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Full text of "C. Hart Merriam papers relating to work with California Indians, 1850-1974. (bulk 1898-1938)"

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CUSSIPICATION OP SHOSHONEAN TRIBES AND BANDS 



by C. Hart Merriam ^^^^ jj^^ico. 

r Comanche —Great Plains, Wyoming— Texas & north- 
fshoshone proper— NB & central Nevada & So. Idaho 

Montana^l^WyoMne'o^^.Jpanamint— PanamintC'rfakwa^ Kosozeum Bsnds)-- 

to sSutr^lhSal ifyadl^ Death & fanamint Valleys; west to Owens 

and Death VaUey re- ( Lake and Koso, Calif. 

gion, Calif. [(josetite— E central Nevada & W central Utah 



NORTHERN PIUTE 3»-'^(^ 

Southern Oregon to 

0wenai.^^*i4ey. Calif, 
/inclusive 




PIYUCHB ^ 

SOUTH^N PIUTB itlV^s 
r So. Calif. & 
So. Nevada 



) 



JCONACHE PIUTB 3ox(^s 
West slope Sierra.tio-Vv^. 
mper San Joaquin B jy. . 
so. to KahweahT^iv. CEStf. 



[Bannok— So. Oregon & N. Nevada 
[Malheur Lake Piute (Walpape)-SE Oregon 

Vranid Lake Piute- (Kooyuewitskuddy^-sucker eaters 
[•' NW Nevada 

Walker Lake Piute (Arridfkuddy trout ) W central 

(Aggikuddy " eaters) — Nevada 

tMono Lake Piute (Kootsabedikkeneumap-kootsahe eaten 

"lunagabbah-pine nut eaters 
middlg ;^California 

[Owens Valley Piute— Bishop, Big Pine, Lone Pine 

Nin 

Voponutch, Holkoma, Toohookmutch,K»WoWVft.,W«t4.v»- 

gmtimbitch—Mill Or. Valley 

Woksache— Bshom Valley 

Padopsha — Three Rivers C^^-«--r ^^'^^^i*^) 

Ute— E. Utah & W. Colo. 
'ChemeweVe— Mohave Desert, incl.t29 Palms. Calif. 

Kivavits—North-central Arizona 

Sivvit8~So-west Utah & N W Arizona 

( Nuvah'andit & Pahranagetseu (incl. Moapa)-S. Nev. 

LNenoo'ah & Tolchinne— Piute &Tehach»pi Mts. & 
^ N W Mohave Desert 



r 



MOHINBAM '^ 



incl* Ketanamwits 
"Serrano^v^,^ 
San ^BsrlianitnoMt 
region, Calif. 



\ 



Kitan'amwits— Tejon & W. Mohave Desert, Calif. 

Maringam— Moron'go. Ahtear'ream. "Serrano" 

Mohin'eam~San Bernardino Mts. incl. Terkah & 

TuhahVetum, Bear Lake Valley 

^ukibian or Koos'tam Pahoveam . ^^ , w . i 
[Koos'tam best name for group incl. TukipiamJ 

Wahahcham — San Bemardino-Tuciapa 



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CAHUILU or,. , ,^. 



Kahwissetem, Mlyah ^Xi^^:^^ 






Poi^eam 



SoWwispe|k- 



( S^ V-H'KoSa . A C^Ww,i\o, V^.lUjj ') 



*JBi.,U^ r •n , 



KOOPAH 3^ <^-«^-;5 "i Kooi?ah 

fflPiynmko (Laiseno) 



Cju.:::X;.^X, S-^ c-J!::^ 



AKATCHMAN s^^ "'^jH Akatohma (Capistrano) 

[ SoToVa CSo-ii-o'Aak.) 



{ 



TONGVA 



{ToneTa--Pemandino & Gabrieleno 
^ (Very distinct tribe) 



TDBOTELOBEIA 



{Tiibotelob'ela 
Pahnkalache 



Mi^ttj dLUT'i.itv-<.t "trtllj^ 



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HOHINBAII (^ 
Ido Im Kttananwi ts 

San JdTBftrd tnoMt • 
region, Calif* 



Kitan'wuita— Ttjon & f. Mohaye Desert, Calif. 

Maringam—Moronfeo, Ahtearream. "Serrano" 

Mohin'eai— San Bernardino Mt«. incl. Jarkah & 

luhahVetm, Bear Lake Yallegr 

'^ukibiat or Kooa'taa PahoTeai . , « ,..» . 

VLooBim best name for group inol. Iwipi 



] 





(faliahoh«~>San Bemardino-Iueie^ 



ivrali^-I^Lllkt 



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EOOJAH s^<M^ 



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wmtasmk 






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UOHINUAU-^ -N 

incl. Ketunamwita^ 

eSerrano") — ^ 
San Bernardino Ut« 

region, Calif. 



CAHDILU or 
KAHW23IK 



KOOPAH 



AKATCKMaN 




Kitanamwits— Tejon & W, Mohave Desert, Calif,', 

Maringam—Uorongo Ahtearream "Serrano" 

Mohineam~3an Bernardino Mts. incl. Terkah & 

Yuhahvetum, Bear Lake Valley 

Yukipiam or Koostam Pahoveara v ii i«-1 

[Koostam best name for group incl. lukipiafl 

Wahahcham— San Bemardino-Iuoiapa 



fiPttvah— Mahlke 
Kahwi88et«m Wily ah 
PowweaiB 
_Soimiflpehk 



\\ 




Koopah 

Piyumko (Luiseno) or Keche ^"^-^ 
Akatohma (Capistrano) 



Sovovi 



\Vil 

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TONGVA 



TUB0T3L0BBL) 






tTonpva— Pemandino & Gabrieleno 
(Very distinct tribe) 



5jl^ Fu^-., ;J:w v»^ «J., -s^s.^ 



{Tttbotelobela 
Pahnkalaohe 





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KB0EB2R»3 CLASSIFICATION OF CALIPOMIA SHOSHOMEAN 
(Map p 578 & Table p 577) * tv^^;^.-cwi 



A* Plateau Brancl^ 

1 WfUQ -BppnQ o}; . giy is i pp 

Northemi Piu^e [Northern Piute J 

vlltlm Imlr^ ?"" * ''"■'^'"'•^ 

2 ShoBhone-Qomandie Division 

Koso-Panamint 

3 gtSrOto^t^ttevi Divisjpn 

Chemehuevi .OnemeweTe, Nuvahandit, 
"Kawaiisu*' LNewooahJ Pahrariegetseu] 

B. Kern River Branch 

Tutotulabal LTubotelobela] 

C. Southern California Branch 

1 Seyrano Division IMohinean l 

Kitanemuk LKitanamwi tsj 

Vanyume 

illiklik [No information] 

Serrano [Mohineam] 

2 L uiseno-Cahuilla Division 

Juaneiio [Ikstchma, Piyumko & Sovovo] 

Cahuilla J^ [Kahwesik] 
Cupeno [Koopah] 
8 Gahrieleno Division [ Tongvanl 

San Nicoleno £??] 




ir In his table on p 577 Kroeber divides the 
Cahuilla into three groups — Pass Oahuilla, 
Mt* Oahuilla, and Desert Cahuilla. 



^-^^^^^-^ 4 ^JvMLXvv^iL K 




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<<^^^^^^^^cQ^>^y>^^ 










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imurn mimnn haijges KiUJED by srpson in i8t>9 



toe Valley; 



TMgB on east side ot^ Un-gO'Hie^ah llta» ' ^^nxm called Shell Creek RaDg» 
(Boundary between ^Shoahone Dl/^gere* and *Go Shoota^) . 

P.ai^ vest side Steptoe Tallejk g9nfcl«ti^ Raaga— nog oalled I^an Baoge 

Bexit Ruige west: Too-immtg Range— now called Vhite Pine Range. 

Toyabe Range, east of Reese River called Pe«er'-ve«ah (Big). (Boundary 
between Piute and H. Shoslrone) * 

test of Reese RiTer is a low divide , west of which is Woodruff Valley. 

Desatoya Vountains west of Woodruff Valley called by Simpson 
Se-davHi Ifts. (Lookout Mts. ) 



KROEBER'S CLASS IPI CAT ION OP 190? 



The first real classification of the Shoshonean trites 
of California is that of Kroeber, published in 1907 — Shoshonean 
Dialects of California (I]hiv,Calif .Puhs.Eth. , Feb. 1907). 

Kroeber had far more first-hand material than any pre- 
vious author and his results were correspondingly more nearly 
final. My personal field work (including original vocabularies) 
has confirmed most of his findings and has added a little. 

While he did not present a systematic or tabular classi- 
fi cation, his text headings show what he had in mind. 

He recognized "four principal branches" and "eight 
principal dialectic groups", (p. 97) Of the four "Branches", 
three lie wholly or in part in California. These are: 

1. Flateau Branch , comprising the Shoshone and Piute. 

2. The Kern Biver Branch , comprising the Tubotelobela"^ 
and »Bankalachi'. 

3. The Southern California Branch , comprising all 
Shoshonean tribes south of Tehachapi except the 

Chemeweve. ^ 

The plateau Branch he subdivides into three "groups", 
two of which are represented in California, namely the Ute- 
Ohemehuevi and the Mono-Paviotao. 



x^Name introduced by me (written Te-bot-e-lob-e-layV in 1904.-- 
Dist. Indian Tribes in the So. Sierra and Aajaceni; tarts of San 
Joaqiin Valley. Calif.. Science. Vol.19. No.494, p.9. June 17.1904. 



a. The TTte-Chemehuevi in California consists of the 
Chemeweve and the "Kawaiisu"— the latter people 
calling themselves Nuwuwa, as pointed out by me in 

1904. 
\,, The Mono-Paviotao group comprises the Northern Piute 
and the Monache of Owens Valley and the Sierra— for 
which he uses the alternate term 'Mono', 
c. In addition, he mentions the Panamint of the 

Death Valley region as probably belonging to one 
or the other of these groups. 
The Southern California Branch he divides into three 
groups rSerrano, Gabrielino. and Luiseno-Cahuilla. 

a. The Serrano group comprised the tribes of San 
Bernardino Mountains and the western part of the 

Mohave Desert. 

b. The Gabrielino consisted of the tribe occupying San 
Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys—a tribe whose name 
for themselves is Tongva. 

c. The Luiseno-Cahuilla group consisted of the tribes 
ordinarily bearing these names, and also those of 
San Juan Gapistrano, Soboba, and Agua Caliente. 



a. The Ute-Chemehuevi in California consists of the 
Cheme^e70 and tho "Kawaiisu" — th 



^» 



m)]!BBR»S CLASSIFICATION OP 1925 



Kroeber in his most recent classification (Hdbk.Inds. 
Calif • 577, 1926) recognizes the four main ^^Branches** established 
by him in 1907, namely. Plateau, Kern Eirer, Southern California, 
and Pueblo-*8ll of nhich except the Pueblo (Udf^) occur in 
California. These he subdirided into seven ^DiTisions*^ and 



twenty ^Groups'', as follow: 



Mono-Bannock 



Sho8honi--Com«BQhe 



nte-Chemehueyi 



Tubatulabal 



Serrano 



Gabrielino 



Luiseno-Cahui lie 



Northern Paiute 

Bestem Mono 

Western Mono 
{Koso (Finamint) 

Chemehuevi 

Kavaiisu 
^Tuba tulaba 1 &o vtVvWK-vvj4k^KM5^>J^ 

Kitanemuk 

AUiklik 

Serrano 

Janyume 
'^Femandefio 



San Nicolefio 

^Juanefio 

Luiseno 

Cupe&o 

Pass Gahuilla 

Mountain Cahuilla 
Desert Cahuilla 









X 







'' s 



KH)?:B5R'3 GLA13IPI cation 0? GAIIFC^'IA 3H03H0N^AN 
(tap p 578 & Table p 577) 



A. 



B. 



era Piute LNorthem Piute J 




ck Division 



2 
3 



Eastern KoroL[N" Piute & Koneche] 
^Vestem Mono) r 



Shqahone-Oo ffindifl Division 

Ko80-Pan am i nt 
i-nhemehu< 



^^ \l 




emehuev 
"Kawaiisu 



eyi i'j.YJgjpa, 
i LChemeweve, wu 
," [Newooahj 



vahandi t , 

Pahranegetseuj 



Y^m River Branch ; 

Tubotulabal LTubotelobelaJ 



tit 

C. Southern Oplifornia fe^ani^ 

"» 3ftr^""o Division LMo>iine9p] 
Kitanemuk LKitanamm tsj 
Vanyuine . ^ 

Alliklik [No information] 
Serrf^no [Mohireem] 

Jueneno LAkatchma, Jt'iyurako & oovovoj 

Cahuilla ^[Kahwesik] 
Cupeno LKoopahj 
3 ftqbrieleno Division CTongvanJ 

GabrielenoP- ^ "' 
San Nicoleno [??J.. 




4^ 



^ In his table on p 577 Kroeber divides th» 
Oahuilla into three group3--Pass CahuiUa, 
Mt. Oahuilla, and Desert Oahuilla. 






^\r- ^' ■■- 



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A" 



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DISTRIBUTION OP SHOSHOCO INDIANS 



Bonneyi lie's llB p "^ ^^» T flrritorv West of the RookY 
Mountains published bj Irving in 1837 in his book entitled 



•The Rocky Mountains' shows the 




as inhabit- 



ing the Desert all the way from the east base of the Sierra 
Nevada (here called California Mountains) to the west side 
of Great Salt Lake, thus covering the entire course of Og- 

dens River. 

The ghp flt?9"T«» Indiana he placed on Bear River, flowing 

t 

from Beer Springs south to Great Salt Lake, which he called 



XipJ^ ^g Boi^neville . 



The 



he placed on the north side of 



Snake River east of Malade River and south and southwest 



of Three Buttes. 

East of Salt Lake his map shows the Biitflff Indiana 



DISTRIBUTION OP 3H03H0C0 INDIANS 



Bonneville's M n p ^^ ^-^'^ Territory ^(tsi nf tht RPOkY 
Mountrine published by Irving in 1837 in his book entitled 
•The Rocky liovmtains' showa the fihonhnOQ IndJgM as inhabit- 
ing the Desert p11 the wy from the eest base of the Sierra 

.a 

Nevada (here celled fffilTf^^"^'^ Lln»ntflinfll to the west side 
of Grett Salt Lake, thus covering the entire course of Og- 



•*•■"' 



dens River. 



The 




he placed on Bear River, flowing 



from Beer Springs south to Grefct Selt Lake, vshich he celled 



IiPK'1 l^nnniiTina. 



The 




he pieced on the north side of 



Snake River east of Mai ade River and south and southwest 



of Three Buttei, 

Bast of Salt Lake his innp shows the 




« 



» 3 



KH)^BHR*3 CU33I?ICATI0N OP 190? 



The first real classification of the Shoahonean tribes 
of California is that of Kroeter. published in 1907.-ShO8honean 
Dialects of Califomia (Tniv.Calif.Puhs.3th.. Feb. 1907). 

Kroeber had far more first hand material than any pre- 
vious author and his results were correspondingly more nearly 
final. My personal-tield nork (including original vocabularies) 
has confirmed most of his findings ard has added a little. 

While he did not present a systematic or tabular classi- 
fication, his text headings show what he had in mind. 

He recognized "four principal branches" and "eight 
principal dialectic groups", (p.9.7) Of the four "Branches". 
three lie wholly or in part in California. These are: 

1. Plateau Branch, comprising the Shoshone and Piute. 

2. The Kern River Branch, comprising the TubotelobeW 
and 'Bankalachi'. 

3. The Southern California Branch, comprising all 
Shoshonean tribes south of Tehachapi except the 

Chemewe ve . 
The Plateau Branch he subdivides into three "groups", 
two of which are represented in California, namely the Ute- 
Chemehuevi and the M ono-Pav j^ otso. 



■\ 



[jo-v.-^-^ , i'^«'?3 



a. The Ute-ChemehueTi in Califoraia consists of the 
dhemeweve aiid the "Kawaiisu"— the latter people 
calling themselves Nuwuwa. as pointed out by me m 

1904. 

b. The Mono-Paviotso group comprises the Northern Piute 
and the Monache of Owens Valley and the Sierra—for 
Tihich he uses the alternate term 'llono». 

c. In addition, he mentions the Panamint of the 
Death Valley region as probably belonging to one 
or the other of these groups. 

The Southern California Branch he diTides into three 
groups , Serrano. Ga|rielino. and Luiseno-Cahuilla. 

a. The Serrano group comprised the tribes of San 
Bernardino Mountains and the western part of the 

Mohave Desert. 

b. The Bebrielino consisted of the tribe occupying San 
Fernando and San Babriel Valleys— a tribe whose name 
for theraselres is Tongra. 

c. The Luiseno-Cahuilla group consisted, of- the tribes 
ordinarily bearing these names, and also those of 
San Juan Capistrano. Soboba. and Ague Caliente. 



a. The Ute-Ohemehuevi in California consists of the 
Chemeweve and the "Kawaiisu'^ — th 



KBOEBER»S CLASSIFICATION OP 1925 



Kroeber in his most recent classification (B(ibk*Inds* 
Calif. 577, 1925) recognizes the four nain ^'3ranches'' established 
by him in 1907, namely. Plateau, Kern River, Southern California. 
and Pueblo— all of ^hich except the pueblo (Hoge) occur in 
CiilifcrniE. These he subdivided into seven ""Divisions^* and 



twenty ''Grcups'', as follow: 



Mono-Bannock 



o 



hoshoni-ComttS^he 



Ute-^Chefliehuevi 



Tubatulabal 



Serrano 



Gabrielino 



Luiseno-Cahuilla 



Northern Paiute 
< Eastern Mono 
Jestem Mono 
Koso (Panamint) 
'Chemehuevi 



Tubatulabal 
"^Kitanenuk 
AlliUik 
Serrano 
Vanyume 
'Pemandeno 



< Gabrielino 
^San Nicoleno 



Juaneno 
Luiseno 
Cupeno 

Pass Cahuilla 
Uountain Cehuilla 
^Desert Cahuilla 



PBOVISIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SH03H0NMN TRIBES 



N0RTHE5K PIUTE 



iBannok 
I^Northen Piute 

lionache of Owens Valley ^ 



MONACHS 



^Sierra Monacke 






Holkoma lookook^^uKK 
<(jKokoheb8 
^timbitch 
ii^uksache 
IjP&doosha 



SHOSHONE 



SOUTHERN PIUTE 



Shosd^ione proper 
Cooanche 
<}608eute 

Panamint 
Pakwafld tch 
Koso I 

Nuwunah (incl.Tolchiime) 
NuTahandit 
^ Parrarifegetseu 
ChemeneTe 
Ute 



Ketanamookum 

fKetanainwits JMahVal^* 



TAHMTAT 






CLr^ k'A^U<^ 



Akatchman 



Kahwesi^n 



TONGVAN 



TUBOTELOBELAN 



Kooatam 

Akatchmah 

Piyiwiko 

SovoVa 



Ma hike , 

Kahweseten 
^ow-we-ya» 
jl'anyik'tem , 

Wah-ko-chim kut^tem 

\if8-we*yis-tem 

Koo'pah 

iTongTS' 
XPah-Tah-sa-kua 



\ •. .M^. 



-^ 




S'^x^ V o^'^'*'^ 



Koopan 
Tongra 

Tubotelobela |pakan'epul 



V 






FBDTISIOH&L CU3SI7I0ATI0H OF SHOSHOHSAR TBIB8S 



(D 

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NOBTBEW PIDTE 



HOHAOHI 



ssmciQi. 



SOtJTBSHR Piun 



.RitiBi.iii 



tabhat 



jBannok 
^Morth«Q Plate 

JMnacrtie of Owns Tallay . 



t."H!fi^»«i » ■ 



*3i«rn loiiidtt 



■\''-' * 




^umt^T 



Kekohtbi 
litlsbilQli 



i 






iik»i9imm 




idOBI 



u, CLak^alU 



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Hniik* 



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fomkw 



fmormmmjM taitiwmili 




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SH0SH0N2AN TEIBES OP SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 



Ketanamwits 



Katanamukum ; Western Mohave Desert, west of Cajon Pass^ 

Moheahneum ; South-central Mohave Desert and San Bemar-y' 

dino Mts., east of Cajon Pass.(BeJ^e>vve %^^d.T<t^i;Vavvi.wv^«^ 

Maringam; Morangft Valley to Bear Valley and^Old Woman 
Springs. 

Ko 03 tain ; San Bernardino Valley/'froi Cucamonga and Jarupt 
hills east toK summit of San Gorgonio Passt'>^^«^^'>-^^>^^} 




Tongvau . - 



Tongva ; Large tribe formerly holding coast from a few 
miles west of Santa Monica, southeasterly at least to 
Santa Ana River (possibly farther); and in the inter- 
ior, from Santa Susana to ^ucamonga, thus including 
the southern slopes of the Santa Susana and San 
Gabriel Mts.^^^^San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys^ 
aftdr-&— l o ng at retch o f co ast s 

(Tribe usually called Femandinos and Gabrielefios) 



Kahwesik 




Mahike ; Desert and mts. from summit San Uorgonio Pass 
east to ^o(U5h4lla Desert, and from summit San Gorgonio 
Pass north to San |orgonio Mt# (Called rtah-ne-ke-tem 
by Pow-we-yam of Cahuilla Valley.) 






See next pagel 



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SHOSBOMXAN TBIBB3 09 SOUTHBIQI CALIIOBNIA 



KtUawalnai : Wtattrn KohaTt Desert, vett of CajoB ?•• 
Mobeahiiewi: Senth-caBtrBl Mohave DtttH and 3m Bafsar 



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Kf-^. /*- :" "• '•■*: 



•■:.-^-3 .'rr 



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ilt>i~^-a 







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(continued) 



Kahwesetem : East slope San Jacinto Mts, south side 
San Gorgonio Pass^ east of Gabeion, and desert 
from Cabeaon and Palm Springs south to head of 
Palm Canyon. Includes Pahn-yik-tem & Wah-ko-chlm-kut. 

Pow-we>*am : Cahuilla Valley (south of eastern territory 



of Soboba) and south to Thousand Palms Canyon and 
Lost Valley. 



Koopah 



T<j.o|>l<t,KKVaW^'*^>vv 






i?^ ■^^. 



Ak atohman 



Koopah; Aqua Caliente in Warner Valley, Puerta Cria, 



and northwesterly to include Oak Valley east of 
Palomar Mt. (Wilakal Kroeher). T»su*i-A:tvWor.K£v.\vxM« 

fAkatcbma ; Tribe extending southeasterly along the 



coast from just vest of Newport Beach at least to, 
or a little heyond San Onofre Mti; and in the interior 
to the Santa Ana and Elsinore Mts. (between the 
Piyumko on the south and east, and the Tongra on the 
northwest). Includes Santa Ana, Orange, Capistrano, 
and Trabuco Canyon. 

Piyumko (Luiseno): ^oast tribe between the Akatchma on 
the northwest and the Kammei on the southeast :reaches 
easterly to Palomar Mt. (Aguanga Eange) and north in 
the interior to the southern border of Biyerside.Prom 

Eiyerside westerly the boundary is Santa Ana Biyer. 
Includes Corona, Alessandro, Arlington, Perris,Elsinore 
(and Elsinore Lake), Wildemar, Temecula, Pallbrook, 
Pala, Pauma, Las tflores, San Luis Bey, Oceana ide, Vista, 

Twin Oaks, Sscondido, and San Pasqual. 



E 

D 



KahvMxk * 
(ooDtiniMd) 



KahwMrtra: East slope San Jaointo Hta, south side 
San Gorgonio Fas*/ aast of Cabatoa, and desart 
froB Cabeion and Pals Springs south to haad of 
Pala CsBTOB. Inoloias Bahn-yik'-taM k ffah-ko>ohTi 



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r^^*^-^'y,»p< 



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fSaboba (Sovovo); Interior tribe extending from a little 



Saboba 



Tiest of towns of San Jacinto and Hemet, easterly to 
crest of San Jacinto Mts.; south to include Domenigoni 
Valley on the southwest and to Hemet Reserroir on the 
southeast. Cim»»*^ »'^*i— ^i'^*=*^ '"^i 



• «* 






SHOSHONEAN TRIBES OP SOUTHEBN CALIPOHNIA 



\^ 



f KetananmlcuM: Western Mohave Desert, west of Cajon Pas*; 
Moheahnetm: South-central Mohave Desert and San Bernar- 
dino Mts., east of Cajon Fa ss . jtex«-;^'w>>^ *{ ggirc^ B- v».vv'«-He -'f k»»«t 

KetanaMwits 4 Maringag ; Mortftgo Vallay to Bear Yallay and^Old W«aii J 






I. f 




Springs . 



imarot^ Valley jlfroa dsoaaoogi 
)/8i»twrt of San Gorgonio Passifs 



_ fongravx 



TongYB : Large tribe formerly holding coast from a few 
miles west of Santa Monica, southeasterly at least to 
Santa ^na River (possibly farther); and in the inter- 
ior, from Santa Susana to ^uOiBonga, thus including 
the southern slopes of the Santa Susana and San 
Gabriel Mts.. San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys. 




(Tribe usually called Fex&andinoa and 



y 



Kahwesik 



"X 



MahAe ; Desert and mts. fro» suMnit San (lorgonie Pass 
east to (^oftohftlla Desert, and fnm taBfoilt San Gorgonio 
Pass north to San iorgonio It. (Called Wah-ne-krf-te« 
by PoW^we^yaa of Cahuilla Valley.) 

See next pago^ 



Rahwesik ^ 
(continued) 



Kahwsetea: Bast slope San Jacinto Mts. south side 
San Gorgonio Pass/ east of Oabeziin, and desert 
from Cabezon and Palm Springs south to head of 

t 

Pala Canyon. Includes Pahn-yik-tea & Wah-ko-chlm-kut , 

Pow.we>aa : Cahuilla Valley (south of eastern territory 
of Soboba) and south to Thousand Palms Canyon and 



Lost Valley. 



Koopah 



Akatohman 



loo pah; Aqua Oaliente in Warner Valley, Puerta Cruz, 
A and northwesterly to include Oak Valley east of 
Palomar Mt. (Wilakal Kroeber). T^*^^-*^^^'**^^'^"*'**^'^ 

Akatchma : Tribe extending southeasterly along the 



(!„.j^x.,K^.W.'.K 



<»->«.^ 



/\-^--VcU 



I 



coast from just west of Newport Beach at least to, 
or a little beyond San Onofre Mt^; and in the i 
to the Santa Ana and Hsinore Mts. (between the 
Piyumko on the south and east, and the Tongva on the 
northwest). Includes Santa Ana, Orange. Capiitrsno. 
and Trabuco Canyon. 



PlTumko (Lttiseno); ^oast tribe between the Akatchma on 

<j the northwest and the Kammei on the southeast -.reaches 

easterly to Palomar fct. (Aguanga Range) and north in 

the interior to the southern border of Elvers ide. Prom 

Riverside westerly the boundary is Santa Ana Hirer. 
Includes Corona .Alessendro.Arlington.Perris.Elsmore 
(and KLsinore Lake). Mildemar, Temecula. Pallbrook, 
Pala. Pauma. Las Floras . San Luis Bey, Oceans ide. Vis U, 

Twin Oaks. Escondido. and San Pasqnal. 



I ^ 



Saboba 



■^ ^\ 



'Saboba (Sototo): Interior tribe extending from a little 
nest of toTOS of San Jacinto and Hemet, easterly to 
crest of San Jacinto Mts.; south to include Domenigoni 
Valley on the aouthnest and to Hemat Besarroir on the 
ao'u th eaa t . <i».^co**u ;.Jbo--«»»J^ v..i*,Ti^>-:'*. ^ K..w-.t:.t.<s 



)(l73>^'zlQ<;\ 




S>r\o«\N0f\6 - ?CwVe 




/ 



h 



d 



;rHE HAMS PIUTB OB PAHUTB 



(In Its various foras. as Paiute, Pah-Ute, Pah-Utah. 
Piute, Py-Ute, Payuches, Pyutt, Pey-utes, &o) 

' By C. Hart Merriam 

Since earliest historic times the name Pijiiaor M-ttto ) 



has been used 




for a Shoshonean 



trihe or group of tribes occupying a considerable extent of 
country north of the Big Bend of the Colorado Biver. and 



m more 



recent times the same name has been, and still is, 



applied to a widely different group of Shoshonean tribes 
inhabiting eastern California, northwestern Nevada, and 
eastern Oregon-j|^tng rise to endless confusion. 

As early as 1776. the Spanish Padre and explorer 



Garoes . looking across the 




Colorado 



from the south, saw smoke rising on the north side; this, 
he was told by his companions ( apparently Ifl3tflBi) came 
from the fires of the Pajafihaa. In the course of his 
trayeU. he mentions the PnyilQllfla at different times and 
places, indioating that a century and a half ago the name 



•A 



CUgsJL^ 



l-ocoXu 



uw 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 

Of Mono Lake Of Bishop and 

Big Pine 



^^ 






\ ^' 



%^ Cm t4,» J ^^ juJCo^ 

Of Lone Pine 



t 

I 



Alabama Range 
Back of Lone Pine: 
Biggest middle hill 



Pe-gow-wah 



Alabama Range 
Hill iust N. of 
Lone rine Creek 



Yar-ro-noo 



Aatelope Valley 

N. Of Bridgeport O-nav-ve-gwa-tu 



Ash Creek 



0-to-o' 



Rancherias on 
Ash Creek 



0-zah-wah-nah 
Pat-too-roo''-ba 



Benton (place) Pe-a-ten 



Big Pine 



Bishop (place) 



Bishop Creek 



Ut-ta-oo-le- 
gRret-t& 

VH.-tK.-awa.Vv'-te 

To-o-hah-tse 



ae 



Pah-ho'-ve guet-ta 



,1 . 



Yo-gah mud-de 
Wah-kah-haw-paeh 



U^-too 






Bloody Canyon 



Hoo-too-er-rah 



Bridgeport Valley Po-gah 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



Of Mono Lake 



Carroll Creek 



Of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Of Lone Pine 



Se-wah-roop' 



Rancheria on 
Carroll Creek 



Se-hu-be roob'ba 



Carthage Creek 

Rancherias on 
Carthage Creek 



0-re-rok-ke' 



Pi-ah-roo'-ba 
Ing-ah-rah-no-be 



Casa Diable 



Pah-o-rit-too- 

ru-bag 



Cottonwood Creek 



Hoo-rup 
Hooi'-du 



Rancheria on 
Cottonwood Creek 



I ^1 ^9 



Ho'-rip' 
Hoctroob'b 



Crater Island 

(yrvjovxift WeJJw.) {:^iU%h.u) 



Too -ho -gah-dah 



Vftk. 



Mt* Dana, north 
Side Mono Pass 



Sa-pah-ki-bah 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE MMES 



Of Mono Lake 



Of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Of Lone Pine 



Deep Spring Valley 

Fish Lake Valley 
(Pipersj 



George Creek 



Lowest Village 
On George Creek 



High Sierra 



Independence 



Place .little S. 
Of Independence 



Inyo Mountains 



r^u^ USjuu^ 



(rl 



Pa- Ha ki-bah 

Oe-dfe-u-ki-bah 



Siv-ve-tip te- 
vCp' 

Se^v« na-guet-tah 






jPah-yaht toi- 
J ab-be 

Pah-me-te toi- 
wr-ve 

Shukrahev-vah 

» 



Toi-av-ve 



PE-roop' 



Tep-pocf-ZB 



To-o-wer 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



of Mono Lake 



Levining Canyon 



Little Lake 



Little Pine Creek 
At Independence 



Little Walker Lake- 
let, Mono Co. Calif. Pah-be -tah-g^a 



Lone Pine 



Rancher i a oh 
Bite of present 
Town of Lone Pine 



Lone Pine Creek 



Rancherias on 
Lone Pine Creek 



Long Valley 
Mammoth 



Kween-na-bat 
Pat-selt 



Mammoth Pass 



Ow-stu-givS-kah 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Pah-hfi-e wah- 



of Lone Pine 



0-kS-ro'b 



Pah-o-whah 



Sang-wah-a- 

,h5*b 
Wo-ko-be-hb*b 



Pah-o-j)00-5t 
Sing-ah-buz-ze 






\ Kwe -na-gwe - tah 



^f. 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



of Mono Lake 



Mono Craters 



Ah-Ve (,"^^v*%'\cc stone) 



Mono Lake 



Koo-za-ba 
Pah-tse-ho-tak 



Mono Trail 



Oak Creek, at old 
Cainp Independence 



Olancha Creek 



Rancheria at 
Olancha 



Owens Lake 



Heed of Owens 
Lake 



Rancher ias on 
shore of Owend 
Leike 



Owens River 



Rancheria at mouth 
of Owens River on 
Lake shore, west 

side river mouth 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Kwe-chah-bi-ah 
Kwe'.jah-va'-yah 



./ 



Kwe-jah-pi-ah 



Pah-tah 



of Lone Pine 



Tak'-ke-sab-be 



O-iahn-cha 



Se-oHno-bitcl:/ 



Paht-se-ah-tah 



Pah-we-go 



Ki-va-roo-te 



Pah-tah 



Pah-ving-witch 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



of Mono Lake 



Rancher ias on 
Owens River 

4 m. N. of 
Owens Lake 



On W. side 
opposite Id. 
below George 
Creek 

A short distance 
Above Pah-v6-de- 

kan-noo 

About 1 m. above 
Hah^no-pi-ah 



Owens Valley 



Owens Valley from 
Big Pine South 



Pa-a-ho Island, 

Mono Lake lyAJA) 



Parker Peak 



Pyramid Lake 



Richter Creek 



Rancheria on 
Richter Creek 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



of Lone Pine 



Pa-kwe-hoo 







Sin-no ki-bah 



Yo-ro-bah 



Pe-ton-a-gi^at-ta 



Koo-yu-e p«*Vv-t%t-^o-iraii 



Pah-ro-ko-ah-ta 



Pah-vS-de-kan- 

noo 

Wah-sah-gah- 

^ ter-roo 
Nah-no-pi-ah 



Yah-kow-wu-te 



^o^goop 
Yo-guts 



Ki-va-roo-fe© 



Moo-e-ma-tu 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



of Mono Lake 



Rock Creek 



Round Valley- 



Rush Creek 



Rancheria at 
Forks of 
Ruch Creek 



Saline Valldy 



Sheep Mt. 



Shooey or Sheperd 
Creek 



Mt. Tom in High 
Sierra west of 
B i shop 



Tuolumne Meadows 



Tuttle Creek 



Rancheria on 
Tutflle Creek 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Peep 



Tii -be -g!B -ho -pu 



Hav-vah-gat-tin 
Hah-bah-kah- te -u 



P&-ru-bit-tah 



Rancheria on 
small crdek 1 m* 
S. of Tuttle Creek 



Kween-num-bah 



I 



Ko-0-kwat-ta 



of Lone Pine 



Pah-vah-toi-ahb' 



0-pi-ba gl^b 



Sah-gah-ro'b 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC NAMES OR PLACES 



Walker Lake 



of Mono Lake 



Ah-gi 

Af-ri pQLVv'4se-Vio-i:a.k 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Williamson Butte 



Hoo'-goo-pe-jah 



Rancheria at 
Williamson Butte Tti-nu-gah-bu 



' Ocn-h.>C*^i-tt^v>^ 



Williamson Peake 



White Hts. 



Mt. Whitney 



Mts. back of 
Olancha 



Pah-hah-gah-ho • b 



Pah-go 0-00 



O-gpin-o-we-te 



Toi-ab-be 
Tos-sah-toi-ah^ 



S 



of Lone Pine 



Pah-gah-ge 

Toi-ab-be 



Ta-wo-kab'b 



Kah-nah-gow -we 



(^ 



MISUSE OF THE NAME PAVIQTSQ 



V 



The unfortunate term Paviotan was introduced into the 
literature of Anthropology in 1874 by the late Major J. ff. 
Powell who erroneously believed it to be the proper namef— 
the name used by themselres— for the fXs^ of western Nevada 
Bat I have worked with these people for many years and have 
found without exMptioB that they resent its application to 
themselves, saying that they are PIDTB3 . and that they never 



heard of ZuiaiOfi. 

It (is one gf-the 




JcL 



names that die hard— having 



been adopted for Piute by Pilling in 1885, Kroeber in 1909, 
Hodge in 1910, Dixon in 1913 and 1915, Strong in 1927 and 



1929, Steward in 1935, and Park in 1937— thus continu^ to 
the present time. 

Briefly, faTJotlQ ie a term used by the Shoshone of central 
levada for the Pinte of northwestern Nevada. 




^ 



A 



Av^itiV^ 




J 



. 9 f'§ 



PIUTE GEOGR/PHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



Of Mono Lake 



Of Biahoj) and 
Big Pme 



Alabama Range 
Back of Lone Pine: 
^Bi^'^^^eat middle hill^ 



Alabama Ran;;e 
Hill iust t. of 
Lone Fine Creek 



Antelope Valley ^ 

N* Of Bridgeport 0-nav-ve-gira-tu 



Ash Creek 



Rancherias on 
A ah Creek 



Benton (place) Pe-a-ten 



Big Pine 



Bishop (place) 



Bishop Creek 



Bloody Canyon 



Hoo-too-er-rah 



Ut-ta-oo'-le- 



gwet-ta 



To-o-hah-tse 



\ 



Of Lone Pine 



/ j.y 



Pah-ho-ve g^et-ta 



Yo-gah inud-de 
Wah-kah-haw-pah 



Pe-gow-wah 



Y€ur-ro-noo 



0-to-o' 



0-zah-wah-nah 
Pat-too-rod^-ba 



^ 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



Of Mono Lake 



Carroll Creek 



Rancheria on 
Carroll Creek 



Oarthag? Creek 

Rancherias on 
Carthage Creek 



Casa Diable 



Cottonwood Creek 



Ranoheria on 
Cottonwood Creek 



Crater Island 



Mt. Dana, north 
Side Mono Pass 



Of Bishop and 
Big Pme 



Pah-o-rit-too- 

ru-bag 



Too-hoo-gah-dah 



Se-pah-ki-bah 



Of Lone Pine 



Se-wah-roop' 



Se-hu-be roob'ba 



0-re-rok-ke' 



t -1 •^ 



Pi-ah-roo-ba 

I ng-ah -rah -no-be 



Hoo-rup 
Hoo'-du 



Ho'-rip' 
Ho-roob*b 



Bridgeport Valley Po-gah 



</ 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE IMIfES 



Of Mono Lake 



Of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Of Lone Pine 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR FLACE NWES 



of Mono Lake 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



Levining Cmyon 



of Lone Pine 



Deep Spring Valley 



Siv-ve-tip te- 
vop^ 



Little Lake 



Fish Lake Valley 
(Pipers) 



Ea.%t 

Se^ve na-guet-tah 



Little Pine Creek 
At Independence 



0-kb-ro*b 



George Creek 



Pa-roop' 



Little Walker Lake- 
let. Mono Co. Calif. Pah-be -tah-g«ra 



Lowest Village 
On George Creek 



High Sierra 



Pa-via ki-bah 

KUVn 

Oe-aiB-u-ki-bah 



Pah-yaht toi- 
ab-be 

Pah-me-te toi 
av-?e 



Tep-poo-2a 



Lone Pine 



Rancher i a oil 
Site of present 
Town of Lone Pine 



Lone Pine Creek 



Pah-ha-'ewah- 

t8' 



Pah-o-whah' 



Sang-wah-a- 
^ho*b 
V^o-ko-be-ho*b 



Independence 



Place little S. 
Of Independence 



Inyo Mountains 



Shuk-fiheT-Yah 



Toi-av-ve 



To-o-wer 



Bancherias on 
Lone Pine Creek 



Long Valley 
Mammoth 



Kween-na-bat 
Pat-selt 



Pah-o-poo-St 
Sing-ah-buz-ze 



Pi-dii-se-a 



Kwe.n^-.-we-tah 



Masffnoth Pass 



Ow-stu-g^a-kah 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PL/^CE Ni^^ES 



of Mono Lake 



of Bishop and 
Big Pme 



of' Lone Pine 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 



of Mono Lake 



of Bishop and 
Big Pme 



of Lone Pine 



Mono Craters 



Ah-ve 



Mono Lake 



Koo-z&-ba 
Pah-tse-ho-tak 



Mono Trail 



Oak Creek, at old 
CaxDF Independence 



Olancha Creek 



Rancheria at 
lancha 



Owens Lake 



Bead of Owens 

Lake 



Rancher ias gp 
shore of Owens 
Lake 



Owens River 



Rancheria at mouth 
of Owens River on 
Lake shore, west 

side river rrouth 



Kwe-chah-bi-ah 
Kwe- j ah-va-vah 



J 



Kwe-jah-pi-ah 



Pah-tah 



T8ik-ke -sab-be 



0-lahn-cha 



Se-o-no-bitcrf 



Paht-se-ah-tah 



Pah-we-go 



Ki-va-roo-te 



Pah-tah 



Pah-ving-witch 



Rancherias on 
Owens l^iver 

4 m. yN. of 
Owens Lake 



On W. side 
opposite Id* 
oelow George 
Creek 

A short distance 
Above Pah-ve-de- 

kan-noo 

About 1 m. above 
Nah^no-pi-ah 



Owens Valley 



Owens Valley from 
Big Pine South 



Pa-a-ho Island. 
Mono Lake - 



Parker Peak 



Pyramid Lake 



Richter Creek 



Rancheria on 
Richter Creek 



P8.-kwe-hoo 



Too-hog-we-dah 



Sin-no ki -bah 



Yo-ro-bah 



Pe-ton-a-gwat-ta 



Koo-yu-e o«.vA*>e.-V\o-'tQ^W 



Pah-ro-ko-ah-ta 



Pah-vS-de-kan- 

noo 



Wah-3ah-p?ih- 

, ter-roo 
Nah-no-pi-ah 



Yah-kow-wu-te 



Yofgoop 
Yo-guts 



Ki-va-roo-b® 



Moo-e-ma-tu 



4 






- 


• 


7 


1 


PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC OR PLACE NAMES 








of Mono Lake 




of Bishop and 
Big Pine 


of Lone Pine 




Rock Creek 








• 




Pound Valley 


Peep 


• 


Kween-num-bah 






Push Creek 


Tu-be-ge-hoo- 


-pu 




% 


•" 



Rancheria at 
Forks of 
Ruch Creek 



Saline Valley 



Sheep Mt. 



Shooey or Sheperd 
Creek 



^^t- Tom in High 
Sierra west of 
B i shop 



Tuolumne lleadows 



Tuttle Creek 



Rancheria on 
Tutte Creek 



Rancheria on 



small crdek l_m* 



HaY-vah-gat-tin 
Hah-bah-kah-te -u 



PS.-ru-bit-tah 



Tuttle Creek 



Ko-o-kwat-ta 



Pah-¥ah- to i -ahb 



0-pi-ba gi?b 



Sah-gah-ro^b 



Pah-hah-gah-ho»b' 



PIUTE GEOGRAPHIC NA^^S OR' PLACES 
of Mono Lake 



of Bishop and 
Big Pine 



talker Lake 



Ah-gi 

Ar-ri paW.t^«-l^»-'ta.v\ 



Williamson Butte 



Ho -go o -pe - j ah 



Rancheria at 
Williamson Butte Ta-nii-gah-bu 



i^illiamson Peake 



White Mts. 



VX. Whitney 



I'ts. back of 
Olsaicha 



Pah-go 0-00 



O-gan-o-we'-te 



Toi-^ab-be 
Tos-sah-toi-ah^ 



of Lone Pine 



Pah-gah-ge^ 

Toi^ab-be 



Ta-wo-kab*b 



Kah-nah-gow -we 



INTERRELATIONS OP CALIFORNIA TRIBES OP PIUTE /.PPINITIES 
The (Pyramid Lake^ ^n"rf Mr^n j^j^^ ;|^ p*tee are closely 



related tribes of Northern Piute , to be grouped togeth- 
er in striking contrast with the Chemeweve or Southern 
Piute tribes; and also, though petteps in less marked 
contrast, with the Monache) o^ /dwens Valley. P#gte , The 



c>-\<oSO 



^thnng h ^^ flQTTiftwhfit QornpleiTyela tions 



Motia che 




y 



jUitermediate bet^ir^'^he Mono Lake 



The Southern Piute (j^^noludfa^ tSe ^ 
Las Vegas Nuvahandits . the Moapa Pghran9gatg9tt> and 

^ the more distant Tehachapi NewooahV orm a distinct 

V ■ 

group but show relationships with the Panamint and^t^^skon^L, 



Piute Affinities 
P 



iv^i^MS^ 



Of the tribes of the Chemeweve group^ kfrowth-tc-me , 
the Newoofeih and Tolchinne are most aberrant^ Jbey 

A 

show^relationships aiw to both Monache and Shoshone* 

It is a curious and interesting fact that many 
Newooah and Nuvahandit words agree with or easa closeU 
to Northern Piute. 



A great break occurs between tne\Sottthei?«--Pitrte j-f 
^ group ;^st re tchii^ from the Tejon-Tehachapi Mountains 



^ 



easterly to tbe Colorado River, and the G/Iohinean /froup 



% 



fK^oupying^the southwestern part of «tb6 Mohave Desert 

■^^-^.t^ A^^-x "t-W* .____ 

and adjacent m oui^Qin s on th o-^south> And still great- 
er breaks exist between the Tubotelobela of Kern Valley 
and the Tong va of the San Fernando-Los Angeles region, 
for these very distinct tribes differ so radically 
from one another and from all existing Shoshonean tribes 



that their reference to the same stock is somewhat strained. 



I 



PIUTB TRIBES OP CALIFORNIA 



The Piute tribes of California and Nerada fall 



/" 



naturally into several groups; ^;ffe4^ h i inoline Hro 
re ga^id orj of auLfaiuilj ia nk> 

1. The Northern Piute of northwestern Nevada, 

southern Oregon, and eastern California (reaching 

south to Walker Lake and the White Mt« Divide). 

- ■ - • ■ - .... ..... • 

Z. The Monache of Owens Valley, including the close- 

ly relet edA tribes of the west slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

^3. The gpTlthern fiute comprising the New»oo»ah, Tollchin-ne . 

Nu-vahian-dit. Pah-ran-ie-gaht-peu. and Chem-e-we-Te tribes. 

Still farther south are the Mohinean ' tribes, commonly 

called Serrano, aa^ embracing the Ke^tanomookum. Moheahnemn . 



and Maringam^ . These are rather closely related to one 



another hut are too distinct linguistically from the Piute 



to be classed with them« 



i 



The Tong-va and Tubotelobela stand apart from all the 



/ - 



others and from one another. The Tong^-vfi are distantly 
related to the so-called Serrano — the Ketanomoolnim of the 
Tejon and the Mo^eahnenm of the San Bernardino region — but 
the kinship is remote and no affinities with other tribes 



I 



have been detected.V The 



V 



.^ 



likewise stand alone, 



although 8 few words are essentially the same as in Kool-pa^ 
and Piyumiro ( Luiaeno ). and 8 very few agree rather closely 



with KfitanftTnQolf;i^)n[). 



H I » ■ 



f 



It is true that a few SfiX)£Z& words agree with or resem- 
ble the same words wi in Pi ypiSo ( Lui s eno ) , while a larger 
number suggest Kahwe'sik and Koo^-pah . This corresponds to 
the group relationship of these languages with the Mohinean 
("Serrano^W* 



PIUTE TRIB^ OF CAL11J\)ENIA 



n» 



The Piute tribes of Gelifornia snd Nevada fell 
turrlly into several groups, which 1 incline to 



rpgsrd PS of subfamily rank. 1. The Hftrthflrn Eilltfl. 
of northwestern Nereda, southern Oregon, and erstem 
California (reaching south to Vialker Lake and Vhlte 



«» 



Mt. divide). 

2. The Monpoha of Owens Valley and the closely 

rolotedXtribes of the west slope of the Sierra Nevada. 
3. The Southern fjuU comprising the NflW-OQ-a k, 

To1.nhin-ne . Nll-YRh-PTl'dit, Pnh«rfin-ft-gnht'8BB , and 
nhftin,B-we-ve tribes. 

The Mnhinean tribes, conronly c«lled ^sirSLSL, 



and embrrcing the 



,, Mnhftflhneum. and 



Mflringem . ere too distinct linguistically to be 



clspsed with the Piute. 



Monache. In my condensed tabulsted vocfbularies of 
Calif. -Nevada Shoshonean tribes (comprising about 



170 words): 



Monpche agrees with Northern Piute in 70 words pnd dif- 



fers in ^4 words. 



Monache agrees with Panamint Shoshone in 57 end with 



Central Shoshone in 42. 



Monache agrees with Nuvahandit in 27 



I. .J 



Monache agrees with Newooah in 21. 

It is clear therefore that the L^onnche are of mixed 

affinities, their ancestry dating beck apparently to a 
period antecedent to the complete difrerentiation of the 
present peripheral tribes known as the Northern end South- 



ern Piute and Panamint Shoshone. 



»-^OHIN?/.N 



(Celled Serrano by the Sprnish). 



My vocabularies sho* thrt the language of the 



Mo-ha-ah'-ne~iiin or i^iohineam of San Bernardino ISts. is 



essentially the same as that of the Tejon Ke-tflh-nft-moo~Vriim ^ 
pnd thrt the Moringam is only slightly different. And 
old Indirns euy thft Yukipiqii^ is essentially similar. 

My vocabularies show that the Ke-tah-na-moo-ktim. 
MllA&£Bl, Marangan. gahwesilrr Cahuilla)» Kfi&{i&* and 
Piyumkos ( Luiseno) dialects are very closely interre- 
lated; that perhaps the Kahwaa ilr and Mohinaai^ are the 
closest, and that the Pi yumkoq for Luiseno) is as close 



1 

since collectively these tribes form o nrturel fnd com- 
pact group which differs widely from the Southern Piute 



f 



or Wnw.no-ah-Chemewerfl group. If any division is jusLi- 

fied, it would seom to be to set off the Pi ynrnVoB and 
their close relatives the AVn tchmg and 2fiXfiI& from the 

^C*^ 'Wot 

others. Buta ne thing - should \be done until f more care- 
ful compfirison o| the vocehuleries hps been made. 



to felQhlBflai ae it 18 to Kahwesik^ 



KoQ->pflh, contrary to the usuol belief, seems to be 

a little closer to KahweflHr fCahninal than to Piynmlrgff . 

Kroeber is in error therefore in writing " Cahuilla- 

Luiseno" as Opposed to 'Sflrrand^f Mohinfiam & Maringam ) 



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Ask what they know about Buffalo in 
early days. 



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Digger ^ Mewuk ■ * Mewan 

Digger : Account of ceremor^^o^O"ackacri Vall^^elebrtfti; 
-■tuoffioial ecV&ndonment of^tairo 'Digger!* — Stockton 
Pecord, ipnV21, 1934. 



ct 



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6>V>e>x/vA^ OwjL^ ^K^^^v.^ lv.iJU>^ Vh^O^JUuij^ 



Koo-xaxC"\><^'\r<i.-kflLk ^^ 





»-^-<^^f,a,l v Ir^^ Waxl ^ ^ Lo\sA Va S ISU^ X^^m.^. 










^\M-V-<^-V\0L■^6l-a.V^ ^^T^qJ^mm^jcvV^W 




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INFOMATION TO FIND OUT: 

Dividing line between Igrthern Pitttft of 
Monolaka and.j2Jaa2M of OwefiiJallej. 



Monaclie Haines 



lihat are Po-o[TV>^-te-kah of Long Valley 



What are i?«V>r.,.>.-T)at-3e of Round Yalley 



What are 



f/jrgj^ -yi -da-ksh Of Bishop Creek 



What are P ^-^^-vi-r&-ze of Mts. north of 

Benton Valley 



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Bishop Hate 



Information obtained from Harrison DiazJl»vJUft.U4».v<L.>.l 
Bishop Pittte , Bishop Calif. May 22, 1935. T I. C 



Ohek«ka>ahar»rik-.kah 



Indepenidenoe ^' facorn eaters) 



Pe-tad»de faoath) « Big Pine 

Pe -tad -dah -yga t U a » tribe at Big Pine 

To-bo-hagUe » little hill or place south of Big Fine 
Pow-wah-hah-bn^l^f , Bishop 



Kwe-nah-bah » Bound Valley 



/ 



/ . - 



Kwe-nah-bah-te » people of Bound Valley 
Kwe-^ah-be-rit-kah « Mono Lake larrae eaters 



Ut "te-ooi 




%.»IJL 




t-te • Benton tribe 



(hot spring) « Benton 



s 



Benton people talk same as Bishop and also seme 
as scue Korthem Jfute." 



' "»tah * Worth Fork people (people on west side)^^'^ 

■ffiah-gia%-tah used to oome through Hate Pass 
Mammoth Pass. Used to Tisit here quite a bit.** 



-»..vT» "'Immmmciu^ -^- ^t>t)f ■i» t> ii > a > ' 



i<*(i,^»'**4*--«v«^'-»- 



'.^ .:0t,d lt^J^em>^^. 



Monaoh> * Didn't know the term VvoKo-^viL 



Bishop Hate 

Information obtained from Harrison Diaz, 



Httte , 



Prefixes 



lab 

I 

9 



our 

my 

your 
his 



.1 




» oirole or oorral where danoes were held* 
(Danoes always held outdoors) 

Sah-ke * Small raft made of green tules. Used to carry 

thills across river • Huts, acorns and so on pat 
on raft and someone swam behind and pushed it 
aoross* 

We hud war duces but never foa^j^t much. Some fights 
with White People. 

Pe-dah-ne-te • Snetic (Sagebrush and some other roots 

boiled togetller. "That's the way they used 
to doctor each other long time ago*** 



Ttt-hop-en-no 



Trap. Flat rock baited on little string 
tied to rock. When string was pulled rock 
would fall on game. Caught chipmunks, grnd 

/ 

sqairrals^ woodrat8# 



Cached pine nats In ca^ee. 
Used baskets for roasting 



/ 



t 



Bishop Plate 

Information obtainea from Harrison Diaz, 

Bishop Hate . Bishop California, May 22, 1935 T.U,C. 



To«i8h-she • pipe. Made from oane. Pilled hole with 

tobaoco and smoked It. 

TTnh.Vfth.gQi»YaLh « ear ring 

Used paint on faces but rery little tatto^ng. 
Ho nose stlo1tt» 

* 

Didn»t burn dead. Buridd them in ground. 



World H#cer. » *I^h-8hah was alwi^s making 
troubled getting Into mischief. He had 




,a « 



a brother liho had sense. His name was 2sEr£&< 
Taw-T)8 gave I^hUhah good adTiee about what 
te do but he didn't do it and so he got into 
lots of trouble and mischief." 



"VAo^acVxe, 9{s^e 




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Civoo- 
















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C«^<^Wi — 



YJ^MkA^.^.^v/v^'lfe--^^ *« 3fejuL>^5>^ L-Vv^^-^^fc^ . 



(Jltfco^^ Uo*-*-^ 



yP fs}>s;^; 



CONKfr^M.-ii» 







foo-hook-mutch 



TOO-HOOK-WITCH or TOO-HOOK-MUTCH 
A Western Monache tribe closely related to W o-pon-nutch . 

Inforaiation from an old woman naned Jane Tfaley, wife of old 
Joe Waleyta Wobanutch from Mill Plat Valley J • Mrs^Waley was 
bom and raised at Haslett Basin. Additional information^was 
obtained from another Too -hook-mutch wanan, c^i^iMnxT^ 
Haslett 'Basin. [Her husband, Charley Joe, i 8a wo''>>>pan^nut ct from 
Mill Flat Valley]. AH of these Indians m 1930 were living in 
Mill Creek Valley near Dunlap — in aftimbitch territory. Mrs.Waley 
thinks her languaee the same as that of her lo'penutch husband* 
This proves not strictly correct. Oharley Joe pronounces the 
name of his wife's tribe To Q«>hQo'^kah-mut en and also called it 
T8ool-*-i-#a-tah. 



The territory of the Too-'hook'^^kwitch or yoOii>hookHBintch 
(spoken also as To o^ho ok'-kah *>mu t ch , and slurred Too^>hook^-waj and 
ToO'^hook' ) extends broadly along the north side of Kipgs River 
from Trimmer easterly to Dinkey Greek, and, according to the 
Waleys, considerably farther east— the hunting ground continuing 
over Rogers Ridge and reaching even to Tehipite# 

Too^^heok^-mutch appears to be the proper name for 
the several Monacha-Piute bands on the north side of Kings Biver 
;froDi Triiuner (or Trimmer Springs) northeasterly and easterly to 



(;feT 



\ 



me in 1903, and which have been adopted by Kroeber and his 



several followers. 



from information obtained in recent years it has 

-tU- JU.4^^ J.>>i-^ ^^>J^>^^ l^--*.^^ '^0!; 

become evident that not only Holkoma »Bd Towincheba . but 



'fUK 



»>^ 



also Choo-e-now-wit for Tsoo-e-^now^wit ) of Haslett Basin, 

J, 

Hoo'-doo-geHJah of Cole Spring, Pi-yu-mi on Pine i^idge, 
Pot-^no-wit at Tollhouse, Toi'»»nitch (or Toi^^hi-cha ) of 



Trimaer Springs, and Yo^win-e^wit at Fandango Ground are 
really ranchatia bands, all speaking essentially the same 



language 



and beyond Dinkey Creek. It therefore becomes the proper 
tribal name for the groups called Holkoma and Towincheba by 



1 .« 



/ 



RANCHEBIA SITES (PAST AND PRBSEHT) TRIBUTARY TO KINGS RIVER 

» - T-t-_ B iirv^4.^ *"'♦,. Sequoiu 

irk. mfi 

i DinuBaQ 



v^ 



Tehipite 



iuads. 



1. Sycamore Creek Indian School— many now. 

2. Upper Deep Creek. Rush Creek, Big Creek, & Haslett Basin-many now. 

3. On west aide Dinkey Creek at Prices Camp, immediately south of 

.ipnction of Bear Meadow Creek. Too-hook'-mutoji 

4. On east side of high ridge east of Secate Creek a little more 
' than 3 miles north of Kings River. Too-hook'-m»Atgb. 

5. At or near head of small creek in mountains 1 mile due west of 

present Trimmer. Too -hook -mutch 

6. On west side of junction of Secate Creek with Kingp River. 



ff ^o-hookrHMutch 

7. On west side of junction of Dinkey Creek witii North Fork Kings 

River. Too-hook'-fflutch 

8. Near hwdof small creek li mile north of Kings River. 3 miles 

east of moti'bh'CJf North Fork Kings River. Possibly Too-hQok'-mutoh . 
but may be ancient' tribe. 

9.- On King? River at Rogers Crossing, about 1 mile southeast of 
mopith of North Fork Kings River. Wpponutch 



Bancheria Sites 



10. Half a mile north of North Fork Kir^a River on west aide of 

Creek not named on map but 3i milea eaat of junction of 
Dinkey Creek with North Fork Kings. Possibly Too-hookHmitoh 

11. On eaat side of lower fart of Hill Flat Creek two miles east 

of Ci^btree and (airline) about li mile south of Kings River. 
Camp No. 3. Wcf ponutoh 

12. On Hughes Creek nortiieast of Red Mountain and west of Granite 

Ridge. H or 4 miles north of Piedra. Probably Toi-he-ohe . 

13. On north side of King? River li mile east of Piedra and nearly 

opposite the mouth of Mill Creek. Probably Toi-fae^oha. 

14 In Mill Creek Valley below forks. Qho-e-nim-ne. 



15. On ' Mountain north of west end of Squaw Valley, 1 mile 

north of Geol. Survey BenohQnark Alt. 3366 ft. Cho-kifHmin-nah 

16. In southwestern part, of Squaw Valley on west aide of road just 

1 mile southeast of U. S. Gr. 3.3i»nob;;iBark (Alt. 1693). Chokimina 

17. On south side of old Dunlap road midway between Squaw Valley 

and Dunlap. Chokimina 

18. Dunlap or Mill Creek Valley— many Indians. Bmtimbitch & others. 

19. Near Lockwood Cr. south of junction of Middle k So. Fks. Kings. River. 

Wopomtoh 



Ranoheria Sites 3 



Tl|9 lumber camps of 1887 or 1888 » indicated on the Dinuba 



us^% 



and Tehlpite ^quadrangles by the numerals 3,4,41, & 4 (all in 

territory of Woponutch) are:. 

Camp 3: Millwood (in Millwood Flume )« 



Camp 4: On south side of Kir^s River at junction of Mill Flat Or. 

Camp 44:: At Rogers Crossing of Kings River H mile west of mouth 

of Mill Flat Creek. 



Another Camp 4: Located on west side of ridge between Lockwood 

Creek and Long Meadow Creek, i mile south of junctiDH 
of Middle and South Forks Kings River (on quadrangle 
marked by John R* White). 



/ 



RANCHEBIA SITES (PAST AND PRESENT) TRIBOTAHT TO KIMG3 Kl¥JSK 

Marked on U.S.G.S. map sheets sent me >iy Jo^A'T?-**'?^EoUr^'^T<»\^ 
National Park, and (k^ Hopping. Supt. Gen. Grant N^JJJf^^f^^^^d, 



•tnany 



■many 



3. On west «lda Diricey Crwk at Prices Oaup, immediately eouth oJ 

^^a^tioh of Bear Meadow Creek. Toe-taook'imtch' 

4. On east side of high ridge east of Seoate Creek a little more 

than 3 miles north of Kings River. Too«hoo>fHButeh. 

6. At or near head of small oreek in mountains 1 mile due west o 
present Triomer. Too-book^-mutch 

6. On west side of junction of Secate Creek with Kings Ri 

To "ho ok^nutoh 

7. On west, side of junction of Dinkey Creek with North Fork Kinge 

RiTer. ToQ»hook'-fflOt<^ 

G. Near head of small oreek U mile north of Kings RiTer. 3 miles 
east of «Ath fif Berth Foric Kings River. Possibly food 




but may be anei«it trike, 



southeaat 



inoijth of Horth Fork Kings Riter. W^ponutQh 



Banoheria Sites 



10« Half a mile north of North Fork Kings RiFsr on west side of 
Creek not named on nnap but 3i miles east of junction of 
Dinkey Creek with North Fork Kings* Possibly Too-hook'-mutoh 

11. On eiast side of lower part of Mill Flat Creek two miles east 
of Crabtre# and (airline) about li mile eouUi of Kings HiTer. 
Caflsp No«3« Wo^omitoh 

12* On Hughes Creek northeast of Red HcHintain and west of Granite 
Bidge , Si or 4 miles north of Piedra# Probab ly Toi-he^ohe> 



13* On north 



of King? River li mile east of Piedra arKi nearly 



opposite the mouth of Mill Creek . Probabl y To i -fae-oha^ 



14 In Mill Creek Valley below forks. Cho-e^nim-ne* 



15. On 



^ Mountain north of west end of Squaw Valley, 1 mile 



north of Geol.&unrey b^ioh mark Alt«3366 ft* Cho-kr-min-nah 

16» In southwestern part of Squaw Valley on west aide of road just 
1 mile southeast of U. S. G. S* bbnch mark (Alt* 1693) • Ghokimina 

17* On sauth side of old Dunlap road midway b'^tween 3qua;ir Valley 

and Dunlap* Chokimina 

* 

18. Dunlap or Mill Creek Talley— many Indians. Bratimbitoh & others, 

19. Near Lookvood Cr. south of junotion of Middle & So. lies. Kings Hifer 

Wopomtoh 



• . 



Banoheria Sites 3 



The lumber oampe of 1887 or 1888, indicated on the Dinuba 



u$&s 



and Tehipite;, quadrangles by the numerals 3,4,44, & 4 (all in 

territory of Woponutoh ) are: 

Camp 3: ?lillwood (in Millwood Flume). 

Camp 4: On south side of King* RiT«r at junction of Mill Flat Cr. 

C'lmp*^:. At Bogers Crossing of Kings River li mile west of mouth 

of Mill Flat Creek. 

Jinother Camp 4: Located on west side of ridge between Lockwood 

Creek and Long Meadow Creek , i mile south of junct^m 
of Middle and South Forks Kings Rifer (on quadrangle 
marked by John R. White). 




The rancherias of the To o -hoo k -mutch were located aV 
intervals from Sycamore Creek easterly to Dinkey Creek, beyond 



which there were i»t no villages. 



* 



1/ uhariie Joe's wiTey^nas iiTe vertical narrow lines 




on her chin — one median, with two on each side, i^hox i 



utch fr 



\talks the same a 



^ 



,.T--S^' 



^j,.*-*"-*' 



i^<?f^'i'*<*^ ' 



> -^ J f ■-!*. #>»-.--,.^v-Vi*.' 



-JIM ji— .IT- — ■""**^"*'^**'***''''*'****^"''^"'''' **W*^*'^ "*■""" 

t h o - wh Q 3L> eyf| ;( now living at mnlap)^ 



TOO -hook -mutch 




j-V ■ ,«\43#<VJHW|«tii(«'r««."irr'>«i)'W»i 



:Mrs. Jane wnaley^beifig a 




^^^CTJffftTrtp^R f o tlifl TOO -hook-Witch 
[tribe of the north side of lings niveigT^H^faley usually, 
spoke of her tribe as Too-hook-kwitch or roo-hook-kwaj^ often 



slurrS^i^to xoo-hook' ^ i--;^^^^ 







HOO'-DOO-GE-DIH BJWD OF TOO -HOOK-MUTCH 

Headquarters ; Hoo'-doo-CT^-dah rancheria at Cole Spring on 
Fine Kidge east or Syoanore Creek and north of Kings River* 

Infonnation from Charley Joe, a fullblood fo'ponutch bom and 
raised at the Hill Flat Creek rancheria. He married a 
Too-hook'-mutoh woman frcxn Haslett Basin and for some years 
Lney uvea together at Cole Spring. Now (1930) they nare 
settled among the fintimbitch at Dunlap, Fresno County. 



Informant insists that the proper name of the Cole 
Spring people is HooHioo«'gemah and that they talk the same as 
the Too -hook Haautch of Haslett Basin and Sycamore Creek~of whom 
they are one of the rancheria bands* I obtained a rocabulary 



from him. which he assures me is Hoomoo-ge'-dah. He speaks 
much more deliberately than the Woponutch (•Wopoj*) of the 
Talley of Mill Flat Creek, whose home he calls Ko'-o-ne^j^* 



Hoo-doo-ge-dah 



i understood uharlie Joe to say that a line from 



Haslett iiasin to iJinkey ureek is their boundary; and that 



veen 



uinkey ^reek is the boundar^betwlenjthe sah-kah-de . the 
Too-h oo'-ka-mutch of iiaslett iiasin, and the Hoo^oo-ge'-dah of 
uole spring— but i fail to understand his geography. 



lie located the i^ow-in-ohe-bah on Little ureek— 




''a little creek-- "toward iiaslett jlasin'*, which would be 



east from his place at uole spring, it would seem therefore 
that the Tow-in-che-bah proper (probably a ranoheria) were on 
Hush ureek or one of its branches. 




^^■ I JIW »IM>l» U li W *— "^ I — | -- w n Mll iiiM>>iii I 



tte says aTso thaT the sa-kaK-de or saK-kah'-de liVe-^ 



\ 



o^^'tKS, 



\ 



n the big hill south of tiaslett 3asin and speak thej[Hoikomah; 
Lnngnaffn^ and>h'nt an Indian named sa-kah-de i>ick^" 



\ 



picking 




at Orosi (Sept. 1930). 




,. -4HW'.»aMN»-rt"> 




a son, kjam J 




He says the Toi -ne -ohe were on 
Kings niverJ^l^Triimer s^^ uthwecterly ^and were an indipendent 



Hoo-doo-ge-dah 



T^vj^ 










I I B H— ■« ^' 



MIlMI ■ I l—ill "IIIM llll». 




e says that there are no Indians in watts valleyj) 



««—— mi Ml-" ■■■ — '** 



states that the &o-ko-he-bah of mrr valley 



i!L5k-he-ba and kok-heb y 




••now all dead" 





were a different tribe from the loo-hoo-kah-match ^ 



ihe name of liycamore ureek is i:^ah-ho -t o o -ar -r ah 

•• iiig ureek ^ ! 
" iiush ureek - 









«• 






other statements from uharley Joe; 

.4 ^n ^ o^^z ^^^ 




jBfcfttlittle creeh 



^ 




jj j b aoo nomo ^ 




V Hot-ko-mah 






rnn -hoQ-ki-mutch. .J 



A- 



U^leSpring Tplace) S oo -he^-bah-wi'-t ah— home of Jloozdoo- 







\ 







u^ 



*<»^.^ 




ge<-dahj ^ c: ^he7^donot go as far north as "Shaver 

T y i h ft 

bays her talk is^^tA^-^-j^ 

xijuiinoncn xuixh-^^b^ ■^■" ^ mutch spoksiflBy 

oTO^eWSaley, wife of old Joe Whaley now living at 




/ 



THE WO-PO-NUTCH (f 0-POK-WITCH , fO-PONG-UTCH or WO-PUHG-ilTCH 



SLURRED 



ro-POjW 



The lQ-po«nutch are a leatem Monache tribe formerly 
occupying the mountainous area between Kings River on the north 
and the Giant Sequoia Forest known as Gen. Grant Bational Pirk 
on the south. The heart of their country was the ralley of 
Mill Flat Creek, whence they ranged easterly to or beyond 
Boulder Creek. The western boundary was sharply marked by 
the crests of Pine or Delilah Ridge and McKenzie Ridge. 

On the west and southwest their territory adjoined 
tlat of the related Bntimbitch; on the south (south of Gen. Grant 
National Park), ty»t of another Western Monache tribe, the 
Wuksach e. Thus in all directions they adjoin tribes of their, 
own stock. They had no Tokut contacts, the Bptimbiteh lying 
between them and the nearest tribes of that stock— the Cfaoenimne 



and Chokimina . 



"^ Information from old Joe Waley and middle aged son f ill Waley. 

both SS ind kised in Mill Flit J'H*^ i^?*^.°^?fi^uilf hSJmm 
northwest of Gen. Grant -Sequoia Park. Joe Waley* s wife Wane J belongs 

to the Too-hook-mutch- »a related tribe from the north side of 

Kings 



Wo-po-nutch 2 
The tribal territory consisted primarily of the valley 
of Mill Flat Creek, extedning south from Kings River to the 
northern part of Sequoia National Forest (in the neighborhood 
of Log Corral Meadow), and easterly from Pine or Delilah Ridge 
and its southerly offset, McKenzie Ridge, to or beyond Boulder 
Creek/ thus includii« Indian Basin and Hume. My principal 
informant, old Joe Waley, said his people did not claim anything 
south of Gen. Grant Park, adding, "the Big Trees beyond belong 

to the Wuk-satc^ ". 

When asked wl»t tribe occupied the higher mountains 
east of his people (the Woponutch ) . he answered "Mono Piute, 
sometimes* -indicating that Indians from the east side of the 
Sierra sometimes came to hunt or fish in this region. 



Vwill Waley, the son. says his people claimed the mountain 
country easVas far as Roaring Creek, thus including Sentinal 
Ridge and Monarch Divide. 



Wo-po-nutch 3 



BANCHERIAS AND CAMPS 



The principal if not the only permanent rancheria and 
headquarters wae Ko-ne-kw^-tah (sluiredt^onHaej). The rancherias 
and oaiqpB whose names were obtained are: 

Ko-ne-kwa-tah . . . Principal (perhaps only) pennanent 

Tillage. Name applied also to Talley 
of Mill Flat Creek. 

O-che-boo-e-fljah. . Camp site close to Kings Hirer 
P&-flffl-ah-wa-te . . North side/Kirgr:5lfi8etq^riTer 



•go 

So-ke-wa-te .... Camp close to Kii^s River 
Te-an-no-be-kwa' . . Camp on Kings River, •upstream" 



Kah-ra-o-n«' . . . . Below Millwood (apparenUy at or 

near lumber camp No. 3) 



Most of these were summer camps. 



V 



H 



fO-FO-NUTCH GSOGRAPHIC NMGES 



Mill Flat Creek (valley) 

Kings River 

Pine or Delilah Ridge 

Country between Middle & South 
Forks Kings River 



_c 



Ko-ne-kwa-tah 



Te-be-je-ma-ta 
No-ho-yah or Wo-ho-yah 



Pfth^-wahj' 



. — N o'ho - yah oi Wu " h o- ya h 



Too-hook-witch 



A WOODEN MDRTAIl/SO-KAW 



like of whi0h I 



It it a seeti(»i 




Urs. Waley has a ijcnte partablo woodan mortar the 



She eaUs it So-ka». 



hlac^-oak tree aal BMaeurea 



mhooM two eiKi / fa&lf feet in diewl^fr * 



■««*» * 



P- 



^m ptJ: 






^O-^.m^A^'y OX; iiCi^pOm.i.crf 



S^^^it^mf^ 




,1m OL L^jiJ^F W-"^ 



^^pO->iSff ox. .:•0-,^K)-^vlrfJ 



^Jy.'d^ Jbl^^^ 



j«^p»*j0*^l»*|W 



JTT il^ CW*©|^ (Airn^^) 



1 1 . * 



o-iJs-^Atf-^i:; 



iO-bC-::r'OH aHKiimiHIC TVi. 



-+ 4 j?7il 




NAMES FOR NEIGHBORING TRIBES 






Old Joe Waley in referring to tribes and bands of his own 
stock spoke the names which these tribes use for themselves 

(asually slurring them to the forms /in parenthesis)^ namely ; 

i 

Too "hoo k -mutch ( Too -hook ), Hoo-doo-grf-dt^a (H oo-doo-gaM ) , 
Hol-ko-mah, To -win-che-bah (To-win-cheb), Ko -ko-he-ba h ( Ko-ko-he b) 



w ww ii m i.i I ii M i i nw p ■■■■ 



Eta4,tim-biifih. and Wj;a5lrm4che (WiA^satrClD. 



The Drum Valley ttibe he calls A-te«pit ch> and says that 
they talk different from his people* 



N 



^ ^XA.v^v5 1>1 V\ o <^KKowa^ck^ 



iooaclf>e;P*^3Ejs 



c — > 



Y21d C^ 




The term Mono, concerning viiich much confusion 



exists, is in my opinion untenable for any tribe of 



It has been said to be of unknown origin, but this is an 

7 

error Ser the name in slightly different forms ^ is applied 



v^n 



.\ 



by certain Mewuk and lldoo tribes to the tribe s east of 
themselves— east of the Sierra^ Most of these eastern fe*^ 



the Shoshoneans commonly called 
tribes arok Northern Piute, but the same name is applied 

to the Wahshoo^ 

In recent years the name Mono has been used for ^ 
both the Mono Lake ^iute and the Monache Piute of O^ans 
Valley, together with their offshoots in the Sierra Nevada. 
This implies a failure to recognize ,. that the Mono Lake 
and Owens valley groups speak different dialects, and that 
the several Piute tribes of the west flsnk of the Sierra 



are by no means closely related to those of the Mono Lake 



ACHOMAWAN 



129. 



O-ne-kahg Valley quail 

0-no-mahm; tNoo-mah-me" Buined 




00'; Ka; Pe-kali He (j^im, she or 



A - M 
Ool; -01 Forehead 

Also, vOol 



Oo-lZ5*k-mah; 'O-lok-mah '^Bveni 



rOo-ma h-me ; : Wim-ma h-me ; f 
Also, Oo -ma h-me 
Oo-mahts-ke^ Milkweed 

Oom-pin-ne ; To-kah-1 



.^ A 




•wah-me Bipe 




Oom-tahl-ja Littlb girl (4 !b 12 years) 



Oo-ni-e-mah; Wjl-ni^mali l*Mead sfltoe time"); De^o-me^^ 
("just not dead"); ^Te-yu-me^ Nim;'^"" 
Ni-mah^'^Dead 



MAH^ 



4* 



;'.0op; >pr Is-soo op (Indian tobacco) Tobacco 



Also, Op 



A' 



»^ ^ 



^q^^ 



region, but came directly from the Monache of Owens 
Valley, overflowing westward in the long ago through 
some of the high passes of the Sierra. 



t 

-2|e'relatl7(n!y short di^fflrcB^ In an air line 



y>~ 






tha 



between Mono Lake and the nor^eastern limit of 



Sierra Monache tribes might be assumed to indicate close 



relationship. But the intervening Qofty and inhospitable/) 




[■•■..■■UM ~ . i>*^^ 



mount aina^l'foraan austere barrier, apparently not crossed 
by either tribe. At all events^the ancestors of 



the Piute tribes on the west side of the Sierra crossed 
the mountains from Owens Valley and are derivatives of the 
Owens Valley Monache. And furthermore, they are still 
called Monache by some of the indiginous tribes on the 
west and south— even as far away as the Tubotelobela of 



Kern Valley. 



ACIIOMAWAN 



r^ 



O^s^se^? 0-tis-se? Aw-tis-se' ' Word 
Also, '0-dis-se T 



fi 



• 0-hS-mow-we ; *ah-ha-mow-ne; Ifah-h^mahj 



Ho-ge-che-wah Blayok bear 



0-ja-jah-ge Stripe 
.'Ok-tah-le; To-ka-tahl' Blind 




#■ 
s 



A"* jjjjU^ 

Ok-tsah; Chok-chah" ,Pahl-lo#-we 



As^- 



.01; :Ool Forehead 
Also, Ool^ 



,3r'- 



Young 



128. 



'0-lok-mah; Oo-lok-mah Ivening 



-1 / 



Also, '0-lok-maK 



A^ i 



u» 



O-Baah-le-bah Junco 



0-mah-loo-lah; O-nah-pnm-dah Hairy caterpillar 



iHfi^fiEli^iT^K.. 



^ 

fo 



THE TEl^ MONO 



Among the confusing tribal names used by ethnolo- 
gist^ t ho ' w or d M6N(rHtX Q"^^^lQcL to s ^conspicuous place 
A It was early applied to ^ bend or tribe of dooort Piutes 
living ^hbeut Mono Lake^in eastern California, but when 



or T^ere it first appeared in print no one seems to 



know • '^^f^ "P^^j^^^ 





)y Lieut^MlToore for the Indians 
at Mono l a^ ( xqt w(i f m 0i^ named Mono Pass - (H uto hin gs' » 

' """ *'*'*"'**'~^"-*---.>.-«-_.___^^ ^*WoLs Used Iyv "tKe savne sen s.e(^vJAoTvo Lake- Tiu."Ve^) 

"^^^^^'Cnlif. Mfl0. Vol 



Q 



nsiS) 



e- 



A by J. M. Hutchings; in 1859 by^^L. H. Bunnell; in 1864 by 
/ilexander S. Taylor; in 1866 by Franklin Campbell (who 

» 

called 4h«nfi Mono Pi^Utes)^ in 1869 by Ross Browne, who 



states that Mono Lake 'Merives its name from the tribe 



of Indians originally inhabiting the vicinity Jl 

on Vo VV\ e present ^cxv 



^ 



(v^Jl 



so 



7. 



z 



±L 



l?egource8 Pacific Slope, p. 303, 1869! • 



On the other 



1\.ci.w\-e 




at the present time the nam e 






V 



The Term Mono 
-MWR) is often misapplieiy, (^es pe cTr lly oy^Ba sk e t -^collecf^ 



is iYv\V\L ^^Si.V<^VN.aYCt)YV »X 




or6A&nd--4me4 euro in Indit ^ n lor e-,— w\the tUl B tribe on 
a nd no o r North Pork San Joaquin River. «ad In a broad- 



h >'s\oose\u Qil>t>\\e^ 



fAotvacAve. 



er 8enseTto~arever&l relrted^tribes inhcibiting isolated 



A 



valleys in the great pine forest of the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada from North Pork south to Kings River* 
Among ethnologisis^however it? application is^less defin- 
ite, sometimes contradictory, cM in certain cfscs geo- 
graphically erroneous* Thus, in the offici?=l Hrndboolf: 



vt 



of American Indians .^tha^jyeyd Mono is defined as ''A gen- 
eral teiTTi applied to the Shophonean tribes of southeast- 



em California by their neighbors on the west 



.^i/t 



his 



very loose statement involves at least two serious er- 
rors: a geographic error, the region^»ee«tCbeing far 
north of the area commonly known as ^'southeastern^ 



y^ 



^ Handbook /n. Indians, Part I. 93E, 1907 



^ 
tl 



The Term Mono 



Califoniia; and en error of classifier tion, the Shoshone? n 
tribes of southeastern California belonging to several 

widely different divisions of the stock* 

The further statement that ''The origin and meaning 

of the term are obcQure** is^in part true, iat a glance 



r 



/ 





at the appended tahle \(p# ) yof nameislused by other 



tribes for the so-cr>lled Mono shows that Moknsllt MdafiEi\ 



^'K.^sn 




Mo-ni-ah , and Monf^^musse are names by whicffi^ the^^iute 
tribes ^to the aoot (^ including thes e of Mono Lake^ v»^d£OR 

TT f - N o rth Fo r k t have 



% 






\*» ? L**'j f s.rmt v# I » I 



been long known to some of the tribes of the west slope 
of the Sierra — notably the Mftmk and Nissenan. 

Kroeber (1907) applies the tera 'MfijUL* to Piute 

« 

tribes on both sides of the Sierra » mentioning the 
^San Joaquin Mono^ and ^Hono west of the crest of the 



Sierra Nevada." and on the same page introducing the 



-, 



term '^Inyo Uono'\ by which he means the Honaohe of 



ft 

f5 



Mfinfi. 



Owens Valley (a brief Tocrbulsry of whom he obtained 



from 8 Kern Valley woman of e different tribe 



.1^ 



Dixon, possibly influenced by the implied nspoci- 

« 

of the name of the lake and county, defines Jlflnc sa 
"A group of tribes occupying since the early 19th cen- 
tuxy a considerable area, mainly in Bono and Inyo Coun- 
ties, California, and the adjacent part of Ssmer«lde 
County. Nevada."^ This conflicts fundamentally 
with Kroeber's definition and with the use of the word 
as ordinarily understood, for Dixon exprnds the Mono 
area to embrace parts of two or more quite distinct 
llnguiiitic groups, For Mono County in California, and 
the adjoining Bsmeralda County in Nevada, are inhabited 
by bands of N^^them Pints ("FaTJOtSC" of Powell end 
Kroeberl while Inyo County is inhabited by the F.sn??miPt 



C^ Kroeber , Shoshonean Dialects of Calif., p. U4 
(Vocabularies pp. 71-89). iJ'ebru«ry 1907. 

V Indian Population. Census of 1910, p. 97. 1915. 



MonQ 






end Pnhlrwflhaitch (or Ml^ 



-ia) Shoflhona and the 



Monache — the latter being one of the tribes comprised 



in Kroeber's MONO? 



So far 88 I am aware, Kroeber mekes no mention of 
the Mono Pinta of the Mono Lake region of fciddle-eaetern 
Oelifomia. to whom the name was originally applied, nor 
does he include them in his use of the term Mono except 



under hia hybrid group name *Hfinfl=] 



» The term 



as used by him therefore (singly end in combination) 
covers two quite distinct divitions of Shoshonean stock. 
For the Mono of Mono lake speak a very different dialect 
from thrt of the Owens Valley and Sierra tribes which 
he calls Mfififi.* and belong to the Northern, not the 



Monache, division* 



>»JkMp-~f 



The term Mono therefore, because of its^use by 
other tribes and by numerous^thors for the Piute 
of Mono Lake; because of its ^popular use for p dif- 



MfiM 

ferent tribe or group of closely allied tribes on the 

west flsnk of the Sierra, nnd because of th e prirr 






irts-re cent -fiuse by ethnologists for tvo 



or more 



divisions of Ghoshonenn stock, is indefinite 



end confusing and should be dropped. 



'"^ 



Ho 



Cb>^ h>^^ 



12. 



Ot S. 



NAMES /.PPLI2D\T0 iiONO UU PIUTE 



H«."Vvv^ 



?ttl?lightd Nsmgg: 



Mono 



<H^A 



MonoB 



Hon08 & Mono Indians 



Mono & Monoa 
Uonos 



Uono8 or Monutes 



Mono Pi*-Ut68 



Mono Fi«»Ut68 



Nv^^W 



^ix 



Observa* I Fublica- ^, 



Wax tney 



n 



Lt. MooreK 



Uutchinga 



W^^^WlVvQ^ 



.V 



15^ 



tion 



1852 



1852 



OS W* 



L. U. Bunnell 
A. S. Taylor 

A, S. Taylor 
U. 6. Parker 
A. U. Campbell 



1853 



tion 



1870 



1856 



Monoa 

Pah Utahs of Uono Lake Brace 



iSblo 



1858'JS*1871 



1858,1^'°. 

-mo 
1859-/fc 1861-M 

1860 & 1863 



1864 
1866 
1866 

1869 
186S 



\/ Mono ?a88( leading to Mono Lake)n^;med after Indians of 
bat nf'ine.^ Uutohings* Calif. Mag. Vol.1, No«l,p.8. July 



that 

/uthor of article not' stated* 

I 



1851 



\f Valley on branch of Walker River, W Nevada, named •Big 
Mono* from Mono Indians found there. Ibid,Vol. 2, No. 12 
p.520 and. 523, June 1858. 



Mono Lake Piute ^ 

Date of 
Observa- Publicp- 



fnhliahftd Names: 
Cozaby Pah-Utes 



Mono 



Monos, Mono tribe 
Monos 



Mono Pi Utes:Wv.o& 



Moan*au«»zi 
Mono Indians 



Pai-utes 



\ 



Mono Lake band of 
Pah-Utes; Mono Lake 
Indians 



JBono(P8h-uta) 



Mono Indiana 



Xjlonos 

M($nos, Monos 
Mono 



Monos 



p. Campbell 



A.?/* Von 1856 
Schmidt 



Knee land 

Lester 

Bancroft fe?^4'l\v^i a k 
(after Camp- 
bell) 

Powers 



Bunnell 



Thompson 

& 
West 



Hutchingo 

Piske(te.tox>.\t^ 



188? 



Gordon 

Galen Clark 
Dixon 



S9 Chronicle 



1870 



1857 



1871 

1811 

1873 



1874 



1877 



Gordon Cumming 1878 1884 



1880^ 



1881 



m 

1918 



1892 

1904 

191^AVHis- 

1916(/U6*4) 



Mono laitQ k'Mn 



^8" 



Npfifne 



Mono tribe [& Piute J 



Uono Indiana 



Mono Indians [Lake] 



Uonoa 



Mono 



Mo no a of Nevada 
[at Yoaemital 



Author 



oanFrancia- 
CO Daily 
News 



3an Francis 
CO Call 



Date of 



Observa- 
tion 



Fresno Bee 



Ansell Hall 
(Merced dun) 



Kroober 



Mill Valley 
Becord 









k 



C;^ vjsj Vis^<K-i 



kv 



Publica- 
tion 



July 26, 
1924 



July 27. 
1924 



Au^4. 



19 



Uo^5.Wi.^ 



Dec. 11, 
1924 



1925 



July 24 
I92B 









llAMiJS APPLIED TO MORO LAKa PIUTK BY 07HBR TBIBKS 
Koo-ohah-be-ah-viali-te nenHB^.-«]^ Bishop Creek Piute 



1 



Koo-taalbe dik-kah knd-dy neii-M...B3r Pyramid Lake and Truokee 

rlQte* 

Koo-zal>-be-te>kah' (Poo-tsa)wbe«te-kah)...iionaohe iia«e for 

. Mono Iflko Piute. . -.armx^ 

Ioaii!-an-«i-..By Niohinam {Powers 1877). 

iMah, Mo-ni'-«h«..l!f Toseaite Mawa and applied to both Mono 

icike Piute and the Piute tribes of the Sierra. 



/■ 



in 



\(\0- 



HoUiah and lloI-ML-«n«-se...llQr the Hia-sia Pa-we-nan of Poosoone 






Se«>be«4oo««ah 



3d*waii--a*gwa 



tpH 






Too-no-ga-bah**#Qne of their iiBiies for themselves. 
Ttt^in^e^sowlwa (TiiHKde-sow-via)..*!la?ahaiidit name 




erence 
ualker River 



region 



s-o 



IBE MORACUR 



The Owens Valley Pinte together vith the aeries of 
snail isoliited Pinte tribes occupying certain nountain 

• * 

▼alleys on the west flank of the Sierra in the interior of 
California, froB the upper waters of the 3an Joaquin t» 
those of the Eawiah, constitute the Mfin&fdlfi. group, and 



. although 








die lee ti call 



\ 



the fli& 



are closely related linguistically. They include 

"-•-»- ■»._>•■ <4*JUUJL "UJM.^ ^ 

D^rk re^ion^ thoir 





in, the Hol^gO'''a 
of Pine Ridge north of Kings mrer, the SntU^ i tgh o^ J^iH 
Greek near Dunlap. the ^iQpgimtch (or Wo-gB B g-wi tch ) of a 
little higher up in the snme region, the tvtk^chft of Eschoa 
Valley, and the i^dfifialia.,0 f Three PiTers. The dialects 
spoken by these tribes are so close to that of the Owens 
Kroeber, in a note at the end of his i 



t m 



'i!> 




Mask 




Galil. (UniT.Calif .J^bs . Arcn.a ainn. . '"f"*!?! r ??! 
Sitea on the authority of i. A. Barrett, that the nin »* «ir*.v . 
«i« "YoSta not ShShflnflaaJSana." This is a most unfortunate 
^^or^^'dSl^ioSbtl erS t o th S Sl TO u mstance that Barrett's xnfor«. 
S5 JpokSbSth liS^ges. 1 obtained an excellent vocabulary 
from Ke KntimbitcS in 1903, which I have since verified. 



SI 



Vallej itoicAft «8 to leave no douU of their origin fro« 
that tribe. But whx and how long ago they migrated westerly 



seo of the High Cierra to the remote and 




over the lofty pas 

«.u— n#.iii inhfibit no «an can say. In an air 
isolated valleys they now innaoii no ■»« 

line the territoi7 of the northernmost bands. 

m and IlflDfilUl of the North Fork region, ia !•«« ^ 

tha. «0 .U« distant fro. that of th. IfeaOr^ute «f "o- ^^^^ 
bnt a barrier of loft, »6»,taln= intorvones and th, lane».r.o. 
«T© materially different. 



^. 



Waterman recognizee nwo /Paiute' languages. 

"^1- the Southern 



area 



both spoken in the Great Basin 

and the Northern; but errs in classing the Sierra 

Monache (whom he unhappily calls 'MfiflftM with the 



Northern 



. saying that their language "is very similar." 



/t. T. ^atermPn: Phonetic Slemants of the Northern 
Paiute Language, p. U. lyil* 



^^^ 

^ 



The Monpche are of mixed nff initios, their inter- 
relations with other Shoghonenn tribes being intricate 
snd oomplicpted. Unguis ticrlly, the closest relation- 
ship appears to be . ith Panamint and FakwaaJdje* more 
words being common to Monache and these tribes than 
to Monaohe and Northern £ijitfl.. although the preponder- 



o' 



ance is not great. Some words (as ^n-pe for woman, 
and Pi'-ah for water) are distinctive, differing from 
those of all the surrounding tribes; yet a considerable 
number agree with Chameweve . a topical Southern Piute 
tribe; others with EflMflSk and Tolohinne — the most 



aberrant of the Southern Piute series. 



Exceptionally, Northern Piute and Monache agree 
and are arrayed against all the other tribes, as in 
No-ve f the word for house, while in Shoshone, Panamint, 
Pakwasitch, and Southern Piute (Chemeweve, Nuvahandit, 
and Newooah), house is iiaA=zui or Kah=nfi.. 



■*««. 



»^' 



53 



Hence, while in many respects Momiche is interme- 
diate between Nnrtharn Piute and FnnpmJnt Shpshone, it 

differs materially from both, and while in certain 

« 

words it resembles Nftwooah on the south, in others it 
-resembles GhnTnaweve on the east. This quadruple re- 
lationship shows that iflnasha could not have been de- 
rived from any of these in their present forms, de- 
noting a greater antiquity for the tribe than one 
would be led to suspect from its present geogrrphic 



pos 



ition. In other words it seems clerr th.;t the an- 



cestry of the Monache dates back to a period antece- 
dent to the complete differentiation of the surround- 



ing tribes 



/ My vocabulsries show that a materiplly larger num- 
ber of Monaohe words agree with the geogrEphicrlly re- 
mote Chemeweve than with the geogrpphically nearer 
Nuvahandits. This is suggestive in view of ancient 
origin of the group. 



n 



NAMSd USSD FOR MONACHS OF OWiilNS VALL3Y 

(Incomplete) 



^QQk Nameat 
Llonoea 
Mono 
Mono 

Pah^Itaha 
Mo na tehee 



GCv\V' i \^ 



i 



Beale^ 



Von ocbmidt 



^^e o4 cuV 



1856 



1856 






■*? 



Henley (1856) 1857 Owens Valley 



/' 



Burton 
ln.H.Kni^t 



1857 Owens Lake 

1863 "In Tulare Valley" 



Monos or Uonutes* Taylor*^ 1864 



V 



Uonache 



Py-utes 



Daley (1865) 1*^7 Owens Valley 



ijirapson 



1869 Owens & other rivers 
of Great Basin 



iilonache 



lionacha 



I'lonos 



J. B. Mcintosh 
J.WUiller 



B.C.Whiting 



Lester/ 



1870 Owens River 



1872 Sast of Sierra 



1873 



Western Payutes Oscar Loew 1876 Inyo & 3o. Mono 

(1875) counties 



Monache 



Belknap 



1876 & 1877+ Owens 

River 



\/ Not certain idiether the name related to Owens Valley or 
to oierra !ionache, or both. 



SS 



Uonache 



Coonnr.Ind.Af. 



1877+ Owens River 



Manachea A 
Uonacheea ) 


Powera 




1877 


Owena Valley & 
oierra Nevada 


Mono» lionoa 


Powers 




1877 


Owena Valley & 
oierra Nevada 


Pa^Jta 


Gataohet 




1879 


■ ~t 


Tohaktivi 


' Powell 




1R81 


Owens River, Vfliite 


Uomchd 


Hoffhian 




1886 


aountains 


Monaohea 


War Rebel • 


Reca« 


1897 





Uono & lonachi Kroeber 



1907 



Uonadie \ 
llo-n&*chej 

K\OYVO 

Saatem Mono 



Merriam MS 

V(.A.(LVva\^aYV"t 

W« D« Strong 



1909 

I <{ 1^ 

1927 



Owens T^Wrr 



«- < 



NAiI3o APPLI2D TO 0WiiN3 VALL:3Y 'JONACHS AND THEIR oKV^illUL 
BANDd, BY THlJoiilLViid AND NillG'BOxilNG TRIBio 



If .^ m 



(of Lona i'ina) n^nne for 
,nd on lat creek north of Inde /endenco 



L* • • 



Horae-thicf tribe* • • Tem uaad for Indiana of Owens 
Valley and oft wast slopes of iJiarra*** iian Fran 
Cisco Daily Chronicle^ June 26^ 1B54» 



Creek Indians***^ 




) name for Bishop 



t « 



Valley* •• 



• F^Q^iache naaa for. band in Hound 




and 



naiae for Owens 



Majoaclia. • • Yokut naaie for Owens Valley Monaojie. ^^ 



tJonachi > • • Yokut name for eastern ana weatem. Jailfta*^* 
Kroeberri!andbook Calif. Inds*, p*5flo, 192j* 



5"^ 



iVV - Vv ~«wk - V "^ oK«.^ 



^y 



5T 



./ . 



%I-M,7.i9. ; • QXanchO i£aiisaiQSiMA) i^^^e for Owens Valley 



I 

NoinQ»ni.nft.riflu|n. . . Nnme used by •jOnachn of Inde^endonce 
Lreek for Llomcha of Lone Pine, — 



nisnop LreeK rli 



of Lone Pine naan for 




reek 

selves* •• 



(or F.ah?h,?^-fiahrhoQ t,ch') • • • ^I 

aek In Owens Valley, name for 




on 



A 
^ 

i 
I 



[Pak-wfi»ztd«j«. , , Owene Lake tribe (N-L-ne givon by 




J» ' • MflD£Lfih&(of Lone Pine) nsune for 
ong Valley. — 




Qlat»ta»nftiiima.. , , Bishop Creok Piute nma for 



s^ 



.1 i.'l 



p ^»^<<)i»m.rwn.ht>ta. . . Bishop Creok 
related bands at Big Pine, Lone 
pendsnce. — 



)T^ ae for 
ino «ind Inde- 



PA.ton,^.k-iraht (or Pft-W-n'^'CTat)' • r,j-^ono L"Jce iiiiiifi 
name for t^onacho bang at Bishop i^reeK.— 




^ , ."Mono" of Owona Valley nain^ for themsolvea 

and used by thsir kinsmen for them.— Kroeber, 
Handbook Calif. Inda., p. 5^0, l92o. 



:^Alv».n.q-pet^f.ah . , . Bishop Creok 
ed banu in Fish Lake Valley.— 



, , , Bishop Creok jprnche nana for rolat- 



' - "... I^oyiftc^e band on Oak Creeb, north of 

ndepehdenco. — 




i^.t^.pnUe^f.t:<fah. . . Bishop Creek iflflMllfl name for 
Vionache bang at Benton. — 



]tfQ^,kQ-r5b* . . . ManachO band on Independence Creek.— 




• • • 



riyo County 



Tphfttfllobela n?itte for gflflafiilft iiMfi of 
. — Kroeber, 1907. 



l>a\>\;A^^NAM.^o UoSD INDIVIUJ.ULY OR C0LL2CTIVrJLY FOR 
■==^ : lONACHS^ OF TH3 61 mRk NS VAM (we4 s\c.e) 

(Incanpleto) " 



^f 



Monas 
Monbes 
Monas 
Monoea 



McKee, Barbour & Wozencraft 1851 & 1853 



Johnston 

Ryer 

Johnston (1851) 



Monas -Indians Meyer (1850) 
Monoes Beaiel?^ 

Monos Lewis (1856 h 1857) 

[Headwaters San Joaquin River.] 
Mono Wessells (1853) 



Noo^tah^ah 


Wessells (1853) 


• • 

■Jlonos 


Lewis 


Monos 


Taylor 


Uo-nos 


Lewis (1859) 


Ho-na-die 


Iktchin^ 


Monos 


Taylor (after Beale) 



"Monos or Monutes* Taylor^ 
Monos Coninn Ind* Affrs* 



I^onatchee 

Monos 

tlonos 

Ho'^na^^ohoe 

Monos 

n^agh^Ll Powers 1^77 

]y Not certain idiether the name relates to the Owens 
Valley or the Sierra Monache, or both. 



Kni^t 
iMrcell V 
Bancroft 

Lester 
Lester ^ 



1851 

1852 

1853 

1866 

1856 

1856 & 1857 

1857 

1857 

1*^56, 1857, 1858 

1860 

I860 

1861 

1860» 1863 

1864 

1862 

1864 

1870 

1871 

1873 

1873 



^ D^\a J\^ o( S i ^ . ^ „^ tS cvcK Sl ^ 



iaO 



Mono, ulonos 


Powers . 


1877 


Nut-ha 


Powers 


1R77 


Pa-Uta 


Gatachet 


1B79 


Ho-nah-chee 


Bunnell 


IRflO 


Ho •na-chee 


Hist^Freano Co* ' 


1RB2 


Pai^ute] 
Paiute J 


Herri am 


1904 


Ho*na-chea 


Galen Llark 


1904 


lAoYvo-Tcyvlo^so 

ilonachi'^ 
: lonad ji i 
Mono ] 


Kroeber 


1907 


f^ono 


Waterman 


1911 


Iionoa 

^Aorvo 

Mono Indiana 
[Auberry regii 


Fresno Herald 

Freano Republican 
on, Fresno Co.] 


1922 

{'MS 

Jan. 1,1926 


Mono 


iJ.F.-ilrrjminer 


Jan. 6. 1926 



[uycainore Cr. Holkaaa. ] 

MonoB Fresno Republican Apr. 24, 1927 

CDunlap, Mill Cr. Val. aatirabitch] T.T.Waleiraan. 



Western Llono 



W. D. Strong 



North Fork Mono W. D. Strong 



1927 
1927 



JiLVSo AN J BY Ox-H-IR TRIBi^S 



6/ 




^, . . Yakut nojne for ionacbi on the Kaweah, ^ 
9?peci?iltyon its south aido.— Kroebor, Handbook 
Calif, Inda.; p. 0^6. 1^25. 




iJi. , , Tribe on Mill Creek noar iXinlap. Preano 
^^, N^Tie for themselves •indV\i8ed by neit?iborxng 

tribes.— >'\tYTxayYN ^^t-vtyvce. ,H.S.,^o\.Xa,ND.i|-1M-,pp<\l1-'V>T 



^ Fine Ridp» north of Kinga Hiver. J'ames used by 

themselves.— Wtxrvam .-scxt-ce ,«s.. Vo\.xa,,Mo.>^q+, f^iii 



Hnlkoma . , • Kroeber, Htmdbook Calif. Inds,, p. 50^, 192o. 



Horse-thief tribe. ^ . Term usea for Indians ot Owens 
Valley and on west slopes of aierra.— oan uran- 
Cisco Daily Chronicle, June 26, lRo4. 



Srvn Joaquin.— 



1 ■ 



6i 



Xf>.ko.hp!.b^h . . . Tribe in Burr Vnll'-y "nd on wout aid 
I'lne lUdpe, Fresno County. N^ne for theiiaelvea; 
also npplied to than by the liflilSflaa* — tV\«.»r;o.Yr 



de 



• « 



f^.roeber, 




n-^rne for* eastern and western .lonos". 
andboolc Calif. Inds., p.o'^D, 1920. 



itort 



, . . Nruae applied by 
Nj.ffl and other oierra 
to iono Lake fi nite .— t 





lancLs, 



fAc/r^Q. • • Name in coioraon 
and aloo for other 



popular uaa for North Foric HiaU 
^nnache bands in the oierra, — e»>^ 



Nim. . , Tribe on North Foric San Joaquin. Nnme tor 

"^ -UhCTBelVOS.— l^tTT-vatA,'Sc\ftTv«e,N-S.,M«\.lKvH..n«.+q4', 



Hpo-tah»Bh (nlurnl NuchawRvil. > 
'jiaatemeri'; for '«««'»i^'» 



Joaquin nnd Kinf^ Rivera.— 



- Yp^y t name (meaning 
Piuta tribes on iSan 
.trfroeber. 1905. 



NliifiL!il. . . Iflkui n;-na for "^eatern ^^ono".- Aroeber. 
Handbook Calif. Inao., p.0H4, lv2o. 



(o5 



at mree xiiver* 



-gh^^, , , l|i^aache n»iae for tribe 
vera on ;va*foah i\iver. — 



'..Bfl.WPtch. 



• • 




Sjf 



na^ne f o r ^UlLBiiSJiiii* •• 



>Q^da , • . Name usea by HolkQiaa for MOL of ^^orbh 
Fork oan Joaquin. — N\^Tr^Q..v^,S^u>^tt ^\s^^.,MoV.^u,tH^•^^^ 



^i^-yu:t 



n-^ao for one of thoir villages on 



at* • • nplkorna n'^ao for one of tho 
Pino Ridge— not a distinct tribe.-- 



\ii 



,♦ . . Yakut naae for 'ilonoa* south of 
;ian jcaquin laver on Dig oandy Creek in a toward 
he^dii 01 Little ana 3ig Jrv Creeka.— Kroebor, 
Handbook Calif. Inda., p.o'^o, 192u. 




.' 



Tni.ni-^c^i. . . g^lMnimna and ;;}l0Utnina narac for tribe at 
xrxramer opring?* — 




n-nae for related tribe 
er oprin^^B, *ang3 Uivor. — 



• # • 




Tnwrnnh^ba . . , Jano as npUgma* (One of their nar.ea 
for 



r themselves. ) 



(»t' 



\\(auW-vv(v^'vv> - ■• 






,iflLi<Jr^ ^A^ 



T-.V ^ 



i.-f 




. Kroeber, Handbook Calif. Inda., p.w»ftf> lV2o. 



tribe no'ct, above iaiio; 



j). . . j^V/iktcbunane na'ae for 
>^tcb. at liillwooa Fluno (No.4). 



« « 



_ , . Kern River _ 

ippo . *» ICroeber, Hand 




n'^jie for "western 
Inda.. p. ^^'^iJ, iy25. 




. . . Yoipt, nqmo for jtlonachi at heaxi of all 
wreek and in tho pine ridgea to the north. -- 
Kroeber. Handbook Calif, inds., p.u^o, l^^at). 



■ ■ ■ < ■' ' F ' i ' mil.*- . I 



-^ja^ . • . Tribe in ibchoa Valley* Saae f 

selves. -- 

CPluT&l Wakeadadii, *» Kroeber. Univ. Calif 

Am. Andiaeol. ^d Sthnol,, H, 121. 1907. J 



_ . , , j fcij i name for 
oa^eiin adjoini«s fija, jus 




tribe on Little 
ef Horth yoxli* — 



Yu-'V-oJ.-"**. 



1 . ^ 



v: >. ftft . ^ . N-t--s.jZ-w 



/V^Uy\«ku.^. "S^lA-t;: 



dbjei. Ui^ >c*-*-''^*'^^vuw* ^ 



0) 

E 



C 




0) 






(pt 






,i^;A.-fe cfu^k. 



Jeo Aikaiche. 



Iknabook Lnlif. Inds., p.^ftf, l^-o. 






,.nr.-rH.Lch (or ;o.T«in^>.^itch). . 4 ^V-ftcbunne mae Tor 



^in-i.Ti/.'^^,t.l . . . Kern Rivor Iuik^A^I-i,Va n' ^^ for ^^e^tern 
■^ — "^y .— i'.roeber. Handbook Tali 17 Inaa.. p.^^o.ii^2o. 



Creek nnd In ^ho ,jine ridgea go the north.— 
Kroeber, Handbook Cilif. Inda., ^,j^j, l^^o. 



O 








. • • Tribe in l^schom Valley# ^mm for them««* 
aeivea^ — 

[Plural Wakesdachi* •• Kroeber, Univ. Calif, i^b*^ 
Am. Archaeol. ind '^Jthnol.. IV, 121- 19U7. J 




^ . . • H^ya nane for 
oaquin ad^oimn^Mau just 




ea3 



jj tribe on Little 
of North Fork.— 






V:.,.flO.. N..-^j;_. V^^^\o^cu.i:. ^<.1<M5: 



/.IMS^ ) 



iVo - /^ 



C i^\ - i/iJ 



■I- ct 



( 



-R<rvw Mc-vxadu ^^fJ-^s, ^^^^ "^ ^//« 



S^ 




V^i^Ca 



u/iWolo 



Jv/i^oJa 






W^ - 



Woi^onucU t« 




k? ^ X i^J^^- tr^o^wi \7\ob: 






n 



U 



S-ijj^ L or fU Vl/o~/'«rvi-K.i;+c^ 



S/ 



non ovvi 



/ 



^ - 4is.~ Jo('^ o h iVdJ'Pr^yto-^c^ 



HCM/»Vjt 



^ Or.v.l/.//ey^^^>^ 



/ 



(C.H.M.) 




ICLZi/CL 



'I 










.Wo-T)ungiwitch: Tribe at the logging camps "No. 3" and"No.4" ^^ 

* 



on Mill Plat Cfeek^ south of Kia s ijiver. ^resno Co,^.Calif 



fflO 



^ame given me by Wuksache and VJikchumn e in 1903. ,°1°3«V 
related to £ b'-timlbi tch, but living higher up in 

rjjc Oil £ "H; OfUF *^TM» il'"' "♦■' ^ ^■' 

Mountains. 



a'-.©*^. 



Woaj>o-hbi%h:;Oi>u%MiofiiBd itgether Irlth ^'ai ^dim-b jtz" and 

"Wuk-sa-chi" as 'njranches o|, tt^e^Pjutj tribe%treMarthei. 
foj ..r^TP^Tr^''-® ^ , 'V 



Louise Baker in iJVesno [Calif.] Republican, Dec.l4.1924» 



miicgqaj MTq-rs !• "P^*^ °** 



.6 fO •. e jTOf Blip** 18- -^ 




«g£^a AijtiernatiTe'Ts^iilliligTtjflfoW^niJtffi tfffA! by A.H.Gayton, 
Ghost Dance of 1870 in So. Central Calif. .01^61^82; 19;^ •^ on f 



„U0* fjiis 18 ^''il J-T^l'f ^°^ ®"" 






■v r> ^ '-'» -I 



It 

813M epiQ ii:^iO|ji oq:^ uo 



I' 



on© ©q^ :^B dBS Sutj^b©! SBM^pxre ti^ojS 
©no eii; 'ipu© eq:^ ^b ©mil « St^xwnq ptre iCjp sjf ©PTS \V^^ ^\% 

no ©no ©q,T, 'epis q^jou ©q; no j^^o eqi^'epti mnos ©q:^ no tnrt 

1 s * ' 




"No, this is all right for me." 



?.T., - 




inlkaael J.aid:"E,gl, ohi.f o.^, to ™ l„t nlghrj^ 



told^SThat t^ere is another world i^ 
.^•^rtfied to fiai it but couldn»t|it there." '^•- 



. ir 






■V 



.-r ' 



8i3tt epis qt^JOH aq:^ no 



i 






no 9U0 9q,T, •epis q^iou ©n^ no j4tno ©q^'epiP Ti:^nos ©q^ uo ©tm 




"No, this is all right for me." 9 -~r~ 



K^ 




Anlkadel ^d: "Eagle Chief came to meiast nigra^m 

ei.*1^8 ona. j?our 







il 



t' « 




tfied to fini it but couian»f|it t^reV '^ '• 

I / 



• 



iM^^^^rS- 



Wah-p on-nutoh : ^^.tonaWie trib 





.f^iZJC^^^^ 




^±h^: 



.^dW 



N: 



\ SAl W0-| 



Ko^n 



-nutch 



j^lby members of tribe in 1930. — ct-* 



Y^obenchasi: aftftrWol3onuch,'--l~ ^^ v 



INobontchj See Wobonuch. 



r* 

I 

* 



• • 



l»obomifiiJ: /Togcf^mnne -ftnr4»iftte ^ribe "en -mr «mong t^e jg^ne 

ridges. be^ttftilJainl^P''^^ 



^mc*- »ir«<*«4 



_ _-«__-.-_„ Other 
\speil inga Wobunuch , VJpJjonocl^ ~Kro eber , Shoe hon ean 

Dialects-«f Calif. 121,130, 1907. v A. H. Gay ton, Ghost 
Dance of 1870 in So. Central Calif. ,pp61, 82. 1930 and 
Yokuts Si iJestern Mono Pottery-Making, p.239,map p. 248, 

1929* 






Address: 1919 Sixteenth St. 
Washington, D. C. ^ ; 

SUMMER ADDRESS 

Lagunitas, California 



DR. C. HART MERRIAM 
RESEARCH ASSOCIATE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
(E. H. HARRIMAN fund) 



»4 



t^ 



• V ^WASHINGTON, D. C. 

June 13, 1930 



-r 



*i • 



.^' 



riCJ 



lir. H.S.Al 

Allen's P^s Clipping Bureau 

255 CoraiR^cial/treet 
San Prenciscc, /California 

Dear Mr. All 




\:,Mi p\ 



\ r 



^ C \] 



fn': 



« • 






• > ■% 



« • 



28 

)an-nutch |or fo-pon-nuifih (slurred Wo-poj ) . . . Western 

..11 .1— -' '■ 

Monache tribe on upper Mill Plat Creek south of Kings River 
and above the Bmtimbitch(at Millwood Flume, lumber camps 
No. 3 and No. 4). Their name for themaelvat. 

St 

Villages^^^a^J^ Ko-ne-kwa-t^ —their name for the valley 
of Mill Flat Qr. — & neighborhood of junction of this, creek 
with Kings River; hunting territory extending from Kings 
River south to Gen. Grant Sequoia Forest, and Inrc from Pine 
(or Delilah) Ridge & McKenzie Ridge easterly to Boulder Cf . - 
Told me by members of lex tribe. — '^■**^ — ' 

Synonymy: 
' Wo-punfl!^witoh . . . Pronunciation given me by Wiktehurane 

in 1902." 

» Wah^pon-nutch . . . Pronunciation given me by Wuksaohe 
in 1903.-- 

"Wobonuch, Wobunuch, Wobonoch, plur«l Wobenchasi" 
Kroeber.Shoshonean Dialects of Calif. ,121,130, 

Feb. 1907. 

Wo-po-noich Martlm Louise Baker, Fresno Republican 
[Calif.], Deo. 14,1924. 

"Wobonucli Iroeber, Hdbk.Inds. Calif. ,585, 1925. 

' Wobfisash A.H.Gayton, Yokuts & Western Mono Pottery- 
Making, 239, map 248, Sept. 1929. 




•" 382.38' 



Phiefs 



Wo'-pan-nuteb (KxiriHinnm«4«ki . . • Western Monache ^ibe 

south of Kirgs River, centering in valley of Mill Flat Cr. 
Their most recent rancheria is said to have been at 

Lofefeing camp No. 3. - - 

SYBONYMY:. 

Wah<-pon-nutch...Name feiven me by Wukskche of 

w ' 1 1 <i - 

Eshom Valley in 1903. Pronounced Wo-pon-nutch 
(slurred Wo-poj) by members of tribe in 1930?< 



Ifihanuch . . . GiveSl by Kroeber as YoKut name loi- 
Piute tribe "on or among the pine ridges bejsond 
Dunlap". Other Kroeber spellings Wobunuch, 
Wobonoch (plural Wobenchasi). -Kroeber, Shosh. 
Dialects Calif. ,121.130. 1907. 

Woj^onnoich ... mentioned together with "En-dim-bitz- 
and "Wuk-sa-chi" as "branches of the Piute mtook 
tribe*. -Martha Louise Baker in Fresno [Calif. D 
Republican, Dec. 14, 1924. 

Wobonu ch .. A.H.Gayton. tt«»tncBacHK«xrfxi8»xiircio. 
C««±XEi^txtxv6i^ Yokuts & Western Mono 
Pottery-Making, 239 .map 248. Sept. 1929. 

Wobonuch (Woponuch) ... A.H.Gayton, Ghost Dance of 
1870 in So.Central Calif., 61,82. March 1920. 



• • 



\ 



-13- 






'(, 



'^C 



'• /r'f "tv -' (j.v.:-; A 




flu / jL^M-^i-L/-^^^**^ 

The father. Bi^ . 



.•ev 



•\ 






«• 



\ ;' C, 



1a'* ( 



N-t)i^-r 






/ 



V 



'No, I walit to know 1?f day^ Mft-4fee 




, riot tonight. 



I 



e 



ff T^ Bon didn*t eat anylbreakfapt but^/ent out after hie mfe 



'\ >..•, ^' 






txdd 






1 I 



I ' r* 



f.1S=' 



f.^ 



r r*"* 






vrf 8,Ti iibVi 







you.* So tbey went in. 



•-f' •■7!!" r»?.'7t" ' ■ '■tT*?'rrl't"| 

There was onl^f a dim /ight 




• K, 



• • 



■s 



• • 






over the world for the 



f A*^ •' 



% 



r ' 
J, V 



IX-i 






/ . J \ . ^ 

\ Moon^ahd St^l.were on tlecgroim^ 

.TOP t .-'31 







■». f 



*. f — r 



%^iQ'^ro\^^'inxmi^-v[i*'^'^'^ cfld man looked at her and said, 



I 



i 



• :$ 



I 



.00^ .L^^i'^JK' 



:^ .u.v;, nfn0.ia...v.>;d.'' ii.^ ■■ ■ ^^ ••rrrorfo 



I 



'That^s all ri^it. That^s the gi^^l^ wanted 3roii|to get** And 



/ 



4 • V 



♦^rf 



. I' 



he told his wif* tp d(^o6k, 



. * . Cf 4 



;. TfUPw 







%f^C::i^e\l, for^tiaSets 



• 4 • 



,>v-f -^Vn ^A> ^^"' 



WO-POrNLrrCH— A 7f2STERN MOKAGHJi Tlii3E CMELl KELATiSD TO 

^fHE TOO-HOa^...ITGH. HOO-DOO-aE-M?& I'O-WII^-OHS-iiAH 

■ \ / 

Infornatito from Old Joe Whalqy sndiiidclle a^ed son Will Whaley, 
both born feid raised in Mill nat Mlley south of Kings itiver 
antS nortbweaj of Millwood and 'Jen.^rant -Sequoia Fark. 

A' 

The ^©.ftf jtlie t^ib^^ I5h^ he almost always 



abbreviated to illo ^oj . 



' v'ian ■ : 



tH 



/ 



fhe napae oKllill i!'lat ¥al^ ey , ■ Kg -ne -kw$-t ah , he 



i' 



Qri "^ n 






usually slurred to Ko-ne^vS ' or ?LQA-ne3 V It'waS also tne 

-^ ."■■ 4/ \ ' i«* -''^" ' " ^''^ -^' ' ^ 



name of t>ie principal iranc>i«jiA# 

1 ■ \ 



I'he tribal territory Extended south from Kings Kiver 
and Kiddle fork Hingfl^.tfl the nortl^rB part -of Sequoia forest 

1 "0 



(in the neighborhood cif Log Corral Meadow) and easterly from 

\ 
Pine or Delilah ttidge and MoKenzie itidge^.to uoalder ureek., 

(Ylill Whaley» t>^e son, says his people claimed the mountain 



V '.i 



country east to Boaring Ureok and i' eh i pete, fc^us including 



i ■ 



■r ft <• 



aentinal itidge and Dome ahd Mttnar oh Divide •) 







EABOHJSHiAS AnD CAMIS 
As already st:^ted the principal if not the only 



0-;.^^' - 



tx 



.Cii0OTJ«.O, 



* • • 



>» 



>c/5-3u.-v/(r5 



c 





SV^<«V^0«4. -<i<^u^'^'' SVv«V«ne 



^ W ;e 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE GEOGRAPHIC NAMiSS 



Alabama Hange • . . Toi-yah hah-be^e**' 

Amargosa Desert N to Beatty O-wep'-pe'"' 

Antelope Valley, W end Mohave Desert Mo'-go»nen 

Argns Uts Tin-da-boo'^ 

Ash Meadows Koi-ye po-tah'"^ 

Avawatz Its. ("not ours") Ah-pi'-ehe"* 

[tribe and place name] 

Baldy Mt. N of Telescope Peak , Too-rar-ra-np 

Ballarat Kah-wu'* 

Black Mts. (Puneral Mts. S of Furnace Or. , 

and DV. Hotel) Pe-shah-pe Toi-ab-be*'- 

Bennett Well Too-gah-bos** 

Canyons 

Canyon NW head Death Valley ,. O-vin-tah nav-var'*'' 

[trail & road there] 

Chukawalla Canyon Wesh-show-wah 

Cottonwood Canyon Nah'>Tah'-re''' 

Death Valley Canyon (N of Bennett Well) Wish-she''* 

["lots water there"] 

Hall Canyon & Indian Camp (How-tah*'' 

(Te-ar-rum bi-ah 

Hanupa Canyon Wish'-she 

["not our name"] 

Happy Canyon Wah-ko no-noon 



- 2 - 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE GEOGRAPHIC NAMES (Cont.) 



Canyons (Cont.) 

Jail Canyon Tun-do-sah 

Johnson Canyon (Spring place ) Tan'-no-kwin 

Johnson Canyon ' . -r, , . t . . 

(ftoole canyon, both sides mts.) Poo-e-cher-ring-ah 

Pleasant Canyon Kwe-dap-po no-noon 

Six-Spring Canyon. Mo-roe-nah-ohe no-noop 

Tuber Canyon Tu-Tah noo-pe 

Willow Creek Canyon , rock^ canyon 

(clear to top; deepest of all) Tim-bit-tah no-noo-pe 

Canyon NW head Death Valley O-vinUah nav-var '* 

•^ [trail & road there] 

Charcoal Kilns (near Wild Rose ) Wah-bo'-te "'' 

Charcoal Kilns Spring Koo-waht 

Chukawalla Canyon Wesh-show-wah 

Cottonwood Canyon Nah-Tah-re"* 

Cottonwood Creek (W of Owens Lake) Hoo-room^' 

Darwin ( J® Jriahng-ahnd'**-^ 

(Yet-tang nug-gah 

Daylight Spring (at summit) lat-tum'-bo"* 

Death Valley (S?^-?°rPe ™g ^^sh"] 

(Tim-be-shah""" 

(Tim'-bish yo'-wung""' 

Death Valley Canyon (N of Bennett Well)... Wish'-she'* 

Death Valley Salt Flat (Salt Ground) Oi-yo-gum-be ** 

-rum- 



- 3 - 



PANAMINT SHOSHONlfi GEOGRikPHIC MMS (Cont.) 



Eagle Borax Works, Mesquite i'lat To-we 

Emigrant Gap Too-me-ah [Top-me-ah?] 

Emigrant Gap Mt . or Sheep Mt . ^, „.,',. i 

TTuoki of USGS Map). ., Tah-ki Cor Tuk-ki] 

finigrant Spring (last spring) (Pah;.bahi-8up 

(Pah— De'koo "*■ 

ftnigrant Wash Koo-ohoo-« ""• 

Pish Lake Valley (Pipers) So-re-kwahn'" °' 

[Shoshone territory?] 

Funeral Mts. (low part N of ?umace Creek) Pe'-ge "* 

Black Mts. Ridge S of Furnace Creek.... Pe-shah'-pe Toi-ab'-be^* 

Bast of Pumaoe Creek & Hotel Po-pah** 

East of Eagle Borax Works Too-goo-mah 

Furnace Creek Tim-bish-she no-kv»in'** 

Furnace Creek (ranch flat) Lat-tu-ah '"'■ 

Furnace Creek Wash Pah-room bi'-ah no'-noop 

Gold Hill Choong-gah 

Grapevine Mts. (S of Grapevine Canyon).... Ow-wah-gi [Ow-gah-gi?] 

Green Water Pah-wi-pah 

Haiwa (Pond , Meadows & place ) Mah'-ra-bo' "' 

Hall Canyon & Indian Camp. [How-t^"' 

'' (Te-ar-rum bi-ah 

Hanupa Canyon rHj5f°««,. r..n,.«^ 

L not our name J 



- 4 - 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE GEOGRAPHIC NAMES (Cont.) 



Happy Canyon Wah'-ko no-noon 

High Sierra Range (Pah-per-rah Toi-ab-be'' 

(Pe-ap-per-rah Toi-ab-be'*"" 

Sleeping Beauty Mt Ad-dah-rah we'-ah**' 

Hole in Rock (Spring) Mo-num bah-che 

Indian Canp on Mesquite Flat , 

1/4 mile N of Furnace Creek Ranch Gah-ne [home] 

Inyo Mts (Nun-no-nop' ^ 

(Pan-no-do yab-be°" 

Inyo Mts. W of Saline Valley 

Cerro Gordo Mine , Sah-go-ro*"' 

Spring in Inyo Mts. near Wahkoba Pah-mo'-che'** 

Jail Canyon Tun-do-sah 

Johnson Canyon (Spring place) Tan-no-kwin*"' 

Johnson Canyon 

(whole canyon, both sides mts.) Poo-e-cher-ring-ah 

(Ko-nah-kah-zah'"' 

Heeler, S side Owens Lake.... (Ko-no-kah-to*^- 

(Pah'-nah-ki'-dup-pa' 

Koso Hot Springs Mo-ah-tah 

Koso Mts. ("People same as at Darwin").... Xi-no-mo-ne-ah""' 

Little Lake (Pah-boon'-dah'"' 

( Pah-won- tahng**" 



- 5 - 



- 6 - 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE GEOGRAPHIC NAMES (Cont.) 



Mesquite Plat 

N part DV (inol. Surveyor's Well) 

Mesquite (Well or Valley?) 



0-ye 



( 



Oi'-hu ^■ 
C-e-hu*- 



Mt* in Argus Bange W of Searls Lake 



Moo-kub-ba 

[lots rooks & little timber] 



Mt. Whitney region. High Sierra Te-woh-kafamp'^ 



Olanoha & country S and S of Owens Lake . . 

Olanoha Creek 

(and country S and E of Owens Lake)... 



Ko-nahf-kaht ** 
Pah-kwah-8e°- 

(Pah-kwah-8e*>- . 
( Pahokw as -s e -gut ' 



Olanoha Peak Ar-ral/-go we'-ah"' 



Owens Lake (in 1931 a dry salt bed) 



Owens Lake country (E and S of Lake) 



(Patch-e-ah-tah" 
(Pat-se-at-tah""' 
(Pat-ohet-tah'' 

(Ko-nah'-kaht** 
(Pah-kwah'-se"- 



Owens River Pah^tah*'- 



Owens Valley 



— 0. 



[Yaw-gum-pe 
(Yo-gump 



Panamint Mts 



Panamint Valley 



Ki-goo-tah" 
Ki'-goot** 

, ^ valley 
How-ta yo'-wung 
Pan'-a-mm yo-gum 
Pan-^-mint*"- 



Pleasant Canyon Kwe-dap-po no-noon 



Poison Spring ('Salt Spgs.') 
W side or 5 miles NF^Purn 



Purnaoe Cr.Roh... Wah-bah' 



/ 1>V. 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE GEOGRAPHIC NAMES (Cont.) 



Saline Valley K6; Ko-o 

Saratoga Springs Moo-tah 

Six-Spring Canyon Mo-roo-nah-ohe no-noop 

Slate Range (SW of Panamint Valley) Tin-dab-boo [Tin-ta-boo] 

Stovepipe Wells (in DV) Too-goo-mut-tah"" 

[always water here J 

(Se-ump 
Telescope Peak (She-um-ba 

Telescope Range ffi-go Toi-ab-be 

^ (TimSbo ab-be 

Tuber Canyon Tu-vah noo-pe 

Tule Spring , x „ , . / « 

(3 miles above Eagle Borax Works)..... Yah-e-var-ra 

IPa-boo-nah 
Pah-bah'-supl"' . 
Poo-we char-ring-gah* 

(Sin-no-var*,* 

Wild Rose Spring (Soo-nah-bar-re°- 

-var- 

Willow Creek Canyon , rook canyon 

(clear to top; deepest of all) Tim-bit-tah no-noo-pe 

Windy Gap (Wingard Paso ) (Too-wii- ie-hoo-no'" 

( To-nin!-che-Tia 



T>V- 



• I 

« 



OTHER 



Ah-pi-ohe . . . ♦ 



I V 



Kahp-8a-kum. 



Ko-90-ze-um. 



Kwe-am-mit... 



Mo'-go-neu ; 
Mo-go-neuk. . . 



>/ . 



N6m-bi-je..., 



INDIAN TRIBES AND BANDS 



Name used by the Death Valley Panamint 
^S^w*?"® inhabiting north-central part 
of Mohave Desert about Avawatz Mta. 
and Soda Lake (SE of Death Valley). 



Name used by the Panamint of Darwin 

for Yokut tribes of the Tule Rirer-Visalia 
region. 



Name used by the Olanoha Pakwasitoh 

for related band in Coso Mts. [same tribe 
as at Olanoha] . 



Name used by the Olanoha Pakwasitoh 
for the Owens Valley Piute at Bishop. 
Benton, and Round Valley— band usualiv 
included under Pan-nJlirl - 



Name used by Panamint Shoihone of Death 
Valley, Panamint Valley & Owens Lake 
for bands in Mohave Desert incl. Antelope 
Vallev, Tehachapi & Tejon Mts.: believed 
also to incl. the band at Canebrake in 
Walker Pass & the Chimaweve of Colorado Riv 



Name or nickname used by Olancha Pakwasitoh 
as an alternate for Pan-na:.wa of Owens 
Vall«y from Lone Pine N io Bishop, Benton, 



and Round Valley. 



- 2 - 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE NAMES FOR THEIR OWN AND OTHER 

INDIAN TRIBES AND BANDS 



Pah-be-o-zo . . 



Name used by the Olancha Pakwasitoh 

for 'Piute' of Long Valley, Mono Lake, 
and northward. 



Pah-mi&'-dah. . 



Name used by the Panamint of Darwin 

for Tokut tribes of the Fresno region. 



Pan-na-wa. . . . 



Name used by Panamint Shoshone of Death 
Valley, Panamint Valley, & Owens Lake 

xi^l ^i?*? °^ S^®°s Valley from Lone Pine 
N to Bishop, Benton, & Round Valley. 



Pi-yu^tse ; 
Pi-yuoh... 



Name used by Panamint Shoshone of Death 
Valley and Owens Lake for Southern Piute 
of Amargosa, Ash Meadows, Las Vegas, 
& Moapa: also believed to incl. Barstow 
& Dagget m Mohave Desert. 



So-Bo'-ne 



Name used by the Olancha Pakwasitoh 

for Southern Shoshone of Central Nevada, 

^^®i-w^^*A.^2"$P,^» ^0"»d Mt., Gold Mt. 
(and W to Pish Lake Valley?) 



Tan-de-wibh. . 



Name used by the Olanoha Pakwasitoh 
for Shoshone an tribe in Northern part 
of Mohave Desert (incl. Searls Lake 
and Soda Lake ) . 



Tim-pe-sha-se 



Name used by the Olancha Pakwasitoh 

for their own bands in Death Valley and 
Panamint Valley. 



- 3 - 



I 

« 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE NMJilS 1?0R THEIR OWN AND OTHER 

INDIAN TRIBES AND BANDS 



PANAMINT SHOSHONE NAMES FOR THEIR OWN AND OTHER 

INDIAN TRIBES AND BANDS 



DY Band In Death Valley 

Band at Olanoha on Owens Lake 

F Panamint Band 



To-boon or 
To-vo-an*t, 



Name used by the Panamint of Darwin 
for the Tnbolelob'eia of Kern Valley. 



/ • 



Yah-vitoh or 
Wah'-bitch.... 



Nickname used by the Olanoha Pakwasitch 
for the TubotelotTfila of Kern Valley. 



ABargoea^ Aah Meadows, Las Tegaa» & Moapa 

Antelope Talley (west «id Hohaye Desert) inol. 
Ttiiaohapl and Tejon Mts« 

Bars tow and Dagget (Mohave Desert) 

Bishop south to Lone Pine, Owens Talley 



Bishop north to Round Valley and Benton , 
Owens Talley 

Oanehrake (WaUcer Pass tribe) & 3W in Ifts. to 
T^aoahpi 

ChimaweTe of Colorado River 

Colorado RiTer to Tehaohapi ( Ubhaye Desert) 

Ooso Mts« (Panamint Shoshone same as at Olanoha) 



Pi-yoooh 
Piyutse 



/ O.T>V 



TO 



Ho-go-nen 

Piyutse 

Pan-na«wi ( also 
called Nomf-bi-Je) 

(Pan-na«wa 
(Ewe-amimit"^ 



Ho-go-neua 



Ho-go-neu 

Mo'«>go«neu (••good people'*) 

Eo-so-ze-um 



Deat^ Valley & Panamint Valley (Panamint Shosh) Tim-be- sha-se^ 



Fresno region Indians ( Yoknit stock) 

Qold Ift«| Shoshone of Central Her. , Round Mt., 
Lidai Tonopah & W to Fish Lake Val« 

Kem Valley » Tubotelobela 



Pah-min-dah 



3>. 



O. 



Sosone 

To-boon' or To-ro-an^ 
Tah-Titoh^or Wah-bltoh 

(nickname) 



Las Vegas (including Amargosa, Ash Meadowm and 
Moapa) 

Lida, Tonopahy Roxind Mt., Gold Mt., and W to 
Fish Lake Val. » Shoshone of Central Her. 

Long Valley tribe, **same as at Mono Lake"* 



' ODV 



Pl-yooch 



Sosone^* 



Pah-be-o-zo 



0. 



Panamlnt Shoshone Names for their own and other Indian Tribes 

and Bands (Cont^d.) 



-2- 



Moapa (Including Amargosa, Ash Meadows » and 
Las Vegas) 

Mohave Desert tribes (Colorado River west to 
Tehaohapl) 

Northern part Including Searls Lake & Soda 
Lake 



Pl-yoooh 



'O.IiV 



jkntelope Valley 

Barstow & Dagget 

Avawatoh Mts., SS of Death Valley and W to 
Soda Lake 

Mono Lake Piute and northward 

Mt« Hagruder 



Tan-de-*wioh (sooalled 
by Pakwasltch of 
Olanoha) 

Mb-*go-*neu 

Plyu'tse^^' 

Ah-pl'-che 
Pah'-be-o-zo^*^^ 



Olanoha 9 Owens Lake band of Panamlnt Shoshone Pab^kwah-sltoh^* 



Owens Lake 9 Olanoha band of Panamlnt Shoshone 

Owens Valley Pl-ute, Lone Pine north to Big 
Pine, Bishop and Benton (Round Valley same) 



Panamlnt Shoshone 

Death and Panamlnt Valleys 

Olanoha 9 Owens Lake 

Coso Mts« 

Pl-yu^ohe of Amargosa, Ash Meadows » Las Vegas, 
and Moapa 

Round Valley Piute (same as Owens Valley from 
Lone Pine north to Big Pine, Bishop and 
Benton) 

Round Mt. Shoshone 



./ 



(Pan-ni-wi 

(also called Nom-bi'-Je 

(Tlm^be-sha-se^ 
(Tlm^pe-shas-se^' 

Pah^kwah* sit oh^' 



Ko«>80-*ze-um 



I 



.O.T>V 



Pl-y^oek (Pl-yuoh) 

Pl-ifiijkw -[ 

(Kwe-am-mlt^' 

(Pan-ni-wa^' 

(also oalled Nom-bi-je 



So-so-ne^' 



-3- 



Panamlnt Shoshone Names for their own and other Indian Tribes 



and Bands (Cont^d.) 



Searls Lake and Soda Lake (Included In Northern 
Mohave Desert) 



Southern Shoshone (Central Nov., Llda, Tonopah. 
Round Mt«, Gtold Mt., & W to Pish Lake Valley] 

Tehaohapl & easterly to Colorado River 



Tonopah, Shoshone of Central Nev* , Llda, Round Mt« 
Gk>ld Mt., & W to Fish Lake Valley 

Tubotelobela of Kern Valley 



Tule River Yokuts (Portervllle S to Vlsalla) 

Walker Pass tribe (Canebrake) same as at 
Tehaohapl 

Yokuts (stook) 

Fresno region Indians 

Tule River (Portervllle S to Vlsalla) 



Tan-de-wich^* 

(so called by Pale* 
was Itch of Olanoha 



3o*so-ne 



«* / 



(Mo-go*nuah 
(Mo^go-neu 



^-so-ne 



o. 



35. 



(To«boon or To-vo«an 
(Yah-.vltch';;Wah-bltoh 

(nickname) 

-se- 
Eahp«sa«*kum 

Mo-go-neua jjiNoo-oo-ati} 



Pah-mln-dah 
Kahp-sa-kum^ 



"P. 



^'^/c^ ^^C^7t€> ^ / /U^i'/t^*€4^^ ji^U^^^*^ 



>^/^3 u. ' y" / (^^f 



Rv 



^^uJv 



PANAJ.1INT Greographic names to be provided for in 

Panaraint lists. 

Panaraint Valley^i^VW^-^ Kingston Mountains 

Death ValleyT^>^-^*^$^»-^^''*^^^•»^ "jo'^^^^ Mountains Ut-'^cLk-^^kwl-A 



u 

* 



Mesquite Valley (U.>.HA.k 
Soling Valley- Ko'^Vxo 

Amargosa - • .0-^A."t<i 
Ash Meadows KoI-^^kK Wt>^2.<j;; 
Oasis Valley .Sc'^^o^kuH 

Bullfrog 

Pahrurap ^^^^^-^.-^^^ 
Owens vklfey. jl 
Deep Sprir^s Valley 
Borax Flat 

Windy Gap Too-'niYv''^^^ wo<>* ks^H 
Emigrant Gap 

Funeral Mountains^ Too. |tj^^i^ 
Grapevine Ifountains 

Gold Mountain 

Mt. McGruder 



O^yens Lake ^^ ?£>u{.le-<i*-1:oL 

Uttle Lake ^ P^^ VXV-A/v 
Hawe Meadows ^ IrwA^k'^ y<- vc^ 

Cottonwood Canyon^ Uouk-xy^^rit. 
Shepard * • Tctk.k^K'^ v^hvk 

Bendife • 
Death^V^lley <.^. • Ak^^ 
Boundarjr " 

Grapevine " 

Puraace Creek *• 

Sar at oga Spr i Dgs ^ "hno^ ^-^^ 
Mesquite Wells ^ 
Bennett Wells 'To<;-|a 









\ 



VS}-tvKk 



oV C^v.. 



C^^^tv 



r 



Cerrojprdo Moimtaina ^^-►->- ^'«Jt.Y^K'>>^« >*»a ^<>.^^^^ 

Inyo Mount ainB Kv»v'-KtVv»»o{:> v*-^ 

ArgOB Mountaina - . \H«^^ T^«**- '»' 

CoBO Mountaina _ -Kt Vo ^jj^ kc - a^v ^ 
Slat© MoxmtainB - N«-^» - -Sak- w<vK<»^ 



^'^ ^M ^-^ WL 



V(^3 



"^ W-2 



^rsr 



SV\osV>6rv£^ 



SoJtKexvN 9Cs>c^ 




e)o//& 



c 



K> 



a 



30UTHEEN PIUTE 



Of the Southern Piute tribes, the Chemeweve and 
Nuvehendit may be regarded as the most typical, with 
Ute standing somowhpt to one side. The Newoofih and 
Tolchinne tribes, while closely related to one another 
end belonging to the same group, ere the most aberrant 
Some of their words are common to Monache, others to 
Panamint and Fakwar.idje Shoshone, and, strange as it 
may appeer, some are common to Horthem Piute. This 



becruse of the wide geogrsphic 



is the moroyv.! 




seperfition of these tribes — a separation thrt must 
date btck to i very remote period. 



Ar 



:iARLY 3PSLLINGJ OF JOUTHtHN PIUr3 Of PAIIUTS 

(Incomplete) 



Payuc'iis 



La Fora(raap) 1766-72 Southern Utah 
Payuchaa h. Payuches Garcea 



1776 oouthern Utah 



Payuches 
Utahs Payuches 
Tutas Payuchis 
lutaa Payuchis 

Payucha 

Payuches 

Pa Ulchea (error fo: 
<:i^ U tchesjL 



Kacalante 



1776 



Northern Ariz. 
Southern Utah 



y 



bnt (map) 1777 H>«ttw:;ttira^Mi?«*A 



Gortez 



1799 aouthem Utah 



J. anith(1826) 1B27 Muddy R.. Nevada 



Payuches (Payouches) Araijo (1829) 1830 3 Ariz, h 3 Nev. 



Pa Utches 



Eu^t-a 



Piutes 



Piutea 



^ 



J* Smith(1826) 1833 LIuddy R., Nevada 



Earrihana 



John Minn 



1843 oevier R^.Utah 



1844 



Between the Col- 
orado and Great 
oalt Lake 



Pah-Utah 



Fremont (map) 1844 iuddv Ht region 

north of Vegas 



im-mmt^^im^ 



■^r* 



i^Mot published till L^o4 
if^In French translation. 



."* 



-i? 




Piutea 



Paiuchea 



T.J. Famhfim 



1R44 d Utah 



T.J. Famham 1844 

(afjbrer Dr. Lyman) 



o Utah 



Pa-utah 



Pa-Utah 



FraiAont. (text) 



1R45 JJta.head R. Virgin 



tlitchell (map & 

t«Tt) 1^^ 



oouthem (N of 
Ve^s) 



Pa-utah 



Paiuchea 



Pah Utah 



Piyutah 



Pah -Utah 



aifuB B, 3a|58(1843)lR46 oouthem Utah 



dinipaon (map) 
C.a,Kella ? 



i^rton (ia46) 



Bryant (raap) 



lR4fl o Nev.& w Utah 
1848 iSoutliarn Ut^ 
1^49 jouthem Utoh . 



1R49 



% of Virgin R, 



Pah-Utah h Pah Utah Colton (map) 1849 diS Nevada 



Pa-Utah 



Ord 



mSO 3 part :.lohave 

iJeaert 



Pah-Utaha 



lilaatraan 



1852 



3 Nevada (map 
in Jchoolcrqft) 



Pah Utaha.Pah Utea Stanabury 



1^52 Utah Valley 



"T 



7 pah-utah 



Pah Utaha 



Pah -Utea 



Bonneville 



i}itgr3avea 



18o3 T (map by U)lton) 



iPuS ii Nevada 



Los Angplea dtar 18 j3 ilohave >ieaert 




3d 



Pah-Utaha 



Heap 



1R54 



uanta Clara & 
Muddy iiivers 



Pah Utaha 
(Cheneweve) 



.Vliip.)l3 ^' Ivea 1^54 Colorado R. fcolow 
"(map) Needlea 



fAountain Pai4Itea 


^^ipple 


lfl54 (or 
lBo6) 


Mohave Desert 


Pi -^-chaa 


Gray 68 


1854 


iiouthem 


Pah-Utah 


Beckwith (lBo3 1855 
text) 


ievier lU^Utah 


Pcihutas 


llerriwether 


18o5 


Arizona 



Pah Dtah 



Beckwith (map)1855 So-contral Nevada 



Pah Utah h 
Pah^Utah 



"Paiutes or Cheme 
huevis"; Pai* 
Utea; Payuchea 

Pah -Utaha 



Pah -Utah a 



Pi-u-chea 



PaiHiteC Pah-Utah) 1 
Pai-utea. Pai-Ute > Whipple 
Paiutes J 



BeckvitMte 


>xt)1855 


W-central Utah 

1 


'.mipple 


f r 

1855 


IColorado iUver-s 


\^fl^\ypl^ 


l^S? 


S J-o. kctke. 


Whipple 


1855 

* 


oO. Utah 


I^rt 


1856 


Southern Utah 


Beckwou rth 


1856 


.iiouthem Utah 


• 

WhioQle 


1856 


oouthem Utah 



Piutea, Piuchea, \ 

Pal -Utea, Pah^^Tutes^ tipple, 

Pa-Yutea J2ubank & Turner 1856 



Colorado R# region 



SOUTUBBN PIUT8 3 



31 



Pahutes 
Pah Utes 
Pah Utahs 

« 

Fah-Utahs 

ft 

Pah-Utea 



Carvalho (1854) 1857 



Pah-utes 



Pal Utahs and 
- Pai-Ute 

Ta-Vl - VXVt 

Payupitas 



Teyute and 
Pey-utes 

Peh-Utes 

Pah Utah 

Pahutes 

Pai-Utes 

Pah Utes 

Pah-Utes 

Pah-Utes 



Warren (map) 
lyes iw&^) 
Hollhausen 
Lang« (nap) 



1857 

I ^s^ 

1858 
1858 
1858 



^ 



J«U.Si]npaoii(1858) 1859 



Boaenech 
Reiay (1855) 



Forney 
Forney 
J, S.Benjamin 



1860 

\^(i>t) 

1860 
1861 



1860 
1860 
1862 



Muddy & Virgin region 
W of Needles, Calif 
NW of Yeges.Neyada 



Yh»V.o^VA> S>*j«^; IMS'*! <f H»«<tl«*.,| 



HW of Bend of Colo- 
rado Eiver 



W Utah 



Hew Mexico ? 

Southwestern Utah 



CoBMr.Ind.Affrs. 1863 



T.O.W.Sale 



O.U.Irish 



T.T.Dwight 



P.U.Head 



1865 



1865 



1868 



1868 



Nerada & Utah 
Southern Utah 
SB Nerada 



B NeT.and W.Utah 



SW Utah 



So. Central Utah 






3^. 



Pab-Utes 



Font on 



1870 Utah and Arizona 



■ i 



Pah Utes 



Pah Dtes 



Roger Jones 



Jones 



1870 Colorado RiTer 



1870 Bend of Colorado to 
Dianond River 



Pi-Ute 



F.A. Walker 



1872 SB ReTada m d 3> Utah 



Pi~Uto8 
Pei-Utes 



G.W.Ingalls 

J. V. Powell 
(lff71-73) 



1872 
1874 



SB Merada & So Utah 
SE HeTada & So .Utah 



Pi-Utes 



CoBinr.Ind.Affrs. 1874 SB Merada 



Pah-Utes 



6. H. Wheeler 



1875 B Nerada 



Southern Payntea Oscar Loev 



Pah-Utes 



A. J .Barnes 



1876 Colorado River 



1876 



onHloapa "P.*' "Rtttvvft-V.oia 



Pah-Utes 



A Pinart 



1877 Arisona 



Pah-Utes 



J. S. Campion 



1878 Moheve Desert 



Pahute 



W.W.Blliott & Co. 1883 Mohave Desert 



Pai-nta 



Gatschet 



1890 



Pai-yu -ohiBQ Mooney 



Pai-yn-tsi 
Painte 



Q 



aiute ^ 
Southern P^^ute 



ioonej 
Chamberlain 

Waterman 
Kroeber 



1896 (Hdpi name) 
1896 (HaTaho name) 



1910 

1911 
1923 



Arizona 



S- NtvoL^o- 



•5' 



33 



H 



Piute 



Piute 



Piuto 



Piute 



Piuto 



Piute 



Piute 



Piute 



Piute 



Hanford oentinol (Calif.) -larch 21,1923 



oalt Lake Tribune 



iiarch 21,1923 



oan Francisco Chronicle Iiarch 22,1923 



o^lt Lake Tribune 



Piutea Jit Lake Tribune 



Piutea .Vaahington i'oat (iJ.C,) 



dalt Lake News 



Piutea oalt Lake Tribune 



Piutes Salt Lake Teleg^-arn 



3alt Lake Tribune 



dalt Lake Telegram 



jalt Lake Tribune 



aalt Lake Tribune 



r.5arch 23.1923 . 

l^iJan Juan Co. Uca\ »tv ) 



'' ^ 



March 26, 1923 

Ciian Juan Co.U«.o.\"^^J) 



Piutes Washington Star (j.C.) ' iiarch 26,1923 



Iiarch 27.1923 

(near ...loab, Utah Uta.V\\v] 

April 5.1923 

^an Juan Co. U<LOL\^^^) 

April 6.1923 

April e,1923. 

April 9,1923 

April 14.1923 

\S<m Ju&n Go. i-oc-o-\A>j) - 



April 17.1923 
(a fi Utah 



Uoc-oc 



.\;v^) 



April 1^^,1923 



Piute 



Piute 



Piute 



Ofden City standard (Utah) April IR, 1923 

^li Jj Utah Lo«-o-^»^^(y 



oacminonto Bee (Calif.) 



3alb Lake Tribune 



Piutes iialt Lake Telegraia 



April 18.1923 

(o'ln Juan Co.LotoL\A«j 

April 2j,ly23 

April 30.1923 

yan Juan Co. UcaM^O 



35- 



^4, 



NAMKS ALLIED TO SOUIMHRN PIUTE B\0THKR TRIBKS 
Auolasus* • •? imf) n^me 



tenKate 



1885 



Nuzna««.N8me for therns elves (also 

used by the Shoshone )• 



Pa'gonotch«« .Southern Ute npme 



Gatsohet US 



Pai«*8*ti«.«P8namint name 



Uenshrw US 



Pi-yuch (Pi-uch).#.P8h-vo-wats 

Ute nriM 



CHM (MS) 



Pai-»ym ohimu.«««Uope name 



Mooney 



1896 



Pai^yu tsl« • •Navaho nam 



Uooney 



1896 



Payuchis 



Uo^ToXOl 



\iuMni 



Payuohas (and Payuches),. .(Mohave 

& Yavapiyname 



Garoes , 
Pont, & 
others 



1776-77 



v/ 






HuNNit . . . S PivcVe -yvo^me. tov V\^ tYY.se\v t . • 



K^OC^StT, 



Md\3k., ^. s'iS^ I'^as. 



i 



35 



^ 



TA^YY\c,e.lve s and, 

NAJIKS APPLIED TO SODTHBRN PIDTE Bt OTHER TRIBES 




Aadlasat. • .Piaa nem* 



ttnKatt 



1885 





E 

D 



Niauk«..NaBt for those elTtt(alao 

uatd by tbo 8ho«M^)« 



F^i|ilnotob*«*So«UMfB Qfijwwi 



Qatt^t 18 



D) 





0) 

U 






O 

0) 







• rl 



h 







■#.« 



Pl^TBdi (Pi»iBh ) • • .PaliiTO^vats 
- olo naat 



Pal-jif obim.»««Uop« luma 



Ptti •>^ja • tal« • tlafalio oaM 



Pajaohia 






B^Hiltaii IB 



(m (IB) 



ItooBay 



itoftigr 



U(k.Tot&. 







189« 



■■a 



im 



n«MT?4 



1776-1^ 



«^' 












3 6 



USE OP THE NAME PIUTE bX/R THE CHEkE-EVE 



The 



earliest known authors to use the name Piute 



(La Fora who on his mep of 1766-1772 gave £aj]i2llifl.; 
and Garcee and Font, who in 1776 and 1777 wrote it 
PaynQhaa and £ajafillfla.) did not apply it to the Chemeweve 
but to a tribe farther north. But in the fifties (1853- 
1858) the name wpa definitely applied to the Chemeweve 
by Whipple and others of the Pacific Railway Surveys, 
and by Mollhausen. and was usually written Pah-Utahs 
(both with and without the hyphen); it was also spelled 
Pah-Yutes. fitites. Pai-Yutes, and Piuches; while the 
Padre Domenech in 1860 used the pnciont spelling. 






3? 



(Nat including: the vnrious Qg^llin(.g^ of the word Che^aeweve, 
aa Uhe-aebet, Chone^^iaba. Chemehuevia, ohiraawiva. (^c. ) 



Incomplete 



Name 



Chenagnadas 



Tab Utah0 (Chern-e-hue-vis)* 



Paiutes or Chaiaohuevia 



Pah -U tab and ?ah-Utaha 



Pah-Utaha 



Payuchea 



Chime vvawaa 



Autho ri ty 



Date 



Colton (map) 



1R49 



Whipole ^ Iv03 1854 

PacxT. Rfi. iiurveys raap 



Whi pple 



1055 



Whipple 



Uollhauaen 



inOB 



juoaienach 



1R60 



J.W» In^lla 



1P72 




2f 



M^Z6 FOR TH3 CHIiTrirJSVi!: UoiSD BY OTHLffl TRIBKS +llil:IVlSElVES 



Nane 



Tribe uaing name Authority 



Mat4i^fc«e-vatch 



!*!at-jua 



Kche^ao ^hua-vaa 



Tan^-'ta^wBi ta 



Tantaw^ts 



Tontewaita 



Tantawaa 



Tantuwach 



'iliipplo 



Heintzelman 



Thomaa 



Powell 



Grata chat 



TenKate 



Ind. Coinmr* 



Kroeber 



Date 



1R56 



lRo7 



1R6R 



1B77 



1Q79 



IRRS 



1895 



1908 



• f 



sr 



Tan-tah-vats ot Tan-t'ih-vi'tat •• .lerriani l\6 



Ahalakatf . • Piraa ir\mo moaning '•agnail bows*,— Kroeber^ 
Handbook Calif, Inda^ p, u9j. 1925, 



Numi • • • Name for themselves, •• Kroeber, Handbook 
Calif, Indo,, p, 595, I92D. 



wlat-hatevach • , , Yuina name moaning '•nortbemers 
Kroeber, 'landbook Calif, Inds., p, o9o^ 1925* 



Tantawata ot Tantiiwach , • , kinsiaen^s name raeaning 
••southemers",— Kroeber, Handbook Calif, J.nds,, 
p, 59u, 1925, 



Yuakayara • • » Nane given by "oeri^no'* groups,— Kroeber, 
Hanubook Calif, Inda,, P, 595. 1925* 



v/ ?-3 o^c^'ciJc j G 5'^ 




SVnosWc — VCe.-^o^^n -na-«wuj\^ ©r "Secraoo" 



'^ '^J ) ^^ 



r 



f^^ ■ 3 




SERRANO 



According to Kroebei^^the Tehachapi-Caliente Serrano (v/hom I 
call I'lewQoah ) are called by the Chemehueve Hiniima or Hinienima; 
by the 'Mohineyai/i' Serrano of Mot^ave River and the Tejon 'Gitanemuk* 
(my K e - 1 an - a -mo o -kum ) ^ Amitushyam . Agudutsvain . or Akutusyam (which 
nar/ie I obtained from Mrs.Rosemeyre as Ah-koo-toot-se-am , slurred to 
Ah-koo-toos and Toot-se-yam. for the Tehachapi Serrano). 



SERRANO 



According to Kroeber the Tehachapi-Caliente Serrano (whom 
I call Kewooah) are called by the Chemehueve Hiniima or Hinienima ; 
by the 'Mohineyam' Serrano of Mohave River and the Tejon *Gitanemuk* 
(my Ke-tan-qLrmoo-kum ) Ag:utu Ap:udutsyam , or Akutusyam^ (which name 

I obtained from Mrs Rosemeyre as Ah-koo-toot-se-am, slurred to Ah-koo- 
toos and ^ Toot-se-yam. l^'-^^"^^^ Tli^i-cXsiv|j^ ^ajj^^uv^ } 



Kroeber states that the Mohave nam.e for these people is Kuvakhye 
from v/hich Garces derives his Cobaji , 

Mrs. Hunt and Mrs,Rosem.eyre tell me that the correct name of the 
Tejon lierranoyor Harinenat y in their own language, is ^Ke-tan i-m,oo-kuBi 



(or Ke-tah-na-mwah-kam ) and that the Gabieleno or Tongva call them 
Ko-ko-em-kam( slurred -^o-kom.-kam) , which sam.e name is applied to il\«. 
San Bernardino or Mohave desert Serrano. They appear to call them.- 



' , I 



selves also Ak-ke-ke-tain. 



Probably the bottom is not yet reached, -g^^ 



Kroeber states that the Mohave name for these people is 



Kuvakhye , from v/hich Garces derived his Cobaji. 






) 






^■;;yi^^aJ>^^ ^ A .y^^yO^ l^x^JI^ 



v^W4^^ il^^JU.,,,^^ ^j^^^^j^^^^ 



il^i'^^f^ 



y 




roeber,Shoshonean Dialects of California, 110-111, 1907 



SERI^IO TRIBES OF SAII BEK'ARDINO MOUNTAINS 

REGION 



SERRAIIO TRIBES OF SAN BERIARDINO MOUl^TAINS 

RI<]GION 



William Pablo, an intelligent Mahl-ke of Banning, tells me of 
the following Serrano tribes: 

The Morongo o r Mar- e- am --Morongo Valley 
Ah-te-ar-re-am 



'mmmmm^mmm- 




Ter-kah of Little Morongo Valley 

Mohineairi (or MoMneabneum) --Upper Mohave River? 

Mah-rali of 29 Palms [Piute?] 



Pah-o-ve-om -- 



Mar- ring- am ^^ 



^Rock Corral 
east of Airastra toK^orral Rock) on edge of Mohave 

Desert- -big country ^tu^|^^^ 3 

east of the Malil-ke^ whose territory they abut 

against from Mission Greek to Grayback Peak. 

They meet the Chemeweve Piute at Old Wcanan* s 

Spring. 



Tu-ki-pi-am occupied a strip between, north of San Bernardino 

.and including the Arrow (on the mountain slope) 
and south to Riverside, Redlands and Yucaipe Valley? 



j^Voos'-'to^vC]^ 



Wah-ah-cham —east of Yu-ki-pi-am and reaching to mouth of 

Santa Anna Canyon and to a big cave on San Bernardino 
Moimtain, ndaere they joined the Morongo. 




u 




The Morongo claimed the Pinyon country and made all other 



Indians pay toll of 1-3 the pinyon nuts .gathered. 



Oct. 1910. 



*■- 



TRIBB AND RANCHERIA NAMES OP SAN BERNARDINO 

MOUNTAINS AND VALLBT 

Obtained by me at San Mannel Reseiration (about a 
mile north of Fatten and only ten miles from Redlands) 
October 19 and 20, 1933, 

Information from "Capt." Roy Manuel, Chief of the 
Yo»hahl.vit-tea tribe at his home in San Manuel Reserration. 

In the Beginning [of tiie World], all tribes of this 
region originated in Big Bear Lake Talleyt ^lenet they spread 
in various directions. Later, the Bear Valley tribe proper 

« 

were the Pnrlvit-tem— nos extinct. 

The Wah'lne-ke'-taa came from Whitewater* They are 
called Wah-na-^poo-pi by our people (the Yn^hahlve-^tpmL 

llRhllkft is the original place name of Horongo 
Pass— -not a tribal name. 



vk§ng-nt is our fYn>hah-Te-timl name for Horongo 



Reservation. 



Some say that Ya-ki*>pa is the proper name of the 
tribe on the west side of San Gorgonio Pass; others, that 
it is a Mexican name and that the original and proper name 
of the tribe is Sah^^hahtlpah t others say that Sflji>phaht«>pah 
is the name of Yn>i>ki'->pa^ rancheria — which 1 believe to be 
correct. ^Lots of people lived there*** 

San Gorgonio Pass is 




earth 
Redlands is Terivart 



red 




(or *Hftri ng-1tth ^ 



-2- 



fl UB g-Qn-ynt is the tribe in the foothils south 
of Redlands aid east and southeast of Colton. 

The name of the San Bernardino tribe is Wah-ahl > 
dm; their rancheria, Wah^ahicha-vah ^ The eastern 



part of San Bernardino including the old cemetery, is 
HoLkah-fltahlte ("White Deer**). 

San Bernardino has grown so big that it now 
covers Yubitta Springs f Poo'^lit band). 

Pasadena is Ar-ralre ah-sah^ 



The Indians at San Manuel Reservation tell me that 

the original name of San Bernardino Mission was Wah--ahl-Qha-bit ! 

land level 
the level valley or plain on which it stands, Ter^vart-he-dSn kum. 

The so-called ^ Morongo ^ tribe consists of Indians 
of more than one band, the dominant one being Yu-hah-Y?it-^CTl 
(or Yo-hah-ve-tum )^ now here on the San Manuel Reservation 
at Pat ton, a few miles north of Redlands. They are often 
called ** Serrano of San Bernardino** and appear to be the 
"" Mo-he-ah-ne-um ** . thou^ they tell me that the Mission Creek 
country was the original home of the ^ Tto-hah-ne-nm* *. They 
tell me that the Wun-a-pa-pi^-ah were the **original Morongo" 
and came from farther east, and that a few still live at 
Morongo and a few at Palm Springs. 

The tribe from Pasadena and San Gabriel easterly 
to Jurupa Hills (just west of Riverside) called themselves 
KoolkoQ-mojlah ^ They are commonly known as ^Gabrielenos' 
and spoke the same language as the Femandinos . San Fernando 
Valley f Tong-vSl 






.^.juu^ -^ o^Wvw -^ ^<^ I^ouvkaV 



^SEERANO'* SERIES: Mohave Desert and San i^mardino Mts* 






sKetanemwits 



Ic^WW 



Ketanamookum and Mohineyam (closely related) 






Maringam Morongo of Mission Creek. 
Mfire, 29 Palms (no vocabulary) 
Koostam — Yukipe (no vocabulary) 
San Pemandino 
San Qabrieleno 



; r 



>^ 



; "CAHUILLA** SERIES 



1 



^ikatchma 



AkatchmaYy 

A^ .If; v'. V, 



1 <A. _ 



Kahwesik 



Piynmko 
SovoVa ? 

* 

kahlke 







a), Banning - Whitewater 



Kahwesetem , Palm Spgs. & Colo. Desert bands 



Pow-we-yam , Cahuilla Yalley 

Pan-yik-tem , Palm Canyon (Andreas Canyon to 

west fork "^anyon) 



Wah-ko-chim kut^tem . Upper Palm Canyon (to Santa 

Rosa its.) 

Wa-'We-ig'-tem ( ge'-^is^tem) San Ysidro to Santa 

BDsa St. dead village Wil-yah. 



\ Koopan ^ TKoo^a., Aqua Caliente, Warner Valley. 



h\:-OLW ock 



r 




T^V;W^UloUU> V"*^^^^^^^^^'^^^^ 



•«*«J^A., 



/^, Vvvx o ^ h o- K^- V * ^ 



0) 

£ 

D 




C 











O 

0) 








3c t^Ou-WvA-V" 



^^SSBRANO" SERIES: Mohare Desert and San Bernardino Mts. 






Ketanamookum and Mo hi na y am (closely relitod) 



Ketanamwita< 



Tr-V 



l 






\ . 



Maringam Morongo of mission Creak. 
Mara . 29 Palms (no vocabulary) 

ft 

Koostam —Ynkipe (no Yocabulary) 
San Pemandino 
San ^brieleno 



"OAHUILLA" SEEISS 



ikatehatta 



■v-*- 



T 









9 



SoToVa 1 



Mahlke 






I 



Xahweeik 



'S 




), Banning - Whitewatar 



Kahweaatam . Palm 3pg8. & Colo.Desart bands 
Powiw^-yam . Cahnilla Vallty 



Pan- 



yik-tam . Palm Canyon (^drtas Canvon to 

Wast Jlork '^anyon) 



» / 



Wah-ko~diim tait^tem . Upper Palm Oanyon (to Santa 

Bosa Mts . ) 

WS-.wa-is'^toa ( Wg'tis^tam) San Isidro to 3anta 

«a It. Head Tillage Wil^ytli. 




:oo ptj| " {Koopa . iquB Caliente, Warner Valley. 



^^.«.t\'a.K. 



r 



T U.Wc^^ \.ol C 1 (»,-.x-T T ' ^ '^' ^'^ ^ U'>^ O 1 ?? 



■<i n »M»c - g " "' W *i' " iiii»i ^ m k .^ 



f\ Hvq - Viak. 




I r. i 1 1 »- * 



;V o,^^ u. iwr^-^ 






■<^ 



•l^^utoAO^VW 



A/Jg- 








/ ■ ^ ■ 




\^ 



jS j;;./J 3^U 






3UM-0-' 



%K 



V 



» r 



SroSl '^K<}-y'M.- V -^""^ 






\ 







M 2- . 



5? 




;-f \\:Vrvs— 



ft-gvHlu.^ u O/YTl J (^aM^jJ:Z^Ctyr/^^ erf 



c2, 



Q^^ 



^ 










Geum rossii 



Sibbaldia 
procurabens 



Saxi f ra^ 
nivall 



Gent i ana 
tenella 



istic of 
Arctic Re- 
gion. 



Saxifra^ 
nivalis 



Gent i ana 
tenella 



Sxtracts from Liat of Alpine Plants 
of Rocky .fountain Region 



Occuring also Occuring also Peculi^ to 
,n Asia in iiirope or N^A^but 

Greenland character- 
istic of 
Arctic Re- 



Geum rossii 

oibbaldia 
pnocumbens, 



gion. 



Saxifr^ - 
mvalia 



Qentiana 
tenella 



3axi 



nivalis 



Gentiana 
tenella 




c^ 



I . f) - , "- ' 






















KU^V^ ^16.- «*^ 




> 



/ 



lU 



In the San Bernardino Mountains from approximately the 



latitude of San Bernardino easterly to San Gorgonio Pass there 



7^ 



? 



y 



are today remnants of two tribes of the same linguistic stock— 
the stock commonly known by the Spanish -Mexican name "Serrano". 
The names these people use for themselves are Mar-re-vi-am 



(or Mah -ring -ah -yum) and Yo-hah-ve-tum. 



y 



Today the survivors occupy essentially the same territory- 
the southerly slopes of San Bernardino Mountains. But\ before 



xAsA^ 



interference by the whites^ the Yo -hah -ve -turn lived^farther west 
and higher in the mountains, occapying (^^ least in summer) the 

great Bear Lake Valley. Some of them claim territory easterly 
as far as Mission and Morongo Creeks— but ^t hi 3/t»-h6a?4-"ttr- believe . 
Their westera limit appears to have been a little east of the 

latitude of Little Bear Vjlley, for another tribe or subtribe 

( Per-ve-tum ^now said to be extinct) held Little Bear Valley and 



tT^ence westerly to Cajon Pass. The well-known rancheria Mus-ki'-a-bit 



C2J 



in Gajon Pass belonged to t^ein. 



( &<:,.<?^'-'t"-'^*A. 




^^^^*2l4) 



The tribe calVtYiemselves Mar -r e -v i -m .^ s the San Gorgonio 



^^j^JUkT^MZ^ cju^U-**; 




kc^ 



Pass regibK^^acnaCM^^^oSzali^ iVthe slopes above Redlands 



and San Bernardino. Survivors of the later group are now 
living on Sand Greek ifi"*^ the foot slopes north of Patton. 



Adjoining them on the south are tfe©- tribes commonly' 
called Cahuillar^the San^Gorgonio-Whitewater region and thence 



south 



f'^^l^ese, the .one on t>e upp«T waters of Whitel^rater 



call themselves Wa^-ne-pe-pi^lL (Pablo's tribe) . 






In the San Bernardino Mountains from Approximately 
the latitude of K ee Roo^Qr oK^ -J T id K u dlauijo easterly 




A 



''^^i>. 



'^ 



*"-\ 



are today remnants of two tribes of the same linguistic 




ipanislj^ame 



stock nb^tock commonly c^HrBd/bj-tba 

^tJerranp^^ The names these people use for themselves are 
Mar-re-vi-am '^ (or Mah -r i ng -ah -y un tf and yo-hah-ve-tum , ^ Today 
the survivors occupy essentially the same territory — the . 
southerlii slopes of ban iiernardino Mountains^ 3ut before 
interference by the whites the Y o-hah'^-ve-tuii i lived^higher in , 
the mountains, occupying ^in summerythe great Bear Lake Valley^ ^^(k^ ^ 

^easterly as far as Mission ^?^Sk and Morongo Ureek5«t-4te-*6et ^"^S 
enA-ol M^r-m^ Ya lloy. Their western lir it appears to have been 



a little eas 
another^s^subt 



t of the latitude of Little iiear Valley althou - g h-^-^^v^ 
Bibe (Per -ve -t uni^hel d Little Bear Valley and thence 



west^' ^apfeorontl ? to Uaion Pas^ and oooupie j The well-known 
Kancheri^a Mus -k i >a - b i t]^> ^ The (XtJter tribe^ tho o ao ^callgg;; 



them- 




:-K.. 



selves Mar-re-vi-an JA i-fr-t h o e a st (jand Mah-ring-ah-yum in the 

wes-t-H&fi^fr-^^^^i^^^^^^^a^ slopes above Kedlands and ban i:5ernardino$;53 
^uT'^ljirors^ of the latei* group are novTriving on band^ Ure^E^wWch 
t hey - oftll -lfrafMft^t , jf fiilr^ - iiic h iM is/<;gog>^o^ly called (Jahuilla, 



of the ban liorgonio-Hhite Jiater region and thence south. 




.^/ifhe one 4n the upper waters of 
white Water call themselves W ah-ne >pe'- pi^-ah ^Pablo's tribe"} • 



Th6 Wah-ne-pe-pi-ah 




known also by the name W ah-ne-ke-tem > 



4^ 



• t>>e Palm Springs tribe (also Gah-we-ahj. Owin.^ to the 



apDarent non- existence of survivors of t^e kohave Desert tribes 



s-e444-effiefits^ of whom were- found by liarces along 4^8 Mohave 



Hiver and its head^vaters on the north slope of the mountains, 
i have been unable to d i sc gv ier^the boundary between so-called 



Serrano of the mountains and the tribe occupying scattered 



locations dtwater holes on %*» Mohave Desert. The only 



positive information obtained is that Uhemeweve Indiana held 



Old Woman Springs. Whether or not the settlements along 



Mohave Kiver belong to the same tribe (the Beneme of liarces) 



is still uncertain. 



Whether or not the Indians of the northern part of ban 



Bernardino Valley were Mar-re-vi-am (Mah-ring-ah-yumj or 



lo-hah-ve-tum is not positively known, although fjax the fact 



They originally occupied Morongo ^al i- loy -JiQ the divide^ at-i4* 
head (east) this divide separating their tribe from that of 



that the Yo-hah-ve-tum claimed the northern habitable parts 



D 



4 of ban Bernardino Mountains might imply that the Valley Indians 



were Mah -ring -ah -yum. in fact, the Ma^ -ring -ah -yum ciaim the 



sout^-erly slope of the mountains and bordering parts of the 



valley including the whole of Yucipa Valley and thence easterly 



over ban (Jorgonio fass and on tb the divide between korongo 



Valley and 29 Palms. 



U 



♦ the beginning of the world all tribes of t>is region originated 



in the valley of J:3ig Bear Lake whence tl^ey gradually spread 



in various directions, later that the original ijear Valley 



people became the Per-ve-tum of Little 13ear Valley region. 



Mahr-king-ah is the liabitat name given by the Mah-ring-ah-y 



urn 



for t>eir own territory, xhe eastern part of this territory 
is called Mahl^ke by the Uahuilla. The Mah -ring -ah -yum 



state that they used to go to ir^ear Valley for pine nuts, xhey 



stafee definitely that they are^'coyote'^people, that the 'other 



tribe is 'raven; although the oecT^e of f&lm Springs are wild 
car . 



Uhief Roy Manuel of the lo-hah-ve-tum tribe states that in 



NAilES FOB OTHER INDIAN TRIB5S III LANGUAGE OP THE KB^TAH-Ni-MDO-KUM . ^ 

(NICKNAMED HAlT-ME-NAT) 

Their name for themselves: Ke-tah-neh-mwits ( •Serrano •) name 

Ke-teh-no-mwah-ken or Ke-taH-na- for themselves, 
moo-kum 



Ham-me-nct: Nickname for Ke~tah-na-moo- 
kum in their own languagejKc-ko'-em- 
kam in San Gabriel (Tongva). 



Pah^pah-ve-a-tam (old chief 
Ife-nrf-ka) 

Wahm-kan-ne-jam 




[am-met-wel-le (Chief Te-no-kah) 

(Patch-ah-mi^^-ko-pe-a-tam (in Serrano) 
lYow-wel-man^ne (in their own language 



I- 



(Pah-pi-na-mo-naa 

IPah-pi-nahHRwa-krai (Tongva of Ssn 
^ Gabriel 
Ah-koo-too-tse-yam: So. Piute Nuwuwah 

Ta-che: Yokut tribe 

Pal-la-a-me; Pal-lah-wa^^-e-yam 

Sik^-koii 

iu-V8-pe-a-tum; Too-va-pe*a-tam 

Noo-chan-itch 

Ko-sah-ne-hung-o-kum (ra'^mean lennuage" 
—very harsh and unintelligible) 

Too-nahi-me-yaEical led jo^-^lf^^^jmn 
by themselves in their own language- 



Teion Mts* at the Pass ("Kl Paso*^) 
They called tjieir language of 
Ke- tah-nah-mwa -kum 
Ke'-tah-nah-^wits 



Bskersfield Plain including 
Lake to Ten on foothills (one old 
woman still alive at Tejon) 

Luena Vista Lake? or farther, maybe 
toward San Lais Obispo. (Language 
unique). 

Buena Vista Lake laiguage very old 
and harsh* All dead* 

Bakersfield Plain (nearly estinct; 
few on Tule Hiver). 



San Babriel Valley 

Tehachapi (to Paint e Ut*) 

Tulare Lake 

Pozo Plat 

White River 

Valley of South J?ork Kern to below 
Piute Mt* [Too-bot-e-lob-eHa] 

Mts* near Tule i^iver? 

Buena Ventura and Santa Barbara 
tribe* [Ohumash] 

'i 
3rd Laguna (west of Buena Vista 
"^Lake)* Language unique. . ^ 



Ko-kc-em-kam (slurred Ko-kom-kam) 



Name given Ke-tah-na-mwa-lfan of 
SW Mohave Desert i San Bbmardino 
Fts* by the San Gabriel Tongva. ^, 



4 ^ 






IfKi^vl 




v^WUl^t^-t'^^r OLKo] 



Ah--ho-naT: Marii^aB name for Banning (place » not tribe*) 

A-ko-pe-av: Maringew na«e for Beaumont; Mahlke village of 
:fah-ah-Gl)a''-vah at sa^' it of Pass* 

Hah'-\re: Karingam name for Palm Springs ER Station (Cahuilla 
territory)* 

liomHRis-^iiil: I'aringam same for Mission Creek* 

Nahl!-ke: The Agency (Potrero) and Indian reserration near Banning* 
in Haringam language, 

Mah-rah: Uaringam name for 29 Palms* 

Morongo; Maringara name of Morongo Valley, tasiiau Often used by 
neighboring tribes and by lAites also as tribal name. 

iul-ke or Mahl-ke; Maringam name for Morongo Eeservation near 
Banning* 

Mus-ki-a-bit: Karingam name for Muscupiabe, Tiiere Cajon Pass 

Canyon widens looking south, (fbn er Koostam village there)* 

c 

Fah>rn>Tah#^At-tfiai-iDi: Maringam naads for lihitewater Birer* 

We-hi-e-kah: Karingam nane for Cal)ezon (in San Gorgonio Pass). 

7a>ld'%: l^aringam nane for Yucaipe Valley, southeast of Bedlands. 
(Kooatan territory. Pomer Tillage there). 



• .l» 



Morongo: ^aringam name of Morongo Valley tribe. Often used by 
neighboring tribes and by whites also as tribal name. 



Lu 



\ ^ 



\> 



«l 







Ham-me-nat: Nickname for Kpltah-nfinn^fits in their own langufsge. 
Called Ko-ko-em-kam by San Gabriel (Tongva). 

Ke-tah'^nahnaun: '^^errano" in language of Mo-he-ah-ne-um of San 
Bernardino Mb. Doubtless Ke-tan-a-mu-kun of western Mohave 
Desert* 

P'e-tah-na-mTOh-kan: Ke-teh-na-mwits of western Mohave Desert* ; 

(* Serrano') Their name for themselves. 



;^o-ko-em-kam (slurred Ko-kom-kam): Name given Ke-tah-na-mwah-kan 
of western Kohave Desert ard "an Bernardino Mts. by the Tongva 
of San Gabriel* 

^Cahuilla'* 
IJahl-ke: a Tribe whose territory included Banning Eeservation 

northeast of Banning* Their name for themselves* 

!ter-ring-am: Eehl-ke name for"Serran6*'tribe^:east of themselves 
which they abut agsinst from Mission Creek to Grayback Peak. 

rohineem or Kchineahneum: I'fihl-ke name for''Seirr6nb''tribe in 
mountains north of San Bernardino end adjacent part of 
Mohave Desert* 



T i 



orongo or Mar-e-aw: Kehl-ke name for"Serr8n<J"tribe of Uorongo 

Valley end liission Creek. 

Vtor-ron-go: Keh-we-sik-temtof Palm Sprir?,^ nane for tribe in 
Morongo Galley (Ua rings*). 



^i 



•4 



• \ 



Pah'-o-vah: Maringam name for Mahrah band and village, 8 or 9 miles 
east of 29 Pains. 

Pah-o-ve-am: MaM-ke name for brmd east of Arastro to Rock Corral 
(east of 29 Palms) on edge of Uohare Desert.— "big country". 

Su-wu-nah Ttihk-tahm: Ma-ring^m (of Morongo) nane for "Serrano". 

Ter-kah: Mahl-ke naine for related band in Little Morongo Valley* 



vr 



ah-ah<*di8B: Mahl-ke name for tribe northeast of Yu-ki-pi-am, 
reaching to mouth of Santr Ana Canyon aid to a big cave on 
San Bernardino Mt* where they joined the Morongo. 



Wahni*ne-ke-tujn: Kah-we-sik name for Mahl'^ke. 

Wan-^nah-pe-ap^pe-ah: Maringam napa e for Mahl-ke of Banning Heserva- 

tion* 
tion* 

lu-ki-pi-aai: ^ahlke naie for KoosUam, the tribe extending from the 

* 

mountains north of San Bernardino east to include "The Arrow", 
and southerly to Eedlands, Biverside, and Yacaipe Valley. 



NAMES FOR OTHER INDIAN TRIBES IN LANGUAGE OP, THE KB^TAH-NA^MDO-KUM 

(NICKNAMED HAM-ME-NAT) 



''Their name for themselves: 

Ke-tah-na-mwah-kan or Ke^-tah-na- 
moo-kum 

i" Ham-me-nat: Nickname for Ke-tah-na-moo- 
kum in their own language ;Kc-ko-em- 
kam in San Gabriel (TongvS). 

4 /Tah^)ah-ve'-a-tam (old chief 
/ Te»ino-ka) 

5~ Wahm-kan-ne'-yata 



Ke-tah-nah-mwits ('Serrano') nane 
for themselves. 



3 v^Harf-met-irel-le (Ohief Te-no-ka 




^««iM«j«*J(^ 



r ft>atch-ah-«i<^h-ko-pe-a-»tam (in Serrano) 
^ Pow-wel-man'-ne (in their o«n language 



1 $Pah-pi-na-mo-nam 

' IPah-pi'-nah-mwa-kum (Tongva of San 

'' Gabriel 
'^ Ah-koo-too-tse-yam: So. Piute Nuwuwah 

1 Ta-che: Yokut tribe 
f'' Pal-la-g-me; Pal-lah-T»e°*^-e-yam 
n Sik-kow 
' '•^ Til-va-pe-a-tum; Too-Ta-pe-a-tam-^"?k 



/3 Noo-ohan-itch 

fq Ko-sah-ne-hung-o-kum (-"mean language" 
— very harsh and unintalligible) 

I r To o-nah'-i!«r^BlB^;calle(l To o-iaift-a-'yaw! i 
by themaelves in their own language. 



k Ko-ko-em-kam (slurred Ko-kom'-kam) 



Teion Mts. at the Pass ("El Paso"). 
They called their language of 
Ke-tah-nah-mwi-kum 
Ke'-tah-nah-mvits 

Bakersfield Plain including Kern . 
Lake to Tejon foothills (one old 
woman still alive at Tejon) 

Buena Vista Lake? or farther, maybe 
toward San Luis Obispo. (Language 
unique). 

Buena Vista Lake slanguage very oil; 
_and harsh. All dead. 

Bakersfield Plain (nearly eStinct; 
few on Tule Biver). 

San Gabriel Valley 
Tehachapi (to Paiute Mt.) 
Tulare Lake 
Pozo Plat 
White River 

Valley of South Fork Kern, to below 
Piute Mt. [Tod-bo t-e-lob-e»la J 

Mts. near Tule -ciiver? 

Buena Ventura and Santa Barbara 
tribe. ([Chumash] 

Brd Laguna (west of Buena Vista 
LakA^* Language unique. 

Name given Ke-tah'-n^-mwa-kan of 
SW Mohave Desert & San Bernardino 
Mts. by the San Gabriel Tongva. 



/ 



•> 



>\ 






C- 



Ham-me-nat: Nickname for Ke-tah-na-mwits in their own language. 
Called Ko-ko-em-kam ty San Gatriel (Tongva). 



Ke-tah-nah-mun: "Serrano" in language of Mo-he-ah-ne-um of San 
Bernardino Mta, Doubtless Ke-tan-a-mii-kum of western Mohave 
Desert* 

Ke-tah-nS-mwah-kan: Ke'*-tah'-n2-mwit8 of western Mohave Desert. ( 
('Serrano') Their name for themselves. 

Ko-ko-em-kam (slurred Ko-kom-kam): Name given Ke-tah^nS-mwah-kan 
of western Mohave Desert and San Bernardino Mts. by the Tongva 
of San Gabriel. 

"Cahuilla" 
Mahl'-ke: ATriBe whose territory included Banning Reservation 

northeast of Banning. Tj^eir name for themselves. 

" iiar^-ring-am: Mahl-ke name for"Setrtoo"tribe: east of themselves 
whidi they abut against from Mission Creek to Grayback Peak. 

-Mohin'eam or Mohineakhetun: Mahl-ke name for"S«rrano"tribe in 
mountains north of San Bernardino and adjacent part of 
Mohave Desert. 

" Morongo or Mai'-e-am: Mahl-ke name for"S«rTan^'*tribe of Morongo 
Valley and Mission Creek. 

M Mor-ron^go: Kah-we-sik-tem^f-Jalm Spriflg4)nane for tribe in 
Morongo Valley (Maringam). 



*^Pah-o-vah: Maringam name for Mahrah band and village, 8 or 9 miles 
east of 29 Palms. 

^Pah-o-ve-am: Mall-ke name for band east of Arastro to Eock Corral 
(east of 29 Palms) on edge of Mohave Desert. — **big country*\ 



4 



/ 



Su-wii-nah Tahk-tahm: Ma-ringf^am (of Morongo) nana for ^Serrano*'. 
Ter-kah: Mahl-ke name for related band in Little Morongo Valley. 



' Wah-ah-cham: Mahi-ke name for tribe northeast of Yu-ki-pi-am, 
reaching to mouth of Santa Ana Canyon aid to a big cave on 
San Bernardino Mt. where they joined the Morongo. 

Wahn-ne-ke-tum: Kah-we-sik name for Mahl-ke. 

^ Wun-nah-pe-ap-pe-ah: Maringam nana for Mahi-ke of Banning Reserva- 
tion. 

tion. 

^ Yu-ki-pi-am: Mahlke nane for Koos-tam, the tribe extending from the 
mountains north of San Bernardino east to include ••The Arrow^*, 
and southerly to Eedlands, Riverside, and Yucaipe Valley. 



Kroeber uaen " Kitanemuk* in a broad sense as practi- 
cally synonomoua with the Spanish-Mexican "Serrano". 

He defines their geographic position as "upper Tejon 
and Paso Creeks" (611) and also " streams on the rear [south] 
side of the Tehachapi Mountains in the same vicinity and the 
small creeks draining the northern slope of the Liebre and 
Samill "Range, with Antelope Valley and the westernmost end 
of the Mohave Desert." 



?' 



KETANAMWITS (Commonly called "Serrano") 

Ke > t ati -nS -mo o -kum f Ke-taK-na-mwits U Their name for themselves. 

Large tribe of western part of Mohave Desert (west of 
Cajon Pass), including at least the northern slopes of the 
Sierra Liehra and San Gabriel Mts* Closely related to 
Mohineam . ^^ %J^ J^us.-.Ju.^l>- d^^'ULVvvo^^^^ ,j^Tal'^onv,^:WjLn-^ kw'-w^^W^^v. 

Celled Ko-ko-em-kam by the TongvB. 



\ 



Mah^-^re-^am . Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of Mission Creek and Morongo Valley. 

* 

Called Mor^ron-go by the Kah-we-sik-tem. 
Called Mar-ring--am by the Mahllce. 

Mohineyam or Mo-he«*ah'^-neum . Their name for themselves, used also 

by the Mahl'ke* 

Tribe in San Bernardino Mts. and Mohave Desert east of 
longitude of Cajon Pass. 

This is the tribe called BeSeme by Garces, and Yanyume 
by Kroeber. It appears to be very closely related to the 
Ketahnfimookum, the neighboring tribe on the west. Much remains 
to be learned of both. 



^5 



if 



? 9- 



\ 






Koos^tam. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of San Bernardino Valley and San Timoteo Canyon. 

Includes Muskiabit and Yukipa bands. 
Called Yu-ki^pi-am by Mah]!ke. 



KOUIiTAIN TRIBKS AT OR NEAR THE TSJON 
( Known as Serryiog by tim Tejon Ranch Uoiicana and halfbroods.l 
Two tribes belonging to different families of tlie Shoshonean 
stock are at tips Tejon called Serranos^ 

These tribes are: 
1# Tolchimie (practically ttie saaie as the Hew^o</>ah of Tehechapi 
and Piute ilt*) They belong to the GhemeweVe group of the ^oAonean 



family wrA range east from the Tejon* 

Called Ah^koo^toot^se^am (ccmaonly slurred to Toot^ae^am or Too* , 
iasiaj) by a. Tejon Indi»... 

2* K^e«>tah*nah*eioo^kim (Ke^'tah^nah^igwa^kiiffiy Ke-tah-nah*rawits) • 
They belong to Uie Mohinean family of the Shoshor^an stock and range 
west and south frcxn the Tejon* They sosMtimes call th^nselves Ak^ke* 
ke*tam: and are nicknamed Ham^^ne^nat (meaning •Ihat^s that^; by the 
other Tejon tribeSi and often use the name themselves* 

They are rather closely related to Uie Mohineaa of the Mohave 
River, and to the •Serrano* tribes of the San Bernardino Mts« 

Called Ko>ko>em>kam and Ko>k6m>kum by the Tong-va (^'aabrielino*) • 



CAHUJiNQ4 [KETANxiMWITS] 



Not, 12, 1905 



Alto Mirana Yidea (now dead) told me: 

1. How-kop 

2. W6h' 

3. FahL.he 

4. Wahi-tMh 

5. Mah-hah'tr 

6» Wii-h»-mah-hahtr CCoyoto iff Wah'*h«] 
7. 

8. 

10* WsAmah^hahs 

People — Tali->kah-tuffl 
"Oahneng a'aiTed there always, 
their naeie. People at San Fernando talked 
same language long ago, and same at San 
Gaibriel 



San Fernando; and £1 Scorpion, 
San Gabriel and Tahhungah"* 




w 



C*hC 



CAHUiNG/i CKETANaKWITS] 



Not, 12, 1905 



Alto Mirana Videa (now dead) told me: 

1. How-kop 

2. fdh' 

3. Pah-he 

4. Wah'-taah 

5. Mah-hahtr 

6. Wa-ha-nah-hahtr [Coyote is Wah-he] 

9. 
10. rIaHnah-hahs 

T.. 

People — Tahikah-tum 
"Cahuenga lived there always, 
their name. People at San Fernando talked 
same language long ago, and same at San 




Gabriel. 

San Fernando and SI Scorpion 

San Gabriel and Tahhungah' 



(Su^ 







Y-4 ) ^ ^^>^ui^ od^ ^*>^ ^ S^^'^i^J^j - .^ 



^^rf^-^ 






.i.-_. 



< t J 






i:i 






- J- 



t 




' * 



• ) 



V 



4 



* K 



4 



i^iii.. 



-tr,t 



Mo -he -ah-ne -um 




f^a-ring-ain) 

ttg o oal -jbBd"-it?3r-^hemflLft] 
Mah-re-am 



Serrano of /San Bernardino Mountains; 
originally from upper Mission Creek 
country^ U:^^-oc.._, ^^. ^ . .^jf,u. 




Serrano of Banning and Morongo 



^n 



Jfar-re-vi-am 
Mar-king-ah 



name Mar-re-vi-am called their country 

The divide between 29 Palms and Morongo 
Valley is the old boundary between the 
Mar-re-vi-am and the Chemp-we-ve of 29 
Palms (Mara). 



Mar-ring -ah-y^ 
'^ Mar-ring-i-^ 



Ma-ring-i-yam. 

Mah-ring-ah-yum^ 

Mah-re-ah-yum 



The Pipes, Big & Little Morongo Creeks, 
and Morongo Vailey, ^^ ^--«— '^•^ jC.x^-^r-iU^j_ 

also full name o<f tribe in San Gorgonio 
Pass at Banning . 

• 

The southern part of San Gtergonio Pass 
(Beaumont to Whitewater) belonged to 
Cahuilla. 

Warren' s ranch is in the middle of 
Morongo Valley (therefore in Mar-ring-i~am 

territory). 

The Pipes (division called Mo -he -ah-ne -um) 



San Manuel Reservation north of Redlands 
and Pat ton 



Old Woman Springs belonged to Chemeweve 
29 Palms ("Mara*) belonged to Chemeweve 



r^f 



/ 




Ua-ring-im 

l%r-rin^-an/ \ Sarrano of Banning and i^orongo 

Mar-ri^-i4ijn 
al3o jqdulei . 
i^mh-rfc -am 
T^-rB-Ti-am 



\ 



Mah-ring-ah-yum' 
Mah-re-ah-jruro 



Mo-he -ah-ne -um 



San Manual Reservation north of 
Redlanda and Fatten 



Serrano of San Bernardino Vts. 
originally from upper Mission 
Creek country 



The Pipes belong to Ma-ring-i-yam (to division ailled 

T^o-he-ah-ne-uffi) 



E^eksl 



The Pipes 

Biprh Little ^^orongo Creek 

Morongo Valley I 

Mar-ring-i-nm -full name of tribe in San Gorgonio Pass 

at Banning 



(Mar-ring-ah-ywn 
belonr3ed toj 

?Iar-rinf^-i-am 



The southern part of San Goiigonio Pass (Beaumont to Whitewater) 

belonged to Cahuilla. 

Warren's ranch is in the middle of f^orongo Vallet (therefore 

in Mar-ring-i-am territory). ^ 

The divide between 29 Palms and f'orongo Valley is the bid 

boundary between the Mar-re -vi -am and the Chemeweve 
of 29 Palms (Mara). 

Morongo tribe called Mar-re-vi-nm their country, Mar-king-^ih. 

Old ^oman Springs belonged to Chem-^-we-ve 

29 Palms (•Mara*) belonged to Chenje "eve 



\Kvoe.L 



ev VflLVwct 



SERRANO TRIBES AND BANDS GIVEN BY KROEBER 
AS MAINLY IN SAN BERNARDINO MTS. , INCLUDING 
SAN BERNARDINO VALLEY, AND SAN GORGONIO PASS. 
HANDBOOK OP INDIANS QP CmPORNU. 1925. 



Aohava : 



llttle lake east of Bear Lake (map pl«57),v-9 



NlA.-0O-fcH 



A gntushyam : Kitanemnk nane for Kawaii8u«>HTiirawa (p«618)# 



y 



AaallflSit: Bast of Mohave River* 



1/ Jenigneche iof GaroB^ iSerrano of Mohave Desert (Kroeber)* 



Knpachaffi ! The Pipes (p. 618)* 



Maring a: Big Morongo Creek* 



^ 




Haringay am: Big Morongo Creek (p*616)# 



/ 



Maripgayam ^ KfiMxaolBLt and Attt^flYJati: Mission Creek (p*618) 



Marki (Malii): Near Banning* (617) 



Mnknnpat : Big Morongo farther north, (p. 618) 



Mljii: Hathaway Canyon (p*617). 



^ Kroeher references 2 



if 



Palukiktam : Lyons Canyon (p*618)* 



^ Paviikuyam ! Akayat near Banning (pe617)* 



The Pipes: Knpacham (p. 618). 



TamknTay am: Banning Water Canyon (p*6l7)* 




: (?) Between Bl Casco and Beaamont (p*617)* 



C-- 



fjiz:^: On little Morongo Creek (p*618)* 



Yanymae : Mohineyam of Mohave River* Chemewevt? 



lalflfi^aa.: San Bernardino, Redlaiids, and Yucaipa •Sbefis 

soutiiern edge of San Bernardino Range* (p*6l7) 



Wakiihiktaai ! Cahezon Creek (618)* 



Wannpnpay am! Mouth of Whitewater Caqyon (618)» 



TihaTlfttito or 




or near i>ear 



of Ynhaviat f^pine place") in 
Valley* {p*6l8)* 






Ou.x 



v^ 



1\ ^v 



<\ 



\\ 






>1k1A»x 










U.'Vv^ 



^VvPU. ^^f^iU^gi V^m^w^ok 'b^!^^!^:^ 









^^♦^'RJJUJ^ 



Lv-v-ttiKft T ^>^ 



IP-ihf*.^ 



yoBOwno rsshrvattqn tribes- 




Mo4ie*>ahWie>um Our name for our llorongp 



\jSX4^y'V->JJUu'JL^. 





Ifer-ringyah-um ^ 



MMTokinB^ 




Original home was tlission Creek 

name for our tribe. 

Our nmie for our tribe in San Gar* 
gmio Past region* 

Ifair*ring-am, Uar-re-am 
Our name for our (Morongp) tribe in 
Hi glands region. (/?Trlbe and San 
Uanuel Reaerfation*) near Pat ton* 

Our name for our country: San Gor* 
gmio Faas-Banning-aorongp Reservation 
countxy and northerly to aouth ed^ 
of Mohave Deaert^Id 9ontan*B Springes 
easterly throu^ Uorongp Valley to Pass 
between this valley and 29 Palas Val« 
l^j westerly perhaps to Santa Ana 
River. 



Called Mar*keng-ttt by 




V 



| |j, f^]rff p ff«pt 








name for our San Gor- 



gpnio Pblbb country* 
Morong) Valley westerly to White* 

water Riter* 




T^e^ 4v.^- Vfl ^- ^^ - J>^ 




Inforrnation obtained by me from so-called 
* Serrano " tribe at San Manuel Reservation 
near Patton, May 24, 1933. ^r^fOL ^^^^r^v 

1 Mah«ring-ah-vam^ is the proper name of "our tribe". 



Vt 



/tHeld^southerly slopes of San Bernardino Mts. 
and ^border of vallej^including/Tfucai^ Valley, 



ffom west of Pattor^toMoronaQ Reservation.Lo^x^f^f^ 




«X^N 



Mahr-king^ah is the place (habitat) name in our own 
langaage for ou r [ ?Jah - rin g-ah -vum 'li 
^•<!*^lBiorongo Reservation^] 







(h^tf^ 



M^lke is the Cahuilla name for our MorongD country. 

Yucaipa Vallev and Big Bear Vallev were ours. Our 

people used to q) to Big Bear Valley for Pinyon 
nuts. 
gpw^y^m is our name for Santa Rosa Mts» 

^r people ( Mah-ring-ah-yum' ) are Coyot^ . 
The SeOb-e of Palm Springp are Wildcat . 



<tu- 



COL.Uv*.lUflL 



HroQ^kah-nim is our name f on , Se^*e tribe.^^^^^'^^W'M-^ 



X 





X , 



V, 



- \ 



Information obtained by me from so-called 
' Serrano* tribe at San fianuel Reservation 

Tioor Pnf.{;nn lfe.v 24. 1953. '67%, U. 



U'Vvs. 




l'Is the proper name of •our tribe". 
Held southerly slopes of San Bernardino Mts» 
andWrder of valleyi^ including&aipa Valley, 
from west of Pitton^o^Uorong) Reservation. f^^"^\U5^v__ 
.king^ah is the place^habitat) name in our own 

»ring-ah-Yum tribe.Hoi^on-fc*^ 



<t>\. 



Ian 010^ for our 
Morongo Reservation. 




were ours. Our 



^Ike is the C^ 

y^ic^ipa Valley a 

people used to g) to Rig Bear Valley for Pinyon 

nutfl. 
g pylwum is our name for Santa Rota Mts. 

fbur people (iJa^-ring-ah-W) are Cflyflift. 
le 3eQb.e of Palm SpringiB are liJisai. 



Clana 



^ron-kah-nim is our name 




S-.^>«jIv>^, 



c^ 4^- 



^^^ it 



-4- ^ 



^l; 



aic fr^*^^ H^ Yo . u^. X, ...tw- 



Vs-^ 



V t^ U %J*<_:*^ ^•'^^ f ^-v-NxXU » 



^^ 




- IV-Mi 



TEIBB AHD BANCHERIA N.iMLS OF SAN BERNARDINO 

MOUNTAINS iiND VALLET 

Obtained by me at San Manuel Reservation (about a 
mile north of Patton and only ten miles from Redlands) 
October 19 and 20, 1930. 

Information from "Capt," Roy Manuel, Chief of tiie 
Yn-hahlvit-tem tribe at his home in San Manuel Reserration. 

In the Beginning [of liie WorM], all tribes of this 
region originated in Big Bear Lake Yalley, *en«e they spread 
in various directions. Later, the Bear Valley tribe proper 
were the Purlvi t-tem— now extinct. 

The Wah~nft~kftLtam cane from Whitewater. They are 



. poo-pi 



Mahl ITcfl is the original place name of fflorong 

Pass — not a tribal name. 

yjjl^s our fYTi-hf^Ue.tum) name for Morongo 

Reservation. 

Some say that Yn-ki-pa is the proper name of the 
tribe on the west side of San Gorgonio Pass; others, that 
it is a Mexican name and that the original and proper name 
of the tribe is Sah-hahtlpah: others say that Sah-hahtlpah 
is the name of Tn.kiLpah rancheriar-which I believe to bt 
correct. "Lots of people lired thergoi.!!. _...-—— .-_^ 

San Gorgonio Pass is B#-kah*put^ t UJi g ^. f ^ ^ y' 

earth red , ^^----- 

Redlands is TftrlvRrt gnn^rin^^kah (or ^HenBg-mh ) 




-2- 



Hnng. 



of Kedlands end east and southeast of Colton* 

The name of the San Bernardino tribe ig Wah-ah- 
che-um r their rancheria, Wah-ahlcha-vah^ The eastern 
part of San Bernardino indudipg the old cemetery, is 
HnLlTHh-^fltahLkB ("White Deer"). 



ik 



San Bernardino has grown so "big that it now 



covers, Yubitta Springs (^fioUit ^and ) . 



Pasadena is 



— f 




S-JL^ 




The Indians at San Manuel Reservation tell me tiiat 
the original name of San Bernardino Mission i?7as 
the level valley or plain on which it stands, Teri-vart-he-den km. 

The so-called ^ Morongo ^ trihe consists of Indians 
of more than one band, the dominant one^ being Ti|-hah-vit~tem 



IstM 



at Patton, a few miles north of Eedlands. They are often 
<jalled ♦^ Serrano of San Bflrnardino" and appear to be the 
" Mn.hQ-ahLne-um ". ' thou^ they tell me that the Mission Creek 
country was the original home of the "Mo.hah'-nfi.ma". They 
tell me that the ffiin.fl-pa.pi'-ah were the "original Morongo" 
and came from farther east, and that a few still live at 
Morongo and a few at Palm Springs. 

The tribe frrai Pasaiena and San Gabriel easterly 
to Jurupa Hills (just west of Piiverside) called themselves 
gftnLkno-mQi'-flh. They are commonly known as 'flabrielenos* 
and spoke tte sjme language as the Pemandinos^''%an Fernando 
Valley rTong-vSl . \j*<-^^tr»^t^ "i-^JisAUu^! 



» 



Information from "Capt* Roy Manuel ( Yoohah^vit-tem 

tribe ) , San Manuel Reservation; Oct> 18, 1S32 -ci ^ou^s. 

The valley tribe from Pasadena and San Gabriel east- 
erly to Jurupa Hills (just west of Riverside)* called them- 
selves Kpo-koo-moi^-ah (commonly known as "Gabrielenos*')* 
Ihey spoke the same langiags as the Tongyva of San Fernando 
Valley^ 

The original name of MorongD Pass was Mfthl-}ce (place 
name). 

Our ( Y^ -)i^ - V e " tup i ) name for Morongo Reservation is 

« 

The Yu^hft)i-ve-tum territory was Bear Lake Valley and 
mountains north and west. The Yu-hah-ve-tum (Coyote people) 
^ell me that in the Beginning of the World all tribes of 
this region originated in Big Bear Lake Valley, whence they 
spread in various directions. Later, the Bear Valley tribe 
proper were the Pyiy^v i t-tem — now extinct. 

The Wah-ne-ke-tam cejne from Whitewater. They are 
called Wah-na-poo-pi by the Yu-hah-ve-tum [They are Cahuilla 



not MorongD]. 

Some say that Xyi-ki-p a is the proper na« of the tribe 
on the west side of San Gtorgonio Pass; others, that it is 
a Mexican name and that the original arid proper name of the 
tribe is Sph^iaht-pah t others still say that Sah-haht-p a ti 
is the name of the yvi-kj.-pah yapcher^p. — which I believe 
to be correct. *Lots of people lived there". 

San GrorgDnio Pass is H^«] 



Inforaiation from "Capt" Roy Manuel ( Yo-hah-vit-tem 
tribe), San Manuel Rewervation: Oct. 18, 1932 -c^w^ 

earth red 

Redlands, Tef^veijrt sun-ring-kah (or * hering-kfi]i ). 

San Bernardino tribe, Wfth-ah-c^e-um (their rancher ia, 

, va 
f?ji-q^i,-c]fia-va||). 

Eastern part of San Bernardino (old cemetery), 
^QJkah-stah^-ke ("White Deer"). 

Pasadena, Ay-ra-re ah-sah . 

Yu^bitta SpringB (of )Poo-lit band) covered by present 
city of San Bernardino. 

H^|sr-oQ -vut : Tribe south of Redlands fooliiills and 
east and southeast of Colton. 



The Indians at San Manuel Reservation tell me that 

the original name of San Bernardino Mission was 

land level. 
Wah-ah'.cha-bit i the level valley or plain, Ter^vart -he-den -knm. 

The so-called "Morongo" tribe consists of Indians of 

more than one band, the dominant one here being Yp-hah-vit-tem 

(or Yp-h^-ve-tum ). now here on the San Manuel Reservation 

at Patton, a few miles north of Redlands. They are often 



called " Serrano of ^r\ Bernardino " and speak the same Ian- 
gjage as the Mp-he-ah-ne-um . thou^ they think that the 
Mission Creek country was the original home of the 
^p-hah-ne-um. They tell me that the y\ip-a-pa-pi-ah were 
the'original Moronao * [error: they are Cahuilla] and came 
from farther east, and that a few still live it Morongo 
and a few at Palm Springs. 



^I^W Rh!RKARDINQ--CAJON 




ftongai (AtflOffliidD. probably near north entrance to 
Cajon Pass (peihap» farther eaat). Said to be 
10 leagieB over the deaert from Gnapiabit and 
40 leagies from San Gabriel. Also ^ten a» 4 
leagies from ff i y^piabit with a ciene^t between. 

QuaaiakU. May have been i^lj^og^P^f; ^^ (s^it?). 
Said to be 4 leagiea (in another place said to be 



9i leagjea ) from ^^obiapit. Also said to be 
18i leagies from gttyffWPTfP^ and 30 leagies from 
San Gabriel (toward the Uohaves). 

IJQiiGQpiabit . Said to be 4 leagies west of gw^pjftlgi^ am 
12 leagies easterly from Qoapiana. [Located lay 
M ft^Cffi-am as at widening of Cajon Pass about B 
miles northwest of San Bernardino.] 



SERRAIJO" BAND AND PLACE NAl^ES 



Na/ne 



r 



Autho r i ty 



Achava 



Ah-mutch-ki-um 
Ak-ke-ke-t am 

Amahavit 
Atu'aviatam 



Kroeber 



C-H.M. (MS) 
C^H.M* (MS) 

Kroeber 
Kroeber 



Hung-oo-vut 



C.H.M. (MS) 



Jeni^gieche of 
CSrces 



Kroeber 



r 



Ke-tah-nah-mun 



C-H.M.(MS) 



Ke - tab -na ^nwah-kajj 
Ke-tan-am-moo-kum C.H.M. 

or Hfiun^ne-nat 1 
Ke - tan- ah -inw i t s 



(MS) 



Ko-ko-em-kam 

Kupacham 



C.H.M. (MS) 



kroeber 



Location 



Little Baldwin Lake E. of Bear Lake 



Band in Cajon Pass & E. to Arrowhead 
Ke-tan-a-giwits name for their tribe 

Band E. of Mohave River 
.Group at Mission Creek 



Valley so. of Redlands & E. of Colton 



Serrano of Mohave Desert 



In Mo -he -ah-ne -urn- Serrano :Mah-ring- 

ah-yum 



Serrano name for themselves 



Tongva name for San Bejrnardino 
j The Pipes 




SE1?T?AN0- BAND AND PLACE N/MES 



Mahl-ke 



Authority 



C.H.M. (MS) 



JWcCTr^^'AMsiric 1 7 



fiioeuojL 



Iferinga ^ ^ at^l4r-6a«y. 



Kroeber 



Mfeirinfiavam 
Miihiatnim 
Atu'aviatam 



KS-oeber 



Mar-king-ah^ 

Mahr-king-ah 



C*H.M.(MS) 



Mar-keng-ut 



C.H.M. (MSy 



Mar-re-ah-yum 
Mar-re -am 



Mar-ring-am 
Mar-ring-a-yam , 
Mar -ring ;ah-yum i 
Mar-ring-i-am 1 



C.H.M. (MS:) 



Mo -he-ah - ne-um 
Mo -ahf'-ne -um 



C.H.M. (MS) 



Location 



Cahmilla name Banning Reservation 



N ear Dar nTing 



Big Morongo^»^ 



Groups at Yamisevul on Mission Creek 



Mah-ring-ah-vum name for their country 



Yo -hah- ve -turn name for San Gorgonio Pass 
""^ country 



Tribe in San Goii^onio Pass-Banning- 
Morongo Reservation countryC'w^^*^^'*-'^v-»c.td.<.) 



Bands at Mission Creek and The Pipes 
J l^ -hah- ve- tu rn name 5^^'^''*^**^ >vvox«>.^« 



; 



STilRT^ANO" B/ND AND PUCE NAMES 



"SETIR/NO'' BAND MD PLACE NAJ1ES 



Name 



Mukunpa t 



Nahy u 



Noo-chanitch 



Palukiktaxn 



Pavukuyam 



Per- ve -turn 



Poo-lit 



(Jhe Fipea 



Authority 



Kroeber 



Kroeber 



C-H.M. (MS) 



Kroeber 



Kroeber 



C^H.M. (MS) 



C.H.M. (MS) 



Kroeber 



Su-wu-nah tahk- 7 ? 

taHrT" f C.H.M. (MS) 



Location 



Band on Big Morongo Creek 



Hathaway Canyon 



Ke-tan-a-mwita name for Mta. near 

Tule River 



Lyons Canyon Band 



Band at Akavat near Banning 



Tribe between Little & Big Bear 
Lakes. "Talk same as Yo -hah -ve- turn* 



Band at Yi/-bit-ta Springs 

(in present San Bernardino; 



^upaohafl^x 




Serrano" in Marinasm i language 



Name 



Tairrukuvayam 



Tupaniukiyam (?) 




rKa Kto*A»t» 



Vanyume 



Yo-hah-ve-tum 











'tX*. 



Authority 



Kroeber 



Kroeber 



Ki^oeber 



Kroeber 



C.H.M. (MS) 



Kr^e^ber 



fis* -rf-*Ji^T<.i**^-*»JC^»%»A4 



Wah-ne -pe -pi -ah ' . 

' . Wan-a-pi:^iFiai C.H.M. (MS) 



p«.v,i. 







^AA^-Ul^Ke. r^ 



Location 



Group at Banning Water Canyon 



Group between El Casco and Beaumont 



Band-en Little Morongo 




Mohineyam of Mohave River 

Chemeweve ? 



Tribe of Bear Valley. Closely 
related to Mar-rinpr-ah-yum 



Gretip in Bear- Vail ey 



Wa^ \,j^ f t-m n. %J^^^'^^^'^^J^ 



:i_S«L.W 



•^t^fa 



^'^^-:^ai^. 




Bajid in Morongo Valley W. to .^v , 

Whitewater River CCaVNuaU) 



«^»ie.^ 



%7 



_^ JjXQup>-at -m e uth Whtt e wfttiBT: . .n a Ry on 






?0.U 



i- 



.>^»*t/-*— 



lIOmiTAIN TRIBES AT OR NEAR THE TEJON 
( Known as Serranos by the Taj on Ranch Mexicans and halfbreeds.) 
Two tribes belonging to different families of the Shoshonean 
stock are at ttes Tejon called Serranos. 
These tribes are: 

I 

1. Tolchinne (practically the same as the New-oo-ah of Tehechapi 
and Piute Mt.) They belong to the Chemeweye^ group of the S^ioshoneftyi^ 
family and range east from the Tejon. 

Called Ah-koo-toot-se-am (camnonly slurred to Toot- ae -am or Too- 
tse-am) by the Tejon Indians. 



2. Ke - tah-nah-mo o - kum (Ke-tah-nah-mwa-kum, Ke-tah-nah-rawits) . 
They belong to the Mohinean family of the Shoshonean stock and range 
west and south from the Tejon. They sooaetimes call themselyes Ak-ke- 
ke-tam: and are nicknamed Ham-me-nat (meaning "ihat's that") by the 
other Tejon tribes, and often uae the naxne themselveB. 

They are rather closely related to the Mohinean of the liohaye 
Riyer, and to the 'Serrano* tribes of the San Bernardino Mts. 

Called Ko-ko-em-kam and Ko-k«a-kum bv the Tong-va (»'Gabrielino*). 



( 



Ruth Benedict: Sketch of Serrar.o Culture, 1024 




The Territory of the Serrano 
(Top U north; eut-WMt distance about 54 railaa.) 



Vfcftr%/i//e ^^ ©^^ 

If 






II 



/ a A «> Att0itifAeael 






^^. 










'^^^^^-../^"'^ 



g\ ^"^r^^^^fi -^__^7**mr;>r /f^z/wc /li/$v/ 



AfotiJ7ta//fs 


















r. ^_ 






^'-A,^\ 



%,flf 



i 






Mnp. 1. Scriniu) Tciritorv. ^>(^ 

Moictv (M.'His. 



S(ju.'jirs iii(licnt(' Wildcnt, (•ii<-l('S Coyote 



W. D. Strong.— Aboriginal Society So. Calif. 1929 



en 



MOHINEAN 



(Called Serrano by the Spanish). 



My Tocahularies show that the language of the 

Mo-he-ahi-ne^-im or Mohinaam of San Bernardino Mts. is 

essentially the same as that of the Tejon Kei> t pji-^na-p^oo -kum > 
and that the Maringap^ is only slightly different* And 



r. 



WjMa 



old Indians say that Yukipta^ fai essentially similar 



My Yocabuleries show^that the Ke-tah-na ~moQ-.lrmti . 

Mohineai. ikr^agiiw^ , gfihffegjfcC Cahuilla), Kfi^> and 
Piyumko8( Luiseno) dialects are very closely interre- 

lated; that perhaps the Kahwesik and Mohin'ean are the 
closest, and that the PiynmlcQg for Luiseno) is as close 



to Mohinean as it is to KfthW88ik> 



Kooi-pah . contrary to the usual belief, seems to be 
a little closer to Kahwesik fCahuilla) than to Pivuml^ Qfl. 

Kroeber is in error therefore in writing '•Qahllillar 
LiUiUUUL^ as opposed to ^^fiir&Afi.^ ( Mohineam & Iferingsm) 



since collectiyely these tribes form a natural and com- 
pact group which differs widely from the Southern Piute 
or New>*Qoiah> ChemeweVe group. If any division is justi- 



fied, it would seem to be to set off the Piyimkoa and 



their close relatives the AV» to^hrop and 2fiX£i& from the 



others. But nothing should be done until a more care- 
ful comparison of the vocabularies has been made. 



K3T/:^'AfiI^''IT3 (Commonly celled ''Serrano") 



Ke-taH^-na-rooo-kum f Ke-tah-Da-inwits )^ Their name for theingelves* 

Large tribe of western part of Mohave Desert (west of 
Cajon Pass), including at least the northern slopes of the 
Sierra Liebra and San Oebriel Mts* Closely related to 
Mohineaa. 

Called Ko-ko-em-kam by the Tdngva* 



^.... _ 



Kah-re-am. Their name for thetiselves. 

Tribe of Mission Greek and ^orongb Valley, 
Called Mor-ron^o by the Kah-we-sik-tem, 
Called Mar^lring-^ain by the Ma hike* 

yohineyam or Mo->he-ah''-neum# Their name for themselves, used also 

by the Mahfke, 

Tribe in San Bernardino Mts. and Mohave Desert east of 
• * < 

longitude of Cajon Pass. 

This is the tribe called Befiem6 by Garces. and Yanyume 
by Kroeber. It appears to be very closely related to the 
Ketahnamookum, the neighboring tribe on the west. Much remains 
to be learned of both* 



KoWtam. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of Sen Bernardino Valley and San Timoteo Canyon 
Includes Muskiabit and lukipa bands. 
V Called Yu-ki-pi-am by Mahlke. 



V 




|"fc't>jCfc k«_^ 








n't 



SERRANO TRIBES OP SAJi 



^SBtot^tW MOUNTAINS . 




William Pablo, an intelligent/^SSL'S^Bai^i'^. ^^^^^ '"^ of He- 
following SsrEaosT tribes: 



E^ MorontgQ o r yar*e«am 

Ahlte;.ar«r9..am r-U>^(a,^^r^y\oc^u>. £K ^^^'^^ ^ ^"^'^ 






^jMWW*'*"'— — i *' illM*^' 



MiM> 



Ujk^ d^-v^- 



Uorongo Vallex^^^ p^'^ u^'^ c'f 
r Uohin oahiieum) --Uppei^itelMnw-"-Biwp?t»^(4?,i*^ ..^ 




t 



i«aSi«,,aB«irt(^*''->***-w:-^*.-«.^*».«BS-**M,»****>^-',..»v'^ 




Mah-rah of 29 Palms 'IBi^ -^VvOw«^>*Lev.«^. 

^ ^ . .Rock Corral ^^^ f ^ ^ '^^^ ^^ 

Pa h-Q.'ve-am --oast of Araatro tojL Ooi ' i ' ol Ilook >on edge of Uohave 

Desert- -big country V 
Mar-ring-am .-©ast' of the Mahl-ke . ^ose territory they abut 

against from Mission Creek to Grayback Peak. 

They moet the Chaneweve Piute at Old Woraan* a 

Spring. 

Yu-ki»T)i-em "occupied a strip betiwen^' norUa of San Bernardino 
or , -wi* ^'''liina including the Arrow (on the mountain slope) 

and south to RiTerside, Badlands and Yucaipe Valley'r 

Wah-ati-cham -.^east of Yu-ki-pi-ara and reaciiing to mouth of Santa 

Anna Canyon and to a big cave on San Bernardino 



Mountain, j^^^re they joined the Morongo, 



/ • '/: 



v/ 




;'fc3U-3c Vuw^ 



^ Mir— — - * 



■¥- 



J' 
t ' 




^■t***^S 



P 



<k* 



•J^ 




SEBRANO TRIBES OP SAII 



William Pablo, an intelli^ent/j^cJES. 




Banning, tells me of H.?. 



following 3s23»cflt tribes: 



Thft Morongo o r lffi3r>^e»am — Morongp Yalley 



At-** 



ftJLV 






Tgf^^MO 




Morongo vwle3>^^>7^ w ^mw. ^ C^ 
r Mohi noabli eum) r-Upper-^i^MCVo-ilivejp''^-' 



^ffc^ac 






X of 29 Palma 'Louise' .-^Vvow^>*^-u'^ ^ 

^ .Rock Corral .^e^-f^^*"^^ 

ve^^ -oast of Arastro toJl Quii - ul Rook ^n edge of Mohave 

DBsert-«big country" 
Maj>ring-am -I'oast' of the Mahl»ke. ^ose territory they abut 

against from Mission Creek to Qrayback Peak. 
They moat the ChemeWve Piute at Old Woman* 8 
Spring. 

Tu>ki'.t)i»aa "occupied a strip betireen;' north of San Bemardino 

ov- ,^*"~ana including the Arrow (on the mountain elope) 
t\Looi-U^:.^ ^^ ^^ to BiTerside, Badlands and Yucaipe Yalleyr 






^^V^-'^ 



Iwah -ali tcham ^-'^ast of Yu-ki'-pi-aii? ^d rea^ng to mouth of Santa 

Anna Canyon and to a big cave on San Bernardino 
Mountain, where they joined the Morongo. ^ 



z' 



SfiREANO TRIBES AND BANDS GIVEN BY KROEBER 
AS MAINLY IN SAN BERNaRDINO MTS., INCLUDING 
SaN BERN/iRDINO VALLEY. AND SAN GORGONIO PASS. 

HATiBBOOK QP ^ wpT/^Nc; Off nAT.T>?ORNlA. 1925, 



Achava : On a little lake east of Bear Lake (map pl.57). 



: Kitaneurak name for Kawaiisn-Nuwuwa (p.618). 




Amahavit i EaFt of Mohag-e River. 



.TeniPtteche of Garce3" 3errano of Mohave Desert (Kroeber), 



: The Pipes (p.618). 




Maringa : Big Morongo Creek, 




Big Morongo Creek (p.616) 




MfiJ^ijLaDiSLt ^d 



ttarki (ttfl]Jti): Near Banning. (617) 



,: Mission Creek (p. Sid;). 



Mnlmnpat : Big Morongo farther north. (p.618) 
liahjOi: Hathaway Canyon (p. 617). 



'< 



Kroeher references 2 



.: Lyons Canyon (p,618). 




: Akavat nrar Banning (p. 617) 



The Pipes: Kn pacham (p.618). 



; Banning Water Canyon (p.6l7). 



Tn panukivam : (?) Between El Casco and Beaumont (p. 617). 



Tiirka ! On little Morongo Creek (p.618). 



Yanyume : Mohineyam of Mohave River. Chemeweve? 



|[ft»iy».haBit 



San Bernardino, Redlands, and Yuoaipa glong 
southern edge of San Bernardino Range. (p. 617) 



Wflkiihiktam : Cabezon Creek (618). 



»• *» 




: Mouth of Whitewater Canyon (618) 



Ynhavifttam or 




or near Bear Valley, (p 



of Yuhaviat ("pine place") in 
Valley, (p.618). 



M-EING-M MD MO-HE -AH-NE -IE NAIviES OP OTHER THIBES 



"S€.*V»ivi.»'' - - — 



Ke-tah-nah-mun (in Mo -he -ah'-ne -ubj^ 
Sii-m-nah tahk-tahmr (in Ma-ring-a^J^ 



Gahuilla tribe at Palm Springs. Ki'-yii-kah-yem (^aringam) r'^ 
Mahl-ke of 13anning lies ervat ion. flun-nah-pe-ap-pe-ah {Jiaringam) 

Band and village of MalZ-rah ~~) , fv 

vPah-o-vah (^ringato) 
8-9 miles east of 29 Palms_J 



Saboba tribe at iJaboba 



_> 



'«/s^ 



So-vah-van-yo-yum (J^aringam) 



/ 



>/5? 



£.e- 



R GSl 




S\\osV\oAe SVock - Ka>\-uie-6\K'--^e^x or"CaKoLllQ. 



<a<^ 



l^' 



"^^^•^-^A^ 1^^ t 






rM&%--^sp^^ 



Lw 



.T 







T<^kK ^ \i3v^ 



/ 



TdLk^ u; 



TiiiXv-JV^^ ixfCt^ 



a:(J:ia\'-k 



-M>w^ 







X</JU^fcJUA^»5^ 



^^Vw^ • kpJrv^ ^^i^V. 



W^Vw^ 



^ V^O^-^'^-^'^^^^-^o^^-^'^-'^^^^^ 










\ 



rks^- 




v*^ 



/ 




T6lW.\ 



!\ 



0^-:^ 



X 



I 



^ Vs^^ 




^^' 



-t 



I 



• t 



KOOS-TAM 



A Cahuilla tribe formerly occupyii^ the broad San Bernard-- 
ino plain from the lower Blopes of the San Bernardino Mountains 
southerly to Riverside, and from Cucamonga easterly along San 
Tiraoteo Canyon to the sunmit of San Gorgonio Pass (now Beau- 
mont). Their western boundary was a north and south line ex- 
tending from Cucamonga Peak to the Santa Ana River, passing 
close to what is now the village of North Cucamonga. The 
present towns of San Bernardino, Colton, Riverside, and Red- 
lands, are in their territory, as are also the Jarupa Mount- 



ains and Yucaipe Valley. 



3'e t^[ 



Their last great chief, named Juan Antonio by the 
Spaniards, lived at a village called Sah-haht-pah ^ at a place 
now called El Casco, in San Timoteo Canyon. '/Following are the 
principal Kooa-tam rancher iaB( over which Antonio's authority 
extended 

Hol'-bah f 2 1/2 miles northeast of RiTerside, mear Higji 



Or ore. 



Ho-ipo-ah. 4 or 5 miles southeast of Colton. 



KOOS-TAM 




Pool-yat, between the present towns San Bernardino and 



Colton. 



Sahihaht-pah. at present El Casco station, in San 
Timoteo Canyon. 



between Redlands and Redlands Junction. 



Yn-ki'-pa. in present ralley of same name, 4 or 5 miles 

southeast of Redlands (inhabitants called Yu-ki-pam). 

The KooB-tam were in contact with the following tribes: 
on the west^vrartti the Ton^-va (Gabrielino); on the northwest 
wiWi the Serrano Ketahn amwits ( or Ke-tah-nah-moo'-kum) ; on the 

» 

north wHk the Serrano Mohineam; on the northeast w*4fc the 



Serran o WxlvvaoL-wx ; on the east ni^ the Cahuilla Wah-ne-ke- 
tarn (or Mahl-ke); on the southeast/wfeBi the'^oboba; on the 



south witii the 




Luiseiio).^ (Mi-w>. 



>-. 



\ 



i 



f i 



POW-V/E-M OR CAHUIILA PROPER 

The PQV7-v;e-y£jn or Caliuilla proper occupy the west slope af 
the southern part of San Jacinto Mountains, including Hemet 
Valley south of the Reservoir (the part north of the reservoir 
belonging to the Saboba) , the canyon of Bautiste Creek, Cahmilla 
and T'erwilliger Valleys Cpartly covered by the present Cahuilla 
Indian Reservation)), Hbrse Canyon, and the upper part of Coyote 
Canyon as far down as Willow Tree rancheria (Pow-wut) where their 
territory met that of the We-is*tem (Los Coyotes)* On the west 
they include Cahuilla Peak, Tule Valley, Chihuahua Valley, and 
Lost Valley, but do not reach Wilson Creek or Aguanga, whicBi 
belong to the Luisena* 

The Pow^we^yaiTL Ca huilla were in contact with several tribes: 



on the north with the la-jrah*waht 



C Sa-vo-va) A on the east witlii ^•iy 1 



f I f 

the re lated Wah^ko-chi^ m^kut . Sow-wgh'-pah-^kek-tem and We-is-tem; 



on the south with 




the We->is^tam! of Coyote Valley, 



San Ignacio and San Ysedro; and the Koo^-pah of Warner Valley; 
on the west with the Koo^-pah and Luiseno>> - c^y,,^ ^ 



WAffillME-KE'-TAM OR MAHL-KE 






k tribe closely related to the Cahuilla, whose territory 
covered San G-orgonio Pass and the adjacent mountains on the 
north, and reached from the summit of San Grorgonio Pass (at 
present town of Beaumont) easterly to Mission Creek, and thence 
southeasterly to a long white hill on the desert a few milefr 

east of Palm Springs Station* 

On the north and east they were in^ contact with the Serrano 
Maringam (Morango); on the south with the Kah'>we->sik-tem and 
Soj^be-ba; on the west with the Koos-tam> 

William Pablo, a member of the tribe, gives me the weetena) 
boumdary of the Mahl>ke as San Grorgonio River, north of Banning; 
but this appears to be the botindary between the Mahl-ke rancheria 
and the next rancheria to the west, for the Cahuilla CSaief 
Leonicia Lugo tells me that the Wah~ne>ke~tam territory contirrcied 



west to the summit of San Gorgonio Pass, wherej^they had a village 




called E = -e.(6n the creeks and springs about 4 miles north af 



j^e aumont^X^iie f Lugo tells me further that on the west the 
Wahn'-ne -ke -tam crossed the valley to the southward, where tiaay 



WAHN-NE-KE-TAM OR MAHL-KE 



had another village, called Tep-pah-ch^ , /in a Binall valley 
known as Potrero San Jacinto Nuevo, about 4 miles a little 



south of east of Beaumont|\|^He said also that they occupied 
the south side of San Gorgonio Pass and adjacent northerly 
slopes of San Jacinto Mountain between what is now Cabezon 
R. R. Station (east of which the corresponding slopes belonged 
to the Kah-we-sik-tem) and the summit of San Gorgonio Pass. 
It appears therefore that the ^^^hir^^ft-taw territory consisted 
of at least 5 rancheria areas: MahV-ka, K~ -fl, and Tflp-pah- 
ahah.— of which Mahl-ke was about as large as the 2 others 
together. It is possible that a fourth area covered the north 
slope of San Jacinto Mountain and adjacent narrow strip of 
desert from Cabezon R. R. Station easterly to Whitewater, for 
an intelligent Indian of the Kah-we-sik tribe gave me the 
Whitewater spur as the western limit of his tribe. ^ cm, — 



EAHL-KE TRIBE (or subtribe of Kalivreah=Ca}iuilla) 

This division of the Caliuilla now has headq^jarters at the res- 
ervation school a little east or northeast of Banning. 

Their territory begins at the Banning Water Canyon (San Gor- 
gonio River) which it follows SE not quite to^R^/ and east to Palm 
Springs Railroad statioii and on easterly to*high sandhill [Yah-wah- 
kis] east of Palm Springs station and thence to Mission Creek (south 



tt*-v>.fi^ 



side) and up the. ridge to Grayback Peak 



Points along the boundary are: OT corner of Section 4 imd thence 
south nearly to railroad: to Sulphur Spring and thence to just (close) 
above Horse Spring, and riglit straiglit to a big rock on west side 
Chino Canyon and thence following ridge ^o mouth of Ghino Canyon (to 
a pile of rocks), and shoots straigjit to Palm Springs station and 
the big sandhill east, and thence to Mission Creek. 

South of the Mahl-ke are their relatives the Ka2i-'i7e-sik of 



Palm Springs 



"COLi^ /v.~< A^ \mJuu1_ iJJ^^L, fii-^^^^^^^^^mu^^ 



^^^^x 



^^ • VVVCxJkL- ko. ^bUJU, C^ ludl^tiLl^ jj WDLW>M(ia.k--Cal,«1l 



~tA.-X cW.l«l%__ if^"t:^ Cj>-i>.^JJL(s. ^-v.^^-^^*-' i-v»Jvv*^^*^^ **" 






TlUi^ 



yJ^ X%SiLv^* — o 






<^\ "■ Aa^>~ 



ii.::^^^I:2vLfet^ 




(Ia^^^^^^^Po]^ 



t4u.it^ 



^ 



Xi^JUy^l'^ 




6^.J2^ 







ksi 






A/Ut.— «»^ "^ 



r^ 



(tUrOv") olXi-Vs^ k*v«Jk ^'^ ,-*■ >WAC^ A%.^^^XK. ~^»- ^ -K*<ft_ 

<lJU "iWl-WvO ^^i>L...sg,,^^ ^^-i^u...-*^ -^^Asu^ -^^J^t, 




^i-VC/^-j*- 




^+- 



jiJUjiU 



<tJU^ ^■^>^ /C5t,:*^_ «F-fc»^ Uf .^uJAJUJ 



4' ^>-ssr, 




<>j>^w» Qi 



U 



^k-Vv/^I;^^ 



4 



'Wa.Wl'- W^ ooo^T^XmIj^ ^oAoC^JcU^'^^^^^^ 



\cckW-vM<LU;W »L ^tju^^j-^ 










./ 



/ 






V 



C <xWi>cVi\lOcE TRIBE 



The Galiuilla include the bands at Torres, Martinez, Tuvah (Big 



' , V 



John's), Coyote Creek (= Wil«-yah) ^ and San Ignacio ( Pat-cho-wal) in 



the mountains • 



Told me by William Pablo of Banning, Calif. Oct. 11, 1910, ^ 



C^^^^vv 





«<! i i ; I i "j ii 





«/^V-:^ 



V — - 



^-^ i-'cc^, ^-i*x_w*jjjL/::t:ii^ 



Kah-we-8ik or Uahuilla subfamily 



'-^^ 



2 



KAH-WE-SIK OR CAHUILLA SU3FAMILT 



Tribea 



Koos-tsm 



WaVf-ne-ke-tom 



Kah-we-aik-tem 



Pow-we-yam (Cahuilla 

proper) 



Wah-ko-ohl 'm-kut -t em 



Sow-wah-pahf keak-t em 



Yia-wa-e ^a-tem 
(or .*e-i»'-tem) 



Kanclieriag 



pHdl-ljah , . • Ttt-ki-pa 

J Ho -mo -ah , 

iPool-yat Sah-haht-pah 

(Watoh-iBh 

Mahl'-ke 

Tap-pah-c>iah 

'se°^-6 Hah-ve-kik-toB? 

Pahn-yik-tem 



Pow-v/e 



Sah'-e 



Pow-ke . Sap-rpul-pah 

^Pow^wut 
Wal^-ko-cM'ift-kut 




lli^fiA 



Ah-ohaih-olun 



Wahn-olie-ah 

or 
Ta-waht pah 



May or may not be same 
Piny on iHat 



V 



Kwah'-la-ke 



(^Sow^ah-pali 

VIe-wat-now-hu 
rWil'-yah 
[ Patoh'-d-wal 



I' 



Ho'-lah-kal 



V, 



fia^o^^eriag 



P 



kah-Tenish (Ind. Wells) 



Pal -ta-waht 
;-naht -sa= 



V. 



Temal-wa->'i8h (La Mesa & Augustine) 

Lah-wil-van (Alamo Bonito) 

So-kut men-yil (Martinez) 

Pal-se-ta (Old Uabezon) 

Too-vah (Pig iree Johns -Agua Duloe) 

Wahk-wah (Toro) 

Hav-ve (7 Palms) 



\ 



CAHYIEAH OP PAUI SPRINGS 
October 19, 1932. 



In San Gorgonio Pass a few miles east of Banning 
I met an elderly kahweah Indian of the Ka^^^'»-»^^ tribe, 
Loreneo Che'no. originally of Se'#e (Palm Springs). He saya 
his language is the same as that of the ffab-p^-^tjk-tgn of 
Morongo Reserration, the place name of which is Mfttll -Kft— 
as I learnt many years ago. Stopping on the road, I got 

4 

from this man a remarkably full list of the mammals, birds. 



reptiles, and insects of this region and find that in most 
oases the name's agree exactly with those obtained many years 
ago at Palm Springs—a fine check, -c^,,,^ 






K\ 



0LYV\O 






^ 



T 



^3cot 



"]cA><a/ 



?a.V 



H(3^U\/e V\«*V^_ 






voo^t 






►ow 






T 



w<x>v.K?^<*W 



f 







V<J. Hes 



9^^'yx^ Sfr\^^ 



Se^^-e- 



EV^'a.^*^'''^^ 



\Ctf.u>w<tf 




W«. 



Va I.A. 



.•t^VtO s*rW 



v^v-erfe, ^=^J^ 




o a^%A.~fc'a- ^vo-«o>^ . — \^'v>o<JU<,a^ 



•^ 



• ) 



URSUS MACy^ES Elliot 1903 [ Ursus amblyceps Baifd 1859] 




The type ^ecimen of Ur^s machetes Sllioty'(No« 19064 
Field Musemn of Natura\ Uis^<5ry) is an old male fpm Casas Grsndes,^ 
Chihuahua, and obviousl^Vis the same species asfSaird's Ursus 
amblyceps describe!^ in 1861. It is very cicely matched ^y an old 
male from San L^is Kts., SonVra, (No. 1776^6 U.a^^ological Survey 
Collection) /although in the tjtoe ape^mwa the rostrum is slightly 



/ 



// 



y 



broader* /The teeth are badly woro^ut are essentially the same 



/ 
/ 






so low and not quite so 



size ia^both skulls* In the ^|i gitoecimen the vault of the cranium 
i^ rajther low and depress 9dL,|^but not |uite 

/ // / ■ \ 

horizontal as in t ho San li^iis L'ts. skula» Other characters of the 

/ # ^ 

.^ I i ^^ 

ty!>fe specimen bt0: antea^ior nares small . nljaals short, broad, and 

/ //• \ 

broadly rounded posteriorly; palate somewhat 1|Cooped out between 



the canines, conca/e\ between the posterior premolars, and flat be- 

\ 

tween the hinde** molars^ postpalatal shelf large— ^ong, broad, and 

/ V ^- 

flat* The lafTt upper molars are rather small, broadefet in middle; 
the heel jsbliquely truncate on outer side, and broadly rounded post- 



TLGkWN^^fiuWL^'^^-^^^niOL^ TtlWo.s <s^ BockJLs 



Ah-c^ah-chem: Kah-we^sik name for band at Indian Wells (Kah-Te-nish) 

EahWe-kik^^tem: Kahi^ve-silc nane for band at 7 Palms (3 miles east 
of Palm Springs Station)* 

Kah-we-sik: Mahlke name for Ka!i-we-sik-taa —the related (**Cahuilla*^) 
tribe at Palm Springs* 

Kah-ie-sik-t«: Palm Springs tribe* Hame for thewielTes* 

Ki'-^e-^win-tim: Kah«>se^sik name for Luiseno* 

Ki •yu-kah*yem : Maringam naie for Cahuilla tribe at Palm Springs* 

Koo-pah; Ko-pah; Kah-me-sik name for Agua Caliente tribe, Warner 
Valley. 

?ahn-yik-tem: Kah-we^sik name for band in Palm Caayon* 

Fan^nok-sah-kik-tem: Kah-we-sik name for band at Indio and Cabeson# 

Pat-cho-wal or Pa-cho-wal: Mahlke nme for ^^Cahuilla^ band at 
Sen Ignacio. 

So-vah-van-yo-yam: Maringam name for Saboba tribe at Saboba. 



Sow-wis-pah-keck-tem: Kah-we-sik name for band at Santa Rose Mt 
Too^vah: Mahl-ke name for Cahuilla** band at 'Big Johns ^* 



KAHWESIK GROUP (Commonly called "Cahuilla^') 



Mahlke , Their name for themselves^, 

Tribe of eastern slope of San Gorgonio Pass, reaching 
easterly to Whitewater River, north to San Gorgonio Mt, and 
south to the summit of the western arm of San Jacinto Mts, 
(south of San Gorgonio Pass). Most northerly of the so-called 
'Cahuilla* tribes. 

Called Wahn^ne-keCtum by the Kahwesiktem. 

Called Wun-nah-pe-ap-po-ah by the Mareyam. 



• 1 f 



Kah-we-sik-tem > Their name for themselves. 

• Desert tribe holding the lower (eastern) part of San 
Gorgonio Pass, from the northwest point of San Jacinto Mt. 
(at the bend of Whitewater River) easterly to some miles 
beyond Palm Springs f S8^^-e ), and south to the junction of 
Palm and Murray Canyons. 

Called Kah-wS'^sik by the Mahlke. 

Pow^wO'-yam . Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of Cahuilla Valley and adjacent slopes from Hemet 
' Reservoir south to include Chihuahua and Lost Valleys. 



Pahn-yik-tem . Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of middle part of Palm Canyon, including Murray and 

West Canyons. Might be regarded a band of Kah-we-sik-tem 
rather than distinct tribe. 



Wah-ko~chir/-kut-tem . Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of upper part of Palm Canyon, reaching southerly 
and easterly over Haystack and Asbestos Kts. and Pinyon Plat 
to south side of Santa Rosa Mt. 



We-is-tem . Their name for themselves. 

Tribe in mountains east of Warner Yalley from Coyote 
Creek south to include Thousand Palms Canyon, Collins Valley, 
and San Ysidro Mt. Eastern limit apparently Boregt) Valley. 
Called Wa-yyi-is-tem by the Cahuilla. 



H 



Kah-ve-nish . Their name for themselves. 

Desert tribe at Indian Wells, ranging south to include 
the arid desert mountains known as Indio Mt. and Sheep Mt.; 
west to Deep Canyon; east to the Coachella Desert. 

Called Ah -chah-chem by the Kah'-we-sik-tem. 

Kah-ve'-nish may be regarded as a convenient name for 
the related bands at distant water holes on the Coachella 
and Colorado Desert "fibrth of Salton Sea. These bands from 

north south are: 

Kah-ve-nish or Ah-chah-chem 

Pal-ta-waht 

Temal-wa-hish 

Wahk-wah 

So-kut-men-yil 

La-wil-van 
Too-vah-yow-itch-tem 



CAHUILLA OB KAH-1E-SIK SUBFiUILY 



T!b» Cahuilla or Koh-wa^sik linguistic Bubfazaily conrprisoft 
a nuBibor of tribes speaking clo8ol)r rslatad dlaXeots. 'Sb» 
tribes as at present knows to me, are: 

ths Koostam of San Bsmardino Plal» end San Timote^ C«EE]pos; 
the ffah-ii»*ke*ttt]i(o^][ahl'ke^of San Gorgonio Pass and titt 

^oTBitaiB alopas oit tlis oortk; 
ths iCa2t*vo>8ik-tem of Palra Springs at ths E \)ta» of Sm 
Jaoiitto pMk; 

the Pow«\ire*yam of ths 1 slope of San Jacinto MotBttaimi novXk 
of lat. 33 ^* (vhloh passes throng inast Bsssrrair , 

i 

ths Wah^o«chi'm-ki2t»t«tt or Palm Csitfon tribe, readiing 

souths itt the Uottataizis to ths aorthsfa slopes of Santa 

Rosa Moimtaiit; 
the Sow-«aib»psh'»keek*t«im or Santa Rom Botsstain tribe; 
the fa-wa*9>8«»tem (or We»is-t«n} coBmonly knovn as *Los 

Coyotes* , of the MotBitains between lamer Tallsjr soft 

Coyote Creek. 
Bach of thsss tribes has a number of raneheriaa* 



CABSILLA OR KAH-IS-SIK SUBPAUUT 



fbs known desert bands besides the Kah*we*sik-tem are: 
ths iyb»chah-chflm at KshWe-^iish (Irdian Wells) ; 
ths Pal-ta-waht (or Pah-naht»sa?) at Indio; 
the |yi£hWe*kik*tem at Seven Palms; 
tliS;'1te4^Yaii->]fo«»itoh»tera at Too'-Tsh (Pig-tres Johns or 



/ 



MtBBtlt Bttiloa)s 



^ ^li^^^ran or 3s«ts1 at Alamo Bonita; 

/J 

t^^ ttaial-va-Msh at La Ifssa (-Aitieastine) ; 

/* 

ths 8o^«t ttttn-]ril &t Uartinsz; 
%» Palieista at Cahszon; 




tibe fahic»«alt at Tbro. 



"^ wt^^^^^.. -* 



I 



/ , \ \ 



' \ 



4- 




GAHUILU 



The Cahuilla ( Kah-we-ah) occupy the northern part of the Colorado 
Desert and adjacent parts of the San Jacinto Its., and also the lower 
part of San Gorgonio Pas8--the great pass leading fraa the desert to 
the interior of Southern California between the San Bernardino Mts. 
oRthe North and the San Jacinto Mts. oR the South. 

Their territory extends northerly and westerly from the shores of 
Salton Sea, beginning on the south at the mouth of San Felipe Canyon 
on the west side of the great lake, and in the Chuckawalla foothills 
opposite, on the east side, embracing the northern three^fourths of 
the lake and continuing into and up San Gorgonio Pass toVnear'^hetown 
of Banningf labout 6 miles east of surrmiit. It includes also the Santa 

■ 

Rosa and San Jacinto Mts. and Cahuilla Valley. 

The Cahuilla are surrounded by other tribes, several of them un- 
friendly. On the north they abut against the Morongo Serrano [ Marin^ - 



amj ; on the east the Chemeweve : on the south and southwest the) (gieg- 




uen^: on the west the Ko»pah and ffluisenoV 

Linguistically they are a very compact body, there being only 2 



dialects, and these differing only slightly from one another. One 



U. 



He*i¥ to 



of these ranges from Palm Canyon nort^^asly to Banning; the other, if 
native infomiants at Palm Springs are correct, embraces all the re- 

mairider. 

While compact linguistically, they are divided into a number of 
Bubtribes or bands, each of which has a definite name and definite ter- 
ritorial limits, within which the gaxae and fruit and seeds and roots 
are their absolute property and must not be trespassed upon by other. 

bands* 

Thus the Wah^^ne-ke-tam [who call themselves Mahl-keJ of San Gor- 
gonio Pass hold the Pass from Banning easterly to Whitewater Creek, 
reaching on the southeast to the point of San Jacinto Mt* which juts 
out near Whitewater Station. To the north they reach to the Morongo 
Serrano [ Marin^aml on Mission Creek. 

id joining the Wah-ne-ke-tem [ Mahl-keJ on the southeast are the 
Kah-^wis-se-tem or Palm Springs^(igua Caliente No. 2) fcwrto , which be- 



gins at the point of the mountain near Whitewater Station and reaches 
easterly to a huge elongate sand dune (over a rocky base) called Yah- 



wah-kis : and thence southerly to the mouth of Palm Canyon; across this 
to the west and up the north rim of San Andreas Canyon to Eagle Cliff 
at the surmiit; thence northerly around the head of Taliquitz Canyon and 
San Jacinto Peak and down the ridge to the place of beginning near White- 
water Station. 

Adjoining the Kah-wis-se-tem on the south are the Pahn*vik-tem or 
Palm Canyon people. Their territory embraces Palm Canyon and the ad- 
jacent mountain slopes on the west from the north side of Andreas Can- 
yon south to West Fork Canyon* 



I I 



Adjoining the Pahn-vik-tem on the south were the Wah-ko-chi^m-kut 
now extinct, who extended southerly over the- upper reaches of Palm 
Canyon and adjacent slopes on both sides from West Fork Canyon to and 



beyond Vandeventer Flat a^d^^^^W the 



very base of Santa Rosa Mt. 



They spoke the same dialect as the Santa Rosa Mt. people. 

Adjoining the Wah-ko>chi*m-kut on the east were the Kah-vi-nish 
or Indian Wells tribe. 

The Cahuilla of Santa Rosa Mt. are the same as those of Indian 
Wells, Gabazon and Indio, Toro, Cahuilla Valley, and Los Coyotes--all 



speaking sarne language. ^^ l^ ^^^^^-^^ / 



Those of Palm Springs and Banning speak a slightly different 
language . 

The Cahuilla used to bum their dead, at least in the mountains. 

In certain ceremonies in which Eagles or Condors were used (ap- 
parently the chief figure of the ceremony), after the birds were killed 
the bodies were buried in the cemetery with th6 people; or if the 
people were burned, the body of the Eagle or Condor was burned also. 



These two birds were deities. They were caugjtit as nestlings 
and reared till grown. 



1 ( 



CAHUILLA OR KAH-WE-SIK SUBFAMILY 



• 1 

ij 



(\ 



Tlie Galiuilla or Kah-we-sik linguistic subfamily comprises 
a number of tribes speaking closely related dialects. The 
tribes as at present known to ma, are: 
Sut>r^m.^' Ihe Koostam of San Bernardino Plain, and San Timoteo Canyon; 






the Wah-ne-ke'~tam or Mahlke of San Gorgonio Pass and the 

Jdountain slopes on the north; 
the Kah-we-sik-tem of Palm Springs at the E base of San 

Jacinto peak; 
Tne Pow-we-yam of the W slope of San Jacinto Mountains soutk 

of lat. 53 40' (which passes through Hemet Reaervnlt^).; 



The Wah^ko -chimin- kut-tem or Palm 



Ganyon tribe, reaching 



south in the Mountains to the northern slopes of Santa 



Rosa Mountain: 



the Sow«wah*pah--ke ek'> tern or Santa Rosa Mountain tribe; 
the Wa-wa-e^ s-*tem (or We-^is-tem ) conimonly known as *Los 
Co3rotes', of the Mountains betv.reen Warner Valley and 



-« • 1 



Coyote Creek. 



Each of these tribes has a number of rancherias* 



CAEUILLA OR KAH-WE-SIK SUBFALilLY 



The known dssert bands besides the KahWe-sik-tem are: 
Ihe Ab-chah-cliem at Kah-ve-nish (Indian Wells) ; 
^he Pal-ta-waht (or Pah-nalit-sa?) at Indio; 
the Hah-ve-kik-tem at Seven Palms; 
tlie Too-vah-yov;litch-tem at Too-vah (Fig-tree Johns ©r 

iigua Dulce) ; 
The La-wil-van or Se-vel at Alamo Bonita; 
^e Temal-wa-hish at La Mesa C=Augiistine} ; 
the So-kut Men-yil at Martinez; 



tlie Pal seta at Cabezon; 



The Wahk-wah at Tore . 



ctv — 



KAH-WE-SIK OR •CAHUILL&* SUBFAMILY 



TRIBES 



KOO'STAM i^"^^- ^QosVa\TvSe^.vxLA,*-0< 



Hol-bah 
Uo-mo-ah 
Pool-yat 
Watoh'-ish 



RANCHBRIA3 r- 
Yu-ki -pa 



V 



Sah-htot-pah 



AH-CHAH-CHAM 



WAH'-Nl-KE-TEM 



KAH-P-SIK^TEM 



POW-WB-YAM' (Cahuilla proper) 



Uahl-kt 
Tep-pah*Qhah 



fSJChla 
Pahn-yik-tem 

Pow-we 
Pov-k» 
Pow-wut 

t t 

Wah-ko-chik-kut 



Hah«T«*kik-t«m 



■> 



S«h-» 
Sap-pul-pah 



wah-ko-chSi-kut-tbh 



.» V 



<| Wahn'-dia'-ah or Ti-vaht-pah^i May or may 

(not !)• saBO' 
JPinyon flat 






Knah-li-ka 



SOW-WAH-FAU-KESK-TBM 



fSow-wah 
lle-wuti. 



-pah 
now-hu 



fWil'-yah 
Wl-WA-lfe-TBM (or WE-IS-TEM) J^atchi-dHial 



Ho'-lah-kal 



'Kah-ve-nish (Ind. Wells) 

•Pal-ta-waht "^ , x 

, iQndio) 
*Pah-naht-sai j 

* Tema l-«a-hi ah (La Mesa-Augustine) 

•Lah-wil-Tan (Alimo Bonita) 

*So-kat Man-yil (Martines) 

'Pal-ae-ta (Old Cabezon) 

'Too-rah (Fig Tree John's =Agua Dulce) 

' Wahk^wah (Toro ) 

•Hay-ve (Seven Palms) 



ZJ 



0^ 



VM^-Q- 



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Among the villages of the Pow-we-yaxn or Cahuilla proper are 
Pow-we at Cahuilla Valley Hot Springs, Pow'-^ke at La Puerta in- 
south end Terwilliger Valley, Pow^wut at Willow Tree in: upper 
partfcoyote Canyon .JU^'V-'^ ^^jL.^^JJ^^ ^^^.^^^^^ ^U^=^ X^ <^ ^^^LlS. 

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EDWAED ASiLHEIi\BIRaE: Troy, N. T. , Sept. 7, 1851, A. B. Willii 
1373, A. M. 1876, Ph.D. HaXyard. 1878; Pl^^'. (Hon.) Rensselaer. 1934; Scl 
(Hon.) Pittsburgh, 1897; LL.\^WilU^ms 1903, Wisconsin 1905, Missouri ij 
instructor natural history, U^lvt^rsity of Wisconsin, 1875-1879, professo| 



toology 1879-1911, dean J.«9 1-19 19 , Acting president 1900-1903, president 

1918-1925, president Emeritus since 192<^; Director, Wisconsin Geological 

/ \ 

Natural History Survey 1897-1919; President^ Commissioners 1919-1925; at 

\ 
present actively occupied in prosecuting the natural history investigatij 

of this survey. Member of the American Philosophical Society, 



c 



\ .■••t 



vVV» 



Oct. 19 Lorenzo Cheno of K^h^wLitile triba of Selil^ 
(Palm Springs) says his ts^k is sam? as Wahlne.kikltnm 
of Morongo Reservation— the place name of which is 



Mahl-ke. 



•;.3^'^ 



CloLkuVlVci^ 



^■% 




April 26. 193M. 
or S Qn'.yahg Vanieve nte r j'lati 



•anta Rosa Valle^il 



8ow«wig-Bftb 



Ifla: The tribe. — 



.atT 






gOf*igh ?8fak: 



Original H<«^ Kock House Valley at 
baaoTlTorreB (Toro) Peak T»orth of Borrego 
VaUey). 



£gw»kfl,i rTerwilIiger 7a llev» Ticuf, *^^ <i*jUAj 

Powlwe^yam i The people o^ V<»^i-^^ - 

The ridge just eai^t of^AnzaTis the 
boundary between the Cahuilla S^u^y^ of 
Santa Rosa ?Eley (also callf^d Seu^yah or 
Vandeventer Flat) and the/ FoW^\ve^£p of ^:Wb 
Terwilligor Valley. 




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Map. T). Mountain (\iliuilla TcMiitory. 

¥• D* Strong*— Aboriginal Society So. Calif. 1929, 






aitsii^Otek O^st, 



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SanGroryonio Pass 






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Map. 4. Pass Calmilla Territory. 

W. D. Strong.— Aboriginal Society So. Calif. 1929 



a 



W. D. Strong*— Aboriginal Society So. Calif. 1929 



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Map 2. Desert Caliuilla Territory 



KAHireSIK GBOUP (Commonly called "Cahuilla") 2. 

Mahlke. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of eastern slope of San Gorgonio Pass, reaching 
easterly to ^itewater River, north to San Gorgonio Mt, and 
south to the summit of the western arm of San Jacinto Mta. 
(south of* San Gorgonio Pass). Most northerly of the so-called 

'Cahuilla' tribes. 

Called Wahn-ne-ke-tum by the Kahwesiktem. 
Called Vtan'-nah-pe-a o-po-ah by the ilareyam. 



Kah-we-sik?-tem. Their name for themselves. 

Desert tribe holding the lower (eastern) part of San 
Gorgonio Pass from the northwest point of San Jacinto Kt. 
(at the bend of Whitewater River) easterly to some miles 
beyond Palm Springs (Se£^). and south to the junction of 
Palm and Murray Canyons. 

Called Kah-we-sik by the Mahlke. 

Pow-we-yam » Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of Cahuilla Valley and adiscent slopes from Hemet 
Reservoir south to include Chihuahua and Lost Valleys. 



» 

Pahn-vik-tem. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of middle part of Palm Canyon, including Murray and 
West Canyons. Might be regarded a band of Kah-we-sik-tem 
rather than distinct tribe. 



Wah~ko~Ghin-kat-tem. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of upper part of Palm Canyon, reaching southerly 
and easterly over Haystack and Asbestos Hts and Pinyon Plat 
to south side of oanta Rosa l!t. 



We-i3-tem. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe in mountains east of Warner Valley from Coyote 
Creek south to include Thousand Palms Canyon, Collins Yalley. 
and San Ysidro Mt. Sastern limit apparently Borego Valley. 
Called V<a-wi>is-tem by the Cahuilla. 



Kah-ve-nish . Their name for themselves. 

Desert tribe at Indian wells, ranging south to include 
the arid desert mountains knovm as Indio Mt. and Sheep Mt.; 
west to Deep Canyon; east to the Coachella Desert. 

Called Ah-chah-chem by the Kah-we-sik-tem. 

Kah-ve-nish may be regarded as a conrenient name for 
the related bands at distant water holes on the Coachella 
and Colorado Desert horth of Salton Sea. These bands from 

north south are: 

Kah-ve-nish or Ah-chah-chen 

pal-ta-waht 

Temal-wR-hish 

Wahk-wah 

So-kutnnen-yil 

La-wil-van 

Too-vah-yow-itch-tem 



Uahuilla Kah-we-sik-tem (Palm Springs) 
TVeix- Uames ^f Other Indian Tribes: 



t/ Palm Springs tribe (in their 

own language) 
1/ I'^-a-Ha^^^w ^»t.a,KH.n\a!\>.Os.^4^}^^c4-ati^^ Jacinto Mt.) 



Kah'-we-sik^^tem, t^e tribe. 
fSamei as i-a-ki'chi* San 



i 



^ Cahuilla band at banning 



Halm-ne-ke'-tum (Gall themselves 
iiahl-kej 



■II I »»■ i 



>/ 



* " Indio & Oabezon Pan-nok-sah-kik-tem 



•• •• •• Indian liells 

(Kah-ve-nishJ 



MiShah-chem 



(ttollMLt) 



^ Cahuilla band ii Palm tianyon 



(/ 



Pahn-yik-t«BL 



^ on Torres J:ieserYatipn Wah-kwi -keek -tea 

(old place) 



/ 



X 



i» 



^ .» 



It 



17 miles up Palm 
Uanyon, near 
banta iiosa Mts. 



tf 



iiah-ko-chim-kut-tem (extinct) 



/ 



at 7 Palms (3 miles aih-ve-kik-tem 

east of Palm Springs 
Station] 



• at Santa KosaMt. ^Sow-wis -pah -keek -tern 



^ Ooyote Valley tribe (at Los Uoyotes) Wa-wa-e^s-tum; Wa-wi-is-tem 



^ Lui 



seno 



^ Agua Gal iente/ Warner Yalley 



Ki-e-win-tun 
Kod'-pah: Ko -pali 



aaliuilla*.Kah-w«-sik-tem Names of other tribes 



^ Sabot»a 

c/^^ Serrano tribe in Morongo Val 
(Maringam) 

Uhemeiseve 

Mohave 



lu-yah-wep-pah (talk same language 
as Pachanga V^uiseno) 



Mor-roil^-go 

lu-ah-^i'^yum; iaw-ki-oa 
i-ea-kah-tum; i -ah -pah 



luma 

Dieguano of San iJ'elipe Oanyon 



I'-el -moo-kah-t«m; i'-yil -mo-kah-tian 
pi. for tribe; l-el-moo-kah 
tsingular) 



Any tribe east of speaker 
Tah°^-lis_-jsgp 



i-ve-ah-tem (Basternersi 
I'he people. 



J 




KAH-WE-SIK OR »CMUILLA» SUBFAKILT 



TRIBES 



D 



KOOfeTAH 



Hol'-bah 

Ho-«o«ah 

Pool-yat 



BANCUSRIAS 
Ytt-ki-p« 



SabMialit-pah 



WAHlHSiKB-'TBI 



Mehl'-ke 



OHiWE-SIKlTlK 



Pahn-yik-teM 



Pow-we 



Uah^Te-kik^^ten 



o 



iOW-ft'E-IAM' (Cahuille properH Pew-la 

Pon-mt 



/ Y 



Sah'Hi 
Sap-pnl-pali 



T. 



^^^>^^n£Ji,X 



U H-KO-CHlil-KUT-TSB 



toh-ko-chik-kut 



>^ V 



< 1^hii^cha^*ah or Ta^^waht-pahl May or say 



SOW-WAH-PAH-KSEK-^TXM 



- ^ -♦' 



WA-Wl-lS-TBM (or ^IS-IS^TBI) < 



Kii8h'-I5*ke 

Sow^iah-pah 
la-watf-now-4iu 

Ho'-lah-kal 



nal be 8a»tt< 
/PinyoD flat 



-A_ ^J6jf,-w^^ 



^^ 



iU-CmAH-CaiAM 



Kah-Te-nish (Ind.WeU^) 

Pal-ta-waht "^ 

Pahinaht-saij '-■ . 

T€Ml-wa-hi8h (La Mesa Augujjtine 

Lah-wil-Tan (ilimo Bonito) 

So-kut ttao-yil (Hartines) 

PaZ-se-ta (Old Cabeson) 

Tooi-rah (Fig Tree John's Agua Dulca) 

lBhki.wah (Toro ) 

Hav-ve (Seren Palms) 







<l 



Kah-we-3ik or Cahuilla subfamily f<ix>.vJt^7 



-i>> 



KAH-WE-SIK OH OAHUILLA SUBi^AlJLY 



Tribes 



^ Koos-tam 



L^ 



Wah-ne-ke-tem 



^ Kah-we-sik-tem 



-^^ u' Pow-we-yam (Cahailla 

proper) 



L 



Wa}i-ko -chi ' m-kat -t em 



(^ Sow ^wah -pah -keek -tern 



- -/ 



i/' 



ISIa-wa-e ^s-tem 
(or le-is-tem) 




flol-bah . . 
Ho -mo -ah 
Poor-yat . . 
Watch-ish 



Kancherias 

, . . . lu-ki-pa 

Sah -haht -pah 



• • • 



/ 



Mahl-ke 
Sep-pah-chah 



:oh 



Se^"-e . . Hah-ve-kik-tera? 

Pahn-yik-tem 

"Pow-we • • • Sah-d 



Pow-ke ^V^i*^^*^^-^ ^r^ Sap^^pcd -pah 

Pow-wttt 

». . ^ 

Vf ah -ko -chi ^ m-kut 



Tribes 



>^Ah-chah-cham 



WaMi-clie-a¥ 
or 

Ta-waht.pah 

Kwah-la-ke 



Sow-wah-pah 
We-wut-now-hu 




May or may not be same 
Piny on Flat 




Wil -yah 



VL4- 



C^" 



Y^ 



(^0^A^^*^\rr\^ 



Patch-tf-wal '=^<^^ ij^/w^ctU 
Ho-lah-kal 



Ranc'Herias 



Kah-venish (Ind. Well^) 

Pal-ta-waht^ 

, lidndio) 

Pah-naht-sa=j 

Temal-wa-hish (La kesa & Augustine) 
\ lah-wil-van (A19mo Bonito) 
So-kat men-yil (Martinez) 
Pal-se-ta (Old Oabezoa) 
Too-vah (Fig xree Johns =Agua Duloe) 
Wahk-wah (Toro) 



^ 



Hav-ve (7 Palms) 




WA-WA-E*S-TEM OR WE-IS-TEM 
(Los Coyotes) 

A tribe of the Kaliwesik subfamily whose territory extended 
from San Ysidro, in the mountains east of Warner Valley, easterly 
over San Ysidro Mountain and northeasterly over^rugged arid 
mountains to the canyon of Coyote Creek, where they puished north 
to or nearly to the boundary line between Riverside and Sam Diego 
Counties. Just above this point on Coyote Greek was P»w-wut (or 
Willow Tree) Rancheria--the lowermost village of the Cahuilla. 

The We->i8^temj called Los Coyotes by the Spaniards, had 
three principal rancherias: Wil^ve^ah Cor Wil-yah) on Coyote 
Creek in Coyote lalley; Patch- ow -we 1 in' the mountains at San 
Ignacio; and Ha-lah-kal at San Hsidro in a canyon of the same 
name in the mountains east of the southern part of Warner Vallej* 
The inhabitants of these villages were called respectively Wil.* 
vah-^temp Patch-ow-wel-lem. and Ho^-lah-kal-lem> 



C ^I^aX u^ J^ dA^ L^^^^^^^^ 



WA-WA-E»S-TEM OR lE-IS-TEU 



K«».V.VAift t-Vt o/- . I 

sVocAc 



(Lob Coyotes) 



A tribe of the Kahweaik aubfaraily whose territory extended 
from San Ysidro, in the mountaine east of tamer Valley, easterly 
over San Ysidro Mountain and nortlneasterly over rugged arid 
mountains to the canyon of Coyote Creek, where they pushed north 



to or nearly to the boundary line betroen Rirerside and San Diego 
Counties. Just above this point on Coyote Creek was gewsaat (or 
filMw Tree) Banchoria— the lowermost villaf^e of the Cahuilla. 

The fe»i8*t«n. called Los Coyotes by the Spaniards, had 
three principal rancherias: til-ve-ah (or fil-yah) on Coyot© 
Creek in Coyote Bailey; Patch«ow»wel in the mountains at San 
Ignacio ; and HoClah-kal at San Isidro in a canyon of the san^ 
name in the mountains east of the southern part of Warner Valley. 
The inhabitants of these villages were called respectively Ki.« 
vah^tem. fatcfa-ow-wel«lem. and Ho>lah«kal»lem. 



Los Coyotes (Coyotes, Cellote (Heintzelmen 1851), 
Wa-\va-e'9-tum, We-is('-tem). . .Band related 
to Cshuilla inhabiting Coyote Yalley and the 
Mountains thence southerly to ^ian Isidro 
Mountein and southwesterly to Sen Ysidro 
f Ho-lah-kal ) a little east of Maxner Yalley. 
CoBprises 3 principal villages: WU-ys^ in 
Coyote Canyon; Patch-o.wal at San Ignacio. and 

at San Isidro. balled wfi-wa-a*g~tim 

>. 

by the Cahuilla.— <iyw^^ Called Httlfl'^fflg ty the 
Luisello (Kroeber). Also name of an Indian 
Beservation comprising "the Igua Caliente 
settlement of San Isidro or tjilfikal, and the 
Diegueno settlement of 3an Ignacio" (Hr^ndbcok). 




\ 

/ 



CAHUILLA TRIBE S 

AJbout twenty miles south of Palm Springs —the 
home of the Kah -we - s ik - tern Cahuilla--i3 the present 
home of their relatives, the Sow-wis-pah kik-tem of 
Vendeventer Flat, Santa Rosa Mountains. The Sow-wis-pahk 
came originally from Rock House Canyon on the south 
slope of Toro lor Torres) Mt* 

Adjoining the Sow-wis-pahk on the west are the 
Pow-we-am Cahuilla of Pow-ke or Terwilliger Valley. 

The dividing line between the So w-wis-pah kik-tem - 
of Vandeventer Flat and the Pow-we-yam 'of Terwilliger 
Valley follows a long ridge running from northwest to 
southeast and culmintaing on the north in Thomas Mt. 
(alt. nearly 7000 ft.). The small settlement of Anza 
on this ridge is close to the boundary between the two 
tribes. "^ 




TRIBSi 



Palm Spring, known to Indiana as 2§^, ia on the 



northwest edge o 



f the Colorado Desert at the east base of San 



Jacinto Mountain.. It has long been the home and headquarters 
of the Kfi V»ye-aik«tem Cahuilla tribe. 

A few miles south of Palm Springs is the mouth of Palra 



Canyon, Along its course 



were at least two other Cahuilla 



bands-the P>.hnUik-tem and ]^nh^Vp^y^\ 'm^k^t-t^m; and still 
farther south, in Vandeventer Flat and Horse Canyon of the ,San- 
Mountains, is another band of the same stock-the ^ 



ta Rosa 



TT^ ^.y^h-kikUem. Adjoining these on the west, centering in 
Terwilliger Valley, were the Cahuilla Ppw^we-a^ . 

Still farther south, from Coyote Creek Valley westerly 
and southwesterly to San Ysidro Mountain, was yet another 
Cahuilla tribe-the W'l<f'^^l or W?-iaHffl»« This is the 
southernmost of the nunerous Shoahonean tribes of Califomir, 
Immediately south are the m^k&^yOf Yuman .stock. 



MaM'-ke ^y.j^z^, 



kah-we-sik 



.T> 



Sortheast of jjanning. ■}i'minrTim!»~-t9t 



iielated Uahuilla tribe at Bslm Sprli^. 



Wii-yah 



Uahuilla hand on il^^*itd Ur«ek. 



i'oo-vah 



Uahuilla band at 'Big Johns'. 



Pat-ch6-wal (or Pa-ch6-wal) Oahuilla band at San Ignacio 



K 



<^j/>a€3UUi5tt 




^^W^^JO^ 



CH 



^^*v.« 



v*-«. 



S4,-u^.w UK-^^^-^ 



'^^ C--^>--X^ 











C^a' jf.JL^,K^A.«^^v^ l-f*«f^l 



i 



o 



&■ 

OB 



Tribe or subtribe of C^uilla whose territory ex- 
tended from a little west of San Bernardino, and from 
Riverside, easterly to Beaumont at the summit of San 
Gorgonio Pass, where they met the MgiUrisa (o^ IghkSi 
we-tam).^ lest of the San Bernardino— Riverside 
ceuntry they met the "q»-T^rielenos"[TQnara3. and on th 
south their territory abutted a^inst that of the 
Tanseno . -Told me by Cahuilla chief Leonicio Luga. 
1_ I ^Xk ^^^ tribeTwi^duced) to a remnan^ ia- lOOa-by 



Inepidemic of smallpQ^AJ^^fflj. 



tribe same as 
and Mofongo ). 




(called Yukipam by 




T-e. V V^\UaMt^^ Vcooug, - ^f^^^;:::::!^:^ 




■'^^..^4..ofiiv-CJt>^^ . Vo^'-^^^-a.'w ^ 



)> 



^.r 



SLuLf^jO^Ji^ 



Tow^- ko. 



)\ 



fe^^JLSV'TVJ^/Vs^sX^ 1 X*^^^^J^-JJlJUyJV^^^^^^ / ~- 




V a - JL-^.c-A c^ Tl.i , a-Jt^ ^*-^\«^ -S:i^ 



^H^%m<( 







S^vkt-^-sK. "Pt^-M^ 






^ 



f > 



17. "The theory of electric and magnetic susceptibilities." Approx. 375 

pp. Oxford University Press, 1931. 

18. Theory of variations in paramagnetic anisotropy of salts of the iron 

group. Phys. Rev., 41 : 208, 1932. 

19. Theory of magnetic quenching of iodine fluorescence and of A doubling 

in *IIo states. Phys. Rci\, 40: 544, 1932. 

20. Quantum defect of non-penetrating orbits, with special application to 

AIII. (With N. G. Whitelaw.) Phys. Rev., ^: ssh 19ZZ' 

21. Structure of CH4 and related molecules. I. /. Chem. Phys., 1 : 177, 

1933 ; n. /. Chem. Phys., i : 219, 1933 ; III. /. Chem. Phys., 2 : 20, 
1934. 

22. Molecular vibrations of 3-particle systems with special applications to 

the ethyl halides and ethyl alcohol. (With P. C. Cross.) J. Chem. 
Phys., 1 : 350, 1933. 

23. Calculation of the vibration frequencies and other constants of the HaO 

molecule. (With P. C. Cross.) /. Chem. Phys., i : 357, 1933- 

24. New method of calculating the mean value of i/r' for Keplerian sys- 

' tems in quantum mechanics. Roy. Soc. Proc, 143 : 679, 1934. 

'25. Dirac Vector model in complex spectra. Phys. Rev., 45 : 405, 1934. 

26. Theory of the paramagnetic rotation and susceptibility in mangamous 

and ferric sahs. (With W. G. Penney.) Phil. Mag., 17: 961, 1934- 

27. Paramagnetic rotation of tyserite. (With M. H. Hebb.) Phys. Rev., 

46: 17, 1934. 



ws* ' 



r.^» 



Kah»we-Bik 

Lorenzo Che-no, of Se^-e (Palm Spring)— 
^ah-we-BJk tribe, aayB that his langaag? is the eame 
as^^ Wah-ne-kik-tem. now on Morongo Reservation, 



Mahf-ke 



^ 



Calif. Journal 
Oct. 19, 1932 



* J. 

A tribe closely related to the Cahuilla, i^ose territory 
covered San Goiigonio Pass and the adjacent moimtains on the 
north, and reached from ths suninit of San Gox^^^io Pass (at 
present torni of Boanaont) easterly to Mission Creek, and thence 
southeasterly to a long white hill <m the desert a few miles 
east of P&Lb Springs Stati<Hs> 

(hi the north and east they were im contact with the SeiT«ii» 
Ma^lngam ^iwie^) ; on the south with tbo Kah^w^sik^twa and 



/M 



M^ 



KU P^'^ 



So^ba^ba ; on the vest with tbal Koog^iaa 

fillian Pablo^ a mmber of tha tribs, giTsa me the wagtent 
botsidary of the Mahl^ a ^aa San (SosigDnio Bivar^ north of Baasinig; 
but this appears to bo the boiaidary between the "•^^'-fr*^ ranefaeri* 
and ths next rancheria to the west, for the Csbiiilla Chief 
Leonicia X«go tells ne that the fMi}«iie»l»»t«ii territory eontSanad 
west to the susnit of San Qprgpnio Pass, iriisre Athsy had m fillip 



called lS^U,toR the creeks and spriqgs abcni 4 ■!!«• asrtii af ) 



^QU 




-I 



SeaoBumty/ Chief Uigo tells me fturther that <m the west tha 
ffahn'-ne»ke»tam crossed the valley to the southward, rA»n ttiqr 



WAHN-HE-KE-TAJi ^ t'AHL-KE 



-»^ 



had another villaf^e, called TfllbDah::Chi^yin a BDvoTTliloy 
known ub Potrero San Jacinto Nuero, about 4 rrilos a little 



M^ 



couth of e;;8t of Beaursont,^ He said aleo that they occupied 
the south Bide of San Gorgonio Paes and adjacent northerly 
elopes of San Jacinto Mount dn between what is now Caibezon 
R. R, Station (e?i8t of yihict the correspondii^ slopee belonged 
to the Kah-we-eik-teB!) and the eunspit of San Oorgonio Paes. 
It appe-irs therefore that the Wahl.«^a.tap territory consisted 
of at least 3 rancheria areas: ISahl~Kg„ S^— r and Tep^pah- 
ahah— of which MahLka was about aa large as the 2 others 
together. It is possible that a fourth area covered the north 
slope of Ean Jacinto Mountain and adjacent narrow strip of 
desert from Caberon R. R. Station easterly to Whitewater, for 
aa intelligent Indian of the Kah-wa-aik tribe gave me the 
Whitewater spur as the weetem liait of his tribe.- b-h>^ 



-^1 



NMolW- V<.~W4-'A 



c^ 




w^-subtribo of Kahv/eali^Caliuilld? 




Al^b. 



This division of the Cahuilla now has headquarters at the res- 



ervation school a little 



northeast of Banning. 



Their territory begins at the Banning Water Canyon (San Gor- 
gonio River) iMch it follows SI not quite to^lClB^ and east to(PaIm 

a, . ' 

Springs Railroaa atabioiiand on easterly to^hi^ sandhill [Tah-vah- 
kis] east of Palm Springs station and thence to Uission Creek (south 



« • 



side) and up the ridge to Grayback Peak# 



A. 



Points along the boundary are: Kf comer of Section 4 and thence 
south nearly to railroad: to Sulphur Spfing and thence to just (closei 
above Horse Spring, and right straight to a big rock on west side 
CSiino Canyon and ther^oe following ridge to mouth of Chino Canyon (to 
a pile of rocks) ^ and shoots strai^t to Palm Spring station and 



the big sandhill east, and thence to Mission Creek. 




f / 



South of tte Mahl^ka are their relatives the K^^we-si^ of 



fA-fA-B*S-Tai OR A-S-IsItEM 
(Los Coyotes) 

A tribe of the Kaliwoaik subfamily indiose territory' extorted 
fro© San Ysidro^ in the mountains east of tamer Valley, easterly 
over San Ysidro I^ountain and northoastcrly over rugged arid 
mountains to the canyon of Coyote Creeks where they pushed north 
to or nearly to tha boundary lin# boti^en Riverside and San Diego 
Couniies^ Just above this point on Coyote Creek was P e ir - wut (or 
fillow Tinee) BaxK^horia^^tha lowenoost village of the Cahuilla^Tv^^. 

i^M ls»ia»taia. callsd Los Coyotes by tho Spaniards, had 
three principal rancherias: Wil've^ah (or fil^jroh) on Coyote 
Creek in Coyote lalley; Patdh^ow-nel in the mountains at San 
Ignacio; and Bo*lah*kal at San t-sidro in a canyon of the same 
name in the ^nuntains east of the southern part of tamer Valley. 
1310 lidiabitants of these Tillagsa were called respectively |^- 



Palm Springs. 



\ 



Xl^lo.CK-illG'Ci 




.SVs<dsVn< 



ionc# 



iSVooV^ - *'^a^^-MAir 



or 



C^V\v.^\5iCo ^ ^errcc^o 



■MM 



e)^//& 



> 



The ^^Serrano** and '^Cahuilla^ grcapa of tribes hare no 
common name for themselves and their words for people and man 
differ in the two series. Hence it has been necessary to search 
for an appropriate name to coTer both. 

Strictly speaking the peoplt are not Sun ^rehipor8« 
Irtrt; nevertheless they hold the son in great reTerence* Son and 



loon created the world and 



are the Most sacred deities. 



And both groups call Sun by the same noRe — Taha-yat . Therefore » 



failing to find a better word» I am proposing Taha-^yat as %^^JMs^^^^ 



family n«e for the two groups. 



ME FOR 'SERRANO 
C. Hart Merriam 



Of the Shoshonean tribes of California the socalled 
* Serrano * and ' Cahuilla * groups are wellknown to be much more 
closely related to one another than to any other tribes. 
Nevertheless they have no collective name for themselves, and 
so far as I am aware no collective name has been proposed by 
anthropologists. The need for such a term is obvious, not alone 
for purposes of classification but also for clear understanding. 

Among other stocks the words for DeoDle and man have af- 
forded convenient handles, but in this case they differ in the 
two series and therefore are not available. ^ After searching 
my vocabularies of the two dialects at intervals for some 
j^ears I have arrived at the conclusion that since both groups 
call the Sun Tahm-vat , and since the people, while not actual 
Sun Worshippers, hold the Sun in great reverence, therefore 
the term Sun People would be appropriate—for Sun and Moon 
created the world and are its most sacred dieties. And since 
in both series the stem of the word for people is tahk (plural 
in Maream series tahk-tOTi ), I propose Tahm-vat-tahk-tem -- 
Tamvattakteg jajk it would be written by most anthropologists— 
as a collective or family name for the two groups. 




i/r 



The vowel, in the last syllable, as pronounced by 
different individuals, varies from e. to a or u. 



TaJm-ya€^ Family 





Ketanamwits 



\i Mohave Desert and San Bernardino Mts. 



KetanajHfio oleum and Mohineyam (closely related) 
Maringam, Morongo of Mission Creek 
Mai^a, 29 Palms (no vocabulary) 
Koos'tam— -Yukipe (no vocabulary) 



•CAHUILLA- SERIES 



Akatchman 



Kahwesik 



Akatclina ^ c^^^^^a^vs.^ 
Piyumko - V^^i^-t^^^ 
Sovo'va — St>Wo(^(x^ 

s. 

« 

Mahl'ke, Bannin^-Qlfhitewater 

Kahwese'tem, Palm Spgs. & Colo. Desert bands 

Pow-we-yam, Cahuilla Valley 

Pan-yik-tem, Palm Canyon (Andreas Canyon t^^ 

West Fork Canyon) 1 J 

Wah-ko-chim'kuttem. Upper Palm Canyon (to > 4 

Santa Rosa Mts* ) I "^ 

Wa-we-is'-tem (We-is-tem), San Ysidro to Santa] 

Rosa Mt. Head village Wir-yah/ 



Koopan 



-skoopa, Aqua Caliente, Warner Valley 



NEED OF A COLLECTIVE NAIffi FOR •SERPANO' *ND •CiiHJILLA' 



Of the Shoshonean tribes of California the aocalled 
' Serrano * and ' Cahuilla* groups are vrellknown to be much 
more closely related to one another than to einy other tribes. 
Nevertheless they have no collective name for thonselvea 
and so far as I am aware no collective name has been pro- 
posed by anthropologists. The need for such a term is ob- 

« 

vious, not alone for purposes of classification but also 
for clear understanding. Among other stocks the words for 
people and man have afforded the necessary handle but in 
this case they differ in the two series and therefore are 
not available. After searching the two dialects at intervals 
for several years without much success I realized that Tahm-yat 



is the name of the Sun in both groups. 



o 






'■<■-■ ^ tm'^" 



"laKw H^C 



^^^'V^^x^..-aLu^ I X-^..L.KA 



K^TrtA Vv CX^ tvx A/^^^ \ ^ 



% 







<w^XV 







!\ K'^^i'aK K/wcV'K 



(XXe-ATTc (' 



\A^'^^jSK^-i 



liak\N>-^.?i\V^«xvv 




K 







to V^^ \A| 4^^ Y^-^-^"^ 



T 



^^^\ic\ v\ { K 00 b a W 




VA.VU 




Tt 






^L^\\l 






TooW^jf^ 



--Xx.]x.v ''O A^'. jXr->. 






9 



Mountain tanager (Piranga lu- 
doviciana) _ . 



Yellow-breasted chat {Icteria 
virens) 



Kingbird {Tyrannus verticalis) _ 
Say phoebe {Sayornis say a) 



Black phoebe (Sayornis nigri- 
cans) 



Wood pewee ( Contopus richard- 
soni) 



Small flycatcher (Empidonax) 
Horned lark {Otocoris) 



Barn swallow {Hirundo) 



Cliff swallow {Petrochelidon) 



Violet-green swallow {Tachyci- 
neta) 



Bank swallow iClivicola) 



Phainopepla (Phainopepla 
nitens) 

Cedar bird {Ampelis) 



Bluebird (Sialia) 



Water ouzel (Cinclus) 



Evening grosbeak {Hesperi- 
phona) 



Pine grosbeak (Pinicola) 



Black-headed grosbeak {Zame- 
lodia) 



T(xVuwW4r Trllres r > T^'^ -^c^^-KKi<s-Wv^^ 



^SEfiftANtr SeRlBS; Mohave Desert and San Bomardino K:t8^ 



Ketanamwits^ 



Ad^j y^A 



'^CAHDILLA'' SERIES 



KetanamoolbiTn and Mohineyam (closely related) 
Meringawi llorongo of Mission Creek. 
Mark , 29 Palms (no vocabulary) 
Koostam—Yukipe (no vocabulary) 




*>*i«<^«M^^«V«MI^:-^ 



I Akatchinau < fiymnko 



' Akatchma c^La.'^fc^-e^v^ 



^ Sovova ? 
Ma hik e 



Kahwesik4AV< 




L 



\ Banning ^ Whitewater 

iJahweseteiTi , Palm Spgs. 5: Colo .Desert bands 

Pow^we^yam. Cahuilla Valley 

Fan^yik'-teTn, Palm Canyon (Andreas Canyon to 

^^est i^ork ^anyonj 

Wah-^ko-chfm kuttem . Upper ralm Canyon (to Santa 

Rosa Mts. ) ^ 

V'jfl.^ft«is»tem f We«i8-tem ) San Ysidro to Santa I ^ 

Bosa Mt. Head village Wil-yah. 



^ 



Koopgyy . / kocpe , Aqua Cfiliente, \<erner Valley. 



Tahm-va t^Fami 1 y 



• SERRANO "k^jwtws© J Mohave Deaort and San Bernardino Mts. 



Ketanamivits 




Ketanajnookum Mnd Mohinayam (closely rdlated) 
Maringam. Moron^^o of MiBsion Creek 
Mara I 29 Palma (no vocabulary) 
Koos'taiTi— Yukipe (no vocabulary) 



•CJiraJILIJ" SERIES 



J»kat,3hr.an 



>katc>ina 



< 



PiyuiTiko 
Sovova 



5 oWo U ^t 



Kahweaik 



Mahlke , Banning^- Whi t ewater 

KahweseteiTi, Palm Spga# & Colo. Ceaert bands 

Pow-we-j^am, Cahuilla Valley 

Pan-yik'^-tem, Palm Canyon (Andreaa Canyon t^ 

West Por^ Canjron) 

V/ah-ko-chlm kut^terri, Uipper Palm Canyon (to 

Santa Kosa I't3* ) 

Wa-?#e-i8-tem (We-ia-tem), San Yaidro to Santa) ^ 
^ Hosa V.U Head villa^ Wil^yah/^ 



Koo'pan 



<JKooj)a, -Ajua Caliente, Wamor Valley 




e,^ 



h"^ 



c 








> 



•'*»^*»-'-i «»(»*» 



AKATGHMA GROUP • 



Akatchma. Their name for themselves. 

Tribe of the Capistrano coast region, reaching south 
to or a little heyond San Onofre Mt. and in the interior 
to the Santa Ana, Trabuco, and Elsinore Uta. On the northwest 
they are in contact with the Tongva; on the east and south- 
east, with the Piyumko (Luiseno)^ 

Called Juaneno by the Spanish -Americans and many 
ethnologists^ 



Piyumko (Luiseno). Their name for themselves. 

Tribe reaching the coast between the Akatchma on the 
northwest and the Kammei (Diegueno) on the southeast from 
neighborhood of San Onofre Mt. (or Los Pulgas Canyon) to 
a little south of Oceanside; in interior reaching north to 
Santa Ana River and Riverside, east nearly to San Jacinto 
Village and Winchester; south to San Pasqual Valley and 
Escondido. 

Called Ki-'W'^win^-tun by Kahweiiktem^ 



Soboba . Their nane for themselves. 

Small interior tribe immediately west of San Jacinto Mts. 
and continuing westerly to a little beyond the tovus of San 

Jacinto and Hemet* 

Called Yu-yah-wep-pah by Kahwesiktem. 

Celled S5-vah-vS^-yo-yum by Maringam. 




SO-BO-H.AH 
The Sd-bo-bah are a BDiaHXtribe now practically confined 
to fan .Tacinto Rfl!;ervation. Their original territory is much 
more extensive than generally knovm. Chief Lugo of the 
rahuilla tellfi ire that it reached weetorly froo: San Jacinto 
Peak and the erect of the higher part - of the runge west of 
Palrc Canyon to San Jacinto Valle^W^en Hot Springe on-th«- 
northw e at , andr)1t,o includg Boiponigoni Valley, on tho couthwoot . 
The northeastfirn comer of their territory appoarB to have 
been the BinPK-it of San Jacinto Peak, or a point on the west 
r,ide near mmr'it, whence the eastern bound. iry followed tho 
crest of the range southerly to a point about east of Haidfill. 
now Hflicet ReBorvoir, whore they met the Pow-we-vnig Cahuilla. 



West of Hemet Reservoir, they are separated frae the Lwiggnft 
by a tongue of the ffahuilla which follows tho canyon of 
Bautiste Creek northwesterly for its entire length, a disttmce 
of about 15 miles. Diamond Valley, a few roiles ffxrther west, 
lies wholly in ?)Q-bo'-.bah territory, as does also Doaenigoni 



Valley. 



\-v. 



SO-BO-BAH 



Tho SQ-bo-b.ih wero thus in contact with several tribes. 
On the extreme northwest, inrcodiatoly north of Eden Hot 
Spriiv?8. they act the Koos'-tiur: east of Fden Valley they wet 
the southwestom b;md of the Wfth'~yiQ~kfi«tefp (MahX-Ko); on the 
east the crest of San Jacinto Mountains separated them from 



the yah-we-aik-tem: on the southeast, they were in contact 
with the Pow-we-yaig or Cahuilla proper; on the west, and also 
south of the western half of their range, they met the related 



Paahanga group of Kebhe «i«(liiiEefi^ 



CU^u^ 



• \ 



^ Aa- \ 



^^-0 



\Mci\_ 



n il wni ii <iij<i 



^^"^•war-. 



L 





\ 



Soboba (or Sovova): Small Kahwesik tribe 
10 tho interior of Southern Crlifomi^ 
south of the Mahtke of San Gorgonio 
Pass, north of Cahuilla Valley; west 
of San Jacinto Mts., and east of the 
northern part of the territory of the 
Piyumko or luiseno end reaching south- 
easterly to Hemet Keservoir. 

Adjoining tribes: On the north, the 
Hahllce ; on the east, the Kah-we-3ik-te< ; 
on the southeast the Wah -ko-chim-kut t en ; 
on the south the Pow-we-vam ; or the 
southwest and west the Piyumko. 

Places included: San Jacinto, Hemet, 



Valliviata, Strawberry Valley. 



Cll».~w 



Extract from ' Southern California Indiana* 
by Mrs. H. A. Atwood, in the 'HisioiX-Ol 
San Bernardino and River aide nountie a . 
California: Brown and Boyd, 1922. 

Saboba Indians, Baskets. 



ihe Sftboba Indiana have their homes in a 
beautiful spot near the town of San Jacinto. . .j 
They live in a little villa^^ and a number of 
years ag9 some of the best basket makers in 
this part of the country were of their number; 
but in the earthquake a few years ago some of 
the most skillful were killed by the falling 
buildings and with them perished the industry 

• 

that meant so muoh to this tribe. rv ^^^ 

p. 318 



Extract from * Southern California Indi ana* 

by Mrs. H. A. Atwood. in the * Hiatory~of 

San Bernardino and Riveraide Pountias. 
California: Brown and ftnyti; 1QPi>- 

Saboba Indiana. Bairiceti. 



The Saboba Indians have their hones in a 
beautiful spot mar tihe torn of San Jacinto* * 
They live in a little Tilla^ and a number of 
years ago s<me of the best basket makers in 
thia part of the oountxy were of their raasberi 
but in the earthquake a few ye urs a^ some of 
the most skillful were killed by the fallirg 
buildings and with them perished the industry 

that meant ao iraich to this tribe. 

p. 318 



Soboba (or Sovova ); Small Kahwesik tribe 
in the interior of Southern California 
south of the Mahl'ke of San Gorgonio 
Pass, north of Cahuilla Valley; west 
of San Jacinto Mts., and east of the 
northern part of the territory of the 
Piyumko/or Luiseno)and reaching south- 
easterly to Hemet Eeservoir. 

Adjoining tribes; On the north, the 
Mahllce ; on the east, the Kah-we-silc-tem; 
on the southeast the Wahlko-chim -kut t em : 
on the south the Pow-ire-Tam ; on the 
southwest and west the Pivumko . 

Places included: San Jacinto, Hemet, 
ValliTista, Strawberry Valley. 



KOOPAH 



Koopah> Their name for themselves. 

^all interior tribe east of Aguanga Mts. and extending 
from Oak Grove and Dodge Talley southeasterly to Foerta Cms 
and Agoa Caliente in lamar Talley* Thus their country is 
imnediately east of the piyuakOt south of the PowieysB, 
west of the We^-is-tam, and north of the Tissepah or Northern 
Kanmei (Diegaeno)# 



MISCELLANEOUS 



IMa^I CA 




SV\o*V^o<Ne sVocAiC - Te'^otx Vxec^ 



<^^o 



/l^ 



c^^3 




/ 



IIIDIAi: tribes! MT) LANGUAGES) FOUKD BY LIE AT TEJOr IIOV. 10-12, 1905. 
Y/ithi:originS?hoine of^ibc(or of its living roprerentativoc here) 



1 Tol- chin-no (orx^ic}. Tcjon Can^-on Rancho-'ialat mouth oi\Canyon-. 
^__ ziVLTiO place \7jiGro all tho Indians live no\'^| Vey^ooL^l^ kjLwtwc y^l 

H ^.^t^ l!ev/-oo-a!i . ^fTuWTiSXi Sevo -al hore, but 

language go close to iol-chin-no that tlio tv/dXare only 

sub t r ib e s^^^tt-i^'tstdt . 

3o At/ - ke ■ ]:>i^ * tuirf . C^miiolJr'cra^ themselves and others) by the 

; nickn.-me Hr:L^i-me-nat, v/hich in ^'^oi- lan,T^ia,'^.o me;ms"v/hat is 









it">i » 






G'On iOjon Croek , 2 or .'•> 



!Jt\«*- 



9 



miles belov/ the Tol-chin-ne at I^louth ouCaiiyon.-T^^^^^^iH^ 

'VjLA.wOk^A^K^ :boLA,^^<jJUj>A OliluLjJV^'^ ^J^ K^" Vft-^YV~*K^- ^^e» - W^>V^. . 

. To.o-lol-minrS.Kern and Buena Vista LakesX^-^^*-'^^*'^ ^ 






C Tin-lin-no. , TejohTieJi-ol 'Old Tejon 



6. Tash-lo-poom. 







, (on Ranch Croek. 




S.'m Smigdio. Closely related to I^anta Barbara 



^j44^^dKuc\w^o-iiv^ 



^ Kali-.ven-^ah. ^ . CaIiuon.^a and Tehunga. [CJUx/Ity. To>v^>vg, ^ ^^^U>^;i 



% Kas-tak . ;^Castac Lake and at mout]i of Uvas(or Fort) Caif^yon, Very 

closely related to Ventura t ribe ^ /'ailed thom^selvos 
Sa-sa-mm-ne,(l£"£^^ eKu.^^^W.1 



^. Tong-va. ^an lernando. bame as San Gabriel L ^_ ___ ^ ^,.._^'^]| 



/"" 



m. 



'..Wah-tak-nas-se. ^^Kern Valley near Kemville. L'^wV»o\«.\oVa^.Y 



^ (10. 'Porno ' 



^To<vw llkiah, Mendocino Co. 
It ic quite poGcible that still otlior trites arc roprnscntod 



'^/hcrc, "but in the short time at my disposal I was not ahlo to m:?lce a 
thorough search. In fact, I had niuch difficulty in getting tho above. 



i» 



7 



rjON 




llov. 10-12 ,1905 






c 



By 



t]\o liJirdost kind of pressinr:; v/ork, talking 'nth r. number oi cm 



feron^ Indians svoaking different lan^uar^os, and noinp; over tlie 
ground a second time to check up errors I have secured the follo'ving 
most importpjit original information as to tho locations, nrj.ies, and 
.tribes of the various rancliorias of tjiis region as they -.Yere in the 



early days. "hilo it is not absolutely complete, rM 'Miile a few 
discrepancies remain, I nwer^eless feel that I have done a a good 



job 



in rescuring this material from obliviom~for in ii^st instances 



i-1 



10 one 01^ the other representatives of a tri:.e are IJic solo survivors 



and v<hen ^ho}! go all kno'vledge of tlioir people v'ill. be lost. 



c«,^-^- N«».nos-. 



R/J!CHI;RL\S,.'lT) tribes III TEJO".' R;:GI0]! Ill l^ARLY DAYS. 



^ 






I Teion Yiov o (Old Tejon) !\'??o''mi'los S^^y of present Tejon -.anch ranch 

iiiL on the creek next ^.esttjof t:ic creek v/hich passes 



nouse^ 

the Tejon ranchouso. In 1856 it ^jas an irmiiGnse raiichoria 

Kosemeyre telli:: l\o. 

The tril)e orif^inally livinf.; at Tejon Vie jo called thorm:elves 
Tin-lin-ne , from Tin-leu tlie place (Tin-lou is their mme for 

h adrer ) • 

'Tlie* neighboring tribe Too-lol-rnin(of Kern and Buona Victa 

Lalces) called the place (Tejon Viejo )Tah-ahl,' :md the rancherW 






Ah-kok-e Tali-ahl^, and tiio people Tali-ahl' chah-:ihtch- ah-kok-e. 
Tlic nnine of the creak { and canyon from which it comes) 
which passes Tejon "ie^o is, in the Too-lol-r.iin language TaJi-alil'so- 
pah. It, according to t:ie old Indians at Tejon, v/as the original 
(and t-ioy insist the oiily) Tejon Canyon. Tlioy say the v.-iiite men 
have shifted the name to the 2d canyon east~th.-:.t is to the present 
Tejon canyon. 



LIrs.Roserneyre says that the Serrano call this tribe PaJi-pa]i-ve^ 



a-tam. 



V 



2. Las T unas A Tnree and a half to four miles above Tejon Yie.io on 
same creek. 



In Too-lol-rni--: lan^:)f;e: 
The place, Ilali-pin-tnh (meaning 't'le tunas* --tuna cactuses) 
The rancher ia, Ali-kok-ke !I:ili-pin-trJi, 
The people, llah-pin-tah choi -chah-alitch. 

This v/as not an aboriginal rancheria but was established 
by a San Emigdio Indian (father of *llancy', my inforrmmt) at the 
time v/hen the Govemimnnt v/as overcrowding tjie old ranchorias by 
brin^^ing in Indians from various qaurters. It v/as inliabitod by 
several tribes — Em^'li^j Kastak, Yov/elina ne and perhaps others. 



f -^. 



TEJOII 



TPJBEC III EjM^JiY DAYS ETC Cont 5 

ift)v^Mb^rr- 10,12,19% ^Tivv:Awj!^ 

3. Car)oral uontoX hn tlie Griiall grove of cottonv/oods v;hore the 
lower ranchhouce (nov; occupied by Lopeyioad vaciucroj nov; is, a miio 
and a half bolo"; Gen.Beale'a adobe ranch house (headquarters) and like- 
v;ise on the v/ost side of the same stream—Ranch or Pass Creek. 

In the Too-lol-min. language; ■^*>kuA. 
Tlie place is Pal-le'v cha-pan-na 
The Ranclieria, iMi-kok-e Pal-lew cha-pan-na 
The People, Pal-lev/ cha-pan-na chah- ahtch 
The Tribe ,Tin-lin-ne (spjne as at Tejon Yiejjo). 
In the Eraigdio and Ventura language the Ranch Canyon(El Paso) is 
Soh'-mos. ( Sail -me s means 'a pasS'y 

4. El MonteT l %i ■ ( present) Tejon Canyon Creek 2 miles north or 
(or II.ILE) of Tejon Ranch house and about 3 Mies below Tejon Canyon 
ranchcria. Tlie old rancheria was on the weBt(or southwest) side of 



the oalc and cottonwood forest called 'El Monte', the old burying 

place in the timber 

It belonged to and was occupied/s6lely by the Al^-ke-ke-tam tribe 

(comrnonly called Hara-me-natj. j-^^^r^r T " --SM 

In their ovm language: 

The place is Mum-num-pe 

The rancheria "^ 

The people '^ 

She trite, JsikojrllS^^ Haia^s^z^ 
In TQO-liJm-ne (^Too-liQl-irinJ: -^ 



TEJON 
TRIBES III E/iR Y DAYS -Cent 



^vomljor 10|13,1005. 
In ToQ-lujivne (Too-lol-min) bsi'Kaicfikii^; 
The place is, Chah-pahn-na 

The ranchcria. 
The people, Chajvp-r^alin-na cha:i-a!itch 
The tribe, Hain-me-nat. 

In Tin-lin-ne lctM*^^1[^ 

The place and ranclieria are both, Yov/-leu 

Tlie People, Mi-ali-him- tal-lap^ y/hich means * shooting people \ 



J' 



t i^ \j 



5. Tejon Canyon Rancheria, (Rancherai " 1 ■^rnrinn ) TtiUTol-ckivv>H< ^^S^^t^i^^^ 
At mouth of present Tejon Canyon, /> miles HE of Tejon rancheria. 



Always a large rarcheria. 

Belonged to the Tol-chin-ne tribe 

llew-oo-ah) 



(subbiW of Piute Mt. 



In their own language: 

The place is, Tol-teu 
The people or tribe , Tol-chin-ne (or nin). 

/ 

In Too-lol-min L auytJu^|<L: 

The place is Tsa-sus (meaning dog) 

The ranclieria, Tsa-sus tah-ahl. 

The people, Tsa-suc ta!i-ahl chali-ahtch 

Tlie language is said to be the same as t-iat of the Tehachapi or Ow- 
v/ah-tum !!ew-oo-ah. 



(14) 



TEJON 
TRIBES IK E/uRLY DAYS Etc Cont. 6 



In Ali-ke-ke-tar 



is Koo-eSie-taii-ho-ve. 



nJ(-Hajii-me- 



nat) the naiiiG of Tejon Canyon rancher ia 



At present, and for some yoars past, this is the only rar.cheria 
in the Tejon-Bakersfield -egion. 

6. Comanche Creek •anchoriaV vAt foot of mountains at head of 
narrov/ valley(first creek and can'^on ne of Tejon Canyon). 
In Too-lol-min. £anguaf:e : 

The place is Ko-koo-kov/; 

Iff 
The rancheria, Ko-koo-kov/ tah-ahl; 

The people, Kp-koo-kov/ tah-ahl- chali-alitch. 



In Tin-lin-ne l^mguage : 

The place is Ka-it-il-lik or Ka-too-il-kah 



The tribe v/as the same iit at Tejon Canyon and Tehachapi. 



V 



^"^ llained Comanche Creek from a Comanche Indian who came 

in v;ith a band of sheep in the early days. He attacked his compani 



on, a v/hite man, with a laiife and the white man killed him with his 
knife. He is buried there. 



(15) 



r 



1 



TEJON 
RIBES III EARLY DAYS Etc. 




Cont. 



NcAia-oo'-«»-W WK6«1xo»^1«^k1. 



7. ■ Tehacliapi Valley Rancheria^ % ear {6ld To\^Tx\ about t-;o and a hnlf 
to three miles west of present tov.ii of Tehachapi, :ind on 
on floor of valley on the croek. 
In their o-ii language: 

The place (Tehchapi Valley or basin)is Ta-hatch-a-tum-ban-dah; 
The Rancheria, Ov/-wah-tum llew-oo-ah av-ven-nah; 
The people, Ta-hach -^turn-ban New-oo-ah; 
The tribe, Ow-wali-tum l'e\7-oo-ah. 




>|miiL 



8. 



their tribe Ah-koo-toot-se-am and use the name is a sense broad 
enougli to include tlie subtribe on Upper Caliente Creek and 
Piute mountain. 

On or near head of Caliente Creek (in the rnQimtains).TnV4. M€vu>ooViL a 
The people call themselves llew-oo-ah and are not more than a 
subtribe of the Tehchapi stock. 

In Ak-ke-ke-tam l[=Ham-me-nat)laA»^JtA>A^: 
The place is Hi-hin-ke-ah-ve; 

Tlie people, Too-tse-am, (or Toot-se-am) , v/hich obviously is an 
abreviated form of Ah-koo-toot-se-am~the name for the same tribe 
in Tehchapi Valley. • 



(16) 



lo 



TEJOII 
TRIBES III EARLY DAYS 



TEJOl! 



Cont 9 



Cont. 8 



9. Kern Talley (-/iihin the r,;oimtaiiic ar.cl ncir ^^Gmville).J««^«^*^*^*^*- 

/ 

Tlie Toololniin call the Kern Valloy place ixrd people 
Wah-tak'-nas-se. 

Mrs.Rosemej^Te told u-c last July that the 'Serrano' Indians 
call the Kern Valley Indians Tu-va-pe-a-tain (or Tu-vaJi-pe-a-tiin] ) 
meaning Pine-nut eaters, and that the Tonf^-va from San Gabriel call 
them T o-to-vah-vit. " 

t 

A member of the tribe (Cha-ko) living in Kern ''alley told me 
several yearn ago that the naine of the tribe is in his language 
Tu-ba]i-te-lQ'b^Q"l9' > ^pieaning pine-nut -eaters ' • 

10. Pozo Flat (In the foothills on Peso nvpnVl TYiV<, >VUW.VMe\^^e.av.. . 

Mrs.Rosemeyre says that the nrijiie of the tribe in their ov/n 
language is Pal-lah-v/e§ft-e-ynjn and that they v/ere called by the 



same naifie by the 'Serrano' . 
from all theJDthers. 



Their language she says is different 



ll.Bakersfield. Ty;V^ \^vMavwx)c-v^e l^oWuM^ 

In Too-lol-min and Tin-lin-ne. the place and people are called 

Pal-^a-yam-me . 

(iov/ ' , , 

The tribe is Yow-wel -mgui::ne . 

li*s.Rosemeyre told me that the 'Serrano' call the place and 

people Patch-ah-mi9^-k Q"PQ"^s[^"'t^Q^f which means "the place where the 
v/ater comes from". These people v/ere the Tularanos of the Spanisk 

Mexicans. 



TRIBES II! E;J^1Y days. 
12. Kern Lake (nov/ dry) L " 1st T.ngiinn^ Xs^a^ Too^UV-WiYv L'^o^^'tl 

In their ovm language ( Too-lol-min , same as at Buena Vista. Lalce) 

The place is Kah-v/e; 

The Rancher ia Ah-kah-ke-kah-v/e; 

The people, Kah-v/o-chali-ahtch; 

The Tribe, Too-lol-min. 

In Tin-lin-ne. iof Tejon Yiego) Kern Lake is called Hal-low 
or Pal-lov/ — the name of the 'honey dew' or 'panoche' scraped off 
the cane (Phragnites) which grev/ there in great abundance. 

15. Buena Vista Lake )=2d LagunaJ. Tv\V<l ToqAoV-VwIk tMokK.^1. 

In their ovm language ( Too-lol-rrin) ; 
The place is Too-lum-ne; 
The Ranchoria, Ah-kah-ke- Too-lum-ne; 

The People, Too-lum-ne ChnJi-ahtch{^>9>^ ^K^kA'A(LT•t4aK^Hec4|l.-^ 
The Tribe^ Too-lol-min (or Too-lol-min-nah). 

The Tin-lin-no also call the place Too-lum-ne and the 

^mmmmmmmimmmmmmmmmmmm 
t 

tribe Too-lol-min. 

The San Emigdio (Tash-le-poon) Indians likev/ise call the 
place Too-lum-ne, but call the people Hool-koo-koo Too-lum-ne. 



(17) 



(18) 



// 



TEJON 

TRIBES III EARLY DAYS 

14 Goose Lake \j: 3d Lagunal. TvlVc 



Cent 10 



7 7 



/i 



In Too-lol-min languh^ei • 

•The place is, Sho*p Kali-v/e; 

The Rancher ia Ah-kah-ke Sh^*p-Kah-we; 

The People, Sh^'p kah-we chah-ahtch. 
In Tin~lin>nei »uvut.us>j|>,: 

The place and people are Pah-ahs. 

According to Ilrs.Rosemeyer they call themselves Too-lam-a-yam 
and the 'Serrano* call them Too-nah-me-ah. 



There is difference of opinion as to the tribe. The Too-lol-j 1 
min old woman 'llancy* says they v/ere Too-lol-min—same as her own 
people; Fiaria Via Real v/ho speaks Tin-lin-ne says they spoke Tin-lin- 
ne or Yowel- manlie, while Ilrs.Rosemeyer says their language differed 'I 
from all the others. ' 



15. Paste Rio (11-12 miles south of v/6st from Tej on Ranch house, 

beyond Las Tunas ). T/vltxp^^'H^ vi?J 
In Too-loL-mi^ 

The place is, Che-po-we-oo; 

The Rancher ia, Ah-kah'-ke cBhe-po-we-oo; 

The people, Che-po-we-oo toi-chali-ahtch. 

Old Yadeo who lived there several years says the tribe 
was the same as the Indians at San Fernando (who car;ie there) r^MJ!L^3 



11 



TEJOK 
TRIBES III EARLY D\YL 



Trvlh*. kft.»-ttt,'k L*ik««.w«,»kl 





(19) 



16. Canada de las Uvas (or Cajon de las Uvas). Fort Tej on Canyon. 
~^f>-^Rancheria v/as at^ mouth of ^Canyon and was a large one. 
In^ Too-lol-lin ^jo^^^f^A-jvy^ 

The place is La-pew (or La-peu); 
The Rancher ia, Ah-kah-ke La-peu; 
The people, Lap-pe-u-toi chah- ahtch; 



The Tribe, Kas-tak yy ( same as at Castac Lake and nearly same as 

at Ventura) . 

In^Tin-lin-iS)^^ place^^La-pow and the People Lap-pa-mah-ne. 

17 Kajtaic (at north side of Castac Lake) . TKa^x Ka,%.^'k LcKu.wa.tWl. 

Ii ffloo-lol-minL .v^j..>j^ : 

The Place is Saho (mearirg eye=); 

The Rancheria, Sahs' ah-kah-ke; 

* 

The people, Sahs toi chaJa-ahtch. 

The tribe, Ka^ak (almost the same as the Ventura). 
In their ovm language they call themselves Sah-sa-raahn-ne, 
The Spaniards called them Castanos. 

18. • Tacuya Canyon (2 or 3 miles v/est of Las Uvas or Fort Canyon). 

The place is Ta-koo-e (or Ta-koo-joi); 
The Rancheria, i\h-kali-ke Ta-koo-yn; 
The People, Ta-koo-joi toi-chah-ahtch. 

In the EmigdiO;^ language the people are Hol-koo-koo Ta-koo-e, 
Tribe Kastak, same as at Castac Lake and Mouth of Las Uyas Canyon. 20 



/^ 






19. 



TEJON 



TRIBES IK EARLY DAYS 

San Ernip;uio_. ix-v*^ -f 

In their ov/n Ijingua^^e: 

The place is Tash-le-poon; 
The people, Tash-le-poom Koo-koo; 

The place n.-jae (Tash'-le-poom or Tash-la-pooi,0 has heen adopted 
hv the neielil)oring trihes, Too-lol-mir:, Tin'-lin-ne, and Ham- 

rnenat. 

In T6Q-lol-mini fl.~y.^:^>- : 

The Rancheria is j\h-kah'-ke Tas'i-le-poom; 
The people Tash-le-poon chah-ahtch: 

The tribe it ciotely -ola^.od to (if not the bw.:o afe) the 
Santa Barbara tribei^C^Vvxv'Vv^oLiV) 



20. 



Temploa: -Tt'A'^^oo-^o^'-^'^^ LNokw^:^. 

In their o^;m language (Too-lol-min); 

The place is Y/e-ah-wi-ling-al; 

The rancheria, Ah'-kah-ke We-ah-v/i'-ting-al; 

The people, V/e-a]i-wi'-ting-al chali-ahtch. 

The ti*ibo, Too-lol'-min (si^ie as at Buena Vista and Kern Lake). 

A neigliboring rancheria (exact site not kno^^m by me)was called 
Wah-pe-et by both the Too-lol-rain and Tin'-lin-ne. 



(21) 






'•*• 



INDIAN TRIB'^S (AND LANGUAGES) JDUND BY M? AT TEJON NOV. 10-12, 1905 

With statement of original home of each tribe (or of its living 
representatives here ), -, cJti^,^^-. 



Mr 



chin-ne for Tol-chin-nin ). /Tejon Canjon Ranchoria (at 
mouth of Tejon Canyon — same place ^ere all the Indians 
live now [1905]. Closely related to Heti-oo^-eh and 
Cheaeievt. 



New-oo-ah . Tribe in mountains from Teha<*api to Piute Mt 
Several here, but language so close to Tol-chin-ne 
that the two at most are only aubtribes. 



KeT-tah-nah-gftfits . A »Serrano» tribe commonly called (by 
themselves and others) by the nickname Ham-ae-nat ^ 
which in their language means "what is it". Also 
called Ak-ke-ke-taa . the name of their rancheria at 
'SI Monte' on Tejon Creek » 2 or 3 miles below the 
Tol-chin-ne at Mouth of Tejon Canyon. Their proper 
name fbr themselves appears to be Ke-tan-na-moo-kmi 



4 Too-loi-min . YokutUribe at Kern and Buena Vista Lakes 

(Also called Too-lnm^e. ) 



5 Tin-lin-ne . Tejon Vie jo f'Old Tejon' or Tojon proper). 

Yokut tribe, ssne es Yoiwelmgne . JBancheria on Ranch Cr« 



6 Tesh»le-pooffi'. Chunash tribe at San Enigdic. Closely related 

to Santa Bcrb&ra Ghumash. 



7 Kah-wn-gah . Tribe. formerly at Cahuenga and Tehunga. [Close 



to Tongva ofji^San Gabriel] 



8 Kas-takl Chumash tribe at Castac Lake and at mouth of Uraa 



^^^^Jm^ 



(or Port) Canyon. Very closely related to Ventura tribe 
M Castac they called themselves Sa-sa-^aP'-ne . [Chvnnaah] 



-yg . Tribe formerly at San Fernando. Same as San Gabriel, 
[Kay include Kah^wentgah] 



10 Wah-tak-nas-se . Tribe ir Kern Talley near KemTille. 

F Tubotelobelg l 



\ 



-•p- 



1. Teion Vie 10 (Old Tejon). Tribe Tin-lin-nc [Tokut]. 

Three miles SW of present Tejon Ranch ranch house » on 
the creek next west of the creek which pesses the Tejon 
ranch house* In 1856 it was an imense rancheria BDse&eyre 
tells ne. ' 

The tribe originally liring at Tejon Viejo called 
themselves Tin>lin-ne . fron Tin-len the place fTiii~I>a is 
their naae for badger). ^ 

The neighboring tribe Too*-lol'-«in {of Kern and Buena 
Tista Lakes) called the place (Tejon Yiejo) Tah-ahl' . and 
the rancheria Ah-kok-e Tah-ahl' . and ths people Tah-ahl' 

chah-ahtoh-ah-kok»e. 

The name of the oreek (and canyon from which it comes) 
vhich passes Tejon Vie jo is, in the ^'oo-lol'-ain language 
Tah-ahl *so«pah. It, according to the old Indians at Tejon. 
was the original (and they insist the only) Tejon Canyon. 
They say the irtiite men have shifted the name to the 2d canyon 
east— that is to the present Tejon canyon. 

Mrs. Hosemeyre says that the Serrano call this tribe 
Pah-pah-Tei^-l-tam. 



"f 



2. Las Tonas. (Tribes mixed). 

Three and a half to four miles above Tejon Viejo on 

same creek. 

In Too-lol^-min language : 

The place, Hah-pin'-tah (meaning 'the Tunas '—tuna cactuses) 

The randier la , Ah~kok«ko Naii«-pin-tah . 

The people, Nah-pln-tah ohoi'-diah-ahtch. 

This lias not an aboriginal rancheria but was estab- 
lished by a San Baigdio Indian (fether of 'Hancy*, my 
informant) at the time when the GoTemment was over- 
crowding the old rancherias by bringing in Indiana from 
various quarters. It was inhabited by several tribes— 
ftiidio, Kastak, lowelmanne and perhaps others. 



1 
/ 



TSJON 
TRIBES IN EARLY DAYS ETC Cont 



3. Qaporal Mo cte, Tribe Tin^^lin-ne [Yokut]^ 

In the ssall groTe of cottonwoods where the lower 
ranchhouse (now oocupied by Lopes, the head Taquero) now 
is, a mile and a half below 6en«Beale*8 adobe ranch house 
(headquarters) and likewise on the west side of tfas same 
8 trean^-Hanch or Pass Creek. 

In the Too->lol^--»in language: [Yokut] 
The place is Pal^«-lew ch^-*pai^>na 
The Banoheria, Ah«kok-e Pal-lew dia-^pan-nfi 
The People, Pal-lew ch8-*pan-*na chah-ahtch 
The Tribe, Tin*lin-ne (same as at Tejon Tiejo). 

In the Emigdio sndL Ventura language the Bench Canyon (El Paso) 
is SahWes* f Sahnaes means 'a pas8*«) 



4» g^ Honte. TribS ' Kr'^tttn^-moo-^kum or Ke->tah-nah-'«wits FMehineanl 

On (present) Tejon Canyon Creek 2 miles nofth or HHI of 

Tejon Banoh house and about 3 miles below Tejon Canyon rcha» 

The old rancheria was on the west (or se) uthwest) side of the 

oak and Cottonwood forest called *51 Honte\ the old burying 

place in the timber* 

It belonged to and was occupied solely by the Ak-ke-ke-tam 

tribe (coamonly called Ham^e«»nat')« Their proper name for them- 

selres appears to be Ke-^tan-anftoo-'kum^ 
In tneir own laiguage: 

The place is Mum<^num-pe 

The rancheria • 

The people ^ 

The Tribe, Ak^ke-ke-tam, or Ham^me-nat, or Ke^tan-nam- 

moo-kum« 



'^ I 



In Too-ltun~ne fToo-lol^-ain) language: . 

^e place is Chab-pahn-na 

T e rancheria. 

The people » Ohap^pahn-*na ehah-ahtoh 

The tribe, Ham'Haet^natV 
In ^iaAlin^ne language: 

The place and rancheiia are both Yow^lem* 

The people, Hi'>ah-hia-tal-iap, lAiioh means 'shoot lug 
people*. 

5« teion OanTon Emcheria. (Eanchoria 21 CaSon). Tribe Tol~chin>ne 
[CheneveTe, Nnvnvah] 

* 

At aouth of Present Tejon ^anyon, 5 miles NE of Tejon 
rancheria. Always a large rencheria. 
' Beloi^ed to the Tol^chini-ne tri^e (eubtrihe of Piute Ht^ 

' Mai^wh) 

!{ii their oim language: 

The place is Tol'-ten. 

The people or tribe » Tsi-chin-ne {or nin). 
/Ib Too^isr^-ain language; 

The place ia l^i^aus (meaning dog) 
t: The ranoheria, Tsa'-sua tah--ahr. 

The people, Tsa^aua tah«4riil' chah^htoh 
i The language is said to be the same as that of the 

Tehachapi or Ow-^wah^tum Suimwah# 
w Ke^tan«*nSHBioo«*kum Ah'--ke-ke-tam (-Ham^me-nat ) the na^ e of Tejon 



f 



% 



Canyon ranoherila ip Koo-tse-tah-ho-Te. ^^, . ^^ 

*Tl present ana lor^sone ^ears past, this is the only 



t rancheria in the Tejon-Bakers field region. 



F 




Craek Rancheria 



Tribe Tol-chin-ne or Naimwah 

LShoshoneaaJ 



At foot of Bountains at head of narrow valley (firs^ 
creek and canyon NB of Tojon Canyon). 
In Too^lolHain langobge: ' 

The Place is Ko-koo-kow 
The Randieria, Kc^-koo-kow t^«-ahr 
The People, Ko'-kodkow tali«-ahl-> diah-ditdi. 

In Tin'-lin-ne language; - 

The place is Kglit-il-lik or Kfi-too-il-kah 

The tribe vas the same as at Tejon Canyon and Tehaehapi. 



^al^e y Ifeneheria . Tt»lbe Ow^wah-tiai Nnwofiiah rShoshonean]* 
Rear 'Old Town', about two and a half to three ailes 
west of present town of Tehachapi* and on floor of ralloy 9a 
the creek* 
In their own language: 

The place (Tehachapi Valley or basin) is W-hetch-8-tiui-ban-4ah; 
The rancheria » Ow-wah-tum Nuwuiiah aV-ven'-nah; 
The people, Tfi-^hach-a-tui&^ban Niiwuwah; 
The tribe. Uw^wah-tw Uuwawah« 

At the Tojon, the pamenat and Too^lolnai n peoplo 
call their tribe Ah-koo-toot-se-am and use the name In a aftmio 
broad enough to include the subtribe on Upper Caliente Crook 

and piuto fountain. 



1 Nafflod Comanche Crook from a Comanche Indian iho came in with a 
band of sheep in the early days* He attacked his companion, a white 
man. with a knife and the white man killed him with his knifo^Ho is 
buried 



8* On or near heed of nfiliente Cree k (in the mountains). Tribe 
Nuwu^ah [Shoshonean]. The people call themselves Nuwuwah m^ 
are not more than a subtribe of the Tehachapi stocks \ 

In Ak^kO'^ke^tam ( Ham-^e-nat) language: 

The place is Hi^hin-ke-ah-ve ; 

The people, Too^tse-am (or Teot-se-am), which obrioirfily is 
an abbreviated form of Ah-koo-jFoot-se-am — the name for 
the same tribe in Tehachapi Yalley* ; 

* ^ 

9* Kom Talley (withing the mountains and near Kemville)* 
Tribe TooboteldbelS ei 

The Toololmin call the Kern Valley place and people 
Wah^tak^nas^se# 

Mrs^ Rosemeyre told me last July that the ^Serrano* 
Indians call the Kern Valley Indians Tn->Ta--pe-e'*tai (or 
Tu^Tah^pe-a-tum ) meaning Pine-nut eaters, and that the Tongva 
frwa San Gabriel call them To-to^-vah-vit . 



A member of the tribe (Cha-ko) living in Kern Talley told 
me several years ago thct the name of the tribe is in his 
language Tn«bah-te~lob-e^la . also meaning 'pine-nut-eaters*. 



i fflf i ii T " I •' , — 9^ ^KW!..W. 



e-am 



Mrs. Hosemeyre says that the nana of the tribe in their 

own language is Par~lah~we^^-e-yam and that they were called 
by the same name by the 'Serrano'. Their Imguage she says is 

different from all the others. 



7 



11. Bakerafield. Tribe Yowelmanne [Yokut]. 



In Too-lol-ain and 'i'in~lln-ne the place and people are called 

' W ~ 

Pal-la-yaa-ne. 

Q.OW 
The tribe is Yonelmanne* 

Mra. Bosemeyre told me that the 'Serrano* call the 
place and people P« tch'-a h^igh,ko,pe.§.taa, which means 
"the place iftiere the water cones from". These people were th# 
Tularanos of the Spanish HezicoaB. 



i. KftmJfik* (now dry) C-lat Lagunaj. Tribe loo^ioi^fiia Li^^y., 
In their ovo language f Too-WHain . same as at Buena Vista Lake) 

The place is Kah-we 
The rancher ia, Ah<-kahtke-kah^we 
The people, Kah-we-chah-ahtch 
The tribe, Too-loli«in. 

In Tinilin-na langoage (of Tejon Vle^o) Mm Lake is called 
H8l'-low or pal-low —the name of the 'honey dew» or 'panoche* 
scraped off the cane (Phragnites) which grew there in great 
8bund8Dce# 



/t) 



13. Baena Vjgt a Lake [-2d Laguna]* Tribe loo^lolHgiin [Yokut]* 
In their own language ( Too-lol-min ); 
The place is Too-lum-ne 
The rancheria, Ah^ah-ke- Too-lujB-^ne 
The people t Too-*luiiKne Chah-ahtdi (or Ah<*kah-ke Too-»lua<^ne< 

chah-ahtch) 
The tribe. Too-loliain (or TooilolnaininahU 



The Tin-lin^ne also call the place Too-lum-ne and the 
tribe Too-lor-min* 

The San l^igdio (Taah^le^-poon) Indians likewise call the 
place Too-luii^net but call the people Hool-koo-koo Too-lum^ne 



Goose Lake C=;3d' Laguna]* Tribe T 

In Too-lolittin Imguage: 

* • 

The place is Sho'p ttih-we 

The rancheria» Ah-kah'-ke Sho»p~Koh-we 

The people, Sho'p kah^we chah-ahtch 

In ^in^lin-ne language: 

The place and people are Pah^-«h8« 

According to Mrs« Hosemeyer they call themselves 

!{oo*-lam-a«yam and the 'Serrano' call then Too«nab^e*8h« 

There is a difference of opinion as to the tribe» The 



Too*lol«-Bin old wonan 'Nancy' says they were Too«»lor#Biin — sane 
as her own people; Maria Via Baal who speaks Tii^lin-»ne says 
they spoke Tinlinne or Yowelmanne. i^ile Un^ Hoseaeyer says 
their language differed fron all the others. 



15. Paste Bio (11*12 mile? south of west from Tejon Ranch house , 
beycMid Las Tunas). Tribe [Tongra']. 
In Too-lolHsin Imguage: 
The place is Ghe-*po*we-oo 
The rancheriat Ah«*kah«»ke Che-po«we-oo 
Vie people t Che<*po-*we*oo toi-chah--ahtch. 



Old Vadeo Mho lived there several years says the tribe 
was the eaoiB as the Indians at San i^emando (#io came there) 



.6. Panada de las Tlvaft (or Cajon de las Ilvas). Port Tejon Cany 
Tribe Kas-tak COhuasashl. 

The rancheria was at the mouth cf the Canyon and was 
large one. 
In til e Too^lol^HBitt languare: 

The place is iS-pew (or La-pem) 
nie rancheria t Ah*kah^-ke La-peu 
The peopltt Lap^pe-u-toi'' chah-ahtch 



The tribe « Kas-tak [Chumash] (same as at Castac Lake and nearly 
same as at 7entu^)# 
In yjn-lin^ne language the place is Lli-pow and the people 

Lap*pi-mfih-ne« 



* • i 



i3 



17. Kas-tSk (at north side of Castac Lake). Tribe Kgs^tek [ChuBiaA]* 
In the Too-lor<-Bin laiguage: 

The place is Sahs' (meaning eyes) 
Tlie rancheria, Sahs' ah-kah-ke 
The people, Sahs' toi' chah^ahteh 

The tribe, Kas^tak (alraost the same as the Venture)* 
In their o« laiguege they call themselres Sah-^si-^nahn-Bt 
[ The Spaniards called them Castanos. 



le TaouTa Canjoi (2 or 3 miles ^est of Les Uvas or Port Canyon )• 

Tribe Kastik [Chumashjsame as at Castac Lake and mouth cf Las Uras 

Canyo&« 
^n the Too-lorHPin Imguage: 

The piece is Tg-koo-e (or Ta^-koo-yu) 

The rancheria, Ah-kah-ke Ta-koo'-yu 

The people, Ta-koo'-yu toi-chah-ahtch 

In the %igdio (Chumash) language the people are Hol*koo'-*koo 
Ta-koo'-e# 



19* San BaigdlO^ Tribe Tash^-le^poom Koo'-^koo [Chumash] 
In their owi lagguagt: 
The place is lastf-le-poom 
The people, Tash-le-poom' Koo-koo 



by 



The place name (Tash-le-poom or Tash-la-pcoro) has been adopted 
the neighboring tribes, Too-lol^ain, Tin^lin-ne, and Hanfaenat* 



In the Too^lol^^min language: 

The rancher ia is Ah-kah-ke Tash-le-poom'' 
The people, Tash'-*le-poon Chah-ahtch 

The tribe is closely related to (if not the same as) 
the Santa Barbara tribe (Chumash). 










I V 

20. tSBfilfli: Tribe Too-lol-Btin [Yokut] 
i In Uieir own language (Too-lol-min): 

The place is We'-ah-wi-ling-al 
,/ The raz»>haria, Ahikah^ke We^h-wi-ti ng-al 
/ The people, We-ah-wl-ting-al chah-ahteh 

The tribe, Too-lolnnin (same as at Buena Vista and Kern Lake). 

i neighboriit: rancherie (exact site not known ey me) was called 
Wah»p»-et by both the Too-lol'-«in and Tin-lin-ne. 



• /-if 

i ■ 

'v' 






INDIAN TRIBES FOUND BY L5E AT THE TEJON IN NOV. 1905 




!• Tol-chin-ne (or nin) . Tejon Canyon Rancheria (at mouth of 
Tejon Canyon--same place where all the Indians live now). 
Closely related to New-oo-ah Chemev/eve, 

^.^r^^ New- 00 -ah > Tribe in mountains from 



Tehachapi*^ 
Several here, but language so close to Tol-chin-ne that the 
two are only subtribes at best* 

3* Ke-tali-nali-m^wits> A Serrano tribe commonly called by them- 
selves and others by the nicbiazne Hsun-me-nat^ which in their 
lanf-uaf^e means "what is it"* Also called Ak-ke-ke-tam > 
Their proper name for themselves appears to be Ke^-tan-na- 
moo-kum > Used to live at 'ElMonte* on Tejon Creek, 2 or 3 
miles below the Tol-chin-ne at mouth of Tejon Canyon. 

▼• Too-lol-min , Yokut tribe at Kern and Buena Vista LaJces. 

a. Tin-lin-ne. (The Tejon proper). Yokut tribe, same as Yowel.- 
mane, Rancheria Tejon Vie jo ('Old Tejon'), on Ranch Greek. 

K». Tash-le-poom. Chumash tribe at San Eraigdio. Closely related 
to Santa Barbara Chumash, 

% Kah-wen-gah. Tribe formerly at Gahuenga and Tehunga. [Close 

to Tong-va of San Gabriel.] 

o» Kas-tak. Chumash tribe at Castac Lake and at mouth of Uvas (or 
Fort) Canyon. Yery closely related to Ventura tribe. At 
Castac they called themselves Sa-sa-man-ne . [Chumash] 



-mr 



. Tong-va . Tribe formerly at San Fernando. Sarae as San Gabriel. 
\Jr~ Wali-tak-nas-^e. Tribe in Kern Valley near Kemville. [Tubotelobela] 



INDIAN TRIBES POUND BY ME AT THE TEJON IN NOV. 1905 



!• Tol->chin«-ne (or nip) . Tejon Canyon Rancheria (at mouth of 
Tejon Canyon"8aine place where all the Indians live now)* 
Closely related to New^oO'>ah Chemeweve. 
1 ^ New'»oo>ah>« Tribe in Liountains from Piute Mt. to Tehadiapi* 
Several here^ but language so close to Tol^chin-ne that the 
two are only subtribes at best# 

2. Ke '» tah'^nah'ffl Vi tfi ^ A Serrano tribe ccannonly called by them- 

selves and others by the nickname Ham;'>me-nat|i which in their 
lan^ruage means •what is it*# Also called Ak«>ke-ke^-'tam# 
Their proper name for themselves appears to be Ke^tan^^na- 
moo-kum^ Used to live at ♦ElMonte^ on Tejon Creek, 2 or 3 
miles below the Tol-chin-ne at mouth of Tejon Canyon. 

3* Too^lol*>min\ . Yokutf?lbribe at Kern and Buena Vista Lakes. 

4* Tin^lin^ne. (The Tejon proper). Yokut tribe, same as XSSSSir 
mane. Rancheria Tejon Vie jo (•Old Tejon*), on Ranch Creek. 



5. T^-iLe-pooffi.' 



lumash 



Closely related 



to Santa Barbara Chumash. 



6# Ka h-^wei ^- gph. Tribe formerly at Cahuenga and Tehungat 
to Tong'^va of San Gabriel.] 



[Close 



7. 



8. 
9. 



KaS'-'tak. Chumash tribe at Castac Lake and at mouth of Uvas (or 
Fort) Canyon. Very closely related to Ventura tribe. At 
Castac they called themselves Sa^sa^^nan^'ne, [Chumash] 

Tribe fonnerly at San Fernando. Same as San Crsbriel. 
''^nas^se. Tribe in Kern Valley near Kemville. [Tubotelobelaj 




TEJON INDIANS IN 1856 



Chiefs: 



!• Phillippi 



Z. Vicenta 



3. Mattaria 



4* Pacifico 



5* Pedro 



6* Checo 



7. Zapataso 



8. Hosa 



9» StanisloDL 



10» . Antonio 




K^^v.^. ^ „:a>^ 







^^^ Yova>^|^'V^avv>xj{^ SiA^TX.. 



/ 



*f*^ 










•^ 



T^ 



-bli^ rw^.^tcuSC- 



fS »wA » VuJ^Aik 



(t^w 



w..*^ } " 




VVUxKrv*^ - ko.^v'K'e'- Jta>^ 



UCl 



Mink C.b!ii!^?l^} 
Big Skunk (Vvx 




Little Spotted/gkunkXp' 
Badger (j^;^;^^i^?f^ 
Elk (^^ yt\3 ^^%) 

Ante loji e (^]!^ii55;5H 
BeaWrCficLaVe^v) 

/ 




Wah-ke-as; Wah-kish 

Chaw<5li 

Cha-choo 

Tran-now ;:HoUKa4u 

Shaw-koi 

Soi-yol; Soi-yo-te 

Tu-big; Ta-pig 



Gray Tree Squirrel^j^jWlMow; Me-e; Mu-yah 
/Chipmunk fei^^ksc::^^^ Te-witch-e; Witch-e-wo-tah 



/ 



Cottontail Rabbit(Sij\va4usjTa-o 



INDIAN TRIBES (& UNGUAGES) AT TEJON NOV. 1905. 



1. Tol-chin-ne . Old Tejon Canyon rancheria. 

Closely related to New-oo-ah of Tehaohapi & Piute Mt. 

E. Akike-ke^-tam (or Ham-me-faat ) « The »Serrano» of these mountains. 

3. Too-lumine (or Too-lol-min ). Buena Vista and Kern Lakes. 

4. Tin^lin-ne . Tejon Viego. Supposed to be same as Yowelmanne. 

5. Tash-le-poom . San Emigdio. Closely related to Santa Barbara. 

6. Kah--wen^gah . Cahuenga (nearly same as San Gabriel). 

7. Kaa-ts'k. Castao, Uvas, Toouya and Ventura. 

8. San Fernando . Same as San Gabriel. 

9. Wah-tak-nas-se . Kern Valley. Tubotelobela 

10. 'Pomo». Ijkieh. 



V 



INDIAN TRIBKS {& UMGUAGES) ilT T^JON ROY. 1905 



1. Tol-chin-ne . Old Tejor Oariyon rsncherie. 

Closely related to New-oo-ah of Tehaohapi ■".■ Piute Ut. 

2. Akike-ke'-tsm (or Haa-Be-lat ) . The 'Serrano' of these mountains 

3. Too-lqg^ne for Too-lol-roin l. Buena Vista and Kern Lakes. 

4. Tini-lin-ne. Tejon Vieio. Supposed to be saae as lowelnanne. 

5. Tash-Ie-Dooa . San Smigdio. Closely related to Santa Barbara. 

6. Kah-we n^gah . Cahuenga (nearly same as San Gabriel). 

7. Kas-tak. Castac, Uvas, Tocuya and Ventura. 

8. San Fernando . Seme as San Gabriel. 

9. VfHh-taklnas-se . Kern Valley. Tubotelobela 

10. ♦Porno*, nkiah. 



X 



s\ \X tJuttjonwillow \ 

^ i\ , I n tW^ II , *• I F« I M l »»*> ^|» 







LEGEND 






N 



Quafernary 
deposits 




Later Tertiary 

formations 




Tejon formation 
(Eocene) 




Crystalline 

rocks 
Chiefty granite 
(pre- CretaceousJ 



Scale 500.OOO 

A 6 8 10 I? MILES 

J ■_. 1 J ' 



Text Figure 1. — Map of Soutliern End of San Joaquin Valley showing type locality of Tejon group on Grapevine Creek 
(After Robert Anderson). , ^ .» ^ 



Y-^ 



> \X Buttonwillow^ 




LEGEND 




Quafernary 
deposits 




Later Tertiary 
formations 




Te/pn formation 
(Eocene) 




Crystalline 

rocks 
Chiefly granite 
(pre- Cretaceous J 



Scale 500.000 



u 



Text Figure 1.— Map of Southern End of San Joaquin Valley showing type locality of Tejon group on Grapevine Creek 
(After Robert Anderson). , . •^ . «. ^ 

lilt-Wt**^ i_ TT.a.ci».Vv^.K.<.«Jl .S«.l. \i.U, "U-.^ tt' . \'i VS". 



Y^-^ 



Retake of Preceding Frame 




Scale 500.O0O 

<» ^ ^ »p ly MILCS 



LEGEND 




Quaternary 
deposits 




Later Tertiary 
formations 




Te/pn formation 
(Eocene) 




Crystalline 

rocks 
Chisflv granite 
(pre- Cretaceous) 



Text Figure 1. — Map of Southern End of San Joaquin Valley showing type locality of Tejon group on Grapevine Creek 
(After Robert Anderson). , _ •. .^ .^^ 

1>lcVjtY»6x X~- Tr.i.ci»x;^.K.<.eJi .a«.l. V.U, <!u.^ \s> , l*! vs-» 



'^-^ 



Retake of Preceding Frame 



\ 



f 



TEJON INDIANS BI TEIBES (BY LANGUAGES SPOKKN) 

!• New-co-ah (Piute Mt*) Tol-chin-ne* Juan lozedo and Dominga (wife 

of Rozaris), Eamon Damas. 

2«[Pakanepull (Kemville) Angelo (Lozado^s wife), Jose Sordo 

Wah-tak-nas-se 



TEJON INDIANS BY TRIBES (BY LANGUAGES SPOKEN) 

!• New-DO-ah (Piute Mt.) Tol-chin-no. Juan Lozado and Dominga (wife 

of Rozaris), Ramon Damas* 

£• (Pakanepull (Kemville) Angelo (Lozado 's wife), Jose Sordo 

jVah-tak-nas-se 



3* 'I'ongva (San femando) Roturio 

4. »Pomo». (Ukiah) Luis Via Real 



3. ^ongTi (San femando) Rosario 

4. »Pomo». (Ukiah) Luis Via Real 



5. fToo-lol-min (Buena Vi 



Too-luM-no 



ista Lake ?: Kern Lake). Maria (wife of Luis Real)j^ 
'Nance' — ^lAaria Ignacio, Ohiei Miguel Loon 



5.iToo-lol-min 
Too-lum-ne 



(Buena Vista Lake & Kern Lake). Maria (wife of Luis Real), 

'Nance'-- Maria Ignaoio, Ghiei Miguel Leon 



6.(Tini.lin-ne 
Yowelmanne 



iiaria Tia Real» 



6jTin'-lin-ne 
fYowelmanne 



Maria Via Real. 



7.fHam-me-nat (Monte) Eugenia (old woman in Maria's house). Fernando 

Cardero, Jim Monies, Augustine (ulind man), 
I Ak'-ke-ke-ta» Mariana^ 

8. Tash-le-poom koo-koo (San Smigdio)* Maria Ignacia [G^uaash] 



?• ^Ham-me-nat (Monte) Eugenia (old woman in Marians house), Fernando 

Cardero, Jim Montes, Augustine (blind man), 
Ak-ke-ke-tam Mariana. 



8. Tash-le-poom koo-koo (San Bnigdio). Maria Ignacia [Cliumash] 



9^ 



(Ventura) Ramon Hena, Jose Hena, Juan Oliras 



9. 



(Ventura) Ramon Hefia, Jose Hena, Juan Olivas 



10. Cahuenga (Firu Or* or Lievra) Badio. ^^M^duM^ ^ 



11. 



(Los Angeles), -"ptonio Auto [says he dotsnH remember 
language.] 



10. Cahuenga (Piru Cr. or Lievra) ladiotAtta^W^^-^^-v^Vid^o.'^,! 



11. 



(Los Angeles). -**ntonio Auto [says he doesn't remember 
language.] 



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SO-SO'-NE OP RUBY VAIXEY, NEVADA 
The So-3o'-ne of Ruby Valley, northeastern Nevada, 
constitute a rather small division of the Shoshonee* 

Their northern boundary they say is nearly coin- 
cident with the line of the Central Pacific Railroad 
from Montello westerly, and follows Huniboldt River 



to about Elko. 



Easterly they reach to the Goseute Mts. and 
Cherry Creek; southerly to Eureka, Smoke Valley, 



and Hamilton. 



They tell me that a different tribe inhabits the 
NE correr of Nevada north of Montello and including 
Thousand Springs Valley. The name of this tribe my 



informant does not remember. 



^^^\'^i^.o^^i^^^^ 



SO-SO-NE OF EUBY VALLEY. NEVADA 



The So--gQ-ne of Ruby Valley, northeastern Nevada, 



constitute a rather small division of the Shoghonee , 



Thoir northern boundary they say is nearly coin- 



cident with the line of the Central Pacific Railroad 



from Monte llo westerly, and follows Humboldt River 



to about Elko* 



Easterly they reach to the Goseute Mts* and 



Cherry Creek; southerly to Eureka, Smoke Valley, 



and HemMton* 



* They tell me that a different tribe inhabits the 
NE corner of Nevada north of Monte llo and including 



Thousand Springs Valley* The name of this tribe my 



informant does not remBmber. 



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•f lAiioh had btea eLr«ad)r aUowtd to Indl«ii prior to tht 
Aaerioan i>of80ffio&— thtrt ttlU roMls, for irtileh the tbltod 



/ 



>1 



States in norally roapoatiiblt to the IndloD tribot, 96,100,260 

■ ■ / \ 

aoreo which at t^o lew arerage rate of 50 eonta por aoro wottid 



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aMOJ t to M8tKMK>, 140 ( and 



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haa been dp no the Indiana of Calif onia in that Ǥ bava ooBfia* 
oatod thair landa, driven th^n into raaote and inhaapitabla partt 
of the State, dopriTod them of their natoral food» Upriaanod 

4aAeii» 



VERSO 



Hasp lucres of Iniiars 
Msp^'scrr^? of T.hites 
Me8Pure8e**3oe tl ;> e>^j r ^ g? lu eg JL 



|c^>^j>u^ 




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\ Migratrtyfi 5: Jistributi 



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lit. 



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'^ MiscellandouSt 

Miscellaneoi^. Non-CclVf. 
Mis<?ion Tribes^^^^^ /^^^'^^- 



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'pjo^^rk {i^^l^'f^ 






Monach©*.^3ee piutViiiiJ in safe 



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*ars..«3ee a Wo ^rc 



logy file 

Mor tua ry. • • 3oo ul^o Cirene^ion; Oereronies 

/ \ 

Mounds. ••See al|^c irchdolor^ file 

Eurranies 

Museums i wollfections 

Music end 3on/{S 






\ 



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O 



Mythology •♦•^ee separate file 



/ 



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•f ibiak had ¥«tB dr«a|| aUoiiad to ladiait prior %9 %h$ 

/ \ ■ 
iMrlttui pot •MtiaA-^trtt till roaaift, far ibiiak Ilia Ibltad 

Stataa ia aarally fbapoaalUa ta tha IndlMi Irikaa, M,100,2eo 






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/ 



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f^oi 






VERSO 



Retake of Preceding Frame 



lerriega & Polygamy 
Maspecrea of Indicoa 



acres of ^hitea 
■assures.. .See tJlg fr /leljBe g 



<0-,biA/ 



idioines *- Msdicine £[^...3^ also ^ismaii 
le 

Migrst^Q St Distribution 
Mi ace iiEindoaa , Calif. 
Mis ca llanaotlu Hon-Ca 
llasiaii Tribaa^^^®^^^^^ 

lio!iacha...3ea riut¥M3 in aafa 



Fd 



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Mor tea ry... See 



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ioB; Caremoniea 



Moimda...3aa also ircMolo/W fila 



Mmrmiea 

MusauBS £ ^llibotioBB 

Mosi 8 nd 3on^ - Se e 

' 

Mythol(^...2ae aeparate fila 



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