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Full text of "C. Hart Merriam papers relating to work with California Indians, 1850-1974. (bulk 1898-1938)"

THE BANCROFT LIBRARY 

University of California 

Berkeley 



MICROFILMED 1993 



University of California 

Library Photograpinic Service 

Berkeley, California 94720 



REPRODUCED FROM ORIGINALS 

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LAW 



TITLE 17 U.S. CODE 



THE PROCESSING AND FILMING OF 



THE 0. HART MERRIAM PAPERS 



HAVE BEEN MADE POSSIBLE BY A GRANT FROM 



THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 



TITLE ll-C, 



STRENGTHENING RESEARCH LIBRARY 



RESOURCES PROGRAM. 



COLLECTION NAME: 



C, HART MERRIAM PAPERS 



COLLECTION NUMBER: 



BANC MSS 80/18 c 



NEGATIVE NUMBER: 



BNEG Box 1556 : \SO 



REEL: ISO 



CONTENTS: 



ADDENDUM 



SERIES 3: WRITINGS OF MERRIAM ON INDIANS 



Subseries 2: Manuscripts of Books 



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Cffl^ 



HOOPAH 

Hoopah Ethnography' 




According to the Hoopah, the First People are called Klt- 
tung^hi or Deril People. They used to fight and kill and eat one 
another. Later th^ ttimed Into animals. After the Flood real 
(Indian) people came* 

In early days the Indians used to get drunk from inhaling 
the fumes of Indian tobacco (min-ta itch-wah) which by deep breathing 
they irtould take into the lungs. Their word for drunk is Ito-ha -wlh . 
Th« expression for 'many people drunk^ is Tah, howia ->ie . 



The word for an old person is kis-te-ahnj for an old object^ 



tab^ne^ 



kind 



person} and noo^nihon for a good thing or object. A bad person is 



iriiile 



ch 



Chin^tahs *slow' is said to mean also ' heavy |^ but the word 
given me for heavy is nit«tahs« 

The word ho-ohit^ meaning real or genuine^ occurs frequently; 
Thus^ deerskin tanned with the hair on is called ho«»chit-»te^ te 
being any blanket or toga« Similarly^ the ordinary woman's apron 
made of pine nuts and braided grass is ho-K^he«ke-ah; the women ^s hat^ 
ho-K:he«kos-tahn^ or real hat} moccasins^ hoch-ya^-che^tahl} the bow^ 



hnr 



orsation from James Chesbro of Burnt Hanch^ 1921 • 




ho-ete t8liob-*tlng| the stone a r ro w p ointy bo-che tia-tii Indian 

or wild tobacco^ ho*che alxi-tA-lteb-wah; tde elkhom box or purse for 

raluable ho-chs kln-chah« 

The Kooi>ah say that tbelr people did not use the nose-bone 



or nose-stick^ but had a 



for it^ whleh la huxwchoo 1Alan£^»l, 



Th^ say these were worn hj^ Indians farther north* 

The women tattooed the ehin^ usually In three broad vertical 
bands sladJLar to those of the Elaaath airer tribes • Tattoo marks 
are called wll-tahch« 

FlacQ names t All place names along the rivers were at one 
time the site of villages or rancheri^is* The village alwa/s takes 
the name of the place • 

The name for house is hon-tah or famwtowj the ceremonial 
hotise^ ma-iiln sln-tll| the r^eathousej tab-keoj the menstrual lodge ^ 
mlntch) the brash wickli^j ma-Hiab-si| the brush blind or hut for con-» 
cealing the hunter^ ksiN^wong-wlL-min« 

^ey say that they never boruad the dead^ \Ait burled them In 



graves dug exactly knee-deep by 



• The grave was called hot-» 



body 



fastened to a slab of wood of the proper 



lengthy and when laid In the grave was covered with the belongings of 
the dead pers^i and then with earUu 

While tbqr do not bum the bodies^ they bom clothing and 
other belongings • But ths Cheoareko of f^jrampom bum their dead» 



They believed In an evU q^lrit or Devil ca}J.ed !:lt«-tung 



hwol* 



A peculiar custom was practised In extending a certain 



eotirtasy to an enemy who wanted to croes the rlTer but had no boat< 
If a peraon haring a oanoa croased the rlTar^ and his penmal 
enengr found the canoa^ he wotild go and ait down nmar it and aMLii 
the retxxm of the owner* Vbsn the owner caae^ he would back out 
into the stream and then push the bow ashore at the nsarest point 
to his enem/^ and the enengr would step in and sit doMi^ nsithsr 
speaking a word* The owner would then paddle across ths strsaa to 
hifi mm side, and the enennr would iumn out and nrocsad without 



There were two kinds of doctors t the real doctor or shaasn^ 

sometimes known as • dance doctor^ • called kit^ta tcir^ and ths asdicins 

ch 



doctor^ who never danced^ called kiis-oow^-chil -«ish« 



Gambling Gaasx Ths common gambling gaas^ 1 
played with a bunch of slender sticks seren or ei^it inches l o ng ^ 
called hol-cherking* One of these, called Hung C'^ce* or •lucky 



black band 



consists in 



guessing in which hand the opponent holds the marked stldc« There 



sa^ 



guess* 



^aall hail steles are called klew-hafan ndxt-nah frcu kl^w-hahn. 



an eel, and min^-4iah, eyes, from the resemblance of small hall stones 
to the white eyec of the eel. Big hail-stonss are ks-lo-«ing-hot« 



earthquake is nin mab-ah tin-ni 



ch 



msani ng Hums 



over on edge of world*" 



Money: The unit of ralue, which we call •money* ccnsisted 



of the viduable kind of 



iim shells 9 long specimMis of which 



terminal 



Joint. This was called ho-ch« naht-te-ow or "real money." SinaU or 
broken dentaUum sheila, from half an inch to an inch in length, wre 



called 



Scalps of the great pileated i*oodpecker or cock-of-the-voods 



( Ceophlaeus pileatus) . called kis-ta^ke-keo , also paasea as ^u^j. 

Rar^ v Inhabitants of Certain Villages : The Hoopah say that 
after the flood there were many pe'ople at the rancherias at the Action 
of South Fork with the main Trinity. One of these Tillages, Hlal-tung, 
was at the mouth of South Fork where It joins the main Trinity} 
another (U-koo-et-sU-a-kut) on the bench on the north side of Trinity 
RiTer opposite the mouth of South Fork, 

If some one at either of these villages shouted when bi 

flying ov^^r, the birds dropped dead, 

.Yu k»« aear^IIen i The Hoopah caU the »Iuke« of Round Valley 



Ho-ning 



Devils 



Some of these tattooed »Iuke» used to imitate bears. They 



.inini 



bark and shaping it like the body of a bear. They would get into 



walk like a bear. In the hand they would carry 



a spike made of the antler of a deer, with which to kill the Indians 



they attacked. 



The Hoopah Indians learned this and learned how to tell 
real bears from these hunan enemy bears. They say that a real bear 



whil« an Indian 



8lobb«r«« 



Acom Food: Sahah is th« Hoopah nam for thair acorn food, 
Th^ first Umxj tha acorns and soak them until the ahsUs crack open. 
This rsaoTss ths bittsr taste. Ihey then roll the acorns, rub off 
the o«Ur skin^ and pulrerise the ntats by pounding with a stone 
psstle in a large hollow stone oortar with a bottoaless basket set 
on top to act as a ria to keep the «aterial from spilling over. 
When sof f ieiesitly pulverised they wst the aoom meal with water 
making a sort of thick paste of it. This is made into cakes and laid 



When 



sahah 



^Aileh water is poured. Th«a hot stones are droppod in, whereupon 
ths sahah lns w il ateJjr thickens into mush and is ready to be eaten. 

Of all the aeoms in the Hoopa country^ those of the tanbark 
oak are eoiisid«red the best for food. They make the best mush and 
bread. Many of the present-day Hoopaw, who live in the main like 
Whites, mix tai>-oak acona flour with wheat flour for biscuits. 



pancakes, cake, and so on. 



preparing aeoms is ty burying 



year in a running spring 



following year, the bitter elsmont has disappeared 



swast. 



Brsad and cake made of tan-oak acorns will keep good for 



months. It may mold a little on the sxirface, and oil show up on top, 



When 



Fresh floiir made of tan-baric aoomti spread on burlap or 
other porous eloth and placed where cold water will trickle over It 
all nlisfat beeouBS sweet and read7 to cook after a single night • 

Tan-oak acems roasted in hot ashes till the shells pop 
open nay be eaten without further treatnent , but plenty of water 
should be drunk with thma* 

Ethnomoology t The gristly bear had two naaest Me-cha-e- 

sahn and Bs-kwo-ah* The laountain lion or cougar is called oinHiiing 

ch 
fld (hla-til-Ioo. asanine "kills with his fae«." 



Th&j speak 



number 



a great noise* 



4 

Thej speak also of a water panther (agrthieal) called Ko-tsi- 
tow said to liTs in holes dose to the water of lakes and pools« 
nsTsr in rivers or on land* Its head and shoulders were heavy and 
covered with long shaggy hair, but the hinder parts were nearly naked* 



Klok-e-te-til-le. oeanlng 



salaon*** 



The weasel— and this is particularly Interesting— is called 

ch 
klew flKb-hungf waning "snake's husband"— a term doubtless suggested 

by its snake-like f on and actions* 

The sole is called adn-nl e-ting. Meaning eyeless| the bat, 
haht-la nab-aut, "night flyer*" 

The porcupine is ik*yo* Its quills, usually dyed yellow, 
were used to omaaant basket hats| and also to pierce the ears for 
earrings* When a quill was stuck lightly into the lobe of the ear. 



-^■■Ae^^ifett 



It wuld slowly work its way through, 

Th« coBamon gray ground iquirrel 



tM »k»t-yahng-a, neanlng •rock sitting on.« 
Tha >ck rabbit, oddly enough, is caUed hah^^'Uh- 
hlah-hahn, B»aning 'dry ground dear,* 



A Hoopah eTsnonial 
r the hind la/ 



■ox skin, Tha skin was "casad" 



front faat had baan cut off but tha skin of aach lag was sUt in six 
or saran strands of narrow ribbon* about thraa inches long. 



turned 



hind 



was painted deep red. The tail also had been sUt open on the under- 
side and tha skin pAintad with tha saine red paint, and a tuft of pure 
white feathers four inches long was sewed to its tip. 

The most surprising narking was a doixble ring or belt band 
of red and blue painted around the inside of the skin about two 
Inches abore the b»*e of tha taU (and therefore hidden when the 



half 



around' 



tha posterior deep blue. 



unmistakably 



northwest f om> of the species Urocasn califomicus tflassaS^* Th* 



upperparti 



almost pure 



flanks 



\ 



ipecimsn 



It would slowly work its way throvigh. 

Th« coianon gray ground •qxiirrel ( Cif llua douglasl) is 
called tse »ket-yahng-a, aeanlng »rock sitting on,» 

Th« jack rabbit, oddly enough, is called hah**^-ab-tah 
*hit8»*hlab->hahn, meaning *dry ground deer.* 

A Hoopah ceremonial grayfox skin . The skin was '•cased" 
(opened along the hind legs, the belly not slit lengthwise) • The 
front feet had been cut off but the skin of each leg was slit in six 
or seven strands of narrow ribbons about three Inches long. 

The skin has been turned inside out and decorated in places; 
then turned and left with fur outside. The skin of the hind legs 
was painted deep red. The tail also had been slit open on the under- 
side and the skin p4inted with tlw same red paint, and a tuft of pure 
white feathers four inches long was sewed to its tip. 

The most surprising mazidng was a double ring or belt band 
of red and blue painted around the inside of the skin about two 
inches abore the bsae of the tail (and therefore hidden when the 
skin was fur side out). The two bands, each about half an inch wide. 



around' 



the posterior deep blue. 



The skin itself is of interest as being unmistakably the dark 
northwest form of the species Urocyon calif omic\ia townsendi . Ihe 
upperparts are rsry dark grizzledj the dorsal stripe from neck to tip 
of tail is almost pure black and on the tail is about an inch broad. 
The flanks, innersides of legs, and undersides of tail are fulvous, 
palest on the belly. The specimen is an adult male. 



The following document is a duplicate of the 
preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



n oopala Ethnocniphy 



f^i^ 



1 



Aecordlnt to tha Hoepah, es told wm by Jqsms Chaebro of Dumt 

* 

Banch, the Pint Baoplo oro celled Klt^tunf-^/hi or Devil Pooplet 
Thoy uaed to ^fht and kill and ent one nnotlier. Inter they turned 
into anlTtls^ After tho Flood roal (Indian) people came, 

Xn early daye tlio In!lans nsod to £*ot dninlr from inhnlinf the 
fVr!^n of Indian toVccco (sxin-^ta itch^wah) v;hich by doop broathinp 
tlioy rxrild tatai in^o the lunfa* Their %7ord for drunk is Ho-na^^vih®^* 
The ©xpreeeion fbr hmx^ people drunk* io Yah, lio-na°^-\.t)^\ 



The word for on old peroon lo I{lo-*to-ci!in| for an old obfeot. 



tah-4ie« 

Tlior^ are tv/o \totc\q for ; oodi chttnf-i;!ioon for a ^-d or kind 

poroonj and noo-^hon for a rood thlnf or object^ A bad pernon ia 

• < 

To choonrwiconj while a thinf tliat Is not food ia To noo^^txn. 

Chin-taha •alow^ is said to nioan alao •hoavy'i but the vrord 
Civon n» for hairy is nJt-talia^ 

Til.: uori ho-diit, notmlnf real or ^cmulno, occtiro frcrnentlyi 

Thus, dooFrtdn termed ylth the hoir on io crllod ho-chit to, te being 



blanket or tO£ti« Similarly, 



:o-<Lhj 



kos-tahn, or ronl hatj raocccolnf!, hoeh ya^cho-tnhli tho l^v;, ho-che 
taitch-^tinri the ntono arroiN-polnt, hc-che tln-*^ij Inr'.inn or vild 
tobacco, ho-che nin»tn-ite!>*imh; thn nl?diom 1 ox or pure# fdr valuable 
ho-cho kin-^)iah« 

The HooiKili aay that their people did not ueo tho noae-»Vone 



hun«»choo ifJianf i 



tlHNM 



The T/omon tattooed the ehin^ 



in three brond vertical 



bands similar to those of the IlflBath ^ror trVuesm Tattoo xmrlcQ 



are crlled "il-t^hch^ 

Tlcce nr^on i ^11 place Banes alon^ the ri^eni \:ere at one 
tlno t e site of ^llrj^a or rancharlea* ^bm rlllafe alwjrs talres 
tho nc^e of thf> ^1pcc« 

The none for '^ouse is hon-tah ^t lii toy; the eer^nonlal house. 



zoa-ciln sln-*til; the ST^athottee, 



trucl lodco^ nintchi 



the brush vlokiup^ rin-««a!>-Qi; the brwiflh blind or hut for concealing 



tho hunter, ^^ew-t7on£-t/ilHaln« 



Hioy say that tlugr 



lum e J V^ dbad^ bot bitrlcd th€^ in 



Caravoa &f eraietly Taieo^oep by 



eelled 



hot-yunc ho-sln^ "^ ^ o y vee fketened to a cla' of w>od of the 



proper Icrjrth, aid wlien laid in the 



covered vdth the 



bolonrlnj^s of the doad p 



andl ttien isrlth eartlw 



TThlle thoy do not b^m ^he bodies^ they b^m clolh5.n£ and 



other ^v'lonflnf^* Beit the CSi -^re!?^ of l ^ a jpoLi bim their dead# 

Thoy believed in an evil s'drlt or Devil ci^lled Kit-ttmf hiToi^ 
A poci^liar ctistoa vta i?ractiaeJ In cxtefidln- r certcln coiTrtosy 

to an onony \rho wanted to ercse the river bat had no beet* If a 



person Iiavln(^ a canoe croeee! tlie river, eni Ida pewonrl encr^ 



OOVTI 



It the retvm 



of the eneer. then the owier caat, he eould back eat Into the 
etrona and then push the bcir aehore at the nearest point to hie 



aeerjy. 



!'^ step le eadi elt iwm^ neither epenldng 



a trord. The o\nwr 'or^ld then pr'fdie ecroea the otreea to his ovm 



side, nnd tho eneny ;rotjl'! Jun?) out end proceed ^d*haiif 



tK 



•> 



Hiore voro two kinds of doctors! the real doctor or 



noiaotinoo Icnoim co ^danco doetor*t colled Ifclt-ta fov^ nrf the acdlcino 
doctor, \Ato ncvor dareor), cnllod ^ria »Du-chil^ Wilu 

G-raMtnr Cgna^t The conmon £ti!!iblln£; faiw^ loe-oovMiM^ mm 
played ulth a btmch of slender gtlclas eeren or ^l^ht indiee lonj^^ 
called hol-cho-klnf* One of ^heee^ ccllr^^ Hm^ (•cce* or 'l^ie!^ 
otlck*)^ hr?5 a Mnck band nroitnd tho ralddle. The fcne consists In 
gueeslnj^ In uliich hn-d the onr>on0nt holds the Ficr!»d stidfc, ^hero 
aro olovon nolntooor fxiesoos. Ono otici: Is flven up at each vron^ 



£U000# 



&1C.11 hail stonoo nro cnllod trteu-kiAn nin-neh firoa IrleiMiiteiy 
. and nf-n-fieli. or/ec. fro© the rcson' Irnoe of amll htll atonos 



to tho uhlto eyes of tho eel. THz hnil-HBtoncHi nre ke-lo-onc^-hot. 

An earf^hq^mko is nln oah-ch tin-r.i^^^^'-KAvlt, flMnln^ Hiims over 
on oi(yi of ijorld.* 

Money t Tho imlt of valno, t/'ilch ne cell •rscney' cronslstad 
of tho valMGblo Tdnd of dental i^Ti shollsp lonr -rneclncr« of niilch 



reached from tlie l^ano of tho finf er to the base of the 



joint* 



Thio vas crllod ho-che ncht-to-K>w or "real TioTXjy*, Saall or Vroken 
don^alium eholln, fron half en inch to an inch in lenj^th, \ierc 



callod nit-tntch, and uore used for leads« 

Scalps of tho croat piloated noodneclwr or 



ds 



(Oeophlaeue ^ilontnn), clol tdLs^-'ta 



. •! 



iM'ly Inhftbltanta of O&rtain Vllltvrcg t The Hoepoh ««y th«t after 
tho flood thoro \mr9 aanQT people et tho rrnch'^ria* mt tht jttnction ^f 
SoT.th Porlr %rfth the ncin Trir>lt7, One of t'teso rillafva, Hlal-timg, 



mJim 



t/as at the oouth o-P South Fbrk vhero It Joins the or. In 






another (Il-4eoo-et-nil-a-lrut) on thn bench on the north side of 
Trinity ryivor op-^oslte tho norith of South forlz^ 

If 3o»3 one at either of these vlllaftjs shotted when birds 



were flyinf over, tho birds drop'^ed doaAm 



•Yvlco* Tor 



Ilo^nlnj 



V/il-tatch, Eioaning •Tattooed Ffeoos't beccuso tho 'ion tattoo their 
choo!»% Tlioy also --11 th-^m !!it-tTin[:-\fhoip •Devils*^ 

So!30 of theco tattooed ♦TUco^ T»#d to 1 dtate boars. They 
would put on tlie sldLn of a bri22ly 1 ar^ first llnlnc the hide with 
bark and olicplnt it lilce tho body of a bear^ They would £ct into 
this sldn rnd act and nalk lilro a bear. Tn the hand they T;ould 
crrry a crl!» inado of the antlor of a deer, vith which to !dlll the 
Wdlann they attad-od* 

T1k5 Roopah Ihdleno learned this nnd loamod hov to toll real 
boars from t!i08e hunoin encoy boars. They say tlmt a real b«ar 
slobbers at tho ooutht vMle an Inlian T»n drossod as e boar ncv-r 



slobbotns. 



They 



first bury iho acorns and soak them until the nbi^lln cradc open. 
T!:i8 renoveo tho litter tasto. Tiioy then rooll thn acomSt rubb off 
tlio outer o!dLn, and pulreriso tlio rirats ty ponndinc uith a atone ' 
tlo in a large hollov; stone nortar with a bottomless bacliat set 
on ton to act ao a rin to 1:eop the mr.terial fron crpillin' over. 
tTion Biifflciently pulvorizod thoy uot tho aeom ocal vdth ycicr 



nokinj 



do into alios and laid 



Vh9n 



fine 



) 



over AThlch tjaler is "notirod, ^e"^ hot ntonos tiro droT^-nod in. i/hcroii'non 
the sahfth ±B?wdirtoly tbickons Into nush and is roady to bo oaton^ 
Of all tho aoomn in tho Hoopo country, those of tho tanbnrk 

f 

oak cro considerod tho bost for foo'?^ Thoy make the best :mmh and 
%road« ifcny of tlie T>rocont--day Hoopcw, v;ho live in tho main liko 
Attesy niir trn-oak ccom flour with wheat flour for biocuitflt 



pcncci!:os, calre^ 



so on* 



Ono of aevoTtl iid;;;o of pronarinp acomn is by burying tlieom 
for a yonr in a rmninr spring;. They tlion tttm black, but, by tlio 
fblloifJng ycKir, tlio bitter olonent liaa diofip or rod, and they are 



Bread and cake ?aada of tan-oak acomo i;ill !a>ep fOod fbr nontliSt 
It aay Dold a little onthe nurfrce, and oil show up on top. When 
this is brusliod off, tlie cadres are s\;eet and cood# 

IVosh flour aado of tan-bark acorns s^^road on burlat) or other 
porouG cloth and placed uhero cold vater vill trickle over it all nif:ht 



be 



sveet and ready to coo!: after a single nifht# 



Tan-oak 



oted in hot a-hes till the shells ^^op opon 



ooy be eaten v;ithout Airthor troataont, bjt plenty of imtor nhould bo 
drunk with than* 



fron JoaM Otmmhtxj of Dumt r^nch, 19?1 



-6>- 



Ethnozoology 



The Q(rizzly Bear had two names: Me-cha-e-sahn and l(©-kwo-ah. 

The ^fountain I^ion or ^ugar is called yin-ning mi^^ *hla-til-loo, 
meaning •kills with his face** 

They speak of a spotted /anther of large size called Kit-sah, 
which has not been seen for a nimber of years* It used to make a 

great noise* 

They speak also of a yater panther (mythical) called Ho-tsi-tow 
said to live in holes close to the water of lakes and pools, never in 
rivers or on land. Its head and shoulders were heavy and covered 
with long shaggy hair, but the hinder parts were nearly naked* 

The Otter is called •Klok-e-te-til-le, meaning "he likes salmon/ 

The Weasel — and this is particularly interesting — is called 
iClew^^ mu-hung, meaning "snake's husband* — a term doubtless suggested 
by its snake-like form and actions. 

The Mole is called idn-ni e-ting, meaning eyeless; the ^at, 
l?aht-la nah-raut, "night flyer* • 

The i'orcupine is ^jbyo. Its quills, usually dyed yellow, were 
used to ornament basket hats; and also to pierce the ears for ear- 
rings. When a quill was stuck lightly into the lobe of the ear, it 
would slowly work its way through* 



/ 



The common gray ground JEfquir re 1 ( Citellus dourlasi^) is called 



ket-yahng-a, meaning 'rock sitting on'* 



/ 



/ 



/ 



Hahn, meaning 'dry graxmd deer'* 



- 7- 




Hi 




-Jk' 



A " ceremonial gray fox 8kin > The skin was '•cased "(opened along 
the hind legs, the belly not slit lengthwise). The front feet 
had been cut off but the skin of each leg was slit in six or 
seven strands or narrow ribbons about three inches long* 

The skin had been turned inside out and decorated in places; 
then turned and left with fur outside • The skin of the hind 
legs was painted deep red# The tail also had been slit open 
on the underside and the skin painted with the same red paint, 
and a tuft of pure white feathers four inches long was sewed 
to its tip. 

The most surprising marking was a double ring or belt band 
of red and blue painted around the inside of the skin about 
two inches above the base of the tail ( and therefore hidden 
when the skin was furside out )• The two bands, each about 
half an inch wide, were ia actual contact all the way around 
— the anterior one deep red, the posterior deep blue. 

The skin itself is of interest as being unmistakably the 
dark northwest form of the species Urocyon caiifornicus town- 
sendi . The upperparts are very dark grizzled; the dorsal 
stripe from neck to tip of tail is almost pure black and 
on the tail is about an inch broad • The flanks, innersides 
of legs, and undersides of tail are fulvous, palest on the 
belly. The specimen is an adult male. 



f 



Uh€k 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 
and corrections not found on the original. 



I 



^s -> 



h-oqpa-k 



UA^ 



K^ 



H oopah Ethnography 



/ 



/■'^ 




According; to the Hoopahy 
the First People are called Kit-tumg-whi or Devil People^ 
They used to fight and kill and eat one another. Later they turned 
into animals. After the Flood real (Indian) people came. 

In early days the Indians used to ret drunk from inhaling the 
fumes of Indian tobacco (mtn-ta itch-wah) which by deep breathing 
they would take into the lungs. Their word for drunk is Ho-naC^^wih^^. 
The expression for 'many people drunk* is Tah, ho-na -we^ • 

The word for an old person is ICis-te-ahn; for an old object, 
tah-ne • 

There are two words for good: chung-whoom for a good or kind 
person; and noo-whom for a good thing or object. A bad person is 
To choong-kom; while a thing that is not good is fo noo^"-kom. 

Chin-tahs 'slow' is said to isean also ^heavy'; bxit the word 
given me for hevy is nit-tahs» 

The word ho-chit, meaning real or genuine, occurs frequently: 
Thus, deerskin tanned with the hair on is called ho-chit-te, te being 
any blanket or toga. Similarly , tthe ordinary woman's apron made of 
pine nuts and braided grass is ho-che-ka-ah; the women's hat, ho-che— 
kos-tahn, or real hat; moccasins, hoch«ya-che-tahl; the bow, ho-che 
ts itch-ting; the stone arrow-point, ho-che tin-ti; Indian or wild 
tobacco, ho-che min-ta-itch-wah; the el'diom box or purse fo r , valu p b le 

ho-che kin-chah. 

The Hoopah say that their people did not use the nose-bone 



or nose-stick, but had a name for it, which is hun-choo whang-i. 
They say these were worn by Indians farther north. 



\/ (fniL u^ • v;,.r 



-2- 



The women tattooed the chin, usually in three broad vertical 
bands similar to those of the Klamath River tribes. Tfeittoo marks 
are called ^il-tahch. 

Place names : ^11 place names along the rivers were at one 
tiipe tAe site of villages or rancherias. '^he village always takes 
the name of the place. 

nm t ^ 

une name for house is hon-tah or hun-tow; the ceremonial house, 
ma-min sin-til; the sweathouse, tah-keo; the menstrual lodge, mintch; 
the brush wickiup, ma-nah-sij the brush blind or hut for concealing 
the hunter, kew-wong-wil-min. 

They say that they never burned the dead, but buried them in 
graves dug exactly Imee-deep by measure. The grave was called 
hot-yung ho-sin. T^e body was fastened to a slab of wood of the 
proper length, and when laid in the grave was covered with the 
belongings of the dead person and then with earth. 

While they do not burn the bodies, they bum clothing and 
other belongings. But the Chemareko of Hyampom burn their dead. 

They believed in an evil spirit or Devil called ICit-tung hwoi. 

' f 

A peculiar custom was practised in extending a certain pourtesy 
to an enemy who wanted to cross the river but had no boat. If a 
person having a canoe crossed the river, and his personal enemy 
found the canoe, he would go and sit down near it and await the return 
of the owner. When the owner came, he would back out into the 
stream and then push the bow ashore at the nearest point to his 
enemy, and the enemy would step in and sit down, neither speaking 
a v/ord. The owner v/ould then paddle across the stream to his own 
side, and the enemy would jump out and proceed without remark. 



-5- 



I \ 



There were two kinds of doctors: the real doctor or shaman, 

/ 

times known as Mance doctor', called kit-ta tow, and the medicine 

* 

doctor, who never danced, called kim-mow-chiich-weh* 

» 

Gambling Garne t The common gambling game, ke-now-we, was 
played with a bunch of slender sticks seven or eight inches long, 
called hol-che-king. One of these, called Hung ('ace* or 'lucky 
stickOf has a black band around the middle* The game consists in 
guessing in which hand the opponent holds the marked stick,^ '*'here 
are eleven pointsior guesses. One stick is given up at each wrong 



88 




/ / / 

Small hail stones are called klew-hahn min-nah from klew-hahn, 

7 

in eel, and min-nah, eyes, from the resemblance of small hail stones 
to the white eyes of the eel. Big hail-stones are ke-lo-ung-hot. 

An earthquake is nin mah-ah tin-ni®*^-chwit, meaning •turns over 
on edge of world.* 

Money \ The unit of value, which we call 'money* cfonsisted 
of the valuable kind of dentalium shells, long specimens of whic 
reached from the base of the finger to the base of the terminal joint. 
This was called ho-che naht-te-ow or "real money". Small or broken 
dentalium shells, from half an inch to an inch in length, were 
called mit-tatch, and were used for beads. 

Scalps of the great pileated woodpecker or cock-of-the-woods 
(Cecphlaeus pileatus), caled kis^-ta-ke-keo, also passed as money. 
Early Inhabitants of Pertain Villages ! The Hoopah say that after 
the flood there were many people at the rancherias at the junction of 
South Pork with the main Trinity. One of these villages, Hlal-tung, 



was at the mouth of South Pork where it joins the main Trinity; 
another (li-koo-et-sil-a-kut) on the bench on the north side of 
Trinity River opposite the mouth of South fork. 

If some one at either of these villages shouted when birds 
were flying over, the birds dropped dead« 

^Yuke^ Bear-Mem The Hoopah call the 'Tuke* of Round Valley Ho-ning 
Wil-tatch, meaning ^Tattooed Faces •, because the men tattoo their 
cheeks* They also call them Kit-tung-whoi, •Devils •• 

Some of these tattooed 'YUke* used to imitate bears* They 
would put on the skin of a brizzly bear, first lining the hide with 
bark and shaping it like the body of a bear* They would get into 
this skin and act and walk like a bear* In the hand they would 
carry a spike made of the antler of a deer, with which to kill the 
Indians they attacked* 

The Hoopah Indians learned this and learned how to tell real 

\ 
bears from these human enemy bears* They say that a real bear 

slobbers at the mouth, while an Indian man dressed as a bear never 
slobbers* 

Acorn Food t Sahah is the Hoopah name for their acorn food. They 
first bury the acorns and soak them until the shells crack open* 
This removes the bitter taste. They then rooll the acorns, rubb off 
the outer skin, and pulverize the meats by poiinding with a stone 
pestle in a large hollow stone mortar with a bottomless basket set 
on top to act as a rim to keep the material from spilling over* 
When sufficiently pulverized they wet the acorn meal with water 



-5- 



making a sort of thick paste of it. This is made into cakes and laid 
on sand to dry in the sun, When wanted for food a piece is broken 
off and put in a sahah basket (woven of fine pine roots and grass) 
over which water is poured. Then hot stones are dropped in, whereupon 
the sahah immediately thickens into mush and is ready to be eaten. 

m 

Of all the acorns in the Hoopa cotintry, those of the tan bark 
oak are considered the best for food. They make the best mush and 
bread • Many of the present-day Hoopaw, who live in the main like 
Whites, mix tan-oak acorn flour with wheat flour for biscuits, 
pancakes, cake, and so on. 

One of several ways of preparing acorns is by burying them 

* ■ 

for a year in a running spring: They then turn black, but, by the 
following year, the bitter element has disapneared, and they are 
sweet. 

Bread and cake made of tan«»oak acorns will keep good for months. 
It may mold a little onthe surface, and oil show up on top. When 
this is brushed off, the cakes are sweet and good. 

Preah flour made of tan-bark acorns spread on burlap or other 
porous cloth and placed where cold water will trickle over it all night 
becomes sweet and ready to cook a^er a single night. 

Tan-oak acorns roasted in hot ashes till the shells pop open 
may be eaten without fUrther treatment, but plenty of water should be 
drunk with them. 



T ^t^ I \/ InfoJ*°^'tio^ from James Chesbro of Rirat Ranch, 1921 



l¥ 



,v^^ 



1* 



A f 



HOOPM 




y 

4 



According to the Eoflpali. as told me by Janes Chesl)ro 
of Burnt Eandi, the First People are called Kjljrtune'-^i or 
Devil People. They used to fight and kill and eat one another. 
Later they tumed into animals. After the Flood real (Indian) 
people came. 




In early days the Indians used to get drunk from 



inhaling llie fumes of Indian tobacco (^ 




.ungi 



) ^ich 



Their word for 



drunk ifl K?>-n5Qh-wj,hQb. The expression for »nany people drunk » 



i/n)), \\p-n^f'^f^' 



/\^rX9^Stip^\ 



object, lahkjis.* 

There are tinD words for good: 




-whoom for a good or 





^iM^for a good thii^ or oDjeci;. a oaa pe.x7. 
; while a thing that is not good is ^ n OQ j-kQ n f | 
•slow* is said to mean also •heavy*; but 
the word given me for heavy is iI^JL=^ah^*. 

The wordi^rjcMi. meaning real or genuine, occurs 
frequsntly: Thus, deerskin tanned with the hair on is called 

, tfi. being any blanket or toga. Similarly, the ordi- 
nary woman's apron nede of pine nuts and braided grass is 

»s hat. tfn-r»^ft kog-tahn. or real hat; 





Hp rche ke j^: the women's hat, liorJ^Q k98- 
moccasins,^,i^h-jci^ahfi4filli; the bow, jtg-tfhe , t9i 
the stone arrow-point, Ho^^ie ti|l-tL; Indian or wild tobacco. 
T^'^^^ l/inLt ^-itcti-wah '. the ^iVhcrr ^ox or purse for valuables 



/ 



i ni.chah . 



/l 



Hoopah Notes (Continued) 



a 



The Hoopah say that Iheir people did not use the 
nose-bone or nose-stick, but had a name for it, ishich is 
Him-choo whang- i> They say these were worn by Indians 
farther north. 
I The women tattooed the diin, usually in three broad 



9 

vertical bands similar to those of the Klamath River 
Tattoo marics are called WijlUahc^'. 



es. 



Place namear All place names along the rivers 
were at one time the sites of villages or rancherias. The 
village always takes the name of the place. 



I ^n~tah or HunLtow 
t / / /^ / / / * ' 



ceremonial house . Maimin sin-ti;!, : the sweathouse. 



the 



the menstrual lodge. 




the brush wickiup, 



the brush blind or hut for concealing the hunter 




m 




They sgy that they never burned the dead, but buried 
them in graves dug exactly knee-deep by measure. The grave 

The body was fastened to a slab 



was called 



of wood of the proper ler^th, and ?hen laid in the grave was 
covered with the belongings of the dead person and then with 
earth. 

While they do not burn the bodies, they bum clothing 
and other belongings. But the Chemareko of HysBpom bum their 
dead. 
/ , They believed in an evil spirit or Devil called 

iCit-tung hyj. 



« I 



if%- 




A peculiar custom was practised in extendii^ a certain 
courtesy to an enemy who wanted to cross ths river but had no 
boat. If a person hayirg a canoe crossed the river, and his 
personal enemy found the canoe, he would go and sit down near 
it and await the return of tiie owner. When the owner came, 
he would back out into the stream and then push the bow ashore 
at the nearest point to his enemy, and the enemy would step 
in and sit down, neither speaking a word. The owner would then 
paddle across the stream to hia own side, and the enemy would 
jvmip out and proceed without remark. 



5 



r 



There were two kinds of doctors: the real doctor or 



shanan, sometimes known as »dance doctor', called /iUti' .toy , 



and the medicine doctor, ^o never danced, called 



^ 




"fflOW- 



ch 





^ifi^ 



called 




was played with a bunch of slender sticks 7 or 8 inches long, 

.. One of these, called Hung'(»ace» or 'lucky 
stick'), has a black band around the middle. The game consists 
in guessing in which hand the opponent holds the marked stick. 
There are eleven points or guesses. One stick is given up 
at each wrong guess. 



fl 



Hoop8h Notes (Continued) 




frnm yiflwihahn . an eel, and mii^-nyh. eyes, from ths re- 
semblance of small hail stones to the lAite eyes of the 



eel* 




Big hail-stones are 



An earthquake is 
"turns over on edge of wrld." 




, meaning 



MoxifiX' The unit of Talue, ihich we call 'money*, 
consisted of the valuahle kind of dentalium shells, long 
specimens of lAiich reached from the base of the finger to 




or "real money". Small or broken dentalium 



shells, from half an inch to an indi in lei^th, were called 

^1 




and were used for beads. 
Scalps of the great pile at ed woodpecker or cock-of- 
(Oeophlaeus pile at us), called/^ 



r 



passed as money. 




C '-«' 



EARLY INH'^^''^^^-'^^ Q^ CgRTAIH 7ILL/iG^3 




The Hoopah say that after the flood there 



nere 



mnj t«ople at the ranoherias at tte junction of 3o»th fork 
with the nain Trinity. One of these villages^as at the 
mouth of South Fork ^lere it joins the main Trinity; 

cnotheXiTthTbaich on the north side of 

opposite the mouth of South Fork. 

If some one at either of these villages shouted ^ben 

birds «ere flying over, the birds dropped de^ 



inity Biver 






i;['YUKE' Br 



KAR-MEN 



y^The Hoopah call the *Yuke* of Round Valley Ho^nipg 
Ml-tatch . meaning 'Tattooed Faces*, because the men 
tattoo their cheeks. They also call themv 'Devils*, 




Some of these tattooed *Yuke* used to imitate Bears. 
They would put on the skin of a j2rrizzly^ear, first lining 
the hide with hark and shaping it like the body of a >cear. 
They wuld get into this skin and act and walk like a 
i(ear. In the hand they '^rould carry a spike made of the 
antler of a de^^r, vrith v*iich to kill the Indians they 



attacked. 

The Hoopah Indians learned this end learned how to 
tell real. IJears from these human enemy iieors. "ftiey say 
that a real E^ear slobbers at the mouth, while an Indian 
nan dre??ed a? a Bear never slobbers. 




§ UhesbM": 





ia the Hoopah name for their acorn food. 
They firs't bury the acorns and soak thera until the shells 
crack open. This removes the bitter taste. They then roll 
the acorns, rub off the outer skin, and pulverize the meats 
by pounding with a stone pestle in a large hollow stone mor- 
tar with a bottomless basket set on top to act as a rim to 
keep the material from spilling over. Whep sufficiently pul 
verized they wet the acorn meal with water making a sort of 
thick paste of it. This is made into cakes and laid on sand 
to dry in the sun. When wanted for food a piece is broken 
off and put in a ^^gi^ basket ( woven of fine pine roots and 
grass) over which water is poured. Then hot stones are 
dropped in, whereupon the e^ah . immediately thickens into 
mush and is ready to be eaten. 



Of all the acorns in the Hoopa|[ coimtry, those of 
the tanbark oak are conBidersd the best for food. They 
n»ke the best much and bread. Many of the present-day 



Whites, toix^ 



acorn flour with wheat flour for biscuits, pancakes, 



cakdi and so on* 



%J3pO 



bur/ii^ tjieo for a year in a running spring. They then 
turn black, bSv^«^^«^®«^®"*'^** disappeare4 . and 
they are sweet. 

Bread and cake made of tan-oak acorns will keep 
good for monthB. It may mold a little on the surface, 
and oil show up on top. IWien this is brushed off, the 



cakes are 




and good. 



Fresh flour 




of tan-bark acorns spread on 
burlap or other porous cloth and placed where cold water 
will trickle over it all night becomes sweet and ready to 
cook after a single night s tr e atm e nt with Qold wat e r . 

Tan-oak acorns roasted in hot ashes till the shells 
pop open may be eaten without further treatment, but 
plenty of water should be drunk with them. 



Ranch 




^^''""' *r^ 



a-< 



'■ • The Bald Eap.lc is yin-jlfi-y^hn. meaning "fisherman". 

The i?ishhawk is i^irjjhfilL-^rsM, meaning ^'sucker 
fisherman". \*ile the pdck^awk or /a Icon is^i tp-O^^-n^-niSTWahl ^ 



neaning "king of birds". 

The l^ondor isAi 



Si3L. 




1 hQ-}an 



nfisyae 



"breath stinking". 



>/illz 



meaning chief of the forest. 



mr\' ninp 



• * J ft 

mside . 



A 





utft-t il-le 



Lied lA '-.yo > and was a great gambler. 
He always gambled all vanterl Once ^vhen gambling some one told 
him that his granAnother was dead. He said there would be 
plenty of time to cry next turner. So he ept on pL-^ying. 
vmen summer cane he cried for his grandmother. And every 
summer we hear him every day crying for his grandkother 

A Nuthatch ( 2iUfi_aimlfiJilfl.) is 






-Q-no- 



, mean ire "^ugar pine crazy". 



/ 




a mah^sh . meaning 'elk louse' for the reason that 
thej were often seen ridinp. on the elk locking for parasites. 



■^K^^mmm 




i 

4i 



lleadowlerk is called iu 





meaning "dark hind (and". 

The ^rn/owallow. m.p24Miat 
to get and its long forked tail brings luck for money 

The tfiter/Juzel (liinfiljia) is ;Ca$4^. mean 

bobbing." 

The iunco, often called^ow 
.:^udjl. meaniiTg **blflck round, mouth". 



It is hard 




ijl=2I£h. 






igjaia.) is^l£i^aai^ 



^-.tol, meaning "manure kicker". 




berries**. 

TJrpns and /ush T^ts are >^n~tah_e» *he°:& . meaning 

"woods boys**. 

The hummingbird ia ite-gja^ meaning needle (bill), 
and is said to be a war bird. His bill- was like a long needle. 
Ifith it he pierced Lis oiemies. Once he told another bird to 
start fiDm one end of the world and he would start from the 
other. Tlicy did this and met in the middle, \\here they danced. 



The ifilldecr la Kct^^ 




meaning 



"back of neck bandaged". 



The idligator^sard ((lerrhonotus) is 




n=jic.s.» 



meaning "long-winded". 



The 



/oad, 




Presh-water mussels , 



, was a doctor in the olden time. 

, are used for spoons. 




SAYINGS ABOUT BIEDS 




gambled all winter. Once when gambling some one 
told him that his grandmother was dead. He said 
there would be plenty of time to cry next summer. 
So he kept on playing, ^en summer came he cried 
for his grandmother. And ev«-Ty summer we hear 
him every day cryii^ for his grandmother. 




KQ-aos the Uummiigbird was a war bird, tiis Dili was 
like a long needle. 1?ith it he pierced his enemies. 
Once he told another bird to start from one end of the 
world and he would start from the other. They did this 
and met in the middle i;*iere they danced. 



j^ 



^ C_ iV-fc^-A 'Iv^-M.-^ 



Hoopah 



£fkKOl.t>t)/fif 







i 

o 
o 

J 

r 



The Grizzly Bear had two name a r Me-cha-e«8ahn and 



Mft»kwQ a^ . 



The Mountain Lion or Cougar is called Min~ning 



Mi<^ »hl5-tn-1oo^ meaning "kills mth his face". 

They speak of a spotted Panther of large size called 
KUbsafilL, #iich has not been seen for a number of years. It 
used to make a great noise. 

They speak also of a Water Panther (mythical) called 
Ho-tai-toy.gaiA to live in holes close to the water of lakes 
and pools, never in rivers or on land. Its head and shoulders 
were heavy and covered with long shaggy hair, but the hinder 
parts were nearly naked. 

The Otter is called ^Klol^-e-te-til-le , meaning "he 
lilffis salmon." 

The Weasel— and this is particularly interesting— 
is called Klflw^mij-.hi]Tig^ meaning "snake's husband"— a term 
doubtless suggested by its snake -like form and actions. 




The Mole is called 



the Bat, Haht-la nah-mut, "night flyer." 



, meaning eyeless; 



The Porcupine is ILyft'. Its quills, usually dyed 
yellow, vure used to ornament basket hats; and also to pierce 
the ears for ear-rings. When a quill was stuck li^tly into 
the lobe of the ear, it would slowly woik its way throu^. 



'Uglagj \ 




Tse *ket- yflhi^g^q, meaning 'rock sitting on'. 
The Jack Rabbit, oddly enough, is called Nah^-ah-tah 
, meaning 'dry ground deer'. 



STifNcyitrmH 



H'OOPAH 



/ 



Tree Uaple ( 




Called 




This is the 



Fire lives in /^ t^tahna the Maple Tree. 
reason the old people made their fire drills of maple- 
wood. IVhen they worked these the fire came out. 



Madrono fArbntng menzieaiL- Called 




The Madrono leaTes are valuable in the treatment of 
wounds, Hie leaves chewed fine nnd wrapped on a cut 
or wound keep it healthy and cause it to heal at 
once. 




«w« 



Tree Jiburel (Umbflllularia cal if orn i eg ) . Called 



The nuts are called 





They are 



roasted a lon^; time in hot ashes, after ^ich they 
are eaten without pounding or lx)iling. 



."// 




Elder (Sam'buQug glaucaL Called 



Its nine is not spoken. The 




-whe.woo4^ : 



is that Slder shoots 



are used to measure dead persons for their coffins or 

« 

burial boards. 




Wild Syringa (Philadelphua frordonianus). Called 

The long shoots of the wild Syringa are used for arrows 
axd also for the straight pipes in which their tobacco 
is smoked. 



Coffee ^erry or /igeon Berry (Rhamnns Galifoinica), Called 

{meanin£_i!brittle wood"): 




Its bark is boiled for a cathartic tea. 



Hoopah Plant Notes (Continued) 



f- 



Oso /erry (Osmaronia ceragiformig). Called 

(meanii^ *Grizzly Bear food')* 





Hazel ( 





lifomica). Called 
The long tough sprouts are used for nailing the ooarser 
kinds of baskets. 



Lupines (genus Lupiiuia.)* Called 

'spider hands'). 




(meaning 



Coast iloneysuckleyi lie ( l/^nicera cal if om ioa ) . Called 

.., 'jjeanijrg »runs up*). 





The young shoots lire 



Narrow-leaved j/yethia f lWyethia anpus tifolia ). a relative of the 

2{unf lower. Called Qhah-l^ 
eaten in spring. The root is a spring medicine. The 
roots burnt on coals give off fumes v/hich drive away 
sidcness. 



/^ 



« k 



Uoopah Plant Notes (Continued) 



Vancouver i a VinB ( 




Called 




(sBaniig 'Child before birth make small): 
A teroT'the'leaves dnink durinp pregnancy keeps the child 
from growing large. 




Narrow-leaf /ris (Irlfl^"*""^'^^'^**- ^- Called 

It is used for the best grades of string, especially for 



the construction of fine nets. 



Soaproot ( 




Called 




Its bulbous root is roasted for food in the following manner: 
A ground oven is 



prepared in the usual way, lined mth hot 

In thi& 



stones, and '.lith flct stones covering the bottom, 
are placed leaves of different kinds, particularly the sweet 
leaves of the huckleberry. The bulbs of the soaproot are 
laid in layers alternating with layers of huckleberry. 
The '.*olB is then covered dth earth, and a fire built on 



Running 



The 



l/sfl.kflo bulbs are ttien taken out and are excellent eating. 







Cere 



k 



" iHunCf^pi 



iK^ 



tl^ie 



ei t^n 



CclUU'I^^^ )/<^l'^'^ 



Tac 



f H 



f^J :zL 



(^-^kiioikcfl-cJ llAcj ^a TUizli^^L Cd^Y'fKuL. Jjuic^ii Tri'le/} 



\ 



C. Hart Me.'^=t^n 

80/1 a c 



\ 



T 



m ctt)K 



ttatu 



11 r 



QQUPQJ^pjjy^^^ 



exWods alone riiitTi livnr Acta Seiad Craek downttrM«, southwasterly, 

to Bluff Creak. In tte nortteaat tlMir oountxy adjoina that of tha 

Shaata; on tte aoaUaiaat. that of tlia Poliklah. 

4 e Thaxa as« t»o dlvlaloaa of tha trlba: an Uppar DlTlaion 

oalling thaaaalTaa Kah-xah-ko-kah or Kah-rah»ko (oallad Kah*hah-ar- 

rah tgr tha 

aa far aa Slk 



DlTlaion). aztanding froa Soiad Craak donnatraaa 



mj to Claar Croak; and a Lewar DlTioion 
oalUng thaano'lTaa Alwrahr. oooopgring the rlvar oangron from tha Uppar 



OiTiaioo doHnstrMM aa fur as tha aoath of Bliiff Craak. 



Tha uppannai Tillafla of tha Uppar Dirision appears to hare 
baan \!9h hih a •— h. on tha aoath aide of Klanath River at the nouth of 
Walker Craek (Brickleys); the nazt waa Kifa-ahta««ah at nouth of ( 



Cr«ak alaa or aoath aida Claaath. ahila 



■ »■<»« ' •«»». 



-MtMMMaMai#l> 



sidtt 



ith of Portuguese Croaks 



Tte lamrmomt ▼iUaf^ 



at^'^mmm 



minmmmmmt 



mm* 



ta-hatoh on tha north alda of IluMith KlTer Just abora 



Bluff Craak. 



^ 






Bluff Creek appears to have baan neutral fishing ground, as 



th^ 



there 



:i:*- 



fishing, 



U 



Balov 



k« tha next Indian Tillage belonged to the 



»liklah or Lower Qaaath trlba 



la 



Wi om OMi yimmitttm^ 



RanohorUs of the Mlddl* Klanath 



«4 



\?-r „ 



Conparison of lists glTsn Iqr: 



'^^«» 



«au<«An« 



Oibbs MS nap (1852), and Journal in Sohooloraft III. p. 151, 1853; 






Radiok MoKeo (Ind. Agt.) Son. Doc. k^ Special Boss., l6l. 19'f, 211* 1853; 



Carl Meyor. Nach don Saeraiwnto. 282, 1855; 






^w:^ 



A« S, Taylor (after a latter fro« Q. W. Taggart to Walter Van Dyke« 

Orleans Bar, 1856) in Calif • Faxmer, Karch 23^ i860; 
0. Hart Merriamt MS ?ocab» obtained on Upper Klaaath, Oct* 1 & 2, 1910« 



>»^vV'f>|% (J*^*v 



^ .■!> 



^'•^^^ K 



YUROK 



Oibbs. 1852. 1853 McKee. 1853 Meyer. 1855 



Taylor. 1856 Merriam. 1902 



Otche«poh 



Ut«»chap.»pah 

nt*chauopah 

nt»cha«pas 



Ut«soha«pah8 



Sehe^perrh (Possibly a Earok Tillage) 



Ot»sep-por 
Muh*rood«throoT 
(Karok nana) 

Se«per«rah 



KAROK 



Oibbs. 1852 



Oppegoeh (nap) 
Oppegaoh 



MoKee. 1853 



Meyer. 1B55 

■5 



Taylor. 1856 Merriaai. 1910 



Up-»pah^goines Up»pa»goines Woo-pun 
Up-pa«goine 



^Woo»pi» 
Up»pa»goin 



Shah«voo»nn 



Sa»vov«ra 
Sa-ron-ka 
Sa«ron«ra 
Sa»Tour*as 



Saȴa-rahs< 



Sah^ •WQo-rum 
(Su«var«>ruBi) 



Tshei«nik«»kee 



Cha-ma»ko-»neo 

Cban-na^ko^neo Tsoha-iia«»co« 
Cha«ma-ko-nees nihs 



S«»n<)^t\iM 



Chah«HS*knee- 
nutch 



Qibb>. 1852 



Pa->no»»nik 
(naaa of ohi^f ) 



Kah«tee»pe«»rah 
(AsoorsT ) 

T^0lMhHlit9 

T^tof^ka-ra 



Oppa^yoh (Joum) 
A8ba-iialm«»lc« (Map) 



Tish-rttna 
m 
Elwqua-neck 

(Joam) 
Con-harlk (map) 



Eh-nek (joum) 
Kik-lara 

Sch»-«oh 
Isshe-pi8he«»rah 



Kalwo8« 



Tutoo-ye-roop 
Haklwkutsor « 
(Kroeber) 



McKaa. 1853 



Mayar. 1855 Taylor. 1856 Marriaa. 1910 



Cookoaana 
Coo«»oa»aan 
Coc*eo»man 
Coo^ko^nant 
(Chiaf • 
Pa*naa«o«naa) 



Op«»pa«o(8) 
Chiaf « Ta- 
Ta-fip«pa 



Re«co»nacka 
Ka»ko-naok 
Chiaf » 
Hou^»a»puok« 

if-ifia 



In^nack 



Cok»ka«nana 



Si»vah8t Savah 

Chiaf « 
E8«aa-pish»ra 



Yurok naaa 



Pah»nahn«Daak 
& Tu»8ah 



4^ 



trrati 



Kah»ta«pa«duo 



Chaa-nitcb» Cha«nitch 



Tuok«ia»8oof 
ourra 



flktrt^-'^ 



f%,mmmmi-^'me 



Aha«8ah«nahB< 
kar^ruk 



iV«>i 



<*f^ 



,.w 



ai-^if^ir- 


Wooh-wharwruk 
on Salmon 
Rirar 


A-ni-ka. 

ar«rum 


Ah«na«.ka-ab* 

rahn 


I8h«^*pi8h-e 


I I8h»8ha«pi8h 


Sun*num 
Sum-naun 
Couth 
Soo«pa8«ip 


viowica 


• 

* 


*^ qj^ «iaoo»--w 

Tu : •too-a-ra-pah 

08-8a*puk 


E*no«tuck8 


In»noo»tuk« 
kutch 



■ • •••HMaMar««iM|MHBK'« 



Olbbs, 1852 



HoK««, 1853 



Meyer, 1855 Taylor, 1856 Merrlaa, 1910 



(A-kMah-ta) 
0^*ruB«ka-rik 



If-tarran 



X*yl88 



l8h*a*ra}m« 
ha-ruk ,ru« 

Ean«paat 



.« 



Ip»poon««iar^rAh 

I»7e«ch«dlai or 

(at I«7088 
Bar) 



NM«IMaMMWi»»> . 




*j^ IPftirytif 



aad 



l({OOC. 



%0c^ rmam9 tt^ t^u grt 



.'tV'i^li.^l.Jku*, 



Soof^curra Thoof-kah^ros 

P^«8aa-i«o Pa«-aa*roor«ra 

ch 
Hooa-nlp-pah *Ho(«-ne*pah 



n in 



io?>«rk€r-^. . r^Wf^^r^ar ^tt^^^ Oo«rl-a 



talilckIL 






«— nin< "ItaM 



./.. 



Uh) t 



-AHiS^bdi 4<^ 



^'rtflia^ 



tlMgr m 



^ 



^^^^•ji<»#.'xt«»ft 



!?• }Mfif#-0 



i.i 



ijtmr Irs a t 



t! 



•h« C 



*l^ 



JA.*:^ 



4M^ 



i^ffi^ 



ji^ Oo«roo-hus 



Ea»mhedlp 



l8h«va«dip«ta 

Ah^^-rah- 
hah-soo-ruk 

OoUka 

Tah-sah^^.kahk 



Hoiae«war«roop Hoo*iiah«ro 

Tin •hoo»»ne« 



^* 



^f, pah 



Sf^w E«naa 



In^noB or E« 
naha 



a?ii>#^ 



rmn 



Oibbs, 1852 



of ♦*** tei^ 



m m*<^ 



Th* 



MoKe«, 1853 






-Afjir . 



?iiil5«fC' 



.as t9^. 



•J' , f i. 



pMflM M* 



eiifi^t^c*^ 



Itey^r. 1855 Taylor, 1856 Merriaa, 1910 



"»•« 



^^.th% 



4m& 



re«pah (Mored 
from Ticinity 
of Salmon 
Rlvart probt 
after fire of 
1852) 

Ik*ku«re»nui«» 

80 



.r 



^ -^Im btav^'*^ ^ 



r^« 






*a 



A4||^ l^k^l 4 



^HrMMrWh 



Ifl^lft^ rl «?>(ll «.ft##* 



"r.i"**" 



Ktt8«am»ifa«rok 



A8«8if»800f» 
ti8h«8« « 

ram (at or 
naar Indian 
CrMk) 



A»th8«»thoof 



IthnoaoolQgy. Tha Karok hava two nanoa for tha griatly: pe-rish-kah- 
ra from pa-rlah buah and kah-rlm "no good/ moaning "bad in tha bruah;' 



and nan«atttoh*kahm moaning oldar siatar. 



•>»» 



s 



«).( 



yU]>»800«ka< 



V f ^ ••. » • . _ « 



ch 



Th« Karok lutTtt two naats for tho eogroto; the propor naae pe - 



ch 



•nha-ish-koon-to ae&nlnf 



watohlng 



••^ 



•;« «^. 



fr^L^iom. ^^ ,, .. j^r^ffj^ •^ hk^ 



• . -I 



iihu 



Tha big volf la oallad Zk-kov«a«nahm.itoh (or lk» 




moaning *hoirlar«* 



\0 ^. 



■«;>- 



elk* i» 9i- 



Tho Karok bolioro in tho oxistonoo of a vator panthor which 
thoy call ah»»kaha yoop«ioo»ko«rah. They say it ia a largo apottod 
aniaal living in ponds or lakos. Ono Utos in a pond on a noantain 



pond on Trinity Summit 



arotuid 



rtT« f^ *» S.*^ 



[ndiani 



of th« top of thoir hMds* 



) ij 



;<«iu< 



Th« Bink is oallod hon«thoon-«b»-wan Manlng "orvjfishoater.* 
Tho flTing tquirr*! has two naats, shtoh-haht-lcslit and poo- 
/ah»hah«rah a daad parson or oorpsa and tha naaa of an Insaot said to 



fraqtasnt di 
•btaining* 



^^ %.» aaX'lad » » * « > *» to->-v»a^ 



ttm-.!^ ■. «*■• i 



■an. 



tW a/Oft: 



oallnd j» 



eanine "down low 



- ol^Jl '•SJ/* 



Anlodontla is nah«pa«>naetoh aaaning "up high 



oallad 



oh 



Tha old»tijM Indian dog whioh was aa big aa a ooyota and had 
stiff up-ri^t aara was eallad ohish-sha. When tha whita nsn brought 
horsas into tha ooontrx tha Karok oallad tham also ohish-sha or /r* 
rus-ohiah^sa froB yu-rus, tha ooaan, meaning "ocean doga" aa they oana 
froB orer tha ooaan« The Karek at Happy Ca»p osll horses op>8e-pun* 
rah-wahn^ Meaning "grass^-aatara* froa ok-aeep, grasa, pm* 



The Karok say that the raven, hot-ta-nah-sahk, and the orow, 
ahn-nahtoh, were the firat hirda to appear after the water went down 



Canada 




A-IM 



thah«hahtoh( ia aaid to aake i 
is oallad a8-koo«re-taa«wahn 



Meaning "daer-f^t-eater* froM aha-akoo^nit, fat« 



The kingfiahar is sailed aha-akoop-ahM-wahn Meaning "trout* 



eater." 



The flicker ( Colaptes) is oallad thoo*wook or thook. When ha 



oalla aoMO one will oomo today 



catehAt cold mrery winter* 

Th« haixy woodpMsktr (Dryobateo yloaut) is oallsd ohm-noo-pah, 
and is said to bs ttes aothsr of ths grsst pilostod voodpeeksr* 



Tbs tvd-brsftstod sapsuoksr (S 




8 rubor) is esllsd koo-aah« 



sadd to bo ths littlo brothor of tho groat pilostod wood* 



poekor. 



Tho bsm smUow is osUsd hshn-thoon«noo*v«h-snn aaaninc 



"orojfiSh*s bod ftriond." 

Tho dfofonfly is oallod afe-ti-nm sish-ksh*rsh assning long* 

tsilod star (fktai sli-ti-rsfaa, star). 



s Tbs Ash trso ussd as plaoo to put ifssthor asdioino 




on. At Sandj Bar Just sbovo OrUnss Mdiolno to asko rain was pat on 
an ash tivo Iff \hm old dootor, Sandy Bar Bob, during my stay just after 
ths KLddOo of SoptsidMr 192I* 

Mistlotoo 

Oinfsr root, Asaroa 

Kilkwsod. <hm aado froa juioo ussd for ohoiring gua. 

Wild tobaeoo. £,. taJsolovi 
tio aint. Mooardolla 



Saall laoo foxn. Modioino nsod in ehildbirth* 

Blao stinkMOsd, Triohostow>a « 

Bvorlsstlnga QnaphaTlua . 

Tsaeoovoria Tins. Was-sah«-kahn*niteh. Toa drunk during prog- 
nanqj to aaks batgr saall, so it will bs bom aoro oasily. 

vaid 001017. Root osod for aodioino. Also burnt in rooa and 
SBoko inhalod as disinfootant. 



fll 



Cottonwod, Potwlna tfHAocTpa. Alw»«h-|»-«-l». 1**^ ^^'^ 



in spring uMd at gb^* ^ ttiok f •ath^rs on 

ltoMor» < Th« tmit df ■•Mur* i« •■H^l ia-Mli-iOi-kik, and it tha Ti 

distanaa batwaan tha thwAhaW af tba aztandad aiwa (not of ona am). 



■'•* 



aboat dottbU tha laagth of tha anit maad bgr «any 



tribaa* 



)i.«M^ 



.-f^:%at' 



--tcM 



Pftlaan Arroiia a Tha paiaon arrow aallad pa-ka-rar-kar^roa-pa waa 



praparad in a aarioua mj. Tha arroa aaa addraaaad in a aarwonioat 
mumar aftar ahich tha point aaa apit apea. Thara aaa anothar kind 
aallad ip-pash^m-hap-po ahiah mm aat ahot into a paraon at aU; 
hut afUr a oarUin aara««v aaa pat in a -had plaaa- iihara it i»aa 
latft o^r ni^t. This appaaiad to andow it with aagia poaar to 



in^ara tha paraon in vi«»* 

» A p^r— or mmll raaaptabla far DalaaUa aaa nvla 




«nUad ah •roo-ha 



ahoa*rah 



i- 



.roo-ha* In addit iai i 



aaaavad ■• that tha raal and prepar 



Oth«> Straataraat Tha houaaa 



nasM tha Orlaans Karok 
«aa ah -pah-hah »r9^* 




A— ^ 



laboriaaaly aplit and hawn frea 



iMrj Kouaa 



aallad o-ka-va^rtfaa, naaally alnrrad 



ta kra-ra-Wkha, Tha aaaat-hooaa aaa aainly undarground, UtUa mora 
than tha roof appaaring abaira tha groand. It ia raatanguUr in ahap 
with a low ridgapola, and is buUt of aUba aofarad with aarth on 
too and ia big anoagh to hold ai^t or tan paopla. It ia aallad 



•Aa^tftSP 



«ttll4ii4 iklm 



i».ohah®^-rah» by tin H&ppjr Ottrnp peopl* and lk-k«.aRhtob-x«hB Igr tin 
OrlMas Bar paopit* Tta« Mnsinud hut it r«etaiicalar, aboat aiz \^ 
•ight f««t in slM, and bsilt •ntirtly of aXabe plM«d TBrtioally. 
la oallad yah«iihoo-rak-ia-kaY-ralm« k oanpinc cronnd la oallad 
ra»ha*rahn. Tha aoarn eaap la oallad pah-koo-ha-ralau Bnah blinds 
for honting ara ••kroon-ta-ha-rahn. Tha aoaffoU for dryinc naat 
ka*T>uvraha« Tha aaom laaeh la tah»ka-ro*rftha« vfaila the aet of 



inf la tharh.ni»-pook« ^ ^^vera' 



« 



M£) 



aniiraraally, 



ar»rar-up-hahn 



aimilar to tha wonan'a but daapar (that la, with hifhar eroMn). Th»ra 
vara two kinda of hata, tha oommr oTary day kind oallad 
hahn, rathar eoaraalj woran of rooU, linad by a fto atraoda of li<ht 
■atarial, and tha beat or draaa-up kind oallad pan-yu-rah-op-hahn 
naarly aovarad with daaign and an orarlay of baargrass or IaroBlnrll«i. 
Tha tobaoeo baakat o»aip»nook is subglobular in fom and oboka ■raithad, 
and whan in uaa haa tha opaning oloaad by taookakin hold in pUea by a 
laoa-work of thong orar tha top* 

Tha oonaon baakat natariala vara tha roota of Pondaroaa Pina 
jand willow with an overlay of laronhyllmu Hasal aprouU wara largaly 
uaad in tha eaaraar baakata* .,^^ 

Tha Spirit or Ohoat x Tha Karok baliava that a apirit oallad iki-kra. 
na-ah'-ahn-tahp (fro« ik^um-aa-ah wind and j^b»-tahp ghoot or apLrit) 
laataa tha body &ftar death bat ataya around for five daya before . 
taking ita final dep%4^iir»* Jt i? aontiiiaa oallad alee poo-yah-harwrahi 



■MAinc "person** shadow." The psopL 
llks to talk about it. Tho dsodIs soi 



dsTil airaj, 



•mt-tuk-grosth* 



M^m aiK 



■a • 



Ct3l» 



Dsad: Th« dead art not burned. They are burled 



or two after death* Bre«7 ni|^t for fire nights, fish, acorns and 

jed 



other foods are burnt near the grare to t—d the dead* 



« f 



Karok 



.^ A 



fcWK*' 



who searifies and sueks and also dances and sings; another called 
ar-rarwrah hoos-oo-aahn who takes cars of people's senses t a third 



■sdieine 



warions heziss* 



■1 



CoMpass t The Karok do not hate definite 



of eoapass, but use the tens "up river* and "down riTcr.* For east 
the/ saj the dirsetion where the sun coaes up, and for west the diree- 
tioa wh«re the 8«n goes down. The naae of sky is ohe«iiooch«>is-wi-koo« 



Usard* 



breasted lisard ( Soeloporus) . 




t)%« • 



*^'l 



large 



eaten bgp the people* The bulbs of the large kind are put into an 
earthen oven and deeply corered with aaple leaves and earth and allowed 
to cook orer night* Then thegr are good to eat* 

Milkweed Chewing Chai t Many tribes in California use the juice of the 
nilkweed (Ascleoias) for chewing gw. They drop the thick ailky Juice 



10 



in a basket of boiling water where it soon floats on the top as a 

rubber-like substaaoe which can be chewed* The Karok of Ilanath 

oh 
River c&H the nilkweed gim in-shah -wo* 



Karok 



ch 



8ik-ke -nook of elk-horn and one called ah-hop-sik-ke of nanxanita 
root* The root ie eanred when freshly out, at which time it is 
relatively soft and easily out* The third kind of spoon is shaped 
■ri-p fron shells of olaas and sea nussels whioh they g^t in trade frosi their 
nei^bors the Po-lik-la whose range extends to the ocean* 



pr 



.^■m. ^ 



exchange 



Dentaliun shells « called ar«rah-rash-pook » meaning ** people ^s nonej,* 
or slnly ish«po(ric« The 4«at^um money vas corpcyiljr carried in 
strings of five or strings of ten. The strings of ten were valued 
at $30 of our money. . . 

The splendid red oronns of the pileated woodpecker ( Seophleus 
piles tus) also were used as money « valued at $1 each. 



The following document is a duplicate of the 
preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 






KA^OK 



Cjf.-)'^:! 



territory and ^i 



The Karok state that their territory 



extends along Klamath River from Sciad Creek townstream, southwesterly, 
to Bluff Creek. On the northeast their country adjoins that of 
the Shaste; on the southwest, that of the Poliklah. 

There are two divisions of the tribe* an Upper Division 
calling themselves Kah-rah-ko-hah or Kah-rah-ko (called Kah-hah-ar- 
rah by the Lower Division), extending from Sciad Creek downstream 
as far as Elk Creek— some say to Clear Creek; and a Lower Division 
calling themselves Ah-rahr, occupying the river canyon from the 
Upper Division downstream as far as the mouth of Bluff Creek, 

The uppermost village of the Upper Division appears to have 
been ¥ah-hah-e-wah, on the south side of Klamath River at the 
mouth of Walker Creek (Brickleys); the next was Kwe-ahts-wah at 
mouth of Grider Creek also on south side Klamath, while the upper- 
9PBt on the north side was Ah-show-roo at the mouth of Portuguese 



Creek. 



The lowermost village of the Lower Division was As-pev-ne- 
te-hatch on the north side of Klamath River just above the mouth 

of Bluff Creek. 

Bluff Creek appears to have >-een neutral fishing ground, 
as both tribes say they camped there amicably for the winter 

salmon fishing. 

Below Bluff Creek, the next Indian village belonged to the 
Paoliklah or Lower Klamath tribe and was caled Ot-sep-por. 






RATICHERUS elF THB'Mlt)DL2 K^AmM 



CcmDarison of llatg piven by: 

Gifcbs MS map (1852), and Journal in Schoolcraft III, ?• I5I, 1B55; 

Redick McKee (Ind. Agt, ) Sen. Doc. 4, Special Sess., I6I, I9A, 211, 1855? 

Carl Meyer, Nach dem Sacramento, 282, 1855? 

A.S. Taylor (after a letter from G.W, Taggart to Walter Van Dyke, 
Orleans Bar, I856) in Calif. Fanner, March 25, i860; 

C. Hart Merriam, MS Vocab. obtained on Upper Klamath, Oct. 1 & 2, 1910. 



YUROK 



Gibbs, 1852,1855 McKee, 1855 



Meyer, 1855 



Otche-poh 



Ut- chap-pah 

Ut-cha-pah 

Ut-cha-pas 



Ut-s cha-pahs 



Sehe-perrh (Possibly a Karok village) 



Taylor, I856 Merriam, 1910 



Ot-sep-por 
Muh-rook-throov 
(Karok name) 

Se-per-rah 



KAROK 



Gibbs, I852 



♦Oppegoeh (map) 
Oppegach 



Shah-woo-rum 



McKee, 1855 



♦Up-pah-goines 
Up-pa-goine 

Sa-vow-ra 
Sa-ron-ka 
Sa-ron-ra 
Sa-vour-as 



Meyer, 1855 



Sa-wa-rahs-' 



Taylor, I856 Merriam, 1910 



♦Up-pa-goines Woo-pum 



Woo-pum 
*Up-pa-goin 



Sal^Sj^woo-rtm 
(Su- war- rum) 



Tshei-nik-kee 



Cha-ma-ko-na c 

Cham-ma-ko-nec 

Channa-ko-nees 



Tscha-wa-cO' 
nihs 



Chah-me-knee-nutch 



Pa-nom-nilf 
(name of chief) 



Kah-tee-pee-rah 
(Azocrs?) 



Cock-o-mans 
Coc-co-man 
Coc-co-man 
Goc-ko-nan, 
(Chief « 
Pa-nam-o-nee ) 



Cok-ka-mans 



Pah-nahm-neek 
<fc Yu-sah 



Kah-te-pe-duc 



T'cheh-nits 



Chee-nitchi 



Che-nitch 



-2- 



Gibbs, I852 



McKea, 1855 



Meyer, 1855 



T*8of-ka-ra 



♦Oppe-yoh( Joum ) 
Aflha-nahm-lce(Map ) 
(Ta-phip-pa^s) 

Tl sh-rawa 

♦Eh-qua-neck 
(Journ) 
Oon-harik(map ) 
(Hopa's) 

♦Eh-nek (Joum) 
Mik-iara 

♦Sche-woh 
lasha-plshe-rah 



Kah-ose 



Yutoo-ye-roop 
Hakh-kutsor 



♦Op-pe-o(s) 
Chief - Ya- 
Ya-fip-pa 



♦He-co-necks 
Ke-ko-ne ck 
Chief m^t^r^ 
^ Hou-a-puck-if-ma 

♦In-neck 



♦Si-wahs f Sewah 
Chief « 
Es-se-pish-ra 



Yimok name (Kroeber) 



Taylor, I856 Merriam, I9IO 



Tuck-a-soof- 
curra 



Ahs -8 ah-n ahm-ka r- ruk 



Wooh-whar-ruk 
on Salmon River 

A-mi-ke-ar-rtim^ Ah-«a-ke-ah-rahm 



Ish-e-pish-e Ish-she-piah 



Sun-nxam 
Sum-maun 
Couth 
Soo-paa-lp 



E-no-tucks 



.^•'^r:i^^' 



Yu^"-too-e-re-pah 
Os-se-puk 

In-noo-tuk-kutch 



If-terram 



Kwat-te^^ 
(A-kwah-te) 

Ook-rum-ke-rik 

Ish-e-rahm-he-rtik 



I-yis8 



Soof-curra 



Een-peet 

Ip-poon-war-rah 

I-yeech-dim or 
I-ye-e-thrim 
(at I-yess Bar) 



Thoof-kah-rom 



Te 



Paa-see-roo 



Pus-ae-roor-ra 




-5- 



eibbs, 1852 



MeKee, 18^3 



Meyer, 1855 



Taylor, I856 MerriaiB, I910 



Home-nip-pah 'Hoom-ne-pah^^ 



Oo-ri-e 



Oo— roo— liQB 



S-8vhedip 



ish'-ve-dip-te 

Ah -rah-hab-soo— ruk 



Oot-ke 
Tah-sah^-lcahk 



■> '^ 



Rome->ifar-roop TTnri iwli iij 



8-nam 



TlB^-hooBi-ne-*pah 
Ih-iioa or E-nafaB 



Tu^-too-e-re-pah 
(MoTed froa Tieinity 
of Salmn RiTery 
prob. after fire of 

1052) 



Ik-ku-re-rufl-80 



'^« . 



Eos 



* As-sif-soof-tish-e-'^^ 
m ram (at or near A-the-thoof 
Indian Creek) 



Rthnozoology^ The Karok have two names for the grizzly t 
pe-rlsh-lcah-re from pe-rlsh bush and kah-rlm •no good*, meaning 
•bad in the bruah*; and nan-nut on-kahm meaning older sister* 

The mountain lion Is called yr^p^-soo-ke-ra, meaning green-eyed* 

The Karok have two names for the coyotey the proper name 
pe^*^nef-fltch (o^ pe®*^-na-fltch), and tlsh-rahm-lsh-koon-te 
meaning •▼alley watching* • 

The big wolf is called Ik-kow-o-nahm-ltch (or ik-kahv-niim-itoh) 
meaning •howler. • 

The Karok belioTe in the existence of a water panther which 
they call ahs-kahm yoop-soo-ke-rah» They say it is a large spotted 
aniaal 1 lying in ponds or lakes • One lives in a pond on a mountain 



north of Orleans; another 1 



yLl pond 



on Trinity Stammit* Lots of deer 



bones lie on the slopes around ponds where the water panther lives* 
B» appears only at nl^t and kills Indians by sucking their brains 

out of the top of their heads* 

It 

The mik is called hon-thoon-ahm-wan meaning •crayfisheater** 
A 

The flying squirrel has two names ^ ahtch-naht-kaht and poo-yah- 
hah-rah a dead person or corpse and the name of an Insect said to 



frequent dead bodies* 




The reason for the name I did not succeed in obtaining* 

The name of the beaver is Sah-pe-neetch meaning "down low old 



man** 



The name of the Aplodontla is mah-pe-neetch meaning "up 
high old man^* It is also called tln-kan-nah^"-noo-pltch* 

The old-time Indian dog which was as big as a coyote and had 
stiff up-right ears was called chish-she* When the white man 



brought horses into the country tho larok called them also chish- 
she or yr-rus-chish-se from yu-rus, the ocean, meaning •ocean dogs" 
as they came from over the ocean. Ihe Karo|p at Happy Oamp call 
horses op-se-pum-rah-wahn, meaning •graas-oaters'froB ok-seep, grss. 

The Karok say that the raven , hot-ta-nah-sahk, and the crow, 
ahn-nahtch, were the first birds to appear after the water went down 

^he crested blue jay, kah-cl»h-hahtch, is said to make rain. 
The Oregon Oftnada Jay ( Perisoreua ) is called as-koo-re-tam-wahn 
meaning "deer-fat-eater" from ahs-skoo-nit, fat. ^^^^ ^ 

The kingfisher is called ahs-skoop-ahm-wahn meaning •trout- 



eater*. 



Polaptee 



When 



he calls some one will come today or to«>rrow. He has no more 
fire and /catches cold every winter. 

liry woodpecker ( Pryobates velosua ) is called chem-no 



pair, and is said to be the mother of the great pileated woodpecker. 



The red-breasted sapsucker (§ 



dcua ruber) is called 



koo-nah-nitch, and is said to be the little brother of the great 

pileated woodpecker. 

The bam swallow is called hahn-thoon-«)0-vah-sun meaning 

"crayfish's bad friend*. 

The dragonfly is called ah-ti-rum sish-kah-rah meaning 

long-tailed star (from ah-ti-rahm, star). 

Madicinal Plants > The ash tree used as place to put weather 

medicine on. At Sandy Bar just above Orleans medicine to make 

rain was put on an ash tree by the old doctor. Sandy Bar Bob, during 

my stay just after the middle of September 1921. 




Mistletoe 

Ginger root, Asarum 

Milkweed, Gum made from juice used for chewing gum. 

Wild tobacco. N, bigelovi 

Aromatic mint, Monardella 

Small lace fern. Medicine used in childbirth. 

Blue stinkweed. Trie ho stoma 

Everlasting, Gnaphailum 



Vancouveria vine. Nas-sah-kahn-nitcn. Tea drunk during 
pregnancy to make baby small, so it will be bom more easily. 

Wild celery. Root used for mddielne. Also burnt in roo« 
and smoke inhaled as disinfectant^ ^ », j 

Cottonwood, Populus triehecferpa . Ah-sah-pe-e-pa. Leaf tads 

in spring used as glue to stick feathers on arrows. 



Measure* ^^ ^^^ °^ measure is called is-sah-ah-kik, and is the 
distance between the thunbhold of the extended ams (not of 
one arm)|l. It is therefore about double the length of the 

unit used by many tribes. 
Wt»on Arrows t The poison arrow called pe-ke-rev-ker-roo-po was 
prepared in a curious way. The arrow was addressed in a 
ceremonious manner after which the point was spit upon. 
There was another kind called ip-pesh-re-hap-po which was not 
shot into a person at all, but after a certain cereaony was 
put in a "bad place" where it was left over night, ^hi, 
appeared to endow it with magic power to injure the person 

i 

in view^ 



— rrrr 



il 



Purse* A purse or small racaptacla for valuable was »ada of the 
basa of an alk-hom. It was callad ahch-roo-ha or j6t-.hoo- 
rah ahch.roo-ha. 1„ addition to thasa two „a«aa tha Orlaan. 



Karok assurad ma that tha raal and propar 
hah«h-ro-a. 



Has ah®^-pah- 



H pusa, and Othar Stn..f„ra. , ,ha housas i„ aarly day. wara always 
built of slabs laboriously split and hawn fro. big traas, sat 
up andwisa. Tha ordinary housa was callad a-kra-ya-rahm, . 
usually slurrad to kra-va-rah«. Tha swa.t-housa was .ainly 
underground, littla mora than tha roof appearing aboa tha 
ground. It is rectangular in shape with a low ridgepole, 
and is built of slabs covered with earth on top and is big 
enough to hold eight or ten people. It is call«i'|l..chahch. 
rahm by the Happy Oamp people and ik-ka-su^htch-ratt^ by tha 
Orleans Bar people. !he men.t^al hut is rectangular, about 
Bix by eight feet in size, and built entirely of slabs 
placed vertically. It is called yah-whoo-rak-a-kev-rah.. 
A camping ground is called y6c-kwa-sha-ra-ha-rahm. The 
acorn camp is calld pah-koo-he-rahm. Brush blinds fbr hunting 
are ^kroon-te-he-rahm. The scaffold for drying meat e-k»-ke- 
var-rahm. The acorn leach is tah-ke-ra-rahm, while the act 
of leaching is ther-rum-pook. 
Hats* The men as well as the women, thou^ la.a universally, wore 



>hahn, 



bowl similar to the woman's but deeper (that is. with higher 
crown). There were two kinds of hats, the conaon every day 



-5- 



kind called san-no-mop-hahn, rather coarsely woven of roots, lined 
by a few strands of light material, and the best or dress-up kind 

called pan-yu-rah-op-hahn nearly covered with design and an overlay 

r 

of beargrass of Xerophyllum^ Jhe tobacco basket o-sip-nook is sub- 
globular in form and choke-moutheA, and when in use has the opening 
closed by buckskin held in place by a lace-work of thong over the 



top, 



11]^ 



and willow with an overlay of lerophyllum ^ Hazel sprouts were largely 

% 

used in the coarser baskets • 

The Spirit or Ghoat t The Karok believe that a spirit called 



ic-kra-n»-ah-ahm-tahp (from ik-kra-me-ah wind and ahm-tahp ghost 




or spirit) leares the body after death but stays around for fiire 

days before taking its final departure. It is sometimes called 

also poo-yah-har-rah, laeaning "persons »s shadow. • The people say 

this is sad and they Aislike to talk about ,it. ^e people sometimes 

cut their arms for better luck and to keep the devil away. They 

call this arm-cuttlnfe sut-tuk-yeeth. 

Treatment of Dead : The dead are not burned. They are buried a day 

or two after death. Erery night for five nights, fish, acorns and 

other foods are burnt near the grave to feed the dead. 

Doctors X ^he Karok have several kinds of doctors; one called ^'m 



who searifies and sucks and also dances and sings; another 
called ar-rar-rah hoos-oo-mahn who takes cai»e of people's 
senses; a third kind called an-na-keah-wahn or medicine 
doctor makes medicine of various herbs. 



-^ 



Points of Compass > The Karok do not have definite terms for points 
of compass, but use the terms •up river" and "down river"t 
For east they say the direction where the sun comes up, 
and for west the direction where the sun goes down* ^he 
name of sky is che-mooch-is-wi-koo-nish, meaning "blue like 
the lizard's breast* from chee-mooch the blue breasted 
lizard ( Sceloporus )» 

Soaproot a Both large and small kinds of soaproot are roasted and 
eaten by the people. The bulbs of the large kind are put 
into an earthen oven and deeply covered with maple leaves 
and earth and allowed to cook over night* Then they are 
good to eat* 

Milkweed Chewing Gum : Many tribes in California use the juice of 
the milkweed ( Asc],epias ) for chewing gum* They drop the 
thick milky juice/ in a basket of boiling water where it soon 
floats on the top as a rubber-like substance which can be 



chewed* 




The Karok of Klamath River call the milkweed gum im-shah^"-wo* 
Spoons X The Karok make and use three kinds of spoons t one called 
sik-ke -nook of elk-horn and one called ah-hop-sik-ke of 
manzanita root* The root is carved when freshly cut, at 
which time it is relatively stft and easily cut. The third 
kind of spoon is shaped from shells of clams and sea mussils 
which they get in trade from their neighbors the Po-lik-la 
whose range extends to the ocean* 
Karok Money t The common money or medium of exchange consisted of 
Dental ium shells, calld ar-rah-rash-pook, rneaning "people's 
money", or siraply ish-pook. The dentalium money was commonly 



-7- 



carried in strings of five or strings of ten. The strings of 
ten were valued at $50 of our money. 

The splendid red cro^^ of the pileated woodpecker ( Bbophleus 
plleatus ) also were used as money, valued at $1 each. 



/ / ■' 

/ 



/ 



/ 



/ 



9 



Karole Territory and Boundaries^ The Xarok state that tliolr territory 

extends alone Klarrjath Hiver from Sclad Creek itewnotreaa, southveeterly, 
to nitiff Creeks On the northeaet tlieir country adfoine that of 
the ShGatej on the ootithvestt that of the P6liklah« 

Tliere are tw divisiona of the tribet nn Upper Division 
callinf the^selveo Kah-rah-ko-lmh or Kah-rah-lco (called ICah-^}mh-ar» 



rah by the Lov/er 



from 



as far as 1!lk Creek— eoiae say to Clear Creeki and a Lower Division 
calling theraselves Ah-rahr, occupying; the river crnyon from the 
tapper 01 virion lormstr^am po fbr as the niouth of Bluff Oteek^ 



The uppermost villago of the Upper ! 



appears to have 



been 



mouth of V/al!:er Creek (Brickleys)t the next was Kwo--ahts-wah at 
mout^) of Grider Creek also on south side Klamath^ iihile the upper- 
«p0t on tlie north side vas Ah-^hov»roo a'^ the T»uth of Portupuose 



Creek« 



The lowemtost v 



of the Louer 01 via ion vas As^pevHfie*- 



te-4iatch on tho north side of Klaniath Tlver Just above the mouth 
of Bluff Creeks 

Bluff Oto^\z apponra to '-»r\ve ' ocn neutral nsliln^^ £TOundt 
ae both tribes say thr>y cnwr^od tliere nmloably for the vlnter 
salmon flshlnp;* \ 

Below Blnff Creek, the next. Indian villape belonred to the 
Pftoliklah or Lower Klaniath tribe and was caled Ot-^op-^r« 



V 




\ 



/" 



I 



KALD^ 




T2HR1T0;:Y /NO B0UHD„RI?;3 



'& 



} 



'he Krrok 



thpt. their tTritory extends along Klamrith 



Rivor from Scied Creek downstrec-^m. southwesterly, to Bluff Creok. 



On the northeaFt their country adjoins thrt of the \ 
southwest, th?>t of the P^U^laft. 




; on the 



There ere 2 divisions of the tribe: en Upper Division 
celling themrelves if^J^-j-^l^-krlh^ or Kpj j 'prhjk^ (celled 
Kphihah-arira^ hv the Lo^7er Division), extending from Sciad Creek 



do'jvns 



tresm as f : r as Slk Creek— some sty to Clerr Creek; end a 



occupying the river 



Lower Division calling themrelve's iihi 



canyon from the Upper Division do-nstrean <'s f r es the mouth of 



Bluff Creok. 



The uDoermost villcge of the Upper Division r.pperrs to have 
been \\ f^^^y^•^^\!-^-^^.T^\\ on the south side of Kl? mr.th River nt the 



mouth of w-lker Crcek (Brickleys); the next wrs KW)-pJ ) t?l->7e{ l st 
mouth of Grider Creek also on scuth side KLimath. \)Jiile the up- 



permost on the north side was iiig 
Portuguese Creek. 




at the mouth of 



f/ 




The lov."^rino!?t vilL-^gr of the Ijor^e.r Division wjs 
yLq-pftv^ne- tfi-.jiH tch on the north side of Klrmtth Pivcr ju?t ahoTG 

the mt uth of Bluff Creek. 

Bluff Creek eppesr? to have been neutral fi?hinp: pround, 
as both tribes say they camped there amicably for the winter 

salmon fishing. 

Below Bluff Creek, the next Indian village belonged to the 




or Lower Klem; th tribe and Mts called 







EfKvM>2,r>T£34 » 




The Karok hare two nanos for the foizslj: 







from fi^xAj f ^ bush and^JU^i^^ *i^o good" , 



leaniog "bad in the brash**; and 



older sister. 




meaning 




The Mountain ifion is called 




aning green-eyed* 





e Karok haye two names for the JSfoyote: the proper 
name B^e^ -nef-f it oh (orye^^-na-fitch), and 
k yqpgj^e me aning *'Talle7 watching**. 

The ]6g lolf is ft«1 1 a«^ Ik^j^^^j^^^m.^ tr.h (or Ikr 

) meaning **howler.** 






>The Karok believe in the existence of a later 




/anther which they call 



Thety say it is a large spotted animal living in ponds 
or lakes. Q^ tivu i^ c^jtc^ ^^ «. m/v^ /*./»- »vnA^ ^ 

4lfcA t»viH- ^ t^iUt_ KtdJU. <U#vv^ Iffx^J^ »*^*«^ ^ 




(3) 



1^ 




-The iink is called 




neaning "crayfish- 



eater" 




The ^ying^irrel has tm) naaes, ^jjhidl- 



n«>>t.v»ht and 



fly" from 





neaning "corpse 



a dead person or corpse and 



the name of an insect said to freqaent dead bodies 



The reason for the name I did not succeed in obtaining. 




-The name of the Bearer is 



"doim low old man". 




meaning 





s^The nane of the Ap"* odontia. is 



high old man". It is also called 



meaning "up 



^....^.-n^^-nocp itc . 



^ 




a 



-Tha old-time Indian dog which waa aa big aa 
Coyote and had atiff up-ri^t eara laa called^^^^Sftia^ 



fi)^ When the white man hroxight horaea into the country 



the Karok called them alao 




came 



he ocean, meaning "ocean doga* aa they 



from over the ocean. The Karok at Happy Ca^ call 




horaea 




, meaning "graaa-eatera" from 



cAt-aMo^ graaa 



The Karok say that the ifaven. 




and the /Crow, 

after the water went down. 




were tl» first birda to appear 




—The i(rested iflue /ay 




is said to make rain. The Oregon Canada Jay ( 




is called 




meaning "deer-fat-eater" 



from 




, fat. 



,— The Itingfisher is called 
meaning ** trout-eater". 






^ 




TheJ^icker (fifllfljiiAfl.) is oallei p^Q^ijQ^OT JJ^gjU^. 



Khen he calls some one will come today or tomorrow. 
He has no more fire and catches dold eyeiy winter. 




.—The Ifeiry Woodpecker 




is called 




» and is said to be the mother 



of the J^eatif ilea ted ^odpecker. 



M ik.*. 



The 



^.d/i 



roasted 



^apsucke 



( Sphyrapicnfl ruber ) is called jfa)Hnnh^ 
said to be the little brother 



, and is 



of the je^i 




reat pleated 



Woodpecker 




r- The liam jSwallow is called 



^nn meaning "crayfish's bad friend**. 








— The iJragonfly is called 
meaning long-tailed star ( 





star). 



PLAUTO U3ED BY 



(H^ 





/feh tree used as place to put weather medicine civ. 




fij^t 




>'^sh tre e)|^it Sandy Bar 



just above Orleansjby the old doctor, Sandy Bar Bob , durir^ 
1117 stay just after the middle of September 1921. 



gum, 



\ 



stletoe 
Ginger root, Asarum . 

Milkweed^ Grura made from juice used for chewing 

Wild tobacco. N. bigelovi. 

Aromatic mint, Mona rdella . 

Small lace fern. Medieine used in childbirth. 

Blue stinkweed, Tricho st oma. 

Everlasting. Gnaphalium . 

vanconvBria vinfrr*-7L'ea drunk during pregnancy to make 
baby small , s^ ^j^ x...^uui^ J^ Jj,^,,,^ ^.^^.^^^ ^^^^ 

Wild celery. Root used for medicine. Also burnt in 
room and smoke inhaled as disinfectant. 



chocarpa . Leaf buds in sprir^ 



used as glue to stick feathers on arrows. 




/ 



X 



if 




(ip 



y 




, and 



lfiifi]]£&— The unit of measure is called 

is the distance between the thunibhold of the extended 

« 

arms (not of one arm). It is therefore about double 
the leqgth of the unit used bj many tribes. 

Poigon Arrnwa— Thft poison arrow called 

was prepared in a curious way. The arrow was addressed 
in a ceremonious manner after which the point was spit 
upon. There was another kind called 





which was not shot into a person at all, but after a 
certain ceremony was put in a "bad place* where it was left 
oyer night. This appeared to endow it with magic power to 
injure the person in view. 

S]]£jSjb,— 1 purse or small receptacle for valuables was made of the 
base of an elk-horn. It was called 





or Wa»ghoQ- 
In addition to these two names the Or- 







Houses and Other StruGturag— Tha houses in early days were always 
built of slabs laboriously split and hewn from big trees, 
set up endwise. The ordinary house was called /fc- 
usually slurred to 
ly underground, li 





The sweat -house was main* 



ground. It is rectangular in shape with a low ridgepole. 



KiBMMTOTBS (Page 3) 




and is 




of slabs cohered with earth on top and is 



»ugh 



It is called 



l^lffa^ by the Orl 
rectangular, ab 




The menstmal hut is 



ly of slabs placed vertically. It is called Tahjm o, 




A canping ground is called 
rfl-hfl»riihm . The acom camp is called 
Brush huts are 






The brush roof 



canopies or harbors are called Fer«riph» 




^i«>yoQi>"ty-hft-rflhB<^ 




; meat >^ke-ke-Tar«rahB. The acom 

•rahm. while the act of laachinfir is 



fiaifr 



wore basket hats called 




The man's hat 



is a basket bowl similar to the woman's but deeper 
(that is, with higher crown). There were two kinds of 



hats, the common every day kind called 




rather coarsely woven of roots, lined by a few strands 
of light material, and the best or dress-up kind called 




/' 



nearly covered with design and an 

The tobacco basket 





is sub-globular in form and choke-mouthed. 




'w:i;vt 




and iibBn in use has the opening closed by buckskin held 
in place bj a lace-work of thong over the top. 

The common basket materials were the roots of 



Ponderosa Pine and willow with an orerlay of 




Hazel sprouts were largely used in the coarser baskets. 
The Spirit or Ghost— The Karok believe that a spirit called 



\<XOsJ2^ 




wind and 




ghost or spirit) leaves the body after death but stays 
around for five days before taking its final departure 



It is sometimes called also 




, meaning 



••persons's shadow." The people say this is sad and 
they dislike to talk about it. The people sometimes cut 
their arms for better ludc and to keep the devil away. 



They call this arm-cutting 




J, -..e deadare not burned. They are biiried a day or two 
after death. Everi^ ni -ht for 5 ni^^ts, fish, acorns and 
other foods are burnt near the grave to feed the dead. - 



\ 



- KADDK NOTBO 




® 



Do ctora— Thfl Karok have seyeral kinis of doctors; one called 
A*m ^0 scarifies and sucks and also dances and sings; 



another callftd ifr»raj!'- 







litio takes care of 




people's senses; a third kind called 



medicine doctor makes medicine of various herbs. 



Points of Compaaa— The Karok do not have definite terms for 
points of compass, hut use the terms "up river" and "down 
river". For east they say the direction where the sun 
com 8 up, and for west the direction where the sun goes 



down. The nane of sky is 




meaning 'Hslue like the lizard's breast" from 



the blue breasted lizard ( 





Kfchrok 



® 



Sof>proot,« » Both large and smell kinds of soaproot ore roasted 
end eaten by th<^ people. The IduFos of the Icrge Icind are 
put into an earthen oven and deeply covered with maple 
leaves nnd earth and allowed to cock over right. Then 



they are good to eat. 



<s> 



MILOTESD CHEWING GUM 



Maoj tribes in California nae the juice 
of the llilkweed ( Aaelepiag ) for chewing gam. 
Th^drop the Wiick milky juice in a basket 
of boiling water where it soon floats on thi 



top as a rubber-like substance which can be 



diewed. 



The Karok of Klaath BiTer call the 



ulkweed gun 





SPOONS 







ipoons; onei^rSk-hom/o^led 



and 000 called 



of manzanita 



root. The root is oarrod when freehlj cut. 
at idiich ti-e it is reletiyly soft and 
easily cut. The third kind of spoon is 
shaped fro. shells of ol«» «>d sea -ussels 
*ich they get in trade fro- Iheir neighhor. 
the ^J lj -T j whose range extends to the 



ocean. 




H0N8I 



& 



The coimon money or wditni of exchange 
Lsted ef 9entalinB shells, called ^4(^:^cg|lc 
rish-pook, meaning "people's money", er simply 
I^ahlpook. The lien tal inm money was commonly 
carried in strings of 5 or strings of 10, The 
strings of 10 were Talned at $30 of onr money. 
The splendid red crowns of the 
Pileated Woodpecker ( 
also were used as money, TaLned at $1 each. 






Btbno20olory> The Karolc haTo two nomas for the grizzly t 



pa-rlsh-teh«re from 



nftH- tn ttch^kaha 



yitp-»0oo-1ee«] 



£r66ij»cyod. 



The Karok have Itto naTse for the coyotef the proper nasMi 
pe«*Wief-flteh (of pe^ 
oeanini^ •▼alley watching*. 

Ihe blf volf la called Ik«-kDv--o-nahQH»ltch (or lk-Tcahv-nun>-ltch ) 
meaning •howler* • 

The Karok believe In the existence of a vater ranther which 
they call ahs-kahm yoop-soo-ko-rah* They say It is a large spotted 
enliaal living In ponds or lakes. One lives In a pond on a laoiintain 
north of Orleans | nnother ina pond on Trinity Saoiait. Xiots of deer 
bones lie on the slopes arcmd ponds vhere the vater panther lives. 
Be aT>pears onl' at nlrht and kills Indians by sucking their brains 
out of the top of their heads. 

The !alk is called hon-thoon«-ah!a*»wan meaning* •crayfls'^.eater*. 

The flylnr srulrrel has two nanies, ahtch-naht-kr ht and poo-yah» 
hah-rah a dead person or corpao and the name of an Insect said to 
frequent dead bodies. 

The reason for the nenie I did not succeed In obtaining. 

The nanie of the beaver Is Seli-pe-nectch kerning " lown low old 



man 



The ne^M of the Aplo^ontla Is ^mh-pe-fieetch raeanlnf •up 



high old 



l^^Hf»0-1 



The old-tinie Indian dog which vaa as Mr as a coyote and had 
stiff xip-rifht oars was cnlled chish-^he. Ifhen the white 



brou^^ht horses Into th^ country the Karok eolled them also chisb- 
she or yr-ms-chlsh-se from yt>*ru8- the ocean, aeanlnr •ocean don 



as thoy came frctn over the ocean« The Karol: at Hirppy Oarap call 
horses op-^e~pui>*rah-vehnt taeanlnf •grass-eaters* from ok-seep^ gT*00* 

The Karok ocy tliat the raven, hot-ta-nah-sahl:, and the crovt 
ahn-nahtchy were the first birds to appear after the tiater vent doim« 

^ho created blue jay, kah-*chah«hnhtcht is snld to ziiake rain« 
The Ore£^on Oanada Jay (Perlooreus) is called as-koo-re-ta''>-wahn 
aaninf: ''deer-fat-oatcr* fro?a ahs-sTroo-nitp <*fet« 

The kingfisher is called ahs— skoop-e!i>-vnhn rnoaninr •trotrt- 

eater** 

* 

The flic!»r (Oolaptes) is called thoo-v«3o!r or thoo!c« »lien 

> 

he calls some oiio idll cone toaay or toniorro\;. He Vids no mora 
fire and catclies cold every vinter% 

The hairy woodpecker (Oryobctos velos^^s) is c^lled cheTi-noo«* 
peiip anJ is said to be the -rotter of tlie prect plicated tfoodpec!«r» 

The red-troaated sapoucker (Sphyra picas rjler) is celled 
kooHmh-nitcht and is said to be the little brother of the jreat 
plicated woodpcc'^er* 

The bem svcllou Is celled ha!iY?-thoon-BK>o-vali-sun ^acc^ilng 
•crcy^^h^s bad friend*. 

The draronfly Ic orlloc! ah-ti-rxm sish-^mh-rah rtxeanlnf 
lonj^-tniled star (frca ch-ti-rahra, star)# 

Hcdicinol rlcmtsi Tlie ash tree used as placo to piat v;oaiher 
nedicine on. At Sandy l^r just above Crlearo T30;5icine to i»ke 
rein vbs put on an ash troe by the old doctor, Snndy Dar Bob, 'during 
ay etty Just after the middle of Septorater 19?^1# 



IQ^otletoe 

Cin£or root, Amcruri 



fsnoia 



Wild to' cicco. 7, Mrolovi 
iTonc tic ral*^tp ISonardella 



Shall lace fVin^ !!o<!lclrx) ttsod In childbirth. 

Clue otln^vjo^:!^ Trlchos*caG 

Everl e s ', In^^, Cnaphr 1 lun 

Tanco^werln Tina^ 1fe8-G0l)-»!!^hi>-4)iteh« Tea drmife during 



prefnaney to aako baby surll, so it nlll bo bom 



ati8lly« 



Wild celery. Tbot xiaoi for aadielna. Alno htimt In room 
and aaoke Inhelad a a disinfactont^ 

CtettoRWOod, Pbr^ultia tricliocr rpa^ Ah--Gah-pG-e-pa. hoc^ buds 

in aprinf ^aaej aa £lue to stick fecit>iers on (xttoxw. 



Mea si; ret 



J. 



nnit of -w^aure la called ld--aph-ah-ldLk, end is the 



dlstaiioo !otuaon t}^o Hsnibhold of the oxtoiided qtos (not of 
on© ara)/ It la tViOroforo about -foublo tJio Tongth o* tho 
unit used ly laany trlbo«. 



Mi ten Arrows t Tuc T>oison arrow ccllei p©-!:»-rev-?5 



VtXQ 



pro'^rod in a oariouc iiry. 7h^ arrot/ \;c.« iiddrosnad in a 
coro^jcnio?^3 :!iannor nftor irfiich tha point vns orit uaon. 



T!.ora maa anothar kind called Ip-posh-ra-hap-po thlch waa not 
shot Into Q T>3r^on at all, b.tt after c cortcin coronony vaa 
mtt l'^ a •br-d plaoo* ifcere It ima loft ovor nlrht. '^hla 
apperrod to mlov it wi*h 'Tr^^ic '^ovar to inf^^^^ tho T>eraon 
viev« 



\ 



^2£lt A pu«o or sncU recoptnele for valuable ims -node of th« 



baao of on olIc<-horn« 



ah^»-roo-ho or Wa-ahoo-> 



eana 



nh ah^J^-roo-ho. In addition to thooo two nanoa the Orl 

Karov rooured mo that the reel and nropor nenie vas ah^^^-pah. 
hah*H« 

Ho-meo end Othar 3tnmfMrf.i^. The houses in early days wore ahmy. 
built of slabs laboriously split and hewn from Mr trees, set 
ut» endwise, ^he ordinary house was colled e-kre-vc-rehm, 
usually slnrred to Vre-re-rahn. The sveat-houce was mainly 
underrrotma, little aore than the roof anpocrlr^ ahoe the 
STO'jnd. It is roctanrrilcr in chtpe vith a low rid£Gpole, 
and is built of slabs eoveved with oarth on top and is Ug 
onouch to hold eigjit or ten people. It is called In-chahoh- 
ralm ly tho Happy Oarap people and ik-ke-r.io!,tch-rr.ha bj- the 
Orlsrno 2ar -^eo-^le, ihe liionstrual hut is roctanrulor, about 



six by el£ht 



in sice, and built entirely of slobs 



placed vorflcally. It is cilled yah-whoo-rak-o-kev-m hn. 
A ermrjlnr- r-rotmd is cnlled Ik-'-wa-sho-re-Iio-rah-u, Tbe 
acorn ccnip is calld pah-koo-he-rahm. 3r.;.ah blinds fbr hunting 
are a-kroon-to-ho-rehm. Tho scaffold fbr dryinr nioat e-ke-ka- 
var-rahcu l^e acorn leach i, ^4,h-ke-re-raria, while the act 
of locchlnf la thor-rjin-pook, 
SSIV "Tho mn as well as tho wo-ien, th«ifh loss universally, wore 
bas'cot !iata died ar-rar-up«I«l«. Iho aan«s luit is a basket 
borrl 5lailar to tho i. on«n • s'^but deeper (that is, with hirher 
crovm). There were two ?cind8 of hats, tho eo-xjon every ^ay 



kind crllcd 9an-f!0-nor>-hfthn|f rather co©r«<^ly vwverj of rootSy lined 
by CL fer; stmnds of lirht raeteriolf ©nd the teet or dre9»-«p TdLnd 
collod rwin-yu-t^h-on-hahn nearly covered with deal n and an overlay 
of bearrraos of 2erop!iyll\ra» Jhe tobacco bafilret o-^ilp-noolc le 8ub-» 
globular in fora and chokoHoioutheAf and vhen in use has tho caning 
closed by buckskin held In place by a laee«»«ork of thong over the 



top# 



The cociDon ht^akot oat oriels %rere the roots of Pondersoa Pine 



and willoi: with nn overlay o^ XeropjQrllurau Hazel sprouts were Inrf^ely 

used in tho coarser baslmts^ 

The Spirit or Ghost t The Karok believs that a apirit railed 

Ik«4cre-<3ie-^.h^^hK>»tahp (from ik-kra-oe-ah wind and ahm-tahp fhost 

or enirit) leaves the ^ody after death but stays around for fi%e 

days before taking its final departure^ It is soTtioti.aes called 

also poo*ycJi*-har*-raht leaninp: ''personals shadow^* The people say 

this is cad and they disliko to talk about it* TJie people aometioes 

cut thoir ari2 for bottor luck and to !:eep the devil away* They 

call thlf5 ara-cuttin^ sut-tuk-yeeth# 

Treatment of ^oit The dea*! are not l:vmed« They ere burled a day 



or t>m after d5fr\th» Every nifht for five nlfhts, fish, acorns and 
ot!ier foods are burnt near the grave to feed ^he dec d* 
Doctoral ^ho Karok have several kinds of doctorsi one called A*m 
wlio searifies and suclcs and also dances and sin^ei another 
callod ai*-rar*rah hoos-oo-oahn who takes cero of people's 
senses I a third kind crlled an-na-keuh-uolji o- j^edlcine 
doctor ^x':e^ me'icine of verlotia herbs^ 



Pblirtg cf fH-ypcggt The Karok do not havo definite termfl fbr points 
of coapasoy but ^Jiae the tenas •up river* and •'doim rlvor*. 
W^T ectit ttof say the llroctlon where the sun cooes up. 



SLZid fbr 



the dlr:DC*ion where the rrun goes dovm» Thi 
fl cheH-Qooch-lo-wl-too-Hiiflh* laeanlnr •fclue ! 



froia 



lizard (!JceloT>or's)» 



Soajrooti Both large end siaall kinds of soeprool are roosted and 
eaten \y tho T>eoi5le« The bulbs of the larce Icind are put 
into an aart*ien oven end deoply covered \dth naaiple ler^ves 
•Hi ecrth ami clloifed to coolc ^vor nij^ht^ "hon th^^ are 
£tmd to eat« 

Kilkveed ChevJnF Oual Ikjiy tri!:'?s in Orllfornia ven the Juice of 
the nilk^eod (Accleplcs) for chevdng {ia# Thoy tlrop the 
thlc!c 3ilVy Jrlca 5n a haoTo^t of lolling vmtor v\)Bre it soon 
flocts on the *o^ rs a rt?bter-llke i^iVstor^ce rMch crn le 



The 1[aro> of Klr'aath Fiver cell the railH/eed ftira Im-sTmh^^-wo, 
• The Zcrok iiate ard r-so *hroe ^':inc^s of epoonst or^ called 
'— ^^-nook cf clk-hom nni ore celled ah-hoi)-9ll>l:e of 
root^ Tiy* root is ct^rved i/lien freolily cut, at 
ii!:lch tias It is rolutively '^rfl: and cosily oiit» 7*ic *hlrd 
kind of spoon Is oliapcd fron nV^lls of clrns and sea imissMs 
•hlch ^hoy fet in trade froirt t!ieir nelHilrors the Po-lik-la 



vhnsc 2 



eirtend^ to th* ceecn. 



laroTt V 



i The 



!:or noney or iwditim of orichriiro ccnnistel of 



Ixrs shells, cf^lld nr^-rah-ra^h-poo'r, -lennlng; •neor^le^s 
•onoy*, or «i -nly lah-:>ook» The 'lentnliun? noney t/ns commonly 



V 



cftrriod in strings of flw or strinrs of t3n. Tho strlnp:9 of 
ton i7or*> ▼sl'^i^d at JJC of o^jr ^onny^ 

Tlie ^plendl?! roi crouni of the plleatod woodpoc:cor (O^phlouo 
pileatus) gIso ^erm used ao nonay, valued at §1 each* 



isimm 



Comporleon of lists f ivsn byi 
GlTbs Its map (l^), and Journal In Schoolemft III, n, 1*^, lf*f,^; 
Pedlclr MeKoo (lnr», Aft.) Ion. Doc. h. Special 5es3., 1^1, I9h, 211, 1Q?5| 
Oorl !!0yer, TIaeh don •teerrtierto, 2fl2, lfi55| 

/.3, Tfeylor (after r letter fron G.". Tnrgnrt to '•.titer Van Dyke. 
Orleons Ear, 1/^) lr> ^Uf. P^rrwr, Tfcreh P% Ifl^Oj 

C. Hcrt Merrlan, MS Vocal , o^tr.ined on Upper Hmth, Oct. 1 & 2, I^IO, 



TirnOK 



abts. 




Otehe—poh 



McKee, 1853" 



Ut»chap-pah 
Ut«K;hR-;wh 
Ut— cha— pas 



I'ioyor, 1855 



tft«-ocha-pah« 



Sehe-perrh (Pogsllly a Kcrok vlllafo) 



Tsylor, 18^6 l^rrian, 1910 



Ot-eep— por 
!*A-rook-throov 
(Karok nane) 



KAROK 



Cibbs, 185? 

•Ocrtej-oeh (siap) 
OoTjerp-ch 



Shah-woo^rtea 



Tahel-nl'r-ko* 



MeKee, I855 



*Up-T>ah-golnec 
Tlp-pc-foino 

Sa-vow-ra 
3o-ron-ka 

C!iar>-Kia-ko-no c 



Meyer, l^'^ 



♦Up-T>G— ft>lne9 



Sa-»\m— rtiho 



nilis 



if 



Taylor, 185^ Merrlen, I910 






(9u-war-rum) 

Che !h-!!i&»knee-rra tch 



(ncLiao of chief) 



Rah— teo-pee— rcth 
(Itjoctb 7 ) 



Cocl'^-Ofinnn 
Coc-KJO-iaan 
Ooe-co-fvin 
Ooc-lro-nan, 
(aiiof 1 

Pa— na.j-o-neo ) 



Oo^:-!m-f?mno 



Pr h-nalr>Hfieek 



ffc.h—1 o— t>e-Kluo 



T^cheh-^ltfl 



• • 



Chee-nitch« 



Cho-nltch 



•3* 



Gll)ba, 1«52 



McKaet 1853 



T^8of-4ca-*ra 



•Op|)e-yoh( Joum ) ♦Op-pe-o ( rr ) 

Ashft«fie)ra*1a(!^p) Chief • In- 

(Ta-phlp-pa • 9 ) Xa-fip-pe 

Tlsh-rona 



Meyer, 185 



rr; 



Tkylor, 185^ Herrloat 1910 

Tuck--a--eoof- 
curra 

Ah8*sali*niAiiH^lGar-»ruk 



ii 



1^ 



•Sh-^ua-nock 

(Joum) 
Oon-*arlk(!aap ) 
(Ropn's) 

♦Eh-nok (Joum) 
Mlk-lara 

♦Sche-voh 
Zashe-pi she«»rah 



Ke«»ko-nook 

Chief - 

Hou-a-pu ck-i f -«ia 

Irv-neck 



CMof « 
B£!-f!e-T5 i fl h-ra 



Mooh-^fha r-»ruk 
on Salison Tdver 

A-!ai-ke--ar-ma» Ah-«a*4»-eh-rahi 



loli-^-r)ls!>i^ 



I8h«-she«^i8h 



Kah-ose 



nakh-kutsor » 7ii9ok ncnie (Kroeber) 



3un-nua 
SumHsuxtm 
Couth 
Soo«»pa0«»ip 



^no-luc!rs 



Yu^^too-e-re-pah 

09«-oe«»pftik 

InHfioo-tuk-fcutch 

(/i<-kuah-te) 
Ook-r ^a-4»*rik 



If-tcrram 



Xsh 



I«ji88 



Soof-curra 



Bon-peet 

Ip-p o on-^fn r-rah 

I-yooch-dl'a or 
I-ye-e-thrla 
(at I-ye83 Ear) 

T!ioof*kah-roQ 



% 



Pas-aoo-roo 



•V 



Gibbet 1852 



KeKeet 1?^5 



Kayert 1^5 



Tfeylort 1^5^ Iterrlcunt 1910 



}fom6«^lp--pah 



&Hivhadip 



8-nan 



'Hooa«Hia-*pah' 



Oo-rl 



oh 



Oo«*roo*-httti 

Ish-we-dip-ta 

Ah^^rah-hahHioo-ndc 

Oot-te 



Hooia««ai^roop Hoo-tehro 



Tliil^" HooQ " no psh 
]biHiOBi or BHMhm 

Tt^*V^too-6-ro*poli 
(Ifored from Tioiiiltjr 
of Salmon Piirort 
prob« aftor flro of 

lfi52) 



Ruo-cn-wo-rok 

Aa-H8lf»aoof-ti0l>-e- 

ram (at or naar A-tha-thoof 

Indian Craok) 



/ 



s/ 



la 5-1(1 




^-tUi^U^lCM lUll 



^ ^^c 



7Ui cL > > 



L 



P.^ IT ^ 




^/JiUU /iutuc<t T^U^co 



C. Hart Merriam 



CO/IS c 



:^AKC ?Ji33 



jl 



CHiClifK 



I 



SIIASTfi 



. t 



Tb» ShMta oooupy an exteneira are* in northern California, 
orerUpping into southern Oregon where they extended from Applegate 
RiYer on the weet, easterly beyond Medford and Istaland to the Cas- 
cades: and southerly orer the Sirttiyous into Calif omU. In Calif o 



oontliroously 



Klaaath 



of Shovel Creek; thence southerly over the Bogus and Qoose Nest Range 
to Mt, ShasU, with their southemnost village near Edgewoodj thence 
westerly to the lofty Salmon Alps which separated them from the Ko- 
noHae-hoo on the southwest ai.d in part from the Kah-rok or Ah-rahd on the 
west: but in Klamath car^ron they came in direct contact with Ah-rahd 
whose territory on the north side of Uamath River began at Seiad Creek and 
on the south side began at Walker Creek* 

Therefore, in northern Calif omU the territory of the Shaste 
s Klamath Canyon from Seiad Creek easterly to Shovel Creek, 




and the whole of ShasU, Little Shasta, and Scott Vall«ys, including 



Klamath 



Surrounding Tribes * The Shaste came in contact with the following 
tribes: on the north or northwest, the Takelma; on the east the Modokj 
on the south the Wintoon and Wlmuok (« Okwanutsu of Dixon) on the 
southwest the Ko-ncme-hoo, a related tribe of Shastan stock; on the 



west the Northern Kah-rok or Ah-rahd, 



>Mk 



Mo-des< 



«h» 



other names. It is called E-chah-tah-is by the Achomawe of Fall River; 



VH-TOk lay the northern Wintoon; Oo»-chah-hah-roo« chah'-wtch by 
the Treka Shaat*. and Ok-wan-u-tsu by Roland Dixon who gave it the 



appears 



for "aouth people •■ 



The Wintoon and Modesae tell ne that this tribe is now 
entirely extinct, and that they spoke a language related to Shasta, 
In OotSber 1925, I visited two veiy old wowen, sisters who belonged 
to this tribe and were bom and raised in Squaw Valley. One of them 
rm\ymA ♦#% i-MUftfiiVMiv* f.>iA f.T^Hai nuMs tYim other CATS it as CMnimh-noo* 



tJOO« 

Villages . They had a very large number of villages, of which 1 hav* 
been able to locate and secure the names of 121 of these, 6k are on 



Klamath River (including Willow 



.uding 



Scott River). 



r.f 



•mwd 



Shasta Village Wames t The name of the rancheria or village is usually 
the same as that of the locality where It is situated. In cases 
where there are several rancherias in a valley or on a stream, the 
principal or largest village is the one that takes the names and in 



many 



inhabitants of a village is general! 



followed 



denoting "inhabitants,* 



In connection with the looation of sons of the ranch erias , it" 
»e reasBrtsered that in Shasta Valley there are two Willew Creeks 



aiiiptylng 



th 



Thimlls 
I toMird 



01IIp^l< 



f .^ 



"7#0lla» Tht ^•-o^^t'^e* *i!^ of tir© 



CU8«lf ication of TribaB of ShasUn Stock (1925) 



Stock 



pflNi^ 9ir 



FiMAly '^ 3 * Tribe 



v» «<-rtr-» «ShA8t« or Kekahts 






Sastean 

KonoiMho 



^ Aii« 



•r^ 






Kahootlneruk' 



Okwanutsu 



Locality 

Klanath Rirer from ShoTtl 
Cr. to Seiad Cr«s south 
to inclttie Sh*8ta, Tr»ka, 
aind Soott rallttys ^ 
Forte of S*lBon region 



So. Fork Salmon to New River 

^Tipper Saoranento Canyon 
Upper MeCloud River and 
^^ ^Squjnr Creek 



Um ^rcMiiMl to< kf 



Shastan ^ 



♦ txt i 



, *^ 



Biwln^t ^-^ AiBhonawan ^i*^^ 



?h« 




Modeeo* 
Tonalincbenol 



Hjoahwe 
AJunahMi 



Atwonra 



Astahkewiche 



fir-: 



HaMesidoo 
Haraiahwe 



— y a ped 



Ataookaan 



Atsookas '* 
Apwoorokae 



Big Bend of Pit River 
Pit River above Big Bend 
Pit River below FaU River 
Fall River Valley 



Big Valley 



Hot Springs Valley 

Alturas to Goose Lake 

Likely Valley and Upper 
So. Fork Pit River 



V 



.% A 



Hat Creek region 



..-.s 



■^* Dixie Valley to Eagle Uke 



\'. 



kittle le know of the Kah-hoo-tln-e-ruk (called Ah-woo-tah-kwe 
by the Hoopa, and New River ShaeU by Roland Dixon. They nay be the 
the ChinalAkwe of Stephen Powers. Their rank may be wuoh higher than t 



^rtAr« «nd PostlttS . D—p Stone Mortar* do not appear to haw been usee 
by the Shaete, aa they pound their aoorne, «an»anita berrlee, and other 



{things in the ordinaxy 



called 



it.«h->hoo->vi< 



^lightl/ spreading ai 
Long kind about f ifti 

d pe'feon go** 



froM 



underground instead 



post or in a tree. It is in a hole dug in the ground and is covered 

with pine-bark, f-^ #, 

nndarground Food Caches . The Shasta and Konosieho tribes had a good 



underground cache (watoh-nah) 
of deer, elk and bear. 



■a^'.'^SiX'i '■,' 



fk 



fraaeworic of posts and was made of bark 



danpi 



*.«.?' 



llans wt^ 



Meat of deer, elk and bear was roasted on coals and also 
in the ground cren, called hsp-se-ro-haha'-pik. 
and Dyes. The ShasU Indians of Upper Klaaath Canyon made 



Koo-pah-«ah, fron a species of Bushroo which grows 



Yellow 



paint, called itoh-u«-pah-ke , was made from the inner barit of an oak, 
scraped off and used dry. Black paint, called ■ah-ter*rah-he, was 
Mde fro« charcoal nibbed up in grease. White paint, e-ti, was nade 
«f . kind of white chalk found in the hills. The nanes used by the 



f- 5 



ShuU and Txvka ?all«7 branch of the trlb* for red, black 

paints, ar« respaotlvely: oo-kwrti-hah-ch-tik , aah-ter-rah 

Bixtl and Raotila Belief a . The echo, called koo-che-rah-klk, !• beltered 

to bAa lisaid answering froa rodca* 



The nighthawk they call cte'-pah-kwan-i-kook, and say that 
when it swoops down aaking the characterlsUc booaing aound^ it Is 
■stretching" a fawn to Mke it gnw. and that if a person goes to the 
spot beneath the diving bird th^ will find a spotted fawn. 



-•♦■ A V — 



make or bull 




i?j^i? 



m) they call a-ha«- 



t«r 



se-sa-ket. and state that whan it sticks oat its tongue 



y.-' '. 



freckles on one*s face* 

The Madowlark, according to the Shaste, wears on its 1 
a necklace of the black seeds or nuts of the sugar pine. 
CaTe on naaath RiTsr. When Tlslting the upper KUmth Canyon 



i|> 



Shaste 



Aw 



A T 



deep eave high 



KlasHtth eanjon in vhieh Shaste 



<^ 



ifttga when pnrsoed. A nwber of thea resorted to this cave during 
so-called war with the whites flBuy years ago, when they were pursued 
im soldiers and sen fro* TrJS/ Details of this attack by the whites 

■ - rr-*-- 

ty histories. The Indian woaan in question offers* 

to take ae to the care, but unfortunately I was not able to reiAin. 

Then rislting the old Shaste Chief, Bogus Tea, at his hoae on 
Deer Creek on the south side of Klaaath canyon the lati 
<im^*^m,>^9 lOiQ. T inoulrad about the location of this < 



hl^ pranontoxy on the north 

•9 



nearly opposite Door CrMk, 

C*x«monial Hr***^ ^^' w^nvwl AAi^MMmial houflas of the Shftcto 




KlaMith canyon and ShasU Valley were called o-kwalm* -Mh. Th^ h; 
large center poet with four poets around the olrcmferenoe. The t 

was oorered with brush and earth. ^ ^ _^ 

The snail sweat-houses, the fraaes-work of arched wUlow 
sticks orer which was spread a blanket, are called kooe-took-hu««- 
pik. The saaller conical huts were corered with the lark of the 



eedar< 



-t- 



Indians 



Klaaath Canyon, necklaces of bear claws 



y. The Shaste of Klaaath Canyon near Sh< 

y^ — 

necklace aht-sa-loo8-a»-rah-hah, while tl 
> living in ShasU and Treka Yalleys call 



ah«pah* •kah-ran • 

Apis and Utensils : The bows, called how and how-he-yu. 



were made of 



wood 




nade 



(Aaelan< 



arrows were called Bah-get-se-gah-sik; the stone point«i arrows, ah- 



called hah-kwi 



'^1^ T? 



Spear (two tined snd three tined), he»-sah-hi; the sling 



r»^j?«: 



t^ m 



ah-kah^ri; the 



seeftper or the dressing knife, e-day. 



drill was mde of cedar and was called bj 
ly Indians, hoo-row; by the Upper Klaaath 



\ 



T 



prec 



and 



Canyon Indians, ho-dov**bit{ the block under the fire drill was nah«» 

hoo« 

The mortar in which the acorns were pounded consisted of a 

milling basket called ik-noo, resting on a flat stone, hah«too« 

The stone pestle had two names, to«ko and hahtSHnit^ta^ The snail 

stone for splitting acorns was oalled by the Indians of Shasta and 

Treka Valleys, o«pe«hah«rit ; the grinding stone or metate, hi-yu«ho« 

k| The under-stone rubbing on the metate, hi*--e-rook« These three stone 

lb 

in the language of the Upper Klamath Canyon Shaste are called, respectirelj 
ook-kik, its«ski«ah«hook , and it8«skah«he«rook» § 

The acorn leach was called kwah«»po«am-pik; the acorn cache 
(woYen of tules and holding about four grain sacks), hah-pah*«ris« 
poo ahs, 

« 

The hot stones used for cooking in baskets are called by 
the Shasta and Tz^ka Valley Indians, too«tah«gah itch-ah; the stirring 
stick, ahk«tah«-we»ke« 

The two sticks for taking the hot stones out of the fire, 
ah«kwah; the digging stick, kwahs; the chipping horn for shaping 
glints and arrow points, wah-pah; the bone awl used in making basketa, 
ech-»wmh; the brush of 8oap-»root fiber, haht; cord or rope, po«kwe-ruts* 
The caxrying band which passes oyer the forehead or front of the head, 
oo«ter; the fish net, ah-row; fish hook, hah«mi*rook; dug-out canoe (bximt 
out of fir log), ik-we; the paddle, ah-ket« 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 




CAIOJ 



r 



Lpi^:i 



Shasta 



V 



The Shaste occupy an extenslTe area in northern Califomiay 
overlapping into southern Oregon where they extended from Applegate 

River on the west 9 easterly beyond Medford and Ashland to the 
Cascades; and southerly over the Siskiyons into Calif omia« In 
California they ranged continuously froa Seiad Creek, a northern 
tributary of Klamath Riveri easterly to the mountains immediately 
east and south of Shovel Creek; thence southerly OTor the Bogus 
and Goose Nest Range to Ut. Shasta, with their southernmost village 
near Edgewood; thence westerly to the lofty Salmon Alps which 
separated themffrom the Ko-no-me-hoo on the southvest and in i>art 



/ 



/ 



from the Kah-rok or Ah-rahd on the west; but in Klamath canyon 
they came in direct contact with the Ah«*rahd whose territory on 
the north side of Klamath River began at Seiad Creek and on the 
south side began at Walker Creek* 
Therefore! in northern 



the territory of the Shaste 
embraces Klamath Canyon from Seiad Creek easterly to Shovel Creek 9 
and the whole of Shasta t Little Shastay and Scott Talleys, 
including the entire course of Scott River to its junction with 

the Klamath* 



Surrounding Tribes * 

The Shaste came in contact with the following tribes: on the 

north or northwest | the Takelma; on the east the Modok; on the 
south the Wintoon and Wimuck (« Okwanatsu of Sixon} on the 
southwest the Ko-no-me-hoo, a related trihe of Shastan stock; 

on the west the Northern Kah-rok or Ah^rahd* 

The tribe called A-te or A-te by the Mo^des-se has several 
other names* It is called E-chah-tah-is by the Achomawe of 
Fall Rivef| Wi-muk by the northern Wintoon; Oo»-chah-hah-roo^ 

chah*-wich by the Yreka Shasta, and Ok-wan-u*tsu by Roland 

. ^ioks en who gave it the Shasta name for the tribe* 3ut this 

appears merely to be the wordifor ** south people** 



. 2 - 



The Wintoon and Modesse tell me that this tribe is now en- 
tirely extinoty and that they spoke a language rel/Led to Shasta. 



/' ' 



In October 1925 i I visited two very old women, sisters who belonged 
to this tribe and were born and raised in Squaw Valley* One of 
them failed to remember the tribal name; the other gave it as 
0-kwah-noo- tsoo • 



Villages • 

They had a very large number of villages, of which I have 
been able to locate and secure the names of 121 of these, 64 are 
on Klamath River (including Willow and Bogus Creeks), 24 in 
Shasta and Yreka valleys, and 3^ in Scott Valley (including 
Moffit Creek and Scott River)* 



Shasta Village Names : 

The name of the rancheria or village is usually the same as 
that of the locality where it is situated* In cases where there 

are several rancherias in a valley or on a stream, the principal 
or largest village is the one that takes the name; and in many 
cases it was the home of a chief* 

The term applied to the inhabitants of a village is generally 
the name of the village followed by the word soo->ish or choo-ish, 

denoting **inhabitarbn|ts*** 

In connection with the location of some of the rancherias, it 
should be remembered that in Shasta Valley there are two Willow 
creeks t\^ne flowing northerly from Bogus Mountains and emptying 
into Klimath River at a placeCalled Thrall; ihe other rising in 
So otf Mountains and flowing past Gazelle toward Shasta River, into 
which at times of high water it probably empties* 



- 3 - 



Classification of Tribes of Shastan Stock (1925) 



Stock 



Faail: 



Sastean 



Shastan 



AchoBiawan 



V 



Atsookaan 



Tribe 
/ Shas'te or Kekahts 



< 



Ko'noa^o 



Kaho 



c/tine^ruic^- - 



\pkwanut8u 



Locality 

Klamath River from Shovel 
Cr# to Seiad.Cr«; south 
to include Shasta 9 Yreka, 
and Scott valleys* 
Fork of Salmon region 

So* Fork Salmon to New River 

Upper Sacramento Canyon 
Upper HcCloud River and 
Squaw Creek 



/Modesse - - • Big Benj^ Pit River 

Tomalinchemoi Pit River above Big Bend 

Ilmahwe Pit River below F^ll River 

jAjumahwe Fell River Valley 

Atwumwe ------ Big Valley 

Astahkewiche • - - Hot Springs Valley 
Hawesidoo ----- Altur^s to Goose Lake 

\|[ammahwe - - - - - 



Likely Valley and Upper 
So. Fork Pit River 



/Atsookae - - - 
(^Apwoo^okae - • 



- - Hat Creek region 

• - Dixie Valley to Eagle Lake 



\X Little is known of the Kah-hoo-tin-e-ruk (called Ah-moo-tah-kwe 
by the Hoopa, and New River Shasta by Roland Dixon* They may be 
the Chimalakwe of Stephen Powers* Their rank may be much higher 
than "tribe"* 



Mortars and Pestles* 



-hrydL 



Deeprmortars do not appear to have been used by the Shaste^ as 
they pound their acorns t manzanita berries 9 and other things in the 
ordinary milling basket , called ik^noOf resting on a flat stone 
called hah- too 9 using a stone pestle* The pestles are of two kinds 9 
a short kind about six inches long, slightly spreading at the bottom 
called to-koo and ats-mut-tah and a long kind about fifteen inches 
in length called it-ah-hoo-vi-ik* 



• 4 - 



Acorn Caches • 

The acorn cache of the Shaste differs from that of most 
California tribes by being placed underground instead of on a 
rock or post or in a tree* It is ixva hole dug in the ground and 
is covered with pine-bark# 

Underground Food Caches * 

The Shaste and Konomeho tribes had a good sized underground 
cache (watch-nah) for acorns, dried fish and dried meat of deer, 
elk and bear* 

It had a framework of posts and was made of bark with leaves 
next to the ground to keep out dampness* 

Heat of deer 9 elk and bear was roastedpn coals and also 
cookl in the ground event called liep-se-ro-hahm*-pik* 

Colors and Dyes * 

The Shasta Indians of Upper Klamath Canyon made their red 
paint, called Ko<^pah-mah, from a species of mushroom which grows 
on old fir trees* This was roasted to produce the color* Yellow 
paint, ealed itch-um-pah-ke, was made from the inner bark of an 
oak, scraped off and used dry* Black paint, called mah-ter-rah-he, 
wamrmade from charcoal rubbed up in grease* White paint, e-ti, 
was made of a kind of white chalk found in the hills* The names 
used by thJ Shasta \mnd Yreka Valley branch of the tribe for red, 
black and white painis, are respectively i oo-kwah-hah-ch-tik, mah- 



ter-*rah-he, and e-ti« 



Bird and Reptile Beliefs * 

The echo, caled koo-che-rah-kik, is believed to be a lizard 

* 
answering from rocks* 

The nighthawk they call cho*-pah-kwan-i»kook, and say that 
when it swoops down making the characteristic booming sound, it 
is ••stretching^ a fawn to make it grow, and that if a person ^oes 
to the spot beiSjh the diving bird they will find a spotted fawn* 



- 5 - 



P 



The gopher snake or bull snake ( jityophis ) they call ic-ha'- 
se-sa-kety and state that when it sticks out its tongue , it fluakeib 

freckles on one^s face* 

The meadowlarki according to the Shaste, weaars on its breast 
a neclace of the black seeds or nuts of the sugar pine* 

Cave on Klamath River * 

When visiting the upper Klamath Canyon in 1907 i a Shaste 
woman told me about a deep cave high up on the rock cliffs on 
the north side of Klamath canyon in which Shaste Indians used to 
take refuge when pursued* A number of them resorted to this cave 
during a so-called war ttth the whites many years ago, when they 
were pursued by the soldiers and men from Yreka* Details of 
this attack by the whites may be found in county histories* The 
IiQpLian woman in question offered to take me to the cave, but 
unfortunately I was not able to remain* 

Then visiting the old Shaste Chief, Bogus Tom, at his home 
on Deer Creek on the south side of Klamath canyon the latter part 

of September 1919, I inquired about the location of this cave, 
and was told that it is on a high promontory on the north side 
of the canyon bearly opposite Deer Creek* 

Ceremonial House * 

The round ceremonial houses of the Shaste in Klamath canyon 
and Shasta Valley were called o-kwahm»-mah* They had large center 
post with four posts around the circumference* The top was covered 

with brush and earth* 

The small sweat-houses, the frame-work of arched willow sticks 
over which was spread a blanket, are called koos-took-hum -pik* 
The smaller conical huts were covered with the bark of the incense 
cedar* 



Heclaces of Bear Claws * 

Among the Shaste Indians of Shasta and Yreka Valleys, and of 
the upper Klamath Canyon, neclacesbf bear claws were worn by 



f 



. 6 . 



doctors only. The Shaste of Klamath Canyon near Shorel Creek 
call the bear claw neoJLace aht-sa-loo^- a'-rah-hah^ while the 

branch of the tribe living in Shasta and Treka Valleys call 
it ah-pah^-kah-ram« 



Arne and Utensils : 

The bows 9 called IIow and iK^w-he-yu, were made of the wood 
of the /ew ( Taxus hrevlfolia.) • Arrows were made of young shoots 
of serviceberry bushes ( Amelanchier )» The blunt-pointed arrows 
were called mah-get -se-gah-sik; the stone pointed arrows , ah-ker 
and ah-ket« The stone point itself was called hah-kwi* The fish 
spear (two tined and three tined), he^-sah-hij the sling, ah-ne- 

he-mit; the snare, kah-pe -rik; the stone knife, ah-kah'^-ri; 
the skin scraper or the dressing knife, epdah^-chek'^-ke, for 
which deer ribs were sometimes used* The fire drill was made 
of cedar and was called by the Yreka and Shasta Valley Indians, 
hoo-row| by the Upper Klamath [Canyon Indians, ho-dow«-bit; the 
block under the fire drill was nah-hoo# 

The mortar in which the acorns were pounded consisted of a 
milling basket called ik-noo, resting on a flat stone, hah-too. 



The stone pestle had two names, to^-ko and hahts-mut^-te* The 
small stone for splitting acorns was called by the Indians of 
Shasta and Yreka Valleys, o-pe-hah''-rit} the grinding stone or 
metate, hl-yu-ho'^ki the under-stone for rubbing on the metate, 
hi*-e-rook# These three stone in the language of the Upper 
Klamath Canyon Shaste are called, respectively, ook -kik, 
its«ski^-ah-hook, and its-akah-he-rook*. 

The acorn leach was called kwah-po«^am-pik; the acorn cache 
(wovwn of tules and holding about four grain sacks), hah- pah* - 
ris-poo^ ahs* 

The hot stones used for cooking in baskets are called by 
the Shasta and Yreka Valley Indians, too-tah'^-gah itch^ah; 
the stirring stick, ahk^-tah-we-ke# 



■w 



• 7 - 



The two sticks for taking the hot stones out of the flrSf 
ah^-kwah; the digging stickf kwahs^; the chipping horn for 
shaping flints and arrow points i waih^-pah; the bone awl used 
in making baskets » ^eh-wah; the brush of soap-root fiber, haht } 
cord or rope, po^-kwe-ruts* The carrying band which passes over 
the forehead or front of the head, oo-terf the fish net, ah-rowf 
fish hook, hah-mT-rook; dug-out canoe (burnt our of fir log), 
^k-we; the paddle, ah -ket# 



» 1 



I< 




SHASTE 



The Shaste occupy an extensive area In northern California, |foverl^apping 
into southern Oregon where they ex^nded frcwi Applegate River ^ the west, easterly 
beyond Medford aid Ashland to the Cascades; and southerly over the Siskiyous into 
California. In California they ranged continuously from Seiad Creek, a northern 
tributary of Klamath River^ easterly to the mountains immediately east and south 
of Shovel Creek} thence southerly over the Bog^ and Goose Nest Range to Mt. Shasta 
with their southernmost village near Edgewood; thence westerly to the lofty 
Salmon Alps wich separated them from the Kji/TPg-gP^hoo on the southwest aid in 
,part from the J^i^Bk or Ah^-rahd on the west: but in Klamath canyon they came 
.in direct contact with the nBOanDQEXiX the Ab^rahd whose territory on the 



\ 



north side of Klamath River began at Seiad Creek and on the south side began 
at Walker Creek* 

Therefore, in northern California the territory of the ^haste embraces 
Klamath Canyon from Seiad Creek easterly to Shovel Creek, and the whole of Shasta, 
Little ^asta, and Scott Vall^s, including the entire course of Scott River 

to its junction with the Klamath 



/ 




6> 



L^ 



The tribe called A^te or A-te by the Morfje^rsg ^^^ several other names. 




It is called 



Wlntoonx Oo*-chah-hah-jroo' 



awe of Fall ttiver: WJiiumik by the n( 
Jr WJgh by the Treka Shasta, ^" HytTYf^tl^^^ 




by Roland tjickson who gave it the Shasta name for the tribe* o But this app ears 

merely to be the word for ^ gQ^^*^ VV^^?^ - ^^ 
/M The Wintoon and MQ<te s se tell me that this tribe is now entirely extinct, and 
that they spoke a language related to Shasta* In Oct* 1925, I visited 2 very 
old women, sisters who belonged to this tribe and wer« bom and raised in S^uaw 
Valley. One of them failed to remember the tribal name; the other gave it as 



0-kw 



po-itsoo# 




SURROUNDING TRIBES : 

The Shaste came in contact with the follwwing tribes: on the north or 





south the win^qp 
and Wimuck (=sO>cwanat3Uj5f Dixon ) on the southwest the !^g|#-me-hoo, a related 




tribe of Shastan stock; on the west the Northern Kalwok or Ab-rahd, 




TILLAGES: 



They had a very large number of villages, of which I have been able to 
locate and secure the names of 121 of these, 6k are on Klamath *^ver 
( including Willow and ^ogus Creeks), 2U in Shasta and Treka valleys, and 33 
in Scott Valley (including Moffit Creek and Scott River), 



SHASTA VILLAGE NAMES: 



The name of the rancheria or village is usally the same as that of locality 
where it is situated. In cases where there are several rancherias in a valley 




or on a streanij the principal or largest village is the one that takes the name; 
and in many cases it w as the home of a chief. 

''^be term applied to the inhabitants of a village is generally the naae of the 

V 

^llage followed by the word spo«>i9h or choo-ish , denoting "inhabitants" • 



ia£«tiM.jfiaaohMRULA^JJL.ahi 



Lasta Valley there are two Willow Creek&^ 



Ij fioa Bogus Mountains and emptying into Kl< 



.owing norther- 
»lace called fhrall; 



the other rising in Scott Mount< 



id flowing past Gazelle toward Shai 



rpo 



bably 



empties 



(D 



i,t. 




SHASTE VILLAGE NAMES 
The name of a rancheria or village is usually the 
same as that of the locality where it is situated. In 
cases where there are several rancherias in a valley or on 
a stream, the principal or largest village is the one that 
takes the name; and in many cases it was the home of a chief. 

The term applied to the inhabitants of a village is 
generally the name of the village followed by the word soo- 
is^ or choo-iah T denoting 'inhabitants*. 

In connection with the location of some of the rancherias 
it should be remembered that in Shasta Valley there are two 
Willow creeks: one flowing northerly from Bogus Mountains 



ahd emptying into Klamath River at a place called Thrall; 
the other rising in Scott Mountains and flowing past Gazelle 
toward Shasta Biver, into which at times of high water it 
probably empties. -^^ 



a 



^^^ 



t-' 



SorrouDdim 



Shaste 



on tho north or northwest, the Take Im : on the aast the ModoK: on 
the south the Win^oMT i on the southwest the ^Q^nQ-EWnQQ* * related 



Kah 



(5) 



i^^'^ 




j gg C/iLLgP 41- 



The tribe called A-te or A-te by the 
llo-des-se has seTeral other nanes. It is 
called E^d^ah-tah-is by the Achonawe of Fall 



Biyer; Wi^miik by the northern Wintoon ; 
Qk-wan»tt»t8n by Koland Dickson, nho gave it 
as the Shasta name for the tribe. But this is 
HMTt-B^^^ibsl'HWBrevCiirely the word for 'south 
leocle*. 



The Wintoon and Modesse tell ne that this 



tribe is now entirely extinct, and that they 



spoke a langaege related to Shasta. 





Vh-vj-^ -AJL 






:x:ix^ 



Vi^. 



r 



v^ 



TAjU^ 



.rvj 1> 



'^1^'^'^ -^ 1^ O-kw ock- "Vv <« . V»^ 





^.ntf 





SHASTK 



The Shaste occupy an extensive area in northern California, 



overlapping into southern Oregon where they extended 



wmmm'ZM-nn 



I A 



from Applegate River on the west, easterly heyond Kedford and Ashland 



to the Cascades; and southerly over t 



iskiyouB into California. 



In California they rar^ed continuously fro« Sciad Creek, > a northern 
tributary of Klana-th River, easterly to the mountains inmediately 



east and south of Shovel 



; thence sottUierly over the Bogus 



and GrOose Nest Range to Mt. Shasta, with th^ir southernmost village 



near Bdgewood; thence westerly to the lofty Salmon Alps irfiich sep- 
arated them from the Ko-no-me-hno on the aouthwest lurf. in p&rt from 




the Kah-rok or Ah-rahd on the west; hut in Klamath canyon they came 

•wkJU^ •«<'^'**' '*''**^^ *-*J>^ 

in direct contact with the territory of the Ah-rahd to the west of V 
Sciad Creek )OBhJJw aui ' thi and ^ e th e woTn^ ^Walker Creek. on vAba 

flrfSII'f W, 

IrXr*^^lTf ^ 

< J^V^^-^o^^>-3 hft-t^!ritj)r3^ of the Shastej xn northern Calif omiaVtitt* 
embraces Klamath canyon from Seiad Creek easterly to Shovel Creek, 



and the whole of Shasta, ^Yreka, and Scott valleys, includir^ 
entire course of Scott River to 



its junction 




Klamath • 



T}iey had a very large number of villagei^ of whi( 
been able to locate and secure the nameso^A^n Klamath 
(including Willow and Bopiis Creeks). 24 in Shasta and Yre] 



and 33 in Scott valley (includir^ Moffit Creek and Scott River). 






6) 



OUSSIFIOATION OP TRIBES OP SHASTAN STOOK 



(ipzr} 





^a«taaa 



Shastan 



l^ fAoaanan 






Irila 






Sha^te or Kakahtt 



KonoBfho 



Klamath Httr frog 
Shotel Or.tf 3;iaA Or.; 
•outh to inoluda Shasta, 
Iraka, A Seott rallaTt* 

fork of SalBon ragion 



Kahootinoruk 



Ipkianutau • - - - 



'mk'J^ • So.Pk. Salmon to Hfw BWar 



UDpar Sacramanto Canyon 
ITppar MoCloud BlTer ft 
Sq^oaw Craak 



Hodaa'aa Big Band Pit BlTar 

tomalln'chamol • - Pit Birar ahoya Big Band 
Ilmal^wa - • Ht BiT.balow Pall RiTar 



ijukahira 
AtiruBwa 



Pall BiTor Tallay 

Big Tallay 

Hot Springs Valla: 



■:/. 



Leka 



Hannahwa 



Ukely yal./- Upper 
go.Pk.Pit Birar 




Ataool^o • • Hat Oraak region 



Apwoo'roka'o - - • - 



Dixie Tallay to Xagle 

Lake 







Little is known of the 
hy the Hoopa, and ] 

of Stephen 




Powers • 



r5y*ffiland DixonT"TKey aay be the 
leir rank may he much higher than 



o 



y 




MORTARS & PESTLES : 

Deep, mortars do not appear to have been used by the Chaste, as they pound 
their acorns, manzaMta berrie^, and other things in the ordinary milling basket, 
called i)c«npo , resting on a flat stone called hah- top , using a stone pestle^ 
The pestles are of two kinds, a short kind about 6 inches long, slightly 
spreading at the bottom, called to-koo and ^\^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ long kind about 
15 inches in length called it-ah-hoo-yi-ik • 



IkCORN CA CHES : 

The acorn cache of the Shaste differs from that of most California tribes 
by being placd'underground instead of on a rock or post or in a tree. It is 
in a hole dug in the ground and is covered with pine-bark. 

UNDERGROUND F'^OD CACHES : 

The Sjjiaste an d Kpnoigeho tribes had a good si^ed underground cache (watch- 
nah) for acorns, dried fishJi. and dried meat of ifeer, Ellk, ^MSlt. 

Ife had a framework of posts and was made of bark owith leaves next to 



the ground to keep out dampness. 

Meat of jjeer, ^k Jft wadLV was roasted on coals and also 
ground oven, called hep-'SQ^-^rQ-hahm' "'Pik » 



cooked in the 




COLORS AND DYES: 



The ^hasta Indians of ^pper Klamath Canyon made their red paint, called 
, froma a species of mushroom which grows on old fir trees. 




This was roasted to produce the color. Yellow paint, called itch-Wpah-ke , 

was made from the inner bark of an oak, scraped off and used dry. Black paint, 

called ngljrtf p- ^^"^^ » w^s "^^de from charcoal rubbed up in grease. 

White paint,||«*ti. was made of a kind of white chalk found in the hills, ^he 

names used by the Shasta and Yreka Valley branch of the trive for red, 

black, & white paints, are respectively: op-kwah-hah-ch-tik. mah-tei^rah-he, and 



6) 



I 



^ 



/ 



\ 



HTRD & REPTILE BELIEFS : 



The echo called 



koo-cjie-ra] 



L-kik is believed to be a li7ard answering from 



rocks. 



The ^ighthawk they call cly >Bf h-^ajarl^^ and say that when it swoops 

II *' 

down making the characteristic booming sound, it is stretching a fawn to make 

it grow, and that if a person goes to the spot beneath the diving bird th^iy will 



tfind a spotted fawn. 



Xai^nake (Pityophis) they call A7ha'-se-s 



and state that when it sticks out its tongue, it makes freckles on one's face. 

The KeadoiTlark, according to the: Shaste, wears on its breast a necklace of 
the tJallck seeds or nuts of the ^J^ pine* 



I<> 



CAVE ON KLAMATH R7VER: 



K 



When visiting the upper ^amath Canyon in 1907, a Shaste woman told me about 
a deep cave high pp on the rock cliffs on the north side of Klamath canyon in 
Which Shaste Ind'ans used to take ref/^e when pursaed. A number of them resorted 
to this cave during a so-called war with the whites many years ago, when they 
were pursued bjr the soldiers and men from Ireka. Details of this attack by the 
whit es may be found in county histories.- 

G 




he Indian wo»an in ou^stlon offered to take m to the cave, but unfortunately 
I was not able to re main • 

Then visiting the old Sfaaste Chief, Bogus Tom, at his home on Deer Creek 
on the south side of ^amath canyon the latter part of September I919, I 
inquired about the location of this cave, and was told that it is on a |high 
promontory on the ndrth side of the canyon nearly opposite Deer Creek. 
CSREMONIAL HOUSE ; 

The round ceremonial houses of the Shaste in Klamfcth canyon and Shatta 
valley were called o^Jff^-^^.^ They had large center post with four posts 
around the circumference. The top was covered with brush and earth. 

Ihe smaU sweat-houses, the frame-work of arched willow sticks over which 

t frPJJI^*. The smaller conical huts 
were .covered with the bark of the incense cedar. 






NECKIACES OF BEAR CLAWS : 

Among the ^haste Indians of "^asta and Yreka Valleys, and of the upper 
Klamath CanyoV^ necklaces of bear claws were worn byldoctors only« The "nlBijtof 
Klamath Canyon near Shovel Creek call the bear claw necklace aht^a^^gpr %i 
ig§h-hah ^ while the branch of the tribe living in ^hasta and Treka Valleys 
call it ah^pah^ljahr ;m _ . 





\ 



AIMS AND UTENSILS: 



The bows, called H o w and HgSll^SCi* were made of the wood of the Yew 
( Taxns bre vlf olia ) > Arrows were made of young shoots of SJerviceberry bushes 
(ita^lanchier). The blunt-pointed arrows were called Mah-^et^-se-gah-j 




the stone pointed arrows, a];i-ker and a h-ket > The stone point itself was called 
h^-^i^» The fish spear (two tined and three 'fclned), he^-sah^hi; the slingj 
ah-ne-he-fldt : the snare, kah-oe'-rikj the stone knife, ah-kah^-ri ; the skin 
scraper or the dressing knife, e-dah^-chek^-ke, for which deer ribs were sometimes 
used* The fire drill was made of cedar and was called by the Ireka and ^asta 



V|lley 



ians, hpo-row; by the Upper Klamath Canyon Indians, ho-dojuL-bit 



the block under the fire drill was nah-hop* 




The mortar in which the acorns were pounded consisted of a milling basket 
called ik-noo , resting on a flat stone, hal^-too^ The stone pestle had two names. 



to^-kQ and hf^l^^^^!:f^^; "^^^ small stone for splitting US acorns was called 
by the Indians of ^asta and Treka Valleys, ^gg^Ji^Jj/^;^^! ^^^ grinding stone 
orxetate, ^^J^^f^ : the underOstone for rubbing on thexetate, 
jLt«a*jropk# These three stone in the language of the ^pper Klamath Canyon 
Shaste are a ailed, respectively, opk^-kilc, it srski^alv^hoqk, and itS">skah«>her 

The acorn lejfch was called ly^Hgo-affl-p^k; the acorn cache (woven of piles 
and holding about U a rain sacks), hah-pah'-ris-pop^ahs. 

The hot stones used for cooking in baskets are called by ^hasta and 
Ireka Valley Indidns, top-t^h^-gah itch^-ah; the stirring stick. 




ahk^-^^-ljiar^e > 

The two sticks for taking the hot stones out of the fire, a^^^lpiah; the digging 
stick, lofahs^ ;the chipping horn for shaping flints and arrow points, mh^pahj ^ 





the bon« awl used in Making baskets, eph-y^^ the brush of soap-root fiber, 
haht/; cord or rope, F^orKye-nxts. The carrying band wliich passes over the fore- 
head or front of the head, oo;ter^j the fish net, ah-.row^ t fish hook, 
hal^^;^ro^dug-out canoe (burnt out of fir log), ^;wg*j the paddle, ah^-ket 




M River yrlle/^ 








f/U/6 pul/^tu ^A^e^ I ^^^ -^ 



J/tdt^H^i^ y^i^fH^ 



l^/tL^*^-^ 



\ 



c. y^ ' • 


•r-i 


Pr 




B?-^ 


3 


ec't'j 


c 



TI" 




i^ 



U 



•• Vi* 



iri^} 



PIT RIVER TRIBES 



A»Jtt-nah-w« 



r «w 



myvcM ##9# 4ut 



"^r 



b« 




Th« ImediAUly following othnognphio notes refer to the 
A-ju«»ah-iM» of Pall River Talley, and were eeoured bgr Dr. Merriaa 
#ro« Cbjirlee Oreen in Meroh, 1928. k eeoond set of data refer to 
the Modease ' Iribe of Pit River peoples and were sectxred fro« W. Huls^^ 



in 1923 and 1907I;* "Theatre suppleaentary to the infonuition oonUined 
in his monograph on the Pit River tribes published two years earlier. 



(Ed.) 



m»i 



K 



^%'iiil' 



Taboos . The Pit River people did not eat ooyote, grissly bear, skunk, 
loon, pelican, oomorant, night heron or shitepoke. They did eat bob- 



eat, mountain lion, and swan, and soaw even ate mink. 



aU 



VAien a woman has a 



, neither she nor her husband may eat 



nsat or fish. The husband must go to a distant place, usually^ a 
mountain, and remain over night. He may resunte eating in the usual way 
in a few days, but the wife must not touch meat or fish until she is 



Entirely well. 



,1^^ AH;.'. 






>mtoli Kuiw^ ^aff 



^ 



'««,- 



The prohibition relates not only to eating but to the smell 4». 



of cooking meat or fish. She must be far enough away so that this 
smell could not possibly reach her. ^■ 

Signal fires . Signal fires are called e-se-anono-e*mat. This refers 



The classification and distribution of the Pit River Indian 
Tribes of California, Smithsonian Institution, Miscellaneous Collect; 
Vol. 78, Wo. 3, 1926. 



/ 



': V V* r .::i 



to single fires visible at a distance* 



& i 



Xi'x 



' But Khen the eneny has entered the Pit River or Fall Hirer 
count rjr ererybodj keeps vatcht and whenever anyone sees an ensagr he 



immediately builds a 




fire* 



as orii ^iiM after another locates 



the enemy, a series of fires spring up at intervals, one after the other, 
These signal fires in series are called ta«»mat»soo«ge • * as '#4 6mm 
Torches * All of the Pit River tribes carried fire from place to place 
by means of torches # The torches vere ingeniously laade of strips 
of frayed bark of juniper or sagebrush, or both* The frayed bark was 
twisted or rolled into the form of a club fifteen or eighteen inches 
in length and tied at intervale so that it would not open out* ^"^^ 
' A small coal placed inside ignited the frayed bax^c, makiril:' "^ 



glowirtg fire which bums 



A • 



day long and nerer goas eht. In this way it la aaay to oarxy fire fron 
plaoo to plaoe, ''Iftian opeTied and •>qpo9ed to the air* it bnral/S into 



a blAse* 



r>ilia IMNKileS t:--;«w *-" i'-OttiiA«!ivd*t*» hmffHi'm ♦-,!»#» wm.:; 



SalBon epearing . The Big Valley tribe and our tribe used to go down 
Pit River to the flails where the salacm stopped, to oateh and dry * 
saloon • Large quantities were dried and bvoaght hone in paok baskets* 
A nile or t%ro abore the noath of Bumey Creek a strsan enters 
Pit River fron the south. Its nana is Mah->pe«dah-da, oalled Salncm 
Creek by the Whites. It is less than half a nile in length, but during 
the salnon run it is paoked with these fish. Naturally it beoaae a 
great resort for nei^boring tribes of Pit River Indians, sons of 
whon oane fron as far up river as Big Valley. K long tine ago the 



Indians established a village there ^ naming it after the stream^ 
Biah«pe«-dah-da« Here the salson were cleaned and dried » and itfhen dry 
were packed hoiMi by the several tribes # 




• In former days it was the custom to make a fall 
deer hunt in the White Horse Lake countzy in September or October 
when the deer were fat and the leaves dry# This hunt is called da« 
oo«»te« It was made jointly by two closely related tribes « the Fall 
River A»Ju»mah«we and the Big Valley At«wum«we« 

Men with torches started together and ran in opposite directionst 
enclosing a veiy large circular area^—a thousand acres or more* They 
set fires as they ran so that in a short time a huge circle of fire^ 
spreading toiiard the center and constantly contracting 9 surrounded the 
deer and other animals • Th^ were confused and blinded by the smoke 
and easily killed with bofw and arrow* There was no escape • 

After each hunt two or three years were allowed to pass in order 
to sive the pine needles time to accumulate before the next« 



Deer hunting with a rope circle # A rope was etretched around a large 
area at a height of three of four feet and held in place by fastenings 
to trees t brush « or stakes • Men were stationed along the line and 
branches and brush were attached to the rope at intervals • By strik- 
ing the rope with clubs these were shaken^ making a noise to keep 
the deer within* This hunt was carried on l:^ the ham«mah«we of the 



z*ope 



is called dil-loo«wah«»te • 



Deer driving in winter * In winter, usually when the ground was covered 



with snofifg deer driree vere nade orer eonsiderable arejis* Good 
shooters vere stationed at points where it was known the deer would 
cone out« Then & number of people beat the forest and undergrowth 
driring the deer toward the shooters • The nasie of this hunt is do* 



too»te# 



o &1 
oriokets# The Pit Rirer Indians are fond of the large Uack 




dark brovn orioket. called ah«tsah 



po 



good when dried iind keeps wellt. lasting all winter. The fesales 



when full of eggs^ are the best of all« ^^ ^^ pare 
Juniper berries > Juniper berries are eaten raw. Sone are too strong^ 
Theee are not eaten. Trees bearing the sweet berries are selected. 
The berries are pounded and boiled^ waking a tea^ which is taken for 
coughs and other troubles. ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ «eebiuh 

Vtekas . Hone of the Pit River tribes ate wokas. Kewbers of the tribes 



territory. 



anything 



%i9i e^ 



»,. . tri 



Salt . The nsM of the salt is te. Originally the Pit RiTer tribes 
had no salt but were in the habit of adding a Uttle alkali to their 
food. The naas of alkali is tst which nawe nowadays is used also for 



•^^^ #f hmmf ^b^ 



f^r\ 



an^ ft^ii^ 1^ eereet art 



'^^ 



^fftltf 



Te»si»che and lazn-wuk by our people) our Fall RiTer Valley people 



usually caMs out ahead because we had nore fighting «sn. During 



<one fi|^t one of our men (Charl^ Oreen*s father«in*law) captured a 
^girl baby. She was treated as his own child and grew up with our 



i 



grotm 



d&Q^ter, that sh« was only a slara* 



aovlng the Indians 



loaded 



taken 



then up the coast to the Nendoeino Resezration. This was In 1859. 
Poisco arrowy. Poison arrows were used for criitly bears. The do: 



was wade Igr alxlng rattlesnake and spider ▼enom in a rotten liv 
adding the juioe of hab-be-kos-lah, the poison parsnip. 3omU 
also the root of the narroir-leaf Vyth sunflower was added* Th 
things were crushed and pounded in a nortar hole in the rock an 



■ized with water* 



straii^t and of hard wood, usualljr rosebush 



eanris benry. The tips were of hard wood tipped with flint. 



■sgicians 



through a thin Hake 



the strongest poison, and would dip the obsidian tips in this to 
kiU quickly. 

AiafiC* The Klanath, Modok, and Pit River Indians when fighting wore 
a kind of heavy robe or overcoat, and also a corset araor called 
ska-lam. The ska-laa was asde of pieces of hard wood, usually sarvis. 
berry (Aaelanehi^r) , Besides these, there was another kind of araor 
called bow.we, aade of very thick hide, usuallyelk hide and soMtlMS 
doubled. It cans up over the lower half of the fttce. The Klanath* 
Modok Indians used to wear these when thnr raided our oountxy to steal 



bqys and girls for 8l«T«0. 



oaptuz^ 



by the Piutes and I»pt as slarea for wmay yaars. 



■mv •-. V 



Foods , Tha prl 



la that of tha blaek oak ^ ^YTH iJ 
Tha aoom is oall«d ta-tahts* cv^ 



Modasaa 




(Cmr^A^^ 



ta-tab-oho< 



C&^W Jw V»^>. 




I. 



(ohiB*ko-k») 



are tha nuta of 



tha augar pina— which are eaUad akU, though tha traa is ah^aow-yo. 




Nttta of tha baekaye (Aaacaltts 

preparation bat are eaten in tinea of need, 



pahs 



is called pah*ail.lo« 



• , i« 



&• ••?* 



Tha vine aaple (Aoer oj, 




is called tah-pah-kah-Jil.lo, 



Its branchea are vaed for the fraaes of anowshoes, 

» The long shoots of the creek dogwood ( Comns glabrata) , called 
sta-woh are used for some of the baskets. 

The wood of the Mountain aahogaqjr ( Ceroocarpus 
called by the Indiana kae.^»ow.yo, is used for digging i 




for spear points* 



«• 



ba^etS( 



« *i o 



ttaUs) 



^»!^n 



v<^**«*^ «%^ 



rvjr. 



t$ 



braah (Caacothua cunaatua) 



neadla uaad 



in plarcing tha loba of the ear of young girlm. After thla had been 
worn about a »onth. it la replaced by a larger one made of tha wood 



ft 



( Rhus arquaticii 




eallod by the 



Indians ohAh-oha-lo, 



. - ^ 

Th« leaves of the snow brush (Ceanothns 



us) called 



ly the Modesse e-ehe-cho (or e-ke-cho) are aade into a tea for fever 
and coughs. •**^' tro«i^=. 

es extensively eaten are wild pltnis (Prunes 



deaissa) 



Sarvis berries (Aaelanchier aLiimia) , called 



berries (wal-lop-lo.p«J, thiableberries (loaw-ki). huckleberries (kan. 
nah-nah-pe) and MansaniU berries (paiJ->-8oo)." Of less iaportance 
are wild currants (chah-ho) and gooseberries (has-ohig-ge). 

The wild syringa (Philadelnhtts) called tah-pahk-pe , is used i 

r, 

sons of the spear tips* 



( RhMPus califomica) called 



rheumatism. 



used as a cathartic and also as a medicine 

ws «3^t 

gi^pe (Betberis) called in-nah-mah^ki-kiL 



.^ »• 



highly regarded as a blood mwlioine. It 
.1 month* 4 Jelly nsade frcei the berries ' 



equally good* 



tntalis) . called 



( 1KA 



as a rewady for poiooning^ 



waterlUy 




iJ!.! 



called ha-bil- 



a wia 



lmpox*tant 



are not eaten by the Modesse • 



O'i . miM SN 



8 



th» v>r> SUas of niUcNMd ( A»oI»irijf) called Mhtckfi are taB«d for 



making strine and eord*^,. 



( EqulaetiMi) call«l Ji^^ww. 



oh« by the KodesM, it us«i not only for poliebing arrom. bat also 
as a tea for ooui^s and for bladder trouhles* 

The large green leaves of the ginger root (Asanai) , called •<« 
nah-tah-kil-lo are strongly antlsoptic. Th^ are believed to be 
the best remedy for cuts and boils. They are pat on fnsh, not eooked 



or heated. 



.MAT su-^atil^ •9tiWil 



> «•- g in 

A fine mnuitain grass, called oha-ha*ni-yo, is pouKiad fine and 
soft and used in plaoe of diapers* * 



*». 



The turkey mOlein (Srenooartms setiaenis) is csilled oho- 



right tiae (about 






oines for dropsy. 



i ■ U\ir 



i.^^ t 



This plant is the favorite plant of the little 



•tar 



awLo 



for <mly about twenty days Mudi year 
iv a little before midnight (olsven 
least or a little east of north. When 
plaeo in the sky he puts dew on cb«- 



sah-ye every night; t 
to gather and diy it* 



:tv* 4* 



sqnealM and 



A * # 



principal ingredient for the poison used for the s 
ras the yellow lichen ( Evemia) which grows on pine 



91BO0C1QiOu 



8 Of 



•4***' 



f 



the mt lichen and allowed to rewain an entire year. Rattlesnake 
renon was sometime a added* 

Attacks by gri«»lies . In the old days Indians were frequently aU 
tacked hy gri««ly bears, especially when met at close quarters on the 



trials • 



Some years ago, when Hulsey's father was a young man, a woi»n 



of the A-te-tribe was picking manaanita berries on a high hill on 



Thr 



ch 



prec 



__ ^_„ do-da Creek— the first big creek soutn or norsesnoe oena 
(three or four miles south of it) • Two young men who were hunting in 
th0 Mtgihbortiood heaxxi the woman scream and cry out as if attacked. 
They ran to her and found that a grlssly was holding her doira on the 



ipparently 



wi 



his claws « The young wen shot ten or twelve arrows Into the bear but 



around 



powerful 



bear. 



fore paws rubbed the arrows off and washed the blood off. After awhile 
it was found dead in the brush. This happened during the lifetime 

of Hulsey^s father. 

Once when his father and other men were out hunting they saw a 
cub bear and tried to catch it. The old man called to them not to 
catch it, but they did catch it and it squealed and the mother came 
running in, and the men ran away, ftit Hulsey's father stayed and 
shot the bear and killed it. Then he screamed as if the bear had hold 
of him (to see if the boys would come back) but they kept on running 
and never came back. 



The following document is a duplicate of thie 
preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 




» 






Pit RIVE/^ Tzwies 



A-ju-mah-we 



t? 



.2 



1^1 



/ 



The immediately following ethnographic notes refer to the A-ju- 



mah-we of Fall River Valley, and were secured by Dr. Merriam from 
Ck«rle8 Green in March , 1928. A second set of data refer to the 
Modesse tribe of Pit River peoples and were secured from W« Hulsey 
in 1923 and I907. They are supplementmry to the information con- 
tained in his monograph on the Pit River tribes published two years 
earlier^ vEA./ 



1. The classification and distribution of the Pit River Indian Tribes 
of California, Smithsonian Institution, ii^iscellaneous Collections, 
Vol*78, No/. 5, 1926 




Taboos. The Pit River people did not eat coyote, grizzly bear, skunk, 
loon, pelican, cormorant, night heron or shitepoke. They did eat 
bobcat, mountain lion, and swan, and some even ate mink. 

vihen a woman has a child, neither she nor her husband may eat meat 
or fish. The husband must go to a distant place, usually a mountain, 
and remain over night. He may resume eating in the usual way in a 
few days, but the wife must not touch meat or fish until she is entire- 
ly well. 

The prohibition relates not only to eating but to the smell of 
cooking meat €0 fish. She must be far enough away so that this smell 
could not possibly reach her. 

Signal fjLres . i^ignal fires are called e-se-an-no-e-mat. This refers 
to sinole fires visible at a distance. 

But when the enemy has entered the Pit River or Fall River coun- 
try everybody keeps watch, and whenever anyone sees an enemy he im- 
mediately builds a signal fire. Thus as one man after another locates 
the enemy, a series of fires spring up at intervals, one after the 
other. These signal fires in series are called ta-mat-soo-ge. 

Torches . All of the Pit River tribes carried fire from place to place 
by means of torches. The torches were ingeniously made of strips of 



r 



- 2 - 



frayed bark of juniper of sagebrush, or both. The frayed bark was twisted 
or rolled into the form of a club fifteen or eighteen inches in length 
and tied at intervals so that it would not open out. 

A small coal placed inside ignited the frayed bark, making a low 
glowing fire which burns a long time. It may be carried all day long 
and never goes out. In this way it is easy to carry fire from place 
to place. When opened and exposed to the air ,it bursts into a blaze. 



Salmon spearing. The Big Valley tribe and our tribe used to go down 



Pit River to the falls where the salmon stopped, to catch and dry 
salmon. Large quantities were dried and brought home in pack baskets. 
A mile or two above the mouth of Burney Creek a stream enters Pit 
River from the south. Its name is ^ah-pe-dah-da, called Salmon Creek 
by the Whites. It is less than half a mile in length, but during the 
salmon run it is packed with these fish. Naturally it became a great 
resort for neighboring tribes of Pit fiiver Indians, same of whom 
came from as far up river as Big Valley. A Ipng time ago the^Indians 
established a village there, naming it after the stream, mahrpe-dah-da. 
Here the salmon were cleaned and ditied, and when dry were packed home 
by the several tribes. 

The fire corral . In former days it was the custom to make a fall 

deer hunt in the White Horse Lake country in September or October 

when the deer were fat and the leaves dry. This hunt is called da-ocT^te. 

It was made jointly by two closely related tribes, the Fall River 

A-ju-mah-we and the Big Valley At-wum-we. 

Men with torches started together and ran in opposite directions, 
enclosing a very large circular area — a thousand acres or more. They 
set fires as they ran so that in a short time a huge circle of fire, 
spreading toward the center and constantly contracting, surrounded 
the deer and other animals. They were confused and blinded by the 
smoke and easily killed with bow and arrow. There was no escape. 

After each hunt two or three years were allowed to pass in order 
to give the pine needles time to accumulate before the next. 



- 5 - 

Deer hiinting gjth a rope circle ♦ A rope was stretched around a 
large area at a height of three or four feet and held in place by 
fastenings to trees 9 brush, or stakes. Men were stationed along the 
line and branches and brush were attached to the rope at intervals* 
By striking the rope with clubs these were shaken, madcing a noise 
to JtiTy the Deer within. This hunt was carried on by the ham-mah-we 
of the South Fork of Pit River. It was a springtime hunt. The 
rope circle is called dil-loo-wah-te. 

f 

]2££X deriving in winter^ In winter, usually when the ground was co- 
vered with snow, ^eer drives were made over consifederable areas. 
Good shooters were stationed at points where it was known the ifeev 
would come out. Then a number of people beat the forest and undergrowth 
driving the l/eer toward the shooters. The name of this hunt is /o-too-te 

Edible crickets. The Pit River Indians are fond of the large black 
or dark brown cricket, called ah-tsah; it is good food. It is good 
when dried and keeps well, lasting all winder. The females, when full 
of eggs, are the best of all. 

Juniper berries. Juniper berries are eaten raw. Some are too strong. 
These are not eaten. Trees bearing the sweet berries are selected. 
The berries are pounded and boiled, making a tea, which is taken for 
coughs and other troubles. 

« 

Wokaa . None of the Pit River tribes ate l^kas. Members of the tribes 
say that they never eat anything that does not grow in their own ter- 
ritpry. 

Salt. The name of the salt is t^i Originally the Pit River tribes 
had no salt but were in the habit of adding a little alkali to their 
food. The naune of alkali is 1^, which natme nowadays is use also for 
salt. 



Enemies of the Nos-se. In a battle with the Nos-se or Yah- nah( called 
Te-si-che and Yam-muk by our people) our Fall River Valley people 
usually cajne out ahead because we had more fighting men. During one 



- 4 - 

fight one of our men (Charley Green' s father-in-law) captured a girl 
baby. She was treated as his own child and grew up with our tribe. 
When she had grown up, somebody told her she was not his daughter, that 

she was only a slave* 

Vthen the Government was movint, the Indians to reservations, she 
went with a number of others to Red Bluff, where they were loaded on 
boats and taken down Sacramento River to San Francisco, and then up 
the coast to the M«mdocino Reservation . This was in 1859. 



Poison arroWL* Poison arrows were used for grizzly bears. The 
poison was made by mixing rattlesnake and spider venom in a rotten 
liver and adding the juice of hab-be-kos-lah, the poison parsnip. 
Sometimes also the root of the narrow-leaf Wyeth sunflower was added. 

r 

These things were crushed and poiinded in a mortar hole in the rock and 

were mixed with water. 

The arrows were straight and of hard wood, usually rosebush or 
sarvis berry. The tips were of hard wood tipped with flitt^. 

The old witch doctors, magicians, used to look at the poison 
mixture through a thin flake of obsidian in order to see which was 
the strongest poison, and would dip the obsidian tips in this to 
kill quickly. 

Armor. The Klamath, *iodok, and Pit River Indians when fighting wore 
a kind of heavy robe or overcoat, and also a corset armor called 
ska-lam.'^ The ska-lam^ was made of pieces of hard wood, usually sarvis- 
berry ( Amelanchioy ) . Besides these, there was another kind of armor 
called bow-we, made of very thick hide, usually elk hide and sometimes 
doubled. It came up over the lower half of the face. The Klamath- 
Modok Indians used to wear these when they raided our cotmtry to steal 

boys and girls for slaves. 

Two Ham-mah-we women, old Sally and her sister, were captured by 
the Piutes and kept as slaves for many years. 




u. 



Modesse 



Foods* 



The principal vegetable food is the acorn, of which the 
favorite is that of the black oak ( ^uercus calif ornica ), called 
ta-tah-cho* The acorn is called TaX-tahts* 

^ Hazel nuts ((/him-ko-ke) are prized for food, as are the nuts of 
the sugar pine — which are called 8kil/>*l^ough the tree is ah-sow-yo* 

Nuts of the l(uckeye ( Aesculus californica ) called pahs require 
special preparation but are eaten in times of need. The ^uckeye 



tree is called pah-sil-lo. 



/ 



/^^ 



/ 






The vine maple (Acer circinatum) is called tah-pah-kah-jil-lo. 
Its branches are used for the frames of snowshoes* 

The long shoots of the ff reek |/ogwood (Cornus glabrata ), called 
sul-woh are used for some of the baskets • 

The wood of the mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus parvifolius ) , 
called by the Indians kas'-wow-yo'i is used for digging sticks and also 

for spear points* 

The redbud (Cercis occidentalis), called pis-sah-kah-yo, is 

used for the red design in baskets. 

sh (Ceanothus cuneatus^ t called il-loo-che- 

chal-lo, by the Modesse, is used for making the slender needle used 
in piercing the lobe of the ear of young girls* After this has been 
worn about a month, it is replaced by a larger one made of I h^ wood J 
of the aromatic sumac ( Rhus aromatica trilobata) called by the In- 
dians chah-cha-lo. 

The leaves of the /now ^rush ( Ceanothus cordifolius ) called by 
the Modesse E-che-cho'^ (or e-ket>cho) are made into a tea for fever 

and coughs* 

Fruits and berries extensively eaten are wild plums ( Prunus 
s ubcordata ) called pah-te, chokecherries ( Cerasus demissa) called 
bol. Sarvis berries (Amelanchier alnifolia), called pe-tah, black- 
berries (wal-lop-lo-pe), thimbleberries (lom-ki), huckleberries 
(kan-nan-nah-pe) and kanzanita berries (paj-je-a**). Of less im- 
portance are wild currants (/hah-ho) and gooseberries (has-ohig-ge). 

The wild syringa ( Philadelphus ) called tah-pahk-pe, is used for 
some of the spear tips* 



- 2 - 



The coffeberry or cascara (Rhamnus californica) called chow-wah- 

< 

hah wel-loy is used as a cathartic and also as a meaiciue for rheuma- 
tism* 

The Oregon grape ( Berberis ) called In-nah-mah-ki-kil-lo, is made 
into a tea which is highly regarded as a blood medicine. It should 
be taken for a full month* A jelly made from the berries is equally 
good* 



The ^zalea (Azalea occidentalis ), called lah-si-yo, is regarded 

/ ' — — — 

as a remedy for poisoning* . 

The seeds of the yellow waterlily ( jaymphaea ) called ha-bil-le-lo, 
which form an important food in the case of the Klamath tribe, are not 
eaten by the Modesse* 



Stems of milfeveed ( Asclepias ) called mahts-ke* are used Sox making 

string and cord* 

The horsetail or scouring rush ( Eguis^tum ) called Jim-how-che by 
the Modesse, is used not only for polishing arrows, but also as a 
tea for coughs and for bladder troubles* 

The large green leaves of the ginger root ( ftsarum ), called nah- 
tah-kil-lo are strongly antiseptic* They are believed to be the best 
remedy for cuts and boils* They are put on fresh, not cooked or hea- 
ted* 

/ 

A fine mountain grass, called cha-ha-ni-yo , is pounded fine and 

soft and used in place of diapers* 

The turkey mullein ( Eremo carpus setigerus ) is called che-sah-ye* 
When picked at the right time (about August 25 or 24) and dried for 
a year it takes on great power and is the best of all medicines for 

dropsy* 

This plant is the favorite plant of the little s\immer star awl- 
o-e-chah-mek, who comes out for only about twenty days each year 
in the month of August and appears a little before midnight (eleven 
o'clock) high up and about northeast or a little east of north* 



When awl-^-e-chah-mek is seen in his place in the sky he puts 



dew on che-sah-ye every night j this gives the plant great power 
-- this is the time to gather and dry it* 



/ 



-3- 



The principal ingredient for. the poison used for the stone 
arrow tips was the yellow lichen ( Evernia ) which grows on pine and fir 
trees in tne mountains. The arrow points were embedded in masses of 
the wet lichen and allowed to remain an entire year. Rattlesnake 
venom was sometimes added . 

Attacks by grigglifta * ^n the old days -Indians were frequently attac- 
ked by grizzly bears, especially when met at close quaters on the 
trails* 

^Some years ago, when Hulsey' s father was a young man, a woman of 
the A-te tribe was picking manzanita berries on a high hill on To-pal^. 
lo-da Creek —the first big creek south of Horseshoe Bend (three or 
four miles south of it). Two young men who were hunting in the neigh- 
borhood heard the woman soream and cry out as if attacked. They ran 
to her and found that a /rizzly was holding her down on the ground. 
He had wounded her in the neck and chest, apparently with his claws. 
The young men shot ten or twelve arrows into the bear but did not 
kill him and he chased them. One of them ran around a tree, while 
the other ran off to tell the people. A hunter came with a power- 
ful hunting bow and shot the bear. It went into the water and with 
its fore paws rubbed the arrows off 4nd washed the blood off. After 
awhile it was found dead in the brush. This happened during the 
lifetime of Hulsey' s father. 

Once when his father and other men were out hunting they saw 
a cub bear and tried to catch it. The old man called to them not 
to catch it, but they did catch it and it squealed and the mother 
ease runriing in, and the men ran away. But Hulsey' s father stayed 
and shot the bear and killed it. Then he screamed as if the bear 
had hold of him (to see if the boys would come back )but they kept 
on running and never came back. 



I 



/ 



. y 



A*ju-mah-we 






The iiained lately folio win j ethnographic notes refer to the A-ju* 
mah-we of Fall River Valley, and were secured by 1)t. Merriam from 
Chsrlea Green in xiarch ^ 1928. A second set of data refer to the 
Modesse tribe of Pit River peoples ano were secured from W. Hulsey 
in 192> and 1907# They are supplementary to the information con- 
tained in his iiionograph on the Pit Hiver tribes published two years 
earlier* 



i) 



I 



|:| k 



1. The classification and distributioa of the Pit Kiver Indian Tribes 
of California, Smithsonian Institution, -.iscelianeous Collections, 
Vol.78, Kof. 3» 1926 



tfthnna . The Pit itiver people did not eat coyote, grizzly bear, skunk, 
loon, pelican, cormorant, night heron or shitepoke. They did eat 
bobcat, mountain lion, and swan, and some even ate mink. 

"hen a woman has a Ciiild, neither she nor her husband may eat meat 
or fish. The husband must go to a distant place, usually a mountain, 
and remain over ni^ht. He xuay re.ume eating in the usual way in a 
few days, but the wife must not touch meat or fish until she is entire- 
ly lA^ell. 

The prohibition relates not onlv to eating I ut to the smell of 
cooKiUi^ meat Mf fish. She must be far enough away so that this smell 
cold not possibly reach her. 

*>ignal fixaa. ^ioual fires are called e-se-t 
to sin. le fires visible at a distance. 

ilut when the eneiny has entered the Pit River or fall Kiver coun- 
try ever/bo«V keeps watch, and whenever anyone sees an eueiay he i«- 
aediiitely builds a signal fire. Thus as one man after anotner locates 
the enemy, a series oi fires spring up at intervals, one after the 
other. These si^^nal fires in series are called ta-mat-soo-^e. 

IflXCJififl. All of tue Pit Hiver trxbea car.ied fire from place to place 
by meaiis of torches. The torches were ingeniously m&de of strips of 



/ 



- 2 - 



firayed bark of Juniper of sagebrutih, or both* Th^ frayed bark was twisted 
or rolled into the foa of a club fifteen or eighteen inches in length 
and tied at intervals so that it #ould not open out* 

A small coal x>laced iuslde ignited the frayed berk, making a low 
glowing fire which burns a lon^ time. It may be carried all day lony 
and never goes out'. In this ^^ay it is easy to carry fire froai place 
to place* When 0i>ened and exix)sed to tlie air ,it bursts into a blaze* 

Salmon spearing* The Uig Valley tribe and our tribe used to go down 
Pit River to the f.lls where the salmon stopped , to catch and dry 
salmon* Large quantities were dried and brought home in pack baskets* 
A mile or two above the :.outh of Burney C- eek a stream enters Pit 
River from the south; Its name is mah-pef^dah-dai called Salmon Creek 
by the vyhites* It is less than half a mile in length, but during the 
salmon run it is packed with these fish* IMturally it became a great 
re-sort for neighboring tribes of Pit Hiver Indians, same of whom 
came from as far up river as Big Valley* A long time ago the Indians 
established a village there, naming it after the stream, mali^pe-dah«-da* 
Here the salmon were cleaned and dcied, and when dry were packed home 
by the several tribes* 

The fire corrals In former days it was the custom to make a fall 

deer hunt in the white Uorse Lake country in September or October 

when the deer were fat and the leaves dry* This hunt is called da-oo-te* 

It was made jointly by two closely related tribes, the Pall River 

A-ju«mah-we and the Big Valley At-wum-we* 

Men with torches started together and ran in opposite directions, 
enclosing a very large circular area —a thousand acres or more* They 
set fires as they ran so that in a short time a huge circle of fire, 
spreading toward the center and constantly contractinSt surrounded 
the deer and other animals* They .»ere confused and blinded by the 
smoke and easily killed with bo^ and arrow* There was no escape* 

After each hunt tivo or three years were allov/ed to pass in order 
to give the pine needles time to accumulate before the next* 



t f 












% 



- 3 • 



jja^T jiant'^^e ^iktJ^ a rope circl e » A rope was 8t:r etched abound a 
lar^e area at a height of three or four feet and held in place by 
fastenin^^s to trees^ brush, or 8take8# Men were stationed along the 
line and branches and brush were attached to the rope at intervals* 
By striking the rope with clubs these were sliaken, making a noise 
to - Aiip " the Deer within* This hunt was carried on by the ham^-man-we 
of the South jb'ork of Pit liiver* It was a springtime hunt* The 
rope circle is called dil-loo-*wah-te* 



> 



Beer rijivinfl j,p winter ^ In winter , usually when the ground was co- 
vered with snow. Deer drives were made over considerable areas* 

» 

Good shooters were stationed at points where it was known the Deer 
would come out* Then a number of people beat the forest and undergrowth 
driving the Deer toward the shooters* The name of this hunt is ^o*too<»te* 



Edible o^-rinltf^tfli^ The Pit River Indians are fond of the large black 
or dark brown cricket, callec! ah-tsah; it is good food* It is good 
when dried and keeps well, lasting all winder 4 The females, when full 
of eggs, are the best of all* 

juniper bar -iegj Juniper berries are eaten raw* Some are too strong* 
These are not eaten* Trees bearing the sweet berries are selected # 
The berries are pounded and boiled, making a tea, which is taken for 
. cou^^hs and other troubles* 



Wsk^ifij^ Kone of the Pit A^^iver tribes ate Wokas* Members of the tribes 
say that they never eat unythitig that does not grow in their own ter- 
ritiiry* 

» The name of the salt is t«W^ Originally the Pit Kivor tribes 
had no salt but were in the aauit of adding a little alkali to their 
foc.d* The name of alkali is Te, which name nowadays is use also for 



salt* 



/ 



J i }neiiiie>7 Qf thft Mgyp^-ft^, In a battle witL the Kos-se or yah-nah(called 



/ 



/ 



Te-si-che and Yam-muk by our peojde) our i'all River Valley peop >e 
usually came out ahead because we had more fighting men* During one 



"•'(rr 




- 4 - 



flfi^t one of our men (Charley Greeix^s father-in-law) captured a girl 
IwlQr* She was treated aa nis own child and grew up with our tribe • 
Vlien she Laa £ro.vn up, someboay told her she was not his dau^^hter, that 
she mt^s Oiil^ a slave* 



m the ^overmueut was mowxn^ the Indians to reservations, she 
X witia a noiaber of others to Ked iiluff , wheri^ they were loaded on 
boats and taken down Sacram nto fiiver to San FranciscOf and then up 
the coast to the M«fidocino Reservation • This was in 1859 • 

ypison arrows^ Poison arrows were used for gri:-zly bears* The 
poison was made by aiixinej rattlesnake and spider venoc; in a rotten 
liwer and addin^, the juice oT hab-b< -kos-lah, the poison parsnip* 

times also tr.e root of the narrow-leaf V.yeth sunflower was added* 
XlSusb were crushed and i>ounded in a mortar hole in the rock and 
were oaxea with water* 

The arrows were straight and of hard wood, usually rosebush or 
•arvis berry* The tips were of hard wood tipi)ed with flinj;* 

The old witch doctors, nagicians, used to look at the poison 
through a tnin flalce o'' obsidian iu order to see which was 



tLe stxon^est poison, and would dip the obsidian tips in this to 
kill quickly* 

V 

Al^Qr# The ilamath, ^^odok, and Pit Kiver Indian3 when fit^hting wore 
a kxnd of heavy robe or overcoat, arid also a corset armor called 
•ka-laiL* The ska*lam was made oi pieces of hard wood, usually sarvis- 
berxy (Ac^lanchior)* Besides tnese, there was another kind of armor 
called bow-we, made of very thick hide, usually elk hide and sometimes 
doubled* It came up over the lower half of the face* The iClamath- 
kodok Indians used to wear these when tiiey raiaed our country to steal 
bojrs and <^irls for slaves* 

T*.o Ham-mah-we women, old baily and her sister, weie cai^tured by 
the Piutes and kept as slaves for man^ years* 



/ 



m H - wr 




cuJt^ Wi 







tw ^\«ACiv 









;,> 



r.MK.^ ..i,«_jrw3i:-,ii-.i, . ■ 'CX^iartK,i7"7T'''^^''.' 




V ^ 



i 




TiM Pit BlT«r p»^l« aid not tat i^yetb 



TBor-' 



ant, jdglit II 

eat ^lioat.^l^iitaiii lion, and jSaaii, »d 



•ron or aDdt^ka. Thay did 






ata nlnk. 



aoBia aTan 

Vhaa a aona has a oliild»nalthar riia nor 



^ 



bar huAand may aat meat cr fiah. Tha hua- U>u. ^ 



band mwt go to a diatmt placa, uaually a 
{;.omitaiDt «d ranaln ovar night. Ha «iQr ra- 
fluma aatii^ in tha uaual way In a faw daya, 
^t tha wifa must not touch waat or fiah ontll 

aha la cntlraly aall. 

Tha prohibition ralataa not only to aat- 
Ing but to tha aaall of cooking naat or fiah. 
3ha iiuat be far enou^j^ aa^ so the t this amell 
could not possibly reach her. 



I 



*{■ 







c^oJIju. W 






iiKA (Ml^ fy\AM^/l^ 





fUjL 



waA 






A> 



^ 




V 




(fe«8lj iiar.^^iMk. I(&ii. /•lle«i.^w>r 



li^t l(«ron 






ibitapok*. Th«7 did 



•OlM OTOI 



;6. 



l&eD « voMii has • ehild,Mith«r At nor 
her huAend mj tst most cr fit lu The bus- l^e* 5^— 
band most go to a diatant place, aaually a \^ 

Rioantaic, «»d renain oTor niglit. Be miy la- 
aiuie eatii^ in the uaaal aaj in a few daya* 
Imt the wife muat not touch weat or fish until 

aha ia entirely well. 

The prohibition relatea not only to eat- 
ing but to the ■•ll of cooking aeat or fiah. | 



She must be far enou^ awey ao thet this aaell 
could not possibly reach bar. 



Ch^Jju. ^yuuh 






/Oyy^s^ 



fUjL 



^ 



p:^ 




GciYp.^*^. Sv^tU'--'^ /k^a/vJ.^, 

Oitih^^ V^, 7r, /Vo. 5/ "»^«" 






f-~ 



\ 



^ 



NBWnr*** 





(Q 




Q 



CD 

n 

< 

CO 



SlffllAL FIRES 6 




Thit T»- 



Signal fires «re called f-jp-aif'M-;*-*^ » 
fere to single fires Tisible st a distance. 

Sat lihen the eneiv has entered the Pit KiTer or Fall 
rd»or country eferybody toepa natch, and ■heaver myone 



8tC 



8 an enemy he imnedlately builds a signal fire. 



Thua 



as one mm a 



fter another locates the eneay, a series of 



fires spring up at intarrals, one after the other. 
signal firea in series are called tirM^t^-syo-y*, 



Th 




TORCUKS 



All of the Pit BiTer tribes oarried fire froa place 
to place >y means of torches. The torses sere Ingeniously 
made of strips of frayed berk of juniper or sagebrush, or 



both. 



The frayed hark itss tvisted or rolled 



1 

into the form of a club 15 or 18 inches in length end tied 



at in terra la so that it wuld not open oat. 

A small coal placed inside ignited the frayed bark. 



making 



It 



may be carried all day long and nevrr gpes out. In this 



way it is easy to csriy fit* frtm place to place. 



When 



i<. 



ed and ezpoaid to the air, itf borsts into a blete. 



. 




SAUiOIi SPS&RIIC 



"> 



The Big Yalley tribe and oar tribe used to go down 



Pit Hirer to the falls vhere the eelBon stopped, to eatch 
and dry aalecn. Lai^e quantities were dried end brought 
hoBO in pack baskets* 

I Bile or tio ahoTe the soath of Barney Creek a stream 
enters pit Hiver froa the aoath. Its no&e is IJy-p^ahjda , 
aalled Salaon Creek b/ the Ihitea. It is less than half 
a Bile in length » bat dnriog the aalmon nm it is packed 
with t-ioae fish. Ratarally it beease a great retort for 
neif^ boring tiibee of Pit Hirer Indians » aonie of when cane 
froB as far up rirer as Big Valley* A long time ago the 
Indians establiahed a Tillage there, uaBlng it after the 



ttrsam 



'jh^^ 



•di. Here the talaon were elaaned and 



1 



dried, and ihen dry were packed hoae by ^e saveral tribes 




THE PIBE COBRA 





In forner days it wbs the custon to ma Is a fall deer 
hunt in the TIShite Horse Lake country in Septemlwr or October 
when the deer were fat and the leaTea dry. This hunt is 
called ife-Qo-te. It was made jointly by two closely re- 
lated tribes, the Pall River l^unyh-we and the Big 

Valley AW 

Men with torches started together and ran in opposita 

directions, enclosing a yery large circular area— a thou- 
sand acres or more. They set fires as they ran so that 
in a short time a huge circle of fire, spreading toward 
the center and constantly contracting, sirrounded the deer 
and other animals. They were confused and blinded by the 



with bow and prrow. There was 



smoke and easily ki 



no escape. 



After each hunt two or three years were allciwd to 
pass in order to gire the pine needles time to accumulate 

before the next. 




flfw 



mm HUHTIKG WITH i EOPZ CIBCI2 




A rope wa? strstohed around a larg? area at a heigj^t 

by 

of 3 or 4 feet and held in place^faatenings to trees, 

« 

brush, or stakes. Ben were stationed along the line and 
brerches and bro^ were attached to the rope at intcrrsls 
By striking the rope with clubs these were shaken, making 
a noise to keep the Deer within. This hunt was carried 



on by the Haa«nah»we cf the South Pork of Pit Eiver. It 
wes a sprirgtime hunt. ' *^ ^/^ (/<au^ 




/i 






mm DRIVING i:i mmm^ 




In winter, usually when the ground wap coTered with 



snow. Deer driTes were rr-ade orer considerable areas. 

Good shooters were stationed at points where it was known 

the Deer would come out. Then a number of people beat 
the forest and undergrowth, driving the Deer toward the 
shooters. The nene of this hunt is 36."too«>.te. 



1^ 



KDIBI2 CHIGKETS 



The Fit Hirer Indians are fond of the 



large black or dark brnni criekat, eallad 



i*i»$h i it is gpoi food. It is good when 




/ z 



dried and keeps sell, lasting all sinter* 



The f scales » i^n fall of egg8» are the bast 



of all. 



' * 



JUNIPER BERRIES 




im*Arj»1HI«liii^«^,^^ 



Juniper berries are aten raw. Some are 



too strong. These are not eaten. Trees 
bearirg the sweet berries are selected. The 
berries are poimded nd boiled. Baking a tea, 

r 

f^ich is taken for ooagbs end otter troubles. 




«-« ff«l; 



lOKAS 



uipi.1V 



•viii«ititflB'f:V4^'<ilP^t-^ 






/ Heme of the Pit River tribes ate Wokas. MeAers of 
the tril)e8 say that they never eat anything that doee not 
grow in their own country. 



SALT 




The name of sa 



It iS/^. 



(?itJR\v«r tribes 

0»iginallythc\ had no 



salt but were in the habit of adding a little alkali to 
their food. The nane of ^--alkali is ^. which na.e 

i- 

adays is used also for salt. 



now- 




In a 



INHMIES OP THE n5S-S1 
battle with the l^g^ or Ig::^ i^'^^^^^ 




T^i.g. end I^^by our people) our Fall Birer Yal- 
ley people usually came out ahead because we had moiw 



^ 



fighting wen. During one 



fidit one of our men (Charley 



Green 



ts father-in-law) captured a girl baby. 



She was 



treated as his own child and grew up with our tribe. 
mien she had grown up. somebody told her she was not hi. 
d8i:ghter. that she was only a slaTe. 



Ihen the Govemme 



nt was moTing the Indians to reser- 



vstions 



, she went with a nmber of others to Bed Bluff. 

n- A^A „„ tmnta and taken down Sacranento 
nhere they were loaded on eoats ana «■«. 

Kiver to San Francisco, and then up the coaat to the 



Mendocino Reserve 



tion. This was in 1859 



POISON AEROWS 



' 



Poiaon arrow were used for ^rizaly .Bears. 



The poison 



nas me 



de by mixing rattlesnake and spider Tenom in a rotten 



IS on 



lirer and adding tiie juice of hab^be-tkos^lah. the po 
parsnip. Sometimes also the root of the narrow-leaf Wyeth 
sunflower was added. These things were crushed and pounded 



in a m 



ortar hole in the rock and were mixed with water. 



The arrows were straight aid of hard wood, usually 
rosebwh or sarvis beny. The tips were of hard wood 

tipped with flint. 

The old l^tch Itoctors, Magicians, used to look at 



the 



po 



ison mixture through a thin flake of 



in order 



to see wMch was the strongest poison, and would dip the 
obsidian tips in this to kill quickly* 



the Kjam»th^ Modpk. and Pit River Indians when 



fighting wore a kind of hesTy robe or OTereoat, and also 
a corset amor called skS-'^n . The p\B''lsm was made of 




;• ..-^ 



pieces of hard nood, usually sarrisberry C Aaelanchior l. 
Besides these, there was another kind of amor called 

s 

bowlwe . made of Tery thick hide, usually elk hide and 
sometimes doubled. It came up OTer the lower half of 
the fece. The Klgnath-Modolc Indians used to wear these 
when they raided our country to steal boys and girls 



for slaves. 



Two HaB-nah-we women, old Sally and her sister, 
were captured by the Piutes and kept as slaves for many 



years. 



.i^auSk. 



\ 



Modeaae 



The principal vegatable food is the acorn, of which the 
favorite is that of the black oak ( ^uercus californica), cmlled 
ta-tah-cho« The acorn is called Ta-tahts. 

A Hazel nuts (Chim-ko-ke) are prize»l for food, as are the nuts of 
the sugar pine —which are called skil^i^^^ough the tree is ah-sow-yo. 

Huts o; the Buciceye (Aesculus californica) called pahs re ,uire 
special preparation taut are e .ten in times of need. The Buckej^e 
tree is called pah-sil-lo. 

The vine maple (Acer circinatum) is called tah-pah-kah-jil-lo# 
Its branches are used for the frames of suowshoes. 

Txie lon^ shoots of the Creek Dogwood (Cornus glabrata), called 
sul-woh are used for soxae of the baskets* 

The wood of the mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus parvif olius) , 
called by zhh Indians kas-wow-yo^ is used for digging sticks and also 

for spear points • 

The redbud (Cercis occidentalis), called pis-sah-kah-yo, is 
used lor the red desi^ in baskets. 

^ood of the SmoKe Brush (Ceanothus cuneatus), called il-loo-che- 
chal^lo, by the Modesse, is used for making tue slencer needle used 
in piercing the lobe of the ear of young girls. After this iias been 
worn about a month, it is replaced by a larger one made of the wood 
of the aromatic sumac (Rhus aronatica trilobata) called by the In- 

dians chah-cha-lo. 

The leaves of the Snow Brush (Ceauothus cordifolius) called by 
the i-odesse y-che-cho^(or e-ke-cho) are made into a tea for fever 

and coughs. 

Fruits and berries extensively eaten are .<ild plums (Prunus 
subcordata) called pah-te, chokechen ies (Cerasus demissa) called 
bol, Sarvis berries (Amelancnier alnilolia), called pe-tah, black- 
berries (wal lop^lo-pe), thimbleberries (lom-ki), huckleberries 
(kan-nan-nah-pe) and -ianzanita berries (paj-je-«^). Of less im- 
portance are wild currants (Chah-ho) and gooseberri' s (has-cnig-ge). 

The wild syringa (ihiladelphus) called tah-paiik-pe, is used for 
some of the spear tips. 



- 2 - 



'j& 



The cotTeberry or cascara (Hiiainnus calilornica) called chowAaii- 
hah wel-lo, is used as a cathartic aud also as a medicine Tor rheuma- 
tism* . . 

Tue Oregon grape (Berberis) called In-nah-mah-ki-kil-lo, is made 
into a tea which is highly regarded as a blood medicine. It should 
be taken for a full month. A jelly made f om the berries is e.iually 

good. 

The Asialea (Azalea occidentalis), called lah-si-yo, is re^^arded 

as a reriiedy for poisoning. 

The seeds of the yellow waterlily (nymphaea) called ha-bil-le-lo, 
which form an ia-^ortant food in the case of the Klamath tribe, are not 

eaten by the Modesse. 

Stems of milkweed (Asclepias) called mahts-ke'are used for making 

string and cord* 

The horsetail or scouring rusn (Kiuisittun) called jim-how-che b^ 

tue Modease, is used not only for polisaing arrows, but also aa a 
tea for coughs and for bladder troubles. 

The large green leaves of th« ginger root (asarum), called nah- 
taii-kil-lo are strongly antiseptic. They are believed to be the best 
remedy for cuts and boils, 'i'hey are put on fresh, not cooked or hea- 

ted* 

A fine mountain grasts, called cha-ha-ni-yo, is pounded fine and 

sort and used in place of diapers. 

The turkey mullein (Kreciocarpus setigerus) is called che-sah-ye. 
^'hen picked at the right time (about Au^cuet 23 or 24) and dried for 
a year it takes on great power and is the bes - of all medicines for 

dropsy. ^ 

This plant is the favorite plant of the little sianner star awl- 

o-e-chah-mek,'' wlio comes out lor only about twenty days each year 
in the month of Au^^st and appears a little before nidni^iit (eleven 
o'clock) high up and about northeast or a little east of north. 

Vihen av«l^-e-chah-mek^is seen in his place in the sky he puts 
dew ou che-sah-ye e\er:f uioht; this givos the plant isre&t power 
-- this is the time tn gather and dry it. 



-3- 



^* 



I- 



Th« principal ingredient for. the poison used for the stone 
arrow tips was the yellow lichen (Evernia) which grows on pine and fir 
trees in the mountains. The arrow points were embedded in masses of 
the wet lichen and allowed to remain an entire year. Rattlesnake 

veuom was sometimes added • 

'I 

Attacks by grizglieai> In the old days •'•ndians were freviuently attae- 
ked by grizzly bears, especially when met at close tiuaters on the 

trails* * ' 

Some years ago, when Hulsey' s father was a young man, a woman of 
the A-te tribe was picking manzanita berries on a high hill on To-pah^< 
lo-da Creek —the first big creek south of Horseshoe Bend (three or 
four miles south of it). Two young men who were hunting in the neigh- 
borhood heard the woman seream and cry out as if attacked. They ran 
to uer and found that a Grizzly was holding her down on the ground. 
He had wounded her in the neck and chest, apparently with his claws. 
The young men shot ten or twelve arrows into the bear but did not 
kill him and he chased them; One of them ran around a tree, while 
the other ran off to tell the people. A hunter came with a power- 
ful hunting bow and shot the bear. It went into the water and with 
its fore pa.s rubbed the arrows off *nd washed the blood off. After 
awhile it was found dead in the brush. This happened during, the 

lifetime of Hulsey'a father. 

Once when his father and other men were out hunting they saw 
a cub bear and tried to catch it. The old man called to them not 
to catch it, but they did c; tch it and it s^iuealed ana ti.e mother 
caiae running in, and the men rrxn away. But Hulsey's father stayed 
and shot the bear and killed it. Ihen he screjiiiied as if the bear 
had hold of him (to see if the boys would com^ back )but they kept 
on run^:ing and never came back. 



I 



M0D2S38 



The principal vegetcble food is the ecorn, of which the 



l(lack Oak ( Qu££&]i9 




called 




Ijhe acorn is called 




Hazel nuts ( 




are prized for food, as are the nuts of the sugar pine-^'Which 
are called A^./. though the tree is A>.g0^jy^, » 

Huts of the Buckeye ( Aesculus californica ) called^Jk^' 
peauire special preparation but are erten in times of need. 



The Buckeye tree is called 




The Tine M^ple fAcAr circinatum) is celled >Ta^»pfi^»ka}l- 3 ^'jiO 
Its branches ere used for the frar.es of snowfhoes. 




The long shoots of t' e Creek Dogwood (C 



are used for some of the baskets. 




)» called 



The wood of the Jaounttiin ifehogany ( Cercocar pns prrvifolius). 
called by the I n d i nna^ J ^^vV-wow-y o \ is used for digging sticks and 



i\ 



also for spear points. 



MfVvoJl 



€.SS ^ 



The Hedbud (Cercia occiden talis K called ?is -3 ry-l^^h-yo . 
is used for the red design in bf^skets. 




Wood of the Smoke Brush (Ceinothns cuneatua ^ celled 
L-loQ-Qhe-chfllilo . by the UodoF^e, is used for making the 
slender needle used in piercing the lobe of the ear of young 
girls. After this h£F been worn about a nonth, it is replaced 
by a larger one made of the wood of the itromatic /^umac fEhua 

trilobfltfl ) called by the Indians 





The leaves of the Snow Brush fC eanothua cordifoliua ^ called 



by the Mo(1e -se E Cche^GhcT (or > g>ke->cho) 



are made into a tea for 



fever end coughs. 



Pruitp 



and berries extensively enten are ifild/flums (Erunua 



aubcordftta) called 



!/%«./ 



okecherries (Cerasus demispa) called 



i.jX* Sarvirtberries (Ampl- r.chier rlnifnlin), called^fe^itah, 
]g6.Rckberries (yol-lop'-lo-pe), ^imbleberries ( I^Tnlki ) . ;Hickle- 
berries ( Xan-nan-rah-p e ) and Manzanita berries CPa.i'-.ie-goo1 . Of 
leas importance nre /ildy^urrants ( Qnghrho) f;nd ytjoopeberries C^s- 



rV\0(^e.S8^ 3 



The T^ild 2?yringa fP hiladelphus ) called .ffihjpal^k-y. is used 



for somo of the spear tips# 



^ 



V The j3of f ee^erry or gnscara ( Rhammus californica ) called 







o w~wah»hHh yel-lo . is used as b cathartic and also as a medi- 



cine for rheunatism. 




The J3regon JSrape fBerberis) celled 



is made into a tea which is highly regarded as r blood medicine. 
It should be tfcken for a full month, A jelly made from the ber- 



ries is equally good. 



The Azalea ( Azalea occidentalis ), gh 1 le d Eah-si'-^yo . i 



IS re- 



garded 8s a remedy for poisoning. 



The ?eeds of the Yellow y^terlily ( Nympbaea ) called Ha-.bil-.le;^lo. 
Mihich form .an important food in the case of the Klamath tribe, 
are not en ten by the Modesse. 



Stems of J^filkVeed ( Aflclepi^g J called l^ti^^fl^^' 



-ke' are used for 



making strin/3 ' "^ cord. 



Avvocijesse, 4 



The ttirpetail or 3couring Rush ( Bquisitum ) called /im«how-ch e 
by the Modesse, is used not only for polishing arrows, but also 
as 8 tea for ooughs and for bladder troubles. 



The Ifirge green leaves of the Ginger Boot ( Asarum) . called 



are strongly antiseptic. They are believed to be 



the best rertedy for cuts and boils. They are put on fresh, not 
cooked or ftlated. 




A fine mountain grass, ca lied / ma-halni «jo ^ is pounded fi 



and soft and used in place of diapers. 



Jfwllein (Srepiooarpug setlTerup^ is called^ 



Xft. When picked at the right time (abiut August 23 or 24) and 
dried for a year it takes on great power ai^d is the best of all 
medicines for llropsy. ' 

This plant is the favorite plant of the little sumner star 
y •• 9r P'^f^^^'^ik/ w^io oomea out for only about 20 days each year 
in the month of August and appears a little before midnight (11 
c'clook) high up and about «*Elor a little east of north. 



7^ 



t /wl^o>y>ohah-ine^' 



A' 



this is the time to gather and dry it. 



■^rf 



'b 



^ /db'g^^^S&f^C^lL^'igl^^it^ ihe 

principal ingredient for the poison 
used for the stone arrow tips was the 
yellow lichen (Evernia) which grows 
on pine and fir trees in the mountains. 



The 



arrow points were embedded 



in masses of the wet lichen and allowed 
to remain an entire year. Rattlesnake 
venom was sometimes added. 




ATTACK3 BY GRI;.:.L1I^3 




rizz 



In the old days Indiana were frequently attacked by 
ly ^ars, especially when met at close quarters on 



the trails. 



Some years ago, when Hulsey*e father was a young man, a 
woman of the A-rte tribe was picking mansanite berries on a 



h 



ch 



igh hill on Torpoh r -Ac.-da C reek— tho first big creek south 
of Horseshoe Bend (3 or 4 mile? south of it). Two young men 
who were hunting in the neighborhood heard the woman scream 
and cry out as if attacked. They ran to her and found that a 
Grizzly was holding her do-^n on the ground. He had wounded 
her in the neck tnd chest, appcrently with his claws. The 
young men shot 10 or 12 ar 'ows into the bear but did not kill 
him and he chased them. One of them ran around e tree, while 
the other ran off to tell the people. A hunter came 77ith a 
powerful hunting bow and shot the beer. It went into the water 
end with its fore paws rubbed the arrows off and washed the 
blood off. After a-.vhile it was found derd in the brush. This 




happened during the lifetime of Hulsey's fnther. 

Once when his fathor and other men were out hunting they 



sa.v a 



cub beer and tried to catch it. The old man called to 



them not to catch it. but they did catch it and it squealed 
and the mother came running in. and the men ran away. But 
Hulsey's father atsyed and shot the bear and killed it. Then 
he screamed as if the bear had hold of him (to see if the boys 
wuld come back) but they kept on running and never came back. 



) in ISPat 




Ch^'iiti^ih 



I 



'irtkruff 



/^Aj^/it^ 



Vri^ 



fj /'/I 




'^r^UH^ 



//t//l 



i A>u 



Irio 



fa 



n 



Pa^ Ji 



C. Hart Menfam 

Paper* 

BANCMS8 

80/18 c 



^i/LiOli 



(/Cfl u 



f 



J lU 



-C^J ^ K 



ILijJu 



m 




^liML 



JK^Ucni 



y2<^b 



14 



i 



\ 



E^ 



it td 



CHEMARIKO 




V 



**-*-■ 



^ : 



r^ei 



jf^j*. 



The following notes are excerpts taken fron a series of six 



JAm 



letters dated September 11, 30; OetolMr 15, 19. 28 and January 6, 
1922 written in longhand fro« Burnt lUnch, Trinity County, ty John 



iJ>^ 



P. Harrington and addressed to Dr. Merrian. Harrington's infomant 



was one Mrs. Sally Noble who was also known to Dr. ^erria«, and the 
two ethnologists had a kind of "partnership" of interest in her as a 



repository of information on the culture iwid language of the Chemareko 
Indians, Merriam had disoovered this last speaker of the language son 
tine before and let Harrington in on the find, Harrington, usually 
secretive about his informants to other linguists and ethnologists, 
seems to hare had a different reUtionship with Merriam over the 

LMkA And MVAr&l Cofltanoan (Olhonean in Merriam* s classification) 



T» 



informants • In the letters are numerous pleas for Merriam not to men- 
tion to atyone at all (including Harrington's own chief in Vfashington 
at the Bureau of American Ethnology) that he was at Burnt Ranch working 
with a Chemareke informant. Now, with all parties deceased, there seems 
no reason to withhold the interesting bits of Chemareke ethnography 



» n. 



Merriam 



Harrington 



Dr. Merriam (Ed.), Those parts of the six letters mentioned which 
deal strictly with Chemareko ethnology are as follows: 



J 



September 11, 1921) • The name for ant-lion is curious 



i^wr*!^'^ 



\ 

2 



it !• you-r«h.*«h-cho-U-da, aournlng dov«"« grand«oth«r. I got 
both nwws for the rabbit spwUs only yesterday, one caae to SaUy 
In the night. Th^ are: hee^ee^ol-laa. cottonUil rabbit; he-noo- 
hol-lah. jaokrabbit. The Che-oah-re-ko alw have two nwes for tick 
epeolee: teee-na, large wodetlck; teep-hoo, reiy e«all tick spedee, 
knonn alio ae he.«oo.hol-lah teep-hog^e-daji, Jackrabblt tick. Haying r 
word for beans, thay dubbed th«« alse tsee-na, Uterally tlcksl 

A ourlotts anato«ioal term Is ohaoh-hl. This Is said to be the 
rume of a sosole, the site of one's Uttle finger or siaaUer and resem- 
bling a worm, which occurs In the shoulder of the deer. Indians when 
eating boiled deer meat used to throw It away in disgust. It was care- 
Ifully expUlned that It Is not a worm or parasite, but a muscle. Am 
also getting the pUoe names straightened out and will write you at 
length In a few days about these and other Interesting points. She 

sticks to It that the Che-wA-re-ko called Ironsides Mountain A-woo- 
Treh-dah literally great mounUln. The first people used to make 



pilgrimages 



oalled Big Mountain 



peak 



Mountain 



natter Is also straightened out. 



I 



Did you ever hear of the tribe known as the Hoppa ae Sah-yaT 
If not tills may yield Important results. Thtqr are said to live down 
the coast and It may turn out that they are the "Kongatl." At any 
rate It Is a tribe south of fureka somewhere. Another interesting 



Ch«-aah< 



plainly 



•«^iiah< 



.to««wfthk< 



elld#d fro. Chwh.tah Hoo-««hk.tah, oh«ii-tah, newilng across th« o« 
or on the othor eido of any body of water; and Hoo-nahk-tah being 
term for •ooiier." The word therefore aeans fro« aoroes the ooean. 



r 



Thv oall horee the saae as dog, and domestic oat the saae as 



prefixed 



■;« ^ 



n (Utter of SepteAer 30. 19^) . "Sally Hoble has at last remembered 



.loo«.dan 



It csSe to her in the night and is connected etywologieally with 



t? 



Chal-dah< 



boundaries 



ri^Alk I^V""*^ "^ 



l« 



important 



4 V«i« 

from Mr. Zach Bussell, haU-breed Chemareko, that Ketinohow (a place 



headwaters 



the Mad Riyer—I am not suri hw to spell it and oamot find it on 
the maps that I haw here) is a Chemareke placename, and Sally agrees 
to thirtool It means the place of a kind of wild onion. I also 
haye information that Ssa-nah-ma, a fUt near the mouth of North Fork 
Trinity, is Chssaireko territory r 



'iitlm « 



IV (Utter of October 19, 1921). "The grammatical material also is 



language 



IndleatiT* 



ii0f»tiv« *nd lnt«rrogfttiv« torma of the vert and 
, tenae ^atMS that you ean find in anj l«nc«»fM 
ilone Bay be rendered Iqr the foUcning eufflxee. ei 
pertiouiar and definite sphere of memfet -ht -h« 



»hanat 



n VLset and vhen she Tolun* 



different 



glTen at first pronunoiatioii#* 



fhrnr 



v-...'^ 



▼ (Letter of October 28, 1921) • 



ipperently 



show that the Cheaareko territory extended far enough up the Ti-inity 
River to include the Chataan Ranch, which ia aituated thirteen nilea 
upatreaa fro« the confluence of the Horth Fork of the TrinityJ The 
Chatwan place is described as a flat on the south side of the Trinity 



i'\^ 



at or near the confluence of Soldier Creek with the river. Tha 



••« 



r liQf 






HlyaapoM^ 



included Keohinchow, fifteen or twenty ■!. 

« The 



.ps aeeessible to 



boundary line was sonsvhere 



Salnon vas called 



^%^ z 



nom«nich-hoo (note the preaenoe of diatinct h afUr the oh) , and Mra. 



Moble aaya that WiUiaa Hoble»a wife* a ■other taUta that lansuage 
fluently and ia at preaent at Oranla Pa«a or at leaat aoaenhere in that 
vicinity in aouthem Oregon. 

I a« now in IV eighth week with Mra. Woble and ahe is r««e«bering 
store and acre. It ia viUl to this work for to £tpgr right on with her 



language iMmoriied« and 



language is reaeuad. And such an tnteraatlng lanpaga 



^ 1 



iKparfectlT^ 



g*» 



drank* Lu*idinda 



A. ^ ^ 



at lu'it but emphail»«8 the progressiv* connotation of tha i«perfecUva» 
Another ourlous faatura is that in tailing a ( 



1 ^ 



speaker 



draaas, Thmy 



speaker and the quotation imediately foUows. It is curious to find 
this in a so-oalled "priaitive* language. 



days 



curious 



vhaterer they are, away in disgust because of the wo 



Chmareko 
) glands, or 
I appearance^ 



Vow I could not understand Mrs, Moble well on this subject, but Frank 
killed a deer recently and I told hin to be sure and let ae see the 
Ko-chun. I secured a speoinsn and an enclosing it in this letter. 



gland 



diameter. It is entirely encased 



thinks 



the shoulder of the deer, at the ?pex of the shoulder. The naae Ko- 



also 



luckily obtained. This too I aa enclosing. It is apparently what is 



popularly known as the gall^ worn. 



.4 



\ 



) 



JamuU7 6, 1922). I mBOm 



balf-toMd 



», further about the plM«BMts» and rwd 
lotioa of your lottor that doali with tho Ch«»r«ko- 
boondazy. I aa •orry to iUto that ha hai no daflnlto 



knowXadfo on tho aubjaot, but taya 



plaoa 



l^ck^ 



«aa ChoMnka Tarritoiy. Ha atlok» to it that zm wmwi w *»«*"« 
Cz«ak «aa a Chanarako ranoharla* 

It Is a eurloua lnfon«tio« about tha calling of inguinal 
glanda and ivriapod* ty tha att» ni«» l«nH ItfUf . discussion o; 
latter of October 2Si], I 



The following document is a duplicate of the 
preceding document. It may contain annotations 
and corrections not found on the original. 






cp.^d] 






Chemariko 



The following notes are e:xi3i^8 taken from a series of six letters 
dated September 11, 50, October 15, 19f28, 1921 and January 6, 1922 
written in longhand from Burnt Ranch, Trinity County , by John ?• 
Harrington and addressed to Dr« Merriam* 



n*s informant was . 
one Mr. Sally i»oble who was also known to Dr. Merriam, and the two^had 
a kind of ••partnership" of interest in her as a repository ckf informa- 
tion on the culture and language of the Chemareko Indians. Merriam 
had discovered this last speaker of the language some time before and 
let Harrington in on the find. Harrington, usually secretive about 
his informants to other linguists and elihnologists, seems to have had 
a different relationship with Merriam over the Chemareko and several 
Costanoan (Olhonean in Merriam* s classifacation ) informants. In the 
letters ai*e numerous pleas for Merriam not to mention to anyone at 
all (including Harrington's own chief in Washington at the Bureau of 
American Ethnology) that he was at Burnt Ranch working with a Chemareko 
informant. How, with all parties deceased, there seems no reason to 
withhold the interesting bits of Chemareko ethnography which Harring- 



\sh 



ton communicated so freely to Merriaun, and their 




here may 



be considered a kind of joint publication by Harrington and Dr. Merriam ^5^^). 
Those parts of the six letters mentioned which deal strictly with Che- 
mareko ethnology are as follows: 

I (Letter of September 11, 1921). The name for ant-lion is curious ; 
it is ^ou-rah mah-cho-li-da, mourning dove's grandmother. I got both 
names for the rabbit species only yesterday, one came to Sally in the 
night. They are: hee-wee-nol-lam, cottintiiil rabbit; he^moo-hol-lah, 
jackrabbit. The Che-mah-re-ko also have two names for tick species: 
tffee-na, large woods tick; t'eep-hoo, very small tick species, known al- 
so as he-moo-hol-lah l/eep-hoo-ee-dah, jackrabbit tick. Having no word 
for beans, they dubbed them also tsVe-na, literally ticks! 

A curious anatomical term is chach-hi. This is said to be the name 
of a muscle, the size of one's little finger or smaller and resembling 
a worm, which occurs in the shoulder of the deer. Indians when eating 
boiled deer meat used to throw it away in disgust. It was carefully 
explained that it is not a worm or parasite, but a muscle. Am also 



- 2 - 

getting the place names straightened out and will write you at 
length in a few days about these and other interesting points. 
She sticks to it that the Che-mah-re-ko called Ironsides Mountain 
A-woo Treh-dah literally great mountain. The first people used to 
make pilgrimages to the top of that mountain when they got old, 
and would pray there and descend young again. The mountain called 
Big Mountain by the whites is not Ironsides, but the peak opposite 
Mrs. Noble's ranch, the Indian name of Big Mountain being Moo-neh-nah- 
tse. Thus this matter is/(straightened out. 

Did you ever hear of the tribe known as the Hoppa as Sah-ya? If 
not this may yield important results. They are aaid to live down the 
coast and it may turn out that they are the "Nongatl". At any rate 
it is a tribe south of Eureka somewhere. Another interesting matter 
is that the tribal name Che-mah-re-ko has the initial sound clicked. 

I did not notice this the first day, but now hear it plainly every time. 
It should be written Ch»e-mah-re-ke, with clifeked ch» . I got the 
etymology of ChVm-too-wahk-tah, whiteman, yesterday. It is elided 
from Ohem-tah Hoo-wahk-tah, ch^m-tah, meaning across the ocean or on 
the other side of any body of water; and Hoo-wahk-tah being the term 
for "comer". The word therefore means comer from across the ocean, 

or on the other side of any body of water; and hoo-wahk-tah being the 
term for "comer. The word therefore means from across the ocean. 
They call horse the same as dog, and domestic cat the same as 

• — 

wildcat with "whiteman" sometimes prefixed to these names* 

» 

II (tetter of September JO, 1921)* "Sally Noble has at last remembered 
the real old name of Ironsides mountain • It is Cha-lee-dan Ah-woo. 

It came to her in the night and is connected etymo logically with 
Chal-dah-som, the Chemareko name of the New River Tribe. Thus the 
name throws light on tribal boundaries." 

III (Letter of October 15, I92I )• "I have have important information 
from Mr. Zach Bussell, half-breed Chemareko, that Ketinchow ( a place 
fifteen or twenty miles south of Hyanpom and near the headwaters of 
the Mad River - I am not sure how to spell it and cannot find it on 



- 5 - 



the maps that I have here) is a Chemareko placename, and oally agrees 
to this tool It means the place of a kind of wild onions. I also 
have information that Sam-nah-ma, a flat near the mouth of North Pork 
Trinity , is Chemareko territory ! •• 

IV (Letter of October 19, 1921)# "The grammatical material also is 
looming up in large proportions^ The language has quite a rich I struc- 
ture, one might almost say intricate. There are indicative, unreal, 
negative and interrogatite forms of the verb and one of the fullest 
tense systems that you can find in any languages. The future tense 
alone may be rendered by the following suffixes, each evidently with 

a particular and definite sphere of usage: -h, -han, -han'i, -hanan, 
-hanat, and -ni. And all these are in common use, and when she vo- 
lunteers a word a second time she may give a different suffix from that 
given at first pronunciation . 

V (Letter of October 28, 1921). "I have apparently information to show 
that the Chemareko territory extended far enough up the Trinity River 
to include the Chatman ranch, which is situated thirteen miles up- 
stream from the confluence of the North Fork of the Trinity I The 
Chatman place is described as a flat on the south side of the Trinity 
at or near the confluence of Soldier Creek with the river. The Che- 
mareko territory also included Kechinchow, fifteen or twenty miles 
south of Hyaumpom, ana not shown on the maps accessible to me. The 
downstream boundary line was somewhere in the vicinity of William No- 
ble's place. The tribe at the Porks of the Salmon was called Hoo-nom- 
nich-hoo (note the presence of distinct h after the ch), and Mrs. No- 
ble says that William Noble's wife's mother talks that language fluently 



and is at present at Grants Pass or at least somewhere in that vicinity 
in southern Oregon • 

I am now in my eightfh week with Mrs* Noble and she is remembering 
more and more. It is vital to this work for to stay right on with her^ — J 
while I have the language memorized, and stay with it till the whole 
language is rescued. And such an interesting lan^niagel It has aspects 
just like Polish or Russian a perfective and imperfective.E.g. , lu'in^ 



. 4 - 

I took a drink; but lu'it, I drank. Lu'idinda means the same as 
lu*it but emphasizes the progressive connotation of the imperfective. 
Another curious feature is that in telling a story they frequently just 
mention the name of the speaker and omit the word that means "says •• 
or^'said'^ « This is the same as is done in our dramas. They name 
the speaker and the q^uotation immediately follows. It is curious to 
find this in a so-called "primitive" language* 

V/e spent several days on anatomical terms, and obtained one ve- 
ry curious one. It seema that inside the fat of the groin of the 
deer there is a worm-shaped piece of muscle or "meat" which the 
Chemareko have a jjpecial term for, namely, Ko-chun. They throw these 
glands, or whatever they are, away in disgust because of the worm- 
like appearance. Now I could not understand Mrs. Noble well on this 
subject, but Frank killed a deer recently and I told him to be sure 
and let me see the Ko-ch\in. I secured a specimen and am enclosing 
it in this letter, when fresh the gland is of livid or bluish color 
and about one inch and a quater long and a quater inch in diameter. 
It is entirely encased in fat or suet, apparently Mrs.-Hoble thinks 
that these also occur on the shoulder of the deer, at the apex of 
the shoulder. The name Ko-chun is also applied to a kind of worm, 
a specimen of which was also luckily obtained. This too I am enclosing 
It is apparently what is popularly known as the galley worm." 

VI (Letter of January 6, 1922). I made a special trip to ask Hlx. Zack 
Bussell, half-breed Chemareko, further about the placenames, and read 
to him the section of your letter that deals with the Chemareko-Nor «- 
rel-m\xk boundary. I am sorry to state that he has no definite know- 
ledge on the subject, but says that his mother, who talked Chemareko 
fluently, told him that Hettinshaw is a Chemareko word and that the 
place was Chemareko Territory. He sticks to it that the mouth of Sol- 
dier Creek was a Chemareko rancher ia# ^ 

It is curious information about the calling of inXuinal glands 
and myriapods by the same name isn't it? [cf. discussion of these in 
letter of October 28 J 






Ghemarftko 



The following notes are excerpts taken from a series of six letters 
dated September 11, 30, October 15, 19, 28, 1921 and January 6, 1922 
written in longhand from Burnt Ranch, Trinity County, by John P. 
Harrington and addressed to Dr. Merriam. Harrington's informant was 
one Mrs.^Noble who was also known to Dr. Merriam, and the two had 
a kind of "partneDship" of interest in her as a repository of inform- 
ation on the culture and language of the Chemareko Indians. Merriam 
had discovered thlo last speaker of the languag^e seme tl&e before and 



let Harrington in on th 



z epeaK 
e clnd. 



Harrington, 




secretive about his 



Informants to other llngAlsts and ethnologists, seems to have had a 
different relationship with Merriam over the Chemareko (fnformant^iind 
several Costanoan .(Olhonean in Merriam's Jk«Km±iwi classlflc/?.tion) 
In the letters are numerous pleas for Merriam not to mention to anvone 
at all (including Harrington's own chief in Washington at the Bureau 
of American Ethnology) that he was at Burnt Ranch working with a 
Chemareko informant. Now, with ksth all parties deceased, there seems 
no reason to withhold the interesting bit« of Chemareko ethnography 
wMch Harrin)Dfgon communicated so freely to Merriam-jT Those parte of 
the six letters mentioned which deal strictly with Chemareko ethnology 
are as follows : 










ntJu\Ai 



K>J^fvvN 



O^/r^ Aa, 



/iThe name for ant-lion is curiouaj it is yoo-rah mah-cho-li-da, 
mourning dove»s grandmother. I got both names for the rabbit species only- 
yesterday, one came to Sally in the night, "^hey are: hee-wee-nol-lam, contton- 
tail rabbit; he-moo-hol-lah, jackrabbit. The Che-mah- re-ko alsfo have two 
names for tick species: ys^ee-na, large woodstick: t'eep-hoo, very small 
tick species, know also as he-moo-hol-lah t » eep-hoo-ee-dah, jackrabbit tick. 
Having no word for beans, they dubbed them also ts>ee-na, literally ticksl 

A curious anatomical term is chach-hi. This is said to be the name of a 
samll muscle , the size of one's little finger or smaller and resembling 
a worm, which occurs in the shoulder of the deer, Indians when eating boiled deer 
meat used to throw it mway in disgust. It was carefully explained that it is 
not a worm or parasite, but a muecle. Am also getting the placalnanes straight- 
ened ojit and wil^write you at lengfJn, in a few days about these and other interes- 
ting points. She sticks to it that -^^(^Che-mah- re-ko called Ironsides Mountain 
A-woo Treh-dah. literally great mountain, ^he first people used to make pil- 



\ 



\ 



gidmages to the top of that mountain when they got old, and would pray then 
descend young again. The mountain called Big Mountain by the whites is not 
Ironsides, but the peak opposite Mrs. Noble's ranch, the Indian name of ^ig 

Mountain being Moo-neh-nah-tse. Thus this matter is al/oQ straightened out. 



CHIMARIKO 



JCR TO DR. MERRIAM.iSep^ , V, 10^1 



fl. Noblefi — BL 





Did you ever hear of the tribe knovn as the Hoppa as Sah-ya? If not this 



may yfalijLd important results, ^hey are sfejQd to live down the coast and it 
tyom art that they are the "Nongatl". At any rate it is a trib^e south of 
Eureka somewhere. Another interesting matter is that the tribal name Che- 



may 



mai^: 



re*ko has the initial sound clicked. I did not notice th| s the first day, 
but now hear it plainly every time. It should be wtitten Ch^efmah-re-ko, 
with clicked ch^. I got the etymology of Qiem-too-wahk-tah whiteman, yesterday. 
It is eU-ded fromrChem-tah Hao-wahk-tahj chem-tah, meaning across the ocean or 
on the other side of any body of water; and Hoo-wahk-tah being the term for 
••comer"* The word the ff ore 
side of ar^ body of water; 
and hoo-wahk-tah being the term for "comer". The word therefore means comer 

from across the ocean. 

-'•hey call horse the same as dog, and dometic cat the same as wildcat 
with "whiteman" sometimes prefixed to these names. 




comer from across the ocean* or on the other 



u 




il ' I ' lflMi f 





^^'Sally Noble has at last remembered the real old name of Ironsides mountain. 
It is Cha-lee-dan Ah-woo. It came to her in the night and is connected etymologica U" 
ly with chal-dah-som, the fihemareko name of the New River Tribe. 
Thus the name throws light on tribal boundaries. ^^ 



^^gl^ 





Hi 



OcMru 



t 



I have important information from Mr. Zach Bussell, /alf-breed Chemareko, 

w 
that Ketinchow (a place 1$ or 20 miles south of Hyanpom and near the ^eadwaters of 

the Mad River - I am not sure^ow to spell it and cannot find it on [the maps that 

I have here) is a ^hemareko placename, and Sally agrees to this tool It means 

the place of a kind of wild onions. I also have information that gam-nah»ma, 

a flat near the mouth of North Fork Trinityra is Chemareko /erritoryl 



i^l /h/il i^^l - Cf^l¥^Jiik4 





fjTfr^TTt^ from TttI I fTV Ht frri Msrrlnm frni 



A 




* The grajpmatical material also is looming up in large proportions. The 
language has r^uite a rich structure, one might almost say intricate* -^here are 
indicative, unreal, negative and interrogative forms of the verb and one of the 
fullest tense sustems that yoUfcan find in any languages. The future taas^ 
alone may be rendered by the following suffixes, each evidently with a parti- 
cular and definite sphere of usage: -h, -han, - han'i, -hanan, -hanat, and 
-ni. And all these are in common use, and when she volunteers a word a second 
time she may give a different suffix from that given at first pronunciation. 



\ 





finmt Ranph , Oct . 30 l?g> LutUy t6 Uf. Wemimf^ '{Jr -P- . IlayFlngtoHg 

"^ I have apparently information to show that the Chemareko territory extend- 
ed far enough up the Trinity River to include the Chatman ranch, which is sit- 
uated 13 miles upstream from the confluence of the North Fork of the Trinityl 
The Chatman place is described as a flat on the south side of the Trinity at or 
near the confluence of Soldier Creek with the river. The Chemareko territory 
also included Kechinchow, 1$ or 20 miles south of Hyampom, and not shown on the 
maps accessible to me. The downstream boundary line was somewhere in the 
vicinity of William Noble's place. The tri^ at the iJ^orks of the Salmon wa s 
called Hoo-nom-nich-hoo (note the presence of distinct h after the ch), and 
Mrs. N. says that William Noble's wife's mother talks that language fluently and 
is at present a Grants Pass or at least somewhere in that vicinity in southern 



Oregon, 



f 



/^ 



It| is vital to th*s work for to stay right on with her while I have the 



language memorialed, andstay with 



Bcued • 




And such an interestii^glLanguagel It has aspects just like Polis'ii or Russian 

a perfective and imperfective, E.G., luHn^ll took a drink; but lu^it, I 
drank, lu'^idinda means the same as lu>it but emphasizes the progressive's, 
connotation of the imperfective* Another curious featjcre is that in telling a story 
they freouently just mention the name of the speaker and omit the word that means 

r 

"says" or "said". This is the same as is done in our dramas, '-^hey name the 
speaker and tbe quotation immediately follows. It is curious to find this in a 
so-called "primitive" language* 






We spent several days on anatomic aiiems, and obtained one very curious one. 
It seems that inside the fat of the groin ^ the deer there is a worm-shaped 
piece of muscle or -meat" which the Chemareko have a special term for, namely. 



y« 



Nr^ 



well on this subject, but Frank killed a deer recently and I told him to be sure an 
and let me see the Ko-chun. I secured a speci-nen and am enclosing it in this 
letter, when fresh the gland is of livid or blj/ish color and about l»lA" 
long and lA" in iiameter. It is entirely encased in fat or.Sutt, apparently 
Mrs. N. thinks that these also occur on the shoulde]^ of the deer, at the apex 
of the shoulder, '^'he name Ko-chun is also applied to a kind of worn, a 
spcimen of which was also luckily obtained. This too I am enclosing. It is 
apparently what is popularly known as the galley worm.* 





I ma* a special trip to a,k Mr. Zack Bussell. half-b„ed Chemareko. 
further about the placenames. and read to hi™ the section to your letter that 
deal, With the Chemareko-Nor'-rel-™* boundary, i a™ ,or^ to e»at, th.t he 
has no dennite ta,owled.e on the subject, but says that hi. mother, who tallced 
Chemareko fluently, told hi™ that Hettinshaw i, a Obe.a«ko word .„d that the 
Place was Ch«.a«,o Territory. He sticlcs to it that the „outh of Wer Creek 



was a Chemareko rancheria. 



oJ 






flcMtA 2//, 







? 



r I 



J^^ fyu^o^i-^^ 



C. Hart Merrfam 

Paffers 

BANC MSS 

80/18 c 




- yio- 7r\e^ —Ho 



~f 



V 



^{IdiOO rAplli^ 7/r7VJ Cnl 




m^U'y 



InJ^ '.. //-// 



fyi) 



/ ' 



P^iT ^ 



^ 




lUC-c-o 



UtnuJ -)ii;-\u i<in UalLi^ OJcl^li-uU I hJchcL TdJ-e<j 




I\ 



m 



CHK. 



L i. i > t » 7 



KCMI0-MS-4i0 NOTES 



* ''miyif'^' 



■i '^ 



by !?.« 

KonoAibo trbhnographic data given here nere seetired in 1921 
from Mrs* Aigh Grants irfhose naiden nana waa SUen Buaaal* Her 
nother naa a full-blooded Indian nonan f ron Stna Milla on the neetem 
edge of Seott Vallegr^ Her father wae a Prenehnan or French Canadian^ 

When a little child ehe wae brought by her parente to Salwm Rirer "-"^ 

ch / 
to th« Indian villag* knowi as >tefap-«ah-kafaMih «t«-ah (knoMn to tho 

whites as liiskips) >ihero she grew up and spent her early life anong 

the Kononeho* The only language she erer learned was Kononlw, whidi 

she speaks flvMiUy. Later she married Ho^ Grsnt, a white mm, who 

iTstablished a vineh at Butler Plat« where she has lived for the past 



thirty years* 



«^r 



tbt 



* «rj«i . 



The fact shoxdLd be reoorded that this woMm possesses a rery 



mmsoal 



and sequenee surprising* She dietates her answers and her stories 
like a tesctbookf speaking slowly with deli^ful eleamess, a word or 
syllable at a tins cxastly as thsy idiould be, nersr withdrawing or 
altering a syllable* ^' 

Khile I was with her« she got breakfast before daylight^ and 
we began woridng about six thirty, continuing all day till the beginning 
of larkness in the erming, with only a half hour*8 interaission at 
noonV In other words the day's wosic covered nearly twelve hours* 



IT"^- 



Thus far I have obtained Konomeho material froe two pers<»is«-> 



Fred Keamay of Foxics of Salaion and Ellen Grant of Butler Flat, 

'AwtT are t % 






^i^F' Two pointa of diff«r«no« war* notad in th« words as spleen 



Torminal o *s spokan bgr tbt wooan was noarljr alwoyt 



>a iMr 



Thus h« said Konontboo. i^ils she said Konoasho 



syllsbls 



th« WMMn* 



..« ..I ■_•■*,•£ '^ •••. lA' 



»:^ T* r\- 



1^9 



.r.-T Sr; Wfcpft ^ 



Ceremonial Hoiuies ^ The Kononeho had ceremonial houeea called ko-4iah-a* 
heai-pik^ They alao had an out-of-doore dancing i^ace called koe-tah- 
he8i-pik# 



The ceremonial hotxee wae partly tindergroundi and vae circular 
in torn. The sides were of broad slabs split and hewn from big trees, 
There was a strong post at each end^ supporting a long top log« The 
roof was of hewn planks^ the inner ends of which rested on the ridge- 
pole | the outer «fids on the wall slabs • The fireplace was in the 



center^ but there was no center pole« There was no brush or earth on 
top^ only the plank coyering* When a dance was going on^ the top 
plank was remerred to enable the people to look ±n. The slope of the 
roof wae ooderate, not steep* The side planks were two and a half 



^w«. 



f««t or aoro wido and at loast thr«« or fotir Inebss in thicknoss* 
There was only one entrance; frcn it steps led down f roa the ground 
level to the lerel of the floor • 



fi^Whtb Y4 i i 



In felling the trees and hewing the planks or slabs for the 
houses^ the people used elk horn wedges called Hoo«*pa-had^ and singularly 
enoiagh curious iron axes with vrexy broad blades and a long pointed 



/,..■ 



pick like a pick-axs on the back side* No one knows where these axes cans 
fk"oau They are called ap«kah«choe«rah-ke« 



Misc<llan»ow . SalMon \mn spearvd, Th« sp«ar pole nas called h«- 



tso-> 



har-ro-wah-eho* Th«T wtr« of hard wood painted 



eairbonlsad talaon 



' wild cat skin* 

obsidian was found in old ec 



TTKijATm had liTttd* VThsre it came fron originally, no one knows 
The women were purchased. Their valiM in Indian shell i 
was the eqairalent of two htmdred dollars of oar aonegr* 



.f--?- 



Treataitttt of the dead. Dead people are called rao-ha*rah. They were 
never bumnty bat were boxded in deep graves in the ground* 
«*^*A A eoff in, called nop-ha^rah ha-ha-poHssh, was hewn out of a 
big tree, and the body of the dead person put into it for burial* Th< 
body was first washed, then dressed in the person* s finest buckskin 
clothing and aocassins, decorated with Indian beads and Indian noney* 
The body was then laid on a long plank in the house of the deceased* 



cried while they walked around 



throwing in strings of beads 



each tlae a string of beads was thrown in, and pat it on the body, 
raising the head and upper part of the body for the purposa, and p 



isr^ 



string of beads around tho node 



tho chest obliquelj* The alternate chains iiere placed on alternate 
sides ^ each string passing over one shoulder and xinder the other am 
in such Banner as to cross on the middle of the breast* Thus the at-* 
tendant kept lifting the body and nutting on more and more strings 



&4iA 



of beadSf as the procession of BK>um«rs contlxmad to pas 



line 



'«:& 



eazrying ths dsad person out of his hoiise^ the body 



vas covered %rith a blanket of skins and dry ashett sprinkled upon it« 
Bsdieine being aade at the tins* Ihe bod/ vas so oorered that the 
ashes did not toaeh it. The line of people throning beads on the 
body wasout of doors, not in the house* The bodj was nerer taken in 



the eereaonial house* 



• ' ,* 



The grare was exactly six feet deep* It was dug with a hard 
wood bar» hardened in the fire and called hit-eo-ker-re* With it the 



earth was loosened) it was thretm 



■sans of strong basket treys 



called ohap-^* The wood used for the digging bar is a smOI tret 
called kwo-M-ho* It grows on the hills at Foxte of SaLwn, a Utile 
•bore the Porks^ and in sons other places* The wood and leares are 
grayish (odor of concrete)* The tree is snail and saooth, sonsthing 
like a willow but with broader lesres* 



The sweat house * The sweathouse, called kos-took-haflh-pik, is about 
eight feet by twelve feet* It has a fire in the center , but no stoke- 



hole* It is heated by taeans of a large fire, but no rocks and on 
water are used* Xhen the fire bums down, the nsn go in, four or fire 
at a time, and lie down. Soon they begin to sweat* After a while thej 
cone out and Junqp into the cold stream* 

Ihe sweathouse is dug deep in the ground* The top is coTsred 
with slabs and earth and projects only a little way above the general 
level of the ground* There was a single middle post tnM. which the 
roof rafters radiated* M»ts, *r^ ««as ?^ a 



Kenstrual Houte * Woatn \nat to th« BMzuitrual hut for ttf or si: 
dajB* On coming oat thojr wtnt to tho 8WMt houM wtMre thej tod 
big flWMt and thtn Junqpod into cold water* After thia the/ vent 



back to their ho\isa» 



^i^ '!l 



mi 



m 



'>m 



Childbirth ♦ Womftn about to give birth to children mnt to the 
MiistruAl house for delirerj^ They were always aeooapanied bj one or 
two^ scHBetlnes three old w»en« After the birth of the babgr^ thej 



renained in the nenetrual house 



• «'- A 



b? 



During daliYery the woman always eat up, never laj down* One 
Id women sat behind her with her knees against her sides* 



while 



MA.- 



standing behind 



abdonen with her hands continually 



^».i>?*. 



balqr 



turn* The reason the woman is made to sit up— <iot perz&itted to lie 
down— is that if she lay down, the bad blood would run all through her 



while 



a^ 



After the baby is bom the woman takes a sweat once every day 



balgr sweating too with iU mother* The husband 



allowed 



baby* The after-birth and cord are burned* While 
the cord must stick Y;^p-*i*e*, must not turn down* 



•eve?'* 



.V 



Penalty for ^''''^fT^i^^r^- When a young unmarried girl was found to 
be with child, she was dressed in her best buckskin clothi n g, with 
all her beads, and ornaments, and was told to run a race* Her mother 



and father want away so thay could not see her burnt. The people 
built a big fire and when the girl wa» running the race, puehwl her 
into the fire where she wa» consumed* ,^^^^ ^^ 

- The Konomeho people wotild not allow a child to be bom witb- 

out a [legal] father, ^ ,^ ^._^ ^f ^^y^_ b»«*^. 



salmon in suuner the people lived in brush 



o«pls->ah-kwi< 



the nousf 



hunting dB%T, the people llred in bark houees called 



8ooHQah-too«ahnHaah , 



IrO vf 



i^^flft Aflttf" 



' t%^ii 



'>'^Kj:>tii«t«9^* 



Perw*y?ant houses * The permanent houses were called ah-«ah. They 
were mde of slabs of planks hewn out of large timber* They were < 
cular in form and fifteen to eighteen feet in diameter with a fire 
place In the tniddle^ The sroke-hole, ©ailed kwah-wa^ah ^ was in 
''roof directly orer the fire. The entrance wae called oiiH>-kah-hah- 
T^. wiui rAftMd bv skin or door called hah-o-kah-hit. The bed was ci 



hit chHsah^ea-kook 




■^ %re dytaiMrf *^*^-^ t-/- • 
gardens # The Konomeho cultivated tobacco* There was 



garden at Butler Flat and others at other places. Every spring 



burning 



planted^ 



t-.* 



V 



ihp-po) 



renain 



running 




ttorvhouM baskvts eall»d ab-iuUi-ek* TheM bMkst* are dowlj woT«n 
of plTM roots atkd hasol shoot s« omaasnted with design in bear*>grass 

• TbMj are about the height of a wm^s body and four 
feet or aore in greatest diuastarf tapering at the top» the top openF- 
ing being meh asaller than aagr part of the basket* The opening is 
eorered with a flattish basket ealled hitob-o-kah-hahn-nit* 

The Shaste and Konoaeho tribes, had a good sised underground 
ehehe (ushtehp-nah) for aooms, dried fish, and dried meat of deer, elk, 
and bear. It had a fraaswork of posts and was nade of bark, with leaTei 



next to the grooad to keep oat daopness* 






in the grounl ovwi, called hep-ee-ro hafaa-pik* 



tterials * In asking baskets the nsual aaterials 



Ponderoea 



the coarser baskets* The orerlay and desi^i are mainlx of bear- 



grass (: 




T Ji'J ^M 



Ui 



following 



A root is ecqposed for a distanoe of about ten feet froa the trunk 



then 



disaster* A nuiaiber of these root lengths 



are buried together in sand* Water is poured over then and a fire 
built on top* The fire ie kept up so that the roots will steam in the 
sand for a dS7 and a half* Thsy then spUt easily, and are spUt into 
the fine strands used for the baskets* 



^ 



* ' 



Dr»»t» Tmo d««ciiid« with hair on wtr« MiMd together to oake a 
blaDket (ab-raiv-o-tah-ehoo-ipalHha)* Apron (Hah^7a<-hur) » and shirt 
(hah-na*ta-a-««h) for awn and ntcmui, and pants (hah-looo-i) were made 
of bnekeldn. Fish ribs were braided in twigs to amke a hair c<uril> 
(hex^rah-kwas-«it) • 



i 



"S.,^i: r-' 



i»fi^^ 



i^ci'i.-timA' 



.\ ^ .-1 



T ' 



«ki4Mli 



w ^ 



*:;«»» r U(swiNk^ IT ^"^^ ^-iw* 



Vk^% <S ^' 



« A ^ » 






T-'^^ofij v«<i «ii'Ciii1w»i# 



it^Sfi •• .♦ •■* 



.^, -;*. n'-^^'^^-'^t.^^k'T*** V 



T^'irHTOt » 



W,^ 



T -JT-^'» .-i 






■V* 



'^ -f K , - .r»# '?*^'l!$fV»* CK'^'^' ' 






^# 



«^^ %ll^ ^-^""^ i*5n!f4wfr- 



i^r 



.)« A^ 



^■* 



i"k 



'wm^r i>#lk 



•^H* 'fh« t« 



"•i«sftv^**lSBF*'^*!' jfflW 






« 



^9fl vfM 



#f tJMP •^•**!'«f* 



thii #«Mrt^ /-. 



i>H!M(R 



i^^ 



jff t. 



I 



.ij2}'*"*#v 



*^ 



f. ) 



liM.^'' 



muifr «MW4..a«ldi diH^ 



•ti»«» <l^' 






^ 1ft ^■ 



of 



'Li'»:*5^ 



^to(}*## i^ 



i» ^4( r*'-"' 



•».'^ -^ :<« 



l\ ts^'M •^' ^^'^•**''?*' -^ r:?>*^^':5^-** 



>• . * 



•• •/",>',^ * ■»*"> 



^: 



"*Ti?- r rv 



••'^j^c^r^^ '^ r-^'Hay 






•-■■'^^41. V r» * *-#^'e iXS** ^^' 



I -!, 



«♦ 



.^ : -",..^*</i-"'- '^ ji-^i ^';>' ' i* 






l^ljd 



f 



tMH^ 



*l* •■"•'*, 



VAn 



>4 tiK 



in 



m ft*\ 






IDaiTinCATIOK OF THE KO-NO-MB-HOO 



^ir»i| ^ * '-\^ *%«;1^. 



Th« K6-mMM»-»hoo art a Shaatan trlba oeeupylng tht basin 
Salnon Rlrtr froM Oak Bottoa CrMk« aboat four ■!!•• (air lln«) J 
tht jtmetloa of Saljwn with Klaaath RU^r, toatterly to tha hi£^ 
MmmUtns known m th« Saljnn Alpa« mnd southoMtorly «long SoutJ 
Pork Salaon m far at PLunwr Crook, at tht aoath of wfaloh thoir 



Tillago 



3..4^d|KA 



^^K|y 



4 TS^A'w-a 



Th«7 had at loast aorontoon yillagoa* Ify Infoxmnt (Frod 
Koarnar. whoao Indiaa naao la 8-ahan-pai) could not ronaibor tho i 



w ^1 



ranchoriaa 



FlwBMr Crook* 



r- ft 



'S'',*?- 



turronnding Trlbot « Tba torritorj of tho KoH«>-ao-hoo joinod 



tho Kah-rok or Mwrahd of Klamath RlTor on tho wo at and nortfaMoati that 
of tho Shaoto propor on tho oaat and northoaat (the Intortrlbal boondar/ 
bolng tho hl«h aundlto of tha lofty Salaon Rivor Alpa) | ani that of tho 
KaMkoo-tin-o-nik oii'tho aoathoaot (and poaalbly aoath alao)* 

So llttlo la known «f tba tona o m h oo that angr oxtondod dia- 
euaslon of thoir oulttaro^ euatona^ boliofa and eoroaonloo la ont of 
tho quaation, and thoir dogroo of difforontiatlon from tho Shaato propor 
oan only bo dotorninod by a ooaparativo atudy of Tocabularios* 

Unliko tho Shaato thay had no chiof , bat at thoir foativala 
r eoramonioa bad a naator of eoromonioa callad kar-po wab-to-kwah, 
laning litorally »big man,» who uaually ownod th<i ground lAare tho 



^nAm *• -..a* *«^ ^* 



©f 



In ♦th*r 



Tbmy had both oMm «nd vonen i 



A.W ll 



doctor callad k»-poo«»0oo«al«4ra9«k#^ tho voaan doctor kc<-chok«ka»- 

eh 
har-»mh • 



body contalnod 



after death 



boried their dead# They belierred 



days 



^•.L' 



awajr never to return* 

TlMj had rattl«Sf eall«d hahHMMcax^r*, whleh differtd froa 
thoM of aost trib«s in oontainlng no stonva or other looao objoots^ 
but contlatod of tho dried skin of a aqnlrral faatenod on a atiok« 
which idhan ahakan aaka a eraokling aound. And they had bone irtiiatlea 
called he-he^ah-er-r«9 aosic aticka of split elder* called kl»-pe 
he-^w-tab-er^-re, and druw* aade of hide stretched over a flraaSj^ 
called hahHM-4cab-re-4cih->re« 



like the Shaste thejr have no specific terns neaniag 
south, east, and nest in the usual sense, but use teras referring 
to the direction of their principal river; up river (o-kMab-to) « 
down river (o-ro-^o), or to the rising or setting of the sun* 



'«o 



■J*i. 



^il^ 



Language . The laagnafs of the Ko-no-ae-hoo is essentially Shastan, 



the great 



iSiaste 



px«per| yet there are iflV>ortant differences* Sons mrds are wholly 
different «d there is a notable peccOiarity of Intonation. It would 
be an eacaggeration to say that the words are sung} at the sa^s tins 
nai^ of th«B are uttered in a rfaytfasdoal half-singing way with alter- 
nate rising aoi falling of the voice. In other cases ths difference 



/^ 



eonslsta in tte change of an initial latter ^ the addition of a 
ajUable^ or the poeition of an accent # Aapirated ]i (or k) Is 



Sheet e 



ili^ 



The letter £^ nhich in Shaate is aometieee difficult to 
dietinguiah from ^ haa in certain oaaee~-aa in he-wab-pe (the 
chipping hom)«--a half-whiapered e}qpIoaiTe aound not occurring in 
Shaate* The aawi ia acHBetinaa traci thoui^ mch acre rareljr, nith 
the letter \ vhen it begina a ayllable^-a ymrj different aocnd f ron 



aapirated Ju iihich ia cnaariiu 



^ 



Torn TBOsmmiM f^oa on* to flrv^ and t«n ar« th« saa* as is 
Shast«» but six is qoits diffsrtnii s«T«a, si^t and nliM sllgfaUj 
dlffsrsnti and tha *t««ns froa alarvn on, vldalor diffaraot* 

The parsonal pronoims ara •ssantlally tba saaa In both, 
though you (singular) in Kohm — ' h oo is nab-af in Shasta al-a} yours 
(possassirs) in Ko-o o a s h oo, aab-ab^aoo. In Shasta a s h a oo^ 



Tha word for father, in Shasta ah-tah, beeoaes in Ko-oo-aa-hoo 



tah-tah» 



»* 



Kany words (and soma syllablea within words) which in Shasta 



begin with a vowel, in Ko-aoHse-hoo take on an |^ before the Towel* 
Thua the «ell-4cnown Shaste word for people, ish. becomes in Ko-noHne* 
hoo, hish« Aaong the noaaroos oaaes of this kind the following aajr he 
citedi^ 



\. 



fow and then an indiridual Shaste aaj be found who uaea the 
initial ]i in soaa of these words, bat such oaaes are axe^ticmal* 



Wl^Li' A 



In ShMtf 



Ip KoncMwhoo 



P«opl« 
Shoald«r 

t 

Am 

Foot 
Htart 



Anas 



Itb 



Hlah 



'iitf^^llTj^ 



t- ^. ^^flM^. 



■;v5rt. -i^ 



AlHofaaht 



Ah-lcoot 

Ar*rtlHMi' 



■•*,«, 



ft , 



ftf*- 



(Hp«b»t« 



V* 



Hab-obar-rftb 



Hah-koot 
Ro»pah-t« 



Aeora brMd 


EsbHM 


Rash-no 


Sticks to tak« 






hot vtonos trom 


-/7'*l^ 


S-t •*>■-•'. 1 


flro 


Ah-kwah 


Hok-ahk-kMSh 


BMkot hat 


Ab-chik 


Hah-ohik-ko 


Rosin or pitch 


S-fi« 


HS-OHM 


Ihit plaeo 


0-an-taah 


Roo-«ahi>hah 


Chipping horn 


S-qab-po 


Hs-4«ab-ips 


Boar 


E-hah 


Ka^-hah 


Mountain Lion 


B-sho 


Hs*shs 


Woods Honso 


Ahp-hah-to 


Bahp-hahNto 


Qoldcn Baglo 


AbHdioo-pah 


Hah-ohoo-pah 



0^r 



^ni 



t^'t 



>i 



F. 



i*^ 



Orsat-horood Otd Its-4rok-4cah-rab-ap- Ritch-suk-kah-rah-hap-so 



Blus Qrooss 



CXc-wok 



Hok-wuk 



Vfords idsntical In tha two dialocts t Ths most Important words of ths 



lang—f w IdMttieal «r prMtloally to in Ko-aoHM-hoo and Sh«st«. 
Asong thtM Mgr b« MotloMdi muk, ytoman, fath«r» Bothtr^ son« 
dmmfixfr, xuuCLMf «uit» old^ b«lqr« taontwr^ litad^ forthtad^ agrt^ •«r» 
ohia» aovtlif toogM^ throaty hand^ baok^ faaala braaata^ ballx« 
navalf and a analMr of aihar parts* 

Zb a faw eaaaa, at in noaa, a liwUj diffarwi \»rd la uatd 
Sa lonwaahBO» ft-ar-raf ia Shaaia« ate* 



Worda Khrt 




Itaa old paeplo 
SLdar taretlMr 
Toonfar Dvotltar 
Qnuodf athor and 

craadBotliar 
Vidow 



Mholo bo4y 

lloao 

Baek of aaek 

Sldo 

nbow 

Aaldo 



Hm First Psopla Salifs 

StroDK 
Doad 
014 

TOttB( 

Lasy 
Rqsigfar 



Backsldji 

TiUafs 
SMsathooss 
Foot-4xridta 
QalTsr 
8toaa knlf a 
Stons sndar 

■mine 

baskst 
Midioliio 

9MSSt 

Gtewrs (in grooad) 



B<m« whlstls 
RlTar {maj 

bo spoelfie) 
Croak 
Wit 
Mowstain 



Xou 



Spirit or i^st 



L 



1 



KOHOMBHo terrhobi and vilugbs 



_- % 



Jk A 



_ ISJk 



KoHao-— -ho Terrltoryt Basin of Sabaon RiT«r f rem Butl«r 

the Mdn rifr to aooth of Little Korth Pork| and up South 

m ?oric8 of Saloon to Fluonsr Creok. wfaero thoir eountzr abutted 



against that of the Kah^hoo->tl]i-ruk, 
of Klaaath Rirer* 



Below Butler Flat were the Karok 



■ifH,. ■^ 



vJHI. 



YiUagea t 



!• Kifab-eooHEM-pah* Indian Bottom, on ridgo betneen Butler 



Flat and Hadlan Bottoa* 



inMm 



2* (RaM forgotten)* On top of Bluff on eouth side More- 
house Creek at Saurkraut Kine (Back up east from Salmon 



RlTsr)* Large village* 



■**nl^. •^■-rU*'„. ^ U -"^^j**^ 



3* Tis-kum-nok-ke. On west side Salmon River opposite Bloomer 

Mine (which is between Norehoxxse and Crapo Creeks). 

Tillage on top of Tis-kum Mountain (nok-kee means on tcf ) • 
4* Ie-4Dah-kMab-«ah« At Junction of Mordhelmer Creek with 

Salmon RlTer (on North side mouth of Nordheimer and wst 

side Salmon River)* 
5* Zs-ee-^ut-chup* ^ bluff on east side Salmon Rirer^ on 



north side Crttpo Greek* 



'jk-t 



**• •- 



6* Am-mah-hahi^wak-kalHwah* On bluff on east side Salmon 



;/4, 



Grtipo Creek* (Place now all mined 



out*) 



jnHI^AcI 



7* Kes-ap-po-^w fa e w a h ka-pak-how* On point on east side 
Salmon River half or three fourth mile above mouth C: 



CrMk (zMw all gon«| aiiMd to b«droek)« 



•»! 




Wo-«tik-nah-kah, On eMt side Salnon nirmr, half or 
throo-^ovrths alio aboro Inakipa (now MeMaiXB placo) 



9. 



Wahp-sak-kah-ah^to-ha, On aooth watt sida Salaon 



« 



10. 
11, 
12 



RlTor oppoaita Inakipa* 

V 

VHh-a o o - r a ■■ > ■ wa h. At Porks of Salaon* 
Ko-halwpah* On south sida Salapn at Bonaljrs 



I'cniw- 



eh 



■outh of S«MBill Quloh. 



w>n i 



aast 



Ko-tauto-ka-oah. On south slda Salaon BlTvr at Shanks 



(Rsd Bank)* All sdnad off now* 



"•^ lA* 



•;^sii; 



, k ■• 



»"£ '»«t^ 



Ab-ra-kM«* On south sida Saljaon River « oppoaita nouth 
Littla Korth Poric (naar Ahlgran School Housa)* 



HSV 



15* Ta-po-i* On South sido South Pork at aouth of KDomothlng 



■m^ 



4l\%. 



.n iSr"' .'^ *■ 



.S-: 



16* K6-piteh-ka* On south wast slda South Pork a littla balov 

aouth Botallinc Craak* 
17, Cho-pab-4fah-how* On southMast sida South Poric oppoaita 



■outh of lUggarrilla Craak, 



Ko-taa-tsah. 



:'««> 



|4| 



.& .-r»lfe.A>*l If 



;,A^ »r*' ""^ 



;>«* 



Hsthodist Craak (aita of Xoevanrilla on norths and (^routts 
on south)* 



19* Hoo-^«a-took* Mouth of Indian Cra^* 

20* W a- x w»'wa t sHMli* At wuth of Matthsws Craak* 

ZL* Hoop-po-ho* At nouth of PluxBMr Craak* Upparaost and 



aouthamaost villaga* 



in 



om 



1 



glvm 



i«r 



THE KO-NOJCB-HO AHD KAH-BOO-TDWI-RUK LAHOOAOBS 
Dr. Holand Dixon in 19Q3. *t th« •uggwtlon of Drt . Kpo«b«p 



Qoddard. Tisitwl tb» Forks of SiOaon 



nvct to notkin^ was knowa, and which urn* f«ar«d 



■*v 



to U «xtinct. Th« •uppo»«d^«r dialect, b» ttaf, "provid on w>i» 
e«x«ful infMti«iiifl«i to b« not •^•Btially dif f ownt from tta* 3ha»U 

ylae* (Porks of Sslaon) 



■pokm on QLsasth 



found 



A 



Bat St the 



raaflHbersd s nndbor 



UngoAg*, liiich th»7 spdn of s» ••the old pso?ls»8 tslk|" from 
hs sueeoodsd in obtaining Mirantar-fiTa iwrds and short phrssss. 



loamsd 




of the tribe st Porks of Salmon is •Kbnoaiifaa* 
beUeved that the vords of "the old peopled talk' 



obtained from tbt two 



belonged to that language 



to be a seoond new 



tint he lesmsd of the OTlstmwe "of what 
dialect in this region" spoken by a people on "the upper courses of 
the two forks of Sal«» Biter above the Konoidfaa" and extending (wntl 
wesUrly) "even over the divide, onto the head of Mew Rirer." Of the 
language of thU tribe, which he calls •«ew Blver ShasU* hs obtained 



1 SHr ^ 



.r.V' 



does not state fro« 



three 




secured alao in the Isagnage which he calls »Kononlhu.» Of those three, 
two are preetloally identical in the two languages, ifcUe the third 
eppears to be the result of a sU^ «lsunderstanding. It is the word 



"The Shasts-AchoMwlt A new linguistic »Jo«5» ^ 
dialects." AMrlnsn Anthronologiet . Vol. 7, PP« 213-217 




1907. 



by Dixon for asi^ In his paper of 1905, oorroctod to 
^ Ho glTOO this wrd m Kloopuhlyu in •Konondhu* «nd(ao go-j 
It ^ and tho posooaalTO i^ is yab-po-o-na, which, as 
for tho flrrt tlao. ni^t oaoily bo witton apahiju, HoncOj 



sdttakon* his Kls apuhiju 



vould bo Hioh-jah- 



poonah, -loaning up- ooo^loi and his 'How HiTor» oquiTalont 
I inUrprot It eorrootly, would bo ko-iakr aoaning 




In 19U X wao fortunato onou^ to dloooror two ounrlYoro of th« 
KonoMhoo trlbo Uriag noar Poiti of Salaon, and obtainod a tocabulaiy 
of f Iw hondrod and fifty wordo of thoir langoago. Ti«o yoaro Utor 
I Mdo a horooback trip «p tho narrov liadlan trail fro« 3om» Bar 
at tho J^noUon of tho Snlmm and Kla«ath to tho hon of an agod 



Konoatho mnan on Salaon Rivor bolow 



than 



Proa hor I obtainod 



'<tK. 



Dixon, ao alroady atatod, loamod of an OKtinet tribo 
ixtonding fw« South Pork 3alj»n oror tho aountaina to 



trlbo ho did not ascortain} ho oaLlod 



Shasta, 



Ksh-hoo.ti»>rook (pronouncod by ono infonowit Kainhooch-OHao-rook) 

;hoy spoke a Unguago Tory different f ro« either Shaste or 

. The Shaste caU the« Ho-b-Onpah soo-lsh and Tah«»*-i-4sh| the 



iftv 



The Shast a t Bulletin Aaer 
part 5, p. 497, 1907, .^^ 

\t should be made dear that owing to the different alphabets 
omplOTod the word for nan which in Shaste I write Ish, and in Konoaohoo, 
Miih- !• wi^tten by Dixon ic and kis, respectiToly* 



Boopa. «'*T' then Klo-oe-tab-fawas th« Chemarreko call thMi Hoo nm n»- 



ehoo* 

Now, as I hart Juat pointad out, tha i«orda raoordad bj Dixon 
aa •KbnoadJra* and <New RItot Shasta* fail to ahow angr raal diffarancaa 
— ths alight apparant diaaiailarity baing daa to dif f aranea in aaan^ 
lag, ao that I ragard then aa ona and tha saaa langoaga* 

Iha vital qufs1^ijO& ariaas aa to iffaat thia langoaga is. I 
baUara it to bo hla *irow Rlrar Shaata,* tha propar nans of which aaaaaa 
to ba Kah-teo-tin-a-rook. )tr raaaona for thia baliaf arat (1) that 
naarlj all (all hot four out of thirtjr-thraa)^ of tha worda raoordad 
by Dixon aa Xononahoo diff ar radically from tha eorrasponding worda of 
KonosMhoo sacurad by ma} (2) that Dixon hinsalf atatas that on Tialt- 
ing tha KonoBMboo tarrltory at Forka of Saloon, "This supposad naw 
dialaet prorad on caraf ul invaatigation to ba not aaaantially diff ewnt 
from tha Shaata aa apokon on Klaaath RiTor," This accords entirely 
with ^ own study of the two languages, since in conqjaring more than on 
thousand words of Kononahoo with eorraaponding worda in t^ rery full 



The only four words fcivan by Dixon aa 'law Rirer* which in 
> way reswnble Kononsho aret 

Diaon's New River Shasta Kcmoaeho obtained by me 



kl oi 

kisapiihiyu 

xaakipama 

kinaxo 



Eiyt 



Hlsh (yah-poenah) Indian people 



hahHioo ko->ho 
itMfiah-hah-ho 



Basel 
Cedar 



^i^^^P^roMHaj 



^caboluy of tte ShMte languagt^ find a rnrj olosa v1m\ 
•acmnting in nuaerous eM«t to actual idantitj* 

Staning up^ It levu obrioue that tht vords publii 
Ol90on ondor th« ti#o hoada. Konooahoo and Haw Rlvtr Shasta 



i •- >» 



Knd that they alao«t eartainly belong to the latter language^ 
)(S3)4K>o«tin-e-rook« This appears to be a wholly distinct language, 
remotely If at all related to the Kononwho which as already stated i 
essentially the saiae as Shasta. And it seems to be equally distlnd 
from the other langOi^es of northern California— In other words, to 
constitute a distinct linguistic faaily. Unfortunately the tribe 
appears to be wholly extinct* 






■M^-K^. ^ 



.c,4;f 



.^ 



• J*!*« '<^^- ■ k 



rrJ 



•^^.:- ^JoA S9kim^ 



:&miAjm^ iia C«^p^.Mll 



mmM0 



* "t|tT3«?l.f •^^^'^'^^\0tmA <m »<r^^'^ ««5!f: 



^''^^'iMlhiiflMillj 099ry p^-^-^ « "^nr 



flWIP 



J[2I %j^m ^fin^y>m^^ir. 



■9 ^Stoi 



kY 



> ^(Ma« 



rm 






:'Ki'i' y '"'U 



■•:' »■ 



* / ': 



^f^kit^ i» ^f^^^^- 



^rl' 



rxjom, 



.^ « b 4i «fa» 



"bo b# t»riii^ii^^(SMrad# 



<4iPi 



••. i*^ <■ « •''. r^ 



ek 



I 



,*,* ' 



IDENTIFICATION OF THE NEW RIVER 1SIBE 

mm Mltenf ^'^ 



wut0^ 



na ir* * Th« tiy l«ttor« r«prlnt«d h«re are of 80»» Interest in *** 
oonneetion with the eontro v er ey between Dr« Herriaa and Professor 
Roland B. Dixon orer the identitj of the New Rirer trlbe^ and o^i 
the aeeurao7 of Dr. Merriam's phonetic method of recording Indian 
languages. These letters are made aTSilable here sinoe thej throw 
SOBS snail light on the tLsv of each worker (Ed.)« 



June 11« 1926 



Dr. Roland DixoniiMi 
Harrard UniTersity 
Caaibridgef Mass* 



Dear Doctor Dljcont - ssqik' 



•*' K^:''''*iH tf'iV'ktt 



In sKSsdning the results of sons of iggr field mxk on New 
RiTor and Salmon River Indians, in eonparison with your published 
results, I find ^jrself perplexed on ssnreral points* For instance, 
prstttieallj every word of your *Kbnflaiha* vocabulary as published 
in the Bulletin of the Ansrioan Moseui (pp. 497-A98« 1907) differs 
rsdieaUy frcai the word for the sane object obtained by me from 
different msBibers of the tribe in different years. This leads me 
suspect that th<i words giTsn you as *K6noadhu* were really in the 
language of your New River tribe. The two seem to be transposed. 




^Soe American Anthropologist. Vol. 32i 280-293, 1930, Vol. 
33 « 261^-267, 1931 • ^ 



In TOUT pap«r on the Shastz-Achomani— A New Lin^istie Stock 
(Amrloan Anthropologist, Vol, 7, No, 2, X905) you record atvwi wrdt 



>ifaom 



paper (Bulletin 



exoept on the omU 



to be Inferred f ro« this? 



ist 



>flig^ 



Very truly yours, 

C, n« n# 



June 21, 1926 



/ ' >,' .'. 



J««^: 



■-^'''S^f^x'^^ 



^?^jg^Jlflj0mMSt'i 



-Sji. -V - r^^, ^ 



Dr« C, Hart Merrlan 
Lagunltaa, Calif, 



v« 



Dear Doctor Merrlmt 

I am afreld I cannot help you In the natter of the discrepancy 
between your results and mine on the Konosdhu and Hew River languages, 

» 

The facts as I obUlned them are glTen in the papers, and If your 
results differ, why all that can be dene U for you to glre your 
material as you get It, I haye no means of going back of the state- 
ments made to me at the tims, and cannot, as you are able to, make 



attempt to get further 



Very truly yours 
Roland 6, Dlxon 



is t»i -i 



4 «^^ 



*K*i' 



i. . 






5^ 



?fcN*WI 



IM 



wweAag < 






■( t«5 



Harrard UnlTvrsitj 
J«nuu7 Uthf 1927 



«it 1 



Dr. C* Hart Ktrrlm 
Watlilngt<m, D« C* 



MMTiaat 



-i i« « 






ua. 



^ «jb» vik! 



«#«^iq^ '»^f^. 



r«K « tar^ 



hop« 70U wtj b« able to gat aora infoxwation «i tba Naw 



Shasta* I can onlj aagr that tha natarlal I obtainad 



^dxm I saeurad 
poaitiTalj tha 



facta as Z gava th«i« 



Kany thanks for your papar on tha Pit Rltar Indians. I hava 
raad it with aneh inbarast» and fad that 70a hava gi^an us a good 
daal of Taluabia data* I do not undlarstand^ howavar, your baXiaf 
that your Uagoistio natarial f ros both AehoMMi and Ataugawi ia so 
"MMh aora axtansit*^ than aina* Hr irocabnlarias ara Tary IU11« and 
I bava aararal hondrad psgaa of ttats--J[ vary wieh doUbt nhathar your 
matarial ia mora ttea a fraetion of that in agr poaaaasion* Ify aatarial 
haa narar baan vubliahad, sixwa Z hava no way of aaeuring publication* 



-^--r-. 



disqaisting, 



apaeial and abnonMLL" phonaCie' spaUiogs in usa aaong all thoaa dolj 
aoiantifie work with Isngoaga, you hara Mda at laast thraa arrors. 
Sinea 70U do not propoaa to vmm any aoeurata phonatic randaringa it 
is not a nattar of any MtMaant, but you adght at laast hara atatad y 
•*eaa# against all linguiatie atudanta eorraetly* 



Th«rt it no um in arguing otmr thm um of fagrpbont^ but I 
■iglit mimfij call jovr attontloB io tht faet that tho aajor dangar 



'tff fdi'^ii'f^ 



of tteir uio is that without a knoiiladga of tha atruetura of tl 
laaguagOf ona ia liabla to aubdirida wavda vholly vronglT-. 
§, \ I eongratulata 70a on tha aocoallanoa of tha idiotographa* I 

hapa wa aagr aoa ethar publieatlona of ybora on tha naighberlng trlbaa 



publiahad ahortlar. •♦»--*%«h) • U ymimA tlw«i?*A « 



ftKX "» 



««t|A JTMT «MII»I« U 



I <^. 



vMm it ktlat 



Sixkcmrmlj jowb, 
Boland B« Dixon 



19 ^«v" frht— 

n 

^or Htrrimt 



''^xfik. 



'-> *'^.'^'jf: 



"^ i^tj^^v. 



^ '^ '^^'WIB* iwitt<a«-3P 



'» 



• ^ Harrard ttairaraitj ^«** 

4iJIC»«^niil « Janoaxy 22nd^ 1927 



W4^p»% ^'*<^#«i« %«i4ll' 



<ui- 



mmjjp 



.^ 



fit: 



Tooabolarjr 



^r^' 



■uat ba far foliar in ragard to aniaal 
tMfvar. that for other than noalnal for 



». 



largar< 



:* 



pbonatie raoording I think y:>u hara oada 



*<> % 



mabar of aiatakaa in haaring tha aounda, ainea you genorAlxj 

"eh" for what I and othara who hara workad with thaaa trlbaa alwaya 

haar diatinetly aa "ta»" Thla aiataka ia not inftraquant ona* I 



A.W%<* 



., ;*J 4,#N 



an graatlj niatakan, 70U hara oonfuaad two quita dif f arant oonaonanb 



'--•"wjoaii- ■;>''<*♦*■?■■ 



aonnla^ and aooatisaa onittad aotmda which are aignif leant* 



• 



th* vhol« natt«r of «n «xaet phomtlc asthod of iKillIng !■ 
obvlousljr too eonq^ox to dlseast by letter* Of eourtt tnort hat bMn 
lade of unlfondty^ althouj^ this la now pratty ganersllj outgrom* 
tMar anjr eiremataneaa^ hoiMnrvr^ tha aounda wara acenratalj randarad^ 
a thinf which tha Angllah alphabat eannot posalbly do* Tha thraa 
arrora I spike of in your fourth paragraph on p» 2 ara "te for oh 
(spoiling ^orohf tchort^)* If joa had thought a wamtA you would 
aaa that your axaapla ia a eontradietion* If to «eh than oh would not 



uaadl Ghureh would ba apallad of oouraa teurto* 



■ ' ? ■ ■? 



a for sh|— >so far at I rsowobar no ona arar ao usad a* 
What yov ara thia^dLng of ^ probably la a^ an obrloualy diffarsnt BSttar* 

ta for a|«-^hia alao I do not rananbar arisr to hava aaan* Tha 
two aounla ara totally diffarsnt* 

Ona aii^t nota alao« that you eiai*t "aapirata" an aapiratal 

Tou q^aak throttj^out aa if you wsre tha f irat to racognisa tha 
diffaraneaa batwaan Aohoaawi and Atsugawi* If you turn to mr papar« 
(Tha Shaata-AohoBSMl^ p* 216} you will nota that tha diffaraneaa wsra 
qui ' a daflnitaly pointad out at that tiaa* Tha quaation aa to iriiathar 
tha raaaii>lancaa and diffaranoas ara auffieiant to put tha two togathar 
aa a "f sadly" nuat rsst on oosiparatlTa atudiaa of both with Shaata^ ate* 
I nota that on p* .6 of your papar you aay that you onit froa your 
eooparatlTS liata puraly dialaotie fonw within aaeh of tha oedn grot;qpaf 
yat in ths liata you gira^ a rary eonsiderabla nuabar of eaaas show 
aaraly dialaotic'Q. .'iffaranoaa batwaan Aehonawi and Ataugawi* lour 
traatsMnt tharafora is quits illogical it aaama to aa* 



-> ' ;» J. ■ ■■ ^ v_ ' i.>_^ T^CITf 



Pray donH think ae hypttrcrltleal. I»« only tzTing to 



llngoistio relationship 



i M yoa appMT to think^ ai 
eoapariton of Toeabolarios 



Toar abundant and oarafollj ehockwl natarials ara noat 
valuabla and all studants of tha Calif omian araa aast alm^s ba 
gratafol to you for th«s« As I said bafora, I trust that your othar 
papars will ba ooaing out soon. Tou hara had tha adrantaga whioh 
othars of us hare not had, or hava not had in anything lika auoh 
full asasura— that of raviaiting an araa rapaatadly ao that you oouK 



AchMMMi 



tarialf for axaapl« 



gaan lying for naarly tvanty yaara, awaiting tha ohanoa which has 
narar offarsd, to elaar up a lot of doubtful point a in tha tazts. 



Bast wiahas for your oontlnuad work in thia whola fiald* 



}:w% 



f •^' 



■^%f^ 



fl)»'^ '^ 



•^i?**!*-- dtffur*^Be^ 



Slnoartly youn^ 
Roland B. Di»n« 



t. 



m %Mi m^ 



«r 



^V «'. , 'Jl 



iv 



ifmt* 



■ r» '■•■ -Irjr ' 



^HdkSi*.^ 



^inlQ^ 






•-flfsr** 



"^'JN^ 



»f^ 



^--l^^'rSfc 



4":* 



<*• 



n'*^n\. 



H# 



Ml v*%i a% 1 



^ ^jj^ Harrard University 

March Z2nd, 1927 



Oaar Or. Narriaat 

As regards tha uaa of "•" for tha aooad of EngXiah "ah^" 
I hadnH happanad to nota ita vm% hy GrlljK>rc« Of eottraa tba xiaa of 
lAoUj umumal and quita unaeeapiad aigna bj a aingia writar, idio 
la not a lingnlatf doaa not in angr aanaa e^atitvt^ "uaaga*" It 
would ba oo^paraUla to an witrainad naturaliat uaing a naw and vb»» 
aooaptad nana for an ordinazy aniaal* 

I think you qoita alaundaratand na in tha aattar of tha He' 



and "ta" aounda. Thaj ara, of oouraa* eloaaly alliad« and ara not 
infraquantly intarehangaabla* X know that you hava gatharad a 



trwwndom aaaa of \a»ieal aatarial in California and Nafvada^ and 



aheald 



auggaating aithar "oaralaaanaaa' 



-.t- '-n- 



'inaacparianea' 



aiatant diffaranea batwaan aounda aa racordad by you and by other 
atudanta* Sinoa two or thraa indapwidant other imraatlgatora had 
oora ooiianly racordad tha sound aa Ha" rather than "tc^" I could 
hardly help wondering if tha diffaranea waa not dua (aa audi eaaaa 
usually ara) to your "aar.i 1^ own "ear" ia none too good, and had 
■y hearing not bean fortified by aone eorroboration I ahould not hare 
Tentured to doubt yoi^ Teraien. The differenoe ia, after all, not 
a Batter of very great o<msequanea* 



>^i 



I an quite horrified that 7. ahould have written you that I 



8 



thoocVii 70« wtr« clajalng to te th« first to roeopiiso tho dlstlno- 
tioB botwiwa Aehoanri and Atsugovi. No tueh idoa wm conseioutlj 
iB iqr aixidf and in Tiow of tho wholly osqplieit ototwont on p* 4 
I OOB'^ laoslao how it hopponod, It*t qoito appalling* 

Ify Bisaiilorotaiidijig again apparontlj in rogard to tho "dialoetio 
difforioooo oto," on p. 6* Toor atataaant ia porfoetlj- oloar, and 
I oortaioly aaot hava boon T017 aloapy to havo ao aiaeonatrood thing** 

Tharo is alwja tho dangor of doing anthropologieal and 
oopooiaUy linflaiatie worit^ Minlj with ono or two infoxvanta* In 
tho liuflBistio oaao tho irary obriovw roaaon is that thoro aro Toxy 
fow good lingaiotie Infonaanta^ ao that tha imnstigator is oftoa 



liaitod mr sharply. As weahalarioa aro tho loaat important natorial 
to bo gatbarodf ono haa to dopand aainly on tho uawaUy voxy ' •« 



tieal data, 



poroons who oan and will giro tost aatoriala and 1 
Braxy invostigator trioa to ehook vp a portion of tho loxioal natorial 
from a nabor of othor inforMBts^ and wsually dooa find ainilar 
ladiTldwal dif f ormeos to whatooao finds in Aaglish* Saeh Yariations 
ars dlsffiissod ythm troatlng of tho phonotiea* 

I onvy you your opportnnitios to oairy on your work aoason 
• As I hacfo had no ehaneo to eoiploto work bogim thirty 



aftor 

yoars a«», and havo had no opportunity to got into tho fiold for about 



twanty yoars 



Powor to your olbovl 



torial oonaista in tho nain cf onflnialtod boginnini 



With boat wiahosy 



SiMoroly yours 
Boland B« Dljnn 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



Ca^S - 



-> Ko-no-me-ho^ Notes 




Konomeho 



secured in 1921 from Mrs. Hugh Grant, whose mai- 
den name was iiillen i^ussal* Her mother was a full-blooded Indian woman 
from Etna Mills on the western edge of Scott Valley. Her father was 
a Frenchman or French Canadian. When a little child she was brought 
by her parents to Salmon River to the Indian village known as Wahp-sah- 
kah-ah^iw^te«ah (known to the whites as Inskips) where she grew up and 



spent her early life among the Konomeho. The only language she ever 
learned was Konomeho, which she speaks fluently. 



»■ ' ■■ » 




^Later she married Hugh Grant, a white man, who established a 
ranch at Butler Flat, where she has lived for the past thirty years. a 

The fact should be recorded that this woman possesses a very^intel- 
lect. Her memory is remarkable, and her sense or order and sequence 
surprising. She dictates her answers and her stories like a textbook, 
speaking slowly with delightfuljb clearness, a word or syllable at a 
time exactly as they should be, never withdrawing ar altering a syllable. 

Vi/hile I was with her, she got breakfast before daylight, and we 
began working about six thirty, continuing all day till the beginning 
of darkness in the evening, with only a half-^^'^hour' s intermission at 
noon. In other words the day's work covered nearly twelve hours. 

Thus far I have obtained Aonomeho material from two persons — Fred 
Kearney of Forks of Salmon and Ellen Grant of Butler Flat. 

Two points of difference were noted in the words as spoken by them. 
Terminal £ as spoken by the woman was nearly always £0 as spoken by 
the man* Thus he said Konomehoo, while she said Konomeho. And the 
syllable cho spoken by the man becomes tso when spoken by the woman. 



Ceremonial Houses. The Konomeho had ceremonial houses called ko-hah-a- 
hem-pik. They also had an out-of-doors dancing place called i;os-tah- 




hem-pik. 

The ceremonial house was partly underground, and was circular in 
form. The sides were of broad slabe split and hewn from big trees. 
There was a strong post at each end, supporting a long top log. The 
roof was of hewn planks, the inner ends of which rested on the ridge- 
pole; the outerends on the wall slabs. The fireplace was in the cen- 
ter, but there was no center pole. There was no brush or earth on top 



- 2 - 



f 



only the plank coverings Iwhen a dance was going on, the top plank 
was removed to enable the people to look in . The slope of the roof 
was moderate, not st#ep* The side planks ^ere two and a half feet or 
more wide aid at least three or four inches in thickness • There was 
only one entrance; from it steps led down from the ground level to 
the level of the floor. 

In felling the trees and hewing the planks or slabs for the houses, 
the people used elk horn wedges called Hoo-pa-had, and singularly enough 
curious iron axes with very broad blades and a long pointed pick like 
a pick-sxe on the back side* No one knows where these axes came from* 



They were called ap-kah-choo-rah-ke. 

Miscellaneous ♦ Salmon were speared* The spear pole was called he-* 



tso-se-re; the points, har-ro-wah-cho* 
with carbonized salmon head glue* 

(.quivers were of wild cat skin* 



They were of hard wood painted 



Black flint or obsidian was found in old campsites where Indians 
had lived* Where it cajne from originally, no one knows* A^ 

The women were purchased* Their value in Indian shell money was 
(I two hundred dollars of our money* 

Treatment of the dead * Dead people are called Mo-ha-rah* They were 
never burnt, but were buried in deep graveii in the ground* 

A coffin, called mop-ha-rah ha-ha-pum-mah, was hewn out of a big 
tree, and the body of the dead person put into it for burial* The 
body was first washed, then dressed in the person's finest buckskin 
clothing and mocassins, decorated with Indian beads and Indian money* 
The body was then laid on ft. long plank in the house of the deceased* 
the people came and sang and cried while they walked around the corpse, 
throwing in strings of beads* The man in charge raised the corpse each 
time a string of beads was thro?m in, and put it on the body, raising 
the head and upper part of the body for the purpose, and putting the 
string of beads around the neck and under one arm so that it crossed 
the chest obliquely f The alternate chains were placed on alternate 
sides, each string passing over one shoulder and under the other arm 
in such manner as to cross on the middle of the breast* Thus the 
attendant kept lifting the body and putting on more and more strings 





- 3 - 



of beads, as the procession of Aouxiners continued to pass ~ a line on 
each side* When carrying the dead person out of his house, the body 
was covered with a blanket of skins and dry ashes sprinkled upon it, 
medicine being made at the time* The body was so covered that the 
ashes did not touch it. The line of people throwing beads on the body 
was out of doors, not in the house. The body was neger taken into 
the ceremonial house. 

The grave was exactly six feet deep. It was dug with a hard wood 
bar, hardened' in the fire and called hit-so-ker-re. V<ith it the earth 
was loosened; it was thrown out by means of strong basket trays 
called chap-po. The wood used for the digging bar is a small tree 
called kwa-sa-ho. It grows on the hills at Forks of Salmon, a little 
above the Porks, and in some other places. The wood and leaves are 
grayish (color of concrete .j Ttie tree is small and smooth, something 
like a willow but with broader lea¥es. 

The sweat house . The ^weathouse, called /os-took-hum-pik, is about 
eight feet by twelve feet. It has a fire in the center, but no smoke- 
hole. It is heated by means of a large fire, but no rocks and no 
water are used. When the fire burns down, the men go in, four or five 
at time, and lie down. Soon they begin to sweat. After a while 
they come out and jump into the cold stream. 

The sweathouse is dug deep in the ground. The top is covered with 
slabs and earth and projects only a little way above the general level 
of the ground. There was a single middle post from which the roof 
rafters radiated. 



Menstrual House . l^omen went to the menstrual hut for five or six 
days. On coming out they went to the sweat house where they took a big 
sweat and then jiunped into cold water. A-^ter w hM.(!jh they went back to 
their house. 



Child birth . f omen about to give birth to children went to the mens- 



v^ 



trual house for delivery. They were always accompanied by one or two , 
sometimes three old women. After the birth of the baby, they remained 
in the menstrual house one month. 



- 4 - 



<-, 



IXiring delivery the woman al.ays sat up, never fariA down. One 
of the old women sat behind her with her knees against her sides. Ano- 
ther woman, standing behind, held her head, while usually a third held 
her feet down. The woman standing behind with her knees pressing 
against the sides rubs the aodomen with her hands continually to keep 
the baby^s head in the proper position in order not to let it turn. 
The reason the woman is made to sit up — not permitted to lie down-- 
is that if she lay down, the bad blood would run all through her body, 
while if she sits up all the bad blood drains out. 

After the baby is born the woman takes a sweat once every day for 

a month, the baby sweating too with its mother. The husband is not 

allowed in . After the month is over the woman goes home with her 

baby. The a^pter-birth and cord are burned. While this is being done. 

I.e. 
the cord must stick up --must not turn down. 

Penalty for illegitimacy . Whan a young unmarried girl was found to 
be with child, she was dressed in her best buckskin clothing, with all 
her beads, and ornaments, and was told to run a race. Her mother and 
father went away so they could not see her burnt. The^ built a big fire 
and when the girl was running the race, pushed her into the fire where 
she was consumed. 

The Konomeho people would not allow a child to be born without 
af^fTth^^C^^Aij 

Summer camps. When drying salmon in summer the people lived in brush 
huts called o-pis-ah-kwi-rvik. The leaves were left on the brush of the 
houses. \'^hea huntinti deer, the people lived in bark houses called soo- 
nah-too-ahn-mah. 



Permanent houses . The permanent houses were called ah-mah. They were 
made of slabs of planks hewn out of large timber. They were circular 
in form and fifteen to eighteen feet in diameter with a fire place in 
the middle. The smoke-hole, called kwah-wa-wah^p^was in the roof direc- 
tly over the fire. The entrance was called ow-o-kah-hah. It was closed 
by skin or door called hah-o-hah-hit. The bed was called hitch-mah-sa- 
kook. 



- 5 - 



Tobacco gardens > The Konomeho cultivated tobacco • There was a tobac- 
co garden at Butler Flat and others at other places. Every spring 

cnlng the brush and logs, wild tobacco, called ^-bah, was 



planted 



< 



Acorns and food caches . Acorns I'ah-po) are treated in several ways, 
•^ome are buried in cold springs and allowed to remain with the water 
running over them all winter. But the main supply is kept in huge store 
house baskets called ah-nah-ek. These baskets are closely woven of 
pine roots and hazel shoots, ornfiunented with design in bear- grass (Xe- 
rophyllum )^ They are about the height of a man's body and four feet 
or more in greatest diauneter, tapering at the top, the top opening 
being much smaller than any part of the basket. The opening is covered 
with a flattish basket called hitch-o-kah-hahn-nit. 

The bhaste and Konomeho tribes, had a good sized underground cache 
(wahtch-nah) for acorns, dried fish, and dried meat of Deer, 4filk. and 

ear. It had a framework of posts and was made oi* bark, with leaves 
next tot the ground to keep out dampness. 

Meat of ]/eer, ^Ik, and Bear was roasted on coals and also cooked 



/ 



;fe] 



Basket materials . In making baskets the usual materials are roots 
of the Yellow or ^onderosa pine and shoots of hazel — the hazel for 
the coarser basKsts. The overlay and design are mainly oi bear-grass 
( XerophylKum ). 

The pine roots are obtained and treated in the following manner. 
A root is exposed for a distance of about ten feet from the trunk 
and then dug out and cut off in three foot lenjlths. At this point the 
root'is about four inches in dicuneter. * A number of these root lengths 
are buried together in sand. %ater is poured over them and a fire 
built on top. The fire is kept up so that the roots will steam in the 
samd for a day and a half. They then split easily, and are split into 
the fine strands used for the baskets. 



Dress. Two deerhide with hair on were atwed together to make a blan 

ket (Ah-rah-o-tah-choo-pah-ha)« -'^'pron m 

na-ta-a-mah; for men and women, and pants (llaJi-koo-i) were made of 



ch — / 
ah^»M.y at-hur ) , and shirt (hah- 



- 6 . 



/ 



buckskin* Fish ribs were braided in twigs to make a hair comb (He/- 
rah-kwas-wit)« ' 






tr 



i^ ' , i*^ 7j 







"Id on 1 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



\ 



I , 



K 



Ko-no-me-ho- Notes 



Konomeho xmlerial secured in I92I froia Mrs* Hu^n Grant, whose mai- 
deu naiae was r,llen iiussal. Her ii.oti.er was a full-blooded Indian woman 
I'roii. iutna ..ills on tnn western edt,e of Scott Valley, lier father .ms 
a i'reiicJiiaan or French Canadian. When a little chilo she was brought 
by her parents to Salmon River to the Indian village known as V>ahp-sali- 
kah-aL^— te.ah (known to the whites as Inskips) where sae ^rew up aud 
spent her early life anAon;^ ti^e Kotiomeho* The only language she ever 
learnecJ was ilonomeho, which she speaks fluently • 

Later she narriea Mu^h Grant, a white man, v^ho establisiif^d a 
ranch at i^utler Flat, where Bhe has lived for the past thirty years. 

The fact should be recorded that this voman possesses a ^ e.T;f iutel- 
lect^ Her memory is remarkable, and her sense or order ano sequence 
surprising. She dictates her answers and her stories like a textbook, 
speaKiUt> slowly witu deli^ntfull clearness, a ord or syllable at a 
time exactly as the^ siiOild be, ne\HT witndrawine or altering a syllable 

V^hile i was with her, she i^t breakff.st before dayligut, and we 
began working about six thiri>y, continuing all day till the beginning 
of darkness in thvi evening,, with only a hall^aour's iuteriaission at 
nooni in other wo ds the day^s work covered nearly twelve hours. 

Thus far 1 have obtaiiitid Aonomeno mateiiai from two persons ~Pred 
Aearney of i'orks of Salinoa and Kllen Grant oi Butler Klat. 

Two !X}ints or difference were noted in the words as spoken by them. 
Terittinal £ as spoken by t,iie woman wg.s nearly always 0£ as spoken by 
the raan. x'hus he said Konomehoo, while she said .xonomeho. And the 
syllable chp spoken b^^ the man becomes tso when spoken by the woman. 



Ceremonial Houses . The honcmeho had ceremonial houses called i.o-hah-a- 
hem-pik. 'i.hey also had an out-of-doors dancing place called Kos-tah- 

hem-pik. 

Ti::e cervnuonial house was pnrtly unoerground, ana w^s circulai in 
form. The sides ve^e o^ broad slabe split and hewn fron .ig trees. 
There wa.- a stron^ ix)8t at oach end, supporting a lon^ top log. The 
roof was; of hewn blanks, the inner ends of which restca on llie rid^^e- 
pole; the outiarenas . on tue wall slabs. The fireplace .vatj in tKe cen- 
ter, out taere'' wa^ no center pole. There ^as iio bruea or earti^ on top 




• 2 - 



ouljr the plank covering, tahen a dance was going on 9 the top plank 
was removed to enable the people to look in • The slope of the roof 
was moderHte, not steep. The side planks ^ere two and a half feet or 
Aore wide aad at least three or four inches in thickness. There was 
only one entrance; from it steps led down from the ground level to 
the level of the floor. 

In felling the trees and hewing; the planks or slabs for the houses 9 
the people used elk horn weuges called Hoo-pa-had, and singularly enough 
curious iron axes with very broad blades and a lon^^ pointed pick like 
a plck-sze on the back side. No one knows where these axes cane from. 
They were called ap-kah-choo-rah-*ke. 



9 ( 

Miscellaneous . Salmon we e speared, 
tso^se-rei the points » har-ro-wah<»cho. 
with carbonised salmon head glue. 

.tuivers were of wild cat skin. 



r 

The spear pole ^ibm called he«^ 
They were of hard wood painted 



£lack flint or obsidian was found in old campsites where Indians 
had lived. Vh re it came from originally, no one Knows 1 

The women were purchased^ Their value in Indian shell money wa^ 
two hundred dollars of our money! 

Treatment of the dead . Dead people are called Mo- ha- rah* They were 
never burnt 9 but were buried in deep graved in the ground* 

A coffiUf called mop-ha-rah ha-ha-pum-maht ^ivas kewn out of a big 
tree 9 and the body of the dead person put into it for burial i The 
body ;vas first washedy then dressed in the person* s finest buckskin 
clothing and mocassins , decorated with Indian beads and Indian money. 

The body was then laid on a lonj plank in the house of the deceased. 

> 

tiiO people came and san^; ana cried while they walked around the corpse » 
throwing in strings of beads. The man in charge raised the corpse each 
time a string of beads w kS thrown in, and put it on the body, raising 
the head and upper part of the body for the purpose, and putting the 
string of beads around the neck and under one arm so that it crossed 
the ehest obliquely t The alternate chains were placed on alternate 
sides t each string passing over one shoulder and under the other arm 
in such manner as to cross on the middle of the breast. Thus the 
attendant Kept lifting the body and putting on more and more strings 



- 3 - 



of beads, as the procession of ■onxmers continued to pass — a line on 
each side, when car jring the dead person out of his house, the bod/ 
was ooTered with a blanket of skins and dry ashes sprinkled upon it, 
medicine being made at the tine. Ttie body was so covered that the 
ashes did not touch it. The line of people throwing beads on the body 
was out of doors, not in the house. The body was ne^er taken into 
the ceremonial house. 

The grave was exactly six feet deep. It was dug with a hard wood 
bar, hardened in the fire and called hlt-so-ker-re. «lth it the earth 
was loosened! it was thrown out by means of strong basket trsys 
oalled chap-po. The wood used for the digging bar is a small tree 
called kwa-sa-ho. It gro«s on the hills at Forks of Salmon, a little 
above the Forks, and in some other places. The wood and leaves are 
grayish (color of concrete;. Tue tree is small and smooth, something 
like a willow but with broader leaves. 

yhe sweat house. The Sweathouse, oalled Kos-took-hum-pik, is about 
•ight feet by twelve feet. It has a fire in the center, but no siaoke- 
hole. It is heated by means of a large fire, but no rooks and no 
water are used. When the fire burns down, the men go in, four or five 
at^tiae, and lie down. Soon they begin to sweat. After a while 
they come out and jump into the cold stream. 

The sweathouse is dug deep in the ground. The top is covered with 
slabs and earth and projects only a little way above the general level 
of the ground. There was a single middle post from which the roof 
rafters radiated. 

Menstarual Moused Women went to the menstrual hut for five or six 
days. On coming out they went to the sweat house where they took a big 
sweat and then jumped into cold water. Arter which they sent back to 
their house. 

Child birth. fomen about to give birth to children went to the mens- 
trual house for delivery. They were always accompanied by one or two , 
somotimes three old women. After the birth of the baby, they remained 
in the monstmal house one month. 



'? 



- 4 - 



J)uring delivery the woman al ays sat up, never laid down* One 
of the old women sat behind her with her knees against tier sides • Ano- 
ther woman, standing behind, held her head, while usually a third held 
her feet down. The woman standing behind //ith her knees prei.sing 
against tne sides rubs tue a-domeri with her hctnds continually to keep 
the baby^s head in the. proper position in order not to let it turn* 
The reason the woman is made. to sit up —not periuitted to lie down- 
is that if she lay down, the bad blood would run all through her body, 
while if mhm sits up all the bad b&ood drains out* 

After the baby is born the woman taices a sweat once every day for 
a month, the baby s^eatiu^j too with its mother* The husband is not 
allowed in * After the laonth is over the woman t;oes home with her 
baby* The a-^ter-birth and cord are uurned* While this is being done, 
the cord must stick up «^«must not turn down* 

Penalty for illecitimacy # Whan a young unmarried girl was i'ound to 
be with child, she was dressed in her best buckskin clothing, with all 
her beads, and ornaments, and was told to run a race* Her mother and 
father went amiy so they could act see her burnt* The^built a feig fire 
and when the girl was running the race, pushed her into the fire where 
she was consumed* 

The Konomeho people would not allow a child to be born without 

a father* 



Summer camps* When drying salmon in summer the people lived in brush 
huts called o-pis-ah-kwi-ruk. The leaves ^eie left on the brush of the 
houses* \^hen huntin^ deer, the people lived in bark houses called soo- 
nah-too-*ahn-mah* 

Permanent houses * The permanent houses were called ah-mah* They were 
made of slabs of planks hewn out of large timber* They were circular 
iu form and fifteen to eighteen feet in diameter with a fire place in 
tae middle* The smoke-hole, called kwah-wa-wah*- was in the roof direc- 
tly over the fire* The entrance was callea ow-o-kah-hah* It nvas closed 
by skin or door called hah-o-kah-hit* The bed was called hitch-mah-sa- 
kook* 



» 

h^ 



- 5 - 

Tobacco gardens. The Konomeho cultivated tobacco. There was a tobac- 
co garden at Butler Jj-lat and others at other places. Every spring 
after burnia^ the brush and logs, wild tobacco, caileu 0-bah, was 
planted. 

Acorns and food caches. Acorns ;(8h-po) are treated in several ways. 
-»oiae are buried in cold springs and allowed to remain with the water 
running over them all winter. But the main supply is kept in hu^e store- 
house baskets called ah-nah-ek. These baskets are closely woven of 
pine roots ana h<izel shoots, ornamented with design in bear-6rass(Xe- 
rop^iyllum); They are about the height of a man's body and four feet 
or more in greatest diameter, taperin^' at the top, the top opening 
being much smaller than an^- part oi* the basket. The opening is covered 
with a flattish basket called hitch-o-kah-hahn-nit. 

The uhaste and i^onoiaeho tribes, had a good sized underground cache 
(waiitch-nah) for acorns, dried fiah, and dried meat of Deer, Slk, and 
bear, it had a framework of posts and was made oi bark, with leaves 
next to the ground to keep out dampness. 

Meat of Deer, Blk, and Bear was roasted on coals and also cooked 
in the ground over, called Hep-se-ro hahm-pik. 

Basket materials > In making baskets the usual materials are roots 
of the Yellow or i'onderosa pine and shoots oi haiiel —the hazel for 
the coarser basr.ets* The overlay ana design are mainly oi bear-grass 
(Xerophyluiam) • 

The pine roots are obtained and treated in the following manner. 
A root is exposed for a distance of about ten feet from the trunk 
ana then dug out and cut off in three foot lengths. At this point the 
root is about four inches in diameter. A number of these root lengths 
are buried together in sand. Water is ^>oured ovea th*Tn and a fire 
b-.ilt on top. The fire is kept up so that the roots will steam in the 
samd for a day and a half. They then split easily, and a e split into 
the fine strunds ust-d for the baskets. 

Dress. Two deerhide with hair on were sewed togeti.er to make a blan- 
ket (Ah-rah-o-tah-choo-pah-ha), Apron )}IahS^-jFalhur), and shirt (hah- 
na-ta-a-mah) for men an ; worn* n, and pants (Hah-koo'-i) rfere made of 



. 6 . 



buckskin* Pish ribs we e braided in twigs to make a hair comb (Her^ 
r ah-kwas-wi t ) • 



/. 



I 




\ 



1 



% 



\' 



h 



.» / 



KO-NO-MB-HO NOTES 



jeCA^x- 



< 



I 



ur- 



,l) 



• 1 * 




Kononeho material from Mrs. Hugh Grrant, 

A. 



whose maiden name was Ellen Bussal. 




^Her mother was a full-blooded Indian woman from Etna 



/ 



•■"• ~.. ' 



Mills on the western edge of Scott Valley. Her father was 



y" 



a Frenchman or French Canadiarrr 




When a little child she was brought by her parents to 
Salmon River to the Indian village known as Wahp'-sgLh-kgh- 
at^-tflh-ah (known to the whites as Inskips) where she grew 
up and spent her early life among the Konoraeho. The only 
language she ever learned was Konomeho, which she speaks 



fluently 



■\ 



Later she laa rried Hugh (rrantj^who established a ranch 
at Butler Flat, where she has lived for the past 30 years. 




and obtftinad 



- R e n ew i n g infoi f 



Tfci »,» 



Konomeho 3 



Two points of difference were noted in the words as 
spoken by them. Terrainal o as spoken by the woman was nearly 
always oo as spoken "by the man . Thus he said Konomehoo , 
while she said Konomeho. And the syllable cho spoken by the 



man becomes tso when spoken by the woman 



\ 



H 






Konomeho 2 



The fact should be recorded thah this wotoan possesses a 
very unusual intellect. Her memory is remarkable, ""and her 
sense of order and sequence surprising. Bhe dictates her 
answers and her stories like a textbook, speaking slowly 



/- 



with delightful clearness, a word or sy liable at a time 
eiactly as they should b», never withdrawir^ or altering a 



\ 



syllable 




hor lo 






e is capable 



Ihile I was with her, she got breakfast before daylight, 

« 

and we began working about 6:30, continuing all day till the 
beginning of darkness in the evening, with only a half , hour's 
intermission at noon. In other words the day's work covered 

nearly 12 hours. , 

Thus far I have obtained Konomeho material from 2 per- 



sons — Fred Kearney of Forks of Salmon and Ellen Grant af 



Butler Flat. 



N 



1 1 






Konoraeho 4 



e,c. 



{cere 




CEREMONIAL HOUSES 



The Konomeho had Cferemonial^ouBes called Ko-hah-a-hem-pik 



IfJ-Z^— 




They 



KoB-tah-hem-pik 



had an out-of-doors ^ncii^^lace called 



The /eremonial /ouse wad|partly underground, and was 






circular in form. The aides were of broad slahe split and 
^ewn from big trees. There was a strong post at each end, 

, The roof was of hewn 



*• 




planks, the inner ends of which rested on the ridge-pole; 



the outer eiids on the wall-slabs. 





The fireplace was in the center, but there was no center 
pole. There was' no brush or earth on top, fonly the plank 



covering.^ 





mien a dance was going on, the top plaiik was removed 



to enable the people to look in.) Thoro w e ro ranny 




\ 





The slope of the roof was moderate, not steep 



plankft were 2i feet^,wider and at least 3 or 4 



IfT 



r 



Konomeho 5 



incbsB in thickness ► 



There was only one entrance', from \^ch steps led down 

"I 

from the ground level to the level of the floor. 

^In felling the trees and hewing the planks or slabs for 

) 

the houBOB, the people UBed >^«5=»»wn wedgeB called 

■i 
Ho o-pa-liad , and singularly enough curious iron •xes with very 



«jJ 



broad blades and a long pointed pick like a pick -axe on the 
back side. Nolone knows where these axes carae from. They - 
were called ap-kahrchoo-rah~ke. 






+ot' 



\^ 







The womentr^ yoro valued at $aOQ ^the equivalent of^our 





money,)^a«€l cwerg purchase^ 



\ 



^f 



konomeho 6 



l><^ • 



TREATMRMT OF THE DEAD 



Dead people are called Mop-ha-rah. They were never 
burnt, but were biiried in deep graves in the ground. 

A coffin, called mop-ha-rah ha-ha-pum-iaah, was hewn 
out of a big tree, and the body of the dead person put into i 
for biu-isd. The body was first washed, then dressed in the 
person's fine^ buckskin clothing and raocassins,decorated 
with Indian beads and Indian raoneyr ) 



The body was then laid on a long plank in the house of 
the deceased. The people carae and sang and cried while they 



walked around the corpse, throwing in strii^gs of beads. 





The iflan in charge raised the corpse* each time a stri ng 



of beads was thrown in, and put it on the body, raising the 
head and upper part of the body for the purpose, and putting, 
the string of beads around the neck and under one arm so that 
it crossed the chest obliquely. The alternate chains were 
placed on alternate sides, each string passing over one 
shoulder and under the other arm in such manner as to cross 



•I t 



Konomeho 7 



on the laiddle of the breast. Thus the attendant kept lifting 
the bod^'" and putting on more and more strings of beads , as 
the procession of mourners continted to pass -- a line on 



each side. 



« . 



c 



Ihen carndnp: the dead person out of his house, the body 



\yNA>AAv 



was covered with a blanket of skin^ and dry ashes^spri nkled 
upon it, medicine being made at the time. The body was so 



covered that the ashes did not touch its 



'■> — I*' 




The line of people throwing beads on the body was out 
of doors, not in itihe house*. The body was never taken into 
the jJferemonial Xoi© e . 

The grave was exactly 6 feet deep. It was dug with a 
hard wood bar, hardened in the fire and called hit-so-ker-re. 
With it the earth was loosenedjjmd^thrown out- by nBans of strong 
basket trs^rs called chap«po* The wood used for the digging 
bar is a small tree called kwas-sa-ho. It grows on the hills 
at Forks of Salmon, a little above the Forks, and in som 
othe r places. The wood and leaves are grayishlcolor of 



XM. 



i 



Konomeho 8 



concrete. The tree is small and smooth, something like a 
willow but with broader leaves. 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



1 1 



\ 



\ 



vi 



»* II I ..J 1 — 1 ' 

Konomeho 9 



THE SWEAT HOUSE 
The Sweathouse, called KoB-tnok-huin-pik, is about 8 feet 
by 12.' It has a fire in the center, "but no s JTiok ©•ho le . It 
is heated by means of 41© large fire, but no rocks and no 



>VJU*» 



water are used, ^en the fire burn^ dqvm, the 
4 or 5 at a ti me, and lie dovm. Soon thejj^weat 




«i»i«a« 



g© m, 



After a while they orae out and jump into the GftM stream 
The sweathouse is dug deep in the ground. The top is 



covered with slabs and earth and projects only a little way 
above the general level of theS^i^rSiV' There was a sir^le 



middle post from v/hich the roof 



ts».fCHM 



radiated. 






V 



1 T 



KonomeholO 



M enstrual Hou ae 
Women went to the menstrual hut for 5 or 6 days. On 
omirg out they went to the sweat house where they took a 
big sweat and then jumped into cold water. After which they 
went back to their house. 

Women about to give birth to children went to the 
menstrual house for delivery. They were alv/sys accompanied 
by one or two, sometimes three old women. After the birth 



5 



r 



of the baby, they remained in the menstrual house one month. 

During deliveirM/the woman always sat up, never laid down. 
One of the old women sat behind her with her ]<Mexste against 



her sides. Another woman^standing behind ^helri her head, whiieot 
Usually a. third held her feet down.^ The woman standing behind 
with her hands pressir^ against the sides rubs the abdomen 
with her hands continually to teep the bfelpy^B head in the 



w~- 



0^^ 



proper position 4^ not to let it turn. 





The reason the v/oman is made to sit up -- not permitted 



to lie down --is that if she lay down, the bad blood 



^ 



/ 



1 1 



Konomeho 11 



would run all through her body, while if she sits up all the 



had blood drains out . 



After the baby is born the woman takes a sweat once every 
day for a month, the baby sweating too with its mother. The 



hllsband is not allowed in. After the month is i^r the woman 
'goes home with her baby. 



The after-birth and cord are burned. Ihile this is being 



\ 



done, the cord must stick up — must not turn down. 



TeAvi 



UliflVVv vw oc<L" 



When a youi^ unmarried girl was found to be v/ith child, 
she was dressed in her best buckskin clothing, with all her 



V 



beads, and ornament b, and was told to run a race. Her mother 
and father went away so' they could not see her burnt. The 
people built a big fir« and when the girl was running the race, 
pushed her into the fir© where she was consumed. 

The Konomeho people would not allow a child to be born 



without a father. 



Vr, 



Y\r\YY\Ck 



Inn 1% 



Konomeho 12 



v 



(?,^. 



SIM1RR CAJ1PS 



When drying salmon in suniraer the people lived in brush 
huts called 0-piB~ah-kwi-ruk. The leaves were teft on the 
brush of "the houses. 




When hunting deer, the people lived in bark houses 



call ed 3^ o-nah-t oo-alm-mah. 



(.t. 



PERfilANENT H0I3SES 



The permanent houses were called 




. They were made 



of slabs or planks hewn out of large timber. They were circular 
in form and 15 to •80' feet in diameter with a fire-place m the 

cW, 

middle. The smoke**hole, called kw^h-wa-waJiJ was in the roof 



directly over the fire. 



C 




The entrance was called ow-o^kah-hah - It was closed >y skin or 



door called 



i ^mh po-kah-hii . The bed was called hitch''inah^sa»koQk. 



y 



Konoraeho 13 



.^ i; CfiJ7ft^]^£f^ 



Salmon were speared^ The spear pole was called he-t»e-se-re; 



the points, har«ro-wah-ch4># They were of hard wood painted with 
glue 




Quivers were of 




ski 



in. _ ^ co^ 



S^^' 



Black flint or obsidian was found/where Indians "^^ 






K 



-' r 



Hi/here it came from originally, no one knows. . 




\ 



\ 



Ic 



/ TOBACCO GARDENS 

^. « — I • 

Tho Konoraeho cultivated tobacco. There was a tobacco 



garden at Butler Flat and others at othenplaces. Every sprir^ 
after burning the brush and logs, wild tobacco, called 0-bah, 



was planted. 



, I 



Konomeho 14 



V 




KornB 



ana 



Fetr^ 




Caches 



K 



Acorriis, CTi 1 1 y<Wi(h-'poy are treated in several ways. 



Some are buried in cold springs and allowec^ to remain with the 



water running over them 



aJLG_ 



vdnter. But the main supply 



• y 



is kept in huge store-house^askets called ah-nah~ek. These 

t 

baskets are closely woven of leq pp - uo e roots and hazel shoots, 
ornamented with design in bear-grass ( Xerophyllum ) . They 
are about the height of a man's body and 4 feet or more in 
greatest diameter, tapering at the top, the top opening being 



<' 



much smaller than any part of the basket. The opening is 



covered with a flatish bs,sket 



called hitch-o-kah- 



\^«i 




tiitc)i' 




\ 



flf «L 



Jl: \Vj^3^^%*iiir^^^^'^' 



r«.i« 



•r/^ri'J^ r^i*' 



.A J 



The Shaath and KonoiaahQ tribes had a 
good sizad ondeiiground cache. for aooiiis, 
dried fish, and dried meat of Deer, Slk, 
and Bear. It had a framework of posts and 
was made of bark» with leaies next to the 
ground to keep out dampness* 

Ifeat of Deer, Elk, and Bear was roasted 
on coals and also cooked in the ground oven. 



called 




})f^Vi^ 



§ 



15 Konomeho 



BASKSr MATERIALS 



In makii^yjBsketB the usual ma^terials ere roots of the . 
Yellow or Ponderosa /ine aad shoots of Hazel — the hazel for 
the coarser haflkets. The overlay and desif^naOre laainly of 
bear-grasB ( Xerophyllum ) . '^ 

The pine- roots are pbtained and treated in the follow 
ing nianTBr. A root is exposed for a distance of about 10 
feet from the trunk, and then dug out and cut off in 3-foot 
lei^ths. At this point the root is about Ajfim&t in diameter. 
A number of these root lengths are buried together in sand. 
Water is poured oi^en them and a fire i)uilt on top. The fire 

- — \ 

is kept up so that the roots will steam in the sand for a 
day and a half. They then split easily, and are split into 
the fine strands used for the baskets. 



^ 



f 



\ 



-> 



z' 



i 



kj^ 





/^^f" 



tv^'uL 







I 



(Ji^ 



;e.c. 



I* ^ ^ 



The Koino-me-hoo^iw a dhastan tribe occupying the basin of 
salmon Kiver from Oak Bottom Creek, about four miles (air line) from 
the junction of Salmon with Klamath River, southerly to the high moun- 
tains known as the Salmon Alps, and southeasterly along South Fork 
Salmon as far as Plummer Creek, at the mouth of which their last 
village was situated. 

They had at least seventeen villages, ijy informant (Fred W. 
Kearney, whose Indian/name is E-shah-pom) could not remenber the names 
of the two rancherias on Wooley Creek, nor the one at the mouth of 
Plummer Creek • 

Surrounding Tribes L 

^ The territory of the Ko-no-me-hoo joined that of the Kah-rok or 
Ah-rahd of Klamath fiiver on the west and northwest; that of the 
Shaste proper on the east and northeast (the intertrib^t boundary being 
the^high summits of the lofty Salmon River Alps), and that of the Kah- 
hoo-tin-e-ruk on the southeast (and possibly south also). 

So little is known of the Ko^no-me^hoo that any extended discus- 
sion of their culture, customs, beliefs and ceremonies is out of the 
duestion, and their degree of differentiation from the Shaste proper 
can only be determined by a comparative study of vocabularies. 

Unlike the Shaste they had no chief, but at their festivals or 
ceremonies had a master of ceremonies called kem^pe wah-te^kwah, 
meaning literally -big man', who usually owned the ground where 
the ^ceremo ny was held. They had both men and women doctors -the 
man doctor called ke-poo-soo^mi-kwe^-ke, the woman doctor ke-chok- 
]ca^ha«--rah^. 

They did not cremate, but buried their dead, xhey believed 
that the body contained a spirit or ghost called mop-ha-rar which 
after death remained in the vicinity for five days, and then went 
away never to return. 

They had rattles, called hah-ne^-ker'-re , which differed from 
those of most tribes in containing no stones or other loose objects. 



- 2 - 



but consisted of the dried skin of a squirrel fastened on a stick, 
whicn when shaken make a crackling sound* And they had bone whistles 
called he-he-tah-er-re, music sticks of split elder, called kim-pe 
he-he-tah-er-re, amd drums, made of hide stretched over a frsune, called 
hah-ne-kah-re-kah-re . 

Like the bhaste they have no specific terms meaning l/orth, 
■^outh, East, and ^est in the usual sense, but use terms referring to 
the direction of their principal river;j4up river (o^-kwah-to), i^^^ 
down river ((^-ro-to) ) or to the rising or setting of the sun. 

Language^ ^, The language of the ii.o-no-me-hoo is essentially Shastan, 
the great majority of words being identical with those of Shaste 
proper; yet there are important differences. Some words are wholly 
different and there is a notable peculiarity of intonation . It would 
be an exaggeration to say that the words are sung; at the same time 
many of them are uttered in a rytnmical naif-singing way with al- 
ternate rising ana falling of the voice. In other cases the differen- 
ce ^onsists in the change ol an initial letter, the addition of a 
syllable, or the position of an accent. Aspirated h (or k) is much 
more common that in Shaste. 

The letter jg , which in Shaste is sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish from b, has in certain cases — as in he-wah-pe ( the chipping 
horn)-- a half -whispered explosive sound not- occurring in Shaste. 
The same is sometimes true, though much more rarely, with the letter 

k when it begins a syllable — a very different sound from aspirated 

* 

k , which is common. 

The numerals from one to five, and ten are the same as in Shaste, 
but six is quite different; seven, eight and nine slightly different; 
and the » teens from eleven on, widely different. 

The personal pronouns are essentially the same in both, though 

D is Mah-e, in Shaste i/i-e; yours (pos- 



}L 



The word for father, in Shaste iah-tah, becomes in Ko-no-me-hoo 



/ 



tah-tah. 



}/lany words (and some syllables 




words) which in Shaste 



- 5 - 

begin with a vowel, in i^o^-no-meUoo take on an h before the vowel. ^ 
Thus the well-known Shaste word for people, ieh, becomee in Ko-no-me- 
hoo, hi^h. Among the numerous cases of this kind the following may 
te citedtV^ 

7; NOW and then an individual Chaste may be found who uses the ini- 
tial h in some of these words, but such cases are exceptional. 



In bhaste 



People 
Shoulder 

Arm 

Foot 

Leg 

Heart 

Anus 

Acorn bread 
Sticks to take hot 
stones from fire 
Basket hat 
Rosin or pitch 
This place 
Chipping horn 

Bear 

Mountain -^on 
V/oods ^)^use 
Golden ^^-agle 
Great-horned Owl 
Blue Grouse 



Ish 



/ 



0-kwe-we 

Ah-chaht 

Ah-koos 
Ar-rah-wi-e 

E-wah-soor 

0-pal/-te ^, 



Ah-kwah 
Ah^chik 

E-ne 

0- ah -hah 

E-wan-pe 

E-hah 



E-she 



/ 



Ahp-hah-te 

Ah- c hoo -pah 

Its-muk-kah-rah-ap-se 

Ok-mik 



In Konomeho o 

Hish 
Ho-koo-e-we 

Hah-char-rah 

Hah-koos 

Hah-rah-wi-e 

/ 
He-wkh-80or 

Ho-pah-te 

Hesh-ne 



Hok-ahk-kwah 

Hah-chik-ke 

He-e-ne 
Hoo-wah-hah 

He-v;ah-pe 

Ha-hah 

He- she 
Hahp-hahrte 

Hah-choo-pah 
Hitch-mixk-kah-rah-hap-se 

Hok-wuk 



Words identical in the two dialects t 

The most important words of the language are identical or prac- 
tically so in Ko^-no-melhoo and Shaste. Among these m^y he mentioned: 
man, woman, father, mother, son^daughter, uncle, aunt, old, baby, hunter. 



> 



- 4 - 



head, forehead, eye, ear, chin, mouth, tongue, throat, hand, back, fe- 
male breasts, belly, navel, and a number of other parts • 

In a few cases, as in wat^^a wholly different word is used in 



Konomehoo, a-er-re; in Shasts, et« 



\Vords wholly or materially different > 



'r4^. 



The old people 


Whole body 




Buckskin 


Bone whistle 


Elder brother 


Nose 




Snowshoes 


River (may 


Younger brother 


Back of nee 


'K 


Village 


be specific) 


Grandfather and 


Side 




Sweathouse 


Creek 


grandmother 


Elbow 




Foot-bridge 


Wet 


«idow 


Ankle 




Quiver 


Mountain 


The First i'eople 


Saliva 




Stone knife 


Hill 


)C^'^ 


Strong T. 

Dead 

Old 


, 


/Stone under 
I »* ? 

filling basket 

Medicine 


You 


^ COt^^^' 


Young 

Lazy 

Hungry 


«?V Jft 


Sweet 

Grave (in ground) 

Spirit or ghost 





The following document is a duplicate of the 
preceding document. It may contain annotations 
and corrections not found on the original. 



\^- 



Ko-no-me-hoo 



The Ko-no-me-hoo is aSiiastan tribe occupying the basin of 
Saluion iiiver from Oak Bottoiu Creek, about four miles (air line) from 
the junction of Salmon with Klamath Eiver, southerly to the hi^^h moun- 
tains known as the ii^ilmon Alps, and southeasterly along South Fork 
Salmon as far as Plummer Creek, at the mouth of which their last 
village was situated* 

They had at least seventeen villages. Uy^ informant (i^'red W* 
Kearney, whose indiaui name is E-ahah-pom) could not remenHer the names 
of the two rancherias on Wooley Creek, nor the one at the mouth of 
Plummer Creek « 

Surro unding; Tribes t 

The territory of the Ko-no-me-hoo Joined that of the Kalx-rok or 
Ah-rahd of Klamath Hiver on the west ana northwest; th^t oi the 
Shaste proper on the east and northeast (the intertribal* boundary being 
the high summits of the lofty Salmon Hiver Alps); and that of the Kah- 
hoo-tin-e-ruk on the southeast (and possibly south also). 

So little is known of the K(^no-me-hoo that any extended discus- 
siOi. of their culture, customs, beliefs and ceremonies is out of the 
question, and their degree of diiTerentiation from the bhaste proper 
can onlj be aeterminoa by a comparative stud;y of vocabularies. 

Unlike the ohaste the^ had ao chief, but at their festivals or 
cereA^ionies had a master of ceremonies called kem-pe wah-te-kwah, 
mea iing literal.y »big man% who usually owned the ground where 
the ceremony v«a8 held* They had both men and women doctors —the 
man doctor called ke-i>oo-soo-mi-kwe-ke, the woman doctor ke-chok- 
kaf«ha«i^rah^« 

They did not cremate, but buried their dead, '^'he^ believed 
that the body containeil a spirit or ghost called mop-lia-rar which 
after deat.i rem^^ined in the vicinity ior five days, and then went 
away n^vex to return, 

iliie^f had rattles, called hah-no'^-ker-re, which »iiffered from 
those of most tribes in containiug no stones or other loose objects. 



/ 



- 2 - 



but consisted or tue dried akin of a a^iuirrel faetened on a stick, 
wnicn >^hen shaken make a crackling sound. And they had bone whistles 
called he-he- tan-er-re, music sticks of split elder, called kiialpe 
he-he- tah-er-re, and druras, inade of hide stretced over a fraiae, c/ lied 
hah-no-kah-re-kah-re . 

Like the iihaste they ^ave no specific terms meanin.: North, 
South, East, and west in the usual sensp, but use teras referring to 
the direction of their principal river (up river (c-kwah-to), and 
down river (O-ro-to) ) or to t:.e rising or setting of the sun. 

LaatiTi&e;ei The laut^ua^e of the AO-no-me-hoo is essentiaily Shastan, 
the „reat majority o: ords b- in^i identical with those of Uhaste 
proper; yet there are important differ nceo. Some words are wtiolly 
different and the.^e is a notable peculiarity of intonation . It would 
be ai. exa^'iieratioii to say tuat the vords are sun<;i at tne same time 
maiiy of tueiu ar uttered in a rytaiaicai half-singing way with al- 
ternate risin,:, an'; falling of the voice* In other cases the differen- 
ce consists in the change o. an initial letter, the audition of a 
syllable, or the position of an accent. Aspirated h (or k) is jiuch 
more common that in Shaste. 

Tne letter 2 , which in Shaste is sometiiaes dificult to dis- 
tittijuisn froiii b, has in certain cases — as in he-wah-pe ( the chipping 
horn) — a half-wnispered explosive sound not occurring in Shaste. 
The same is sometiines true, though much more rarely, ith U-.e letter 
k when it begfins a syllable — a ver^^^ different sound froa; aapiruted 
k , which is cominon. 

The mmerals from one to five, and ten ere the same as in Shaste, 
but six is >iuite dii.fer'.nt; seven, eight and rxine slightly different! 
and the 'teens froiii eleven on, widely different. 

The persoual pronouns are esyentialiy the auiue in uoth, though 
you (oit:£ular) in Ko-no-me-hoo is viau-e, in Snaste iAi-e; yours (pos- 
sessive) in Ko-no-me-hoo, i>'ah-ah-moo, in -haste .^h-raoo. 

The word for father, in Shaste a-.-tah, becomes in Ko-no-me-hoo 
t all- tah . 

fa.iy words (and soiae syllables writt en words) w .ich in Suat.te 



- 3 . 

b#giii with a vowel, in Ko-a.-me-hoo take on au h before the vowel. 
Thus the well-known Shaste word for people, ish, becomes in Ko*no-me- 
hoo, hish # Among the numerous cases oi" this kind the following may 
be citedt 



!• liow and then an individual i^haste may be lound who uses the ini- 
tial h in some of these words, but such cas s are exceptional* 



m 



People 
Shoulder 

Arm 
Foot 



Leg 



Heart 
Anus 

Acorn broad 
Sticks to take hot 
stones froxu x^ire 
Basket hat 
Rosin or pitch 
This place 
Chirpirig horn 
Bear 

Llountain idon 
Woods -'"ouse 
Golden ^a^^le 
(Jreat-horned Owl 
Blue Grouse 



In bhaste 
Ish 

0-*kwe-we 
Ah-chaht 
Ah*koos 
Ar-rah-wi-e 
E-wah-soor 
0-pah-te 
E£su-ne C^^h-mb:) 



Ah«»kwah 
Ah-chik 

K-ne 

0- ah -hah 

ii,-waw~pe 

E-hah 

ii-she 

Ahp-hah-te 

Ah- c ho o- pah 

Its-muk-kaii-rah-ap-se 
Ok-wuk 



In Konomehoo 

Uish 

Ho-koo-e-we 

itah~char-rah 

fiah-koos 

Hah-rah-wi*e 

He-wfeh-soor 

Ho-pah-te, 

Hesh-ne 



Hok-ahk-kwah 
Hah^chik-ke 
He-e-ne 
Hoo-wah-hah 
lie- 1 ah-pe 
Ua-hah 



He- 8 he 



/ 



Halrip-hah-te 

Hah-choo-pah 

Hi tch-iiiuk-ki vh-rah-ha j-se 
Hok-wuk 



Y ords identical In the two dialectst 

The laost li'iportp.nt words of the lan^ua^e are identical or prac- 
ticall/ so in Ko-rxo-xae-hoo and Shaste. A.ong tuese may be mealionedx 
man, v/Oiaan, lauiier, mother, son daughter, uncle, aunt, old, baby, hunter. 



- 4 - 



head, forehead, eye, ear, chin, mouth, toixgue, throat, hand, back, I't 
male breasts, belly, navel, and a number of oti.er parts • 

In a few oases, as in m^ui a wholly different word is used in 
Konomehoo, a-er-re; in Shasts, *t/ 

Words wholly or materially different! 



The old people 
Klder brother 
Youngs r brother 
Grandfather and 
grandmother ^ 
V^idow 



The i?'irst i'eople 



Whole body 


• 

* 

Buckskin 


Bone whistle 


Mose 




Snowshoes 


Hiver (may 


Back of 


nect 


Village 


be specific) 


Side 




SweathouBe 


Creek 


Elbow 




ioot-bridge 


*'et 


Ankle 




quiver 


Mountain 


Saliva 




Stone knife 


Hill 


Strong 
Dead 


• 


/Stone under 
Vmilling basket 


You 


Old 




Medicine 




Young 




Sweet 




Lazy 




Grave (In ground) 




ttangry 




Spirit or ghost 





\N 




K^-NO-ME-HOO 

The Ko-no-me-hoo ie a Shastan tribe occupying the haain 
of Salmon River from Oak Bottom Creek, about four miles (air line) 



from the junction of Salmon with Klamath River, 
mountains knomi as the SalmonTllps, ardx' 





to the hi^ 



as far as Plummer 



Creek, at the mouth of which their last village was situated* 



had 



if whiUi eiiw 



hnwn 




fJTTnsp^ 



whose Indian name is Er shah-pom) could not remember the names of 
the two rancherias on Wooley Creek, nor the one at the moutila of 



PI 



r Creek. 



I 



Surrounding Tribes : 

The territory of the Ko-no^me-hoo joined that of the Kah- 

roJk or Ah-rahd iof Klamath River on the wes-t 

the Shaste proper on the east and northeast ( the intertribal boundary 



and 



being the high summits of the lofty Salmon River Alps); and 





, of the Ml; 



rr" 



, ^ 



ko'no Mji'noo 



So little ia known of tha KorJ i o^xaBj-h^o that any extended dis- 



cussion of their culture, customs, beliefs and ceremonies is out of 
the question, and their degree of differentiation from the Shaste 
proper can only he determined by a comparative study of vocabularies. 

Unlike the Shaste they had no chief, but at their festivals or 
ceremonies had a master of ceremonies called Kem-^e_-wah';tfti4cwah . 
meaning literally *big man*, who usually owned the ground where the 
ceremony was held. They had both men and women doctors- -the man 



doctor called Ife -no o - s o o -mi -kwe_-ke. the woman doctor Ke - chqk - ka.'^ha - 



rajig^ . 



( 



They did not cremate, but buried their dead. They believed that 
the body contained a spirit or ghost called j^^Ji^:;^ v^ich after 
death remained in the vicinity for five days, and then went away 



never to return. 



i^^^^Ti^S^. 



from 



those of most tribes in containing no stones or other loose objects, 
but consisted of the dried skin of a squirrel fastened on a stick, 
which when shaken make a crackling sound. And they had bone whistles 
called He-he-tah-egr -re. music sticks of split elder, called Kim-pe 



V 



made 



N2. 



c a 1 led Ifah^^ 



the Shaste they have no specific terras meaning North, 



South, Kast, and West in the usual sense, but use terms referring 

to the direction of their principal river (fl» up river, down river/),^ 

or to the rising or settii^ of the sun 



4 



(O-ro^-f*) 



c 



Language: 



The lar)g\iage of the Ko-no«me -hoQ is esaentially Shaatan, the 



great majority of words beiiTg identical with those of Shaste proper; 
yet there are important differences. Some w^rds are wholly different, 
and there is a notable peculiarity of intonation. It would be an 
exaggeration to say that the words are sunil; at the same time many 
of them are uttered in a rythmical half -singing way with alternate 
risir^ and fallii^ of the voice. In other cases the difference 
consists in the change of an initial letter, the addition of a syl- 
lable, or the position of tSe accent. Aspirated h (or k) is raudi 
more coranjon than in Shaste. 

The letter p., which in Shaste is sometimes difficult to distin- 
guish from b, has in certain cases— as in he-vrn J i-veC the chipping 
hori^fa half -whisper ad explosive sound not occurring in Shaste. 
The same is sometimes true, though much more rarely, with the 
letter k when it begins a syllable— a very different sound from as- 
pirated k, which is common. 



5- 



The ntimeralB from 1 to 8, and 10, are the same as in Shaste, 
but 6 is qiiite different; 7, 8, arid 9 slightly different; and the 
•teens from 11 on, widely different. 

The personal pronouns are essentially the sarae in both, though 
you (sir^ilar) in Ko-ne-me-hoo is Mah-e . in Shaste Mi-e : yours 
(possessive) in Ko-no-me-hoo, Mah-ah-moo . in Shaste . Mah-moo * 



The i 




word 



-for 




father, in Shaste jJa^i^, becomes in 



Ko-no-me-hoo tah-tah. 




Many 



with a vowel, in Ko-no-me-hoo take on an h before the i 



b^n 



vowel. 



Thus the well-known Shaste word for people, ish, becomes in Ko-no- 



me-hoo, hish. Amoi^ the numerous cases of this kind the following 



may be cited: 



)h^ 



In Shaste 



People 
Siouider 
Foot 
Heart 

OLVVU.W 



Ish 



0-kwe-we 

Ah-kooB 

E-wah-Boor 



In Konomeh oo 

Hish 

Ho-koo-e-we 

Hah-kooB 

He-wali-soor 



\^Now and then an individual Shaste may be found who uses the 
initial h in some of these words, but such cases are exceptional 



• 


Shaste 


Konomehoo 


f V6 


1 

Acorn bread 


Rsh-ne 


Hesh-ne 


Sticks to take hot 
stones from fire 


Ah-kwah 


Hok-ahk-kwah 


■ 


Basket hat 


% 

Ah'-ohik 


HaK-chik-ke 




Rasin or pitch 


Bins 


He-e-ne 




This place 


0-ah-hah 


Hoo-wah-hah 




Chipping horn 


E-wah-pe 


He-wah-pe 




Bear 


E-hah 


^Haii-hah 




Mountain lion 


E-she 


He- she 


• 


Woods Mouse 

• 


Ahp-hah-te 


Hahp-hah-te 




Golden Eagle : 


Ah-choo-pah 


Hah-choo-pah 




Great -horned Owl 


1 1 s-ffluk-kah- rah-ap- 


1 

■se Hitch-rmik-kah-rah-hap-^ 


Blue Grouse 


» 
Ok-wi]k 











fY 



I 



Words iden tical in the two dialects : 

The most important words of the lan6l^a6e are identical or 
practically so in Ko-no-me-hoo and Shaste. Among these may be 

men ^^^^^^^ woman, father, mother, son, daughter, imcle, 
aunt, old man, baby, hunter, head, forehead,^ eye, ear, chin, mouth, 
tongue, throat, h^.nd, back, female breasts, beiyfor. ravel, and a 



number of other parts 




In a few cases, ^ .6::cl 







\» 



K^^^^^^^^^^^JU^, ^-^t-t'L] '^^■^--^^, &t ^ 



a different word is used 





Words wholly or materially different ; 



The old people 

Elder brother 

Younger brother 

Grandfather *^ 
^rarxlmother 

Widow 

The First People 



Whole body 

Nose 

Back of neck 

Side 

Elbow 

Ankle 

Saliva 

Strong 

Dead 

Old 

Young 

Lazy 

Hur^ry 



Buckskin 



Bone Whistle 



Snowshoes Kiver fraav be 

speciiic; 
Village 

Creek 
Sweat house 

Wet 
Foot-bridge 

Mountain 
Quiver 

Hill 
Stone knife 

You 
Stone under 
milliiTg basket 

Medicine 

Sweet 

Grave 



rave ^ 

(in ground) 

Spirit or 
ghost 



'i 



u 



(S/^ 



\^ 



; Konomeho pirritory and Villages 

♦ 

Ko-no-me-ho Territory : Basin of Salmon Hiver from Butler jr^at 
up the main river to mouth of Little North Fork; and up South Fork from 
Forks of Salmon to Plummer Creek, where their country ablitted against 
that of the l4sih-hoo-tin-e-r\ik. Below Butler i?'lat were the Karok of 
Klamath Hiver^ 



Ko-no-me-ho Villages : 

!• Kwah-soo-ne-pah. •• Indian Bottom, on ridge between Butler Flat 

and Indian Bottom* 
2.( Name, forgotten).. •On top of Buff on south side Morehouse Creek 

at Saurjlraut Mine ( Back up east from Salmon River ). Large 

Village 

?• TisLkum-nok-ke.: .On west side Salmon River opposite Bloomer 

Mine (which is between Morehouse and Crapo creeks). Village 
on top of Tis-kum Mountain (nok-kee means on top). 

4» Ke-mah-kwah-mah... At junction of Nordheimer Creek with Salmon 
River ( on i^orth side mouth of i^ordheimer and west side Sal- 
mon River). 

?• Is-se-put-chup... On bluff on east side Salmon River, on north 
side Crapo Creek . 
6. Am-mah-hah-wuk-kah-wah.. . On bluff on east side Salmon River, 

on south side Crapo Creek. (Place now all mined out). 
7# Kes-ap-po-whe-wah ka-pak-how. . . On point on east side Salmon 
River half or three foutth mile above mouth Crapo Creek. 
(Now all gone; mined to bedrock). 
ft* Wo-stik-nah-kah... on east side Lialmon River, half or three 

fourthsmile above Inskips* (Now McNeils place)* 
9# Wahp-sak-kah-ah=— te-ha... On south west side Salmon River op- 
Inskips. 

10. Wah-soo-re-a-wah.. . At i?orks of Salmon. 

11# Ko-hah-pah. . • On south side Salmon at Bonalys. 

ch 
12* Chah*»-watch. On north side Salmon River on east side mouth 

of Sawmill Gulch. 
13# Ko-huk-ke^nah.. . On south side Salmon River at Shanks (Red 
Bank). All mined off now. 



- 2 - 



14. Ah'-re-kwe... On south side Salmon fiiver, opposite mouth Little 

North Pork (near Ahlgren School House). 

15. Te-po-i... On South side ^outh i'ork at mouth of Knownothing 

Creek. 

16. Ko-pitch-ke... On south west side *>outh Pork a little below 

mouth Hotelling Creek. 

17. Cho-pah-wah-how... On southwest side South Pork opposite mouth 

of Niggerville Creek. 

18. Ko-tse-tsah... On both sides of South Pork at mouth of Metho- 

dist Creek (site of Yocumville on north, and Orcutts on south). 
19« Hoo-wi-e-took.. , Mouth of Indian Creek. 

20. "e-row-we-te-nah... At mouth of Matthews Creek. 

21. Hoop-po-ho At mouth of i-lumiaer Creek, Uppermost and souther- 

most village • 



KONOMEHO TERRITOKY & VILLAGRS 



KQ.-no>me->ho Ter ritonr; Basin of Salmon River froa 
Butler Flat up the min river to mouth of Little North Fork; 
and up South Fork from Forks of Salmon to Plummer Creek, 
where their co^.ntrjr abutted acai^^t ti^nf, of the Kah-hoo'-tin- 
e-ruk. Below Butler Fla.t were the K^rok of Klamath Biver. ^ 



K:o>-no^me''ho Villarceg 

1. Kwah-soo-ne-Tah . . Indian Bottom, on ridge between Butler 

Flat and Indian Bottom. 

2.(/ . ) %) top:,.Q| 'BMS (^|l^80^th side Morehouse Greek 

at sSurkraut ffine (hack up east from Salmon 
River). I^^ge village. 



3. Tiji-kum-nok-ke . On ]W side Salmon River opposite Bloomer Mne 

(which is between Morehouse end Qrapo crffCiksltYallage on 
top of Tis-kum Mt'. ( nok-kee means on top). 



4, 



•inah-kwal^-mah 



Salmon River (on N side mouth of Nordheimer and 
west side Salmon River). 



5. Is-se^-put^chup . . On bluff on E side Salmon River, on N 



side Crape Creek. 



w- 



I 



4f 



Konomeho Villages 2 



6. Am-niah-ha}i-wuk~kah-.wah . . On blirf f on R side Salmon River, 

on S side Crapo Creek. (Place now all rained ont ) 



7. 



Ke8-ap>po»whe>wah ka- pftk^jigw. . On point on E side Salmon River 

t or I mile. above rao'ith Crapo Creek. (Now all 



i^ 



8. Wo'-stik-nah-kah. . On E side Salmon River 



.^5o#nil. 



above Inskips (now McNeils place). 



9. WahD- sak-kah-^ahi^ -te>>ha . . On SW side Salmon River opposite 



Inskips 



10. Vah^sooWe-a-wah. . At Forks of Salmon. 



11, Ko-h aK-pah . . On south side Salmon at Bonalys. 

12. Chahi^-watch. On no th side Salmon River on E side mouth 

of Sav/idll Crulch. 



13. Ko -huk-ke'c^nah . . On S side Salmon River at Shante (Red 

Bank). A).l mined off now. 



14. Ah-_re-kwe. . On south side SaMon River, opposite mouth 

Uttle North Fork(near Ahlgren School House). 



Konon»ho Village b 3 



V If). Te'-po-i. . On South side South Fork at mouth of Knova.othing 



Creek. 



^ 16. Ko^»T)itch»ke. . On SW side SouthFork a little helow mouth 



Hotellinp Creek. 



y 17. Cho«>pah>»wali-how . . On southwest side South Fork opposite 

mouth of Ni^jgerville Greek. 



V 



18. Kg 



-tse-tsah. . On both sides of South Fork at mouth of 

st Creek (site of Yocumville on K, & 



Jfethodi 



Or cutis on S). 



^ 19. Hoo-m-e-took. . Mouth of Indian Creek. 



\j 



20. We-row-we-teWiah. . At mouth of llatthews Creek 



V 21. Hoop-po-ho . . At mouth of Plumrasr Creek . ITppernost & 



southernmost village* 



/ 



i 



« * 



« • V 



• • 



• « 



,•^ 



* • 



* A 



* « 



TC^^V\.Q-^VVv.e-rLO (^l^O-VuO-V^Q,wWoo\ w •^ ^ TJt^JLxJ^ A^-A^-^OC "^Vn^ 




VERSO 



iaU^s /yvAt/cA 



C-^jlajl 



% 










huJ IL^irt^ ^^N^T^^*-^ 



£t(k^ ^ vw^^^iWi^f^ ^^ 










I1U 



) 






^* 






\^ 



\ 



/fileV^h^oiKc^ oj. ^41 Nt^ ti^ 



TAcIrt 



The 



flV* 



\^^ letters reprinted here are of some interest in coanec- 
tion with ttie controversy between Dr. Merriam and Jte. J)fion ov*r the 
identity of the Hew tiver tribeVJ^These letters are 



1. See American Anthropologist. Vol. 32 » 280-295, 1930, Vol. 33: 264- 
,267, 1931 
wt^^ 

here since they throw some small light on the view of each^BB- (nil tilii ) 






Dr. Roland Dixon 
Harxs^d University 
Cambridge, Mass. 



- 1 - 



June 11, 1926 



Dear A»octor Dixon t 

In examining the results of some of my field work on Hew River 
and Salmon River Indians, in comparison with your published results, 
I find myself perplexed on several points, i'or instance, practically 
•very word of your 'Konomihu' vocabulary as published in the Bulletin 
of the American Museum (pp. 497-498, I907) differs radically from the 
word for the same object obtained by me from different members of the 
tribe in different years. This leads me to suspect that the words gi- 
ven^you as 'Konomihu' were really in the language of your New River 
tribe. The two seem to be transposed. 

In your paper on the Shasta-Achomawi —A New Unguistic Stoo^ 
(American Anthropologist, Vol. ?, No2, I905) you record seven words 
as New River, but do not say where or from whom they were obtained. 
In your later paper (Bulletin American Museum., I907) you make no 
mention of the New River Indians except on the small map. What is 
to be inferred from this? 

Very tmly yours, 



- 2 - 



June 21,1926 

» 

Dr« C* Hart Merrlam 
.^1;^— Lagunitasy 
^ Califs 

Dear -^octor Merriami 

I am afraid I cannot help you in the matter of the discrepancy 
between your results and mine on the Konomihu and New River languages* 
The facts as I obtained them are given in the papers, and if your 
results differ, why All that can be done is for you to give your 
material as you got it* I have no means of going back of the statements 
made to me at the time, and cannot , as you are able to , make any 



attempt to get further data# 



'(Pt 



Very truly yours 
Roland B. Dixon ^^ 



Uf?*^ -v.- 



•• f 



January IJth 1927 ' 



Dr. C« Hart Merriam 
l^t^ Washington I p.C. 



Dear Doctor Merriam : 

I hape you may \)e able to get more 

information on the New River Shasta. lh*A only say that the 
material I obtained was from "Buck lad's mother "and that she 
aid all others from whom I secured information at that time, were 
consistent in stating positively the facts as I gave them . 

Many thanks for your paper on the Pit River Indians. I 
have read it with much interest, and feel that you have given 
us a good deal of valuable data. I do not understand , however, 
your belief that your linguistic material from both Achomawi 
and Atsugewi is so "much more extensive" th^ mine. My voca- 
bularies are very full, and I have several hundred pages of 
texts - I very much doubt whether your material is more than a 
fraction of that in my poaession . My material has never been 
published, since I have no way of securing publication . 

I note also that in your reference to the, to you, "disquiet- 
ing, special and abnormal" phonetic spellings in use among all 
those doing scientific work with language, you have made at 
least three errors. Since you do not propose to use any accurate 
phonetic renderings it is not a matter of any moment, but you might 
at least have stated your "case" against all linguistic students 

correctly. 

There is no use in arguing over the use of hyphens, but I 
might simply call your attention to the fact that the ma^or dan- 
ger of their use is that without a knowledge of the structure of 
the language, one is liable to subdivide words wholly wrongly. 

I congratulate you on tlie excellence of the photographs. I 
hope we may see other publications of yours on the neighboring • 

tribes published shortly. 

Sincerely yours 

Roland B. I^ocon 




OA 




Harward University 




January 22nd 192? 



/ 



Dear Doctor Merriams 

In the matter of size of vocabulary there is no doubt at all 
but that your lists must be far fuller in regard to animal and 
plant names J I fancy, however, that for other than nominal forms 
my lists are considerably larger^ 

In the matter of phonetic recording I think you have made a 
number of mistakes in hearing the sounds, since you generally write 
••ch" for what I and others who have worked with these tribes always 
hear distinctly as ''ts'** This mistake is a not infrequent one* 
There are a number of other cases of a similar sort, where unless 
I am greatly mistaken, you have confused two quite different con- 
sonant sounds, and sometimes omitted sounds which are significant* 

The whole matter of an exact phonetic method of spelling is 
obviously too complex to discuss by letter* Of course there has 
been lack of uniformity, although this is now pretty generally 
outgrown* Under any circtimstances, however, the sounds were accu- 
rately rendered, a thing which the English alphabet cannot possi- 
bly do * The three errors I spoke of in your fourth paragraph on p*2 
are "tc for ch ( spelling church, tchurtch) • If you had thought 
a moment you would see that your example is a contradiction • If 
tc -eh then ch would not be used I Church would be spelled of 
course tcurtc* 

s for sh;- So far as I remember no one ever so used s* What 
you are thinking of, probably is S, an obviously different matter* 
ts for sj- this also I do not remember ever to have seen* The 
two sounds are totally different* 

One might note also, that you can't **aspirate" an aspiratel 
You speak throughout as if you were the first to recognize the 
differences between Achomawi and Atsugewi. If you turn to my paper, 
(The Shasta-Acbomawi p* 216) you will note that the differences 
were quite definitely pointed out at that time* The question as 



- 2 - 



to whether the resemblances and differences are sufficient to 
put the two together as a "family" must rest on comparative studies 
of both with Shasta etc. I note that on p. 6 of your paper you 
say that you omit from your comparative lists purely dialectic forms 
within each of the main groups, yet in the lists you give, a very con^ 
siderable number of cases show merely dialectical differences bet- 
ween Acnomawi and Atsugewi. Your treatment therefore is quite 
illogio&l it seems to me. 

Pray don't think me hypercritical. I'm only trying to point 
out that this whole matter of linguistic relationship is not as 
simple as you appear to think , and that it must rest on much more 
than any comparison of vocabularies, however large these may be. 

Your abundant and carefully checked materials are most va- 
luable and all students of the Californian area must always be 
grateful to you for them • As I said before, I trust that your 
other papers will be coming out sooa. You have had the advantage 
which others of us have not had, or have not had in anything like 
such full measure'— that of revisiting an area repeatedly so that 
you could check up on data. Hy Achomawi and Atsugewi material, for 
example, has been lying for nearly twenty years, awAiting the chance 
which has never offered, to clear up a lot of doubtful points in 
the texts. 

Best wishes for ^our continued work in this whole field. 

Sincerely yours 
Roland B. Dixon. 





arvard Universit 




March 22nd 192? 



Dear Dr« Merxiam s 

As regards the use of "s" for tue sound of English "sh", I 
hadn't happened to note its use by Gilmore. Of course the use of 
wholly unusual and quite unaccepted signs by a single writer, who 
is not a linguist, does not in any sense contitute "usage". It *euld 
be comparable to an untrained naturalist using a new and unaccepted 

name for an ordinary animal • 

I think you quite misunderstand me in the matter of the "tc" 
and "ts" sounds. They are, of course, closely allied, and are not 
infrequently interchangeable. I know that you have gathered a 
tremendous mass of lexical material in California and Nevada, and 
never for a moment should dream of suggesting either "carelessness" 

w 

or "inexperience" as the reason fhy there seems to be a rather con- 
sistent difference between sounds as recorded by you and by other 
students. Since two or three independent other investigators had 
more commonly recorded the sound as "ts" rather than "tc", I could 
hardly help wondering if the difference was not due (as such cases 
usually are ) to your "eat". My own" ear" is none too good, and had 
my hearing not been fortified by some corroboration I should not 
have ventured to doubt your version. The difference is, after all, 
not a matter of very great consequence. 

I am quite horrified that I should have written you that I 
thought you were claiming to be the first to recognize the dis- 
tinction between Achomawi and Atsugewi. No such idea was 
consciously in my mind, and in view of the wholly explicit state- 
ment on p. 4 I can't imagine how it happened. Its quite apfaling. 

My misunderstanding again apparently in regard to the "dialec- 
tic differences etc" on p. 6 Your statement is perfectly clear, and 
I certainly must have been very sleepy to have so misconstrued 

things. 

There is always the danger of doing anthropological ana espe- 
cially linguistic work, mainly with one or two informants. In the 



\ 



\ 



) 



- 2 - 



linguistic case the very obvious reason is that there are very 
few good linguistic informants , so that the investigator is often 
limited very sharply • As vocabularies are the least important ma- 
terial to be gathered, one has to depend mainly on the usually 
very few persons who can and will give text materials and graunma- 
tical data. Every investigator tries to check up a portion of the 
lexical material from a number of other informants, and usually does 
find similar individual differences to what one finds in English* 
Such variations are discussed when treating of the phonetics* 

I envy you your opportunities to carry on your work season after 
season. As -^ have had no chance to complete work begun thirty years 
ago, and have had no opportunity to get into the field for about 
twenty years, my material consists in the main of unfinished be- 
ginnings. Power to your elbow I 



With best wishes 



Sincerely yours 
Roland B. Dixon 




?^ 



0H^ 



^ 



) 



The Ko-no-me-ho and Kah-hoo-tin-e-ruk languages 



Dr. Roland Dixon in I905, at the suggestion of Drs. Kroeber and 
Goddard, visited the ^orks of Salmon in hopes of finding remnants of 
a tribe of which next to nothing was known, and which was feared to 
be extinct. The supposed new dialect, he states, "proved on more 
careful investigation to be not essentially different from the Shasta 
as spoken on Klamath Kiver.-'^ut at the same place (i^orks of Salmon) 




1. 



M 



The Shasta-lchomawi: A new lingiistic stock, with four new 

dialects/ ^ American Anthropologist . Vol. 7,''4bU 215-217,'*'**^* 

A. 




he found two women wuo remembered a number of words of a widely diffe- 
rent language, which they spoke of as "the old people's talk"; from 
them he succeeded in obtaining seventy-five words and short phrases. 
He learned that tike name of the tribe at ^'orks of Salmon is 'Konomihu' 
(Ko^no-me'-hoo ) , and believed that the words of "the old people's talk" 
obtained from the two women belonged to that language. At the same 
time he learned of the existence "of what aeems to be a second new 
dialeat in this region" spoken by a people on "the upper courses of 
the two forks of Salmon River above the Konomihu" and extending (south- 
westerly) "even over the divide, onto the head of Kew River ". Of the 
language of this tribe, which he calls 'Kew River Shasta ' he obtained 
— he does not state from whom— seven words, only three of which were 
secured also in the language which he calls (Konomihu'. Of these three, 
two are practically identical in the two languages, while the third 
appears to the result of a slight misunderstanding. It is the word} 
given by Dixon for man in his paper of I905, corrected to Indian in 
in 1907^ He gives this word as Kisapuhiyu in 'Konomihu' and as ge-ic 



/ 




2. The Shasta: Bulletin iunerican Mxxseum Natural History, Vol, I7, part 5, 
. 497, 1907. 



n 'New River.' Now, in Kofiomeloo the word for Indians is hish (he 



- 2 - 



writes it kis ) and the posseaive mine is yah-po-e-na, which » as heard 
for the first time, mi^ht easily be written aptXhiylX. hence 9 If I am 
not mistaken, his Kis apuhiyu as written by me would be Hish-yahpoetah, 
meaning my people ; and his 'New River' equivalent, ge-ic, if I inter- 
pret it correctly, would be ke-ishy meaning young peopl e # 







1 



3# It should be made clear that owing to the different alphabets employed 
the word for man which in Shaste X write ish, and in Konomehoo^p*^ ^'XA 1 
is written by Dixon ic and kis, respectively^ 



In 1919 I was fortunate enough to discover two survivors of the 
Koliom^hoo tribe living near Forks of Salmon, and obtained a vocaTkulaiy 
of five hundred and fifty five words of their language • Two years la- 
ter I made a horseback trip up the narrow Indian trail from Somes Bar 
at the junction of the Salmon and Klamath to the home of an aged Kono- 
meho woman on Salmon River below the Porks. Fa?om her I obtained more 
than a thousand words. 

Dixon, as already stated, learned of an extinct tribe farther south, 
extending from South Fork S&ilitihn over the mountains to the upper waters 
of New Riyer. The name of this tribe he did not ascertain; he called 
them 'New River Shksta » • Tlgie Konomehoo t^ the na me of the 

tribe was Kah-hoo-tin-e-roo^!|Tpron^^ 

ne^-rook) and that they spoke a language very different from either Shas- 
te or Konomehoo. The Shaste call them Ho-hah-pah soo-ish and Tah— i- 
ish; the/uoopa call them Klo-me-tal(-hwa; the Chemarreko call them 
Hoo-num-ne-choo • 

Now , as f have just pointed out, the words recorded by Dixon as 
•Konomlhu* and 'New River Shasta' fail to show any real differences 
— the slight apparent dissimilarity being due to difference in meaning, 
so that I regard them as one and the same language. 

The vital question arises as to what this language is. I believe 
it te be his •New River Shasta', the proper name of which seems to be 
Kah-hoo-tin-e-rook. My reasons for this belief arei (1) that nearly 
all (all but four out of thirty three JT^f the words recorded by Dixon 




\A/ The only four words given by -^ixon as 'New River* which in any way 



•^k (<^f ^^j^^ I 



\J 



- 3 - 



resemble Konomeho aret 

Dixon's iMew River Shast a 
^iVoI 
X^slpuhiyu 
sklpama 



Konomeho obtained by me 



oo-e' 



kenazo 



Hlsh (yah-poenah) 
hah-soo ko-ho 
in-nah hah^-ho 



^e 

Indiam>eople 
Hazel 
Cedar 



as K6nomehoo differ radically from the corresponding words of KdViome'hoo 
secured by me; (2) that Dixon himself states that on visiting the Kono- 
m^oo territory at -^orks of Salmon '•This supposed new dialect proved 
on careful investigation to be not essentially different from the 
Shasta as spoken o£ Klamath River." This accords entirely with my own 
study of the two languages, since in comparing more that one thousand 
words of Konomehoo with corresponding words in my very full) vocabulary 
of the Shaste language, j find a very close relationship, amounting 
in niimerous cases to actual identity. 

Summing up, it seems oovious that the words published by Dixon 
under the two heads, Konomehoo and New River Shasta, are the same, 
and that they almost certainly belong to the latter language, Kah-hoo- 
tin-e-rook. This appears to be a wholly distinct language, very remo- 
tely if at all related to the Konomeho which as already stated is 
essentially the same as Shaste. And it seems to be equally distinct 
from the other languages of northern California — in other words, to 
constitute a distinct linguistic family. Unfortunately the tribe ap- 
pears to be wholly extinct. 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



J 



•<'^ 



The two letters reprinted here ixre of some in erest in co nec- 
tion witn the controversy between Dr. Merriam and iir. Dixon over the 
identity of the New liver tribe. These letters are made available 



1# See American Ai.thropolobist. Vol. 32i 280-295, 1930, Vol. 33i 264- 
267 t 1931 



here since they throw some small light on the view of each man (editor) 



'^n^^^' .*i 



'f'p 



• 1 . 



June 11, 1926 

Dr* Roland lilxon 
Harvsxtd University 
Cambridge I Mass* 

Dear doctor Dixon t 

In examining the results of some of my field work on New River 
and Salmon River Indians, in comparison with your published results, 
I find ix^self perplexed on several points^ For instance, practically 
every word of your ^Konomihu* vocabulary as published in the Bulletin 
of the American Museiaa (pp« 497-498f 1907) differs radically from the 
word for the same object obtained by me from different members of the 
tribe in different /ears* This leads me to suspect that the words gi- 
ven you as •Konomihu* were really in the language of your Hew River 
tribe# The two seem to be transposed* 

In your paper on the Shasta-Achomawi — ▲ New Linguistic Stock 
(American Anthropologist, Vol* Tt No2, 1905) you record seven words 
as New River, but do riOt say where or from whom they were obtained* 
In your later paper (iiulletin American Museum*, 190?) you make no 
mention of the Mew River Indians except on the small map* V/hat is 



to be inferred from this? 



Very truly yours, 
C* H. M* 



^ 



m- '- 



Dr« C« Hart Herrlam 
La^nitasy 
Calif, 



- 2 - 



Jlxne 21,1926 



i 



Bear <^octor Marriamt 

I am afraid I eannot help you In the matter of the discrepancy 
between ^our results and mine on the Koaomihu and Hew Bivar lan^inagea. 
The facts as I obtained them are given in the papers, and if your 
results differ, why 411 that can be done is for you to give your 
material as you got it. I have no means of going back of the statements 
made to me at the time, and cannot , as you are able to , make any 
attempt to get further ds,ta« 

Very truly yours 
Boland fi. Dixon 




Jime 11. 1926 

Dr. Boland Dixon 
Harrard Unitersity 
Canbridge, Mass* 

Dear Doctor Dixon: ' 

In examining the results of some of my field work on 
Hew Hiver and Salmon Biter Indians, in comparison wiUi yonr 
published results, I find myself perplexed on seTeral points. 
For instance, practically erery word of your *^iyin|liu' Tocabu- 
lary as published in the Bulletin of the American Museum (pp.497- 
498,1907) differs radically from the word for the sane object ob-» 
tained by me from different members of the tribe in different 
years. This leads me to sospect that the words giren you as 
•Konflmihn* were really in the language of your Hew River tribe. 

The two seem to be transposed. 

In your paper on the She s t^«-AchQiBawi- -A New Linguistic 
Stock (Am.Anthropologist,Vol.7,No.2,1905) you record seTen words 
as Hew BiTer, but do not say where or from whom they were ob- 
tained. In your later paper (Bul.Am.Ku8.a907) you make no men- 
tion of the Ne^ B^Ter.^ndj.aq 8 except on the small map. What ia 

to be inferred from this? 

Teiy truly yours. 



ROLAND B. DIXON 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
CAM BRIDGE. MASS. 



Cr C.Hart iy^erriam 
Laguaitas^ 



Calif. 



June £!• 1926. 



Dear Doctor Merriam: 



I am atraid I cannot help you 



in the matter of the discrepancy between your results and mine 

» 

on the Kenomibu and New River languages. The facts as I obtained 
them are given in the papers, and if your results differ, why all 
"("bat can be done is for you to give your material as you got 
^t. 1 have no means of going back of the statements made to me 
»t the time, and cannot, as you are able to, make any attempt to 



<^«t further data. 



^^ery truly yours 




i:^^/Ut^ 



A^^ 



{ 



The Ko-no-me-ho and Kah-hoo-tin-e-rvik languages 



Dr. Kol^aid J)ixon in 1903i at the su^^estion of Dn, ii.roeber and 
Goadard, visited the *orks of Salmon in hopes of finding remnants of 
a tribe of which next to nothing was known, and whicii was feared to 
be extinct. The supposed new dialect, he states, "proved on core 
careful investigation to be no^ essentially different from the Shasta 
as spoken on Klamath Hiver." But at the same place (rorks of Salmon) 



1. The bhasta-Achomawij A uew lingoistic stock, with four new 
dialects. — Aiiierican Anthropologist, Vol. 7, No2, 213-217, April to 
June 1905. 



he found two women w o remembered a number of words ox a widely diffe- 
rent language, wuich they spoke of as "the old people's talk^i from 
theiii he succtedeii in obtaining seventy-five words and Siiort phrases. 
he learned that the name of the tribe at *ork8 of Saliaon is •Konomxhu* 
(Ko-no-me-hoo ) , and belie ea that the words of "the old people's talk" 
obtained from the two women belonged to tliat lan^age. At the same 
time he learned of the existence "of what acems to be a secona new 
dialect in this region" spoken b^ a peoijle on "the uppea^ courses of 
the two forks of Salmon River above the Konomlhu" and extending (south- 
westerly) "even ov..r the divide, onto the head of i<ew itiver ". Of the 
language of this tribe, which he calls 'Kew Hiver Shasta • he obtained 
-- he does not state from whom— seven words, only three of which were 
secured also in the lan^i-uage which he calls ^Konomlhu»* Of these three, 
two are practically identical in the two lane>uaoes, while the third 
appears to the result of a slight misunderstanding, it is the word 
given by Dixon for man m his piper of l^Ob, corrected to Indian in 
in 1907* He gives this word as Kisapuhi^u in »Konomihu» and as ge-ic 



2. The Shastat bulletin American Museum ilatural History, Vol. 17, part 5, 
p. 497, 1907. 



in •!!€«» Miver.* 1-iow, in Konomehoo the word for Indians is hish (he 



- 2 - 



writes it kia) ana tHe possesive mine is yah-po-e-na, which , as heard 
for the first time, mi^ht easily be written aimhiyii. iience , if I am 
not mistaken, his Kis apuhiyu as written by me would be Uish-yahpoenali, 
meaning my people: and his 'Kew Hiver» eciuivalent, ge-ic, if I inter- 
pret it correctly, would be ke-ish? meaning young people . 



3, It should be made clear thiat owing to the different alphabets employed 
tho «ord for man wh ch in Shaste J. write ish, and in Konomehoo ^ish, 
is written by J)ixon ic and kis, respectively. 



In 1919 1 was fortunate enough to discover t»'0 survivors of the 
Konomehoo tribe living near Forks of Salmon, and obtained a vocabulaiy 
of five hundred and fifty five words of their langua^-e. Two years la- 
ter I made a horseback trip up the narrow Indian trail from Somes Bar 
at the junction of the Salmon and Klamath to the home of an aged Kono- 
meho woman on Salmon River below the Porks. Parom her x obtained more 
than a thousand words; 

Dixon, as already stated, learned of an extinct tribe farther souths 
extending from South Pork Salition over the itountains to the upper waters 
of iiew River, The name of thio tribe he did not ascertain; he called 
them 'iJew iviver Shasta ». The Konomehoo tell me that the n^uae of the 
tribe was Kah-ho<^tin-e-rook (pronounced by one iufoi-mant iiah-hooch-e- 
ne-rook) and tlia,i they spoke a language wery different from either Shas- 
te or Konomehoo. The Shaste call them Jlo-hah-pah soo-ish and Tah— -i-'' 
ish J the lioopa call them Klo-m^-tah-hwa; the Cheinarreko call them 
Uoo-num-ne-choo. 

Mow , as -f have just pointed out, the words recorded by Dixon as 
•Kononxhu* and »New Kiver Sha8ta» fail to show any real diffexences 
—the slight apparent dissimilarity being due to difference in meaning, 
so that I regaxd tiiem as one and the same lant,uage. 

The vital iiuestion arises as to what this language is. I believe 
it to be his •New Kiver Shasta», the proper name of which seems to be 
iiah-hoo-tin-e-rook. My reasons for this belief aret (1) that nearly 
all (all but four out of thirty three y of the words recorded by Dixon 



4. The only four words given by ^ixon as 'New River* wnich in any way 



. 3 - 



resemble Konomeho arei 

Dixon* 8 kew Kiver Shasta 

^isapuhlyu 

xasklpama 

ki^naxo 



iConoaeho obtained by me 



oo*e 



Hlsh (yah-poenah) 



/ 



hah«*800 ko*ho 
in-nah hah- ho 



E;ye 

Indlanpeopl 
Hazel 
Cedar 



as Konomehoo differ radically from the co responding words of Konomehoo 
..cured by »., (2) that Dixon hi-.elf state, that .„ visiting the Koiio- 
mehoo territory at *ork8 of Salmon "This sup oeed new dialect proved 
on careful investigation to be not essentially different from the 
Shasta as spoken oii Klamath River*« This accords entirely with my o»n 
study of the two languages, since in comparing more that one thousand 
words of Konomehoo with corresponding words in my very full vocabulazy 
of the Shaste language, ^ find a very close relationship, amounting 
in numsious cases to actual identity ^ 

Summing up, it seems o vious that the words published by Dixon 
under the two heads, Konomehoo and New Kiver Shasta, are the same, 
and that they almost certainly belong' to the latter language, Kah-hoo- 
tin-e-rook» This appears to be a wholly distinct language, Mer^ remo- 
tely if at all related to the Konomeho which as already stated is 
essentially the same as Shaste, And it seems to be Sviually distinct 
from the other lan^xiages of northern California —in other words, to 
constitute a distinct linguistic family. Uniorfcunately the tribe ap- , 
pears to be wholly extinct* 



THE KO-NO-MbIhO AND KAH-HOO'-TIN-E-ROK UNGUAGBS 




Dr. Roland Dixon in 1903, at the suggestion of Drs. 
Kroe\)er and Goddard, visited the Forks of Salmon in hopes of 
finding remnants of a tribe of lAiich next to nothing was Imown, 
and which was feared to he extinct. The supposed new dialect, 
he states, "proved on more careful investigatinn to he not essen- 
tially different from the Shasta as spoken on Klamath River.^XX 
- ■ •• - 'Porks of Salmon) he found two women who 

remembered a number~oflforas-of;f^ihe old people's talk"; a^ from 




themVsuoceeded in obtaining 75 words and short phrases. He learned 
that the name of the tribe at Porks of Salmon is- •goflfiaaM* 
r KoLno-me^-hoo ), and believed that the words of "the old people's 
talk" obtained from the two women belonged to that language. At 
the same time he learned of the existence "of what seems to be a 
second new dialect in this region" spoken by a people on "the 
upper courses of the two forks of Salmon River above the KfinamllaJi" 
and extending [southwesterly] "even over the divide, onto the head 
of New River." Of the language of this tribe, utoich he calls 

» he obtained— he does not state from whom— 
seven words, only three of Trtiich were secured a lso in the language 

\yThe Shasta-Achomawi: A new linguistic stock, with four new 

dialects.-Am. Anthropologist. Tol.?, No.2.213-217. Apr.-June 1905 





1^ 



Ko-no-me-ho & Kah-hoo-tin-e-ruk -2- 



r 

ills ' Konomihu ' 

iwarthethird 



misunders tandi ng • 



ISO. 



!^ndian 




Now, in 




In 1907/ He gives this word 
' Konomihg. ' and as ge-ic in »Ikffi_£ilfiX. * 
the word for Indians is hiflll (helwrites it kifl.) 

i~po-e-na . ?toich, as heard for the 



mine 



not mistaken, his 




it ten qpuhiTli , Hence, if I am 
as written by me would he 




meaning 




• and his 'New River* equivalent. 




In 1919 1 was fortunate enough to discover two sur- 
vivors of the Konomehoo tVihe living near. Porks of Salmon, and 

obtained a vocabulary of 555 words J^ .t^e^^if §^$1^1 r^.i^n 
Two years later I made a horseback trip up the narrow Indian 

trail from Somes Bar at the junction of the Salmon and Klamath 
to the home of an aged Konomeho woman on Salmon Biver below 
the Porks. Prom her I obtained more than a thousand words. 

Dixon, as already stated, learned of an extinct tribe 
farther south, extending from South Pork Salmon over the moun- 
tains to the upper waters of New River. The name of this tribe 
he did not ascertain; he called them ' Nfiff BlYfir SltfSta ^ The 
ir u^^ 4-^M -« fv,«f. thfl name of the tribe was M-hPff-<?in-e"rQ<>lt. 




[t should be maae ciear ^e? V-'^Bv^-^-I t wC-Tfo ^€,h 
employed, the woid for man which in Shaste ^ ^^ite lak^ 
Konomehoi hisk, is written by Dixon ic and l£ia. resped 



Ko-no-me-ho & Kah-hoo-tin-e-ruk -3- 



(pronounced by one infonaant Kah-hooch^e-ne«rook ) and that they 
spoke a language very different from either Shaste or Konomehoo 
The Shaste call them Ho-hah-pah soo-ish and Tahy^-i-ish : the 
Hoopa call them Klo-me-tah-hwa : the Chemar'reko call them 




How, as 1 have just pointed out, the words recorded by 
Dixon las 'Konomihu* and *New River Shasta* fail to show any real 
differences— the slight apparent dissimilarity being due to differ- 
ence in meaning, so that I regard them as one and the same language* 

The vital question arises as to what this language is» 
I believe it to be his *Nfiw Biver Shasta*, the proper name of 
Tfoich seems to be Kah-hoo- 1 in- e'-r ook . My reasons for this belief 
are: (1) that nearly all (all but 4 out of 33k of the words 
recorded by Dixon fas Konomehoo differ radically from the corres- 
ponding words of Konomehoo secured by me; (2) that Dixon himself 
states that on visiting the Konomehoo territory at Porks of Salmon 
"This supposed new dialect proved on careful investigation to be 
not essentially different from the Shasta as spoken on Klamath 
Eiver." This accords entirely with my om study of the two 
languages, since in comparing more than 1000 words of Konomehoo 
with corresponding words in my very full vocabulary of the Shaste 

4/^Tbtt nn-jj A worHfl given by Dixon as' New Biver 'which in any way 

Tesemble Krfpome'h9 are: v% -hf • a b 

■^ 2£/q^ ^^^ WXXC.-WW. oo-e' By® 

kisapuhi'yu bish [yah-poenah] Indian People 

xadkipama hahi-soo ko-ho Hazel 

kin'axo in-nah hah'-ho Cedar 



Ko-no-me-ho & Kah-hoo-tin-e-ruk 



-4- 



language, I find a yery close relationship, amounting in numerous 
cases to actual identity. 

It seemff obvious 4*S»^»Bq9 that the words published by 
Dixon under the two heads, Konomehoo and New Biver Shasta , are 
the same, and that they almost certainly belong to the latter 
language, Kah-hoo-tin-e-rook. This appears to be a wholly dis- 
tinct language, very remotely if at all related to the Ko'nomeho . 
ffcich as already stated is essentially the same as Shaste . And it 
seems to be equally distinct from the other languages of northern 
California— in other words, to constitute a distinct linguistic 

« 

family. Unfortunately the tribe appears to be wholly extinct. 



Ot, 



il/iid^s 



i 




iUrii^^( 



^-i/k^wdpcriuj TUjh the C^W^wL . 



huUa^L Trtp^/^ 



u 



l^iUt n 




ni^iA^ 



))uicfl^t 



u 



7aU 



eo 



\ 



C. W^f: Meniam 



•l 



I ] 



t P'-'^D 






CHUMASH 



-■M^ fJT 



%<^-tif Tft^ft 



fV*n 



T^iCflf* %; 



e^ 



foll«wing not* oopied from Dr. Merri«n*8 Journal 



U' 



provides 



October k, 1911 • VislUd th« remnant of SanU Ines Indians 
tn a small orsek a mile or two bslow (aouthw«atArlv frrm^ 




the present Tillage of Santa Ines, 



^ W 



Talked with seTeral of the Indians, inolislin|^an intelifgent 



old woMn, and learned mueh of their distribatl 
lists of naass of aamsals, birds, and reptiles. 



»n rmtmti f 



th£ 



Thejr oall their languace Kah-sah-kon-peh-a and say that their 



territory esctended easterly about twenty-seven miles— into the mountains; 
southerly to the high main range of the Santa Tner or Santa Barbara 
MtS} westerly nine miles down the Santa Tnes River to a plaoe called 
Ahn-sahn on the present Buell ranoh (line passes close to the ranch ' 
house) t and notrh for at least thirteen miles—into the San Kafael 
Range, Their territory included Zaoo Lake, which they oall Ko-o, which 
they visited to hunt and fish. 

They gave me the names of six of their rancherias or villages, 
all in the SsnU Tnes Valley (broadly speaking) as follows: 
Ah*ke«tsoom, about twenty miles east of Santa Tnes, 
Mis-stah-ksMrah, about sixteen miles ESS, at San Marcos Ranoh. 
Kal-al-wah-sah (or Kal.a.wah*sah) , on south bank of Santa Tnei River 
three or four miles below Santa Tnet village. This was the largest 
rancheria of the tribe. 




Sav-tav«no HAO (or Sair*t«»r*nah •mo)« on north bank of Sa 
Rivar diractly opposite the large Tillage Kal»lah«vah«8ah« 
Hoon*hoon-na*tah. near present Zaoa station on railroad twt 



Hiles vest or northwest of Los Olives • 



'^ vv> 



#r, 



Me«ifah«vmnt at the base of a big nhite iRountsin in the San Rafael 
Mts« about tuelve or thirteen miles north of Santa Tnei« 

They say that a tribe oalled Ah««ioo, speaking a dialeot 
of their (Chumash) language, lived to the west and north from La 
Puzlssiaa and Lompoo to Santa Maria and up the Santa Maria and 
Siiquoo vallaja. Th«y oould undarttand sona but bgr no aaans all of 
this languAg*. Parthor north was the San Lnla Obispo languago Whieh 



was wholly dlfforont* 



m* ir 



Tho tHba Inhabitlnc Cviyana Valley they oall Kah*she-nah8«»oo 
and say thsy differed from both thenuelyes and the Ah-moo* 

The tribe at Santa Baitera they oall Kaa-swah. Th^ speak a 

r 

language siidlar to but somewhat different from the Santa Tnes Kah* 



sah»kom^pah-ah < 






iSHft**"* » 



Ivmg 



» Sftii'^vt-i^s:,*! 



mr. 



^"99 ■■ * «ieeer'. 



^' l\.» 






t^.^ 



JSf % 



'fpt 



t'i 



^♦■■ii r 



m§Mm. 






6 ^ae 









i 



11 



Att 



t((tA 




r.i.'- t 




>.':^v^y^. 



KAK-MS-I 



i'i 



>iJM»r 



A Tvaaan tribe inhabiting th« southern part of the Colorado 
Deaort from San Felipe eaa^iirljr to or nearly to the Colorado Birer^ 



VM«k 



ftdttth 



border into Lover California, 



Their neighbore aret on the north the Cafauillai on the 



Kokopa 



the Ka»HBe-i (« Diegueno)* 



\\r f 



** 



•^. ''/y-. ,b ♦ , » ,* 



n'"-: 'H 



They were visited more than a eenttury ago tgr Corte«, Oaroes^ 



t au^ -.1 y^' -!>]' 'w 



sailed QaeMgr* bgr the timi: 



Harrington calls them Kaaqrai: 



(Sxped. from San Diego to Colorado 



m aseting 
■ountaia 



▼alley betneen Vamer Valley and the desert^ and in a narrow valley a 
few miles east of Valleeito. but their headquarters seeMd to be alon^ 



Hah-withl-hi^ 



nooth 



Rio OUa" (Pacific R.R. Reports, IH, Pt. 3, P. 125, footnote, 1856). 



.-> . 



^.-,#i«#%4;^ *i 



r JL ^^ JL 



6f their nunsrous Yillages, the only one whos% tAae 1 have 
QuathlHoet-ha, referred to the Lowl^ Colorado River region 
• otter Tillages mentioned in the Handbook of North America 



Conoya) 



Their eae 



v1,.U.a3K^« 4r»tMMr %e bm 



Qsm iam . C o ■iil -y^h, CoMj»« CoMyM, C«i^«l^ Cimij%, 



-H^. 



Co-mo-jahy Coaojah^ Cmoy, (kmoy—g Coaoj«l« CoMO-yvi^ Coaoyats^ 
C«mosel« CaaUyatf K«qra (Ktn-lfya Harrin|:t<m« Ja&k naat)^ Kaad*- 
akhM (Kroabar^ MohATt nuw)^ X«^iai 0-otaa (Zalttohr* f* Bthnol*, '"^ 
Piaa tam»)f Xua (HttntMlBUi) , Axua^ Aama (probably Kok^pa naat)^ 



QtMMya, Q iw M j tkg QuMMxa, QiMMTmb (X^iaa naaa)* 



i*9ff. 



♦/« 



Priato tails «• that ha naa born on tha Lowar California 

eh 



(Maxloaii) slda of tha llna^ and was. a BMnber of tha a-wah^'^-hao-yOf 
as thay eallad thaaaalpaa (eallod bj tha Cm na 1, A^^whah-kd-wahk) ^ 
bat for Magr jaara has livad at tha randiarla fi»-na«ah»kab-ton on 
Mansanlta Roaarvatlon« and apaaka both langiiagoa^ aangr words of which 
ara aloasly siBlLar» If not Idflntieal. In aoao easaa it ia not 
oartaia iihotb«r tha wwda ha gSTt aa ara Kwa a a 1 or il-4diah-4ce-«ahk* 
Tha tribal naaa K aa a a 1 ha pronovnoos axaotlj aa do tha K t a a t i th«»- 



salvas* Tba Spanish naaa Diacano ia eonam uaa for thia triba ha "" "^ 
infariablj pronouaeas *Ta-fa-no* or *Ta-«a-no** 

Tha eoQBti7 of tba Kaa aa i axtanls aastarljr froa tha coast' 
of Sontham California ofor tha Cojaaaea Nountaina to and out tqpoa 
tha Colorado Doaart aa far as Naw &iTor and Blvo Laka. HLua Laka 
thoj call Bah-choo^i* Thair paraaaant raneharias vara ia tha aomntaina 
and foothilla» not oat on tha doaart propor* Thaj Tisitad tha dasart 
at eartain saasons to onltiTata oom» aalcma, and other cropa« but 
no Indiana evar liTod peraaaently at either Mountain Spring or Coyote 
Wolla« both of which ara aeralj watar-holea used idien traToling* 
Iheir aastemaost Tillages appear to hare been at Pala Spriag^^ 



y 



//. 



n 






3 ' 



((Hik-ko»-o)— not to bo oonfoood with tho Pala Sprii^o of tho KaiMob— 
ond CarrlM Spring (*Eah-po»-o), both on tho old road froa San Follpo 
and Yalloeito Spring (Kab-wa) to tho Colorado ^iTor at I^na. lhaa« 
on tho oast thoir torritofy adj)oinod and abuttod upon that of tho luaa, 
whoa tho7 oall Ka-«han» without tho protoneo of anr Intorronlng trlbo* 
Boneo. tho torn Ko-mra. usually apoUod CoMoya» which baa boon appliod 



ZiadlaMi of tho Colorado Dtftort. appoara 



tho 



naiminy 



'KLnB<f 



Kaa-aa-1 Ranchoriaa in and adAaoont to tho Cuyaaaoa Mountains 



aroi An»7ah«4iah< 



CvgraaAoa* Haah-«h-«ahak, 



Noar Pino Valliijr* llat-«ook«— At MMoni| about four adloa woat of 
Yalloeito. Hah-«o«— At Valloeito* tHik»koo-o««-At Pala Spring 
botwoon Tallooito and Carriao Spring. <Hah^pow^«— ^t Carriao 

■i 

Spring (oratomMat Tillago and my ziot haro boon ponMOont.) Tatoh- 
o-kwi8b«— At Vo-ah-pi-pah (Cuyapipa) or long Canyon* Sa-na-ab-kab->ton, 
•^t Mansanita Roaonration* Kah-to.^-At La PoaU. Kwin-yoa-yuk-kah.- 
At Indian Sehool about oight ailos froa Ca^po* Haah-kah-hah«— About 
four adloa froa Caapo* Xwab-ho«ar^ro«— On tho flat of Morona Vallay* 



Sh uw a t wyuHwah, 



» aany ranohorlaa farthor waat aroi wan»ti*— 
)tea-kwan-an| Santa laabol ranchoriai Sak»kwahn| 



oh 



o-^>ah 



>po->waa 



Tia-'so-pah or Tbo 



»<-0& WK 



-'iy: 



eh 



pah 



«<*^ ^- Imodiatoly north of tho faa aa i in tho aountaina^ vMeh 



%i^ 



'I . ' 



A.' 

k 



ugr b« oontid«r*d a northNard oontlnuation of tlw Cui3r«aiaea» is a 
eloealj ralatad triba called \iy tha Ka»«a*i« Too '■ pa h» and by 



i« 



thMMolTMy TU-aa-i-pah* Inclndad In thair iarrltory vara tha raneharlas 
of Julian^ 7olean« Santa Isabal^ Xtaa Qranda and tha so-callod Diagrao 
of Wamar Tallsjr. Thair tarritorT- adjoinad that of tbs Loiaano on 
tha wtatf tha Koo-pah on tha norths tha Wa-la->taa (apparantly a diri- 
aion of tha Kawaah) on tha northoaaty tha Kaa-oa-i on tha touth* 
Thair aonthaaatam boondary ronalnf wlataminad* 



oh 
A(-4iab -han^gro or A-«faah>4co-4«ahk 



Vf f.t^ 



.p,"' 



X 



South ef tha boondavy batiia«i California and Lowar California 

ia anotbir triba^ apaaking a ralatad dialaat* Thia triba tha Ka n aa i 

ch 
eall Ap-frtiab-Ioo-Mhk. but thair ntMi for theaaalTaa ia Wah •han-gro* 



intartribal boundary 



appronriaataly idth tha intamational boundary^ 



oh 



•4iaii«yo 



axtanda northiiard eroaaing tha intamational boundary to inoluda 

ah 
Jaeuiiba ?allay nhara tha Wah -hab-yo antarad tha atata of California 

and aztandad northaaatarly aa far aa Mountain Springy whara thara waa 

no parMaant riUaga* 

ICthnoaoologyt Tha Jaguar— tbay oall tha "bi^apottad lion^" 

ch 
«b»aa nana in thair laaguaga ia hnt-ta-kul • It wa a rara anlaaX 



froB 



oh 
aagpLa a ^^ and flicker kuk-ho vara aaered birds 



Tha red ahafta of tha wing and tail f aathera of tha flicker ware 
uaad for eareaonial head->bandaj| and flicker feathers ware attached to 
the baaa of arrowa* 



Poondll, which thay call towh-lovk it a bird to b« looked 
out for* If it follotfs a person it is a bad oasn* 

Kingbird which th^ call Ch« -en is to ths Indian what 



wakss 



■oming whsn it it tint to gst up. 



CaoTon \irtng eallsd hab-aoo-koop, is rslatad to ths mocking 



bird* 



ehl 
Bthnobotamr t Tacca irtdnolsi. called ab*koo • The stem 



is good to eat when roasted green* 

Yaeoa mohavensis* shab-ah« the bark is used for soap* 
Hosackia glabra. hi«waht. used for thatching houses* 



Ramona oolrstachya* bil -ti*e« used for seasoning roasted 
r sunflower^ grain, and so on* 
Salix and Sambacus. Elder and willow bark were used by the 



women for skirts* 



(InformAticn from old Chief Bartolo Prieto of Kanxanita 
Reservation, San Diego County, October, 1918)* 




-wr^'^emw 




/ 



/ 



\ 









■> Chumash 



L f. zsij 



]»r. 



The following note copied from MerriamsAJoumal for 

provides useful information on the 




1911 



Santa Inez Chumash (Bdjhtar) 



- 1 - 

October 4, 1911 • % Visited the remnant of Santa Inez 
Indians living on a small creek a mile or two below (south- 
westerly from ) the present village of tianta Inez. 

Talked with several of the Indians, including an in- 
telligent old woman, and learned much of their distribution 
and lore and got lists of names of mammals, birds, and rep- 
tiles* 

They call their language Kah-sa^i-kom-p^h-^ and say 
that their territory extended easterly about twenty-seven 
miles — into the mountains; southerly to the high main 
range of the Santa Inez or Santa Barbara Mtsj westerly nine 
miles down the Saata Ynez niver to a place called Ahn-sahn 
on the present iiuell ranch (line passes close to the ramch 
house)| and north for at least thirteen miles —into the 
San Rafael Range. Their territory included Zaca Lake, 
whiahthey call Ko-o, which they visited to hunt and fish. 

They £ave me the names of six of their rancherias 
or villages, all in the Santa Ynez Valley (broadly speaking) 
as follows 

Ah-ke -.t soom \M&b out twenty miles east of Santa Ynez 

Mi^s-^tay-k^-wgih VAbout sixteen miles ESE, at San Marcos 
Ranch 

• -wah-^sah (or Kaf-S-wah-sah^)^ AKon south bank of Santa 
Ynez River three or four miles below Santa Ynez village, 
^his was the largest rancheria of the tribe. 

N, ly C Vl / r\\\ 

S aw- 1 aw-nO|^-mo (or Saw-taw-nah— ij^moj Jj^on north bank of 
Santa Ynez Stiver directly opposite tue large village Kal- 
lah-wah-sah. 



7 




- 2 - 






road 



Hoon-hoon^na-tah^^lfear present Zaea station on rail- 




Los Oliyos • 



three/ of miles we»t or northwest of 



Me-wah-wan^ ^/t the base of a big white mountain ii 
San Rafael Mts. about twelve or thirteen miles north of 



Santa Ynez. 



They say that a tribe called Ah-moof speaking a dialect 
of their (Chumash) language, lived to the west and north 
from Ca Purissima and Lompoc to Santa Maria and up the 
Santa ^ria and Sisquoc valleys. They could understand 
but by no means all of this language. Farther north was the 
San Luis Obispo language which was wholly different. 

The tribe inhabiting ifuyama Valley they call Kah<^she-nahs<lmoo 
and say they differed from both themselves and the Ah-mooi' 

The tribe at Santa Barbara they call Kas-swah^ Ihey 
speak a language similar to but somewhat different from the Santa 
Ynez Kah-sah-kom-p(^h-ah» 



/ 



i> 



--^1^ 



'■Ti^'*^''*'^Mer'W^v<cy ^ • Uwf;^ 




X 



I 

Oct. 4, 1911, I visited the remnant of Santa Inez Indiana 



living on a small creek a mile or two below (southwes 
the pnsent village of Santa Inez. 






Tkl^ed:tith'sevetal^of^the Indians, including an intelli- 
old woiaaji, and learned much o^f their distribution and 



and got lists of names of mammals, binis, and reptiles. 

language /a^> g ah-kom-p^la ani say that 

— into the 



their territory extended easterly about 27 miles 



range 



M , 



or Santa Barbara Mts; westerly 9 miles down tK^Santa Ynez River, 
to a place called A^^sahn o n the present Buell ranchdine ' 
passes close to the ranch house) ; and north for at least 13 
miles - into theSan Rafael Range. Their territory included 



Zaca Lake, which they call 
and fish. 




which they visited to hunt 



rancherias 



lag.8. all in ih» Santa Yn.z Valley (broadly speaking), as 
followijr: 

% 

Ah-ke-tsoom ~ About 20 miles east of Santa Ynez. 
MiS'Stah-^ke -wah 



Ranch 



K»l-ah-wah-Ba}f (or Kal-^^ra^i-RfiTT) n*. „«„+i, v i * « 
. — i,«'-waa>san; — On south bank of Santa 

Ynez River 3 or 4 miles below Santa Ynez village. This 
was the largest rancheria of the tribe. " 
Saw-taw-ngohw (or Sawtaw-nahO^moO ^ On north bank of Sai 

Ynez River direetly opposite the large village Kal-lah- 
wah-sah''. " 



nta Inez Indians 2 

Hoon-hoon-na«tah «^ Near prtsent Zaca station on railroad a 

couple of miles ,W or NW of Los Olivos. _ 

Me «wa}i-wan — At the base of a big white mountain in the San 

Rafael Mta. about 12 or 13 miles north of Santa Ynez. 

They say that a tribe called Ah-moo , speaking a dialect 
of their [Chumash] language, lived to the west and north^ f rom 
La Purissima and Lompoc to Santa Maria and up the Santa Maria 
and Sisquoe valleys. They could understand parts but % no 
means all of this language. Farther north was the San Luis 
Obispo language^ which was wholly different. 

The tribe inhabiting Cuyama IJalley they call Kah-she-nahs 
moo', and sav thev differed from both themselves and the Ah-moo 



The tribe at Santa Barbara they call Kas-swah" ! They 
speak a language similar to but somewhat different from the 



Santa Ynez Kah-sah-kom-peh-ah. 




I 



Cl4vmA^H 






/Uaa 



ICUKC. 





v*^ 



iu. J(KA/^ 



jp A^^^ 



p -^ 



^yK^S^ 



Ka/ 



7TI\L^<^ 



' lii 



iMoar^api^i- lU^iA ^^ Udi^l^nit^ huUft^tc TaU^ '^ R^^Ct H 



\ 



l^r.\^ U CI i Ul )^'^ 



-e-j ^/c 



<^^(u/uriL CJdto 



nu^ 






/yt/c^^u V^<-ib 



t^Vi^k?^ 



C. Hart Merriam 

Pepsfs 

BANG WISS 

8C/1 3 c 



y^ 



> 

\ 



\ 



{y^ 



S 



\ 



t^\ 



NaiV\- 



rr^t'L 



Km >a 1 



A Ttiman tribe inhabiting the ^outhern part of the Colorado 
Desert from San Felipe easterly to or nearly to the Colorado 
Piver, and from the south end of Salton Sea southerly across the 
Mexican border into Lower California, 

Their neighbors aret on the north the Cahuilla; on the 

» 

east the Ytuna; on the southeast the Kokopa (Cocopa); on the 
west the Kam-me-i ( « Diegueno)^ 

Ihey were visited more than a century ago by Cortez, Garces, 
and Kino, and Garces states that they are called Quemeya by the 
Y \ima. H arrington calls them Kamya. Their territory was defined 

e 

by Whipple in 1849 (Expd. from San Diego to Colorado River, Jlst Cong. 
2nd Sess. Senate Ex. Doc. 1?, p. 5, 1851). Whipple foxind them 
meeting the Diegeenose ( « Diegueno « Kam-me-i) at San Felipe, a 
deep mountain valley between Warner Valley and the desert, and in 
a narrow valley a few miles east of Vallecito, but their head- 
quarters seemed to be along New River, which they call Hah-withl-high. 
Later Whipple mentioned them as 'scattered from San Felipe across 
the desert to the mouth of Rio Gila* (Pacific R.R. Reports, III, 
Pt. 5, p. 125, footnote, 1856). 

Of their numerous villages, the only one whose name I have 
seen is Quathl-met-ha, referred to the Lower Colorado River 

fegion. The four other villages mentioned in the Handbook ^ HorXk l\^^r\u>^ \\\h^>M 
(under Comeya) are included by error, being Luiseno. 



-2- 



/ 



tof' 



f 



Synonymy . Co-mai-yah, Comeya, Comeyas, Comeyei, Comoya, Co-mo-yak, 
Oomoyah, Comoye, Comoyee, Comoyai, Como-yoi, Co-mo-yei, Comoyatz, 
Comogei, Camilya?, Kamya (Kam-Mya Harrington, Yuma name), Kamia-akhwo 
(Kroeber, Mohave name), I-xm O^otam (Zeitschr. t. Eth. , Pima name), 
Y um (Heintzelman), Axua, Axua (probably Kokopa name), Quemaya, 
Quemeya, Quemexa, Quemeyab (Yuma name)* 




(Information from old Chief O^^*^!^ Prieto of Manzanita 



Reservation, 
October, 1918) 



San Diego County, 



Prieto tells me that he was born on the Lower California 



-/ 



(Mexican) side of the line, and was a member of the ^-wah^^-han-yo , 
as they called themselves (called by the Kam-me-i, A-whali-ko-wahkO , 
but for many years has lived at the rancheria Es-na-ah-kah-ton on 
Manzanita Reservation, and speaks both languages, many words of 
which are closely similar, if not identical* In some cases it is 
not certain whether the words he gave me are Kam-me-i or A-whah- 
ko-wahk.' The tribal name Kam-me-i he pronounces exactly as do the 
Kam-me-i themselves • The Spanish name Diegeno in common use for this 



"/ -/ 



.-/ - / 



tribe he invariably pronounces 'Ye-ge-no' or 'Ye-ga-no'# 

/ -/ 
The country of the Kam-me-i extends easterly ffom the coast 

of Southern California over the Cuyamaca Mountains to and out 

upon the Colorado Desert as far as New River and Blue Lake* Blue 

Lake they call Hah-choo-pi» Their permanent rancherias were in the 

mountains and foothills, not out on the desert proper. They visited 

, ... 

the desert at certain seasons to cultivate corn, melons, and other 
crops, but no Indians ever lived permanently at either Mountain 
Spring or Coyote Wells, both of which are m^iialy water-holes used 



-^;w„ 



-5- 



/V«^ 



when traveling. Their easternmost villages appear to have been at 

Palm Spring \CHik:-koo-o)— not to be confused with the Palm Springs 

L 
of the Kaweah — and Carriso Spring (^ah-pow-o), both on the old 

road from San Felipe and Vallecito Spring (Hah-weO to the Colorado 

River at Yuma* Thus, on the east their territory adjoined and 

abutted upon that of the Yuma, whom they call Ku^chan, without 

the presence of any intervening tribe. Hence, the term Ko-moya, 

usually spelled Oomoya, which has been applied to Indians of the 



^ / 



Colorado Desert, appears to be the Yuma name for the Kam-me-i« 

Kam-me-i Rancherias in and adjacent to the Ouyamaca Mountains 
are: An-yah-hah. — A few miles west of Cuyemaca* Hash-ah-mahsk. — 

i 

Near Pine Valley* Mat-nook* --At Masons, about four miles west of 

Vallecito. Hah-we. — At Vallecito. 'Hik-koo-o. — At Palm Spring 

« 
between Vallecito and Carriso Spring. ^Hah-pow-o. — At Carriso 

Spring (easternmost village and may not have been permanent. ) • 

Tatch-e^kwish.— At We-ah-pi-pah (Cuyapipa) or Long Canyon. 

Es-na-ah-kah-tdn. — At Manzanita Reservation. I'lah-to.— At La Posta. 

Kwin-yes-yuk-kah. — At Indian School about eight miles from Campo. 
__J^jiA - /rA^^-, ^/jjl4^ *• - {^6cfcct* Jcu/t tniies J^^io^^ Cai^po 

Kwah-he-ar-re.— On the flat of Morena Valley. Shu-wen-yu-wah. ~ 



At or near present Morena Dam« 



- / 



A few of the many Ifencherias farther west are: Wah-ti. — 
At or near Descanso. Me B-kwan-an.jf^ Santa Isabel rancheriaj 
Sak-lofahni^At or near Sequanj *Hah-pe-wafl^|jify^t or near Dulzural 




I ^ 



Tis-se-pah or Too5£*-.e-pah 



Immediately north of the Kam-me-r in the mountains, which may 
be considered a northward continuation of the Ouyaraaca, is a closely 



/ 



^\ 



ch 



related tribe called by the Kam-me-i, Toov^-e-pah, and by themselves, 



/ w 



f 



Tis-se-pah/ Included in their territory were the rancherias of 
Julian, Volcan, Santa Yaabel, Mesa Grande and the so-called Diegeno 
of Warner Valley. Their territory adjoined that of the Luiseno on 
the west, the Koo-^pah on the north, the We-is-tem (apparently a 
division of the Kaweah) on the northeast, the Kam-me-i on the south. 
Their southeastern boundary remains undetermined* 

A-wah^-han-yo or A-whah-ko-wahk ' 



South of the boundary between California and Lower Cali^rnia 
is another tribe, speaking a related dialect. This tribe the 
Kam-me-^i call A-whah-ko-wahk/ but their name for themselves is 
Wah*i -Iwii-yo . The intertribal boundary between the Kamime-i and 
the Wah^-han-yo coincides approximately with the international 
boundary, but a loop extends northward crossing the international 
boundary to include Jacumba Valley where the Wah--hah-yo entered 
the state of California and extended northeasterly as far as 
Mountain Spring, where there was no permanent village, 
Ethnozoolopy t The jaguar— they call the "big-spotted ^ion», whose 

' / 'eh 

name in their language is hut-te^kul =. It was a rare animal tut 



was seen from time to time. 



/. 



The golden eagle ^Spah and flicker kuk-ho were sacred birds 
The red shafts of the wing and tail feathers of the flicker were 



use 



d for ceremonial head-bands, and flicker feathers were attached 



to the base of arrows. 



-5- 



Poorwill, which they call tow-lowk is a bird to be looked out 
for. If it follows a person it is a bad omen. 

Kinfbird which they call Che'J^-en Is to the Indian what the 
rooster is to the white man, as it wakes the people up in the 
morning when it is time to get up. 



/ 



Canyon Wren, called hah-moo-koop, Is related to the mocking 



bird. 



P 



,dc ^l* 






Ethnobotany t Yucca whipplei , called ah-koo s , The stem is good 

to eat when roasted green. 

Yucca mohavensis , shah-ahi loie bark is used for soap. 

Hosackia glabra , hi-waht', used for thatching houses. 

Ramona polys tachya , bil*'-ti-e, Used for seasoning roasted 
seeds of sxwiflower, grain, and so on. 

Salix and Sam bucus . Elder and willow bark were used by the 

women for skirts • 




\ 



KA:!-14S-I 



A Xvanf-n trlbo InhcMtlnf; the wout'iern part of the Cblomde 
Daoert from San Felipe eestarly to or nearly to the CJolorado 
Mirer, and froia the south end of Salton Sea eoutherly across the 
Mexican border into Lover OclifOmia. 

Their neighbors arei on tho north the Oahuillai on the 
east the Tumai on the fjoutheast the Kokopa (Oeedpa)| on the 
west the Kai!hHBe«»i ( « Diefueno)« 

Ihey were visited acre than a century ago by Cortez, Carces^ 
and KinOf and Garces stctes that they are crlled Cueiaeya ly the 
T umat H arrington calls them Kamya. Their territory was defined 
by Whipple in iM? (Kicpdt from San Die^o to Colorado ^ver, Jlst Conf# 
?nd ?es8t Senate %• Doc. 19$ !>♦ ^9 l'^f51)^ ^^^ipple fotmd tVem 
meetlnf the Ol-^^^eenose ( • TJiepjeno « Kam^me-i) at San Felipe, a 
de^p mountain valley between Werner Vtelley and the desert, and in 
a narrow vrlley a fe\f miles east of Tfellecito, but their head- 
quarter?? aeomed to be alonf New River, which they crll Hah-withl-hifh* 
Later Whipple mentioned them as •scattered from San Felipe across 
the desert to the mout: of Ho Gila* (Pacific F.P# Reports, III, 
Ptt 5, p. 125> footnote, lfi36). 

Of their minerous villofos, the only one v/hoso na-ne 1 liave 
seen is Omthl-met-ha, referred to the Lower Colorado Piver 
fe[don# T!ie four other villages mentioned in the Ha-dbook 
(Mrder C^meya) are inrlnded by error, belnj; Luiseno« 



•2«» 



Synoiiyaiy# Oo-<nali»yaht Comeya, Conoyaa, Oomeyalf Oomoyat Oo-fa<H*yah| 
CoraoyGht Conoye, Oonoyoe, Comoyoli Conjo^yoi, Co-mo-yoi, CoT^oyatz, 
Coriocel, Canjllya?, Kainya (Kata-^^ fferrlnctoTii Tu m neme), Kanla-ekhwe 
(KrooboFf tlohcve nanie)^ I«>aim O«otam (Zaitaohr* f« Bth^^ Pima name)f 
T TJtm (Helntzoliaan), Axita, Axua (probably Kokopa namo}t Qucnnyai 
OuoQoya, Ouomoxai OuerMjrab (Turaa ntTia)* 

(Information from old C?iiof P^pHoIo Prl^^to of Ifenzanlta 
Peoenmtlon, on tho arat slope In aoutheaetem San Diept) County ^ 

October, 1918) 

Prleto tells rne that ha was bom on the Lower C©lifomla 
(Mexican) eide of the line, and was a r!i»niber of the >A^wah^:r»han**yOt 
aa they called themsalvea (celled by the KGia-ma-l, A^^fhafc^ko-vmhk)^ 



-/ 



.-/• 



but for many years has lived at the rancharla Ss-no-ah-kah-ton on 
I^^binzanlta Paservatlon, and spetka both lan£ua£;eQ, many words of 
which are closely similar, If not Identical ♦ In sc»o ernes It la 
not cortcln whether the v;orda he frve me are Kf^m-ma-l or A*-wlwih- 



ko-^wahki The tribal najna 



*-/ 



he pronoitnces exactly as do the 



-J 



KarjHfaia-^l themselvast The St)anlah nr -^ Dlapano In conraon use for thla 



•^f — > 



-# w\ 



tribe he Invarlrbly nronounces •Te-*ce-*no^ or •Ye-fa-no^# 

The co^mtry of the Kam-oa-1 extends easterly froTti the coaat 
of Southern Oallfomia over the Ouyaaaca Mountalna to and ov»t 
upon the Colorado Desert as far as New Plvar and Plue Lake* Blue 
Lake they call Hah-»choo-pl# Their perroenent rancherlas were In tha 
tnoimtalns and foothills, not out on the desert pro^er^ Tlioy visited 
the desert at certcln sear^ons to ail*lvnte com, nelons, rjnd other 
crops, but no Indians evr^r lived ner^^.onently at either ?tour>taln 
Sprlnf or Coyote V/ells, botb of which are ?tie'!ily water-holes used 



>.N« 



•> 



ifhen trrvellngt Their oastemsofit villegf^s oppecr to )mw% been at 
Pslra ^prlnf OUlc-koo-o;— not to be eonftjged with the Palm Springs 
of the KawcBh-^^nd Corrlso *5prln[: (ffnh-pov-c ) , both on the old 
rend from San Pellpo and Valleclto Spring (Hnh-we) to tho Colorado 
Plver at Yuma, Thtia, on the ccat tholr territory r(ljoln??d and 
abutted u^on that of the Turaa^ whom they call Ku-^chan, without 
the presence of any Intervening tribe. Hence, the term Ko-moya, 
usually spelled Oomoyat whloh has been applied to Indians of the 
Colorado Desert, appears to be tho Yum© name for the I^artwae^i^ 

Kamnae-i RBnchorias In and adjacent to the Ouyamaca Mountains 
aret An*»yah*hahf-A few miles vest of Ouyrrnaca^ HashHahnmahskt*^ 
Wear Pine Valley, Ifet-nook,— At Masons, about four miles t«st of 



m^f 



Valleclto, Hah«^we,*-*At Valleclto, ♦Hlk-koo-o,— At Palm Spring 



/ — 



between Valleclto and Oarrl so Spring, •Hah*^pow*^,-Ni*At Cferrlso 
Snrlng (easterrajost village and rnay not have been pemanent, ) 
Tatch^e-lrwlsh,— At v/e-<ih-*t>l-pah (0»iyaT>lpa) or Long Cbnyon, 
Es^na*ah«*kah-ton,— At Manzanita Reservation, lteh-to,--»At La Posta, 
Kwln-^yo8-yuk-kah.***»At Indian School about eight miles from Oampo# 
Kwah-ho-ar-^re,-— On the flat of Morona Valley* Shu*»wen-yu-wah, -^ 
At or near present Morena Oam# 

A few of tho many Fiancherlas farther wast aroi fch-tl,«— 
At or near Descanso, M©g«»tefan«'.an#«^Santa Isabel rancherla^ 
Salokwahn,— At or near Sec^an, •llah-^pe^was^t-^At or near I>^l2ura« 



KAm-me-1 



"\ 



O 





A Yuman tribe inhabiting the southern part of the Colo- . 
rado Desert from San Felipe easterly to or nearly to the 
Colorado River, and from the south end of Salton ^a souther- 
ly across the Mexican border. ^Their neighbors are: on the 




north the Cahuilla ; on the east the Yuma: on the south/ the 

- * ■ 

Kokopa (Cooopa); on the west the Kam-me-i (=Diegueno). 

They were visited more than a century ago by Cortez, 
(rarces. and Kino, and Oarces aj^ates that they are called 
Quemeya by the Yuma, 



arringtoap Their territory 
was defined by Whipple in 1849 (Expd. from San Diego to Colo- 




rado 



, 31st Cong. 2nd Sess. Senate Ex. Doc. 19, p. 5, 



1851). Whipple found them meeting the Diegeonos t=^iogueno = 
Kam'-me-iJ at San Felipe, a deep mountain valley between 

« 

Warner Valley and the desert, and in a narrow valley a few 
miles east of Yallecito, but their headquarters seemed to be 
along New River, i^ich they call Hah-withl-hiffh » Later 



If,''- 



Whipple mentioned them as "scattered fr<»n San Felipe across 
the desert to the mouth of Rio Gila" (Pacific R. R. Reports, 



X/ [^ P.tit uf» /»«iv. ^. :jJ 




• • 



CP 



II 



III, Pt. 3, p. 125, footnote, 1856). 

# 

- • 

Of their numerouu vilLiges, the only one whoae name I 
have seen is Quathl-met-ha, referred to.Lower Colorado Riyer 




^ 



region. The 4 other villages mentioned in the Handbook 
(under Comeya) are included "by error, being Luiseno. 



Synonymy. — Co-mai-yah, Comeya, Comeyas, Comeyei, Comoya, 



Co-mo-yah, Comoyah, Comoye, Comoyee, Comoyei, Como-yei, Co- 

*■■■•-.. ' • 

mo-yei, Comoyatz, Comogei, Camilya?, Kamya (KamWa Barring- 





ton, Yuma name), Kamia-akhwe (Kroeber, Mohave name), Inim 



» »• 



0-otam (Zeitsohr. f. Sth. , Pima name). Yum (Heintzelman), 



Axua, Axiia 



XIISJ^^ 



It, probably Kokopa mime), Quemaya, Qiiemeya, 



Quemexa, Quemeyab (Yuma name). 




ttftTstrtnarr 




MS, but , I h, id it ywnrw -hnfrivw fli-ft-^^lfm^l^fKUc -woji 





-w<t«.-^ 



* I f 



A2]u^ 



jz-^^zp^: V^ t i,^>e^l1ttf , ^U*^ Ui^^ - (iifcw.^-. 



• ••» 



f '^ 








C <MBlInformation from old Chief Bartolo Prieto 

of Manzanita Reservation, JiliuuLud on the east 

/ slope in southeastern San Diego^CountyJP^^^'^* '^'^ 





Prieto tells me that he was bom on the lower California 



(Mexican) side of the line, and was a member of the ^ a h^-MP-yo 



as they called themselves (called by the 




'^t^ 




l). 



but 





on 



for many yearsl|it the rancherxa 
Manzanita Reservation/ and speaks both languages, many i»ords 



of which are closely similar/if not identical. In some cases it 



is not certain v^ether the words 




im are in Ihw 



-«-i 





ly as do the 




' The tribal name F^ ii|»Ue-|' he pronounces exact- 
i' themselves. The Spanish name i for' thi s 




tribe usually giv«ft=itfl (mAfifi%/he invariably pronounces 




or 



*Yei ga-n6 *. 



T^T 




]^j^jyjT^|jJ[Jt 



^/ 




The country of the Knin-ine-I extends easterly from the 
coast of Southern California over the Ouyamaca Mountains to 
and out upon the Colorado Desert as far as New River and Blue 



V 



*6) 



lake. Blue lake they call Hah~di(^o^i . Their permanent 
rancherias were in the mountains and foothills, not out on 
the desert proper. They visited the desert at certain seasons 
to cultivate corn, melons, and other crops, "but no Indians 
ever lived permanently at either Mountain Spring or Coyote 
fells, hoth of which w^^ merely wter-holes used /when traveling 



Their easternmost villages appear to have been at Palm Spring 

-sD— not to he confused with the Palm Springs of the 




pig^-- and Carriso Spring fl^^ig^), both on the old road 
from San Felipe and Vallecito Spring ( Hah~we ) to the Colorado 
Biver at Yuma. Thus, on the east their territory adjoined 
and abutted upon that of the JEpg^whom they call K^^Qten » 



without the presence of any intervening tribe. ^Hence^ the 
term g^- ^oyy . usually spelled §jgi^^ irtiich has been applied 
to Indians of the Oolorado Desert, appears to be the loiML 



name for the 




M 



(D 




V r 




QI^J^ t&j 



—A few miles west of Cuyamaca. 




d^', 




««Mn«*MM*MiM 




[ak . — At or near laguna. — ^ 



—Near Pine Valley.- 




■M*iii*>>4MPv«(MaMatBM««KWba3:«MlMMMMMH0#*^ 



Kair^fiflki — At Masons, about 4 miles west of Yallecito. 




!!•«« 



^j;^<<«l| aw Wli— laW"'! iP-> ■»rj»««*: 







•-^j^* «*^!»taft«-ifi' 




-gi— At Palm Spring between Yallecito and Carriso Spring. -^ 



5arriso Springy (iBa 
have been permanent.) 



'"•"-~— «— '»»-»»^*»».««.,-...-..^ 



~; ,'-"- ■ ,rj-ajv 



^T!>!»* 



^" 




■aMiMMtqiv 



r- At We-ah-pi-pah (Cuyapipa) or Long Canyon. 



•4iiMMinw<««» 



^ZItAM*WMM*« 




ok.— At Manzanita Reservation. 



•».iT-««i9'*»«"!,f "P^fSH 



> JM < U » W I HM H ■ IW 



t-J-s"'^"" 




_ f 



—At La Posta. 




—At Indian School about 8 miles from Campo 



.mtmnJfi^ "-C- 




..-*.,> >««— «»-j:#»«»wiw*"W* 



^i4*t < .' «l i >"- « ' " - ^ ir 11 I IJ P*—— .W 



nn , ,, iii w«« i» < j i< M yn i iM W— —i***^ 



'.—About 4 miles from Campo 




i-trvc^ 



--On the flat of Morena Valley. 



,^»«*^' 




. ..>v..-«.-".'*<" *■* O*^* 




iv\'.««>' 




, At or near present Moreha Dam 




A fftw of man 




infl farthar west eu^ ) 



Wah^til—At or near Descanso. 




nso . -^ 



-an'.— Santa Isa*bel rancheria 




1 — At or near Sequanr^ 





1. — At or near Dalzura. 







^ 




Immediately north of the 




n the mountains. 



r 

which may he considered a northirard contimiation of the Cuyamaca. 
is a closely related tribe called by the K9 P ^B|rI » ToO,%"ja ll» 



and by themselves. 



iV / _ - 




'. Included in their territory 



were 



the rancherias of Julian, Yolcan. Santa Isabel. Mesa Grande. 



and the so-called DiegeTio of Warner Yalley. Their territory 
adjoined that of the li^s^ on the west, the ^fiipH on the 



north, the 




(apparently a division of the KaSfiflk) 



on the northeast, the Kjaifcafi^'on the south. Their southeastern 
boundary remains undetermined. 



t^ 



Oi/^ 





South of the boundary between California and Iow«r 



v& 



California ww another tribe, speaking a related dialect. 



This tribe the 




Ue=I call A= 




', but their name 



vs 



for themselves iiae 



*H . _» 



1=10. The intertribal boundary 



between the Kj gnwB»p-'j and the 




coincided approz- 



imately with the international boundary, but a loop extends 




northward (to includTJacumba Valley) witt«ii crossl>t\^the inter- 



Vvt'« 



national boundaryV sw that the 




entered the State 



of California gt thiB p c ^i:fi 4> and extended northeasterly as far as 



Mountain Spring, where there was no permanent village 




NOTBO ON ANHiai 




^ 




A ^® /«g^r?y^oy call the "^ig-spotted Lion", whos( 

name in their language is - — — -^ /HfifeJ 
It UBS a rare animal but was seen 
from time to time. 
The^lden^,*©!;^ ^ick'^^^ sacred birds.--, 

II - - ■ -■ -■»■■'■ . 11 - 1 II 

^The red shafts of the wing and tail feathers 
of the KLioker were used for ceremonial 
head-bands, and Flicker feathers were attached 



to the base of arrows. 




^ 






ati^b8ikx3i£g^ 




!' ' ■ " ■ I I i M fci 



P 



OinMI^: 



ti 




<;v»>^ 



— tii»i«W *, »ii'« ■ > |il» ■ 



•which they call 

is a bird to be looked out for. If it 




follows a person it is a bad omen. 

fihfl^ii- 

•-is to the Indian what the rooster is 



Kingbird4^which they call - 



Canyon Wren-^ 



to the white man, as it wakes the people 
up in the morning when it is time to get up. 



is related to the 



-^ /ailed 
Mocking Bi 




ird. 




Fjk)^^/tnrh^>^ ' 




y?.- 



The 8t 



IprMB 




^The baxit Is used for soap. 




'orthat<&iiig houses 





WPtiiftH'iiji ii"»^nr"-" • ■•^■■'"■" 



Used for seasoning roasted seeds of sunfloser. 



grain 



51jili« 




and 



far skirls. 



the noaen 



C. Hart Merrfam 
Papers 

BANCMSS 
80/18 c 



l/U i^ntfl^^L 



C "^IJ 



-i'l 



\^Z) 



*^ ^'bmofr^pl^^^ JUii^ ^fi (Mfy^ntuL^ 



J/l/utM^ T^^Ai 



'^iJ 



i 



V 



paJ- is: 



alLClUK 



JU 



WINTOON 



FiAldwork anong tfa* Wlntoon, 1903 



». '^t i*^ 



1. NoaenkXa^ SI 



Councty 



the Stony Ford raneheria, which la in dansa chaadsa ehap^rral (inter- 
adxad idth planty of aaoka brush ( Caanothua cunaatua) on a knoll north 
of tha rivar^ at tha foot of a chaparral corarad apur from Mt« St« 
John about two mllas nast of Stonj Ford sattlanant* Tha rancharia coxv-> 
aiata of four houaaa and an aartb->coyared atMat housa about tiianty 



t. 



faat long and tualTa hl^^ with a aaall entrance on one end through 
which I crawled on wj hands and kneea# The fireplace ia in the niddle 

The chiefs PuBHBuk^lqr^ told me that when they catch dold in 
the winter they go in and build a fir^ axKi aleep there all nij^» 

The houses have pole and bruah canopies in front or at one 
aide or both« The chief and hia wife are rather old but atiU actiTs 
and bright* They are aurprisingly intelligent and kind* Th^ ha^e 
a daughter with a young baby and fauaband« Beaides theae we saw and 
talked with three old woaen^ bXI of irtioa hare the china and lower 



cheeka hearily tattooed • The usual plan aeesa to bet three aingle or 
double Tertical linea on the chin; an oblique line running down frcat 
each comer of the nouth (making fiTa)| and a heavy double ox* single 
sigaa^ line running straight back (horiaontally) froai Juat abors the 
comer of the nouth acrosa the lower part of the cheek« Besides 
this J two had tattooing on the noae^ and one on the forehead • 



iA e't 



Mi^ 



*m ^ 



On# family is now abwnt^ picking apricots in the vaUay naar 



Elk Creak« 



lOift 



PuBHBmk^ 






thirtaan 



villaga 



m\Jli now stands, half 



a0n-->hundreds 



says«>-*and 



living 



hundrad 






etr«aonials •»! danc«a they had b»r« In early tinaa. Th« f«w left 
hsr« now work on tho ranches and go off to tha fruit plckinga} th» 
Koman do waahlng and Bain baakata* 

Pu»-aiak-k7 was naking waapta baada of cla« ahalla whan 
m arrlvad^ rubbing tha adgaa anooth and round on a flat atona. Ha 
waa alao making a nat (of f ina fibar which ha had wat and twiatad) 
for catching fiah. This fibar was axcaadingly atrong. Ha ahowad na 
masaaa of it bafora it waa workad up into string. It waa in straight 
ateaina say two and a half to throa faat long by an inch in dianatar, 
and wat. It waa raddiah brown in coIoin— or whitish with a raddiah 
brown tinga— and I auppoaa is from Indian hamp (Apocynum) although I 



am not* sxire. 



*>.*^'i 






»quariah flat atonaa araraging 



parhapa two faat in dianatar and aomatimaa aat in tha ground. Tfcay 
haTa and uaa alao baakat mortara, which tjiey set on flat atonaa. Wa 
gaTa thaK aoaa baada and other trlflaa wldch pleaaed them and put them 



I 



in a good fauMor* Qiui of tha old tronen it Torj old and sick* «^ 



Jiin« 21i 



from Pout* 8 Springs 



tlM Indians at ths ranefasris on tbs north aids of ttas rivsr and got 
a good vocabulary from the old ehisf P t p s imk -ky a nd took i^oto- > 
graphs of hin and ths old meh tattoosd vonan. Also had a good talk 
with thsm, Ths ehisf gave ns ths naass in his language for thirty^^ 
four species of trees and shrubs, of which I showsd hia fresh speci- 
mbS. The only reason he did not give b» more was because I didnH 
have any nore saaqples. «?w:j1* nfnyt 

2. Klet«win or «Ket«kla Indians^r Coyfcina Creeks Colusa County > The 
Indians at ths rancherla on the north branch of Cortena Creek told 
m (June 15, 1903) the name of their tribe is »Ket} othsrs gave it as 
« Ket-klah or Klet-klsh (nana of place) • They call their people Win, 
Thsy live in two places i two families live at the entrance of the "" 
side valley coadng in fro« the north, where they have two houses and 
some (growing com under spreading valley oaks in a picturesque spot. 



nain 



JLsy and surrounded b hills. There are aany blue oaks 
rancherla* which consists of a nuoibsr of wooden houses , aainly 



of split shakes* 



rr 



i 



■>,>■» 1 < 



about seven f sallies here. The asn are Urge 



both Mn and wobmh good looking. They call the place Wil-lak (the 



rane 



heria) and 



the main Creek fo-teen-ah. 



Their numerals are the earns as those of the Pab->tin on the 



half 



U'4 



% .i . ..-..-. ^ .^J^ 



t4.s 



'vflSt 



bmor 



trcm Foot* 8 Springs 



tht Indians at th« raneteria on th« north sida of ttao ri.T«r and got 
a good vocabulary frcm the old ehitf PuaHBuk-ky and took photo- 
graphs of hia and tho old meh tattoood woman* Also had a good talk 
with thsm* Ths chlof gars mm ths naass in his language for thirty- ) 
four spsciss of trees and shrubs, of which I showid hia fresh speci- 
amS* Ths only reason he did not give as more was because I didnH 



have any nore saaples* ...«».^ Mac '«'*«Et»tti 



rib- i IViJ '9t J • 



2. Klet»win or 'Ket^kla Indians^ Cortina Creek > Colvaa County » The 
ladi&ns at ths rancheria on the north branch of Cortena Creek told 
at (June 15» 1903) the name of their tribe is *Ket; others gave it as 
< Ket-klah or Klet-klah (name of place) • They call their people Win, 
Thsj live in two places i two families live at the entrance of the 
side valley coming in from the north, where thsy have two houses and 
some growing com under spreading valley oaks in a picturesque spot* 



main 



J.sy snd eurrounded b hills* There are many blue oaks 
ranohmrU. whieh consists of a numbsr of woodon houses ^ aainly 



of split shakss# ^ 



^s A 



fsaiUss hsrs* Ths mn ars Urfs 



looking 



call the place Wil^lak (the 



rancheria) and ths aain Creek K6-teen-^h« 

Their numerals are the saais as those of the Pab-»tin on the 



about half 



miek i 



S-it 



jOijOV 



^Vi^ 



Th«ir floto* or aval traj sifter (or wlimowor) is eireular 

A. A. 

and psrfsetly flat, and yrj thiek and solid* Thoj call it tso-pol 
and haeh-o. Bosidss this, thsj all bars a largs eonea^ asal traj 
(a Ttr7 shallov boid) which thsjr eall toi, or toy^kon-oj and also 



kennne* Tbsir baskot wrtar is tho largsst and flattest (aost 



rrn 



flaring) I srsr saw. Thsy eall it KabMws (or lCa»-ws)* It is plaesd 
ovsr a flat stons, and ths psstls is flat instsad of round at ths 
•nd, Tholr papooss basket (to-nok) is wholly different froa thoso 
of the Sierra* It is a siaple scoop, truncate at the top, where it 
has a large strong hoop at right angles to the back* The child* s 



this hoop and something is thrown over it when 



needed* 



-»A..tA».-jL ^.-^.m^, 



Thegr hare nbre good old baskets than angr tribe I hcfs stroek 



in a long tiae* I get a few choice ones* The land on which thsjr lire 
is now owned (1903) bgr a aan naasd Henry C* lakU, i4u> has a very 



large ranch* The question is, what will beoone of the Indians when 
the ranch changes hands* 

In their houses I saw fauns up a number of skinned bodies of 



ground 



at* 



The men herd sheep regularly for Sakle, and also work on the 
range and on the ranches* Just ifaw thsy are getting two dollars a day 



working In the hay and grain* 



V «M^ t#< 



«>«->< < it»>-ifc' 



-"Classification of Vintoon Stock 
An analysis of the vocabularies of the sereral tribes of the 



Vintoon 



linguistic divisions t 



i 



(1) Nprthrn division « the Wintoon proper ^ extending fron 
the extreme head of Trinity River^ and from North Salt Creek on 
Sacramento River thirty miles south of the sumiit of Mount Shasta^ 
southward to Red Bank Creek^ just below the City of Red Bluff. 

(2) Middle or Noalakke^firtiaaa division^ extending along 



Sacramento River from Red Bank Creek south to within two or three 
miles of Prinoeton^ and spreading westerly to the high mountains of 
the so-called ^Inner Coast Range''— better called the loUa BoUy range < 
(3) Southern diviadon^ reaching from two or three miles north 
of Princeton southerly to the lower Sacramento River and San Francisco 



Bay^ and spreading westerly to the mountains • 

1« Thii Northern Wintoon Division comprises t 



iki :>:iff 



The Wintoon proper of the Sacramento and McGloud Rivers 
region from Slate (formerly Salt) Creek Just above La 
Moine southerly to Red Bank Creek^ and east to include 



lower Squaw Creek region and lower west side of Little 



Cow Creek and thence southerly a few miles east of 



».«'ib.**' 



Km|flMp 



Sacramento River^ with a minor band called Daw-pum between 



Dibble and Red Bank Creeks) 



-f>'*^^?-i« "^ O-f^ ,r' A iV^^i ri.^ 



•^•* ^«^^ 



nie Wintu or Num-soos occupying the drainage basin of 
Trinity Rivsr from its head southward to the junction 
of Caqyxm Creek^ and south to the mountains south of 
Douglas City» 



It may be well to record t'le fact that the younger generation of 
Wintoon^ proud that their fathers defeated and nearly exterminated 
the Shastan CAcwanootsoOj now claim the conquered territory all the way 
to Mount Shasta* 



i 



be 8or-r«l-«]k of Baj Pork VaUf7, reaching south to 
the upper Mttere of South Pork Trinity Rlrer and nest 



to about eeTsn alles east of l^jraapoa. 



k "■ » 



■ountalnous 



CottonMOod 



The Mi-i-che of South Pork Trinity Rlrer (both aides) 
between PluBaer and Rattlesnake Creeks, 
The Central 9t Hoa-lak-ke— Te-^ ih dlvlalon e<HBprl8lng 
the Mo».lak«4os reaching froa Red Bank Elder Creek south \ 
Grindstone and Stonj Creeks and from the eastern border 
of the plains westerly to the Hollo BoUy Mountains} 
including the Wt-e-ker-ril between Red Bank and Slder Cn 
The Oab-ohitt-chia-ne occupying both sides of Stoi^ Creek 

I, 

froM the point where it Joins Grindstone Creek southwaM 
to a few Biles below the aouth of Brisco Creek, ani stil] 



Creeko 



region a^'l extending fron the wester 
>te«ke-wls to the Tolla BoUa Rangei 



» Te-hansah and Ko-e«nik 
Sacraasnto Rlrer f roa f< 



occupying both 



'ami ^e 



— ^ 



at 



Klrkwood north to the mmth of Rod Bank Crook< 

the No»-lak-ke on the west and the Tab-nah on the east sid 

of tho rlTori 

T*» Mo-asl-tiN-ke-wes occupying the west side of Sacraawnto 
River froB a little north of th« M>irt.h of stemv HihimV' »r»t*.] 



nstfly to Prlne«ton« and wpnBding westerly apparvntlj 
to idthin thrM or four adlos of Qrland* 
3* Vm Southom Dirision eoaprialng two subgroups— tho Interior 



and Rlvor groups » wfaieh ars subssqusntlj dlridsd into 



ssTsral tribss saoh* 



(a) ths intsriery 



^*)',;*\ 



Ingt 



Ths Choo-hsl —a ssl ooeupgrlng th« vastsm half of 
Colusa County and a eorrsspondingly snallsr arsa in 
southsm Olson County lAisrs thsir northern boundary runs 
easterly from the junction of Stony and Little Stony Creeks 
to a north»sottth line passing a aile or two east of Sites 
and four or fire ailes east of Venado ()&• House) and 
thence westerly to the Bountains, crossing Bear Vall^ about 
three idles south of Leesrllle, Their territory is broadest 
in the latitude of Sites and Lodoga^ where it reaches 
westerly to the high aouotains of the California National 



Porsst* 



•r ..^^ 



The Chen-po-sel reaching north to the divide north 
of Hough Springs and holding the North Pork of Cache Cvtk, 
long Valley, and the greater part of Bear Valley all the 
way south to its Junction with Cash Creek, and wast to 
include the Lol-sel. The Lol-sel reached Bartlett Springs 
and the southeast part of Bartlett Mt« Their western 
boundary was in contact with the eastern boundary of the 



t- 



CImt Laktt Pono, Th« Chen-po-Ml south of thsm. touch 
the Tu-l««9roHw« 

Th« Xltt-win or Kl«t-8«1 of Cortooa Tall^ and 
Sand CrMk r«*ehing from a littlo below Wllllani aouth 
to the southern boundary of Coluaa Countji 

The Wln-ko-pa|i of Capajr Vall^, extending touthMard 
froB the head of that Tallejr* a few adlee north of Ruaeej* 
are heoaed in on OMrth^ east and west by laountainous 
ridges; 

The N»»pah or Naii-ooo<^t»^M« holding a seetion of Napa 
ValloT- froai lountTille to (including) Napa City and ex- 
tended northeasterly oyer Wooden CapelX« and Berryessa 
Vallegrs to the southeastern part of Pope TaUey* The 
western boundary west and south of Pope Tallej lies along 
the east base of Howell Ht«« where it abuts against the 
territoiy of the Ml^jahk-oah tribe^ south of which 
between Tountville and Napa City it spread westerly to 
the mountains between Napa and Sonoaa Valleys to Sonoaa 
Creek* 
(b) tlver group, ooB^trisingt 

The Ko-roo along both sides of SaerasMnto Rirer from 
a little north of Princeton south to Sjyoaaore and include 
the RarysriUe Buttes. The Indians say that the barren part 
of the flat plain from OeleTsn southerly to south of Kixwell 



(ud app«r«ntl7 nmarlr to VllliaMi) «u not cIaImcI by 
•ithtr th« Kd-roo on tht owt or tht Qwo-ImIhmm-mI 
on tlM woft bat WW a doaolato "KoHMa* o-land" which at 
inttrrali fonwd tho batilofiold b«twMii tho two trlbtt. 

Tfat Pat-«in rMohing froa S^eaaoro to Xhigtata* landlag 
A littlo wost of Dumil«aii on tho woot and a f«w nilos on 
tho oast oido of tho Riyar, 

Tht Po o a w in froi fiaigfat** landing to Suiaun Bay 
and San Pablo Buju, inolndlng tha aofoth of Hapa Vall^« 
but not ineluding Kapa City, 



DiTiaiona 



Hortham 



Tribaa 
WiBtoim pnfptr, inei* OaM^piiai 
Winto or Noa-aooa 
Ror^ral-ank 



Nl-l-eha 



Cantral 



noa^xuki-iUg Inel, Wi-a-kar-rll 

Oab-ehia-ehinHM 

Ti" h a la a h ^ inel* Mo-a-«uk 

XoHMl-ta-ka-wia 



Intarior 



Sontham 



Choo-boX 



Chan-po*aalf inol* Lol-aal 
Win Xo-poh 
Klat«win (Xlat-aal) 
Ma-pa (Man-ooo ^ a wa) 



10 



I 



Mtttr.. Dlrlslons 



«t* 



i» <*^^ 



M0^A^ 



-i.#« 



y^ 



Trlb#8 



4 »&K 



.art! M a «| 



ar^ 



■r\ '.J 1 



RlTtr 



KO^TOO 



Pat-odn 



Poo«>e«»vln 



•'J("iit<l^ 



.'^•^#-!l> -J.-.* 



•Sti 



Notes on Wintoon Ethnobotangr 



Th« Wintoon wdco uso of a largo number of plants for food, 
textilee, and 1inplem«nta» 



iiaad 



«f 



y%r .*. ^a urn 



nine species of oaks, manzanlta berries (both Arotostaphylos 
tnd A, patttla) , the uLld pltin (Prunus oreizana or P* suboordatf 



chokecherries (Cerastts denissa). blackberriea (Rubos vitifolioa), thimble- 



tarrifolitts) 



(SMtooeus 



graperine ( Vitls calif orniea) . and the aoid berries of Rhos 



■^ '* 



t also is eatsn biit rsqulres spsolal prsparation« 
Lants ussd for asdiolna is the tmwr bush ( Qamra) . 
Ths long shoots of tha sourbarrj or arostfitic suoae ( Rhus 



stors-hotisa 



laaking 



dDgirood ( Conms glabrata) , haial ( Conrlus 
thraa spacias of willows and the roota of 
pondToaa) ax^ used in basket making* Hai 



leaf willow furnish the long rods for sereral kinds of b) 
especiaUy babj and store-house baskets. The woodwardia 



u 



•xbensiTsly for decoration in basketry, the two long bands in the 



chewing 



( Adianti 



quills, dyed 



dye-weed 





does not 
Indians, i 



used extenelTely in basket OTerlay and designs* 






( Taxos) 



the wood cut out for a bow but not yet finished is called koo-lool 
chocs fro« kool, bow, and ohoos, stick. The straight stems of the 
ninebark or arro»i«iiood ( Qpulaster capitatus) are used for arrows. 



■ahogany ( Cercocarpus 



digging sticks^ used by the woaen for digging roots of various kinds 
The hollow stems of the elder (Saiabucns glauca) are used as music 



sticks^ and the curious nuts of the pipe-vine ( Aristolochia) are us« 
by children in play, for blowing. 

The milkwseds ( Asdenias) are used for making string and rop< 
and a species of Iris for cord for tht fish-nets. The inner bark of 
the tree maple was used for skirts for the women, breech-cloths for 1 

f" — " 

mm, and bags for storing aooma and dried salmon* 



inner 



(Alnus oregana)^ and i 
ne-HBd^^l-^e^ Meaning 



sucoeed 



- ayr 



•». cir 



u 



Wlntoon foods 






f-<? 



^x*--- 



i furnished 
saloaon and 



earefuUy 



«t 



parts 



berrita 



obtainable in large qoantltiea* And it waa the custom of certain 
bands to exchange foods ^th others^ Exchanges of this kind iiere fre* 
quent beti^een the Wintoon of the McCaoud and those of the Trinity* 



•^m^ft 



SaljBon^ 
rolled 



Acorns and cuokeys nuts are often kept over winter and at the 
saas tias freed from their bitter quality by putting into cold wet 



J" m 



springy^ or mmmpy ground where they are left over winter • In spring 
they are taken out xid eaten. When boiled they are like potatoes* 



i>>t.^- . 



Another and very different way of preserving acorns, practiced 



*v^ 



hjr the Wintoon Indians of wsstsm Tthama County in California^ was 



d«serib«d to as trjr P. B. Washington • The aeoms w«r« buried ih bogg7 



^ » 



places near cold springs, where th^ became swollen and softened and 
turned nearly black in color but remained fresh for years. When needed 
they were dug out tna roasted, never dried or pounded for flour, the 
nush and bread being always made of dried acorns. Vihite men in plowing 



have opened up caches of iicoms that had lain in these cold boggy 
plaoss for fully thirty years^ and found ths acoi'ns black but still 



13 



M'i 



Vihen prvsorrad dry in thtt usual way, the aooms ar« shucked 



as nssdsd* 



The northwestern Wlntoon^ IlTing on the Oreat Bend of Trinity 
Hirer naar thi «>utb of Rush Creek^ tall vm that the acorns of 
eaiqron lire oak ( ^utctis chrrsol^epij^) ars sweater than those of the 



other Oaks» In the fall of the year^ the aeoms are put in water 
in a eold spring or a wet boggjr plaee^ shells and all^ just as thej 
cone from the trees ^ and allowed to remain In the water all winter • 
In the spring they are sweet and ready for cooking without leaching^ 

The Wlnto<m sagr that they were ^strong on bears**^ They used 
to hunt bears and were sailed "Bear people** by the Hose or lahnah* 
They had bear dances in which they wore bearskin cloaks^ and long 
buckskin caps decorated with feathers* In war they wore cloaks of 
bearskin and elkskin lined inside with fawnskin* VMle these cloaks 
were not absolutely arrow proof, they deadened the force of the arrow 
and were thus a protection* They were worn so as to cofsr the left 
shoulder and pass under the ri^t am, giving freedon of the right arm 
for figging. The Wintoon always carried a dagger of elk antler or 
shlnbone, in their back hair, to be prepared for close->tip fighting* 

V/hMi man were created it was the Bear who gave man his flat 
feet so that he could walk erect* The Lisard gave hia his split hands 
so that he had fingers for taking hold of things. 

(fadsslies were hunted by the Wintoon when in their winter dens 
or caves* Torches were used, and when the bears cams out they were 
attacked with spears pointed with obsidian blades* 



lU 



Thtt Wintoon ate b«ar atat, in tddch r«sp«ct thej dlffemd from 



V 



aaiQr of tlw California trib«a« 



.it v^'^tTr %«4 



^Mlftk 



Basketry dyes Prooi aeoms a blu»»graj stain or dje is mads 



nhioh is ussd to color cartain baskst aatsrials* I did not loam 



hov it is prspax^« 



^ifi^JK ^mHA 



.m^mjk 



•..•*■* *3^t, jjj '"^^t^ftt*^ T'^-^T'' • =^ r* 5 39 ^ • 



■■«*v 



■'a>*-r 



*^ .■» . 



,.f^ r^'t \ -it »-t Ay-^ 



^•*i 



Ti 



J'. fVX..'' 



l>Wi#Sflft, r'fUS>.?<'fl^% fll F 



'W-O- .1, ■^- . I -■'ir •''■;' . r^ •> 



> m 



f'H 14^ Mi^v 



W4,> 



tTH** -f 









'^»<.,...'nr^ ,-f 



>*.. -^ "M ,,-.. ■ '.^.H«».. ■":-^'* 



?^r 



t 4 



4 ^' 



^^*« 



^ .< 



-^^'--, 



1 '. <,jK 



i. 



(l^ 



Cf|>i/x 



/ 



«l»>» «o»>U)c-lot VilUgM BvtwMR B14«r CrMk 



Dl 



w ■»' ^•.'fcfcfiyf 



• Tte c. and QrliidsioiM Crack 



.4 T'<'".ii'' -'. . fii** 



1« South of SIdor Cr«^ and north of IboM Crooks 

So-nooM-o-loL-o-olo (Booninc "round rook on top of othor 
rook") • • • About flYO milts south of Eldor Crook and just 
otsr ths rides north of prsssnt Psskonts rsncbsrls on Thoas 



,> 

*« 



Crssk. Big spring thsrs. 



.« »u. 



v^w. 



m. 



Chs-ohsh-hs->i • • • About fivs nilss south of Sldsr Crssk sa^ 
;h of orsssnt Pssksnts rsnohsrls on Thoai Crook, not far f)roB 



«w.«: . > 



3s.Booaio..lsl s»sls. Pins spring thsrs csllsd SshHusht. Psq 
ussd to go thsrs to drosa sad to rsesiTS povsr to do esrtain 

f 

things' 'ss to asks arrev points wsll^ or do angrthing* 

SlMii-oX-toi • • • Cn MoCarir Crook about a ails north of 






Sl^nl-lbi • • • On top of low hill bjr spring about a quartsr 
ails north of Sl-«i«-sl-toi# 

Ksd-do-hab-ps • • • Qtt north sids MeCartjr Crssk about a quartsr 
ails vast of SiHAoi-toi* 



ChAb-^hAh«0l • • • On branch of MeCarty CrMk about a half 



-f^jruL^ 



ails abovs (wsstsrly froa) Sia ■■ o l a» l s s sant o— on. Boas 



big ohisf • 



, ' ow i*i%<i.-'-*#(id Ci'*sft ■"■ " aW r wK !<B rt 'S isiinlisiliia 

« , • On OMsns Crssk (erssk that 



passss PasksnU stors) in Uttls Tallsjr bsyond a hill^ about < 
snd a half «|ilss aboTs Pasksnta stors* Oimns Crssk is eallsd 

* Klst-pahl*ls^ asaning Oroond Squirrsl* 



/ 



♦ . . On cp««k iiblch M^Jties into fhama Cr««k 
W9*4c«8. Th8 old PMchwpia wm at th« foot of th« nountains 



p«rfaapt two alios or aoro aboro 



'i^An ^f^O^Sf^ vIlPMI ^ ■ ■» 



Tah|Hdow • • • At or near hoad of McCarty 



>wl-ol< 



f« 



>f 



About two nilos south of Eldor Crook 



Kaa-kD-pol . . • At big spring about ono and a half 



Crook 



kor rll 



.« 



Big Tlllago. 

Ksr-rll-o-la^lah ... On south sHo Eldor Crook, north of 



^* PasksntA ranchorla. 

Nol-to-kol or NaM>«o-to-kol • • • About two 




•ast of big 



K«IWtO«f3fUl 



^Jk. iViiS"*? j.^ 



Hoiiwu»-o-la^lahn T^khm'i «ilo oast of N«i*i^to-kol 
Bo-la)i-adt . • • About a nlle oast of HoKM»-o-la.-lah. 



h*^. 



Bo»lah-alt 



Chah--ehab->sah-hs . • • On or near hoad of Ondorhill 
about tiro alios north of Nol-to-4c*l. 

Tahp-cni»-wlt«>to. ... On north sldo of Ondorhill 
about lyn bUos oast of Chal>-chah-sah-ho • Hsadquartors 




•M* 



NoBHlalc-ks Indian Rssorratlxm. 



U 



... On Undomood Crook HW of old PaskonU ranchorj 
(which was Bldwaj botwoon p^iont Paskont* and Henloyrlllo) . 

Choo-la-lool bul-lo ... At big spring in gap botwoon high 
Milii dlroctly south of TabLo Mountain (oallod PanFto-pa«). 



'.r 



I 
V 



^ 



Bo^adtv-choo-htt • • # Oki •oath sid^ Eld#r Creek 



Tablt Mountain. -«»-i<>e • • 



-■%%*" 



»■■ 



lC»-loo«dow 



Bo-daa-ehoo-^ 



itdff Utant 



^:m- 



K6-*»«h-«<x»-«ah-i»»hl . . • At MW foot oT TWOo Mountain (right 



Bo-d«n-ehoo-ha 



old roMnration road paasos cloao by* 



Tte-awL-^ « • • On Diggor Crook (trlbatmzy 
it two and a half ailoo woat of Ko*Ioo-dow, 



Uaod to bo a corowonjal fconao thero* 



•» 



*J fNW«B i-'-.-J 



2. On cr noi* fbcm Crook| 



»'.-^ !»-. -** j« *V 



HUlWlta m^M e»U * W -«ii«w?^W4U«i»/ • 



SoM^-poB • . .On north oldo ThoM (or Bonnott's?) Crook two 
ihroo Biloo abort prooont PMkonta ronehoria and on oouth 
t of Roand Valloy road. Waa a big chiof » a ranohoriA* 
Mo-ki-o-wo . • . On Dry Crook at Oak» a placo about a quartor 



adlo bolow Oak* a houao. 



i'rfis- 



trcn J 



Ki-|K»-»d-kol-U • . . About 1 adlo froa Oak'a placo, at 
• sign at forks of Round Valloy and Howrlllo Roada. 
Til-wor-ron-to-po ; *. rOn south aido ThoM Crook about 
a half alloa abow proaont Paakanta ranchoria (oaaaurod 
ltertin*o houao). Aoroaa Crook froa Holt houao i 



■'* 



• uu\ 



whito houao). 

Son-to-lan^-kah . . . Itodor big cliff on or noar Thona Cw 

Uaod to bo roundhouao thoro* 

Woa-koa • • • About a quartor Bilo abofo Johnny Kartin'a 
(and Do«inik»8) houao, on other (north aido) Tho^ Crook, in 
loop of bond of Crook. 



» . ■: . • - 



pt^i* Saw-alos or Saws-los ... On north side Thoos Crwk about 



3, a qpiarter mUm Abaw Johnnjr Martinis houM* """ 

^Chep-dow ... to big flat on north slda Thons Cr««k on**" 
■Ua belflv preaant Paakanta pancharia (in aort of cax^on 
batwaen praaant raneharia and Paakanta). Largast rancharia of 



4B 'fm^T 



AU. 



fth<»st a 



.l-r 



northMaat 



Johnngr Kartin'a houaa. 

W«-do»koi . . . tti road fj^aa praaant Paakanta rancharia to 
forica of road (laading north to Paakanta and south to NaiiTiUa) 
About a half or thraa quartara alia aaat of praaant Paakanta 
rancharU and at foot of big high aUck rock cliff (limBediatalT 



oUff ) ... Parhapa a quartar nila wast of Mil 



RaTMOodf 



roundhouaa. Nsmd trcm Wid^-dai«k-M, tha 



rallay oak ( Qaarcua lobata) 
Cha-4cuB-a8-la . . .On 
in praaant villaga of Paskn 



« € 



■«•«> 



Y a b a p sha . . . On north sida Thons Creak about two milea 
below present Paakanta and oppoalte a bluff. On Charl^ "^^ 
Mitch*U*a place. 

Tah-ka-wel ... On north side ThomB Creek about a mile 
below Te-be-paha. Uaed to be a roundhouse there. 

Pas-ken-te ... On north side Thorns Creek five or alx aiilai 
below preaent village of Paakanta, and directly across from a 



bltiff on soTsth 8ld«« It Is on south side of present cotinty 



{ -tt*^* 



road* 



3« In Nmrrille region (Salt Creek near Tehaaa^-Coluea County bouiKiary)! 
Nel-et-te-nan # # • On hill at Nevville on north side near 



present school house • 
So«taw»ku»»loi-te 






.•fcT, 



41^3 wW i^JRSt- 



Jjfttf 



beginning 



Newrille^ about a quarter idle beloir Kah-li-el« Can still m 
rooks nibbed ssootb by grinding acorns • u 

Kab»li-el • # • NewriUe rancheria^ 

Mooawka^wil • • • On saas Salt Creek about a mile or tiro 



belov NennriUe* 



i|i« G^4i«w?., HiiniAr 



Tahk«hahF-d0v • # • On north side Salt Creek near lfooia-4ca-»wil, 
Nuk<»ko«>ko # • • Half a mile beloir NewriUe in gulch on John 



Flood! s place • 



*• «1 s>^ 






1^ or 



Pab-kah-ol-toi • • • Thr«« alles north of Pa«k«nt«* 
Sl-«»»toi • • • On south tldo of Salt Gnmk troiA IhonM 
PloodU plao«, tiM> and a half mIIm or ooro bolow NowriUo* 



Big toim with awaathoaso. 



Tfvn-^ 



3a<-70-to«»HBa • • • About a alia balow 3i-^wa-toi« QraTO- 



yard now thora* $f^ 



■"k < ,,^1-, ) •\ <?"•■ 



Dah-tiflHpoo-el«»toi • i% On Sheldon* s place half laile abore 



salt Creek# 



'^./i..^ \i 



.. \ 



twe^^M^ Treaiy 7(iiiiMrt,ssiotier 



^^ jChaiAkpum # • • Just above Dab-ti»-poo-el-toi« 



'^^^M^^^vn^Sij^ 1% ^t^. 9f 



-• -f^,*^ ^0 ||*.# 



•l*i*c^lfMr*« 



t^pe- ^KKt^rt ^.. Jto Sac 

MLtelist of RlTer Tribes TehaM and Nooia 



m 



Biih-t8« (Balk-4809 Bah-eha) • • • Hltohopdo mm for RlTvr 
lidntooii Tlllagt on watt sida Saeraamito RlT«r at Jacinto 



(southMtt of Chleo) .^TT TIm location falls within tba 
tandtorr of tha Ri^ar Wintoon tribo eallad Moc-ank bar 



tribaa farther north, TilUga said to hay* baan aharad with 
Mitchopdo (told M bgr Jack Prango, old fall blMd Kitehopdo) • 

Char7 • • • Kane uaad bgr Qanoral Bidwall for triba batwaaa 
Saoraaanto anl north or wast Perk Stony Craak in 18i»4« Justua 
R, Rofartf ColnM County. Biatory, 53» 1891. Qanaral BidwaU 
•tataa that hia route vaa tip tha aaat aida of Saeraaanto Rirar 
to tha Porks of Stongr Craak and down tha waat aida« 

Ghana • • • SacraMnto Tallay Tillaga Tiaitad in IdU or 
laU br Qanaral John BidwaU but not located • Hlatorloal 



'^'V- ''i*\^t^ 



Sketch of Butte County^ Oakland, p* 11, ld77* 

Chano • • • Bancroft (afUr Ordas MS Ditty), Hiatory Calif,, 

n, U7 footnote, 18d5« See Tka-na, 

Che-no • • • eighteen Calif. T^atiea, 1352} Senate reprint. 



3» 2d, 30, 1905. See Tka-na. 






Chino Village (Brofim MS Drawinga ld52). Sea Taa-na. 



Co-haNoa (or Co-he-nei 
toluaa. Septesaber 9. 1< 



Ccoid^aioner 



Calif. Treatiea 



bte reprint 3, 33, 1905. (Spelled Co-he-na on page 35) 
"Indiana reaiding near to Mag (Major) Reading's, on the 



m 



I 



upper wat«r8 of tbs Saeramsnto rirtr" • , • VoeabuUiy girmk 
by Adan Johnson in Schoolcraft^ Ind, Tiribos, 17, UA^-/»15, 1854, 
This Toeabulary la « Torbatia copy (axeapt a faw typographical 
arrora) of Major P, B. Radding'a Tocabulary of 1852, arldantly 
aant by artlat H. B, Brown to J. R, Bartlatt, I hava tha 
orlgijaala of both Radding'o and Brown* • Tooabulariaa. Raddinf' 






W o- i ■ M ttki 



-v 



Told 



da-^M • • « Rahcnaria on sita of praaant IVinaaton. 
Xa->roo at Kah-chil| alao by Jack Frango, full-blood 



%* 



Mltohopdo at Chleo. Southaraaost riUaga of triba (cloaaly 
ralAtad to Koroo) axtanding trcn Princaton northerly to alta 
of Mimroairlllo. Synonyi^i Kat-taa (Oraan, 1891). 

Kat-taa • • • W. S, Qraan in J, H, Rogar*8 Cduaa County 
Htatoiy, 30, 1891. 



■Hti© ami, 



(Lowar Stoay Craak) 



Handbook Aa« Inda., (from Khobar 
1910, undar Ifuiaok)* 



Mo»-pon-if^r8 • • • Nana giyan by Elliott and Moora for 
triba "i*io inhabitad tha tarrltory batwaan Stoi^^ Craak and 
Ttehai«."— Hiatory of T^hana County, 48, Elliott and Moora, 
PubllaUara, San Prandaco, 1880. Saa Tahaaaa and Poo-a-^nik 

Mo-^tiiah « • • Villaga on waat aido Saeraaanto Rirar by a 
laka or alough naar and Just abora Too-too two ailaa abora 



a 



I 1^ 



Princaton • Told ne by Jack Prango, fiill-blood 



Mltohopdo. 



d 



HA 



HOHidAg-wt • • • ?1Uas« 



Toot-dok-kah 



ttLtehopdo* 



Prango rtr/ old fUU-blood 



Hiivaaeks • • • QiTtn m mm of trlbo on Hobo Laeko 
Rosonration in X856, p. d02» 1857* Soo No-o-ank. 

Nir-anck • • • C. C« Royoo^ oigfatoonth Ann. Bopt* Bur* Sbh< 
for ld96-97, port 2, p. 7% (Publ. 1901) • Wrltton Hlrmuck p. 



957 • Soo Ho • ma km 

Hoi-anoko • • • Soo Ho a ik* 



«*« 



■ » 



Ho anVr^ Hooaa • • • Wintoon naao Moning *Soathonioro* 
uaod as torn of tribo on Woat oido Sooraoonto Rivor Juft south 
of Rod Bank Crook* In oighioon Calif* Troatios, 1852* It is 
writton HoiHBS, Hoohbs or Hoo i n ooHoa^ and Koi-aa or Hol-oo-ooi-ao and 
uaod AS if naaos of throo difforont trlboa nooting U* S* TTosty Comr. 



»t Roading*s Ranch on CottoiMOod Crook« Aug* 16^ 1851* 

^' Raaas "Hoo-na and Iriy-Uo-kor" stand at head of eoluan in MS 

voeabularj (now in my possossion hgr artist Hamy B. Brown^ 1859« 

as naaas of tribos or subtrlbos spooking sam languago* Haas writton 

Hooouc l37 Major P* B. Roading in 1852 in NS -vocabulary (also in wj 



possossion) ! idiieh agroos %rith Brown *s 



PowsrSf 1877* wroto It Ho-i 
Stoi^ Crook* 



•i^' 4, 



Lowar 



Miss Alios M* Roading givos Hoo-aa, Hol-aa, Ho-4Ui as forM of 



.. -^s*. 



* . '4,^ 



twa* in quoting MS oopy of Treaty which aba ragarda aa original. 
— Couriar Fr— Prasa, Baading^ Calif., Kaj 6, 1927. 

"Indiana raaiding naar to XHg (Kajor) Baading'a on tha 
uppar vatara of tho SaeraMoto Rirar." (Johnaon 1854) 

Kxmmm (Handbook Aa. Indiana. 1910 aftar Kroabar infa.) 
RirHncka (Stavanaon 1857) j NirHauck and Nirauek (Royea 
1901). 

NooHHi • • • aigbtaan Calif. Traatiaa, 1852; Sonata raprlnt 
30« 32, 19051 writtan H oa aa n oa»aa. Ibid., p. 3. 

BwMBa (Broitt M3 Toeabulaiy, 1352). 

"Roa-aa, V^lackar" . . . Ponall in Powara, tribaa of Calif., 
51S, 520-528 (wcabulariaa) 1877 (Rafara. to S. I. Clla. 560. 
Vocabulary by H. B. Broiti, 1852). 

I 

Ho a aa n oanaa . . . C. C. Royea, 18th Ann. Rapt. Bur. Eth. 
For 1896-97* Part 2, p. 784, 1899 publ. 1901| Noaaanoaaa, Ibid., 
p. 957. 

Noa-aa, Nci-aa, Ho-«ut « . . Miaa Aliea M. Raading in Couriar 
Praa Praaa, Raading, California, May 8, 1927* 

TNoaaioka . • « Roaibdldt Tiaaa* Kay 3« ld56j Sacraaanto 
Daily Danooratie Stata Joomal, kgir. 17* 1856 (Triba en Soaa 
Lacka RaaarTatim) . 

Hoaaoas . • . Gataehat* Ind. Langoagaa Paoifio SUtaa, Mag. 
Aa. Hiat. I, 160* Karch 1877. 

NoMne • . . H. B. Broim on 8<»a of hia akatohaa of Indiana, 



*f W 



10 



1352} Maj, P« B« Rtdding KS Vocab. 1852. 

Noi^-na ... 18 Calif. TJpeatiaa, 1852} Senate reprint, 

30, 32, 1905. 

Nol-na ... See Noe-oa (Miss Reading 1927) this ^jmonynor. 

Noine ... 18 Calif. Tireatlee, 1852} Senate reprint 
30, 32, 19051 Noi-me-noi-oe, Ibid., p. 3. 

Nol-«e-noiHae . • . C, C, Royce, Idth Ann, Kept. Bur. Eth. 
for 1896-97, Part 2, p. 78i^, 1899 (Publ. 1901)} NoiBenoiae, 

Ibid., p. 957. 

Noi-lfacke ... Oeiger, Rept. Cona. Ind. Affra. for 1858, 
p. 640, 1858, Ibid., Rept. Coamr. Ind. Affra. for 1859, 806, 
807, I860} Ibid., Rept. Coaar. Ind. Affra. for 1862, 359, 1863. 

Noi-Mttoki . . . A. S. TJylor (after Rept. Conar. lad. Affra. for 



N0X««U0KS ... A. I'. JL«vrxi 

1862), Calif. Farmer, ixsm 12, 1863. 

NoiwLcka . . . Bancroft (after Geiger), Uoljmicka . 
(after Oeiger), Natire Racea, I, 451, 1874. 



. Bancroft 



tnoHBOT' 



No-ma ... 18 Calif. Treaties, 1852, Senate reprint 30, 32, 



1905. 



Kooemoea . . . Powera, The Wintoon, Orerlend Monthly lii. 



531, June 1874. 






Nuljaok 



Nulnok . . . Kroeber, Handbook Ir^. Calif., 356, 1925. 
No-mel-te ke-wia . . . NaiM used ty Grindstone NoiaLakke for 
tribe on plain between Orland and Saeranento River. 

Nooemoes . . . Powers, the Wintoon, Orerland Monthly, UI, 



u 



531, Jtm* 1874* S«« Mo-e-gnk* 

Morbosa • • • Qirm by Powtn u naat ua«d by Cottonwoodi ^ 
(Donpua) for trlb«8 farther t^uth (^Sooth Housa, or Dwallara") • 
-^owara^ Ovarland Honth3j-» XII» 531* J«na 1874* Writtan 
Nor-boa ^ Powara in Trlbaa Calif., p. 230, 1877 • (Hor-boa 
is also U8*d as ntm of tribe on Cottorofood Croek^ probaUjr at 



and noar aoath« 



:1l|1f,!* 



•1^1) 



Sjik id .rl^^ 



Koyoks # • • OlTsn by Ponors (Noyukiss! 
naa» for band on Stoqgr Crook noar Jaeinto* 



^dntoon 



*^mir 



Syncwypyt 



, . ..^ 



t % 



..•^.v 



3, No-ytt-ki . • • Powara, Trlbaa Calif., 230, 1077. ^„^ 
Q, Hoyuki . . • Handbook A«. Inda., Pt. 2, 88, 1910, 
(Tha Handbook aays th^jrara a Maidu 
of Itiba and Faathar H.Yart.) 



f 



ta 



use 



H^yuki . • • Kroabar, Handbook Inda. Calif. 
Noyukiaa • • • Powora, Orarland Monthly, X 



18741 Ibid, nil, 543« Dao. 1874. 

IkK-lHaok (Powara 1877) t NuiMk of Lomr Stony Craak (Handbook 



Inda. 191X>) • • . Saa No-aHwk 



*X«3iW 



Pa-doiMcah • • . Mitchopdo nana for thair Tillaga on aaat 
aida Saoraaanto Bivar, cppoalta NonroaTilla laland. Told na 
by Jack Prango, foll-blood MLtobopdo. 

Taara ago, BOLind T^m of Poo»8oe-na told na that Pa-dow-kah 
«aa on waat aida of river and waa the lowemoat (ooat aouthaxn) 
Yillaga of tha Wintoon tribe. It aeeaa to baTe been occupied 
by both tribea, aa ware aereral other villagea doaa to thia 



12 



8tr«teh of ths rlv«r (aoeordlng to old Hitehopdo Jack Prango). 

PiJL-tt fc i I da • • • Nana usad tgr (^indatona paopla for trlba 
on aaat aida of Saeraaanto RiTar naar Tahasa* Tbitj vara also 
eallad Poo a auk and vara tha l^haaa trlba* 

Pnn a ank • • • Noolakka (of Paakanta) nana for trlba at 
and about Tahaaa, with fonaar big Tlllaga on wast bank Saeraaento 
Rlrar ioaadlataly aootb of pratant Tahaoa* Said not to raaoh 



Bad Bluff* Othara aay did raaeh Bad BQLuff • 



l«40i 



Ponara In 1874 gava Pooaaoca aa Wlntoon trlba on loaar 
Ihonta and Eldar Craaka^ also lapping ovar on aaat side of 
Saaraaento RlTar in a narrov atrip about a alia idda (Powara, 
Ofarlaad Monthlj, XII, 531> ^mm ld74)« In ld77 ha wota It 
P».l-«ok (PoMara, Trlbaa Calif •« ^30» ld77)« 

Poo a lank la a Wlntoon word aaanlng ^Eaatamara* and la 
tuad bj dlf f arant tirlbaa for trlbaa aaat of than* 

Tha Klat idn uaa P o o a ' a ll for paopla aaat of atongr f^ord, 
Stt Also Tahaaaa 



';. <"•> 



Synoiqrm^ 



'''r%. 



(Elliott & Hoora 18dO) 



• Maaa naad for 



trlba batwaaa 9tonx Craak and Tahaaa* *o)Mb«>^ 

P«l-ta-ka-wla (Qrlndatona nana for band on E alda 



Saaraatnto RItot)* 



.fz4 in '\ .i* 



<$■ tH 



Poeaaooa (Pomra 1874) • *«•» tr4>« »lih* <*«>i*4 * 



r^-'-:itW 



PoQ a ank (NooiLakka naao) 
Poo a all (Klat win nana) 



c«i 



_: W ' ' t^ If » • •" trr- if 



13 4 



Pu-i-aok (Pomn 1877) I Poinok (Kroeber 1925). 



I Puiwak (Handbook An. Indiaas X9K)). 
l|M|T»haM (Ludwig 1353) | Tahaaa (Bancroft 1874) I Tahaaa 
(Bartlottf in 3. I, Colli, 5^)| T^hawt (Pouor U« 1377)1 
Tahaaft (Gataohot 13T7)| Tahaaa' (Kroabar 1925)* 






t 



Po o a all • • • Cortina iKlat win Naaa for Paopla aaat 



St«3J 



■aana "aMt plaea" or "aaat triba*" 



intandad 



north of Prinoaton. 



Pu-lnaok • • • PoNvra, Aribaa Calif*, 230, 1377* Saa Poo- 
•-pok* Saa Tohaaaa. 

PttiBok • • • Xroabar, Handbook Inda* Calif., 356, 1925* Soa 
Poo a a ak and Tahaafts* 

PttiMdc • • • Handbook Am* Inda, Pt« 2, p» 326, 1910* 

Sohola » • • Nana uaad by Qttiaral Bidwall in 1844 for triba 



batwaan Saoraaanto KiTor and north of mat fork of Stoogr Craak* 
Juatua H* Kogara, Coli&aa Cofontjr, Hiatory, 53, 1391* (Own* 
Bidwall atataa that hia routa was up tha Eaat alda of tha 
Saoraaanto Rirar to f orka of Stonj Craak and do«fn tha Waat 
aida* Sxaot looatlon trnkmom, but waa probaUjr a rirar triba.) 
Xahaaaa « • • Indian nana of unknonn origin (aaid bj Tajlor 



Saoraaanto 



^ / A 



foraarly liTlng about T^haaat aaaa triba alao eallad Poo-a-ank, 
Foo-«-ail and ao on- ^ w. 



""* •" ""• ^ ^ 8«rt2-^ 5 

Ladwig in 1353 raf arrad to voeabularjr of Tohaaa 



• V 



MHB^. 



>■ .V . ■ ^ >» ^ . . ■ - 



u 



BaHXttt 



Rlvsr** (Lttdwig, Litwraturt Aa« AbQri«« Laogiiagit, p* 26, 
lS5>8)t Tajlor in Kareh 1860 gsfv Id words but no tribal 



MM (Tajrlor* Calif • Fwm&t, 7ol« nil. No. 6, Maroh 23^ 
ld60) I Baneroft* 1874* gav* Tahana as trlba "fron whoa tbt county 
takat iia naaa" (Baneroft* Mat. Raoaa Paoifl« SUtaa, V«l« I^ 
362* 1874) t Kroabar 192$ ga.^* Tahaaa as Vfintun TillagOp but not 
li9oat«d« froM wfaiah a California plaoa naaa has baan darirad* 



9grnonjiqri 



' « .W .' f 



'' •:;ix ■ : \ifx45» a. 'yo^^- 



r 



Kaia-ipon-wajs (Klliott k Moors 1880) • • • Nana usad 



trlba batwasB Stoogr Oraak and Vahaaa. 

Pal^< t a i e a <d s (Qrindstons aians for band on East aids 



Saeraaanto Bivar)* 






b? ^rtlp^ " 



y ^ Vki 



T'Qtmik 



in Poosaoes (Powsrs 1874) } Pbo s isnlr (Hoalakks naas)} "«m^ '^ 
Poo-s-sil ((Hat win naiM)| Po-l-wk (Pomuv 1877) t Puiaok '' 

(Xrosbsr 1925) f Pttiaaik (Handbook Aa. Inds* 1910) • 
im Miaiia • • • LadNig (aftar Bartlatt), Iltsraturs Aaarloan 
Aboriginal Laoguagas* 26* 1858. 

Tbhaaa • • . Itejlor (givss Yoeab. but no tribal nans) Calif « 



ParMTy Vol. XIII* Mo. 6* Nardi 23, I860. 



Auft, 



1 r%rn 



U Mwaa • . . Taylor, Calif, Pannr Juna 22* 1860 ((Hvan 
as naaa of Saoraaanto Hi<rar). 

Tsbaaa . . . Banoroft* NatiTss ^^acas* Vol. 1, 362* 1874. 

Ibhaaa Vooab. takan Igr BarUatt (S. I. CoUa, 561). 

Tshaaa • • . Powall (Aftar Bartlstt) in Powors, Tklbas 
f . 



15 



Calif., 518, Vocab, 521-529), 1877. 



^ l'! 



T^haaft • • • QaUehtt, !»!• LMiguages t^aeifio States, 
Mag. Aa« Hi«t„ I, 160, Mareh 1877* 

Ubam • • • KxHMber, Handbook Inds. Calif*, d97t 1925* 
(Qlron aa naa» of Ylllaga) 



A 



/t_ 



TaaHM (CluMM or Cha-no) Mltchopdo naaos for villasa at 



MiinrooTillo on watt aido SaoraMuxto 



Crook. ProporljT boloosa to a Wintoon tribo aomotioos oa^i4 



mmVthi 



H»-o-«ttk, bat aharod with Nltehepdo. Tbld m by^ Jaek F^rango, 



ftill^blood Mitofaopdo. »,' 



'•--«,■ 






:i-jJM» WOV, 



W4t$. %^^ 






«' Vi «,^' ■! 



iifU 



.^, Also oallod Cha-M by Chleo Mltohopdo. f«, ^^^^ ^^.^^ 
No i nmk naaa for villago la TftonHoo or Tao-no. 
On DraMinfa (in mr poaaoation) aado by artist H. B. Broim 

in 1852 la writton "Cbino ViUaga noar Munroo's" which asans on 

south sido of Stony Crook nsar ita junction with Saoraasnto BiTtr. 
Bancroft givos ths *Ch«no* Rancheria aa risitod bgr Arguallo 

in 1821.— Bancroft (after Ordas MS Diary) , Hist. Calif. II, U7» 

1885. 

U. S. Treaty Comv. giYss Ch«no as naas of tribe of band 

aaeting hln at BidMell*s Ranch on Chioo Creek, Aug. 1, 1851. 

18 Calif. TlneaUes, 1852, Senate reprint, 3» 28, 30, 1905. 

£^ynoit3fByt 

ChaHoe, Chanio (Mltchopdo naoes). 

Chens (Snith & SUiott 1877) • 

Che-no (18 Calif. Treatiea 1852). 

Cheno (Bancroft 1885). 



16 



Chlno VilUgft (Brow )0 tfrmingt 1352) • 



Tmhm (Kltehopdo hum). 



•^« 



TMi>-no»TM-no (Noenok naas)* 






Wl-«-top-rll • • • Nm» api)ll»d l^ Ko»-lAk-4» of P»»k«ntA to 
trlbo north of tbMMlvoSy oxtrndlng trom. north sld* £Ldor 
Cr«ok northorXy to Rodbank Cr««k» uhoro their rango is said to 



adjoin tho southara boundary of tha Oah-auk» ^>9^..4«iA 
Jitdkm ¥P-in • • • Ko-roo naaa« Maaing 'north paopla» for r«lat< 
t^.triba on SaeraMnto Bivar fro* Princeton north to Ifanroovilla 
* (Sana nana uaad la^ *iaat-iiin for tribaa north of thoBaalToai 
m ^ Pit RiTar and Lonar MeQoud Ritar Wintoon for A^ta triba 

(0«kMahDHMO«taoo) to south and aast of ^» Sbast*)* 



.'jf^- 



Tooi-<lok«4cah 



T6Xd m» by «^aok FrangOt fuU^blood 



r ' r 



"ii::^ :. • 



' ^'T^.ril^A 



'"^ «thit 



-. v«- 



s^ytt tSm^^ '^ ^•••- 



*^/^ 



0f'': - "IWX "l«!di.*?5 



? -^T^ri^J^ 



IWI*^,. ■ 'm^V 



.#e 



^ ^ ^ -* ^ 



«: .r-' ?t 



^j»|5^ ^aSrau'ffc,^.!k-Ar< "-I "Mf^ilf > 



^L^J^ 



O^ 



'. '•» 



n 



<fcif*«^t 



ftui4# ^^ ^^^ --^••' ^>*^SaW«?^'^«*- V.'^llftV nf^'H'h rtf S!i?tlir»w H l^^tJ^t?^ -^i^,; 11^*» }'V^^^^ 



'« iM|11»l'l l^hjfr !N. 



tti« 'b¥ii,u\:t: in 



X*^)^ 



^3iMlri^ H^iiia « 



<A.#»«i^:j 'kO 



1 






V 



*I* t'V.?-?*^ 






.j^r^ it 



,v:ir.,<^- ..JsDf^»mtc^t 



■MMi 



^■B*i 



/ 




I. 



WIS-TOON 



an 






r* 



tiw 



Poo«««4dn txdb« of Wln-<toon stock 



wtrr. 



Original t«rrlior7 •xUndod from Sonoaa Crook on tho wost 
to SaoroBonto RlTor on tho E&ot* Tho northom boondUry rooohod to 



SonoMi (Toliaoogr) «nd KnisJbts Landing. 

Tho only porooa I haro f omid who tpoaks 



*■.■! 



Poo w in it a Sonona 



Indian aaa maod Philip who worko for a Qoxwan naaod S* Stolgor on a 
▼inoyard 2-1/2 alios south of (Hon EUsn and f Ito alios north of 
Sonona. On JtOy 9i 1906 I got a good list of wfwT anl bird nw o s 
and a fair voeabulary frooi this aan nsaod Philip* Also got frosi hla 
tho abovo boundarlos of tho Poo-o-4dn tribo. and tho following 
InfonMitiont 

Soo-o-soMi was tho naas of a valloy and pooplo. Philip 
thinks tho pooplo woro Poo s win and that 3oo -o soon is a Spanish 
xmm, bat otter Indians insist that it is tho original Indian naas^ 
whioh doubtloss is tho easo« ..*^^ *w ....^^ ^ » ^ 

■^*" • %mt!i' 1SI0<* '"^ •''"v '■ -■" >'""%ft 

Tho P oo-'S win woro always at war with tho Patwin of tho wost 
sldo of tho Saoraasnto Valloy north of Knight *s landing* Tho Poo-o- 
win oallod tho Patwin aboTO IQaights Landing. Pa-Ion* ^ ^ 
««.i 1 • ^fh« Iwlians in tha \xpp9r (northoni) part of Sonoaa 7all^ woro 
Kinaaaro^ saas as at Santa Rosa and Sobastopol* Thors usod to bo 
ranohorias all along Sonoa» Crook f roa noar Madrono Station up tho 



fallay, 



v-iT^ avr^ -V '^ '^ 



$■ ♦ 



there were at least three la&guagee 



1^^ ^ !• Too-loo8-4oo«« from Siiscol up to Nap4. Th«r« «•• a 



$^«f 



Th 



T0CHl0O8^bOO-« 



■taoHOkah 



Hr «*»« Th(t Toe-loo«-ioo-«f(X aa told by anothor Infoxmnt* 



wtro Win.) 
Wi-ya-Oah 



»1UMU» 



' ToimtTilla 



'»* 



-^-^^Ai* 



to about 3t, Halana, Laqguaga antlralj dlffarant froa 
Tbo-loo«-too-a« Old ohlaf Cayma (Klnms), 
3> Ml^Tali-kab-Mh, Head of vaUa/ about Calistosa. 



9t tiu .*. Language wholly dlffarant. 

^q^SXm^ ^ "*^ ^^^ (<^uly 11« 1906) an old Inciian aan bom at Napa 
but who aparit tha greater part of hia life at Sonoaa and who apaaks 
both Win and Pooawln. He Is living in a litUe ahack by hiualf on tha 



Brian ranch in the hllla between SonoaM and Petaluaa 



tram Sonoa» 



/'.itTaji/- 



poamx: 



Ha told m that the Pooawin did not reach weat to Petalma 
Oreek but stopped at Sonoaa. Sonou waa the nortfamat comer of 
their doaain. Theaoe eaaterly they occiq>ied the north aide of tha 
Bay region to Saoraaanto River, which they followed up on the west 
aide to XniglitU Landing. The northern boundaiy of their territozy 
ran froa SonoaA to (Hapa?) Ttduka and aL<^uUta (taking in Susool and 
Sooasoon) and thence to Vaoavllla (where there waa a big rancheria 
called Pa-nia Lagnaa) and Wintera and thanea to Woodland and on to .. 
Knighta Landing on Sacraaento Rirar. To tha north of tha Pooewln in 
Sonoaa Vallay were the Kaniaar'reai in Napa Valley, Capay VaUay, and 
in the hills west of Sacraaento Valley (weat of the river) ware tha 



'i-^sm ahlfuf wtio %aatf' to - ■•'■ 



•..V 



oalls Wl(-kMi 



ta*-w«« Th« Poo-«««dn naa* for th« Win trib« la Tbo-loos*-too-«* 

Jim sftijrs his p«opl« (Win or WUkaa or Nan-ooe-ta-^wo or Tbo-loo8*-too-«) 



spoak tho 



IwgnAgo M tho Gtt«oa (-Cortma CrMk) Klot^irin. 



Ho ttjo Chiof Wid-4coB*o mum wm Mmi (aan^Mtor), bub I 
eovld not tiM^gut idwihor Wi*.4raa i« tho MttU mum or nwt of a 
PMrtlcular Uad. , j(|^ ^ ^ aauMo / «$«» 

Tboro uMd to bo Poo o» i dn ronohorUo «t Sonoaa, Kha <TlU«g< 
of Tttluka) QLidaUf Soooooon (Sulsun), VaeaviUOf WintorU ranch tad 
Woodland. ThoM at Vaea, Wlntors, SooMoon, and WbodXaad iraro vory 



big, 



' \ 



>.' ' \ 



\ . rrf^ 



i^mMn^'x 



■<«1 ;-•■•), 



-^•. 



'^'tUraMttXKt..' « 



Nap-pah and Tbo-Xoo-kah woro nanoa of ranehorlas noar togothor 
in Mapa Valloj* Too-OLoo-kah waa a short diatanoo south oast of Na^« 
An old Spaniard naasd Ki-tannMh (Oaatane?) Juaros to<^ possosaion of 
tha land on wfaiuh tha Tbo-Ooo-kah ranehoria waa sLtuatod (tho asylua 
is tharo now)* 

SooM Tokiah Indians woro brought down hero bgr tha Spaniards* 
Tha Pooowin oallod the Hookooeko tribe of Petalraa region 
"Tanale Indians*" 

The big Pooewin ranoheria at YacaviUe naa called Po-nia 
Laguna* The big Pooewin rancheria act Winters was callod Wis-kal« 

The tribe at TountviUe and St* Hel«i& spoke the saae language 
aa at Calistoga (i.e.^ Mi-yah-kah-nah) • 

The tribe in Benressa Vallej waa "No-nin" . 



same as 



Too-Xoos-too-e ti 
Cortina *Ket^win 



T>^ v:i«HCon chief who used to lire 



%fhoM xuMM (or nieknaM?) wm Mm (water) afUn«rd 



^jL?*^ t!flL 



;o CortiM and if not doad U thara now, Hapa la a Pooawln 
Tttukaj- (pronooncad Too-loo-kah) • 
Tha Indian ohiaf « Cayaua (pronouncad Ki-ma) who asad to 



Totutvilla 



WUa-lah trlba 



t'l ?' 



daelaraa la tha a 



Saa-ia trlba 






Sua-kel Is a Pooawln 



ranoharla 



Indian fanllj on Bayla^s ranch in lowar 



Pooawin. Th^ hava baan oallad CallajaMnaa and CanaoBHUoa. 
*4«s^fNf IS it not poaalbla that tha Too-looa-too-a or Win or 
loo-kah ranoharla juat Baat'if *!lapa RlTar wara brotight thara 



JCT'>"i 



ti 



w.> 



md^ >^s$mAM 4^ 



''^«v-i'* '^^■.^t- 



Z'. 



^m^ 



.# mm ^mfkt^, h^ri^ixxg 



*i ^'» "^ 



rn^ff >**vVv^,3f»4 ***'**'"^ rilfefc ||»^»^*^ .'.♦■.4 Km^'w^*','.- 4l»*!»,1.*:' ft. 



*H2*^«^ <># 



iiiir 



« #^• -^ f^^i-r^iilhhAf '^ ^4 



S..*?fii* ^f k^ '>^-*Hiflll» V^K 



# • 






JUlfeNI <^ 



«r 



K. 



■v .«» 



^JilWJlr of t'>^ 



_ai^«^«Miiai^«-»'-«^-^ 



'.m«. «iil.1%d 



ji w^ 



T %m0ii, 



wrt 



JL 



OJl 



CM^ 



CHOO-HEL-MEM-SSL BTHNOQRAPHIC NOTES 



"Vi^ V*t^- ^« "^^ t««th *r« e«ll«d •-li-eho->«h«» Wh«n shed thtgr 
art pot In « goph«r*s hol« to "trad«" viih th« goplMr (Thooomrs)* 
Hwd Mt for awi. Qrdlnaxy kind^ klt-4«»ko| for rleh pooplo^ buk- 
eh«r-rof b««d«d ukl toxj TtloaULt^ IdM-— ohor-ro* Curing iht 
oortBonlM tte loadtr of iho daneo iiMro « hoaddrooo oallod poo-ta. 
tho oroin ploeo of nhieh lo of tho whito down of tho onow goooo* Tho 
oeoiiMt piocoy oallod li-Oy ixrojoeto bMkwftrd froa tho back of tho 
hoad and eonaiata of a daoao bonoh or largo roaotto tail foathora of 
tho aagplo^ wom horlKntallj (pointing backMard)* Tho loador of tho 
daneo alao woara on oaoh aldo of hia hoad a foricod foathor pin atand- 
Ing oot aidovagra* Ihla o^uiata of two iihito foathora (aonatlBoa 
throo)^ oaoh flTO or alx Inehaa in l«ngUi« attaehod to a noodan pin* 
Hoad Baq^. Tho woaan waar a broad blaok and whito hoad band oallod 
tlp-po<41af nado of tho drlod akina of ooraorant and anow gooao with 
tho doMn loft Ml* Tho akin la roUod (not flat) and la doooratod 
idth noodpoakor aoalpa and boada of abalont ahill. 
Rod Foathor Banda « Tho aan wtar^ hanging down f ron tho baok of tho 
hoad, long broad bright aearlot banda, oallod lil-loo-pmHaahHaah, 
aada of quilla of tho rod-ahaftod fliokar* 

Bar dooorationa^ 3oa» of tho pooplo waar oar doooratl<ma« oallod 
bimHfialihhahy Thoao ara atralght bonaa aotoral Inehoa in longth, worn 



horiaontallj throoglh tho 



iif^ >.. 




of tho oar* Tho bonoa ooiannlj naod 



aro thoao of tho oaitl* OMi oonder* 



brUliant 



- •h 



feathers are sonetlmes worn in the ear* 



Koee Stick . The nose stick is not worn by this tribe* 

Sliver Catcher . For picking out sliTsrs, a small needle-like bone 

ffOB between the front hoofs of thA Am»i». In usAd. Thin In «>a11«<4 



peti. 



called Ka-«el 



of planks of the Digger pine (Pipos sabiniana) . 

Another kind of house » called ticb-e ka^wel^ consisted of a 

work of poles covered with pine bark and cheadse brush, overlaid 

with earth. The timbers were usually of blue oak* 

Sweat House . There was no regular sweat hous9» but the people took 

their sweats in the ordinary living house* 

Camps* Cai^ps are called poo-ehil* Those used for a length of tine 



had conical bark huts called kah-pah-lah ka-Mel* 

Canopies . The brusb-roof canopy has two names, kool and she 

Acorn Cadie. The acorn cache, used also for nine nuts, is 



hi 



ohoo-bee 



grass* It stood on the ground* 

Another kind of cache, called awl-lah, was a hole dug in the ground, 
lined with grass and pine bark* 

Pinols * One of the nost widespread foods of California Indians con- 
sists of small seeds which are roasted and eaten* Collectively this 
food is called pinole, a Spanish naas* 



Choo-li«l< 



called 



VJhen the sends are pounded and mixed with floar the adxture is 
called ko-he and daift. When wetted and oade into a doagh ready to 



called 7«BHBe 



^«.s,'^ 



Pinole eeeds were uevally roaeted oTer coals of the rall^ oak 

t 

( Qnerctti lobata) . also often sailed mh oslc* 
The ordinary word t^r sating is l»iMir« but sating pinole is called 
WMl/ and ^eo iHl-lsh-ke. »*^Ma 

Kany kinds of seeds are used for Pinole, bat those of the tarweeds 
of the genera Hsdla and HiadiOBU are collected in greatest quantity. 

el. as 



Following are nasws of plants given m by the Choo-hel 

used by thes for pinole* Ohfortunately the p'^ants were not at hand 



and not identified* 



Wlt^i ii 



yfi 



'.«. (^, 



WL 



Ten-nek (best) 


■Ufku 


Tbo-loo-e (next best) 


^ ^^ 


Os-kat 




«« «. hi i«* 


. 




Ts«poot 
BA-kol 
KinHas-4d 

Pl-pi 

hi 
Shoo 

Lo«wa 

Ko-lut 



«i ^^" 



of 



•%*, 



*Sk4:^>*- 



^ 



ai^4ah 

hon-nut 

tahp-ta)^ 

ke«wet 

kod-doi-kot 

taM>4eot 

ohis-sow-koi 

kOHson 

kool-4oor-re 



kot-pl*^ 
pah-kah 



hi 



• ■***. 



-V-s»!S 



Torches* Ths old tine torch, eallsd bi, tioftis 



'il'i^ J r***:»! 



s of Uvi» 



ny^ 



wood of BBaims 



oiJtCttqttij 



i«tngB 



•ft Vcroech owl fastened Into a tpllt stick, one on each eixla* 

Hair nets . Men near hair nets, Tha ordinary kind is called ki<^e-ko| 

those worn by rich people « buk-chep-ro, A beaded and still more 



his-se-cher-ro 



Biakinf; 



k-a* jr^. 



strands of redbud (Cercii 



• The red-purple 



-. * « 



bark 



bpiinchss 



» trHI vn^ 



ha^ fallen. If a darker color is wanted, the strands are soaked In 



ovei^-niptht 



sprouts 



baric 



and the wood split into str 
without ths bark are white* 



Tobacoo . Wild tobacco, called U^,~wai brigli^Oly iiade by Se-deu 

(Coyote man). 

Cr«aation. Boming the^^SSBly of a dead person is called eh^ah or 



» c 



es-pah. Burn a lire eneny is called bil-^>ah« 
^e" funeral pyre is called chah-kel| the ashes and burned bones, 
shoo-dooki the funeral at tlae of burial, ter-re«-che. **^ •^'** 
The aouming and crying are called wah-too-per-re. 
*The second mourning ceremony, held at a later period, is called 
be-le. Its essential feature consists of the burning Of valuables 



.rwr' 



for th« bcmfit of tho doad. 



■ V m ^ -^ -Otim*- 



>« 



•,CS«r; r 1 



Tho pooplo 0X7 on* nlgbtf mmI wlion tho aonilng star comes up thigr 
bogln to born tho food« bMkoto, elothoo« beads, f eathor belts and _ 
other articles broagfat for the purpose • Two woMn stack up the 
articles to be burnt* Before easting the baskets Into the fire they 



holding the basket in front 



n rjk^«a-*'f ft-I^W^I?^."".* 



■loMwidn. aoes south at first 



Ocean 



ghosts 



anlil s 



JW^iC' 



Itaunder is called ki»«e« It originally oaae froa ti 



went up into the sky and were transfox«ed into tfannder. The rainbow 
is caUed sahk-cho-rel (assaiiv "blodd curve") «^ ^^, ^^ ^^ 
flm |^.^4*i>h4p . The office of chief is hereditary, but it soaetl«es 
happens that whan a bad nan of the tribe is killing people, the people 
elMt hi4 chief f)»r the reason that when he is elected chief, he 



asst quit killing peopls. 



v#*&. |>«'3Ii f 



grinding 



pounding seat 



*f»**» 




JUc 



Ba»kei s> Baskets were aade completely ooTered into feathers* Hallard 
feather oa the bottom, red woodpecker feathers on the sides as well 



as quail pluMS and Abalone beads for additional deet 
Salt . This was gathered froa Hill Creek about three 



5. to 



creek was dry in the suB«er and a crust forard 



on the bed* 



MST-^t-^vl t^ 



f ApfXi 



f\^!r?^*"f°*^ "°^— 



young or full grown* Thus th« oonnn DouglM 



.y»k| 



SpruM (Pmmt,datmu») when full grown 1» bah-Uta, whm young m 
and tb* Tall«7 oak iih*n full groim is hUw, *ihwi joung no-oo. 
SijidUrly thi aooro of tho Bluo Oak {^SSSSSL ^SSBSO^ '^^^ "^^^ 
gTMn is callod ymr-u^ whilo aftor turning <l*rk it i» aoo-lajr-kah, 



wood 



torehos booauso it bums 



alnost unirsrsal nsdicins aaong California 



IndiaaSf is iissd by ths Choo-hsl- —i s s l both as a t< 
tMish for nsaslss* 

Orson grass is oallsd sok| dry grass poo-sah. 
Indian hm^ (Apoeynmi) ^ caUsd po^ (or pe*^), nakos 
string and thrsad. 



Bthnosooloi 



tiabor wolf 



19?3-24 



ground squirrel ( Callospsraophilus) , callad 



Snow 



Mountains 



Ths nsat of ths pocket gophsr (; 




4<i«.M «;tA 



wiU 



, c&llsd ki-c^ X.' 3^ /«» to 



kill 



houss Mouss (Ifiis «iscalus) has rscsntljr appsarsd 



— -^r^ 



th« Choo-hsl-o«i-«#l *nd !• calltd too-loo-kon# 

Doss, oalltd choo-chooj ^rm not known until th« Spaniards 



Th« CiOlfornla Jay (Anhaloe<»a) . callad chi-«t, pUnts acorna. 
CtrUln wdMU uA plants hAT» omms iaplylng th« dlr«etion in 
i«hich thij oceur or from which thty are b«ll«T»d to haw cona. 
Thus tha blua grouaa (Da^agSESl) i« «*11** "» a^iSaWd, -aaning 
«M8t i|ttAll,» and tha graat pUaatad wooc^ckar (fifop^^^Mflft) » °»>* 
tar-r*t, aaaning »i»tt noodpaakar," w» balng tha word for waat. 
Tha aMllar woodpaokara ara caUad too-dlt too-dlt. Tha rad- 



h 



baliarad to ba tha Mia of tha haliy wood* 



paokar< 



%a ■«< -^ v. Ik uii*^,M*i 



bUekhaadad grosabaak (2^1odU) 
nama of tha radbud baah (Careia) > 

t«-«al 



\ 



ground, anl ahal-li grlaaly baar, 

rha trottt ia oallad aha-ah-taar, aaaning 

.\ Th* tittm Af m. fiflh ara oallad tar- 



waning '»w>vara«" 
iAt«n>illara ara eallad 



tha grlxsly baar. 
Craa^nlal dancaa . 
Cho-hal — i aal < 



originally 



original 



Pirat Paopla. Kito-»8 waa locatad vaiy naar tha 

I Moontain Houaa or Vanado on tha aoutham boundary of 

r tha Choo-hal-owi-aal and cloaa to tha northam boundary 



8 



Klet-<irin 



and all other dane«8 of this tribe originated at NDchm 



But the dreaa dance, called Baw-le hes-se, ca«» froa the north 
and did not originate with these people. To thle da^ the Big-head 
dancer and his headdress are called Bawli-Sal-to* 

During the eereaony all of the dancers mat kesp by th«i- 
MlTts« They are not permitted to speak to one another or to alx 



continuance 



alloimd 



rotindhouee before th 



ce: 



^*.-" ■ .•'' A 



iiJ»iV 



ft. ■V'-'IWV-; 



begins, no one is allowed to go in bj the front entrance* 
Then all the dancers gather around the center post and tifo 
of then go back and stand on the drum log. At the front end of the 
dria log (or plank) is a hole that leads into an excavation under the 
log, into which are thrown loose feathers, broken rattles, worn-out parts 
of the ceremonial oostuMSS. and sticks that fall out of the big head^ 



■ tr'*w<^tfmtifmmii$fi t^i 



dresses^ One of the dancers kneeling down pots his face into thie 



^4> 



are a 



calls 



still on top of the roundhouse^ shouts i 
Oien-te pun-te^ Sal«-to venntie-we 
Down in the earth. Spirit cone 
Then half-a-dosen boys, called luanpo 



Ch«»«ah< 



*tiSW» «?f 



'?;■ fk'fm«tm' 



V 



part in the dance cerenonies, are sent to the Bvil 
av. They are not allowed to eat neat and may not 



drink water except at specified hotxrs* Vihile 



in th« roundhouse shstxt and b«at th* drum with ttaftlr f««i anj 
danc« around tha flra^ making a graat daal of nolsa* ^^ 

Than a nan oallad Kabnoah sal-to (Lazy Spirit) cliaba tha 
eantar post to tha top and glvas a loud yall* Tha boys^ now eallad 
Wa-^a-la sal-to (Running Spirits)^ who vara sant to tha Sril springs^ 

answar his shout and start back to tha ronndhousa* ATtar dancing to\ 

riant t 

tinas th^ ara again aant to tha springs whara thay raaain till noon 
without aating or drinking* At noon thay eoaa back and danoa inside 
tha roundhouse* Than a aan brings a basket of acorn Muah and paases 
it around to the Tuaepo boys, each of lAom dipa out and swallows 
a single wuthful, and drinks som water* Ha <ilp« the ansh out with 
a vary aanll baaket called cho-bill^ made for the purpose* This 
tim" basket holds just one aouthful of nush* This quantity is now 



given to each of the boys three times each day^-ooztiing 



iTenii!ig« 



Monr is orer the roundhoxise 



hot and everyone 



b<qrs 



eoceeedingly unconfortabla 



The old people ait farther off* 



a4 



Indian Doctor goea to the boys^ 
roB the continued effort of daxio 



each 



of then is not sweating he takes sweat from his own body and rubs 
it on the boy, who inaediately begins to sweat* Ih'^n the Doctor » 
with the help of two other man, takes the boys, who now appear to be 



10 



•xhMutad, 



on thft ohaatf and t«kM thai outtld*. Xf 



80-l00» 



throws 



•id« thm roundhouM ^w ha 11m on tho ground* Than th« Pirt aan^ 
Chah-pajwrahkf t«kM a stick al^t or nlna Inchss long which is on 
fira at ona and and puts tha othar and In thla oooth and bitas it/ 

holding it In his -o^tAr^ ^'^ ^"^^^ 

plAoat. ^f)j^ ^^ ^ha boys ara oatsida lying f aea down on tha ground^ 

watar la poorad on thm* Thair aothara, aistara^ and grandnothera 
bagin to cry» thinking it draadful that tha boys should ba ao harshlj 
traatad. Bat th«y ^l•r^ not ao badly off | thiy wara naldng baliara 
that thay wara suff arlng» They now gat up and lock axas two and two 
and fall dam, and do tha saaa ovar again. Than thay hobbla along to 
tha oraak, but as soon as out of sight run to tha rivar and Juap in* 
Aftar a good bath thay a&roh back to tha roundhouaa* 

Than they ara told how long it will ba before they will ba 

* 

allowed to eat neat* Thiy nay eat f iah, aeom aoup, and other bhinga. 



but not neat* 



nmK'i.iiy-**'* 



finally arrives, the oerenonial dance 



yah-he-yah-pi 



It is held out 



in the woods » not at the ranoharla* 



Bafore this the boys must hunt for fotir or five days, killing 



dear 



nlj^t 



night long, then they are given meat for breakfast. Thoae newly 



u 



/ 



InltittUd in th« dano* Ar« not p«rBitt«d to oat ■•at for a wfaolo 
TMT. If ono of thm aata aaat whan ba thinks no ona idll aaa hi«i 
tl»^x*-rik, tha graat hornad owl, talla on him. ^>,^^^^^, ^ 
Th« war danca, AfUr aU tha mm hara gona into tha rooadhoaaa no 
rwiwlTiIng otttaida and all is qulat, tha Chaa a a h -too or Spaakar, 
who ranka nixt to tha CJhiaf , tUtiona hi«»alf on top of the Round- 
houaa and in a fairly loud Yoioa inTltaa tha apiritf of rariowa 



plaoaa and diractlona 
Hia werda foUowt 



praaant during 



.^ \ V 



m 



..^'- .A^ 



>yrf 



ttea 



JUt- 



\m 



tagr ^ 



Bioa ^ 






Poor-na ]n»-^t 



3al-tO WMIHM-<I«# 



^^ Far Par Eart^ ^ ^,^ ^ Spirit com 



?. ■^.'«W«l ■•■■ '-iV 



^^ ^ Ko-win-nah pu»-ta. 



Far far Woet 



^^^^^ VIor-raHaah poMHta, 

Par far South 



M 



u 



WaiHoah piaBHta« 

Par far Worthy 
0-o«WKLi taw*-ta, 

Iteyyavilla Buti 
T o w^^woo-ohah ta, 

ttm woa ehah M 
Tu-a mM»-ta, 

Sril aprlng, 
Aw3.->lo-koi-ta 



3al»tO' w a P "oa-w 

Spirit warn 
Sal»to waoHoa-wa 



Spirit 



Sal-^ iwaoHM-wa 

Spirit co«a ^ad I* 
3al-to wan-na-wa 



«» 



^Ijdt 00 



«is , 



Spirit ooni 

Sal-tO-WHEIHM-iW 



*»V0 Ht^wypi. 



:'<;ii.9 V» << 



ii 



58ri ■•/•'■■ :|S' 1 ^ 



.^«»||}.# 



^ ^. 



Spirit oO'-w 



,v%T\i-'^P 



Sal«to imnHM-%i* 






n^ 






n 



Anothar avil spring, T Spirit cona 



ew-' 



12 



Piu[i«t« pi»-i#t 



.■•,\f 



htSal-to 



.-* 



untfi ^ff*i*' 



^ 



l^ abov* 



t 1^ 



Spirit eoat 



JMi Ul <' 



.*i A ^ ik. Mfli if 3^p* 

- » 

w flrft goalp danc» > A aan f roa ltt.t*choKMds 



9tenj Cr««k wtnt to tht ranelMrl* of LoI-mI in Long Vall«j to tr«d«« 



IKi 



'.ii I 



Tho Long VaJloj poopit killod him* Thon 4 Lol-sel nan naood Tub-to 
•tolo boadi frm his o«n txdbo^ for ifhieh offonoo his own psoplo wsr^ 
going to kill hla* But hs ran awaj to }ttt-chow-«ia* Ths psopis 
thfsro knaw what ha had done and killad hin* This vas aeoaptad bgr 



killing of tha Mit-choi^-^ds 



tha Lol->aal« 



killad hin ther aealnad hlja* This was tha first 



and only tiaa a aan waa aoalpad tagr California Indiana* Than thajr 
oallad tha naighboring tribaa to oooa and hold a War danea^ oallad 



Sha-ba* Tha aealp waa fastanad to tha and of a pola whioh 



hald 



hgr a Ma idiila tha other paopla danced around it with bows in their 
hands and arrows in their aoutha* After this a Napa liadian naaed 
Ben Sad-dow^ aaaning *Big Ck^ta^* took tha aealp and carried it to 
Napa, after which it waa not beard from* Ban Sed-dow waa hiaself a 
Napa* 



condor dances* The Bear dance Nawp Sal-to to-«o 



tha Condor dance Mol-luk 3al«to teHM belong ' 
can dance thesi* The old people are all dead* 



Tb» HoUuk Sal-to dance waa ywrj dangeroua^ for if the dancer 
nada a aiataka hia grandson beeaaia aick and bit hlaaelf all orer tha 



13 



bodx* nlMrtnrtr b* eooU rMeh} h« thrw 



•boot •xA vhUtl^ 



•ad VM lA a bad mj» Tte oalj our* «m for th* gnndf athtr to 

drost up in hit MoUtdc foathors m if colng to Um dinoo. thou >m wont 



•pooliQ. dootor aad w »1nj o <! , 



and euro tho bogr* Tho 



dootor Hoot now tho skin and f oathoro of tho IfeUvk tht ooiidor» oad 
no othor eXothlag and ofUrwordo anot doftrogr this ooatwt tgr ainkiiu 
it in a opring of nator, Vhtn woariag tho Mollak oootOM ho not nol 
poxvit tho fan to ohliio on hia. 



» 



X 



d^ 



cf<n^ 



KOO-ROO VILIA(SS ON MOUNDS 



Btfor« the whites made the lereee along the rirer the nater 
never roee higgler than the hcmee momiB. These aounde in the north 
(i.e. Colusa region) iiere only 2 or 3 fo«t hi^, tout they ^re highi 
to the south. They i«re large In dia-ster, each haying house holes 
tuo or three fssiilies. The houees had strong fraaes of posts and ci 
ti«A>ers laced with willow and tules and cotered with earth or clay, 
B.^^.. fvu. iihi4^ nan came the flood waters were not rery deep. 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



I 

: I 



V"'''TOO^/ 



(a/A>^ 



f 




i'ieldwork among the <^»intoon, 1905 



[ 



V 



l^ Nomenkla, Stony Ford, Colu s a Co > On June 20 1905 > -*■ visited 
the Stony Ford /ancheria, which is in dense chemise chaparral 
(intermixed with plenty of smoke brush ( Ceanothus cuneatus) 
on a knoll north oT the river, at the foot of a chaparral co- 
vered spur from Mr. St. John about two miles west of Stony Ford 
settlement. The rancheria consists of four houses and an earth- 
coverea sweat house about twenty feet long and twelve high, 
with a small entrance on one end through which I crawled on 
my hands and knees. The fireplace is in the middle. 

The chief, Pum-muk-ky, told me that when they catch cold 
in zhe winter they go in arid build a fire and sleep there all 
night. 

The houses have pole and brush canopies in front or at 

one side, or both. The chief and his wife are rather old but 

still active and bright. They are surprisingly intelligent 

and kind. They have a daughter with a young baby and husband. 

Besides these we saw and talked with three old women, all of 

whom have the chins and loAer cheeks heavily tattooed. The 

usual- plan seems to be : three single or double vertical lines 

on the chin; an obliq^ue line running down from each corner of 

the mouth ( making five); and a heavy double or single zigzag 

line running straight back (horizontally) froiii just above the 

corner of the mouth across the lower part of the cheek. Be- 

sides this, two had tatooing on the nose, and one on the fore- 

head. 

One family is now absent, picking apricots in the valley 

near Elk Creek. 

Pum-muk-ky, the chief, told me that the present rancheria 
been 

has/\built only about twelve or thirteen years. Before that 
they and many others lived in a very large village or * ranche- 
ria* where the flour mill now stands, half a mile west of the 
present town of i^tony Ford. They were very numerous when he 
was a young man — hundreds he says — and a white man who has 
lived here over thirty years tells me there must have been a 
hundred living here for years after he first came, and he has 



- 2 - 



seen two hundred or three hundred at the big ceremonials and 
dances they had here in early times. The few left here now 
work on the ranches and go of! to the fruit pickings; the wo- 
men do washing and make baskets. 

Pum-m\ik-ky was making wampum beads oi clam shells when 
we arrived, rubbing the edges smooth ana round on a flat stone. 
He was also making a net ( of fine fiber which he had wet and 
twisted) for catching fish. '-»-'his fiber was exceedingly strong. 
He snowed me masses of it before it was worked up into string. 
It wab inJBtraight skins say two and a half to three feet long 
by an inch in diameter, and wet. It was reddisa brown in color 
— or whitish .-ith a reddish brown tinge— and 1 suppose is from 
Indian hemp ( Apocyn\im ) although -^ am not sure* 

The mortars are small holes in sq^uarish flat stones ave- 
raging perhaps two feet in diameter and sometimes set in. the 
ground. They have and use also basket mortars, which they 

set on flat stones, ''^e gave them some beads and other trilbies 

( 
which pleased them and put theml^ixx a good humor. One of the 

old women is very old and sick. 

June 21: On the way back from i?'out's Springs I again 

visited the Indians at the Rancheria on the north side of the 

river and got a good vocabulary from the old chief Pum-muk-ky 

and took photographs of him and the old much tattooed woman. 

Also had a ^ood talk with them. The chief gave me the names 

in his language for thirty-four species of trees and shinibs, 

of which ^ showed him fresh specimens. The only reason he 

did not give me more was because I didA^t have any more samples. 



- 3 - 

2. Klet-win or 'Ket-kla Indians. CortJ i^^ Ureek. ^olusa Co» The 
Indians at the rancheria on the uorth branch of Cortena Creek told 
me (June 15, 1905) the name oi their tribe is 'Ket; others gave 
it as 'Ket-klah or Klet-klah (name of place.)- i'hey call their 
people Win. They live in two places: two families live at the 
entrance of the side valley coming in from the north, where they 
have two houses and some growing corn under spreading valley oaks 
in a picturesque spot. The main rancheria is up about a mile and 
is on a low knoll hign up in the valley and surrounded by hills. 
There are many blue oaks about the rancheria, which consists of 
a number of wooden houses, mainly of split shakes. 

There are about seven families here. The men are large and 
both men and women good looking. They call the place v,il-lak (the 
rancheria ) and the main Creek Ko-teen-ah. 

'Their numerals are the same as those of the Pah-tin on the 



i 



Sacramento, but about half of their words are different. 

Their flour or meal tray sifter (or winnower) is circular 
and perfectly flat, and very thick and solid. They call it tso- 
pol and hach-e. Besides this, they all have a large concave meal 
tray (a very shallow bowl) which they call toi, or toy-ken-ny and 
also ken-ne. ^heir basket mortar is the largest and flattest (most 
flaring) I ever saw. They call it Kah-we (or Kaw-we). It is pla- 
ced over a flat stoned and the pestle is flat instead of round 
at the end. Their papoose basket (to-nok) is wholly different 
from those of the Sierra. It is a sim^^le scoop, truncate at the 

top, where it has a large strong hoop at right angles to tr.e back. 

The child's head is just under this hoop and something is thrown 

over it when needed. 

They have more good old baskets than any tribe I have struck 
in a long time. ^ got a few choice ones. The land on which they 
live is now owned (1905) by a man named Henry C. Eakle, who has 
a very large ranch. The question is, what will become of the In- 
dians when the ranch changes hands. 

In their nouses ^ saw hung up a number of skinned bodies 
of jackrabbits and ground s^iuirrels for meat. 



I f 

4 y 



- 4 - 

The men herd sheep regularly for U-akle, and also work on the 
range ..na on tue ranches. Just now they are getting two dollars 
a day working in the hay and grain. 



4 



w^ 



ft 



&r y 



classification of Wintoon Stock 



An analysis of the vocabularies of the several tribes o£ the 
Wintoon show that the stock divides naturally into three major linguis 
tic divisions: 

(1) ^ Northern division t the Wintoon proper , extending from the 
extreme head of Trinity River, and from North Salt Creek on Sacramento 
River thirty miles south of the summit of Mount Shasta^^southward to 



/ ^z' 1* niay be well to record the fact that the younger generation of 
Wintoon, proud that their fathers defeated and nearly exterminated the 
Shastan Okwanootsoo, now claim the conquered territory all the way to 
Mount Shasta. 



\ 



Red Bank Creek, just below the City of Red Bluff/. 

(2) 4j^^^^^^ 0^ Nomlakke -Tehama division, extending along Sacra- 
mento River from Red Bank Creek south to within two or three miles 
of Princeton, and spreading westerly to the high mountains of the so- 
called "Inner Coast Range" — better called the Yolla Bolly range/. 

(5) ^ Southern division , reaching from two or three miles north 
of Princeton southerly to the lower Sacramento River and San Francisco 
Bay, and spreading westerly to the mountains. 

!• The Northern Wintoon Division comprises: 

The Wintoon proper of the Sacramento and Mjifcioud Rivers region 
from Slate (formerly Salt) Creek just above La Moine southerly 
to Red Bank Creek, and east to include lower Squaw Creek re- 
gion and lower west side of Little Cow Creek and thence sou- 
therly a few miles east of Sacramento River, with a minor 
band called Daw-pum between Dibble and Red Bank Creeks j 

The iVintu or Num-soos occupying the drainage basin of Trinity 
fiitrer from its head southward to the junction of Canyon Creek, 
and south to the mountains south of Dougl as n j^. I 

The ^or-rel-muk of Hay Pork Valley, reaching south to the upper 
waters of South Pork Trinity River and west to about seven 
miles east of Hyampom. The southeastern boundary is the moun- 
tainous divide between the waters of the Hay Pork and those 
of Cottonwood Creek. 



- 2 - 



The Ni-i-che of bouth i^ork Trinity Hiver (both sides) between 
Plummer and Hattlesnake Creeks. 
2. The Central or Nom-lak-ke — Te-ha-mah division comprising, 
The Nom-lak-ke reaching from fied Bank iJlder Creek south to 
Grindstone and stony Creeks and from the eastern border of 
the plains westerly to the Yollo Bolly Mountains; including 
the Wi-e-ker-ril between Red Bank and iilder Creek.. 
The Dah-chin-chin-ne occupying both sides of stony Creek from 
the point where it joins Grindstone creek southward to a 
few miles below the mouth of Brisco Creek, and still farther 
south on east side, thus including the Elk Creek-Pruto regLon 
and extending from the western border of the Wo-mel-te-ke- 
wis to the Yolla Bolla Range; 
The Te-ha-mah and No-e-muk (No-e-ma) occupying both sides of 
Sacramento River from four or five miles south of Kirkwood 
north to the mouth of Red Bank Creek . They meet the Nom- 
lak-ke on the west and the Yah-nah on the east side of the 
river; 

The No.mel<:te-ke'-wfs occupying the west side of Sacramento 

Raver from a little north of the mouth of Stopy Creek south) 
nearly to i-nnceton, and spreading westerly apparently to'^ 
within three or four miles of Orland. 
3. The Southern i^ivision comprising two subgroups -the Interior 
and River groups, which are subsequently divided into seve- 
ral tribes each. 

i^J^he interior, comprising: 

The Choo-hel-mem-sel occupying the western half of Colusa County 
and a correspondingly smaller area in southern Glenn County 
where their northern boundary runs easterly from the junction 
of Stony and Little Stony Creeks to a northsouth line passing 
a mile or two east of Sites and four or five miles east of 
Venado (Mt. House) and thence westerly to the mountains, 
crossing Bear Valley about three miles south of Leesville. 
Their territory is broadest in the latitude of Sites and ' 
Lodoga, where it reaches westerly to the high mountains of 
the California National forest. 
The Chen-po-eel reaching north to the divide north of Hough 
Springs and holding the North Fork of Cache Creek, Long 



/ 



- 3 - 



Valley, and the greater part of Bear Valley all the way 
south to its junction with Cash Creek, and west to include 
the Lol-sel • The Lol-sel reached Bartlett Springs and the 
southeast part of Bartlett Mt» Their western boundary was 
in contact with the eastern boundary of the Clear Lake Porno • 
The Chen-po-sel south of them touch the Tu-le-yo-me« 

The Klet-win or Klet-sel of Cortena Valley and Sand Creek 
reaching from a little below Williams south to the southern 
boundary of Colusa County; 

The iNin-ko-pah of Capay Valley, extending southward from the 
head of that valley, a few miles north of Rumsey, are hemmed 
in on north, east and west by mountainous ridges; 

The Na-pah or Nan-noo-ta-we holding a section of Napa Valley 
from Yountville to (including) Napa City and extended north- 
easterly over *<ooden Capell, and Berryessa Valleys to the 
Southeastern part of Pope Valley^ The western boundary west 
and south of Pope Valley lies along the cast base of Howell 
Mt#, where it abuts against the territory of the Mi-yahk-mah 
tribe, south of which between yountville and Napa City it 
spread westerly to the mountains between Napa and Sonoma 
Valleys to ^^onoma Creek, 
[tj Kiver group^ c^/vs^kAiM r^ i 

The Ko-roo along both sidus of Sacramento Kiver from a little 

north of Princeton south to Sycamore and include the Marysville 
Buttes. The Indians say that the barren part of the flat plain 
from Delevan southerly to south of Maxwell (and apparently 
nearly to Williams) was not claimed by either the Ko-roo on 
the east or the Choo-hel-mem-sel on the west but was a desolate 
"No -man's -land** which at intervals formed the battlefield:, 
between the two tribes. 
The Pat-win reaching from -Sycamore to Knights' Landing a little 
west of *^unnigan on the west and a few miles on the east side 
of the Hiver. 
The Poo-e-win from ^night's Landing to Suisun and San Pablo Bays, 
including the mouth of ^^apa Valley, but not including Napa 
City. 



^ 

-/ 



Divisions 



Northern 



Central 



Interior 



Southern. 



River 



Tribes 
Vilintoon proper, incl* Daw-p\im 
Winto or Num-soos 
Nor-rel-muk 
Ni-i-che 



Nom-lak-ke, incl. Wi-e-ker-ril 
Dah-chin-chin-ne 
Te-ha-mah, incl# ifo-e-muk 
No-mel-te-ke-wis' 



Choo-hel-men-sel 
Chen-po-sel, inclo Lol-sel 
Win Ko-peh 
Iciet^win (Klet-sel) 
Na-pa (Nan-noo-ta-we) 



Ho-roo 
Pat -win 
Poo-e-win 




/-^ 



• • 




sis of the Yooabularies of the sererel 



by my daughter, Miss 




bnfirms Kroeber's splitting 




of the stook into 3 mfiTor linguistic divisions 



fo lions: 



(1) A Hortharn division , the Wj 




, extending 



from the extreme heed of Trinity ^reT^rom North Salt Creek 



on Sacrsmento RiTer 30 miles south of the summit of Mt. Shasta, 
southward to Bsd Bank Greek, just below the ^ity of Bsd Bluff; 



y^ 



(2) h Middle 9r H 




dirision, extending along 



Sacramento Hirer from Bed Bank Creek south to within 2 or 3 
miles of Princeton, and spreading westerly to the high irountains 
of the so-celled "Inner Coast EBnge**'»-better called the IfiHa 



Sl^llX rai^e; 



)nthern div 



of Princeton southerly to the lower Sacramento River and San 
Pjanoisoo Bay, and spreading westerly to the mountains. 



.-»r 



l^^l't may be >«il to record the iact that the young(^r 
generatieti of Win toon . jpi»tld that their f a th^ys defeated 

Bi ijtieT y exterminat^ir^e Shastan Okwanpo^o . now 
cliuii the conquer^^rritory all the waY to lit* Shasta. 



CLASSIi'lCATION 0? \ IrrrOON STOCK 



^ 



An analysis of the vocabularies of th» several tribes 
of the Wintoon show that the stock divides naturally into 




three major linr,uif3tic divisions: 



as: 



T 



he NOBTilSRN V/INTOON DIYIUON comprisinp?* 



The ^' Untoon r 



of the Sacra'nento and lioCloud 
Rivers? ref'.ion from Slate (formerly Salt) Creek 
just above La ttoine sonthorly to ?.ed Bank Or* ek, 
and, east to include lo\7cr Squaw Creek region and 
IfDer west side of Little Cow Creek and thence 



southerly a fev; miles east of Sacramento iiiv^'r, 
with a minor bund called Daw-pum between Dibble 
and Red Bank Creeks; 
The Wi r^tu or Ni ffli-soos occupyinf^ the drainage banin 

t' 

of Trinity Biver from its head southward to the 
Junction of Canyon Creek, aid south to the moun- 
tains south of Douglar City; 



The Nor-rel-m uk of Hay Fork Valley, reaching south to 



the upper waters of South Pork Trinity River and 
west to about seven niles e Ft of llyampom. The 
southeaptem b uiidary is thf. mountainous divide 
betv/een the waters of the Hay ?ork and those of 
Cottonwood Creek,' 




(ne dutoc) i n "intoon flirt . 



-2- 
Wintoon Classification con't 



Northern Wintoon con't 



The 




of South ?ork Trinity VAver ^oth 
sides) bct'vvcen Plummer and Rattlcrnake Creeks. 

?,. The C:^N'"PAL or NO;a-UlUXii-/Ti:-.HA-MAH DI713I0N com- 



• • 



prising: 
The Nom-lnlt-ke reaching frcn Elder Creek south to 
Grindstone and S.tony Creeks and from the east- 
crn hordnr of the plaint- i^esCerly to the Yollo 
Bolly Mountdns; including the t?i»e-ker-ril 
betr;een Red Bank and Elder Creeks; 



iMzfi] 



Creek from the point where it joins Grindstone 
creek south^uard to a few ipiles "below the mouth 
of Brisco Creek, and still farther south on east 
pide, thuE including the iSlk Crcek-Fruto rcrjion 
and extending from the we!?tcrn border of the 
N. Q ~ w e''-~ t iL~'^ ?-\7ig . to the Yell a Eolla Pange; 
The Tc-ha-ngL ard ??a~C-T>U)^. (Kc-g.-tHia) occupying 

both rides of Secramcnto River from 4 or 5 , ^ 

miles south of Kirkwood north to the mouth cf 
Red Bank Creek, They meet the Mom-lak-ke on 
the wept and the Yah-nah on the east side of 



t;'0 river; 



/ VxV, 



The Ko-me 1-t e -k e-\7i s occupying the v/est side of 
Sacramento River from a little north of the 
mouth of tony Creek south ne ^rly to Prince tonf 
and spreadin/^ westerly apparently to -vithin 3 



or 4 miles of Orland. 



^2 



\\ 






■j-r- 



9 



'S-'w - ^ 






-3- 



WIMTOON Clapsification oonVt 



3, The S0UTHi2^II DIVi3I0N comprising two subgroups— 

the Interior and River grou^jS, ^hich are pub- 
aequently divided into several tribes each. 

The laterior, comprising: 

The Ghoo-hel-mem-sel occupying the western half 
of Colusa County and a corrf^rpondingly snallcr 
area in southern Glenn County ^here their nor- 
thern boundary runs easterly from the juhction 
of Stony and Little Stony Cre^^ks to a north- 
south line passing a mile or tv»o east of Sites 
and four or five miles east of Venado (Lit. 
House) and thencr westerly to the mount ins, 
crossing Bear Valley about three inile*^ south 
of Leesville, Their territory is broad'^st in 
the lattit.ide of Sites ard Lodoga, where it 
reaches weste-ly to the high ncunt .ins of t'e 
California i^ational forest. 

The Chen~po-sel rcadiing north to the divide north 
of Hough Springs and holding the North t^^rk 

of Cache Creek", Long Vallei, and the greater 

If' 

part of Bear Valley all the 7?ay south to its 
junction with Cash Creek, and vvcst to include 
the Lol-S'^l . The Lol^-r-cl reached Bartlett 
Springs and the southeast part of Bartlett Lit, 
Their western boundary v/as in cent ict with the 
eastern boundary of the Cle^r Luke PoniO . The 



Chen-po-srl south of them touch the Tu»le-vn~ne. 



-4- 
WINTOC:; Ciassificution con't 



Interior f^roup con*t 



The Klet~..in or Klet-r el of Cortcna Valley and 
Sand Creek rcachinr! from a little below rdl- 
liams south to the southern boundary of Col- 
usa County; 

The Win-'^o-»Do h of Capay Vall'^y, Gi:tcndinf» southward 
from the hca1 of that vall'?y, a feu miler north 
of ?unney, arc hen^'ied ir or north, east, and 
r.'est by mountBinoi!?' ridf^'^p; 

The Earjiah. or ^^an-P00 ~ta-7?e holdin/-^ a section of 
Napa Valley fro'n Yountvillc to (including,) 
Napa City and extended northearterly over Wooden 
Capell, aM Berryosea Valleys to the sovth- 
eastern part Hf Pope Valley, The western 
boundary 'vest and south of Pope Valley lies 
alenp the cast, base of lio-vvel'' :it» , where it 
abuts fcip,ainrt the territerv of the idLtiahk- 




m^h, tribe, aoMth of -h.ioh betw-^en Youiitville 



ard Nar)a Citv It m^re. .d Tepterly to the moun- 
tains between Mapa hrd. Ccncna Valleysy TO 



-5- 
WINTOON Classificaticn con»t 



southeb:: Divinion conn 



Hi "^ro 



group 

The iyo-roo alon/7 both sides of Sacrcinento Hiver 
from u little north of Princeton south to 
Syoa-norc and inclule the Marynville Buttes, 
The Indians say that the barren part of tiic 
flat olain frora Delovan nouthnrly to south of 
!Iax??ell (and a-^parently nearly to Willia'ns) 
was not claimed b, either the Ko~roo on the 
eapt or the Choo-hol-riem-rel on the \ve3t but 
T?ar a desolate *'No-man*s-land" which at inter- 
vals formed the battlefield bet^veen the tv^o 
tribe^5. 

The £a.t=2dll reaching from Syca'aore to Knights* 
Tiandin,7. a little west of Dunnigan on the west 
and a fe^' railcs on the cast r-idc of the Kiver, 

The PcQ.e-^iiA frnm Knijrr^ht*?^ Landinj- to 3 isun and 
San Pablo Ba:?r, includjpp the mouth of Ilapa 
Yal.lev, but net inc^udinr', Napa City. 






ITOON STOCK 






)^P 



o 






^ N- 

^ 



\ 



J s. 



(J 



v>^^ ^^ 






• • • 




ons. 



Northern 



Central 



Soutliem 



Interior 



Tribes 



Wintoon proper, 

ircl. BaTV-paii 

Wintu or Num-co s 



Nor-rrl-muk 

(Ni-iiche 

Non-1 ak-ke 



incl. va-c-ker-ril 
Duh-c^nn-chir-ne 

Tc-ha-nah 

incl. No-e-nuk 

llo-mcl-te-ke-wis 

/ _ 

Choo-hGl-'^Gm-scl 

Chcn-po-scl / 
inol. Lol-rcl 

'^letivdn (Klctisel) 



Win Ko-peh 



^1 - 



Na-pa (Han-noo-t a- -e ) 



Ko-roo 
Eiy^r CPat-"in 

Poo-e-win 



Hi 1^— W ' I' ' — 




'ihu. 



li 



V 



I 



\^ _^ Notes on »»intoon iJithnobotany 

The »«intoon make use of a large number of plants for food, 

textiles, and implements. 

Among those used for food are: the acorns of no fewer than 
eight or nine species of oaks, manzanita berries (both Arc.- 
toatanhvlos viscida and A. patula) , the wild plum (Prunus o jrefiaa i 
or P. subcordata), chokecherries ( Cerasus demissa ), blackberries 
(Kubus vitifolius), thimbleberries (R. parvifolius), serviceberries 
( Amelanchier ), elderberries ( Sambucus glauca ), gooseberries and 
currants (Ribga), grapes of the wild grapevine (Vitis calif ornica) , 
and the acid berries of Rhus trilobata. The buckeye nut also is 
eaten but requires special preparation . Among the numerous plants 
used for medicine is the fever bush ( Gar rya ) . 

The long shoots of the sourberry or aromatic sumac (Rhus tri- 
lobata) are used in making certain baskets, particularly the lar- 
ge store-house ones. The straight stems or young branches of the 
dater dogwood (Cornus glabrata), hazel (4.orylus calif onnica), and 
two or three species of willows and the roots ox the yellow pine 
( ^nus ponderosa ) are used in basket making. Hazel and the soft 
whitish long-leaf willow furnish the long rods for several kinds 
of baskets, especially baby and store-house baskets. The /ood- 
wardia fern is useVextensively for decoration in basketry, the 
two long bands in tKr-stem being dyed red by passing slowly through 
the mouth while chewing the inner bark of the tree alder. The 
• maidenhair fern (Adiant^) also is used for designs; so are por- 
cupine liuills, dyed yello* with the yellow dye-weed (Patisca ^^lo;: 
merata). Beargrass ( Xerophyllum ) does not occur on the McCloud, but 
is bartered for with Trinity River Indians, and used extensively 
in basket overi^ and designs. 

The yew (Taxus) was the favorite wood for bows. A piece of 
the wood cut out for a bow but not yet finished is called koo-lool 
choos from kool, bow, and choos, stick. The straight stema of the 
ninebark or arrow-wood (Opulaster capitatus ; are used for arrows. 
The mountain mahogany ( Cercocarpus ^tuloides) is made into 
digging sticks, used by the women for digging roots of various 



- 2 - 



kinds. The hollow stems of the elder (Sambucus glauca ) are 
used as music sticks, and the curious nuts of the pipe-vine 
(Ar is to lochia) are used by children in play, for blowing. 

•'•he milkweeds (Asclepias) are used for making string and 
rope, and a species of Iris for cord for the fish-nets. The 
inner bark of the tree maple was used for skirts for the wo- 
men, breech-cloths for the men, and bags for storing acorns 

and dried salmon. 

A dull red dye is made by cnewing the inner bark of the 
tree alder (Alnus oregana), and a yellow dye from the Oregon 
grape (Berberis), called we-mi-el-te, meaning 'frizzly ^ear 
inside' but the application of the name I (Jid not succeed in 



finding out. 






lintoon foods. 



The lands and waters of the Northern »«intoon furnished 
an abundance of food, of which the chief elements were salmon 
and acorns. These were carefully dried and preserved for fu- 

t 

ture use. 

Deer and v*uail wero plentiful, while in parts of the ter- 
ritory manzanita berries and other fruits, seeds and food plants 
were obtainable in large quantities. And it was the custom 
of certain bands to exchange foods with otkers. Exchanges 
of this kind were frequent between the Wintoon of the McCloud 
and those of the Trinity. 
Dried salmon, called noor, when pounded line is called di-ve. 

It is rolled up and put into acorn mush» 
Acorns and cuckeye nuts are often kept over winter and at the 
same time freed from their bitter quality by putting into 
cold wet springy, or swampy ground where they are left over 
winter. In spring they are taken out and eaten. V<hen boiled 

they are like potatoes. 

Another and very different way of preserving acorns, prac- 
ticed by the «intoon Indians of western Tehama County in Ca- 
lifornia, was described to me by F. B. V<ashington. The acorns 



- 5 - 



were buried in bo^gy places near cola spfings, where they be- 
came swollen and softened ana turned nearly black in color but 
remained fresh .i'or years, '^'hen needed they were dug out and 
and roasted, never dried or pounded for flour, the mush and 
bread being always made of dried acorns. V^hite men in plowing 
have opened up caches of acorns that had lain in these cold 
boggy places for fully thirty years, and found the acorns 

black but still good. 

Vmen preserved dry in the usual way, the acorns are shucked 

as needed* 

The northwestern V^intoon, living on. the Great Bend 6f. Tri- 
nity River near the mouth of Rush Creek, tell me that the acorns 
of canyon live oak (^uercus chrvsolepis) are sweeter than those 
of the other Oaks. In the fall of the year, the acorns are 
put in water in a cold spring or a wet boggy place, shells and 
all, just as they coir.e from the trees, and allowed to remain 
in the water all winter. In the spring they are sweet and rea- 
dy for cooking without leaching. 

The .^intoon say that they were "strong, on /ears." They 
used to hunt be rs aad were called "Bear people" by the Hose 
or Yahnah. They had bear dances in which they wore bearskin 
cloaks, and long buckskin caps decorated with feathers. In 
war they wore cloaks of bearskin and elkskin lined inside with 
fawnskin. while these cloaks were not absolutely arrow proof, 
they deadened the force of the arrow and were thus a protection. 
They were worn so as to cover the left shoulder and pass under 
the right arm, giving freedom of the right arm for fighting. 
The Vintoon always carried a dagger oi elk antler or shinbone. 
in their back hair , to be prepared for close-up fighting. 

When men were created it was the Bear who gave man his 
flat feet so that he could walk erect. The Lizard gave him 
his split hands so that he had fingers for taking hold of things. 

Grizzlies were hunted by the Wintoon when in th«ir winter 
dens or caves. Torches were used, and when the bears came out 



- 4 - 



they were attacked with spears pointed with obsidian blades. 
The Wintoon ate bear meat, in which respect they differed 
from many of the California tribes. 
Basketry dye: t'rom acorns a blue-gray stain or dye is made 
which is used to color certain basket matricals* I did not 
learn how it is prepared. 



/Vo-te 



^ J a^A A '-L." ^ * » — 



on 

m WINTOON ETHNOBOTANY 



tc, 



(jla^ 



^ 



(D 



The Wintoon make use of a large number of plants for food, 
textiles, and inplements. 

Among those used for food are: the acorns of no fewer than 8 

or 9 species of oaks, manzanita berries (both Arfttostaphvlos viscida 

I 
and A. patula), the wild plum ( Prunus oregana or subcordata), 

« 

chokecherries (C erasus demissa ). blackberries (Rubus vitifoliusl, 
thimbleberries ( R. narvifolius ), serviceberries ( Ame lanchi er.) , 
elderberries f Sambucus glauca ), gooseberries and currants ( gibes ), 
.grapes of the wild grapevine ( Vitis ca li f or ni ca ) , and the acid berries 



of Rhus trilobata . The buckeye nut also is eaten but requires 
special preparation. Among the numerous plants used for medicine 

is the fever bush ( Garrva) . 

The long shoots of the sourberry or aromatic sumac (Kius 
trilobata ) are used in making certain baskets, particularly the 
large store-house ones. The straight stems or young branches of 
the iater dogwood f Cornus glabrata) , hazel (Corylus californica), 
and two or three species of willows and the roots of the yellow 
pine f PinuB ponderosa ) are used in basket making. Hazel and the 
soft whitish long-leaf willow furnish the long rods for several 



(D 

kinds of baakata, especialljr babj^ and store-house baskets. The 
Woodwardia fern is used extensively for decoration in basketry, 
the two long bands in the stem being dyed red by passing slowly 
through the mouth while chewing the inner bark of the tree alder. 
The maidenhair fern ( Adiantum ) also is used for designs; so are 
porcupine quills, dyed yellow with the yellow dye-weed (Datisca 
glomerata ) . Beargrass ( Xgrophijcllum ) does not occur on the McCloud, 
but is bartered for with Trinity River Indians, and used extensive- 
ly in basket overlay and designs. 

The yew ( Taxus ) was the favorite wood for bows. A piece of 
the wood cut out for a bow but not yet finished is called Jigo^lj^ 
chooft, from koo^. bow, and chooq. stick. The straight stems of the 



ninebark or arrow-wood ( Opulaster capitatus ) are used for arrows. 
The mountain mahogany ( Cercocarpus betuloide s) is made into 
digging sticks, used by the women for digging roots of various kinds 
The hollow stems of the elder ( Sambucus glauca ) are used as music 
sticks, and the curious nuts of the pipe-vine (Aristolochia) are 
used by children in play, for blowing. 



The milkweeds (A 




making 



and a speciee of Iris for cord for the fish-nets. The inner bark 
of the tree maple wqs used for skirts for the women, breech-cloths 



for the men, and bags for storing acorns and 



salmon* 



A dull red dye is made by chewing the inner bark of the 
tree alder f Alnus oregana )> and a yellow dye from the Oregon 
grape ( Berberis ). called /e-g^-^l;^te. meaning 'Grizzly Bear inside' 
but the application of the name I did not succeed in finding out. 



^.c- 



CA^^ 



kA 



r 




WINTOON FOODS 



The lands and wetrs of the Northern Wintoon furnished on 



abundance of food, of which the chief elements 7;ere salmon and 



acorns. These were ciirefully dried and preserved for future use 
Deer and Quail were plentiful, while in parts of the ter- 
ritory manzanita berries and other fruits, seeds, and food plants 
were obtainable in large quantities. And it wcs the custom of 
certain bands to exchange foods with others. Exchanges of this 
kind were frequent between the Wintoon of the McCloud and those 
of the Trinity. 
Dj^ie(^ ^a^TB^n ^ called nogr f when pounded fine is called d ^^g j 

« 

It is rolled up and put into acorn mush. 




are often kept over winter and at the 



sr:me time freed from their bitter quality by putting into 



cold wet springy, or swampy ground where they arc left 



/ 




over winter. In spring they are taken out and eaten. When 
boiled they are like potatoes. 



A-K? 






ns 




A>-9^.<iJL>5^'~— {^ — 0slA>osj.j>jL4^ _ 



5 -JUl ^^-^ IxJ^^sA/^ XS-A^ j^ 



^^ .|.>.j-J.u,ooLk ~ ^..L \ ULX H 




.J 



& 



Another and very different way of preserving 
acorns » practiced by the Wintoon Indians of western 
Tehama County in Calif o mis, was described to me by 



P. B. \fcshington*" 



•r^'^Viii* 



The acorns were buried 




in boggy places near cold springs, where they became 
swollen and softened and turned nearly blakk in 
color but remained fresh for years. iThen needed 
they were dug out and roasJbed . never dried or pounds < 
for flour, the mush and bread being always made of 
dried acorns. Ihite men in plowing have opened 
up caches of acorns that htd lain in these cold bog- 
gy jjlaces for fully 30 years, and found the acorns 

black but still good. 

T<hon preserved dry in the usual way, the acorns 

are shucked as needed. 

Tie northwestern Wintoon, living on the . 
Great Bend of tbir Trinity River near the mouth^^of 
Rush C^eek, tell me that the acorne of ^^"^^''""/^^[^ 



\ 



V 



are sweeter than those of the other Oaks, 
acorns are put in water in a cold spring ^ or 

t, . _U-TT« «v,ri all lllftt ftS theV 



he 



a 



from the trees, (^the fall of the ye^ and allowed 
to rer^in inVter all winter. In the sprinc they 
are sweet and ready for cookine without leachine- 



TKiituuii — 



rr» « 



© 



The Wintoon pay thfit they were "strong on Eienrs." They 
used to hunt ]?orrs rnd were cfilleri ''^efir people" by the Nose 
or Yehnah. They hed Besr dances in which they .vcre bearskin 
cloaks, find long buckskin csps decorated vdth feathers. In wir 
they -vore cloaks of bearskin and elkskin lined inside with 

« 

fawnskin. Vyliile these clocks were not absolutely arrow proof, 
they deadened the force of the arrow and were thus a protec- 

m 

tion. They were v;orn so £.s to cover the left shoulder and pass 
under the right arm, giving freedom of the right arm for fight- 
ing. The lUntoon always carried a dagger of elk antler or shin- 

I 

bone in their back hair, to be prepared for clos^-up fighting. 

Ifhen men were created it was the Bear who gave man hia 
fl>it feet so thrt he could walk erect. The Lizard gave him his 
split hands so that he had fingers for taking hold of things. 

Grizzlies were hunted by the i<intoon when in their winter 
dens or caves. Torches were used, and when the Jsears came out 
they were attacked 'vith spears pointed with obsidian blades. 

The i.intoon ate Bear meat, in which respect they differed 
from many of the California tribes. 




NOMENKLA 




STONY FORD, COLUSA CO, 




y^'.iQ"^' 



I9^J 



on June 2ft I visited the Stony Pord Rancheria, which is in 
dense chemise chaparral (inter mixed with plenty of smoke nrush(fiea- 
nothus cuneatus) on a knoll north of the river, at the foot of a 
Chaparral covered spur from Mt. St. John,^ The rancheVia consists 
of four houses and an earth-covered sweat house alDout 20 ft, long 
and 12 high, with a small entrance on one end through which I crawl 
ed on my hands and knees. The fireplace is in the middle. 

The chief. Pum-muk-ky. told rae that when they catch cold in 
winter thev go in and build a fire and sleep there all night. 



The houses have pole and Inrush canipies in front or at one 
side, or both. The chief and his wife are rather old but still 
active and bright. They are suprisingly intelligent, and kind. 
They have a daughter with a young baby and husband. Besides these 
we saw and talked with 3 old women, all of whom have the chins and 
lower cheeks heavily tattooed. The usual plan seems to be: 3 sin- 
gle or double vertical lines on the chin; an oblique line running 
down from each corner of the mouth(making 5) ; and a heavy double 
or single zigzag line running straight back (horizontally) from 
just above the corner of the mouth across the lower part of the 
cheek. Besides this, two had tatooing on the nose, and one on the 

forehead. 

One family is now absent, picking apricots in the valley 

near Elk Creek, 



been built only about 12 or 13 years. Before that they and many 
others lived in a very large village or 'rancheria' where the flour 



mill now stands, half a mile west of the present town of Stony 
Pord, They were very nu-rierous when he was a young man- -hundreds he 
gays— and a white man who has lived here over 30 years tells me 
there must have "been a hundred living here for years after he first 
came, and he has seen 200 or 300 at the hig ceremonials and dances 
they had here in early tinies. The few left here now work on the 



) 



and 



and make baskets • 



Pum-muk-ky was making wampum beads of clam shells wnen we ar- 
rived, rubbing the edges smooth and round on a flat stone. He was 
also making a net (of fine fiber which he had wet and twisted) for 
catching fish. This fiber w^s exceedingly strong. He showed me 
masses of it before is was worked up into string. It was in 
straight skeins say 2 1/2-3 feet long by; im inch in diameter, and 
wet. It was reddish brown in color— or whitish with a reddish 
brown tinge— and I suppose is from Indian hemp( Apocynum ) although 

I am not sure. 

The mortars are small holes in squarish flat stones averaging 
perhaps 2 feet in diameter and sometimes set in the ground. They 
have and use also basket mortars , which they set on «a flat stones. 
We gave them some beads and other trifles which pleased them and 
put them in a go'o^humor. One of the old women is very old and 
sick, 

June 21: On the way back from Fout*s Springs I again visited 
the Indians at the Rancheria on the north side of the river and y 
got a good vocabulary from the old chief Puntok-ky and took pho- 
tographs of him and the old much tatooed fiqpm. Also had a good ^ 
talk with lifcem. The chief gave me the names in his laneuase for 34 
species of trees and shrubs, of which I showed him rr( 
The only reason he -did not give me more was because 1 
any more samples. 



u 




^ . „/\ ■ 7 



», » . 





^'KET-KLAjIlTDIMSjCORTjtlTA CREEK, COLUSA CO 

■ 16 1 1005 4 - 

The Indians at the ^ancheria on the north branch of Cortena 
Croek told me the name of their tribe is Ket ; others gave it as 

^Ket-klah or^Klet-klaii(name of place). They call their people Win. 
7 ^ r 7*= — t ^ r "'^T' 

They live in two places: two fatinilies live at the entrance of the 
side valley coming in frora the north, where they have two M\ i mifa 
houses and some growing corn under spreading valley oaks in a pic^- 
turesque spot. The main rancheria is up about a mi le tsimcfe^- and is 
on a low knoll high up in the valley and surrounded by hills. There 
are many blue oaks about the rancheria, which consists of a n umber 
of ' wooden houses, mainly of split shakes. 



There ai^e al30ut seven 



families here, '"he men are large and 



hotli men and \7omen ,c;ood lookin,^. "^hey call the place VH-lak(the 
rancheria) and the main Creek Ko-teen-ah* 

-7 — 7 'T'^^ 

Their numerals are the same as those of the Pah-tin on the 
Sacra^aento, l^ut about half of their words are different. 

Their flour or meal tray 3ifter(or winnower) is circular and 
perfectly flat, and very thick and solid. They calJL it Jjgo-pol and 



j^ 



ch-e . Besides this, they all have a large concave meal trayia 




very shallowjbowl) which they call aoj ^ or J^oy ^ -kenj^ny and also^^n- 

Their basket mortar is the largest and flattest (most flaring) 

I ever saw. The * call it ^ah-we(or K!aw-we). It is placed over a 

/ — e t ; / i" x^ ' 

flat stone, and the pestle is flat instead of round at the end. 
Their papoose basket (t o-nok ) is wholly different from those of the 
Sierra. It is a simple scoop, truncate at the top, where it has 
a large strong hoop at right angles to the back. The child's head 
is just under this hoop and something is ^tfaM» thrown over it when 
needed. ^^ 

They have more good old baskets than 
any tribe I have struck in a long time. I 
got a few choice onesl^ The land on which 
they live is. owned by a man named Henry C. 
Eakle,who has a very large ranch. The 




y^ 






question is, what will become of the Indians when the ranch changes 
hands , 

In their houses I saw hung up a number of skinned bodies of 



jackrabbits and 



ground squirrels for meat. 



The men herd sheep regularly for Eakle, and also work on the 
range and on the ranches. Just now they are getting |2.00 a day 
working in the hay and grain. 



I 

I I 



I 






Nom-lak-ke Villages Between Elder Creek 
and Grindstone Creek 



\^ 



\. South of Elder Creek and north of Thorns Creek t 



So-noom-o-lel-e-sle (meaninr "round rock on top of other 
rock*)..* About five miles outh of Elder Creek and just 
over the ridge north of present Paskenta rancheria on 
Thorns Creek. Big spring there. 

Che-chah-he-i... About five miles south of Elder Creek and 
north of present Paskenta rancheria on Thorns Creek, not 
far from So-noora-o-lel-e-sle. Fine spring there called 
Sah-waht. People used to go there to dream and to receive 
power to do certain things — as to make arrow points well, 
or do any thing. ~ 

Sl-wi-el-toi... On McCarty Creek about a mile north of So- 
noom-o-lel-e-sle.-- - 

Si-noi-Toi. .. On tot) of low hill by spring about a quarter 
mile north of Si-wi-el-toi. 

Ked-do-hah-pe. . . On north side McCarty Creek about a quarter 
mile east of Si-noi-toi. 

Chah-chah-el... On branch of McCarty Creek about a half mile 
above (westerly from) Sim-me-o-la-le-e-sa-to-mon. Home 
of big chief. 

Sim-me-o-la-le-e-sa-to-mon... On Owens Creek (creek that passes 
Paskenta store) in little valley bejrond a hill, about one 
and a half ^niles above Paskenta store. Owens Creek is 
called 'Klet-pahl-le, meaning Ground Squirrel. ^ 




-2- 



Wi-so-po-mem,., On creek which empties into Thorns Creek at 

Wes-kes. he old rancheria was at the foot of the n:iountains 

perhaps two miles or more above Wes-kes. 
Tahp-dow,». At or near head of McCarty Creek, about 1-1/2 

miles above Si-wi-el-toi« 
Wen-nem-ker-ril*«. About tv;o iles south of Elder Creek. 
Ken-ko-pol. •• At ^ig spring about one and a half miles south 

of Slder Creek and a half mile north of V/en-nem-ker ril* 

Big village^ 
Ker-ril-o-la-lah,,« On south side Elder Creek, north of 

Paskenta raoheria* 
Noi-te-kel or Naw-e-te-kel»«* About two miles east of big spring 

at Ken-to-pul» 
How-um-o-la-lah.«» About a mile east of Naw-e-te-kel» 
Bo-lah-mit.#. About a mile east of How-"um-o-la-lah« 

• •• Just south of Eo-lah-mit. 
Chah-chah-sah-he... On or near head of Underhill Creek, about 

two miles north of Noi-te-kel# 
Tahp-nrim-wit-te. .. On north side of Underhill Creek about two 

miles east of Chah-chah-sah-he. Headquarters of old Nom-lak-ke 

Indian Reservation* 
Kes-mem... On Underwood Creek NW of old Paskenta rancheria 

(which was midway between present Paskenta & Henleyville). 
Choo-la-lool bul-le... At big- spring in gap between high hills 

directly south of Table Mountain (called ^an-te-pum). 
Bo-dan-choo-he... On south side Tillder Creek at north foot of 



Table Mountain • 



-5- 



Ke-loo-dowi*# On south side Elder Creek a^ out three miles 

west of Bo-dan-choo-he» 
Ko-bah-30on-sah-wahl.*. At NW foot of Table Mountain (right 

at bottom), about three miles west or SW of Bo-danychoo-ha» 

The old reservation road passes close by. 
Un-awl-te,t« On Digger Creek (tributary to ^Ider Creelc) 

abouj two and a half miles west of Ke-loo-dow, at a big 

spring. Usedtbe a ceremonial house there. 
2. On or near Thorns Creek: 



Sow-pum..» On north side Thoms (or Bennett^s?) Creek two or 

three miles above present Paskenta rancherla and on south 

side of Round Valley road. Was a big chief's rancheipia. 
Me-ki-e-we • . • On Dry Creek at Oak's place about a quarter 

mile below Oak's house. 
Ki-pom-wi-kol-li... About 1 mile from ^ak's place, at or 

near sign at forks of Hound Valley and Newville Roads. 
Tel-wer-ren-te-pe... On south side Thorns Creek about one and 

a half miles above present Paskenta rancheria (measured 

from Johnny Martin's house). Across Creek from Holt house 

(a white house). 
Son-te-law-kah... Under big cliff on or near Thorns Creek* 

Used to be roxondhouse there. 
Wes-kee... About a quarter nile above Johnny Martin's (and 

Dominik's) house, on other (north side) Thoms Creek, 

in loop of bend of Creek. 




Saw-«lo8 or Saws-los... On north sido Thorns Creek about a 
quarter mile above Jo|niny Martin's house* 

Chep-dow.,, On big flat on north side Thorns Creek one mile 
below present Paakenta rancheria (in sort of canyon 
between present rancheria and Paskenta), Largest 

rancheria of all, 

... On bench on northwest side Thorns Creek opposite 

Johnny Martin's house, 
We-do-koi,,, On road from present Paskenta rancheria to forks 
of road (leading north to Paskenta and south to Newville). 
About a half or three quarters mile east of present 
Paskenta rancheria and at foor of big high slick rock 
cliff (immediately south of cliff ).. Perhaps a quarter mile 
west of Bill Haywood's house. Dark soil now marks the 
place. Big chief lived there and had roundhouse. Named 
from Wid-dawk-me, the valley oak ( Que reus lobata), 
Che-kum-es-la.w, On north side Thoms Creek opposite store 
in present village of Paskenta. ^tlfas large rancheria. 
Te-be-pahs . . . On north side Thoms Creek about two miles 

below present Paskenta and opposite a bluff. On Charley 
Mitchell's place. 
Yah-ka-wel,,, On north side Thoms Creek about a mile below 

Ye-be-pahs, Used to be a rovindhouse there, 
Pas-ken-te.., On north side Thoms Creek five or six miles below 
present village of Paskenta, and directly across from a 
bluff on south side. It is on south side of preseht 
county road. 



-5- 



5. In Newville region (Salt Creek near Tehama-Colusa County boundary)! 

Nel-et-te-man... On hill at Newville on north side near present 

school house. 
So-taw-kum-loi-te... In gap at beginning of canyon at Newville, 

about a quarter mile below Kah-li-el. Can still see rock. 

rubbed smooth by grinding acorns. 
Kah-li-el... Newville rancheria. 
Moom-ka-wil... On same Salt Creek about a mile or two below 

Newville# 
Tahk-hah-dow... On north side Salt Creek near Moom-ka-wil. 
Nuk-ko-ko... Half a mile below Newville in gulch on John 

Flood's place. 
Pah-kah-ol-toi... Three miles north of Paskenta. 
Si-wa-toi... On south side of Salt Creek from Thomas Plood»s 

place, two and a half miles or more below Newville. Big 

town with sweathouse. 
Sa-yo-bem-me. . . About a mile below Si-wa-toi. Graveyard now 

there 
Dah-tim-poo-el-toi... On Sheldon's pjaee half mile above salt 

Creek. 
Chawk-pum... Just above Dah-tim-poo-el-toi. 



>■■ t'.- 



l^- 



Ct/^ 



l<- 




NOM-LAK-KE VILUGE3 




Between Elder Greek and Grindstone Creek 



X, South_ ^of E lje ^r^e^e^^^and^no^ o f ^^ho m|_^_g^gkl 



So-noom-o-lel-e-sle (meaning **round rock on top of other 

rock**) . . . About 5 miles south of Elder Creek and 
• just over the ridge north of present Paskenta 
rancheria on Thorns Creek. Big spring there. - 






Che-chah-he-i . . . Ahout 5 miles south of Elder Creek and 

north of present Peskenta rancheria on Thorns 
Creek; not far ^ >-r>m ^ nLn n g^rl- 1 pJ - fi^- s 1 r . 'Fine 
spring there called Sah^-jwaLt . People used to go 
there to dream and to receive power to do certain 
things — as to make arrow points well, or do 
anything. - 



Si-wi-el-toi ... On McCarty Greek ahout a mile north of 

So^noom-o-L&l-e-sle. — 




Si-noi-tci ... On top of low hill hy spring 

mile north of Si^-wi-el~tDi«^-' 



about l/4 




r 



'^•^ 



Nom-l gk-'ke YU lag eg Z 



Ked-do'-hah-pe ... On north side McCarty Creek atout l/4 



mile east of oi- 




Chah-chah-el' ... On branch of McCarty Creek about l/2 mile 

above (westerly from) Sim^e-o-lStTle-e-gg-to-mon 
Home of big chief.-= 



Sim-me-o-la-le-e-sS-to-mon ... On Owens Greek (creek that 

passes Paskenta store) in little valley beyond a 
hill, about 1-1/2 miles above Paskenta store. 
Owens GreekACalled *Klgt.£pahl-l^ « meaning Ground 



Squirrel 



'Klet . Ij 










Vli-so-uo-mem ... On creek which empties into Thorns Creek 

at V/es'-kes. The old rancheria was at the foot of 




the mountains perhaps 2 miles or more above W^si-kes . — i*i6«o^ 



Tahp-dow ... At or near head of McCarty Creek, about 1-1/2 

miles above Si ^^w i- e 1- 1 oj^ -' 



Wen-nem-ker-ril . . . About 2 miles south of Elder Creek. 




Rom-lak-ke Villageg 3 



>».■' 



Ken-ko-pol . . . At tig spring about 1-1/2 miles south of 

Elder Greek and l/2 mile north of Yfen- 
Big village. 




-/ 



Ker-ril-o-la-lah ... On south side Elder Creek, north of 

Paskenta rsncheria. 



Noi-te-kel or Naw-e-te-kel . . . Ahout 2 miles east of "big 

spring at Ken^tQ^p]^^ 



How-um~o-la-lah . . . Ahout a mile east of Na^e- 1 e-kel . - 




Bo-lah-rait . . . About a mile ejst of How^ug^o,jJa^lah. - 



. . . . Just south of 




Chah-chah-sah-he . . . On or near head of Underbill Creek, 

about 2 miles north of No i^t^-jtel . — 




4 ^<v#> 



/ ^ 



> * 



NoTn-lak-ke Yi l lageg 4. 



Tahp-nmii-wit-te ... On north side of Under hill Creek about 

2 miles east of Ghah-chah-sah^he^ Headquarters 
of old Nom-lak-ke Indian Reservation. 



Kes-mem ... On Underwood Creek NW of old Paskente rancheria 

(which was midway "between present Paskenta & 

t 

Henleyville). 



Choo-la-lool hul-le . . . At hig spring in. gap between high 

hills directly south of Table Mountain (called 



Pan-te- 




Bo-dan-choo-he ... On south side Elder Creek at north foot 

of Table Mountain 




V 1^ 



» Ke-loo-dow ... On south side Elder Creek about 3 miles west 



of Bo?d8D~choo-he . — 




^**^*^-^ — 



/9 



> t 



Nom-lak-ke villag es 5 



At 



Ko-beh-soon-soh-wahl ... At M foot of Table Mountain 

(right at bottom), about 3 miles west or SVil of 
Baidan-clioo-he. The old reservation road passes 

^ — T 




close by. 



Un-awl-te ... On Digger Creek (tributary to Elder Creek) 

about 2-1/2 miles west of Ke-lqq-dpw, at a big 



cold spring. Used to be a ceremonial house ther 







>.4 



' Nom-lfl]<:-ke Yillageg 6 



♦ f 



«^« On or near Thorns Greek: 



u O'*^*^ 



fr'«P 



Sow-pum ... On north side Thom^ Creek 2 or 3 miles aoove 

present Paskenta rancheria and on south side of 
Round Valley road. Was a "big chief's rancheria. 




Me-ki-e-we ... On Dry Greek at Oak's place about l/4 mile 



below Oak's house. 



Ki-pom-wi-kol-li . . . About 1 mile from Oak's place, at or 

near sign at forks of Round Valley and Newville 
Roads. 



Tel-wer-ren-te-pe ... On south side Thoms Greek about 

1-1/2 miles above present Paskenta rancheria 
(measured from Johnny Martin's house), /icross 
Creek from Holt house (a T\hite house). 



Son-te-law-kah . . . Under big cItfTj. Used to be roundhouse 

there. 



^Asd^^ 



>. ^ 



f \ 



Nom-lak-ke Villages 7 



V/es-kes . . . About l/4 mile above Johnny Martin's (and 

Dominik's) house, on other (north side) Thorns Creek, 
in loop of bend of Creek. 



A 



r 



Saws-slos or 3aws-los. ... On north side Thorns Creek about 

1/4 mile above Johnny Martin's house 




Chep-dow ... On big flat on north side Thorns Creek 1 mile 

below present Paskenta rancheria (in sort of 
canyon between present .rancheria and Paskenta). 
Largest rSncheria of all. 



. . . On bench on NW side Thorns Creek opposite 
Johnny Martin's house. 




llVe-do-koi ... On road from present Paskenta rancheria to 

forks of road (leading north to Paskenta and south 
to Newville). About l/2 or 3/4 mile enst of pres- 
ent Paskenta rancheria end at foot of big high 
slick rock cliff (immediately south of cliff). Per- 
haps 1/4 mile west of Bill Haywood's house. Dark 

soil now marks the ^lace. Big chief lived there and 
had roundhouse. Named from \i/id-d a wk4jne . the valley 
oak ( Que reus lobata ). 



N'o m-lak-ke Villages a 



ft 



^m 



* 

Che-kum-es-la ... On north side Thorns Creek opposite store 

in present village of Paskenta. Was large 
rancher ia. ■ ^mj m ^ 



Ye-be-pahs ... On north side Thorns Greek about 2 miles be- 
low present Paskenta and opposite a bluff. On 
Charley Mitchell's place. 



' , - 



Tah-ka-wel . . . On north side Thorns Creek about a mile below 

Ye-be-oahs . Used to be a roundhouse there. 





Pas-ken-te . . . On north side Thorns Creek 5 or 6 miles be- 
low present village of Paskenta, and directly across 
from a bluff on south side. It is on south side 
of present county road. 



*! 



IToin-lak-kpi Villages $. 



nA 







S. In gewyille regi^on ^fSalt Creek near Tehama-Colusa County boundary): 

Nel-et-te-man ... On hill/^on north side.present school house. 



So-taw-kum-loi-te ... In gap at beginning of canyon at New 

ville, about l/4 mile below KaV-li^''. Can still 



see rocks rubbed smooth by grinding acorns.-' 




' Kah-li-el' . . . Ncwville rancheria.- 



^5^ 



Moom-ka-wil ... On same Salt Creek about 1 mile below 

«' V 

Newville. 




h 



t . ^ 



' Tah-hah-dow' . . . On north side Salt Creek near Moom-^-wil. 



fc** 



.WI>?Mf«' 



Nuk-ko-ko . . . Half a mile below Newille in gulch on 

John Flood's olace.- 




PoL^-/<^t~ GC-'hf\..,s TWyv^ i^^ ^ ?iakirs.h\^ 




/ 



Si-wa-toi 



. . . On rf^'^ side of^creek from ^ijm j^lood's 
place, j^mileAor more beloiA/ Ne\vville.-'= 




Sa-yo-'bem-me . . . Al)out a mile laelow Si-wa-toi. Graveyard 



now there. 



Dah-tim-poo-el-toi ... On Sheldon's place half mile ahove 



Salt Creek. 



Chawk-pum 



-Dum . . .Just above Dsh-tim-poo-el-toi 



i 




I le f i B i fc ud bh e P 






Indian whose white name is Mike Mc"Jill tells me 



that he is a Poo»-e-win and was born on Cayetano Jxiarez olace at Too^a****- 

ka J a-littiie southeast of Napa City, fis says there used to be a rancheria called 

Yak«-koo-me between Cayetano' s place and Napa, and that its inhabitants different 

fromPoo»-e-win and spoke the same language thctpbken at Napa. I got enough words f. 

from him to make sure that he really belongs to the Poo'-e-win tribe. Later 

he lived near Pacheco (between Pacheco and Clayton) northwest of Mount 

Diablo. HLs wife belongs to a Mewko tribe the namd of which die gives as 

Wel-wel-he' 






inuh^K^ 



[ f{?|(|H ^ ff ^) 



'^ ?i/Li'OancpLu^ llnU ^'' 




vUi HUL^ 



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fnCt 



JiL 



C. Hart Merriam 

Pro3rs 

BANG MSS 

80/;ac 



1 1 



V 



p 



lo 



^^"T 



Choo-hel-mem-sel Eftxho^rAJ^Aic /MotfJ 



\ 






Milk teeth . The milk teeth are calle e-li-cho-she. When shed they 
are put in a gopher's hole to "trade" with the gopher(Thomomy8). 
Head net for men. Ordinary kind, kit-te-ko; for rich people, buk-cher- 
-<t-roj beaded and very valuable, his-se cher-ro. Curing the ceremonies 
•^-—the leader of the dance wears a headdress called poo-ta, the crown 
piece of which is of the wnite down of the snow goose. The occiput 
piece, called li-e, projects backward from the back of the head and 
consists of a dense bunch or large rosette tail feathers of the 
magpie, worn horizontally (pointing backward). The leader of the 
dance also wears on each side of his head a forked feather pin stan- 
ding out sideways. This consists of two white featners (sometimes 
three), each five or six inches in length, attached to a wooden 
pin. 

Head Band . The women wear a broad black and white head band called 
tip-pe-lis, made of the dried skins of cormorant and snow goose with 
the down left on . The skin is rolled (not flat) and is decorated 
with woodpecker scalps and beads of abalone shell. 

Red Feath er Bands. The men wear, hanging down from the back of the 
head, long broad bright scarlet bands, called lil-loo-pan-nah-nah, 
made of quills of the red-shafted flicker. 

Ear decorations. ^Jome of the people wear ear decorations, called 
bun-nah-hah. These are straight bones several inches in length, 
worn horizontally through the lobe of the ear. The bones commonly 
used are tiiose of the eagle and condor. 

In addition to these, small flower-like rosettes of brilliant fea- 
thers are sometimes worn in the ear. 

Nose Stick, The nose stick is not worn by this tribe. 

Sliver Catcher , J)'or picking out slivers, a small needle-like bone 
fpom between the front hoofs of the deer, is used. This is called 
pen. 

The house. Houses are called ka-wel. In early times they were made 
of planks of the Digger pine (Pinus sabiniana). 

Another kind of house, called tich-e ka-wel, consisted of a frame- 
work of poles cov.jred with pine bark and chemise brush, overlaicL 



\/. 




- 2 - 



with earth. The timbers were usually of blue oak. 

Sweat House, There was no regular sweat house, but the people took 

their sweats in the ordinary living house. 
Camps. Camps are called poo-chil. Those used for a length of time 

had conical bark huts called kah-pah-lah ka-wel. 
Canopies. The brusti -roof canopy has two names, kool and she^L 
Acorn Cache . The acorn cache, used also for pine nuts, is called 

choo-bee. it was eight or ten feet high and, covered with bark and 

grass. It stood on the ground. 

Another kind of cache, calle awl-lah, was a hole dug in the ground , 

lined with grass and pine bark. 
Pinole, ^ne of the most widespread foods of California Indians consists 

of small seeds wkich are roasted and eaten. Collectively this food 

is called pinole, a Spanish name*^ 

Among the Choo-hel-mem-sel all kinds of pinole are called ^-re. 

When the seeds are pounded and mixed with flour the mixture is 

called ko-he and dawt. When wetted and made into a dough ready t* 

eat, it is called yam-me. 

Pinole seeds were usually roasted over coals of the valley oak 

( Quercus lobata), also often called mush oak. 

The ordinary word for eating is baw, but eating pinole is called 

mool , and also hal-lah-ko. 

Many kinds of seeds are used for Pinole, but Sihose of the tarweeds 

of tne genera Madia and Hemizonia are collected in greatest quantity. 
Following are names of plants given me by the Choo-hel-mem-sel, 

as used by them for /inole. Unfortunately the plants were not at 

hand and not identified* 



Ten-nek (best) 

Too-loo-e (next best) 

Os-kut 

Pi-yei^ 

Te-poot 

Kol-kol 

Min-ne-wi 

Pi-pi 

Lo-wa 



aw-lah 

hon-nut 

tahp-tahp 

ke-wet 

kod-doi-kot 

taw-kot 

chis-sow-koi 

ko-mon 

kool-kor re 

kot-pi-ye^ 



- 3 - 



Ko-lut 



pah-kah 



Tor ches . The old time torch, called bi, burns a long time. It is\ 
made of the wood of Rmanus ilicifolia, called se-li-pi. 

The /moke /an . For smoking out squirrels, a fan, called le-pi, 

is used to drive the smoke into the hole. It consists of the wings 
of a ticreech owl fastened into a split stick, one on each side. 

Hair nets . Men wear hair nets. The ordinary kind is called ki-te-koj 
those worn by rich people, buk-cher-ro. A beaded and still more 
valuable kind is called his-se-oher-ro. 

Treatment of redbud for baskets. In making and decorating baskets, 
strands of redbud (Cercis) , called lool, are used. The red-pur- 
ple color of the designs resides in the bark, for which reason 
the bark must be left on. The branches are cut in the autumn, 
after the leaves have fallen. If a darker color is wanted, the 
strands are soaked in water over-night. For the uncolored body 
of the baskets, the redbud sprouts are cut in the spring, when 
the sap begins to rise, and are heated over fire until the bark 
begins to p6p. It is then peeled off and the wood split into 
strands of the desired size. Tnese strands without the bark are White. 

Tobacco, vi/ild tobacco, called lawl, was originally made by ae-deu 
(Coyote man). 

Cremation. Burning the body of a dead person is called eh-pah or 
es-pah. Burning a live enemy is called bil-pah. 
The funeral pyre is called chah-kel; the ashes and burned bones, 
shoo-dook} the funeral at txme of burial, ter-re-che. 
The mourning and crying are called wah-too-per-re. 
The second mourning ceremony, held at a later period, is called 







be-le. Its essential feature consists of the burning of valuable a ^ 
for the benefit of the dead. ^ 

The people cry one night, and when the morning star comes up they 
begin to burn the food, baskets, clothes, beads, feather belts and 
other articles brought for the purpose, Two women stack up the ar- 
ticles to be burnt. Before castin^j the baskets into the fire they 
dance and sing, holding the basket in front. 



- 4 - 



Pej-fOi. 



e»*itsii' 



When a person dies, the spirit, mol-low-win, goes south at firftt 
then crosses the Pacific Ocean, and after that goes up into the sky. 
But the ghosts of bad people stop at the ocean shore and turn into 
the coyote and other animals. 
Thunder is called kim-me. it originally came from two fawns who went 
up into the sky and were transformed into thunder. 






rv.fMt^mmgtmr^r'^i^m 




The rainbow is called aahk-cho-rel (meaning •• blood curve"). 

Chitiftainship . The office of chief is hereditary, but it sometimes 
happens that when a bad man of the tribe is killing people , the 
people elect him phief for the reason that when he is elected chief, 
he must quit killing people. 

The pestle f or grinding acorns was long.^ 
^Jbe pestle for pounding meat was short . 

Basketsywere made completely covered into feat^er^. Mallard feather on 

A 

the bottom, red woodpecker feathers on the sides as well as quail 
plumes and abalone beads for additional decoration. 




r1 ml nil J t Uu ililUU L Ufe eat in TR^ 

D e aliiHs b h eee in w tiUui u i Biiilghl UUl ' lLUUya the uului . 
d for white at-r^ ^fj-i fy gyi-ttt 



iiBdVud 




Salt.^was gathered from Hill Creek about three miles south of Cook 



Springs •dry in the suiiimer and a crust formed on the 



bed. 



Ethnobotanical notes . Several trees have different names, according 
to whether they are young or full grown. Thus the common Douglas 
Spruce ( Pseudotsuga ) when full grown is bah-tahm, when young mo-yek; 
and the valley oak when full grown is l/law, when young we-oo. 
Similarly the acorn of the lilue Oak ( ^uercus douglasi ) while still 
green is called yar-te, while after turning dark it is mooylah-kah. 
The wood of the holly buckthorn ( Rhamnus ilicifolia ). called ^-le- 
pi, is used for torches because it burns a long time. 
The sage herb (Kit-te), an almost universal medicine among Califor- 
nia Indians, is used by the Choo-hel-mem-sel both as a tea and as 
a wash for measles. 



- 5 - 



&reen grass is called sek; dry grass poo-sah. 

Indian hemp ( Apocynxim ). called le^ (or pe|^) , maices the best 

string and threads 

athnozoologlcal notes > The big wolf is called hool. Wolves , former- 
ly common, are now very rare, a timber wolf was seen at Black Butte 
in the California imtional Forest in the winter 192:J-24* 
The Golden ground 8quirre>i( Callospermophilu8 ) , called maw-pul-lik 
by the Choo-hel-mem-sel, is saici to occur on Snow, St* John, and 
Sheet Iron Mountains. • 

The meat of the /ocket gopher ( Thomomys )t called ki-e, is given to 
sick people to eat so that they will not die, the gopher being 
hard to kill* 

The house mouse ( Mus musculus) has recently appeared in the coun- 
try of \ the Choo-hel-mem-sel and is called Too-loo-kon. 
Dogs, called ^hoo-choo, were not known until the Spaniards came* 
Thf CAlifemia jay ( Aghelocoma), called chi-et, plants acorns* 
Certain animals and plants have names implying the direction in 
which they occur or from which they are believed to have come* 
Thus the ilue iSrouse ( pendragapus ) is called num sah-kah-ki, meaning 
•west CLuail', and the great pileated woodpecker (Ceophlaeus), num 
ter-rat, meaning '•/est /oodpecker*' -M^^um being the word for west* 
The smaller woodpeckers are called too-dit too-dit* The red- 
breasted sapsucker is believed to be the male of the hairy wood- 
pecker* 

The ^lackheaded grossbeak (Zamelodia ) is called lool, which also 

iis the name of the redbud bush (Cercis)* 

The proper name of the rattlesnake is te-wel, but it is sometimes 

palled pom shel-li, from pom ground, and shel-li i&rizzly J^ear* 

The word for fish is teer. The trout is called she-ah-teer, meaning 

toothed fish, from she (teeth)* The fins of a fish are called tar- 

bek, meaning "movers** • 

Hairy caterpillars are called shil-li shil-li-men, from shil-li, 
the grizzly bear* 



- 6 - 



Ceremonial dancea. All of the dances and all of the songs of the 
Choo-hel-mem-sel came originally from Nik -me, the original rancheria 
and home of the First People. Nik-me was located very near the place 
now called Mo\mtain House or Venado on the southern boundary of the 






territory of the Choo-hel-mem-sel and close to the northern boundary/ 
of the Klet-win tribe. Thu» the Big-head dance, the War dance, and 
all other dances of this tribe originated at Nik-me. 

But the dream dance, called Baw-le hes-se, came from the north 
and did not originate with these people. To this day the Big-head 
dancer and his headdress are called Baw-li Sal-to. 

During the ceremony all of the dancers must keep by themselves. 
They are not permitted to speak to one another oi? to mix with the other 
people at all during the continuance of the ceremony. Neither are they 
allowed to eat meat. 

ft 

When the dancers are in front of the roundhouse before the cere- 
mony begins, no one is allowed to go in by the front entrance. 

Then all the dancers gather around the center post and two of them 
go back and stand on the drum log. At the front end of the drum log 
(or plank) is a hole that leads into an excavation under the log, 
into which are thrown loose feathers, broken rattles, worn-out parts 
of the ceremonial costumes, and sticks that fall out of the big head- 
dresses. One of the dancers kneeling down puts his face into this 
opening and calls four times in a low voice. Then the ^hem-mah-too 
who is still on top of the roundhouse, shouts j 

Chen-te pum-te, Sal-to wen-ne-we 
Down in the earth. Spirit come 

I'hen half - a - dozen bojigaB, called ^um-po, who for the first time 
are allo»»ed to take part in the dance ceremonies, are sent to the 
Evil springs in Bear Valley. They are not allowed to eat meat and 
may not drink water except at specified hours. While they are away 
the dancers /in the roundhouse shout and beat the drum with their feet 
and dance around the fire, making a great deal of nois*. 

Then a man called Kah-nah sal-to (Lazy .Spirit)climbs the center:, 
post to the top and gives a loud yell. The boys, now called We-te- 
le sal-to (Running Spirits), who were sent to the Evil springs, answer 



- 7 - 

his shout and start back to the roundhouse. After dancing four times 
they are again sent to the springs wht re they remain till noon without 
eating or drinking. At noon they come back and dance inside the 
roundhouse. Then a man brings a basket of acorn mush and passes it 
around to the Yum-po boys, each of whom dips out and swallows a 
single mouthful, and drinks some water. He dips the mush out with 
a very^basket called Bho-bill, made for the purpose. This tiny bas- 
ket holds just one mouthful of mush. J-his quantity is now given to 
each of the boys three times each day — morning, noon, and evening • 

After the ceremony is over the roundhouse has become very hot and 
everyone is sweating. The boys must now dance around the fire and 
sing until they are very hot and exceedingly uncomfortable. The 
old people sit farther off. 

Then the Indian doctor goes to the boys, some of whom stppear to 
have fainted from the continued effort of dancing in the excessive 
heat. The Doctor Cakes hold of each boy by the shoulder and if one 
of them is not sweating he takes sweat from his own body and rubs it 
on the boy, who immediately begins to sweat. Then the Doctor, with 
the help of two other men, takes the boys, who now appear to be J 
exhausted, slaps them on the chest, and takes them outside. If a 
singer faints or gives out, the Doctor puts a rattlesnake (so-ko-kil) 
in his mouth and lets him bite it and then throws the boy outside 
the roundhouse where he lies on the ground. Then the Pi re man, 
Chah-pah-rahk, takes a stick eight or nine inches long Hhich is on 
fire at one end and puts the other end in his mouth and bites it, hol- 
ding it in his mouth. 

When all the boys are outside lying face down on the ground, water 
is poured on them. Their mothers, sisters, and grandmothers begin to 
cry, thinking it dreadful that the boys should be so harshly treated. 
But they were not so badly off; they were making believe that they 
were suffering. They now get up and lock arms two and two and fall 
down, and do tixe same over aftain. xhen they hobble along to the creek, 
but as soon as out of sight run to the river and jump in. After a 
good bath they march back to the roundhouse. 

Theji they are told how long it will be before they will be allowed 



. 8 - 



to eat meat^ They may eat fish, acorn soup, and other things, but 
not meat. 

when the time to eat meat finally arrives, the ceremonial dance 
called yah-he-jiah-pi (meaning •'boil dance") is held. It is held out 
in the woods, not at the rancheria. 

Before this the boys must hu^^t for four or five days, killing 
rabbits and deer, which are hung on the trees till the day of the 
feast arrives. The night before the ceremony they must dance all 
night long, then they are given meat for breakfast. Those newly fihi- 
tiated in the dance are not permitted to eatv meat for a whole year. 
If one of them eats meat when he thinks no one will see him, tim- 
per-rik, the great horned owl, tells on him . 



M 



- 9 - 



The war dance. After all the men have gone into the roundhouse no 
man remaining outside and all is quiet, the Chem-mah-too or Speaker, 
who ranks next to the Chief, stations himself on top of the Round- 
house and in a fairly loud voice invites the spirits of various 
places and directions to come and be present during the ceremony. 
His words follows 



Poor-na pum-te, 
Far Far East, 

No-win-nah pum-te. 
Par far West 

Vi/er-re-nah pum te 
Par far South, 

War-nah pum-te. 



Sal-to wen-ne-we 
Spirit come 

Sal- to- wen-ne-we 
Spirit come 

Sal-to wen-ne-we 
Spirit come 

Sal-to wen-ne-we 



Par far North 

s 



t 

* 



Spirit come 
0-naw-li taw2-to, Sal-to wen-ne-w« 

Marysvill© Buttes, Spirit come 
Tow-woo -chah te, Sal-to wen-ne-we 
Tow-woo-chah Mr. 
Yu-e mem-te, 
Evil spring, 
Awl-lo koi-te 



Spirit come 

Sal-to-wen-ne-we 
Spirit come 

Sal-to wen-ne-we 



Another evil spring, Spirit come 
Pan-te pumte, Sal-to wen-ne-we 
Up above Spirit come 

^ yfae first scalp dance . a man from Mit-chow-wis on Little Stony Creek 
went to the rancheria of loX-sel in Long Valley to trade. The long 
Valley people killed him. The. a Lol-sel man named Tub-te stole 
beads from his own tribe, for which offense his own people were going 
to kill him. But he ran away to Mit-chow-wis. The people there knew 
ikhat he had done and killed him This was accepted by both tribes as 
an offset to the killing of the Mit-chow-wis man by the Lol-sel. 

After they had killed him they scalped him. This was the first 
and only time a man was scalped by California Indians. Then they called 
the neighboring tribes to come and hold a War dance, called She-he. 



l-^lf 



- 10 - 

t 

The scalp was fastened to the end of a pole which was held by a man 
while the other peopl* danced arount it with bows in their hands 
and arrows in their mou;|hs. After this a NapJ'a Indian named iien 
Sed-dow, meaning 'Big Coyote,' took tue scal^and carried it to Napfa, 
after which it was not heard from. Ben Sed-dow was himself a NapjjiT 

The deer a nd condor daaces. The Deer dance Nawp Sal- to to-no and the 
Condor dance i..ol-luk Sal-to to-no belong to the past. No one living 
can dance them. The old people are all dead. 

T The Molluk aal-to dance was vexY dangerous, for if the dancer 
made a mistake his grandson became sick and bit himself all over the 
body, wherever he could reach; ti« threw his arms about and whistled 
and was in a bad way. The only cure was for the granfather to dress 
up in his Molluk feathers as if going to the dance. Then he went to 
a special doctor and employed hdtm to come and cure the boy. The doc»- 
tor must wear tne skin and feathers of the Molluk the condor, and no 
other clothing and afterwards must destroy this costume by sinking 
it in a spring of water. When wearing the Molluk costume he must not 
permit the sun to shine on him. 



/ 



I 



..»J 



CH00-H3L-MEM-3J:L ' 



N 




Milk teeth .— The milk teeth ere called /gf."li'-cho she' . When shed they 



are put in a gopher »s hole to *t rede with the gopher ( Thomomys ). 
Head net for men . — Ordinary kind^ Kit'td-kp ; for rich people, 
Buk ^chpr-ro ; headed and very valueblef His~se' cheri-rq^ 
During the ceremonies the leader of the dance wears a headdress 
called poo'^ta . the crown-piece of which is of the white down of 
the snow goose. The occiput piece, called li -p ^ projects back- 



ward from the back of the head and consists of/tail feathers^^ 
the magpie, worn horizontally (pointing backward). The leader of 
the dance also wears on each sidp of his head a forked feather 
pin standing out sideways. This consists of two white feathers 
(sometimes three), each five or six inches in length, attached to 
a wooden pin. 

Head Bent^ . — The women v/ear a broad black and ^ite head br<nd called 
t^pf-pe-lis^ made of the dried skins of cormorant and snow goose 



w ■«■ 



with the down left on. The skin is rolled (not flat) and is 

* 

decorated with woodpecker scalps and beads of abalone shell. 



- 2 - 



Red geathflr Bends * — The men wear, hanginp, down from the "back of the 




-DSitriah- 




head, long broad bright scarlet "bands, called 
made of quills of the red-shafted flicker. 



Ear decorations . — Some of the people wear ear deccreticns, called 
hna^-npA-hah . These are straight hones several inches in length, 



wo 



rn horizontally through the lobe of the ear. The bones common- 



ly used are those of the eagle and condor. 

N. 

In addition to these, small flcTver-like rosettes of brilliant 

feathers are sometimes worn in the ear. 
Nose Stick .— The nose stick is not worn by this tribe. 
Sliver Catcher .— For picking out slivers, a small needle-like bone 

from between the front hoofs of the deer, is used. This is called 



pgn 



The House . — Houses are called 




. In early times they were made 



of planks of the Digger pine ( Pinus sabiniana ). 



Another kind of house, called \x^^, 




, consisted of a fram.e- 



• I 



wo 



rk of poles covered with pine bark and chemi'^e brush, overlain 



with earth. The timbers were usually of blue oak. 



SwGst House ,— There was no regular sweat house, but the people took 

their sweats in the ordinary living house. 
Gamps.— Camps pre CEilled poo^hjjL Those used for a length of time 



CD 



had conical hark huts called kah-.pfih'..l8h ka^ 



^hl 



Canopies .— The brush-roof canopy has two names, k^ and ^^^ 
Acorn Cache .-- The acorn cache, used also for pine nuts, is called 

chop -bee . It was eight or ten feet high and, co^rered with bark 

and grass. It stood on the ground. 

Another kind of cache, ctdled awl'-lah'. was a hole dug in the 



S- 



ground, lined with grsFS and pine bark. 




\ 




j!i^ 




One of the most widespread foods of California Indians 
consists of small seeds which are roasted and eaten. Collec- 






Among the 




all kinds otiinsl^ are called 




When the seeds are pounded and mixed with flour the mix- 
ture is called J^k^ia and Z^^. When wetted and made into a dough 
ready to eat, it is called 





Pinole, seeds were usually roasted over coals of the Talley 

), also often called ImshCfak. 

^^, but eating 1*3 

called UosiXt a°d also ' 






Many kinds of seeds are used for Pinole, "but those of the 



Madia 



greatest quantity 



Following are names of plants given me "by the 




saI 



Unfortunately the plants were 



not at hand and not identified* 



Ten-nek- ^^ftj 
Too-loo-e fv^t^t fe/tl 

Os-kut 

Pi-ye^ 

Te-poot' 

Kol'-kol 

Min-ne-wi 

Shoo' y- 

Lo-wa 
Koi-lut 



iwHah 
lion^nut 
^ahpi-tahp 
Ke-wet 
^od-doi-kot 
Tawlkot 

Ohis-sow-koi 

Ap-mon' 
Kool-kor-re 
K6t;pi.ye^^ 
FahlkaK 



]■ 




/ 



- 4 - 



Torchns . — The old time torch, called M!, hums a lonfi time. It 
is made of the wood of Hhsmnus il i cifolis , called Sj|;::i4i=i4^ 



The Smoke Fan . — For smoking out squirrels, e fF:n, called l^rjy.', is 
used to drive the smoke into the hole. It consists of the \vings 
of a Screech otvI fastened into a split stick, one on each side. 

Hair nets . — Men v?ear hair nets. The ordinary kind is celled 



ki-te!-j^o: those v/om by rich people, hTik-ch^rf-rgj . A beaded and 



still more valuable kind is celled h is.- s e'- ch er- re . 



Treatment of redbud for baskets . — In making and decorating baskets, 



strands of redbud ( Cercis ) . called 1 c o l' . are used. The red-pur- 
ple color of the designs resides in the bark, for which reason 
the bark must be left on. The branches are cut in the autumn, 
after the leaves have fallen. If a darker color is wanted, the 
strands are soaked in water over-night. For the uncolored body 



of the baskets, the redbud sprouts are cut in the spring, when 
the sap begins to rise, and are heated over fire until the bark 
begins to pop. It is then peeled off and the wood split into 
strands of the desired size. These strands without the bark are 



white. 



- 5 - 



Tobacco . — V/ild tobacco, called Iswl' . was originally made "by 3g-deu 

(Go vote men). 
Cremeticn . — Burning the body of a dead person is called fi^igj^i^or 
es'-pah . Burning a live enemy is called bjJr-p^. 



The funeral pyre is called chaji-1^ : the ashes and burned bones. 



re^hg,. 




shoo -do ok : the funeral at time of burial, 



The mourning and crying are called wah-too'-pej^-re » 

t 

The second mourning ceremony, held at a later period, is called 
be-le' . Its essential feature consists of the burning of valuables 



for the benefit of the dead. 



The people cry one night, and when the morning star comes 
up they begin to bum the food, baskets, clothes, beads, 
feather belts end other articles brought for the purpose. 
Two women stack ud the articles to be burnt. Before casting 
the baskets into t he fire they dance and sing, holding the 



basket in front. 



'^hen a person dies, the spirit, mol^cw-mn . goes south at first, 
then crosses the Pacific Ocean, and after that goes up into the 



sky. But the ghosts of bad people stop at the ocean shore and 



- t) - 



turn into the ocyote and other animals. 
Thunder is celled klMa. It originally came from two fawns who 

went up into the sky and were trensformed into thunder. 
The rainbow is called flfi}iV--cho-rel (meaning hl ood^^e )* 



> 




CHIEFTAINSHIP 



The office of /hief is hereditary, but it someti 




mes 



happens that when a bad man of the tribe is killing people 
the people elect him /hief for the reason that when he is 
elected J^hief, he must quit killing people. 






d,UMAy ^vAy 



Ka/v^ 



) 



)/YJieJ^ hr^ 



/l^uCt 




U^ hif^ ^y-i:t^:!tk^- 




To ^CA 






Cm. Ih 






4 "/,^«, -^'^'^ 



^.l.u/.«^ If^ 




1^^ /^A/^^i^ 




/c 






tmt*' 





\ Spruce 



Several trees have different names, according to ftoether 
they are young or full grown. 1 
( Pseudotsuga ) when full grown is 
and the /falley/lak when full grown is A ^; 

Similarly the acorn of the^lue J0ak ( Que reus douglasi ) 
still green is caUed jgar^t^ . while after turning dark 





it is 




The wood of the ifoUy Buckthorn ( Hhamnns ilici folia ), 
called .^rl^rpL * is used for torches because it burns a long 
time* 

The ]Sage lierb ULi^ts ) . an almost universal medicine 
among California Indians, is used by the 5] 



both as a tea and as a wash for measles* 




Green grass is called^^^'; dry grass 




Indian hemp ( Apocynum ) , called Pe^^ (or jW) . makes 




the best string and thread. 



■*— ■Wp^PW— ^ 1 ^ I'll 




EfVwozo<r^o ji (pJL 



A 




NOTES 






Xik^Jt- 



The big Jlolf is called~^gp) A Timber/Wolf was seen at 
Black Butte in the California National Forest in the winter 



1923-24. 




iSolden ySround^Bq 



by the Choo-hel-mem-ael . is said to occur on 



Snow, St. John, and Sheet Iron Mountains* 

The meat of the Pocket Gopher ( Thonoays ), called ^{^j^, 
is gi7en to sick people to eat so that they will not die, the 
gopher being hard to kill* 




) has recently appeared in 



and is called 




The ifouse Jwuse ( 
the country of the 



Dogs, call ed i>qoo^boo . were not known until the Span- 
iards came* 



.' - 



The California jay (Aphelocoma) , called gai^et. plants 



acorns 



I ' f 



-2- 



Choo-hel-mem-sel 



Certain animals and plants have names implying the 




direction in which they occur or from which they are beli 
to have come. Thus the Blue Grouse ( Dendragapna ) is called 

^ki^ . meaning */est J^ail', and the great ^ileated 

[ meaning 'West Woodpecker' 




Woodpecker fQaophlaeuaK 




— imajjeing the word for 'west. ' 



i 



%e smaller woodpeckers are called 




The 



redbreasted jsapsucker is believed to be the male of the i^iry 



Woodpecker, 






The Mackheaded flrossbeak ( Zamelodia ) is called jf^^- 
which also is the name of the redbud bush ( Qerci^ ). 



-^/ 




The proper name of the Battlesnake is Jfejel' . but it 
is sometimes called Pom ahel.»li^ . from /pm ground, and jShftlsli/ 
rizzly^ear. 

The word for fish is Z&ar* The trout is called 

, meaning toothed fish, from i^ (teeth). The 
of a fish are called Tar»bek . meaning mover s .^"^ 

Hairy caterpillars are called /^^Irli^hi^lrliHBex i. from 
Syjd^j-lX, tiie grizzly bear. 




^V^ aA^ V 



'\ V\ 



n 



I 

L 

a 
I 



J7^ Vy/<L\ Voa^ 




\ After all the men have gone into the roundhouse, no man 

and ^ ^t ^ a 1 

remaining outside, ^aH is quiet, the ^em»mah»too or Speaker, 

iho ranks next to the Chief, stations himself on top of the 
Boundhouae and in a fairlj loud voice invites the spirits 
of various places and directions to come aid be present dur- 
ing the ceremony. His nords follow: 

Foor-na pum-te^ Sal*to wen-ne-we 
i!'ar far ifiast. Spirit come 

tto-win-nah pumlte. Sal»to wen-ne-we 



Wer*re~nah pum^te. Sal^to wen-ne-we 



Jfar far Sou 



Spirit come 



fari^ah pum ^te. Sal-to wen-ne-we 
Far farUorth^ ^Spi rit come 

O^nawll i t awg^t e . Sal ^ t o-wen-ne-w e 
Marysville But tea. Spirit come 

Towb.iioo^chah te > Salito wen-ne-we 
Tow-woo-chah MtT, Spirit come 



Iu«e mem-te. 
Bvil spring. 



SalUjL^gg i-neiwf 
Spirit come 



Awl-lo koiite Sal-to wen-ne-we 

Another evil spring. Spirit come 

Sal* to wen-ne*we 
Spirit <5ome 



Pan ^te pum^t e , 
Up ahove 




THE FIRST SCALP DANCB 



A man from Mit-.cho?Kwi8 on Little Stony Creek went 
to the rancherit of L^l'-seL in Long Valley to trade. The 
Long Valley people killed him. Then a Loj/rge^ men named 
Tuhi-te stole beads from his own tribe, for which offense 
his own people were going to kill him. But he ran away 

The people there knew i^at he had done 



Mj,t^ch^w4w^t 



and 




him. This was accepted by both tribes as an 



}k}XTS(Ci Q3' 



/__• 




After they had killed him they scalped him. This was 
the first and only time a man was scalped by California 



Indians. Then they called the neighboring tribes to come 
and hold a War dance, called ^i^yi&r The scalp was fas- 
tened to the end of a pole which was held by a man ?4iile 
the other people danced around it with bows in their 
hands and arrows in their mouths. After this a Kappa 



Indian named 




, meaning *Big Coyote/ 



irried it to Ngppa^ after which 
3 ed»dow ^wa8 himself a Na £|^«. 




L^ 



THS DESK IND CONDCB DANCES 





The Deer danoe Navo' SaLrto to^no and the Condor 



danae Mo3J»liik Sal* to ^*po belong to the past. No 
one living can dance them. The old people are all 



dead. 



Mojiuk Sal- tjt dance waa yery dangerous, for 



the dancer made a mistake his grandson became sick 
and bit himself all over his body, nhereTer he could 
reach; he threw his arms about and whistled and was 
in a bad way. The only cure was for the grandfather 
to dress up in his Molluk feathers as if going to the 
dance. Then he went to a special ^ctor and employed 
him to come and cure the boy. The ^c tor must wear 
the skin and feathers of Molluk the ^ondor, and no 
other clothing, and afterwards must destroy this cos- 
tume by sinking it in a spring of water. TfKhen wearing 
the Molluk costume he must not permit the sun to shine 
on him. 




>».*-P r:,->i->,- __g_ Mi^i 



^fKTi y» </i^<(4A^Kv. K» 




GSHSMONIIL DANCES 



j/fi£=£ 



ua cuoo 



Jl.fl 



All of the dances and all of the songs of the 




came originally from Njlj .^. the orig- 
inal rancheria and home of the First People* Nij iig f 
was located yery near the place no?f called Mountain 
House or Yenado on the southern boundary of the terri- 



tory of the OhQo»hayH 




and close to the northern 



boundary of the j^j^^^iul- tribe* Thus the Big-head 
dance, the War dance, and all other dances of this 




g»8e ,. came 



originated at Ni j ^j ^ j. 

But the dream dance, called 



from the north and did not originate with these people* 
To this day the Big-head dancer and his headdress are 
called 




/ 



During the ceremony all of the dancers must keep 
by themselyes. They are not permitted to speak to one 
another or to mix with the other people at all during 
the continuance of the ceremony. Neither are they allowed 
to eat meat. 

When the dancers are in front of the roundhouse 
before the ceremony begins, no one is allowed to go in by 
the front entrance* 



\ 



Choo -he 1-mem-s el 



Then all the dancers gather around the center 
post and two of them go hack and stand on the drnm 
log. At the front end of the drum log (or plank) 
is a hole that leads into an excavation under the 
log» into which are thrown loose feathers, broken 
rattles, worn-out parts of the ceremonial costumes, 
and sticks that fall out of the big headdresses. One 
of the dancers kneeling down puts his face into this 
opening and calls four times in a low voice. Then 

who is still on top of the round- 




the 



house, shouts: 



the 




Down in I h e eartn, Ijpirit come 



half-a-dozen boys, called Imarfigt ^o ^©^ 
time are allowed t© take part in the dance 



ceremonies, are sent to the Bvil springs in Bear 
Valley. They are not allowed to eat meat and may not 
drink water except at specified hours. While they 
are away the dancers in the roundhouse shout and beat 
the drum with their feet and dance around the fire, 
making a great deal of noise. 



^ i^ \ I. »n i' «.■-, ' » ra— -pg^^i""!^*"** 



■■■^MBaflMi 



Choo-hel-mem-sel 



Then a man called 




(Lazy Spirit) 



climbs the center post to the top and gives a loud 



yell. The hoys, now called 




(Running 



Spirits), who were sent to the Evil springs, answer 
his shout and start back to the roundhouse. After 
dancing 4 times, they are again sent to the springs 
where they remain til noon without eating or drink- 
ing. At noon they come back and dance inside the 
roundhouse. Then a man brings a basket of acorn 
mush and passes it around to the Lffl^jt^boyg, each 
of whom dips out and swallows a single mouthful, 
and drinks some water. He dips the mush out with a 
very small basket called fih^^tUlf aad® for the pur- 
pose. This tiny basket holds just one mouthful of 
mush. This quantity is now given to each of the boys 
three times each day — morning, noon, and evening. 
After the ceremony is over the roundhouse has 
become very hot and everyone is sweating. The boys 
must now dance around the fire and sing until they 



i 



/ 



Then the Indian Doctor goes to the boys, some 
of whom appear to have fainted from the continued 
effort of dancing in the excessive heat. The Doctor 



Choo-hel-mem-sel 



takes hold of each boy by the shoulder and if one 
of them is not sweating he takes sweat from his 
own body and rubs it on the boy. who iminediately 
begins to sweat. Then the Doctor, with the help 
of two other men. takes the boys, who now q)pear 
to be exhausted, slaps them on the chest, and takes 
them outside. If a singer faints or gives out. the 
Doctor puts a rattlesnake ^-koikil) in his mouth 
and lets him bite it and then throws the boy outside 
the roundhouse where he lies on the ground* Then 



the Fire man. 




takes a stick 8 or 9 



inches long which is on fire at one end and puts the 
other end in his mouth and bites it, holding it in 
his mouth. 

When all the boys are outside lying face down 
on the ground, water is puured on them. Their mothers, 
sisters, and grandmothers begin to cry, thinking it 
dreadful that the boys should be so harshly treated. 
But they were not so badly off; they were making 
believe that they were suffering. They now get up 
and lock arms two and two and fall down, and do the 
same over again. Then they hobble along to the creek, 
but as soon as out of sight run to the river and jump 



in. 



house. 



After a good bath they march back to the round- 



Choo<'>hel-mem-sel 



Then they are told how long it will he hefore 
they will be allowed to eat meat. They may eat fish, 
acorn soup, and other things, hut not meat* 

When the time to eat meat finally arrives , the 
ceremonial danoe cal 1 mA Y« y^»ty «^.^ (meaning gq^ n, 
l) is held* It is held out in the woods, not at 




the rancher ia* 

Before this the hoys must hunt for 4 or 5 days, 
killing rabbits and deer, which are hung on the trees 
til the day of the feast arrives. The night before 
the ceremony they must dance all night long, then they 
are given meat for breakfast* Those newly initiated 
in the dance are not permitted to eat meat for a whole 
year* If one of them eats meat when he thinks no one 
will see him, 



the J«'eat Homed/Owl, 




jA[0Me::$0^tells on him* 



5 



1 

I 



c p. ^^1 ^ 







Ko-roo 



/ ^Iti tjCiii' HL mill ICal ' i " uhll gaftehcgioo) 



Before the whites made the levees along the river the water never 
rose higher than the house mounds. These mounds in the north (i.e. 
Colusa region) were only 2 or 3 feet high^ but they were higher to the 
south. They were large in diameter, each having house holes for two 
or three families. The houses had strong frames of posts and cross 
timbers laced with willows and tules and covered with earth or clay. 
Before the white man came the flood waters were not very deep. 



ko-r(ri> 



C (A/,■t-ffc^- M o- I^U'-CUJ Aa^A^W 






CerC(//^ AJ^<^J 



Ur (^ I (^"^ ^ 



l/vry^e^ 



"M-jfji/v 



fV^ M^l/k, "^ ^'^^ 



^;LaAC 



(/'Wv 



^t,^,^/c^ ti^ck <W 



1 



T^-ri^^ 



^f^ifti^ yJ^ 



I'.ti ' I i'' 



T. (A 



3 






C(r^riAJL^ 



^<f* ,^^i%^.^': 



.1 






^C^iiuJU. 






<-. ' 






-If^^^t: 



r^-rtri 



■.'■"f%<?^'^ 






■itJ-^l'-nir, 



C'JS 



•1t»»l 



'na 



>rt»*»|!ii^-,JiRi*» >f jt/ ,. 


kitu 


r«^.!iwir%«aw«^i»^- 






•ai-aiiBij 


•5'"^,'*";'^ft«!»<R?5' ';"'fV. '^^ 




'1?^e;H^do*^v' 






^ 



\ 



\ 



A Sho«te*ah (or Shamen) Ceremony 



July 20, 1907 



Visited the small rancherla of Shamen Indians on a chaparral knoll 
on the north side of Stony Creek about 2 1/4 miles west of Stony Ford, 
Colusa County, They are Just beginning a ceremonial dance to last 
tonight, tomorrow (Sunday), and tomorrow night, and the Invited guests 
are continually arriving. The guests are Wintoon Indians from Grindstone 
Creek on the north. Win from Kabalmen and Cotena and Rumsey on the south, 
and Long Valley (Lol*sel and Chen*po«sel) on the southwest* There are, 
also, one woman from Coyote Valley on Putah Creek (Gklft*yo*me tribe) and 
the chief and others of the Hanoh-fo or Lower Lake tribe. 

We are in great good luck to be here at Just this time. We are 
going after supper to spend the night in the ceremonial round house. 



Sunday, July 21 

Clear and hot, with some clouds in P.M. We spent the entire evening 
and night (till 3 o'clock this morning) and nearly all day in the cere« 
monial round house at the rancheria, witnessing the most weird aboriginal 
dance^^ ceremonies I have ever seen. The dancers were dressed mainly in 
feather costumes of extraordinary construction, and some of them wore 
head-dresses of feathers stuck full of slender rods about 2 feet long, 
each bearing one or more tufts or plumes of red or white feathers, so 
that the diameter of the head*dress is fully 4 feet*— so great that the 
wearer cannot get through the entrance«>way of the roundhouse except by 
backing in with head bowed, so as to bring the rods in base first. Only 
two dancers wore robes— most curious affairs. All the others had naked 
bodies with red or black breech-cloths and broad feather belts of 
brilliant colors— red (woodpecker crowns), yellow (meadowlark breasts). 



blue (bluejay)^ black* green (mallard necks), and so on« Some of the 
belts are 8 Inches broad • Some have the headskins of the California 
woodpecker sewed on In squares; others have the separate feathers woven 
into the belt« Th^ are wonderful affairs « All of the dancers who did 
not wear enormous plumed head«dresses wore frontal (forehead) bands 
of red flicker (Colaptes cafer collaris ) feathers, which covered the 
forehead down to the eyes, and projected on each side of the head 8 or 
10 inches, as usual. Some wore crowns of wild white geese down; others, 
of upright plumes. All wore occipital masses of plumes • Some wore 
curious skirts-— one of dangling strips of the inner bark of the maple 
tree (Acer macrophyllum ), which made a swishing noise as he moved— > like 
silk, only more so. One wore a red skirt, with white border and sigzag 
at bottom. 

Throughout all the dances the singers stood at the end of the 
plank drum (between the drum and center*<*post), and sang and beat time 
with the elder clapper* sticks, while the druomer stood on the raised 
plank and beat it with the big end of a thick manzanita club (2 1/2 
inches in diameter), pounding straight down (Instead of beating with his 
feet). The time and rhythm were perfect, the singing weird and in 
several cases beautiful. The dancers also sang and beat time with their 
bare feet. The head dancer struck the ground furiously with his feet, 
and kept it up so long during each dance that one is amazed that a human 
being can stand so much strain and Jarring, not to mention the physical 
endurance necessary. The head dancer is a slim, agile man of iron frame, 
nervous and gracefull and wonderfully quick in his movements. 

In nearly all of the dances the dancers wore in their mouths slender 
bone whistles (of goose and eagle bones), which they blew gently, making 
a chorus of pleasing music in perfect harmony. 



The finest dances of the Grindstone Creek and of the Cotena 
(Cortena) Indians were held on Sunday afternoon^ and were wonderful 
beyond description* 

The round house here is different from others I have seen« It 
occupies an excavation varying from 1 1/2 to 4 feet in depth, according 
to the lay of the ground « The vertical wall of the excavation forms 
the outer wall of the round house, and is supplemented by a series of 
horizontal poles resting in forked posts about 4 1/2 feet high, on which 
the outer ends of the roof poles rest. These outer wall posts are called 
chi* ek* she^mah « 

The centerpost is about 2 feet in diameter and 18 feet in height, 
and is forked at the top to receive the accumulated tips of the roof 
poles which converge to this coomon center. The centerpost is called 
sah^bah. 

There are seven posts in the circle separating the dancers from the 
audience— * four on the south side and three on the north side. These 
posts are only 5 or 6 feet from the outer wall, giving Just space enough 
for a person to lie down in the outer space. The seven posts are called 
too*dit^ke. 

The drum is about 5 feet long by 2 1/2 feet wide, and its long axis 
agrees with that of the round house. It is of plank, elevated nearly 2 
feet in front (where highest) and 1 foot behind. It is called chil*lo^. 

The entrance«way8 are about 4 feet wide and 6«8 feet long. They 
slope downward and inward from the outside level to the inside level. 
The doorways are called howwah« 

The smokehole is rectangular (about 3 by 4 feet) and is directly 
over the fire (between center-*po8t and east entrance). It is called 
o*ho shut^ko. 



The floor Is bare^ hard earth swept clean and sprinkled; that of 
the outer circle (for the audience) Is covered with fresh green willow 
boughs and leaves. 

The long roof-poles (about 34) converge to rest on the forks of the 
center*post« On the basal part (resting on the horizontal poles which 
connect the tops of the circle of seven posts) are many short poles 
occupying the Interspaces between the spreading long roof •poles. The 
roof*poles are covered with tules and brushy making a con^act^ thick 
roof which Is usually earth* covered^ but In this case only a little 



/ . . 



earth has been put on. The roof and roof*poles are called hel*la*tl*ke. 

Outside of the round house and In the line of Its long axis are 
two flagpoles^ each about 30 feet In height. The one in front of the 
east entrance Is about 30 feet from the outer end of the entrance; the 
one In the rear^ 54 feet west of the outer end of the west entrance. 
The Inside diameter of the round house (east and west)^ not Including 
entrance«ways^ Is about 36 feet^ diameter Including entrance*ways about 
30 feet^ and the distance between flagpoles about 134 feet. 

The two flags at top of the flagpoles are Just alike. The ground 
color Is white. Upon It are seven vertical bars of red^ straight on 
the edge toward the pole and serrate on the edge away from the pole. 
The bars seem to be about 2 1/2 Inches broad. 

One of the dancers^ a very old man^ Chief of the Sulphur Bank Ham^fo 
trlbe^ sang and shook his double-headed rattles standing on the roof of 
the east entrance. He did this repeatedly*— sometimes facing outward 
toward the rising sun (east) and sometimes facing the round house. All 
of the dancers carried something In their hands-prattles^ wands^ or 
feather tridents^ or bows and arrows. 

The head dancer always carried his bow and a couple of loose arrows 
in his left hand^ and a red- fox skin quiver of arrows In his right hand. 



Sticking in his belt behind and hanging tail down he wore the akin of 
a gray fox (Orocyon ) . 

In the evening we returned to the round house to spend the night. 



July 22 



Clear and hot^ with some clouds in north and overhead. The Indians 
went home today— those visiting Stony Ford for the ceremonies. I got 
from them a lot of information about the animals of this region^ and 
lists of names of animals and plants. 

The ceremony last night was full of interest and different from the 
others. The Stony Ford ShaiMn tribe danced. The chief (San Diego) and 

two other men and two women danced strange and weird dances^ one of which 

« 

was wild and fierce. The singing was particularly fine. 

The women wore beautiful feather headbands and belts^ and each held 
a colored handkerchief in her hands as they stood side by side and beat 
time with their feet^ swaying their bodies to and fro and singing. 

The men were naked except for the head-dress and breechcloth and 
the golden eagle aprons two of them wore. The suits of eagle feathers 
had three long plumes standing up against the back«-»one in the middle 
and one on each side«-and a full apron of eagle plumes worn over the 
buttocks and hanging down behind (only the breechcloth in front). Each 
man wore a red flicker biand on his forehead^ the long projecting sides 
flapping, and each carried a trident of three white plumes which he held 
outstretched in front, or depressed to the ground, with muscles rigid 
while he danced and stamped and leaped about violently, often crouching. 
They danced around the fire and also around the center-post. They blew 
bone whistles. The two dancing women kept on the north side. 

The man on the drum beat time with his manzanita club, and three 
men standing at the end of the drum sang and beat time with the split 
elderberry clapper sticks. 



This last very old time dance Is called Kek-o«de by the Stony Ford 
trlbe^ and Hln*te-lak*ke by the Putah Creek Olayome, They say It is the 
oldest and most ancient of all the dances • 

To lie on one* s back at night in the outer circle of the dark round 
house^ sandwiched in between the Indians of the audience, and witness 
these ancient ceremonies by the dim light of the flickering fira, is a 
great privilege as well as an entertainment never to be forgotten. The 
intense earnestness of the dancers and the hearty appreciation of the 
lookers«»on give the ceremonies a very real character • The time and 
rhythm of the music and dancing were simply perfect « 

The Indians were greatly interested in isy pictures of birds and 
mammals, and gave me much information* 




Cctjft 



> Wm-fdoo'' 



r 



tc o*^ 



Poo'-e-win tribe of Win^-toon^ stock 



Original territory extended fron Sonoma Creek on the west 
to Sacramento River on the East. The northern boundary reached 
to Sonoma (Tulucay) and Knights Landing. 

The only person I have found who speaks Poo'-e-win is a 
Sonoma Indian man named Philip who works for a German named 
Ed. Steiger on a vineyard 2 I/2 miles south of Glen Ellen and 
five miles north of Sonoma. On July 9, 1906 I got a good list 
of mammal and bird names and a fair vocabulary from this man 
named Philip, Also got from him the above boundaries of the 
Poo'-e-win tribe, and the following information: 

Soo'-e-soon' was the name of a valley and people. Philip 
thinks the people were Poo«-e-win and that Soo-e-soo/ is a 
gtpanish name, but other Indians insist that it is the original 
Indian name, which doubtless is the ease. 

The Poo-e-win were always at was with the Pa twin of the 
west side of the Sacramento Valley north of Khi^t's Landing. 
The Poo-e-win called the Patwin above Knights Landing, Pa-Ion. 

The Indians in the upper (northern) part of Sonoma Valley were 
Kinamiro, same as at Santa Roma and Sebast^pol. There used to 
be rancherias all along Sonoma Creek from near lladrone Station 
up the valley. 

In Kapa Valley there were at least three languages: 

!• Too-loos'-too-e from Suscol up to Napa. There was a 

Too-loos'-too-e rancheria of Ki-e-tan^nah near Hapa. 

The Too-loos^too-e, I am told by another informant, 

were Win.) 

Wi-ye-lah (Wi-e-lah) at and near lountville and north 
to about St. Helena. Language entirely different from. 
Too-loos^too-e. Old chief Caymus (Ki-mus) 
Mi-yah-kah-mah. Head of valley about Calistoga. 
Language wholly different. 



2. 



crrrisszrtr: 



- 2 - 



V 



I -et today (July 11, 1906) an old Indian -n born at Napa, 
but who spent the greater part of hia life at Sonona and who 
apeaka both Win and Pooawin. He la living 14 a little ahack 
by himaelf on the O^Brian ranch in the hilla between Sono«t and 
Petaluma Valleya and about four milea weat fro» Sono«a, Hia 
name is J±m. 

He told .e that the Pooewin did not reach weat to Petalu«a 
Creek but atopped at Sonoma. Sonoma waa the northweat corner of 
their do«.in. Thence eaaterly they occupied the north aide of the 
Bay region to Sacramento River, which they followed^p on the weat 
Side to Knight. a landing. The nothern boundary of their territory 
ran fro. Sono«. to (Napa?) TuWka and Ol-ulata (taking in Suacol 
and Sooeaoon) and thence to Vacaville (where there waa a big 
rancheria called PeZ-nia Laguna) and Winters and thence to 
woodland and on to Knighta Landing on Sacramento River. To the 
north of the Pooewin in Sonoma Valley were the Kanimar^rea, in 
Hapa Valley, Gapay Valley, and in the hilla weat of Sacramento 
valley (weat of the river) were the|^rin^_w^ich he calla Wi^-kam 
(after an old chief), and alao Nan/noo-ta.-we. The Poo-e-win 
name for the Win tribe ia Toclooa ^-too-e. ji. saya hia peopU 
(Win or Wi - ,kaa or Han-noo-ta -we or Too-looa^-too-e) apeak the 
aame language as the Catena (-Cortena Creek) Klet-win. 

He aaya Chief Wi-'-kom.s name was Ifem (i4m - water), but I 
could not find out whether WiZ-kom is the ma'n's name or name of 
a particular band. Ther? uscu 

OJiere used to be Poo-e-win rancherias at Sonoma, Kapa 
(village of Tuluka) Olulata, Sooesoon (Suisun), Vacaville, Winter's 
ranch and Woodland. Thoae at Vaca, Wintera, Sooeaoon, and Woodland 
were very big. 

Hap -pah and Too-loo^-kah were names of rancherias near 
together in Hapa Valley. Too-loo^-kah was a short distance aouth 
eaat of Hapa. An old Spaniard named Ki-tan^-nah (Gaetano?) 
J««rea took poaaeasion of the land on which the Too-loo -kah 
rancheria waa situated (the aaylum ia there now) 



- 3 - 



/ . 



Some Yoklah Indians were brought down here by the Spaniards 
The Fooewln called the Hookooeko tribe of Petaluma region 



/. 



tfrpamale Indians.^ 

The big Pooewln rancherla at Vacavllle was called Pe '^-nla 
Laguna. The big Pooewln rancherla at Winters was called Wls-kal • 

The tribe at Yountvllle and St. Helena spoke the saae 
language as at Callstoga^ (l.e* Ml-yah -kah-aah) 

The tribe In Berryessa Valley was »»Ho'-«ln«". 

Too-loQs ^-too-e tribe of Hapa Yalley just above Hapa was 
the sane as Cortina 'Ket'-wln or Win. The Wl«-ko« chief who used 
to llTit Inear Kapa and whose zume (or nlcknaae?) was Iftja (• water) 
afterwaronre^t to Cortina and If not dead Is there now, Hapa Is 
a Fooewln word* So Is Tulukay (pronounced Too-loo -kah) 

The Indian chief) Cajaus (pronounced Kl -aus) who used to 
live at old rancherla where Tduntville In Napa Valley now Is, 
was chief of the Wl-e/-lah tribe, which my Informant (jLlm 'Brian) 
declares Is the same as the Sas -te tribe "up north" and 
probably Wln^ 

Sus ^-kol Is a Pooewln word and Is the naiie of their place 
and rancherla where Suscol now ls# 

The Indian family on Bayle's ranch In lower Napa Valley were 
Pooewln# They have been called Callajamanes and Canaumanos* 




Is It not possible that the Too-loos'-too-e or Win or Too- 
loo^-kah rancherla just East of topa River were brought there by 
Spaniards? 




^ 



Poo«-«-wln tribe of Win'-toon' stock : 



Origiaal territoiy extended from Sonoma Creek on thejWest to Sacramento 
River on the East, The northern boundary reached to Sonoma j( T\il^cayT and 

L 



Knights ^anding. 



s 



lf*4iK. 



Tke only person I have found who speaks Poo'-e-win iSsa ^dnoma Indian 
named Philip who works for a ferman named Ed. Steiger on a vineyard 2 1/2 



miles South of Blen Ellen and 5 miles north of Jonoma. On July 9, 1906 i 

got a good list of mammal and bird names and a fair vocabulary from this 

man named Philip. Also |gt Ifftom him the above boundaries of the Poo-e-win tribe. 



• • 










and the following information! 

Soo^-e-soon' was name of ^valley and people .^peoplepoo^-e- win jff^(^ 

iH^fu^^ Soo'^-e-soo 

gianl Indian name, which doubtless is the case.i| » 

The Poo/-e-win were always at war with the Patwin ©fewest side^3ac ramento 
Valley north of Knight' s Landing, ^he Poo^-e-win called the Patwin above 

Knights Landing, Pa-Ion, 

The Indians in upper ( northern) part of 5anoma Valley were Kinamaro, 
same as at Santa Rosa and Maoatafnl. There used to be rancherias all along 
Comona Creek from near Madrone Station up tjhe valley. 



In Napa Valley there were at least 3 languages il. 




The Too-loos'-too-e I am told by 



1. Too-loos«-too-e from Suscjb. up to ^Afa^./jC ♦oo-loos '-too-e rancheria of 




Ki-e-tan^-nah near INatfa. 
2, WL-ye^-lah ( Wl-e'-lah) at and near Tc^plntville and north to about 



f^ 



Old chief Caymus (KiZ-mus) 



3, Hi-yah'-kah-mah. Head of valley about Calistdga. Language wholly dif* 



f erent , 



Poot,e*>win tribe of Wln^-toon* stock t 

OrigiHal territory extended from Sonoma Creek on the|west to Sacramento 
River on the East, The northern boundary reached to Sonomaf Tul^cay ] and 

L ^ 

Knights landing* 

> s 

The only person I have found who speaks Poo^-e-win iSva ^onoma Indian 
mmt named Philip who works for a German named Ed. Steiger on a vineyard 2 1/2 
miles South of Dlen Ellen and 5 miles north of ^onoma. On July 9, 1906 X 
got a good list of mammal and bird names and a fair vocabulary from this 
man named Philip. Also ggt ffrtam him the above boundaries of the Poo-e-win tribe. 



and the following information i . . f^Llu^ ^ 

Soo^e-soon' was name of valley and people • people fPoo^-e- win i^^Ltn 
i|JfpJ^Soo'-e-soon'^ Spanish name, bjit other Indians insist that it is the ori- 

gianl Indian name, which doubtless is the oase.M 

iH %^ 

The Poo/-e-win were always at war with the Patwin of west side Sacramento 

A A 

Valley north of Knight's Landing, ^he Poo^-e-win called the Patwin above 
Knights Landing, Pa-Ion. 

The Indians in upper ( northern) part of Janoma Valley were Kinamaro, 
sam0 as at Santa Rosa and hdoaaasisstol . There used to be rancher! as all along 
^omona Creek from near Madrone Station up tj^he valley. 



In NaCa ^alley there were at least 3 languages:l. 




■""•MMMMwawMMaan 



imm 




•were Win. ) 



The Too-loos'-too-e I am told by 




!ih^w^^ 



1. Too-loos«-too-e from 8usc^ up to Na^a./A too- loos '-too-e rancheria of 



Ki-e-tan^-nah near ^ Na*a#y^' 
c, f,a.-j« -lah ( WL-e'-lah) at and near Yojpintville and north to about 

St. Helena. Language entirely different f^^ Too-loos'^-too«e# 

Old chief Cayraus (Ki^-mus) 
3. Mi-yah'^-kah-mah. Head of valley about Calistoga. Language wholi^y dif* 



ferentt 



iTSd^iidi an man b^ at Na^a but who spent the greater part of his life 



at ^onoma and who speaks both Win and Pooswin. fl met today (Jcly 11, 19 06), 
^li^ing in a little shack by himself on the 0' Brian ranch in the hills between 

Sonoma and 
Jim, 






Valleys and about U miles west from Soraona. His name is 



\ 



.\ 



;^v^' 



x\ 






He told me that the Pooewin did not reach west to Peta^^a Creek but 
stopped at Sonoma. Jonoma was the north*est comer of their domain. Thence 
easterly they occupied the north side of the Bay regiow to Sacramento River, 
which they followed up on the west dte^o Knig^f s Landing. The northern 
boundary of their territory ran from |onoma to (Naf a?) and ) Tulu'ka and 01- 
ulata (taking in Susc^^ aid Sooesoon) and thence to Vacavilie (where there was 
a big rancheria called Pe'-nia Laguna) and Winters and thence to Woodland and on 
to Knights Landing on Sacramento River. Tothe north of the Pooejin in Sonoma Val* 
ley w.r^ the Kanimar/resj in Nafa Valley, MSI^V^lej, and^hUls west of Sacramento 

V^ley (west of the. ^..r) were t^e ,^ ^^ '>X%^.'?>^'!^t^^^ " ^'^ 

chief), and also Nan/noo-taU fe, •r^Too-loos-'-too-e). speak the same language as 

the Catena (=Cortena fie^) 4Ket-win. C Ji»^ /*^/ 



A*^ 



He s^s Chief Wi/-ko?'s name was Mem (Mem= water), but I could not find 



out whether WiZ-koiris the man's name or name of a particular band. 




(y/ loo- k^ s'-ho-y 





There used to be Poo-e-win rancherias at Sonoma, Napa^ 




\thAtr ^ ^ C 

L T\iluka) Olulata, Soo^oon (Suisun) , ^ 



vAa*ilie, Winter's ranch. Woodland. Those at/V»«a, Winters, Sooesoon, 

anD Woodland were veiy big. 

Nap'-pah and Too-loo^-kah were names of rancherias near together in 
nfea Valley.;^ Too-^ooZ-kahx^'short distance <p^east of Napa. An old Spaniard 
named Ki-tan'-nah Juarex took possession of the land on which the too-loo - 
kah rancheria was situated ( asylum^there now; 



S |Som« 



Some Tokiah Indians were brought down here by the **paniards. 

The Pofewin called the Hookooeko tribe of ^fi4±4a«Ba^ region Tamale Indians. 



■n 



^a 



big 8as««riLa^ ranche ria at •''inters was called Wis-kal^, 

\ The tritee at Yountvilie aadc St ti Helena spoke same language as at Calist«#e ^ 



i.t, 



/, 



\. ^ 




The tribe in ^rwye^sw Valley was "No'-min'" . 




\4 



V 



,^ 



loo ^ Zoos ^ 'fof-f ^ fVA 



. .^^ — ^^ -*v,^ « tribe of Na^a Valley just above Na^ same as Cortina •Bet'- 
win or Win. The Wi«-koir chief who used to live near Na^ and whose name (or 
nickname^) Mem [=water] afterward went to Cortina and Ifnnot dead is there now. 

A. 



Na 



#a is a Pooewin word. So is Tulukay (pronounced Too-loo'-kah) 

The Indian chief, Caymusf (pronounced Ki^-mus) who used to live at old 
rancheria where Yountvillfc in Napa Valley now is, was chief of the WiJ-e'-lah 
tribe, which my informant (j£m 0« Brian) declares is the same as the Sas'-te 
•t^ibe "up north" and probably Win* 

Sus/-koln is a ^oewin word and is the name of tY^\Qr place and rancheria 



where Susc/ now is# 



BAifk'i 



The Ipdian family on Dajlij ( a y Daill a ) ranch in lower Nafla Valley were 

U 

Pooewin • /They| have been called Callaj^mianes and Canapianos] July 11, 1906 

Is it not possibe that the Too-loos^-too-e or Win of Too - loo^-kah rancheria 

just East of NaJa River broul.ght there by Spaniards? (given mg, by Jim 

^ ( July 11, 1906) 



^ 



SUo^e^.GLL QrSkc^t^ C^w^ 



July 20, 1907. 




Joui^nal 




S>k(^ V 



fK 



Visited tke small mncheria of 




ndians on a 



A 



chaparral knoll on the north side of Stony Creek about 2 1/4 miles 



woet of Stony Ford^ ^UXo^j^k ^ 



ITiey are just beginning a /erem.onTiial 3?Jance to last tonight, tom.orrov/ 
(Sunday), and tomorrov/ night, and the invited fj;uests are continually 



a 



rriving. The guests' are V/intoqn Indians from G-rindstone Creek on 



the north. Win from Kabalmen irnd Cotena and RU'tnsey on the routh, 



and Long Valley (M^i|el and'Cherv^ 




on the south west. There 



are also, one v;oman from Coyote Valley on Putali Creek ( Q-la-yo^my 



/ _ / 



tribe), and the chief and others of the Ham-fo or Lower Lake tribe 



Lgaboth 



are in great good luck to be here at just this 



time. We are going over after supper to spend the night in the 



Cferem.onial >Kound Kbuse^"- v/l'iid ' i we did. 



Sachem 2. 



Sunday , July 21 . Clear and hot, with some clouds: in P.M.. 
-e%hr-aHd«J spent the entire evening and night (till 3 o'clock 



this morning) and nearly all day in the J^erem.onial Roundhouse at the 



rancheria, witnessing the most weird aboriginal I)ance-(?erem.oni as I 



have ever seen. The dancers were dressed mainly in feather costumes 



of extraordinary construction, and some of them, wore head-dresses of 



feathers stuck full of slender rods about 2 feet long, each 



l>-f.JilAA^, 




1 



one or more tufts or plumes of red or white feathers, so that the 



diameter of the head-dress is fully four feet — so great that the 



v/earer cannot get through the entrance-way of the roundhouse except 



by backir^g in with head bowed, so as to bring the rods in base first. 



Only two dancers wore robes 



m.ost 



-» 

V 



urious affairs. All the others 



had naked bodies with red or black brecjlch-cloths and broad feather 



belts of brilliant colors ■ — red (woodpecker crowns), yellow 



Sachem 3. 

(moadoY/lark breasts), blue (bluejay), black-green (l/allard necks), i-A 



86 oii. Some of the belts are 8 inches broad. Some have the head- 



skins of the 0alif omia ^oodpecker sewed on in squares; others have 

/ 

the separate feathers woven into the belt. They are wonderful 



affairs. All of the dancers v/ho did not wear enormous plumed head- 



dresses wore frontal (forehead) bands of red Flicker ( Colaptfts 



cafer collaris) feathers, which covered the forehead down to the eyes. 



and projected on each side of the head 8 or 10 inches, as usual. 



Some wore crowns of v/ild white geese down; others, of upright plumes. 



All wore occipital masses of plumes. Some wore curious skirts 



one of dangling strips of the inner bark of the tree maple ( Ac^t 



maciephyllum) , which made a swishing noise as he moved - like silk. 



only more so. One v/ore a red skirt, with white border and zigzag at 



bottom. 



Sachem 4. 



Throughout all the dances tW singers stood at the end of the 



plank drum (between the drum and center- pest), and sang and beat time 



with tfce elder clapper-sticks, while tlie. druirarner stood on the raised 



plank and beat it with the big end of a thick ^anzanita club (2 1/2 



inches in diameter), pounding straight down (instead of beating with 



his feet). The time and rhytlim were perfect, aasdr the singing weird 



and in several cases beautiful. The dancers also sang and beat time 



wi 



th their bare feet. The head dancer struck the ground furiously 



with his feet, and kept it up so long each dance that one is amazed 



that a human being can stand so much strain and jarring, not to 



mention the physical endurance necessary. Tlie head dancer is a slim, 



agile man of iron frame, nervous and graceful and wonderfully quick 



in his m.ovements. 



In nearly all of the dances the dancers wore in their mouths 



Sachem 5. 

slender bone v/histles (of goose and eagle bones), which they blew 



gently, making a chorus of pleasing music in perfect harmony. 

The finest dances of the Grindstone Creek and of the Cotena 



(Cortena) Indians, were held on Sunday afternoon, and were wonderful 



beyond description. 



The roundhouse here is different from others I have seen. It occupies 



an excavation varying from 1 1/2 to 4 feet in depth, according to the 



lay of the ground. The vertical wall of the excavation forms the 



outer wall of the roundhouse, and is supplemented by a series of hori- 



ontal poles resting in forked posts about 4 l/2 feet high, on which 



the outer ends of the roof poles rest. These outer wall posts are 



called chi-ek-she-mah. 




The 



c 



enterCpost is about 2 feet in diairieter and 18 feet in 



height, and forked at the top to receive the accurrwlated tips of the 



Sachem 6. 

roof poles, which converge to this common center. The centerTpost is 



called gaKrit iall. 



iy- /^' ^- 



There are seven, posts in the circle separating the dancers 



t^' <-' • 



from the audience — four on the south side and three on the north side 



These posts are only 5 or 6 feet from the outer wall, giving just 



space enough for a person to lie down in the outer space. The 7 
posts are >?QP-dit-ke. 

The drum, is about 5 feet long by 2 l/2 wide, and its long axis 



agrees with that of the roundhouse. It is of plank, elevated nearly 



2 feet in front (where highest), and 1 foot behind. It is called 



Chil-lo'. 



The entrance-ways are about 4 feet wide and 6-8 long. They 



slope downward and inward from the outside level to the inside 



level. The doorways are called 



,ow-wah. 



Sachem 7. 



The smokehole is rectangular (about 3 by 4 feet) and is directly 



ova' the fire (betv/een center-post and east entrance). It is calUflL 
(/-ho shut-ko . The floor is bare hard earth, sv/ept clean and sprink- 



led^ theii 



■u*. 



"Wk 



of .outer circle ( f or ^ audience) is covered with 



fresh green v/illow bou^is and leaves. 



The long roof-poles (about 34) converge to rest on the forks 



of the conterj^po&t. On the basal part (resting on the horizontal 



poles which connect the tops of the circle of 7 posts) are many short 



poles, occupying the interspaces between the spreading long roof- 



poles. The roof-poles are covered with tules and brush, making a com- 



pact thick roof which is usually earth-covered, but in this case 



only a little earth has been put on. The roof and roof-poles are 



cal 1 ed ne l'- la- 1 f-k e . 



Outside of the roundhouse and in the line of its long axis, 



Sachem 8. 

are tv/o flagjioles, each about 30 feet in height. The one in front 



of the east entrance is about 30 feet from the outer end of the 



entrance; the one in the rear, 54 feet west of the outer end of the 



west entrance. Tlie inside dia/neter of the roundhouse (east and v/est) 



not including entrance-ways, is about 35 feet; diameter including 



entrance-v/ays, about 50 feet; distance betv/eon flagpoles, about 134 



feet. (All diotai 




t 



The two flags at top of flagpoles are just alike. The ground color 



is v/hite. Upon it are 7 vertical bars of red, straight on the edge 



tov/ard the pole and derrate on the edge away from the pole. The bars 



seemed to be about 2 1/2 inches broad. 



'.y 



One of the dancers, a very old man. Chief of the Sulphur Bank 



H^^fq tribe, sang and shook his double-headed rattles standing on the 



roof of the east entrance. He did this repeatedly— sometimes facing 



^c^v>-H' 



^jU.^-» 



outward (east) and sometimes 



facing the roundhouse. All of the 



Sachem 9. 

dancers carried something in their hands - rattles, wimds, or feather 



tridents, or bov/s and arrov/s. 



The head dancer always carried his "bow and a c mple of loose 



arrows in his left hand, and a red-fox skin quiver of arrows in his 



right hand. Sticking in his belt behind and haiiging tail-dovm. 



he wore the skin of a gray fox (Urocvon). 

In the evening we returned to the Roundhouse to spend the night. 

July 22. Clear and hot, with some clouds in north and overhead. 



The Indians v/ent home today — those visiting Stony Ford for the 



ceremonies. I got from them a lot of information about the animals 



of this region, and lists of names of animals and plants. 



The ceremony last night was full of interest and different from 
the others. The Stony Ford 4f6Batt- 4 <> i" Sffg^ 'IM ') tribe danced. The 



chief (San Diego) and two other men and two women danced strange 



and weird dances, one of which was wild and fierce. The singing was 



Sachem 10. 

particularly fine. "The women wore beautiful feather headbands and 




belts, and held a colored handkerchief 



K 



%\- 



in tho ir hfmds as they stood 



side by side and beat time with their feet, swaying their bodies to 



and fro and singing. 

The men were naked except for the head-dress and breechcloth, and the 



^j^lden^Eagle aprons tv/o of them v/ore. The suits of eagle feathers had 



three long plumes standing up against the back — one in the middle 



and one on each side — and a full apron of eagle plumes v/om over the 
buttocks.htmging dov/n behind (only the breechcloth in front). Each 



man wore a red /licker band on his forehead, the long projecting sides- 
flapping, and each carried a trident of three white plumes which he 



held outstretched in front, or depressed to the ground, with muscles 
rigid while .he danced and stamped and leapi: about violently, jmd 



often crouching. They danced around the fire and also around the 



Sachem 11. 



hko 



centerjpost. They blew bone whistles. The^dancing v/omen kept on 



the north side. 



The man on the drum beat time with his fanzanita club, and three 



men standing at the end of the drum sang and beat time v/ith the split 
^clapper sticks. 



This last very old time dance is called Kek'rQ-de by the Stony Ford 



tribe, and Hin-t^-Iak^-Jce by the Putah Creek 



/ / 




They say it is 



the oldest and most ancient of all the dancers. 



To lie on one's back at night in the outer circle of the dark 



roundhouse, sandwiched in between the Indians of the audience, and 



witness these ancient ceremonies by the dim light of the flickering 



fire, is a great privilege as well as an entertainment never to be 



forp-otten. The intense earnestness of the dancers and the hearty 



appreciation of the lookers-on, give the ceremonies a very real 



Sachem 12. 



character. The time and rhythm of the music and dancing v;ere simply 



perfect. 



The Indians were greatly interested in my pictures of birds and 



mammals, and gave me much information. 



P(fnit> 




iP'lJer/ a. ^; 



" i iL 



iiLoctrciPiu(^ 



a ran 



lUii 



\ 



€4 If-li 




CUniu^ Jn,(,;,^ -j;,^'l 



K) 



Pc^ct TIL 



C. Hart Merriem 



a.4kCK!it23c'^«4kyMj^r^i^<A..^'A.r)«,>&.»,^ . 



/ 



an 



CttK 




h^ "^'^t^;^. 



POMO 



/^ tiM 



Mah-kahHM> ohu»HBi of ClorvrdaXt Valley 



Tatttoolniff a Man tattoo across ehsst and on arms* Womsn tattoo 
ehln with ssrsral rortieal llnss and a nearly horizontal lins from 
each comer of the aouth outward • The material is eoot from burnt 
pitch (Koi#»he) pricked in with a rery fine sharp bone needle called 
teab-ea^oah^ made trcsA the small forearm bone of a squirrels 
Csrssionial h6tiss« AtHod* Has a large heavy center poet one and a half 
feet thick and fotirteen to sixteen feet long. The long ridgepole rests 






6n this and supports the roof poles* 
Sweathonse« is thatched with wonmeed ( Arteadsia Indoviciaoa) and 
straw^ resting on a frame of willows or other slender sticlo^* The 
SBokehole (ho-bo-baim) is directly over the doorway (he-dah-mo) and 



is a Tsntilator hole* 



to 



Bird notes* They share a belief with a nunber of other tribes, namely 

1 

that pjgKT <^^ ( Qlaucidium) kills elk and deer bj attacking the anus 



and tearix^g the inside of the rectum* 



•i^ 



Other tribes believe the owl att^acks and tears the scrotum ^-^ 






entering 



>kah«no saar that kah^tah«4iie««>ah«tim, 



I 



California 



woodpecker* 



im 



Th^ knew that we--kah^ the roadrunner kills rattlesnakes* 



Th«3r say thm red-^broasted sapsucker is the male of the 



haiiy itfoodpecker 



>af s) and call both le«koo9« 



Similarly they baliere the red-»8houldered blackbird is 



^w 



the Bale of the Brewer blackbird and are both called teo-le« 

They call the coisaon nuthatch kah-^la-tsat^ which they say 
news ^scarring treest** 

The old people used to put a living cicada (which they call 
kab-cheoHte^te) into the nose to make it bleed to cure headache • 
Carrying fire . In former daya the people used to carry fire from 
one place to uiother by means of a small square of thick dry bark 
from the black oak tree (Quercus calif omica) • This bark bums 



slowly foxming a glowing coal that was carried in a basket lined 



swimdng 



ifater» 



Arrow poison> Old people used to prepare a poison for their stone 
arrow tips, to be used in hunting bears, both black and grizzly, 
but chiefly grissliee* The poison >iae prepared by putting deer lirers in 
rattlesnake dens, or in holding them in front of rattlesnakes so that 



-,^ *^ 



they would be s trucks The arrow points were thrust into the liver and 
allowed to dry« 



Rancherias ^ Thsre were three good-sized villages presided o\er by 
a single head chiefs One was on the^ east side of Russian River j the 
other two on the west side« All three hold roundho\ises« 

Kah-shet-^eHM s on east side of Russian River just above the 
present iron bridge sotxth of the mouth of Big Sulphur Creek, Theri 



ua«d to b« * roundhoiiM th«r»« 

.^ Ab-flrak-kot about four alios south of ClofrdaX; on tho 
•Mi sido of Russian RItst (on tho ranch of old Sam Bsrxy) « lltl 
abovo ths Swiss Colongr, Thsro ussd to bs a roundhouss thorn* 
^ . ^. Kal^lung-kot on vast sids of Russian Rirsr^ a adlo and 
« half south of Clovordals* Sits now washsd awsj. Ths railroad 
passss OTsr it« Thsrs was a roundhooss thoro also* 



''^ 



• t. 



Sho-ko-a*h of Kopland^ Hsndoolno Countj 

Plant Ngtos« Sugar-kah-lA-iap) of ths sugar pins (a*la-wa kails) 
is ttssd as ■sdioins for %4iat ars si^ypossd to bs disturbances of ths 
liYsr* Huts (bah-ha) of ths California laurol ( Ihballularis) . oallsd 
Bah-hsB kails. ar« roastsd iln ashss and satsn with frssh dofsr* 



Lsavss of a willow (sh* ko) ars ussd as asdicins In fsrsrs* Ths 
young Isavts ars aashsd and soaksd in oold water, which when dm 
produoss toaiting* Qoossbsrry bushss (tak-ki-ah koo-nah ksl-ls) 



I bgr bsars in aaking 
bsar eubs. giving tl 



an disposition* Leavss of ths stsr- 



r 

fOymhalitta) > callsd kab-ahp-loo bi-ah, orushsd and packsd 
i babj*s naTsl string aaks it cons off in f^ottr days* Ths Hi 
• ( Iris ■aerosinhon or tsnuissiaa) ■ callsd 8s-lii« naks thi 



root is ussd as nsdieins 



of a bsbj* Wild potatoss (Brodfil% grandiflorft) , called bab-bah, an 
satsn* Ths bulb of ths soaproot (aha) is still ussd for washing tia 
hair and is voeh bsttsr than soap* jhs nsv sprouts (tu.-bs) of ths 



*' ■ .-r4 



tttlt ( Selrpoa lxm»trii) » ealltd bateh-aar^ ar« sat^n in spilngf m 
•r« alto jovng shoots of ths flat ttilo or eattall, eallod hahl* 



Plaolo* Soods of both narrow loaf and broad loaf 




aro usod 



for pittoloy oallod po-gra. 



-©•# is-o fly •!«« '^^"^- 



Vtirln *f**f *! 



^flfr*'*! *^?1i-*T' ^ ^^ boginning Coyoto (Oo-ws) nasMd all plaeos and 
plants* Bis ranchoria was on ths aonntaln oallod ToBHna«-oo« Tho 



Cojeto Poo|do woro oallod Win-nap»po« 



!?,*?< 



md ostn on 



9m*t «f ^Tho dsorskin robo or blankat usod by wi»on Is oallod Po«»shs* 
kSiiitoo* It oonslsts of two doorsklns, ono wholo skin in tho aiddlo 
with a half skin sowod on oaoh sido. Ooorskins aro tannod with tho 
hair on* This tribo did not tako tha hair off* 
Skins of tho aotastain lion ( y o » aawt ) woro prisod for wonon's blankots 



Skins of blaok boar (sho«op tah-kahl) woro highly ralood* 



;^K^«h»» 



In hunting door, masks woro soootlmos worn* In thoso tho ojroo woro 



^ ^^ 



th (kah-wo) from digger pino ( Pinns 
oriolo is oallod ki<i9oi* tho saao a 



:> € 



soolding ncto« which is liko tho sovnd producod bgr shaking tho ooooon 
rattlo, eallod ki-gri* 

Iho niTwn Bponor blaekhird and tho Rod-shooldorod blaokbird 
aro oallsd br tho saao nsMs. tsa>»Iso* Iho torm&r is eonsidorod tho 



fswslsj tho lattor ths oalo* i im m^ 



■ilMO^ & 



Iho alligator Heard ( Qorrtionottts) and tho skunk ( i:.um«eoy) 
aro oallod bgr tho saao naas» honh-bah^lah — Qorrtwoottts boing boliorsd 



to bo tho f oaalo of Suasoos* 



€ ft 



wttCr 



♦ ♦ 



hic if.-iibm^ **»l'b(*. 



In 



Pishf ools« salmon oggs and aussols woro Important oloaonts of tho animal 



food* 



• -lir-^' ** -^-^^rt • '»/'-•> '% , 



arasshopp«r«, ao«st«(i grasshopper a (eaUed mHok tha-ko) w«r« Mtan 
in tiaas of aearoltj of food* Qraaahoppara war« oaptured tgr setting 
flra to the diy graas in a large circle » the fire spreading toward 
the center. As the grasshoppers rose to flj tamj^ their wings wer* 
burned, and they dropped to the growid and were self-roasted. 



ordinary face tattooing of wcnen consists of three 



straight lines, one vertical on the middle of the chin, and one on 
each side of the Month sloping froa the comer of the aonth oatward 

t 

t 

and downward* The people saj thej did not tattoo before the Dreaa 
Doctors csM, about sisity years ago* The Big Head Oanee one at 



the ssoe tins* 



•l*«*l!i'S«*, *M 



green 



galls nixed with sap of poison oak and rubbed into sake the scratebss 



sore, 



'■»^ 



Houses. Houses are called chah* They were circular and consisted of 

a wiUcw fraas corered with straw (called Kal^shab-yo) * 

Cerewonial feasts. These were oaUed aah-ah kahtch and were said to be 

given to "appease the gods*" 

Cerwonial gatherings. Neighboring friendly tribes are invited] "have 

big feasti dance four days and four nights} people can't say bad words| 

good to everybodyi all friendsi do not want any quarreli nobody drink 

aqythingi everybody feel happy*" 



invitation string* Instead, a bundle 



small 



each Boming 



until the day arrives* 



^.1^ 






Crfatiop> Called chahtoh hoHOO* Th« d«ad mre ereaated. The 



fuiMral pile is called ehahteh 



burned 1 
;he body 



death has two naaes, koo-yah and chah-cho« 



;**♦ ^ 



miil eri 



Me-tiai*-«ah of Little Lake Valley 



people 



sucked. They aade little cuts or slits, ealled sip-pahn, with a 
sharp knife of flint or obaidiaa. They then seraped gently idth 
the blade or with the hand, pressing toward the slits to force the 
blood out, because aan's blood is too rich. They usually did this on 



the arm or leg— fierer on the face or c1 
for rheuaatisa— often to rellers pain* 



'/ 



^ .. jf 



Pains were often sucked out without cutting the skin, being 
relieved by sucking the part. In this way the Doctor finds out" 
what is th«< Mitter Inside. The act of sucking pains is called kawn 
hab-min. Wox4cing on pains is called kaw-o-do-din. 






^ A 



Not marqr years ago a white man named Locldiart had a stiff neck 
bSt pain in the back of his neck. An Indian woaan doctor case ai 



sucked 



back. Re aored his neck all right ahd had no more pain, 
fire dollars. 



The sacred number is four. People always dance i 
four ni^ts azid then hare the feast called mah-ahnle-kah, 
ended before the fourth ni^t, bad luck cones. 



3«ooratlonB for dancing* In preparing for a danc« th« Ha-tun-aah 
9f Uttla Laka Vallay paint tha ohaat eroaaiwya (horisontally) wit 
fotr bania of eltj vd (po) and blua (na-ahah-lah) , altamattng. 
Both man and voaan paint thair chaata in thia nay. Tha banda ara 
fro« half to thraa fourth of an inch In width. ^Jgtji ffm and wonao 
alao paint tha ohaaka aolid rad, and paint thraa atrlpaa on tha cl 
a long Mdian atripa with a ahortar atrlpa on aach aida. Tha pan 
ohln tattooing of tha woman la alailart a long aadian atrlpa rea< 
from tha Up to tha middla of t\m throat, with a ahortar stripa oi 
aaoh aida. Whan dancing, nalthar nan nor woman waar anj clothing 



abora 



*r 




ivi 



Btrlnw. Tha invitation atring oonalata of two aaparata 



half 



and aa thick through aa laad pancila. Thaaa ara tiad aida by aida, 
and thair nv^r agraaa with tha mnbar of tribaa or Tillagaa to ba 
4.«4«.«<i. oi« !■ vwaoT^ and slYan to tha ohiaf of captain of aaoh 



triba 



I eonaltta of a string of small aticka about 
mnbar corraaponding with tha number of days 



hald 



start, ona to ba takan 



arrlTas 



V %im #1 wiang 



V 



"rml m VT '*— n« Hi-ttmHmah woman of UtUa Laka VaUay, on t^ 
daath of a husband or othar naar ralatira, bang tha hair of tha 
ferahaad and plaster it in horiaontsl linaa with bias clay (eallad 
ms-ahah-lah) . This la worn until it waara of f | the woman ciy much 
of tha tiaa. 



body or corpso of a dead person is called ehah- 



sha-ibaht Th« dead were usually burnad^ but in recent years are 
buried. The grave is called dhahHsah-mo fro« chah, person, Mh^ * *•* 
ground, and ao, hole* Cremation is called ho-babii^M-yini the 
funeral pyre ho*8hi-yu« The fire dying doim toMird the end o; 
burning is called tx>-ee-kahl* The burnt bones renaining are 
yahHBSh-sit (person bone, charcoal)* The fine ashes that are 



carxy- 



bo-che* The nouniag cereaony 



tiae of the burning is chab-de-bun* The aouming cereaony and crying 
at a later period (usually a year or two after the burning), asHMh^ 
ka-euuMiin, asaning *the last sadness danciiig** The clothes, hides 
of Bear and aountain lion, blankets, beads, trinkets, and other '""'■■• 
belonffinM of the dead are bnmwl or buried with the dead* 



They 



by aeaae of a heayy aaul and wedges* The aaul (called hi-bun-ne) ifss 
twenty to twenty-four inches In length and had a big head worked out 
of hard rock* It was used for driving the wedges* The wedges 
(called hi-ah) were of elkhom and were eight to ten inches in length* 
They were used for flitting and chopping wood and also for felling 
trees* The aethod of felling trees was to drive the elkhom wedge 

* 

or chisel into the base of the tree by aeans of the aanir The wedge 
was thus caxried around the tree again and again, being driven in a 
little deeper each tiae until finally the wood was cut away to such a 



depth that the tree fell* 



»!» 



a tHhA 



dJTaricatut) 



ynoda 



the most heat of all woods* Holes are made In the flre*blook tc hi 
the end of the fire drill, and a little pondered dry redwood bark 
Is pat Into each hole to catch the spark when the drill brings out 



«ot 



the fire. 



.1 ff,* .1 i 



'•f/'^c rA^* ■:>,?/;:. 



V ' ^ 






f 4^ 






; ^ 



WWCSi 



ordinary 



consisted 



%fas oalled she-^wab-ehah (from she-wah, bark, and chah, house)* 
Salt. Salt (called she-«) is obtained by the Coast people from a 



Kabesllla 



■!« 



Snares. Snares were much used by the Me-ttmHuah of Little Lake 
Valley for capturing game* Those for small game were called se-lia- 
te, ifhile the large rope snares for the deer were called se*lln»kahf 
she* In both cases the cords and ropes were made of Iris, called 
se-llm* Snares for small gsme were attached to spring poles, but 
for deer ard other large game no spring polo was used but a frame of 
11^ poles was erected, over which the iK>ose of the snare was spread* 
Ground oven. Cooking holes were MMich used. They were called kah-be- 



mo-ho 



salmon, roots 



and other foods. The bottom of the hole was lined with smooth flat 
rocks, the sides plastered with yellow clay. A fire was built in 
tlMi hole and allowod to remain long enoag^i to heat the rocks very 
hot* It wae then renoTsd and the hole 8i«ept clean^ after which the 



10 



•*r. 



it Af^ 



articles to be cooked were placed on the bottom and covered with 
green greee and earth* Poods cooked in this way were cooked a 
ionflt time and xMitained their juices and flavor* 



' ak 



lufcil. Quail wer« ouoh used for food and larga 



nvBtbers w«r« oaukht in basket traps, oallsd natwko-^* They 



or 



nins f««t in length and wi»re made of young willow sprouts* A x<;w 



brush fence three or more feet in lengthy was built in places frequented 



iJL IkXK 



bj the quAil« At intervals in this fence ssall gaps were left« in 



i.% 



each of which was placed one of these basket traps. The quail were 
driven slowly toward the bnish fenoe^ which thiqr followed until th^ 



openings^ when they w^ent 



i^fti. 



»te«4)i»ahi 



(ska^-ko-de) 



runways 



the TOUth held open by sticks* When the rabbit ran in and butted 
against the far side^ the opening was drawn tight so ho could not 
escape* 



?. .» 



Nets were used also for capturing squirrels, woodrats, quail 



and grouse* 



ik 



K,* 



'bliwi 



called tsaw^-e-chah (or tsoi-e chah) • It consists of a roughly woven 



bcttcaLess 



openwork 



i 

inside can see to shoot out in any direction. A oat of ferns or grass 
i«« placed on the ground inside for the hunter to sit on* 



u 



r Pim (shoo-gra lcal*l«) «r« food 
■agar pin* (e*ll»d bt-joot-koo-*) 



•xndM from noondt or bralMfl on tho tro« and Is omI 
It is a good Mdiein* for diarrhMi and fovor but oast 



in too largo qoaatltjr* 



■-!'!'' 



Sr-* 



Qra— hoppTt. Reattod graMhoppors ar« oaton atraij^ 



pomdAd lad stlrrod into aoom wnA, 



M ' TJ 



'i*f 



CSrasttaoi^ra aro usually eaugjit in tho following nannsri A 
largs eirels or ring of flro Is built in a op«i gras^ pUes In 
nhon tiM grass is diy. As ths firs spreads toward ths contsr ths 
grasshoppsrs attsaqpt to fir through It and thslr wings are Hingsd 
off. lotting thMi fall into ths burning stubbls so that thslr bodiss 



ars thorott^ilj roastsd* Seas of thsB ars sat< 
ethsrs ars pouwisd sad alxsd with aeom ansh. 






RsUtivs valn ss of asoms for ■urti and brsad, Tho lis-^«*-Mh 



Indians 



brssd and ais^ ars thoss of ths tanbark oak (^usrsus dsnslflora) and 
bUek oak (Qusrsus ssllfomlsa) both of which ars otly, rich and 



wsll flavorsd, 



(SSSCSSS. 



Ol^l^l 



f nsxt to that» ths canyon Uts oak (Ousreus 



ohrysolspis) . Ths asoms of ths 7alls9r oak ( qusrcus lobata) ars ths 



poorest of ths fivs, asking hard brsad. Thsy »rs not ussd whsn 

othsr asoms can bs obtainsd* 

Aeom brsad« Acorn brsad (eallsd kah-to) is baked in the groun 



alrsadf dsssrlbsd, Aftsr ths rsaains 



12 



oI«an«d 



root ( (^orogalna) > on «hidi tho aeom dotij^ i« spread ; it J 
eoTored with another ■»■• of Maproot l«aT«s and ovorsprMd 



broadf and also for aush 

it A M- t% illi lirtli 



taabark 



othar 



*ra 1 



Lunch br»ad« Another kind of bread ^ called lunol 
froB aoom meh of the tanbark oak or of the bla< 
cooling in water, is spread on a flat rock dose 



tV^ 



it tide ie done, it ic tamed and the other slxle baked. 
Roasted grasshoppers are scHaetims aixsd with the acom nush* 
X the grasshoppers a fire is built in a eirole in an open 
)lae«] as the fire spreads toward the center the grasshoppers 



«hik« 



attMBpt to fljT through it bixt their wings 



pounded and aixed 



smsh. 



1^ Preparation, Acorns soaked in a cold spring oyer winter aw 
.ed aah-ah kah-nia« In the fall of the year the ripe acorns ai 
into baskeU which are sank in a big hole about four feet dee] 

■t 

^ringy or a sprlngjr place, and allowed to remain on 
winter. In the spring of the year, usually in April, they are tal 
out. The bitter has then all gone so that they do not hare to be 
leached. They are then *ucked and pounded into flour, which is 
cooked In basksts in the usual way. The msh and bread Mde froa 

are extra good and are called a "hi^ dish," ■ah-ab-kahHttlm (the 

• 1 - 



13 



nasM ■•aning *food »ad« good*)* 

In cooking aeom anflh In the big batkott, tho paMlM (calloi 
•hAoTu) usod for stirring th« mah hat a flat blado for about oigjbt 



haadlo 



\mlr boart. Qrii«ly baart (boo-tatir-yu) 



land of tba MftioMtth* Ordlnarllx th«7 '*|^r^ l«t alooa. Bat thar* 
vara brava wui, oallad ebali-bah« nho uaad to f ig^ t^Mndth cl«ba* 



jomg^ 



ramai^ra avfaral nan who vara badly aearrad 



in eonbata ifitb gritsliaa and aavaral who had ona hand and wrlat 
bittan off* Also ona or two with ona alia of tha faoa torn off* Tha 
grlsaUoa if suddanly diatnrbad aliiays charged, bat if givan tha 
trail or aaan at a littla diatanoa woold osnally nova off withoot 
Mlasting tha Ma* Wien aat on a trail tha baar always stood up 
and kapt his aya on tha aaa. If tha nan ran« tha baar ehasad hla| 
if tha Mn baokad away qoiatly tha baar aovad on withoot parsulng* 

Qrisslias ara a "kind of toaun baiag/ Th«y ait down lika ' 
a BMn and atand vip Uka a Mn* Thfy gat up and walk on thair hind 
f aat lika a Mn and taka things in thair handa lika a Ma, and thay 



haTa baaa aaan oatdiing aalaon with thair hands* 



grissly baara 



pLiying 



Tbqr wara on a bmlU 



apring* Thay wara aitting two on aach aids* Ihsy elappad thair hands 



fingara, first 



^ ^%^ / 



tha othar, lika ao May Mn* 



figlhting baara tha braTa baar 






Ik 



irlb« U8«d olubs of mountftin Bfthogugr ( C^ffloeanm*^ called nulHshoo-hi 



ttar«« 



inoh«t ia diaatt«r* Tl» b««r hunters always oarzy this club and also 



boir and arrows* 



grlsslios 



striks ths bear cm ono of its pcMS^ 



man then struck him with his club on ths end of his noss— aovor on 



'laall/ klllsd 



wouddsd 



soBstiass klllsd hi»« 



SooHsa>Hihah 




• Ths Me-tiuMUh say that a long tlas 



ago« bsfors ths Jadlans eaas^ thsrs wsrs hairy P«opls« eallsd SooHsa* 
chah or Su-ma chah. Thsy wsrs about ths slss and shaps of our psopls 
bixt wsrs coYsrsd with wool. Shsy could not talk-«only action with 
thslr hands* Thsy hontsd with bows and arrows and spears and got 
thslr llTlng In ths saas way that Indians do* Ms ars not surs whsthsr 
iters wsrs any f soalss aaong than* Ibsy finally dlsappsarsd about ths 

tias ths Indians oaas* 

IQ>.o»chch. the poison aan* Ko-o chah, ths Poison Man (froa Ko-o, 
poison and chah, nan), was not a rsal doctor but a bad nan* Ths 
people know who hs is and try to look out for hla| nobody likss hia* 
Sometiass thsy ir^iT hia* Hs goss around in a crowd in a snsaking 
way and touches psopls with his finger, on which he has put sons 
kind of poison powdsr* In a day m* two ths person touched bsconss 
slcki soastlmss hs diss* 



15 



Mater* Th«7 bttli«Tt in a World Mak»r «Au» ther call Do am 



or Midi-doHaah* He llrot In m good plaoo ealled Oo-yo. Kaking 



the world and poople is ealled aah-do-dln* 



'*HU* 4Mr 



t 

The poison apjder* The Poison Sjtider ( Laihrodectus) . has a red spot 
under his belly which aeans that he is stingjr of fire and slwagrs 
lies on it« He is ealled ho-4ne-lcot« meaning *fire sidder** 
Tribe list * Me*tumi-iBah or Ms-t\iis>4d Po-«ah > (their nana for th 
selves)* A Poooan tribe inhabiting Little Lake or Willits Valley^ 



language is Me-tuB-4d 



bj Pesioan tribes on Russian River and Clear Lake)* 

The territory of the Me-tuM-mah extends northwesterly frost 



;ij|y»» 



willits to a Uttle beyond 



Northwestern 



Cleone Creek (in their language La-kooHaah be-dah), or possibly at 
Pudding Creek, extending thence south to Little River, thus including 
the Ft* Braggy Noyo, Caspar, and Big River coast region n^ch was 
ealled Bul-dan or Bool«-dah« 

The Me-tm mnh proper did not claim the eastern part of 
Little Lake Valley from Willits to the Mountains and Toaki Creekf 
this was the territoiry of a clossly related baxKl ealled Sho-ml po- 
aah« Neither did thoy claim the northern part of Little Lake (now 
a tule marsh) and adjacent northern part of the vall^, for these 
belonged to the band known as Buk«4cow-hah, regarded by the M»-tumHaah 



at a distinct tribe* 



fi . \ a.' » 



.^^ «r»i-. _ i .. 



The name Me-tonaah chut-te was applied to all Me-t ti - mah villages 
in Me-tun-ki or Little Lake Valley* 



16 



lUnchri— In Littlt Lake Vallty. Th« naat Ite-to-oah ehat-t« was 
applied to all Ka-ttoMMh TiUagaa in HB-ti»-ki or UtUa Lakf Vallaj. 

Thar* war* four important pamanant wlntar ▼iUagaa contain- 
ing about six hundrad paopla. Ihaaa naret Cha-bo-eha-kah chub-ta^ 
Po-kah»ehll ohut^ta^ 9ha«o-kah-lan chut^ta, and Taab-kah chat*ta* 

Cha>-bo-ohai-kali chut-itaf naanlng *blua grouse watar vr^ter 
Tillaga** A Tar7 larga raneharla with roundhousa^ two or thraa 
nilas wast or northwest of WiUlts, between Willits and Northwestern 
Mill (just abore Frost's ranch) and about a quarter mile from Po-kah» 



m W' 



chil chot-te* Between fourth and fiftj householes could be counted 
on the site of this Tillage* 

Po-kah->e)dl ehut-te« swaning *Red day hanger raneheria. 
About two Biles west of Willits and a quarter of a nile southwest of 
Cha«bo-cha-kah ehot-te* 

She«o»kah->lan ehnt-te^ Bteaning *Red elagr hanger raneheria»* 
About two nilas west of Willits and a quarter of a mile southwest of 
Chfr-bo-eha-kah ohut-te« 

She-o-4cab»lan chut-te^ aeaning 'Side hill yiUage. About 
a mile west of Willits* Big roundhouse there. 

Tsah-kah chnt-te^ aeaning *Qreen Tillage** On Willits 
Creek near Northwestern Kill, on road to Sherwood* Big roundhouse 
there* Morthwettem limit of Me-^um-mah tribe* Yfy Informant » 



Joseph Willits^ vas raised there* 



wf-\ v) 



Dhvsfr-kab-tilj meaning * Pines on edge of water** Suosssr 



.A m- 



camp less than a quarter mile north of Willets* Formerly small pond 
there* 



^^5 



17 



%e 



Kaht->s«-7a or Kah-tM-700t naae Bwaning *End of water** 



Old suBUMr oamp about on« and a half south of Willlts and about 
a quarter mile from Beohtel Ranch^ between Beehtel*8 and WllXiti. 

Butt-ah-tsa ohut-te^ meaning *Ca8oara village.* Sunaaer 
seed gathering eanp about a mile weat of Willlts and the eaoe distance 



She-o-kah-lah, on a hillside on the road to Pt« Bragg* 
Kah-i-kah chut-te^ meaning *RaTen spring village** About 
two and a half miles fr<»i Will ts on the road to Sherwood| an old 
orchard there now* The old viUaga was two hundred to three hundred 
yards south of the first house (going trom Will its toward Sherwood)* 
There was another village of the saae name on the same road farther 



northy in Sherwood vallej* 

Kah-ba<-pawi-all chut-tef meaning *rock pool caiap** Sunnier 



oan^ about a half mile north of Will ts on new highway* Pormerlgr 



■'-4X» 



there was a little pool or pot-hole in a big rock there, vdiich was blasted 



out by the highway* 

J Kah-be-shal chut-te, meaning *boiling water village** About 

a mile south of Will ^9 on Bechtel Ranch, on present highway* Two 

i 

bands or divisions of the tribs mot there ^ the Kab«»8hi-daH&al po-oah 
and the Tan**nah-kom poHsiah^ 

Tah««ul chub-te« Meaning * friendly village #* Sumner oa&p 
and dancing place In the Valley one and half mile southeast of Wlllltes, 
Shared by both the Ke-tusMoah and the Sho-aul po-mah* 

TanHiah-kum chut-te. meanlne *hand pond village** About 



three or three and a half miles east of Willets* There was an extra 
larsce roundhouse here holding more than two hundred people* Belonged 



[■ 



Id 



to ShOHOBBUl poHuh* 



bH' 



ll^ire ~* 



lanlng *Ea«t and o«q> 



•att of Williti* Bolongtd to tho fftMMml poHMh* 



iMOi* »«> 



WNiP* 



Mab-ah-hl-tun ehot-to, BMnlng *Pood ttlok standing ▼illage.* 
lor eaao a lialf alio oast of Baoht«I*a plaea and oat or ona 



and a quartar alia southaaat of WilUta, In tha flat of tha vallay 
oloaa to tha hllls on tha aast aida* Thara naa a big danea-houaa 
hara eonsiating of a broah fanea fira or aix faat hi£^» without a 

* w, 

roof* Savaral tribaa aat hara to danea and hara a good tlaa, oamping 
hara for thraa ■c«tha-«>fros Juna to tha and of Auguat* 

Bak-kow-faah okot-ta aaaning *OaB mouth villaga** At 
axferana north and of Littla Laka, eloaa to praaant highMaj* Balongad 
to tha division eallad Bidc-kM>-bah po-nah (of uppar Outlat Craak). 

Taam-ao»4ah ehut-ta aaaoing *Soar oraak viUaga** te daris 
Craak fiva ddXaa waatarly fron WiUits on tha road to Big Rirar. 
Paxvanant all tha jaar randiaria^ balonging half and half to tha 
Ma-tun-nah and tha Bol-doa-po-aah* A whita nan naaad Bob Balaton took a 
«p a ranch thara and poiaonad tha ladiaaa by patting atrioknina on 



killad rawrad to Ma->tt»-ki Vallaj. 



i^ 



Ma-ttaa m>h 



Ft. Bragg and noyo (on north aida R^yo Rirar tw) to thraa hundrad jarda 
baak froB tidawatar) • 

No-^bo-dah diat-ta^ on Hara Craak (No-ba-day) about thraa foiirth 
of a Bila baok froa ooaat and aaat of county road* 



< 



Kab-d*-70 elrab-t«, en ooatt nidvaj b«twMn Nogre RlTtr and 



Port Brag<« 



Kili^iteh b«-dali draUU* on «m11 erMk of mom hmm oa 



eoait abovi om ailt north of Podding Crook* ' ^ 

Ei-grt-Ul dlraU»to« on oovth bank Pttdding Crook on top of 

Unff about aixtx foot baek of tidoiiator. 

TaMcali^lo obst-to^ «t fioot of Bald mU albotA ono «iir '^^^^^^ 



PvMiiii Cr«#fc and iaat dlitiaeo f$^ Cloono 



raneboria} pli fi o AC ranehorla tboro nov* 

Kab*lo iMm ■«! ob«t-to» at Ft* Bragg* 



jiiiKiMi^*'' 4fe«iiiiiMk^ 



) «r 



n^wR 



nO^^^h flNMlHfc 



t=«W^^ 



S&i^fe^ tHI^ Uf»4KU 



altf'O frtcM 14 hrf-iWi f't.^r,# mUMI Iimmmii^ 



vi*r 



"i 4 f 



!;v. 



'^Iko 



if 



•^wA ^Am^ *'i^t. HbO' 






,.|1|% 






'•*. ^''-.fi?' 



'j<kL 0mm0kly i^ljictt okk. 



i« 



'»r5 



4 >-'i'*'y, 



h.^,- 



The 



,1€^ WSk 






M. 



■~mm:p 



iu"-'. 



;,;^T«^ tfe* 



'$i#1Sy4#i^ ^»#'^;<r 



or ilM ^^^ 



0/9 V^ 



r 



cm 



IH^j^ 



Jt 





Bra»»fo 



.{ 



• f 






DfM and oroiMil* 



hair ntt* ftol-l** A hMddr««t 



: ColipUt) f •t.thws o«ll«d bo-lwt-t»i-taHa«h 



danelng 1^ tli« am only. 



Moth«r kind 



iTl**^ 



I of •adlluy f««t1i«r« of bmk* 

th^ h«To loQC ttrfii** of h«d««o botd» Mdo of long 



half 



ha]f inoh la dlaiMier, 



r«i iaiiW^.«toiia mtk ImfaUr paichaa of lAtta to It nhicn tnay 
call f «ia4K)o.*-rA (tha rod aio-a. f«id) and iihieh eoMa trm hlUa 



no 




oaai of Iomw Uka. Thla ia "ladlaii gftW." Thay Mka 
trm a hroiai aiona aallad hoo-naad nhieh ccaaa txom nam 



Vgmr Laka f*« * pUo« tk* ««• «f ^«"-«»» •«»»*• ^'^^ M«kin« 



Yallajr 



i 



Thaj 



rwi 




<kM-alt) ara Mda trtm aoft atonaa 



to ■ountatoa aaii of th^l«k». tha bladi, kanbaht, thajr "ika ft«« 
charaoaX of a %«ft tiood f«araUy potoan oak, Tha aaiw charaoal ii 
prlokad Lito tha akto to tattootog. Tha Uttoo -arka ara a«ll^ 



UP-4ooii« 



"■■"•"T''*-' 



flWIPP*'*' 'iW* 



^•'.,..J--*.!*^fet 



aimbaakaf. Tha aun baakat aq«plataU cowrad with f aathara ( 
...diiood^jaakar croima) ha^a tha danoa daalffi aarkad to faathara 
otharoolora. Dartog tha oaw^toa to tha oara«>ntol houaa t! 
MM kant fillad irtth ptoola for tha dancara. 



V'M 



■atTJalf* At Sialphttr Bank, 



>fo 



'•? <A 



IhdLaat ■Aklnc bMlctts of th« foUowliig Batarlalt. i 4aflm ^ ^ 
Di«C«r PiM i PinvM wblniwa) . Ribbon liko 8]»Iii •traadt of young 
growth uMd for bo4j MitoriAl and ealltd ho-aool* 
^^^^'^ (SSCS^. occidoptalia) • Split atranda paalad^ for body 
aatarial. Lah-tib^ aaaa bark left on for daaign aatariaX (rwl). 
Aroaatic 3unao ( BIma trilobata) • Soda with bark on (a^yob) naad 
for eoaraa baakatai fiah baakata and ooaraaat kind of bordan baakat. 
CladitM or Caraa^ roota uaad for body aatarial.^ X raoordad aat-aa for 
CUdiqa and aahF-eha for Caraa^. but I auapaet an arror* Thoy m»j ba 
tha aaaa or aah-ofaa (or aa-oha) Mgr ba eonaon wilXov ( SaUbc) . 
Willow ( Lalia argophrlla) • Callad u&-nob-bah (or uiwiob) and ui 



If, 



for body Mtarlal. 



.11 » 



"< : « 



Sadga (Soinma) , Pina aplit root, uaad for blackiah daaign aatarial 
in fina baakatai aallad taa-kol-hi* 

Maiiy baakata hava quail plunaa of vall^ quail woren in. mr 
Tha pluMa ara eallad hrah or hra* Tha quail ia eallad kahk. 



1.. ... . ' 



.^ae^ 



■ T t". '' 



V *^f 



on m- ' Tha rad arown faathara of tha California woodpaokar 
( Malanarnaa) ara axtanaivaly uaad in baakat daeoration and the Sun 
Baakat ia eoaplataly oovarad with thaai* Tha rad faathara ara aallad 



».■; 



trahn* Tha bird ia eallad ka-lafata-ahta* 



#«eW5 



Abalona banglaa on baakata ara eallad wil-too-lah, (abalona 



ahall, wil-to). 



►•^w>'v- 



»"\ 



•f ^^ 



Bead Making^ Qm aaa Mjs that tha total population, mm, vonan and 



childran la now tvanty«-nlna« (1906) 






■ y^ ^Y^ Several vomm and one nan vtre luking ynrnprnk of elm shalls 
M at Lowtr Lake* la drilling the disks^ aaeh is bald dom Igr the 
tip of tha Index or ftixldle f Infer of the left hand while the drill 
it operated by the ri^t hand which grasps the crossbar* 

0^ Waapum drill for drilling shell nonsy of Washington ela& 

1 
shells* Drill point now made of a steel file} forasrljr of flint* 

The drill is called hoo-e-jab-se* The rubbing etone is soo«ko-kah-be • 

WanpuB is called hoo-e-yah* An old wonan with a soudl hatchet blade 

chops the elaa shells into small aore or less squarish pieces, which 

she afterwards trios into approximately circular disks by chopping 



V V 



off the owners and angles against a soft stone* She then does the 
prelimlnaiy rubbing on a stone to wear off the projecting ribs or 
strial* The man then takes each disk separately and drills a hole 
through its center with the drill, by pressing the cross piece 
and letting it rebound from the coil of the string* This keeps the 
drill whirling rapidly* The disks are then strung on a wire Cfonaerly 
strong string) about then and a half inch long and rounded and polished 
aa margins by pressing with the hands against a flat grinding stone and 
moTing like honing a large knife. ^^ ,^ ^^^ 

Obsidian. They used to get their obsidian for arrow heads from a hill 
near the east shore of dear Lake south of Suljihur Bank between Lower 
Lake and Sulphur Bank, but apparently nearer Sulphur Bank. This would 



»*. ^^ 



The pump drill was introduced about 
J. V. Hudson, "A so-called aboriginal tool," 
Vol. 2, p. 782, 1900 (Ed.). 




niAke the place not sore than ten alles north of Loner Lake and 



likely 



mainly 



south of Sulphur Bank ridge* 

Ceaeterya There are several graves a short distance east of the 

settlement (east or northeast) • Each is enclosed in a rectangular 



fstly 



pinned 



plants growing 



anillein ( Ereaocarmis) 



sheet 



In one case the sheet had a border of points cut on a greenish 



cloth and a middle strip of the same material with 
holes cut into it# 



♦ u • 



[-shaped 



VllUfw and >ctiTiti«a » At tliM of oar visit (August Id^ 1906) 



Lomr 



living 



oaks 



lOtangular oanopj 



and aevsn fsot high. 



oaUsd 



Othsrs llvsd In a nearly circular brush shslter without 
roof but with tall willows and brush to form side snoloslng about 
t\tc— fourth of a cl;*cle, perhaps fifteen to eighteen feet In dlaneter* 
The brueh was set so as to arch In at the top, affording shade all 
day—the opening being at the north* 



v^re <Ni' 



coals 



'itC2 



Bam;4nitm 



i W*' 



qoantitlts 



t ^ 



Tbmy were making and had on hand elegant feather bas 
'*sun basksti" and other basksts of Tarloxu kinds* Piah basket 
(*hahHflnh-cha) to sat doMn in omddj water orer fish* Has hole in 
top through tfhlch hand is inserted to take fish out* Saae kind i 



among Ktalanapo at Kelserrllle Mission* 



f--*. .-B»#J>.»«*1»=r.«>!, iBlrtMk'l, 



nvmi en doeaalm 



f w 



of 






•iar 



;<nel«%.ift«^ 



The liord Pono aeana red oligr^ a aubatance much prized 



mined 



m. j^ 



aborigines • There is a mine of this kind in Potter Valley^ another 
In La-mah (called Lraa br the whites) VallsT. The red clav was tisM 



ftmtUK ^ m ii.« a ^ 



chiefly for nixing with aeom flour to sake aeom bread* The claj 
was dissolred in water and the finely ground aeom flour was mixed 
tdth it 9 giring it a flavor azKl a color desired by the Indians* 



Ordinarr 



nlim 



Hjan^ijir*— >The Tokiah appear to have no specific 1 
hungry* They ssy nah-ah ohuandahlf meaning '*X am dyin^ 



r--- 



Blanket or robe. — In the early days the men had blankets 
teet. made out of the skins of cottontail rabbits. The 



women had deer«>skin robes called pe->8he ka-too* 

Buckdcin. — Deer ski'is w«>rft tanned to make them soft but 
the hair was not remored* 3uch tanned deer skins with the hair on 






he 



vi 



iwrt e«ll«d tha**!** 



Bg|jy^*«>«ffo b«ltt mrf worn oxoepi during e«r«aoai«8 



kind 



called n«b-kaht 



c«ll«d iii*boot fintly worm and d«oor«t«d with th« red fMthert of 



the woodpMker*! head and qiaail 
wnt onlj hgr the rieh* 



'■"•'■ f?fi.»a?-' i!«. 



"■^WMiPL 



y - ft tt-V 






t<» ^ Meacaeine.— Koee—iiw mv not worn by either aen or waen. 



Hate. 



|g£:fi«a^agl.— <S«r-pendante. called sMh-che-ah 



,1«-. ■'^« 



oonatractien 



«yr»l 



wing 



usually the turk^jr hauard^ finely carred or engrsfed, 
decorated at both ends with ^^uail pluMs^ and tufta oJ 



California Woodpecker, thqr 



euapended horia<mtally 



n.' ,4. 




'lilll 



J^;y£^.— The Tokiah built naU 



called p(ah-ab-ohah dose to siaall 



their aen in 
in one day* 



r aueh aniaala and birda aa oaaa to drink. One 
way killed aerenty-f ire California woodpecker! 



^JBOf 9K* I 



.'*■ 



fJBk 



gntranee. 



entrance into aoaa place. Ihua it ia applied to a doorway, the gate 
opening in a fence, a trail, and alee the aun. 

Aa^S£^<— The word for aahea ia no, but in the case of the 

■ 

falling of aahea and burnt leaTea f nai a large fire, the word it no- 
te (froB no, aahea, and te, the aaall woolly feathers of birda comaonly 



t 



known at down) 



3lK«« hi «9 in thm 1^. 



'» 



Ai!TOi»»<aoothT .«^Tt» ioqplMMnt for polishing arrows Is 
not a stons bat consists of two sticks* 

^tQH*— Th« sling for throwing stents is oallsd ta* 
Idis-ok and consists of a saall pises of buckskin attached to a 



•nongh 



to a plant asans "wiltsd.** 



not t«r 



a^ajQ^.— Snares were used for calling birds and anlaals* The 
bird snare is tataa-natat* The deer snare is ba.-de-uk» Usually serera; 
deer snares were set near togethef'T They were nade of Indian rope an 
were Tory strong, so strong we are told that they sonwtlass caught 
and held bears. The act of snaring was called taa*naha*» 

Aeem leach> — The acorn leach is called ah*a-oo-aK>} the 

.._...%■ 
act of filtering acorn asal, i^*a-oo* 

^*^ "^ Pise£.->Pipe8 were called sak-kab-kah-be. They were straight 
and aade of the wood of sii ash tree. 



'i4*^ 



Wild tobacco. — Called sak-kah. It was xisually earrisd in 



'W^ 



weasel skin bags called sak-kah ho-lah, meaning tobacco sack. 



Jt-^Jtil' 



burdens. — Wets called yet were used* They were 



carried 



large canying 



feet 



cadies .-Acorns and other kinds 



fry largs storshouse baskets called e->tet* They stood on a low 



i% i«liiiOiri< ^»> i I- ^« 



called ho-ohaa. 



Sugar Pine. — The sugar pine does not grow in Russian RlTsr 



r 






icL 



but grow In a cool pUe« high up in th« Kjlyakma Botmtalos 
1 tndah and Cl«ar Lain. 
Ita»»tah or Ton..tah.— In th« old days th«r« mr« cortain 
or ««er«% sooiatiss callad ru»-tah. Uiualljr there waa otOj 
a triba, aonatinaa ona In aararal neighboring viUagaa, Thia 
knew the aacrad oaraaonial aonga of tha cult. There la atill 
To-ki-ah woman who knom part of theaa aeoret f onralaa but idll 



not tell then eran to an Indian of har oMti tribe. 



j^ 






WM?d 



(or ua), and alao denotea action, aa in the aentenoea » A bear killed 
hli« (Pt'taavrth yah aoo-to koon)j »The woodpecker ia hanBering* (Kah- 
tahk yah he-to-to), aiid 'Ha put out the fire« (Mbol a«bo¥«.kl yah). 

gotten) a new religion waa brougJA in fro« the Eaat and extended aa 
far Weat aa Stonyford at the baaa of the Inner Coaat Range in Coluaa 
County, Where it oaoe from ia not poaitiTely kiiOwn, but it ia aaid 
to hare ooaa fro« the Sioux Chief, Sitting Bull.^ During ita preralence 
the Doctora who preached it aaid that a terrible wind waa coadng— a 
wind ao atrong and riolent that it would deatroy all living thinga. 
Th^ aaid that the only way to avoid it waa to dig undargroimd 
rafagea. Ihular their direction large aweat houaea about fifty feet 
in diaaeter and ten feet in depth were dug out of the ground and the 
roof waa laid fluah with the ground* They were entered by neana of 




2Thia waa tha aeeond Ohoat Dance wave of about 1890 (Ed.). 



i«(f *•*•«». 



f 



$ 



a tunn«l thirty or toMxiy feci long idiich tlopod graduaUgr Iron 



th« 8ta*faco of th« oarth to tho floor lorel of tho iwvathouM, Tha 
roligloii tan^t bj Umm Oraaa Doctors was a faks rallgi^i and had 
nothing to do with ths original ral igloo of ths ptopla* 

Original (toost Dsncsf . <— In tha ganulno Qiost Omcs (called 
Koo-jak-4cs) « ths old ohlsfs assd to BMist togsthsr in cms of ths 
esrsMmlal housss* It was thslr oastoa to saoks four tlass bsfors 
stylng a word so that thigr would hars tlnn to think bsfors speaking, 
In trlTial aattsrs th^ spoke quloklgr but In discussing serious or 



rsllgloi 



Red Hountaln» — "There is a rsd aountaln sast or southeast of 



Uklsh* It Is callsd Mab»ks slV-tsl dan*-no« BMsnlng Rsd Earth Mountain, 



ordinary 



earth 



Qraeshoppsrs > --In years of scarcity of food, toasted grass- 
hoppsrs are saten* Grass fires are set in large circles and as ths 
fire bums toward the esntsr^ ths grasshoppers wings are nlngsd so tl 
th^ drop Into ths burning grass and are slightly roasted* Thsy are 



then fit to eat* 



ia^^VDA 



-.) 



'i^^iiii' 



Mort 



CugtOMa— The dead nere burned^ not buried • The 



deaul person, called ohah-4calwloir was wrapt in his best and most 



^.itrir 



valuable skins and wampum^ An excavation called chab-ho^ too (''persons 
fire hole*') was dug and the wood for the fimeral pyre was arranged in 
it» The blaming of a dead person is called chah-ho-na-o^ The soum-> 
ing cerenonj at the tine of the burning is called ho-chah moo-low, aeaning 



i/ 



10 



u 



nouming 



*«# 



a oirel«« 



#!^> 



The 'aplrit^ or * ghost* of the dead person is knovm I7 tw> 



eertht 



called ehah 



Pi 



are not preserved in a basket or otherwise • After burning the bod/^ 

*, 

if 

th« aother and sisters rub ashss of the burnt psrscm on thsir faess. 



TolcUh 



■^m 



RslJUdLon .— BTsrr ysar in sarly spring usuallj about ths 
middls of April, ths To-ki-ahs g&TS a f sast to appsass ths gods* 
(Whsn qusstionsd as to who thsss gods vsre, no Tsry dsfinits answsr 
was rseslTsd* Thsj ss«a to bslisrs in a suprois powsr oallsd Kaiih«ah»> 



IL-I 



mhl^ neaning the unlTeree«) 

Thf7 addressed the son eajing^ Dah-chahHlelHsoo^to the mm 
that's moTing aboYe us« 



--^m^ 



They also addressed the ocean and sacred birds • There are 



Sf«» .A AV 



two saorsd birds, naasly, tah»tah, ths falcon, and kah-tah-4cah, ths 
California w)odpecker, both of i^hom are appealed to in their songs • 

.s 

Ths songs run in this wiset ''Give ne the strength of your heart and 
of your nose^** 



r4^ 



The people had confidence in the supernatural powers of du-we 
the Cpyote« Du^we was regarded as the creator | he was uncle of tah- 



tahj^ the falc^i« 



/ «4«' 



Songs •-«K6st of the songs of the To-*ki«ah tribe came frosi 



$ 



the Ricasio Indians of Karin County (Taht is^ the Hoo-*koo-e-*ko tribe) • 



u 



Furth«nDore« wh«n detorlbing hia tongs and cwmonial dancts 
to a Tooluma Mvwuk (WiXlian Pullar of Soulabywillt) , agr infomaatf 
Stephon Rhlght laamad to his sorpriss that soma of than ara yvcj 
slnllar to thosa of tha Mawuk* 

Iha axplanation is that tha Ma-wik of tha Slarra and tha 
Hoo-koo-a-ko of tha Coast balong to tha sans stocky having baan 



2aet 



atrlking rasamblancas indioataa a great antlqoit/ 



and earannmial parfomsneas* 



Bo-jsh 



Invitation string. «-Tha Bo-yah of tha coast strip f roa 



south of tha aoath of Qualali 






ttsoallj aight or tan in nuabar, aaoh about two inchaa long, strung 
togathar. Tha nosibar of stidcs oorrasponds with tha nuntbar of days 
batwsan tha sanding of tha Invitation and tha data of tha coming 
caranongr* Tha nassangsr braaks off ona stick aaeh dagr until tha 
string is dalivaradf aftar which tha raeipiant doas tha saoa until 
ths data of tha earsoMngr arrivas* 

Doctors ."^Tha doctors of tha Bo-grah poa» wara eallad bab-too« 
and wara in tha habit, whan traating tha 8i6k« of asking four ssiphatic 
notions, at tha saaa tins counting slond, which thay did in tha fol- 
lowing words t cnca (tiii^o oo^la), twioa (kaw a oo-le), thraa tijaas 
(sa-bo ool) four tlaas (doo-koi ool). 



u 



Furth«mor«, when dasorlbing hl8 songs and cersaonlal dances 
to a Toolmne Hsmk (Vlllin Fullsr of Soulsbyvills) ^ i^r InfonaAntf 
Stephen Knight learned to his surprise that some of then are ynj 
similar to those of the Mewuk* 

The explanation is that the Hs-wik of the Sierra and the 
Hoo-koo-e-ko of the Coast belong to the sane stocky harlng been 
conneeted around San Francisco Bay in the distant past* The fact of 
striking resenblanoes indicates a great antiqait/ for these songs 
and ceremonial performances* 



Bo»jah 



s|£infl^»— >The Bo-grah of the coast strip frosi 



NsTarro Ridge sooth of the nontb of Qualala Riyer tell ne that 
their invitation string consists of a series of snail sticks^ 
usaal37 el|^ or ten in nunber^ each about two Inches long« strung 
together* The maiber of sti6ks corrstponds with the number of days 
between the sending of the Invltatioa and the date of the coming 
ceremongr* The messenger breaks off one stick each day until the 
string is delivered, after which the recipient does the sane until 
the date of the eeresKtmr arrlTes* 

, Doctors *— The doctors of ths Bo-jah pooK) were called bab>too« 
and were in the habit, when treating the side, of making four cnphatic 
motions, at the sane tins counting aload, which thsar did in the fol- 
lowing words t cnce (tinto oe^le), twice (kaw e oo-le), three tines 

(se-bo oel) four tines (doo-koi ool)* 

.'■■ ■ 



4 



12 



Bow and Arrowt> --To darken novly made bows and arrows 
charcoal powdered and mixed with soaproot glue is rubbed on the 
wood« Bows >i^ich are smaller and less strong than deer bows arc used 
for fluU game^ rabbits^ ducks and other bix^ls« Thej are called duek 
bows, ke«7ahn hi«shin# 

Sweathouse # *— Called shahnie* A conical structure built of 
big tinbers stood on end« It had one large center post« 

Sun basket •^-^The wife makes one and fldres it to the husband 



or to a relative of some one recently deceased^ The husband gives 
it to his mother or sister • 

Driiring f ish> ^->-3mall fish are driven into net hj dragging 
a bush or brush weighted with snail stones fastened with twisted 
hasel spz*outs« The net is called shah-bi-jrak^ 

Cooking slugs • *—>The Bo-yah say that tie way to cook slugs 



is to stick the point of a slender stick through the head of the 
slug and pinch off the tail end and pull out the insides through 
the hole« Then by means of the slmder stick stuck through the 
head, hold the slug ever the coals in the heat of the fire until it 
is roasted* It is then good to eat« 



C. Hart Meniam 

Papon 

BANCMSS 

80/18 c 



P 



mi^ 



C p\^tr a ^f c^J 



" Shkni^jiytflicu yi^-f:, 



<i ^'t- UlJ-ii'^^Jlc^C-^ )/UtAi 



U 



^v/zo " /W" if 



ft 



iA^clhilk 



^- 



^4Vsi^ 



fc^ 



/hh 



A/ln^ 







l oH'jtHJ^ 



I 
I 



» 



7 



/ 



I 



tt'M 



f- 



Pomo 



Mah-kah-mo chum-mi of Cloverdale Valley 



U 



1. 



-li"^ 






Tatooirvgi^ men tattoo across chest and on arms, ^i^omen tattoo 
chin with several vertical lines and a nearly horizontal line 
from each corner of the mouth outward. The material is soot 
from burnt pitch (Kow-he) pricked in with a very fine sharp 
bone needle called tsah^sa-mah, made from the small forearm 
bone of a squirrel. 

Ceremonial hou sed Ah-mi, has a large heavy center post one 
and a half feet thick and fourteen to sixteen feet long. The 
long ridgepole rests on this and supports the roof poles. 
Sweathouse rft is thatched with wormweedC Artem i sia ludoviciana ) 
and straw, resting on a frame of willows or other slender sticks • 
The smokehole (Mo-bo-bahn) is directly over the doorway (he-dah^ 
mo) and is a ventilator hole. 

Bird notes< > They share a belief with a number of other tribes, 
namely that pygmy owl ( Glaucidium ) kills elk and deer by at- 
tacking the anus and tearing the inside of the rectum. 

Other tribes believe the owl attacks and tears the scrotum 
and the testicles of the bull elk; and other tribes say that 
it kills by entering the ear and digging into the brain. 

The Mah-kah-mo say that kah-tah^me-ah-tim, the great pilea- 

or . 

ted woodpecker •# logcock is the mother of kah-tahk, . the Cali- 
fornia woodpecker. 

They knew that we-kah, the roadrunner kills rattlesnakes. 

They say the red-breasted sapsucker is the male of the 
hairy wooapecker ( jjryobates ) and call both le-koos. 

Similarly, they believe the red-shouldered blackbird is 
the male of the boaYe f ^lackbird and are both called tso-le» 

They call the common nVthatch kah-la^tsat, vvhich they say 
means ''scarring trees". 

The old people used to put a living cicada (which they 
call kah-chem-te-te) into the nope to make it bleed to cure 
headache* 



- 2 - 



) 



Carrying fire • In former days the people used to carry fire 
from one place to another by means of a small sciuare of thick 
dry bark from the i»lsfik oak tree ( vj.uercus calif ornica )^ This 
bark burns slowly forming a glowing coal that was carried in 
a basKet lined with clay. In swimming across rivers the bas- 
ket was held above the water. 

Arrow poison . Old people used to prepare a poison for their 
stone arrow tips, to be used ir^hunting bears, both black and 
grizzly, but chiefly grizzlies. The poison was prepared by 
putting deer livers in rattlesnake dens, or in holding them 
in front of rattlesnakes so that they would be struck. The 
arrow points were thrust into the liver and allowed to dry. 

Rancherias. There were three good-sized villages presided over 
by a single head chief. One was on the east side of Russian 
River; the other two on the west aide* All three hold Ilound- 

houses. 

Kah-shet-te-me: on east side of Russian liiver Just abovB 
the present iron bridge south of the mouth of Big bulpher Creek, 
there used to a l(oundhouse there. 

Ah-muk-ko: about four miles south of ^loverdale, on the 
east side of Russian River ( on the ranch of old Sam Berry) 
a little above the Swiss Colony. There used to be a Roundhouse 

there. 

Kah-lung-ko: on west side of i^ussian xtiver, a mile and 
a half south of Cloverdale. Site now washed away. The rail- 
road passes over it. There was a )|P^^d^^o^se there also. 



► »*»•»■•-«»* •^^••"''••k •^-••t 



■ i>.i ' ^ ' gj i 




IJ 



! / 



Sho-ko-a'h of Hopland, Mendocino Co, 



Plant Notes « 



Sug 



t_ _ 



ar (kah-la-^sap) of the sugar pine (m'/ia^wa kaile) is used as 



S=^ — medicine for what are sut)posed to be disturbances of the liver* 
Nuts (bah-ha; of the California laurel (ifeibellulatis), called 

Bah-hem kal4e, ore roasted in ashes and eaten with fresh clover, 

(sh» ^o 

young leaves are mashed and soaked in cold water, which when 



Leaves of a willo, 



are used as medidne in fevers. The 




drunk produces vomiting. 



Gooseberry bushes (tak-ki-ah koo-nah kel-le) are used by bears in 
making nests for their babies. The prickles irritate the 
bear cubs, giving them a mean disposition. 
Leaves of the everlasting (Gnaphalium), called kah-ahp-loo bi-ah, 
, crushed and packed around a baby^s navel string make it come 

off in four days. 

The Narrow-leaf iris ( iris macro siphon or tenuissima ), called 

se-lim/ make the strongest deer snares. The root is used as 
medicine to hasten the birth of baby. 
Wild potatoes (Brodeia grandiflora), called bab-bah, are eaten. 
The bulb of the soaproot (ahm) is still used for washing the hair 

and is much better than soap. 

The new sprouts (tu-be) of the Itule ( Scirpus l acustrls ) , called 
— - batch-aw/ are eaten in spring, as are also young shoots of 



/ 



the flat tule or cattail, called hehl. 
Pinole/* Seeds of both narrow leaf and broad leaf Wyethia are used 
— for pinole, called pe-ya. 



■"S-^FfW^^NP-P""*** 



-2- 



-. *•"( 



Animal Notes/* 



r 



In the beginning Coyote (De-we) named all places and plants • 



/ — 



His rancheria was on the mountain called Tom-na-oo. ^he Coyote 
People were called Win-nap-po# 

The deerskin robe or blanket used by women is called Pe-sh^ 
ka^too. It consists of two deerskins, one whole skin in the 
middle with a half skin sewed on each side. Deerskins are tanned 
with the hair on. This tribe did not take the hair off* 

Skins of the mountain lion (yera-mawt) were prized for women's 

blankets • 

Skins of black bear (she-op tah-kahl ) were highly valued. 
In hunting deer, masks were sometimes worn. In these the 




/ 






/ 



The oriole is called ki-yoi, the same as cocoon, from its 
scolding note, which is like the sound produced by shaking the 
cocoon rattle, called JEl-yi* 

The common Brewer blackbird and the Red-shouldered blackbird 
are called by the same name, tsa-leeX ^he former is considered 
the female, the latter the male. 

The alligator lizard (Gerrhonotus ) and the skink ( Eumeces ) 
are called by the same name, how-bah-lah— Gerrhonot ug. being 
believed to be the female of Eumeces . 

Pish, eels, salmon eggs and mussels were important elements 

of the animal food. 

Grasshoppersy. ^oasted grasshoppers (called myok sha^ko) 

were eaten in times of scarcity of food. Grasshoppers were 
captured by setting fire to the dry f rass in a large circle, the 
fire spreading toward the center. As the grasshoppers rose to 



-5- 



fly away, their wings were burned, and they drpped to the ground 



and were self-roasted. 




"e beginning %y6i9 (U§-W«) uamea all plauor* 



an 



lants. His rancheria was on the moxintain called Tom-na-oo. 



the Ooy6±e people were celled Win-nap-po, 

l^he de^kin robe or blanket used by women is cj 




pe-she-ka-too. it consists of two deerskins ^>tf<le whole skin in 

the middle with a ha^skin swered to e^iiiftside. Deerskins are 

tanned with the hair on. >^is tH^rC did not take the(afiir off. 

Sk±As of the mountain i*CiN(Yem-mawt; were prized for 

women's blankets. 

Skins of bU«^bear (she-op tah-kahlTV^e highly valued. 

In hun*«ig deer, masks were sometimes wom/^'S^ these the 
eyes wf re made of pitch (Kah-we) from digger pine trees (Pinus 



Tattooing/ . The ordinary fftce tattooing of women consists 
of three straight lines, one vertical on the middle of the 
chin, and one on each side of the mouth sloping from the comer 
of the mouth outward and downward. The people say they did not 
tattoo before the Dream Doctors came, about sixty years ago. 
The Big Head Dance came at the same time. 

The material used in tattooing is the juice of green oak 
galls mixed with sap of poison oak and rubbed into make the 
scratchas sore# 



-4- 



Housesj> Houses are celled chah/ They were circular and consisted 

of a willdw frame covered with straw (called Kah-shah-yo)» 
Oeremonial fe astsJ^h-ah kahtchJ were said to be given to •appease 



/TA 



the gods*. 



Oeremonial gathering :s i ^ Neighboring friendly tribes are invited; 
"have big feast; dance four days and four nights; people 
can't say bad words; good to everybody; all friends; do not 



^ want any quarrel; nobody drink anything; everybody feel 
happy*. 



. '^j >'f^-\ 



Invitationi ^ There is no invitation string. Instead, a bundle 
^- — of four small sticks fastened together is sent to *he 
C — Invited tribes • It is sent four days in advance, and one 
^ — stick is broken out each morning until the day arrives. 

Or emat ion . / chaht ch ho^nobj^ The dead were cremated. The funeral 
— pile is called chahtch hom-sek-ki. The mothers and sisters 
rub these ashes on their faces. The basket in which the 



burned bones were kept is called sh'lt. 



c 



MVnMaB*««M~>M>M'**^aBi>w>«i<V>l* 




The spirit or ghost leaving the body at death has two names, 

/ / 

^ — koo-yah and chah-cho» 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 






Sho-I^o^-^^ ^X Mj/T-uv^/ /h^K>rtvK^, ^t^. 



PLANT NOTES 





DOOIMO CQUICTY 



i^Vigar/: 



U " V^ 



/ C u:^ ^^ — C-^ / ^^ ^-^ _ _ 

medicine for what are supposed to be disturbances of the liver. 
( igh~ha) of the Oalifornia^ 



ah-hem kalle, are roasted in ashes and eaten with fresh clover. 




yi 



young leaves are mashed and soaked in cold water, which when 

« 

drank produces vomiting. 




in making nests for their babies. The prickles irritate the 
bear cubs, giving them a mean disposition. 

Everlasting ( Gnaphalium ), called^ 



crushed and packed around a baby's navel string make it come off' 



in four days 



The Narrow-leaf yU-is ( Iris macrosiphon or tenuissima), called 
^e-lim', make the strongest deer snares. The root is used as 

r u ^ "^- 



medicine to hasten the birth of baby 



r—i 




The bulb of the/oaproot (^g) is still used for washing the hair. 



and is much better than soap 




■t^^^ 



/ 



tch-aw; are e^teTin springy as, are also young shoots of the 
St^i oryefattail, called^;B^. 

Pinole: Seeds of both narjrow leaf and broadleaf Wyethie are used 
for pinole, called /g-yS. 




ANIMAI NOTES 







In the beginning Coyote ( Dq-we ) named all places and plants. His 



rancheria was on the mountain called Tom-nli-oo . The Coyote 
j^eople were called Win-pap-po « 



•^ 



It consists of two deerskins » one whole skin in the middle with 
a half skin sewed on each side. Deerskins are tanned with the 
hair on. This tribe did not take the hair off. 

Skins of the Mountain lion ( ^gm-mawt ) were prized for women's 









blankets. 



Skins of idack^ear ( gne-oji jbjah - ^ahl ) were highly valued. 

In hunting deer, masks were sometimes worn. In these the eyes 
were made of pitch ( JCa h« we ) from Efigger F'ine trees (Pinus 



sabiniana). 



The jrfriole is called^^i-joi, the same as cocoon, from its scold- 



ing note, which is like the sound produced by shaking the co- 
coon rattle, called Ki-yi. 

The common Brewer Blackbird and the ^d-shouldered Blackbird 
are called by the same name , J Eaa-Xe3 . The former is considered 
the female-, the latter the male. 

The idliga tor lizard (Gerrhonotus) and the Skink ( Bumeces ) are 
called by the same name, )low-b^t^-lah — Gerihonotus being be- 
lieved to be the female of Bu meces . 



INIMAI NOTES 



a 3H0 K Q 




In the beginning Coyote ( De-W ) named all places and plants. His 
rancheria was on the mountain called Ton(~n^-90' The Coyote 



people were called Win-pap -^o • 



■A 



It consists of two deerskins, one whole skin in the middle with 
a half skin sewed on each side. Deerskins are tanned with the 
hair on. This tribe did not take the hair off. 

Skins of the Mountain Zion Uein Jiay t ) were prized for women's 
blankets. 

* 

Jkins of /lack /ear ( ske^ojijjaj^ kahl) were highly valued. 

In hunting deer, masks were sometimes worn. In these the eyes 
were made of pitch ( Xah--wi ) from /igger /ine trees (Pinus 
sabiniana). 



jrfriole is called >^ 




ing note, which is like the sound produced by shaking the co- 






are called by the same name. >Tsa 
the female-, the latter the male. 



7^ 






lizard (Gerrhonotus) and the ^ink ( Bumeces ) 
he same name , lii 



2umeM£ 



C?U-.l 



• .•^•J.^Vt' 



Pish, eels, salmon eggs and mussels were important elements of 



the animal food. 

Grasshoppers : Roasted Grasshoppers ( palled .m^Tokjl^o) 
were eaten in times of scarcity of food. Grasshoppers were 
captured by setting fire to the dry grass in a lerge circle, 
the fire spreading toward the center. As the grasshoppers 
rose to^fly away, their wings were burned, and they dropped 
to the ground and were self-roasted. 




In the beginning Coyote ( De-we ) named all places and plants. His 
rancheria was on the mountain called Tom-na-oo . The Coyote 
people were called Win%nai^po » 

le deerskin robe or blanket used by women is cal le d ^ r 8he--ka» 



It consists of two deerskins, one whole skin in the middle with 
a half skin sewed on each side. Deerskins are tanned with the 
hair on. This tribe did not take the hair off. 

Skins of the Mountain^ on ( Yem-maytJ were prized for women's 
blankets. 

Skins of /lack ^es^ ( ^e-6p tehlkshl) were highly valued. 

In hunting deer, masks were sometimes worn. In these the eyes 
were made of pitch ( Kah-we ) from Bigger /ine trees (Pinus sabiniana). 

Tattooing: The ordinary face tattooing of women consists of three 
straight lines, one vertical on the middle of the chin, and one 
on each side of the mouth sloping from the corner of the mouth 
outward and downward. The people say they did not tattoo before 
the Dream Doctors came, about 60 years ago. The Big Head Dance 



came at the same time. 



yoison 0) 



f. 



sore. 



* 



Shokdah notes — 2 



Houses: Houses are ca lied /iiah'. They were circular and consisted 
of a willow frame covered with straw (called^ 



ijL 




(( 



"appease the gods". 

Ceremonial gatherings: Neighhoring friendly tribes are invited; 
have hig feast; dance 4 days and 4 nights; people don't say 
bad words; good to everybody; all friends; do not want any 
quarrel; nobody drink anything; everybody feel happy. 

Invitation: There is no invitation string. Instead, a bundle 
of 4 small sticks fastened together is sent to the invited 
tribes. It is sent 4 days in advance, and one stick is broken 
out each morning until the day arrives. 



mation { p[i^X^^.^9T^sd ♦ The dead 
pile is called C hahtch' hom-sek-ki ' 



were cremated. The funeral 





. The mothers and sisters rub these 



ashes on their faces. The basket in which the burned bones were 
kept is called shBt. 

The spirit or ghost leaving the body at death has two names, 




/ 



/ 



f, 



^ 



f 






POMO 



/ 



1 



i 



y 




o 



UAH 



aivrv\,-fVK\ 



fl)^ ooveriPALtr Va-ll^/ 






fc. 



f.^ 



f.c 





The old people used to put a living Xicada ( which they call kah-chem«- 
te-te ) into the nose to make it bleed to cure headache. 



( tatS 



TATOOING: Men tatoo across chest and on arms* Women tattoo chin with 

A 



several vertical lines and a near^horizyital line from each comer of the 



mouth outward. 




Cthe material is /cot from bumtxwnrt pitch (kow»-he) pricked in with a 
very fine sharp bone needle called tsah'-sa-mah, made from the samll fore- 



^•A^ ^Ufj^l^t ^tt 




arm bone of a souirrel* 

( CEREMONIAL HOUSE t f. BTTtl . has a large heavy center post 

and lU to 16 ft» long The long ridgepole rests on %HfeR and supports the 

A 

roof holei» 

/ N.Mj ^I ,^_ ^ y^ ^ 

[ 5WE ATHOUSE : is ^taatmfk' with wormwood (j Brbeml^ia ludoi/ticiana ) and straw j 



resiling on a frame of willows or other slender sticks. 



The smokehole (ho-bo-bahn) is directly over the doorway (he-dah*mo ) and 



is a ventilat«A hole* 




BIRD NOTES 




^ 



Ui$4^ 






rwjj^ 



kiUs Si 



tearing the inside of the rectum. 

tp tears 

0*her tribes believe the owl attacks andirf;he the scrotixm and the testicles 

of the bull elk; and other tribes say that it kills by entering the ear and 

digging into the brain^ 4l^^^^^ 

The Mah'-kah -Ao say that ^^fir'^fl^^^J 7?^^^^^ *^ great pileated wood- 

piBCker or logcockp, is the mother of ifah'-tahk, the California woodpecker* 

They knew that >^*-kah. the roadrunner kills rattlesnakes* 

They say the red'-breasted LiiiJi iiiiL»*i (BXyiMitlliX) -aM the male of the 

hair|y woodpecker ( Pryobates ) and c all lOitA^h J^^* r^oQ s 

^^ they l)elieve '^ ^^^ fkL 

Similarly ^theJ^ed-shouldered ^ackbird f^l^flfHCfSd^ is the male of Bre^ ^ 

Blackbird i^f^i<^i^ and are both called T sp^^l e, 



./ 



••scarring teees*^* 




Mmmi 




c// ly/ 



I A/^m'i 



omM 






GRAYFOX SKIN 



The akin was cai ^d (opened along the hind lega/I^elly not 



slit length'vise). The front feet had been cut off but the skin 
of eachA'JTis slit in six or 3e?en strands or narrow ribbons about 



T> 



three inches long. 



The skin ha.d been turned inside out md decorated in plncea; 
then turned md lef t^fur outside. The skin of the hi«d legs was 
painted deep red. The tail al^o had been slit open on the under- 
side -md the akin painted with the same red paint, and a tuft of 
pure ^^hite feithers four inches long^sev;ed to its tip* 

The most surprising^was a double ring or belt Vind of red 
and blue painted around the inside of tVie skin <?boiit. two inches 
above the base of the tail (and therefore hidden when the skin 
was furaide out). The two b :nd3, each about bilf an inch wide, 
were in nctual contact "ll the way around — the interior one deep 



red, the posterior deep blue. 



/ 



The skin itself is of interest as beinp; unnistakably the 



Unci en 



dirk northwest fonn of the species 




— r: 



califomious town- 



send i. The upperpart*! -ire very d'srk grizzled; the dorsr-U strips 



o almost pure bl -H;k;iX rom neck to tir ^ of tail) ?and on the tail^about 
an inch brordi; The fl^a, innersides of legs, and under3ide3 of 
tail are fulToua. palest on the belly. The specimen is an adult 



male. ^ 






the soogs of the Yo^ki^ah trihe came from the Nicasio Indians of 
Uarin County [that is, the Hoolkoo.e-ko tribe^. 

Furthermore, when describing his songs and ceremonial 
dances to a Tuolunne Mewuk (William Fuller of S^ulabyville), 
.Knight learned to his surprise that some of them are very sim- 



ilar to those of the Mewuk. 






•\ 




of the Coast belong to the same stock, haring been 



connected around San Francisco Bay in the distant past. The 
fact of striking resemblances indicates a great antiquity for 
these songs and ceremonial performances. 



CARRYING FIRE 






i f Olu fB idal B 



in former days the people 
used to carry fire from one place to another by means 
of a small square of thick dry bark from the black 
oak tree (^jaercua c alifornica ). This bark bums 
slowly forming a glowing coal that was carried in 
a basket lined with clay. In swimming across rivers 
the basket was held above the water. 




ARBOW POISON. 




T h e Mah Igah - n < c hrnn w ini nf fil 





3ld people used to 
prepare a poison for their stone arrow tips, to be 
used in huntii^ "bears, "both "black and grizzly, but 
chiefly grizzlies. The poison was prepared by putting 
deer livers in rattlesnake dens, or in holding them 
in front of rattlesnakes so that they would be struck. 
The arrow points were thrust into the liyer and 
allowed to dry. - 



HANCailHlAS 




There were 3 good-sized villages presided over 
T)y a pingLe head chief. One was on the east side of 
Russian River; the other 2 on the west side. kUiiU^ 

: on east side of Russian River 




just above thelij?^ bridge south of the mouth of 

Big Sulpher Creek. There used to he a Houiidhouse there 



iko: about 4 miles soath of Cloverdale. 




on the east side of Russian River (on the ranch of 
old Sam Berry) g little above the Swiss Colony. 

There used to be a Roundhouse there. 



'-lauon west side of Russian River, a 




mile aid a half south of Cloverdale.' SXtflinciw 
washed away. The railroad passes over it. There 



vas a Roundhouse there also.- 



X 



I 

J|«-ti^«-ujah or Little Laite Vaiiey 

h 
Doctors ^1.0 su<ck_jgain8. There were doctors wiio bled people 

and sucked, T..ey made little cuts or slits, called sip- 
parm, ,.iti. a s .arp knife of flint or obsidian, Thejr 
than scraped gently with the blade or with. the hand, 
pressing toward Uie slits to force the blooa out, because 
man's blood is too rich. They usually dia tiiis on the 
aria or leg —never on the face or chest. It was some- 
times done for rheumatism —often to relieve pain, 

Paint, were often sucked out without cuttin^^ tixe 
skin, being relieved by suckin^j the part. In this way 
the Doctor finds out whai is the matter inside. The 
act of suckino pains is called kaw-o'-hah-^min. Working 
on paiiis is called kaw-o*^do-din. 

Not wany years ago a wrxite aan named iiockhart had 
a stiff neck and a bad pain iu tne back 'of i.is neck. 
An J-ndian woman doctor came ana sucked ttie back oi his 
neck for half an hour* i«ext morning she cjuae back, 
;ie movea his neck all ri»^i.t and had no more pain . 
He gave her five dollars, 

"Tiie sacred immber is four, V.e always dance and 
sing for four nl.^hts and then have the feast called mah- 
ah-de-kah. If the dance is ended before the fourtii night, 
bad luck coxues. 

They say furtner that in pre^^arin^ for ceremonial 
dances the women paint the front part of the top of the 
head, across tue hair, wit., four horizontal bands of clay, 
in red (po) and blue (me-shal-lUi) alternating, 

I)ecorations for dancin^;^. In preparing; for a dunce the 
ide-tum-mah of Little Lake Valley paint the chest cross- 
ways (horizontally) with four bands of clay red (po) 
and blue (me-snah^laa), alternating,. Both men and women 
paint their chests in this way. The bands are from half 
to three four^of an inch in width. Bot.. men ana women 
also paint the cheeks solid red, and pj.int three stripes 



- 2 - 

on the chini a lon^ median stripe v^ith a shorter stripe 
on each side* Tut permanent chin tattooiu^ o. the women 
is similar t a lon^ mediaa stripe reaching froiu tho lip 
to the middle or th throat, with a sliorter stripe on 
eacii side* .?hen dcUicin^, neituer men nor women ear 
any choti.in^ above the waist* 

Invitation strinKS * The invitation strin^^- consists 
of tv/o separate articles i one, a number of sticks about 
two and a half inches long and as thick through as lead 
pencils 4 These are tied side by side, and their number 
a^jrees ;-ith the number of tribes or villages to b^ invi- 
ted* One is removed and given to the chief or captain 
of each tribe or rancheria invited* 

The other article consists, of a strin^ of small 
sticks aboui the size of matches, the numi>er correspon- 

9 

din^i with the number of days before the feast is to be 
held --say six at ti.e atart, one to be taken off every 
day until the feast day arrives* 

Mourni .& b. woiae n* Me-t\xm»-mah women of Little 
Lake Valley, on the death oi a husband or otuer near 
relative, ban^ the hair of the forehead and plaster it 
in horizontal lines *;ith blue clay (Called me-shah»^lah)* 
This is worii until it wears off; tne wonien cry ii*uch of 
the time* 

Death cus torus * The bod^ or corpse of a dead i)erson 
is called cha/i-she-bah^ The dead ».er usually burnt d, 
but in rt cent years are buried* The grave is called 
ciiah-mah-mo froii chah, person, mah, ground, and mo^ hole* 
Cremiition is called ho^bah-we-vin; the funeral pyre ho- 
shi-yu. The fire dyin^ down toward the end of the bur- 
ning is called ;iO-se-kalil. The burnt bones reiaaining 
are phah yah-mah-sit (person bone, charcoal)* The 
fine ashes ti^at ar» left are called ho-too-lah* They 
are put into a tightly wovr n woman's carrying basKet 
called bu-che* Tlie riournint, cereiaotiy or funeral at the 
ti e of the burning is chah-de-bun* Tue liiOurnmg cere- 



- 3 - 



o< 






mony and c.yiag at a later period (usually a year or two 
afte: the :.uruia,)| me-Bah-ka^iaan-nia/ meaning Hhe last 
sadness daacin^i'. The clothes, uiles of Bear and UAOun- 
tain lion, blcLnkeca, beads, trinkets, ami other belon^in 
of tne dead are burned or buried .vith the dead# 

yellin^^ trees and splittin,- planks ^ They felled 
trees and split lojs by means of a heavy maul and wedges^ 
The maul (called hi-bun-ne) was twenty to twenty-foulT 
inches in length and uad a big head worked out of hard 
rock. It waii used for driving the wedges • The wed,L,es 
(called hi-ah; were of elkhorn and were ei ht to ten 
inches in length • They wore used for splitting and 
chopping wood and also for fellit.g trees* The met .od 
of felling trees was to drive the elkhorn wedge or chi- 
sel into the base of the tree by means of the maul. 
The ..edge was tnus ca: ried around the tree again and 
again, being driven in a little deeper each time unti^ 
finally the wood was cut away to such a depth that the 
tree fell. 

Fire makin/^ . The fire drill lid made of buckbrush 
(Ceanothus divaricatus) and the fireblock and either 
buckeye or elder. The»e two woods have the most heat 
of all v^oods. Holes are made in the fire-block to 
hold t..e end oi the fire drill , and a little nowdered 
dry Redwood bark is put into eacii hole to catch the 
spark v;hen tht^ drill brings out the fire. 

Houses . All kinds of ho ses a e called chah. The 
ordinary house was conical anci consisted of slabs of 
bark, usuall.; of taabark oak. It wao called she-wah-chah 
(from she-wah, bark, and Ci..ah, house). 

alt . Salt (called she*-e) is obtained by the Coast 
people from a big flat rock betwo< n Kabesilia and Ci.ad- 
burne Gulch. 

(iround over , i^ooking holes .vere much used. Tt.iey 



S 



/ 



were c lied kah-'be-mo-ho (from Kah-be, rocks; mo, a hole 



- 3a - 

« 

Snares, inares were much used b. the Ue-tum»-ii»ah of 
Uttle ieke Valley for capturing ^ame. Those for small 
game were called se-lim^te., while the large rope sna- 
res for the deer were called se-li«lkah-she. In both 
cases the cords and ropes were made of Iris, called 
se-lim*. 

Snares for small game were attached to spring po- 
1«8. but for deer and other large game no spring pole 
was used but a frame of li^jht poles was erected, 
over which the noose of the anare was spread. 



I 



- 4,- 



and ho, fire). They wore about three feet square and 
were used for cookia^ deer meat, saliaod, roots and 
other foods, lue botiom of tho hole ,as lined with smooth 
ilat rocks, the siaeo plastered with yellow cl.y, a 
fire was built in tho hole and allowed to reiaain long 
e ouiih to heat the rocka vei^' hot. It was then reii.oved 
end the hole swept clean, after which tne articles to 
be cooked were .laced on the bottom and covered with 
green grass and earth. Poods cooked in this way were 
cooked a louji time and retair.ed their juices and flavor. 

Basket tra ps for iuail . tiuail were much uaed for 
food and l.ree muiibe s ».ere caught in baar-et traps, cal- 
led nah-ko-e. They were eiiiut or nine feet in len^-th 
and were ma^e of young willow sprouts* a low brush fence 
thxee or more f.jet ip length, was built in places frequented 
by ttie <iUail. ^'t interval;. \u this fence small ^aps 
were left , 1^ eac^\of which was placed one o- thwse 
baskets traj&. iheviuail *ee driven slowly toward the 
brusii feti^/, which |Uy followea . ntil they cjune to one 
of tue (^^etiir^s, wtjieln they went into the trap. 

Rabbit rin^ts. '>Babbit nets, called wi-te'-bi-ah, .;ere 
used for neUing JafdkrabbitsCska-ko-de'). T ey were in 
the shape c/y. a pipuch three anu a half to four foet in 

■I i-U ' ■ i 

length any were ;set on rabbit run*ays with th^. mouth 
held opeA b/ s.ijidics^ | When the rabbit raa in and butted 
against tne far side > the opening wa.; drawn ti^ht so 

ciape. 

y</l«lets werey^Uaed also for capturing s-iUirrels, woodrats, 
iiuafia and g^ise. 



he conld not es 






Basket 'kind »f or hunting. The brush hut of »blind» 



for huuta^ig life jcallnd tsuw-e-chah(or tsoi-e chah). It 



9 

co.iSist/ 



ytig iB ic 

of 4 io 



fiu-hly woven bottoml. ss basket four or 



{ 



five £iet in ib^iiht ami is easily carried froiu i-lace to 
plac/. 14 i^' of Openwork so thut the person sitting 
iu/ici^ 6c^n s^e to shoot out in any direction. A mat 
oj^'fejns or gras.. is :lHCt.d on the ground inside for the 



/ 



/ 



f J 



• 5 - 



/ 



hunter to sit on* 

iuE!^r vine . The nuts of the Sugar Pine (shoo-ya 
kal-le) are good eating* The gum or resin of the eu-- 
gftr pine ( called be-yoot-koo-e) exudes from wounds or 
bruxses on the tree and is easily scraped oif • It is 
a iiOod iiiedicine for diarrhea and fever but must not be 
eaten in too large luantity*' 

Grasshoppers * Roasted 6^asshoppers are eaten straight 
and alBO are lounded and stirred into ucOi*n mush* 

Grasshoppers are usually cau^it in tne following 
mauneri A large circle or rin^ of fire is built in a 
open grasBy place in summer when the-: grass is dryi As 
the fire spreads toward the ceater the grasshoppers attempt 
to fly through it and their wings are singed off, letting 
them fall iato the burning stubble so that their bodies 
are thorout^hly roasted* Some of them are eaten just 
as they fallj others are pounded and mixed with acorn 
mush* 

Relative values o f acorns for mush and b rea d • T he 
Me-tum^-mah Indians of ^ittle Lake Valley tell me that 
the acorns t ey like bv st for bread and mush are those 
of the taubark oak (c;.uercus densiflora) and black oak 
(viuercus californica) boti. of which are oily, rich and 
well flavored* Tne one they regard as next best is the 
white oak (^:uercus ga;ryana); next to ttxat ^ the canyon 
live oak (^uercus chrysolepis); The acorns of the Val- 
ley oak (s-uercus lobata) are the poorest of the fiv*^ 
making hard bread* They are not used when the other 
acorns can be obtained* 

Acorn bread * Acorn bread (called kah-tc/) is baked 
in the ground ovens already described. Al ter the remains 
of the fire and ashes have been cleaned out, the hole 
is lined with the long leaves of the soaproot (Chlorogaliun), 
on wiiich the acorn dough is spread; it "Is then covered 
with a other Hiaso of soaproot leaves and overspread .vith 



. 6 . 



k 



with earth. The best acorns ior bread, an also for 
musht are those of tht; .anbarK oak an(J the black oak} 
these are very much better than t ose of any oi* the 
other oaks; 

Lunch brea d. i^notLe. kiad of bread, called lunch 
bread, is luade ( om acorn mush of ^h tanbark oak or 
or the black oak, wuioh after coolin^ in .ater, is spread 
on a flat rock close to the fire# hen the from side 
is aone, it is turned and the other si le baked* 

Roasted grasshoi)pej s are so^ie times mixed ^±th the 
acorn mush • To eaten the grasahoppers a fire is built 
in a circle in an open gras ;y place; as the fire spreads 
toward the center the grasshoppers attempt to fly through 
it but their wings are sia^jed off and they fall to the 
ground and are roasted* They are then pounded and mixed 
with the acorn mush* 

Acorn Preparation * Acorns soaked ia a cold spring 
over vtinter are called mah-ah kah-nim/ In the fall of 
the year the ripe acorns ai o put into baskets which 
are surik in a bi^ hole about four feet deep in the. 
mud or a spring, or a springy place, and allowed to 
reaain over winter* In the spring of the year, usually 
in April, they are taken out* The bitter has then all 
gone so thai they do not have to be leached* They i.re 
then shucked and pounded into flour, which is cooked 
in baskets ia the usual way* The mush and bread made 
f re Ln it are extra good and are culled a "high dish'^ 
mah-ah kah-nim ( th nsjne meaning •food made good*) 

In cooking acorn mush in the bi^ baskets, the pad- 
dle (called sha-yu) used for stirring U^e mush has a 
flat blade for about eight or nine inches, above which 
it tapers into the handle* 



- 7 • 

Grizzly bears ^ Grizzly bears (boo-tah-yu) were coraiJiOn 
in the laufi of the Me-tuia«iuah. Ordinarily they yier# 
let aloue# But t,here were brave men, called chan-banf 
who used to fi^ht them witli clubs* Hy iuforuiant, when 
young, remembers several men .ho wt^re badl^ scarred iu 
combats .itu grizzlies ad several ho had one hi.nd 
aud wrist bitten off* Also one or t^*o with one side 
of the face torn oif. The griz^lieo if suddenly distur- 
bed always charged, but if given the trail or seen at 
a little distance would usually move off without mo- 
lestiag the man* ahen met on a trail th- bear always 
stood up and kept his eye on the man* If the man ran, 
the bear chased him; if the man backed away i^uietly the 
bear moved on without pursuing* 

Grizzlies are a kind of human beingt they sit 
down like a man and sta .d up liKe a mau# They get up 
and walk on their hind feet like a man and take thia^s 
iu their hands like a man, ana they havc beeu seen cat- 
ching salmon with their hands # 

A lon^ time ago one of the old j>eople saw four 
grizzly bears playing the grass game* They were on 
a small flat; it was in early sprint;* They were sitting 
two on each side* They clapi;ed their i^ands together 
and pointed their fiu^^ers, first on one side and then 
on the other, like so many men. 

Bears * In fi^^hting bears the brave bear hunters of the 
Me«tum*mah tribe usee clubs oi mountain mahogany (Cer- 
cocarpus) called mush-shoo-hi# They are five or six 
feet long, ..ith a knob on the end two or t ree inches 
in diameter* The bear hunters always carry tl-is club 

and also.; bow and arrows* 

It"%as the practise of tlie men w^iO hunted the griz- 
zlies to strike the bear on one of its pa^rs, whereupon 
he stood erect* The man then strucK him with his club 
on the end of his nose —never on the head* After fighting 
the bsar in this way he was finally killea with the bow 



- 8 - 



and arrow^ But tae bear oiteu wounaea the huater aud 

aometlmes tiilled hia» 

^ ^ f . 

boo->iaa-c hah# the hairy peoile # The Me-tumimah say that 

a long tiiae a^j,o , before the Indians came, there were 
hairy people ^ called Soo-ma-chah or Su-ma chah# T.ey 
were about the size and shape oT our people but were co- 
vered with wool* They could not talk —only motion f.ith 
th( ir hands* They hunted with bows and arrows and spears 
and got their living, in ihe same way that Indians do^ 
We are not sure whether there were any females aunong 
them* They finally disappeared about the tiL-.e the In- 
dians came* 

Ko-o ch aht t.e poison ma n^ Ko-o chahi the Poison Man 
(from Ko-o^poi8on and cixahf man), was not a real doc- 
tor but a bad man^ The people know wao he is and try 
to look out for him} nol^ody likes him* Sometimes 
they kill him* He ^oes around in a crowd iu a sneaking 
way an(x touches peo le with his finger, on which he 
has put some Kind of poison pov/der* In a day or t..o 
the person .touched becomes sick} sometiues he dies^ 
World r. 



• They believe in a World Maker whom they 
call Do-man or Mah-do-nah* He lives in a ^ood place 
Oulled Oo-ye* ilakin^ the world and people is called 
mah-do-din« 

The poiso n s pider (Lathrodec tus )* The i:^oison Spider 
has a !ed spot under his belly which means that he is 
Btin^iy of fire anu always lies ou it* He as called 
ho-me-kot, meaning; •fire spider •* 

Tribe list * Me-tum'mah or ^^-tum-ki ?o-mah* (their 
nauie for themselves)* A iomoan tribe inhabiting Little 
Lake or Willits valley, the name of which injtheir own 
language is Me-tura-ki (called »Be-tum-ki* by Pomoari tribes 
on Kusiiian Kiver and Clear Lake)* 

The territory of the Me-tum-mau ex -ends northwesterly 
from tl^e site of thf present town of -.illits to a little 
beyond the savi.^ill at ^northwestern an thence to thcoj . 



/ . 



u 



- 9 - 



coast, w .ich it reaches at Cleone Creek ( in their lan- 
Cuage le-koo-nah be-dah), or postiibly at Pudding Creek, 
extending; thence south to Liitle River, thus including 
the r'K iJragg, Hoyo, Caspar, and iJig uiver coast region 
which was called -liul-dain or Bool-dah. 

The Me-tum'-mah proper did not claim the eastern 
part of Little Lake Valle/ from Willi ts to tue Mountains 
and lomki Creekj this was the territory or a closel/ 
related band called i>ho-mul^ po-mah. Neither did they 
claim the northen part of Little laKe (now a tule marsh) 
and adjacent morthern part of the valley, for these be- 
longed to the band known as Buk-kow-hah, re^^arded by the 
Me-tum-mah as a distinct tribe. 

The name iae-to-mah chut-te was applied to all Me- 
tum-aah villa .,es in lie-tumiki or Little Lake Valley. 
R«^.^,^^^ a>a^ In Little j^ake Valley , 

/ / 

Ihe name Me- to-. Ah chut-te was applied to all Me« 

tum-mah villages in :ie-tum-ki or -Mittle Lake "alley. 

There were four important permanent winter villages 
coataiuiuo about six hundred people* These were i Cha- 
bo-cim-k:;.h chut'^te, Po-kaii-chil^ chut-te, She-o-kah-lan '^ 
chut-te, and Isah-kah chut-te. 

Cha-bo-cha-kah'' chut-te, meaniug •blue arouse water 
-water village*. A very large rancheria with round^.ouse, 
two or three miles .vest or noithwest of vVillits, between 
llllits and Korthwestern Mill ( just above Frost's ranch) 
and about a viuarter mile from Po-kah-chil 'chut-te. Jjet- 

en foi*rty and fifty householes could be counted on 
the site of this village. 

Po-kah-^chil C£iut-te, meauiug 'Red clay hanger ran- 
cheria»# About two miles west of Wiilits and a v^^uarter 
or a iiiile southwest of ^ ua^ bo- ciia-kai/ chut-te • 

She-cj'-kah-lan'' chut-te, mea.ang 'biie hill village. 
JBbout a mile west of \ illits. Big roundliouse there* 



- 10 - 



I 






Tsah-kah chut-te| meaning •Greeti village*. On illite 
Creek near ^*orthweste n Killf on road to iiherwoodf Big 
roundhouse there* northwestern limit of iie-tiiiii^mah tribeit 
M}f xuforiaanty ooseph i.illitSy was raised there* 

Chum-kah-til, meaning •Pines on edge oT water •• 
Summer camp less than a ^[Uarter mile north oi Willets* 
Formerly small i^ond there ^ 

Kaht-2e-yu or Kah-tse-yoot name meaning •End of 
water^t Old suiamer camp about one* and a naif siouth of 
Willits ana about a quarter Aile from Bechtel Kanch ^ 
between Bechtel's and Vvillets* 

Buts-ah-^tsa chut-te, meaning •Cascara vil age** 
Summer seed ^atiiering camp about a mile west of Vdllits 

and the s jne distance south of •^he-o-kiih-lah^ on a hil- 

.1 ' •■ ■ 

Iside on the road to Ft* iJragg# 

Kah-i^kah chut-tei meaning 'Raven spring village •; 
Ahoiit two and a half miles from willets on the road to 
She wood; an old orchard there now# T.^e old village 
was two hundred to three hundred yp.rds South ol the first 
house (going ^rom ^-iiilets toward •^lierwood)* i'here was 
atiOtiier villa^^e of t^e same ucxme ou ti^e suae road farti^er 
nortiii in Siierwo d Valley* 

Kah ba-paw-all chut-te, meaning Uiock pool camp* • 
Summer caiip about a half mile nortli of Willets on new 
highway* Formerly there was a little pool or x)ot«-hole 
in a big rock there, wiiich was ola»;ted out by the high- 
way* 

Kah-be-shal chuV-tei meaning •boiling water village** 
About a mile south of V^illets on jechtel Ranch, on pre- 
sent highway* Two bands or uivisions of the tribe met 
there, the Kah-shi-da-mul po-mah and the Tau-naii-kom 
po-iriah* 

Yah«ffiul chut-te» Meaning •frieudly village f. Sumiaer 
camp uiid dancmo place in the valley one and half mile 
southeast of -ilXits. Shared b-' boti. tr*e iile-tum-mah 
and the Sho-mul po-mah* 



- 11 - 



V V 



Taa-nah-kuia chut^t-, meaning •hand pond village •• 
About three or three and a half miles easi oT \inilletB» 
There ^as aa extra larije roundriOuse here holding more 
than two huudred peoi^le* -^eloufced to iiho-mul po-mah# 

Sho«t8e«»yu chut^te^ meanin^ 'i^Iast end camp*« A)iout 
twe miles east of V^lllits • i^elonged to the bho-mul 
po-mah« 

Mah^ah-hi-tum chut-te, meaning 'Pood stick standing 
villat;e*» Big summer camp a hali mile east of bechtel's 
place and one or one and a ^iuarter mile southeast of 
Virillets, in the flat of the valley close to the hills 
on the east side* There was a bi,,, dance-house here con- 
sisting of a brush f^^nce five or six feet hign, without 

a roof* ^Several tribes met here to dance and hav % a a 

I 
good time, camping here for three months —from June 

to the end of Au^^ust* 

Buk-kow-hah ciiut-te meaning •Dam mouth village** 
At extr^-me north end of Little Lake, close to present 
highway* Belontjed to the division called Buk-kow-hah 
po-mah (of uiper Outlet Creek)* /l '^ 

Tsam-moiii-dah chue-te meaning 'Sour creek villa^eM f^ 
On i>avi8 Ureek five miles westerly from Wills ts on the 1 
road to Big Kiver* Permanent all the year rancheria^\ 
belonging half and ^alf to tlie Me-tum-mah and the Bul- 
dom-po-mah* A white luan named gob Ralston took up 
a ranch there and poisoned the Indians by putting 
stricicnine on meat* Ttiese who were not kilied ren^oved 
to ide-tim-ki Va.iey* . 








• 12 • 



I 



jle*tma-mah raucheriaa on or near c oasts 

Ho yo chuf te/ on the beach between pt# Brag^ and 

Hoyo (on north side Noyo Kiver two to three hundred yards 

back from tidt wa er#) 

No-bo-dah chut-^te, on Hare Creek (Ho-be-dah'J about 

three fourth mile back from coast and east of county 

road» 

Kah-de-yo-chut-te, on coast midway between Koyo 
River and Fort Brans. 

Kah-bah be-dah chut-te, on small creek of same name 
on coast about one mile north of Pudding Ci^ek* 

Ki-ye-tel chut-te ^t on south bank Fudditig c;reek 

on top of bluff about si; ty feet back of tidewater^ 

/ u / 
Yah-kah-le chut-te. At foot of -bald i^ill about one 

mile north of Pudding Creek and same distance from Cleone* 

Site of old r ncheriaj present rancheria there now* 



ICaIi^^ U ^/%{^t^/ ekai^-he^ 



^/ /'Z, ^^^/^ 






\ 

\ ■ 

\ ' 

\ 

\ 



The following document is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



« -^vWuMb 



f( 



u^h^ 



( l\/\t-i^o^- ^^L (^lL^^M^ 




t^ 




5t//g 



DOCTORS WHO SU 




7 G) 



ma 



octors who bled people and sucked. They 



de little cuts or slits, cc 1 led >oi jg-gahr\ . wLth a sharp knife 



of flint or obsidian. They then scraped gently with the blade 
or with the hand, pressing toward the slits to force the blood 
out, because man's blood is too ridi. They usually did this 
on the arm or leg — never on the face or chest. It was some- 
times done for rheumatism — often to relieve pain. 

Pains were often sucked out without cutting the skin, 
being relieved by sucking the part. In thi? way the Doctor finds 
out what is the matter inside. The act of sucking pains is 
called ggwjg-jiah -_^ n . Working on pains is csl le d i{^w-o~do-di jn . 
Not many years ago a white man named Lockhart had a stiff 
neck and a bad pain in the back of his neck. An Indian woman 



/ 



octor csme and sucked the back of his neck for half an hour. 



Next morning she came back. He moved his neck all ri^t and had 



no more pain. He gave her $5.00. 




d) 



DEGORilTIOIIS FOR DANCING 




In preparing for a dance the Me- tum^^nah^ of Little Lake 
Valley paint the chest crossways (horizontally) with 4 "bands 



CVOLM — 

of. red 




) and blue ( l(fe-shah-: 



, alternating. Both 



men and wmen paint their chests in this way. The bands are 
frcm half to 3/4 of an inch in widths 




^ Both men and women also paint the cheeks solid red, and 
paint 3 stripes Ion the chin: a long median stripe with a 
shorter stripe on each side. 







^The permanent chin tattooing of the women is similar; 
a long median stripe reaching from the lip to the middle of 



the throat, with a shorter stripe on each side 




^ 



When dancing, neither men nor women wear any cloth iiig 



above the waist. - 




**^0* tttfyHHftfiw^ 



IIJVITATION STRIN^GS W TIP r^ TTTIinilH Hfi mOII 




& 



The ihvitatioiymring consists cf 2 sep- 
arate articles: one, a number of sticks about 2i 
inches long and as thick through as lead pencils. 
These are tied side by side, and their number 
agrees with the number of tribes or villages to 

« 

be invited. One is removed and given to the chief 



or captain of each tribe or rancheria invited. 



ng 



The other article consists of a stri 

4 

of small sticks about the size of matches, the 
number corresponding with the number of days 



before the feast is to be held — say 6 at the start, 
one to be taken off every day until the feast day 



arrives 




MOURNING BY 



WOMEI^^ 




women of Little Lake 



Valley, on the death of a husband or 



other near relative, bang the hair of 



the forehead and plaster it in horizontal 



lines with blue clay f csl le d Ae^^Yi^l^ ) . 
This is worn until it wears off; the women 



cry much of the time . 



I 




{. 



DSi^TH CU3T0Li3 




m-Mii ro-MAii 



/ 



The body or corpse of a dead person is called 




hah-she-^ahf The dead were usually turned, but in 



recent years are buried. The grave is called /t^ah-mslwTio , 






^i^'person^n)und,^hole'. Cremation is called 




HS-bah-wsimi; the funeral pyreXfir^i'cJa-- The fire 
dying doY/n toward the end of the burning is called 

The burnt bones remaining a r e^JTHp^ji^^i^^ 
The fine ashes that are left are called ^^too- lalL* 
They are put into a tightly woven woman's carrying 
basket called ^i^cVifi.' The mourning ceremony or funeral 
at the time of the burning i s Ji^hfia-de -.bun. The mourning 



\ 



cereCnony and crying at a later period (usually a year 



or Z after the burning), ^^^rmli^zSian^rnia. meaning 
'the last sadness dancing'. The clothes, hides of Bear 
and/ountain /ion, blankets, beads, trinkets, and other 
belcnpinps of the dead are burned or buried with the dead. 



'o o 






X 




< 




FEL LING TR2BS jg SPLITTING fCJPLbNKS 

Lal te Voll e y felled trees 
and split logs "by means of a heavy maul and wedges. 



, was 20 to 24 inches in 



The maul (called i^ 




length and had a big head worked out of hard rock. 
It was used for driving the wedges. The wedges 
(called A-sJl) were of elkhorn and were 8 to 10 inches 
in length. They were used for splitting and chopping 
wood and also for felling trees. The method of 
felling .trees was to drive the elkhorn wedge or chisel 
into the base of the tree by means of the maul. The 
wedge was thus carried around the tree again and again, 
being driven in a little deeper each time until 
finally the wood was cut away to such a depth that the 



tree 




l> . n.A . t .. u'(> . ; 



'& 




?im i^oJu 



7 



TW«.fire drill is made of buckbrush 



( Oeanothus divaricatus ), and the fire- 
block of ei ther ifuckeye or Zlder. These 
two woods have the most heat of all woods. 



Holes are made in the fire-block to hold 



the end of the fire drill, and a little 



powdered dry Redwood bark is put into 
each hole to catch the spark when the 



drill briiTgs out the fire. 



/ _, 



•l*«MWffl4« 



HOUSES 




All kinds of houses are celled M^ 

The ordinary house was conical and con- 

sis ted of slahs of bark, usually of 

tanbark oak. It was c ailed ^gr^^^y^gL 
(from ^^^^=T^, "bark, and ^j^]^, house).- 




SALT 




Salt (celled^j^^ is obteined 
by the Coast people from a Ug flat 



rook between Kabesillfi and Chadburne 



Gulch. - 









GBOUND 072N 911 UuUKlxyLi iiULJL 



Cooking holes were much used. They were 




called 



(from Kah-^ . rocks; 
1^, a hole; pnd hfi.,fire) . They were ahout 
3 feet square and were used for cooking deer 



meat, salmon, roots and other foods. The 



bottom of the hole was lined with smooth flat 



rocks, the sides plastered with yellow clay. 
A fire was built in the hole and allowed to 
remain long enough to heat the rocks very hot. 
It was then removed and the hole swept clean, 



after which the articles to be cooked were 



placed on the bottom and covered with green 
grass and earth. Poods cooked in this way 

were cooked a long time and retained their 
juices and flavor. 



BASKET TE/.PS FOR QUAIL 




ail were much used for food and 



large nuinbers were caught in basket traps, 



called j4ji-1^q^v They were 8 or 9 feet in 
length and were made of young willow sprouts 
A low "brush fence, 300 or more feet in 
length, was built in places frequented by 
the quail. At intervals in this fence 
small gaps were left, in each of which was 
placed one of these basket traps. The 
quail were driven slowly toward the brush 
fence, ^ich they followed until they 
came to one of the openings, when they 



went into the trap. 




MU -"TTBft^^HiB It 



RABBIT NETS 




Uut nets, oallea^ig^ 



were 



used for netting /eck rabbits wkB-^'^B ) . 
They were in the shape of a pouch 3|- to 4 
feet in length and were set on rabbit 
runways with the mouth held open by sticks. 
Hhen the rabbit ran in and butted against 
the far side, the opening was drawn tight 
so he could not escape. 

'Nets were used also for capturing 
squirrels, woodrats, quail, and grouse. 





BASKET 'BLIND' FOR HUIiTING 



The brush hut or 'blind' for hunting 
is called > Ts a w>e-iih^ for / Tspi-^ chaji ). 
It consists of a roughly woven bottomless 
basket 4 or 5 feet in hei^t and is easily 
csrried frcn place to place. It is of 



openworft so that tiie person sitting inside 



can see to shoot out in any direction. 
A mat of ferns or ^rass is placed on the 



ground inside for[_the hunter to sit on.- 





SUGAR PINS 




The nuts of the Sugar Pine 

^^§.j are good eating. The 




gum or resin of the Sligar ilne (called 







y^^^i^P^^l exudes from vrounds or 
"bruises on the tree and is easily 
scraped off. It is a good medicine for 



diarrhea and fever but must not be 



eaten in too large quantity. 



) GRASSHOPPERS 




Roasted grasshoppers are eaten straight and 
also are pounded and stirred into acorn mush. 



'^ 



Grasshoppers are usually cau^t in the following 



manne 



r: A large eicqle or ring of fire is huilt 



in a open grassy place in summer viien the grass 

is dry. As the fire spreads toward the center 

the grasshoppers attempt to fly through it and 

their wir^s are sliced off, letting them fall into 

the burning stubhle so that their bodies are thorou^ly 

roasted. Some of them are eaten just as they fall; 



others are pounded and mixed with acorn mush. - 





RSUTIVS VALUES OP ACORNS FOR MUSH AND BREAD 




The Mer-tiim--ma]i_ Indians of Little Lake Valley 



/M-5!>-Ll-* 



tell me that the acorns they like best for bread 
and mush are those of the^anbark J24k ( Que reus 
densi flora ) and lUack 0ak ( Quercus celifornica ) . 
both of which are oily, rich, and well flavored. 
The one they regard as next best is the Wliite^k 
( Quercus garryana ); next to that, the/danyon iive 
pak ( Quercus chrysolepis ) . The acoras of the Galley 
/ak ( Quercus lobata ^ are the poorest of the five, 
making hard bread. They are not used when the other 



acorns can be obtained. 





&) 



ACORN BR^D 




corn tread ( oa 11 ei^J^ ^\o). is baked in the ground 



ovens already described. After the remains of the fire and 

ashes have been cleaned out, the hole is lined with the long 

leaves of the soaproot f Ghlorogelum ). on which the acorn dough. 

is spread; it is then covered with another mass of soaproot 

leaves and overspread with earth. The best acornp for bread, 

and also for mush, are those of the tanbark oak and the black 

oak; these are very liuch better than those of any of the other oaks. 




LUNCH BREAD 



Another kind of bread, called lunch bread, is made from 



acorn mush of the tanbark oak or of the black oak, whichy after 

cooling in water, is spread on a flat rock close to the fire, 
len the front side is done, it is turned and the other side 



baked. 



Roasted grasshoppers are sometimes mixed with the acorn 



mush. To catch the grasshoppers a fire is built in a circle in 
an open grassy place; as the fire spreads toward the center the 

grasshoppers attempt to fly through it but their wir^s are singed 
off and they fall to the ground and are roasted. They are then 

pounded and mixed with the acorn mush.^" 



— -"^mtmrn 



'IM 





&) 



ACC^N BR3AD 



Icorn tread (called 




is baked in the ground 



ovens already described. After the remains of the fire and 
ashes have been cleaned out, the hole is lined with the long 
leaves of the soaproot f Ohlorogalum ), on which the acorn dough 
is spread; it is then covered with another inass of soaproot 
leaves and overspread with earth. The best acomfs for bread, 
and also for mush, are those of the tanbark oak and the black 
oak; these are very r^uch better than those of any of the other oaks. 



LUNCH BREAD 



Another kind of bread, called lunch bread, is made from 

acorn mush of the tanbark oak or of the black oak, whichy after 

cooling in water, is spread on a flat rock close to the fire, 
len the front side is done, it is turned and the other side 



baked. 






Roasted grasshoppers are sometimes mixed with the acorn 



mush. To catch the grasshoppers a fire is built in a circle in 
an open grassy place; as the fire spreads toward the center the 

grasshoppers attempt to fly through it but their wings are singed 
off and they fall to the ground and are roasted. They are then 

pounded and mixed with the accrn mush.^' 



f 




-JAOOPJ^i PHEPMJirnonl 




Acorns soaked in a cold spring over winter are called 
Mal^a h^kaj^-^ ^i m!^ In the fall of the year the ripe acorns are 
put into "baskets which are sunk in a big hole about 4 feet 
deep in the mud of a spring, or a springy place, and allowed 
to remain over winter. In the spring of the year, usually in 
April, they are taken out. The bitter has then all gone so that 
they do not have to be leached. They are then shucked and 
pounded into flour, which is cooked in baskets in the usual way. 
The mush and bread made from it are extra good and are called 
a ^^HighzTish" -^ Iftahj-ygh k^w) j jn (the name meaning 'food made good')* 

In cooking acorn mush in the big baskets, the peddle 
(called >S ha-.T^ ) used for stirring the mush has a flat blade for 

» 

about 8 or 9 inches, above which it tapers into the handle. 



I 




GRIZZLY BEAIS 



A 






(l£ 



the Me.-tum-mah . Ordinarily they were let alone. But there were 
breve men, called J^hah-"t^h^ who used to fight them with clubs. 
My informant, when young, remembers several men who were badly 
scarred in combats with grizzlies and several who had one hand 



an 



d wrist bitten off. Also one or two with one side of the face 



torn off. The grizzlies if suddenly disturbed always charged, 
but if given the trail or seen at a little distance would usually 
move off without molesting the man. When met on a trail the bear 
always stood up and kept his eye on the man. If the man ran, the 
bear chased him; if the man backed away quietly the bear moved 
on without pursuing. 

Grizzlies are a kind of human being: they sit down like a 



ma 



n and stand up like a man. They get up and walk on their hind 



feet like a man and take things in their hands like a man, and 
they have been seen catching salmon with their hands. 

A long time ago one of the old people saw 4 grizzly bears 

playing the grass game. They were on a small flat; it was in early 
spriig. They were sitting 2 on each side. They clapped their hands 

together and pointed their fingers, first on one side and then on 
the other, like so many men. ^ 



Mo turn moh r 



BEARS 




In fighting "bears the brave ffear- 



hunters of the J4a- 



• r 



Ua-^um-t^}^ tribe use clubs 
of mountain mahogany ( Oercocarpus ) called 



;£hi;^They are 5 or 6 fe6t long, with 




a knob on the end 2 or 3 inches in diameter. 



The beawhunters always carry this club and 
also bow and arrows. 



It was the practice of the 



men 



who hunted the grizzlies to strike the bear 
on one of its paws, whereupon he stood erect. 



The man then struck him with his club on the 



end of his nose — never on the head. After 
fighting the bear in this way he was finally 
killed with the bow [and arrow. But the bear 
often wounded the hunter and sometimes killed 
him.-' 





SOO-MA-CIIAII , THE H/iIRI PEOPLE 



The 




(ill Lilile lifjlmi 




^ long time ago, before the Indians 
came, there were hairy people, called 
Spp^a-ct^ or Su~|na ^_cjh^?th » They were about 
the size and shape of our people but were 
covered with wool. They could not talk — 
only motion with their hands. They hunted 
with bows and arrows and spears and got their 
living in the same way that Indians do. We 
are not sure whether there were any females 
among them. They finally disappeared about 



the time the Indians came. 




& 



/ ^ 



KO-0 CHAH, THE POISON MAN 



m 



I w. 



Ko-o chah^ , the Poison Man (from K^, 
pbison, and pbah ,man ) , was not a 

real ifcctor "but a "bad men. The people 

« 

know who he is and try to look out for 
him; nobody likes him. Sometimes they 
kill him. He goes around in a crowd 
in a sneaking way and touches people 
with his finger, on which he hps put 

\ 

some kind of poison powder. In a day 
or two the person touched becomes sick; 
sometimes he dies. 



^ 



s Mo turn moh 



WORLD MAKER 




^sia±^ 





believe in a World Maker whom 



they call Da-v^ap. or Ma^->4o~ngj i. He 
lives in a good place called 0^-ye^ 



w 



Making the world and people is called 






THE POISON SPIDElJ(UjlWvnAo.:u.. 




The 1*013011 



er/has a red 



spot under his belly which means that 



he is stingy of fire and always Km^ 



on it. He 



is called Horffi^zt^t, Cleaning 



r^; 



fire spider'. ^ 




,f/i;ie5iMii»^»««* 



TRIBE LIST 




ffl^ or Mp-fem-jc^ Pp-g^^i^i ^1 



Pomoan 



P^^ 



tiliyy.* by Pomoan tribes on Russian River and Clear Lake). 

The territory of the Mer;1gmfHmg }i extends northwesterly from 
the site of the present to«n of Willi ts to a little beyond the 
sawmill at Northwestern, euid thence to the (coast, which it 
reaches at Cleone Creek (in their language La-koo-nah be-daK ) 




or possibly at Pudding Creek, extending thence south to Little 
River, thus including the Ft. Bragg, Noyo. Caspar, and Bi^ Rivi 
coast region, which was called Rnjw^gjj} or 1 

The Me-tum'-mah proper did not claim the eastern part of Lit- 
tle take Valley from Willits to the mountains and Tom^'ki Cr. ; 
this was the territory of a closely related band called She- 
mul^^jgii. Neither did they claim the northern part of Little 
Lake (now a tule marsh) and adjacent northern part of the val- 
ley, for these belonged to the band known as feiik-kow^-h^ t^^. re- 








-tum-ki 






MSi 



SACRED NUiffiSR 




<_ _t 





'TThe Sfecred Number of ou r 



is 4. 



We always dance and sing for 4 nights and 
then have the feast called j4h~ah~.de.1rflh. 



If the dance is ended before the fourth 
night, bad luck conies*. 

They say further that in preparing for 
ceremonial dances the -wmen paint the 
front part of the top of the head, across 
the hair, with 4 horizontal bands of clay.J^ 



red [^ and blue ( m^-g { lal'-^fih ) alternating.- 




X^J 




SNARES 



Snares were much used by the Me-tum-mah 
of Little Lake Valley for capturing game. 
Those for small game were ca lie d / ^--lim-te^ , 
^ile the large rope snares for deer were 




cal led 2e--;Lin;-]ca]3-^h^ . In both cases the cords 



and ropes were made of Iris, called/^ 



. / 




Snares for small game were attached to 
spring poles, but for deer and other large 
game no spring pole was used but a frame of 
light poles was erected, over which the noose 



of the snare was spread. 




pitt ^r\ VwCJLVnla/w ^cmvC-^^*.'» . ^ 



/C 



-jgi TUU M^lfl(Ri\NGHSRIAS 



■'g)'- 



IqXittle Lake Valley 




The name M^-tp-a^ chut-te was applied to all M 
Villages in M 9>-fai|^-ki or Little Lake Valley. 
There were 4 important permanent winter villages containing 



about 600 people. These were: Ch^'bo^ 




-kah-lan nhyj.te . and 

Ohfi-bo^-cha-h^ chut-je . meaning !0rouse water village'. A very large 
ran Cher ia with roundhouse, 2 or 3 miles west or northwest of 
Willits, between Willlts and North^yestern Mill (just above 
Frost's ranch) and about a quarter mile from Fo- 
Between 40 and 50 householes could be counted on the site of 
this village. 

4ifi,, meaning 'Red clay hanger rancheria'. ibout 





2 miles west of Willlts and a quarter mile southwest of 




Shgr^- i g^- 



t-te , meaning 'Side hill village'. About a mile 



^ 




west of Willlts. Big roundhouse there. 



dii;t-t^e . meaning 'Green village'. On Willlts Creek near 



^ 



Northwestern Mill, on road to Sherwood. Big roundhouse there. 
Northwestern limit of Me^-^tui^-m^ tribe. My informant, Joseph 
Willlts, was raised there. 




^xum-ma 



Trr> 



OVW^t-'Vv\JL, 




s> 



, meaning 'Pines on edge of water'. Summer camp less a 
than a quarter mile north of Willets. Formerly! small pond 



there. 



'"^l hi n i i 11 ^ ' l 





name meaning 'End of water'. Old summer 



^ 



camp ahout \\ mile south of Willits and abo.ut a quarter 
mile from Bechtel Ranch, between Bechtel's and Willets. 




i^ 



tga-xgijii-te . meaning 'Oascara village'. Summer seed gather- 



ing camD about a mile west of Willets and the same distance 



VM 



south of She-oikah-lan . on a hillside on the road to Ft.Bragg^ 
-te. meaning 'Raven spring village'. About Similes 




from Willets on the road to Sherwood; an old orchard there 
now. The old village was 200 or 300 yards south of the 
first house (going from Willets toward Sherwood). There 
was another village of the same name on the same road 
farther north, in Sherwood Valley. 



•• y,utV e- 



\ VmI 



Kah-ha-paw-all chuttt e . meaning 'Rock pool camp'. Summer camp about 

a half mile north of Willets on new highway. Formerly 
there was a little pool or pot-hole in a big rock there, 



which was blasted out by the highway. 



f 



K^h-berSM 



v\-^ 



-tg, meaning 'Boiling water village'. About a mile 



X 



south of Willets on Bechtel Ranch, on present highway. Two 
bends or divisions of the tribe met here, the 
] gg^-ffl aj;^^ and the T^i^ 





r- 1 uiii-ii 




II 



Y ^ HTiyl chp jb-t^ , meaning friendly village'. Summer camp and dancing 
place in the Valley 1-J- mile southeast of Willi ts. Shared "by 



tp|Hj^,£in 




■dash.. 




U CtNvi^ 



■kum chut-te , meaning ^£ 



About 3 or 3i miles 



east of Willets. There was an extra large roundhouse here 
holding more than 200 people. Belonged to '^I j^^maXyp-^ ^ * 



l.»^- 



1^ 




to^-^V 



bjt^ft^ meaning 'East endj,. About 2 miles east of Willi ts. 



Belonged to the Sho- 




^j>^r^ — '-staite-' — \ 

Mah-'ah-'hj^^^tjffl ^t^ut^t a ^ meaning 'Pood stick standing village'. Big sum- 
mer camp a half mile east of Bechtel's place and 1 or 1-1/4 mile 
■ southeast of Y/illets, in the flat of the valley close to the 

i 

hills on the east side. There was a big dance-house here con- 
sisting of a brush fence 5 or 6 feet high, without roof. Several 
tribes met here to dance and have a good time, camping here 



for 3 months — from June to .the end of August. 






^ 



i^te , meaning 'Dam mouth village'. At extreme north 
end of Little Lake, close- to present highway. Belonged to the 



division called Buk-kow-hi 



-mah (of upper Outlet Creek). 



Tsan-mom-dah chuVJie . meaning 'Sout creek village'. On Davis Creek 



^ 



5 miles westerly from V/illets on the road to Big River. Permanent 
all the year rancher ia, belonging half and half to the Me -Jbi;|.m4ma h 



and the Bj i ^dfvm j^^lrngh . A white man named Bob Ralston took up 
a rahch there and poisoned the Indians by putting stricknine 
on meat. Those who were not killed removed to M^^tum-ki valley 



/ 



J^J^^ ^ . \ 




!:^" 




I^-Tmi-MH fR/'NCHSRI/,S ON OR IJSAR C0A3T. 




^^4Mis^^Ei-^M^; 



N^y^s %b . tg -) 







:?■ 



K qtH -4g^ 




%yi4S 



^lcV^.^^tl.5^ i fc : l^ i- 



Y^>l^^.n-^g 9jl]3Mjt- 



t Fort Bragg. 



-^^ the beach between Ft. Bragg and No/o' 
(on north side Noj^o River 200-300 yards 
back from tidewater). 




n Hare Greek (Na 




about 3/4 mile 
back from coast and east of county road. 

"pn coast midway between Noyo River and 
Fort Bra 






^On small creek of same name on coast 
about 1 mile north of Pudding Creek. 

n south bank Pudding Creek on topf bluff 
about 60 feet back of tidewater. 

foot of Bald Hill about 1 mile north 
of Pudding Greek and some distance from 



Gleone. <-01d Gov 



4»ea. Site 



of old rancheria; present rancheria there 



now. 



■' / 



/ / 



<-!•> 



Dress and ornament. 



Hram-fo 



Aen wore the hair net, stol-le. 



A headdress of red flicker ( Colaptds ) feathers called 
bo-kot-tat-ka-nah is worn in dancing by the men onlyi 
The women wear another kind, called tip-pe-lis of axil- 
lary feathers of hawk. 

They have long strings of handsome beads made of 
long cylinders of an Cipalescent shell, strung intervals 
with large cylinders ( one and one half to two inch long 
and half inch in disjneter, some more) of red clayey-stone 
with irregular patches of white in it wh| ch they call 
fawl-hoo-e-yah ( the red stone fawl) and which comes 
from hills north east of Lower Lake. This is Indian 
gold. They make large beads also from a brown stone 
called hoo-weed which comes from some miles south of 
Lower Lake from a place the name of which sounds like 
Mamking Valley. 

They paint their faces with red white <.nd black 
paint. The red (fawl ) and white (kes-sit) are made 
from soft stones they get in mountains east of the lake. 
The black, kau-baht, the^ make from charcoal of a soft 
wood generally poison oak. The same charcoal is pricked 

into the skin in tattooing • The tattoo mark'b are 

/ 

called us-soon. 

Sun baskets . The sun basket completely covered with 
featners (of redwoodpecker crowns ) have the dance de- 
sign marked mi in feathers of other colors. During the 
ceremonies in the ceremonial house they are kept filled 
with pinole for the dancers. 

Basket materials . At sulphur Bank, ^lear Lake, 1 found 
the Hram-fo Indians making baskets of the following 



materials: 



ft 



fii^ggr^Pine / Pinus sabinianaj ^ gibbon like split strands 
of young growth used for body material and called hcy-sool. 
Kedbjid^ Cercis JP ccidentalis y» bplit strands peeled, for 



- 2 - 



1 
body material . Lah-tib, same bark left on for design 

material (red)* 

Aromatic '^umac (Rhus trilobata)L Rods wit:, bark on (a- 
/ / ' /^ / ' r y ' ^ , 

yeb) used for coarse baskets; fish baskets and coarsest 

kind of burden basket* 

Cladium or Carex roots used for body material* I 

————— J t/ / 

recorded set-se for Cladium and seh-che for Carex , but 



I suspect an error* The, 



The plumes are called hreh or hra. The quail is 



may be tiie same or seh-che 
(or su-che) may be common willow j[ balix V» ^^^ 

Wj-Uo¥ (Lalia arfi:ophylla )^^un-nob-bah (or un-nob;^^s 
for body material* 
Sedffe (Scirpus)L Pine split root, used for blackish^ 

/ f y^/ — — ^ ^ 

design material in fine baskets; called tse-kol-hi* 

iviany baskets have quail pl\imes of valley quail woven 

in* 

called kahk*' 

The red crown feathers of tne California woodpecker 
( Melanerpes ) are extensively used in basket decoration 
and the ^un iiasket is completely covered with them* 
The red feathers are called trahn* The bird is called 

ka-lahts-ahts. 

Abalone bangles on baskets are called wil-too-lah, 

(abalone shellA^il-to^) ^^ ^^S 

Bead making /^ WftB ttiiart by ■f^.^manj^Wape that the total 

population, men,^women and children is liow twenty-nine* 

(1906) 

' Several women and one man were making wampum of 

clam shells as at i-ower Lake* In drilling the disks, 
each is held down by the tip of the index or middle finger 
of the left hand while txie drill is operated by the right 
hand which grasps the crossbar* 

« 

Wampvun drill for drilling shell money of Washington 
clam shell^J^i^rill point now made of a steel file; former- 
ly of flint. The drill is called hoo-eryab-se. The rubbing 
stone is soo-ko^kah-be. wampum is called hoo-eryah. An 

\1/ The p\imp drill was introduced about I876 to the Pomo. aee 
T.r/. Hudson/^ A so-called aboriginal tool", Am. Anthro ^..N.S. 
Vol. 2, h.782, 1900 (lid^dB^^ 



- 3 - 

old woman with a small hatchet blade chops the clam shells 
into small more or less squarish pieces, which she after- 
wards trims into approximately circular disks by chopping 
off the corners and angles against a soft stone. She 
then does the preliminary rubbing on a stone to wear 
off the projecting ribs or strial. The man then takes 
each disk separately and drills a hole through its center 
with the drill, by pressing the cross piece and letting 
it rebound from the coil of the string. This keepifi 
the drill whirling rapidly. The disks are then strung 
on a wire (formerly strong string) about then and a 
half inch long and rounded and polished on margins by 
pressing with the hands against a flat finding stone 
and moving like honing a large knife . 
Obsidian : They used to get their obsidian for arrow 
heads from a hill near the east shore of Clear Lake south 
of Sulphur -^ank between Lower Lake and Sulphur Bank, 
but apparently nearer Sulphur Bank. This would make 
the place not more than ten miles north of Lower Lake 
and likely not so far. I visited this place in I9O6. 
The obsidian outcrop is extensive and is mainly Just 
south of -^orax Lake, south of Sulphur Bank ridge. 




M 



'S. 



- 4- 



rn«(> 



Cemetery: There are several graves a short distance 
east of the settlement (east or northeast)* Each is 
enclosed in a rectangular fence mostly north or south 
and the more recent ones are covered with a sheet 
of white choth pinned down to the ground with or without 
plants growing up through or around the edges. In 
one case an extra large plant of the so-called turkey 
mullein ( Eremocarpus ) grows up through the middle of 
the sheet and spreads out upon it* 
-^4. In one case the sheet had a border of points cut 
on a greenish cloth and a middle strip of the same ma- 
terial with diamond- shaped holes cut into it* 

Vil lage and acti vities: At time of our visit (August 
18, 1906) to the Hram-fo on Cache Creek near Lower 
Lake, four or five men and seven or eight women and 
a few children were living injtheir summer houses among 
and under the oaks near the river. Some were under 
a large rectangular canopy about twenty feet long and 
seven feet high, with a flat roof of poles and brush 
and canvas called top-pes-sah. 

Others lived in a nearly circular b ush shelter 
without roof but with tall willows and brush to form 
side enclosing about three fourth of a circle, perhaps 
fifteen to eighteen feet in diameter. The brush was 
set so as to arch in at the top, affording shade all 
day — the opening being at the north. 

They were roasting whole fish andtdeer m6at on 
the coals, and were making pinole of manzanita berries 
which they had in large quantities in baskets. 

They were making and had on hand elegant feather 
Baskets, ••sun baskets" and other baskets of various 
kinds. Fish basket ( »hah-mu-cha) to set down in muddy 
water over fish. Has hole in top through wlkich hand 
is inserted to take fish out. Same kind seen among 






Kulanapo 



at Kelseyville Mission. 



The following document Is a duplicate of the 
preceding document. It may contain annotations 
and corrections not found on the original. 



u 



,^ 





Him-Fo 



(D 



( 



brslii (^ lhy^f^t4^ 



i- < 



The men wore the hair net, stol-le# A headdress of red fl^clfler (colapt/s) 



s^ 



feathers called bo-kot-tat-ka-nah Iw worn in dancing by the men only. The 

/ ox 

women wear another kind, cIMI called tip-pe-lis of ^pillary feathers of hawk. 




yfpalescent shell. 



They have long strings of handsome beads made of long cylinders of an 

kr kt 4irtjl Bgl< large cylinders (1 1/2 -2 in, long and 1/2 
in in diameter, some more) of red clav ^stone with irregular patches of white in it 
which they call fawl-hoo*e*yah ( the red stone facal) and^Uist comes from hills 
north east of ^igggggj^t^. This is Wj^ar^ goj, ^ . They make large beads also from 
a JOjtMxk^ stone called hoo-weed which comfs from some miles south of 
fromk a place^b«=«^ ' 




sounds like Mamkine' Valley* 




They paint their faces with redgi white and black paint. The red (fawl) 
and white (kes-s^) are made from soft stones they get in nesM^ast of the 
lake. The black, ka-baht, they make from charcoal of a soft Jjjj^^'^ generally 
poison cg-J*". The same charcoal is pricked into the skin in tatpoing. The tatoo 
marks are called us-sooiu 





fN BA 




The sun basket J^ 



mA 



y completely covered with feathers (^f wood* 



pecker cro yy>v s ) have the dance|| design marked jin feathers j^^«#cri("4^ of 
colors. During the ceremonies in the 1i(^ ceremonial house they are 



kept filled with 




for the dancers* 



(D 




BASKET MATERIALS 




At Suiwlur Bank, ^lear i^hke, I found the Hram-Fo Indians making baskets of 
the following materials x 
^ja^ffef^ Pine , Pinus tWHW— r^ Ribbon like split strands of young growth 



CJu ^ 



used for body material and called ho-sool^ 



n/^ 



• Redbud 



j-Circis Occidentalis,. Split strands peeled ,|jfor body m 
Lah-tib > same, bark left on far defignmJberial (red)« 



material. 




^""^pSSBSHB^ 



• Aromatic Sumac (Rhuajtri ptfbata ) > Rods with bark on (a-^b) used for 

coarse baskets; fish baskets and coarsekt kind 
^ . , of burden basket . 

^Caadium t^eafSOl C for body material. ^ \mB9^ sart^se for Cjiladium and 

* sen-che'^for Care)l #> but l sus#e 

pect an errorl ^hey may be 
the same or seh-che (or su-che ) may be common Yill6wyteBiaHHpaiM» jk£/x« 

-VJK|.5.aow (Lalia XrgcCphylla) I iHr un-nol^bah (un-noo;. used for body materials 
— ^ y ^ 

•Sedge (ScirgusX, Fine split root, used for blackish design material in 

fine baskets) called tse-kol-hi^ 



Many baskets have C^uail plumes of valley ouail woven in. The plumes 
are called hfeh or hr»* The quail is called kahk. 

The red crown feathers of the Calif iNlfioodpecker ( Melanerpes ): 
) are j p^A'^yjJ taed in basket decoration and the Sim Basket is complete- 
ly covered with them. '*'he red feathers are called trahn; ^he bird is called 

ka-lahta(^ahts# 

Abalone Angles on basketj/are called wil-too-lah, (abalone shell- "wil-to«) 





4 




(l1o(^) 




( ^ ^ 

\ Was told by man there thaji the total population, men, women and 

children is ^29, 

A 

n Several women and one man were making Wampum of clam shells as at 

' " \ In drilling the disks, each is held 




down by the tip of the index or middle finger of the left hand 

while the drill is atparated by the right hand which ^asps the cross- 



There are several graves a short distance /ast of the settlement, 
(east or northeast). Each is enclosed in a rectangular fence mostly north 
or south and the mo#e recent ones are covered with a sheet of whife cloth 
pinned down to the ground 4«0Br ^^^^^^^ ^ants^ Rowi ng up through 
or around the edges. In one case an extra large plant of the so called 
turkey mullin ( ^rem^car Jus JifcttWfgP grows up through 9 the middle of 
the sheet and spreads out upon it* 




In one case the sheet had a ^^^jS °^ P^^^^s 
cut on a greenish cloth and a middle strip 
some aajH^ di 
^matgriaT^th) 



iamond- shaped/holes cut into it. 








h^^ 



Hram-f# 0/ 4biiMMHli4 ^^^^ Lover Lake) | At time of our visit ( Aug. 18 ^ 



1906 ))U or 5 men and 7 or 8 woaen and a few children were living in 
their summer houses among and under the OolKS near the river. 
Someip were under a large rectangular canopy about 20 ft# long and 7 ft 
high, with a flat roof of |>^^*^ and brush and canvas called top-pes- 



sah« 



Others lived in a nearly circular brush shelter ^^hout roof but with 



tall willows and 



brush 




to 



sides, enclosing 



about 3/U of a circle, perhaps 15-18 ft. inl^iameter. The brush was s#t 
SO as to arch in at the top, affording shade all day- the ^mfimth being 



at the north • 



They were 



rating 



^vvvrU. 



were making 



tities in baskets* 



OrJb 

whole fish/ on the .^it^% /and deer meat 





^-r. 



and 



of man^anita 



which they kad in large quan- 



^v 



Th^y were making and had \^ hand elegant feather baskets, " sun baskets 




to get down in muddy water 

over fish. Has hole in top throu^ 

which hand is inserted to take fish out. 




kind among Kulanapo Hoaiana*«o at Kj[lseyville^ssion 




/ 



, 9^ 




(To t-i) 



(D 



^'f 



Wampum drill for drilling 
C shell money of -^ 
Washington clam shells /s/ 
oint now made of ^ fh^ 



file; formerly of 



flint 



The drill is called 



hoo-e-yab-se» 



Cn 




The rubbing stone is 



soo-ko-kah-b 



Wampumi hocHe-yah* 



An old HomannwitMi small hatchet blade chops the clam shells into small 
more or less squarish pieces, which she afterwards trims into aoproximately 

circular disks by chopping ofl the comers and angles against a soft stone. 

t 
She then does the preliminary rubbing on a stone to wear off the projecting 

Si/kioJL I 

ribs or^^ fc^,^^ . The man then takes each disk separately and drills ahole through 
its center with the drill, by pressing the cross* piece and letting it rebound 
from the coil of the string. This keeps the drill whirling rapidly. The disks 
are then strung on a wire (formerly strong string) about 10 1/2 in. long and 



rounded and polished on 



yv^MAJj 



irr^ 



WfC' 



by l|)ress«p( with the hatds agaftist a flat 



grinding stone and mo y>^V like _ hOKj^a large knife. (Aug, 18, 1906) 



V 









(/yy>^ 



Ac 



tCA/^ 



fhv^lU^^i^t^ /VJ 



i 






cu^ i 



arrow heads frone a ^ill 



hey used to get their obsidian for 
near::j^a8t ^ore of Clear Lake south of Sulphur 
Bahk between Lower Lake and Sulphur fiank, but apparently nearer Sulph|rr Bank. 
This wojld make the place not more than ten miles north of Lower Lake aid 




likely not so far,-) 



I visited this place is 1906. The obsidian outcrop ^^mtimmat^ is 
and is mainly just wmt^A of %meam Lake, south of ^ulphur Bank ridge ^ 



tW<AA^iVl 



LpMtJ 



c» 



thi^\ 



t^ 



:> Yokiah Porno 



The word -fomo means red clay, a substance much prized 
hy several divisions of the tribe. This red clay was mined 
by the aborigines. There is a mine of this kind in 
Potter Valley, another in La-mah (called -^ema by the 
whites) Valley. The red clay was used chiefly for mixing 
with acorn flour to make acorn bread. The clay was dis- 
solved in water ana the finely ground acorn flour was 
mixed with it , giving it a flavor and a color desired 
by the Indians. Ordinary earth or ground is called 
mah« 

Hunger . — The Yokiah appear to have no specific 
word for hungry* They say mah-ah chum-^ahl,^ meaning 
"I am dying for food.'* 

Blanket or robe » — In the early days the men had 
blankets called steet', made out of the skins of cotton- 
tail rabliits. The women had deer-skin robes called pe- 
she ka-too. 

Buckskin . — Deer skins were tanned to make them 

soft but the hair was not removed. Such tanned deer 

I ^ / 

skins with the hair onWere called shes-te* 

Belts * --No belts were worn except during cere- 
monies and dances. There were two kinds — a bead belt 
called nah-kaht' and a belt called sh'boo* finely woven 
and decorated with the red feathers of the woodpecker's 
head and quail plumes. These were very costly and worn 
only by the rich. 

Moccasins * — Moccasins were not worn by either men 
or women. 

Hats . --There were no hats. 

a /J 

Ear-pendent. — iiiar- pendants, called smah-che-ah 
kol-le, were worn on occasion. They were of curious cons- 
truction, consisting o the leg or wing bone five or six 
inches long of a large bird, usually the turkey buzzard, 
finely carved or engraved. Ti.ey were decorated at both 





- 2 - 



ends with quail plumes, and tufts of bright red feathers 
from the crown of the California Woodpecker. They were 
suspended horizontally from a hole in the lobe of the 

ear* 

Hunting from brush blinds. The Yokiah built small 

brush blinds called p'sh-ah-chah close to small springs . 

in order to shoot with bow aad arrow such animals and 

birds as came to drink. One of their men in this way 

killed seventy-five California woodpeckers in one day. 

Entrance , -the word dah^appears to imply movement 

along or entrance into some place. Thus it is applied 

to a doorway, the gate opening in a fence, a trail, 

and also the sun. 

Ashes. —The word for ashes is no, but infhe case 
of the falling of ashes and burnt leaves from a large 
fire, the word is no^te' (from no, ashes, and te, the 
small woolly feattiers of birds comLionly\ known as down). 

Arrow-smoothe r. ^The implement fo): polishing arrows 
is not a stone but consists of two sticks. 

Sling. ^The sling for throwing stones is called 
urn' she'-uk and consists of a small piece of buckskin 
attached to a cord of sinew ox plant fiber. Curiously 
enough the same term applied to a plant means "wilted." 

Snare . yum Snares were used for catching birds and 
animals. The bird snare is tahm-nahm. The deer snare 
is ba-de^uk. Usually several deer snares were set near 
together. They were made of Indian rope and -^ere very 
strong, 80 strong we. are told that they sometimes caught 
and held bears. Tne act of snariag was called um'nahm'. 
Acorn leach . ^ The acorn leach is called sh'a-oo- 
m^; the act of filtering acorn meal, sh'^a^oo. 

Pipes . i^Pipes were called sak-kah kah'-be. They were 
straight and made of the wood of an ash tree. 

Wild tobacco, /ty Called sak-kah'. It was usually 
carried in weasel skin bags called sak-kah^ ho- lah, mea- 
ning tobacco sack. 







- 5 - 

Carrying burdens . --I^iets calxed yet v;ere used. 
They were carried in the hand or hung on tue aide. These 
were adaitional to the large carrying baskets worn on 

the "back. 

Food caches . Acorns and other kinds of food were 
kept in very large storehouse baskets called e-tS't. 
They stood on a low scaffold called ho-chom. 

Sugar Pin e. The sugar pine does not grow in Russian 

River Valley but grows in a cool place high up in the 

Miyakma mountains between Ukiah and Clear Lake. 

Yumitah or Yom-tah. — In the old days there were 

' — I- 

certain people or secret societies called Yujjjf-tah. Usually 
there was only one in a tribe, sometimes one in. several 
neighboring^ villages. This person knew the sacred cere- 
monial songs of the cult. There is still an old Yo-ki- 
ah woman who knows part oi these secret formul^is but 
will not tell them even to an Indian of her own tribe. 

Yah . — Tine word yah has several meanings : bone, 
strong, we (or us), and also denotes action, as in the 
sentences • A bear killed him • (Pt'tar-rah yah moo-to 
koon); 'The woodpecker is hammering^ (Kah-tahk yah he- 
to-to), and 'He put out the fire' (Mod s*bow-ki yah)» 

The Dream Religion . — Fifty or sixty years ago 
(da^e forgotten) a new religion was brought in froiu the 
East and extenued as far West as Stonyford at the base 
of the Inner ^oast Range in Colusa County. Where it 
came from is not positively known, but it is said to 
have come from the Sioux Chief, bitting BullX During 
its prevalence the Doctors who preached it said that a 
terrible wind was coming — a wind so strong and violent 
that it would destroy all living things. They said that 
the only way to avoid it was to dig underground re^ges. 

« 

Under their direction large sweat houses about fifty 
feet in diameter and ten feet in depth were dug out of 
tne ground and the roof was laid flush with the ground. 



\!/TlXo ly^rt^f^ ^(r^(k ^<eo^ ^tiA^ce tvwc ej eaJnt^^ /t^ol ^d^ 



- 4 - 



4 

They were ente ed b. means of a tunnel thirty or f ourty 
feet long which sloped graduall/ from the surface of 
the earth to the floor level of the sweathouse. The 
religion taught by these Dream Doctors was a fake reli- 
gion and had nothing to do with the original religion 

of the people. 

Original Ghost ^^ances . In the genuine Ghost I'ance 
(called Koo^yak-ke) , the old chiefs used to meet toge- 
ther in one of the ceremonial houses. It was their cus- 
tom to smoke four times before saying a word so that 
they would have time to tnink before speaking. In tri- 
vial matters they spoke quickly but in discussing serious 
or religious matters, they spoke with great deliberation. 

Red Mountain. There is a red mountain east or south- 
east of Ukiah. It is called Mah-ke sit-tel dan'-no, 
meaning Red Karth Mountain. The ordinary word for 'red' 
is tahs, but 'red earth' is mah-ke-sil. The term ke^sil 
is not applied to any red except red earth. 

Grasshopper s. -In years of scarcity of food, toasted 
grasshoppers are eaten. Grass fires a3se set in large 
circles and as the fire burns toward the ceuter, the 
grasshoppers wings are singed so that they drop into the 
burning grass aua are slightly roasted. They are then 

fit to eat. 

Mortuary Customs . —The dead were burned^' not buried. 
The dead person, called chah kah-low'was wrapt in his 
best and most valuable skins and wampum. An excavation 
called chah .ho' mo ("persons fire hole") was dug and 
the wood for the funeral pyre was arranged in it. The 
burning of a dead person is callea chah ho-nr-o. The 
mourning ceremony at the p.me of the burning is called 
ho chah moo-low, meaniri^/"f ire, persons go around"— 
the mourning relatives go^ng around in a circle. 

The 'spirit' or 'ghost' of the dead person is known 
by two names, koo^yah and chr..h'doo-wel. The ghosts 
remain on earth. The burnt bones and ashes of the 



- 5 - 




of the dead, called chah yah ( -persons bones) are not 
preserved in a basket or otherwise. Alter burning the 
body, tne mot er and sisters rub ashes of the burnt 
pei^son onjtheir faces, but a widow is not required by 
the Yokiah law to do this* 

Religion . iivery year in early spring usually about 
the middle of ^pril, the Yo-ki-ahs gave a feast to appease 
the gods. (when questioned as to who these gods were, 
no very definite answer was received. They jreem to be- 
lieve in a supreme power called Kaw-mahm-mahl , meaning 
the universe.) 

They addressed the sun saying, gah-chah-del-moo- to 
the sun that's moving above us. 

They also addressed the ocean and sacred birds. 
There are two sacred birds, namely , tah-tah, the falcon, 
and kah-tah-kah, the California woodpecker, both of whom 
are appealed to in their songs. The songs run in this 
wise : ^'Uive me the strength of your heart and of your 
nose.** 

The' people had confidence in the supernatural powers 
of du-we the Coyote. Du-we was regarded as the creator ; 
he was uncle of tah-tah, the falcon. 

Songs . Most of the songs of the Yo-ki-ah tribe camfi. 
from the i>*icasio Indians of karin County (Taht is, the 
iioo-koo-e-ko tribe). 

Furthermore, when describing his songs and ceremo- 
nial dances to a Tuolumne Mewuk (wiliiam Puller of Souls- 
bywila.e), my informant, Stephen Knight learned to his 
surprise that same of them are very similar to those 
of the Mewuk. 

The explanation is that the Me-wuk of the Sierra 
and the lioo-koo-e^ko of the Coast belong to the same 
stock, having been conaected around San i'rancisco Bay 
in the distant past. The fact of striking resemblances 
indicates a great antiquity for these songs and ceremo- 
nial performances . 




I 



■MW* 



'•' . . 4 Ml...'** . ^. . ^ / , 






YOKIAH POMoJ MISCBLLANS0U3 N0TB3 OM THE^ 




frnm nt 




ICuiglil,au ill I 




V of tho t 




The word Pomo means red clay, a substance much prized by 
several divisions of the tribe. This red clay was mined by 
the aborigines. There is a mine of this kind in Potter Val- 
ley, another in La-mah (called Lema by the whites) Valley. The 
red clay was used chiefly for mixing with acorn flour to make 
acorn breai. The clay was dissolved in water and the finely 
ground acorn flour was mixed with it, giving it a flavor and 
a color deseed by the Indians. Ordinary earth ground is called 



mah. 







Hungry 1 —The Yokiah appear to have no specific word for 
hungry. They say Mah-ah chum-dahl \ meaning I am dying for 



food. 




¥k 



nhapjjy.y-The regular word is mah-tsgts-mahn , but if a 
person, usually a child, has been scolded, the word for their 
unhappiness is mah-ts5~g:e-doo. 

In the early days the men had blankets 
called steet l made Out of the skins of cotton-tail rabbits. 
The women had deer-skin robes called pe-she ka-too. 

•Deer skins were tanned to make them soft but 




the hair was not removed. Such tanned deer skins with the 
hair on were called shes-te. ' 



^ Iv^YML+lffV^ kt^ tHjakK '^»vl^'^^. 



) 



r 



i^tiM 



• V 



V 



Yokiah Pomo 2 




Ewlf H^ — No bolts were \rorn except during ceremonies and 
dances. There werr two kinds — a bead belt called nah-kaht ^ 
and a belt^finely woverixwith the red feathers of the Wood- 
pecker's head and Quail plumes. woven in * These were very 
costly and worn only by the rich. 



ififr. — Moccasins were not worn by either men or 



women: ^ 




=-l2'here were no hats. 







— Ear -pendants , called sffiah'-che -an KOi-ieJ 



were worn on occasion. They were of curious construction, 





g boneXof a large bird, usually the jrurkey 



^uzzard^N Thonn hnnftq w^ro £i or 6 inohea in Ion 




V^ 



were decorated at both ends with 



A 





uail plumes 



inely carved or engraved* 
A^ arh er s^Tfom the^Jctown of the\Woodpecker 
They were suspended horizontally from a hole in the lobe of 
the ear. 





AAThe women tattooed their faces with 3 strai^t 
lines; one descending vertically from the middle of the lower 
lip to the chin, the 2 others running out diagonally from 
each angle of the mouth. These marks were called oo-e-che '. 
There was no tattooing on the body or arms. The material 
used for tattooing was juice from green oak galls. After this 
juice was put in the scarified lines to produce the desired 
color, poison oak was rubbed in to make the cuts sore so that 

* 

the markings would be more distinct. 

2. 







omo — B-~ 




oh tli 



The Yokiah built small 



"brush blindsXclose to small springs in order to shoot with 
bow and arrow such animals and birds as came to drink. One 
of their men in this way killed 75 California Woodpeckers 
in one day. 





The word dah' appears to imply movement 



along or entrance into some place. Thus it is applied to a 
doorway, the gate opening in a fence, a trail^and also the 



sun. 




The word for ashes is no, but in the case of 
the falling of ashes and burnt leaves from a laiige fire, 
the word is no-te (from no, ashes, and te, the small woolly 
feathers of birds commonly known as down). 



ow-stone I or pons 




nnt g nt i ftnn biili '^nnniit' 'f '" ■ tinim 




The sling for throwing stones is called 



um^she-uk and consists of a small piece of buckskin attached 
to a cord of sinew or plant fiber. Curiously enough the 
same term applied to a plant means "wilted." 



9 



Yokiah Porno 4 



N 



•« 




Snares were used for catching birds and animals. 
The bird snare is tam-nahm. The deer snare is ba-de-uk . Us- 
ually several deer snares were set near together. They were 
made of Indian rope and were very strong, so strong we are 
told that they sometimes cau^t and held bears. The act of 
snaring was called um\nahml 




The acorn leach is called stf- a-oo-m5: 



the act of filtering acorn meal, sh-a~oo . 




Pipes were called sak-kah^ kalibe . They werv 



straight and made of the wood of an ash tree. 
<= ^Wild tobacc(j i^j/alled Sak-kah!. It was usually carried 



\ it <1 C 

in weasel skin^^c^lled sak-kah' holah, meaning tobacco sack. 



jIj|U^ Ne ts called yet were used. They were 



carried in the hand or hung on the side. These were addi- 
tional to the large carrying baskets worn on the back. 



I 'c/Uil Vi 




Acorns and other kinds of food were kept 



in very laiqge storehouse baskets called e-tet . They stood 
on a low scaffold called ho-chom. 




The ougor pino doeo not gr u w in DubHlau 




1^^ but 




cuul 




tcrirno between Ukiah aid Olnui Ltk 




k^ 







iahPomo 5 




n tne old days there were certain people or 

secret societies called Yum- t ah . Usually there was only one 

"a 

in a tribe, sometimes one in several neighboring villages. 
This person knew the sacred ceremonial songs of the cult. 
There is still an old Yo-ki-ah woman ^o knows part of these 
secret formulas but will not tell them even to an Indian of 
her own tribe. 




He put 



Tokiah ^ 



.4 




Fifty or 60 yeers ago (date forgotten) 



a new religion was broight in from the East and extended 
as far west as Stonyford, at the base of the Inner Coast 
Range in Colusa County. Where it came from is not posi- 
tively known, but it is said to have come from the Sioux 
Chief, Sitting Bull. During its prevalence the Doctors 
who preached it said that a terrible wind was coming — a 
wind so strong and violent that it would destroy all liv- 
ing things. They said that the only way to avoid it was 
to dig underground refuges. Under their direction large 
sweat houses about 50 feet in diameter and 10 feet in 
depth were dug oit of the ground and the roof was laid 
flush with the ground. They were entered by means of a 
tunnel 30 or 40 feet long which sloped gradually from the 



CA-OtX^ 



m**^ 



surface of the g^?^ettfid: to the gr o und level of the sweatChouse. 
The religion taught by these Dream Doctors was a fake re- 
ligion and had nothing to do with the original religion 
of the people. 



i 



lokiah 1 







- In the genuine Ghost Dance (called 



loo-yak-keV the old chiefs used to mefit together in one 
of the ceremonial houses. It was their custom to smoke 
4 times before saying a wrd so that they would have time 
to think before speaking. In trivial matters they spoke 
quickly but in discussing serious or religious matters, 
they spoke with great deliberation. 



To 



« • 



■tifiMI'irii^**-!: V^^ 



There is a red mountain east or SE of Ukiah. 



It is callmi^ J&^it-t< 



<U.vv.>>vo 



^^ 



The ordinary wrd for *red' is 



taha. bmt'red earth' is mah-ke-sil . The term kfilail is 



/ 



not applied to any red except red earth. 




r*— In years of scarcity of food, toasted grass- 



hoppers are eaten. Grass fires are set in large circles 
and as the fire burns toward the 6enter, the grasshoppers 
wings are singed so that they drop into the burning grass 
and are slightly roasted. They are then fit to eat. 



\~^- 



Yokiah 2 






^1 







- The dead were burned, not buried. The 
called Gbflh kah-loV. was wrapt in his be 



and most valuable skins and wampum. An excavation, 
called Ghah ho^mo r "persons fire hole") was dug and the 
wood for the funeral pyre was arranged in it-. The bum- 



/ _ 



ing of a dead person is called qViah ho-na-o. The mourn- 
ing ceremony at the time of the burning is called 



Ho^Ghah moo-low , meaning "fire, persons go around —the 
mourning relatives going around in a circle. 

The 'spirit' or 'ghost' of the dead person is known 
bv 2 names. Koo-vah and Ghah' doo-wel. The ghosts remain 



on earth. The burnt bones and ashes of the dead, called 
Chah yah {- persons bones) are not preserved in a basket 
or otherwise. After burning the body, the mother and 
sisters rub ashes of the burnt person on their faces, but 
a widow is not required by the Yokiah Law to do this. 



t 



r~ 



^' —yt^"^^* ■■» . 



i^ 



n> 




FATE OP CLEAR lAKE INDIANS K)H3ED BY KEL: 



TO WORK IN DISTANT MINES 



I hare "been told repeatedly by Clear Lake Indians, and also 
by a Yo-ki-ah named Stephen Kni^t, Jehat Kelsey, nho lired near 
\ifeat is now known as lelseyville, a/ few miles south of the main 
body of Clear Lake, forced the neighboring Indians to work for 

# * 

him and treated them in a rery brutal manner. The story of his 
treatment of Augustine is toldy^lsewhere and need not be re- 
peated here. 

At one time Kelsey tooly a large nuirfcer of Indians to a 

M * 

distant point to work in the mines. The mines gare out and the 
Indians, each rewarded by » long shirt (the only payment re- 
ceired for their labor), Were turned loose to find their way home. 
On the way they had to tfraTerse territory of the Wintoon tribe 
or one of its branches/ These people set upon them and killed 
nearly the liiole nunber so that only a few erer returned to 
Clear Lake. 



? 



The following document Is a duplicate of the 



preceding document. It may contain annotations 



and corrections not found on the original. 



m 









r(T»f,,., , ^ tinn frnm It r phnn K ii ij i l . ill t il l ii 11 iy nti i nn i nTirr nf tfir 



The word Fomo moans red clay, a substance much prized by 
several divisions of the tribe. This red clay w£)S mined by 
the aborigines. There is a mine of this kind in Potter Val- 
ley, another in L^^-nu^h , f called Lema by the whites) Valley. The 
red clay was used chiefly for mixing v;ith acorn flour to make 
acorn bread. The clay was dissolved in wntrr and the finely 
ground acorn flour wf^s mixed with it, giving it a flavor and 




a color desired by the Indians. Ordinary earth ground is called 




er 



Hung^g^ --The Yokiah appecr to have no specific word for 

My / " 

lah-ah chum-dahl . meaning I am dying for 

food." 




Blanket o r robe. — In the early days ttie men had blankets 
called s,teet'. made out of the skins of cotton-tail rabbits. 
The women had derr-skin robes called pe-ahe^ka-too. 

Buckskin. — Deer skins were tanned to make them soft but 
the hair was not removed. Such tanned deer skins with the 

f u I 

hair on we^e called 3hes-te. 



/ 



3hes'-t( 



^s1 




Belts. — No belts were \'©rn except during ceremonies t^nd 
dances. There were two kinds — c "bead belt called nah-kaiit' 
and a be It ^finely woven)with the red feathers of the Jwod- 



pecker's head end i^ail plumes^ 
costly and worn only by the rich. 



These were very 



MnnnnF i ns . — Moccasins wore not rjom by either men or 



women. 






Hats. — There were no hats. 



X* 



rilrti 



JJ^ 



Ear- pen lent . — Ear-pendents, called smah-che- ah kol-le, 
were wrn on occasion. They were of curious construction, '^ 
UiH luiflH hniiv_i III lfin(| i h nnfi)^nf a large bird, usually the ^urkey 
E(uzzard,) ?fee= 



4,^ A* 




finely carved or enpraved 



e f) nr h innhnn in 1 nngth nnd 



'^ 




ivere decorated at both ends(with^ 

imesj?2ry 





e^tners I'rom the croMi of the^*i/oodpecker. sed 
They were suspended horir^ontally from a hole in the lobe of 



the ear. 



Sling. —The siing tor mrowmg stones is uoixeu 
uni»3hy-uk and consists of a small piece of buckskin attached 
to a cord of sinew or plant fiber. Curiously enough the 
saine trrm applied to o plant means "wilted." 



v>. 



JC flkioh rowe ? 



Hunting from brush blinds. —The lokiah buiit smeii 
brush b^^ciose' to 'small springs in order to shoot with 
bow and arrow such animals and birds as came to drink. One 
of their men in this way killed 75 ':<aifornia^/oodpeckers 

in one day. 




-f'hnh hy t li n Ynlr in h 



Snt ranee. — The word dfill appears to imply movement 
along or entrance into some place. Thus it is applied to a 
doorway, the gate opening in a fence, a trail, and also the 



sun 



Ashes. — The word for ashes is ^. hut in the case of 
the falling of ashes and burnt lor.VGS from a laige fire, 
the word is no-t^ (from^. ashes, and ^, the small woolly 
fe^^thers of birds commonly knavn as down). 



Arr o w-atow « — The 



for polishing arrows is 



not a stone but consists of two sticks. 

Sling. —The sling for throwing stones is called 
' um^ghy-uk and consists of a small piece of buckskin attached 
to a cord of sinew or plant fiber. Curiously enough the 
same trrm applied to a plant means "wilted." 




Snare. — Snares wore used for catdiing birds and animals. 



The bird snare is tam-nahm. The deer snare is ba-de-uk. 



^-U^ ' V 



Us- 



ually several deer snares were set nenr togethor. They wer^ 
made of Indian rope and were very strong, so strong we are • 
told that they sometimes cau(^t and held bears. The act of 
snaring was called W n^hml . 

■Acorn leach. — The acorn leach is called sh'S-oo-mo: 



the act of filtering acorn meal, sy^a-oo. 

Pipes . — Pipes were called sak-lp^h kah&be. . They were 
straight and made of the wood of an ash troo. 



is 



V: 




Wild tobacco. — Called 

in weasel skinJTlalled sakrknh' hch 
3 




It was usually carried 
meaning tobacco seek. 



^ I" Parrying burdens .— Nets called vej^ were used. They we-e 
carried in the hand or hung on the side. These were addi- 
tional to the lirge carrying baskets worn on the back. 

j'ood caches .— Acornf? end other kinds of food were kept 
in vary laiige storehouse baskets called g-itst. They stood 
on a low scaffold called horchom . 

^ugar Pme. — The sugar pine does not grow in Russian 

Hivcr Valley but grows in a cool place high up in thettnl"^ 

A 



tains between Ukiah .nd Clear Lake^i4a=» 





. o^ — 

lum-tah^ — In the old days there were certain people or 
secret societies called YimM;ah« Usually there was only one 
in a tribe, sonjetimes one in several neighboring tillages. 
This person knew the sacred ceremonial songs of the cult. 
There is still an old Yo-ki-ah woman ^o knows part of these 
secret formulas but will not tell them even to an Indian of 
her own tribe. 



lah.. — The word vah hfjs 
we (or us), and also denotes 
♦A^ear killed him» (p**^ 
Woodpecker is hammering' ( 
out the fire* ^Mo^jL^^bow-ki j^V. 



sever si meanings: ^one, strong, 
action, a? in the sentences 




00-^ kgoq V. itsd *The 



, find *He put 





The Dream Religion. — Fifty or 60 yeers ago (date forgotten) 
a new religion was broqght in from the Bast and extended 
as fr:ir West as Stonyford at the base of the Inner Coast 



Range in Colusa County, 



re it came from is not posi- 



tively known, but it is said to have come from the Sioux 

« 

Chief, Sitting Bull. During its prev?^lence the Doctors 
who preached it said that a terrible wind \^as coming — a 
wind so strong and violent that it wuld destroy all liv- 
ing things. They said that the only 'Aay to avoid it was 
to dig underground refuges. Under their direction large 



3weat houses about 50 feet in diameter and 10 feet in 




depth were dug out of the ground and the roof was laid 
flush with the ground. I They were entered by means of a 
tunnel 30 or 40 feet long which sloped gradually from the 



surface of the 




to the gS^ouiu f level of the s?/eat_house. 



The religion taught by these Dream Doctors was a fake re- 
ligion and had nothing to do '.?ith the original religion 

,1 

of the people. 



:\M 



Tokish ^ 




Original Ghost Dances. — In the genuine Ghoat Dance (called 



the old chiefs used to raoet toofothor in one 



of the ceremonial houses. It was their custom to amok© 
4 times beforr saying a word so th/it they inould hcve time 
to think before speaking. In trivial mt^tters they spoke 
quickly but in discussing serious or religious mr.tters, 
they spoke with greet deliberation. 




Red Mountain.- " There is a red moi ntain east or SE of Ukiah. 



It is called 





■^<»i^ 



tahs . but 'red earth' is 



. The ordinary v/ord for 'rod' is 
^kfirisil.. The term kn'^gil is 




not applied to any red except red earth. 



Grasshoppers. — In years of scarcity of food, toasted grass- 
hoppers are eaten. Gras? fires are set in L-^rge circles 
and as the fire bums tov-'^rd the center, the grasshoppers 
wings r.TO singed ao that they drop into the burning grass 
and are slightly roasted. They are then fit to eat. 



Ofektah 1 



Mortu<3r y Customs . — Tho dead were burned, not buried. The 



dead person, called ehfih Vfih~yavi \ was wrapt in his best 
end most valuable skins and wampum. An excavation 
called gfiah ho' mp j[ '^persons firo hole") was dug and the 
wood for the funoral pyre was arranged in it. The buni' 



J _=■ 



ing of a dead person is c. a 11 ed gh^li li o > na - p . The mourn- 
ing ceremony at the time of the burning is called 
]^o. chah moo^low. mf^ar ing "fire, persons go around"— the 
mourning relatives going around in a circle. 

The 'spirit* or 'ghost* of the dead person is known 
by 2 names , tpQ^'J^h, and /gh^tf^dyo-gfil. The ghosts remain 
on earth. The burnt bones and ashes of the dead, called 
.S[ 0|iah yah (« persons bones) are not preserved in a basket 
or otherwise. After burning the body, the mothpr and 
sisters rub ashes of the burnt person on their faces, but 
8 widow is not required by the Yokiah iiaw to do this. 







t9i<n^ 



Every year in errly spring usually ebout the middle of 



April, the Y9.-Hl^hfl gave 8 fenst to appef^se the gods. [When 
questioned ^s to who these gods were, no very definite answer 
Wbs received. They seem to "believe in a supreme power called 

KHW-mfihrn-^nhJ , manning the universe.] 

They addressed the sun saying, Dah}-cih^^hij el-jnoQl.to . the . 
sun that's moving above us. 

They also addressed the ocean and sacred birds. There are 



two sacred birds, namely, 




the^lcon, and gah-t^h-ka Vi 
the CLlifornis /oodpecker, both of v/hcn ere appealed to in -their 
songs. The songs run in this wise: "Give me the strength of 
your hetrt and of your bones." 

The people had confidence in the supernatural powers of 




-'^ft^ the Coyote. M.-\ve wrs regi:rded as the JZreator; he v/as 






uncle of Zah-I^ah , the /elccn. 




uf 




u< I 





\ 



were called shes-te* 

BeltiB*— No belts were worn except during ceremonies and 
dances. There were two kinds— a bead belt called nah-kaht and a belt 
called sh»boo* finely woven and decorated with the red feathers of 
the woodpecker* s head and quail plumes. These were very costly and 
worn only by the rich, 

M6ccasins,~^foccasina were not worn by either men or women. 



Hats ,— There were no hats. 



smahp-che—ah 



worn on occasion. They were of ciarious construction, consisting 
of the leg or wing bone five or six inches long of a large bird, 
usually the turkey buzzard, finely carved or engraved. They were 
decorated at both ends with quail plumes, and tufts of bright red 
feathers from the crown of the California ^oodpecker. They were 

horizontally from a hole in the lobe of the ear, 
ting from brush blinds — ^The Yokiah built small brush 

-•ab"Chah close to small springs in order to shoot 
with bow and arrow such animals and birds as came to drink. One of 




kill( 



in onv9 day. 




Entrance ,— 'The word d a^ appears to imply movement along or 
entrance into some place. Thus it is applied to a doorway, the gate 
opening in a fence, a trail, and also the sun, 

ghes, — The word for ashes is no, but in the case of the 



falling of ashes and burnt leaves from a large fire, the word is not 
te, (from no, ashes, and te, the small woolly feathers of birds commonly 



«■■ 















knoxn as down) 



Arrow- amoother *— -The implement for polishing arrows is 
not a stone but consists of two sticks* 

-— ■ ' — ■ 31ing, --'The sling for throwing stones is called urn' 

\ she^Tjk and consists of a small piece of buckskin attached to a 
\ cord 



cord of sinew or plant fiber. Curiously enough the same term applied 



to a plant means "wilted," ■» 



limali 



tahm^-nafam, 



deer snares were set near together. They were made of Indian rope and 
were very strong, so strong we are told that they sometimes caught 



and held bears, "nie act of snaring was called um'hahm'. 




Acorn_leach,— The acorn leach is called ah^aFK)0-moj the 



act of filtering acorn meal, sh^a-oo. 



^' 



rs;^ipes were called sak-kah-kah-be , They were straight 



and made of the wood of an ash tree. 



<;alled 



/v.' 



weasel skin bags called sak-kah^ho-lah, meaning tobacco sack. 

jarying bxirdens. —Nets called yet were used. They were 




carried in the hand or hung on the side. These were additional to 
the large carrying baskets worn on the back, 

FrtrtH AARhaa ^Acoma and other kinds of food were kept in 



very large storehouse baskets called e-tet. They stood on a low 

scaffold called ho-chcnn. 

Sugar Pine , —The sugar pine does not grow in Russian River 




\ 
t 



8 



?*7 








^ Valley but grows in a cool place high up in the Miyakma mountains 
between Ukiah and Clear Lake« 

YunHtah or YonHtah >--In the old days there were certain 
people or secret societies called TuBHtah* Usually there Was only 
one in a tribe ^ sometimes one in several neighboring villages • This 
person knew the sacred ceremonial songs of the cult« There is still 




an old Io-kl«ah woman who knows part of these secret f onnulas but will 
not tell them even to an Indian of her own tribe # 

Yah »— The word yah has several meanings: bone^ strong^ we 
(or us)^ and also denotes action^ as in the sentences *A bear killed 
him^ (Pt^taiwrah yah moo-to koon)j •The woodpecker is hammering^ (Kah- 
tahk yah he-to-to), and «He put out the fire^ (Modi s^bow-ki yah)* 

earn Religion* — Fifty or sixty years ago (date for^ 




gotten) a new religion was brou^t in from the East and extended as 
far West as Stonyford at the base of the Inner Coast Range in Colusa 

Coiinty* VHiere it came from is not positively knovm, but it is said 

2 

to have come from the Sioux Chief, Sitting Bull, During its prevalence 



>miiig 



living 



They said that the only way to avoid it was to dig underground 
refuges, tfcider their direction large sweat houses about fifty feet 
in diameter and ten feet in depth were dug out of the ground and the 
roof was laid flush with the ground. They were entered by means of 



^/iW 



I 



<L^ 



!l 



^. 



I" 




a tunnel thirty or f ourty feet long idiich sloped gradually from 
the surface of the earth to the floor level of the jwifeathouse. The 



•^ake 



nothing to do with the original reld^on of the people. 



Original 



,j,-i4n the genuine Ghost Dance (called 



y 

Koo^yak-ke) , the old chiefs used to meet together in one of the 



ceremonial houses 






ft was their custom to a»>ke four times before 



A^M** K" 



saying a wor4 so that they would have time to think before speaking 



trivifidL 





', they spoke with great deliberation. 



Red Mountain .— There is a red moxmtaln east or southeast of 
Ukiah. It is called Mah-ke sit-tel dan^-no, meaning Red Earth Mountain 
The ordinary word for »red« is tabs, but »red earth* is mah-ke^sil. 
The term ke^sil is not applied to any red except red earth. 



y^ 





9 



J6 Ir \ 

I 



Grasshoppers .—In years of scarcity of food, toasted grass- 
hoppers are eaten. Grass fires are set in large circles and as the 
fire bums toward the center, the grasshoppers wings are singed so that 
they drop into the burning grass and are slightly roasted. They are 

then fit to eat. 

>rtuary Customs. — The dead were burned, not buried. The 
dead person, called chah-kah-low'was wrapt in his best and most 
valuable skins and wan^um. An excavation called chah^io' mo ("persons 
fire hole") was dug and the wood for the funeral pyre was arranged in 
it. The burning of a dead person is called chah-ho^naK). The mourn- 
ing ceremony at the time of the burning is called ho-Qhah -aoo-low, meaning 



I 



■J.'.:., i j.,*f * 



10 



Jfe? 




"fire, persons go aroxind"— the moximing relatives going around in 



a circle. 



The 'spirit' or 'ghost' of the dead person is knovm by two 
names, koo^yah and chah'doo-wel. The ghosts remain on earth. The 
burnt bones and ashes of the dead, called chah yah (^persons bones) 
are not preserved in a basket or otherwise. After burning the body, 
the mother and sisters rub ashes of the burnt person on their faces. 



but a widow 




[uired by the Yokiah law to do this. 



Religion ,— Every year in early spring usually about the 
middle of April, the To-ki-ahs gave a feast to appease the gods, 
(When questioned as to who these gods were, no very definite answer 



I 



KawHnahm- 



mahl 



They addressed the sun saying, Dah-^c h^ 



the sun 



that's moving above us. 

They also addressed the ocean and sacred birds. There are 
two sacred birds, namely, tah4ah^ the falcon, and k^b;^t^4ah, the 
California woodpecker, both of whom are appealed to in their songs. 
The songs run in this wise: "Give me the strength of your heart and 

of your nose," 

The people had confidence in the supernatural powers of dtMje 




was regarded as the creator; he was uncle of tah^ 

mm 



the Coyote/ 

tah, the falcon. 

Songs ,— Most of the songs of the To-ki-ah tribe came froa 
the Nicasio Indians of Marin County ( ll i l i> i v the Hoo^koo-e^ko tribe) . 



■HMMII 



w 




Bo-yah 



Invi t >n string. The Bo-yah of the coast strip 
from Navarro Kidge south of ttie mouth of Gualala River 
tell me that their invitation string consist of a series 
of small sticks, usually eight or ten in nximber, each 
about two inches long, strung together. The number of 
sticks corresponds with the number of days between the 
sending of the invitation and the date of the coming 
ceremony. The messenger breaks off one stick each day 
until the string is delivered, after which the recipient 
does the same until the date of the ceremony arrives. 
Doctors . The doctors of the Bo-yah pomo were called 
]fa.h-too{ and wero in the habit, when treating the sick, 
of making four emphatic motions, at the same time coun- 
ting aloud, which they did in the following words: once 
(tiito oo-l^), twice(kaw^e oo-leT), three times (se^bo 
ool*) four times (doo-koi ool') 

To darken newly made bows and arrows 
charcoal powedered.and mixed with soaproot glue is rubbed 
on the wood.^ 



Bo ws and Arrows 




Bows which are smaller and less strong than deer 
bows are used for small game, rabbits ducks and other 
bird. They are called duck bows, ke-Jiahn hi-shin. 
Sweathouse; yfakah-nejl, A conical etimcture built of 
big timbers stood on end. It had one large center post. 
Sun basket . The wife makes one and gives it *<!» the hus- 
band or to a relative of some one recently deoeasedi 
The husband gives it to his mother or sister. 
Driving fish . Small fish are driven into net by dragging 
a bush or brush weighted with small stones fastened with 
twisted hazel sprouts. Tfte net is called shah-bi-yak 
Cooking slugs . The Bo-yah say that the way to cook slugs 
is to stick the point of a slender stick through the 
head of the slug and pinch off the tail end and pull 
out the-iBsides through the hole. Then by means of 
the slender stick stuck through the head, hold the slug 



II III II » ."- . 1 ..I,,. H i ^ r7'''Tr V*! 



* • 



- 2 • 



over the coals in the eat of the fire until it is 
roasted* ^t is then good to eat* 





/ 



Bo-^^K 





INVITATION STRING 




The Bo'-rvah of the coast strip from Navarro 



Eidge south to the mouth of Gualala River tell 
me that f >^ a-j r ^yiJ-. a^ on atr^qg consists of a 
series of small sticks, usually 8 or 10 in 
numher, each ahout 2 inches long, strung together. 
The number of sticks corresponds with the number 
of days between the sending of the invitation 
and the date of the coming ceremony. The messenger 
breaks off one stick each day until the string 
is delivered, after which the recipient does the 



ssm 



e until the date of the ceremony errives.-t44>^ 



DOCTORS 




The Boctors of the Bo^yeh Ppmo 




ere called J(eh- tool and were in the 
ha bit, when treating the sick, of making four 

* 

emphatic motions, at the same time counting 
aloud, which they did in the following words: 
once ( tj-tQ QO-le. )» twice ( kaw^ ^o»le ) , 
three times (se-bo ool'), four times ( doo-koiool') 



/» L^^ n^ 



Bows and Arrows 



To darken newly made bows and arrows, charcoal powdered and >vtf^4j(^ 
Jj^t^ with ^9ifmm0T glue Is rubbed on the W00d. 

Bows which are smaller and less strong than deer bova are used f 



jtmall 



/ 



game, rabbits ducks, and other bird . They are called duck bows, ke-yahn hi- JA m , 






- f rniTi TN rTiTT?," nn^r rminn 




k 



^^MtU^ 



SWEATH0USE ( Shah-n^ ) J^onlcal^ built of 



big timbers stood on end* ^e large 



center post^ 




SUN BASKET 




Jffife makes^and gives^olhusband or to a 

of recently deceased •h^alsbadd glves^to^ Mother or sister. 
A A A A/ 



relative 





BOX- AH OF ST. ARENA 



ly 



a bush or brush 



Dr #tng fish I Small fish are driven into net by an 

weighted with small stones fastened with twisted hazel sprouts. The net is called 

shahHbi-yak 



La 




^X^UT*^ 



^ ■ 




COOK ' SLUGS 




The Bo«yah say that the way to cook 



slugs is to stick the point of a slender 
stick through iiie head of the slug and 



CVv 



I 



pinch off the tail^^and 



pull out 



the insides through the hbl*. Then by 
means of the slender stick stuck through 
the head^hold the slug lover the coals 
in the heat of the fire until it is 



roasted. It is then good to eat.-^ 








^K>^ 






^ 



^^\ry 



i^ 



f> 



Gridlay Bridge on Feather Hirer. 



Nishinan 



eroeeing (Poners) ld74> j' * ^^' 



mSriillmt 



BushamL, W 111 I 1907, . . 1^ ^ 
Village H side Tuba River be 



Tom)* 



Tillage 



below QroTille* 

Bo->tuk^ea^^ is Deer Creek. 

Buba , • . See Tuba. 

Bubu (stated by Gatten on authority of Sutter to be distinct 

from "Tabu") . . . Sacramento Valley tribe (Sutter) . 

Budii^ Miidem . . . No^^to-koi^yo name for Modok. 

Busheny-Indians (spelled Bushny and Bushunes) . • . See 

Bushujaies and Poo-sooHae* 

Bushowy (•pell0d Bushaney, Bushme, Bushaaa • • • Set 

BushuwMS and Poo-HWO«-na# 
Taylor) • (See Poosoonei) 



^onyi^T! 



Bashonees, Taylor I860* 

Bashones, Bushones, Bancroft ld74« 

Busheny Indians (spelled Bushny and Bushunes! 



fi7 Lienhard, 1898. 



-1 



^, 



u