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Full text of "Bamboo work; comprising the construction of furniture, household fitments, and other articles in bamboo"

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WORK'' HANDBOOKS. 



BAMBOO WORK 



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PREFACE. 

This Handbook contains, in a form convenient for 
everyday use, a comprehensive digest of tiie knowledge 
of Bamboo Work, scattered over nearly twenty thousand 
columns of Work — one of the weekly journals it is my 
fortune to edit— and supplies concise information on the 
general principles of the subjects on which it treats. 

In preparing for publication in book form the mass 
of relevant niitter contained in the volumes of Work, 
much had to be arranged anew, altered, and largely 
re-written. From these causes the contributions of 
many are so blended that the writings of individuals 
cannot be distinguished for acknowledgment. A por- 
tion of the matter is quite new, having been written 
especially for this volume. 

Readers who may desire additional information re- 
specting special details of the matters dealt with in 
this Handbook, or instructions on kindred subjects, 
should address a ([uestion to Work, so that it may 
be answered in the columns of that journal. 

P. N. HASLUCK. 

La Belle Sauvage, London. 
Fehruarii, 1901. 



CONTENTS. 



I. — Bamboo : Its Source and Uses 
II. — Hovv 1o Work Bamboo 
III. — Bamboo Tables . 
IV. — Bamboo Chairs and Seats . 

V. — Bamboo Bedroom Furniture 
VI. — Bamboo Hall Racks and Stands 
\n. — Bamboo Music Racks 
VIII. -Bamboo Cabinets and Bookcases 
IX. — Bamboo Window Blinds . 
X. — Miscellaneous Articles of Bamboo 
XI. — Bamboo Mail-cart 

Index ..... 



PAGE 

9 

19 

41 

58 

68 

82 

92 

99 

114 

122 

153 

. 158 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



IIG. 

1. 
2_ 

3. 
4. 
5, 



— The Baiuboo 

— Section of Rasp . 

—Mortise Holes in Bamboo . 

—Brace and Chnck 

6. — Fretworker's Cramps and 
Tables .... 

— Bamboo Worker's Bench- 
board .... 

—Mitre Block 

— Mitre Box .... 

—Method of Cramping Bam- 
boo Joints. 

— Cutting Gauge . 

— Bunsen Burner , 

—Spirit Lamp 

—Benzoline Blow-lamp. 

— Bending-iron in Block 

— Bending Iron . 

—Method of Bending Bam- 
boo 

— Bending-board for Bamboo 

—Bamboo Worker's Bench . 

—Section of Bench 

— Steam-chest for Bamboo . 

— Joint of Steam-chest . 

—Method of Straightening 
Bamboo .... 

— Mitred Joint in Baniboo . 

— Hollowed End of Cane 
27. — Tee Joints in Bamboo . 

— Tee Joint in Bamluio . 

, — Angle Joint in Bamboo 

— Diagonal Joint in Baniboo . 

— Bay-pole Joint , 

—Method of Rebating Bam- 
boo . . ... 

—Three-tray Bamboo Table . 

— Support for Table Top 

—Bamboo Table with Shelf 
Brackets .... 

—Shelf Bracket for Table . 

. — Baniboo Occasional Table 
with Flap .... 

—Bamboo Table with Shelf . 

—Top Batten and Leg of 
Bamboo Table . 

,— Halved Batten for Bamboo 
Table Top .... 

, — Block for Hexagonal Joints 

.—Bamboo Occasional Table . 

.—Table Top .... 

. — Alternate Half-design for 
Table Top .... 

.—Section of Table Top Edge. 



FIG. 

46. 



44 


80. 


44 


81. 




82. 


45 


83. 


46 


84. 


46 


85. 


47 


80. 


48 


87. 




88. 


48 


80. 


48 


90. 



PAGE 

—Joint between Table Top 

and Leg . . . .49 
—Section of Table showing 

Shelf 

— Section showing Shelf Joint 
—Bamboo Tea Table with 

Flaps .... 
—Underside of Tea Table Top 
—Bamboo Writing Table 
—Tray and Drawer of Table . 
—Combined Hall Seat and 

Table 

—Combined Hall Seat and 

Table .... 
— Tal>le Top Support . 
— Bamboo Chair . 
— Cliair Leg and Back . 
— Chair Legs and Rail . 
— Chair Bottom 
— Bamboo Corner Seat . 
62.— End Sections of Corner 

Seat 

—Bamboo Settee . 
— Front Section for Settee . 
—Back Section for Settee 
— Bamlxio Double Chair or 

Settee .... 
—Settee Back. 

— Underside of Settee Seat . 
—Child's High Chair . 
— Foot-r.-st Support 
—Baby's Folding Cliair . 
— Banibo(j Rocking Chair 
—Bamboo Couch . 
—Foot of Bamboo Bedstead . 
—Head of Bamboo Bedstead 
—Head of Bamboo Bedstead 
, — Angle Iron for Bamboo 

Bedstead . 
,— Child's Bamboo Cot . 
, — Another Design for Bam 

boo Cot 
—Bamboo Dressing Table 
— Bamboo Washstand . 
—Baniboo Washstand . 
— Toilet Mirror with Bamboo 

Frame 
— Side of Mirror Frame 
—Hat Rack . 
—Upright for Hat Rack 
—Filling for Hat Rack . 
— Umbrella Stand . 
— Joints for Umbrella Stand 
—Umbrella Stand . 



70 



Bamboo Work. 



98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
10(3. 

107. 
108. 
109. 

110. 

111. 
112. 
113. 



11'). 

110. 
117. 
118. 
119. 

120, 

122. 
123. 
124. 

125. 
126. 
127. 

128. 

129. 
130.- 
131. 

132. 

133.- 



. — Tenuiiial of Umbrella Stand 
.—Hat and Umbrella Stand . 
. — Centre Upi'ight of Umbrella 

Stand .... 
. — Side Upright of Umbrella 

Stand .... 
. - Hat and Umbrella Stand . 
, — Back Section of Umbrella 

Stand .... 
—Front Section of Umbrella 

Stand .... 
— Hat and Umbrella Stand . 
—Two-division Music Rack . 
— Two-division Music Rack . 
—Three-division Music Rack 
— End View of Rack 
—Partition of Rack 
— Two-division Music Rack . 
-Three-division Music Rack 
— Combined Table and Music 

Rack 

—Section of Music Rack 

—Bamboo Cabinet. 

— Back Section of Bamboo 

Cabinet .... 
—Front Section of Bamboo 

Cabinet .... 
— Ba m boo Cabinet . 
—Bamboo Music Cabinet 
— Framing of Bamboo Music 

Cabinet .... 
—Door Fiame of Bamboo 

Music Cabinet . 
— Combined China Cupboard 

and Bookcase . 
—Framing of China Cupboard 108 

— Framing of Bookcase . . 109 
—Method of Fixing Bookshelf 110 
—Bookshelf Grooved and 

Tongued .... 
121.— Methods of Supporting 

Bookshelves 
—Bamboo Side of Bookcase . Ill 
—Bamboo Bookshelf . . 112 
—End View of Bamboo Book- 

.shelf 

—Bamboo Writing-stand 
— Bamboo Window Blind 
—Framing of Bamboo Win- 
dow Blind 
—Framing for Inside Section 
of Blind .... 
—Bamboo Window Blind 
—Bamboo Window Blind 
—Bamboo Frame for Window 
Flush with Wall 

— Side View of Bamboo Win- 

dow Frame 
— Bauiboo Frame for Re- 
cessed Window . . . 121 



98 
100 

101 

102 
103 
104 

105 

105 

107 



110 



111 



113 
113 
115 

116 

117 
118 
119 

120 

120 



PAGE 

. 123 
. 123 



159.— 

100.— 

161.- 

162. 

163. 

164. 

105.- 

166.- 
167.- 

168.- 

169.- 
170.- 
171.- 
172.- 

173.- 
174.- 
175.- 
176.- 
177.- 



— Bamboo Coal-box 
— Legs of Bamboo Coal-box . 
— Iron Lining for Bamboo 
Coal-box .... 
— Bamboo Fender . 
—Section of Cane with Strip 
Removed .... 
— Angle Joint for Aquarium . 126 
141.— Bamboo Camera Stand 126 
— Flower-pot or Jardiniere 

Stand . . . .127 
—Triangle for Bamboo Stand 128 
— Alternate Design for Flower- 
pot Stand .... 
—Bamboo Tripod for Jar- 
diniere .... 
— Bamboo Flower-pot Stand . 
—Bamboo Flower-pot Stand 

for Window 
—Bamboo Flower-pot Stand 

for Window 
-Shelf of Window-stand . 
— Bamboo Lamp-stand . 
—Bamboo Lamp-stand . 
—Bamboo Overmantel . 
—Back Section of Bamboo 

Overmantel 
—Bamboo Overmantel . 
—Framing of Bamboo Over- 
mantel .... 
—Half-elevation of Bamboo 

Overmantel 
—Bamboo Photograph 
Frame .... 
—Bamboo 
Pipes . 
Bamboo 

Pipes .... 142 
Foiu--fold Bamboo Screen . 143 
Screen Hinge . . . 143 
Two-fold Bamboo Screen . 144 
Framing of Bamboo Screen 145 
Filling for Bamboo Screen. 146 
Elevation of Bamboo Fire- 
screen .... 147 
Plan of Bamboo Fire-screen 148 
Bamboo Fire-screen . . 148 
Side Upright of Bamboo 

Fire-screen . . . 149 
Three-fold Bamboo Screen 150 
Three-fold Bamboo Screen 151 



124 

125 



125 



128 

129 
130 

131 

132 
133 
133 
1.34 
135 

137 

138 

139 



. 140 



141 



Rack for Ten 
Rack for Nine 



142 



-Bamboo Whatnot Screen . 152 
-Side of Bamboo Whatnot 

Screen .... 152 
-Bamboo Mail-cart . . 154 
-Mailcart Seat . . . 154 
-End of Mail-cart Well. . 1.55 
-Upper Frame of Mail-cart . 156 
-Section of Checked Bam- 
boo .... 156 



BAMBOO WORK. 

CHAPTER I. 

BAMBOO : ITS SOURCE AND USES. 

Bamboo canes are the stems of giant grasses belong- 
ing to the genus Bamhusa and allied genera, whose 
species are found in most tropical and sub-tropical 
regions. The allied genera include Arundinaria, 
Arumlo, Dendrocalamiis, Gifjantoclilva^ Melocanna., 
and some others ; and their species, numbering, alto- 
gether two or three hundred, if not more, may be 
as small and slender as pampas grass, or as large 
as the Gigantochloa aspera of Java, which in one 
instance was found to be 170 ft. high, and whose 
stem may be more than 20 in. thick. 

Except only one or two species, bamboos are in- 
digenous to some particular locality ; the principal 
of these exceptions is Bamhusa vuhiaiis, which is cul- 
tivated extensively in sub-tropical Asia, tlie West 
Indies, and South America, and which has a height 
of from 20 ft. to 120 ft., the stems of the larger kinds 
having a diameter of from 4 in. to 8 in. 

All bamboo plants have stems that are very 
slender in proportion to their height, and these 
stems grow to their full length without any branches 
forming ; when at their greatest possible height, the 
plants throw out straight, horizontal branches at 
the top, and these form a dense thicket. All bam- 
boo plants shoot forth jointed root-stocks or rhizomes 
beneath the surface of the ground, and from one of 
these may grow from ten to one hundred stems. 



10 Bamboo JVork. 

The stems of bamboo plants are very strong, but 
hollow, with the exception of partitions at the 
nodes ; and to these two qualities is due the great 
popularity and usefulness of bamboo canes, which 
to the Chinese, Japanese, Indo-Chinese, and West 
Indians are essentials to everyday life, and have 
been so for many centuries ; to the European they 
have been known popularly for only a few years. 
Bamboo stems resemble the stems of all grasses in 
being jointed ; they are hard, light as regards 
weight, elastic, and, as has been said, hollow, con- 
taining only a light, spongy pith, and the parti- 
tions at the nodes, these partitions increasing the 
strength of the stems greatly. Most bamboos are of 
approximate circular section, hut one species is 
square ; this, when three years old, has a sectional 
area of one square inch. 

The species of Bamhusa number about thirty ; all 
those of similar height have much the same appear- 
ance, the only marked difference being the stem, 
which varies in colour through dozens of shades, and 
in ssize from a diameter of the human finger to a di- 
ameter of twenty-two inches. 

Perhaps the most beautiful and typical bamboo 
is B. aruiidiuacea, and it is this plant that is illus- 
trated by Fig. 1. There is little doubt but that this 
is one of the most useful bamboos of which the Wes- 
tern peoples have any knowledge. 

Bamboo plants flower but rarely, but when 
flowering does occur, a large amount of seed results. 
Some of the Indian bamboos bear berries, the 
species noted in this respect being Melncanna hamhu- 
mides, on which grows an edible and fleshy fruit, 
from 3 in. to 5 in. long, having the shape of a 
pear ; M: hamhusoides grows to a height of 70 ft. or 
80 ft., and attains a diameter of 12 in. Another 
beiTy-bearing bamboo is the Nmiidina domesHca of 
China and Japan, which is used chiefly for decora- 
tive purposes, and whose berries are red. 



Bamboo : its Source and Uses. 



II 



A silicioiis solution contained by the stems of 
some bamboos, amongst them Mclocanna hamhusoidc><, 




1.— The Bamboo. 



ah-eady mentioned, is known as tabasheer. This 
hardens to a white, opaque, or sometimes translu- 



12 Bamboo Work. 

cent, variety of opal, which breaks up into what ap- 
pears to be dry starch of irregular size and shape. 
A suggestion has been made that the presence of 
tabasheer in a bamboo plant denotes disease, or is 
caused by some piovious injury. Tabasheer will 
absorb its own weight of water, being then quite 
transparent ; calcined and powdered, it is of high 
esteem in India as a medicine. 

It would not serve any useful purpose to tabulate 
here all the species of bamboo that are known ; but 
perhaps the names, sources, and the leading charac- 
teristics of the principal bamboo plants may be found 
of use. The table on the following page gives an 
arbitrary selection of bamboos to the number of 
about thirty ; the complete list would number two 
or three iiundred. 

The use of bamboo in Great Britain and the wes- 
tern part of Europe generally is increasing, but as 
yet most of its applications are in furniture making. 
Compared with China, Japan, India, and tropical 
America, its use in this country is restricted, due, of 
course, to its being a new material, practically. 
Europeans can have but little idea as to the great 
number of the exceedingly varied uses to which bam- 
boo is put in the countries of its source. There is 
hardly any purpose for which iron, stone, or wood 
is used here but what is answ^ered nearly, if not 
quite as well, in the Eastern countries named above 
by the use of bamboo. 

It is interesting to give here a few brief notes 
descriptive of the many uses to which bamboo 
canes are applied, chiefly, be it said, in the East, 

In China, the tender, but tasteless, bamboo 
shoots are used as food, being either boiled or 
pickled, the seeds furnishing a farina suitable for 
cakes. The gnarled roots are cut into fantastic carv- 
ings, or into handles for the Chinese lanterns, or 
are turned in a lathe to form oval sticks for the use 
of worshippers. The tapering canes are used for all 



Bamboo : its Source and Uses. 



'3 



Species. 



Arundinaria 

japonica. 
Arundinaria 

macrosperma. 
Arundinaria 

tecta. 
Arundo 

• anipelodesmes. 
Arundo 

bengalensis. 
Arundo 

conspicua. 

Arundo donax. 



Arundo karka. 

Arundo 

sellowiana. 
Barnbusa 

agrestis. 
Bambusa 

arundinacca 
Bambusa bitung. 

Bambusa 

flexuosa. 
Bambusa guada. 

Bambusa 

latifolia. 
Bambusa 

spinosa. 
Bambusa 

tabacaria. 
Bambusa 

vulgaris. 
Dendrocalamus 

giganteus. 
Dendrocala m us 

hamiltoai. 
Dendrocalamus 

strictus. 
Gigantochloa 

aspera. 
Gigantochloa 

apus. 
Gigantochloa 

maxima- 
Gigantochloa 

nigrociliata. 
Gigantochloa 

robusta. 
Gigantochloa 

verticillata. 
Melocanna 

bavibvsoides. 



Sources. 



I Japan and South- 
i ern England. 
[North America. 

North America, 

South Europe and 
I North Africa. 
China and India. 

New Zealand and 

Chatham 

Islands. 
Europe, North 

Africa, and 

Asia. 
Japan, China, and 

India. 
Lower South 

America. 
South-east Asia. 

India. 

India. 

China. 

South America. 

South America. 

Bengal. 

South-east Asia. 

Asia and South 
America. 

Malay, Archi- 
pelago. 

Himalayas, India. 

Malay, Archi- 
pelago. 
Java. 

Indian Archi- 
pelago. 

IMalay, Archi- 
pelago. 

India. 

Java. 
India. 
India. 



Remarks. 



Dwarf species ; hardy. 
10 ft. to 40 ft. high. 
Small or switch cane. 

10 ft. high ; tough flower 

stems and leaves. 
10 ft. high ; variegated white 

and violet leaves. 
10 ft. high ; decorative plant. 



9 ft. or 10 ft. high; very 
slender reed. 

Stem when split is material 

for Durma mats. 
Flowering reed ; one kind 

of Pampas grass. 
Crooked and sometimes 

creeping stems. 
Thorny ; one of the most 

useful bamboos. 
Young shoots boiled for 

food. 
Dwarf species ; very hardy. 

Stem 16 in. in diameter and 

contains water. 
Stem contains water. 

100 ft. high ; stem has thick 

walls. 
Exceedingly hard stem. 

20 ft. to 120 ft. high. 

Very tall. 

Tall ; young shoots used as 

food. 
About 100 ft. high; stem 

nearly solid. 
Probably tallest bamboo ; 

exceeds 150 ft. high. 
Very flexible and strong ; 

used for ropes. 
Very tall and thick. 

130 ft. to 110 ft. high. 

120 ft to 130 ft. high, 22 in. 
in diameter. 

Tall ; young shoots used as 
food. 

70 ft. or 80 ft. high; berry- 
bearing. 



14 Bamboo Work, 

purposes that poles can be applied to in carrying, sup- 
porting, propelling, andmeasuring, and in all cases 
where strength, lightness, and length are requisite. 
The joists of houses and the ribs of sails, the shafts 
of spears and the wattles of hurdles, the tubes of 
aqueducts and the rafters of roofs, the handles of um- 
brellas and the ribs of fans, all are made of bamboo. 

The leaves are sewn in layers upon cords to make 
rain cloaks, swept into heaps for manure, matted 
into thatches, or used as cloths in which to cook rice 
dumplings. Cut into splints and slivers of various 
sizes, bamboo cane is worked into baskets and trays 
of every form and fancy, twisted into cables, plaited 
into awnings for boats, houses, and streets, and 
woven into mats which find employment in theatre 
scenery, house roofs, and casings for goods of all 
kinds. The chips are picked into a sort of oakum 
and mixed with shavings to form a stuffing for mat- 
tresses. The bamboo furnishes material for the bed 
and the lounge, chopsticks for use in eating, pipes 
for smoking, flutes and other musical instruments of 
a like nature, curtains for windows and doors, 
brooms, screens, stools, coops, stands, and almost 
every article of furniture that can be thought of. 

From bamboo is made a serviceable paper by a 
modern and Eastern process ; but the Chinese long 
have had bamboo paper ; and antiquai'ies claim that 
as early as 3000 B.C. the Chinese national records 
were written on thin plates of bamboo. 

Builders' scaffolds can be made of bamboo canes, 
and are found light and serviceable, for the material 
does not decay in water or in earth, and dryness 
makes it harder than ever ; in proportion to its 
weight, it is very strong. Canes 4 in. thick may be 
used for scaffolds 25 ft. high, and such scaffolds will 
bear iron beams weighing 20 cwt. Bamboo poles, 
suitable for scaffolds, are obtainable 65 ft. high. 

It is the ease with which bamboo canes may be 
transformed into serviceable articles that, perhaps. 



Bamboo: its Source and Uses. 15 

is one of the chief reasons for its wide use. Bamboo 
can be obtained nearly 2 ft. in diameter, and a sec- 
tion of such a cane can be fitted very easily with a 
bottom and a handle to form a basket or pail, for 
instance. Bamboo flower pots, from 3 in. to 1 ft. in 
diameter, having wooden bottoms, can be con- 
structed at something under one penny each ; bam- 
boo is very durable in damp situations, and makes 
almost as good a flower pot as earthenware, whilst 
it has not the fragile nature of this latter material. 
In the Castleton botanical gardens, Jamaica, are 
some thousands of these bamboo flower pots, which, 
however, have not come much, if at all, into use in 
Great Britain. 

One curious use of bamboo is as a whetstone, 
another being in the making of knives. For both 
these jjurposes is required the superior kinds of bam- 
boo having surfaces as hard as flint. B. tahacaria 
has a stem so hard that it strikes fire when cut with 
a hatchet. 

The Annamites of Indo-China use bamboo for the 
making of domestic utensils, weapons of the chase 
and of war, furniture, water pipes, ropes, paper, 
and buildings. In common with the inhabitants of 
China and Japan, the Annamites are so skilled 
that they can apply bamboo canes to many of the 
uses for which the hardest wood or even iron or 
steel is considered necessary in this and in other 
parts of the Western hemisphere. Thus, for 
hydraulic and mechanical work, bamboo is made to 
serve, though the only available tools for preparing 
it are of the roughest kind. In the distilleries, where 
alcohol is made from rice, bamboo pipes, having 
joints luted with clay, conduct the spirit to and from 
bamboo receivers. Weaving and rope-making 
frames are made from bamboo, and the products of 
these frames probably will bear comparison with 
goods produced in any part of the Western hemi- 
sphere. Young and tender bamboo stalks provide 



1 6 Bamboo IVork, 

food for human beings, and the leaves are eaten by 
horses and cattle. 

Perhaps the most remarkable use of the bamboo 
among the Annamites is in the construction of 
norias ; these are wheels which, during the dry 
season, raise water from streams and distribute it 
through aqueducts to the parched fields. The spot 
on the bank for the establishment of a noria having 
been selected, small dams are constructed a little 
higher up by planting long and substantial bamboo 
rods in the bed of the river so as to constitute a 
jetty. A passage is left free in the middle of the 
river so that navigation is not interrupted. In put- 
ting together a noria, two bamboo wheels, each 30 ft. 
in diameter, are connected together at a distance of 
3 ft. apart by twenty-six paddles, alternating with 
twenty-six bamboo vessels arranged obliquely ; the 
vessels are mere canes of large diameter, with one 
end closed. The paddles are struck by the current 
and cause the noria to revolve around its bamboo 
axle, the bearings of which are the sides of the canes 
in the structural support ; the axle rests where cer- 
tain of the canes cross each other. Each vessel in 
the water becomes full and is carried to the top of 
the wheel, but on the downward half -revolution its 
position, of course, is inverted, and the water flows 
into a woven bamboo conduit which communicates 
with a system of aqueducts. The speed of the 
wheel varies with the current, but usually the wheel 
revolves once in about forty seconds ; and as each 
of the twenty-eight vessels contains about 2 qt. of 
water, the noria should raise about 21 gal. per 
minute, or 1,260 gal. per hour ; in practice, not more 
than 18 gal. or 19 gal. would be raised per minute 
under such conditions. Sometimes, eight norias 
will work together, raising between them about 150 
gal. per minute. When the current is weak the 
noria is made narrower, and by substituting steps 
for the paddles, a tread-wheel is formed, which can 



Bamboo: its Source and Uses. 17 

be worked by one coolie. Sometimes the top of the 
noria has a big wooden pinion which receives the 
motion of a horizontal wheel turned by a bullock. 

The Chinese house may be bamboo from "founda- 
tions " to roof ; on plan, the house is a rectangle 
divided into three, and the walls and two partitions 
are upright bamboos of large diameter, to which are 
lashed horizontals of the same material but smaller 
in diameter, still smaller canes or laths of riven cane 
being interlaced and plastered over with mud or 
clay. The door has stiles and rails of bamboo, the 
panels being interlaced bamboo strips. The roof is 
constructed by supporting bamboo purlins longitu- 
dinally on the tops of the partitions, rafters of smaller 
bamboos being lashed to the purlins and then over- 
laid with small cane, which supports a thatch of 
leaves obtained from the bamboo plant. The floor 
is of earth well rammed down. 

Enough has been said to convince the reader that 
the possibilities of bamboo as a constructional 
material are practically unlimited. Though, of 
course, its use in this country will never be so great 
as in the countries of its source, yet as its properties 
— desirable, and indeed unique — come to be better 
known there can be no doubt but that it will be 
very generally used for many purposes for which the 
far more costly woods are now employed. 

The supply of bamboo cannot be exhausted, for, 
in addition to the probable fact that its species grow 
over a more extended area than do those of timber 
trees in general, its growth is so much more rapid ; 
whereas, timber trees are useless for constructional 
purposes until they are several years old, many 
young bamboos add from 10 ft. to 25 ft. to their 
height per month, and their stems are strong enough 
for use in but a few years. 

The kinds of bamboo canes used in Great Britain 
and in Europe generally are black, brown, yellow, 
mottled, mahogany, and spotted, these colours being 

B 



1 8 Bamboo Work. 

approximate only, and varying greatly in a bundle of 
canes, traded as being all of one colour. The black 
and mahogany canes, which are coloured artificially, 
are more uniform than those sold in their natural 
state, the yellow canes being excepted. Besides the 
plain stained canes, some resemble tortoise-shell 
with fancy mottling artificially produced, and this 
kind has become very popular for furniture. 

The sizes of bamboo canes in ordinary use vary 
from \ in. to 3 in. in diameter, and from 18 in. to 12 
ft. long ; for special purposes, canes very much 
thicker and very much longer can be obtained. 
Dealers in bamboo sell the canes as a rule by the 
dozen or by the hundred, all of one size as nearly as 
possible as regards both diameter and length, 
but generally an assorted bundle can be obtained for 
a few shillings, such a bundle containing, perhaps, 
150 canes ranging from 18 in. to 7ft. long, and from 
\ in. to 2 in. in diameter. Canes with roots are 
slightly dearer than the plain ones. Generally, bam- 
boo dealers supply also matting, Japanese leather 
paper, lacquer panels and trays ; from them also 
can be obtained the small white solid canes some- 
times used for filling in open spaces in furniture 
instead of employing panels. 

Matting, used very largely for covering the tops 
of bamboo tables, may be either white or fancy- 
coloured, and is sold by the square yard or by the 
roll, generally containing about 40 yards. 

Japanese leather paper is sold by the roll, and 
may be had in many designs executed in gold, red 
and gold, black and gold, etc. 

Japanese lacquer panels are almost a necessity in 
making up bamboo furniture. They are of many 
kinds, qualities, and sizes, the latter ranging from 
15 in. square to 24 in. square, larger panels being ob- 
tainable for special purposes. These remarks on 
panels apply also to the shallow trays in lacquer 
work used for tea-tables and similar furniture. 



19 



CHAPTER II. 

HOW TO WORK BAMBOO. 

Furniture constructed of bamboo is light and 
dainty, and can be made by any person having a 
knowledge of the use of a saw, rasp, screwdriver, 
and chisel. 

It is quite possible that some readers in their 
first attempt at bamboo work may meet with only 
slight success. Canes may split and fray up, plugs 
may not hold, and altogether the work may not come 
up to expectations, but these small difficulties 
should not be allowed to discourage the beginner ; 
practice alone makes perfect, and these little ex- 
periences will impress upon the mind the three main 
points in bamboo work : sharp tools, hot glue, and 
accurate measurements. Apart from these points, 
of course, other little difficulties will occur, but once 
the worker is used to the materials he will soon be 
at home with the work. 

In bamboo work both tools and glue should be 
of the best quality, and in good condition. A blunt 
bradawl will split the cane, a dull saw will fray it, 
and weak or cold glue will result in bad joints. 

The outfit of tools required consists of hammer, 
pincers, screwdriver, tenon saw, bradawls, and, in 
short, of such wood-working tools as the amateur 
usually possesses, with the addition of a very few 
special ones. 

Special rasps, of sharper curve than ordinary ones, 
are used (see the section, Fig. 2), for hollowing out 
the ends of bamboo canes. The requisite curve 
could not be obtained by using a knife. Bamboo 
rasps are made in all sizes from ^ in. to l\ in., the 
most useful being i in. , | in. , and 1 in. Bamboo work- 
ers generally use a separate rasp for each size cane, as 



20 



Bamboo Work. 



it saves time, but a 1-in. rasp will do all the work 
necessary ; at the same time, as rasps are not very 
expensive, a |-in. rasp can be bought, and it will be 
very useful. 




Fig. 



Fig. 2.— Section of Easp. Fig. 3. — 
Mortise Holes in Bamboo. Fig. 4. 
3 — Brace and Chuck. 



The ordinary tools, such as hammer, tenon saw, 
chisel, etc., do not need to be illustrated. A brace 
and a supply of drills will be necessary, because 
every nail that is driven into bamboo must have 



How TO Work Bamboo. 



21 



a hole made to receive it, or the bamboo will split. 
In many cases a long bradawl is a suitable tool with 
which to make the hole, but often the brace and bit 
are necessary ; the latter tools also are useful in cut- 
ting dowel or mortise hole^. (Fig. 3); the hole is 




Figs, o and 6. — Fretworker's 
Cramps and Tables. 



started by drilling, and then is finished with the 
chisel, small file, or knife. The brace used may be 
of a simple kind ; though the American brace shown 
by Fig. 4 would serve the purpose well. Of course, 
a supply of bits to be used with the brace will be 
required. 

A handy appliance for the bamboo worker is a 
fretworker's wooden cramp and table (Fig. 5). 



22 



Bamboo Work. 



When this appliance has a vice affixed to it as in 
Fig. 6 it is perhaps still handier. The cramp is fixed 
to any ordinary bench or table easily, and forms a 
moat convenient work-table. A cramp and table not 
having a vice may be obtained in two sizes, usually ; 
the larger size has a table measuring 10| in. x 4^ 
in. ; but probably it will serve the bamboo worker's 
purpose the better to construct such an appliance 
slightly larger than the one mentioned. 

A board, cut as shown by Fig. 7, will be useful in 
rasping the ends of the canes ; it should be fixed so 
that the vee projects beyond the edge of the bench. 




— Bamboo Worker's Bench-board. 



This board is not necessary if either of the fretwork- 
ing appliances (Fig. 5 and 6) is obtained. 

A mitre block or a mitre box will be necessary 
when making joints at right angles. The uneven 
bamboo may be rather difficult to hold true and 
steady on the block, but the difficulty is not so great 
in the mitre box, where the groove is of great 
assistance. An ordinary mitre block is illustrated 
by Fig. 8. To make it, a piece of deal, measuring 
\\ in. X 3 in. is screwed down to a piece measuring 
1^ in. X 6 in. ; both of the pieces are about 18 in. 
long. Then the mitre cuts at angles of 45° to the long 
edges are made with the saw, with which the bamboo 
is to be cut. The mitre box (Fig. 9) has sides 4 in. 
high, the strip screwed between them at the bottom 



How TO Work Bamboo. 23 

being 2| in. wide ; thus the usual sizes of bamboo 
canes up to 2 in. or so can be accommodated. The 
three pieces of wood used in making the mitre box 
are each | in. thick, and 18 in. long. The mitre 




Fig. 8.— Mitre Block. 

cuts are made as in the mitre block above. If canes 
of larger diameter than 2 in. are to be used, the 
width of the mitre box must be increased accord- 
ingly. 




Mitre Box. 



Clamps will be needed to hold together freshly 
glued and dowelled joints ; but a good substitute 
for a clamp can be formed with a piece of string. 
As is shown in Fig. 10, the string is tied loosely 
round the pieces of bamboo to be held together, and 



24 



Bamboo Work. 



then the string is tightened by twisting, a stick 
being inserted for this purpose. If the stick is made 
just short enough to revolve in the available space, 
the tightened string can be prevented from un- 
twisting by gently pushing the stick through the 
strings so that one of its ends rests on one of the 
bamboo crosspieces. 

For cutting strijDs from bamboo canes, or for 



Fig. 




Method of Cramping Bamboo Joints. 



making grooves, a cutting gauge, Fig. 11, will come 
in useful. 

The tenon saw should have fine teeth, and 
should be kept well sharpened and set, the skin of 
bamboo being particularly hard. 

The other tools or appliances required are those 
for use in bending bamboo chiefly. Bamboos are 
bent principally by heating them in a smokeless 
flame, the heat rendering them pliable, so that they 



How TO Work Bamboo. 



25 



can be bent without much difficulty, the shape given 
being retained when cold. 

Either a Bunsen burner, if gas is available, or a 




Cutting- Gauge. 



large spirit lamp should be obtained, though any 
device that gives a fairlj^ large but smokeless flame 
is suitable. A plumber's benzoline blow-lamp 
answers admirably. 

The Bunsen burner (Fig. 12) will have to be 
bought, probably, as will also the spirit lamp (Fig. 




Fig. 12. — Bunsen Burner. 



13) ; though a very good spirit lamp, more efficient 
for bamboo working than is the bought article, on 
account of its larger flame, can be made at home at 



26 



Bamboo Work. 



a cost of nofc more than three-halfpence. Fit a 
piece of bamboo, about 5 in. or 6 in. long, into the 
neck of a stone ginger beer bottle, and pass a wick 




Spirit Lamp. 



composed of loose cotton threads through the bam- 
boo tube ; when the bottle has been half-filled with 
methylated spirit, the lamp is ready for use. 

The Bunsen burner is the best possible thing for 




Benzolino Blow-lamp. 



heating, only the heat must not be concentrated too 
much to one part, but the burner kept continually 
on the move. 



How TO Work Bamboo. 



27 



A substitute for a spirit lamp or Bunsen burner 
is a composite candle, well wrapped round with 
paper from top to bottom ; this, when lighted, gives 
a good flame, although rather smoky ; but with 
care bamboo may be bent very well with it. 

If a benzoline blow-lamp is used, it should be of 
simple design ; that shown in Fig. 14 is as good as 




lo.^Bendins^-iron in Block. 



any for the purpose, ovving to its simplicity. Benzo- 
line and spirit lamps, however, should be used only 
when there is not a gas supply, the Bunsen burner 
being much the best heating appliance. 

A bending iron is necessary, and may be merely 
a piece of thick iron wire, bent as in Fig. 15, and 
fixed in a bench or plank ; but the iron shown by 




Y\k 



] lending Iron. 



Fig. IG is better ; this is made of |-in. rod, the ends 
being flattened out, bent, and fixed in the bench as 
in Fig. 17. The iron loop measures 2 in. across the 
inside, and is from 5 in. to 7 in. long, though the 
size may be increased or decreased according to 
the size of the bamboo to be bent. 

A bending iron is necessary, and it may be merely 
of wood may be screwed, one o nthe top and the other 



28 



Bamboo Work. 



on the bottom of the fret-cutting board (Fig. 7), as 
shown in Fig. 18. The strips s, which should be 
of tough wood, rounded a little in the middle, should 
be about 1 in. thick, l\ in. wide, and as long as the 
board is wide. 

To bend bamboo pass the end of the cane 
through the loop of the bending-iron and under- 
neath the top of the bench (Fig. IT), and with the 
outside end of the cane in one hand, and the Bun- 
sen burner or other heating appliance in the other, 
bend the cane by a gentle downward pressure. 




Fig. 17. — Method of Bending Bamboo. 



while the part of its surface that is to form the inner 
curve is made hot by allowing the flame to play 
upon it as it is passed slowly up and down (see Fig. 
17). Do not concentrate the heat, but move the 
flame about so that the cane is not burnt. When 
the cane is sufTiciently pliable, a gentle pressure 
should be able to produce the required cui've ; then 
a wet cloth should be rubbed up and down the cane 
till it is cold, keeping the cane in the bending-iron 
and continuing the downward pressure. Canes that 
have been exposed very long to the Aveather, or that 
are old, can seldom be bent satisfactorily. Fresh, 
new canes as just imported bend the best. 

When a sharp bend is required it will be better 



How TO Work Bamboo. 



29 



to cool clown as above described when it is bent to 
half the requisite curve, and resume the heating and 
bending after sufficient time has been allowed for 
the cane to cool. A cane that is bent too quickly 
is liable to split 

When heating preparatory to bending take care 
not to burn the canes ; revolving them will pre- 
vent this. It is best to make the bend on a part of 
the bamboo between the knots. But if there must 
be a knot where the bend is required, rasp the knot 
flat on the side that will form the inside of the bend, 
and (excepting in very thin canes) notch on the 
same side with a saw about a quarter through. In 




Fia;. IS. — Bendino-hoard for Eainboo. 



any case, it will assist the bending operations if a few" 
very slight saw cuts are made on the inner part of 
the cane required to be bent. This prevents the 
surface of the cane breaking away. It is not quite 
possible to prevent a certain amount of flattening 
at the bend ; but this can be remedied to a great ex- 
tent by using a mallet judiciously when the bend is 
thoroughly set, and the inner parts, where joined 
on to other parts, may be slightly rasped to restore 
the requisite roundness. If a bend is made too 
acute, it can be opened out by heating in the flame 
and pulling apart in the hands, or in the bending 
hook. It is not possible to bend a bamboo cane to 
a very acute angle without cutting out a V-shaped 
piece to allow for the reduced length of the inner as 
compared with the outer side of the cane. A slight 



30 



Ba mboo Wo r k. 



bend is all that can be made if the cane is to be 
uninjured or uncut. The bending must be done 
very gradually. It is better to go by easy stages 
if the cane is very large, hard, or tough. Of course, 
very large and thick canes can scarcely be bent at 
all. Canes stouter than \\ in. or If in. cannot be 
bent satisfactorily ; here, joints must be made to 
sei've the purpose. 

When several pieces of bamboo are to be bent 
to a uniform curve, the only method is to bend the 




Fig. 19. — Bamboo Worker's Bench. 



first piece to the required shape and then to use 
it as a pattern, the other bends being tested by it. 
If a complex bend is required, a drawing is often 
made on a piece of wood or paper, and the bend ap- 
plied to the drawing as the work proceeds. 

Cane | in. in diameter may be bent into small 
scrolls in the following manner. Soak the cane in 
water for twelve or more hours, and then hold over 
a Bunsen flame. When supple, wrap the cane round 
a peg of the size wished, and tie it there till cold. 

Many professional bamboo workers, instead of 
using a bending iron, have a 2-in. hole, as shown in 
Fig. 19 bored slantingly through a very strong 



How TO Work B. 



AM BOO. 



3f 



bench ; the inclination of the hole is shown by Fig. 
20,\vhich is a section on line x y (Fig. 19). The cane to 
be bent is inserted in the hole and treated as usual. 
This is claimed to be the best method of bending, as 
when using a bending- iron there is a liability of this 
getting too hot, and so marking the cane. The 
canes to be bent should be heavj^, though not more 
than If in. in diameter, as the more substantial are 
less liable to bulge or split than the lighter ones. 

It is difficult to bend bamboo by the usual 
method without the flame marking it ; but a method 




Fis:. 20.— Section of Bench. 



whi<;h answers when the canes must not be marked 
is to soak them in boiling water, and whilst hot to 
bend them as required. When cold the cane will 
permanently have assumed the shape given it. 

Bamboo canes may be rendered sufficiently 
supple for being bent by steaming ; the time taken 
to soften the bamboo can be shortened by employing 
superheated steam. The bamboo is placed in the 
steaming apparatus, the lid screwed close, and the 
^ steam turned on. When the bamboo is softened, 
thir^team is turned off ; directly the bamboo is re- 

getl>^*.<i from the steam, it must be bent, and held so 

W^til cold. 

be/^ A steam chest for bamboo is illustrated by Fig. 21. 



32 



Bamboo Work. 



The chest is made as follows : — Procure four pieces 
of sound deal, 1 ft. wide by \\ in. thick, and about 
3 ft. 6 in. long. Join the edges of these together, as 
shown at Fig. 22, to form a box, firmly screwing the 
joints and bedding them with thick white lead. 
Close one end with a block firmly secured with 
screws, and make a lid for the other end, as shown 
at Fig. 21. The lid is a block a little larger than the 
sectional area of the chest, with pieces fixed to the 
sides to fit over the end of the chest. On each side 
of the chest the lid is secured by a strap- 
bolt, the screwed end of which passes through 
the lid, and is fastened by a cross-plate and 




Fig. 21. — Steam-chest for Bamboo, 



two wing -nuts. The chest is connected to a steam 
boiler by a small steam pipe, as shown at A (Fig. 21). 
Place the wood in the chest, turn on the steam, and 
proceed as before described. Do not screw on the 
lid too tightly, but allow it to " blow " a little. It 
must be remembered that though steam bending is 
commonly employed for ordinary woods, profes- 
sional bamboo workers but rarely make use of it. 
The Bunsen burner and the bending iron give better 
results at less expense of money and of time. The 
steam method might have advantages for repetitioji 
work, but it is doubtful whether the amateur , 
find it of any use at all. ^,V ot 

The beginner probably will split many can^^^ 
his first attempts at bending. This is due, pert^ . 



^\ 



How TO Work Bamboo. 



33 



to too much heat, and consequent burning, or to 
insufficient heat, in which case the cane does not 
become pliable enough. Or perhaps the cane has 
been bent too quickly ; a usual fault is that the heat 
is concentrated too much. A safe plan is to apply 
heat over a considerable surface and keep the 
burner constantly on the move, then, with one hand 
holding the end of the cane, by putting the pressure 
on gradually the cane will give slightly. Occasion- 
ally wipe the part heated with a wet rag, still keep- 
ing the cane bept ; then apply more heat and 
again the wet rag, and so on until the required bend 
IS obtained. 




^'- 2^ Fig. 23 

Fig-. 22._Joint of Steam-chest. Fig. 23.-Method of 
btraightening Bamboo. 

As has been said, canes may be straightened in 
the same way that they are bent ; a very convenient 
tool for straightening bamboo is a piece of deal 
about 2 in. square and about 16 in. long with a 
square groove, l^ in. wide and 1 in. deep, cut 
Obliquely across one of its sides (Fig. 23). The cane 
to be straightened must first be made hot in the 
flame of a Bunsen burner, then laid in the groove 
by which it will be gripped, while the wooden tool is 
used as a lever to straighten it. 

The joints used in bamboo work are only a few 
m number. For joining the ends of two canes to- 
-et lier :it_ right an^es.in all cases a mitred joint is the 
most .-ati^factory and easiest in working, and should 
be ad. .pi 1 wherev-r practicable, leaving the bends 



34 



Bamboo Work. 



for flowing lines and curves, as shown in tlie many 
examples given in the following pages. In forming 
a mitred joint, the ends of the tw^o canes are 
plugged with pieces of wood w^hich are glued in. 
When the glue is quite hard, the mitres are cut on a 
mitre block or in a mitre box with a tenon saw^, and 




Fig. 

Fig. 24. —Mitred Joint in Bamboo. Fig. 25. — Hollowed 
End of Cane. Figs. 26 and 27. — Tee Joints in Bamboo. 

the two sawn surfaces then are placed together,^ 
glued, and further secured by fine nails or brads, in 
tlie way shown jjy Fig. 24. 

When a piece of bamboo is to be joined to an- 
other piece at right angles to form a T, the end of 
one piece is rasped out to fib the curvature or "*'"^ 
Either bef oiNe oi' af^ei;^'' .. 
In this caseil^,4;'W0-'erl^J 



other (see Fig. 25). 
the end is plugged. 



'k 



How TO Work Bamboo. 35 

held together merelj^ by a nail passing through one 
cane into the plugged end of the other. Fig. 26 
shows a better method of making such a joint. The 
hole, at the end of A is smoothed 2 in. or 3 in. deep to 
receive the do^yel fixed in b, after which the end is 
rasped out as shown at c, so that it fits evenly on b. 
Glue should be used to make the joint secure. An- 
other method, but one, however, which practically 
is the same as the last, is to drill a hole in the side 
of one piece, and to insert in this the plugged end of 
the other ; secure with a wire nail (see Fig. 27). 




-Tee Joint in Bamlioo. 
Bamboo. 



Fig. 29 
Fiff. 29. — xVno-le Joint in 



The best wood for dow^els is straight-grained 
deal ; this is sawn into long, square strips, and 
cut up into the special short lengths required, being 
shaped to fit the hollow canes by means of a knife, 
plane, or chisel. 

Another method of forming a T- joint is shown in 
Fig. 28. The end of one piece is plugged and shaped 
as shown. A vee-piece is cut in the other, and the 
joint made with glue and a fine nail. 

Pieces joining at an angle other than a right angle 
getl^Wrated by Fig. 29. Cut the end of the cane 
^>st 3<E\proper angle, plug it with a piece of wood, 
' adofv^.f* 



\ 



36 



Bamboo Work. 



and then round it off with the rasp so that it fits 
evenlj^ against the cane e. At the connecting point 
sandpaper the varnish off the vertical bamboo rod, 
the ghie holding better when the cane is thus 
roughened. The joint can be further strengthened 
by means of a nail or screw, as shown. 

Fig. 30 illustrates the joint of diagonal pieces. 
This is made in much the same way as described 
for the joint illustrated by Fig. 26, the ends of the 
two shorter rods being bored to receive the ends of 




30. — Diao-onal Joint in Bamboo. 



the dowel, which passes quite through the longer 
cane, a hole having been bored to receive it. 

Lengths of bamboo are jointed one to the other 
in a straight line, either by glued plugs or by brass 
ferrules. In joining two lengths at an angle it is 
better to cut off one piece at the knot, as any differ- 
ence in the thickness can then easily be rasped off. 
The bay-pole joint shown by Fig. 31 saves a lot of 
trouble in such a case. It is really a cup and ball 
joint, and is made of wood, tortoised to imitate 
bamboo ; at each end is an iron screw (wood thread) 



How TO Work Bamboo. 



37 



and all that is to be done when formmg the joint 
is to cut the bamboo the requisite length, allowing 
for the joint, plug the ends with w^ood, and screw 
the joint into them. They not only make the bay- 
pole strong where the weakest point generally is, 
but no template is required, as these joints adjust 
themselves to any angle. 

In running a rebate in a bamboo cane an ordinary 
rebate plane may be used. The principal difficulty, 




Fig. 31 Fig. 32 

Fig. 31. — Bay-pole Joint. Fig. 32. — Method of Rebating 
Bamboo. 



however, will be in the holding of the material while 
using the plane ; but this can be overcome by pro- 
ceeding as follows : — Secure a few little blocks to 
the bench on each side of the cane as at a a, Fig. 32, 
screw a lath with one of its edges straightened on 
to the blocks, to press tightly on the top of the cane, 
as at B. The edge of this w^ill form a guide for the 
rebate plane c, and will enable the worker easily to 
clean out the portion shown in black on Fig. 32. 
If the rebate groove is to be " stopped " within 
a few inches of each end, it may be cleaned 



38 Bamboo IVork. 

out with a chisel, and finished with a router, or " old 
woman's tooth plane," using the lath B in this case 
as a guide for both width and depth. 

If it is desired to remove knots from the inside of 
a length of bamboo to transform it into a tube an 
iron rod may be made red hot and passed through 
the bamboo. The thin knots in the inside by this 
means should be burnt through. 

Bad joints in bamboo work can be filled in with 
a mixture of sawdust and hot glue made to the 
consistency of thin paste, all surplus paste being 
cleaned off before it dries. Cracks in bamboo canes 
can be filled with shoemakers' heelball. A lighted 
taper is applied to the heelball, and sufficient al- 
lowed to drop into the flaw. After it has set, rub 
with a clean cloth until the surface is perfectly 
level. Another mixture for filling in bad joints is 
one made by melting equal parts of resin and bees- 
wax in an old ladle or spoon ; yellow ochre or umber 
is added to match the colour of the bamboo. Press 
the composition well in with a piece of wood, and 
clean off when cold with a sharp knife or chisel. 
Touch up afterwards with transparent spirit vamish. 
A filling for screw holes in bamboo is plaster of 
PariSj mixed with water and applied immediately 
it is made. When dry it can be glass-papered 
smoo'h and coloured with chagon's blood, gamboge, 
etc. ; or ochres and umbers can be mixed with the 
wet plaster to give the desired tints. 

Yellow^ bamboo cane is mottled or marked by burn- 
ing at frequent intervals with a Bunsen burner, or by 
partly covering the cane with a thin paste of whiting 
and water, and then passing the cane through a 
flame, afcerwards removing the whiting. The paste 
protects the covered parts from burning. Tortoise- 
shell bamboo canes are so cheap, however, that it 
does nob pay to mottle the yellow ones. 

Light canes are darkened by scorching them in 
the flame of a Bunsen burner or spirit lamp. Another 



How TO Work Bamboo. 39 

way is to coat them with ordinary enamel paint. In 
the trade, to brighten the colour a hard varnish is 
used diluted with an equal bulk of methylated 
spirit. Bamboo will not take stain or dye as does 
ordinary wood ; so any colour that cannot be ob- 
tained by scorching the cane must be applied in the 
form of coloured varnish. Professionals generally 
colour bamboo furniture after it is made up by apply- 
ing suitable pigments, as vandyke brown, brown 
umber, or black mixed with French polish or spirit 
varnish thinned out with methylated spirit, finishing 
with clear varnish. Light coloured canes that have 
been stored in a damp place to render them soft may 
be stained brown with a mixture of vandyke brown 
and American j^otash in hot Avater. 

A transparent varnish for bamboo is made by 
dissolving 3 oz. of white shellac in 10 fluid oz. of 
methylated spirit ; this is applied to the bamboo 
with a camel-hair brush. Any good white shellac 
\ arnish is suitable, or the following will give good 
results: — (1) Dissolve 4 oz. of fine picked gum 
sandarach in 1 pt. of methylated spirit, and, after 
straining, add 2 oz. of finest pale turpentine var- 
nish. (2) Dissolve 2 oz. of powdered bleached 
shellac in two-thirds of a pint of methylated spirit, 
and then filter to arrest any impurities that were 
present in the shellac ; then add very gradually one- 
third of a pint of metliylated spirit. A cheap var- 
nish suitable for bamboo work may be made with 
common shellac, 8 oz. ; gum thus, 2 oz. ; resin, 2 
oz,, and methylated spirit, 1 qt. This can be sponged 
on, instead of brushed on, if desired. 

Bamboo can be darkened by coating it with a 
dark varnish made according to recipe No. 2 above, 
substituting, however, orange, or a still darker 
shellac for the bleached shellac there mentioned. 

To colour ordinary wooden sticks to match bam- 
boo give them a rubber of polish or coat of spirit 
varnish to impart a yellow tint and stop suction. 



40 Bamboo Work. 

Mix some vandyke brown in spirit varnish, and mix 
the latter in spirit till it gives the tone required ; 
then stipple on with a camel-hair brush, the grada- 
tions of tone and knotty appearance being gained by 
dabbing the colour on several times w^here required. 
When dry smooth with fine, w^orn glasspaper or 
coarse rag, and coat with spirit varnish ; apply care- 
fully so as to prevent the colour running. 

As so many of the joints in bamboo w^ork depend 
upon the adhesive power of glue, eveiy care should 
be taken that this is of good quality, and is made 
properly. The natural enamel on bamboo canes is 
no!} conducive to strength when glue is used on joints, 
and so this hard enamel should be rasped off before 
applying the glue. Much depends, also, upon the 
manner in which the glue is made. It does not suffice 
to place the glue in water, and at once bring to the 
boil. The proper way of making glue is first to 
break the cakes of glue into small pieces ; place the 
broken glue in the glue-pot or in a gallipot, and 
cover wntb water. Put aside for about six hours ; if 
after an hour or so all the water is absorbed, add 
some more. At the end of the six hours, pour off 
any unabsorbed water, place the vessel in a water- 
bath, and gently boil for a short time, or until the 
glue is all dissolved, and forms a quickly-running 
liquid. Use it as hot as possible. Do not boil the 
same glue more than twice, as then its strength goes. 
After the first boiling, allow to get cold, and form 
a jelly ; then, as it may be required, pieces of the 
jelly may be cut off and heated. Thus a stock of 
reliable glue is always at hand. The cake glue 
should be nearly transparent, with but little taste 
or smell, free from spots or cloudiness, and of a 
deep brown colour. The adhesive power of bone 
glue is in proportion to its consistency and elas- 
ticity after it has been soaked in water for some 
hours and has absorbed many times its own weight 
of the water. 



41 



CHAPTER III. 

BAMBOO TABLES. 



A VERY favourite employment for bamboo, and one 
for whicH the canes are admirably fitted, is the con- 
struction of fancy tables. With the aid of some few 
supplementary materials, can be made a large 
variety of tables, includhig afternoon tea tables, plant 
tables, work-tables, etc. 

Bamboo furniture is in itself very artistic, and 
is much seen in recently furnished houses, more 
especially in drawing-rooms, where a touch of 
Eastern art is given by the many coloured silks and 
Japanese fans ; if strongly and carefully made, bam- 
boo furniture will be found very durable indeed, 
as well as handsome, and will well repay the trouble 
of making. 

In the instructions to be given in this and follow- 
ing chapters, it is assumed that the reader has mas- 
tered the elements of cane-bending and joint- 
making, upon which information is given in Chap- 
ter II. Limitations of space will not allow the 
repetition of this instruction ; therefore, as the 
examples of bamboo work are briefly described and 
illustrated in succession, the reader must refer for 
details of the practical w^ork and processes to the 
explanations given in the second chapter. 

A simply-made bamboo table is illustrated by 
Fig. 33. It consists of three Japanese lacquered 
trays. A, b, and c, each 18 in. square, with four 
uprights of bamboo about 1 in. thick and 28 in. 
long. Bend out the legs at the bottom as described 
in Chapter II., and straighten the canes, if required. 
Mark the canes at distances of 10 in. and 20 in. from 
the top, and saw each one quite squarely into 
three pieces, being careful to keep the pieces of 



42 



Bamboo Work, 



each cane b}^ themselves, because the least slant will 
spoil the work. With a brace and bit about the size 
of the dowel it will be necessary to use, bore holes 




Fig-. 33. — Three-tray Bamboo Table. 

in the four corners of two of the trays. Take the 
four portions of bent cane that are to form the legs, 
and into their top ends fit dowels, which must 




Fig-. 34. -Support for Table Top. 

project about 3 in. ; put each dowel through the 
holes bored in the tray, glue the parts, and join on 
the middle lengths of bamboo. Put dowel pins in the 
tops of these, and fit on the next tray, and then the 



-Bamboo Tables. 



43 



other four lengths ; the tops of these las': lengths 
should be plugged, but the plugs should not project. 
Cut two pieces of deal about \ in. thick and 2 in. wide, 
as shown in Fig. 34. With brace and bit bore holes 
half through to take the tops of the bamboo rods, 
which should fit in tightly ; glue in position. Glue 
on the top tray, holding it in its place with a pair of 
joiners' hand-screws until set. 

Another example is shown by Fig. 35 ; the frame 
of this should be made of about \\ in. bamboo rods. 





yig, 35.— Bamboo Tabic with Shelf Brackets 
Fig. 36.— Shelf Bra -ket for Table. 

and the projecting shelf brackets of a})0ut 1 in. 
rods. Tlie following are suitable measurements : 
lieight, 28 in. ; length, 21 in. ; depth, 12 in. ; shelf 
brackets, 10| in. square. The table is made with 
the two sides forming flat sections, A A and B b. The 
four shelf brackets should now be made, and Fig. 36 
shows their construction. The cross-bars for joining 
the two flat sections together should be cut and 
plugged, and as these should be of f in. bamboo, it 
■\vould be better to bore holes and fit them to the sec- 
tions direct, similarly with the shelf brackets. A screw 
with head countersunk Mill hold each corner secure. 
It is advisable to fix the panels direct into the 



44 



Bamboo Work. 



frame by taking out a section of the cane just suffi- 
cient for the panels to fit in ; or they can be beaded 
in with rattan cane. The projecting ends of the 
table top should be 3 in. long, and be plugged and 
finished with hardwood terminals. A pretty finish 




Fig. 37. — Bamljoo Occasional Table with Flap 



to this table can be given by gilding the knots or 
by applying gold paint ; if preferred, instead of 
panels, plain wood can be used, and this may have 
a coat of enamel paint to harmonise with the colour 
of the rest of the table. 




Flo-. 



Bamboo Table with Shelf. 



Tables or other bamboo structures that are top- 
heavy have holes drilled in the lower ends of the 
legs and moulten lead poured in. Plaster of Paris 
may replace lead for this purpose. 

For the occasional table shown by Fig. 37 use 
stout baniboos for the legs, and smaller canes for 



Bamboo Tables. 



45 



the cross-pieces. These latter can be inserted into 
holes bored into the legs, and then glued and pinned. 
The legs may be plugged at the bottom if desired, 
or canes with roots may be used. The top can be 
of deal or pine, covered with Japanese matting, the 
legs being let into holes. If the top has battens at 
the ends these will add strength, and form a better 
holding substance in which the legs can fit. The 
flap is supported as described on p. 52. Papier- 
mache trays make excellent shelves for this purpose. 
The table shown by Fig. 38 may conveniently 




Top Batten and Leg of Bamboo Table. 



have a length of 3 ft., a width of 2 ft., and a height 
of 2 ft. 7 in. It has so much in common with other 
tables described in this chapter that it is not neces- 
sary to describe its construction in detail ; its top 
is a lacquer panel, or it may be of wood covered with 
fancy tiles ; the shelf is of thin wood, stained and 
varnished, or it may be another panel. 

Tables having tops framed in bamboo may have 
the legs attached to them in the following way : — 
The table top rests on strips of deal or other suitable 
wood, in which are bored holes to receive the top 
ends of the legs, which are glued and fastened with 
a sprig as indicated in Fig. 39. The strips should 



46 



Bamboo Work, 



be halved and glued together where it is necessary 
to join them, and they then are secured to the under- 
side of the top with a few screws. The halving of 
one of the strips is shown at Fig. 40, 

The corners of a bamboo hexagon-shaped table 
top are cut on a special mitre block, and the 




Fig-. 40. — Halved Batten for Bamboo Table Top. 

simplest way of cutting the mitres is to con- 
struct a mitre block as shown by Fig. 41, having its 
saw kerfs at an angle of G0°, as indicated. < It is only 
in the angle of the saw kerfs that this block differs 
from the one shown by Fig. 8, p. 23. 

The bamboo occasional table illustrated in ele- 
vation by Fig. 42 is made chiefly of l^-in. bamboo. 




riof. 41. — Block for Hexagonal Joints. 



The table top is \ in. thick and 1 ft. 9 in. square out- 
side, with the corners chamfered and a hollow cut 
in each side, as shown by Fig. 43, an alternative 
design for the top being shown in the half-plan, Fig. 
44. The sides are fitted with strips of jo-in. split 
bamboo, as illustrated by Fig. 45, and a strip of thin 
cane runs round the edge. The frame for "the 



Bamboo Tables. 



47 



legs is 1 ft. 6| in. square at the bottom, and 1 ft. 
0^ in. square at the top, the distances being 
measured from the centres of the bamboos. The 
four legs are l^-in. canes, and are connected, at 
distances of 8^ in. and 1 ft. lO^iij. from the bottom, 
by l^-in. rails about 1 ft. 5 in. and 1 ft. 2 in. long re- 
spectively. These rails are fitted with plugs and 
brads. The two strips b (Figs. 42 and 46), 1 ft. 




Bamboo Occasional Table. 



3 in. long, 2 in. wide, and \ in. thick, have circular 
recesses into which the plugged ends of the tops of 
the legs are fixed. The legs are then screwed from 
above, as shown in Fig. 46, and the pieces b fixed 
to the top. Eight stays of f-in bamboo about 6| in. 
long are fitted in at c (Fig. 42), eight about 1 ft. 
long at D, and four about 1 ft. 8 in. long at e. Eight 
fillings of ^-in. bamboo are fixed at f. 

The table top can be of walnut, or it can be black 
enamelled on a wood foundation with gilt ornamen- 



4? 



Bamboo Work. 



tal figures. Care must be taken that the holes are 
drilled before the nails are inserted to prevent the 
bamboo splitting. Fig. 47 is a horizontal section 
just above the lower rails, and shows the under 
shelf ; this shelf is. \ in. thick, and fixed as shown 
by Fig. 48 ; it should be of the same wood as the top. 




Fig", -i.") 

Fig. 43. — Table Top. Fig. 44. — Alternative Half-design for 
Table Top. Fig. 4o. — Section of Table Top Edge. 



The ends of the rails and stays should be plugged 
before being fixed in position. 

The construction of a four-flap bamboo tea table 
is shown by Fig. 49, p. 50. The movable shelves are 
of vv^ood or lacquer, the top is of wood covered with 
Japanese matting or with a lacquer panel, whilst 
the under shelf is a lacquer panel. The design of 



Bamboo Tables. 



49 



tea table illustrated has becoiue very popular. The 
table is 2 ft. 3 in. high. Select four l|-in. canes and 
bend out the toes and cut off to 26 in. long. In all 
such cases the canes should not be cut off to the 
precise length until the bending is done, as the bend 
cannot be made quite at the end of the cane. The 
top end of the legs must receive plugs 3 in. long well 
glued in. 

Four cross-rails, 11^ in. long (l.? in. being allowed 
for fitting), should now be cut from l|-in. canes. 




Fiir. 4 6 





Fig-. 48 Fig-. 17 

Fii^. 46.— Juint betweun Table Top and Leg-. Fig. 47. — 
Section of Table showing Shelf. Fig. 48. — Section show- 
ing- Shelf Joint. 



The ends of these four rails must be hollowed and 
dowelled, or otherwise fitted to the four legs 
as described on pp. 34 and 3o ; care must be taken 
to finish all the rails to the same length. The four 
legs and the four rails will then be fitted together, 
and framed up as two flat sections. 

The system of forming flat sections in bamboo 
work is to be recommended. In general, a section 
may consist of four rods, framed together to form 
D 



50 



Bamboo Work. 



a square or oblong ; these rods are fitted together, 
and the ghie allowed to dry, before the different sec- 
tions are united to form the completed article. 
Care must be taken to make the various flat sections 
perfectly symmetrical and alike, so that they will go 




Fiff. 49. 



-Bam"boo Tea Table with Flai-S. 



together quite true. One of the best ways of testing 
a section is by measurement from point to point 

"^'Tor^the flat sections of the table in question, the 
canes with the largest bore should be used and care 
must be taken to bore the legs for dowels, so that 



^Bamboo Tables. 51 

the bent toes will point outwards from the four 
comers of the table when it is put together. The 
large bore canes are chosen for the two sections, so 
that the dowels used for fastening them together 
may be as large as possible, and for this reason 
the holes drilled in the legs to receive them should 
be as near the size of the dowel as possible, 
so that little trimming down will be required. 
Glue, clamp up the sections, and leave a few hours 
until the glue is set. Now cut off four rails 15^ in. 
long (1^ in. is allowed for fitting). With these fi'ont 
rails the two sections will be framed together. The 
holes bored to take the dowels for these must be 
considerably smaller than those of the four side- 
rails ; they should be as small as circumstances will 
allow, as these holes must cut into the dowels al- 
ready glued in without dividing them ; these second 
dowels should not go quite through the first ones. 

The movable flaps may now be made and fitted ; 
deal, |-in. thick, planed up on one side, 9 in. by 9 in. 
for the end flaps, and 13 in. by 9 in. for the side flaps, 
is generally used for this purpose. The top of the 
table, 15 in. by 21 in., can be made from 1^ in. or 
|-in. deal, planed up on one side. 

The Japanese matting for covering the top, lower 
shelf, and movable flaps, must be prepared for 
gluing by being roughened on the wrong side with 
sandpaper or the flat side of a rasp. The matting 
may now be cut to the required sizes, leaving a little 
margin for final trimming round the edges. 

The prepared wood must then be coated well 
with hot glue, and the matting put on ; air bubbles 
are rubbed out, and then it is weighted down and 
left a few hours to drj^ When the glue is set the 
matting must be trimmed round the wood with a 
sharp knife, care being taken not to fray it at the 
edge. The edges of the top and shelf and flaps 
must now be beaded with split bamboo, mitred at 
the corners and fastened on with l|-in. panel pina 



52 Bamboo Work. 

(the edging should stand slightly above the surface 
of the matting) ; an angle will thus be formed to 
receive a thin bead of white cane, which will fill 
up any imperfection there may be in the edges of 
the matting. The cane should be carefully mitred 
at the corners, and fastened down with fin. 
beading pins. 

If, instead of covering the top with matting, 
the top is to be formed of a lacquer panel, cut a 
board the size of the lacquer about \ in. thick, 
screwing two fillets across where the legs will come 
(see Fig. 50), cutting with a centre-bit four holes 
about halfway through, for the top of the legs to fit 
into ; then fix it on the frame with glue and bamboo 
pins. Fix the lacquer panel on the top with a few 
screws inserted from the underside of the wood, 
taking care that the points do not come through ; 
then edge round with the |-in. bamboo ; mitre the 
corners and fix with bamboo pins into the wooden 
top, and finish off the top with an edging of split 
black beading cane. Similarly the lower shelf 
may be of lacquer fitted in between the traverses, 
secured in like manner with pins through the bam- 
boo and edged with beading cane. 

The flaps must now be attached to the table. 
Thick 2-in. wire nails must be driven into the two 
back corners of each flap, projecting ^ in. to form 
pins whicli will slide in slots cut in the sides of the 
legs for their reception. These slots must be 5 in. 
long, and commence \ in. below the top cross-rails. 
To make them, first bore holes with a large bradawl, 
where the top and bottom of the slots should come, 
and clear out between these holes with a knife, or 
with a cutting gauge (Fig. 11, p. 25). The slot should 
be I in. wide when finished. The best material to use 
for the struts is ^-in. rounded dowel wood, or, fail- 
ing that, thick rattan cane. They must be 7 in. 
long, and the ends fitted with steel or brass screw- 
eyes. Two similar screw-eyes will be fixed in the 



Bamboo Tables. 



53 



top cross-rails of the table, and the struts attached 
by looping the eyes together. The other ends of 
the struts will be attached in a similar manner to 
the e^es screwed into the flaps ; the exact position 
of these will have to be obtained by trial ; they 
must be fixed so that the flaps hang perfectly level. 
If desu'ed the struts may be fixed with screw eyes to 
the legs of the table instead of to the cross-rails ; the 
choice is immaterial. 

For fixing on the top, two battens, 2 in. wide by 
f in. thick by 14 in. long, should now be fastened 
into the tops of the legs by 3-in. thick wire nails 
driven into the plugs, and to these the top must be 
attached with glue and,f-in. screws. 

The flaps, instead of being covered with matting. 



o D 

o o 



Fig. 50. — Underside of Tea Table Top. 



may be of lacquer ; this is mounted on thin wood 
edged with |-in. split bamboo and beading round 
the top. The flaps are just long enough to work 
easily betw^een the legs. When not in use the 
flaps can be folded down flush with the legs by 
raising the pivot ends. 

To finish the table, clean off superfluous glue and 
apply some good spirit varnish. The undersides 
of the top, shelf, and flaps should be stained. A 
pennyworth of vandyke brown and a pennyworth of 
ammonia in a pint of water make a good stain for 
this purpose. 

A writing table is illustrated by Fig. 51. The 
most convenient measurements for the writing 
table would be : height (exclusive of outside rail- 
ing) '1 ft. 6 in., depth 2 ft., and length 3 ft. 2 in. 



54 



Bamboo Work. 



Fig 51 shows the desk complete and finished ; whilst 
Fig. 52 shows a skeleton of the top part, which con- 
sists of a simple traj', the side of which is cut for a 
drawer to be inserted. Two drawers would look as 
well as one, and would be equally easy to make. If 
two drawers are to be employed, runners, A A, Fig. 
52, will be required. 

The top may be of walnut wood, stained and 
polished, and the edges are rounded and polished 
and well finished-off. The bamboos round the 
sides of the desk will be required to be neatly fas- 





Fig. 52 



51. — Bamboo Writing Table. Fig. 52. — Tray and 
Drawer of Table. 



tened, as also the rail ; and this can be done by 
running small screws and nails under the sides of 
the canes. 

A combined hall seat and table in bamboo is 
shown by Figs. 53 and 54 ; 1^-in. canes are used in 
its construction. The two front feet should be toed 
out and cut off 25 in. long, and the back feet are of 
the same length, but straight. Four pieces, each 
2 ft. 9 in. long, and four pieces, each 14 in. long, 
should be cut to form the rails ; 3 in. of these lengths 
is allowed on each rail for chisel pointing, mortising, 
and fitting, thus making the inside distance between 
the front legs 2 ft. 6 in. At distances of 5 in. and 
16 in. from the bottom bore the two front legs to 



Bamboo Tables. 



55 



receive the dowels, with which all the rails should be 
plugged. Then fit together as a flat section, repeat- 
ing the operation with the two back legs and long 
rails, squaring and clamping with string, and glue- 
ing. While the sections set, proceed with the con- 
struction of the seat arms which are made from 




Fjo-. 3.— Combined Hall Seat and Table. 



beech, 16 in. long, 2^ in. across, and \\ in. thick. 
A narrow groove is cut through the arm from the 
centre to near the end to admit a bolt, as is shown 
by the thick lines on the arms, Fig. 53. The two 
pieces (Fig. 55) by which the table top is fixed to 
the arms must be 16 in. long and 1 in. thick. The 
table top is of |-in. deal, 34 in. long and 18 in. wide. 
One side should be planed, sandpapered, and 



56 



Bamboo Work, 



stained to form the back of the seat. The top should 
now be placed in the position it will occupy on the 
seat arms, with the supports shown at Fig. 55, and the 
places marked so that they can be screwed into the 
proper positions. It is better to screw through the 
top and into the support. A pencil passed through 




the groove at the centre will mark the position at 
which the hole is to be bored in the support to 
receive the bolt. The countersunk head of the bolt 
should be placed at the inside of the arm. The 
sides, ends, and bottom of the box should be pre- 
pared from fin. deal ; they are fixed in position by 



Bamboo Tables. 57 

panel pins driven through holes bored in the legs 
and rails of the frame. One side of the wood should 
be planed to form the inside of the box. Japanese 
matting should now be cut for the sides of the box 
and the table top. This should be roughed with 
sandpaper or the flat side of a bamboo woiker's 
rasp to afford a tight hold for the glue. A piece of 
1-in. wood forms the seat, one side being planed up 
and the other side matted. The seat should be 
slipped round with ^-in. split bamboo, and a small 



Fig. 5.5.— Table Top Support. 

brass pull added for lifting purposes. The seat 
should be hinged on two thick wire pins, in the 
same manner as are the doors of the combined cup- 
board and bookcase described on p. 108. A piece of 
wood should be screwed along the front and sides 
of the inside of the box to form a rest for the front 
of the seat. To convert the table into a seat, push 
the table-top along by the front edge until the bolts 
reach the end of the slot, when the top will tip up 
and form a back. The whole should be completed 
by the application of a coat of spirit varnish, recipes 
for which are given on p. 39. 



58 
CHAPTER IV. 

BAMBOO CHAIRS AND SEATS. 

Bamboo chairs require to be constriicled with the 
maximum of strength, because the strains to which 
they are subject are far greater than those endured 
by tables, fancy stands, and similar pieces of furni- 
ture. The joints, being the weakest parts, must be 
made very carefully ; and the materials used must 
be of the best. 

Fig. 56 show^s a bamboo chair complete. The 
bending of the legs, made from l|-in. or l|-in canes, 
is the first work. Those at the front are simply 
'' toed out," as in making a table, and cut off 16 in. 
long. The leg and back must now be bent as in 
Fig. 57. This figure should be drawn out full size 
on paper and the bamboo bent and applied to the 
drawing time after time until the correct shape is 
obtained ; in the workshop a templet leg is always 
kept. Three lengths each of 13 in. should now be 
cut, 2 in. being allowed for fitting ; they form the 
rails for the back of the chair. These rails should be 
hollowed, dowelled, glued, and cramped up, and the 
section put aside to set. A piece of l^-in. cane 14 in. 
long (2 in. being allowed for fitting) must now be 
cut off to form the rail for the front legs. Previous 
to fitting, the two legs should be dowelled at the 
top. The rail may be fitted and dowelled, and to 
form a section a piece of wood may be fastened tem- 
porarily across the top by driving two nails through 
the wood and into the dowelled legs ; see Fig. 58. 
As the nails must be taken out before the seat is 
fixed, do not drive them right home. The filling 
of the chair back is made from wood 6 in. by 4 in., 
covered with matting, and made as described on pp. 
82 and 83. This centre is a design of common occur- 



Bamboo Chairs and Seats. 



59 



rence in bamboo work. Two pieces of l^-in. cane, 
each 13 in. long (2 in. for fitting), should also be 
prepared for the two side rails and a piece of |-in. 
wood cut out for the seat ; see Fig. 59. The two back 
corners should be gouged out to fit the round of the 
back legs. The two sections should now be fitted 




Fig. 59 Fig. 56 

Fig-. oQ. — Bamboo Chair. Fig. o7. — Chair Leg and Back. 
Fig. 58.— Front Chair Section. Fig. 59. — Chair Seat. 



and joined together. A hole should be made 
through each of the legs with a small shell bit 16^ in. 
from the bottom, and the back of the seat should 
be attached to the legs by screws. The top should 
be attached to the front legs by screwing through 
into the dowelled legs, the temporary piece of wood 
having previously been removed. 



6o 



Bamboo JI\^ra' 



While the frame is setting, eight stays (a, Fig. 56) 
may be prepared, one end of each being fitted to the 
legs and the other to the bottom of the seat ; fix 
them with glue and fine beading pins. Also fix the 
plaque or filling for the back. The seat should 
be covered widi Jaiian se ma ing, unless h has been 
decided to upholster it, and finished with a slip- 
ping of split bamboo, and an inside bead of white 





Fig. 62 

Fig. 60. —Bamboo Corner Seat. Figs. 61 and 62. —End 
Sections for Corner Seat. 



cane, as is described for the tea table on p. 52. 
The tops should be dowelled and fitted with ter- 
minals, and, except for cleaning off and varnishing, 
the chair is complete. 

A corner seat ready framed up is shown by 
Fig. 60. From l^-in. or l^-in. canes cut three pieces, 
each 2 ft. 9 in. long, and one piece 18 in. long, to 
form the four legs, and eight pieces, each 16 in. 
long (2 in. for fitting), to form the rails. Fit up to 
Figs. Gl and 62, and taking care to place the middle 



Bamboo Chairs and Seats. 



6i 



rail in Fig. 62 | in. higher than the top rail in Fig. 
61, as the seat in front rests upon the front rail, 
while it is screwed into position through the back 
centre rails. While the two sections are setting 
make the plaques or fillings and the seat, this being 
14 in. square. Fit and dowel the other rails, and 
when the sections are dry frame the whole up, 
taking care that the two back centre rails are | in. 
higher than the two front rails. When the frame is 
dry, fit on the eight stays, fix in the plaques, and 




Fi''-. Q'i. — Bamboo Settee 



fasten on the bottom. Plug the tops of the uprights, 
put on terminals, clean off, and varnish. 

Fig. 63 illustrates a settee, and Figs. 64 and 65 
show its front and back sections. Make up these 
from 1^-in. or Ij-in. canes, fii'st bending out the 
toes for the three front legs. The eight side rails 
may be 15 in. long (2 in. for fitting). When the 
sections are dry, fit up and put the frame together. 
Fig. 63 shows a rush seat, but, if preferred, either 
plain or upholstered matting can be substituted. 
The seat is made to fit between the four rails, and is 



62 



Bamboo Work. 



screwed in position. Strong staj^s should be used 

all round the settee. Finish by cleaning off glue, 

etc., and then coat with white shellac spirit varnish. 

A chair or settee for two persons is illustrated 




Y\^. 64 



Yvx. 6( 



Fig. 64. — Front Section for Settee. Fig-. 65. — Back Section 
for Settee. 

by Fig. 66 ; the seat and back are composed of 
flat strips of bamboo let into slots, forming a sort 
of spring cushion. The strips of flat bamboo are 
obtained from between the joints of very large canes, 



Fig- 




Bamboo Double Chair or Settee. 



after well steaming the canes are hammered flat 
with a mallet on the rough side. Strips can seldom 
be obtained wider than 2 in. Fig. 67 shows back por- 
tion of the chair, Fig. 68 showing, the underside of 



Ba mbo Cha IRS a nd Sea ts. 



63 



the seat. Care must be taken that the chair is 
firmly fixed together, or it will creak if a heavy per- 





Fi^. (^1 



Fio-. 68 



Fig. 67.— Settee Back. Fig. 68. — Under side of Settee Seat. 

son uses it. The ends of the arms look ^Yell if 
finished off with turned boxwood plugs with tassels 




Fi-. 70 



Fig. 69 
Fig. 69.— Child's High Chair. Fig. 70.— Foot-rest Support. 

hanging from them (see A, Fig. 66). The legs should 
be l)ent outwards at the lower ends to add strength, 
lightness, and comfort. 



64 



Bamboo Work. 



A design for a child's higii chair, with tray, is 
shown by Fig. 69, p. 63. Make the front legs and arms 
in one length ; this gives additional strength, and 
there is no difficulty in bending the bamboo. The 
four legs should be well splayed out at the bottom 
to avoid the risk of the child tilting the chair either 
backwards or forw^ards. Every joint should be 
dowelled, glued, and pinned, and such pieces as the 
three uprights in the back should be let directly 
into the frame. 




1.— Baby's Folding Chair. 



The tray is best formed from an oblong Japanese 
tray, and can be cut to shape, leaving a ledge on 
the square side. Support the tray on small pegs 
let into the front arms. For the sides of the tray 
bend a piece of 1-in. bamboo to the required shape 
and hinge it to the back legs with bamboo pegs or 
neat bolts and nuts. The chair is 3 ft. high over 
all; the seat is 2 ft. fiom the floor, 11 in. wide by 
12 in. deep, and is cut out of a plain deal and covered 
with Japanese matting, the edges being finished off 
with split beading cane. There is ample room for 
a loose cushion if required. 

Should a foot-rest be wanted, support it on 



Bamboo Chairs and Seats. 



65 



brackets let into the front legs. For each bracket 
will be required two ^-in, canes, one 4 in. long and 
the other about 6 in. long. The shorter one is 
do welled into the chair leg at right angles ; the 
longer one is dowelled into the leg about 3^ in. 
below the other one at an angle of about 45°, its 
free end being joined to the free end of the shorter 
cane (see Fig. 70, p. 63). On these brackets, the foot 
board, if one is required, may rest. The risk of 
the chair tilting forward is increased by the toot- 




Fig. 72. — Bamboo Rocking Chair. 

rests which are not desirable additions. The legs 
should be weighted with lead as described on p. 44. 
A baby's folding chair, having a carpet seat, may 
be made after the style of Fig. 71. The joints, a to c 
and A to B, must be of such a length that when the 
trestle folds up the back falls backwards and lies par- 
allel with the straight legs, a, b, 0, d are the four 
points on which the chair folds, and, with the excep- 
tion of joint D, the bamboos can be plugged, and so 
long as the holes are made without splitting, this 
will be found strong enough, as the bars, or tra- 
E 



66 



Bamboo Work, 



verses, on which the seat is fastened, take part of 
the srain. Use small bolts and nuts with a washer 
at each side for the joints, l^-in. bamboo for the 
trestle part;, and 1-in. for arms and bars. 

The rocking chair shown by Fig. 72, p. 65, has 
beech rockers which are made in two parts from 
If-in. wood. The two pieces A for the base can be 
joined together either with four birch or bamboo 
rails, 15 in. long w^hen finished, and the front should 
have casters. The top rockers b are 17 in. long, and 
form the base on which the sides of the chair will be 
built ; 1^-in. or \\-\Vi. canes should be used for this 
work. The two uprights should be fixed to the 




Fio-. 



Bamboo Couch. 



rocker with hardwood dowels, fitted into holes 
bored in the rocker at one end and into the hollow 
tube of thv3 upright at the other end. These dowels 
must be a perfect, fit, as upon them the stability of 
the ch.iir greatly depends. The two rails for the 
side and arm of the chair should be fitted, filled, 
and, after the uprights have been glued and fixed, 
screwed into position with round-headed screws. 
A bamboo cane should be bent as at c, and fixed 
with nails as a stay between the arm and back of 
the chair. The herringbone filling (see p. 99) between 
the arm and bottom rail now is fixed. The pieces 
for this w^ork, after being fixed, should be filled with 
dowels so as to strengthen the arms. The two sec- 



Bambvo Chairs and Seats. 67 

tions when set should be joined together with the 
six cross rails, which should be 15 in. long when 
finished. The rails on which the upholstering is 
fastened are filled right through with deal dowels to 
give a hold for the nails. Add the herringbone fill- 
ing to the back, and after the upholstering is done, 
the chair will be ready for fixing to the base with two 
special rocking-chair springs. 

The framework of a bamboo couch is shown by 
Fig. 73. Great strength is necessary, and so every 
joint must be dowelled. The couch is shown hav- 
ing arms with root ends, which add much to the 
finish and cost but little, the bent arm having a 
root at both ends, one being, of course, a false one 
plugged on. The legs should be of if-in. or 1^-in. 
bamboo, and care must be taken in bending them 
at the top end, as it is difficult to bend such thick 
cane without injuring it. The seat consists of f-in. 
deal joined to the required width, fitted within the 
frame, and secured with 3-in. wire pins through 
the bamboo, and further with bamboo stays running 
from the legs to underneath the seat. Intermediate 
work, such as the pieces between the main frame- 
work, need not be dowelled, but simply plugged 
and rasped out to fit, and secured with glue and 
pins. Rasp the surface to be glued, otherwise 
the glue will not hold. In the event of fixed up- 
holstering being required, rough wood frames will 
do instead of the filling-in work to fit within the main 
work, lining them with good canvas and webbing. 
Saddle-bags or velvet hide much that should other- 
wise be the charm of bamboo furniture, and a 
better effect is obtained by making any upholstery 
detachable ; thus for the couch, use a loose seat and 
several cushions. The couch should be from 4 ft. 
6 in. to 6 ft. long, accoi'ding to requirements, and 
from 21 in. to 24 in. back to front. Finish off w^ith 
spirit varnish, or, better still, by French polishing. 



68 



CHAPTER V. 

BAMBOO BEDROOM FURNITURE. 

There is no limit to the number of articles of furni- 
ture that can be constructed of bamboo ; and it is 
not at all impossible to furnish any particular room 
in a house with suites of furniture made almost en- 
tirely with this material. This chapter will describe 
the construction of the more important furniture 
found generally in the bedroom or dressing room. 
A bamboo bedstead may be about 6 ft. 6 in. long by 




4, — Foot of Bamboo Bedstead. 



3 ft. wide. Fig. 74 shows the foot of such a bedstead. 
Figs. 75 and 76 are alternative designs for the head. 
The framework of each of these sections must be 
made from stout l|-in. to 2-in. canes, and great care 
must be taken in making the joints and seeing that 
the dowels are a good lit. a (Figs. 74 to 76) is a 
piece of beech 7 in. wide and 1^ in. thick. This 
must be fitted in position 1 ft. above the ground 
before the filling work is commenced, and should 
be securely fastened with round-headed screws 
passed through the legs and cross rails into the 
wood. The strength of the bedstead in a great 



Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. 69 

measure depends on the firmness of this piece of 
wood, as on it are fastened the angles by which 
the head and foot are stretched. The filling work 
next can be proceeded with, care being taken that 
every joint is strong and a perfect fit. Fig. 75 shows 
a design suitable for an upholstered back, 7 ft. 9 in. 
high ; if preferred, similar work to that shown in 




Fig. 75.— Head of Bamboo Bedstead. 

Fig. 76 can be used. For the bedstead bottom, iron 
fittings, similar to those used for wood bedsteads, are 
advised. Fig. 77 is a sketch of the iron angle, and 
the position in which the angles are placed is indi- 
cated sufficiently by b, Fig. 75. The iron angles are 
securely fastened to the wood with screws, and the 
stretchers and laths are attached in the usual 
manner. 



70 



Bamboo Work. 



Fig. 78 shows a child's bamboo cot, which will 
be found easy of construction, light, and strong. 
As illustrated, the comers of cot and the stand are 
made with root-end canes, but brass knobs could be 
substituted for the roots if preferred. The cot itself 
has a length of 3 ft., is 16 in. wide at top, tapering to 
12 in. wide at bottom, and 15 in. deep. Webbing is 
not required for the bottom, as bamboo traverses or 
cross-pieces answer the same purpose and help to 





Fia-. 



Fig. 76 

Fig. 76, — Head of Bamboo Bedstead. Fig. 77 
for Bamboo Bedstead. 



-Iron Anofle 



keep the cot rigid. The comer posts of the cot ex- 
tend a few inches above and below the top and 
bottom bars, in order that they can be properly 
do welled into the former. The framework of the 
cot — that is the corner uprights, rails, and inter- 
mediate uprights — should be of l^-in. bamboo, 
either brown or tortoise-shell, whilst the filling- 
in work should be of |-in. or 1 in. bamboo. 
The centre upright for the stand is of 1^-in. bamboo, 
the top being 2 ft. 9 in. from the floor. The legs (I5 in. 



Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. 



71 



in diameter) are bent, and then fixed as shown to the 
uprights, and further secured with a rail near the 
bottom, the cot being swung on the stand by means 
of a bolt at each end. At the head is a curtain rod 
of |-in. bamboo, which is fastened inside, not out- 
side, the top end. Take care to make good joints, 
and the result will be very satisfactory. The pattern 
of the sides and ends may be varied to suit individual 
taste. When the cot is not wanted to swing, fix it 
to the stand by means of brass hooks and eyes. 




Fii 



-Child's Bamboo Cot. 



A child's bam})oo cot of a different design is illus- 
trated in part by Fig. 79, p. 73. For making this cot, 
select four canes not less than 1^ in. in diameter 
for the corner posts ; cut these to the length required 
and fix a stout plug in each end. For the frame of the 
bed, use 1-in. canes. Bore holes in the four corner 
posts after the fashion of a mortise-and-tenon- 
joint, those for the ends to be higher than those at 
the sides, and the canes can be fixed in these and 
held with a fine, long screw. Webbing can be used 
for the bottom, and if this is used the simplest way 



72 Bamboo Work. 

is to make a good loop at each end and slip them 
over the canes before fixing i nthe posts. A better 
way, however, is to use a piece of stout canvas the 
size of the crib and lace it to the sides. Bamboo 
being rather slight, will have to be put together 
very accurately, and at least two stretchers should 
be used to keep the frame rigid. The top rail can 
be fixed in the same manner as the bottom, and 
from these a lattice work of smaller canes can 
easily be constructed. A good plan is to have a 
kind of vmder-rail to keep the legs firm ; Fig. 79 
will help to make everything clear. The dimen- 
sions are best fixed as circumstances require. The 
four posts can be finished off with knobs, and cas- 
ters may be fixed on the bottom end : or an equally 
good plan is to have the bottom plugs turned a little 
larger, and projecting beyond the end about 2 in. 
As bamboo has many crevices it is well to fill up any 
small spaces in the joints with a mixture of plaster- 
of-Paris, brown sienna, and glue mixed up into 
paste form ] when dry this will prevent insects hid- 
ing in out-of-the-way cavities ; or any of the fillings 
mentioned on p. 38 can be employed. 

From the illustration Fig. 80, p. 75, the dressing 
table about to be described may appear to be an am- 
bitious piece of furniture. But attention to the in- 
structions given below should result in a very credit- 
able job. Fig. 80 shows the dressing-table complete. 
Of course, the measurements may be altered at 
pleasure, but those given will be found suitable for 
ordinary use. First get two l^-in. bamboos about 
6 ft. long ; these are to be bent slightly at the 
bottom. Cut off two pieces 32 m. long for the two 
front uprights, a a. Get two more bamboos of the 
same diameter and cut off two pieces 45 in. long for 
the back uprights, b b 

Proceed to make the back and front frames. First 
mortise six rails 33^ in. long out of l^-in. bamboo ; 
these must be roughed inside at the ends with a 



Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. 



73 



round rasp in order to make the glue adhere. Plug 
both ends with dowels about 6 in. long, leaving about 
1 in. projecting ; do not as yet glue in the plugs. 
With a |-in. centre bit bore three holes in each up- 
right at 1 in., 65 in., and 29 in. respectively, measur- 
ing from the top of the front uprights. The point 
of the bit enters 1 in. from the top of each upright. 




for IJamboo Cot. 



Take the six rails, pull out the plugs and shave these 
to fit in the holes bored. Fit the frame together to 
see that all joints are neat, and then take to pieces 
again for gluing up. Have the glue hot and rather 
thick, and get the frame together as quicklj^ as 
possible. Tighten up with strings passed round and 
twisted tight with pegs (see Fig. 10, p. 24, and Fig. 163 
p. 145). Put aside for the glue to set. Mortise two 



7 4 Ba mboo Wor k. 

pieces of 1^-in. bamboo 33| in. long for the two up- 
rights, c c. These are to be phigged at both ends 
and then dowelled on to the top rail of the back 
frame, leaving 18^ in. between. Make three rails to 
fi^. in, leaving a space of 3 in. between the top rail d 
and the second rail e, and 24^ in. between e and f ; 
plug these rails, and insert long panel pins, boring 
first Avith a fine bradawl to avoid splitting the bam- 
boo. Bend a piece of 1-in. cane, G, to the required 
shape ; fit this, and dowel on to the tMO uprights c, c, 
leaving it to hang over for about 2 in. on each side 
(see G, Fig. 80). Five pieces of ^-in. bamboo each 
5 in. long, have to be fitted in between the top rail 
and the bent top bamboo, and must be rasped to fit. 
Four |-in. bamboo canes, mortised to 6-4 in., are for 
the two sides H H (Fig. 80), and are placed at a 
distance of 3 in. apart, measuring 1 in. from the top 
of upright. The small slanting pieces are of ^-in. 
bamboo 4 in. long, and are mortised to fit, glued and 
nailed on wdth fine 1-in. pins. Bend two |-in. bam- 
boos with roots to the required shape for J J, and 
spindle them on to the two uprights c c with pieces 
of ^-in. bamboo 4 in. long. Mortise six l^-in. bam- 
boo canes, 16 in. long, for the side rails M ; plug in 
the same way as were the front and back rails, and 
with a ^-in. centre-bit bore holes in two frames ; 
fit, and then glue up the same Avay as before. Square 
up the whole stand and let it remain for a day or so 
for the glue to set quite hard. 

The frame for the mirror may be made whilst the 
stand is lying aside. It is of 1-in. bamboo or of 
ordinary wood, as may be preferred. The inside 
measurement is 22 in. by 16 in., and the corners have 
to be strongly and carefully mitred. Nail round 
some fine beading cane to form a rebate for the glass 
to rest on ; put in the silvered glass and back with 
thin board. Put this aside, and commence to fit 
the top and side panels. The top panels are 
of spruce or pine covered with matting or Japanese 



Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. 



75 




Fig. 80. — liamboo Dressing Table. 



76 Bamboo Work. 

paper. The matting is glued on as is described 
on p. 51. Nail beading cane round the edges. The 
side panels are of lacquer work, and the back can be 
a piece of spruce stained brown. 

Now take four pieces of |-in. bamboo 4| in. long ; 
these have to be spindled into the table-top 6^ in. 
apart and 4 in. from the back. Fit a rail in between 
each, \ in. from the top, and a rail on either side ; 
plug and nail with fine pins. Get some |-in. bam- 
boos and bend to the required shape for the six 
curved pieces n (Fig. 80), which are spindled on to 
the frame with thin pieces of cane 5 in. long. 

Fit the lacquer panels on top and at sides, and 
secure w4th pins. Fit the panels between the rails, 
then bore right through the rails with a fine brad- 
awl and secure with 2-in. panel pins. Make two 
small drawers to fit ; the front of each drawer should 
be a piece of lacquer. Make also the tw^o large 
drawers, which have lacquer fronts ; it will be an 
improvement if the panels are beaded round with 
cane. Now fit panels in under the table, and cover 
with matting or Japanese paper, in the same way 
as was the table-top. The mirror frame swings on 
a pair of brass tighteners which are fitted on the two 
uprights. Four brass handles for the drawers are 
put on with small brass screws. 

The dressing-table is now complete, and requires 
only a coat or two of hard white varnish to finish 
it ; this should be applied in a rather warm room. 
It would perhaps be an improvement to use lacquer 
instead of matting or paper for the table-top, but 
this would add to the expense, and matting looks 
very well, and is very durable when used with or- 
dinary care. 

A bamboo washstand to match the bamboo dress- 
ing-table just described is illustrated by Fig. 81, 
This design should not present difficulties to anyone 
sufficiently skilful to make the table above men- 
tioned. The uprights a a and b b should be got out 



Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. 



77 



first ; the former are 32 in. long, and the latter 40| in. 
The front ones ai'e bent slightly at the bottom, and 
this should be done before they are cut to size. Plug 
the ends and with a |-in. centre-bit bore holes in a 
line at 1 in., 65 in., and 29 in., measuring from the 








Bamboo Washstand. 



top of front uprights a a. k\\ additional hole is 
bored in the back ones b b 2|- in. from the top. Now 
put these aside and get seven pieces of Ij-in. dia- 
meter bamboo 371 in. long and mortise to 36 in. ; 
tliese are for the long rails. Rough them inside at 
the ends with a round rasp, and plug with dowels 
at least (3 in. long, leaving 1 in. projecting ; shave 



7 8 Bamboo Work. 

the end of pegs to fit tightly in the holes bored in the 
uprights. Then fit the two frames together, taking 
care that all joints fit neatly. 

Now take to pieces for gluing up ; this process 
resembles the putting together of the dressing-table 
as explained on pp. 73-76. When this is done put the 
framework aside and get six pieces of bamboo 1^ in. 
diameter ; these must be mortised to 16 in. In 
cutting up bamboo for rails, 1^ in. is allowed for the 
waste entailed by mortising. The six rails are for 
the sides ; rasp and plug, then take the two frames 
and bore holes with a ^-in, bit to receive the plugs ; 
fit in the same way as before, and then glue and 
square the whole frame. The distance apart be- 
tween the two top rails at the back is 6 in., and in 
this space half a dozen 6 in. square tiles are fitted. 
Thin beading cane is nailed round first to form a 
rebate, the tiles are then put in, and cane is nailed 
round at the back to keep the tiles in position. The 
bottom panel, which now is fitted in, is made of deal 
f in. thick planed on both sides. Secure this with 
2-in. panel pins, which are driven through the rails, 
boring first with a fine bradawl. Nov/ make four 
rails 27| in. long to form a frame for the cupboard, 
as shown at c c. These are plugged and secured 
with long pins ; fit panels in sides and at the back 
in the same way as in the case of the bottom panel. 
The two sides of the latter and the cupboard should 
be covered with matting or Japanese paper. 

Make a rail to fit in between the two rails at the 
top of front, then make the drawers and fit them ; 
the fronts of the drawers should be pieces of Jap- 
anese lacquer. The door for the cupboard is made 
of a piece of deal, the front being covered with 
matting, and split bamboo mitred at the corners is 
nailed round the edge. A small brass cupboard tarn 
and two brass hinges are fitted on the door. 

The table top is of deal, and 1 in. is allowed to 
hang over on each side except at the back ; the top 



Bambov Bedroom Furniture. 



79 



is attached with 2-in. screws which enter from the 
back of uprights b b, and two are driven from the 
top of table into the plugs in the uprights A A (Fig. 81). 
Cover with matting ; or, if a more elaborate job is 
required, a marble top is very suitable ; this is 
easily fixed with screws. If matting is used, bamboo 
1 in. in diameter is nailed round the edge, the cor- 
ners being mitred. Bend some ^-in.cane for the fancy 
work, D D, and spindle on with pieces of thin cane 




2.— Bamboo Was^hst; 



3 in. long. The bent piece for the top is made out of 
1-in. diameter cane, and the small slanting pieces are 
made out of ^-in. cane. The centre one should be 
5 in. long ; the others must be cut to fit, as their 
lengths greatly depend on the way the top bamboo 
has been bent. Cut two pieces of 1-in. bamboo 16 in. 
long for the two towel rails, and spindle them on to 
the frame with 4-in. pieces of ^-in. bamboo. 

All the woodwork of the washstand including the 
inside of cupboard, in which a shelf can be fixed if 



3o Bamboo Work. 

desired, should be stained walnut colour. Finish 
the washstand by varnishing it in a warm room. 

Another design for a bamboo washstand is given in 
Fig. 82, p. 79. The table portion is well supportsd by 
the four legs and by five additional uprights dowelled 
into the diagonal cross-rails. 

The swing glass with a bamboo frame, illus- 
trated by Fig. 83, will accommodate a mirror 
measuring 21 in. by 15 in. It is made as 
follows : — First make of 1-in. bamboo a frame with 
mitred joints to fit the glass, the bamboos being 
first plugged and ^hen glued and pinned together. 
Rasp the knots down level on the inside, and fix 
an edging of split beading cane round the frame to 
form a rebate for the glass. Back it with thin wood 
or millboard and secure it also with beading cane. 
The glass, with frame, will measure 23 in. by 17 in. 
so should be swung 12 in. from the bottom. Allow 
3^ in. clear space between bottom of . frame and 
drawer top, 2^ in. for depth of drawers, and \\ in. 
below ; this will make the side supports 19^ in. high 
to centre of top rail (see Fig. 84), and 22 in. in all ; 
cut the uprights to 23 in. to allow for the small 
bend at the top and the angle at which they are 
fixed, they being 3 in. apart at a and 9 in. at c (Fig. 
84). The uprights, as well as the cross-pieces b and 
c ,are of |-in. bamboo ; but the top cross-piece A is of 
1-in. bamboo. The cross-pieces must be dowelled mto 
the uprights. If the top-piece a has not a knot 
the plug will go right through, and thus will give 
additional strength. The space between B and c is 
filled in with a piece of Japanese lacquer, secured 
with wu-e pins through the bamboo, and edged with 
split beading cane. The bend at the top of the 
uprights is made in the usual manner. The cross- 
pieces between A and b are of ^ in. bamboo plugged 
and rasped out to fit, then glued and pinned to the 
uprights. To determine the distance between the 
two uprights, leave a clear space of \ in. each side 



B A 31 BOO Bedroom Furniture. 8i 

of the looking-glass, and cut the bamboos that form 
the two uprights and make the case for the drawers 
accordingly ; a piece divides the drawers in front. 
Having fixed the uprights fit in the top and bottom 
of drawer case ; the bottom need only be of common 
deal, but the top should be of lacquer, in character 
with the sides and back. The drawer fi'onts also are 
of lacquer, with fancy brass handles. 

The glass is swung on bamboo pivots, which are 





Fig. 83 

Fig. 83. — Toilet Mirror with Bamboo Frame, 
of Mirror Frame. 



Fig. 84 
Fig. 84.- Side 



made thus : cut out two pieces of |-in. bamboo about 
3 in. long from between the knots and plug them right 
through. Then cut a f-in. hole with a centre-bit 
through the cross-pieces A, and also in the looking- 
glass frame 12 in. from the bottom end, but not right 
through. The pivots should fit firmly in the cross- 
pieces and be secured with a wire pin, and also be 
fairly tight in the mirror frame, so that the glass 
will remain stationary at any angle at which it is 
put. Small brass knobs screwed in the ends of the 
pivots are a nice finish. 



82 



CHAPTER VI. 



BAMBOO HALL RACKS AND STANDS. 

A VERY simple rack or rail for hats can be made 
from 1-in. bamboo canes, as shown in Fig. 85. Cut 
off two lengths, each 44 in., for the top and bottom 
of the rack ; then cut five lengths, each 9 in., for the 
uprights. Shape the ends of these uprights as in 
Fig. 86, A, with the rasp, so that they will fit on to 
the rods along the top and bottom of the rack ; in 
Fig. 86, A is the upright and b the top rod. Fit a 
wooden dowel 2 in. or 3 in. long into a ; each length 
when rasped should be 7 in. Mark off spaces in the 




Fig. 85.— Hat Rack. 

long rods, taking care to allow 1 in. for the thickness 
of each upright, and next bore holes into the 
rods B B (Fig. 85), where marked for the uprights. 
It is better to bore the holes slightly smaller than the 
dowel, which can then be reduced to fit, because if 
the holes are too large the joints will be loose and 
thus reduce the strength of the rack. The dowels 
must then be fixed in the drilled holes in b with hot 
glue, and gently hammered home. Before gluing, fit 
the dowels into the drilled holes to ensure good 
joints. 

The construction of the ornamental part of the hat 
rail is shown by Fig. 37. a shows the dowel fitted, 
but not driven home. The ornamental part should 



Bamboo Hall Racks. 



be made in ^-in. bamboo, and fixed into A and b b 
(Fig. 85) by holes bored with a small centre-bit, and 
fitted in before the whole is clamped together. 

It should be observed, in cutting off the lengths for 
the top and bottom rails, that the knots in the bam- 
boos come between the uprights. Glue and clamp 
up ; fasten the whole together with fine French nails 
or screws, taking care always to bore holes for them 
or the cane will split. The ends can be finished with 
turned hardwood or bone terminals, and the pegs 
may be brass or rooted bamboo, according to fancy. 




Fig. 86.— Up- 
right for Hat 
Rack. 



Fig. 87.- Filling for 
Hat Rack. 



An umbrella stand may be made in bamboo to a 
very simple design as illustrated by Fig. 88, p. 84. 

Four sticks, 1 in. thick, will be required, and the 
size of the stand is as follows : The four uprights, 
2 ft. 6in. long ; six rails or traverses for front 
and back, 15 in. long ; six side pieces, 8 in. long ; two 
pieces at the bottom to rest the pan on, 8 in. long ; 
a centre piece at the top, 8 in. long ; and, finally, 
four little stays, 4 in. long. Plug both ends of the 
uprights, and, 1^ in. from each end, cut a hole with a 
|-in. centre-bit, and a third one 4^ in. from the bot- 
tom end. Rasp out the ends of the six cross-pieces, 
to fit against the uprights and then plug each end, 



84 



Bamboo Work. 



leaving the plug protruding | in. This should fit 
tight in the holes of the uprights, and be secured 
there with hot glue and a bamboo pin (see Fig. 89). 




R 



Fi-. 



- Fig. 89 

Fig. 88 

-Umbrella Stand. Fig. 89. — Joints for Umbrella 
Stand. 



Fix the parts together, and bind them with string 
until the glue is quite dry. Plug each end of the six 
side pieces, and rasp the ends to shape, as before. 




Fig. 90 
90.— Umbrella Stand. 



Fig. 91. 
Stand. 



Fig. 91 
Terminal of Umbrella 



They are glued to the uprights and further secured 
from the other side with a 2-in, bamboo pin ; 
previous to gluing, the bamboo must be roughened. 
Before fixing the side pieces the two bottom pieces 



Bamboo Hall Stands. 



85 



and the centre piece must be dowelled, as before, 
after which the whole framework can be put to- 
gether and left to dry. Lastly, the four angle stays 




Fig. 92.— TTat and TTmhrella Stand. 

must be fixed on with glue and pins. A wooden 
button or terminal fixed on each upright will com- 
plete the construction of the stand, though, of 
course, a pan to receive the rain water drippings 



86 



Bamboo Work. 




x^ 





Fi^r. 93. — Centre 
Uprio-hf, of Um- 
brtlla Stand. 



from the umbrellas will be re- 
quired. Clean off all super- 
fluous glue, and give the stand a 
coat of varnish. 

The umbrella stand (Fig. 90) 
p. 84, is similar to the last, except 
that the bottom is of wood with 
a wood edging round to form 
a well, in which should be let 
a brass or copper tray. The 
uprights are let into holes 
bored in the base. Fig. 91, p. 84, 
is an enlarged view of one of the 
terminals. 

A more ambitious piece of 
furniture is shown by Fig. 92, 
p. 85. The hat and umbrella stand 
there illustrated may have the 
following principal dimensions : 
Extreme height, 7 ft. 6 in. ; 
width, 3 ft. 6 in. Height of 
bottom portion, 28 in. ; width 
between uprights, 12 in. Height 
of centre uprights, 6 ft. 6 in. ; 
side uprights, 6 ft. 3 in. ; depth 
of stand, 13 in. Size of mirror, 
12 in. by 18 in. 

Two l^-in. canes, each 6 ft. 
in. long, will form the centre 
uprights. Cut seven canes 
14 in. long (which, when rasped, 
should be 12 in.) and mark off 
the canes as in Fig. 93 ; allow 
2 in. for each joint. Hollow 
the ends to fit on to the up- 
rights, and cut dowels to fit 
into the ends of the canes ; 
the dowels should project about 
\\ in. With brace and bit cut 



Bamboo Hall Stands. 



«7 



% 



lCVJ== 



§ 



holes in the marked places in 
the uprights to receive the ends 
of the dowels ; fit together 
loose, to see if all the joints are 
good. If all right, fix together 
with hot glue ; also bore holes 
through the uprights, and fasten 
with wire nails or screws. If 
screws are used, countersink 
the heads. The whole should 
be clamped together until the 
glue has set thoroughly ; for a 
clamp, use a string twisted as de- 
scribed on pp. 23 and 24. Cut two 
canes, each 6 ft. 3 in. long, and 
mark off as shown in Fig. 94. 
Cut ten canes, each 14 in. 
long, and fit to centre as de- 
scribed above ; fit each part to- 
gether separately, taking care 
not to get askew. The cross- 
bars at the bottom should now 
be fitted, the ends being 
plugged with dowels, and 
nailed in their places with thin 
wire nails. Now fit together 
the panel to receive the tile or 
plaque, rasping the bamboo to 
fit ; put in on the slant, and 
work to the proper position, 
taking care to keep the place 
for the tile or plaque square. 

Fig. 30, p. 36, shows the 
dowelling of the diagonal pieces of 
the fancy filling. A dowel 
is put right through one of the 
rods and the two pieces fitted 
on ; the other pieces are then rasped and fitted into 
their places with glue and small nails, care being 



III 






Fi^-. 94. — Side 
Upright of Vm.- 
laellii Stand. 



88 



Bamboo Work. 



taken to keep them parallel with the centre cross. 
The tiles and glass are fastened in securely by nail- 
ing on pieces of split cane. The knots in the bamboo 




9o.— Hat and TTml)rella Stand. 



should first be rasped level, so that the tiles will fib 
well. Two pieces of wood should be let into the 
bamboo at the back of the glass by cutting mortise 



Bamboo Hall Stands. 



8q 



holes (as shown in Fig. 3, p. 20). Proceed to make 
the front part by cutting two canes, each 30 in. 




Fia;. 96. — liack Section of I'^mbrolla Stand. 



long, and two 36 in. long ; six 14 in. long, to rasp to 
12 in., and eight each 11 in. long, to rasp to 9 in. 
Make the centre part by dowelling the centre 



90 



Bamboo Work. 



bottom stretchers ; glue up and clamp, and fit on the 
two sides. To make the fastening between centre 
and side stretchers very firm, put a screw through 
the back, so that it will go well into the dowel. Make 
and fit the drawer and supports, and fix together the 
front and back, using screws to make the whole firm. 
The sides, top, and front of the drawer and of shelf 
can be wood, plain or covered with Japanese mat- 
ting, or may be lacquered plaques. Two japanned 




Fi"'. 97. — Front Section of Umhrella Stand. 



trays will be required for the umbrellas. Either 
root bamboo or brass hat pegs can be used. 

For the uprights in the bamboo hat and umbrella 



stand shown complete by Fig. 95, p. 



l^-m. or 



1^-in. canes should be used, and slightly smaller ones 
for the cross rails. Cut them to the lengths marked on 
Fig. 96, p. 89, allowing an extra 2 in. for the cross 
rails for hollowing and fitting. The mirror is 20 in. 
by 12 in., but it can be made longer by altering the 
position of the rails b and c (Fig. 96, p. 89). Fig. 97 
shows the front. The four connecting rails measure 
10^ in. when hollowed. The spaces marked d (Fig. 
96) are filled in with wood covered with Japanese 



Bamboo Hall Stands. 91 

leather paper. The brush tray is made of a piece 
of |-in. deal covered with leather paper, and slipped 
with split cane. The tin pan at the bottom of the 
umbrella stand should have a lip at each end to keep 
it in place. 

The hat-and-umbrella stand shown by Fig. 98 is 




Hat and Umhrella Stand. 



6 ft. high and 3 ft. wide. The bottom portion which 
holds the umbrellas is 2 ft, 9 in. high, and is fitted 
with a loose zinc pan, supported on traverses. The 
framework should be of l^-in. bamboo, the inner 
parts of 1-in., and the short spindles of |-in., let 



directly into the framework. 
18 in. by 12 in. 



The mirror measures 



92 

CHAPTER VII. 

BAMBOO MUSIC RACKS. 

The racks illustrated and described in this chapter 
are for the reception of sheet music, newspapers, 
magazines, etc. 

A typical design is shown by Fig. 99, and for it 
four 1-in. and two fin. canes will be required. From 
the 1-in. canes four lengths should be bent or toed 
out and cut off 20 in. long. Four pieces, each 16 in. 
long, for the four rails should now be cut off, also 
from the 1-in. canes, chisel-pointed, mortised (or 
hollowed) with the rasp, and fitted to their places. 
Holes should then be ]:)ored in the legs to receive the 
dowels, and the two sides framed up as described 
in previous chapters. While these sides, or sections, 
are setting, the two ornamental fillings should be 
made from fin. cane. Four pieces of 1-in. bamboo, 
each 9 in. long (1^ in. is allowed for fitting), should 
be prepared to form the cross rails which are to 
join the two sections together. When the 
sections are set, holes should be bored to 
receive the dowels of the cross rails, and 
the whole then joined together. The two uprights 
for the partition are fitted to the bottom cross rail, 
and the top cross rail and upright are half jointed 
where they cross. The rail which carries the handle 
is mortised and dowelled at each end and fastened 
into position with two round-headed screws. The 
handle is made from I in. cane, bent as shown, and 
fastened to the centre rail with round-headed 
screws. The rails which form the division of the 
partition, as also the three cross rails forming the 
bottom, are made from |-ih. cane mortised at the 
ends and fixed into position with beading pins. A 
diagonal stay, not sho^^^l in the illustration, may 
be added to the central framework. 



Bamboo Music Racks, 



93 



A design much on the lines of the last one is 
given by Fig. 100. The detailed letter references 
should make the construction of the other rack more 
intelligible. The rack illustrated by Fig. 100 may 
be made from f-in. canes. The four corner posts each 
19 in. long, are slightly bent out at the bottom to 
form the feet. The posts are connected by three 
rails A, B, c, back and front, each 15| in. long, and 
at the sides by rails d and e (Fig. 100) each 9 in. long. 
There are also three cross rails running from front 




Fig. 99.— Two-Division Music Rack. 

to back connecting the rail A. The rail E and the 
upright F (the latter being 13^ in. long) are halved 
where they cross. Between the centre uprights f is 
a rail G 15| in. long, to which the handle h, of fin. 
cane, is fastened. Running from the rail G are two 
^-in. canes k, each about 19^ in. long,pinned together 
where they cross, and fixed underneath the rail D. 
An inclined rail J runs from b to c, the lower end 
being \\ in. away from the corner post and the upper 
end, 5^ in. away. Another cane L (Fig. 100), 9 in. 
long, inclined in the opposite direction, meets the 



94 



Bamboo Work. 



rail J about 3^ in. from the top, and in the triangular 
opening thus formed panels are fixed. The dotted 
lines indicate how the cane L might be fixed if a 
variation in the design is desired. In this case the 
rail B would terminate where it met L. The centre 
of rail A is 6^ in., and the centre of b 9^ in., from the 




Two-Division Music Rack. 



ground, and the distance between centres of d and E 
is 3^ in. 

A bamboo rack with three divisions is shown by 
Fig. 101 ; it can be made of |-in. or thinner bamboo. 
A useful size would be 15 in. high by 15 in. long, the 
divisions being 3 in. apart, and the four uprights or 
legs slightly bent outwards both at the top and 
bottom. Fig. 102 is an end view of the rack ; the 
two divisions are dowelled into the lower traverse, 



Bamboo Music Racks. 



95 



whilst the upper division forms part of the bottom 
for the rack, being in a line with the bottom traverse 
of the sides. Fig. 103 shows one of the two parti- 
tions, and on the top traverse is a piece either of 
black or white beading cane to form a handle. There 




Fig. 101. 



Thri e-division Music Rack, 
of Rack. 



ii 

Fig. 102 
Fiff. 102.- End View 



are also two cross traverses dowelled into the 
bottom traverses of the sides to form the bottom 
of the rack. The sides are filled in as shown by 
Fig. 101, the centre panel consisting of a piece of 
lacquer fixed into the bamboo framework with split 
beading-cane. 




Fio-. 103 



The construction of the rack illustrated by Fig. 
104, p. 96, will require the followini^ canes : Four for 
the legs, each a little over 20 in. long (to allow for 
bending) ; four 18-in. canes to form the borders of 
the sides ; a piece to form the handle ; and the 



96 



Bamboo Work. 



Ccanes to complete the rack, the lengths of which 
can easily be obtained from the illustrations. 

Another design for a music rack is given in 
Fig. 105, and, compared with Fig. 104, the principal 
differences are that it has three compartments, has 




Fig. 104. — Two-Di^dsion Music Rack. 

handles at the ends, and is provided with casters. 
The ends of the rods to w^hich the casters are fixed 
must be plugged wath a piece of wood about 1^ in. 
long. The tops of the four comer uprights are 22 in. 
from the ground ; the rack is 20 in. long, and 14 in. 
wide. 



B.-tMBoo Music Racks. 



97 



For the panels some Japanese paper will be 
wanted. First cut two pieces of wood of the required 
size and about \ in. thick, after which cover one side 
of each wdth the Japanese paper— thin glue being 
used for fixing. When this is dry, secure the panels 




-Three-division Music Eacl 



to the sides of the rack by means of strips of split 
beading cane. Pieces of millboard are fastened to 
the backs of the panels. 

Fig. 106, p. 98, illustrates a combined table and 
music canterbury, made in brown bamboo canes 
about 1 in. thick. It may be about 28 in. high and 
G 



98 



Bamboo Work. 



12 in. deep, and is made in flat sections, A, b, c, d. 
Fig. 107 shows the construction of sections b and c. 
Make up the top, put in the panel, hollow out the 
tops of A and d (Fig. 108), and fix dowels, so that the 
top of the table will fix on to the dowel. Let the 
dowel project \ in., so that the end will fit on to the 
under side of the top, in the corners of which four 
holes should be bored to receive the dowels. Hollow 
out five lengths for rails, to make up 10^ in. 
long. When all the sections are thoroughly dry — 




Fig. 106 

Fig. 106.— Combined Table and Music Rack. Fij 
Section of Music Eack. 



10- 



say in twenty-four hours — take two rails, and 
bore holes 3 in. from each end to receive dowels ; 
take sections b and c (Fig. 106), the bottoms of which 
should be rasped to fit on to the stretchers, and 
dowelled. Fix the three centre rails to d, and 
when B and c are set, fasten the whole together. 
It is advisable to dowel the rails e and f into 
A and D, as they bear the greatest part of the weight 
of the music. Fix the top, clamp up, and screw 
too-ether. 



99 
CHAPTER VIII. 

BAMBOO CABINETS AND BOOKCASES. 

The bamboo cabinet illustrated by Fig. 108 on the 
next page is about 6 ft. 8 in. high, and for its con- 
struction 18 canes 1^ in. in dia,meter, and 6 lengths 
^ in. to I in. in diameter will be required, the lengths 
being as imported — about 6^ ft. 

The back frame (Fig. 109, p. 101) is made first. The 
uprights A A are 6 ft. high, and must be perfectly 
straight. The horizontal rails b are mortised at 
each end, and are made from l^-in. canes. Bore 
holes in the uprights with a f-in. centre-bit, 2 in., 
38 in. , and 67 in. respectively, from the top of the up- 
right. Then plug the rails with dowels not less than 
8 in. long, shave the ends to fit in the holes in the 
uprights, and fit the frame together. The front 
frame (Fig. 110, p. 102) is made in the same manner, 
the uprights being canes 36 in. long, slightly bent at 
the bottom. Plug them at the top and bore holes 
at 1 in. and 31 in. from the top to receive the two 
long rails. Then fit in the rails c, Fig. 109, as fol- 
lows : — First cut four canes of the l^-in. bamboo 
about 34 in. long, and mortise one end. Let this 
rest on one of the rails between which it will fit and 
then mark where it touches the other ; mortise to 
the mark, plug, and secure with 3-in. pins. Fit the 
small horizontal rails in the same manner. 

The small slanting pieces shown in Fig. 108, p. ICO, 
known as "herringbone," are cut from ^-in. bam- 
boo, and are about 4 in. long. They are secured 
with glue and fine nails. The frame for the Japanese 
lacquer panel d (Fig. 109) should next be put in. 
This is made of |-in. bamboo, the panel being 8 in. 
wide by 6 in. high. 

Fit the rails, shown in Fig. 110, p. 102, to the front 
frame. For the side rails, six pieces of l^-in. bamboo, 
mortised to 18 in. long, are required. Four of these 



lOO 



Bamboo Work. 




Bamboo Cabinets. iot 

go at right angles with the two bottom rails in the 
back and front frames, the other two being dowelled 
on 12 in. from the bottom rail. The curved pieces seen 
in Fig. lOS are of \-m.. stuff. The centre piece in 
the top rail is 10 in. high, and the curved pieces are 
spindled to this with pieces of cane 4 in. long. 




Fig. 109.— Back Section of ]5amboo Calnnet. 

For the woodwork of the lower part of the 
cabinet, \-'m. pine is used. Commence by fitting the 
panels at the back with 2^-in. panel pins, which enter 
through the bamboo rails. Plane up on the outside, 
and cover the inner side with Japanese paper. The 
other parts are done in the same way. The side- 
board top is of deal, and projects 3 in. at the sides 
and the front, split bamboo being fixed on the edges 



I02 



Bamboo Work. 



as shown. This is screwed to the uprights in the 
back frame, and to the phigs in the top of the front 
uprights. The sideboard lop can be covered with 
Japanese paper, or, if preferred, it could be stained 
and polished. 

The cupboard doors are made of Japanese lac- 
quer with split bamboo nailed round the edges, and 
are fixed wath brass hinges. A small lock or a brass 
cupboard turn fastens the door. The drawer is of 
deal, a piece of Japanese lacquer forming the front 
panel, a brass handle being screwed on as shown. 
The glass in the top part of the cabinet is of 24-in. 




Fig. 110.— Front Section of Bamboo Cabinet. 

by 12-in. bevelled edge plate, and is fixed in a rebate 
formed by a split cane nailed to the bamboo. A 
wood panel is fixed at the back. The large panels 
afc the sides of the glass are of Japanese lacquer, as 
are also the two shelves, the latter being fixed with 
screws driven from the back of the rails, against 
which they rest. The cabinet, with the exception 
of the panels, which are polished when imported, 
should have a coat or two of white shellac varnish 
(see p. 39). 

Fig. Ill shows a cabinet bearing some general 
resemblance to the previous one. The uprights of 
top are 2 ft. 6 in. long, the cross rails 3 ft. 3 in., and 



Bamboo Cabinets. 



103 



the mirror 20 in. by 15 in. Use l^-in. or l^-in. canes 
for the work. Make up the front and back of the 
cabinet in the first place, and, while these are set- 
ting, get out the back of the top. Join together the 
two 'bottom sections. The distance between front 




Fig. 111.— Bamboo Cabinet. 

and back rails is about 10 in. if the cabinet is to be 
13 in. deep over all. Make the door frames from 
perfectly straight 1-in. canes. These canes should 
be mitred at the corner, and a right-angle dowel 
should be used for filling. The rebate for the glass 



104 



Bamboo Work, 



should be formed with split black cane. The doors 
are hinged on pins, which act as pivots. The con- 
struction of the upper portion of the work is very 
similar to that described for the making of an over- 
mantel illustrated by Figs. 152 and 154, pp. 135 and 
138. 

The bamboo music cabinet illustrated by Fig. 112 
is first framed up in two sections, A and b (Fig. 113). 
The tv.'O front legs should not be cut off to length 
until they have been bent, and 2 in. should be al- 




Fig. 112. — Bamboo Music Cabinet. 

lowed on the rails for chisel-pointing and fitting. 
Care must be taken to get the sections perfectly 
square. They should be thoroughly tested with the 
measuring lath. While the sections are setting, the 
four side rails c (Fig. 113) should be fitted, and the 
whole frame afterwards put together. The back, 
sides, and bottom of the cabinet are made of |-in. 
deal, covered w4th Japanese leather paper or mat- 
ting. The sides are fixed in position with nails, 
driven through the four legs, but before this is done 
any knots in the bamboo should be rasped down, 



Bamboo Cabinets. 



105 



so that the wood may fit close in the frame. The 
shelves can next be fitted, after which the sides are 
beaded with split cane, white or black. The mottled 
or tortoised appearance on some of the beading is 
produced by passing the cane through a flame and 
burning it at intervals (see p. 38). 

The door frame, in Figs. 112 and 114, is shown 
made from whole cane, which should be slightly 
smaller than that used for the legs. Great care 
must be taken to use canes both straight and of 





Fio-. 113 



Fiff. Hi 



Fig. 113. — Framing of Bamboo Music Cabinet. Fig-. 114. 
— Door Frame of Bamboo Music Cabinet. 



imiform thickness. First rasp down all protruding- 
knots, and then cut off the four pieces in a mitre box ; 
fit them in the places they will occupy inside the 
frame a. Fig. 113. After being marked, they are taken 
out and a rather long dowel is fitted into the end of 
each, one end of the dowel being allowed to project. 
When all the ends are fitted, the frame should be 
laid down flat, with each piece in its proper position, 
and the two dowels on a (Fig. 114) taken out, mitred, 
and nailed together. Each angle should be treated 
in a similar manner, and the whole frame then tem- 



io6 Bamboo Work. 

porarily fitted together and tried in its place. If 
it fits correctly it can be glued up and left to set. A 
fine nail is put through each mitre to strengthen 
the joint further. All knots on the door frame should 
be rasped down flat, and a rebate formed with split 
beading cane to receive the glass. The door, hinged 
on pins, is fastened by a cupboard turn, which should 
be made of sheet brass so that it can be bent to the 
shape of the bamboo. The four rails should now 
be cut off close to the top cross rails, and the whole 
top surface levelled up to receive the top. This is 
made from a good lacquer panel, 20 in. by 14 in., 
beaded with whole bamboo. For whole beadmg a 
very straight cane should be chosen, and one side 
planed flat. The beading should be mitred and fixed 
in place with 2-in. panel pins driven through the 
bamboo into the lacquer. As has been said again 
and again, do not drive a nail through bamboo with- 
out first bormg a hole for it, otherwise the cane will 
split. The mitred corners should be just touched 
with glue, and the squareness of the corners taken 
off with a rasp. An inside beading of black cane 
greatly improves the appearance of the top. A 
covering of ^-in. wood, the size of the lacquer panel, 
should be screwed to the top of the cabinet frame, 
and the lacquer top screwed to it from underneath, 
care being taken that the screws do not go through 
the laccj[uer. 

A combined china cupboard and bookcase in bam- 
boo is illustrated by Fig. 115 ; it is made in tw^o sec- 
tions, the bottom one, which serves as the cupboard, 
being made first. From l|-in. or l^-in. canes cut 
off four pieces each 38 in. long for the legs, and four 
pieces each 36 in., which will be 33| in. after being 
rasped and fitted. Xow fit and make up the two sec- 
tions marked a and b (Fig. 116, p. 108), and set aside 
to dry. While the sections are setting, the rails o to 
form the frame should be got out and fitted, and when 
the two sections are drv the whole should be fitted 



Bamboo Bookcases. 



:o7 



together and the tops of the legs sawn off straight 
and plugged. The wood to fill in the sides and back 
of the frame should now be got out. The inside of 
the cupboard may be either stained and varnished, 
or covered with Japanese leather paper ; the outside 




Fig-. 11. 5.— Combined China Cupboard and Bookcase. 



may be covered with leather paper or mattdng, 
according to taste. The shelves should be fitted 
into their places (see pp. 110 to 112) and then the 
frames of the two doors prepared. These are made 
from deal 2 in. wide and | in. or \ in. thick. They 
are illustrated as being covered with leather paper 



io8 



Bamboo Work, 



and slipped with split cane. The inside slipping 
of cane is made to project and so to form a rebate 
for holding the glass in position. Unless some true- 
sawn cane as prepared for dado work is at hand, it 
is advisable to rim the plane along the split bamboo 
in order that it may fit perfectly level on the wood. 
The doors are hung on pins. A nail should be driven 
into the bottom of the door frame, and allowed to 
project about \ in., and a hole made in the bottom 
of the frame to receive it. The toD pin is passed 




Fig. 116. — Framing of China Cupboard. 

through a hole bored in the top rail into the top of 
the door frame. The doors are fastened with a small 
bolt and cupboard turn. The top of the cupboard is 
made from |-in. stuff, and should be 39 in. long and 
14 in. wdde, so that it overlaps 1^ in. at each side 
and 1 in. at the front. It should be screwed on to 
the frame and afterwards covered with leather paper, 
matting, or lacquer panels. If the latter are used, 
they should be fastened to the wood with fine nails 
round the edge, so that the nails will afterwards be 
covered with the inside slip of cane when the edge 
has been slipped with split bamboo. 



Bamboo Bookcases. 



109 



The making of the upper section — the bookcase 
proper — will now be described. From l^-in. or 
1^-in. canes cut off four pieces each 3 ft. 6 in. long 
to form the uprights, and five pieces each 35^ in. 
long (2 in. being allowed for fitting) to form the rails 
of the sections a and b (Fig. 117). These should be 
put together as before described, care being taken 
to get the whole Avork firm and square. The rails c 
(Fig. 117) should be gob out 10 in. long (2 in. being 
allowed for fitting), and when the sections are dry 
the whole should be framed together. It must now 
be decided whether the shelves are to be fixtures or 




Fig-. 117. — Framing of Bookcase. 



movable. Flaving decided upon the kind of slielves 
to be employed, the sides and back of the bookcase 
should be fixed in position, care being taken not to 
make too close a fit or the joints will be sprung. The 
filling at the top is next done. The herringbone 
work in the centre is started from the left-hand side, 
and is put in piece by piece, each piece being 
fastened with glue and fine beading pins. The 
shelves for the bookcase should have a slipping of 
split cane the exact thickness of the shelf, and a 
leather shelf-edging should be fastened on under- 
neath to make a good finish. 
Bamboo bookcases are much firmer if they have 



no 



Bamboo Work. 



a wooden back as in Fig. 115; there is difficulty 
sometimes in supporting and securing tlie shelves of 
bamboo bookcases, but the following plan answers 
well : — Insert a screw-eye at the requisite height for 
each shelf in each bamboo upright, diagonally. 
Notch the shelves slightly at the comers to fit the 
bamboo uprights ; lay them on the screw-eyes, and 




w mrn^m^/z/my/^^ 



Fig. 118.-3Iethod of Fixing Bookshelf. 

through each eye, from the underside, insert a screw, 
which will hold all rigid. The fixing of the shelves 
all depends on the kind of bookcase ; if, as in Fig. 
115, p. 107, the back is of wood, the following method 
of fixmg them might be adopted : Screw or dowel 
through one of the front bamboos at each end of 
shelf, so as to fix it, and to keep the shelf from sink- 




Fig. 119. — Bookshelf Grooved and Tongued. 

ing in the middle widthways. Plough a groove 
across each end, and insert a hardwood tongue as 
sho\\Ti in Figs. 118 and 119. In Fig. 118, which is a 
section, A is the bamboo ; b, shelf ; c, back ; and d, 
dowel. Fig. 119 shows end of sh'elf, with tongue in- 
serted ; B indicating the shelf and e the tongue. 

Bookcase shelves may rest directly on the rails, 
the upper surface of the latter having the nodes 
rasped off, so that the shelf can fit level. In such a 



Bamboo Bookcases. i 1 1 

case the shelf should have a very slight projection 
over the rail, and its edge should be moulded or 
chamfered, and cut out at the angles to take the up- 
right bars (see Fig. 120). After being fitted pro- 
perly, small screws, driven up from the underside of 
the rails, will secure the shelf. Another way is to 
fix the shelves flush with the upper surface of the 
rail. The inner face should be rasped off level, and 
a small section taken out of the cane to receive the 




Fi-. 122 

Figs. 120 and 121. — Methods of Supporting Bookshelves. 
Fig. 122. — Bamboo Side of Bookcase. 



shelf as in Fig. 121. The shelf might be further 
secured by driving in small screws through it into 
the rail. 

For the wooden sides of bamboo bookcases, may 
be substituted ornamental work formed of small 
canes, something like Fig. 122 ; this is more in 
keeping with the framework than are boarded sides. 

The bamboo bookshelf shown by Fig. 123 is 
suitable for standing on a writing-desk in a recess 
p ft, Avide, Four strong mottled bamboos are cut 



112 



Bamboo Work. 



to 5-ft. lengths, and these, without any further work 
upon them, form the horizontals shown by Fig. 123. 
Four uprights, 19 in. long are required, and, in cut- 
ting them, leave one of the natural joints of the wood 
as a finish for the top. These uprights are framed 
together with shorter pieces, as shown by Fig. 124, 
the joints being formed by plugging the ends of the 
short pieces and drilling holes in the uprights. The 
plugs are glued into the cross-pieces, and a wire 
nail is driven into the uprights aftenvards to make 
all secure. The 5-ft. lengths are then laid on these 




pESKi 

Fig. 123.— Bamboo Bookshelf. 

frames and a nail put through each one to secure it 
to the frames. As the w^hole thing is made to fit 
comfortably into a recess, diagonal bracing is not 
required, the walls preventing anything getting 
out of place. Otherwise it will be necessary to 
provide braces in the direction in which additional 
strength is required. The shelves are planed up from 
|-in. cypress or other wood, stained walnut, and var- 
nished. The bottom shelf rests on the two bamboos. 
The top shelf is made narrower and drops between 
the two upper bamboos, as it is not intended to take 
any heavy weight. Neatness is gained by conceal- 
ing its front edge behind the horizontal bamboo. 



Bamboo Bookcases. i 1 3 

Fig. 125 shows an upright writings and in })am- 
boo, about 3 ft. high, 2 ft. wide, and 9 in. deep, with 
a top slightly overlapping. The writing fiap should 
be 15 in. deep, and can either be hung with ordinary 
hinges or pivots. The stand can be of rough wood, 
as it is covered both inside and out either with 
Japanese paper or matting— the former for prefer- 
ence—and further relieved by panelling the sides 




F]>. 12-1 




Fi-. I'io 



Fig. 121.— End Alew of Bamboo Bookshelf. Fig-. 12.).— 
BamLoo Writim>--stand. 



with split bamboo. By pivoting the flap is meant 
that it swings on two stout wire pins fixed through 
the front bamboo ; but it can also be hinged in the 
ordinary way with brass hinges to the shelf. The 
four uprights should be of whole bamboo, but the 
front of shelves and other parts need only be of 
split bamboo, which is really preferable, as it does 
not stand out too prominently. The flap is sup 
ported by brass chains, and should be covered inside 
with leather or leatherette. A design for another 
writing-table is given on p. 54. 

H 



114 



CHAPTER IX. 

BAMBOO WINDOW BLINDS. 



Bamboo window blinds have several advantages over 
cane or lattice blinds ; they do not discolour, they 
are easily cleaned and dusted, and when old their 
appearance can be brightened by a coat of clear spirit 
varnish. No dimensions for the blinds described in 
this chapter are given, as each must be made to suit 
the window it is to occupy. In measuring for the 
blind, the exact distances between the beads of the 
window frame must be taken, and these will form 
the outside measurements for the width of the blind. 
For the blind shown by Fig. 126, two or three lengths 
of 1-in. bamboo and about half a dozen lengths of 
|-in. bamboo will be required. From the 1-in. bam- 
boo cut off two lengths to form the uprights A (Fig. 
127) and two lengths to form the cross rails b. A 
suitable length for the uprights would be from 18 in. 
to 21 in. long. For the hollowing of the ends the 
cross rails should be cut 2 in. longer than required, 
this amount being left for the thickness of the up- 
rights A. The ends of the cross rails to be hollowed 
should first be chisel-pointed with a saw and then 
finished with a bamboo rasp. One end of each cross 
rail must be fitted first, after it is pointed, and hol- 
lowed with a |-in. round rasp to as nearly as possible 
the size of the cane. Owing to the u-regularities of 
bamboo, each joint must be fitted separately. The 
rails and uprights should be marked to prevent any 
mistake in gluing up. One end of each cross rail 
should be fitted to its respective upright, and the 
other end marked ; this will give the bottom of the 
hollow. Then it can be fitted in the same manner as 
the fiisL In putting together the other ends, take 



Bamboo Windoif Blinds. 



115 



care that the hollows fall in the same plane as the 
first, otherwise they will not fit together w^hen the 
two uprights are parallel to one another. 

Next join the four pieces into a section. The 
cross rails are dow^elled to the uprights, the dowels 




being fitted first to the cross rails and then to the 
holes in the uprights. The two cross rails must be 
attached to one of the uprights first, the second 
upright being added afterwards in the same way, 
the gluing being done as quickly as possible. When 
the frame is together it must be clamped at each 



ii6 



Bamboo Work. 



end in the manner illustrated by Fig. 127 and de- 
scribed on pp. 232 and 24. When the section is 
square, it should be placed on one side until the glue 
sets. 

In the centre of Fig. 126 a Japanese lattice-wood 
panel is shown. As these panels can be obtained 




only in the following sizes, the inside section must 
be made accordingly. The sizes are ; 9 in. by 9 in., 
12 in. by 9 in., 12 in. by 12 in., 12 in. by 15 in., and 
12 in. by 18 in. While the section is setting, make 
the inner frame for the lattice-wood panel. Cut four 
pieces from the thick ends of the \-m. canes to form 



Bamboo Window Blinds. 



J7 



the frame (Fig. 128). The lengths should be chisel- 
pointed and dowelled at one end. The space for the 
panel should be measured, the holes for the dowels 
bored, and the sections fitted and glued together. 
The small oblong fillings outside the panel can now 
be made, and the whole allowed to set. When the 
large section is set, it should be placed in the posi- 
tion it is to occupy in the outer frame, and marked. 
Dowels should be fitted and then fixed by boring a 
hole through the outer frame with a bradawl and 
fastening with a panel pin. The four small sections 




Fig. 128. — Fruming- for Inside tStclion of lilind. 



then can be fitted and fixed with glue and j in. bead- 
ing pins. To fit the lattice work, commence at the 
top, each piece being fitted and held in position with 
glue and beading pins as the work proceeds. The 
top of the screen will require bending to shape. 

The construction of the blind illustrated by Fig. 
129, p. 118, is similar to that just described. The fan 
can be made in two pieces, and the ribs should be 
made from small bamboo. The pediment, or top 
of this screen, can be glued into holes bored in the 
top of the cross rail. 

The window blind illustrated by Fig. 130, p. 119, 
should not present difficulty in making. The filling at 



ii8 



Bamboo Work. 



the sides is commenced b}' forming the cross and then 
adding each piece as in the lattice work. To fix the 
leaded light, first rasp down any knots on the in- 
side of the frame, and make a rebate of split rattan 
cane, carefully mitred at the corners and fastened 




on with beading pins, for a support. The glass 
should then be placed in position and fastened on 
the other side in the same manner. The whole of 
the work should have a coat of spkit varnish when 
finished. 

Either of the bamboo window frames shown by 



Bam/^oo Window Blixds. 



119 



Figs. 131 and 133, pp. 120 and 121, is an artistic addi- 
tion to any room. That shown by Fig. 131 is for a 
window that is flush w ith the wall, the top and sides 
of the frame on this account standing out for a dist- 
ance of about 9 in. One of these sides is shown by 




Fig. 132. The two front tortoiseshell canes are each 
about 6 ft. long, and may have root ends at the 
bottom, although this is not essential. The two 
back canes which rest against the wall are 1^ in. in 
diameter and are of the same lengths as the front 
two, and between these the sides are built up in 
any desired design of i-in. tortoiseshell bamboo and 



I20 



Bamboo Work. 



small cane, the latter being used for the twists and 
bends. Two lengths of |-in. tortoiseshell bamboo, 
bent at each end and fixed to the two front poles 
about 6 in. apart, form the top, and a design is built 
up between these in a similar manner to that adopted 













///' 




// 



T^T~^^f?^s:^^^!%j=u.-^^^^ ^ I' 




=S- 





Fig. 132 



Fig. 131 

Fig. 131.— BamLoo Frame for Window Flush with Wall. 
Fig. 132. — Side Yiew of Bamboo Window Frame, 

for the sides. The two fancy corner angles are of 
^-in. tortoiseshell bamboo bent and fitted, and are 
fixed to the top and sides. The curtain is suspended 
by means of the usual hooks and eyes to a bamboo 
pole which rests upon the two uppermost cross-bars 
on each side of the frame. 



Bamboo JV/ndojv Blinds. 



121 



The frame shown by Fig. 133 is for a recessed 
window, and is simply a frame with sides and top 
about 9 in. wdde fitting flat against the wall around 
the opening of the window ; it is made similar to the 
one described above, |-in. tortoiseshell bamboo. 




KT^ 




kJiJlm.^,^ 










Fig. 133. — Bamboo Frame for Recessed Window. 

however, being used for the slanting pieces at the 
top. The curtain in this case is supported by the 
pole running across the frame at the top. When 
everything is finished a good coat of varnish should 
be given to the wliole, and the frame fixed to the 
wall by means of staples or other suitable fastening. 



CHAPTER X. 

MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES OF BAMBOO. 

In this chapter will be illustrated and described a 
variety of bamboo articles, chiefly household furni- 
ture, that are now coming into popular use. 

The coal-box shown by Fig. 134 is of novel de- 
sign, practical in its construction, and forms, when 
closed, a comfortable settee. It consists of a wooden 
box and hinged lid, covered with fancy matting or 
Japanese embossed paper, and surmounted with an 
edging of bamboo dado or split bamboo. The box 
is mounted on four crossed legs of bent bamboo, 
and Avithin the box is the usual loose iron lining. 
The lid is hinged with brass strap hinges, and on the 
side is a brass strap to hold the hand-scoop. The 
box can be made of any rough wood, and measures 
inside 18 in. long, 13 in. wide, and 9 in. high ; the 
bottom, lid, and sides need be of '^-in. wood only, 
and the end pieces | in. thick. The width necessi- 
tates a glued joint in the lid. Get a yard of matting 
— which is a sufficient quantity to cover the box on 
the outside and the lid on the two sides — and cut 
it to size. Have plenty of good, hot thin glue and 
apply it liberally to both the wood and the matting, 
particularly if the wood has a rough surface, when 
naturally it will absorb more ; apply pressure until 
the glue has set, otherwise the matting will only 
stick in places and look lumpy. The same applies 
equallj^ to Japanese paper ; and, as regards the 
matting, it is better to cut it rather fuller than the 
size actually required, and when glued trim off any 
surplus with a sharjo knife (see also p. 51). 

The cross-legs are practically the only trouble- 
some parts of the coal-box ; to make them, get four 



Bamboo Coal- box. 



123 



1-in. bamboo canes with root ends, which should be 
trimmed up first by burning them ^vell in a gas jet or 
with a spirit lamp and rasping them close down, 
but not to destroj^ the appearance of the root. The 




134. — Baniboi) Coal-box. 



baiuboutt as imported are 6 ft. 6 in. long ; and for 
the legs do not cut any off until they are bent to the 
required shape, for the greater the leverage the 
better the bend. 




Legs of Bamboo Coal-box. 



If space will admit of it, chalk out the shape of 
a leg on the floor, and taking 9| in. as the height of 
the box outside, plan it out as shown in Fig. 135, 
the box when mounted being 4 in. from the floor, 



124 Bamboo Work. 

and the bottom and top ends of each leg extending 
about the same distance on either side ; then, by 
bending each leg to correspond with the chalked 
plan, they are sure to be exact. If, however, space 
is limited, place the box on its side and bend one 
leg to the required shape, trying it several times 
during the process of bending, and, taking the j&rst 
one as a pattern, bend the others to it. 

Having cut off the legs to their proper length 
and plugged the foot end, proceed to fix them to the 
box, laying the box on its side and fixing one with 
two 2-in. round-headed brass screws into the ends 
of the box, taking care to drill all holes for screws 
first in the bamboo, or it will split. Then take the 



Fig. 136. — Iron Lining for Bamboo Coal-box. 

second leg, lay it across m its proper position, and 
mark the under one with a pencil where the top one 
crosses ; then they are halved out, and having thus 
fitted one into the other, screw on the second leg, 
and also put a screw through where the two legs 
cross ; then turn the box over and proceed with the 
other side. 

The bamboo dado is formed by splitting canes in 
halves lengthways ; the canes can be bought ready 
split. The width for the sides and ends is | in., and 
\ in. for the lid ; and in the case of the latter it is 
fixed on to the edges. The dado or edging for the 
ends of the box can be fixed before the legs are 
screwed on, the corners being mitred, but the 
edging on the sides is put on after the legs are fixed. 
The bamboo for the lid being fixed on the edges, a 



Bamboo Fender 



12! 



strip of black or white split beading cane is fixed 
on the top side as a finish off ; and it is better to 
hinge the lid on first before putting on the dado, 
and be careful to see it does not interfere with the 
lid closing Hat. 

The hinges are those known as brass strap coal- 
box hinges ; they are made in a fancy pattern, and 
screwed on the outside with round-headed brass 
screws. The lining which holds the coals should 
be made of No. 24 B.W.G. sheet iron with folding 
handles for lifting out and is best made in galvanised 
iron ; if made in black iron it should be well jap- 
anned to prevent rust ; it is illustrated by Fig. 136, 





Fig-. 137 

Fig. 137.— Bamboo Fender. Fig. 138. 
with Strip removed. 



Fi^. 138 



-Section of Cane 



which also gives a sectional view of the bottom ; 
this, it will be seen, is made on the slope, thus 
enabling the coals to be easily got at. 

A fender (Fig. 137) is easily made ; take two stout 
bamboos long enough to make the sides and front. 
Where the bend is to be, rasp out two holes as 
shown, and bend them round the uprights. The 
ends and centre-bars can be let in holes bored with 
a biace and bit. The bottom, or tray, should be 
made of sheet brass, cut to fit, and fixed on the ends 
of the uprights (which should be plugged and pinned) 
v.'ith stout screws. 

Fern-cases and aquaria can be made partly with 
bamboo, the framework being formed of canes that 
have each had a strip about a third of their cir- 
cumference cut out by a cutting gauge (Fig. 11, p. 25), 



126 



Bamboo Work. 



Fig. 138, p. 125, is a section of a cane so treated. Saw 
out notches to allow of angle joints being made (see 
Fig. 139), and fit in the glass with red lead. The 
cross-pieces lap over the angles where the bamboos 
are glued together. Scrape off the natural polish 
with a piece of glass or roughen with a rasp to pro- 
vide a better holding surface for the glue. Use the 
square freely ; make all joints true, and bind them 
together with stout twine, which should not be 



7 

\ / 



i 
Fio-. 139 




Fiff. 141 



H C 

Fig. UO 

Fig. 139.— Angle Joint for Aquarium. Figs. 140 and 141. 

— Bamboo Camera Stand. 

removed for two or three days if possible, although 
this is not absolutely necessary. The work may, 
when done, be French polished. 

Picture-fames can be made of bamboo if a sec- 
tion is cut out as shown in Fig. 138, p. 125. The 
mitres can be made as described on p. 34, and illus- 
trated by Fig. 24. It will be necessary to plug the 
ends of the canes. A bamboo photograph frame is 
illustrated on p. 141. 

A small bamboo stand for supporting a light 



Bamboo Flower- Pot Stand. 



127 



camera may be made as follows : — Prepare a cylin- 
drical block of hard wood as A (Fig. 140), boring it 
through the centre and making cuts B, c, and D. 
Into these fit firmly the flat hinge blades E of the 
caps (Fig. 141), passing a pin or rivet through 
each on which the caps turn (see dotted lines f and g). 
Through the central hole H pass a brass rod l about 




Fig. 142. — Flower-pot or Jardiniere Stand. 

1 ft. long with a screw thread cut on it, to go into 
the camera base. At K insert a coarse-thread nut 
to take a thumb-screw^ m, which bites against L, for 
fixing it at any height. Fit each of three small 
bamboo canes with ferrules and insert tightly in the 
metal caps, and the stand is complete. 

For the flower-pot or jardiniere stand shown in 
Fig. 142, select three canes about 4- in. diameter for 



2g 



Bamboo Work. 



the uprights, and curve thern at one end to form the 
feet. Curve them before cutting to precise length. 
The cane first bent should be used as a guide for the 
other two, in order that the three may be curved 
alike. From |-in. cane cut off six lengths, each 
10 in. ; fit, dowel, and clamp up as shown in Fig. 143. 
With a brace and small bit bore holes in the uprights 




Fig. 144 
Fig. 143.— Triangle for Bamboo Stand. Fig. 144, 
nate Design for Flower-jiot Stand. 



Alter- 



to receive the tria,ngles, about six inches from the 
bottom and top. Fix the triangles (first having 
plugged up the outside ends) in the bored holes in 
the uprights ; glue, and fasten with a 2-in. wire nail. 
As shown in Fig. 142, three 5-in. stays are fastened 
at the top ; these pieces are dowelled, rasped to fit, 
and fixed in their places with fine wire nails. 



Bamboo Floiver-pot Stand. 



129 



The bottom portion of an alternative design is 
shown by Fig. 144, in which are four uprights con- 
nected together by a cross, which consists of one 
cane with a dowel through the centre, and two 
pieces fitted to the dowel on either side (see Fig. 30, 
p. 36). Fig. 145 shows the top of a tripod to support 
a flower-pot or jardiniere ; the construction of the 
bottom may be the same as in Fig. 142. The tops 




Fig. 14o. — Bamboo Tripod for Jardiniere. 



are slightly bent out, and a rasped root fastened in 
the centre. This is plugged at the bottom and a 
hook inserted for the hanging pot. 

Fig. 146, p. 130, is a view of a bamboo flower- 
stand which will hold three pots. For the centre, 
which should be 3 ft. 3 in. high, use l^-in. cane, and 
for the three supports, 1 in. cane. The three 
spindles should be of |-in. cane, 14 in. long, plugged 
at each end, and let into the centre cane at one end 
and into supports at the other. The supports are 



1^0 



Bamboo Work. 



screwed to the centre cane with l|-in. round-headed 
screws. The lengths of the three supports should 
be made to correspond with the size of the pot to 
be placed on the shelf. The heart-shaped shelf is 
of |-in. deal, covered with matting, and slipped 
round with split bamboo ; or, if preferred, two rows 
of thick rattan (beading cane) can be used in pre- 
ference. The shelves are screwed on through the 
centre rod, and supported by two struts fastened 




Fig'. 146.— Bamboo Flower-pot Stand. 

to the supports with 1-in. panel pins. The centre 
rod is mortised at the top and dowelled, and a piece 
of l^-in. bamboo is cut for the handle, which is 
screwed into the centre-rod. 

A bamboo flower-pot stand for the window is 
shown in side and front view respectively by Figs. 147 
and 148. |-in. canes are used for uprights and hori- 
zontal pieces, and where they cross file notches in 
the uprights, and fasten them together with screws ; 
|-in. canes are used for the diagonal pieces, and let 
into the horizontal ones just through one side. The 



Bamboo Flower-pot Stand. 



131 



lengths of the necessary canes are : For the two ends, 
parts A and b (Figs. 147 and 148), four pieces each 
22 in. long ; two pieces for c 16 in. long ; two for d 
10 in. long ; four uprights, J and k, 3 ft. long ; two 
for I 2 ft. 6 in. long ; two for h 2 ft. long. These are 
laid out as shown in Fig. 147, and the position of the 
holes for the diagonal stays marked and bored. The 
stays then are put in the holes, and the whole 




Fig. 147.— Bamboo Flower-pot Stand for Window. 

fastened with screws. Having made the two ends, 
the three shelves are next wanted ; ^-in. stuff 7^ in. 
wide may be used, and the holes in them must be 
a good fit for the cane ; the top shelf can then be 
put on, but the other shelves must have pieces cut 
out of the side, as shown in Fig. 149. When the 
shelves are on, the stand will be fairly firm, but to 
make it more so, stays are put from w and w', to x ard 
x', and from Y to z, Fig. 148 ; these pass the back of 
the shelves, and are screwed to them. 



132 



Bamboo Work. 



As has frequently been remarked in the fore- 
going pages, bamboo canes lend themselves to the 
construction of all articles of furniture that, neces- 
sarily strong, are preferably light and graceful also. 
More especially is this fact to be noted in the case 
of flower-pot stands and lamps tands, which have to 
support heavy weights and so must be strong and 
serviceable ; the collapse of either article would be 
particularly annoying, and in the case of the lamp- 




Fig, 148. — Bamboo Flower-pot Stand for Window. 



stand, would be attended with much danger, were 
the lamp in use. All bamboo lamp-stands should be 
carefully weighted (see p. 44) to prevent top-heavi- 
ness. It may be remarked that many stands serve 
equally well as either lamp or flower-pot supports. 

A very simple tripod lamp-stand is shown by 
Fig. 150. To prevent the stand upsetting, break 
through the knot at the bottom of each stick, fill 
it with sand, and plug the end ; also fix a piece of 



Bamboo Lamp-stand. 133 

sheet-lead underneath the shelf. Tripod lamp- 
stands are usually about 5 ft. high, the ring to hold 
the lamp being fixed about 4 in. from the top. 
This ring is 8 in. or 9 in. diameter, made of stout 



Fig. 149.— Shelf of Window-stand. 

beading cane spliced together. The legs at the 
bottom should be at least 18 in. apart, the shelf being 
triangular with equal sides, made up of wood covered 




Fig. 150. — I'amboo Lamp-stand. 

with matting or Japanese paper and edged with 
bamboo. The bottom ends of uprights are slightly 
bent outwards to give the stand a firmer holding, 
the uprights being of l^-in. bamboo. 



134 



Bamboo Work. 



For the lamp-stand (Fig. 151) take three long, 
stout bamboos. Three-legged articles always stand 
firm— that is, they do nob rock as a four-legged table 
does sometimes, especially where the floor is not 
quite level ; and where a lamp is concerned this 
is a very important consideration. Bend the 
legs and tops to hold the reservoir of the lamp. Bind 
the standards together with bands of brass, copper, 




Fig. 151. — Bamboo Lamp-stand. 



or wrought iron ; or they may be glued and pinned 
only. Beauty and strength are added to the work 
by using ornamental copper bands, pierced with 
trefoils, quatrefoils, or, if possible, ornamented by 
repousse work. The top, to hold the oil container, 
should be made of a band of metal, although it is 
quite possible to make it of bamboos, bent in a cir- 
cular shape and joined together by wooden plugs 
pinned and glued in. It is, however, rather diffi- 
cult to bend bamboo into a perfect circle. Whether 



Bamboo Overmantel. 135 

the ring is of bamboo or metal, it is fixed with 
screws. 

One way of making a bamboo overmantel is first 
to construct a frame of wood, which should be re- 
bated to hold the glass, especially if this is to be 
heavy plate. The front surface could then be 




1 .V2. — Bamboo Overmant(jl. 



covered over with split bamboos, fixed on with very 
fine French nails or screws and a little glue. Another 
way is to cut a small strip out of the cane lengthways 
(Fig. 138, p. 125), and fit together with mitre-joints. 
In this method the glass must be fitted in before the 
last side is fixed on, and there is also a danger of the 
canes warping or twisting and breaking the glass, 



136 Ba mboo Wo k k. 

especially if it be at all thin. Probably the easiest 
way is to build up the foundation of plain deal, which 
can afterwards be painted brown, and covered all 
over with bamboo as described above. Whether the 
joints should be simply halved or mortised depends 
upon the quality of work required. 

A simple bamboo overmantel is illustrated by 
Fig. 152, p. 135, and Fig. 153 shows the back of it. 
The canes used should be 1^-in. for the uprights and 
rails, and |-in. for the filling. Cut off two pieces, 
each 36 in, long, for the uprights, and five pieces, 
each 30 in. long, for the rails. Fit the rails on to 
the uprights, remembering that the irregular char- 
acter of bamboo does not allow of the substitution 
one for another of parallel parts such as these rails. 
The uprights should be bored and fitted with dowels, 
and the whole section framed together and left to 
dry. While it is drying the filling can be made. The 
shelves can also be prepared ; these should be made 
either of lacquer, or of wood stained and varnished, 
or covered with Japanese leather paper. The large 
shelf should be 13 in. long and 4 in. wide, and the 
two smaller shelves 8 in. long and 4 in. wide. The 
front and side edges of these shelves may be slipped 
with split bamboo nailed on with fine wu-e nails. 
When the section is thoroughly set, the two uprights, 
which are to form the sides for the mirror, should be 
fitted into their places. The canes should be 
dowelled, care being taken v\'hen gluing in the dowels 
that they do not project in the least bej^ond the 
hollowed edge of the tube ; also that the hollowed 
edge be not injured during the fitting of the dowel. 
These uprights should be fixed into theii' places 
by boring a hole through the cross-rails and fasten- 
ing with a 2-in. fine wire nail. Care should be taken 
that the space between these rails is 12 in. wide to 
allow of the Avidth of the glass ; also that the distance 
between the two cross-rails is 20 in. 

Two rails must now be fitted between the outside 



Bamboo Overmantel. 



137 



and inside uprights, midway between the rails which 
form the top and bottom of the glass frame, to form 
a support to which the shelves will have to be fixed. 
The two fillings or " cracks," as they are called 
amongst bamboo workers, should now be fixed into 
their places. The cross (X) filling is very simply 
made ; a piece of cane is fitted with the rasp diagon- 
ally across the opening to be filled, and fastened into 
its place with beading pins ; two short pieces are 
now fitted the alternative way, and so the X is 




Fig. 1.53. — Bick Section of Bamboo Overmantel. 



formed. A piece of bamboo, 14 in. long, for the 
top of the overmantel, and two pieces, each 4 in. 
long, to form the uprights, should now be cut. The 
two uprights should be chisel-pointed, and rasped to 
fit, the one end on to the top rail of the overmantel, 
and the other to the rail just prepared. Two holes 
should be bored in the top rail to receive the end of 
the wooden dowels, wliich should go right through 
the short uprights and lastly be fixed into two holes 
bored in the top piece at the same distances as in the 
top rail. The shelves now should be fixed by boring 



•38 



Bamboo Work. 



through the back of the rails and fastening by wire 
nails. Two stays of f-in. cane should be prepared 
and fixed into position under the two small brackets ; 
these stays resemble the one shown by Fig. 70, p. 63. 
A rebate must be formed in the rattan cane for the 
reception of the glass. Except for cleaning off the 
surplus glue and varnishing, the overmantel is now 
finished. 




Fig. 154. — Bamboo Overmantel. 

Fig. 154 shows a rather more elaborate over- 
mantel, but after the frame (Fig. 155) is squarely 
made the rest of the work is very simple. From 
l^-in. or 1^-in. canes cut off one piece 4 ft. 1 in. long, 
two pieces each 3 ft. long, and two pieces each 3 ft. 
11 in. long, to form the bottom rail and uprights of 
overmantel. One end of each upright should be 
chisel-pointed, plugged, and fitted temporarily into 
the place it will occupy on the bottom rail. The 



Bamboo Overmantel. 



139 



distances are given in Fig. 155. Rails a a, b b, and c 
should now be got out and fitted (for lengths when 
fitted, see Fig. 155). To fix the rails b b into position 
a hole should be drilled through the four uprights 
the same size as the hollow of the rails to be filled, 
and a dowel passed through and fastened into the 
rails at each side. The rails a and c are fitted and 




ri». 155. — Framino of Bamboo Overmantel. 



fixed in the manner before described. The centres 
of the cracks or fillings are made of Japanese lacquer. 
The easiest size to cut pieces of lacquer is 4 in. wide 
by 10 in. long, and they must be fastened to the bam- 
boo by wire nails, the angles being hollowed. Then 
fit the whole together. 

A half design of an overmantel is given by 
Fig. 156, p. 140. Cut four bamboos for the uprights 
and three for the large cross-pieces, these latter to be 



14© 



Bamboo Work. 



about 2 in. longer than the actual width will be 
when finished. With a round rasp cut the ends to 
fit on to the uprights. They can be fastened with 
glue and a few small brass pins. If required to be 
extra strong, plug the ends of the cross-pieces with 
wood, and pin them to the uprights. The shelves 




Y\%. lo6. — Half-elevation of Bamboo Overmantel. 



can be made of thin fret-wood, held in position by 
needle-points or long brads. 

A photograph frame is illustrated by Fig. 157. To 
make it, first obtain some lengths of bamboo of about 
1 in. diameter, and cut two pieces, each 17 in. long, 
for the uprights A (Fig. 157) ; two pieces, each 17^ in. 
long, for the outer rails B ; two pieces, each 12 in. 



Bamboo Fipe-racks. 



141 



long, for the middle divisions c ; and three pieces, 
each 6 in. long, for the small rails d. Plug the ends 
of the two uprights and shape the ends of the outer 
rails to fit, cutting them down till there is a 
distance of 15^ in. between the uprights. Fill up 
the rails, and nail them to the uprights, leaving a 
space of 11 in. between them. Place the division 
rails at equal distances apart, and nail them in, and 
then put in the small rails so as to leave a space for 




Bamboo Photograph-frame. 



a cabinet photograph, as shown. From ^-in. wood 
cut out two pieces shaped as at e, and nail them on, 

slanting them forward at an angle of about 45 de- 
grees. These pieces support the shelves f. For the 
beading, split some cane and nail it in, mitring the 
corners. Put a handle on the top, and screw on ear- 
plates to hang it by. For a picture frame, see p. 126. 
A rack, arranged to accommodate ten pipes, 
the stem of each one being held in a piece of bamboo, 
is shown by Fig. 158. The frame measures 15 in. 
by 8 in. inside, the central rail being strengthened 



142 Bamboo Work. 

by centre uprights. The ornamental work is op- 
tional ; the bent work is made of thin bamboo or 
other cane. The pieces for the pipe holders should be 
about 4 in. long, with the knot close to the bottom 
end ; and the supports for these should be dowelled 
into the frame. 





Fig-. 158.— Bamboo Rack for Ten Pipes. 

The rack shown by Fig. 159 is for nine pipes ; the 
back frame is the same size as Fig. 158, but the 
centre rail or traverse is fixed lower down, as it 
forms part of the framework for the pipe rack, which 




Fiff. lo 



ipes. 



is a piece of thin wood about 2^ in. deep and covered 
with Japanese lacquer paper. Or the rack could be 
made of a piece of Japanese lacquer and enclosed in 
a fi'amework of bamboo, the side pieces of which 
are dowelled into the back uprights, and further 
strengthened with bamboo brackets, top and bottom, 
either bent as shown or straight. In the back of 



Ba mboo Screens, 



143 



Fig. ] 59 a mirror is shown, but if desired this space 
could be filled in with lacquer or w^ood covered with 
Japanese paper. The frame w^ork of both Figs. 158 
and 159 should be of |-in. cane, and the filling-in 
parts of ^-in. bamboo. In jointing, always use 
dowels where possible, but for filling-in pieces, 
plugged ends are strong enough ; use glue for the 
joints, and further secure with a bamboo wire pin. 
A four-fold screen frame, each fold being 6 ft. 
high by 3 ft. wide, is shown by Fig. 160. The screen 
could be made 6 ft. 6 in. high if desired, as the bam- 
boos are imported that length ; but a greater height 





Fiff. 161. 



Fig. 160 

Fig. IGO. — Four-fold Bamboo Screen. 
Hinge. 



Fig. 161.— Screen 



involves a join, and screens are not usually required 
higher than 6 ft. 6 in. However, 6 ft. is considered 
the most suitable height. Eight l^-in. bamboos 
will be required for the uprights, with the ends 
plugged as far as is possible. It is assumed that 
it is the intention to cover the frame with some sort 
of material, so only three cross-rails or traverses 
are put in each, these being of 1-in. bamboo, dowelled 
into the uprights, the dowel being well glued in and 
secured with a bamboo pin on the outside. When 
the traverses are fitted to the uprights, say, of the 
first fold, clamp the fold up firmly with strong cord, 
getting it to a tight tension by twisting a wooden 



144 



Bamboo Work. 



stick in it (see pp. 23 and 24), and leave it until the 
glue is quite set ; and so on with the remaining three 
To give additional strength, short bamboo stays can 
be fixed above and below the top and bottom rails, as 
shown, the stays being plugged, cut, and rasped to 
shape, and secured Avith glue and pins. To hinge 
the folds together flat brass plates, as shown m 
Fig. 161, are fixed either with a brass-headed wire 




Fig. 162. — Two-fold Bamboo Screen. 

nail or round-headed screw to both top and bottom 
of uprights, the end uprights being finished off with 
wooden buttons or terminals. Coat the ^vork, when 
finished, with white spirit varnish. 

A two-fold fire-screen is shown by Fig. 162. For 
this, three 1-in. canes and one fin. cane will be re- 
quked. Cut off four pieces from the thickest end 
of the 1-in. canes, each 2 ft. 6 in. long, which will 



Bamboo Scree, vs. 



145 



form the uprights, and six pieces, each 7 in. long, 
which allows 1 in. for the hollowing of their ends to 
fib the round surface of the uprights. One end of 
each rail must be fitted, first being hollowed as 
nearly as possible the same size as the cane itself. 
In consequence of the irregularity of bamboo cane 
it is necessary to fit each joint separately in the 
position it is to occupy. The rails and uprights 
should be marked with a saw-scratch, say, to prevent 
the possibility of mistake w^hen gluing up. For the 
fitting of the second ends of the four cross-rails a 




Fig. 163. — Framing of Bamboo Screen. 

thin piece of wood must be cut 12 in. long to serve 
as a measure. One by one the rails should be placed 
in the position to w^hich they are fitted, and the 12 in. 
marked off upon each with the assistance of the 
measure. In fitting the second ends, care must be 
taken that the hollows fall into the same plane as 
the first, otherwise they will not fit when the two 
uprights are parallel to one another. 

Four bamboo canes, framed together into a square 
or oblong, form what bamboo workers call a " sec- 
tion." This is made clear on pp. 49 and 50. Much of 
the most important bamboo work cQn§i§t§ jn little 
J 



146 Bamboo Work. 

else than the framing up and filling in of sections and 
the fitting of them together. Accurate work is of the 
most importance in the framing up of sections ; if 
they are not perfectly flat and rectangular, the error 
cannot fail to be noticed when the article is com- 
pleted. Straight canes and true joints will secure 
the flatness of a section, and accurate measurements 
will secure its squareness. The two sections must 
now be framed up. The cross-rails are fastened to 
the uprights by means of wooden dow^els or plugs 
about 3 in. long. The dowels should be fitted first 
to the cross-rails, then to the holes in the uprights. 
All the joints having been made to fit satisfactorily, 
the dowels must be glued first into the holes in the 
uprights. When attaching the cross-rails, it is 




Fii?. 164. — Fillin"- for Bamboo Screen. 



desirable to run a little glue into the tube as well as 
to glue the projecting end of the dowel, and for this 
purpose a piece of cane chamfered out at the end 
wall make a useful gluing stick. The three cross- 
rails must be attached to one of the uprights first, 
the second upright being afterw^ards attached in the 
same way, and the whole gluing-up process done as 
quickly as possible. When the frame is together it 
must be clamped up at each end with string, as 
described on pp. 23 and 24, and illustrated by Fig. 
163. After seeing that the sections are square, they 
should be put on one side for some hours to allow 
the glue to set. 

The fancy filling work may be made from |-in. 
cane while the two sections are setting. Fig. 164 
shows the construction ; the four long rails should 
be cut off 12 in. long, and the short rails 5 in. long ; 



Bamboo Screens 



147 



these should be hollowed out and dowelled. As 
these are for decorative work only, the pieces can 
be fastened together w^ith fine panel pins. When 
the sections are thoroughly set, the fillings (Fig. 164) 
should be placed over the places they are to 
occupy, and the exact size for fitting marked off 
wilh a pencil. They should then be chisel-pointed, 
rasped, and fitted into their places with glue and 
fine beading pins. 



I 




^^^ffl 



Fio'. I60. — Elevation of Bamboo Fire-screen. 



If the screen is to be filled with needlework, or 
any kind of work that requires stretching, a wood 
frame now should be made. The knots on the inside 
of the bamboo frame should, however, first be rasped 
down flat, so that the wood frame will fit in evenly. 
The wood frame can be fixed in by boring holes 
through the bamboo and fastening with fine wire 
nails. The small space existing between the wood 
frame and the bamboo should be filled with 
split rattan cane fastened op with beading pins, and 



148 



Bamboo Work. 



carefully mitred at the corners. If the screen is to 
be filled with glass, a rebate must be formed by- 
fastening on split rattan cane. The glass must now 
be put into position and fastened in on the other 
side. The frame is now complete with the excep- 




Fig. 166. — Plan of Bamboo Fire-screen. 

tion of joining together and varnishing. The join- 
ing together can be done by two hinges made of tape, 
and fastened m a similar manner to the hinges fo a 
clothes-horse ; or by two pieces of brass, shaped as 




167. — Bamboo Fire-screen. 



in Fig. 161, p. 143, fastened to the top and bottom of 
the inside uprights of each fold by screws, the hollow 
of the uprights being first plugged. The top 
now should be fitted with wood or metal terminals, 
and the whole should receive a coat of spirit varnish. 



Bamboo Screens. 



149 



An elevation and plan of a fire-screen are pre- 
sented by Figs. 165, p. 147, and 166, p. 148, respect- 
ively. The screen has a row of rails at top and bottom. 
A piece of iron bent to the proper angle should be 
screwed inside the framing at A and B (Fig. 166). The 
openings are filled with leaded glass, which can be 
fixed by narrow strips of bamboo screwed on each 
side. Mirrors or cathedral glass could be inserted 
in the openings if desired. If glass is not desirable, 
use silk or needlework stretched on light frames, or 




Fig. 168. — Side Upright of Bamboo Fiie-screen. 



the frames could be covered with canvas stretched 
tightly, and pictures pasted on ; afterwards the 
pictures would require to be sized and varnished. 

For the fire-screen shown by Fig. 167, use 1-in. 
bamboo canes. To make the legs, cut off two 
lengths, each 38 in., and two pieces 9^ in. long for 
the bottom stretchers, to make 8^ in. when rasped. 
Fit each stretcher to the bottom of the legs ; drill 
holes in the centres of the stretchers, and fix dowels ; 
then nail to the legs. Cut off two pieces 11 in. long, 
to make when rasped 10 in., and fit these for leg 



I50 



Bamboo Work. 



supports ; glue up, clamp, and leave till dry. With 
brace and bit, bore holes for dowels at distances, as 
sliown in Fig, 168 ; the top hole in each side is to 
be bored through, and the dowel taken right through 
to hold the Oxford corner, as shown at A, Fig. 167. 
Cut four pieces, each 19 in. long, and rasp the ends 
to fit the legs ; dowel, rasp two pieces, B B, 3 in. long, 
plug, and fit to the top cross-bar. Cut a piece, c, 
7 in. long ; plug this and fix to the top w4bh glue and 
fine nails. Rasp two pieces to be 4 in. long, and 




169. — Three-loid IJamUoo Screen. 



fasten between the two top and the tw^o bottom cross- 
bars. Glue and clamp the whole up with string or 
clamps. When dry — say in tw^enty-four hours — fix 
in the bottom supports and ornamental centre-pieces 
(which are made with thin Whangee cane) with fine 
French nails. Rasp off the knots where the panel 
goes and fasten in the panel w4th split cane. The 
filling-in of any screen may be with needlework, 
Japanese worked panel, lacquered panel, painted 
glass, or drawn silk, according to fancy, 

A three-fold screen is shown by Fig. 169, and it 



Bamboo Screens. 



151 



may have the folio whig measurements : height 40 in., 
with inside 12 in. ; size of panels, 24 in. by 12 in. ; 
spaces between top and bottom rails, 4 in. ; use |-in. 
canes. Each section should be framed together as 
before described, and the small pieces between the 
rails must be made up before putting in. The fasten- 
ing of the folds together is described on p. 148. 

Another three-fold screen is illustrated by Fig. 170. 




Fiu-. 170. — ThrLO-fold Bamboo Sen 



1-in. canes should be used for the framework ; ^-in. 
cane is suitable for the filling, and for all rooted work 
(except the centre root, which should be 1 in.). Suit- 
able measurements for this screen are : four centre 
uprights, 40 in. long ; width for the centre, 28 in. ; 
outside uprights, 38 in. long ; inside width of outer 
folds 12 in. 

A whatnot screen is shown by Fig. 171, p. 152 ; it 
has rooted bamboo, rasped down, for feet. The legs 



152 



Bamboo Work. 



should be made first. Fig. 172 gives lengths. Two 
Japanese lacquered panels, 18 in. by 10 in., can be 
used in this screen. The edges of the panels will 
be slipped with split bamboo, mitred at the corners, 
and fastened on with fine wire nails (two pieces 
of cane having first been nailed to the short sides in 
the form of a semicircle). This edging should stand 
very slightly above the surface of the panel. An 
angle will thus be formed to receive a beading of 
very thin cane, nailed in with f-in. panel pins ; this 




'7\"- 



ft 



Fig. 171 Fig. 172 

171. — Bamboo Whatnot Screen. Fig. 172.— Side of 
Bamboo Whatnot Screen. 



has been described before. 2-in. French nails should 
be driven into the centre of the 10 in. sides, project- 
ing \ in., to form pivots on which the panels partly 
revolve. A very small hole should be made in each 
of the two legs, at distances of about 16 in. and 26 in. 
from the bottom, to receive the pins or pivots. Fit 
the top and bottom rails, dowel, glue, and clamp up. 
The tops of the uprights and any projecting ends of 
bamboo may be plugged, and turned wood terminals 
glued on to give a finish. 



153 



CHAPTER XI. 

BAMBOO MAIL -C ART. 

One of the most popular applications of bamboo is 
in the construction of light, but strong, mail carts. 
Bamboo is a material specially suited for this work 
on account of its elasticity and lightness. 

Fig. 173, p. 154, is a side view of a single mail-cart, 
having a circular-shaped back ; in front are two 
8 in. wheels, enabling the mail-cart to be run on all 
four wheels. Fig. 174, p. 151, shows the wooden 
seat, and the position and number of the upright bal- 
usters and part of the shafts underneath. Fig. 175, 
p. 155, illustrates the rear end of the well, w, showing 
how it is let into the shafts, s s. This well is of wood, 
being finished at the edges with bamboo. Fig. 176 
show^s the manner of making the circular rail, R 
(Fig. 173), under the top bamboo rail T (Fig. 173), 
forming the body. This rail is li in. broad and | in. 
thick, and its purpose is to secure the balusters in 
place, and to fix the bamboo rail over it. If the 
bamboo rail, t, can be bent properly, it may be fixed 
direct to the tops of the balusters without the inter- 
vening wooden rail, R (Fig. 173). The tendency, 
however, is for the upper rail to spread outwards, 
making an unshapely body. The springs are clearly 
shown in Fig. 173, the actual spring really being one 
piece from its end at e to the foot f ; the other part, 
Q, is formed by the rods carrying the small wheels. 

A pair of bamboo shafts, 4 ft. long and l| in. thick, 
will be required ; bend them to the form shown by 
Fig. 173. The handle portion of the bend, where the 
shaft dips slightly, cannot be shown in Fig. 173, 



154 



Bamboo Work, 




Bamboo Mail-cart. 



155 



owing to limited space. When bent, the handles 
should be about 9 in. above the level of seat. Make a 
seat-board, 15 in. across, and the same from front to 
back, and | in. thick, the grain to run across from 
shaft to shaft. The seat-board may be of pine, but 
preferably is of tougher wood, such as oak or ash. 
Cut the board to the shape shown by Fig. 174, and 
fix with s-crews on the under-side from front to back ; 
a fillet of wood 2 in. w-ide by \ in. thick supports the 
circular end, which is unsupported by the shafts. 
Mark off the board for the baluster holes 1 in. from 
the edge. These holes aref in. in diameter, and 
are bored only half through the board, with the ex- 
ception of the two marked xx (Fig, 171), which go 




Fig. 175.— End of Mail-cart Well. 



quite through, and fix the board to the bamboo 
shafts. Before fixing the seat-board to the shafts, 
the balusters forming the body are fixed in their 
places. These, as will be seen, are not of equal 
lengths ; the height at the centre of back is 10^ in., 
while at the rear end, u (Fig. 173), it is 9 in. The 
bamboo rail is in one piece all round the body, as 
shown at t. Fig. 173, its ends passing through the 
seat-board, and being w^edged. If the bend presents 
great difficulty, the bamboo may be mitred, form- 
ing a corner ; see the dotted lines at u (Fig. 173). 

The well, w (Fig. 173), is made from \ in. wood, 
and is of a length to fit inside the shafts ; it is 6 in. 
wide at top, and 5 in. deep. The inner face of the 
well is made to join the under-side of the seat. 



156 



Bamboo Work 



where they are nailed together ; the outer face (see 
Fig. 175) rises above the shafts some 3 in., and is 
curved, as shown. To the edges of the well the 
bamboo, | in. diameter, is fitted by rebating, as is 
seen in Fig. 177, which represents a section of a 
rebated cane at a node. The bamboo is mitred at 
the meeting points, the top part being bent to the 
curve (Fig. 175) ; and is fixed on with fine wire nails. 
If a rail (Fig. 176) is made, it should be of a tough 
hard wood. It is of the same width as the seat, 





Fig. r 



Fig. 176 

Fig. 176. — Upper Frame of Mail-cart. Fig. 177. — Section 
of Checked Bamboo. 



15 in. outside measure, and divided the same as 
for the balusters, but it has two holes less at the 
rear end. Note that the holes, both in the seat and 
in this rail, must be bored with the brace on the 
slant, to allow the backward lean or rake to the bal- 
usters. In the length of the longest balusters this 
rake is 3 in. The rail (Fig. 176) is bored half through 
only, and when the balusters are cut and fitted into 
seat and rail, they are nailed with \\ in. wire brads 
passing through the wood into the ends of the 
balusters. For the top rail, t (Fig. 173), 1 in. bamboo 



Bamboo Mail-cart. 157 

is bent to the shape of the wood rail, r, and fixed to 
it by fine 1^ in. screws, passing through rail, R, 
from under-side. The ends of T, if made to 
descend to the shafts, are wedged in the seat- 
board. After the body has thus been completed, it 
is fixed to the shafts by screws passing through the 
seat-board, as above mentioned. The well is then 
fixed in its place, the bamboo being cut away to fit 
between the shafts, as shown in Fig. 175, s s. 

The steel springs are 1 in. by \ in. , set to the shape 
shown in Fig. 173, the axle being 6 in. from bottom 
of shafts. The springs at e (Fig. 173) are fixed by 
two screws to the ends of the shafts, and under the 
well, w, each by two screws. The leg, r (Fig. 173), is 
9 in. long, and tied by a wire, z, which is let through 
the leg, and through the spring a little in front of the 
well, w, where the end is turned over. 

The larger wheels are 25 in. diameter, with \ in. 
rubber tyres, and the smaller wheels 8 in. diameter, 
also with rubber tyres ; the axle of the small wheels 
is fixed in eyes, and runs across the front. The 
wheels may be inside the caiTying irons, or outside, 
at option. When placed inside, a small collar must 
be made on the fixed shaft, to keep the wheels up to 
the carrying irons. In Fig. 173 these wheels are 
shown on the groimd line with the mail-cart level ; 
they should be elevated by setting up the irons till 
they are some 3 in. off the ground when the seat is 
level. 

In Fig. 173 two compartments of the body are 
shown filled with | in. laced bamboo or cane. These 
may be put in all the compartments or every second 
one ; they are bent, fitted in, and fixed with | in. 
fine wire brads. The wood-work and cane may be 
varnished (the latter with white shellac spirit 
varnish) and the iron-work painted or enamelled, 
according to taste. 



158 



INDEX 



H 



American Brace, 21 
Angle Joint, 35 
Annam, Bamboo in, 15, ]0 
Aquaria Framing, 125 
Arundinaria, 9, 13 
Arundo, 9, 13 

Bahy's Folding Chairj 65 

High Chair, 64 

Bamboo Articles [see sepaiate head- 
ings) 
— Canes (see Canes) 

, Imitation, 89, 40 

, Uses of. 12, 14-17 

Bambusa, 9, 10, 18 

Baskets, 15 

Bay-pole Joint, 36, 37 

Beading, Cane, 51, 52 

Bedroom Furniture, 68-81 

Bedstead, 68, 69 

Bench Hole, Bending Cane in, 80, 81 

Bench-board, 22 

Bending Bamboo, 24-43 

. . in Bench Hole, 30, 81 

■ , Benzoliue Blow-lamp for, 25 

, Bunsen Burner for, 25 

. , Candle-torch for, 27 

by Hot Water, 1 

, Iron for, 27 

at Knot, 29 

, Principle of, 24 

, Spirit Lamps for, 25, 26 

into Scrolls, 30 

to Sharp Curve, 29 

• by Steam, 31, 82 

, Steam Chest for, 82 

to Uniform Curve, 30 

Blinds, Window, 114-118 
Bookcase Backs, 110 

and China Cupboard, 106-109 

Shelves, Supporting, 110, 111 

Sides, 112 

Bookshelf above Desk, 112 
Bookshelves, 110, 111 
Brace and Drills, 20, 21 
Bradawl, 21 

Cabinet, Music, 104-106 

, Shnple, 9d-104 

Cabinets, 99-106 
Camera Stand, 126 
Canes, 18 

Bending (see Bending) 

, Black, 18 

, Board used in Rasping, 22 

Brown, 18 



Canes, Colouring, 39 

, Cutting, into Strips, 24, 62 

, Darkening, 38, 39 

, Grooving, 24 

, Mahogany, 18 

, Mottled, 18 

, Mottling, 38 

, Purchasing, 18 

, Rebating, 87 

, Removing Knots from Inside, 38 

, Scorching, 38 

, Sizes of, IS 

Splitting whilst Bending, 32 

, Staining, 39 

, Straightening, 33 

, Tortoise-shell, 18 

, Varnishing, 39 

, Yellow. IS 

, , Mottluig, 38 

Canterbury, Music, and Table Com- 
bined, 97, 98 
Cart, Mail, 153-157 
Carvings, Bamboo, 112 
Chair, Babv's Folding, 65 

, Child's High, 64 

, Rocking, 66 

, Simple, 58 

, for Two Persons, 62, 63 

Chairs, 58-67 

Child's Cot, 70-72 

Folding Chair, 65 

High Chair, 64 

China Cupboard and Bookcase Com- 
bined, 106-109 

Chinese Uses of Bamboo, 17 

Clamping Joints, 28, 116, 146 

Coal-box and Settee, 122-125 

Colouring Canes, 39 

Wood to Imitate Bamboo, 39 

Combined China Cupboard aud Book- 
case, 106-109 

Hall Seat and Table, 54-57 

Music Canterbury and Table, 97, 

98 

Settee and Coal-box, 122-125 

Corner Seat, 60, 61 

Cot, Child's, 70-72 

Couch, 67 

Cup-and-ball Joint, 36, 37 

Cupboard, China, and Bookcase Com- 
bined, 106-109 

Cutting Strips of Baml>oo, 24, 62 

Cutting -gauge, 24 

Cracks or Fillings, 47, bl, 66, S3, 92- 
94, 99, 109, 112, 137, 146, 157 



Index. 



159 



Cracks in Caues, Filling for, 38 
Cramp and Table, Fretworker's, 21, 22 

Darkening Canes, 38, 3',t 
Dendrocalamus, 9, 13 
Desk, Bookshelf above, 112 

, Writing, 53. o4 

Diagonal Joint, 3(5 
Door, 78 

Dowelled Joints, 34, 35 
Dowels, Wood for, 35 
Dressing Table, 72-76 
Drills and Brace, 20, 21 

Fender, 125 

Fern-case, Framing, 125 

Filling for Cracks, 38 

Joints, 38, 72 

Screw-holes, 38 

Fillings or Cracks, 47, 61, <o^, 83, 92- 

94, 99, 109, 112, 137, 146, 147 
Fire Screens, 144-150 
Fireplace Fender, 125 
Flaps of Tea-table, 51, 52 
Flower Pot, 15 

Stand for Window, 130, 131 

. Stands, 127-132 

Food, Bamboo as, 12 
Foot-rests of Child's Chair, 64, 65 
Four-flap Tea Table, 48, 53 
Four-fold Screen, 143, 144 
Frame, Photograph, 140, 141 

, Picture, 126 

Frames, Window, 119-121 
Fretworker's Cramps, 21, 22 

Gigantochloa, 9, 13 
Gilding Knots, 44 
Glue, Preparing, 40 

, Testing, 40 

Glued Joints, 40 

Gluing on Matting, 51 

Gluing-stick, 146 

Grooves, Cutting Gauge for, 24 

Hall Rack, 82, S3 

Seat and Table Combined, 54-57 

Stands, 83-91 

Hat Rack, 82, 83 

and Umbrella Stands, 86-91 

Herringbone Filling, m, 99 
Hexagonal Table Top, 46 
Hinge, Screen, 144 
Hot Water, Bending Canes by, 31 
Imitation Bamboo, 39, 40 

Japanese Leather Paper, 18 
Japanese Matting, 18 

, Gluing on, 51 

Panels, 18 

as Table Tops, 52 

Trays, 18 

Jardiniere Stand, 127-129 
Jointing Lengths of Caues, 36 
Joints, Angle, 35 



Joints, Bay-pole, 36, 37 

, Clamping, 23, 116, 146 

, Cup-and-ball, 36, 37 

of Diagonal Pieces, 36 

, Dowelled, 34, 35 

, Dowels for, 35 

, Filling for, 38, 72 

, Glued, 40 

, Mitred, 33 

, Right Angle, 33-35 

, Tee, 34, 35 

Knives, Bamboo, 15 
Knots, Bending Canes at, 29 

, Gilding, 44 

, Removing, Inside Canes, 38 

Lacquer Panels, Japanese, 18 

as Table Tops, 52 

Trays, 18 

Lamp Stands, 132-135 

Leather Paper, Japanese, 18 

Leaves, Bamboo, Use of, 14 

Legs, Fastening, to Table Top, 45, 

46, 53 
Looking-glass with Bamboo Frame, 

74, 80, 81 
Looking-glasses or Overmantels, 135- 

140 

Magazine Racks, 92- 98 
Mail-cart, 153-157 
Matting, 18 

, Gluing on, 51 

Melocanna, 9 

Bambusoides, 10, 11, 13 

Mirror Frames, 74, 80, 81 
Mirrors or Overmantels, 135-140 
Mitre Block, 22, 46 

Box, 22, 23 

Mitred Joints, 33 

Mitring Corners of Hexagonal Table 

Top, 46 
Mottling Yellow Canes, 38 
Music Cabinets, 104-106 

Canterburv and Table, 97, 98 

Racks, 92-98 

Nandina Domestica, 10 
Newspaper Racks, 92-98 
Norias, Bamboo, 16 

Occasional Tables, 44, 46 
Overmantel, 135-140 

Panels, Japanese Lacquer, 18 

, , as Table Tops, 52 

Paper, Bamboo, 14 

, Japanese Leather, 18 

Racks, 92-98 

Photograph Frame, 140, 141 

Picture Frames, 126 

Pipe Racks, 141-143 

Pipes, Bamboo, 15 j 

Rack, Hall, 82, S3 



i6o 



Bamboo Work. 



Rack, Hat, 82, 83 

, Music, 92-98 

, Newspaper, 92-98 

, Pipe, 141-143 

Rasps, 19 

Rebating Canes, 37 
Rocking Chair, 66 

Saw, Tenon, 24 
Scaffolds, Bamboo, 14 
Scorching Canes, 38 
Screen, Fire, 144-150 
— , Four-fold, 143, 144 

Hinge, 144 

, Three-fold, 150. 151 

, Two-fold, 144-148 

, Whatnot, 151, 152 

Screw-holes, Filling for, 38 
Scroll, Bending Cane to, 30 
Seat, Corner, 60, 61 

, Hall, and Table, 54-57 

Seats, 54-67 

Sections, 49, 50, 145, 146 

Settee, 61 

and Coal-box Combined, 122-125 

for Two Persons, 62, 63 

Shafts of Mailcart, 153, 155 
Siielf Brackets, Table with, 43 

of Window Flower Stand, 131 

Shelves of Bookcases, 110, 111 

Flower-pot Stand, 130 

Split Canes, Cause of, 32 
Springs of Mailcart, 157 
Staining CaTies, 39 

Woodwork, 53 

Stand, Camera, 126 

, Flower-pot, 127-132 

— -, Hall, 83-91 

, Hat and Umbrella, 86-91 

■ — -, Jardiniere, 127-129 

, Lamp, 132-135 

for Three Flower Pots, 129 

, Tripod, for Jardiniere, 129 

, , Lamp, 132, 133 

, Umbrella, 83-91 

, Weighting, to Avoid Topheavi- 

ness, 132 

, Writing, 113 

Steam-Chest for Bamboo, 32 

Steam-bending Bamboo, 31, 32 

Stems of Bamboo Plants, 9, 10 

Stopping (see Filling) 

Straightening Canes, 33 

String Clamp for Joints, 23, 116, 146 

Strips of Cane, 24, 62 

Swing Class with Bamboo Frame, SO, 

81 

Tabasbeer, 11, 12 



Table, Dressing, 72-76 

Flaps, 51, 52 

, Four-flap, 48-53 

and Hall Seat, Combined, 54-57 

Legs, Fastening, 45, 46, 53 

with Lower Shelf, 45 

and Music Canterbury, Com- 
bined, 97, 98 

, Occasional, 44, 46 

, Remedying Topheavy, 44 

Top, Gluing Matting on, 51 

, Hexagonal, 46 

, Lacquer Panel as, 52 

Tops, Fastening, to Legs, 45, 46, 53 

with Shelf-brackets, 43 

, Tea, 48-53 

, Three-tray, 41 

, Writing, 53, 54 

Tables, 41-57 

Tea Table, Four-flap, 48-53 

Tee Joints, 34, 35 

Tenon Saw, 24 

Tobacco Pipe Racks, 141-143 

Tools, 19-27 

Topheaviness, Remedying, 44, 132 

Three-division Music Racks, 94-97 

Three-fold Screens, 150, 151 

Three-tray Table, 41 

Trays, Lacquer, 18 

Tripod Stand for Jardiniere, 129 

Lamp, 132, 133 

Two-division Music Racks, 92-95 
Two-fold Screen, 144-148 

Umbrella Stands, 83-91 

Upholstery on Bamboo Furniture, 67 

Varnish, Cheap, 39 

, Transparent, 39 

, White Shellac, 39 

Varnishing Canes, 39 

Walking-stick Stands, 83-91 
Washstand, 76-80 
Water Wheels, Bamboo, 16 
Weighting Topheavy Articles, 44, 132 
Well of Mailcart, 155, 156 
Whatnot Screen, 151, 152 
Wheels of Mailcart, 157 
Whetstone, Bamboo, 15 
Window Blinds, 114-118 

Flower-pot Stand, 130, 131 

Frames, 119-121 

Wood for Dowels, 35 

, Staining, 53 

Writing Desk, Bookshelf above, 112 

Stand, 113 

Table, 53, 54 

Yellow Canes, Mottling, 83 



\ 

(^ Pkintkd by Cassell & Co., Ltd., Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 



-"""""niii 



3 9999 06561 198 8 



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