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Full text of "C. Hart Merriam papers relating to work with California Indians, 1850-1974. (bulk 1898-1938)"



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|«rroT.TTWOOD. CAT.. rr Tl ZB K ? 11* 

DECEMBER 14, 1922 """^ 



rallons in excess ui. mu ^ix 



Indians Of State Gather 

« 

4 ^-/ At Clovis For Pow Wow 



Indians from all sections of Cali- 
fornin nre^ gathering today for the 
first Tndiah pow- wow to be held in 
the San Joaquin valley for upward 
of a quarter of a century. 

Descendants of once famous chiefs 
and warriors — in some cases g^riz- 
zled old chiefs who once joined 
with the famous Mono tribe in its 
revolt against the white man's dom- 
ination — will be represented in the 
pow-wow, which will be hold at 
Clovis for the three da.ys beginning: 
today. 

The Indians hj^vo com^ from as 
far off as British Columbia for the 
pow-wow. • 

Their feathered headgear, their 
blankets and war paint they have 
left behind them. In place of the 
little pinto pony so dear to the olden 
Indian's heai't tlu\v are coming in 
Pullman berths and in eight-cylin- 
der cars. 



Thej-e are other changes, too, in 
the revived pow-wow. 

There will bo no war dances, no 
dajicing to their old fetishes and no 
sacriflces to their old Sun God — in 
fact, it will bo a 1923 pow-wow held 
by the Indian chiefs, held in the 
Adventist church at Clovis. 

The delegates to the pow-wow 
show the great change which is be- 
ing brought about among the Cali- 
fornia Indians. The delegates, all 
pure-blooded Indians, bearing Oc- 
cidental names, are a new type of 
"medicine man" to the Indians-— 
they are missionary workers. 

At tho conference matters for* the 
welfare of the California Indians 
will be discussed. Among the In- 
dians to attend are: Captain Bill 
Sheiman, Carliti IVfervin, Captain 
Aleck, Rev. .Alfred I.ord, a Siwash 
Indian from British Columbia, now 
resident missionary at Coarse Gold; 
Clyde Thompson. Indian missioiiary 
I among the Shasta-co. Indians: 
jFiank Sunday, George Dick and 
I others. Missionary Brendel, Dr. C. 
|W. Branstadt of Oakland, Judge 
; Beaumont and H. -K. Wilkinson of 
I Fresno will also talk to the Indians 
ion live topics. 



INDIAN RE 





Interesting* 

Fatalities Discussed 

By MARION BOWEN 

Public affairs in their most inter- 
jesting phases were discussed by 
jable speakers at the luncheon over 
which Mrs. George L. Eastman pre- 
sided at the Woman's Club yester- 
day. Honorary members were seat- 
ed at the speakers* table, and red 
and green decorations arranged by 
Mrs. H. S. Lasker, were reminders 
of approaching Christmas festivi- 
ties. Ida May Adams, Los Angeles 
attorney, presented the cause of the 
Indian wards of the United States 
with convincing facts and affecting 
earnestness. 

"Most of us associate the word 
'wardship' with something kindly," 
began Miss Adams, ''but there is 
lanother kind of wardship, that kind 
|which is placed over us against our 

ill. No American would allow such 
Iwardship practiced against a girl or 
|boy who had 'come of age' in this 

ountry, yet we scarcely heed a dy- 
ng race under such a wardship." 

Tracing the history of the Indian 

ureau since its hasty and neces- 
ary establishment in |832, Miss 

dams stated that when it was first 
egun, as an emergency, it cost this 
ountry $800,000 a year. Citing the 
teady decrease in tho Indian popu- 
ation, which today is placed at 
36,000, Miss Adams compared with 
he former expenditure the present- 
ay yearly cost of the Indian Bu- 
•eau of $1,550,000 In salaries, and 
^$15,500,000 in appropriations. 
Were Great Hearted Men 

"At first," she said, "we had in 
hat department a few men with 
reat American hearts who sought 
o emulate jJfferson's ideal, which 



(Continfcid ,on page two) 



______ ** Wei 

faro League arid' assist in rightini 
this shameful wrong which is 
blight on the v/hlte honor of oui 
country — and theirs!" 

Many Sign Petitloh 
Mernbers crowded about th( 
speaker after the luncheon to sigi 
the petition which is being sent l 
Congress asking for the franchise 
fof Indians, showing how deepl; 
Miss Adams had touched the heartj 
of her hearers. 



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gallons in excess oj. ou t,c t*iuii»^ r s - 



Indians Of State Gath 
J W At Clovis For Pow Wow 



Indians from all sections of Cali-f 
fornia ivre^ gathering today for the I 
lirst Incliah pow-wow to be held In! 
the San Joaquin valley for upward 
of a quarter of a century. 

Descendants of once famous chiefs 
and warriors — in some cases griz- 
zled old chiefs who once joined 
with the famous Mono tribe in its 
revolt against the white man's dom- 
ination — will be represented in the 
pow-wow, which will be held at 
Clovis for the three days beginning 
today. 

The Indians hj^ve come from as 
I far off as British Columbia for the 
pow-wow. • 

Their feathered headgear, their 
I blankets and war paint they have 
left behind them. In place of the 
little pinto pony so dear to the oldm 
[Indian's heart thoy are coming in 
Pullman berths and in eight -cylin- 
der cars. 



There are other changes, too, in 
the revived pow-wow. 

There will be no war dances, no 
dancing to their old fetishes and no 
sacrifices to their old Sun God — in 
fact, it will be a 1923 pow-wow held 
by the Indian chiefs, heldi in the 
Adventist church at Clovis. 

The delegates to the pow-wow 
show the great change which is be- 
ing brought about among the Cali- 
fornia Indians. The delegates, all 
pure-blooded Indians, bearing Oc- 1 
cidcntat names, are a new type of' 
"medicine man" to the Indians—' 
they are missionary workers. 

At the conference matters for the 
welfare of the California Indians 
will be. discussed. Among the In- 
dians to attend are: Captain Bill 
Sherman. Carliti JVfervin, Captain 
Al(!ck, Rev. .Alfred J-ord, a Siwash 
Indian from British Columbia, now 
resident missionary at Coarse Gold: 
Clyde Thompson. Indian missionary 
among the Shasta-co. Indian.s: 
iFiank Sunday, George Dick and 
{others. Missionary Brendel, Dr. C. 
|W. Branstadt of Oakland. Judge 
1 Beaumont and H. 'K. Wilkinson of 
Fresno will akso talk to the Indians 
ion live topics. 



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|«r?nT.TTWOOD. CAl.., 

m . 

DECEMBE] 



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(Contiriupk from page one) 

would place/ tVie American Indian 
on an equalitV with the white race." 
Large appro priationii or Indian 
schools were expeld^i^in foolishly 
constructing a schWI lor every 33 1 
children, so thgf^he coa^of keep- 
ing teachers in'^thos/^ jMiools isl 
enormous. "Why not owl/he doors 
ol our public schools, themost dem-l 
ocratic institution in this country,] 
to our American Indian children, 
just as we do to the 6hfldren of the| 
brown, the black and the yello^ 
races?" pleaded Miss Adams, whi 
declared that no people render mor( 
honor and support to their countr: 
than the Indians. 

Bought Many Bonds 
During the war the Indians gav< 
more in Liberty bonds than di( 
any other one class of people, sh< 
continued, stating that althougl 
they could not be drafted, lO^GOO In| 
dians volunteered in the Worh 
War, and saw service abroad. "Hun| 
dred^ of these brave Indian fighters 
are sileeping in Flanders Field besid( 
our own *joys and men, and non< 
deserve our undying gratitude ancl 
respect more than those who volun| 
tcered and fought to make the!) 
country — our country — safe foi 
democracy. But the democracy o] 
odfucation is denied them as againsj 
the yellow and black races.' 

**You clubwomen, with youi 
voices, with your enthusiasm, witlj 
your organization and your goo( 
hfeams, get behind the Indian Wel| 
faro League and assist in rightlni 
this shameful wrong which is 
blight on the white honor of oui 
country — and theirs!" 

Matny Sign Petition 
Members crqwded about th( 
speaker after the luncheon to slgi 
the petition which is being sent t( 
Cofigress asking for the franchis( 
fof Indians, showing how deepl; 
Miss Adams had touched the hearts 
of her hearers. 



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ptj BMreaiJ 

ORTLAND.O^E. '/^ «rfJ- 






Hew* 



Tgrilaise Funds for 

Destitute Indian^ 






T ^V^5 meeting of Icaka auxiliary 

^I^P't^?. "^'^^ ^* \^1 decided to 
ask the Indian Bbard btCJo-operatioA 
to create a So^al d^pfe}^ent in coifr, 
nection Witn Its^*-^eg:ul4r activitSlI 
where parties/and dances may W 
given to raise funds to {^^Ij^indigent 

4- "^^^^ auxiliary unanimously voted 
to hold a social some time next 
month, perhaps at the Odd FeUows' 
nail, for the purpose of raising funds 
to help several destitute Indians in 
J^® cojnmunity. It was pointed out 
that there were a number of worthy 
cases here of deserving Indians who 
are unable to provide the means of a 
living for themselves. 

T^i^ ^SP^^^^^l® composed of Rev., 

Cinda Mike was chosen to work ou 
me p^^ns. > 






Wi; CHAPTER 
f OFD:A.fcHAS 

"^ MEET! 



GeM. 




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ji Pastfd^a chapter, Daughters of 
Ime Am^ftcan RevoUition, held its 
^regular monthly meeting at the 
phakespeare clubhouse yesterday 
lafteri^oon. . 

y Five new members were wel- 
^i^omed into the chapter by the 
egent, Mrs. Coleman: Miss Rose 
Voodward, Mrs. Frank Farmer, 
^Pliss Minnie S. Perkina. Mrs. C. 
•m. Fenton and Mrs. Robert M. 
Strong. • ' 

jy Dr. George Wharton James, 
jgrhose acquaintance Y^JtH thfl ^'^ 
^diang of (California dates back 25 
•years, gave a stirring talk on 
^Indian Welfar©;*' in a vivid 
{way. Dr. James presented the 
l^se of the dispossessed natives. 
.They doubt the existence of an 
'.honest white man. Dr. James has 
^already accohiplished much in 
^jarousing public interest in the 
problems of California's 20,000 
jlpdians. 

jl In keeping with the spirit of the 
jaddress, Mrs. Grace Sayre sang a 
igroup of Indian songs: "The 
White Dawn Is Stealing" (Cad- 
man), "By the Waters of Minne- 
^tpnka" (Lieurance), "Moondrops 
mow** (Cadman). 



JANUARY 19» *'^* 



ofltidii 



44 



I p.,,, I T^ii^. County 
The nexT «};^^;7\eld at Sherman .1 
1 1?(-deration wi^i ^^ ^'^'{: \^ February, I 
SSute the first ■week^'^J^^d, state 
when Mi'S- ^- ,/a Mrs. Fitzger- fl 
/ ^:^ .„;n mpet m counv^u vv ^^._„, dents 



n aid ^viU meet m^coun.il ^^^ pvesxienU, | 



,;iU meet in council Y^^^" .esWents 
ty executive .^^^^^ri^tn thr norning. 
I of the county c ub. m ^ on 

\i luncheon %v'l ^^,„{;„at8s ^^''^ f' 

'ihich the ^^^^%^>^r^^ \"- 
tend and an^ mte -.^ve P^^^ ,^ n- 



Riversi 
af torno 
balk by 
Outlaw 
li a yea' 
tmbe 









c 



AT. 'TT'^t^^fer^-^^ ' 



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OAKT.AND ri.UB LUNCHEON 

Miss Belle GarretU>r^h airman of 



Indian Welfare 

' District C. F. 

on ^ wcirk 

the lAf edl of 

of thd| v^n^^ ^ 
TndiOTs to proc 




Alameda 
ill speak 
ej* "Hettawtmcnt and 
using the interest 
the help for the 
re their demands 
from the government, at the Oa^ 
llnd Club January luncheon Wed- 

""^if will be an Indian program in 
whi^h there will be native dan.QS 
by a gU. of girls in costunu. ^uu^ 

a group of Indian songs by Miss 
aertrnde Grove. 

mIss Harriet Huntington w.ll ap- 
near in a hunting dance. A [''•f_ 
Kcti^n of Indian baskets will be 

shown. 



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I'RI^SN-o CAT. REM.I,MrA.:-,,„ 



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Talks on M^ In«Un*w»f Arizona 
and California w e^^ e giv<> n to the 
cMlilirfliii nf Oie Kncantt sohool last 
TuMKiay by H. B. Davis of Mesa 
Grande, who with Mrs. Davis haa 
.lust returned to San Diego from a 
trip for study among: these trlhcs 
and the collection of curios «for a 
NTew York museum. 

The classes of the school have 
been engragred In the study of the 
missions and the California Indians, 
^nd the talk was a ti iHSlf ' iT f tiT Mr. 
Davis Interested the children great- 
ly in teaching: tJiem to count In the 



.'^^llen' 



Indian language and 1* several of 
the movements of naAve dances 
Mrs. Alvorson, an authority on the 
Indians around San Diego, also gave 
a delightful talk. The children 
i\'ere very much pleased with the 
singing of several typical Spanish 
songs by Mrs. Mendelsohn. These 
were particularly enjoyable to the 
Spanish children, who were able to 
understand the words. 

Mrs. E. R. Scott, principal of the 

chool, was thanked by the pupili 
[or arranging the enjoyable 

ram. 

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CAM FRANCISCO. >i^' 

LOS ANGELES. 
PORTLAND. ORE. - - 
CLIPPIMG FROM .;., 



, *^^mtm*9.-**^*M'f9^ immB i*M 



(JJovis, Cal. Indcp'nt. 74 

o-'AISUAKY 525, lUliU 



•-»»-^-.. .. 



A training conference of Indian 
workers under the supervision of 
Rev. Brend^, will C9nvene at the 
Baptist churjih. C^est^y, 7 p. m. 
Jan. 30, and will (^iose Friday 
night. Public invited. 



bell Indian 
Welfare Dept. 
0^s Tuesday 




I 



The Indian^v^Felfare department 
of the Ebell club will hold a series 
of four meetings the first and third 
Tuesdays of February and March. 
The first meeting will be held at 
the home of Mrs. L. J. Gillespie. 
49 Esperanza avenue, the afternoon 
of February 6, at 2 o'clock. 

The program will consist of an 
address by Mrs. W. C. Wightman. 
Atlantis and Her Colonies," fol- 
lowed by a discussion of the var- 
ious theories as to how^the Indians 
came to this continent. After Inis 
an hour will be spent viewing Mrs 
Gillespie's wonderful Indian col- 
lection. 

Mrs. Clay H. White is chairman 
of the committee with Mrs. A E 
Sterling, Mrs. L. J. Gillespie 'and 
Miss Thomas Gilcrease. 






>r 




Vote To ^ Back Indian 
CclcbralkSn 



Special to The RepuhUcan 
EXETER, Feb. 5.— The executive 
committee of the Tulare County 
Federation of Women's clubs met 
here today at the First Presbyter- 
Ian church. ^Foflowirig lunch Mrs. 
William Hildor. president, of Strath- 
more, presided. 

Mrs. B. F. Butts of Terra Bella 
introduced a resolution asking that 
the women's clubs take up the St. 
John's day celeb; ation by the In- 
dians at their reservation above 
Pofferv^ille. It was voted to spon- 
sor the celebration and offer prizes 
^or exhibits of baisket work and 
In 



Fni:<:>'0 CAT.. BKE— 120 



IJUUKVAlil' C, iC;23 




INDIAN WELFARE 



Pebruaryjfe, Sf^Indiaii Welfare 
day at th^F. UA. Mrs. I. P. 
Hunter who is th^^der for that 
day, has secured J. G. Brendal, 
who is doing mi|3sionary work 
among the Indians near Auberry. 
The program will be well worth 
hearing. A general invitation is 
extended to the ladies of the com- 
munity to be present that day. 



Indian Welfare Is 

Fowler Club Topic 



The Vo 
tion is 1 
meeting: '^t the 
ternoo 
The 
1. P. I 




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1^ dL 1.11C7 ;^IIL» IIVU 

program, /^ rhar 
[lunter, is*oii liulli 



o.). Feb. C.~~ 

ent Astfocia- 

rfgular monthly 

i^ub' house this a« , 

rgc of INlrs. 
an Welfare. 



J. G. Brendol, who haw spent a num- 
ber of years as a missionary among 
the Indians above Aubrrry, was tc 
eive a talk durlnj? the afternoon. 







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Tridians' Raise $150 

for DestitufteL Aged] 

I'eople from^U ^^vfO^ ^^ Vounty at 
leaka Dahc^ lHe?& — Hadiburg, - 
Happy G«mip to Dance 




The dance and soci«^|J^en byj 
leaka Auxiliary of the Injp^n Boardi 
of Co-operation at Odd Pillows hall' 
last Saturday night was a success in| 
every way, it is announced by th( 
committees in charge of the affair. 
There was a large attendance an< 
while definite figures are not avail- 
able close to $160 was realized, it ii 
reported. 

The music for the occasion wai 
furnished by Mr. and Mrs. Duchie: 
with the piano and violin, and a con 
siderable part of the evening was de 
voted to dancing old time dances. 

The dance was followed by a sup-l 
per, at which more than 100 plates 
.were served, and other social enter- 
tainment. The last of the crowd did 
not leave until the rising sun had be- 
gun sending its scintillating rays over 
the summit of Butcher hill. More 
than 50 dance tickets were sold. 

With the exception of George 
Black, Herman Brinzer and Frank 
Shinn, the committees in charge of 
the affair were all of Indian blood. 
Among those prominent in the work 
of the committees were Mesdames 
George Black and Sarah Offield of 
Yreka, Bessie Gilmore of Hornbrook, 
George Nelson of Gottville, William 
McBride of Fort Jones. 

The sum realized from the dance 
and Supper was augmented by the 
don/:ion of $13.25 by Mrs. William 
Mcjfride, Interested citizens of 
A|Rand donated cakes for the occa- 

Tn. 

The crowd was representative of 
^he Indian icommunities of the coun- 
ty, people from as far away ^ as 
Happy Camp coming here to partici- 
pate in the event. 

The object of the dance and social 
was to raise funds with which to help 
destitute Indians. There are a num- 
ber of old meii and old women in the 
I county needing help who would have 
been provided for under the treaty 
signed many years ago if Uncle Sam 
had carried out the agreement made 
Ifor him. 

Those in charge of the dance have 
[expressed themselves as highly ap- 
preciative of the co-operation of all 
who helped to make the affair a 
success and have requested The Sis- 
kiyou News to express their grati- 
Itude. 

Arrangements are being made by 
the Hamburg and Happy Camp aux-| 
iliaries to hold similar events in the^ 
near future to help swell the bene^ 
fund. 



' ll—T iONO RT5ACH. CAIio 
TBJL.SiiGRAM 

FEBRUART 11, l»2l 



Indian Welfe 



re 
ears 



Sectioir 

Two Addresses 



The Indian welfare department 
of the Ebell club met Tuesday aft- 
ernoon with Mrs. Louis J. Gilles- 
pie, the department chairman, Mrs. 
Clay H. White presiding. 

Mrs. A. B. Sterling, program 
chairman, introduced Mirs. W. C. 
Wightman, who gave a very com- 
prehensive talk on ''Atlantis and 
Her Colonies." She spoke of the 
changes in continental areas and 
in the geology of the floor of the 
ocean thruout millions of years. 

She illustrated with maps the 
location of the ancient Atlantian 
continent, which sank beneath the 
surface of the ocean. She showed 
the land ridges, which connected 
Atlantis to the continent and was 
the pathway over which plants, 
animals and men crossed from one 
to the other. She spoke also of the 
similarities of ancient civilization^ 
from Egypt to Peru in art, architec- 
ture, customs, traditions, languages 
and the phonetic alphabet, which 
would' seem to prove their common 
origin. Mrs. Emma J. Reid gave 
supplementary thots on Atlantis, 
eaying the people of the lost conti- 
nent were oif the fourth race. She 
also told of previous races and said 
that the (people of today are of the 
fifth or post-Atlantian race. 

The hostess gave a most inter- 
esting recital of her experiences 
in visiting Indian reservations and 
the deplorable conditions she found 
there. The very complete Indian 
collection of the home was greatly 
enjoyed, a large torn tom being, of 
particular interest. It was pre- 
sented to Mrs. Gillespie by Chief 
Ka-Ka-She of the Flathead reserva- 
tion in Montana. This tom torn had 
been in use by this tribe for at 
least 100 years and can i)e heard 
for a distance of five miles. 

The next meeting of the Indian 
welfare department will be h ' ' 



February 






e h^i 



"^FEBUVARY 17, 19.2?. 

■ Mr. Conser Talks 

Mr F. M. Conser, superintendent oi 
Sherman eave an interesting talk on 
^J^t?!^!r;,««.H.nied that many n-l 

(liartB'are sUiviW- H^ LUIll Mil the 
SSS Indians /^e ^uite ^veU o « 

and could attend the C'»»t"|" ?■ 
schools but that there are 7000 in 
Irizona who have never seen tba in- 
side of a school. He predicted that 
Sherman would grow to a capacity of 
lOOOinthenex^wyear^ 



i 



■iTTIBltWTDia. CAT/* 





Dr. Edward S. Curtis Will Speak :it| 
All Souls Universaijj^ CJiurcl 
Author of Note 



IS ?T 111 l^l*VtlI> v*-*-! 

dUv^ Church; bf 



The course of popular science lec- 
tures at All Soul^ Universal ist 
church, held since the 1st of January, 
has awakened widespread interest. It 
is now drawinj>: to a close, there re- 
maining: only two more numbers. To- 
morrow evening' there will be a pic- 
ture lecture by Edward S. Curtis on 
"The Origin oi* the American Indians; 
Tli^jr Migrations and Reli.erious Be- 
liefs.'' 

Dr. Curtis* is the author of his- 
torical work entitled "The North 
American Indian," published in 11 
volumes in 1916, and of **Indian Days 



of Lonp- A;:jo," in 1914, and ''In the 
Land of the Head Hunters,'* in 1915. 
He is a member of the Archi oloj;*ical 
Iristitute of America, and was the 
"'official photo,i;rapher for the K. H- 
j Han iman Alaska expedition in 1898. 
He ha.3 maiiuainc* studios at Seattle, 
New York Cily, and Los AnRclcs. He 
says that for this lectui'o h: will 
bnn^* an ample collection of slides, 
but will piecede the showing;' of the 
l^ictui'cs by a preliminary outline of 
ori.ftin and mi.i^ci-ation. 



FABADENA, CAL.. STAR-WICW? 

m ALL STAR 
INDIAN PROGRAM 

Andrew J^^ stents 

and P.-T. A. Prepare 

Entertainment 



Friday March 2. at 8 o'clock thp 

new auditorium. ^ 

The famous United 9faf*»e cu 

Miss jJlTtom: s^upe?v"o^'^l'f 
ni..s,c ,n the Pasadena chv schooN 

.M,.ss Marian Mundv. a nrofes' 
s.ona story teller, of wide exner " 

ELVrn'tl^'Z' ?'^' ^'^^^^^^^^^^ 
ten in W T^-"*"" ^"^"t^- will 
t!L • T ^"*''='" co'ttime, "The 

tII' .,• ^ T^^ ^^^" Waters." hy 
Tekahjonevake. daughter of the Into 

tions °""'*"^y«''<'" of the Six Na- 

Mi,ss Mundy's experience in tell- 
m? stones for a year and a h a f 
in the camps and cantonment, „r- 
"R he war. bronjjht her .mder he 
1-meh^ht. makine her a favorite 
with bovs- and girls' dubs, a, S 

::ni:rtLr"' ^-^ --^-'^ - 

. f^'orence .Stpnver. a pont,I,r litfl,. 
sjneer of the Jackson =chool wf i 

tTrne.'" '"'"" ''''"^ '" Indian cos 
Thjs proeram will be a srhr.r>l 
benefit aflFair. and ticket' are Sow 
on^sale^at the school and at Jarvi: 



ITS. Mf> A. VAX., orTLOoa » 



SOUNDS APPEAL' 




Ida May Adams Points Out 

Apalling Conditions, at 

Woman's Club 



"America Is tnli of futile sym- 
pathy. Our hearts are wrung for 
the thousands of Indians who are 
cold from lack of clothing every 
year and who die every winter from 
starvation. Yet sympathy has not 
an atom of value unless it ripens 
into clothing and food which it does 
not at present.'* 

This, Ida May Adams, of the In- 
dian Welfare league, declared yes- 
terday afternoon in her stirring ad- 
diess on the alarming condition of 
the Indians, at the Sawtelle Wom- 
an's club. Four million dollars are 
spent every year In salaries alono 
for people employed by the United 
States Indian bureau. The Indian 
appropriation alone is sixteen mil- 
lion dollars a year, and yet in a 
California Indian village last win- 
ter, 100 Indians died of starvation 
i,nd cold. Indian boys and girls 
are not permitted to attend the pub- 
lic schools where there are row after 
row of negroes, Chinese and Jap- 
anese, the speaker pointed out, then 
described the worse than mediocre 
training that the Indian children 
are given on the reservations, where 
"it takes an Indian boy nine years 
to make the first three grades,*' in 
which he has been known to make 
more than nine gi ades in the public 
schools, she declared. 

"Teachers are sent to the Indian 
reservations who cannot speak the 
King's English," Miss Adams said, 
warmly. "There are men sent to 
the Indians to teach them farming 
[i who were never on a farm in their 
lives before and know nothing of 
at work. There are many sick 

ervations to. teach them. I know 
bf one woman who was sent to an 
Arizona reservation last year who 
was dying of tuberculosis. This is 
manifestly unfair to the Indian and 
to the woman who was sent, who, if 
she was in government employ, 
should have been given retirement 
and pension." 

Because we have not cared suffi- 
ciently, the speaker said, the Indian 
does not go to our public schools, 
is not allowed to vote, and has no 
other citizenship privileges though 
America w^as his country first. In- 
dians do not, as is sometimes 
thought, receive rations from the 
government. 

For the work which he does, the 
Indian receives an average wage of 
$5.62 a month. Starvation and lack 
of shelter were factors stressed. He 
does not murmur but _taJies_„Uia- 
great injustice thai is forced upon 
him, because we have not demanded 
that congress froe him, with stoical 
silence. She made the following 
striking statement in this connec- 
tion. 

"A sick Indian in Los Angeles 
county cannot go to your county 
hospital, an ambitious Indian boy 
or girl here cannot go to the public 
schools, an insane Indian cannot go 
to the State Insane asylum, but if 
an Indian breaks your laws he is 
sent to the county jail." 

Though she burdened her audience 
little with statistics, she gave sev- 
eral which fairly galvanized her 
listeners with their significance. 
There are in the whole United 
States but 336,000 Indians, or 44.000 
families. Of these there are 14,000 
homes with nothing but dirt floors. 
Some one has said, that the Indians 
are not a Tanishing race, but,*' Miss 
Adams said, "there are, in the av- 
erage reservation, two or three chil- 
dren born a year, to every twelve 
deaths." 

The Indian is valuable to us in a 
number of ways which we cannot 
afford to ignore, maintained the 
speaker, but these great benefits 
cannot come to us unless the In- 
dian is developed, and not made to 
live under the harrassing condi- 
tions of starvation and cold and 
inferior education. These things 
will only be remedied by letting the 
Indian go into the public school, 
giving him the Aote and allowing 
him to raise the standard of living. 
"The Indian has a musical strain 
in him that always finds response 
in the human soul," Miss Adams 
said. "The Indian has an artistic 
strain found no place else in the 
world. We see >t in his rugs, pot- 
tery and tapestries. The Indian is 
deeply religious." 

The speaker closed her address by 
urging every man and woman to^ 
join the Indian Welfare league. 

Mrs. Roy Putnam sang "An 
dian Lodge,** by McDowel and fi^d- 
man's "Land of the Sky-^^lue 
Water." 

Tea was served. ' 




^ y 023 

B21TeitPRIBB 



Atwood ^ LA 

JoMofTrlp^^J V 
To wWhington and East 



an Indian delegation, lo u.u »-"— „ i 
, r,n;l friends of the Grand Terrace , 
P Womnn's club, Friday evening m the 
* Grard Terrace school house. Mrs. | 
f ' Atvvood's interest and connection with , 
'.Indian affairs is well known. She is. 
chairman of Indian Welfare of Jhe , 
General Federation of Wcnen s cluhb. 
The outlines of Mrs. Atwood s visit 1 
to Washington in the interest of tne 
Now Mexican Indians' land question _ 
is also generally known. The graphK= , 
details, characteristic of ^^'^.Jf^'^^^J , 
cannot fail to interest as she tells of 
meeting with congressional comrnit- 1 
' tees, her visit to New York, and the , 
receotion of Mayor Hylan and the 
New* York stock exchange. j 

The program, which will be n , 
charge ^,f ^Miss Josephme Kerrick i 
leader oi the Civics committee, anc. i 
Mrs. Van I'ctten, will begin at 7.4b 
o'clock Thpre has been a specially 

leaned meeting of *'«« .^'"b, J",'t i 
for 220 minutes preceding thcT t.iiK. » 

«XS^^^ 



OAKtAKD. CAB.. 

rOST-BNQVISBR— 4<0 

M^ Sit. 1923 



''LT^ 



•I 



Indian Memory 

^ L U Expert to Speak 

^R. W. Hawley, memory expert, 
and full hKioded American Indian, 
will s5W^ tonight at < the Toung 
Men's Christian association. Haw.- 
ley carried code messages in 
France during the world war, at a 
time when the army dared not 
trust messages to written word or 
signs. , 

Hawley was dropped from school 
when he was in the fourth grade, 
because he couldn't remember his 
lessons. 



10 Poma Indians 

At San Carlos for 
Progress Pageant 

Peninsula Show to Open 
Tomorrow, With Gov- 
ernor Present; 

Fifty Poma Indians, the last of 
thetr tribe, have set np their wicki- 
ups and ^uilt their camp fires at 
San Carlos, where they will be fea- 
tured during the Pageant of I*i-og"- 

ress, opening tomorrow. 

Chief Sully-y-Carm heads the 
band of Indians from Mendocino 
county. The group includes medi- 
cine men, braves and squaws, and 
even an Indian flapper. Princess 
"Cutey" Cueling Mitchell, 12 years 
old, who is strictly modern in her 

ideas. 

Daily during the exposition the 
young men of the Poma tribe will 
give their traditional dances and 
other ceremonies, taught them by 
the medicine men in order to per- 
petuate tribal customs. 

Governor Richardson will open 
the exposition tomorrow, when he 
presses the button that will set the 
machinery In motion. A few hours 
later every part of the State will 
be officially informed that the 
pageant has commenced, when 
homing pigeons arrive, bearing 
messages from the pageant pro- 
moters. Sereral scores of these 
pigeons will be released. 

Tomorrow U California day. Gov- 
ernor's day and Children's day in 
one. Among the special features 
will be an exhibition of pets. 
School boys and girls will be ad- 
mitted free during the day. 

-e 



'■\*-.^' 3"-- 











!/ 



Sacramento, Gal, Bed 

. MAY 5^, 1933 ^^ , 

INDIANS TO CONFER 



V^ashoe Braves 
ins AssI 
me 

RENO ( 

battlefield n 




onslder Seek«| 
m Govem- 
bes. 

25. — 6n thel 

Genoa where their 

United 



Wltjfc 

jatedf t 



tribe, cooperating 
States rcfetiars, def^ated^the Piutes 
in a desperate strugff»^n the early 
days of N|vada, the WEshoe Indians 
of Dougb^s County will meet next 
(Sunday to consider measures for 
obtaining assistance from the fed- 
eral government. The meeting has 
been called by Hank Pete, a leader 
among the Indians, for the purpose 
of bettering conditions of the 
Piiites and Washoes on lands out- 
Bidte the regular reservations. 

The government will be asked to 
assist in irrigating the lands held 
by the Indians and financially aid 
the tribes^ their efforts to better 
living co<iditions. 










,m^^ 



as-?io»v€.1,Wn 



tt Indian Shrines 
Traditions 




■M-m 



^.ther Joseph of St. Anthony's 

lege spake at the opening of thr# 
_.fternoon session and welcomed the 
convention to Santa Barbara. He 
pointed out the work of the Fran- 
ciscan order among the Indians of 
California, New Mexico and Arizoni 
in cooperation with ather organiza- 
tions interested in Indian welfare. 

*'The Indian's Angle,'* was pre- 
sented to the gathering by Pr( ^ 
fessor A. L. Kroeber, head of the , 
department of Antliropology of the 
University of California. Professor 
Kroeber asserted that the sacred 
traditions of the Indian so aften 
carelessly overridded by the white ' 
race meant as much to the Redmar^f 
as the treasured traditions of Rome 
meant to our civilization. He cau- 
tioned the proponents of the Colo- 
rado river project against destroy- 
ing the many sacred landmarks 
throughout the Southwest to whicjb 
the Indians have attached centur> 

old legends. 

Keep Sacred Shrines 

"In a time-worn pueblo near Zuni, al 
Arizona," he stated, "is a battered bl 
pile of stone, which to the average . ai 
passerby, means nothing. But to j '♦' 
the Zuni Indian this shapeless pile : thi 
of rock is the most sacred of j er,^ 
shrines. To him it is the center or j 
the World. Nearby is located a Qf 
small marshy lake, known to the|vent\ 
Indians as the City of The Gods, itheh 
Should the Southwestern states in ! will 
carrying out their reclamation pro- ; natun 
gram on the Colorado river des-ia mon 
troy this lake it would mean noth- j tration 
ing to them. But to the Indian it | Amonj 
would mean that the home of all . which t] 
his ancestors was destroyed and his woven ai 
hope of meeting them in eternity j -piute ^ ^^ 
lost forever. For in this lake, the and hisforlan ht^ 
Zuni tradition says, the souls of Los Angeles for a! 

all departed Indians rest." J . — v^v^s,,.^.,.^,.,^ 

Pre«ei-ve IiuliauJ^^ , was attempting to regulate the re- 

A plea for the preservation of j_^^ ^^ ^^^ redmen which was a 

direct violation of the United States 
constitution which guarantees 



Indian art. especially the Indian 

dance-drama was n^ade by Mrs. ,^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

Mary Austin, of New York City. } ngious freedom 
. Mrs. Austin bitterly rebuked the ..^j^^ , ; 



re- 



actions of the Indian Welfare 
Bureau, declaring that the society 
is deliberately destroying the art 



IC3 



The dance-drama," she said, .^ 
the most typical American branch 
of art in existence. I would much 



IS aeiioeraieiy utfytiuymg tnc c*.u rather have my niece study the art 
and traditions of the Indian race, j of dancing in Arizona than In the 
She also stated that the society j Balkans," Mrs. Austin asserted. 









.11 

i 









JULY 15, 19S3 



^i.. 




1 








-.'^^5Tv5^«!^mF^ 


*«i 



• .-.'r. 



•t^rV 



^ .J^ . . 




Early Map 



One of the early maps showing the conception of the early mis- 
sion padres of the San Joaquin valley. Note what an inland sea 
Tulara lake is represented to be. It is practically dry now. 



Jndians Plajf^ Jh|avoc 
,With Cattle Of 
Padres / 

Bdftor^B Notes Professor jlft- 
0/ the Fresno State col* 
h ntt prepared a series of a 
dozen articles on the history of 
the Ban Joaquin valley, of iohich 
this is the fourth number. It 
ioHl he foUoioed hy others giv- 
ing in detail the explorations 
and the various influences that 
laid the foundation of our pres- 
ent Inland Empire, As far as 
posHlle it vHll le illustrated 
ioith contewporaneoua maps. 

By EMORY RATCLIFFE 

Many of the early expeditions into 
the San Joaquin valley were sent 
out by misBlon authorities on the 
coast to look for miitable mission 
•Ites. The reports brought back by 
these parties were almost unani- 
mous in selecting the region around 
Visalia with the oaks and water as 
the most desirable location. Two 
other regions were reported favor- 
ably— the Merced country and the 
present site of Bakersfield. 

However, the hope of a mission 
In the San Joaquin valley was not 
to be realized by the fathers. The 
fewness of the workers, the great 
Aistanoe from the nearest coast 
missions, lack of supplies and the 
waning mission Interest were ob- 
stacles too great to be overcfome by 
the devoted fathers. Before the 
plans to settle the Valley could be 
carried into effect, the great Span- 
ish colonization movement in North 
America had spent itself. The ex- 
peditions into the San Joaquin val- 
ley represent In a sense the extreme 
Spanish frontier. 

From the time of the founding of 
the coast missions, the San Joaquin 
valley Indians were a source of 
trouble to the mission fathers. The 
wild Indians often enticed away 
from the missions the Christian In- 
dians, and endangered the very 
missions themselves. They also 
drove off the mission mules, horses 
and cattle. The Indians would 
sometimes go to a mission, get bap- 
tized and on the way back to their 
native village, they would drive off 
mission stock to kill and eat. More 
often, however, cattle or horse "lift- 
ing" expeditions would be organ- 
ized by the Indians. They would 
precede to the Coast Range moun- 
tains and stampede and drive off 
the herds found grazing there. The 
stock would sometimes be driven 
across the San Joaquin rivfer and 
into the mountains of Madera and 
Merced counties. When Colonel 
Fremont came through what is now 
Madera county in 1845, he ran onto 
a successful raiding party that was 
just getting ready for the feast. 
Horses were preferred by the In- 
dians either because horsemeat 
tasted better or since horses could 
faster tha 



g„a mission site hunting. Two well I September 21, in conunand of Cap- 




organized expeditions were sent out 
by the authority of the grovemor 
himself. The work of these expedi- 
tions resulted in the Valley being 
explored from the extreme north to 
the southern end and most of the 
important rivers and other features 
being named and desirable places 
noted. 

One of these expeditions of which 
Father Jose Maria Salvidea was the 
diarist, left Santa Barbara on July 
19, 1806. It kept to the northwest 
of Buena Vista lake and passed to 
the south and east of Tulare lake. 
Some time was given to the Visalia 
region. This country with its trees 
and water very much . Impressed 
Salvidea. About the Fresno Tulare 
county boundary line, the party 
turned south and went out of the 
Valley l)y way of Tejon pass, reach- 
ing Mission San Gabriel August 14. 

IMPORTANT TRIP 

Probably the most important ex- 
ploring expedition ever sent into 
the Valley was the one that left 
Mission San Juan Bautista on 



tain Gabriel Noraga. The party 

crossed the San Joaquin south of 
the mouth of Nonposa creek and 
preceded north naming the streams 
it crossed as mentioned In the pre- 
ceding article until it reached the 
Caleveras. It then turned back to 
the Merced end explored up and 
down that river. The leader was 
very much impressed with the 
country as a desirable piision site. 
When the San Joaquin river was 
reached near Millerton. it was ex- 
plored in the same way — one party 
going up the river, another down 
stream. The party that explored up 
stream reported that 20 years be- 
fore a company of men had come 
from east of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains and had treated the In- 
dians badly. When the Kings river 
was reached the same story -^as 
heard from the Indians there. T^lis 
and similar glimpses of unnaiifid 
expeditions leads one to believe t rfjtt 
the records that have come down 
are far from being complete. 

Noraga and his party were also 






impressed with the Visalia coun 
The official report of this expedi- 
tion said "This region (the Visalia 
country) covered with oaks, nas 
three thousand souls eager for con- 
version, and Is the best place soen 
for a mission." 

The party moved on south, pass- 
ing through Bakersfield, and out of 
the Valley by way of the Te.lon 
pass, reaching San Fernando No- 
vember 3. 

Expeditions looking for mission 
sites continued to be sent out as 
late as 1820 and perhaps later. The 
reports brought back for most part 
confirmed the impressions of the 
ones cited above. Of all the places 
found from the northern to the 
southern end of the Valley but three 
—Merced, Visalia, and Bakersfield— 
received much favorable comment, 
and of the three, Visalia most im- 
pressed the explorers. 

However, the cost of maintaining 
a mission and presidio so far inland 
and the dwindling mission intoroFt 
probably prevented a mission belnij 
established there. 






chances of getting away with them 

were" greater. 

FOR PLANTATfONS 

Strange as it may seem another 
incentive for the Indians to raid the 
missions of their stock was the de- 
mand lor good mules at Santa Fe 
and farther east. Renegade white 
men came into the Valley and or- 
gan izeA-* horse and mule stealing 
parties. Santa Barbara bred mules 
were icDpwn and commanded a 
premium ^ the Louisiana sugar 
plantations, "^v 

To counteract the inijlucnce and 
depredations of the Valley Indians 
the coast mission authorities con- 
sidered at various times the ad- 
visability of establishing missions 
in the Valley and expeditions were 
sent orrt fr'^m time to time to look 

for sitas. 

Whether sent especially to ex 
plon^^r a mission site, every padre 
exMover was always on the lookout 
When Father Garces.was 



him a suitable place for a mission. 
This may have been the first sug- 
gestion that it would be desirable 
to have a mission in the Valley. - 

SECOND PERIOD } 

From 1800 to 1820 was the p^eflDCi' 
of most active Spanish missicm Ir^- 
terest in the San Joaquin Valley. 
Until after 1800, the fathers were »o 
busy on the coast thfiit 
tion could be given to the Val 
and after 1820 interest seems 
have been given to work elsewhe 
One of the first to urge the est 
lishment of a mission in the Tu 
valley was Father Juan Marti 
San Miguel. In 1804 he made a 
alone to a village t)n the shor 
Tulare lake. The conditions a 
the Indians were very distressin, 
the good father, but he was f 
to return without accompli 
ng very Important. 

ER YEAR 

1806 seems to have been tlj^^ban- 
nftfvear in the Valley explyratlo 



Kto ret 
- Wthli 
e IaNN 



IP 
»f 



»d 



">;).|*'>"?.'S..V 







L'iM."; 




gAKTA ROSA. CAL, PREdi- 
HKHOCUAT 

JULY J, 1923 



Former Hunting Ground of 



Indians Is Scene of Lively 
Gathering of Redmen Tribes 

lERBERklw. SLATER)., land represented a distinct compli- 
ndiiLi^^at is, the Im- ment to Great Sachem Will B. Cor- 
IrdU/ ofT Red Men, rield rick of Santa Rosa., 
turday night and Sunday Great Chief of Records Porter L 




n tno 
11 ihjfj 
)fl^'l> 



th^ happy hunting .^.^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ Junior SagamoiM 
years gone by the ^-^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^, ^^^^^^ -,, 



mornmg on 
on which in 
Yulupa's foffj^'ly roamed. 

The forest glade, the babbling 



the order for his great intore.^t in 



brook, the rugged hillside and the ^le cause of the ornhans, woro 



smooth face of the valley, the 
moonlight and the tree tops en- 
circling nature's lodge room made 
a picturesque setting for the great 
out-of-door adoption of pale faces 
who were inducted into the mys- 
teries of the order. 

The foregoing furpished enough 
of a description of the spot select- 
ed on Peach Plat to suggest to all 

chiefs of the Improved Order of 

Red Men that the traditional work 

was given additional realism to 

the candidates that could not have 

been emphasized within the four 

walls of la dow^ntown building 

fashioned by man'. 

During the progress of the three 

degrees, the adoption, the warrior, 

and the chief, a number of climaxes 

were introduced reflecting the terror 

of the storm and the after -calm, 

so to speak. The moonlight over 

head lent contrasts to the electric. - ., ^ * .„#fh..r.ii«.iTivJ 

lighting close to earth which airted^ saying that the feast wa.lth oughl 

the degree teams to perform theirlenjoycd. Theoccas.on will Ion 
^ -^ ,. , Bu^ romemher bv all v;ho partici 

l)art mdre effectively. W^^ rernt-mrt;! .> -t ^ 

Chiefs in war garb of th e Indlant pated ni it. { 

danced about the council tire thai 
was kindled at 9 o'clock and whichl 
were not extinguished until 11 
o'clock Sunday morning. 

Those who witnessed the exemp- 
lification of the three degrees by 
the teams of Samoset, Vallelo, Gen- 
nessee, San Rafael, and Yulupa oil 
Santa Rosa, were loud in their 
praises Sunday morning of the fine 
exhibition showMi by these teams. 

From many sections of Northern 
California came representatives to 
witness the out-of-door initiation. 
The class initiated was a large 
one and the occasion was under 
the auspices of the Pas> t^achenVs 
Association of Northern California 



amang the grand oft'icero pro^-ent 
Sachem M. E. Cro.ssf.eld of Yulup-\| 
tribe, opened the proceedings and] 
added his Word of welcome to thos< 
uttered by Mr. Corrick and Mr. Leej 

N. A. Ridley of Santa Rosa v:i 
chjiirman of the general committer 
of arningements. The singing b: 
tho Glee Club of Samoset trib* 
added gre\t enjoyment. The musi 
cal program was under the direc 
tion of Fred Cassini of this cit>^ 
v.'ith -Tohn Felcioni as chairman o| 
the committee on grounds. Secre- 
tary Manuel Felcioni was an abl< 
assistant in all matters. 

Early Saturday morning Chief S| 
Gonzales of Petaluma tribe, arrives 
jit Peach Flat to prepare for th( 
barbecue feature, and attend to th< 
broiling of the nuge quarters ol 
beef over the charcoal fires and 
the cooking of the great crocks of 
Spanish beans. It sroefi wlthoui 



It gO(y 
Lst wast 
















l^/T^Tn^^yyfev;^^.:-^^';,^ 



JULY 28, 1023 



IAN TOPIC AT 
CHURCH MEETING 

Most^tl(|picmil|;hes of Healdsburg 
will jornin a bmt-wow at. the Christ- 
ian cJitxrch Sundly at 8 p. m. It will 
he IniMan evening, according to Miss 
Hope i Elizabeth Haupt of Washing 
ton, D. C, interdenominational mis- 
sionary, lecturer and writer on affairs 
of Redman's land* 

"I went to Uklah this week, with 
Mr. and Mrs. Leroy Thompson, the 
lea^ng Indians of the GeyservlUe 
Wappoos of the Pomos,** said Miss 
Haupt, "and secured A Porno of the 
Uki branch to come and give a short! 
address "on the subject 'Prom the In- 
i<Uar?»' standpoint?' It is going to^ ije 

treat to hear Stephen Knight, on^ 
J-.f Oa!iforir>/s Indians who was a 
lelegate in February, 1922, to Wash- 
ington, D. C, to present the claims 
? ih^ California Inrfians to Congress. 
do rosi'dod there three months and j 
JT'.'?' n-.any of the countjrx's leadin;; 
citizens, white and red! TAr. Knight 
Is full of his subject and speakf"with 
the natural dignity and eloquence ot 
>ur Indians that it always enjoyed 
)y white men. 

Miss Haupt's address will be on 
:ho subject, "The Challenge of Red- 
>^'s land to America Today.'* Rev. 
leo. B. Clark, who has had a number 
lof years of experience among the 
iMendocino county Indians, will give 
la short address on the subject: "How 
Ithe Church May Become More Effi- 
cient in Her Missions in Redman's 
iLand." 

Mrs. Walter Leroux will probably 
Ispeak, an secretary of the Guilford 
(school P. T. A. 

Rev. R. ^K. Acuff, who has viewed 

lat close range our wonderful Indians, 

[the Hopi, Zuni and Navaj6s, with 

their ancient civilization, during his 

^ears of service in the desert, will 

:ive a short talk. 

Miss Haupt will give a tiny talk f 

lown by the Russian river at 6:45 to 

the Union Young People's meeting 

)f Healdsburg and vicinity. 

In the morning at 11 a. m. Miss | 

[aupt will speak in the Christian : 

church on the subject "Our Noble | 

^fountain Whites of Dixieland." She 

ras three ya^^aworker there and 

fs a very g^^^^is^r of these 

)COtch-Irish o 



Sacra»iV;ntn. OfiT. Bee 

AUGUST £0, 1C23 



fpERVISORS OF 
.. INDIAN^SCHOOLS 



x I 



i5 




IIEET IN CAPITOL 

Bv I.EO A. McCLATCHY. 

WASHINGTON. AugU^ 20.— 

diction over H«*3°;^„|rt^'^Ur 

jrou^^^'d-a? ona? ^t!^ be 
TrHed on during the com^g term. 
WW coon is attending as su- 
^'rviaor of the Indian schools in 
^cZTorni^%reson ^.na Washlng:- 



ALTURAS. CAT.I NK\t RTIA 



AUG 2 9 1923 



^\A 



AN FAIR AT FORT BIDWELL 



The Indians have e^jkssed a desir^ 
tO" put Ul/^eii^^n ifdian Fair at 
Fort Bidweir)September 7th, 8th, and 
9th. This meets with>Ui^rfpproval of 
nearly everyone previo^y connected 
I' with the management of the Indian 
fairs, and best wishes for the success 
of this fair are expressed. 

The Indians promise good horse 
races, Indian dances and games of 
their earlier life before the white man 
came. With their growing knowledge 
of amusements learned from their 
white friends, coupled with their na- 
tive ability and ingenuity in presenting 
something new and entertaining, the 
Indiara Fair on September 7th, 8th and 
9th, should be an attraction 'worth 
traveling to see. From plans already 
under way it is learned that only In- 
dians will take part in the programs, 
and a true Indian show will be put on 
by the Pit River and Paiute with the 
assistance of their Oregon and Nevada 
relatives. 

The educational value of fairs will 
not be neglected by them, and liberal 
premiums have been provided for ex- 
hibits of baskets, bead-work, native 
industry workmanship and agricultural 
products. 

Nothing will be exhibited unless it 
ahs been made by an Indian. The fair 
will not be a free show; but if you are 
afraid of Indians In old time paint an 
costumes, look out. 



TULARE. CAT... / nr ^^CE 

mUG'JST 50, )d<^ 



BU 



?rdian Maiden 
Will Describe 

Baskets, Rugs 
% {1niffmirJ)isplay 

TVIoDO T5fre to Lend Many 
Valuable Baskets, Pieces of 
Pottery to Butts Display 



Watanea, an Indian girl, of the 
Mono tribe which is located ii^ar 
North Fork of the K«wea;h Hiver 
will be in charge of the idisplay of 
Indian bajskets, pottery and Navajo 
rugs which are to be exhibited in 
the Tulare County Fair Try Hieverend 
and Mrs. B. P. Butts. 

Watanea's /nfa.me outside the 
tribal reserve is Miws Ttiysa Isa- 
bella Harris, 'and according to Mrs. 
Butts she will demonstrate the var- 
ious baskets, describing their uses 
among the Indians and wiTl also give 
iriformation concerning the various 
kinds of pottery and tlie T^Iaivajo 
rugs on display. 

According to Mrs. Butts some very 
valuable collections of ba^k^^ets have 
been borrowed from the Mono Tribe 
tfor exhibition at the fair amd & num- 
Ijer of other collectors in various 
parts of the county have assfeiat/ed to 
aoaning their collections for tTie dis- 
play. 

Mrs. Butts conferred with Mts. 
M. C. Zumwalt, in charge of fbe 
WiOimen's Department of the fair in 
re^fcird to the space to be set aside 
for the collections of Indian tes- 
kctte, pottery and rugs. 



ErSTyOBK, CAT.., mrSS 332 

^^^ AUG. 51, iu::u 




At(*W«- 



-A»A« V^A«31V1V; X XV'OOi 



in^jinll hi 



ANNUAL 

**ie Saboba Indian ^jmll hpW J^ 
annual Fiesta at San Jacirfto t^r- 
row at 9 o'clock in the evening, con- 
tinuing through Sunday, September 

9th. 

Features of the 8-day fiesta will 
be the fire dance, the peon game, be- 
tween men and women, preaching by 
an Indian exhorter who gives his 
message in three languages. There 
will be a big barbecue, bronco riding, 
horse races, etc., and every evening 
dancing on the cement floor of the 









fKK^VO. CAT. ITOR^Vrn 100 



iDIANMAiD 

TO DESCRIBE 
FAIRDISPLAY 

Valuable Baskets, Pieces Of 
Pottery For Tulare 

flian ffiTl, 



ity Fair 



Indiati g 
is located 



slpt. 1.— "Watanea. an 
of Ihe^Mono tribe which 
rrt!*>^orth Fork of the 
Isaweah rivefKrill be in /harge of 
the display of Indian baskets, pot- 
tn^ and Navajo rugs, which are to 
bo exhibited in the Tulare count: ^ 
fair by Reverend and Mrs. J3. i^ . 

Watanea's name outside the 
tribal reserve is Miss .--osa Isa- 
bella Harris, and according to Mrs. 
Butts she will demonstrate the vari-, 
ius baskets, describing their uses 
among the Indians and will also give 
information concerning the various 
kinds of pottery and the Kavajo 
rugs on display. 

According to Mrs. Butts some very 
valuable collections of baskets have 
been borrowed from the Mono tribe 
for exhibition at the fair and a num- 
ber of other collectors in various 
larts of the county have assented to 
loaning their collections for the dis- , 

^^ Mrs. Butts conferred with Mrs. 
^T. C. Zumwalt, in charge of the 
women's department of Ihe fair in 
regard to the space to be set aside 
for the collections of Indian bas- 
kets pottery and rugs. 



il 



SEPTEMBER 9; 1?23 



Indian Day ^(^ 
Program to Be ^ 
Given by Club 

•'The Myths and Songs of the 
\ Me^ uk Indian s." will claim* inter- 
est at the Indian Day program 
which will be given on Tuesday 
under the auspices of the United 
Arts department of the Twentieth 
Century Club. Professor D. Nr 
Lehmer of the University of Cali- 
fornia Extension Division will de- 
liver the lecture. Groups of In- 
dian songs appropriate to the 
myths will bfe rendered, together 
with a group of Cadman's Indian 
compositions. Mi^ Eloise Cross, 
soprano, will be the soloist. 

An extension exhibit of hand- 
work of the Navajo, Hopi and In- 
dlfyis of the Plains will be install- 
ed under the direction of E. E. 
Chapman. 



EUREKA. CAL.. TIMES 100 

GEPTEIVIBER 15, 1923 



iN C[WION 

OF mwm 

TWO-DAY FKSTIVAI. AT HOOrA; 
WHITK 1>KKR SKI$N DANCE 
TO LAST Alili WKEK 

Hoopa will celebrate the openhiK 
of the new highway down the Trini- 
ty river to Weitchepec with a two- 
iday festival starting today. ^ A base- 
,,an game between a ptcl<ed_ nine 
from Orleans and the Hoopa Dread- 
naughts will be the feature today. 

Sunday morning Erizard's Best will 
meet the winner of today's ganio in 
a championship contest. An Indian 
^tick game between Indians of Hoopa 
and Orleans is beeing arranged for 
Sunday afternoon. 

Closing the celebration Sunday 
evening the Indians of Hoopa will 
^t^rt the historic dance of the white 
deer skin which will last through out 
fhe week, coming to an end Sunday 
the week, coming to an end Sunday. 
September 23. 

During the week several danff i 
will be held in the community halj- 
lin Hoopa. 



EUREKA NAMED 
FOR NEXT INDIAN 
^ CONVENTION 

Benjamin Wilder of Orleans 
as ol^ed president of Indians 
f California, District No. 1, com- 
rising Humboldt, Del Norte and 
art of Siskiyou, at the conven- 
Jon of that body, which was con- 
luded at the auto park Sunday 
ivening. Other officers named at 
he meeting were F. N. Parker of 
arberville, vice president; Ellen 
orris of Requa, secretary; Ben 
cott of Blue Lake, treasurer. Eu- 
eka was named as thp site of the 
924 meeting place of the dele- 
ates. Next year's session will be 
eld during the month of Septem- 
er. 
Hundreds of delegates and tribal 
embers from the district are ex- 
ected at the next convention. In 
dditlon to the meeting, a monster 
air will be arranged, in which 
ot only the delegates, but all In- 
Idians of the district are expected 
|to take part. 

A count will be taken of the In- 
dians of the district by a commit- 
tee appointed by F. G. Collett, ex- 
ecutive representative, according to 
a decision reached at the Sunday 
session. 



0E.FTt;iVll3ER 00, 1923 




POW WOW 

TRIBES, FAIR FEATURE 

Largest fathering Of Indians Will Attend 



Madera Fair 




€i, — The greatest 4 



gaLhcring of Inf^ns ever assembled 
in the San Joaquin valley sdnce pi- 
oneer days is promised by Chow- 
chlUa as a feature of the IVfadera 
county fair to be held Thursda># 
Ivrfday and Saturday, October 4. 5 
nd 6. More than 150 representa- 
tives of the fast disaiopearing 
tvibesni^il of the mid -California 
Sierra « are to attend. The grape 
picking season has brought them 
do"vvn from their homes and r the 
prospect of three days' entertain- 
ment has aroused them to an un- 
usual pitch of enthusiasm. 



it is deinpnstr 
le in adf^ining^ 
as 



d 

dli 

pfofitab 

t€fatingr 

d^Iryn 

tl 



OCTOECR 1, 19^3 



llicit; 

The 
dians 
fornia 
dress 
fessional 
John W. 



""^ 




Worn 
Hende 



erson. 



ndition of Tn- 

s^ctions of Cali- 

jcct of an ad- 

siness and Pro- 

ib, by ^Irs.j 

ho recently 



returned from 



, . » visit to their dis- 

trict, at the instance 
board of 



of the Indian 
cooperation. 

l!"r'!?P?, ^; ^^^^'> statu, and dls- 

their rigrhts have resulted 

injustices beins: visited 



ways of 



|reg-ard of 
in many 

t?!^!. ^^"^ Indians. Mri*. Henderson 
old her auditors, and their inabilitv 
to accuatom themselves to ^""""^ 
nving which 
the free 

^'a? so''deTe\ed^ th' '''' ^""''^ "^^^ 
were now ' livint Vn' pJ^^^"' '''''^ 
ono-thirrT ^i lu i <-alifornia only 

this ?Zi ?1}'''J}''^'^ Tndians in 



'«nri ."^^T ^^^^^rent from 
and open lives they had be- 




Grow a Tree ' 
Bibby was the acconi- 



DEO. 7, 192; 



80 







OUNCE LECTURE 
ON PUEBLO INDIANS 

An illustrated lecturejon '^Pueblo 
Indians" is an^^rteAy the Nat- 
ural History muAiiW Bll'boa park, 
as the event nCxt SiMfnay >ili its 



course. The speaker "Wtill "be Lans- 
ing P. Bloom of the State museum. 
Santa Fo, N. M. Mr. Bloom cornea 
from the land of the Pue-blo In- 
di9.na whose life he will describe 
and he has made a life-longr study 
of their tr^T^al ciistoms. He has 
^^sited mar^y of their oommun.1ty 



em. and has (been (present at their 
rell&ious feetivals. 

The lecture will be fully illus- 
trated with a choice series of lan- 
tern elides, from the collections of 
the Santa Fe and San D-lego mu- 
seums. It will be&in in the Natural 
History museum's lecture half at 6 



•ATT d25:go« CXXjh u?:xc^ no 

,, PEC, 9, r.-3. 




FREELEClit 

Authority on Pueblo Indians 
Will Discuss Ancient Peo- 
ple and Ceremonials. 

- The uf^aJr^imday afternoon lec- 
ture under the auspices of the F^an 
Diego Society of Natural History 

will be priven this afternoon by 
Lansing" P. Bloom, assistant di- 
rector of the State museum, Santa 
Fe, N. M. The .subject of the lec- 
ture, **Pueblo Indians," Is one with 
which Mr. Bloom is particularly 
well qualified to deal, since he has 
made a lifelong study of these, the 
last remnants of a highly cultured 
r^e once inhabiting the region 
:nown as the arid southwest. 
The lecture will be illustrated by 
la series of lantern .slides especially 
1 selected for this occasion and will 
show the ceremonial dances and 
other forms of expression used by 
these people to set forth their be- 
liefs end thoughts about their per- 
sonal and tribal relations to nature. 
The symbolism of their worl< as 
I shown in their painting^ and pot- 
tery will be Illustrated, as will also 
the types of the people themselves, 
their homes a.nd the country in 
which they have established them- 
selves. Many pictures will be 
shown relating to the old missions 
of the region, some of which were 
well established in the early part 
of the 17th century. This is re- 
garded as a treat that none should 
miss. 

The lecture will be given In the 
lecture hall of the NaturiJl History 
mu.seum, Balboa i)«.rk, at 3 p. m. 
Doors will be open at 2:30. The 
lecture is free and a cordial invlta 
tion i« extended to all who wish 
attend. 



tlAXrORB. CAT... JO uj-Xh 



ILos Acficle*, Call Exprew 



ijEC, 12, 1&-^ 



<i)U<". 



Indian Welfare vj l> * > 

■ WomA'a Club of TorraS^.r'<J,n 
meet Thureday. December 18, at 
1 2: 30, In the Methodist Church of 
Torrance. Mrs. Prank Sammons 
past president of the club, who Is 
now district chairman of Tndlan 
luv^?- ^»/P«-^^ on matte™ rLi- 
Bets!.v «*"■ *^*P'"-t'nent work. Miss 

Heart Dreyfus, will contribute 
group Of Indian songe approprLt- 

^nf^^ Shadow," by Gasman; "On 

TtL L ^ Invocation to the Sun 
^'-*"' Carlos Troyer. 




R ON INDIANS 
FAILS TO SHOW UP 



LEM6^^, tjMi. lO.-f-The club- 
women who/ass8mbled! at tho< rooms 
of the Letmoore Wo£^|||^lub this 
afternoon were disappointed m not 
hearing Mrs. B. F. Butts, chairman 
of the committee of the San Joaquin 
District Federation on Indian Wei- 
fare, who was announced to speak 
on what was to be featured as an 
Indian Day program, but failed to 
appear. In keeping with the plan 
the decorations were largely in arti- 
cles of Indian craftsmanship, in- 
cluding the interesting and valuable 
collection by Mrs. W. J. Nichols of 
this place, consisting of some 54 
specimens of baskets gathered from 
diferent tribes and in different por- 
tions of the state. There was also 
displayed a fine specimen of Indian 
basketry made in Drum Valley, for] 
Miss Nadine Kelley of Hanford, with 
her name worked into the texture 
together with Indian designs, done 
by Mrs. Joe Wilcox, an Indianl 
woman. A feature of the afternoon' 
was also the rendering of a piano 
solo, "The Indian," by Miss Evelyn 
Burke, which was rendered with 
fine expression. 

In the absence of Mrs. Butts a 
feature of the afternoon was an ad- 
dress by Mrs. L. P. Mitchell of Cor- 
coran, president of the San Joaquin 
District Federation of Woman's 
Clubs, who spoke on the meeting of 
the Biennial National Convention to 
be held in Los Angeles June 3 to 13, 
inclusive, of the present year, and 
also on the plans of the work be- 
fore the San Joaquin Federation for 
the year. The address was followed 
by a service of light refreshment 



rxmk crnr, cat- FAiwnm— ^65 

JANUARY 18, 19.24 



indjim legends and Early History 
Discussed By Club. 

An interesting meeting of the Me- 
ridian Wednesday Ev^iing Embroid- 
ery Club was toeld \[«nesaay after- 
noon of tb*^%j^ wi^ Mrs. E. V. 
Jacobs pi/si(fci^. The principal isub- 
ject was "H«fe and Thereyr In Yo- 
semite^' and several ioterdiiting In- 
dian legends were gi^i^^nd other 
history of the Indians of California 
discussed. l:here was a large collec- 
tion of Indian relics displayed, sev- 
eral members having a very fine col- 
lection. 






'■V-'V 



April 8, 1925 









FEB. 8, 1924 



B« 



kl GIVE FREE 





iSan tDie?b counlf's idftclin& |an- 
thorJty on Indian lore, Edward H. 
Davis of Powam CLodge, Mesa 
Grande, will l>e the speaker Sun- 
day (afternoon at the public lecture 
course at the Natural History mu- 
seum. DBalboa park, according to 
announcement iby the museum au- 
thorities. Mr. Davis will tak© as 
his subject ''Some of t)h« Lattle- 
Known Tribes on the West Coast 
of Mexico." and will illustrate it 
with lantern slides and exmbits. 

(Mir. Davis is ©aid to have made 
a life-long study of the 'Indians of 
southwestern United States and 
Mexico, to have lived with them, 
and in som.e cases, even to 'have 
been admitted to tribal member- 
ship, on iSunday >he has .'Pfo"^; 
ised tto deal .particularly with hi^ 
experiences on ertensive travels in 
Tepic and. the state of -Nayarit 
Mexico. We will tell of trails and 
transpontatiion in the f i/J-^^-^. ^^ 
Navarlt. of the (H3uidhol and iC'ora 
Indians-their haft>itat, ^^l^ar^^f,^" 

istic^. arts. l"^"^^^^^^"^Ai^wU 
culture. It is expected tha^ ^^.^'^j 

exhibit some of the ^^"^^^^^f^^^^^ 
these Indians to supplement nis 

lantern slide>a. ,^ - ^^ ^M^n/i 

All persons are^ invited to attend 
the lecture, without c^harge. whuch 
v!in Sn at .3 o'clock In the Qec- 
Ture hall of the J^atural History 
museum, «tlhe »door3 being >open ^ 
30 



"^ ArraL 7, 1025 



l/dW iWarfare Members 
uunvene ►Saturday 
]n Eiversida 

A numhir |i women from the 
varioi^Qc^^s^ the community 
will m3e a trip to Riverside on 
Saturday Q|^ftis;week to attend 
the annual m^j^g of the Feder- 
ation of Indian Welfare, a nation- 
al organization composed of club 
women who are interested in the 
future of the long-suffering In- 
dian race. 

The convention will be held at 
the home of Johnathan Tibbetts 
of Riverside, the well-known 
Chief Councillor of the Tribes, 
who has lived with the Indians 
for many years and championed 
their cause as his own. Mr. Tib- 
betts i§ a white man and the self- 
appointed guardian of Indian wel- 
fare in the southwest. At his re- 
quest, Mrs. J. C. Yorba of Placen- 
tia, local representative of the 
Federation of Indian Welfare, 
has arranged a program to be 
presented for the entertainment 
of the Redmen who will give 
their ceremonial dances and reli- 
gious rituals before the visitors. 

Among those included on the 
program are Mrs. J. J. Farley, of 
Fullerton, Jose Sanchez of Yorba 
[ Linda, Mrs. Estella Walker, J. H. 
1 Summers, Billie Summers, all bf 
Atwood, and Miss Valencia Ruiz 
of Placentia, all of whom will 
give vocal numbers. Mrs. Her- 
bert Sullivan and Miss Marie 
Perez of Placentia will contribute 
several readings. Mrs. Sullivan 
and Mrs. J. E. Scott are prepar- 
ing a musical reading, '*Te Deum 
Laudum," and "In a Department 
Store" is the humorous cielectlon 
which Mrs. Sullivan has chosen. 
Mrs. Walker will sing "The Land 
of the Sky-Blue Water. 



t$ 



WOMEN'S CLUBS AID 
IN INDIAN WELFARE 

A Joint ^ojwpijfce frinJfour clube 
is working /irf jyttrinyiif of the 
Indian sehd^jaUfig VoTley reserva- 
tion. Lakeport, Finley/ Big Valley 
and Kelseyville clubs eJch have three i 
members on the coHMnitteeand Mrs. 
Dunbar as County ChljjjiiSn presides. [ 

Mrs. Payne, the ^!^cher of the 
Indian school, is very much inter* j 
ested in the development of her 
charges, and at her suggestion, and to 
assist her, this work is being <»arried 
on; 

The committee will endeavor to 
(establish in the school, a simple 
course of domestic •science, plain 
cooking and plain sewing; also clean- 
liness and gardening. 

Materials are being collected for 
handkerchiefs, wash cloths, towels, 
etc., which the children will hem as 
their sewing lesson. Cooking utensils, 
dishes, knives, forks and spoons will 
he needed. The committee is pur- 
chasing a stove with contributions 
from the clubs. Any one desiring to 
assist in this work may do so. The 
(•ommittee from Lakeport includes 
Mrs. Brehme, Mrs. Harry Jordan 
«nd Mfs. Bleakmore. Any of these 
ladies will gladly see that your 
donation is taken to the school 
house. 

On Wednesday, April 30, there will 
be an entertainment with refreshments 
nt the Big, Valley school house, at 
Finley, to raise funds for the further- 
ance of this work. A silver collec- 
tion will be taken. 

The Woman's Civic Club takes 
pleasure in announcing that Mrs. L. 
O. Cnrry has been elected FresidenL 
and Mrs. H. C.'LaMotte, Vice-l*fe§P 
dent; Mrs. Brehme, secretary and Mrs. 
Harry Jordan, treasurer. With such 
a group of officers the club should 
have a successful year. 

The club has been greatly benefited 
financially through its connection withl 
the Little Theatre. This activity in 
our community is something we may| 
well be proud of. Many towns muc 
larger than ours would be glad t 
have the advantage that we* enjoy 
Mr. H^swell has a peculiar geniu 
U)r gathering talent and the perform 
ances do him great credit. It is t 
be hoped that interest will not wan 
in these performances. They encouri 
age latent talent in our people, giv 
enjoyment to all, bring people close 
together and are a financial help al 
around. The Civic Club appreciate 
all the benefits derived. 

This week, Friday, the club will 
have a continuation of the rag tack| 
iiig. There will be a short progra 
nnd coffee or tea and sandwichei 
All welcome, bring your thimbl 
needle, and thread; aqd a riddle. 

The following Friday, the 17t 
there will be a program on Conserva] 
tion. Since there is so much interes 
just now in saving the redwoods an 
in preserving our own forests thi 
Tirogram should interest everyone an 
all. Both men and women are i; 
vited to attend. 

The Executive Board of the Count 
Federation met at Upper Lake o; 
March 31st. There was a good at| 
tendance and plans were formulat 
for the Convention to be held 1 
Lakeport May ICth, under the an 
pices of Scotts Valley Social an( 
Improvement Club. Delicious ref 
ments were served by the ladiea^o: 
»r Lake Club. 






^ 



_ « 



» ♦ • 



llNPUNS GATHER 
FVR CONFERENCE 



X(,£Qf FEDERATION 

RlVBRSIDB.^pril 9. -— Three 
hundred Indian chiefs and head- 
men representing fifty-seven 
tribes are gathering hei'e for the 
semi-annual conference of the 

The meeting of the \i 
of a secret nature throughout the 
weelc until Saturday, which is to 
be open day. The public is in- 
vited to attend a big free '\^rbe- 
cue served in old Spanish 'tyle 
by the Indians on Saturda> -; 
cial Indian dances are , to bt 
that evening. 



ion. 
Indians are 



fl^;^. 



/^prii D. 1925 



SVN 







Unusual activity has been carfied on 
in the several clubs of the county fed^ 
eration during the past three'Ttponi 
in the department of Indian wWftre. 
Very important measures are at pres- 
ent before the state legislature asking 
for the appropriation of $25,000 for a 
complete survey of the California In- 
dians, and the appointed committee 
making the survey must have at least 
one member who is an experienced 
agriculturist, and also report must be 
made within one year after appoint- 
ment. 

The other bill provides for an ap- 
propriation of $100,000 for immediate 
relief as shown necessary by this com- 
mittee, by means of the State Board 
of Health. 

It may be of some interest to know 
that Senator Fred Handy of this dis- 
trict, and Senators Slater and Nelson, 
from Sonoma and Humboldt, respective- 
ly, introduced these bills into the sen- 
ate. They have been unanimously 
passed by the senate finance committee, 
also on the floor of the senate, and a 
great deal depends on the action of the 
ways and means committee, who will 
receive the about Friday. Each and 
every club in Lake county who have 
studied these bills have heartily en- 
dorsed them. 

A series of meetings by special com- 
mittees from four clubs, viz. : Finley 
Country Club, Big Valley Improvement 
Club, Kelseyville Woman's Club and 
Lakeport Civic Club, have been held 
for the purpose of investigation and 
assistance m the needs of the Big Val- 
ley reservation school principally, al-J 
though the homes on this reservation 
are somewhat in need of help as well. 
A sufficient contribution has been madel 
that a committee has been delegated 
to place a stove in the school for the 
purpose of domestic science instruction 
by the teacher, and preparation of] 
something in the way of lunches, which' 
are sorely needed. 

Mrs. M. H. Dunbar, Kelseyville, isl 
state chairman of Indian welfare for] 
II this district. 

Materials and supplies for needle- 
work instruction were delivered on| 
Tuesday of this week to their teacher, 
Mrs. Payne. But there is still much 
to be accomplished and to that end, 
financially as well as from an educa- 
tional standpoint, this committee is 
arranging an Indian Welfare benefit, 
with program and refreshments, for 
the women of the clubs of the federa- 
tion and other interested persons, on 
Thursday afternoon, April 30th, at the 
Finley school house. There will be no 
charge for admission, but a voluntary 
[contribution for use in carrying on the 
[work under way will be greatly appre- 
Iciated. 

Reserve this date for a great get- 
Itogether of organized women who can 
be depended upon to work together for 
that which makes a better life. 





rs. Gillespie's Program 
Much Enjoyed by City Club 

3t^> 



By EOLINE ALDRICH 



/ 



One 6f the*^ largest audiences of^mdian bureau for salaried offl- 



•^m^ 



the year showed every evidence of 
sincere Interest in the In dian w el- 
f are program at the Woman's City 
club yesterday afternoon, arranged 
by Mrs. Louis J. Gillespie, Los 
Angeles district chairman of Indian 
Welfare, C. F. W. C. 

By way of atmosphere, Mrs. Gil- 
lespie brought to the auditorium a 
beautiful Hopi ceremonial blanket, 
unusual. In design and coloring; a 
smaller blanket representing """the 
skirt of a Navajo, and a huge bas- 
ket woven by Pima Indians and in- 
tended for storing grain. 

Gifted Indian Baritone 

Haske-Nas-Wood, noted Navajo 
Indian baritone of Arizona, pro- 
duced a tone poem of exquisite 
beauty in his group of native melo- 
dies adapted by two popular com- 
posers. The opening number was 
"Love Song" (Grunn), followed by 
"The Ghost Pipes" and "Aooah" 
(Lleurance), which displayed the 
purity of the singer's voice to fine 
advantage, his high notes being es- 
pecially appealing. As a fitting 
poiiclusion to 'the afternoon's talks, 
the singer gave "Lol^e Song" (Lieur- 
ance), his accompanist being Miss 
Edna Schinnerer. Earlier in the 
afternoon Miss Mabel Syephenson 
provided his piano background. 

Other music consisted of *'Zuni 
Woman's Lullaby" (Troyer), "Ojib- 
way Canoe Song" (Burton) and 
"Rainmaker's Song," given a dra- 
matic interpretation by Miss Lucy 
Wolcott, who received appreciative 
applausd. She was in Indian cos- 
tume and Miss Schinnerer was her 
accompanist. 

Indians in Need 

This lovely music was a prelude 
to the rekl message of the after- 
noon, which was that right here in 
California with its bountiful crops, 
many indigent Indians lack suffi- 
cient food, adequate shelter and are 
poorly cl^d. "Ha\;|ng usurped their 
good farming lands and pushed 
them away back onto rocky hill- 
sides," Mrs. Gillespie said In her 
talk explaining" the condition of In- 
diens of Inyo county, "the Indian 
bureau now claims it hasn't suffi- 
cient funds to properly provide for 
those unable to work." 

Several weeks ago Mrs. Gillespie 
made a trip to Inyo county, gath- 
ered first-hand iQformation and 
wrote a letter to President Cool- 
idge which was indorsed by the 
Los Angeles district federation 
•board. She read this letter yester- 
'day, her reply and a letter from 
'the department of the interior, in 
whi-ch the claim was made that as 
.Indians of California are citizens, 
'the state and county authorities 
'should care for them the same as 
,they do for other indigent persons. 

"In view of the fact that an 
enormous sum is expended by the 



cials, supposed to look after the 
welfare of the Indians," declared 
]^rs. Gillespie, "it is strange that 
there is no money to feed and 
clothe the sick Indians too old to 
work. And those salaries are paid 
with money belonging to the In- 
dians." 

Pending Bills 

In coiiclusion Mrs. Gillespie made 
a plea that letters be written to 
Governor Richardson, Assembly- 
man Frank Merrlam and Senator 
Cadet Taylor asking support of the 
two bills now before the state leg- 
islature, bills Nos. 336 and 337. 
which have passed the senate unaa% 
imously, but have yet to face the 
possibility of the governor's veto. 
They provide for an Investigation 
into the condition of Indian affairs 
In California and assistance for all 
indigent Indians. A number of 
women In the audience signified 
their intention of writing such let- 
ters at once, asking the governor 
to put his O. K. on the bills. 

The other speaker was Mrs. Mary 
Clarke of Burbank, who lived 25 
years at mining camps near the 
Apache reservation. She paid a 
high tribute to Indian women, say- 
ing all dovfn the years they have 
kept alive a wonderful art in bas- 
ketry and pottery, and she gave 
much Interesting Information about 
Indian customs. She brought home 
to her audience the cruelty to pa- 
rent^ of taking their children away 
to be educated at government 
schools and agreed with Mrs. Gil- 
lespie that a splendid work for 
clubwomen would be to help open 
the public schools to these children. 






PR 





William Toi^kins Says Tiiey 
Are Kindly and Honest; 
Explains Sign Language. 



That the American Inrtian is 
kindly, friendly, truthful wnd hon- 
est was the statement of William 
iTomliins ^yho told members of the 
Kiwanis clu'h, at the iSan Diego 
hotel yesterday noon of the sign 
hinguage used 'by 'the North Ameri- 
can Indians. The ispeaUer related 
the history, customs and language 
of the Sioux, iis well as telling of 
the «ign language cind of the 76 
spoken languages n^^ed "by various 
tribes in the United iStates. Prior 
to liis talk he icxplained that for 
10 years he lived on the Sioux res- 
erviation and had an opportunity 
to judge of the character of that 

tribe. '^ 

"An Indian," «aid Mr. Tomkins. 
^^'uever punishes a child. He is 
more kindlv than the white man. 
lie iws truthful to ei fault. T traded 
with Indians for 10 years and never 
lost a dollar. . . 

•'Contrary to the general opinion, 
the old time Indian was more de- 
vout In his religion than was th^ 
1 white man. In fact, the Indians 
wer^ 100 fper cent in their observa- 
'tionft of relig-ious lamenitieg." 



iN:.0\EMBEK 20. 1928 



(w)+ 




KASTOX. Pxesno Co., Nov. 2'.— 
Demonstrating: Indian war whoopf, 
calling and singing. F. T. jYeeman, 
an Indian, appeannl at a I^yceum 
number held In tho W<4shington I'nion 
high school aiif^toriwrn h<?r^ I^iday 
night. lie was i Itorn while on the 
open trail and >ias nfver slept in a 
white m^n's hbuso. He sleeps on Ji 
bed made out of hrush out of doors. 

He also told how the Indian ra.ce 
was the source of a great number of 
the present famous inventions. 

"Thr» wireless telegraphy, for in- 
stance," lif», Fjiid. "first came about 
when the Indians wont to the river's 
edge and gave sounds by the use of 
tom-toms a.nd these sounds were re- 
layed to far-off camps. This gradu- 
ally developed into the invention of 
thf* white mar's wireless." • 

He also told how the Aineriean peo- 
ple receivod the idea of observing 
Thanksgiving from the Indian. He 
de.«^rrjbod how Khe Indians cooked 
their turkey by wrapping it up, feath- 
ers on, in wot chiy or mud. 

Mr. Frecmrin also brought out the 
fact that during th^ war there wer« 
Irt. 000 Indians vriio served in the Tnit- 
cd States army nnd 7.000 in the navy. 

The lidian visitor pluis to leave the 
early part of next week for bos 
geles. where he will ]>if"k up 
young men a.nrl then continue 
trip on pr)nth into Moxico, where 
party, of tbro^ will spend a month or 
two hunting mountain lions. 



An- 

two 

his 

tbe 



6AKLAND, CAt. 
TRfWUWB 



Indian Chieis4o Gathe 
For U^S. Treaty Discussion 



> 



SOKORA. July 29.— Chief Will- 
iam Fuller has announced that 
there will be a gathering of the 
Mewuk tribe, of which he is chief, 
at the Indian reservation at Chero- 
kee next Friday, Saturday and 
Sunday. He expects Indians to 
gather here from all portions of 
the state, having issued invitations 
to the chiefs of tbe tries through- 
out the state. ,J- ^ ^. 

The meeting 1« calW for discus- 
sion ot th» treaty iiima against 



the United States government. 
Among the speakers for the occa- 
sion will be Stephen Knight of 
Ukiah, president of the California 
Indian Brotherhood, and Everett 
E. Wilder of Oakland, secretary. 
John Collier, secretary of the In- 
ternational Common Welfare club, 
will be the pale face speaker. 

Chief Fuller bids welcome to the 
white friends of th© Indian to the 
three-day celebration, which will 
inclulde the usual Indian dances, 
and rites of th« tribes* 



II 



SaKiTnB7 
T«1«UNC 

I SEPT. 12, 1929 -^^^^^— ppw^^. ^ ^ . p^.v 

^ ^■■BHSBSSTHd in the Berkeley City 

,^up ui women amnors wno Save in«muc.dhip m 

club. -^ ) / i / 

District Feiera/on Public Welfare Department 
Will Conduct Forum at Joriio"ow s bes^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

T^HE crippled child. Indian welf^r^ social and Indus P^^^ ^^^_ 

1 and public health-these are a f ew of the top ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

cusslon when the Department of ^"^»° '„, '^lameda district, Call- 
forum during tomorrows morning Besslon of Aiamea 
fornia Federation of Women s Clubs. ^„„_ties will go to Crockett 

Delegates from federated f^^^/^f^";* ^7?"The community audi- 
tor the all-day session to beg^^n at 1 a n. In^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^,^ ^„,„g 
torlum there, with ... S. b. Kjpiey oi ^•^ denartmental work are: 
those who will direct <"«?"««*°"" °' /i^*'' ^fX narcotic division; 
Mrs. W. W. Brown of 0^^1^n<i fh^'""^" pubic health; Mrs. Harry 
Mrs. E. E. S«iith of 0^1^\'^"'*•*=^*'Xial problems; Mrs. Frank Grille 
Nathan of Oakland, social %"<! '"^"%*''!^ PJ^Dtml ' 6f Antioch. com- 
of Angels fa-P' J-f ^^ ^S Mlrneu' oTBtok"^^^^ of child 

w^?l7ernf:r"ppled'^Mldrfn.''Mrs. Thomas R Hanna of Martinez - 
general chalrmLn of the public -^'^XliTnce^haUs in San Kran- 
. ^''tn ':fsrbe°a tubje rCprTr^fn^enle TrlnX^ noon luncheon. 
fh?n MllsTeorglana^GaTden. c'ommissioner of dance halls across the 

bay. will be guest speaker. ^ ^ ^ . <„'ninr auxiliaries In federation 
Demonstrating the ^J'^f°:['l^''^^^\^'\ZoTle^^^^^^^^ of tomorrow's 
work is the announcement 5_'^^* ^J'^^f.^^^ent of Junior membership, 
meeting will be taken °ver^^y*!^^/Xr'T with the assistance of her 
of which Mrs. L. Wynne Newell has cnar^e. wim 

county chairmen. 












.'^■.'iSrlt^ 









iV'.'rir'^^x'if-;-"*-; i 



,. r^^y: ['i'-r,^:-.-' 









WHITTIEn, CAT,nr. 

NEWS 

MAY 8. 1931 



CALL-BULLETIN 

SEPT. 18, 1929 



U.'U. flans Summer 
School to Study 
Indian Ancestry 



L. ^ 



A summer school among Indians 
for purposes of anthropological study 
is the latest successful educational 
venture of the University of Caii- 

^°T?rof A L Kroeber. chairman of the 
deStoent of anthropolo^Z has jus 
returned from a nine weeks btaym 
northwest Arizona, where he t^k parj 
in the first anthropologic summer 

school sponsored by the Jolin . ^• 
Rockefeller Jr. antropological f eld 
Son T^^^ station will be established 

soon at Sante Fe, N. M^ 



/ 




Local 



Directing 




Series 



a finil touch to the work he 
has been c^irrying on toward the 
completion of a book on Indian art 
and philosophy, Dr. Louis T. Jones, 
professor of history at Whlttier 
College, is directing a series of open 
forums in Los Angeles, bringing to- 
gether many of the nation's lead- 
ing Indian thinkers for the -purpose 
of discussing the native Indian re- 
ligioas, economic and social outlook 
on life. 

The philosophy department of the 
Los Angeles Public Library has 
scheduled a date on its lectiure pro- 
gram for. May 18, at which Dr. 
Jones will, present the theme. This 
course is under the direction of 
Prof. John Bewdin, professor of 
philosophy at U. C. L. A. 

Many prominent speakers have 
been on this lecture series during 
the past two months, including Dr. 
Herbert W. Carr, of U. S. C.; Dr. 
Hugh Miller of U. 0. L. A.; Di:, 
[Hartley Burr Alexander, of Scripps 
College, Claremont, and Dr. F. C. S. 
Schiller, of Corpus Christ! College, 
Oxford, England. 

The publicity department of the 
L. A. library is sending out invita- 
tions for this lecture, especially to 
the prominent Indians of the land. 
The lecture will be given in the lec- 
ture hall of the library, on the first* 
floor, and will be open to the pub- 
lic. The hall will seat some 400 or 
more persons. 

On Monday, Jime 1, the seminar 
[room in the history section of the 
library has been reserved for a fol- 
low-up discussion, at which Indians 
only will attend. 

Further invitations have come to 
Dr. Jones to participate with the 
.Cherokee council at the home of 



krs. Isabel Newlln, head of the In- 
dian committee of Los Angeles Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, and ai 
the homes of Nippo Strongheart 
and Chief Standing Bear, Sioux. 

Copies of the written, lecture have 
been submitted for criticism to the 
distinguished Indian divine, Dr. 
Sherman Coolidge, *dean of St. 
Johns Cathedral, Denver, Colorado; 
to Hon. Huston B. Teehee, Chero- 
kee of Oklahoma, and recent mem- 
ber of the supreme bench of that 
state, together with James Hamil- 
ton, of Montana, legal council for 
the Blackfoot Indians. 

Wide -ranged ' interest is being 
aroused in Dr. Jones* forthcoming 
book, the completed manuscript 
having been examined by Dr. Ar- 
thur C. Parker, Seneca, director of 
the Rochester Museum of Natural 
History; Dr. Benjamin F. Sham- 
baugh. president of the American 
PoUtical Science Society, and Dr. 
Harlow Lindley, curator of the' 
Ohio State Archaeological and His- 
torical Society. 

The work promises to add mate- 
rially to better mutual understand- 
ing of the red and white races, and 
in its accomplishment Dr. Jones 
has spent years of study and re- 
xch among the tribes of westerly] 
5fed States. 1 






vW* "'1- - .. 



C6l'-(t(Cii f^isulUnftuS clhfiifiji f€cui,/^(^}-lu(i/^ck) 



,f^2 - lT3g> 



7 



\ 



^ 



mm 



mm 



Cal'^iN^ r^isulkrteivs cUfpiPji C^etiJ^,^Ho(^/^d,) 



lf^2 - l^3g> 



t 



^ 



klNT>SAT. CAL,' OAZKTrtt 



liiitESlCfiB h IKS 




Indians of California 



Some interesting Bits of History about the Early Inhab- 
^ (yt/ A- ^nts of the Lindsay^ District 



So^ 



f^f^r^^^f^*^*^*^ 



By W. T. DUNCAN 
Away back in the remote past, the 
Spanish **Padres" established Hus- 
sions throughout the southern half of 
California for the^ enlightenment and 
Christianizing of the Indians, and 
much credit is due to them for their 
earnest efforts in trying to bring civ- 
ilization to those people. They endur- 
ed hardships and privations, and some 
of them perished miserably in their 
futile cause. Some of the missions 
still stand as monuments of their en- 
ergy and enterprise and the spirit that 
animated them. 

The Indians about the missions 
were commonly called "Mission In 
dians", but as a matter of fact, they 
were "Diggers," a name applied be 
cause of ^eir propensities for digging 
roots. There were several branches 
of that tribe and they varied cousid 
crably in their halves and customs ac 
cording to their locations, and if sep 
arated by many miles they spoke a 
different dialect. Their voqabulary 
was limited to but few words, and 
mostly spoken in gutteral sounds, not 
much above the language of monkeys. 
The Indians of the low river valleys 
subsisted chiefly upon succulent roots, 
fishes, lizards and other small reptiles 
"^and rodents and lived in. squallid 
brush shacks teeming with vermin 
and not fit to be called the habitation 

of man. 

Those of the up-lands subsisted up- 
on the larger varieties of game, wild 
fruits, berries, and acorns, and lived 
in wigwaihs covered with the skins 
of wild animals while some dwelt in 
the caves on the mountain sides. 

The Oleepas, or "Fort Sutter In- 
dians" as they were sometimes call- 
ed, inhabited the Sacramento Valley 
and Feather River country and were 
quite numerous at one time, but <now 
it would be hard to find a single 
representative of the tribe. The resi- 
due was probably consolidated into 
tber-braftch of tlie Dis»«« 



r i | - ii r i^ - ii - « ^^fr " * 1 ' 



C^^^^c^ 



*f\ 



running bear; Grizzly bear, "Mogum,' 
killing bear. So it is with theirl 
language, almost every word has al 
double meaning. 

Once Numerous Here 
At one time the Diggers were ver>J 
numerous throughout this country. Oi 
my own mountain ranch, and righj 
near my house too, can still be seei 
the wigwim bottoms, or rather, circi 
lar depressions in the earth where th( 
wigwans stood at one time. They cai 
be seen around almost all of thes< 
springs in the hills here. 
Black Chapter in County's History 
But where are the Indians now? Ah. 
alas, that is a sad story. There is 
black chapter in the history of Tular( 
county — that which deals with thel 
treatment the Indians received at the 
hands of the early settlers of this 
county. They rather looked upon the^ 
Indians as "fair game," something] 
they could • destroy at their pleasure. 
I have heard "old timers," say as 
much, so I dare repeat it. It was a 
war of extermination. They thought | 
no more of killing an Indian than they 
jdid a coyote. A wholesale Inassacre 
Itook place on the shores of Tulare 
"Lake on one occasion when forty or 
more Indians were wilfully murdered. 
I have seen the bones of those unfort- 
unate creatures. 

Last Stand East of Lindsay 
It seems that whenever a crime of 
any kind was committed - it was 
charged to the Indians and the people 
organized and went against them at 
once. Finally the Indians in their 
own defense took up the tomahawk — 
put on their war paint and went on 
the warpath. And who cap blame 
them. So the militia was lordered 
out with cannon and carried /the war 
right into their own stron^l|oId, and 
the Indians were besjeg^q behind 
their rock fortifications aftd Tor three 
days the fight was waged againstl 
them. Finally the Indians retreated 
during the night carrying their dead! 
and wounded with them. So it was! 
never known how many were killed. 
One of the white soldiers was killed 
and two wounded. The battle took| 
place at what is called "Battle Moun- 
tain," on the Geo. Billon place, north-l 
east of Milo. The* Indians engaged 
in this fight were the Yokob's and! 
from that time on, their numbersj 
steadily decreased and today there is 
•not a single one of them left. 
Last of Yokohs Passes 
Joe Eley, of Exefer, was the last one 
of the Yokoh's, and he died about 
three years ago. Joe was a fine fel- 
low too. 

The Digger tribe of Indians mostly 
inhabit the foothill valleys from Kern 
County on the South to Amador Coun- 
ty on the north, and, as laborers, they 
are more reliable than almost any 
other nationality. 

In Mono County are the Mono In- 
dians. The word Mono means~*%ltter 
water," and was applied to those In- 
dians from the fact that most all of 
the lakes In that part of the country 
are highly impregnated with borax 
ways and their habits, and during my ^nd alkali. 
, lifetime I have been among them con- jn jnyo County are the PiUtes, the 



•7. r 



some . 

Those Indians were very low in me 
scale of humanity, going practically 
naked when the first white men came 
into that country. Their huts resem- 
bled in form the Igloo of the Eskimo, 
but were constructed of sticks and 
mud instead of snow. Of course, af- 
ter the whites settled in that part of 
the country, they soon adopted the 
custom of clothing tte^^^^J®^' ,^^' 
soon fell into a condition of disease 
and degeneracy through the use of 
alcoholic stimulants supplied to them 
by the miners, so that thej numbers 
were rapidly decimated. Such is the 
histry of this country. 
mue the Indians have l>een f ^^ 

their weakness in <>^^ J^^'^i^J^^^^g 
been weakened in another which w^^^^ 
perhaps worse. But to this writer, 
they have always been a very inter- 

esting study. 

Often visited Indians 

When I was a mere boy my father 

often took me with him to the Indian 

setUements, and I always tarried as 

long as I could just to study their 



siderable and have made quite a study 
of them. 

Fine Basket Makers 
Some of them are real artists in a 
way. The Eshom Valley Indians are 
the finest basket makers to be foifhd 
anywhere. Of course the women do 
that line of work. Their skill has 
brot them prizes at the tairs at dif- 
iferent times. I have had the pleas- 
I ure of Avltnessing their old time meth- 
od of preparing their food, and have 
partaken of some of their acorn bread, 
"Otola" and, but for the filthy man- 
ner imwhich they prepared it, it 
wouldn't have been bad. 

Cooking Ground Squirrel 
But I couldn't go the ground- squir- 
rel "Pohot.'' The way they prepared 
it was to scoop out a hole in the sand 
and build a fire in it. When the fire 
burned down, they would rake out 
the hot embers, put the "pohot" into 
the hole intact, removing nothing 
from it whatever. They covered it 
with hot embers, let it simmer for 
about an hour, then take it out, and 
eat it. Very little of it was thrown 
away. The way they prepared acorns 
was to gather great quantities of them 
in the autumn, remove the husk from 
every one of them, fill baskets wuth 
the hulled acorns, cover them with 
boughs, hang them high above ground, 
and let them dry. • 

Preparing Acorn Meal 
Then the women would grind them 
into a sort of meal in mortars hollow- 
ed out in rocks. They had previously 
gathered quantities of berries and 
wild grapes and dried them. These 
they ground up and mixed with the 
acorn meal. The sacarine matter in 
the berries held the meal together so 
that they could make it into cakes. 
These cakes they would place in heat- 
ed holes in the sand — cover with the 
hot embers — and in a few minutes 
take out nicely browned cakes. Scrape 



word Pi Ute means valley man. They] 
are now a very fine lot of people, 
.number of tliem being formers, and| 
they seem to take educaUon quit< 

easily. 
Yokoh, from which Yokohl valle; 

tookTts name, meant in the Dj 

tongue '^Mountain Men.' 




J^I^TJ^^ftiOJfsC^ ^ ^b^K?;^- A M ^'y <* 



By W. T. DUNCAN 

Away back in the remote past, the 
Spanish **Padres" established mis- 
sions throughout the southern half of 
California for the^ enlightenment and 
Christianizing of the Indians, and 
much credit is due to them for their 
earnest efforts in trying to bring civ- 
ilization to those people. They endur- 
ed hardships and privations, and some 
of them perished miserably in their 
futile cause. Some of the missions 
still stand as monuments of their en- 
ergy and enterprise and the spirit that 
animated them. 

The Indians about the missions 
were commonly called ''Mission In 
dians", but as a matter of fact, they 
were "Diggers," a name applied be 
cause ofl^eir propensities for digging 
roots. There were several branches 
of that tribe and they varied cousid 
crably in their halves and customs ac 
cording to their locations, and if sep 
arated by many miles they spoke a 
different dialect. Their vocabulary 
was limited to but few words, and 
mostly spoken in gutteral sounds, not 
much above the language of monkeys. 

The Indians of the low river valleys 
subsisted chiefly upon succulent roots, 
fishes, lizards and other small reptiles 
and rodents and lived in squallid 
brush shacks teeming with vermm 
and not fit to be called the habitation 

of man. 

Those of the up-lands subsisted up- 
on the larger varieties of game, wild 
fruits, berries, and acorns, and lived 
in wigwams covered with the skins 
of wild animals while some dwelt in 
the caves on the mountain sides. 

The Oleepas, or "Fort Sutter In- 
dians" as they were sometimes call- 
ed, inhabited the Sacramento Valley 
and Feather River country and were 
quite numerous at one time, but aow 
it would be hard to find a single 
representative of the tribe. The resi- 
due was probably consolidated into 
aom^ other branch of the Digg^wJ^ - 

Those Indians were very low in the 
scale of humanity, going practically 
naked when the first white men came 
into that country. Their huts resem- 
bled in form the Igloo of the Eskimo, 
but were constructed of sticks and 
mud instead of snow. Of course, af- 
ter the whites settled in that part of 
the country, they soon adopted the 
custom of clothing tHemselves, but 
soon Tell into a condition of disease 
Ind degeneracy through the use of 
Alcoholic stimulants supplied to them 
Jy the miners, so that their numbers 
were rapidly decimated. Such is the 



running bear; Grizzly bear, "Mogum," 
killing bear. So it is with their 
language, almost every word has aj 
double meaning. 

Once Numerous Here 
At one time the Diggers were ver>J 
numerous throughout this country. Oi 
my own mountain ranch, and righj 
near my house too, can still be seei 
the wigwim bottoms, or rather, circi 
lar depressions in the earth where th( 
wigwa us stood at one time. They cai 
be seen around almost all of thes< 
springs in the hills here. 
Black Chapter in County's History 
But where are the Indians now? Ah, 
alas, that is a sad story. There is 
black cliapter in the history of Tular< 
county — that which deals with thel 
treatment the Indians received at the 
hands of the early settlers of this] 
county. They rather looked upon the 
Indians as "fair game," something 
they could • destroy at their pleasure. 
I have heard "old timers," say as 
much, so I dare repeat it. It was a 
war of extermination. They thought 
no more of killing an Indian than they 
did a coyote. A wholesale Inassacre 
itook place on the shores of Tulare 
'iLake on one occasion when forty or 
more Indians were wilfully murdered. 
I have seen the bones of those unfort- 
unate creatures. 

Last Stand East of Lindsay 
It seems that whenever a crime of 
any kind was committed " It was 
charged to the Indians and the people 
organized and went against them at 
once. Finally the Indians in their 
own defense took up the tomahawk — 
put on their war paint and went on 
tLa warpath. And who ca^ blame 
them. So the militia was ordered 
out with cannon and carried ^khe war 
right into their own stron^liold, and 
the Indians were besieged! behind 
their rock fortifications and tor three 
days the fight was waged againstl 
them. Finally the Indians retreated 
during the night carrying their deadi 
and wounded with them. So it was! 
never known how many were killed. 
One of the white soldiers was killed 
and two wounded. The battle took] 
place at what is called "Battle Moun- 
tain," on the Geo. i)illon place, north- 
east of Milo. The- Indians engaged 
in this fight were the Yokoh*s and' 
from that time on, their numbera| 
steadily decreased and today there is 
not a single one of them left. 
La«t of Yokohs Passes 
Joe Eley, of Exefer, was the last one 
of the Yokoh's, and he died about 
three years ago. Joe was a fine fel- 
low too. 



histry of this country. shown The Digger tribe of Indians mostiy 

While the ^^^!^^®^^*^® ^ ^ey have { i^^^abit the foothill valleys from Kern 

_, « ,« nna wav. Couuty ou the South to Amador Coun- 



ty on the nortli, and, as laiborers, they 
are more reliable than almost any 
other nationality. 

In Mono County are the Mono In- 
dians. The word Mono means*^Uter 



their weakness in one way, they 
heen ^e'kened in another wMchw^ 
perhaps worse. But to ^^^IJ"'^^: 
they have always been a very inter- 

esting study. 

Often visited Indians 

When I was a mere boy my father ^^^^^„ ^^^ ^^^ applied to those In- 
often took me with him to the Inoian ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
setUements, and I always tarried as 
long as I could just to study their 
ways and their habits, and during my 
, lifetime I have been among them con- 
siderable and have made quite a study 
of them. 

Fine Basket leakers 

Some of them are real artists in a 
way. The JEshom Valley Indians are 
the finest basket makers to be foifhd 



anywhere. Of course the women do 
that line of work. Their skill has 
brot them prizes at the tairs at dif- 
ferent times. I have had the pleas- 
i ure of witnessing their old time meth- 
od of preparing their food, and have 
partaken of some of their acorn bread, 
"Otola" and, but for the filthy man- 
ner in^which they prepared it, it 
wouldn't have been bad.* 

Cooking Ground Squirrel 
But I couldn't go the ground- squir- 
rel "Pohot.'' The way they prepared 
it was to scoop out a hole in the sand 
and build a fire in it. When the fire 
burned down, they would rake out 
the hot embers, put the "pohot" into 
the hole intact, removing nothing' 
from it whatever. They covered it 
with hot embers, let it simmer for 
about an hour, then take it out, and 
eat it. Very little of it was thrown 
away. The way they prepared acorns 
was to gather great quantities of them 
in the autumn, remove the husk from 
every one of them, fill baskets with 
the hulled acorns, cover them with 
boughs, hang them high above ground, 
and let them dry. • 

Preparing Acorn i^^eal 
Then the women would grind them 
into a sort of meal in mortairs hollow- 
ed out in rocks. They had previously 
gathered quantities of berries and 
wild grapes and dried them. These 
they ground up and mixed with the 
acorn meal. The sacarine matter in 
the berries held the meal together so 
that they could make it into cakes. 
These cakes they would place in heat- 
ed holes in the sand — cover with the 
hot embers — and in a few minutes 
take out nicely browned cakes. Scrape 
the sand off of them, and they were 
ready to be eaten. Barring the grit 
they really had a pleasing taste. 
Some Indian Words 
Acorn bread was called "Otola,** 
while wheat bread was called '*Kieth- 
ta," which constituted the two words 
wheat and bread. Each one of their 
words usually has a double meaning. 
For instance, Black bear, "Ashta," 
lazy bear; Cinnamon bear, "Afllitawa," 



the lakes in that part of the country 
are highly impregnated with borax 
and alkali. 

In Inyo County are the Pi Utes, the 
word Pi Ute means valley man. They| 
are now a very fine lot of peopte, 
•number of tliem being fiarmers, and| 
they seem to take education quit< 

easily. 

Yokoh, from which Yokohl vallej 
took Tfs name, meant in the Df 
tongue '^Mountain Men." 



i>L:c£MBER*20i 1933 




10 LEAW PM 

One of Bestfeved Priesti 
In Field Transferred tol 
Work in Arizona. 



Fr. J. R. Purtill, known to hun- 
dreds of Indians in San Diego and 
Riverside counties as "Padre Hi- 
cardo," is to leave the little mls- 
Bion at Pala where he has been a 
missionary— In the last of the old 
Spanish missions tnat still continues 
In the original work of spreading 
Christianity among the California 
Indians— for a little more than |1 
three years. Fr. Purtill will go to 
the mission San Xavi^ del Bac, 
near Tucson, Ariz., there to await 
assignment to work in the mission 

field in Arizona. x « ♦v, 

"Padre Ricardo'' came to South- 
ern California a Uittle ,^ore than 
four years ago and, after having 
been reared In a Connecticut home, 
educated for the priesthood and 
accustomed to a sedentary, scholar, 
ly life, began his work as an In- 
dian missionary by living with the 
Indians in their^ rude mountain 
huts and beginning to learn their 
ifliiffuaR-e He has made himself 
one of the best loved priests in the 
mission field— a worthy successor, 
m the line of devoted laborers he- 
gun by padre Junipero Serra. 
KNOWS IjANGUAGE 

The missionary began his work 
in San Jacinto, and had charge of 
the Indians of Saboba, Coahullla, 
Santa Rosa. Warner Springs San 
Ysidro and f^an Ignacio. When no j. 
priest volunteered for the difficult 
and lonely post at Pala. Fr. Purtill I 
look up the work there. 

Fr Purtill is familiar with the 
Cahuilla language, one oj J^^7??f^ 
obscure and difficult of the Indian 
tongues, and speaks the San Di- 
egueno language well. He has also 
taught himself Spanish during hlsj 
work in the mountains \ere. In i 
liddition, he has malntalne^ %}}^1L^ 
school at pala, kept up with the re- 
ligious duties of his church, and 
done much to improve the phy- 
picai condition of the ^alf-ruined 
attire oiit-mission which he firsjk 
saw at Pala. 
CHANGE pROMOnOX 

'•I would like to stay with niy 
people at Pala," Fr. Purtill said 
yesterday, ''but I must obey my 
orders. The change is «- promotion 
for me to harder work, but I have 
come to love the people here. Be- 
fore I go, I want to express my 
hanks to the many '^ind people of 
^nn Diego who have helped me to 

Unprove the Pala n^i««i°,?,' ^J^Vo.e 
have made my work there more 
comfortable and pleasant. 

Fr Purtill recently returned 

from* a two months' vacation dur- 

ng which he visited his oM home 

n Connecticut for the first tinve In 

five vears. He also tisi^ed Mag- 

dalen'a' Sonora. Mexico, o^n the re^ 

turn trip, and preached at the feast 

of St. Francis at the miss on San 

Xavler del Bac. While in the east 

he received high commendation for 

his work at pala from R^v, JVilU^ 

Hughes, dire^S^^ CathollcX^rk 

anionp-iJBl^rndlans. 



ton ATrcw^^n*. OAL* 

% 

RISTMAS TREE 
GIVEN INDIANS 




Tnl^l 



on Scene of 
tivities 



Tulare County Clubtvomen 
Present Program 



Dr. Taylor y Superintendent. 
Goes to Nevada 



:kxciatsive dispatch.! 
TERRA BELLA, Dec. 24. — In- 
dians of the Tule Reservation will 
long remember the Christmas en- 
tertainment given at the reser\^a- 
tion schoolhpuse in their honor by 
the Indian welfare department of 
the Tulare county Federation of 
Women's Clubs, under direction of 
Mrs. B. F. Butts of Terra Bella. 

Community singing, Christmas 
stories, a beautiful tree laden 
with gifts and refreshments were 
features of the entertainment. 
Aside from the coming of Santa 
Claus, "The Other Wise Man," a 
picture story, proved the most pop- 
ular feature. 

INDIAN THANKS HOTS 
J. Garfleld, an Indian, in the 
Tejon dialect, thanked the ladies 
for the courtesy, declaring this was 
the t^rst time "white people from 
beyond Deer Creek had done 
such a gracious thing." Ross^El- 
lis, graduate of the Indian school 
at Riverside, interpreted. 

The Indian school is located m 
the heart of the reservation, com- 
prising 60,000 acres. It was set 
aside in 1873. with an additional 
grant in 187 5. There are only 
about 155 Indians on •the reserva- 
tion now, with perhaps 400 scat- 
tered over Tulare, Fresno, Kern, 
Kings and Madera counties under 
care of the supervisors. There are 
twenty pupils in school under di- 
rection of Mrs. Esther A. Holland. 
The building is fairly well equipped 
and good work is being done. 

Land on the reservation is held 
in common, with individual allot- 
ments on which homes are built. 
Gardens and orchards are seen at 
many of the homes, water being 
provided by the government from 
the South Tule in cement ditches. 

CATTLE RAISED 

The Indians are running 1200 
head of cattle on the reser\^ation 
as well as a large number of 
horses. No hunting is permitted 
by outsiders except by special per- 
mit during the regular fishing sea- 
son. Tbe South Tule is stocked 
annually with trout, while 
much small game abounds 

in the' wooded hills. Two 

hundred acres are included 
in heaquarters at the reservation. 
\side from the schoolhouse, there 
is an office building for the super- 
visor, a large dwelling-house and 
other housing quarters. Telephone 
service is maintained through the 
summer months. 

Dr. Joseph J. Taylor, supervisor 
in charge, who is also a practicmg 
physician, bays that the Tule In- 
dians ai'm well behaved, but tnat 
their ranks are fast being depleted. 

Dr. and Mrs. Taylor will leave 
soon for Fallon, Nev.. where Dr. 
Taylor will be in charge of Indian 
reservation work in that State. 
Harry M. Carter, now stationed at 
Kallon, will come to the Tule Res- 
ervation to take charge. 



■AM OIF.fJO fJAf,.. TRTTIf'^f. » 



DL-C.CiiBEU IZ, I'^'^'i 




Santa Claus is going to be good 
to the Mission Indian agency this 
Yulctide as Christmas cheer ifj to 
be a feature at the southland reser- 
vations. Not only do the white 
boys enjoy a visit from old St. 
Nick, but the redskins heap enjoy 
the festive occasion as they get "a 
proverbial "kick" out of the yearly 
observance. \ 

The Mi.s*sion Indian agency has 
issued instructions to teachers of 
all Indian schools in its jurisdiction 
to givo Indians of the day school a 
good time on Cjjpristmas. This will 
be done in grand style and Friday, 
the last school day before the holi- 
day, has been set aside accordingly. 
Dinners are to be given this eve- 
ning at each day school of the 
Mission Indian territory. 

Money has been provided in- 
structors ar^d the teachers in turn 
are scheduled to purchase suitable 
E^ifts to hk ^distributed among the 
Indians. Advices received here to- 
day indicate that the Shakespeare 
club of Pasadena has sent its an- 
hual gift boxes to the Pala, San Di- 
ego county, and Pechanga and Riv- 
erside county reservations. These 
i^ifts will be distributed by employes 
of the various reservations! 

Superintendent Ellis, in charge 
of Indian work for this district, 
leaves on Saturday for the south- 
land on an inspection tour, the su- 
l)erlntendents' Itinerary to carry 
him to the Pala reservation. Christ- 
mas' and its customary cheer ap- 
p&aris to be an event that is yearly 
looked forward to with great ex- 
pectancy iV the southland Indians, 
Superintendent 'Ellis declares 



""^^A^^'i^^^^^'^^^'-^^-o 



« • » 



SCHOOL OPEN T UESDAY 

Train^e(To^mave Four Days of Program, Closing 
^ Friday; Fresnans To Speak 



CL.OVIS, Jfe^. 27.— An Indian 
training school for Indian mis- 
sionaries will be held in Clovis the 
coming week, beginning Tuesday 
at 7 p. m. at the Baptist church 
under the supervision of Rev. J. 
G. Brendel, and will continue until 
Friday night. There will be mis- 
sionary workers present. The pro- 
gram: Tuesday, 7 p. m., devo- 
tional, Miss Swinson; ^^V- m.. 
"God's Progress"; discussion. 

Wednesday, 9 a. m., devotional, 
Miss Boynton: 9:30, "Christ's 
Program for His Church"; discus- 
sion; 11 a. m., "Christ's Program 
for Christians," Dr. C. W. Bran- 
stad. Oakland; 1:30 p. m., devo- 
tional, J. E. Rector; 2 p. m.. "Re- 
lation of Christians to Christ," 
Bruce Kinney; 3:30 p. m., "What 
Christ Expects of His People." C. 
W. Branstad; 4:30 p. m., confer- 
ence^j>f workers; 7 p. m., devotion- 



al, Mliss Strange; 7:45 p. m., Holy 
Spirit as Christian Leader, Bruce 
Kinney. 

Thursday, % a. m., dev^otlonal, 
Alfred Lord; 9:30 a. m., Bible 
study on cause and cure of sick- 
ness; 10 a. m., address. Dr. O. A. 
Long, followed by lesson from 
county nurse; 2 p. m.. Christian 
Citizenship; address, Superior 
Judge Campbell Baumont; 3:30 
p. m., caring for sick and old In- 
dians; address. County Supervisor 
Lochead; 7 p. m., devotional. 
Clyde Thompson; 7:30 p. m., "The 
Christian in His Business Rela- 
tions," Dr. H. E. Wilkinson. 

Friday, 9 a. m., devotional. Miss 
Gorell; 9:30 a. m., God's Day," 
open discussion; 10 a. m., "What 
Makes Great People." Friday aft- 
ernoon and evening devotjed to 
important questions of the m 
slonary work. 




F. CAT., JOURNAIi 
JAINVARi: 17, 1933 



M/Y FMNCISCO 




I 



^ri ?i ? JK''''' Klamath Indian 
IV th« TT^^I'" * Pre-medlcal course 
fiJo "n'^e^'ty of California yes- 

ml^ht'J'' °.f^"' ^^^ «^"J. that she 
rejpl '^'■^'"""^^ medicine among her 



/ 



X 



H. T*.. CAT... CAI.T. 
JAra'ARY 10, 1023 



iiA» ^ .. . «< : — •' " 






IfndiSi Girl Begins 
iTc. Medical Course! 

^"Ttt the UnTversity of C^ifornm. 
study at the un ^^^ ^ ^^ j^. 

She has for nei b 
groe. 



Glovfs, C&l. Indfsp'at. 74 



Indian Missionary Training School 




An IMiM^ '":gRissionary 

training schoQpWslbieing held 

at the Baptist church this 
week wth Rev. Brendel pre- 
siding. There are 32 mis- 
sionary representatives and 
day and night session are 
being held. Dr. Branstad 



of Oakland, Bruce Kinney, 
and a numer of prominent 
people are attending. Dr. 
H. E. Wilkinson will speak 
tonight and Miss Gorell will 
conduct the morning service 
The afternoon and evening 
will be devoted to important 
questions of missonaryworl 



lacramento, Cal, Bee 



INglAWKlD SUCCESS 

leakn Anxlllary Danoe Iii Yrck 
Clears $150 For Destitute 
Aborg:lnes. 



YREKA (Siskiyti Co.) 
The dance ^^dinsociaJl.' 
leaka Au3i*lttryf-<BaBturd 
was attendeS bK--l*lople 
parts of tIte*^ounty. Mor 
wa's realized, all of which 




b. K 

en b 

venin 

^from a] 

than $15, 

goes li 



to d^fund for the r^Jj^ of destitut 
Indians. It is plannedytoiji'^rCsini 
ilar events in differejjt-fJarts of tl 
county. One is now ^ingr arrange 
for Happy Camp and another fol 
Hamburg. 

The auxiliaries 
white people and 
Interested in the 
tute aborigines. 
Siskiyou County 

has been done the Indians in failur 
to fullfill the treaty agreement 
with the tribes of Superior Call 
ifornia, and patronize the benefi 
enterprises with a feeling that th 
Indians are entitled to it. 



are composed ol 

Indians who arf 
welfare of desti 
Many people o| 
feel an injustice 




FRBKA. CAL, KEVTS 



Old Indian Tale 



Tells How Giants 
^(g^.^BpMt Mt Shasta 

' Returning to Sacramento from a 
rBcent trip of inspection to the Siski- 
you county hospital, Miss Esther De 
i Turbeville, of the state board of 
[charities and corrections, took back 
' an old Indian legend about the forma- 
tion of Mount Shasta and the Klam- 
ath country. 

The story, as it was told to her by 
an old inhabitant, who heard it 
from Indians, follows: 

**Many years ago this part of the 
country was inhabited by giants. The 
greatest giant of ali was the Chief 
Wyeka. One day he said to his peo- 
ple: *I would have a high mountain 
built, so that I may keep a lookout 
on the valley below.' So a great 
army of giants was formed to bring 
earth for the chief's lookout peak. 
They dug the earth from a place in 
the west (Klamath valley) and car- 
ried it in burden baskets to the spot 
selected by the chief, and there they 
[dumped it, one load upon another, 
[until the mountain rose up, up to- 
ward the sky. 

"Each day the chief stood on the 
Itop and watched it grow. One day 
he said, *It is now high enough. The 
air is becoming cold up here; the 
snow falls ever. Bring no more 
earth.' Ev^n as he spoke a detach- 
|ment of the giants came up from the 
valley, bringing baskets of earth. 
When they heard the words of the 
chief they dropped their loads, each 
man dumping out his basket of earth 
where he stood. Thus were all the 
little mounds made. 

"The leader of the workers was a 
great giant and his basket was the 
I biggest. When he emptied his bur- 
den it formed the Black Butte. Then 
all the giants went away and left 
Chief Wyeka alone on his high, white 
mountain, from which he could watch 
the land spread out below him." 

The chief and his giants are gone, 
but old Mount Shasta and the sur- 
rounding mounds survive to demon- 
strate the story. 



rfCIATT. CAT.. DMPATCH 

MAY 25, 1923 



POMO INOMNS APPEAR 

IN PENINSUUR SHOW 



[.^ 






KRTISE row-wow TO 
8KOTION LiYING SOUTH OF 
SAN FRANCISCO BAY 



gress and taken for a sight-seeing 
tour by automobile through the Pre- 
sidio, Golden Gate park and the 
business district of San Francisco. 
They were also given a theatre party 
and a big dinner in the evening. The 
Ukiah Indians will be the guests of 
the Peninsula Association from the 
time they leave Ukiah until their re- 
turn and will be well paid for their 
A party of thirty or more Poma;^^Qj.^g ^^ entertaining the thousands 
Indians of Ukiah left here on the : ^^ visitors who are expected to 
southbound 4:10 a. m. train Thurs- 1 ^^^^.^^^^^ ^^ Pag^eant of Progress at 
day, May 24, for San Carlos, where : g^^^ Carlos, 
they will participate in the Indian ji 
feature at the Peninsula Pagaent "* 
Progress which will hold forth for' 
nine days beginning Saturday, May j 
26. The party was in charge of Tom ' 
Mitchell, who gained fame at the 
Yo-kaya Pow-wow in Ukiah last fall 
as an Indian impressario. The In-j 
dian feature at the Peninsula Pa-; 
geant of Progress will be patterned | 
after the Indian village of the Yo-j 
kaya Pow-wow. Prior to their de- 
parture to the south, the Indians: 
gave a public exhibition at the ball 
park at which they went through 
their various dances, games, etc.,] 
wearing the native costumes, regalia 
and headgear. 

The Indians were met at the ferry ^ 
Thursday morning by a committee 
from the Peninsula Pageant of Pro- 



LAKEPORT. CAT>. BEH 
MAY 31, 1923. 



■'■w.jt,. 



The C|lifo*« History and Land- 
gathertegMots oopeerning the early 

^gend« and customs. This material 
-11 ^always he of great value to ou^r' 



k 



•^UIVE 1, 1923 



Ar^r«r^r<» ■»• • - 




.^ N 



{By CARL MARSHALL) 

Last Sunday was a day ot* high 
U festivity for both grrownups and kid- 
U dies in the down-river districts ^f 

Morak and Mettah. Mettah school 
h:\d closed for the sum.mer the Fri- 
day before, and the festivities wrre 
staged by way of compliment to the 
teacher. Miss Alberta Settle, wliose 
faithful service for two years, has 
endeared her to the good folks of 
Mettah. The scene chosen for the do- 
ings was that charming beauty-spot 
where Capell Creek poujrs into the 
Klamath after ks cascaded flight 
down through the southern spurs ot 
the Siskiyous. Oap^ll, unlike most 
other^ Klamath tributaries, does not 
plungre into the river through an im-* 
passable gorge, but for some hundreds 
of >'urds above its mouth debouches 
out into a level little glade, that makes 
an ideal site for picnics, camping and 
the like. The spot is some ten miles 
down stream from Martins Ferry where 
the county highway crosses the Klam» 
ath over the big new suspension 
bridge. The place is reached by a 
fairly well-kept road that winds in 
a.nd out and up and down among the 
cliffed and wooded canyons and lofty 
downs that make up the scenic panor- 
ama to the north and east of the big 
river. My early morning ride down 
through this lovely region was a joy 
long to be remembered. Transporta- 
tion was by a span of sleek and cap- 
able steppers attached to an old-fa- 
shioned, honest-to-goodness "buggy", 
and driven by that accomplished Jehu 
and longtime stage man. Lew Mior- 
rison, of the Martin's •Ferry Ranch. 
The shiny, swift-gliding auto, with 
Its belly full of mechanical mysteries' 
may be all right for up-to-dat© folk 
who are in a hurry, but for the acme 
of locomotive comfort, i, for one, hold 
to the good old way. There Is time to 
observe and enjoy and w^th no fear of 

busted tires, sulky carburetors, or 
hundred-foot somersaults down amon 
the rocks. 

The end of .the wagSfiP 
•cached at the Roy Ame 
te or so from the pic 
rerlookijvg-, ands^ 
^feet5"TLbove the ri 
the w^ay was by trail, 
>t-bridige, a few rods wuve 
acnic grounds. Here, w^ fourf 
ioUy company of sixty or so, old aJ 
roung, around a snapping camp-f 
md guarding numerous fat hampers 
.nd baskets of food, as Sam. Tuley 
md Frank Ryerson chief promoters of 
[the picnic, with others from the Met- 
tah section, driving stakes for the 
benches and table. These Mettah folks 
I come up the river early in Ryerson's 
big motor boat. I was particularly 
[impressed with the neat 'and well- 
I dressed appearance of all these moun- 
tain people, also, with the number of 
plumj> and pretty babies and kiddies 
that every family had brought along. 
The nice behavior of these children 
was also noticeable — no boisterous 
screaming, yelling, and indisorimin- 
ate rushing about and "getting into 
things", so characteristic of the aver- 
age bunch of unruly kids. So well-be* 
haved were they, that they might have 
learned their manners in the jpalaces 
of kings. As the hours passed, the 
merry crowd grew with various later 
comers from the surrounding neigh- 
borhoods, until some seventy or eighty 
were present. The lond alder - pole 
table covered with "shakes" being at 
last ready, came the big event of the 
day, —dinner The ample baskets and 
boxes were opened and the stream of 
substantials and dainties began to 
weigh down the long table. vYou may 
take it from me that these women 
I of the Klamath are some cooks. There 
I were great pans of pink-tinted, home- 
cured, mast-fed ham of a flavor to 
I make a rabbi forget his cloth; hefty 
1 piles of roast ven — I beg pardon-— 
^'mountain mutton"; chicken and 
pimento sandwiches; big kettles of 
Ihot, cream- stewed green peas right 
off the fire; dainty fruit and potato 
salads, with gallons and gallons of 
clear steaming coffee and cross-my- 
heart-and-hope-I-may-die real creaim 
Then came flaky pies and fluffy and 
creamy cakes in tantalizing; variety 
and abundance, followed by generous 
panfulls of red-ripe, Btter Hybrid 
[strawberries, which come to rare per- 
fection in this sun -kissed, showery 
lamath country. Yes and a supply 
>t big juicy oranges, if you please, 
'ight from Riverside. Sounds like a* 
|hop dream or something from the 
rabian Nights, doesn't it? But I 
wouldn't add verbal garniture to this 
feast even if there were need for it. 
id then there was the green canopy 
►f the alders and pepperwoods over- 
lead, with shafts of sunshine filter- 
ing down through their branches, and 
brightening the table and its viands 
with splotches of gold and by way of 
lorchestra, the rippling music of foam- 
ling Capel Creek a few yards away. 

Dinner over, the crowd gathered at 
la level, open space a few rods down 
the creek near the river bank, where 
various races and other sport stunts 
[were pulled off. Groups of young- 
sters of divers ages raced for prizes 
ranging from two bits to a nickle. 
There were also free-for-all races for 
the grown-ups, both men and wo- 
men, and two exciting; tug- of -war 



contests, one for the meii and one for 
the women. These lively diversioas 
lasted till the evening shadows had 
lengthened and the careful mothers 
fce^iu to gather up their belongings 
for the home-going. It had been u 
great day for all. 

It should be remarked that nearly 
all of these Morak and Mettah jolly- 
fiers were of mixed white and Indian 
blood, but two full-blooded Indiana 
being of the company. Probably, in no 
other community along the Klamath 
would this be the case. Of persons 
of pure white extraction, but six were 
present, and of these, four are non- 
residents. Of the rest, m.ost were per- 
sonis having Indian mothers and 
white fathers, and of the families, as 
now constituted, the fathers and mo-* 
thers are both half-castes. The ap- 
pearance, conversation and social 
temperament of these people all in- 
dicate a very marked advance in cul< 
tune and mentality, over the full-blood 
Indians. And this, notwithstanding 
that most of these mixed-bloods were 
reared in , Indian.^omfe9^ 



,_i ' - — 



but devote a comparatively small ap- 
propriation to the extention of the 
down-river road from the Lawrence 
Orputt place, for about a mile said a 
ha|f to the mouth of Capel Cree^, for 
various physical reasons, this ii§[/the 

riglbt place to establish the hea4. <?^ 
navigation for the lower KXaii^th. 
Puitting in this small Ityik of 'rQa4» 
woiuld give these Klama,!^ commimi^ 
tieb, truck and river tFaffic . down to 
sed^board at the mouth of -the river at 
Rq^ua. It would , also create a side- 
trip of wonderful attractiveness to in- 
coiliing tourists both over the Coast 
anh Klamath Riv«r_.lwfi^hw^y.& Jin 9^ 
swsequent article, I shall hope to 
difcusa this veri^. !practic41 and lin- 
it proposition in fuirther detail 
jvery enlightened citizen of Humi* 
it could have tne pleasure, a» 1 
had at this Capell Creek picnio 
leeting at close hand, the deserv- 
Lnd pleasant people of this iao- 
comanunity, X believ^e all .wpuld 
t&tor 6f ^J?ett er and fairer in- 
LL^eaUjIflHik^ than they are 



4*1 



S9 



^, jux^e; e, 1923 



IVAK ESnWARBlWO, CAI** 9%m 

'^^""^ JV>;E 1, 1023 



i 



mi TribaKRites 
Wai Be Observed at 
Burial of Old Indian 



The «r|Lcl 
I back at le 




tTPIe will be turned 
r /generation today, 



when the,„»^rd ^jijj^ rites practiced 
[by the ATnencal/lndian before the 
coming of the white man will serve 
as the funeral -services for Joe 
Tutty, 100 years old, venerable chief 
lof the San Manuel Indians, who had 
Ispent hia lifetime in San Bemar- 
Idino and vicinity. 

Only the motor hearse of the 
iMark B. Shaw Company wuU be 
present to lend a touch of the 
Twentieth Century to the ceremony, 
strange to American eyes, which 
will occur in the little burial plot of 
the San Manuel reservation north of 
ll»atVon at 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

In recent* years the funeral serv- 
ices at the San Manuel reservation 
I have been largely conducted by 
[Christian clergymen, but old Chief 
I Tutty always clung to the ancient 
beliefs of the Redman. In deference 
to his wishes, which are sacred ob 
ligations with tribal members, 
ancient incantations will be reined 
as the body of the venerab^r chief 
is lowered into its last rest'mg place. 



SAW S^RNATlBIWtO, CAU. VVn 

Jt^NE 2, 1923. 



A^icWt Funeral Rites 
r Reylved for Burial of 
/O^a e d Indian by Tr il 

The C^ito^ot the Redman, the .were kindled at '^^l^'^'-^'^^^^^^ 
CaJifornia of the great open spaces let and the venerable medicine man 
and game trails, which existed I ^^^^^^^ a.t an all-night dance in 
long before the coming of the first] .. , ^, «.4^<«o*^+e Ancae-ed un- 



mission fathers a century and a 
half ago, was recalled yesterday at 
the San Manuel Indian Reservation 
in the foothills north of Patton, 
when Joe Tutty, 101 years old. was 
buried In the old tribal cemetery. 
The ancient Indian rites were 
followed in Tutty's burial, they 
being used for the first time in sev- 
eral years. It is eaid. Ordinarily a 
Christian priest has presided at the 
Indian burials but in response to 
Qutty's dying wish, the old tradi- 
tional rites were revived. 



which the participants engaged un- 
til they^ dropped exhausted- 

Wlth the coming of morning yes- 
terday the ceremonies changed and 
a day of feasting lasted continuously 
until 2 p. m. when the funeral was 
held. 

To the eyes of the few white men 
present it was the strangest of 
burial services. The body was 
dressed in a long flowing robe, while 
beside it In the casket was laid 
an overcloak, which Veedla ex- 

jnai ntt^a w^i^ xv, plained will serve the chief on Ins 

Jose Jesus Veedla. 110 years old. journey to the beyond of In dan 
half -blind medicine man. acted in tradition. the Happy Huntmg 
place of priest or clergyman, raut- Grounds. 



tering his wierd Incantations all 
Thursday afternoon as the San 
Manueal Indians from all over the 
valley gathered at the reservatlonr 
where the last of the tribe still 
holds sway. 

At night a half-dozen bonfires 



The grave was left open until the 
last Indian had left and then cov- 
ered as the motor hearse of tne 
Mark B. Shaw Company was driven^ 
away, an object which stood ifl^ 
marked contrast to the anqi^ntl 
ceremonies. 



If 



( 



A tor 

^cM OF AGED ABORliiiNE IN FOOTHILLS 
' & PRESIDED OVERBY MEDICINE MAN 

Laillornia ot Ihe great open spacesj <lay of teaellnt lasted conllniiou.iv 

and e-amn ir^oHa ,„i,i_t- ___. . , . nnfn O « _- , ... 



o ». v.4/.;xi Dyttuco| -c*^ ^L icdoiing lasted continuously 

and game trails, which existed long! ""*^^ 2 p. m. when the funeral wa? 
before the nnmino- ^f ♦!,« *««^x ....._ held. » 



before the coming of the first mis- 
sion fathers a century and half ago, 
Was recalled yesterday at the Sgji 
Manuel Indian Reservation in the 
roothills north of Patton, when Joe 
Tutty, 101 years old, was buried in 
the old tribal cemetery. 

The ancient Indian rites were fol- 
lowed in Tutty's burial, they being 
j used for the first time in several 
! years, it is said. Ordfinarily a Chris- 
tian priest has presided at the In- 
dian burials but in response to Tut- 
ty's dying wish, the old traditional 
rites were revived, ' 

Jose Jesus Veedla. 110 years ol^ 
half-blind medicine man, acted in 
place of priest or clergyman, mutter- 
ing his wiered incantations all Thurs 
day afternoon as the San Manuel In. 
dians from all over the valley gath- 
ered at the reservation, where the 
last of the tribe still hold sway 

At night a half - dozen bonfires 
were kindled at the reservation ham- 
let and the venerable medicine man 
presided at an all night dance in 
which the participants engaged un- 
til they dropped exhausted. 
With the coming of morning yos- 



To the eyes of the few whifo men 
present it was the strangest of bur- 
ial services. The body was dressed 
m a long flowing robe, while be- 
side it in the casket was laid an 
overcloak. which Veedla explained 
will servo the chief on his journev 
to the beyond of Indian tradition, the 
Happy Hunting Grounds. 

The grave was left open until thp 
last Indian had left and then oovcrod 
as the motor hearse was driven 
<away,- an object which stood in 
marked contrast to the ancient core- 
monies. 






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lyi^'S^''^'-'-^,'^^-'^.^.'-/^ ■ "i'w^ •',/ • ^;-/: •"',:'■)* i:{jir^*^i4'V"'' 



















ios Kiss Beach Wayiis 

dent Mother for Bringing Rain 

ribute. Give Offenng 



SANTA BARBARA. Jun* ^V 
Navajo Indian Chiefs, Hosnanlnl 
Begay (Doer of Deeds), and Mahie 
Escanle (Wolf Killer), kissed the 
receding water on The beach here 
today and thanked the Mother of 
Waters for bringing rain to their 
lands m Arizona, and prayed for 
further showers. 

In the legends of the tribe the 
sea is not only the . nyother of 
waters, but also the mother of all 
the NavaJQ race, and it is flttinlt that 
when a member of that tribe sees 
the ^cean for the first time he 



should offer his tribute and sacri- 
fice. •. v 

Begay and Bscanle have been here 
two days as delegates to the south- 
west conference, butn^they religious- 
ly kept away from the beach until 
this morning, so they did not pre- 
viously see the ocean, ancient] 
mother of their tribe.- . 

This morning, In the presence of 
a crowd of palefaces, they offered 
sacrifices of com and flower POilen 
scattered on the gentle breeze tbafi 
blew over the softly rippling surl 
and then kissed the receding foan 
on the beach. Ajtid their rlten wen 
over. 



rrrr.KA. (-.\r.. sta.V]OAKD 

JUNE U, 11...3 



IGO 



nUiViJDV/XJJUr 



Kj Jk. ^.*.^ . .A^ — . 




(.f TO BE FEUm 

^ ' ^ I 

It will n^ bo a question of civic duty 
or prid^Mfthe completion of the Klam- 
ath rivOT highway alone which will 
prompt many to attend the dedication 
celebration to be held at Orleans on 
June 25, for the program to be i)re* 
sented is one that is without compari- 
son in many respects. 

Interest is centering" about the In- 
dian dances and stick games. Many 
of these are a portion of the sacred 
ritual of the Indians and some of them 
have not been seen by many white men. 
Although the dances ai;e autumn har- 
vest dances they have been set ahead 
this year for the ceremony. 

The Brush * dance complete, by far 
the most spectacular' of the Karok tri- 
bal dances will be given featuring the 
wolf skin skirts, the artistry of wood- 
pecker heads plated on kuck-skin, eagle 
feathers, and bear claws, the yew 
wood bows plated and rj?inforcecl with 
deer gut, the flint tipped arrows in 
their otter skin quiver the roll and 
thump of the tom-tom and the rhy- 
thm of the chant and dance. 

The White deerskin dance, an exhi- 
bition of the regalia, deerskins as 
white as snow and as black as night, 
contrasted with the bright hues of bird 
feathers will be one of the many nov- 
elties that will delight the visitors. 
Dances and songs of the Indian women 
in full regalia will be given. 

The Stick game, its origin lost in 
antiquity, a test of wits and physical 
skill, combining the strength of wrest- 
lers and the action of a football match. 
In this game one is given an opportun- 
ity to witness the extreme fairness of 
the Indian character in sport, coupled 
.with his ability to bear punishment 
without flinching. 

Plans for the barbecue and other ac- 
commodations of the guests are pro- 
prressing under the direction of an able 
ommittec. Captain Walter Coggeshall 
^dulod to arrive at Orleans on 
une 22 accompanied by Charles Kridcr 
a barbecue expert. 

There will bo ample cami>ing space 
provided but visitors must bring their 
own beds. 

iMany have already registfrrd frruii 
TOureka with the Chamber of Coinmercp 
for reservations, so that proix-r ar- 
rangements may Ix* made fur them. 11 
Is, Celt Uv U\QiUi iu cUavRc ^^t tlie rcj^is- 
tratlon however that many who have 
signified their intentions at previous 
occasions of attending the celebration 
have not made the proi)er registration. 
AH those who wish to attend have been 
asked to register with the least pos- 
sible delay to avert the last minute 
rush aj^ to avoid inconvenience to 
othe 



JUNE. i5, 1923 





RITE AND CH 

OFF Tl SCOOTS 

Camp Director Kidnaped 

When He Attempts to 

Rescue Boys 



LOEB 

The Chronlele 

GROVij, Sonoma Co., June 
14. — A paf^ of Indians entered the 
San Fran<flSco Boy Scouts training 
camp here last night, overpowered 
the guard and stole the remains of 
Kaglft Bye, th© camp ghoat, giving 
the 800 boys in camp a touch or| 
real adventure and carrying off two 
guards who resisted, but who were 
later retrieved upon payment of $50. 
Chief Camp Director Raymon O. 
Hanson, in. attempting to negotiate 
the rescue of the boys single- 
handed, also was captured and 
held, but was later released with 
the others after Chief Gayandowana, 
a full-blooded Iroquois Indian cbief, 
who Is a leader at the camp, nego-| 
tiated with the Indians in theii 
native tongue. 

BOTS BURT GHOST 
The boys captured with the scon' 
chief were Albin Lundgren an< 
Sherman Leahy. 

The unfortunate Incident occurre< 
because of the approaching cam^ 
ghost ceremonies which are a yearl; 
feature of the San Francisco Scou^ 
camps that has become nationall; 
famous. The ghost, represented b: 
the bones of "Bagle Eye," a formci 
Indian of the Tamal tHbe. is burle* 
by the boys in camp coincidentall; 
with the traits of dissatisfaction, 
untruthfulness, dishonesty, unhap- 
plness and selfishness which the In 
dian represents. 

^hereafter, according to cami 
tradition, anyone displaying any o1 
those traits or bad habits in th( 
camp Is looked down upon by th( 
boys. 
I HAVK OB.lFXTrED BKFOHJB3 

In the past, on occasions, the In 
dlans have objected to the cere- 
monies on the ground that thei] 
dead were being dishonored. For- 
merly, however, the extent of theli 
dissatisfaction has been evidences 
by the beating of tomtoms. In th< 
hills and the looting of the ghosfi 
grave during the winter when th< 
.jarnp w«s depertf'd. 




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EVREKA. CATv., TIMES 
JUNE 12, 1923 



100 





E 



r^iinday night two stage loads of 
Indian school children from the In- 
dian settlements along the Klamath 
A\ ere brought to Eureka by the school 
nurse, Miss Grain, for medical atten- 
tion. Eighteen of the 30 children in 
the stages were talcen to the county 
hospital to have their tonsils removed 
and the remaining little Indians were 
taken to the df^tention home where 
they will have dental work done. 

Miss Crain has been devoting her i 
attention to the children of Martins 
Ferry, Orleans, W'eitchpee and the 
surrounding country. 



JUNE IG, \02^ 



100 



^^'■'s*;-^^ 



J?<V-':' 









* I 



Qite 



From Klamath Enjoy Frolic In Eureka 



, -^'y^ys^vy^.- 



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I I ' ll " •' 1 r-nr—- 1 — n'lnnnriiiiniiir-irr nM n r t niinnnn ii a iiiiii iin fiiiiiuinmiima^aimm 



Here they are, ust a group of young people from the Klamath section. The Im 

.1 r ^ ji_ I #'aI__* •_ •■ •«• 1 <■• • • ••> •._ 






s 




Eureka for the removal of their tonsils, 
the time being, but t?\ey all managed 
^troubles. 



and for dental treatment, which lef a fe^ 
to visit the theatre yesterday afternoon 



children were brought to 
[m more or less upset for 
ompt^y forget their 



IbLFE LAKr. fAT.., ADTOCATK 
JUNE IG, 1033 

\r^ — ■":::: 



Indian Scliool Children To Receive 
Medical Attention 
'Ptiat iclie i^d Cross aud the 
coiwhi \j^ loiking aftier the wel- 
fap«-^f the children of its Indian 
wards along^thft, Klamath was in 
evidence SunAiy evening when two 
automobile stage loads of Indian 
school children wigire taken to Eu- 
re»ka for medical attention. The 
children were taken there by Miss 
Grain, school nurse, who has been 
giving heir attention to the chil- 
dren of Martins Perry, Weitchpec 
and Orleans and vicinity. There 
were 30 children on the two stages, 
18 of whom were takein to the 
County Hospital to ba operated 
upon for the removal of their ton- 
sils, and the remainder to the De- 
tention Home to have dental work 
performed. 



JUNE IG, 1923 ' ; 

l^/io Says Indians 
Lacking in Wi9 




been said that Iti- 
enso of humor, but 
shattered by a lit- 
t occurred during 
ome of the scenes 
•kcr's ''The Master 



It 
dia 
that t 
tie 

the ma] 
for Reg 
of Woman." 

A number of Indians had been 
engaged for one of the pioneer 
.street scenes. The assistant direc- 
tor, in listing the copper-colored 
actors for paychecks, camo to one 
big fellow who towered above all 
the others—a full-blooded Apache 
who responded "Big Tree," when 
asked his name. 

The Indian next to him. a wizened 
little .Jhrimp, tightened his blanket 
about him. glanced up at his neigh- 
bor, and- almost snorted: "Huh 
me Little Stump.** 












\ 



JUNE 20, 1923 







2,000 Indians Will Perform 
Tribal Dances At Orleans 

elebration 




YREM^Siskfrou Co.), June 20. 
WitlT^ilSW'es o% Northern Califor- 
nia fixed QXi the event, committees 
at Yreka, £^ans and Eureka are 
rapidly completing plans for the 
celebration at Orleans next Sunday, 
Monday and Tuesday, commemorat- 
ing the opening of the Klamath 
River Highway by the United States 
Forest Service. 

Letters are pouring into the 
Yreka and Eureka Chambers of 
Commerce in regard to the coming 
event and already scores of tour- 
ists coming into Yreka over the 
Pacific Highvray a.e camping in the 
Klamath basin awaiting the cele- 
bration. 

The Indian yillage, the sacred 
white deerskin' dance, which will 
be performed publicly for the first 
time by the Karock Indians, the 
Indian sticlc and m^lcine ball 
games and native sports are the 
lure of many, which the champion- 
ship ball games between Siskiyou 
and Humboldt Counties, the tug-of- 
war across the Klamath River be- 
tween Yreka and Eureka, are at- 
tracting considerable local interest. 
senator To Speak 
United States Senator Samuel 
Shortridge, Congressman John E. 

I I Baker, District Forester Paul G. 
Redington, State Senator Frank 

'-'Powers of Alturas, and local men 
of prominence will speak during 

the day. 

When the preliminary arrange- 
ments were discussed it was decided 
to milk-feed four steers for a bar- 
becue, but the numerous inquiries 
from people who are coming has 
convinced the committees in charge 
that the order will have to be 
doubled. As a consequence, eight 
fine beeves are being fattened for 
the slaughter. 

It is expected that there will be 
more than 2,000 local Indians at the 
celebration, among them the Hopas 
and Karocks, many of whom live 
and dress much as they did ^hen 
the first white settlers came into 
the region. 

There will be band and orchestra 

music all day Monday, and two 

large danoe pavilions have b^en 

I constructed.' 



TRIBICA, CAh. NEWS 
JUNE 21, 1023 



Indian Girl Led 



Th 



Class Three Years 



rhe dwtincti 



tion of having led her 
class from the time she entered high 
school until she graduated is proudly 
borne by Miss Clara Hastings, Indian 
girl who graduated from Siskiyou 
Union high school last Friday. 

Her achievement has been the sub- 
ject of considerable newspaper com- 
ment, originating from a story of her 
career as told by the editor of the 
Indian Herald, official publication of 
the Indian Board of Co-operation. 
Miss Hasting's picture has appeared 
in several papers. The following ac- 
count of her school record is from a 
San Francisco newspaper: 

"Miss Clara Hastings, Klamath 
river Indian girl, belonging to a tribe 
known as the Shastas, one of the 66 
pupils to graduate from Siskiyou 
Union high school at Yreka, had the 
distinction of having led her class 
each year during her three years in 
high school, and has the honor of be- 
ing valedictorian this year. 

"Miss Hastings was reared in a re- 
mote section of the county near Gott- 
ville on the Klamath river. Her 
mother, an educated Indian woman, 
was her early tutor and when but 
three years old Miss Hastings could 
read and write. Because of local 
conditions she was deprived of regu- 
lar school advantages. However, she 
attended grammar school for a short 
time and was able to enter high 
school at Yreka three years ago. 

"Miss Hastings is actively identi^ 
fied with leaka Auxiliary, Indian! 
Board of Co-operation, and has been 
an active worker in the behalf of 
aged and indigent Indians of this 
section of the state. She has been 
devoting much of her time to the de- 
velopment of information that the 
Indian organization expects to use in 
its suit to win the terms of the peace 
treaties made with the California In- 
dians in 1852, and says, now that she 
has graduated from high school, she 
will enter the state normal, become 
an accredited teacher and spend her 
days in edjucational and social work 
among Ji^l^ople. Miss Hastings is 



yeai 



re. 



1 



t 
1 



t 

t 



POMONA, CAT... ntTLLETlX 



—15 



_ .^ ._, il A A ^ 




ndians Once Used Yucca 
Plants for Cloth; Some 
Interesting History Told 

lis is W if^'7'M^ 



This is fW fP^'fifTT when the foothills 
on the roiifls Vh dittany places near Po- 
mona are ma^f'gli^^us by the flower- 
ing of the Yuccas. 

This species of Yucca has been sci- 
entifically described as Yucca whip- 
plei by Dr. Torrcy; its folk name is 
Spanish Dagger, Lily of the Desert or 
Our Ltjrd's Candle. 

The Vuccas belong to the lily family 
and are. the largest of that species in 
California. Their spires of white 
blooms may in Juno be seen for miles 
in the park foothills, standing like 
sentinels of purity above the chap- 
paral. Individual plants have been 
known to contain as many as 800 blos- 
soms which last for some time. 

The Yucca whipplei is one of those 
plants which depends upon a special 
insect for polination and perpetuation 
of the species. This insect is a moth 
(Pronuba macula ta) and but for this 
molh the Yucca would ^ soon be ex- 
tinct. There is another Yucca moth 
(Prodaxus cinereus that depends on 
the Yucca for food, but which does not 
pollenize its plants; the "Prodaxus" 
moth therefore repends for life upon 
the labors of the "Pronuba" moth. 

There seems no realiable record of 
the age at which the Yucca first 
blooms or the frequency of its blos- 
soming, but it is believed to bloom at 
the eighth yejHV 

The California Indians made use of 
the leave .*^ Uf LIl B IPtiLt a; small strips 
serve as strings to hang meat to dry; 
the fiber was woven into coarse cloth 
and moccaisins or braided into ropes 
and cords. 

This species of Yucca is found on 
the coastward slopes of the San Ber- 
nardino and Southern Sierra Nevada 
mountains. Tulare and Fresno coun- 
ties seem to be its northern limit. Dr. 
W. L.. Jepson reports the northernmost 
plant on the middle fork of the Kings 
river, a little below Tehipite Valley; 
but State Game Warden S. L. N. Ellis 
reports it a sfar noth as the mouth of 
Boulder creeH and in the canyons oi! 
the Merced river, southeast from An- 
derson valley in Mariposa county. 

From observations made in the Se- 
quoia National park for 25 years past, 
it appears that Yucca tends to spread 
northward. As a zonal plant it is char- 
acteristic of the upper altitudes of the 
loWcr Sonora zoncp but in the park, 



under favoring conditions of sun and 
soil, the Yucca is found growing in 
small numbers well into the upper So- 
nora zone. Plants have been found at 
altitude of 6,500 feet and are abundant 
at Colony Mill at 5,500 feet. 

The various speries of the Yuccas 
have been known to the people of the 
southern United States for the past 00 
years and much has been deservmgly 
said in their praise, but the species 
above mentioned seemed to have been 
practically ignored until very recently, 
and now practically all counties in the 
state of California, where the plants 
are found growing, have passed cn'dl- 
nances for their protection. This 
species of Yucca has sprung into pop- 
iularity, which is growing rapidly and 
Nsteadily each day 






..JVl^.K 27, 1923 



m 



I 



NOW IS THE SEASON OF FLOWERING 
YUCCA; FOOTHILLS DECKED WITH SPIRES 
OF WHITE BLOSSOMS; TENDED BY MOTH 



-3fc 



This is theyeason when the foot- 
hills in many places near Monrovia 
are made glorious by the flowering 
of the Yuccas. 

This species lof Yucca has been 
scientifically described as Yucca 
whipplei by Dr. Torrey; its (oik 
name is Spanish Dagger, Lily of the 
desert or Our Lord's Candle. 

The Yucca belongs to the lily fam- 
ily and are the largest of that spe- 
cies in California. Their spires of 
white blooms may in June be seen 
for miles in the park foothills, stand- 
ing like sentinels of purity above 
the chapparal. Individual plants have 
been known to contain as many as 
800 blossoms which last for s6me 
time. 

The Yucca whipplei is one of those 
plants which depends upon a special 
insect for polination and perpetua- 
tion of the species. This insect is a 
moth (Pronuba maculata> and but 
Ifor this moth the Yucca would soon 
be extinct. There is another Yucca 
Imoth (Prodaxus cinereus, that de- 
fends on the Yucca for food, but 

hich does not pollenize its plants; 



the "Prodaxus" moth therefore de- 
pends for life upon the labors of 
the "Pronuba" moth. 

There seems no reliable record of 
the age at which the Yucca first 
blooms or the frequency of its blos- 
SQming, but it is believed to bloom 
at the eighth year. 

The ^ California Indian s made use 
of the leaves of the Yucca; small 
strips serve as strings on which to 
hang meat to dry; the fiber was 
woven into coarse cloth and moc- 
casins or bjaided into ropes and 
cords. 

This species of Yucca is found on 
the coastward slopes of the San 
Bernardino and Southern Sierra Nev- 
ada mountains. Tulare and Fresno 
counties seem to be its northern 
limit. Dr. W. L. Jepson reports the 
northernmost plant on the middle 
fork of the kings river, a little be- 
low Tehipite Valley; but State Game 
Warden S. L. N Ellis reports it as 
far north as the mouth of Boulder 
creek and in the canyons of the 
Merced river, southeast from An- 
derson valley in Mariposa county. 









%;;i2ir • ^- ^^^* Til^TLT XCPi-S— CUB 
JULY 2, 1923 



^ 



IWi^ 



^^" 



INDIAN FIGHTERS DISAPPEARIN 

ABORIGINES FAR OUTNUMBER MEN WHO CONQUERED WEST 11 



>ll«««itfl«WM<SOTn»li;«M»l!) 



■■»— Hli— »WiwitB« 



•l-P*- 



•-^n;— .in— •mi— 'HI— •■«M«»"^Ba««i»»""-*"»"' ' ••^^•••'•l««^»ti«'i<^»»M«wni«i^«i. 



■RI«*B>B«w>r. 









350 OF LAST 2000 LIVE AROUND CITY 



^^}Jen Tell of Adven- 
tures In "Old Wild 
Wesr 



American Indians — the fast fad- 
lug aborigine of this continent — 
have almost passed out of the pic- 
ture, but they still sux*vive in a 
greater number than thoge valiant 
forces vrhich battled them. 

The last big Indian light was a 
c'lFviter of a century ago near Mo- 
doc in northern Calitornia. 

^VitU aboriginal instinct the I'ed- 

• kiny resorted to tomahawks and 

bovrs and arro\>$ after their am- 

uiunition was ^one. They used 

Ui^ir guns for clubs, 

Since then there have been inter- 
rpittent uprisings, but nothing to 
compare v ith the old Modoc war. 

Only 2000 Left 

Scarcely more than ?000 of the 
old-time Indian fighters now sur- 
vive In America. Of the Indians on 
veaeryations but few who battled 
ibe whites are left. 

Of the last 2000 Indian fighters 
;^'iO !i\'e in San FranciRco and vicin 
ity and are members of Custer 
ramp No. 4, National Indian War 
Veterans. This is the largest camp 
in the country. 

Many of these knew "Buffalo 
Bill" when he ^^as called Bill Cody, 
3»n(l served as a scout for the army 
in the South Dakota Black hills. 
Oldest Vet Body 

The National Indian War Veter- 

• ns is the oldest vets' organization 
in America. It was founded in 179S 
and giew to a national organiza- 
tion. 

Sunday, at St. Mark's church, 
on O'Farrell-st, between Gough and 
Franklin-sts, two members of the 
San Francisco post were honored 
by their comrades. 

J. F. W. Unfug, for 11 years com- 
mander of the San Francisco camp 
and now In his sixth year as na- 
tional commander, was presented 
^vith a gold medal -a token of 
appreciation for the efforts he has 
expended to preserve and better 
the National Indian W^ar Veterans. 

Qlven Gold Cross 

Rev. H. S. Fell, chaplain of the 
ramp, wai presented with a gold 
cross as a token of appreciatio 




In jhe days of redskin rampages 
no chaplains were allowed to enliEf:. 
Thevi merely traveled with th 



, W. Unfug (above), Andrew 
BridQS, 62 (lower right) and F, 
A^ Loreni, 62 (lower left) 

force!, serving as cleric, medic or 

buglei . 
W^h m National Commander Un-; 



Veteran Ci^>en Medal Bjj] 

Friends For Captunng 

Burglar 

fug. who is now 72, was preseiitcd 
^vith his medal by Maj. F. W. Fin- 
der, 68, present commander, he was 
flanked by the two oldest men in 
the post— Comrade Simmons* SS, 
and Comvgde Wavdt, 87, 

Chaplain Feix w^s with Cody !n 
Nebraska. 

There are members of the post 
^-bo recall when Oen. Hunter Lig- 
gett did his share of Indian scrap- 
ping. Oen. Liggett, like Qen. John 
j. Pershing, holds an honorary 
memberjihip in the organization. 

Commander Unfug fought Apach- 
es from 1S83 to 188S and was back 
for more. 

**We used to save our i^ioney 
and go to St. Louis on a bout," he 
paid while talking with F. A. Lo- 
renz, post marshal. "We only 
made $13 a n'onth, but even when 
they had taken out 25 cents for| 
hospital fees and 50 cents for to- 
bacco we still had enough to have 
lots of fun. After our time in St 
bonis or St. Joe or K. C, or wher- 
ever we cho?e to go and have our 
fill of city life, we'd take the only 
means of getMng back to the wilds 
again. We had to enlist to do it, 
go we enlinted. Desertion didn't 
mean much then, but there was but 
little of that. 

Good "Chewer" 

"And a good Indian fighter was 
8 good tobacco chewer. Say, it got 
hot going across the prairies? Hot 
ter than blazes! The quartertnas 
ter kept us supplied with our chews 
BO we could keep our mouths from 
getting parched by the sun." 

The "boys" of the camp have 
their modern hero. Quartermaster 
Andrew Briggs Is a special police- 
man as well as a retired Injun 

killer. 

And as he used to make "another 
redskin bite the dust." so he ban- 
dleaj the off-color element on his 
heal The residents of Jordan Park 
thoijight so much of his vjilor and 
hisfcybility to keep his beat cleaned 
of prevailing second-stor'y artists 
thai they presented him iyith a gold 
watr?h and a gold star, 

A ad Andy is 62, but he/ goes after 
law breakers the same wlay he wtntj 
after GeDQnimo's followers. 



of agre, native of Indiana, 
pioneer of Kansas and Cali- 
fornia, veteran of the Indian up- 
rising in 1868 and 1869, school 
teacher, newspaper editor, store 
clerk, and resident of Lindsay 
since 1918, is todav actively em- 
ploved here as bookkeeper at the 
Universal earagre. Little do the 
manv people who '^o into the efa- 
ra^e where Sootts is employed 
realize the active career of the 
kindlv old gentlemen who waits 
upon them, that he was amone 
those who served with General 
Custer seven years before that 
gallant -soldier met his death. 

Spotts was born Feb. 15, 1848, at 
Logansport, Indiana, where he attend- 
ed school. When he was 18 years 
old a Mr. Gibson and family who were 
leaving Logansport to go West, into 
the then unsettled state of Kansas, 
offered young Spotts his expenses if 
he would drive their wagon by which 
means they were traveling. Spotts 
saw here his opportunity to follow 
Horace Greeley's advice "Go West 
young man, go West," and accepted 
the offer. The emigrant train, of 
which their wagon was a part, went 
to Olathe, Kansas, and here Spotts 
left them. He was employed by Charles 
Finch, a horse buyer, and was sent to 
Springhill, about 20 miles from Olathe, 
where he had charge of the stables 
there. , 

Enlists to Fight Indians 
It was while employed there that H. 
E. Stoddard, who held a second lieu- 
tenants commission in the regular 
United States army, came to Spring- 
hill to recruit volunteers for a regi- 
ment of cavalry to assist General Cus- 



% 






Spotts to take the editorship of the 
Enterprise, and Spotts had the honor 
of writing the first editorial ever writ- 
ten in the Enterprise. He held that 
position for several years until the 
paper was again sold. 

In 1918 Spotts moved to Lindsay 
where three of the five children, Mrs. 



kime to think about it. 









MR. AND MRS. DAVID L. SPOTTS 



ter drive the Indians back on their 
reservations. General Custer had been 
ordered to Kansas by General Sheri- 
dan, with whom he had served during 
the Cyril war, and who had the repu- 
tation of being Sheridan's right hand 
man, which started the saying that, 
'^whenever Sheridan wants to be sure 
of something being done and done 
right he sends Custer." 

Spotts thought the matter over and 
the call of adventure won. He felt 
that here was a chance to see the 



marching back to Topeka, where they 
were mustered out and had. given up 
their horses to the regular ai'my men 
who were remaining in the territory. 
General Custer called for volunteers 
from the regiment and 400 men step- 
ped out. Spotts was among the vol- 
unteers and those who were leaving 
were on their way before daylight. 
About 30 miles were covered by four 
o'clock that evening and after a short 
stop for supper the march was re- 
sumed until midnight, when camp was 



country at no expense and have a made. They were on short rations 



wonderful adventure, so he gave his 
flame to Stoddard. Considerable 
trouble was had in enlisting men be- 
cause of the short time in which to 
.arrange their affairs before going. 
Stiddard enlisted the aid of Finch 
whom Spots had been, employed, 



and the water in the country thru 
which they were passing was not fit 
to drink. 

Indians Captured # 
On March 15, 1869, they came upon 
the Indians and surrounded them. Sev- 
eral Indians succeeded in escaping 



Id he succeeded in getting a com- and^took with them two white prison 
iiy^for the regiment from that part j er8.> Several thousand Indians were 
^, the state. They traveled all over ; thua captured without a shot being 
(Johnson county and recruited the en- j fired. This camp was the principal 
tire company. The company assembl- 

led at Olathe, which was the county ^ 

igeat of Johnson county. From there army officers and Indian chiefs held ?. 
ley went to Topeka, Kansas, by the j parley that evening. Big Head and 



Cheyenne camp and the particular 
Indians whom Custer was after. The 



lansas Pacific railroad. Spotts had 
Large of the horses and drove the 
»rses overland to Topeka instead of 

iking the train. 

In a diary which Spotts kept while 

jrving with Custer he relates passing 

large windmill about a mile out of 

iawrence, which was the first and 

lily grist mill in Kansas at that time 



Dull Knife, principal chiefs of the 
tribe were taken prisoners and General 
Custer ordered the white prisoners 
brought into camp. At first the In- 
dians were unwilling to give up the 
prisoners, who proved to be a Ifira. 
Moiigan, captured at her home on the 
banks of the Solomon river and a Miss 
Wh^e captured near the Republican 



o Spotts it was quite a novelty to , riveb in Kansas. Later, after Custer 
e the er(^f^\ Y^y ^g^^^ti||-mill r^l]|^<i^efiised the ransom proposition 

irdered the Indians to give up the 
prisoners or the two chiefs which were 
held would be hung. This brought 



fekin^."" 'I'iie mill "resemoieu very 
much one of the Dutch type. 

On October 20, 1868, a new era In 
the life of young Spotts began. He 
was now really a soldier in the United ' the 
States army. On that day the regi- 



the 



Inddans around and in a short time 

two women were in the army 

camp. When Mrs. Morgan saw Dull 



ment was mustered into service as 
the 19th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry 
and the company in which Spotts 
served was designated Company L. 
Spotts was appointed company clerk 
and this gave him an opportunity to 
keep in close touch with the regiment. 
Though not yet twenty-one years of 
age Spotts had been allowed to join 
the army with the knowledge of the 
officers and was on the records as 
Jieing 21, and when he received his 
first pass to go into Topeka, he cast 
his first vote, November 3, 1868, for 
General Grant who was then candi- 
date for president. 

On Thursday, November 5, 1868, the 
regiment left Topeka on their long 
march to Wichita, 160 miles south- 
west, on the border of the Indian 
territory. In his diary Spotts speaks 
of the new state house of the capital 
which was just being built at that, 
time. Colonel Samuel J. Crawford, 
was commander of the regiment and 
also governor of the state of Kansas 
at the time. 

On their first march they were hard 

put for provisions and on November 

14 hunters were sent out and a herd 

of' buffaloes were sighted and several 

killed A notation in Spotts* diary 

says ***I ate my first buffalo meat to- 

day and it was far ahead of army 

*hacon ' " They were at that time only 

a few ' miles from Wichita and his 

diary states the country was very 

thick with game of all descrtptions 

and that thousands of buffalo could 

UQ seen. 

Trade Hardtack for Bible 
A snowstorm made hunting very 
noor and as each man had five days 

^tions given him he had to conserve 
bis own supply. Many of the men ran 

hort of provisions. Spotts wrot^, 
^'We have plenty of fresh meat but no 
e.it or bread which makes a very un- 
cavory food. Hardtack is legal ten- 
f ! [n ramn now. I traded six for a 
d^V^pnt to Cyrus Campbell. The 
'"' V jr. iiven to him at Topeka by 
book was g j^g ^ho distributed 

some of tn« 

^^o ^hJ' regiment arrived in the 
T !-^on territory just too late to take 
f?n a battle which Custer gave the 
r' i e Indians. In this battle which 
^11 the banks of the Wichita river, 
^tr^e number of Indians were kill- 
ed and the soldiers also suffered con- 
siderable loss. 



Knife she tried to snatch a nearby of- 
ficer's revolver and shoot the Indian. 
She stated that Dull Knife was the 
[meanest Indian in all of the tribes. 
Spotts described General Sheridan, 
who was with the regiment, under the 
date of Jan. 15, 1869. The diary says: 
"General Sheridan is still with us. He 
is a little heavy set man with short 
black hair and black eyes. All who 
have met him like him. I have not 
spoken to him though he answered my 
salute and smiled as he passed our 
quarters while I was on duty. He 
does not put on any style, even if he 
is a Major General in the regular 
army." 

Subsist on Mule Meat 

It was while on the march home 
that the regiment was so reduced in 
rations that they were forced to eat 
mule meat. Spotts in his diary says: 
**Every mess in camp is cooking mule 
meat. I try to eat it but as we had 
no salt it was no good." Later he got 
some salt but even then he says mule 
meat was tero much for him. 

On April 19, 1869, the company to 
which Spotts was attached was mus- 
tered out of the service and Spotts, 
after paying back borrowed money, 
had $120 with which to start out in the 
world again. 

Moves to California 
Shortly after his discharge from the 
army, Spotts left Kansas and returned 
to his home in Logansport, Indiana. 
Here he clerked in a store and for a 
year taught school. It was here that 
he married and soon after again felt 
the call of the West and started for 
California. His intended destination 
was Visalia but upon reaching Lodi. 
California, in the year of 1873, word 
was received that the Central Pacific 
railroad had quit work there and that 
things were very quiet. The Central 
Pacific at that time was constructing 
the railroad through the San Joaquin 
valley and it had been Spotts' idea to 
obtain work on the railroad as a clerk 



He decided to remain in Lodi for a 
short time until he could get his bear- 
ings. Their short stay in Lodi con- 
tinued for twelve years. 

spotts was sent as a delegate by 
the Lodi lodge of the Knights If 
Pythias to a state convention being 
held at Los Angeles. While in x 
Angeles he heard that ^^0^ "^^ 
rade-in-arms. JnhTi o*^^.^ . 



com* 



pu 



Hi;«v ""'' J«h^ Stud^becker was 
blishing a small -a.^^T>i^ - ' ^^^ 






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DAVID L. SfPOTTS, 75 vears 
of ag-e, native of Indiana, 
pioneer of Kansas and Cali- 
fornia, veteran of the Indian up- 
rising in 1868 and 1869, school 
teacher, newspaper editor, store 
clerk, and resident of Lindsay 
since 1918, is today actively em- 
ploved here as bookkeeper at the 
Universal earaee. Little do the 
manv people who -^o into the Sfa- 
ra^e where Sootts is employed 
realize the active career of the 
kindly old g:entlemen who waits 
upon them, that he was amone 
those who served with General 
Custer seven vears before that 

gallant soldier met his death. 

Spotts was born Feb. 15, 1848, at 
Logansport, Indiana, where he attend- 
ed school. When he was 18 years 
old a Mr. Gibson and family who were 
leaving Logansport to go West, into 
the then unsettled state of Kansas, 
offered young Spotts his expenses if 
he would drive their wagon by which 
means they were traveling. Spotts 
saw here his opportunity to follow 
Horace Greeley's advice "Go West 
young man, go West," and accepted 
the offer. The emigrant train, of 
which their wagon was a part, went 
to Olathe, Kansas, and here Spotts 
left them. He was employed by Charles 
Finch, a horse buyer, and was sent to 
Springhill, about 20 miles from Olathe, 
>^here he had charge of the stables 
^re. 

Enlists to FTght Indians 

It was while employed there that H. 

p Stoddard, who held a second lieu- 

^^ants commission in the regular 

^^^ited States army, came to Spring- 

^0 recruit volunteers for a regi- 

®^^ of cavalry to assist General Cus- 



e west, Mas interesting 




MR. AND MRS. DAVID L. SPOTTS 




reservations. General Custer had been 
ordered to Kansas by General Sheri- 
dan, with whom he had served during 
the Cjjril war, and who had the repu- 
tation of being Sheridan's right hand 



ter drive the Indians back on their marching back to ToDfika wh«,-, *i,„ 
reservations fi^noro. r^..o*„. i,„. k woro «.,:„*__* ,A«Peka, where they 



were mustered out and had. given up 
their horses to the regular afmy men 
who were remaining in the territory 
General Custer called for volunteeTs 
'T2" '•l^™^"* -°d 400 men step- 



whenever Sheridan wants to be sure 
of something being done and done 
right he sends Custer." 

Spotts thought the matter over and 
the call of adventure won. He felt 
that here was a chance to see the 



man, which started the saying that, j ped out. Spotts was amonHL vn^ 
wnenevfir shofi^ior, „, — *„ *„ ,. imtpprQ Q„^ ti, . ''^""6 the vol- 

unteers and those who were leaving 
were on their way before dayllgM 
About 30 miles were covered by four 
o clock that evening and after a shorj 
stop for supper the march was re- 
country at no expense and have a Sf Th" "weTon'strt"""."^ 
wonderful adventure, so he gave his and ihe wa'ler in the coTntrv Z! 

which they werp naQain^ « ' 

to drink. ^'^'""^ ^^' ^^^ «^ 

Indians Captured if 

On March 15 1869, they came upon 

the Indians and surrounded them. Sev 

er^ Indians succeeded in escaping 

iJ^for the regiment from that part , ers • ^ "^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ite prison- 

the state. They traveled all over j thurf oanr^^i thousand Indians were 

mann ^rmntv qti/^ i-^ot^iU^/I ♦!,« ^« -. . aptureu without a shot being 

urea. This camp was the principal 
Cheyenne camp and the particular 
Indians whom Custer was after. The 
army officers and Indian chiefs held 



flame to Stoddard. Considerable 
trouble was had in enlisting men be- 
cause of the short time in which to 
arrange their affairs before going 
StAddard enlisted the aid of Fincli 
whom Spots had been, employed, 
d he succeeded in getting a eom- 



jAhnson county and recruited the en 
tjre company. The company assembl- 
ed at Olathe, which was the county 
seat of Johnson county. From there 



ey went to Topeka, Kansas, by the p;rtey TharL^^^^^ maian chiefs held p. 
.nftA.. v.nm. ..^^.r..A o.:..: i,J I^^^^IJ^^^ evening. Big Head and 



[ansas Pacific railroad. Spotts had 
Large of the horses and drove the 
)rses overland to Topeka instead of 
Iking the train. 

In a diary which Spotts kept while 

Irving with Custer he relates passing 

large windmill about a mile out of 

|.awrence, which was the first and 
ily grist mill in Kansas at that time. 

^Q SPOtti^JLiBM^ <iLHi^e a novelty to 

till re- 

voivmg: xne muT^SsemDled" very 
[much one of the Dutch type. 

On October 20, 1868, a new era In 
the life of young Spotts began. He 



Dull Knife, principal chiefs of the 
tribe were taken prisoners and General 
Custer ordered the white prisoners 
brought into camp. At first the In- 
dians were unwilling to give up the 
prisoners, who proved to be a Jfrs 
Moifean, captured at her home on the 
banks of the Solomon river and a Miss 
Whte captured near the Republican 
rivet in Kansas. Later, after Custer 
refused^ the ransom proposition 
ered the Indians to give up the 
ners or the two chiefs which were 
would be hung. This brought 



pri 
hel 



the Indians around ancr in a short time 

jthejtwo women were in the army 

camip. When Mrs. Morgan saw Dull 

Knife she tried to snatch a nearby of- 



was now really a soldier in the United the two worWpn ZZJ ^ .u ^ 

States army. On that day the resU^^ ^ -"^ ^"^ ^^""^ ^^ *^^ ^^^^ 
iment was mustered into service as 
the 19th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry 
and the company in which Spotts 
served was designated Company L. 
Spotts was appointed company clerk 
and this gave him an opportunity to 
keep in close touch with the regiment. 

Though not yet twenty-one years of 
age Spotts had been allowed to join 
the army with the knowledge of the 
officers and was on the records as 

ing 21, and when he received bis 
first pass to go into Topeka, he cast 
his first vote, November 3, 1868, for 
General Grant who was then candi- 
date for president. 

On Thursday, November 5, 1868, the 
regiment left Topeka on their long 
march to Wichita, 160 miles south- 
west, on the border of the Indian 
territory. In his diary Spotts speaks 
of the new state house of the capital 
which was just being built at that, 
time. Colonel Samuel J. Crawford, 
was commander of the regiment and 
also governor of the state of Kansas 
at the time. 

On their first march they were hard 
put for provisions and on November 
14, hunters were sent out and a herd 
of buffaloes were sighted and several 
killed, A notation in Spotts' diary 
says "I ate my first buffalo meat to- 
day and it was far ahead of army 
♦bacon.* " They were at that time only 
a few miles from Wichita and hJs 
diary states the country was very 
thick with game of all descriptions 
and that thousands of buffalo could 
be seen. 

Trade Hardtack for Bible 

A snowstorm made hunting very 
poor and as each man had five days 
rations given him he had to conserve 
his own supply. Many of the men ran 
short of provisions. Spotts wrotf, 
"We have plenty of fresh meat but no 
salt or bread which makes a very un- 
savory food. Hardtack is legal ten- 
der in camp now. I traded six for a 
testament to Cyrus Campbell. The 
book was given to him at Topeka by 
some of the citizens who distributed 

the books." 

Spotts' regiment arrived in the 
Indian territory just too late to take 
part in a battle which Custer gave the 
hostile Indians. In this battle which 
was on the banks of the Wichita river, 
a large number of Indians were kill- 
ed and the soldiers also suffered con- 
siderable loss. 

OH Tuesday, Feb. 16. the diary says, 
"W© have been out nearly five months 
and are no nearer having a fight with 
l^e Indians than when we started." 

on March 6, 1869, the first sign of 
real action came up. Scouts reported 
a large band of Indians had passed a 
short time before, near where the regi- 
jneDt had camped for the night. The 
j.ggiiBent was at the time on foot, 



ficer's revolver and shoot the Indian. 
She stated that Dull Knife was the 
meanest Indian in all of the tribes. 

Spotts described General Sheridan, 
who was with the regiment, under the 
date of Jan. 15, 1869. The diary says: 
"General Sheridan is still with us. He 
is a little heavy set man with short 
black hair and black eyes All who 
ha\^ met him like him. I have not 
spoken to him though he answered my 
salute and smiled as he passed our 
quarters while I was on duty. He 
does not put on any style, even if he 
is a Major General in the regular 
army." 

Subsist on Mule Meat 
It was while on the march home 
that the regiment was so reduced in 
rations that they were forced to eat 
mule meat. Spotts in his diary says : 
"Every mess in camp is cooking mule 
meat. I try to eat it but as we had 
no salt it was no good." Later he got 
some salt but even then he says mule 
meat was too much for him. 

On April 19, 1869, the company to 
which Spotts was attached was mus- 
tered out of the service and Spotts, 
after paying back borrowed money 
had $120 with which to start out in the 
world again. 

Moves to California 
Shortly after his discharge from the 
army, Spotts left Kansas and returned 
to his home in Logansport, Indiana. 
Here he clerked in a store and for a 
year taught school, it was here that 
he married and soon after again felt 
the call Of the West and started tol 
California His intended destination 
was Visalia but upon reaching Lod? 
California, in the year of 1873 word 
was received that the Central Pacific 
railroad had quit work there and ?ha5 

?aST.Tf.^^^^- The centra 
fyfo rl 1 i^^V^i^e was constructing 
the railroad through the San Joanu^n 
valley and it had been SpottsMdea S 
obtain work on the railroad as a clerl 
He eci,ed to remain In i^',? ^^ 

ings tLTV' ^^^^^ ^et his bear 
ngs. Their short stay in Lodi ^« 
tmued for twelve years. 

Spotts was sent as k /i^i^ x 
the Lodi lodge of the S^*^ *^ 
Pythtes to a fifat^ Knights of 

publishing":* sS ^ITT""- ^« 
called the Valley slho It "T^P^Per 

and decided to run un L .„^'^®™1'^«' 
visit him. "P *° ^^t city to 



-ove fram'^l^,^;«J^ed .Spotts to 

cept the edilTship S^'Z't" *°"» »<=- 
was done and in th« ^I ^^P®'"- This 



year later bought the Riverside Enter- 
prise, then a daily paper of three col- 
umns and about the size of an ordin- 
ary school publication. He sent for 
Spotts to take the editorship of the 
Enterprise, and Spotts had the honor 
of writing the first editorial ever writ- 
ten in the Enterprise. He held that 
position for several years until the 
paper was again sold. 

In 1918 Spotts moved to Lindsay 
where three of the five children, Mrs. 



still take an a^ 
life of their children. When asked 
When he expected to retire from active 
^ork he said that the time was so far 
lii the future that he hadn't taken the^ 
time to think about it. 









^ 






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M'' ., -' li^ 



m: .^^-^ 



sk " 






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m^^^f 























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rc:ic::A, ^at... prccuess ta 



JU 



7 1 il •' V 



^Mians' t uture 
In Christianity, 



Says Miss Long 



■rTi-a* 




l{\ the only 
Indian? 

Are the Indians capaTSle of re- 
ceiving and proliting by civiliza- 
tion? 

What is the future of the In- 
dian race? 

Will the race become extinct? 

After becoming educated in the 
government schools do all In- 
dians return to the blanket and 
filth of childhood days? 

Have the people of the United 
States paid the debt they owe the 
Indiari. upon whose lands they 
dwell? 

These and many other ques- 
tions are answered by Miss Ruth 
Long, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
George B. Long of 160 Kingsley 
street, who spent six years 
teaching Indians in 'the Sherman 
Institute near Riverside. Miss 
Long has visited Indians in their 
homes in Arizona and is very 
familiar with the habits of the 
Redmen. She has just completed 
a two- year's course at the Bible 
Institute in Los Angeles and ex- 
pects to serve as a missionary 
among the Indians under the 
Baptist Church as soon a^ an 
opening is found for her. V v 

RACE INCREASING 
The race has great possibilities, 
she says, and contrary to reports 
usually believed, is not dying off, 
but is increasing slowly. Educa- 
tion is helping the Indians ,but it 
takes Christianity* to keep them 
true to the good they' learn in the 
government schools, Iviiss Lojig 
eays. 

•'In the United States there are 
371 tribes representing 341,000 
dians. Of this number 280,000 
without education, and many m 
without Christianity. Many 
remain in savagery. Thous4n|a3 
still worship the snake, coyote,/ owl, 
bug, other animals and ever'i the 
devil. Stone and wooden miag^es 
are still worshipped and «kc 
degrading ceremonlc^s 



dead dances 




-I 



are carried on in savage 
worship. In some cases human 
sacrifices are offered in the moun- 
tain valleys and gorges of Colorado, 
and according to late reports the 
yearly sacrifice had again been of- 
fered this year. For years the gov- 
ernment has been, attempting to 
put an end to these sacrifices but 
has not yet succeeded, Miss Long 
says. 

"It has been my experience that 
Indians who are educated do not 
live up to the standards they have 
been taught If they do not become 
Christians. Those who remain 
Christians live as civilized people. 
I have visited in the homes of for- 
mer students and have noted that 
the fidelity of the young people 
to the standards of advancement 
depends upon Christianity alone. 

"In Hoplland In Arizona I was 
received Into homes of the two 
types. In both the Indians had 
been educated. The case, of a little 
mother who was a slave wife illus- 
trates the conditions found. She 
did all the work for the older wife 
and family, besides caring for her 
own baby and weaving baskets for 
sale. Everything about the place 
was as ne^t and clean as one could 
ask. The baby was as sweet and 
fresh as a child from the most 
careful home. The little mother 
had received only three years' 
training in a government school, 
but had become a Christian. 

"The other home was kept by a 
girl who had received seven years 
training in an American school, 
who did beautiful sewing while 
there, knew how to cook well and 
do all the work of an ordina 
household. She returned, to the 
fjways of her ancestors. She return- 
'ed to the worship of the devil and 
praying to the Four Great Warriors 
of stone. Her baby and her little 
sisters were covered with vermin. 
The sheep skins and rugs on which 
her family slept wer^ filthy. Her 



(continued on Age 7) 



tiy of the students are born of 

tribo. Navajo Indians send 

fiy young people to the school. 

LEARN QUICKLY 
^hen asked if the Indian chll- 
a were slow to learn. Miss Long 
lared that they were equal to 
Idren of white parents, eighty 
cent of the students making 
grade each year, tho this per- 
itatje is somewhat lov/er in the 
year when they have to learn 
English language, 
have taught i*n the public 
olr? among American children 
greatly prefer to teach In- 
Thcy arc much more obed- 
and eanler controlled. They 
uglVt absolute obedience at 
and arc not impudent as 
an children are. Great re- 
is shown the teachers and 
Ittle tronb'o is experienced 
iKciplinc," Miss Long says, 
school wo'k is very similar 
t in the public schools except 
he boys muKt learn trades 
th?y reach tho seventh year, 
entering, harness making, 
tailoring, blacksniithing, agricul- 
ture, simple electric work, auto re- 
pairing and other mechanical 
trades arc learned. 

"Girls must learn womanly pur- 
raiits as dresi^making, millinery, 
cooking, nursing and the like. All 
he young people are 'handy,' show- 
Ing'TWiicTr.sKm' In ha nd work. The>^ 
have more patience and persever- 
ance than American children. 

"One noticeable fact that work- 
ers among the Indian children ob- 
serve is that the little children that 
eome to FChool are such solemn 
little creatures. They look sad and 
forlorn and do not know how to 
piny. Games must he taught to 
them. The reason for the sadness 
that is noticeable is that they are 
half-starved' and neglected at home. 
"To me it in a lamentable fact 
11^. at the children of the owners of 
Ihe American continent should 
lack for necessities when Amer- 
caiifi hav^ n«-rtitru!nfV'a vast wealth 
/Tora the land to which they ' are 

' "The Indians may have a bright 
'Jgture if they are taught • Christ- 
ianity, for education without an 
ui)lifting religion is not adequate to 
Iccep them fiom savagery. I am 
to give the Indians a 
learn Christianity that 



as a missionary to 



!^o anxious 
chance to 
I will go 
teach them." 

It ts propovsed to establish 
erdenominatlonal church at 
an Institute and funds 
•secured for this pu^] 



an 









fel 



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ifUOg 






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-100 OM •a.,^'""""' -^'l ' 



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^^ "f Punoj 



Ty 



I 



Oq 



^^.^te'v 



(Cont.nued from Paae On«.» 



iide fireplace \v;is full of black 
ans and kettles ^coiitaininfi; rem- 
ants of foo'd that was burned and 
ry. She herself was a speeimen of 
efi:radation aiKl filth. 
"Among the Navajos th'eic i;^ 



j-^-p 



:..{m 



-#: 



r 



mother or child is carried out on 
the prairie to die in order to pre- 
vent the demons from entering the 
hogan. as the Indian hut is called. 
The coyotes destroy the suffcrinp: 
one and if a mother the children 
are left to warder as they may and 
to starve to death. If the patient 
dies in the ho^an It is either de- 
RO'ted 01' burned. Often human 
bones are found scattered about a 
deserted hogan" 

SHEl^MAN INSTITUTE 
Miss Long Rives an interesting 
account of the Serman Institute 
near Hiverside, one ;^ of the eight 
large government boarding schools 
in the United States that is estab- 
lished for Indian young people of 
the west. 

"Nearly 000 young people are 
taui^iht here by yixty-five instruc- 
tors. The students range from 6 to 
25 years in ago and receive instruc- 
tion in elementary grade work and 
two years of high school work. 
They take the last two years of 
Ihigh- school work at the Riverside 
High School while boarding at the 
linstitute. 

Employes of the institution with 
Ithcir families bring the total num- 
Ibor of people on the grounds to 
learly 1,200. The site of the school 
[buildings is a tract of land one- 
half mile square, and a 160-acre 
jtract near Corona is farmed by the f 
'oung Indian students in the school. 
One large school building, a big 
Igymnasium, three dormitories for 
[boys, an equal number for girls, 
land cottages for employes comprise 
Ithe buildings on the grounds. All 
these were erected by the boys of 
the school under the direction of 
cqm potent sui>ervinors. Beautiful 
grounds are ornamented with grass, 
trees an,d shrubery, all taken care 
[of by the boys. ' 

The students come from twelve 
Iwcstcrn states and represent more 
than thirty-five dirferent tribes of 
Indians. The Mipsion Indian is the 
Inative of Southern California and 



^^^■■y 

^^^■-y- 


■ ■'.'''■£■■ .. 




fer- 






c^-y.. ■ 







m,' 



many of the students are born of 
this trib3. Nava.1o Indians send 
many young people* to the school. 




LEARN QUICKLY 

When asked if the Indian chil- 
dren were slow^ to learn, Miss Long 
declared that they were equal to 
children of white parents, eighty 
per cent of the students making 
the grade each year, tho this per- 
centage is somewhat lov/er in the 
fii::5t year when they have to learn 
the English language. 

"I have taught in the public 
-i ychoolii among American children 
and grcaUy prefer to teach In- 
dians. They arc much more obed- 
ient and eanier controlled. They 
La re. taught absolute obedience at 
ome and arc not impudent as 
American children are. Great re- 
spect is shown the teachers and 
very little trouble is experienced 
Vv'ith discipline,'' Miss Long says. 

"The school wo'k is very similar 
to that in the public schools except 
that the boys must learn trades 
after th?y reach the seventh year. 
Carpentering, harness making, 
tailoring, blacksniithing, agricul- 
ture, simple electric work, auto re- 
pairing and other mechanical 
trades are learned. 

"Girls must learn womanly pur- 
suits as dressmaking, millinery, 
cooking, nursing and the like. All 
he young people are 'handy,' show- 
ing ""ni\icir~sT?ltT' in handwork. The: 
have more patience and persever- 
ance than American children. 

"One noticeable fact that work- 
ers among the Indian children ob- 
serve is that the little children that 
come to school are such solemn 
little creatures. They look sad and 
forlorn and do not know how to 
])Iay. Games must be taught to 
them. The rerj^son for the sadness 
thnt is noticeable is that they are 
half -starved' and neglected at home. 

"To me it Is a lamentable fact 
that the children of the owners of 
Ihe i. American continent should 
lacU for necessities when Amer- 
icaj ^s hav^ a^'^urrulnfr'd vast wealth 
irni-an thfe land to whirh they * are 
t)i^ riKWtfUl belrs. 

"The Indians may have a bright 
^Viture if they are taught • Christ- 
innity, for education w^ithout an 
ui)lifting religion is not adequate to 
keep them from savagery. I am 
so anxious to give the Indians a 
chajice to learn Christianity that 
I will go as a missionary to 
teach them." 

It Is proposed to establish an 
denominational church at tl 
lan Institute and funds 
secured for this pu^i 



I 



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• r^ ^"' 

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uiUtiU') •» 



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iiy 



^lilMiiiMtSk 



^ -/»%;;;?;i;'iS^;5^\>.!iLf^?^ 



fCont.nued from Paae Ono.l 






iide fireplace waa full of black 
ans and kettles VtvMtaininfi; rem- 
ants of food that waa burned and 
ry. She herself was a spceimcn of 
efi:radation ami filth. 
"Amons the Nava.io.s there is 

lie 



c-*-/*K>'- 






&■«•*■■' 






JM- •: : 


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Other or child is carried out on 
the prairie to die in order to pre- 
vent the demons from entering the 
hogan, as the Indian hut is Ciilled. 
The coyotes destroy the suffering 
one and if a mother the children 
are left to warder as they may and 
to starve to death. If the patient 
dies in the hogan U is either de- 
Re* ted or burned. Often human 
bones are found scattered about a 
deserted hogan " 

SHEHMAN INSTITUTE 

Miss Long Rives an interestinsr 
account of the Serman Institute 
near Uiverside, one . ()f the eight 
large government boarding schools 
in the United States that is estab- 
lished for Indian young people of 
tlie west. 

"Nearly 000 young people are 
tnu^'ht horc by yixty-five instruc- 
tors. The students range from 6 to 
25 years in ago and receive instruc- 
tion in elementary grade work and 
two years of high school work. 
nUiey take the last two years of 
high -school work at the Riverside 
High School while boarding at the 
institute. 

Kmployes of the institution with 
their families bring the total num- 
ber of people on the grounds to 
early 1,200. The site of the school 
buildings is a tract of land one- 
half mile square, and a 160-acre 
tract near Corona is farmed bj'^ the 
oung Indian students in the school. 

One large school building, a bi,s: 
gymnasium, three dormitories for 
boys, an equal number for girls, 
[and cottages for employes comprise 
the buildings on the grounds. All 
these were erected by the boys of 
the school under the direction of 
CQmpetent sui>ervir,ors. Beautiful 
grounds are ornamented with grass, 
trees and sh ruber y, all taken care 
of by the boys. ' 

The students come from twelve 
western states and represent more 
than thhty-five different tribes of 
Indians. The Mipsion Indian is the 
native of Southern California and 



I 



■^y't-:-':^j.*.r 



iii^ 



I 









I 



ll*<l II 1^^- t 



il 
f 



many of the students are born of 
this tribri. Navajo Indians send 
many young poopld to the school. 

LEARN QUICKLY 

When asked if the Indian chil- 
dren were slow to learn, Miss Long 
declared that they w^ere equal to 
children of white parents, eighty 
per cent of the students making 
the grade each year, tho this per- 
centagf* is somewhat lov/er in the 
first year when they have to learn 
the English language. 

"I have taught ill the public 
Ejchools among American children 
and grcatty prefer to teach In- 
fd-ans. They arc much more obed- 
ient and carder controlled. They 
II are, taught absolute obedience at 
ome and arc not impudent as 
American children are. Great re- 
spect is shown the teachers and 
very little tronb'o is experienced 
vvilh discipline," Miss Long says. 

"The school wo'k is very similar 
to that in the public schools except 
that the boys must learn trades 
after th?y r-each the seventh year. 
Carpentering, harness making, 
tailoring, blacksmithing, agricul- 
ture, simple electric work, auto rc- 
f pairing and other mechanical 
trades arc learned. 

"Girls must learn womanly pur- 
suits as dressmaking, millinery, 
cooking, nursing and the like. All 
he young people are 'handy,' show- 
rng"*ftruclT"sKm ' in ha nd work. The: 
have more patience and persever- 
ance than American children. 

"One noticeable fact that work- 
ers among the Indinn children ob- 
serve is that the little children that 
come to school are such solemn 
little creatures. They look sad and 
forlorn and do not know how to 
play. Onmes must be taught to 
them. The reason for the sadness 
that is noticeable is that they are 
half-starved* and neglected at home. 

"To me it is a lamentable fact 

that the children of the owners of 

The American continent should 

lack for necessities when Anier- 

cfins havi« nccutr.ulated vast vvt:ilib 

iT^ tilt' hind to wlilc Ti Mm y * are 



"The Indiana may 



have a bright 
future if they are taught • Christ- 
ianity, for education without an 
uplifting religion is not adequate to 
keep them from savagery. I am 
HO anxious to give the Indians a 
chance to learn Christianity that 
I will go as a missionary to 
teach them." 

It is proposed to establish an 
interdenominational church at 
Sher^man Institute and funds 
boinj^ f^ecured for this pu^] 



;^«$.>;'»; 






%i.i^a 



&■>»"*- r.f^-itij 



Shasta Indians 
Hold Five-Day 
Camp Festival 

Independence Day Cele- 
bration Added to Tribal 
Ceremonies 



BAIRD, Cal., July 7. — Under a 
canopy of Interlacinc oaks the 
Wintnn Indians of Shasta coonty 
met 'Suesday on the old Faut- 
OTackle Indian camp grronnds for a 
five-day celebration and confer- 
ence. 

Hundreds of Indiana, gathered 
for happy, hom#-comlngr feasts, 
entered into the spirit of the old 
dances, songrs and orations, Inter- 
spersed with the "rap tap" of the 
old "hand games" and merry whirl 
of the modem American daneetf. 

The old camp also paid honor to 
Independence Day. A flag: which 
decorated the casket of f'irancls 
Flrlotte, a hero of the Arsonne, 
was raised to half-mast, while 
school children, Indian and white, 
stood at attention togrether, sa- 
luted and led the assemblage in our 
national songs. 

A program of patriotic selec- 
tions was rendered by the Indian . 
children, followed by addresses 
given by Rev. Charles H. Fisher, 
secretary of the Indian Board of 
Co-operation of San Francijaao, and 
F. G, Collett, the executive repre- 
sentative of the same board. 

On Thursday the Indians con- 
vened as the Wenne Mem Auxiliary 
of the Indian board and discussed 
legislative matters of importance 
to the Indian people of California. 

PYiday and Saturday were de- 
voted to a large district conven- 
tion, which representative Indians 

om all the surrounding counties 



JULY 8, 1323 



tuiiinwiC'-w* 



0P 

0» 



I 



H Old Calif omia^b^ 
Indian Dies at iJj 
Mountain View 



-1 1 



(< 



MOUNTAIN VIEW. July 7.— 
Indian Jim," or Jim Boholy, 
for many years a picturesque 
character of this district, was 
buried in Alta Mesa cemetery 
here this week. "Indian Jim'* 
was a retainer of M. Farrell of 
this city and had been in his 
employ for more than twenty 
years. He was more than 90 
year old, but still persisted in do- 
ing: simple chores about the Far- 
rell place, where he had a good 
home to the end of his days. 

"Indian Jim" had an enter- 
taining history that goes back 
to the days when the dons held 
sway in California and owned all 
the broad and fertile acres of 
the Santa Clara Valley. He was 
a member of the Digger tribe 
and was born somewhere in the 
vicinity of San Francisco bay. 
While but a sm#ll lad his people 
left for some other section of the 
state and Jim probably got lost 
or was overlooked in the re- 
moval. 

He stayed behind, witnessing 
the gold rush as a young man. 
Until grown he was taken in 
charge by a pioneer Methodist 
minister named Briggs. Later 
he became a cowboy and team- 
ster. He herded cattle for Peter 
Burnett, California's first white 
governor. * 

Getting along toward the white 
winter of his age, Jim finally 
drifted into the county alms- 
hou.se during the winters and 
worked about on various ranches 
during the summer months. As 
an old man, of more than 70 
years, Farrell found him and 
took him to his old ranch home 
in the lowlands north of the 
Southern Pacific traclis here, 
on whit is now the Thierkauf 
ranch. 

"Indian Jim" stayed on the 
ranch until it was sold by the 
Farrels. Jim thought he had 
lost his home when the ranch 
was sold, but when Farrell dis- 
covered how seriously he took 
the change, he took him to his 
new home and told him that 
even though the ranch was sold, 
he could live with the Farrells. 
The Farrels kept their promise 
to Jim and gave him a funeral 
besides. 



JULY 15, 1923 







y Indian Uplifters 



Fail 



m* 



m 



m 



^ 



m 



s^ 



m 



Misunderstanding h 



'^^ 



m 



Fetish Costumesi Vanishing 



TherpK 
Bhout/ti 

loned an< 




M 



^ 



Chief Cause 



^ 



m 



By CORA IVE 

of opinlons^^you. 
id the Indian 
both Ithe old fash- 
the new fashioned In- 



dian, an^the old fashioned ^nd the 
pew fashioned white. 

There is a clajjie^t B^Pl©» ^©' 
coming rarer evCrypaW^ho assert 
that none but thelymte race can 
be really Improved. "^hey base their 
theory on the fact that they per- 
sonally have never improved any 
member of another race, that hap- 
pened to have crossed their paths. 
Those people do not belieVe in the 
Indian "uplift." They say that In- 
dians have lived like savages, *and 
"that is the only life they will ever 
;iive — shiftless and worthless from 
start to finish. They could, how- 
ever, be trained to do manual work 
for the white man, but this is all 
the training they need. Anything 
else is, harmful, etc. sphere are oth- 
ers who have a vactly different 
outlook. It may be correct, but there 
Is something, in fact many things 
^about it, that seem to most of us 
very imreal. The Indians are so 
different from us, that their pri>- 

'es6cSjnssfd[iy 'i>e jfaageft — Ttxrut- 
our standards, but If we listen to 
the ordinary stories old timerjp tell 
about them, our narrow mindl) 
wbuld unhesitatingly admit that the 
Indians have changed a great deal 
and for the better. 

FIGHTING DRUNK 

Whei^' a big time was in progress 
In the olden days, after the food 
was gone, and the baskets had all 
^changed hands, and all the little 
•^pierced hopes that stood for taoney, 
Chad drifted away from their origl- 
'nal owners, the "drinks" would be 
^finished up, and the games belnv 
over, the Indiar^s would proceed to 
get what they, and every one else, 
.called "fighting drunk." It meant 
•;that they all would get so drunk 
• that they could not do anything but 
i fight. That they were all able to 
^do. One of the wives of a pioneer 
^itore keeper, who lived near one of 
*the rivers in the hills that was at 
that time a favorite Indian camp, 
«ays that often she would watch 
the Indians fighting for hours in 
the river bed. She says that they 
would roll around in the sands and 
hammer each other with rocks. 
Often they would be so drunk that 
ihey could not get hold of the per- 
son they wanted, and they would 
hit any Indian they could reach un- 
til they were all laid out like dead 
men. Peace and quiet would then 
descend once more into the neigh- 
borhood. *T used to watch them for 
hours,- she said. "Not that«I liked 
it, but I was inquisitive. I just 
couldn't get away from the window. 
!Once I climbed up the rocks and 
looked over into the canyon. I don*t 
know what I liked about it, be- 
cause it was awful, but I was fas- 
cinated. Once I saw seven or eight 
squaws begin to fight one squaw 
they did not like right out in front 
^f the store. They knocked her 
<5own with big sticks and kept on 
hitting her until she was blue and 
red and swollen. She looked just 
like a beefsteak. After a while her 
brave came and pulled her home." 
Every one knows the Indians do no/ 
l)ehave like that now. AttlieiFmg 
•times there are often some Individ - 
iuals who stage a disturbance, just 
as there are with us, but the whole- 
sale / melee is unheard of at th 
present day. It is not that the In- 
'^lians are better policed, their big 
times are not policed at all, but 
the Indians themselves are, differ- 
ent. They have gotten beyond that 
particular savage stage. 
WE KILL YOU 

There are many storekeepers who 
remember the Indians lying in wait 
for them as they rode home at 
night. They would grab the bridi 
lind then start in: ''N 



want to kill you right 
now."Mhe white man would say: 
"WeU,plhars the trouble?" '*Aw, 
give JTsome whisky. We want to 
get dAnk. You our friend, you give 
us wMsky," and finally, '"We kill 
3^ou, we kill you right now.*^ About 
that Ane the white man would dig 
his snUrs into his horse's sides and 
depa^ The Indians would follow 
him home, and threats and prayers 
w6ul4 keep up for hours around 
the cabin's walls. Sometimes the 
storekeeper would send his be- 
sieged home with a shot fired in 
the a^r, but as often he would lock 
the ihutters, draw the big bars 
dowil over the door and sleep to 
the liillaby of "Aw now" and *'we 
kill rou" alternating through the 
nigh( , 
ORGJES PAST 

Tlfae was that when there was an 
Indifin funeral — cremation it was 
then/-— the ceremonies or the orgies 
lastcid for days. At the end, the 
frieims and the relatives of the de- 
ceased daubed their faces wilh fat 
whi<fh they covered with ashes from 
funeral pyre. Thus dolled out 
t\irnni to y/-^>-if, and as a 
us * * 



I thing their employers flld ttoT 
them very well. Now the 
onl^fevage cjustom that they still 
dbfiJ^ is burning the particular 
poslessions of their dead. That 
seens to us fierce and barbaric, 
andjon that we base our statement 
.thai the Indians will never change, 
buti even as we say it, we realize 
thaf It is a great Improvement on 
the fat and ashes daube of 50 years 
ago! 

L(KE animals' 

*4hey like to live like aninlals," 
the i unidealistic •white man- insists, 
and reminisces on the days when an 
Indjan would appear and say: "Big 
old horse dead in your field," and 
recMve for answer, "All right." 
Whoever would wander out the next 
day into the field would see noth- 
ing, left of the horse but thoroughly 
6cr4ped bones. Much of the flesh 
woild be hanging in thin strips on 
the! surrounding chaparal bushes 
anq the Indians that would be 
wa ching them a^id w&.ving off the 
file J, would look as fat and sleek as 
miU fed pups. It was a comic, yet 
chi [fly a tragic sight. But anyone 
wl» says that those Iildians, the 
In<lians of a scant 30 years ago, are 
ones of today, with their ma- 



ni- 



f- 




eSfc dwelling houses, bank ac- 
ts and votes, that they are the 
e and unchanged, would be put 
t to prove the truth of that as- 
seition. They will say: "Don't they 
still eat acorns cooked in baskets 
wifh hot rocks?" They cio of course, 
bemuse they are Indians, but they 
ar4 many steps ahead of what they 
wete.* 

M0RAL STANDARD 

JIany of us claim that the Indians 

ha|^ no moral standards and that 

it^aSj impossible to give them any. 

Aitrfidlan missionary came up into 

thi Bills a few years ago and did 

a ireat deal toward Christianizing 

seY6ral of the tribe. There was 

wi'jh e^^hortlng, and reviving and 

re«Qi?i^rating, tha^ the white people 

wdp^ entirely left out of, but after the 

I- ' i ■ ' - ''' I . — ■ ■ ■ ■ 



ferver of conversation, had calmed 
down and the Indians were settled 
more or less peacefully in a new 
groove, they began to leak out a 
few confidences to their white 
friends. "Those two Indians," com- 
mented an Indian maid,\ "he miar- 
riod them." Followed a ling specu- 
lative silence, and then: *Vrhe boy's 
father and mother, that live way up 
there on the hill, he marrifed them." 
Another intermission. **H.ia father 
and mother an old, old nian and 
lady, he married them, too.* 
grand resume of the situation, 
"Ain't it funny?" And so\we put 
them all down in our blackl books. 
But hero is an old Indian's explan- 
ation : "When I was young al braVe 
went out and got his sQuawi and 
brought her home and was tirue to 
her. Now they get married,! and 
fight and get divorced and iarry 
again just like the white folli do- 
They were better off befor^."^!;^- 
doubtedly it is complicated. |The 
problem is not solved. A 

Our moral conventions are uthe 
products and the evolution of a 
civilization that is thousands] of 
years old, but we expect the }In- 
dians to master their ihtricaciei In 
one generation of wa^dhing ci 
ized life from the outside, 
pride and the reticence of the 
dians prevent them from making 
their difficulties known to us. M^ny 
of our most zealous workers SLinong 
them have become wearied and d!s^ 
couraged and have ^iyen up 
worJc, often because ttey were si 
ply barking^up jtbfi— --»««eTii5^- 
SPhfelPoptrribnof the Indiahs 
either to low or too high for th 
to have the Indians' confidence, aid 
without that, ^t is impossible to Jo 
constructive work among the 
unless endowed with intuition thikt 
amounts to mind reading, and ve 
few people are gifted that wa 
People whose work lies with other 
people, who are different from the 
fellow man and a closed book 
him, must have elastic minds. The! 
must know the difference betw 
the essential and the important, th 
unessential, the unimportant and 
the trivial. They must know what 
constitutes each to the people they 
are dealing with — for it Is only in 
a few broad lines that those things 
are the same to every one. It is in 
classifying minor things incor- 
rectly that most people make the 
blunders that are worse than 
crimes. Ono of the Indian mis- 
sionaries that had done excellent 
work among the tribes, lost his 
whole hold over them on a private 
issue. It was in the matter Of a 
little game, a -gambling game that 
the Indians had brought with them 
out of a primeaeval forest in days 
that were lost in the depths of the 
woods. It naturally meant a ^good 
deal more to them than any game 
we have means to us. The mission- 
ary declared against gambling as a 
whole, which was correct enough. 
He centered his objections onto 
that one game, which verged on the 
unwise. Ho was bitter against par- 
ticular individuals, who played it, 
"^Vhich was foolish. He had them 
arivsted, which was ruinous. He 
imagined that an office^' of the law 
would be a salutary foretaste of the 
judgment and have a wonderful ef- 
fect on his neophytes, which it did. 
This episode took place in the San 
Joaquin valley in the middle of the 
harvesting of the grapes. The In- 
dians did not argue with the officer 
or the missionary. They sent a dele- 
gation directly to the foreman of 






man that the missionary was mak- 
ing trouble, and unless he left at 
once they would. The preacher was 
just a little ahead of his time, and 
he paid for it by going home. He 
probably thinks that his flock is be- 
yond redemption, not worthy to be| 
raised at all. He has forgotten the 
enormous sacrifices they made tol 
change their lives and their institu- 
tions to fit in with his modem 
policy, because they deeply re- 
sented his intrusion into their pri- 
vate lives about a porFonal affair. 
NO UNDERSTANDING 

No gr6wn person who is in any 
way independent, will submit to 
being dictated to about intimate 
affairs, and no one who is at all 
shy can bear being hectored in pub-, 
lie or in private; but many of those 
who work with the Indians treat 
them that way, although they 
know that bashfulness and love ofi 
independence are abnormally de- 
veloped trait s in the racial Indijj 
"cSairaX^r, They excuse themselves 
by saying that the Indians are not 
grown. That is true in a way. The 
niajority of Indians are at that in 
between stage that children go 
through in their tumultuous 
"teens." At that time even tht 
niost doting of parents will keep 
their most cherished offspring at 
school, or college, or summer 
camps, or in foreign countries, or 
around the world, or anywhere but 
at home where they will try to 
linker with worlds of problems that 
they cannot quite yet handle. Par- 
ents, however, appreciate, that one 
more step and these children will 
have achieved maturity. The par- 
ents do every, thing 4hey can* to 
enkindle in their childi'en the de- 
sire to go as far forward as they 
can, along the highest line th^ can 
develop, and they do the host to 
prepare their children for their 
coming independence. That is where 
the Indians do not receive any 
real cooperation from us. In our 
hearts we do not want to see them 
progress beyond a certain stage, 
and they meet but little encourage- 
ment from us to help them in any 
but given lines, lines of manual 
service and cheap labor. That is our 
race prejudice and we cannot help 
it. It is racial with the whites. These 
d^ys we admit it and we try to 
conquer it, dealing with a race we 
have no cause to fear. But in 
spite of all of our efforts wo con- 
fuse the Indians greatly by pulling 
them up with one hand, and with 
he other pushing them back again. 
.^e do and yet we do not want to 
ee them progress beyond a certain 
oint. The Indians are of no two 
inds about it. In a hampered, in- 
rticulate way, grow less ham- 
ered and more articulate all the 
tfme, they are forcing themselves 
ong the lines they want to follow, 
d their objective is to be the 
me as us. 
And then let those that want to 



or manually, labor manually, and 
the ranch, where they were pick^ig j 1^ those that do not, have a clear 
^grapes. They explained to the fore- j 



field ahead. 



JULY 15, 1923 



7 



"The Cradle PrimeOal" 



Below i 
the two fol 
and of bein 
clinic. With hi 




own Edwin Gustie, a Digger Indian baby, who has 

owning a cradle that can't be bought 

ealthiest of the babies at the Red Cross 

g andmother, who has an even better opin- 

by than has the Red Cross nurse. Edwin was 

pril. 




Babe Enjoys Papoose Basket 

MM: M ^ ^ ^ AM M 

h One of Fresno's Healthiest 

ij^ M MM MM M M M 

Grandmother Dislikes Photo 



/" 



^By LOUISE KIMBALL 

How does baby sleep nowadays ?^ls handmade, w6ven by an Old In- 
Oh, in a dainty bassinet of course. ! ^ian woman who lives near Ciovls 



lined with silk and with ribbons 
fluttering from all the corners. Em- 
broidered covers and soft down, pil- 
lows white as snow are his portion. 
And, even n^ith all this luxury, 
baby has been known to be dis- 
satisfied and to cry loudly, brin^r- 
ing an attentive nurse to his side to 
see that he is perfectly comfor- 
table, ( 

Well, some babies sleep that way 
but not all of them, not evfen in 
Fresno. Over on the West Side is 
a baby who doesn't know anything 
about bassinets with silk linings 
and doWn pillows. He probably 
wouldn't be able to sleep in such 
a contrivance. 

Tet he has his cradle, too, a 
shaped board with a woven cano?py 
over' the top, the papoose basket 
of the Indian. There are no ad- 
justments of down pillows to ma](e 
when baby Edwin is given his 
afternoon nap. His mother never 
has to come to see if Edwin has 
kicked the covers off; she knows 
he hasn't. 

She just wraps Edwin In a sheet, 
places him on the board and ties 
him on, taking- care to see that his 
face Is sheltered by the woven cov- 



and was a gift to Edwin. 

That it is a valuable gift may be 
judged by the remark of an Indian 
woman, who lives near Edwin's 
home. Asked why she didn't get 
one of th^se carriers for her baby, 
she replied "because I can't.'* Onjy 
the older of the Digger Indians, 
which Is the tribe to which Edwin 
belongs do work of this sort now. 
DISLIKES PHOTOS 

His grandmother, who is holding 
hhn in the picture, might perhaps 
be able to m^ke a cradle, for st^e is 
an Indian of the old fashioned kind. 
She was rather averse to having 
her picture taken because of the be- 
lief that the Indains have that the 
rv'il ijpirits will harm them if their 
pictu|;e is talcen, but finally consent- 
ed soHhat she might hold her grand- 
son, hi whom she is very proud, 

Be<rdes being the owner of a 
very junusual cradl^, Edwin has the 
distixjction of being one of the 
healthiest and fattest babies at the 
Red fcross clinic at the Hospitality 
center. When he was born on 
April 25* of this year he weighed 
nine pounds; he now weighf^ 15 
pounds, t^ree ounces, which any 
mother knows is an eicceUent gain. 

Moreover, Edwin has an . exceed - 



erlng at the top. Then she places ' j^gly good disposition. E^'en though 
Edwin^s "bassinet" jn any con ven- i ^^l^gj^e^ out of a sound sleep^t 
, _-^._. *^ i_ ^,_- have his picture taken, he evinced 

no sign of displeasure, simply 
blinked his eyes and awaited the 
coming event. So dignified did he 
look that the visitor hardly knew 
whether to greet him as she would 
a baby, ordinarily, or not. Finally, 
however, she tried the time hon- 
ored methods and was rewarded 
with a broad smile, proving that 
Edwin isn't a bit "stuck up" even 
if he does have a cradle which 
cannot be duplicated at the corner 
store. 



lent place, where it is reasonably 
cool, perhaps stands it against the 
side of the house in the shade and 
goes about her work while Edwin 
goes to sleep. 

Yet Edwin need 
of his cradle, ey^ 
pink ribobn bo 
radle whlch^^as old when the 
hite man c^mie to America, before 
he , offemirate bassinet (as his 
ther yCuld probably consider it) 
as e^r heard of and one that is 
lera^ard to obtain nowadays. It 



be ash*amed 
if it has no 
He sleeps in a 



JULY 16; 1323 



DtsltMlps Open Air 

^ m M M M -^ 

Home Qlosed Up Tight 

', ^ M: ^ ^ 



\\lmian 

,\ Prefers 

Inherits/ Old Superstitions 

error v/x 



The OTit «Tor vi% make about In- 
dlans.J^our notion, that they love 
to live in the opei^lr; but ask an 
Indian what he^'^^nts to build in 
the way of a shelter, when he is 
camping out at a ranch or in th« 
mountains and you will hear: "I will 
build me a little house with no win- 
dows at all. and a door that I can 
shut." and that is precisely what 
they will do. 

If you recalled the Indian's house 
the wigwam of 50 years ago, yot 
would see that the wigwam day." 
still linger in some back recess of 



By COFA IVES 

^ force an entrance and take him by 

surprise. ' 

CHANGES WITH DAWN 

With the first streak of dawn an 
I Indian's whole outlook towards hjs 
house changes. He h4s no further 
use for it. He would no more stay 
in it by day than a bird would in a 
nest. Everything he is interested 
in is outside, and away he goes; but 
he always locks the door very pru- 
dently, for fear 8ome}:hlng, anything 
would enter in his absence and wait 
to fall upon in the shadows, when 
he would come in again. 

Civilization has changed the In- 



even the civilized Indian's "^^^^r j dians' ideas of houses to a certain 
Living "under the beautiful star" if 



the product of an old, not a ne^ 
civilization. Those but recently clvf 
llized have a haunting piemory of 
the time when they were hunte^l by 
fellow man and beast and they have 
not got that confidence In the big 
outdoors that belongs to those, who 
have never dreamed of the possibili- 
ty of being pursued by either. 

Later comes the big house and the 
bigger windows and then the coura- 
geous go back to the woods again; 
but the average man that sleeps 
outside is the product of generations 
of powerful weapons and police. The 
houses of all savages are innately 
the same: an illusion of a door and 
no illusion of a window. 

Our idea of a tent is not an In- 
dian's idea of a secure place to 
sleep. Anything, to them, c<Md 
creep into a tent, through the fl^lps, 
and under them, and so forth, r To 
them it has all the menace of sleep- 
ing in the open air, and just as they 
will bum an enormous camp fire,i if 1 
they must sleep outside, a canlji:J 
fire they will wake up all night long 
to stoke, so they will insist in keep- 
ing a candle or a lantern burning if 
they must sleep in a tent alone. If 
you let them build themselves a 
shelter, you could walk around it 
for an hour wondering how to pry 
an entrance, and they will tell yojl 
proudly, that not even a coyote could 
get in. 
AFRAID OF DARK 

Once darkness descends upon the 
earth, the hold that an Indian has 
over the woods seems to desert him. 
He knows them Just as well in so 
far as all real things are concerned; 
but, with them, night and supersti- 
tion come together. It is a civilizec^ 
Indian, that can withstand the 
powers of darkness. They know as 
well aSjyou or I do, that no coyote 
would ever thrust his long thin nose 
into anything that looked as much 
like a trap as the average tent, par- 
ticularly not with a person sleeping 
there. 

Bears occasionally come into emp- 
ty tents, but if there is any case 
when either a bear or a mountain 
lion drifted into an inhabited tent, 
it is so rare, as to be a very great 
exception, but the Indians cannot 
get away from those days when the 
darkness was i>eopled with enemies, 
and they hid from those enemies, 
huddling together in their little 
houses, that had no windows, for a 
foe either material or otherwise to 
look through, and a door that could 
be closed. That fear of the dark is 
racial with them. Even the Indians 
of the colonial days never attacked 
until dawn and the memoirs of 
those times tell us ''they have no 
stomach to fight in the dark." 

Of course they do not have that 
fear now when they are many In- 
dians together, but anyone, who is 
camping in an isolated place, and 
happens to leave one or two Indians 
alone in camp after dark, will come 
back to find an enormous fire burn- 
ing. From a distance it would seem 
as though the forest and the camp 
and everything around were blazing 
Indiscrimnately. When an Indian 
builds that kind of a fire it is a cer- 
ain sign that his folk lore is troub- 
^ng his peace of mind. If you don't 
now them they will tell you: "This 
ree was awful dry and burnt very 
.uick and hot," If you do know them 
they will say: "I won't stay in this 
place alone, if I can't have a little 
house that nothing can see into, and 
nothing can come into when I'm in- 
side." 

Many persons wonder why they 
lose their Indian help working for 
them in the hills, and the reason for 
it is that, when there is no place for 
the Indian to sleep In the house, the 
white people do not realize, that the 
one thing an Indian Insists upon in 
the way of sleeping accommodation, 
is a place into which nothing can 



extent. They build houses now not 
wigwams. They do not look like 
our houses, when we pass them in 
the hills, for usually they are built 
out of split logs and the chinks are 
covered with long shakes, which the 
Indians have split themselves. The 
roofs are also covered with shakes 
of their own handiwork. They are 
bigger, heavier and longer than the 
ones we use, which gives them an 
unfamiliar look. That impression is 
strengthened by the houses being 
low and 'narrow and squat, so the 
ionic shakes on the roof give a wig- 
wam suggestion, a sort of a ghost 
of the past that hovers over the 
present. The windows are very 
small and few. The doors are heavy 
and strong and they have bolts and 
bars and locks and keys. Altogether 
it would be difficult to force an en- 
trance. There is usually no paint 
and absolutely no attempt at archi- 
tecture, either white or red. 



\ 






ON 






RO 



Miss Mary Chrtety. of Rlxlh avenue 
ipft Monday far ^a tnree »^^ 
motoririp throuRj^ the Yosenute. 

Mr and Mrs. F. T. Roach and 
Third avenue. 



® 




ESA GRAflDE NOTES 




■® 



Kl dia d«Ota^2r"^'nt of the 

4 (the day/f5^;V*S2i'^rand In! 
Too-Ua-mucU'^r M«r Grana in 

dlans) wlU 7'tness once rnore^^^^^^^^ 
gathering of the dafiereni 

within a, ^'i'"^ J'L't^nrce^ei^nie; 
to celebrate -with ^"'^""5 „^' "* „ood 
aames. races and abundance of gooa 
r-hf^T this annual event. 
^''While the older Indians are shak- 

rnnl living' rooms and bedrooms 
fraUn^^^^^^^ the odor of jrreen 

1. \^lo that will be ocicupied as liv- 
r^quar^crVbV the Indians. These 
,^oms in suites of two or three, 
LnrTOUnding a hollow square, plaza 
ff vXtoref Ir. will Ihe fitted up with 
iuraiture. stoves. *tc.. aad be lised 



principally for housekeeping apai t 
ments and restaurants. Some apatt 
ments will .be resei-ved for ,v>sitin| 
tribes, and ostne roonw ^^m be u&ed 
as stores where groceries, meat, ice 
cream, candies and tobacco can be 
purchased. Some ramadas >;»! ^ 
.fitted up with great t««te by draTH-ry 
nf our national colors or exauislte 
dra-wn work, made .by -these people. 
.V lumber platform In t^'e P^^^^ 
wiU aiford a dancing foor for mod 
em dances of the paleface brana. 
tn whtch the yonnser ;generat,on is 
quite proficient. ^^ le a hard 
beaten <"[,t ""^^^ty' fhe'o dlf iJT- 
shape, 7^",^ "^-emonlal dances. 
S/up S a ^eaUog fire. The 

Slur- laifedTn-r^ii 

rFiTi!nef?r^"?veC£aS: 

nia Indian. ^ , ^ 

The 'white chief ot th« Too-ka- 
muck Indians expecta to attend 

thp«p ceremionies and P?«^^"*^ .^^^,t 
these c^^f^^^^^ue ^^aU be provided 

?nr the hun^y (and who is, not 
for the f^"p7'f. >v and g^mes and 

T^ir rl".B -^n-niev^in -those 
wUh red-blooded sporting Pr^^l'^, ' 
Ties! A good time is .promised all 
who attend. 



"^^^Obir^^^hit^row, which 
u4s the hill near the Lod^e as its 
f*din Vound. Thl« 'j*'^*^^, !^\;^' 
n*H and fesds T^ith its dusky km, 
-^ich "consists of a f lock orper' aps 
50^ to 75 bird*, bs if It l^P^f,*^^",^ ,3 
with similar plumage. This o'^a 

'protected by the ]^«"^^^f,f^lu de- 
be hoped no outs.de hunerw^ ^^^^ 

??f'r^ A simflar whTte icrosv was 
life. A '"'"*' .j^ v,„nt(.r two years 
shot by an outside hunter ^ ^ .^ 

^go in tl^t.^Vhe chagrin and an- 
,anch 7»f ^'t^.^J^^.f ^^nd ranchers 
prer of the '^^^^"^f^^x^^ it It would 
who had never m° ^^^^^^^^oi^r. no 
seem as If no ."^J.^^rfla creation is 

freak of ^"'^.?,l.t^Sn^toy the human 
[free from extinction luy follow 

I killer. It ^nevitaWy has to^^^^^^^ 

the moa, t*i?,^^f ?ao'n into exterml- 
plgeon and t^® Y^"'' ifhe antelope 

deer will soon follow. ^ 



A veritable 1^3 ra avis has created 
^J,t flfta.1 of Interest among the 
su^u a? Piw'ia l^dgo lu the form 



AUGUST 15, 1923 



II ii-r **'** 



1 



Lak( 



A^ r M Yield Skeleto ns and Relics 

Sunday, when J^^^'^, ^- "^ Mayor 
R 1>. Valentine and ^^^""^^l^lu^. 

«,uvi their heads togetaei. 

holes in ^^ . f^^^^'^ietons were put 

taken out the skeletons 

back in the ground as thcy. .w 

found. «halloW. being 

The sravos are shajlpw.^ ^^^^ 

°"'^ rre 8k«ns had an exception- 
°riylL"e%fa"n\apacity.acco.a.ng 

to Hcnnlng. 






'■IP' 



THWCA. CAY;. VR^« 

AUGUST 1S, 1923 



Hill Watches Weird 
. J Indian Ceremonial 

^■^rry Hilrreturned Monday froL_ 
[k week's inspection trip in the KlamJ 
lath forest, west of Happy camp] 
[While at Happy Camp Mr. Hill am 
danger E. M. Sutcliff witnessed l 
)art of the four-day celebration ofl 
the "Picki-ou-ish," an annual relig-| 
ious ceremonial of the Klamath Rivei 
Indians. 

Hill states that when he and Sut-I 
jliff appeared to witness the cere-I 
nonial, the Indians asked them if| 
they had eaten breakfast. Beinj, 
■orewarned they advised the Indiansl 
that they had not even taken a drinkl 
)f water. It is an inviolable rule that 
10 one who has eaten beforehand 
ill be permitted to witness the cere- 
lonial. 

The medicine man appeared at the 
ippointed time, went through manyl 
[antasies and then began his climb to| 
the "sweathouse." Hill says that the 
festivities lasted for four days, dur- 
ing which time feasts of smoked 
salmon and acorn soup were features, 

Hill reports that fishermen ar< 

taking out many steelheads at Happj 

^amp and south, and predicts thai 

■ishing will be excellent in the uppei 

Ireaches within two weeks. 







O 



rigma 



Defective 




jMcW^Hw^SfispSs 



Saving for science the language of 
a California tribe ol Indians that is 
last becoming extinct has been at- 
tained by Profcsspr A. L. Krocber, 
head ot the ^cp&itment of anthro- 
pology at the University of Cal- 
if orpia. 

Professor Kroeber, -who .has just 
returned from a six-weeks stay In 
northern California, where he has 
been making a study of what re- 
mains of - the Indian tribes that 
formerly occupied that section of 
the state, has for years been con- 
nected with research work among 
the tribesmen of California and' his 
rjart In saving the language of this 
tribe is only one of the many dis- 
tinctive things he has accomplished. 
The Wlyot Indians who formerly 
occupied the Humboldt bay terri- 
tory, near Loleta in Humboldt 
county are fast being made over; 
that is, their customs and modes 
of living are now practically the 
same as the whites. Only a few of 
the old folks of the village now 
speak the language and remember 
the days of old. The language of 
th. Wlyot tribe Is very d'^'^^u^ to 
learn— probably the most difficult 
of all the California Indians.^ 

Securing a one-year appointment 
for Miss Gladys Relchard ,a8 a re- 

TearcTi- rellbw. '^^o'^'^' .^^'-^^^t 
«pnt her to live among the Wl>ot 
l^d an, and get.from the old mem- 
ie« of the tribe the language used 
Vn the old tribal days. From time 

Misa. Belchard and the ""imate re 
«u», wa» that almost a complete 
"Sord of th, language was secured 
wis« Relchard is now in the easi 
wking up her information and a 
complete book on the language soon 
Avill be published. \ f, ^ 
CHARTS RECORDED 
\nother feature of the work wss 
.ecur^ng about sixty pjionograph 
;:corTof songs and chants o! the 
\Vivot tribe. While working with 
th^trlbe. Miss Relchard dlscoverca 
«„ old Indian squaw Mf y Biain 
eri. wi^o knew many of the °W 
■nnes She informed Professor 
Kroeber of her discovery and on h.s 
St trS he induced the aged woman 
to make the records for him. The 
records ar-sed orayjo-^^^^^^^^^^^ 

S line 'p ofes'sor\roebcr has in 
i^ collection more than 3000 records 
in Indian tongue. 

'"outside of encountering some bad 
roads in the northern part of the 
state Professor Krocber declared 
C;Z -as a «reat ,ucce« ana. 
he is now back at the univeisuy 
loldng for more worlds to co^quer^ 



Sacfaifif.nto.Cr4l. Bee 

AUGUST ai; IS'SS 



TaNN brown, llO-year- 
xtL old Grindstone Indian 
woman, who has startai to 
make another ' * WinUr 's 

it oMMlr 



stake'' in the f 



ds. 




--^•^•^♦h* 























INDIAN WOMAN, 110, TO 

MAKE STAKE AGAIN 

IN ORCHARDS 



Widow Of Late Grindstone 
Chief Leaves Willows To 
. Work In Fruit 



I 



WILLOWS (Glenn Co.), August 
21. — Ann Brown, widow of Jim 
Brown, deceased chief of the Grind- 
stone Indians, has left with other 
younger members of the tribe to 
work In the fruit at Vina. 

She Is said to have the distinc- 
tion of being the oldest survivor of 
a tribe of Indians that the late Gen- 
eral John B/dwell In 1844 estimated 
numbered/O.OOO, and Incidents have 
been reca^ed pointing almost con- 
clusively to the fact that she is 
110 yea/s old. 

Ann/old her "white friends'* that 
she W^s taking her annual trip to 
maly a "winter's stake." During 
thdr past four decades the 10,000 
IiJTlans have dwindled down to 

Tout 100, who now reside at Stony- 
and Grlnldestone. 



s 



AUGUST 22, 19:3 




ian Ceremonials 
Feature Of Life In 
The Klamath Forest 

Re^n Iiv3ijkiyou» Inaccessible Until Recent 
CompletjWn Of The Klamath River High- 
way, Home Of Many Tribes That Hqjd 
To Old Customs; Deer Season' 
Opens September 1st 



By li. A. BARJaETT, 
United States Forest ScrTlcc. 

(EdItor's'Xotc— This i« the eiglith of a scries of articles on the national 
^. forests of Superior California issued by tlie United States »^ «7»* ^«'; ;^5: 
It Klves tlie motorist a splendid idea of what he may find in the little 
known Siskiyou country in the way of natural wonders, historic Pl««^«. 
scenery, and hunting and fishing opportunities among the best in Cali- 
fornia.) 

ITH the completion of the fifty-mile stretch of mountain 
highway along the Klamath Elver between Happy Camp 
and Orleans there has been opened to travel a region 

Ihitherto accessible only by pack train. 

The trip down the beautiful canyon of the Klamath River is 
one of the finest in the West, and the road traverses some of 
the best fishing and hunting territory to be found anywhere. 
The deer season opens in this interesting district on September 
1st, and does not close until O ctober 15th. ^ 

There are no heavy grades along ♦"^^^^ 




this new route, fbut many very 
sharp turns make it necessary for 
experienced, careful mountain driv- 
ing. 

From Orleans to Kappy Camp 
the road is hung along the prec- 
ipices in many places from 150 to 
300 feet above the river and Is very 
scenic. Scattered along through this 
(picturesque canyon are occasional 
email mountain ranches and Indian 
settlements, while the watchful 
traveler may occasionally catch a 
glimpse of a deer here and there. 

Indians Customs Interesting. 

In this region a few of the native 
Indian customs still exist. They 
have their fall festivals, with the 
deerskin dance, the brush dance, the 
coyote dance, with their ^old drum 
games. The costly furs and h^ad 
dresses displayed are a great sur- 
prise to visitors. But the greatest 
attraction is the etlck game, or Em- 
eaut-wah. ( 

This is a game of six ^players, 
three on each side; a cent,<;r, goal 
Each player hasf a stick 
llRJal crtne. The 



up the tossel for throwing or toss- 
ing. 

The tossel is two small sticks 
about four Inches long and an Inch 
or less in diameter, fastened to- 
gether with a string, the sticks* be- 
ing about four inches apart when 
the string is straight. The course is 
laid out according to the ground; 
usually th^ goals will be 100 yards, 
from the center. The goals ar« 
merely marks across the course, 
branch is stuck up to Indicate tl 
center. 

How It Is Done. 

Operations begin with a long^ 
I ley as to rules, there being 
written. In the old days if 
gathering, one tribe heldj 
tossel out It meant that thoj^J 
lenged, and if the tossel was 
It meant that the challenge v 
cepted. 

Nowadays the game is ai 
beforehand and plaj vers ari 
lots of isubs 
agreed on ruj 
tlon, one sidi 
t!(e other sii 















y:-'-./ :'..,''; '.I'r",'' . .,,." '■■-. l^.,,.■v•■■.■ 




S.-V "-' : ■ '/i^-ii 



:-^iii^irV;y-'-^'^'>:il^-::j^fi^ 



^^>)¥^>^;i'<C- 



..:"^r.i^.:':^*3f;-*-:' 



u' :-i' 






■•■ v.;o,;:K.-i^ 



■■••*.v,i' ^ ..'ry.y 






I 






"■ •I'.Ti'.'', '■^" : ■ ■t:-<:.a'„ 



o 



ngina 



Defective 
















Saving for science the language of 
R California tribe of Indians tliat is j 
^ist becoming extinct has been at- 
tained by Professor A. L. Krocber. 
head of the c\cpavtment of anthro- 
pology at the University of Cal- 
ifornia. 

Professor ICroebcr, who .has just 
returned from a six-weeks stay in 
northern California, where he has 
been making a study of what re- 
mains of the Indian tribes that 
formerly occupied that section of 
the state, has for years been con- 
nected with research worlc arnong 
the tribesmen of California and his 
part in saving the language of this 
tribe is only one of the many dis- 
tinctive things he has accomplished. 
The Wiyot Indians who formerly 
occupied the Humboldt bay terri- 
tory near Loleta in Humboldt 
county are fast being made over; 
Ihat is. their customs and modes 
of living are now practically the 
same as the whites. Only a few of 
the old folks of the village now 
speak the language and remember 
the days of old. The language of 
th# Wiyot tribe is very d^^^^^^^/^^ ^^ 
learn-'-probably the most difficult 
of all the California Indians. 

Securing a one-year appointment 
for Miss Gladys Reichard as a re- 
search- fellow. Frotessor ivn.cb^ 
^ent her to live among the Wi>ot 
Indans and get^from the old mem- 
bers of the tribe the language used 
?n the old tribal days. From time 
to time Professor Kroeber joined 
Mii Reichard and the ultimate re- 
«ur' was that almost a con.p el. 
vecord of the language ^^as secured 

:r;"eLrooron the language soon 

vill be published. \ ^ 

CHARTS RECORDED 

Another feature of ^'^%l'^'^^'^2 

securing about -"'Y .^-^f^^f" £ 
rrcords of song« ancf giants ol in 
AVivot tribe. AVhile ^vorUlng %Mtb 
U'lHbe. Miss Heicba,;d mscoverca 

^.d. ^-ho knew many o£ Jhe ^W 
.,.nV« She inlormed Prolessoi 
K oebcr of her discovery and on h.s 
UsTiZ he induced Ihc aged wonmn 
to maUe the records for hi", Th^ 
records are. used only o-- «"^"*^^^'" 
T>,irnoses but arc invaluable alonK 
That nne Professor Kroeber has in 
i?s eoilection more than 3000 records 
in Indian tongue. 

'"outside of encountering some bad 
voflds in the northern part of the 
,tae Professor Kroeber declared 
i, is trip ^vas a great success anO. 
he is now back at the university 
lol fnK for n.ore worlds to congue 



SacraifKinto, Ou]. Bee 

AUOUST i!, 






A NN BROWN, llO-year- 
iV. old Grindstone Indian 
woman, who has started to 
make another ** Winter's 
stake'' in the fruit ofchflxds. 










.«*; 






X.*' 
















INDIAN WOMAN, 110, TO 

MAKE STAKE AGAIN 

IN ORCHARDS 



Widow Of Late Grindstone 
Chief Leaves Willows To 
. Work In Fruit 



I 



W1I^TX)WS (Glenn Co.), August 
21. — Ann Brown, widow of Jim 
Brown, deceased chief of the Grind- 
stone Indians, has left with other 
younger members of the tribe to 
work in the fruit at Vina. 

She is said to have the distinc- 
tion of beins the oldest survivor of 
a tribe of Indians that the late Gen- 
eral John Bidwell in 1844 estimated 
numbered ^0,000, and incidents have 
been rccq/led pointing almost con- 
clusively'' to the fact that she is 
110 yea/s old. 

Ann^old her "white friends" that 
she yas taking her annual trip to 
maly a ''winter's stake." During: 
thdr past four decades the 10,000 
Iniflans have dwindled down to 

)out 100, whx) now reside at Stony- 
and Grin)destone. 



A'CGU:;;T 22, 15:: 



/fodian Ceremonials 
Feature Of Life In 
The Klamath Forest 

Region IivSij^fiyou, Inaccessible Until Recent 
Completjien Of The Klamath River High- 
way, Home Of Many Tribes That Hold 
To Old Customs; Deer Season 
Opens September 1st 



By li. A. BARRETT, 
I lilted Imitates Forest SerTicc. 
(KflHor-s \o<c— This is the oiglith of a Kcrie« of artielcs on flic naUonal 
fore»i« of superior California issued by the United States »;«7'** ^^YJ^-f; 
It Kivcs tlie motorist a .siilenilld idea of ^vhat lie may find In the llttl*; 
kno>vn Siskiyou eouniry in the ^vay of natural ^.onders, historic places, 
scenery, and hunting and fishing opportunities among the best in Call- 
lornia.) 

ITH the completion of the fifty-mile stretch of mountain 
highway along the Klamath River between Happy Camp 
and Orleans there has been opened to travel a region 

hitherto accessible only by pack train. 

The trip down the beautiful canyon of tlie Klamath River is 
one of the finest in the AVest, and the road traverses some of 
the best fishing and hunting territory to be found anywhere. 
The deer season opens in this interesting district on September 
1st, and does not close until Octob er 15th. 

There are no heavy grades along: ♦— 
this new route, l3ut many very 
sharp turns make It necessary for 
f^xperienced, careful mountain driv- 




inc:. 

From Orleans to lllappy Camn 
-the road is hung along the prec- 
ipices in many places from 150 to 
300 feet above the river and Is very 
scenic. Scattered along through this 
[picturesque canyon are occasional 
i?mall mountain ranches and Indian 
Fettlements, while the watchful 
traveler may occasionally catch a 
glimpso of a deer here and there. 

Indians Customs Interesting. 

In this region a few of the native 
Indian customs still exist. They 
Iiavo their fall festivals, with the 
deerskin dance, the brush dance, the 
coyote dance, with their old drum 
games. The costly furs and h«ad 
dresses displayed are a great sur- 
prise to visitors. But the greatest 
ettractlon is the stick game, or Em- 
saut-wah. 

This is a. gam© of six ^players, 
three on each side; a centor, goal 
Kuardk. Each player hasf a stick 

cfkne. The 



up the tosscl for throwing or toss- 
ing. . 

The tosscl is two small sticks 
about four inches long ;ind an inch 
or less in diameter, fastened to- } 
getlier with a string, the sticks- be- 
ing about four inches apart when 
the string is straight. The course is 
laid out according to the grounrl; 
usually th^ goals will be 100 yards 
from the center. Tlie goals ai 
merely marks across the course, 
brancii Is stuck up to indicato t 
center. 

How It Is Done. 

Operations begin with a long 
ley as to rules, there being 
written. In the old days if 
gathering, one tribe held 
tossel out it meant that they 
longed, and if the tossel was 
it meant that the challenge \ 
cepted. 

Nowadays the game Is aj 
beforehand and playe rs ar 
lots of aubs 
agreed on ru 
tlon, one sld 
tife other si 



r ^JW^^WSfT 1 '^PV^^HP^HR^ 









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o 



j^inal 



Def, 



ecf/Ve 



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.iv.i\i;!'.;t/'f-. . ■t:r 







Saving for science the language of 
a California tribe of Iiidlans tliat is 
last becoming extinct has been at- 
tained by Professpr A. L. Krocber, 
head ot the clcp5itment of anthro- 
pology at the University ot Cal- 

Iforpia. 

Professor Kroeber, who .has just 
returned from a six-weeUs stay in 
northern California, where he has 
been making a study of what re- 
riiains of ■ the Indian tribes that 
formerly occupied that section of 
the state, has for years been con- 
nected with research work among 
the tribesmen of California an* his 
Kart In saving the language of this 
tribe is only one of the many dis- 
tinctive things he has accomplished. 
The Wiyot Indians who lormeviy 
occupied the .Humboldt bay terri- 
tory, near Loleta in Humboldt 
county are fast being made over; 
that is, their customs and modes 
of living are now practically tne 
same as the whites. Only a few ot 
the old folks of the village now 
speak the language and remember 
the days of old. The language of 
th. Wiyot tribe Is very <li«'?" "Jl" 
le*rn— prbbably the most - difficult 
of all the California Indians. 

Securing a one-year appointment 
for Miss Gladys Reichard ,a9 a re- 

Tearclf- Telldw. ^P'^^ ««»°'^,w^^^^^' 
sent her to live among the Wbot 
Indians and get_from the old mem- 
bers of the tribe the language used 
?„ the old tribal days. From time 
to time Vrotesnsr..J^Si^^^°^ 
Mi5s Reichard and the ultimate re 
S^Ta* that almost a complete 
record of th^ language was secured 
Miss Bcicha^d is now in the east 
working up iicr information and a 
Complete book on the language soon 

•will be published. ' ^ 

CHARTS RECOrtDED 

Another feature of the work was 
AnouiBi pjionograph 

securing about sixiy im 

records of songs anJ ^^^^'^^^ °' Wh 
Wiyot tribe. While ^^^"^^^ "5,;;^ 
the tribe. Miss R^'^l^^-j^^f/f ";'•„. 
an old Indian squaw Mplly Brain 

e,d. wtio knew many of J^^ "^"J 
.r.nffs She Informed Proiessor 
Kroeber of her discovery and on his 
UsftrtJ he induced the aged woman 
to make the records for hlni- JChe 
records are used only <"^X "S° 
T^urooses but are invaluable along 
That «ne Professor Kroeber has in 
i?s collection more than 3000 records 

In Indian tongue. ^- hnd 

outside of encountering sonie bad 
roads in the northern part of the 
Itate Professor Krocber declared 
his trip was a great success anO. 
ki is now back at the university 
lokfng f^r more worlds to conquer._ 



lacfaiiifintb, Cu]. Bee 

AUGUST 21, 1923 



ANN BROWN, llO-year- 
old Grindstone Indian 
woman, who has startai to 
make another "WinWr's 
stake" i£ the frvit oAaMtds. 



.■.I .■ .1-1 -i.rw I I '1*1^** 



•i*i»lO*hllll^«<lB I. 











INDIAN WOMAN, 110, 
MAKE STAKE AGAIN 
IN ORCHARDS 



Widow Of Late Grindstone 
Chief Leaves Willows To 
. Work In Fruit 

WILLOWS (Glenn Co.), Augustj 
21. — Ann Brown, widow of Jim 
Brown, deceased chief of the Grind- 
stone Indians, has left with other 
younger members of the tribe to 
work in the fruit at Vina. 

She is said to have the distinc- 
tion of being: the oldest survivor of 
a tribe of Indians that the late Gen- 
eral John B/dwell In 1844 estimated 
numbered /O.OOO, and incidents have 
been recced pointing almost con- 
cluslveiy^to the fact that she is 
110 yea#s old. 

• Annitold her "white friends'* that 
she ^s talking her annual trip to 
maly a ''winter's stake." Duringf 
thdr past four decades the 10,000 
IiJTians have dwindled down to 

Tout 100, wlu) now reside at Stony- 
and Grinkestone. 



\ 









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>voO* 



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(Continued F 




hirteen.) 




he right 
n the op- 



sees best. One of the centers takes 
the tossel in his teeth, and the goal 
on either side takes l^d of the op- 
posing guar 
hands and 
ponent's w^ris 

The point is fJr\h^ gAird to hold 
the goal froW^ escaping, an^^ice 
versa. These will be probabl^slxty 
yards from the centers, ij^^centers 
stand 'rt a stooping posltim, raking 
tne ground with their sticks. At his 
own option the center having the 
tossel drops It, each center endea- 
voring to strike the tossel in the 
direction of Irts-^'oal. 

As soon as the tossel is struck 
the players clinch, if one does not 
escape. Now all players are in a 
clinch, struggling for the tossel; 
that is, if a man is able he will drag 
his opponent to the tossel and reach 
it with his stick for a toss. Usual- 
ly they are to be seen as wrestlers. 
The clinch and wrestle may last 
some time, and here is where the 
game gets its zest. Each man tries 
to wear his man out, inflicting all 
Ithe punishment the rules allow, such 
las rubbing the stick up and down 
the back, throwing to the ground 
I violently, locking the hands around 
the back of the neck and bearing 
[down, with variations. 

Striking and choking are barred. 

Ilf a man is able to drag his op- 

[ponjent along and make the toss, he 

merely follows up and makes a point 

jwhen the tossel goes over the line. 

If unable to do that, he tries to 

j break away and toss, even though 

he is a guard. If a good runner 

gets loose, the point is soon made 

Jof course. Good team work usually 

(wins in this, as in most other games. 

jTwo points out of three wins. 

To Hold Ceremonial. 

A particularly interesting three- 
Iday Indian ceremonial Is that held 
at the PIck-a-owich Camp Ground 
below Happy Camp during the dark 
of the moon just preceding the new 
moon in August. This ceremonial 
is observed by the older members 
of the tribes and must be seen to 
[be appreciated. | 



.^ 



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Jiiati^ln, Cfl. "f*"*!^ 



Av<:> "3i iwo 



■C^A KES FOR 
TEEPEES OF 
REQSKINS 

Local Expert ojf^ Indians 
Goes Again for TWnterial 
for Large Work 



For the twenty-sixth consecutive 

lyear Edward S. Curtis yesterday 

lleft the haunts of white men for 

his annual voluntary exile amon?? 

the Indians of America. 

Curtis will be gone for three 
months gathering data for Volume 
No. 16 of a twenty-volume work 
on the American Indian made pos- 
sible by a foundation of $250,000 
given by the late J. Pierpont Mor- 
gan. The Indian authority goes to 
the tepees and wigwams for his 
scientific research in an entirely 
different work atmosphere, for in 
his everyday employment he is a 
motion-picture cameraman for 
Cecil B. De Mille. This photo- 
graphic staff is headed by Bert 
Glennon. 

Besides his scientific investiga- 
tions, Curtis is perhaps best known 
as a photographer of Indians. His 
Indian photograph, "The Vanish- 
ing Race," is said to be the* most 
popular still picture ever made. 
More than a quarter million copies 
have been sold. 

The new investigations of Curtis 
will be among the fast-lying moun- 

xuac^tho Klamaths and the Mo- 
docs; and such desert tribes of 
Arizona and New Mexico as the 
Zuni, Aconifi, Pojuque, Piquira and 
Jemez. 

Curtis was an intimate friend of 
the late Theodore Roosevelt, and 
some twelve years ago he guided 
Teddy and his sons into desert In- 
dian country for which he is aga 
headed. 



igai|^ 



AUGUST 5; 1«3™ 



►.*■, 



%»»»»^»»»N^^*»^%»^»^»^«^»^»^»^»^»^»^»»#^»^»»»»»^»^^I 



Artist Will 
Attend Big 



Snake Dance 




The IpJnaM/rattle snake dance to 
be held at Walpi* next week has 
been attractirl^\^^umber of Cali- 
fornia artists and writers. 

Wilbur Hall and James Swinner- 
ton left for Arizona several weeks 
ago. Benvanuto Bufano left yester- 
day, and is to be the guest of Gov- 
ernor Hunt during his stay in the 

Indian country. 

Maynard Dixon and his wife have 
also just left for Walpi with Mrs. 
Anita Baldwin. They will travel in 
her priyate car as far as Holbrook 
and from there go by motor to the 
reservation. After the dance they 
go on with Mrs. Baldwin to Red 
Lake, Kayenta, Canyon de Chey, 
Gandos and the Grand Canyon. 

During the trip they will search 
out new Indian musical material. 
Mrs. Dixon will return with Mrs. 
Baldwin, while Dixon rei^iains at 
the Navajo Indian reservation, 
where he will spend several months 
executing a number of canvases to 
be shown at his New York exhibi- 
tion next winter. 



8 T*. CAT. :fftTrKHAZ 

AUGUST 25, 1923 



iSCAPERS FIN 
INmES™ RELIC! 

Recem Discowries in Chev 

Chase P9k May Be Link 

With Aborigines 

EXCAVATIONS TO BE MADI 



■^»^^^»i^"^^ 



Spot Where Mortars, Pestlet 

Revealed to Bb Staked 

Off for lnquiT7 



Archaeologrlsts ot California agre< 

that little is known of the orierinl 

of numerous shell mounds dis-l 

covered from time to time in various! 

parts of Marin county. Queer ol( 

pipres* wampum^ mortar^ and pes-l 
ties, oyster picks» arrow-points,| 
skulls and entir* skeletons hav< 
been unearthed, affording some evl-| 
dence of the customs and char^ 
acteristics of the early Inhabltanti 
of this romantic region. 

It is thought that recent diS' 
coveries made by employes engage( 
in landscaping Chevy Chase Park, a1 
Corte Madera-Larkspur, may affor< 
additional proof that these lnter-| 
esting relics can be linked witi 
the traditions handed down b: 
Spanish settlers who elaim^ thai 
thirty or more Indian tribes onc( 
hunted the forests of Marin, 

While ploughing a section of landl 
close to the main entrance of Chevy 
Chase Park, Laoul M. Bates, a park 
employe, came across a number ofl 
mortars and pestles of stone. Dig- 
ging deeper at this point, he found! 
a collection of bones, judged to be| 
human. 

The spot where the relics werel 
found has been staked off, ahd, ac- 
cording to Chevy Chase Park own- 
ers, further excavations will be 
made in this locality in the hope 
that other treasures of value to 
the researcher may be brought to| 
light. 



AU0U8I Sr, T«33 




J Q Cmy ZING THE IN DIAN 

^n**" Z!^:?^' ^**»PP'»« Traditional! 
Dances Will Make White Man of Hopi 

A CCORDING to a story from Arizona the Indian! 
Bureau has threatened to put a stop to the time-1 

naked Indians dancing wth snakes between their teeth 
wA.*" '*^"8 spectacle. 
When there are so many useful things needing to 

ene^rbir^K ^'.^ *! ^"'^'^" bureau might use iu 
does^n \ ^^ destroying a ceremony which 

as al^ctad^^^^^^^ "1" '" '^ T '"^^^'^'''^ -«"'• ^oth 

But the Indian Bureau has always been that wav I 
We remember when it was jailing the NavafosTnci 
P«secutmg them in eve^r possible' manner to try to 

or cleanlmess. since no white woman shampoos hei 
hair oftener than does the Navajo man. who Ss hi 
done up m a psyche knot at the back of his neck 
. But some solemn wiseacre in the Indian Bur^a, 
.magmed tfiat if Ae Navajo would cut hXfS 
man style he would be a civilized white man pl^r « 



«.AM!.'on\| X V 



•*>• V 




First Graduate of Indian 
School to Enter H. 
Tliis Fa 




the 



I 



The first child tq^adi 
Indian school at TejcfrvMlT enter higk 
school here this fall^So far as ifs 
known, Elydia Vasquez of t^J^i- 
quitanurn tribe, more familis^|fl?owh 
as the Tejons, will be the first^dian 
child to go to Kern county high school. 
Elydia has received great encourage- 
ment in her struggle for an education. 
by her teacher in the mountains, Mrs 
Anna B. Knowles, by the county su- 
perintendent of schools, the special 
teachers, and by others in Bakersfleld 
because of her ability, application, and 
particularly for her aptitude in art 
work Her drawings and water colors 
have attracted attention at displays 
here, and she has made her little 
school room at home bright with the 
examples of her best work. 
Will Help Own People 
So when Elydia comes to Bakersfleld 
she Is going to study drawing In par- 
ticular. She will also take the home 
economics course, to help fit her for 
her ultimate mission, which she be- 
lieves will be to return and help her 
own people. 

As her home is so far away. It will 
of course be necessary for the little 
Indian maiden to stay in Bakersfleld 
during the school year. So some of 
her friends here, and her teacher, Mrs. 
Knowles, are very anxious to find a 
home for her. Handicapped by a little 
uncertainty of her English— she knew 
only Spanish until a few years ago— 
It. is not possible for Elydia to work 
.for her board and go to school as 
some girls do, for she will need a 
great deal of time for study, and 
enough solitude so that she can apply 
• herself diligently. Elydia is very will- 
ing? to do this— to study so hard that 
she can advance rapidly. So what is 
desired for her Is a home, preferably 
With quiet, elderly people, who would 
he willing to help a bright and capable 
little girl to receive an education, and 
to fulfill her mission to the people of 
her own race. 

8peech Improves 

Elydia Is a quiet, attractive girl with 
pleasing manners and a friendly, win- 
ning smile. She has more poise and 
self-possession than most of her little 
brown schoolmates, for her brightness 
and talent have drawn her more to 
the attention of visitors. Having had 
more opportunity thus for conversation 
with English-speaking people, her 
speech Is improving rapidly. it is 
wished, of course, to place her In an 
English-speaking home here, that she 
may be able to enlarge her vocabulary 
fetlll more. 

H. A. Splndt, principal of the high 
school, is one of those Interested tn 
finding a home for Elydia. and he 
askg that anyone willing to give Elydia 
her chance communicate with him. 
^^^^^ . — 










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tu 



PHOTOS OF ANCIENT INDIANS 
DISPLAYED QUINCY WINDOW! 



MosOli^imls County old-timersl 
know^lrl^sisters, Celia, Louise and 
Maggie, Diggof Indians who were 
in the coumy before tlie PlumasI 
House, and if Maggie, the eldest, 
chanced to see the first logs felled 
for that historic structure, she may 
have tried to explain the astonishing 
activity of the white strangers to 
a bright-eyed, curious papoose, for 
Maggie has seen more than eighty 
snows whiten the peaks of the Sierra, 
her sisters being almost as old. 

Thus it happens that many of the 
folk visiting Quincy this week, have 
stopped to examine three large photo- 
graphs of the sisters in one of the 
display windows of the Quincy Drug 
Store, taken recently by Len Remick. 



QrI^'cv CAR. ^,,^^-^ 

NATIONAL BUT.T.KTIK 



S>8 



DEATH CLAIMS AGED INDIAN 
LABORER OF INDIAN VALLEY 






riOiry^enlliis, 
dj^ ^ hd 1 



53-year-old Digger 
India^ >)y6t) hal> lived in Indian Valley 
for a numbjr^Df years, died Sunday 
morning at*"^ o'clock in his home 
near Taylorsville, a victim of diabetes. 
He was buried Tuesday in the In- 
dian cemetery near Greenville. 

Jenkins, who was born in the Big 
Meadows country, passed all of his 
life in Plumas and Lassen counties. 
He was well and favorably known 
to many farmers and ranchers, by 
whom he was employed at various 
times. 

Death came suddenly to Jenkinsv as 
he was ill but eight hours before pass- 
ing away. He is survived by his 
wife, Polly. 




Ag«d I&iBd& S&bfiiitd to 

M Treatments of Strange 

White Physicians 



^ Under the care of the physicians 
at the General Hospital, and by 
mean.s which are new to her, Ra- 
mona, said to be the oldest Indian 

y 

woman living at the Han Manuel 

reservation north of Highland, is 

slowly recovering from injuries 

sustained 10 days ago when she fell 
into a fire while she was cooking 
dinner at the reservation. Ramona 
is said to he more than 100 years 
old and has lived for years on the 
San Manuel reservation. 

Ramona now is on the road to re- 
covery, physicians believe, although ji 
it may yet be necessary to remove i 
two fingers from her left hand as 
the result of the burns she sustain- 
ed. Both arms and hands were ter- 
ribly burned by the flames, H is 
said. 

Miss Ada R. Eichbaum, county 
welfare nurse has kept in close j 
touch with the Condition of Ramona 
since she was taken to i\\e hospital. 
i The aged Indian woman was suf- 
I fering more than a week follow- 
I ing her burns hefore her condition 
was reported to the Welfare Depart- 
ment. Mrs. E. E. Barnes, of High- 
land, who has long been a friend 
of the Indians, went to the reser- 
vation and found Ramona in a seri- 
ous condition. She reported to the 
Welfare Department and Miss Eich- 
baum advised that she be taken to 
the General Hospital. 

The hospital was new to Ramona 
and she became terrified when con- 
veyed to the upper story of the 
building in an elevator. The clean 
bed clothing and rooms were also 
strange to her. She is becoming 
accustomed to her surroundings 
.now, however, and willingly sub- 
mits to her treatments. Ramona 
realizes she may lose two fingers 
on her left hand but does not ob- 
ject, according to Miss Eichbaum. 

Ramona is well known to many 
residents in San Bernardino and 
Highland, where she has done house 
work. She always goes barefooted 
and at times would walk to San 
Bernardino from the reservation 
when she was doing work here. 






SEfTEMBE^i 2, 1923 






'^.?A:SS1f^'^.^ 



W'ALLEY "BORN IN 
PROCRESSiES DESP 

ORICAL HANOI 




y l^e^s Of ariposa Admired By Wffi 
Men Of Mountains Who Know Story 
Of His Early Day Struggle ' 



By CORA IVES 



♦ not encouraged, or, liTsome places! 



Johnny Jacobs is an Indian the 
hills are very proud of. When he 
began life up in the hills 50 or 60 
years ago, he had nothing and his 
people had nothing or any way of 
acquiring anything. In spite of those 
handicaps, he has made a great 
deal of himself, and his standing is 
very high, both with the Indians 
and the whites. 

Johnny Jacobs was bom In the 
hills near Mariposa, in strictly In- 
dian surroundings, and he was bojrn 
early enough In the history of the 
state to have been an active par- 
ticipator in the very hard times the 
Indians had, when they were in- 
troduced rateh suddenly to civiliza- 
tion. The method of the introduc- 
tion very nearly killed out the In- 
dians. 

When he was a boy there was no 
educatioft at hand lor Indians. 
There was provision for schools 
for them, but* the schools them- 
selves seem to have been few and 
far between and the Indians were 



Junior pigs, first, second and third, 
A. D. Long; herd of one boar and 
three sows under one year, first A. 
D. Long, sebond F. B. Da vies; get 
of sire, four animals, first A. D. 
Long, second F. B. Davies; produce 
of dam. four pigs, first A. D. Long, 
second F. B. Davies. 

Grand champion boar, A. D. Long; 
grand champion sow, A. D. Long. 
POLAND CHINA HOpS 

Boars, two years and over, ffrst 
C. E. Johnson, second Larsen and 
Lundell, third W. L. Cho$sser; Jun- 
ior yearling boar, C. C. McCleary; 
senior pig boar, C. E). Johnson, jurf- 
lor pig boar, first and second Arvid 
Lundell, third E. C. McCleary; sow, 
yeors and over, first E. C. Mc- 
Cleary, second W. L. Choisser; sen- 
ior yearling sow, first, second and 
third, C. E. Johnson; junior year- 
ling sow, first C. E. Johnson, sec- 
ond W. L. Choisser, third E. C. Mc- 
Cleary; senior pigs, first and sec- 
ond W. L. Choisser, third C. E, 
Johnson; Junior pigs, first W. L. 
Choisser, second and third Arvid 
Lundell; herd of boar and three 
sows, first W. L. Choisser, second 
C. E. Johnson; herd of boar and 
three sows bred by exhibitor, first 
W. L. Choisser, second C. E. John- 
son; four animals, get of sire, first 
Arvid Lundell, second W. L. Chois- 
ser, third -C. E. Johnson; produce 
of sow, four pigs, first Arvid Lun- 
dell, second W. L. Choisser. 

Grand champion boar, C. E. John- 
son; grand champion sow^ C E. 
Johnson. 

Agricultural club contests were 
also brought to a close at this fair. 
I n the D ^lhJ. c9At^^^-V^9rF^Ai *Lee- 
J^m was placed first, Robert Wy- 
mer second and Thayer Jones third; 
in the garden club contest Blanche 
Prothcro was given first place, and 



allowed to attend the schools of th 
settlers' children. So Johnny J 
cobs grew up withoujt the ed 
t^Jat the ones who wet 
ized have the right (to 
those that are forcing ci 
on them. One white mission 
to tour the^ country and ho 
Ices under a tree und tell t 
pie red men of the things thai) 
ought to know. "And after 
no one else ever came." 

REALIZES HANDICAP 

When he was still very 
Johnny Jacobs realized the 
cap that lacH of schooling w 
ing to be to him all throtig 
life; but he accepted it as a 
The first thing he learned was 
to work. He took great prida 
learning thoroughly what he knew? 
His self taught knowledge was not 
hit and miss. He wa^ born in the 
hills and hq never lived anywhere 
else, but what there was to learn 
in the woods around him, he knew. 
He became what continental peo- 
ple would call an artist in the mat- 
ter of tracking. He was called in 
often by county officials when evil- 
doers fled to the woods and all 
traces of them seemed lost. There 
waa. one famous highwayman Ii 
laid by the heels, when it did n 
seem possible that even a bloo 
hound could have followed his tr 
There was another man whose 
he saved by demonstrating that 
story as written on ground 
quite different and vastly 
plausible than as told by the 
witness. 

But "man hunting** had n 
tractioais for Johnnc Jacob 
was nlever a professional 
He seijmed to be soitt ol 
Holmes in that Une. He was 
in by, the Scotland Yards o 
hills Mr hen cases became too "in 
esting/* 
BECOtVIES LAND OWNER 

Twentf five yearfi ago Jo 
Jacobs took up 160 acres of land. He 
worked to develop It and then 
worked some more and Imroved 
some more. He bought some cat- 
tle and acquired more land all 
through the years, until now he 
controls two thousand acres of land 
and has a good herd of cattle. 

Johnny Jacobs Is strong In his 
belief in education for his chil- 
dren. "They must all go to school, 




: ;; ■ f. 



■ v«, > ' r 






,Uv^ 



he would like to give hi mthe 

CQ. 

ow long will It take?" he asks 
11, "He will be old before he 
geidthrpugh school, and then may- 
be lierU have gotten used not to 
wor)|i," and lastly, "When he is 
throlugfi, what will he do? I don't 
kno^NT. He don't know either.'* 

H0 is not the first father who 
has had to face the uroblem of an 



he says, "until they know somej-^eduftated son; but the very fact that 



ite has to face that problem ahows 
hoW* Johniiy Jacobs has risen from 



the 



nevel In which he was bom. 



thing." 

And so they all wei^t through thd 
grammar school, not at an Indian 

school, but at the rural school near and i the u^e htat \ie has made of 
the Jacobs' ranch. One went to an jop^4ttunities that no one co^ik\ 
Indian schQol JiL-Arize»ftr ^nr fS' consider grteat;--^ He ha^ no choilce in 
irri-^AmeTlcan high school in Call- finding himself a lifework. 'Hc*1iad 
fornia. Some did not feel called to to tjike what was around him, and 
KO to high school at all, and he make the best of a very bad bar- 
has onue boy that he will robably gairi. He did it very well, and he 
nut through college. He has a son did \t without any outside help, and 

rtSr^egT contTsi Ne°mrTu8weU who is brilliant, away over the for all that he deserves great 

was placed first. average, even for an American boy. Icrc^lt 



EFREKA. CAr.. STAND VKD 

GEPTEMQER 11, 1523 



100 



.-*..« 



Six Indian Tribes Will Pat 
On Celebration Here; Dances 
iM Days To Be Exhibited 



Eufflui is to have it9 fh'st Indian 
celebration. On (j^ober 20* and 21 at 

the Leatrue^A^^ll P^i^i<^ «*- ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
Indians from ffiimboldt, Del Norte and 
Siskiyou counties will stage a two-day 
celebration, featuring the m^ny weird 
native dances and the far-f£^nied stick 
game. 



r\l 



; The Korac. Po-lick-lu, Smith River 
Hoopa, Weotts and Wylachia tribesj 
will be here .all attired in The native 
regalia, and it is expected that at least 
1000 Indians from all sections of north- 
ern California will be in att-^ndance. 

There will be a big parade through 
the business district of tl^is city, pre 
ceding the festivities at the i^ark eac 
day. and many novel features will b 
shown here for the first time. 

At the park, the feather dance, th 
brush dance and many of the old-tlm 
steps will be shown to the public, an 
visitors from San Francisco and many 
other parts of the state already hav 
signified their intentions of bem 

present. 

All the dancers will be in their na- 
tive regalia and when the last step of 
the feather dance has been completed 
it will mark the end of the fymous and 
unique movements. Many of those Who 
will participate in this feature are ag- 
ed Indians, who are the only ones to 
remember the difficult steps, and soon 
they will be gone, cncling forever any 
chance lor the public to see it. 

The thrilling stick game, tr.o, will be 
played, with three teams competing. 
This game, the fame of whi^H has been 
heralded to every corner of the globe, 
is one of the roughest imaginable, but 
few serious injuries ever occur, and 
for realhonest-to-goodness .sensations 

it has no equal. 

The only place the game ip played 
is in the Klamath region Ji.d teams 
from, lloopa, Requa and Orleans al- 
rcixly are practicing in preparation for 
the crucial encounters here. A purse of 
$150 will be awarded the wli ners and 
the expenses of all participants will be 

^liere also will be riding contests 
daily to detefmine the all-around 
champion and winners of various class- 
es of entries. , 
, Som<3 of the wildest horses In the 
' world are being groomed for the cori- 
tests a.nd this feature alone will ai- 

tract many. v. „,.^ at 

There also will be a big barbecue at 

the park and short( snappy ^^^^/^^jl^ 
on conditions of the Indiana at the 
present time also will be heard. 

Frank Parker of Garberville is chair- 
man of the arrangements comm tiee. 

and the following are ^I'^^^^'J^^'IZ 
Parker of Garberville, ^mith Brenard 
of I^oleta. Peter Williams of ReQua. 
Albert Wilder and Ben Wilder of Or- 



leans and F. G. Collett of San Fran- 
cisco. 

That the Chamber of Commerce, 
Mayor Oscar W. Lord, and Chief of 
Police L. Bannister had promised the 
utmost co-operation in the big event 
was the assertion today of Elmon 
Parker. 

The two-day celebration is being 
staged by Indians, and as it will be the 
first time Eurekans and other Hum- 
boldt county rsidents have been af- 
forded an opportunity to see the many 
leatures. a record breaking crowd is ex 
.pected. 






6EPTEMBEJP 12, 19231 



N 



INDIANS Ta POW WOW 



Ccremonlen Doomed By March Of 

Clvtllsatlon To Be Knacted 

At Bareka Next Month 

EUREKA «umb#l<M Co.). Sept. 
12. — TrIfKal ^nces ^mA ceremonies 
doomedj^o Sb^peacf before the 
marclA^i^ civilizatic^ within the 
next few years are to be enacted 
once agrain ne^gLm^th when six 
Indian tribes of^^fkiyou, Del Norte 
andv Humboldt CJounties gather here 
for a pow wow and reunion on Oc- 
tober 21 and 22. 

The reunion is expected to drawil 
together no less than 1,000 mem-l| 
|bers of the Korac, Po-lick-la Smith I 

iver, Hoopa. Woetts and Wylachsa 
tribes. 

The -^fiea tiller dance, tha .hr.ush 
dance and other tribal dances will 
be presented, chiefly by aged In- 
dians who are the only ones to 
remember the difficult steps. With 
the death of these Indians the 
dances will pass out forever, t^ie 
younger Indians having failed to 
acquire the art 

Also th« Indian stick game, one 
of the roughest and most danger- 
ous of sports, will be presented by 
younger Indians, Riding contes 
with wild horses will be anqllrer 
spectacular feature. 



§IPJ-E.MB£R 13. 1923 

o 



H.D TIMK INDIAN CHARAC TER 
^I^W PASSES ON KLAMATH 

From Vjyi lower Klamath River' 
comes twVord of the death of a well 
known Indian who went by the name 
of "Sagap Jim", Sagap being the Inv 
dian name for coyote. He was also 
known as "Seven and a Half Jim" on 
account of his sporting propensities 
being a widely known gambler in his 
younger days. It is related that in 
the pioneer days two of Areata young 
bloods sot Jim into a poker game 
here and located him in front of a 
wall mirror which reflected his cards 
and enabled them to fleece him out 
of $1000 in cash as well as his pony 
and saddle sending the sporty abor- 
iginee home on foot. Jim was killed 
a few days ago as the result of in- 
juries when a horse kicked him in 
the abdomen. , lie was between 75 
and 80. years of age, and was well 
known in this vicinity. 



FRFSNO. CATJ.. CAI.IFORNIAN 

GEPTEIVl^ER 13, 1923 



W 



^^Mim^JaicmloBe Big 
Feature At Madera County 
Fair Fast Horse Races 



MXDEJEJft Septl 13.— -\ touc?h of 
the d^f^m west; whuh will scon 
be mWfly legendar^-yfs Planned as 
a feature of thiiTftlailra county fair 
at Chowchilla, C^i^ber 4, 5 and 6, 
with a contribution to the program 
by the Indians of th© Maaera foot- 
hills. , ^, «,,^ 

Only a few score of these abo-. 

riginal Californiana remain out of 
the thousffid that roamed the ter- 
ritory in the days of the pioneers. 
They spend the greater part ot 
the yf^ar in the nr.ountain regions,, 
but always in the late summer and 
fall they are to be found on the 
plains working in the.vlneyards a^d 
the orchards. War T'aint and feath- 
ered head-dress long ago vanished 
and buckskin leggln« have given 
place to sophistication's romantlQ 
overalls. But like their ancestor^ 
these Indians are still horsemen, 
and thei 



be pjayed on horseback. Sv/lft lit- 
tle Indian ponies are to help them, 
and novelty races such a» the red 
man' ofe sixty years ago made a part 
of h}s feast days vrlll bo presented. 
In addition to the Indian pony 
races arrangements are now belnjf 
made for daily running races"' in 
which many of. the fastest horses in 
the county will be entered. Suit- 
able /prizes will be awarded. 









"Jf^ 



I 



INDIANS TO POW WOW 



\ 



Li 



Ccremonleii Doomed By March Of 

Civilization To Be E^nacted 

At Bureka Keis^t Month 

EUREKA mi\imhi[di Co.), Sept. 
12. — Tr*Kal ^JiL^^ ^4^ ceremonies 
doomed^^to ctu^peaiv before the 
mrr^lifi r^ civilizaticm within the 
next few years are to be enacted 
[ once again ne^gLm^^th when six 
Indian tribes ofjl^iyou, Del Norte 
and Humboldt Counties gather here 
for a pow wow and reunion on Oc- 
tober 21 and 22. 

The reunion is expected to draw, ^ 
together no less than 1,000 mem-'j 
tbers of the Korac, Po-lick-la Smith 
River, Hoopa, Woetts and Wylachsa 
tribes. 

The-^fieatUer dance, tha brush 
dance and other tribal daiices will 
be presented, chiefly by aged In- 
dians who are the only ones to 
remember the difficult steps. With 
the death of these Indians the 
dances will pass out forever, the 
younger Indians having failed to 
acquire the art. 

Also the Indian stick game, one 
of the roughest and most danger- 
ous of sports, will be presented by 
younger Indians. Riding contcs^ 
with wild horses will be anqOfer 
spectacular feature. 



ARrATA. cat; rrwioM 

SEPTEjVIBgR 13. 19?2 
l/ni) TIMS INDIAN ( HAKAC TER 



From 



11 tj^c" 



PASSES OX KLAMATH 



lower Klamath River 
comes trr^word of the death of a well 
known Indian who went by the name 
of "Sagap Jim", Sagap being the In- 
dian name for coyote. He was also 
known as ''Seven and a Half Jim" on 
account of his sporting propensities 
being a widely known gambler in his 
youngGr days. It is related that in 
the pioneer days two of Areata young 
bloods got Jim into a poker game 
here and located him in front of a 
wall mirror which reflected his cards 
and enabled them to fleece him out 
of $1000 in cash as well as his pony 
and saddle sending the sporty abor- 
iglnee home on foot. Jim was killed 
a few days ago as the result of In- 
juries when a horse kicked him in 
the abdomen. He was between 7 5 
and 80. years of age, and was well 
known in this vicinity. 



FP.TJSKO. CATJ.. CAMFORNIAN 
SEPTEMPEiR 13; 1923 



^idimlRacesfo Be Big 
I'eature At Madera Cou 
Fair Fast Horse Races 




■^m 



the 

be m#^ly legendary 
a feature of th 



V rou'jh of 
li will scon 
nlanned as 
!ra county fair 



at Chowchilla, OWibbcr 4. 5 and 6, | 

with a contribution to tho program 

by the Indians of tho Maaera taot- 

Only a few score of these alio-, 
riginal Cajiforniana remain out of 
the thousfftid that roamed the ter- 
ritory in the days of the pioneers. 
They spend the greater part ol 
the year in the mountain regions, 
but always in the late summer iind 
fall they are to be found on the 
plains working in the. vineyards ai;d 
the orchards. War paint and leath- 
ered head-dress long ago vanished 
and buckskin legging liave given 
place to sophistication'.^ romantic 
overall.^. But like their Pncestortl 
these Indians are still horsemen, 
and theii 



be played on liorscback. Sv/ift lit- 
tle Indian ponies are to help them. 
and novelty races such at? the red 
man of sixty years aj-ro made a part 
of his feast days will be presented. 
In addition to the Indian pony 
races arrangements ere now beinjc 
made for dally running races-' in 
which many of the fastest horses in 
tho county will be entered. Suit- 
able prizes will be awarded.^ 



^Lt E LAKE. CAT., AnvoCATK 

SEPTEMBER 15, 1923 



15. r.. r\T... nrrTxr.ii^ 

e-EPTEML^iR 13; 1923 



dians to Give 
Tribal Dances \ 



:x^fte^A, 



Ut. 13. — (Special.)- 
Triba^^dEilccs m and ceremonies, 
which will disappear before the 
march of ci\'fiiMttion within a few 
years, will be enacted here next 
month. 

Six tribes of Indians of Siskiyou, 
Del Xorte end Humboldt counties 
will get together here for a pow- 
wow and reunion October 21 and 22. 

The Indian "stick game," one of 
the roughest and mast dangerous of 
sports, will be put on by young In 
dians. 



SC 



Bie INDIAN , 
CELEBRATION 

^^jNJUREKA 

OLD DAYS DANCES FEATURE 



TWO-DAY CELEBRATION WIIiL 

BE STAGED BY INDIANS OP 

SIX TRIBES 



Ower 1000 Indians FH>m All Sec- 
tions of Northern CiBdifomia 
Are Expected To Be In 
Attendance 



mittee, and the following are mem- 
bers: Elmon Parker of Garber- 
ville, Smith Bernard of Loleta, 
Pete Williams of Requa, Albert 
Wilder and Ben Wilder of Orleans. 
F. G. Collett of San Francisco. 

That the Chamber of Commerce, 
Mayor Oscar W. Lord, and Chief 
of Police L. Bannister had promis- 
ed the utmost co-operation in the 
hig event was the assertion of El- 
mon Parker.; I 

The two-day celebration is being 
staged by Indians, and as it will 
be the first time Eurekans and 
other Humboldt county residents 
have been afforded an opportunity 
to see the many features, a record- 
breaking crowd is expected. 






'^M:; 



Eureka is to have its first I 
dian celebration. On October 20 
and 21 at the League Baseball 
Park six tribes of Indians from 
Humboldt, Del Norte and Siski- 
you counties will stage a two-day 
celebration, featuring the many 
weird native dances and the far- 
famed stick game. 

The Korac, Po-lick-ta, Smith 
River, Hoopa, Weotts and Wyla- 
chia tribes will be here, all attired 
in the native regalia, and it is ex- 
pected that at least 1000 Indians 
from all sections of northern Cali- 
fornia will be in attendance. 

There will be a big parade 
through the business district of 
Eureka, preceding the festivities 
at the park each day and many 
novel features will be shown there 
for the first time. 

At the park, the feather dance, 
the brush dance and many of the 
old-time steps will be shown to 
the public, and visitors from San 
Francisco and many other parts of 
the state already have signified 
their intention of being present. 

All the dancers will be in full 
native regalia and when the last 
step of the feather dance has been 
completed it will mark the end of 
th famous and unique movements. 
Many of those who will participate 
in this feature are aged Indians, 
who are the only ones to remem- 
ber the difficult steps, and soon 
they will be gone, ending forever 
any chance for the public to see 
it. 

The thrilling stick game, too, 
will be played, with three teams 
competing. This game, the fa 
of which has been heralded to 
every corner of the globe, is one 
of the roughest imaginable, bu 
few serious injuries ever occur, 
land for real honest-to-goodness 
{sensations it haa no equal. 

The only place the game is play- 
led is in the Klamath region and 
teams from Hoopa, Requa and Or- 
leans already are practicing in 
preparation for the crucial encoun- 
ters here. A purse of $150 will 
be awarded the winners and the 
i^xpenses of all participants will 
be paid. 

There also will be riding con- 
tests daily to determine the all- 
around champion and winner of 
various classes oif entries. 

Some of the wildest horses In 
the world are being groomed for 
the contests and this feature alone 
will attract many. 

There also will be a big barbe- 
cue at the park and short, snappy 
orations on conditions of the In- 
dians at the present time also will 
be heard. 

Frank Parker of Garberville is 
chairman of the arrangements com- 






SEPTEMBER 15, 1923 



!*>". 







Their Hands 



^^ 



ONE tho<©yid Indians are expected to gather once more in the far 
northeEr counties of California for tribal dances and ceremonies, 
doomed, a Eureka, Humboldt county writer says, to disappear before 
the march of civilization within the next few years. **The feather 
I dance .the brush dance and other tribal dances," he says, "will be 
presented, chiefly by aged Indians who are the only ones to remember 
the difficult steps. With the death of these Indians the dances will 
pass out forever, the younger Indians having failed to acquire the art." 
The younger Indians probably regard the steps as "old fashioned 
and funny." It is a pity. Much of picturesque values lies in these 
tribal dances and they are cherished, as well as capitalized in some 
parts of the country. The Indians of the Southwest appreciate the 
drawing quality of many of their ancient customs, wares and dance~ 
for the tourists. At the Grand Canyon in Arizona, the Hopi Indians, 
young, educated, well groomed, and good looking, are a leading at 
traction and their dances every afternoon charm the guests an 
cover their big drum, which is the collection box. with many quarters 
half dollars and dollars. ^ , 

Perhaps some of oui- Northern California summer resorts are over 

looking: their hands. — 






■■7x:(^- 









; ~^;. 



If- 









SEPTEMBEFl 16, 1923 



\NDIAN TRADITION 
HINGES UNIVERSE 
ON MOUNT DIABLO 



^ jkRfegarded As Higbest in 
World, A^or din gto Myth 

MARTINKZ,'s7J7t. 15.--Tbat the 
legends and traditions of the Ul- 
lablo Indians have ^^''^^^^'%^J^^\ 
Wundation for the Pageantry of 
the Dons of P^ralta which v^ill . 
culminate in the Berkeley Greek 
theater In a colorful spectacle this 
month, is confirmed by the re- 
search of George Cumlmings and 
Peter Reinhart. These* investi- 
gators cite prehistoric myths to 
show how the minds of the abor- 
igines regarded the causes which 
produced the topographical condi- 
tions as they have existed during 
the historical era and as they are 
known at present. 

According to the native myths 
Mount Diablo was the highest peak 
of the ancient wocld, and the In- 
dians considered it to be the cen- 
ter of the universe, and the uni- 
verse, according to their belief, ex- 
tended no farther than they could 
see when standing on the summit 
of Mount Diablo. ^ 

John F. Davis in his "History 
of California" refers to the Indian 
legend relating to this ancient re- 
gion and recounts the creation of 
the Bay of San Francisco and the 
bordering lands of Obapesla. Re- 
ferring to the pathetic fate of tHe 
Indians, Davis says: 

*'No wonder we take down from 
the shelf the old Indian legend 
and read it again, 
a time when the 
the country was 
water, except two 
which w^as Mount Diablo, the other 
Tamalpais. As the Indians in- 
creased the waters decreased, un- 
til where the lake had been be- 
came dry land. At that time what 
is now known as the Golden Gate 
\vas an entire chain of mountains, 
so that you could go ^rom one side 
to the other dry-shod. There 
were at this time two outlets for 
the waters; one was Russian river, 
the other San Juan. Sometime af- 
terwards a great earthquake sev- 
ered the chain of mountains, and 
formed what is now known as the 
(kWlen Gate. Then the waters of 
thJ great ocean rushed in and the 
v.'illey, hitherto protected by the 



Legend Relates 
Native History 
Of Golden Gate 



\ 



"npHERE was a time," runs the 
-*• version of an Indian legend, 
*Vhcn the entire face of ihc coun. 
try was covered with water, except 
two islands, one of which was 
Mount Diablo, the other Tamal- 
pais. At that time what is now 
the Golden Gale was a chain of 
mountains so that you could go 
from one side to the other dry- 
shod. There were at this time 
two outlets for the waters; one 
was Russian river, the other San 
Juan. Some time afterward a 
great earthquake severed the chain 
of mountains and formed the 
Golden Gate. Then the waters 
of the great ocean rushed in, and 
the valley, hitherto protected by 
the mountains along the coast, be- 
came a great island sea or bay. 
-^— — — ^^— — ^^■"^^— ^^— ^^"^^^^^ 



1 



There was once 

entire face of 

covered with 

islands, one of 



mountains along the coast, became 
a great inland sea or bay. The 
rocky wall being rent asunder, it 
was not long before the pale faces 
found their way in, and as the 
waters decreased at the coming or 
the Indians, so have' the Indians 
decreased at the approach of the 
white man, until the whoop of the 
warrior is heard no more, and tlie 
council fire- has been a^^^nched 
forever; for the Indians like shad- 
ows have passed silently from the 

land." ^. , , T« 

The legends of the Diablo In- 
dians are particularly noteworthy 
at this juncture because of their 
references to earthquakes whicn 
from their description must nave 
been similar to those which now 
torture /apan, although indescrib- 
ablv more titanic in scope and et- 
?ect It is significant that these 
legends recall the volcanic theory 
which has ever attached to the 
beginnings of Mount D^^^lo and 
which the Indians regarded as the 
origin of life as well as the source 
of fire and heat. 



llA' n ,.-1. > *, 

a,v,-:a;":-' ■' 





San Manuel Ce^eyrian 

Here Before OpeMng 
' I of Spanish Grant 

Ramona, the centenarian of the 
San Manuel Indian Reservation, 
died yesterday at the General Hos- 
pital, where she was taken three 
weeks ago suffering from the ef- 
fects of burns received when she 
fen into a fire over which she was 
cooking dinner. ^ 

Mrs. Ramona Lugo. 100 years old. 
a native of Mexico and resident of 
San Bernardino County for 90 
ye^rs. is the way the superf.cia 
chronology of UamonaX life would 

'■'This aged woman, a f"l'-b'°f 4"" 
dian was a resident of Old ban 
ee,naXo before the opening o 
the original Spanish sr^^\^\^^l 
proud Casfilian family of the same 

name. Pioneer '-e^j^^^"*^/. , '^^ 
Highland district and many In San 

Bernardino knew her. 

She was in excellent health, de- 
spite her advanced years, and d.d 
Considerable work on the reserva- 
tion until on Aug. 20 she fell into 
the fire over which she was cook- 
i;^ 1^7 dinner. Her len hand and 



body were badly bur«ed. V^ut she 
received no medical attention foi 

''olf'sept. 1 Mrs. E. E. Barnes of 
nShland learned about the aged 
Rlmona-s condition and reported it 
To the County Welfare Department. 
Mi s Ada Eichbaum, county nurse 
visited Ramona and Pressed he 
burns, which had *>ecome crltica . 
She accordingly had the old Indian 
taken to the General Hospi ah It 
was a task, for Ramona at fust le- 
tused to ride in an ambulance. 

At the General Hospital she be- 
came terrified when taken to her 
wa"d in an elevator. The white 
cots and hospital furnishings were 
new and she wanted to get out and 
was restrained wth difficulty for a 

"soon her attitude changed, as her 
heart wa* won by the '^'"^"f ;f 
of nurses and physicians. She be- 
came a model patient and seemed 
to improve. 

The hums had eaten d^ep mto^ 
the flesh, however, and »* ^^^^ 
necessary to amputate two f Inge.s 
of the left hand. Ramona did no^ 
object and her condition be;;^me 
hetteVdaily until ^'rXiay. when <i 
relapsSVame and she sank rapiUlj. 
YesterdsV morning ^he^died^ ' 



SEPTEMDER 18, 1923 



miANS WILL GATHER 
FOR U KIAH F ESTIVAL] 

Redskins to Have Village at] 
Foir: Ppw jVpw Saturday 

lleve3rto be t; 
Indians of 



>pt. 



[7. — What 1« be- 

irgest gathering of 

rern times on thii 

coast will assemble next Saturday 

for ten days with the Yo Kaya Pow- 

Wow and harvest festival of the 

tribes. The red men are startins 

to arrive here with their equaws 

and children from all points of the 
Northern section of the state. 

The early arrivals have started to 
build a tulle hut village at the Men- 
docino county fair grounds and to- 
morrow all the men will start work 
Ion the "sweat house," in which the 
secret ceremonials will be held. The 
house is to be built of abode. 
The Mendocino county fair opens 
ere at the same time as the Indian 
|To Kaya and the Indians will pla^ 
n Important part In the fair pro- 
ram. The Indians will participate 
n the parade next Saturday morn- 
ng: and will then proceed to their 
lllage at the fair grounds to start 
heir first day'a ceremonies at sun- 
own. Thereafter they will hold 
ally sessions etartinsr at sunrise I 
ith pow-wows at stated Intervals] 
urlnar the day. 















-j^ 



EXHIBITS FOR 
POW-WOW ARE 
. BH 

^tj^e^JLSet For Big- 
Erait in County 




PUCEDp 



I 



I gest E' 



History 






iPARADE ON SATURDAY 

The Indian Village To 
Feature Native 
Dances 



■ ' 111 









Final arrangements have been ma.6m ^ 
and stages all set for the opening of 
the second annual Yo-Kaya Yow-Wow 
in Ukiah, September 22 to 29, botli 
dates inclusive. Every indication 
points to a most brilliant and success- 
sful Fair and with favorable weather 
conditions, officers of the Association 
confidently predict tremendous crowds 
will throng Ukiah during the entire 
period of the Pow-Wpw. 

The Plummer Manufacturing Com- 
pany of San Francisco, from whom 
the big tents were leased, made a re- 
cord drive from Socra mento Valley to 
Ukiah across Bartlett mountain with 
one of the tents, while the other was 
shipped by rail from the city, and both 
big tops were in place last Saturday 
at noon, giving the Pow-Wow exhibi- 
tors a full week's time in which to 
build their booths, arrange their ex- 
hibits and make ready for the open- 
ing day. 

The Farm Bureau and Extension 
Service of the University of Califor- 
nia through their representatives have 
arranged a most beautiful and com- 
prehensive display of agricultural and 
livestock products. It is confidently 
expected that the exhibis of both de- 
partments of agricultural pursuit will 
go down in history as the most bril- 
liant that Mendocino County has ever 
shown. 

The Indian Village feature, arranged 
under the personal supervision of Bill 
Ornbaun, is much larger and more ex- 
tensive than originally contemplated. 

The Indian Village Committee, <pf ' 
which Keith C. Eversole is Chairman 
has also arranged special entertain- 
ment features for the Indians them- 
sleves and no doubt the Indians from. 
many sections of the county wtU 
throng to Ukiah by the thousands. 
Among other features in the Indian 
Village will be a t)lg dance platform 
on which the red men and their dusky 
ladies will trip the light fantastic to 
the strains of latest American tox 
trots, one step and other modern 

dances. 

Prospective purchasers of motor 
vehicles and trucks, as well as owners 
of old cars who may be contemplat- 
ing trading in, will find a wonderfi«l 
assortment of the latest 1924 models of 
most of the well known standard lines 
of automobiles. Owing to the fact 
that nearly all of the standard cars are 
advertising many changes and im- 
provements in the new models which 
will be shown at the Yo-Kaya Pow- 
Wow, the dealers are confidently ex- 
pecting to book many sales during the 

Fair. 

The opening day features will be the 
Grand Street Pageant, which Gover- 
* nor Richardson or some delegated re- 
presentative will lead; also the coro- 
nation of the Queen, and as a compli- 
mentary overture to Young America, 
the Executive Committee has broad- 
asted an invitatior^^ all children 12 
ars of age and^ncK^ to be the 
Continil^ on pl^e 8 



-aj XBMJa;«Ai peBodojd aq> jo :iunoDDJ 
aJSvcl un; b sj-BeddB eaaMOJO »d'«J1 
'B|uao;n'BO» u; Jo an8«| ^uaajna aq; ui 

'dDuapuadar^ 
oiiuouooa JO uon^J^pap em o:^ ja:^d«qi/ 
jaq)ou'B papp-B aABq \u/a jauij-ej -biujo 
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joj XpBaa B| asudja^ua aq^ uaqM pu|" 
'Hdiqu esaq-^ a'j'Bjado pu'B umo o^ p^ 
-ZIUB3JO uaaq fireq. qoiqAi Xu-eduioo dfq* 
-lu-ea^s aqi jo iioo^s aq^ o:^ 3u|qiao8qn 
ajB eaAiasuiati^ uaui ;|njj ®q^ jaqi 
aq-^ o^ a)'B:>s aq^ jo pua auo uiai«f 
•quosqns U9^ )!f^*'d 
•o*B s^iaaM ii3jaAa8 paaitfaddB qonfi 
JO ^uauiaounouuB :>8JU ®M^ '^oafo, ^ 
l-lsm^ puiqaq ;aiS o^ eSunaaui J^ufpioJ 
laa-B uaiu v.^^J ea^p pu^iuf jaq^o pd 
* 1 o^uauiBJOBg ujnqnv 'usoH b^ubq IV F 



I aJB 

I O^U€ 



Kl 



1 



Continued from page 1 

ffuests of the management on that 
day. This means that the youngsters 
will be admitted free of charge and 
everything possible done to make the 
day an enjoyable one for them. 
J. Sunday will be San Francisco Day, 
, I Elks Day, and Sonoma County Day. 
Advices from the Bay cities indicate 
that there will be many excursions 
that will invade Mendocino County to 
visit the Pow-Wow. Several hundred 
Elks, returning from the State Con- 
vention at Eureka are also expected to 
swell the Sunday crowds. Sonoma 
county also will send big delegations, 
it is reported. 

Monday of next week has been as 
signed as Fort Bragg Day, Humboldt 
County Day, Redwood Highway Day, 
Mendocino County Coast Day. Round 
Valley Day and Long Valley Day. 

One ot the biggest days of the Fair, 
it is expected, will be Tuesday, the 
fourth day, which has been designate 
as Willlts Day, North of Bay Countie 
Day and Anderson Valley Day. Wed 
nesday will be designated as Ukia 
Day, Calpella Day and Potter Valle 
Day. An effort will be made upo 
local business concerns to close the! 
stores for part of the day on Wednes 
day. 

Thursday will be Redwood Valle, 
Day, Fraternal Organizations Day and 
Central District Day. Friday will be 
j designated as Hopland Day, Woman's 
Civic Organizations Day, Lake County 
Day and Sanel Valley Day. 

Saturday, the closing day. will be 
known as all California Day, American 
Legion Day and Boy Scouts Day. 

The official band at the Pow-Wow 
will be the Willlts Municipal Band, 
which has made splendid advancement 
and progress during the last few 
months under the leadership of Pro- 
fessor John J. Keller. 

The entertainment program will pro- 
vide for seventeen big time entertain- 
ers, including Blake and Ambers' 
Pow-Wow Girls Revue, and a number 
of other single and double acts. The 
head line feature of the program will 
be the Aerial Bartletts in their sensa- 
tions aerial act. Rue and Laura Enos, 
comedy contortionists and acrobats, 
will hold a prominent place on the 
program. 

Through the courtesy of Daniel J. 
O'Brien, Chief of the San Francisco 
Police Department, Detective, Sergeant 
Thomas J. Hoertkorn and Morris M. 
Harris will be sent to Ukiah during the 
|period of the Fair to assist the Ipcal 
fflcers in keeping the town free of un-* 
esirable characters. The Pow-Wow 
uard this year will be in charge of 
ack H. Dreyer, Deputy Sheriff, who 
as surrounded himself with a capable 
roup of peace officers. Officials of th% 
air Association desire to make the 
final announcement through the 
columns of The Republican Press to 
the public that season coupon books, 
the tickets will go off sale Friday even- 
ing, September 21. All persons who 
expect to attend the Pow-Wow should 
avail themselves of these tickets as 
they represent a saving of $2.00 on 
eight admissions. The book? ar^ 
transferable and may be used by aij^y 
one. 

The housing Committee also ur^B 
all loyal, patriotic citizens to co- 
operate with the Fair Association to 
take care of the large crowds that will 
be in Ukiah during the Pow-Wow. It 
J8 hoped that every family in Ukiah 
\yill designate at least one room in its 
home for the accommdation of visitors. 



Il 



•:ra-'.v 



te-- 






lie it is realized this will result in 
more or less inconveniences, it is only 
fofi a very brief period. It Is pointed 
otfi that no worse reputation could be 
eatned by the town than that of invit- 
ing a large crowd of people here and 
being unable to offer them proper and 
adequate accommodations. 



T;=ir^irrilrflr«lr:ilr.-»vCl(P'r?in,l'?ir:"'l'7J.?JiC' 



LAKUPORT CAT-- ^l^fa 






f^tliTT.. ^ 






11 



r^rV. i^» 



u.*/ 






«•*• 



\ 







OUR CHILDREN DIE 

AT UPPER LAKE 




)f Indian children hare 
vQ{^m.\yraief at Upper Lake, most of 
tlie deathwe^lting from pneumonia. 

On September 11, Edaella Robinson, 
two year old daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Dan Kobinson died. The par- 
ents are from Ukijth and were work- 
ing at the Finney cannery. Burial 
was made at Upper Lake last Thurs- 
day. 

Bernice Thomas, daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Albert Thomas, died Thurs- 
day while enroute with the parents 
to Bartlett Springs. The child was 
four years old. The remains were 
shipped to Shasta county for burial. 

Rafella Gorbet, six months old 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George 
Gorbet of Uppper Lake died last 
Saturday and was buried the following 
day at the Robinson ranch. 

Earl Boone, age two years, son of 
^{\\ and Mrs. Sam Boone, died on 
Monday from bronchitas. Burial was 
made yesterday from the Robinson 
ranch at Upper I^ake. Rev. Patter- 
son officiated at the services. 



Col. L. A. Dorrington. superinten 
dent or the San Carlos Indian reser- 
vation, w^U leave at the end of the 
week ior Sacramento, Calif., where | 
he has been transferred to take | 
charge of all Indian reservations in 
northern California, which have been- 
consolidated into one administrative 
unit, it became known to county 

officers yesterday. 4.^„„,i Viiiti 

The transfer of Col. Dorrington is county officials, who have ^oujid him 
in the nature of a promotion, in ever ready to cooperate with them 
! recognition of his successful admin- 'in a closer understanding between 
istration ol the San Carlos agency the Indian sei^vice and local author- 
and other important posts. Helities, they declare, 
leaves with the good will and high 
esteem of his associates in the Indian 
service in Arizona. Col. Dorrington 
has been especially popular with 



Col. Dorrington's successor will bc^ 
Indian Agent Kltoh, who is- said 
be ar^f experienced administratoi^f 
Indic^ti affairs. 



*fAr>F.RA. TAT.. Mr.RrUKY 20f 

SEPTEMBER 20, 19£3 




INDIAN PASSES 



I ^Daniel Lewis, an Indian, 58 yiars 

,.of age died Tuesday night on a 

ranch near Oakhurst. He is sur- 

^wo children, Fred and Pearl 



I Funeral 
Oakhurst 
Interment 
cemetery. 



services were held at 
at 1 o'clock yesterday, 
was made in Oakhill 



BT.riC lAKF. TAr.. AnTpacAT* 

GSrTEMBeR 22, 1923/ 



eOOD ROADS 
REPORTED BY 




upper end of the valley at Camp- 
bell Field and dance at various 
places through the valley with the 
completion at the lower end of the 
valley. 

Other dances and games will be 
held by the Indians^ during this 
festival. 



CHAS. GREBNHAliGH OF EU- 

KEKA RETU1Wj;j^ FROM BEL 

NORTE AND HOOFA 



INDIAN CELEBRATION GOING ONI 



The Indian dances and celebra.-! 
tion starlfifl Saturday night with 
a regular dance at Hoopa. The 
Indian religious dances and games 
started Monday. This is the re- 
ligious festival of the Indians, 
which is supposed to be held every 
seven years and is In the form of 
a religious ceremony. The WUte 
Deer Skin Dance, Brush Dance, 
Stock Dance, Jump Dance and the 
Canoe Dance, are being presented. 
The Canoe dance was held on 
Wednesday and consists of the 
dancers taking their place in four 
canoes that are lashed together 
and permitted to drift down the 
river. They start dancing in the 



;;iuPTEfv1Be.R 22, 1923 




.IITAN PIONE, one of the few survlvorg of the tHbe of CuyaDlpc 
InlSns rsaid o be the oldest man in the world- Thought to be 150. 
te Kilnltely known to be at least 120. He lives with his wrfe (right^ 
on a reservation near San Dieco. Cahf. 






ONA, AGED INDIAN, DIES] 

IVaman Centenarian on San Manuel Reservation 
IV ho Saw Pioneers Arrive Succumbs to Barns 




)LANDS, sept 



[EXCLUSIVE DISPATCH] 
REDLANDS, ^ept. 21. — Ramona, 100-year^old resident of the San 

Manuel Indian Reservation, Is dead. Death came as a result of a 

fall Into a fire at her reservation hut. 

<¥ She was known to the reserva- 
tion and to all Indian workers as 
Ramona, although her name was 
Mrs. Ramona Lugo. She was a 
native of Mexico and known to be' 
100 years old, for she was at least 
10 years old when she came to San 
Bernardino coujity ninety years | 
ago. She has lived in the county 
ever since. She was an Indian 
and came to the valley before the 
opening of the original Spanish 
grant to the proud Castilian fam- 
ily, from which she took her name. 
She was In excellent health artd 
did her fair share of the reser- 
vation work until three weeks ago. 
Then she fell into the Are over 
which she was cooking dinner. Her 
left hand, arm and body were 
badly burned before she could drag 
herself out. She did not report It 
and received no medical attention 
for ten days. 

Then welfare workers learned 
of her condition. Her first au- 
tomobile ride was in the ambu- 
lance to the county hospital and 
she wad frightened when taken up 
on an elevator. For a time she 
seemed to improve. But the burns 
were deep and amputation of the 
hand was resorted to. Her condi- 
tion improved but she suffered a 
relapse and died within a few min- 
utes. 

Ramona remembered many of 
the early events of the valley, the 
coming of the first white men. then, 
the padfSs, then the Mormons an( 
others who pioneered. 






t ,■-.•■.';. 1' ... .,, 
.) " 'V "■'■'•■ "■'•'' 



..-.>ifl 






SEPTEMBER 23, 1923 







M. CARTER, 
DIAN AfEE 



VE HERE 




H. M. Carter>«getit tor tM Tule 
River Indian reservation for the past 
velr^ has been offered a PofJ<-'°°J 
the Indian service at P^get Sound, 

WasSton. In ^" »W»|^°°\feh case 

ter will accept the offer, in ^"i^" 2*°; 

he would make his headquarters In 

Uhe vicinity of Seattle Wash 

If plins contemplated by tne "'ai 

Service of the Depanment of the In 

terior materialize, the ™e ^^J'^'^. 

s,e°ncv will be consolidated witn sev 

tear oth^r centr-^1 and northern Cal^ 

fornia jurisdictions ^P^JP'^.^q^Z 
agency to be supervised from sacra 

mento. according to Mr^ Car^^^ 

\ Mr. Carter came ^^I® '^V>r J Tay 
Fallon. Nevada, s«f ceding Dr. J^ i^y 

te until fo.i^-j;^^^r^^ 

they moved to this cuy. J^^. j 
|d.(?parture from the community. 



Indian^Jv^ ' CLO^IS GETS 



rs. l\^\. Thayer, 
in CUvis from 
Thayer hat 
ge of the six In- 
aian m.s»T«..s in this pyt of 
the state. The Tha>^«psnt 
several years among thrHopis 
in Arizona. 



Rev. and 
have ardv 
Arizon 
assumed c 
dian mis 






Arizona Man Replaces 
Rev. J, O. Brendel 

CLOVIS, Sept. 22.— Rev. and Mrik 
Lee I.' Thayer and daughter, lor* 
merly of the Hopi reservation of In- 
dian^ • in Arizona, have arrived m 
Clovi^ and the Rev. Mr. Thayer at 
once assumed charge Of th^ six In- 
dian missions of this part of ^m 
state that have been under thjr 
vccti*>n of Rev. J. G. Brendel 
the past 10 years, hut who recentl 
resigned his work here on ^^^w 
of ill health. The Rev. Mr^ Brandel 
has been here this week going over 
the field with Mr. Thayer. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thayer spent sev- 
eral years among the Hopis before 
coming here and had many inter- 
esting experiences while working 
among the snake dancers Of the 
10 villages with a population of -5 
hundred snake charmei^s there isjat. 
least two big snake dances gi\ 
during each year. This is a r 
ceremony In which live fnakes 
carried in the mouths of the Indi 
during these wierd ceremonies. 



I SEPTEMDcR 2G, ^OZZ 



Sncfainrnto.ral.SW 

GEPTEMBER 20, ^^23 . 




£R TRANSFERRED 



Indian Agent 
Offered New Post 

rO^ERVILT^EySrpt. 2i.— H. M. 
Cartjf, agent *" — ^*»— ^.^^ x^. 
resQ^'ation 3 
mo^nths, ha<JJb 

pund India^\gency. If ^Ir. Carter 
^ccepts the Infer, as he very likely 
will, his headquarten^ wpjula be in 
the vicinity of Seatttf^^ 

If plans contemplated by the/ In 
dian service of the department ofl 
the interior are carried out, thej 
Tule river reservation will be com-l 
bined with several other agencies! 
In central and northern Californiaj 
and will be administered from head-l 
quarters maiiltained In Sacramento,' 
according to \Carter. ^ 



Head Of G'-eenville lndl«« Ajrener 

For Ten Years Will ^\^^ 
Arizona SoonlV 

GREENVILI.E (l^^^^^^Tn^^Ir.^^^^^^^ 
oc n TC MiHer lias been tran» 

."^^ from t* ir<?»ivllle Indian 
f erred from i^*g ^LZy A-i^rtnn 
\«..^«v tn a ilTTWtialT m Arizona. 
^^MUirr haB%S^d for th.Wt ten 
years as superintendent a|m«pe 
Iclal dispensing agent ^^ the oreen^ 
,vllle Indian School and A^^^^f ' ^^ 
Miller will leave for ^i% ffj^ 
post as soon as his successor arrives 
In Greenville to relieve him. 

The Oreenvllle Indian School was 
burned a couple of years ago. but | 
the United States Indian Agency 
still is maintained here as twelve 
buildings escaped the flames, val- 
uable farming lands also are owned 
in coMectlon with, the ecbool. 













H. M. CARTER, 

IAN AiSENT^ 
MAY LEAVE HERE 

H. M. CarteVsgent for th« Tule 
River Indian reservation for the past 
vear. has been offered a POf*«°° ^^ 
the Indian service at ^P'l^^t Sound 
Washington. In alHiWihood Mr. Car 
ter V.111 accept the offer, in which case 
he would make his h^dquarters in 
Uhe vicinity of Seattle. Wash. 

If pl,n.s contemplated by the Indian 
Service of the pepanment of th^ In 
terlor materialize, the J«le Kiver 
ke°DCV win be consolidated with sev 
Kal other centr-^1 and northern CaJ^ 

fornia jurisdictions ^"J^™ ^ga^rl- 
agency to he supervised from btu^ra 

mento. according to Mr. Carter 
1 Mr. carter came ^ere last fall from 
Fallon. Nevada, succeeding DrJ^ W 

KS until ^J-t f ^^MrdS 
they moved to this cuy. ' . ^ 

departure from the community. 



SEPIXMBER 2: 



!3; 



1923 



Indians Fvicnds 



Rev. and 
have arciv 
Arizon 
assumed 
dian mis 




rs. LV^\. Thaytr, 
in Clivis from 
^^^ Thayer has 
"^ of the six In- 
s in this part of 



n\i es 



the state. The Thay^spent 
several years among thCHopis 
in Arizona. 





'V.^••^•.•:^^^:•;v:•.•.^:•;•:•.•.^■.;•;•^.•.^y,.^y;^v..;.;•v.v ;•;•;•:•.^^x•v•<■•^^>/•■•v>^ 
>xi>S>i-:S^i^xi^^ 



Arizona Man Replaces 
Rev. J. G. Brendel 

CLOVIS, Sept. 22.— Kev. and Mr«k 
I.ee I Thayer and daughter, tor* 
merlv'of the Hopi reservation of In- 
dian^.in Arizona, have aiTived in 
Clovi^ and the Rev. Mr. Thayer at 
once assumed charge of the six In- 
dian missions of this part of the 
state that have been under th«r*«- 
rection of Rev. J. G. Brendel f 
the past 10 years, but who recent! 
resigned his work here on acCountl 
of ill health. The Rev. Mr. Brandel 
has been here this week going over 
the field with Mr. Thayer. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thayer spent sev- 
eral years among the Hopis before 
coming here and had many inter- 
esting experiences while ^'orking 
among the snake dancers Of the 
10 villages with a population of -0 
hundred snake charmers there is^t 
least two big snake dances giv*- 
during each year. This is a 1 
ceremony in which live snal^es 
carried in the mouths of the Indi 
during these wierd ceremonies. 







GEPTEMB£R 20, 1923 



rKESXO fAr. PP:T=TTiTTCA.V-.lfW 

EPTEMDER 2G. 10.^3 ' 

Indian Agent 
Offered New Post 

Cartjjr, agent foi^thc f^m^ Indian 
resQ^ation for/ the VJ8t nine 
m^ths, ha<jg3eoi||^^ercd fthe Puget 
^ und India^^genoy. If Mr. Carter 
, ccepts the ilrffer, as he very likely 
>vill, his headriuarloi^ wjyala be in 
the vicinity of Seatttf^^ 

If plans contemplated bj^ the/In-, 
dian service of the department of 
the interior arc carried out, thel 
Tule river reservation will be com -I 
bined with sev/ral otlier agencies 
in central aiid northern Californiaj 
and will be ad ministered from head -I 
quarters maii^tained in Sacramento, 
according to \Carter. ^ 



mh£er transferred 

Arizona SoonlV . 

GREENVILT.K ^\^'''^^f1!^^:^^^t 
„K CI XT MlHer lias been trans 

"-^' rr^tte'^rira.^^ 

years as B^^P^^i^^^^.^'f ..T^rern- 
clal dispensing agent of the Oreen 

ville Indian School and Agency. 

Miller will leave for ^^^ new 
post as soon as his successor arrives 
In Greenville to relieve him. 

The Greenville Indian School was 
burned a couple of years ago. but 1 
the United States Indian Agency 
still Is maintained here as tweHe 
buildings escaped the flames, val- 
uable farming lands also are owned 
in connection with, the school. 



SALT LAKE, UTAH 

SEPTEIMBER 29, 1923 ^:^„. 




Rare ColIec>jA^btained^j 
by UniveysityX^rom 
Ruins of Cliff Dwillcrs. 



/ 



A rare collection of relics has been 
added to the state museum at the 
I'niversity of Ttah. according to Di. 
A. A. ICerr, head of the department of 
arihaelogy. who has recently returned 
with the collection from southern 

I'tah. 

An almost faultlcsts water bottle, I 
estimated by Dr. Kerr to be more 
than loOO years old, is one of the most 
va.luable of the relics. It is bluish 
^ray in color, stands about fourteen 
inches in height and is of the type 
used bv the cliff dwellers. It is 
thought to be the second finest of its 
kind ever unearthed in I'tah. It was 
discovered in Garfie'.d county with nu- 
merous other historic remnants. 

One of the cliff houses of that same 
rei,'ion vielded an Indian skull of un- 
usual j/hape. While the normal cliff 
dweller possessed a high and slanting 
forehead, this particular shuW showed 
a low. sharp forehead. 

An interesting relic which E>r. Kerr 
found was a gamestone. This is a 
round stone with a diameter of about 
three inches which, when padded with 
grass and wrapped in a leather cover, 
was used by the Indian of that re- 
gion in playing a game similar to 
soccer football. An almost perfect 
mano millstone, a paint container still 
T>ossesPing white paint \^'4thin it. and 
a skinninj? knife made from the horn 
of a mountain sheep arc also among 
the collection. 



tl 



lOAKLAND, CA.I- 






TRIBUNE 



i 
i 




Adopted by Indians 

HELEN FITZGERALD, 

author and honorary member of 
Blackfoot tribe, who will lec- 
ture here on American Indian. 



_^_.;^r«ji»._^,-^.v%v.v;.v^;.%;,;.»^W..>XV;y;X;Xy 



♦ i 



Heleii^ Fitzeemld^ Adopted 
Member (Jf^lackfeet, in" 
Oakland; Japajiese Qu^kel 
Cost All Author's Trunk4 

By FRANCIS MONTGOTVCERY. /I 

A wofJd pilgriniage vyrhiQh. .t^J>kJ 
her into Italy during the Fasclstri 
uprising", among: bandits in China, r 
and into Japan at the time of carthr y 
quake is the experience of Helen i 
Fitzgerald Sanders, writer and in- i 
tfirnational lecturer now in .Oak- 
land. 

Mrs. Sanders whose pen narne is 
Helen Fitzgerald, admits she is a 
bit weary after her prolonged jour- 
ney filled with exciting events, nar- 
row escapes and many losses but 
being one of a tribe of American 
braves she has met events with tra,- 
ditional fortitude. : _ . 

ADOl^ED BY BliACKFEET. 

Ah adopted member of the 
:Blacikfeet Indians, Helen FJt-zger-_ 
aid hes lived among and studied 
th^ North American Indiana for 
many years and close observa^tions 
and experieTnces have resulted in 
h^r iiooks'Trarls Through Western 
>Vood.s'* "The White Quiver,'^ The 
Dream Maker*' and "Little Mother 

America.'* . 

- **Ten years ago I was taken into 
the Blackfeet tribe," said the au- 
thor when interviewed. /*The land 
of the Blackfeet now ajolns Ola^ 
cier National Park in Montana. A 
girl friend whose parents were ai 
rioted army officer and. his. beau- 
tiful Indian wife, first interes4,ed me 
in the Indians many years ago. we 
spent a summer with them. . 1, was 
ISO happy there that I have 1 ved 
among them everjr .sumnaer since 
then until two yearj^ ago when 1 
started on a world pilgrimage and 
lecture tour. Chief Emetaquin re- 
ceiv^d me into the Blackfeet tribs 
and gave me the name of Mucha. 
nira which means 'The Victory. 
The Indian has a spiritual side and 
that part of his nature has inter- 
ested m.e most." 



- ::* 




-S^.5ft^\Hr&. THE SUNDAY STAR, WASHINGTON, 



D. C, SEPTEMBER! 



) 



ysterious Tribe of Indians 
Found in Wastes of Labrador 



ashington Explorer 
Spends Sununer in 
Arctic Zone. 



J)r. Michehon Fails to 

Identify Strange Race 
I in Canadian Interior. 



An uiu'lassified tribe of red men 
roam over the icy rooks of northern 
Labrador. These arctic nomads be- 
long to no known Indian family, 
friiey constitute a mysterious cast- 
oft in American ethnologry. Their 
Jaiiguage is unintelligible. They 
cannot be studied. They are murder- 
ously hostile to tlie slow advance of 
rivilizatian over the la^t frontier 
into the "friendly nort,h*'^' 

I)'.\ Truman .Mlchelson, 
port of the Smithsonian 
returned to Washington 



Indian ex- 
Institution, 
this week, 



J' a suifcmer in the arctic. He had 

hnect the lost tribe, 

^at?e, with the 

Ls he, failed, 




DR. TRUiHAN MlCHEliSON. 



mon for the hungry creatures to kill 
a human being:. 

The Labrador Eskimos have just 



the scanty population this summer. 
Scurvy every ytar adds to the death 
list. This. Dr. Michelson thinks, 
easily could be remedied. The land is 
suitable for the introduction of dan- 
delions, which are an almost infalli- 
ble antidote for the dread arctic dis- 
ease. 

Labrador may be the objective of 
the world's next great gold rusli. As 
Dr. Michelson left rumors of rich de- 
posits on the coast were starting in- 
trepid explorers northward. The 
riches of the interior rivers may prove 
incalculable. The. mineral w^ealth of 
the country, he reports, largely is 
unknown. In only two or three cases 
have white men crossed the entire 
peninsula. 

July Like November. 
.Tuly in northern Labrador, Dr. 
Michelson found, is somewhat like 
November in Washing-ton during day- 
light. The nights often are very cold. 
The frame houses are un heated ex- 
cept in winter. Around Northwest 
river, he reports, the general appear- 
ance of the country is rather 
Ing. Flowery tracts spot 
reaches of scrub trees. The 
Quitos are unendurable. At one time 
he was unable to do scientific work 
out-of-doors because he could not 
keep his hands ungloved. Black 
masses of insects would 
any bare human flesh 
of the mosquito nuisance, 
lasts only a few days. 

On his way back Dr. Michelson 
stopped in Newfoundland to measure 
skulls of an ^^^inct Indian tribe, 
which he succeeded in classifying. 
Difficult as was life in Labrador, 
found it worse in the dominion 
the south. The fishermen early 
July were giving up 
leaving for the 
southern Canada. 

of 



pleas- 

rocky 

mos- 



settle on 

The climax 

however. 



other llvlihood than that gained from 
the seas. Many of the towns are on 
the verge of starvation. 

Praise of Hospttal. 

Dr. ^Michelson Is enthusiastic in 

praise of the hospitals established by 

Sir Wilfrid Grenville along the dreary 

coast. Probably nowhere else In the 
world, he believes, is there so much 
need for medical missionaries. 

Labrador, he reports, just now is 
engrossed in its' most mysterious 
murder sensation. Last year a Miss 
Lindsey, of a prominent Fhiladolphia 
family, disappeared from the Gren- 
ville hospital, where she was a vol- 
unteer nurse. iMonths afterward her 
mutilated body was found buried in 
tall gras»s by the seashore. 

An autopsy revealed that hte Amer- 
ican heiress had been murdered. 
Search for the slayer still continues 
at all the hospital stations and fur 
villages. 

The Labrador villages practically 
are cut off from the world. Some- 
times mail boats arrive once in a sum- 
mer. Sometimes there is no mail at 
all. "I sometimes wonder how 
these isolated white men endure the 
said Dr. Michelson. "All the 
long they have none of their 
to talk to. You could hardly 
blame them for occasionally breaking 
every law of God or man. 

"But I believe the native population 
of Eskimos and half-breeds are happy. 
They lead a hard life, but it is the 
only life they ever have known. 
Sometimes the Canadian government 
!has considered bringing the childreu 
south to school. It is doubtful it 



life." 

year 

kind 



this would increase their happiness 

much. 

"This much can be said about the 

'friendly arctic* If a white man 

wants to emulate the Eskjm<;^siiklio 

can live. If he tries t(^ get 
in his own way he wilL die, asj 
been the fate of many Explorers 



In connection with the elcctr; 
tion of Swiss federal railways, 
mechanical signal system has bed 
replaced by an electrically operate 
signal svstem, said to be the firfJ 
installation of its kind in Europe. ■ 



J suffered »i >^^' 



J enza. 



v\* 



ble epidemic of influ- 
^"^•^-Med^iil hundreds of 



he 
to 
in 
their homes and 
United States and 
It w^as estimated 
that about 900 of the scanty Popula- 
tion were pulling up stakes every 

week. There Is no iV^^'^^Lf^'J \]^uh 
ish The province Is saddled w ith. 
n enofmous debt. The resldentsl 
illiterate,.^|TL^hey know no 



4 Foil 



IT'S NOT A HO|tf 
UNTIL IT'S PVtffTEl 

Buy your cv^ritreens, 
shrubs and plawls dlre^ 
the growerv 4?)0 v a 
Every plauf /ooveret 
guarantee. Cataloi 
of "Hoi^ic Grj 
Planting and I*^ 
free. 7 



^ 



I 



jdOCYi 



Nnrt 
iialfi 



EIGHT 



IKSftAil' 






lPoot LjQ 



OAKLAND TRIBUNE MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 30, 1925 




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POOR LO, the Indian! But 
you need not waste any tears 
over him as far as the Mother 
. Xode Indian is concerned, fpr 
practical lly speaking-, with but very 
few exceptions, there are no poor 
TvOR on the Lode if you except 
•'Calaveras Walker" and the few 
acro.'is Wood's Creek from the 
Mooney Ranclr, just below James- 
town. 

Kven these are mostly of the 
laboring class, the one lone buck 
there the day I viwited the Ranch- 

J To rnf<^rrnod^?ff?^95iJ^^IieouF* 
working,'* Where, I never learned. 
To Impart that information would 
have required more efforU It Waa ' 
easier to sit and stare' straight 
ahead. TYmt was the Bhortcst his- 
torical reminiscence I : ever re- 
ceived. ' 

•'Calaveras Walker" is a most 
unique character^ He is tall, well 
built, dark chocolate in color, 
whiskered, gray hair, snappy black 
eyes, with rather a currlous appeal 
shining in them, and with teeth 
that makes you think of burnt 
fctumpagc. 

He is old. "Over a hundred," so 
•tis said. Possibly. My own im- 
pression is that he is not over 85, 
if that. 

He is famous locally, but difficult 
to locate. His cabin, such as it is, 
is way up the gulch out beyond 
Adams' ranch, back of ]Murphy*s. 
Two or three other Indians are 
with him there. 

Generally, "Calaveras Walker" 
may be found wlierever moonshine 
Is strongest. 

At Angels Camp I asked C. T. 
JSIills where I could find him. Mills 
knows every person in the county , 
afid started out to heli) find the 
Indian. He wasn't home. Nor was 
anyone else. As we neared Mur- 
phy's on the way back, just before 
Bunset, we met him, homeward 
bound. It was still daylight, but 
the mooshine was already glowing; 
"Calaveras" was happy, supremely 
happy, just bubbling over with joy 
and effervescing spirits He was 
so glad to see Mills that he wanted 
to embrace him. Mills widestepped 
this evidence of appreciation, so 
"Calaveras" started a pow-wow all 
his own, danced, sang, and cried. 

Wo wanted a photo, the sun was 
just setting, but that Indian in- 
sisted on dancing. He shimmied, 
ho hopped, he wriggled and he 
giggled, while I kept jumping 



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country, to 
ize what wo have 
done to the noble 
redman. We took 
him from Mother 
Nature. - ^w T'io "• ^ -"^ -. V^t j >*.? 
treated him well 
and* gave him an 
ideal existence 
from his point of 
view, to turn him 
over to our fos- 
ter' mother, civili- 
zation. We taught 
him all our vices, 
but not our vir- 
tues. It was much 
more profitable 
the way we did it. 

They say that much of our his- 
tory has never been written. We 
are certainly very lucky. We have 
enough explaining to do as it it. 

This article deals mainly with 
the Indian as the miner found him. 
It takes no cognizance of the In- 
dians of Northern California, 
which were of a decidedly differ- 
ent type. 

Candidly speaking, as the miner 
first found the Indian, he had less 
on than had Adam before Eve 
picked that Parldisian apple, for 
the miner went into the mines in 
the late spring, and the Indian was 
already in summer attire. 

The squaws, however, usually 
wore a coyote skin around their 
waists, with more or less satisfac- 
tory concealmeAt, dependent upon 
whether the coyote had grown in 
proportion to the wearer. 

Very soon, as the miners began 
to throw away old shirts, scraps of 
cloth and brimless hats, the Indian 
began to adorn himself. 

^ Then he discovered that the little 
yellow pebbles that he had been 
walking over barefooted for cen- 
turies were of some value in buy- 



o w n belongings #i 
*v to that of their '■ 
pe]n.tiv e; — e**^ 
the last piece of 
clothing upon 
their bodies. 

When the whold 
was c o n su m e d 
the ashes were 
scra'ped together 
and a i* u d e 
wreath of flow- 
ers, weeds and 
brush placed 
around them. A 
portion of the 
ashes were mixed 
with some pitch, 
smeared upon the 
faces of the rela- 
tives as a badge 
of mourning, and 
allowed to stay 
on until it wore 
off, u.'uallj' in about six months. 



livened up enough to Indulge in a 
dance. That was the round of 
their existence. 

They dined, danced and slept. An 
ideal existence, for the men. 

They called them Diggers be- 
cause of the method by which 
they obtained much of their food. 

Grass hoppers, snails and wasps 
were the prime delicacies, while 
acorns, roots, grass, clover, wild 
greens, rabbits, and rats were 
staples, with squirrels and fish as 
variety. 

When the white man came all 
delicacies faded into insignifi- 
cance compared with that brought 
here by the paleface. Nothing 
reached the heart of the redman 
like the American whisky. Nothing 
helped him to reach the Happy 
Hunting Grounds any quicker. 

To get grasshoppers enough for 
A lot of hungry males, even when 
the country was swarming with 
them, would have been a difficult 
matter for the squaws if they had 
been compelled to rely upon cafMi- 
ing them by hand. 

Thi:: is whore they learned the 



as they caught them, bi^t that was 
considered a trifle vulgar in some 
sections, so t^ey hydra;ted them 
first. 

When I say that this grasshop- 
per meal was delicious. I but st^te 

what various white men have said 
after* they had eaten of the meal, 
either dry, or partially cooked. 
Some of Fremont's men on his 
third expedition tried some out and 
ate very heartily. They praised 
them highly, but after they learned 
what the meal consisted of they 
somehow lost their desire for more. 

They had various ways of pre- 
paring this dish. They mixed the 
preparation with crushed service 
berries, making a jam. The very 
finest dish, one fit only for the 
chief, was prepared by a mixture 
of the gi'asshoppcr meal and meal 
prepared from parched sunflower 
seed. 

With this they included the 
bodies of young wasps, taken fresh 
from the nests. It was pronounced 
the acme of perfection by the In- 
dian. Anyone dof^bting the In- 
dlaii'fl a bility to dibling uish the 



disappeared from view as the fin- 
ger came out, ready for another 
round. Up to the present writing, 
this simplicity in housekeeping hag 
not been exceedci •- ^ — « ^- '--^^t 
modern apartments. 

The Digger Indian had one In- 
herent vice. Most of the others 
we taught him. But the ago old 
one was his love for gambling. He 
might have lost interest in all 
mundane things, but never in gam- 
bling. 

They would gamble until every 
«titch was gone from their bodies. 

The Indian loved to dance. Why, 
no one really seemed to know. He 
had no ambitio i for any other ex- 
ercise, but he could always get up 
enough enthusiasm to dance, at 
night. 

Often, when a tribe wanted to 
have an especially big affair* they 
would spend weeks getting ready 
for it. Great was the war upon 
the gras*>hopper, the wasp, the 
snail, rat and chipmunk, for the 
dancers must be fed. The hills 
were searched for extra bright 
pieces of soft coloring --.-'*or, 
ohalk. 



the spirit on the other .side. 

But to the Indian, all this had a 
semi-religious aspect. They be- 
lieved, not so much in a God. as we 
understand it today, but more in a 
Happy Hunting Ground presided 
over by a good spirit. To this place 
must go the heart of every Indian, 
for the heart was held immortal, 
and while the body was burning, it 
leaped out and escaped to heaven. 

If, however, the body was to be 
buried, then the heart was con- 
denined to remain on earth, a prey 
to tiie evil spirt. In revenge, the 
heart turns about and plagues its 
living relatives forever after. 

When an Indian Vas known to 
be dying, his head was lifted gent- 
ly upon the lap of some relative 
and his eyes softly cloj^ed. while 
the rest of the family stood around 
and recited a low, monotonous 
chant. 

The moment his heart ceased to 
beat, the mournful chant changed 
to wailing, the women beat their 
breasts, and with streaming eye 



they apo.'^trophized the spirit of Ih 



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POOR LO. the Indian^ ,But 
you need not waste any tears 
rover him as far as the Mother 
Ivode Jndian Is concerned, fpr . 
practlcjillly speaking", with but very I 
few exceptions, there are no poor 
J^os on the Lode if you except, 
•'Calaveras Walker" and the few , 
acrofjs Wood's Creek fi^om the \ 
]\Jooney Ranch, just below James- 
town. 

« 

.^ Even these are mostly of th0 
laboring class, the one lone buck 
there the day I visited the Ranch- 

Ua u n<%r. *, 

working," Where, I never learned. ' 
To Impart that information would • 
have required more efforU It Was • 
easier to sit and stare' stra^ht 
ahead. Tttot was the fiHert^st his- * 
torical reminiscence I « ever re- 
ceived, 

"Calaveras Walker" is a most ' 
unique character/ He is tall, well 
built, dark chocolate in color, 
whiskered, gray hair, snappy black 
eyes, with rather a currious appeal 
shining in them, and with teeth 
that makes you think of burnt 
fctumpage. 

He is old. "Over a hundred," so 
•tis said. Possibly. My own im- 
pression Is that he is not over 85, ' 
if that. ^ 

He is famous locally, but difficult 
to locate. His cabin, such as it is, 
is way up the gulch out beyond 
Adams' ranch, back of ^rurphy*s. 
Two or three other Indians are 
with him there. 

Generally, "Calaveras Walker" 
may be found wherever moonshine 
is strongest. 

. At Angels Camp I asked C. T. 
Mills where I could find him. Mills 
knows every person in the county , 
afid started out to help find the 
Indian. He wasn't home. Nor was 
anyone else. As we neared Mur- 
phy's on the way back, just before 
sunset, we met him, homeward 
bound. It was still daylight, but 
the mooshine was already glowing; 
"Calaveras" was happy, supremely 
happy. ju.st bubbling over with joy 
and effervescing spirits He was 
8o glad to see Mills that he wanted 
to embrace him. Mills widestepped 
this evidence of appreciation, so 
"Calaveras" started a pow-wow all 
his own, danced, sang, and cried. 

We wanted a photo, the sun was 
Just setting, but that Indian in- 
Histed on dancing. He shimmied, 
he hopped, he wriggled and he 
giggled, while I kept jumping 
from side to side trying for a focus 
and a snap shot. I had six shots 
left. 

> But that Poor Lo was wise to th«^ 
amateur kodakist, he had persist- 
ently fought them for years, and 
he had no intention of being a will- 
ing target this time. 

He wanted a dollar, and a half 
from each of us. We compromised 
on four two-bit pieces. We posed 
him; just as I was ready he started 
dancing. We tried it againt and 
again. Mills tried all his per- 
suasive powers to keep hinr. quiet, 
but in vain, and that glorious sun- 
set was fast becoming a thing of 
the past. I had clicked five. I 
knew all were failures. I reported 
but one left. "Watch me. When 
I signal, shoot," whisr'^red Mills, as 
he grabbed tha*^ Indian'^ hancj, 
gave It a torrlflc squeeze. leTlted 
him, suddenly towards l/^tti, •nd 
tittered a few well Imown English 
phrases. • • 

The redman was takei itH 1»I« 



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guard, he was 
sp^aek. "Shoot, 
I shot. 

Thus was rfegis- 
terj^d for poster- 
ity the face and 
figure of "Cala- 
veras Walker,'? 

Mother Lode In- 
dians' of tRe days 
of forty-nine. 

]But it is pitl- 
ful; much. nvQr^'»o 



too surprised to 
" hisjsed Mills, and 



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country, to real- v 
izer what we have 
done to the noble 
redman. We took* 
him from Mother 
Nature, 'WhQ'*^^^ 
treated him well 
and* gave him an 
ideal existence 
from his point of 
view, to turn him 
over to our fos- 
ter' mother, civili- 
zation. We taught 
him all our vices, 
but not our vir- 
tues. It was much 
more profitable 
the way we did it. 

They say that niuch of our his- 
tory has never been written. We 

are certainly very lucky. We have 
enough explaining to do as it it. 

This article deals mainly with 
the Indian as the miner found him. 
It 'takes no cognizance of the In- 
dians of Northern California, 
which were of a decidedly differ- 
ent type. 

Candidly speaking, as the miner 
first found the Indian, he had less 
on than had Adam before Eve 
picked that Parldisian apple, for 
the miner went into the mines in 
the late spring, and the Indian was 
in summer attire. 

squaws, however, usually 

coyote ^ skin around their 

with more or less satisfac- 












■^.v 






— *«^. • 




• * • 













already 

t The 
wore a 
waists, 



tory concealmeAt, dependent upon 
whether the coyote had grown in 
proportion to the wearer. 

Very soon, as the miners began 
to throw away old shirts, scraps of 
cloth and brimless hats, the Indian 
began to adorn himself. 

^ Then he discovered that the little 
yellow pebbles that he had been 
walking over barefooted for cen- 
turies were of some value In buy- 
ing nice hew pieces of gaudy calico, 
pretty beads, and glossy silk hats. 
About the same time the miner dllS* 
covered that the Indian had no 
sense of values. The yellow gravel 
meant nothing to him, the calico 
did. To find out why, let us put 
the Indian in the test tube and 
analyze him. 

Probably of all the aborigines 
that the early California settler 
came to know, the Digger Indian 
surpassed Jiem all in dirty, filthy 
and degrading habits, looking at it 
now from the standpoint of the 
early settler. Their chief charac- 
teristics were indolence - .d glut- 
toiv . They were unwashed, un- 
combed, and decidedly in need of 
a chemical insect exterminator. 

They were rather short in stat- 
ure, coarse featured, hair black 
and usually matted. The men were 
the. acme of laziness.. They never 
hunted wild game, nor '^'^oked It 
when their wives brought It to 
them. They spent the day la^iipg 
around sleeping. At night > 



livened up enough to Indulge in a 
dance. That was the round of 
their existence. 

They dined, danced and slept. An 
ideal existence, for the men. 

They called them Diggers be- 
cause of the method by which 
they obtained much of their food. 
Grass hoppers, snails and wasps 
were the pirime delicacies, while 
acorns, roots, grass, clover, wild 
greens, rabbits, and rats were 
staples, with squirrels and fish as 
variety. 

When the white man came all 
delicacies faded into insignifi- 
cance compared with that brought 
here by the paleface. Nothing 
reached the heart of the redman 
like the American whisky. Nothing 
helped him to reach the Happy 
Hunting Grounds any quicker. 

To get grasshoppers enough for 
a lot of hungry males, even when 
the country was swarming with 
them, would have been a difficult 
matter for the squaws if they had 
been compelled to rely upon cafMi- 
ing them by hand. 

This is where they learned the 
efficiency of digging. They first 
dug a hole in a likely spot, dug It 
deep enough to keep the hopper 
' from hopping out again, once they 
got him in. 

Then the whole tribe formed a 
wide circle, far out from the pit, 
and -With heavy bunches of twigs 
and tree limbs, they begin to beat 
the insects to the center, the same 
!as we hold rabbit drives today. In 
this work even the males joined. 
Once the hole was filled they <* •- 
ered it over with the brush and 
grass and either smothered the in- 
sects, or built a fire over them, 
[created a smudge, dampened it 
own. and smothered- them much 
ore quickly this way. 
Then they were taken out and 
ried, either in the sun, or on hot 
tones, Whe nicely dried they 
ere ground into a meal and this, 
lixed with water, made a d(rti<c:ous 
aste, which was greedily' de- 
oured. 

cs they did not wait for 
fjs. Theyjate them 



as they caught them, but that was 
considered a trifle vulgar In some 
sections, so t^ey hydrated them 
first. . 

When I say that this grasshop- 
per meal was delicious, I but st|ite 

what various white men have said 
aftef they had eaten of the meal, 
either dry. or partially cooked. 
Some of Fremont's men on his 
third expedition tried some out and 
ate very heartily. They praised 
them highly, but after they learned 
what the meal consisted of they 
somehow lost their desire for more. 

They had various ways of pre- 
paring this dish. They mixed the 
preparation with crushed service 
berries, making a jam. The ^very 
finest dish, one fit only fon the 
chief, was prepared by a mixture 
of the grasshopper meal and meal 
prepared from parched sunflower 
seed 

With this they Included the 
bodies of young wasps, taken fresh 
from the nests. It was pronounced 
the acme of perfection by the In- 
dian. Anyone dot^bting the In- 
dian's ability to distinguish the 
quality of these various dishes can 
easily settle the point for himself. 
The recipes are very simple. 

They gathered grass seed by 
whipping the top of the grass over 
an open basket. Roots they gath- 
ered with a sharp stick. Children 
were usually allotted Jthis task. 
Acorns were really the^ mainstay. 
These were literally gathered by 
the ton and stored in various 
places, or dried and made into a 
meal, the familiar mortar and 
pestle so common in this state be- 
ing used for that purpose. 

Cooking was quite simple. They 
had watertight baskets in which 
the wet meal was placed. Hot 
stones were thrown In and stirred 
around, this being kept up until 
the mush was cooked. 

As soon as it was ready the 
family sat around the ba.sket, 
dipped in their fingers, collected 
as much as possible thereon, 
juggled It to their mouth a d with 
a half turn of the finder an^ • 
tightening of the lips the ilMisli 



\ 



V 



\ 



:* 




disappeared from view as the fin- 
ger Came out, ready for another 
round. Up to the present writing, 
th!g simplicity in housekeeping hag 

not be^n exceed erl'- ^ — > ^ '^•-t 

modern apartments. 

The Digger Indian had one In- 
herent vice. Most of the others 
we taught him. But the age old 
one was his love for gambling. He 
might have lost Interest in all 
»ntindane things, but never in gam- 
bling. 

; They would gamble until every 

stitch was gone from their bodies. 
The Indian loved to dance. Why, 

« ho one really seemed to know. He 
had no ambitioi for any other ex- 
ercise, but he could always get up 
enough enthusiasm to dance, at 
night. 

Often, when a tribe wanted to 
have an especially big affair, they 
would spend weeks getting ready 

.for it. Great was the war upon 
the grasshopper, the wasp, the 
snail, rat and chipmunk, for the 
dancers must be fed. The hills 
were searched for extra bright 
pieces of soft coloring -^-'*or, 
chalk, clay or black dirt. 

Anything that would lend color 
to the occasion was not overlooked. 
At dark the dance Oegan. It lasted , 
all night. Then came the feast 
of the luscious grasshopper, then 
a long, uninterru' ' " sleep until 
evening. 

> And so they lived and danced and 
slept until the great reaper came 
along and gathered to their fore- 
fathers. 

. Most of the California tribes 
•practiced cremation. TI.ey be- 
lieved that the lib*^rated spirit as- 
cended in th'^ smoke of the funeral 
pyre to dwell forever in the Happy 
Western Land. They had a rooted 
aversion to burial, because they 
hr'I that the soul could not be 
freed from its earthly tabernacle 
» except by fire, hence the greatest 
Insult they could offr- « /" " per- 
son or ^is friends was to "hole" 
him. 

Many tribes had an annual 
mourning for tr.cli .v.qd in which 
varlows articles of clothing were 
burai^d and thus w;iftt»d ncrosa t^ 



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o w n belongings; 
to that ^of their 
r^littivr •^*'*ftii 
the last piece of 
clothing upon 
their bodies. 
. When the whole 
was c o n 8u m e d 
the ^ ashes were 
sci*a^ped t oge t h e r 
and a rude 
wreath of flow- 
ers, weeds and 
brush placed 
around them. A 
portion of the 
ashes were inixed 
with some pitch, 
smeared upon the 
faces of the rela- 
ti%^e9 as a badge 
of mourning, and 
allowed to stay 
on until it wore 
off, U5-iially in about six months. 



the spirit on the other side. 

But to the Indian, all this had a 
semi-religious aspect. They be- 
lieved, not so much in a God, as we 
understand It today, but more in a 
Happy Hunting Ground presided 
over by a good spirit. To this place 
must go the heart of every Indian, 
for the heart was held immortal, 
and while the body was burning, it 
leaped out and escaped to heaven. 

If, however, the body was to be 
buried, then the heart was con- 
den^ned to remain on earth, a prey 
to the evil spirt. In revenge, the 
heart turns about and plagues its 
living relatives forever after. 

When an Indian ^as known to 
be dying, his head was lifted gent- 
ly upon the lap of some relative 
and his eyes softly eloped, while 
the rest of the family stood around 
and recited a low, monotonous 

chant. 

The moment his heart ceased to 
beat, the mournful chant changed 
to walling, the women beat their 
breasts, and with streaming eyes 
they apostrophized the spirit of the 
departed. 

The body was then removed to 
an open space, every sound was 
hushed, both women and men sat 
around in silent groups, for prob- 
ably twenty minutes this quiet ex- 
isted. Then suddenly the women 
began a terrific walling, while the 
men began to build the funeral 

pyre, ^ ^ 

This was built about two feet 
high. Again everyone became 
silent. THe men placed the coi'pse 
on the wooden pyre, covered it 
thoroughly with more fuel, and the 
oldest and nearest relative was 
given the honor of putting ;tha 
torch to the brush. 

With the first sign of smoke th* 
wailing begins afresh, each wonia*L 
trying to howl louder than - th~ 
other. All the men stand in sull< 
and unbroken silence, while tl 
nearest relative begins a wild anj 
furious dance around the fire. 

As they circle around they begrJ 
ca,8ting into the fire the person! 
effects of the decea.sed. In thel 
excitement they often added th( 






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POOR LO. the Indian! But 
you need not waste any tears 
rover him as far as the Mother 
liode Jndian is concerned,' fpr 
practic^IIly speaking", with but very 
few epcceptions, there are no poor 
T^os on the Lode if you except 
•'Calaveras Walker" and the few 
across Wood's Creek fi^om the 
IVJooriey Ranch, just below James- 
town. 

4 

Even these are mostly of the 
laboring class, the one lone buck 

lere the day I vimted the Rancb- 

!ta 




sne out 



working,'* Where, I never learned. 
To impart that information would • 
have required more effort. It Was * 
easier to sit and stare' straight 
ahead; Tti«t was thei BHortcst his-* 
torical reminiscence I ever re- 
ceived, ' 

•'Calaveras Walker" is a most " 
unique character. He is tall, well 
built, dark chocolate in color, 
whiskered, gray hair, snappy black 
eyes, with rather a currious appeal 
shining in them, and with teeth 
that makes you think of burnt 
ttumpage. 

He is old. "Over a hundred," so 
•tia said. Possibly. My own im- 
pression is that he is not over 85, 
if that. « 

He is famous locally, but difficult 
to locate. His cabin, such as it is, 
is way up the gulch out beyond 
Adams' ranch, back of Murphy's. 
Two or three other Indians are 
with him there. 

Generally, "Calaveras Walker" 
may be found wlierever moonshine 
Is strongest. 

. At Angels Camp I asked C. T. 
Mills where I could find him. Mills 
knows every person in the county , 
and started out to heli> find the 
Indian. He wasn't home. Nor was 
anyone else. As we neared Mur- 
phy's on the way back, just before 
sunset, we met him, homeward 
bound. It was still daylight, but 
the mooshine was already glowing; 
*'Calaveras" was happy, supremely 
happy, just bubbling over with joy 
and effervescing spirits He was 
8o glad to see Mills that he wanted 
to embrace him. Mills widestepped 
this evidence of appreciation, so 
"Calaveras" started a pow-wow all 
his own. danced, sang, and cried. 

We wanted a photo, the sun was 
Just setting, but that Indian in- 
sisted on dancing. He shimmied, 
he hopped, he wriggled and he 
giggled, while I kept jumping 
from side to side trying for a focus 
and a snap shot. 1 had six shots 
left. 

. But that Poor Lo was wise to the 
amateur kodakist, he had persist- 
ently fought them for years, and 
he had no intention of being a will- 
ing target this time. 

He wanted a dollar, and a half 
from each of us. We compromised 
on four two-bit pieces. We posed 
him; just as I was ready he started 
dancing. We tried it again* and 
again. Mills tried all his per- 
Buasive powers to keep hinr. quiet, 
but in vain, and that glorious siua- 
set was fast becoming a thing of 
the past. I had clioked five. I 
knew all were failures. I reported 
but one left. ''Watch me. When 
I signal, shoot," whis^-'^red Mills, as 
he grabbed tha^ Indian's han(J, 
grave it a t'5rrific squeeze, ierhed 
him, suddenly towards l/«i, and 
uttered a few well known Enifllsh 
phrases. • • 

The redman was takei ttK Ms 







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guard, he was too surprised to 
sp0aek. **Shoot," hisjsed Mills, an<f 
I shot. 

Thus was regis- 
tered for poster- 
ity the .face and 
figure of "Cala- 
veras WaJker.'f 

Mother Lode In- 
dians" of tfte days 
of forty-nine. 

But It is piti- 
f ul; much, n 

country, to real- 
ize What we have 
done to the noble 
redman. We took 
him from Mother 
N a t u r e ; "'^#1io 
treated him well 
and* gave him an 
i d e a 1 existence 
from his point of 
view, to turn him 
over to our fos- 
ter' mother, civili- 
zation. We taught 
him all our vices, 
but not our vir- 
tues. It was much 
more profitable 
the way we did it. 

They say that much of our his- 
tory has never been written. We 

are certainly very lucky. We have 
enough explaining to do as it it. 

This article deals mainly with 
the Indian as the miner found him. 
It 'takes no cognizance of the In- 
dians of Northern California, 
which were of a decidedly differ- 
ent type. 

Candidly speaking, as the miner 
first found the Indian, he had less 
on than had Adam before Eve 
picked that Paridisian apple, for 
the miner went into the mines in 
the late spring, and the Indian was 
already in summer attire. 

; The squaws, however, usually 
wore a coyote skin around their 
waists, with more or less satisfac- 
tory concealmeAt, dependent upon 
whether the coyote had grown in 
proportion to the wearer. 

Very soon, as the miners began 
to throw away old shirts, scraps of 
cloth and brimless hats, the Indian 
began to adorn himself. 

^ Then he discovered that the little 
yellow pebbles that he had been 
walking over barefooted for cen- 
turies were of some value In buy- 
ing nice new pieces of gaudy calico, 
pretty beads, and glossy silk hats. 
About the same time the miner dTS* 
covered that the Indian had no 
sense of values. The yellow gravel 
meant nothing to him, the calico 
did. To find out why, let us put 
the Indian in the test tube and 
analyze him. 

Probably of all the aborigines 
that the early California settler 
came to know, the Digger Indian 
surpassed whem all in dirty, filthy 
and degrading habits, looking at it 
now from the standpoint of the 
earjy settler. Their chief charac- 
teristics were indolence ^ .d glut- 
ton; . They were unwashed, un- 
combed, and decidedly in need of 
a chemical insect exterminator. 

They were rather short in stat- 
ure, coarse featured, hair black 
and usually matted. The men were 
the. acme of laziness.. They never 
hunted wild game, nor '^'^oked it 
when their wives brought it to 
them. They spent the day lajUi^g 
around sleeping. At night ' > 



o w n bejoiigingsj 
- td that "^bf their 

the last piece of 
clothing upon 
their bodies. 
. When the whole 
was c o n su m e d 
the ashes were 
scra-ped together 
and a rude 
wreath of flow- 
ers, weeds and 
brush placed 
around them. A 
portion of the 
ashes were mixed 
with some pitch, 
smeared upon the 
faces of the rela- 



tives 



badge 



off, u5Aially 



of mourning, and 

allowed to stay 

on until it wore 

about six months. 



livened up enough to Indulge in a 
dance. That was the round of 
their existence. 

They dined, danced and slept. Ah 
ideal existence, for the men. 

They called them Diggers be- 
cause of the method by which 
they obtained much of their food. 

Grass hoppers, snails and wasps 
were the prime delicacies, while 
acorns, roots, grass, clover, wild 
greens, rabbits, and rats were 
staples, with squirrels and fish as 
variety. 

When the white man came all 
delicacies faded into insignifi- 
cance compared with that brought 
here by the paleface. Nothing 
reached the heart of the redman 
like the American whisky. Nothing 
helped him to reach the Happy 
Hunting Grounds any quicker. 

To get grasshoppers enough for 
a lot of hungry males, even when 
the country was swarming with 
them, would have been a difficult 
matter for the squaws if they had 
been compelled to rely upon cafMi- 
ing them by hand. 

This is where they learned the 
efficiency of digging. They first 
dug a hole in a likely spot, dug It 
deep enough to keep the hopper 
] from hopping out again, once they 
got him in. 

Then the whole tribe formed a 
wide circle, far out from the pit, 
and .with heavy bunches of twigs 
and tree limbs, they begin to beat 
the insects to the center, the same 
as we hold rabbit drives today. In 
this work even the males joined. 
Once the hole was filled they <• -- 
ered it over with the brush and 
grass and either smothered the in- 
sects, or built a fire over them, 
created a smudge, dampened it 
[down, and smothered them much 

ore quickly this way. 

Then they were taken out and 

ried, either In the sun, or on hot 
tones. Whe nicely dried they 

ere ground into a meal anO this, 

ixed with water, made a dMic:ous 

aste, which was greedily' de- 

oured. 

cs they did not wait for 
Theyjate them 



as they caught them, b»t that was 
considered a trifle vulgar in some 
sections, so tl^ey hydra;ted them 
first. 

When I say that this grasshop- 
per meal was delicious, I but stp,te 

what various white men have said 
aftei* they had eaten of the meal, 
either dry, or partially cooked. 
Some of Fremont's men on his 
third expedition tried some out and 
ate very heartily. They praised 
them highly, but after they learned 
what the meal consisted of they 
somehow lost their desire for more. 

They had various ways of pre- 
paring this dish. They mixed the 
preparation with crushed service 
berries, making a jam. The .very 
finest dish, one fit only fon the 
chief, was prepared by a mixture 
of the gi-asshopper meal and meal 
prepared from parched sunflower 
seed 

With this they included the 
bodies of young wasps, taken fresh 
from the nests. It was pronounced 
the acme of perfection by the In- 
dian. Anyone dot^bting the In- 
dian's ability to distinguish the 
quality of Ihese various dishes can 
easily settle the point for himself. , 
The recipes are very simple. 

They gathered grass seed by 
whipping the top of the grass over 
an open basket. Roots they gath- 
ered with a sharp stick. Children 
were usually allotted this task. 
Acorns were really the^ mainstay. 
The.se were literally gathered by 
the ton and stored in various 
places, or dried and made into a 
meal, the familiar mortar and * 
pestle so common in this state be- 
ing used for that purpose. 

Cooking was quite simple. They 
had watertight baskets in which 
the wet meal was placed. Hot 
stones were thrown in and stirred 
around, this being kept up until 
the mush was cooked. 

As soon as it was ready the 
family sat around the basket, 
dipped in their fingers, collected 
as much as possible thereon, 
juggled it to their mouth n d with 
a half turn of the finger an^ % 
tightening of the lip9 the ilmsli 



disappeared from view as the fin- 
ger Came out, ready for another 
round. Up to the present writin;?, 
this simplicity in housekeeping hag 

not been exceedori '•- ^ — • ^ -^^t 

modern apartments. 

The Digger Indian had one ir- 
herent vice. Most of the others 
we taught him. But the age old 
one was his love for gambling. He 
might have lost interest in all 
mundane things, but never in gam- 
bling. 

They would gamble until every 
stitch was gone from their bodies. 

The Indian loved to dance. Why, 
lio one really scented to know. He 
had no ambitio.i for any other ex- 
ercise, but he could always get up 
enough enthusiasm to dance, at 
night. 

Often, when a tribe wanted to 
have an especially big affair, they 
would spend weeks getting ready 
for it. Great was the war upon 
the grasshopper, the wasp, the 
snail, rat and chipmunk, for the 
dancers must be fed. The hills 
were searched for extra bright 
pieces of soft coloring ■•-'*or, 
chalk, clay or black dirt. 

Anything that would lend color 
to the occasion was not overlooked. 
At dark the dance Oegan. It lasted 
all night. Then came the feast 
of the luscious grasshopper, then 
a long, uninterru' ' " sleep until 
evening. 

^ And so they lived and danced and 
slept until the gre^t reaper came 
along and gathered to their fore- 
fathers. 

Most of the California tribes 
•practiced cremation. T!.ey be- 
lieved that the liberated spirit as- 
cended in thn smoke of the funeral 
pyre to dwell forever in the Happy 
.'Western Land. They had a rooted 
aversion to burial, because they 
hr^M that the soul could not be 
freed from its earthly tabernacle 
• except by fire, hence the greatest 
insult they could offr^- « r" " per- 
son or Jiis friends was to ''hole" 
him. 

Many tribes had an annual 
mourning for tl.oli rV/id in which 
various articles of clothing were 
burifead and thus wafted across to 



the spirit on the other side. 

But to the Indian, all this had a 
semi-religious aspect. They be- 
lieved, not so much in a God, as we 
understand it today, but more in a 
Happy Hunting Ground presitied 
over by a good spirit. To this place 
must go the heart of every Indian, 
for the heart was held immortal, 
and while the body was burning, it 
leaped out and escaped to heaven. 

If, however, the body was to be 
buried, then the heart was con- 
den^ined to remain on earth, a prey 
to the evil spirt. In revenge, the 
heart turns about and plagues its 
living relatives forever after. 

When an Indian Vas known to 
be dying, his head was lifted gent- 
ly upon the lap of some relative 
and his eyes softly closed, while 
the rest of the family stood around 
and recited a low, monotonous 

chant. 

The moment his heart ceased to 
beat, the mournful chant changed 
to wailing, the women beat their 
breasts, and with streaming eyes 
they apostrophized the spirit of the 
departed. 

The body was then removed to 
an open space, every sound was 
hushed, both women and men sat 
around in silent groups, for prob- 
ably twenty minutes this quiet ex- 
isted. Then suddenly the women 
began a terrific wailing, while the 
men began to build the funeral 

pyre. ^ ^ 

This was built about two feet 
high. Again everyone became 
silent. THe men placed the coi'pse 
on the wooden pyre, covered it 
thoroughly with more fuel, and the 
oldest and nearest relative was 
given the hoiior of putting .the 
torch to the brush. 

With the first sign of smoke the 
wailing begins afresh, each w-oman 
trying to howl louder than -the 
other. All the men stand in sullen 
and unbroken silence, while ,the 
nearest relative begins a wild and 
furious dance around the fire. 

As they circle around they berjln 
casting into the fire the personal 
effects of the deceased. In their 
excitement they often fidded their 



'»*'-■,''•' 






OCTOBER 1, ]923 ^ 




ncient Indian 
Burying Ground 
Found In Sierra 




THREB MVm^cr^a^c Co.)f 
Oct. 1.— •J^xc/LTfftTon tvoii^ in a 
Sravel cutjust bej'ond the Mar- 
ble Fork BrldsTfiM^n tb^ state 
hlfirliway bclnsT btdl^MiSeqtuoia 
Parky has uncoveriW^vhat prob- 
ably Is an old Indian bnryingr 
irronnd. 

A complete skeleton Trlth sknil 
and teeth In a splendid state of 
reservation, parts of another 
skeleton and a lonir> pointed 
piece of metal, presumably a 
srrave dlgrirlni^ implement, have 
been fonnd* 

In the early days band« of 
Indians -were knoirrn to roant the 
canyon of the Middle Fork, so It 
is a natural supposition that the 
skeletons are those of some 
tribe of red men. The complete 
skeleton is rather small, indl- 
catiuiT that it was a female. 

E. J, Brown, one of the con- 
tractors who put in the blar ce- 
ment bridice -across the Middle 
Fork at this point, made' th< 
find. 






\ionary To tiesume 
^ / Work Among Indian. 




OROST, Sept. 
. C. Llv 
iemporari 
|! weeks, 1 
where they 
Mrs. Live 

ary work among the 
account of illness sh 
granted a year's leave dT' absence 
by the Baptist state board. While 
she was away the work was under 
the Bupervislou of the Kev, Mr. Kec- 
tor of Exeter. 



and Mrs. I 

ve resided 

or several 

)r Dunlap, 

their home. I 

resume mission- 

Im^an^ On 

w l^r been 

e OT^abse 



^ A« W» I )A I 




INDIAN ARTISTRY ATTRACTS MOTORIST 



TULE RIVER HAS MAI 
PRETTY PICNIC SPOTS 





'xited but unci 
is^qfuarter system installed 
estif2ig poiuis of interest 
along the r\/er in the shade 
tured articles, which they sell. 




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Tasty MineraZ Sprin, 




lADED witli age but still clear enough to show the out 
lines and some detail of the original design, pictures an< 
drawings made by Indians some time in the past, ar 
visible on the rock walls and ceiling of a <;tone caver 
in the Tule River Indian reservation. 
Located on the bank of the Tule river, this grotto contain- 
ing the only known Indian paintings in Central California, re- 
sembles a huge loaf of breacj resting atop two huge bowlders, 
The roof of the cavern is about eight feet from the floor in the 
highest place and is entirely covered with designs and colored 
paintings or drawings from nature. 

Amongr th*** animals recosrnizable ♦ 



C- -,•.••■, .■*'•:•:•.■.■■•■:•;■.• .•^.•■•■;-x-;'''>''--'.';^'-^;-;'.>; 

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are the weasel, .oontlpcile, scor- 
itelope, ^'rrwcr, snakos, H'^ 



present &nont W. Bailey, special 



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ineral Sprin 



FADED vnth age but still clear enough to .^how the out 
lines and some detail of the original ^design, piTtires am 
drawings made by Indians some time in the past ar 

StlV?!^ %' '°'^' r "' ""-^ "''^"^ "^ ^ stone caver 
in the Tule River Indian reservation 

Located on the bank of the Tule river, this grotto contain 
ielht'^"K^''"r\^"/f" 5^'"*'"^^ ^" Central^a fornir^. 
T^r^Jr}^'' ^°'^ °^ .^'■'u'^ '"'*'"^ ^t°P t^^-o huge bowMert 

h^^L?t ir ^ f^^'" '' ^.''*'"* ^'§^'^* ^^^* f'-^'" the floorTtht 
highest place and is entirely covered with desiens and rnl J"i 

paintings or drawings from nature. ^ ''°*°'^*'^ 

Among th<^ animals recognizable ♦ — 
are the weasel, .centipede, scor- 



plon, antelope, beaver, snakes, llz- 
»r<3s, and small animal life. On the 
walls are small figures of human 
beings and one huge figure resem- 
bling a hooded being very much 
like the modern klansman In full 
regalia. Age has caused the bright 
red, black and yellow colors to fade 
and run to some extent, but consid- 
ering the length of time these draw- 
ings have been exposed to the 
weather they have lasted remark- 
ably well. They were there when 
the goldseekers capie In the early 
days and even before that the In- 
dians tell of having seen them. No 
legend could be found out about 
them from the Tule Indians, as they 
have only been there of compara- 
tively recent time. 

The Tule Indians originally were 
located near the present site of 
Portervllle, while the country now 
occupied by them is understopd to 
ba^'-a retreat of wandering tribes 
that came up from the south en- 
route to the North. It is quite prob- 
able that these drawings were made 
by some wandering tribe's medicine 
man. Numerous small mill holes 
are In the surface of a nearby rock 
which were worn there by the In- 
dians in grinding their grains and 
acorns. This one rock has more 
than a dozen deep and numerous 
shallow holes. 

Although the Painted Rocks are 
of sufficient interest to draw the 
eurlous motorist, there are several 
other points of interest on the res- 
ervation. Among them is a mineral 
spring similar to the one at Sprin g- 
vllle. The spring contains large 
amounts of iron and tninor quan 
titles of sulphur, soda and othe 
minerals. It resembles rusty wate 
in appearance and tastes like phos 
phate. To enjoy this water thor 
oughly the motorist should tak 
along several lemons and put thel, 
.tuice with the water, thereby mak' 
Ing It more palatable as well ai 
healthful. The spring is locatecl 
just off the main road about two 
miles above the agent headquarter* 
but there Is Su-elgn directing Its lo- 
cation tacked up by the roadside. 

If Sufficient time is jvftllable the 
motorist can continue farther up 
the Tule valley to the end of the 
road, where a grove of Sequoia 
Redwoods stand. It Is about sly 
miles from the Painted Rooks to the 
government headquarters and 92 
miles from there to Fresno. 

Cattle raising is the pHncipal in- 
dustry of the Indians of the reser- 
vation. Minor pursuits include gar- 
^J'^ning. working in the fruit in thf^ 
galley, and hunting and fishing, 
'ne reservation contains 64 thou- 
sand acres extending from the tim- 
©•rune t% ihm Iowt Xdothllls, At 



present Ernest W. Bailey, special 

ffoyernmental officer, is in charge 

ar« ?fii''r^"?'^'t*^^'' ^"^ «^^^<>1- There 
tion 4 f^ I"^ians on the reserva- 

in thf ""f Z^"""? ^^^^ "^^^^^ children 

ir« f i'"*^^ ,^^^^^ «^^^^^«- There 

While Z /^^^tt ^^^^^^^ ^^<^*^ns 
While the few there are have only 

small strains of Spanish and Mexi^ 

«mn ""."J^- ^^^ «P^^ Mexican 
among themselves while the major- 
ity understand English. English is 
used exclusively by the schoo chi ! 
dren while practically all have at 
ecrol/'"'-?. attende"^ ATertcan 
mn.o, • I 7*"^ ^^^^ standard of 
morals, industry and mental train- 
ing is out of contrast with the 

^^ j^ ^\ ^" ^P^^® ^' advantages 
provided by the government, hov! 
ever they retain their love of liv- 
ing In squalid and uncivilized sur. 
roundmgs. Many ^ave automobiles 
and nice houses but few wear clo^hn 

rUL ^^^ ?"^^ ^^ distinguished 
them something to cove? 

The Republican Scout Car was J 
Swi?r Z'"''''*"^ "^^^""^ negotiate^ 

The r^ntl t.^^^''*'" headquarters! 
Fowl-.? c , ^^^'^ "^^^ ^y ^»y of 
V^Zul' 1^'?^ Klngsburg, Goshen, 
Iv Sf^^f '''' Farmersville. Llnd- 
say. Strath more and Portervllle 

S.vm'^"''^'"" the htehwaT to 

ffeht^In ^t^ ^'"^^'^ '««• about 
eight m»es when a sign directing 

the motorist to th.i right on f 

graveled county road was followed 

t1;i%,T"' "^ th« "teel brldgeTver 
the Tule river about one mile the 
road fork8. The road to the left 
away from the school house Vhould 

/^r"w*"'' ''•<"» there on th 
main highway of travel. The roa 

?^!Jn, *'^*'^i'*"* condition for d»t 
foothill roads and little dlfflcrftv 
was found In traveling them 



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[XPLOREIi SETS 
SAIL TO VISIT 
THON ISLE 



tflta-teMMtoMMtf 



Salisbury's Second Expedi- 
tion to Study Savage Tribes 
in Gulf of California 

Special by Leased Wire to The Chromlole. 

LOS ANaELBS, Nov. 11.— Thd lurd 

of adventure In the little known 

and unexplortd corners of the world 

haB agrain taken Captain Edward A. 

Salisbury, internationally famous 

explorer, naturalist and scientist, 

to Tiburon island, In the Gulf of 
California, where live the savagre 
Sierra Indians. 

Captain Salisbury left yesterday 
aboard the yacht Sanneona. He was 
accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. W. J. 
Hole of Arlington, Riverside county, 
owners of the yacht. 

The Indians on Tiburon island, 
Captain Salisbury stated, are the 
lowest in Intelligence of any In the 
Americas. They are very savagre 
and believed by many to be canni- 
bals. But few white men have evfer 
visited the island and the natives 
are relatively unknown. Captain 
Salisbury stated he first visited the 
island in 1893, being perhaps the 
first white man to do so. At that 
time, he said, the Indians wore 
practically no clothing, the little 
they wore consisting of pelican 
skins. 



DECKMBER G, 1023 



Thirty Indians attemded the First 
Baptist churck at lidknemucca last 
Sunday, ^hrd^jg^ theV^orts of Rev. 
P. M. Clay^pastor of the church, a 
small churcn has beeaqi^en over exr 
clusively to the use m the Indian 
colony. A feature of the services 
is a choir composed entirely of In- 
dian girls. An organ has been ise- 
cured and wijl be installed for use 
by anothQT^unday. 







"EXAMINER*" GIFT TO BKOWJlTOTS 



| JBaL^.<^jqiWM »88«y»y ^ 



CaHfornIa Hearst-f aPers\ Send 
Real Dolls to Little*Virown 
Tots Throughout the State 



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Six hundred and seventy-six lit- 
tle Indian girls fron\ 2 to 12, 
throughout the length and breadth 
of Galifornia, will open brown eyes 
In wonder this morning. A postman 
will hand eacW of them an odd- 
fehaped package, wrapped In heavy 
brown paper, addressed to her very 
own self on a^^ linen tag, bearing 
also the printed lines: "Season's 
Greetings of the San Francisco •Ex- 
aminer/" _ In Southern California 
the eame.wUl.;b« rM^ Angeles Ex- 
aminer.*- ' - ■''■ •^'■'- -■'■ ■ '' 

As the ea€r«r brown fingers untie 
the stout cord, much soft, squashy, 
tissue-paper will be revealed, and 
when the. rolls and rolls of it have 
been unwound, each little Indian 
girl will find her first real, finest- 
quality doll, just like those the rich 
little white girls have. 

Some of the dolls have blue eyes, 
and some have brown eyes; some 
have brown hair and some have 
. golden hair; all have rose-leaf 
cheeks, plump and dimpled, and 
every last one has eyes that close 
gently when tenderly laid down and 
then pop open again like California 
flowers in the sunshine when held 
up at arm's length to be scolded, or 
praised or just talked to for com- 
f/pany*. 
CUNNING DRESSES. 

And the dresses are as cunning as 
the dolls themselves. Some have 
saucy red ta.^'s over brown curley 
locks; nifty sport jackets and whlt« 
jersey skirts, and the neatest p«,v^' 
tent-leather pumps you ever saw. 
Others are all lacy and frilly, some 
in silk and satin— party dresses, 
you know — some In sheer muslin 
and dimity and lawn, but all are 
adorable and sure to be adored by 
the tiny Indian maidens. 

Only poor little girls, whose pa- 
rents could not afford to buy them 
fancy things for Christmas, re- 
ceived the dolls. The thought was 
I that of William Randolph Hearst— 
a chance suggestion made many 
months ago — and carefully carried 
out. 
CASES INVESTIGATED. 

With the help of the Indian Board 
of Co-operation, every little In- 
dian girl in California was quietly 
Investigated, and the nt^mes of the 
676 whose parents were so poor that 
their children were faced with a 
dolless Chrlst-naJ. were handed t6 
C. A. McDonald, wno constituted 
himself "The Examiner's" official 
"Santa Claus," although he insists 
ho is only the purchasing agent. No 
ordinary purchasingT agent, how- 
ever, would put in three days and 
nights with a staff of typists and 
his secretary, Miss Myrtle Beam, 
who used to teach a class of Indian 
children in Mendocino county, ^^er- 
sonally supervising the careful 
wrapping, packing and addressing 
f nearly 700 dolls for the Indian 
Iris — yet that's just what McDon- 
Id did. 



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Every one of these packages contau 
carry them to 676 poor little Indian girl 
ndian Board of Co-operation aided in tl 



rTSTbiTdoUrJust like those smiling at you. Santa Claus wdl 
throughout California at the suggestion of Mr. Hearst. The 
endeavor to assure the children a real Merry Christmas. 



ICTREKA, f:Af . STAXDARD IM 





i.\hX I 



\VAsmX(lT()>f. l)e^'. 25.~:Miss Faith 
IMiJsluat, a CherrVkeo Indian fiirl from 
tho Spavinaw jfcKlhs in Oklahoma, at 
the White House rotiently presented 
i*i"esicleiit Cooli(lK<^ with a copy of 
••The nea Alan in UnKerl ^States,'' a 
Ktudy of present-day Incli/m life un- 
der the aiispioes of the Inatkute «f 
SOfial and Religious Ilesearch. Tho 
book h«Ms an ■elalK>rat<^ly beaded rover 
<»sperially made for t\%t President by 
•women of thi? Che\'ehiiFe rd^^ervatfon. 
».\liss Muskrat; wHo is aounlor in'Mt. 
Mol>'oko C'oUe^^e, in thip ])re5fentation 
acted as the representative of all the 
Indian students of the United States. 
Her p! esent:ition speech is here niv^n 
in full: 

"Mr. President: — 

•"i'hi.s volume of the "Ptcd :Man in 
Die I'jiited States" is presented to 
"The Cireat White Father" in behalf 
of the many Indian students of Am- 
erica. It is a book which bears the 
best we have to offer — the story of 
ituv struK.crles and our tra^^di^s, of 
iKir victories an<l our developments. 
The volume presents tlie results of an 
r-xliaustive Invejiti^Htion itiade undei- 
the auspices of what hi now known 




as the Institute of Socia-f and Tlelig:- 

ious M^eaearch. It gives for the "first 

time, ^ comprehensive account of the 

social, economic, and religious condi- 
tions amonK niy people as they are 
loclay. It is the only study of its kincl 
ihat has ever been undertaken, and 
h wiU perhaps remain uniQMe in this 
i respect since we may reasonably hope 
that when tltB time -Would ordinarily be 
ripe ti)X unother such study, \vhat is 
knowii ^ftc the *;Jndian Problem" will 
have <ieased to ^:jcist. i 

"Back on the t^heyen^ie lleservation 
in Oklahoma women have worked with 
lovlnjt atd painstaking- care to make 
this rift worthy for the "Oeat White 
Father,'* weaving: into this beaded 
cover the symbolic story of opr race 
— the story of the old type of Indian, 
greeting with the hand of" friendship 
the founders of this j^reat nation; and 
the story of the new Indian emerjjring" 
fr6m his semi -barbaric state, tilling' 
the soil, and, building for citizenship 
under the guidance vof the school. 

"Ml*. 'President, there have been so 
many d.is(;ussibns (If the iso-called 
"Indian Problo'in," May not we wh() 
are the Indian students of this gonera- 



tlon, who must iJice the burdens of 

that problem, say to you what it means 

to us? "You know that in the old days 

there wore mighty Indian leaders — 

men of viKlon, of courR|?e, and of ex- 
alted ideals. History tells us fir-stof 
Chief Powhatan who met a strange 
pef>>de on the shores of his country 
and called them brothers; Massaaoit, 
v.'ho offered friendship, and shaded his 
kingdom. Then there appeared anoth- 
er type of leader, the war chief, fight- 
ing to (defend his home and his people. 
The members of my ra'ee will never 
forget the names of King Philip, of 
Chief Joseph, of. Tecumseh. To us 
they will always be severed as great 
leaders who had the courage, to fight, 




hearts of the In- civilization — . AVe want to make our 
ly. That same po- own unique contribution to the civil- 



I' ■ 
still lives in the 

dian youths of today 
lential greatness lies deep iii the souls 
of the Indian students \vho mu.st be- 
come leadens in, .this new era. Our 

old lifd ifas gone. A new trail must' 

)>e found, for the old is not good to 

travel farther. We are glad to have 

it so. P>ut these younger leaders who 

Miust^ guide their people along new and 

untried paths have perhaps a hni'dcr 

task ]»efore them than the fight for agortient 

freedom our okler leaders had to make. I brothers 

Ours must be the problem of leading 

this vigoi'ous and by no njeans dying 

i.K'C y\ peoi)le back to th* ir right ful 

heritjigo of nobility and greatn(».ss. 

Ours nuiht be the t^isk of lejiding 



izations of the woi-ld- 
own gifts to the altar 




I 



our past. It was not .tjV accident ^hat 
all t h else lead jf^rni wer^ ' Vrep^t . X h9i:e; 
was some \iiddeh eiiergy sonye' great 
driving ii>nev ambition, ,, ,t?(»m^ H^^'" 

penetration^oii^. ylsioi^, t^inV'u^^^ 1 share in; the buikyng- 

on. ihiit wo lofe. P,ut vy» 

*'W^h;,it made the oUler leaders great f pi-OHelve th«' best iViJit 



any vision of 6} it. \AV \Nar.t to u-^itUrr 
stujiid and to jwcept tiie civilization' of 
tne Syriite i)fiian; we want to be(^ome 
(^itij^ns- J6t';'yie;i'^ ^a Les ; )ii;»<i to 

"sKar'e in; nte ' buikiirig- nf thie, mitl'on 



to )>ring oui' 

*)f that great 
spiritual and artistic unity that such 
a nation as America must have. This. 
Air. President, is the Indian i)r(>blem 
which we who 'are Indians find our- 
selves facing. 

"In ordei- to find a solvKion we must 
ha\'e schools: we must have encour- 
;ind lielp from our white 
Ali-eady there are schools, — 
but the nunil»er is pitifully inadequate. 
And already tlic V)eginne!*s toward an 
intelligeiit and svHjpatheii*- under- 
Rtandii^g of oui- ncfkls aTid our lodg- 
ings have been made through efforts 
Fuch as this botjk l-epi-esonts. I'^or 
these "iejison.s. ttiday, as never before, 
the trail ahead for tiu« Indian looks 
cb hr and })right With promi.MC. TUit 
it is yet many long weary piiles^ until 
the end. 
.i "it ^lii fUJt of gratitM<lo for tlic 



ipoiLunitics for the education and cul- 
ture which have been aff«)rded us l>v 



W ., Ill ;i I'O to. 
ys ill our uv\*^i>j 



op 



the interest of the v/hite jnali. aiid nut j that thi« book is presented 

of o'lVr, love tor tiiis nation to which i '\lreat White Father'' in behalf ^f T'' 

we aie <'agcr t,o contrir)irit(V(uir'be.^t, Indian students of America " **' 

, - ■ i'' ■■■• ♦ 



ICTREKA, ftAf . STANDARD 10» 







-Miss Rijih 



IMiiskrat, a (^hei'ok,ec Indian i^irl from 
tlio S'pavinaw ilflKs in Oklahoma, at 
tiic WJiitn HoiiKo rtvtenlly presented 
President roolidKe will! a eopy of 
••The Ited Alan in rn'ilorl 8t.ites," a 
^'tlJ(ty of i>resent-day Iiuii;in life iin 



as the Institute of Hooiaf'and Tlelig- 
ious Keeeai-ch. It gives for the* first 
time, a eoniin-ehenslve account of the 
social, economic, iind relipious condi- 
tions amoHK my people as they are 
loclay. It is the only study of its kind 
I hat has ever been undertaken, and 









I. -1- • . , liifii. ii»».-^ ».-\ri nt'fii unaeriaKen anri 

der the auspice?; of the institute* ♦>£ w xviP r»<:.,.in«r.o ,.<..,.-,• \ 

v^a/.,m1 ..,wi i»^i • T, , r,.. \^ ^^''^ perJiaps remain unique in this 

»SOciaI and ilelisious llesearcli. ho vp^jn^^f «inr.^. ^^-^ .^.«,, . ^^^ x 

1 1 L , , ! 1 espec L since we mav rtiasoiuiblv hono 

hook has an olMhor-i f .1 v honrl*^rl r.i»tr^,. .,. r , .. . "^^ i^<i.^uMcioi> no])t 



hook has an elahorafdy beaded cover 
especially made for the i 'resident by 
v/onien of thr rhe\'enne leservation. 
Aliss .v(nski-at, who is a junior in Alt. 
Mol>'ok(' (.'olle.^e, in thi.«^' ])resentation 
acffd as the representalive of all the | 
Indian siudents of the I'nited Slates, 
flei' picsMntalion speech is here :4ivf'i\ 
in full: 

"Air. f'j'esident: — 

•"rhis v<dume of the "Red Alan in 
flu' I'nited States" is i)resented lo 
'•'I'iir (Jreat White Father" in behalf 
of I ho many Indian students of Am- 
orira. li is a book which bears the 
be.s! we have to offer — the stoiy of 
our strii.uKles and our t i-a.^edies, of 
inw victoi'ies and our developments. 
Tlu' volume pi'oseiUs the i*esults of an 
• xh.iustive ln\'\stiMation iiuuie under 
ihe aus})i(es of what is now known 



that when the time would ordinarily he 
ripe fur another such study, what is 
known ar. the 'indicui I'roblem" will 
have ceased to exist. 

"Hnck on the Cheyenne lleseivation 
in Oklahoma women have worked with 
lovinr and painstaking- care to make 
this rift worthy for the **(Vreat White 
Father," weaving: into this beaded 
cover the symbolic story of our race 
—the story of the old type of Indian, 
.i?reetiuff with the hand of friendshii) 
the founders of this g^reat nation; and 
the story of the new Indian emerging- 
from his semi-barbari;- state, tilling 
the soil, and building for citizenship 
undei- the guidance. of the school. 

"Air. 'President, there have been so 
irjajiy discussions Si' the 'so-called 
•'Indian I'roblem." May not we who 
are the Indian students of this genera- 



tion. who n>ust i'ace the bui'dens of 

that problem, say to you what it moans 

to ns'/ You know that in the old days 

there wore mighty Indian leaders — 

men of vision, of courage, and of ex- 
alted ideals. Ilisloi-y tells us first- of 
Ohirf I'owhatan who met a strange 
peoplo on the shores of his country 
and railed them brothers; Aiassasoit, 
who offered friendshi]), and shared hi.s 
kingdom. 'Phen tliere a])peai-ed anoth- 
er type of leader, the war chief, fight- 
ing to defend his home and his people. 
The Uicmbers of my race will never 
forget the names of King- Philip, of 
Chief .Iose];h, of. Teeumseh. To us 
they will always be revered as great 
le;ulers who had the courage to figlit. 
"camiriigning; for Ihei)* honor, a n^'>r1yr 
to fhe soil of their fathers." (V)rn-' 
stalk, the grea? oiator. Red Jacket of 
the S^nacas, and Seyuoyah of tb.e 
Chei-okee-s; were other noted mc;n ef 
our i»ast. It was not an accideiu that 
all these leaders were g-i'cat. Th^re 
was some hiddefi energy some great 
driving- ijin*-,; ambition, .some keen 
j)encti*ation of visior\, that ur^ed ilfefii 
on. 

••Wliat made tb(V older leaders i;-reat 



still lives in the heai'ts of the In- 
dian youths of today. That same po- 
tential greatness lies deep in the souls 
of the Indian .students who luust be- 
con^e leaders in .this new era. Our 
old life has gone. A new trail must 
1)0 found, fen- the old is not good to 
travel farthei-. We are glad to have 
it so. liut these younger leaders who 
must g-uide their peoi)le along new and 
untried paths have perha-j)s a haj'dcr 
task ])efore tliem than the fight for 
freedom our older leaders had to make. 
Oui's must be the ])roblem of leading 
this vigorous and by no iv^ans dying 
!acr cf people l)ack to th.ir rigjitful 
h(M'ita.ge of no})iiity and g-reatne.-:s. 
Ours must be the task of leading 
throu.4h these dii'ficylt sta.geft of tran>,'- 
ifion into econoYiAlC' inclepeudence; into 
ii ^ti'uer ' t^xirj-cFslV/n «>f thei- art; and 
awakened spirUual yjgor. Ouir. i«^i 71 
vi.«;;ion as keen and as pe.';<tiSifing' vhVs 
any vision of oM. V\V \m\v.\ to uikIc r- 
stapil and to accept ,frhe oivil'izjiiion' of 
tTie white liian ; we' wall t to become 
citiz.ens of t lie I * n Red . St a I es a nd to 
share in the huilding- of this nation 
thai we hire, liiit we' w.iut ^iJio io 
l)resei-ye the best that is in inir' own 



civilization — . A\'e want to niake our 
own uni(|ue conti-ibulion (o the civil- 
izations of the world — to bring our 

own gifts to the altar of that great 
spiritual and <irtistic unity tha.t such 
a nation as Ame)-ica must have. '^rhis. 
Air. President, is the Indian i)i-oldem 
whir-h we who -arc Indians find our- 
sel\es facing. 

"In oi'der lo find a so!u4ion v/e must 
ha\e schools: we must have encour- 
agei^ient and help fi-om our whit(? 
brothers Ali-eady there are schools,— - 
but the numl)er is ])itifully inadequate. 
And alrciidy tlu^ begi unci's toward an 
intelligeiit and s\ r4ji)athetie uuder- 
.*^tanding- of our ncfjds arui our lodg- 
ings have been made th»*ough efforts 
j-uch as th.is l)(!(!!< 1-epi-oseiits. !'""or 
these i easons. toda>', as never before, 
the trail ahead for tiie Indian looks 
cbai- and ))right with i)romise. I'.ut 
it is yet many long weary iniK^s until 
the end. 

"!t ^i;s out of gratitude f(»r the op- 
:)")orLunil ies ior the education and cul- 
ture- which have been afford<Ml us by 
the interrst «<f tlic' white man. and (uit 
of oui- ]ove lor this nriticui to wliich 
we are eager' to ( ontribuirr (jur best, 



I 






ttOVlS. CAT... TTlinUKl w 



^dians Observe Christmas 
At Table /Aountaln and 
At Auberry With A\uch 
^u ^ Kejoicin 





Dear Friends of the Mono Indians: — 

You must be anxiously waiting to hear whether or not your presents were 
received and appreciated by the Indians. If you could have been at our 
Christmas programs, both here and at Table Mountain, you wouldn't have 
had any doubt as to whether or not they were appreciated. 

On Friday, December 21, we loaded up the Ford just about to the limit 
of its capacity and started early that a. m. for Table Mountain. 

When we reached there at rather an early hour, many eager and ex- 
pectant faces were there to greet us. 

The men had already set up a beautiful Christmas tree in the little 
chapel. In shape and size it was a perfect tree, showing the great loving 
Hand of God had formed it, and all it needed to complete its beauty as a 
Christmas tree was the adornment of all the beautiful love gifts which God 
in His Great Love had prompted in the hearts of Christian people to send 
to help make many happy. 

At one word of suggestion the children promptly started out on a hun 
for mistletoe. Soon many arms were laden with the lovely green and the, 
returned to the chapel. 

No shades hung at the windows of the little chapel, but soon the many 
willing hands made beautiful green shades of the mistletoe as well as dec- 
orations for the doors and the other parts of the little chapel. 

The women during this time were busy in their homes cooking and 
makiiig preparations for a good dinner. 

The older men were setting up tables and benches to use for the dinner. 

Just before dinner the boys and girls wanted to have a last practice of 
their program before the regular program of the evening. 

Then about 1:00 o'clock everything was ready for the good dinner. 

Not many people have the privilege of eating their Christmas dinner out 
of doors in the warm sunshine, but that is what we enjoyed that day. At 
that dinner we had something few people outside of Indians are privileged 
to enjoy. That was acorn mush, served in a big basket just as the Indians 
had cooked it. This dish is considered the finest dish which the Indians 
have. Indians who do not take time to gather acorns and go through that 
long and tedious task of making acorn flour and mush are considered poor 
Indians Indeed and hardly worthy to be called Indians. Perhaps some of 
you white people would not appreciate this delicacy of the Indians but when 
it is seasoned with salt and pepper it Is real palatable. Some white folks 
I am sure would enjoy a hot dish of it as breakfast food seasoned with milk 
and sugar. 

It was the first Christmas dinner I had ever had among the Indians and 
I counted it a real joy and privilege. There were about 85 dark skinned, but 
shining faces at that dinner that day. All were happy and all seemed 
satisfied. 

Soon as dinner was over, dte young men gathered at the chapel and 
proceeded to decorate the tree and put the finishing touches to the chapel. 

The tree was very pretty indeed, thanks to the friends who sent in tk^ 
beautiful decorations. 

Many hands make light work, so the decorating was soon finished and 
then there was a long afternoon left in which to play games and have a 
general good time. 

When darkness began to come on many eager faces soon asse mbl 
the little chapel. Everybody wa&- happy and just like a-tot-Trf^agerTJiii^S 
all were anxious for the program to begin. 

- The children spoke and sang and played their parts well throughout t 
program. Everybody seemed in the spirit of Christmas, and the joy which 
filled the hearts of the shepherds on that Holy night many years ago when 
the Angels proclaimed the birth of the Saviour, seemed to fill the hearts of 
the Indian people gathered in that little chapel that night while the glad story 
was told and retold in song and story. 

As the people thanked God in their hearts for the greatest of all gifts tc 
men, they were made happy again as they realized that it was the great Love 
of God which prompted in the hearts of others the desire to send gifts to 
them, and they appreciated much the little gifts received from their many 
white friends. In many instances this Christmas and these gifts were all 
that the Indians received, so the white people should count it a great privi- 
lege to bring this joy unto their hearts. 

The women received lovely bags with nice gingham aprons, towels, wash 
cloths and soap in them and the men received big red handkerchiefs and 
socks and the children received lovely little dresses, ribbons, beads, or 
waists, handkerchiefs and toys. The babies received nice warm quilts, some 
warm clothing and toys. 

Then you should have seen the eager hands stretched out as the bags 
of candy and nuts and oranges were passed. Oh, the joy of it all — It was a 
great privilege to share in the joy. 

I believe the heart of each person who had a share in this Christmas for 
the Indians would have overflowed with joy could you have been at their 
program and have seen the joy in their faces. 

The Indians at Table Mountain are very, very poor and I believe that 
some of them had to sacrifice more in order to give 5c or 10c in the offering 
than many of us would have had to sacrifice to have given $25 or $30 dollars, 
so I believe the Lord accepted and appreciated their snxall thank offerin 

which was $8.61. 

After the program v/as over that evening the young men helped to take 

the decorations down so that we could take them home with us to use at 

Auberry. Then two very tired but happy missionaries rode home that night 

over 17 miles of mountain roads. 

Saturday was filled with the last few duties which always come in 
making preparations for a Christmas program. 

Sunday was a full day as usual but a rest from the filling and pinning 
of names to the many bags which were to be given out as Christmas presents. 

One usually thinks Christmas comes only once a year and that is plenty 
with the unusual amount of work which preparations call for, but we mis- ( 
sionaries had two Christmas. j 

Monday, December 24, was full to overflowing with the last finishing 
touches for our Auberry program. Five of the young men came over to the 
chapel on Monday afternoon and worked like good fellows all afternoon. 
They set up and trimmed a large beautiful tree and decorated the chapel 
with mistletoe and holly. With very little directions the boys did a beautiful 
piece of work in decorating. 

The Indians here at Auberry are more artistic in decoration than those i 
of Table Mountain. This shows that they have had more experience at t* 
Auberry in that kind of work and that it is well worth while to give them | 
this opportunity for they naturally improve each year. i 

Some of the white people which were here for the program made the ' 
remark that the decoration was much more bautiful than the Indians had 
ever had before and also that the program was very much better than it had 
ever been. This was very encouraging to us for it shows the progress that 
they are making from year to year. The missionaries who have been here 
before can see a big improvement from year to year/and many people out 






imiT IT was a lOyOUS \vaKei(lTlifby*<VIllcTi^Nt; .^^pciiL-tV.v. *v,w« ^- . _ ^ 

Univ thankful to God lor what He has done and meant to the Indians, but 
fnr all the people who helped to make possible such a Christmas. It cer- 
tainly shows how the Spirit of God can work in the hearts of many to ac- 

Lr^ninlish His will among men. 

' We thank each one who had a share in helping to make this a happy 
•istnias among the Indians and we thank God most of all for putting the 



'hrisi 



^-"^^^ "°:;°^ rr. u, ..u .,m^A. a... uj^; 




h 



10 power of Christ in the 
>'e change in their lives. 
[ to appear with their big 



side remark about the rapid proi^rr^^s the Tiidlans arc making since they have 

^11 reaiiz^ that 
can nv»/e sncl: 
E^rly on Chnstniari i^^iVii^(j^ In( 
loads of foodstuffs. J^ 

They had been plannhi*^ a lone: time ahead for thi:^. big da^^ and one could 
soon tell by the big load each family brought.^ The Indians had a committee 
j for everything, a committee to look after the tables and seats, one to dec- 
orate tlie tables, one to set th.e tables, one to help in the kitchen, to cut the 
pies and cakes and bread and to dish np the liot foods, and one to carry out 
the food, and one to wash, the d'S'ios. Doesn't that sound progressive to you 
you — a committee for everything? 

It was Quite remarkable to soe how all worked together and hov/ quickly 
they accomplished things. 

In due time, dinner v/as on the tables and about 175 people were served 
without the least commotion. Everything went off smoothly and the first 
thing we knew, the tables vrere cleared, dishes were done, and everybody was 
ready for a good visit during the afternoon among friends or else for a good 
afternoon of gomes. C'V^iren and young people played games until dark 
and everybody enjoyed a happy day. 

Then as darkness cnnie unon ns, I wish you might have had the oppor- 
tunity to see the bon fivv^ • b^ :U here and there and groups gathered around, 
waiting for time for the church to be opened. 

About 6:30 p. m. the crowds began to gather about the church — then the 
doors were opened, and our ushers did a good piece of work in seating about 
151 grov;n ups and children in our little chapel. The babies were not counted 
as the mothers held them, but outside of a very few vrho were standing in 
the back of the room about 154 were seat.ed in an orderly way in our little 
chapel. About 7:00 p. m. all confusion of being seated was stopped and 
quiet reigned. 

We began our program by a song, "Christmas Lime/' by the children. 

Following this v/as the Bible Reridfng of the Christmas Story and prayer 
then a song, '^Welcome Merry Xmas." by all, then one of our little Indian 
boys about 10 years of age gave "The Christmas Greeting." Following the 
greeting was a little play given by four boys dressed up as shepherds, and a 
group of older girls singing songs. The play was called *'On Judean Plain." 
The boys looked real oriental in their shepherd's costumes with their dark 
faces and their shepherd's crooks. Over head was the blue sky with one 
big shining star anrLmany small stars. The boys came in, pretending they 
were watching their sheep and as the sheep seemed quiet and safe they lay 
down and almost went to sleep when suddenly they were startled by the 
sound of music. (Outside the girls were singing one verse, "It Came Upon 
a Midnight Clear." The boys sat up and listened and rubb;ed their eyes, then: 

First boy asked question: "Joseph, did j'ou hear the sound?" 

Second boy, "Yes, I thought it was the song of Angels." 

Thiixl boy: "But listen, the tune has changed." 

(Outside girls sang, "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing." 

The boys arose during this song— wrapped their mantel around them 
and took crooks in their hands and began to move about gazing at the sky. 

Second boy: I can see nothing but that brilliant star yonder. The 
flocks remain asleep. I v/onder if our fathers heard the sound? 

First boy: They surely did — but, bark! 

Girls outside singing, "While Shepherds watched their flocks by night." 

Third boy: The voices say they did, and I believe I see them moving. 
Dimly on the hill do I behold strange shapes. I wonder where — 

Fourth boy: Do you not remember in the prophecies it spoke of tidings 
glad which should some day be told by the Angel bands? 

Second boy: Hark, once again. This is the sweetest tune yet sung. 

(Voives: "O Little Town of Bethlehem.") 

First boy: In Bethlehem, that is not far away. Come, let us go and see. 

Third boy (Startled). And leave the flocks? 

Firat boy: They matter not on such a night as this. Perhaps the prom- 
ised King has come to reign ] ^ 

Third boy: It may be as you sa5^ The voices come once more. 

(Voices: (Last 3 verses). "It Came Upon a Midnight Clear,") 

Fourth boy; -It is! It is! They say it is prophecy fulfilled! Come 
let us go. V 

Second boy: That being time, it were well we traveled on to where the 
star finds rest. 

First boy: It surely must be He. Let us away. The world may well 
rejoice. 

(They marched off while girls sang, *'Joy to the World.") 
As you can see this is only a very simple little play, but the boys played 
rheir parts so well and the girls sang so sweetly that we felt it was quite an 
accomplishment for these children. And especially when you think that 
only 15 years ago they had no education, no foundation upon which to build. 
This play was followed by a Christmas poem called "Peace," by a little 
boy about 10 years of age. 

Then came another little play given by three girls dressed as Heralds 
of Peace and one girl dressed to represent Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and 
seven boys, tour of whom were shepherds and three of whom were wise men. 

In the background was a crude manger filled with hay and a "halo" shin- 
ing over the manger. 

The Heralds came in and heralded the glad story about thft Birth of the 
Christ Child and Mary knelt by the manger. 

As the heralds sang the song, "Under the Stars one Holy Night," the 
wise men came and brought gifts and laid them in the manger and the Shep- 
herds came and worshiped the Christ Child. 

This was very impressive and each one played his or her part verj' well. 

There were other little plays and many more pieces spoken by the chil- 
dren and Christmas songs sung, but I won't take time to tell all about them. 
The Christmas story was told and then a piece "Our Gift" given by 
one of the. young men and another about our offering, by a boy about 15. 
Then the offering was given which amount to $35.00. This amount, we felt, 
was very good for our Indians here. 

One dear old lady who is helped by the county had been given 50c by 
a friend for a Xmas present and she marched up with the rest and give that 
half dollar as her gift to Jesus as a thank offering for all He had done for her. 

I think Christ must have rejoiced with the Indians that night, for there 
seemed to be the very spirit of Christ among all the Indians that night. They 
seemed so quiet and reverent and worshipful during the whole program. 
And everything pointed toward Christ, the greatest Gift to all. There seemed 
;o be that quiet peaceful joy which comes to all v.ho love and try to serve 
Jesus as their Saviour and King. 

Mrs. Laubach, a woman who was missionary here 8 years ago with the 
Indians sat there during the program, she said, and thanked God with almost 
every breath for what He had done for the Indians and the wonderful ad- 
vancement they had made just since she had been here even. 

After their offering to Jesus, ail joyfully awaited to see Old Santa appear 
to give out their gifts and treat to them. 

Each person received something, the gifts being similar to those given at 
Table Mountain and eVervbody seemed grateful for their gift because they 
believed it was prompted by the Love of Jesus for them. 

Everyone went away happy that night and 1 believe all were drawn 
closer to Christ and felt a desire in their hearts to serve Him better this 
coming year. 

After everything v:as over, some of the boys again helped to take dec- 
Drations down and when we missionaries were ready to retire that night it 
was with grateful hearts for all the Master had helped us to do and had ac- 
complished with the Indian people. We were top tired to sleep that night' 
but it was a joyous wakefulness which we spent the rest of the night, not 
only thankful to God for what He has done and meant to the Indians) but 
tor all the people who helped to make possible such a Christmas. It' cer- 
tainly shows how the Spirit of God can work in the hearts of many to ac- 
complish His will among men. 

We thank each one who had a share in helping to make this a happy 
Christmas among the Indians and we thank God most of all for putting the 
Jesire in your hearts. May God richly bless each one for what he has done 
and give you the desire to strive to do even better next Christmas. We want 
to take this opportunity to thank each one who sent little personal gifts to 
the missionaries. We appreciate your interest and your prayers for the work 
nd trust you shall continue to help us in this way. 

^^ Sincerely yours, 

pur Master's Service— 

NORA U SWBNSO; 
CBCILB TUCKSB, 






;_,jijv/. I',-. ■•'•.-*t'a 






BANTA noSA. fcAf . PnvtHH 

'>!- ^iocK/^T 
*?ANUAF;Y 11, 1924 



RIBE OF CALIFORNIA 
INDIANS CONVERSE B 
WHISTLING LANGUAG 



BERKET.^?n Jiflgl |0.— (A.P.)— 
'/v. tribe of Iwians Whose mem- 
hw^H communicate among" them- 
Betves only by whisffiVp^and who 
Dan talk to birds in the same 
manner has been found in the 
Si.Gi'ivou irouatains in northerly 
California. The discovery was re- 
ported to A. Li. Kroeber, curator 
<if anthropological museum of the 
University of California, by J. R. 
Saxon of the United .S):ates for- 
estry service. 

Saxon said that for weeks fo'^-' 
est rangers in a remote part of 
th^ S'skiyous had heard uncanny 
whistlings over the service wires 
that stretch from station to sta- 
tion through the mountains. He 
went to investigate and after 
nightfall was caught in a moun- 
tain storm. He found a small 
cabin of Indian construction. It 
was empty and he prepared to 
spend the night there. 

The ranger recalled that he left 
the shack to stable his horse in a 
lean-to nearby. When he returned, 
he said, he found steaming food 
laid on the floor, and beside it a 
bed of deer and bear skins pro- 
vided for him But no one was in 
sight. 

For two days, related Saxon, he 

llived there in this way. When he 

left the cabin food would be 
spread for him, but with no 
amount of agility could be dis- 
cover the unseen dispensert of 
hospitality. 

Finally, on the third day, sev- 
Irral Indian men appeared at the 
cabin, and in sign language in- 
formed him that he had been their 
guest. 

"To my amazement," he said, 
**I learned that they did not speak 
to one another in any language of 
words or in the ordinary articu- 



late sounds of human beings, but 
that they conversed only with 
staccato whistlings.'* • » ' 

At a whistled command bird8| 
would flutter from the trees te a 
clearing to eat food scattered 
there by the women, according to 
Saxon's narrative. 

He described the men las shy, 
adding that the women were like 
deer. 

"At the sound of my voice/' he 
explained, "the women fled into 
the canyons.'* 

He said the Indians led him to 
the nearest forest service tele- 
phone station and by signs con- 
veyed to thim that they had seen 
forest rangers using this instru- 
ment and had themselves experi- 
mented with it in their whistling 
tongue. This explained the mys- 
terious sounds. 

Saxon believes that the isolatecj. 
clan of '*whistling people" is ah 
obscure off-shoot of the Karok 
tribe of Klamath Falls Indians. 

Professor Kroeber said that 
Karoks were afi unusually intelli- 
gent and industrious tribe, num- 
bering today about 2,000. He is 
investigating the report of the 
whistling Indians. 









^ 




PEIER ISBIL 

NQIED m OF 
Wm. DIES 

Dirge Of Wailings Mark The 

Passing Of Ahwahnee, 

White Mail's Fniend 

R 



Man's Pijii 

lJf!--Feter /vi 



I 



AYMOSDJ \0lMdittrm Co.), 
Jan. UfjU-Feter j^^jcnif^Ll^f 
last blir ^hlet of fh^ Ah-\ 
wahn«e IndUkwAdicd tkis 
morninff »t 4 o'clotklf 
With the old chief passes the last 
of the ancient regime, and ^ the 
funeral dirge which lOO members 
of his tribe are wailing at the 
Roundhouse to-day is the last 
which will ever bo heard for a dead 
chieftain. ■ ^ , 

For the chief himself, before his 
death, -called his braves in council, 
and broke the thread which bound 
them to their ancient laws and cus- 
toms. No more chiefs, but a civ- 
ilized community, was the dying 
wish of Peter, and the tribe will 
follow him as it has followed him 
all through the years of the white 
man's domination. ]l 

Afife 1« Uncertain 
No one knows exactly hoAV old 
Peter Westfall was. lie was born 
before the first white man came to 
this region. No white man knows 
his real name, for the Ahwahnees 
never would mention the Indian 
name in the presence of the "whites. 
The name Westfall came to the 
chief when he worked for a county 
.supervisor, member of tho white 
Westfall family, and was first 
called "Vres^.f air a. .Indian," and then 
simply Westfall. 

From the first, Peter Westfall 
was friendly to the white man. He 
s-aid his earliest recollection was 
riding with the white men from the 
valligy to the hills. His father was a 
great w^arrlor, but Peter decided for 
peace.- It is his thumbprint that 
adorned the lioat Treaty, which 
guaranteed land for the tribe, and 
which,* like so many other pacts, 
the white men resolved into a 
"scrap of paper.*' 

Then Peter Westfall and his 
tribe fought the A^hlte men — for 
their lands, and for honesty and a 
square deal. 

And after thai, peace again, and 
a policy of civilization for his tribe 
which was the dominating force in 
Chief Peter's life. Wholly . Indian 
in air his thoughts and customs, 
Peter threw off his tribal trappings 
whenever policy made It necessary, 
and his last thought was that all 
the tribal customs must go if the 
Ahwahnees are to survive as a 
people.' 

But his own dancing In Yosemite 
At the gatherings, and his great 
Roundhouse, both were classic hi 
their Indian way. He was an artist 
at making rlatas and bridles. 

Ills ^vlfe*. luouisa, survives him. 
She Is educated, and was the first 
one of the tribe to adopt the sewing 
machine. 

His sons, John and Elf (pro- 
nounced Eaf), and his daughter 
Jessie, survive, and three of his 
sisters will mourn for him. 

The groat Roundhoune is the 
Mecca to-day for the mountain In- 
dians, and the shrill grief yell can 
he heard from it.. The funeral, not 
yet fully known in its detail?, will 
follow strictly the tribal custom for 
chieftains. The wailing will con- 
tinue all through the period during 
which the body lies in state. 



,.. ..... . . , .... .^^.j^j^t.-j 



^l&iuy 









-- *j' <:i <\.;, 



■•■■<■:•;.,/ .y-':->--- '■■■■■■■■y '-■■-■'<'•■ .■■-' 



, ■;>"/,'■:- 1 



■I ♦-..'W-^i' 



^i*.*^ 



KNTFinPRISE: 



The Ramona Pageant 



A few^tinmunities in Southern California have 
beeirtbwtmcapitalize the romance of early Califor- 
drfys. Riverside has done it in the development 



ma 



of the MfsS^'Play. Palm Springs has been suc- 
cessful in an annual desert play ; but it has remained 
for the communities of San Jacinto and Hemet to 
take advantage of the fact that Ramona lived in that' 
valley, to establish the Ramona Pageant, v^hich has 
been presented for two consecutive years and will be| 
repeated again this year on April 25 th and 26th 
and May 2nd and 3rd, the Sunday presentation 
being eliminated this year out of deference to the sen-, 
timents expressed by the people of that district rela-| 
tive to a- Sunday pageant. 

The Ramona play presented in the natural moun-| 
tain amphitheatre challenged the attention of all 
lovers of this classic story of C aliforni|^ Ind ians. The I 
environment is ideal for the purpose. One readily 
imagines that the original Ramona may have trod the| 
same paths as the actors use in their interpretation 
of Helen Hunt Jackson's story. 

It was a timely recognition of the importance of 

I the pageant when the Riverside county board of 

supervisors made an appropriation for a road leading 

directly into the bowl, which will be of tremendous! 

assistance to the people driving to the spot in automo- 

Ibiles, eliminating a climb over a mountain to reach it. 










INDIAN SONG RECORDS 

If the early pioneers of Califor- 
nia, who came across the plains 
by wagon train, could be brought 
back to life on the campus of 
the University of California, their 
first move would be to place their 
wagons in a circle, drive the 
livestock inside, and make the 
women and children lie down 
out of harm's way. 

For fleeting faintly from the 
windows of the Museum of 
Anthropology may be heard the 
shouts of Pljite Indian braves 
and the primitive melodies of 
the old songs that the first white 
men to reach California may 
have heard in the desolate passes 
of the Panamint mountains and 
the districts north of Death 
Valley. 

The source of the voices and 
songs is a tiny phonograph and 
about fifty records just collected 
by Julian Haynes Steward, grad- 
uate student in anthropology. 
Every day Steward plays the 
records over and over, trying to 
reduce to a note system the 
melodies of the vanishing red 
men. 

Accumulation of the records 
and much other data concerning 
the past life of the Piutes in Inyo 
county was made by Steward dur- 
ing the smnmer just closed, in 
he vicinity of Bishop and also 
the vicinity of Mono Lake, Mono 
[county. 

Steward carried a recording 
|machine with him, lived with the 
hdians, and by gaining their 
onfidence and goodwill, obtained 
eproductions of some fifty or 
sixty songs. Among those ob- 
tained are the famous Gambling 
[Song, the Circle Dance Songs, 
the Cry Dance Song, the Lost 
Bear Cub's Lament, one that 
might be titled **Lonesome," and 
another that is supposed to at- 
tract fish to the hook. 

The Gambling Song is one that 
was formerly used by the braves 
while playing the "Handgame/* 
a gambler's guessing contest in 
which the object is to guess the 
position of four sticks or bones 
held concealed in the extended 
hands of an opposing player. 
The game is played by teams of 
five or six men squatting in lines 
facing toward each other. One 
team holds the sticks and the 
other guesses. The team holding 
the sticks entertains by chanting 
a primitive melody. 

The Cry Dance Song is one 
sung by professional Indian 
mourners at funerals and is 
diflicult to obtain because the 
Indians consider is somewhat of 
a sacrilege or a daring of fate to 
sing a death song when there Is 
no death. 

The Lost Bear Cub's Lament 
is a sad ballad simg in minor key, 
concerning the sorrow of a be- 
wildered little bear stumbling 
along mountain trails looking for 
its lost mother. 

Steward believes, from the 
songs he has already studied, 
that the Indian note system, 
though confined to a short range, 
coincides in general with the 
note system in use by occidental 
peoples. The notes are true to 
the white man's scale, with few 
sharps or fiats, and no complex 
Idivisions into thirds or fourths 
|as sometimes happens in oriental 
usic. He hopes to make a 
ore careful check on this by 
ctually measuring the vibrations 
f the sounds and comparing 
hem with the notes of the .oc- 
|cidental system. 

Several thousand other records, 
preserving the songs of tribes in 
various parts of California and 
the Pacific Coast, are in the 
possession of the University. For 
a score of years members of the 
lanthropology department have 
been making an effort to save 
these from extinction. — ^University 
Bulletin. 



SKPTEMRKR 22, V^S 



iWotANS OF INYO "i 

COUNTY U. C. STUftY 



f f^ 



h .V 



^^, 



If the early pioneers c^f Califorriia 
who camea^oss the plainf by wanii 



tra^rcouId 1^ fcfou^ht bj^ck to ipe 
on the campus of the University \)f 
California, their first move would be 
to place their wagons in a circle, 
drive tiie livestock inside, and ma&^ 
the women and children Me down otit 
of harm's way. 

For^feeting faintly from the wj^- 
dowd nf the Muesum of Anthropology 
may be heard the shouts of Paiute 
Indian braves and the primitive mel- 
odies of the^ oW songs that the fir^t 
white men to i>each California may 
have heard in the desolate passes 
of the Panamint mountains and the 
aifitricts^north of Death Valley, i 

The source of the voices and son^s 
I is a tiny phonograph and about fifty 
records just collected by Julian 
Haynes Steward, graduate student 
in anthropology. Every day Steward 
plslys the records over and over, 
trying to reduce to a note system 
the melodies of the vanishing red 
men. 

Accumulatioil of the / records and 
much other data conoernmg the past 
l)fe of the Paiutes in Inyr» County 
was made - by Steward during the 
summer just closed, in the vicinity 
of Independence, Bishop and also in 
the vicinity of Mono Lake, Mono 
County. ^ V ,-_ VI ^ J: 

Steward canied a recordmg ma- 
chine with him, lived with the In- 
dians, and by gaining their confid- 
ence and goodwill, obtained repro . 
ductioris of some fifty or sixty songs. 
Among those obtained are the fam- 
ous Gambling Song, the Circle Dance 
Song, the Cry Dance Song, the Lost 
Bear Cub's Lament, one that might 
be titled "Lonesome," and another 
that is supposed to attract fish to 
the hook. 

. vThe ^Gambling Song is one that 
was formerly used by the bravea^ 
while playing the "Handgame," ^ 
glihbler's guessing contest in which 
the Qbject is to guess the positions 
of four sticks or bones held conceal-*^ 
ed in the-extended hands of an op-^ 
jposing player. The game is played by 
teams of five or six men squatting;/ 
in lines facing toward each other,. ^. 
One team holding the sticks enter- ' 
tains by chanting a primitive melody.')' 

Tb^ Cry Dance Song Isrohe ^ning 
by professional Indian mourners at 
tttherals i^d Is dlfficnlt to obtain 



becuuse the Indians consider it some- 
what of a sacriledge or a daring of 
fate to ^in^ a death song when there 
is no death. 

The Lost Bear Cub's Lament is a 
sad ballad sung in minor key, con- 
cerning the sorrow of a bewildered 
little bear stumbling along mountain 
trails looking for its lost mother. 

Seward believes, from the songs 
he has already studied, that the In-| 
dian note system, though confined to 
a short range, coincides in general 
with the note sjrs^em in use, by Oc- 
cidental peoples. The notes are true| 
to the white man's scale, with te} 
sharps or flats, and no complex di- 
yisions into thirds or fourths asl 
sometimes happens in Oriental musi( 
He hopes to make a more carefull 
check on this by actually measuring 
the vibrations of the soimds and 
tsomparing them with the notes of| 
the Occidental system. 

Several thousand , other records,] 
Preserving the \ songs of tribes in 
various parts o^ California and the 
Tkcific Coast, are in possession of 
the University. Po|^ a score of years 
members of the. anthropology depart- 
ment have been making an effor 
to save these from extinction, y^ 






'^^.-''^•y)^.v^:Cir. 















ER 17, Vm 



ANIUE WORM 




•♦The W. W. Phetps ranch at Tp- 
harhapi has oontrlbntetl the oldest 
manufacturinpT machinery in the 
• onnty museum at the r^hamber of 
(Commerce." Whit C. Barber, active 
in founding the museum, said today. 

The **niachinf ry," according to Mr. 
Barber, is in i\\c form of mortars and 
pestle« nned by I he Indians of the dis- 
trict in grindlMS their foodstuffs nnd 
are fine examples of the stones used 
for this puri)nsc in Kern county. 

Tn addition, tli© ranch lias contrib- 
uted a handm;ulc knife picked up from 
the camp of General Fremont when 
he and hi.< troops were in the Te- 
hachapi' region. 

Other contributions or donations, 
temporary or permanent, will be wel- 
comed at the Museum, Mr. Barber 
said. 



JUNE 19. 10S9 




ANCESOF 
RIBESMEN 
DEFENDED 

Friend of "-inman Says\ 
They Are Not as Bad as 
Whites in Ballroom 



REDLANDS, June 18. —Dr. Clara 
Stillman of Palm Springs, speaking 
today at the Asi&tencia of San Ga- 
bripl Mission, west of here, declared 
Indian tribal dances are not nearly 
as bad as those seen on a public| 
dance floor. 

"Some months ago 1 received a 
number of letters from the Ea^t 
urging me to use my influence toj 
stop tribal dances," said Dr. StUl- 
man. who has worked with the Coa- 
huila Indians for years, and is ac- 
cepted as a member of the tribe. 
"Of course, I did nothing about it. 
I have attended the tribal dances 
for years, the only white person 
there. I know that they are not 
nearly as bad as dances you can see 
on the ballroom floors." 

Dr. Stillman said she is much op- 
posed to the Indian school rules 
which prevent the boys and girls 
from using their own language. 

"It is no doubt meant well, she 
said. **but its results are to help de- 
stroy the Indian traditions. Girls 
and boys are given demerits for 
speaking their own language at In- 
dian schools; as a result they lose 
iiiterest in the old traditions and 
legends passed down from father to 

son." ,^ _ . ' 

The art of basket making also is 
dying out, the physician said. One 
expert worked twenty -seven months 
to make a very beautiful basket, 
she said, and received only $75 for 
it. The girls of the tribe cannot 
afford to work more than two years 
for $75, consequently they are do- 
inr: housework for the whites. More- 
over, threads and grasses needed fori 
the baskets have all been pluckedl 
or washed away from the vicinity 
of their homes so that it is neces- 
sary to go long distances to the| 
mountains for material. 



SAN rFtANCISC6 CHMNICLt 

JUNE 25, l»2« 



BOOK DEPICTS 
INDIAN LIFE 
IN CALIFORNIA 



Ipormer U. C. Anthropologist 
Tells of Fast Disappear- 
ing N ative Cus toms 

Another monument to the fast 
disappearing Indian tribes of 
Southern California, most of whose 
institutions will be gone forever in 
twenty years, has just been dedi- 
cated by the University of Cali- 
fornia anthropology department in 
the form of a 350-page book on the 
old culture of the Sfirrano, Cahuilla, 
Cupeno and Luiseno groups of Riv- 
erside and San Diego counties. . 
William Duncan Strong, Ph. D., is 
the author of the work. He was for- 
merly a member of the anthropol- 
ogy staff at Berkeley and is now an 
assistant curator of the Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History in Chicago. 
He recently received wide recogni- 
tion in scientific circles through his 
work among the Naskapi Indians 
of Labrador. 

INDIAN LIFE PICTURED 
In his book Dr. Strong attempts 
to reconstruct a picture of Indian 
life and customs as they existed 
before the coming of the white man. 
He traces the borders of their old 
hunting territories and discusses 
their political and social organiza- 
tions, hunting rules, marriage laws, 
songs, legends and special cere- 
monies. ^ ,, 

"Although a large part of the na- 
tive population has perished before 
the swift mafch of Western civiliza- 
tion," says Dr. Strong in his intro- 
duction, "in the barren desert and 
mountain regions of Southern Cali- 
fornia, a considerable number still 
survive. 

INSTITUTIONS DISAPPEARING 
"Of these the younger and more 
progressive have in large part taken 
over the ways of the white man and 
are today a very influential ele- 
ment in the community. But it is 
from the people of an older genera- 
tion whose eyes look backward to 
a remote but familiar past, not for- 
ward into an alien future, that 
these somewhat fragmentary notes 
have been obtained. 

"The next decade will see the end 
of nearly all native institutions^n 
the area." 



HK3IET. CAL.. XEWS— 231 

JUNE 28, 1929 

rillllLlI REIIIH 



lYTinrinn Tiirl||yyni tt^TTTT^^^^ 
ern"" Health Facilities For 



Sick and^ Injured 



SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE 

JULY 10, 1929 




C. L. Ellis»^sWct'"aipferlntendent 
I of the Mission Indian Sgency at Riv- 
erside, was in Hemet this week and 
announces that the new government 
hospital at Soboba is practically 
[completed, and the equipment is now 
;ing installed. 

The new hospital cost aipproxi- 
Imately $30,000. and has facilities to 
care for 40 patients. It is for the ex- 
I elusive use of the Indians in the 
California-Nevada district. Dr. W. 
L. Chilcott, resident physician for 
the Soboba, Cahuilla and Santfl^ 
Rosa reservations, will be in charge. 
Superintendent Ellis says that the 
Indians are becoming accustomed to 
use of the hospital. For many years 
the Indian, fearful of innovation, 
was inclined to look with dread upon 
hospitals-, and in many Instances it 
was impossible to induce them to 
come. 

Mr. Bills is much interested in se- 
curing a good road from San Jacinto 
to the Soboba reservation, and is in 
correspondence with the Indian bu- 
reau and Congressman Swing re- 
garding a government appropriat- 
ion for that purpose. It is lik; 
that the county would assist 
rially in the project if ttjp^vem- 
ment is inclined to doJlBpart. 



U. C. TO STUDY 
BONES, SEEK 
EARIYRACE 

Will Continue Excavations 

in Limestone and Mother 

Lode District 

A shipment of disintegrating In- 
m the Mother Lode district has 

flon!f ^ ^°Pe" i^^* further excavaf 
ni^„i^™*7 1^^^, "»ht on the early 
people of California. They have 

if Ca'lTfSr^r^^^ ^' ^^^ ^-'--"' 

of^fhl^'^f ^' ^- Gilford, curator 
sav^ fha^fvf''"^ ?^ Anthropology, 
says that the material received to 
aate is too fragmentary to yield 
^^y Ifiormatlon of value and gives 
no evidence of being other than re- I 
^r-oii? ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ian tribes whose 

frff^l^f^u"^^ ^^ ^^^ow their dead 
Into such caves. 

r,r?r^Huf^^\^^ reported to exhibit 
primitive characteristics but has 
not yet been received by the mu- 

nf^'J^r^^'^r^' ^H" ^^ the possesion 
?i ^^' *^- Kroeck of the College of 

i^'^^i^^^l^*^ ^^^Ity, Stockton Ac- 

fnr?h?r ^^Ps-Jf ontology, something 

n^u^^\^^^^ ^^ ^^""^ i" the lo- 
cality If excavations are made in 

lr!L^V^J^^^^' No attempt was 
made to do more than pick up sur- 

ilZ^n^^^^^^f} ^H?'^"^ the prelimin- 
ary exploration because it was be- 
lieved best to have an anthropolo- 
Ini .1^® the undisturbed deposits. 
The cave is situated in O'Neal creek 
canyon. v.icc«. 

Corey points out that even if the 
i^^!t^ .^^^^''^^^ covering the floor 
mofl.1 \^ ^^ ^£^^"^' Ice Age animal 
material may be found beneath A 
similar cave farther north yielded i 
some Interesting fossils which were ' 
found imbedded in the limestone. 

If neither accumulated floor ma- 
ter al nor the floors themselves 
yield scientifically important ma- 

Pv^H^;.!^^ ^^^ ?^ ^^^^"^^ furnished 

skuij. lound a generation ago bv 
Calaveras miners, happened to lie 
in deep gravels. Tliis skull has 
been the cause of much dispute be- 
cause the gravels in which it lav 
buried, antedated the coming of • 
man upon earth. The supposition 
mat It was thrown into a water- ' 
worn cave in the gravels which 
later collapsed, however, would ac- 
count for its position so deep in the 
earth The present material is 
placed in the San Franci.sco mu- 
seum of the university. 



BAKEaSFIELO, CAU 
CALIFORNIA 

JULY 11, 19» 



Kern Indian Relics Form 
Part of Local CoUectio: 



/n i- -* 



By BETH DYE 



PERSONS passing a home seven and 
one-half miles south of Bakers- 
neld on the Golden State highway 
n.ust have noticed Piles of Indian 



from the neighbor country on th< 
south is a sheepherders' machine 
which shoots 12 giant ftrecraclcers at 
intervals timed by a small clock, th< 



must have noticed piles of Indian ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^y solves by 
mortars and pestles about the porcn ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ smoke during the night, 
and yard. There are 250 of them, ana ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ Australia also 



yet they are but a part of the mu- 
Beum of interesting relics owned by 
Mrs. George Borgwardt. They con- 
stltute the portion, however, that is 
listed in the Sacramento museum, ana 
kept track of by a representative to 
the interior, on frequent trips of in- 
spection and investigation. 
Local Relics 
These stones are particularly inter- 
esting to local people ^^ecause with a 
few exceptions, all were found in Kern 
rounty. It may be presumed that the 
brown hands which used them have 
long since become as pulverized as the 
grains they pounded, although their 
asre has never been established for a 
certainty. The collection was made 
by the late J. F. Morris, and is one 
of three which he left, the other two 
still remaining in Nevada. 

An icon of a most primitive and 
superstitious people, the Hopl Indians 
of Arizona, furnishes on© of the more 
rare objects of the collection. This 
is a rain god of painted clay, an 
•• 'eathen idol." picked up by A. G. 
CoUey of Los Angeles and given to 
the local collector years ago. 

A miniature totum pole of ebony, 
made by Indian^ in Alaska is another 
captivating bit suggesting, as it does, 
all the quaint social and religious cus- 
toms which its original inspired. Ar- 
row heads, stone weapons, baskets, a 
peace pipe, and specimens of Pottery 
are other of the Indian relics in the 

collection. 

Totem Pole 

Many foT-eign countries, particularly 

Mexico and the orient, are represented. 

Certainly the most fascinating object 



A steel sheep bell from Australia als< 
has its place in the strange assort- 
ment. 

A coin collection, alone a valuabK 
possession, contains representativ( 
specie of many lands dating bacj 
to 1712. 



ESCO^^-T^ypO. CAT... 



> 




,*^' 



MESA GRANDE^JNOTSnS 

ClkEBRATE SOON 

An Indian fiesta with a revival of 
some of the ol(i Indian tribal dances 
will be ^held at Mesa Grande from 
August 2 to 5, iiicius^vg; as part of 
the annual celebration of St. James 
day in hogpr o/ tha paCron saint of 

the Mesa^^aq^IiMMiiiUr 

On August 4 the historic feast of 
the patron saint will be held. Father 
Lapoint, priest of the diocese, will of- 
ficiate at the little white chapel at 
mass at 10 a. m. 

Some of the old Indian dances and 
games will be indulged in. The young- 
er Indians, according to E. H. Davis 
of Powam lodge, Mesa Grande, "will 
be seen in the dances of the Ameri- 
canos at which all are proficient." 

Horse racing and broncho riding | 
also will be included as part of thei 
entertainment. Shelters for the fes- 
tival will be made of fresh cuttings 
and will be divided into various rooms 
where restaurants, meat shops and| 
booths for various purposes will bj 
located. 

The committee in cha^p^^f th( 
fiesta includes Adolpl^i^resford, Ve- 
nancis Nejo, Rejiiimldo Duro an< 
Frankalina Dj 



M^G BEACH, CAT... 




CHIEF BIG TREE AND WIFE. 

The Proudest Blood of Any Race Flows in the Veins of Chief Big 
Tree, Right. His Great-Grandfather Was Red Jacket, Great 
Chief of tho Five Nations of the Iroquois. Chief Big Tree 
Posed for "The End of the Trail.'* He and His Wife, Mrs. 
Cynthia Big Tree, Left, Are Here for the Summer. Notice the 
Chiefs Bear Claw Necklace. His Headdress Is of Eagle Feath- 
ers and Ermine —Press-Telegram Staff Photo. 



CHIEF OF IROQUOIS IS HERE 



* * ^ 



n» •Jr *v* 



^ « * 



^ V •♦• 



His Face Adorns U. S. Currency 

By VERA KACKL.EY. 

*'rnHEY made mo out of bronze and stood me on the hill." 

X Chief Big Tree, Iroquois, of the proudest tribe of Indians, 
glanced down at his wife, her fingers busy with bead work, beside 
him. She nodded and smiled faintly. 



The two were talking about the <^ 
time that the Chief, playing In 
Hiawatha shows in New York, 
was found by James Earl Frazer 
and posed for his famous statue, 
"The End of the Trail." 

Pictures of the statue, an 
Indian rider sagging over a tired 
buckskin horse, have come to be 
the best known of all Indian 

studies. ^ ., - 

But the honor vras not the only 
one Chief Big Tree has had. 
Kathryn Woodman Leignton 
made many pointings of him. 
One, "The Sun Dance Bustle, 
was used as the frontispiece of 
Literary Digest a year ago. It 
sold for $4000. Another hangs m 
Field's Museum at Chicago. 
Others the artist has with her m 
London. ^ . , 

The Indian, as a perfect speci- 
men of his race, posed for the 
Indian head on $20 bills in 1913. 
That also was in New York, the 
year after "The End of the Trail 
was made. 

Chief Big Tree played with 
Richard Dix in "The Redskin, 
he was the Cheyenne Chief m 
"The Iron Horse," and he was 
Chief Pontlac in "Winning of the 
Wilderness." an M-G-M picture 
of George Washington's time. He 
has appeared in many pictures 
for Colonel Tim McCoy. 

Motion picture stills and repro- 
ductions of the paintings hang 
on the walls of the Chief's home 
532^ West Eighth Street. He and 
his wife, Cynthia Big Tree, came 
here a few weeks ago from Holly- 
wood. He is working at Tex 
Schubach's snake farm on Silver 
Spray pier, and she makes and 
repairs bead work as her mother 
taught her to do on the Onondaga 
Reservation in New York. 

Onandaga means "People or 
the Hills," and it is one of the 
five tribes that make up the 
Iroquois. Chief Big Tree is a 
Seneca, and his great-grand- 
father was Red Jacket, head chief 
of the Iroquois, and ruler of the 
Mohawks, the Oneidas, and 
Onondagas, the Cayugas and the 
Senecas. 

Chief Big Tree's tribal posses- 
sions include a headdress of 
ermine and eagle feathers and a 
necklace of bear claws. Mrs. 
Big Tree has a necklace with a 
turtle claw pendant. 

Mrs. Big Tree, active in Indian 
women's clubs of the State, is 



district chairman of Arts and 
Crafts of the District Federation 
of Women's Clubs. She received 
an ovation when she presented 
her report at the district con- 
vention at Santa Cruz last Sprir^ 



L0>;:,^^5<£s"' 



.09 



TIM' s \ 

JULY 25, .-&^ 



IBESMEN CREMATE CHIEF 

QoiorliiX Powwow Stagel Around Funeral Pyre of 
^i I Achach avara blMojave Indians 

ris^.r„r sisr^r M^HH- Hs 

the outdoor council chamber lay g^^i^i^. tj^gre an old woman ynith her 
Chief Sherman Ross, as he was ^garse gray hair hanging over her 
widely known among the white face, her arms outspread toward 
people, on a rude cot with two an- heaven in^benedicUon.^_^ ^^^^^ 
cient muskets of his father's, at Wsl j ^^^^^ ^ore tongues ^of flame, 
side. Overhead, suspended from old men and ''°"U«ni.<^*I"i|vonl 
the ceihng. were his bows and -^- ll-^^^-Zu^^^S'^nlyTIml 

rows, his feathered lance, his .^« X* ofashes was left, 
bonnet and._ incongruous enough a ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ 



modern brief ca^e, insignia of his 
authority. An American flag flies 
at half mast outside on the flag 

^^Grouped around the body two 
deep, men and women bowed to tne 
ground, mostly the yo^^ge^.^enera- 
tion. as the old people of the ^ribe 
are dying off and with them the old 
customs and ceremonials. Brilliant 
colored handkerchiefs, reserved for 
these occasions, are worn cape fash- 
ion by the close women relatives. 
Their hair, usually worn Jong and 
loosely flowing oyer the shoulders, 
is cut short in token of their griei. 
DANCE AND CHANT 



MADE CHIEF AT 29 

Chief Ross was born on the Ari- 
zona side of the Colorado River in 
1875, his father, Ocha, being a brave 
warrior who served Gen. Crook as 
a scout, and later became chief 
of the tribe. At his death Pete 
Lambert, "Seolyhamarah," lineal de- 
scendant of Chief Ocha, bemg too 
young to direct the trimes, Sherman 
Ross, then only 29 years of age, was 
chosen the chief by acclamation— 
and for twenty-flve years he has 
had the best Interests of his people 
always before him, helpmg them 
toward peaceful pursu ts and en- ^( 
couraging them to comply with gov- 1 



DANCE AND CHANT ernment regulations. 

Thev stood motionless for hours At the time of his su^^^en death 

over tLir dead^ Rows of men and Monday night he was working for 

2^,^lJr^i^.Ti,^pVs on each side of the protection of the Indian ripa- 



over tiicii lacav*. -.vw„~ -- 
women mourners on each side or 
the body, shaking gourds filled vrtth 
pebbles, danced and chai^ted until 
Exhausted, eulogizing the dead. New 
faces in the lines of dancers took 
the places of the tired ones. The 
oration was continuous. .„„t.. 
Word went out from the spokes- 
man of the tribe that the crema- 
tion would be at 5 Pm- today. Be- 
fore dawn a hole two feet jxinaxe 
and about three feet deep had bee'> 
W and near by was a pite of vei 
dry Cottonwood logs. TTie nm 
Fu^ishing the draft,j^as filled w^tl 
nnwder-dry greasewood ana pm 
Sles. TlS heaviest logs were 
laid crosswise oyer the Ijole, then 
lighter logs lengthwise. A few in- 
dfans walked up the hot sandy riv- 
er road toward the burning ground. 
Rickety Fords filled with men, wom- 
en and children followed, then a 
truck with the body of Achachavara 
on a mattress accompanied by a 
few high men of the tribe in full 
ceremonial dress, feathers, beads 
and buckckin. 

LAID FACE DOWN 
Achachavara»s body was laid face 
downward on the logs. More logs 
were piled crosswise, lengthwise, 
then heavier logs upright, forming 
a pyramid. On top of the pyre were 
placed his every worldly possess on, 
his hat, his shoes, his clothing, let- 
ters, lengths of bright-hued si!ks^ 
Young women and old stripped off 
their ceremonial sUks, even their 
dresses, and cast them into the fire 
in an orgy of griet. 
Here is an old blind man, tears 



jxaonaay mgiiu **^ .7^"* jir^T ^^o 
the protection of the Indian ripa- 
rian rights on the Colorado Rver. 
Because of the heat and the long 
distances many of the tribes are 
not represented In the death pow- 
wow, and plans are being made to 
hold a great memorial powwow m 
September for Achachavara when 
the new chief, presumably Lambert 
now In his fortieth year, will hi 
Ichosen as chief. 



, JULY 25. 19W 




ALIH BRINGS^^ 

JL TO INDIAN! 



INDIA! 

A.I J a: J \ 



SeminoU About' jAfJt^ient 
Fortune Asm Aid 

Court Petition 

'Appointment of Guardians 
Sought as Safeguard 



^ I I I I ■ 



•eartng for his life, Willie Wll; 
n«^Harlo Seminole Indian about 

irtaherlt '$SV from^,^^^^^^^^^ 
ents- estate, appealed" fdr Prot^"o" 
to the courts yesterday, and asked 
Ihat his Wife. »uth and J. S Rex 

^tnar-oHKauit^aeipel- 
StKompany. be appointed his 

*"ttkH^^who is 29 years of age. 
caSo read nor write, according to 
the petition, which was «ed »)y M 
torney James H. Van Law. It states 
that the petitioner is about to in 
herit a $3^00.000 estate, mostly oil 
royames following the recent de- 
cease of his mother and father. 
Echilio and Ellen Harjo. 

The prospective millionaire is to 

constant fear of his "fe fom the 

Cvn riesiens of persons who may try 

KnaThim'' and obtam control 

«ur^?e^l^?^tScom1^^^^ 
TccorK to the petition ^ota aft- 
'r the financial affairs of many mo 
tfon-plcture actors and actresses and 
.thcrs Who are unable to atiena 
SSerly to their bustaess matters/ 




, . .. ,.^,...^..- f,.,,_.,f ;^,^7,._i» .^^,,,. — .w..Vi^« >ipT,»fi«'rr.^^ / 










'' -v'';^^¥SJ''> '•'• . ^^'■■-':' 







■:i^M' 



\ili}:i" 



-'-"'.. '.■{■. }-X::-: 






■.■■■'. iv- 






SAX DIEGO, rAT.M TRIBtTNB 

. AUGUST 8. IWO 




Mesa Grande fndian^and neighbor- 
ing tribes will (jyiMl'HlS Wtl least of 
Santo Domingo at Mesa Grande to^ 
morrow, with high mass schedule!" 
begin at 10:30 a.m. and various Iflrfnan 
sports and games occupy Ing^jffe re- 
mainder of the day. 









L08 A!fOBLBf« CAIm, 
TlMBl 

AUGUST X0« 1929 



[dian Graves 
to be Explored 

COSTA ME^/Z^W^.— A search 
for Indian gr,^*>ne7r bere which 
are expected to reveal the origm 
and other interesting information 
about the Southern California In- 
dians, will be started in the near 
future by Dr. Herman Strandt. 1104 
West Center street. Anaheim, it 
was announced today. The ex- 
plorations are being made in behalf 
of the San Diego Museum, accord- 
ing to Strandt. who has been delv- 
ing in archeology for sixteen years. 
Strandt has done considerable 
work in this area and has found 
many interesting tools and tK>nes, 
he says. The Anaheim scientist 
has conducted exploration work all 
over the country but declares the 
Costa Mesa area is the most pro-*^^ 
ising territory in the district. 



OS ANOFI re CAL.. T!iVlF> 

AUG 1 6 1959 



^-•••i""^ 



ALTHY INDIAN 
'CENTER OF SUIT 




Affairs of ^Moi^ Bamett 
Again in Spotlight 



Complaint Urges Marriage 
he Ruled Void 

New Federal Action Would 
Conserve Property 



In an amended complaint filed 
yesterday in the United States Dis- 
trict Court by Asst. U. S. Atty. 
Peterson the affairs of Jackson 
Bamett, wealthy Oklahoma Indian, 
again were brought to the front. 

The new complaint designates 
Mrs. Anna Laura Barnett, wife of 
the Indian and guardian of his per- 
son; Maxine Sturgess, her daugh- 
ter; Leslie R. Hewitt, guardian of 
the property of Barnett, and the 
Bank of Italy National Trust and 
Savings Association as defendants. 
It is asserted in the complaint 
that Barnett was allotted 160 acres 
of land near Henryetta, Okla., by 
the government. The land later be- 
came valuable as oil land. It Is as- 
serted that he was taken to Coffey- 
ville, Kan., by his present wife and 
there married; that the Indian gave 
his wafe about $550,000, mostly in 
Liberty bonds, and that $530,000 was 
civen to the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society. 

The complaint asks that all per- 
sons or companies concerned with 
the money transfers be restrained 
from making any other transfers of 
properties or money, that the mar- 
riage be declared null and void and 
that the moneys be returned to the 
estate of the Indian or held In trust 
until the court shall decide what 
should be done. Attorneys for thel 
defendants are given twenty days 
in which to answer. 

Barnett lives in an cxpensive| 
house at Rossmore avenue anr 
BeverlV Boulevard. 



eAur.— iwvfw* 



I AUG. 21,1929 



Aged Pleasanton 
Indian Relic of 
Old Spankh Dons 

<?? ' — 4 

Jose Binico,! 90, Re- 
calls Pioneer Days 
of California 

PLEASANTON, Aug. 21 (Special 

to The Review). — A relic and a mem- 
ory of the days of the Spanish Dons 

in California— that is an aspect of 
the life of Jose Binico, 90-year-old 
sheepherder employed at the ranch 
near here of Peter Araundom, widely 
known sheep rancher of this vicinity. 
A "red" Indian — his skin is as red 
as the cane of manzanita which is 
his constant companion — this 90- 
year-old man saw the last days of 
Mexican rule in California, saw the 
setting up of the California Bear 
Republic and its succession by the 
American government. 

He was born in 1839 in Mission 
San Jose and went to school, as all 
Indians of the time and place were 
forced to do, to the padres at the 
mission. Now his mind is failing, 
apparently, but he maintains the 
cheerful outlook which seems to have 
marked his whole life. Of those days 
of teaching under tbe church fathers 
he says, **They were good men, the 
fathers; they treated me well." 

For many years he was employed 
on the ranch of General Sunol, after 
whom the hamlet of Sunol is named. 
General Sunol was one of the last of 
the Spanish grandees who ruled 
California in the patriarchial style 
in the early days of the last century. 
The general, Jose recalls, was a kind 
master, but most particular about 
his saddles and the grooming of his 
blooded horses. At 70 Jose worked 
on the Hansel ranch. During the 
past 18 years he has been employed 
by Peter Araundom at Pleasanton as 
a sheepherder. 

During the past two years he has 
been able to work but little, and was 
installed in a hut in the rear of the 
ranch house, where he lives alone. 
He has had a wife, an Indian woman 
named Rafaella, and seven children, 
but does not now recall what became 
of them. He has forgotten even the] 
children's names. 

His life has been one of faithfull 
service to his various masters; un- 
complaining obedience under all cir- 
cumstances; cheerfulness and a goO( 
word for all those with whom he hai 
come in contact. In that spirit he| 
waits for death. 

Recently, because of the frequent 
absences of his employer, he has 
been obliged to ask assistance at the 
hands of the Southern Alameda 
County Welfare board wherewith to 
comfort his last days. 



p*-*-'"*' ■^^■.M vS^i'*- 



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TIMB* 

AUGTJBT 24» 1W9 



SBAwINS INDIAN 

/ Veau ty con test 




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[A. P. Photo] 
Little White Fawn 



YOSEMITE, Aug. 23. (Exclusive) 
Little White Fawn has been ac- 
claimed the most beautiful maiden 
among the Indians of Yosemite Val- 
ley, and in recognition of the fact 
will preside £us queen of the Indian 
field day celebration to be conducted 
here next month. 

Little White Fawn, in addition to 
her other talents, is skilled in bead 
work, and has fashioned a set ol 
beads to be presented to Mrs. Her- 
bert Hoover. 



SCHOOLING 
OF INDIANS 
A UTHORIZED 



Federal Order Declares 
Children May be Put in 
Any Available Class 



WASHINOTON, Aug. 23. (>^— The 
[Indian Service today issued an or- 
der saying that wherever Indian 
children can find places in public 

schools they are to attend such 
schools instead of being enrolled 
in institutions created especially for 
I Indian education. 

In issuing the order, the bureau 
[declared a number of States are 
ready to assume responsibility of 
1 educating Indians. In some States 
[Where school funds are not large 
[and where the Indian is not a tax- 
payer, the Federal government will 
Ibe ar.ked to pay tuition for Indi|n 

)UDllS. 



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LA-TI-YO THE AGENT — Harry Hershfield, noted car- <$> Fox, when he was adopted by the tribe. The ceremonial in 

toonisty was named by his Hopi brethren La-ti-yo, or Silver I which Hershfield was given the warbonnet is shown above. 

■ - - ' - ^'- . 






OAKLAND/ 

tribunu 
AUG. kii), 1929 



ri ri M-B. 



Indian Declares His Talk 



Wrath 



VV 



White Men 



BERKELEY, Aug. 29. — If 
Jack Woodman, aged Indian liv- 
ing near Briceland, hadn't "told 
words back" to his angry god 
Aegechu, tlie white race on the 
Pacific coast would have been 
exterminated decades ago. 

The salvation of the early Cal- 
itornians came about because 
Jack felt sorry for the white men 
who ••didn't know any better" 
and when his great god threat- 

f?»^ y^ "*'''^® ^ ^**^«^ f'o^fl and 
kill all of them, Jack stepjx'd in 

the breach and just kept on 
'telling him words back" until 
the angry god consented to let 
the white men live. 

That's the story that the aged 
Indian told Mrs. J. O. Nomland, 
graduate student at the t^nlver- 
sity of California, who has been 
studying the culture of the fast 
disappearing Indian tribe. 



Back of Jack's tale about sav- 
ing tlie white race lies the fact 
that tanbark was sacred to the 
great Ncgechu. The whites came, 
saw the mountain sides covered 
with trees, and stripped them for 
their bark. Xegechu did not 
like it. He came over the moun- 
tain with fire in his eye and said 
to the aged Indian. **I am going 
to make a great flood and kill 
all these people who took my 
tanbark." 

Jack felt this wasn't at all fair, 
because the white men didn't 
understand about the sacrcdness 
of the tanbark, so he fixed it up 
with his god after a lengthy ar- 
gument, he t<>ld Mrs. Nomland. 

Jack believes that if he had 
not unselfishly persuaded his 
god to spare the white neigh- 
bors, the coast might still be a 
great hunting ground for the 
redmen. ^ 












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SEPT. 7, i929 



,.y - 



Camp Fire Girls 
Scouts Assisting 

^ Indian Pageant 



I 



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*., 



! 



Colorful Spectacle at] 
San Lorenzo School 
Tuesday Night 



Russell Reukema of the Fresno 
Players will play the role of Sunj 
Deer in the pageant, "Indian Sum- 
mer," to be given at San Lorenzo'sj 
now school auditorium next Tuesday 
at 8 p. m. Mr. Reukema is the son-l 
in-law of the late Rev. W. J. Speers 
of San Lorenzo and is well known in| 
this community. 

Camp Fire Girls and Boy Scoutsl 
are assisting in the production. Part| 
of the proceeds will go for the bej 
fit of these organizations. 

The pageant will feature the fam-| 
ous Indian artist, dancer and model 
Francisco Ross, in two poses, flvej 
dances and a character part. 

A cast of 50. consisting of locall 
talent from San Lorenzo, Ashland, 
Sunset and Hayward are cooperatingj 
to make this pageant a success. Thii 
will be the first time the new school] 
auditorium at San Lorenzo has beei 
iised for a stage production. 

Many of the- costumes to be won 
in this production are authentic 
copies of Indian ceremonial garments 
made by Mr. Ross in his Hollywood 
studio. Some of his personal costumei 
were worn by his ancestors man; 
generations ago. A number of valu- 
able articles are being loaned for^thi 
production by local people. 



. SAN JO$t, CAUlP. 

f4ERCUAY HERALD 

SEPT* 11, 192(^ 



Dr. Bland Tells Tragid 

3/ Vanishing Indian 



.i^ 



When tOT^ white man discovered 
Yosemite jTalley it was inhabited 
by a large tribe of Indians. Today 
there are only eight full-blooded 
Indians in the valley. 
This is the tragic tale of a van- 
ishing race brought back from 
Yosemite by Dr. Henry Meade 
Bland, California's poet laureate, 
who has just returned from a trip 
to the California beauty spot with 
Dr. James W. Ferrie of this city. 
VIEWS INDIAN FIELD DAY. 

While Dr. Bland was in the val- 
ley an Indian field day was held, 
with two Indian writers from 
Bishop and two from Mariposa. 
The Indians themselves are inter- 
ested in an effort to promote a 
renaissance of the race, and to 
keep the Indian blood which is 
pure today undiluted in future. 
They are interested in the revival 
of the Indian arts also. 

Dr. Bland visited Yosemite in 
1887 and he learned on his recent 
trip that two of the Indian wom- 
en he became acquainted with at 
that time are still alive and active. 

The Indians regret greatly the 
passing of the kind of trout which 
was originally found in the val- 
ley. While the government has re- 
stocked the streams with trout, 
the kind found in them today are 
not nearly so good as the original 
kind, the Indians say. Another re-" 



gret they express is for the pass- 
ing of the grizzly bear. Grizzly 
bear skins have always been high- 
ly prized by the Indians, and be- 
cause of their great size one is 
sufficient to roll up in on a cold 
winter night. 

VISITS MUIR SAWMILL. 

While in Yosemite Dr. Bland vis- 
ited the site of John Muir's saw- 
mill. Contrary to some opinions, 
he says, the sawmill Yv..s not lo- 
cated on the floor of the valley, 
but about four miles down a can- 
yon. The location of the sawmill, 
he states, is proof of Muir's regard 
for nature and his unwillingness 
to devastate one of the country's 
greatest beauty spots by felling its 

trees. In a cabin near the saw- 
m.tll John Muir lived for about 10 
years, and it was there that he 
entertained Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son. 

On the return trip Dr. Bland vis- 
ited the Mariposa ^rove, and a 
short distance from there saw the 
devastation brought about by a 
fire, which was caused by a cig- 
arette. The embers were still 
smoldering when Dr. Bland pass- 
ed by, and he was strongly con- 
vinced that an extensive cam- 
paign of public education is neces- 
sary to impress upon people the 
damage which may be caused by 
throwing away a lighted cigarette. 



Study Reveals Skill 
Of Kern Indian Tribe 

An Indian tribe which developed 
techniques in the gathering and pre- 
paration of foods and tobacco that 
many a scientist might study with 
profit, Is described in a monograph 
just issued from the department an- 
thropology of the University of Cali- 
fornia. The publication describes 
many af the little known cultural 
traits of the Tubatulabal Indians In 
the South Pork valley of the Kern 
River, a tribe which apparently mixed 
astuteness and resourcefulness of a 
high degree, with the deepest of prim- 
itive practices. Pew of the tribesmen 
now remain, but from these few, and 
from the ruins of their particular civ- 
ilization, the University was able to 
develop a fairly complete picture of 
their early culture. 

According to the study, the Tubatu- 
labal Indians developed a process for 
collecting the honey dew deposited by 
aphids on the stalks of the common 
cane plant and converted it into su- 
gary and palatable cakes. Also they 
collected the minute saline crystals 
which dry weather brings out on the 
stems and leaves of salt grass and 
used them effectively as a medicine 
for many ills. The natives also man- 
ufactured a very acceptable chewing 
gum from the milky sap of a species 
of Asclepias. They still prepare to- 
bacco from the wild tobacco plant of 
the region, harvesting and curhig it 
in a particularly skillful manner and 
finally pulverizing it and working it 
up into balls. These they chew for 
the most part, men and women alike 
Some of It is mixed with lime that 
has been obtained either from burnt 
shells or from natural deposits. 

The monograph was prepared by 

Erminie W. Voegelin, former gradu- 

ate student in anthropology and wife 

u£ ^1^' ^^^^ Voegelin, professor of an- 

hrology in De Pauw University. 

^reencastle, Indiana. 



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Bureai 



OS ANGELES. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

ORTLAND.ORE. 
LIPPING FROM 



IVKIMflinK. TAIm 



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'*x\-vi xav/nx wit; JSUl'VlCe 




SUPERVISOR ElUS 
\ i & 4 HOLDS HEAR 

To delfrminJ^fChdrs of deeea 
Indian allottees, John H. Henden 
detailed by the Secretary of the 
tenor, is working at Pala^ Indian : 
ervation where he is holding hearhn? 
This announcement was made yeste, 
day by Special Supervisor C L Fill 
i^«=^j:eVf the Mission Indian ageJ 
cy. with headquarters in the fS 






INDIGENT INDIANS 
WILL BE miEVED 



i^^ounty 



iRed Men^JIn^oui^ Too 
Proud to Reveal Acute 
Condituuis^ 

YREKA, Dec. 2'5. — 'Funds for the re-l 
lllef of aged Indians who arc In acute! 
need will be raised here by a benefltl 
social dance to be given by tiie Leakel 
auxiliary of the Indian Board of Co-| 
joperation, January 20. 

There are several Indians in SIs-l 
kiyou county who are suffering from 
[want and who are too proud to makel 
known their condition. All of thesel 
Indians would be subject to govern-| 
ment compensation for surrenderlni 
what they claimed as their lands ha< 
a treaty made 50 years ago with thos< 
who refused to fight In the Modo( 
war been settled. The treaty Is al 
matter 6t record in congress and th( 
department of the interior. Pressure 
is being brought to bear to have thes* 
Indian claims adjusted by organiza- 
tlons formed here.^ 

f- 



DECEMBER 27, 1922 



V^ 



tiU^pxJu^ tdCiu^^w^^ 



is 

ll 

[r 
e 



A 



* We Fail in 

ojiA Duty 




HE trfQ|f real civilization of a domi 

in at lug* race is in its attitu4p] 

toward a cojiquered people. 

do not meet that test with flying coli 

Our course of action tavrard the 

dians is, in many respectj, little short 
disgraceful. 

In California the Federal Governm 
has disregarded a solemn treaty; in N 
Mexico the Bursum bill, now pending 
Congress, seeks to denude them of the 
lands. 

Now comes a statement from the Cat 
ifornia State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction showing an abnormally high 
rate of illiteracy among the Indians of 
this State, due to lack of adequate school 
facilities for them. 

There are over 8000 Indian children 
of school age in the State; only 4100 are 
in the schools supplied by the Federal 
Government. Why this discrepancyT 

Some Indian children are provi 
for in State schools. But the dut 
really that of the Federal Govern 

Meanwhile illiteracy among t 
dians contributes seriously to the 
high illiteracy figures of the whol 

Says Mr. Will C. Wood : 

"Certainly, these unfortunate | 
whom we have supplanted In Call^ 

by means that reflect discredit uppn , 

ought to be given a better chance th»n we 
are now according them. We ought not 
to continue the policy of making them 
outcasts. 

"I believe that proper co-operation of^ 
State and Federal authorities In educat- 
ing the Indiana can reduce the number of 
Illiterates among them by half before the 
next census." 

The trouble with the Government at- 
titude toward the Indians is that the 
Indian office is dominated by the idfea^ 
that these people are of no use to Amer-i 
ica, and that care of them is futile wad i 
unnecessary. People who should know? 
tell stories pf cold-blooded neglect on t; ' 
part of that office th<t are sim 
hideous. 

Until we improve 
toward the American In„. 
withhold criticism of other 
in their attitude toward co 
pies in Africa and Asfia. 




,- -^ cupping 
JV*^ Bureau 

►Rfllf UWO . B E . 






V 



0jl3ii« 



•^'■"SS^T «. »» 



Alnes To Sacrapiento-Secretary- 
V?A Ir ^ocs. L. Hammond, of the 
^aft^ger ^2;^^i^u|, ' of Commerce 
liivetside Chjm^* this noon to 

leaves * "^^ ■Jf^r^tate and federal 
attend a '^^Zn\f^ m welfare of 
offic als „^°'\;'^'srefman institute and 
the Indians in f.^^^J^"^ Hammond 

■ on the ':«««'^^f^^^'ie's interests at 
represents Rviemdes ^^^^^ 

&reSts^s;^^ay ^^ J-^^^^^ 

Z SiaC'^^t Sh^rm^an institute and 
elsewhere in the county. 



Sacramanto, Cal, Bee 

!KlliALAID¥ 
INDIAN WORK URGEDI 

cub Q 

iBrrestigatiittjy Oommittob Says] 
Nursing Service AndfNew 
School NeedecTTo] ^ 
Children 

Appropriations by congress to 
cover the cost of nursing service lor 
Indian children in Superior Caiuoi- 
nia and a new boarding school witn 
a capacity of at least 200 children 
are requested in resolutions adopt- 
ed by a special committee of state 
and federal educational authorities 
which has been investigating: the 
problem of educating Indian chil- 
dren in this state. 

Recommendations of the com- 
mittee are made known in two 
separate resolutions and while no 
amount is specified in reference to 
the requirements for a boarding 
school, the federal government is 
urged by the committee to appropri- 
ate 125,000 annually for nursing 
service, with the understanding that 
such federal assistance would not 
exceed 50 per cent of the total cost 
of such service. 

Location Left Open. 



While* the question of the loca- 
tion^f the proposed school is left 
d^JfuWill C. Wood, state superin- 
^dent of public instruction, and a 
member of the committee!, said that 
the desirability of rebuilding the 
Indian School at Greenville, Plumas 
County, has been discussed. How- 
ever, he declared the committee felt 
the most desirable thing was secure 
a school anywhere in the northern 
part of the «tate, where It would 
be accessible to the Indians. 

The destruction of the Green- 
ville School about two years ago, 
according to Wood, has caused a 
scatteration of the Indian children 
who formerly attended that institu- 
tion. 

500 Out Of School. 



Based upon the latest reports of 
the United States Bureau of In- 
dian Affairs, according to one of the 
resolutions, there are approximately 
§QO_Indian children in California 
who are not attending any school. 

Investigation has showTi that this 
non-attendance is due to social and 
economic causes. It further stated 
that a consideEftble proportion of 
these childrejpr are orphans, half- 
orphans ai^r abandoned children 
and childjj^ from homes of low 
standard^ 

Reaj^njB for Continned Need. 
Th^rresolutions point out It is I 
became of these ccnditSions that 
con^miued aid Is needed from thej 
f«ieral government to make 
dian children acceptable In 
ublic schools, although one of 
resolutions adds that California 
accepted and does accopt the 
sponsibility for educating such 
dian children as are found through-l 
out the state in public school dis- 
tricts or who may at any time lo- 
cate In public scho''l districts and 
whose home conditions are social-| 
ly and econontlcally such as * to 
make the children acceptable un-i 
dor the law. 

Health inspection, which it is be- 
lieved would go a long way to cor- 
rect present conditions, would, un 
der the recommendations of tli 
committee, be under the supervisioi 
of public health nurses. 

Members of Committee. 

The committee which Has bee: 
studying the problem of Indiai 
education is composed of the fol- 
lowing: 

Will C. Wood^ superintendent oi 
public instruction, Sacramento; WJ 
M. Dickie, secretary state board ol 
health, Sacramento; Ross L. Ham- 
mond, Riverside Chamber of Com 
merce; Georgiana Garden, stat< 
supervisor of school attendance, 
Sacramento; Eugenia M, Bruns,| 
county superintendent of schools,! 
Alpine County, Gardnervllle, Ne-I 
vada; Amy D. Steinhart, chief ofl 
bureau of children's aid, Sacra-I 
mento; Minerva Ferguson, county 
superintendent of schools, Lake 
County^ Lakeport; W. W. Coon, su- 
pervisor of Indian Education, Pa- 
cific Coast District, San Francisco; 
Edgar K. Miller, superintendent and 
special disbursing agent, Green- 
ville; H. P. Peairs, supervisor of 
education, Indian Service, Washing-! 
ton, D. C, field headquarters, Law- 
fefrCC*^ Kansas; O. H. Close, superln-] 
tcndent^Preston School of Industry, 
lone; Cornelia M. Stanwood, secre- 
tary state board of charities and] 
corrections, San Frani?isco. 



the 

thel 

the 

hasi 
re-j 

In- 



5^LONO REACH. CAIi., 

vjAiS'UARY 17, J»2a 




ReccH'limendati 



Made 
State Supt. Woods 



(International News Leased Wire) 
SACRAMENTO. Jan. 17.— Recom- 
mendations that an Indian board- 
ing school with a capacity of at 
least two hundred be established 
in northern California, and that 
congress be petitioned to appro- 
priate $25,000 annually to assist the 
state in caring for and educating 

Indian children, are made in the 
report of the state comipittee on 
Indian affairs, released today by 
"Will C. Wood, state superintendent 
of public instruction. 

The committee states that its in- 
vestigation shows that the majority 
of the Indian children now out of 
school in California are orphans, 
half orphans, abandoned children 
and children from homes of low 
standards. 

To properly care for these chil- 
drer *he committee states, it will 
be ;3ary to keep them in board- 

ing xOols under the supervision 
of public health nurses. It is asked 
that congress assist in paying the 
expense of such nursing service. 

The reason Indian children are 
in many cases excluded from the 
public schools, the report sets 
forth, is they are disea^8d. 

It is suggested that the Indian 
boarding school be patterned after 
the Sherman Institute at Riverside. 

There are approximately 600 In- 
dian children in the state not at- 
tending school, the committee finds. 
"This non-attendance is due to so- 
cial and economic causes," the com- 
mittee states. 



i^y^ Bureau 



eJt».. 



SAN FRANClSW.lpi'**^- 
PORTLAM&iOREiV^ ^ 



CUPPtHQ PMt^y^J^d 



I a iii<y 



NtoflOta 



M*i 






SucramtBtojCtl. Bee 




SUPPORTING INDIANS 



Siskiyou County Whites Are Seek- 
ing AW For IVeedy Aborigrlnes 
Through Benefit. 



1 



YREKA (S^ki> 
Much ,i«^tjrelt is 

in the jJ|Ci<^4j^ 

leaka Auxilijrry for itiie 



Gii po). Jan. 
i IbJing: cxprc 
bV'tiven her* 



.'o.), Jan. 20. — 

pressed 

ere by 

benefit of 



indigen^ij/dians. Orcjers for tickets 
have come from many localities. 

It is expected that the dance, 
whKh is to be stlv^ February 3rd, 
1 be attended Hy a large crowd. 
The sympathy of the whites here 
is grenerally with the Indians, who 
are in need and suffering:. 

Included among: the Indians now 
in want are some who betraved 
warriors of their own blood in order 
to save the whites from massacre 
Thoy gave up peacefully :n antici- 
pation of Uncle Sam making- 
promises. 



good 



rKv^^'xo CAT.. nT:T:— 1:3 






rf-' f 



iii^u 



1-1'< v^-- 






fchool For Indian 

Missionaries In Clovisl 



CLOVIS (Fresno Co.), Jan. 29. — A 





as mission- 

ple will be 

ider the di- 

beginning 



school to ^rrjin 
aries to thjjir 
held here Wfs 
rection of Jy G. VBren 
i to-morrow evening. 

Sessions of the school will con- 
tinue until Friday night. Mission- 
ary workers from Indian camps 
'throughout the valley will be in 
'attendance and act as Instructors in 
Lthe school. 



h^ 



U^.(:}l^-S ^^ 



■o..e- 



0i*' 






[LOS A^iiEi ^.o 

Woipan I^ds for 
^ Charity to Indians 

The plight^f the American 
Indiaiv^^ considered at a meet- 
ing of TbWofficers and executive 
TOmmitt€e^^^f/he Federation of 
State Soclftieir 

The Indian problem was dis- 
cussed by Mrs. William P. Cun- 
ningham, president of the Women's 
City Club, principal speaker. 

Other speakers were C. D. Law- 
ler, president of the Indiana Stat^ 
Society; L. M. Guerensey of New 
York and Judge R. W. Richardson 
of Nebraska. 



WospHaTFor 
Indians To Be 
^uUtAt Clovisl 

.••endej, who ha, }?* ^^ ^ev. j g 
,j'^n situation "he^^T °' the l^: 
"•St unit of an ^ 1° «''«ct the 

Two ?o/"^- '" ^''^ 

;een donated'by Ertt''°'P"al have 
^esno ariH ^ -fc-dwin Tr^po,, 

banned ?o "''°" these m^T? ^' 
""dine- fZ *'■*''' a small, ' '« 
ear th"*^ "se during thi ''"^'ne 






LAKEPOET^ rja>.^^1^f.^ 1S:.3 



ISHOULD INVESTIGATE 
INDIAN .CONDITIONS 



7 






)' 



It \^as/ r^ljgped f last evening that, 
there is sickness among some of the 



Indiana at the Jgnchero at Big Val- 
ley. A party <wno was there on 



rancm 
Who 
business yesterday reported that one 
Voung Indian is siok and is laying 
on the floor without a bed and food 
Is scarce in the house. The man is 
a victim of tuberculosis, it is reported. 
It does seem strange to most 
people why the government cannot 
do more for the Indians. If ever a 
race was treated unjustly surely 
it was the Indians. 

We have good people in the county 
and it should make no difference as 
to color of the man and no difference 
what his failings or weaknesses may 
be in life, he is a human' after all 
and it is a duty that we owe as 
good citizens to get together and In- 
vestlgate and help these people that 
they will not be hungry. 

The matter wull be reported to the 
authorities this morning. 



^ALT LAKE. UTAH. TRIBTTNn 



\ FEB ' 







Indian Race Not Dying 

Out 



I 



By Frederic J. Ha^ldn. 



WASHINGTON, Fe 
In the United Statesfcan 
called a vanishing 
sented to congre$p d 




Indians 

nger be 

[ires pre- 

present 



i'cssion by ChaHwr^. Burke, the commis- 
sioner of Indian affairs, show that the 
Indian population has mkteriall 




creased during the past ten fe^^^" There 

are now about 311,000 Indiariflrithe coun- 
trj% half of them full-bloods and one- 
third of the rest more than half-bloods. 

Slowly but surely science and careful ,, 
medical attention* is cutting: down the !| 
heavy mortality which for so many years 
the Indians suffered after coming in con- 
tact with the diseases of the white men. 
Ten years ago the Indian death rate an- 
nually was a2.24 per thousand; in 1920 it 
was 22.33. The birth rate is now more 
than keeping pace with the death rate. 

At the beginning of the present cen- 
tury the government had provided only 
Ave hospitals for the whole Indian popu- 
lation. Today there are seventy-eight 
Indian hospitals, and the government is 
giving medical treatment to more than 
20,000 Indian patients every year. The 
red man is particularly susceptible to 
tuberculosis, 25,000 of them being more 
or less afflicted with it. An even greater 
number have the disease of the eyes 
known as trachoma. Ten years ago the 
grovernment spent $40,000 a year in health 
work amoTT^g the Indians. This year the 
medical and health appropriation Is $370,- 
000. 

The Indians of the United States are 
also rapidly becoming independent citi- 
zens, losing their status of wards, of the 
government. Otie-thlrd of them have been 
released enllrely from the supervision of 
the Indian bureau, while still another 
third are citizens with full voting rights, 
although the guardianship of the govern- 
ment over tlhem has not been relin- 
quished. 

Nearly 1,000,000 acres of la.nd are now 
being farmed by about 43,000 Indians. 
Both the area farmed and the number of 
Indian farmers have nearly doubled in 
ten years. Fifty thousand families are 
now living in houses of permanent cofn- 
struction, while only 10,000 families still 
cling to their tents, tepees and wickiups. 

INDIAN RARELY RETROGRADES. 

Commissioner Burke disputed the com- 
mon Idea that after an Indian has been 
given an education he .promptly goes back 
to the reservation, drops his civilisation 
along with his store clotihes, and promptl/ 
resumefl the^blanket. The commlasioner 
is a man^^ long experience with the 
a boriginjuira nd h^ declared that the In- 
dian jdio retrogrades is a rarity. 

Tl^^ealth of the Indiajis is now close 
to^^l, 000, 000,000, or almost $3000 per 
mita. Their tribal and individual pro- 
tected funds deposited in the treasury or 
tXi banks amount to $60,000,000. The 
Osages constitute the wealtttilest tribe, 
for on their lands in Oklahoma is located 
the richest oil field in the United States. 

The Cherokees originally owned this 
land. Away back In 18^3, when automo- 
biles were not yet invented knd the de- 
mand for petroleum was small, the crafty 
Cherokees thought they had turned a heat 
piece of business when they succeeded in 
selling this area to the Osages for $1.26 
an acre. After the purchase was made, 
all mineral rights in the lands were re- 
served to the Osage tribe as a whole. 

When oil was discovered in the Osage 
country, the individuals of this tribe, 
whether they individually happened to be 
occupying oil land or not, immediately 
grew rich. Every Osage shares equally 
In the royalties and booiuEes paid by 
the oil operators. Last year alone each 
enrolled Osage received $10,000 In royal- 
ties, and certain large families with nu- 
merous children drew an income as high 
as $SO,000 for the year. One sale of oil 
leases brought the trl'be $7,000,000 in 
bonuses at rates ranging up to $10,000 an 
acre, and they will draw royalties on 
every barrel of oil produced under the 
leases. The total oil production on the 
Osage reservation last year came to 29,- 
000,000 barrels. 

Other Indians in Oklahoma did not se- 
cure to their tribes the mineral rights 
of their lands, but let them go to the 
individual Indians to whom the tracts 
were allotted. The result is that some 
of these Individual Indians have Immense 
oil royalties, while others find themselves 
occupying only agricultural lands. There 
were instances last year of single Creek 
Indians who received as much as $50,000 
in royalties. 

ONE LUCKY RED MAN. 

The classic example tn Oklahoma of a 
luckv Indian is a Creek whose real name 
Is Jackson Barnett. The Creek Indians 
made their own selections of lands for 
themselves to occupy as individuals, as 
a rule, but because of some disaffection 
or other Barrett refused to select any. 
The government therefore arbitrarily al- 
lotted a tract to him. Naturally, since 
the other Creeks made selection© for 
themselves, only the poor land was left 
when it came time for the government to 
make the arbitrary allotments. Bar- 
nett's piece was practically worthless as 
farm land. 

Years passed, and then the oil pros- 
pecting began. Today Bamett's farm is 
one of the richest oil allotments in Okla- 
homa. Barnett has more than $1,000,000 
in I^lbertv bonds, and he has other prop- 
erty valued at $2,000,000. 

One of the problems whldh the Indian 
office Is trying to work out is that of 
educating the Navajo Indian children. 
There are several thousand of the.se chil- 
dren, and the government is signatory 
to a solemn treaty promising to educate 
them. But the tribe itself is nomadic, 
tpoving from place to place year after 
yfear. The one school that would seem 
to suit them best would be a portable 
school that could move along on its 
w-heels with each section of the tribe it 
served. This, however, is not regarded 
as practicable. 

Boarding schools to which the chil- 
dren could be sent for months at a time 
would be the best solution, except for 
the fact that the Indian parents do not 
like this system. They believe in put- 
ting their children to work almost a« 
soon as they can walk. The bureau ha« 
$200,000 with w»hich to find a solution. 




IISSEIITS 

\m NOT 




Noted Author Is Heard at All 
S9UIS Universalist 
lurch 




Denying that the American Indians 
are idolatrous and refuting many 
other popular beliefs about them, Dr. 
Edward S. Curtis, noted author and 
lecturer, gave a talk on "The Origin 
of the American Indians; Their Mi- 
grations and Religious Beliefs" at the 
All Souls Universalist church last 
evening as one of the series of pi lu- 
lar science talks arranged for Jj i- 
uary and Febi-uary by Dr. W. C. Sel- 
leck. 

The talk was illustrated by lantern 
slides, indescribably beautiful and 
each one was a lesson in art, taken 
by Dr. Curtjs during his visits among 
the Indians of this country, covering 
a period of 29 vears, 

"In defining superstition as op- 
posed to religions, I would say that 
superstition is the other man's re- 
litfion," Dr. Curtis said, adding that 
the religion of the Indian has been 
belittled too much. It was through 
his sympathy with their religious be- 
liefs that he has been able to get 
cloFe to them and obtain much infor- 
mation about their practices and his- 
tory than otherwise, h^ said 

Merely Are Symbols 

Tlie images and seeming idols they 
use are merely symbols of the spirit, 
the speaker said. In the same way 
one might call the Christians cross- 
worshipers, he contended. 

To illustrate this point, Dr. Curtis 
p-ave the translation of the opening 
lines of one of the Sioux Indians* 
prayers: "Oh, You, the Great Mys- 
tery. You, who created all things. 
You. who are •all things." The words 
which have generally been translated 
Great Spiiit should be translated 
Great Mystery, the speaker declared, 
,T>lacincr the belief of the Indians on 
the level of the Christian in the one 
all -Powerful God. 

The migration of the redman t 
this continent occurred in an age be- 
fore speech began. Dr. Curtis main 
tained, giving as one proof the dis- 
similarity of the language of the In- 
dian to anv of the languages of the 
Asiatic. The migration was early and 
soon afterward the small group of 
emip-rants we>^e scattered over the 
continent of America, he said. 

Figui-es by Fours 

The speaker said that the Indian 
^'^ure^ by fours and multiples o 
fours because of the four direction 
and the four winds. 

The various reliirious rites of th 
red men were explained quickly and 
picturesQuely by the use of lantern 
slides. By thc^e means the audienc 
was taken to all parts of the Unite 
States, along the Canadian coast and 
to southern Alaska. In this way, too 
all the ugly scenes were omitted an( 
onlv the spots of beauty shown. 

Dr. Curtis underwent much dis- 
comfort and dancer to get many of 
the pictures and the information. One 
of the incidents, not the most pleas- 
ant, was during the nine-day sna^'»^ 
dance of the Hopi Indians, in which 
he was allowed to participate. As 
the newest of the priests, he must 
have the first of each kind of sn<^ko 
found wbund about his neck four 
times, including the rattlesnakes and 
iieven large species. The snake dan?e 
11 is not a dance. Dr. Curtis said, but n 
highly dram^-^tized religious rite. The 
first day is one of preparation, then 
four days are spent in gathering the 
reptiles. On the ninth day, the 
snakes are washed and freed. It Is 
a prayer for riiin and for crops. 

The speaker describes the Indian 
IS proud and independent, desiring to 
live his own life as he pleases, an 
would if the white man were not 
«ure that "He is his brothiirs 
keener." 

The talk \yas one of the m(/t en- 
tertaining of the courso. TTy iUus- 
jons were breath-takingyTn their 



Los A«j;^ele^ Cd., Escpf 

FEBPwUARY 20, 192tL 




ki 



E JUBILEE 
S ADV ANCEI 

■■■ III p 

ir Celebration 
Here Proposed 




With the President of the IJniti 
. BJates to smoke the peace i^e v^ti 
all ^American Indians as the great 
3)istorical and dramatic climax, 
13lana for an enormous Peace 
Jubilee and Wild West Reunion 
progressed in Los Angeles today. 

Granting all American Indians 
t.h« flfg-Hi^ ^f rH ig ^^g hip and bring- 
ing members of 'every tribe in the 
land to Los Angeles for the celebra- 
tion was part of the plan proposed 
Toy Anton Mezzanovich, for nearly 
lialf a century a resident of Los 
Angeles, and a veteran •of the In- 
dian Wars. 

PEACE PACT PLANNED 

His plan is to stage one great 
national celebration of the most ro- 
mantic of all modern wars, the In- 
<lian Wars, and to declare formal 
and lasting peace with the rem- 
jia.nts of that race who lost. 

Because the civilization of the 
West owes its very existence to the 
noldlers who died fighting the red 
tribes, it is fitUng that the celebra- 
tion should be dedicated to the vet- 
erans of the Indian Wars, Messan- 
ovlch explains. 

He proposes to hold the celebra- 
tion at the Los Angeles speedway 
nnd to ask the legislature for the 
financial aid necessary. 

The great rodeo is a dream of the 
veteran's life. The reunion would 
bring thousands of Indlnas from all 
parts of the United States. 

SCHEDULED FOR 1924 

It will coon be too late to stage a, 
celebration in which survivors of 
the Indian Wars could take part, 
the promoter says. Not only are the 
A eterans of the wars becoming 
fewer and fewer, but the Indians as 
they were known in the early days 
are becoming scarce. 

The reunion would last probably 
a month and Is planned for th( 
summer of 1924. 









|;^;;,%v 



,,■, ■. ■ '•■ t \. M . ■ />i 'X ■*.■ , 1 > T . 



.■■■,r !•■'■" 






s. r.. CAT... EXA'.::x!:n 



Los Argclea, CaL, rimeA 



• • 4 <l 



fejutf^j 



S APPEAL TO 
TATE FOR FUWDS 




NONRESERVATION TRIBES 

ABEJDWINniilNG AWAT, 

.•^* A. Py^IGSff WIRE-] 

SACRAM:5m^<3ur March «. _ 
Chiefs of three Iifdian tribes living 
in Lassen, Modoc. Butte and Plu- 
mas counties, called on members 
of the State Board of Control here 
today to secure aid for their peo- 
ple, who, they said, were desti- 
tute and were being driven from 
their lands and home by cattle- 
men. 

The callers were Frank North- 
rop, chief of the Piutes; Jack Wil- 
liams, chief of the Pit River Tribe 
, and Alfred liackson, chief of the 
Diggers. 

The chiefs declared their tribes 
were slowly dwindling away be- 
cause of lack of means of support 
l^ia^^id they were without agri- 
■Clii ''.^1'^^'^®'"^"^® ^o *i" the soil, 

M^«:i^.^S ^'■'^^"^'^^^y- ^^^y were 
forced to leave their homes after 

being locate(^ because of the en- 
croachments of the stockmen. 
The condition of the Piutes was 

rnrChi^e/M^"..,^""'^"^^^^^^ ^'-^^' 

nn^n .^^^ Northrop said this tribe? 
farX^^t '^^i^ prosperous in Cali^ 
forma, had dwindled through dls- 

tTm^^l^"'^^'^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ly six- 
ty members were left t /»«« *^ 

1000 Of the Pit" River Trfbe^Ve" 
main, according to Chief Williams 

Because these tribes are not ,^» 
orvation Indians, the Federal eov" 
ornment has made no provi!?on 
for their care, Jt was explff„ed 

Chairman G. B. Daniels ^aM h- 
would refer the matfer to Asl,!^'' 

»f-^ t^^"|ilnrf?„"f r 1 
eral ajrenta. The State To„^" 

IZVr^' ^rlng f'or t^elnJ^IL a?' 
tnis time, it was stated. 



vrR:\i\rrNTo. pal. uxion '^ 



^ 



indtan Chiefs Ask Assistance 



'^r:{i}¥: 



':^'^.r¥. 



?i^-^^ 



M/ vt/ vK 
•{,.■• •'>• ••,;• 
.*\ -»>. /l\ 



.^ }¥. f J-C 



Wi^m 



Three Tribes Held Destitute 





,"« Tt^ nt 



^}^i¥i 



:^ H^ -f: 



>H ^J*^ )!^ 



emin Blamed For Plight 



Chiefs of t 
in I>as«en, M 
counties rail 
.state board of 
^ay to secure 
w h o 
and 




tribes living 

utte and Plumas 

on members of the 

coMrol here y ester - 

aid for their people 

they claimed wer« destitute 

were being driven from their 



lands and homes by cattlemen. 

The callers were Frank Northrop, 
chief of the Piutes; Jack Williams, 
chief of the Pit River tribe, and Al- 
fred Jack.'^'on. chief of the Diggers. 

The chiefs decla.red their tribes 
were slowly dwindling away because 
of lack of means of support. They 
said they were witho-ut agricultural 
implements to till the soil and that 
frequently they were forced to leave 
their homes after having- located be- 
cause of the encroachments of the 
stockmen. 

The chiefs charged that their chil- 
dren Avere being excluded from the 



public schools by th© trustees. 

The condition of the Piutes was 
represented a.s particularly alarming. 
Chief Northrop said his tribe, once 
the most prosperous in California, 
had dwindled through disease and 
priviation until barely 60 members 
were left. Less than 1000 of the Pit 
PJver tribe remain, according io 
Chief Williams. ^ 

Ijeca/uso these tribes are not reser- 
vaiiom Indians, the federal govern- 
ment has made no provision for their 
ca.re. it was explained. 

Chairman G. B. Daniels said 'he 
would- refer the matter to Assembly- 
man Arthur Mathews of Susanville 
in the hope that an appropriation 
may be secured from the legislature 
or funds procured for the relief of 
the Indiana from federal agents. The 
stale has no funds for oaring for the 
Indians at this time, it was stated. 






'!/'.'■ 



\ \ 



f^c 



s For Help 

^ M M: ^ 



- t ^°f^''¥' '« '" ^''•« Straits 

~ ji * ■ « » » * . » ^ 

stockmen Push Them Out 



i 



SACJRAMENTO, _ ^,, ^._ 
Chiefs of three iJDdianifribes liv- 
ing in Lassen, Mofdoir Butte and 
Plumas counties, A«ed on mem- 
bers of the state board of control 
here today to secure aid for their 
people, who they claimed were 
destitute and being driven from 
their lands and homes by cattle- 
men. 

The callers were PYank North- 
rop, chie fo fthe Piutes;*Jack Wil- 
.liams, chief of the Pit River tribe 
and Alfred Jackson, chief of the 
JDiggera. • 

The chiefs declared their tribes 
\^ere slowly dwindling away be- 
cause of lac kof means of support. 
They said they were without agri- 
cultural implements to till the soil 
and that frequently they were 
forced to leave their homes, after 
having located, because of the en- 
croachments of the stockmen. 

The condition of the Piutes was 



B^the Associated Press 

Ma^h 6.— ® represented as particularly alarm - 
•ibea l,v- 14^. Chief Northrop said this 
tribe, once the most prosperous in 
California, had dwindled through 
disease and privation, until bare- 
ly 60 members were left. L^ess 
than one thousand of the Pit Ri- 
ver tribe remain, according to 
Chief Williams. 



are not 
Federal 
no pro- 
was ex- 



Because these tribes 
reservation Indians, the 
Government has made 
vision fo rtheir care, it 
plained. 

Chairman G. B. Daniels said he 
would refer the matter to As- 
semblyman Arthur Mathews of 
Susanville in the hope that an ap- 
propriation may be secured from 
the Liegl.«?lature or funds procured 
for the relief of the Indians from 
federal agents. The state has no 
funds for caring for the Indians 
at this time, it was stated. 



NDiS TO CET 




.,.-. ^ »*«AllnNEf BhBEAU. 

at^CtrrmpnOnt ,f s. F. •Exilw.' 

SACRAMENTO, Marcli 7 —The 
pennlJess lobby of a passing race 
received recoCTition in California's 
legislative halls today when state 
Mfic als and legislators agreed to 
provide state lands in I.assen coun- 
ty for the Pluto Digger and Pit 
duMnrtll",**',"""' """""^ """'hers have 
pesmen!" ''^'■"'^' '•""^ »>•""«'<=«» 
In resDonse to anneals nf a 
fenl^^^ 'J«'^»ation. composes o? five 

WtorT n^'^^r^ ^^ '""i » pitiful 
istory oi the abject poverty and 

lver"'?i\"..°n' 'h<>ir people scatte1-ed 

^1.^™, •^"' Modoc, Butte and 

? %A .r^ntie"- Assemblyman 

_ . J. Mathews, of Susanville, will 

llntroduc^ a bill setting aside 40 

ores of dtsert land east of Mount 

Itrlbel" ""^ * ^°""' ^<"- the threi 

t?u^rveLl:*'^*'" "^^^ recommended bv 

KTcw^'^' ^^\''^- Kingsbury 
u.iier a conference with the Inrfinn 

ywmc wi'S '''" "« under'iXn 
nt Of Duh-^f • .^'*'*' superintend- 

loif of tK£- 3 i-r 

^\q to-pia-"^^;:-I 

^efuge" "^Thr ^'"".T'^ they%rek a 
menrwiu'n'ot a'^d'lil'^^^^u^r ctiT.^'"- 
hTve%'eirf"*«<' in "the s^'croot"'^'^ 
Mck nor thV i'"^'"'''^' ^i^ for 0"r 
for fat^^in^" '^"'''' '»"'» implements 
wo^'"^rii?y "^''P'^ are willing 

dese'rr^nd iT^^nVe ^,}'^ '"^^ 



■-/■'■ :.5?';*^/^" 






yx,-.\ : •■ivV;-.',"V' . ■..--•'-•■''•J'-';.- .;f' . .i ■ 



•'"■.■/■ 



ii „' 1"."^'.' ■'' •'^' ''r' y I 






ssrilf'{g?^'^^>-^'''>^i:^;y^fej::fe^j^ 



^Mft''!r^^ii>A/''^j^!^A.!$^^^s^'S^;Ii*';j^ 



Sacramento, Cal, Bee 



^^overnment Urged To 

Joint resolution n1 i i^"?^ *'«"ate 
?y Senators Her\»/» -'"'>oauced 
«onoma County"^3o ^^- ^'ater, 
Mendocino Cou^/TT? ^- «andy 
Iut"'o ""'"''-'<' "a^"/ T„y ^«' 
."m^'J, '•"•luests >ff?8.re..S/ '■'=''°- 

to provl.io aid 



fcr 



ITI? '?a"i?fo;"„^!r- ;"^'a"n« "n 
fr, ^':*L'"any or ihemari'°- """«»' 



kvNTA* TinSA. CAT.. 

REPUBLICAN 



.u^iUL 1^), iv;i'*i 



*«< 




IS HESTED 



r^}|yd^)nf askii 



«f f res^lftfibnf asking the United 
fc>tateA<o take proper care of aged 
and infirm Indians in California, 
recentl ywas adppted in ttie Cali- 
fornia sen^y^after having been 
introduced jyWKtly by Senator Sla- 
ter, Handy and Nelson, represent- 
in^^ the North Bay sections. 

The Senate joint resolution in- 
troduced by Senators Slater, Han- 
dy and Nelson, and referred to 
the committee on federal relations 
relative to the proper care and 
relief of aged and infirm Indians 
in the State of California: 

WHEREAS, The senate of thej 
State of California believes from 
definite information presented to, 
and by members of this body, that 
there is urgent need for directing 
the attention of the federal gov- 
ernment to the fact that many 
aged and infirm Indians in the 
State of California are actually 
suffering from a lack of the nec- 
essities of life, a condition which 
Should be remedied in accordance 
with ^certain treaties herebefore 
enacted between the government 
of the United States and the Cali- 
fornia Indians; now, therefore be 
it 

RESOLVED BY THE SENATE 
AND THE ASSEMBLY, JOINTLY, 
in biennial session at Sacramento,' 
California, this twenty-sixth day 
of March, 1923, that, we most re- 
spectfully urge the authorities in- 
trusted with the federal adminis- 
tration of Indian affairs, to make 
an immediate investigation, to the 
end that the conditions complain- 
ed of, may be adequately remedied 
and relief afforded. 

RESOLVED, FURTHER, that, 
copies of this resolution be made] 
by the secretary of the senate, and I 
transmitted to the President of the 
-nited States, the secretary of 
j[^e_ interior, the commissioner of 
|n affairs, and to each of thef 
•rnia senators and represen-| 
in congress. 



AixuL :>i, it^-j 



limiAN HOMES 
SITE BOUGHT 





five 

»r 



, REtTDINO ($haatA Co.).? Apr. 21. 
;The United SUtes has bought thirty 
iacres of land on Clea 
jinlles below Redding, ; 
jlhe homes of ho-meles 

Edgar A. Miller, siDperlntendent 
of Indian affairs for six northern 
eountletg, filed the deed for record 
tc-day. He says Indians who have 
money but no homes will bo al- 
lowed to build humble cottages on 
the land free of cost and expects 
that forty will he built in the near 
future. 

The Indiana can live in these 
Jiour.os wlien not working on farms 
or in orchards. Singularly enough, 
the tlilrty-acre tract was the site 
of arti Indian settlement years and 
years ago. 



< 



REDDING MAY BECOME 

SITE FOR INDIAN OFP*lCE 

REDDING Shasta Co.), Apr. 21. — 
It. B. Roberts, traveling inspector 
lor the bureau of Indian affairs, 
and Edgar Miller, Indian agent 
stationed at Greenville, Plumas 
County, spent Friday looking over 
Redding as a possible new location 
for a central office of Indian ai.'- 
Jfairs for six counties, now handlec 
Ifrom Greenville. 

Part of the Indian school at 
iGreenvlUe recently was destroyed 
Hby fire, and congress has refused 
to appropri*ite money to rebuild, 
r The six counties in the district are 
Ifelsklyou, Plumas, Lassen, Trinity, 
Tehama and Shasta. A representa- 
tive of the Indian agent has been 
stationed In^Reddlng for ten years 
or more^^he position is at pres 
cnt fUl^ by W. S. Kriegh. 



Sacramento, Cal^TSee 




ILands F^Indians ,^ 

Voted By Assembly 1 



, dlan 
IMoiioc 

The measure is an 
an appeal made by indi 
northern counties of 
the setting aside of 



th of 

111 tlio 
the state for 
certain state 





lands to afford them a place on 

Thes.^ t"^ n"^^*^ ^^'^^ ^■^'^' habitation. 
nx^^^ Indians are row without a 

Place upon which tluy can sett! 
and are virtually homeless 

Only uncontested matters were 
considered b*. the assen.hly. \ cM 
m the house was phiced upon th(> 
assembly shortly ..(ftnr coiiveninK 
m order to hold the sea nt Muurum. 
the call rem,Hinefl,on \\n\S\ adionrn- 
mcmt until M^uy morning, was 
taken. 



♦Sacramento, Cal|Bee 

MAY 5, 1&23 ^ 



m^i RESOLUTION 
ASKS CONGRESS' AID 

PIANS 

[Measure Is J^sed By Lower 

House Without Dissfiitj/Lp- 

peal Of Tribes In Normern 

Part Of State Inspires 

Act 



FOR NEEI 



Two «enate resolutions, one by 
Isenator F. J. Powers, Modoc Coun- 
ty, and the other by Senators H. C. 
Nelson, Humboldt County; Herbert 
Isiater, Sonoma County, and Fred 
Ic. Handy, Mendocino County, me- 
Imorlalizlng: congress to supply aid 
Ifor needy and aged and infirm In- 
Idians in California, were passed by 
Ithe assembly by unanimous vote to- 

|d<ay- 

The resolutions were called forth 
jy tho recent appeals to the legisla- 

|ture by members of the Indian tribes 
in the northern part of the state, 
./ho are suffering: privations 

[through poverty and lack of care. 

No Contested Matter* On. 



Only uncontested matters were 
Iconsldered by the house to-day. 
[easures passed were: 
A. B. No. 781, by Burns, Carlson, 
Ichristian, Cleveland, Dawson, Dono- 
hue, Dozier, Emme, Fox, Lyman, 
McDowell, McPherson, Mitchell, 
Meller, Pomeroy, Schmidt, Snyder, 
Bpence, Weller, Whltacre, Williams, 
I clarifying the veterans* welfare act. 
A. B. No. 787, same authors as 
781, allowing the veterans* -welfare 
board to make loans to ex-service 
men who already have purchased 
land for the purpose of building. 

A. B. No. 1286, by Fox and Say- 
lor. authorizing the formation of 
municipal harbor districts. 

HtfiThway Districts. 

A. B. No. 1343, by Donohue, pro- 
viding for the organization of high- 
|way districts. 

A. B. No. 422, by Carter, relating 
[to municipal bonds. 

A. B. No. 358, by Fulwlder and 

^n4>Uue, relating to the salaries 

^Sonoma County officers. 

A. B. No. 917, by Eksward and 

P^oyes, providing that boards of 

Ischool trustees may notify the fiu- 

Iperintendent of schools to draw a 

[warrant for certain supplies upon 

lelivery. 

A. B. No. 551, by McDowell, relat- 
ing to the salaries of Fresno Coun- 
ty officers. 

S. B. No. 392, by Canepa, amend- 
[ng the medical act. 

S. B. No. 712, by Hart, giving 
jons Beach court branch the 
lower to try criminal actions. 

S. B. No. 713, by Ingram, relating 
^o the jurisdiction of probate courts. 

Fish And Game Measnre. 

S. B. No. 710, by Gates, relating 
to jurisdiction of offenses com- 
mitted in the state. 

S. B. No. 405, by Hurley, relating 
to the protection of fish and game. 

S. B. No. 41, by Chamberlin. in- 
jreaslng the justices In Los An- 
:eles. ,' , 

S B. No. 135, by Nelson, relating 
to the salaries of officers of Hunr- 
>oldt County. , ^, 

S. B. No. 428, by Boggs, relating 
to salaries of officers of San Joa- 
liiln County. 

S B No. 526, by Swing, relating 
|to salaries of officers of San Ber- 
nardino County. 

S. B. No. 833. by Ingram, relating 
|to tho salaries of officers of El 
)orado County. 

S. B. No. 40. by Chamberlin, In- 
creasing the police courts of Los 

.ngeles County. 










"y^-^'-^'. 






mm 






?'f.'';' 



1% - 
Ml' 



.■^' 



fitREKA, CAL.. TOnSS 
MAY 10, 1923 



100 



•»<»* 



TNBIANS ADMITTED 
TO COUNTY INSTITUTION 

Indians whose parents are mem- 
bers of|thupioopa, Klamath and 
Coal^tftbpWof Indians will be ad- 
mitt^ S^tlfe county tubercular hos- 
pital*^on ^ par with white persons, 
accordlnglke^a contract with the De- 
partment of the Interior approved 
yesterday. The government will pay 
for the keeping of the Indians at tho 
rate of $3 a day each. 






.*Hr 



n 22, 1923 



t«^»*«fcwr,j(%^.^ » . ^-^^j^ 




Relief Is Promised For 
Tejon 




Special to TJimyi^puhVican 

BAKERSFIlflVp/Wiy 21— Changesl 

jontemplatea inVhe United Statea 

)st office depjl-tment within the! 

lext few months will h^^ an effect! 

m the handling of mah a^ the 

Jakersfield post office aifc^ay re-j 

[ieve congestion, according to Martin | 

Madden, chairman of the appro- 
>riations committee of the Housel 
►f Representatives, who with Louli 
J. Cramton. chairman of the sul 
JOTnmittee of the department of in 
:erlor was a visitor here today hav 
|ng sfopped off at the Souther: 
lotel enroute to the Sequoia na 
clonal park. 

The men last night were th< 
ruests of Harry Chandler, publish 
sr of the Los Angeles Times, at th< 
'ejon ranch sarfth of here, Th< 
isit gave Cx^^ton an opportunity^ 
fo investiga^ the condition of th< 
'ejon*IndjMs as he has eupervisioi 
>ver th^^xpenditurea pertaining t< 
[ndlai^fchools, reclamation projects] 
|parVar and pensions. 

Te visitors were met In Bakers 
Ifl^d by a committee composed ol 
A. Barlow. Arthur S. Curtis, Ji 
[a. Hughes, T. W. McManus an* 
Alex Wark A short stop was madt 
here and the party left at noon foi 
I northern points. 



«as% §^- "A^»AH0 



loe 



> I ■ •l»*i1^«»^ 





2,b^ 



BY PRESENT 




(BY^ARL MARSHALL) 



any jiist | Injun, he 
he have 



When white men finrt sav/ the In- 

rtLins of northern California sonve s<?v- 

enty-fivf. years aga. ihey were Uvlng 

ii physical Ui> th:u compared in its 

It-adln^ teaiures \sith that of ihe 

)*alaeolU'hlc xnt^n v.ho noiinshe<l m 

Kurope and Asia, I'rom twenty to 

twenty- five thousand year ag:o. That 

Ls ,lhey knew no p.^rleuU\ire. had no 

domestic animals, other than a ft-w 

I wolf -like dogs, and nothing in the way 

I of graphic ^Tt. In thla Kast-naroed 

partic\!lar. they were even behind the 

ralaeoUthe, although thf-y probably 

excelled the latter somewhat in fhelr 

I v/eapon.s and in their n^tfinual and de- 

1 oorative arts. 

Therefore, in th« Klamaths, as we 
fvee them today, we are confronted 
with a people, who measured by the 
physical standards of living, have 
compa9se4 a leap of not less than two 
hundred centuries, within the space 
of less than one century. In 
study of these people, this is a fact 
that must not be lost sigrht of. So far 
as the outward forms of living go, they 
have in these brief two generations, 
assimilated the ways and appliances 
of the white man. until their physical 
existence is about on a par with that 
of our more .backward white com- 
munities, say those of the mountains 
of Kentucky or Georgia, They lia:ve 
liave learned farming, wood-cz-aft, 
stock raising. teaming, and other 
forms of unskilled .or semi-skilled 
labor, until they are nearly, if not 
quite as capable, industrially, as the 
average untrained white person. 

But judgments based on this super- 
ficial achievement of the Indian are 
very apt to be misleading. Seeing 
them earnings and spending money, ar- 
raying themselves in the latest sport 
clothes, and even acauirlng something 
in the way of reading and writing, not 
to mention tip-to-date slang, one may 
jump to the conclusion that the Indian 
has really caught up. and is now a 
white man in everything but complex- 
ion. There could hardly l>e a greater 
mistake. One does not need to study 
these Indians long or very profoundly 
to learn that in. morals and mentality, 
they are still well back in the stone 
age, no matter to what extent they 
have taken on the outward sem- 
blances of the white man's civiliza- 
tion. Except in that limited area of 
their minds that was developed by 
L, their primitive environment, their 
U mentality is that of morons. They 
Ijf eAince cunning, but seldom reason, 
and almost no faculty of invention or 
imagination, or of abstraction. Their 
perceptions, however, are most keen, 
keener I think, than the average 
white, especially as to the eye and 
ear. They quickly and correctly in- 
terpret every sight or sound of the 
forest, the mountain or the river, and 
have sure memories of what they have 
seen or heard But this keenness of 
perception or memory does not extend 
to the things of the books ,or to in- 
tangible ideas or thoughts The In- 
dian's mind, so far as it goes, is as 
keen and dependable as that of the 
most intellectual white man. but it 
cannot at once overlap the limitations 
imposed by centuries of savagry. The 
k thing that mainly holds him back is 



those of iht* ancient Spartans who 
encouraged theij- children to steal an.i 
punishii^t? tht-m only when they were 
eauvht a»i it The idea that one should, 
b« kind or 'onerous .or st-lf-sarrifii^" 
to any other than his blood relati^N^'^' 
seems I'nnny to them To keep t*J^ 
peace anmntf jealous nuiles, and ^^ 
preserve the inle^rlty of families- 
there were oortaln niles and reciuire* 
menis as to conduct of married wo 
men, huf i)^^ idea of chastity for it.s 
own i-ak.i v.:u>^ quite foreign to their 
oomprf hc-Asion, and for the vi\o^t pi^rU 
Is so yet. j>lthough contai'^t with the 
better fla.s« o:* whlte^*. ha.^ tauRht some 
Indian famllle.*? the social advantaa*e 
of frb*iervinA? the white m»n's code as 
to the ordinary derrncies of life. But, 
at heurt. xhf* ordinary tncLian ha.s 
neither r*»spc<n for, ror romprehensrou 
of the white mon's ethical code. An 
exceptionally frank old Indian who.se 
oonfidrnce I have won. recently^^'u 
the matter to nie in this way: "Dt-g 
no talk to YOU; but >ll tim 
no use fo.' white man tal 
He say, 'white mar. he crazy* ". N 
doubt, he means just that. 

Equally impervious is the Indian i 
the principles of thrift. He knows th 
value of money and will wotic hard to 
get it, but he is as a child in the mat- 
ter of spending it. Frequently a head 
of a family will go down to the logging 
woods to work and come back with 
one or two hundred dollars. Ensues a 
saturnalia of extravagance. The mo- 
ney will go for cheap showy clothing. 



i 



fancy gewgawa. food luxuries an so 
forth, although there is dire need for 
new farm implements, crop seed, or 
various household necessities The 
idea of a budget apportionment of 
their money to their needs, is hgiCSUx 
less xx>mprehensible to them than tfe 
Einstein theory o: relativity. Even 
loss can they realize the importance of 
putting money aw.-vy for future needs 

have yet to hear of one of the 
aving a savings account. 

Brought into industrial or economi 
competition with t he whites, the 
of these Klamaths'TS not lalr W'seei 
They would simply fade out. Shouk^ 
a coast road or a down- the- riivei 
trolley lino or railroad open up thei 
Klamath country to profitable de- 
velopment, there would, within a doz- 
en years, be hardly an Indian left in 
the region. It would happen Just as It 
has happened in the case of the upper] 
Sacramento, and many other regions. 

Personally. I can see but one way] 
in which these unfortunate but in- 1 
terestlng, and In many ways, worthy 
folk can be durably helped. The rem- 
edy lies in Industrial Education, sup- 1 
plemented by something in the "way of 
adequate supervision. Most inadequate 
is the chain of little schools along the 
river, with an ambitious "course of 
study" that has hardly one point of 
contact with the present lives of the! 
children. For these sparsely attended 
schools, managed by bickering and il- 
literate Indian school boards, there] 
should be substituted a general in- 
dustrial school, for the whole commun- 
ity, with compulsory attendance, and 
a simple course of the 'Three R's*', 
supplemented by agriculture garden- 
ing, the use of tools, cooking, sew- 
ing, sanitation, and the art of home- 
keeping generally. There should also 

(larofTngTgr wrkn^^J'thirthe.be a non-sectarian chapel where the 
I lacK or ian5u«^K«. lossentials of morals and religion would 

be attractively inculated. 

Such a school, I am convinced, 
would yet do wonders for these simiple 
people, but it is a job for the govern- 
ment, with a few great-souled. honest 
to God people to carry it out. Perhaps 
it is too much to hope that such a 
dream can ever be realized, but it can 
do no harm to suggest it. 



A human mind never outruns language 
but the Indian's language was a crude 
I affair of a few hundred smybols of 
jwhat be saw or heard or felt in his 
lunexpansive existence. It expresses 
^only by association, lacking even the 
dogic of the sentence. Emotions are ex- 
pressed by tones rather than words, 
and there could be but little thinking, 
for the reason that there was no ma- 
chinery for thinking. The reaction 
this upon the mind of the Indian is 
.shown in the way he uses the white 
man's language, assimilating only as 
much of :t as he needs to paraphrase 
his own crude tongue, upon which his 
limited mental processes have been 
formed. Within these narrow limits, 
the Indian of today may be ready 
of speech — even loquacious — -but the 
inescapable truth is that, through 
thousands of years of heredity, he has 
1^ been ">orn short" in the matter of 
language, and in the mental attributes 
thai language engenders. 

This fact has an obvious bearing on 
the India.n's education. How utterly 
futile is it to expect that the Indian 
child can be made to fit in with an 
educational system that has been de- 
viled for the needs of a race with two 
thousand yea.rs of cnilization back of 
it! It would take generations to put 
either the Indian or the Negro on a 
mental U;vel where lie can absorb more 
than the merest skimmings of a mod- 
ern cultural education You cannot 
lake a people out of savagry and have 
them function mentally or socially 
with a people that have several thou- 
sands of years the start of them This 

truth will more and more come to be 
imderstood , 

For similar reasons, the Indian has 
his social and moral limitations. This 
will be evident to anyone who will 
make even a casual study of these 
Klamath communities. To them, the 
White man's ethical and social code is 
as ahsurd as it is incomprehensible. 
Their inherited id^as as to the rights 






BY PRESENT 




(BY^CARL MARSHALL) 



When white men nr:^t sav/ the In- 
dLins of northern OaliJornia sonve stfV- 
eniy-five. yc-ar.s afto. lUey were Uving 
ii physical Ui> thru compared in 



its 

It-^adln^ teaiures vdth thnl ot ihe 

l*alaeolU'hle nven A.ho l'U>iirishe<l in 

Kurope and Asia, from iwt^nty to 

twenty- live thousand year ago. That 

U ,lhey knew no fL^Ticultxire. had no 

domestic anlmaLs, other than a ft-w 

i wolf -like dogH. and nothing in the way 

I of grap-hle iirt. In this last-named 

partlcvtlkir, they were even hehind the 

i'alaeoUths, althf»Tigh they probably 

excelled the latter pomewliat in their 

I weapons and in their m£inual an<3 de- 

I rorallve iirt?^. 

Therefore, in the Klamaths, ^s we 
p^^ them today, we are confronted 
with a people, who measured by the 
physical standards of living-, have 
compassed a leap of not less than two 
hundred centuries, within the space 
of less than one century. In any just 
study of these people, this is a fact 
vhat must not be lost sigrht of. So far 
as the outward forms of living go, they 
have in these brief two grenerations, 
assimilated the ways and appliances 
of the white man. until their physical 
existence is about on a par with that 
of our more ^backward white com- 
munities, say those of the mountains 
of Kentucky or Georgia. Tliey ha:ve 
liave learned farming-, wood-ci-aft. 
stock raising, teaming. and other 
forms of unskilled .or semi-skilled 
labor, until they are nearly, if not 
quite as capable, industrially, as the 
average untrained v;hite person. 

But judgments based on this super- 
ficial achievement of the Indian are 
very apt to be misleading. Seeing 
them eaminjr and spending money, ar- 
raying themselves in the latest sport 
clothes, and even acquiring something 
in the way of reading and writing*, not 
to mention up-to-date slang, one ntiay 
jump to the conclusion that the Indian 
hUa realiy caught up. and is now a 
white man in everything but complex- 
ion. There couid hardly be a greater 
mistake. One does not need to study 
these Indians long or very profoundly 
to learn that in. morals and mentality, 
they are still well back in the stone 
age, no matter to what extent they 
have taken on the outward sem- 
blances of the white man's civiliza- 
tion. Except in that limited area of 
their minds that was developed by 
IL their primitive environment, their 
W mentality is that of morons. They 
[If evince cunning, but seldom reason, 
and almost no faculty of invention or 
imagination, or of abstraction. Their 
perceptions, however, are most keen, 
keener I think, tha.n the average 
white, especially as to the eye and 
ear. They quickly and correctly in- 
terpret every si^rht or sound of the 
forest, the mountain or the river, and 
have sure memories of what they have 
seen or heard But this keenness of 
perception or memory does not extend 
to the things of the books ,or to in- 
tangible ideas or thoughts The In- 
dian's mind, so far as it goes, is as 
keen and dependable as that of the 
most intellectual white man, but it 
cannot at once overlap the limitations 
imposed by centuries of savagry. The 
ll thing that mainly holds him back is 



those of the ancient Spaitans who 
encouiagfed theij- cliildrea to steal auvi 
punishint? them only when they were 
faii.'Cht ait it The idea that one should 
bH kind O!- • pnerou.s .or s«*it'-sacrifi\^" 
to any other than his blood lelatiAn-*^- 
seems t'nnny to them To keep t"^ 
pe^ioe ann^nj? jealoi.--. nuiles, and ^^ 
preserve* the lnle^irlty of fainilie^- 
there were Ci^rtaln nile>'. and reiiuire* 
ments a.s to conduct of married wo 
men, hiH ih^ idea of chastity for it.s 
own i-^iU«i wu-H <inite foreigriA to their 
comprf heaslon, and for the most part. 
Is so yet. tilthotiarh rojUart with the 
better cliiifii of whlte^^. ha.^ taught some 
Indian famllie.^j the social advantas'e 
of ffbs.ervin^ the white mien's code as 
to the ordinary derrneies of life. But. 
at he-.trt. the ordinary Indian ha,s 
neither r.*spc<n for, vor oomprebensrou 
of the white mrn's ethical code. An 
exceptionally frank old Indian who.se 
oonfidrnce I have won. recently ^'^t 
the matter to nie in this way: **I>e#( 
Injun, he no talk to YOU; but fill tim 
he have no use foi* white man tal 
He say, 'white mar. he crazy* ". N 
doubt, he means just that. 

Equally impervious is the Indian t 
the principles of thrift. He knows th 
value of money and will woi'k hard to 
get it. but he is as a child in the mat- 
ter of spending it. Frequently a head 
of a family will go down to the logging 
woods to work and come back with 
one or two hundred dollars. Knsues a 
saturnalia of extravagance. The mo- 
ney will go for cheap showy clothing. 






fancy gews^awa, food luxuries an so 
forth, although there, is dire need for 
new farm implements, crop seed, or 
v^arious household necessities The 
idea of a budget apportionment of 
their money to their needs, is hgiD^y 
less comprehensible to them than the^ 
B:instein theory o: relativity. Even 
loss can they realize the importance of 
putting money aw.-vy for future needs 
have yet to hear of one of the 
aving a savings account. 
Brought into industrial or economi 
competition with t he whites, the 
of these Klamaths' is nut lifr fC"see 
They would simply fade out. Shoul 
a coast road or a down-the-riive 
trolley line or railroad open up the 
Klamath country to profitable de- 
velopment, there w^ould, within a doz- 
en years, be hardly an Indian left in 
the region. It would happen just a.s it 
has happened in the case of the upper 
Sacramento, and many other regions. 
Personally. I can see but one way| 
in which these unfortunate but in- 
teresting, and In many ways, worthy | 
folk can be durably helped. The rem* 
edy lies in Industrial Education, sup- 
plemented by something in the way of I 
adequate supervision. Most inadequate 
is the chain of little schools along the 
river, with an ambitious "course of 
study" that has hardly one point of 
contact with the present lives of the! 
children. For these sparsely attended 
schools, managed by bickering and il- 
literate Indian school boards, there 
should be substituted a general in- 
dustrial school, for the whole commune 
ity, with compulsory attendance, and 
a simple course of the 'Three R's**, 
supplemented by agriculture garden- 
ing, the use of tools, cooking, sew- 
ing, sanitation, and the art of home- 
keeping generally. There should also 



I thing that mainiy ^^^^^ "™ "t^^^^^lbe a non-sectarian chapel where the 
flack of language. We know that ^^^f^g.^.i^js ^. morals and religion would 
\ human mind never outruns langruage ossentiais or morais ana rengion would 



but the Indian's language was a crude 
I affair of a few hundred smybols of 
I what he saw or heard or felt in his 
lunexpansive existence. It expresses 
^only by association, lacking even the 
dogic of the sentence. Emotions are ex- 
pressed by tones rather than words, 
and there could be but little thinking, 
for the reason that there was no ma- 
chinery for thinking. The reaction ^Ot|~^ 
this upon the mind of the Indian is 
shown in the way he uses the white 
nxan's language, assimilating only as 
much of :t as he needs to paraphrase 
his own crude tongue, upon which his 
limited mental processes have been 
formed. Within these narrow limits, 
the Indian of today may be ready 
of speech — even loquacious — 'but the 
inescapable truth is that, through 
thousands of years of heredity, he has 
h been "born short" in the matter of 
language, and in the mental attributes 
that language engenders. 

This fact has an obvious bearing on 
the Indian's education. How utterly 
futile is it to expect that the Indian 
child can be made to fit in with aA 
educational system that has been de- 
vised for the needs of a race with two 
thousand years of civilization back of 
it! It would take generations to put 
either the Indian or the Negro on a 
Tneutal level where lie can absorb more 
than the merest skimmings of a mod- 
ern cultural education You cannot 
take a people out of sava^y and have 
them function mentally or socially 
with a people that have several thou- 
vsands of years the start of thenv This 
truth will more and more come to be 
understood i - 

For similar reasons, the Indian has 
his social and moral limitations. This 
will be evident to anyone who will 
make even a casual study of these 
Klamath communities. To them, the 
White man's ethical and social code is 
iis absurd as it is incomprehensible. 
Their inherited ideas as to the rights 
of property are hardly less naive than 



be attractively inculated. 

Such a school, I am convinced, 
would yet do wonders for these simple 
people, but it is a job for the govern- 
ment, with a few great- souled, honest 
to God people to carry it out. Perhaps! 
it is too much to hope that such a 
dream can ever be realized, but it can 
do no harm to suggest it. 



MAY 31, 1^23 ___.. 



nxcnxur.STO. rAfj, cnion S8 

MAY 31, X923 __ 



hmian Land Bill 

p4me Law 



Under Ih^ biTT of A 
athews, ^Cb. 1333, whi( 



Assemblyinan 
Afathews, :TrB. 1333, which Go/enioi- 
Richardson approved '^'e^esday. 
the Indiana of PJumas. Jfodoc and 
Lassen connlie.s will b^i given tho 



use 'Jfl480 acres of stale lands. 

TWTs© tracts are withdrawn from 
saj^or lease by the state and turned 

^r to the aboriginal chsu'gres of 
alifornia under such rules and 
reg:u]ations as may be prescribed by 
the surveyor grenerah 

There are only a comparatively 
few Indians left in California of the 
many and militant tribes that once 
roved over this state. A delegation 
from the tribes, now very small in 
nuinbors. visited the Governor and 
appeared before the last les'islature 
Avith their petition for aid. The bill 
SToes into effect August 18. 




INLONGFIGHI 
L 






Bill Signed By Governor Pro- 
vides Large Tract In 
Northern Galifornfa 



SACnAMENTa^:^T?ty 31.— The stol- 
id but penniless lobby cifi^KQ^horn 
California's non-resorvatio|j^ndlans 
—a lobby which offered tlTc legisla- 
ture a pitiful story of abject pov- 
erty and constant oppression in ex- 
change for a tract of land — will to- 
day receive its reward. 

Kxeoutlvc approval was given 
late yesterday to assembly bill 1333, 
the measure which grants the des- 
titute Indians 1,480 acres of land in 
Plumas, Modoc and Lassen Counties. 
During tho legislature just closed 
the Indian lobbyists furnished one 
of the most spectacular features of 
the 100 days of lawmaking. De- 
claring that they had been driven 
from one ranch to another for tho 
past decade, the "red men" demand- 
ed that they be given a tract of land 
where they could eke out an ex- 
istence alone and unmolested. The 
measure granting them the land 
thev requested was Introduced by 
Ass'emblyman Art Mathews of «us- 
anville. 



I?. V, CAT.. 



U. 



x^aiirvrnia $ 



Governor Approves^ 
t^^A^iian Land Bill 

SACRAMENTO, May 31.— The sto 
lid but penniless lobby of Northern 
California's non-reservation Indiana 
—a lobby which offered the Legi^sla• 
ture a pitiful story of abject poverty 
and constant oppression in exchange 
for a tract of land— will today re 
ceive its reward. 

Executive approval was given late 
yesterday to Assembly Bill 1333, th- 
measure which grants the destitute 
Indians 1480 acres of land in Plu 
mas, Modoc and I.assen Counties. 



'•* 



LAKEPOST. CAL. HEIfi 
MAY 31, lg23 



INDIAN PUBLICATION 
RAPS LAKE COUNTY 

^^'^'^VfH''' ^"^^»'i« Herald, a 
new im^liWtioh which was first pub- 
lisheh^nly ^e\^\'il months ago, car- 
lies an artfil^ this month written 
by Alfred G. Gillis, entitled, *Trip 
Through Sonoma, Mendoiino and Lake 
Counties.'' ^ 

The part of the article written ou 
Lake county in which tlie people 
of the county are criticizeil is as 
follows : 

At T'kiah we had an exceptionally 
good meeting. Tribal songs were 
sung. Mr. Knight delivered an ablc> 
I address to his people. I spoke upon 
the \\ork being done by the Board 
in tlie way of a test case. Some new 
members enrolle<l and several sub- 
scriptions were taken for our In- 
tlian Herald. 

Tlie following Sunday We went to 
Upper Lake, Lake County, where we 
I held a meeting in the evening. Mr. 
Knight accompanied me on this trip 
and assisteii me in an able manner. 
He is a forceful speaker and handles 
the subject exceptionally well. Mr. 
Ethan Anderson spoke, telling his 
l)eopIe that they must stand united 
to win. I then followed with an 
addi-ess on the general welfare of 
the Indians of California. Lak^ 
county has always been a hot bed 
of Indian hatred. The Indians of 
Lake county have been brave and 
valiant to stand up against the tyr- 
ranny of the proud whites. In spite 
of all opposition they have survived. 
.The Indians were barred from the^' 
inibliQ school, denied the rights icit 
citizenship,, a_ decent .jiving and ' a 
home. The Indian, in their estiiia- 
tion, was below their standard and 
not a fit associate for them. They- 
had no rights that the people of 
Lake county w^ould respect. They 
succeeded in putting these poor, paup- 
erized i)eople to the expense of fight- 
ing through the courts for citiz^- 
ship and the privilege of attending 
the public school. 

Though they had robbed him of 
every acre he possessed and plunder- 
ed him, their conscience apparently 
did not trouble them. 

The Pomo Indians are artists of 
the high order. Their basketry is 
unexcelled anywhere in the world. 
Their designs are original They 
have found their place in the homes 
of thousands of the most cultured 
people of the world, but the art of 
these Indians is not appreciated here. 
Clear Lake, with its beautiful val- 
ley to the west and its high mountains 
to the east and south presents a 
grandeur unequalled. To the south- 
west stands Mt. Konocti, the sacred 
mountain of the Pomos, casting its 
great shadow across the lake. To 
gaze upon this grand old chieftain*^] 
gives one an inspiratioh, much a» 
one feels in the Shasta region when 
he turns his eyes toward that great 
monarch of the north. 

My next meeting was at Big VaU 
ley, or the Mission, where we sung 
songs that brought cheers and hand 
|claps from every quarter. I spoke 
upon the work of the Board. The 
eople were well pleased. Mr. Ethan 
derson of Upper Lake accompanied 
e and delivered an able address. I 
hall never forget this meeting, so 
ell attended, and so happy a crowd 
have never found anywhere. 
The next meeting was at Sulphur 
ank. Here the meeting was weli 
ttended and the crowd much inter- 
[ested. One of the progressive rn- 
ians of this place is the owner of a 
|large launch and promised me a trip 
over the Lake when he had mc^re 
time for recreation and pleasure. 

At Lower Lake the Indians live on 
a small tract of land, given to them 
by the Yolo Water Company. The 
Federal Government had bought land 
for them but it was on a high flat 
well up in the mountains, land with- 
out water or the hope of water. It 
lays idle, the Indians refuse to move 
to it. A well of three thousand feet 
had been drilled by the earlier whites, 
but no trace of water could be found. 
Land is useless in this section of 
Lake county without water. This 
purchase is one of the many pathetic 
examples of the lack of honesty and 
fair dealing in the expenditure of the 
moneys appropriated by Congress for 
the purchase of land in California 
for homeless Indians. 

Our meeting at Middletown was at- 
tended by all the Indians who had. 
not left for some distant place for 
their summer's work. They intend 
to do what they can to help win a 
settlement for all California Indians. 
This Indian settlement is located in 
a beautiful valley just in the shadows 
of Mt. St. Helena and other beautiful 
timbered mountains of the region. 
There is little or no employment for 
the Indians here. Many of them go 
to the coast Yor employment. 



MERCED. CATv.. STAK 

JUNE I, 1923 



ZZ9 



lESTmjTE INDIANS ARE 
GRANTED LARGE ACREAGE 



( 4 — 




al^lf^wi,JH|g4ae) 

SACRAMENTO, May 31.— The stol- 
id but penniless lobby of Northern 
California's non-reservation In^ans — 
a lobby which offered the legislature 
a pitiful story of abject poverty and 
constant oppression in exchange for a 
tract of land — ^will today receive its 
reward. . 

Executive approval was given late 

yesterday to Assembly bill 1333, the 

measure which grants the destitute 

Indians 1480 acres of land in Plumas, 

Modoc and Lassen counties. 



FBESVrt r AT..- BW193>^1W 

. J.UNE ?, 1923 




nment 



Not To Exercise Its 



40-Aore Optio 



J itsy 



SMALL PLOT FOR EACH 

€F FORTY FAMILIES 



Location Is In Welcome Dis- 

trict, One Mile From 

Town 



PORTERVlLLB (Tulare 
Co.)? June 2. — A number 
of the ranchers of the 
Strathmore district have signed 
a petition, which was mailed 
to the Indian department of the 
government at Washington 
yesterday, in protest to the 
plan of the government buying 
forty acres of choice land near 
Strathmore for an Indian col- 
ony. It is the purpose of the 
government, according to re- 
ports, to place one Indian fam- 
ily on each acre of this land. 

E. AVIdman, II. Jj. Brook and A. 
W. Berndt of the Strathmore dis- 
trict, who are responsible for the 
circulation of the petition, stated 
while in this city yesterday, that 
every citizen of the district affect- 
ed had signed his or her name to 
the document. 

Forty-Acre Option 
According to report* received 
at Strathmore* tke Indian de- 
partment la planning on ex^r- 
ciMins An option on the forty 
acres of land. In question* as 
soon as arransrementa can be 
made for bringing: the families 
on, the land. It Is vrlth the vletv 
of preventing: the excrclslnflr of 
the option that the petition Is 
being: circulated. 

The land that it is proposed to 
colonize with Indians is located in 
the Welcome School District, about 
one mile south of the town of 
Strathmore. While the citizens of 
the district affected maintain that 
they have nothing against the In-, 
dians, they are against the 
Iposal to establish a colony ii 
midst of a white settlement 
Iconsidorable money has be< 
d in development worl 



f ■ "•ii tK-ir 





















.;>. -M- 







-f >>4« i-.;(-^ '' 









i^..-^;?:^!);? 






"vTViSt? 



















ESENTS SLUR 
ONLANDDEAL 




A. J. Wilkif^ Says Deal Was 
Made Giving OpIWfo Gov- 
e r n m e n t on strathmore 
Land in Ordinary Way 



■»VN£ 3, 1923 "•'' ^^^^^ 



89 



'* ^ •ft •«- • .^^ 



M^ocino Will 
Have Indian School 



Sam Cohn a«aioto«* 
dent crf..^u^ic llflt ►• ^''^^^'^en- 
rlsdictiVj Tver ^X^''°"' ,'''"» J"' 
schooIs.-Lfyaeiv^^f" language 

tendent'^/M?„d*^,';^"^»ty^B"Perin- 
Publio school for^L^""V ^"^ * 
e'-vation in th,,t co«^°"o 1*w.m 
rovse tho Plan.. The buiiclh I ,-7 ' 

and conT^ni" ";,";°'^"> oq,np:nent 



LA^KF.rORT. r\li, BEE 

JUNE 7, 1023 



NOKTiii:KN INDIANS TO GET AID 

G(r^inffv Kichardson signed a bill 
lust woelv<^|^ich had been introduced 
at the legislature by A. J. Mathews, 
assemblyman from Lassen county, 
, whereby the Indians will receive 
State aid. ' 

Tender the measure signed, 1,480 
acres of State lands in Plumas, Mo- 
doc and Lassen counties will be turn- 
ed over to the Indians for their 
own u.se. The regulations and rules 
for the use of the lands while in, 
the hands of the Indians will be 
drawn up by the surveyor general. 



%, F., rAT/,. ByAMrNE* 
JUNE 7, 1923 





United 

the 

yoster- 

Haiipt 



The present pollc; 
States government 
American Indian was f 11 
day by Miss Hope Elizal 
of Washington, D. C, missionary 
worker and author, who is touring 
California to acquaint the public 
with conditions among the Indians. 
She will lecture this morning at the 
University of California in Wheeler 
Hall. 

"The hope of the Red Man's land 
is the missionary; the despair is the 
government / official," said Miss 
Haupt. "All that the Mission In- 
dians — and all other tribes — need is 
to be left alone. Our government 
policy toward the Indian should be 
changed and freed from corruption.' 



rAftAB^?rA« CAr^, ITAn-WKin 
^ JUNE a, 1923 

jINmAN BUREAU GIVEN 

\hard criticism 

Harsh Gri(i(ifsnis are heard, from- 
time t^tLiie!\ of the administrative 
policies ^f^he Bfjreau of Indian Af- 
fairs of tfie fedeitrgovernment. A na- 
tion-wide movement to bring about 
pbat-ig^es in these policies has been 
launched. This humane issue has been 
discuksed vigorously before the meet- 
ing of the League of the Southwest, 
at banta Barbara. Some of the speak- 
ers have been quite caustic in their 
comment upon the treatment of the 
Tndian under a bureaucratic system 
which is dena^mced as being both 
cruel and stupid. 

The Indian unquestionably has been 
maltreated. This is historically true. 
It seemingly is true today. It is to be 
hojted that a milder, more just, humane 
policy may be instituted toward the 
Indians. Even at this late day, the 
government and people of the United 
States should retrieve, in whatever 
measure they may, the injuries and in- 
justices which the, red men have suf- 
fered at the hands of palefaces. En- 
lightened, fair, considerate policies 
...should be inaugurated. Ameliatory 
measures should replace the acts and 
methods which have scandalized the 
country, from time to time. 



A. J. Wilkins, who was the realtor 
who gave the government an option 
on forty acres of land near (Strath- 
more, presumably for the purpose of 
settling forty families on it, resents 
the slur cast on his business methods 
as it appeared in the evening paper 
last evening. The heading to the 
Strathmore story said that the (Jeal 
was being "foisted upon the govern- 
ment, etc.*' 

**I advertised the land in both pa- 
pei-s," said Mr. Wilkins last evening. 
'IMr. Carter, local Indian agent, saw 
the advertisement in the Messenger 
and came to my office saying that the 
government had long desired a tra-ct 
of land at a reasona'ble price for the 
use of industrious Indian families. He 
asked for an option and I gave it to 
him. The land belongs 
really to the government as it is the 
Toperty of the Berkeley (Federal Land 
ank by forclosure. The land bank 
onld not be likely to refuse the gov- 
rnment an opportunity to buy at the 
Iridiculously low iprice. Acting as 
agent I certainly was not attempting 
to do any 'foisting* on the government 
or on anybody else. 

^'Furthermore," added Mr. Wilkins, 
"Mr. Carter assures me that the land 
in question is the lowest in price that 
he has fonud anywhere in the neigh- 
borhood." 

The Strathmore chamber of com- 
merce passed a resolution against the 
location of forty Indian families in 
the neighiborhood. 

Four other people have purchased 
parcels fro mthe saime acreage from 
Mr. Wilkins, but none of the mhave 
tiled a protest. 

The ultimate outcome of the matter 
is up to the government as the option 
has been given and if the government 
exercises its right within the time 
limit it will he the owner of the land 
and will likely go ahead and carry out 
the plan. 

Some of the farmers in the neigh- 
borhood are hoping the deal will go 
through as the Indians -will provide a 
source of labor that is badly needed 
in certain seasons of the year. 



JHRONICLK 

JUNii; IQi 1923 




Saving the Indians' Culture 




^NT attack upon Indian dances is merely an incident 
lug warfare which the whites have waged upon the 
IS evcf siifat^ landed on the American continent. Not 
even the tolerancfbTwilliam Penn long held m check the desire 
of the whites either to exterminate or to "civijizc" the natives, says 
the New York Times. The idea of "live and let live" was never 
applied to them, and even since the Indians finally have been 
cooped up m reservations the white man has persisted in forcing 
his ways and customs upon them. This has usually resulted in the 
suppression of what was good together with what was bad in the 

Indians' culture. l 

Fortunately, while the Indian Bureau of the Government, and 
most of the missionaries, have been busy "civilizing ' the Indians 
and teaching them the errors of their ways, the Bureaii of American 
Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, and organizations such 
as the American Museum of Natural History, the Peaboby 
Museum, the Heye Foundation and various State historical societies 
and universities have been making for posterity a record of the 
customs and manners and traditiona of tJiffgrent jgdianjnb( 



JUNE Id, 1023 



anta Barbara Forms 
Indian Organization 

SpedaJ meiwLtcli to The Ohwnirte. \ii 

^1/ /4i<KARA, June 12.-^ 
SanU J^rfeA, branch of the Amer- 
^^f"jO<^^Q-Tr Defense Society ba« 
b^cfTorgranlzed with Fernand Lnn- 
*^*'*' *^?^«<1 desert artist as t«in- 
poraryjhi^sldent. Samuel P. Hoff- 
man Is temporary chairman. The 

fathered by Charles F. L^mmi.s. 
r^ul. """^ ^xr"^**" subjects, and John 
?u "xJ^.?^ ^^^ "^^^^^ secretary of 

fol^'^'.^'t^ American Indian De- 
fense Society. 

A^T^*i AA^*^ . ®^'"^*''* branch has 
ever 100 charter members. 






m^--'^^^-^'m^' 









••■A-I;;l-*'^:/ 



WAN josr, f*^^' 

WKKCLHV.UEliM'n 

JJU.Nti 111 '-^^'^ 




Lo the Poor Indian. ^ 
Indians of Long Ago. 
The Cost to Dry N.Y, 
Wicked Young Woman. 
Mexican Friendship, 

TH33 League of the South- 
west is an organization 
for the betterment of the 
Indian. It met on Mon- 
day at Santa Barbara, and 
during the" discussion some bit- 
ter things were said, especially 
agalnat what was termed the 
Indian Bureaucracy at Wash- 
ington. There was, however, a 
feeling that America was* at * 
last awaltening to the need of 
better treatment of the remain- 
ing Indian tribes. As might be 
expected, one speaker, becom- 
ing dramatic referred to the 
Indian having been "driven 
from his hunting grounds and 
hurled back onto the hunting 
grounds which had beeh peace- 
fully held by other tribes," 
etc., etc. This is not impres- 
sive, but there is much to be 
done for the Indians that has 
not been done and that if we 
are as humanitarian as we 
pretend to be, will be done. 
* * * \ 

Indians of Long Ago. 

The boys who were brought 
up in towns long ago near In- 
dian camps can remember a 
good deal of good of the mem- 
bers of the tribe. Nor were 
they persecuted at that time. It 
is true that they were driven 
by civilization from one point 
to another, and that was nat- 
ural, but it is not true that, 
generally speaking, they were 
subjected to persecution. What 
we have done and are doing as 
a government needs no apology 
for today we are educating and 
sending them out into the ave- 
nues of commerce to con»>/ete 
with their white brothers. And 
how well they compete only 
those who have looked into the 
question know. The brightest 
man in the Dominion of Cana- 
da was a full-blooded Mohawk 
Indian, Orohyaniteka, who was 
picked up by the Prince of 
Wales on a tour of Canada in 
the 60's and taken to England 
and educated. His was an ex- 
ceptional intellect and an ex- 
ample of what education will 
do for thp Indian. 







Holding that the famdj/g prftnj^ 
the United States supreme coun in 
the case of Barker against Harvey, 
denying a band of Indians in San 
Bieiro county, the right to retain 
possession of tribal lands, because 
they failed to present their claims 
to the land commission was not 
applicable in the case of the 'Santa 
Rosa band of Mission Indians in 
Riverside county, Federal District 
Judge Bledsoe today paved the way 
for them to regain possession of ap- 
proximately 6,000 acres of land from 
the Southern Pacific railroad and 
its subsidiary corporations. 

Federal District Judge Bledsoe, 
now holding court in Texas, pre- 
flfiding at the trial of men charged 
with operating oil stock frauds, 
wrote a brief opinion in his Texaa 
courtroom, denying the motion of 
the attorneys for the Southern Pa-^ 
clfic corporations to dismiss the 
suit of the United States govern- 
ment. 

The government resisted the rail- 
road corporation's suit to quiet title 
to the acreage, maintaining that the 
lands belong to the Santa Rosa 
Indiana and was not part of a gov- 
ernment grant to the railroad as 
compensation for extending Its 
transcontinental system. 






,'V^''''^'.,. 



rn^sNo TAT. "nP!xrBiicA.?r-it^ 

JUNE 10, 1923 



California Indian Mecca 



afcjfc 



o. // 



M 



m 



^i!^ 



^ 



^ 



Once SO Tribes Roamed Here 



^ 



^ 



^ 



m 



m 



M 



M 



Selman Talks Of Races 




ansio 
part >^ ithe ^™Kone tribe and 
are ci^^pl*elated[ to the Pah Ute 
tribes, or Water Utes, W. H. Shafer 
of Selma, ^Id the members of the 

Fresno ch^p4!^, American Society 
of Englnews, at the Hughes hotel 
yesterday. 

"The Pah Utes were the most civ- 
ilized of the Indian races," Shaffer 
t^aid, **because they had passed the 
omadic stage and cultivated the 
round. They did their cultivation 
y use of a digging stick, and so 
ook water from the springs, their 
itches running in a fan shaped 
lat. They raised small water mel- 
ons, not over five Inches in diam- 
eter, and a small corn that is to- 
day raised in some parts of Mexi- 
co. , 

"California had the most varied 
and conglomerate races of Indians 
in Uie United States. I think that 
the same forces that drove the sav- 
ages south in Europe, to the de- 
vastation of feome, drove the In- 
dians south in this country. Races 
made sturdy by hardship and cold 
winter came south to a warmer 
climate and easily overcanie the less 
sturdy tribes. As a result Calif- 
ornia had, I believe, 50 distinct 
Indian languages. 

"The religion of these tribes was 
one of demonology, and of propit- 
iation to the evil spirits. The peo- 



California are approved, and the medicine man was 

^rewarded for being right. 



ON LOWER PLANE 

"The Indian intellect is human, 
but on a lower grade than that ofl 
a white man, like that of an eight' 
or ten year old child. Their meth- 
ods of reasoning are similar to 
ours. There were among the In- 
dian tribes some brilliant intellects, 
who probably saw the necessity of 
perpetuating for history the deeds 
of the tribes, and the Indian paint- 
ings are the result. 
, "There Were many piiintings in 
California, but only those are left 
which were painted on sheltered ' 
rock places, where the rain could 
not touch them. In New Mexico 
the paintings are well preserved be- 
cause they have so little rain. 

"Nearly all caves have paint- 
ings on the roofs if you wash away 
the smoke. The paintings arc con- 
nected with tradition and super- 
stition, and so many of them can- 
not be translated. 

"There are paintings on Hospital 
rock, on the Kaweah river, but 
these I have never seen. There 
are also paintings on rocks in 
Squaw valley, one of which I stud- 
led for four or five years before I 
finally saw It was a story of a 
peace council. There were tw^o 
red lines with a fish between. This 
represented the Kings river. There 
was a blue line with a dog on it. 



pie were so filthy that they would land this was the Squaw valley 



stay in one place until they began 
to die from typhoid fever, then 
the medicine man would tell them 
that the devil had found out where 
they lived and they would have to 
move on. Naturally Immediately 



road. On the eastern end of the 
picture were white mountains with 
an tagle perched on top, and these 
represented the Sierras, the eastern 
boundary of the domain granted by 
the treaty. White men were there. 



upon moving their health was Im- 1 and Indians and soldiers, with 



counters to show how many. The 
paintings were signed by the chiefs, 
a beaver, a turtle, and so on. This 
painting was later partially de- 
stroyed by forest fire and later 
soi^e road workers spilled powder 
on the rock and set fire to It, so the 
lower portion Is completely gone. 
INITIATION ROCK 

"In San LkjuIs Obispo county is 
an arched rock, where, in all prob- 
ability, the young men were Initi- 
ated as warriors. The picture show- 
ed the meetings were held In the 
spring, for butterflies were flying, 
and tho women gathering the foou 
The picture there tells of the an- 
imals and fish to be encountered 
by the warrior, and in the farthest 
corner of the rock, where it in 
very dark, tho dangers faced by a 
warrior were portrayed. These 
were painted in black on a white 
background, and Included a rattle- 
snake and a tarantula. There is 
no question as to what the animals 
are, for each is clearly shown. All 
pictures were branded by the chief 
with his sign as a protection. 

"The Indians used cinnabar from 
the New Almaden mines for their 
pigments. They also used ochre 
from beds near McKlttrlck and 
Owtns valley. Their white paints 
did nnt last, and their yellows were 
imperfect ochres. 

"There are no Indian sculptures 
In the San Joaquin valley, though 
there may be some in the Owens 
valley.*' 



B-rUKWI.ICY. CAT., OAIKTTl 

JUNB 19, 1023 



"iul^4^':^I^'^'^«^^"^'^«^ 



X 



Interior fix the amount at $1,- 



* LO, THE POOR INDIAN' NOT SO POOR, AF-| 
TER ALL, SAY OFFICIAL STATISTICS. 

Ebtimatts fiiihe total valuation of property! 
owned iS^ t^ American Indians made by the De-| 
partmertt/of the 1 
000,000. n 

The figures izielude forest lands, mineral and| 
oil rights, lands allotted and reserved, live stock, 
and other property of the Indians under the guard- 1 
ianship of the government. 

Further statistics show that there is $25,000,-1 
000 in the United States Treasury at the present 
time representing funds belonging to the various 
tribes of Indians and that individual Indian funds! 
to the extent of $t}5,00(),00() are deposited in pri- 
vate banks in Western States. Both of these funds 
bear interest ranging from 4 to G per cent. 



JUNE 17, 1923 



jjnciea or tne Manweli killing^. 



U. S. WUl Colonize 

at h 



PORTERVILLE. AineiUr—A 

viaed Into one acre tracts and «n 
^tU^l^n 'amily Placed on eich^L^e 
the more industrious and thriftV of 

P«w"*'l*"' being .,hosen for thia 
coloniaation project. 



.i 



INDIAN LABOR RECRUITS. 

The labor problem is being solved, as far 
as some of the ^atet/ire concerned, by the 
immigration ^ ^^ lie Country Gentleman 
curiously call^n^tive stock." That is to say, 



]NIcxic2ins« 

A word of explanation may be necessary. 

The Mexican, or at least the type of Mexican 
now pouring into the country, is three-fourt^js 
or more American Indian, and was origmally 
an inhabitant of the southwestern sections of 
the United States. He is mainly of Pueblo 
blood The Pueblos are some of the best and 
steadiest stock found in the aboriginal popu- 
lation of this continent. Attention has been 
directed to their merits particularly in recent 
months as a result of the effort made in New 
Mexico to deprive the remnants of the old 
tribes of their hereditary lands. They have 
been primarily farmers for ages. 

As the Negroes desert the southern states, 

these Pueblo Indians with a slight infusion 

of Spanish blood filter in and take their places. 

They are said to be better farm laborers than 

the negroes. They are cultivating cotton and 

hoeing corn all through the South. They are 

moving northward, too, and taking all sorts^ of 

hard jobs. They make almost as good section 

hands and coal miners as farm hands. Most 

of them are said to be able to read and write 

Spanish. Their qualifications for citizenship 

leave some things to be desired, but they have 

the saving grace, in this time of labor famine, 

of being good workers. 

Their entrance through official channels 
this year may amount to 100,000. But hun- 
dreds of thousands more are wading or swim- 
ming the Rio Grande. Their total migration 
mpvement for the year may reach 1,000,000. 
^They are a factor to be reckoned with here- 
■ter. 






..■^,ifi^-,„V:i! 




lv;i»>: .'!'".'.. 



■t. 









JULY 4, i&as 



PPvESS— 



...••y"* 



r" 



STRATHMORE 
SITE CHOSEN 
FOR INDIANS] 

fas i\clived 
itoentlf ln( 




^ r5? t^ ^\slived this week froml 
the D##aia]|ent|)f Indian Affairs at 
Washingt5h, by 1. j. Wilkins, realtor 
of PorterviiJj which closed the op- 
tion on 40 aACs south of StrathmoreJ 
Which was taken over by Indian Agent 
Carter on behalf of the government! 
two weeks ago. 

It is intended to divide this property! 
into tracts of one acre each and homes' 
will be built by Indians for their use 
They will be taken from the various! 
reservations of the state. AccoiJ^iing 
to the plan this will in some measure 
curb the roaming instincts of the In- 
dians. 

The Strathmore chamber of com- 
merce last week protested to the Sec- 
retary of Interior at Washington 
against the establishment of such a 
colony near there. 



JULY 1, 1923 



Western Indians 
Keep to Wigwams 

Of the 371 Indfin (trib^i^till re- 
maining in the DQt^'stltes there 
are only twenty *it)e^-^here the 
majority of Indians apvi^eir fami- 
lies are dwelling in t^eKs wikmps, 
or hogans, as shown ^y information 
made public today by the Indian of- 
fice of the Department of the in 

^Those Indians who have not yet 

abandoned their P"™^^^^^^^^*;^,^.^ ^^ 
as modern homes are concerned are 

living on resejv^^^^\*il"!L arg- 
ent States. Arizona has the larg 
38t number of reservations where 
the majority of Indians have not 
ibandoned their tepees or ^o^^^s 
«rhile California and New Mexico 
♦.ome second. 



'•^^^^^i <^AT., mOGRKSS to 

k. JULY ?, i,^2Z 




The Sherman ^"^^il^jT^ the 

given yesterday morning ^t the 
'rLt Baptist fX:r!l.:^eT:\X . 

'^ mute"' She streTed the need of 
mst tute. Sn« ^^r^ ^^^ these In- 

T'^nf She saw dat there was no 
Sstanf churcfl avaUab.e for the 
Indians of the institute at this 1 

""^fireat difficulty Is experienced 

EHrr-usHf^thT^^^^^^^^ 

'hrm^n.s for religious scrv ces 

^juCsr on "Brdi'^v^s^^s; 

nesday evenings the «'^hools are 
available, but the re 'Sjous atmos 
phere that is desirable Is lac'^'"^- 
"Eight hundred InAlans are In 

the school representing ^Tffcren't 
fv spven to forty-five diffcreni 
tribes and coming from twelve 
sUtes. we hope to Christianize as 

many of them as P'>««"'\*l'',"^t^^"i, 
them back to their people to teach 

'^^^^hTnThT'-rhool'rs establish^ 

ed rhrcathoiics^ bulU .chape, ^and 

aiiU work amons ^"*- . . 

stiii w"^»^ - x^g Indians at 

Probably a third ot int. i 
the institute are reached by tne 
Catholic organization. 

-Wo are very anxious to push 

the work there and ^--^l^;^^,^^ 
a Protestant church building, the 

speaker continued. lutoned 

An interested audience ^i«tenea 

to Miss CVIanzcr and r-pondecV 

generously with "^^^^^ ^^^ 
nledKCs for a Sherman Protestapt 
Kel which it IB hoped may ^e 
erected sSon. 



!A Modern School 

' 3 '^ f ^or Reservation 

The construction of the new Indian 
school bijjfmng for the Round Valley 
Indian reservation, for which bids 
were opened May 21, has been award- 
ed to the firm of J. G. Leibert, of San 
Fancisco, at their bid of $17,800. The 
building is to be of concrete six inch 
walls reinfoced for the outside and in- 
terior to be two coats of hard wall I 
plaster on metal lathes, all to be stuc- 
co finish. The structure will have all 
modern conveniences for heat, toilets! 
and water system and contain threcl 
class rooms 25x32, library, wide cor- 
ridors entrances on front and bothi 
sides. It will be absolutely fireprool 
and the architecture of a design t< 
make it a very attractive structure an< 
is to be located on the main road be- 
tween the town of Covelo and th( 
Indian Agency. The capacity of th< 
buildin-^ will be about ninety to 10( 
The plans provide for a fourth room i: 
such an addition is needed in future] 
It is expected the school building will 
be ready for occupancy not later than 
October 15 and sooner if possible. Th( 
Indians are all highly pleased ovei 
their new school house and are alread; 
arranging for a great "housewarmini 






''li^^^ 












,,.w 






^'^£^4 



I 



JULY 10, 1923 

INDIANS MAKE PROGRESS. 

Knowledge of the hardships to which the 
AmeriimlAlian has been put in the past is 
res^jJyfilb ft)r a belief that his numbers are 
dwiud?ing. There is cause for surprise, then, 
in the annodMment of Charles H. Burke, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, that the na- 
tives are more numerous today than at any 

other time. , -^ i,-.„« 

As tlie available statistics do not quite bear 
out Mr. Burke it is assumed he does not regard 
them as accurate. Including Alaska's Indian 
population there are 365,000 Indians in the 
United States, 13,500 more than there were ten 
vears ago. Only three times in the nations 
history, in 1850, 1853, and 1857 have the Gov- 
ernment figures shown a larger number. 
~" Mr Burke's opinion that the aboriginal pop- 
ulation is larger now than ever is based on 
the assumption that these earlier figures were 
too low and that in the days before there was 
an Indian census popular belief of the hordes 
of red men in the interior was without founda- 
tion. Knowledge of distant tribes, then, was 
based on rumor and reports brought irom the 
frontiers and by men who, because of their 
comparative isolation and danger to which 
they were exposed, may have exaggerated. 

Eegardless of speculation, it may be said 
there are more Indians in America today than 
there were ten years ago. The reasons are not 
hard to find. In 1910 there were five Indian 
hospitals against 78 today. The sanitary and 
living conditions of the reservations have been 
improved, educational facilities have been in- 
creased and industrial opportunities have been 
placed in the way of the tribes. It is st U 
true there are more than 20,000 Indian chil- 
dren of school age who are without opportun- 
ity to attend classes but against this there is 
the fact that 30,642 are in federal and mission- 
ary schools and 34,301 more attend the pub- 
lic schools. , , 1 1 „f 
The Indians now own livestock valued at 
J,000,000; timber land worth |80 000,000 ; 
900 000 acres of agri<^ultural land tilled by 
45 000 natives, and have on deposit m the 
United States Treasury and in 1,000 or more 
banks close to |00,000,000. Two-thirds of them, 
vote at the elections. 

There is no attempt to put forward the claim 
that the Indian, in all instances is being 
treated with justice and in accordance with 
promise and treaty. It is true, however that 
creat advances have been made and that his 
progress inay be exi)ected to continue even more 
rapidly. 






gaeramento. (5al, Bw 

JULY J I, 1923 



♦-r 



YOUNG INDIAN ACOUSED 
OF STEALING CAR AND 
ELOPING WITH SftVAW 

— t— ^ ♦ 

COLUSA (ColuVA Cki» Jvklyp., — 
Sheriff F. L. ^rayto^ le^ to- 
day for Su«aj^Tille t<>X^brIii« 
liack Tom Dacfc, a youns In- 
dian, '^vlio is aeeii.«»ed by J. W. 
Browiiinim; of Grand Island, of steal- 
ini? liiN nutontobile. 

Broniiin^ told ^He of ficern he had 
sent Dack, tvho wwlh foreman on hia 
ranch, to Gridley to care for Home 
other propertj-'* Instead of stop- 
ping at CJrldley, Daok went on to 
Butte City, where he loca<:ed an 
Indian (^irl named MIms Mitchell and 
ixtjhe two left for the north in the 
iutomobile.^^hey were causht at 
jBusanvillej^^ 



n-ooni.AVD. CAT.. M vn.-5Si 

JULY 13, 132G 




^'^'^tLm'-^ 



INDIAN LABOR RECRUITS 

The \abor i)roblem is being solved, a^ far as some of the 
states are oonferneWrjJy the im mgration of what the County 
Gentleman /uritfusly qalls "native stock/' That is to say, Mexi- 
cans. 

A word of e:j^Janation may be necessary. The Mexican, or 
at least the type of Mexican now pouring into the country, is 
three-fourths or more American Indian, and was originally an 
inhabitant of the southwestern section of the United States. He 
is mainly of Pueblo blood. The Pueblos are some of the best and 
steadiest stock found in the aboriginal population of this contin 
ent. Attention has been directed to their merits particularly in 
recent months as a result of the effort made in New Mexico to 
deprive the remnants of the old tribes of their hereditaiT lands. 
They have been primarily farmers for ages. 

As the negroes desert the southern states, these Pueblo In- 
dians with a slight infusion of Spanish blood filter in and take 
their places. They are said to be better farm laborers than the 
negroes. They are hardy, though small. Their requirements 
are slight. They will work for low wages. They are cultivating 
cotton and hoeing corn all through the South. They are moving 
northward, too, and taking all sorts of hard jobs. They make 
almost as good section hands and coal miners as farm hands. 
Most of them are said to be able to read and write Spanish. 
Their qualifications for citizenship leave some things to be desired 
but they have the saving grace, in this time of labor famine, of 
being good workers. 

Their entrance through official channels this year may 
amount to 100,000. But hundre<ls of thousands more are wading 
or swimming the Rio Grande. Their total migratory movement 
for the year may reach 1,000,000. They are a factor to be 
id with hereafter. 



■- ')' >■ .i-V; /.;;;';,'-'■■■■ ■' 









^'^r 









'/.'':^;''ii>J';''l*/''> "^:.l'' -.' 



^acramtnto. Cal, Bee 

JULY 25, 1923 



JVLY 13, J02G 



Contract Let For 

New Indian Schoo 
7/1 w^ 

The <y| gy i€tllD, of the new Imdian 
ichool building fir the Round Valley 
[ndlan Res^lApinon, for which bids 
were openea May 21, has been 
awarded to the firm of J. C. Lelbert, 
of Ban Francisco, at their ibid o 
$17,800. 

The building is to be of concrete 
six inch walls relmforced "for the out 
side and interior to be two coats of 
hard wall plaster on metal lathes, all 
to be stucco finish. The building 
Iwill have all modern convenience 
Ifor heat, toilets and water system 
and contain three class rooms 25 x 
32, library, wide corridors entrances 
on front and both sides. It will be 
I absolutely fire proof and the archi- 
tecture ol a design to make it a very 
'attractive structure and is to be lo- 
cated on the tmain road between the 
town of Covelo and the Indian 
Agency. The capacity of the building 
will be about ninety to 100. 

The plans provide for a £purth 
ixx>m if such an addition is needed 
in the future. It is expected the 
school building will be ready for oc- 
cupancy not later than October 15 
and sooner if possible. The Indians 
are all highly pleased over their new 
school house and are already arrang- 
ing for a great "housewarming." 



Sacramr;nlo. Cal, jd5I 

JULY 13, 1923 



i 

l^fli BARS ALIENS 

ON INDIAN LAND 
IN WASH 



^' nW^^'- EXAMINER 

•^^^Y 15, 1023 



Ruling PermilHhif L 
Japanese SiOitanded 
partment Where 
Forbid Action 




By LEO A. McCLATCHY. 

WASHINGTON. July 13.^(Bee 
Bureau.)— Pfotests from American 
Jvegion post^in the state of Wash- 
ington concerning: a recent ruling 
of Secretary Work that aliens, !n^ 
eluding: Japanese, would be al- 
llowed to lease Indian lands in the 
l^akima Valley of that state to-day 
brought from the Interior depart- 
ment a statement that the policy 
had been changed so as to ' bi in 
[accord with state laws." [ 

Former Secretary Fall, follof Ina 
Lumerous complaints from the /tate 
of Washington that Japanese Vere 
leasing agricultural lands frqA In- 

Idians. ruled that- aliens no longer 
would be permitted^ to negotiate 
such leases. Later, in the Roxana 
]case, involving the lease of mineral 
lands, he held that such leases' 
would not be allowed in the case 
of corporations, a majority of 
whose stockholders were aliens. 
This ruling was set aside by Secre- 
tary Work, and it was construed In 
the state of Washington to mean 
that the bars had been lifted to per- 
mit Japanese to gain control of ag- 
ricultural lands on the Indian res- 
ervation In the Yakima Valley. 

The interior department an- 
nounced to-day that after reconsid- 
eration of the entire question, it 
has been decided that the federal 
government will be guided by state 
laws— that Indian lands will not b 
leased to Japanese in those stat 
[which have laws prohibiting It. 

4-4 



SONOMA CA?.. r?;T>i5T YYrm.^^-uo 

JULY 14* 1923 




A MODERN SCHOOL 

FOR THE INDIANS! 






The constrti^pn of th^ ndlsr Indian 
school building Jbr^ ftoj/d Valley 
Indian reservalfon for v/iich bids 
j were opened May 21,-^as been award- 
I ed to the firm of J. (f-C^lbert of San 
j Francisco at their bid of $17,800. The 
building is to be of concrete six inch 
walls reinforced for the outside and 
interior to be two coats of hard wall 
''piaster on metal laths, all to be stuc- 
co finish. The structure will have all 
modern conveniences for heat, , toilets 
and water system and will contain 
three class rooms 25x32, library, wide 
corridors, entrances on both sides and 
"fronV: It wrir Se'alBsoiutely fireproof 
and the architecture of a design to 
j make it a very attractive structure and 
is to be located on the main road be- 
1 tween the town of Covelo and the In- 
dian Agency, The capacity of the 
building will be about 90 to 100. The 
plans provide for a fourth room if 
such an addition is needed in the fu- 
ture. It is expected the school build- 
ing will be ready for occupancy not 
later than October 15th and sooner if 
possible. The Indians are all highly 
pleased over their new school house 
and are already arranging for a great 
housewarming. — Ukiah Republica 
Press. 



^ 



Contract Awarded 
For Indian School 

UKIAH. July l^The UoMract 
has been awarded t^.i(g|lAWert of 
San Francisco to ei^iibt^e rtew In- 
dian School building forOPiP Round 
Valley Indian ReservalldflTThe bid 
was 117,800. The hniV|ng will be 
fireproof and will be erected on the 
main road between Covelo and the 
Indian Reservation Agency, 



SANTA noSA. CAL MirRc 

JULY 17, ^923 

l/^ -^•^^ 

Contract Awarded 
For Indian School 

UKIAH, July IG. — The contract 
rias bj^n awarder* to J. O. Leibert 
of Siij^Ji^ir^ifMWto erect the new 
IndianAsVg^l ^building for the 
Rounlfr^alley Indian Reservation 
The bid was. $17,800. The buihling 
will be firepr^f apd will be erected 
on the maintirtfd between Covelo 
and thfi Indian Reser\'ation Agency. 



f 



CONSIDER NEW RULES 



Kegrulatlotts To Govern Indian Ren- 

ervatlon<< in Plunian. Modoo and 

ImsiJen Being; ConipUed. 

Reg-iila-tions to/g-overn tii»^ state 
Indian re|>*rvatifcns to bf estab- 
lished in B(uniasV,Modo^'*-£nd Las- 
sen CountlesXunder a bill iassed by 
the last le^slature and ^effective 
August IVth. are beinp ootnpilcd by 
State Surveyor General W. S. 
Kingsbury, who wilT ^lajr^ super- 
vision over the reservc'jjifon. 

The new law set aside 1,480 acres 
of state lands in these three coun- 
I ties for the benefit of tho destitute 
. Indian tribes which appealed to the 
legislature for aid. Kingsbury said 
strict sanitary regulations will be 
enforced on the reserations. 



•^^^V 24,- io7i 



129 




|A/on-reservation Group Will 

Settle On Statej Land 

Under Aol 



< ^ 



NO BEE Julv^V^*^ •*^* ^ItEE- 
\\r a -.V, ^ "#• — Surveyor Genppai 

that he la drawing upJ^,liat,„n^ 
to govern the non-reserll^nn i 
<l"an colony which 4^ni^i°" ^"- 
KtabUshed on 1.480 Zrls of «ta^^ 
:r„t^e/'"'"^^^' ^«-«« and Modoc 

tt?u\r'-n^c-L^t"^^^^^^^ 

Tcuv^e" ''^ ^'"'^ '*"<* becom^o^%;'^ 

;X.:^'-:- V"t ot.r.rfv".Ll' the Cst 

in the past tlie non-r<.!»i-.,o.i 
ndians have been "^quattoS-C'^t- h- 
>ut a place to call their own 



AUGUST 5, 1923 



.- w ■v»««Mki*«^««#« . 






TO SEEK 






Redskins Are^vum: 
And PrcfcWr^at 
Outdoors 

By CORA IVES 

The majority of tho Itidtans are 

strong on schools in theory, 
practice they look Hpon them 
more favorably than they did 
20 years ago, but as a whole it takes 
a great deal of urging on all sides 
to persuade Indians either to go to 
school or to stay ther^ 

Most children find school irksome. 
Indians find it the personificatior 
of everything that they like least 
With ' rare exceptions Indian chil 
! dren are exceedingly timid. The 
a^e rough and have no manner 
which many mistake for boldnes 
t>ut they are very timid. Therefor 
leaving their secluded home in th 
brush ta join a little circle of peo 
pie differing widely, from them, i 
notj their idea of a pleasing experi 
entje. When they became used t 
that experience, so that it no longe 
fills them with dread, the routine 
BO Indispensible to school life, in 
spires them with a loathing that th 
most arrant little truants amoni 
whites could not begin to appreci 
ate. White children up to a certai: 
point fight education strenuously 
but they know that If they want tc 
be President of the United States 
or Barney Oldfield or Mary Pick 
ford, they have to anyway knoi 
how to read and write, but to th 
Indian child from our hills, whos 
one Idea In life is to ride, hunt and 
In odd moments do nothing, educa- 
tion represents zero In entertain- 
ment and usefulness. It Id the iX-i 
itficatfii JLndiaTi I?arent8, who Insis* 
.^n their children going to school- 
They outfit them like white chil- 
dren, and make them w^hite chil- 
dren's lunches ^nd make heroic ef- 
forts to shape their day to the white 
man's hours. This tremendous ef- 
fort endures for a good many years, 
but usually parents and children 
both weary in well doing, when the 
children have reached about the 
fifth grade. By that time the c-I"- 
^en have a vague idea of a very 
few things. They are ^hen satis- 
fied, in fact delighted, to stay home, 
and pick grapes or wash dishes 
when the whole family is out of 
money, and the parents, although 
not satisfied, decide that the ed- 
ucational game Js not worth the 
candle and glv6 up the unequal 
contest. 

What the teachers think about 
their Indian pupils depends a 



gjBooM^drama^hose who hanaea. 
in his name did not know that in 
th^t line his was the only one. It 
was Lafayette Jacobs, a pupil of 
the Raymond high school; but 
when they took his record the lines 
n which he does best are drawing, 
writing adn ball, particularly ball. 

The Indians are so different 
from the white people that many 



their Indian pupils depends a ^^^^^^^ ^j^^y ^^md do better in 
great deal upon how much ex- schools, with particularly 



perience the teacher has had in 
dealing with Indians. Many of the 
teachers of the rural schools of 
-the hills are young girls who are 
teaching their first school. Habit- 
ually they remember the Indians 
of that school as on%of the night- 
mares of their liV6*f.; . They could 
not get anything lnt6 the Indian's 
volatile mind, nor coud they sup- 
press their even more volatile 
Bp rHs. The jolly ones would "just 
make Jokes all the time" and the 
silent ones would \ stalk home 
whenever they took a notion to. 
The teacher found it hard to de- 
cide whether she preferred being 
hailed in the morning with a **Say, 
'you look nice and fat in that 
dress," or "Why don't that little 
girl comb her hair?" or Whether it 
was less embarassing to have a 
row of her class rise and sound- 
lessly depart In the middle of an 
arithmetic explanation. . * 

Indian children have no idea of 
school discipline. If they feel con- 
fidential they will think aloud on 
any subject, if they are tired or 
bored, they see no reason why they 
should not alleviate that condition 
of acutd^dtfltressby going some- 
where else. The teachers who know 
them say that they learn as easily 
as white chUdren do» but different* 
ly, and all teachers agree that In- 
dians excel along certain lines. 
Anything that is manual for In- 
stance, drawing or writing makes 
^. great appeal to an Indian and 
Lre v ery good at It. T?hey have 
lemorles aiid Quick at>- 



LSpel 



Wat 



tlplicatlon 

form of 

>lutely ln_ 

fdyi anfu- 
They can- 



their own school^, with particularly 
trained people to teach them. It 
, would seem as though the Indians 
themselves should be in favor of 
that course of action, but the only 
definite idea that many of them 
have about schools is distinct dis- 
like for the California Indian 
schools. It is very difficult to get 
them to state an objection, but they 
seem to think that the Indian 
schools are not as good as the 
white schools and cannot fit them 
as well for the future. They say 
"only Indians go there." The Cali- 
fornia Indian who wants to learn 
at all wants to know the white 
man. "Indian school teaches o 
work like an Indian. To be rich 
you must work with the white 
man." Those that know the Indians 
well think there is a good deal back 
of what they s*ay. The Indian 
schools no not teach them how to 
mix with the white man. He is just 
as bashful and inarticulate with the 
white race when he leaves the In- 
dian school as he was when he left 
his own home. 

The California Indians have no 
reservation and no possessions, so 
It is impossible for them to pro- 
gress if they stay in their own 
homes. If they have anything over 
manual labor intelligence they are 
forced to earn their livings in com- 
petition with the white, so any 
edupaUon that does not fit them 
to meet the T^hite man Is a fail- 
ure so far as they are concerned. 
They say their schools are back- 
ward and their standing the low- 
est of any of the Indian schools 
and they say the reason for it i« 
that their appropriation* nave 

iiever ^MiTiRregtrats^ ^nd ^ma^t-Tw 

one is interested i» the education 
Of the Calitomia IscHim* 

Tke Indians live where they have 
been forced to live. In poverty be 
stricken sections. The only schools 



,p^^ unravel anyliilng in the way 



They might possioiyu.a.vw,..^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ unending 

put their mind on it, but they ab-/ max encouragement 

^^l""^ ^L i^^vtkln^L^ nor I they attempt anything in the way 
interested in anytHlng past. nor|^^ ^ ^^^^^^ education. Their own 

schools have not the standing of 
the big state schools of California, 
and if the Indian really wants to 
advance he must go to one of these 
schools and get through it unas- 
sisted. For the shy folk of the 
woods and the mountains, that 
represents difficulties of which we 
cannot dreaw. They claim that the 
worst of it all is that once they 
are educatedi they can definitely 
cease looking to the white man for 
any aid. We do not want them 
and we will not have them In 
the upper strata of life and be- 
cause there are so few of them 
we can keep them out. That more 
than anything else has held back 
education among them. 



have they any curiosity for any- 
thing they have never seen, which 
aulomaUcally bars history, liter- 
ature and science. They are won- 
derfully good in .athletics. They 
will take great pride in them and 
work for hours over them, but in 
anything dramatic they register 
an absolute slump. That last does 
not seem to go ^ith their historic 
character as we read of it. The In- 
dian of colonial history has always 
been endowed with great eloquence 
and histronic ability, but it seems 
as though there were some mistake 
there for much has been done to 
encourage the Indian along these 
lines both professionally and in 
the schools and the Indian does not 



FRr«;vn f\r. rp.rtBtrC/l.v-.i<v 



AUGUST 5, 19:.3 



- ; 







TD SEEK 
EIP 



Redskins AryM^imid 

And PrcfcMjr^at 

Outdoors 

By CORA IVES 

The majority of the Indians are 

strong on schools in theory, 
practice they look Hpon them 
more favorably than they did 
20 years ago, but as a whole it takes 
a great deal of urging on all sides 
to persuade Indians either to go to 
school or to stay there. 

Most children find school irksome. 
Indians find it the personificatior 
of everything that they like least 
With rare exceptions Indian chil 
dren are exceedingly timid. The 
ax^e rough and have no manner 
which many mistake for boldnes 
|>ut they are very timid. Therefor 
leaving their secluded home in th 
brush to Join a little circle of peo 
pie differing widely from them, i 
not their idea of a pleasing experi 
enxje. Wlien they became used t 
that experience, so that It no longe 
fills them with dread, the routine 
BO indispensible to school life, in 
spires them with a loathing that th 
most arrant little truants amom 
whites could not begin to appreci 
ate. White children up to a certai] 
point fight education strenuously 
but they know that if they want tc 
be President of the United States 
or Barney Oldfield or Mary Pick 
ford, they have to anyway kno^ 
how to read and write, but to th 
Indian child from our hills, whose 
one Idea in life is to ride, hunt and 
in odd moments do nothing, educa- 
tion represents zero in entertain- 
nent and usefulness. It Is the ll-"! 
It.Si:atfiL Indian iiarf^ntp, who Insis*^ 
,jn their children going to school- 
They outfit them like white chil- 
dren, and make them white chil- 
dren's lunches and make heroic ef- 
forts to shape their day to the white 
man's hours. This tremendous ef- 
fort endures for a good many years, 
but usually parents and children 
both weary in well doing, when the 
children have reached about the 
fifth grade. By that time the chil- 
dren have a vague idea of a very 
few things. They are \hen satis - 
fled, in fact delightod. to stay home, 
and pick grapes or wash dishes 
when the whole family is out of 
money, and the parents, although 
not satisfied, decide that the ed- 
ccatlonal game is not worth the 
candle and giv6 up the unequal 
contest. 

What the teachers think about 
their Indian pupils depends a 
great deal upon how much ex- 
perience the teacher has had in 
dealing with Indians. Many of the 
teachers of the rural schools of 
the hills are young girls who are 
teaching their first school. Habit- 
ually they remember the Indians 
of that school as onoi^of the night- 
mares of their lives.' They could 
not get anything into the Indian's 
volatile mind, nor coud they sup- 
press their even more volatile 
8p r'ts. The jolly ones would "just 
make Jokes all the time" and the 
silent ones would stalk home 
whenever they took a notion to. 
The teacher found it hard to de- 
cide whether she preferred being 
hailed in the morning with a *'Say, 
'you look nice and fat in that 
dress," or "Why don't that little 
girl comb her hair?" or whether it 
was less embarassing to have a 
row of her class rise and sound- 
lessly depart in the middle of an 
arithmetic explanation. 

Indian children have no idea of 
achool discipline. If they feel con- 
fidential they will think aloud on 
any subject, if they are tired or 
bored, they see no reason why they 
should not alleviate that condition 
of acute distress by going some- 
where else. The teachers who know 
them say that they learn as easily 
as white children do, but different- 
ly, and all teachers agree that In- 
dians excel along certain lines. 
Anything that is naanual. for in- 
stance, drawing or writing makes 
^ great appeal to an Indian and 
>ajre v ery good at it. They have 
riemorles and quick at)- 



^Itiplication 
form of 

lutely, in 



that re- 
P^ of ajflgrn- 



school in drama, those who handed, 
in his name did not know that inj 
tlUtt line his was the only one. It 
was Lafayette Jacobs, a pupil of 
the Raymond high school; but 
when they took his record the lines 
n which he does best are drawing, 
writing adn ball, particularly ball. 

The Indians are so different 
from the white people that many 
believe they would do better in 
their own schools, with particularly 
trained people to teach them. It 
would seem as though the Indians 
themselves should be in favor of 
that course of action, but the only 
definite idea that many of them 
have about schools is distinct dis- 
like for the California Indian 
schools. It is very difficult to get 
them to state an objection, but they 
seem to think that the Indian 
schools are not as good as the 
white schools and cannot fit them 
as well for the future. They say 
*'only Indians go there." The Cali- 
fornia Indian who wants to learn 
at all wants to know the white 
man. "Indian school teaches o 
work like an Indian. To be rich 
you must w^oi-k with the white 
man." Those that know the Indians 
well think there is a good deal back 
of what they say. The Indian 
schools no not teach them how to 
mix with the white man. He is just 
as bashful and inarticulate with the 
white race when he leaves the In- | 
dian school as he was when he left ' 

his own home. 

The California Indians have no 
reservation and no possessions, so, 
it is impossible for them to pro- 
gress if they stay in their own 
homes. If they have anything over 
manual labor intelligence they are 
forced to earn their livings in com- 
petition with the white, so any 
education that does not fit them 
to meet the white man is a fail- 
ure so far as they are concerned. 
They say their schools are back- 
ward and their standing the low- 
est of any of the Indian schools 
and they say the reason for it la 
that their appropriaxions have 
llijver 7)e€n 'SCtjqllanie' ^i« thatr-Tio 
one is interested in the education 
of the California Indian. 

The Indians live where they have 
been forced to live, in poverty be 
stricken sections. The only schools 
in their reach are the rural gram- 



^r a icxnf^ . 
^eir Waterloo, They can- 
^^u Unravel anything in the way 
of real mathematical problems. 
They might possibly i^ ^^ev wo^od ™ ~-j^^^- ,^ ,^ ^„ „„endlnff 

put their mind on It. »"' t^ey aD-^ struggle and no encouragement 
solutely decUne to tlunk about a. / str^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ,, 

I^^LILT i:?mZl^s7; r they attempt anything in the way 



have they any curiosity for any- 
thing they have never seen, which 
auiomatically bars history, liter- 
ature and science. They are won- 
derfully good in athletics. They 
will take great pride in them and 
work for hours over them, but in 
anything dramatic they register 
an absolute slump. That last does 
not seem to go with their historic 
character as we read of it. The In- 
dian of colonial history has always 
been endowed with great eloquence 
and histronic ability, but it seems 
as though there Vsere some mistake 
there for much has been done to 
encourage the Indian along these 
lines both professionally and m 
the schools and the Indian does not 



of a higher education. Their own 
schools have not the standing of 
the big state schools of California, 
and if the Indian really wants to 
advance he must go to one of these 
schools and get through it unas- 
sisted. For the shy folic of the 
woods and the mountains, that 
represents difficulties of which we 
cannot dreaw. They claim that the 
worst of it all is that once they 
are educated} they can definitely 
cease looking to the white man for 
any aid. We do not want them 
and we will not have them in 
the upper strata of life and be- 
cause there are so few of them 
we can keep them out. That more 
than anything else has held back 
education among them. 



more favorably than they did 
20 years ago, but as a whole it takes 
a great deal of urging on all sides 
to persuade Indians either to go to 
school or to stay there. 

Most children find school irksome. 
Indians find it the peraonificatio 
of everything that they like least 
With rare exceptions Indian chil 
dren are exceedingly timid. The 
a^e rough and have no manner 
which many mistake for boldnes 
but they are very timid. Therefor 
leaving their secluded home in th 
brush to Join a little circle of peo 
pie differing widely, from them, i 
not» their idea of a pleasing experi 
enx3e. When they became used t 
that experience, so that It no longe 
fills them with dread, the routin 
BO Indispensible to school life, in 
spires them with a loathing that th 
most arrant little truants amon 
whites could not begin to appreci 
ate. White children up to a certai 
point fight education strenuously 
but they know that if they want 
be President of the United States 
or Barney Oldfield or Mary Pick 
ford, they have to anyway kno 
how to read and write, but to th 
Indian child from our hills, whos 
one Idea in life is to ride, hunt and 
In odd moments do nothing, educa- 
tion represents zero in entertain- 
lent and usefulness. It is the 11 
Jndian ijajreTx^s, who Insls*^ 
►n their children going to school- 
They outfit them like white chil- 
dren, and make them white chil- 
dren's lunches and make heroic ef- 
forts to shape their day to the white 
man's hours. This tremendous ef- 
fort endures for a good many years, 
but usually parents and children 
both weary In well doing, when the 
children have reached about the 
fifth grade. By that time the cJir- 
4ren have a vague idea of a very 
few things. They are \hen satis - 
fled, in fact delighted, to stay home, 
and pick grrapes or wash dishes 
when the whole fajnily is out of 
money, and the parents, although 
not satisfied, decide that the ed- 
acational game Is. not worth the 
candle and giv6 up the unequal 
contest. 

What the teachers think about 
their Indian pupils depends a 
great deal upon how much ex- 
perience the teacher has had in 
dealing with Indians. Many of the 
teachers of the rural schools of 
the hills are young girla who are 
teaching their first school. Habit- 
ually they remember the Indians 
of that school as on%0| the night- 
mares of their live^f They could 
not get anything into the Indian's 
volatile mind, nor coud they sup- 
press their even more volatile 
ep r*ts. The jolly ones would "just 
make jokes all the time" and the 
silent ones would stalk home 
whenever they took a notion to. 
The teacher found it hard to de- 
cide whether she preferred being 
bailed In the morning with a **Say, 
'you look nice and fat in that 
dress," or **Why don't that litue 
girl comb her hair?" or -Whether It 
was less embarassing to have a 
row of her class rise and sound- 
lessly depart in the middle of an 
arithmetic explanation. . * 

Indian children have no idea of 
school discipline. If they feel con- 
fidential they will think aloud on 
any subject, if they are tired or 
bored, they see no reason why they 
shoul d not alleviate t hat condition 
6r~"aiDUte distress ' by going some- 
where else. The teachers who know 
them say that they learn as easily 
as white children do» but different* 
ly, and all teachers agree that In- 
dians excel along certain lines. 
Anything that ^ manual, for in- 
stance, drawing or writing maltes 
^ great api>eal to an Indian and 
Lre v ery good at it. "[l^ey have 
korl^ ai^d 4uick f^« 
^SpelU^M^fiV^PUcaUdn 

form of 
Llutely In^ 



ley can* 



school in drama, those who handed^ 
in his name did not know that in 
thfrt line his was the only one. It 
was Lafayette Jacobs, a pupil of 
the Raymond high school; but 
when they took his record the lines 
n which he does best are drawing, 
writing adn ball, particularly ball. 

The Indians are so different 
from the white people that many 
believe they would do better in 
their own schools, with particularly 
trained people to teach them. It 
would seem as though the Indians 
themselves should be in favor of 
that course of action, but the only 
definite idea that many of them 
have about schools is distinct dis- 
like for the California Indian 
schools. It is very difficult to get 
them to state an objection, but they 
seem to think that the Indian 
schools are not as good as the 
white schools and cannot fit them 
as well for the future. They say 
"only Indians go there." The Cali- 
fornia Indian who wants to learn 
at all wants to know the white 
man. "Indian school teaches o 
work like an Indian. To be rich 
you must work with the white 
man." Those that know the Indians 
well think there is a good deal back 
of what they say. The Indian 
schools no not teach them how to 
mix with the white nian. He is just 
as bashful and inarticulate with the 
white race when he leaves the In- 
dian school as he was when he left 
his own home. 

The California Indians have no 
reservation and no possessions, so 
It is impossible for them to pro- 
gress if they stay in their own 
homes. If they have anything over 
manual labor Intelligence they are 
forced to earn their livings In com- 
petition with the white, so any 
education that <^oes not fit them 
to meet the White man Is a fail- 
ure so far as they . are concerned. 
They say their schools are back- 
ward and their standing the low- 
est of any of the Indian schools 
and they say the reason for it Is 
that their appropriations have 
Jfijttver >6en fkueqiiate «Cild tUa^l bo 

f is interested fai tlie education 
ft^the CalitoTila IniS|M!i. 

Tke Indians live where they have 

forced to live. In poverty be 

stricken sections. The only schools 

In their reach are the rural gram- 



unravel " anytfiing in the way 
«f real mathematical problems. 
They might possibly if thev wonid 

put their mind on it, but they aby niar schools- It is an unending 

struggle and no encouragement 



7 



aolutely decline to think about a. 
thing of that sort. They are not 
interested In anything past, nor 
have they any curiosity for any- 
thing they have never seen, which 
aulomatlcally bars history, liter- 
ature and science. They are won- 
derfully good in .athletics. They 
will take great pride In them and 
work for hours over them, but In 
anything dramatic they register 
an absolute slump. That last does 
not seem to go ivlth their historic 
character as we read of it. The In- 
dian of colonial history has always 
been endowed with great eloquence 
and histronic ability, but it seems 
as though there were some mistake 
there, for much has been done to 
encourage the Indian along these 
Itnes, both professionally and In 
the schools and the Indian does not 
respond. 

It is uncanny how the Indians 
, run true to form mentally. In the 
past six month the universities have 
taken the matter up and sent ques- 
tionnaires around to the Indian and 
to the public schools where there 
were Indian as well as white chil- 
dren, and have gotten records of 
hundreds of the Indian children's 
work The answers sent in by 
teachers, who could not possibly 
have compared notes about Indians 
from all over the state, were s 
similar that they cf*"ld almost hav 
been copies. Even In the case o 
brilliant Indians, and they are no 
I'are, they wouljj excel along th 
lines in which the stupid Indian 
would do well, and if they di 
master the other lines, it would b 
through considerable work and 
not natural ability. 

There was only one school that 

boasted of an Indian that was re- 

Imarkably good in the drama. When 

^ wa^ mentioned as leading the 



from the white man for them, if 
they attempt anything In the way 
of a higher education. Their own 
schools have not the standing of 
the big state schools of California, 
and If the Indian really wants to 
advance he must go to one of these 
schools and get through It unas- 
sisted. For the shy folk of the 
woods and the mountains^ that 
represents difficulties of which we 
cannot dreaw. They claim that the 
worst of It all Is that once they 
are educatedj they can definitely 
cease looking to the white man for 
any aid. We do not want them 
and we will not have them in 
the upper strata of life and be- 
cause there are so few of them 
we can keep them out. That more 
than anything else has held back 
education among them. 

* What are you going to do with 
him," some white friends were 
asking the father of an unusually 
bright Indian boy In the hills. 
"When he Is through with high 
school and through with college, 
then what in the world can he do?" 
"I don't know," the old Indian said, 
"but my father he told me 'make 
him learn, if he can.' But I guess 
when he's learnt, he'll have to come 
back to the hills." 



■ ','■ .•^''4'V'.»';l'.-W^W(i 















■;vs^A?^i^^UL^'^ 



PASADCXA, CAI>., ?;TAn-?^EWS 



_. AUq. 17, 102U 



'•■? 



AUGUST 7, 13^3 




INDMN ALLOTMENTS 
SHASTA TO BE 




RKDOIXG (SliaMta 
The Burenii<ot lU^n 
annouMoeN thifTyi<::xx^8iaL 
allotments ilt-^ Shasta ^^^ty 
I will be sold to the hishe£niiid« 

|der ^i this city on October 6. ^ \ 

The allotments vary in. size from 
180 to 160 acres. They lie mostly In 
|he eastern part of the county. Some 
nre valuable for farming- and some 
for the timber. Persons wanting a 
full descrliition should write for 
particulars tp W. S. Krie^h, the 
Indian ag^n in Reddini 



F. CAT. TlKrORT>KR 

AUGUST 10; 1923 



16 



rMX.^tr'- 



i/ndian colony is 
i jplanned by u. s- 

>rORTERVIL.I.E. Aug. 15. — The 
governil^p^^as arranged to purchase 
40 acres of land in the Strathmore 
district, north of here, and will colonize 
it with some of the more industrious 
Indian families from the Tule River 
Indian Reservation near here, accord- 
ing to H. M. Carter, agent at the 
Tule reservation. The tract will be 
divided into acre plots, with a family 
of Indians on each acre, according to 
Carter. 




•mm 



Yuma and Cocapah Tribes 

Sadly Neglected, Says 

Methodist Speaker 

COMMITTEES FOR 
YEAR 

Mrs. Colgro'(fe >^*l^ides 

at Important ^ession 

Held Thursday 

by 




(Contributed to The Star-News 
Emma I. Turner.) 

"I never prayed as I prayed that 

flight that I might have a message 

for those poor benighted Indians/* 

said Mrs. M. M. Northrup as she 

gave an account of a recent visit 
to the Yuma and Cocapah Indian 
missions, before the Woman's 
Home Missionary Society of the 
First Methodist Church, held yes- 
terday afternoon in the new churcjhi 
buildmg. 

Rev. J. A. Crouch and his faith- 
ful wife, who literally "loved the 
Indians into the Kingdom," hav- 
fng been removed and the Mission 
closed, Mrs. Northrup longed to 
see it re-established and made a 
visit to that end without success. 
However, Rev. Mr. Magner and 
wife of the Friends Church are 
working among them and accom- 
panied Mrs. Northrup, the Indians 
coming from all directions, many 
of them eight and ten miles to hear 
**the woman of the white hair*' 
speak. 

Mrs. Northrup held her audience 
gpell-bound, many with tears roll- 



j }ns ^ dow n their sheclis, ^s she toM 
of the unspeakable conditions of 
ihe Cocapahs, No Man's Land, Jim, 
the bad leader who loved music, 
the scarlet woman, Blind Joe, the 
interpreter, snarling dogjs, chick- 
ens, pigs, cows and Indians with 
Insanitary conditions unbearable 
but for the constant sunshine and 
yet hungry to hear the Word. 
t Mrs. W. G. Robinson sang two 
{strangely beautiful Indian^ songs 
r'Invocatipn to the Sun-God" (Car- 
los Troyer) and "By the Waters 
of Minnetonka" (Thurlow Lievur- 
ance), accompanied by Miss Grace 
Allen. Devotions were conducted 
by Mrs. William Martin. 

Mrs. C. P. Colegrove, the presi- 
dent, was in the chair. Mrs. W. 
F. Perry, assisted by Mrs. J. W. 
Shuster, Mrs. M. E. Caverly, Mrs. 
W. A. Quackenoss, Mrs. Alice M. 
Keslen, Mrs. F. W. Flint and Mrs. 
Nevada Young acted as the recep- 
tion committee and served punch 
after the program. ^ - 

Mrs. H. Holbrook Announced thf 
names of committees for the com- 
ing year as follows: .; 
Group chairmen: Mesdames J* 
D. Watkins, Frank A. Manuel, H. 
R. Ross, J. R. Wellborn W. F. 
Perry, Margaret Fritz, S. C. Ven- 
der, Joseph Taggart, W. J. Gilll- 
land, E. L. Miller, Frank GrahAm 
and C.'E. Billings. 

Department Secretaries 
Department secretaries w^rc 
named as follows: 

Mite Box, Mrs. Margaret U 

Fritz; Mission Supplies, Mrs. C. A. 

Dolman; Literature, Mrs. William 

Cooper; Home Missions, Mrs. J. 

F. Stevens; Press, Mrs. Emma I. 

Turner; Christian Stewardship, 

Mrs. A. Bramley; Temperance 

Mrs. J. B. Albrook; Evangel^ 

Mrs. W. S. Martinf Perpe^ 

Members, Mrs. M. M. ^ParJ 

Japanese Work, Miss Ida Johnsol 

Young People's Work, Mrs. Fraij 

Gahn; Children's Work, Mrs. J. 

Nissley; Indian Work, Mrs. S 

Fox; Frances De Pauw, Mrs. ' 

Darling; Methodist Hospital, 

Clara Batterson; Deaconess V] 

Mrs. W. A. Luce; David and 

garet Home, Mrs. Ida E. 

and Mrs. C. H. Kehrberge 



Ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-1 

Harold Lloyd, Raymond, 

— Advert 



'friffWffT^JI^r 



1*~ AVq. 37, 102u "* 



lacravnrmto. Oil. "Bee 

AUGUST 7, 15^3 





KDDIXG (SliOMta <|oJ^Anj 
The Burcaii^^ 1^0)^11 . 
annouMceN thf(Ty<:j^y-iiix 
allotments \ft^ Sliasta i^|oyfity 
win be sold to the his^heJlTbid- 
Irter 4't this city on October «. 

The nllotnientts vary in. sine front 
180 to 100 aeren. They He mostly In 
Ihe eantern part of the eounty. Some 
are valuable for farmings xind some 
for the timber. Persons Mantingr a 
fwil defiieription should write for 
partieulars tp W. S. Kriegrh, the 
Indian nsramjiiReddiui 




/ 



mmmm 



J 



5 F. CAT-. •RKronT>T!R 

AUGU3T IG; 1923 



16 



I • 

I/ndian colony is 

I ijh>LANNED BY U. S. 



^ORTERVII^I.E, Aug. 15. — The 
11 governiti]bjP^has arranged to purchase 
40 nrres of land in the Strathmore 
di«trict, north of here, and will colonize 
it with some of the more industrious 
Indian families from the Tule River 
Indian Reservation near here, accord- 
ing to H. M. Carter, agent at the 
Tule reservation. The tract will he 
divided into acre plots, witli a family 
of Indian.s on each acre, according to 
Carter. 



Original Defective 




Yuma and Cocapah Tribes 

Sadly Neglected, Says 

Methodist Speaker 

COMMITTEES FOR 
YEAR A^PQINTE 

Mrs. ^ Colgrove >4^ides 

at Important ^ession 

Held Thursday 



(Contributed to The Star-News by 
Emma I. Turner.) 

"I never prayed as I prayed that 

night that I mij2:ht have a message 

for those poor benighted Indians," 

eaid Mrs. M. M. Northrup as she 

gave an account of a recent visit 
to the Yuma and Cocapah Indian 
missions, before the Woman's 
Home Missionary Society of the 
First Methodist Church, held yes- 
terday afternoon in the new churcjii 
buildmg. 

Rev. J. A. Crouch and his faith- 
ful wife,^ who literally **loved the 
Indians into the Kingdom," hav- 
fng been removed and the Mission 
closed, Mrs. Northrup longed to 
see it re-established and made a 
visit to that end without success. 
However, Rev. Mr. Magner and 
wife of the Friends Church are 
working among them and accom- 
panied Mrs. Northrup, the Indians 
coming from all directions, many 
of them eight and ten miles to hear 
**the woman of the white hair** 
speak. 

Mrs. Northrup held her audience 
spell-bound, many with tears roll- 



jn: ^ do w^n lijeir chec^is, ss she toM 
of the unspeakable conditions of 
the Cocapahs, No Man's Land, Jim, 
the bad leader who loved music, 
the scarlet woman, Blind Joe, the 
interpreter, snarling doojs, chick- 
ens, pigs, cows and Indians with 
Insanitary conditions unbearable 
but for the constant sunshine and 
yet hungry to hear the Word. 

Mrs. W. G. Robinson sang two 
strangely beautiful Indian^ songs 
"Invocation to the Sun-God" (Car- 
los Trover) and "By the Waters 
of Minnetonka" (Thurlow Lievur- 
ance), accompanied by Miss Grace 
Allen. Devotions were conducted 
by Mrs. William Martin. 

Mrs. C. P. Colegrove, the presi- 
dent, was in the chair. Mrs. W. 
F. Perry, assisted by Mrs. J. W. 
Shuster, Mrs. M. E. Caverly, Mrs. 
W. A. Quackenoss, Mrs. Alice M. 
Keslen, Mrs. F. W. Flint and Mrs. 
Nevada Young acted as the recep- 
tion committee and served punch 
after the program. ^ 

Mrs. H. Holbrook Announced the 
names of committees for the com- 
ing year as follows: 

Group chairmen: Mesdames J. 
D. Watkins, Frank A. Manuel, H. 
R. Ross. J. R. Wellborn W. F. 
Perry, Margaret Fritz, S. C. Ved- 
der, Joseph Taggart, W. J. Gilii- 
land, E. L. Miller, Frank Graham 
and C.'E. Billings. 

Department Secretaries 
Department secretaries w'crc 
named as follows: 

Mite Box, Mrs. Margaret C. 

Fritz; Mission Supplies, Mrs. C. A. 

Dolman; Literature, Mrs. William 

Cooper; Home Missions, Mrs. J. 

F. Stevens; Press, Mrs. Emma I. 

Turner; Christian Stewardship, 

Mrs. A. Bramley: Temperance^ 

Mrs. J. B. Albrook; Evangelist 

Mrs. W. S. Martin; Perpelf 

Members, Mrs. M. M. Parjc 

Japanese Work, Miss Ida Johnso' 

Young People's Work. Mrs. Frai 

Gahn; Children's Work. Mrs. J.' 

Nisslev; Indian Work, Mrs. Sa 

Fox; Frances De Pauw, Mrs. ^' 

Darling; Methodist Hospital, 

Clara Batterson; Deaconess \j 

Mrs. W. A. Luce; David and 

garet Home, Mrs. Ida E. 

and Mrs. C. H. Kehrbcrge 



Ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-ha-1 

Harold Lloyd, Raymond, 

— Adverti 






InEAD OF JNDIAN 
RESERVATION 



IS FLA^YE 



fo 





Superintended BSter Ifeld To 
Have ExceMed Aujjjori] 
Klamath Sheriff 
Scored 

KLAMATH FALLS (Ore), August 

18._.Holdlng that "it is not within 

Ithe power of an executive officer 

more than any other citizen to say 

•Put this man in jail and Iceep him 

there'." Circuit Judge Leavitt has 

[ordered Louis Knight. Klamath 

.reservation Indian, released from 

the county jail on a writ of habeas 

jcorpus. 

It appears from evidence present- 
led at the hearing of the writ that 
I Knight's arrest and imprisonment 
were ordered by Fred A. Baker, 
:iamath reservation superinten- 
lent. At the time Knight was ar- 
rested and brought to the county 
|:)all here, it Avas directed by Baker 
that he be held pending trial be- 
Ifore the United States Court of In- 
dian Offenses at the reservation. 
Baker Exceeded Authority. 
In ordering Knight's release. 
Judge DL.eavltt said that Baker's 
duties as Indian reservation super- 
llntendent were purely executive 
land not judicial, and he therefore 
has no right to order anyone con- 
Iflned In prison. Such right is con- 
fined to the judiciary by the con- 
stitution. Further Illegality in 
Knight's detention was found in 
the fact that he was charged with 
no crime and that he was refused 

bail; 

Judge Leavitt also scored the 
sheriff of Klamath County, declar- 
ing that if he "follows out such a 
line of conduct, the salary of his 
office for the next ten years would 
not be sufficient to pay the dam- 
la ge awards that would soon accu- 
Imulate against him." 

RelenMc Order Came Too T^ate. 
After Knight had been held in 
jail for three weeks and the day 
Lthe writ of habeas corpus was asked 



8 F. r,\T.. T)AT1T ?fT5VrB--BM 

AUGUST 21, 1923 



^„„ ^.STORIES OF C.A.R. VETS^^"--^ 





VING BULLETS 
FEAT INDIANS 



•■.«-»<—>■■• 



BY STANLEY NORTON 

Bullets which could shoot around 
a mountain and kill an Indian — 

That's what the California volun- 
teers carried into the civil war, 
when they were dispatched to Ari- 
zona to put down the Apaches who 
had taken the difficulties of '65 
as an opportunity for an uprising. 

Rich'd A. Sarle. 75, 3829 Clay-st, 
retired patternmaker, Indian fight- 
er and member of Thomas Post, G. 
A. R., tells all about it. He was 
in one of the eight companies of 
cavalry and infantry volunteering 
in California for service against the 
Confederacy in 1861. 

The Apache Indians had gotten 
out of all control of the regulars. 
But when the Callfomians got into 
the field it was different, Sarle 
boasts. 

"The Indians said we were able 
to put a curve behind our shots 
and they quickly dispersed," he ex- 
plains. 

Sarle had been engaged in min- 
ing on the Feather river when he 
volunteered. 

He was in the last of the great 
clashes between powder and shot 
and the primitive bow and arrows 
of the Apaches. 




Rochard Sarlo 

"The Apaches were good shots at 
close range with those things," he 
smiles. "But we Califomians, know- 
ing the Indian traits pretty well, 
were able to keep out of their am- 
bushes." 



AUGUST 25, 1923 . 



[FT BID WELL INDIAN 
SCHOOL NOT TO BE ! 
IMPROVED I 

I Only Funds For Maintenance 
' provided: May Get More \ 

In>l925 ^ 

WASHrS^ONTAugnit 25.— (Bee 
iBureau.)— No request^ for funds 
with which to prcMiJde additional 
facilities at the inA^i^^school at 
Fort Bldwell. Modoc County, 18 to 
Ibe made in the budget for the next 
fiscal year. While it is said that 
some of the buildings at that in- 
Istitutlon are antiquated and should 
be replaced with modern structures, 
the administration's policy of strict 
leconomy during the next fiscal year 
iwlll necessitate Fort Bldwell get- 
ting along with what it has. 

The only funds the next congress 
IwlU be asked to provide, it Is said, 
[will be those for maintenance and 
some minor improvements. There 
lis no provision made for replacing 
the school destroyed by f Ire " at 
iGreenvllle, Plumas County, this in- 
Istltution having been abandoned, 
loommlssloner Burke says there is 
no need for more than one such 
school in Superior California, and 
it is understood the one at Fort 
1 Bldwell later will be enlarged, pos^ 
slbly in 1925. 



Qunnioony Utah 
V-lloy NowB 



AUG 3 C 192a 




O SAID '/POOR" INDIAN ? 

rican Indian, who only a few years ago seenried doom- 



Cexcinc 




^^^J^^^^cti^ not only has refused to become e:{ctinct but actually 
una^r the,i|^rable conditions provided by the United States gov- 
ernment, has been able to make increases in his numbers. There 
are about 341.000 of them in thi<^ country at the present, which 
represents an increase of approximately 1 3,000 in ten years. And 
their death rate has been growing smaller year by year. The In- 
dian is no longer poor unless he cares to be. Government statistics 
show a number of them to be immensely rich, due to the fact that 
the lands with which they were endowed by the government have 
yielded oil in tremendous quantities. But even without oil the 
Indian has been able to accumulate and add to property year by 
year. Today they own $35,000,000 worth of live stock, including 
more than one million sheep, 250.000 head of cattle and about the 
same number of horses and mules.' So, thinking it over, isn't i^ 
about time we ceased referring to Ixim as the *poor Indian? 



SEPTEWBCR G, 1923 



OTECTS OF SCHOOLING 

ON INDIANS TO BE 

SURVEYED 



Bureau Of Indian Affairs To 
Trace Success After Leav- 
\ ingL Sdiools 





By LEO AT^aQlATC] 

WASHINGlW. Septemljfer 6.- 
|(Bee Bureau) — A survey to Ji^arn 
^hat happens t^ Indian fffk^ffssitter 
ttending and graduating J^m gov- 
ernment schools is being made by 
:he bureau of Indian affairs. The 
[uestlon In which the bureau is par- 
[tlcularly interested is: "Do they 
•eturn to their reservations and go 
>ack into a seml-clvilized state?" 
Figures so far obtained, it was 
lannounced at the bureau, show that 
]91 per cent of these former student* 
jbecome self-supporting. Only 650 
Irecords have been examined to date. 
lOf this number, fifty-nine Indians 
returned to their homes, married, 
are supporting their families, and 
have "accumulated savings. Only 
forty-five are shiftless and depend- 
ent upon relatives for support, the 
jremalning 546 nj^Js+rfg a living for 
themselves 

The bmj^^u plans to examine the 
record^^f as many as possible of 
the lifalans now living on reserva- 
i\o^ who have completed the eight 
^de of school 



-^1*55 



sii :. 0, 1C23 




AMERICANS 



^Aa/ Insliiulion at Riverside i$ Doing to Set Feet of 
Indian Youth on White Mans Road 

bCrA 




Eigrht hunA'ea'^A.inerlcan Indians are assembled near Riverside. 
On Magnolia af enu^^alppray to Corona, the young braves and mai.dens 
have gathered fpffm t!my-flve tribes of all of the Western States. In 
this gathering there is no note of war or massacre. Descendants of 
former chiefs and tribesmen have cast aside the tomahawk and scalp- 
ing knife for the mechanic's hammer and the plow, while the maidens 
have left behind their dye pots and wampum beads, bringing instead 
lip sticks and powder puffs. It is a gathering of the modern Indian— 
the opening of the school year at Sherman Institute. 

Last Tuesday was opening day, ] man's ways and who enter into 



but all during the' week students 
arrived at the school. Many came 
from distant places, from far back 
on the plains and high in the 
mountains, while others returned 
from vacations spent in communi- 
ties near Riverside or with their 
people on the reservation. It is a 
^Ppy. good-looking, Wealthy group 
^ boys and girls, young men and 
men, who have seen the ad- 
^ages of accepting, the white 



their daily tasks with marked en- 
thusiasm. 

The enrollment this year will 
reach the capacity of the school 
and all of the resources of the big 
Institution will be strained to give 
the eager students an opportunity 
to advance as far as p|ossible along 
the way of education and industrial 
draining. The school is a busy 
place and while text books are 
given prominence in the young 
tribesmen's daily duties, the prac- 
tical side Is by no means 'over- 
looked. Mixed with algebra, geome- 
try, botany and physics is a liberal 
sprinkling of agriculture, the 
trades, nursing, dressmaking and 
domestic science. It is the wish of 
the government to send these 
young men and women away from 
the school fully equipped to meet 
the world and not onHy to provide 
a living for themselves but to fur- 
nish an inspiration to other mem- 
bers of their tribes to gain an 
education and enter into competi- 
tion in all lines with their white 
brothers. 

GOVERNMENT SCHOOIJ 

Sherman Institute Is under the 
direct contror of the United States 
Bureau of Indian Affairs and was 
established in its present location 
in 1902. Prior to that year the 

school was located at Ferris in «.iici sxxzo irum me Mission, ±iopi. 
Riverside county and was known Papago, Digger, Piute, Mojave. 
as the Perns School. During the Pomo and many other tribes 
time that James Schoolcraft Sher- " 
man, who was later Vice-President 



ing is spent in the classroom and 
the next devoted to practical train- 
ing. 

Students are admitted to the 
school upon the recommendation of 
two responsible citizens and the 
signed permission of the parent. 
There is no incUnation to force the 
pupils into the institution and they 
can leave any time they desire, 
providing those under age comply 
with the school laws and attend 
some kind of an educational in- 
stitution after going home. When 
a boy or girl has been accepted by 
the school his transportation is 
paid, and from the time he enters 
the Institution all expenses, in- 
cluding clothing, are assumed by 
the government. During working 
and school hours many of the stu- 
dents wear clothing they have 
earned themselves or had sent from 
home. There is no regulation uni- 
form ruling enforced except on 
Sundays and other *'dress-up" oc- 
casions when all, boht boys and 
girls, appearn in neat and attrac- 
tive clothing designed by the school 
authorities. The boys wear military 
uniforms of blue and the girls white 
middies and skirts. On inspection 
and parade both boys and girls ap- 
pear, and a rivalry exists as to 
which *'army'» presents the best 
military appearance. 

IN PERFECT FREEDOM 

Out of class and work hours a 
perfect freedom exists among the 
students and it is seldom that any 
of the young Indians take advant- 
age of the confidence placed in 
them. They are a self-governed as 
well as a nearly self-supporting 
group. It is claimed that this 
feeling of independence is one of ' 
the big things taught at the school 
and one reason why Indian school 
graduates enter more rapidly into 
life's activities than do students 
from other schools. 

The last annual report prepared 
by the school authorities for the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
shows that the Navajo tribe has 
the largest representation at the 
school. They are followed by boys 
and girls from the Mission, Hopl, 



of the United States, was in Con- 
gress he secured an appropriation 
of $75,000 to start the present 
school. The first money was voted 
[in 1900, forty acres of land was 
purchased and building was almost 
immediately commenced. Nine 
buildings made up the original 
plant. Since that time the insti- 
cution has been enlarged so that 
there are now more than fifty 

rami of a lott acrea* with all nec- 
essary structures three miles from 
loL^^i^''''^'. ^"^ addition to this the 

of ten ^nH^7^^ ""^"y «^^" ^'-acts 
or ten and t.wenty acres near the 

main buildings, which are used by 
fL® .agriculture department in 
teaching modern farming, dairying 
and tree culture at the same time 
providing much food for the stu- 
dents and teaching staff. 

Frank M. Conser. who has spent 
practically all of his life in the 
Indian service, is superintendent. 
tie has a staff of sixty-seven teach- 
ers and other employees who have 
charge of the wide range of ac- 
tivities of the school. The academic 
department is under the direction 
of Burton L. Smith, who has a 
corps of fifteen teachers, who de- 
vote all of their time to class-room 
work. 

Placed in a typical California 
setting, with wide and beautiful 
lawns, winding roads and walks, 
spreading palms and gorgeous 
flower beds, the school gives forth 
a three-fold effect of a Spanish 
village, a military post and a uni- 
versity. All of the buildings are 
of Spanish architecture, the ar- 
rangements of the dormitories sug- 
gests the soldiers* barracks, which. 



Every year students come to the 
school who have never lived in a 
house in their lives and who have 
never even thought of bath tubs, 
table manners and kitchen ranges. 
Education of many who come to 
Sherman begins with the most pri- 
mary instruction and leads through 
the entire routine, including two 
years of high school work. The 
student body includes children 
from 8 years to husky lads of 20. 
an(J the same is practically true of 
all the classes. The advancement 
of a pupil cannot be gauged by his 
a^. because of the lack of early 
training in many cases. A boy or 
girl who is 16 years of age and a 
new arrival at the school may be 
placed in schoolroom classes with 
tots of 8 and 9. The pure de- 
mocracy of the institution over- 
looks this detail, however, and 
there is nowhere a line of distinc- 
tion drawn because of backward- 
ness due to early home life. 

The teachers, too. must meet 
many conditions not known to the 
ordinary school and are not suc- 
cessful unless they learn many of 
the Indian ways and customs and 
appeal to the youths in a manner 
which they understand and which 
would have little appeal to a -boy or 
girl of white parentage. The ques- 
tion of names is another thing full 
of troubles. When Miss Stevens 
teaching the sixth grade, met her 
class for the first time Tuesday she 
was introduced to Nora Dugalclesh, 
Barbara Komyyownenu. Trin Lehi 
Vezzie. Grace Nesatoyonewa 
Zulma Shengoctewa Norma Zei^hJ 

wn« A-^^i^'t ,°^h«rs. Present also 
was Adolph James. George Rearns 
and Charley McCabe, showing the 
LS^vT^S fixture of tribal nlmel 

combined with an educationa'i Tf SpInL^^ 

atsmophere, brings to the fore ^^^^^^'^ and English association. 



thoughts of college life. 
NO TIME I/OST 

On the opening day last Tuesday 
no time was lost in the routine of 
organization. These Indian boys 
and girls seem 'to realize more fully 
the purpose for which they came 
to school than do many white stu- 
dents in various places of learning. 
The daily program was at once put 
into operation and the first 
cJ^aases of the morning were at- 
d by practically every stu- 
pssigned to them. Two as- 
hes were held on the opening 
At the first the morning 
group were assigned their tasks 
and in the afternoon all who had 
not been placed in the morning 
were sent to their proper class- 

,*^K 71^^ ^^ *^® school is accom- 
pushed by two -divisions.- whl?h 
allows for carrying into effect thS 

ST ^ ""^'i ^ ^^^ '^ ^^^ool and 
half a day at a useful trade. In 
this manner the students J^^ 
theory with practice and of?in 
learn much more in two or thr!« 
years than Is possible under an 
other system in a period «i,..^; 
times as long. Stude^ s who if 
tend school Monday mornfr^^ ^^" 
^age in work Tuesday Sorn nf ^"i 
come to school again Tuesjav ^?.> 
_--oon_So_th^^ 



AGE RANGE T^TDDE 

Students come to Sherman at 
any age and may remain until they 
are 21 years of age. They attend 
school until they have finished the 
second grade of high school and 

ihffl: '/ iJ"^^ ^^^*^« ^^ continue 
their studies, are taken by automo- 
bile to the school at Riverside, 
where they complete their high 
school course. 

Added to the school work every 
student is taught a useful trade, the 
kind of work being chosen by the 
student. To the boys is offered 
an opportunity of being farmers, 
boiler makers, engineers, tailors, 
shoe and harness makers, printers, 
mechanical engineers, carpenters, 
brick masons, plasterers and sev- 
eral other trades. The girls have 
courses in nursing and various lines 
of domestic science. Supplement- 
ing their school training the stu- 
dents go out to work during the 
summer vacation period, if they so 
placed to their credit at the school 
bank, providing them with a fund 
to start life when they leave the 
institution. 

School life at the Institute Is 
filled with the many diversions al- 
lowed scholars in the public 
school and the community life 
makes possible many advantages 
the boys and girls outside are de- 
nied. Students have a first-class 
band and archestra, well organized 
and trained athletic teams of both 
sexes, literary societies, church and 
Sunday-school organizations, and 



boys and girls, young men and 
^men, who have seen the ad- 
Lasres of accepting, the white 



which 'army** presents the best 
military appearance. 

IN PERFECT FREEDOM 

Out of class and work hours a 
perfect freedom exists among the 
students and it is seldom that any 

^ rn^^K. of the young Indians take advant- 
,nt to send tnes ^^ ^^^ confidence placed in 

d women away irom mv^ spif.^ov*.rnPd n<? 



given prominence in the young 
tribesmen's daily duties, the prac- 
tical side is by no means over- 
looked. Mixed with algebra, geome- 
try, botany and ph>'sics is a liberal 
sprinkling of agriculture. tne 
trades, nursing, dressmakm.g ana 
domestic science. It is the wisn oi 
the government to send tnese 



young men an^* ».- - . 

the school fully equipped to meet 
the world and not only to Provide 
a living for themselves but to tur- 



them. They are a self-governed as 
well as a nearly self-supporting 
group. It is claimed that this 
teeling of independence is one of 



nish an inspiration to f^^^J^rJ^"' the hig things taught at the school 

hpr« nf their tribes to gam *i* \ ,,^a nne rPAsnn wV»v Tn/llon a^hnnl 



Ibers of their tribes -- _ 
education and enter into conipeti- 
tion in all lines with their white 
brothers. 



and one reason why Indian school 
graduates enter more rapidly into 
life's activities than do students 
from other schools. 

The last annual report prepared 
by the school authorities for the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
shows that the Navajo tribe has 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOL 

I Sherman Institute is ^^^^%.^}l% 
direct controf of the United States 

Bureau of Indian Affairs ana ^j- largest representation at the 

established in ^^^ present location p^^ followed by boys 

lin 1902. Pnor to that year tn^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^y^ ^^^ Mission. Hopi. 

school was lo^f^^^„/\,4s known Papago, Digger, Piute, Mojave. 
Riverside county and ^^^^j^^^^e ' Porno and many other tribes, 
as the Perns f^^^^;^^^* jt^^^^^^^ j^very year students come to the 

^n. Who i\^Tat!f V?ce!pres1^^^ 1 school ^who ^haye ne,e, U..a in a 



Illclll, WJIV7 »ic*w. n^n^ 

of the United States, was m Con- 
trress he secured an appropriation 
of $75,000 to start the present 
school. The first money was voted 
lin 1900, forty acres of land was 
purchased and buildmg was almost 
immediately commenced. Nine 
buildings made up *^^,^°^\^7,t 
plants Since that time the insti- 
tion has been enlarged so tnat 
there are now more than ntty 
build.i»«a. on the main tract and a 
TrzTTn of a Tmr- acres -with all nec- 
essary structures three miles from 
the school. In addition to this the 
school controls many small tracts 
of ten and Uwenty acres near the 
main buildings, which are used by 
the agriculture department in 
teaching modern farming, dairying 
and tree culture at the same tiqie 
providing much food for the stu- 
dents and teaching staff. , 

Frank M. Conser, who has spent 
practically all of his life in the 
Indian service, is superintendent. 
He has a staff of sixty-seven teach- 
ers and other employees who have 
charge of the wide range of ac- 
tivities of the school. The academic 
department is under the direction 
of Burton I* Smith, who has a 
corps of fifteen teachers, who de- 
vote all of their time to class-room 
work. 

Placed In a typical California 
setting, with wide and beautiful 
lawns, winding roads and walks, 
spreading palms and gorgeous 
fiower beds, the school gives forth 
a three-fold effect of a Spanish 
village, a military post and a uni- 
versity. All of the buildings are 
of Spanish architecture, the ar- 
rangements of the dormitories sug- 
i gests the soldiers' barracks, which, 
' combined with an educational 
atsmophere, brings to the fore 
thoughts of college life. 



I 



NO TIME LOST 

On the opening day last Tuesday 
no time was lost in the routine of 
organization. These Indian boys 
and girls seem 'to realize more fully 
the purpose for which they came 
to school than do many white stu- 
dents in various places of learning. 
The daily program was at once put 
into operation and the first 
cl^ilBes of the morning were at- 
d by practically every stu- 
assigned to them. Two as- 
lies were held on the opening 
At the first the morning 
l:roup were assigned their tasks 
and in the afternoon all who had 
not been placed in the morning 
were sent to their proper class* 
rooms. 

All work at the school Is accom- 
plished by two ''divisions," which 
allows for carrying into effect th© 
system of half a day in school and 
half a day at a useful trade. In 
this manner the students mix 
theory with practice and often 
learn much more in two or thre6 
years than is possible under an- 
other system in a period several 



house in their lives and who have 
never even thought of bath tubs, 
table manners and kitchen ranges. 
Education of many who come to 
Sherman begins with the most pri- 
mary instruction and leads through 
the entire routine, including two 
yeats of high school work. The 
student body includes children 
from 8 years to husky lads of 20. 
and the same is practically true of 
all the classes. The advancement 
of h pupil cannot be gauged by his 
a0^. because of the lack of early 
training in many cases. A boy or 
girl who is 16 years of age and a 
new arrival at the school may be 
placed in schoolroom classes with 
tots of 8 and 9. The pure de- 
mocracy of the institution over- 
looks this detail, however, and 
there is nowhere a line of distinc- 
tion drawn because of backward- 
ness due to early home life. 

The teachers, too. must meet 
many conditions not known to the 
ordinary school and are not suc- 
cessful unless they learn many of 
the Indian ways and customs and 
appeal to the youths in a manner 
which they understand and which 
would have little appeal to a 'boy or 
girl of white parentage. The ques- 
tion of names is another thin^ full 
of troubles. When Miss Stevens, 
teaching the sixth grade, met her 
class for the first time Tuesday she 
was introduced to Nora Dugalclesh, 
Barbara Komyyownenu. Trin Lehl 
Vezzle, Grace Nesatoyonewa. 
Zulma Shengoctewa Norma Zelch- 
nahda. and others. Present also 
was Adolph James, George Reams 
and Charley McCabe, showing the 
strange mixture of tribal names 
with those showing the influences 
of Spanish and English association. 

AGE RANGE WIDIE, 

Students come to Sherman at 
any age and may remain until they I 
are 21 years of age. They attend 
school until they have finished the 
second grade of high school and 
then, if they desire to continue 
their studies, are taken by automo- 
bile to the school at Riverside, 
where they complete their high 
school course. 

Added to the school work every 
student is taught a useful trade, the 
kind of work being chosen by the 
student. To the boys is offered 
an opportunity of being farmers, 
boiler makers, engineers, tailors, 
shoe and harness rjiakers, printers, 
mechanical engineers, carpenters, 
brick masons, plasterers and sev- 
eral other trades. The girls have 
courses in nursing and various lines 
of domestic science. Supplement- 
ing their school training the stu- 
dents go out to work during the 
summer vacation period, if they so 
placed to their credit at the school 
bank, providing them with a fund 
to start life when they leave the 
institution. 

School life at the Institute is 



times as long. Students who at- I filled with the many diversions al- 
tend school Monday morning en- 1 lowed scholars in the public 
gage in work Tuesday morning andJ school and the community life 
come to school again Tuesday aftyf makes possible many advantages 
ernoon. So that one day the morr'J the boys and girls outside are de- 
nied. Students have a first-class 
band and archestra, well organized 
and trained athletic teams of both 
sexes, literary societies, church and 
Sunday-school organizations, and 
many clu'bs and societies growing 
out of their daily work. Each year 
a class play is presented by mem- 
bers of the senior class and the 
young printers turn out a beautiful 
school annual. In the assembly 
room, where a fully equipped stage 
is maintained for dramatic and 
literary entertainments, a set of 
scenery painted by a Hopi boy 
student is the best piece of equip- 
desire. and the money earned is 
ment on the stage. In the rooms 
of the teacher's clubhouse a num- 
ber of Navajo rugs are a tribute 
to the skill of many of the girl 
residents of the school. 

The average day's work com- 
prises a series of events from 5:30 
in the morning until 9:30 at nigbt. 
The saying that the '*devll finds 
work for Idle hands to do" Is ac- 
cepted as a literal truth at Sher- 
man, so that each day Is so filled 
with its own cares and duties that 
little time is left for anything but 
the established routine. With It 
all there Is a spirit of willingness 
and sincerity seldom nc"'^^ among 
a group of young peop'_ ^P le most 
pleasant relations \y^ji^^n stu- 
dent and teachers arfpu^j Intained, 
so that for years afws^ ' ' boy or 
girl leaves the schoo' H^/ retains 
his interest in the lns» Amnion and 
makes reports at stated times, so 
that the management may have an 
idea just what the school has ac- 
complished. The good they have 
done is reflected in every Western 
State where there is an Indian co 
munity. 









FOBTl N A. CATv, ADVANCE 

SEPTEMBER U, 1923 












I, SAT.T TAKR rrATT. THIDUNB 
SEPTEMBER 11, 1923 



•~ «»»>-■■» I ♦- ' 



'Iedxj 



DXXCATION OF INBIAKa 



Poor Lo did not take kindly to 
the plan of the governinelil| to edu- 
I ^^*t^ the Indfan chifdren v^^ it was 
first ppoposea. hj^^sijs fthe In- 
dian parenf/^aliaPfhe benefits of 
education a^^O)unitive methjKls to 
obtain their consent are j^^r longer 
necessary. Ten years ago it wtw 
necessary in many cases for the In- 
dian agents and superintendents to 
use every sort of moral suasion and 
in some instances troops of cavalry 
were sent to reservations to compel 
Indian parents to make thieir chil- 
dren attend the schools provided 
for them. In other instajices buildings 
under the course of construction by 
the government for school purposes 
on reservations were dismantled by 
the Indians before completion and 
the lumber concealed in remote 
places. So etilightcned to the advan- 
tages of education have the older 
as well as the modern Indians be- 
come now that they assist in. the 
building of now schools and apply to 
have tlieir children enrolled volun- 
tarily on practically all the reserva- 
tions scattered through the western 
states. Responsibility for this 
change in the attitude of the Indians 
toward education is due to a syste- 
matic campaign conducted by the 
miseionaries, superintendents, agents 
and other Indian employees. 

The present-day problem of the 
bureau of Indian affairs of the de- 
partment of the interior is to provide 
sufficient facilities to accommodate 
the increasing number of applicants 
at government schools. The ca- 
pacity of these schools has therefore 
been enlarged for the new pupils. 
The Haskell institute' at Lawrence, 
Kansas, will accommodate 800 in- 
stead of 750 this year; the capacity 
of Sherman school at Riverside, 
California, has been raised from 750 
to 800; the Phoenix Indian school 
at Phoenix, Arizona, will enroll 800 
instead of 750; and the Santa Fe 
school at Santa Fe, New Mexico, will 
h^ve a capacity of 450 instead of 
400. Salem school, at Salem, Oregon, 
will accommodate 750 instead of 600 
students. ^ 

It is highly probable that the next 
generation of Indians will be unani- 
mously in favor of the education of 
thoir offspring and that the latter 
will cast asidef their aboriginal 
habits and ideas and adopt civilized 
metho<ls of doing things. The Indian 
is no longer a menace to the welfare 
of the United States, thanks to the 
government -schools. 



BISHOP. CAT.. HVItALD 

SEPTEWBEP 12, 19^3 



Indian Troubles 



f^ 



/ 



y 



The action of the p-ustees of 
the Big Pine Grammar School 
last week in reftwing to admit 
Indian children imo the public 
schools there, when the Gov- 
ernment has an Indian school 
in that district, meets with 
nearly unanimous approval 
throughout Owens Valley. The 
trouble is that the Indians are 
being mislead by their repre- 
sentatives like Mr. Collett, and 
the sooner they find it out the 
better they will be off. The 
Indians in Owens Valley are 
well treated, but if they persist 
in such actions as characterized 
them at Big Pine they will 
soon lose their standing 
throughout this Valley. 

The Indian Soared of Co- 
operation, if they really want 
to help the Indians, can do^no 
greater service to them than 
to get rid of Mr. Collett. 



•■;:•■'«,'• 



EUREKA. CAti TIMES 

6teT£MBErt 12, 1ii^3 



100 




DMMiNG iMiry 




ISH AND GAME 
TOIiD CUSTOM 
ILIi BE BHOKKN. 



At TSst nigj^^^^ieetlng of the Hum- 
boldt Fish arid Game Association 
action was taken towards taking a 
count o fthe number of fishermen 
who visit the famous fishing pools 
on lower Eel River, for use al the 
coming hearing of the Eel River 
water diversion. 

The sum of $18.00 was raised a- 
mong the members present at the 
meeting, to be added lo the Mrs. 
J. L. Brown, Times subscription 
fund. 

The association will advertise 
throughout the county papers tlie 
reward of $250 offered at its last 
meeting, for the arrest and convict- 
on of any one caught hunting deer 
with a spot light. . . 

Word was received from the In- 

lian field service of the department 

of agriculture at W^ashington arid 

from J. B. Mortsolf superintendent 

|of the Hoopa reservation, assuring 

he Humboldt Fi.sh and Game as- 

ociation measures would be taken 

his year to prevent the indians on 

ihe reservation from completely dam- 

ing the Trinity River with a fish 

am. This will eliminate a prac- 

ce carried on ))y the Hoopa in- 

ians for ages past. 



pis 



"^iflH 



. FIRSI CONVENTION 



Hldian auxiliary delegates repre- 
>-iitlng Distiict No. 1, comprising 
Uie countWr of Humboldt, Del Norte 
i nd the Somes Bar and Forks of the 
Salmon of Siskiyou county, concluded 
II three-day conclave in Eureka Tuch- 
<^iAy, where they had assembled to dis- 
fuss problems pertaining to the In- 
dians in this section. Although this 
;^ the Iir«t convention of this nature, 
to be held they are to be held annual- f 
)y in the future. 

Permanent officers of the organi- 
sation who were elected at the final 
cKsion were: President, Benjamin 
^Vilder of Orleans; vice president, F 
V Parker of Oarbervilie; secretary! 
^ »len Norris of Renua, ana treasurer, 
nrn Scott of Blue Lake. 

The next school district meeting; 
v'ill be held some time during the 
tnonth of September, 1924, in ^]ureka. 
H is expected that the next session 
vnn bring: hundreds of the Indian 
representatives to the city. The in- 
?^ngural f^esslon this year was atten'' 
f 't by thirty-five delegates. At the 
s^Mon next year instead of beim- 
represented by delegates it is the 
P^an to have all members of the dis- 
tiict attend the onference. 

At the time of the next convention 
a larre Indian fair induding native 
Indian dancer; in rare ceremonial cos- 
tumes, the Indian stick games and 
otl-er interesting events of the Indian 
life will be presented. Proceeds of 
the fair will be used for the benefit 
of the aged blind and orphan Indian 
children. 

Among the sneakers who addressed 
the gathering was. Attorney S. E 
Metzler of Eureka, who spoke on 
"The Past, Present and Future of the 
Indian Race." Frederick G. Collett, 
T>ecutive Representative of the In- 
dians from San Francisco, who has 
been in attendance throughout the 
(■' nvention presented an address dur- 
ing the afternoon, durinp; which he 
l^scussed various problems confront- 
'rp: Talifornia Indians of today. 

A. motion was carried during the 
invention to make a count of tho 
'^'dians in Di-triot No. 1, it bein^ 
lield bv those in attendance th.at no, 
c^ficlal count had been made recently 
Three committoemen to bo appointed 
]>y F. Pt. Piollett will tour the entire 
('^strict in makine the count. When 
fomn^eted the roll will be submitted 
to Congress for its official adoption. 






:-::>U5 



: nmnrnntRPwHtElH^ ' 



SALT rAirr?. ttah tflegbam 

SL£PTEMBtR 13, 1923 



j{j. S. Indian Policy Declared G)mplete Bungle 

Scores Political Expediency 




By HARV€^ HA^^^^CK. 

'In the past IC^^rs there has 
never been a treaty entered into 
between the United States govern- 
ment and the Indians of the coun- 
try that has been kept. In my 
opinion there has never been a 
definite policy outlined by our gov- 
ernment to give the 'red man* Juat 
treatment." ^ 

That was the indictment Dr. 
George Wharton James, member of 
the committee of 100 selected by 
Secretary of the Interior Work to 
investigate Indian affairs, vice 
president and si>ecial representative 
of the Indian board of corporations 
and author, placed against the de- 
partment of the Interior for its al- 
leged bungling policy in handling 
Indian affairs, in an interview here 
today. r>r. James is the author of 
many books on Indian life, and 
during his stay here is residing 
with Hugh E. Smith at 549 South 
Thirteenth East atreet. 

Bfecause of his life's experience 
With the Indians, Dr. James was 
selected on the committee to in- 
vestigate Indian affairs for the 
government. During his sojourns 
into the land of the "red man" for 
the past forty-two years he has 
been made a member of forty-three 
different tribes and is one of the 
four men who have ever been al- 
lowed an audience in the secret re- 
ligious meetings of the Indians. 

POLITICAL EXPEDIENCY. . 

In his discussion of Indian affairs 
Dr. James condemns the depart- 
ment of the interior and its past 
policy of opportunism. "Whatever 
has satisfied political expediency in 
Indian affairs lias been adopted, 
sometimes without investigation or 
understanding," he said. 

"The Indians have not been 
treated justly," he continued. "Even 
in our histories it is impudent to 
rail Custer's last fight a massacre. 
The Indiaas were fighting for their 
homes, their property and their 
children. Wl>at did the 'white man' 
do when Germany threatened the 



country and homes of the other 
nations? 

"Let charity begin at home," he 
declared. "We are sending relief 
to Russians and to Europeans, but 
we are hardly giving any notice to 
the condition of the Indians in our 
own country. Yet in the past hun- 
dred years they have suffered ma- 
terially, physically and spiritually. 
In a sense they have been the foot- 
ball of political parties." 

Dr. James rails the administra- 
tion of Indian affairs under the 
leadership of Charles H. Bur' 
commissioner of Indian affairs un- 
der the department of hiterior. 

SCORES COMMISSIONER. 

"He does not understand the In- 
dian. He was placed in office for 
political reasons and not because 
he was an authority on Indian af- 
fairs. That is the most damnable 
policy that ever existed. The In- 
dian policy must be taken out of 
politics. The man selected for the 
position of commissioner of Indian 
affairs should know the Indians 
and the men holding office In 
Washington ehould be able to iden- 
tify an Indian from a Hottento;, 
which, I fear, several do not know 
now." 

"Two glaring examples of mis- 
management of the Indians oc- 
curred recently," Dr. James said, 
"and one. ihe Old Posey trouble, is 
very near to Utahns. The other 
practically caused the resignation 
of Secretary' of Interior Fall und 
was over the squatters fight In 
New Mexico." 

As Dr. James explains, there are 
thirty t?ibes of Pueblo Indians in 
New Mexico which owe their 
rights to Almiglity*God, and those 
rights for land were recognized by 
the Spaniards, Mexicans and 
United States in turn, but there 
have been many breaches of faith 
by the white people. It has been 
proved, he says, that attorneys for 
Secretary Fall and attorneys for 
the squatters who took Indian land 



had prepared a bill and had it in- 
troduced by Senator Bursam of 
New Mexico which made it easy 
for the squatters to settle on In- 
dian land. 

Dr. James Is in Utah to assist 
an interested group of citizens or- 
ganize to help the Indians. It is 
headed by Mrs. N. A- Dunyon. Dr. 
James will speak at the Exchange 
club tomorrow and at a special 
meeting Sunday evening at tl 
Congregational church on Fo] 

ast and First South streei 



SfcPT.EM3£R 13i 1^23 



(INDIAN FISH DAM WILL 

BE BARRED IN KLAMATH 



LEK^, 

ecrtn 



"EURBK^, Sept. 13.— Word has been 
receiveafrom the Indian field ser- 
vice of the Department of Agriculture 
at Washington, and from J. B. Mort- 
solf, superintendent of the Hloopa res- 
lervation, assuring the Humboldt Fish 
and Game Association that measures 
would be taken this year to prevent 
the Indians on the reservation from 
completely damming the Trinity riv- 
er with a fish dam. This will elimi- 
|. nate a practice carried on by the 
Hoopa Indians for ages past. 



ISAT.T T-ATCr,. rrATT. TRIDUNE 
SEPTEMBER 14; 1923 



m IS MADE 

FOR m, 

Dr. CjWPJartes Says 
Poor Lo Is Not Under- 




stood a 



t>^yWashington. 



-^ "Not a treat3'' entered into between 
the rnited States groveinment and the 
Indians during the past 100 years has 
been kept," Dr. George Wharton 
James of Pasadena, Calif., member of 
the committee of 100 selected by Sec- 
retary of the Interior Work, said yes- 
terday. "Let charity beprin at home. 
We are sending relief to Russians , id 
Kuropeans, yet the Indians have been 
suffering here materiaHy, physically 
;and spiritually." 

I>r. James is a guest at the home 
of Hugh R. Smith, 549 Thirteenth 
Ka?t street, while in Salt Lake. The 
noted visitor will speak at the Kx- 
change club at noon today, at the 
Hotel rtah and at the First Congre- 
gation?\l church, Fourth East and 
First South strets. Sunday evenin?. 

"It is impudent for our histories to 
call the last fight of Custer a ma.sf5a- 
cre." Dr. James continued. "The In- 
dians at that time were fighting fnr 
their homes, their property and their 
children. What did the 'white man' 
do when Germany threatened the 
coiintry and homes of other nations? 
Charles Fl, Burke, commissioner of 
Indian affairs, doe« not understand 
the Indian. He was place-d in office 
for polltic.nl reasons and not because 
he was an authority on Indian affairs. 
That is the most damnable policy that 
ever existed. The Indian must he 
taken out of politics. Men selected 
for the i>osition of Indian commis- 
sioner should know the Indians and 
th'^ men holding officr in Washington, 
D. C, should be able to identify an 
Indian from a Hottentot, which, I fear, 
several are not capable of doing." 












:-'':s:m 












8VT.T T vrr. rTAU tflegua.m 

* ^ErT£MBE::R 14, 1323 

P«rff Treatment 
Asked for Indian 



3~Cy u 
in the haiK 



Presenting TTftj pUjf for ^e eradi 

cation of pol)%i^ in the handling of 

Indian, affairs in the United States, 

Dr. George \yharton ^F^mes, noted 

author and an authorit^^fn Indian 

questions, told members of the Ex- 
Ichange club today that the Indians 
of the country had not been accord- 
led just treatment in the past be- 
Icause men in office at Washington 
Idid not understand the Indian situ- 
lation. 

"It has bef'n easy for squatters to 
locate on the lands of the Indians 
|with the easy attitude that lias been 

a ken by the commissioner of Indian 
affairs in the past," Dr. James aaid. 
"The Indians need to have fairer 

rentment and the only w^y they 
ill get it is to have someone in the 
|:>ffice at Washington who under- 

;tands the situation and not some- 
hne placed in by political pairon- 



HSC 



SEPTEMB&R 1G, 1^^3 




TDK PiniN HAS VISION 

OF popuLoos proiiD m 

m BILL IH UP PER 

Nwdlda Solon Would Open Land and Give Market 
. to Indians; Tells of Plans for Summer 
-> Homes and Resorts at Beauty Spot ^ ' ^i 




A Pyramid lake lined with at least 
:hree hotels that would offer befitting 
)ointfl of vantage from which to gaze 

lout upon its startling^ rare beauties; 

Ih'undreds of cottages for halcyon sum- 

Imering by work and worry-weary 

[citizens of Reno and neighboring 

Iciti'es. ^ 

How is that for a plan? Well, no 

lless a body than the United States 
senate is going to hear all about itj 
at the very next term, as Senatcjr 
Key Pittman, just back from severil 
gloriously carefree days at the lake, 

I will present a bill in an effort to make 
it all possible through opening tlie 



land that now is an Indian reservaw* 
tion. 
Senator Pittman so announcecl on 

* 

his return. ^ 

Aid ttf Indians^ 

The Indians? Well, and well again! 
That's the best part of the plan. If 
congress favors the biU, Which i» 
necessary on account of the IndiQ^n 
reservation features before palefaces 
may enter upon the lake, the senator 
believes it will be a godsend to the In* 
dians. 

Why? The Indians will have a con* 
venient place to sell, and the exclusivei 
right to sell, fish taken from Pyramid 
lake. In other words, their market 
will be moved about 40 n^iles clos^r.^ 
Again, the hotels and the cottages^^ 
would offer tempting markets for*' 
sale by the Indians of garden truck 
and other products. Indiana ,cc^ul4lin<l* 
employment as guides. 

•'Thousands of tourists pass to the 
north and south of the lake without 
even knowing it is there," said Sen - 
ator Pittman. "It would attract them 
I from all the way to Twin Falls, if 
they knew where it was. There'should 
be at least three big tourist hotels 
on the lake, as well as small pleasure 
l»oats to take them all the way around 

it." * m 

Once the fishiing resources of ih^ 
lake are known sportsmen will be at- 
tracted from thousands of miles, as 
distance is nothing to the real sports- 
man of this kind, he said. 

The form ot the bill is to be deter- 
mined aftfer conferring with officials 
of the Indian department. 

Senator Pittman said that In order 
to get such a bill through congress It 
will be necessary to have the full co- 
operation and support of the citizens 
of the whole state of Nevada. 
In endeavoring to picture his Im- 
1^ l.ressions of the lake— which he haa 
' just' seen for^fthe first time—he saia 
the coloring "of the mountains which 
cup it are astounding, changing like 
the kaleidoscope before the eyes, while 
the geological formations are "thlni 
nt extreme interest." 






Sj 



PYRAID AS 
A SUMMER 
RESORT 



Senator Pithnan Says Bill 
Should Pass Permitting 
SachaPlam # ^ 

INDIANS WOULD 3 J^ 

BE BENEFITTED 

Many Tourists and Local Peo- 
ple Would Enoy the Vaca- 
tion Resorts. 



According; to the ideas of Senator 
Key Pittm:.m, there is no reason why 
Pyramid Lake should not be a summer 
reaprt of the finest kind. Jle spent a 
few days at the lake last week and has 
returned with this idea firmly embed- 
ded in his mind. He visions the day 
when at least three resort hotels and 
several cottages will dot the shores of 
the lake and give an opportunity for 
the tourist to become acquainted with 
this magniilcent body of water, as well 
as give the people of this section of the 
State a resort grounds close at home. 
Congress must take some action on 
the ilea of the Senator's as the lake 
is within the Pyramid reservation and 
it will be necessary to have the land 
throvrn opeu for entry before any white 
i maij can acquire title to*\he property. 
The Senator believes that it would 
be a splendid thlr.g for the reservation 
Indians as it would give them ready 
and uceesslMe markets for their fish 
; and garden truck. wouM provide them 
steady employment as guides. 

Tourists would be attracted to the 
spot as soon as they heard of the won- 
derful fishing that abounds, and wero 
made aware of the remarkable scenery 
.-hat is to be viewed. Only a shcut dis- 
tance from this city, with roads that 
can be improved to a wonderful extent 
it would make an attractive resort, 
^e Senator will take UJ) the matter 
ndian Deparmeilt and th 
LeasiixTneef^B^^^^^^^' 



V V'\ 



w^^^ 



:v'"^. 






f'^^^m- 



W] 



■^^ 












I'/'L!*'^'* 



^^SisSi 



.CTOri^TON. CAL. cNP^rENDENT 



TKR^Xn CAT,. BlCW-lff 

SEPTEMDEFt 20, 1923 




nsurance Aids Indian Tots 



ves Jump From Rags To Rich 



(Kern Co.), Sept. 
try ^Scott, 14 year old 

'eldon girl, and her younger 

brothers^Villi^. aged 13, and 

Jerry. aged/T\^yrfe probably the 
wealthiest IndJifT children in Kern 
County. These three tads were left 
orphans several years ago through 
the death of their white father and 
I half -Indian mother, and so became 
dependent soieJy upon kind friends 
in the mountain region where they 
[made their home. 

Mp^nyyikHe. Jim Skinner, half- 
brother of Mary, Jerry and Willie, 
[had enlisted in the United States 
Army and had died of influenza at 
Camp Lewis. He had taken $10,000 
of war risk insurance, naming his 
own full sister as beneficiary. But 
the si&ter had died, leaving as next 
|kln her husband and a small baby. 

Surely, thought friends of the 
orphan childre;^^ B'fother Jim's In- 
Isurance shoftitti be diverted to the 
care ot^m little Scotts, but when 
^^ej^^nsulted lawyers they were 
toiiH that the money w 



es 



Jim's siafer's husband instead. How- 
ever, a little research on the part 
of welfare workers in Bakersfield 
brought to light the fact that the 
next of kin of the dead soldier had 
very valid claims, indeed, on the 
110,000, and so, by sending affidav- 
its as to the relationship to Wash- 
ington, the money was secured for 
the Scott children. 

To be sure the fund, paid in 
monthly installments of $57.50, does 
not amouilt to a great deal, but it 
is sufficient to feed and clothe the 
children and send them to school by 
dint of careful managing. Mrs. 
Jennie E. Sornberger, county wel- 
fare commissioner, is executrix of 
the estate and guardian of the chil- 
dren. At the rate of payment it is 
estimated that the $10^000 will carry 
them on for nearly a dozen years 
longer, or until they are all of age 
and able to care for themselves. 

Mary entered high school as a 
freshman this year, and is chum- 
ming with Elydia Vasquez, the first 
Tejon Indian girl to come to Ken 



SHINGTON POST: F 



President Honors Girl 
After Plea for Indians 



All appeal for govornnieiit 
help through more schools in 
Irading the Indians of America 
*'back to their rightful heiitage 
of nobility and greatness/' was 
presented to President Coolidgc 
with such force and clarity yes- 
teiHlay by IMiss Ruth Muskrat, a 
Cherokee Indian girl, now a 
student at Mount Holyoke col- 
lege, that the chief executive in- 
vited her to take lunch with him 
and Mrs. Coolidge. 

The Indian girl made her ap^ 
peal in the course of presenta- 
tion to the President of the 
members of the Department of 
the Interior's advisory commit- 
tee on Indian affairs. 



iHLiiss warn 

m URGED FOR INDIANS 

Should Have as Good Train- 
ing as White, Committee 
of One Hundred Says. 

DANCING RULES APPROVED 



A comprehensive program ^^^^""H^^ 
for dealing with problems ii«^cting 
the Indian wards of the government 

was included in the r^/«^^H''''Lv''\w 
mittce's report adopted y^'^^^^^^^J J"/ 
the advisory committee of 100 on In- 
dian altairs. the semiofftciaT body 
named by the Secretary of the In- 
terior. The resolutions touched on 
health, education, land leases and In- 
dian dances., ♦;„«. 
The committee urged the grautinR 
1)V Congress of appropriations for 
education sufficient to secire, through 
larr-ely increased salaries, .eai^hers o£ 
highest ability and training:, compe- 
tent to achieve the mighty task com- 
mitted to their care." Establishment 
of public school systems on rci-'erva- 
tions equal to those of t^« ^^Jj^^^^ 
schools and encouragenient of reli- 
gion among the tribes also v-'as recom- 
mended. -" , A-U « 

The committee commended the gen- 
eral purpose and spirit of various 
orders of the Indian commissioner on 
dances. The orders were interpreted 
by members of the committee as dls- 
'couraging only those undesirable 
dances which might be considered in- 
jurious to morals or otherwise, such 
as the "giveaway" dance, which often 
leads to the giving away of the in- 
dividual's most valuable possession. 

A resolution was introduced and 
referred to a committee requesting 
the bureau of Indian affairs to *'avoid 
discouraging or suppressing Indian 
ceremonies and dances, except such 
ceremonies that may be proved clearly 
immoral or contrary to statute after 
a thorough, fair and competent inves- 
tigation." The resolution described 
various orders of the bureau on the 
subject as ambit^uous. 

Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott, retired, 
one of the two committee chairmen, 
in a paper which was referred to Sec- 
retary Work, favored a reorganiza- 
tion of the Indian bureau *'by friends] 
from within Just as the American 
army was reorganized after the Span- 
ist war" in order to give the Indian 
commi^ssioner a freer hand in admin- 
istration matters. 



u 



cou^iDE^ ?5i '^^^ 



a^ Lp JUSTICE TO INDIANS 

^e av^age citizen probably thinks of the, 
Ameri^anlndian cither as the treacherous Red- 
skin of pioneer days or^as a remote and mystic 
Hiawatha communing with such bits of nature- 
as are available to him. That too few white! 
citizens of this country think of the Indian as a 
present, living, race, facing a good many mod- 
ern problems, is attested in the neglect these 
native Americans have suffered in recent years. 
Agitation in behalf of the Indian has begun, 
however, and should continue until it is certain 
that he is receiving just and generous treatment 
from his white brothers. If it is true that his 
health has been neglected, that* his educational 
facilities are inadequate, that he is being un- 
justly deprived of his lands and of his proper 



means of subsistence, then all these thingsj 
should be righted as swiftly as possible. 

A committee appointed last April 
tary of the Interior Work has now completed its 
investigation and report. It urges that thc| 
American Indians throughout the United States 
be given opportunity to develop like the rest 
of our people. A menJier of the committee 

says: ^ 

'*The problem before u.s f^ to make as 
rapidly as possible the average American 
Indian citizen educationally as well equipped 
and as self-reliant and self-sufficient as the 
average citizen of any other racial descent. 
"The taking from the Indian by conquest 
and fraud land and finally liberty is the great 
wrong we must right. It would be a policy 
of selfish enlightenment to salvage this 
quarter of a million of human near-wreckage 
and thus enrich our citizenship." 
Taking politics out of Indian affairs, enabling 
the Indians to maintain their unique customs 
while fitting them to make their own way suc- 
cessfully in our present civilization, recognizing 
|the valuable contribution they have made and 
can make to our national life, and treating theni 
as able and intelligent beings are some of t 
remedies to be applied to the present situatjon. 



Cj) lirvi 



m'^o (A^tcdLf'nJ^ cltffin^S (VclfHc^^ek^ 



^A^ 




/12W - /^?:2.^ /i.cl. 



rf^ 



COT.rSA. CAT... HERALD 
JANUARY 8, 1924 



ND CIVES IN BEFORE IT'S 

'S LAW TOO 
FOR IT: OIICLE SUM PUSSES BUCK 







•I- 



SUPERVISORS CAN'T GIVE Al 
WHO CAN?— FAIR FIELD WITH- 
IN LONG GUNSHOT OF COLUSA 
FOF FOREIGN MISSION EN- 
DEAVOR—A LOUD, WAIL OF 
APPEAL. 



^^, Sixty Indians of all sizes and 
i^apes are clamoring up at Cachil 
Dehe for help. They want a road.' 
They thought a while back they had 
one coming, but the white man's cold, 
unfeeling law j intervened. Mrs. 
Laughlin, Indian-school teacher, went 
before the board of supervisors some 
time ago, as Herald readers will re- 
call, and the county fathers heard 
with interest the plight of the red 
brethren, and promised to do all they 
could. They then asked District At- 
torney Albery to look into the books 
and see what they could do. He 
found they can do nothing. They 
can't contribute money for a road 
that is not a county road. They can 
make a county road only to serve the 
citizens of California. And the In- 
dians are not citizens. There you are. 
So, also, there are the Indians, six- 
ty or more of them, back in a bend 
of the river, marooned in the mud, 
sunken in the slush, with no road to 
get out to buy food, no way to get in 
if they did get out. Here Is work 
for the uplifters. These^ Indians are 
positively in need of fi road and near- 



nSables needing milk^ but no milk. A 
score of strong men who would work 
— some — but no way to get out from 
their secluded river bend. A goodly 
number of weighty, strong Indian 
girls who could fade a washing ma- 
chine to the va^ishing point or peel 
potatoes with the delicacy of a rhin- 
ocerous plowing up the greensward. 
Good workers, all. And work re- 
moved from them six months* jour- 
ney because of a bottomless road. 

What can we do for the Indians? 
The Herald will make a suggestion. 

i 

If the county is prohibited from build- 
ing them 51 road, why can't the people 
of the county raise the money? Pos- 
sibly not. Anyhow, this paper will 
start a subscription with ten trillion 
marks raised to the steenth power or 
$20 in federal reserve notes. If any 
noble uplifters will join in, ' come 
quickly before we change our minds. 
The road will cost 1700 dollars. By 
coaxing the S. P. railroad to put in 
a crossing, that sum would be cut 
down a third. There ought to be three 
or four hundred people who would 
chip in fifty to five dollars. What 
say you? 

The Indians will do the work. No 
doubt the county would sell the 
gravel monstrously cheap. What say? 

No? Let 'em stick in the mud? 
But they are our human brothers and 
we took their wild, free country. Why 
not build them a road and invite 
them down to Colusa to the Town 
Hall for a meeting where we can ex- 
change oratorical outbursts with 
them? We could teach them thrift, 



pools of oil, and became intensely 
rich, thus sharpening the white man's 
wits not a little in forcing him to de- 
vise new schemes to rob them, was 
not the government's fault. It was explain the fundamentalists-modern- 
merely another case of a government *»* controversy to them and civilize 
not getting the results it expected. j t^^em, teaching them to work or learn 
But to get back to Cachil Dehe, jto "^e respectably without work, 
road or no road. The Indians might | They need culture, they need some 
lay in a big supply of food in the ; «>ws, they need new bearings in 
fall and not come out any more till ^ nearly all of their automobiles, they 
summer. That would be one solution. ; need contact with the great, white 
As aforesaid, they are not good trad- : world. 

ers. Frugality has never been able I Uncle Sam has been appealed to 
to navigate that road into the Indian 'or that road. Listen to him: "Surely 
village. The Indians are not political the county is at fault for not properly 
economists. They probably do not draining the land and providing bet- 
know the difference between the ter roads," etc. Again: "Certainly 
j works of Adam Smith and the big t^e people of a small district like 
! tales of Capt. John Pocahontas Smith, that of Colusa should not expect the 
I Lalssez fairs is all Chinese to them, government to build or maintain, its 
but Jit a country fair they shine. Se- local roads or to drain its ponds." 
riously, they are infants. No amount ' 0« course not' The government 
of teaching In the ways of Anglo-Sax- ; only collects three billions a year in ' 
on thrift would find any lodging place 'taxes. We shouldn't expect anything. 
in their cocoanuts. They know when ' But the Indian is a government 
they are hungry, wet, cold, covered ' Problem. Which is neither here nor 
with mud. As to "foregoing a pres- there, the fact being that the Indians 
ent gratification for a future greater need a road and suffer really severe- 
one," they are as lacking as a com- ly without one. 

munist. Children of the stone age, ■ Meantime, any old clothes^ good or 
here they are in the bright glare of indifferent, or any good food that 
a civilization that keeps the best of will keep till it can be carried on In- 
us stepping lively. Prom a life of '''an shoulders into Cachil Dehe, are 
leisure and grasshoppers, they werei wanted. Leave your contributions at 
dragged headlong into a social and! the Jacobson furniture store and get 
economic state which the pale faces |yo"'" '"eward in heaven, 
have been building slowly, toilsome- 
ly, since Noah planted a vineyard and 
remembered what he planted it for. 
What are we going to do about it? 
Nothing? Oh, let's. There are hun- 
dreds of millions of pagans we'll have 
to work on some day to fulfil the 
prophecies, so why not practice up on 



.w^ J.V S31Q *°«\^„3waod 









Subscription pf 
In Colu sa Cqj 

mntj ., 



'ficeal 

'herald 



,> . .v 



lapuo^ 



lCE plan 1 Cachil Dehe? There never was a fair- 

„ , ^ T^ , , ~ I er field, or closer. Sixty Indians, 

Edward Bok's $100,000 peace plan -n^-^ 

-M^^naw i^^ady for discussion . Yo?*^^^^^ ^^^ small, but no cow. Fifteen 
)doJd siu^ -8^^^^^^' pr^ p^^ uu'^Hov..oo needing milk, but no milk. A 

score of strong men who would work 
— some — but no way to get out from 
their secluded river bend. A goodly 
number of weighty, strong Indian 
girls who could fade a washing ma- 
chine to the vanishing point or peel 
potatoes with the delicacy of a rhin- 
ocerous plowing up the greensward. 
Good workers, all. And work re- 
moved from them six months' jour- 
ney because of a bottomless road. 

What can we do for the Indians? 
The Herald will make a suggestion. 
If the county is prohibited from build- 
ing them a road, why can't the people 
o? the county raise the money? Pos- 
sibly not. Anyhow, this paper will 
start a subscription with ten trillion 
marks raised to the steenth power or 
$20 in federal reserve notes. If any 
noble uplifters will join in, come 
quickly before we change our minds. 
The road will cost 1700 dollars. By 
coaxing the S. P. railroad to put in 
a crossing, that sum would be cut 
down a third. There ought to be three 
or four hundred people who would 
chip in fifty to five dollars. What 
say you? 

The Indians will do the work. No 
doubt the county would sell the 
gravel monstrously cheap. What say? 

No? Let 'em stick in the mud? 
But they are our human brothers and 
we took their wild, free country. Why 
not build them a road and invite 



(Contiart^^rom Page 1) 

ly everything that could be hauled 
over a road. They have about an 
acre of land each, which the great 
white father back at Washington, 
which is about a million miles from 
them, gave them in exchange for the 
rest of the Sacramento valley. It 
may be said as we go along that In- 
dians are not very good traders. 
Some of them swapped the island of 
Manhattan for $30 worth of beads. 
William Penn traded them a couple 
of horse blankets for Pennsylvania. 
When the early Dutch settlers of 
New York weighed their furs, on bal- 
ance scales, the rule was that a 
Dutchman's hand weighed one pound 
and his foot two pounds. The good 
I government found a lot of Indians en- 
joying themselves down in Florida 
where some pale faces wanted a fu- 
ture golf course and a place to put 
Palm Beach and bundled up the 
tribes and shipped them in cattle 
cars to the last place on earth, the 
cyclone district of Oklahoma. Anchor- 
ing them to the barren plains, so the 
wind wouldn't blow them away be- 
fore the herders left, Uncle ^am's 
agents felt relieved of their burdens 
and hastened back to the banks of 
the Potomac. The fact, that years 
afterward the Oklahoma Indians 
found themselves living over vast 

[pools of oil. and became intensely t^em down to Colusa to the Town 
j±ch. thus sharpening the white man's H^ll for a meeting wher« we can ex- 
wits not a little in forcing him to de- change oratorical outbursts with 

^ ^, „« them? We could teach them thrift, 

vise new schemes to rob them, was "'^"' , . . ^ 

.. 4^ If Tf wo« explain the fundamentalists-modern- 
not the government's fault. It was ^ ^^ ^ . .,. 

p o.^.r^vT,r>.oTit ist controversy to them and civilize 
merely another case of a government -^ 

,, ., .A them, teaching them to work or learn 

not getting the results it expected. . ^^^™' '^'"^ ^ 

^ ^.t T>. 1, to live respectably without work. 
But to get back to Cachil Dehe, . ^^ iive i«^y« j 

^ ^. 1 V,* Thev need culture, they need some 

road or no road. Th« Indians might i ^ ney neeu j 

^ ^ J • *i,^'cows, they need new bearings m 
lay in a big supply of food in the /^^«' ^ ^ . , . v.-i « fv,o^ 

, ..„ nearly all of their automobiles, they 

fall and not come out any more till neany cu , ^,, 

r.. . ^A u o^i,,f,-r^n ' Hccd coutact wlth the great, white 

summer. That would be one solution. ^ "^ 

As aforesaid, they are not good trad- | world. ' '^ , , . 

^ ,1 1 Uncle Sam has been appealed to 

ers Frugality has never been able [ ^^^'^ ''^'" . «« , 

l,ers. rrus J i.Hi.n for that road. Listen to him: "Surely 

to navigate that road into the Indian 

^ ,.f. 1 the county is at fault for not properly 
village. The Indians are not political ^^^ cuuut^r la 

K Ki ^^ „^^ draining the land and providing bet- 
economists. They probably do not"^** ^ «n^.foi„w 

+!,« ter roads," etc. Again: "Certainly 

1 know the difference between the ^er lu , „ ^. , , x ,.v^ 

, ^ ^t, v the neople of a small district like 

works of Adam Smith and the big ^^^ P^^^'^ " ^ 

i „ ^ , c ',u that of Colusa should not expect the 

tales of Capt. John Pocahontas Smith. ^^^^ "^ ^" . . , ** 

laies ui v.ay ffovemment to build or maintain, its 

1 Laissez faire is all Chinese to them, government 10 ^^ 

i . X. . fi. ov,,-,,^ Qo local roads or to dram its ponds, 

but kt a country fair they shine. Se- ^"^**^ \ . 

^^^ * Of course not.* The government 

only collects three billions a year in 

taxes. We shouldn't expect anything. 

But the Indian is a government 

in tueii ^^v...«xav*.o. ^^w —>-■• ~'~! ,^ Which is neither here nor 

they are hungry, wet, cold, covered proDiem. ^ Tr,^?or.a 

. there the fact being that the Indians 

with mud. As to "foregoing a pres- ^^^^e, me laci „ ^ 

. . , need a road and suffer really severe- 

ent gratification for a future greater ^^ea a rodu ^ 

one," they are as lacking as a com- ly without one. 

, . Mpantime any old clothes, good or 

munist. Children of the stone age, Meantime, any , 

• fho bright o^iarP of indifferent, or any good food that 
here they are m the bright glare oi , . , x 

li a civilization that keeps the best of -i" keep till it can he earned on In- 
us stepping lively. From a life of, <^ian shoulders into Cachil Dehe, are 

XV, ^^^^i wanted. Leave your contributions at 
leisure and grasshoppers, they werel wanteu. x.c y 

. , 1 1 the Jacobson furniture store and get 
dragged headlong into a social andl^^^ jciluus^uu 

« Ivour reward in heaven 
economic state which the pale faces |y Q^^ ^^^^' 

have been building slowly, toilsome- 
ly, since Noah planted a vineyard and 
remembered what he planted it for. 
What are we going to do about it? 
Nothing? Oh, let's. There are hun- 
dreds of millions of pagans we'll have 
to work on some day to fulfil the 
prophecies, so why not practice up oa 



riously, they are infants. No amount 
i of teaching in the ways of Anglo-Sax- 
on thrift would find any lodging place 
in their cocoanuts. They know when 



.^x* 










- 'r^ ■ 


i 








1 





•%v/:;.^i'T;;"::^^ 






'■ ^' 



.'■■'''.'■■',.: i.'*. 






c,toccton:, cal. record. 4^ 

JANUARY 10, 1924 



# PAINIS AI 




Tuolumne Supei vlsorsAct 

In Unison; No Aia 

for Indians 



r» 



r.'^^^ONOnA OFFICE STOCKTON 
'-^Vr.ECORD, Jan. 10.— The practice 
of admitting pay patients to tlie 
. <'ounty hospital, a privilege which 
.v.»aias been a part of the policy of 
'r'the institution for several years, 
— Vas discontinued by the nnani- 
r:">nous vote of the board of super- 
"-A'isors Tuesday. It is understood 
T. Ihatc the matter had been under 
. consideration by the board for 
^,6om«' time, though the first sug- 
-^ Rostion of the possibility of such 
gicti';n reached the public through 
l-3:he ijoent report of J. B. Miller to 
^he grand jury, who experted the 
.rtn:t^oolcs and records of the county, 
Tin which he expressed the opinion 
that the county had no legal right 
. to conduct the hospital as a busi- 
r«-J<^ess- institution. 

TV li>the matter of the application 
of William Fuller. Indian chief, 
for a donation from the county to 
help defray the expenses of the 
« California Indians in their effort 
.-to obtain from the federal govern - 
•-'inont an adjudication of their 
iM,?hts under an old treaty, Dis- 
"frict Attorney Rowan Hardin ex- 
rressed the opinion that the board 
hid no legal right to devote county 
J incli to such a purpose. The 
boara took i^o action in the mat- 




kVV. 



Lot Ansrel«^«% Ccl., Tymei 



dE CUT MADE 
IN LAND OFFICES 

AboUshiug of Score Urged in 
Committee Report 

Consolidation of Jobs Asked 
in Fourteen. Others 

Total of $35,80(f0^hQiffped 
Off Appropriation 















TBY A. P. NIGHT WIRE! 

WASHINGTON, Jan. 9. — Abol- 
ishment of twenty-one land offices 
and consolidation of the offices of 
register and receiver in fourteen 
others are proposed in the Interior 

Department appropriation bill re- 
ported today by the House Appro- 
priations Committee. 

The bill, first of the annual sup- 
ply measures to reach the House, 
carries $261,727,965, approximately 
$35,800,000 less than the total ap- 
propriated for the current fiscal 



the unexpended balance of the ap- 



year and $10,300,000 less than the Propriation for the current fiscal 
^ „!:^,-L.<^„^ i^ u.,^^«* ^«f!_ year is reappropriated. 



amount requested in budget esti- 
mates. 

Land offices which would go out 
of existence July 1 under the bill 
Included those at Lamar and Ster- 
ling, Colo.; Lewiston, Idaho; Great 
Falls and Kalispell, Mont., Elko, 
Nev.; Clayton, N. M.; Vancouver 
and Yakima, Wash. 

MANY UNWAimANTKD 

The committee declared that the 
amount of business done at these 
ofiices did not justify their main- 
tenance. 

The offices of register and re- 
ceiver would be consolidated * at 
the folV^wing points: 

Eureka and Sacramento, Cal,; 
Denver, Colo.; Hailey and Black- 
foot, Idaho; Boseman, Mont.; Las 
Cruces, Roswell and Forth Sum- 
ner, N. M.; and Burns, La Grande 
and Vale, Or. 

Various projects would share in 
the appropriation for tlie coming 
fiscal year as follows: 

Salt River, Arizona, $5000, Tuma. 
Arizona-California, $765,000; Or- 
land, Cal., $40,000; Boise, Idaho, 
$1,080,000; King Hill, Idaho, $40,- 
000; Minidoka, Idaho, $380,000; 
luntley. Montana, $150.00Q; Milk { 
TTverrivrohTaila, $ oTI^ , 00; 5uh KiT- 
er, Montana, $150,000. 

Lower Yellowstone, Montana- 
North Dakota, $95,000; North 
Platte, Nebraska -Wyoming, 
$1,450,000; Newlands, Nevada, 
$155,000; Carlsbad, New Mexico, 
$50,000; Rio Grande, New Mexico- 
Texas, $706,000; Umatilla, Oregon, 
$940,000; Klamath, Oregon-Cali- 
fornia, $695,000; Okanogan, Wash- 
ington, $70,000; Yakima, Washing- 
ton, $720,000; Riverton, Wyoming, 
$650,000; Shoshone, Wyoming, 
$475,000; secondary projects, $50,- 
000; Colorado River investigation, 
$25,000. 

ITKMS IN BIMj 

Items carried in bill include: 

Army and navy pensions, $222,- 
500,000. 

Patent Office, $2,808,800. 

Bureau of Indian Affairs, $2,185,- 
800. 

Geological Survey, $1,643,760. 

Bureau of Mines, $1,890,700. 

National Park Service, $1,747,- 
036. 

Bureau of Education, $702,380. 

Maintenance and operation of the 
Alaskan Railroad, $1,000,000. 

For reclamation projects in the 
West the bill carries a total of 
$9,946,000, or $2,304,000 less than 
was allotted for expenditure dur- 
ing the current fiscal year. 

APPROPRLVTION CUT 

The appropriations for the Mini- 
doka project were cut by elimina- 
tion by the committee of new con- 
struction work for the American 
Falls reservoir. The allotnu^nt for 
Newlands was cut by elimina- 
tion of new construction on the 
proposed Spanish Springs reser- 
voir, in accordance with the rec- 
ommendation of the reclamation 
service. 

*'''*»• the Baker project in Oregon 




Of the amount allotted the 
dianAgyjfii-3ureau, $l,534,tl5o is 
for irrigation and drainage proj- 
ects. The allotments for the Flat- 
head, Fort Peck and Blackfeet 
reservations In Montana are $305,- 
000 below the budget estimates, 
and $560,000 below current law. 
T'he reduction was recommended 
on account of the "limited use as 
yet being made by the Indians o\ 
tliese irrigation projects.'* 



CAJ 

drivel 



■ ' - •I'cgmt 



BtCTJ rAKB. eAT... Al>TOCATir 

rEBRUABY 16, 1924 



MORTSOLF 
TRANSFERRED 
FROM HOOPA 

OQ TO 



^v / 



HE AND FAMILY WILJLi 

THJB WARM SPRINGS 
INDIAN AGENCY 



FIRST CAME HERE IN 1 908 



His Successor Is C. W. Rastall o^ 

Warm Spring, Ore., Who 

Takes Charge of New 

P<xst Immediately 



It is learned that Jesse B. Mort- 
solf, for the past 13 years superin- 
tendent of the Hoopa Indian Reser- 
vation, with additional sub-stations 
at Requa and along the Klamath 
river, has been transferred to the 
superintendency of Warm Springs 
Indian Reservation, about 60 miles 
south of The Dalles in Oregon, and 
will take over his new responsibili- 
ties as soon as his bonds and other 
papers are received from Washing- 
on. He changes places with Mr. 
C. W. Rastall of Warm Springs, 
who with his wife will move to 
Humboldt County in a few days, 
and take over the Hoopa Reser- 
vation and other adjacent terri- 
tory. 

The new location will give Mr. 
Mortsolf about 2000 wards, about 
the same as Hoopa, and in addition 
he will have a sub-station at Burns, 
some 200 mlies distant. Mr. Mort- 
solf will be accompanied north by 
his wife and son, Keith, who has 
been attending high school in Eu- 
reka, the elder son, Kenneth, being 
a student at Stanford in his second 
year. 

Mr. Mortsolf has been in charge 
at Hoopa for 13 years in all, his 
first charge being from 1908 to 
1912, when he was transferred to 
Carson City, Nevada. He returned 
to Humboldt in 1915, remaining 
until the present time. The gentle- 
man leaves many friends who re- 
gret his departure, and it is hoped 
that his successor will continue the 
work started by Mr. Mortsolf to do 
something for the aged Indians of 
the lower Mad River section. 

Many important changes have 
come about in the Hoopa section 
during the incumbency of Mr. Mort- 
solf, the most important being road 
building. When he took charge, 
the only way to reacli tiie reserva- 
tion by wagon was by way of Wil- 
low Creek over a long and steep 
road. In 1916 the connections 
with Bairs on Redwood was made, 
cutting off 12 miles and making 
the trip from this place about four 
hours long, the old way taking a 
day or more. 

In 1919 another important piece 
of road work was started by the 
Federal government, which was the 
closing of the gap between Hoopa 
and Weitchpec. This road was 
opened last fall for light traffic 
and will be put in first class shape 
this year, the government appro- 
priating $8000 and Humboldt 
$5000 for the purpose. In addi- 
tion, the county has appropriated 
$25,000 to build a bridge over the 
Klamath River at Weitchpec, Pad- 
gett & Kelly having the contract. 

Another big step in advance 
will be the rebuilding of the road 
from Hoopa to Willow Creek, the 
county having budgeted $30,000 
for this purpose. The terrific cork- 
screw curve will be eliminated and 
the 12-niile stretch will be put in 
first class condition. Through the 
efforts of Mr. Mortsolf, $50,000 
worth of Hercules dynamite has 
been secui'ed at cost, which will be 
used by the contractor, effecting a 
large saving. 

Other improvements made dur- 
ing the incumbency of Mr. Mort- 
solf include the building of a tele- 
phone line from Blue Lake to 
Hoopa, and from Hoopa to Weitch- 
pec and down the Klamath River 
to Johnsons. 

Improvements at Hoopa includ- 
ed the installation of an electric 
light plant with 150 lights, a new 
hospital costing $15,000, a new 
school building, $16,000; bakery, 
$2,000; boys' dormitory, $15,000; 
remodeling the girls* dormitory, 
$7,000, and ice plant, water and 
sewer system costing $10,000. 

Mr. Mortsolf is turning over a 
fine plant to his successor and the 
best wishes of his friends in this 
{northern section go with the fam- 



■ If IH\l««ilildi1 



FROM HOOPA 



"^^ ^/ /;. "N 



HE AND FA3fII.Y WILGL <^ to 

THE WARM SPRINGS 

INDIAN AGENCY 



FIRST GUME HERE IN 1 908 



His Succe^or Is C. W. RastaU o< 

Warm Spring, Ore., Who 

Takes Cliarg^e of New 

Poet Innnediat-ely 






It is learned that Jesse B. Mort- 
solf, for the past 13 years superin- 
tendent of the Hoopa Indian Reser- 
vation, with additional sub-stations 
at Requa and along the Klamath 
river, has been transferred to the 
superintendency of Warm Springs 
Indian Reservation, about 60 miles 
south of The Dalles in Oregon, and 
v/ill take over his new responsibili- 
ties as soon as his bonds and other 
papers are received from Washing- 
on. He changes places with Mr. 
C. W. Rastall of Warm Springs, 
who with his wife will move to 
Humboldt County in a few days, 
and take over the Hoopa Reser- 
vation and other adjacent terri- 
tory. 

The new location will give Mr. 
Mortsolf about 2000 wards, about 
the same as Hoopa, and in addition 
he will have a sub-station at Burns, 
some 200 mlies distant. Mr. Mort- 
Isolf will be accompanied north by 
his wife and son, Keith, who has 
been attending high school in Eu- 
reka, the elder son, Kenneth, being 
a student at Stanford in his second 
year. 

Mr. Mortsolf has been in charge 
at Hoopa for 13 years in all, his 
first charge being from 1908 to 
1912, when he was transferred to 
Carson City, Nevada. He returned 
to Humboldt in 1915, remaining 
until the present time. The gentle- 
man leaves many friends who re- 
gret his departure, and it is hoped 
that his successor will continue the 
work started by Mr. Mortsolf to do 
something for the aged Indians of 
the lower Mad River section. 

Many important changes have 
come about in the Hoopa section 
during the incumbency of Mr. Mort- 
solf, the most important being road 
building. When he took charge, 
the only way to reach the reserva- 
tion by wagon was by way of Wil- 
low Creek over a long and steep 
road. In 1916 the connections 
with Bairs on Redwood was made, 
cutting off 12 miles and making 
the trip from this place about four 
hours long, the old way taking a 
day or more. 

In 1919 another important piece 
of road work was started by the 
Federal government, which was the 
closing of the gap between Hoopa 
and Weitchpec. This road was 
opened last fall for light traffic 
and will be put in first class shape 
this year, the government appro- 
priating $8000 and Humboldt 
$5000 for the purpose. In addi- 
tion, the county has appropriated 
$25,000 to build a bridge over the 
Klamath River at Weitchpec, Pad- 
gett & Kelly having the contract. 

Another big step in advance 
will be the rebuilding of the road 
from Hoopa to Willow Creek, the 
county having budgeted $30,000 
for this purpose. The terrific cork- 
screw curve will be eliminated and 
the 12-mile stretch will be put in 
first class condition. Through the 
efforts of Mr. Mortsolf, $50,000 
worth of Hercules dynamite has 
been secui*ed at cost, which will be 
used by the contractor, effecting a 
large saving. 

Other improvements made dur- 
ing the incumbency of Mr. Mort- 
solf include the building of a tele- 
phone line from Blue Lake to 
Hoopa, and from Hoopa to Weitch- 
pec and down the Klamath River 
to Johnsons. 

Improvements at Hoopa includ- 
ed the installation of an electric 
light plant with 150 lights, a new 
hospital costing $15,000, a new 
school building, $16,000; bakery, 
$2,000; boys' dormitory, $15,000; 
remodeling the girls' dormitory, 
$7,000, and ice plant, water and 
sewer system costing $10,000. 

Mr. Mortsolf is turning over a 
fine plant to his succe|980r and the 
best wishes of his friends in this 
northern section go with the fam- 

' ily. 

Dr. Burr P. Cooper, formerly of 
Everton, Arkansas, arrived Satur- 
day to act as agency physician, 
taking the place of Dr. Joseph 
Menefee, who recently filled the 
post temporarily. Dr. Cooper' 
family will arrive here later. 






ra^^s^^t^^tj^ 



Los^ 3CnSfeIe«^ tal.. Timet 

MAIvCii 10, lUJi 



10^924.— rAKT 11. 20 l^AUiiS. 



INDIANS TAKE STEP FORWARD 
Land for Welfare Work Is Dedicated 






|^|^J5^:;:<;:i::::;:;:;.:.v.:.:. 



••••V*; 







Chief Standing Bear Greeting Children 



THE first steps toward maklngr 
Los Angeles the center of a 
widespread campaign for the 
betterment and education of the 
American Indian was taken yester- 
day when g, four-and-a-half-acre 
tract of land in th§ Ella Hills back 
of Lincoln Heights was dedicated 
to Indian welfare work by school 
children and by Chief Standing 
Bear, president of the American 
Indian Progressive Association. 

Thirty-five school children from 
the Fairvew Heights School of In- 
glewood, who contributed part of 

the money used to buy the land, 
were present at the dedication un- 
der the direction of Mrs. Bertha 
Gunnup Hollister and Mrs. Ella 
M. Friend. Chief Standing Bear, 
who is a Sioux Indian, headed a 
delegation of Indians and accepted 
the land in behalf of the Indian 
race. Miss Ida May Adams, of the 
American Welfare L#eague, and 
Mrs. Verna B. Richards of Pasa- 
dena, were among the speakers. 

Some of the uses planned for 
the Innd, according to Thief Stand- 
ing Bear, are the esto'blishment of 
an Indian employment bureau, a 
hospltiil for the sick and an open- 
air theater for the presentation of 
pageants and of historical dramas 
Himilar to the Mission Play. These 
projects will bo sponsored by the 
American Indian Progressive Asso- 
ciation, which, the chief explains, 
is local at present, but will be con- 
verted into a national organiza- 
tion. 

Capital for the purchase of the 
land In the Ella Hills was fur- 
nished largely by an unnamed do- 
nor, but there were several smaller 
contributions. It is the plan of the 
donor, according to those inter- 
ested, to pusli the development o 
the Filla Hills site as a center 
Indian welfare work. 






ta£ 






INDIANS RESENT BEING 

(^U.En "FISH EATERS 

California^ Adi/ins are angered at ^ >» 
the state fish and game commission, ' O 
calling them "fish eaters*' in public- S^ 
ity which has flooded the country. ^ 

Furthermore, the Indians are ired ^ 
at being termed "poor Indians," "sav- 
ages" and the like. * 

The descendents of California's first 
owners point to their high degree of 
! progress, to their farms, to businesses 
and to their ediicational advancement 
as belying the fish and game commis- 
[sion's statements. These Indians want 
better roads, more industries to give 
them work, and more prosperity for 
California. 

The fish and game commission, it 
is said by the Eureka Chamber of 
Commerce, was able to employ a few 
Indians at $7.50 a day and expenses 
to appear against development of the 
Klamath river, but many Indians de- 
siring the development, refused to ac- 
cept the emplojnment. Those who did, 
entered the work merely as a commer- 
cial proposition. 



PRE-:SG. DEMOCRAT 
.April !<?. 1925. 



r — ■ 



J- 



Legislative Notes 

By H ER B E Of W. SLATER 




SAC 



.P^'i- 15. — Governor Richardson 
Last night Senator Handy and myself appeared^ 
before the ways and means committee of the Assem- 
bly m behalf of two measures seeking to provide! 
some means for the aid o^ needy and « k.k Tr.^io>^ ' 
A big delegation of people interested in thig legis- 
lation came from San Francisco. Bakersfield, Los 
Angeles and Riverside and other places and much 
interest was taken in the procedure. There is a 
very general feeling that the federal government is 

fnr fiTf v^^'^^'^'if ^'^^ '^^ ^^^^^ «^ responsibility 

nennUf. r ""'• ^^^^ ^'^'^""^ ^^^^« ^^^^ ^old from 
people familiar with the conditions among the Li- 

orclnlV^I^^'Y^u ^^^'' '''^^^""' ^^ different parts 
of California at the present time. .i 



^ cHR<f,;fcL^^"c;3c^. cat 



r^^- 



■'i'^ 



LSLJXJ-^l 



He Is Entitled to Some of the Relief Which 
^-'^.y We Are Giving 

T^HE Indfans once owned the land of this continent. 
-■- When we took it by conquest or by cheating 
they fought us the best they knew how. But they 
were not nearly -sd competent slaughterers as we, 
and there are but few of them left, and they are all 
perfectly peaceable. There is no more fight left 
in them. 

The Indian Defense Society is of the opinion that 
this remnant of the American Indians should get some 
portion, if not of justice, at least of the charity which 
we have lavished so freely on the unfortunate o\ the 
whole earth. 

It is said that from their own ignorance and our 
neglect multitudes of Indians are going blind from 
trachoma and that their death rate from tuberculosis 
is ten times that of the white race. As wards of the 
Government they are not permitted to fend for them- 
selves. They need competent counsel to defend their 
civil rights in the courts. They need doctors and 
nurses, which they cannot get because of the trifling 
compensation allowed for most laborious work and 
always subordinate to the resident **agent," who may 
be entirely ignorant of the arts of curing or preventing i 
disease. 

We owe it to ourselves not to permit' such things. 
Germs spread by sick Indians are killing some of us. 



SEPT. VJ, Xii^i 



' "■■i-i" 




[iahs Resent 
jBeins Called 
3^"FwK Eaters" 

REK. 



EUREKA, Cal., *Sept. 16.-_^ 
forni^JjjjUans declare ciiey 
not "fish eaters. 



aro 



They emphatically say the 
State Pish and Game 'Commis- 
sion, in terming them such in 
publicity that has flooded the 
state, has insulted them. ThO 
Indians resent bein-g referred to 
as "savages," "the poor Indian," 
and like terms. 

The fact of the matter is, says 
the Eureka chamber of com- 
merce, California Indians every-, 
where arie making: fine success- 
es as farmers, fruit growers, 
'business men and in the arts. 
[iMost Indians own their own 
homes, with all modern conven- 
iences, and the percentage of 
jhome owners is even greater 
jthan among their paleface broth- 
ers. 

♦Many Northern California In- 
r dians are working for the de- 
feat of 'Initiative Number 11, 
which seeks to prevent develop- 
ment of the KlaAath river, *'the 
Muscle Shoals of the West.*' In-fl 
dlans in the territory about the 
Klamath river^ believe developing' 
the river will give work to them 
and thousands of others and 
add to the general prosperity of 
the state. 

How the Indians resent the 
State Pish and Game conrmis- 
tion's propaganda, and view the 
development project, is shown 
by the fo'Ilowing letter written 
by Sherman Roberts, a Klamath 
Indian: 

"I read in the papers a state- 
ment made .hy Mr. Duke, attor- 
|ney for the California Fish and 
Game Commission in their argu- 
ments to prevent the Elekitro Met- 
als company from building -V 
aam on the Klamath river, in 
which he said in part that fish 
v/as practically the sole fc^ 
supply for the Klamath Indians. 
A^ell, I am one of those supposed 
to -be fish eaters. If Mr. Duke 
Has been informed correctly 1 
would not be her^ to write this 
for I,^ with many other Indians! 
ij Haven t had a mess of fish this 
year. 

''The only way we can catcii 

I fish lawfully is with hook and 

|line and as most af us are law- 

' abiding citizens we get hungry 

so have long found another wav 

or making our living. 

"The United States govern- 
ment s'pends thousands of dol- 
lars annually trying to educat- 
us In the ways of our paleface 
brothers. We were given lands 
and many of us have fairly good 
farms, which -grow most any- 
thing ibut there is no market. 

t Jfn *^" ''''' ''i** '•»*« '^"untrv; 
■s still in the ^iids. so r,vhy 

should Othpro trw f„ ^ 

iri»„* •"iners try io prevent the 
Elec ro Metals company fron, 
developing our country, 'we can 
then at least, have ;better roads. 

^ur country needs mortr neo 
t? /I'. ^■^""'^ and theTb.my 

^et the Electro Metals com 

an'furtl' '""f' '^™ '•^^ - "e 

the civihzed world. Perhans 

hen some day. when our great 

toc'k'/"'"""' '"y the dams arc 

"u«e to a mess of fish cookp 
o« an electric plate." 



•*>.-l- 



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SEPTEMBER 15, 1W8 



Highgjyove Justice 

etes Out ^Sentences 





at Sob^ba Ind ian rese rva- 

ymglu was 
Garner's 



Agf iftermath #^lte%fS!rrests 
na/e hj Sheriff Clem^^Jreetrs and 
le 

ion fiesta las 
Le session in 
iourt at highgrove. 

Heston Pierce, held on charge 

t Illegal possession of liquor was 

Ined $100 of which $75 was sus- 

epded, and he was placed under 

:)r:bation with Probation Officer 

W. Mathews for three months. 

Rupert Cbsto, D. W. Nelson and 

B. Rickard were each fined $100 

which amount half was sus- 

ende^d pending good behavior for 

ne year, when found guilty of 

ossession of liquor. 

John Ortega, charged with dis- 

uibing the peace, was sentenced 

o pay $60 fine or spend 60 days 

n jail. This was a similar sen- 

ence to those given J. R. Miguel 

ind Clarence Jackson, also arrest- 

d at Soboba on charge of dis- 

urbing the peace. 

Laytop Dykes of Arlington has 

ot yet been taken into court, and 

is out on bond. 

Ysidro and Margaret Lugo, 
Banning Indians, and Francis 
Chester of Pala, have not yet been 
taken into court. 

Sam Muratore, Corona Ita^an 
who is alleged to have fuL^^hed 
the liquor which the yomns ar- 
rested at vSoboba had in^rneir pos- 
f^ession, will be given ^rhearing in 
ihe Corona justice ct/irt. 



*''-«nA CAL-SANK^BR 



SACRAMEVTO, CALfF- E^C 

NOVEMBER 2 J. J 928 



Native Born Indians 
Classed as Citizens 




All native bom American Indians 
are now citizens of the United States 
and kave the right to vote as such, 
that ri«ht being subject to and some- 
times limited by the laws of the 
•everal states, according to a state- 
ment from the Department of the In- 
terior. 

Up until 1924 citizenship was not 
granted an Indian until he was oon- 
aidered competent or, in other words, 
when he was able to handle his own 
aflaits. In that year Congress passed 
a law which gave ciUzenship to all 
native born Indians. The franchise 
was 80 newly granted that no great 
use was made of it in the election 
of 1924. The election this year is 
the first general election at which 
American Indians will have a fair 
chance at the exercise of the fran- 
chise. 

There are about 340,000 Indians in 
the United States. They are mem- 
bers of 193 tribes and live in every 
atate. Their numbers are greatest in 
Oklahoma, second greatest in Ari- 
zona, third greatest in South Da- 
kota. 



XvJvKMBER 24, 192:} 



-VNION 




REDDING. ^--^^■-^trlX''^^ 
Indians of the »lt ^l**''^^*! Ander- 
here yesterday with ^«°«^,J-/^£r 
son. assemhlyman to J"Jth;\. ^. 

;.r rfd^^V^U to SO - t^e 

^^en^lt^rautho^-Thy confess 
last year. • ^ ^n- 

Indians appear^g ^^"^'Xoo^^^^: 
llams. Likely: H»"y ^^m; Arthur 

Eai;py. their secretary. of_AUura8. 



INDIANS PLAN 
TO PUSH CLAIMS 



Tribesmen Of Modoc, Lassen 

And Shasta Counties 

Hold Conference 

REDDING (Shastji Co.), Nov. 23. 
Twelve prominent Indians of Mo- 
doc, Lassen and Shasta counties 
came to Redding yesterdav to hold 
a conference and to consult Assem- 
blyman Roscoe X Anderson about 
What course to pursue in order to 
PUf^U their claims against the na- 

loi!? «^?^®^^"^^^^ on account of 
JS?^ ^interests they have parted 
with and for which they never re- 
f^lTf ^ the compensation to which 
they hold they are entitled. 

^ u® J?^^^^ delegation was head- 

^m^ ^5^T^^^, ^^^^^ o^ Fall River 
Mills and Jack Dick of Likely. Dick 
made a trip to Washington in 1916 
^» «• delegate for his tribesmen to 
push their claims. Green mado 
s»f>iL>ar trips to Washington in 1920 
and m 1927. and the Indians- 
claims are no nearer adjudication. 

/^*l. 9^?"^ ^* Confab. 

Other Indians who came to the 
conference M'ere Henry Gorge. 
Lookout; Arthur Barnes. Dilio 

^rilf^'Tx^i'*^^'''' Mullen, Hat Creek; 
Fred Wilson, Adin; Andy Jones, 

K.?""!' ^^yi? ^*^«' Glenbum 
A fnJ^^o-^^P^' Alturas; Eldon Steele 
Alturas, and Jimmy George, Look- 
By permission of Chief of Police 
w. ic. Smith, the Indian conference 
was held in the council chamber 
m the city han. 



SAN TRANCrS^JO CHWC^UJLB 

NOVEMBER ^.\ 1928^ 



/ SELF-PRESERVATION FIRST IaW 
1 EVEN OF BUREAUS 

O— __^,^ 

Editor The Chronicle—Sir: It is noted that 'hear- 
ings are being held in this city in relation to t^at- 
ment of California Indians by the Indian Bureau"^ of « 
the Department of the Interior. With great respeVt- J 
for the efforts of a number of our citizens and the 
best of wishes for their success, the writer thinks 
he is safe in predicting that nothing constructive 
will come of their efforts or the hearings. I say 
ifl ^^^^^y ^^^ with over forty years' experience 
with the Indian Bureau. The Indian Bureau does 
not have the well being of the Indians at heart and 
has no intention of doing anything that will even 



itll CVt^XAW- **4v«.»— ,- 






ety out of the Indians— the bureau would have au 
excuse for perpetuating itself in the job of un- 
tangling the snarl which it has made of the affairs 
of the Indians. 

There is nothing new in the facts presented to 
the investigating committee now sitting here. The 
treatment of the Indians by the bureau has been 
and is a disgrace to a civilized country and a com- 
plete story of its activities and its neglect would 
fill volumes. I can only hope and pray that Presi- 
dent Hoover, some time during the course of his ad- 
ministration, may find the time and opportunity to 
give this matter his attention— he will find there a 
Job worthy of his ability— if he does we may hope 
for some reform. MASON D. PRATT. 

San Francisco, Nov. 20, 1928. 






SAW TRANCfSCO CHIW^UCLI 




^^r;sf^TlS^'£y»W -auoq " 



pBtiliito 



^«®J^S U^di OiC-099 



^:^ 



•«nq uo u»oi :i«\ 
Jiuoxxiim^stiT *•«»<* 

9UXOO no "^I t|« Oai| 



look like a step toward converting the Indians from"' 
a condition of helpless wards to good and useful 

tll^^t "^^^^ ^^**^'" ^^^"^* c°"l«l be brought about 
with the funds that are now being wasted by the 

nnScf "f i" ^ generation. But when this Is ac- 
complished there will be no nartlcular use for the 

wil!! i .^^^ '^°^ ^"*end to commit hara-kki. 
However it Is probably also true that even In such 
an event-making good and useful members of soci- 
IZ,!"^ f *^® indians-the bureau would have an 
tanX/^h perpetuating itself In the job of un- 

S tfelnSLT"' "'^'''^ " ^^ "^^^ °' *^« ^"^^" 

fu.l'r^^r! J,^ ?.°**'*"^ "^"^ *" 'he facts presented to 
the investigating committee now sitting here The 

Ind rfn-^' '''' '"^'^"^ ^y *he bureau h^s blen 
and IS a disgrace to a civilized country and a com- 
plete story of its activities and its neglect wovUd 
fill volumes, i can only hope and pray that Pres^ 
dent Hoover, some time during the course of hfsTd 

SrthK Tvr^.""^ *^^ "™« ^^'^ opportun vio 
fob wSh^ f K.''*\^"'""°''-he will find there a 

or soSreform ^ ^"'^~" ""' ^°^^ ^« '""^ ^^P^' 
%»TL f • MASON D. PRATT. 

San Francisco, Nov. 20, 1928. 



V. CAU— wcr^Aio 



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inscription 




Odd things are seen in the news of the day. Side by side 
in the press appear two stories, one telling of the pride of the 
Indians in the success of one in whose veins flows their 
own blood, who is to be inaugurated as vice president next 
week — ^to occupy next to the highest place in the gift of the 
people of this great nation — and another story stating that 
of the 350,000 Indians still living in the land which was all 
theirs until the white man came, many thousands face prac- 
tical starvation. Conditions among California Indians are 
said to be worse than the average. m*-.-— 

Two hundred and fifty thousand of the Indian population 
of the United States are still wards of the government. 

Most of the authorities deplore miscegenation, but here is 
a case that seems to give some support to the opposite doc- 
trine. A man of mixed Indian and white blood sits in the 
seats of the mighty; is the peer of any of his fellow citizens. 
If his good qualities are the result of his white blood, why 
wouldn't it be better to mix the Indian and white races as 
fast and as thoroughly as possible. Why ask the Indian to 
accommodate himself to white civilization, change his racial 
habits of thought and adopt white men's ways, only to 
lose in life's battle, when there is a simpler and surer way? 

If the president should die during the next four years he 
w.ould be succeeded by a man of Indian blood, something 
that would interest the shades of Tecumseh, Pontiac, Sitting 
Bull and Old King Phillip. 



SKIN PIGMENT 

"PiQUmT is not a racial charaeteristie. The same 

veir:^ !^ ''' ^""'^ ^^ '"^ ^•^^ --"«^ blacMed a" 

Charles Sheard, of the Mayo Clinic and Foundation in a 

S r° The"' ™"^^«°- --^ o-^ »>^ the' lo 
scientists. Their work was done with a modified spectro- 
photometer This instrument also is used in induLy Tn 
grading oils, analyzing flour, paints and dyes, and is 
known as a color analyzer. ' 

thr^^"if •f.^'''^^'^' "* •^°^°'' '''^' "'^ estimation of its 
hree attributes: relative luminosity, dominant wave- 
ength and purity. Relative luminosity is brilliance, or 
the amoun of light reflected. Dominant wave-lengt^ is 
hue, the attribute by which a color is classified as reddish 

SneL r/°?- ''""'^*^^^ °^ p""*^ - -'--"o'l: 

minedT' ^'T"'T"' *'' """''"*^ '^^ ^"ich is deter- 
mined how red or how blue a color is 

Drs. Brunsting and Sheard have found that the reason 

thIT' ""'V"" ^^^^ ^""^ '"^''' ^J^'t« >« ^0^ because 
their skin contains pigments of different colors, but be- 
cause It contains different amounts of pigment. Less 

Skins. Therefore, sk.ns of white men reflect more light 
han skins of yellow, red or black men. In other words, 
relative luminosity of dark skins is low. The underlying 
factor in deposition of different amounts of pigment, or 
melanin, ui the skin probably is the amount of exposure 
to sunlight through many generations. 

The presence of much pigment hinders the blood that is 
m the superficial layers of the skin being seen. This is 
an important factor. The investigators have found that 
variation in the amount and character of the superficial 
blood IS of more importance in production of changes in 
color of the skin than is the pigment alone. 



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Col. F. W. HirttichsYleads 
Association Again 



REPORTS STATED 
ENCOURAGING 



Incw Officials Said Men 
of Highest Caliber 



The American Indian Defense 
Association met for luncheon and 
election at the Hotel Maryland 
yesterday. There was a short bus- 
iness meeting, including reports of 
commmittees. 

The following officers were re- 
I elected for the ensuing year; Pres- 
ident, Col. F. W. Hinrichs, Jr.; 
Ivice-president, Miss Ethel Leupp; 
recording secretary, Mrs. Mane H. 
Hinrichs; correspondmg secretary, 
Miss E. V. Rumsey; treasurer, 
Pardee Erdman. 

Washington Reports 
Reports were read from Mr. 
Collier, secretary of the I^^^^" 
Defense Association, who had 
been in touch with Indian at-fairs 
in Washington. These were most 
encouraging. 

Charles T. Rhoads, who has been 
appointed Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, and J. Henry Scattergood 
assistant commmissioner, are ideal 
men for these position, it was 

pointed out. 

In both appointments, the Pres- 
ident resorted to the draft method 
Neither man sought nor wanted 
office, but acce'pted it from a high 
sense of duty, as a call to serv- 
ice in the cause of humanity, lo 
them it will not be a job, but 
an opportunity fcr « worthwile 
work with a human welfare prob- 
lem, it was stated. 

Growing Optimism 

It justifies the growing op- 
timism of friends of the Indian 
that under the leadership o 
President Hoover and Secretar 
Wiibur a new and better day 
dawning for the red man. 



jTUNE 10, 1029 



m STAIN S INDIAN W ARPATH| 

Ukiah Tribe Seeks Metaphorical Scalp of Nurse 
In Formal Resolutions Sent Washington 

xj^kfif^une 9. (Exclusive)— The Indians again are *'on the war- 
path/^ut in 1929 they send letters to the Bureau jjfJajJianAffairs at 
Washington or file suit in the Federal courts instead ot lakiiift bows 
and arrows, scalping knife and tomahawk and skulking through the brush. 
Today the Ukiah tribe of thc*ways of Indian medicine. For years 
Ukiah council of the Brotherhood and vears thev hnvp froofoH f>.n 

of California Indians met here and 
after taking counsel, unanimously 
determined to "go out after the 
scalp" of Mrs. Lucy Keenan, Federal 
Indian nurse for this district. The 
name of the organization that met 
here today may sound like a labor 
union or citified fraternal outfit, but 
their reasons f9r wanting the gov- 
ernment to depose Mrs. Keenan are 
primitive enough. 

Four weeks ago 8-year-old Kath- 
erine Williams, daughter of Chief 
Tall Mountain Williams and Clara 
Williams, died in the Mend^ino 
County Hospital after Tony Met- 
lock, medicine man, and Topsy 
Petit, medicine woman, had treated 
her for tuberculosis. The native 
remedy for this ailment consists oi 
biting the child's throat and arms 
to drive out the evil spirits and 
beating the little girl's body to 
hasten them on their way. 

Tony Metlock and Topsy Petit 
are noted and experienced in t]ie 






and years they have treated the 
Indians here in the orthodox meth- 
od. What if they did fail some- 
times, as in the case of little Kath- 
erine? Surely, the white man's gods 
fail him sometimes and their medi- 
cine men are conquered by death. 
So Tony and Topsy bit the little 
girl's neck as thoroughly as their 
years of experience taught them 
and they bqat her lustily enough to 
drive evil spirits away. She died, of 
course, but perhaps Tony and Top- 
sy didn't begin their biting and 
beating soon enough. 

Mrs. Keenan has the white man'i 
ideas of the way to treat tubercu- 
losis. She thinks a little girl suffer- 
ing from this ailment should be put 
in a sunny hospital and fed miiic 
and eggs and allowed to lie in Dcd. 
When she learned of the treatment 
Tony and Topsy had given little 
Katharine she upbraided them se- 
i^erely. 

The nurse issiyd her ultimatum: 
Henceforth no/children are to be 

treated by medicine men or witch 
women. For grown-ups, yes— for 
children no. They must come to 
^^^. white medicine men who wear 
White collars and make magic with 
little sticks they put in children»s 
mouths and white pellets they make 
them swallow. 

Today the Ukiah Indians as- 
sembled here— hundreds of them— 
heard Stephen Knight, the presi- 

'mS! ?c^e&.^'^^^^^°^' ^^^^^^^« 
"What right had this white 
woman to tell how their "eliildren 
should be cured? Don't white "chil- 
dren die of tuberculosis? Wasn't Ut^ 
tie Katherlne alive while she wa^ 
under the Indian medicine man's 
care? 

"Where did she die. then? 
CASE PROVEN 

"In the white man's hospital. In 
[the Mendocino County Hospital. 

"Then why does the nurse say 

I the white man's way of fighting the 

evil spirits is better than the In- 
Idians?" 

The Indians of the tribe heard 
their leader out. They discussed 
his words. There was no pipe of 
peace, because things aren't done 
like that now. There was no beat- 
ing of tom-toms or ceremonial 
dance. That all belongs to days 
gone by. 

But at the end of the meeting 
Knight presented a resolution to 
them. It was all written out and 
was filled with most interesting 
"whereases" and "therefores" and 
"parties of the first part" and "be 
it resolveds," and the assembly 
adopted It without a dissenting 
I vote. 

OUT FOE SCALP 

The resolution waa directed to 
I Col. L. A. Dorrington, Indian agent 
of Sacramento, and to the director 
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs at 
Washington and It called for the 
dismissal of Mrs. Keenan because 
of her opposition to medicine men 
I and witch doctors. 

The Indian does not ask that the 
white man adopt his medicine men 
I and witch doctors for their babies 
Why, then, should the white man 
I seek to drive away those who have 
cured the Indian babies by the 
remedies that have stood the test 
of generations— that are almc 
identical with those used by thoJ 
great-grandfathers? ^ 



SAN PHANCISCO EXAMIHefl 

I JUNE 10, W» 




Resolution at Ukiah Tribal Meet- 
ing Is Red Men's Answer to 
Charges in Death of Child 



UKIAH, June 9.— Adopting the 

Iparliamentary procedure of the 

■"pale face," hereditary sachems of 

hree tribes of Northern California 

[ndians at a "pow-wow" near here 

today passed a resolution calling for 

the removal from office of Mrs. 

■■-.ucy Keenan, government Indian 

lurse for this district. 

In another resolution, the chief- 
tans, members of the Ukiah Council 
3f the Indian Brotherhood of Call- 
^rnia, scathingly denounced the 
Rev. F. G. Collette. organizer and 
head of the Indian Co-operative 
■bureau. 

Today's "war council," the after- 
lath of a recent Mendocino county 
rand jury Investigation of the 
\^}^ ^^ ^ three-year-old Indian 
!hild. Catherine Williams, was held 
fn the Indian schoolhouse on the 
reservation of the Ukiah tribe. 
It was the Indian's reply to Mrs. 
.eenan's charges that the child's 
leath resulted from neglect and 
treatment by Indian doctors or 
-nediclne men. The grand jury in- 
vestigation, demanded by Mrs, 
Ceenan, absolved the Indian doctors, 
ITony Metock and Topsy Petit, of 
Hny blame for the child's death. 

Stephen Knight, full-blooded In- 
Idlan and college graduate, presided 
lat the meeting which was attended 
bp members of the Ukies, Pomos 
■ind Wylackies tribes. 



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SAN PRANCI9C0 CHRONICLE 

I JUNE 25, 19» 



:3A:^*r'_ 



SAN FMANCISCC EXAMVNCK 

JUNE 11, W» 



Indians Prepare 
$8Mm Suit 

' - T 

UKIAH, June 10.— California In- 
dians are assembling to take the 
first steps in a suit against the 
government for $8,750,000, claimed, 
for 7,000,000 acres awarded them 
by treaties In 1850 and 1851. 

Although the present actual 
value of the lands once awarded the 
Indians and sold by the govern- 
ments to white settlers runs Into 
hundreds of millions, the Indians 
ask only $1.25 an acre In 
recompense. 

The suit will be brought under a 
permit granted by Congress May 
18, 1928, and will be tried before a 
|court of claims, In which the In- 
dians will name two members. 

Eighteen California tribes are af- 
Ifected, and all must register with 
agents appointed by the govern- 
ment. Those coming Into Uklah 
are the Ukiahs, living near here; 
Pomos of Lake County and Potter 
Valley; Wylackles, Nakomis and 
Hewauks of Round Valley, and 
|scattered Indians from the red- 
oods and the sea coast. 



SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE 

JUNE IS, 1929 



U. S. Agent to Hear 
Hoopa Indian Claims 

special Dispatch to The Chronicle. ^> 

EUREKA, June 12.— Claims of Iv^ 
dians at the Hoopa Indian reserva- 
tion, north of Eureka, will be taken 
this week by John H. Anderson, at- 
torney for the United States Indian 
Service. The claims against the gov- 
ernment grew out of unratified 
treaties of 1851-52. 









>;'■■ 






INDIAN GIRLS 
FIGHTING FOR 
TRIBAL HOME 

PROTECTION 



Yurok Club Will Protest 
Changing Klamath Res- 
ervation Boundary 

Having won a sixty-day delay in 
the matter of the Federal Govern- 
ment's proposal to change the 
Hoopa Indian reservation boun- 
daries on the Klamath river in Cali- 
fornia, which they declare will de- 
prive their tribe of their only means 
of livelihood, private and commer- 
cial fishing, the Yurok Indian Club, 
comprising Indian girls in the bay 
district, yesterday outlined their 
protest to be forwarded to Wash- 
ington in an attempt to prevent the 
change. 

Under the terms of the proposed 
boundary changes along the Klam- 
ath, the California initiative act 
of 1924, which created a fish and 
game preserve along the stream, 
will become null and void. Miss May 
Natt, president of the club, said, 
as the stream will come under Fed- 
eral jurisdiction. 

Destruction of Only 
Income Predicted 

This means, she contends, that 
power companies will be allowed to 
locate along the Klamath, to the 
ruin of commercial and private 
fishing, which in turn will mean 
that Indians will be forced to live 
on the charity of the Government. 

Among the high lights of the 
project being drawn by Miss Natt 
and other members of the Yurok 
Indian Club are included the fol- 
lowing points, she said: 

"The cannery at Requa has been 
in operation every year since 1887, 
while about 80 per cent of the peo- 
ple engaged in the fishing industry 
are Indians, who live along the 
river from the mouth to Martin's 
ferry, about fifty miles. 

Money Earned as 
Fishers and Laborers 

"From 50 to 100 per cent of the 
cash income of these Indians Is 
derived from fishing and work in 
the cannery, while the middle-aged 
and older Indians have no other 
source of revenue. 

"During 1916-17 and 18 17,000,000 
eggs were taken at the egg collect- 
ing station on the Klamath. 1926- 
27 and 28 41,000,000 eggs were ob- 
tained. On the Sacramento river, 
during 1916-17 and 18 70,000,000 sal- 
mon eggs were taken. During 1926- 
27 and 28 only 26,000,000. 

"Less than half of the salmon eggs 
obtained from the Klamath river 
during the past ten years have been 
planted in this river. During 1922 
and 1923 out of an egg take of 40,- 
000,000, over 30,000,000 were used for 
planting other rivers of the State. 

Among the members of the club 
assisting Miss Natt in the work are 
[Minnie Spott, vice-president; Mary 
Frank, Dorothy Lopez, Alta Brown 
and Agnes Matty. 



"jftiLY 15, U-29 



WILL III IJjilll'frTlllll nil 

STEP IN ALLOTMENTS 



SACRAMBNTO CAL. BBS 

JUNE 2ff, im. 

1 

iNDlANS OBJECT 
TO CHANGE IN 

BOUNDARIES 

3ay Club/fl[oljis I^JaJ^ Would 

Take A waj - Pishing And 

Nullify Initiative Act 

SAN FRANCISCO, June 25.— 
X %■ ^urok Indian Club, comprised 
of Indian girls in the San Frann 
Cisco Bay district, has outlined 
protests against the proposal to 
change the boundary lines of the 
iioopa Indian Reservation on the 
Klamath River on the groimd it 
•would deprive them of their only 
means of a livelihood, private and 
commercial fishing. 

Also, under the terms of the 
proposed boundary changes alonir 
the Klamath, the initiative act of 
1924, which created a fish and 
game preserve along the stream, 
wll become null and void, says 
Miss May Natt, president of the 
club, as the stream will come un- 
der federal jurisdiction. 

POWER LOCATIONS. 

This means, she contends, that 
power companies will be allowed 
to locate along the Klamath, to the 
ruin of commercial and private 
fishing, which in turn will mean 
that Indians will be forced to live 
on charity of the government. 

The Indians and other agencie 



Registratio n of <^«^lifpr Bia I^^dians, 
preparatory to paying them for lands 
purchased from their ancestors under 
treaties of^851^ and lig52, wiU be 
started Mo^p,yvj^di4ynb order of the 
department of the interior. 

There are more than 10,000 Indians 
in Cafifornia who are entitled to 
money which should have been paid 
their ancestors, according to H. W. 
Wadsworth of the Indian field service. 

The attorney general of California 
was instructed in the interior depart- 
ment order to file federal claims in 
behalf of these Indians. 

According to the ancient treaties 
the government negotiated to put^ 
chase vast tracts of Indian lam|0fl5ut 
failed to pay for theni^aJIMlSugh they 
were taken over f^iilrthe owners. 



Sroposir ^ s'»ty-day delay In the 

"The cannery at Requa has been 
m operation every year since 1887 - 
nil Miss Natt, "while about 80 per 

fishln/ in^^.P^P'" engaged In the 
fishing Industry are Indians, who 
live along the river from the 

Wtrmires."'"""""'^ ^''^' ^''°'' 
„„ "Only Kevenue." 

^^J^ 'ncome of these Indians is 
derived from fishing and work in 

«nH ^Jlf ^""^V "T.^''^ **>« middle-aged 

sourr^ nf''.^"'*^^"^ ^^^« '^o other 
source of revenue. 

"During 1916-17-18, 17,000,000 effss 
s'latfon ^^"^.^^ ^^ ^^^ collectfng 

ILwIa *^"^'?^ eggs were ob- 
tamed. On the Sacramento Rive7 

eggs'^ieriVl''"' 70,000,000 saS 
eggs were taken. During- lQ2fi-97 

28 only 26,000,000 were oftelned^^'' 
..T planted Elsewhere. 

ce^^^'^'oMil^^ ''f " "^ the salmo 
fnvL^**'."*** }J°^ the Klamati 
River during the past ten years 
have been planted In this river! 
purmg 1922 and 1923, out of « 
^Se take of 40,000,000, over 30,000 
000 were used for planting othe 
rivers of the state." 
Among the members of the clui 

MlnnVi'^<,^l'" V*^" '« the work ar 
^rrri. ^P°*iJ*'=.*' president; Mar 
fn^ A • °°''othy Lopez, Alta Brow 
and Agnes Matty. 



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SAN I5IKGD, CALIF., UNIOBT 

JiLl 21, 1020 




INDIAN fflIT CAS! 



Defense Counsel Withdraws^ 

Following Failure to Settle] 
issue Out of Court, 

Attom/ys iof 4(1 Indian* of thf 
Mission federation on the Rlncon anc 
La Jolla reservations, defendants ii 
an injunction suit to restrain then^ 
from molesting other Indians on thd 
reservations, were granted permission 
to withdraw from the case by Federal 
Judge Paul J. McCormlck in federal 
court yesterday. 

fT.ri^f^^^^^^^'^^^ ^^ granted when 
f ?L i^'^!?!^^ informed the court that 
they had been unable to settle the 
case out of court. The attorneys are 
Mark Herron. R. B. Camarlllo and 

Tnn!?^ ^"^n®- .^^^ attorneys for the 
Indians will be appointed by the 

^r^i.v^/' ^?f^*^^g «et by Judge Mc 
Cormlck for Sept. 20. 



JTXE 31, I9s:^ 




[/Vome and •t^rey of friter must ac- 
company all letyL for M^ column. Let- 
ten of a per^n^l\§aUfe or mOolving\ 
conteniioui re/igfous quatons are not ac- 
ceptable.] 



OS 

SAN FRANCSgCO, June 18.— I 
[To the Editor of The Times:] 
Harry Carr is an eloquent and 
usually a well-informed friend 
of the American Indian cause. 
What can have possessed him 
when he wrote the dispatch 
printed June 5 in The Times, 
*Toor Lo Spealcs His Mind"? 

The dispatch treats of Taos, 
the most famous * of Indian 
pueblos. It is one unbroken se- 
ries of erroneous statements. 

The white town of Taos was 
not, as Mr. Carr states, "squatted 
on" by Kit Carson. It was set- 
tled by the Spanish Americans 
200 years ago. 

The Taos .Indians are not 
bringing suit to eject this white 
town or the artists, writers or 
anybody else living therein. 
They have never contemplated 
such suit; have disclaimed any 
intention to bring it, and could 
not win such suit. 

The Interview with Albert 
Martinez, or Albert Looking Elk, 
is indeed "remarkable," as Mr. 
Carr states. So remarkable that 
Mr. Carr wouldn't have quoted 
it if he had sought information 
from the Governor or the Coun- 
cil of Taos Pueblo. Items: 

(a) The undersigned, in 1922, 
accompanied the all Pueblo 
delegation of seventeen mem- 
bers to Washington. He did not 
"then come along, etc." 

(b) The undersigned never 
"said if he could see the secret 
dances he would set things 
right." He did, on the unani- 
mous request of the Taos Pueblo 
officials, invite certain promi- 
nent persons to witness a fes- 
tivity at Blue Lake. These in- 
cluded William Allen White and 
United States Senator Sam A. 
Bratton of New Mexico. Ulti- 
mately, James W. Young of Chi- 
cago and the undersigned did 
attend the festivity, escorted by 
the Pueblo's officers. Albert 
Martinez, accompanied by sev- 
eral Indians of the peyote cult 
(which cult is hostile to the 
ancient pueblo religion and gov- 
ernment) came on the scene 
and made uproar. To permit 
the festival (a sacre<l one) to 
proceed undisturbed, the white 
observers retired, having wit- 
nessed a miraculously beautiful 
all-night dance ceremony. 

The scrutiny of this ceremony 
had been requested by the 
pueblo officers as part of a cam- 
paign, brought to success in 
1928, to persuade Congress to re- 
store to the Pueblo the exclu- 
sive rights to an area of lake 
and mountain land which in 
Pueblo tradition is a holy land. 
What Albert Martinez and the 
"peyote boys" of Taos tried to 
do was a blow against the 
Pueblo sacred tradition — an un- 
successful blow, because the 
Pueblo's object was attained in 
spite of it. Blue Lake was re- 
covered for the Pueblo. 

(c) No Pueblo faction re- 
sulted from the above incident. 
The Taos factions are two — a 
majority of the orthodox mem- 
bers of the tribe, faithful to 
their ancient ways, and a mi- 
nority, members of the peyote 
cult, who are antagonistic to the 
ancient ways and to the rule of 
the tribe's elected officers. The 
peyote cult is twenty-five years 
old at Taos and the faction is 
that old. No other pueblo has 
a peyote cult or peyote faction. 
Peyote is a drug which is eaten 
and which brings pleasurable 
hallucinations of vision. There 
are fifty peyote users among the 
700 Taos Indians. 

(d) "The one who has a uni- 
versity education," Mr. Carr 
quotes Albert as saying, "comes 
home to love the old religion 
and the old customs." Albert 
doesn't want day schooling for 
Pueblo Indians. 

There has never been a Taos 
Indian with a university educa- 
tion. I believe no Indian of any 
of the nineteen New Mexico 
pueblos has ever had a univer- 
sity education. It is desirable 
that some pueblo Indians should, 
in fact, have university and pro- 
fessional education. The In- 
dians earnestly want such op- 
portunity. Meantime, for all 
their children, they want mod- 
ern-day schooling up through 
the grammar grades at least. 
Taos Pueblo is officially on rec- 
ord as above. 

JOHN COLLIER. 



I YREKA, CAt. NEWS 

■ JUXY 25, 19^9 



test. 



Uj - 

i 



-ft 



Nothing to Brag About 

ry EGISTRATION of Indians entitled to share in pay- 
*^ monts to be made by the government for hinds taken 
from them 70 years ago is under way in California. 

We have no knowledge of the conditions under which 
the land was taken but it is apparent that the government 
310W believes that the lands were taken under conditions 
jthieh now demand payment for. them. 

But supposing the government, or some company, or. 
eonie individual took some of your property and for 70 
^«ars debated whether it should pay for it or not! You 
would grow mighty impatient, wouldn't you? 

pur treatment of the Indians is and always will be 
a shameful blot upon our national history. It was inev- 
itable that the Indians should give way to the white man, 
hnt that did not excuse the whites from paying for the 
lands that were granted the Indian tribes by treaties, then 
afterward taken from them. 

There are some things that even as Americans we 
iave no cause to brag about. "* 



I 



SAM PRANCISCO CHRONICLE 

AUG. 1 4929 



Much to Learn About 
Handling the Indians 

pALIFORNIA INDIANS are meeting at Sonora 
^ in August to discuss their affairs, largely 
grievances. They have plenty. It is not a 
pleasant story; one of cynical dispossession and 
failure of government to live up to its agreements. 

This Nation and is government still has a lot 
to learn about treatment of aborigines. The 
Indian Bureau messing around makes a sorry 
picture in contrast, for example, with the in- 
telligent efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company 
to maintain the native virility and morale of the 
Indians and Eskimos In its territory, promoting 
their welfare in a way to give them self-respect 
and independence. 

The company is not a philanthropic institu- 
tion, but finds a profit in keeping these peoples 
up to^as high a grade as possible. As a matter 
of business it has worked out principles and 
methods worth studying. x'' 






Woman New Director of 
ducation of Indians 




Miss Mary Stuart Has 

Been Dean at University 

of Montana 



WASHINGTON, Aug. 1— Bringing to 
her new task an miusual fitness for the 
work, Miss Mary Stuart of Denver has 
I been appointed by Secretary Wilbur of 
the interior department, to be assistant 
diirector of education to the United 
States Indian service. 

HAS FINE RECORD 

While she may be one of the type of 
women educators who have Incurred the 
displeasure of Dr. Clarence Little, the 
youthful eeducator who recently ceased 
to be president of the University of 
Michigan, she nevertheless has a fine 
reecord of achievement and never was 
fired in her life. 

A graduate of the University of Colo- 
rado, she has been dean of women at 
the University of Montana. 

President Hoover and Secretary Wil- 
jur are quite agreed that our Indian 
inhabitants have been neglected, ex- 
ploited and robbed long enough, and 
that it's high time that something more 
was done for them than to give them 
an academic training and then send 
them back to their teppes. 

To Miss Stuart ha^ been assigned the 
task of making and developing some 
new plans which would so change the 
trend in the Indian schools as to pre- 
pare the young man and young woman 
for real careers in the world-at-large, 
through the vocational training. 

Miss Stuart declined to discuss her 
work, but she is known to have a fixed 
belief that the Indians, given an honest 
chanace, will solve their own economic 
problems and become worthy to be real 
citizens in the highest sense of the 







(Photo by A. P.. Boston Traveler) 
MISS MARY STUART 



word. She believes that the many 
tribes constitute a race that deserves 
every assistance the government can 
give them. She made a study' of the 
work in Montana, and Secretary Wil- 
bur believes that because of her ability, 
character and disposition, she is above 
all educators in the country qualified to 
direct this educational work in the In- 
dian service. 



AUG. 4, 1929 




VISITS IN CAPim 



' • T-t ^ 

Mrs. Mary Vaux "yJT&lcott of the 
Smithsonian institute. Washlja^ton, 
D. C, who Is a member of the board 
of Indian comnilssloners, recently 
coiDi)leted inspecting North>em Cali- 
fornia Indian conditions under the 
direction of Col. Lafayette Dorrlng- 
ton. who Is In charge of the United 
States Indian agency and depot of the 
Interior located here. 

Two Weeks In North 

Two weeks were spent In Southern 
California by Mrs. Waloott and twa 
weeks in this section. With Colonel 
and Mrs. Dorrlngton, Mrs. Waloott 
motored to Carson, Pyramid lake In 
Nevada, where the sanatorium was 
visited; Susanvllle, Redding, where 
the Indians of the Hot Creek district 
were visited; Yreka, Happy Camp In 
Siskiyou county, the Klamath river 
district as far as Somes Bar, and 
back to Yreka. 

Mrs. Waloott went north ,to Klamath 
and will motor through Oregon, 
Washington, Montana, Wyoming, 
Idaho and other western states, re- 
turning to Washington In October. 
Is Noted Artist 

Not only Is Mrs. Walcott prominent 
In connection with the Smithsonian 
Institute and Indian affairs, but she 
Is a noted artist. She lias Just coln- 
plctsd the fifth volume? on wild 
flowers of North America. It has 
taken her 20 years to complete the 
five volumes of paintings and they 
are now beln^ printed by the Smith- 
sonian Institute. 

The late Charles D. Waloott. hus- 
band of Mrs. Mary Vaux Walcott, was 
head of the instltttte until his death 
about two yeajrS ago. He was con- 
sidered one ot the outstanding scien- 
tists of his Time. 



SAN FRANCISCO. CA\.IP. 

AUG. 14, 1^29 



MENDOCINO, HUMBOLDT INDIAN 
TRIBES VANISHING, SAYS U. S. 



*\ \ 

The YuklTndian tribe of Mfendocino4 
and Humboldt counties is fast disap- 
pearing. 

Only one full-blood and two half- 
breed^i are left who are old enough to 
remember the tribal customs and tra- 
ditions of former days. 

This was the situation reported to- 
day by E. W. Gifford, curator of the 
University of California museum of 
anthropology, who recently spent sev- 
eral months in the district. 



The university is making an effort to 
preserve some record of this vanish- 
ing people, and Curator Gifford has 
succeeded in amassing all important] 
cultural data except their songs. 

**The last survivors of the tribe are 
all over 80 years old," said Gifford, 
"and the ranks are thinning: rapidly. 
Even the country in which they live 
seems to be going: back to nature, due, 
apparently, to the decline of lumber- 
ing/* 



lan 



U. S. Sues to Regain 

Riches From White Wife 



LOS ANGELES. Aug. 15 (/P)— An 
amended complaint to annul the 
marriage of Jackson Barnett, 
wealthy Indian, and obtain a re- 
fund of all property and money 
held by his white wife, Mrs. Anna 
Laura Barnett, was filed by the 
Government today. 

The complaint followed the Gov- 
ernment's victory in the Barnett 
case before the Federal courts of 
New York, which ordered the re- 
turn of $550,000 in Liberty bonds 
given by the Indian to the Baptist 
^Home Missions Society. The Gov- 



dA.. 



v.^ 



n 



ernment plans to place the securi- 
ties in trust for Barnett. 

Three co-defendants were named 
in the amended complaint. They 
were Leslie Hewitt, California 
guardian of Barnett's property; 
Maxine Sturgess. Mrs. Barnett*s 
daughter, and the Bank of Italy 
National Trust and Savings Associ- 
ation. 

Mrs. Barnett is asked to produce 
all evidence of her marriage to the 
Indian so it can be annulled. 

Barnett, known to his Indian 

friends as "Crazy Jack," in 1912 be- 
came wealthy by discovery of oil on 
his Oklahoma lands. • 

In 1920, the Government charges, 
Mrs. Barnett learned of the In- 
dian's wealth. She was alleged to 
have carried him away in a taxicab 
and attempted to marry him. but 
officials of the county where Barnett 
lived knew him and rerused to issue 
o license. 

A month later, the Government 
alleges, she induced the Indian to 
go to Coffeyville, Kas., where they 
were married. A second marriage, 
the Government claims, was per- 
formed in Newton county, Missouri. 



ILLUSTRATED DAILY NEWS 

-AUGUSX 1^, 1929 

L Makes New/ 
Miiye to Untangle 
iMian's Wealth 



Peebrej oiB Jn-tson Barnett 
wealthie^nV^JrTthe world, "hoso 

t"rouhI. «^ ^';!" «y«°"y™ou3 With 
trouble su^ce the day, nine years ago 

when. Uncle Sam contends, he ^as 
k.dnap<Kl into marriage, became Ihe 
storm center of another legal action 
yesterday when federal authorities 
f Ihf T «'«fn'Jed complaint in their 
cial affairs. 

The complaint named as defend- 

Heuitt, California guardian of Bar- 
rett s properties; Maxine Sturgess 
Mr.s Barnett's daughter, and the 
I>ank of Italy National Trust & Sav- 
ings association. All aro asked to 

■K'Cn^eU."' ""^' '^^^ ^-^'-^ 
Barnett and his wife, who was ac- 
cused by the government of kidnap- 
me and marrying him when oil was 
discovered on the old Indian's alloU 
ted land in Oklahoma, have b^n liv- 
ing for several years in a beautiful 
home at Wilshirc boulevard an 
Kossmore a yon 



r 



OAK1.ANO. CAL. 

rntsuNE 

AUG. 18, 1929 



k- 



Indians Sue Uncle Sam 
For $12,800,000 on Land 
\ Deal Under Old Treaty 



f 

The ITnited States government 
mce promised to Rive every Indian 
lan and boy in the sttfte of Cali- 
fornia a pair of pantaloons and a 
ed flannel shirt, and all the women 
hnd girls linsey dresses. 

But the government didn't keep 
hese and other promises, so the 
ndians — or rather their descend- 
ants—are suing for $12,800,000. 

More than three-quarters of a 
nentury ago, the "Great Whit- 
[Father" swore to give* his Indian 
rchildren" food, clothing, cattle, 
limplement^% education and lands 
lupon xvhich to live and hunt in 
I peace 
lacres 



in exchange for 75,000,000 
of •California's domains. 

TRIBKS FITiE SI IT. 

Now 2 0,000 Indiana, descendants 
of the tribes which received these 
promises, have filed a damage suit 
through U. S. Webb, fetate attorney 

general. 

The claim of these descendants 
of California's first inhabitants is 
based on 18 treaties made with the 
various tribes in 1851 and 1852 by 
United States Indian agents. 

The tribes were called in solemn 
conclave with the white men at 
various camps. They smoked the 
pipe of peace, and the white men 
laid before them pieces of whit*^ 
paper, with much AVriting tiiereon. 
And interpreters explained to the 
chiefs that the writing was a 
promise that, if the Indians would 
give up all claim to their lands and 
to the soil of California, and would 
live in peace thereafter, th.ey would 
receive certain gifts In exchange. 
The chiefs "made their marks," 
and the white agents set their sig- 
natures to the documents. 

TjAnd taken. 

Congress refused to ratofy the 
treaties. The Indians never re- 
ceived the gifts, but their land was 
taken from them just the same. 

Here is what the Indians were to 
have received, as quoted from one 
of the treaties': 

" the United States ivill 

furnish tlieni, free of clinr|?e, 
wltli 2500 licud of beef cattle to 
average in woiftiit 500 pounds, 
:550 sacks of flour of 100 pounds 
encli .... and Mill also fur- 
nish them Avith . . . 
strong pantaloons and 
flannel shirt for each 
boy; one lln^cy Rown 
woman and girl; 7000 
calico. 1700 yards blown 



one pair 

one red 

nuin and 

for each 

yards 

sheet- 



tour dozen pairs of scissors, M 
dozen thhnbles, 5000 needles, one 
2(^-lH)int mackinaw blanket for 
each man and woman over l.j 
voars of age; 7000 pounds of 
iron and 6000 pounds of steel; 
130 brood marcs and seven stal- 
licms. 600 young cows, 36 bulls, 
20 yoke of working oxen with 
yokes and chains, 20 work mules 
or horses, 42 plows, assorted 
sizes. 340 corn hoes. 140 spades, 
and 20 grindstones.*' 
Amounts of the various articles 
named in the promise that never 
materialized varied according to tne 
population of the groups of trlbe'5 
with which each treaty was sig:ned. 
Each treaty also set aside certain 
lands for the exclusive use of the 
Indians. 

WANTS FAIR PAYMENT. 

It is this latter promise, in par- 
ticular, on which the modern Cali- 
fornia Indian bases his claim. Ho 
does not ask for payment for the 
whole 75,000,000 acres. He probab- 
ly wouldn't wear the pantaloons, 
the red flannel shirts, nor permit 
his women to appear in the linsey 
gowns, even should Uncle Sam at 
this late date decide to give them 
to him. 

But he does ask payment at the 
rate of $1.25 an acre for 8,800,000 
acres which the government prom- 
ised to set aside for Indian reserva- 
tions. He also feels he ought to 
have the money all those panta- 
loons, red shirts, iinsey gowns, 
needles, thimbles, thread, sheets 
and what-not would have cost. The 
bill comes to ^12,800,000. 

And it seems quite likely that the 
Indian will collect, for Webb has 
presented his claim in the United 
States court of clainis in accord- 
ance with a special act passed by 
congress which empowers the at- 
torney general to take this action 
on his behalf. 

Webb claims in his petition that 
the United States, notwithstanding 
its falKire to obtain title to the 75,- 
000,000 acres, seized the land, had 
it surveyed and proclaimed a part 
of the public domain, and sold and 
otherwise disposed of 15,000,000 
acres for a total consideration of 
$62,477,189.91. 



Ing, 70 poimdK Scotch thread. 



MOTHER'S BODY SAVKS BABl^ 

KaNGSTON, Eng. — Mrs. Eliafl- 
beth Tribbeck was killed by a fall- 
ing wall, but her body protected 
her 2 -year-old child from injury. 



AUG. 22, 1929 



INDIANS SEE 
FREEDOM NEAR 




Miss Watts, Campaigner 

for California Red Men, 

Voices Optimisnfi 

Hope for action by the next Con- 
gress to emancipate California In- 
dians from their present "para- 
doxical" position of being wards of 
the Government and at the same 
time American citizens, is held by 
Miss Margaret E. Watts, San Fran- 
cisco public school teacher, and au- 
thority on the Modoc and Klamath 
Indians, on her return from her 
annual vi^lt to these tribes. 

Miss Watts interviewed a large 
number of Indians on her latest 
visit, among them Wade Crawford, 
member of the Klamath Tribal 
Council, who will be sent to lead the 
forthcoming fight in Washington. 

SITUATION ENCOURAGING 

She declared that with the favo- 
rable attitude of the Secretary of 
Interior as evidenced in a number 
of matters relating to the Indians, 
the situation is more encouraging 
than at any previous time. 

"What the Indian wants is full 
citizenship with property rights and 
responsibilities,' Miss Watts said. 

But while early legislation to 
remedy this situation is being 
sought. Miss Watts is primarily 
directing her attention to teaching 
Indian lore in the public schools. 
She spent Saturday arranging a 
large exhibit of her Indian collec- 
tions for her opening class at the 
Commodore Sloat School, and her 
first lessons this year will be given 
today. 

BEST LORE AT HOME 

• 

Miss Watts has traveled in Eu- 
rope and Asia, studying the lore of 
various races, but has come to the 
conclusion there is no lore more in- 
teresting or dramatic than that of 
the California Indians. She has 
made a study of these Indians dur- 
ing the last eleven years, has pre- 
pared a number of Indian pageants 
and written several books. 

•'One of my purposes in teaching 
Indian lore," she said, "is to get 
the pupils not only familiar with 
Indian legends, but to enable them 
to see their point of view, for the 
time is coming when Indian chil- 
dren, instead of being educated at 
the reservations will quite generally 
be educated along with the whites 
in the public schools." 



L^ l„venunent under trealies made s«^«°*> '^^J„t. Tlie 

when ^^:>^^^'.:^^i%^llCS^:tC^S.fS^r.ry Icho. 

lower picture is oi i^ eiixi cnu, ^^^^ ■rr::z:7::::^^:^^. 



~ . -.v. . -.vw.vKwwK.:.vv:.:.>x>W::%::¥ 

. .v:v:x> :•:■: ::-:;-x::->:W:->;::;::::::::-v:x:i:S 



•:•:•: ::;:v::W:::WX-:-::::::::::#::^ 

*-"*^*'-'X:*!?t:::i;:::::: :::•::::>:::;>:;>:■ 
•<:•x•;•;•■.^^•'■••••••••■■".•:•:^•;■^^•• 

■-y«x>::wv:::x:x:>:::":- 




AUG, 27, W29 



JOBS FOR INDIANS 



/ 



Secretary of the Interior Ray 
Lyman Wilbur is an official Jf 
comomn sense. ' / 

When be took office,- he /found 
one of his big problems presented 
by the half million Indian wards 
of the government. Most of them, 
living on reservations, suffer 
greatly from sickness. Infant 
death rates are higher among 
them than among whites; the tu- 
"ucrculosis rate is appaling. 

Secretary Wilbur found that the 
Indian's great need was simply 
a job. Most reservation Indians 
are idle. Being idle, they never 
have enough money; hence they 
^o hungry from birth to death, 
and because of their chronic un 
(ter-nourishment are susceptible to 

disease. 

So now Wilbur is going to 
remedy matters by providing jobs 
for them. They are willing work- 
ers. The southwest needs labor 
so badly it has imported 500,000 
Mexican workers in the last de- 
cade. Wilbur believes that by 
hitching the idle Indians to these 
jobs he will go far toward solv- 
ing both the "Indian question" 
and the Mexican problem. 

Just a little California common 
Bense. 



Valley Indians 
Await Payment 
Of Old U. S. Ml 



By CXICK BELANDEB 

VISALIA (Tulare Co->'„^ug. 22.— 
Twelve persons, remnant w J^® 

Tribe, now living five n»»e^ e^t 
of Visalla, expect soon to recede 
$4,000 each from the United States 
?v,v!=.rnment. in compensation ror 
Unds'ofwhich their ancestors were 
ripnrived through unratified treat 
ies wTth the United States seventy- 

"Th^^twllve tribe members. 
icJo^^ as thricho family, live ta 

Kouattv bruBb and wooden Huts 
near the George Magly corner and 
pfek V. enough mon^y by working 
for ranchers and making baskets 
to provide the bare necessities of 

^^^But with the money promised to 
all in the tribe from Chief Henry 
ito the smallest child, Pl^ns are ai- 
ready under way for a different 

mode of life. , ^ r^vs\^* 

They won't buy any house. Chi er 
iienry said, but an automobile in- 
EteaZ A tract of land adjoining 
the tribal burying ground, where 
hundreds of ancestors lie buried. 
will be purchased for a reservation, 
phe tribe prefers to live in the 

I ^^R^cent years have witnessed the 

decline of the Wuchamnies. who 

'tteadfastly refused to f arry into 

lexican, Spanish or white families. 

.^or years these few. whose an- 

:e^tJs were part of the /ajn<)us 

X-okut Tribe, the "f^ost powerful in 

the valley, and numbering thou- 

sands, have lived in the open, from 

land to mouth. ^ia^^ 

When Dick Icho, rodeo rider. 

vas killed two years ago by a 
ibi^king horse, the family spurned 
Kty aid. but individual niem- 
* ,ers visited neighbors and pledged 

Vork in advance until suffic ent 
ir^oney for a burial Ift the tribal 
purial grounds north of Naranjo 

I '^hrances^ors of the Wuchaninie 

Tribe '«re responsible for niost of 

the ^tholes along Tttlare County 

moHivtalns in General Grant Na- 

Kal Park and Giant Forest. They 

were a tribe of basket makers, and 

Chief Henry's wife is teaching her 

daughter and her 16-year-old grand- 

' daughter the art of basket n^aking. 

so it will live witht he tribe and 

die with the tribe. ^ ,«.o r^ i« 

In treaties of 1851 and 18^2 Ca»- 

fornia Indians signed over 75,000,- 

000 acres of land to the govern- 

ment. with the understanding that 

thev be paid sufficient money to 

pui^hase reservations and farming 

Equipment, but while the Indians 

live up their lands, they received 

''^^e^'grfm story is told in a petl- 

rbb^^^Ta're^ u^il^ TufhoTiz^l 

''^^,:^.ri^^n dollars is^sked 
of the government by lOOOO in- 
dUs fhls "uni covered the cost 
of reservations at a price of $1.25 
Sir acre promised in the treaties. 
Snd In additional $1,800,000 for per- 
sonal property services, improve-l 
ments, livestock and aRricultural 
imiillements. 












^' 



.i-J^i 



"^ ^ 

,1.05 ANOEI.BS, CAU. TIMES ! 



SEP X 2 !!'''« 

EDUCATION FOR 
INDIAN CHANGED 

Sherman Iittlme'i Fall 
Term Begins New Policy 

* 

Superintendent Bach With 
Program of Innervations 



Vocational Trainings Self^ 
Reliance to Be Taught 



RIVERSIDE, Sept. 11.— Advent of 
the fall term at Sherman Indian 
Institute this year marks the be- 
ginning of a new educational policy 
deslgcM to train the more than 
1200 Southwest Indians to be more 
self-reliant in the world of com- 
merce and industry and more skill- 
ful in tne art of home -making. This 
was revealed today by Frank Com- 
ser, superintendent of the local 
school. He recently returned from 
Washington, where he discussed this 
improvement with other Indian De- 
partment officials and with Ray 
Lyman Wilbur, Secretary of the 
Interior. 

"The Indian mind," said the edu- 
cator, whose school is noted 
throughout the United States, 
"grasps more quickly the industrial 
arts. It often has extreme difficulty 
in mastering the sciences and other 
academic studies. 

"With this in mind, the school 
is to be turned more toward a vo- 
cational training center. The In- 
dian Department believes the In- 
dians should be tralhed to be bet- 
ter fitted to. prpvida. for. themselves 
after leaving school. 

"The academic side of their 
schooling will be slightly decreased 
this year and the vocational train- 
ing built up: Fdt the b6ys we have 
besides the agricultural study. In 
which most of them are adept, all 
the building trades, printing, auto 
mechanic, harness wt>rk and draft- 
ing. 

"Girls wUl be given special train- 
ing In home-making, domestic 
science and. home arts, which in- 
clude' sewing. Other studies will 
be maintained but not in the ratio 
of past years," he revealed. 

Eventually, according to Comser, 
Sherman will become an industrial 
school with the training almost ex- 
clusively vocational. Students en- 
rolled in grades below the fifth will 
be sent to other schools and their 
places taken by older boys and girls. 
At present three-fourths of eaC ' 
student's time Is to be given ov 
to vocational training. 



PAW DIEGO, CALIFh *c 

DliCEMBER 25. 1931 



> 



\\yp^i' 



all Notes 



, 



.80 



lodVfeet 



rhen ftlans 



fro 

y ester 

setback 

curbs on 

were annou 

city planning 

compiling data 

a 10 -foot settaa 

from Park bo 

as the first^hove 



jfiU*. aygpiie 

gained .strength 
"^lishlng 
for setlflng back 
m end/n the street 
at, d^ hall. The 
miiil*fision has been 
vstabllshment of 
on the street 
nrd -^KJIuclid avenue 
to eventual widen- 



ing of tho/Sivenue. The in^^stlgatloii 
by the^-«ommlssion has shol^^i that 
most.^ the property Is of su^ 
^fij tfh ta to ft iirlVnrmPflhy th n n ^ ide n- 

Twenty-two Indians from the reser- 
vation near El Capitan dam site yes- 
terday aske d me m r y council for work 
on clearing the dam site. The In- 
dians said that delay on the dam 
work has prevented them f/om irn- 
proving their property and that they 
need money. El Capitan darn bill pro- 
vides the Indians will not have to 

move from their res«7^*^,^J^,^^^ie<L^! 
city starts storing water In the reser- 
voir. Indians say the government has 
not yet provided a new reservation 
with the money paid by the city foJ^ 
the old lands. 



SAX DIEGO, CALIF., SrX 



JANUARY 1. 1332 



rW»wS»fe. 




iGE HOPES 
RLYAID 
RBESMEN 

En^inee( Tells Council 

Reservation Change 

To Be Hastened 



Hope for early relief for El 
Capitan Grande Indians, facing 
hardships on their reservation this 
winter because of delay over their 
prospective removal from El Capi- 
tan reservoir basin, was voiced by 
H. N. Savage, city hydraulic engi- 
neer, in a letter prepared for the 
city council today. 

Savage said C. U Ellii, of River- 
side, TTidia n age^ ]t t91i: SouthErn 
California, told him he will come 
here soon to hasten tlL<?._rfimoval| 
of the Indians to a new reserva- 
tion. 

Savage also conferred with gov- 
ernment officials on his recent 
trip to Washington about removal' 
of the Indians. 

Spokesmen for the tribe peti- 
tioned the council last Monday to 
give them work on El Capitan dam 
project. They clamed they had 
been unable to till their lands and 
that they face starvation through 
uncertainty over their future. The 
government is supposed to buy 
them a new reservation to take 
the place of their present lands, 
which will be flooded by El Capi- 
tan reservoir. 

Savage said the Indians will un- 
doubtedly b t a in considerable 
work in connection with prepara- 
tion of v/hatever new lands arr 
obtained by the government fa 
them and in erecting new hojfes 
and buildings. 



{wax MRca cii.nr^ runoN (W 
JANUARY 13. 1932 



iaX. 




[mm 

L^O EASI ON 




Toi^r^senl San Diego^s Need 

Of Reservoir Land Now 

ncluded in Reservation. 



The city council today expects, to 
authorize representatives, to leave to- 
morrow for Washington to aid in ex- 
pediting legislation lor additional 
land at El Capitan. 

This action will be taken in defer- 
ence to Indian agency wishes that 
local representatives be on hand to ex- 
plain details prior to submission of 
the Indian office's report to congress 
on its attitude. Additional lands re- 
quiresjL.iiX..tl:i.ft ..City f or £LX!ipllan. xoh- 
stitute part of ap,^Jndijiri. reservation. 

News that Congressman Swing ex- 
pects to be back in Washington Jan. 
18 instead of Jan. 20 will hasten the 
council action on sending, representa- 
tives. 

Personnel of the city representation 
had not been decided definitely yes- 
terday although it was indicated that 
Engineer Savage and Assistant City 
Attorney Daniel would form part of 
the delegation. Whether Mayor Aus- 
tin will accompany them had. not been 
determined yesterday. If Austin goes 
he plans to take steps toward facili- 
tating action on construction of the 
new postoffice building here as well 
as in the reservoir land matter. 

While the council has authorized 
the purchasing agent to call for bids 
on El Capitan dam, the bid call will 
necessarily await formal approval by 
the state engineer of detailed plans of 
the dam, it was said at city hall yes- 
terday. State Engineer Hyatt re- 
minded city officials by telegram that 
he had approved only the safety of 
the type of structure proposed, on the 
understanding that detailed plans 
would be checked before final ap- 
proval is given. The detailed plans 
have been dispatched to the engineer 
by Savage, it was announced. 

W. H. Holmes, deputy state engi- 
neer, is expected to start a final topo- 
graphical survey of the dam vSite this 
week for use in connection with Hy- 
att's final consideration of detailed 
plans. Data obtained in preliminary 
excavations at the site are to be em- 
bodied in the report. 

Plans for financing construction 
through sale of $2,695,000 El Capitan 
bonds probably will not be completed 
\mtil tomorrow, it was Indicated at 
city hall yesterday. Under the plans 
a syndicate of San Diego and Los An- 
geles bankers will act as brokers for 
the city in disposing of the bonds. 

An opinion was received yesterday 
from Thomson, Wood & Hoffman, 
New York bond attorneys, that there 
is no legal objection to selling th 
bonds through such a brokerage 
rangement. 



CAS nrsa^. CALST^ srw 1 

JANUM'IY 14. 1932 



•Vk 




OFFICIALS 
PLEAD 
MLAND 



PVp^y J Owners Seek 
Protection In Capi- 
tan Action 



A delegation of city officials was 
to leave for Washington, D. C, to- 
day to press the city*s request f 6r 

aHrfif.innfll Tnriifl.n lg,nfl&iln El 9^"" 

Itan reservoir basins. 

Owners ol^property below the 

dam site have threatened to block 

the city's request to congress un- 
less provision is made assuring 
them adequate water supply. 

H. N. Savage, city hydraulic en- 
gineer, told members of the city 
council Wednesday that one of the 
property owners below the dam 
interested in the water question 
was the Fanita ranch, of which 
Hobert P. Scripps is trustee. 

Savage Notified 

Scripps notified Savage some- 
time ago, the engineer said, tftat 
he would take every action neces- 
sary to protect the Interests of the i 
7000 acre ranch. | 

Savage said he assumed the 
Scripps interests would be repre- 
sented by an attorney at the 
Washington hearings on the land 
question. 

Riparian owners below the dam 
have prepared a pettiion to con- 
gress urging that in amending the 
act which several years ago sold 
to the cit5^ a portion of El Capitan 
Indian reservation, to provide more 
land for the larger dam how plan- 
ned, and that congress make more 
{specific the section^ regarding 
•Water su^iJt^ td^he.#&)arian own- 

'ens. 

Signature Authorized 

Scripps has authorized Curtis 
Hillyer, attorney, to sign his name 
to the protestants'^petition, it was 
learned. 

Because ownership of the ranch 
is non-resident, the city legal de- 
partment finds the water rights 
question may be carried into fed- 
eral court. City attorneys, how- 
tever, feel no alarm over the possi- 
bility of a federal suit. 

Preyieu^ litigation which ended 
Vith the l^iHghest court affirming 
the city's pi*ior paramount rights 
to all water of the river, will be 
upheld in any further suits, the 
city attorney's oolieve. 

Making the trip to Washington 
Xiill be C. L. Bycrs, city attornejj 
Mayor Walter W. Austin and S 
age. 



A^^tfC lipping 

} V i3tireaii 

C'JPF'IMG FRpM :. 






^ClfSH 



FOR INDIAN SCHOOL 



Burned California Institution 
J /Viiyi^ Restored 

WASMf(flj#N. Dec. 28.— An ap- 
p^OJP^iafhrti of 188.000 for restoring 
burned buildingrs at GreenvHle In- 
dian Schooifc California, was author- 
ized today *p^fre House. At the re- 
quest of Represeentatlve Raker 
(Dem.) o* California this amount 
w&s a.&^^to the Items carried In the 

'iMDrovfrH^^V'"®"^ appropriation 

ance of T ^? ^'''' ^^''^ *"^ malnte- 
^l^ceot Indian schools. 



^.rONmVO. CAT... TT^flBl- 






/Ac 




iE^ 



COUNSELOR 



at many legal points In- 
dians of the country 
when the content of 
J^ j>f Oceanside and George 
oini'allbraok for the county 
supervisorshlp of the Fifth district' is 
heard today, Jonathan Tibbett, chief 
counselor of the Mis«sion Indian fed- 
eration at Riverside, arrived in San 
Diego yesterday afternoon. 

Ati the election in November George 
Westfall, of Fallbrook, Incumbent, de- 
feated Tom Hurley by four votes In 
the race for supervisor of the Fifth 
district. Hurley contesited the elec- 
tion, on the grounds that the Indians 
of the Pala reservation voted over the 
challenges of the judges of the polls. 
Tibbet said the officers of the fed- 
eration, which has a membership of 
nioro than 20.000 persons, Including 
the Inr^ian^. of California, Arizona and 
New Mexico, thought the trial would 
i bring out many points of law affecting 
' the status of the Indians, and seUt 
'him to San Diego to watch theyliro- 
ceedlngs.— Tuesday's Union. 



Cc\lth(Pfc> /Y)i5ct//^f^eC(iS c///>f//)/^ ^Misc^ 



1^22 - /<f2,, 



pre 



Bureau 



AN FR/*NCISC;0. 

LOS ANGELES 
|P0RTLAND,O!R£. 

CLIPPING Fnot^ 

^•'- -•-^- -i^i.. "»•<• •••"••r-V-' L,ra»« •.«•.«»«. 



.4^^' 



, . .«^.,.^, ^-y^, j.^,^jyy ^ 






nr.NO. KHT, JOfRNVvL 
DECEJIBZIK 17. 1!.;!3 



I - | • * 

PUNS FOR CHRISTMAS 

^« <ie- 



GHlNDSTONE INDIANS 

wilij be I remembered 

In accordance . w!tm a custom that 
has pret^leAto^ y^ars the little 
band of lA'dTfins at Grindstone will be 
remembered' during the /Christmas 
season. J. A. Meiser/ photographer, 
whom the Indians call their "good 
big friend," assisted by County Clerk 
W. H. Sale, who every year interests! 
himself in the movement, are taking 
up voluntary donations to gladden 
the hearts of the remnants of a tribe 
which about 70 years ago numbered 
thousands of Indians. Any persons 
desirous of contributing can leave th 
same at the Journal office. 



5AM FRANCISCO, 'v* 

LOS ANGELES. 
PORTLAND. ORE. 
:L!PPING FflOM 



•^■m, * .#».. v 



. T\, CAT.. TTTROVTrT/B • 



\nAfcmn9mt», cau 

\^AhlVQHMAy I 



Wirt Send Presents 
/ to Indian Children 

will commence at l(>r9» o'clock i^Vu, 
t.me the gifts of each child of th«s^n' 

thT ind^r' ''^'' -"' be cone'J^ed^"fC; 
tne Indian missions. 

Miss Margaret Gardette t^ho <„ 
perintendent of the cTnA^o ^^. ^"' 
states that thiQ io I Sunday school, 

the church. '' ^^' ^'^""^^ <^"«tom oX 



iX'/nas Tree Fete 
For Tule Indians 

iTulare Women Provide 
Gifts for Reservation 

Bpeclal Dispatch to Tbe Chronicle 

TERRA BELLA, Dec. 23.— The In^ 
«lan Welfare Department of the Tu- 
lare County Fefleration of Women's 
Clubs, under direction of Mrs. B. F. 
Butts, chairman, staged a Christmas 
entertainment at the school house 
on the Tule Indian Resei-^atlon for 
reservation Indians. Santa Claus 
and a big Christmas tree laden with 
£ifts, shared popularity with a flhn 
version of 'TTre Other Wise Man," 
while musical numbers were also 
l^lvcn. 

J. Garfield. Indian, in languag-e o 
the Tejons, thanked the ladies, say 
Ing this was the first time white 
people from the other side of Deer 
creek had ever done such a thins. 
Ross Ellis, graduate of the Indian 
«chool at Riverside, acted as inter- 
?o nnT ^^^^ reservation comprises 

«n?f^.^-^r^\ ^^'^''^ ^^« 155 Indians 
on t with about 400 scattered near- 
by In the valley under direction of 

IS teacher of the school 

welf^^-hf^'i" *'■* prosperous and 
wen behaved, acoordin^ to Dr 
Joseph Taylor, supervisor In charge' 
Within two weeks Dr. and Mrs. Tay-' 

JJr. Taylor will be In charge of In 
dlan work In that Stale, whu ' 
Harry M. Carter, now ,„ charge a 
^;a''on;,WiU come to the Tulei^ser 










s ■ 








fc#f..; 





tACTydiiT,jP4i., rttfg 



./^r.^v>;P«i^;.^^''':^V•■' is ;~':i'-'j;-- -j^^^ 



>tr.T y *' '' ■ " 









CHILDREN 



> 

SANTA VISITS INDIAN 

Uncler»tb<^*Mpe^ision of Mrs. F. G. 
Gunn,'cnairman of tjie child welfare 
__^irtment of^^Ji^^oman's Club of 
iKelseyville, the Indian school children 
lat the rancheria were given a delight- 
ful Christmas surprise on Thursday af- 
ternoon. A tree beautifully decorated 
land heavily laden with Christmas pres- 
ents stood in the front of the school 
•oom. At about 3 o'clock several 
dies and gentlemen from Kelseyville 
athered at the mission and sar;g 
hristmas carols. In the midst of the 
inging Santa Glaus appeared at the 
oor and was invited into the room to 
[istribute the presents to the wonder- 
\g children. To each child he gave a 
irge bag of oranges, apples, nuts, pop- 
[orn and candy. Each girl received a 
Iretty doll, a book, a string of beads 
for her neck, some handkerchiefs, and 
I work bag fitted with needles, thread, 
thimble, scissors, and a bag of beads. 
The boys received handkerchiefs, 
lorns, tops, knives, building blocks and 
)ooks. The younger children were 
;iven rabbits which were made by the 
•iris of the domestic department of 
•he high school. Various other toys 
Iwere given to the visiting little ones. 
LAt least two large boxes of cakes were 
[passed around to all the children and 
Ito the mothers. 

After the last song and remarks by 
the teacher, Mr. Ryder, Mrs. Gunn su- 
perintended the distribution of warm 
Iclothing and blankets. 

The great delight of the little ones 
and the laughing, happy faces of the 
mothers, made everyone feel that this 
should be only the beginning of many 
more similar happy Christmas meet- 
ings at this place. 

The scales which were purchased by 
the child welfare department of the 
Woman's Club have arrived and will 
be placed in the elementary school 
building. These scales not only weigh 
the child, but measure him also, and 
will be invaluable in testing the physi- 
"cal condition of the children of the 
community. 

Miss Murray, county chairman of 

music, and also chairman of music of 

the Woman's Club of Kelseyville, has 

organize a choral chorus of Kelseyville 

women and girls. They meet weekly 

on Monday night for practice and are 

giving a good account of themselves at 

the club meetings. On the evening of 

December 17 this chorus had charge 

of the music at Women's Club Night 

given by the Community Church. Their 

Christmas carols were. greatly enjoyed 

by those present. 

The Christmas activities of the so- 
cial service committee, Mrs. Brother- 
son, chairman, took the form of send- 
ing out Good Cheer boxes to some of 
the lonely of the community. 

The Kelseyville club will hereafter 
hae two meetings per month-^on the 
il second and fourth Fridays- most of the 
time to be taken by some particular 
committee. The committee on litera- 
ture. Mrs. Irving, chairman, have 
promised a book review for each 
meeting. 






> 



Indians En- 
joy Xmas 




s*^; 



The Stonyford Ranclieria on tb( 
banks of Stonycreek was the scene o 
a very wonderful Christmas festivity 
in tJie role of a hig Indian Dance anV. 
a lovely turkey dinner and all thv 
tixmgs that go with it to make it i 
.genuine Xmas feed. The main thank: 
^ortlu .least is respectfully tendere( 
to supervisor Carpenter of William, 
who made the allowance of 1^25 fo^ 
the Indians' Christmas feed and th' 
people of Stonyiord feel grateful u 

,n'fho''i?f''^''' ^^" ^^^ ^^^^^^9t taken 
in the Indians and to the other Sunei' 
visors as well. The dinner was mana^ 
eel and cooked by Mrs. Anna Kessel 
ring and was composed of the follow 
ing. roast turkey, and dressing. ma<=h 
ed potatoes, baked beans, bread, but 
ter cheese, several varieties of cake^ 

sacKs and filled them with oandv 

ciZtr'^ 22 Indians besides thr 
chndrcn who enjoyed the nice dlnn". 
30 kindly donated to them bv thV 
goodness of our Bpard of Supervisor.' 
tt came as a complete surprise to tl. 

S^s Vtl.i'^".^^^^'^ ^^^^y^^ them. 









',' f~^\i7*&4/'' .'■ ,■' ' _■ ■■w '■ ■ '•' \f£;'M .;''*''j\-''T*'^" - '.■•'■•«>'"'!.■ -M 







iMMM^E^i^M^C: 



I 



is^Calo 



ir 





i 




ladians Celebrate Christmas 



Rev. J. 

sionary to jilie 



-eni 



mis- 



^ ^ ^ dians, is 

now on his' route/fCarrying 
Christmas cheer to the 
tribes at the five stations he 
has charge of. On Satur- 
day Christmas trees and en- 
tertainments were featured 



at the Indian churches at 
Table Mountain and Dunlap 
On Monday he will visit the 
Sycamore headquarters and| 
the coming Frday all the 
Indians at Coarse Gold and 
Nippnneewassee will hold, 
high festival. 
















v:'^ **;:-,ia^^^^f5^^ ., ^< :2i%v-; ' 












4': ;'«■;*' i*-*. ■:,. 






:;■ :!» ■%■ •^:' y*v^' i 'Cf:-<.*'^1 



■ •■;■■■ ■ '^^ 



■.V,'V^^ 







''^"'*-5!^''-? 



vvV[..- . * .. J 

■ ■' (• : 






■ISA 









S':;&^"..-: 



•:;r:-V-v.i'>^." O^i'VT'. ■■■■■■ ■ 






'':J^''f^ 









, Tt '. '1 


















.-^■;,>:."^v 



i5 «-t»;«iTnfR. rAT<« 



UerfscUppJ'^ 

'^^®;' Burevj 

c.rT.AM0.ORE."-> -r^ 



Dunlap Indians Find 

Cheer On Christinai 

DlTNl.Ar, Dec. 28.^-So<r. J. H. 
Brandel. superintendent- rtf all In -I 
rtlan mispiona for n^thtrn Califor- 
nia and Hev. J.fe. Rector, the resi-l 
dent missi<^nart at Dunlap. gave 
a Christmas^ tnM> to the Indians 
h<^re Saturdfiy evenins/ The tree 
\vas beaiitifnlly docora(?»d. there was 
hardly standing: room in the Mission! 
for the crowd. There was as many] 
\\'hlte peoplo ns Indians, and thel 
Indians wore jubilant with the many 
presents r^o^ived as also were th6| 
visitors for all pres<>nt received a 
:ift. 




Alteration in Plan of Building 
• Is Talked Over by 

After dis^ssing many topics for 
Inearly four hours last night, the 
'chanLr of Commerce board of di- 
[rectors, among other th-gs, dec.ded 
that the principal oraer oi 
It the next meeting -HI be a com- 
'plcte discussion of all details o thM 
proposed community hospital fot the 
icity. At that time there vr. be a 
Snk discussion of a Poss^bUit f_ 

'^ ^^°r\htrs\:: :-p^rb; 

story plan that b«'^^*'^" ^, ^^ 
the hospital committee thus lar a 

the most feasible; ^ 

"wnfJeSs in the community, 
number of person^ u nurses, 

including a ?roup of f om« ^ 
behevc that 1 wu ^^^^ „^,e than 
ical and etticien ^^^ building, 

one story m tne i^i i ^^,^0 

It is undc'-stood that pc^o 

^^^^.^'^i' rrthdi beUefs a^^the com- 
tunity to air their oei c ^^ ^y^.^^ 

in.^ meeting and ^t ^« P«^^^^ ^f the 
there may be a rctercmu 
members of the Chamber on 
whole matter v/ithm the nexi 

weeks. . '„.,,„ fnllowine a 

This discussion <=a'^e J^JSty of 

long parley as to ^he teas >^^^_ 

the Chamber ^f^^oSIy^f making 
inir the full responsiDiiiiy "i 

"hi hospital dm. . »"»^Vu. 

F„,r„'w';ra'°<itaS'r(rtim..o 

l^ollowin^ d problems that 

r Ked°in'the T^Sft o. .he « nit- 
ed States government to secure 

of View as far ^^% L^ In' 'hSVb a 
hers of the comnHttcc^ 



a 



DJG^tSWOOD. CAI.. NETfS Vt% 







wthorneWomen to 

MEET AT^MC HOME 

Hawt1?.*ne '"^Jj^i^spiib' will hold 
its next -Meeting at th^hame of Mrs. 
T, B Dlx 405 N. Birth^treet, March 
20 2 p.m.' Mrs. Fred cArk will have 
charge of the program of «ae day. 

California Indians will be the topic 

under discussion. Indiaiv Jsongs will 

„ h..r the club choril^. * larpre 
be given by the ^^^ ^,.3 Harry 

attendance is «^Pf ^^^-^^J^.m have 
;^,ehols ot Raymond avenu^^ ^^ ^^^ 

the meeting of the ciud 

home next M<'"<*-\^;7"3'i^^^^^^^^ 
This is an i^P^'Ft^^t session 

chorus and every member is re^u 

S'." . I.0S r„".e, B:«r»s b.^nj 

r»;,„ second »- ™'„:;Xn. 

„++or»riine' will leave iiawtiw 
Those attending wi Marcli 21. 

* ^(\'1(\ am Wednesday, Marc« ^ 
at 10.30 a.m _ v ^^^^^ 

Notify Mrs. H. ^' ^-.J^,^^ may> 
Hardware store so that plates may^ 

, reserved. 



\lndian Mother 
Awarded Pension 

Veterans' Bureau Finds 
1 nbesman's Aged Parent 

s f n Tn^fo ^«^^**"«f "^«n. but there 
's an Indian woman of 70 of the 

KUrnath trible, thirty xnlle« up th: 

|no?beaif'^"*' ^^^-^ -^^ ^-^ 

Sherman Steve was a full-blooded 

Indian of the Klamath tribe who 

latrwirV' ''^". ^«^innln/;f"h: 
Uto ^ar. He arrived at the west- 
ern front .-any in 1917 and was 
eneragred In all of the principal of- 
fenses Returning to the States, he 
was hospitalized and soon after- 
ward died from tuberculosis in- 

Icurred in service. 

1 After a search of one and a half 

^t?t1l Tr^^. officials of he United 

Sta.tes Veterans' Bureau, the aifed 

Indian mother was discovered 

throug-h information received from 

the District Attorney of Del Norte 

county, and a special representative 

went to Requa. hired a launch, and 

after traveling- thirty miles up the 

Klamath discovered the aged mother 

ekeingr out an existence by making 

baskets. 

The compensation claim was 
quickly adjusted by the District 
oftice In San Francisco and the littlb 
old Indian mother has received a 
check for $400 back pay and will 
continue to receive a mother's pen- 
sion of 120 per month for the rest 
of her days. 



Cniro. CAT.. KNTERPRlc^H 
MAY 1S>, 1923 *''^^^^^* 




SAY MR&-BIDWELL 
ERRJED IN GIVING 
NAME OF legatee! 

Aileling\ait t^e late Mrs. Annie 

E. Jf.Y®dwll/«CV ^'mistake and 

inadveAence'** \{qjifcathed $2000 to 

the OccidentaP^oard of Home 

Missions of the Presbyterian 

church, when she intended to leave 

the money to the California Sy- 

nodical Society of Home Missions, 

the latter organization yesterday 

filed a petition in the superior 

court that the court order the 

$2000 distributed to It. 

The complaint declares that 
there is no Occidental Society of 
Home Missions. However, the pe- 
tition aserts the work for Cali- 
fornia Indians is carried on by 
"he California Synodical Society 
Home Missions. It is alleged 
tJMrs. Bidwcll was a contribu- 
this society and active in 
for many years. The so- 
oused in the building of 
mtal Society and the pe- 
^erts that Mrs. Bidwell 
pnfused the name of the 
h the name of th^ 



^•. 



OAKLANT', CAK.. 



Indians to Repeat 

Realism of '49 




^O^'C/MA Cal.. May 31.-~A real- 
istic attack by Indiuns on stnge 
coaclies anrl rmigiant trains in tlie 
heart of the Valley of the Moon \yin 
be a feature of the big Sonoma cen- 
tennial celebration of June HO to 
July 4, it has been announced by the 
committee ii> charge. 



ftffmrv't.vfif 



fvmvM/V' ri>'m>tff^m^*:^fn.- 



RF.DWOOD CITY, CAI, 
XltlBI.Nl': a 



India^ Wedding 



at 



ngeles 







fi^i? ^ ^i Indian wedding In Los Angeles since the Spanish daw. 
Jlimnle Lone Benr,. fifty years, and Julia Wolf Moccasins, forty-eufht 
rears, were united In marriage by Judge Summerfield 



|[lndiap Girl Students to 
Spend Summer in L. A. 

Forty-three Indian grirls from the 
Fort Mojave reffemrtion in Arizona 
yesterday arrived in Los Angeles 
and for the first time In their lives 
obtained a view of a > metropolis. 
Although students of domestic sci- 
ence which they were taught at 
the Indian school, this is thel'irst 
time they have been off the l^ser- 
vation. The girls made the trip to 
Los Angeles under the chaperonage 
of Mrs. Rilla M. De Porte, and im- 
mediatelv upon their a^rrival they 
were allocated to various families, 
in which they will demonstrate their 
knowledge of household econoniic^ 
until fall. ^^__________ 




«acf amptito, Calj Be© 

JUNE 7, IW3 .. — 

I^^VADA INDIANS WILL 
'stage dances at RENO 

first time m X'"l>y\^^e m- 
vada. the I'l"yh%1Q^^ 
dians will fjctvilj/ 
lalthe indian^nage 
and Saturday n>Khts^^-^ .^ ,^ 

lot whom participated^ cmisrant 

^„d ba ties ^^ th tl ^^ ^^^ 

trains and eauy 

^^'^^^* 1 •v.ition iq to include a 
The exhibition is ^ .innce. Bun 

n^edicinc dance ^"^\^ .^^l^'^'^incei. 
Oance, i^ad \arloU6 Uibal aanc 



lJWA BAriDAIlA, CAt,., PRKSf 





Pages 1 to 6 




PRICE FIVE CENTS 



L 



M PROPONENTS PRESENT 
AGUE WITH FIGURES ON 
^^ '^^ \D0 RIVER PROTECT 




-nff.neers-SuM^ Arg:„me„ts for Boulder inri 
Glen Canyort<;es With Maps and DravWn.s 
Open Fo n,m Free From D issentions 

Nra-ailo river »ore ■« t„„,, ,™.erj,. . °'"""» ">" "»'"■» o( the 

Un „, ,„. u-^ „, .hrsiuTS^rc if;:,: " "" """'"» 

Simple dl„n„,„„,, „p,,,. „„^ Mere^JL" ,lZj , 

'•f::::fi;::;;u»ph^*r., prepared ., JeLTc^'e-ir r: ':::::;"f 

ENLARGED WA1IR~ I =%S",.'-.,-°r. 'Sr ^^ 

MAIN SOLUTION * • -'^ ".-»?' """""- 

AGAIN DELAYED iSjlI- r"-' =- 

I tKJii association of Phnoni^ A ' 

r^ 1 — declared thai *u ^noenix, Ariz., 

Chamber Directors Have >"i^ of fac\s^\\e"7reSr'„^^ 
Small Attendance And £ecf t ff ° ..^^^^'- «-'"- was 

' Put Off Discussion K-S^.^'tJlJ^ ''<^>«^-tes at yes- 

An exposition of the Colorado 



I 






tors oTth!f^?J! "? ^^^'" l^y dirfc- 1 consideration ar.dn!l%.?'^'Lr<;f.'" 
it a 1;.^!. ^i!L"!!l^: «' .C^^-^erce ' tistics concerning' t^e ' VeSatf ^ 



ternoon ">««"ng yesterday af- 

. George D. Morrison, city en- 
g.n^er, and V. D. Trace, s fperln- 



bv w°''n'' J;!:*"'^^'""' ^^^« presented 
of nTw York ■'' ^''"'''' ^"^'"^^^ 

-fv'- .."^i"'''!', P°'"^«^ "•'^t particu- 



tendent of thJ city waTer Kn-'L.fj ,,, , ^- ""^ P.^ucu- 

ment, also attended the meet nV ? 'l'^'^ . ^^* advantages of a dam 

means of solving the water short- !n ^onsfruction either 1250 
e street. (1,000 — "'■•" - ■ -- - 



. I 
-I 



: "■• •-"^'^ sLieei. ^^*^'^ "'■ SOO feet high'"'protect'ed 

No definite conclusions v/erel''^'^ *'*^®' diaohram which he de- 
to'E^p'^^k' '^'•^'^'?'-«' accordfngif'^f''- ««»ld be constructed at a 
the PhL^.°'l?"^''' /Secretary of!'°?J. o^ approximately $35,000,000. 
meet?n^ ^hT.,''' ^.''™'"^''^^' "ut the! "',« \'«^. however, was held im- 
datt th. ^ "'■°?.'* """' a later P'^a<=t!'=a' by Mr. Maxwell, who as- 
aate when an effort will be made '^^'"^^'1 ^^^^t a dam of similar 
t'^/ecure a full attendance. ^'struction only 8 " " ^"^ 

cita'l meeting, MacDonouglih* ^'®" Canyon 

siaces, an attempt will be madf> ^ou'd store ful 



|e! 



a uaiii 01 similar con- 
only 800 feet high placed 

toTecurf °a Sri ^^"> be made .'would sto^eTully"?/ ^ch^ S 
10 secure a definite expression from • ^"d insure delivery of half nt t^l 

Jtion ''rlT '" *5? '"'•'" "f ^ '•es^- ' '-'"Pounded water ^o ArlLa 5r 

pii rr^rn'-hirh tty trr^;:: t-"'"r-i 

1-e most practical in solving^ tt { tur^/^to \Te SfapsftuaS ^ 

(Turn — ' 



I neve most pra 
J water question. 




satisfac- 

in our 

—100% 

^nly is it 

\l suit in 

marked 

[CHASE 



irs 
Vousers 

[roken lines in 

ranteed 10c a 

and other stand- 

lie trousers, neat 

patterns. Values 



Boys 
Woo 



J 





Engineers Support Claims 

With Maps, Charts Before 

League Conference 



(Contimiod fi-<mi Page One) i 

the consideration asked by the 
tribes of northern Arizona, Southern 
Nevada and Utah in return for 
their water rights. 

TcMlayVs l*roon*am 

The program follows: 

Address, Armando Santa Cruz, 
Jr, ; secretary Board of International 
Waters; spokesman for commission 
representing the President of Mex- 
ico. 

Address, Waller V. Woehllie, ed- 
itor Sunset Magazine, San Fran- 
cisco. 

**Indi#n ProbleiiiH of the South- 
west," by Mrs. H. A. Atwood, chair- 
man Indian Welfare Bureau, Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's clubs. 

''Colorado River Compact, and 
Colorado-Wyoming Decision," by L. 
Ward Bannister, vice president of 
Denver Civic and Commercial asso- 
ciation. 

Discussion. 

'' California ^jjuLnjiS^ hy Dr. 
John A. rouistock, chairman Indian 
W<-lf:ire I^eague. 

Address by the Hoik William Jerj- 
nings Bryan, Jr. * 

Afternoon . * 

Airplanes land at 1:30. 

American Culture,*' by Mrs. Mary 
Austin, New Vork city, 

"The ! SwiUK-Johnson Bill," uy 
Phil D. Swing, member of Con- 
gress from California. 

Discussion. 

Address by Ralph Criswell, pres- 
ident of the counc^il of the city of 
Los Angeles. 

"Indian Problems. i by John 
Collier, secretary, American Indian 
Defense Society, New York city. 

"Colorado River Ki*oblem-S and 
Indian Affa^TS," by Dr. D. T. Mc- 
Dougal, general secretary, American 
Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 



riasses^ 



LU>»t, »^ U<^iij» u ^ 



Therefore, thiJ 

which the estif 

by which th 

drew its coni 

necessary $95 71 



to tlie $87 mark, 
was the figure on 
mates were based 
board of education 
elusion to vote the 

Mr. Phelps mentioned that i 
another .vear the cost of educatin 
a Junior College student would ris 
so that the entire cost of maintai 
ing the college would be $9000 i 
steRd of the present cost of $750 

The matter was expedite 
by the board of education, sin 
it is necessary to notify the Juni 
Collee^e faculty members at on 
whether they are to return. H 
the board not voted money for t 
Junior Collefi^e. the college wou 
have been discontinued at the Sta 
Teachers* institution, and it wou 
have been up to the board of ed 
cation to place the college in wi 
the high school or discontinue 
Discontinuance of the college wou 
mean scattering of the students in 
other educational institutions a 
taking away of several thousands 
dollars each month from Santa Ba| 
bara, it. was brought out in discui 
sions before the board. 



Granite Construction 
Urged, for Boulder 



Construction of a rock-filled dam 
at Boulder Canyon built of granite 
taken from the mountain overhang- 
ing the canyon at a cost of approx- 
imately $35,000,000 was urged at the 
opening session of the league by 
W. G. Clark, engineer, of New York. 

A concrete dam, Mr. Clark assert- 
ed, would not possess the necessary 
strength to withstand the tremend- 
ous water pressure and also would 
entail tremendous expense in ship- 
ping material to the site of the dam. 

"The only types of construction 
which would bear up under the water 
pressure," he conti^iued, "are the 
rock-filled type and the masonry typ<fe 
of dam. Engineers also have dis- 
carded the possibility of constructing 
a masonry dam at Boulder Canyon 
because of the tremendous expense, 
leaving as the only alternative the 
rock-filled type. 

Dam, to Regulate 

"By construction of an 80-foot 
dam at Bulls Head, several miles 
downstream from the Boulder Can- 
yon site an equalization system could 
j)e evolved, which woulil regulate t>xe 
flow of the river and afford ample 
floid controK This dam also would 
enable the generation of sufficient 
electricity to run the machinery used 
in constructing the main dam at 
Boulder Canyon, Mr. Clark said. 

Three sizes of dams which might 
be placed at Boulder Canyon were 
described by Mr. Clark in detail, 
shewing the advantages of each. 

"If a 1250-foot dam were built." 
he slated, "an ideal generation plant 
could be established near El Dorado, 
taking advantage of the topography 
of the country to provide a spillway 



from the reservoir through a sept- 
rate canyon. The water to be deliv- 
ered to the generators will be 
brought through cement-lined tun- 
nels from the reservoir to the power 
houses, which will be placed about 30 
miles below Boulder Canyon djtm. 
Hifi:h Level Xeces.saiy 
"The defect in this plan lies in the 
fact that the water in the reservoir 
must be kept at a very high level at 
all times to keep the forebay filled, 
and in dry years, which occur about 
every 33 years, it is probable that 
the powerhouses w )i« J not he able 
to run. 

"A smaller type of dam, built to 
a height of 800 or 1000 feet would 
necessHate the placing of the power 
houses directly below the dam and 
would be an efficient method but for 
the fact that a greater amount of 
water would be passed through the 
spMlways, due to the smaller ca- 
pacity of the reservoir." 

Mr. Clark concluded by urging 
that the problems arising out of the 
dispute over the power which will be 
derived from the river be alotted to 
the states of the Southwest, to be 
used by the consumers at a predeter- 
mined rate, operating independently 
and not in competition with oth 



the United States and that Cal 
fornia, which once was regarde 
only as a mining and agricultura 
state, now ranks eighth in mann 
facturing and fifth in the num 
of manufactured products. 

"California, alone," he added, 
"last year had an equivalent of 
more than 4,000,000,000 slaves 
ceaselessly turning the wheels of 
industry. This tremendous horde 
of servants is only a graphic il- 
lustration of the work done dur- 
ing a year by more than 4,000,- 
000,000 kilowatt hours of elec- 
tricity used in California annually. 
Arizona Second ^ 

"Arizona ranks next to Califor- 
nia in the use of electricity, using 
approximately 144,000,000 kilo- 
watts annually, and Nevada places 
third with an annual consumption 
of only 39,000,000 kilowatts. Ari- 
zona's chief concern in the division 
or the waters of the Colorado river 
lies in. the fact that practically all 
the best power sites now being 
considered lie on the border be- 
tween Arizona and Nevadav 
« "For the use of these power sites 
by other states of the South\^est in 
developing the hydroelectric power 
of the Colorado river, Arizona is de- 
manding high royalties and re- 
fuses to become a party to the 
Colorado river pact. 

"More than 6,000,000 horse- 
power can be developed without 
excessive effort by harnessing the 
Colorado river and regulating the 
flow of the water. This power 
can be distributed through prac- 
tically all the states of the South- 
west by means of the high voltage 
transmission lines which could be 
extended throughout the South- 
west in a network making it pos- 
sible for the electricity to be dis- 
tributed to the points where it is 
needed most.. 

Total Cost 

"The total cost of this enormoua 
project, if carried out in detail, 
would"^ approximate $1,000,000,000 
and would require practically 30 
years to complete. The present 
power market would not warrant 
such an extensive system and for 
that reason engineers agree that 
the system would not need to be 
developed to its maximum effi- 
ciency until about 1950. 

"Census statistics indicate that 
at the end of 30 years the popula- 
tion of California will approach the 
10,000,000 mark and her indus- 
tries probably will have advanced 
accordingly. 

"The huge volume of water 
which could be^ utilized for irriga- 
tion purposes by the construction 
of a 4am at Lee's Ferry or Boulder 
Canyon also would afford another 
tremendous asset to the states of 
the Southwest. 

"When the largest impounding 
reservoir now in use at Elephant 
Butte on the Rio Grande river, 
with its capacity of 2,600,000 Ucre 
feet is compared with the capacity 
of Boulder Canyon reservoir with 
a capacity of 25,000.000 acre feet, 
it appears as a comparatively small 
project. 

"In considering the advantages 
of power sites, Utah and other up- 
per states of the Southwest strong- 
ly favor the site of Lee's Ferry or 
Glen Canyon which will back up 
the water of the Colorado river 
for more than 100 miles into 
Utah. 

"After considering the necessity 
of immediate action to stop the 
untold loss of energy which is 
yearly flowing down the Colorado 
to the Gulf of Lower California, it 
is apparent to engineers that the 
Santa Fe treaty should be accepted 
in its present form as the first 
5-tep in solving the problem. Im- 
mediately thereafter the seven 
states of the Southwest should unite 
with the federal government in 
forming a permanent Colorado riv- 
er commission composed of men 
most capable of handling the situa- 
tion judiciously," Dr. Sibley said. 






SOX AT BATCHELDER'S 



L3agiie Conference 

(ContlniK'd fitmi Paj;e One) 

the consideraiion asked by the 
tribes of northern Arizona, Southern 
Nevada and I'tah in return for 
their water rights. 

Today's l*i(»s;vam 

The program follows: 

Address, Armando Santa Cruz, 
Jr, ; secretary Board of International 
Waters; spokesman for commission 
representing the President of Mex- 
ico. 

Address, AVal^er V. WoehHie, ed- 
itor Sunset Magazine, San Fran- 
cisco. 

"Indian Problem.s of the South- 
west." by Mrs. H. A. Atwood, chair- mean siautv....^ ^^ • f,,„|,.^„Q r 
man Indian Welfare Bureau, Gtn- other educational ^"f ^l"^'"''^^ 
eral Federation of Women's clubs, taking away of several ^liousanas 

••Colorado River Compact, and '-->«" ---^ month from banra n 
Colorado-Wyoming Decision," by L. 
Ward Bannister, vice president of 
Denver Civic and (Commercial asso- 
ciation. 

Discussion. 

'* Cnliforni |^ tHl^n"^ - U>' Dr. 
John A. romstock, chMirman Indian 
WilJ'are League. 

Address by the Horn William Jen- 
nings Bryan, Jr. y • 

Afternoon , * 

Airplanes Innd at 1:30. 

American Culture.** by Mrs. Mary 



r. rnerps 
another vear the coat of educatini 
a Junior' College student would ris| 
so that the entire cost of maintai] 
ing the college would be $9000 i: 
stend of the present cost of $750 

The matter was expedite] 
bv the board of education, sin^ 
it" is necessarv to notify the Juni< 
College faculty members at oni 
whether they are to return H^^ 
the board not voted money for tl 
.Junior College, the eoUege w^ou^ 
have been discontinued a tbe Sta 
Teachers' institution, and ^t wou^ 
have been up to the board of edi 
Jation to place the college in wi 
the high school or discontinue 
Discontinuance of the college wou 
r.ean scattering of thejtudents mj 

bara it was brought out in discui 
sions before the board. 



Austin, New Vt.rk city, 

"The i SwinK-Jc)hnson Bill," DV 
Phil D. Swing, member of Con- 
gress from CaliiOinia. 

Discussion. 

Address by Ralph Criswell, pres- 
ident of the conn il of the city of 
l.os Angeles. 

•'Indian Problems.'^ l>y Jo"^ 
Collier, secretary, American Indian 
Defense Society. New York city. 

'•Colorado River Problems and 
Indian Affa'TS." by Dr. D. T. Mc- 
Dougal, general secretary, American 
Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 



Granite Construction 
Urged for Boulder 



Construction of a rock-filled dam 
at Bonlder Canyon built of granite 
taken from the mountain overhang- 
ing the canyon at a cost of approx- 
imately $35,000,000 was urged at the 
opening session of the league by 
W G. Clark, engineer, of New York. 

*A concrete dam. Mr. Clark assert- 
Pd would not possess the necessary 
strength to withstand the tremend- 
ous water pressure and also wouia 
entail tremendous expense in ship- 
ping material to the site of the dam. 

"The only types of construction 
which would bear up under the water 
pressure.*' he conti^iued, **are the 
rock-filled type and the masonry type 
of dam. Engineers also have dis- 
carded the possibility of constructing 
a masonry dam at Boulder Canyon 
because of the tremendous expense, 
leaving as the only alternative the 

rock-filled type. 

Dam, to Regulate 

'^By construction of an 80-foot 
dam at Bulls Head, several miles 
downstream from the Boulder Can- 
yon site an equalization system could 
be evolved, which woulfl regulate t\e 
flow of the river and afford ample 
flood control. This dam also would 

enable the generation of suflacient .^^^^ ^^ v^aiiiumia 
electricity to run the machinery used lo, 000,000 mark 
in constructing the main dam at ._-^^ ,.^^kokix, ^ 
Boulder Canyon, Mr. Clark said. 

Three sizes of dams which might 
be placed at Boulder Canyon were 
described by Mr. Clark in detail, 
showing the advantages of each. 

"If a 1250-foot dam were built.'* 
he stated. *'an ideal generation plant 
could be established near El Dorado, 
taking advantage of the topography 
of the country to provide a spillway 
from the reservoir through a sepa- 
rate canyon. The water to be deliv- 
ered to the generators will be 
brought through cement-lined tun- 
nels from the reservoir to the power 
houses, which will be placed about 30 
miles below Boulder Canyon d,^m. 
High Level Necessary 

"The defect in this plan lies in the 
fact that the water in the reservoir 
must be kept at a very high level at 
all times to keep the forebay filled, 
and in dry years, which occur about 
every 33 years, it is probable that 
the powerhouses vv )i« i not be able 

to run. 

"A smaller type of dam. built to 
a height of 800 or 1000 feet would 
necessHate the placing of the power 
houses directly below the dam and 
would be an efficient method but for 
the fact that a greater amount of 
water would be passed through the 
spHlways, due to the smaller ca- 
pacity of the reservoir." 

Mr. Clark concluded by urging 
that the problems arising ou4 of the 
dispute over the power which will be 
derived from the river be alotted to 
the states of the Southwest, to be 
u.^ed by the consumers at a predeter- 
mined rate, operating independently 
and not in competition with other 
power companies. 

Water Problems 

Solved By Agreemeni 

**rioso cooperation between tin 
Southwestern states and the teilera 
jjovernnient, and a stronger faith 
in tho honesty of our fellownicin, 
setlinj: aside the i)olitical issues an<l 
concentrating;: on enftineerins; prob- 
h»nis, is tlie only way in which I lie 
('olorado river problem can be 
^solved," Dr. Robert Sibley, electric - 
fil engineer, of San Francisco, de- 
tiared in addressing the Leai^ue oi 
the* Soutliwest confeiH»nce yesiter- 
day. * 

Dr. Sibley pointed out that 
per cent of the natural power 
sources of the United States is 
fated in the western portion 



the United States and that Cal 
fnrnia which once was regarde 
onl? as a mining and agricultura 
state now ranks eighth in mani] 
?acturing and fifth in the num 

(,!• in:inufacturod products. 

'•California, alone," he added, 
"last vear had an equivalent of 
more than 4.000,000.000 slaves 
ceaselessly turning the wheels of 
industry. This tremendous horde 
of servants is only a graphic il- 
lustration of the work done dur- 
ing a year by more than 4,000,- 
000,000 kilowatt hours of elec- 
tricity used in California annually. 
Arizona Second ^ 

"Arizona ranks next to Califor- 
nia in the use of electricity, using 
approximately 144,000,000 kilo- 
watts annually, and Nevada places 
third with an annual consumption 
of onlv 39,000,000 kilowatts. Ari- 
zona's chief concern in the division 
of the waters of the Colorado river 
lies in. the fact that practically all 
tlie best power sites now being 
considered lie on the border be- 
tween Arizona and Nevada^ 
^ *'For the use of these power sites 
by other states of the South^yest in 
developing the hydroelectric power 
of the Colorado river, Arizona is de- 
manding high royalties and re- 
fuses to become a party to the 
Colorado river pact. 

"More than 6,000,000 horse- 
power can be developed without 
excessive effort by harnessing the 
Colorado river and regulating the 
flow of the water. This power 
can be distributed through prac- 
tically all the states of the South- 
west by means of the high voltage 
transmission lines which could be 
extended throughout the South- 
west in a network making it pos- 
sible for the electricity to be dis- 
tributed to the points where it is 
needed most. . 

Total Cost 

"The total cost of this enormous 
project, if carried out in detail, 
would^ approximate $1,000,000,000 
and would require practically 30 
years to complete. The present 
power market would not warrant 
such an extensive system and for 
that reason engineers agree that 
the system would not need to be 
developed to its maximum effi- 
ciency until about 1950. 

"Census statistics indicate that 
at the end of 30 years the popula- 
tion of California will approach the 
^„, and her indus- 
tries probably will have advanced 
accordingly. 

"The huge volume of water 
which could be. utilized for irriga- 
tion purposes by the construction 
of a 4aiu at Lee's Ferry or Boulder 
Canyon also would afford another 
tremendous asset to the states of 
the Southwest. 

"When the largest impounding 
reservoir now in use at Elephani, 
Butte on the Rio Grande river, 
with its capacity of 2,600,000 Ucre 
feet is compared with the capacity 
of Boulder Canyon reservoir with 
a capacity of 25,000,000 acre feet, 
it appears as a comparatively small 
project. 

"In considering the advantages 
of power sites, Utah and other up- 
per states of the Southwest strong- 
ly favor the site of Lee's Ferry or 
Glen Canyon which will back up 
the water of the Colorado river 
for more than 100 miles into 
Utah. 

"After considering the necessity 
of immediate action to stop the 
untold loss of energy which is 
yearly flowing down the Colorado 
to the Gulf of Lower California, it 
is apparent to engineers that the 
Santa Fe treaty should be accepted 
in its present form as the first 
step in solving the problem. Im- 
mediately thereafter the seven 
states of the Southwest should unite 
with the federal government in 
forming a permanent Colorado riv- 
er commission composed of men 



most capable of handling the situa- 
tion judiciously," Dr. Sibley said^ 

^ I -^ - — — ^ 

SOX AT BATCHELDER'S 

D. T. Batchelder, county JRrm 
advisor, is the father of a soj^born 
Wednesday morning. The j^vf ar- 
rival is to be named Daniel T, 



70 

re- 

lo- 

of 



# » 

























JUNE 2!, IBZ-j 



Old Indian Filmed 
With Miss Talmadge 

During her stay in the Mohave 
desert where she made scenes for 
"Dulcy," her latest coniedy, Con- 
I stance Talmadge met Chief Ug-Who- 
Tah, said to be the eldest Walapal 
warrior in the Calif crnia desert. 
Chief Ug-Vnio-Tah is said to be 109 
years old. He clalmV he remembers 
General Fremont and General Sher- 
idan. After being photographed 
with the star, Chief Ug-Who-Tah 
explained that his xi^ me in English 
meant, "Eat Much Chuckawalla. ' 
The chief is very fond of Ussidfl 
land Ella moxiBtera Ai*o, ^ 



I 



I 

a 









'\y^^' ' ' ''''^i)'r^i!r^:^>. '''-'.'H'.y^fX 







■"'"km 



:Le noted damage case for $0110 for' 
seizure o^ca^ss of deer, a horse, 
Iwagoii ancJ^amp outfit, brought last 
fall by Bryon Augustine, Indian 
jyouth, against David Squires, was 
>ettled by the jury's verdict for $52.50 
^n the Superior Court Tuesday after- 1 
oou. As the Indians, Gene Ray 
being associated with Augustine inl 
prosecuting the suit, demanded the 
jury, their costs for jury fees and 
mileage, filing fees and reporting, 
amounted to nearly $100, aside from 
attorneys' fees, so their judgment was 
an empty victory. In addition to the 
small judgment, the juiy recommended 
that Squires return to plaintiff the| 
personal property inyolved. Mi-V 
Scpiires bad written Augustine several! 
times to come and recover the horse 
and wagon. According to the state- 
ment of C. M. Crawford, attorney 
for defendant, the proofs showed 
that the property claimed to have 
Ibeen converted was of the value of 
bout $100, which property under 
he law now l>elongs to Squires. It 
s reported however that ^Ir. Squires 
as no desire to retain the property 
)r do any apparent injustcie to the 
roung Indians. 

The case arose over an incident of 
be hunting season of last year. The 
•omplaint alleged that Squires forci- 
bly disp3gsos^.ed plaintiff of the horse, 
>vagon, camping outfit and carcass 
|ff one tnree-point buck, on the Lake- 
iort-Hopland highway traversing the 
(luires ranch. Squires claimed the 
[ludians had been hunting on his 
find without his consent. In the 
;iigiiial obmplamt, the value of tht'*| 
)utfit was placed at $250, ;$150 for 
i(lei)riyation of the property, $800 for 
It he deer carcass, $1000 for invasion 
of their rights as citizens, and $5000 
exemplary damages. \n an amended 
complaint the total amount was re- 
duced from $72C>0 to $0110. H. E. 
Witherspoon and \s\ H. Hazell were 
attorneys for plaintiff. 

The case, heard by Judge Sayre, 
occupied all of :^Ionday and Tuesday. 
The jury comprised John Timothy, 
foreman; Chas. W. Englti ml," Lowell 
ToUey, Fred L. Bariier, Albert S. 
Kugelman» Arthur CV)psey, Robert D. 
Strickler, Geo. W. Johnson, Edward E. 
Lyon, Lawrence II. Fuqua, Chas. D. 
Lafferty and Oroville H. Hughes. 
Witnesses for plaintiff were himself, 
Gene Kay, William Fred and J. Van- 
Bebber. For defendant, himself, II. 
E. Witherspoon, :\L J. Manning, Mrs. 
Donna Manning. 



'^^KT-^f* 



■pBfiSS 



\4r W McCONIKE INSPECTS 
l-W.W. Mcc INDIAN SCHOOLS 

W ^yjT^UcC^^ Superintendent 
of ftndian schools in ^this part of 

r Wornia made an inspection of the 
CaUforn.j. m ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^„ 

rtrsdaT^ ting Upper Lake and 
^ Thursday, McConike reports 

, Kelseyville. Mir. m 

an exceptional record in ^he ^^^ ^a^ 
U c^Vinnl of an average attendance, 
r\ o«ess This schol closes for 
tee t^m on Friday and Mr- and Mrs. 

VRider are returning to their home in 

lukiah. ' 



( 



RON'OMA CAT/. 7^V 

* JUNE 23. ^923 




James HM»n, one of the oldest In- 
cllal!Li|^*iboIdt County, will at- 
ten"Jl^the*^Jmtennial celebration in 
Sonoma. The old redman will wear 
the buckskin suit he wore before the 
white men invaded this section of the 

<;tatp. . 

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JUNL 27, 1£^.?J 




A?-JNaS^°?=« «^„^rl^tcr^ wk ot . Kings 

«J the work wa. weU ««'«r ,^ i,„port<uil. .ccor<Sn« to the 
TO. bit of news TOY """LTin cooMCtion wiAniusic report.: 



I that America, in having no native follT Fore, had no basis for national 



rmusic. 



It is true that neither Indian nor negrp folk tunes represent the 
thought of the American people. Yet they have become a part of the 
people's history. And the music based on these themes is not Indian 
or negro or any separate music, any more lian the clear-toned bell is 
any of the metals which were thrown into tie alloy from which it was 
cast. The bell is at once all of them and none of them, but itself, 
Lo^u^^ba ri\e Wiij^tmg.^itiLeni^ all. and by the design of the artist. 

1-3. B B« 'XBpo'eaaq nosjad n„U9Tib ^^^^"^5 'ee^a sm nfBm^^^-^r^. 
UBS JO BaiBmui BBm no sinampod P°^ '««««! ^«°^«»V ■uomms^^.u, 



-X9 u\ pasn sv/A 'pioiB^i^ ub 'u|ui^io 



Aint puu3 ^11} JO :^JO(ida Q^'^ Jo s;j^d 






JULY 14, 1923 

INpfiCN YOUTH IS 

Returned to colusa 

AFTER HIS ELOPEMENT 

COLUSA (Colusa Oo.), llulV 14 — 
Tom Dock, aiy^ndiAn ySn^dHf, ^vho 
more than a w^^ A^jfieloped. with 
la Butte City Indian girl, was 
[brought back t6,J|olusa by Shej 
If. L. Cray ton Thursday/^nVMr on 
U charge V of- embezzlementT^ The 
l,irl was left at Susanville, where 
the pair was caught. The car In 
which they left is uninjured. Dock 
will have his hearing Monday. 

J. W. Browning of Grimes had 
Dock employed as foreman of some 
of his Grimes property, and .sent , 
h)im in one of his automobilv?s to 
Gridley to look after some' prop- 
erty. He did not appear at Gridley. 
Mrs. Mary Mitchell of Butte City 
discovered her daughter, who had 
started for GricWey, did not reach 
lier destination. She investigated, 
and helped to looate the pair at 
Susanville. 






;m 



JULY 2S, 1923 



^ Petrified 
Woman Dug 
Up In Creek 

Agua CirfxcnteyClaims j^Find'* Which 
Resemble* ^ndiati ajA Bids Fair to 
Rival King Tut. f 



Agua CalienW-^ids fair to become 
the Mecca of scientists, beauty doc- 
tors and ladies anxious to preserve 
their good looks, for last week the 
well preserved form of a woman, 
bought to be an Indian, was unearth"- 
d from the creek bed where it had 
vidently rested for years. 
The remains, consisting of head, 
[arms and upper half of the body, are 
apparently petrified nad in an excel- 
llent state of preservation. The sta- 
tuesque stone beauty was discovered 
|by workmen who were excavating 
and hauling out gravel from the bed 
of the creek near the Ague Calicnte 
Springs Hotel. It took the efforts 
of two men to get the "woman"out 
after the discovery, for "a petrified 
woman weighs something, we'll tell 
the world," said her rescuers. 

How the body found its way into 
the creek bed will never be known, 
although it is reported that an In- 1 
dian burying ground was located i n j 
the vicinity and that the creek grad- j 
lually encroaching and cutting out a 
wider channel, finally embraced the 

cemetery of the prigrinal settlers of 

1* . '"■'■•. 

ISonoma Valley 

The presence of many mineral 
|springs in the locality leid authentic 
itS^ to the belief that the petrification 
of the human body found here was 
due to the infiltration of the minerals 
in the wonderful water for which 
/\gua Caliente is famous Silica de- 
posits were found near the spot 
where the petrified woman was un- 
covered. 

The find has attracted much atten- 
tion and Tom Corcoran, owner of 
thf Agua Caliente Springs, has con- 
sented to part with his petrified guest 

id allow her to be exhibited by E. 
Perkins, q£ the village. All who have 
seen Sonoma Valley's original Venus 
declare her to be a perfect 36 and 
very well preserved, indeed, for her 

lyears. , ,■ . . •. . 

Agua Caliente i$ liable to hav 
istarted something that will rival the 
King Tut craze and has alread^ 
sts^rted to try to dig up **Stclla's 
affinity^ 



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jVUC INDIANS PLAN 



Indiana 
tlon, thre 
HlUs, -will 



[jahauc reserva- 
Jtff,^>' south of Pln» 
^S^brnV ■«^*^^ games. 1 
mil". ?TJ fWfi other enter- 
horses, dancing aJ^otfte ^^^ 

talnment Aug. 23to Aug. ^^^^^ 

reservation .G'V.'?''"e'at" dance and 
war dances '^^J^^'^l^n gchedvlrd 
other games hn^e »«e^ desiring 

for tllt,e»°?he «e7ebr^*lon can 
to ^ItneK. ^ne i„n taking the 

rotd'to F1- H,ili« and from there 
go three miles south. j ^^ ^,y 

X)ffloer8 have been appoi i 
Ihe Indians to take care oi 

officer. 



FOWLER. CAU. KNSIGN 
AUGUST ia, 7923 



AUGUST U, 1S2* 



SMffy-Gix TidianA Alio 
•ertianta C9;«ytyAvin l^Jbffei^ 
to the higff^tVffcderkt Re 
tober 6. "^ 




iLO^EN INDIAN GRAVES 

< LfODI (San Joaquin Co.) /August 
15.— On opening: ai ln^\A mound 
near Tracy L^, Aur milel north- 
west of here, ^ndi^six skeletons 
were found burlVd in a circle with 
their heads t?5«€ther an4««^lmir- feet 
out to the outer part of J^twelve- 
foot circle. 

In the circular grrave were found 
a quantity of waumpum, a stone 
pipe, arrow heads made of obsidiat^ 
and ^a large piece of carven abalonl 



GEPTEMBER 13, 1923 



.ll^, ~ ^t-A 



l^t Riders Coming 
^ JBor^odeo Contests 

Indian rideW fr(j4 afi far away as 
the Hoopa and Klamath Inuian res- 
ervations are expected to attend the 
Siskiyou county fair for the purpose 
of trying to ride some of the wild 
horses at the rodeo. No attraction 
that the fair board could have ar- 
ranged for could attract more people 
than the rodeo will, especially when 
it is known that the greatest rodeo 
outfit in the West and the wildest 
horses and cattle to be found are to 
be used at the Siskiyou county fair 
rodeo. 

Steer roping, wild cow milking, 
pony express races, bulldogging and 
other features will be included in the 
three day rodeo program, and some 
big purses are to be awarded to win- 
ners of the races and contests. The 
purses will be large enough to at- 
I tract the best riders in northern Cal- 
|ifornia and southern Oregon. 

The rodeo will be a typical frontier 
I exhibition, revealing all of the hard- 
boiled stunts of the wild, open, ro- 
mantic ranch life as it is known in| 
the heart of the big westert! cattle 



WTSSEN COUNTY 
FAIR OPENS 
TOiJjA^ 

Rodeo And Cowbo^ Pai^ Be- 
gins Three-Day Exposition 
With Hundreds Of Visi- 
tors In Attendance 

SUSANVILLB (Lassen Co.). Sept.] 
14.— Starting with a parade o: 
cowboys at noon to-day. a rea) 
western rodeo opened the secon. 
annual Lassen County Fair, whicl 
will continue to-morrow and Bun 
day. Hmrdvre^e. - <kt . vUltprs fronj 

and Nevada wer,e thronging inv> tn< 
city». early to-diy to participate u 
the festivities, j which. In ^dltloi 
to th\ rodeo, Will Include horse- 
racing\ crop lind stock j\|dging 
contestJ< and dancing o^ an ope: 
air platform ekch evening, i 

Fifty b\cklnji horsea havf beei 
•elected tk i*tch their t>raw, 
against the\ bil|iln of morei thai 
10b cowboys.\ •thirty bulls JrlU b« 
used In the bW riding confests. 
Many h||,۩ Entrlea. 

Many entrlea*^' have be^ re 
celved for the ikc^f • Some x>f th< 
fait horses In tke Wo state! hav< 
b©en secured to^ runs, on thef local 
tr4ok and ladlc^tlons\olnt V> ^a-sl 
times and dose |ontest^ Th4 races 
will be judged %y C. EX Er^erson. 
Thomas gharp a<id J. T. L5iie, whllej 
th4 field events will be jtidg^d b: 
James McClelland. Roy Kamse; 
and Fred /ohnipon. John >Doyle 

Adding to the colorful outlay ol 
the fair are scores of Indlans- 
Washoe. Piute. Digger and Pitt- 
•who have been straggling In her< 
for several days to take part In th( 
fair activities. As an Inducement] 
the fair has offered free camj 
ground, pasturage, wood, water anc 
Ibeef to the Indian vlarltors. an< 
has also furnlshe^ — «KJ*^uge teni 
for Indian he^»<!tquarteriL wher« 
they hold theljr dances and games.] 



Special 

A special 
created fo 
exhibits in 
ber of entr 
A prize of 
best example 
Is also an In 
rodeo. 



dlan Department. 

department has been! 
Indian work In the 
e pavilion and a num- 
8 have been received,] 
50 Is offered for the 
f Indian work. There 
Ian pony race In the 



^.'^- ''■;'■ ■.'■'■'•?■ v-;-^'' .;;-:-■'■ -'■■,.■ "r ■ 






p^5P: ■^.■'■* 



BIXS LAKK. CAT.., AmOCATE 



GcPTEr/^DER 20, 1923 



^Aged /ncfmn 'On Go' Agam 
Lucy Hite Scorns Young 'Uns 



, Hlt^is^^iqpn wi|th tlie wandeiitjst 
agriin) to^ie great distress of her 
fri^TOs and relations,* for the"" old 
Indian is nQiS^ so old ' that for the 
^aPt year she\ha>' been unable to 
;walk. ^^ 
'/ "But T want to ^o bnok and see 
Ttiy ranr'h/- she saj-s. "'l haven't left 
it for the whole wWtei" for 50 years, 
filfid ifs.f Ofin't gro baolv now. I oan't 
^o hack qnt^l .spriji- ". a\\ thai is 
very ti-ue, foi- tlie ranch is in a most 
maecessible place and Vor that rea- 
son T^ucy was- taken down to live 
with fidnie -niet'os. and. nci)hews ih; 
Mariposa.. when a sti'p|<e of puraly- 
Ris last- spring made it seem ini- 
POKSible fhat/ she could live even 
this long:. • • 

"The youn^ Indians are crazy'' 
she says, addinsr, 'they can't take 



and see the house and furniture 
and the rose bushes, and see every- 
thing- put away right before winter " 
The old Indian is very dictatorial 
and the young ones, who go to see 
her often from all parts of the 
country, are now afraid to go near 
her any way except on foot or on 
horseback." If we come in a bug^v 
or m a machine, she sure make nV. 
takf.> her home, and tiien, what will 
^he do when she gets there?' \\\ 
the Indians who could stay with hor 
are away pickinj,- grapes." 

Old l.ucy is known positively to 
he clo.se to the hundred mark 
probably. older. All her life she has 
been a leader among her people 
Old nge has impaired her physically 
but her mind is still very ' active 
i and- perfectly clear. 



m ■»i»****^-* • 



•,-*»- 



WEITGHPEC- 
HOOPA ROAD 



IS OPENEED 



Ski 




V 



SUPT. KfORT^M^ OF HOOPA 

INDIAN AGIBNCr GLADLY 

ANNOUNCES THE i?ACT 



iS' 



IT IS BUILT ON A GOOD GRADE 



Tbis Road Shortens The Distance 

Between Eureka and Points 

Up Klamath River About 

Thlrty-Ftver Miles 



t-^ 



s 
Supt. Jesse B. Mortsolf of the 

Hoopa Indian Agency gladly an- 
nounces that the piece of road 
from Weitchpec to Hoopa, about 
12 miles long, is now completed 
and was opened for travel last 
Wednesday. The road is narrow 
In places but is built on a good 
grade. It cuts out the Crick hill 
between Crick and the Klamath 
river at Martins Ferry, and it 
shortens the distance between 
Weitchpec and Areata or Eureka 
by about 35 miles. At present, 
people traveling to Weitchpec, Or- 
leans, SoB^s Bar, Happy Camp 
and points f urt;h^ up the Klamath 
in Siskiyou County, can go direct 
from E^ekE'^lLrcata, Blue Lake, 
Balr's, Hoopa and Weitchpec, con- 
necting . there with the Klamath 
River highway. 

Before long it is the intention 
of the Tf^ S. Bureau of Highways 
to widen that new road to Hoopa, 
and extend it up the Trinity river 
to Willow Creek, where con- 
nectiiw^^ill be made with the 
Trinfty Highway to Weaverville 
and Redding. It will follow the 
river all the way from Weitchpec 
to Willow Creek and it will cut 
out the steep hill between Hoopa 
Valley and Willow fCreek. 



:?» sM 






'.i'-k^ii t jfcMtiii^ ■ \t wi^> r^ ■ y ' 






CCFTEMDER 23, 



19^3 



CARSOX CITY. %T:V., AWPI5AL 840 

CCPTbfv10£R 22, 19;i3 



IMIS^ORWIN LEAVES 

$8500 FOR INDIAN RELIEF 




The will of/^\JjJ>e Lilfi^ ^^°^" 
|w-in, who died j^ Perfci^^^^l., on 
I September 12, was filed Approbate 
with the clerk of the district court yes- 
terday, says the Reno Journal. 

Under the terms of the codicil the 
deceased bequeaths her entire estate 
worth $8,500 to the Lake Avenue Me- 
morial Baptist church benevolent fund, 
Rochester, N. Y., with the stipulation 
that it be used in. missionary work in 
behalf of the In.diar>s, and especially 
those residing in Nevada. 

Miss Corwin was not ipossessedi of 
either father or mother, brothers or 
sisters, the will recites. She names 
as executrix Dr. Marceny S. Riicker 
of Rochester, N. Y., and in the event 
of -her death or refusal to act she 
delegates J. B. Boyce of Stewart, Ne- 
vada, to administer the estate. If 
Boyce refuses to act or does not qual- 
ifj'4 then Rev. Bremster Adams of Reno 
is delegated fof the trust. 

Motion' on. the petition will be heard 
at a later date. 

The property consists of a note call- 
ing for $1,000 which is secured by a 
mortgage on certain real estate, $3,500 
^|n bonds and $4,000 in cash, most of 
rhich is on deposit in banks outside 
R Nevada. 




fufe Indians Are Studied 



«M/. 



^M: 



vM'/ 



•^1/.. 



esearch Books Getting Attention 

^t ^ m M. M ^ M ^ ' iS; 

ColleoOpn Of Work Praised 



PQ|lTJla{MfI.LE, Sept. 22.— Kd-| 
ward S. iurtis of Lios Ansreles, 
noted 'Ififaianologisty and author 
of "The North Xftjflcdin Indian." 
a set of 20 volumls which covers 
virtuaUy all Indians tribes of the 
United States, has been a visitor 
in this district for the past severa^ 
days. Most of his time has been 
spent at the Tule River Indian res- 
ervation, where he has been secur- 
ing data and pictures to use in his 
volume dealing with the Indians of 
central California. 

On Wednesday of this week he 
was at guest at the Porterville 
home of Agent and Mrs. H. M. Car- 
ter of the Tule River reservation. 
who reside at 405 Kanai street. Mr. 
Curtis found great pleasure in ex- 
amining Mrs. Carter's collection of 
Indians baskets and other Indivni 
reUcg,yrfeclaring' it one of the finest 
of nrivately owned collections he 
Iha/Tever seen. He took pictures of 
lite a number of Mrs. Carter's 
)askets. some of which will be used 
in his book. 

Mr. Curtis has been at work for 
many years on the task of writingr 
land publishing: this set of books 
which has been declared the most 
gigantic undertaking in the mak- 
ing" of books since the King: James 
[version of the Bible. 

This set of books is proving a 
I most valuable feature of the mu-, 
seuma, colleges, universities .ind 
[public libraries of the country, and 
,is also to be found in a number of 
the private libraries and homes c£ 
well known people. It occupies a 
Iplace in the library of King George 
lof England and King Albert of 
Belgium. The latter buried his set 
lof the books during the World war 
llAr safe keeping and after recov- 
eSng them wrote Mr. Curtis they 
were none the worse for the ex- 
perience and expreijsing anew his 
I appreciation of the books. 

:he research work necessary in 

ir to prepare such a w^ork has 

Li pursued under the patronap:e 

support of J. Picrpont Mor- 

The foreword was written by 

idore Roosevelt, who was koen- 

Lterested in the undertaking of 



on 

beel 

'andl 

Iganf 
Th( 
ly 11 



Mr. Curtis to preserve through 

text and photo|:raphy the history 

and traditions of the first real 

Americans, the redman, now fast 

dying out— "a kind of solemn jus- 
tice to a dying race thus to make 
known to future ages w^hat man- 
ner of men and women were these 
whom we have displaced and de- 
spoiled." 

In this unique work Mr. Curtis 
has been aided by Frederick Webb 
Hodge, formerly ethnologist in 
charge of the bureau of American 
ethnology, editor of the American 
Anthropologist, and now a mem- 
ber of the staff of the Museum of 
the American Indian. Mr. Hod^e 
has acted in the capacity of editor 
in this work of Mr. Curtis. 

Fourteen volumes arc alreadv 
published and the fifteenth is on 
the press at present. There w'ill bo 
five more volumes. According to 
Mr. Curtis, there is probably only 
a half dozen sets of his book in 
the state of California, practically 
all of these being in Los Angeles 
and Pasadena. They are to be 
found in the Henry Huntington li- 
brary and art institute of the late 
Harrison Gray Otis in Los Angeles:. 

Mr. Curtis is an adept at pho- 
tography and his books contain nu- 
merous beautiful illustrations of 
Indians themselves and of scenes 
taken upon the different reserva- 
tions, collections of baskets, rug«=', 
etc. Mr. Curtis has been devoting 
from six to eight months a year in 
continuous work on his books. 
During the remainder of the year 
he occupies himself at other things, 
a favorite avocation being motion 
picture work. He was one of the 
codirectors of the celebrated pic- 
ture, "The Covered Wagon," now 
showing in Hollywood and which 
contains much that relates to the 
Indians of the middle west during 
the "days of forty nine" and the 
succeeding years. He also assist- 
ed with the filming of "The Ten 
Commandments," \he big DeMillc 
picture soon to bip released. H 
worked for 22 weeks steady on th^s 
picture. 



Sacramento. Cal.BeS 



MAf SELL HUGE 
INDIAN TIMBER 



TRACT 




Negotiations Poj;. K8JDOO,000 
Feet In KlamatlnESserva. 
tion In Oregon F<J $800^ i 
000 Under Way 'V 

Bt led a. McOLATCHY. 

WASHINGTON. Sept. 28.— (Bee 

fJil^^^'lrl^^ «^^^ °^ 526.000,000 
feet of timber on the Antelope Val- 

iZJl? *^ ^^ ^^^ Klamath Indian Res- 
ervation fn Oreeron, it was learned 

I«d1«« ^:%;^f"fir negotiated by the 
Indian Affairs bureau, which ex- 
petes to realize $800,000 oYi the deal 



8 &.^ dWx^-ittcU- Uo>t.(j^\<i;t2i. 



rnr.^vn cat., nv^r.^iu 

NOV::WSEP. 14, iCZi 



r*^*-^* ',f» 



DR. G. W. JAMES 
FAMEB COAST 
[XPLORER, DIES 

Prominent Scientist Suc- 
cumbs at St. Helena After 
Short Illness 



LONG LIFE 



Expires at 65 After Believ- 
ing He Would Live 
to Be 100 

George Wharton James, famous 
explorer, ethnologist and writer, 
died yesterday at a sanatorium at 
St. Helena, after an Illness of two 
days. He had been grlvlng a series 
of lectures In the bay cities when 
stricken, and was taken to St. 
Helena immediately. His home was 
In Pasadena. 

Dr. James was born in England 
tn 1858, and came to California as 
a young man on an exploring trip, 
during which he visited the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado, and became 
Bo fascinated with the Indian life 
and geological conditions that he 
decided to devote his life to study 
and writing In this State and 
Vicinity. 

NOTED ON COAST 

For over twenty years, Dr. 
James w^as a familar figure in the 
scientific life of the West Pacific 
Coast, and appeared many times on 
the rostrum in San Francisco, lec- 
turing before scientific, profes- 
sional and nature study societies. 

In a lecture delivered in San 
Francisco several years ago. Dr. 
James declared he had learned the 
Hecret of long life, and stated that 
he expected to live to be a 100 years 
old. 

He made wide research studies 
covering the geographical, geologi- 
cal, ethnological and archaeloglcal 
fields of California, Nevada, Utah, 
Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico, 

AUTHORITY ON INDIANS 

His work among the pueblo and 
California tribes of Indians at- 
tracted attention early and he was 
considered an authority on the 
Wallapai, Navajo, Apache, Havasu- 
pai, Zuni, Hopl and Acoma tribes. 
His explorations in the Grand 
Canyon was What first gave him 
fame, and few geologists covered 
the formations of that section so 
thoroughly. 

He was the author of many books 
covering a wide range of subjects. 
Among his most popular works was 
"The Old Franciscan Missions of 
California." 

He also served as sciem 
j{^tf>vaiUr editox^^of various 



Noted Savant Dea 




* ^a o S ii Si i»ti<Si>5<l5te B eia be o6o n ScSS3 ^ 



Dr. George Wharton James, 
explorer, ethnologist, scientist 
and author, who believed he 
would live to be 100 years 
old, but died yesterday at 65. 





H 



fifght Of Redman 
To Kill Deer Out 
Of Season Probedl 



ELKO (Nev.).| Nov. ^WI— Indlani 
and whites^avVgashedAin Elk< 
County oveiriie rfcnts ofUhe 
men to killftame out of s^Ron.l 
Aroused by^Ae slaughlre^ Q^deer] 
out of season, including ^^es and] 
fawns, Elko sporti^ihen have started 
an active campaign against the In- 
dians, and turo members of a large 
band were recently sentenced to' 
sixty, days in the county jail, for| 
killing deef. 

Leaders of the Indians assert that 
an old treaty gives them th^ riffht 
to kill deer or other game for food 
purposes. Under the terms of this 
treaty the chiefs are trying .tp . se- 
cure release of the prisoners and 
continue their hunting. It is prob-^ 
able the caurts.wUl.be called otn 
make a final decision in the ci 
troversy. 



UKIAH, CAL. 

DISPATCH OEMOC^'^AT W3 



DONA TBS ^miA WAX. .......^^t*;.^ 



}^S^s CI 



The Ko^s CJlub ladies voted a 

S !^lf'?^i'^''"il^^ ^^ ^^^ children 
Jf the Indian sAob] south of Ukiah 

The committee %ported favorably 
of their appearance and behavior 
aad their smiling appreciation of the 
!cirvA V 



l i iii ii w i tMi i yM. 



-V" 







UNDSAT CAL. GAZETTH 
t^ANUARY 4, 19€4 



■SBT'-^^i'"*"'..- 



.^^a 



res -..^^-<^r!r.T!f?. r.ir., 
iiuiii;firT3B^Ti-o r>Ari.T raws 



^MktfM 




W!:;:-:v:::->:::::vWXv::;.:.:%i:::::yiS^P::r^S^^::::;f::>y^^ 




SEEKS INDIAN WAR 
VETERANS' REUNION— 

Anton Mazzanovich, who 
^ fought in Indian wars in 
t Arizona from 1881 to 1886, 
s' is one of the leaders in a 
^ movement to have a reunion 
1^^ and encampment at Los 
L Angeles of soldiers and In- 
dians who participated in 
frontier battles. 



ij 



ivenfs~g5^ia Be 'fettlgeoT- A jgo T 

lent post could be arranged, with 

^he old-time settlers* store, pack 

train and other means of transporta- 

fion used in the frontier days. It 

lIso would be well to have an Indian 

jamp where old Indian life could be 

keen. And the greatest rodeo of all 

jimes could be staged. The affair 

rould attract thousands of visitors 

|o Southern California." 

Mazzanovich fought Chief Geron- 

lo's Apaches in Arizona in 1886 

private under Gen. Nelson A. Mil 

|e said. He also participated in c 

(aigns against the White Mouafain 

paches in Arizona. 

(Picture on Tages 12-13) 






M^a 



ians Enjoy 
Merry Christmas; 
Clubwomen Help 

I The Tular^ Cotl3 PederaJtion of 
Women'a^uls^were 'responsible* for 
the hai^y^rl^ that took place at the 
Tule River/ Indian Reseij^tion on 
Friday, D^ember 2irf ly€. under the 
direction of Mrs. Wml^ilger, chair- 
man of Indian Welfare, a Christmas 
program was presented. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hilger, accompanied 
by Miss Kate Hunt, went to the 
reservation Friday morning, their au- 
tomobile laden wAh gifts for every 
woman and child and candy, nuts and 
raisins for every one of the 170 
Indians there. As they neared the 
agency happy faces looked from win- 
dows and greetings were called, i 
Little children, spottelessly clean, 
smiled and waved their hands and told 
the joyful news, that the club women 
Wad n'ot failed them. The Indians 
|had placed a beautiful Christmas tree 
in .the school house and the loaded 
car also carried beautiful Christmas 
tree decorations loaned for the oc- 
casion by. P. L. Marble of Strathmore.| 
The little children gathered about | 
much interested in seeing the tree, 
blossom in such new and lovely| 
things. 

At 2:30 o'clock, after the arrival of I 
other visitors, including Mrs. R. W.J 
Fenn of the Indian committee, all 
went to the school house, where to 
crowded house the Indian childrei. 
presented their first public program. 

These children do not have the op-, 
poi^tunity to meet the public that is 
so taken for granted in our publici 
schools, and while shy, they acquitted] 
themselves most creditably, much tt 
the joy of the Indians and the clubl 
women. | 

Henry Ford, who had motored up 
from Porterville especially for the 
children's program, spoke very feelingJ 
ly of his appreciation of their efforts 
and paid tribute .to the stead fast 
friendship of these Indians during the 
past 40 years. 

Sam Ellis, in clear well chosen 
language, expressed the pleasure of 
himself and his people for the inter- 
est of the federated club women In 
them and their children. An hour of| 
"get-acquainted" followed. 

In the evening at 7 o'clock, thel 
people again all assembled in the! 
school house and the following pro- 
gram was given: 

Scripture story of the birth ofl 
Christ— Mrs. R. W. Fenn. Mr. Knick- 
erbocker of Fresno gave a very clever 
talk on "Good Cheer in the Heart," 
which he illustrated by chalk sketches, 
much to the amusement of the au- 
dience. Mrs. Elliott of Porterville 
read "The Christmas Baby" by Rob't 
Burns. Mrs. and Miss Bailey sang 
"Silent Night—Holy Night." The| 
children again gave songs and recita- 
tions. Mr. ' Garfield spoke of the 
pleasure it gave him and his people 
to feel that they had such good 
friends in the club women. 

James Alto, the Indian policeman, 
who has held that office for 30 years 
on the reservation, was helpful in 
many ways. 

The present and ithe treat were dis-| 
tributed and the Indians made thel 
house ring with cheers for the women 
who had made the day a happy one. 
The chairs were then removed and 
the adult Indianji^ had a dance the 
guests being cordially invited to re- 
main, which they did, until a late 
hour, when amid hearty handclasp and 
a "Merry Christmas" they said good- 
bye, feeling it was good to have been 
there. 

The Indians furnished their ownl 
music for the dance. 



:'f:'.'t*,'-*"),'"iA 



a1 ,An ■^'■N'm 




UNDSAT,. CAL. CAZETTII 
JANUARY 4, 19C4 



•^/lli^^V?;^ 



rV^'-';,-:!'".* ■■'■■ 



Ti.- 



•0311 ni nouTi>s 

St papDdxoim ^m Joj esoupoJiBd 

nsnnn ;soui %rm\ ssoioq^aaAaM 

Lnsnun bi ^1 PW ^J^ ^-^ ;uoSuii; ^ 

o S003 puiM JO ;soj,^ y[oxic JO uono; 

1331 9/A X13UA\ ^lUJOJU^O "T ^^^H 

[iiAv onu^ o> su 30 XUT3 J03 oiqiiniTjA 
n St oinix •soJn^u3A ssauisnq o^ 
unou oanfii3l mbj Jiaq^ SuuoAop Xq 
Ipu ^m JO nam au^ :^sniis2iB p3p\Aoad 
Cq satj^s eiAOui SunoX a3A3p ano 

lo XU^W -BRtJlO 3JnSI3I 3q> ^O SUl 

to-B SI Sum^ Xa3A siq> Xisnopsuoo 

01 3SP31MOXI11 9Ai3q ^^q^ siooqos lliB 
LtJ^Xeqi -^aoA^ qnp JO ^^^^^^^,^^^1 
los q:»tAA. •s:^aT3 oq^ m^^ oS ssau 
lisnq 30 euu %^m 30 eSpoiA^oini ^a3<I 

1^3 9A^q ^s-eaX ^^ Pl^^^ ^^« f'"^^, 
3j^u oo^J XTU3ppns pinoqs X^po^ 

U^ :^l 'Xqqoq 9q> --^^^^^^^^ 

ION FAVORED 

DIANSAND 

PLAINSMEN 





Anton Mazzanovich, dgWl fiS.yof 926 
Seward street, an Im^^^^r vet- 
eran, is one of the lead^ in a 
movement to have a reunion and en- 
campment at Los Angeles next sum- 
mer of soldiers and Indians who op- 
posed each other in frontier battles. 
Mazzanovich is now trying to en- 
list the aid of civic bodies and offi- 
cials of both the city and state in 
furthering the plans. He also has 
sought the help of a number of con- 
gressmen, he said. 

Besides the Indians and veterans, 
Iformer rangers and rough riders 
jw^ould be invited to the reunion. 
During the reunion and encamp- 
ent, which might last four weeks," 
;aid Mazzanovich, *'many noteworthy 
vents could be staged. A govern- 
ent post could be arranged, with 
he old-time settlers* store, pack 
rain and other means of transporta- 
ion used in the frontier days. It 
Iso would be well to have an Indian 
amp where old Indian life could be 
een. And the greatest rodeo of all 
imes could be staged. The affair 
rould attract thousands of visitors 
lo Southern California." 
Mazzanovich fought Chief Geron- 
o's Apaches in Arizona in 1886 
private under Gen. Nelson A. Mil 
e said. He also participated in c 
aigns against the White Mountain 
paches in Arizona. 

(Picture on Pages 12-13) 




idians Enjoy 
Merry Christmas; 
Clubwomen Help 

The Tular^ CotJ FederaJtion of 
IWomen'y^uls^ were 'responsible- for 
the haft/y^ill^that took place at the 
Tule River/ Indian Reseij^tion on 
Friday, D^ember 2ir\iuff, under the 
direction of Mrs. Wml^ilger, chair- 
man of Indian Welfare, a Christmas 
program was presented. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hilger, accompanied 
by Miss Kate Hunt, went to the 
reservation Friday morning, their au- 
tomobile laden wAh gifts for every 
woman and child and candy, nuts and 
raisins for every one of the 170 
Indians there. As they neared the 
agency happy faces looked from win- 
dows and greetings were called. 
Little children, spottelessly clean, 
smiled and waved their hands and told 
the joyful news, that the club women 
Wad n'ot failed them. The Indians 
|had placed a beautiful Chrisimas tree 
in .the school house and the loaded 
car also carried beautiful Christmas 
tree decorations loaned for the oc- 
casion by. F. L. Marble of Strathmore.| 
The little children gathered about 
much interested in seeing the tree, 
blossom in such new and lovely| 
things. 

At 2:30 o'clock, after the arrival of) 
other visitors, including Mrs. R. W.J 
Fenn of the Indian committee, all 
went to the school house, where to 
crowded house the Indian childrei 
presented their first public program. 

These children do not have the op-, 
poi^tunity to meet the public that is 
so taken for granted in our public 
schools, and while shy, they acquitted 
themselves most creditably, much tol 
the joy of the Indians and the clubl 
women. | 

Henry Ford, who had motored up 
from Porterville especially for the 
children's program, spoke very feelingJ 
ly of his appreciation of their efforts 
and paid tribute ,to the stead fast 
friendship of these Indians during the 
past 40 years. 

Sam Ellis, in clear well chosen 
language, expressed the pleasure of 
himself and his people for the inter- 
est of the federated club women in 
them and their children. An hour of[ 
"get-acquainted" followed. 

In the evening at 7 o'clock, thel 
people again all assembled in thel 
school house and the following pro- 
gram was given: 

Scripture story of the birth ofl 
Christ—Mrs. R. W. Fenn. Mr. Knick- 
erbocker of Fresno gave a very clever 
talk on "Good Cheer in the Heart," 
which he illustrated by chalk sketches,! 
much to the amusement of the au-l 
dience. Mrs. Elliott of Porterville 
read "The Christmas Baby" by Rob't 
Burns. Mrs. and Miss Bailey sang 
"Silent Night— Holy Night." The 
children again gave songs and recita- 
tions. Mr. ' Garfield spoke of the 
pleasure it gave him and his people 
to feel that they had such good 
friends in the club women. 

James Alto, the Indian policeman, 
who has held that office for 30 years 
on the reservation, was helpful in 
many ways. 

The present and ithe treat were dis- 
lltributed and the Indians made thei 
I house ring with cheers for the women] 
who had made the day a happy one. 

The chairs were then removed and 
the adult Indiani^ had a dance thef 
guests being cordially invited to re- 
main, which they did, until a latel 
hour, when amid hearty handclasp and 
a "Merry Christmas" they said goodJ 
bye, feeling it was good to have been] 
there. 

The Indians furnished their ownl 
music for the dance. 



T . ■ 








■R'"' 


-il^H 


^KfciiiMii" ■ ■ 


^'''^j^*^lj^^|^^^^^| 


■■k: 




jf 


'ii^V^^ 



ftiBPiiiihiiMi mm II in 



IW^'I-' 









% 



^ JUSTICE TO I 

_» average citizen probably thinks of the American 
Indian'rither as the treacherous redskin of pioneer days 
or as a remote and mystic Hiawatha communing with such 
kite of nature as are available to him. That too few white 
dtizens of this country think of the Indian as a present, 
Kving race, facing a good many modem problems, is at- 
tested in the neglect these native Americans have suffered 
in recent years. . 

Agitation in behalf of the Indian Has begun, how- 
ever, and should continue until it is certain that he is re- 
ceiving just and generous treatment from his white broth- 
ers. If it is true that his health has been neglecteii, that 
his educational facilities are inadequate, that he f *being 
unjustly deprived of his lands and of his proper means of 
subsistance, then all these things should be righted as 
swiftly as possible. 

A committee appointed last April by the Secretary 
©f the Interior Work has now completed its investigation 
and report. It urges that American Indians throughout 
the United States be given opportunity to develop like the 
rest of the people. A member of the committee says : 

"The problem before us is to make as rapidly as pos- 
sible the average American Indian citizen educationally asl 
well equipped and as self-reliant and self-sufficient as| 
th^ average citizen of any other racial descent. 

"The taking from the Indian by conquest and frau^_ 
land and finally liberty is the great wrong we must right] 
It would be a policy of selfish enlightenment to salvagi 
this quarter of a million of human near-wreckage an 
thus enrich our citizenship." 

Taking politics out of Indian affairs, enabling the"^ 
Indians to maintain their unique customs while fitting 
them to make their own way succeafully in our present 
civilization, recognizing the valuable contribution they 
have made and can make to our national life, and treat- 
ing them as able and intelligent beings are some of tie 
uemedies to be applied to the present situation. 



Indian Children%[^^ 
Thank Mr. Hearst 

The following letter was recited 
yesterday from Mr. and Mrs. Ama- 
dor Thrasher, in charge of field 
work of the U. S. Indian Schools in 
Northern California: 

Lrookont, Cal.. Jan. 12, 1924. 
"The Examiner," 
San Francisco. 

To the contributor of happiness 
to our Indian children at Christ- 
mas time, we wish to extend 
tlianks, and express for them their 
g;reat feeling of gratitude and 
pleasure to know that they were 
remembered by the outside world. 
When they learned beforehand 
that they were to be remembered 
by Mr. William Randolph Hearst, 
they were impatient for Christ- 
mas to come and for the dolls and 
other gifts to arrive. And great 
was their pleasure when the beau- 
tiful gifts came and were dis- 
tributed in the different localities. 
Again expressing thanks for the 
children to Mr. Hearst and the 
San Francisco "Examiner" for 
this good deed to Indian youth at 
Christma« time, we are. 
Very thankfully yours, 
Amador and Tressie Thrasher. 




X^W Delegates 



\ 



Selected From 
Floor at Ebell 



^ Delegates elected frorn| t^e floor 
I at Ebell club *Yf sterdajii*^fternoon, 
'who ^ill reprft th^I-Os Angeles 
tiligtricV conventi</n^^ QJemale on 
April 8\9 and 10 are I^Ms Anna 
M. Bake\ Mrs. E. R. Glbfeon, Mrs. 
CharlotteVliiggins, M^. Julius 
Blum, Mr\R. J. Booth/ Mrs. Irwin 
R. Hall, ]\^. O. G. Hfnshaw, Mrs. 
R O. BaldVin and' Mrs. L. D. 
Maurer. 

Alternates eWcted In the same 
way ave Mrs. \ A. Bradley, Mrs. 
U M. Swope, jnVf?. Henry C. Buell, 
Mrs. W. O. yicnHng, Mrs. W. E. 
King, Mrs. jf. A. d^ver, Mrs. Byron 
Wilson. ]MiC. A. J. Danger and Mrs. 
Henry 

Mrs. j/an de Water Vill be a del- 
egate /y virtue of her ^ffice in the 
clnb,iftnd she was ertipdWered yes- 
tei-d ^v } i^^}^ ^ ^^'^ vacancfes in the 
1 '. ^^f%f Sele'lales t» p alt^i mM. i ! B L '"^ 

Members voted to support Senate 
bill 966, which pertains to con- 
structing the San Carlos dam in 
order that Pima Indians of Arizona 
may have water for irrigation pur- 
poses, but senate bill 2313, which 
provides for. taking the affairs of 
the five civilized tribes of Oklahoma 
Indians away from the jurisdiction 
of local probate courts and invest- 
ing them In the department of the 
interior, was laid over until Mrs. 
Clay H. White, Ebell's chairman of 
Indian welfare, can supply detailed 
information on the subject desired 
by many of the members. 
To Help Indiant 
Mrs. White presented a resolu- 
Uon asking for $10 to help buy sup- 
plies for 30 Californi^JftAiiy^a and 
this wa's unanimOuMy passed. She 
stated that two other Long Beach 
clubs have contributed to a fund to 
purchase food and clothes for these 
Indians, whose names were supplied 
to Mrs. L. J. Gillespie, chairman of 
Indian Welfare for Ehcll club of 
Signal Hill. Mrs. Gillespie, plans 
to visit the Indians, in company 
with several other Long Beach 
women, and give them such assist- 
ance as it is needed. 



niVBRSlBB, CAt,! PRESS 

SEPTEMBER 15, 1939 



r.^# 



ILl 




livlng at the AaaTcallkt^ ^^^^ 

vlcted by a Jury in superior oo„,-t 
Of driving: While IntoxiSd. '°" ' 

The jury, in rendering the ver 
<Jlct, recommended 90 dava L tl 
prison camp as sentence "^^ irenS 
will be sentenced by Judge WiUia n 

nex?S J""* '"•"^"'«<' ^t the trfa" 
next Tuesday morning- 

.n''out".'S„i:r ""'"•'y Injured f„| 

Banning last June He wTf * f 
to the Banning hospitl C treal" 
rnent. Members of tv,^ C^ treat- 

Ss^^^strd^re^r s -# 

^rratically before the wreck^ ''' 






^MM^:n^M 



ED BLUFF. CALIF.— NEWS 
[JUNE 4, 1928 



■♦ • »■ 



HOOPA INDIAN HERE 

CREATE EXCITEMENT 



Chester Davis and Newton Bal- 
dy, Hoopa Valley Indians, appear- 
ed on Red Bluff streets this after- 
noon in all the paint and para- 
phernalia of the aborigines, creat- 
ing considerable speculation as to 
whether an Indian war had broken 
out. Questioned, however, it de- 
veloped they were advertising a 
dance being given by four dif- 
ferent Indian tribes of Humboldt 
county, at Anderson this even- 
ing. They said the dance would be 
pulled off, rain or shine. 



|U>S ANQELES, CAL-, TIMES 

AUG 27 1929 



I 'ncf lan A rtisani 
^ht Assurances 
of Fair Practice 




Indian artisan^^^^iifisui'ed more 
equitable revenue and a broader 
' market for their wares by a recent 
ruling or the Federal Trade Com- 
mission, it was revealed yester- 
day in a letter, to W. J. Endicott, 
former Inspector for the depart- 
ment, of 1191 Queen Anne Place. 
The communication was in reply to 
a protest Endicott sent to the De- 
partment of the Interior against 
the advertising of spurious Indian 
goods. 

Under date of the 12th hist. 
Scattergood informed Endicott, the 
Federal Trade Commission Issued a 
ruling classing as "unfair trade 
practice" the use of the word **In- 
dian" in connection with the ad- 
vertising and sale of products not 
made by Indians, and serving no- 
tice that the practice must be dis- 
continued. Endicott further was 
assured that his suggestion that 
the marketing of Indian products 
be supervised by the commission 
under advisement. 



San j ^ran^isyo Chronic ] 




RS DIG UP 
FOOT OF CHILD, 
GIANT'S BONES 



Remnants, Believed Those 

of Jurassic Period, 

Found in Idaho 

^m I I iiBi^M —III! ■■ ■ *« 

POCATELLO, Idaho, Sept. 2 (/P)— 
Discovery underneath a coverage of 
350 feet of limestone of what Is be- 
lieved to be human remains along 
with those of some gigantic mam- 
mal, was regarded here today as of 
possible importance in indicating 
the early existence of man. 

The bones, including what ap- 
pears to be the petrified remnant of 
the foot of a human child, In good 
state of preservation, were found 
Saturday night about half a mile 
from lava hot springs in the work- 
ings of the Bannock Manganez Mm- 
Ing Company. 

JURASSIC PERIOD 
It is thought the bones may be- 
long to the Jurassic period known 
for its prolific and diverse fauna. 
Thev were found in a bed of man- 
ganese ore, 600 feet above water 

level 

"We stumbled into these fossUs 
just after breaking through a six- 
foot wall of very hard limestone, 
said William Sharp, mana^r of the 
mining company. "Beyond that, at 
a distance of approximately ility 
feet, is a wall of quartzlte. 

ONCE DINING ROOM 

"It is conceivable that this was 
once a cave and that the mammal, 
whatever the species may have been, 
was taken there to be eaten. This 
cave hardly could have been large 
enough for an animal of such size 
to have gone there of its own ac- 
cord, so that the theory of this hav- 
ing been a dining room appears to 

be tenable. " , j. ^v.i 

Sharp ordered the work at this 
point be held back to give scientists 
an opportunity to study the preni- 
ises and see whether they contain 
anything else of interest to anthrop- 
ological research. 



TRIBUTE PAW FAMED 
SHERIFF MURDERED IN 
PENDLETON JAIL BREAK 



^9 ftfeVL 3tll! 



I On September 18, the opening day of 
the 1929 Round-UP. the ^eroic bronze of 
Til Taylor, former sheriff oi^Umatiua 
Jountyt s?lin Tn a iailbreak at /end eton, 
and the work of the celebrated sculptor, 
A. Phlmister Proctor, will be fornjally def- 
eated at Pendleton. In the accompanying 
article Fred Lockley of The Jo^rV^J-ol^nr 
[pays tribute to t he memo ry of Till Taylor. 

By Fred Lockley 

Today the heroic figure of Til Tay- 
lor cast In bronze, looks out over the 
rolling hills he loved so well. Shortly 
after Till Taylor was killed. I wrote 
a tribute to him. in v/hich I said: 
"Til Taylor has taken? the long trail. 
He died with his boots on. He died In 
harness, courageously performing his 
duty. He died by the hands of a 
man whose life he had spared. I 
knew Til intimately. He never raised 
his voice, never became excited, never 
broke his word— he was respected and 
feared by the forces that prey, more 
than any other sheriff in the West. 
He was of the old regime of sheriffs-- 
the outdoor type— who believed in 
doing their duty to the utmost, with- 
out fear or favor. It is to be hoped 
that Proctor will cast hiin life size 
in bronze, astride of a bronze horse, 
so that every visitor to future Round- 
ups may see him looking down In 
friendly approval, on the Old West, 
he loved so well." My hope has been 
realized. 

Til Taylor was of pioneer stock. I 
knew his father Dave Taylor, inti- 
mately. When I used to go to Athena, 
Dave Taylor and I would sit on a 
bench in front of the livery stable, 
and we would talk of the old days. 
Dave Taylor served as deputy sheriff 
under Sheriff SpeiTy. He was deputy 
sheriff of Umatilla county at the time 
White Owl. Apes and Quintatumps 
were hanged for murdering George 

Oossran 

X)ave'»* brother. Datilel M. Taylor, 
also served as deputy sheriff of Uma- 
tilla county. , T.^ * 

He served under Sheriffs John A. 
Prultt, Robert Sergeant, John l^. 
Sperry and William Martin, and also 
as a deputy United States marshal 
under W. J. Furnish and S. L. Morse. 

Til's father. Dave Taylor, came with 
his people across the plains to the 
Willamette valley in 1852. Daves 
great grandfather Jesse Taylor, with 
two of his brothers, came from Eng- 
land to America, settling In Virginia. 
Dave's grandfather, named Jesse, al- 
ter his father, had five sons and 
three daughters. He founded the 
town of Taylorvllle, Virginia. One of 
Jesse's sons. Samuel, born Februanr 
4. 1807. married Nancy Ann Phipps. 
who was 15 years old at the time. 
They had a large family, of whom 
Dave Taylor, the father of Til. was a 
member. Dave Taylor's father and 
mother were married on January 22. 
1829. Before they left Vizslnla, they 
had four children. William. Jesse, 



least we can talk it over. But come 

alone, or you'll have your trip for 

nothing.' 

GOES FOR MAN 

•'Til drove out the next forenoon, 
talked the whole matter over with the 
man and together they drove back to 
Oregon. Til got him off with a year 
in Jail, In place of a sentence to the 
pen. The prisoner, when asked about 
it, said, *Til is the kind of a man you 
can't help trusting and liking.' Too 
bad you didn't ask Til to tell you 
about some of the early day charac- 
ters around Athena — such as Hank 
Vaughn. I knew Hank in Canyon 
City. He had come from Kelton, 
Utah, where he had been working in 
a blacksmith shop. Hank was about 
17 years old when he came to Canyon 
City. I saw him have a fight with a 
man on the streets of Canyon City. 
Hank pulled his gun and shot at the 
man. The bullet hit high on the 
man's forehead, glanced and passed 
completely over the top of his head 
and cut his scalp open, • 

"In 1867 Hank got in with a bunch 
of rough characters who were run- 
ning horses out of the county. Frank 
Maddock. sheriff of Umatilla county, 
was given a warrant to arrest Hank 
for horse stealing. He found Hank 
and a companion campeft on Burnt 
river, near the Express ranch. Mad- 
dock got ^he drop on. them while 
theV were asleep. He told them to 
throw up their hands. Hank's com- 
panion grabbed Maddock's revolver 
and in the struggle Maddock was 
shot under the eye. and eventually 
died of the wound. Maddock's deputy 
was also wounded. Hank came m 
later and surrendered. He claimed 
that he thought they were being held 
up. He was tried at Pendleton, con- 
victed and sentenced to & term to the 
pen. I arrested Hank several times, 
and so did my brother Dave. 

•*But when It came to arresting 
men. I think Til had more nerve than 
anyone I ever saw. One time an es- 
caped prisoner emptied his gun at 
Til Til said to him. 'Son, If you're 
going to follow the kind of a career 
you have set out on, you'll have to 
learn to shoot better than that.' " 
SHOT BY NEIL HART 

Til Taylor was killed hy Nell Hart# 
whose father was a Mexican and 
whose mother was a squaw. In kill- 
ing Til Taylor, Hart killed one of the 
squarest men that it was ever my 
privilege to meet and one of the best 
known and best loved sheriffs of the 

West. 

On August 25, 1920, I received a 

letter from William G. McAdoo in 

which he said: •'Dear Mr. Lockley: 

I just received The Oregon Journal 

of July 27. containing your article 

about Til Taylor and I must say that 

watt *v7cii ^*** ' 4.V. ■ ♦v,rtiri*H nothing has happened for a long 

Noah and Jane. After they niovea ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ g^.^^^^ ^^ ^ j^uch 

to Terre Haute. I^^- ®^^^*^,,S^!f as the death of this splendid fellow, 

children were born to them, ^lestfii, ^ ^^^^^^ ^ell you how grieved I am 

Sarah. David. Mary. John. Daniel, ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ valuable 

Squire and Marlah. In 1850 tne J.ay ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^e an^ splendid Amer- 

lor's moved to l^^^^^^^^^* J%^^^' ican. The Pendleton Round-Up will 
i where they had another child bam- ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ without Til Tay- 

Ael. ^ .. ^loir^a iTi lor. He was a rare man and one 

Nwhen they crossed the plains in ^ ^ impressed with 

18^ Dave's father. Samuel Taylon ^^^ ^^^^ qualities." 
was elected captain of the wa=,on T^^rins the four years I lived in 
train. At Fort Laramie Dave s 15- p^^^^^^^^/^^^hen Til was sheriff. I 
year-old brother Preston died of the ™'^^" ^^ ^nd chat with him 
Cholera William Taylor his father l^^^J^^,^^^^^ S^^'^^y tU and I 

died of the cho f a in ^i^e ^la^k ^ q^ ^^^Y ^^ ^^^ ^^^y^^ ^^ ^^^ 

SarrSi^ed^whUe'lh^^^^^^^^^ ^^ *^^ P^^^^^^« ^^ *^^ 

Mary, aiea "^Jl;^?^^'^^^^ rogues' gallery. I said, "How does it 

camped on Sna..e river. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

CAME DOWN RI\LR ^1^^ swear they will never be taken 

Til's grandmother, Nancy Ann Tay- alive, if you never use your gun?" 
lor, chartered a flatboat at The Dalles rjujgp rjQ gg SQUARE 

to take the family and the goods to . , , ^ * ♦-i^ 

the Willamette valley. Will and Dave "Most criminals respond to fair 
drove the cattle down the Indian trail treatment '' he said I try to be 
to Portland. They spent the winter square with them. I never pull my 
of 1852 in a small frame house at the gun on tbem-I reason with them, 
corner of Third and Washington If you get excited and act in a blus- 
streets where the Dekum building tering manner, you are apt to get 
was later built In 1853 Til's grand- the mai;i you are after excited, and he 
mother ranTl^ardlnghou^ is apt to shoot They know that I 

water. Wash., where she boarded 60 mean business^they rarely want to 
mill Workers. Mrs. Taylor, in 1855, add murder to the other mistakes 
moved to Yreka, California, with her "ley have made. Lots of Prisoners 
children In December. 1855. she m.ar- would rather surrender to me than to 
ried Sam Waymire, a brother of Fred almost anyone else— they have faith 
WaymfrToYloS county. Mrs. Taylor, Ui me. They know I'll do Just what 
by her second marriage, had two I say. Bemg a sheriff is Just like 
children. Jacob Waymire was born any other job— you have to study 
m 1856 and Alexander in 1858. and try to keep learning all the time. 

When I interviewed Daniel M. Tay- If you ever write anything about me. 
lor scHne years ago. he said. "Til Tay- Fred, put the soft pedal on the bad 
lor was one of the coolest men I ever man stuff—that's all right for the 
saw even if he was my nephew. Til movies, but it doesn't happen that 
rarely carried a gun. yet he arrested way in real life. ^ ^ . ^ . 

criminals who had the reputation for ^T can illustrate what I mean by 
mooting at the drop of the hat. He telling you of a couple of inen my 
never forgot a man's face nor his brother Jinks and I brought in from 
voice He was one man whom criml- the agency. A prisoner up for life 
iials couldnt sliake off their trail, who had the reputation of being a 
One time an escaped prisoner appar- bad man— one who would shoot to 
^ntly hed thrown all of the officers kill before he would be taken — es- 
cff his track. He thought he was sa^e caped from the Oregon penitentiary, 
because he was in another state. One Jinks and I traced him to an aban- 
day the telephcve ;:.<^ng in the farm- doned house on the agency. I to d 
house where he was staying and cen- Jinks to stay at^ the gate and hold 
tral said, 'Long distance wants you.' the- horses and I would go into the 
"He thou<'ht it was some of his house and bring him out. I looked 
cronies, so he answered the phone, all through the house but couldn't 
ibut the person at the other end of seem to locate him and yet there 
ithe wire was Til Taylor. Til said, T were no tracks leading away from the 
have no warrant for your arrest— if I bouse, finally I noticed a small trap 
ihad. it wouldn't be any good in this door in the ceiling of the kitchen. It 
fstate. I have gone to a lot of trouble was just argc enough to crawl 
to locate you. Sooner or later I am through. The ladder was gone so I 
bound to get you. Why not face the dragged a rusty kitchen stove under 
music, take your medicine and have the trap door. I climbed on the 
it over with? If you will promise to ftove. got a hand ^^^^^d on the open- 
stay where you ar'e, I'll drive out to- Ing in the ^^P^^^^.?^.^^,^,f^7,,f ^^^^^^^ 
morrow and come and get you.' The np It was so dark in this Uttle attic 
escaped prisoner said. 'All right Til. that I couldnt see. 
*come on out, I'U wait for you. At' "I said.il^Jy name is Til Ta ylor. I 



am the sheriff of this county. I have 
come to get you. Come on down into 
the kitchen so we can talk the matter 
over.' I was surprised to hear two 
voices say. *All right.' I let myself 
down antk waited for the men to 
come down. They let themselves 
down on the stove and I said. You 
might as well come on in with me. 

"We walked out to the gate to- 
gether and Jinks and I took them In 
to the county jail in Pendleton. One 
of them was the murderer who had 
escaped from the penitentiary. He 
had fallen in with a ^^^^-^P "^^^"^ 
who also was wanted. They thought 
that I had a posse with me and they 
were very much surprised to find 
that my posse consisted of but one 
man — my brother Jinks, 
WOULDN'T KILL MAN 

••Once in a while a man shoots at 
me but not very often. I never have 
^UleS a man and I f^^^'^'^^^^^i 
1 have had men empty their g^^^^ 
rn? Then I have gone up to the 
Sin and told him he better come 

1 tr«. tviA irame was up and tnere 
^r'l^twnl m%he m^ Of life be 

"TSrKl ever made . proml^ 
he Sdn't keep. He was <>«» ^^g"^ 

friend. 






|fv:.,::,..V.V'..4S^ MAY 15. 1931 



•^•f'. 



RARY HEAD 




tiutiiitliti i itii'itif ^ 'iti M ith w i ^ 



Nlpo Strongheart, well-knpwn 
Indian, who besides being a tech- 
nical director and player in pic- 
tures, has started one of the 
largest reference libraries on the 
Indian in the Southwest 

Indian Film Worker Has| 

6500 Books on Early 

American Red Man 






By JANE JACKSON 

Nipo Strongheart, technical di- 
rector of motion pictures and native 
of the Yakima nation of Washing- 
ton, brings 4o Hollywood one of the 
largest reference libraries in the 
Southwest on the early American. 

Ill connection with his library of 
6500 books Strongheart maintains a 
priceless collection of Indian arts 
and crafts with illustrations of their 
origin. 

Library Opens Today 

The library opens today at 1722 
Buckingham road with reference 
volumes dealing with history and 
t-ography of America and Great 
Britain, International and inter- 
racial ethnology and anthropology, 
archaeology, philology and ethnog- 
raphy as well as endless collections 
on primitive arts and crafts and 
important wars of historical In- 

Strongheart Is affiliated with the 
Smithsonian Institution, with the 
Bureau of American ethnology, 
Oklahoma, Nebraska and Wisconsin 
state historical societies. University 
of West Virginia, where he was di- 
rector of arts and crafts as con- 
ducted by the government. His 
1 biography is carried In the National 
Cyclopedia of American Biography. 
Colorful Background 
He has been closely connected 
I with the show business for many 
years, having served as technical 
; director for Cecil B. De Mllle, Sam 
iGoldwyn. David Belasco and has 
played in many film productions 
He served as a scout ff>r General 
Pershing in Mexico as did his father 
for Colonel Roosevelt In the Span- 
ish- American War ^D."j;^^^/Vn 
World War he raised 1^53,000 in 
Liberty loan bonds and insplr»eq 
3300 Indians to join within ten day#. 



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cor ,^ 

Irrigable Ih>««^^''^5f5o' */5>f j*,"'""™ -rvO®^ avV*"^'.«\.o " .\ ^*' „aSP** , 
tribe as a whSfe^^^a f^L°'^ .l^^i^.x'^ ^ V ^ I\ »* ^v^P-^* V® 
purpose. ^'"^^'-<^4/°>- °t»>«'-| V^^% ^^ \*'^^ ^ ^^'^^leo^'^ 



Z^^ P°con reservation* was sur 
r.I *^ the past fall and the La JoUa 



veyed the" pa"st Tall' ;rd The Ta ;m^L^<^ xo^^ 
reservation is «ho„f ^,„7.® t;^:',°",^li «i, \>1 ^A■&«'^^^ 



- Q^ 



^ 5. 



fn These twf Iti'"* 1?* irrigable land riten to write 
that if fm K,'^^^?''''^"^"^- The laud 
that is tillable but not Irrigable ia — w .. 

suitable for dry farming. "^^°^^ ^^ x. The Indian 

I taking care of 



u the real rtmcrn-n... ,-,■ .'v- »l k 

himself if the government would give him the cha 
that is open to any aiien immigrant who comes 



that is open to any 



this country. 







him the chance 



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ive 









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SANTA ROr^A CALir, 
fr^fJESS-DKrvOCFAT 

-riX oil J-l^^i 



WEBB lELLS 
ACTION 

AGISI U. S. 

$1.25 Acre Asked for| 

Lands Taken From 

First Settlers 




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By HERBERT W. SLATER 

You may be interested to know 
that hardly a day passes that rep- 
resentatives of the American In- 
dians or their friends in this county 
do not call to see me or Congress- 
man Clarence F. Lea seeking in- 
formation as to how tho case of 
the California Indians versus the 
United States of America i- pro- 
ceeding in the Court of Clalins at 
Washington, D. C. 

There is an action pendm.'? in 
which California Indians are seek- 
ing to obtain recompense from the 
United States under promises mad- 
ia certain treaties in the early 
fifties. Some of the treaties were 
made in Sonoma county. 

While in Sacramento recently T 
- consulted Attorney General U. S. 
roi Webb who has brought the action 
an in behalf of the Indians of Cahfor- 
coi nia and he has prepare<l a state- 
S ment setting forth the develop- 
vid nu-nts to date. It follows: 



m 

pi 
til 
m 
er 



be 

or 

ex] 

th€ 

for 

pro 

uca 

in«: 



ho 
off."* 

EQ 

It 

[hat 

*ase 
in th< 

'rnme 
|)f sue 

equir. 
?ause 
'lar cl 

tf sue 

'viden< 
•lainis. 
ou wi 
pon.s f< 
[to in 1 
[this oti 
[Justice, 
ter und 
correspc 

T ma> 
I have 1 
nid cor 
part men 
that this 
essary d 
ords wil 
Hisly as 
consj 
Finally 
'hat the 
this acti« 
State of 
act of t 
referred 
sress as 1 
bursed fro 
and in thi 
repeat tha 
nia are nc 
to the cost 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA 
I^egal Department 
By Attorney General U. S. Webb 
San FraiA-isco. April 27, 1931. 
You have asked for detailed in- 
formation respecting the case no" 

pendrng i\. ^ 

the United States entitled, I n( 
Indian of California, Claimants, by 
U S. Webb, Attorney General of 
'the State of California, vs. The 
Ignited States," and in compliance 
with that request I am submitting 
herewith a copy of the petition and 
a copy of a letter addressed by me 
April 23, 1930, to the Department 
ot Justice at' Washington, and a 
ropy of the reply thereto, and I 
will here attempt to give a narra- 
tive of the facts upon which this 
proceeding is based. 
PROVISIONS OF TREATY 

In 1851 and isr,2 the government 
of the Ignited States, through its 
rf-presentatives,- agreed upon the 
terms of treaties between some 
eighteen tribes of Indians in Caii- 
fornia and the federal government, 
and the negotiations relative there- 
to proceeded until the eighteen 
Ireaties were .di-a tied, executed -by 
the representatives of the Indians 
and by the representatives of the 
•government and transmitted to 
Washington for ratification. The.se 



■ *«• 






M 



■■■<i 



i 






w 



:-.r- 

m 



nuentlv disposed of, or perhaps m 
<.ome instances still held by the 
cjovernment. The treaties, however, 
we.e never ratified, the government 
o]>tained, has enjoyed and still en- 
joys the beneficial use of all which 
it* sought to gain from such treat- 
ies, and the Indians gained noth- 

in*^"". 

"\t frequent intervals during this 
long period* the representation :of 
this injustice was made to 'con- 
gress, but further than repeated 
investigations all resulting, so far 
as I am aware, in no more than 
the re-establishment of the ulti- 

stating. 



V, „.^.. ^^- mate facts which 1 am 

treaties provided for the surrender | gy,^ AUTHORIZED 

• — ''"- *- = »^"" ^'^ Tnriinnw nf ^^^^ ^^^ legislature of this 



ing 



hy respective tribes of Indians of 
lertain lands occupied by them and 
ilje right to the oc<'^upancy of 
Vvhich was therein recognized, and 
the conditions of such surrender 
and the compensation to V)e ixiid 
therefor were in each instance fi|lly 
described in the particular treaty. 
The Indians acting in good faith 
and believing of course that -the 
treaties were concluded, surreind- 
ered the lands in question, posjses- 
sion thereof was taken by the 
federal government by its repre- 
sentatives and the lands subse- 
ts 



state, anticipating some favorable 
action bv tlie federal government, 
passed an act which is found m 



crii 



the statutes of that year, at pa^ 
1002, entitled: 

"An act authorizing the Attor- 

ncv General to bring .suit against 

the'rnited St.ates in the c^nirt ot 

:ain.s in b.Ualf '^^./'^.^ "^^ 
of tlu. State of Cal.to.-hia n ^ 

event that the congress ot th 

United States authorizes Hh 

same.*' ... .: 

That act, consistent wini__lhis^ 

A am Here 



that no money uroviVi^.i k,. ., ^^ i v^^^» *^ause no ^batempr.; ^. If 

been or 
[such cost. 
NO PRO PATA n^w.. Ithe 



Will . '• ^^^^liniere7r^ """ abatement of that 

^^•n be u.sed to defray' 



tie, authorized the bringing of the 
suit in the event of the anticipated 
action by congress, and provided, 
in particular, that the expenses of 
such suit should be paid "from 
moneys appropriated to the attor- 
ney general" for such purpose. 

The anti'cipated action of con- 
gress resulted in the passage of 
an act, which was approved May 
}^j 1928. This act is too long to 
qiiote here, but it provides that 

"A 11 claim^- -of-^w-ha tsoeveV" *nA - 
ture the Indians of California as 
defined in section 1 of this Act 
may have against the lUiited 
States by reason of lands tai<en 
from them in the State of Cali 
fornia by the United States with- 
out compensation, or for the fail- 
ure or refu.sal of the United 
States to compensate them for 
their interest in lands in said 
state which the United States 
appropriated to its oWn pu -poses 
without the consent of said In- 
dians, may bo submitted to the 
Court of (Maims by the Attorney 
neneral of the State of Califor- 
nia acting for and on bv'half of 
said Indians for determination of 
the eiiuitable amount due said 
Indians from the United States," 
etc. ■ 

Jurisdiction of such proceeding 
i^as conferred upon the court of 



clnims of the United States ami 
the right of appeal preserved, el.'. 

SEEK $1.25 ACRE 

The Act provides for the suli- 
misi.son to such court "f claims, 
provides that in the event of r - 
!!ove.y the lands taiten sl.all be 
considered of the value "f »1-^ 
„er acre, hut an estimate of the 
.alue of the per.sonal property 
which was to be delivered to the 
Indians pursuant to the lreat.es 

was not miiae. .j =„ 

section r, of the Act provides in 
the event a judgment be rendered 
ln%avor of the «.tate. from such 
judgment California shall '>« T'^ 
in.bur»ed for the expenses wh ch 
it hi.s incurred and paul in the 
p,<;.secu,ion of the action ^^^^ 

Section 6 pro\ uu s i'«« 
amount of such judgment ^^^^^ ^"^^ 

the treasury ol 
n Page 11> 









placed N^n 
(Con 



the 




v.r''^ '^^'^^ PAYMENT 

.'.oS tlm 7he' r'^ '''"' '^« <»<=» 
Shan not* be '!:'.^'T'^ ''^-vered 



paid to the 



I deem it proper to say that in 
tne presentation of this matter o 
the departments at Washington I 
have met with the most .symna- 
thetic interest and the 



earn- 




ceedine max- h^ ^ ^ i*™- 

vicled forT bill lof •'""'■**'''^' P"""- 
lion Of Sirfnon '"'^'^'n^ appropria- 

'he -seLaVe ot thTstaT^r*^^ ""'' 

^-"^ Mate of C-»Tirr.« 
nia at tui„ ^aiiior- 
ac ihis session k,. c 



""^ ai this session bv ^ZZ. 

Breed, has been favorabll Z^"^^^'' 
hv tK« ^.... AtivoraDiy renorted 

^his 
not 

'" the budget ;"n77or"tha; 



"y the finann« '"""^'''y reported 
'tern Of exp^":: j^.?'"'"'^- '^'"« 

Of the char^ter ha 1 *'7.'""*' "«' 
eluded i" *u„ V. . ' ^''oulf be 



[tea .son was 



aC Stio''"'"'^'^'^ "----ted 

|ll^ petition. whJch i enc^ 



■i;.f- 



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-J^^. 






'O. 



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^^ ffi 



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-§5 



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-^^i- 







S II 1 1 COSTS IN 




$15,000 Voted by Legis 

lators to Carry Case 

To U. S- Court 



(Continues from Page Nine) 
J^ niterl States to the credit of the 
Indians 

"subje'ot to appropriation by con- 
gress for educational, health, in- 
dustrial, and othv-r purposes for 
the benefit of .said Indians, in- 
cluding the purchase of lands 
and building of honv?s, and no 
part of said judgment shall be 
paid out in per capita payments 
to said Indians," etc. 

Section 7 provides for the enroll- 
ment of California Indians for the 
purpose of determining who are en- 
titled to the benefits of such judg- 
ment as may, be ultimately recov- 
ered, and I may add that such en- 
rollment has been going- forward 
^nd IS asserted to be well near 
complete. 

Section ?, of the Federal Act pro- 
vides: 

-Any payment which mav have 
been made by the United States 
or moneys heretofore or hereafter 
expended to date .,f ;,wurd for 
tne benefit of the Indians of Cali- 
fornia, made under sp-cific ap- 
propriations for the supnort ed- 
ucation, health, and civiiiz^ion 
of Indians of California, includ- 
ing purchases of land, shall not 
be pleaded as an estoppel ])ut 
may be pleaded ]yy way of set- 

EQUIRES MUCH TJME 

It will at on»ce appear to you 
that the evidence upon which the 
-ase must ultimately be submitted 
In the main will be found in gov- 
ernment records, and the obtaining 
)f such evidence it developed would 
[equire a great d^al of time, be- 
-ause of the pendency of other sim- 
ilar claims and the continued use 
hf such records to c^scertain the 
evidence pertinent to such other 
•laims. With this fact in mind 
•ou will better understand the rea- 
isons for the conferences referred 
Ito in the correspondence between 
this office and the Department of 
I Justice, and likewise you will bet- 
ter understand the recitals in that 
correspondence. 

I may properly say to you 'that 
I have had subsequent conferences 
nid correspondence with the de- 
partment and have been reassured 
that this work of securing the nec- 
essary data from government rec- 
ords will go forward as expediti- 
Hisly as it may, other interests be- 
ing considered. 

Finally 1 call to your attention 
that the expenses of maintaining 
^lus action are to be paid by the 
^^tate of California pursuant to the 
act of the legislature heretofore 
referred to and the act of con- 
gress as well, the state to be reim- 
bursed from the judgment obtained 
I and in this connt^ction it is well to 
repeat that the Indians of Califor- 
nia are not required to contribute 
to the cost of this proceeding, and 
that no money provided bv them 
has been or will be u.sed to defra^ 
such cost. ' 

'no pro rata payment 

Again, 'you will note that the act 
provides that the moneys recovered 
shall not be paid to the Indians 
mdividually, or per capita, but shall 
be used for their benefit in the 
ways specified. I make note of 
this condition, for many Indians 
Mud others have had the mistaken 
Idea that the moneys ultimately 
:ecovered would be distrtbuted pro 
!ata among the Indians. 

That the expenses of this pro- 
c-eeding may be adequately pre 
^•Kled for a bill making appropria- 
non Of 115,000 was introduced [nto 

nK 'T?h'' '"' ^'^'^ ^^ ^^^ifor 
Breed h.K '"''^^^ ^^' ^^^^tor 
bv ?he f' ^''" favorably reported 
^y the finance committee Thf« 



herewith, gives a detailed history of 
the entire matter, sets forth copies 
of the respective acts referred to 
coiiies of the treaties involved and 
such data as is pertinent. 
I The petition asks for an award 
of $12,800,000 and it is realized that 
the credits w^hich may be offered 
against the total sum found equit- 
ably due will reduce to a net the 
amount that will be awarded 
75 YEARS OLD 

•More than 75 years have passed 
since this injustice against Cali- 
fornia Indians was consummated, 
during which the federal govern- 
ment has had beneficial use of the 
lands taken, and from the Indians 
from whom these lands were taken 
and their descendants the compen- 
sation promised has been withheld. 
I am appreciative of the very 
great interest that you have always 
had in this matter, and am sure 
that the record which I am here 
perhaps but imperfectly presenting 
will •cause no abatement of that 
interest. I 

I deem it proper to say that in 
the presentation of this matter to 
the departments at Washington I 
have met with the most sympa- 
thetic interest and the most earn- 
est desire to right, insofar as pos- 
sible, a wrong which all admit, and 
I have been especially aided in this 
regard by the California delegation 
to congres.s, and particularlv by the 
Hon. Clarence F. Lea and iheHon 
Harry L. Englebright 










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ALTURAS. CAL. 
PLAINDEAL£R 



r 



INDIANS FILE 




,TOU.S.SlIIT 



/ 



1,08 ANOE'LES. CALIF., TIME*"* 

r 

>iOVEMBFR 21. 1931 

ifornians of / 
ian Descent 
arned on Suit 

filed c 




"7^ 
Californians M 

/Who have not yl 



desceni 
claims ii 



the $12,800,000 suit recently insti- 
tuted in the United States Court of| 
Claims against the government foi 
deprivation of lands and other] 
benefits promised in certain treaties 
made in 1851 and 1852 are urged to 
prepare and file their applications 
Immediately, according to Fred A. 
Baker, examiner of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, who is now 
in Los Angeles for the purpose of 
receiving applications. 

Baker will be in the offices of the 
United States Indian Irrigation 
Service, 526 Brownstein - Louis 
Building, 751 South Figueroa street, 
on the 23rd, 24th and 25th inst., 
for the purpose of officially assist- 
ing all persons of Indian descent 
who have not enrolled to date. 
This will be his last visit to Los 
Angeles in connection with this^ 
business, he said. 






'. , *.*.-^«.'.i,i», 



"<'$"■>: 



KOVEMBEH 24. 1D31 




DIANS SUE FOR SHIRT 
IFTS PROMISED IN 1851 



Whatever was. the value in 1851 



of ''one pa^r^f ycf ong pantaloons 
and oneSffed flai/nel shirt," some 
California Indian proposes to re- 

I cover the amount from the United 
States government, along with vari- 

lous and sundry items, it was re- 

jvealed yesterday. 

Fred A. Baker, examiner for the 

Angeles registermg California In- 
raans whose ancestors had a part 
in the deal with the government 
Iback in 1851 under which a treaty 
[was proposed and which the In- 
dians signed, but which never was 
approved by the Senate, The white 
man got what he proposed to get 
under the terms of the treaty, how- 



f ever, and the Indian Is still waiting 
for his "take." 

Eiprhteen portions of land cover- 
ing about 8,800,000 acres, valued at 
$11,000,000. were to be set aside fo5 
khe Indians in return for which thd 
Indian was not to molest the whit« 
man's settlement of the rest of 
California. The Indians, through 
Atty.-Gen. Webb, are suing for tha 
value of the land, together with the 
value of other articles of clothing, 
stock and farming implements the 
Indians were to have received. 
These included the pantaloons and 
red shirt for each Indian man and 
one linsey gown for each woman 
and girl. 

Mr. Baker will be at 751 South 
Figueroa street today and tomor- 
row. The suit Is set for hearing in 
Washington December 7. 









Would Include Descend- 

ants Living in California 

June 1, 1852 

Indians of California, represent- 
ed by tTTerrCalifornia attorneys, J 
W. Henderson, J. E. Pemberton ami 
James M. Hanley, of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Region, and Messrs 
Esche, Kerr, Wooley, Newton and 
Shipe of Washingtoi;, D. C, filed in 
the United States ci>urt of Claims 
I at ^Washington, D. C., Saturday. 
•December 19th, amendments to the 
jsuit filed by U. S. Webb, Attorney 
General of California. Today's ac- 
tion by the attorneys chosen by the 
Indians of California indicated that 
the Indians are not satisfied with 
the progress of their case. 

The Congressional Act authoriz- 
ing this suit was approved by Pres- 
ident Coolidge May 18, 1928, and 
suit was filed by Mr. Webb on Aug- 
ust 14, 1929. The United States an- 
swered the petition a few days 
thereafter. There is nothing on the 
docket of the United States Court 
of Claims to indicate that any-l 
thing further has been done. The 
case was called by the Court on 
December 7 of this year, and pass- 
ed to an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the recov- 
ery for the Indians to $12,800,000 
for sundry goods, reservation lands, 
educational and other servicesl 
promised by the Federal Govern-f 
ment in 1851-2 in eighteen separate 
treaties signed by more than 40o| 
Indian Chiefs and Head Men. Frou 
this sum the Federal Government 
will deduct any amount that it hat, 
expended for the Indians of Call J 
foniia under specific appropria- 
tions frjgyrn:4;)ie year 1850 to W datel 
the Court renders judgment. Mr] 
Webb also limits in his suit the] 
beneficiaries to descendants of the 
Indian treaty makers thereby leav-l 
ing grave doubt as to whether cer- 
tain California Indians whose an- 
Icestors did not participate in the 
negotiated treaties could be bene- 
|ficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in-| 
eludes as beneficiaries all Indian 
persons living on May 18. 1928 des- 
cendants of Indians who were re- 
siding in California on June 1, 1852. 

The newly amended petition does 
not limit the amount of the judg- 
ment but prays the Court, in the 
language of the Act, to find for the 
Indians of California, "an amount 
equal to the just value of the com- 
pensation provided or proposed for 
the Indians in those certain eigh- 
teen treaties - * '■ including the 
lands described therein at $1.25 par 
acre." 

The proposed reservation lands 
were appraised by the State Legis- 
lature in 1851 to be worth at that 
tmie "not less than $100,000,000." 
The Indians contend that these 
reservation lands plus the value oi 
goods, educational and other ser- 
vices promised ought to be worth 
today a much larger amount than] 
the ancient appraisal of the reser 
vation lands. 

From the Indian Board of Co-| 
operation, Inc. 



dRaviLi.c;. 






Amendments To 
Indian Suit On 
. File at Capital! 

Indian* of California, represent- 
ed 67- tMiK California attorneys, J.| 
W. Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley, of the San Fran- 
cisco bay region, and Messrs. Elsche 
Kerf, Woolley, Newton and Shipe of 
Washington, D. C, filed in tlie 
Unltejcl States Court of Claims at 
Washington, D. C, Saturday, 
amendments to the suit filed by U. 
S. Webb, attorney general of Cali- 
fornia. Today's action by the attor- 
neys chosen by the Indians of Cali- 
fornia indicated that the Indians! 
are not satisfied with the progress 
of their case. 

The Congressional Act authoris- 
ing this suit was approved by Presi- 
dent Coolidge May 18, 1928, and suit 
was filed by Webb on August 14. 
1929. The United States answered 
the petition a few days thereafter. 
There is nothing on the docfcet of 
the United States court of claims to 
indicate that anything further ha$ 
been done. The case was called by 
the court on December 7 of tL 
ypar, and passed to an ind^fini^ 
Idate. 

Webb's suit limits the recovery foi^ 
I the Indians to $12,800,000 for sun-^ 
dry goods, reservation lands, educa- 
tional and other services promised 
I by the Federal Government in 
1851-2 in eighteen separate treaties 
I signed by more than 400 Indian 
chiefs, and head men. Prom this 
I sum the federal government will de- 
Iduct any amount that it has ex-i 
pended for the Indians of Califor- 
Inia under specific appropriations 
from the year 1850 to the date the! 
court renders judgment. Webb als( 
limits in his suit the beneficiaries 
to descendants of the Indian treat: 
makers thereby leaving grave doubt 
as to whether certain California In 
dlans whose ancestors did not par 
ticipate in the negotiated treatiej 
could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in 
eluding as benificiaries all Indiai 
persons living on May 18, 1928 de 
scendants of Indians who were re 
siding in California on June 1, 1852.1 



,/r;>^.v''/' 









TLRLOCK, CALiF.~ JOUR'NAL 




ITTOiEySFOI 









r- 










Indians lof Califcrniac, Tepre 
senteu by their -California at 
LOrneys, J. W. Henderson, J. E 
Pemberton and James M. Han ley 
of San Francisco bay region, anc 
Messrs. Esohe, Kerr, Woioloy 
Xewto-n and Shipe of Was bins Ion 
D. C. filed in the United State 
Court of Claims at Washington 
D. C, Saturday, December 19th 
amendments to the suit* filed ^b; 
U. S. Webb, Attorney General o 
Californias T\>da|y'<s auction by 
the attorneys chosen 'by th 
Indians of California indlcatedl 
that the Indians are not satisfied 
with the progress of their case. 

Tlie Ooinjgressional Act auth- 
orizing this suit was approved 
by President Coolidge May 18, 
1928, and suit was filed by Mir. 
Webb on August 14, 1C29. The 
United States answeired the pe- 
tition! a few days thereafter. There 
is nothintg on the docket of the 
United States Court of Claims to 
iindicaftie thajt anylhlnj^ ifnrtheir 
has tieen done. The case was call- 
ed by the Court of December 7 
cf this year, and parsed to an 
indefinite date. 

Mr. Weibb's suit limits the re- 
covery far the Indians to $12,800,- 
OiOO for sundry goods, reserva- 
tion lands, educatioaial and other 
services promised by the Federal 
Government in 1851-2 in eighteen 
separate 'treaties signed by anoro 
than 400 Indian Chiefs air 
men. 'From this sum the Federal 
Government will deduct any 
amount that it has expended for 
the Indians of California under 
specific lappropriatlous from the 
year 1850 to the date the Court 
renders judgment. Mr. Webb also 
limits in his tsuit the heneficiar- 
ies to descenda-nts of the Indian 
treaty makers thereby leaving 
grave dou'bt as to 'whether certain 
California Indians whose ancest- 
ors did not participate in the 
negotiated treaties oould he bene- 
ficiaries. 

The petition as now amended 
includes as beneficiaries all In- 
dian ipersons living on May 18, 
192t8 descendants of Indians who 
were residing in California on 
June 1, 1852. 

The newly amjended petition 
does not limit the amount oi: 
the judgment but prays the Court, 
in the language of the Act, to 
find for itllie Indians of Califor- 
nia 

••an amount equal to the just 
value of the compensation pro- 
vided or proposed for the In- 
dians in those certain eighteen 
•treaties ♦ ♦ * including tho 
lands described therein at $1.25 
acre." 

The proposed reservation 

lands were appraised by tho 
State Legislature in 1851 to be 
worth at that time ••not less 
than $100,000,000." The Indians 
contend that these reservatinji 
lands plus the value of go-ods, 
educational and other servlcoi 
promised ought to be worth t )- 
ay a much larger amount [hr a 
the ancient appraisal of the 
reservation lands. 



JAMESTOWN, CAL. MAGNET 

DECEMBER 50, vm 

MmS' AHORNEYS; 
WOULD SPEED U. 

S. CLAIMS SUIT 

As there are quite a number |f Cali- 
fornia Indians living in Tuolumne 
county, the following from F. G. Col- 
lett, Executive Representative of tlie 
Indian Board of Co-operation, Inc., i^' 
of local interest: y 



Indians of California, represented 
by their California attorneys, J. W.^ 



ife- 



,in 



HendersoBv ^. B. Pemberton and^ 
James M. Hanley of the San Franciscol^ 
Bay region, and Messrs. Esche, Kerri 



ir- 

Woolley, Newton and Shipe of Wash-j 

ington, D. C, filed in the United Stateai^ 
Court of Claims at Washington, jD. C.i 
Saturday, December 19, amendments 
to the suit filed by U. S. Webb, Attor 
ney General of California. This ac- 
tion by the attorneys chosen by the 



on 
on 



Indians of California indicated that 
the Indians are not satisfied with the 
progress of their case. \ 



The Congressional Act authorizing' 
this suit was approved by President 
Coolidge May 18, 1928, and suit was 
filed by Mr. Webb on August 14, 1929. 
The United States answered the peti- 



!l , 



:i 



tion a few days thereafter. There is^ 
nothing on the docket of the United 
States Court of Claims to indicate that 

anything further has been done. The 

ere 

case was called by the Court on De- . 

! in 

cember of this year, and passed to an, 

indefinite date. 

ans 
Mr. Webb's suit limits the recovery 

for the Indians to $12,800,000 for sun- , 
dry goods, reservation lands, educa- 
tional and other services promised byi 

the Federal Government In 1861-52 in* 

ires- 

eighteen separate treaties signied by!; 
nore than 400 Indian Chiefs and Head 
en. From this sum the Federal 
overnment will deduct any amount 
hat has been expended for the In- 
(Continued>tfi['age ^ur ) 






Wl'SK' 



TUF5L0CK, CALIF. ~ JOUR'NAL' 




ITTORNEySFOIl 




Indians lof California^, rcpre-! 
senteii by their California at 
jorneys, J. W. Henderson, J. E 
Pemberton and James M. Han ley 
of San P^'ran Cisco bay region, anc 
Messrs. Esohe, Kerr, Wo-oloy 
XewtO'tt and Shipe of Washington 
D. C, filed in the United State 
Ciaurt lo-f Claims at Washington 
D. C, Saturday, December 19th 
amendments to the suit" filed h; 
U. S. Welj'b, Attorney General o 
California, TV>da|y*ts action liy 
the attorneys chosen iby th 
Indians of California indicatedl 
that the Indians are not satisfied 
with the progress of their case. 

The Ooinigre&sional Act auth- 
orizing this suit was approved 
by President Coolidge May 18, 
1928, and suit was filed by M»r. 
W*ebb on August 14, 1C29. The 
United States anssveired the pe- 
tition a few days thereafter. There 
is nothing on the docket of the 
United States Court of Claims to 
iind.ica(lie thajt anythiufe ifurtheir 
has tjeen done. The case was call- 
ed hy the Court of December 7 
ot this year, and passed to an 
indefinite date. 

Mr. Weibb's suit limits the re- 
covery for the Indians to $12,800,- 
OiOO for sundry goods, reserva- 
tion lands, educational and other 
services promised by the Federal 
Government in l&'51-2 in ei^hleeii 
separate treaties signed by inioro 
than 40O Indian Chiefs and" 
men. iFrom this sum the Federal 
Government will deduct any 
amount that it has expended for 
the Indians of California under 
specific iapprapriatlK}US rrom the 
year 1850 to the date the Court 
renders judgment. Mr. Webb also 
limits in ihis isuit the 'beneficiar- 
ies to descenda'D'ts of the Indian 
treaty markers thereby leaving 
(grave dou'bt as to 'wliebher certain 
California Indians whose ancest- 
ors did not iparticlpate in the 
negotiated treaties could ibe bene- 
ficiaries. 

The petition as now amended 
includes as beneficiaries all In- 
dian persons living on May 18, 
192i8 descendants of Indians who 
were residing in California on 
June 1, 1852. 

The newly amlended petition 
does not limit the amount oi: 
the judgment but prays the Court, 
in the language of the Act, to 
find for the Indians of Califor- 
nia 

"an amount equal to the just 
value of the compensation pro- 
vided or proposed for the In- 
diana in those certain eighteen 
treaties ♦ * * including thci 
lands described therein at $1.25 



t» 



acre. 

The 
lands 
State 
worth 
than 



proposed reservation 
were appraised by tUo 
Legislature in 1851 to be 
at that time "not less 
$100,000,000." The Indiana 
contend that tliese reservatioji 
lands plus the value of g^cdn, 
educational and other services 
promised ought to be worth t )-| 
ay a much larger amount '[hr a 
the ancient appraisal of tho 
reservation tlands. 



-and puu Joqt?t jo aaXoiduia :^sa;i 
pazijHnba 9j« uoi|«inSai pue uoi;| 
*spT?oj|it?a aq^ joj iCq^TjduiiCs jo 
VaaSma^ui aq; aoj Suiqiamas si 
« pasiiHD aATjq 'ap^oap %^nd ^\{% 
•SiCs ;jodsuBJ^ 2ui:^adaioo pa^n^nSj 

pBoa|i«a l^sill ;a^j aq:^ 0% anp Ji\] 
U^d aiq'BpajddB uy 'a^aiC v ooo*| 
-ind — sainsupui aaq:^o moaj sai^^ 
spisoJTi'BJ QT{% uiojj pooqT|aAi| Jia| 
JO tsnonilH 'spt^oJii^J aq; uo 
uajp^iqo puB uauioAv 'uaui jo suoi| 
-qoad iiiaauaS aq; pu^ maiqojd 
-ar; aqi). Avoqs XxSuiouiauod os ubJ 

•s^juao Q'ff :^uaAv Joj 
8X 'sanddns puB siBua^Bm 'siuj 
9*9 5[6o; saxT?; 'a^nop siq:^ jq *01 
psodsip aqi SuiAvoqs in^jS-eip S 
^uain^jBdaQ sa^B^g p^^iuH ^m P| 

savoHiiva SHi Ni 






qsiAV niAv A^m *pa^a puB asn^a 
G:>[BAVB ajB p|JOAV aq; jo a^doad au 
-moo aq; iCpi^s o^ 5[J0jt ^^^N ^^ 
-ut aq 1X1^ adoana puB sa^B^g P^|| 
-uii ;soui am jo saAi^B^uasajda.i j 
-uj aq:^ jo s:^jadxa jo aa:^:^Tuiraoo li- 

•paAVoiV'l 

'aSjB| ui 'i£|^oajipui jo iC|joajip 
-isnq i^aaAa 'iCj:^unoD iCaaAg -^qS' 
-oBJj B o:|. paoiipaa sbav saij^^unoo " 
! J^TiT8TjoTQ,id,uT PUB— uojssajdap a] 

dians of California under specific ap-l 
propriations from the y:ar 1850 to the 
date the Court renders judgment. Mr. 
Webb also limits in his suit the bene- 
ficiaries to descendants of the Indian 
treaty makers thereby leaving grav^ 
doubt as to whether certain California 
Indians whose ancestors did^not par- 
ticipate in the negotiated treaties 
could be beneficlari:3. 

The petition as now aniv^nded in- 
cludes all Indian persons living on 
May 1, 1928, descendants of Indians 
who were residing in CaLfornia on 
June 1, 1852. 

Tli'3 newly amended petition does 
not limit the amount ot ihe judgment 
but prays the Court, in the language ck 
the Act, to find for the Indians of Cali- 
fornia 

"an amount ec,ual to the ju^-^t 
value of the compensation provid- 
ed or proposed for thfe Indians in 
those certain eighteen treaties * 
* * including the lands describ- 
ed therein in $1.25 per acre." 
The proposed reservation lands were 
appraised by the State Legislature in 
1851 to be worth at that time **not 
ess than $100,000,000." The Indians 
contend that these reservation lands 
ilus the value of goods, educational 
find other services promised ought to 
e worth today a much larger amount 
ban the ancient appraisal of the res- 
rvation lands. 






rORTUNA CALT. ADVANC: 

Dt'CK MDiiR 50, 1031 ... . I 



KELSEYVII.UE, CAl-IT. SUN 

DECIiiilUti: -31. WSi 



Little Progress Made 

In Indian Claims 

Against U. S. A. 

• i * 

Indians of Califarnia, represented 
by their California attorneys, J. W. 
Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley, of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Region, and Messrs. Esche, 
Kerr, Woolley, Newton and Shipe of 
Washington, D. C, filed in the Uni- 
ted States Court of Claims at Wash- 
ington, D. C, Saturday, December 
19th, amendments to the suit filed 
by U. S. Webb, Attorney General of 
California. Today's action by the at- 
torneys chosen by the Indians of 
California indicated that the Indians 
are not satisfied with the progress of 
their case. 

The Congressional Act authoriz- 
ing this suit was approved by Presi- 
dent Coolidge May 18, 1928, and suit 
was filed by Mr. Webb on August 
14, 1929. The United States answer- 
ed the petition a few days thereafter. 
There is nothing on the docket of 
the United States Court of Claims to 
indicate that anything further has 
been done. The case was called by the 
Court on December 7 of this year, 
and passed to an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the re- 
covery for the Indians to $12,000,- 
000 for sundry goods, reservation 
lands, educational and other services 
promised by the Federal Govern- 
ment in 1851 — 2 in eighteen separ- 
ate treaties signed by more than 400 
Indian Chiefs and Head Men. From 
this sum the Federal Government will 
deduct any amount that it has ex- 
pended for the Indians of California 
under specific appropriations from 
^the year 1850 to the date the Court 



renders judgment. Mr. Webb als< 
limits in his suit the beneficiaries ti 
descendants of the Indian treat; 
makers thereby leaving grave doubi 
as to whether certain California 
Indians whose ancestors did notl 
participate in the negotiated treaties! 
could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in-' 
eludes as benificiaries all Indian 
persons living on May 18, 1928 de- 
scendants of Indians who were re- 
siding in California on June 1, 1852. 

The newly amended petition does 
not limit the amount of the judgment 
but prays the Court, in the language 
of the Act, to find for the Indians of 
California "an amount equal to the 
just value of the compensation pro- 
vided or proposed for the Indians in 
those certain eighteen treaties ♦ ♦ ♦ 
including the lands described there- 
in at $1.25 per acre." 

The proposed reservation lands 
were appraised by the State Legis- 
lature in 1851 to be worth at that 
time "not less than $100,000,000." 
The Indians contend that these re- 
servation lands plus the value of 
goods, educational and other services 
promised ought to be worth today a 
much larger amount than the ancient 
appraisal ,oi the reservation lands. 



Indians File Amendment 
To Suit In U, S. Court 
At Washington, D. C. 

Indiana^..nf 0»Hforn1a, represented 
by their California attorneys, J. W. 
Henderson, J. B. Pemberton and Jas. 
M. Hanley, of the San Francisco bay 
region, and Messrs. Esche, Kerr, 
Woolley, Newton and Shipe of Wash- 
ington, D. C, filed in the United 
States Court of Claims at Washing- 
-toii, D. C, Saturday, December 19th, 
amendments to the suit filed by U. 
S. Wedd, Attorney General of Cali- 
fornia, this action by the attorneys 
chosen by the Indians of California, 
indicates that the Indians are not 
satisfied with the progress of their 
case. 

The Congressional Act authorizing 
this suit was approved by President 
Coolidge May 18, 1928, and suit was 
filed by Mr Webb on August 14, 1929. 
The United States answered the peti- 
tion a few days thereafter. There is 
nothing on the docket of the United 
States Court of Claims to indicate 
that anything further has been done. 
The case was called by the Court on 
December of this year, and passed to 
|an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the recovery! 
for the Indians to $12,800,000 for sun- 
Idry goods, reservation lands, educa- 
Itional and other services promised byj 
Ithe Federal Government in 1851-2 ii 
Jeighteen separate treaties signed b:, 
[more than 400 Indian Chiefs andl 
lead Men. From this sum the Federal 
Government will deduct any amount 
Ithat it has expended for the Indians 
jof California under Specific appropria- 
jtions from the year 1850 to the date 
Ithe Court renders judgment. Mr. 
jWebb also limits in his suit the bene- 
rficiaries to decendants of the Indian 
treaty makers thereby leaving grave 
doubt as to whether certain California 
Indians whose ancestors did not par- 
ticipate in the negotiated treaties 
could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in- 
cludes as beneficiaries all Indian per- 
sons living on May 18, 1928, decen- 
dants of Indians who were residing 
in California on June 1, 1852. 






1^5^- 



H^^;<Ac.^'y'-x^,;-:-JtpAi 



:^,<:v'";X-.'A'-:i^,; . •'■'.- ;;v.-:>: ^{.'■^:-''-::^'''i^''S^i^ 



LAKCPORT CAI.IF. S£E 

£>ECEMPEK 30. l?^i 



<>»"■ (^ •^>'.v*'/»'... :^--.if .■ 






mOIIIIIS FILE t 

iEiEO sun 

1.5. CODBT m 
CHLlf. mEHIE 



Indians of California, repre- 
sented by their Califomia attor- 
berton and James M. Hanley, oi 
San Francisco Bay region, anc 
Messrs. Esche, Kerr, Wooley an( 
Shipe of Washington, D. C, file 
in the United States Coiirt ol 
Claims at Washington, D. C, De- 
cember 19th, amendments to th< 
suit filed by U. S. Webb, Attor- 
neys, J. W. Henderson, J. E. Pem-| 
ney General of California. Today's 
action by the attorneys chosen b^ 
the Indians of California indicate< 
that the Indians are not satisfit 
with the progress of their case. 

The Congressional Act authoriz-l 
ing this suit was approved by 
President Coolidge May 18, 1928J 
and suit was filed by Mr. Webb on 
August 14, 1929. The United States 
answered the petition a few days 
thereafter. There is nothing on the 
docket of the United States Court 
of Claims to indicate that any- 
thing further has been done. The 
case was called by the Court on 
December 7 of this year, and| 
passed to an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the re- 
covery for the Indians to $12,- 
800,000 for sundry goods, reserva- 
tion lands, educational and other 
services promised by the Federal 
Government in 1851-2 in the eigh- 
teen separate treaties signed bx 
more than 400 Indian chiefs and 
Head Men. From this simi the 
Federal Government will deduct 
any amount that it has expended 
for the Indians of California un- 
der specific appropriations from 
the year 1850 to the date the court 
renders judgment. Mr. Webb also 
limits in his suit the beneficiaries 
to descendants of the Indian treaty 
makers thereby leaving grave doubt 
as to whether certain California In- 
dians whose ancestors did not par- 
ticipate in the negotiated treaties 
could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in- 
cludes as beneficiaries all Indianj 
persons living on May 18, 1928 de- 
scendants of Indians who were re- 
l^iding in California on June 1, 1852. 
The newly amended petition does 
^t limit the amount of judgment 
^t prays the court, in the Ian- 
tee of the Act, to find for the 
tans of California "an amount 
Wt to the just value of thel 
t^pensation provided or proposedl 
ie Indians in those certain! 
treateis . . . including the] 
scribed therein at $12* 
per acre.' 
The proposed 

^ere ^VP^^^^^^^^v/^rS!' 
lature in -^^^^^m^ $100,000,^^^ 
time "not l^^s-^ ^^iese res- 

The Indians c.^^*^^^. the value o 
ervation ^^^^^^i^'^nd ot^er ser- 
goods, educational ana ^ ^ ^ 

lices promised ought t^^^^^ ^^^, 
indav a much largei yeser 

Se ancient appraisal of the 

vation lands. 



RIO Vi(iTA. C.fLlF. NEWS 

Di:;ci::>iuErv 01, x^3i 

California Indians 
nr(j Demand Action] 

Indd-ans of California, represented 

I by their California attorneys, J. W. 
Henderson, J. E. Piemib'erton and 
James M. HanJey, of the San Pran- 
clsco bay region, and Messrs. Esche, 
Kerr, WooUey, Newton and Shi^pe of 

I Washington, D. C, filed in the United 
States lOourt of Claims at Washington, 
D. C, Saturday, Deoem'bei' 19, amend- 
ments to the suit filed by U. S. W^bb, 
attorney general of iCalifornia. To- 
day's taction by the attorneys chosen 
by the Indiians of California indicated 

ithat the Indians are not satisfied with 

I the progress of th«eir cas^. 

The congressional act authorizing 

I this suit was ta(p(proved by President 

iCoolidge, May 18, 1928, and suit wa« 
filed by Mr. Webb on August 14, 1929, 
The United States answered the Peti- 
tion a -few days thereafter. There is 
nothing on the docket of the United 
States count of claims to indicate that 
anything further has been done. The 

lease was called by the court on De- 
cember 7 of this year, and passed 

|to an indefinite date. 

Mr. Welhb's suit limits the recovery 

Ifor the Indians to $12,800,000 for sun- 

Jdry goods, reservation lands, educa- 
:ional and other services pi'omised by 

|th«e federal igovernment in 1851 — (2) 

lin eighteen separat^^ treaties signed 
>y more than 400 Indian chiefs and 
lead men. From this sum the federal 
government will deduct any amount 
that It has expended for thg Indians 
)f California under specific 'aippro»pria- 
tions from the yeai' 1850 to the date 
the court renders judgment. Mr. Webb 

lalso limits in his suit the beneficiaries 

|to descendants of the Indian treaty 
takers thereby leaving grave doubt 

las' to whether certain California In- 
dians whose ances<tors did not partici- 
pate ^^ ^^"^ negotiated treaties could 

|be beneficiaries. 

The ipetition as now amended in- 

Icludes as beneficiaries all Indian peo- 

Isons living on May 18, 1328, descend- 
ants of Indians who were re&iding In 

I California on June 1, 1852. 

The newly amended Ipetition doesj 
not limit the amount of the Judgment 

I but .prays the court. In the language' 

lof the Act, to find for the Indlaxus af| 
California. 

"an amount eQual to the just value 
of Jhe compensation provided or pro- 
posed for the Indians in those certain 
eighteen treaties ♦ ♦ ♦ Including 
the lands described therein at $1.25 

iPei* acre." 

The ^proposed reservation lands were 
lapipraised hy the -state legislature in 
1851 to be worth at that time "not 
less than $100,000,000." The Indians 
contend that these reservation lands 
[plus the value of goods, educational 
[nd oth^F"Wf3u4€efi promised ought to 

ty a much lar^gier amount 
iraisal of the res^' 




MARIPOSA CALir. GAZETTE 

DECEMUEK 31. 1931 « 



»-' ■♦^•-^ 




U. S. SUIT FOR 

TREATY mm 



Indians of California, renresented 



by their CalilOTni^ attorneys, J. W. 
Kencjarson, J. 'p. F^emteiton and 
James M. Hanley, of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Region, and Messrs, Esche, 
Flerr, Wiilley, Newton and Shipe of 
Washington, D. C, filed in tiie U. S. 
Court of Claims at Washington, D. 
C, Saturday, December 19th, amend 
ments to the suit filed by U. S. 
Webb, Attorney General of Califor- 
nia. Today's action by the attor- 
neys chosen by the Indians of Cal- 
ifornia indicated that the Indians 
are not satisfied with the progress 
of their case. 

The Congressional Act authoriz- 
ing this suit was approved by Pres- 
ident Coolidge May 18, 1928, and 
suit was filed by Mr. Webb on Aug- 
ust 14, 1929. The United States 
answered the petition a few days 
thereafter. There is nothing on the 
docket of the United States Court 
of Claims to indicate that anything 
further has been done. The case 
was called by the Court on Decem- 
ber 7th of htis year, and passed to 
an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the re- 
covery for the Indians to $12,800,000 
for sundry goods, reservation lands, |! 
educational and other services prom 
ised by the Federal Government in 
1851-2 in eighteen separate treaties 
signed by more than 400 Indian 
chiefs and head men. From this 
sum the Federal Government will 
deduct any amount that it has ex- 
pended for the Indians of California 
under specific appropriations from 
the year 1850 to the date the Court 
renders judgment. Mr. Webb also 
limits in his suit the beneficiar- 
ies to descendants of the Indian 
treaty makers, thereby leaving 
grave doubt as to whether certain 
California Indians whose ancestors 
id not participate in the negotiated 
reaties could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended 
includes as beneficiaries all Indian 
persons living on May 18, 1928, de- 
scendants of Indians who were resid 
ing in California on June 1, 1852. 

The newly amended petition does 
riot limit the amount of the judg- 
ment but prays the court, in the lan- 
guage of the Act, to find for the 
Indians of California "an amount 
equal to the just value of the com- 
pensation provided or proposed for 
the Indians in those certain eighteen 
treaties * * including the lands de- 
scribed therein at $1.25 per acre.'* 

The proposed reservation lands 
were appraised by the State Legis- 
lature in 1851 to be worth at that 
time '^ot less than $100,000,000". 
The Indians contend that these res- 
ervation lands plus the value of 
goods, educational and other ser- 
vices promised ought to be v/orth 
today a much larger amount tlian 
payments to us, even though these 
payments be extended over an ad- 
ditional number of years. 

But an elephantine foot should 
be set down for all time on this talk 
of cancelling a portion or all of tlie 
debt they owe us. 

The foolish virgins of old went 
out without any oil in their lamps. 
Let's not emulate them by blunder- 
ing around without any brains in 
our heads. 



DECEMBER 31. 1931 

BlWUSl^BIG SUMS 



/VSl^B] 

::;aiifom 



including the lands described there 



Indians of Califorf iaT^ei^esent- 
,d by their UaliluTma attfcmeys, 
J W Henderson, J. E. Peniberton 
and James M. Hanley, of t^e San 
Francisco Bay Region, and Messrs. 
Esche, Kerr, WoUey. Newton and 
Shipe of Washington, DC., niea 
in the united States Court of 
Claims at Washington. D. C, Sat 
urday. December 19th, amendments 
?o the suit filed by U. S Webb. At- 
torney General of California. To- 
day's action by the attorneys chos- 
en by the Indians of California m- 
dicated that the Indians are not 
satisfied with the progress of their 

case. 

The Congressional Act authoriz- 
ing this suit was approved by Pres- 
ident Coolidge May 18. 1928, and 
suit was filed by Mr. Webb on Aug- 
ust 14 1299. The United States an- 
swered the petition a few days 
thereafter. There is nothing on the 
docket of the United States Cour<- 
of Claims to indicate that anythmi 
further has been done. The case 
was called by the Court on Decem- 
ber 7 of this year, and passed to 
an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the re- 
covery for the Indians to $12,000. 
000 for sundry goods, reservation 
lands, educational and other ser- 
vices promised by the Federal Gov- 
ernment in 1851 - 2 in eighteen 
seperate treaties signed by more 
than 400 Indian Chiefs and Head 
Men From this sum the Federal 
Government will deduct any a- 
mount that it has expended for the 
Indians of California under speci- 
fic appropriations from the year 
1850 to the date the Court renders 
judgment. Mr. Webb also limits in 
his suit the beneficiaries to des- 
cendants of the Indian treaty 
makers thereby leaving grave 
doubt as toi whether certam Cali- 
fornia Indians whose ancestors did 
not participate in the negotiated 
treaties could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in- 
cludes as beneficiaries all Indian 
persons living on May 18, 1928 de- 
scendants of Indians who were re- 
siding in California on June 1. 1852. 
The newly amended petition 
does not limit the amount of the 
judp-ment but prays the Court, in 
the"^ language of the Act, to find 
fo- t^?^ Indians of California • 

"pn amount eoiial to the just 
valiiV 0^" the comDcnsation provid- 
.ed -- b'oposed for the Indians m 
[lYy^r-.^ <— -tain eighteen treaties * 



^ -^ ., I 

in at $1.25 per acre. ^. „ ,,„hJ 
The proDOsed reservation lands, 
were appraised by the State Leg- j 
islature"^ in 1851 to be ^orth at the 
tim-* "not less than $100,000,000. 
The Indians contend that these 
Reservation lands plus f^ jalue o 
eoods, educational and other ser 
vices promised ought to be worUJ^ 
today a much larger amountt^n | 
the ancient appraisal of th^ser 
vation lands. 










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UN5MUIR, CAi:, NEWS 
IAN. 1, r.^02 



v**/ 



A^eian< 



State Indians Amend 
Suit Against U. S. 

-^ "-f " 

Indians of California, represented 
by their California attorneys, filed 
in the United States court of claims 
at Washington, D. C, Saturday, De- 
cember 19, amendments to the suit 
filed by U. S. Webb, attorney gen- 
eral of California. This action by 
the attorneys chosen by the Indians 
of California indicated that the In- 
dians are not satisfied with the pro- 
gress of their case. 

The congressional act authorizing 
this suit was approved by President 
Coolidge May 18, 1928, and suit was 
filed by Webb on August 14, 1929. 
The United States answered the pe- 
tition a few days thereafter. There 
is nothing on the docket of the 
United States court of claims to in- 
dicate that anything has been done. 
The case was called by the court on 
December 7, and passed to an in- 
definite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the recovery 
for the Indians to $12,800,000 for 
sundry goods, reservation lands, edu- 
cational and other services promised 
by the federal government in 1851- 
1852 in eighteen separate treaties 
signed by more than four hundred 
Indian chiefs and head men. From 
this sum the federal government will 
deduct any amount that it has ex- 
pended for the Indians of California 
under specific appropriations from 
the year 1850 to the date the court 
renders judgment. Mr. Webb also 
limits in his suit the beneficiaries 
to descendants of the Indian treaty- 
makers, thereby leaving grave doubt 
as to whether certain California 
Indians whose ancestors did not par- 
ticipate in the negotiated treaties 
could be beneficiaries. 

The petition as now amended in- 
cludes as beneficiaries all Indian 
persons living on May 18, 1928, de- 
scendants of Indians who were resid- 
ing in California on June 1, 1852. 

The newly amended petition does 
not limit the amount of the judg- 
ment but prays the court, in the 
language of the act, to find for the 
Indians of California "an amount 
equal to the just value of the com- 
pensation provided or proposed for 
the Indians in those certain eighteen 
treaties . . . including ,the lands de- 
scribed therein at $1.25 per acre." 

The proposed reservation lands 
were appraised by the state legis- 
lature in 1851 to be worth at that 
time "not less than $100,000,000." 
Re Indians contend that these res- 
ervation lands plus tl^^alue 
oods, educational an4--^^^ervkes 
tSni^d to be worth today a miich 
amount than '1>l;ve ancient ap- 
the reservatum lands. / 













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'AliliBItOOK, CAIjir., 

JANUARY 1. 1932 



ato 



Calif. lvMfl%s V8. 

IL^SrftjOvt.Case Is 
\/^reatiugCpniment 

Indianft^ CMuordbt, represented 
by their California fttorneya, J. W. 
Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley, of the San Fran* 
Cisco Bay Region, and Messrs. Es- 
che, Kerr, Woolley, Newton and 
Shipe of Washington, D. C, filed in 
the United States Court of Claims 
at Washington, D. C, Saturday, 
I December 19, amendments to the 
suit filed by U. S. Webb, Attorney 
[Oeneral of California. Today's ac** 
/ion by the attorneys chosen by the 
[Indians of California indicated that 
the Indians ai ^ r\f%t st^\^^fit^ with 

the prnrrrTfr or tUfU sassi 

The Congressional Act authoriz- 
ing this suit was approved by Pres- 
ident Coolidge May 18, 1928, and 
suit was filed by Webb on August 
14, 1929. The United States answer- 
ed the petition a few days there- 
after. There is nothing on the 
docket of the United States Court of 
Claims to indicate that anything 
i[urther has been done. The case 



was called by the Court on Decem- 
ber 7 of this year, and passed to 
an indefinite date. 

Webb's suit limits the recovery for 
the Indians to $12,800,000 for sun- 
dry goods, reservation lands, educa- 
tional and other services promised 
ty the Federal Government in 1851 
— 2 in eighteen separate treaties 
signed by more than 400 Indian 
Chiefs and Head Men. From this 
sum the Federal Government will 
deduct any amount that it has ex- 
pended for the Indians of California 
\mder specific appropriations from 
the year 1850 to the date the Court 
renders Judgment. Webb also lim- 
its in his suit the beneficiaries to 
descendants of the Indian treaty 
makers thereby leaving grave doubt 
as to whether certain California In- 
dians whose ancestors did not par- 
ticipate in the negotiated treaties 
could be beneficiaries. 

Petition Amended 

The petition as now amended in- 



\ 



eludes as beneficiaries all Inc 
persons living on May 18, 1928, 
cendants of Indians who were resi( 
ing in California on June 1, 1852. 

The newly amended petition does 
not limit the amount of the judg- 
ment but prays the Court, in the 
language of the Act, to find for the 
Indians of California 

"an amount equal to the Just 
value of the compensation provided 
or proposed for the Indians in those 
certain eighteen treaties ♦ ♦ * in- 
cluding the lands described therein 
at $1.25 per acre.'* 

The proposed reservation lands 
were appraised by the State Legis- 
lature in 1851 to be worth at that 
time "not less than $100,000,000." 
The Indians contend that these res- 
ervation lands plus the value of 
goods, educational and other ser- 
vices promised ought to be worth 
today a much larger amount than! 
the ancient appraisal of the reser-J 
vation lands. 



6- ■■■y\'>j: .. ■■:.:!. : 



JAN. 4, i^n . 






JANUARY 1. 1932 



ii 




Seek 
abded Rights 



Trelttjr Invoked 
Ba^is for oettlement to 
Aid Destitution 



as 



Indians of Californ ia, represented 
by tiMf Lfilliornia attorneys, J. W. 
Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley, of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay region, and Messrs. Eche, 
Kerr, Woolley, Newton and Shipe 
of Washington, D. C, filed in the 
United States Court of Claims at 
Washington, D.C., recently, amend- 
ments to the suit filed by U. S. 
Webb, attorney general of Califor- 
nia. This action by the attorneys 
chosen by the Indians of California 
indicated that the Indians are not 
satisfied with the progress of their 
case. 

The congressional act authoriz- 
ing this suit was approved by 
President Coolidge May 18, 1928, 
and suit was filed by Mr. Webb on 
August 14, 1929. The United States 
answered the petition a few days 
thereafter. There is nothing on 
the docket of the United States 
Court of Claims to indicate that 
anything further has been done. 
The case was called by the court 
on December 7 of this year, and 
parsed to an indefinite date. 

Mr. Webb's suit limits the re- 
cpvery for the Indians to $12,800,- 
000 for sundiy goods, reservation 
lands, educational and other serv- 
ices promised by the Federal gov- 
ernment in 1851 — 1851-2 in eighteen 
separate treaties signed by more 
than four hundred Indian chiefs 
and head men. From this sum the 
Federal government will deduct 
any amount that it has expended 
for the Indians of California under 
specific appropriations from the 
year 1850 to the date the court ren- 
ders judgment. Mr. Webb also lim- 
its in his suit the beneficiaries to 
descendants of the Indian treaty 
makers, thereby leaving grave 
doubt as to whether certain Cali- 
fornia Indians, whose ancestors did 
Ij not participate in the negotiated 
' treaties, could be beneficiaries. 
' The petition as now amended in- 
cludes as beneficiaries all Indian 
persons living on May 18, 1928, de- 
scendants of Indians who were re- 
siding in California on June 1, 
1852. 

The newly amended petition does 
not limit the amount of th6 judg- 
ment, but prays the court, in the 
language of the act, to find for the 
Indians of California "an amount 
equal to the just value of the com- 
pensation provided or proposed for 
the Indians in those certain eigh- 
teen treaties . • . including the 
lands described therein at $1.25 per 
acre.'* 

The proposed reservation lands 
were appraised by the state legis- 
lature in 1851 to be worth at that 
time "not less than $100,000,000." 
The Indians contend that these res- 
ervation lands plus the value of 
^oods, educational and other serv- 
ices promised ought to be worth to^ 
day a much larger amount than tjie 
ancient appraisal of the res^f^a- 
tion lands. 



lALIFORNIA SUES 
FOR $12,800,000 
DUE TO INDIANS 

rLost Treaties' Invoked to 

Repay for Aggression at 

Time of Gold Rush 



Special from Monitor Bureau 

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 20— In- 
dians of California whose ances- 
tors bartered away rich lands in 
treaties with the United States that 
were never ratified by the Senate] 
stand to gain $12,800,000 through 
action being brought by the State 
against the Federal Government. 

When President Fillmore sent I 
commissioners to the west coast 79 
years ago to draw up 18 treaties! 
with the Indians, he did not antici-| 
pate that those documents were to 
gather dust for 53 years as "the^Lost 
Treaties." 

One hundred and nineteen tribes 
surrendered their general claim of 
occupancy to much of the Golden 
State, in return for specific reserva- 
tions aggregating about 7,500,000 
acres, plus some stock and imple- 
ments. 

While these concessions were 
awaiting action by the Senate, the 
famous gold rush reached its 
height. California held the balance 
of power in the Senate. Spokesmen 
for those who wanted a free hand to 
dig for the precious metal, succeeded 
in diverting the treaties into the 
Senate's secret files. 

"As a result," Mr. Oscar H. Lipps, 
superintendent of the Sacramento 
Indian Agency, says, "the reserva- 
tions were opened to the white men 
and the Indians were scattered and 
driven to the foothills. So today 
we find the California Indians, for 
the most part, scattered in small 
bands over a wide area, many of 
them living in the most extreme 
poverty." 

So the Attorney-General of Cali- 
fornia is preparing to bring suit 
against the Government in behalf 
of the descendants of those Indians. 
The claims have risen out of the 
failure of the Senate to ratify the 
treaties. An award of $12,800,000 
will be asked. 

At frequent intervals, while the 
treaties lay in obscurity, investiga- 
tions were made by representatives 
of Congress. It was not until 1928, 
however, that definite action was 
taken. An act of Congress was 
passed authorizing the Attorney- 
General of California to bring suit 
in the Court of Claims, and at the 
same time the Secretary of the In- 
terior was directed to compile a 
roll of all the Indians in California. 
Any Indian entitled to enrollment 
may make application until May 18, 
1932. Following that date the claims 
will be presented. Mr. U. S. Webb, 
Attorney-General for California, re- 
ports th^t the enrollment is about 
C0ii?i:lete. 

The act also provides that the 
value of the lands taken from the 
Indians shall be $1.25 an acre. The 
money, however, will not be paid to 
the Indians individually, or per 
capita, but shall be placed in the 
Treasury of the United States to 
their credit. 

Cost of the action to be brought by 
California will be paid by the State 
in accordance with an act of the 
Legislature pass«d in 1927. The State, 
however, will be reimbursed from 
the judgment, if it is obtained. 

State officials express no doubt 
that the claims will be allowed. Mr. 
Webb declares he has met with most 
sympathetic interest on the part of 
the Government. 

It is felt that the award of $12,- 
800,000 will be a great help to the 
Indians in this State, as the pro- 
gram now being carried on by Mr. 
Lipps and the other two superin- 
tendents in California calls espe- 
cially for construction of homes and 
schools. The award will go a long 
way in bettering conditions of the 
Indians here, it is declared.^ 



r«RSNC. cAtir. sec 

NDIAN eOMDi 
MOVES 10 





Fresno County Cliimart Con-I 

tends Present Suit Does 

Not Cover All Rights 



WASHINGTON, Jan. 9.— An ef- 
fort to take the case of the Indians 
of California now pending before 
the federal court of claims here 
out of the hands of Attorney Gen- 
eral U. S. Webb of California and 
substitute as counsel three private 
attorneys now employed by the 
" Indian Board of Co-operation, Inc., 
is disclosed in a statement to the 
press issued by F. G. Collett, execu- 
tive representative of the board. 

The three attorneys it is pro- 
posed to have made attorneys of 
record for the Indians instead of 
"friends of the court," as they now 
appear, are J. W. Henderson, J. E. 
Pemberton and James M. Hanley. 
A petition asking the change has 
been filed in the court of claims. 

Statement Quoted 

Collett's statement recites in 
part: 

"The act of congress approved 
May 18th, 1928, authorized the at- 
torney general of California to 
bring suit in the court of claims on 
behalf of the Indians of California. 
The court of claims' records show 
that on August 14th, 1929— fifteen 
months after the approval of the 
enabling act — suit was filed by U. 
S. Webb, the attorney general for 
California. 

"Although three years and seven 
months have now passed since the 
approval of the act, the court of 
claims* records have nothing more 
to show for Webb. Had he filed suit 
within five months after the ap- 

groval of the court of claims* act 
e would have been in ahead of 
thirteen Indian suits and 516 other 
suits in the court of claims, and in 
all probability the suit for the In- 
dians of California would have been 
settled long before this. 

Attorney Urges Change 

"In a letter dated December 21st, 
1931, A. R. Shipe, one of the Wash- 
ington attorneys associated with 
the 'friends of the court,* said: 'I 
do not hesitate to state that the in- 
terests of the Indians of California 
are not being proteced in the pres- 
ent action (meaning Webb's suit) 
and a course of justice would dic- 
tate that the regularly employed at- 
torneys of the Indians of California 
prosecute this action.* 

"An affidavit by W. G. Walker, 
a member of the Chuck-Chansi 
Tribe of Indians of Fresno County, 
California, was also filed with the 
court of claims. The affidavit states 
that the claimants .in the action 
are "not represented by any attor- 
ney of record and that the attorney 
general of the state of California 
appears only in his representative 
capacity as the attorney general of 
California; and that he has not 
been employed by the claimants. 

"The affidavit also states the In- 
dian delegates requested Webb to 
advise with their attornevs in all 
matters pertaining to their suit in 
advance of any action bv him and 
^that he has refused to do so. 

Walker further asserts that 
Webb's suit does^not properly pro- 
tect the India??5' rJ^ht? and doe 
not seek >fte true i ^iia l value 
their clsfrns. 



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RE-PUBLICAM 



JAN. 11, imi 




An aff icT^vi^ h^s beerj filed by W. 
Q. Walker/a ih^mber of the Chuck- 
t^hansi tribe of Indian^*} of Fresno 
co^inty. in support of h petition V^y 

'the Indians of California to have J, 
W. Henderson, J. K. Pemberton anri 

^ James Hanloy designated as their 

•attorneys of record In the court of 
claims at Washington, D. C. accord - 
[^ing- to a communication from F. Cj. 

-CoUett, executive representative of 
the Indian Board of Cooperation, 

•^"^he petition raiJ^ei^'f or settlement, 
by the court of clainvs a.t^d the su- 
^)?n^e court of thf* United States, 
'the question of tfi'o inherent and 
^constitutional rights of the Indians 
I'^of California, aa the claimants in 
■.the case, to be directly represented 
"^n court by thefr own choice of at- 
torneys as the "attorneys of record." 
COjyiPLAIN AGAINST WEBB 
\ It is claimed that IT. S. Webb, at- 
torney general for California, v^iiu 
brought suit in the court of claims 
in behalf of the Indians of Califoi- 
nia, is not ])rosecuting th*^ case uiih 
siifficient dilitjrence and "a coursf ai 
justice would dictate that the regu- 
larly employed attorneys oC the In- 
7lians of California prosecute this 
I- action. 

♦Walker's affidavit states the In- 
dian delegates requested Mr. Webb 
to advise witli their regularly and 
duly employed attorneys in aM mu- 
ters pertaining to their suit in ad- 
vance of any action by him and that 
ho has refused to do so. He points 
out that this is the first, last and 
only chance the Indians of Califor- 
nia have to gain a just settlement 
of their original rights in California, 
and that Mr. Webb's suit does not 
i)roperly i^rotect their rights and 
doe;'? not pray for the true, nor total] 
1 \ al«e of Ihcir claims. 



Lawyers for Calirorma 

Indians Assail Webb 



SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. 9.— At 
controversy brok« today between 
U. S. We-bb, state attorney general, 
and three prominent California at- 
torneys involving Webb's alleged 
delay in pressing^ the claims of the 
California Indians for the recovery 
from the federal government of 
sums ranging to a maximum total 
of $75,000,000 for lands and prop- 
erty seized 80 years ago. 

J. W. Henderson, J. E. Pem- 
berton, and James M. Hanley, legal 
representatives for thd Indians, 
charged that Webb has been un- 
duly dilatory in pressing suit for 
the Indians under the terms of an 
act passed by Congress in May, 
1928. 

Webb denied any lack of diligence 
or promptness, declaring the delay 
has been caused by matters beyond 
his control, and announced he is 
fighting all attempts of the trio of 
attorneys to take the case out of 
his hands. 

18 TREATIES NEGOTIATED 

The case goes back to 1851-1852, 
when the United States government 
sent commissioners to negotiate 
with California Indian chiefs for 
8,000,000 acres of land and quan- 
tities of cattle and other property 
which had been taken from the 
Indians without remuneration. 
Eighteen treaties were negotiated, 
setting the price for the land at 
$1.25 per acre. The senate, how- 
ever, refused to ratify these agree- 
ments. 

Various attempts on behalf of 
the Indians were made throughout 
the years, and finally In 192 8 Con- 
gress passed an enabling act au- 
thorizing the state attorney-gen- 
eral to proceed in the preparation 
of a claim to settle the matter. 

According: to the Indians' attor- 
neys, Webb did not file his suit In 
the court of claims at Waushington 
until August 14, 1929, 15 months 
after the enabling act was passed. 
THRBB YEARS PASSED 

In a statement Issued by F. G. 
Collett, executive representative of 
the Indian board of cooperation, 
Webb is taxed with delay as fol- 
lows: 

"Although three years and seven 
months have now passed since the 
approval of the act, the court of 
claims records have nothing more 
to show for Mr. Webb. Had he 
filed suit within five months after 
the approval of the act, he would 
have been in ahead of 13 Indian 
suits and 516 other suits In that 
court, and In all probability the 
suit for the Indians of California 
would have been settled long be- 
fore this." 

Collett quotes A. R. Shipe, Wash- 
ington attorney associated with the 
Indians in the case, as saying: 

*'I do not hesitate to state that 



the interests of the Indians of Cal- 
ifornia are not being protected In 
the present action, and a course 
of justice would dictate that the 
regularly employed attorneys of 
the Indians of California prosecute 
this action." 

Henderson, Pemberton and Han- 
ley, who earlier in the case have 

appeared in the court of claims as |^! 
"friends of the court," now have 
filed a petition to be recognized as 
attorneys of record, so that they 
may supersede Webb in handling 
the claim. 
NO CASH FOR INDIVIDUALS 

The amounts asked in the claim 
filed by Webb as just compensa- 
tion to the Indians ranges in total 
from a minimum of $11,000,000 to 
a maximum of $75,000,000. Ac- 
cording to authorities familiar with 
the situation, it is not the govern- 
ment's intention, In making what- 
ever restitution may be deemed 
proper, to apportion the money di- 
rectly into the hands of the 20,000 
Indians now residing in California, 
but to use the money for their bet- 
terment. 

Webb stated he filed his suit In 
accordance with the enabling act, 
arid diligently followed up the case, 
making a trip to Washington to 
consult the United States attorney- 
general. 

"I found there were three or 
four cases of similar nature ahead 
of ours," Webb explained. "Also, 
it is necessary for an exhaustive 
study to be made of the govern- 
ment records. Within the past 
two weeks I have received a letter 
from a Washington official In 
charge of these records that the re- 
search Is not yet completed. Until 
all the data is at hand, we cannot 
proceed with the case. 

GOVERNMENT FRIENDLY 

**The federal government, how- 
ever, is friendly to us in this case, 
and there Is no question but that 
the case will be settled as rapidly 
as possible. 

"I have filed opposition to the 
petition of these attorneys, and al- 
though I do not presume to predict 
the action of the court, I believe 
they will not be allowed to become 
attorneys of record in the case." 

According to experts on the sub- 
ject of Indian reparations, the gov- 
ernment prefers to get around the 
question of accrued Interest by 
crediting expenditures made dur- 
ing the years for Indian welfare 
against the claim. The Indians, in 
the suit, do not ask for any spe- 
cific sum, with or without interest, 
but state the facts regarding the 
treaties and ask for "just compen- 
sation.'* 



SAN FRANCISCO. CALIF. 
NEWS 

JAN, 12, 1^32 . 



INDIANS OPPOSE 
WEBB AS AGENT 
IN LAND SUIT 



? 



Fourteen Ask Own Counsel! 

to Replace Attorney 

General 



Dissatisfaction over the manner in 
which land claims are being pre- 
sented to the United States Court of 
Claims by State Atty. Gen. U. S.l 
Webb was expressed today by dele- 
gates from California Indian tribes. 

Fourteen delegates adopted a reso- 
lution requesting the judges of the 
Court Qf Claims for an order placing 
their own counsel as attorneys of I 
record in the action of the Califor- 
nia Indians. 

A power of attorney named J. E. 
Pemberton, J. W. Henderson and 
James M. Hanley, attorneys for the 
tribe. Complaint was made that 
Atty. Gen. Webb has Umited the In- 
dians' recovery claims to $12,800,000 
with reductions for amounts ex- 
pended on specific appropriations 
from the year 1850, and that he had 
not proceeded with the case since^ 
Aug. 14, 1929. 



SACRAMENTO CAt, 352 
JA^. 12, l^ 












5#- 



INDIAN fmS\ 
HELD MOVEMENT 
TO GET FEES 

-4 \ \ 

Attorney-General Wtebb R^ 
plies To Action At Meet- ^ 
ing Of Eepresentatives 

SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. 12. — 
(Bee Bureau.) —Attorney General 
U. S. Webb to-day bitterly assailed 
ttie movement of the Indian Board 
of Co-operation to place its own at- 
torneys into the attorney general's 
long pending suit against the Unit- 
iBg^Btaates Government in behalf of 
iftttie 25,000 California Indians. The 
a^t was filed August 14, 1929, un- 
$li an enabling act of congress, 
^t^ asks that California Indians 
b^; compensaated for lands taken 
l^n them without compensation 
WStjAet the violated Indian treaties 
«^ the fifties. 

^ Replying to expressions of dis- 
ggtisfaction with his handling of 
tt^ case voiced at a meeting of 
ff^rteen delegated of the Indian 



SAN FRANCISCO CHRONMCLB 
JAN. 12, 1032 



Indians Clash 

Over Lawyers 

^-p — 

The war whoop resounded yester- 
day in the fight of the California 
Indians before the United States 
Court of Claims to recover for Ian Js 
and other property seized by the 
whites when the gold rush came. 

F. G. Collett, executive represent- 
ative of the Indian Board of Co- 
operation, and Attorney General 
Webb were the chief tomahawk 
brandishers. The Indians adopted 
a resolution, demanding their attor- 
neys, J. W. Henderson, J. E. Pem- 
berton and James M. Hanley, be al- 
lowed to enter the case as attorneys 
of record. 

Attorney General Webb said he 
would not agree to that, because he 
had seen a contract which gave 
them "a large percentage" of what 
might be recovered. 

Then Collett came back with the 
charge that the Attorney General 
had been delaying the case. Webb 
replied that the case was being 
pushed as rapidly as possible. 



SAN FRANCISCO CAUP, 
EXAMINER 

JAN. 12, W62 




ians Would Oust Web 



s Claims Suit Attorney 

Delegates from California Indian <f specific appropriations from the 



tribes, in conference here yesterday, 
expressed dissatisfaction at the 
manner in which land claims were 
being presented to the United 
States Court of Claims by the State 
Attorney General. 

A resolution adopted by fourteen 
delegates asked the judges of the 
Court of Claims for an order plac- 
ing their own attorneys as attor- 
neys of record in the action of the 
California Indians. 

A power of attorney, accompany- 
ing the resolution, named J. E. 
Pemberton, J. W. Henderson and 
I James M. Hanley attorneys for the 
bribes. 

Complaint that Attorney General 
IWebb had limited the Indians' re- 
Icovery claims to $12,800,000 with de- 
Id uctions for amounts expended on 



year 1850 was contained in the 
resolution. 

It was further charged that Webb 
had not proceeded with the case 
since August 14, 1929. 

Exception was also taken to the 
Umited number of beneficiaries in- 
cluded in the claim petition filed 
with the Government. 

Among the delegates present at 
yesterday's meeting, held in the 
Methodist Book Concern Audi- 
torium, were: Charles Martin, Win- 
toon tribe; W. G. Walker, Choack- 
Chancy tribe, Fresno; Mrs. Jose- 
phine Lilley, Shasta tribe, Yreka, 
and Warren W. Weaver, Wintoon 
tribe, Redding. 

L. H. Barrington, Washoe tribe, a 
graduate of Nevada University, was 
chairman of the conference. 



board's auxiliaries here yesterday, 
Webb said: 

"Would Get Big Fees." 

Replying to expressions of dis- 
satisfaction voiced at a meeting of 
fourteen members of Indian tribes 
here yest>erday, Webb said: 

"These attorneys have attempt-i 
ed for a long time to get on the| 
inside of this case. They are at-i 
tempting to get their fees paid out 
of the money to be recovered by 
the suit from the federal govern- 
ment. 

• "The real trouble is that these 
attorneys, employed by the Indian 
Board of Co-operation, have asked 
me repeatedly to agree that they 
be made attorneys of record in this 
case and that I have declined to 
do so. They even filed an appli- 
cation in the court of claims at 
Washington and I have filed an 
opposition, resisting their efforts 
to get on the inside. I submitted to 
the court that it has no authority 
under the congressional enabling 
act to admit these attorneys, and 
even if the court had authority, I 
would resist it. 

**Money Not Needed. 

"The Indian board of co-opera- 
tion is behind this matter. This is 
the organization, under the direc- 
tion of one F^ederidiL^G^ J^oiJeii, 
which has been collecting money 
from California Indians for many 
'years on the representation that 
iho mnn^y was needed to pay the 
expenses of this cuit. 



M'X: 



the elected representatives of about 1 
100 Indian auxiliaries of the Indian 
Board of Co-operation, which in- 
cluded about 15,000 of the 25,000- 1 
odd Indians estimated to be claim- 
ants in the suit against the gov- 
ernment. These Indians are not 



"1 have issued hundreds of state- .compelled to pay membership dues, 
ments informing the public thatiyju^^ g^j^j Collett, may pay 50 cents 



this money was not needed because 
the congressional enabling act 
specified that the attorney gener- 
al's office would file and prose- 
cute the suit, and that even if col- 
llected, the money would not be 
used. , , , 

"My statements probably have 
rather lifhited their collections, and 
perhaps they don't like that." 
Attorneys' Admission Asked, 

The fourteen Indians at yester- 
day's meeting adopted a resolution 
asking the judges of the United 
States Court of Claims at Washing- 
ton, D. C, before which the suit 
was filed, August 14, 1929, for an 
order placing three San Francisco 
attorneys as attorneys of record to 
represent California Indians. 
Contract Admitted* 

The attorneys in question are J. 



per month if they are able. 
"Subterfuge*'— CoUett 

Collett charged Webb's explana- 
tion of the situation was a "subter- 
fuge Instead of a reason" and In- 
Isisted Webb had told the Indian 
delegates he had no objection to 
the board of co-operation's attor- 
neys being allowed in the case as 
'*friends of the court." They will 
appear in that status if they fail 
to obtain the status of attorneys of 
record. 

The status of the suit, according 
to Webb, is that it is awaiting the' 
compilation by the federal gov- 
ernment of Indian accounts since 
1850 before the suit can be set for 
trial. Webb said heh had been in 
constant communication with the 
accounting department of "rie In- 



The attorneys m question are J. bureau and he hopes these 

W. Henderson, J. E. Pemberton, ;|^an^^^YwnJ ^^^^ ^^ compiled. 

and James M. Hanley. Among the delegates representing 

Indians and other at yesterday's 
conference were W. G. Walker, 
Chuckchansi Tribe, Friant, Fresno 
(Tg mityj Jg Ck Spear, Eureka; Mrs. 
Josephine Lilley, Shasta Tribe, 
Yreka; Warren W. Weaver, Win- 
toon Tribe, Oakland; Charles Mor- 
ton. Wintoon Tribe, Redding; David 
Masten, Hoopa, Humboldt County; 
Mrs. Florence Mitchel, Marshall; 
Bert Steele, Headsburg; Mrs. Juline 



Henderson to-day admitted there 
lis a contract signed by Indian dele- 
gates agreeing that these attor- 
neys shall receive compensation 
for their work on a percentage 
I basis. 

**It took Attorney General Webb 
fifteen months to file the original 
I>etition in 1929, but we are not 
criticizing him for the present de- 
lay in going to trial, because the 
federal government has a good 



^ ^ ^-> j Yale. Susanville; Washington Fann 
deal of preparation to do_ before .*^ Anderson; H. B. Cornwell, 



the trial can be set," said Hender- 
son. "But it is our contention that 
a great deal ought to be done for 
the Indians beside that, which the 
(attorney general is not doing. 
Error Discovered. 
** Another trouble is that the orig- 
inal petition for $12,800,000 was 



Round Valley; John Somerville, Big 
Pine; Ransome Clark, Orroville, 
and Lloyd H. Barrington, W^ashoe 
Tribe, of Susanville. 

Barrington, who is a graduate of 
the University of Nevada, now 
stud vine: law in San Francisco, was 

l?,^l V^^^iZ"^ ^?^ ^^^'«^'*^",T^fchairma^ ' 

filed by the attorney general be-F"*""'""' r^u^x,,^ 

fore he had gone into the matter I Webb Criticised, 

to decide what the Indians were I The conference criticised Webb 
really entitled to under the en- {because the case has not been set 

if or trial, complained Webb had lim-l 
Ited the Indians' recovery claims 
unduly with deductions for amounts 
expended on specific appropriations] 
since 1850, and claimed the number 



labling act. Now he has decided 
he was wrong and is going to 
amend the petition so as to get 
the amount really possible to get." 
Fee Up To Court. 



dian Board of Co-operation also 
admitted the attorneys hope to be 
paid from the Indians' money. He 
said they have petitioned the court 
for "reasonable and necessary 
costs and expenses, including at- 
torney fees incurred or expended 
by the claimants," but have left it 
to the court to decide what com- 
pensation is fair. 

Collett and Henderson said the 
delegates who met yesterday were 



Frederick G. Collett of the In- of beneficiaries in the claim peti 

Sn.. 'D.nM**^ .A.^ /*^/^ .<->▼% A van 4-1 /^«% o1o#x ^t.A«« V>nxJ VxAAVV livvilf^^ 11*^ 'illof 1«T 



tion had been limited unjustly. 



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FEES OBIECl IN 




L- 



lefSl 



Attorney ^nefSl Repfies To| 

Critics Of His Handling 

Of Indian Claims 



SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. 12.— At- 
Itomey General U. S. Webb to-day 
bitterly assailed the movement of 
the Indian Board of Co-operation 
to place its own attorneys into ihe 
attorney general's long -pending 
suit against the United States 'gov- 
ernment in behalf of some ::5.900 
California Indians. The suit war, 
filed August 14th, 1929, under an 
enabling act of congress, and asks 
Ithat California Indians be com- 
Ipensated for lands taken :rom 
■them without compensation under 
':he violated Indian treaties of che 

fifties. . p Ai^ 

Replying to expressions of dis- 
satisfaction with his handling of 
the case voiced at a meeting of 
fourteen delegates of the Indian 
)oard's auxiliaries here yesterday, 
^ebb said: • ^^ .^, 

"These attorneys have attempted 
for a long time to get on the in- 
side of this case and they have a 
pontract by which they would get 
large fees on a percentage basis 
)f any money which may be recov- 
ered for the Indians in this case. 

"They also are attempting to get 
their fees paid out of the money 
to be recovered by this suit from 
:he federal government. 

Opposes Attorneys Entering 
"The real trouble is that these 
lattorneys, employed by the Indian 
Board of Co-Operation, have asked 
me repeatedly to agree that they 
be made attorneys of record m 
this case and that I have declined 
to do so. They even filed an appli- 
cation in the court of claims at 
Washington and I have filed an op- 
I position, resisting their efforts to 
[get on the inside. I submitted to 
the court that it has no authority 
under the congressional enabling 
I act to admit these attorneys, and 
even if the court had authority I 

would resist it. . ^ ^ 

"The Indian Board of Co-Oper- 

lation is behind this matter. This 

lis the organization, under the di- 
rection of one Frederick G. Collett, 
which has been collecting money 
from California Indians for many 
years on the representation that 

I the money was needed to pay the 
expenses of this suit. I have issued 

[hundreds of statements informing 
the public that this money was noi 
needed because the congressional 

I enabling act specified thai the at- 
torney general's office would file 
and prosecute the suit, and that 
even if collected, the money would 

[not be usedr ^, , 

"My statements probably have 
I rather limited their collections, and 
perhaps they don't like that." 

The attorneys in question are J. 
[w. Henderson, J. E. Pembe"*^'" 
and James M. Hanley. 
^^^-. Contract^^nltted 
^%[^^&^^ to.^^i*M*isd 

[gates a^t^in 
shall receljv 



iieii 



"It took Attorney General Webbl 
[fifteen months t o file the_/M:\sui]^ 

y^*^ 11^ TS^r'HiP^e are not] 
^izinps-iifiJ^or the present de-j 
^'^^Z/^'ing to trial, because the 
— ^v.^**.. government has a good 
Jaeal of preparation to do before 
[the trial can be set," said Hender- 
[son. "But it is our contention thati 
la great deal ought to be done fori 
the Indians beside that, which the I 



th( 



[attorney general is not' doing. 
[ "^TAnother tro\ii»ie i© — -«-i*.«ii_ tj 
original petition for $12,800;oD(> w 
filed by the attorney general before 
Ihe had gone into the matter to de- 
cide what the Indians were really 
entitled to under the enabling act. 
Now he has decided he was wrong 
and is going to amend the petition 
so as to get the amount really pos- 
sible to get." 

Collett also admitted the attor- 
neys hope to be paid from the In- 
dians' money. He said they have 
petitioned the court for "reason- 
able and necessary costs and ex- 
penses, including attorney fees in- 
curred or expended by the claim- 
ants," but have left it to the court 
to decide what compensation is 

fair. 

Collett Makes Statement 

Collett and Henderson said the 
delegates who met yesterday were 
the elected representatives of about 
100 Indian auxiliaries of the Indian 
Board of Co-Operation which in- 
cluded about 15,000 of the 25,000- 
odd Indians estimated to be claim- 
ants in the suit against the gov- 
ernment. Collett said these In- 
dians are not compelled to pay 
membership dues, but may pay 50 
cents per month if they are able. 

Collett charged Webb's explana- 
tion of the situation was a "sub- 
terfuge instead of a reason" and 
insisted Webb had told the Indian 
delegates he had no objection to 
the board of co-operation's attor- 
neys being allowed in the case as 
"friends of the court." They will 
appear in that status if they fail 
to obtain the status of attorneys of 
record. 

The present status of the suit, 
according to Webb, is that it is 
awaiting the compilation by the 
federal government of Indian ac- 
counts since 1850 before the suit 
can be set for trial. Webb said 
he has been in constant communi- 
cation with the accounting depart- 
ment of the Indian Bureau, and he 
hopes these accounts will soon be 
compiled. 

Indian Belegates Meet 
The action of leaders of the Iiv 
dian Board of Co-operation in filinj 
a petition with the United State. 
Court of Claims at Washington, D 
C, asking that three private attor 
neys be substituted for Attorney 
General Webb of California a 
attorneys for the Indians of th, 
state in their case now pending be 
fore the court was ratified by four 
teen representatives of the Indian 
at a meeting here yesterday. 

The conference adopted a res 
lution asking that th court o 
claims substitute the attorney 
named as attorneys of record fo 



Attorney 'O^neTal Replies To| 

Critics Of His Handling 

Of Indian Claims 



SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. 12.— At- 
Itorney General U. S. Webb to-day 

bitterly assailed the movement of 

the Indian Board of Co-operation 

tn nijir.e its own attorneys Into .he 

Kry'Verar^ U,ns^pend^^^^^ 
Uuit a^^ainst the United States '^ov 

ernmen^t in behalf of some -iS^OOO 

Palifornia Indians. The suit -wa., 

?ifid August 14th. 1929. under an 

enabling act of congress and asks 

Lviot ralifornia Indians ne com 

Wnsat?d for lands taken .rom 

fc without compensation under 

Ke violated Indian treaties of .he 

■"RcDlvin- to expressions of dis- 
.aust& with his hand ing o 
the case voiced at a ^f^"^"^! _ 
ourteen delegates o« ^^'^^^.^"dav 
)oard's auxiliaries here yesterday. 

'.^^ese'aitorneys l^ave attemp..ed 
for a long time to get on the in 
5ide of this case and they nave ». 

ontract by which they would get 
Lrcre fees on a percentage oasis 
►rf'any money which may be recov- 

.red for the Indians m this case. 
"Thev also are attempting to get 

fheir fees paid out of the money 

[o be recovered by this suit from 

the federal government 

Opposes Attorneys Entering 
I "The real trouble is that these 

attorneys, employed by the Indmn 

br^eplt?dg^t^^^^^^^^^^ 

to do so They «v^n filed an^ppU^ 
te'ashington andThave filed an op- 

feFr h^-^. ---Si 

ierr^^nJre^sM %« 

act to admit these attorneys and 

I even if the court had authority x 

would resist it. Pn-Oner- 

"The Indian Board o' ^o-oper^ 
ation is behind this master. -Thi^ 
fs^Se organization, under the di 
r<»rtion of one Frederick G. C^oiiett, 
wh ch has been collecting m^ney 
from California Indians for many 
years on the representation that 
\lbe money was needed to pay^he 
U-rnPTises of this suit. I have lasuea 
hundreds of statements informing 
the public that this money was no« 

need'^d because the <:ongessK.na 
Unablin^ act specified that tne at 

to r'n\rgAerar« o^^^ w^^ld fUe 

and prosecute the suit, and that 

even if collected, the money would 

not be uscdr v.«T^^v have 

''My statements probably have 
rather limited their collections, and 
perhaps they don't like that. 
r The attorneys in ^l^^^''^^^^^ 
W Henderson, j. E. femoertoir 

and James M. Hanley. 
-^ — Contract^gmltted 

4o'a cimwTPpt 
Igates »gre«{in 
Isball rece^v- 

L "It took Attorney General Webb 

[fifteen months t o file the.,,AciglP<<i 

"W/iI ift "lffl^;;^OiffP^We are not 

[izinpHifi^for the present de- 

^-i/ing to trial, because the 

Bcruercii government has a good 

[aeal of preparation to do before 

jthe trial can be set," said Hender- 

Ison. "But it is our contention that 

rat great deal ought to be done for 

jthe Indians beside that, which the 

lattorney general is not doing. 

r^^nother trouble /,%^i*^ig ^ 

original petition for $^2,800,0^ wm 

filed by the attorney general before 

he had gone into the matter to de- 
cide what the Indians were really 

entitled to under the enabling act. 

Inow he has decided he was wro^ 

land is going to ^mend the petition 

so as to get the amount really pos- 

r^ColllVai^o admitted the attor- 
neys hope to be paid from the In- 
Sfans' money. He said they have 
petitioned the court for 'reason- 
able and necessary costs and ex- 
penses, including attorney fees in- 
curred or expended by the claim- 
ants." hut have left it to the court 
to decide what compensation is 

I fair 

* CoUett Make* Statement 

I Collett and Henderson said the 
delegates who met yesterday were 
the elected representatives of about 
100 Indian auxiliaries of the Indian 
Board of Co-Opei^tion which in- 
eluded about 15,000 of the 25,000- 
odd Indians estimated to be claim- 
ants in the suit against the gov- 
emment ^ Collett sa d these In- 
dians are not compelled to pay 
membership dues, but may pay 50 
cents per month if they are able. 

Collett charged Webb's explana- 
tion of the situation was a sub- 
terfuge instead of a reason and 
insisted Webb had told the Indian 
delegates he had no objection to 
the board of co-operation's attor- 
neys being allowed in the ca^c as 
"friends of the court." They wi 
appear in that status if they fail 
to obtain the status of attorneys of 

record. .. 

The present status of the suit, 
I according to Webb, is that it is 
awaiting the compilation by the 
federal government of Indian ac- 
' counts since 1850 before the suit 
can be set for trial. Webb said 
he has been in constant communi- 
cation with the accounting depart- 
ment of the Indian Bureau, and he 
hopes these accounts will soon be 

compiled. ^ ^ »* ^ 

Indian I>elegate« Meet 

The acUon of leaders of the I» 
idian Board of Co-operation in f "inr 
'a petition with the United State 
Court of Claims at Washington, D 
C asking that three private attor- 
Ineya be substituted for Attorney 
General Webb of California a 
attorneys for the Indians of th 
state in their case now pending be 
fore the court was ratified by four 
teen representatives of the Indian^ 
at a meeting here yesterday. 

The conference adopted a res 
lution asking that th court o 
claims substitute the attorney 
named as attorneys of record fo 
the Indians in place of Webb. 

Delegates included Charles Mar 

tin Wintoon Tribe, Redding; W 

\c Walker, Chuck-Chansi Tribe 

Fresno- Mrs. Josephine Lilley 
Shasta ' Tribe, Yreka, and Warrer 
'W weaver, Winton Tribe Red- 

dine L. H. Barrington, Nevada 

University graduate was chairman 

of the conference. He is a member 

L^f +ViP Washoe Tribe. 

The Indians complain that Webb 

has limited their claims to $12,- 

800,000 with deductions for 

amounts spent by specific appro- 

Ipriations since 1850. They say number of 

'^ase^inre "AugSril^hf ll^^!" 1^^^!^ be^n unjustly »mi 



OAKt-AND, CAC, TRIBUNE 
JAN. 12, 1932 





WORK OF WEBB 



SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. 12. — A 
resolution petitioning the United 
States court of claims at Washing- 
ton. D. C, for the right to supplant 
Attorney-General U. S. Webb with 
their own private attorneys was 
adopted yesterday at a meeting 
here of delegates of California In- 
dian tribes. 

The delegates declared them- 
selves dissatisfied with the manner 
in which Webb has pressed their 
claim for payment by the govern- 
ment for lands and property taken 
from them in 1851. In a power of 
attorney accomranying the resolu- 
tion, they name J. E. Pemberton, 
J. W. Henderson and James M. 
llnnley as attorneys for the tribes. 

Tho resolution charged Webb 
had limited the Indians' •Inim tn 
<^1 2.SO0.OOO with deductions for 



governmental appropriations on 
the behalf of the tribes during the 
years. It was also charged that 
Webb has been unduly dilatory. 




4S 



S32 



irai 




RECOGNlTIOT^ IN COURT IS DE- 



SIRED BY ATTORNEYS OF THE 
NATIVE SONS 



^ The "Friends of the Court," J. W. 
Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and Jas. 
M. Hanley, atto rneys for th e Indians 
of California in their naapt a^rnre^th ft 
Court of Ciai'ms at Washington, D. C. 
have petitioned the court to be recog- 
nized as the "attorneys of record." 
The petition raises for settlement, by 
the Court of Claims and the Supreme 
Court of the United States, the ques- 
tion of the inherent and constitutional 
rights of the Indians of California, as 
the claimants in the case, to be di- 
rectly represented in court by th^ir 
own choice of attorneys as the "at- 
torneys of record." 

The Act of Congress approved May 
18, 1928, authorized the attorney gen- 
eral of California to bring suit in the 
Court of Claims on behalf of the In- 
dians of California. The Court of 
Claims records show that on August 
14, 1929, fifteen months after the ap- 
proval of the enabling act, suit was 
filed by U. S. Webb, the attorney gen- 
eral for California. 

Although three years and seven 
months have now passed since the ap- 
I proval of the Act, the court of claims 
records have nothing more to show 
for Mr. Webb. Had he filed suit with- 
in five months after the approval of 
the Court of Claims act he would have 
been ahead of IS Indian suits and 516 
other suits in the Court of Clainc^ and 
in all probability the suit for the In- 
dians of California would have been 
settled long before this. 

The Act provides that all claims of 
whatsoever nature the Indians of Cali- 
fornia may have against the United 
States for their original rights in Cali- 
fornia may be submitted to the Court 
of Claims for settlement. The Act 
states that: 
". . . jurisdictton is hereby con- 
ferred upon the Court of Claims 
of the United States, with the 
right of either party to appeal to 
the supreme court of the United 
States to hear and determine all 
such equitable claims of said In- 
dians against the United States 
and to render final decree there- 



on." 

In a letter dated December 21, 1931, 
Mr. A. R. Shipe, one of the Washing- 
ton attorneys associated with the 
"Friends of the Court," said: "I do 
not hesitate to state that the inter- 
ests of the Indisms of California are 
Tiot being protected in the present ac- 
tion (meaning Mr. Welch's suit) and a 
course of justice would dictate that 
the regularly employed attorneys of 
the Indians of California prosecute 
this action." 

An affidavit by W. G. Walker, mem- 
ber of the Chuck-Chansi tribe of In- 
dians of Fresno county, California, 
was also filed with the Court of 
Claims. The affidavit states that J. 
W. Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley are the regularly 
and duly employed attorneys for the 
Indians of California; that the Court 
of Claims Act casts no obligation up- 
on the attorney general of the state 
of California to prosecute the action; 
that congress has permitted and has 
no power to command him; that the 
parties in interest should have, and 
by right have, the control of the case 
and that they (Indians of California) 
desire that their attorneys be recog- 
nized as the attorneys of record for the 
claimants; that the claimants in the 
action are not represented by any at- I 



tomey of record and that the attorney 
general of the state of California ap- 
pears only in his representative ca- 
pacity as the attorney general of Cali- 
lornia, and that he has not been 
ployed by the claimants. 



_Oo 



mk 




RronrNC. CALir. 

SEARCHLIGHT 

JAN. 13j IVoi 




Indian Protest Is Declared 

Move by Attorneys to Obtain 
large Fees in Trial of Suits 

SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. 12.— r was filed by the atto 
I Attorney-General U. S. Webb to- ; before he had gone im"^ th^^'^^'^^^ ^ 
day assailed the movement of a ; ter to decide what th "^^^" ^ 

group of Indian representatives , were really entitled to '^ ^"^'^°^ - 
[ to place private attorneys into : enabling act. Now he""''^'^ '^^ 
the attorney-greneral's long ; cided he was wron^ «n!i ^^^ ^^' ^ 
'pending $12,800,000 suit against ' to amend the n^tu- '^ ^°'°^t 



J- 

itl 

d 



the United States government ! g^et the amount reallv "' nn^\.'' 
in behalf of California Indians. I to get." ^ Possible 

nvould <5et Big Fees" | Fee Up to Court 

^ Replying to expressions of j Frederick G. Collett of the In T 

I dissatisfaction voiced at a meet- : dian Board of Co-operation also (*" 

( ing of 14 members of ' Indian ' admitted the attorneys hope^ to ^' 

tribes here yesterday, Webb said: ; be paid from the Indians' money T' 

"These attorneys have at- j He said they have petitioned ''^^ 

tempted for a long time to get ' ^^^ ^^urt for "reasonable and 

on the inside of this case and i necessary costs and expenses 

they have a contract by which ' ^Confin necij &n P:rge ■yur^ei 

they would get large fees from "^ 

the Indians on a percentage o^" 



II 



[ basis according to how much the 
money they recovered for the ^^ 
Indians in the case. 

"The real trouble is that these 
attorneys, employed by the In-j 
dian Board of Co-operation, have 
asked me repeatedly to agree 
that they be made attorneys of 
record in this case and th^at I 
have declined to do so. Theyj 
even filed an application in the 
court of claims at Washington 
and I have filed an opposition, 
resisting their efforts to get on 
the inside. I submitted to the 

* 

court that it has no authority 
under the congressional enabling 
i^ci to admit these attorneys 
and even if the court had au- 
thority I would resist it. 

Money J>fot Needed 

"The Indian Board of Co-oper- j 
ation is behind this matter. 
This is the organization, under 
the direction of one Frederick 
^:^P^% which has been^col- 
lecting money from California 
Indians for many years on the 
representation that the money 
was needed to pay, the expenses 
of this suit. 

"I have issued hundreds of I 
statements informing the public 
that this money was not needed 
because the congressional en- 
abling act specified that the at- 
jj torney-general's office would file 
i and prosecute the suit, and that , 
even if collected, the money j 
would not be used. 

"My statements probably have 
rather limited their collections' 
and perhaps they don't like that." 
Attorneys' Admission (Asked 
The 14 Indians at yesterday's I 
meeting adopted a resolution! 
asking the judges of the United 
Instates Court of Claims at 
Washington, D. C, before which 
the suit was filed, August 14, 
1929, for an order placing three 
San Francisco attorneys as at- 
11 torneys of record to represent 
I California Indians. 

Contract Admitted f 

The attorneys in question are 
J. W. Henderson, J. E. Pember- I 
ton and James M. Hanley. 

Henderson today admitted 
there is a contract signed by J 
Indian delegates agreeing that 
these attorneys shall receive 
compensation for their work on 
'a percentage basis. 

"ft took Attorney-General 
Webb 15 months to file the orig- 
inal petition in 1929, but we are 
not criticizing him for the pres- 
ent delay in going to trial, be- 
cause the federal government 
has a good deal of preparation 
to do before the trial ckn be 
[set," said Henderson. "But it is 
our contention that a great deal 
ought to be done for the Indians 
beside that, which the attorney- 
I'general is not doing. 

Error Discovered 
"Another trouble is that the 
[original petition for $12,800,000 



■ I 

I 



li 



I 



•e- 
at 
W. 
G. Walker, Chuckchansi tribe, 
Friant, Fresno county; John 
S^ar, Eureka; Mrs. Josephine 
Lilley, Shasta tribe, Yreka; War- 
ren W^. Weaver, Win toon tribe, 
Redding; David Masten, Hoopa, 
Humboldt county; Mrs. Florence 
Mitchel, Marshall; Bert . Steele, 
Healdsburg; Mrs. Juline Yale, 
Susan ville; Washington Fann Jr., 
Anderson; H. B. Comwell, Round 
valley; John Soiiierville, Big 
Pine; Ransome Clark, Oroville, 
and Lloyd H. Barrington, Wa- 
shoe tribe, of . Susanvilie. 

Barrington, who is a graduate 
of the University of Nevada, now 
studying law in San PYancisco, 
was chairman of the conference. 
Webb Criticized 
The conference criticised Webb 
because the case has not been 
set for trial, complained Webb 
had limited the Indians' recovery 
claims unduly with deductions 
for amounts expended on speci- 
ic appropsiations since 1850, and 
laimed the number of benefi* 
iaries in the claim petition hacl 
een Hmited unjunstly. 



he 



/ 



^•/esffa 






07 



o.,, -OV 



stfj 



'ff.4 






J!'"C 







^7, 



r IN SUITS IS CHAR6I 



^m^^-^M 



incurred 
or expended by the ^^^imants," 
but have left it to the court to 



One) (Indian delegates he had no ob- 
jection to the board of co-ox>era- 
tion's attorneys being allowed i: 
the case as "friends of the' 



decide what compensation is fair, court." They will appear in that 



Collett and Henderson said 
the delegates who met yesterday 
were the elected representatives 



status if they fail to obtain the 
status of attorneys of record. 
The status of the suit, accord-l 



of about 100 Indian auxiliaries of j ing to Webb, is that it is await 



the Indian Board of Co-opera- 
tion, which included about 15,000 
of the 25,000 odd Indians esti- 
mated to be claimants in the suit 
aga|nst the government. These 
Indians are not compelled to pay 
membership dues, but, said Col- 
lett, may pay 50 cents a month 
if they are able. 

"Subterfuge'*— Collett 

Collett charged Webb's expla- 
nation of the situation was a 
"subterfuge instead of a reason" 
and insisted Webb had told the 



ing the compilation by the fed- 
eral government of Indian ac-l 
counts since 1850 before the suit 
can be set for trial. Webb said I 
he had been in constant commu- 
nication with the accounting de-J 
partment of the Indian bureau, 
and he hopes these accounts will 
soon be compiled. 

Among the delegates repre- 
senting Indians and others at 
yesterday's conference were W. 
G. Walker, Chuckc hangi tribe, 
Friant, 'Fresno county; John 
ar, Eureka; Mrs. Josephine 
Lilley, Shasta tribe, Yreka; War- 
ren W. Weaver, Win toon tribe, 
Redding; David Masten, Hoopa, 
Humboldt county; Mrs. Florence 
Mitchel, Marshall; Bert . Steele, 
Healdsburg; Mrs. Juline Yale, 
Susan ville; Washington Fann Jr., 
Anderson; H. B. Comwell, Round I 
valley; John Somerville, Big| 
Pine; Ransome Clark, Oroville, 
and Lloyd H. Barrington, Wa- 
shoe tribe, of Susanville. 

Barrington, who is a graduate 

of the University of Nevada, now* 

studying law in San Francisco, 

was chairman of the conference. 

Webb Criticized 

The conference criticised Webb 

because the case has not been 

set for trial, complained Webb 

had limited the Indians* recovery 

claims unduly with deductions 

for amounts expended on speci- 

ic appropsiations since 1850, and 

laimed the number of benefi* 

iaries in the claim petition ha4 

een Hmited unjunstly. / 



jAy. 1-5, r^?2 . . • 



Attorneys For 
Calif. Indians 
Want Recognition 



The *^riends of the Court/' J. W. 
Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley, attorneys for the 
Indians of CaUforrrrn in their case 
I before the Court of Claims at Wash- 
ington, D, C, hav i^etitioned the 
Court to be recognized as the "At- 
torneys of Record." The Petition 
raises for settlement, by the Court 
of Claims and the Supreme Court of 
the United States, the question of 
the ' inherent and constitutional 
rights of the Indians of California, 
as the claimants in the case, to be 
directly represented in Court by their 
own choice of attorneys as the **At- 
tomeys of Rcord." 

The Act of Congress approved 
May 18, 1928 authorized the Attor- 
ney General of California to bring 
fiuit in the Court of Claims on behalf 
of the Indians of California. The 
Court of Claims records show tha 
on August 14, 1929-fifteen month 
after the approval of the enablin 
act, suit was filed by U. S. Webb, th 
Attorney General for California. 

Although three years and seve 
months have now passed since th 
approval of the Act, the Court o 
Claims records have nothing morel 
to show for Mr. Webb. Had he filed 
within five months after the approva 
of the Court of Claims act he would 
have been in ahead of 13 Indian 
suits and 516 other suits in the Court 
of Claims and in all probability the 
suit for the Indians of California 
would have been settled long before 
this. 

The Act p^ovides th t all claims 
of whatsoever nature the Indians of 
California may have against the 
United States for their original rights 
in California may be submitted to 
the Court of Claims for settlement. 
The Act states that: 

"jurisdiction is hereby conferred ! 
upon the Court of Claims of the Uni- ' 
ted States, with the right of either 
party to appeal to the Supreme 
Court of the United States to hear 
and determine all such equitable 
claims of said Indians against the 
United States and to render final de- 
cree thereon." 

In a Utter dated December 21st, 
Mr. A. R. Shipe, one of the Wash- 
ington Attorneys associated with the 
"Friends of the Court*' said: "I do 
not hesitate to state that the inter- 
ests of the Indians of California are 
not being protected in the persent 
action (meaning Mr. Webb's suit) 
and a course of justice would dictate 
that the regularly employed attor- 
neys of the Indians of California 
prosecute this action." 

An A f f idavit by Mr. W. G. Walker, 
a member of the Chuck-Chansi Tribe 
of Indians of Fresno County, Califor- 
nia war- also filed with the Court of 
Claims. The Affidavit states that J. 
W. Henderson, J. E. Pemberton and 
James M. Hanley are the regularly 
and duly employed attorneys for the 
Indians of California; that the Court 
of Cla ms Act casts no obligation 
upon the Attorney General of the 
State cf California to prosecute the 
action; that Congress has permitted 
and has no power to command him; 
that the parties in interest should 
have, and by right have, the control 
of the ca;e and that they (Indians 
of California) desire that their at- 
torneys be recognized as the Attor- 
neys Ol Record for the claimants; 
that th? claimants in the action are 
not represented by any Attorney of 
Record and that the Attorney Gener- 
al of the S.ate of California appears 
only in his representative capacity 
as th(^ Attorney General of Califor- 
nia; and that he has not been em- 
ployed by the Claimants. 

The affidavit aL.o states the Ind- 
ian delegates requested Mr. Webb to 
advise with their regularly and duly 
employed attorneys in all matters 
pertaining to their suit in advance 
of any action by him and that he 
has refused to do so. Mr. Walker 
pointed out that this is the first, last 
and only chance the Indians of Cali- 
fornia have to grin a just settlement 
of their original rights in California; 
that Mr. Webb's suit does not pro- 
perly protect their rights and doe 
not pray for the true, nor total value 
of thir claims. 



SA\' FRANCIS.CO CIlROrjlCLB 

JAN. 17, 3 932 



U. S. to Hear 
Suit of First 
Calif orn i a n s 

Indians Promised Pants 

and Other Things by 

Treaty of 1851 



By EARL C. BEHRENS 

"The Indians of California, Claim- 
ants, vs. The United States of 
America." 

Thus reads the title of a bulky 
record which will be taken up for 
consideration at Washington some 
time In November by the Court of 
Claims of the United States. 

Eighty years of effort on the part 
of eighteen California Indian tribes 
to obtain recompense from the 
Federal Government under promises 
made in certain treaties are repre- 
sented. 

Under authority of the State 
Legislature, Attorney General U. S. 
Webb will appear before the Court 
of Claims this fall to press the 
claims of the Indians. 

CONGRESSIONAL PERMIT 

Congress in 1928 granted per- 
mission to the Attorney General ) 
submit the case for the Indians to 
the Court of Claims "acting for and 
on behalf of the Indians for de- 
termination of the equitable amount 
due the Indians from the United 
States." 

The congressional grant of the 
right to sue gave the Attorney Gen- 
eral the authority to submit all 
claims of whatsoever nature the 
Indians may have *'by reason of 
lands taken away from them by the 
United States without compensa- 
tion" or "for the failure or refusal 
of the United States to compen- 
sate them for their interest in 
lands which the United States 
appropriated to its own use with- 
out the consent of the Indians." 

$11,000,000 SOUGHT 

Compensation for 8,800,000 acres 
in various parts of California at 
$1.25 an acre, or $11,000,000, is 
sought for the lands taken from 
the eighteen Indian tribes. 

Recompense for personal prop- 
erty, facilities and improvements, 
promised by the Federa-l Govern- 
ment to the value of $1,800,000 is 
asked. 

A fair example of the personal 
property, facilities and improve- 
ments promised the Indians by rep- 
resentatives of the United States 
Government is contained in the 
treaty written May 30, 1851, and 
which has among its witnesses John 
C. Fremont, the treaty was with 
the Ko-ya-te, Wo-la-si, Nu-chow- 
we, Wack-sa-che, Palwisha, Po-ken- 
well and Ya-wll-chine tribes of the 
San Joaquin valley. 

PANTS PROMISED THEM 

Promised these Indians were: 
Two pairs of coarse pants and 
two flannel shirts for each man 
and boy. 

One thousand yards of linsey 
cloth, the same of cotion and of 
calico, for the women and chil- 
dren. 
Twenty pounds of thread. 
Two thousand needles. 
Two hundred thimbles. 
Five dozen pairs of scissors. 
Seven grindstones. 
Ten yoke of California oxen, 
horses, cows, ploughs, spades, 
hoes, seed, etc. 

The treaty with the Upper Klam- 
ath, Shasta and Scott's river tribes, 
signed October 6, 1851, in Scott's 
valley, then a part of Shasta county 
but now in Siskiyou county, enu- 
merated among the personal prop- 
erty promised the Indians. 

RED FLANNEL SHIRTS 

This included the following: 

Five hundred pairs strong 
pantaloons. 

Five hundred red flannel shirts. 
Six hundred linsey gowns for 
women and girls. 

Five hundred pair of Mackinaw 
blankets. 

Five thousand needles. 
Should the Indians recover the 
funds sought, the moneys will not, 
under Federal act, be paid to the 
Indians individually, or per capita, 
but will be used for their benefit 
in the ways to be specified. 
STATE PAYS COST 
The State of California has ap- 
propriated $15,000 to cover the cost 
of the litigation before the Court 
of Claims. 

The Judges of the Court of 
Claims at Washington are Fen ton 
W. Booth, Illinois; William R. 
Green, Iowa; Benjamin H. Little- 
ton, Tennessee; Thomas S. Wil- 
liams, Illinois, and Richard S. 
Whaley, South Carolina. 

Under direction of J. R. McCarl, 
Controller General of the United 
States Government, the reports on 
the Indian tribal claims are now 
being checked at Washington. Con- 
troller McCarl has notified Attor- 
ney General Webb that *'the reports 
require a vast amount of research 
and detailed work" and has fixed 
November as the earliest date upon 
which the Government will be 
ready for the prpceedings. 

WEBB LISTS TREATIES 
"In 1851 and 1852 the Govern- 
ment of the United States," says 
Attorney General Webb, "through 
its representatives, agreed upon the 
terms of treaties between some 
eighteen tribes in California and 
the Federal Government. The ne- 
gotiations relative thereto pro- 
ceeded until the eighteen treaties 
were drafted, executed by the rep- 
resentatives of the Indians and by 
the representatives of the Govern- 
ment and transmitted to Washing- 
ton for ratification. 

"These treaties provided for the 
surrender by respective tribes of 



America.'* 

Thus reads the title of a bulky 
record which will be taken up lor 
consideration at Washington some 
time in November by the Court of 
Claims of the United States. 

Eighty years of effort on the part 
of eighteen California Indian tribes 
to obtain recompense from the 
Federal Government under promises 
made in certain treaties are repre- 
sented. 

Under authority of the State 
Legislature, Attorney General U. S. 
Webb will appear before the Court 
of Claims this fall to press the 
claims of the Indians. 

CONGRESSIONAL PERMIT 

Congress in 1928 granted per- 
mission to the Attorney General ) 
submit the case for the Indians to 
the Court of Claims ''acting for and 
on behalf of the Indians for de- 
termination of the equitable amount 
due the Indians from the United 
States." 

The congressional grant of the 
right to sue gave the Attorney Gen- 
eral the authority to submit all 
claims of whatsoever nature the 
Indians may have "by reason of 
lands taken away from them by the 
United States without compensa- 
tion" or "for the failure or refusal 
of the United States to compen- 
sate them for their interest in 
lands which the United States 
appropriated to its own use with- 
out the consent of the Indians." 

$11,000,000 SOUGHT 

Compensation for 8,800,000 acres 
in various parts of California at 
$1.25 an acre, or $11,000,000, is 
sought for the lands taken from 
the eighteen Indian tribes. 

Recompense for personal prop- 
erty, facilities and improvements, 
promised by the Federst-l Govern- 
ment to the value of $1,800,000 is 
asked. 

A fair example of the personal 
property, facilities and improve- 
ments promised the Indians by rep- 
resentatives of the United States 
Government is contained in the 
treaty written May 30, 1851, and 
which has among its witnesses John 
C. Fremont, the treaty was with 
the Ko-ya-te, Wo-la-si, Nu-chow- 
we, Wack-sa-che, Palwisha, Po-ken- 
well and Ya-wU-chine tribes of the 
San Joaquin valley. 

PANTS PROMISED THEM 

Promised these Indians were: 
Two pairs of coarse pants and 
two flannel shirts for each man 
and boy. 

One thousand yards of linsey 
cloth, the same of cotton and of 
calico, for the women and chil- 
dren. 

Twenty pounds of thread. 

Two thousand needles. 

Two hundred thimbles. 

Five dozen pairs of scissors. 

Seven srrlndstones. 

Ten yoke of Canfomia oxen, 
horses, cows, ploughs, spades, 
hoes, seed, etc. 

The treaty with the Upper Klam- 
ath, Shasta and Scott's river tribes, 
signed October 6, 1851, in Scott's 
valley, then a part of Shasta county 
but now in Siskiyou county, enu- 
merated among the personal prop- 
erty promised the Indians. 

RED FLANNEL SHIRTS 
This included the following: 

Five hundred pairs strong 
pantaloons. 
Five hundred red flannel shirts. 

Six hundred linsey gowns for 
women and girls. 

Five hundred pair of Mackinaw 
blankets. 

Five thousand needles. 
Should the Indians recover the 
funds sought, the moneys will not, 
under Federal act, be paid to the 
Indians individually, or per capita, 
but will be used for their benefit 
in the ways to be specified. 
STATE PAYS COST 
The State of California has ap- 
propriated $15,000 to cover the cost 
of the litigation before the Court 
of Claims. 

The Judges of the Court of 
Claims at Washington are Fenton 
W. Booth, Illinois; William R. 
Green, Iowa; Benjamin H. Little- 
ton, Tennessee; Thomas S. Wil- 
liams, Illinois, and Richard S. 
Whaley, South Carolina. 

Under direction of J. R. McCarl, 
Controller General of the United 
States Government, the reports on 
the Indian tribal claims are now 
being checked at Washington. Con- 
troller McCarl has notified Attor- 
ney General Webb that "the reports 
require a vast amount of research 
and detailed work" and has fixed 
November as the earliest date upon 
which the Government will be 
ready for the prpceedings. 

WEBB LISTS TREATIES 

"In 1851 and 1852 the Govern- 
ment of the United States," says 
Attorney General Webb, "through 
its representatives, agreed upon the 
terms of treaties between some 
eighteen tribes in California and 
the Federal Government. The ne- 
gotiations relative thereto pro- 
ceeded until the eighteen treaties 
were drafted, executed by the rep- 
resentatives of the Indians and by 
the representatives of the Oovem- 
ment and transmitted to Washing- 
ton for ratification. 

"These treaties provided for the 
surrender by respective tribes of 
Indians of certain lands occupied 
by them and the right of occu- 
pancy of which was therein recog- 
nized, and the conditions of the 
surrender and the compensation to 
be paid therefor were in each in- 
stance fully described n the par- 
ticular treaty. 

TREATIES NEVER RATIFIED 

"llie Indians acting in good faith 
and believing of course that the 
treaties were concluded, surrendered 
the lands in question, possession 
thereof was taken by the Federal 
Government by its representatives 
and the lands subsequently disposed 
of. or perhaps in some instances, 
still held by the Government. 

*'The treaties, however, were never 
ratified. The Government obtained, 
has enjoyed and still enjoys the 
beneficial use of all which it sought 
to gain from such treaties, and the 
Indians gained nothing." . 



SSARCHLJOHT 




nraveling of Ked Tape in 
Suits of California Indians 
Results in Delay of Paymenl 

SAN FRANCISCO, Jan. ">G.— r and shirts to oxen and agricul- 
Approrimately 25,000 California ] tural implements. 
Indians and their descendants, j The Indians gave up their 
who nearly four years ago were lands in good faith, but congress 
given definite hope that they i failed to ratify the treaties and 
might benefit at last from the the Indians were literally swin- 
vast lands out of which their an- died, 
cestral tribes were allegedly! Autiiority Given in 1928 

swindled ^before 1860, will have! .fi^of • -.noo ^ ,.^ 

.; At last, m 1928, California con- 
to wait until about November ; ^.i. • , , . , 

, gressmen obtamed legislation au- 

before the government finds time f ^.^ • 

j thorizmg the attorney-general cif 

to begin "assembling data neces- 1 ^ t^ . i. . x.. ^^ . 

^ ^ ^ I California to sue in the United 

sary for consideration of thel;; 1^.. . ^ 4. ^ ^i . 

I 'States Court of Claims for com- 

case. . i .... 

I pensation for the Indians. This 



They will have to wait many 
more months after November be- 
fore these data are completely 
assembled. . • 

Further Delay Seen 
They will wait still more 
months when the data are ready 
before the United States Court 
of claims will set on its calendar 
for trial the suit brought in the 
Indians' behalf by Attorney-Gen- 
eral U. S. Webb of California. 

"And after the trial in the dis- 
tant future there is no telling 
how long they will have to wait j 
for a decision. 

This was the situation regard- 
ing the Indian claims as outlined 
this week by Attorney-General 



Years of Effort 

All this hope deferred arises 
I despite the fact that the entire 
present procedure was authorized 
by the congress in 1928 after 80 
years of effort by the proponents 
of the Indians' cause and despite 
the fact that the California leg- 
lislature has appropriated $15,000 
to cover the cost of the litiga- 
tion before the court of claims. 
Washington Unperturbed 

Difficult as these delays are 
for the layman to understand, 
there has been no excitement 
about them in Washington, D. C, 
where government *'red tape" is 
usually accepted as normal. 

The only excitement has been 
evidenced in a long standing bit- 
ter quarrel between Attorney- 
General Webb and the Indian 
Board of Co-operation, an organ- 
ization whose leaders have been 
collecting money from the Indi- 
ans and attempting to place 
their own attorneys into the case, 
with the ultimate hope, Webb 
claims, of remunteration to these 
attorneys from the money to be 

collected from the government. 

An Old, Old St^»ry 

The story dates .back to the 
'50s, when 18 Indian tribes of 
California signed away approxi- 
mately 8,000,000 acres of land in 
various parts of the state to the 
United States in a series of 
treaties which promised the In- 
dians varied compensation. This 

compensation ranged from desir- 
able reservations, assistance in 

agriculture and building and ma- 
terial facilities ranging from 
needles and thread and trousers 



con^pensation was to be on the 
basis of $1.25 per acre, or a total 
of $11,000,000, plus recompense 
for personal property, facilities 
and improvements promised. 

The state legislature of Cali- 
fornia appropriated $15,000 for 
expenses of litigation and the 
way seemed clear for immediate 
action. 

No Cash Distribution 

But it was 15 months from 
the passage* of the congressional 
measures before Attorney-Gen- 
eral Webb, August 14, 1929, filed 
the suit in the court of claims, j 

The petition asked a total of 
$12J,800,000, which would be estab- j 



lished as a fund from which edu- 

fiti?, but no <jash distribution, 
would )be administered to the In- 
dians and their descendants. 

Registration Opened 

Pwegistration of the Indian 
claimants was undertaken 

throughout California and took 
nearly two years. 

The trial has never been place* 
on the calendar of the court o 
claims. 

Attorney-General Webb a werl 
ago, in answering the criticis 
of the Indian Board of Co-opera 
tion, revealed that the entir 
matter is now awaiting th 
gathering of records by the of 
fice of United States Controller 
General J. R. McCarl. 

To Gather Records 

Webb said he had been advise 
by McCarl that the controller' 
office is occupied with othe 
work at present and that the| 

gathering of these records will 
be started not later than Novem- 
ber. 

*The actual gathering of this 
information will take several 
months, said Webb. *'For that 
reason it is questionable whether 
the actual trial of the suit can 
begin for many months to come. 

"The government must gather 
all ^financial records affecting 
California Indians since be^re 
1860."^ - ^ 






^ ■•i^-y^v 




IK CLAM 



>V 



U.S. Controller To^tart Bath] 

ering Financial Data By 

Hext November 

SAN FRANCISCO, Jan is 

wh ch' f.f,'^K""«^ "i fe'deraTrecordl 
vvnicn will be needed in the InnJ 

^}fL c'a'ms against the Unite( 
States Government will be startpH 

fice Of 'J 'k'Vr^^r ^y ^^^oi 

contr°o ne^ gen'^ral"'' ''""^'^ ^'^''^ 

Ca'^i'fo°r„"i7 ^l"^''^.' U. S. Webb 01 
»-aiitorma, who, in is-Jq fiioH 

C^h/'" .«2 800.000 in behalf of thd 
sf^ « ?.'^ Indians. with the Uni edl 
Ihi tf^.'^?"''* <>' Claims, said to-dav 
he had been advised ti this effecl 
by Controller McCarl. " 

This means that the controller 
cneral can not start the nece^-i 
sary examination of records on t^hi J 
case much before November and 
undoubtedly the gathering "of fh"s 
mformation will take several 
months," said Webb. "For thlt rca 
son ,t is questionable whether the 
actual trial of the suit can be^^n 
for many months to come The 
government must gather all finan- 

lna\-.^^T^^ affecting Calif o^nCi 
indjans since before I860 

<,.i^^*'"^ 2^i°°^ Indians' and do^ 
scendants of Indians are claimantcl 
for compensation for lands whioh 
nirindt^". X""" -^hteen 'c^ll'fo.- 
of fhl •fPfM"'*^!^"'*^'' tl'e treatieJ 
^Ll- JlV^^^^- ^^^ Indians never 
received the compensation originalJ 
ly agreed upon under these thlatie»l 
because the treaties were not rati- 

Acts of congress and the state 
legislature in 1928 authorized the 
^o^^procedure for prosecuting! 



OAKLAND. CAC. 

POST ENQUIRER 

JAN. 19, WZZ .. . . . 




CLAIMS DEFERe 



> r- -y 



8AN FRA/'N CISCO, Jan. 19 
(PCNS).— Congestion in the federal 
court of claims will delay hearingr 
of the $12,800 claims of 18 Califor- 
nia Indian tribes against the gov- 
ernment until next November, State 
Attorney General U. S. Webb, rep- 
resenting the tribes, declared today. 

The Indians seek compensation 
for lands talten from them by th« 
government. 



OAKLAND, CAL\ TRIBUNE 
JAN. 19, IddZ ... 



U. S. Court to Rule 
" f SWn Indian Clqifns 

SAfT FRANCISCO, Jan, 19. — 
The federal court of claims will 
take up the 112,800,000 claim of 
18 California Indian tribes next 
November, according to Attorney- 
General U. S. Webb, representing 
the tribes. The Indians seem com- 
pensation for lands taken from 
them by the jETov^rnment. 



^.U^'h:^ 



.).. ■■■,■..;: -i:^ 






YP.EKA. CAL. NEWS 



f^r 



r • « 




dsaxLi 



Wait 



'I 







By HOMER L. ROBERTS ! At la^t in 1928. Califomla con- 
United Press fetaf f Correspondent gressmen obtained legislation au- 
(Special to Oaily Siskiyou News) thorlzating the attorney general 
SACRAMENTO, Feb. 4 (UP) — of California to sue in United 
Twenty-five thousand CaUf omia States court of claims for compen- 
Indlans, last survivors of one-time sation for the Indians. This to- 
powerful tribes, are stUl waiting tal of $ll,0O0,00a, plus recompense 
patiently for what they term is a for personal property, facilities and 
"square deal" from Uncle Sam. .Improvements promised. The state 
Fbur year^ ago these Indians . legislature appropriated $15 000 for 
were given definite hope that they 'expenses, and the way seemed clear 
might benefit at last from the vast for immediate action, 
lands taken from their ancestors ' Although the suit has been filed, 
before 1880. Now, however, they the trial has never been placed on 
must wait i/ntil November before the calendar of the court of claims. 
the federal government finds time Registration of the Indian claim- 
to assemble data necessary to con- ants was undertaken throughout 
sider their cases. California, and took nearly two 

The suits axe being brought in years, 
behalf of the Indians by Attorney ^ Answering criticism of the Indi- 
General U. S. Webb of California, an Board of Cooperation, Webb 
Who says the long delay arises de- said this week that the entire mat- 
«Ij(lte the fact that the present pro- ' ter is awaiting the gathering of 
c^ijce was authorized by congress records by the office of United 
la 1926, after 80 years of effort In, states Controller General J. R. 
behalf of the Indians. jMcCarl. The government must 

- >rhe' sto^ dates back to the flf- j gather aU financial records af- 
ties, when 18 Indian tribes signed If ectlng CaUfornla Indians ^nce 
awa^ approximately 8,800,000 acres | before 1800 before the trial can ac- 
of land In various parts of the Itually begin, he said, 
state to the United States In ^\ 
series of treaties which promise^ 
varied compensation. 

This compensation ranged from 
desi^ble reselrviations and ossiflt- 
loice in agriculture and building, 
to material facilities such as 
usedles and thread, trousers and 
;ghirts, oxen and agricidtural im<- 
plements. 

T)ie Indians gave up their lands 
In «ood faith, but congress didnt 
tuMlf the treaties, so the redskinft 
ielt ^iiddtnt the WMkr 



CRIG0 c^Lir. PlSC.^^»lO 



^mp— ^j* . 



Indians Wait 
U- S. Action 
On Cash Claim 



y. 



I 



By HOMER^L. ROBEflTS 
(United Press Staff CorresHondent) j 
(Special to Chico Record) , 

SACRAMENTO, Feb. 8.- (IP> 7- 
Twenty-flve thousand CaUfornia \ 
Indians, last survivors of one-time 
powerful tribes, are still waiting 
patiently for what they term is a 
^square deal" from Uncle Sam. 

Four years ago these Indians 
were given definite hope that they 
might benefit at last from the 
vast lands taken from their an- 
cestors before I860. Now, however, 
they must wait until November 
before the federal government 
finds time to assemble data neces- 
sary to consider their cases. 

The suits are being brought in 
behalf of the Indians by Attor- 
ney General U. S. Webb of Cali- 
fornia, who says the long delay 
arises despite the fact that the 
present procedure was authorized 
by congress^ in 1928, after 80 years 
of effort in behalf of the In- 
dians. , ^ i.V. CHo 

The story dates back to the 5Us, 
when 18 Indian tribes signed away 
approximately 8,800,000 acres of 
land in various parts of the state 
to the United States in a series of 
treaties which promised varied 
compensation. 

The Indians gave up their lands 
in good faith, but congress didnt 
ratify the treaties, so the red-- 
skins were left ♦'holding the sack. 

At la^t in 1928, California con- 
jrressmen obtained legislation au- 
thorizing the attorney general of 
California to sue in United States 
court of claims for compensation 
for the Indians. This total of $11,- 
000 000, plus recompense for per- 
sonal property, facilities and im- 
provements promised. The state 
legislature appropriated $15,000 tor 
expenses, and the way seemed 
cleared for immediate action. 

Although the suit has been filed, 
the trial has never been placed on 
the calendar of the court of 

claims. ^, ^ i « 

Registration of the Indian 
claimants was undertaken through- 
out California, and took nearly 

two years. 

Answering criticism of the In- 
dian Board of Cooperation, Webb 
said this week that the entire mat- 
ter is awaiting the gathering of 
records by the office of United 
States Controller General J. R. 
McCarl. The government must 
gather all financial records affect- 
ing California Indians since before 
1860 before the trial can actually 
begin, he said. 



I 



COALII^GA, CALT.- RECORD 

FEB, C), 1,952 . 

Indians Await 

Square Deal 
From 'Vnc' Sam 

Osi^ ^ — 

By HOMER L. ROBERTS 
United Press Staff Correspondent 

(Special to Coalinga Record) 
SACRAMENTO, Feb. 9. — (LP)— 
i Twenty-five thousand California 
I Indians, last survivors of one- 
I time powerful tribes, are still 
j waiting patiently for what they 
I term is a -square deal" from 

! Uncle Sam. 

Four years ago these Indians 
were given definite hope that they 
might benefit at last from the 
Ivast lands taken from their an- 
Icestors before I860. Now, how- 
ever, they must wait until No- 
vember before the federal gov- 
ernment find.s time to assemble 
data necessary to consider their 

! cases. 

The suits are being brought in 
behalf of the Indians by Attorney 
General U. S. Webb of California, 
who says the long delays arises 
despite the fact that the present 
procedure was authorized by con- 
Igress in 1928, after 80 years of 
[effort in behalf of the Indians. 
i The story dates back to the 
fifties, when 18 Indian tribes 
signed away approximately 8,800,- 
000 acres of land in various parts 
of the state to the United States 
'in a series of treaties which] 
■promised varied compensation. 
i This compensation ranged from 
i desirable reservations and assists 
ance in agriculture and building, 
to material facilities such as 
needles and thread, trousers and 

shirts, oxen and agricultural im- 
« I 

plements. 

The Indians gave up their lands 
in good faith, but congress didn't 
ratify the treaties, so the Red-| 
skins were left "holding the| 

sack " 

j At last in 1928, California con- 
gressmen obtained legislation! 
I authorizing the attorney general 
I of California to sue in United! 
j States court of claims for com- 
jpensation for the Inddans. This 
I total of 1^11,000,000, plus recom- 
Ipense for personal property, facil- 
itates and improvements promis- 
ed. The state legislature appro- 
priated 115,000 for expenses, and 
the way seemed cleared for im- 
mediate action. 

Although the suit has been 
tiled, the trial has never been 
placed on the calendar of the 
court of claims. 

Registration of the Indian 
claimants was undertaken in Cal- 
ifornia, and took nearly two 

'; years. 

Answering criticism of the In- 
dian board of cooperation, Webb 
said this week that the entire 
matter is awaiting the gathering 
of records by the office of United 
States Controller General J. R. 
McCarl. The government must 
gather all financial records af- 
fecting California Indians since 
before 1860 before the trial can 
actually begin, he said. 



II 



8. r., CAur. 

OALL-BULLSTIN 

FEB. 11 ; ir>52 



NDIIiNS SEEK 





The United States Court of Claims 
today announced in Washington it 
will hear, next month, the petition 
of 25,000 California Indians for per- 
mission to employ their own attorney 
in their fight for long delayed pay- 
ment of land claims. 

The Indians assertedly are dissat- 
isfied with the state attorney general 
as their legal representative. 

Millions are involved in the claims 
of the Indians. The claims are based 
on unratified treaties between In- 
dians and the United States in 1851-2 
under which the Indians gave up 
8,800,000 acres. 

Much of the land is in the Mother 
Lode country. 



FEB. U:1»^V ^'' " 




SAN FPwANCISCO, Feb.: 11.— W. 
G. Walker of Fresno, a member of 
the Chuck-Chansi Indian tribe. 
visited San Francisco today for a 
^conference on procedure to be fol- 
lowed in prosecuting a claim for 
millions of dollars on behalf of 
California Indians against thel 
federal government. 

The claim is based on the seizure 
by the United States of millions of 
acres of Indian lands in the Cali- 
fornia gold rush days. 

Walker expressed satisfaction 
over the action of the United States 
Court of Claims in Washington, D- 
C, in setting for hearing in March 
a petition by the 2 5,000 California 
Indians seeking permission to be 
represented by their own attornei^ 
J W. Henderson of San Francisc^ 
kt the formal trial of the compe 
sation claims. 

The claims are based on 18 un- 
ratified treaties executed by about 
400 representatives of Indian tribes 
and groups of Callfornians with the 
federal government in 1851-52. The 
treaties were never passed by con- 
gress, but 210,000 Indians, believ- 
ing them effective, gave up their 
lands to the gold miners. 

Descendants of the Indians 
fought for recognition of the gov- 
ernment's indebtedness to them, 
with the result that the Indians 
secured the passage of the act of 
congress of 192 8 which waived the 
statute of limitation and permitted 
them to seek an adjudication of 
their 76-year-old claim. 



APPEAL OSMOC'f^^^^' 

FEB. Vi 1 ^•^- - 




Indians Ask for 
Their Own Counsel 

WASHINGTON, D. C, Feb. 11. 
In what Is declared to be a "most 
unusual" judicial order, the Unit- 
ed State court of claim55 has S3t 
for hearing in March a petition !)y 
the 25,000 Indians of California 
that they be permitted to have 
their own attorney, J. W. Hender- 
son of San Francisco, in the place 
of Attorney General U. S. Webb of 
Calif orria, to prosecute for them 
their claim against the United 
States government. 
,. They are asking pecuniary com- 
pensation on account of alleged | 
illegal seizure by the United States 
of approximately 80,000,000 acres! 
"^f Indian lands in the Californiaj 
:old-rush days of 1849-56. 



T?eSNO. CALIF, 



hns Gain Hearing Before U. S. Court 
Have Own Attorney Press ^Lost 
Treaties' Claims Through Fresnans Efforts 




By GILBERT G. wilGLE 
SAN FRANCISCO, ifeh. 10— In 
"^hat is declar4^_^o be A *'most un- 
i^sual" judicial order, #the TJnited 
States court of, claims^^has set for 
hearing in March a petition by the 
25.000 Indians oi^ California that 
they be permitted to have their own 
attorney, J. AY. Henderson of San 
^'"ranmfico. in the place of Attorney 
General U. S. Webb of California to 
prosecute for them their claim 
Q-gainst the United States govern- 
ment for pecuniary compensation on 
account of alleged illegal seizure by 
the United States of approximately 
80,000,000 acres of Indian lands in 
the California gold rush davs of 
1849-'56. 

The Indians, through W. G. 

^Walker of Fresno county, a member 
>f the Chuck-Chansi tribe, com- 
plained recently that Attorney Gen- 
eral Webb, although given permis- 
sive authority to sue in an act of 

I Congress passed in 1928, took 15 
months to file their petition that 
might reasonably have been filed 
in five months, and thereby unduly 

[delaj'^ed their case by permitting 13 
other claims to gain precedence on 
the calendar. 

W^aljl<er also complained for the 
Indians that Attorney General 
|W^ebb'a| Inaction for the year and a 
half a|ince he filed the petition 
placed tlieir action in danger of be- 
ing dismissed by the court for want 
of prosecution some months ago, 
and that they saved their case from 
being struck from the calendar only 
by sending their own attorney to 

ashington last December. 

UNRATIFIED TREATIES 

The (plaims, involving millions, 
are based on IS unratified treatied 
executed by about 400 representa- 
tives of) Indian tribes and groups of 
Calif oliiia with the United States 
in 185m52, reserving to the Indians 
the uAind possession of 8,800,000 
acres ^feland in the state, together 
with "Bmpensation" in the form of 
serviccHmd supplies, which the 
United Kates was to render to them 
for the Knainder of their. 80,000,000- 
acre h^Bings, which they ceded in 
the trebles. 

The ^Btreaties failed, however, of 
.ratific^Ki by Congress in 1852. In 
Ithe b^^K that the treaties were 

fectj^Rhe 210,000 California In - 

pi p tb^ir 1ar>ff« to the 

mt and the gold miners. 

decade that followed the 

'were subjected to *'un- 

cruelties/* All of their 

Ire taken from them. They 

•aged and ravaged, pillaged 

fcered, and within a decade, 

to testimony in the Con- 

l1 Records, were reduced to 

fitifully small groups of 

and hunted refugees. 

lore than 50 years the 18 
which had been denied 
tion in an executive session 
Jenate in 1S52, reposed in 
it archives of the Senate. In 
Ibecome known as the "lost 
they were released from 
/of secrecy. 
S' FIGHT 
afterwards the Indian 
^urviT^P and their descendants in 
LlifoiJla, numbering 20,000 to 25,- 
10, bfij^ed together to press their 
Lim £)r justice. Indian groups, 
lesTgniii, ?d as auxiliaries, associated 
Ihems^ejes as members of an or- 
'anlzafk^n incorporated as the In- 
[dian Board of Cooperation. Fees of 
a few cents per month were volun- 
tarily contributed, and, during the 
I>ast 20 years, through J. W. Hen- 
iderson, their chosen attorney, and 
tr. G. CoUett, their appointed ex- 
ecutive official, the Indians have 
been improving their condition. 

With frugal use of their volun- 
tary fees the Indians secured court 
judgments establishing them as na- 
tive born Americans, entitled to all 
the rights of citizenship, including 
the right to vote, and to have their 
children go to the public schools. 

After 10 years* ceaseless affort 
through their chosen representa- 
tives the Indians secured the pass- 
age of the act of Congress of 1928 
which waived the statute of limi- 
tation and permitted them to seek 
an adjudication of their 76-year-old 
claim in the United States court of 

claims. 

That was four years ago. The act 
provided that the claim *'may be 
aubmitted to the court of claims by 
the attorney general of the state of 
California.** This, the Indians are 
now contending, was a permissive 
provision only; and when the attor- 



Leaders In Fight For Indians 



tion 



ney general proceeded to peti 
for a "limited judgment" and with- 
out consulting with the Indians, the 
rift began that led to the "most un- 
usual" judicial proceedings that will 
be staged in Washington. D. C, at 
the March session of the ITnited 
States court of claims. 
DENOUNCES WEBB 

Walker, who was in San Fran- 
cisco conferring with Attorney Hen- 
derson and Executive Officer Col- 
lett, had this to say on behalf of 
the Indians: 

"As spokesman for California's 
25,000 Indians, I can qualify by say- 



5S? Ki3s$;:;;^:a^^$sm^!;$$%;&^ 






■';-'.->i;>' ' " ' 



•=5? 

S; 







,<• -•.•.•.•.v.t.x.XvX^ 



ing I have been in personal contact 
witli more than 20,000 of my fel- 
low^ redskins. But don*t make the 
mistaJce of thinking I wear moc- 
casins and a feather headdress. No- 
siree! I'm 64, self-made and self- 
educated since I wajs five years old. 
I personally represent the Indians 
of the Chuck-Chansi tribe and I'm 
a member of the board of directors 
of the Indian board of cooperation, 
and we Indians are in a majority 
on that board — so it's our organiza- 
tion. 

"And let m.e get this off my chest: 
I don't think it is very becomirig 
for the attorney general of Cali- 
fornia, w^ho is exercisitig his per- 
missive a.uthority to present the 
claim of the Indians — and taking 
four years, so far to do not much 
more than prejudice our rights — ^to 
be criticizing us for w^anting our 
own attorney in control of the case. 

"For 20 years Attorney Henderson 
has helped us. Without him we 
would be nowhere now. Without 
him we wouldn't be voting and 
sending our children to the public 
schools — including the University of 
California— to be educated. Without 
him and Mr. Collett we would never 
have secured the pa.ssage of the 
congresfsional aict permitting us our 
'day in court* 

"Why then shouldn't we want 
him now, and TS'hy in the world 
should the attorney general object 
if we, as American citizens the same 
as he is, choose to contribute 
voluntarily to a fund to 'finish the 
job' we began more than 20 yeai's 
ago. 

80 YEARS LOST 

"Just consider these needless four 
years' delay on top of the 76 yeaj-s 
of injustice that preceded thein. 
Eighty years in all. Maybe, taking 
his good and leisurely time, the 
attorney general has not thought 
of the aged Indians who are living 
in squalor and despair and with 
hope dying in their bre^asts. For 
instance, my old friend Chief Daha- 
wanzala of th« Pittriver tribe. He 
was 79 when the act of Congress 
was paisaed; he's S3 now. Give that 
a thought — and there are others 
like him. 

"And yet the attorney general, 
(instead of worrying with us and 
Iconsulting with ub^ is giving out al- 
fmost daily interviews telling the 
I white people that he'll be getting 
busy 'next November.' Well, we're 
[not waiting until then, as you will 
note by th« news from Washington 
C. 
".\nother thing I can't understand 



illiam G. Walker (ful 
igth photo at right) of Au- 
member of the Chuck- 
mai tribe, is the leader of 
ifornia's 25,000 Indians who 
their own attorney to 
the fight before the U. S. 
of claims at Washington. 
FredericJ: G. Colljett, ex- 
ft ch i ef of~ Th e 
b^ard of control (in JIBT^at 
center) has been engaged in 
this claim for millions for the 
last 20 years and is now lead- 
ing in the fight on the attor- 
ney general of California. At- 
torney J. W. Henderson (lower 
left) made the fight before 
Congress to get permission to 
sue under the unratified treat- 
ies of 1852, and who now de- 
mands that be be substituted 
for Attorney General Webb as 
litigant for the Indians of cen- 
tral California. 

is why the attorney gpeneral Is so 
busy proclaiming that w^e shoiildn't 
continue our voluntary contribu- 
tions of a few cents a month to 
keep enough funds on hand to make 
the progress that he is not maki?^ 

"It's idle of the attorney gem 
to say he won't use the money we 
ai-e gathering by voluntary contri- 
butions. Of course he won't; you 
can bet your life on that; we in- 
tend to use it to get our own at- 
torney on the job. 

CLAIM ON WHOLE STATE 

"In conclusion, let me note that 
the act of Congress specifically pro- 
vides that the attorney general shall 
not get any fee or pay out of any 
moneys awarded to us. Then why 
in the world is he acting so uppish 
with us, not consulting or confer- 
ring with us, and asking a limited! 
amount that, after set-offs arc 
figured, would give the Indians 
about $300 per capita in payment 
for the whole state of CaJifomiaJ 
which they possessed or owned in 
1849, and which the United Statesl 
took away from th<em in violation 
of international law, the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, the! 
treaty with Mexico and every pre- 
cept of right and justice. 

"Getting no pay himself, I would 
think the attorney general would 
be glad to have the attorney of our 
own choice take the job off his 
hands, where it has lain like a 
sleeping papoose for nearly four, 
to us, endless years. 

"We Indians know you have to 
pay a person to get active service 
out of him; that's why we are 
voluntarily, of our own wish — 
those of us w^ho can spai-e a few 
cents a month — contributing to our 
fund. r 

"And you can bet it doesn't sit 
well on our stomachs to have the] 
attorney general so busj' saying, 
"Don't do it," while he's so Idle on 
our Job. 

"That's why we want our own 

attorney. The Indians don't want 

to wait another SO j'ears for] 
justice." 








v~.. "Vti^"'' ■■ ' '."-1 ^'' '•"-•■ P 



" t;, 



•« 






; . • ; ■-^■:'^^^K--:^'~'l^l^}ii'?,:Xiri>^-.'' ' 






'■>"-"•■' ■"'lil.Tlh 



EXAMINFvR 



, ' ; ' •■ 






} 

patches stated. 

California Indianip f 
To Be Given Hearing 

Attorney J. W. Henderson re- 
ceived word from Washingtan yes- 
terday that the United States Court 
of Claims has placed on its March 
calendar, for hearing, the petTOon 
of some 25,000 California Indians 
that he be permitted to represent 
I them 'In a legal case ijistead of 
' State Attorney General U. S. Webb. 
The case is the Indians' claim 
acainst the Government for com- 
pensation for about 80,000,000 acres 
of Indian lands alleged to have 
been illegally -eized by the United 
States during the California gold 
rush days of 184^56. 






-i-'p-.. ':.: . 



■■ ■" ,■■■•■...!•."'.'■ I-: ■ ■ ■ 




SENTINEL 







Kings, Other Valley Indians Win 

Hearing of $80,000, 000 Claims] 

Against U. S. For Treaty Lands] 



Through a judicial onlef of the 
United States court of claims, the 



matter up with F. P. Latta of Tulare 

well known historian of the valley, 

hearing on a petition filed on be- and from him received the infofma 



half of 25,000 Indians of California 
has been set for sometime during 
March according to a report com- 
ing from San Francisco. 

At the hearing the Indians will 
have their "day in court" on the 



tion that roughly the treaty of April 
29, 1851 granted to some 18 tribes, 
almost the entire side of the San 
Joaquin valley from the Fresno I 
river on the north to Kern river on 
the south. These lands extended 



settlement of claims based on 18 j east and west from about the Sierra 
treaties made with the government ! foothills to the eastern portion o\ 
80 years ago' which provided for j the Tule lakes, including Ken 



■I 
i 



reserving to the Indians 8,800,000 
acres of land together with com- 
pensation^ in the form of service and 
supplies which the United States 
was to render them in payment of 
their holdings amounting to $80,- 
OPO.OOO which ceded in the trea- 
ties. 

Not. Ratified 



Buena Vista, Goose, Tulare an< 
Summit. From Summit lake nortl 
the eastern border of the land! 
granted to the Indians was thi 
swamp area along Fresno slough anc 
the San Joaquin river. 

The Indian tribes that occupiei 
this particular portion of the valle: 
when the treaties were enacted 8( 



Although all the treaties failed of [ years ago, have dwindled to a mer( 
ratification by Congress in 1852, the remnant, now occupying what i.1 



Indians, numbering 210,000, under 
the belief that the treaties were ef- 
fective, gave up their lands to the 
government and gold miners. The 
history of the results of the signing 
of the treaties and the ceding of 
the lands is that both the white 
settlers in the mining districts and 
the government officials considered 
the lands in the San Joaquin valley 
worthless, and as a result the In- 
dians were forced to give the moun- 
tain territory and to move to reser- 
vations established in the valley. 
These reservations were at the Tejon 
ranch near Bakersfield, on Tule 
river and oii Kings and Fresno 
rivers. 

Settlers Moved In 

Before these reservations were 
firmly established, settlers began to 
move into the valley in large num- 
bers, and when it was seen that 
the great future lay in the valley 
lands rather than in the mining 
districts, the treaties were never 
ratified. 

Known as the "lost treaties" they 
remained in the archives of the 
senate chamber until 1905, when 
they were brought to light. Shortly 
after the bringing out of the trea- | 
ties, the surviving Indians banded 
themselves together in 2»,n organiza- 
tion incorporated as Indian Board of 
Cooperation, and during the past 20 
years, aided by J. W. Henderson, 
their attorney, and F. G. Collett, 
their appointed executive official, 
the Indians have been improving 
their condition, and incidently have 
been succesful in having their claims 
recognized by the government bur- 
eau, i 

King^s County Data 
Some months ago, J. R. Hayes, 
deputy county surveyor here, receiv- 
ed a communication from the In- 
dian Board of Cooperation, asked to 
define if possible the boundaries of 
the lands in this locality that mighi 
have come under the jurisdiction of 
the old treaties. Mr. Hayes took the 



known as the "rancherie" south- 
east of Lemoore. On Tule rivei 
above Portorville is another reserva 
tion, also thinly populated. 



I 



'AUAM5DA, CALfP, 
TIME5.STAR 

FJCB. 15, 1932 - '" 



1 1 i 




By HOMER L^ I{Om!l]|rS 

(United Press ^«*»'/ i^orr^iponHtittJ 
Special ib' Alamrda Tim-es'Stawi, 

SACRAMENTO, Cal. — Twenty-| 
Ifive thousand California Indians, 
ast survivors of one-time power- 
|ful tribes, are still waiting pa- 
tiently tor what they term is 
|a **square deal" from Uticle Sam. 

Pour years? ajjo these' Indians 

were given definite hope that 

they might benefit at last from 
the vast lands taken , from their 
ancestors before 18 60. Now, 
however, they must wait until 
November before the federal gov- 
ernment finds time to assemble 
data necessary to consider their 
cases. 

The suits are being l)rought in 
behalf of the Indiana by Attor- 
ney General U. S. Webb of Cali- 
fornia, who says the long delay 
arises despite the fact that th(^ 
present procedure was authorized 
by congress in 1928; after 80 
years of effort in behalf of the 
IndlauB. 

The story dates back to the 
fifties, when 18 Indiah tribes 
signed away approximately 8,- 
,X)00 -fM?tres of laud In varloua 
parts of the state to the United 
Stated in a series of treaties 
which promised varied comp^sa- 
tion. 

This compensation ranged from 
desirable reservations and assist- 
ance in agriculture and building, 
to material facilities such as 
needles and thread, trousers and 
shirts, oxen and agricultural im- 
plements. 

The Indians gave up their lands 
in good faith, but congress didn't 
ratify the treaties, so the red- 
skins were left "holding the 
sack." 

At laet. in 1928, California 
cohgres^ihi^h obtained legislation 
authorizing the attorney general 
of California to sue in United 

Slateis court of claims, for com- 
pensatibii for the Indians. This 
total of 111,000,000. plus recom- 
l>ertse for personal property, fa- 
cilities and improveinents prom- 
ised. The state legislature ap- 
propriated $15,000 for expenses, 
and the way seemed cleared for 
immediate action. 

Although the suit has been 
filed, the trial has never been 
placed on the calendar of the 
court of claims. 

Registration of the Indian 
c 1 a i ma h t s was undertaken 
tliroughout California, atttd took 
nearly two years. 

Answering criticism of the 
Indian Board of Cooperation, 
Webb said this week that the 
entire matter is awaiting the 
gathering of recbrds by the office 
of United States Controller Gen- 
eral J. R. McCarl. The govern- 
ment must gather all financial 
records affecting California In- 
dians since before 1860 beforej 
the trial can actually begin, h 
said. 



MARIPOSA CALir, GAZETTE 



FEB. 18, im 



^j.V*-''«^"l»-1i-^ 




liJiir CLIiMS 



/ Td GET Hie in iiiOii 

iOEB Eftfiiy m TfiEllTIES 



In what's declared to be a "most effective the 210,000 California In- 
unusual" judicial order, the United \ dians gove up their lands to the 



States Court of Claims has set for 
hearing in March a petition by the 



Government and the gold miners. 
For more than fifty years the 



25,000 Indians of Calfornia thr,t j 18 treaties, which had been denied 
they bo permitted to have their j ratification in an executive session 
own att<Diney, J. W. Henderson of ; of the senate in 1852, reposed in the 
San Francisco, in place of Attorney j secret archives of the Senate. In 
General U. S. Webb of California, ■ 1905, to become known as the "lost 
to prosecute for them their claijn i treaties," they were released from 
against the United States Govern- i the ban of secrecy, 
ment for pecuniary compensation^ Shortly afterwards the Indian 

Ion account of alleged illegal seizure survivors and their descendants in 
by the United States of approximate California, numbering twenty to 
ly • 80,000,000 acres of Indian lands twenty -five thousand, banded to- 



in the California gold rush days 
of 1849-56. 



gether to press their claim for just- 
ice. Indian groups, designated as 



The Indians, through W. G. Walk- \ auxiliaries,, associating themselves 
ler of Fresno County, California, a | as members of an organization, in- 
member of the Chuck-Chansi tribe, i coiporated as the Indian Board of 
I complained recently that Attorney i Cooperation. Fees of a few cents 
General Webb, although given per- ! per month were voluntarily con- 
missive authority to sue in an Act j tiibuted and, during the past twen- 
of Congress passed in 1928, took j ty years, through J. W. Henderson, 
fifteen months to file their petition I their cliosen attorney and F. G. Col- 
that might reasonably have been j lett, their apponited executive 
filed in five months and thereby i ficial, the Indians have been im- 
unduly delayed their case by per- proving their condition. 



mitting thirteen other claims to gain 
precedence on the calendar. :. 



With frugal use of their volun- 
tary fees, the Indian secured court 



Walker also complained fpr the [ judgments establishing them as na- 
Indians that Attorney General ; tive-bom American entitled to all 
Webb's inaction for the year and a ! the lights of citizenship, including 
half since he filed the petition plac- j the right to vote and to have their 
ed their action in danger of being j children go to public schools, 
dismissed by the court for v/ant of | After ten years* ceaseless effort 
prosecution some months ago and : thxough their chosen representa- 
that they saved their case from ' tlves, the Indians secured the pas- 
being struck from the calendar only I sage of the Act of Congress of 1928 
by sending their own attorney to which waived the statute of lim- 



Washington last December. 

The claims, involving millions, ' 



itation and permitted them to seek 
an adjunction of their 76-year-old 



are based on 18 unratified treaties : claim in the U. S. Court of Claims, 
erecuted by about 400 representa- j Tliat v/as four years ago. The 
tives of Indian tribes and groups ' act provided that the claim "may be. 
of Califomians with the United submitted to the Court of Claimij 
States in 1851-52, reserving to the by the attorney general of the Stat< 
Indians the use and possession of of California." This, the Indiani 
8,800,000 acres of land in the state, are now contending, was a permis- 
together with "compensation" in sive provisions only; and when the 
the form of service and supphes, attorney general proceeded to petit- 
which the United States was to ren- ion for a "limited judgment" and 
der to them for the remainder of v/ithout consulting with the Indians, 
their 80,000,000 acre holdings, which the rift began that led to the "most 
they ceded in the treaties. j unusual" judicial proceedmgs thai 

The 18 treaties failed, however, will be staged in Washington, D. C. 
of ratification by Congress in 1852. at the March session of the U^ 
In the belief that the treaties were Court of Claims. 



CLOVIS CAL, INDEPENDENT 

FED li 1052 

1 . ... 



idians^Gaii 




By GILBERT G. HIEIGI^ 

^ V. I 



Washington, 4s^C-^'^^- 10, 1932— 
In what is decla^d to be a "most 
unusual'' judicial order, the United 
States Court of Claims has set for 
hearing in March a petition by the 
25,000 Indians of California that they 
be permitted to have their own attor- 
ney, J. W. Henderson of San Fran- 
cisco, in the place of Attorney Gen- 
eral U. S. Webb of California, to 
prosecute for them their claim 
against the United States Govem- 
mjEjit for pecuniary compensation 
on account ofalleged illegal seizure 
by the United States of approximate- 
ly 80,000,000 acres of Indian lands in 
the California gold-rush days of 1849- 
50. 

The Indians, through W. G. Walk- 
er of Fresno County, California, a 
number of the Chuck-Chansi Tribe, 
complained recently that Attorney 
General Webb, although given per- 
missive authority to sue in an Act of 
Congress passed in 1928, took fifteen 
months to file their petition that 
might reasonably have been filea in 
£ve months and thereby unduly de- 
layed their case by permitting thir- 
teen other claims to gain precedence 
on the calendar. 

Walker also complained for th# In- 
dians that Attorney General Webb's 
inaction for the year and a half since 
he filed the petition placed their ac- 
tion in danger of being dismissed by 
the court for want of prosecution 
some months ago and that they saved 
their case from being struck from 
the calendar only by sending their 
;wn attorney to Washington last De- 
ember. 

The claims, involving millions, are 
lased on 18 unratified treaties exe- 
uted by about' 400 representatives 
f Indian tribes and groups of Cali- 
ornia with the United States in 
i851-52,reserving to the Indians the 
use and possession of 8,800,000 acres 
of land in the state, together with 
/•compensation" in the form of ser- 
vice and spuplies,which the United 
States was to render to them for th$ 
remainder of their 80,000,000 acre 
holdings, which they ced^ ^ in th^ 
t reaties, z ^ 



The 18 treaties failed, however, o^ 
ratification by Congress in 1852. lit 
the belief that the treaties were eft 
fective the 210,000 California Indi* 
ans gave up their lands to the GtOVt 
ernment and the gold miners. '■ 

In the decade that followed, the In 
dians were subjected to **unspeaka- 
ble cruelties." All of their lands 
were taken from them. They were 
outraged and ravaged, pillaged anci 
murdered, and within a decade, ac-j 
cording to testimony in the Congres-| 
sional Records, were reduced to aj 
f€w pittiful small groups of starvingj 
and hunted r^ef 

Fol? more tfeaii^^ty years the 18 

en denied rat-e 
ive session of 
the Senate iJj^Ti^^ reposed in the 
secret archiv^ i^ the Senate. In 



San Francisco, Feb. 10, 1932. 
Spokesman of the Indians, W. G' 
Walker, who was in San Francisco 
today conferring with Attorney 
Henderson and Executive Officer. 
Collett, had this to say on behalf of 
the Indians. 

"As spokesman for California's 
25,000 Indians,* I can qualify by say- 
ing I have been in personal contact 
with more than 20,000 of my fellow 
redskins. But don't make the mis- 
take of thinking I wear moccasins 
and a feather head-dress. No-siree! 
I'm sixty-four, self-made and self ed- 
ucated since I was five years old. I 
personally represent the Indians of 
th6 Chuck-Chansi Tribe and I'm a 
member of the board of directors of 
the Indian Board of Cooperation, and 
we Indians are in a majority on that 
board — so it's our organization. 

•'And let me get this off my chest: 
I don't think it is very becoming for 
the attorney general of California, 
who is exercising his permissive au- 
thority to present the claim of the 
Indians — and taking four years so 
far to do not much more than preju- 
dice our rights — to be criticizing us 
for wanting our own attorney in con- 
trol of the case. 

"For twenty years Attorney Hen- 
derson has helped us. Without him 
we would be nowhere now. Without 
him we wouldn't be voting and send- 
ing our children to the public schools 
— including the University of Cali- 
fornia — to be educated. Without 
him and Mr. Collett we would never 
have secured the passage of the 
passage of the Congressional A 
permitting us our *day in court.' 

"Why then shouldn't we want hi 
now, and why in the world should 
the attorney general object if we, as 
American citizens the same as he is, 
choose to contribute voluntarily to a 
fund to 'finish the job' we began more 
Chan twenty years ago. 

"Just consider these needless four 
years delay on top of the 76 years of 
injustice that preceded them. Eighty 
years in all. Maybe, taking his 
good and leisurely time, the attorney 
general has not thought of the aged 
Indians who are living in squalor 
and despair and with hope dying in 
their breasts. For instance, my old 
friend Chief Dahawanzala of the 
Pitt River Tribe. He was 79 when 
the Act of Congress was passed; 
he's 83 now. Give that a thought^-^ 
^nd there are others like him. ^ 

"And yejt-the aitorney generaJTUi- 
stead of v/oriying with us and con- 
sulting with us, ts giving out almosi 
daily ptepdewi teHiag the white 



[treaties, wjilf^^^ai 
ification loL^aii^ 




^ as ryojj 10U B^ 
JtVoihilgtfcil, M C** 







u 

are 

butio] 

can bet ^urTlfe^dir 

to user it to get our.Owii' 

the job. '^ 

"IntaPi^Pl^fl"«r ;A*^ J**^*^ i^ote that 
Act ol^5e^tnMri%iN^&n€ially provides! 
that the attorney general shall not 
get any^fee-Or ptefiiut 6l an^^ monies { 

1905, to become known as the "lost 'awarded s^iiSii>^EhiBn? .why in tiie- world! 

I treaties," they were released fro«^is he Mictix^tm upiftsh witlij us, notj 






the ban of secrecy.^ " :|9onsulting or conferring, -.with; us, 

Shortly afterwards the Indian sur- ' and Ck^Wpig A ^ lil»ite4 amo^i^. >that, 
vivors and their &esc€n^nts in Cal- a^ter set-offs ire Hgurcd, iwrould ^ve 
if ornia, numbering twenty to twenty- the Indians about $300 per capita in 
five thousand^ banded together to payment for the whole state of Oil* 
press, their claim for justice. Indian ifomia, whicli they possessed or W^ 
gh)ui, designated, as auxUiaries, as- ed in iS49, aiid ^ich tlie tJnit^ 



sdciafcd' themselves as members of 
an. organization, incorporated as The 
Indian Board of Cooperation. Fees 
of a few cents per month were vol- 
untarily contributei^ and,. during the 
past twenty years, through J. W. 
Henderson, their chosen attorney, 
and F^ jGL ^ <^ol^ ^^ their appointed 
.executive official, the Inlians have 
improved their condition. 

With frugal use of their voluntary 
fees, the Indians secured court judg- 
ments establishing them as native- 
born Americans entitled to all the 
rights of citizenship, including the 
right to vote and to have their chil- 
dren go to the public schools. 

After ten years* ceaseless effort 
through their chosen representatives, 
the Indians secured the passage of 
the Act of Congress of 1928 which 
permitted hem to seek adjudication 
waived the statute of limitation and 
of their 76-year-old claim in the U. 
S. Court of Claims. * 

That was four years ago. The act 
provided that the claim "may be suP 
mitted to the Court of Claims by the 
attorney general of the State of Cali- 



States took^way, from. themUv^^ip^ 
Iction of international law, the Con- 
stitution df-i^ tmited Statti^; s^ 
Treaty with Meipco and every pre- 
cept of right and justice. 

"Getting no pay himself^ >I would I 
think the attorney general would be^ 
glad tx) haye,tte a$9r]D^^ o^^ 
ihoice take the 'Jor otf 'his h-"-^" ' 
where it has lain like a sleeping pa-| 
poose for nearly four, to us^ endlesM 

years. '^^^ • / 

** We Indians know you have to' pa; 
a person to ^et; active service out bl 
htm ; that' s : wify ' We are voluntarih 
of our own \^Bh— those of lis wh< 
a n spare a few cents a month — con- 
tributing to our fund. 

And you can bet it doesn't sit well] 
on our stomachs to have the attor-| 
iiey general so busy saying, "Don't] 
dc it." while he's so idle on our job. 
: **That's why we want our own at-- 
tomey. The Indians don't want U 
wait another eighty years for. 
tice." 



Washington, D.^ C., Feb. 10, 1932 — with more than 20,000 of my fellow 



In what is declared to be a "most 
UDusual" judicial order, the United 
States Court of Claims has set for 
hearing in March a petition by the 
25,000 Indians of California that they 
be permitted to have their own attor- 
ney, J. W. Henderson of San Fran- 
cisco, in the place of Attorney Gen- 
eral U. S. Webb of California, to 
prosecute for them their claim 
against the United States Govern- 
m.e^it for pecuniary compensation 
on account ofalleged illegal seizure 
by the United States of approximate- 
ly 80,000,000 acres of Indian lands in 

" the California gold-rush days of 1849- 
50. 

The Indians, through W. G. Walk- 
er of Fresno County, California, a 
number of the Chuck-Chansi Tribe, 
complained recently that Attorney 
General Webb, although given per- 
missive authority to sue in an Act of 
Congress passed in 1928, took fifteen 



months to file their petition that i fornia— to be educated. Without 



redskins. But don't make the mis- 
take of thinking I wear moccasins 
and a feather head-dress. No-siree: 
I'm sixty-four, self-made and self ed- 
ucated since I was five years old. I 
personally represent the Indians of 
the Chuck-Chansi Tribe and I'm. a 
member of the board of directors of 
the Indian Board of Cooperation, and 
we Indians are in a majority on that 
board — so it's our organization. 

"And let me get this off my chest: 
I don't think it is very becoming for 
the attorney general of California, 
who is exercising his permissive au- 
thority to present the claim of the 
Indians — and taking four years so 
far to do not much more than preju- 
dice our rights — to be criticizing us 
for wanting our own attorpey in con- 
trol of the case. 

"For twenty years Attorney Hen- 
derson has helped us. Without him 
we would be nowhere now. Without 
him we wouldn't be voting and send- 
ing our children to the public schools 
— including the University of Call- 



might reasonably have been filea hi 
live months and thereby unduly de- 
layed their case by permitting thir- 
teen other claims to gain precedence 
on the calendar. 



him and Mr. Collett we would never 
have secured the passage of the 
passage of the Congressional Ac 
permitting us our *day in court.' 
"Why then shouldn't we want hi 



Walker also complained for th« In- | now, and why in the world should 
dians that Attorney General Webb's | the attorney general object if we, as 
inaction for the year and a half since | American citizens the same as he is, 



he filed the petition placed their ac- 
tion in danger of being dismissed by 
the court for want of prosecution 
some months ago and that they saved 
their case from being struck from 
the calendar only by sending their 
. wn attorney to Washington last De- 
ember. 
The claims, involving millions, are 
ased on 18 unratified treaties exe- 
uted by about' 400 representatives 
[of Indian tribes and groups of Cali- 
Ifornia with the United States in 
i 851-52,reserving to the Indians the 
use and possession of 8,800,000 acres 
of land In the state, together with 
"compensation" in the form of ser- 
vice and spuplies,which the United 
States was to render to them for th0 
remainder of their 80,000,*X)0 acre 
holdings, which they ced^ in th^ 
treaties. ^^:_^ ^ 



The 18 treaties failed, however, o^ 
ratification by Congress in 1852. lu 
the belief that the treaties were eft 
fective the 210,000 California Indii 



ans gave up their lands to the Govt 
I ernment and the gold miners. 

In the decade that followed, the In 

dians were subjected to "unspeaka-r 

ble cruelties." All of their lands 

were taken from them. They were 

outraged and ravaged, pillaged and 

murdered, and within a decade, aci 

cording to testimony in the Congres-| 

sional Records, were reduced to ^ 

few pittiful small groups of starving 

and hunted refugees. ! 

Foi^ m<^ >fe^^ years the 18 

treaties, wlii(^"&ul 

ification ln^afa-:i 

the Senate i^^^ 

secret archiv^ 



choose to contribute voluntarily to a 
lund to 'finish the job' we began more 
Chan twenty years ago. 

"Just consider these needless four 
years delay on top of the 76 years of 
injustice that preceded them. Eighty 
years in all. Maybe, taking his 
good and leisurely time, the attorney 
general has not thought of the aged 
Indians who are living in squalor 
and despair and with hope dying in 
their breasts. For instance, my old 
friend Chief Dahawanzala of the 
Pitt River Tribe. He was 79 when 
the Act of Congress was passed; 
he's 83 now. Give that a thought^r 
and there are otjiers like him* 

"And yet- the aifcomey generajT in- 
stead of worrying with us and con- 
sulting with us, is giving out almosi 
daily pi^^rview^ tiling the white 
pflopUi , '^ 1 

^'^ WeJlr^ W^ra^ j^ 
as you wi^ wbtQi 

C'ei^t^i^rL — 




by tKe*^ 





busy 1 

conlibue^^i^, 
of |i H^v cents 



r*^ -t*^ 



ten denied rat-i 




at he is noT 

t4 

are 

butioi 

can bet your Tife^on 

to usa'it to get our Own 



M. ^ 





^ Ol 





Jtne note that 



the job. 
"In 
tive session of j Act ofH>!y^s* s^efgiiScally providesl 
reposed in the that the aftomey general shaU not| 
the Senate. In| get anyfeeror Jw^^^ut Of anjFl monies, 
1905, to become known as the "lost »awarded.iis*i>/aifen..wl^ in the world] 
treaties," they were released froK|is he jf^Um^m upigsh wiU us. not 
the ban of secrecy.. - - ' Uonsulti^ or ^>irferrin«. , with. us. 

Shortly afterwards the Indian sur-'and ^s^ ,%, limited amoW that 
vivors and their dese«*9ints ih Cal- fltfter set-offs lire llgui^ ^would give 
ifornia, numbering twenty to twenty- the Indians about $300 per capita in 
five thousand, banded together to payment for the whole state of O^ 
press^ their claim for justice. Indian ifornia. which they possessed or qym- 
gi-oudfe, designated, as auxiliaries, as- ed in 1849, and wfiich tlie Ualieci 
sociafcd themselves as members of States took jiway from them 1x^^*9- 
an .orgfanization, incorporated as The lation of international law, the Con- 
Indian Board of Cooperation. Fees stitutiondr^lte- tfeited StettMi^^lk 
x>i a few cents per month were vol- 



untarily contributeii and, during the 
past twenty years, thrcw^gh J. W. 
Henderson, their chosen attorney, 
and F^^Q^^SolJ^ th^ir appointed 
executive official, the Inlians have 
improved their condition. 

With frugal use of their voluntary 
fees, the Indians secured court judg- 
ments establishing them as native- 
born Americans entitled to all the 
rights of citizenship, including the 
right to vote and to have their chil- 
dren go to the public schools. 

After ten years' ceaseless effort 
through their chosen representatives, 
the Indians secured the passage of 
the Act of Congress of 1928 which 
permitted hem to seek adjudication 
waived the statute of limitation and 
of their 76-year-old claim in the U. 
S. Court of Claims. • 

That was four years ago. The act 
provided that the claim "may be suF 
mitted to the Court of Claims by the 
attorney general of the State of Cali- 
fornia." This, the Indians are now 
contending, was a permissive pro- 
vission only; and when the attorney 
general proceeded to petition for a 
'limited judgment" and without con- 
suiting ymttk the Indians, the rift be- 
gan that >ed to the '"most unusual" 
Judicial proceedings*^ that will be 
staged ki Washington,- -D.^C, at the 



Treaty with Mexico and every pre- 
cept of right and justice. ' 

"Getting no pay himseK. >I would j 
think the attorney general would be I 
glad Jto haye^ thje atomey of o^r ow^l 
choice take the^joti'olt 'ws '£^ 
where it has lain like a sleeping pa-j 
poose for nearly four, to us7-:^dies,<3 
years. .-•> '. , ''■ ' 

; "We Indiaiis Itnbw you have tb'pa] 
a person to ^etf active service out ol 
him ; that's wiiy v^e are voluntaril; 
of our own \(^i^hr-those "^cti^iaiis wh< 
a n spare a few Cents a month— Con- 
tributing to our fund. 

And you can bet it doesn't Bit wejll 
on our stomachs to have the attor-j 
ney general so busy saying, "Don't] 
dc it." while he's so idle on our job. 

: **That's why we want our own at- 
torney. The Indians don't want ty] 
wait another eighty years for. ju^' 
tice." 



jMMld 



rtMiTN 



LAKEPORT: CALir. •"■PRESS 

FEB. 1'?, 19^-2 ■".•'•V. • ., -.-I 



INDIAN FIGHT IN 
"LOST TREATIES" 
DELAYED IS CLAIMI 



In what is declared to be a 
*'most unusuar* judicial order, the 
United States Court of Claims has 
set for hearing in March a petition 
by the 25,000' Indians of Califor- 
nia that they be permitted to have 
their own attorney, J. W. Hender- 
son of San Francisco, in the place 
of Attorney General U. S. Webb of 
California, to prosecute for them 
their claim against the United Sta- 
tes Government for pecuniary 
compensation on account of alleg- 
ed illegal seizure by the United 
States of approximately 80,000,- 

000 acres of Indian lands in the 
California gold-rush day? of 1849- 

56. 

The claims, involving millions, 
are based on 18 unratified treaties 
executed by about 400 representa- 
tives of Indian tribes and groups 
of California with the United Sta- 
tes in 1851-52, reserving to the 
Indians the use and possession of 
8,800,000 acres of land in the 
state, together with **compensa- 
tion*' in the form of service and 
supplies, which the United States 
was to render to them for the re- 
mainder of their 80,000,000 acre 
holdings, which they ceded in the 
treaties. 

The 18 treaties failed, however, 
of ratification by Congress in 
1852. In the belief that the trea- 
ties were effective the 210,000 
California Indians gave up their 
lands to the government and the 

1 gold miners. 
For more than fifty years the 

18 treaties, which had been denied 
[ratification in an executive session 
of the Senate in 1852, reposed in 
I the secret archives of the Senate. 
In 1905, to become known as the 
^nost traties", they were released 
from the ban of secrecy. 

Shortly afterwards the Indian 
survivors and their descendants in 
California, numbreing twenty to 
twenty-five thousand, banded to- 
gether to press their claim for 
justice. Indian groups, designat- 
ed as auxiliaries, associated them- 
selves as members of an orgatiiza- 
non, incorporated as The Indian 
Board of Cooperation. Fees of a 
few cents per month were volun- 
tarily contributed and, during the 
past twenty years, through J. W. 
Henderson, their chosen attorney, 
and F. G. Collett, their appointed 
executive official, the Indians have 
been improving their condition. 

With frugal use of their volun- 
tary fees, the Indians _ ^ 
^_ jrt judgments establishing them 
as native-born Americans, entitled 
to all the rights of citizenship, in- 
cluding the right to vote and to 
have their children go to the pub- 
lic schools. 

After ten years' ceaseless ef- 
fort through their chosen repre- 
sentatives, the Indians secured the 
passage of the Act of Congress of 

1928 which waived the statute of 
limitation and permitted them to 
seek an adjudication of heir 76- 
year-old claim in the U. S. Court 
of Claims. 

That was four years ago. The 
act provided that the claim *'may 
be submitted to the Court of 
Claims by the attorney general of | 
the State of California." This, the 
Indians are now^ contending, was 
a permissive provision only; and 
when the attorney general pro- 
ceeded to petition for a "limited 
judgment'' and without consulting j 
with the Indians, the rift began 
that led to the "most unusual" ju- 
dicial proceedings that will be sta- 
ged in Washington, D. C, at the 
March session of the U. S. Court 
of Claims. 



J y-;V'?^-'fe--':t'J 



■-,.•■«'.. .o,.' ";t, 'Vl^i* - ■ . , * ■ ■ 






FEBRUARY 19, 1932 



44 






• % 



p _ u ? 




Indians Seek 
RiglittoName 
Own Attorney 

Irked at Alleged Dilatory 

Attitude of Attorney 

General Webb 



What is declared to be a "most un- 
usual" judicial order, the United 
States Court of Claims has set for 
.hearing in March a petition by the 
(25,000 Indians of California that 
I they be permitted to have their own 
attorney, J. W. Henderson of San 
Francisco, in the place of Attorney 
General U. S. Webb of California, 
to prosecute for them their claim 
against the United States Govern- 
ment for pecuniary compensation on 
account of alleged illegal seizure by 
the United States of approximately 
80,000,000 acres of Indian lands in 
the California gold-rush days of 
1849-56. 

The claims are based on 18 un- 
ratified treaties of 1851-52, lost for 
fifty years and coming to light in 
1905. Shortly afterward the Indians 
banded together as the Indian 
Board of Co-operation, contributing 
a few cents each month to a com- 
mon fund. 

In 1928 Congress passed an act 
which waived the statute of limi- 
tations and permitted the Indians 
to seek adjudication through th- 
Court of Claims. 

Claiming the attorney general has 
been so slow as to allow other 
claims to gain precedence over their 
80-year-old claim and even en- 
danger its being dismissed, they 
seek the right to designate their 
own attorney to push their claim. 
W. G. Walker, a 64-year old mem- 
ber of the Chuck-Chansi tribe, is 
spokesman for approximately 25,000 
members of the various tribes which 
in the beginning numbered more 
than 200,000, and takes an aggres- 
sive attitude toward the matter of 
hiring their own attorney and push- 
ing their claim for justice. ^ 



CRPEiC^NT CITV, CALIF, 
COUl\lf 

FEIM:); 103:2 


•w- 



CAMPAIGN UNDER 
WAY TO SECURE 
INDIANS ^JUSTICE 

Twenty-five thousand California In- 
dians, last survivors of one-time pow- 
» erf ul tribes, are still waiting patiently 
for what they term is a "square deal" 
from Uncle Sam. 

Four years ago these Indians were 
given definite hope that they might 
benefit at last from the vast lands 
taken from their ancesters before 
1860. Now, however, they must wait 
until November before the federal 
s^overnment finds time to assemble 
data necessary to consider their cases. 

The suits are being brought in be- 
half of the Indians by Attorney Gen- 
eral U. S. Webb of California, who 
says the long delay arises despite the 
fact that the present procedure was 
authorized by congress in 1928, after 
189 years of effort in behalf of the 
ndians. 

The story dates back to the fifties, 

hen 18 Indian tribes signed awa 
pproximately 8,800,000 acres of land 
in various parts of the state to the 
United States in a series of treaties 
which promised varied compensation. 

This compensation ranged from de- 
sirable reservations and assistance in 
agriculture and building, to material 
facilities such as needles and thread, 
trousers and shirts, oxen and agricul- 
tural implements. 

The Indians gave up their lands in 
good faith, but congress didn't ratify 
the treaties so the redskins were left 
''holding the sack." 

At last in 1928, California congress- 
men obtained legislation authorizing 
the attorney general of California to 
sue in United States court of claims 
for compensation for the Indians. 
Tliis total of $11,000,000, plus recom- 
pense for personal property, facilities 
S and improvements promised. The 
state legislature appropriated $15,000 
for expenses, and the way seemed 
cleared for immediate action. • 




Hearing Will Come Bifore U. S. 

Court of Claims Diiring 
-^ Next Month 



Indians of the Soboba, T emecula, 
Ca huilla a nd other tribes 6\ 
side c ounty are greatl y interested 
in the hearing: lo coin4 UyiUfe the 



United States Courrbf Claims next 
month of a petition of 25,000 In- 
dians of California that they be 
permitted to have thedr own attor- 
ney, J. W. Henderson of San Fran- 
cisco, in place of Attorney General 
U. S. Webb of California, to prose- 
cute for them their claim against 
the United Slates government for 
pecuniary compensation on account 
of alleged illegal seizure by the 
United States of approximately 80,- 
000,000 acres of Indian lands in the 
California gold rush days of 1849- 
56. 

The Indians claim that although 
an act of congress passed in 1928 
gave permission authority to sue, 
that it was 15 months before their 
petition was filed and that their 
case was thereby unduly delayed by 
permitting 13 other claims to gain 
precedence on the calendar. 

The claims, involving millions of 
dollars, are based on 18 unratified 
treaties executed by about 400 rep- 
resentatives of Indian tribes and 
I groups of California with the Unit- 
ed States in 1851-52, reserving to 
I the Indians the use and possession 
of 8,800,000 acres of land in the 
state — including considerable acre- 
age in what is now Riverside coun- 
ty — ^together with "compensation" 
in the form of service and supplies 
which the United States was to 
render them for the remainder of 
the 80,000,000 acre holdings, which 
I they ceeded in the treaties. 

The 18 tribes failed, however, of 
I ratification by congress in 1852, but 
the Indians claim that in the be- 
llief the treaties were effective, they 
gave up their lands in California 
to the government and the gold 
miners. 

The treaties were brought to light 
in 1905 when they were released 
from the archives of the senate, 
where they had reposed for 50 
years. St)on after that Indian 
groups, designated as auxiliaries, 
associated themselves as members 
»f an organization, incorporated as 
the Indian Board of Cooperation. 
For the past 20 years, through their 
chosen attorney, J. W. Henderson, 
and F. G. ColletL their appointed 
execuffveo??TcTaT,"tj[ie Indian^iavp 
„„„m 'ir»prov*4%g-4hoUu rou^^i^^^ 
1928 the Indians secured Pas;^^^ 
.by congress of an act which vaived 
the statute of Umitation aivd P" 
mitted them' to seek an /ad judic 
tion of their 76-year-old clailm 



CJAKLAMt?. CALir. 

SATURDAY PRESS 

• ! 

J. W. Henderson Is 
Retained by Indians 
To Fight For Right! 



Spokesman of the Indians, W. G| 
Walker, who was in San Francisc( 
February 10, conferring with Attor- 
ney Henderson and Executive Office] 
Collett, had this to say on behalf oj 
the Indians: 

"As spokesman for California's] 
26,000 Indians, I can qualify by say-l 
ing- I have been in personal contact 
with more than 20,000 of my fellow 
redskins. But don't make the mis-l 
take of thinking I wear moccasins 
and a feather head-dress. No-siree! 
I'm sixty-four, self-made and self- 
educated since I was five years old.' 
I personally represent the Indians of 
the Chuck-Chansi Tribe and I'm a 
member of the board of directors of 
the Indian Board of Cooperation, and 
we Indians are in a majority on that 
board — so it's our organization. 

"And let me get this off my chest: 
I don't think it is very becoming for 
the attorney general of California, 
who is exercising his permissive auth- 
ority to present the claim of the In- 
dians — and taking four years so far to 
do not much more than prejudice our 
rights — to be critizing us for wanting 
our own attorney in control of the 
case. 

"For twenty years Attorney Hen- 
derson has helped us. Without him 
we would be nowhere now. Without 
him we wouldn't be voting and send- 
ing our children to the public schools 
— including the University of Cali- 
fornia — to be educated. Without him 
and Mr. Collett we would never have 
secured the passage of the Congres- 
sional act permitting us our *day in 
court.' 

"Why then shouldn't we want him 
now, and why in the world should the 
attorney general object if we, as 
American citizens the same as he is, 
choose to contribute voluntarily to a 
fund to 'finish the job' we began more 
than twenty years ago?" 



VIST.4. CALIF., PHESS ' SW 

FEBRUARY 25. 1933 



I. ci^c; kjxA 



PROTEST DELAY 





what is dectaVi^ toTbe a *'most un- 
usual" judical order, the United 
States court of claims has set for 
hearing in March a petition by the 
25,000 Indians of California that 
they be permitted to have their own 
attorney. J. W. Henderson, of San 
Francisco, in the place of Attorney 
General U. S. Webb of California, 
to prosecute for them their claim 
against the United States Govern- 
ment for pecuniary compensation 
on account of alleged illegal seiz- 
ure by the United States of approxi- 
mately 80,000,000 acres of Indian 
lands in the California gold-rush 
days of 1849-56. 

The Indians, through W. G. Walk- 
er, of Fresno county, California, a 
member of the Chuck-Chansi Tribe, 
complained recently that Attorney 
General Webb, although given per- 
missive authority to sue in an act 
of congress, passed in 1928, took 
fifteen months to file their petition 
that might reasonably have been 
filed in five months and thereby 
unduly delayed their case by per- 
mitting 13 other claims to gain 
precedence on the calendar. 

'*As spokesman for California's 
25,000 Indians," said Walker, "I 
can qualify by saying I have been 
in personal contact with more than 
20,000 of my fellow redskins. But 
don't make the mistake of thinking 
I wear moccasins and a feather 
head-dress. No siree! I am 64 
self-made and self-educated since 
I was five years old. I personally 
represent the Indians of the Chuck- 
Chansi Tribe and I'm a member 
of the board of directors of the In- 
dian Board of Cooperation, and we 
Indians are in a majority on that 
board — so it's our organization. 

"I don't think it is very becom- 
ing for the attorney general of Cali- 
fornia, who is exercising his per- 
missive authority to present the 
claim of the Indians' — and taking 
four years so far to do not much 
more than prejudice our rights — toj 
be criticising us ofr wanting our 
own attorney in control of the case. 

"For 20 years Attorney Hender- 
son has helped us. Without him we 
would be nowhere now. Without 
him we wouldn't be voting and 
sending our children to the public 
schools — including the University 
of California, to be educated. With- 
out him and Mr. Collett we would 
never have secured the passage of 
the congressional act permitting us 
our *day in court.' 

"Why then shouldn't we want him 
now, and why in the world should 
the attorney general object if we, 
as American citizens the same as 
he is, choose to contribute volun- 
tarily to a fund to 'finish the job' 
we began more than 20 years ago. 

"Just consider these needless 
four years of delay on top of the 
76 years of injustice that preceded 
them. Eighty years in all. Maybe, 
taking his good and leisurely time, 
the attorney general has not 
thought of the aged Indians who 
are living in squalor and despair 
and with hope dying in their 
breasts. For instance, my old friend 
Chief Dahawanzala, of the Pittri- 
ver Tribe. He was 79 when the act 
of congress was passed; he's 83 
now. Give that a thought — and 
there are others like him. 

"And yet the attorney general, 
instead of worrying with us and 
consulting us, is giving out almost 
daily interviews telling the white 
people that he'll be getting busy 
'next November.' Well, we're not 
waiting until then, as you will note 
by the news from Washington, D. C. 

"Another thing I can't understand 
is why the attorney general is so 
busy proclaiming that we shouldn't 
continue our voluntary contribu- 
tions of a few cents a month to 
keep enough funds on hand to make 
the progress that he is not making. 

"Its idle of the attorney general 
to say he won't use the money we 



are gathering by voluntary contri- 
butions. Of course he won't; you 
can bet your life on that; we intend 
to use it to get our own attorney 
on the job. 

"In conclusion, let me note that 
the act of congress specifically 
provides that the attorney general 
shall not get any fee or pay out of 
any monies awarded to us. Then 
why in the world is he acting so 
uppish with us, not consulting or 

inferring with us, and asking a 



ure by the United States of approxi- 



lire by the United States of approxi- 
mately 80,000,000 acres of Indian 
lands in the California gold-rush 
days of 1849-56. 

The Indians, through W. G. Walk- 
er, of Fresno county, California, a 
member of the Chuck-Chansi Tribe, 
complained recently that Attorney 
General Webb, although given per- 
missive authority to sue in an act 
of congress, passed in 1928, took 
fifteen months to file their petition 
that might reasonably have been 
filed in five months and thereby 
unduly delayed their case bj' per- 
mitting 13 other claims to gain 
precedence on the calendar. 

"As spokesman for California's 
25,000 Indians," said Walker, "I 
can qualify by saying I have been 
in personal contact with more than 
20,000 of my fellow redskins. But 
don't make the mistake of thinking 
I wear moccasins and a feather 
head-dress. No siree! I am 64 
self-made and self-educated since 
I was five years old. I personally 
represent the Indians of the Chuck- 
Chansi Tribe and I'm a member 
of the board of directors of the In- 
dian Board of Cooperation, and we 
Indians are in a majority on that 
board — so it's our organization. 

"I don't think it is very becom- 
ing for the attorney general of Cali- 
fornia, who is exercising his per- 
missive authority to present the 
claim of the Indians'— and taking 
four years so far to do not much 
more than prejudice our rights— to 
be criticising us ofr wanting our 
own attorney in control of the case. 
"For 20 years Attorney Hender- 
son has helped us. Without him we 
would be nowhere now. Without 
him we wouldn't be voting and 
sending our children to the public 
schools — including the University 
of California, to be educated. With- 
out him and Mr. Collett we would 
never have secured the passage of 
the congressional act permitting us 
our *day in court.' 

"Why then shouldn't we want him 
now, and why in the world should 
the attorney general object if we, 
as American citizens the same as 
he is, choose to contribute volun- 
tarily to a fund to 'finish the job' 
we began more than 20 years ago. 
"Just consider these needless 
four years of delay on top of the 
76 years of injustice that preceded 
them. Eighty years in all. Maybe, 
taking his good and leisurely time, 
the attorney general has not 
thought of the aged Indians who 
are living in squalor and despair 
and with hope dying in their 
breasts. For instance, my old friend 
Chief Dahawanzala,' of the Pittri- 
ver Tribe. He was 79 when the act 
of congress was passed; he's 83 
now. Give that a thought— and 
there are others like him. 

"And yet the attorney general, 
instead of worrying with us and 
consulting us, is giving out almost 
daily interviews telling the white 
people that he'll be getting busy 
'next November.' Well, we're not 
waiting until then, as you will note 
by the news from Washington, D. C. 
"Another thing I can't understand 
is why the attorney general is so 
busy proclaiming that we shouldn't 
continue our voluntary contribu- 
tions of a few cents a month to 
keep enough funds on hand to make 
the progress that he is not making. 
"Its idle of the attorney general 
to say he won't use the money we 



are gathering by voluntary contri- 
butions. Of course he won't; you 
can bet your life on that; we intend 
to use it to get our own attorney 
on the job. 

"In conclusion, let me note that 
the act of congress specifically 
provides that the attorney general 
shall not get any fee or pay out of 
any monies awarded to us. Then 
why in the world is he acting so 
uppish with us, not consulting or 
nferring with us, and asking a 
limited amount that, after set-offs 
are figured, would give the Indians 
about $300 per capita in payment 
for the whole State of California, 
which they possessed or owned in 
1849, and which the United States 
took away from them in violation 
of international law, the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, the 
treaty with Mexico and every pre- 
cept of right and justice. 

"Getting no pay himself, I would 
think the attorney general would 
be glad to have the attorney of our 
own choice take the job off his 
hands, where it has lain like a 
sleeping papoose for nearly four, 
to us, endless years. 

"We Indians know we have to 
pay a person to get active service 
out of him; that's why we are vol- 
untarily, of our own wish — those 
of us who can spare a few cents 
month — contributing to our fund. 
"We want our own attorney. The 
[nidia^ don't want'ta wait anoth 
ears for^stice." 



''i£ifc''%^i' -"™'^^.?'i::>!fe!iaj^>^ 













OAKl AND', CAt;. TRIBUNE 
MAK, 1; li*?i2 , ... 









■♦ - — , 



iER 



At Lawyers in 
/ Indian Claims 

SAN FRANCISCO. March 1 (INS) 

000 to «SS"/^: /^'^-Jd'^"'- 
today by Stat* TtT ** *'®''* 

U- sf Webb attorney General 

Indian^ eh ef . ^ La S, V". T"' 
Who Pleaded that The^'i^^.^f ^' 

yers Jn connection with the trihol 

r^dSi*"?"'""'* ^'^^^ aSn.?t'h; 
i«aerai government. 



Indian Chief 
Warned Not 
To Hire Any 
White Agent 

V. — r 

Pitt River Leader Is Told 
Government Will Deal 
Direct With Tribesmen 



SAN FRANCISCO, March 1. — 
Across mountains and over much 
snow today came Chief Aga-Si- 
Nank-Gee, 85-year-old head of the 
Pitt river tribe of Indians of Shasta 
county, to see Unft^cT States Attor- 
ney General U. S. Webb about get- 
ting back some $12,000,000 in com-, 
pensation from the white man, for 
Indian lands which the white man 
took. 

Many w^hite men, Chief Aga-Si- 
Nank-Gee told Webb, show great 
eagerness for the poor Indian, and 
wish to help him recover that $12,- 
000,000 — on a strictly percentage 
basis, that is — and did Webb think 
the poor Indian wise to accept 
these proferred services of the 
kindly white man? 

Chief Aga-Si-NankrGee puckered 
his withered face in much doubt. 

*'The great white father at Wash- 
ington is trying to pass laws that 
will give the Indian his money 
without any white man taking 
some of it from him as fees for get- 
ting the money," Webb explained. 
"Don't employ anybody to. repre- 
sent you.'* 

So Aga-Si-Nank-Gee headed 
northward over many mountains 
and through much snow, to a(3vise 
brother Indians to keep on wait- 



8AK FP.ANCISCO CHRONlCi-B 



X 



Aged Indian Chief Discards 
Peace Pipe After Webb Pari 



\ 



Finding Attorney General Webb 

adamant in opposing retention of 

special counsel to press their claims 

against the Federal Government, 

California Indians, represented by 
Chief Aga-Si-Nank-Gee of the ^itt- 
Wintoon tribe, emerged from the 
State building yesterday, figurative- 
ly sounding a war cry. 

Webb had told them he had been 
delegated by the Government to 
handle their land claims for more 
than $12,000,000 and intends to 
do so. 

Chief Aga-Si-Nank-Gee fumbled 
the rattlesnake -handled stick, on 
which he leans the weight of his 85 
years, and told Webb delays already 
cost his red brothers $500,000 in in- 
terest. 

Webb, in reply, advised the chief 
and his tribesmen not to be misled 
by private attorneys '^working on 
the Indians' cupidity by propaganda 
to obtain excessive fees." 



"This office," tlie Attorney Gen| 
eral added, "is doing everything pos 
sible to speed settlement of you: 
claims." 

With that, the old chieftain of the 
Pitt-Wintoons put away his peace 
pipe without lighting it and with 
perfunctory handshakes the pow- 
wow was over. 

"The interview with Mr. Webb 
was highly unsatisfactory," Chief 
Aga-Si-Nank-Gee asserted, through 
his interpreter, Clyde Thompson. 
"The Court of Claims has fixed 
March 14 for argument as to 
whether we shall be permitted to 
hire our own attorneys. We'll fight 
to have lawyers who will consult 
with us. Mr. Webb seldom does." 

Webb asserted he holds a copy of 
a contract by which three attorneys 
were promised a fee of $20,000 from 
the Indians, 2 per cent of all money 
collected up to $2,000,00 and 3 per 
cent on any sum above that 
amount. 



ge, 



ian Chief Discard's 



Finding Attorney General Webb 

adamant in opposing retention of 

special counsel to press their claims 

against the Federal Government, 

'^lifornia Indians, represented by 

[lief Aga-Si-Nank-Gee of the '^itt- 

intoon tribe, emerged from the 

^te building yesterday, figurative- 

sounding a war cry. 

vebb had told them he had been 

Heated by the Government to 

He their land claims for more 

$12,000,000 and intends to 

lief Aga-Si-Nank-Gee fumbled 
irattlesnake-handled stick, on 
11 he leans the weight of his 85 
and told Webb delays already 
us red brothers $500,000 in in- 
terest. 

Webb, in reply, advised the chief 

and his tribesmen not to be misled 

.^y private attorneys "working on 

t^^ni^^T^' ^"^?^^^y ^y propaganda 
jio obtain excessive fees." 



Peace PipeAkerWehh Parley 



"This office," the Attorney Gen- 
eral added, "is doing everything ix)s. 
sible to speed settlement of your 
claims." ^ 

«.}y^J^. ^^^*' *^^ °^^ chieftain of the 
Fitt-Wintoons put away his peace 
pipe without lighting it and with 
perfunctory handshakes the pow- 
wow was over. 

"The interview with Mr. Webb 
was highly unsatisfactory," Chief 
Aga-Si-Nank-Gee asserted, through 
?ril interpreter, Clyde Thompson. 
The Court of Claims has fixed 
March 14 for argument as to 
whether we shall be permitted to 
nire our own attorneys. We'll fight 
to have lawyers who will consult 
with us. Mr. Webb seldom does." 

Webb asserted he holds a copy of 
a contract by which three attorneys 
were promised a fee of $20,000 from 
the Indians. 2 per cent 6f all money 
collected up to $2,000,00 and 3 per 

TJ^LJ"^ ^""^ ^^^ *^^ve Ihat 
amount. 



s.r 





•<i>>'Hsv.<afe'»^<iVT'.^'.'r'-<'a>Vi.'<''.'^i.'^««'---.VI 



STOCKTON CALIF, RECORD 



51 A K 2, WZ^ 



, t J k# *■ ■ 



Weli Efforts for 
Indians DefcnJcJ 
iy Chief Fuller 




SONORA OFFICE STOCKTON 
RECORD, March 2.-'Califorma In- 
dians do Aot want J. W. Hendarson 
of San Francisco to represent .h^m 
?n Washington. Chief William Ful- 
ler of the Mewuk Indians and vice- 
hood of California, declared here 

Chief Fuller was outspoken »n 
his protest against a movement to 
get Indians to sign a petition seek- 
ing a change in legal representa- 
tion. He supported Attorney-Oen- 
eral U. S. Webb as the represon na- 
tive and criticized W. G. Walker of 
Fresno for sponsorirng a petition 
now reporred to have been signed 
by 25,000 Indians. 

Walker's group Is reported to 
have crlUcized Webb for inactivity 
in a suit through which the Indians 
hope to receive compensation for 
cerUin lands in the State. Chief 
Fuller voiced support of Webb and 
declared that if Indians have sign- 
ed Walker's petition, many must 
have done so without full realiza- 
tion of what it meant. 



GRAS!^ VAI.UEV C-Atrr 'UNION 
MAR, %. ir^ns 



COLLETTE DENIES 
ATTORNEYS SEEK TO 
ROB TRIBESMEN 



11 



I 



SAN FFiAK(,'LSCO, March 2.— (/P)-- 
F. G. Cullette, attorney, denied today 
that the California Indiaja* seckint;- 
redress, for land taken from ih^nn in 
IS 5 2 by the government, had been 
n?issled by white attorneys. 

Collette declared Attorney General 
U.. S. Webb of California is mistaken 
\y. his statement that attorneys are 
/king excessive fees. The contract 
between the Indians and th(« attorneys 
limits the fee to three percent of any 
amount recovered, Collette said. 

His statement follows refusal bv 
attorney general of a request that Ind- 
ians be allowed to retain private 
counsel. The request was made by 
Ag-a-Si-Nank-Gee, 85 year old chief, 
representing the ^^>it River and \y>1< 
toon Tribes. 



HI 



! d 



a 



b 



\M 



OAKLAND, C«LC. 

POST ENQUIRER 

MAR, 3; 1^32 .. .. . 



LAST 



To a Once Proud Race 



/ 



Up in the Pitt river country in this state the few sur- 
vivors of the Wintoouttribe of Indians live bedraggled, 
precarious lives. They dream of the broad lands they 
once owned— and which, although the Indians never 
sold it, is now in the possession of others. 

They ask the government to give the land back to 
them. 



They will not regain possession of that land. But 
they will make the effort, and all they ask now is per- 
mission to hire their own attorneys to make the fight 
for them. The chief of the tribe says to U. S. Webb, 
state attorney-general: 

^'l beg you not to hinder us from having our own at- 
torneys to press our just claims* I am speaking not 
only for myself and my tribe, but for thousands of 
other Indians In the state. We can wait no longer for 
justice. I am an old man and I would see our rights 
protected before I pass to the Great Spirit 



A good message, simple and dignified. 

Isn't it a little sad to think of these Indians, once so 
free and proud, now humbly asking for the right to 
engage their own attorneys in a fight to regain what 
once belonged to them? / 






445 * 



MARCH 1. 1332 




i^In what's declared to be a 
rrnost unusal judicial order, 
the United States Court of 
Claims has set for hearing 
in March a petition by the 

25,000 ^r^d\^m f7f flfl)^'^^"^'^ 
that they be ^permitted io 

have their own attorney, J. 
W. Henderson of San Fran- 
cisco, in place of Attorney 
General U. S. Webb of Cali- 
fornia, to prosecute for them 
their claim against the Unit- 
ed States Government for 
pecuniary compensation on 
account of alleged illegal sei- 
zure by the United States of 
approximately 80,000,000 
acres of Indian lands in the 
California gold rush days of 
1849-56. 

The Indians, through W. 
G. Walker of Fresno Coun- 
ty, California, a member of 
the Chuck-Chansi tribe, com- 
plained recently that Attor- 
ney General Webb, although 
given permissive authority to 
uie in an Act of Congress 
passed in 1928, took fifteen 
months to file their petition 
that might reasonably 
have been filed in five 
^months and thereby have 
unduly delayed their case by 
permitting thirteen other 
claims gain precedence on 
:he calendar. 

Walker also complained 
for the Indians that Attor- 
ney General Webb's inaction 
Por the year and a half since 
he filed the petition placed 
::heir action in danger of be- 
ing dismissed by the court 
:or want of prosecution some 
months ago and that they 
^.aved their case from being 
struck from the calendar 
)nly by sending their own 
attorney to Washington last 
December. 

The claims, involving mil- 
lions, are based on 18 unrati- 



fied treaties executed by 
about 400 representatives of 
Indian tribes and groups' of 
Californians with the United 
States in 1851-52, reserving 
to the Indians the use and 
possession of 8,800,000 acres 
of land in the state, together 
with "compensation'' in the 
form of service and supplies, 
which the United States was' 
to render to them for the re- 
mainder of their 80,000,000 
acre holdings, which they 
ceded in the treaties. 

The 18 treaties failed, 
however, of ratification by 
Congress in 1852. In the be- 
lief that the treaties were 
ratified the Indians gave up 
their lands to the Govern- 
ment and the gold miners. 

For more than fifty years 



' After ten year's ceaseless 
effort through their chosen 
representatives,! the Indians 
secured the passage of the 
. Act of Congress of 19Z8 
which waived the statute of 
limitation and permitted 
them to seek an adjunction 
of their 76-year-old claim in 
the U. S. Court of Claims. 

That was four years ago. 
The act provided thaft the 
claim ''may be submitted to 
the Court of Claims by the 
attorney general of the State 
of California." This, the In- 
dians are now contending, 
was a permissive provisions 
only ; and when the attorney 
general proceed to petition 
for a "limited judgment" and 
without consulting with the 
Indians, the rift began that 



the 18 treaties, which had' led to the '^most unusuar 






been denied ratification in an 
executive session of the se- 
nate in 1852, reposed in the 
secret archives of the Senate. 
In 1905, to become known 
as the "lost treaties," they 
were released from the ban 
of secrecy. 

Shortly af terwardss the In- 
dian survivors and their des- 
cendants in California, num- 
bering twenty to twenty-five 
thousand banded together to 
prcrs their claim for justice. 
Indian groups, designated as 
auxiliaries, associating them- 
selves as members' of an or- 
ganization, incorporated as 
the Indian Board of Co-oper- 
ation. Fees of a few cents 
per month were voluntarily 
contributed and, during the 
past twenty years through J. 
W. Henderson, their chosen 
attorney and F. G. Collet, 
their appointed executive of- 
ficials, the Indians have been 
improving their condition. 

With frugal use of their 
voluntary fees, the Indian se- 
cured court judgments es- 
tablishing them as native- 
born Americans entitled to 
all the rights of citizenships, 
including the right to vote 
and to have their children 
g9 to public schools. 



judicial proceedings that will 
be staged in Washington D. 
C, at the March sessioiyof 
theU. S. Court of Claii 







; VviiVi^iL-:' 



SIM! 



SACRAMENTO CAL. BEE 

PITT rX^M 

CHIEF PRESENTS 
PLEA TO ROLPH 



Tribal Head Wants Private 

Attorneys In Noted 

Claims Case 






• T: Tv^" ■ --V • 



,«^- 



4. 



Aga - Si - Nank - dfee, 85-*ar-old 
chief of the Pitt Indians, yesterday 
carried to Governor Rolph the con- 
troversy of several of his tribes- 
men with Attorney General U. S. 
Webb over the prosecution of their 
claims against the federal govern- 
ment. 

The Indian asked the governor 
to "persuade" the attorney general 
to permit the entrance of private 
attorneys into the case. Webb pre- 
viously had refused this request, 
asserting the aged Indian chief had 
been *'misled" into asking for out- 
side legal aid. 

Have Contract. 
Under a contract which the In- 
dians have with three attorneys, 
Webb says the private lavvyers 
have been guaranteed a retaining 
fee of $20,000 to represent them, 
with a possibility of. "winning" 
f-normous sums of money on a per- 
centage of the claims awarded. 

The Indians are asking payment 
for 8,800,000 acres of land in Cali- 
fornia, taken by the federal gov- 
ernment under a treaty of 1852. 
The advances made to the Indians 
since that time are to be deducted 
from the award made by the court 
of claims in Washington. 

lAnd Worth .$100,000,000. 
Although the Indians originally 
filed claims for something like 
$12,000,000, r. F. Thompson, a col- 
llcge educated Indian, who accom- 
panied Chief Aga-Si-Nank-Gee, ad- 
mitted yesterday they were of Uie 
' opinion the land is worth $100,000,- 

In addition to the $20,000 retain- 
ing fee, the attorneys will receive 
1 a further fee of 2 per cent of the 
lirst $2,000,000 awarded the Indians. ^ 
knd 3 per cent of all claims above 
Ithat amount. 

$360,000 For Attorneys. 
1 Should the claims court recog- 
nize ?he original ^12,000 000 r^^^^^^^ 
Ithe attorneys would get $360,000 as 

'' MtJrnev General Webb told the 
T rl^ iH«i it is not necessary 
S^fr^houm W'to \his tremendous 
i expense in Hiring special t^oun^e^ 
when his office is equipped to and 
will prosecute tlie cases. 
Delay Is Feared. 
In discussing the matter yester- 
day with Governor Rolph, Thomp- 

^°"We arc not questioning the com- 
petll!.cy of Attorney General Webb^ 
w<» fpar however, that tne press oi 
^her business in his office may 
prevent him from giving as much 
attenUon to the claims as thev 
could i-eceive from private attoi- 
nevs of our own- ^^ ^ , ^. .,.^ 
-Wc feel that the delay of the 
attorney general in filing the ac- 
tion in the first place set us bacK 
ti^n in . , , y^ receiving any '.iClp 

Val government, and 
' '" dire need of as- 



SACRAMENTO CAL. BEE 

MAK: 5, 1052 

t 



Appeals For 
Justice To 
The Indians| 

Correspondent Says Promises 

Made To Them In Treaties 

Jfi^ver Kept 

EDITOR of^TlU Be«^Sir; Some 
time past the attention of we 
Indian people of California was 
called to the fact that some pre- 
cincts had opposed our children at- 
tending the public schools of the 
state Also some time past a few 
of the leading Indian schools or 
non-reservation schools were dis- 
continued by the United States 
Government and quite some trouble! 
had to be gone through before the 
Indian children were re-established 
in the public schools, mainly at Al- 
1 11 ra *^ 

In all fairness, according to the 
vet existing treaties dated back as 
far as 1852, we Indians were prom- 
ised schools, reservations, stocks 
and implements to farm the lands 
set aside for reservations, with in- 
structors for every line and vocar 
tion of life. And no\' the schools 
are being closed and many treaty 
rights are being taken from us. 

Have the American people forgot 
the contracts they have made and 
have from year to year postponed 
payment of? 

We Indians should proceed to 
gain our rights. Will some wise 
one please tell us why we, the 
American Indians, should not pro- 
cure a loan from some foreign na- 
tion to fight our case in the higher 
courts for a just settlement of all 
tribal treaties? Would we not be 
dealing justly by ourselves and our 
children in the future? Perhaps 
we would be called a disloyal peo- 
ple, yet has this government dealt 
justly with all of the Indians of 
this country? The Indian Bo^rd 
of Co-operation has used every 
method possible to procure funds 
to hire lawyers to press our claim 
and treaties in Washington, D. C, 
but without any results. Still we 
are losing time and very valuable 
information in the older Indians, 
who are continually passing away, 
taking with them the best knowl- 
edge of treaty days and agreements 
with the whites. 

We find all the nations repre- 
sented in the public schools, includ- 
ing the Japanese and Chinese, to 
whom it seen.s the general public 
is not opposed. 

Again, many jobs promised to the I 
Indians on reservations and Indian 
lands are being given to white men| 
and others. And should there 
again be war many Indians would 
have to fight. 

But for nearly seventy-two years 
the Indian bills have been laid on 
the shelf and are still there, their 
claims in many cases unsettled and 
perhaps forgotten. Still we are 
supposed to be just good Indians 
and let this matter drift. 

Indian people, wake up and let's 
see what we can do in regards to 
a matter that will put the Indians 
all back on the map and help not 
only them but all who they come in 
contact with. Let every Indian try 
to stand up for his rights and do 
all he or she can to gain what is 
really due us all. 

HION KLATAWA MONITCH, 
of the Klamath s, 
Medford, Ore.. March 1, 1932.. 



CALL-aULL^TiN 






Peter Williams of the Requa tribe 

imTmk ' wT'"^"' ^^ '^*>^' - '^ 
Indian r.f ^fu^''' Chuck-Chansi 
leave 9«n "^^^^^^ California, will 
wit ^" ^ancisco tomorrow for 
Washmgton, to plead action on the 
wTn''^ 17^000 California Indians 

U?i! r* ^- ^^"^^ 0^ Claims for ner- 
bSsh thPi". ""r' " '''''''' attornefto 

vfnw^^^^*' growing out of alleged 

teriH*'°^ Z^ ^^^^^^^^ treaties In- 
fc/^to by United States commi^- 

F= in^^8V^^ ^^^^^^^"^^ ^""- 
it "^c'''' ^''''^'''' ^^^^^ California 
^rritory belonged to the Indians " 
l^h "'fri'- "The treaties estab- 
Foir V *'*^' ''^^*** ^«re violated, 
^our years ago the Congress au- 
thonzed the Indians to go befor^ 

were'Thl'V'"^'"^- TheSndian 
IWebb «H '•^P"^«^"*«d by U. S. 

llZ^lt'i ^."""^ '''^ ^'" ^^^ that a 

special attorney be authorized to 

jj'^iprescnt us." "^cu^to 



^\K rRAf-'Cl^'CO CALIF. 
i?. X A i\\ ; N '--,0 



-.PITT RIVER INDIANS 



EUREKA. CAL!P.*-T1ME« J 



# »^ 



INDIANS TO 
PRESENT CASE 

— > ■ i 

(By Associated Press) 
SAN FRANCISCO, March 9. — 
Peter Williams, member of the 
|^Qfi||U%i»Xribe of Indians in Hum- 
boldt county, and William G. 
"wMtet, Chuck-Chansi tribesman of 
I Southern California, announced to- 
day they would depart for Wash- 
ington tomorrow to ask the United 
States Court of Claims for permis- 
sion to hire a special attorney to 
I press their case against the govern- 
ment growing out of violation of 
treaties of 1852. 

Walker said Congress four years 
ago authorized the Indians to pro- 
ceed against the government for 
the loss of land granted them in 
the treaties. State Attorney Gen- 
eral U. S. Webb was delegated to 
be thfeir attorney. Walker asserted 
Webb had accomplished but little 
and that the Indians wanted spe- 
cial counsel. 

Webb recently announced he 
would oppose a motion to permit 
certain outside legal aid for the 
Indians and charged that attorneys 
had initiated the move in order to 
realize large fees in case of a de- 
cision favorable to the Indians. 



INDIANS on the Pitt River are asking permission to 
hire their own attorneys to press claims for lands 
which they claim were taken from them illegally in 1852. 
Attorney General Webb says that the Indians have been 
misled by scheming white men, and that he will oppose 
their hiring their own attorneys. F. G. Collett, of the 
Indian Board of Co-operation, says that the Indians will 
not abandon their fight. 

The issues in this case are undoubtedly complicated, 
but all those who believe that in general the Indians are 
given a fair deal in matters involving land will please form 
a line to the right and congregate on the point of a pin. 



Original Defective 






< t 






'j ti ,.' ■ 



< -t,» j^ .. .>-■■,•'..■ 




March lOj iq 20. 

Two Calif^^^^TiTlndian 
^nvoys Start East Todavi 

Seeking appointment of theiToWn 
counsel ^.o speed up claims agaZt 
the Federal government, two Call 

Wasl^lnX^^-' '-- -- "^ 

cZn^'of^cL^''' K^* ^"'*«<^ states 
case is f„ hi /".^•.''!^'"-« ^hich thei, ' 

retain iw '"^^^°'- Permission t( 
V^etam J. w. Henderson S«n Fr=n I 

' Attorney '::Z J s" wThh '"Tl 

»« conducting their cse'^'^' """"^ 

The 20,000 Indians „f ,hp st«.„l 

trea^it^ St^ th^kd^'rl^^re " 
ment. -reuerai govern- 

The •misearies are William r 
Walker of the r-v,,.-,! """»"> C». 
ot Fresno r«.!.,.'^''''=''»""' ♦''Ibe 
Hams o" the R^' *"** ^'''" Wil- 

County"' rL^7Z' ^fth^'^'H^''^^*' 
eartoon, drawn h v r "'*'" * 



MAT., >}, 10-2 

WEBB OUSTER ASKED 

Indians Leave for Washington to 
Seek Removal of Counsel 

Two representatives of 17,000 Cali- 
fornia Indians left for Washington, 
D. C. today to seek removal of U. S. 
Webb, state attorney-general, as 
their counsel in a claim involving 
millions against the government. 

They are Peter Williams of the 
Requa Tribe and W. G. Walter of 
the Chuk-Chansi Tribe. The Indians 
charge W.ebb has not prosecuted 
their claims actively enough. 



Indians Seek 
Treaty Hearin 

Two descendants of California 
Indian chieftains arrived in San 
Francisco yesterday on their way 
to Washington, where they will 
press before the United Sta^s 
court of Claims a request for im- 
l mediate action on their appeal for 

^"¥!fe • men are Peter . ™ams 

member of the Requa tribe m Del 

iNorte county, and WilUam G. 

walker of the Chuck-Chansi tribe 

in Fresno county. These men. with 

other representatives of the 17 000 

California Indians who seek justice 

under a treaty, will ask that they 

be permitted to prosecute their 

claim through an attorney of their 

own selection. . 

congress, in 1928. authorized the 
Court of Claims to waive the statute 
Of limitations and hear the case of 
the Indians who have complained 
'that the tribes accepted 8.800-000 
acres to be reserved for them m 
California to which they claim own- 
ership. The treaty also provided 
that the tribes were to be supplied 
with food, clothing, farming imple- 
ments, cattle and horses. 



RIO VISTA. CALIF. NEWS ^ 
JIAFv. 10, rj-S2 . . 



' » •• V— •^~' 



X 



.J'^ 



Undians Dissatisfied 
With Mere Promises 

.^ w J - ■ ■ 

Following a conference with Attor- 
ney-General U. S. Webb at his office 
in San Francisco last Tuesday, Wil- 
liam Hulsey, 86-yeai--old:lniiiaa.^ the 
iPitt Rjver Wintoon Tribes, prior to 
Ms departure lor his home in Shasta 
county, made the following appeal to 
the Indians of California as an eif< 
ipression of his dissatisfaction oye!| 
his conference regarding the Indian 
claims now before the U. S. Court of 
Claims at Washington, D. C 

Hulsey, whose Indian name is Aga- 
Si-N.ank-^Cee, was accompanied by 
Clyde Thompson and Freddie Wolfin, 
Indians, who acted as interpreters. 
The appeal reads: 

"A Messuage to the Indians of Cali- 
fornia, by William Hulsey, Member 
of the Pitt River Wintoon Tribes. 

"After a conference today, March 
1, 1932, with Attorney-General U. S. 
Webb in his office at San Francisco, 
I am m.ore than ever convinced that 
if the California IndVans are to re- 
ceive justice in their claims now be- 
fore the U. 'S. Court of Claims at 
Washington, D. C, they have got to 
have their own attor^^eys . to. X^P^e- 

sent them. 

"When asked why he did not con- 
sult with Mr. Frederick G. Collett or 
our attorneys before he filed our 
claims at Washington, Attorney-Gen- 
eral Webb said: *This is a govern- 
ment matter: it is not necessary for 
me to consult with the Indians or 
their attorneys.* 

"That means that Mr. Webb reipre 
sents the government and does not 
represent the Indians, and there is 
great' danger that all of GUI' claims 
will not be ^presented to the court. It 
means we must send our own attorn- 
eys to Washington, and should have 
a delegation of Indians there, if we 
are to get *just compensation* of our 
claims. 

"I found Mr. Webb today was full 
of promises, the way he was four 
years ago. Let us remember that we 
hafve received many promises, begin- 
ning with the 18 treaties 80 years 
ago; and let us not forget that our 
people Wave suffered much as the re- 
sult of broken promises. 

"Let me plead with you not to fail 
in your efforts to make it possible 
for us to have our own attorneys in 
Washington, who will present all of 
our claims and represent us. If we 
fail now we will never have another 
chance. Let us not allow our 20 years 
of hard work to be wasted.** y/ 



SAN FRAtsJClSCn CHRONICl.e ' 

JIAR-. 10', 1?32 . . ..... 



Indians Seek 
Treaty Hearing 



Two descendants of California 
Indian chieftains arrived In San 
Francisco yesterday on their way 
to Washington, where they will 
press before the United States 
Court of Claims a request for im- 
mediate action on their appeal for 
justice. 

The men are Peter Williams, 
member of the Requa tribe in Del 
Norte county, and WiUiam G. 
Walker of the Chuck-Chansi tribe 
in Fresno county. These men, with 
other representatives of the 17,000 
California Indians who seek justice 
under a treaty, will ask that they 
be permitted tcT prosecute their 
claim through an attorney of their 
own selection. 









BUTTE VALUEN 3TA« 



MAU. u, r^'^'i 



K 



INDIAN ASKS COUN- 
CIL AT WASHINGTON 

' ■ ■ > 

Wm. HuTsey Certain That 

Webb is not Represent- 
ing Best Interests of 
Tribesmen 



By William Huleey, Member of 
the Pitt, River Wintcon Tribe 
' After a conference on March 1 
,./ith Attorney -General U.S Webb 
in his office in San Francisco, I aiii 
more than ever convinred that it 
'the California Indians are to re- 
ceive justice in their claims now 
before the United States Court 
of Claims in Washington. D. C , 
they have got to have their own 
attorney to represent them 

When asl<ed why he did not con- 
sult 'with Mr. Frederick J. Collelt 
or our attorneys before he filed 
our claims in Washington, Attor- 
ney-General Webb >^aid "This is a 
government matter. It is not ne- 
cessary for me to consult virith 
the Indians or their attorneys." 

That means that Mr. Webb re- 
presents the government and does 
not represent the Indians, and 
there is great danger that all of 
our claims will not be presented 
to the court. It means we must 
send our own attorney to Wash- 
ington, and should have a delega- 
tion of Indians there if we are to 
receive "just compeneation" of 

our claims 

I found Mr. Webb full of pro- 
mises, the way he was four years 
ago. Let us remember that We 
have received many promises, be- 
ginning with the 18 treaties 80 
years ago; and let us not forget 
that our people have suffered 
much as a result of broken prom- 

Let me plead with you not to 
fail in your efforts to make it pos- 
sible for us to have our own at- 
torneys in Washington, who will 
preseU ali of oui c aims and re- 
presiinlus. If we fail now we Will 
never have another chance. Le>^ 
us not allow our 20 years of^X'd 
work'to be wasted. 



.-.J --•■■.- 

■ . I 



^■"■ 









I; ■;.- ■ 



MILL VALLEY, CAL, RECORD 

MAK. 11, l%2 



'•v' 












■.■}; 



If'' ..-'A-V- . '■ 



•7!i>^:'-?!V- -W.4^^5" 






1 

Indian Claims 
Yet In Jeopardy 
A Brave In Appeal! 



state Attorney General Cuts Aged Red 

Man Cold 



i 



Following a conference last week in 
San Fi-ancisco with Attorney General 
U. S. Webb at his office, William Hul- 
sey, 85-year-old Indian of the Pitt Riv- 
er Wintoon Tribes, prior to his depart- 
ure for his home in Shasta County, 
made the following appeal to the In- 
dians of California as an expression of 
his dissatisfaction over his conference 
regarding the Indian claims now be- 
fore the U. S. Court of Claims at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Hulsey, whose Indian name is Aga- 
Si-Nank-Gee, was accompanied by 
Clyde Thompson and Freddie Wolfin, 
Indians, who acted as interpreters. 

The appeal reads: 
"A Message to the Indians of Calif omnia 

By William Hulse, 
Member of Pitt River Wintoon Tribes 
"After a conference today, March 1st, 
with Attorney General U. S. Webb in 
his office at San Francisco, I am more 
than ever convinced that if the Cali- 
fornia Indians are to receive justice in 
their claims now before the U. S. Court 
of Claims at Washington, D. C, they 
have got to have their own attorneys to 
represent them. 

"When asked why he did not consult 
with Mr. Frederick G. Collett or our 
attorneys before he filed our claims at 
Washington, Attorney General Webb 
said: 'This is a Government matter; it 
is not necessary for me to consult with 
the Indians or their attorneys.* 

"That means that Mr. Webb repre- 
sents the Government and does not 
represent the Indians, and there is 
great danger that all of our claims will 
not be presented to the Court. It also 
means that we must send our own at- 
torneys to Washington, and should have 
a delegation of Indians there, if we are 
to get 'just compensation* of our claims. 
"I found Mr. Webb today was full of 
promises, the way he was four years 
ago. Let us remember that we have re- 
ceived many promises, beginning with 
the 18 treaties 80 years ago; and let us 
not forget that our people have suffered 
much as the result o