er-hel'-munt), 
Erik, compr. b. St. Petersburg, Apr. 
25, 1861. Pupil of father, Kiel, and 
Stockhausen; successful concert 
singer; compr. of charming songs, 
some to own words, of 3 operas, and 
a ballet; lives in Berlin. 

Meyer-Olbersleben (mi'-er-ol'-bers-la- 
ben), Max, compr. b. Olbersleben, 
near Weimar, Apr. 5, 1850. Pupil of 
father, Miiller-Hartung, Liszt, Cor- 
nelius, Rheinberger, and Wiillner; 
taught at Weimar 1876, Wiirzburg 
1877, where he conducted Liedertafel ; 
director 1896 of Deutscher Sanger- 
bund; dir. Cons. Wiirzburg; compr. 
of 2 operas, but chiefly of choruses 
and songs with pf. or orch. accomp. 

Meyerbeer (ma'-yar-bar), Giacomo [real 
name Jakob Liebmann Beer], com- 
pr. b. Berlin, Sept. 5, 1791; d. 
Paris, May 2, 1864. Of Jewish 
descent; name changed to Meyer- 
beer as condition of inheritance; 

pupil on pf. of Lauska and Clementi, 
in theory of Zelter, Bernh. Weber, 
and 1810-12 of Abt Vogler at Darm- 
stadt; in Vienna, after hearing Hum- 
mel play, he spent several months 
in retired practise, after which his 
debut was successful; discouraged by 
failure of early operas, went to Venice 
to study, where he won earliest 
successes by imitations of Rossini 
(Emma di Resburgo, etc.); II cro- 
ciato in Egitto is transitional; 1824- 
31 he produced no opera; after long 
study of French opera and assimila- 
tion of contemporary spirit, pro- 
duced Robert le Diable 1831 (great 
success and great financial aid to 
Opera) ; then followed Les Huguenots 
1836 (probably the greatest), Le 
prophete 1849, L'Etoile du Nord 1854, 
Dinorah 1859, and L' Africaine 1865; 
after 1842 he was music director in 
Berlin, where he conducted his own 
works, brought out Weber's Eury- 
anthe and Wagner's Rienzi and Der 
fliegende Hollander. M's operas are 
extraordinarily skilful in orchestral 
color and dramatic effectiveness 
much of which is due to the brilliant 
librettos of Scribe; his music is not 
always of even (juality or interest; 
his style adapts itself so remarkably 
to each change of subject that there 
is almost a total lack of the feeling 
of individuality; one feels with 
Meyerbeer, as with Scribe, a pref- 
erence for dramatic effect, for 
" juggling with contrasts " rather 
than for artistic truth. 

Middelschulte, Wilhelm, orgt., compr. 
b. April 3, 1863, at Werwe, West- 
phalia. Pupil at the Inst. for 
Church Music in Berlin of Haupt, 
Loeschhorn, Commer andSchroeder; 
orgt. Berlin 1888, Chicago 1891; 
since 1894 orgt. for Thomas Orches- 
tra with important church positions; 
compr. of valuable org. music, Canon 
and Fugue in D min., concerto for 
brg. and orch. on a theme of J. S. 
Bach, Canon-Fantaisie on Bach 
and Fugue on four Bach themes, and 
Toccata on Einfeste Burg. 

Mikuli (mi-kop'-li), Carl, pst., compr. 
b. Czernowitz, Bohemia, Oct. 20, 
1821; d. Lemberg, May 21, 1897. 
Student of medicine at Vienna, of 
music with Chopin and Reicha at 
Paris; after successful tour in Russia, 



became director of Lemberg Cons. 
1858; founded own music school 
1888; edited Chopin's works with 
emendations received directly from 
C.; own pf. compositions imitate 
C's style; published also French and 
Polish folk-songs, etc. 

Milanollo, Maria, vlt. b. Savigliano, 
near Turin, July 19, 1832; d. Paris, 
Oct. 21, 1848. From 1838 to her 
death played in concerts with her 
sister Domenica Maria Teresa, vlt. 
b. Savigliano, Aug. 28, 1827; d. 
Paris, Oct. 25, 1904. Teresa had 
lessons from Caldera and Mora at 
Turin, and some in the course of 
various tours from De Briot and, 
under a pseudonym, from Habeneck; 
both sisters had brilliant success in 
concerts in France, Germany, Hol- 
land, and England; T. retired after 
marriage to Parmentier, 1857, to 
Toulouse and 1878 to Paris. 

Mililotti, Leopoldo, singing teacher, b. 
Ravenna, Aug. 6, 1835. Studied 
and taught in Rome; composed, with 
brother Giuseppe (1833-83), 2 oper- 

Millard, Harrison, compr. b. Boston, 
Mass., Nov. 27, 1830; d. Sept. 10, 
1895. Member of church choir and 
Handel and Haydn Soc. chorus; after 
study in Italy, sang tenor on tour 
through Great Britain with Cather- 
ine Hayes; taught singing, composed 
in N. Y. after 1856; composed opera 
(never performed), mass, church 
music, and over 350 songs. 

Millocker (mil'-le'k-er), Karl, compr. 
b. Vienna, May 29, 1842; d. Baden, 
near Vienna, Dec. 29, 1899. Pupil 
at Vienna Cons.; capellmeister at 
Graz, at Harmonie Th., Vienna, 
and, after 1869, at Th. an der Wien; 
composed pf. pieces, published 
monthly in Musikalische Presse, and 
long series of lively, deservedly pop- 
ular operettas, of which Der Bettel- 
student attained widest notice. 

Mills, Robert Watkin, baritone, b. 
Painswick, Gloucestershire, Mar. 4, 
1856. Studied at Royal Acad. with 
Holland, at Milan with Blasco, and 
in London again with Barnby, Ran- 
degger, and Blume; dbut 1884; 
favorite at oratorios, festivals, and 
concerts; has sung in Australasia, 
Canada, and U. S. since 1894. 

Mills, Sebastian Bach, pst. b. Ciren- 
cester, England, Mar. 13, 1838; d. 
Wiesbaden, Dec. 21, 1898. Pupil of 
father, Potter, and Sterndale Ben- 
nett, of Moscheles, etc., at Leipzig 
Cons, of Liszt; while orgt. at Ro- 
man Catholic Cath. at Sheffield, 
appeared as pst. in Leipzig; 1859 
d6but in New York was so successful 
that he made his home there; great 
influence, by teaching and playing, 
on musical interest in N. Y.; com- 
posed graceful works for pf . 

Missa, Edmond Jean Louis, compr. b. 
Rheims, June 12, 1861. Studied at 
Paris Cons, with Massenet; Prix de 
Rome 1883; teacher and compr. in 
Paris; composed since 1886 series of 
operas performed in Brussels and 
Paris, Juge et partie, Ninon de Len- 
clos, Muguette, etc. 

Mocquereau (mok-kd-ro), Dom Andre, 
editor, b. La Tessouale, near Cholet, 
France, June 6, 1849. Educated at 
Paris; 'cello player under Dancla; 
member of order of Benedictines at 
Solesmes 1875; teacher of choral 
singing there; under Dom Pothier 
studied Gregorian music; 1889 
founded Paleographie musicale, pub- 
lication under his editorship of 
facsimiles of old Mss., with trans- 
cription into modern notation and 
valuable essays, some of which have 
been reprinted separately; 6 parts 
have appeared. 

Moffat, Alfred Edward, compr. b. 
Edinburgh, Dec. 4, 1866. Studied 
with Bussler in Berlin; lives in Eng- 
land and Germany; composed sev- 
eral cantatas, school songs; published 
collections of folk-songs, English 
and Scotch; arranged classical works. 

Mohr (mor), Hermann, compr. b. 
Nienstedt, Oct. 9, 1830; d. Phila- 
delphia, May 26, 1896. Studied at 
Eisleben; founded Luisenstadt Cons, 
at Berlin; taught in Phila. at Zeck- 
wer's Cons, after 1886; composed 
cantatas, pf. pieces, and especially 
choruses for men's voices. 

Moir, Frank Lewis, compr. b. Market 
Harborough, England, Apr. 22, 1852; 
d. Deal, July 14, 1904. Studied 
painting at S. Kensington; won 
scholarship in Nat'l Training Sch. of 
Music; composed opera, church 
services, and many songs. 


Molique (mo-lek), Wilhelm Bemhard, 
vlt., compr. b. Nuremberg, Oct. 7, 
1802; d. Kannstatt, May 10, 1869. 
Pupil of father, of Spohr (for a few 
lessons), of Rovelli at Munich; mem- 
ber of th. orch. at Vienna, leader royal 
orch. at Munich 1820, at Stuttgart 
1826-49; after that in London until 
retirement 1866; serious and re- 
strained player, compr. chiefly for vln. 
of some uninteresting works and of 
really distinguished and valued con- 

Mollenhauer (mol'-len-how'-er), Emil, 
vlt., condr. b. Brooklyn, Aug. 4, 
1855. Son of Friedrich, vlt.; at 9 
appeared at Niblo's Garden, N. Y.; 
member of orchestras at Booth's Th., 
Thomas's, Damrosch's, Bijou Th. 
(Boston), Boston Symph. 1884-88; 
condr. of Germania and Boston 
Festival Orch. (which gave concerts 
throughout U. S. with distinguished 
soloists), of Apollo Club after 1901, 
of Handel and Haydn Soc. after 1899. 

Molloy, James Lyman, compr. b. Corno- 
lore, Ireland, 1837; d. 1910. Member 
of English bar; amateur musician; 
compr. of songs (Love's Old Sweet 
Song, etc.), editor of Irish melodies. 

Mondonville (mon-don-vel'), Jean 
Joseph Cassanea de, vlt., compr. b. 
Narbonne, Dec. 25, 1711; d. Belle- 
ville, near Paris, Oct. 8, 1772. Added 
wife's name, de M., to his, Cassanea; 
successful vlt. at Lille and at Con- 
certs spirituels in Paris; 1744 in- 
tendant of la chapelle du roi at Ver- 
sailles; director of Concerts spirituels 
1755-62; composed motets and operas 
which were successful only because 
they were supported by French party 
in the Guerre des bouffons. . 

Moniuszko, Stanislaus, compr. b. Ubil, 
Russia, May 5, 1820; d. Warsaw, 
June 4, 1872. Pupil of Freyer 
in Warsaw and Rungenhagen in 
Vienna; teacher and orgt. in Wilna; 
capellmeister 1858 and later prof, at 
Cons, in Warsaw; published many 
songs, church and organ music, and 
15 operas in national style of Poland. 

Monk, Edwin George, orgt., compr. b 
Frome, Somersetshire, Dec. 13, 1819; 
d. Radley, near Oxford, Jan. 3, 1900. 
Pupil of father, of H. and G. Field; 
after org. appointments in England 
and Ireland, studied with G. A. 


Macfarren; precentor and music- 
master at Radley; Mus. Doc. Oxford 
1856; orgt. at York Cathedral 1859- 
83; published anthems, etc., and 
edited several volumes of chants 
pointed, for Anglican service. 

Monk, William Henry, orgt. b. Lon- 
don, Mar. 16, 1823; d. Stoke New- 
ington, London, Mar. 18, 1889. 
Pupil of Adams, Hamilton, and 
Griesbach; orgt. in London; choir- 
master, orgt. 1849, and teacher of 
vocal music 1874 at King's Coll., 
London; prof, at School for Indigent 
Blind 1851, in National Training 
Coll. 1876; in Bedford Coll., London, 
1878; mus. editor of Parish Choir 
of Hymns Ancient and Modern, 
Scottish Hymnal, etc. 

Monsigny (mon-se-ni), Pierre Alex- 
andre, compr. b. Fauquembergue, 
near St. Omer, Oct. 17, 1729; d. 
Paris, Jan. 14, 1817. Abandoned 
early studies to become clerk and 
maltre d'hotel to Duke of Orleans; 
1754, inspired by performance of La 
serva padrona, began lessons in har- 
mony with Gianotti and in five 
months produced successful Les 
aveux indiscrets; operas (notably 
Aline, Le deserteur, Felix) ended in 
1777; government positions lost in 
Revolution, but pensioned by Ope>a 
Com.; inspector at Cons. 1795-1802; 
member of Academy 1813; works 
charmingly melodious, without re- 
markable skill. 

Montagnana (mon-tan-ya'-na), Dom- 
enico, vln.-maker. b. about 1700; d. 
Venice (?), 1740. Probably pupil of 
Stradivari, with whom he worked 
and whose vlns. his resemble in a 
general way, without being copies; 
especially remarkable varnish; also 
made violas; all his instruments val- 

Monte (mon'-te), Philippe de [or de 
Mons], compr. b. Mons or Malines, 
about 1521; d. Vienna (?), July 4, 
1603. At Antwerp 1557 about at 
end of Lassus' residence there; capell- 
meister to Maximilian II and Rudolf 
II at Vienna and Prague; treas. and 
canon at Cambrai, but apparently 
did not live there; published 30 books 
of madrigals, 2 of masses, and 7 of 
motets, a few of which have been 



Monteverde [or Monteverdi], Claudio 
Giovanni Antonio, compr. b. Cre- 
mona (baptized May 15), 1567; d. 
Venice, Nov. 29, 1643. Viola player 
in orch. of Duke Gonzaga at Mantua 
and pupil in counterpoint of Ingeg- 
neri, maestro to the duke; early 
works, canzonets and madrigals, 
show impatience of conventional 
restraint and desire for new progres- 
sions; 1603 became maestro to duke; 
1607 produced first opera, Orfeo; 
1613 maestro at St. Mark's, Venice; 
after 1637, when first opera house 
opened in Venice, M. composed 
many successful operas; almost none 
of his works are extant; remarkable 
as compr. who, by novel progressions 
in his madrigals, etc., established 
modern music despite opposition of 
adherents of older polyphonic school, 
the principles of which, as illustrated 
in older church music, suffered 
unduly from his success; in dramatic 
music his innovations were enlarg- 
ing orc"h., inventing new combina- 
tions, using tremolo of strings, mak- 
ing freer and more dramatic recita- 

Moody, Charles Henry, orgt. b. Stour- 
bridge, Worcestershire, Mar. 22, 
1874. Pupil of T. W. Morgan; orgt. 
at Tenbury, Wells, Wigan, Coventry, 
and since 1902 at Ripon Cath.; condr. 
of choral soc. and festival choirs at 
Wigan, Coventry, Ripon; lecturer 
on mus. ; published Festival Magnifi- 
cat, Mus. and Emotion, Evolution of 
Ecclesiastical Mus., Choir Boy in the 
Making and, under pseud. Coulthart 
Brayton, songs. 

Moody, Fanny, soprano, b. Redruth, 
Nov. 23, 1866. Pupil of Mme. 
Sainton- Dolby; de"but with Carl 
Rosa Co. 1887; after 1894 sang in 
Italian opera at Covent Garden and 
Drury Lane; gave costume recitals; 
successful in concerts in England 
and provinces; married Southcote 
Mansergh, bass, whose stage name 
is Charles Manners; they have given 
many concerts together, and opera 
presentations in English. 

Moore, Graham Ponsonby, pst., writer, 
b. Ballarat, Australia, Apr. 14. 1859. 
Pupil of Kullak at Berlin Cons, and 
of Scharwenka and Moszkowski; 
prof, at Royal Coll. Mus., London, 

and examiner for R. A. M.; compr. 
chiefly for pf. (Concertstucke, studies, 
nocturnes, archaic dances, etc.). 

Morales (mo-ra'-le'th), Cristofero [Cris- 
tobal], compr. b. Seville, Jan. 2, 
1512; d. Malaga, June 14, 1553. 
Member of Papal Chapel 1535-40; 
maestro di cappella, Toledo, 1544^15, 
singer at Malaga Cath. 1551; prob- 
ably returned to Seville 1552; com- 
posed 16 masses, several motets and 
magnificats, some of which are sung 
annually in Papal Chapel. 

Morgan, George Washbourne, orgt. b. 
Gloucester, England, Apr. 9, 1823; 
d. Tacoma, Wash., July, 1892. 
Pupil of J. Amott; orgt. in several 
churches in England, and after 1854 
in New York; gave concerts on Bos- 
ton Music Hall organ. 

Morgan, John Paul, orgt. b. Oberlin, 
O., Feb. 13, 1841; d. Oakland, Cal., 
Jan., 1879. For many years in New 
York as orgt. and compr., chiefly of 
org. and church music; translated 
Richter's Manual of Harmony; his 
wife made English versions of words 
to many songs and cantatas. 

Morhange, see Alkan. 

Morlacchi (mor-lak'-ki), Francesco, 
compr. b. Perugia, June 14, 1784; 
d. Innsbruck, Oct. 28, 1841. Studied 
with Mazzetti, Caruso, Zingarelli, 
and Martini; after writing church 
music, he turned to opera, 1803, with 
such success that in 1810 he became 
capellmeister of Italian opera at 
Dresden; wrote more operas, masses, 
and oratorios; one of those who are 
said to have combined Italian and 
German qualities. 

Morley, Charles, see Behr, F. 

Morley, Thomas, compr. b. London, 
1557 or 1558; d. there, about 1602. 
Pupil of W. Byrd; Mus. Bac. Oxford 
1588; orgt. at St. Giles's and at St. 
Paul's; gentleman of Chapel Royal 
1592; license to print granted 1598; 
composed canzonets or short "ayres" 
for 3 or 4 voices, madrigals, harpsi- 
chord pieces in Fitzwilham Virginal 
Book, settings of some Shakespeare 
songs, etc.; wrote first treatise on 
music published in England, A plaine 
and easie introduction, and a book of 
Consort lessons; highly praised by 



contemporaries and valued now for 
melodiousness and cheerfulness of 

Mornington, Garret Colley Wellesley, 
Earl of, compr. b. Dangan, Ireland, 
July 19, 1735; d. Kensington, Lon- 
don, May 22, 1781. Practically self- 
taught; founded Academy of Music, 
Dublin, 1757; prof, of music at Dublin 
Univ. 1764-74; created Earl of M. 
1760; won Catch Club prizes 1776, 
'77, and for glee Here in cool grot in 
'79; Bishop edited collection of his 
glees; father of great Duke of Well- 

Morse, Charles Henry, orgt., teacher, 
b. Bradford, Mass., Jan. 5, 1853. 
Pupil at N. E. Cons, of J. C. D. 
Parker, Emery, and G. E. Whiting, 
at Bost. Univ. Coll. of Music under 
Parker, Paine, etc., and privately 
with Baermann and Perabo; teacher 
at N. E. Cons. 1873-78; director at 
Wellesley Coll. 1875-84; founder 
and director 1885 7 91 of North- 
western Cons, at Minneapolis; then 
orgt. and director at Plymouth 
Church, Brooklyn; musical director 
Dartmouth Coll. 1901; organized 
and directed several societies, among 
them Am. Guild Orgts. 

Moscheles (mo'-shel-es), Ignaz, pst., 
teacher, b. Prague, May 30, 1794; 
d. Leipzig, Mar. 10, 1870. Son of 
Jewish merchant; pupil of D. Weber 
at Prague Cons, (played own con- 
certo in public at 14), of Albrechts- 
berger and Salieri at Vienna; pre- 
pared pf. score of Fidelia under 
Beethoven's direction; as pst. ri- 
valled Meyerbeer and Hummel; in 
course of successful tours gave 
lessons to Mendelssohn at Berlin; 
1821-46 lived in London, teaching, 
playing, conducting Philharmonic 
Soc.; 1846 joined friend Mendels- 
sohn as pf. teacher in Leipzig Cons., 
where he long continued to teach 
many pupils who later became dis- 
tinguished; playing was energetic, 
brilliant, and rhythmical; though 
his methods of tone production by 
touch were those afterward devel- 
oped by Liszt. M. disapproved of 
music of Liszt, Chopin, and other 
more modern writers; improvisa- 
tion said to have been remarkable, 
and compositions uneven in value, 
though always well written; those 

most likely to endure are concertos, 
24 Etudes and Charakteristische 
Studien; published letters and auto- 
biog., Aus Moscheles Leben. 

Mosenthal (mo'-sen-tal) , Joseph, vlt.. 
condr. b. Kassel, Nov. 30, 1834; 
d. New York, Jan. 6, 1896. Pupil 
of father and Spohr; member of 
Spohr's orch.; came to U. S. 1853; 
orgt. and choirmaster Calvary 
Church, N. Y. 1860-87; condr. Men- 
delssohn Glee Club after 1867; one 
of 1st vlns. in Philharmonic Orch.; 
2d vln. in Mason-Thomas quartet; 
published hymns and songs. 

Moszkowski (mos-kof'-ski), Moritz, 
pst., compr. b. Breslau, Aug. 23, 
1854. Son of Polish gentleman; 
pupil at Dresden Cons, and those 
of Stern and Kullak in Berlin; 
taught at the latter; 1873 gave first 
concert in Berlin; thereafter played 
in Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris, where 
he settled 1897; member Berlin 
Acad. 1899; without deep originality, 
composes refined and charming 
music, From Foreign Parts, Op. 23, 
and Spanish Dances for pf., 4 hands, 
pf. concerto, symphony Jeanne d' 
Arc, Phantastischer Zug for orch., 
and opera Boabdil. 

Mottl, Felix, condr. b. Unter-St. Veit, 
near Vienna, Aug. 24, 1856. As 
boy soprano sang at Lowenburgische 
Convict, preparatory school for im- 
perial chapel; at Vienna Cons, under 
Hellmesberger, Dessoff, Bruckner, 
etc., gained highest honors; condr. 
of Richard Wagner Verein in Vienna, 
and at Bayreuth Festival 1876; 
condr. at Carlsruhe Opera 1880-1903, 
also of Philharmonic concerts there; 
as traveling conductor in London 
and in New York (for season 1903-04, 
including first performances there 
of Parsifal) won great renown ; condr. 
Munich 1904-08; composed 3 operas, 
song cycle, edited works of Berlioz, 
Cornelius, and Liszt. 

Moussorgsky (mo-sorg'-ski), Modest 
Petrovitch, compr. b. Karev, prov. 
Pskov, Russia, Mar. 28, 1839; d. St. 
Petersburg, Mar. 28, 1881. Of musi- 
cal parents, pupil of Herke [Gerke] 
while at military school; entered 
regiment at 17; acquaintance with 
Balakirev and member of his school 
led to experiments in composition; 



resigned from regiment at 22 and 
thereafter had long struggle with 
poverty and bad habits; lived in St. 
Petersburg 1870-81; nat'l opera 
Boris Godounov has held stage; other 
operatic works and many songs give 
evidence of sincere endeavor to ex- 
press humanitarian views in realistic 
music; much work posthumously 
edited by Rimsky-Korsakov. 

Mouton (mo-ton), Jean de [properly 
Jean de Hollinque], compr. b. Hoi- 
ling (?), near Metz, about 1475; d. St. 
Quentin, Oct. 30, 1522. Pupil of 
Josquin; singer in chapels of Louis 
XII and Francis I; canon at Th6rou- 
anne and St. Quentin; teacher of 
Willaert; composed masses and 
motets, highly valued by contempo- 

Mozart (mot'-sart), Johann Georg 
Leopold, compr. b. Augsburg, Nov. 
14, 1719; d. Salzburg, May 28, 1787. 
Choir boy at Augsburg and Salzburg; 
gave lessons to support himself while 
studying law; vlt. in Bishop's orch. 
1743, court compr. 1762; composed 
12 oratorios, symphonies, serenades, 
etc.; married Anna Maria Pertlin; 
two children who grew up were 
daughter, Maria Anna called Nan- 
nerl (1751-1829), and son. 

Mozart, Johannes Chrysostom Wolf- 
gang Amadeus, compr. b. Salzburg, 
Jan. 27, 1756; d. Vienna, Dec. 5, 
1791. The last of his Christian 
names is his own substitution for 
Theophilus and Gottlieb. Very 
many details of his career as a won- 
der child are known; when he was 
six and his sister eleven, their father 
exhibited them at Munich and 
Vienna (where they played to Maria 
Antoinette) and later at many Euro- 
pean courts, reaching Paris 1763, 
where they played before Mme. de 
Pompadour and where M's first 
compositions were printed; in London 
played with J. C. Bach, and after 
three years' absence, during which 
both children were seriously ill, re- 
turned to Salzburg, 1766. Going to 
Vienna, after an attack of smallpox 
at Olmiitz, M. played before Em- 
peror Joseph II, wrote first operas, 
La finta semplice, and Bastien und 
Bastienne; conducted, for the first 
time, his solemn mass; 1769-71, on 
journey to Italy, where M. received 

many honors, and composed some 
operas, for the production of which 
he visited Milan in 1771 and 1772; 
as concertmaster to Bishop of Salz- 
burg, M. wrote several operas, con- 
certos, etc., without adequate return; 
resigned to go on fruitless journey 
to Paris with his mother, who died 
there, 1778; resumed position at 
Salzburg and became court orgt., 
but finally went to Vienna, where, 
1789, he became imperial compr.; 
married Constance Weber 1781; 
composed Le nozze di Figaro, 1785, 
which was almost a failure because 
of the intentionally poor singing of 
the Italian company; both Figaro 
and Don Giovanni, 1787, were suc- 
cessful at Prague; on journey to 
Germany, 1789, played org. at 
Thomaskirche, Leipzig, and at Pots- 
dam before Fr. Wilhelm II, whose 
offer of position of capellmeister 
M. refused from motives of patriot- 
ism. Composed Cosi fan tutte 1790 
and Die Zauberflote 1791 for Vienna, 
La clemenza di Tito for Prague 1791; 
his last work is said to be the Re- 
quiem, of which authorship is con- 
tested; he died of malignant fever 
and was buried cheaply in the com- 
mon lot, his few friends having 
failed to accompany his body to the 
grave because of storm. In Jahn's 
authoritative biography many details 
of his personality are given, his 
gaiety, his fondness for dancing and 
billiards, his habits of working at 
night, his generosity, and his im- 
providence. As a compr. he was 
extraordinarily fluent; he often 
thought his works out beforehand, 
but often seemed to pour them out 
spontaneously; once written, they 
were seldom altered. His chief 
works are his operas, of which he com- 
posed 20; he also wrote for voices 
15 masses (some others have been 
attributed to him) , Kyries, Misereres, 
songs, etc.; for orchestra he composed 
41 symphonies, divertimenti, sere- 
nades, marches, concertos for vln., 
clarinet, etc., 10 quintets, 60 quar- 
tets, 25 pf. concertos, 42 pf. sonatas, 
and many smaller pieces. Songs are 
very few, Das Veilchen the one most 
frequently found on programs; pf. 
and chamber music of style which is 
charming in its very melodious sim- 
plicity; his symphonies mark great 


advance in instrumental writing; his 
first improvement was substitution 
of more dignified and refined min- 
uets; later he developed resources of 
the orchestra so that the whole effect 
is much richer than in Haydn's 
symphonies, although M. never 
attained the depth and nobility of 
Beethoven. His operas were at first 
in the simple Italian style, then after 
attempting to imitate the French 
opera as reformed by Gluck, in 
Figaro and Don Giovanni he attained 
a style of his own never equalled for 
mixture of dignity, grace, exquisitely 
comic feeling, and beauty; he com- 
bines Italian vivacity with German 
poetic truthfulness within his own 

Muck (mook), Karl, condr. b. Wiirz- 
burg, Oct. 22, 1859. Early lessons 
from father, chancellor and amateur 
mus.; studied philosophy at Heidel- 
berg and Leipzig, music at Leipzig 
Cons, under Richter and Reinecke; 
condr. at Zurich 1880-81, Salzburg 
1881-82, Briinn 1882-84, Graz 1884- 
86, Prague 1886 -92, and, since 1892; 
court capellmeister at Berlin Royal 
opera; conductor of Boston Symph. 
Orch. 1906-08, and at Bayreuth 
1901, 1902, '04, '06. 

Muffat, Georg, compr. b. Schlettstadt, 
about 1645; d. Passau, Feb. 23, 1704. 
Sudied Lully's style in Paris; orgt. 
Salzburg Cath., then to Bishop of S., 
then capellmeister to Bishop of Pas- 
sau; published instrumental sonatas, 
concertos, some 50 dance pieces for 4 
and 8 vlns . , etc . , together with instruc- 
tions in playing string instruments. 

Muller, Carl Christian, compr., teacher. 
b. Meiningen, Germany, July 3, 
1831. Parents cultivated musical 
amateurs; showed decided musical 
bent at an early age and was given 
instruction in piano playing and 
harmony by members of the ducal 
orchestra. In 1854 he came to New 
York and connected himself with a 
firm of piano makers, later joining 
the theatre orchestra of Barnum's 
Museum, of which he became leader. 
In 1864 he turned his attention to 
teaching, making a specialty of the 

Eiano and harmony; member of the 
iculty of the New York College of 
Music; some of his pupils have risen 


high in professional circles. Com- 
positions include nearly all forms: 
two overtures, an Idyl, a Suite in 
G minor, a symphony in D minor, a 
Scena for tenor and orchestra, and 
other pieces for orchestra; in cham- 
ber music, a sonata for violin and 
piano and three string quartets; 
pieces for piano solo and with other 
instruments, three sonatas, preludes 
and postludes for the organ, songs, 
quartets and anthems; some of the 
large works have been performed by 
the Manuscript Society and by 
Theodore Thomas. He translated 
Sechter's treatise The Correct Order 
of Fundamental Harmonies, a valu- 
able work of reference in musical 
theory. Lives in New York City 

Muris (mii-ris'), Johannes de, theorist. 
Disciple of Franco; trained at Ox- 
ford; author of treatise Speculum 
musicce in 7 books, on theory and 
practise of music; large claims have 
been made for him, but influence 
appears to have been rather con- 
servative than innovating. 

Murska, lima di, dram, soprano, b. 
Croatia, 1836; d. Munich, Jan. 16, 
1889. Pupil of the Marchesis in 
Vienna; dibut Florence 1862; had 
great success in almost all capitals; 
America 1873-76; voice was brilliant, 
with range of nearly 3 octaves; 
taught in N. Y. for short time, but 
retired to Munich some years before 
her death. 

Musin (mu-zan), Ovide, vlt. b. Man- 
drin, near Lie>e, Sept. 22, 1854. 
Studied at Li6ge Cons, with Heyn- 
berg and Leonard, and with latter at 
Paris Cons., where he also taught a 
year; successful tours around the 
world; taught at Li6ge Cons, after 
1897, prof, after 1898; teaching in 
N. Y. 1908-10. 

Musiol, Robert Paul Johann, compr., 
writer, b. Breslau, Jan. 14, 1846; 
d. Fraustadt, Oct. 18, 1903. Studied 
at Seminary of Liebenthal, Silesia; 
teacher and cantor at Rohrsdorf, 
near Fraustadt, 1873-1891; author 
of Catechismus der Musikgeschichte, 
editor of several music lexicons, 
biographies of Fritze, Korner, and 
Hugo Briickler; contributed to peri- 
odicals, etc. 




Nachbaur (nak'-bour), Franz, tenor, b. 
Schloss Giessen, near Friedrichshafen, 
Mar. 25, 1835; d. Munich, Mar. 21, 
1902. Pupil of Pischek while at Stutt- 
gart Polytechnic ; chorister at Basle ; 
sang at LuneVille, and, after study 
with Orth and Lamperti, at Mann- 
heim, Hanover, Prague, Darmstadt, 
Vienna, finally at Munich 1866-90; 
created part of Walther in Die Meis- 
tersinger; great repute in Germany. 

Nachez (na-shez'), Tivadar, vlt. b. 
Pesth, May 1, 1859. Studied with 
Sabatil, Joachim at Berlin, and 
Leonard at Paris; from headquar- 
ters in Paris made successful Conti- 
nental tours; settled in London 
1889, where he is popular as concert 
player; composed concertos, Hun- 
garian rhapsodies and dances, etc. 

Nadaud (na-do), Gustave, compr. b. 
Roubaix, France, Feb. 20, 1820; d. 
Paris, Apr. 28, 1893. Distinguished 
compr. of chansons, of which he 
published some 15 volumes, usually 
to his own words; also wrote 3 op- 
erettas (Ledocteur Vieuxtemps, etc.). 

Nageli (na'-gg-li), [Johann ?] Hans 
Georg, compr., publisher, b. Wetzi- 
kon, near Zurich, May 16, 1773; 
d. there, Dec. 26, 1836. Publisher 
at Wetzikon of editions of Handel and 
Bach, and new works by dementi, 
Cramer, and Beethoven, into whose 
sonata, Op. 31, No. 1, he interpolated 
four measures; founder and president 
of association for cultivation of music ; 
held popular singing classes, com- 
posed songs (Lied vom Rhein, Life let 
us cherish), choruses, etc. 

Nanini (na-ne'-ni), Giovanni Maria, 
compr. b. Vallerano, about 1540; 
d. Rome, Mar. 11, 1607. Pupil of 
Goudimel; maestro at Vallerano, and 
1571-75 at Sta. Maria Maggiore at 
Rome; founded music school where 
Palestrina and nephew, Bernardino, 
taught; member of choir 1577 and 
maestro 1604 at Sistine Chapel, 
where a Christmas motet of his is 
annually sung; composed madrigals 
and psalms distinguished even for 
that great period. 

Napravnik (na-prav'-nek), Eduard 
Franzevich, compr., condr. b. Bejst, 
Bohemia, Aug. 24, 1839. Son of 
teacher, early orphaned; studied at 
Prague org. school and with Kittl, 
and at school for psts., where he later 
taught; 1861 condr. of Prince Yusu- 
pov's private orch. at St. Petersburg; 
1863 orgt. at opera, 1867 2d con- 
ductor, and 1869 conductor; 1869- 
81 conducted concerts of Mus. Soc.; 
carried further Liadov's reforms, 
including native works in opera 
repertoire, etc.; compr. of several 
operas, overtures, Russian and Bo- 
hemian songs, etc. 

Nardini (nar-de'-ni) , Pietro, vlt. b. 
Fibiana, 1722; d. Florence, May 7, 
1793. Studied at Leghorn and with 
Tartini at Padua; soloist in Stutt- 
gart court orch. 1753-67; lived with 
Tartini at Leghorn 1767-70; direc- 
tor of mus. for Duke of Tuscany; 
L. Mozart praised sentiment and 
taste of his playing; composed con- 
certos, sonatas, solos, duets, quar- 
tets, and trios, 6 of each, of some 
interest but old-fashioned. 

Nares, James, orgt., compr. b. Stan- 
well, Eng., April [baptized Apr. 19], 
1715; d. London, Feb. 10, 1783. 
Chorister in Chapel Royal under 
Gates, Croft, and Pepusch; deputy 
orgt. Windsor; orgt. of York Cath. 
1734 and of Chapel Royal 1756, 
where he became master of children 
1757; took prize for catch, published 
harpsichord lessons, catches, and 
(most important) 20 anthems. 

Naumann (nou'-man), Emil, writer, b. 
Berlin, Sept. 8, 1827; d. Dresden, 
June 23, 1888. Studied with Schny- 
der von Wartensee, with Mendels- 
sohn, at Leipzig Cons., and at Bonn 
Univ.; mus. dir. at court church in 
Berlin 1856; Ph.D. Univ. Berlin; 
lecturer on hist, at Dresden Cons. 
1873; wrote on opera (against 
Wagner), on special periods of his- 
tory, and Die Tonkunst in der Kul- 
turgeschichte (greatest work, trans- 
lated as History of Mus.; admirably 
clear and readable, though not 
always trustworthy in dates, etc.). 



Nava (na'-va), Gaetano, singing teacher. 
b. Milan, May 16, 1802; d. there, 
Mar. 31, 1875. Son of guitar player 
and compr.; after college education, 
pupil of Federici at Milan Cons., 
where he taught harmony and sing- 
ing after 1837; Santley among 
pupils; believed in development as 
opposed to forcing; wrote method, 
several books of vocalises, and 
church music. 

Navratil (nav'-ra'-til), Karl, compr. b. 
Prague, April 24, 1867. Pupil of 
Ondricek and Adler; composed in 
larger forms, operas, symphony, 5 
symph. poems, concertos for pf. and 

Nedbal, Oskar, viola player, b. Tabor, 
Bohemia, Mar. 26, 1874. Pupil of 
Dvofdk and Bennewitz at Prague 
Cons.; member of Bohemian Quar- 
tet (with K. Hoffmann, Suk, and 
Wihan) 1891-1906; condr. Bohemian 
concerts in Vienna and London, of 
Prague Philharm. Soc. until 1906; 
composed for own instrument. 

Neefe (na-fg), Christian Gottlob, orgt., 
compr. b. Chemnitz, Feb. 5, 1748; 
d. Dessau, Jan. 26, 1798. Studied 
law at Univ. of Leipzig, but influ- 
enced by J. A. Hiller composed 
operettas, and 1777 became condr. of 
traveling co.; orgt. at Bonn after 
1782, where he was Beethoven's 
teacher; accomp. and manager at 
Bonn 1788-94; then condr. at 
Dessau; last years in great poverty; 
wrote and arranged several operas, 
composed church mus., etc. 

Neidlinger (md'-ling-er), William Har- 
old, compr. b. Brooklyn, July 20, 
1863. Pupil of Dudley Buck and 
C. C. Miiller; after some years 
abroad (he taught singing in Paris), 
settled in Chicago; later in New 
York; compr. of 2 operas, and many 
admirable songs. 

Neitzel (nit'-zel), Otto, pst., writer, b. 
Falkenburg, Pomerania, July 6, 
1852. Studied at Kullak's Acad. 
and at Berlin Univ.; concert tour 
with Lucca and Sarasate; condr. at 
Strassburg 1878-81 ; taught at Strass- 
burg Cons., Moscow Cons. 1885, at 
Cologne since 1887; lectured in U.S. 
1906; critic for Kolnische Zeitung, 
author of Fuhrer durch die Oper, 
compr. of several operas. 

Neri (na'-ri), Filippo, compr. b. 
Florence, Julv 21, 1515; d. Rome, 
May 26, 1595. Holy orders 1551; 
for his lectures in oratory of San 
Girolamo and later at Sta. Maria, 
Animuccia and Palestrina com- 
posed Laudi spirituali from which 
developed the " oratorio "; N. organ- 
ized seminary 1575; canonized 1622. 

Neruda [or Norman Neruda], Wilma, 
see Halle, Lady. 

Nessler, Victor E., compr. b. Balden- 
heim, Alsace, Jan. 28, 1841; d. 
Strassburg, May 28, 1890. While 
student of theology, studied mus. 
with Stern and produced successful 
opera (Fleurette 1864) .and turned 
to music; after further study in 
Leipzig, was chorusmaster and condr. 
at several theatres there; composed 
12 operas, of which Der Rattenfdnger 
von Hameln and Der Trompeter von 
Sdkkingen have been extremely pop- 
ular, especially in Germany; though 
he had certain gift of popular melody, 
never attained any original heights. 

Nesvadba (nes-vad'-ba), Joseph, condr., 
compr. b. Vyskef, Bohemia, Jan. 19, 
1824; d. Darmstadt, May 20, 1876. 
Student of philosophy at Prague, 
where he produced opera Blaubart; 
condr. at Carlsbad, Olmiitz, Graz, 
Prague, Italian opera at Berlin, Ham- 
burg; after 1864 court capellmeister 
at Darmstadt; compr. of Bohemian 
songs and dances. 

Negvera (nesh-va'-ra) , Joseph, compr., 
choirmaster, b. Proskoles, Bohemia, 
Oct. 24, 1842. Choir director at 
Prague, Koniggratz, and Olmiitz 
Cath.; compr. of 3 operas, sym- 
phony, septet, much vln. and pf. 
music, and distinguished church mus. 

Neuendorf! (noi-en-dorf), Adolf, condr. 
b. Hamburg, June 13, 1843; d. 
New York, Dec. 4, 1897. Came to 
U. S. 1855; pupil of Matzka, Wein- 
lich, and Schilling; d6but as pst. 
1859; vlt. in N. Y. theatre and in 
Brazil; condr. in Milwaukee and 
N. Y., in Acad. of Mus., of Phil- 
harmonic Soc., and (after period of 
concert direction in Boston, of con- 
ducting Juch Opera Co. and of 
living in Vienna) of Metropolitan 
Orch.; composed operas, songs, etc.; 
of importance because of early 
introduction of Wagner's music in 



U. S. and Mexico; first performance 
of Lohengrin and Walkiire during 
his term as condr. at Stadt Theatre, 
N. Y., 1867-71; gave Wagner 
Festivals with Th. Thomas. 

Neukomm (noi-kom), Sigismund, Ritter 
von, compr. b. Salzburg, July 10, 
1778; d. Paris, Apr. 3, 1858. Pupil 
of Weissauer, M. Haydn, and J. 
Haydn, who took great interest 
in him; condr. German opera at St. 
Petersburg 1807; later in Paris, 
friend of Cherubini, pst. to Talley- 
rand; ennobled for Requiem on 
Louis XVI; court director to Dom 
Pedro of Brazil 1816-21; traveled 
with Talleyrand; lived alternately 
in Paris and London where he was 
extremely popular until eclipsed by 
Mendelssohn in 1837; composed 
about 1000 works, oratorios, masses, 
operas, org. and pf. pieces, all now 

Neumann (noi-man), Angelo, tenor. 
b. Vienna, Aug. 18, 1838; d. Prague, 
Dec. 19, 1910. D6but 1859; sang at 
Cracow, Pressburg, and Vienna, 
1862-76; managed traveling Wag- 
ner opera company, and operas in 
Leipzig, Bremen, and Prague; set- 
tled in Bremen; since 1885 in 
Prague as director of Landestheatre; 
author of Reminiscences. 

Neupert (noi'-pert), Edmund, pst., 
compr. b. Christiania, Apr. 1, 1842; 
d. New York, June 22, 1888. Pupil 
at Kullak's Acad.; teacher there, 
at Stern Cons., at Copenhagen Cons. 
1868, at Moscow Cons. 1881; after 
1883 in N. Y., where he was known 
as excellent teacher, and concert 
performer; wrote useful Technical 
Studies, Studies in Style, etc. 

Nevada [pseud, for Wixom], Emma, 
dram. sop. b. Alpha, near Nevada 
City, Cal., 1862. Pupil of Mme. 
Marched; d6but London 1880; 
sang in prominent Italian cities, 
Paris 1883, alternate nights with 
Patti 1885, etc.; married Dr. Palmer 
1885; voice light, of moderate power, 
especially effective in staccato and 
chromatic passages. 

Nevin, Arthur Finley, compr. b. Apr. 
27, 1871, at Edge worth, Pa. Father. 
Robert P., was prominent locally as 
a musician and composer of political 

songs, and later as editor and pub- 
lisher of the Pittsburg Times and 
Sunday Leader; educated in the 
New England Conservatory of Music 
and in Berlin, where he studied 
composition with O. B. Boise; early 
works were the comic operas The 
Economites, referring to the social- 
istic community near Pittsburg, 
and The Candy Man, produced by 
amateurs; in 1906 he completed his 
grand opera Poia, based on a legend 
of the Blackfeet Indians, among 
whom Nevin lived for two years 
gathering material; this opera was 
first given in Pittsburg, Jan. 16, 
1907; produced in Berlin, April 15, 
1910; other compositions are Auf 
Wiedersehen, Lorna Doone suite, 
From Edgeworth Hills. 

Nevin, Ethelbert Woodbridge, pst., 
compr. b. Edgeworth, Pa., Nov. 25, 
1862; d. New Haven, Conn., Feb. 
17, 1901. After study in Dresden, 
pupil of Lang and Emery in Boston , 
and of Von Billow, especially of 
Klind worth, and Bial at Berlin; 
taught in Boston; abroad again 
1892 in Paris, Berlin, and Italy, 
teaching and composing; had great 
talent for composition in smaller 
forms for pf. and charming songs; 
Narcissus probably his best known 

Nevin, George Balch, compr. b. Ship- 
pensburg, Pa., March 15, 1859. 
Educated at State Normal School, 
and at Lafayette College, Easton, 
Pa.; pupil in music of Julia E. 
Crane and Louis Arthur Russell; 
filled several good choir positions 
as baritone soloist; compositions in 
all vocal forms; has been especially 
successful in church music; some 
of his well-known pieces are Bells of 
Shandon, Song of the Armorer, the 
Christmas cantata The Adoration, 
and the Easter cantata The Cruci- 
fied; Nevin is not a professional 
musician, and lives at Easton, Pa. 

Niccolini, see Nicolini. 

Nicholl, Horace Wadham, compr. b. 
Tipton, near Birmingham, Mar. 17, 
1848. Pupil of father and orgt. 
S. Prince; orgt. at Dudley, at 
Stoke-on-Trent, at Pittsburg, U. S., 
after 1870, and at N. Y. 1879; 
taught in Pittsburg and 1888-95 



at Miss Porter's School, Farmington, 
Conn., with Boekelmann; editor org. 
dept. Freund's Music Trades Review, 
contributor to Courier and other 
periodicals; composed symphonies, 
symph. poems, cycle of 4 oratorios, 
widely-known org. pieces, etc. 

Nichols, Marie, vlt. b. Chicago, Oct. 16, 
1879. Pupil of E. Mollenhauer in 
Boston, of Halir in Berlin, and 
Debroux in Paris; ddbut Boston 
1899; played with Bost. Festival 
Orch. 1899-1901, with Berlin Phil- 
harmonic 1903, concerts in London 
and Paris 1903, and with Boston 
Symph; Orch. 1905; made long 
concert tours of U. S. 

Nicode (ni-ko'-da), Jean Louis, pst., 
compr. b. Jerczik, near Posen, 
Aug. 12, 1853. Pupil of father, 
Hartkas (orgt.), and of Kullak, 
Wiierst, and Kiel at Kullak's Acad.; 
taught in Berlin and established 
Nicode" concerts; after concert tour 
through Galicia and Roumania with 
Mme. Artot, prof, at Dresden Cons. 
1878-85; director Philharmonic 
Concerts 1885-88; dir. Dresden 
Neustadt Chorgesangverein after 
1893; both as pst. and condr. he 
is keen and appeciative interpreter; 
compositions strong and sound, 
mostly in larger forms, symph. 
poems, Das Meer symph., 1888, for 
chorus and orch., full of daring 
imagination, and Gloria, 1906, for 
large orch., chorus of men and boys, 
in 6 long movements. 

Nicolai (ni'-ko-li), Otto, compr. b. 
Konigsberg, June 9, 1810; d. Berlin, 
May 11, 1849. Pupil of father in pf. 
playing, and, after he had run away 
at 16, of Zelter and Klein in Berlin, 
under protection of Justizrath Adler; 
while orgt. to Prussian embassy at 
Rome, 1833, studied Italian mus. 
under Baini; capellmeister at Vien- 
na Th. 1837-38, when he returned 
to Rome; court capellm. Vienna 
1841-47; founder of Philharmonic 
Soc.; capellm. Berlin opera and Dom- 
chor 1847; composed 5 operas which 
had great popularity in Italy, where 
N. was taken for native, two of which 
were revised for German stage (Der 
Templer and Die Heimkehr des 
Verbannten); work on which fame 
rests is fresh, humorous Die lustigen 

Weiber von Windsor (The Merry 
Wives of Windsor), brilliantly pro- 
duced May, 1849, which has had 
great success. 

Nicolini (nik-o-le'-ni) , [or Niccolini], 
Giuseppe, compr. b. Piacenza, Jan. 
29, 1762; d. there, Dec. 18, 1842. 
Studied at Naples with Insanguine; 
after 1793 brought out about 48 
operas; maestro at Piacenza Cath. 
1819; and thereafter chiefly devoted 
to church music; comp. 40 masses, 
about 100 psalms, etc. 

Niecks, Frederick [orig. Friedrich], 

writer, b. Diisseldorf, Mar. 3, 1845. 
Vln. pupil of Langhans, Griinewald, 
and Auer; d6but at 12; from 13-21 
member of concert orch. and student 
in private and at Leipzig Univ.; 
1868 orgt. and viola player in quar- 
tet in Dumfries, Scotland; contrib- 
utor to Monthly Mus. Record after 
1875; became prof. mus. at Edin- 
burgh Univ. 1891; distinguished lect- 
urer and writer; author of Diet, of 
Mus. Terms, Chopin as Man and 
Musician, Programme Music in the 
Last Four Centuries. 

Niedermeyer (ne'-der-mi-er), Louis, 
compr., teacher, b. Nyon, Switzer- 
land, Apr. 27, 1802; d. Paris, Mar. 
13, 1861. Pupil of Moscheles, 
Forster, Fioravanti, and Zingarelli; 
intimate with Rossini; taught and 
composed songs in Geneva; in Paris 
after 1823, except for two years in 
Brussels; produced 4 operas all 
unsuccessful (Adieu d la France 
from Maria Stuart is familiar); re- 
organized Choron's institute for 
church music, now under gov't 
subvention as Ecole N.; founded 
with Ortigue journal La maUrise 
and published Methode d'accomp. du 
plain chant, harshly criticized; com- 
posed church music of some value. 

Niemann (ne'-man), Albert, dram, 
tenor, b. Erxleben, near Magde- 
burg, Jan. 15, 1831. Singing at 
Dessau in small parts, when dis- 
covered and taught by F. Schneider 
and Nusch, a baritone; after sing- 
ing at Hanover, and further study 
with Duprez in Paris, sang at Halle. 
Stuttgart, Hanover, and other towns, 
finally at Berlin 1866-89 when he 
retired; of heroic build and voice, 
selected by Wagner for Tannha'user, 



Paris, 1861, and for Siegmund in 
Trilogy, Bayreuth, 1876, and sang 
all Wagner parts in U. S. 1886-88. 

Nikisch (nik'-ish), Arthur, condr. h. 
Szent Miklos, Hungary, Oct. 12, 
1855. Father bookkeeper to Prince 
Lichtenstein; very precocious musi- 
cal ability; appeared as pst. at 8; 
pupil at Vienna Cons, of Dessoff, 
Schenner, and Hellmesberger; prizes 
for vln. playing and sextet; 1874 vlt. 
irr court orch., 1878 2d condr. under 
A. Neumann at Leipzig Th. and 1882 
first condr., attaining great distinc- 
tion; 1889-93 condr. Boston Symph. 
Orch. ; director and condr. Budapest 
opera 1893-95; condr. Leipzig Ge- 
wandhaus 1895; later, visiting condr. 
Berlin Philh., Hamburg Philh., and 
in St. Petersburg; he gained much 
admiration in Paris and London 1897 
and following years as virtuoso 
condr. ; one of first to conduct habit- 
ually without score. 

Nilsson, Christine, dram, soprano, b. 
Sjoabel, near Wexio, Sweden, Aug. 
20, 1843. Pupil of Baroness Leu- 
hausen, F. Berwald, and Wartel in 
Paris; d6but Th. Lyrique 1864 and 
sang there till 1866, at Paris Ope"ra 
1868-70; in America 1870-72, 1873- 
74; has been very popular on Conti- 
nent and in London, where she gave 
farewell concert 1888; voice was not 
powerful but skilfully managed and 
her acting (especially of Marguerite 
in Faust) was restrained and effec- 
tive; living in Paris (1910). 

Nohl (nol), Carl Friedrich Ludwig. b. 
Iserlohn, Dec. 5, 1831; d. Heidel- 
berg, Dec. 15, 1885. Entered pro- 
fession of law after study at Bonn, 
Heidelberg, and Berlin; 1858 turned 
to music; pupil of Dehn and Kiel; 
prof, at Munich 1865-68, lecturer 
and prof at Heidelberg after 1872; 
edited and wrote many valuable 
works on Beethoven (life, letters, 
contemporary judgments, etc.) and 
on Mozart, etc.; almost all trans- 

Nordica, Lillian, dram. sop. [real name 
Lillian Norton] . b . Farmington , Me . , 
May 12, 1859. Pupil of John O'Neill, 
and at N. E. Cons.; concert d6but 
Boston 1876; traveled in Europe 
as soloist with Gilmore's Band 1878; 
pupil of Sangiovanni in Milan; 

operatic de"but Brescia 1879; sang 
in Berlin, St. Petersburg and other 
cities; Paris Ope*ra 1881; after 
marriage to F. A. Gower and his 
disappearance in balloon, did not 
sing until 1887, in London, where 
she appeared regularly until 1893; 
at Metropolitan, N. Y., from 1893- 
1908, with some interruptions; 1894 
at Bayreuth; 1910 great success in 
Paris as Isolde; 2d husband Z. F. 
Doeme, 3d G. W. Young; voice of 
considerable power constantly devel- 
oped, so that she was able to under- 
take difficult Wagnerian parts; suc- 
cess in concerts. 

Nordraak (nor'-drak), Rikard, compr. 
b. Christiania, June 12, 1842; d. 
Berlin, Mar. 20, 1876. Pupil of 
Kiel and Kullak; collected and 
edited Norwegian folk-music; had 
great influence on Grieg; composed 
incidental music to Bjornson's plays, 
pf. mus., etc., with Scandinavian 

Norris, Homer Albert, compr. b. 
Wayne, Me., 1860. Pupil of Mars- 
'ton, Turner, Emery, and Chadwick 
at N. E. Cons, and of Guilmant, 
Dubois, Godard, and Gigout in 
Paris; orgt. at Lewiston and Port- 
land, Me., at Ruggles St. Bapt. Ch., 
Boston, and since 1904 at St. 
George's, New York; author of 
Practical Harmony on French Basis 
and Art of Counterpoint; very suc- 
cessful teacher of harmony, almost 
only American who has not fol- 
lowed the more voluminous Leipzig 
and Munich methods; compr. of 
about 50 songs, to words by Kipling 
and other modern poets, of cantata 
Nain and Flight of the Eagle, pas- 
sages from Walt Whitman for 
soprano, tenor, and baritone, on 
very modern and original theory of 

Noskowski (nos-koff-ski), Sigismund, 
compr. b. Warsaw, May 2, 1848; 
d. Aug., 1909. Pupil at Warsaw 
Inst.; invented music notation for 
blind; pupil of Kiel and Raif at 
Berlin; condr. at Constance; direc- 
tor of mus. soc. and prof, at Cons., 
Warsaw; composed symphonies, 
symphonic poem, variations, over- 
ture, quartet, ballet, operas, and pf. 
mus., national in character. 



Notker [called Balbulus], monk, compr., 
writer, b. Elgg or Jonswill, 830; d. 
St. Gall, April 6, 912. Chiefly distin- 
guished for development of sequences 
(some of his still extant) and for 4 
treatises, one on plain song, the 
others on theory and organs; some 
attribute these writings to N. Lab- 
beo, monk at St. Gall in the tenth 

Nottebohm (not'-te'-bom), Martin Gus- 
tav, writer, b. Liidenscheid, near 
Arnsberg, Westphalia, Nov. 12, 
1817; d. Graz, Oct. 29, 1882. 
Studied at Berlin with Berger and 
Dehn, at Leipzig with Schumann 
and Mendelssohn, at Vienna with 
Sechter; taught pf. and comp. at 
Vienna; edited Beethoven's sketch 
books and carefully investigated 
many details of his career; com- 
piled thematic lists of works of 
Beethoven and Schubert; coeditor of 
works of Beethoven, Mozart, Bach, 

Nourrit (nor-ri), dram, tenor, b. Paris, 
Mar. 3, 1802; d. Naples, Mar. 8, 
1839. Son of Louis N. (1780-1831), 
also tenor; pupil of Garcia; de"but 
Ope'ra 1821; father's successor as 
leading tenor there 1825; teacher 
at Cons. 1827-37; mortified by 
engagement of Duprez as associate 
artist, left Paris in depression and 
committed suicide; extraordinarily 
skilful as singer and actor and very 
popular; created Robert in Robert 
le Diable, Rdoul in Les Huguenots 
and many other parts. 

Novacek (no'-va-chek), Ottokar Eugen, 
vlt., compr. b. Fehertemplom, Hun- 
gary, May 13, 1866; d. New York, 

Feb. 3, 1900. Pupil of father, Dont, 
Schradieck, and Brodsky; Mendels- 
sohn prize at Leipzig Cons. 1885; 
member of Gewandhaus Orch., of 
Brodsky Quartet, of Bost. Symph. 
Orch. 1889-92, of Damrosch Orch., 
N. Y., 1892-93, of Metropolitan 
Opera orch., sometimes playing 
vln., sometimes viola; retired from 
playing because of illness 1899; 
composed 3 string quartets, pf. con- 
certo, caprices for pf. and vln., 
etc.; mus. distinguished by striking 
originality of idea and harmonic 

Novello, Vincent, publisher, b. London, 
Sept. 6, 1781; d. Nice, Oct. 9, 186). 
Chorister in Sardinian Chapel under 
Webbe; deputy orgt. to Webbe and 
Danby, orgt. at Portuguese em- 
bassy, and at Roman Catholic 
Chapel, Moorfields; pst. to Italian 
Opera; founder and occasional condr. 
Philharmonic Soc.; founder firm 
Novello, Ewer & Co., publishers, 
edited and published many valuable 
collections; firm carried on by his 
sons; daughter Mary married Charles 
Cowden Clarke, friend of Keats; 
daughter Clara Anastasia (b. Lon- 
don, June 10, 1818; d. Rome, 1908), 
very successful concert and oratorio 
singer in England and Germany; re- 
tired to Italy 1860. 

Novovieyski (no'-vo-vi-ey'-ski), Felix, 
compr. b. Wartenburg, 1875. Stud- 
ied at Stern Cons., Berlin, at Church 
Music School, Ratisbon, and at Meis- 
terschule, Berlin ; where he won 
Meyerbeer prize; has composed 2 
symphonies, an overture, and 2 


Oakeley, Sk Herbert Stanley, compr. 
b. Baling, Middlesex, July 20, 1830; 
d. Edinburgh, Oct. 26, 1903. Pupil 
of Elvey, Moscheles, etc., at Leipzig 
Cons., of Schneider in Dresden, of 
Breidenstein at Bonn ; 1865-91 

Erof. of mus. at Univ. of Edinburgh; 
older of many honorary degrees; 
remarkable org. player, compr. of 
songs, anthems, etc.; promoter of 
music in Edinburgh, especially of 
" Reid " concerts. 

Obrecht [also written Hobrecht, Ober- 

tus], compr. b. Utrecht, 1430; d. 
Ferrara, 1505; capellmeister 1465 at 
Utrecht (where he taught Erasmus); 
1483-85 director of school of singing 
at Cambrai, 1489-1500 at Bruges; 
made trip to court of Lorenzo the 
Magnificent at Florence, possibly 
for a time in service of Duke of 
Ferrara; 1492 master at Antwerp 
Cath., where he was highly honored; 
prolific compr. of chansons and 



masses, earliest compr. of passion 
music ; follower of Okeghem in school 
of extremely elaborate counterpoint. 

Ochs (oks), Siegfried, condr. b. Frank- 
fort-on-Main, Apr. 19, 1858. At first 
student of medicine; pupil at Berlin 
Hochschule of Kiel and Urban; 
benefited by friendship of Von Billow ; 
condr. of Philharmonischer Chor, 
which has grown into largest sing- 
ing society in Berlin, where many 
new works are brought out; teacher 
and contributor to periodicals; com- 
posed operas (In Namen des Gesetzes) , 
choruses, canons, etc. 

Ockenheim, see Okeghem. 

Odington, Walter of [or Walter of 
Evesham], writer, b. about 1250; 
d. about 1316. Benedictine monk; 
author of treatise De speculatione 
musicce on notation, instruments, 
and descant; later life apparently 
concerned with mathematics and 
astronomy; first to emphasize major 
triad as real consonance. 

Oesten (e'st'-en), Theodor, pst., compr. 
b. Berlin, Dec. 31, 1813; d. there, 
Mar. 16, 1870. Pupil of Politzki, 
Bohmer, Rungenhagen, Schneider, 
etc.; played other instruments; pop- 
ular as teacher and of great vogue 
as compr. of graceful and sentimental 
pieces (Les premieres violettes, etc.). 

Offenbach (of'-fen-bak), Jacques, 
compr. b. Cologne, June 21, 1819; 
d. Paris, Oct. 5, 1880. Name origin- 
ally Levy ; son of Jewish cantor; pupil 
of Vaslin in 'cello playing at Paris 
Cons.; member of Ope'ra Comique 
orch.; composed song parodies of 
La Fontaine; 1849 condr. at Theatre 
Francais and won recognition by 
composition of Chanson de Fortunio 
for Musset's Chandelier; produced 
several small pieces without much 
success; 1855-66 managed Bouffes- 
Parisiens Th. for himself, where he 
brought out many works; 1872-76 
manager of Th. de la GaltS; 1877 
trip to America; composed about 90 
operas in 25 years; established Pari- 
sian burlesque opera as type of light, 
gay spirit and pleasant melody, 
though music is often carelessly con- 
structed; most noted works are 
Orphee aux enfers, La belle Helene, La 
grande duchesse de Gerolstein, and 
Les contes d'Hoffmann. 

Okeghem (ok'-S-h6m), [also written 
Ockenheim, Okekem, etc.], Jean de, 
compr. b. Termonde, E. Flanders, 
about 1430; d. Tours, 1496 [Grove]. 
1443-44 chorister at Antwerp Cath. ; 
pupil of Dufay and possibly of 
Binchois; compr. to Charles VII 
at Paris; maitre de chapelle to Louis 
XI, traveling in Spain and Flanders; 
founder of later Netherland school, 
marked by greater freedom of 
thought and extreme ingenuity of 
counterpoint; as teacher O. had high 
reputation; through Josquin Depres 
and other pupils traditions of school 
widely spread. 

Olitzka, Rosa, dram. alto. b. Berlin, 
Sept. 6, 1873. Pupil of Artot and 
Hey; concert d6but Berlin, where 
father was cantor at Jewish syna- 
gogue; operatic d6but Brunn 1892, 
engaged there; at Hanover 1892-93, 
at London 'after 1893; in N. Y. 

Oliver, Henry Kemble, compr. b. 
Beverly, Mass., Nov. 24, 1800; d. 
Boston, Aug. 10, 1885. Boy singer 
in Park St. Ch., Boston; graduated 
Dartmouth Coll., 1818; after teach- 
ing in Salem, was adjutant general 
of Mass., supt. of cotton mill, mayor 
of Lawrence, and later of Salem; 
state treas.; orgt.; founder, director 
of clubs in Lawrence and Salem; 
composed many old familiar hymn 
tunes (Federal St., Hudson, etc.). 

Olsen, Ole, compr., condr. b. Hammer- 
fest, Norway, July 5, 1850. Studied 
at Trondhjem and at Leipzig; after 
graduating he located in Copen- 
hagen as teacher and condr.; his 
compositions include works for or- 
chestra, piano pieces and songs; they 
are delicate in style and show the 
influence of Norwegian folk music. 

Ondriczek (on'-dri-chek), Franz, vlt. 
b. Prague, Apr. 29, 1859. Pupil of 
father and member of his dance 
orch.; studied at Prague Cons, and 
at Paris Cons, with Massart; 1st 
prize 1879; after two years more in 
Paris, played in Berlin and Bohemia; 
since has played successfully in Con- 
tinental and American cities. 

Onslow, George, compr. b. Clermont- 
Ferrand, France, July 27, 1784; d. 
there, Oct. 3, 1852. Pupil on pf. of 



Hullmandel, Dussek, and Cramer, 
and in comp. of Reicha; member of 
Institute 1842; wrote 3 comic operas 
of moderate success, and great 
amount of chamber music, in which 
he took great, delight, playing 'cello 
in amateur quartet; of longest life 
have been string quintets, some with 
double-bass part, written for Drago- 

Orth (ort), John, pst., teacher, b. near 
Annweiler, Bavaria, Dec. 2, 1850. 
Came to Taunton, Mass., when in- 
fant; pupil of father, orgt. at 12, 
studied in Boston 16-20; studied in 
Germany for 5 years, pf. with Kul- 
lak, Lebert, Pruckner, Deppe, and 
Liszt, and comp. with Faisst, Kiel, 
etc.; since 1875 teaching in Boston; 
composed graceful pf. music. Mar- 
ried, 1883, pupil Lizette E. Blood, 
compr., under name L. E. Orth, of 
Sixty Songs from Mother Goose, 
Four-and-Twenty Songs for Sleepy- 
time, Mother Goose Songs without 
Words (70 piano pcs.), On the White 
Keys (an Introduction to the Piano), 
The Three Bears (operetta), three 
light operas, over 300 piano teach- 
ing pieces and various songs. 

Osborne, George Alexander, pst., 
teacher, b. Limerick, Ireland, Sept. 
24, 1806; d. London, Nov. 16, 1893. 
Self-taught until 18; in Brussels 
taught crown prince; in Paris after 
1826; pupil of Pixis and F6tis, later 
of Kalkbrenner; at same time inti- 
mate with Chopin, Berlioz, etc.; 
after 1843 taught in London; com- 
posed popular pf. music (La pluie 
des perles. etc.), duets for vln. and 
pf.; wrote on great contemporaries 
for Mus. Ass'n and periodicals. 

Osgood, George Laurie, compr. b. 
Chelsea, Mass., April 3, 1844. Grad- 
uated 1866 from Harvard, where he 
directed glee club and orch.; pupil 
in Germany of Sieber, Haupt, and 
Franz, and in Italy of Lamperti; 
concert tour in Germany and with 
Thomas in America; condr. of Boyls- 
ton Club; taught successfully in 
Boston 1872-1906; now living (1910) 
in Florence; published Guide in the 
Art of Singing. 

Otto, Ernst Julius, compr. b. Konig- 
stein, Saxony, Sept. 1, 1804; d. Dres- 
den, March 5, 1877. Pupil of Weinlig 

at Dresden, of Schicht at Leipzig, 
also studying at Univ.; taught at 
Blochmann Inst., Dresden, cantor 
and director at churches; condr. of 
Liedertafel; created cycles of songs 
for male voices (Gesellenfahrten, 
Soldatenleben, etc.), wrote many 
good songs, chiefly in collection 
Ernst und Scherz. 

Oudin (6-dan) , Eugfene Esperance, bari- 
tone, b. New York, Feb. 24, 1858; 
d. London, Nov. 4, 1894. Graduate 
at Yale, member of bar; chorister 
and director of church music in 
N. Y.; practised law, manufactured 
stained glass; returned to music 
after Chicago concert, 1886; member 
of McCaull Opera Company; suc- 
cessful in London in opera (created 
Templar in Sullivan's Ivanhoe) and 
in concerts; later sang in St. Peters- 
burg; married, 1886, Louise Parker, 
also singer. 

Oulibichef (ou-lib'-i-sheff), Alexander 
de, writer, b. Dresden, Apr. 2, 1794; 
d. Nijni Novgorod, Feb. 2, 1858. 
Son of ambassador, himself a diplo- 
matist; amateur vlt.; editor of St. 
Petersburg Journal 1812-30; wrote 
Nouvelle biographic de Mozart 1844, 
containing some new and valuable 
material; depreciation of Beethoven 
called forth Lenz's defense Beethoven 
et ses trois styles, to which O. replied 
with Beethoven, ses critiques et ses 
glossateurs, in which he maintains 
disapproval of extravagance of B's 
later works. 

Ouseley (ozley), Sir Frederick Arthur 
Gore, compr., theorist, b. London, 
Aug. 12, 1825; d. Hereford, Apr. 6, 
1889. Son of ambassador and 
Orientalist; graduated at Oxford, 
Mus. Doc. 1854; prof, of mus. at 
Oxford Univ. 1855; ordained priest 
1855 and appointed precentor at 
Hereford Cath.; vicar and warden 
of school at St. Michael's, Tenbury 
which he founded and endowed; 
excellent orgt. and theorist, author 
of treatises on Harmony, Fugue, etc.; 
English ed'r Naumann's History of 
Music; comp. oratorio, songs, a few 
glees, and many dignified church 
comp.; raised standard of music at 
Oxford ; edited collection of Cathedral 
Services and, with Monk, Anglican 
Psalter Chants. 



Pachelbel (pa-kel'-bel), Johann, orgt., 
compr. b. Nuremberg [baptized 
Sept. 1], 1653; d. there, Mar. 3, 1706. 
Studied with Schwemmer, and at 
Altdorf and Ratisbon; at Vienna 
pupil and deputy of J. K. Kerll; 
positions at Eisenach, Erfurt, Stutt- 
gart, Gotha, and Nuremberg; com- 
posed toccatas, chaconnes, and, 
especially, elaborate chorales; musi- 
cal ancestor of J. S. Bach; developed 
chorale playing. 

Pacher (pa'-ker), Joseph Adalbert, 
compr. b. Daubrawitz, Moravia, 
Mar. 29, 1816; d. Gmiinden, Sept. 3, 
1871. Studied with Preyer and 
Halm; taught in Vienna many years; 
published more than 60 " salon " 

Pachmann (pak'-man), Vladimir de, 
pst. b. Odessa, July 27, 1848. Pupil 
of father, amateur vlt., of Dachs at 
Vienna Cons.; after appearance in 
Russia 1869 worked by himself for 
eight years, and, after appearing in 
Germany, for two more; since then 
has won great praise in Europe and 
America; his many tricks of manner 
and eccentricities of behavior on the 
stage do not keep him from playing 
with exquisite taste and expres- 
siveness; Chopin is his specialty and 
he is probably the greatest of all 
Chopin players; technically remark- 
able for a touch as soft as velvet. 

PachulsM (pa-kul'-ske), Heinrich, pst. 
b. Lasa, Russia, Oct. 16, 1859. 
Studied with Strobl and Zelenski at 
Warsaw, with Taneiev, N. Rubin- 
stein, and Pabst at Moscow Cons.; 
teacher at Moscow after 1886; 
composed orch. suite, pf. sonata, 
studies, arrangements of Tchaikov- 
ski's works. 

Pacini (pa-che'-ne), Giovanni, compr. 
b. Catania, Feb. 17, 1796; d. Pescia, 
Dec. 6, 1867. Studied with Marchesi 
and Mattei at Bologna, with Fur- 
lanetto at Venice; 1813-1834 pro- 
duced about 40 operas; because of 
failure of last opened music school 
at Viareggio, afterward moved to 
Lucca; 1840-67 produced Saffo, his 

best opera, and about 40 more; com- 
posed many masses, cantatas, etc.; 
popular imitator of Rossini. 

Paderewski (pad-ref'-ski), Ignaz Jan, 
pst., compr. b. Kurilowka, Podolia, 
Poland, Nov. 18, 1860. Pupil of 
Roguszki at Warsaw Cons.; 1879-81 
teaching at Warsaw Cons.; pupil of 
Urban and Kiel at Berlin, and, after 
teaching at Strassburg, of Leschet- 
izky at Vienna; after 1887 a trium- 
phant virtuoso; victim of much 
extravagant and indiscriminate ad- 
miration, often justly criticized by 
musicians for forcing of tones, he 
yet remains preeminent for exquisite 
delicacy, even crescendos, and tre- 
mendous force and commanding 
power; compr. of various pf. pieces, 
sonata, Op. 21, pf. concerto, opera 
Manru (Dresden 1901, New York 
and Boston 1902), and symphony 
1909; opera Sakuntala not yet pro- 
duced; compositions, especially those 
in larger forms, are interesting enough 
to justify their vaulting ambition; 
established P. Fund, prizes for Ameri- 
can composers, 1900. 

Paer (pa'-er), Ferdinando, compr. b. 
Parma, June 1, 1771; d. Paris, May 
3, 1839. Pupil of vlt. Ghiretti; 
condr. at Venice 1791; 1797-1802 at 
Vienna, 1802-1807 at Dresden; after 
1807 at Paris as maftre de chapelle 
to Napoleon, condr. Ope"ra Comique, 
at Th. Italien 1812-27; member of 
Academy 1831; condr. royal cham- 
ber music 1832; composed about 
40 operas of conventional Italian 
smoothness, without depth (best is 
Camilla, prod, at Vienna, where P. 
may have been influenced by Mo- 
zart); unsuccessful rival of Rossini 
in Paris. 

Paesiello, see Paisiello. 

Paganini (pag-a-ne'-ne), Niccolb, vlt. 
b. Genoa, Oct. 27, 1782; d. Nice, 
May 27, 1840. Son of shopkeeper; 
pupil of Servetto and Costa; d6but 
1793; pupil of Rolla and Ghiretti; 
1797 tour in Lombardy; 1798 ran 
away from severe father and filled 
his time with concerts, gambling, 



and love affairs; 1801-04 did not 
appear in public, and to this period 
refer the false stories of his imprison- 
ment, of his charming of jailer by 
playing on one string and of his league 
with the devil; after year of prac- 
tise appeared, 1805, exciting great 
enthusiasm; 1805-08 court vlt. at 
Lucca; after 1808 traveled in Italy 
and other lands, Berlin 1829, Paris 
and London 1831; partial retire- 
ment after 1834; the nervous ec- 
centricities natural to him now in- 
creased by illness and dissipation 
and fostered by cheap fondness for 
display; but amazing technic sur- 
passed that of any other player; ex- 
tended compass of vln. and added 
to its brilliance by developing use 
of stopped harmonics; tone was pure 
but lacking in richness; composed 
caprices, sonatas, variations, etc., 
many of which are too difficult for any 
but players of first technical rank. 

Page, Nathaniel Clifford, compr. b. 
San Francisco, Oct. 26, 1866. Pupil 
of E. S. Kelley, resident of Boston 
1905-10; composed music to Cat and 
the Cherub (London, 1899), Moonlight 
Blossom (London, 1899), and Japan- 
ese Nightingale (New York, 1903); 
edited collection of Irish Songs, etc. 

Paine, John Knowles, compr., teacher. 
b. Portland, Me., Jan. 9, 1839; d. 
Cambridge, Mass., Apr. 25, 1906. 
Pupil of Kotzschmar at Portland, 
of Haupt, Teschner, and Wieprecht 
at Berlin Hochschule; organ concerts 
in Berlin and U. S. 1861; 1862 in- 
structor, 1873 asst. prof., 1875 prof, 
at Harvard Univ. (first to hold chair 
of music in American college); did 
much to raise music to level of other 
arts in education and, by recitals 
and lectures outside classes, to ex- 
tend knowledge of good music as 
part of general culture; among pupils 
were Foote, Converse, Clayton 
Johns, and many others; composed 
mass, symphony, music for CEdipus 
Tyrannus and Birds, Columbm 
March and Hymn for World's Fair, 
symphonic poem, cantatas, and opera 
Azara given in concert form only, 
Boston, Cecilia Soc., 1907; of wide 
influence in American musical life; 
his own music is moderately con- 
servative, seldom of striking origi- 

Paisiello (pai-si-el'-lo), Giovanni, compr. 
b. Taranto, Italy, May 9, 1741; d. 
Naples, June 3, 1816. Pupil of 
Presta and at Naples Cons, of Dur- 
ante, Cotumacci, and Abos; taught 
there 1754-59; composed successful 
operas 1763-1776; 1776-1784 at St. 
Petersburg, 1784-99 at Naples, maes- 
tro di cappella to Ferdinand IV, whose 
favor he lost during Revolution; 
1802-03 in Paris under Napoleon, 
1803 again at Naples; on a nominal 
salary only after 1815; compr. of 
over 100 operas, distinguished even 
at time for charm of melody; his 
Barbiere di Siviglia was so popular 
that it hindered vogue of Rossini's 
at first. 

Paladilhe (pa-la-de-ye'), Emile, compr. 
b. Montpellier, June 3, 1844. Pupil 
at Paris Cons, of Marmontel, 
Benoist, and Halevy; Grand prix de 
Rome 1860; by opera Le Passant 
1872 and song Mandolinata won 
recognition; after several unsuccess- 
ful operas wrote Patrie 1886, after 
Sardou's play, which has had great 
success; member Academy 1892. 

Palestrina (pal-es-tre'-na) , Giovanni 
Pierluigi da [Pierluigi family name], 
compr. b. Palestrina, near Rome, 
1526; d'. Rome, Feb. 2, 1594. Noth- 
ing known of early youth; orgt. 
capellmeister at Palestrina '1544-51 ; 
master of boys and capellmeister at 
St. Peter's, Rome, 1551-55; although 
not a priest, and having a wife and 
children, admitted to Papal chapel 
1555, but was dismissed in few months 
and later in same year made capellm. 
at St. John Lateran (for which church 
he wrote famous Improperia), at Sta. 
Maria Maggiore 1561; again at St. 
Peter's 1571. When the Council of 
Trent (1545-63) tried to establish 
standard in church music, P's Mass of 
Pope Marcelltis, previously published, 
was used to illustrate the reforms 
urged ; these reforms included greater 
regard for clearness and proper 
accent of Latin words, restriction of 
elaborated music phrases for same 
purpose, discarding of secular tunes 
(even indecent popular airs had been 
used as bases for masses) ; Sixtus V 's 
wish to make P. maestro of Sistine 
Chapel was frustrated by refusal of 
singers to serve under layman; asst 
of Pope Gregory XIII in revision of 



liturgy, but most actual work done 
by pupil Giudetti; of historical sig- 
nificance as most important figure in 
later Netherland school the individ- 
ual who more than any one else made 
counterpoint a means of expression 
instead of an end in itself P's music 
is also to those who deplore the 
operatic, emotional element in church 
music, the ideal of lofty and dignified 

Palloni (pal-lo'-nl), Gaetano, orgt., sing- 
ing teacher, b. Cammerino, Italy, 
Aug. 4, 1831. Studied with Cellini 
at,Fermo; orgt. there, 1854; pupil of 
Mabellini at Florence; teaching sing- 
ing there. 

Palmer, Horatio Richmond, teacher, 
b. Sherburne, N. Y., Apr. 26, 1834; 
d. Nov., 1907. Studied with father 
and in New York, Berlin, and Flor- 
ence; 1857 head of music dept. 
Rushford Acad.; in Chicago, edited 
Concordia; conducted various ass'ns, 
New Church Choral Union (mam- 
moth chorus); dean of Summer 
School of Music at Chautauqua, 
N. Y.; many collections, Song Queen, 
Song Herald, etc., useful in popular 

Palmer, Mrs. R., see Nevada, Emma. 

Panofka (pan-off'-ka), Heinrich, sing- 
ing teacher, b. Breslau, Oct. 3, 1807; 
d. Florence, Nov. 18, 1887. Pupil 
of Strauch and Forster in childhood, 
later of Mayseder and Hoffmann in 
Vienna; played there, in Munich, 
Berlin, finally, 1834, in Paris, where, 
after some lessons from Bordogni, 
founded unsuccessful school of sing- 
ing; asst. condr. in London, where 
he taught singing 1844-1852; 1852 
returned to Paris; after 1866 taught 
in Florence; vln. compositions are of 
less value than his methods of sing- 
ing and vocalises. 

Panormo, Vincenzo Trusiano, vln.- 
maker. b. Monreale, near Palermo, 
Nov. 30, 1734; d. London, 1813. 
Name may be derived from Palermo; 
worked in Cremona, perhaps with 
Bergonzi, and in Milan; in Paris 
1750-72, 1783-89, in London 1772- 
83; made many vlns. somewhat like 
Bergonzi's or Stradivari's, of rather 
large model, with rich tone; several 
sons also makers. 

Panseron (pon-se"-ron), Auguste Math- 
ieu, teacher, writer, b. Paris, Apr. 
26, 1796 [1795]; d. there, July 29, 
1859. Pupil of father and at Paris 
Cons, with Berton and Gossec; 
Grand prix de Rome 1813; accom- 
panist to Ope"ra Comique; teacher 
of solfeggio at Cons. 1826, vocalisa- 
tion 1831, and singing 1836-59; com- 
posed many charming songs, sol- 
feggi, Art of Singing, Art of Compo- 
sition, Mois de Marie; A B C of 
Music is a well-known work. 

Panzner, Carl, condr. b. Teplitz, 
Bohemia, Mar. 2, 1866. Pupil at 
Dresden Cons.; capellmeister at 
theatres in Sondershausen, Elber- 
feld, Bremen, Leipzig, and 1899 of 
Bremen Philharmonic. 

Papini (pa-pe'-nl), Guido (gue-do), 
vlt. b. Camagiore, near Florence, 
Aug. 1, 1847. Pupil of Giorgetti; 
de"but 1860; after tours in Europe, 
taught at Dublin Royal Acad. of 
Mus.; founded classical concerts 
there; then in London; wrote mus. 
for vln. and 'cello and vln. method. 

Papperitz, Benjamin Robert, orgt., 
compr., writer, b. Pirna, Dec. 4, 
1826; d. Leipzig, Sept. 29, 1903. 
Student and teacher of philology; 
pupil of Hauptmann, Ricnter, and 
Moscheles at Leipzig Cons., where 
he 'taught harm, and counterpoint 
after 1851 ; also orgt. in Leipzig 1868- 
99; published org. and vocal mus. 

Paradies (pa-ra-de'-es), [or Paradisi], 
Pietro Domenico, compr. b. Naples, 
1710; d. Venice, 1792. Pupil of 
Porpora; opera compr. in Italy and 
for some years after 1747 in London, 
where he was sought as pf . and sing- 
ing teacher of Mara, Thomas Linley, 
and others; composed also for harp- 

Parent (pa-ron), Charlotte Frances 
Hortense, pst. b. London, Mar. 22, 
1837. Pupil of Mme. Farrenc at 
Paris Cons.; 1st prizes, harmony 
1855, pf. 1857; founded school for 
pf. teachers, Paris; wrote method 
with exercises; edited Repertoire 
encyclopedique du pianiste. 

Parepa-Rosa, Euphrosyne, dram. sop. 
b. Edinburgh, May 7, 1836; d. Lon- 
don, Jan. 21, 1874. Daughter of 
Demetrius Parepa, Baron de Boyescu, 



and Elizabeth Seguin, singer and 
P's first teacher; de"but Malta at 
16; sang in Italy, Spain, London, 
1857; America 1865, '67, '71; married 
manager Carl Rosa 1867; Parepa 
Rosa Co. especially successful in 
America, in Eng. and Italian operas; 
as a singer P. was more successful 
in oratorio than in opera. 

Parish-Alvars, Ellas, harp player, b. 
Teignmouth, Eng., Feb. 28, 1810; 
d. Vienna, Jan. 25, 1849. Of Jewish 
descent; pupil of Dizi, Labarre, and 
Bochsa; tours on Continent and in 
England 1831-47, except for two 
years in Orient; 1847 chamber harp- 
ist to Emp. of Austria; composed 
concertos, fantasias, etc. for harp, 
seeking new effects and strange 
melodies (Voyage d'un harpiste en 
Orient contains Greek, Bulgarian, 
Turkish and other Eastern music). 

Parker, Henry, compr., writer, b. Lon- 
don, Aug. 4, 1845. After study with 
Plaidy, Moscheles, and Richter at 
Leipzig and with Lefort in Paris, 
returned to London, where he taught 
singing, composed, and conducted; 
has written an opera, Jerusalem, 
(chorus and bass solo), songs, etc., 
and The Voice: Production and Im- 

Parker, Horatio William, compr., 
teacher. b. Auburndale, Mass., 
Sept. 15, 1863. Pupil of his mother, 
of Emery, Orth, and Chad wick, 
and of Rheinberger and Abel in 
Munich; teacher at Cathedral 
Schools, Garden City, L. I., and at 
N. Y. Nat'l Cons, under DvoMk; 
orgt. in N. Y. and at Trinity Ch., 
Boston, 1893-1901; prof, music at 
Yale Univ. after 1894; compr. of 
symphony, overtures, church and 
chamber mus., pf. pieces, and songs, 
but chiefly of cantatas (Idylle, The 
Kobolds, Dream King and His Love, 
Holy Child) and oratorios Hora 
Novissima, N. Y., 1893, Boston, Cin- 
cinnati, and Worcester, Mass., festi- 
vals and at Three Choirs Festival, 
Worcester, Eng., 1899, as first Ameri- 
can composition, and Legend of St. 
Christopher, also given in England; 
music possesses a certain " ascetic " 
quality that makes it interesting to 
musicians; at his best reaches heights 
of dignified beauty. 

Parker, James Cutler Dunn, orgt., 
writer, b. Boston, June 2, 1828. 
Studied law in Boston and music in 
Leipzig; in Boston after 1854; 
organized Parker Club 1862, fore- 
runner of Cecilia Soc.; orgt. Trinity 
Ch. 1864-91, of Handel and Haydn 
Soc.; prof. Boston Univ. Coll. of 
Mus.: examiner N. E. Cons.; com- 
posed cantatas, ch. mus.; translated 
Richter's treatise on harmony. 

Parkina [pseud, of Elizabeth Parkin- 
son], sop. b. May, 1881. Pupil of 
Mrs. Layton pf Kansas City and 
Mme. Marchesi; de"but and engage- 
ment Ope>a Com., Paris, 1902; 
Covent Garden 1904, Australia 1905. 

Parmentier (par-man-ti-a), Mme., see 
Milanollo, Teresa. 

Parratt, Sir Walter, orgt. b. Hudders- 
field, Feb. 10, 1841. Pupil of father; 
appointment as orgt. at 11, and 
later ones at Wigan, Magdalen Coll., 
Oxford (and condr. of various socie- 
ties), and since 1882 at St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor; 1883 prof. Royal 
Coll. Mus.; Mus. D. Oxford 1894, 
succeeded Sir Hubert Parry as prof, 
mus. Oxford Univ. 1908; master of 
mus. and orgt. to Victoria and 
Edw. VII; composed anthems, etc., 
contributor to Grove's Diet.; ex- 
traordinary performer. (See Musical 
Times, 1902.) 

Parry, Sir Charles Hubert Hastings, 

compr., writer. b. Bournemouth, 
Eng., Feb. 27, 1848. Pupil of Elvey; 
while at Eton, took Mus. B. at 
Oxford, where later he studied with 
Bennett and Macfarren, with lessons 
outside from Dannreuther and Pier- 
son; compr. chiefly of choral music 
of original depth and sincerity 
(setting of Shelley's Prometheus 
1880, oratorio Job 1892, etc.); 
choragus 1883, and prof, of mus. 
1900-1908 Oxford Univ.; 1894 
director Royal Coll. Mus.; has 
written Studies of Great Composers, 
Evolution of The Art of Mus., 
Seventeenth Century in Oxford His- 
tory of Music; critical works through- 
out are distinguished by clear treat- 
ment that makes them intelligible 
even to lay readers; his music, on 
the other hand, seems to appeal 
more to trained ears; it is note- 
worthy for elaborate development of 



themes, conciseness of form, and, 
in choral works, for faithfulness of 
accentuation and great power of 

Parsons, Albert Ross, orgt. b. San- 
dusky, O., Sept. 16, 1847. Pupil of 
Ritter in N. Y., Moscheles, Reinecke, 
etc. at Leipzig Cons., of Tausig, 
Kullak, etc. at Berlin; orgt. in N. Y. 
since 1871; translator of Wagner's 
Beethoven, Lessmann's Liszt, edited 
Kullak's works of Chopin; composed 
songs, etc. 

Pasdeloup (pa-de"-lo), Jules Etienne, 
condr. b. Paris, Sept. 15, 1819; d. 
Fontainebleau, Aug. 13, 1887. Pupil 
at Cons, of Laurent and Zimmer- 
mann; re"pe"titeur there in solfeggio 
1841, teacher of pf. 1847-50, of 
ensemble singing 1855-^68; founded 
society of Cons, pupils 1851 for 
giving symphony concerts; 1861, 
with same orch., opened Concerts 
populaires, where he gave admirable 
concerts, including many new works, 
until 1884; unsuccessful manager of 
Th. Lyrique 1868-69; tried to revive 
concerts in vain 1886. 

Pasmore, Henry Bickford, orgt., teacher, 
b. Jackson, Wis., June 27, 1857. 
Studied voice, and organ with J. P. 
Mbrgan in Oakland, Cal., with 
Jadassohn, Reinecke, and Unger- 
Haupt in Leipzig, with Shakespeare 
and Cummings in London; orgt. in 
San Francisco, and prof, of singing 
at Univ. of Pacific; composed march, 
overture, masses, songs, etc. 

Pasquini (pas-que'-nl), Bernardo, orgt. 
b. Massa di Valdinevole, Tuscany, 
Dec. 8, 1637; d. Rome, Nov. 22, 
1710. Pupil of Vittori and Cesti and 
teacher of Durante and Gasparini; 
orgt. Sta. Maria Maggiore; chamber 
musician to Prince Borghese; com- 
posed 2 operas, oratorio, pieces for 

Pasta (pas'-ta), Giuditta [nee Negri], 
dram. sop. b. Saronno, near Milan, 
Apr. 9, 1798; d. villa on Lake Como, 
Apr. 1, 1865. Pupil of Asioli at 
Milan Cons.; d6but, 1815, followed 
by unsuccessful appearances in Italy, 
London, and Paris; after further 
study with Scappa, reappeared Ven- 
ice 1819, and, after 1822 in Paris and 
1824 in London, was very successful 
in both cities and again in Italy; 

after retiring in 1829, reappeared 
St. Petersburg 1840, and London 
1850, with no success; voice was 
strong but heavy and often not 
clear when she first began to sing, 
but unusually penetrating and ex- 

Patey, Janet Monach [nee Whytock], 
contralto, b. London, May 1, 1842; 
d. Sheffield, Feb. 28, 1894. Pupil of 
Wass, Mrs. Sims Reeves, and Pin- 
suti; member of Leslie's choir; on 
provincial tour married John P., 
bass, (1835-1901); succeeded to 
Mme. Sainton-Dolby's position as 
leading contralto at the chief Eng- 
lish concerts and festivals. 

Patti, Adelina Adela Juana Maria, 
soprano, b. Madrid, Feb. 10, 1843. 
Pupil of father Salvatore P., tenor, 
and her mother Caterina Chiesa, 
dram, sop., of half-brother E. Barili, 
and of Maurice Strakosch, husband 
of her sister Amalia, under whose 
direction she sang at concerts in 
N. Y. in early fifties, making operatic 
de"but there in 1859; de"but London 
1861, Paris 1862; 1861-84, '85, '87 at 
Covent Garden; voice of remark- 
able compass, flexibility and sweet- 
ness; especially good as Rosina in 
II Barbiere; as concert singer has 
also won praise, even on last of 
several farewell tours 1906; married 
Marquis de Caux 1868, Ernest 
Nicolini 1886, and Baron Cederstrom 
1899; lives at Craig Y Nos, in Wales. 

Pattison, John Nelson, pst. b. Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., Oct. 22, 1845. Pupil of 
Liszt, Thalberg, Henselt, Von Billow, 
Haupt; concert pst., on tours with 
Parepa-Rosa, Kellogg, etc.; com- 
posed Niagara, symph. for orch. 
and military band; many agreeable 
pf. pieces. 

Pauer (pow'-er), Ernst, pst., teacher, 
b. Vienna, Dec. 21, 1826; d. Jugen- 
heim, May 9, 1905. Pupil of Dirzka, 
Mozart's son, Wolfgang A. M., and 
Sechter, and of F. Lachner in 
Munich; director mus. societies at 
Mayence 1847-51; success of per- 
formances in London led him to 
settle there 1851; 1859-64 prof, at 
Royal Acad. Mus., and 1876 at Nat'l 
Training Sch., 1883 at Royal Coll. 
Mus. ; 1861 began series of historical 
recitals of pf. music in chronological 



order, and 1871 lectures on hist, of 
pf. mus.; these and his published 
collections, Alte Claviermusik, Old 
English Composers, etc., have won 
conspicuous praise; primer on 
Musical Forms, etc., and some com- 
positions; retired to Germany 1896. 
His son Max, pst. b. London, Oct. 
31, 1866. Pupil of father, of V. 
Lachner; prof. Cologne Cons. 1887. 
at Stuttgart Cons. 1897; successful 
concert player, compr. of pf. pieces, 
arranger of Mozart and Haydn 

Paul (powl), Oskar, writer, b. Frei- 
waldau, Apr. 8, 1836; d. Leipzig, 
Apr. 18, 1898. Student of theology 
at Leipzig Univ. and of music at 
Cons, with Hauptmann, Richter, 
and Plaidy; after living elsewhere, 
returned to Leipzig as lecturer 1866; 
translated Boethius, wrote Lehrbuch 
der Harmonik, and authoritative 
Geschichte des Claviers; founded 
Musikalisches Wochenblatt. 

Paumann (pow'-man), Conrad, orgt. 
b. Nuremberg, about 1410; d. 
Munich, Jan. 25, 1473. Blind from 
birth; adopted and educated by 
burgher Grundherr; orgt. Nurem- 
berg 1446, at Munich after 1467; 
wrote (1452) Fundamentum organ- 
isandi, with exercises, one of ear- 
liest attempts at purely instrumental 

Paur (powr), Emil, condr. b. Czerno- 
witz, Bukovina, Aug. 29, 1855. As 
father's pupil on vln. and pf., ap- 
peared at 8; studied at Vienna Cons, 
with Dessoff and Hellmesberger; vlt. 
in court orch. 1870; condr. at 
Kassel 1876, Konigsberg, Mannheim 
1880, Leipzig Stadt Th. 1891, Bost. 
Symph. Orch. 1893-98, of N. Y. 
Philharmonic 1898-1903; director 
Nat'l Cons. N. Y. 1899-1903; condr. 
of concerts, Berlin, Madrid, and 
London, of Pittsburg Symphony 
Orch. 1904-10; as condr. aims 
rather to bring out emotional con- 
tent of music than to make clear 
structural form. 

Payne, John Howard, dramatist, b. 
New York, June 9, 1792; d. Tunis, 
Apr. 10, 1852. While schoolboy 
and student at Union Coll., edited 
and published periodicals; d6but on 
stage, N. Y., 1809; lived in London 

and Paris 1809-1832, where he knew 
prominent men of the time; wrote 
words to Home, Sweet Home in text 
of Clari, or the Maid of Milan 
(music by H. R. Bishop, after Sici- 
lian air); returned to U. S. 1832; 
consul at Tunis after 1841. 

Peace, Albert Lister, orgt. b. Hudders- 
field, Eng., Jan. 26, 1844. Ex- 
traordinarily precocious; orgt. at 9; 
pupil of Horn and of Parratt; orgt. 
at church in Glasgow 1866, 1870 at 
Univ., 1879 at cathedral; 1875 Mus. 
Doc. Oxford; 1897 succeeded Best 
at St. George's Hall, Liverpool; 
compr. of cantata and org. mus.; 
edited Scottish Hymnal 1885. 

Pearce, Charles William, compr., writer. 
b. Salisbury, Dec. 5, 1856. Pupil of 
Aylward, Hoyte, E. J. Hopkins, etc.; 
Mus. Doc. Cambridge 1884; orgt. 
Salisbury and London; prof, of 
organ and comp. 1882 and dean 
1892 Trinity Coll., London; exam- 
iner Cambridge 1888-91; lectured 
on plain song, etc.; composed 
choral and church music, organ 
pieces, exercises in vocal training. 

Pearsall, Robert Lucas de, compr. b. 
Clifton, Mar. 14, 1795; d. Schloss 
Wartensee, Lake Constance, Aug. 5, 
1856. Practised law until 1825 
when, abroad for his health, studied 
music with Panny, and later with 
Ett at Munich; 1842 settled at 
Wartensee; composed madrigals and 
choral works (O who will o'er the 
downs so free?, Sir Patrick Spens, in 
10 parts, etc.); part editor of old 
Catholic song book, writer of essays 
(study on fifths and octaves, etc.). 

Pearson, H. H., see Pierson. 

Pease, Alfred Humphries, pst., compr. 
b. Cleveland, O., May 6, 1838; d. 
St. Louis, Mo., July 13, 1882. 
Pupil of Kullak, Von Billow, Wiierst, 
and Wieprecht at Berlin; after 3 
years' study in America, went on 
long pf. tours; composed concerto, 
Andante for orch., etc.; works per- 
formed by Thomas Orch. 

Pendleton, Mrs. W. F., 


Penfield, Smith Newell, orgt. b. Ober- 
lin, O., Apr. 4, 1837. Pupil of Flint 
in N. Y., of Moscheles, Hauptmann, 



etc. in Leipzig; founder of Mozart 
Club and Cons, at Savannah, Ga., 
of Arion Cons., Brooklyn; orgt. in 
N. Y. since 1882; composed string 
quintet, anthems, pf. mus., songs, 

Peppercorn, Gertrude, pst. b. West 
Horsley, Surrey, Dec. 1, 1878. Pupil 
at Royal Acad. of Matthay; gained 
several prizes; appeared in Edin- 
burgh about 1895; great success 
in London, Nov. 1907; in U. S. 

Pepusch (pa'-push), John Christopher, 
compr. b. Berlin , 1 667 ; d . London , July 
20, 1752. Pupil for one year of Kling- 
enberg and Grosse; early talents 
hampered by poverty; appoint- 
ment at Prussian court 1681-97; 
vlt., cembalist, compr. at Drury 
Lane Theatre, London, after 1700; 
with others founded Acad. of Antient 
Mus.; director of Lincoln's Inn 
Theatre, where he composed and 
arranged music for many plays (Beg- 
gar's Opera, etc.); orgt. at Charter- 
house; published treatises on har- 
mony and ancient music, on which 
he was authority. 

Perabo (par'-a-bo), Johann Ernst, pst. 
b. Wiesbaden, Nov. 14, 1845. Family 
moved to N. Y. 1852; studied at 
Hamburg with Andersen, and at 
Leipzig Cons, with Moscheles, 
Richter, etc.; after giving concerts 
in West, settled, 1866, in Boston, 
where he has since been known as 
performer and able teacher, compr. 
of pf. music and songs. 

Pergolesi (par-go-la'-zi), Giovanni Bat- 
tista, compr. b. Jesi, near Ancona, 
Jan. 3, 1710; d. Pozzuoli, near 
Naples, Mar. 16, 1736. Pupil at 
Naples of Greco, Durante, Feo, and 
Matteis (vln.) ; early operas not suc- 
cessful; composed 30 sonatas for 2 
vlns. and bass, and mass; produced 
La serva padrona 1732, only surviv- 
ing opera, for many years standard 
of amusing intermezzo, and during 
the contest of tastes in Paris, was 
regarded as typifying all character- 
istic traits of Italian music; at first 
production it was not more suc- 
cessful than other operas and P. 
retired in disappointment; Stabat 
Mater often sung, composed just 
before death. 

Peri (pa'-rl), Jacopo, compr. b. 
Florence, Aug. 20, 1561; d. there, 
about 1630. At house of Bardi, he, 
with others, in endeavor to reestab- 
lish declamation of Greek drama, 
discovered modern recitative; Cac- 
cini made earliest application of 
discovery, but Peri's Dafne, 1594, 
was first work really worthy of 
name of opera; (Cavalieri's Rap- 
presentazione di anima e di corpo 
was first performed in public); P's 
Euridice, 1600, was his greatest 
success, and apparently his final 
attempt in operatic form. 

Perkins, Henry Southwick, condr. b. 
Stockbridge, Vt., Mar. 20. 1833. 
Pupil in Boston of Baker, Wether- 
bee, etc.; pres. Iowa Normal Acad. 
Mus. 1867-71, prof. mus. Iowa 
State Univ. 1867-68; pres. of 
Kansas Normal Acad. 1870-74; 
founder Chicago Nat'l Coll. of Mus. 
1890; conducted many festivals, 
conventions, etc. ; edited song books. 

Perosi (pa-ro'-ze), Lorenzo, compr. b. 
Tortona, Italy, Dec. 23, 1872. 
Studied with Saladino, and at Milan 
Cons., and at Haberl's school for 
church music in Ratisbon; maestro 
di cappella at Imola, and 1897 at 
St. Mark's, Venice; chorus director 
at St. Peter's, Rome, since 1898 
priest; compr. of trilogy of ora- 
torios La passione di Cristo, per- 
formed 1897 with sensational suc- 
cess; honorary maestro Papal Choir 
1898; has composed 15 masses, org. 
mus., and other oratorios (La trans- 
figurazione, Mose); especially popu- 
lar in Italy, but even there later 
works arouse less enthusiasm. 

Perry, Edward Baxter, pst. b. Haver- 
hill, Mass., Feb. 14, 1855. Blind 
from youth; pupil of J. W. Hill, 
and in Germany of Kullak, Mme. 
Schumann, Pruckner, and Liszt; 
gave some 1200 concerts in 10 years; 
originated the lecture recital; author 
of Descriptive Analyses of Piano 
Works, etc., helpful if sometimes 
over-sentimental interpretations; has 
done much to increase appreciation 
of good music. 

Persiani (par-si-a'-ne), Fanny, dram, 
sop. b. Rome, Oct. 4, 1812; d. 
Passy, May 3, 1867. Pupil of father, 
Niccolo Tacchinardi; married, 1830, 


compr. Giuseppe P. (1804-1869); 
de"but Leghorn 1832; engaged at 
various Italian cities; after de"but 
in Paris, 1837, and London, 1838, won 
great success in both capitals, until 
1848; sang in 1858 but with less 
success; voice was thin, liable to 
sharpness, but managed with per- 
fect finish; Donizetti wrote Lucia 
for her. 

Pessard (pes'-sar'), Emile Louis For- 
tune, compr. b.Montmartre, May 28, 
1843. Studied at Paris Cons, with 
Bazin, Laurent, Carafa, etc.; Grand 
prix de Rome 1866; inspector of 
singing in Paris schools, director of 
music at establishment of Legion of 
Honor, prof, of harm, at Cons, since 
1881; composed several operas 
(Capitaine Fracasse, La dame de 
trefle, etc.) and pf. pieces of value. 

Petersilea (pa-ter-sll'-ea), Carlyle, pst., 
teacher, b. Boston, Mass., Jan. 18, 
1844; d. Tropico, Cal., June 11, 
1908. Studied with father, with 
Moscheles, Hauptmann, etc. at 
Leipzig Cons.; played in Germany; 
founded P. Acad. of Mus., Boston, 
1871; pf. teacher N. E. Cons. 1886; 
went to California 1892; published 
technical exercises, method, etc. 

Petrucci (pe-trut'-che), Ottaviano dei, 

printer, b. Fossombrone, June 18, 
1466; d. there, May 7, 1539. Estab- 
lished at Venice 1491; 1498 received 
sole privilege for 20 years of print- 
ing music; 1513 at Fossombrone, 
similar privilege within Papal States 
for 15 years; used two impressions, 
printing first lines and then the 
notes; his works beautiful examples 
of earliest typography, many of 
them extant in great libraries, 
chiefly masses and motets. 

Petschnikoff (petch'-ni-kof), Alexan- 
der, vlt. b. Jeletz. Russia, Feb. 8, 
1873. Pupil of Hrimaly; precocious 
talent at Moscow Cons, gained dis- 
tinguished patronage for him; tours 
in Germany 1875-^76, to America, 
London, etc.; skilful player, but 
with some mannerisms. 

Pfeiffer (fa-far), Georges Jean, pst. 
b. Versailles, Dec. 12, 1835; d. Feb. 
14, 1908. Pupil of mother (who 
was a pupil of Kalkbrenner), of 
Maleden and Damcke; success in 


Paris and London playing own con- 
certos; also composed symph., 
symph. poem, songs, and several 
operas (Le legataire universel, 1901, 
much the best); also partner in pf. 
firm of Pleyel, Wolff & Co., as was 
his father. 

Pfeil (pfll), Heinrich, editor, b. Leip- 
zig, Dec. 18, 1835; d. there, April 17, 
1899. Self-taught; at first book- 
seller; edited Sangerhalle 1862-87, 
Dorfanzeiger 1891-96; composed 
male choruses, wrote small treatises 
on hist, of mus. etc. 

Pfitzner, Hans Erich, compr. b. Mos- 
cow, May 5, 1869. Pupil of father, 
condr. at Frankfort, and of Kwast and 
Knorr, at Hoch Cons, there; taught 
Coblenz Cons. 1892-93; condr. of 
Mayence Th. 1894-95; 3d capell- 
meister Mannheim 1895-96; teacher 
at Stern Cons. 1897, dir. Stuttgart 
Cons. 1907; condr. at Berlin Th.; 
operas Der arme Heinrich, 1895, and 
Die Rose vom Liebesgarten, 1901, 
very successful, have given him 
distinctive position among younger 
extreme German comprs.; with 
modern skill, he preserves a romantic 

Phelps, Ellsworth C., orgt. b. Middle- 
town, Conn., Aug. 11, 1827. Self- 
taught; orgt. and teacher New 
London 1846, Syracuse, New York, 
and Brooklyn since 1857; over 30 
years teacher in public schools; 
composed sacred opera David, 
symph. Hiawatha, pieces for mili- 
tary band, etc. 

Philidor [properly Danican], Frangois 
Andre, compr. b. Dreux, Sept. 7, 
1726; d. London, Aug. 31, 1795. 
Of musical family, several members 
of which played wind instr. in 
royal band (name P. was given to 
great uncle by Louis XIII); pupil 
of Campra; at first distinguished as 
chess player at Aix and in London 
1749, and author of book on chess; 
1754 recalled to Paris; 1759-1796 
produced about 25 operas (Le mare- 
chal, Tom Jones, Ernelinde, etc.); 
extremely popular but no longer 
played; P. was first to introduce 
unaccompanied quartet, and first 
to be called forward after presenta- 
tion of opera. 



Philipp (fil-ip), Isidor Edmund, pst., 
teacher, b. Budapest, Sept. 2, 1863. 
Pupil at Paris Cons, of Mathias (1st 
pf. prize 1883) and later of Heller, 
Saint-Saens, and Ritter; played in 
London 1890, has appeared regu- 
larly at Paris concerts; established 
chamber concerts 1890, concerts of 
wind instruments 1896-1901; prof, 
at Cons, since 1893; published pf. 
mus., effective arrangements and 
valuable studies based on Chopin, 
Beethoven and Bach. 

Phillips, Adelaide, dram. alto. b. 
Stratford-on-Avon, Eng., 1833; d. 
Carlsbad, Oct. 3, 1882. Family 
came to Boston 1840; pupil of her 
mother as dancer, appeared 1842; 
by subscription, started by Jenny 
Lind, studied with Garcia and in 
Italy; d6but Milan 1854; sang 
Boston 1854, N. Y. 1856 (Am. 
operatic d6but), 1861 Havana, Paris, 
Spain, etc.; member Boston Ideal 
Co. from 1879; last stage appear- 
ance 1881. 

Piatti (pe-at'-te), Carlo Alfredo, 'cellist, 
b. Bergamo, Jan. 8, 1822; d. Cro- 
cetta di Nozzo, near Bergamo, July 
19. 1901. Son of vlt. Antonio P. 
(1801-1878); pupil of great-uncle 
Zanetti, and at Milan Cons.; de*but 
1837 with own concerto; played in 
th. orch. and on roving tours, on one 
of which he played with Liszt; 1844 
went to Paris and London, where, 
1849, he became 'cellist at Italian op. 
and at Popular Concerts; retired 
1898; master of 'cello as Joachim 
of vln.; very many pupils; compr., 
especially of 6 sonatas for 'cello. 

Piccini [Piccinni], (pit-che'-ne), Nicolo, 
compr. b. Bari, Jan. 16, 1728; d. 
Passy, near Paris, May 7, 1800. 
Pupil at Naples Cons, of Leo and 
Durante; early operas successful 
despite vogue of Logroscino's; La 
cecchina, 1760, most popular; 1762 
wrote 6 operas in one year; dis- 
couraged by preference of public for 
work of Anfossi's, P., after illness, 
produced / viaggiatori at Naples; 
1776, on invitation, removed to 
Paris and produced Roland, 1778; 
supporters of Italian opera used P., 
against his wish, as leader in 
pamphlet war against Gluck and his 
reforms (dramatic declamation and 

more consistent, elaborate orches- 
tration); also forced into rivalry 
with Sacchini; principal teacher in 
mus. school; at Revolution returned 
to Naples, where he spent four years 
under arrest for political reasons, 
and, though later feted and pen- 
sioned in Paris, lived in great 

Piccolomini, see Pontet, Henry. 

Pierne (pi-ar'-na), Henri Constant 
Gabriel, compr. b. Metz, Aug. 16, 
1863. Studied at Paris Cons, with 
Marmontel, Ce'sar Franck, and Mas- 
senet; Grand prix de Rome 1882; fol- 
lowed Franck as orgt. of Ste. Clo- 
thilde 1890-98; composed several 
operas (Tabarin, etc.), and music for 
plays, symph. poem with chorus 
L'An mil, cantata Croisade des 
enfants widely produced, numerous 
songs and pf. pieces; influences of 
Franck and Massenet contend in his 

Pierson [originally Pearson], Henry 
Hugo, compr. b. Oxford, Apr. 12, 
1815; d. Leipzig, Jan. 28, 1873. 
Pupil of Attwood and Corfe, and of 
Rinck, Tomaschek, and Reissiger; 
prof, at Edinburgh Univ. 1844; lived 
after 1845 in Vienna, Hamburg, 
and Leipzig; composed several 
operas, oratorios (music to Faust), 
songs and part-songs (The Mariners 
of England, etc.). 

Pinsuti (pin-su'-ti), Giro, teacher, compr. 
b. Sinalunga, Florence, May 9, 1829; 
d. Florence, Mar. 10, 1888. Member 
of Roman Accademia Filarmonica 
at 11; taken to England, became 
pupil of Potter and Blagrove; 1845- 
47 pupil of Rossini at Bologna; after 
1848 taught in London, at Royal 
Acad. after 1856; Grisi, Patti and 
Mario among pupils; brought out 
several operas in Italy, received 
many honors there; also composed 
Engh'sh and Italian songs. 

Pirani (pl-ra'-nl), Eugenio, pst., compr. 
b. Bologna, Sept. 8, 1852. Studied 
at Bologna with Golinelli, at Berlin 
with Kiel and Kullak, at whose 
Acad. he taught 187^80; after ex- 
tended tours, lived in Heidelberg 
and Berlin after 1895; correspondent 
for musical papers; composed symph. 
poem, ballet, concert studies, etc. 


Pistocchi (pis-tok'-ki), Francesco An- 
tonio Mamiliano, teacher, compr. b. 
Palermo, 1659; d. Bologna, May 
13, 1726. Chorister at Bologna; 
precocious compr. (first work pub- 
lished at 8); pupil of Perti, Vas- 
tamigli, and Monari; operatic singer 
after 1675; capellmeister in Ansbach 
1696; soon after return to Bologna 
1700, founded first systematic school 
of singing; composed operas, ora- 
torios, Scherzi musicali (songs), 
duets, etc. 

Pitoni (pl-to'-nl) , Giuseppe Ottavio, com- 
pr. b.Rieti, Mar. 18, 1657; d. Rome, 
Feb. 1, 1743. Chorister at Rome 
and pupil of Foggia; maestro di cap- 
pella at Terra di Rotondo, at Assisi, 
at Rieti, and at Collegio di S. Marco, 
Rome, and at same time in several 
churches, finally 1719 at St. Peter's; 
taught Durante, Leo, and Feo; 
composed masses on popular airs, 
very many services (enough for one 
year at St. Peter's), and many 
motets, not published until after 
his death. 

Pitt, Percy, compr. b. London, Jan. 4, 
1870. Educated in France, studied 
music in Leipzig 1886-88, with Rein- 
ecke and Jadassohn, and in Munich 
1888-91 with Rheinberger; chorus- 
master Motet Concerts in London 
1895, orgt. at Queen's Hall 1896, 
adviser and occasional condr. Covent 
Garden 1902; excellent program 
analyses; composed incidental mus. 
to Paolo and Francesca, Flodden 
Field, and Richard II, overture, 
suites, an oriental rhapsody, coro- 
nation march, songs for voice and 

Pizzi (pit'-ze), Emilio, compr. b. Feb. 
2, 1862. Pupil of Ponchielli and 
Bazzini at Milan Cons.; took prizes 
at Milan and Bologna for operas, 
at Florence for quartets; director 
music school at Bergamo and maes- 
tro di cappella 1897; composed operas 
especially for Patti, Gabriella (Bos- 
ton, 1893) and Rosalba. 

Plaidy (pla'-dl), Louis, pf. teacher, b. 
Wermsdorf, Saxony, Nov. 28, 1810; 
d. Grimma, Mar. 3, 1874. Pupil 
of Agthe on pf. and Haase on 
vln.; member of Leipzig Orch.; 
studied pf. technic; 1843 invited 


by Mendelssohn to teach at Cons.; 
private lessons after 1865; very 
remarkable gift for teaching technic 
benefited many pupils; his Tech- 
nische Studien is still standard; also 
published Der Klavierlehrer (the pf. 
teacher's guide). 

Plangon (plon-son), Pol Henri, dram, 
bass. b. Fumay, Ardennes, June 12, 
1854. Pupil of Duprez and later of 
Sbriglia; de"but Lyons 1879; Grand 
Op^rn, Paris, 1883-93; London for 
13 seasons; favorite there and in 
N. Y. 

Planquette (plon-kef), Jean Robert, 
compr. b. Paris, July 31, 1848; d. 
there, Jan. 28, 1903. Pupil of Du- 
prato at Cons.; composed songs and 
saynetes for cafes-concerts; first oper- 
etta 1874, and thereafter consider- 
able success as opera compr., es- 
pecially with Les cloches de Corne- 
ville, 1877, very popular in England 
and America as The Chimes of Nor- 
mandy; also composed Surcouf, The 
Old Guard, Paul Jones, etc. 

Plante (plon-ta), Francis, pst. b. 
Orthez, Basses-Pvre'n^es, Mar. 2, 
1839; d. Pfrigueux, July, 1898. 
Pupil at Paris Cons, of Marmontel, 
1st prize 1849; pst. in trios with 
Alard and Franchomme; pupil at 
Cons, again, 1853, under Bazin for 
comp.; after ten years' retirement, 
in which he developed his style, 
reappeared, 1872, as most finished 
pst.; published only transcriptions. 

Playford, John, publisher, b. London, 
1623; d. there, about Nov., 1686. 
Wrote Introduction to the Skill of 
Musick, a few songs; published nearly 
all English music 1648-85, among 
others Hilton's Ayres, Campion's 
Art of Descant, The whole booke 
of Psalms, etc. Son and successor 
Henry, b. May 5, 1657; d. about 
1710. Published music of Purcell 
and Blow; apparently retired about 
1706 or '07. 

Pleyel (pli'-el), Ignaz Joseph, compr. 
b. Ruppertsthal, near Vienna, June 1, 
1757; d. near Paris, Nov. 14, 1831. 
Pupil of Wanhal and for five years 
of Haydn; then in Rome and Vienna; 
capellmeister at Strassburg min- 
ster, position which he lost for politi- 
cal reasons; condr. of Professional 


Concerts in London 1791-92; went 
to Paris 1795, where, in 1797, he 
established pf. factory, still flourish- 
ing as firm of P. Wolff et Cie.; pro- 
lific instrumental compr. of some 29 
symph., septet, sextet, five books of 
quintets, 45 quartets, concertos, 
sonatas, etc. 

Podbertsky (pod-bert'-ski), Theodor, 
compr. b. Munich, Nov. 16, 1846. 
Director of Munich Mannergesang- 
verein and the Neuen Bavaria; liv- 
ing in Fiirstenfeldbriick since 1887; 
composed popular part-songs, Am 
Chiemsee, Friedrich Rotbart, Meeres- 
stille und gliickliche Fahrt. 

Pohl (pol), Carl Ferdinand, writer. 
b. Darmstadt, Sept. 6, 1819; d. 
Vienna, Apr. 28, 1887. Gave up 
position as orgt. because of ill health; 
in London 1863-66 in research which 
is foundation of Mozart and Haydn 
in London; 1866 librarian and archiv- 
ist to Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 
in Vienna; began life of Haydn, of 
which one vol. (in 2 parts) was pub- 
lished; to be completed by Mandy- 

Pohlig, Karl, condr., compr. b. Tep- 
litz, Feb. 10, 1864. Pupil of Liszt 
at Pesth and Rome; capellm. at 
Graz, Hamburg, London (Covent 
Garden), Koburg, and Stuttgart 1900 
-07; went to Philadelphia 1907 to 
become dir. of the Philadelphia 
Symph. Orch. ; has written works for 
orchestra, songs and choruses. 

Pole, William, writer, b. Birmingham, 
Apr. 22, 1814; d. London, Dec. 3, 
1900. Prof, of civil engineering at 
Univ. Coll., London, 1859-76; orgt. 
in London; Mus. Doc. Oxford 1864; 
examiner for Lond. Univ. 1876-90; 
composed some mus.; chiefly known 
for analyses, critical essays, The 
Story of Mozart's Requiem, and sug- 
gestive Philosophy of Music, con- 
tributor to Grove's Dictionary. 

Polko, Elise [nee Vogel], writer, b. 
Wackerbarthsruhe, near Dresden, 
Jan. 13, 1822; d. Munich, May 15, 
1899. After studying with Garcia 
appeared at Frankfort as mezzo 
soprano; after marriage appeared in 
concert only; lived in various Ger- 
man cities; author of many novels 


in which appear characters of musi- 
cal hist. ; best known are sentimental 
Musikalische Marchen. 

Pollini (pol-le'-nl), Francesco Giuseppe, 
pst. b. Laibach, 1763; d. Milan, Sept. 
17, 1846. Pupil of Mozart and Zinga- 
'relli; prof, of pf. at Milan Cons.; dis- 
tinguished performer; probably origi- 
nator of writing pf. mus. on 3 staves 
in his 32 exercizi in forma di toccata, 
in which he was followed by Liszt 
and Thalberg; composed toccatas, 
sonatas, variations, etc., pf. method, 
Stabat Mater, etc. 

Ponchielli (pon-ki-el'-le), Amilcare, 
compr. b. Paderno Fasolare, Cre- 
mona, Aug. 31, 1834; d. Milan, Jan. 
16, 1886. After study at Milan 
Cons., was orgt. and bandmaster; 
1856 produced opera / promessi 
sposi, most successful in revised 
version, 1872; after that continued 
success with 9 others; maestro of 
Piacenza Cath. 1881; most success- 
ful opera Gioconda (Milan 1876, 
London, N. Y., and Boston 1883); 
ranked next to Verdi by Italians. 

Popper, David, 'cettist. b. Prague, 
Dec. 9, 1843. Pupil of Goltermann 
at Prague Cons.; after successful 
tours in Germany, 1868-73, became 
soloist at Vienna Opera; married 
pst. Sophie Menter, 1872 (divorced 
1886); for a number of years he 
held no official position, for various 
lengths of time being in London, 
Paris, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Berlin, 
etc.; since 1896 prof, in Budapest 
Cons.; recognized all over Europe 
as among finest 'cellists; has written 
for 'cello (popular Sarabande and 
Gavotte, suites, concertos), string 
quartets, and monumental Violon- 
cello School. 

Porges (por'-g6s), Heinrich, writer. 
b. Prague, Nov. 25, 1837; d. Munich, 
Nov. 17, 1900. Pupil of C. Muller, 
Rummel, and Zwonaf; editor with 
Brendel of Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik 1863; 1867 called to Munich 
by Ludwig II, editor of Suddeutsche 
Presse, teacher at Royal Sch. and 
Royal Music director after 1871; 
organized P. Gesangverein 1886; 
intimate with Cornelius and Wag- 
ner, and the latter's champion in 
many pamphlets and articles. 



Porpora (por-por'-a), Nicolb Antonio, 
compr. b. Naples, Aug. 19, 1686; 
d. there, Feb., 1766. Pupil of Gae- 
tano of Perugia and Mancini at 
Cons, di San Loreto; maestro di cap. 
to Portuguese ambassador; early 
opera, Berenice, praised by Handel; 
opened singing school about 1712, 
where he had many very famous 
pupils (Farinelli, Senesino, Tosi, 
etc.); about 1721 virtuoso to Prince 
of Hesse-Darmstadt; 1725 teacher 
at Venice, and while there tried un- 
successfully for favor at Vienna; at 
Dresden, 1728, singing master to 
princess and maestro at opera, in 
which position he was bitter rival 
of Hasse, who (1724) had deserted 
P. for lessons from A. Scarlatti; 1729 
-1736 intermittently in London, 
where he directed opposition to 
Handel without great success; then 
lived in Venice, Vienna (where he 
taught Haydn), again at Dresden 
(where Hasse began to gain ground 
against him); returning to Naples 
about 1755, became maestro at the 
cathedral and at Cons, di San Ono- 
frio; died in poverty; operatic music 
of conventional florid style; clavi- 
chord music (fugues, etc.) of some 
originality; greatest as teacher of 

Porter, Frank Addison, teacher, b. 
Dixmont, Me., Sept. 3, 1859. Pupil 
at N. E. Cons. 1879-84 of Turner, 
Emery, Chadwick, etc., at Leipzig of 
Hofmann, Freitag, etc.; prof, of pf. 
at N. E. Cons, since 1884; supt. of 
normal course there since 1892; pub- 
lished System of finger technic, noc- 
turnes, mazurka, etc. 

Portugal [or Portogallo] da Fonseca, 
Marcos Antonio, compr. b. Lisbon, 
Mar. 24, 1762; d. Rio de Janeiro, 
Feb. 7, 1830. Pupil of Borselli, an 
opera singer, and Orao, maestro at 
cath.; accompanist Madrid opera 
1782; after study in Italy, produced 
successful operas (II Molinaro, L'As- 
tuto, 1790); court condr. at Lisbon; 
then in Italy producing operas in 
various cities to 1799 (Fernando net 
Messico, masterpiece according to 
F6tis); 1800 at Lisbon, 1810 followed 
royal family to Brazil, continued posi- 
tion there; some success in Germany 
and England, but most of his 40 op- 
eras were popular in Italy and Spain. 

Potter, Philip Cipriani Hambly, pst., 
compr. b. London, Oct. 2, 1792; 
d. there, Sept. 26, 1871. Studied 
with father, Attwood, Callcott, 
Woelfl, etc. ; d6but as pst. and compr. 
1816; studied comp. with A. Forster 
at Vienna, where Beethoven gave 
him advice; prof, of pf. at Royal 
Acad. Mus. 1822; principal there 
1832, resigned 1859; composed sona- 
tas, concertos, two books of praise- 
worthy studies; distinguished condr. 
of Madrigal Soc. and admirable 

Pougin (po-zhan), Arthur [real name 
Frangois Auguste Arthur Paroisse- 
Pougin], writer. b. Chateauroux, 
Aug. 6, 1834. Son of actor; pupil 
of Alard and Reber at Paris Cons.; 
th. vlt.; condr. at several theatres; 
member Ope"ra Comique orch. 1860- 
63; since then critic for several 
papers (Mnestrel, of which he became 
chief editor after 1885, Le Theatre, 
etc.); author of musical articles in 
Larousse's Diet, universel, author of 
supplement to Ftis's dictionary, 
etc., and, beside many articles, of 
biographies of Bellini, Auber, R,a- 
meau, Verdi, etc. 

Powell, Maud, vlt. b. Peru, 111., Aug. 
22, 1868. Mother an amateur 
compr.; pupil of Wm. Lewis in 
Chicago, of Schradieck in Leipzig, 
of Dancla in Paris, and, after play- 
ing in London, of Joachim in Berlin; 
d6but there and in New York 1885; 
leader Maud Powell String Quartet 
1894; very distinguished and skilful 
player. Married H. Godfrey Turner, 

Pradher [rightly Pradfcre], (pra-dar), 
Louis Barthelemy, pst., compr. b. 
Paris, Dec. 18, 1781; d. Gray, 
Haute-Saone, Oct., 1834. Pupil of 
Gobert and Berton at Cons., where 
he became pf. prof. 1802; among 
pupils Herz, Dubois, etc.; retired 
1827; published operas and much 
pf. mus. (sonatas, rondos, fantasias, 

Prager (prag'-er), Ferdinand Christian 
Wilhelin, teacher, b. Leipzig, Jan. 
22, 1815; d. London, Sept. 1, 1891. 
Son of vlt. Heinrich Aloys P. (1783- 
1854); pupil of Hummel and Pape; 
teacher in The Hague and London 



after 1834; English correspondent for 
Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift, sup- 
porter of Wagner, influential in 
calling W. to London 1855; compr. 
of symph. poems, pf. mus. (Crepus- 
cule, etc.), author of Wagner as I 
knew him. 

Pratorius, Michael, compr., writer. 
b. Kreuzberg, Thuringia, Feb. 15, 
1571; d. Wolfenbuttel, Feb. 15, 
1621. Capellmeister at Liineburg, 
orgt. and capellm. to Duke of Bruns- 
wick, prior of Monastery of Ringel- 
heim; prolific compr. of 15 volumes 
of Polyhymnia, 16 of Musae Sioniae, 
etc.; chiefly distinguished as author 
of Syntagma musicum, 1615-20, 
treatise, partly in Latin, partly in 
German, on ecclesiastical music, on 
all known instruments (with very 
valuable woodcuts) and styles of 

Pratt, Silas Gamaliel, compr. b. Addi- 
son, Vt., Aug. 4, 1846. Pupil of 
Bendel, Kullak, Wiierst, and Kiel, 
and on later trip, 1875, of Dorn 
and Liszt; organized Chicago Apollo 
Club 1871; gave symphony con- 
certs, concerts of own works, his 
opera Zenobia 1882; pf. prof, at 
N. Y. Metropolitan Cons. 1890; 
removed to Pittsburg 1907; com- 
posed 2 operas, 2 symphonies, can- 
tata, suites, part-songs, etc., ar- 
ranged spectacle The War in Song. 

Pratt, Waldo Selden, writer, teacher, b. 
Philadelphia, Nov. 10, 1857. Grad- 
uated at Williams College 1878; 
Johns Hopkins Univ. 1878-80; Mus. 
D. Syracuse Univ. 1895; asst. dir. 
Metropol. Museum, N. Y., 1880-82, 
registrar Hartford Theol. Seminary 
1888-95; teacher of elocution Trinity 
Coll. 1891-1905; lecturer on mus. 
hist, at Smith Coll. since 1895, at 
Mt. Holyoke 1896-99, at Inst. Mus. 
Art, N. Y., 1905; orgt. and condr. 
of choral soc. in Hartford; prof. mus. 
and hymnology at Hartford Theol. 
Seminary since 1882; Mus. Ed. 
Century Dictionary, etc.; author of 
Mus. Ministries in the Church, 1901, 
and valuable text-book Hist, of 
Mus. 1907. 

Prentice, Thomas Ridley, pst. b. 
Paslow Hall, Ongar, Essex, July 6, 
1842; d. Hampstead, July 15, 1895. 

Pupil of W. and G. A. Macfarren 
at Royal Acad.; taught there: gave 
Monthly Popular Concerts at Brixton 
1869-74; orgt. 1872; pf. prof. Guild- 
hall Sch. 1880, at Blackheath Cons. 
1881; organized twopenny concerts 
for working classes; most valuable 
work The Musician, notes on pf. 
instruction books; composed can- 
tata, anthems, pf. mus., etc. 

Prescott, Oliveria Louisa, compr., writer, 
b. London, Sept. 3, 1842. Pupil at 
Royal Acad. Mus. and of Lindsay 
Sloper, Macfarren, etc.; successful 
teacher of harmony; author of clear, 
useful text-book, Musical form, 
compr. of 2 symph., overtures, pf. 
concerto, etc., psalms, cantata Lord 
Ullin's Daughter, songs, etc. 

Prevost (pra-vo), Eugene Prosper, com- 
pr., condr. b. Paris, Aug. 23, 1809; 
d. New Orleans, Aug. 30, 1872. Pupil 
at Paris Cons, of Seuriot, Jelen- 
sperger, and Lesueur; Grand prix de 
Rome 1831; produced several suc- 
cessful operettas; condr. at Havre, 
at New Orleans 1838-1862, then at 
Bouffes Parisiens and the Champs 
Elyse'es; later compositions unsuc- 
cessful; returned to New Orleans 

Preyer, Carl A., compr., teacher, b. 
Pforzheim, Germany, July 28, 1863. 
Began musical instruction under a 
local teacher at the age of 9, contin- 
uing at Stuttgart, at Vienna under 
Navratil, and in Berlin under Urban 
and Barth; began his professional 
career in 1884; after coming to the 
United States he became successive- 
ly professor of music in Baker Uni- 
versity, Baldwin, Kas., 1889-91, 
and at University of Kansas, Law- 
rence, 1893, with which institution 
he is still connected (1910). His 
compositions number about fifty 
mainly for piano and voice; among 
his works for piano are a number of 
fine technical studies which have 
been well received by teachers; Mus. 
Doc. Baker University 1909. 

Proch (pr6k), Heinrich, compr. b. 
Bohmisch-Leipa, July 22, 1809; 
d. Vienna, Dec. 18, 1878. Studied 
vln. and law; capellmeister in 
Vienna at theatre, at court opera 
1840-70, of comic opera 1874; many 



famous pupils (Tie tj ens, Materna, 
etc.) ; compr. of very popular lieder 
(Von der Alpe tout das Horn, etc.). 

Prout, Ebenezer, compr., theorist, b. 
Oundle, Northamptonshire, Mar. 1, 
1835; d. London, Dec. 5, 1909. Pf. 
pupil of Salaman, otherwise self- 
taught; orgt. in several places; prof, 
of pf. Crystal Palace Sch. of Art 
1861-85; prof, of harmony and 
comp. at Nat'l Training School 
1876, at Royal Acad. 1879, at Guild- 
hall Sch. 1884; prof. mus. at Dublin 
Univ. 1894; editor Monthly Mus. 
Record 1871-74, critic for Academy 
and Athenceum; editor of some of 
Handel's oratorios, with additional 
accomp. ; most distinguished as writer 
of primer on Instrumentation, and of 
series Harmony, Counterpoint, Double 
Counterpoint, Fugue, Mus. Form, 
Applied Forms, and The Orchestra. 

Pruckner, Dionys, pst. b. Munich, 
May 12, 1834; d. Heidelberg, Dec. 
1, 1896. Pupil of Niest and of 
Liszt; settled in Vienna 1855; prof. 
Stuttgart Cons. 1859, to reputation 
of which he largely contributed; 
court pst. 1864; excellent teacher. 

Prudent (prii-don), Emile, pst. b. 
AngoulSme, April 3, 1817; d. Paris, 
May 13, 1863. Adopted by piano 
tuner in childhood; pupil at Paris 
Cons, of Le Couppey, Zimmermann, 
and Laurent; first performance at 
concert with Thalberg, whom he 
closely imitated and nearly equaled; 
successful tours in Germany and 
England, admired as teacher and 
performer in Paris; compr. of tran- 
scriptions and salon music, brilliant 
but now out of fashion. 

Puccini (poo-che'-ne), Giacomo, compr. 
b. Lucca, June 22, 1858. Great- 
great-grandfather, grandfather, and 
father all compr. of church music, 
great-grandfather notable theorist; 
student at Milan Cons., on pension 
from queen, under Ponchielli; first 
opera, Le Villi, successful 1884; 
revised the next year; second, Edgar, 
1889, failure; better success with 
Manon Lescaut 1893; first triumph 
with La BoMme 1896; Tosca 1900, 
continued success, and Madam But- 
terfly, though hissed at first per- 
formance, Milan, 1904, has since been 
successful, not only in Italy but 

almost everywhere else, London 
1905, New York and Boston, English 
version. P. is one of most popular of 
contemporary composers; he differs 
from Mascagni and other Italians 
in seeking for more than mere sensa- 
tion, and from followers of Wagner 
in not endeavoring to establish any 
abstract truth; his orchestration 
shows brilliant technic and vari- 
ety; his melody, typically Italian in 
its fluency and somewhat obvious 
emotionalism, is modern in its psy- 
chological truth, so far as is possible 
with his librettos, which have often 
been disconnected melodramatic 
scenes rather than artistic creations. 

Pudor (poo'-dor), Heinrich, writer, b. 
Dresden about 1860. Son of Johann 
Friedrich P. (1835-1887), proprietor 
of Dresden Cons. 1859-87; suc- 
ceeded father at Cons, until 1890, 
when he sold out to E. Krantz; 
prolific writer, at first extravagant, 
but more restrained in later works; 
wrote Die alien und die neuen Wege 
in der Mus., etc. 

Pugnani (poon-ya'-nl), Gaetano, vlt. 
b. Turin, Nov. 27, 1731; d. there, 
June 15, 1798. Pupil of Somis and 
Tartini; leader court orchestra Turin 
1752; long tours after 1754 to Paris 
and London, where he conducted 
opera orch. and produced opera; 
1770 at Turin established vln. school; 
among pupils Viotti, Polledro, etc.; 
composed 9 concertos (only 1 pub- 
lished), chamber music. 

Pugno (pu-no), Stephane Raoul, pst. 
b. Montrouge, Seine, France, June 
23, 1852. Pupil at Niedermeyer Sch. 
and Paris Cons., winning 3 first 
prizes, pf. 1866, harmony '67, organ 
'69; orgt. in Paris since 1896; prof, 
of harmony 1892-96, and of piano 
1896-1901 at Cons.; since about 
1893 has been distinguished as per- 
former, especially of classical music; 
successful concerts with Ysaye in 
Paris, London, and U. S.; playing 
notable for smooth tone, intense 
expression, combined with force; 
compr. of oratorio, ballets, etc. 

Purcell, Henry, compr. b. West- 
minster, London, 1658; d. there, 
Nov. 21, 1695. Called " the young- 
er"; father, also Henry P. (d. Aug. 


11, 1664), gentleman of Chapel Royal 
after Restoration, master of chor- 
isters, Westminster Abbey, member 
of King's band; after early death of 
father, Henry was chorister at 
Chapel Royal under Cooke and 
Pelham Humfrey, who is said to 
have shown him the French style 
of music; early a compr.; pupil in 
composition of Blow; copyist at 
Abbey 1676-78, 1688-90, orgt. there 
1680 (unsupported tradition gives 
Blow credit for resigning in pupil's 
favor); orgt. at Chapel Royal 1682; 
composed anthems and songs from 
early age, " lessons " for harpsi- 
chord; sonatas, fantasias, etc. for sev- 
eral instruments; incidental music 
for plays (the so-called " operas " 
are mostly detachable songs); of 
these the most notable are Dido and 
jEneas (probably 1688-90), Dio- 
desian 1690, Dryden's King Arthur 
1691. Reckoned as greatest English 
compr.; there have been frequent 
editions of his works, but no accu- 
rate ones until foundation of Purcell 
Society 1878, 16 volumes published 
up to 1908. Chief characteristics 
of music are " fondness for austere 
melody, relieved by strongly marked 
rhythm, delight in moving basses 
and skill in handling ground bass, 
love of 'false relations,' beside 
general technical ingenuity com- 
bined with direct passionate expres- 
sion." [Grove.]; unfortunate for 
English music that he had no im- 
mediate successors. (Biography by 
W. H. Cummings.) 


Pyne, John Kendrick, orgt. b. London, 
Aug. 21, 1810; d. there, Mar. 2 (4?), 
1893. Son of James Kendrick, 
tenor (1785-1857); pupil of Crotch 
at Royal Acad.; orgt. at Bath 
Abbey from 1839. Son James Ken- 
drick, orgt. b. Bath, Feb. 5, 1852. 
Pupil of father and S. S. Wesley; 
orgt. at Bath, etc., finally at Man- 
chester Cath. 1876; prof, at Manches- 
ter Royal Coll. Mus. 1893; in Phila- 
delphia 1875; compr. of services, 
etc.; well-known recital orgt. 

Pyne, Louisa Fanny, dram. sop. b. 
England, Aug. 27, 1832; d. London, 
Mar. 20, 1904. Pupil of Smart, 
appeared with sister at early age; 
d^but on stage, Boulogne, 1849; 
sang in London 1849-54, U. S. 
1854-56, again in England estab- 
lished, with Wm. Harrison, H.-P. 
Opera Co., giving English operas; 
after marriage to F. Bodda, baritone, 
in 1868, retired from stage; devoted 
td teaching. 

Pythagoras, mathematician, b. Samos, 
Greece, about 582 B. C.; d. Meta- 
pontum, about 500. Though he 
wrote no books, his disciples, Euclid, 
Ptolemy, etc. preserved his doc- 
trines which he is thought to have 
gained in the Egyptian esoteric 
schools where he spent several years; 
in music he counted only the oc- 
tave and the fifth as consonances 
(fourth being fifth below); third 
and sixths consequently dissonant 

Quantz, Johann Joachim, flute player, 
b. Oberscheden, Hanover, Jan. 30, 
1697; d. Potsdam, July 12, 1773. 
Played double-bass at 8; at 10, as 
apprentice to uncle, town musician 
at Merseburg, studied clavichord 
with Kiesewetter, and learned other 
instruments; member of town orch. 
at Dresden; studied counterpoint 
with Zelenka and Fux at Vienna; 
1718 oboist in royal orch. at Dresden, 
later played flute there, after study- 
ing with Buffardin; and resumed 
position after trip to Italy, Paris, 
and London; teacher of Frederick 

the Great, when crown prince, and 
after his accession 1740, chamber 
musician and compr.; invented 
second key and sliding top for flute; 
wrote method and composed about 
300 concertos and 200 sonatas and 
other pieces. 

Quinault (ke-no'), Jean Baptiste Mau- 
rice, singer, actor, d. Gien, 1744. At 
Th. Francaise 1712-18, tragedian 
there until 1733; wrote more than 
20 interludes, ballets, etc. (a 4-act 
ballet Les amours des deesses, 1728, 
had considerable success in Paris). 



Rachmaninoff (rak-man'-e'-nof), Sergei 
Vassilievitch, pst., compr. b. Nov- 
gorod, Russia, Apr. 2, 1873. Studied 
at St. Petersburg and Moscow Cons., 
pf. with Siloti and theory with 
Arensky; gold medal 1891; after con- 
cert tour in Russia, and appearance 
at London Philharmonic, 1899, ap- 
pointed pf. prof, at Maryinsky Inst. 
forgirls, Moscow 1893; American tour 
1909-10; has composed opera Aleko, 
Fantasia, Bohemian Caprice, etc. 
for orch., pf. concerto, two sympho- 
nies, Elegiac trio, some songs, and pf. 
music (Variations, Musical moments, 
Preludes, etc.), which contains novel 
and varied harmonic effects, well 
worth the effort of overcoming the 
considerable technical difficulty. 

Radecke (ra'-d6-k6), Albert Martin 
Robert, compr. b. Dittmannsdorf, 
Oct. 31, 1830. Studied at Leipzig 
Cons.; 1st vln. in Gewandhaus orch.; 
condr. Singakademie, director City 
Th.; after giving concerts in Berlin, 
mus. director of court theatre there 
1863-87, court capellmeister 1871, 
director of Stern Cone. 1883-88, of 
Royal Inst. for Church Mus. 1892; 
compr. orch. works, especially ex- 
cellent pf. trios and songs. 

Raff (raf), Joseph Joachim, compr. b. 
Lachen, Lake of Zurich, May 27, 
1822; d. Frankfort-on-Main, June 
25, 1882. Son of orgt., educated at 
Wiirttemberg and in Schuryz; be- 
came school-teacher, continuing 
alone study of comp., pf. and vln.; 
on Mendelssohn's recommendation 
some pf. pieces were published 1843; 
devoted himself to composition; 
until 1850 in Cologne, Wiesenstetten, 
and Stuttgart, though encouraged 
by Liszt and Von Billow, many 
chances of success failed; 1850 in 
Weimar, where he wrote articles for 
Neue Zeitschrift and where Liszt 
produced opera Konig Alfred; after 
1856 in Wiesbaden, in demand as 
teacher; symphony An das Voter- 
land won prize Vienna 1863; director 
of Hoch Cons, at Frankfort 1877; 
much work done to earn living; of 
the rest, though symphonies, etc. 

are frequently of some melodic 
charm and are worked up with 
great care, the inherent weakness 
of his ideas has caused them already 
to disappear from programs. 

Raif (rif), Oskar, pf. teacher. b. 
Zwolle, Holland, July 31, 1847; d. 
Berlin, July 29, 1899. Studied with 
father, Carl R., and Tausig; prof, 
of pf. at Royal High School, Berlin, 
after 1875; a specialist in technic 
known as the " dumb thumb " sys- 
tem; composed pf. concerto, sonata, 

Raimondi (ra-mon'-di), Pietro, compr. 
b. Rome, Dec. 20, 1786; d. there, Oct. 
30, 1853. Pupil of La Barbara and 
Tritto at Naples; lived as teacher 
and successful opera compr. in 
Genoa; a director of th. at Naples 
1824-33; prof, of counterpoint at 
Naples Royal Cons. 1825-32, at 
Palermo Cons. 1832-52; maestro di 
cappella, St. Peter's, Rome, 1852-53; 
composed fugues, requiems, masses, 
oratorios, 3 of which were produced 
simultaneously in Rome, 1852, as a 
feat of contrapuntal skill. 

Ramann (ra'-man), Lina, writer, b. 
Mainstockheim, 'June 24, 1833. 
Pupil of Frau Brendel at Leipzig; 
founded normal mus. sem'y Gliick- 
stadt, 1858, and with Ida Volk- 
mann school at Nuremberg, 1865; 
wrote Grundriss der Technik des Kla- 
vier spiels, historical essays, and, most 
notably, biography of Liszt, 1880-93, 
still standard; edited L's works. 

Rameau (ra-mo), Jean Philippe, theor- 
ist, compr. b. Dijon, Sept. 25, 1683; 
d. Paris, Sept. 12, 1764. Of musical 
family and precocious ability; studied 
at Jesuit Coll., Dijon; 1701 sent to 
Italy, but did not care for prevailing 
styles; played vln. in traveling opera 
company and was orgt. in several 
places, finally at Lille, since his teacher 
Marc hand in jealousy kept him from 
Paris; after four years obtained posi- 
tion in Paris and published, 1726, 
Nouveau systeme de musique theo- 
rique; after writing songs, etc. for 
plays, composed opera Samson, which 



was rejected; Hippolyte et Aricie, 
1733, not very successful, but with 
Les Indes galantes, 1735, and Castor 
et Pollux, 1737, he was launched on 
career of success. In opera marked 
advance over Lully in dramatic 
sincerity and larger conceptions; he 
gives richer and more expressive 
orchestral backgrounds, with special 
part for each instrument, and more 
frequent solos for wood-wind; not 
happy in composing for voice and 
hampered by theory that any libretto 
would do; in mus. theory, he first re- 
duced study of chords to a systematic 
basis and established satisfactorily 
the science of " equal temperament "; 
his is preeminently the " reflecting, 
calculating genius of a philosopher." 

Randegger (ran-dezh-er), Alberto, sing- 
ing teacher, b. Trieste, Apr. 13, 1832. 
Studied with Lafont and Ricci; 
theatre condr. at several Italian 
cities; prod. 2 operas; in London 
since 1854; singing teacher at Royal 
Acad. since 1868 and at Royal Coll.; 
conducted Italian opera 1857, Carl 
Rosa Co. 1879-85, Norwich Festival 
1881-1905; composed dram, cantata 
Fridolin, 2 soprano scenes, Medea, 
Saffo, psalms, etc.; author of valu- 
able Primer of Singing. 

Randolph, Harold, pst. b. Richmond, 
Va., Oct. 31, 1861. Father a lawyer 
and writer; both parents good ama- 
teur musicians; began to study music 
at about eight years of age, and re- 
ceived bulk of musical education at 
the Peabody Conservatory, Balti- 
more; began professional career at 
sixteen, and filled various positions as 
organist and choirmaster up to 1906, 
when he retired from church work; 
director of Peabody Conservatory 
since 1898; has appeared as pianist 
with most of the principal American 
orchestras and chamber music organ- 
izations; first pianist entirely Ameri- 
can-taught to achieve wide public 
recognition; reorganized the Con- 
servatory and greatly enlarged its 

Rappoldi (rap-p61'-de), Edouard, vlt. 
b. Vienna, Feb. 21, 1839; d. Dresden, 
May 16, 1903. Pupil in Vienna 
Cons, of Jansa, Bohm, and Sechter; 
vlt. in court orch.; leader at Rot- 
terdam; condr. at Liibeck, Prague, 

etc.; teacher at Berlin Hochschule 
1871-77; leader of opera orch. and 
head teacher vln. at Dresden Cons. 
1877-98, where he retired. Wife, 
Laura, nee Kahrer, pst. b. Mistel- 
bach, near Vienna, Jan. 14, 1853. 
Pupil at Vienna Cons, and with Liszt. 

Rauchenecker (row'-ken-ek-er), Georg 
Wilhelm, condr., compr. b. Munich, 
Mar. 8, 1844; d. Elberfeld, July 17, 
1906. Pupil of Th. Lachner, Baum- 
gartner, and Walter; vlt. at Lyons; 
director at Avignon Cons., at Win- 
terthur; condr. Berlin Philharmonic 
1884, and mus. dir. Elberfeld after 
1889; composed 3 operas and success- 
ful string quartets. 

Ravel (ra-vel'), Maurice, compr. b. 
Ciboure, Basses-Pyre'ne'es, Mar. 7, 
1875. Pupil at Paris Cons., pf. with 
De Be*riot, harmony with Pessard, 
1892-95, comp. with G. Faure", 1897- 
1900; as applicant for Prix de Rome, 
1905, is said to have been victim of 
favoritism; has composed Shehera- 
zade overture, The Toys' Christmas 
for orch., quartet which has been 
widely played; his music is of " radi- 
cal harmonic structure, ingenious 
detail, and pervasive imagination." 

Ravenscroft, Thomas, compr. b. Lon- 
don, 1593; d. London, 1635. Choris- 
ter at St. Paul's under Pearce; Mus. 
B. Cambridge 1607; his Pammelia, 
1609, first collection of part-songs, 
rounds, etc. printed in England; 
issued other collections, Deutero- 
melia, Melismata, Discourse (on nota- 
tion), and Whole Booke of Psalms 
" by sundry authors." 

Ravina (ra-vi-na), Jean Henri, pst., 
compr. b. Bordeaux, May 20, 1818; 
d. Paris, Sept. 30, 1906. Entered at 
Paris Cons., studied with Zimmer- 
mann, Laurent, Reicha, and Leborne; 
1st pf. prize 1834, 1st harmony 1836; 
teacher 1835-37; long concert tours, 
composed salon music Douce pensee; 
Calinerie, Etudes de style et de per- 

Reading, John, compr. Three of this 
name: 1. Vicar at Lincoln Cath., 
master of choristers 1670; orgt. 
Winchester Cath. 1675-81, at W. 
Coll. 1681-92, when he died. 2. 
Orgt. at Chichester Cath. 1674-1720. 
3. b. 1677; d. Sept. 2, 1764. Orgt,, 
master of choristers, Lincoln, and 



orgt. after 1707 at several London 
churches; one of these is supposed 
to be compr. of tune Adeste fideles. 

Reay, Samuel, teacher, b. Hexham, 
Eng., Mar. 17, 1822; d. Newark, 
July 22, 1905. Chorister at Durham ; 
pupil of Henshaw and Stimpson; 
orgt. in several places; song school- 
master of Newark Parish Ch. after 
1899; condr. Newark Philharmonic 
Soc.; compr. of anthems and services, 
editor of Songs and ballads of North- 
ern England. 

Reber (ra-bar), Napoleon Henri, compr. 
b. Miihlhausen, Alsace, Oct. 21, 
1807; d. Paris, Nov. 24, 1880. 
Studied with Reicha and Lesueur 
at Paris Cons., where he was prof, 
of harmony after 1851, of comp. 
1862; inspector of branch cons. 1871; 
member of Academy 1853; composed 
chamber mus., ballet, operas (Le 
pere Gaillard, 1852), noteworthy 
orchestral works (4 symphonies, 
suite, scenes lyriques Roland); wrote 
useful Traite d'harmonie. 

Rebicek (ra'-W-chgk), Josef, vU. b. 
Prague, Feb. 7, 1844; d. Berlin, 
Mar. 24, 1904. Pupil at Prague 
Cons.; vlt. in Weimar court orch.; 
leader at theatres Wiesbaden and 
Prague; director Warsaw, condr. 
Pesth, Wiesbaden; capellmeister 
Berlin Philharmonic 1897-1903; 
composed symph. in D minor. 

Rebikoff (ra-bl'-kof), Vladimir Ivano- 
vitch, compr. b. Krasnoyarsk, Si- 
beria, June 1, 1866. Studied at 
Moscow Cons., at Berlin with 
Miihler, and at Vienna; lived in 
Odessa, in Kishineff, where he 
founded branch Mus. Soc., then in 
Moscow; early compositions simple 
and pleasing; later ones, chiefly for 
pf. (Melomimiques, Esclavage et 
liberte, etc.), are experiments in un- 
conventional forms and unusual 
consonances, imitations, etc. 

Redhead, Richard, orgt. b. Harrow, 
Eng., Mar. 1, 1820; d. Hellingley, 
Sussex, Apr. 27, 1901. Chorister at 
Magdalen Coll., Oxford, where he 
was pupil of Vicary; orgt. in London 
1839-1901; composed services, an- 
thems, etc., for Anglican Church, 
and compiled collections of hymns, 
chants, etc. 

Reeves, John Sims, tenor, b. Wool- 
wich, Sept. 26, 1818; d. Worthing, 
Oct. 25, 1900. Early played org., 
vln., 'cello, oboe, and bassoon; pupil 
of Cramer, Callcott, Hobbs, and 
Cooke; d6but as baritone Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, 1839, sang tenor in London 
1842; after further study with Bor- 
dogni and Mazzucato, appeared 
Milan 1846 as leading tenor; very 
popular in England, especially, in 
both opera and oratorio; " Ids 
operatic career was more or less 
overshadowed by the great place he 
made for himself in oratorio," at 
Handel Festival, 1857, in Eli and 
Naaman (written for him) and 
many new works; farewell concert 
1891, but reappeared under pres- 
sure of need in 1893, and 1896; 
published reminiscences My Jubilee. 

Reger (ra-ger), Max, compr. b. Brand, 
Bavaria, Mar. 19, 1873. Pupil of 
Lindner and H. Riemann at Sonders- 
hausen and Wiesbaden, where Reger 
taught, 1895-96; after military ser- 
vice and severe illness finally settled 
in Munich 1901; prof, of harmony 
and counterpoint at Royal. Acad. and 
condr. of Porgesscher Gesangverein, 
Leipzig, 1908; compr. of great origi- 
nality and contrapuntal skill; ex- 
treme in disregard of established 
limitations of form and key; he has 
composed songs, variations, sonatas 
(some for vln. alone), org. works, 
and Sinfonietta and Serenade for orch. 

Rehberg (ra-berg), Willy, pst. b. 
Merges, Switzerland, Sept. 2, 1862. 
Pupu of father, Friedrich R., of 
Hegar, Weber, and Freund at Zurich, 
and at Leipzig Cons., where he later 
taught; condr. concerts of court 
orch. and Singakademie at Alten- 
berg 1888-90; teacher of pf. at 
Geneva Cons.; after 1890 capell- 
meister of Geneva orch.; composed 
sonata, gavotte, etc., for pf. 

Rehfeld (ra'-felt), Fabian, vtt., compr. 
b. Tuchel, W. Prussia, Jan. 23, 1842. 
Studied with Zimmermann and 
Griinwald; Royal chamber musician, 
Berlin, 1868; concertmaster court 
orchestra 1873, professor 1903; 
compr. for vln. 

Reicha (ri'-ka), Anton, theorist, compr. 
b. Prague, Feb. 27, 1770; d. Paris, 
May 28, 1836. Pupil of uncle 


Joseph R. [or Rejcha], compr. and 
vlt.; flute player Bonn orch., where 
Beethoven played viola; pf. teacher 
Hamburg 1794-99; lived in Vienna 
1801-08, intimate with Beethoven 
and circle; lived in Paris after 1808; 

B -educed operas, taught (Elwart, 
ancla, etc. among pupils); prof, 
counterpoint and fugue at Cons. 
1818; member Academy 1835; com- 
posed chamber music (some for 
horns, etc.) and wrote theoretical 
works, clear and successful, but now 
out of date. 

Reichardt (rlk'-ardt), Johann Friedrich, 
compr. b. Konigsberg, Nov. 25, 1752; 
d. Giebichenstein, near Halle, June 
27,1814. Pupil of C. G. Richter and 
Veichtner; student of philosophy at 
Leipzig; capellmeister to Frederick 
the Great 1775; founded Concerts 
spirituels, for which he wrote pro- 
grams; journeys to London and 
Paris 1786; dismissed by F. Wilhelm 
II, 1794; inspector of salt works at 
Giebichenstein; capellmeister to 
Jerome Napoleon; his numerous 
Singspiele affected German opera 
by establishing national character; 
as song compr. he marks transition 
between earlier comprs. and Schu- 
bert; also wrote passion music, 
anthems, etc.; instrumental works 
of no great importance. 

Reichmann (rik'-man), Theodor, dram, 
baritone, b. Rostock, Mar. 15, 1849; 
d. Marbach, Lake of Constance, 
May 22, 1903. Studied in Berlin, 
Prague and with Lamperti in Milan; 
sang at Magdeburg 1869, Berlin, 
Cologne, Munich, etc.; at Vienna 
Court Opera 1882-99; created Am- 
fortas in Parsifal, Bayreuth, 1882; 
N. Y. 1889-91; after 1893 again in 

Reimann (ri'-man), Heinrich, orgt. 
b. Rengersdorf, Mar. 14, 1850; d. 
Charlottenburg, May 24, 1906. Pupil 
of father at Glatz Gymnasium, Bres- 
lau Univ.; resigned positions as 
teacher and school director; con- 
ducted choral societies; critic and 
writer; asst. librarian Roval Library, 
Berlin, orgt. to Berlin Philharmonic 
until 1875; teacher of org. and theory 
at Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons, 
until 1894; orgt. at Kaiser Wilhelm 
Memorial Church 1895; critic for 


Allgemeine Musik Zeitung, compr. 
of org. mus., author of biog. of 
Schumann, etc. 

Reinagle (ri'-nagle), Alexander Robert, 
orgt., compr. b. Brighton, Aug. 21, 
1799; d. Kidlington, near Oxford, 
Apr. 6, 1877. Of musical family; 
teacher, orgt. at Oxford; wrote 
instruction books for vln. and 'cello; 
composed hymn tune St. Peter. 

Reinecke (ri'-nek-6), Carl Heinrich 
Carsten, pst., compr., condr. b. 
Altona, June 23, 1824; d. March 10, 
1910, at Leipzig. Pf. pupil of father; 
after 1843 made tours in Scandinavia 
and Germany; friend of Mendels- 
sohn and Schumann at Leipzig; pst. 
to Christian VIII; after some 
years in Paris, taught at Cologne 
Cons. 1851; was director Barmen 
1854-59; dir. and condr. Singaka- 
demie, Breslau, 1859-60; condr. 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 1860-95; also 
prof, of pf. and comp. at Leipzig 
Cons. 1860-1902, where he had 
many famous pupils, Joseffy, Maas, 
etc.; leader in Leipzig for 25 years; 
works, especially those for pf., and 
chamber mus., show skill in con- 
struction and considerable romantic 
feeling; settings for women's voices 
'of Dornroschen, Schneewittchen, etc., 
also noteworthy; besides concertos 
for 'cello, vln., harp, operas, can- 
tatas, overtures, etc., contributions 
to English and German periodicals. 

Reinhold (rin-holt), Hugo, compr. b. 
Vienna, Mar. 3, 1854. Chorister at 
court chapel; pupil of Bruckner, 
Dessoff, and Epstein at Cons.; suite 
for pf. and strings, minuet and fugue 
for orch., and string quartet have at- 
tracted notice, as well as songs and 
pf. music. 

Reinken (rin'-ken), Johann Adam, 
orgt., compr. b. Wilshausen, Lower 
Alsace, Apr. 27, 1623; d. Ham- 
burg, Nov. 24, 1722. Pupil of 
Scheidemann at Hamburg 1654-57; 
orgt. at Deventer 1657-58; then 
assistant and successor, 1663, to 
Scheidemann; distinguished per- 
former whom Bach walked from 
Liineberg to hear; wrote Hortus 
musicus (2 vlns., via., bass), Partite 
diverse, toccata, variations, and 
fugue; other works burned by 
direction of his will. 



Reinthaler (rin'-ta-ler), Carl Martin, 
compr. b. Erfurt, Oct. 13, 1822; 
d. Bremen, Feb. 13, 1896. Pupil of 
G. A. Ritter, and of Marx, in sing- 
ing of Geraldi and Bordogni in 
Paris and in Rome; teacher of 
singing, Cologne Cons., 1853; mus. 
dir., orgt. at Cathedral; condr. of 
Singakademie and Liedertafel at 
Bremen; compr. of 2 operas, widely 
popular oratorio Jephtha, famous 
Bismarck- Hymne, symphony, and 
choral works. 

Reisenauer (ri'-zen-ou-er), Alfred, pst. 

. b. Konigsbers:, Nov. 1, 1863; d. 
Libau, Oct. "31, 1907. Pupil of 
Kohler and Liszt; d^but with Liszt 
1881; after studying law in Leipzig, 
reappeared with brilliant success 
1886; prof. pf. at Leipzig Cons. 
1900; in America 1904; special 
characteristics not spectacular ex- 
hibition, but sympathetic interpre- 
tation of varied' comprs.; at his best 
with Schumann and Liszt. 

Reissiger (ris'-sig-er), Carl Gottlieb, 
compr. b. Bebiig, near Wittenberg, 
Jan. 31, 1798; d. Dresden, Nov. 7, 
1859. Pupil of Schicht at Leipzig; 
appeared 'as singer and pst. at 
Vienna; stud. comp. with Winter 
at Munich; tour of Italy 1824 to 
examine conservatories and submit 
plan; after teaching at Berlin Inst. 
for Ch. Mus., organized The Hague 
Cons. 1826; dir. German Opera at 
Dresden; court capellmeister; com- 
posed some 10 operas (overture to 
Die Felsenmuhle was popular), ora- 
torio, masses, many sonatas and 
rondos for various instruments. 

Reissmann (ris'-man), August, writer. 
b. Frankenstein, Silesia, Nov. 14, 
1825; d. Berlin, Dec. 1, 1903. 
Pupil of Jung, Baumgart, Richter, 
etc.; in Weimar with Liszt 1850-52; 
lived in Halle, in Berlin 1863-80, 
where he lectured at Stern Cons., in 
Leipzig, Wiesbaden, and again Ber- 
lin; wrote biographies of Schumann, 
Schubert, Haydn, Weber,, etc.; books 
on opera and history (Geschichte 
des deutschen Liedes), edited Cathy's 
lexicon, and Mendel's; composed 
operas, ballet, oratorio, etc. 

Rellstab (rel'-stab), Heinrich Friedrich 
Ludwig, writer, b. Berlin, Apr. 13, 
1799; d. there, Nov. 27, 1860. Son 

of Johann Carl Friedrich R., printer, 
lecturer, critic (1759-1813); artillery 
officer, teacher of mathematics and 
history in military school; retired 
from army 1821; critic on Vossische 
Zeitung; author of satires against 
Sontag and Spohr, for each of which 
he was imprisoned; edited mus. 
paper Iris, etc., 1839-41; contributed 
to others' biographies of Liszt, etc.; 
well known as novelist, author of 
" 1812." 

Remenyi (re-men '-yl), [real name Hoff- 
mann], Eduard, vlt. b. Heves, or 
Miskolcz, Hungary, July 17, 1830; 
d. San Francisco, Cal., May 15, 1898. 
Pupil at Vienna Cons, of Bohm; 
played in America; after advice 
from Liszt, 1853, solo vlt. to Queen 
Victoria, and, 1860, to Emperor of 
Austria after amnesty (he was exiled 
in '48); after 1865 began series of 
long successful tours, Paris 1865, 
1875, London 1877, even around 
the world; transcribed for vln. 
Field's nocturnes, Chopin's waltzes 
and other pf. music; of great tech- 
nical skill, brilliance, and vigor of 
execution at his best, but uneven in 
achievement as he was wandering 
by nature; gave Brahms his start 
as accomp., first discovering his 

Renaud (re-no). Maurice, baritone, b. 
Bordeaux, 1862. Studied at Paris 
Cons.; sang at Brussels 1883-90; 
Ope>a Comique, Paris, 1890-91; at 
Opera since 1891; N. Y. 1906-10; 
of wide repertoire; sings and acts 
with great intelligence and so much 
care that at times he is accused of 
lack of spontaneity. 

Rendano (ren-da'-no), Alfonso, pst._ b. 
Carolei, near Cosenza, Calabria, 
Apr. 5, 1853. Studied at Naples and 
Leipzig Cons, and with Thalberg; 
popular as performer in London and 
Italy; composed considerable salon 

Reszke (resh-ka), Jean de, dram, 
tenor, b. Warsaw, Jan. 14, 1852. 
Studied with Ciaffei, Cotogni, and 
Sbriglia; d<5but 1874, London 1875, 
and engagements in Italy and Paris 
as baritone; d6but as tenor Madrid 
18.79; 1st tenor at Paris Ope>a 
1884-89; sang in London after 1887, 
and in New York after 1895; retired 


to Paris 1902. where he teaches 
singing; remarkable singer, whose 
repertoire finally included Wagner- 
ian operas as well as French and 
Italian. Brother Edouard, dram, 
bass. b. Warsaw, Dec. 23, 1855. 
Pupil of Jean, Ciaffei, Steller, and 
Coletti; dbut Warsaw 1876; at Th. 
Italien, Paris, 1885-98; followed 
Jean in English and American 
engagements and into retirement. 

Reyer (ra-yar), [properly Rey], Louis 
Etienne "Ernest, compr. b. Mar- 
seilles, Dec. 1, 1823; d. Toulon, Jan. 
15, 1909. While in government 
office at Algiers, composed mass and 
songs; studied mus. in Paris with 
aunt, Mme. Farrenc; prod, sym- 
phonic ode 1850; member of Acad- 
emy 1876; composed operas La 
statue 1861, Sigurd 1884, Salammbd 
1890, latter two successful; choruses 
and church music; highly ranked as 
compr. of richly colored music in 
school of Berlioz, and as critic and 

Reznicek (rez'-ni-chek), Emil Nicolaus, 
Freiherr von, compr. b. Vienna, 
May 4, 1861. Studied law at Graz, 
music at Leipzig Cons.; theatre 
capellmeister in several places, finally 
at Mannheim 1896-99; founded 
concerts for small orch. at Berlin, 
where he has lived since 1902, con- 
ducting also in Warsaw and Russia; 
teacher at Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Cons. 1906; composed overtures, 
symphonies, etc., and operas (not- 
ably Donna Diana, Till Eulenspiegel). 

Rheinberger (rin'-berger), Joseph Ga- 
briel, compr. b. Vaduz, Liechten- 
stein, Mar. 17, 1839; d. Munich, 
Nov. 25, 1901. Pupil of Herzog, 
Leonhard, and J. J. Mayer at Royal 
Sch. of Mus., Munich, where he 
taught 1859; orgt. at court ch., 
condr. Oratorio Soc. ; re'pe'titeur court 
opera 1865-67; court capelln\eister 
1877; teacher in Royal Acad. from 
1867 till death; renowned every- 
where as teacher (Chadwick, Parker, 
and Goodrich among many Ameri- 
can pupils); composed operas (Die 
sieben Raven, etc.), cantatas and 
oratorios (Christophorus, etc.), over- 
tures,, concertos (2 for org.), and 
especially 20 org. sonatas, which 
combine great skill with ideas of 
greater smoothness and beauty. 


Rhodes, Mrs., see Hardelot, Guy d'. 

Richards, Henry Brinley, compr., pst. 
b. Camarthen, Wales, Nov. 13, 
1817; d. London, May 1, 1885. 
Pupil at Royal Academy, King's 
Scholar 1835, '37; concert pst. and 
teacher in London; composed pf. 
mus., songs, notably popular God 
bless the Prince of Wales, military 
marches, Albert Edward, etc. 

Richardson, Nathan, teacher, b. S. 
Reading, Mass., July 31, 1827; d. 
Paris, France, Nov. 19, 1859. While 
pupil in Boston composed popular 
march Gen. Taylor's Own, etc.; 
pupil in Leipzig of Moscheles, etc., 
in Dresden of Willmers, and espe- 
cially at Prague of Dreyschock; 
after return to America published 
Modern School for Pf.; publisher 
and mus. seller in Boston; despite 
increasing ill health, for which he 
journeyed to Smyrna and to Paris, 
published New Method for pf. 1859. 

Richter (rik'-ter), Ernst Friedrich 
Eduard, theorist, compr. b. Gross- 
Schonau, Saxony, Oct. 24, 1808; d. 
Leipzig, Apr. 9* 1879. Student of 
theology at Leipzig Univ.; music 
pupil of Weinlig; asst. of Haupt- 
mann at Cons. 1843; condr. of 
Singakademie 1843-47; orgt. at vari- 
ous churches, finally, 1868, director 
and cantor at Thpmaskirche; 
beside skilful compositions, wrote 
widely known Text-book of Harmony 
1853, of Counterpoint 1872, of Fugue 
1859. Son Alfred, b. Leipzig, Apr. 
1, 1846. Taught at Cons. 1872-83; 
lived in London, then again in 
Leipzig; published additional exer- 
cises, etc. to father's Harmony. 

Richter, Hans, condr. b. Raab, Hun- 
gary, Apr. 4, 1843. Chorister in 
court chapel, Vienna; pupil of 
Sechter and others at Cons., learn- 
ing pf. and French horn; horn player 
in th. orch., Vienna; copied Die 
Meistersinger for Wagner at Lucerne 
1866-67; chorusmaster Munich 
Opera; court condr. under Von 
Biilow 1868-69; condr. of first per- 
formance of Lohengrin, Brussels, 
1870; capellmeister at Pesth Nat'l 
Th. 1871-75, at Vienna Opera 1875- 
1900, 1st capellm. 1893; condr. 
of Vienna Gesellschaft concerts, 
1884-90; after 1900 condr. of Halle" 



Orch. at Manchester, England, and 
of annual concerts in London; con- 
ducted 1st performances of the Ring 
1876 and subsequent Bayreuth fes- 
tivals; Lower Rhine and Birming- 
ham festivals after 1885; remark- 
able mastery due to complete 
knowledge of technic of every instru- 

Riedel (re'-del), Carl, condr., compr. 
b. Kronenberg, Oct. 6, 1827; d. 
Leipzig, June 3, 1888. Revolution 
of '48 turned him from silk dyeing 
to music; after study with Carl 
Wilhelm and at Leipzig Cons., 
organized, 1854, Riedelverein for per- 
formance of ancient church music; 
pres. 1868 of Allge'meiner deutscher 
Musikverein, and of Wagnerverein; 
edited works of Schiitz, Frank, 
Eccard, etc.; published collections 
of old Bohemian and German songs. 

Riego (re-a'-go), Teresa del, compr. 
b. London. Musical studies carried 
on chiefly at West Central Coll. of 
Mus., London, pf. and comp. under 
Sewell-Southgate, also studied vln. 
and singing; composed about 75 
songs, sacred and secular, including 
cycles; pf. works in Mss. 

Riemann (re'-man), Carl Wilhelm 
Julius Hugo, writer. b. Gross- 
mehlra, near Sondershausen, July 
18, 1849. Pupil of Frankenberger, 
Barthel, and Ratzenberger, of law, 
philosophy, and history at Berlin 
and Tubingen, and, after war of 
1870, at Leipzig Cons.; Ph.D. 
Gottingen 1873, with mus. thesis; 
teacher and lecturer at Bielefeld, 
Leipzig, Cons, of Hamburg, Sonders- 
hausen, and Wiesbaden; 1895 again 
univ. lecturer at Leipzig; beside 
numerous compositions, chiefly for 
pf., has written on history of nota- 
tion, history of theory, pf. playing 
(notably Guide to Art of Phrasing), 
series of musical catechisms (Instru- 
mentation, Bach's well-tempered Clav- 
ichord, etc.); edited works of Ra- 
meau, Friedemann Bach, etc.; com- 
piled Opern-Handbuch, Musik-Lexi- 
kon (1882; 7th ed. 1909), of great 

Riemenschneider ( re'-men-shni-der ) , 
Georg, condr. b. Stralsund, Apr. 1, 
1848. Studied with- Haupt and 
Kiel; theatre condr. Liibeck and 

Danzig; orch. condr. Breslau; com- 
posed opera and symphonic "pict- 
ures " Julinacht, etc. 

Ries (res), Ferdinand, pst., compr. b. 
Bonn, Nov. 29, 1784; d. Frankfort- 
on-Main, Jan. 13, 1838. Son of 
Franz (1755-1846), music director to 
Elector Franz at Bonn, and friend 
of Beethoven; pupil of Beethoven 
at Vienna 1801-^5, and of Albrechts- 
berger; after living in Paris, tour- 
ing in Germany, Scandinavia, and 
Russia, teaching and playing in 
London 1813-24, he retired; lived at 
Frankfort after 1830; though good 
pst. and compr. of operas, sympho- 
nies, chamber mus., etc., he is chiefly 
known for intimate biog. of Beetho- 
ven. Brother Hubert, vlt. b. Bonn, 
Apr. 1, 1802; d. Berlin, Sept. 14, 
1886. Pupil of Spohr and Haupt- 
mann; leader royal orch. Berlin 
1836; teacher Kgl. Theatreinstru- 
mentalschule 1851-72; author of 
excellent methods and exercises. 
His son Franz (b. 1846), excellent 
vlt.; 1st prize Paris Cons. 1868; 
gave up playing because of health; 
head of music publishing firm, Ries 
and Erler, Berlin. 

Rietz (retz), Julius, 'cellist, condr., 
compr. b. Berlin, Dec. 28, 1812; d. 
Dresden, Sept. 12, 1877. Son of 
royal chamber musician Johann 
Friedrich; brother of Eduard (1802- 
1832); friend of Mendelssohn, foun- 
der Berlin Philharmonic; pupil of 
Schmidt, Romberg, and Ganz; mem- 
ber th. orch. Konigstadt; condr. at 
Diisseldorf, as asst., 1834, and suc- 
cessor, 1835, of Mendelssohn; at 
Liepzig, condr. at th. 1847-54, at 
Gewandhaus 1848, prof, of comp. at 
Cons.; condr. of opera and court 
chapel, Dresden, 1860, and director 
of Cons.; edited works of Mozart, 
Beethoven, and complete works of 
Mendelssohn, to whose period belong 
R's compositions, operas, concertos, 
choruses, etc. 

Rimbault (rim-bolt), Edward Francis, 
writer, b. London, June 13, 1816; 
d. there, Sept. 26, 1876. Pupil of 
father, Stephen Francis R. (1773- 
1837), orgt., of, Samuel Wesley, and 
Crotch; gave lectures on English 
music history from 1838; founded, 
with Taylor and Chappell, Mus. 
Antiquarian Society, for publication 



of old English mus. 1840; edited 
publications of Antiquarian, Motet, 
Percy societies, Cathedral Chants, 
some of Handel's works; wrote 
histories of org., of pf., etc. 

Rimsky-Korsakov (rim'-ski-kor'-sa- 
koff), Nikolas Andreievitch, compr. 
b. Tikhvin, prov. of Novgorod, May 
21, 1844; d. St. Petersburg, June 21, 
1908. While student at Naval Inst. 
at St. P. studied 'cello with Ulich 
and pf. with Kanill6; officer in navy 
until 1873 (coming to U. S. in 1862); 
began serious study of music with 
Balakirev of whose circle he became 
influential member; prof. comp. 
St. P. Cons. 1871-1905, when he 
resigned to be reinstated in a few 
months, then served until death; 
inspector of marine bands 1873-84, 
director of Free Sch. of Mus. 1874- 
87, and condr. of its concerts until 
1881; asst. condr. Imperial Orch. 
1883, and one of condrs. of Russian 
Symph. Concerts 1886-1901; he 
composed operas (Mlada, etc.), many 
orchestral works, 3 symphonies 
(Antar is No. 2), overtures, sym- 
phonic poems (Sadko, etc.), suite 
for orch. (Scheherazade), chamber 
mus., pf. pieces, songs, choruses 
(By the Waters of Babylon, etc.), and 
edited 2 collections of folk-songs; 
most admired in Russia as compr. 
of operas dealing with local mythol- 
ogy; he is best known elsewhere as 
compr. , of orchestral music remark- 
able not for form but for an almost 
oriental richness of color (attained 
in earlier works by skilful handling 
of limited orch.), by variety of me- 
lodic effects, and insistent rhythms. 

Rinck, Johann Christian Heinrich, 
orgt. b. Elgersburg, Thuringia, 
Feb. 18, 1770; d. Darmstadt, Aug. 7, 
1846. Pupil of several orgts., finally 
of Kittel (pupil of J. S. Bach); 
town orgt. Giessen, 1790; orgt. and 
teacher Darmstadt 1805; made 
tours through Thuringia; one of 
foremost players of time; besides 
large Orgelschule, wrote many Choral- 
vorspiele, etc. 

Rinuccini (rin-u-che'-ne) , Ottavio, li- 
brettist, b. Florence, 1562; d. there, 
1621. Wrote words for earliest 
operas, Peri and Caccini's Dafne, 
Peri's Euridice, and Monteverde's 
Arianna a Nasso. 

Risler (ris-lar), Joseph Edouard, pst. 
b. Baden-Baden, Feb. 23, 1873. 
Pupil of Die'mer and Dubois at Paris 
Cons. 1883-90, and of d'Albert and 
Stavenhagen; rptiteur at Bay- 
reuth 1896, '97 and at Paris Opera 
for performance of Meister singer; 
1906 member of Conseil supe'rieur 
at Paris Cons.; of impeccable 
technic, specially praised for soft- 
ness of touch and statue-like repose. 

Ritter, Alexander, vlt. b. Narva (or 
Reval), Russia, June 27, 1833; d. 
Munich, Apr. 12, 1896. Pupil of 
Franz Schubert in Dresden, of 
David and Richter at Leipzig Cons.; 
leader at Meiningen, Weimar, and 
Wiirzburg where he founded music 
business; member of Meiningen orch. 
under Von Billow; later in Munich; 
composed 2 operas (Derfaule Hans, 
Wem die Krone), symph. poems 
(Erotische Legende, etc.); an enthusi- 
astic radical whose influence on others 
(R. Strauss, etc.) was through philos- 
ophy and poetry rather than music. 

Ritter, Frederic Louis, teacher. b. 
Strassburg, June 22, 1834; d. Ant- 
werp, July 22, 1891. Studied with 
Schletterer, Hauser, and J. G. 
Kastner; taught in Lorraine; went 
1856 to Cincinnati where he orgah- 
ized Cecilia voc. soc. and Phil- 
harmonic Orch.; in New York 1861, 

. condr. of Sacred Harmonic Soc. and 
Arion; 1867-95 prof, of mus. at 
Vassar Coll. ; wrote Hist, of Music, 
Mus. in Eng., Mus. in America; 
composed unimportant symphonies, 
concertos, psalms, etc. 

Ritter, Hermann, teacher, b. Wismar, 
Sept. 16, 1849. Teacher at royal 
mus. school at Wiirzburg; note- 
worthy for introduction of a larger 
viola alta, with fuller and less nasal 
tone, sort of revived tenor, con- 
structed after rules of violin-making; 
use of instr. spread by many pupils; 
author of history of viola alta, theory 
of mus. and of aesthetics, illustrated 
mus. hist. 

Ritter, Theodore [pseud, of T. Rennet], 
pst., compr. b. near Paris, Apr. 5, 
1841; d. Paris, Apr. 6, 1886. Pupil 
of Liszt; successful performer; com- 
posed pf. pieces, dramatic scenes (Le 
paradis perdu, Mephistopheles) and 
two unsuccessful operas. 


Rive-King (re'-va-king), Julie, pst., 
compr. b. Cincinnati, O., Oct. 31, 
1857. Pupil of Wm. Mason and 
S. B. Mills, of Reinecke and Liszt; 
dbut Leipzig 1874; compositions 
include Impromptu, Polonaise hero- 
vjue, etc.; has played with almost 
every orch. and under every condr. 
in America. 

Robjohn, W. J., see Florio, Caryll. 

Robyn, Alfred G., compr. b. St. Louis, 
Apr. 29, 1860. Son of Wm. R. (" who 
organized first symph. orch. west of 
Pittsburgh." Hughes.); orgt., suc- 
ceeding father; solo pst. with Emma 
Abbott Co.; composed sacred and 
secular songs and successful comic 
operas (The Yankee Consul, etc.); 
removed from St. Louis to Brooklyn, 
1910; orgt. and teacher there. 

Rochlitz (r6k'-litz), Johann Friedrich, 
writer, b. Leipzig, Feb. 12, 1769; 
d. there, Dec. 16, 1842. Studied 
music with Doles at Thomasschule, 
theology at Univ.; wrote novels 
touching music; founded Attgemeine 
musikalische Zeitung 1798, editor to 
1818, contributor to 1835 (one of 
first to recognize Beethoven's great- 
ness); director of Gewandhaus con- 
certs after 1805; wrote Fur Freunde 
der Tonkunst, collected essays, bio- 
graphical studies, etc. 

Rockstro [originally Rackstraw], Wil- 
liam Smyth, writer, b. North Cheam, 
Surrey, Jan. 5, 1823; d. London, July 
2, 1895. Pupil at Leipzig of Men- 
delssohn, Hauptmann, and Plaidy; 
taught pf. and singing in London; 
lived at Torquay; orgt. Babbacombe; 
lectured at Royal Acad. after 1891, 
taught plain song at Royal Coll. 
Mus.; wrote Practical Harmony, 
lives of Handel, Mendelssohn, Jenny 
Lind, General History of Music, 
History of Music for Young Students; 
composed madrigal, too cruel fair, 
sacred cantata; edited psalter, with 

Rode (rod'), Jacques Pierre Joseph, 
vlt. b. Bordeaux, Feb. 16, 1774; d. 
Chateau-Bourbon, near Damazon, 
Nov. 25, 1830. Pupil of Fauvel and 
Viotti; dbut Paris 1790; leader of 
2d vlns. at Th. Feydeau 1790-94; 
solo vlt. Ope>a 1794-99; tours in 
Holland, Germany, and to London; 


prof, at Cons. 1795; solo vlt. to 
Napoleon 1800, to Emp. Alexander 
of Russia 1803-08, having gone there 
with Boieldieu; after further tours 
in Germany, etc., lived in Berlin 
before retiring to Bordeaux; Boc- 
cherini wrote concertos for him in 
Spain 1799, Beethoven finished 
sonata Op. 96 in Vienna; final ap- 
pearance in Paris? 1828 a failure; 
compositions include concertos, quar- 
tet, etc. no longer popular; but a 
Method (written with Baillot and 
Kreutzer) endures, as do his 24 
Caprices en forme d' etudes. 

Rbder (reader), Martin, compr. b. 
Berlin, Apr. 7, 1851; d. Cambridge, 
Mass., June 10, 1895. Studied at 
Berlin Hochschule; chorusmaster 
at Milan Th. 1873-80; organized 
Choral Soc. there; after some ex- 
perience as opera condr., taught 
singing in Berlin, at Scharwenka 
Cons. 1881-87; prof, at Royal Acad. 
Mus. in Dublin 1887-92; director 
vocal dept. N. E. Cons., Boston, after 
1892; composed 3 operas (Vera 
only one produced), 2 mysteries, 
symphonic poems, songs; also wrote 
essays in German and Italian. 

Roeckel (r6k'-el), Joseph Leopold, pst., 
teacher, b. London, Apr. 11, 1838; 
d. 1908. Studied with father and 
with brother Eduard, with Eisen- 
hofer and Gotze; prolific song compr., 
also wrote cantatas (Fair Rosa- 
mond, Ruth, etc.), baritdne scena 
Siddartha; used pseud. Eduard Dorn; 
married Jane Jackson, pst., teacher, 
compr., under pseud. Jules de Sivrai. 

Rogers, Clara Kathleen, soprano, b. 
Cheltenham, Eng., Jan. 14, 1844. 
Daughter of John Barnett, compr. 
Pupil of parents, of Gotze, after 1860 
of Moscheles, Richter, etc. at Leipzig 
Cons., of Sangiovanni at Milan; 
dbut Turin 1863, under stage name 
Clara Doria; sang in Italy, London, 
in U. S. with Parepa-Rosa Co., with 
Maretzek Co. 1872-73; married 
Henry M. Rogers, Boston, 1878; 
wrote songs, Philosophy of Singing 
and My Voice and I (1910). 

Rogers, James Hotchkiss, orgt., compr. 
b. Fair Haven, Conn., Feb., 1857. 
Pupil of J. M. Towne, C. Eddy; in 
Berlin with Loeschhorn, Ehrlich, 
Haupt, and Rohde, and in Paris 


with Guilmant, Widor, and Fissot; 
orgt. in Burlington. la.; since 1883 
in Cleveland, 0., as orgt., teacher, 
dir. of Rubinstein Club; compr. of 
Lenten cantata The Man of Naza- 
reth, Easter The New Life, songs, 
pf. pieces, anthems, etc. 

Rohde (ro'-da), Eduard, compr., teacher. 
b. Halle-on-Saale, 1828; d. Berlin, 
Mar. 25, 1883. Choirmaster St. 
Georgenkirche; singing teacher at 
Sophien Gymnasium; compr. of ex- 
cellent motets, cantata Schildhorn, 
and an elementary text-book for pf. 

Rolla, Alessandro, vlt. b. Pavia, Apr. 
22, 1757; d. Milan, Sept. 15, 1841. 
Studied with Renzi and Conti; court 
soloist at Vienna, leader of ducal 
orch. at Parma; maestro, solo vlt. 
to Eugene Beauharnais, prof, at Cons, 
at Milan; teacher of Paganini; com- 
posed ballet, concertos, etc. for vln. 

Romberg, Andreas Jakob, vlt. b. 
Vechta, near Miinster, Apr. 27, 1767; 
d. Gotha, Nov. 10, 1821. Son of Ger- 
hard Heinrich R. (1745 7 1819), clari- 
net player and mus. dir.; dbut at 
7; on tour with cousin Bernhard R. 
1784; soloist Concerts spirituels Paris 
1784; member Bonn orch. 1790-93; 
after tours in Italy and unsuccessful 
attempt to produce compositions in 
Paris, succeeded Spohr as capell- 
meister, Gotha, 1815; composed 8 
operas, Das Lied von der Glocke and 
other cantatas, psalms, etc. His 
cousin Bernhard Romberg, 'cellist. 
b. Dincklage, near Miinster, Nov. 
12, 1767; d. Hamburg, Aug. 13, 1841. 
Son of Anton (1742-1814), bassoon- 
ist, brother of Gerhard; went on 
tour throughout Europe with An- 
dreas; prof, at Paris Cons. 1800-03; 
soloist in Berlin court orch. 1805, 
capellmeister 1815-19; composed 9 
concertos, caprices, etc. on national 
airs, operas, etc. 

Ronald, L., see Russell, Landon. 

Ronconi (ron-ko'-nl), Giorgio, baritone, 
singing teacher, b. Milan, Aug. 6, 
1810; d. Madrid, Jan. 8, 1890. Son 
of Domenico R. (1772-1839), tenor; 
established music school at Cordova 
1863; taught in New York 1867. 

Rbntgen (rnt'-gen), Julius, pst. b. 
Leipzig, May 9, 1855. Son of Engel- 
bert (1829-1897), vlt.; pupil of 


Hauptmann, Richter, Plaidy, etc., 
and of F. Lachner in Munich; dbut 
Stuttgart 1875; teacher Amsterdam 
Mus. Sen. 1878; cpndr. of concerts 
of Soc. for Promotion of Mus. 1886- 
1898; one of founders of Amster- 
dam Cons.; popular as player and 
teacher; composed chamber music, 
symph., ballad for orch., edited 
14 altniederlandische Volkslieder. 

Root, George Frederick, teacher, compr. 
b. Sheffield, Mass., Aug. 30, 1820; 
d. Barley's Island, Aug. 6, 1895. 
Taught flute playing by father, 
learned other instruments easily; 
in music store in Boston 1836, mem- 
ber Boston Academy chorus, pupil 
of G. J. Webb; 1850 studied in Paris; 
Flower Queen, first cantata by 
American compr., published over 
pseud. G. Friedrich Wurzel; 1853 
opened Normal Music Institute; 
1858 member of publishing firm 
Root and Cady in Chicago; compiled 
alone or with others many collections 
of part-songs Academy Vocalist, 
Sabbath Bell, etc. ; most widely known 
as prolific compr. of Civil War songs 
(The Battle-cry of Freedom, Just 
before the battle, mother, Tramp, 
tramp, tramp, the boys are marching) 
and songs of religion and sentiment 
(The vacant chair, Knocking, knock- 
ing, etc.). R. was pioneer in writing 
of cantatas, war songs, and gospel 
hymns; in his autobiography Story 
of a Musical Life, he says: tf I am one 
who, from such resources as he finds 
within himself, makes music for the 
people, having always a particular 
need in view. His son Frederick 
Woodman R., singing teacher, b. 
Boston, Mass., June 13, 1846. Pupil 
of father, B. C. Blpdgett, and Wm. 
Mason; orgt. in Chicago; after study 
hi Europe 1869-70, edited Song 

Rooy, Anton van, see Van Rooy. 

Ropartz (ro-parts), J. Guy, compr., 
condr., critic, writer, b. Guingamp, 
June 15, 1864. Studied for the bar; 
pupil of Dubois and Massenet at the 
Paris Conservatory, and later of 
Cesar Franck; dir. of Conservatory 
at Nancy 1894; wrote orchestral and 
choral works, incidental music for 
plays, chamber music, piano and 
organ pieces and songs. 



Rore, Cipriano de, compr. b. Mechlin 
or Antwerp, 1516; a. Parma, Sept. 
1565. Pupil of Willaert; in service 
of Duke of Ferrara; asst. and suc- 
cessor 1563 to Willaert as maestro 
at St. Mark's, Venice; soon after 
chorusmaster to Duke of Parma; 
published first book of madrigals 
1542, various later ones, motets, and 
3 masses; " he went much beyond 
his master and his school in the free 
and dexterous use of chromatic 
tones and harmonies, and his style 
has a novel richness and geniality." 

Rosa, Carlo [real name Carl August 
Nicolas Rose], impresario, b. Ham- 
burg, Mar. 21, 1842; d. Paris, Apr. 
30, 1889. Made early tours as vlt.; 
after study at Leipzig and Paris 
Cons., concertmaster at Hamburg 
1863-65; on concert tour 1867, met 
and married Parepa, singer; opera 
company they organized played 
successfully in U. S. and in London; 
after Parepa's death 1874, R. con- 
tinued as Carl Rosa Co. seasons of 
English opera in London and prov- 

Rosellen (ro-zel-lan), Louis Henri, pf. 
teacher, b. Paris, Oct. 13, 1811; d. 
there, Mar. 20, 1876. Pupil of Prad- 
her, Zimmermann, Fe"tis, HaleVy, 
etc. at Paris Cons., and of H. Herz; 
re'pe'titeur in solfeggio at Cons.; pub- 
lished useful Manuel des pianistes, 
and over 200 pf. pieces, very popular 
in their day. 

Rosenhain (ro'-zen-hin), Jakob, pst. 
b. Mannheim, Dec. 2, 1813; d. Baden- 
Baden, Mar. 21, 1894. Pupil of 
Schmitt and Schnyder von Warten- 
see; tour as prodigy at 9; lived at 
Frankfort, Paris, and Baden-Baden; 
accompanied Paganini 1830; dis- 
tinguished teacher and able per- 
former; compr. of operas, sym- 
phonies, pf. concertos and other 
orch. works, pf. mus., and songs. 

Rosenthal (ro'-zen-tal), Moritz, pst. 
b. Lemberg, Dec. 18, 1862. Pupil 
of Galoth who left him to work 
out own technic, of Mikuli, and 
Joseffy; dbut Vienna 1876, followed 
by tour; pupil of Liszt 1876-86, at 
both Weimar and Rome, at same 
time studying philosophy at Vienna 
University; after 6 years without 

public appearance, he played at 
Liszt Verein in Leipzig, in America 
with Kreisler 1888-89, where he 
gained first great success; following 
seasons in Europe have been marked 
by increasing enthusiasm; his tech- 
nic is prodigious, and he is some- 
times accused of displaying it at the 
cost of good taste; others claim that 
he gives adequate artistic expres- 
sion to a virile temperament, quite 
free from sentimentality. 

Rossi, Countess, see Sontag, Henriette. 

Rossini (ros-se'-nl), Gioacchino Antonio, 
compr. b. Pesaro, Feb. 29, 1792; d. 
Ruelle, near Paris, Nov. 13, 1868. 
Father town trumpeter and mother 
amateur singer; pupil pf A. Tesei at 
Bologna and of Mattei for composi- 
tion, giving himself further training 
by copying scores; 1st opera pro- 
duced Venice 1810; first serious opera 
Tancred 1813, followed by L'ltaliana 
in Algeri, so firmly established his 
reputation that he agreed to supply 2 
operas a year to Barbaja at Naples; 
besides this contract, composed 
Barber of Seville (Rome 1816) in 
three weeks; jealousy for Paisiello's 
work on same subject made first 
performance a failure, but the sec- 
ond was a triumph; wrote for Bar- 
baja in Milan and Naples about 28 
operas; cool reception of Semira- 
mide, Venice, 1823, made him go to 
London where he gained fortune 
from concerts and lessons; after five 
months went to Paris as director of 
Theatre Italien; R. became thor- 
oughly French and produced for 
Paris Ope>a, 1829, his French opera 
William Tell; thereafter fell into 
inexplicable inactivity, writing prac- 
tically nothing else but the Stabat 
Mater 1832; married singer Isa- 
bella Colbran, later Olympe Pelis- 
sier. As a man he was brilliant, 
witty, cynical, pleasure-loving; in 
music he differed from his Italian 
forerunners in his use of full accom- 
paniments in place of older recitativo 
secco, in development of orchestral 
variety, especially in horn parts, in 
composition of cadenzas (not leav- 
ing them to singers); he falls short 
of later composers in idealism; he 
wrote quite frankly for popularity 
both with singers and audience, sup- 
plying voice parts of originality and 



brilliancy; his great fertility in in- 
vention of melody led to too great 
facility and frivolity; but just these 
qualities when they are appropriate, 
as in the Barber of Seville, make a 

Rotoli (rot-o-ll), Augusto, compr. b. 
Rome, Jan. 7, 1847; d. Boston, Nov. 
26, 1904. Pupil of Lucchesi; chor- 
ister at St. Peter's; condr. and 
founder of choral soc.; teacher of 
princess; maestro of royal chapel of 
Sudario 1878; vocal instructor New 
England Cons, after 1885; choir- 
director at St. James Church, Bos- 
ton, after 1896; compr. of Roman 
Mass, many songs, and secular 
comp.; successful teacher. 

Rouget de L'Isle (ro-zha-de'-lel), Claude 
Joseph, compr. b. Lons-le-Saunier, 
Jura, May 10, 1760; d. Choisy-le- 
Roi, June 26, 1836. Composed 
French national hymn, La Marseil- 
laise, 1792, while military engineer 
at Strassburg; later in Paris com- 
posed Chant du combat, etc., 25 
Romances and 50 Chants fran$ais. 

Rpugnon (ro-non), Paul Louis, compr. 
b. Poitiers, Aug. 24, 1846. Student 
at Paris Cons. (1st prize counter- 
point and fugue 1870) where he 
became prof, of solfeggio 1885; 
composed 2 operas, pf. studies and 
pieces; author of Dictionnaire mus- 
ical des locutions etr anger es. 

Rousseau (ro-so), Jean Jacques, theor- 
ist, b. Geneva, June 28, 1712; d. 
Ermenonville, near Paris, July 3, 
1778. Though not trained in music, 
soon after coming to Paris he copied 
music for living, wrote articles on 
music for the Encyclopedic, pam- 
phlets on notation, and entered the 
Guerre des bouffons on the side of 
Italian music; his Lettre sur la 
musique franchise went so far as to 
deny all musical or melodic possi- 
bilities to the French language; his 
own opera Le devin du village prod, 
at Fontainebleau 1752 and Paris 1753 
was simple pastoral; his Pygmalion 
1775 is accompanied declamation. 

Rousseau, Samuel Alexandra, compr. 
b. Neuve-Maison, Aisne, June 11, 
1853; d. Paris, Oct. 1, 1904. Pupil 
at Paris Cons.; Prix de Rome 1878; 
chef d'orchestre at Th. Lyrique after 
1892; maltre de chapelle at Ste. 

Clothilde; chorusmaster Soc. des 
Concerts; critic for L' Eclair; prof, 
of harmony at Cons.; composed 
operas which had not striking suc- 
cess (La cloche du Rhin, etc.), masses, 
psalms, etc. 

Rowbotham, John Frederick, writer. 
b. Edinburgh, Apr. 18, 1854. Stud- 
ied at Oxford, at Stern Cons., Berlin, 
Paris, Vienna, etc.; author of 
History of Music [as far as trou- 
badours], How to write music cor- 
rectly, Private life of great composers, 
The troubadours and courts of love. 

Roze, Marie Hippolyte [nee Ponsin], 
soprano, b. Paris, Mar. 2, 1846. 
Pupil of Mocker at Cons., 1st prizes 
in singing and opera 1865; de"but 
Ope>a Com., 1865, led to engage- 
ments there and at Ope>a until 1870 
when she went to the war; there- 
after she sang in London; married 
Henry Mapleson; in America 1877; 
member Carl Rosa Co. 1883-89; Car- 
men favorite part; after 1890 teach- 
ing in Paris; farewell tour 1894. 

Rubini (ru-be'-ne), Giovanni Battista, 
tenor, b. Romano, near Bergamo, 
Apr. 7, 1795; d. near there, Mar. 2, 
1854. Pupil of father Rosio; d6but 
Pavia 1814; sang at Naples, Vienna, 
Milan, Paris, success mounting to 
triumph during last three engage- 
ments; 1832^43 alternately in Lon- 
don and Paris; went with Liszt to 
Berlin 1843; retired with fortune 
1845; his methods influenced comprs. 
of period, Rossini, Donizetti, and es- 
pecially Bellini; a poor and indiffer- 
ent actor, he was master of every kind 
of ornament and of simple melody. 

Rubinstein (ro'-bin-stin), Anton Gre- 
gorovitch, pst., compr. b. Wech- 
wotynecz, Bessarabia, Nov. 28, 
1829; d. Peterhof, near St. Peters- 
burg, Nov. 20, 1894. Pupil of his 
mother and Villoing; played with 
teacher in Paris; on advice of Liszt 
studied with Dehn in Berlin; in 
Vienna and Hungary 1846-48, 
teaching and playing; in St. Peters- 
burg, composed several Russian 
operas (Dimitri Donskoi, etc.); fur- 
ther tours in Western Europe 1854- 
58; condr. of St. P. Music Soc. 
1859; founder of Cons., director 
1862-67 and later 1887-90; con- 
ducted Philh. Soc. and Choral Soc. 



Vienna 1871-72; 1867-70 in Europe, 
1872-73 in America his triumphs as 
pst. were continuous; as pst. his 
technic rivaled even Liszt's, but 
his playing was even more note- 
worthy for its variety of emotion 
and almost magic charm. His great 
ambition was to be known as a 
compr., and he wrote songs, many 
pf. pieces, quartets and sonatas, 6 
symphonies (of which the 2d, Ocean 
symph., has 7 movements), mus. 
character pieces, overtures, 5 pf. 
concertos, vln. concerto, 2 for 'cello, 
operas and oratorios (Feramors, Der 
Damon, Das verlorene Parodies, Nero, 
etc.). His compositions suffered be- 
cause of his lack of sympathy for 
contemporary movements; he ad- 
mired classical form and disliked 
works of Wagner, Liszt, and Berlioz; 
but beside this his lack of ability to 
criticize his own work left much of it 
tedious; his smaller works, notably 
the songs and some of the pf . pieces, 
attain greatness; the larger ones, with 
the exception of the D minor con- 
certo, seem to be passing from sight, 
though some critics, among them 
Saint-Saens, hold that " when we 
have passed over the fashion of ex- 
treme modulation, when we have 
ignored the strivings after effect and 
complication . . . . " we may come 
back to his strong simplicity. 

Rubinstein, Nikolai Gregorovitch, pst. 
[brother of Anton R.]. b. Moscow, 
June 2, 1835; d. Paris, Mar. 23. 
1881. Pupil at Berlin of Dehn and 
Kullak; founded 1859 Moscow Mus. 
Soc. which established Moscow 
Cons., 1866, of which R. was director 
until death; conducted concerts in 
Moscow, St. Petersburg, and 1878 
in Paris; as pst. resembled his 
brother; distinguished as teacher of 
Taneiev, Siloti, Sauer, etc. 

Riibner (riib'-ner), Cornelius, pst. b. 
Copenhagen, Oct. 26, 1853. Pupil 
of Gade and Reinecke; condr. 
Carlsruhe Philharmonic Soc. 1892- 
1904; appointed prof, of mus. at 
Columbia Univ., New York, March 
1904, to succeed E. A. MacDowell. 

Ruckers, harpsichord makers at Ant- 
werp. Hans, Sr., d. about 1642, 
had four sons: Franz, b. 1576; Hans, 
Jr., b. 1578; Andries, b. 1579; and 
Anton, b. 1581; of whom 2d and 

3d were especially noted; Andries 
Jr. (1607-1667), also maker; instru- 
ments of this family are scarce, but 
all of a singularly sweet, pure tone; 
many of them very elaborately 
painted, inside and out. 

Riickauf (riik'-ouf), Anton, compr. b. 
Prague, Mar. 13, 1855; d. Schloss 
Alt-Erlaa, Austria, Sept. 19, 1903. 
Pupil at Prague Organ Sch. and of 
Proksch (at whose institute he 
taught), on gov't stipend, studied 
with Nottebohm and Navratil in 
Vienna, where he lived; aided in song 
comp. by his friend Gustav Walter; 
wrote about 80 songs, modern in 
feeling, for both voice and pf. 

Rudersdorff (roo'-ders-dorf), Hermine, 
dram. sop. b. Ivanowsky, Ukraine, 
Dec. 12, 1822; d. Boston, Mass., 
Feb. 26, 1882. Pupil of Bordogni 
and Micherout; concert singer in 
Germany 1840; after 1841 opera at 
Carlsruhe, Frankfort, Breslau, Ber- 
lin, and London 1854-65; married 
Dr. Kiichenmeister 1844; sang at 
Boston Jubilees 1871-72; remained 
there as teacher (Emma Thursby 
among pupils) , and as concert singer. 

Rumford, Robert Henry Kennerley, 
see under Butt, Clara. 

Rummel, Franz, pst. b. London, Jan. 
11, 1853; d. Berlin, May 3, 1901. 
Pupil of Brassin at Brussels Cons., 
1st prize 1872; tour in Holland with 
Ole Bull and Minnie Hauck 1877-78; 
American tours 1878, 1886, 1898; 
taught in Berlin at Stern Cons.; lived 
for some time at Dessau; distin- 
guished pst. and comp. for pf. 

Russell, Henry, baritone, compr. b. 
Sheerness, Dec. 24, 1812; d. Maida 
Vale, London, Dec. 8, 1900. Studied 
in Bologna, with Rossini in Naples; 
singer in London 1828 and Canada 
1833; orgt. in Rochester, N. Y.; 
gave concerts in U. S. and England; 
composed many famous songs, A 
life on the ocean wave, Cheer, boys, 
cheer (official army and navy songs), 
Woodman spare that tree; success in 
dramatic songs, The maniac, etc.; 
2 volumes of memoirs. Son Henry, 
singing teacher, impresario. Covent 
Garden and Boston Opera Co. Son 
Landon, b. London, June 7, 1873, 
compr., under pseud. Landon Ronald, 



of many popular songs; pst. with 
L' Enfant prodigue 1891, condr. at 
Drury Lane Th. 1896; 1910 director 
of Guildhall School of Music, succeed- 
ing Wm. H. Cummings. 

Russell, Louis Arthur, teacher, writer. 
b. Newark, N. J., Feb. 24, 1854. 
Pupil of Warren and Miiller in New 
York, of Tours, Shakespeare, and 
Henschel in London; orgt. in New- 
ark 1878-95; condr. Schubert Vocal 
Soc., etc.; founder of Newark Coll. 
of Mus. where he is director, teacher 
of singing, pf., and theory; author 
of Embellishments of Music, The 
Commonplaces of Vocal Art, English 
Diction for Singers and Speakers. 

Rust, Wilhelm, orgt., editor, b. Des- 
sau, Aug. 15, 1822; d. Leipzig, 
May 2, 1892. Pupil of uncle W. C., 
and Schneider; in Berlin, teacher, 
orgt., condr. of BachVerein 1862-74, 
teacher of theory Stern Cons.; 1878 
in Leipzig, orgt. at Thomaskirche, 
teacher in Cons., 1880 cantor at 
Thomasschule; composed motets 
and choruses; distinguished co- 
editor of works of Bach, publ. by 
Bach Gesellschaft. 

Ruthardt (root'-hardt), Adolf, pf. 
teacher, b. Stuttgart, Feb. 9, 1849. 
Student at Cons, there; teacher in 
Geneva 1868-85, at Leipzig Cons, 
since 1886; wrote Das Klavier: ein 
geschichtlicher Abriss, Chormeister- 
Buchlein (biographies) and some 
volumes of Eschmann's Wegweiser. 

Ryan, Thomas, clarinet and viola 
player, b. Ireland, 1827; d. New 
Bedford, Mass., Mar. 5, 1903. 
Came to U. S. 1844, studied in 
Boston; original member of Men- 
delssohn Quintet Club formed in 1849 
(other members A. and W. Fries, F. 
Riha, and Lehmann), and only 
member who persisted during 40 
years of the club and its wide tours; 
published Recollections of an old 
musician 1899. 

Ryder, Thomas Philander, orgt. b. 
Cohasset, Mass., June 29, 1836; d. 
Someryille, Mass., Dec. 2, 1887. 
Pupil of G. Satter; orgt. at Tremont 
Temple, teacher, successful choral 
director, gifted accomp.; popular 
piano transcriptions of Old Oaken 
Bucket, Nearer my God to Thee, 

Saar (sar), Louis Victor Franz, compr., 
critic, b. Rotterdam, Dec. 10, 1868. 
Pupil of Rheinberger and Abel at 
Munich Cons, and of Brahms in 
Vienna; accompanist to New York 
Opera 1892-95; teacher of counter- 
point and comp. at Nat'l Cons. 
1896-98, at Coll. of Mus., Cincin- 
nati. 1909; critic for Staats-Zeitung 
and New York Review; comp. for pf. 
and many songs. 

Sacchini (sa-ke'-ne), Antonio Maria 
Gasparo, compr. b, Pozzuoli, near 
Naples, July 23, 1734; d. Paris, 
Oct. 8, 1786. Son of fisherman; 
aided by Durante, studied with him, 
Fiorenza, and Manna at Cons, in 
Naples; success of early operas so 
great that he rivaled Piccini in 
Rome; after Alessandro nell' Indie 
1768, director of Cons, in Venice; 
lived in London 1772-82, producing 
several operas; fled for debt to Paris, 
where he produced remodeled operas 
and two new ones Dardanus and 

CEdipe a Colone; in later works 
influenced by Gluck; operas care- 
fully, effectively composed, obsolete 
because lacking in originality. 

Sachs (saks), Hans, master singer, b. 
Nuremberg, Nov. 5, 1494; d. there, 
Jan. 19, 1576. Wrote some 5000 
poems and tales, composing numer- 
ous melodies; most important of 
Nuremberg mastersingers; shoe- 
maker by trade; represented by 
Wagner in Die Meistersinger. 

Safonoff (saf-5n'-of), Wasili, condr. b. 
Istchory, Caucasus, Feb. 6, 1852. 
Pupil of Zaremba, Brassin, and Les- 
chetizky at St. Petersburg Cons., 
where he taught 1881-85; teacher 
1885 and director Moscow Cons. 
1889-90; Goedicke and Lhe'vinne 
his pupils; condr. in various cities, 
St. Petersburg Imperial concerts 
1890, Vienna, New York Philhar- 
monic 1904-1909; conducts with- 
out baton, with great skill and the 
force of magnetic personality. 



Sainton (san-ton), Prosper Philippe 
Catherine, vlt. b. Toulouse, June 5, 
1813; d. London, Oct. 17, 1890. 
Studied with Habeneck at Paris 
Cons., 1st prize 1834; member 
Ope>a and Cons, orchestra; taught 
Toulouse Cons. 1840-44, at London 
Royal Acad. after 1845; leader 
Philharmonic 1846-54, of Sacred 
Harmonic Soc. after 1848, at Covent 
Garden, etc.; composed vln. con- 
certos, solos, etc. His wife Sainton- 
Dolby, Charlotte Helen, contralto, 
b. London, May 17, 1821; d. there, 
Feb. 18, 1885. Pupil of Mrs. Mon- 
tague and at Royal Acad. of Ben- 
nett, Crivelli, and Elliott; de"but 
Philharmonic concert 1841; sang 
on Continent; from time of her 
marriage 1860 to 1870 leading singer 
in concert and oratorio; Mendels- 
sohn wrote contralto part in Elijah 
for her voice and dedicated songs to 
her; 1872 opened vocal academy; 
also composed cantatas and songs. 

Saint-Saens (san r s6ns') ,Charles Camille, 
compr. b. Paris, Oct. 9, 1835. Pre- 
cocious pst.; pupil at Cons, of Stam- 
aty, Maleden, Hale"vy, and Benoist; 
1st organ prize 1851; orgt. St. Me"ry 
1853, Madeleine 1858-77; pf. teacher 
at Niedermeyer Sch.; resigned all 
positions 1870; as pst. and orgt. has 
long held enviable reputation in 
Europe (America 1906); has com- 
posed for stage La princesse jaune, 
Samson et Dalila (Weimar 1877), Les 
barbares (1901), etc., several can- 
tatas, five pf . concertos, three violin 
concertos, chamber music, and many 
pieces for pf., beside symphonic 
poems, by which he is most widely 
known, Phaeton, Le rouet d' Omphale, 
La jeunesse d' Hercule, and Le danse 
macabre; has published essays Har- 
monic et melodie, Portraits et souve- 
nirs, Essai sur les lyres et cithares; 
dryness of which his music is often 
accused is due partly to following of 
scholastic formulas, which -his great 
skill enables him to do; vivid roman- 
tic coloring in his symph. poems. 

Salaman, Charles Kensington, pst. b. 
London, Mar. 3, 1814; d. there, June 
23, 1901. Studied with Rimbault 
and C. Neate, and after London 
d^but 1828, with Herz in Paris; 
taught in London after 1831; gave 
annual orchestral concerts, founded 

chamber concerts, Mus. Soc., and 
Mus. Ass'n; lived in Munich, Vienna, 
and Rome 1836 and 1846; contrib- 
utor to Times, Concordia, etc.; com- 
posed songs (/ arise from dreams of 
thee), music for Jewish synagogue, 

Saleza (sa-la'-za), Luc Albert, dram, 
tenor, b. Bruges, Barn, Oct. 18, 
1867. Won 1st prize in singing and 
opera at Paris Cons. 1888; de'but 
Ope>a Com. 1888; sang at Nice, 
Grand Ope"ra, Paris, Monte Carlo, 
New York 1899-1901. 

Salieri (sal-e-a'-rf), Antonio, compr. b. 
Legnano (Verona), Aug. 19, 1750; 
d. Vienna, May 7, 1825. Studied 
with brother Francesco, vlt., and 
Simoni, orgt., and with Pescetti and 
Pacini at Venice; taken to Vienna 
by Gassmann for whom he acted as 
substitute and whom he succeeded 
as Italian opera condr. and chamber 
musician; intimate pupil of Gluck 
who helped him bring out Les Dan- 
aides at Paris (at first announced as 
joint production, but G. gave S. full 
credit after success); next success 
with Tarare, revised as Axur, re 
d' Ormus; court capellmeister Vienna 
1788-1824; composed about 40 
operas, skilfully written both for 
voice and instruments, none of 
which survived. 

Salmon, Alvah Glover, pst., compr. b. 
at Southold, N. Y., Sept. 23, 1868. 
His father was in business, but pre- 
vious generations included members 
who attained literary and musical 
distinction; he began the study of 
music at six years of age and made a 
number of appearances in various 
parts of the U. S. as a boy pianist; 
graduated from the New England 
Conservatory 1888, and later studied 
in St. Petersburg; since his return 
to the U. S. has given piano recitals 
and lecture recitals on Russian music 
before the leading conservatories, 
colleges and musical clubs in various 
parts of the country; his composi- 
tions include about 100 numbers in 
different forms, although the major- 
ity of his published works are for 
the piano; he has also edited many 
pieces for American publishers, and 
contributed to the leading musical 
magazines; teacher in Boston for a 
number of years; New York 1909. 



Salome (sa-lo-ma), Theodore Cesar, 
orgt. b. Paris, Jan. 20, 1834; d. St. 
Germain, July, 1896. Studied at 
Paris Cons, with A. Thomas and 
Bazin; 2d Prix de Rome 1861; 
re'pe'titeur of solfeggio at Cons. 
1872-73; 2d orgt. at La Trinite"; 
maltre de chapelle at Lyce"e St. Louis, 
professor at Coll. Rollin; comp. 
symphony and org. mus. 

Salomon, Johann Peter, vlt. b. Bonn, 
Jan., 1745; d. London, Nov. 25, 1815. 
Member of Elector's orch. at Bonn; 
concertmaster to Prince Henry of 
Prussia; in London after 1781 dis- 
tinguished as quartet player and 
orchestral leader; founded London 
Philharmonic Soc. 1813; gave series 
of concerts 1786; persuaded Haydn 
to visit London 1791 and 1794; H. 
wrote several symphonies and last 
quartets for S., and began The 
Creation at his suggestion; S. com- 
posed opera Windsor Castle 1795. 

Salter, Mary Turner, compr. b. Peoria, 
III., March 15, 1856. Parents musi- 
cal but not professionals; began 
career as singer when a child ; studied 
singing with Alfred Arthur, of Cleve- 
land, O., and Dr. Schilling, of Burling- 
ton, Iowa; in 1876 went to Boston, 
studied at N. E. Cons., with O'Neill 
and Mme. Rudersdorff ; sang in Port- 
land, Me., with Annie Louise Gary 
and in Ole Bull's concerts in Boston; 
held church positions in Boston, New 
Haven and New York; taught sing- 
ing at Wellesley College; married 
Sumner Salter; lives at Williams- 
town, Mass.; has composed about 
one hundred songs, some of them 
very successful. 

Salter, Sumner, orgt., compr. b. Bur- 
lington, Iowa, June 24, 1856. Grad- 
uated at Amherst Coll.; studied 
music in Boston; editor of Pianist 
and Organist, N. Y. 1895-97; director 
of music at Syracuse, N. Y., 1881- 
1886; Atlanta, Ga., 1886-1889; Cor- 
nell Univ. 1900-1905; Williams 
Coll. 1905; composed church music, 
songs, etc. 

Samara (sa-ma'-ra), Spiro, compr. b. 
Corfu, Nov. 29, 1861. Studied at 
Athens with Stancampiano and at 
Paris with Delibes; composed several 
operas which have been successful in 
Paris and Italy, notably Flora 

mirabilis 1886; realistic La martire 
1894 and Mile, de Belle Isle 1905 
fairly successful. 

Samaroff, Olga [nee Hickenlooper], pst. 
b. at the military post of San Antonio, 
Tex., Aug. 8, 1881; her grandmother, 
Mrs. L. P. Griinewald, in her younger 
days a concert pianist of Munich, 
and later in New Orleans, was her 
first teacher; later she studied in 
Paris with the elder Marmontel and 
Widor; in 1895 she entered the class 
of Delaborde in the Conservatoire, 
the first American woman to be ad- 
mitted to the piano classes; from 
Paris she went to Berlin and studied 
under Jedliczka; her general educa- 
tion was received from private 
teachers and in the Couvent du St. 
Sacrement, Paris; professional career 
began in New York, Jan. 18, 1905, 
with the N. Y. Symphony Orchestra; 
she has had three American, three 
London, and one Continental season, 
about 300 concerts and recitals up to 
season of 1909-1910, appearing with 
the leading orchestras; makes her 
home mostly in Paris. 

Sammartini (sam-mar-te'-ne), Gio- 
vanni Battista, orgt. b. Milan, 1704; 
d. 1774. Orgt. in 2 Milan churches; 
maestro di cappella at convent 1730- 
70; teacher of Gluck; sometimes 
called (Riemann says " most un- 
justly ") forerunner of Haydn in 
composition of symphonies (S. wrote 
24) and chamber mus. 

Samuel, Adolphe Abraham, compr. b. 
Lie"ge, July 11, 1824; d. Ghent, Sept. 
11, 1898. Studied at Cons, at Lie"ge 
and Brussels, where he won Grand 
prix de Rome 1845 and where he 
taught harmony after 1860; founded 
Brussels pop. concerts 1865 and 
annual festivals 1869; director Ghent 
Cons. 1871; composed 5 operas, 5 
symphonies, symphonic fragment 
Roland d Roncevaux, a " mystic " 
symph. with chorus Christus, over- 
tures, etc.; wrote Cours d'harmonie. 

Sandberger, Adolf, compr., editor, b. 
Wurzburg, Dec. 19, 1864. Studied 
at Royal Schools at Wurzburg and 
Munich, at Univ. of W. and Berlin; 
Ph.D. 1887; custodian mus. dept. 
Munich Library, lecturer at Univ.; 
prof, of mus. Prague Univ. 1898, 
Munich 1900; edited works of Lassus, 



is general editor of Denkmdler der 
Tonkunst in Bayern and ed. of 
some vols., compr. of overtures, 
symph. poems, etc., author of life 
of Cornelius, essays on Chabrier's 
Gwendoline, Lassus, Haydn's quar- 
tets, etc. 

Sanderson, Sibyl, dram, soprano, b. 
Sacramento, Cal., Dec. 7, 1865; d. 
Paris, May 16, 1903. Early ability; 
pupil at Paris Cons, of Massenet, 
and also of Sbriglia and Marchesi; 
dbut The Hague 1888; at Op^ra 
Com. 1889; Massenet wrote Esdar- 
monde and Thais for her, Saint-Saens 
Phryne; in New York 1894 and 1898 
with Grau Co.; retired 1897 after 
marriage to A. -Terry, who died 
shortly after, but returned to stage 
1901; of rare beauty, an exquisite 
though light voice, she charmed 
rather by her own personality than 
through art. 

Sandoni, Mme., see Cuzzoni. 

Santley, Sir Charles, baritone. b. 
Liverpool, Feb. 28, 1834. Pupil of 
Nava in Milan, of Garcia in London: 
de"but at Pavia 1856, London 1857, 
stage d6but 1859; member of Carl 
Rosa Co. 1875; visited America 1871 
and 1891, Australia 1899; especially 
distinguished in Elijah, Faust, Fly- 
ing Dutchman (which he first sang 
in English); composed some church 
music, published reminiscences Stu- 
dent and Singer 1892, The Art of Sing- 
ing and Vocal Declamation, 1908; 
knighted 1907. 

Sapellnikoff (sa-pel'-nl-kof), Wassili, 
pst. b. Odessa, Nov. 2, 1868. Pupil 
of Kessler and of Brassin and Sophie 
Menter at St. Petersburg Cons., 
whither he was sent by town on A. 
Rubinstein's advice; de"but 1888 
Hamburg; widely successful tours. 

Saran, August Friedrich, condr. b. 
Altenplathow, Saxony, Feb. 28, 1836. 
Studied with Ehrlich and Robt. 
Franz; studied theology at Halle, 
teacher, army chaplain, supt. at 
Zehdenick, Brandenburg; condr. of 
choral soc. at Bromberg; arranged 
old German songs; wrote pamphlet 
on Franz. 

Sarasate (sa-ra-sa'-te), Pablo de [in 
full P. Martin Meliton S. y Navas- 
cuez], vlt. b. Pamplona, Spain, Mar. 

10, 1844; d. Biarritz, Sept. 20, 1908. 
Precocious appearance in Spain; 
pupil of Alard at Paris Cons, where 
he won 1st prize 1857; career of long 
successful tours, to the East and to 
America several times, 2d 1889 with 
d'Albert; Lalo, Bruch, and Saint- 
Saens all wrote works for him; note- 
worthy for purity of tone, flexi- 
bility of style, accuracy and firmness 
of technic; his own compositions 
Zigeunerweisen, Jota aragonesa and 
4 books of transcriptions for vln. of 
Spanish dances; not so remarkable 
for technical dexterity as for irre- 
sistible swing with which he played, 
especially own compositions. 

Sarti, Giuseppe [called "il Domeni- 
chino"], compr. b. Faenza, Dec. 28, 
1729; d. Berlin, July 28, 1802. Pupil 
of Padre Martini; orgt. at Faenza; 
opera II re pastore (Venice 1753) led 
to call to Copenhagen as opera- 
director and royal condr.; dismissed 
1775 for political reasons; director 
of Cons, at Venice; maestro at 
Milan Cath. 1779; teacher of Cheru- 
bim, compr. of successful operas; last 
18 years of life in St. Petersburg 
with exception of few years before 
1793 when he founded mus. sch. in 
the Ukraine, where he developed 
Italian opera, composed Te Deum 
and other works for court choir; 
prolific compr. but of the little that 
was published the most is now 

Sauer (sou'-er), Emil, pst. b. Ham- 
burg, Oct. 8, 1862. Pupil of his 
mother, of N. Rubinstein at Moscow, 
and of Liszt at Weimar 1884-85; 
successful virtuoso since 1882; direc- 
tor of Klavier-Meisterschule at 
Vienna Cons. 1901-07; living in 
Dresden; composed 2 pf. concertos, 
Suite moderne for pf., smaller pf. 
works and songs; also wrote Meine 
Welt: Bilder aus dem Geheimfache 
meiner Kunst und meines Lebens 
1901; played in America 1899 and 
1909; of wonderfully fluent technic 
himself, he is also admirable teacher; 
works are skilfully composed, but 
are not profound in idea. 

Sauret (so-ra), Emile, vlt. b. Dun-le- 
Roi, Cher, France, May 22, 1852. 
Pupil at Paris Cons, and of De BeYiot 
at Brussels Cons.; appeared 1866, 



first in England, then in France, 
Italy, America 1872, 1874-76 (later, 
1877, 1895); teacher Kullak's Acad. 
Berlin 1880-81, at Royal Acad. 
Mus. London 1891-1903, at Chicago 
Mus. Coll. 1903-06; now teaching 
privately in Geneva; married Teresa 
Carreno 1872, later divorced; com- 
posed considerable music for vln. 
and has written valuable method; 
playing graceful and elegant, of 
French school. 

Sawyer, Frank Joseph, orgt., writer, 
b. Brighton, Eng., June 19, 1857; 
d. Brighton, May, 1908. Pupil at 
Leipzig Cons, of Richter and others; 
pupil and asst. of J. F. Bridge; Mus. 
Doc. Oxford 1884; orgt. at Brighton 
and condr. until 1896 of choral and 
orch. soc.; prof, sight singing Royal 
Coll. Mus.; gave recitals, lectures 
on hist, of org., dance, etc.; composed 
oratorio, cantatas, Concertstiick, 
Romance, etc., technical pf. exer- 
cises; author of Primer on Extempori- 

Sax, Antoine Joseph [called Adolphe], 
instrument maker, b. Dinant, Nov. 
6, 1814; d. Paris, Feb. 4, 1894. Pupil 
of Bender at Brussels Cons, on flute 
and clarinet ; invented improvements 
in clarinet; 1842 invented saxophone, 
metal wind instr. with single-reed 
mouthpiece and conical bore; instrs. 
encouraged by Berlioz and other 
musicians; added saxhorn and sax 
tromba; teacher of saxophone Paris 
Cons. 1857. 

Sbriglia (sbril'-yia), Giovanni, singing 
teacher, b. Naples, 1840. Pupil of 
De Roxas at Naples Cons.; d6but as 
operatic tenor 1861; sang in Italy, in 
New York with Patti, in Havana, 
etc.; distinguished teacher of sing- 
ing in Paris; reformed voice of Jean 
de Reszke" from baritone to tenor, 
taught Plangon, Nordica, Sanderson, 

Scalchi (skal'-kl), Sofia, dram, mezzo 
sop. b. Turin, Nov. 29, 1850. Par- 
ents both singers; pupil of Bocca- 
badati; d6but Mantua 1866; sang at 
various Italian cities, in England 
1868-90; first appeared in America 
1882; married Lolli 1875; voice of 
fine quality and such range that she 
could take mezzo sop. and contralto 

Scaria (ska'-ria), Emil, dram. bass. b. 
Graz, Sept. 18, 1840; d. Blasewitz, 
near Dresden, July 22, 1886. Pupil 
of Netzer, Gentiluomo, and Lewy; 
dSbut Pesth 1860; after few months' 
study with Garcia in London 1862, 
was engaged at Dessau, Leipzig, 
Dresden, and Vienna Opera after 
1872; first Wotan in Wagner's Ring 
Bayreuth 1876, and Gurnemanz in 
Parsifal 1882. 

Scarlatti, Alessandro, compr. b. Tra- 
pani, Sicily, 1659; d. Naples, Oct. 24, 
1725. Nothing known of early life 
and training; conducted first known 
opera Rome 1680; maestro to Queen 
Christina of Sweden, to Viceroy at 
Naples 1694; asst. to Foggia, maestro 
at Sta. Maria Maggiore, Rome, 1703, 
and successor 1707-09; maestro at 
royal chapel, Naples; teacher at 3 
conservatories there; among pupils 
Durante, Leo, Hasse, Porpora, etc.; 
dir. Sta. Maria Maggiore, dir. to 
Cardinal Ottoboni in Rome; in 
Naples again after 1709; composed 
over 100 operas and 200 masses; 
founder of Neapolitan school of 
opera; broke up the monotony of 
continued recitative by using recita- 
tive both with and without full 
accomp. and by introducing formal 
aria; established popular type of 
overture in three movements, the 
2d slow; within these forms his 
own work is entirely lacking in 
diversity; it has " grace, suavity, 
dexterous neatness of articulation." 
His son Domenico Scarlatti, compr., 
harpsichord player, b. Naples, Oct. 
26, 1685; d. there, 1757. Pupil of 
father and Gasparini; arranged and 
composed operas; chosen to compete 
with Handel 1709, he equaled H. on 
harpsichord, but not at org. ; maestro 
at St. Peter's, Rome, 1715-19; maes- 
tro al cembalo Italian Opera, London, 
1719-20; court cembalist at Lisbon 
1721-54 (except 1725-29); returned 
to Naples, where gambling reduced 
his family to poverty, which Fari- 
nelli relieved; in his harpsichord 
music used new effects, gained by 
crossing hands, by broken chords, 
by displaced accents, etc., which 
contributed largely to beginning of 
technic; style of his works also is 
modern in its freedom from formal 


Scharwenka (shar-ven'-ka), Ludwig 
Philipp, compr. b. Samter, Posen, 
Feb. 16, 1847. Pupil of Wiierst at 
Kullak's Acad., Berlin, and of H. 
Dorn; teacher of theory and comp. at 
Kullak's 1870; with brother Xaver 
founded Scharwenka Cons. 1881; 
went with X. to New York 1891, but 
continued own cons, with Gold- 
schmidt 1892 until it was joined 
with Klindworth Cons. 1893; com- 
posed many pf. pieces (Landler, 
Album polonais, choral works, 2 
symph., suite, symph. poem, etc. 
His brother Franz Xaver Schar- 
wenka, pst., compr. b. Samter, Jan. 
6, 1850. Pupil of Kullak and Wiierst 
at K's Acad., where he taught 1868- 
74; after successful de"but 1869, gave 
annual concerts of chamber and 
orchestral music; founded Scharw. 
Cons, with Philipp 1881; director 
till 1891, then established S. Cons, 
in New York; 1898 director of 
Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons., and 
teacher of pf.; as pst. remarkable 
for combination of great power with 
repose and rich, singing tone; as 
compr. he shows power, strong 
sense of rhythm, and Polish national 
color, in symph., 4 pf. concertos (of 
which 1st is widely praised), chamber 
music, Polish dances, etc. for pf., 
and one opera, Mataswintha (Weimar 
1896, N.Y. 1897). Visited U.S. 1910. 

Scheel (shal), Fritz, condr. b. Liibeck, 
Germany, Nov. 7, 1852; d. Philadel- 
phia, March 12, 1907. Condr. of 
juvenile orch. at 10, vln. pupil of 
David at Leipzig; concertmaster 
Bremerhaven City Orch.; director 
Chemnitz; at Hamburg 1890 alter- 
nated with Von Bulow at subscrip- 
tion concerts; 1893 conducted at 
World's Fair; then in San Francisco; 
first condr. of Philadelphia Orch. 
1900 until death, building up and 
establishing orch. ; condr. of Orpheus 
Club and Eurydice Chorus. 

Scheidemann (shl'-de-man), Heinrich, 
orgt. b. Hamburg, about 1596; d. 
there, 1654. Pupil of father, Hans, 
and his successor; also pupil of 
Sweelinck at Amsterdam; associated 
with Praetorius in contributing to 
Himmlische Lieder, one of which, 
Frisch auf und lasst uns singen, was 
popular; teacher of Weckmann and 
Reinken; other works not extant. 


Scheldt (shidt), Samuel, orgt. b. Halle- 
on-Saale, 1587; d. there, Mar. 14, 
1654. Pupil of Sweelinck at Am- 
sterdam; orgt. and capellmeister at 
Halle; composed mostly for voice, 
but wrote also chorale preludes (one 
of first to develop chorales in elabo- 
rate style) ; famous work Tabulatura 
nova, 1624, org. fantasies, and church 
pieces; in technic, extended use of 

Schein (shin), Johann Hermann, 
compr. b. Griinhain, Saxony, Jan. 
29, 1586; d. Leipzig, Nov. 19, 1630. 
Soprano at Electoral Chapel at 
Dresden; studied at Schulpforte 
and at Leipzig Univ.; capellmeistei' 
Weimar 1615; cantor Thomasschule 
Leipzig 1616; composed Cantional, 
choral melodies for Lutheran ch., 
Vemis Krantzlein, songs in 5 parts, 
concerted instr. pieces; style notably 
smooth and masterly. 

Schelling (shel-ling), Ernest Henry, 
pst. b. Belvidere, N. J., July 26, 
1876. Precocious appearance in 
Philadelphia 1880; pupil of Mathias, 
Moszkowski, Pruckner, Leschetizky, 
Paderewski, etc.; has played since 
1901 in Europe, N. and S. America; 
court pst. to Duke of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin; compr. symph., symph. 
legends, chamber music, pf. concerto 
and small pieces. 

Schikaneder (shi-kan-a'-der), Emanuel 
Johann, librettist, b. Regensburg, 
April 9, 1751; d. Vienna, Sept. 21, 
1812. Tragedian, singer in traveling 
troupe; met Mozart in Salzburg; 
when manager in Vienna, wrote 
Zauberflote, for which M. composed 
music; success of opera lifted him 
only temporarily from poverty; also 
wrote texts for Winter, Haibel, etc. 

Schilling, Bertha, see Breval, Lucienne. 

Schillings (shil-lings) , Max, compr. b. 
Diiren, Rheinland, Apr. 19, 1868. 
Studied with Brambach and Von 
Konigslow at Bonn and at Munich; 
trainer of chorus at Bayreuth; chief 
condr. of Stuttgart Court Opera and 
concerts of court orchestra 1907; 
composed operas, Ingwelde 1894, 
Der Pfeifertag 1896, Moloch 1906; 
fantasia for orch., orchestral accomp. 
for declamation of Hexenlied, etc.; 
accused of imitating Wagner, he is 
strongly defended by admirers, who 


claim for him individuality of style, 
pure " aristocratic " melody, har- 
monic skill and care above other 
moderns, extreme regard for modu- 
lation, and deep personal feeling. 

Schindler (shint-ler), Anton, writer. 
b. Medl, Moravia, 1796; d. Bocken- 
heim, Jan. 16, 1864. Vlt., capell- 
meister at German Opera, Vienna, 
and later at Minister and Aix-la- 
Chapelle; about 1817-27 intimate 
friend and helper, living in same 
house with Beethoven, whose biog- 
raphy he wrote 1840. 

Schira (she'-ra), Francesco, condr., 
teacher, b. Malta, Sept. 19, 1815; 
d. London, Oct. 15, 1883. Studied 
at Milan Cons.; produced 1st opera 
there; conducted at Lisbon and 
taught in Cons.; after 1842 in Lon- 
don as condr. of Princess's Th.; at 
Drury Lane 1847 and 1852, and at 
Covent Garden 1848-52; after that 
gained renown as teacher of singing; 
composed some 10 operas and other 
vocal music. 

Schlesinger (shla'-sing-er), Sebastian 
Benson, compr. b. Hamburg, Sept. 

24, 1837. Came to Boston at 13, 
where he studied with Dresel; Ger- 
man consul at Boston; later living 
in Paris; compr. of over 100 songs 
and pf. pieces. 

Schmitt (shmit), Aloys, pst., teacher, 
b. Erlenbach, Bavaria, Aug. 26, 
1788; d. Frankfort-on-Main, July 

25, 1866. Father a cantor, who 
taught him; studied comp. with 
Andre'; lived in Frankfort after 1816, 
except for short time in Berlin and 
Hanover; wrote valuable method, 
delicate eludes, etc., as well as 
chamber and orch. music. 

Schmitt, Hans, pf. teacher, b. Koben, 
Bohemia, Jan. 14, 1835; d. Vienna, 
Jan. 15, 1907. At first oboe player; 
pf . pupil of Dachs when 25 at Vienna 
ons., where he won medal, and later 
taught, having classes in pf. expres- 
sion 1875-1900; composed many re- 
markable works for pf. instruction, 
notably 300 studies without octaves, 
pedal studies, etc.; wrote a valuable 
work on The Pedals of the Piano. 

Schnecker (shnek'-er), Peter August, 
orgt., compr. b. Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Aug. 26, 1850; d. N. Y., Oct. 3, 1903. 
Came to America 1865; pupil of 


S. P. Warren, N. Y., and at Leipzig 
Cons. 1874 of O. Paul and Richter; 
orgt. in N. Y. after 1872; written more 
church music than almost any other 
American (org. mus. and cantatas for 
church), songs, and vln. works, etc., 
beside numerous transcriptions. 

Schneider (shnl'-der), Johann Chris- 
tian Friedrich, compr. b. Alt-Walt- 
ersdorf, Saxony, Jan. 3, 1786; d. 
Dessau, Nov. 23, 1853. Son and 
pupil of orgt. Johann Gottlob S. 
(1753-1840); student at Leipzig 
Univ.; also pupil of Unger; orgt. 
Leipzig 1807, of Thomaskirche 1812; 
opera condr. 1816, director Stadt Th. 
1817; in Dessau court capellmeister 
1821, organizer of Liedertafel, found- 
er of School of Mus. 1829 (closed 
1854); R. Franz among pupils; 
conducted at many festivals; com- 
posed oratorios popular at time, Das 
WeUgericht, Die Siindflut, etc., 23 
symph., overtures, etc.; pf. works 

Schnorr von Carolsfeld (shnor-von-ka'- 
rols-felt), Ludwig, dram, tenor, b. 
Munich, July 2, 1836; d. Dresden, 
June 21, 1865. Son of painter; 
studied at Leipzig Cons., and with 
J. Otto and Devnent; dbut Carls- 
ruhe 1858; tenor at Dresden after 
1860; created part of Tristan, 
Munich, 1865, his wife Malvina 
(1825-1904) singing Isolde. 

Schnyder von Wartensee (shni'-der von 
var'-ten-sa), Xaver, teacher, compr. 
b. Lucerne, Apr. 16, 1786; d. Frank- 
fort-on-Main, Aug. 27, 1868. Stud- 
ied with Kienlen in Vienna; after 
fighting in 1815, taught at Yverdun, 
and after 1817 at Frankfort; wrote 
charming vocal music, opera For- 
tunat, cantatas, part-songs, etc., 2 
symphonies, and published System 
der Rhythmik. 

Schoenefeld (sh6-ne-felt), Henry, pst. 
b. Milwaukee, Oct. 4, 1857. Studied 
at Leipzig with Papperitz, Richter, 
Schradieck, etc., and at Weimar with 
Lassen ; after tour in Germany settled 
in Chicago; from 1879 in Chicago as 
pst., teacher, condr. of Germania 
Mannerchor; 1904 removed to Los 
Angeles; composed Three Indians, ode 
with orch., 2 symph. (Rural, etc.), 2 
overtures (In the Sunny South contain* 
negro melodies), vln. sonata, etc. 


Scholtz (sholts), Hermann, pst., compr. 
b. Breslau, June 9, 1845. Pupil of 
Brosig, Riedel, Plaidy, and at 
Munich of Von Billow and Rhein- 
berger; taught at Royal Sch. Mu- 
nich, 1870-75; since 1875 in Dresden ; 
composed pf. concerto, trio, pas- 
sacaglia, ballade, etc: for pf.; edited 
Peters's Ed. of Chopin's and Heller's 

Scholz (sholts), Bernhard E., compr. 
b. Mayence, Mar. 30, 1835. Studied 
with E. Pauer at Mayence and 
Dehn at Berlin; teacher at Royal 
School, Munich, 1856-59; court 
capellmeister Hanover 1859-65; after 
seasons in Florence and Berlin, 
condr. of Breslau Orch. Soc. 1871-83, 
succeeded Raff 1883-1908 as director 
of Hoch Cons., Frankfort, where he 
made his way in face of intriguing 
opposition ; composed songs, chamber 
music, symph. (Malinconia), choral 
works, requiem, etc. 

Schradieck (shra'-dek), Henry, vlt. 
b. Hamburg, Apr. 29, 1846.^ Pupil 
of father, of Leonard at Brussels 
Cons., of David at Leipzig; leader 
of orch. at Bremen; teacher Moscow 
Cons. 1864-68; leader of Philhar- 
monic concerts, Hamburg, of Gewand- 
haus Orch., Leipzig, 1874-82, teach- 
ing at Cons.; prof. Cincinnati Cons. 
1883-89, and, after season in Ham- 
burg, prof, at Nat'l Cons., New York, 
at Broad St. Cons., Phila., and 1910 
Institute of Applied Music, New York; 
compr. of valuable technical exercises. 

Schroeder (shre"d-er), Alwin, 'cellist. 
b. Neuhaldensleben, near Magde- 
burg, June 15, 1855. Pf. pupu of 
father and brother Hermann (b. 
1843), vln. pupil of De Ahna at Berlin 
Hochschule, self-taught as 'cellist; 
1st 'cellist in orchestras in Leipzig, 
and Hamburg; 1881 succeeded broth- 
er Carl (b. 1848) at Gewandhaus, in 
th. orch., and at Cons.; member 
of Petri Quartet; member Boston 
Symph. Orch. 1886-1903 and 1910, of 
Kneisel Quartet 1891-1908, of Hess- 
Schroeder Quartet 1908-10. 

Schroeder-Devrient (shre'-dar-de'-vri- 
ant), Wilhelmine, dram. sop. b. 
Hamburg, Dec. 6, 1804; d. Coburg, 
Jan. 26, 1860. Father baritone, 
mother actress Sophie Schroder, she 
acted herself until 17; pupil of 


Mozatti at Vienna; de"but there 
1821; great success, especially in 
revival of Fiddio, 1822; married 
actor C. Devrient 1823, divorced 
1828; at Court Opera, Dresden, 
1823-1847, except for visiting sea- 
sons in other capitals; her voice was 
not remarkable or very well man- 
aged, but her abilities as actress 
were great. 

Schroeter (shre"-ter), Christoph Gott- 
lieb, orgt., theorist, b. Hohenstein, 
Saxony, Aug. 19, 1699; d. Nord- 
hausen, Nov., 1782. Pupil at Kreuz- 
schule, Dresden, student of theology 
at Leipzig; copyist for Lotti 1717; 
after travel in Germany and Eng- 
land, lectured at Jena Univ.; orgt. 
at Minden, after 1732 at Nord- 
hausen; composed seven sets of 
cantatas for church year, other 
church music; wrote on general bass 
(" first to represent major and 
minor triads as sole fundamental 
chords ") and description of hammer 
action for keyed instruments, on 
which invention of pf. is based; 
claims this invention in work pub- 
lished 1763, ten years after death of 
Silbermann, who is usually supposed 
to have established invention of 

Schubert (shu-bart), Franz Peter, 
compr. b. Lichtenthal, near Vienna, 
Jan. 31, 1797; d. Vienna, Nov. 19, 
1828. Son of schoolmaster, one of 
19 children (brother Ignaz gave him 
lessons and Ferdinand took care of 
him); sweetness of soprano voice 
secured him attention at Convict 
School and Court Chapel, where he 
was taught harmony by Rucziszka; 
taught in lowest class of father's 
school 1813-16; released 1817 from 
this by friend F. von Schober, with 
whom he lived thereafter (except 
1819-21); taught music to daugh- 
ters of Count Esterhazy 1818; ac- 
quainted with Beethoven during his 
last illness 1827; concert of his own 
works early in 1828; repeated efforts 
to gain some lucrative position 
always failed; though appreciated 
by contemporary musicians and to 
some extent by the public, he was 
underpaid by his publishers and 
always struggling against poverty. 
Began to compose very early, and 
fertility of production increased as 



life lasted; during last year wrote 
10th symph., mass in E flat, Miri- 
am's Song, quintet, quartet, 3 
sonatas, and songs later published 
as Swan Songs; Sir Geo. Grove, 
whose article on S. in his Dictionary 
is the standard in English, describes 
him as a " bom bourgeois, never 
really at his ease except among his 
equals and chosen associates; with 
them he was genial .... even 
boisterous . . . Simplicity curi- 
ously characterizes his whole life." 
He composed 17 operas, of which 
7 were performed and of which Die 
Zwillingsbriider, Alfonso und Estrella, 
Fierabras, are at least familiar 
names; the incidental music to 
Rosamunde is well known from 
orchestral suite; 6 masses, several 
psalms, hymns, occasional cantatas, 
Miriams Siegesgesang, etc.; chamber 
music (octet, quintets, trios), pf. 
mus. (sonatas, waltzes, impromptus, 
etc.); 7 overtures, vln. concerto; 10 
symphonies, of which one is known 
as the Unfinished; several hundred 
songs. Most admired for sym- 
phonies and songs. The symphonies 
are praised for their romantic emo- 
tional expression; Schubert's great 
innovation was " the introduction 
of the song into the symph.", most 
notably in the Unfinished symph. 
in B min.; the fluency and fertility 
of his invention command admira- 
tion but his work is condemned for 
diffuseness, lack of firmness and 
originality in harmonic structure. 
For the best of the songs there is 
little but praise; he wrote three 
kinds of songs: the simpler Lied, 
like those of his predecessors; a 
more dramatic and original variety 
in which the changing emotions of 
the poems are followed throughout; 
and declamatory ones. Among so 
many, inevitably some songs are of 
inferior quality; sometimes this was 
due to lack of care, sometimes to 
poor words. At his best, in such 
songs as Who is Sylvia? The Erl 
King, etc., S. shows perfect dramatic 
appropriateness combined with sheer 
loveliness of melody, unequaled by 
any other composer. 

Schuch (shook), Ernst, condr. b. Graz, 
Nov. 23, 1847. Vln. pupil of Stoltz 
and Dessoff; mus. dir. at Breslau, 

Wiirzburg, Graz, Basle, etc.; at 
Dresden court condr., court council- 
lor, general dir. ; married Clementine 
Proska (b. 1853), singer at Dresden 
since 1873. 

Schulhoff (shool'-hof), Julius, pst., 
compr. b. Prague, Aug. 2, 1825; d. 
Berlin, Mar. 13, 1898. Pupil of 
Kisch, Tedesco, and Tomaschek; 
dbut Dresden 1842; after playing 
in Leipzig, lived in Paris, where he 
gave concerts; friend of Chopin; 
long tours in Europe 1849-53; 
taught in Paris, Dresden, Berlin; 
compositions all for pf., good salon 
music, include sonata, 12 Etudes, 
caprices waltzes, etc.; not to be 
confounded with J. Schulhof, compr., 
in Pesth. 

Schumann (shoo-man), Georg Alfred, 
compr. b. Konigstein, Saxony, 
Oct. 25, 1866. No relation to 
Robert; pupil pf father (city mus. 
director), of Fischer, Rollfuss, etc. 
at Dresden, and of Reinecke, Zwint- 
scher, etc. at Leipzig Cons. ; director 
Danzig Gesangverein 1891-96, of 
Bremen Philharmonic 1896-99, of 
Berlin Singakademie 1900; his chief 
compositions are cantata Amor und 
Psyche, overture Liebesfruhling, or- 
chestral variations on choral, Toten- 
Tdage for chorus and orch., Ruth, 
an oratorio. 

Schumann, Robert Alexander, compr. 
b. Zwickau, Saxony, June 8, 1810; 
d. Endenich, near Bonn, July 29, 
1856. Son of publisher and book- 
seller, who had made some transla- 
tions from English; showed mus. 
ability at school, organizing band 
of his fellows; after death of father, 
1825, mother insisted on his study- 
ing law at Leipzig Univ. and at 
Heidelberg; supported by teacher 
Wieck, gained permission to be 
musician; maimed his hand per- 
manently by use of a machine for 
ringer development; studied com- 
position with Dorn, and composed 
early pf. works. In 1834 with others 
founded Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, 
which he edited until 1844 and which 
was published until 1908; in this 
paper he wrote acutely and gener- 
ously of his contemporaries and 
introduced Brahms and others to 
general notice; here too started the 
device, afterward transferred to his 



music, of writing under several 
names, Florestan, Eusebius, etc., as 
members of " Davidsbiind," a society 
of defence against Philistines; S's 
essays for the journal were later 
issued in separate volumes. Having 
fallen in love with his teacher's 
daughter, Clara Wieck, whose father 
refused his consent, S. had to go 
through the unpleasant ordeal of 
asserting his right in the courts; he 
married after long delay in 1840. 
Nervous troubles, loss of memory, 
etc., drove him from Leipzig to 
Dresden, and thence to Diisseldorf, 
where he was not successful as 
director of choral society; after 
concert tour with wife in Holland, 
morbid moods increased, until, after 
an attempt at suicide, 1854, he was 
confined in an asylum at Bonn. 

S. composed curiously almost all 
his works in one form at one time; 
his pf. works before his marriage, 
songs in years immediately after, 
then symphonies (3 in one year), 
then chamber music and at the end, 
less successfully, choral works. All 
his works are marked by strong 
personality and tinged with the 
romantic ideal of close union between 
art and life. In his pf. mus. many 
of the titles (Camaval, for example) 
suggest more or less definite pro- 
grams; yet with this modern color 
is combined a polyphony based on 
admiration and study of Bach; 
it is distinguished for " beauty of 
phrases, variety of accompaniment, 
audacity of discord." [Hadow.] In 
the songs and less directly in the 
chamber music (besides 3 quartets 
for strings, notably lovely one in 
A minor, 3 pf. trios and pf. quintet, 
these, too, have titles Mdrchenerzah- 
lungen, Fantasiestucke) , his music is 
always uttering a message of sig- 
nificance. " He marks an epoch 
because for the first time details of 
form are not so much derived from 
established rules as freshly gener- 
ated by the necessities of the idea." 
[Pratt.] His orchestral works con- 
sist of 4 symph., 4 concert over- 
tures, concertos and concertstiicke 
for pf. and for yln., etc.; choral 
works are Paradise and the Peri, 
Das Gluck von EdenhaU, etc., and 
opera Genoveva. In these larger 
forms, though they contain passages 

of rare beauty there is a lack of 
sustained nobility which keeps them 
below the highest. 

Schumann, Clara Josephine, pst. b. 
Leipzig, Sept. 13, 1819; d. Frankfort- 
on-Main, May 20, 1896. Daughter 
and pupil of Friedrich Wieck; first 
appearance in public 1828; played 
at Leipzig 1830, tours 1832, Paris 
1839, with brilliant success; married 
Robert Schumann 1840; after S's 
death, lived in Berlin and Wies- 
baden, again appearing at concerts; 
taught at Hoch Cons. Frankfort 
1878-92; as player she had as wide 
renown as any woman ever gained; 
her specialty lay in a soft, lingering 
finger pressure; her compositions are 
earnest and original both in idea 
and in harmonic treatment; she 
edited, also, her husband's complete 

Schumann-Heink (hink), Ernestine, 
[nee Roessler], dram, contralto, b. 
Lieben, near Prague, June 15, 1861. 
Studied in Graz with Marietta 
Leclair; de"but Dresden 1878; sang 
Dresden until 1882 when she married 
Heink and went to Hamburg; ap- 
pearances as guest at Paris, London; 
Bayreuth 1896 increased fame; 1899- 
1904 Berlin court opera; first ap- 
peared in N. Y. 1898, at Metropoli- 
tan irregularly until 1902, at Man- 
hattan 1906; season of comic opera 
with Edwards' Love's Lottery 1904; 
concerts 1907, etc.; became an Amer- 
ican citizen 1908; strong, deep voice 
and excellent dramatic power. 

Schuppanzigh (shoop-pan'-zig), Ignaz, 
vlt. b. Vienna, 1776; d. there, Mar. 
2, 1830. Organized and conducted 
Augarten concerts; as member of 
Prince Rasumovsky's quartet played 
quartets of Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven (the last under the 
compr's own direction); quartet 
went on tours to Germany and 
Russia; S. member court orch. 1824, 
director German opera 1828; com- 
posed for vln. solo. 

Schiitt (shutt), Eduard, pst. b. St. 
Petersburg, Oct. 22, 1856. Pupil 
at St. Petersburg Cons, of Petersen 
and Stein, and at Leipzig Cons.; 
condr. Akademischer Verein, Vienna ; 
has composed pf. concerto, serenade 
for strings, opera, variations for two 


pf. and very many pf. works of un- 
equal value; at the best brilliant and 

Schiitz (shiitz), Heinrich, compr. b. 
Kostritz, Saxony, Oct. 8, 1585; d. 
Dresden, Nov. 6, 1672. Chorister 
in court chapel at Kassel; entered 
as law student Marburg Univ.; 
Landgrave Mpritz sent him to Venice 
where he studied with Gabrielli 1609- 
12; court orgt. Kassel; capellmeister 
at Dresden (acting 1615, actual 
appointment 1617); during confusion 
at Dresden during 30 Years' War, 
frequently acted as court condr. at 
Copenhagen; conditions at Dresden 
were so confused that the greater 
part of S's activity lay elsewhere. 
S. first brought into Germany the 
new ideas and is important as pred- 
ecessor of Bach and as compr. of 
Daphne, 1st German opera (written 
on same libretto by Rinuccini that 
Peri had used), produced at Torgau 
1627; also wrote several -Passions, 
motets which tend to dramatic 
oratorio form, chorales, etc. 

Schytte (shut'-ta), Ludwig Theodor, 
pst., compr. b. Aarhus, Jutland, 
Apr. 28, 1848; d. Berlin, Nov. 10, 
1909. Druggist before 1870; after 
that pupil of Ree, Neupert, Gade, 
etc., of Taubert and Liszt; taught at 
HoraVs Inst. Vienna 1887-88; later 
lived at Berlin; composed about 
110 pf. works, Nordische Volkstim- 
men, Amorinen, etc., concerto, song 
cycle, opera Der Mamduk, burlesque 
operetta Circus-Damen, and Hero. 

Scontrino (skon-tre'-no), Antonio, 
compr. b. Trapani, May 17, 1850. 
Pupil of Platani, and at Palermo 
Cons.; after tours as contra-bass 
player, and study in Munich, taught 
and played in Milan; teacher of 
comp. Palermo Cons. 1891; since 
1892 at Mus. Inst. in Florence; com- 
posed mus. to d'Annunzio's Fran- 
cesco da Rimini, several operas, 
Sinfonia marinaresca, overtures, vln. 
works, etc. 

Scriabine (skrya-ben), Alexander Ni- 
colaievitch, compr. b. Moscow, Jan. 
10, 1872. Pupil of Safonoff and 
Taneiev at Moscow Cons.; gold 
medal 1892; after bringing out many 
compositions on European tours, 
taught pf. 1898-1903 at Moscow 


Cons.; now devoted to comp.; has 
produced 2 symph., Reverie for orch., 
concerto, 3 sonatas, studies, etc. for 
pf.; widely spoken of as brilliant pst. 
and compr. of individuality, though 
delicacy of pf . pieces suggests Chopin, 
and general orchestral style suggests 
Wagner. Visited U. S. in 1907. 

Sechter (sek'-ter), Simon, teacher, b. 
Friedberg, Bohemia, Oct. 11, 1788; 
d. Vienna, Sept. 10, 1867. Studied 
with Kozeluch and Hartmann; 
teacher at Inst. for Blind 1811; court 
orgt.; prof, harmony and counter- 
point Vienna Cons, after 1851; 
Henselt, Bruckner, and Vieuxtemps 
among pupils; masterpiece Grund- 
satze der musikalische Komposition; 
composed much church music but 
published little. 

Seeboeck (sa-bek), W. C. E., pst. b. 
Vienna, 1860; d. Chicago, 1906. Pupil 
of Epstein and Nottebohm in Vienna, 
and of Rubinstein; traveled in Europe 
and East; came to Chicago 1881; 
accompanied Apollo club, taught, 
composed innumerable songs and 
2 operas; delicate and ingenious per- 

Seeling (sa'-ling), Hans, pst. b. Prague, 
1828; d. there, May 26, 1862. Went 
to Italy 1852, thence on tour to the 
East, living in turn after 1857 11. 
Italy, Paris, and Germany; performer 
of excellent style and continued 
success; composer of brilliant pf. 
pieces, Lorelei, Memories of an Artist 
(arranged later for orch. by Miiller- 

Seidl (sidl), Anton, condr. b. Pesth, 
May 7, 1850; d. New York, Mar. 28, 
1898. Studied at Leipzig Cons.; 
chorusmaster at Vienna Opera under 
Richter; recommended by R. to 
Wagner whom he assisted with pro- 
duction of Ring, etc., until 1879; 
condr. Leipzig opera 1879-82; condr. 
of Neumann's touring Wagner Opera 
Co. 1882-83; condr. Bremen ope^a 
1883-85; at Metropolitan, N. Y.. 
1885-1892, 1895-97, supplementary 
German opera 1895; of Philharmonic 
Concerts in N. Y. and on tours with 
orch.; 1897 condr. at Covent Garden 
and at Bayreuth; not an academi- 
cally trained condr., his complete 
devotion (especially to Wagner's 
music), his great gifts, and mastery 



of orchestra made him very power- 
ful; most important in establishing 
admiration for Wagner in U. S. 

Seifert (sf-fert), Uso, pf. teacher, b. 
Romhild, Thuringia, Feb. 9, 1852. 
Studied with Blassmann, Merkel, 
Nicod6, etc. at Dresden Cons., where 
he now teaches; orgt. at Dresden; 
known for editions of older instruc- 
tive pf. music, compositions for pf., 
songs, and widely used pf. method. 

Seiss (sis), Isidor Wilhelm, pst. b. 
Dresden, Dec. 23, 1840; d. Cologne, 
Sept. 25, 1905. Pupil of Wieck and 
J. Otto, and at Leipzig Cons, of 
Hauptmann; teacher at Cologne 
Cons. 1871; condr. Mus. Gesellschaft; 
made very interesting transcriptions 
of Haydn quartets, editions of 
Beethoven's dances, etc.; fine critic, 
as well as tasteful compr. chiefly of 
instructive pieces. 

Selby, Bertram Luard, orgt. b. Ightham, 
Kent, Eng., Feb. 12, 1853. Pupil 
at Leipzig Cons, of Reinecke and 
Jadassohn; orgt. Salisbury Cath. 
1881-83, in London, Rochester Cath. 
since 1900; composed incidental 
music to Helena in Troas 1886, a 
musical duologue, Weather or no, 
1896, orchestral Idyl, quintets, pf. 
pieces, songs, etc. 

Selmer, Johann, compr., condr. b. 
Christiania, Norway, Jan. 20, 1844; 
d. Venice, July 22, 1910. After pre- 
liminary studies he spent two years 
at the Paris Cons, under Thomas; 
at Leipzig 1872-74; returning to 
Norway he succeeded Syendsen as 
director of the Christiania Musical 
Society; compositions include num- 
bers for orchestra, choral works, 
transcriptions of folk-songs and many 
songs; his works belong to the music 
school with a realistic tendency. 

Sembrich (sem'-brik) Marcella [stage 
name of Praxede Marcelline Kochan- 
ska; Sembrich is mother's maiden 
name], dram. sop. b. Wisniewczyk, 
Galicia, Feb. 15, 1858. Pupil in 
vln. and pf. at Lemberg Cons, of 
Stengel (whom she later married), 
also of Epstein at Vienna; discovered 
the value of her voice and became 
pupil of Rokitansky, and Lamperti; 
d6but Athens 1877; after study of 
German opera with R. Lewy, engaged 

at Dresden 1878-80, at London 1880- 
85; first appearance in N. Y. 1883, 
sang there 1898-1900, 1901-1909, 
when she formally retired; on con- 
cert tours of wide range, from St. 
Petersburg to Spain and San Fran- 
cisco, and in operas where genuine 
soprano is required, she has every- 
where won ardent admiration for 
the exquisite quality of her voice 
(which is compared to Patti's) and 
at the same time for her deeply in- 
telligent artistic mastery. 

Senesino (sen-e-ze-no), [stage name of 
Francesco Bernardi], dram, mezzo sop. 
b. Siena, about 1680; d. there, about 
1750. Pupil of Bernacchi at Bologna; 
first sang at Dresden; 1719 engaged 
by Handel for London where he 
appeared in several of Handel's and 
Bononcini's operas 1720-28, 1730-33, 
then at rival house under Porpora 
1733-35; returned to Siena with for- 
tune; voice of less wide compass than 
Farinelli's, but quite its equal in 
clear, flexible tone, and in simple 
expressiveness . 

Senkrah [pseud, of Anna Loretta Hark- 
nes], vti. b. Williamson, New York, 
June 6, 1864; d. Weimar, Sept., 1900. 
Pupil of Hilf, Wieniawski, and Mas- 
sart; 1st prize Paris Cons. 1881, 
concert tours since 1882; married 
Hoffmann, of Weimar, 1888; com- 
mitted suicide. 

Serafino (se-ra-fe'-no), Santo, vln.- 
maker. b. Udine, 1678; d. Venice, 
1735. Pupil probably of Tyrolese 
maker, later, by own statement, of 
Amati; as early as 1710 he was 
settled at Venice; shape of instru- 
ments like Stainer's or Amati's, 
seldom varied; closely resembles 
work of Ruggeri; wood of ex- 
traordinary beauty, with remarkable 
red varnish. Grandson Giorgio, also 
maker at Venice 1742-47; inferior 
imitative work. 

Serov, Alexander Nikolaievitch, compr. 
b. St. Petersburg, Jan. 23, 1820; d. 
there, Feb. 1, 1871. Lawyer by pro- 
fession, holding government offices 
till 1868; had lessons on 'cello from 
Schuberth; after some early composi- 
tions, in 1850 turned to mus. criti- 
cism, in which he showed violent par- 
tisanship for Wagner, etc.; composed 
grand operas to his own librettos, 



Judith 1863, Rogneaa 1865, and 3 
unfinished (Power of Evil completed 
by Soloviev, produced 1871); lect- 
ured at Moscow and St. Petersburg 
universities; operas especially ad- 
mired for natural quality of national 

Servais (sar'-va), Adrien Frangois, 
'cellist, b. Hal, near Brussels, June 
6, 1807; d. there, Nov. 26, 1866. 
Pupil of father and at Brussels Cons, 
of Platel; played in theatre orch.; 
concert de"but Paris 1834; after 
playing in London and further study 
spent 12 years in tours; prof, at 
Brussels Cons, after 1848; composed 
16 fantasias, 3 concertos, caprices 
and duets on operatic airs with Gre- 
goir and Vieuxtemps. Son Joseph 
(1850-1885), also Cellist; member 
Weimar orch., prof, at Brussels Cons. 

Sevclk (s6f-chlk), Otokar Joseph, vln. 
teacher, b. Horazdowitz, Bohemia, 
Mar. 22, 1852. Pupil of father, A. 
Sitt, and Bennewitz; concertmaster 
Salzburg and 1873 Vienna; teacher 
at Kiev 1875-92; 1892-1909 at 
Prague Cons.; 1909 Vienna Con- 
servatory; his original system has 
K'oduced many notable pupils, 
ubelik, Kocian, Marie Hall, etc.; 
method, published in 4 books, fol- 
lows system of stopping of semitones 
by same fingers on each string; in 
later book technic of bow carried 
out in minute detail. 

Seyfried (si-fred), Ignaz Xaver, Ritter 
von, compr. b. Vienna, Aug. 15, 
1776; d. there, Aug. 27, 1841. Gave 
up study of law; mus. pupil of 
Mozart, Kozeluch, Albrechtsberger, 
and Von Winter; capellmeister at 
Vienna theatres 1797-1826; compr. 
of many unimportant works; edited 
Beethoven's exercises, Albrechts- 
berger's theoretical works, etc.; 
contributor to Allgem. Zeitung and 

Sgambati (sgam-ba'-te) , Giovanni, pst., 
compr. b. Rome, May 18, 1843. 
Pupil of Aldega, Barbieri, Nata- 
lucci, and Liszt; gave orchestral 
concerts; produced Beethoven's 
Eroica and Liszt's Dante symph. 
in Italy; after concert tours in Italy 
and Germany, taught, since 1877, at 
pf. school connected with Accad. di 
S. Cecilia; admirer of Wagner, who 

recommended him to publisher 1876; 
composed symph., widely known 
quartet in D flat, quintets, requiem, 
exquisite pf. music (Pieces lyriques, 
Melodies poetiques, etc.). 

Shakespeare, William, singing teacher. 
b. Croydon, Eng., June 16, 1849. 
Chorister and orgt. when a boy; 
pupil of Molique, at Royal Acad. 
of Bennett, as Mendelssohn Scholar 
at Leipzig Cons, of Reinecke, and 
at Milan with Lamperti for voice 
especially; fine tenor singer, popular 
in Eng. concerts, etc. after 1875; 
prof. Royal Acad. 1878-86; distin- 
guished as teacher; published Art 
of Singing 1898, '99, revised 1910. 

Sharpe, Herbert Francis, pst. b. Hali- 
fax, Yorkshire, Mar. 1, 1861. Stu- 
died at Nat'l Training School, where 
he was Queen's Scholar; d6but Lon- 
don 1882; prof. Royal Coll. Mus. 
1884, examiner of Associated Board 
1890; organized trio concerts 1899- 
1902; composed comic opera, over- 
ture, pieces for flute or vln. and pf., 
songs, etc. 

Shedlock, John South, writer, b. Read- 
ing, Eng., Sept. 29, 1843. Graduated 
at London Univ. 1864; pupil of Lii- 
beck and Lalo; taught and played 
in London; critic for Academy 1879; 
for Athenaeum 1901; lectured Royal 
Acad.; published many articles, 
useful book on Pianoforte sonata, 
origin and development. 

Shelley, Harry Rowe, compr. b. New 
Haven, Conn., June 8, 1858. Pupil 
of G. J. Stoeckel at Yale, of Dudley 
Buck, Vogrich, and DvoMk; orgt. 
in New Haven, Brooklyn, and N. Y.; 
teacher of theory and comp. at 
Metropolitan Coll., N. Y.; composed 
opera, cantatas (The inheritance 
divine, Death and life), ballads, songs, 
and excellent church and org. music. 

Shepard, Frank Hartson, orgt. b. 
Bethel, Conn., Sept. 20, 1863. Pupil 
of E. Thayer, and, after several 
appointments as orgt., of Zwint- 
scher, Jadassohn, Reinecke, etc., at 
Leipzig, where he was orgt. of Eng. 
church; orgt. and founder of music 
school at Orange, N. J.; author of 
How to Modulate and Harmony 
Simplified, in which he develops 
interesting theory of " attendant 



Shepard, Thomas Griffin, orgt. b. 
Madison, Conn., Apr. 23, 1848; d. 
Brooklyn, 1905 (?). Pupil of G. W. 
and J. P. Morgan; orgt. in New Ha- 
ven, at various churches since 1865; 
instructor of Yale Glee Club; condr. 
New Haven Oratorio Soc., of Apollo 
Club, teacher of theory, org., etc.; 
compr. of cantata, anthems, offer- 
tories, etc. 

Sherwood, William Hall, pst., teacher 
b. Lyons, N. Y., Jan. 31, 1854; d. 
Chicago, Jan. 7, 1911. Pupil of his 
father, of Wm. Mason, etc., and for 
five years in Europe of Kullak, 
Weitzmann, Deppe, Liszt, etc.; 
de"but Berlin; after 1876 gave con- 
certs in U. S., then taught at N. E. 
Cons., Boston, and in N. Y.; after 
1889 in Chicago head of pf. dept. at 
Cons., 1897 of Sherwood Piano Sch.; 
head of music department Chautau- 
qua, N. Y.; teacher of Clayton 
Johns and A. Whiting; compositions, 
all for pf., include suites, Scherzo 
caprice, etc.; eminent American vir- 
tuoso, especially remarkable for 
wide range, intelligent use of tech- 
nical ability, and reposeful reser- 
vation of power. 

Shield, William, compr. b. Whickham, 
Durham, Mar. 5, 1748; d. London, 
Jan. 25, 1829. Pupil of father and 
of Avison; after apprenticeship to 
shipbuilder, became condr. in Scar- 
borough th.; vlt. in opera orch., 
London 1772, 1st viola 1773-1791; 
compr. to Covent Garden 1778-91, 
1792-97; resigned from theatre 1807; 
master of royal music 1817; author 
of popular songs (The Thorn, The 
Ploughboy, etc.), Introd. to harmony, 
Rudiments of thorough-bass, and about 
40 farces, operas, etc., into which 
he frequently interpolated famous 
songs of others; melodies vigorous, 
refined; English favorite. 

Sibelius (si-ba'-lius), Jean, compr. b. 
Tavastehus, Finland, Dec. 8, 1865. 
Pupil of Wegelius at Mus. Inst., 
Helsingfors, and of A. Becker and 
K. Goldmark; teacher of theory at 
Inst. and Orchestra School, Helsing- 
fors, after 1893; for a time enjoyed 
gov't pension; composed Finnish 
opera The Maiden in the Tower, 
said to be first nat'l opera, 2 sym- 
phonies, symph. poems, Der Schwan 
von Tuonela,En Saga Lemminkdinen, 

Finlandia, etc., and songs; note- 
worthy for use of folk-songs, per- 
sistent repetition of single notes and 
of 5-4 rhythms. 

Sieber (se'-ber), Ferdinand, singing 
teacher, b. Vienna, Dec. 5, 1822; d. 
Berlin, Feb. 19, 1895. Pupil of 
Misch and Ronconi; sang in opera; 
taught in Dresden 1848-54, then 
in Berlin; composed over 100 works, 
including very many valuable 
vocalises and exercises as well as 
songs; compiled catalog of 10,000 
songs, arranged according to voice. 

Sieveking (se'-v6-king), Martinus, pst. 
b. Amsterdam, Mar. 24, 1867. 
Studied with father, F. Coenen, and 
with Rontgen at Leipzig Cons.; 
played with success in Paris, London, 
and U. S. 1895. 

Silas (se'-laz), Eduard, pst., compr. b. 
Amsterdam, Aug. 22, 1827; d. Lon- 
don, Feb. 8, 1909. First appearance 
as prodigy at Amsterdam, 1837; 
studied with Grua, Lacombe, Kalk- 
brenner, and at Paris Cons, with 
Benoist and HaleVy; orgt. in Eng. 
1850; prof, harmony at Guildhall 
Sch. and at London Acad. Mus.; 
compositions, which have made way 
in face of adverse criticism, include 
mass (prize, Belgium, 1866), oratorio 
Joash, pf. concerto, Mythological 
pieces for orch., many pf. pieces; 
opera and theoretical works unpub- 

Silcher (sil'-ker), Friedrich, compr. b. 
Schnaith, Wiirttemberg, June 27, 
1789; d. Tubingen, Aug. 26, 1860. 
Pupil of father and orgt. Auberlen: 
taught at Stuttgart; mus. dir. Univ. 
Tubingen after 1817; by his Samm- 
lung deutscher Volkslieder and Choral- 
buch, did much to advance German 
popular singing; some of his song*- 
therein have become folk-songs 
(Aennchen von Tharau, Ich weii 
nicht was soil es bedeuten); published 
harmony method. 

Siloti (sl-16'-te), Alexander, pst. b. 
Charkov, Russia, Oct. 10, 1863. 
Studied at Moscow Cons. 1875-81 
with Zwereff, N. Rubinstein, and 
Tchaikovski; d6but Moscow 1880, 
followed by great success in Leipzig; 
after further study with Liszt, 
1883-86, at Weimar, prof, at Moscow 
Cons. 1887-90; concert tours; condr. 



Moscow Philharmonic 1901-02, St. 
Petersburg, etc.; American tours 
1898, 1903. 

Simper, Caleb, orgt. b. Barford St. 
Martin, Wiltshire, Sept. 12, 1856. 
Orgt. in Worcester 14 years ; manager 
for E. J. Spark; living in Barnstable; 
compr. of many simple anthems 
(7 will feed my flock, He is risen), and 
of some prize hymn tunes. 

Sinding, Christian, compr. b. Kongs- 
berg, Norway, Jan. 11, 1856. Stud- 
ied at Leipzig Cons, with Reinecke, 
and at Dresden, Munich, and Berlin; 
orgt. and teacher at Christiania; 
composed for orch. symphonies, pf. 
concerto, symph. poem, pf. quartets 
and quintet, vln. sonatas, and many 
pf. pieces (Variations, Romance, 
Characterstucke, very popular Friih- 
lingsrauschen, etc.); technical ability 
is fluent and sure, his ideas, though 
not deep, are melodious and often 
interestingly national in flavor, and 
his treatment of them is modern. 

Singelee (san-zhe-la), Jean Baptiste, 
vlt. b. Brussels, Sept. 25, 1812; d. 
Ostende, Sept. 29, 1875. Composed 
many works for vln., especially fan- 
tasias on operatic airs, and several 
concertos. Daughter Louise (1844- 
1886) was singer, and his brother 
Charles (1809-1867) was also vlt. 

Singer, Otto, pst. b. Sora, Saxonv, 
July 26, 1833; d. New York, Jan. 3, 
1894. Pupil at Kreuzschule, Dres- 
den, at Leipzig Cons, of Moscheles, 
Hauptmann, etc., and of Liszt; 
taught in Leipzig, Dresden, in New 
York at Mason and Thomas Cons. 
1867-73, in Cincinnati Coll. of Mus. 
1873-1893, then again in N. Y.; also 
condr. May Festivals at Cincinnati; 
composed cantatas (Landing of Pil- 
grim Fathers, etc.), symphonies, con- 
certos, Symphonic fantasia, etc. His 
son Otto, condr., compr. b. Dresden, 
Sept. 14, 1863. Early youth spent 
in U. S. A. where he studied with his 
father; then in Germany with Kiel, 
Joachim and Rheinberger. Condr. 
Heidelberg Liederkranz, 1888; suc- 
cessor to Zollner as teacher Cologne 
Cons, and dir. Mannergesangsvereins 
1890; in Leipzig 1892; later settled 
in Munich. Especially skilful in 
transcr. for piano complicated mod- 
ern orchestral scores. 

Sirt, Hans, vlt. b. Prague, Sept. 21, 
1850. Son of vln. -maker, Anton S.; 
pupil at Prague Cons, of Bennewitz, 
Mildner, etc.; leader th. orch. Bres- 
lau 1867, capellmeister there, in 
Prague 1870-73, and in Chemnitz 
1873-80; condr. at Nice; founder of 
popular concerts at Leipzig, teacher 
in Cons., viola player in Brodsky 
Quartet, condr. Bach Verein 1885- 
1903, Singakademie, and concerts 
at Altenburg; composed concertos 
for vln. and viola, solos, etc. which 
have been well received. 

Sivori (sl-vo'-rl), Ernesto Camillo, vlt 
b. Genoa, Oct. 25, 1815; d. there, 
Feb. 18, 1894. D6but at 6 as pupil 
of Restano; later studied with Costa 
and Paganini, whom he imitated 
and whose works he interpreted 
well; almost constant tours after 
1827 to England, to U. S. 1846-48, 
etc. ; style somewhat cold and devoid 
of feeling. 

Sjbgren (sha-gren'), Johann Gustav 
Emil, compr. b. Stockholm, June 16, 
1853. Studied at Stockholm Cons, 
and at Berlin with Kiel and Haupt; 
orgt. in Stockholm since 1891 ; compr. 
of pf. music, vln. sonatas, and espe- 
cially of songs, not exclusively Scan- 
dinavian in feeling. 

Skroup (shkroop), Franz, compr. b. 
Vosicz, Bohemia, June 3, 1801; d. 
Rotterdam, Feb. 7, 1862. Student 
of law and music at Prague; condr. 
Bohemian Th., Prague, and at Rot- 
terdam opera after 1860; brought 
out works of Wagner; as compr., es- 
pecially of songs, attained great pop- 
ularity (national hymn Where is My 
Country f), and of first national Bohe- 
mian opera (Dr&Tenik); with Sme- 
tana accomplished deliberately the 
emancipation of national art by 
developing national color; Skroup 
initiated movement. Brother Jan 
Nepomuk (1811-1892), chorusmaster, 
capellmeister, condr., singing teacher 
at Prague. 

Slaughter, Walter A., compr. b. Lon- 
don, Feb., 1860; d. there, Apr. 2, 
1908. Pupil of A. Cellier and 
Jacobi; condr. of several London 
theatres; compr. of several success- 
ful musical comedies, An Adamless 
Eden, A French Maid; music to 
Thackeray's Rose and Ring, etc. 



Slivinski (sli-vin'-ski), Joseph von, pst. 
b. Warsaw, Dec. 15, 1865. Studied 
at Warsaw with Strobl, at Vienna 
with Leschetizky for four years, at 
St. Petersburg with A. Rubinstein; 
d6but 1890; played in England and 
America 1893 (again in 1900 and 
1901); playing remarkable for ac- 
curacy, strength, spirit, and variety. 

Smallwood, William, orgt., compr. b. 
Kendal, Eng., Dec. 31, 1831; d. there, 
Aug. 6, 1897. Studied with Camidge 
and Phillips; orgt. Kendal 1847-97; 
compr. of instructive pf. pieces 
(Flowers of Melody, etc.), anthems, 
etc.; author of widely sold Piano- 
forte Tutor. 

Smart, Sir George Thomas, compr. b. 
London, May 10, 1776; d. there, 
Feb. 23, 1867. Chorister in Chapel 
Royal under Ay rton ; pupil of Dupuis 
and Arnold; vlt. at Salomon con- 
certs; condr. of concerts at Dublin, 
knighted there; original member 
Philharmonic Soc. ; condr. of its con- 
certs 1813-44; director City Con- 
certs 1818; orgt. 1822, and compr. 
1838, at Chapel Royal; gave lessons 
in singing until over 80; edited Gib- 
bons' madrigals, etc., published 2 
vols. of sacred music, collection of 
glees (Squirrel and Butterfly's Ball, 
well known) ; as condr. he introduced 
several important- works into Eng- 
land (Beethoven's Mount of Olives'); 
influential in engaging Weber to 
bring out Oberon in Eng.; Weber 
died at S's house. 

Smart, Henry, orgt., compr. b. London, 
Oct. 26, 1813; d. there, July 6, 1879. 
Pupil of father Henry (1778-1823, 
brother of Sir George), and Reams; 
orgt. at several London churches 
after 1836; blind after 1864; dis- 
tinguished orgt., composed much 
for his instrument; also wrote can- 
tatas (Bride of Dunkerron, King 
Rent's Daughter, etc.); especially 
noteworthy as compr. of part-songs 
(Waves' Reproof, Ave Maria, Night 
Sinks on the Wave, etc.). 

Smetana (sme'-ta-na), Bedrich, compr. 
b. Leitomischl, Bohemia, Mar. 2, 
1824; d. Prague, May 12, 1884. Pf. 
pupil of Proksch and Liszt; opened 
mus. school Prague 1848; condr. 
Philharmonic Soc. at Gothenburg, 
Sweden, 1856; after concert tour in 

Sweden and Germany, condr. Nat'l 
Bohemian Th., Prague, 1866-74, 
when he became deaf; continued 
composition under increasing diffi- 
culty until he became insane, 1882; 
in asylum April, 1884; beside many 
works for pf., songs, etc., composed 
for orch. (Wallenstein's Lager, series 
of 6 symphonic poems, Md vlasl, 
" My Country "), and 8 operas (Die 
verkaufte Braut, Libusa, Der Kuss, 
etc.), quartet Aus meinem Leben 
(mus. autobiography); greatest of 
Bohemian composers, real creator 
of artistic Bohem. mus. and of later 
school (Dvorak and Fibich). [Lives 
by WaUek, Ritter, and Hostinsky.] 

Smith, Alice Mary, compr. b. London, 
May 19, 1839; d. there, Dec. 4, 1884. 
Studied with W. S. Bennett and G. 
A. Macfarren; married F. Meadows 
White 1867; comp. 5 cantatas (Ode 
to the Northeast Wind, etc.), symph., 
overtures (Endymion, Masque of 
Pandora), quartets, clarinet concerto, 
songs, duets (O That We Two Were 
Maying, etc.); possibly most distin- 
guished of English women comprs. 
of her period. 

Smith, Edward Sydney, compr. b. 
Dorchester, July 14, 1839; d. Lon- 
don, Mar. 3, 1889. Studied with 
Moscheles, Plaidy, etc. at Leipzig 
Cons.; teacher in London after 
1859; composed showy but not 
very difficult pf. mus. (Le jet d'eau, 
The Spinning Wheel, etc.); some- 
times used pseud. Victor Delacour. 

Smith, Gerrit, orgt. b. Hagerstown, 
Md., Dec. 11, 1859. Graduated at 
Hobart College, N. Y.; pupil at 
Stuttgart Cons., of E. Thayer, W. H. 
Sherwood, Haupt, and Rohde; orgt. 
at Buffalo while still studying; since 
at Albany and New York; prof, of 
music at Union Theological Semi- 
nary; pres. Mss. Soc.; distinguished 
concert orgt.; compr. cantata David 
and smaller works, chiefly songs and 
pf. pieces. 

Smith, Wilson George, pst., compr. b. 
Elyria, O., Aug. 19, 1855. Studied 
at Cincinnati with O. Singer 1876- 
80, at Berlin with Kiel, P. and X. 
Scharwenka, Moszkowski, etc. 1880- 
82; teaching in Cleveland since 1882; 
composed many brilliant pf. works, 
Hommage a Grieg, a Schumann, a 



Chopin, etc., in which he skilfully 
follows the masters in question; 
teaching works, Scale playing, etc., 
are valuable. 

Smyth, Ethel Mary, compr. b. Lon- 
don, Apr. 23, 1858. Pupil at Leipzig 
Cons, and of H. von Herzogenberg; 
comp. chamber mus., serenade for 
orch., overture Antony and Cleo- 
patra, Solemn Mass (London 1893); 
operas Fantasia (Weimar 1898) and 
Der Wold (Dresden 1901, London 
1901, '02 and New York Metropoli- 
tan 1903), Les naufrageurs (Leipzig 
and Prague 1906). 

Sodermann (se'-der-man) , August Johan 
compr. b. Stockholm, July 17, 1832; 
d. there, Feb. 10, 1876. Pupil of 
Leipzig Cons.; condr. Stockholm Th. 
after 1862; composed about 60 
works, operettas Wedding at Ulfasa, 
incidental music to Jungfrau von 
Orleans, part-songs (Brdllop, quartet 
for women's voices, popular in Ger- 
many), mass (said to be greatest 
work), songs to words of Bellman; 
" compositions, though thoroughly 
Swedish, are not national." [Grove.] 

Sokolov (sok-o-loff), Nicholas Alex- 
androvitch, compr. b. St. Peters- 
burg, Mar. 26, 1859. Pupil of 
Johannsen and Rimsky-Korsakov 
at St. P. Cons.; teacher of theory 
at Imperial Chapel 1886, at Cons. 
1896; composed string quartets, 
symphonies, works for vln., pf., and 
voices, music to Shakespeare's 
Winter's Tale and to A. Tolstoi's 
Don Juan. 

Soloviev (sol-o-vyof), Nicolai Theo- 
pemptovitch, compr., critic, b. Petro- 
sadovsk, prov. of Olonetz, Russia, 
May 9, 1846. Pupil of Zaremba at 
Imp. Cons.; prof, of harmony and 
mus. hist, at St. Petersburg Cons.; 
counsellor of state; critic and editor 
of lexicon; composed operas (Cor- 
delia 1885), overture on a national 
theme, symph. poem Russes et 
Mongols; completed Serov's Power 
of the Demon. 

Somervell, Arthur, compr. b. Wind- 
ermere, Eng., June 5, 1863. Studied 
at Berlin Hochschule, and at Royal 
Coll. Mus. with Parry and Stanford; 
government inspector for England, 
Wales, and Scotland; Mus. Doc. 
Cambridge 1903; composed many 

graceful songs, orchestral ballads 
and cantatas, Helen of Kirkconnell, 
Forsaken Merman, Seven Words 
from Cross, few orchestral works. 

Somis (so-mis'), Giovanni Battista, vlt. 
b. Piedmont, 1676; d. Turin, Aug. 

14, 1763. Pupil of Corelli; court 
soloist and condr. at Turin; teacher 
of Giardini, Leclair, and Chabran; 
comp. sonatas for vln., 'cello, and pf. 

Sontag, Henriette Gertrude Walpurgis, 
dram. sop. b. Coblenz, Jan. 3, 
1806; d. Mexico, June 17, 1854. 
Child actress; pupil at Prague Cons, 
of Pixis, Triebensee, Czeska, etc.; 
sang at Vienna; created title part 
in Euryanthe 1823; great success in 
Leipzig, Berlin, and Paris, where she 
defeated Catalani, breaking Berlin 
contract 1827; married Count Rossi 
in London 1828; retired from stage 
1830, continued success in concerts, 
returned to stage 1848, singing with 
unfailing fortune in London, Paris, 
New York, 1852, and Mexico. 

Soubies (so-bes'), Albert, writer, b. 
Paris, May 10, 1846. After admis- 
sion to bar, studied comp. at Cons, 
with Savard and Bazin; revived 
Almanack des spectacles 1874-79; 
critic for Le soir, contributor to 
Menestrel, etc.; has written series of 
histories of music in separate coun- 
tries (Russia, Portugal, etc.), histories 
of opera and comic opera chiefly in 
Paris, and work on Wagner. 

Sousa, John Philip, condr., compr. b. 
Washington, D. C., Nov. 6, 1856. 
Pupil of J. Esputa and G. F. Ben- 
kert; condr. traveling company at 
17; vlt. in Offenbach's Co. 1877; 
director Philadelphia Church Choir 
Pinafore Co.; leader of U. S. Marine 
Corps band 1880-92; condr. of own 
band with which he has been on 
extended tours; compr. of several 
comic operas (The Bride-elect, El 
Capitan, etc.), and many stirring 
military marches, which have been 
very popular. 

Spalding, Albert, vlt. b. Chicago, Aug. 

15. 1888. Studied with Jean Buit- 
rago in New York, with Chiti in 
Florence (where he appeared at 
private concert at 10); passed 
examination for professorship at 
Bologna Cons, at 14; after further 
study with Lefort in Paris, d6but 



there 1906; continued success in 
Europe 1907, '08 and in New York 

Spalding, Walter Raymond, teacher, b. 
Northampton, Mass., May 22, 1865. 
Graduated Harvard 1887, A.M., 
with honors in music, 1888; also 
studied in Paris and Munich; 
master of classics and mus. at St. 
Mark's School, Southboro, 1889-92; 
orgt. at Emmanuel Ch., Boston, 
1887-88, orgt. and choirmaster 1898- 
1900; teacher 1895, asst. prof, after 
1903 of harmony at Harvard, made 
prof, in 1907; influential in raising 
standard of school mus.; author of 
Tonal Counterpoint (with Foote) 
and Modern Harmony. 

Spanuth, August, compr., critic, editor. 
b. Hanover, March 15, 1857. Began 
musical education at an early age 
and made first public appearance at 
seventeen; studied composition with 
Raff and piano with Carl Heymann; 
made American d^but as pianist in 
1886; teacher in Chicago Musical 
College 1887-1893; then located in 
New York City as private teacher 
and musical critic for New Yorker 
Stoats Zeitung; removed to Berlin 
1906; teacher in the Stern Conser- 
vatory and editor of Signale fur die 
musikalische Welt; published works 
consist of piano pieces, songs, studies; 
editor of the Liszt piano volumes in 
The Musicians Library. 

Spark, William, compr. b. Exeter, 
Eng., Oct. 28, 1823; d. Leeds, June 
16, 1897. Chorister at Exeter Cath.; 
articled pupil of S. S. Wesley; orgt. 
at Leeds, founder Leeds Mus. Soc.; 
Mus. Doc., Dublin, 1861; editor 
Organists' Quarterly Journal; com- 
posed oratorio, org. mus., wrote 
Memoirs of Wesley and H. Smart, 
Musical Memories, Musical Remi- 
niscences; also published cantatas, 
anthems, etc. 

Speidel (spi'-del), Wilhelm, pst. b. 
Ulm, Sept. 3, 1826; d. Stuttgart, 
Oct. 13, 1899. Pupil of father 
(teacher and chorus director), and 
at Munich with Wanner, Kuhe, and 
I. Lachner; taught at Thann, and 
Munich 1848-54; mus. dir. Ulm; 
at Stuttgart, condr. Liederkranz 
1857, part founder of Cons., teacher 
there, except 1874-84 when he had 

his own Kunstler und Dilettanten- 
schule fiir Klavier; composed cho- 
ruses, symphony, sonatas, etc. 

Spicker, Max, condr., teacher. b. 
Konigsberg, Aug. 16, 1858. Pupil for 
five years of L. Kohler, and at 
Leipzig Cons, for one year under 
Wenzel, Richter, etc.; theatre condr. 
at Heidelberg, Ghent, etc.; condr. 
Beethoven Mannerchor, New York, 
1882-88; dir. Brooklyn Cons. 1888- 
95; later teacher of harm, and 
counterpoint at Nat'l Cons., N. Y.; 
composed suite, cantata, and many 

Spiering (sper'-ing), Theodore B., vlt. 
b. St. Louis, Sept. 5, 1871. Studied 
with Schradieck at Cincinnati, and 
four years with Joachim at Berlin; 
founder and leader S. Quartet of 
Chicago, which gave admirable 
concerts 1893-1905; with Thomas 
Orch. 1892-96; dir. of S. Vln. Sch., 
Chicago, 1899-1902, of Chicago Mus. 
Coll. 1902-05; gave concerts in 
Europe 1905-06; located in Berlin 
1907-1909; concertmaster Philhar- 
monic Society, N. Y., 1909-10. 

Spindler (spind'-ler), Fritz, pst., compr. 
b. Wiirzbach, Nov. 24, 1817; d. 
Niederlossnitz, near Dresden, Dec. 

26, 1906. Studied theology first; 
pupil of Fr. Schneider; successful 
teacher in Dresden after 1841 ; com- 
posed over 300 pieces for pf. (Frisch- 
es Leben very popular), 2 symph., 
pf. concerto, string quartet, etc. 

Spinney, Walter, orgt., compr. b. 
Salisbury, Mar. 26, 1852; d. Leam- 
ington, June 21, 1894. Of musical 
family, father and brothers orgts., 
sister pst.; articled pupil of Richard- 
son at Salisbury Cath.; orgt. at 
parishes of Salisbury, Doncaster, 
Leamington, succeeding brother 
Frank S. (1850-1888); issued col- 
lections The organ library and The 
vesper bell, which contain some origi- 
nal works. 

Spitta, Johann August Philipp, his- 
torian, b. Wechold, Hanover, Dec. 

27, 1841; d. Berlin, Apr. 13, 1894. 
Student of philology at Gottingen; 
teacher at several gymnasia; co- 
founder of Bach Verein at Leipzig; 
1875 prof. mus. hist. Berlin Univ., 
teacher and director 1882 in Hoch- 
schule; author of exhaustive and 


authoritative life of J. S. Bach (trans, 
in 3 vols.), life of Schumann origin- 
ally for Grove's Diet., 2 collections of 
essays; contributions to periodicals, 
esp. to Vierteljahrsschrift fur Musik- 
wissenschaft, which he founded, with 
Chrysander and Adler; edited works 
of Buxtehude, began those of Schiitz 
( finished by brother Friedrich, b. 

Spohr (sp6r), Ludwig, vlt., compr. b. 
Brunswick, Apr. 5, 1784; d. Kassel, 
Nov. 22, 1859. His father, a physi- 
cian, was amateur flute player, his 
mother, a singer and pst., was 
S's first teacher; pupil at five of 
Riemenschneider, Dufour, and at 
Brunswick of Maucourt and Hart- 
ung; member of ducal orch. and at 
duke's request pupil of F. Eck, with 
whom he went to St. Petersburg; 
1803 again in orch.; 1804 successful 
first tour; 1805 leader at Gotha, 
married Dorette Scheidler, harp- 
player; on tour with her 1807, 1809; 
condr. 1st mus. festival in Germany, 
Frankenhausen 1809; condr. in 
Vienna 1812-15; after tour of 
Italy, where he played with Paganini, 
opera condr. Frankfort 1817-19; 
1820 visited England, first to conduct 
there with baton; court condr. at 
Kassel 1822 until retirement 1857; 
conducted at several festivals, visited 
England 1839, but could not get 
leave to conduct his Fail of Babylon 
at Norwich 1842; besides several 
works for pf., harp, and songs, com- 
posed 11 operas (Faust, Jessonda 
much the best), oratorios (Das 
jiingste Gericht, etc.), 9 symphonies 
(some with titles, Die Jahreszeiten, 
Irdisches u. Gottliches im Menschen- 
leben); several overtures, and 15 
vln. concertos (8th a Gesangsszene) , 
which are still played; wrote also 
valuable Violin School and Auto- 
biography, full of self-content and 
strange criticisms; as condr., among 
first to appreciate Wagner. 

Spontini (spon-te'-nl), Gasparo Luigi 
Pacifico, compr. b. Majolati, An- 
cona, Nov. 14, 1774; d. there, Jan. 
24, 1851. Son of peasants, who 
intended him for priesthood; ran 
away to a friendly uncle; pupil of 
Sala and Tritto at Cons, in Naples; 
early operas won advice from Pic- 
cini; composed at Rome, Venice, 


etc.; in Paris after 1803 friendship 
with poet Jouy and admiration for 
Mozart changed style; La Vestale, 
brought out at Opra through 
influence of Empress Josephine 1807, 
won prize offered by Napoleon; 
married daughter of Erard; di- 
rector of Italian Opera 1810-12, 
dismissed on charge . of " financial 
irregularity," declined offer of rein- 
statement 1814, when he became 
court compr. to Louis XVIII; as 
compr. to Friedrich Wm. II, had 
great success at Berlin; difficulties 
there, however, led to retirement 
1841 as narrow escape from disgrace; 
operas (especially La Vestale, Fer- 
nand Co'rtez, Olympic) are planned 
with fine breadth, but details do 
not carry 'out plan; his technical 
knowledge of harmony and instru- 
mentation was defective and his 
melody lacked lightness and variety. 

Stadler, Maximilian, compr., writer, b. 
Melk, Lower Austria, Aug. 4, 1748; 
d. Vienna, Nov. 8, 1833. Son of 
baker, educated at Jesuit College, 
Vienna; entered Benedictine Order 
1772; priest, abbot at Lilienfeld 
1786, Kremsmunster 1798; during 
residence at Vienna, friend of 
Haydn and Mozart; compr. of 
much church music; ardent de- 
fender of authenticity of Mozart's 
Requiem (Verteidigung der Echtheit 
. . . 1826). 

Stainer, Jakob, vln.-maker. b. Absam, 
Tyrol, July 14, 1621; d. there, 1683. 
Possibly pupil of Herz, an org. 
builder, but probably pupil of some 
of many obscure makers of his dis- 
trict; went to Italy 1646, where he 
had chance to examine Italian 
models, though he was probably 
never pupil of Amati; vln.-maker 
to court of Austria 1669; accusa- 
tion of heresy destroyed prospects; 
died in debt and insane; greatest 
German maker; vlns. are heavy in 
form (" clumsy " ace. to Hart), later 
ones somewhat improved in design 
and varnish; all have moderately 
strong, clear tone. 

Stainer, Sir John, compr., orgt. b. 
London, June 6, 1840; d. Verona, 
Mar. 31, 1901. Chorister at St. 
Paul's; pupil of Bayley, Steggall, 
and Cooper; positions as orgt., 
Univ. orgt. Oxford 1860; Mus. Doc. 



there 1865; orgt. St. Paul's 1872- 
88; prof, of mus. at Oxford 1889, 
of org. and harmony at Nat'l 
Training School; principal there 
1881, prof, after School became 
Royal Coll. 1883; gov't inspector 
1882; knighted 1888, and other 
distinctions; composed oratorios Gid- 
eon, Crucifixion (most popular), 
cantatas (Daughter of Jairus, etc.), 
many services, etc. (Sevenfold Amen 
is well known), all marked by dignity 
and feeling which he showed as orgt.; 
wrote manuals Harmony, Organ, 
Music of the Bible and Dufay and 
His Contemporaries. 

Stamaty (sta-ma-te), Camille Marie, 
pst. b. Rome, Mar. 23, 1811; d. 
Paris, Apr. 19, 1870. At first em- 
ployed at gov't office; pupil of 
Kalkbrenner; at first concert, 1835, 
appeared as pst. and compr.; after 
further study with Mendelssohn 
returned to Paris, where he was suc- 
cessful as teacher; Gottschalk, Saint- 
Saens among pupils; wrote valuable 
Rhythme des doigts, and many Etudes, 
sonatas, and a pf. concerto; " at a 
time when others were seeking easy 
successes, he was distinguished for 
purity of style and elevation of 
thought." [Rapin.] 

Stamitz (sta'-mitz), Carl, vlt. b. Mann- 
heim, May 7, 1746; d. Jena, 1801 
(buried Nov. 11). Son of Johann 
Wenzl Anton S., vlt. (1717-1761); 
pupil of father and of Cannabich; 
member Electoral Orch.; leader orch. 
of Due de Noailles in Paris 1770-85; 
after tours in Germany and resi- 
dence in St. Petersburg, condr. 
academical concerts at Jena after 
1800; composed operas Der verliebte 
Vormund and Dardanus, 70 sym- 
phonies, duets for vln., 'cello, etc.; 
one of very first to cultivate symph. 
as form; disputes priority with 

Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers, compr., 
condr. b. Dublin, Sept. 30, 1852. 
Of musical family; pupil of Sir 
Robt. Stewart, A. O'Leary, E. 
Pauer; student at Cambridge; orgt. 
Trinity Coll. 1873-92, condr. C. 
Univ. Mus. Soc. 1874-93; after 
study with Reinecke and Kiel, took 
M.A., Camb., 1877; Mus. Doc. at 
both univ. ; prof, of comp. and 
condr. at Royal Coll. Mus. after 

1883; prof. mus. at Cambridge 
since 1887; condr. Bach Choir 1885, 
Leeds Philharmonic Soc. 1897; com- 
posed several operas (Canterbury 
Pilgrims, Shamus O'Brien), remark- 
able choral works (The Revenge, 
Phaudrig Crohoore, etc.), 5 sym- 
phonies, notably an Irish one, music 
to Tennyson's Queen Mary, and 
smaller instrumental works; edited 
coll. of Irish airs; especially skilful 
in use of orchestral colors. 

Stanley, Albert Augustus, orgt., teacher. 
b. Manville, R. I., May 25, 1851. 
After study in Providence, pupil of 
Reinecke, Richter, etc., in Leipzig 
at Cons, and privately; orgt. Provi- 
dence 1876-88; prof. mus. Univ. of 
Michigan since 1888; composed 
symph. The Soul 's awakening, symph. 
poem Attis, ode for Providence cen- 
tennial, songs, church music, etc. 

Stark, Ludwig, teacher, b. Munich, 
June 19, 1831; d. Stuttgart. Mar. 22, 
1884. Studied philosophy at Univ., 
mus. with I. and F. Lachner; co- 
founder Stuttgart Cons. 1857, where 
he taught harmony, history, and 
singing until 1873; condr. S. Sing- 
verein; edited with Lebert Grosse 
Klavierschule, with Faisst Lieder- 
schule, and other valuable instruc- 
tive works. 

Stasny (staz'-ne), Ludwig, compr., 
arranger, b. Prague, Feb. 26, 1823; 
d. Frankfort-on-Main, Oct. 30, 1883. 
Pupil Prague Cons.; military condr. 
1846-68; condr. Frankfort Palmen- 
garten after 1871; produced 2 operas; 
made orch. arrangements of Wagner 
operas, etc.; composed dances based 
on or imitated from folk-tunes. His 

Stasny (staz'-ne), Carl Richard, pst., 
teacher, b. Mayence, Mar. 16, 1855. 
Early showed aptitude for music, and 
at 8 began lessons in pf. playing; 
entered a course in civil engineering 
which he gave up at 17; on the 
advice of Raff the father sent young 
Stasny to Vienna to study with 
Ignaz Briill; two years later he went 
to Kriiger at Stuttgart, and in 1879 
to Weimar with Liszt, where he 
remained for two years; in 1878 
he began a series of concert tours 
which lasted until 1885, and took 
him to all the important cities of 



Europe; teacher at the Hoch Cons., 
Frankfort, 1885-1891, where he made 
a special study of Schumann's works 
with Clara Schumann; in 1891 he 
came to the N. E. Cons., Boston, 
and is still, 1910, connected with 
that institution. 

Staudigl (stou'-digl), Joseph, dram, 
bass. b. Wollersdorf, Lower Austria, 
Apr. 14, 1807; d. Michaelbeuern- 

rund, near Vienna, Mar. 28, 1861. 
tudent of medicine; member of 
opera chorus at Vienna, then chief 
bass; court singer 1831; distinguished 
in concert hall as well as on stage; 
insane after 1856. Son Joseph, bari- 
tone, b. Vienna, Mar. 18, 1850. 
Pupil of Rokitansky at Vienna 
Cons.; singer at Carlsruhe. 

Stavenhagen (sta'-ven-ha-gen), Bern- 
hard, pst. b. Greiz, Reuss, Nov. 25, 
1862. Pupil at Berlin Meister- 
schule of Kiel, at the Hochschule of 
Rudorff, of Liszt 1885-86; Mendels- 
sohn Prize, Berlin, 1880; after 
brilliant tours in Europe and U. S. 
1894-95, court condr. at Weimar 
1895-98, at Munich 1898; director 
Royal Academy 1901-04; now in 
Weimar; distinguished player, espe- 
cially of Liszt's works; compr., 
also, of pf. pieces, Norse songs, pf. 
concerto, etc. 

Stcherbatcheff (stcher'-bat-chof), Nico- 
las de, compr. b. Russia, Aug. 24, 
1853. After spending some time 
in Rome and elsewhere (pupil of 
Liszt at Weimar) became closely 
connected with young Russian 
school; composed 2 Idyls and Sere- 
nade for orch., several charming pf. 
pieces (Feeries et pantomimes), and 
songs to Russian and German words. 

Steane, Bruce Harry Dennis, orgt., 
compr. b. Camberwell, London, 
June 22, 1866. Chorister at 8, 
asst. orgt. at 12; held various posi- 
tions as orgt. and choirmaster; very 
numerous services, anthems, and 
org. pieces, and sacred cantata 

Steggall, Charles, orgt. b. London, 
June 3, 1826; d. there, June 7, 1905. 
Studied at Royal Acad. with Ben- 
nett; prof, there of org. and harmony 
1851-1903; Mus. Doc. Camb.; orgt. 
Lincoln's Inn Chapel after 1864; 
composed services, edited psalter, 

Hymns, Ancient and Modern. Son 
Reginald, compr. b. London, Apr. 
17, 1867. Pupil at Royal Acad. 
and org. professor there since 1895; 
compositions (mass, symph., 2 scenas 
Elaine and Alcestis) show him to 
belong to advanced modern school. 

Steibelt (stl-belt), Daniel, pst. b. Ber- 
lin, 1765; d. St. Petersburg, Sept. 20, 
1823. Studied with Kirnberger; 
published sonatas and gave concerts 
in Saxony, etc., before coming to 
Paris 1790; superseding J. D. Her- 
mann and Pleyel became favorite 
pst. and teacher; opera Romeo et 
Juliette successful 1793; leaving Paris 
for debts, etc., 1797, won renown in 
London; German tour 1799 included 
disastrous challenge to Beethoven; 
brought out Haydn's Creation, Paris, 
1800, and revisited city 1805-08; 
after further tours, condr. of opera 
in St. Petersburg 1810; his pf. music 
is of melodramatic style (L'Orage, 
finale of 3d concerto, was played 
widely) ; also composed operas. 

Steinbach (stln-bak), Fritz, condr. b. 
Grunsfeld, Baden, June 17, 1855. 
Pupil of brother Emil (b. 1849) 
ana at Leipzig Cons, where he won 
Mozart Scholarship; 2d capellmeis- 
ter, Mayence, 1880-86; court condr. 
Meiningen 1886-1902; condr. and 
dir. of cons, at Cologne 1902; compr. 
of septet, 'cello sonata, and other 

Steingraber (stin'-grab-er), Theodor, 
publisher, b. Neustadt-on-Orla, Jan. 
25, 1830; d. Leipzig, Apr. 5, 1904. 
Founder of firm in Hanover, in 
Leipzig since 1890; under pseud. 
Gustav Damm, wrote pf. method, 
and editions of pf. works. 

Stengel, Mme. W., see Sembrich, 

Stenhammer, Wilhelm, compr. b. 
Stockholm, Feb. 7, 1871. Son of 
Ulrik, song compr.; pupil at Stock- 
holm Cons., and of H. Barth in 
Berlin; director Philharmonic Soc. 
1898, condr. Royal Th. 1900 in 
Stockholm; member Aulin Quartet; 
after some smaller works, gained 
distinction by Prinzessan och Sven- 
nen, festival cantata, etc.; 2 operas 
1898, 1903 have been successful; 
also composed choral works, sonata, 
songs, etc. 



Sterling, Antoinette, contralto, b. Ster- 
lingsville, N. Y., Jan. 23, 1850; d. 
Hampstead, London, Jan. 9, 1904. 
Studied with Abella, Mme. Mar- 
chesi, Viardot-Garcia, and Manuel 
Garcia; church singer in Brooklyn; 
after concert dbut, London, 1873, 
had great success in oratorio and 
concerts; married J. Mackinlay 
1875; gave series of concerts in 
America 1875; " essentially a ballad 
singer "; Lost Chord and other songs 
written for her; son published A. S. 
and Other Celebrities 1906. 

Stern, Leopold Laurence, 'cellist, b. 
Brighton, Eng., Apr. 5, 1862; d. 
London, Sept. 10, 1904. Student of 
chemistry; studied music with 
Piatti, and at Leipzig with Klengel 
and Davidoff; tour 1886 with Patti; 
brought out Dvorak's concerto 1895; 
toured U. S. and Canada 1897-98; 
after that appeared but rarely; 
married Nettie Carpenter, vlt., 1891, 
and Suzanne Adams, singer, 1898. 

Sternberg, Constantin Ivanovitch von, 
pst., compr. b. St. Petersburg, July 
9, 1852. Studied with Moscheles, 
Coccius, Richter, etc. at Leipzig 
Cons., with Kullak, Dorn, etc. at 
Berlin Akademie, and with Liszt in 
vacations; condr. and chorusmas- 
ter Leipzig 1867-69; condr. Wiirz- 
burg, Mecklenburg (where he was 
dir. of Acad. and court pst.); after 
tours in Germany, Russia, Asia 
Minor, U. S., 1880-85, became direc- 
tor of Atlanta Coll. of Mus. 1885-89; 
director of S. Sch. of Mus. in PhUa. 
since 1890; compositions for pf. show 
skill and knowledge of the genius of 
the instrument. 

Stevens, Richard John Samuel, compr. 
b. London, Mar. 27, 1757; d. there, 
Sept. 23, 1837. Chorister at St. 
Paul's under William Savage; orgt. 
at Temple Church 1786 and Charter 
House 1796; prof, in Gresham Col- 
lege 1801; composed harpsichord 
sonatas, edited Sacred Music but is 
chiefly noted as compr. of remark- 
able glees; prizes from Catch Club 
1782 and '86; among favorites are 
Ye Spotted Snakes, Blow, blow, thou 
winter wind, and Sigh no more. 

Stevenson, Frederick, orgt., compr. b. 
Newark, Nottinghamshire, Eng., 
Sept. 16, 1845. Father and mother 

musical, the latter a fine singer; sang 
in parish choir as a boy, studied org. 
with Thirtle and Reay; attended St. 
John's Coll., Hurstpierpoint, sang 
in choir; 1867-1883 orgt. in London 
and suburbs; studied harmony with 
Macfarren, counterpoint with Bridge; 
conductor of three choral societies, 
prof, of voice and theory Blackheath 
Cons.; 1883 came to U. S. as pre- 
centor of St. John's Cath., Denver; 
later orgt. and choirmaster St. 
Mark's Ch., dir. of Denver Cons.; 
1894 removed to Los Angeles, Cal., 
where he is orgt. and choirmaster 
of St. John's, Christ Church and 
Jewish Temple, dir. of choral clubs; 
has written in many forms, sacred 
and secular choral works, part-songs, 
anthems, songs, and a few pieces for 
orchestra and military band. 

Stewart, Humphrey John, compr., orgt. 
b. London, Eng., May 22, 1856. 
Boy chorister, and church organist 
at the age of 11; education carried 
on under private teachers, during 
which time he served as organist of 
several English churches; came to 
the United States in 1886, locating 
at San Francisco, where he was or- 
ganist of several churches; for sev- 
eral years organist of Trinity Church, 
Boston, from which city he returned 
to San Francisco, where he now 
(1910) resides; organist of St. Domi- 
nic's church, and of two Jewish 
synagogues, condr. Handel and 
Haydn Society. Compositions in- 
clude three comic operas, Bluff King 
Hal (1889), His Majesty (1890) and 
The Conspirators (1900); The Na- 
tivity, oratorio (1888); Mass in D 
minor (1907); music drama Monte- 
zuma (1903) produced as a forest 
play by the Bohemian Club of San 
Francisco; orchestral suite, Scenes 
in California (1906); incidental 
music to many plays, songs, piano 
and violin pieces, part-songs and 
church music; won the gold medal 
for composition A. G. O., 1900, 
Kimball Prize of the Chicago Mad- 
rigal Club (1907); Mus. Doc. Uni- 
versity of the Pacific; music critic 
San Francisco Examiner and Even- 
ing Post. 

Stewart, Sir Robert Prescott, orgt. b. 
Dublin, Dec. 16, 1825; d. there, Mar. 
24, 1894. Chorister and orgt. at 



Dublin; condr. Univ. Choral Soc.; 
Mus. Doc. Dublin 1851; prof. 
Dublin Univ. 1861, at Royal Irish 
Acad. 1872, condr. of Philharmonic 
1873; knighted 1872; composed 
several important odes, cantatas, 
and many deservedly popular glees; 
lectures and writings are of value. 

Stiehl (stel), Heinrich Franz Daniel, 
orgt. b. Liibeck, Aug. 5, 1829; d. 
Reval, May 1, 1886. Studied with 
Lobe, and at Leipzig Cons, with 
Moscheles, Gade, and Hauptmann; 
orgt. and condr. Singakademie at St. 
Petersburg 1853-66; tours in Ger- 
many, Italy, and England, condr. 
at Belfast; after 1880 orgt. and condr. 
at Reval; many compositions for 
orch., chamber music and 2 operas. 

Stock, Frederick, condr. b. Nov. 11, 
1872, at Jiilich, Germany. Father, 
a bandmaster in the German army, 
was his first teacher; entered Cologne 
Conservatory in 1886, graduating as 
violinist ; while a member of the Mu- 
nicipal Orchestra studied composi- 
tion under Humperdinck, Zollner and 
Franz Wiillner; came to the U. S. 
in 1895, joined the Chicago Orches- 
tra, becoming assistant conductor 
to Theodore Thomas in 1899; from 
1903-1905 he conducted all of the 
orchestra concerts outside of Chicago 
and on Thomas' death succeeded to 
the conductorship; compositions in 
the large forms include overtures, 
a symphonic poem, symphonic varia- 
tions on an original theme, played 
in Chicago, Pittsburg, and at the Wor- 
cester Festival in 1906, a symphony 
in C minor, produced at Chicago, 
Dec. 31, 1909, and afterward at the 
Cincinnati Festival 1910; Stock is 
also conductor of the Musical Art 
Club (vocal), of Chicago. 

Stockhausen (stock'-hou-zen) , Julius, 
baritone, teacher, b. Paris, July 22, 
1826; d. Frankfort-on-Main, Sept. 
22, 1906. Son of Franz, compr. and 
harpist (1792-1868), and concert 
singer Margarete Schmuck (1803- 
1877); studied at Paris Cons, and 
with Manuel Garcia; favorite con- 
cert singer; condr. Philharmonic 
and Singakademie at Hamburg 
1862-67; condr. Stern Gesangverein 
at Berlin 1874-78; teacher of singing 
at Hoch Cons., Frankfort, 1878-79, 
and 1882-98; then gave private 

lessons; published method; beauty 
of voice and care for interpretation 
made him wonderful singer of Schu- 
bert's and Schumann's works. 

Stojowski (sto-yofs'-ki), Sigismund 
Denis Antoine, pst. b. Strelzy, 
Poland, May 14, 1870 [Riemann. 
Paris Cons, documents Apr. 8]. 
Studied at Cracow with Zelenski 
and at Paris Cons, with Dimmer and 
Delibes; 1st prizes pf. and comp. 
1889; later pupil of Paderewski; 
teacher at Inst. of Mus. Art, N. Y., 
from 1906; has composed orchestra 
suite, symph., pf. concerto, studies, 
and sonatas for pf. and vln. 

Storace, Stephen, compr. b. London, 
Jan. 4, 1763; d. there, Mar. 19, 1796. 
Studied vln. with father and at Cons, 
of San Onofrio, Naples; traveled 
with sister Ann Selina, singer (1766- 
1817), in Italy, lived in Vienna, where 
he knew Mozart; produced 2 operas 
in Vienna, and, after 1787, many in 
London (The Haunted Tower, No 
Song, no Supper, etc.); often intro- 
duced work of other comprs. into 
operas; pleasant melodies, with orch. 
accomp. ; much influenced by Mozart. 

Story, Emma Eames, see Eames, Emma. 

Stradella (stra-del'-la), Alessandro, 
compr. b. Naples, 1645; d. Genoa, 
June, between 6 and 16, 1681. 
Dates, places, and details of biog- 
raphy are all obscure; unauthenti- 
cated story that he eloped with a 
Venetian lady whose lover hired 
a man to murder S.; the assassin, 
fascinated by S's music, advised 
him to flee; a second murderer fol- 
lowed him to Genoa and there killed 
him; subject of Flotow's opera 
Stradella; said to have been fine 
singer and harpist; composed about 
150 works, operas, oratorios (San 
Giovanni Battista best known), can- 
tatas, madrigals, etc., fluent, but 
not deep; his Serenata contains sub- 
jects which Handel used in Israel 
in Egypt; familiar Pieta Signore, 
attributed to S., probably by Rossini. 

Stradivari (stra-di-va'-ri), or Stradi- 
varius, Antonio, vln.-maker. b. Cre- 
mona, 1644; d. there, Dec. 18, 1736. 
Pupil of Amati; began to sign vlns. 
with own name 1666; early instr. on 
Amati model, of rather poor mate- 
rials; from 1684-1700 carried on 


series of experimental alterations 
in shape and in cuttings; " Long 
Strad " first made 1690; final period 
after 1703, attained highest point 
ever reached in vln.-making, care- 
fully looking after smallest details 
himself, and making slight variations 
apparently to meet variations in 
material; "his varnish also varies in 
color and defies analysis, the secret 
of it having been long sought in 
vain; many instruments are named 
Messie, Dolphin, Pucelle, etc.; S. 
also made 'cellos and violas; author- 
itative life is that by W. H., A. F., 
and A. E. Hill (London, 1902). 

Strakosch (stra-kosh'), Maurice, im- 
presario, b. Lemberg, 1825; d. 
Paris, Oct. 9, 1887. Pf. pupil of 
Sechter in Vienna; taught in N. Y. 
1845-60; after 1856 managed opera 
troupe; organized opera season at 
Paris 1873-74; European agent for 
Patti (who was his sister-in-law) and 
for other singers; managed theatre 
Rome 1884-85; published Souvenirs 
d'un impresario 1887. Brother Max 
(d. 1892) managed in America while 
Maurice was in Eng.; joined him in 

Strauss (strous), Johann, I, compr. b. 
Vienna, Mar. 14, 1804; d. there, 
Sept. 25, 1849. Son of keeper of 
beer garden and dance hall; having 
run away from apprenticeship to 
bookbinder, became pupil of Poly- 
schansky and Seyfried; member of 
dance hall orch., of Lanner Quartet 
1823; deputy condr. of L's orch.; 
organized own orch. 1826, compos- 
ing first waltzes at this time; after 
concert tours, bandmaster 1st Vienna 
Militia reg't 1834; further tours took 
him as far as Paris and London 
1837-38; condr. court balls in Vienna 
1845; " father of the waltz," com- 
posed over 150 waltzes, quadrilles and 
marches, in which by fire and spirit 
and by skilful orchestration he raised 
dance mus. to high level. His son, 

Strauss, Johann, II, compr. b. Vienna, 
Oct. 25, 1825; d. there, June 3, 1899. 
Against wishes and without knowl- 
edge of father pupil of Drechsler; 
as condr. of restaurant orch. at 
Hietzing won great success; after 
father's death made tours with 
united orchestras; condr. St. Peters- 
burg 1855-63, of Vienna court balls 


1863-70; after 1870 composed sev- 
eral charming operettas Die Fleder- 
maus, Zigeunerbaron; called " The 
Waltz King"; composed Blue Dan- 
ube, Wine, Woman, and Song, etc.; 
music has never been surpassed in 
its kind for popularity or for merit. 
His brothers, Joseph (1827-1870), 
deputy condr. for Johann 1853; later 
condr. of own orch.; also successful 
compr. of dance music; Eduard (b. 
1835) followed Johann, as court ball 
condr. 1870; also compr. 

Strauss, Richard, compr. b. Munich, 
June 11, 1864. No relation to 
Viennese dance compr.; son of 
Franz, horn player in court orches- 
tra; pupil in comp. of F. W. Meyer 
while still at gymnasium; preco- 
cious as compr.; condr. at Meiningen 
succeeding Von Billow 1885; after 
travel in Italy, 3d capellmeister 
Munich 1885-89; asst. to Lassen, 
court capellm. at Weimar 1889-92; 
journey to Greece and Egypt to 
recover from illness 1892; married 
singer Pauline de Anna 1894; court 
capellm. Munich 1894, and at Berlin 
1899; visited London 1897 and as 
condr. 1903; came to America 1904, 
gave concerts with Philadelphia 
Orch., with Wetzler Orch. in N. Y., 
and conducted other orchestras. His 
works include a few pf. pieces, 
sonata for vln. and pf., 'cello and 
pf., concerto for vln., quartet, etc., 
many very beautiful songs and some 
larger choral works (Wanderers Sturm- 
lied, Taillefer, etc.), 2 symph., 8 
symph. poems, A us Italien 1886, Don 
Juan 1889, Macbeth 1891, Tod und 
Verklarung 1890, Till Eulenspiegels 
lustige Streiche 1895, Also Sprach 
Zarathustra 1895, Don Quixote 1898, 
Ein Heldenleben 1899; Burleske for 
pf. and orch.; Sinfonia Domestica; 
incidental mus. for pf. to Enoch 
Arden; 4 operas Guntram 1894, 
Feuersnot 1901, Salome 1905, Elektra 
1909. Early works follow closely 
classical forms and traditions, not 
without some individuality. Later, 
somewhat under influence of Alex- 
ander Ritter (more in directions of 
general culture than in music) he 
turned to freer modern forms, with 
Aus Italien; he has carried on the 
Berlioz-Liszt idea of poetic or 
program music to a greater degree 


of realistic effect, at times, as in 
Don Quixote, even to the grotesque; 
he endeavors to express not only 
moods and emotions, but psycho- 
logical states of mind and systems of 
abstract thought. Not an inventor 
of especially beautiful or long sus- 
tained melodies, he is a complete 
master of the resources of the modern 
orchestra, which he has extended 
by some new devices and the adop- 
tion of some new instruments 
(heckelphone, etc.). Though he is 
capable of producing passages of 
great beauty, e. g. songs, Tod und 
Verk., his unusual skill seems at 
times to have led him into mere 
piling up of effects, just as his 
extraordinary audacity, his ambi- 
tion to present the whole of life, his 
sense of contrast, have led him to 
over insistence on the merely ugly, 
as in the Heldenleben and Elektra 
and the merely trivial, as in the 
Sinf. Domestica. 

Streabbog, see Gobbaerts. 

Strelezki (stre-let-ski), Anton [pseud, of 
A. B. Burnand], compr. b. Croydon, 
Dec. 5, 1859. Studied at Leipzig 
Cons, and with Clara Schumann; 
compr. of some very popular pf . music. 

Strong, George Templeton, compr. b. 
New York, about 1855. Son of 
Geo. T., once pres. of N. Y. Phil- 
harmonic; pupil at Leipzig Cons.; 
teacher at N. E. Cons. 1891-92; 
obliged to resign because of ill- 
health; living in Switzerland; compr. 
of 2 symph. (No. 2 Sintram, several 
times performed, shows brilliant 
instrumentation) , symph. poems, 
Haunted Mill for chorus and orch., 

Strube (stroo'-be), Gustav, vlt., compr. 
b. Ballenstedt, Harz, Mar. 3, 1867. 
Pupil of father, member of local 
orch.; studied at Leipzig Cons, with 
Hermann, Brodsky, Reinecke, and 
Jadassohn ; member Gewandhaus 
Orch.; prof. Mannheim Cons.; mem- 
ber Boston Symph. Orch. since 1891; 
condr. summer popular concerts, 
asst. condr. Worcester Co. Mus. 
Ass'n; has comp. suite for vln. and 
pf., 3 overtures, 2 symph. poems, 
2 vln. concertos, 2 symphonies, etc. 
many of which have been played 
by Boston Symph. Orch. 


Sucher (sook'-er), Rosa [nee Hassel- 
beck], dram. sop. b. Velburg, Upper 
Palatinate, Feb. 23, 1849; d. Apr. 5, 
1908; d6but at Treves; sang at 
Konigsberg, Berlin, and Danzig; 
engaged for Leipzig Stadt Th. by 
Josef Sucher (1844-1908), whom she 
married 1877; went to Hamburg 
with husband 1879; and to Berlin 
Opera 1888-1898 (Josef retired from 
post at Berlin 1899); extraordinary 
range of repertoire, but notable for 
Isolde, Eva, and Kundry; sang at 
Bayreuth 1886 and 1888; and in N. Y. 
under Damrosch 1894; retired 1903. 

Sudds, William F., compr., writer, b. 
London, Mar. 5, 1843. Parents 
moved 1850 to Gouverneur, New 
York state; self-taught in vln., 
'cello, guitar, and cornet; band- 
master in Civil War; later studied 
at N. E. Cons, with Thayer and 
Eichberg; many published pf. pcs. 
and songs, teacher at Gouverneur. 

Suk (sook), Josef, compr. b. KfeSovic, 
Bohemia, Jan. 4, 1874. Studied 
with father and at Prague Cons, 
with Bennewitz and Dvorak, who 
" later became his father-in-law; 2d 
vln. in Bohemian Quartet from 
1892, with Hoffmann, Nedbal, and 
Wihan; compr. overtures, serenade, 
chamber music, suite Ein Mdrchen, 
and 2 symphonies. 

Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour, compr. 
b. London, May 13, 1842; d. there, 
Nov. 22, 1900. Chorister at Chapel 
Royal under Helmore; first Mendels- 
sohn Scholar at Royal Acad. Mus., 
pupil pf Goss and Bennett; studied 
at Leipzig with Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann, etc.; orgt. in London; condr. 
Promenade concerts at Covent Gar- 
den 1878-79; principal Nat'l Train- 
ing School 1876-81; knighted 1883; 
composed songs (Lost Chord, The 
Long Day Closes), oratorios (Prodigal 
Son, Golden Legend), incidental music 
to Tempest and Merchant of Venice, 
a grana opera, Ivanhoe, 1891 ; great 
popularity, however, rests on long 
series of comic operas produced 
chiefly at the Savoy Theatre, many 
of them to words by W. S. Gilbert, 
among which may be named Trial 
by Jury 1875, H. M. S. Pinafore 
which had unequaled popularity 
in England and U. S. (whither S. 



came 1879), Pirates of Penzance 
1880, Patience 1881, Mikado 1885; 
The Emerald Isle, completed by E. 
German, 1901; distinguishing feat- 
ures of these operettas are unity of 
spirit between compr. and libret- 
tist, unfailing gaiety and variety of 
rhythm and melody, and at same 
time refinement of educated musical 

Suppe (soop-pa), Franz von [real name 
Francesco Ezechiele Ermenegildo 
Cavaliere Suppe Demelli], compr. b. 
Spalato, Dalmatia, Apr. 18, 1820; 
d. Vienna, May 22, 1895. Played 
the flute and composed early; while 
student of philosophy at Padua, 
studied mus. with Cigala and Ferrari, 
later at Vienna Cons, with Sechter 
and Seyfried; theatre condr. at 
Pressburg, Baden, and Vienna 1865- 
95; produced great number of operet- 
tas and musical farces and burlesques ; 
chiefly known out of Germany by 
Fatinitza 1876, Boccaccio 1879, and 
overture to Poet and Peasant. 

Surette, Thomas Whitney, lecturer, 
b. Concord, Mass., Sept. 7, 1862. 
Studied with A. Foote and J. K. 
Paine (grad. Harvard 1891); orgt. 
at Concord, musicmaster at Hill 
School, Pottstown, Pa., orgt. choir- 
master at Baltimore; since 1896 
lecturer on mus. for Amer. Univer- 
sity Extension Soc.; lectured at 
Univ. of Oxford, Eng. 1899, 1905, 
regularly appointed there 1907; 
author of valuable syllabi on various 
periods of mus. hist.; operetta Pris- 
cilla; or, the Pilgrim's Proxy 1889, 
very popular. 

Siissmayer (siis'-ma-er), Franz Xaver, 
compr. b. Schwanenstadt, Upper 
Austria, 1766; d. Vienna, Sept. 17, 
1803. Pupil of Salieri, pupil and 
friend of Mozart; capellmeister 
Nat'l Th., Vienna, 1792, court opera 
1794; compr. of several operettas 
(Der Wildfang, etc.); supplied in- 
strumentation for some airs in 
Mozart's Titus. 

Svendsen (svent'-sen), Johan Severin, 
vlt., compr. b. Christiania, Sept. 30, 
1840. Bandmaster in army, wander- 
ing vlt.; studied at Leipzig Cons, 
with David, Hauptmann, etc.; toured 
Scandinavia and England; member 
Paris orchestras 1868-69; concert- 
master Leipzig Euterpe concerts 

1871; visited New York and married 
an American 1871; condr. Christiania 
concerts 1872-77, 1880-83; court 
condr. Copenhagen 1883; condr. 
Royal Theatre there since 1896; 
works remarkable for individuality 
and entire lack of " national " char- 
acteristics, include songs, chamber 
mus., concertos for vln. and 'cello, 
two symphonies, Carnaval a Paris, 
Rhapsodies norvegiennes, etc. 

Sweelinck (sva'-link), Jan Pieter, 
compr. b. Amsterdam, 1562; d. 
there, Oct. 16, 1621. Pupil of Jacob 
Buyck, and of his father Pieter (d. 
1573), orgt.; successor of father at 
church, composed psalms, masses, 
sacred and secular songs; complete 
works published by Amsterdam Soc. 
for Promotion of Mus.; chief work 
was establishment of true organ 
fugue with development from single 
subject; said to have been first to 
employ pedal in fugal part. 

Swert (svart), Jules de, 'cellist, b. 
Louvain, Aug. 15, 1843; d. Ostende, 
Feb. 24, 1891. Pupil of Servais at 
Brussels Cons.; after long tours, 
concertmaster Diisseldorf 1865; 1st 
'cellist Weimar 1868; royal concert- 
master, 'cellist, prof, at Hochschule, 
Berlin, 1869-73; traveled, lived in 
Wiesbaden and Leipzig; director 
Ostende Mus. Sch. 1888; prof, at 
Cons, of Ghent and Bruges; com- 
posed operas, symphony, fantasias, 
etc. for 'cello. 

Sydenham, Edwin Augustus, orgt., 
compr. b. Somersetshire, Oct., 1847; 
d. Scarborough, Feb. 18, 1891. 
Chorister at Stratford-on-Avon; pupil 
at Leipzig Cons.; orgt. at several 
places, finally at Scarborough; 
teacher, compr. of anthems, pf. and 
vln. pieces. 

Szarwady, see Clauss-Szarvady, Wil- 

Szekely (she'-ke-le), Imre Emeric, 
pst. b. Matyfalva, Hungary, May 
8, 1823; d. Pesth, April, 1887. 
Studied at Pesth; after many long 
concert tours, with especial success 
in London, settled finally in Pesth 
after 1852; taught, composed works 
for orchestra and pf. (concertos, 
e 1 tudes, etc.). 

Szumowska, Antoinette, see Adamow- 
ski, Mrs. Joseph. 



Tallis, Thomas, compr., orgt. b. be- 
tween 1520 and 1529; d. London, 
Nov. 23, 1585. Orgt. at Waltham 
Abbey until 1540; gentleman of 
Chapel Royal under Henry VIII, 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth; 
joint orgt. with his pupil Byrd, with 
whom he also obtained privilege of 
printing music and ruled paper 1575; 
composed services, prayers, responses, 
etc., and song in 40 parts for 8 five- 
part choirs. 

Tamagno (ta-man'-yo), Francesco, 
dram, tenor, b. Turin, 1851; d. 
Varese, Aug. 31, 1905. After slight 
instruction at Cons, sang in choruses, 
and after military service made 
dbut at Palermo 1873; selected by 
Verdi to create Otetto at Milan 1887; 
thereafter of universal fame, sang 
successfully at European capitals 
and in U. S. 1890, 1893; especially 
remarkable for power of voice and 

Tamberlik (tam'-ber-lik), Enrico, dram, 
tenor, b. Rome, Mar. 16, 1820; d. 
Paris, Mar. 15, 1889. Left study of 
law to study singing at Bologna 
with Guglielmi and Borgna; debut 
Naples 1840; sang in Spain, London 
1850-64, winters at St. Petersburg, 
Paris, Spain, and America; settled 
in Madrid after 1877 as manufac- 
turer of arms. 

Tamburini (tam-boo-re'-nl), Antonio, 
dram. bass. b. Faenza, Mar. 28, 
1800; d. Nice, Nov. 9, 1876. Pupil 
of father, Boni, and Asioli; d6but 
Cento 1818; sang in Italy for im- 
presario Barbaja at Naples and 
Milan 1824-32; at Th. Italien, Paris, 
1832-41, with Grisi, Rubini, La- 
blache, etc.; alternate seasons in 
London; 10 years in Russia; retired 

Taneiev (tan-e'-yef), Sergei Ivanovitch, 
pst., compr. b. Russia, Nov. 25, 
1856. Pupil at Moscow Cons, of 
N. Rubinstein, Hubert, and Tchai- 
kovski; tour with Auer 1876; after 
two years in Paris, prof, of harmony 
and instrumentation Moscow Cons. 
1878, of pf. 1880-88, of free comp. 

1883-87; director and condr. of 
ensemble classes 1885-89; prof, of 
counterpoint 1888, of fugue 1891, 
of mus. from 1897; as pst. first to 
play Tchaikovski's C min. con- 
certo and other works; as compr. of 
operatic trilogy Oresteia (St. Peters- 
burg 1895), symph., 6 pf. quartets, 
etc. remarkable as contrapuntist; 
author and translator of books on 

Tans'ur, William, compr. b. Dun- 
church, about 1700; d. St. Neots, Oct. 
7, 1783. Orgt. and teacher in several 
places in Surrey and Leicestershire; 
composed Compleat Melody (many 
editions of this popular psalm collec- 
tion have varying titles), Melodia 
Sacra, Psalm-singer's Jewel, etc., 
and wrote New Musical Grammar 
and Dictionary 1756. 

Tapper, Thomas, author, teacher, b. 
Canton, Mass., Jan. 28, 1864. Grad- 
uated at Am. Coll. of Musicians of 
Univ. of State of N. Y.; studied in 
Europe; married pst. Bertha Feiring 
Maas; editor The Musical Record 
and Review 1903-1904, Musician 
1904-1907; lecturer; instructor Inst. 
Mus. Art, N. Y.; author of Chats 
with Music Students, Natural Course 
in Mus., The Music Life, First Studies 
in Music Biography, etc. 

Tappert, Wilhelm, writer, b. Ober- 
Thomaswaldau, Silesia, Feb. 19, 
1830; d. Sudende, near Berlin, Oct. 
27, 1907. Schoolmaster until 1856; 
pupil at Kullak's Acad. and of Dehn; 
in Berlin after 1866; editor Allgem. 
deutsche Musikzeitung 1876-80; there- 
after on staff Musikalisches Wochen- 
blatt; author of Wagner- Lexikon 
(coll. of terms of abuse against W.), 
Wandernde Melodien, works on old 
notation, etc., also published ar- 
rangements of old German songs 
and pf. studies. 

Tartini (tar-te'-nl), Giuseppe, vlt. b. 
Pirano, Istria, Apr. 12, 1692; d. 
Padua, Feb. 16, 1770. Studied 
theology and law, with eager desire 
for vln.; secret marriage led to 
charge of abduction before which 



he fled to monastery at Assisi, where 
for two years he studied mus. with 
Cernohorsky; after appearing at 
Padua, so influenced by hearing 
Veracini at Venice that he retired 
again to Ancona, where further 
study by himself led to better knowl- 
edge of intonation and discovery of 
combinational tones; solo vlt. and 
condr. Padua 1721; chamber musi- 
cian in Prague 1723-25; again in 
Padua, where he founded vln. sch. 
1728; Nardini, Laboussaye among 
pupils; works consist of very many 
concertos and sonatas for vln. and 
other instruments; (famous Tritto 
del diavolo, supposed to have been 
produced in rivalry w r ith devil, one 
of posthumous works) ; " style united 
finish of Corelli with greater vigor, 
passion, and daring, and he excelled 
in double-stopping and other effec- 
tive devices." [Pratt.] 

Taubert (tou'-bert), Carl Gottfried Wil- 
helm, pst., compr. b. Berlin, Mar. 
23, 1811; d. there, Jan. 7, 1891. 
Pupil of Neithardt, L. Berger, and 
B. Klein; student at Berlin Univ.; 
taught in Berlin; accomp. at court 
concerts 1831; condr. opera and 
symph. concerts 1842, court capell- 
meister 1845; 1st capellm. 1869; re- 
tired 1870; composed 5 operas, music 
to Tempest (very successful), Othello, 
and other plays, 4 symph. , and smaller 
works, popular Kinderlieder, etc. 

Tauscher, Mme., see Gadski, Johanna. 

Tausig (tou'-sig), Karl, pst. b. War- 
saw, Nov. 4, 1841; d. Leipzig, July 
17, 1871. Pupil of father Aloys T. 
(1820-1885), who was pupil of Thai- 
berg, and compr.; pupil of Liszt 
from age of 14 (1855-59); dSbut 
Berlin 1858 at orchestral concert 
under Von Billow; gave orch. con- 
certs in Vienna 1862; opened school 
for advanced pf. playing in Berlin 
1866; composed some pf. music, but 
is especially noted for editions of 
dementi and other older writers, 
arrangements of Bach, pf. edition 
of Meister singer, Daily Stiidies, etc.; 
surpassed even Liszt in wonderful 
brilliancy of technic, but despite 
remarkable sense of style never 
quite equaled him in interpretation. 

Taylor, Samuel Coleridge-, see Cole- 
ridge-Taylor, Samuel. 

Tchaikovski (chi-kof'-ski), Peter Ilyitch, 
compr. b. Wotkinsk, province of 
Wjatka, May 7, 1840; d. St. Peters- 
burg, Nov. 6, 1893. As a child dis- 
played no especial mus. ability; 
entered gov't service; 1855-58 pf. 
lessons from Kiindinger, sang in 
choir under Lomakin; attempts at 
composition led him to give up ser- 
vice 1863 to enter St. Petersburg 
Cons., where he was taught by 
Zaremba (theory), A. Rubinstein 
(comp.), Ciardi (flute), and Stiehl 
(organ); taught theory at Moscow 
Cons. 1866-77; contributor to jour- 
nals 1872-74, and thereafter devoted 
to composition; married 1877 and 
separated from wife after few weeks; 
same year formed friendship with 
Frau von Meek, who out of her 
riches gave him generous pension 
that he might be free to create; 1887- 
89 tours as condr. in Germany; 1890 
lived in Florence; 1891 conducted 
in Paris and New York, 1892-93 in 
Germany and England, where Camb. 
Univ. gave him degree; composed 
11 operas (Eugen Onegin, Pique 
Dame best known), cantatas, songs, 
6 symphonies (No. 6 is the " Pathe- 
tique), 7 symph. poems (Tempest, 
Manfred, Francesca da Rimini, Romeo 
and Jidiet, Hamlet, Fatum, Le Voie- 
vode), 3 pf. concertos, 1 vln. concerto, 
3 string quartets, trio, etc., some pf. 
works, and songs. Most widely 
known of Russian comprs., but con- 
sidered by Russians as less charac- 
teristically national than any other. 
His music is marked by bold modula- 
tions, strong rhythms, and gorgeous- 
ness of orchestral coloring, by which 
he expresses intense personal emo- 
tions; he is quite romantic in the 
warmth of his feeling, brilliancy of 
imagination and lack of reserve; 
" his real contribution to the history 
of music lies in his modification of 
symphonic form in obedience to a 
poetic idea." [Newman.] Remark- 
ably detailed life by brother Modest 
T. has been translated into German 
by Juon, and, in part, into English 
by Rosa Newmarch. 

Telemann (tel'le-man), Georg Philip, 
compr. b. Magdeburg, Mar. 14, 
1681; d. Hamburg, July 25, 1767. 
Self-taught in all but rudiments; 
composed opera at 12, conducted 


church music at 14; student of law 
and languages at Leipzig Univ.; orgt. 
1704, and mus. dir. at Neukirche; 
concertmaster at Eisenach 1708, 
capellmeister there 1709 until death, 
though he never lived there; capell- 
meister Frankfort 1712; mus. dir. 
to town of Hamburg after 1721; 
more widely known and rated higher 
in his day than his friend and con- 
temporary J. S. Bach; composed 
fluent and correct works, operas, 
overtures, sonatas, etc. 

Temple, Hope, see Messager, Mme. 

Ternina (ter-ne'-na), Milka, dram. sop. 
b. Begizse, Croatia, Dec. 19, 1864. 
Pupil of Gansbacher; debut at Leip- 
zig 1883; sang at Ganz, Bremen, 
Munich 1890, New York after 1896, 
(sang Kundry in Parsifal there 1903), 
Bayreuth 1899; one of most power- 
ful of great Wagnerian singers. 

Terpander, Greek musician, b. Antissa, 
Lesbos, 7th cent. B. C. Called 
" father of Greek music "; developed 
lyric forms. 

Terry, Mme., see Sanderson, Sibyl. 

Tesi-Tramontini (ta'-zg-tra-mon-te'-ni) , 
Vittoria, singer, b. Florence, about 
1695; d. Vienna, 1778. Pupil of 
Redi at Florence and Campeggi at 
Bologna; d6but Bologna; sang in 
Handel's Rodrigo 1709; Agrippina 
1719, etc.; engagements in Venice 
and Dresden 1719, Venice and 
Naples 1719-38; for many years in 
Madrid with Farinelli; in Vienna 

Thalberg (tal'-barg), Sigismond, pst., 
compr. b. Geneva, Jan. 7, 1812; d. 
Naples, Apr. 27, 1871. Natural son 
of Prince Moritz Dietrichstein who 
had him educated at Vienna; pupil 
of Hummel and Sechter, but greatly 
indebted to Mittag, bassoon player; 
early appearances as pst. and compr. ; 
first tour, 1830, won triumph in 
Paris 1835, withstood rivalry of 
Liszt 1836; went to Brazil 1855, to 
North America 1856, retired to 
Naples 1858-62, again on tours to 
Paris, London, and Brazil in 1863, 
then again in retirement; compr. of 
concerto, sonata, nocturnes, Etudes, 
many operatic fantasias; developed 
use of 3d staff with melody between 
chord passages; as virtuoso he was 


remarkable for breadth and power 
as well as delicacy, especially for 
ability to bring out an air strongly, 
facility in crossing hands, etc.; yet 
playing is said to have lacked expres- 
siveness of Chopin's and Liszt's. 

Thayer, Alexander Wheelock, writer. 
b. South Natick, Mass., Oct. 22, 1817; 
d. Trieste, July 15, 1897. Graduated 
at Harvard 1843; asst. librarian 
there 1843-49; in Germany 1849-51 
collecting material for Beethoven 
biog., writing to Dwight's Journal, 
etc.; staff N. Y. Tribune after 1852; 
after 1854 lived in Europe (except 
1856-58 in Boston); attached to 
American Embassy at Vienna 1862, 
consul at Trieste after 1865; pub- 
lished chronological list of Beetho- 
ven's works, Ein kritischer Beitrag 
zur B. Literatur and 3 vols. of Life 
of B. translated into German by 
Deiters (1866-78); Vol. IV not com- 
pleted; new ed. by Deiters cut short 
by his death; life based on most 
thorough and faithful use of sources. 

Thayer, Arthur Wilder, compr., condr. 
b. Dedham, Mass., Aug. 26, 1857. 
Pupil of Guilmette, Adams, Chad- 
wick, and Zerrahn; condr. of choral 
societies in Lowell, Salem, Worcester, 
Providence; supt. schools in Ded- 
ham and Milton; mus. dir. Newton- 

Thayer, Whitney Eugene, orgt. b. 
Mendon, Mass., Dec. 11, 1838; d. 
Burlington, Vt., Jan. 27, 1889. 
Pupil in Boston and later in Ger- 
many of Haupt and Wieprecht; 
assisted at opening of Boston Music 
Hall organ 1862, where he was orgt. 
later; editor Organist's Journal, 
Choir Journal, condr. Boston Choral 
Union, etc.; gave free org. recitals 
in Boston 1869; orgt. N. Y. 1881-88. 

Theile (ti'-la), Johann, compr. b. 
Naumburg, July 29, 1646; d\ there, 
June 24, 1724. Gamba player in 
Leipzig; studied with H. Schiitz; 
capellmeister to Duke of Holstein 
1673; wrote Adam und Eva for 
opening of Hamburg Opera 1678; 
capellm. to Duke of Brunswick, 
later at Merseburg; taught Zachau 
and Buxtehude; composed also 
Christmas oratorio, a German Pas- 
sion, Noviter inventum opus mus., 
etc. (20 masses), and opus secundum 



(sonatas, etc. for various instru- 
ments) ; called " father of counter- 
point " by his contemporaries. 

Thibaud (ti-bo), Joseph Jacques, vlt 
b. Bordeaux, Sept. 27, 1880. Pupi: 
of father; then at Paris Cons. oJ 
Marsick; 1st prize 1896; solo vlt 
in Colonne's orch.; later, through 
many concert tours, became known 
as a distinguished artist. 

Thibaut (ti-bo), Anton Friedrich Justus, 
writer, b. Hameln, Jan. 4, 1774; d 
Heidelberg, Mar. 28, 1840. Prof, oi 
jurisprudence at Univ.; author oi 
Ueber Reinheit der Tonkunst (Engl. 
as Purity in Musical Art) of which 
there have been many editions; it is 
opposed to romantic theories. 

Thiele (te-la), Friedrich Ludwig, orgt. 
b. Harzgerode, near Bernburg, Nov. 
18, 1816; d. Berlin, Sept. 17, 1848. 
Studied with A. W. Bach at Royal 
Inst. for ch. mus., Berlin; orgt. Paro- 
chial church there after 1839; vir- 
tuoso performer and compr. for his 
instrument. Son Felix Richard T. 
(1847-1903), compr. of Deutschen 

Thoma (to'-ma), Rudolf, teacher, b. 
Lehsewitz, near Steinau-on-Oder, 
Feb. 22, 1829; d. Nov., 1908. 
Studied at Royal Inst. for ch. mus., 
Berlin; cantor at Hirschberg 1857, 
Breslau 1862; founder of singing 
society and- director of mus. school; 
Royal mus. dir. 1870; composed 2 
operas, 2 oratorios, church music, etc. 

Thomas, Arthur Goring, compr. b. 
Ralton Park, Sussex, Nov. 21, 1851; 
d. London, Mar. 20, 1892. Did not 
begin study of music until 1874, 
when he was pupil of E. Durand in 
Paris; 1876-79 studied with Sullivan 
and Prout at Royal Acad. Mus., 
London; operas Esmeralda 1883 
and Nadeshda 1885, cantata Swan 
and Skylark, and other compositions 
(psalm, choral ode, vocal scenes, 
songs, suite, vln. sonata, etc.) were 
of such a quality as to cause deep 
regret at the shortness of his career. 

Thomas (to-ma'), Charles Louis Am- 
broise, compr. b. Metz, Aug. 5, 
1811; d. Paris, Feb. 12, 1896. Son 
of a musician; pupil at Paris Cons, 
of Zimmermann, Kalkbrenner, Dour- 
len, and Lesueur; 1st prizes pf. 
1829, harmony 1830, Grand prix de 

Rome 1832; produced 9 works in 
Paris 1837-43, then only one in 
five years, after which he reappeared 
with Le Caid; however not until 
Mignon, 1866, did he attain distinc- 
tion; Hamlet, 1868, was also popular, 
but Mignon seems the only one des- 
tined to hold its place in general 
repertoire; member of Acad. 1851, 
prof, of comp. at Cons. 1852, and 
director there 1871; also composed 
songs, occasional cantatas, and very 
popular male choruses (Le chant des 
amis, Le carnaval de Rome, etc.); 
" style is characterized by great 
dramatic truth, by striking versa- 
tility in handling characters and 
situations, and by thorough mastery 
of orchestration. Had his gift of 
real musical invention been greater, 
he would have ranked among the 
best opera writers." [Pratt.] 

Thomas, Theodore, condr. b. Esens, 
East Friesland, Oct. 11, 1835; d. 
Chicago, Jan. 4, 1905. Vln. pupil 
of his father; public appearance at 
6; family emigrated 1845 to New . 
York; member of N. Y. orch.; went 
on concert tours as soloist after 
1851 with Jenny Lind, Grisi, etc.; 
founded Mason and Thomas Soirees 
of chamber music with Wm. Mason; 
played in orchestras, occasionally 
conducting until 1861; 1864 organ- 
ized orch. of his own for Symphony 
Soire'es which continued with some 
interruptions to 1878; 1866 started 
summer concerts with programs far 
in advance of anything previously 
given in N. Y.; tour of orch. 1869; 
disbanded 1876; director Cincin- 
nati Festivals after 1872, of Cin. Coll. 
of Mus. 1878-80, of Brooklyn Phil- 
harmonic 1862, '63, '66-68,* 73-91, 
of N. Y. Philharmonic 1877-78, 79- 
91, of Am. Opera Co. 1885-87 of 
World's Columbian Exposition 1893 
and of Chicago Orch. from 1891 till 
death; at various times condr. of 
choral societies; remarkable influ- 
ence on music in U. S. especially in 
developing wide taste for orchestral 
music of best kind. 

Thome (to-ma), Francis [Francois Luc 
Joseph], compr. b. Port Louis, 
Mauritius, Oct. 18, 1850; d. Paris, 
Nov. 16, 1909. Studied at Paris 
Cons, with Marmontel and Duprato; 
1st prize counterpoint 1870; teacher 



in Paris; compr. of ballet (Djelma), 
pantomimes (L' Enfant prodigue), 
mystery (L' Enfant Jesus'), symph. 
ode, romances, many popular simple 
pf. pieces (Le simple aveu, etc.), and 
some songs. 

Thomson (ton-son), Cesar, vlt. b. 
Lie'ge, Mar. 17, 1857. Studied with 
father and at Lie'ge Cons, where he 
won gold medal at 11; pupil of Vieux- 
temps, Leonard, Wieniawski, and 
Massart; very successful in Spain 
and Italy; chamber musician Baron 
von Derwies at Lugano; capell- 
meister Bilse's orch. at Berlin; 
teacher at Lie'ge Cons. 1883-97, at 
Brussels Cons, since 1898; many 
concert tours in Europe and America 
(1894-95); as teacher and player 
his influence tends to establishment 
of technic of very high order (his 
own work, especially in double- 
stopping, is remarkable); on the 
side of expression, especially in 
comparison with Ysaye, he is called 
cold, lofty, ascetic. 

Thuille (tu-e-ye"), Ludwig Wilhelm 
Andreas Maria, compr. b. Bozen, 
Tyrol, Nov. 30, 1861; d. Munich, 
Feb. 5, 1907. Studied at Innsbruck 
with Pembaur, at Munich with 
Baermann and Rheinberger; teacher 
of pf. and theory there after 1883, 
prof. 1890; first attracted notice by 
sextet; later composed operas (Lo- 
betanz 1898, Gugeline 1901), songs, 
etc.; author, with R. Louis, of 

Thursby, Emma, sop. b. Brooklyn, 
Nov. 17, 1857. Pupil of Meyer, 
Erani, Mme. Rudersdorff, and in 
Milan of Lamperti and Sangiovanni; 
American concert dbut 1875, fol- 
lowed by series of concerts with 
Gilmore and church appointment in 
New York; European tour with 
Maurice Strakosch 1878, 1881-82 
very successful; living in N. Y.; 
voice not very large, but of great 
charm and admirably managed. 

Tichatschek (ti-ka-chek), Joseph Aloys, 
dram, tenor, b. Ober-Weckelsdorf, 
Bohemia, July 11, 1807; d. Blase- 
witz, near Dresden, Jan. 18, 1886. 
Son of weaver; went to Vienna to 
study medicine, but became pupil 
of Cicimera; member of theatre 
chorus and chorusmaster; sang at 

Graz, Vienna, and Dresden court 
opera 1838 until 1872 when he was 
pensioned; created Rienzi 1842, 
Tannhauser 1845. 

Tieffenbriicker, see Duiffopruggar. 

Tiehsen (te'-sen), Otto, compr. b. 
Danzig, Oct. 13, 1817; d. Berlin, May 
15, 1849. Studied at Royal Acad., 
Berlin; especially known as song 
compr.; wrote also opera Annette, 
Christmas cantata, a 6-part Kyrie 
and Gloria. 

Tiersot (ti-ar-so), Jean Baptiste Elisee 
Julien, writer, b. Bourg, Bresse, 
France, July 5, 1857. Studied with 
Savard, Massenet, and Ce"sar Franck 
at Paris Cons., where he . became 
asst. librarian in 1883, librarian 
1909; contributor to Menestrel and 
other periodicals; author of Histoire 
de la chanson populaire en France, 
Rouget de Lisle, Hector Berlioz et 
la societe de son temps; Ronsard et le 
musique de son temps, etc.; editor of 
works of Gluck, Adam de la Halle, 

Tietjens (tet-yens), Therese Johanne 
Alexandra, dram. sop. b. Hamburg, 
July 17, 1831; d. London, Oct. 3, 
1877. D6but Hamburg 1849; sang 
at Frankfort, Vienna 1856, London 
1858-71, with Lumley at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, at Drury Lane, 
Co vent Garden, and Haymarket; 
sang in Paris 1863 and America 
1875; as an actress, she was earnest 
but lacking in magnetism; her style 
of singing was noble and pure and 
became greater as her voice increased 
in flexibility. 

Tinctoris, Johannes [real name Jean de 
Vaerwere], writer, compr. b. Poper- 
inghe, about 1446; d. Nivelles, 1511. 
Maestro to Ferdinand of Aragon 
at Naples; sent to France to engage 
singers, he stayed there; became 
canon at Nivelles; wrote earliest 
dictionary of mus. terms (about 
1475), book on counterpoint, and 
various points of theory; composed 
mass and chansons. 

Tinel (ti-nel), Edgar, compr. b. Sinay, 
Belgium, Mar. 27, 1854. Pupil of 
father, an orgt., and at Brussels Cons, 
of Brassin, Dupont, Gevaert, Kuf-. 
ferath, and Mailly; 1st prize pf. 
1873, Grand prix de Rome 1877; 



director of Inst. for Sacred Mus. at 
Mechlin; inspector of state mus. 
schools 1889; prof, of counterpoint 
and fugue at Brussels Cons. 1896; 
dir. Cons. 1909; oratorio Franciscus, 
1888, widely produced because of its 
great height of originality (marred 
by prolixity), masses, motets, pf. 
pieces, songs, etc. have followed; 
author of Le chant gregorien. 

Tirindelli (tf-rfn-dgl'-ll), Pietro Adolf o, 
vlt. b. Conegliano, May 5, 1858. 
Studied at Milan Cons, and with 
Boniforti, later with Griin in Vienna, 
and with Massart in Paris; prof, at 
Liceo Benedetto Marcello, Venice, 
1887, director 1893; condr. of orch. 
there; prof, at Cincinnati Coll. of 
Mus.; composed operas and suc- 
cessful songs. 

Titl (tetl), Anton Emil, compr. b. 
Pernstein, Moravia, Oct. 5, 1809; 
d. Vienna, Jan. 21, 1882. Capell- 
meister at Vienna Burgtheater after 
1850; composed operas (Die Burg- 
frau, Das Wolkenkind), overtures, 
mass, etc. 

Tomaschek (to'-ma-shgk), Wenzel 
Johann [Vaclav Jan Tomagek], 
compr., teacher, b. Skutsch, Bo- 
hemia, Apr. 17, 1774; d. Prague, 
Apr. 3, 1850. Pupil of Wolf at 
Chrudim; gave mus. lessons while 
studying law at Prague Univ.; 
finally devoted himself to music 
teaching in Prague; Dreyschock, 
Tedesco, etc. among pupils; good 
pst. and orgt., compr. of symph., 
pf. concerto, cantatas, songs, sonatas, 
etc., for pf., of remarkably finished 
style, unfortunately obscured by 
contemporary Beethoven, meetings 
with whom he records in his 
autobiography, which appeared in 
periodical Libussa for 1845; mus. 
said to have influenced Schumann. 

Tombelle (ton-bel'), Fernand de la 
[real name Antoine Louis Joseph 
Gueyrand Fernand Fouant de la T.], 
compr. b. Paris, Aug. 3, 1854. 
Studied at Cons, with Guilmant and 
Dubois; teacher of theory at Schola 
Cantorum; won Chartier Prize for 
chamber mus.; composed much prg. 
and church mus. and orch. suites, 
Impressions nationales, Tableaux 
musiciens, and operetta. 

Tomlins, William Lawrence, teacher. 
b. London, Feb. 4, 1844. Pupil pf 
G. A. Macfarren and Silas; in 
America after 1869; condr. Chi- 
cago Apollo Club 1875-98; organ- 
ized children's choruses and wage- 
earners' concerts; trained 1500 
children for World's Fair chorus; 
vocal teacher; author of Children's 
Songs and How to Sing Them; since 
1898 devoted to training school- 
teachers; organized Nat'l Training 
Sch. for sch. mus. teachers, Chicago, 
1903; later removed to London. 

Topfer (te'p'-fer), Johann Gottlob, orgt., 
writer, b. Niederrossla, Thuringia, 
Dec. 4, 1791; d. Weimar, June 8, 
1870. Studied with Schlomilch and 
with Destouches, Riemann, and A. 
E. Muller; teacher at Weimar 
Gymnasium and Seminary 1817; 
town orgt. Weimar 1830; wrote 
authoritative works on org. con- 
struction Die Orgelbaukunst, etc., 
also Theoretischpraktische Organisten- 
schule, Choralbuch, cantata Die Or- 
gelweihe, and various compositions 
for instrument. 

Topliff, Robert, orgt. b. 1793; d. 
London, Apr. 27, 1868. Blind; orgt. 
at South wark; edited Selection of 
Melodies of Tyne and Wear, Script- 
ure Melodies, etc.; composed sacred 
songs (Consider the Lilies, Heaven 
Our Home, etc.). 

Torchi (tor'-kl), Luigi, writer, b. Mor- 
dano, Bologna, Nov. 7, 1858. After 
graduation from Cons., studied with 
Serrao at Naples, and with Reinecke, 
Jadassohn, and Paul at Leipzig; 
prof. mus. hist. Pesaro 1885-91, of 
mus. hist. 1891, and comp. 1895 at 
Bologna, where he is also pres. of 
Philh. Acad.; compr. of symph., 
operas, church music, but better 
known as author of contributions to 
mus. hist., many of which have 
appeared in Rivista mus. italiana; 
editor of L'Arte mus. in Italia (mus. 
of 17th and 18th cent.). 

Torelli (to-rel'-li), Giuseppe, vlt. b. 
Verona, about 1660; d. Ansbach, 
1708. Studied at Bologna, church 
vlt. there; after concert tour in 
Germanv, concertmaster at Ans- 
bach after 1703; helped, with 
Corelli, to establish form of con- 
certo grosso, in which solo instrument 


is set off by accomp. of others; T. 
long considered inventor of the form, 
but, although his were published 
before Corelli's, C. had used the form 
earlier; T. is, however, originator 
of solo vln. concerto; instrumental 
works are all sonatas or concertos. 

Tosi (to'-zK), Pier Francesco, singing 
teacher. b. Bologna, 1647; d. 
London, 1727. Pupil of father, a 
compr.; after singing with success 
in Italy and Dresden, settled in 
London 1692; gave concerts and 
lessons; noted for one book, Opinioni 
de' canton . . . . o sieno osser- 
vazioni sopra canto figurato, in Eng- 
lish as Observations on Florid Song. 

Tosti, Francesco Paolo, singing teacher, 
compr. b. Ortona, Abruzzi, Apr. 9, 
1846. Pupil at Naples of Pinto, 
Conti, and Mercadante; asst. 
teacher there until 1869; taught in 
Rome, London after 1875, where he 
taught royal family and became 
prof, at Royal Acad. 1894; pub- 
lished coll. of Canti populari abruz- 
zesi and many Italian and English 
songs (Non m' ama piu, etc.). 

Tourjee (toor-ja/), Dr. Eben, teacher. 
b. Warwick, R. I., June 1, 1834; d. 
Boston, Apr. 12, 1891. Chiefly self- 
taught ; sang and played org. ; opened 
mus. store in Fall River, and organ- 
ized classes in pf., voice, and org.; 
orgt. and choirmaster at Newport; 
founded Mus. Inst. at Greenwich 
1859; in Germany 1863, took lessons 
of A. Haupt and studied conserva- 
tory system; founded Providence 
Cons, and N. E. Cons., Boston, 1867; 
first to establish class teaching and 
conservatories in U. S.; also influen- 
tial in peace jubilees, and in public 
school music. 

Tours (toorz), Berthold, vlt., editor, b. 
Rotterdam, Dec. 17, 1838; d. Lon- 
don, Mar. 11, 1897. Studied with 
father, orgt., Verhulst, and at cons, 
of Brussels and Leipzig; after two 
years in Russia, settled in London 
1861; adviser to publishers Novello, 
Ewer & Co. after 1870, and editor of 
many works and arrangements for 
them; author of Primer of Violin, 
compr. of services, anthems, etc. 

Tourte (toort), Francois, bow maker. 
b. Paris, 1747; d. there, Apr., 1835. 
Of family of bow makers; effected 


such radical reforms that he is prac- 
tically creator of modern bow; paid 
attention to selection of wood (ren- 
dering it flexible and permanently 
curved), length, and method of at- 
taching hairs, etc.; improved bow 
had great importance in develop- 
ment of modern vln. technic. - 

Tozer, John Ferris, orgt., compr. b. 
Exeter, Nov. 8, 1857. Chorister 
Exeter Cath.; pupil of Angel and 
Wood; Mus. Doc. Oxford 1896; orgt. 
and amateur tenor; holds position 
in Exeter Bank; composed psalms, 
cantata King Neptune's Daughter, 
pf. pieces, and songs, of which Lead, 
kindly light is best known; ed. coll. 
of sailors' songs. 

Trebelli, Zelia (stage name of Z. Therese 
Caroline Guillemin or Gillibert], 
dram, mezzo sop. b. Paris, Nov. 12, 
1838; d. Etretat, Aug. 18, 1892. 
Pupil of Wartel; de"but Madrid 1859; 
successful in Germany and London 
after 1862; marriage to Bettini, 1863, 
soon followed by separation; tour 
to U. S. 1884; excellent actress, had 
voice of great flexibility and brill- 

Treville (tra-ve-ye') , Yvonne de, sop. b. 
Galveston, Aug. 25, 1881. Appeared 
in Boston 1898; after singing in New 
York with Castle Sq. Opera Co., 
studied with Mme. Marchesi in 
Paris 1900; sang in Madrid 1901, 
Ope>a Comique, Paris, 1902, Stock- 
holm Opera and St. Petersburg Opera 
1903, Cairo 1904. 

Trotfcre, H. [pseud, of Henry Trotter], 
compr. b. London, Dec. 24, 1855. 
Compr. of popular songs (In Old 
Madrid, The Deathless Army, Love 
Can Wait, etc.). 

Troutbeck, Rev. John, writer, b. Blen- 
cowe, Cumberland, Eng., Nov. 12, 
1832; d. London, Oct. 11, 1899. 
Graduated at Oxford 1856, took 
orders 1855, precentor Manchester 
Cath. 1865, minor canon Westmin- 
ster 1869; wrote Primer of Mus. for 
Schools, Primer for Ch. Choir Train- 
ing, compiled Westminster Hymn- 
book, and translated librettos of 
Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Gluck's 
two Iphigenias and Orpheus, Wag- 
ner's' Flying Dutchman and several 



Trowbridge, John Eliot, compr. b. 
Newton, Mass., Oct. 20, 1845. 
Parents good church choir singers; 
studied organ with B. C. Blodgett, 
piano with Junius W. Hill; salesman 
of musical instruments, teaching 
after business hours; organist in 
Boston and suburbs, principally 
Newton, where he still (1910) resides; 
pianist to Musical Association of 
Newton conducted by the late 
Eugene Thayer, and gained experi- 
ence in the training of large bodies 
of singers,which he afterwards turned 
to account as conductor of choral 
societies and composer of choral 
works; published compositions in 
1870, the first of a long series of suc- 
cessful works on large and small 
forms, over one hundred in number, 
including two oratorios, two can- 
tatas, Mass in E, operetta, anthems, 
quartets, songs, etc. 

Truette, Everett E., orgt., compr. b. 
Rockland, Mass., 1861. Graduated 
at New England Cons. 1881; Mus. 
Bac. Boston University, 1883; 
studied in Europe, 1883-1885, with 
Haupt, Guilmant, and Best; from 
Jan., 1885, he was orgt. and choir- 
master at various Boston churches 
and now serves the Eliot Congrega- 
tional Church, Newton, a suburb of 
Boston; he has been active as a 
recitalist, especially in inaugurating 
organs; has been successful as a 
teacher, many of his pupils filling 
responsible positions in Boston and 
vicinity; a founder of the Amer. 
Guild of Orgts.; composer of organ 
works and anthems. 

Tua (too'-a), Teresina [properly Maria 
Felicita. T.], vU. b. Turin, May 22, 
1867. Pupil at Paris Cons, of Mas- 
sart; 1st prize 1880; brilliant success 
on Continent, in England (after 
1883), and America 1887; married 
Count Franchi-Verney 1891, with- 
drew from concerts until 1895. 

Tuckerman, Samuel Parkman, orgt. 
b. Boston, Feb. 11, 1819; d. New- 
port, June 30, 1890. Pupil of C. 
Zeuner; orgt. and choirmaster St. 
Paul's Ch., Boston, 1840, and after 
trip to England, where he received 
degree Mus. Doc. at Lambeth and 
studied in various cathedrals; one 
of first to play on Mus. Hall Organ, 

Boston; gave many lectures and re- 
citals; composed church music. 

Turk, Daniel Gottlob, orgt., teacher, b. 
Claussnitz, Saxony, Aug. 10, 1750; 
d. Halle, Aug. 26, 1813. Pupil in 
harmony of Homilius; and in vln. of 
Hiller while at Leipzig Univ.; theatre 
vlt.; cantor and teacher at Halle 
1776-1787, mus. dir. of Univ. there 
1779, orgt. 1787; Karl Lowe his 
pupil; published org. method, im- 
portant Clavierschule, books for 
beginners, sonatas, sonatinas, etc. 

Turle, James, orgt., teacher, b. Somer- 
ton, Somerset, Eng., Mar. 5, 1802; d. 
London, June 28, 1882. Asst. orgt 
Westminster, orgt. and choirmaster 
1831-1875; condr. of Antient Con- 
certs 1840-43; musicmaster-at sch. 
for Indigent Blind 1829-56; com- 
posed church music, compiled, with 
Bridge, Westminster Abbey Chant 
Book, edited with Taylor People's 
Music Book, wrote Art of Singing at 
Sight; very famous as teacher. 

Turner, Alfred Dudley, pf. teacher, b. 
St. Albans, Vt., Aug. 24, 1854; d. 
there, May 7, 1888. Pupil of J. C. 

D. Parker and Mme. Schiller at N. 

E. Cons., where he taught; Porter 
and Dennee his pupils; composed 
smaller pf . pieces and valuable octave 

Turpin, Edmund Hart, orgt. b. Not- 
tingham, May 4, 1835; d. London, 
Oct. 25, 1907. Studied with Hullah 
and Pauer in London; orgt. at Not- 
tingham, London, after 1857; Mus. 
Doc. Lambeth 1889; editor Mus. 
Standard for some years after 1880; 
editor Mus. News; condr. various 
societies; compr. of Song of Faith, 
oratorios, anthems, symph., and 
chamber music. 

Tye, Christopher, orgt., compr. b. 
Westminster, about 1508; d. Mar., 
1572. Chorister and gentleman of 
Chapel Royal; orgt. Ely Cath. 1541- 
62; Mus. Doc. Cambridge 1545; 
translated chapters 1-14 of Acts of 
Apostles into verse and set them to 
mus.; -also published services and 
anthems in strong, sincere style; 
much admired by contemporaries; 
revival of Eng. church music after 
upheaval of Reformation attributed 
to him. 




Ugolini (oo-gole-rrf), Vincenzo, compr. 
b. Perugia, about 1570; d. there, May 
6, 1638. Pupil of Nanini in Rome, 
maestro at St. Peter's 1620-26; 
teacher of Benevoli; compr. of 2 
books of madrigals, 4 of motets, 
masses, psalms, etc., in style of 

Ulibisheff, see Oulibischeff. 

Upton, George Putnam, writer, b. 
Boston, Oct. 25, 1834. Graduated 
from Brown University 1854; in 
journalism in Chicago after 1855, on 
staff of Tribune since 1861; founder 
of Apollo Club; besides critical work 
which has done much to develop 
mus. taste in the West, has written 
several books: Woman in Mus., and 
a full series Standard Operas, Can- 
tatas, Oratorios, Symphonies, also 
Concert Guide, Musical Memories, 
etc., giving useful summaries. 

Urban (or'-ban), Heinrich, vlt., compr. 
b. Berlin, Aug. 27, 1837; d. there, 
Nov. 24, 1901. Pupil of Hies, Laub, 
Hellmann, etc.; teacher at Kullak's 
Acad. after 1881; noted theorist; 
composed FriMing symph., 3 over- 
tures, vln. concerto, vln. pieces, 

songs. Brother Friedrich Julius U. 

(b. 1838), singing teacher in Berlin. 

Urso, Camilla, vlt. b. Nantes, France, 
June 13, 1842; d. New York, Jan. 
20, 1902. Father orgt. and flute 
player; began vln. at 6, gave concert 
at 7; at Paris Cons, pupil of Mas- 
sart; came to America 1852 and 
played throughout country with 
great success, at first with Sontag, 
Alboni, and then alone; after mar- 
riage to F. Lucre did not appear 
until 1863; after that gave concerts 
chiefly in West and South of U. S.; 
very distinguished player, who did 
a great deal toward arousing en- 
thusiasm for vln. among American 

Urspruch (6r'-spruk), Anton, pst., 
compr. b. Frankfort-on-Main, Feb. 
17, 1850; d. there, Jan. 11, 1907. 
Studied with I. Lachner and Wallen- 
stein, Raff, and Liszt; teacher of pf. 
at Hoch Cons.; at Raff Cons. Frank- 
fort since 1887; composed opera Der 
Sturm (after Shakespeare's Tempest), 
comic opera, symph., pf. concerto, 
chamber mus., sonata and other small 
pf. works. 

Vaccai (yac-ca-I), Niccold, compr. b. 
Tolentino, Papal States, Mar. 15, 
1790; d. Pesaro, Aug. 5, 1848. Stud- 
ied with Jannaconi at Rome -and 
with Paisiello at Naples; produced 
1st opera 1815; dissatisfied with 
success on stage, became singing 
teacher at Venice, Vienna, Paris, 
and London; prof, of comp. and 
censor at Milan Cons. 1838-44; 3d 
act of his Giulietta e Romeo was gen- 
erally substituted for that of Bellini's 
Capuleti ed Montecchi; composed 
several other operas, etc., and good 
method of singing. 

Valentini (val-en-te'-nl), Pietro Fran- 
cesco, compr. b. Rome, about 1570; 
d. there, 1654. Studied with Nanini; 
composed some operas and motets, 

but is chiefly known as compr. of 
especially learned canons, of one of 
which 2000 solutions are possible. 

Valle de Paz (val-la-da-paz), Edgardo 
del, compr., writer, b. Alexandria, 
Egypt, Oct. 18, 1861. Of Italian 
parentage; pupil of Cesi and Serrao 
at Cons, at Naples; since 1890 pf. 
prof, at Royal Inst. at Florence; 
founder and editor of La nuova 
musica 1896; comp. symph. suites, 
notable pf. sonata, etc. 

Van Bree (van-bra), Jean Bernard, 
vlt., compr. b. Amsterdam, Jan. 29, 
1801; d. there, Feb. 14, 1857. After 
study with Bertelmann, member of 
th. orch., Amsterdam; director Felix 
Mentis Soc. 1829-1857, founder of 
Cecilia, dir. Mus. School of Soc. for 



Promotion of Mus..; composed 3 
operas, 2 melodramas, masses, over- 
tures, cantata, etc. 

Van Cleve, John Smith, pst., teacher. 
b. Maysville, Ky., Oct. 30, 1851. 
Blind from 9th year; pupil of Noth- 
nagel in Columbus, O., of Lang and 
Apthorp in Boston and of Stein- 
brecher in Cincinnati; taught at 
Inst. for Blind, at Columbus and at 
Janesville, Wis.; critic and teacher 
Cincinnati 1879-97; after a period 
in Chicago, moved to Troy, O.; now 
in Cincinnati; published poems, 
lectures on mus., etc. 

Van den Eeden (van-den-a/den) , Gilles, 
orgt. d. Bonn [buried, June 20], 1782. 
Court compr. at Bonn; retired 1780; 
first teacher of Beethoven. 

Van den Eeden (van-den-a'den), Jean 
Baptiste, compr. b. Ghent, Dec. 26, 
1842. Pupil at Ghent and Brussels 
Cons.; prize for comp. 1869; dir. mus. 
sch. at Mons; composed oratorio 
(Jacob van Artevelde, etc.), symph. 
poem La lutte au X VI, etc. 

Vanderstraeten [Van der Straeten], (van- 
diir-stra-ten), Edmond, writer, b. 
Oudenarde, Belgium, Dec. 3, 1826; 
d. there, Nov. 25, 1895. Studied 
philosophy at Ghent, counterpoint 
and comp. at Brussels with Bosselot 
and F6tis, whose secretary he be- 
came; held life position in Royal 
Library and made several trips to 
Germany and Italy to report on 
musical questions; compositions are 
of no importance compared to La 
musique a Oudenarde avant le XIX 
siecle in 7 vols., and other authori- 
tative works, the results of careful 
research in archives. 

Van der Stucken (van-der-stoo'-ken), 
Frank Valentin, condr. b. Fredericks- 
burg, Texas, Oct. 15, 1858. Went 
to Antwerp 1866; pupil there of 
Benolt, at Leipzig of Reinecke, 
Grieg, and Langer; capellmeister 
Breslau 1881-82; in Rudolstadt with 
Grieg and in Weimar with Liszt 
1883; director Arion Soc. New York 
1884 (taking soc. on tour in Europe 
1892), of concerts of " novelties " 
and of American comprs., in N. Y. 
1885-88, of Cincinnati Cons, and 
Orch. 1895, dean of Cin. Coll. of 
Mus. 1897-1903; resigned 1908 and 
removed to Europe; composed songs, 

choral works, music to Shakespeare's 
Tempest and orchestral pieces Idylle, 
Pax Triumphans, symphonic prolog 
(he first used the term) William 
Ratcliff; work both as compr. and 
condr. shows power, full command of 
widest modern forces and methods, 
and originality of idea. 

Van Dyck (van-dik), Ernest Marie 
Hubert, dram, tenor, b. Antwerp, 
Apr. 2, 1861. Studied law first, was 
journalist at Brussels and Paris; 
pupil in mus. of Callaerts, Demast, 
Wicart, and Bax; sang at Lamou- 
reux concerts, Paris, 1883-88, sing- 
ing Lohengrin for first time in Paris 
at concert performance, and other 
Wagnerian parts; sang and acted the 
role at Bayreuth 1888; then engaged 
at Vienna, Paris Op<3ra 1888 for 
about ten years, at St. Petersburg, 
London, and in America (where he 
first sang in Chicago 1899). 

Van Rooy (van roy), Anton [Antonius 
Maria Josephus], dram, baritone. 
b. Rotterdam, Jan. 12, 1870. Boy 
chorister; then in cigar business; 
studied with Stockhausen at Frank- 
fort; first successes in concert; sang 
at Bayreuth 1897, London 1898, 
New York 1899; Wotan one of great 

Van Westerhout (van ves'-ter-6t), 
Niccolo, compr. b. Mola di Bari, 
Italy, Dec., 1862; d. Naples, Aug. 21, 
1898. Studied with Arienzo at Roy. 
Cons. Naples; taught harmony there 
after 1897; composed 5 operas, 
symph., vln. concerto, excellent pf. 
pieces, etc.; theatre in Mola named 
for him. 

Van Zandt, Marie, dram. sop. b. 
New York, Oct. 8, 1861. Pupil of 
Lamperti; d6but Turin 1879; sang 
in London, Paris 1880-85; tours 
throughout Europe and America 
1890; back at Opera Comique 1896; 
voice light, but sweet ; on one or two 
occasions it has failed her, and 
caused reversals in otherwise suc- 
cessful career; Mignon her great part. 

Vecchi (vec'-ke), Orazio, compr. b. 
Modena, 1550; d. there, Feb. 19, 
1605. Canon and archdeacon of 
Correggio; maestro at Modena Cath. 
and at ducal court; composed can- 
zonets, madrigals, etc., but most 
notably Amfiparnasso, " commedia 



harmonica," series of 5-part madri- 
gals accompanied by pantomime 
(1597), early step in direction of 
operatic music. 

Vecsey (vetchy), Franz von, vlt. b. 
Budapest, Mar. 23, -1893. Father 
vlt., mother pst.; pupil of Hubay; 
debut as infant prodigy Budapest; 
played in Berlin 1903, and England 
1904; later in U. S. especially praised 
by Joachim. 

Veracini (vg-ra-che-nl) , Francesco 
Maria, vlt. b. Florence, about 1685; 
d. near Pisa, 1750. Appearance at 
Venice had great influence on Tar- 
tini's style; soloist at London Italian 
opera 1715-17; chamber virtuoso at 
Dresden and at Prague; again in 
London 1735-36, success of his opera 
Adriano did not counterbalance his 
envy of rival, Geminiani; retired 1747; 
compositions, 24 vln. sonatas, etc.; 
rather modern in feeling. 

Verdelot (var-de-lo), Philippe, compr. 
d. before 1567. Lived at Florence 
1530-40; singer at St. Mark's, Venice ; 
composed several books of madri- 
gals, motets, and masses. 

Verdi (var'de), Fortunio Giuseppe Fran- 
cesco, compr. b. Le Roncole, near 
Busseto, Italy, Oct. 10, 1813; d. 
Milan, Jan. 27, 1901. Son of work- 
ing people; org. lessons from local 
orgt. whom he succeeded at 11; 
while employed in distillery at 
Busseto, lived in house of musical 
people, took lessons of one, Provesi, j 
and became leader of local Philhar- I 
monic Society; refusal of authorities j 
to admit him to Milan Cons, (they 
did not find evidence of talent for 
music) sent him back to Busseto 
where he conducted an orchestra in 
face of opposition; 1838, two years 
after marriage to Margherita Barezzi 
moved to Milan; failure of first opera 
and death of wife and two children 
came close together; first success 
was Nabucco 1842, followed by I Lom- 
bardi 1843 and the triumph of Ernani, 
1844; then after several minor works 
came Rigoletto 1851, Trovatore and 
Traviata 1853, Uri ballo in maschera 
1859; with Laforza del destino 1862, 
and Don Carlos 1867, and markedly 
in Alda (written for Khedive of 
Egypt, 1st performed at Cairo 1871), 
he turned away from earlier style 

which was the purely lyric Italian 
manner to one with more attention 
to richness of orchestration and 
appropriateness of music; between 
1871 and 1887, Verdi wrote no dra- 
matic works, only the Manzoni 
Requiem 1874; in 1887 with Otello 
and 1893 with Falstaff he achieved 
the only adequate operatic settings 
of Shakespeare, and also wrote with 
an entire truthfulness of dramatic 
expression, an elaborateness of in- 
strumentation, and an absence of 
empty ornament surprising in a 
man so old and so successful in 
other styles; question of the influ- 
ence of Wagner on these later works 
is still debated, but the influence 
seems to have been limited to seri- 
ousness of attitude and careful 
orchestration rather than in adapt- 
ing of leit motif or subordination 
of voice parts. In still widely pop- 
ular earlier operas he shows a fer- 
tility of melody scarcely equaled 
by any one except Rossini, which 
overbalances the extreme thinness 
of his orchestration. 

Vere (var), Clementine Duchgne de 
[de Vere-Sapio], sop. b. Paris. 
Pupil of Mme. Albertine-Baucarde" 
at Florence; de"but there at 16; after 
concert success in Europe, returned 
to stage 1896; came to U. S. 1899 
with troupe managed by her hus- 
band, Sapio; sang in N. Y. 1897, 
etc.; strong, brilliant soprano; Lucia 
one of favorite parts. 

Verhulst (var-hoolsf), Johannes Jo- 
sephus Herman, compr. b. The 
Hague, Mar. 19, 1816; d. there, 
Jan. 17, 1891. Studied at local 
Cons, with Volcke, at Cologne with 
Klein, and at Leipzig with Mendels- 
sohn; condr. Euterpe concerts, Leip- 
zig; Royal Mus. Dir. at The Hague 
1842; condr. of concerts of Soc. for 
Promotion of Mus. at Rotterdam; 
organizer of great Dutch festivals; 
condr. of Diligentia 1860-86 and 
Cecilia concerts at The Hague; re- 
tired 1886; composed symph., 3 
overtures, 7 festival cantatas which 
give him high rank among Dutch 
comprs.; friend of Schumann. 

Viadana (ve-a-da'-na), Ludovico da 
[properly L. Grossi], compr. b. Via- 
dana, near Mantua, 1564; d. Gual- 
tieri, May 2, 1645. Member of 



monastic order; maestro at Mantua 
1594-1609, and after 1644, in the 
meantime at Fano and Venice; to 
his Cento Concerti, 1602, used to be 
attributed use of basso continue, 
but figured bass occurs in works of 
Banchieri 1595; V. was, however, 
first to use the term, and first to use 
bass as necessary part of church con- 
certo, distinctly in style of modern 
melodic comp. 

Viardot-Garcia (vi-ar-do garthi'-a), 
[Michelle Ferdinande] Pauline, dram, 
mezzo sop. b. Paris, July 18, 1821. 
d. Paris, May 18, 1910. Daughter 
of Manuel del P. G. with whom she 
early went to America; pf. lessons 
in Mexico and after return to Europe 
of Meysenberg and Liszt; studied 
comp. with Reicha; concert dbut 
Brussels 1837; stage dbut London 
1839; sang at The&tre Italien, Paris, 
1839, until marriage with director 
Viardot 1841; then long tours in 
Europe; created Fides in Le Prophete, 
1849, and Sapho, 1851, at Paris Opfra ; 
sang Orphee and Alceste in revival 
of Gluck's operas at Paris 1859, and 
Brussels 1861; retired 1863; taught 
Paris Cons. 1871-75; among pupils 
Artot, A. Sterling, M. Brandt; com- 
posed operas, vocalises, etc. Daugh- 
ters Louise Heritte-V., teacher of 
singing, and compr. ; Mme. Chamerot 
V. and Marianne V., concert singers. 
Son Paul vlt. and writer. 

Vidal (vi-dal), Louis Antoine, writer. 
b. Rouen, July 10, 1820; d. Paris, 
Jan. 7, 1891. Pupil of Franchomme 
on 'cello; great work Les instruments 
d archet, 3 volumes, with illustra- 
tions, giving accounts of bow instru- 
ments, famous makers, virtuosi, of 
music printing, and catalogs of cham- 
ber music. 

Vidal, Paul Antonin, compr. b. Tou- 
louse, June 16, 1863. Won Grand 
prix de Rome at Paris Cons. 1881; 
teacher there of solfeggio since 1894, 
of pf. accomp. since 1896; condr. of 
Sunday concerts and 1896 chef 
d'orchestre at Paris OpeYa; com- 
posed ballets, pantomimes, comic 
operas (La maladetta, etc.), oratorio 
Le noel, orch. suites. 

Vierling (ver-ling), Georg, compr. b. 
Frankenthal, Palatinate, Sept. 5, 
1820; d. Wiesbaden, June 1, 1901. 

Pupil of father, orgt., of Neeb, Rinck, 
and Marx; orgt. at Frankfort-on- 
Oder 1847; condr. Liedertafel at 
Mayence 1852-53; founder and 
condr. Berlin Bach-Verein; resigned 
1859; composed chiefly cantatas and 
other choral works (Hero und Lean- 
der) O Roma noblis, for 6-part 
chorus, symphony, overtures. 

Vieuxtemps (vie-ton), Henri, vlt. b. 
Venders, Belgium, Feb. 20, 1820; 
d. Mustapha, Algiers, June 6, 1881. 
Pupil of father, instr. maker and 
tuner, Lecloux (with whom he made 
tour at 8), pf De Beriot at Brussels; 
while playing in Paris, Germany, 
Austria, and London, took lessons 
in comp. from Sechter in Vienna 
and Reicha in Paris; tours in Russia 
1838-39, America 1844-45 (again in 
1857 and 1870); vlt. to Czar and 
prof, at St. Petersburg Cons. 1846- 
52; prof, at Brussels Cons. 1871-73; 
paralysis of left side ended career 
1873; as player he was fond of dra- 
matic effects and was remarkable 
for perfect intonation; with De 
Be>ipt, founder of modern school pf 
playing; compositions, especially six 
concertos, are popular. 

Vilbac (v!l-bak), Alphonse Charles 
Renaud de, pst., orgt. b. Mont- 
pellier, June 3, 1829; d. Brussels, 
Mar. 19, 1884. Pupil at Paris Cons, 
of Lemoine, Hale'vy, and Benoist; 
Grand prix de Rome 1844; orgt. at 
St. Eugene, Paris, after 1856; nearly 
blind; composed much cheap mus. 
besides operas Au dair de lune, 
Almanzor, method and pleasant 
pieces for pf. 

Villoing (vil'loing), Alexander Ivano- 
vitch, pf. teacher, b. St. Petersburg, 
1808; d. there, Sept., 1878. Teacher 
of Anton and Nicolas Rubinstein; 
author of Ecole pratique du piano 
with clever exercises, and of concerto 
and pf. pieces. 

Vincent, Charles John, orgt., compr. 
b. Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, 
Eng., Sept. 19, 1852. Pupil of 
father, chorister at Durham Cath. 
under Armes; studied at Leipzig 
Cons.; various appointments as 
orgt.; head of firm of music pub- 
lishers in London; examiner for 
Trinity Coll.; composed oratorio 


Ruth, cantatas, overtures, songs; 
wrote First Principles of A/MS., 
Choral Instructor for Treble Voices, etc. 

Vinci (vin'-che), Leonardo, compr * b. 
Strongoli, Calabria, 1690; d. Naples, 
1732. Studied with Greco at Naples 
Cons.; maestro at Royal Chapel, 
Naples; entered monastery of Broth- 
ers of the Rosary 1728; as opera 
compr. noteworthy for simple dra- 
matic emotion and quality of ac- 
comp.; most noted operas are 
Ifigenia in Tauride, Didone abban- 
donata, Alessandro nell' Indie; said 
to have been poisoned. 

Viotti (ve-ot'tl), Giovanni Battista, vlt., 
compr. b. Fontaneto da P6, Ver- 
celli, Italy, May 23, 1753; d. London, 
Mar. 3, 1824. Son of blacksmith; 
without teaching played so well that 
he was sent to Pugnani at Turin; 
member of royal orch.; after 1780 
made tours to Germany, Russia, 
London, and Paris, with great suc- 
cess; irritated at lack of attention 
at one of his concerts, gave up play- 
ing and devoted himself to teaching 
(Rode and Baillot were pupils) and 
direction of Italian opera with Lon- 
ard until the Revolution; after living 
in London and Hamburg, settled in 
Paris again; director of Ope>a 1819- 
22 when he resigned; as composer 
of nearly 30 concertos, sonatas, etc., 
teacher and performer, he is leader 
of modern vln. music; " the first 
to apply to the vln. concerto the 
full system of sonata form and the 
new resources of orchestration." 

Virdung (vlr-doongh'), Sebastian, orgt. 
[Dates not known.] Priest; orgt. 
at Basle; author of important early 
illustrated work Musica Getutscht, 
etc., Basle, 1511, describing mus. 
instruments of period and giving tab- 
lature of lute and flute. 

Visetti (vi-set'-tl), Alberto Antonio, 
condr., teacher, b. Spalato, Dalma- 
tia, May 13, 1846. Studied at Milan 
Cons, with Mazzucato; conducted 
concerts at Nice; condr. to Empress 
Eugenie in Paris; at fall of Empire j 
became director of vocal dept. in 
London Nat'l Training School; wrote 
History of Art of Singing, translated 
into Italian Hullah's Hist, of Mod. 
Mus. and Hueffer's Studies. 


Vitali (vi-ta'-le), Giovanni Battista, 
compr. b. Cremona, about 1644; 
d. Modena, Oct. 12, 1692. Pupil of 
Cazzati; via. player inch, in Bologna; 
2d maestro to Duke of Modena 
after 1674; important compr. in 
sonata form before Corelli. 
Vittoria, Tomaso Ludovico da [properly 
Tomas Luis de Victoria], compr. b. 
Avila, Spain, about 1540; d. Madrid, 
about 1613. Pupil at Rome of 
Escobedo and Morales; maestro at 
German Coll. 1573, at San Apollinare 
1575; vice-maestro at Royal Chapel, 
Madrid, 1589-1602; contemporary 
and friend of Palestrina; published 
hymns (before P's), motets, and 
masses (especially noteworthy is a 
requiem); style closely resembles 
that of Palestrina, but is, neverthe- 
less, not merely imitative. 
Vivaldi (vl-val'-dl), Antonio, vlt. b. 
Venice, about 1680; d. there, 1743. 
Son of vlt. at San Marco; early 
ordained priest and called " il prete 
rosso " because of red hair; in service 
of Elector of Darmstadt; director 
after 1713 of Venetian Cons, della 
Pieta, and vlt. at St. Mark's; wrote 
about 25 operas and many vln. con- 
certos, of which Bach arranged 16 
for clavier, 4 for org. and one for 
four claviers and string orch. 
Vogl (vogl), Johann Michael, tenor. 
b. Steyr, Aug. 10, 1768; d. Vienna, 
Nov. 19, 1840. Law student at 
Vienna; under persuasion of Siiss- 
mayer joined opera co. at Court Th. 
1794-1822; first to introduce to 
public songs of Schubert who was 
his friend and companion. 
Vogler (vog'-ler), Georg Joseph [known 
as Abt V.], compr., orgt. b. Wurz- 
burg, June 15, 1749; d. Darmstadt, 
May 6, 1814. Pupil of Padre Martini 
at Bologna, and of Vallotti at Padua; 
entered holy orders in Rome; found- 
ed Tonschule, became court chap- 
lain and 2d capellmeister at Mann- 
heim; journeyed to Paris, Spain, 
and the Orient 1783-86; court condr., 
founder of mus. school at Stockholm 
1786-99; court capellm. and again 
founder of mus. school at Darmstadt; 
Meyerbeer and Weber his pupils; 
traveled with portable organ to 
illustrate his theories of simplifica- 
tion of instrument; wrote advanced 
theoretical works on harmony, choral 



singing, etc., some 10 operas, much 
church and org. music. 

Vogrich (vog'-ritch), Max Wilhelm 
Carl, pst., compr. b. Hermannstadt, 
Transylvania, Jan. 24, 1852. Played 
in public at 7; pupil at Leipzig Cons, 
of Wenzel, Reinecke, Moscheles, etc.; 
long tours in Europe and S. America 
1870-78, N. America with Wilhelmj 
1878, Australia 1882-86; since 1886 
living in N. Y.; produced 4 operas 
with his own librettos, oratorio, 
cantatas, mass, 2 symph., vln. con- 
certo, numerous pf. pieces. 

Vogt, A. S., orgt., compr., condr. b. 
Washington, Ont., Aug. 14, 1861; 
father an organ builder; showed 
early aptitude for music; organist 
at twelve; educated in public schools 
and abroad; early musical education 
begun under local teachers, contin- 
ued at New England Conservatory, 
1881-82 under Dunham, Emery, 
and Buckingham, and at Leip- 
zig under Jadassohn, Klengel, Ren- 
berg, Ruthardt and Reinecke; re- 
turned to Toronto in 1888; orgt. and 
choirmaster at Jarvis St. Baptist 
church, choir gaining splendid repu- 
tation during his incumbency up to 
1906; teacher in Toronto College of 
Music 1888-92, Toronto Conserva- 
tory of Music from 1892 to the pres- 
sent (1910); conductor Mendelssohn 
Choir, of Toronto, one of the best in 
America; author of Modern Piano- 
forte Technique (1900); composer of 
part-songs; for several years music 
critic of Toronto Saturday Night. 

Vogt, Jean, pst., compr. b. Gross-tinz, 
Jan. 17, 1823, near Leignitz; d. 
Eberswalde, July 31 , 1888. Pupil of 
Bach and Grell in Berlin, and Hesse 
and Seidel in Breslau; made many 
concert tours; in 1861 he located in 
Dresden, in 1865 went to Berlin as 
teacher in the Stern Cons., and in 
1871 to New York; returned to Ber- 
lin in 1873; most important work an 
oratorio, Lazarus. 

Voigt, Henriette [nee Kuntze], pst. 
b. Leipzig, Nov. 24, 1808; d. there, 
Oct. 15, 1839. Pupil of Berger, and 
friend of Rochlitz, Mendelssohn, and 
Schumann. , 

Volbach (vol-bak), Fritz, condr. b. 
Wipperfurth, near Cologne, Dec. 17, 
1861. Studied at Cologne Cons., at 

Heidelberg and Bonn, and at Royal 
Acad. Berlin with Haupt, Taubert, 
and Loeschhorn; teacher of hist, and 
Gregorian chant at Inst. for Ch. 
Mus. 1887; condr. Klindworth Cho- 
rus; condr. of choral societies in 
Mayence 1892; comp. symph. poems 
Ostern, Alt Heidelberg du feine, can- 
tatas, etc.; has written life of Handel 
and books on performing of H's 
works and on Gregorian chant. 

Volckmar (volk'-mar), Wilhelm Valen- 
tin, orgt. b. Hersfeld, Kassel, Dec. 
26, 1812; d. Homberg, near Kassel, 
Aug. 27, 1887. Ph.D. at Marburg; 
mus. teacher at Homburg Seminary 
after 1835; excellent performer and 
compr. of org. concertos, 20 sonatas, 
symph., method, and exercises. 

Volkmann, Friedrich Robert, compr. 
b. Lommatzsch, Saxony, Apr. 6, 
1815; d. Pesth, Oct. 30, 1883. Org. 
and pf. pupil of father, a cantor; vln. 
and 'cello with Friebel, comp. with 
Anacker and K. F. Becker at Leipzig; 
encouraged by Schumann; taught 
at Prague 1839-42, and, except for 
1854-58 at Vienna, at Pesth, part of 
the time at Nat'l Acad.; composed 
2 symphonies, serenades for strings 
and overtures and smaller works for 
various instruments, many pf. works, 
2 masses, sacred and secular songs, 
etc.; akin to Schumann in manner of 
writing, V. is most widely known for 
string serenades. 

Voss, Charles, pst. b. Schmarsow, near 
Demmin, Pomerania, Sept. 20, 1815; 
d. Verona, Aug. 28, 1882. After 
study in Berlin, became great favor- 
ite in Paris; composed much salon 
music and some serious concertos, 
Etudes, etc. 

Vuillaume (vwe-yom), Jean Baptiste, 

vln.-maker. b. Mirecourt, Vosges, 
Oct. 7, 1798; d. Paris, Mar. 19, 1879. 
Worked with father Claude, at Paris 
with Chanot, and in partnership 
with Le'te'; after 1828 alone; enthu- 
siasm for old vlns. so hindered sale 
of his own that he manufactured 
almost perfect imitations of Strads. 
and of Duiffopruggar vlns. and 'cellos 
(theory that D. was perfector of vln. 
due to these forgeries); several 
inventions, octobasse, contre-alto, 
p6dale sourdine, machine for making 
gut strings of equal thickness, etc. 




Wachs (vaks), Etienne Victor Paul, 
pst. b. Paris, Sept. 19, 1851. Stud- 
ied at Paris Cons, with Masse 1 , Mar- 
montel, and C. Franck; 1st prize 
org. playing 1877; orgt. at St. Mary; 
treatises on harmony and counter- 
point; comp. popular pf. pieces. 

Wachtel (vak'-tel), Theodor, dram. ten. 
b. Hamburg, Mar. 10, 1823; d. 
Frankfort-on-Main, Nov. 14, 1893. 
Son of livery stable keeper, whose 
business he carried on until voice 
was "discovered"; pupil of Fraulein 
Grandjean; d6but in Hamburg, and, 
after further study in Vienna, sang 
in many cities, London 1862, Berlin 
1865, Paris 1869, U. S. 1871 and 
1875; brilliant lyric tenor, good in 
French and Italian operas. 

Waelrant (wal'-ront), Hubert, teacher. 
b. Tongerloo, Brabant, about 1517; 
d. Antwerp, Nov. 19, 1595. Stud- 
ied with Willaert at Venice; founder 
of school in Antwerp 1547, partner 
of Laet as publisher; "as teacher he 
broke with old system of solmisation 
by hexachords, introducing new 
system of 7-tone names, 60, ce, di, 
ga, lo, ma, ni, called bocedisation or 

Wagenseil (va'-gen-sil), Georg Chris- 
toph, compr. b. Vienna, Jan. 15, 
1715; d. there, Mar. 1, 1777. Pupil 
of J. J. Fux; mus. teacher to Maria 
Theresa, teacher and compr. to 
her children ; composed divertimenti, 
symph., sonatas, operas, etc. 

Wagner (vag'-ner), Cosima, b. Dec. 
25, 1841. Daughter of Franz Liszt 
and Countess d'Agoult, who wrote 
over pseud, of Daniel Stern; after 
their separation, C. lived with Liszt's 
mother, then with mother of Hans 
von Billow, whom she married in 
1857; visited Wagner and his wife 
on their wedding trip and again a 
year later; C. went to live with Wag- 
ner about 1864, and after her divorce 
from Von Biilow, in 1869, married 
W. 1870; her devotion and sym- 
pathy were a great support to him 
during his life; after his death she 
managed the Bayreuth festivals. 

Wagner, Richard [orig. Wilhelm Rich- 
ard], compr. b. Leipzig, May 22, 
1818; d. Venice, Feb. 13, 1883. Son 
of Friedrich W., clerk of the police, 
and Johanna Rosina, nee Bertz; 
after death of Fr., widow married 
Ludwig Geyer, actor, singer, author 
and portrait painter who took her 
children to Dresden; Richard went 
to the Kreuzschule, and 1827, when 
family moved to Leipzig after death 
of stepfather, to Nikolai Gymnasium 
at Leipzig; took early interest in 
mythology, great tragedies, and in 
music, though he never learned to 
play on an instrument; after some 
independent attempts at comp., had 
some ineffective lessons from G. 
Miiller, and while student pf philol- 
ogy and esthetics at Leipzig Univ., 
studied comp. with Th. Weinlig 
and became familiar with scores of 
Beethoven and Mozart; symphony 
performed 1833; 1833 became chorus- 
master at Wvirzburg Th., where his 
brother Albert was singer and stage 
manager, here wrote Die Feen, not 
performed until 1888; 1834 condr. 
of Magdeburg Th., where two per- 
formances of his Das Liebesverbot 
ended its career; married Wilhelmine 
Planer 1836; condr. at Konigsberg 
1837, at Riga 1837; 1839-42 lived 
in great poverty in Paris, compos- 
ing songs, arranging dances, etc., 
trying to get hearing at Ope>a, 
where, despite some help from Mey- 
erbeer, he got but little for the li- 
bretto for The Flying Dutchman. 
With the performance of Rienzi in 
Dresden 1842, began W's fame and 
his even greater troubles (he was 
there to superintend rehearsals); its 
great success led to performance 
1843 of Der Fliegende Hollander, 
which was, however, too advanced 
to succeed. The remaining events 
of his life, briefly, are as follows: 
Became condr. at Dresden 1843 and 
produced Tannhauser there 1844; 
his Proposition for Nat. Th. having 
been ignored, W. became impatient 
and expressed some sympathy with 
May Revolution; as a result, he was 
obliged to leave Dresden 1849; lived 



in Zurich for 3 years, publishing 
many pamphlets (The Art Works of 
the Future, Judaism in Music, Opera 
and Drama, etc.), in which he ex- 
pounded many of the theories he 
later put into practise; 1855 con- 
ducted 8 concerts in London; 1860 
Liszt produced Lohengrin at Weimar; 
1861, after concerts in France, came 
three performances of Tannhauser 
in Paris which ended in practical 
riots; from 1861-64', W. gave con- 
certs in Russia and elsewhere; 1863 
published poem of Das Ring der 
Nibelungen, in despair of a chance 
to produce it; at this juncture Lud- 
wig II came to the throne of Ba- 
varia and invited W. to live at 
Munich and superintend perform- 
ances of his works; Von Biilow came 
to conduct, and it was at this time 
that his wife Cosima transferred her 
affections to W., who had separated 
from his wife in 1860; 1865, owing to 
protests of Ludwig's court against 
extravagant favors, W. left Munich 
for Switzerland, where he lived until 
1872, when he moved to Bayreuth; 
Tristan and Die Meistersinger were 
produced at Munich in 1865 and '68; 
and there were preliminary perform- 
ances of parts of the Ring 1869, '70; 
W. societies, formed all over the 
world, raised money to build theatre 
at Bayreuth, where finally the com- 
plete Ring 1876, and Parsifal 1882, 
were performed; died while at Venice 
for health. The chief reforms which 
W. introduced into the opera are 
first, unity to which drama, music, 
and scenery all contribute, conse- 
quent subordination of singers, and 
removal of all separate numbers and 
opportunities for individual display; 
second, the expression by the ac- 
companying orchestra of the states 
of mind and soul of the characters, 
made clear by the use of leading 
motives, that is, short musical 
phrases identified with single ideas. 
Aside from these technical points, 
the music is the loftiest attempt yet 
made in the history of opera, for gen- 
eral depth -of significance combined 
with rare beauty of tone. His son, 

Wagner, Siegfried Richard, compr. 
b. Triebschen, June 6, 1869. 
Studied architecture at polytechnic 
school; music with Kniese and 

Humperdinck; concert cpndr. in vari- 
ous places in Germany since 1893; at 
Bayreuth as assistant dir. since 1894, 
joint condr. since 1896; compr. of 
symph. poem Sehnsucht, and operas 
Der Barenhduter 1899, Herzog Wild- 
fang 1901, Der Kobold 1904, Stern- 
engebot 1908, Banadietrich 1909. 

Waldteufel (vald'-toi-fel), Emil, compr. 
b. Strassburg, Dec. 9, 1837. Pupil 
at Paris Cons, of Marmontel and 
Laurent; exhibitor in pf. manufac- 
tory; success of waltzes turned him 
to comp.; compr. to Empress Eu- 
genie, dir. of court balls; very popu- 
lar compr. of dances Espana, Estu- 
diantina, etc. 

Walker, Edyth, dram, contralto, b. 
Hopewell, New York, 1870. At first 
school-teacher; church singer; pupil 
of Orgeni at Dresden Cons., sang at 
Vienna Court Opera 1899-1903; at 
New York since 1903; developed her 
voice, naturally of great range, so 
that she now sings soprano parts. 

Walker, Ernest, orgt., writer, b. Bom- 
bay, July 15, 1870. Author of His- 
tory of Mus. in England; compr. of 
songs for 1, 2, and 4 voices, which 
are praised for delightful originality; 
successful settings to verses by W. 
E. Henley. 

Wallace, William Vincent, compr. b. 
Waterford, Ireland, June 1, 1814; 
d. Chateau de Bages, Haute Ga- 
ronne, Oct. 12, 1865. Vlt. in Dub- 
lin churches; after 1835 wandered to 
Australia, S. America, Mexico, U. S., 
etc. giving successful concerts; in 
London 1845-47, prod. Maritana, 
Matilda of Hungary; after 1853 
chiefly in London and Paris; operas, 
especially Maritana, Lurline, The 
Amber Witch, etc., were very success- 
ful, as were also pf. nocturnes; operas 
full of fluent if somewhat ordinary 
melody, and rivaled Balfe's in 

Wallnofer (val'-ne"f-er), Adolf, singer. 
b. Vienna, Apr. 26, 1854. Studied 
comp. with Waldmuller and others, 
singing with Rokitansky; sang con- 
certs in Vienna as baritone; after 
1880 sang tenor at Olmiitz, with 
Neumann's Wagner Co., at Bremen, 
and Prague, New York 1897-99, and 
Russia; composed 3 operas and 
many ballads (Schon Rohtraut, etc.). 



Walmisley, Thomas Forbes, compr. b. 
London, 1783; d. there, July 23, 
1866. Pupil of Thomas Attwpod; 
orgt. at St. Martin-in-the-Fields 
after 1810; composed many popular 
glees, of which he published 4 col- 
lections. Son Thomas Attwood W. 
(1814-1856), orgt., prof, of music at 
Cambridge, compr. of church music. 

Walther von der Vogelweide (val'-ter 
von-der vo'-gel-wi-dg), minnesinger, 
b. in Tyrol, about 1168; d. Wiirz- 
burg, about 1230. Most famous 
lyric poet of mediaeval Germany; 
introduced as character in Die 
Meistersinger by Wagner. 

Walther (val'-ter), Johann Gottfried, 

orgt., lexicographer, b. Erfurt, Sept. 
18, 1684; d. Weimar, Mar. 23, 1748. 
Studied with Adlung, Kretschmar, 
and J. B. Bach; orgt. Erfurt 1702; 
town orgt. at Weimar 1707, court 
musician 1720; compr. of choral 
variations, preludes, fugues, etc.; 
chief work Musikalisches Lexikon, 
first encyclopedia of biography, 
terms, etc., 1732, a work whose value 
is greater than would appear from 
meagre mention of W's friend J. S. 
Bach; corrections prepared for the 
second edition were used by Gerber. 

Walthew, Richard Henry, compr. b. 
Islington, London, Nov. 4, 1872. 
Pupil at Roy. Coll. Mus. of Hubert 
Parry; first gained notice by per- 
formance of own concerto, London, 
1894; has comp. orch. suite, festival 
march, pieces for clarinet and pf., 
and music to Browning's Pied Piper 
of Hamelin. 

Wanhal (van-hal), Tohann Baptist, 
compr. b. Neu-Nechanitz, Bohemia, 
May 12, 1739; d. Vienna, Aug. 26, 
1813. Son of peasant; at first self- 
taught, later studied in Italy; men- 
tally deranged for several years; 
compr. of numerous symph., sonatas 
(some with titles, Battle of Trafalgar, 
etc.), and chamber music; very pop- 
ular at time of Haydn despite super- 
ficiality of his music. 

Wareing, Herbert Walter, orgt. b. 
Birmingham, Apr. 5, 1857. Pupil 
of Swinnerton Heap, and at Leip- 
zig of Reinecke, Jadassohn, etc.; 
Mus. Doc. Cambridge 1886; vari- 
ous org. appointments; pf. prof, at 

Malvern Coll.; composed cantatas 
( New Year's Eve, Wreck of the Hes- 
perus), overture, 10 concert pieces for 
vln. and pf., anthems, and services. 

Warren, George William, orgt. b. 
Albany, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1828. Self- 
taught; positions in Albany, Brook- 
lyn, and at St. Thomas's, N. Y.; 
composed church music and pub- 
lished Hymns and Tunes. 

Warren, Richard Henry, condr., compr., 
orgt. b. Albany, N. Y., Sept. 17, 
1859. Son of George William War- 
ren, orgt.; began study of music at 
an early age; orgt. and choirmaster 
in New York at various churches 
after 1877; 1907 at Church of the 
Ascension, which position he still 
holds (1910); condr. N. Y. Church 
Choral Society 1886-1895, 1903- 
1907, and of series of orchestral con- 
certs 1905; condr. Yonkers Choral 
Society; has composed 6 operettas, 
cantata, orchestral works, string 
quartet, songs, anthems, etc. 

Warren, Samuel Prowse, orgt. b. 
Montreal, Feb. 18, 1841. Org. pupil 
pf Haupt, pf. of Gustav Schumann,