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Full text of "Bangkok and Siam, directory"

UNITED ENGINEERS, 



. ■ . 



LIMITED. 

RILEY HARGREAVES & Go., Lt«. 

HOWARTH ERSKIIME, LIMITED. 



£iig!R&GP$, Shipbuilders and General Contractors. 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS and SIAM. 



IMPORTERS ©JF" 

■) All kinds of Provisions, Wines and 

Spirits, Tobacconists' Goods, Perfumery, 
Travelling Implements, Stationery, Harness and Saddlery, 
Glassware and Crockery, Kitchen Utensils, &c, &c. 

LARGEST STOCK IN BANGKOK. REGULAR FRESH SUPPLIES. 



. ■:?-:■':.;■■■■ ft 



BANGKOK. 



HAMBURG. 



Government Contractors and General Impc 



Proprietors of : — 

THE PRATU SAMYOT STORE •■ 
THE BANGKOK OUTFITTING CO. 

THE SIAM DISPENSARY AND DRUG STORE 







(By appointment to His Majesty.) 

C. Pappayanopulos. 

ARfSTQCRATIC TOBACCO MANUFACTORY, 

New Road. 

High Grade Egyptian Cigarettes 

Made by skilled workman from finest Turkish Tobacco- 

Our stock is always fresh as our supplies arrive by every steamer. 

Cigarettes m tde to order. 

Largest cigarette machine in the East. Capacity 80,000 a day. 
Purveyors to the most fastidious. 

C. PAPPAYANOPULOS, 

Managing Proprietor 

G. Yamaeuchi & Co. 

40-45 YAWARAJ ROAD, BANGKOK. 

BRANCH STORE 

36-39 TAN0N BURABHA NEW ROAD, 
Cable address: Yamaguchi. 

Direct Importers & Wholesalers of Japanese Goods. 

QUFfc SPECIALITIES:- 

* Photo apparatus an I Chemicals. 

Photo Plates and papers 
Photo Mounts and frames. 
Pictorial Post cards and Stationery. 
Japanese screens and Lacquer goods. 
Fancy Dry goods. 
Japanese Kimonos. 
Perfumery, and Toilet goods. 
Toys & Flower Decorations. 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 



COUNTY PUBLIC ■LIBRARY 



**•* \ ifiiii x^ 5 ^ 



Gc 959.3 D62 1914 
Bangkok and Siam, 
directory 




DIRECTORY 



FOR 



Bangkok and Siam. 



1914. 
Prick Ten Ticaxs. 



Twenty- Fifth Year of Publication, 



Events. 

[LONDON:— F, Algar, 11 Cleirent's Lkne, Lombard St., 
and Keymer, Son & Co., WhiteMars St., E. C. 

SINGAPORE— Kelly and Walsh, Ltd. 

HONGKONG— Kelly and Walsh, Ltd. 
Printed and Published at "The Bangkok Times" Office. 

BY THE 

Bangkok ZimcB press fctb, 

[A II Rights Reserved.] 



Aft 



6B wounty \ r, Library 
Ft. Wayne, lActiAM 



H9H6KBH6 & 8HAN(]9AUiKIl_G0RPOBATI0N, 

Head Office:— HONGKONG. 



Paid-dp Capital ..........4 15,000,000 

Reserve Funds: — 
Sterling 

£1,500,000 at 2s ..#15,000,000 



Silver 17,450,000 



Reserve :— 



-S 32,450,000 



Liability of Proprietors $15,000,000 

CHIEF MANAGER, 

Hongkong, N J. STABB. 

BRAN IHES AND AGENCIES: 



1MOY 
BANGKOK 
BATAVIA 
BOMBAY 

CALCUTTA 
CANTON 
COLOMBO 
FOOCIIOW 
HAMBURG 
HANKOW 

B.ONGKEW (Shanghai) 
LONDON OFFK 



I BOH 
JO H ORE 
KOBE (Hiogo) 
KUALA LUMPUR 
LONI CN 
LYONS 
MALACCA 
MANILA 
NAGASAKI 
NEW YORK 



PEKING 
PENANG 

RANGOON 

SAIGON 

SAN FRANCISCO 

SHANGHAI 

SINGAPORE 

SOUR ABA Y A 

TIENTSIN 

YLOILO 

YOKOHAMA 



9, GRACF.CHURCH STREKT, E. 0. 



LONDON BANKERS:— LONDON COUNTY AND 
WESTMINSTER BANK, LIMITED. 



•]<*( 



Bangkok: Interest allowed — On current accounts at the rate >< 
I per cent, peranniim on the daily balances. 

Fixed Deposits: — The rates of interest allowed on Fixed Deposit an 
be ascertained on application. 

Letters of Credit issued available in the principal cities of the woid. 

Drafts granted, Bills negotiated or sent tor collection, and oven 
iription of Banking and Exchange business transacted. 

J. KEDDIU, 

Acting Agmt, Bangkok. 
Office of the Corporation at the month of the Klong-Kut-Mai Canal. 

Office Hours 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Saturdays 9 a.m. „ 12 noon. 

January, 1914 



1st 



Ooni&nU. 


i 


CONTENTS. 




Part I. 






Page 


Abolition of Slavery, New law for the 


39 


Addenda 


380 


Administration, Local 


177 


Aides-de-Camp of H. M. The King 


258 


Alphabetical List of foreign residents 


349 


Agriculture 


94 


Agriculture, Ministry of 


283 


Arms Act 


90 


Army 


134 


Army List 


260 


Art Department, Royal 


248 


Bangkok and its Trade 


128 


Bangkok, The Census of 


190 


Bankruptcy Act 


66 


Banks 


313 


Bank Holidays, 1914 


218 


Bar, The Menam ... 


112 


Births and Deaths, Registration of 


58 


Calendar for 1914 


2U 


Calendar, Official 


98 


Calendar, The People's 


98 


Civil Service College 


298 


Census. The 


198 


Clubs 


310 


Coinage 


20S 


Communications, Ministry of ... 


287 


Compass in Siamese 


117 


Courts of Justice, Constitution of 


145 


Courts of Justice, Judges 


272 


Customs and Excise Department 


296 


Diplomatic and Consular Body 


302 


Education Department 


286 


Education, State of .. 


197 


Fauna 


part ii 


Festivals. Fasts, Observances, 1914 


2J7 



THE 



t^uuu vLuvuiuravuu ^aun ^ 



INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER. 



Authorized and paid up Capital . . Tcs. 3,000,000.00 



3Boar& of ©f rcctora. 

PHRA SOPHOL PETCHARUT. 1 PHRA BORIBOON. 
PHY A THEPTAWARAWADI. W. BREBMER, Esq*; 

PHYA BURI NAWARASTH. E. FLGSIO Esqr. 



lonfcon Bankers : 

DIRECTION DER DISCONTO-GESELLSCHAFr, 

Berlin Bankers: 

DEUTSCH-ASIATISCHE BANK. 
Branch at Sampeng. 

The institution buys, sell?, and collects Bills of Exolrmcre on 
Europe, India and China and transacts every description of Exchange 
and Banking Business. 



CURRENT ACCOUNT DEPOSITS AT \tfo ON DAILY BALANCES 

Pate? of interest allowed, on fixed deposits may be ascertained 
en application. 

Safe-Deposit Lockers let to the Public at monthly rentals. 

favin^ Department wP.li Siamese Government Stock Security. 

for email investors. 

OFFICE HOURS ... ^a.m. to 3 p.m. 

SATURDAYS 9 a.m. to 12 noon. 

A. WlLLKKE, 

Aj. Manager. 



Contents, 



Finance, 


Page 
213 


Finance, Ministry of 


295 


Flags, Law Relating to 


151 


Foreign Office 


299 


Foreign Countries, Siamese Officials in 


300 


Forestry in Siam ... 


129 


Forest Department. 


281 


Fuangs, etc, Demonetising of ... 


56 


Garden Taxes, New Assessment of, 


61 


General Directory ... 


o05 


Gendarmerie, Provincial 


281 


Gold Standard Law, The 


48 


Gulf of Siam, 


107 


Hackney Carriage Act 

Harbour Department 

History, Old Siam, 

History, Recent 

Holidays and Festivals, Description of 

Hospitals 

Interior, Ministry of 


15 

27« 

1 

9 

21 

309 

279 


Irrigation Branch of Ministry of Agriculture 
Justice, Ministry of 


283 
271 


King's College 
Ladies' Directory ... 


272 
375 


Land Records Department 


283 


Land Tax, Paddy ... 
Law School 


to 

271 


Legal Practitioners 


310 


Legations 


302 


Library, National ... 

Light Dues ... .., 


297 
117 


Lights in Gulf 


113 


Local Government, Ministry of 
Lordi Lieutenant, His Majesty's 


274 

282 


Marine, Ministry of 


267 


Marriage in Siam 
Medical College 


37 

286 


Merchants, Professions 


317 



Aft*" €*f* 

...C^ <-» patented <fe> 'Va 
G>*, in all countries. i* 

A wood-preserving rnd antiseptic oil t reparation 
against 

f ccny, br^rot fungus and woo^fcestro^ino insects. 



" Avenarius " Carbolineum is an oil preparation which can he easily appVed by 
air 'no.lv. For twenty years i ■■ Combining 

renter efficiency ii deserves the preference over oii-eoJours and 
ermaneni preservation of wood is paramount. 
Thin BervaHve and antiseptic (disinfect ine) notion on wood; 

not onl v • the latter from decay f.ii<i dry-rot fungus, but it keeps off the 

noxious to v ■ itB and similar "insectB. 

" Avenarius" f'atbolineu a ma;, likewise be usad with advantage for coating stone for 
tbeprevei ' even iu t.io case of — nitioas exudation, for damp wall, for preserving 

ship's tacl - Is, etc. 

"Avenarins" f'arbolineum penetrates into the wood, this property being a great 
advantag-i over all other kinds of pain hitherto in use, which ice of th : 

wood, stop up the pores and thus even accelerate ■' 
not thoroughly seasoned. "Avenarius" Carbolineum is neither .orrosive nor 

ib'le. It may be applied to dry wood as well as to green wood. New wood. 
i,".nar<d with " ivenaritw" Carbolineum, presents ;. pretty nut-brown appearance, 
the gt£in showing through. 

• ■ ■,,.,., is" Ci keeps for an indefinite period without undergoing any 

change. 

Its application is mple and may be performed by rsons, either 

by laying ties— bound pr. b iron rings or wii 

liqai.j. A deeper penetration into the pores of the wooJ an 
tig "Avenarius" Carbolineum warm. 

(ne lb. of " Avenarius " Carbolineum will cover a surface of about ;j s i.are Yards at 
less cosr than anv oilier material. 

Hence it 'follows that . 4i Avenarius '' Carbolineum vfTcn important advantages Over 
Other sorts of paint, for instance that, while being more du.vibh . it is se 
than oil-paints covering the same ar.-.i Owing to being ..ion.- li pud it even surpasses tar 
as rega I efficiency. 

Wh.-revei' it has been introduced hitherto. "Avenarius'' Carbolineum has soon met 
with get eiaiion and its efficiency has been proved by its universal application, 

f i. on RAILWAYS: io railway carriages, sk . es, sheds, fences and other 

r F8HiP«a.wij-C-<rtG, H ftRfeO'^R Vib hkg, ETC.; to ships, boats, ships 
tackle a ""■ eii bridges arid -jU sorts of j in BUILPIKC 

TRADE. ivSANUFACTCriLo and MtNIWG PUANT t \q all i art - i bove and 

be low : u AC R :.«-•■ •' I'ts such as waggons, 

carts, ploughs, ' '-'•'-'■ 

Larjc siock oa hanJ for immediate delivery. 

FALCK & BEIDEK, 

Sole Agents. 



Contents. 



Page. 

Mining Regulations, New ... ... ... 46 

Mining in Siam ... ... ... 202 

Mines, Department of ... ... ... 284 

Ministry, The ... ... ... ... 254 

Mint, The Royal ... ... ... ... 296 

Missions in Siam, Foreign ... ..;. ... 305 

Monthons, List of ..'. ... ... 180 

Morphine and Cocaine Act. B. E. 2456 (1913) ... 172 

Naturalisation Law ... ... ... 61 

Navigation in Siamese Waters, Law on ... ... 43 

Navy ... ... .... 137 

Navy List ... ... ... 268 

Official Directory ... ... ... 245 

Opium, Administration Department ... ... 297 

Pension Act, Siam ... ... ... 32 

Physicians and Surgeons ... ... ... 309 

Pikat Rates, Standard ... ... ... 120 

Pitkat Pasi ( Customs Tariff for teak ) ... ... 120 

Pilotage, Tariff of ... ... ... 115 

Police Department ... ... ... 274 

Population ... ... ... 187 

Post Offices • ... , ... ... ... 291 

Postal and Telegraph Department ... ... 290 

Postal Regulations ... ... ... 139 

Princes of the Royal House ... ... ... 245 

Private Secretary's Department ... ... 25 i 

Privy Purse Department ... ... ... 253 

Privy Seal, Ministry of ... ... ... 254 

Public Instruction ... ... ... 209 

Public Instruction, Ministry of ... ... 285 

Queen Mother, Household of ... ... ... 253 

Railways in Siam ... ... ... 184 

Railway Department, Royal ... ... ... 292 

Railway, Southern ... ... ... 993 

Registration on Removal ( Province of Bangkok ) ... 60 

Revenue Department ( Bangkok ) ... ... 275 

Revenue Department (Provincial ) ... ... 280 

Rice and Sawmills ' ... ... ... 315 




KAWASAKI DOCKYARD Co., Ltd. 

Telephones : Cable Address • 

|: «C KOBE, JAPAN ... ;i£S&V«55 *«~ 

737, Store Dept. Engineering Codes Ubed. 

CONTRACTOES TO THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY, NAVY, 
AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS. 
SHIPBUILDERS, ENGINEERS, BOILERMAKERS, 
Manufacturer! of 
. o . Cast Steel Rudders, Stern Frames, Propeller Blades, 
. - . Braekets and Stems, Steel Gearing Pistons. 
• • • Cylinders and Engine Castings. 

All work guaranteed to he of highest order and to contain all the most up to 
date improvements. 



PARTICULARS OF DCCK AND SLIPS 






No. 1. Graving Dock— Length ... ... ... ... 


425' 


6" 


Width of entranca en top 


63' 


6" 


Do. bottom ... 


51' 


7" 


Depth over sill ... ... ... 


23' 


9" 


No. 2. Patent Slip— Length „ eo ... ... ,.. ... 


280' 


6" 


No. 3. Do. Do. ... ... ... .. ... 


180' 


0" 



The Dockyard extends along almost the whole length of the shore of the 

Western Harbour, and is in close proximity to the Shipping Berths. 

Powerful Salvage and Towing Boats available at shortest Notice. 



Contents 



Page. 

Royal Chamberlain's Dept. ... ... ... 248 

Royal Household, Ministry of ... ... 247 

Sanitary Department ... ... ... 278 

Sanitary Department Regulations ... ... Ig3 

Sanitary Decree, Local ... ... I .",7 

Siamese Orders ... •>;,•? 



Part 11. 
TREATIES. 



Britain and Siam (1855) 



(1868 



Survey Department ... ... 298 

Teak Trade in Siam ... ... ._ 118 

Telegrams, Tariff" of ... ... 143 

Telegraph Offices ... ... .. 291 

Tides ■•• ••• ... ... ... 110 

To vva ge Rates ... ... ... j [ $ 

Treasury Savings Bank Law. B. E. 2456 (1913) ... 215 

War, Ministry of ... ... ... 255 

Ways of Communication, Department of ... ... 287 

Weights and Measures ... ... ... \Q\ 

Wind and Weather in Gulf ... ... ... 107 



Page. 
10 



(supplementary) ... ... 17 



27 



„ (1883) ... ... ... 29 

(1883) g iquor traffic) ... ... 34 

(1899) (registration) ... ... 37 

„ (1899) (land tax) ... 39 

„ (1909) ... ... ... 40 

British Order in Council (1909) ... 49 

Siamese and English Law (1909) ... 52 

Anglo-Siamese Loan Agreement (1909) o-i 

Britain and Siam Extradition (1911) ... f,t; 

France and Siam (1856) ... 63 

;> (1867) ... :;; ::; 7 ~ 

» (1893) ... ... ... 8] 

.» (1904) ... ... ... 86 

» (1907) ... ... ... 91 

Anglo-French Convention (1896) ... . <^7 

0904, ... '.'.'. 102 

Germany and Siam (1862) ... . 104 

(1884) ... ... U5 

121 
129 



dated States and Siam (1856) 

The Netherlands and Siam (1860) 

Japan and Siam (1898) ... . . ... 139 

Russia and Siam (1899) ... " m [ 14(5 

Denmark and Siam (1905) ... ... ... 147 

Paly and Siam '1905) ... ... 150 

Denmark and Siam (1913) ... ... ... 151 



MM. A. Rostand 
E Roumk 
Edgard -tern 
R i>h Tregomain 



SOOIETE 4NONYME AU CAPITA!, DE 48,000,000.— de Francs. 

RESERVE 4>b,')0o,O0X - „ 

COURT OF DIRECTORS. 

M. HELY d' 1 ISSELS (Baron).. Chairman. 

M. A. de MONTPLANET Zkyjuty '." rirmah. 

MM. Ch. Demachy 
E. Bethenod 

HUBEKT HeNROTTK 

L. Masson 

Sta.sisl.as Simon E Ullmann 

M. Stanislas Simon, — Administrateur-Dii ecteur. 
M. Thfon de la Chaume — Directeur Adjoint. 
MM. Fsnaro ari'l Lmcaze -Soui-Directeura 
Heuu Oiice : 15Wis Rum L^ffitte, Paius 
LONDON BANKERS: 
The Union of London & Smiths Bank, L-d. Comptoir National d'Escompte de Paris, 

Drafts issued on all principal ci'ies in the world. Bills taken on collection or 
negotiated. Letters of Credi I arantel 

Every description of Ranking an > exchange business trxnsacted. 
Interest allowed on Currei.t-Accounts at the rate of 1 per cent p->r annum on 
the daiiy balances. 

The rates of interest allowed on f'.xeJ deposit Accounts can be ascertained on 
application io the Directeur. 

OtficJ Hours 9 a. m. to 3 p. m. Satnr lays 9 a. m. to 12 noon. 
BnancHt-s and .".g?»«».;cs. 
Bangkok, Bafcrambarcr, Oanton, Haiphong;, Flanko.v, H not, Hongkong, Noumea, 
Pekin, Puoin-IV.rn, Poadichery, Saigon, Shanghai, Singapore, TaiU. ! ieiusin, Djibouti. 

C HENRY. 

Mii naffer. 

MOST NEWS FROM ALL PARTS 
OF SIAM. 

Subscribe to the 

Bangkok Times. 

For those in the provinces and 
abroad the weekly edition is 

recommended. 

DAILY, with postage. Tcs. 57 per annum. . 
WEEKLY, with postage, Tcs, 30 per annum- 



Historical. 



Historical 



OLD SIAM. 

Early records are exceedingly scarce on the history of the national 
growth of the peoples of Indo-China, and such chronicles as do exist con- 
sist for the most part of legend and fable, with but a thin substratum of 
truth. It is only by the patient collection, examination, and sifting of the 
historical material that lies scattered in epigraphic and multifarious other 
historical sources, both native and foreign, as yet not laid under contri- 
bution and by no means easily accessible, and by the comparison of these 
with the extant chronicles, that truth can be arrived at, and the early 
history of the country pieced together. This task has been painstakingly 
undertaken and carried on for many years by Colonel Gerini from whose 
recent publications the following summary of events from the remotest 
time to the period of the advent of Europeans in the country has been 
compiled. It is the first synopsis of connected and authentic early history 
of the country ever yet placed before the public. Hitherto the published 
accounts have never been pushed further back than A.D. 1350, the well- 
known, date of the foundation of Ayuthia : and when they ventured into 
remoter epochs , it was only by plunging into the mists and mazes of myth , 
and by giving uncritical repetitions of the legends current in the popular 
chronicles before that period. 

I. — Early History and Eacial Struggles. 

(B.C. 800 to A.D. 1257.) 

According, then, to the researches above referred to and the results 
of recent ethnographical inquiry , this country of Siam was , in prehistorical 
times, inhabited by an aboriginal, dusky-complexioned population con- 
sisting, presumably, of two prevailing elements, probably widely 
separated at first, but w T hich to a considerable extent blended and fused 
with one another and with subsequent comers as time went on. One was 
the Melanesian or Negrito element, at one time undoubtedly diffused 
along the coast, but now surviving only in the wilder tracts of the Malay 
Peninsula. The other belonged to the racial stock vaguely called Indo- 
nesian, which left unmistakeable traces of itself in neolithic implements in 
many parts of Indo-China, and is to this day represented by scattered 
tribes on the Me-nam-Salwin and Me-Khong-Annamese watersheds. 
Then from the eighth or tenth century B.C., if not earlier, began that 
exodus of tribes from Southern China, which has continued in unbroken 
sequence to this very day, when it is still, though to a smaller extent, 
going on. 

The first of these tribes to flow into Indo-China were those belong- 
ing to the Mon-Annam, or, rather more correctly, Mon -Khmer stock, 
which were very probably in origin closely related to the Indonesians, if 



Historical. 



not absolutely identical with them. They reached Indo-China between 
the tenth and the eighth century B.C., and occupied it almost undis- 
turbed for several centuries, pushing down to the extreme southern limit 
of the Malay Peninsula, and driving the aboriginals before them and 
away from the coast towards the hill tracts, but also partly absorbing 
them into their mass. 

Shortly after this, navigators and traders from Southern India took 
to frequenting the coasts of Indo-China, establishing there trading 
stations ; while similar parties reached the northern parts of the peninsula 
by land from Northern India. Brahmanism and, later on, Buddhism, 
with most other achievements of Indian culture, followed in the wake of 
these pioneers, and thus it is to ancient India that Indo-China owes her 
early civilization. 

By the first century of the Christian era we find not only places on 
the coast but also in the interior of the country designated in many an 
instance by Pali or Sanskrit names, and among these appears that of 
Cy&ma or Cyama-rattha for the lower portion of the Me-nam valley. 
The term has been handed down in the forms Siem or Syam to this day, 
out of which we have made Siam. Of these, the hybrid term Shan is but 
the modern Burmese corruption. The Siamese of that time, however, 
were, as may be easily inferred from the above, mainly Mon-Khmer by 
stock, with a considerable admixture of the aboriginal Negrito and 
Indonesian bloods. The country was split into a number of principalities 
almost constantly at war with each other and with the still powerful 
remnants of the aboriginal tribes, which, however, they nearly always 
managed to keep under subjection. From the sixth century A.D., 
however, -the vigorous growth, under Hindu influence, of a compact 
empire in Cambodia deeply affected the status of most of these diminu- 
tive States, and vassalage was imposed upon them, which continued w T ith 
rare intervals for some seven centuries. 

A new racial element had meanwhile appeared on the field, which 
from the centre of China, or the region about the present province of 
Hunan, had, from similar impellent causes, followed in the footsteps of 
the Mon-Khmers into Yunnan, which country it reached some three or 
four centuries before the Christian Era. Displacing thence the Mon- 
Khmer settlers further south, it continued its movement forward, pene- 
trating into the northern parts of both Burma and Siam, where it started 
in its turn to found principalities and centres of further expanding influ- 
ence. These invaders were parts of the people denominated Lao, or 
Ai-Lao, and it was only after their successful career of conquest in the 
northern parts of Siam and Burma that they adopted the title of Tai or 
Thai in order to distinguish and exalt themselves. When, in due course, 
they made themselves masters of the whole of Siam, and had founded 
there an empire which gradually extended far into Pegu and Upper 
Burma, they became known to the neighbouring nations as the Siamese, 
but they still continue to speak of themselves as the Thai race. Colonel 
Gerini has also made an elaborate comparison of the languages and 
dialects spoken by the several branches of the Thai race — Siamese, Lao, 
Shan, etc. — with the languages and dialects spoken in the provinces of 



Historical 



China lying to the south of the Yangtse river, and he found that nearly 
the whole body of the Thai language proper can be retraced thither. 
And, indeed, large numbers of the same racial stock speaking Thai dialects 
are yet to be found to this very day in Kwei-chou, Kwang-si and Yunnan. 
The theory, hitherto upheld by most, writers, that the forebears of this 
people came from Thibet or Western China is, of course, absurd, and 
can no longer be maintained , in the face of the above evidence. 

The racial name of this people was Lao, and Thai was simply a 
title that they substituted for that name. In the seventh, eighth and 
ninth centuries they formed a powerful and militant kingdom, or rather 
federation of principalities, fighting now with and now against the 
Emperor of China, and subjugating Upper Burma and Northern Siam, 
where they soon came into collision with the Mon-Khmer States of the 
Me-nam basin on the one side, and with the powerful Cambodian para- 
mount authority itself on the other. 

By the middle of the sixth century A.D. the western branch of 
the Thai invaders of Siam had its advance-posts at the head waters of 
the Me-nam, where it had founded the realm of LamphCin, thus becom- 
ing a neighbour of the Swankhalok-Sukhothai kingdom that had been, 
for many centuries past, the chief power in Northern Siam. This 
naturally led to almost continued hostilities not only with this old king- 
dom, but also with their western neighbour Pegu, and with the remnants 
of the aboriginal tribes on the Salwin frontier. 

Meanwhile the eastern branch had firmly established itself on the 
Middle Me-Khong about Luang Phra-bang, whence it extended its sway 
even towards the Annamese coast. Here it held for some time the 
Song-Ka valley, co-operating at various periods with its collateral kinsmen 
who had remained in Yunnan, where they now ruled supreme, in 
threatening Chinese authority in Tonkin. By the middle of the four- 
teenth century this branch, taking advantage of the fast decline of 
Cambodian power, had extended its possessions well down the Me-Khong 
within close proximity to the Khong rapids, as well as into the territory 
adjoining that river to the west, which it has uninterruptedly held 
to this day. 

On the other hand, the progress of the western branch proceeded 
somewhat slower. All it had done by the end of the eleventh century 
was the establishment of autonomous settlements on the western arm of 
the Me-nam only as far down as Khampheng'phet , a feudal dependency 
of Sukhothai. But a far more remarkable achievement was its slow but 
steady infiltration into the Cambodian vassal states of Sukhothai and 
Lavo (the present Lophburi), where the Thai element gradually increased 
in numbers, and in influence by blending itself with the native population 
and soon threatened to become preponderant. 

In the first quarter of the twelfth century a fresh infusion of 
vigorous blood from the parent stock in the north- took place, when a 
wave of Thai people from their old fastnesses on the Upper Me-Khong 
swept down upon the now effete realms of Sukhothai and Lavo, and 
bade fair to obtain permanent possession of them. The crumbling and 



Historical. 



agonizing Cambodian Colossus had a short sparkling of vitality, and in 
a despairing effort yet succeeded in bringing back under its sway most 
of the territory the Thai invaders had recently seized. But ominous 
signs unmistakeably showed that the end of Cambodian rule in Siani 
was fast drawing near, for Thai influence had so alarmingly developed 
itself in the Me-nam valley with the last incursion, despite the check — by 
no means sufficiently severe — it had just received, as to make it certain 
that it would soon reign supreme. 

II.— The First Thai Empire : Sukhothai (A.D. 1257-1350). 

The hour of the downfall was not long delayed. It was in A.D. 1257 
or thereabouts. Then the myriads of Thai that now populated the 
middle and lower basin of the Me-nam down to the head of its delta, 
rose into open revolt headed by one who became afterwards one of their 
most popular heroes, known by the nickname of King Ruang (the second 
of that style in local history), and carrying with them the remaining 
population, already to a considerable extent of mixed Thai-Cambodian 
bipod, definitely shook off the secular yoke of Cambodia. Thus Siam 
from the sea to the frontier of the Lamphun State in the north (which 
was in another three and a half decades to become part of the realm then 
rising" from its ruins at Chiengmai) became an independent, unified and 
powerful Kingdom with its capital at Sukhothai. 

The emasculate efforts of Cambodia to recover her Siamese dominions 
were this time not only successfully resisted, but the struggle was carried 
into the heart of Cambodia itself, to the utter detriment of that country 
which, according to the testimony of an eye-witness who visited it soon 
afterwards in 1296, was laid waste and incapacitated almost for ever. 

By 1300 A.D., as evidenced by a Sukhothai inscription of the period, 
the dominions of the newly-founded Thai kingdom reached, on the north 
the borders of the Chiengmai State ; on the east the Me-Khong from 
Luang-Phrah-bang to the neghbourhood of Bassak ; on the south the 
head of the Gulf, including the whole of the Malay Peninsula down to its 
very southern extremity ; and on the west the Salwin where the recently- 
founded little realm of Martaban remained for some time its vassal . 

With the rising of this powerful Thai empire in the Me-nam valley, 
the want of a national system of writing not derived from the Cambodian 
then in use throughout the country, made itself felt, in order to give 
expression to the new feelings of the nation, celebrate its triumphs, and 
better mark the independence it had attained. This perfectly legitimate 
want was soon supplied and a suitable alphabet devised, through the help 
of Brahmanical light obtained from the newly acquired possession of 
Ligor. Thus there sprang up that system of Siamese writing which, with 
a few modifications, has survived to this day; and with it a national 
literature started developing, which attained afterwards no mean 
excellency. 

Arts and culture were brilliantly revived, and trading relations 
established with most neighbouring States both by land and sea. In 



Historical. 



short, a prosperous future dawned' upon this land through the vigorous 
impulse it had received from the young and rising nation, then in the 
full bloom of its youthful forces. 

The tradition as to the Little Saka or Chula-Sakaraj era (beginning 
in A.D. 638) having been adopted, nay founded, by a King Buang 
reigning at Swankhalok (actually in the 11th century) — who is often 
confounded with the second of that name, or rather nickname, referred 
to above as the leader of the 1257 revolt — is, it goes without saying, a 
mere myth ; for no such era appears on local documents until much later 
on, when it was evidently introduced from Burma. The evidence of the 
local inscriptions of the period is that the era then and for some time 
afterwards in use at Sukhothai, as well as all over Southern Indo-China 
and the Archipelago, was instead the Great Saka, or Maha-Sakaraj, 
beginning A.D. 78, which had been in honour for many centuries before 
the rise of the independent Thai empire. The legend of the local 
chronicles as regards the adoption of the Chula era at the period in 
question must therefore be rejected as worthless. 

III. — The Second Thai Empire : Ayuthia (1350-1767). 

In spite of its brilliant commencement, the Sukhothai empire proved 
but short-lived, for soon a rival power sprang up in the, southern part of 
its dominions that gradually undermined its existence and succeeded at 
last in completely overthrowing and supplanting it. 

Towards the middle of the fourteenth century the scion of an 
ancient line of Thai princes formerly ruling in Chieng-Rai in Western 
Laos, and later on in the neighbourhood of Kam-pheng-phet — whither 
they had sought refuge from Peguan inroads which had temporarily swept 
their country, and where they were presumably suffered to quietly settle 
and live an almost autonomous existence by the powerful monarchy 
holding sway at Sukhothai — shifted down with its people to the country 
of the Me-nam delta. There,, after having dispossessed the vassal prince 
or governor from Sukhothai, who held control over the territory, the 
warlike Thai princelet settled down with his followers, and in A.D. 1350 
founded a new city, Ayuthia, which was shortly to become the capital 
of a new Thai empire. Successfully resisting the attempts of Sukhothai 
to annihilate the little upstart, the founder of the new Kingdom, Phya 
U-thong,, afterwards officially known as King Ramathibodi I. , managed 
in the course of a few years to carve for himself a considerable dominion 
out of territory taken from Sukhothai possessions on the north and 
south, and from Cambodia on the east. This last-named country, 
incapable of resisting his incursions, had to suffer several disastrous 
defeats at his hand, and even saw at one period its capital Angkor and 
the surrounding land taken and made a vassal under the rule, for some 
time, of one of King U-Thong's sons. The Sukhothai possessions in^fche 
Malay Peninsula also gradually changed hands, and passed one after* the 
other under the powerful grip of the warlike King of Ayuthia. But 
Sukhothai, as was natural, still desperately struggled on for supremacy, 
although the severe blows repeatedly dealt at its integrity had maimed 



Historical. 



it and well nigh made it helpless. The work of finally reducing it, how- 
ever, was reserved for King U-thong's successors, and was not ultimately 
accomplished until the dawn of the fifteenth century. 

After Sukhothai came the turn of the next powerful State in the 
north, Chieng-mai ; and this, although never thoroughly subdued, was, in 
the course of several inroads, stripped of bits of its territory on its southern 
borders. Martaban, which had meanwhile become part and parcel of a 
mighty kingdom that had just been set up in Pegu, easily managed to 
slip off scot-free ; but Tavoy and Tenasserim remained in almost uninter- 
rupted possession of Ayuthia. 

The dynasty founded by Phya U-thong ruled over Siam for some 
two hundred and fifty years. The country had now extensive relations 
with most of the neighbouring States and with China by sea, and facili- 
ties were granted for trading at Amoy and Canton. With the growing 
of Burmese ascendency in Pegu and the occasional recrudescence of 
bellicose vitality in Cambodia, wars were, of course, constant, and some- 
times the scales of fortune turned against Siam. This was especially the 
case in 1568 (rectified date), when, in the course of long renewed hostili- 
ties, the Burmo-Peguans took Ayuthia and carried away the King and 
royal family. But the Siamese very speedily regained their ascendency, 
for about twenty years later, according to Chinese historians, Siam 
reached the zenith of her power, and Cambodia and Pegu came well nigh 
being both wiped off the map of Indo-China. It is curious to note that 
in 1592 Siam offered China assistance against the Japanese, who had 
designs upon Korea. On the other hand, according to Sir Ernest M. 
Satow, in 1579 500 Japanese assisted the Siamese to repel a Burmese 
attack, and it is known that there was a considerable settlement of 
Japanese in Ayuthia. 

Thus by the end of the fifteenth century, and on the verge of the 
first European advent and interference in Indo-Chinese politics, Siam 
had grown to be a very powerful and flourishing kingdom embracing 
the whole of the central and southern portions of the Indo-Chinese 
Peninsula, from the borders of Chieng-mai in the north to the Straits in 
the south. The arrival of the Portuguese in the East first made itself 
felt at Ayuthia by the capture of Malacca in A.D. 1511. This was the 
first Siamese possession that was wrested from Siam by Europeans. 
Its loss was not, however, severely resented, as Malacca, by intriguing 
with China and other eastern powers which it endeavoured to play off 
against Siam, had for some time past proved a far from faithful subject 
to its suzerain. So far had it gone, in fact, that several more or less 
successful expeditions had to be sent against Malacca by Siam. This 
conquest brought the Portuguese into contact with Ayuthia, and led to 
the establishment of the first European relations with this country. 
These were started in that same year, A.D. 1511, and continued for fully 
one* century, until Portuguese rapacity and the intrigues of the Dutch, 
now arrived on the field, brought about the decline of Portuguese, in 
favour of Dutch, influence, in the country. A British ship is said to 
have first arrived about 1618. 



Historical 



It was in the latter half of the seventeenth century, during the 
reign of Phra Narai, that there occurred the best known episode in 
ancient Siamese history. Like the majority of Siamese monarchs, the 
King was liberal minded and gave a ready welcome to western traders 
and western ideas. The English and the Dutch were admitted to trade, 
and the Portuguese had been invited to resume their commercial relations 
with the country. French missionaries, too, were received without 
difficulty, and Monseigneur Pallu, who had been hospitably entertained 
by King Narai, returned to France firmly convinced of the great possi- 
bilities that Siam offered to the Church and to France. The Grand 
Monarch gave a ready hearing to his proposals, and was speedily 
captivated by the dream of converting the King and the people of Siam to 
Christianity. An expedition was accordingly fitted out, and in September 
1680, the Vautour arrived off the mouth of the Menam, bearing letters 
and presents to the King from His Most Christian Majesty Louis XIV. 
A cordial welcome was extended to the French company. King Narai 
was, in fact, induced to send an Embassy with a fitting response to the 
letters and presents of King Louis, but the vessel in which the envoys set 
sail was lost with all on board. 

At this time Constantine Phaulkon, the most remarkable foreigner 
ever in the service of Siam, held a position of great influence at the Court. 
This Greek adventurer had gained his position by sheer ability. He had 
drifted to, Bangkok with other European merchants who were attracted 
by the facilities offered traders under King Narai, and in no great time he 
was Chao Phya Vichayen with the management of the government in all 
the northern provinces of the country. In fortifications, buildings, and 
public works of all kinds he left a long-enduring monument in Siam. 
Phaulkon 's influence was none the less great in shaping the domestic 
and foreign policy of the Government, and he threw himself heart and 
soul into the French interest. It was the King's policy also to use 
France to counteract the influence of Holland, then the predominating 
power in the East. Accordingly when Monseigneur Pallu, who had been 
again to Europe, returned with fresh letters from Louis XIV., the King 
of Siam despatched another Embassy to Versailles personally conducted 
by a French priest. This was in 1682, and the most Christian King, now 
more than ever enamoured of the eclat of a grand diplomatic conversion, 
sent a return Embassy. A magnificent reception was accorded to the 
representatives of the western Power, and a treaty giving every possible 
facility to missionaries was signed at Lopburi on the 10th December, 
1685. But the French envoys had come out to secure conversion, of 
which the King of Siam had never dreamed, and the game of cross- 
purposes came to an end at last. The question had to be put to the 
King, who replied with dignity that he saw no reason for abandoning 
a religion which his countrymen had exercised for well nigh two thousand 
years. That ended all negotiations on the part of the French envoys, 
but Phaulkon would not yet resign his hope of a French alliance. Another 
Siamese Embassy was sent to Paris, and the priest who conducted it 
was charged to tempt Louis XIV. with promises of political predominance 
and persuade him that the conversion could only be gradually accom- 
plished. These promises and arguments had their intended effect, a 



Historical. 



responsive Embassy was despatched to Siam, accompanied by a detach- 
ment of troops who were to take possession of the ports proffered by 
Phaulkon. They reached the Menam on the 27th September, 1687, and 
the French garrisons were admitted into Bangkok and Mergui. Another 
treaty was concluded giving the French something like a monopoly of 
foreign trade with every facility for carrying it on. But the Siamese, 
both nobles and people, were becoming tired of this foreign policy and 
of the aggressive attitude of the French. Phaulkon had still another 
Embassy sent to Paris, but before any further expedition to effect a 
military occupation could set sail, a revolution at Ayuthia had swept 
away the King and his counsellor. Phaulkon was assassinated ; the King, 
who had long been ailing with an incurable disease, came to his death 
shortly afterwards ; and the French garrisons were compelled to surrender 
and accept transport to Pondicherry. Thus ended Louis XIV. 's eccentric 
attempt to convert and dominate Siam, as strange a story of intrigue 
and wasted subtlety as is to be found in the history of the country. 

Three dynasties of Siamese Kings reigned in Ayuthia, but in 1767 
the capital was invested by a powerful Burmese army and fell on the 7th 
April in that year. With it fell the third dynasty. 

IV. — The Thikd Siamese Empire : Bangkok (1768-Onwards). 

Probably the ablest man in the country at the time was Phya 
Tak-Sin, the son of a Chinaman, and he speedily set himself to rally the 
scattered forces of his countrymen in order to repel the Burmese invasion. 
In this he was entirely successful, for in less than a year he had cleared 
the country of its enemies, and had restored something like order. 
Having by his prowess re-established the independence of Siam, Phya 
Tak himself assumed the sovereign power, and selected Bangkok, then 
built on the western side of the river, as his capital (A.D. 1768). Most 
of his reign, was spent in the field, for it took him some time to consolidate 
his power. 

In 1782 Phya- Tak became insane and was deposed. The revolu- 
tionary movement was headed by Phya San, who, however, merely carried 
on the government till the return of Chao Phya Chakkri , the generalissimo 
of Phya Tak's armies, then occupied in restoring order in Cambodia. 
On learning of the disturbances in Bangkok he hurried back to the 
capital, when Phya San at once surrendered his authority and did 
obesiance to him. It was this Chao Phya Chakkri who was the founder 
of the present dynasty — hence called the Chakkri dynasty — and he was 
of Siamese descent, and had no ancestral connection whatever with Phya 
Tak. He transferred the seat of Government from the western to the 
opposite bank of the river, and was there crowned on the 13th June. 178-2. 
Dying on the 7th September, 1809, he was succeeded by his son, who 
bore the official title of Phra Phuttha Lot La Nop'halai. This monarch 
reigned till the 11th July, 1824, when he was succeeded by his son, a 
King who was officially styled Phra Nang Klao. He died on the 2nd 
April, 1851, and the fourth monarch of the dynasty was his younger 
brother Maha Mongkut, the father of the late sovereign.. 



Historical. 



RECENT HISTORY. 

Under King" Mongkut the extensive relations of Siam with foreign 
countries were regulated by formal treaties. The earliest treaty with a 
western Power of which there is any record was made with the Dutch 
East India Company in 1664. Then came the treaty signed by Phaulkon 
in 1685, granting various privileges to the Apostolic Missionaries through- 
out Siam, but the French alliance proving abortive, the treaty with the 
Dutch Company was renewed in 1688. The Netherlands, however, 
passed out of the sphere of immediate interest for Siam with the signing 
of the 1824 treaty between that country and Great Britain. This all 
important compact settled the future of the Malayans Archipelago, and 
it was with England alone that Siam had in future to reckon in the 
Peninsula. Crawfurd's mission in 1822 had little result, but the British 
Government soon made another effort to get into treaty relations with 
their neighbour in Malaya, and in 1826 Captain Burney signed a treaty 
of friendship with Siam in which various facilities for trade were promised 
on either side. Under this treaty, it is interesting" to note, the exportation 
of rice, or paddy, from Bangkok was expressly prohibited. The subse- 
quent distribution of power within the Malay Peninsula was then just 
beginning" to become fixed, as is shown by the provisions with regard to 
Kedah, Perak, Tringganu, and Kelantan. x\rticle 12, which was in force 
up to 1909, runs: — "Siam shall not go and obstruct or interrupt 
commerce in the States of Tringano and Calantan. English merchants 
and subjects shall have trade and intercourse in future with the same 
facility and freedom as they have hitherto had, and the English shall 
not go and molest, attack, or disturb those States, upon any pretext 
whatever." The Rajah of Kedah had previously made treaties with the 
East India Company on his own account, and had ceded them Pulo 
Penang and Province Wellesley, the Company not knowing that he was 
a tributary of Siam ; but in 1821 the Siamese expelled the Rajah. In 
this treaty, therefore, it is provided that "the Siamese shall remain in 
Queda, and take proper care of that country and its people." (In 1842 
the eldest son of the ex-Rajah made submission on his father's behalf, 
and the King of Siam reinstated the Rajah in the Government of the 
State.) The 1826 treaty also provided that : " The Siamese and English 
mutually engage that the Rajah of Perak shall govern his country accord- 
ing to his own will. Should he desire to send the Gold aiid Silver Flowers 
to Siam as heretofore, the English will not prevent his doing as he may 

desire The English will not allow the State of Salengore to 

attack or disturb Perak ; and the Siamese shall not go and attack or 
disturb Salengore." A curious commentary on this is to be found in the 
fact that within three months the English had entered into a treaty with 
the Rajah of Perak under which he was bound never to acknowledge the 
suzerainty of Siam, or to send gold flowers to Bangkok. The United 
States concluded a treaty with Siam in 1833, ratified in 1836, which, like 
that with Great Britain, provided for freedom of trade, except in regard 
to munitions of war, opium and rice. 

As trade, however, increased, the want of more definite regulations 
became increasingly apparent, and after Sir James Brooke's unsuccessful 



10 Historical. 



attempt in 1850, Sir John Bowring succeeded in obtaining a treaty of 
friendship and commerce by which the interests of all British subjects 
in Siam were placed under the regulation and control of a Consul residing 
in Bangkok. This was signed on April 18th, 1855, and the ratifications 
were exchanged on April 5th, 1856. In the latter year similar treaties 
were entered into with France and the United States, and most of the 
other Powers obtained like rights and privileges within a few years — 
Denmark in 1858, Portugal in 1859, the Netherlands in 1860, Germany 
in 1862, Belgium, Italy, and Sweden and Norway in 1863, Austria- 
Hungary in 1869, Spain in 1870, Japan in 1898, and Kassia in 1899. 
Supplementary treaties, conventions, or agreements have since these 
dates been made with all the Powers, excepting the two last named. 
From 1841, Cambodia had been definitely a tributary State, but in 1863 
a formal treaty was entered into, and in that document the fact that 
Cambodia was a tributary State of Siam was set forth very explicitly, and 
the rearrangements for the payment of tribute were detailed. But a few 
months previously Cambodia had also entered into a treaty with France, 
accepting and acknowledging a French protectorate. Accordingly in 
1867, by a treaty concluded at Paris between France and Siam, the 
Siamese treaty of 1863 with Cambodia was declared null and void, and 
the French protectorate over that country was formally and fully recog- 
nised. This treaty provided that Battambong and Angkor should remain 
part of the Kingdom of Siam. It also enacted that if Cambodian -subjects 
committed any crime or offence on Siamese territory, they should be tried 
and punished with justice by the Siamese Government, according to the 
laws of Siam, Siamese subjects in Cambodia being similarly subject to 
the laws of that country. 

In the following year (October 1st, 1868) the late sovereign, King 
Chulalongkorn, succeeded to the throne. Educated in accordance with 
western methods, His Majesty early understood the line that an 
independent Siam must take, and he strove, against many obstacles, 
but with ever-increasing success, to ensure the survival of his country 
in that struggle for existence in which only the fittest do survive. 
In 1871 the King visited Java, and towards the close of the same year 
he left for a tour in India. He was entertained by the Viceroy at 
Calcutta from the 7th to the 12th of January, 1872. The government 
had hitherto been carried on under a regency, but on his return the King 
assumed the reins of power, and in the following year introduced various 
changes and political reforms. A political constitution was decreed on 
the 8th of May, 1874. These changes were slow in producing the result 
hoped for, nor is that to be wondered at since the improved order of 
things was being imposed upon the country for its good, not forced by the 
people from their rulers. Moreover, His Majesty did not always have 
very satisfactory instruments with which to carry out his wishes. Still, 
the leaven was working. The gradual abolition of slavery had been 
decreed, and its worst features had been done away with by 1889, though 
in part the law continued to be not infrequently evaded, as a good many 
people preferred this method of paying their debts. A partial remedy, 
however, was found in the Master and Servant Act, passed about twelve 
years ago, and in 1905 a final step was taken to do away with debt slavery 



Historical. 11 



altogether. A postal sendee was organised in 1885 ; telegraphic com- 
munication was opened up with foreign countries ; and various other 
public works were aiding in fostering the mercantile importance of the 
capital. In 1889-90 there were complications with Great Britain over the 
settlement of the boundary ; at the same time a rebellion had to be put 
down in Northern Siam. The King and Queen visited the Straits Settle- 
ments in May and June, 1890, and it was after their return that practical 
effect began to be given to the railway schemes that had been under con- 
sideration for some time. His Majesty cut the first turf of the Paknam 
Railway on the 16th July, 1891, and on the 9th March of the following- 
year he formally started the work of the construction of the State Railway 
to Korat in the same manner. The present Tsar, then Tsarevitch, visited 
Siam in 1891. 

Serious political troubles, however, were now beginning to divert the 
attention of the Government and to cloud the prospect of solid progress. 
Claims had for some time been put forward on behalf of France to the 
trans-Mekong regions of Siam. These regions, it was averred, had 
formerly belonged to Annam and Cambodia, and the contention was that, 
as exercising a protectorate over these countries, France ought to insist on 
the restoration to them of what they had lost to Siam. Now, in the seven- 
teenth century at least, the Mekong valley belonged to a Laotian Power, 
with its capital in Wieng-chan. In 1641 a Dutch Mission to the Mekong 
reported that the Cambodians were being compelled to retire before the 
unceasing attacks of the Laotians. This Power, however, soon after split 
into two principalities and their territory became a bone of contention 
between the Kingdoms of Siam and Annam, the struggle finally ending m 
favour of Bangkok. The Siamese claimed that the founder of their 
present dynasty expelled both Annamites and Cambodians over a hundred 
years ago, and that they had held the country ever since. A good deal of 
fighting went on, of course, but they had, at any rate, excluded their 
rivals. The French claimed that the territory in question had been 
Annamite up to a later date, and a map was published in the Revue Fran- 
$aise showing the Annamite boundary of 1838 as overpassing even the 
Mekong. In his " Expansion Coloniale de la France " M. de Lanessan 
twits the Siamese with only having been in possession of the territory for 
fifty years. Siam, it was in fact admitted by all French writers, had been 
in possession for at any rate half a century, but before that, they con- 
tended, the territory in dispute had been Annamite, and it ought to be so 
again. M. de Lanessan 's book was published in 1866, and certainly at 
that time there was no question as to which Power exercised jurisdiction. 
Gamier admits that Siamese jurisdiction extended up to the Annamite 
mountains as far as Attopeu, " which was the farthest eastern possession 
of Bangkok," and the various French explorers on the Mekong were 
assisted and protected by the Siamese authorities. At that time it was 
believed by these explorers and other members of the French Colonial 
Party that the power which possessed the Mekong would be able most 
easily to secure the trade of South-western China, and that in addition the 
river offered great facilities for trade with the country along its banks. 
The possession of the Mekong meant empire, and writer after writer 
insisted on the necessitv of the French flag beins: hoisted alono 1 this river 



12 Historical. 



to protect the commerce that was to grow. About 1888 the French claims 
to the eastern half of the Mekong Valley began to take official shape, and 
Siam proposed that, pending definite delimitation, a neutral zone should be 
observed between the 13th and 19th parallels of latitude. x\lso Siam 
asked then, and repeatedly afterwards, that the frontier should be sur- 
veyed and delimited. In 1892 work was commenced on the Korat 
Railway. This railway is calculated to draw the commerce of the Laos 
country to Bangkok, and M. de Lanessan in his great book had boldly 
urged that its construction should be thwarted by every possible means. 
The time had come to act, therefore. Now it seems certain that neither 
party had observed strictly the limits of the neutral zone agreed upon. 
The Siamese said the Franco- Annamite troops began the encroachment, 
and they argued that their own troops were forced to advance to prevent 
the territory being occupied in their despite. On the French side the 
Siamese were accused of taking up positions close to the Annamite slopes , 
and of having in one case approached within thirty miles of Hue. That 
was enough. On March 1st, 1893, it was announced that measures would 
be taken to ensure French rights, and the occupation by Franco- Annamite 
troops of Khong and Stungtreng — two villages on the Mekong, just above 
the Cambodian frontier— followed on the 2nd and 4th of April. Another 
force crossed the mountains farther north, and came down the valley of 
the Se-bang-hien, pushing the Siamese before them to the banks of the 
Mekong opposite Kemmarat. A telegram dated the 3rd June announced 
that the post of Kham Muon had been vacated. A further telegram, ten 
days later, stated that all posts occupied by the Siamese in the Lower 
Laos, as distinguished from the northern or Luang Prabang region, had 
been evacuated, and that the Siamese had crossed the Mekong to the right 
bank. Siam renewed her offers to submit the matter of the disputed 
frontier to arbitration, but France definitely declined to accede to arbitra- 
tion. Moreover, in advancing to the Mekong, France was practically 
assured that no Power would seriously contest her progress so far, and she 
was not left without a pretext for further action. 

Naturally the Siamese had not been driven across the Mekong without 
offering resistance, and on the 3rd June a French official named Grosgurin 
was killed at Ivieng Chek, several Annamites and Siamese falling at the 
same time. The French accused Phra Yot, the Siamese Commanding 
Officer, of having deliberately murderad Grosgurin while he was lying sick 
on his bed. The Siamese Government at once declared their readiness to 
render all due reparation on this fact being proved, but the French authori- 
ties were bent on something more than such negotiations. The French 
fleet was hurried from China to Saigon, and proceeded to occupy various 
Siamese islands on the eastern side of the Gulf. Much alarm was now 
felt at Bangkok, and early in July measures were taken to obstruct the 
entrance to the Menam, a narrow channel only being left for the passage 
of trading vessels. Meantime negotiations were proceeding between M. 
Pavie, the French Minister at Bangkok, and the Siamese Foreign 
Minister, but without any satisfactory result. There was at the time one 
French gunboat at Bangkok, and finally Siam refused to allow more of 
them to enter the river, though the French pointed out that by the treaty 
they had a right to send any number of gunboats as far as Paknam. On 



Historical. 13 



their side the French had no instructions to ascend the Menam, but at 
nightfall on the 13th July the gunboats Inconstant and ComHe forced the 
passage of the forts and Siamese vessels, and anchored at Bangkok. In 
the action three French sailors were killed and two wounded, while on the 
Siamese side there were eight killed and forty-one wounded. 

On the 20th July a French ultimatum was presented to Siam demand- 
ing, besides an indemnity of 3,000,000 frs., the recognition of Cambodian 
and Annamese rights to the left bank of the Mekong and the punishment 
of all Siamese officers who should be proved guilty of offences against 
French subjects. The reply of the Siamese Government Mr. Gundry 
characterises as admirable, but as events proved it was unfortunate. It 
■again regretted that no precise definition had ever been given of what it 
was to understand by the expression ' ' rights of the Empire of Annam and 
of the Kingdom of Cambodia on the left bank of the Mekong," and recalled 
its previous offers to submit to arbitration. Yielding now, however, to the 
pressure of circumstances, it gave a general acquiescence to the terms 
demanded, consenting that all territory on the left bank, south of the 18th 
parallel of north latitude, be regarded as Annamite and Cambodian terri- 
tory. This qualified concession was not considered satisfactory by M. 
Pavie, and he retired to Koh-si-chang with the Inconstant, ComHe, and 
Lutin on the 25th July.. A blockade of Bangkok was declared by the 
French squadron on the following day, and a further blockade from Samit 
Island to Chantaboon was proclaimed three days afterwards, on the 29th. 
Siam now accepted the ultimatum without reserve, but the French 
Government refused to raise the blockade unless Siam acceded to stronger 
conditions, which were set forth in a second ultimatum. Chantaboon was 
to be occupied until the evacuation of the left bank of the Mekong had 
been completed by the Siamese troops, while the Siamese had in the 
future to abstain from maintaining armed forces within 25 kilometres of 
the left bank of the Mekong and in the provinces of Battambong and Siem 
Keap. This was accepted without delay, and the blockade was raised on 
the 2nd August. M. Pavie returned to Bangkok on the 8th August, and 
the French left Koh-si-chang on the 11th, M. Le Myre de Vilers, the 
French Minister Plenipotentiary, arriving on the 16th for the purpose of 
arranging a Treaty of Peace with Siam, and after considerable negotiations 
;a Treaty and a Convention were signed on 3rd October. As for the Con- 
vention, it purported to be an understanding" on the details of the ultima- 
tum, although in some points it appeared to prove a third ultimatum. 

In the meantime much feeling had been aroused in England at what 
was considered the weakness of the Government and its disregard for 
British prestige and commercial interests in Siam, it merely being stipu- 
lated by the English Foreign Office that France was not to carry 
occupation of the left bank of the Mekong farther than the 21st parallel of 
north latitude. Lord Rosebery, who was the Foreign Minister of the day, 
has since confessed that England and France were then on the verge of 
war over the Siamese question. Nor was there wanting an instance of 
strained relations between the men-of-war of the two countries in the 
Gulf, when a French vessel fired across the bows of a British gunboat, 
which immediately cleared for action. As the result of the negotiations 



14 Historical. 



that went on, it was, however, agreed that an intermediary zone should 
be constituted somewhere between the British and the French possessions 
in the region of the Upper Mekong, the protocol embodying this under- 
standing being signed on the 1st December, 1893. Commissioners were 
duly appointed, but buffer states were not in the ascendant just then, and 
the proposal never came to anything. The negotiations were, however, 
continued, and finally resulted in the Anglo-French Convention signed at 
London on January 15th, 1896. By this agreement the two Powers 
guaranteed the independence of the Menam Valley, the most valuable 
part of the Kingdom of Siam. 

Considerable interest attached to the trial of Phra Yot for wilful 
murder, committed by himself or by his orders on a French Inspector of 
Militia called Grosgurin, as already referred to. This was provided for in 
the treaty, and after a trial lasting over a month, Phra Yot was acquitted 
by the Siamese Court, it being found that he had not exceeded his duty. 
France then demanded a new trial before a mixed Court, the composition 
of which was, in accordance with the 1893 treaty, determined by the 
French authorities. Phra Yot was found guilty, as it was held that, 
" since peace reigned betweenFrance and. Siam " at the time, the death of 
Grosgurin could not be regarded as an act of war. Grosgurin' s men 
opened fire, but the Siamese, whom the French officer was conducting 
from Kham-Muon to the Mekong, were in much superior numbers, and 
could not have feared aggression on the part of the few Annamites. So 
at least it was held by the Court, though Phra Yot himself said that he left 
Kham-Muon under compulsion, and that at Kieng Chek he only acted in 
self-defence, while he had throughout been acting in obedience to the 
orders of his superiors. The judgment was given on the 13th June, 1894, 
the sentence being 20 years' imprisonment with hard labour. Little more 
than four years, however, of that sentence were actually served, Phra Yot 
being, with the consent of the French Government, unconditionally 
released in November, 1898. He died in 1900. 

The Crown Prince, who had been declared Heir Apparent in 1887, 
died on the 3rd January, 1895 ; and on the 16th of the same month H.K.H. 
Prince Chao Fa Maha Vajiravudh, then being educated in England, was 
proclaimed the heir to the throne. In the same year the ^Le gislative 
Cojinciljyj^jie^ree^ On the 9th May, 1896, 

His Majesty left on a health trip to Singapore and Java, and was absent 
for about three months. Before his departure he appointed a special 
Commission to reorganise the administration of justice in the interior. 
Having opened the railway to Ayuthia for traffic on the 25th March, 1897, 
the King left for a tour in Europe on the 6th of the following month. He 
visited Italy, Switzerland, Austria-Hungary, Kussia, Sweden, Denmark, 
Great Britain, Germany, Holland, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, and 
Egypt and was in each of those countries received by the Sovereign, or 
Chief of the State, in a most cordial manner. During the absence of His 
Majesty, which lasted till the 16th December, the Government was 
carried on under the regency of the Queen. In 1897 an addition was made 
to the list of Foreign representatives accredited to the Court, by the 
appointment of a Minister from Japan, and in 1898, Kussia also seni ;i 



Historical. 15 



Minister to join the Diplomatic Corps in Bangkok. A formal treaty was 
made between Japan and Siam in 1898, under which Japanese subjects are 
granted extra-territorial rights only until the new Siamese Codes come 
into force. In June, 1899, a declaration was exchanged with Kussia, by 
which the subjects of the one Power in the territory of the other were 
granted all the rights and privileges enjoyed by those of other nations. 

The most notable event in 1899 was the attempt to establish more 
cordial relations between France and Siam. On the return of M. Doumer, 
the Governor-General of French Indo-China, from an important and 
successful mission to Paris, an embassy was, in March, sent to Saigon to 
convey to him the congratulations of His Majesty. This embassy had a 
very cordial reception in Saigon, and in the following month M. Doumer 
returned the visit. He was in Bangkok for a week as the guest of the 
King, and from the very happy impression he made it was believed that a 
rapprochement between the two Governments had been made a matter of 
practical politics. But nothing very definite resulted. Prince Henry of 
Prussia and Prince Valdemar of Denmark also paid visits to Bangkok 
towards the end of the year. The most notable enactments passed during 
the year 1899 were a Law of Libel and the Act relating to Master and 
Servant. The survey of the railway to Chiengmai was also sanctioned, 
and was steadily proceeded with for the next seven or eight years. The 
Line to Korat was completed in 1900, and opened by the King. The 
branch line to Lopburi was opened for traffic at the commencement of 
1901. The Petchaburi line was opened by the King on the 19th July, 
1903. An agreement was come to in 1899 with Great Britain, settling 
the long-standing dispute over the boundary of the Siamese State of 
Raman in the Malay Peninsula ; and another important agreement was 
entered into with the same Power with regard to the registration of 
British subjects. The large number of foreign proteges scattered through- 
out the country had for some time given rise to a very disturbing political 
question, but practically the dangerous element in the situation was 
entirely removed by the settlement arrived at in this agreement with' 
Great Britain, and in the 1904 Treaty with France. A much greater step 
in the same direction, however, was accomplished by the 1907 Treaty with 
France, providing for the relinquishment of exterritorial jurisdiction over 
Asiatics. A large measure of reform has been effected in the abolition of 
the corvee system, labour required by Government now being paid for, and 
the annual conference of the Chief Commissioners under the Ministry of i 
the Interior has become a factor of real value in helping forward public 
improvements throughout the country. 

Since the settlement of the 1893 troubles Siam has made very con- 
siderable progress, and the King several times publicly expressed his 
sense of the importance of all his people working together for the advance- 
ment of their common country. The position of affairs is certainly not 
without interest. While the institutions and methods of the western 
Powers have been the slow growth of centuries-,, Siam has perforce to 
come into line with them now, and must . therefore to a large extent 
dispense with the training of experience. Within recent years, however, 
the growth of constitutional method s has been very marked.. One matter 



;16 Historical. 



of the highest importance to the weLfare of the country is the organisation 
of its financial administration on a proper basis, with a view to a reform 
of the system of taxation, and this has now to a large extent been carried 
out. Already, in 1898 a large number of transit dues were abolished, 
many minor reforms were effected in the system of taxation, each year a 
number of gambling houses were closed, the Customs Department was 
reorganised, and the old system of farming out taxes gradually was done 
away with. 

In the course of 1901 the King and Queen paid a lengthened visit 
to Java, and afterwards journeyed as far north as Pitsanuloke. Pawn- 
shop Eegulations, the want of which had long been felt, were passed and 
put in force, with the result that the amount of petty crime in Bangkok 
was reduced. A full statement of the country's revenue and expenditure, 
and the Financial Adviser's report on the Budget estimates of the year, 
were for the first time made public. 

Towards the close of 1901 and for the first half of 190-2 the question 
of a settlement of the disputes with France was prominently to the fore, 
but for some reason or other the negotiations in Bangkok made little 
progress. The Kajah or Governor of the little State of Patani was deposed 
in March, 1902, and an agitation against Siam's right to interfere in 
Malaya ensued in Singapore. Afterwards a curious fanatical rising took 
place along the Mekong valley chiefly in Monthon Isarn, and had to be 
forcibly suppressed, this being accomplished by the beginning of June 1 . 
On the 20th February, 1902, the King and Queen left on a visit to 
Singapore, returning on the 6th March. The Vice-Minister of the Interior 
was sent on a political mission to Europe at the end of June, and the 
British and French Representatives went on leave, to Europe, immediately 
after. The mission resulted in a new Franco-Siamese Convention signed 
at Paris on tbfe 7th October, 1902. Siam yielded a considerable piece of 
territory in the south-east corner of the Kingdom, but at the same time 
the Convention provided for the evacuation of Chantaboon, and the 
abolition of the so-called neutral zone along the eastern frontier. There 
is no reason to doubt that the Convention was meant by the two Govern- 
ments to effect a definite settlement of the questions that had been a 
'Constant source of irritation since 1893, and to establish really cordial 
relations between the countries. But the terms agreed upon were, strongly 
• objected to by the French Colonial Party, and the period for ratification 
had first to be extended from the 8th February, 1903, to the 1st March, 
and finally to the 31st December, by which time the idea of ratification 
had been abandoned. Further negotiations were conducted in Paris in 
the summer and autumn of 1903. -Phya Sri Sahadheb's mission in 1902 
also included certain negotiations with the British Foreign Office in regard 
to the Siamese dependencies in the Malay Peninsula, as a result of which 
Siam appointed Mr. W. A. Graham as adviser to the Rajah of Kelantan, 
with Mr. Thomson as his assistant. Thev left for their posts in July, 
1903. 

In the latter half of 1902 a serious Shan rising took place in the 
North. Phrae was taken by 'the insurgents, or dacoits, on the 25th July, 
and all the Siamese who could be found were mercilesslv murdered. The 



Historical. 17 



town of Nakon Lampang was attacked on the 4th August, but the 
insurgents were beaten off. Great alarm prevailed for some time, but 
troops were hurried north as speedily as possible, and resistance was then 
practically at an end, though months had to be spent in hunting down the 
remnants of the insurgent bands who do not seem to have ever had any 
•clear purpose in their rising. Captain Jensen, of the Provincial Gen- 
darmerie, was unfortunately killed in the course of the operations on the 
14th October. 

H.R.H. the Crown Prince (now the King) returned to Siam on the 
30th January, 1903, and on the 21st August, 1904, His Royal Highness 
entered the Buddhist Monastic Order for the season of Lent. The appoint- 
ment of Professor Strobel, an American expert international lawyer, as 
General Adviser, was announced in the early part of 1903. In that year, 
•too, both the United States and Japanese Ministers Resident were 
elevated to the rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 
His Majesty's completion of his fiftieth year was celebrated at Bangkok 
in the autumn of 1903. 

The Treaty signed in Paris in 1902 was never ratified, but negotia- 
tions went on, and another Treaty was signed in Paris on the 13th 
February, 1904. This was to be ratified in four months, but the period 
had to be extended till towards the end of the year. A protocol was added 
to the treaty in June, and the ratification was this time successfully accom- 
plished in time to enable Kratt to be formally handed over to the French 
on the 30th December, 1904. Siam lost Luang Prabang in the north as 
well as several provinces in the south-east, but she regained Chantaboon, 
the neutral zone was done away with, and a reasonable settlement was 
arrived at with regard to the Asiatic proteges. H.R.H. Prince Adalbert 
of Prussia arrived on a visit to the King on November 26th, and left on 
December 6th, 1904. Bubonic plague made its first recorded appearance 
in Bangkok towards the end of December, 1904. 

On the 8th January, 1905, the last detachment of the French troops 
evacuated Chantaboon, which had been occupied since 1893. One of 
•the most noteworthy events of the year »was the royal proclamation of 
February 23rd, abolishing the public gambling houses. All but 22 of 
these houses in the provinces were closed on the 31st March, 1905, and 
the remaining 22 were closed on 31st March, 1906. To meet the resulting 
loss 'of revenue the land tax was graduated and increased, the new law 
being gazetted in June, 1905. The fishery taxes were also entirely recast 
with a view to making them fairer and more productive of revenue. The 
Bangkok gambling houses will be closed when the Powers consent to an 
increase of the Customs duties. The number is meantime being steadily 
reduced. A foreign loan of £1,000,000, issued at 95J, and paying 4J per 
cent, interest, was successfully placed on the market in London and Paris 
•on the 23rd March. Treaties were concluded with Denmark and with 
Italy providing for the plan of jurisdiction to be applied to Danish and 
Italian subjects in Siam. A royal decree was issued providing for the final 
abolition of debt slavery. Other notable legal enactments that came into 
force in 1905 were the Hackney Carriage Act and the Harbour Regula- 
tions. At the end of June His Majesty visited Kelantan, Tringganu, 



18 Historical. 



and other places in the Peninsula, being everywhere enthusiastically 
received. Other events of interest in 1905 were the opening of the 
Tachin Railway on January 4th by H.R.H. the Crown Prince ; the visit 
of H.R.H. the Duke of Abruzzi from the 2nd to the 6th January, and 
the unveiling of the Queen Victoria Memorial by H.R.H. the Crown 
Prince on March 24. There were a number of cases of plague reported 
during the year. 

In 1905, loans amounting to $2,980,000 in the aggregate were made 
to the dependent States of Kelantan, Kedah, and Perlis, and European 
advisers appointed to the two latter. His Majesty opened the Siamese 
Tramway Co.'s lines (20 Km.) on the 1st October, and the section of the 
Northern Railway ending at Paknampoh on the 31st of the same month:. 
The National Library was also established in this month. The Franco- 
Siamese Boundary Commission was at work delimitating the frontier in 
1905, 1906 and 1907. 

In 1907, a foreign loan of £3,000,000 was issued on the 23rd 
January, and was subscribed several times over. It bears interest at the 
rate of 4t| per cent., and was issued at 98. The Meklong Railway was 
opened to traffic on the 12th July, the company having previously amal- 
gamated with the Tachin Railway Co. , under "the name of the Meklong 
Railway Co., Ltd. One of the most important events of the year was the 
signature at Bangkok on the 23rd March of a new treaty with France, 
framed as a final settlement of past disputes. Siam ceded the provinces 
of Battambong, Sisphon and Siemreap, but regained Dansai and Kratt,. 
and also obtained important modifications in the system of exterritoriality 
of French Asiatic subjects and proteges. The ratifications were exchanged 
in Paris on the 21st June. On the 27th March His Majesty the King 
left Bangkok for Europe for the benefit of his health. In the course of 
the tour His Majesty went as far north as the North Cape, and in visiting 
most of the countries of Europe was the guest of their rulers, being most 
cordially received at every Court he visited. Returning on the 17th 
November the King had a magnificent reception from the whole nation. 

Early in 1908 (January 15th) the General Adviser, Mr. Strobel, died, 
and in recognition of the greatness of his services to the country, the 
King attended the funeral in person. The Eastern Railway, from 
Bangkok to Petriu, and the Paknalnpoh-Pitsanulok section of the 
Northern Line were opened by His MajestT~on the 24th January. A new 
Penal Code was formally sanctioned in(l908,]and came into force on* the 
21st September. A Bankruptcy Law , alTuaXkiw dealing with habitual 
offenders were also added to the statute book/M> n the occasion of his 
birthday jIis_M ajesty ann ounce d t hat the _ policy o j jtlie Gov ernm ent would 
l^nc*>"Tort h be to discouflTge ^haaTge" ojjirumm Thelength of His Majesty's 
re^n"nadT)y this time exceeded that of any of his predecessors on the 
throne, and special celebrations took place in Ayuthia in December, 1907, 
and in Bangkok in November, 1908. An equestrian statue of the King, 
the gift of the nation, was unveiled as a memorial of the reign, and the 
whole Record Reign celebrations provided striking evidence not only of 
the happy relations subsisting between King and people, but of the fact 
that through a quickening sense of loyalty to the Throne the Siamese 



Historical. 19 



people are becoming a nation. The Gold Standard Act became law in/ 
the same month. It puts the subsidiary coinage on a decimal basis, gives 
added security to the gold basis on which the Tical has been since 1903, 
and provides for the introduction of a gold coin. 

The most important event of 1909 was perhaps the Treaty with Great 
Britain, signed on the 10th March and ratified on the 9th July. Under 
it the Protectorates in the Peninsula w T ere ceded to Britain, and the extra- 
territorial rights of British subjects underwent considerable modification. 
The provisions of the scheme sanctioned for the Bangkok water works, 
were published in. the Gazette, and the first instalment of the money 
required was made available for the execution of the works. A law was 
passed directing a census to be taken of the whole nation and instituting 
the registration of births and deaths. The' first census of the capital was 
taken in September, and registration then commenced. Further sections 
of the Northern Railway were opened, from Bandara to Sawankalok, and 
to the foot of the mountains via Utaradit. It was, however, decided to 
stop the construction of this line at Sala Meh Puak for the present. On 
the other hand, a start was made with the construction of the Southern 
Railway down the Peninsula. The King went for a trip of a few weeks in 
the Gulf, calling at various places, and in September went for a tour 
through Monthon Rajaburi. The Crown Prince paid a visit to Monthons 
Puket and Nakon Sritamarat. 

In 1910 the Court received a visit from H.H. Duke Johann Albrecht 
of Mecklenburg, Regent of Brunswick, and his bride, the Duchess- 
Consort Princess Elizabeth zu Stolberg-Rossla, who arrived on the 26th 
January and left on the 9th February. In the course of his stay the 
Duke witnessed Army manoeuvres, which General de Beylie also attended 
on behalf of the French Army in Indo-China. In February the restora- 
tio n of W at_A roon was completed, and the dedication took place~with 
great ceremony. The growt h of the populatioii_ in— ihe North wa's 
signalised by the creation of two new muangs in Monthon Bayap. Sani- 
tary Boards have now been established in a number of towns in the 
provinces. During the year progress was made in the operations in 
connection with the water supply for Bangkok. The law on Navigation 
was extended to the provinces, giving the authorities a very necessary 
supervision of the steam-launch and motor-boat passenger and towing 
traffic. Good progress was made on the Southern Railway, and it was 
officially announced that probably there would be no great delay in con- 
tinuing the extension of the line to the North. The law of military /^ /0 
co nscription v ^sjm t in force in_t he province of Bangkok . 

The event that will make 1910 memorable, however, was the close of 
the Record. Reign, the longest and most illustrious in the history of the 
country. King Chulalongkorn died on the 23rd October, and the same 
day the Crown Prince was proclaimed King. His Majesty's style and 
title is Somdetch .Phra Paramendr Maha Vajiravudh, Phra Mongkut 
Klao, King of*Siam. Grief was universal throughout the country, and 
16th November was observed as a day of National Mourning. The Cere- 
mony of Accession had previously taken place on the 11th November, 



20 Historical. 



In 1911 the cremation of the late King took place on the 16th March. 
The Queen Mother went for a health trip after the cremation, visiting 
Saigon, Hongkong and Hanoi. His Majesty this year established the 
" Wild Tiger " Corps, and the movement has been taken up all over the 
country. A boy scout movement was also initiated. In June a Royal 
Decree was issued remitting old arrears of taxes on fruit gardens and 
ordering a new assessment of the same for amended taxation. An 
extradition treaty with Great Britain came into force, and a Naturalization 
Law was passed. Two pioneer missionaries passed away this year in tin 
persons of Dr. Jonathan Wilson and Dr. Daniel McGilvary. 

The great event of the end of the year was the Coronation. It was 
carried out on a scale of great magnificence, and brought together a 
bigger gathering of Royal representatives than had ever before met in 
Asia . 

* In the course of the year 191:2 the King made the Privy Purse property 
subject to the same taxation as the property of a subject. A Royal Com- 
mission, consisting of Mom Chao Phrom, Phya Rasdakorn Kosol, Mr. Jens 
I. Westengard, Mr. W. J. F. Williamson, and Mr. W. A. Graham, was 
appointed to inquire into the financial state of the country, and an inquiry 
was also undertaken with regard to the incidence of the inland transit 
dues. A new Ministry of Arts and Industries was created ; the P. W. D. 
was attached to the Ministry of Local Government, and the remaining 
departments of the old Ministry of Public Works were, with the Royal 
Irrigation Department, grouped under a new Ministry of Ways and 
Communications. The Prince of Rajburi was appointed Minister of 
Agriculture ; Chao Phya Wongsa, Minister of W T ays and Communications ; 
and Prince Naresr, Minister of Arts and Industries. The Queen Mother 
made a tour to the North-east as far as Pimai ; and later in the year in the 
Peninsula, going as far as Trang. Good progress was made on the 
Southern Railway, and the decision was announced to continue the con- 
struction of the Northern Line to Chiengmai. Steady progress was made 
with the Bangkok waterworks. A new survey was made of the bar of 
the Bangkok river. 

In the course of the year Bangkok was visited by the Selandia, the 
first ocean-going motor vessel. x\nother useful departure was the adoption 
of the metric system. Some alarm was excited at the prospect of a 
general scarcity owing to a succession of bad seasons and the lateness of 
the rains, but in September there was a prospect of a good crop. 

The year is likely to be remembered by the discovery of a plot against 
the Throne. Ninety-one persons were found guilty by the Court Martial 
which investigated the case, but only twenty-three were punished. The 
unrest appeared to have been largely due to the successful revolution 
in China. 



Historical. 20a 



1913. 



The year 1913 has proved an eventful one in many ways 
Among important acts of legislation sanctioned by His Majesty 
was the introduction of a measure establishing a Government 
Savings Bank under the title and style of Klang Orm Sin. 
Another measure to receive the Royal approval was the 
Morphine and Cocaine Act, which comes into force on the 1st 
January H14. Tin's enactment it is hoped will tend to restrict 
the sale of these drugs. The amendment of the Law of Navigation 
in Siamese Waters is also anticipated to have far reaching 
effects. Perhaps the most importa it of all legislation was the/ 
amendment of the Military Service Law, by which all men! 
between certain ages will bt liable for service as and from the) 
next conscription season. ' 

The notable events of the year include the opening of 
further sections of the Southern line ; and the announcement 
from the Federal Council of the F.M.S. of a further loan to this 
country, for purposes of railway building in Siamese Malaya. 
The opening of the only asylum in the country for those suffer- 
ing from leprosy, at Chiengmai, and the support given to this 
institution by Government must be included among the import- 
ant happenings of the year. After many years the question of 
irrigation of the Lower Menam Valley has been taken up 
seriously, and as a result of negotiations between the Siamese 
Administration and the Government of India, experts in irriga- 
tion work have been loaned.. far a. thorough reconsideration of 
the proposal to irrigate the Valley of the Menam. 

The close of the year was unfortunately marked by a 
financial crisis, caused principally the failure of the Chino-Siam 
Bank. Contributing canses to the uneasiness in the bazaar were 
the arrest of Nai Chalong Kayauart on a charge of embezzle- 
ment of Tcs. 1,880. 000. Two of the compradores of the foreign 
Exchange banks decamped, and this disaster coining after a 
series of lean years, has damped the prospects of a good rice 
export season. The estimates of the crop incline to the view 
that the barometer of export is again on the rise, and the res- 
trictions of trade, consequent on the banks restricting credit, is 
therefore the more to he deplored. During the year the foreign 
commercial community have formed an assocaction for the 
furtherance of their mutal interests under the title of the Bang- 



20b Historical. 



kok International Chamber of Commerce. Such a Chamber 
should be able to play as useful a part here as elsewhere. 

The deaths of the year include the following members of 
the Royal Family, Prince Bidyalabh, Prince Dilock, the 
Princess Blmwadi, and members of the Waugna family. Of 
officials who have died during rhe year may be mentioned Chao 
Phya Vichitr Wongsa Woodikrai, Chao Phya Bhanuwongse, 
and Phya Rasada Nupradit. 

The last days of 1913 witnessed the initial flights of 
Siam's first Military Aviation Corps. 

Slam's relations with foreign Powers continue as before. 
The y<ar witnesed the signing and ratification of a treaty be- 
r. wee ii Denmark and Siain, long foreshadowed, under which 
the Danes forego their ex-territorial rights in exchange for 
facilities for owning and working lands in Siam. 



Holidays and Festivals. 21 



Ifolibaps anir Jftstibuls. 



THE THIB G'HING CHA (SWINGING) HOLIDAYS 
• CALLED ALSO LO CHING CHA. 

These occur invariably during the "2nd Siamese lunation, on the 
7th and 9th of the waxing, but this, of course, is according to the old 
Luni-solar Calendar, which has now been done away with in all official 
business, and thus according to the solar Calendar the dates of these 
are variable. Ching Cha is a swing; Loh means to pull, and Thib 
is to push (with the foot). The official name of this festival is Phithi 
Tri yamphawai. On each of the days fixed a large procession is made, 
formerly for the Minister of Agriculture, now for the Phya who has 
received the golden bowl, a high insignia of rank, during the year, and 
he is carried in great pomp to the place called Sau C'Hing Cha (Swing 
Pillars). A temporary pavilion, carpeted with white muslin and taste- 
fully curtained, having been prepared for him, he enters it, and sits on a 
bamboo railing with one foot placed on his knee, the other on the ground, 
attended by four Brahmin priests, two on his right hand and two on his 
left, until three games of the swinging have ended, which occupies 
usually two hours. If he ventures to touch the floor with his raised foot 
before the games are ended, the Brahmins were formerly allowed to strip 
him of his property and otherwise plunder him. The swingers are 
dressed in white, with tall conical hats, and their object is to reach a pole 
fixed in the direction of the Palace, to which a bag of ticals is tied. This 
they must secure with their teeth as they swing. The first set of 
swingers who succeed get twelve ticals among them, the second eight, 
and the third four. When the games are over, the swingers (members of 
the body of Brahmins charged with the performance of religious rites 
connected with official ceremonies) dip up with bullock's horns water 
consecrated by Brahmanic formula?, and sprinkle it all about them. This 
is a Brahmanic mode of calling down blessings upon the people of the 
land. The ceremonies of the first day being finished, the Minister is 
escorted home by a procession like the one that brought him. This is 
all done in the forenoon of the first day, and repeated in the afternoon 
of the second day of the festival. H.M. the King does not usually grace 
the spectacle with his presence, but both of them are attended by many 
of the Princes and officers of the Government, and by crowds of the 
people. The procession on each of these days is quite imposing, and the 
numerous articles borne by those in the pageant indicate that the cere- 
mony has to do with the harvest season, and is a mode of thanksgiving for 
the crops of paddy that are being garnered for the season. 

. THE TROOT CHEEN HOLIDAYS. 
(Vulgarly Pronounced Kroot.) 
These occur invariably on the 15th of the waning of the third luna- 
tion, and the first and the second of the waxing of the succeeding Siamese 



22 Holidays and Festival* 



lunation, which corresponds with the last day of the waning of the 12th 

and the first and second of the waxing of the first Chinese lunation. 
The first day of the Chinese first lunation is the true New Year's day of 
the Chinese. The three days indicated above are universally observed 
by the Chinese as their New Year holidays. Nearly all their ordinary 
business stops during those three days, and it requires at least three days 
more for them to recover from their dissipations. As the Siamese are 
intimately connected with them, the disarrangement of business extends 
throughout all their affairs also. During these days gambling is allowed 
everywhere, and groups of friends assemble for feasting, sports, amuse- 
ment and recreation, the Gambling Farmer having no power to interfere 
during the period. (The kinds of gambling allowed, however, are now 
very greatly restricted.) 

THE SEASON FOR A T ISITING PHRA BAT. 

This occurs invariably during the bright moonlight nights of the 
latter part of the waxing, and early part of the waning of the third Siamese 
lunation. The Phra Bat, or "Holy Foot-Print," is about 100 miles 
N.N.E. of Bangkok, where tradition affirms Buddha once placed his 
foot on a rock, and left there a clear imprint of it, even to all the peculiar 
and characteristic marks on the sole, to be a permanent testimony to all 
his followers that he did indeed once live on earth and visited Siam, and 
was what their sacred books declare him to be, the All-knowing Teacher. 
This is a species of pilgrimage to the noted places of veneration which 
Siamese Buddhists like very much to make. The season is admirable for 
travelling inland among rippling streams and gorgeous scenery. At this 
season many visit Phra Chai, where it is believed that Buddha left his 
shadow on the face of a rock. The pilgrimage to Phra Bat is called 
Kan pai Namatsakon Pioi Phra Phuttha Bat, i.e., ' : Pilgrimage to worship 
Buddha's sacred foot-print." Bat is derived from the Pali pada — foot. 

THE TROOT (VULGO KROOT) THAI HOLIDAYS. 

These fall invariably on the 14th and 15th of the waning of the fourth 
•and the first of the waxing of the fifth Siamese lunation, which marks 
the beginning of the Siamese luni-solar year. To the populace these are 
the Siamese New Year holidays, when almost all the Siamese, Laos, 
Cambodians, Peguans, and Burmans engage in performing extraordinary 
works of merit. Nearly every family makes peculiar cake appropriate to 
the season. Fruits of all kinds then in the market are procured and 
presented to the priests. On these days, but more especially on the 
second, the temple doors are thrown open, and the people, more particu- 
larly the women and children, enter attired in their best clothing and 
bow down before the Buddha, making offerings of flowers, etc. Many of 
the affluent families have on each of these days special recitations and 
preaching by the priests at their houses, where they feast them, and 
make offerings of yellow robes and other necessary articles. 



Holidays and Festivals. 23 



The religious services are usually completed by the end of the 
second day ; the third is almost universally devoted to games of chance. 
Men, women and children all join in them as the laws of the land give \ 
them full license to gamble on such occasions, though now the number 
of games allowed is limited. 

The Court keeps these holidays with much ceremony, and with 
extraordinary religious services, and companies of priests are stationed 
on the top of the city walls in regular order surrounding the whole city, 
to perform exorcisms in concert. On the night of the second day, the 
15th of the Siamese moon, guns large and small, are fired from the top 
of the wall from all points of the compass, at intervals of about twenty 
minutes throughout the night. Each gun, it is said, is fired 36 times. 
This is done for the purpose of expelling the evil spirits from the precincts 
of the city, and thus preparing the way for health and happiness to all 
within the city walls. But as the people living outside desire to partici- 
pate in such blessings, many of them join in" the tiring, so that guns may 
be heard from many parts of the suburbs all the night. 

THE CEREMONY OF T'.U NAM. 

Literally, Tu Nam means " to observe (or to be true to) the water 
(of allegiance)." More formally it is called Tu Nam Phra Phiphat 
Saccha (or Sattaya). Phiphat is from the Pali ricaddhanam, prosperity, 
increase ; Saccha from the Pali — truth, and also solemn pledge ; thence 
Nam Phipat Saccha means water promoting the increase of loyalty. The 
ceremony of drinking the water of allegiance is officially styled Kan 
Phra Racha Phithee Sri Saccha Pana Kan. It occurs twice each year — 
the first time on the 3rd of the waxing of the 5th Siamese lunation, and 
the second time on the 13th of the waning of the 10th Siamese lunation. 
These are the days established from time immemorial for all Siamese 
Princes, nobles, and people to take their semi-annual oath of allegiance 
to the King. At that time they assemble at the Royal Palace, to drink 
and sprinkle their foreheads with water in which swords, daggers, spears, 
guns and other weapons with which the King executes vengeance upon 
those who rebel against him have been dipped, and thus they invoke the 
Royal vengeance by these instruments upon themselves and their 
families if they shall be found unfaithful to His Majesty. The priests 
are excused from this service by virtue of the sanctity of their office, but 
the chief priests of the icats in and about the city perform appropriate 
religious services at the temple attached to the Royal Palace in con- 
nection with the ceremony. 

The Governors and people of distant provinces renew their oath of 
allegiance on another day, subsequent to the days mentioned. Portions 
of the same "water of allegiance" are sent to the residences of the 
Governors who then require all persons of standing and influence within 
their jurisdiction to assemble and perform the ceremony. 

Semi-annual payments of the Beea-Wat or " yearly allowance 
money " are made immediately after the oath has been administered and 
the water pledging allegiance and loyalty has been drunk. 



24 Holidays and Festivals. 



THE SONGKRAN HOLIDAYS. 

These are four successive days occurring generally soon after the- 
official New Year, but sometimes a little before. Songkran marks the 
beginning of the old Siamese Solar year just as the T'root Thai indicates, 
the beginning, of the Luni-solar year. It is observed at the time when 
the sun passes from the zodiacal sign Rasee Min (Pisces) over into the 
sign Rasee Met (Aries). The Pali Mesa is Aries, Mina is Pisces. Rasee, 
in Pali, means a sign of the zodiac, or, more correctly, one of the twelve 
sectors of the zodiac. 

Songkran is the name of an angel who is said to rise with the sun 
on the morning when it enters the sign Aries. Songkran day or, as it 
is called, Wan Maha Songkran, is the great occasion of the ceremonial 
sprinkling of all images of Buddha with pare water, and showing- 
reverence of the aged (Kan Song Murathah phisek). 

When the Brahman astrologers have fixed the day they inform the 
King, the calculations being usually made in season to be publicly 
announced on the first day of the great congregation to renew the oath 
of allegiance. At that time the King issues a proclamation that the 
" Phithee song nam Murathah phisek " will be observed at the Royal 
Palace on such and such a day. He also invites the priests generally to 
assemble at his palace on that day for a Royal festival. 

The laity generally have special religious services, feast the priests 
and one another, and play at their games of chance much as on. their 
Kroot holidays. The women draw water and bathe the image of Buddha, 
the priests, the elders of the people, and their grandparents and other 
aged relatives, their object being to call down blessings upon those for 
whose benefit they profess to perform them ; but more especially upon 
themselves and their families by way of recompense. In practice this 
ceremonial "bathing" of priests and old people consists in presenting 
them with bottles of perfumery and handkerchiefs, and other gifts. 

THE BIRTH, INSPIRATION, AND DEATH OF BUDDHA. 

This is called Kan Wisakha Bucha , namely, a puja (festival of 
offerings) in the time that the moon enters the nakshatra (asterism or 
lunar mansion) called Wisakha, in honour of Buddha, because he was 
born and attained Buddhaship and Nirvana under that asterism. It is 
the occasion of ceremonies which are kept up three successive days,, 
beginning on the day before the full moon of the sixth Siamese lunation. 
The real day of observance is invariably the 15th of the waxing, or 
ftil l-i noon day of the 6th Siamese lunation. These three days are to 
celebrate three great events in the existence of Buddha on earth, which 
all took place on the same day of the month, viz., the 15th day of the 
6th waxing moon. Those events are his birth, his most wonderful 
inspiration to see and know all things with perfect clearness, and his 
death, after 80 years of life on earth. These anniversary days roe 
observed by the Siamese with great veneration. On the second day they 
are especially alert in performing works of merit, such as giving alms to 
the poor, making offerings to the priests, and to Buddha, and in hearing 



Holidays and Festivals. 25 



prayers and preaching. In the evening of that day they usually have 
much display of lighted candles, lanterns, torches, etc. 

EEK-NAH HOLIDAYS. 

This marks the beginning of rice planting — lit. "to begin the 
working of the paddy fields." The best translation that can be given, and 
that which is most in harmony with Brahmanic custom is, Ploughing 
Festival." The official name of the festival is Phra Racha Phithee Charot 
Plira Nang Khal. Charot is a Siamese derivative of cKot, meaning " to 
reach," "to incide " ; Nanghal — a plough, is a Pali word. Hence it 
means " making the plough reach or incide the ground " ; or " making" 
the ploughshare enter the ground." The Brahman astrologers seem 
unable to determine long beforehand exactly on what day the sign will 
be the most favourable for the ceremonies of the occasion. It usually 
falls one day in the early part of the sixth month, corresponding to the 
first half of May. 

The Minister of Agriculture, according to ancient custom, is vested 
with full power to act in the King's stead, and to be the King's proxy 
to hold the plough, break up the ground, and sow the first rice of the 
year. The old custom was that the people, wherever he went on that 
day, had to recognize him as sovereign, by paying the taxes on their 
shops and market stalls. Formerly in case a shop-keeper was found 
exposing his goods for sale he rendered himself liable to suffer confisca- 
tion of part of the property thus exposed, by the followers of the 
temporary King, who collected such taxes in a somewhat exorbitant 
manner. Consequently it was generally somewhat difficult to make 
purchases in the market on that day. Now, however, this custom is no 
longer in force. 

The Minister is escorted by a public procession to the field where 
the first " breaking of ground " is to take place. The spot selected was, 
for many years, a patch of land adjoining the Rifle Butts at Sa-Prathoom, 
but for several years now the ceremony has taken place near Dusit Park, 
and is sometimes witnessed by the King. A shed having been there 
prepared for the ceremony, the Minister enters it, attended by a company 
of Brahman priests. These then perform a variety of symbolical rites 
over a pair of oxen to prepare them for the plough. They are decorated 
with flowers and fastened to the plough, which is likewise adorned. The 
Minister then holds the plough, while the oxen draw it over the field for 
about an hour. Then four elderly ladies of the King's household take 
consecrated paddy, and sow it over the plot ploughed, where it is left 
uncovered. The various kinds of grain important in the sustenance of 
the people are so exposed that the oxen may eat them when liberated 
for the purpose. Of whatever kind they eat most it is thought there will 
be a scarcity in the course of the year ; and that of which they eat little 
or none will be abundant. 

There is still another way by which they prognosticate the next 
harvest. It is by observing the panting or robe of the Minister, which he 
puts on as he goes out of the pavilion to hold the plough, and which is-. 



■26 Holidays and Festivals. 



so adjusted that it is liable to hitch up too high or hang too low. If, 
while he is holding the plough his panting hangs low down, near the 
ankle, it is an indication that the rain in the course of the year will be 
scarce and the water so low that it can be waded through without pulling 
up the panung at all. But on the other hand, if it is drawn up near his 
knees, it denotes that there will be much rain, and the country inun- 
dated. Both these conditions are looked upon as extremes, and 
threatening the ruin of the rice crop. The panung abiding midway 
between the ankles and the knees, is regarded as the most propitious of 
all conditions. 

THE KHAO WASAH. AND OK WASAH HOLIDAYS. 

These are usually called Khao Phra : Wasah. Varsha, in Sanskrit 
means year, rain. It is the Pali vassa, meaning "rainy season," the 
•.period of Buddhist Lent or confinement. It starts on the waning of the 
eighth month and continues till the 12th month. These are months of 
special fasting, penance, and self mortification for the priests in the 
monasteries. There are no special rules that everyone must abide by ; 
but all are self imposed, except that the priests must never let the dawn 
.find them outside the temple enclosure. Some spend the night in 
cemeteries thinking on death; others sit up all night under a tree, or in 
a cave, or some quiet place, denying themselves the proper attitude of 
repose. Others eat but once in twenty-four hours and then only such 
food as is placed in their large iron bowls ; outside dishes and dainties 
must all be avoided. But if they grow tired of these voluntary observances 
before the end of the three months they can give them up whenever they 
choose, only they forfeit the merit they might have gained by being 
faithful to the end. 

At the close of these holidays the whole nation is intent on feasting 
the priests, and for every morsel of food thus prepared and given to them 
pious people expect to receive and enjoy a hundred-fold of heavenly 
entertainment in the world to' come or in the " chant nah " the next 
"birth, as the Buddhists teach. 

The Khao Wasah holidays mark the commencement of this period 
of Lent, and the Ok-Wasah holidays its termination. 

During 1 " Wasah" all .in authority or in Government wages service 
must renew their oath of allegiance to the King. 

THE LOY KBATHONG HOLIDAYS. 

In the latter part of the year comes the first series of ' ' Loy 
Krathong." The official name is Karn Loy Phra Prathip. Krathong is 
a little basket made of fresh plantain leaves, to contain offerings for 
devas, spirits, etc. (viz., flowers, incense sticks, rice, tapers, etc.) 
Phrathip, Pali Padipo, means a lamp or taper. Loi means "to send 
adrift," or "to float." The amusements of these' holidays consist in 
setting afloat fireworks and offerings to the water spirits. In Bangkok — 
in the vicinity of the Palace especially — night is turned into day by the 
multitudinous lights flashing everywhere and reflected from the water. 



Holidays and Festivals. 27 



The river seems alive with floating 1 palaces, miniature ships, floats, and 
rafts, all brilliantly lighted, and riding' the waves, bearing the offerings 
of betel and tobacco, rice, sugar and sweetmeats to the "Water Goddess" 
for her gracious care of them through the past year, and as a thank- 
offering and propitiatory sacrifice, because they have bathed in her flood, 
drunk of her sweet water, and rowed their boats over her bosom. Several 
royal craft, resembling illuminated dragons, are floated down the river on 
•one side, and then slowly towed up the other. Lotus lilies with burning 
tapers are a favourite offering, or little rafts made of the plantain tree, 
and gaily decked with flowers, flags and tapers. People are on the river 
in boats by thousands, and in all the provinces and down by the sea even, 
the natives are setting off their fire-gifts upon the waves. 

THE THOT KATHIN HOLIDAYS. 

Kraihin or Kathin, Pali Kathina, means " severe," " difficult," and 
is applied to a robe made from raw cotton for a Buddhist priest in course 
of a single day and night, according to a patchwork pattern styled also 
the Kathina pattern. This is a difficult and at the same a highly meri- 
torious task, hence the name of Kathina given to it and to the robe, its 
result. 

The Thot means " to lay down." The whole means " to lay down 
robes made in the Kathina style," as alms to the priests. The term That 
is applied to the laying down of the robes by the King, or princes, on a 
table, or floor, for the priests to take them. The robes are called Phra 
Kathin. The ceremony is officially styled Thot Phra Kathin. 

The " Thot Kathin " holidays last for one whole month. They are 
celebrated by processions on land and water. Those by water are specially 
magnificent. The gaily dressed people, in beautiful boats, go on all the 
rivers and canals to offer their gifts at the temples, and when the religious 
ceremonial is over, they spend the rest of the day and night boat -racing. 
Even the King and the Court have sometimes gone to Paknam to witness 
the annual races there. From midnight till dawn Buddhist priests are 
gathered at the Paknam Prachadee, reciting and chanting. By daylight 
surging crowds in boats press up to the island to prostrate themselves 
before the priests and the images, and afterwards watch the races or take 
part in the exhilarating exercise. The special aim of all racers seems to 
be to run down and upset other boats, thus throwing the gaily-dressed 
crew into the water while the boats and paddles float away amid the 
shouts of the spectators. The Siamese are such good swimmers that 
seldom is anyone drowned in the rivers. It is interesting to read the 
following old account of these ancient holiday customs : — 

All the temples in Bangkok and its suburbs which have been made 
by or dedicated to the King, expect a splendid visit from him annually, 
between the middle of the eleventh and the twelfth moons. This is the 
season appointed by the most ancient and sacred custom for the priests 
to seek their apparel for the year ensuing". In conformity with this 
custom, the King, taking a princely offering of priests' robes with him, 
visits these temples. 



28 Holidays and Festivals. 



The ceremony is called Thot Kathin, which means to lay down the 
robes sewn up in patches according to a given pattern, for the priests to 
take them. The pattern is the Kathin, which, in ancient times, the 
priests of Buddha used in cutting their cloth into patches, to be sewed 
together to make the outer and inner robes. The cloth was cut with a 
knife because it would be wicked to tear it. In olden time, in Buddha's 
day, the custom was for the priests to go out themselves to seek old 
cast-off clothing, and the best of these they would patch together to form 
the three kinds of priestly robes required. This was one conspicuous mode 
of self -mortification. But that mendicant custom has gradually given 
place to the present one of making the garments from new cloth, dyed 
yellow, prepared by the princely donations of thousands of the affluent 
and the more humble contributions of the multitude of the poor. They 
begin to make preparations for this season months before the time, until 
in Bangkok alone there are many thousands of priests' suits in readiness 
by the middle of October for distribution at the temples. The cloth is 
dyed yellow for the purpose, as tradition says, of imitating somewhat the 
costume of Buddha and his early followers, who preferred a dingy yellow- 
colour for their robes, for the express purpose of making themselves 
odious in the eyes of the world, that there might be no door of temptation 
left open to them to be conformed to the world. In those days it was the 
custom for robbers and murderers in Hindustan, where Buddhism began 
its course, to wear red and yellow clothing, an appropriate badge of their 
profession. The better class of the world regarded them with horror, and 
fled from them. Now, Gautama Buddha, when a prince, had a host of 
ardent friends who urged him not to abdicate his throne. But he was 
full set on doing so, and this was the mode he took to cut himself off 
from their sympathy. By assuming the robber's garb, he would rid 
himself of such ruinous tempters, and yet secure another class of 
admirers who would delight to walk with him in the road to Niphan, to 
which his whole heart and soul was devoted. 

Although there are so many hundreds of Buddhist temples in Siam, 
none are omitted from this annual visitation. The Royal temples are 
visited by the King, or by some prince or nobleman of high rank, who 
goes in the King's name. Outside the capital these Royal temples are as, 
a rule visited by deputies of His Majesty, bearing priests' robes, and 
other things provided by the King. 

When His Majesty goes in person, he does so with great pomp and 
splendour, whether by land or water. If by water the finest state barges 
are used. There are some ten or more of these splendid boats, each 
with some august name attached to distinguish it from the others. These 
barges are called " Ruaphratheenang ," or Royal throne boats. Only one 
appears in the Royal procession at a time. They are from one hundred 
and fifty to one hundred and eighty feet in length, and from six to eight 
feet wide. They gradually become narrower fore and aft, and taper 
upwards. Hanging from the stem and stern are two large white tassels 
made of the hair of the Cashmere goat, and between them floats a golden 
banner. A little abaft of midships there is a splendid canopy, about 



Holidays and Festivals. 29 



twelve feet long, having the ridge curving downward at each end, and 
covered with cloth of gold, the sides being tastefully hung with curtains 
of the same costly material. Within is a throne, suited to this little 
floating palace. The bows of the barges which convey the priestly robes 
and other gifts, are formed into heads of hideous dragons or imaginary 
sea monsters, with glaring eyes and horrid teeth and horns. The whole 
boat is richly carved and gilded to represent scales which are often inlaid 
with pearl and other precious things, while the stern forms an immense 
tail, curving upwards to the height of twelve or fifteen feet. It is in 
tins kind of barge that the King always rides. When he would appear in 
his greatest glory, he is seen seated on this his floating throne, wearing 
a gold-embroidered coat and golden shoes. He has generally the Crown 
Prince with him, and sometimes other Royal children follow him in a 
barge of second rank, being all beautifully attired. We must not forget 
to mention the huge jew r elled fan, and the Royal umbrella, white and 
yellow, which have their appropriate places in the dragon barge, and 
help to distinguish it from the rest in the imposing pageant. The dragon 
barges are propelled by sixty or seventy paddlers who have been trained 
daily for a full month for the express service. They have been taught 
to paddle in unison, all striking the water at the same moment, and all 
raising' the blades of their paddles above their heads to an equal height. 
These Royal boatmen, by their public training on the river, become a 
pattern for all others in the procession. 

Preceding the King's personal barge there are usually from forty 
to sixty guard-boats, over one hundred feet long and from five to six feet 
wide, going in pairs. They are modelled after the King's own boat, 
smaller, and the canopy is made of whitish leaves, resembling the palm 
leaf, sewed together, and ornamented with crimson cloth, bordered with 
yellow. Under the bow and stern of these boats flaunt a pair of long 
grey tassels, made of the fibres of pine-apple leaves, and between each 
pair of these hangs a small golden banner. They have fifty or more 
pa'ddlers, and two men in each boat beat time with a long pole decorated 
with white tassels, which they lift and strike down endwise on the boat. 

In the rear of the King's barge come princes, nobles, officers, and 
multitudes of still lower grades, who all follow the King to the temples 
in boats of various fashions, down to the simple one-oared skiff, with its 
single half -naked occupant. Each prince and nobleman sits proudly 
under his own canopy attired in his best court robes, having duly 
arranged about him a gold or silver waterpot, and tea pot and betel and 
cigar boxes, all of which have been given him by the King as an insignia 
of his rank and office. 

The boatmen have various coloured liveries. Those of the King's 
dragon barge and its mates usualfy wear red jackets and caps. On the 
guard boats we see many colours ; some have red jackets and leather caps 
iof ancient style ; in others the men have only short pants and narrow 
fillets of palm leaf about their heads. Brass bands follow in the pro- 
cession, and companies , of native men-of- war's men close up the moving 
panorama. 



30 Holidays and Festivals. 



The floating and other houses along the line of the King's advance 
have each prepared a little table or altar, upon which they display the 
choicest fruits and flowers, wax candles, pictures, and other ornaments 
as marks of respect to their sovereign. The native and foreign shipping 
display all their colours. The small craft on the river and canals- where 
he is to come clear out for the time to make wide and open passage for 
him. Formerly none were allowed to watch this Royal procession, except 
from behind closed doors or windows, but now all such restrictions are 
withdrawn, and the people enjoy the sight of their beloved King, and 
take part in the general rejoicings. 

The phakatin, or priests' garments, being neatly folded and put in 
bundles' of a suit each, are borne with the King in the Royal throne 
barge. When he arrives at the landing of a temple, he remains seated 
until several suits of the yellow robes have been carried up to the door 
and put in care of an official, to await the approach of His Majesty, 
and until other officers of state and a company of infantry, together with 
the musicians, have had time to leave their boats and place themselves 
in position for receiving him. The hand-rails of the steps which the King 
ascends are wound with white cotton cloth, and the flagged path from the 
landing to the temple is covered with grass matting: exclusively for him 
to walk upon. When the King is in the act of ascending the steps of the 
landing, " Old Siam " blows her pipes and conch shells, and beats her 
drums, the military form in double line and present arms, and the brass 
band plays the National Anthem. 

Having reached the door of the bote, the King takes one suit of 
the priests' robes, and bearing it in both hands, walks in, and lays it on 
a table prepared for that purpose. On this table are five golden vases. 
of flowers, tastefully arranged in the form of bouquets, five golden 
dishes of parched rice, five golden candlesticks with their candles, and. 
five incense-sticks. His Majesty first lights the candles and incense- 
sticks. He then worships before the sacred shrine of Buddha, the sacred! 
books, and the assembled priests. He next makes a request of the chief 
priest to renew his covenant to observe the five rules of the Buddhist 
religion. These are : First, that he will not take the life of any man or; 
other sentient -creature ; second, that he will. not oppress any man ; third, 
that he will not take to wife any woman belonging to another, while there 
is the least unwillingness on the part of the woman, or of her parents, <>r 
guardians to the transaction; fourth, that he will not lie, nor deal falsely 
with mankind nor use abusive language ; fifth, that he will not use intoxi- 
cating liquors as a beverage. When the King visits the temple, if it 
happen to be on one of their four sacred days, then custom makes it 
necessary for him to promise to observe three other rules in addition to 
the above five, viz. : First, that he will not partake of any food from, after 
midday on any sacred day until the next morning after light has 
appeared ; second, that he will not on sacred days indulge in any theatrical 
or musical performances nor in any way allow or cause his person to be 
perfumed ; third, that he will not on such days sleep on a bed that is more 
than ten and a half inches high, nor use any mattress, and he will deny 
himself as becometh a devout Buddhist. If the King is conscious of having 



Holidays and Festivals. 31 



transgressed any of these rules. since he last renewed his obligation, he is 
supposed to confess his sins mentally before Buddha and to promise 
solemnly that he will earnestly endeavour to avoid such sins in the future. 

His Majesty, haviDg renewed his obligation, then proceeds to make 
a formal presentation of his offering to the priests of the temple ; where- 
upon they respond in the Pali tongue, sadhu, s.adhn (well ! well !). The 
chief priest then addresses the fraternity as follows : " This Phakatin 
has been given to us by his most Illustrious Majesty the King, who, being 
endued with exceeding great goodness and righteousness, has conde- 
scended to come hither himself, and present these garments to us, a 
company of Buddhist priests, without designating any particular person 
by whom they shall be worn." They then distribute the gifts among 
themselves, after which they bow down and worship Buddha, reciting a 
few Pali sentences. This distribution of garments is not alwavs done in 
the presence of the King, but sometimes after he has. left the temple. 
The late King Maha Mongkut made an innovation on this old custom, by 
bringing! with him extra suits of yellow robes, and giving them to certain 
priests who had distinguished themselves as Pali scholars. It is also 
usual to make a few other gifts to the priests of such things as they are 
apt to need, as bedding, boats, and table furniture; but these arc not 
considered any part of the real " kathin." 

As the King is about to leave the temple, the priests pronounce a 
Pali blessing upon him, and he again worships Buddha, the sacred books, 
and priests. Then rising, he walks out of the " bote " and descends to 
the Koyal barge, with the same ceremonies as when he ascended. He 
visits several temples during each day and spends some time in each one. 
The value of each priest's suit which the King offers is supposed to be 
about $10, and the aggregate value of the offerings he makes on these 
successive days is probably not less than $10,000. 



THE SADH FESTIVAL. 

This festival is the occasion of merit making at the half-year. It 
originated in a Brahmin festival in honour of Siva, but when Buddhism 
prevailed the gifts were given to Buddhist monks instead of to Brahmins. 
Chinese and Hindoos keep the same festival, but in different ways. It 
falls at the end of the 10th month and beginnin<> of the eleventh. 



32 Recent Enactments. 



%tm\t dfrimctments 



SIAM PENSION ACT. 



(Translation.) 

Whereas it has appeared to His Most Gracious Majesty that not- 
withstanding that in consideration of the increase in work in connection 
with affairs of State, monthly salaries have been granted to Government 
servants in lieu of and more substantial than the remuneration in the 
shape of annual Biawat salaries formerly given, Government officials 
in general are, on account of the greater demands made upon their time 
for Government duty, still unable to find sufficient means to provide for 
their support in old age or in case of infirmity. 

And whereas it has seemed gtiod to His Most Gracious Majesty that 
certain provision should be made for Government servants who deserve 
well of the State, but who may no longer be able by reason of age or 
infirmity to perform their duty. 

It is therefore hereby decreed that an act for regulating the amount 
of Pension or Gratuity to be awarded to Government servants who shall 
have become incapacitated for further service to the State be enacted 
as follows : — 

1. This Act shall be called >l The Pension Act, R. S. 120." 

2. It shall come into force from the date hereof. 

3. Government servants entitled to qualify for Pension or Gratuity 
under this Act, shall include only those who have been granted official 
rank under Eoyal Warrant and who are actually holding salaried Govern- 
ment appointments : 

Provided that the provisions of this Act may hereafter, at the dis- 
cretion of the Sovereign, be extended, by proclamation, so as to include 
•other classes of Government Servants. 

4. In the following cases no claim to Pension or Gratuity under this 
Act is admissible, namely ; 

When p person is appointed for a specified duty or for a limited 
time only ~, 

When an official's whole time is not retained for the public service, 
as in the case of Government Law Officers and Medical Officers not 
debarred from private practice ; 

When an official serves under an agreement with the Government 
which either contains no stipulation regarding Pension or Gratuity or 
-contains a stipulation which does not accord with the provisions of this 
Act. 

5. It shall be always understood : 



Recent Enactments. 33 



(i.) That Pensions and Gratuities are granted by favour of the 
Sovereign ; therefore no person has any legal claim to either Pension or 
■Gratuity ; 

(ii.) That Pension or Gratuity will not be granted to any official 
who leaves the service under any circumstance or at any period of time 
not prescribed in this Act as entitling to Pension or Gratuity, or who is 
removed for misconduct or insolvency ; 

(hi.) That future good conduct is an implied condition of every 
grant or Pension. A Pension will be withdrawn if the Pensioner be guilty 
of grave misdemeanor or be convicted of serious crime. 

6. In this Act Gratuity means a grant of money given only once 
to any person by the Sovereign : Pension means periodical grants of 
money given by the Sovereign to any person until such person dies or is 
disqualified from receiving 1 the same under any provision of this Act. 

7. The scale of Pension or Gratuity to be granted under this Act 
will be determined by the length of service, the current salary of the 
official, the cause of his retirement and by the degree of satisfactory 
service rendered. 

8. Active Service within the meaning of this Act means time spent 
•on actual duty. 

9. (a.) Authorised sick leave on full pay or other leave of absence 
-on full pay counts as full active service ; 

(b.) Authorised sick or other leave of absence on part pay counts 
;as half active service ; i 

■(c) Sick leave or leave of absence without pay does not count as 
;active service. 

10. Average Emoluments means the average calculated upon the 
last five years of Active Service. 

Example : A person's total pay for the 1st of the five years was Tcs. 
1,200 ; for the 2nd year, Tcs. 1,500 ; for the 3rd year, Tcs. 2,400 ; for the 
4th year, Tcs. 3,600 ; and for the 5th year, Tcs. 4,800 ; total for the five 
years, Tcs. 13,500: Divide this by 5 — Tcs. 2,700; which sum is the 
;amount of that person's Average Emoluments. 

Average Emoluments do not include any allowance given to an officer 
-outside of his regular salary such as for honse-rent, for travelling or field 
purposes, or in consideration of exceptional circumstances such as the 
■expensiveness of the locality, etc. 

11. Officials serving the Siamese Legations abroad receive salaries 
on an exceptional scale. In calculation of Pension the average emolu- 
ments of such «fficials shall be reckoned only on the same scale of 
emoluments as is received by officers of cognate rank in Siam. 

12. Pensions to be granted under this Act are divided into four 
viz. : — 



34 Recent Enactments. 



(a) Compensation Pension. 

(b) Invalid Pension. 

(c) Superannuation Pension. 

(d) Retiring Pension. 

13. A Compensation Pension may be awarded to an officer dis- 
charged from the public service because, on reduction of Establishment, 
his appointment is abolished and no other suitable appointment can be 
found for him; also such Pension may be granted to an officer who has 
rendered good service but whom the Sovereign deems fit shall retire from 
active service. 

No claim for Compensation pension under this section is admissible 
in the case of officers discharged from special appointments created for a 
limited time only. 

14. An officer who is in receipt of a Compensation Pension may 
not, without surrendering his pension, refuse to accept any appointment 
which the Government thinks fit, within twelve months of the date of 
his discharge, to offer to him at a salary not less than that which he 
received when he was discharged. 

15. An Invalid Pension is awarded, on his retirement from the 
public service, to an officer who by infirmity is permanently incapacitated 
for the public service, or for the particular branch of it to which he 
belongs. 

Incapacity for service under this Section must be established by a 
Medical Certificate attested by one or more Medical Officers nominated 
by the Government which must show that his incapacity does not result 
from irregular or intemperate habits. 

No claim for Pension under this Section can be put forward for 
any officer discharged on other grounds even although he can produce 
Medical evidence of incapacity for service, and no Pension can be granted 
to any officer whose incapacity for service is the result of irregular or 
intemperate habits. 

16. A Superannuation Pension is granted to an official who is 
required to retire when he has attained a particular age, which under 
this Section is prescribed at fifty-five yea rs, unless the Government con- 
siders him efficient and requires him to continue in service for one or 
more terms of five years each. 

An officer who has attained the age of fifty-five years, may, subject 
to the consent of the Sovereign, voluntarily retire from the Service. 

An officer who is compelled to retire or voluntarily retires from the 
Service at the age of fifty-five years, is entitled to Pension under this 
Section. 

17. A Retiring Pension or Gratuity is granted to an official who 
retires after completing thirty or more years of Active Service. 

18. The service of an officer does not begin to qualify for Pension 
or Gratuity under this Act until he has completed eighteen years of age 



Recent Enactments. 35 



19. The qualifying period of service for Superannuation or Retiring 
Pension in the case of any officer may, at the Sovereign's discretion, be 
decreased by five years ; for instance : an officer may be awarded a 
Superannuation Pension at fifty instead of at fifty-five years of age, or a 
Retiring Pension after twenty-five instead of after thirty years of service. 
In like manner an officer who is awarded a Compensation Pension or 
Gratuity may, at the discretion of the Sovereign, have five years quali- 
fying service added to the term on which such -Pension or Gratuity is 
calculated. 

20. The amount of Pension or Gratuity is regulated by length of 
service as follows : 

/ (1.) After a service of less than ten years, a Gratuity calculated 
upon the amount of the monthly salary last received. 

Example : A person has served 8 years and his last month's salary 
was Tcs. 40; multiply this by 8 = Tcs. 320, which is the amount of his 

Gratuity. 

(2.) After a service of not less than ten years, a Pension of one- 
sixtieth of his Average Emoluments for each year of service, payable until 
pensioner's decease or until he shall have become disqualified to receive 
the same under any provision of this Act. 

Example : A person has served twelve years and his Average Emolu- 
ments equal Tcs. 2,400. Divide this by 60 = Tcs. 40, which multiplied by 
twelve, the number of years of service, gives Tcs. 480 as the amount of 
his yearly Pension, equivalent to Tcs. 40 per mensem. 

21. The maximum proportion under the above Section shall not, 
unless specially ordered by the Sovereign to be increased in the case of 
deserving officers, exceed thirty-sixtieths, and the maximum amount of 
Pension payable shall not exceed 8,000 ticals a year. 

22. A pensioner under this Act who returns to reside in a foreign 
country may have his pension paid in the currency of that country at a 
rate of exchange which may be altered, when necessary, by the Minister 
of Finance. Provided that a pensioner whose pension has been arranged 
at the outset to be paid in a foreign Currency at a certain rate of 
Exchange shall continue to receive the same at such rate of Exchange. 

23 Cabinet Ministers with 3 years' service are entitled to a 
minimum pension of 5,000 ticals, to be increased by 1,000 ticals for every 
complete year of tenure of appointment, subject to a maximum of 12,000 
ticals per annum, which may, however, be further increased, at the dis- 
cretion of the Sovereig'n, to 16,000 ticals. 

Sections 15 and 17 do not apply to Cabinet Ministers, who will not 
be required to serve 30 years or to attain the age therein prescribed before- 
retirement. 

24. An officer entitled to a Pension may not exchange it for a 
Gratuity. 

*25. An officer who has obtained a Compensation Gratuity, if 
re-employed, may either refund his Gratuity and count his former service, 



36 Recent Enactments. 



or retain his gratuity, in which case his former service will not count 
for future pension. He must state his intention at the time of 
re-employment. 

26. An officer who has obtained a Compensation Pension, if 
re-employed, may retain his Pension in addition to his pay, provided 
that the aggregate of salary plus Pension in his new appointment, does 
not exceed the amount he received at the time when he was pensioned ; 
but if the addition of such Pension to his salary does not make his salary 
reach the former figure, he shall only receive what the said addition 
brings him. An officer so retaining his Pension cannot count his former 
service for future Pension or Gratuity. 

An officer who surrenders his Compensation Pension on re-employ- 
ment may count his previous service for future Pension or Gratuity. 

27. There is no bar to the re-employment of an officer who has 
regained health after obtaining an Invalid Pension. The rules in such 
case as regards Pension and Gratuity are the same as in the case of 
re-employment after Compensation Pension. 

28. An officer who has obtained a Superannuation or Retiring 
Pension may not be re-employed in the Government service without the 
express sanction of the Sovereign. In the case of an officer receiving a 
Superannuation Pension he is permitted to retain his pension in addition 
to his pay during re-employment. In the case of an officer receiving a 
Retiring Pension he will be subject to the same rules as laid down in the 
case of the re-employment of an Invalid Pensioner. The Pension of a 
Cabinet Minister will remain in abeyance during the period of his 
re-employment. But he may draw so much of his Pension as will raise 
his new salary to the same amount as that received by him at the time 
of his retirement, should the salary on re-employment be less than that 
formerly received. 

29. If an officer while in the actual discharge of his duty or in 
consequence of the nature of his. duty, has received bodily, permanent 
injury and is incapacitated for future service, an annual allowance may 
be granted to him in addition to any Pension to which he may be entitled. 
The amount of such allowance will be determined by the Sovereign on 
the recommendation of an officer appointed to report on the case, and 
will consist of from five sixtieths to twenty-sixtieths of such Pension, 
according to the nature of the injury sustained. 

30. When a public officer injured as mentioned in the foregoing 
Section has less than ten years' service, which would entitle him to a 
Gratuity , he may receive in lieu thereof a Special Pension under the scale 
provided in Section 20 calculated according! to the number of years of 
actual service. 

31. If an officer be killed while engaged in the execution of his duty 
a Pension not exceeding half the pay of the deceased officer, may, at the 
discretion of the Sovereign, be granted to his family. 

32. If a Pension be granted to a family under the foregoing Section, 
it shall be allotted in accordance with the testamentary instructions left by 



Recent Enactments. 37 



the deceased officer, and can be given to one member of such family only. 
In the event of the deceased officer having left no will, the Sovereign 
will decide as to which member of the family the Pension shall be given. 

33. Pension to a deceased officer's family is granted as under : 
If to a son, till such son has attained the age of twenty years. 

If to a daughter, till such daughter has attained the age of twenty 
years, or till the day of her marriage., should such marriage take place 
before the age of twenty is attained. 

If to the widow, for life, or till re-marriage. 

If to the father, for life. 

If to the mother, for life, or till re-marriage. 

34. If the family of a deceased officer entitled to a Pension under 
the foregoing Section be in easy circumstances, the Sovereign may at His 
discretion grant only such amount of Pension as He may s,ee fit. 

35. The execution of the provisions of this Act is entrusted to the 
Minister of Finance. 

Done on the ninth dav of December, E. S. 120 (1901). 



MARRIAGE IN SIAM. 

A decree of some importance has been issued on the valid celebration 
of marriages in Siam and the proofs of such celebration by foreign 
residents. In the first section it sets forth what constitutes marriage 
according to Siamese law. The translation, the original of which was 
published in the Government Gazette of January 9th, 1898, runs as 
follows : — 

We Chulalongkorn, etc. 

Whereas it has been reported to Us by Our Minister for Foreigu 
Affairs, that some foreign residents are encountering difficulties for the 
celebration and for the legal proof of their marriage, whenever they con- 
tracted, or intend to contract it according to the law of this country, and 
that therefore it appears to be desirable, on behalf of such residents, to 
declare and to explain, by way of authoritative interpretation, what are 
the conditions required for the valid celebration of marriages according 
to Siamese Law, and then to decree in what form the legal celebration of 
such marriages shall be proved when both parties or one of them are 
foreigners. 

Do hereby declare as follows : 

Sect. 1. Marriage, according to Siamese Law and custom, is a 
contract between man and wife, to which the ordinary principles which 
attach to other contracts are applicable, and it is consequently validly 
celebrated whenever it clearly results from the words exchanged or from 
the rites observed that both parties freely consent to take each other as 



38 Recent Enactments. 



I man and wife, provided he or she does not labour under some particular 
disability. 

Sect. 2. Whenever both parties or one of them are resident in 
Siam, their mutual and simultaneous consent to take each other as man 
and wife may be legally proved, either at the celebration of the marriage 
or at a later time, by a declaration to that effect made in the presence of 
M> least four well-known witnesses before the Minister of Local Govern- 
ment or his substitute, if the marriage is or has been contracted in Bang- 
kok, or before the Governor of the province where the parties or one of 
them are living at the time being, if the marriage is* or has been con- 
tracted in any other part of Our Kingdom. 

Sect. 3. A written deed of such declaration, as mentioned in 
Section 2, shall be drawn either in Siamese only or, if parties so require, 
in Siamese and English, both versions having the same meaning and 
intention, in two original documents, by the official before whom it is 
made, mentioning the date of the marriage, the respective names, age, 
and place of birth of each party, in confirmation of which data all satis- 
factory evidence shall be produced if so requested by the said official, and 
each of these copies shall be signed by the said official, by both parties, 
by the four witnesses, as also eventually by such of the parents, of one 
or both parties, who may be present. One of these two originals shall 
be carefully kept and registered in the archives of the officer where it has 
been drawn, and the other copy shall be forwarded without any delay to 
the Minister for Foreign Affairs, to be carefully kept and registered in 
the archives of his department. 

Sect. 4. The certified extracts or full copies of the deed, as men- 
tioned in Section 3, shall be delivered to any person applying for it, at 
the cost of four ticals for each extract or copy, if the document is 
executed in Siamese only, or of eight ticals if the document is executed 
in Siamese and English. 

Done in Bangkok this 9th day of January, 1898. 



Recent Enactments. #9 



Mpoa |)ato for the JLbolttion; of <§Iatarg. 



The following is a translation of a law which came into force on the 
1st April, 1905 : 

Although slavery in Our realm is very different from slavery as it 
has existed in many other countries — most slaves being persons who have 
become sq voluntarily and not by force, and the powers of the master 
.over the slave being strictly limited — yet We have always considered 
that the institution even in this modified form is an impediment to the 
progress of our country. We have, therefore, from the commencement 
of Our reign taken steps, by the enactment of laws and otherwise, for the 
abolition of slavery, notably by the law of Pee Chau (corresponding to 
Ratanakosindr Sok 93 and the year 1874 of the Christian era). 

We now deem it time to take more sweeping measures which will 
gradually result in the entire disappearance of slavery from Siam, and to 
that end We are pleased to decree as follows : 

§ 1. This law shall be known as the Law for the Abolition of 
Slavery, Ratanakosindr Sok 124. 

§ 2. This law shall come into force on the first of April, Ratana- 
kosindr Sok 124, throughout the Kingdom except in the Monthons of 
Bayap and Burapha, where We have already enacted special laws on the 
subject, and also except in the Monthon of Saiburi and in Kelantan and 
Tringganu, where the laws of the religion of the people are still in force. 

§ 3. All children born of parents who are slaves shall be free 
without the execution of the condition stated in the law of Pe& Chau. 

§ 4. No person now free can be made a slave. If any person now a 
slave shall hereafter become free, he cannot thereafter again become 
a slave. 

§ 5. Wherever any person is now held a debt slave, the master 
shall credit upon the principal of the debt for which he is held a slave 
the sum of four (4) ticals for each month after the first of April, 124, 
provided that no credit shall be allowed for any time during which the 
slave may desert his master. 

§ 6. If a slave changes his master, no increase shall be made in the 
•debt for which he is actually held ; that is to say, when the slave is 
transferred from one master to another, he can be held by the new 
master only for the amount of the debt actually due the old master at the 
time of the transfer. 

Done in Bangkok on this the 31st day of March, Ratanakosindr 
Sok 123. 



40 Recent Enactments. 



JMcattmt Jntrokcing C|anges in % 

J&iwtem of Collection aito Mates 

of |1abog JTano fe. 



His Majesty is pleased to decree that the following notification shall 
be promulgated for the information of all whom it may concern : 

In former times the paddy land tax was paid in kind at the rate of 
two baskets of paddy per rai, and the Government had the right to pur- 
chase two baskets of paddy for each rai of land worked at a fixed price of 
four atts. per basket. This paddy had to be sent by the cultivators at 
their own cost to the State granaries in the Capital or the provinces. 

In the reign of King Phra Nang Klao, it was considered that the 
continuance of this system of collecting" the paddy land tax and of the 
exercise of the right of the State in regard to the purchase and delivery 
of grain by the people to the State granaries could but inflict great hard- 
ship on the people, and His Majesty Phra Nang Klao was graciously 
pleased to decree that the system should be changed to one of direct pay- 
ment in coin instead of in kind, and fixed the rate at 24 atts per rai, or 
if a calculation is made based on the price of paddy in those days, viz.,. 
ticals 10/ per kwien, and the produce of three rai of land is fixed at one 
kwien, paddy land was assessed at 11J per cent, of the value of its crop. 

Having laid down this principle, paddy land was divided into two- 
categories, viz., " Nakuko," and "Nafangloi." " Nakuko " is land 
which can be irrigated , and which is sown , not planted ; this class of land 
exists in the four Muangs of Krungkao, Angthong, Supphanburi and 
Lopburi. These lands are very fertile, as they obtain an abundant supply 
of water from the rainfall and the rivers, and in order that no portion of 
this area should be held in a fallow condition, the paddy land tax was 
fixed at 24 atts per rai for the full area taken up and specified in the title 
deed : remission of land revenue being granted in respect to these lands, 
only in such years as the crops were a failure, owing to drought or other 
such reasons. 

" Nafangloi " is land which is planted, and relies on the rainfall for 
its supply of water, the crop thus being an uncertain one. These lands 
are assessed to revenue, according to the area cropped, at the rate of 
24 attS per rai, and the tax collected by a special officer deputed for the 
purpose. 

This system remained in operation till the year of the Eat, fourth 
of the decade 1214 (A. C. 1852), when His Majesty the King Phra Chom 
Klao decreed that as the owners of the land assessed under the " Kuko '" 



Recent Enactments. 41 



system were continually claiming remissions of land revenue, on the 
ground of drought or partial drought, and as it was a difficult matter for 
the officials to ascertain the truth regarding the actual areas alleged to be 
affected, and as most of the owners of this class of land were Koyal 
retainers, such as the Royal boatmen, and were thus liable to render 
service to His Majesty, such " Kuko " lands should pay a reduced rate 
of 16 atts per rai, for the full area held, and entered in the title deed, 
and that no remission should be granted as formerly on account of bad 
years. 

This system being still in force, there has been no change in the rate 
on paddy land for 53 years. 

His Majesty the King declares that great changes and reforms have 
been introduced in the government of the country, and that the profits 
and benefits derived from agriculture and trade have increased five or six 
fold in the last fifty years. It has also become necessary to expend larger 
sums for the maintenance of order and to promote the public welfare, 
and in the immediate future larger sums will have to be expended to 
provide for the progressive development and growing needs of the 
country. It is an accepted principle that the funds requisite to provide 
for the government of a country, are obtained from taxes on various 
commodities, which represent a share of the profits of the industry of the 
people. When, moreover, a large revenue is obtained by the State from 
certain sources, the retention of which militates against the progressive 
welfare of its subjects, it behoves the Government to remove such evil. 
His Majesty the King, recognizing the evil wrought by the sale of the 
rights to gamble, has therefore decreed its abolition. 

Any industry which has so developed and prospered as to be in a 
position to bear a full share of the burdens of taxation, should be taxed 
to provide the funds necessary for the government of the State. These 
principles are observed in all countries. 

His Majesty the King considers that the rate on paddy land which 
yields only 16 or 24 atts per rai, represents too small a share of the 
profits derived from agriculture, and should be increased, and therefore 
decrees that the following changes shall take effect in the rates and 
system of the collection of the paddy land tax : — 

(1). Paddy land shall be divided into five classes, to wit, land of 
the first class, of the second, third, fourth, and fifth class, and the fol- 
lowing considerations shall determine in which class land shall be placed : 
the greater or lesser fertility of the soil, and the local price of the grain 
produced. The Government will take steps to enquire and classify the 
land accordingly. 

(2). All land shall be divided into three categories irrespective of its 
classification — (1) Fallow land, (2) " Fangloi " land, (3) "Kuko" land. 
Land which is taken up by any persons in accord with the provisions of 
the law, but which has not yet been cultivated, shall be considered Fallow 
land. Land which has been newly cultivated but which adjoins waste 
land, shall be considered " Fangloi " land. Land wdiich has been fully 
cultivated shall be considered ' ' Kuko ' ' land.. 



42 



Recent Enactments. 



(3). " Kuko " land shall 
deed at the following rates : — 



be assessed on the full area in the title 



Ticals. 


Atts. 






1 


00 


per rai per 


annum. 


00 


48 


per rai per 


annum. 


00 


40 


per rai per 


annum . 


00 


32 


per rai per 


annum. 


00 


24 


per rai per 


annum. 



(a) Land of the first class 

(b) Land of the second class 

(c) Land of the third class 
-(d) Land of the fourth class 

(e) Land of the fifth class 

The land shall be classified on the basis of the output and the value 
•of such per rai. 

(4). All land taken up by any person which is not converted into 
fields within two years, shall be liable to payment of a fallow land rate 
calculated at Jth of the " Kuko " land rate in force in such area. 
Example : Where the " Kuko " land rate is 32 atts per rai in any given 
area, the fallow land rate will be 4 atts per rai per annum, and in the 
same manner, where the " Kuko " land rate is 48 atts per rai, the fallow 
land rate will be 6 atts per rai per annum. No disability in tenure shall 
arise from the fact that an owner has not brought his land under culti- 
vation within three years, or any further period, provided that he pays 
the fallow land rate. 

(5). Land which has been cleared and has been brought under cul- 
tivation, whether situated in a district where the land is " Kuko " land, 
or whether it is high-lying land which cannot be worked regularly, shall 
be considered as new land ; both these two classes of new land shall be 
classified as " Fangloi " land, and shall be assessed to revenue by a yearly 
measurement of the cultivated area. The rate on " Fangloi " land shall 
be higher than that on "Kuko" land by 1/4. Example: Where the 
" Kuko " land rate is 32 atts per rai in any given area, the " Fangloi " 
land rate shall be 40 atts per rai per annum, which rate shall be converted 
into a ' ' Kuko ' ' land rate when such land is in such a high state of culti- 
vation as to come under the category of " Kuko " land. 

(6). In any year, full or partial remission of revenue shall be 
granted in respect to land, the crop on which has suffered owing to cir- 
cumstances over which the cultivator had no control. 

This system of paddy land revenue shall have effect from the year 
124, and is therefore notified for the information of all whom it may 
concern . 

Proclaimed on the 19th Mitunayun, Eatana Kosindr Sok 124, being 
the 13,369th day of the present reign (19th June, 1905). 



42a 



NEW PADDY-LAND RATES. 



The foregoing: rates were amended by Notification dated the 25th 
March, 1910, to the following : — 

" KUKO " LAND 
Land of the First Class 
Do Second Class 
Do Third Class 
Do Fourth Class 
Do Fifth Class 

" FANGLOI" LAND 
Land of the First Class 
Do Second Class 
Do Third Class 
Do Fourth Class 
Do Fifth Class 

FALLOW LAND 
Land of the First Class 
Do Second Class 
Do Third Class 
Do Fourth Class 
Do Fifth Class 



Per Rai 


Per Ngan 


Tcs. 1.00 


00.25 


00.80 


00.20 


00.60 


00.15 


00.40 


00.10 


00.30 


00. 8 


Per Rai 


Per Ngan 


Tcs. 1.20 


00.30 


1.00 


00.25 


00.80 


00.20 


00.60 


00.15 


00.40 


00.10 


Per Rai 




Tcs. 00.12 




00.10 




00. 8 




00. 6 




00. 5 





Any area of fallow land under one rai shall be assessed as one rai. 



Recent Enactments. 43 



Jato on Uabigatom in Siamese W&stos. 



This law, promulgated on June 25th, 1905, came into force on 
September 1st, 1905. 

After a preliminary Interpretation of Terms, it includes under : — 

Part I., General Regulations, chapters on (1) Limits of the Harbours 
of Bangkok and of Koh- Si-Chang, and of the anchorages of Anghin and 
of the Bar; (2) Duties of Masters, on entering Siamese waters, on 
entering or going out of the River, on entering the port of Bangkok ; 
(3) Anchorage; (4) Fairways, (a) eastern or main fairway, (b) western 
fairway, (c) part of either fairway reserved for craft propelled by oar, 
(d) canals ; (5) Offences, (a) cables and ropes fastened to the bank of the 
River, (b) buoys and moorings, (c) throwing ballast into navigable rivers, 
harbours and anchorages, (d) steam whistles, (e) firing of guns, (/) drums, 
gongs and fireworks; (6) Rafts, Floating Houses, &c, (a) rafts, (6) float- 
ing houses, (c) fishing boats and buoys athwart the river, (d) property 
adrift on the river ; (7) Caution to Masters of vessels. 

Part II., Rules of the Road, sections on; Preliminary; Rules con- 
cerning Lights, etc. ; Sound signals in fog, etc. ; Steering and Sailing 
Rules ; Rules as to collisions applicable to Siamese Courts. 

Part HI., Regulations for the Licensing, Management and Control 
•of vessels or boats, chapters on (1) General; (2) Steam-Lighters, 
Launches, Tugs and steam vessels of a like description ; (3) Lorchas, 
Lighters and Junks ; (4) Cargo-boats and Boats. 

Part IV., Special Regulations, chapters on (1) Rules and Regulations 
for vessels and Boats carrying "Dangerous Goods"; (2) Rules and 
Regulations in relation to Petroleum in bulk ; (3) Regulations for 
anchoring near to or crossing Telegraph Cables ; (4) Light Dues ; 
(5) Quarantine Regulations; (6) Rules and Regulations for the proper 
conduct and guidance of Pilots ; (7) Shipping and discharging of Masters, 
Engineers and Seamen of Siamese vessels, and examination for certifi- 
•cates ; (8) Marine Court ; (9) Additional General Clauses. 

The Sections imposing fees are as follows : — 

101. Every steam lighter, launch or tug, and every steam vessel of 
a like description, and every lorcha, lighter, junk, cargo boat and boat 
shall be licensed according to these regulations. 

120. The following license fees [for steam vessels] shall be charged : 

For vessels over 500 tons displacement, a year, ticals 100. 



44 Recent Enactments. 



For vessels under 500 and not less than 200 tons displacement, a 
year, ticals 90. 

For vessels under 200 and not less than 100 tons displacement, a 
year, ticals 60. 

For vessels under 100 and not less than 50 tons displacement, a 
year, ticals 50. 

For vessels under 50 and not less than 25 tons displacement, a 
year, ticals 40. 

For vessels under 25 tons displacement, a year, ticals 30. 

125. The following license fees shall be charged : — 

lst-class lorchas, lighters or junks, 6,000 piculs capacity and 
upwards, ticals 55. 

2nd-class lorchas, lighters or junks, under 6,000 piculs and not les& 

than 4,000 piculs, ticals 45. 

3rd-class, under 4,000 piculs capacity, ticals 35. 

130. The following license fees [for cargo-boats and boats] shall 
be charged : — 

lst-class boat, 800 piculs capacity and upwards, ticals 25. 
2nd-class, under 800 and not less than 450 piculs capacity, ticals 20. 
3rd-class, under 450 and not less than 100 piculs capacity, ticals 15. 
4th-class, under 100 piculs capacity, but not less than 50, ticals 10. 
5th-class, under 50 piculs capacity, but not less than 10, ticals 5. 
6th-class, under 10 piculs capacity, ticals 3. 

224. Examinations shall be instituted for persons who intend to 
become masters, engineers, or mates, of Siamese vessels. 

225. Every applicant for a certificate of competency shall, upon 
lodging his application, pay to the Harbour Master a fee, if for a master's 
or first-class engineer's certificate, of 15 ticals, and if any other certificate, 
of 10 ticals. 



Recent Enactments. 45 



arkneg Carriage %tt 



An Act for the regulation and control of hackney carriages in 
Bangkok came into force on 1st June, 1905. The following summarises 
some of the provisions : — 

All carriages kept for hire have to be registered. These are divided 
into four classes — 1st class, the two horse victoria photon (rot koop), in 
which there may be seated not more than four persons ; 2nd class , 
one horse victoria phseton, in which there may be seated not more than 
three persons; 3rd class, the one horse " rot keng," with not more than 
four occupants; and 4th class, the pair horse dray for goods. Two 
children under ten to count as one person. 

Registration must be renewed every six months, 1st June and 1st 
December. The license for a first class carriage costs 12 ticals, a second 
class one 9 ticals, a third class one 6 ticals, and a fourth class one 3 ticals. 

Drivers have also to be licensed, and to renew their license every 
six months. They must be at least 18 years old or apparently so. 
Before receiving a license each driver has to satisfy the registrar that he 
knows how to drive, that he has a sufficient knowledge of Siamese, and 
that he knows his way about Bangkok. 

The following are the rates of hire : — 

1st class carriage — for not more than an hour Tcs. 2, and for every 
subsequent hour or part of an hour 1 tical. 

2nd class carriage — for not more than an hour 1 tical and a half, 
and for every subsequent hour or part of an hour three salung. 

3rd class carriage — for not more than an hour 1 tical, and for 
-every subsequent hour or part of an hour two salung. 

4th class carriage — for not more than 50 sen 2 ticals, and for every 
subsequent 50 sen or part thereof tw T o salung. 

It is an offence for a licensed owner to refuse to let anyone hire a 
^licensed carriage, the offence being punishable by fine of not more than 
•50 ticals. 

" Provided that mOthing in this Act contained shall prevent any 
driver or owner from being bound by any contract into which he may 
enter to receive payment at a lower rate than that fixed by this Act." 



46 Recent Enactments. 



Siam's jjftning lUgwlaiions. 



The following is a summary of the Mining" Regulations of the vear 
120 (1909) which may be of interest. These Regulations have the force 
of law for all places with regard to which notice to that effect has been 
published 1 in the Government Gazette. 

The general principle is set forth that all mines and minerals are 
Crown property ; and it is further explained that no titles under which 
the holder is empowered to use land for the purposes of planting, build- 
ing, etc., gives him any right to the mineral contents of the ground. 

Provision is made for the settlements of old claims.. Persons who, 
at the time of the enforcement of the Regulations, may be working 
mines without any proper title, will be given opportunities for obtaining 
mining leases under the Regulations. If, after being called upon to do 
so, they fail to put in their claims they will cease to have the right to 
the land they have been working 1 . 

Prospecting may be carried on either under an " Ordinary Pros- 
pecting License," which gives the holder the right to search for minerals 
over any waste land, within a specified Province or district, or else under 
an " Exclusive Prospecting License " which gives the holder the exclu- 
sive right to prospect within a certain definite area not exceeding 3,000 
rais (450 hectares). Both kinds of Prospecting Licenses are for periods 
of one year only. Mining Leases may be issued for a period not exceeding 
25 years ; and convey the right to the Lessee to work all minerals within 
a certain area not exceeding 100 rais (15 hectares) on a lode, or 300 rais 
(45 hectares) on alluvial ground. 

Applicants for mining leases may be called upon to show that they 
have sufficient capital to work the land applied for. 

Lessees are compelled to actively work their areas and no intermis- 
sion of more than twelve months in any two years is allowed without 
special permission being obtained. 

Lessees have the right to cut timber growing within the mining 
areas for use in connection with their mining work, subject to forest 
regulations. 

There are clauses dealing with survey and demarcation, it being left 
to the option of the Government to decide whether the work shall be 
carried out by the Lessee or by the Government itself. 

Lessees are obliged to have an address, within the Kingdom of Siam, 
registered at an office of the Mining Department ; and also to have a 
competent manager in charge of the works, whose name has to be made, 
known to the Department. 



Recent Enactments. 47 



There are various rules, compelling Lessees to send in annual returns 
of the produce of their mines, and to keep their workings in a safe 
condition ; and forbidding the damaging of ground by tailings and the 
poisoning of water used for domestic purposes. 

All transfers of leases must receive the previous sanction of the 
Government. 

All waterways remain under the control of the Government ; but 
provision is made to enable Lessees to make the fullest use of water for 
mining purposes. 

The Government reserves the right to take from mining areas any 
gravel, stone, etc., which may be needed for public purposes; and also 
to resume such plots of ground as may be required for public purposes. 

Fees and royalties are not fixed in the Eegulations, but it is stated 
to be within the power of the Minister over the Mining Department to 
arrange these and certain other matters ; notice in the Government 
Gazette giving legal force to his decisions. 



48 The Gold Standard Law. 



Cfr* doltr Stanbmtr f ato. 



The following is a provisional translation of the Gold Standard Law , 
which appeared in the Government Gazette of the 15th November, 1908. 
Translations are also appended of two Notifications which were issued 
simultaneously with the law— the first setting forth certain particulars 
regarding the coins to be minted under the Act, and the second defining 
the position of the coins minted under former Acts, besides detailing the 
temporary arrangement made for the issue locally of legal currency, until 
the Mint is in a position to receive gold in Bangkok 

The Gold Standard Act, R. S. 127. 

Whereas the effect of the silver standard of currency, which was 
formerly in force in Siam, was such as to lead to constant fluctuations in 
the prices of commodities exchanged with countries where gold was the 
standard of value, His Majesty the King deemed it expedient, in order 
that greater stability might be secured, to change the silver standard of 
the country to a gold standard, and was graciously pleased, in the year 
E. S. 121, to command that the desired change be inaugurated by closing 
the Royal Mint to the free coinage of silver, which command was carried 
out by means of an Act repealing a certain section of the Eoyal Mint 
Act of the year R. S. 112. 

And whereas, in the year R. S. 122, His Majesty was pleased to 
direct that the " Coinage Act of 122 " be promulgated in order to regu- 
larise the metallic currency of the Kingdom and carry the adoption of the 
Gold Standard a step further. 

Now therefore , with a view to the completion of the policy instituted 
in the year R. S. 121, His Majesty is pleased to command that the Gold 
Standard Act, R. S. 127, be enacted as follows : — 

Chapter I. Preliminary. 

Section 1. This law shall be called "The Gold Standard Act, 
R. S. 127," and it shall supersede all previous Decrees and Enactments 
relating to the coinage of money in Siam, which may be contrary to the 
provision? of this Act. 

Section 2. In this Act the expression " The Mint " shall mean the 
Royal Mint in Bangkok. 

The term ' ' Gold bullion ' ' shall mean gold which has not been coined 
:by the Government as a measure of value. 

The term ' ' Silver bullion ' ' shall mean silver which has not been 
coined by ,the Government as a measure of value. 

The term ' ' Money ' ' shall mean any substance which is regarded 
.as a measure of value. 



7ie Gold Standard Law. 49 



The term " Coin " shall mean a piece of metal which any Govern- 
ment has issued for use as money. 

The form " Subsidiary coin " shall mean coin of a value less 1 tical. 

The term " Remedy " shall mean the variation from the standard 
fineness or weight of the coins, as specified in Sections 5 and 7 of this 
Act. 

Section 3. The theoretical unit of the Siamese monetary system 
shall be the tical of 55 "8 centigrammes of pure gold. 

The silver tical containing 15" 5 grammes of pure silver shall, under 
this Act, have a value equal to the aforesaid 55'8 centigrammes of pure 
gold. 

The tical shall be divided into one hundred satang. 

Chapter II. The Coins. 

Section 4. The following shall be the coins to be minted under 
this Act : — 

Gold. Dos or 10 ticals piece. 
Silver. Tical. 2 salung piece. Salung. 
Nickel. 10 satang piece. 5 satang piece. 
Bronze. Satang. 

Section 5. The standard fineness of the coins shall be as follows : — 

(1) The Dos shall contain 900 parts of pure gold and 100 parts of 
copper. 

(2) The tical shall contain 900 parts of pure silver and 100 parts of 
copper. 

(3) The subsidiary silver coins shall contain 800 parts of pure silver 
and 200 parts of copper. 

(4) The nickel coins shall be composed of commercially pure nickel. 

(5) The bronze satang shall contain 95 parts of commercially pure 
copper, 4 parts of tin and 1 part of zinc. 

Section 6. The sanctioned remedy in fineness shall not exceed the 
following limits : 

(1) Dos ... ... ... ... 1-|- thousandths 

(2) Tical 3" thousandths 

(3) Subsidiary silver coins ... 4 thousandths 

Section 7. The standard weight of the coins shall be as follows : — 
Gold. 

Dos ... ... 6'20 grammes. 

Silver. 

Tical ... ... 15 grammes. 

2 Salung piece... 7*5 grammes. 
Salung 3'75 grammes. 



50 



The Gold Standard Lam. 



Nickel. 




10 Satang piece... 3'5 
5 Satang piece..'. 2 


grammes, 
grammes. 


Bronze . 




Satang 5 


grammes, 


Section 8. The sanctioned remedy in 
following limits : — 


weight sh 


Gold. 




Dos .. 2 

1,000 Dos ... 2-5 


centigram 
grammes. 



Silver. 

Tical 9 

1,000 ticals ... 12 

2 Salung piece ... 8 

1,000 2 Salung pieces 12 
Salung ... 5*5 
1,000 Sailings ... 6 



Nickel. 



10 Satang piece. 
5 Satang piece. 



20 
15 



centigrammes. 

grammes.. 

centigrammes. 

grammes. 

centigrammes. 

grammes.. 



centigrammes, 
centigrammes. 



Bronze. 
Satang 



25 centigrammes. 



The coins minted under this Act shall be of such size r 
n, and bear such inscriptions and other particulars, as the 



Section 9. 
form and desig 

Minister of Finance may be commanded by His Majesty to notify in the 
Government Gazette 



Chapter III. — The Minting and- Circulation of the Coins. 

Section 10. The right of minting and issuing belongs exclusively 
to the Government, and will be exercised in conformity with the pro- 
visions of this Act. 

Section 11. Any person may, under this Act, tender gold bunion 
to the Ministry of Finance, for the purpose of being coined. The gold 
so tendered shall be of such quality and fineness and be tendered in such 
minimum quantities as may be notified by the Minister of Finance. 

If the person by whom the gold is tendered demands gold coins in 
exchange, the Ministry of Finance shall pay him such gold coins at the 
rate of 2,680 ticals for every 100 ticals weight (1,500 grammes) of pure 
gold tendered, provided that there shall be no obligation to pay the coins 
immediately on the receipt of the gold,, but only after the lapse of such 
reasonable time as may be sufficient for the coinage of the gold tendered. 



The Gold Standard Law. 51 



Section 12. If the person by whom gold is tendered, as mentioned 
in Section 11, is prepared to accept in exchange any money which is legal 
tender under Chapter IV. of this Act, without specifying any particular 
denomination, the Ministry of Finance shall so pay him, at its convenience 
immediately after the gold has been assayed, at the rate of 2,680 ticals 
for every 100 ticals weight (1,500 grammes) of pure gold tendered. 

Section 13. The gold received for coinage under Sections 11 and 
12 shall, at the discretion of the Government, be used either for the 
purpose of minting gold coins, or for the purchase of silver bullion in 
such quantities as may be required for the mintage of silver coins, or for 
any other object, not contrary to the purposes of this Act. 

Section 14. Whenever the value of the silver contained in the 1 tical 
piece is, in Bangkok, greater than the value of 55.8 centigrammes of pure 
gold, the Ministry of Finance is prohibited from issuing 1 tical pieces in 
exchange for gold. 

Section 15. The exchange of gold coins and one tical pieces for 
subsidiary silver coins, or of subsidiary silver coins for gold coins and one 
tical pieces, may .be effected at the Koyal Treasury in Bangkok in even 
hundreds of ticals. The Minister of Finance may determine and notify 
the other Government offices at which, and the conditions under which, 
the exchanges in question may also be made. 

Chapter IV. — Legal Tender. 

Section 16. — Gold coins and one tical pieces shall be legal tender 
without limit as to amount. 

Subsidiary silver coins shall be legal tender only up to the value of 
five ticals, and nickel and bronze coins only up to the value of one tical. ; 

Section 17. — Foreign coins shall not be legal tender except in cases 
expressly provided for by law or by treaty with a foreign power. 

Chapter V. — Worn and Deteriorated Coins. 

Section 18. — Gold coins and one tical pieces shall be called in by the 
Ministry of Finance, for recoinage, when, through reasonable usage, their 
designs and inscriptions shall be effaced, or their weights diminished 
below the following limits, that is to say, in the case of gold coins, below 
the standard weight prescribed in Section 7, by an amount equal to two 
and a half times the remedy authorised in Section 8, and in that of one 
tical pieces, below the Standard weight prescribed in Section 7, by an 
amount equal to five times the remedy authorised in Section 8. 

Subsidiary coins shall be called in when, through long usage, their 
designs and inscriptions are effaced. 

All such worn coins as described in this Section shall, if presented at 
any state treasury, be accepted at their full nominal value, but shall not 
be re-issued. 

Section 19. — When worn and deteriorated coins are withdrawn for 
remintage, as mentioned in Section 18, the cost of melting down and 



52 The Gold Standard Law. 



reminting shall be charged in full to the general expenditure budget of 
the Government. 

Section 20. Coins which have been reduced in weight other wise 
than by reasonable wearing, or which have been mutilated, or which bear 
any stamp in addition to the National one, cease to be legal tender under 
Chapter IV. of this Act, and shall not be accepted or exchanged by the 
officer in charge of any state treasury or by any official receiving or 
collecting state dues. 

Section 21. Whenever any such short weight or mutilated coins as 
described in Section 20 are presented to any public officer so empowered 
by the Minister of Finance under this Act, he shall destroy them in 
the manner laid down in such rules as may be issued by the Minister of 
Finance for the destruction of short w r eight and mutilated coins. 

Chapter VI. — Illegal Tokens. 

Section 22. No person shall make, use or put into circulation any 
piece of metal, or mixed metal, or any object of any substance whatsoever, 
as a token for money except by the authority of the Government. 

Whoever acts in contravention of this Section of the Act shall be 
deemed guilty of a petty offence, Class D, under Penal Code, but the 
offence described in this Section shall be without prejudice to any punish- 
ment prescribed for the counterfeiting of money. 

Chapter VII. — Special Reserve Fund. 

Section 23. The Ministry of Finance shall establish a fund for the 
purpose of maintaining the stability of the rate of exchange between Siam 
and Foreign Countries. 

This fund shall be a separate one, unconnected with other funds in 
the Royal Treasury, and shall be composed of the following resources : — 

(1) Of the sum of 12,000,000 ticals, which, to commence with, 
shall be transferred from the Treasury Reserve or other source allocated 
by the Government for the purpose. If the Minister of Finance deems it 
expedient, this sum may be increased, with the sanction of His Majesty. 

(2) Of the gross profit resulting from the coinage operation, i.e., 
without any deduction for expenses. 

(3) Of any other sources of income or profit which may be held to 
emanate from the said fund. 

Section 24. The expenses and losses arising out of the operations 
effected in connection with the purposes for which the fund is created, 
shall be charged to the said fund, but all disbursements of the Mint, such 
as salaries of employees, cost of mintage, &c, shall be charged to the 
appropriate head in the expenditure budget of the Government. 

Section 25. Any portion of the fund, which it may be found neces- 
sary to remit and retain abroad, shall be deposited in such banks, or 
invested in such foreign Government securities, of first-class standing, as 
the Minister of Finance mav select. 



The Gold Standard Law. 53 



The portion of the fund to be kept in Si am shall consist of gold coins 
and one tical pieces, or of gold and silver bullion intended for mintage. 

Silver ticals included in the fund, under this Section, shall only be 
drawn in exchange for gold at the rate prescribed in Section 12, or for 
the purchase of silver bullion for the minting of coins, or, finally, for the 
purchase of transfers payable to the Government in gold abroad. 

Section 26. The particulars of all receipts and payments arising out 
of the fund, under the operation of this Act, shall be incorporated by the 
Comptroller-General of Accounts and Audit in a special account, in the 
form prescribed by the Minister of Finance. 

The Comptroller-General of Accounts and Audit shall make up the 
account yearly., in time to be included in the general annual accounts of 
the Kingdom. 

Section 27. The Minister of Finance shall be charged with the 
execution of this Act, and shall be authorised to issue such rules md 
regulations as may be found necessary for the purpose of carrying out its 
provisions. All rules and regulations so issued by the Minister of Finance 
shall be published in the Government Gazette, and shall have effect from 
the date of such publication. 

Proclaimed on the 11th day of November. R. S. 127, being the 
14,610th day of the present reign. 



NOTIFICATION 

Prescribing Size, Form, Designs and Inscriptions of Coins. 

Whereas in Section 9 of the Gold Standard Act, R. S. 127, it is 
provided that the coins minted under that Act shall be of such size, form 
and design, and bear such inscriptions and other particulars, as the 
Minister of Finance may be commanded by His Majesty to notify in the 
Government Gazette. 

Now Therefore His Majesty is pleased to command that the coins in 
question shall be in the form of a disc, and shall have such diameters, and 
bear such designs and inscriptions, as are mentioned below. 

Gold Coin. 

Dos, or 10 Tical Piece. — Diameter, 20 millimetres. Design and 
inscription : Obverse, the likeness of His Majesty, with the inscription 
" Chulalongkorn Parama Rajadhiraj." Reverse, the figure of the Garuda, 
bearing a shield with the design Chakra and Trident and the inscription 
" Dos Nung," " Siama Rath " and the year of coinage. 

Silver Coins. 

Design and inscriptions : Obverse, the likeness of His Majesty the 
King, with the inscription "Chulalongkorn Siamindr." Reverse, the 



54 The Gold Standard Law. 



Three-headed elephant, with the inscription " Siania Rath," the year of 
coinage, and the name of each denomination of coin. 

Diameters : Tical, 30 millimetres. 2 Sailing piece, 25 millimetres. 
Sahmg 20 millimetres. 

Nickel and Bronze Coins. 

Design and inscriptions : Obverse, the " Unalom " with the words 
" Siama Rath " and the value of the coin. Reverse, the Chakra, with the 
year of the coinage. 

Diameters : 10 Satang Piece, 20 millimetres. 5 Satang Piece, 17.5 
millimetres. 1 Satang Piece, 22.5 millimetres. 

These three coins shall be pierced with holes in the centres as 
follows : — 10 Satang Piece, 5 millimetres. 5 Satang Piece, 4 millimetres. 
1 Satang Piece, 6 millimetres. 

Proclaimed on the 11th day of November, R. S. 127 (1908). 

( Sd.) KlTIYAKAEA, 

Minister of Finance. 



NOTIFICATION 



Suspending The Operation Of Certain Sections 
Of The Gold Standard Law, R. S. 127. 

The Minister of Finance is commanded by His Majesty to proclaim 
that whereas it is inexpedient to bring into immediate operation certain 
sections of the Gold Standard Act, R. S. 127, by reason of the incon- 
venience which the inhabitants of the Realm would thereby be caused, 
His Majesty is pleased to direct that their operation be temporarily 
suspended, in the manner set forth below : — 

I. Whereas in Section 9 of the Gold Standard Act, R, S. 127, it is 
provided that the coins shall be of such size, form and designs, and bear 
such inscriptions and other particulars, as the Minister of Finance may 
be commanded by His Majesty to notify, and whereas the existing coins 
of all denominations, viz., the tical, the sailing, the fuang, the bronze sik, 
sio, att and solot, and the nickel 20 satang, 10 satang, 5 satang, and 2| 
satang pieces, are coins of which the particulars do not correspond with 
those notified under the present Act, but nevertheless it would be 
inexpedient to entirely demonetise them all at the present time. 

Now Therefore His Majesty is pleased to command as follows : — 

(1) The tical and the salung, minted under former Acts, shall continue 
in general use, as heretofore. 

(2) The fuang and the bronze sik, sio, att and solot, shall continue 
in use for the time being, pending their exchange by the public for the 
new coins. 



The Gold Standard Law. 55 



(3) The nickel 20 satang, 10 satang, 5 satang, and 2 \ satang pieces, 
which were issued under a Notification dated the 21st day of August 117 
(1898), shall be demonetised, but the officials in charge of the state 
treasuries shall issue the new satang pieces in exchange for the old ones, 
until such time as it may be notified that the exchange shall cease. 

The exchange of the fuangs, the old bronze coins and the old 
satang pieces, as prescribed in clauses (2) and (3) above, shall be made 
.at the following rates, viz., bronze coins, 1 tical's worth for 100 satang; 
.and fuangs, 8 fuangs for 1 tical ; the old and new satang pieces shall 
have equivalent values. 

The exchange of the coins above referred to may be made at the 
Hoyal Treasury in Bangkok and at such other Government offices as the 
Minister of Finance may designate. 

II. Whereas in sections 11 and 12 of the Gold Standard Act, 
K. S. 127, it is provided that any person may tender gold bullion to the 
Ministry of Finance for the purpose of being coined, and that the Ministry 
•of Finance shall, if demanded, pay him gold coins in exchange, or if no 
such demand is made, in any money which is legal tender under Chapter 
IV. of the Gold Standard Act, K. S. 127, the rate of such payment being 
2,680 ticals for every 100 ticals weight (1,500 grammes) of pure gold 
tendered. 

And Whereas it is not at present expedient to receive gold in 
Bangkok, 

Now Therefore it is hereby commanded by His Majesty that Sections 
11 and 12 of the said Act, as aforementioned, shall be temporarily sus- 
pended, and that for the present the Ministry of Finance shall continue to 
receive gold abroad, as heretofore, and shall issue in Bangkok legal 
-currency, in exchange, at the rate of 2,662 ticals for every 100 ticals 
weight (1,500 grammes) of pure gold received, or 13 ticals for £1 sterling. 

III. Whereas in Section 20 of the Gold Standard Act, B,. S. 127, it 
is provided that coins which have been reduced in weight otherwise than 
by reasonable wearing, or which bear any stamp in addition to the 
National one, shall cease to be legal tender and shall not be accepted or 
exchanged by any state treasury or official receiving or collecting Govern- 
ment dues, 

And whereas there are at present in circulation considerable numbers 
-of bent sailings and fuangs, the immediate refusal to accept which would 
be a cause of complaint on the part of the public, 

Now Therefore it is hereby commanded by His Majesty that all state 
treasuries and all officials receiving or collecting state dues shall for a 
period of one year from the date of this Proclamation be authorised to 
accept, at their full nominal value, all bent sailings and fuangs which may 
be tendered to them in payment or in exchange. 

Proclaimed on the 11th clay of November R. S. 127 (1908). 

(Sd.) KlTIYAKARA, 

Minister of Finance. 



56 Notification, 



Uotifitation. 

Demonetising Fuangs and the Old 
Bronze and Nickel Coins. 



Whereas the circulation of Fuangs, of the Bronze coins of the 4 aits, 
2 atts, 1 att, and 1 Solot denominations, and of the old Nickel coins of 
the 20, 10, 5, and 2 \ satang values, was temporarily permitted by 
Notification of 11th November, B. S. 127, published in the Official Gazette 
of the 15th November, E. S. 127 (1908) ; 

And whereas it was proclaimed that all the above coins were to he 
demonetised on a date hereafter to be fixed ; 

Now therefore the Minister of Finance is commanded to proclaim 
as follows : — 

1. Fuarfgs and the old Bronze and Nickel coins enumerated above 
shall, from 17th May, E. S. 128 (1909), cease to be legal tender under 
Chapter IV. of the Gold Standard Act, E. S. 127. 

2. During a period of one year from the date mentioned in this 
Notification, viz., up to the 16th May, E. S. 129 (1910), the Ministry of 
Finance will receive Fuangs, old Bronze coins and old Satangs in 
exchange for new Satangs, Ticals and Sailings. 

3. Fuangs, old Bronze coins and old Satangs tendered for exchange 
and found on examination to be either counterfeit or reduced in weight 
otherwise than by fair wear and tear , or which bear stamps other than the 
National one, shall be defaced by the officials and returned to the tenderer. 

4. The offices open to the receipt and exchange of the coins shall 
be, in the Metropolitan Province, the Eoyal Treasury in Bangkok and 
the Government offices at the headquarters of each Muang, and in the 
other Monthons of the Kingdom at the Monthon and Muang Treasuries. 

5. The rates at which the exchanges are to be effected shall be 
those already fixed by Notification of 11th November, E. S. 127, published 
in the Official Gazette of the 15th November, E. S. 127, and Treasury 
officers shall conform to the said rates. 

6. From and after the 17th May, E. S. 129 (1910), when the fixed 
period of one year has elapsed, Treasury officers at the places fixed for 
the exchange of the Fuangs, old Bronze coins and old Satangs mentioaed 
above, shall cease to receive the same in exchange. 

Notification issued on the 7th May, E. S. 128 (1909). 

(Signed) Kitiyakara, 

Minister of Finance. 



Recent Enactments. 57 



(f-titstts artb Jemstrbfion $afo. 



An important Decree received the royal sanction on the 17th July, 
1909. It sets forth the desirability of obtaining exact knowledge of the 
number of people in every part of the Kingdom. Such facts are ascer- 
tained in all countries and are useful in public health work and in the 
work of the administration. His Majesty the King has therefore been 
pleased to direct the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Local 
Government to make arrangements for 

(a) the taking of a census ; 

(b) the Kegistration of births and deaths ; and 

(c) the Kegistration of immigrants and emigrants. 

The Ministers named are empowered to make regulations for the 
carrying out of the above. 



58 Recent Enactments. 



MINISTERIAL REGULATIONS REGARDING 
REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS AND DEATHS. 



Whereas in accordance with Section 1 Article 2 of the Law for taking 
a Census, Year 128, His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to 
command the Minister of Local Government to cause to be made a regis- 
tration of Births and Deaths in the province of Bangkok. 

And whereas the said Minister is thereby authorised to issue regula- 
tions as to how such census shall be taken. 

And whereas such regulations shall, after being duly published in 
the Government Gazette, form a part of such Law. 

Therefore according to the command of His Majesty, the Minister 
•of Local Government has made the following regulations : — 

1. These regulations shall apply to the province of Bangkok in 
such districts as are described in Schedule 1 in the Ministerial Regulations 
for taking a census dated 17th July, 128. In districts other than those 
described in the said Schedule the Minister shall duly notify as to when 
and where these regulations shall be applicable. 

2. The District Enumerators who are appointed for each Police 
Station shall also be District Registrars for Births and Deaths, and shall 
grant permits for burying or cremating corpses in such districts only. 

3. A Chief Registrar shall be appointed for inspecting all registries 
and making periodical reports to the Minister of Local Government, as 
directed by such Minister. 

4. It shall be the duty of the parents or the head of the house to 
report at once to the District Registrar every Birth and Death occurring 
in any house ; that is to say, 

In case of a birth — Notice shall be given within 15 days from the 
day of the birth. 

In case of a death — Notice shall be given within 24 hours of death. 
No corpse shall be buried or cremated before the death has been reported 
to the District Registrar and a permit for burial or cremation has been 
obtained from such Registrar. 

5. In the case of temples, schools, hospitals, almshouses, barracks, 
police stations, prisons and other such places, it shall be the duty of the 
head of such institution or place to make such reports to the District 
Registrar. 

6. The parents or the head of the house or place whose duty it is 
to report births and deaths to the District Registrar are not required to 
do so in person. A relative or other person may be deputed to do so, if 
necessary. 

7. In the case of a deceased having no relatives or of a corpse 
not being identified, it shall be the duty of the person who shall find 
same or the Kamnan, Phuyai-Ban or Police of the district to at once 
report the circumstance to the District Registrar. 

8. Persons of Royal blood holding the rank of Mom Chow upwards 
and persons living in Royal palaces shall not be required to be reported to 
the District Registrar, but to the Department of the Royal Household. 



Recent Enactments . 59 



9. On receiving a report of a birth or death the District Registrar 
'shall make entries in the books in the form A and B as per Schedules 
.annexed to these regulations. Thereafter the person giving information 

shall sign or place his thumb mark on the register as proof, and the 
Kegistrar shall deliver the counterfoil No. 2 to the informant. In case 
of Birth, the counterfoil No. 2 shall be kept by the parents or guardians 
•of the child. In case of death the counterfoil No. 2 is used as a permit 
for burial or cremation, to be delivered to the guardian of the grave yard 
•or cremation ground when the burial or cremation takes place. 

10. With regard to the registration of deaths, if the District 
Registrar has reason to suspect that death was caused by violence or 
through infectious diseases he shall forthwith report the case to the Chief 
Registrar, and he shall also detain the permit granted for burial or crema- 
tion until the Medical Officer shall examine the corpse. 

11. It shall not be lawful for guardians of grave yards or cremation 
grounds to allow any person bringing a corpse for burial or cremation 
who does not possess the permit for burial or cremation as provided in 
Section 9, to bury or cremate such corpse. 

It shall be the duty of guardians of such places to report any persons 
illegally doing so (burying or cremating corpses) to the District Registrar 
at the nearest station in order that the person bringing the corpse be 
required to make the report of death, and that he may be prosecuted 
.for his illegal act. , 

12. It shall be the duty of guardians of grave yards or cremation 
grounds to fill up the statements in the permit of burial or cremation of 
corpses for which permits have been granted to bury or cremate and to 
keep such permit. 

Within seven days after the beginning of every month the guardians 
i of every grave yard or cremation ground shall deliver all the permits in 
their custody for the preceding month to the District Registrar of the 
-district where the grave yard or cremation ground is situated. 

13. The District Registrar shall submit lists of births as per 
Schedule marked C and lists of deaths as per Schedule marked D to the 
Chief Registrar. This shall be done once every week not later than 
Wednesday, the particulars being those of the past week from Sunday 
to Saturday inclusive. 

Such lists shall be certified as correct by the District Registrars. 

14. At the end of every year all the District Registrars shall send 
rthese registers to the Chief Registrar. This shall be done within seven 
days after the commencement of a new -year. The Chief Registrar shall 
•be responsible for the safe custody of these registers. 

15. Extracts from the Registers of Births and Deaths may be 
obtained from the Chief Registrar or the District Registrar upon payment 
•of a fee of 1 tical 50 satangs. Such Registrar shall certify the same 
as correct. 

16. Whenever a birth or death is not reported as prescribed by 
Sections 4, 5, or 7, any person whose duty it was to report it shall be 
guilty of a petty offence punishable with fine not exceeding twelve tical s. 

17. Whoever buries or cremates a corpse, before the permit provided 



Recent Enactments . 



in Section 9 be delivered, shall be guilty of a petty offence punishable- 
with fine not exceeding fifty ticals. 

18. Any guardian of grave yards or cremation grounds who 
Allows a corpse to be buried or cremated without production of the 

proper permit, or 

Neglects to make to the District Registrar the report provided in 
Section 11, 

Shall be guilty of a petty offence punishable with fine not exceeding 
fifty ticals. 

19. It shall be the duty of the District Registrar in case of any 
infringement of the provisions of this law to see that the registers are 
corrected and the omitted entries made. 

Dated 13th August, R. S. 1218 (Signed) YOMARAJ, 

Minister for Local Government. 



MINISTERIAL REGULATION 

With regard to the Registration of Persons Removing from one 

District to another in the Province of Bangkok. 

Whereas the Ministerial Regulation with respect to the taking of 
a census in the province of Bangkok dated 17th July, 128, prescribes the 
boundaries of districts and the manner of operation in taking a census 
and is published in the Government Gazette of the 25th July, 128, 
(volume No. 26, page 795). 

And whereas in order to provide for the utmost possible accuracy 
of the said census His Majesty has been graciously pleased to command 
the Minister of Local Government to issue the following further 
regulations. 

1. After the Enumerators shall have made out the lists for the 
census or after they shall have obtained the lists from any house or place, 
it shall be the duty of every person, from such date onwards, who removes 
to any other district where he settles down either as a tenant or builds 
his own house, to report such removal to the Registrar of the district to 
which he removes. The report shall be made within 15 days from the 
date he settles down in the new district. 

2. If, however, such removal takes place within the same district 
or only temporarily, it shall not be necessary to report such removal to 
the officials. 

3. The Ministry concerned is responsible for the notification of 
removals in the case of persons who are in the Government service in 
accordance with the Military Service Law, and in case of officers com- 
manding such persons. 

4. Whoever omits to make the declaration provided in the present 
regulation shall be guilty of a petty offience punishable with fine not 
exceeding 12 ticals. 

Dated this 13th day of August, R. S. 128. 

(Sd.) YOMARAJ, 

Minister of Local Government. 



Rece n I Eytactm en ts . 



EOYAL DECEEE. 



Remitting Old Arrears of Taxes on Fruit Gardens and 

Ordering A New Assessment of the Same for 

Amended Taxation. R. S. 130. 



By the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

According to ancient usage, when a new Reign occurred, it was 
customary to appoint a Royal Commission of eight members to make a 
re-survey of lands under fruit cultivation for the issue of new title-deeds 
and to assess the same for taxation under a tariff to be stated upon the 
title-deeds. Now, the duties of issuing title-deeds have been entrusted 
to a separate Department, and the old Department for Garden Lands has 
been abolished, and the duties of assessment and collection of the tax on 
fruit-bearing trees has been entrusted to the Revenue Departments. 
His Majesty also finds that the fruit trees on which the people have been 
paying tax have not been enumerated since the year 1244 of the Chula 
Era, that is to say over 30 years ago. Since then the country has pro- 
gressed and, land being required for roads and building purposes, many of 
the trees thereon have had to be destroyed ; but nevertheless the owners of 
such land have had to pay tax according to the original assessment 
recorded on their title-deeds issued at that time. This tax, levied on trees 
which in most instances have ceased to exist, is a cause of hardship upon 
the landowners, and the consequence has been that arrears of taxation 
have accumulated. To enforce the payment of these arrears would be 
an injustice and a hardship to the people. 

Wherefore His Majesty, being desirous to promote and encourage 
agriculture in his dominions, has been pleased to decree that all the 
arrears of taxes on fruit gardens between the year 1244 of the Chula Era 
and the year R. S. 129 shall be remitted in favour of the landowners 
'Concerned, towards whom there shall not be any further action taken by 
the authorities on that behalf, and that arrangements shall be made for 
carrying out the enumeration and assessment of fruit-bearing trees for 
taxation under a new tariff from the year R. S. 130 as follows : — 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the Minister of Local Govern- 
ment or the High Commissioner of a Mouthon, as the case may be, to 
appoint a Revenue Officer who shall, in conjunction with the local 
Kromakar Amphur (District Officer) carry out the survey and assessment 
of Fruit Gardens and fruit-bearing trees coming within the scope of the 
Fruit Garden Tax, and to issue to the landowners concerned assessment 
papers on which shall be stated the number of fruit trees and the amount 
of taxation which each shall have to pay in respect of the same. 

Section 2. All fruit-bearing trees wherever planted, save those in 
localities exempted by Royal Sanction, if they be already fruit bearing or 



62 Recent Enactments. 



are -liable to taxation under any tariff to be established under Eoyal' 
Sanction by the Minister or High Commissioner, as the case may be, 
shall be assessed for taxation and the tax duly levied thereon by the com- 
petent authorities. And, also, the former custom of writing off the final 
subsidiary coinage figure of each amount of the tax collected as com^ 
mission on collection shall be henceforth abolished, and the fixed com- 
mission at the rate of 36 Satang per plot of land, as already in practice,, 
be maintained. 

Section 3. In carrying out the assessment in any locality, the 
competent authorities shall issue a notice in advance of not less than 15 
days of the intention to do so to the landowners concerned, who shall in 
person, or by representative, at the time appointed, await the arrival of 
the said authorities and conduct them over their lands and supply every 
information necessary to the work of assessment, and shall receive from 
the said authorities Assessment Papers containing the particulars of the 
tax to be paid. Any landowner failing to conduct and supply such 
information, or failing to appoint a representative to do so, to the com- 
petent authorities, shall be deemed to have committed an offence, and 
be liable to the penalty provided in Section 334 of the Penal Code, 
namely, an imprisonment not exceeding 10 davs or a fine not exceeding 
50 Ticals, or both. 

Section 4. The time and place for the payment of the Fruit Garden 
Tax of any district shall be duly notified by public notice by the com- 
petent authorities, and it shall be the duty of every person having to do 
so to make payment at the time and place so appointed. In case of 
default, the competent authorities shall have power to issue a summons 
against the defaulter and compel him to make payment ; and, in such 
case, power shall be given to the said competent authorities to charge, in 
addition to the amount of the tax to be paid, a fee of 1 Tical as cost for 
the legal process. 

Section 5. In the event that any fruit tjrees under this new- 
assessment be cut down by the owner thereof or be destroyed from any 
cause whatsoever, a report of the same shall be made to the competent 
authorities, accompanied by an application that such trees be withdrawn 
from the Register of taxation. Default in making this report shall render 
the owner of the land concerned liable to pay the tax on the said trees 
until he shall have remedied the default. 

Section 6. The Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Local 
Government in whom the control of the Revenue Departments are vested, 
shall have power to issue such Ministerial Regulations as may be deemed 
necessary for the proper operation of this Decree and establish such 
tariffs of taxation as may be considered suitable to any province or 
district ; and these Regulations, after receiving the annroval of His 
Majesty the King and been duly published in the Government Gazette, 
shall possess all the force and effect as if they formed part of the present 
Royal Decree. 

Given on the '20th day of the month of May, in the year R. S.. 130.;, 
being the 191st day of the Present Reign. 



Recent Enactments. 68 



Tariff Schedule. 

Under Section 6 of the above, the Minister of Local Government has 
framed a tariff of the new tax on fruit trees in Monthon Krung Thep, and 
this tariff has received the Koyal Sanction. It is printed as a schedule 
to the above Decree, and is as follows : — 

Durian trees, stem of 3 kam in circumference, or upwards, at the 
height of 3 sok from the ground — 1 tical per tree. 

Mangosteen trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at the 
height of 1J sok from the ground— 12 satang per tree. 

Lang sat trees — the same as for Mangosteen trees. 

Mango trees, stem of 3 kam in circumference, or upwards, at the 
height of 3 sok from the ground— 12 satang per tree. 

Maprang trees — the same as for Mango trees. 

Coconut trees, from 1 sok in height upwards — 8 satang per tree. 

Tamarind trees, the stem of 3 kam in circumference, or upward, at a 
height of 3 sok from the ground — 6 satang per tree. 

Betel nut trees : — 

Mak-ek — from 3 or 4 wah in height upwards — 2 satang per tree. 
Mak-tho — from 5 to 6 wah in height upwards — 2 satang per tree. 
Mak-tri — from 7 to 8 wah in height upwards — 2 satang per tree. 
Mak-phokarai, when flowering — 2 satang per tree. 

Saton tree, stem of 3 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a height 
of 2 sok from the ground — 2 satang per tree. 

Ngo trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a height 
of 2 sok from the ground — 2 satang per tree. 

Linchee trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a 
height of 1J sok from the ground — 2 satang per tree. 

Lamyai trees — same as for Linchee trees. 

Matoom trees, stem 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a height 
of 1J sok from the ground — 1 satang per tree. 

Guava trees, stem of 1 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a height 
of 1 kiip — 1 satang ner tree 

Mafai trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a height 
of 2 sok — 1 satang per tree. 

Bread-fruit trees, stem of 3 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a 
height of 2 sok — 1 satang per tree. 

Jack- fruit trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a 
height of 2 sok — 1 satang per tree. 

Lamut-thai trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a 
height of 1\ sok — 1 satang per tree. 

Lamut-farang trees, stem of 1 kam in circumference, or upwards, at 
a height of 1 kiip — 1 satang per tree. 



64 Recent Enactments. 



Chomphoo trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a 
height of 1 sok — 1 satang per tree. 

Putsa trees — same as Chomphoo trees. 

Makwit trees, stem of 3 kam in circumference, or upwards, at a 
height of 2 sok — 1 satang per tree. 

Mak lek, from 1 sok in height upwards — 1 satang per 2 trees. 



NATURALIZATION LAW. 

By the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

Whereas it is advisable to make definite rules for the granting of 
Naturalization as one of the various ways in which Siamese nationality 
. may be acquired. 

It is hereby enacted as follows : — 

Chapter I. 
Short title — Execution. 

1. This law shall be cited as the " Naturalization Law 130." 

2. The Minister of Foreign Affairs shall have charge and control of 
the execution of this law. He shall have power to frame regulations for 
such execution , more particularly to prescribe the forms of any applications 
or declarations and the amount of fees to be paid. These regulations, on 
being sanctioned by His Majesty and published in the Government 
Gazette, shall be deemed to be part of this law. 

Chapter II. 
Conditions required for naturalization. 

3. Any alien who complies with the conditions required by articles 
6 and 7 may apply to be naturalized as a Siamese subject. 

4. The grant or refusal of naturalization lies entirely in the discre- 
tion of the Government. 

5. The application shall be made in writing and shall be directed to 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

6. No naturalization may be granted unless : 

(1) The applicant be of full age, both according to the Siamese 
Law and to the law of his nationality ; and 

(2) The applicant be residing in Siam at the time of his applica- 
tion ; and 

(3) The applicant has resided in Siam for not less than five years ; and 

(4) The applicant be a person of good character and in possession of 
-sufficient means of support. 



Recent Enactments . 65 



7. The five years' residence in Siam is not required in the following 
cases : 

(1) If the applicant has rendered services of an exceptional nature 
to the Siamese Government, or 

(2) If the applicant was originally a Siamese subject who has been 
naturalized abroad with the sanction of the Siamese Government, and who 
now desires to resume his Siamese nationality, or 

(3*) If the applicant is a child of an alien who was naturalized as a 
Siamese subject, and if, at the time of the naturalization of such alien, he 
was of full age, both according to the Siamese law and according to the 
law of his nationality. 

8. Naturalization may be granted only on the Eoyal Sanction being 
first obtained. 

9. The Minister of Foreign Affairs on receiving the Eoyal Sanction 
and after the applicant has taken the oath of allegiance, shall issue a 
notification (prakat) to the effect that the applicant has been naturalized as 
a Siamese subject. 

10. The naturalized person shall on request be furnished with a 
certificate embodying the substance of the notification. 

Chapter III. 
Effects of naturalization. 

11. From the date of publication of the notification in the Govern- 
ment Gazette, the naturalized person shall acquire all the rights and shall 
be subject to all obligations attendant upon the status of a Siamese subject. 

12. The wife or wive s__oJ_a^nj^uralize d person become as of right 
Siamese subjects. 

13. Every child of a naturalized person who is not of full age at the 
time of the naturalization becomes as of right a Siamese subject. Provided 
that such child may decline Siamese nationality and resume his former 
nationality by making a declaration of alienage to the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs within one year after attaining full age. 

The declarant shall be entitled to an acknowledgment of the receipt 
of his declaration. 

14. An alien who has been naturalized* in Siam shall not, while 
within the limits of the foreign state of which he was previously a subject, 
be able to take advantage of his Siamese nationality, unless by law of that 
State or by any treaty concluded with it, he is permitted to take such 
advantage. 

In like manner, a Siamese subject who has been naturalized in a 
foreign state shall not, while in Siam, be able to take advantage of his 
status as a naturalized foreign subject unless he has been naturalized with 
the sanction of the Siamese Government. 

15. Every Siamese subject, whether natural-born or naturalized, 
who duly ceases to be a Siamese subject and becomes the subject of a 
foreign state, shall lose the special rights attached to the status of a 
Siamese subject. 

Dated 18th May, 130. 



66 Recent Enactments. 



BANKRUPTCY ACT OF THE YEAR R.S. 130. 



By the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

Whereas it has been thought expedient for the security of trade and 
commerce to extend and improve the bankruptcy law of the Country ; 
It is hereby enacted : 

PRELIMINARY. 



Section 1. 
This law shall be called The Bankruptcy Act E. S. 130. 

Section 2. 
It shall come into force on November 30th, K. S. 130. 

Section 3. 
On and from the day of operation of this Act the following Laws and 
the Regulations issued thereunder shall be repealed : 

(1) The Debtors Act, R. S. 110. 

(2) The Bankruptcy Act, R. S. 127. 

Section 4. 

(1) The Minister of Justice shall appoint such person or persons as he 
may think fit by name or office to be official receivers of bankrupts' estates, 
and may remove any person so appointed from such office. The official 
receivers shall be officers of the Court. They are officials within the 
meaning of the Penal Code. 

(2) The Minister of Justice may from time to time appoint by name 
or office such other officers, either temporary or permanent, as he may 
think necessary for carrying into effect the provisions of this Act, and may 
assign to them such duties as he may think fit, and may remove any such 
officer from office. 

Section 5. 
This Act shall apply to the Monthon of Bangkok only, but its 
provisions may be extended to such other Monthons as shall from time 
to time be specified by notification issued in the Government Gazette. 

Section 6. 
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires : — 

Ordinary resolution ' ' means a resolution decided by a majority 
in value of the creditors present, personally or by proxy, at a meeting 
of creditors and voting on the resolution ; 

" Special resolution " means a resolution decided by a majority 
in number and three-fourths in value of the creditors present, person- 
ally or by proxy, at a meeting of creditors and voting on the 
resolution ; 

Petitioning Creditor ' ' includes any other creditor appointed 
under Section 10 of this Act ; 



Recent Enactments. 67 



" Secured creditor " means a person holding a mortgage charge 
or lien on the property of the bankrupt, or any part thereof, as a 
security for a debt due to him from the bankrupt ; 

"Sheriff " includes any officer charged with the execution of a 
writ or other process ; 

' ' Bankruptcy proceeding ' ' includes all proceedings before the 
Court or before the official receiver from presentation of petition to 
discharge ; 

Bankruptcy proceedings are judicial proceedings within the 
meaning of the Penal Code and of the Law of Civil Procedure. 

"Bankrupt" includes any Promoter, Director, Managing 
Director or employe of a bankrupt Company, provided always that 
the responsibility of such Promoter, Director, Managing Director or 
employe shall extend only to acts done or omissions made by him 
while actually engaged in the promotion or service of the Company. 

PART I. 

PROCEEDINGS FROM PRESENTATION OF 
PETITION TO DISCHARGE. 



Section 7. 
Any creditor who has a liquidated claim of or exceeding Tcs. 1,000 
or any two or more creditors the aggregate amount of whose liquidated 
claims amounts to Tcs. 1,000 may petition the Court praying that, as the 
debtor has suspended payment, he may be adjudged bankrupt. 

Section 8. 
If the petitioning creditor is a secured creditor, he must, in his 
petition, either state that he is willing to give up his security for the 
benefit of the creditors in the event of the debtor being adjudged bankrupt, 
or give an estimate of the value of his security. In the latter case, he 
may be admitted as a petitioning creditor to the extent of the balance of 
the debt due to him after deducting the value so estimated, in the same 
manner as if he were an unsecured creditor. 

Section 9. 

(1) A bankruptcy petition shall be verified by affidavit of the creditor, 
or of some person on his behalf having personal knowledge of the facts 
therein contained : 

(2) On the presentation of a petition the Court shall appoint a day 
and time for the hearing thereof and shall cause at least seven days' notice 
of the same to be served on the debtor, together with a copy of the petition. 

Section 10. 
(1) The petitioning creditor shall upon presentation of a bankruptcy 
petition deposit with the Court the sum of Ticals 50, and shall take active 



68 Recent Enactments . 



interest in the conduct of the bankruptcy proceedings, and he shall assist 
the official receiver to the best of his ability in the realisation of the 
bankrupt's estate. The petitioning creditor shall be liable for all costs, 
damages and expenses incurred in bankruptcy proceedings. The official 
receiver may at any time call upon the petitioning creditor to make such 
further deposit as the official receiver may think necessary to guarantee 
him against any loss. 

(2) Should the petitioning creditor refuse or neglect to assist the 
official receiver in the conduct of the bankruptcy proceedings, or to pay a 
deposit as provided for by this section within seven days from, receipt of a 
notice from the official receiver to that effect, the official receiver may, 
subject to the provisions of this section, appoint any creditor able and 
willing to act to take charge of the proceedings. Prior to his appointment 
such creditor shall deposit security to the satisfaction of the official 
receiver whereupon he shall be treated in all respects as if he were the 
petitioning creditor and be entitled to the costs provided for by Section 57. 

(3) The creditors may at any meeting by an ordinary resolution 
appoint any one of their number able and willing to act to take charge of 
the proceedings in place of the petitioning creditor or other creditor 
appointed by the official receiver. Prior to his appointment such creditor 
shall deposit security to the satisfaction of the official receiver, whereupon 
he shall be treated in all respects as if he were the petitioning creditor 
and be entitled to the costs provided for by Section 57. 

(4) Should the petitioning creditor refuse or neglect to act in the 
manner stated in this section, and should no other creditor be able and 
willing to undertake the duties therein stated, within one month from 
the date of such refusal or neglect by the petitioning creditor as aforesaid 
the official receiver may report the same to the Court, whereupon the 
Court may annul the bankruptcy or make such other order as the Court 
may think fit. 

Section 11. 

(1) The Court shall on the application of the petitioning creditor, and 
subject to the deposit of such security as the Court may think fit, at any 
time after the presentation of a bankruptcy petition, and before a bank- 
ruptcy order is made, appoint the official receiver to be interim receiver of 
the property of the debtor, and direct him to take immediate possession 
thereof. 

(2) When an interim receiver has been appointed before the making 
of a bankruptcy order the date of such appointment shall for the purposes 
of this Act be deemed to be the date of the bankruptcy order. 

Section 12. 

(1) Any creditor of a deceased debtor whose debt would have been 
sufficient to support a bankruptcy petition against such debtor, had he 
been alive, may, within six months from date of death, present to the 
Court a petition praying for an order for the administration of the estate 
of the deceased debtor, according to the law of bankruptcy. 

The Court shall order service to be made on the heirs or administrator 
or other person having the custody of the estate of the deceased. 



Recent Enactments. 69 



(2) The Court shall hold an inquiry, and, if satisfied that the estate 
of the deceased is insolvent, shall make an order of bankruptcy against 
the estate of the deceased, and the liquidation of the estate shall be 
carried out according to the provisions of this Act as far as is possible, 
under the circumstances. 

Section 13. 

(1) At the hearing of the petition the Court shall require proof of : 

(a) The debt of the petitioning creditor. 

(b) Suspension of payment by the debtor. 

(c) The service of the petition. 

(2) If satisfied with the proof the Court shall adjudge the debtor 
bankrupt. 

(3) If the Court is not satisfied with the proof of the matters above- 
mentioned or is satisfied by the debtor that he is able to pay his debts, 
or that for other sufficient cause no order ought to be made, the Court 
may dismiss the petition and annul the interim receiving order, if any. 

(4) If the Court is satisfied by the debtor that the causes of his 
suspension of payment are temporary and that there is a reasonable 
probability of his being able to pay his debts in full, it may give the debtor 
a respite for a period not exceeding one year, upon such terms as the 
Court may think fit. 

(5) Where the debtor appears on the petition and denies that he is 
indebted to the petitioner, or that he is indebted to such amount as would 
justify the petitioner in presenting a petition against him, the Court may 
on such security if any being given by or on behalf of the debtor as the 
Court may require for payment to the petitioner of any debt which may 
be established against the debtor in due course of law, and of the costs of 
establishing the debt, stay all proceedings on the petition for such time as 
may be required for trial of the question relating to the debt. 

(6) Where proceedings are stayed, the Court may adjudge the debtor 
bankrupt on the petition of some other creditor, and shall thereupon 
dismiss, on such terms as it thinks fit, the petition in which proceedings 
have been stayed as aforesaid. 

(7) A bankruptcy petition shall not after presentation be withdrawn 
without the leave of the Court. 

Section 14. 
During the period which extends from the making of the interim 
receiving order or bankruptcy order up to the annulment of 'such order or 
to the end of the bankruptcy proceedings, the following rules apply : — 

1. — All the property of the bankrupt is vested in the official 
receiver, including any property which may accrue Lo the bankrupt 
by inheritance, gift, or otherwise ; 

2. — The official receiver is the only person who may legally deal 
with the property of the bankrupt and who may legally receive any 
money or other property due to the bankrupt ; 



70 Recent Enactments. 



3. — The official receiver is entitled to" collect any monies or 
other properties due to the bankrupt by any banker, treasurer, 
attorney or agent or by any other person. He is entitled to com- 
promise claims, to bring or defend any action relating to the 
property of the bankrupt and to do any such act as may be necessary 
for a beneficial settlement of the affairs of the bankrupt ; 

4. — The official receiver is substituted to the bankrupt in all 
pending actions in which the bankrupt is a plaintiff, defendant or 
intervener, and which relate to the property of the bankrupt ; 

5. — Creditors to whom the bankrupt is indebted in respect of any 
debt provable in bankruptcy have no other remedy against the 
property or person of the bankrupt than the remedies described in 
this Act ; 

6. — All acts done by the bankrupt in respect to his property or 
affairs are invalid, except acts done under the directions of a meeting 
of creditors or of the official receiver, as provided in Sections 23 
and 38. 

Section 15. 

On a bankruptcy order being made, the bankrupt shall, within 
twenty-four hours after service of the same, file an affidavit in the office 
of the official receiver containing a true and correct statement of the 
names and residences of all the partners, if any, in his business. If the 
debtor alleges he has no partners, he shall within the time before 
specified file an affidavit to that effect. Such statement shall for the 
purposes of this Act be deemed to be part of the debtor's statement of 
his affairs referred to in Section 20 hereof. 

Section 16. 

On an interim receiving order or bankruptcy order being made, 
the interim receiver or official receiver shall forthwith take possession of 
any property, seals, books or documents of the bankrupt being in posses- 
sion of the bankrupt or of any third person. 

The interim receiving order or bankruptcy order is equivalent to a 
warrant of the Court ordering any property, seals, books or documents 
of the bankrupt being in possession of the bankrupt or of any third person 
to be seized and delivered to the interim receiver or official receiver. 

Section 17. 
In any of the undermentioned cases the Court may, on or after 
granting an interim receiving order or bankruptcy order, order the debtor 
to be arrested and detained until he shall give security to the satisfaction 
of the Court, or until such time as the Court may think fit : 

a. If it appears to the Court that there is probable cause for 
believing that the debtor has absconded or is about to abscond with 
a view of avoiding, delaying or embarrassing proceedings in bank- 
ruptcy against him. 

b. If it appears to the Court that there is probable cause for 
believing that the debtor has committed or is about to commit any 
of the offences punishable under this Act. 



Recent Enactments. 71 



Provided that the debtor before or at the time of his arrest is served 
with a copy of the bankruptcy petition. 

The cost of maintaining any person in prison under this section shall 
be prepaid by the applicant from time to time to the official receiver on 
behalf of the gaol authority. 

Section 18. 

(1) The official receiver shall upon receiving notice of his appointment 
insert a notice of the interim receiving order or bankruptcy order in the 
Government Gazette, and advertise the same in such local papers as he 
may think necessary. 

(2) The notice of a bankruptcy order shall specify that the creditors 
*of the bankrupt must apply for payment to the official receiver within 
two months. 

Section 19. 
The bankrupt shall, on being notified of a bankruptcy order or 
interim receiving order, deliver to the official receiver or interim receiver 
all his property, together with the seals, books, and other documents in 
his possession relating to his property or affairs. 

Section 20. 
The bankrupt shall, within seven days from the date of service of 
.the bankruptcy order or such further time as the official receiver may 
allow, make out and submit to the official receiver a statement of and in 
relation to his affairs in the prescribed form, verified by an affidavit, and 
showing the cause of the bankrupt's insolvency, full particulars of assets, 
debts, and liabilities, the names, residences, and occupations of his 
creditors, the securities held by them respectively, the dates when the 
securities were respectively given, and such further or other information 
as the official receiver may require. 

Section 21. 

(1) As soon as may be after the making of a bankruptcy order 
: against a debtor a general meeting of his creditors (in this Act referred 
to as the first meeting of the creditors) shall be held for the purpose of 
•considering whether a proposal, for a composition shall be entertained, 
and generally as to the mode of dealing with the bankrupt's property. 

(2) The official receiver shall give to the creditors seven days' notice 
•of the first and all subsequent meetings of creditors. 

(3) Every debtor against whom a bankruptcy order is made shall 
attend the first and all subsequent meetings of his creditors, and shall 
submit to such examination and give such information as the meeting 
may require. 

Section 22. 

(1) A creditor may vote at a-meeting of creditors either in person or 
by proxy. 

(2) No creditor or any person acting under a proxy shall vote in 
.favour of any resolution which would directly or indirectly place himself, 



72 Recent Enactments. 



his partner or principal, in a position to receive any remuneration out of 
the estate of the bankrupt otherwise than as a creditor rateably with the 
other creditors of the bankrupt. 

Section 23. 
The creditors may by ordinary resolution at any meeting appoint 
any person or persons (including the bankrupt) manager or managers of 
the bankrupt's estate with such powers as may be entrusted to him or 
them by the official receiver. 

(1) The manager or managers shall give security and account in such 
manner as the official receiver may direct. 

(2) The manager or managers may receive such remuneration (if any) 
as the creditors by an ordinary resolution at any meeting may determine, 
or in default of any such resolution as the official receiver may determine. 

Section 24. 

(1) As soon as conveniently may be after the conclusion of the first 
meeting of the creditors, the bankrupt shall be examined by the Court as 
to his conduct, dealings and property. 

(2) The official receiver shall give seven days' notice to the bankrupt 
and creditors of the date fixed for the public examination of the bankrupt. 

(3) Any creditor who has tendered a proof, or his representative 
authorized in writing, may question the bankrupt concerning his affairs, 
and. the causes of his failure. 

(4) The official receiver shall take part in the examination of the bank- 
rupt ; and for the purpose thereof may employ a solicitor or attorney. 

(5) The bankrupt shall be examined upon oath, and it shall be his 
duty to answer all such questions as the Court may put or allow to be 
put to him. Notes of the examination shall be taken down in writing, 
and read over to and signed by the bankrupt, and may thereafter be used 
in evidence against him. A certified copy thereof shall be sent by the 
Court to the official receiver. 

(6) When the Court is of opinion that the affairs of the bankrupt 
have been sufficiently investigated, it shall by order declare that his 
examination is concluded ; but such order shall not preclude the Court 
from directing a further examination of the bankrupt as to his conduct, 
dealings, and property whenever it thinks fit to do so. 

Section 25. 

Where the bankrupt is a lunatic or suffers from any such mental 
or physical affliction or disability as in the opinion of the Court makes 
him unfit to attend his public examination, the Court may make an order 
dispensing with such examination, or directing that the bankrupt be 
examined on such terms, in such manner and at such place as to the 
Court seems expedient. 

Section 26. 

(1) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that the 
debts of the bankrupt have been paid in full the Court shall annul the 



Recent Enactments. 73 



bankruptcy and make 6 such order as to the payment of the costs of the 
bankruptcy proceedings as it may think fit. 

(2) Where a bankruptcy is annulled under this section all acts 
thereunder duly done by the official receiver or other person acting under 
his authority or by the Court shall be valid, but the property of the debtor 
who was adjudged bankrupt shall revert to the debtor. 

(3) The official receiver shall cause notice of the order annulling a 
bankruptcy to be inserted in the Government Gazette and published in at 
least one local paper. 

(4) For the purposes of this section any debt disputed by a debtor 
shall be considered as paid in full if the debtor enters into a bond with 
such sureties as the Court approves to pay the amount of the debt with 
costs. 

Any debt due to a creditor who cannot be found or cannot be identified 
shall be considered as paid in full if paid into. Court. 

Section 27. 

(1) A bankrupt may, at any time after the conclusion of his public 
examination, apply to the Court for an order of discharge, and the Court 
shall appoint a day for hearing the application in open Court. 

(2) Prior to the application for his order of discharge the bankrupt 
shall deposit with the official receiver such sum not exceeding 50 ticals 
as the official receiver may consider necessary to cover the cost and 
expenses of and incidental to the application for discharge. 

(3) The official receiver shall send fourteen days' notice of the date 
of the hearing of the aT3plication for discharge to each creditor who has 
proved, and advertise the same in the Government Gazette and at least 
one local paper, and the Court may hear the official receiver, and any 
creditor or his representative. At the hearing the Court may examine the 
bankrupt on oath and receive such evidence as it may think fit. 

(4) On the hearing of the application the Court shall take into 
consideration a report of the official receiver as to the bankrupt's conduct 
and affairs prior to and during his bankruptcy, and may either grant or 
refuse an absolute order of discharge or suspend the operation of the order 
for a specified time or grant an order of discharge subject to any condition 
the Court may think fit. Provided that the Cdurt shall refuse the 
discharge in all cases where the bankrupt has committed any offence under 
this Act, unless for special reasons the Court otherwise determines, and 
shall, on proof of any of the facts mentioned in (5), either 

(a) refuse the discharge ; or 

(b) suspend the discharge for a period of not less than two 
years ; or 

(c) suspend the discharge until a dividend of not less than fifty 
per cent, has been paid to the creditors ; or 

(d) require the bankrupt as a condition of his discharge to 
consent to judgment being entered against him by the official receiver 
for any balance or part of any balance of the debts provable under 
the bankruptcy which is not satisfied at the date of discharge ; such 



774 Recent Enactments. 



balance or part of any balance of the debts to be paid out of the 
future earnings or after acquired property of the bankrupt in such 
manner and subject to such conditions as the Court may direct ; but 
execution shall not be issued on the judgment without leave of the 
Court, which leave may be given on proof that the bankrupt has since 
his discharge acquired property or income available towards pay- 
ment of his debts. 

Provided, that if at any time after the expiration of two years from 
-the date of any order made under the section the bankrupt shall satisfy 
the Court that he is unable to comply with the terms of such order, the 
•Court may modify the terms of the order in such manner and upon such 
'Conditions as it may think fit. 

(5) The facts referred to in (4) are : — 

(a) That the bankrupt's assets are not of the value equal to 
fifty per cent, of the amount of his unsecured liabilities, unless he 
satisfies the Court that the reason for the same has arisen from 
circumstances for which he cannot justly be held responsible ; 

(6) That the bankrupt has omitted to keep such books of account 
as are usual and proper in the business carried on by him and as 
sufficiently disclose his business transactions and financial position 
within the three years immediately preceding his bankruptcy ; 

(c) That the bankrupt has continued to trade after knowing 
himself to be insolvent ; 

(d) That the bankrupt has contracted any debt provable in the 
bankruptcy without having at the time of contracting it any reason- 
able or probable ground of expectation (proof whereof shall lie on 
him) of being able to pay it ; 

(e) That the bankrupt has failed to account satisfactorily for any 
loss of assets or for any deficiency of assets to meet his liabilities ; 

(/) That the bankrupt has brought on, or contributed to, his 
bankruptcy by rash or hazardous speculations, or by unjustifiable 
extravagance in living, or by gambling, or by culpable neglect of his 
business affairs ; 

(g) That the bankrupt has put any of his creditors to unnecessary 
expense by a frivolous or vexatious defence to any action properly 
brought against him ; 

(h) That the bankrupt has within three months preceding the 
date of the bankruptcy petition incurred unjustifiable expense by 
bringing a frivolous or vexatious action ; 

(i) That the bankrupt has within three months preceding the date 
of the bankruptcy petition, when unable to pay his debts as they 
became due, given an undue preference to any of his creditors ; 

(j) That the bankrupt has within three months preceding the 
date of the bankruptcy petition incurred liabilities with a view of 
making his assets equal to fifty per cent, of the amount of his 
unsecured liabilities ; 

(k) That the bankrupt has on any previous occasion been adjudged 
^bankrupt , or made a composition with his creditors ; 

(I) That the bankrupt has been guilty of any fraud ; 



Recent Enactments. 75 



(m) That the bankrupt has within three months immediately 
preceding the date of the bankruptcy petition sent goods out of the 
jurisdiction of the Court under circumstances which afford reasonable 
grounds for believing that the transaction was not a bona fide com- 
mercial transaction. 

Section 28. 

For the purposes of the preceding section the following presumptions 
shall be made : — 

(a) If at any time after the expiration of six months from the 
date of the bankruptcy order the official receiver reports to the Court 
that the value of the assets realised together with the estimated 
value of the assets realisable is insufficient to pay a dividend of fifty 
per cent, on the debts proved in the bankruptcy, it shall be presumed 
(until the contrary be proved) that the bankrupt has continued to 
trade after knowing or having reason to believe himself to be 
insolvent ; 

(b) In. determining whether a bankrupt was or knew or had 
reason to believe himself to be insolvent at any particular date, every 
debt owing to him by any person resident out of the jurisdiction 
which debt had been at such date due for more than twelve months 
shall be excluded from the computation of the value of the assets 
and for the purpose of such computation shall be deemed not to be 
an asset. 

(c) A bankrupt shall be deemed to have continued to trade after 
knowing or having reason to believe himself to be insolvent if, 
having continued to trade after he was in fact insolvent : 

(I) he is unable to satisfy the Court that he had reasonable 

ground for believing himself to be solvent ; or 

(II) he fails without reasonable excuse (proof whereof shall lie 
on him) to produce a proper balance-sheet for each of the 
three years immediately preceding the bankruptcy ; every 
such balance-sheet being made within a reasonable time 
after the expiration of the year to which it relates and 
showing the true state of his affairs at the end of such year. 

(d) Any preference given by the bankrupt to any creditor within 
the three months immediately preceding the date of the bankruptcy 
petition shall (until the contrary be proved) be deemed to be undue. 

Section 29. 

(1) A discharged bankrupt shall, notwithstanding his discharge, give 
such assistance as the official receiver may require in the realization and 
distribution of such of his property as is vested in the official receiver, and 
if he fails to do so he shall be guilty of a contempt of Court ; and the 
Court may also, if it thinks fit, revoke his discharge, but without 
prejudice to the validity of anything duly done subsequent to the dis- 
charge, but before its revocation. 

(2) An order of discharge shall not release the bankrupt from any 
debt on a recognizance, nor from any debt with which the bankrupt may 
be chargeable at the suit of the Crown or of any person for any offence 



76 Recent Enactments. 



against a statute relating to any branch of the public revenue, or on a bail 
bond entered into for the appearance of any person prosecuted for any 
such offence, unless the Ministry of Finance certify in writing their 
consent to his being discharged therefrom. An order of discharge shall 
not release the bankrupt from any debt or liability not provable in bank- 
ruptcy or any debt or liability incurred by means of any fraud nor from 
any debt or liability whereof he has obtained forbearance by any fraud 
to which he was a party. 

(3) An order of discharge shall release the bankrupt from all other 
debts provable in bankruptcy. 

(4) An order of discharge shall be conclusive evidence of the bank- 
ruptcy, and of the validity of the proceedings therein, and in any pro- 
ceedings that may be instituted against a bankrupt who has obtained an 
order of discharge in respect of any debt from which he is released by the 
order, the bankrupt may plead that the cause of action occurred before his 
discharge and may give this Act and the special matter in evidence. 

(5) An order of discharge shall not release any person who at the 
date of the bankruptcy petition was a partner or co-trustee with the 
bankrupt or was jointly bound or had made any joint contract with him, or 
any person who was surety or in the nature of a surety for him. 

Section 30. 

(1) Where a bankrupt has not obtained his discharge the following 
consequences shall ensue : — 

(a) The bankrupt shall be incompetent to maintain any action 
(other than an action for damages in respect of an injury to his 
person) without the previous sanction in writing of the official 
receiver. 

(b) The bankrupt shall once in every six months render to the 
official receiver an account of all money and property which have 
come to his hands for his own use during the preceding six months, 
and shall pay and make over to the official receiver so much of the 
same moneys and property as shall not have been expended by 
him with the consent of the official receiver in the necessary expenses, 
of maintenance of himself and family. 

(c) The bankrupt shall not leave the jurisdiction of the Court 
without the previous permission in writing of the official receiver or 
of the Court. 

(2) The bankrupt who makes default in performing or observing any 
of the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of an offence 
under this Act, and shall be liable to imprisonment not exceeding three 
months. 

Section 3] . 

(1) When the official receiver has realised all the property of the 
bankrupt, or so much thereof as can in his opinion be realised without 
needlessly protracting the proceedings in bankruptcy, and has distributed 
a final dividend (if any), or has ceased to act by reason of a composition 
having been approved, he shall file' a report to the Court containing an 
account of all moneys of the bankrupt received and expended by him and 



Recent Enactments. 77 



praying to be released from his duties as official receiver. The Court shall 
either grant or withhold the release accordingly. 

(2) Where the release is withheld the Court may, save as is herein- 
before provided on the application of a creditor or any person interested, 
make such order as it thinks just, charging the official receiver with the 
consequences of any act done or default made by him contrary to his 
duties. 

(3) Any order of the Court releasing the official receiver shall discharge 
him from all liability in respect of any act done or default made by him 
in the administration of the affairs of the bankrupt or otherwise in relation 
to his conduct as official receiver. 

Section 32. 
Any creditor of a bankrupt may inspect at all reasonable times person- 
ally or by agent any books, papers or documents of the bankruptcy in the 
possession of the official receiver, and take -any copy thereof. 

Section 33. 

Notice of the first meeting of creditors shall be given in writing by the 
official receiver to each creditor known to him, and advertised in a local 
paper. 

Other notices to creditors may be given by letter or by advertisement 
in a local paper, as the official receiver may think fit. 



PART II. 

BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS AGAINST PARTNEKSHIPS. 



Section 34. 

Whenever a bankruptcy petition is made against a partnership, an 
interim receiver shall be appointed for the property of the persons who are 
designated in the petition as being partners in such partnership, provided 
there be prima facie evidence that they are partners. 

The Court may subject the appointment of an interim receiver for the 
property of a separate partner to the deposit by the petitioning creditor of 
such security as the Court may think fit for covering eventual com- 
pensation. 

Should it be found afterwards that the person for whose property an 
interim receiver was appointed was not a partner in the partnership, the 
Court shall withdraw the appointment. If the said person has suffered 
any injury by reason of the appointment of the interim receiver the Court 
may grant him compensation for such injury, to be paid by the petitioning 
creditor, or out of the estate of the bankrupt, as the Court shall direct. 

Section 35. 
When a bankruptcy order is made against a partnership in the part- 
nership name, the Court shall at that time or on a subsequent motion of 
the petitioning creditor, or on application of the official receiver, adjudge 



78 Recent Enactments. 



bankrupt as a member of the partnership any person who is proved to 
the satisfaction of the Court to be a partner. 

Section 36. 
If the partnership is registered, a certified copy of the list of partners 
delivered by the proper Registrar shall be conclusive evidence that a person 
is a partner in such partnership. 

Section 37. 
If the partnership is a limited one, no partners with limited liability 
may be declared bankrupt unless it is proved to the satisfaction of the 
Court that such partner has not paid his contribution in full. 

PART III 

REALISATION OF ASSETS. 



Section 38. 

(1) The bankrupt shall wait at such times on the official receiver, or 
manager, and generally do all such acts in relation to his property and the 
distribution of the proceeds amongst his creditors, as may be required by 
the official receiver, or manager, or may be prescribed by general rule*, 
or be directed by the Court by any special order made in reference to any 
particular case. 

(2) He shall aid to the utmost of his power in the realization of his 
property and the distribution of the proceeds amongst his creditors, and 
amongst other things shall be bound if required by the official receiver so 
to do to answer all such questions and to submit to such medical examina- 
tion and to do all such other things as may be necessary for the purpose 
of effecting an insurance on his life. 

Section 39. 

(1) The Court may, on the application of the official receiver, or the 
official receiver may at any time after a bankruptcy order has been made 
against a debtor, summon before it or him and examine the bankrupt or 
his wife, or any person known or suspected to have in his possession any 
property belonging to the bankrupt, or any person whom the Court or 
the official Receiver may deem capable of giving information respecting 
the bankrupt, his dealings or property, and the Court or the official 
receiver may require any such person to produce any document in his 
custody or power relating to the bankrupt, his dealings or property. 

(2) If any person on examination before the Court or by the official 
receiver admits that he has in his possession any property belonging to 
the bankrupt, the Court may, on the application of the official receiver, 
order him to deliver such property to the official receiver. 

Section 40. 
(1) The official receiver shall as soon as may be after a bankruptcy 
order has been made against a debtor prepare and file in Court a list of 



Recent Enactments . 79 



persons supposed to be indebted to the bankrupt with the amounts in 
which they are supposed to be so indebted set opposite to their names 
respectively. Before finally settling the name and the amount of the 
debt of any person on such list the official receiver shall give fourteen 
days' notice in writing to such person stating that he has placed such 
person upon the list of debtors to the estate in the amount in the notice 
specified, and that unless such person on or before the expiration of such 
notice gives to the official receiver notice in writing of his intention to- 
dispute his indebtedness he will be deemed to admit that the amount set 
opposite his name in such list is due and owing by him to the bankrupt 
and will be settled on such list accordingly. 

(2) A person included in such list who does not give notice of his 
intention to dispute his indebtedness within the time limited in that 
behalf shall be settled upon such list, and the Court may on the applica- 
tion of the official receiver issue a warrant of execution against him 
for the amount set opposite his. name in such list in the same way as if 
judgment had been entered up against him for such amount in favour 
of the official receiver. 

(3) A person alleged to be indebted to the bankrupt as aforesaid 
may, within the time fixed in the notice, apply to the Court by motion 
for leave to dispute his indebtedness or the amount thereof and the 
Court may if it thinks lit make such order for determining the question 
as may seem expedient upon such person giving such security for costs 
and for the alleged debt as may seem reasonable. 

Section 41. 

The official receiver may within three months of the receipt of 
notice of any onerous contract or property which has become vested in 
him disclaim the same, and any person injured by the operation of such 
disclaimer may prove as a creditor under the bankruptcy to the extent 
of the injury. 

Section 42. 

(1) The property of the bankrupt divisible among his creditors, 
shall not comprise the tools (if any) of his trade and the necessary 
wearing apparel and bedding" of himself, his wife and children, to a 
value inclusive of tools and apparel and bedding not exceeding Ticals 
100 in the whole. 

(2) But it shall comprise all goods being, at the commencement of the 
bankruptcy, in the possession, order or disposition of the bankrupt, in his 
trade or business, by the consent and permission of the true owner, under 
such circumstances that he is the reputed owner thereof. 

Section 43. 
Any person acting under warrant of the Court may seize any 
part of the property of a bankrupt in the custody or possession of the 
bankrupt or of any other person, and with a view to such seizure may 
break open any house, building, or room pf the bankrupt where the- 
bankrupt is supposed to be, or any building or receptacle of the bankrupt 
where any of his property is supposed to be ; and where* the Court is- 



80 Recent Enactments. 



satisfied that there is reason to believe that property of the bankrupt is 
concealed in a house or place not belonging to him, the Court may, if it 
thinks fit, grant a search warrant to any constable or officer of the Court, 
who may execute it according to its tenon r. 

Section 44. 

(1) Where under an execution in respect of a judgment for a sum 
exceeding Ticals 200, the goods of a debtor are sold or money is paid in 
order to avoid sale, the sheriff shall deduct therefrom his costs together 
with the costs of the execution creditor, and retain the balance for fourteen 
days, and if within that time notice is served on him of the presentation of 
a bankruptcy petition against the debtor, and a receiving order is made 
against the debtor thereon, the sheriff shall pay the balance to the official 
receiver to be part of the estate of the bankrupt. 

(2) Should any property of the bankrupt have been attached or 
seized in the hand of the sheriff at the request of the creditor of the 
bankrupt, the sheriff shall, on notification of the bankruptcy order, sell 
such property and deliver the proceeds to the official receiver, deducting 
therefrom the costs and expenses properly incurred by the creditor, calcu- 
lated on the amount actually realised by execution. 

The creditor may prove in bankruptcy for the balance of such costs 
and expenses. 

Section 45. 
(1) The Court shall on the application of the official receiver declare 
null and void as against the official receiver any conveyance or transfer of 
property made by the bankrupt within two years prior to the date of the 
bankruptcy order unless the transferee can show to the satisfaction of the 
Court that such conveyance or transfer was entered into in good faith and 
for valuable consideration. 

Section 46. 
Every transfer or conveyance of property or every act done or 
suffered by the bankrupt with a view of giving any one or more creditor 
or creditors preference over the other creditors shall, if the bankrupt be- 
ad] udged bankrupt on a bankruptcy petition presented against him within 
three months after the date of such transfer or conveyance be deemed void 
as against the official receiver. Provided that nothing in this section shall 
affect the right of any person making title in good faith without notice of 
such bankruptcy petition and for valuable consideration through or under 
a creditor of the bankrupt. 

Section 47. 
Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Act with respect to the 
effect of bankruptcy on an execution or attachment, and with respect to 
the avoidance of certain preferences, nothing in this Act shall invalidate, 
in the case of bankruptcy, 

(a) Any payment by the bankrupt to any of his creditors ; 

(b) Any payment or delivery to the bankrupt ; 

(c) Any transaction by or with the bankrupt for valuable con- 

sideration : — 



Recent Enactments. 81 



Provided that 

(1) Such payment or transaction took place before the bankruptcy 
order, and 

(2) At the time of the payment or transaction such person other 
than the bankrupt has no notice of the suspension of payment on 
which the bankruptcy petition was founded. 



PART IV. 

PKOOF OF DEBTS. 



Section 48. 
The creditors of the bankrupt are allowed two months time from 
date of publication of the bankruptcy order in the Government Gazette 
to apply by affidavit to the official receiver for payments of their debts. 

Section 49. 

(1) Every affidavit shall be made by the creditor himself, or by some 
person authorized on his behalf. If made by a person so authorized, it- 
shall state his authority and means of knowledge. 

(2) The affidavit shall contain or refer to a statement of account 
showing the particulars of the debts, and specifying the vouchers, if any, 
by which the same can be substantiated. The official receiver may at any 
time call for the production of the vouchers. 

(3) A fee of four ticals shall be paid on each affidavit in support of 
proof of debt. 

(4) A creditor shall bear the cost of proving his debt, unless the 
Court otherwise specially orders. 

Section 50. 
Where there have been mutual credits, mutual debts, or other 
mutual dealings between a bankrupt and any other person proving or 
claiming to prove a debt under the bankruptcy, an account shall be 
taken of what is due from the one party to the other in respect of such 
mutual dealings, and the sum due from the one party shall be set off 
against'any sum due from the other party, and the balance of the account, 
and no more, shall be claimed or paid on either side respectively. 

Section 51. 
The following creditors cannot nrove in bankruptcy : — 

(1) Creditors who at the time when the debt was contracted knew 
that a bankruptcy petition had been presented against the debtor. 

(2) Creditors who did not apply by affidavit to the official 
receiver within the time limited. 

Section 52. 
(1) If a secured creditor realizes his security he may prove for the 
balance due to him, after deducting the net amount realized. 



82 Recent Enactments. 



(2) If a secured creditor surrenders his security to the official receiver 
for the general benefit of the creditors, he may prove for his whole debt. 

(3) If a secured creditor does not either realize or surrender his 
security, he shall, before ranking for dividend, state in his proof the 
particulars of his security, the date when it was given, and the value at 
which he assesses it, and shall be entitled to receive a dividend only in 
respect of the balance due to him after deducting the value so assessed. 

(4) (a) Where a security is so valued the official receiver may at any 
time redeem it on payment to the creditor of the assessed value. 

(b) If the official receiver is dissatisfied with the value at which a 
security is assessed, he may require that the property comprised in any 
security so valued be offered for sale by public auction at such time and 
place as may be agreed on between the creditor and the official receiver, 
or in default of agreement as the Court may direct. The creditor, or the 
official receiver on behalf of the estate, may bid or purchase. 

(5) If a creditor after having valued his security subsequently realizes 
it, or if it be realized under the provisions of this section, the net amount 
realized shall be substituted for the amount of any valuation previously 
made by the creditor, and shall be treated in all respects as an amended 
valuation made by the creditor. 

(6) If a secured creditor does not comply with the foregoing rules, he 
shall be excluded from all share in any dividend. 

Section 53. 

(1) An estimate shall be made by the official receiver of the value 
of any unliquidated debt or liability provable as aforesaid. 

(2) Any person aggrieved by any estimate made by the official 
receiver as aforesaid may appeal to the Court within fourteen days from 
the date of notice of the official receiver's estimate, and the Court shall 
make such order as it thinks fit. 

(3) If, in the opinion of the Court, the value of the debt or liability 
is incapable of being fairly estimated, the Court may make an order to 
that effect, and thereupon the debt or liability shall, for the purposes of 
this Act, be deemed to be a debt not provable in bankruptcy. 

Section 54. 

(1) On any debt or sum certain, payable at a certain time or otherwise,, 
whereon interest is not reserved or agreed for and which is overdue at the 
date of the adjudication order and provable in bankruptcy, the creditor 
may prove for interest at a rate not exceeding seven and a half per centum 
per annum to the date of the order from the time when the debt or sum 
was payable, if the debt or sum is payable by virtue of a written instru- 
ment at a certain time , and if payable otherwise , then from the time when 
a demand in writing has been made giving the debtor notice that interest 
will be claimed from the date of the demand until the time of payment. 

(2) Where a debt has been proved against a bankrupt's estate and 
such debt includes interest, or any pecuniary consideration in lieu of 
interest, such interest or consideration shall, for the purposes of dividend, 
be calculated at a rate not exceeding seven and a half per centum per 
annum, without prejudice to the right of the creditor to receive out of the 



Recent Enactments. 83 



estate any higher rate of interest to which he . may be entitled after all 
the debts proved in the estate have been paid in full. 

Section 55. 

(1) The official receiver shall examine every proof and the grounds of 
the debt, and in writing admit or reject it, in whole or in part, or require 
further evidence in support of it. If he rejects a proof he shall state in 
writing to the creditor the grounds of the rejection. 

(2) If any creditor is dissatisfied with the decision of the official 
receiver in respect of a proof, he may appeal to the Court within fourteen 
days from the time when he is informed of the decision of the official 
receiver. Such appeal shall be made by motion, but the creditor shall 
pay the two and a half percentage fees and all the other usual fees of an 
ordinary action on the amount in dispute. 

(3) The Court may also expunge or reduce a proof upon the application 
of a creditor if the official receiver declines to interfere in the matter, or in 
the case of a composition, upon the application of the debtor. 

PART V. 

' DISTRIBUTION OF PKOPEETY. 



Section 56. 

(1) Subject to the retention of such sums as may be necessary for 
the costs of administration, or otherwise, the official receiver shall, with 
all convenient speed, declare and distribute dividends amongst the 
creditors who have proved their debts. 

(2) Before declaring a dividend, the official receiver shall cause seven 
days' notice of his intention to do so to be inserted in the Government 
Gazette and advertised in a local paper. 

(3) When the official receiver has declared a dividend he shall send 
to each creditor who has proved his debt a notice showing the amount of 
the dividend and when and how it is payable. 

(4) No dividend shall be paid to any creditor which does not amount 
to one tical. 

Section 57. 

(1) In the distribution of the property of the bankrupt, there shall be 
paid in priority to all other debts and in the following order : — 

(a) All expenses actually incurred by the official receiver in the 
administration of the estate. 

(b) A five per cent, commission on the net assets of the estate 
realized in bankruptcy or under a composition. 

(c) Such costs of the petitioning creditor including attorney's 
fees, as shall be allowed by the Court or the official receiver. 

(2) Subject to the payment in full of the foregoing there shall there- 
after be r>aid equally between themselves : — 

(a) All land property or other taxes (or any local rates), due from 
the bankrupt at the date of the bankruptcy order and having become 
due and payable within six months next before that time. 

(6) All wages or salary of any clerk, servant or workman of the 
bankrupt for the two months immediately preceding the elate of the 
bankruptcy order not exceeding Ticals 300. 



84 Recent Enactments. 



(c) All rent due in respect of any dwelling house and premises in 
the occupation of the bankrupt for the two months immediately 
preceding the date of the bankruptcy order. 

Section 58. 

(1) All debts proved in the bankruptcy other than those described in 
Section 57 shall be pari passu. 

(2) If there is any surplus after payment of the debts, it shall be 
applied in payment of interest from the elate of the bankruptcy order at 
the rate of seven and a half per centum per annum on all debts proved in 
the bankruptcy. 

(3) In the calculation and distribution of a dividend the official 
receiver shall make provision for any disputed proofs or claims and for 
the expenses necessary for the administration of the estate or other- 
wise, and, subject to the foregoing provisions, he shall distribute as 
dividend all money in hand. 

Section 59. 
When the official receiver has realised all the property of the bank- 
rupt, or so much thereof as can be realized without needlessly protracting 
the proceedings, he shall declare a final dividend, but before so doing he 
shall give fourteen days' notice to the persons whose claims to be creditor* 
have been notified to him within the two months' period, but not estab- 
lished to his satisfaction , that if they do not establish their claims within 
such time, he will proceed to make a final dividend without regard to 
their claims. 

Section 60. 

(1) Before declaring a final dividend the official receiver shall give 
notice in writing to any person having any claim for work done or money 
spent by order of the official receiver in the winding up of an estate to 
deliver, his account to the official receiver within fourteen days after 
receipt of such notice. 

(2) If such person fails to do so within such time or such further 
time as the official receiver may allow, the official receiver shall declare 
and distribute the final dividend without regard to any such claim, and 
thereupon the claim shall be forfeited both as against the official receiver 
personally and as against the estate. 

Section 61. 
The bankrupt shall be entitled to any surplus remaining after payment 
in full of his creditors with interest as by this Act provided and of the costs 
charges and expenses of the proceedings under the bankruptcy petition. 

PART VI. 

COMPOSITION. 



Section 62. 

(1) The creditors may by ordinary resolution at a meeting resolve to 
entertain a proposal submitted or approved by the bankrupt for a com- 
position or arrangement of the bankrupt's affairs. 



Recent Enactments. 85 



(2) No composition shall be valid unless it is confirmed at a subse- 
q ue at meeting of the creditors by a special resolution and is approved by 
the Court. 

(3) Any creditor who has proved his debt may assent to or dissent 
from such composition by a letter addressed to the official receiver so as to 
be" received by the official receiver not later than the day preceding such 
subsequent meeting, and a creditor so assenting or dissenting shall be 
taken as being present and voting at such meeting. 

(4) The subsequent meeting shall be summoned by the official receiver 
by not less than seven days' notice to the creditors, stating the purpose 
for which the meeting is convened. 

(5) The bankrupt or the official receiver may after the composition is 
accepted by the creditors apply to the Court to approve it, and seven days' 
notice of the time appointed for hearing the application shall be given to 
the creditors. Such application shall be made and heard in open Court. 

(6) The Court before approving a composition shall hear a report of 
the official receiver as to the terms of the composition and as to +he 
conduct of the bankrupt and shall hear any objections which may be made 
by or on behalf of any creditor. 

(7) If the Court is of opinion that the conditions required by No. 1 to 
6 have not been complied with, or that the terms of the composition give 
an undue preference to any creditor over another creditor, the Court shall 
refuse to approve the composition. 

(8) In any other case, the Court shall approve the composition and 
such approval shall be embodied in an order of the Court. 

Notice of every composition so approved by the Court shall within 
seven days of such approval be inserted in the Government Gazette and 
in such paper as the official receiver may direct. 

(9) A composition accepted and approved in pursuance of this section 
shall be binding on all creditors so far as it relates to any debts due to 
them from the bankrupt and provable in the bankruptcy. 

(10) If the Court approve the proposal it may make an order annulling 
the bankruptcy and vesting the property of the debtor in him or, in any 
other person on such terms and subject to such conditions (if any) as the 
Court may think fit. 

(11) No composition shall be approved by the Court which does not 
provide for the payment in priority to other debts of all debts directed 
to be so paid in the distribution of the property of a bankrupt. 

(12) A certificate of the official receiver that a compositjpn has been 
duly accepted and approved shall in the absence of fraud be conclusive 
evidence as to its validity. 

(13) If default is made in payment of any instalment due in pursuance 
of the composition, or if it appears to the Court that the approval of the 
Court was obtained by fraud, the Court may if it thinks fit on application 
by any creditor re-adjudge the debtor bankrupt. and annul the composition 



« 
Recent Enactments. 



or any order made thereon, but without prejudice to the validity of any- 
thing duly done under or in pursuance of the composition. All debts 
contracted by the debtor before the date of this re-adjudication shall, save 
as provided by this Act, be provable in the bankruptcy. 



PART VII. 

OFFENCES AND PENALTIES. 



Section 63. 

(1) Where it appears to the official receiver in the course of proceed- 
ings in bankruptcy that there is ground for believing that a bankrupt or 
any other person has been guilty of an offence under this Act or the 
Penal Code, it shall be the duty of the official receiver to institute a 
prosecution against such bankrupt or other person. 

(2) Where a bankrupt has been guilty of any offence he shall not be 
exempt from prosecution therefor by reason that a composition has been 
accepted and approved. 

Section 64. 

A bankrupt who fails without reasonable excuse to comply with any 
of the requirements of sections 19, 20, 21 (3) or 38 shall be punished with 
imprisonment not exceeding six months. 

Section 65. 

A bankrupt who has been required to appear before the Court or the 
official receiver or a meeting of his creditors according to the provisions of 
the present Act, and fails to appear without reasonable excuse, shall be 
punished with imprisonment not exceeding six months. 

Section 66. 
A bankrupt who commits any of the following offences shall be 
punished with imprisonment not exceeding two years : — 

(1) If after the beginning of the bankruptcy proceedings or within 
four months next before such beginning, the bankrupt, with intent to 
prevent the attachment or seizure of his property, conceals, transfers or 
delivers to any person any part of such property — or makes or causes to 
be made any charge on such property — or suffers any judgment to be 
passed against him for a sum not due 

(2) If after the beginning of the bankruptcy proceedings or within 
four months next before such beginning, he conceals, destroys, alters or 
forges any seal, book or document relating to his property or affairs, with- 
out prejudice to the punishment prescribed by the Penal Code for forgery. 

(3) If after the beginning of the bankruptcy proceedings or within 
four months next before such beginning, he makes any omission or any 
false entry or statement in any book or document relating to his property 
or affairs, without prejudice to the punishment prescribed by the Penal 
Code for fabricating false evidence. 



Recent Enactments. 87 



(4) If he makes any material omission or false declaration in any 
statement relating to his property or affairs and made before the Court, 
the official receiver or a meeting of his creditors. 

(5) If after the beginning of the bankruptcy proceedings he refuses or 
prevents the production of any seal, book, or document relating to his 
property or affairs. 

(6) If after the beginning of the bankruptcy proceedings he attempts 
to account for any part of his property by fictitious losses or expenses. 

(7) If knowing or having reason to believe that a false debt has been 
proved by any person under the bankruptcy he fails for a period of one 
month to inform the official receiver thereof in writing. 

(8) If he commits any fraud, or if he offers, or gives or agrees to give 
any undue advantage, for the purpose of obtaining the consent of his 
creditors or any of them to any composition or agreement relating to his 
affairs or bankruptcy. 

Section 67. 
An undischarged bankrupt who obtains credit to the extent of one 
hundred Ticals or upwards without disclosing in writing that he is an 
undischarged bankrupt, shall be punished with imprisonment not exceed- 
ing two years. 

Section 68. 
A creditor who demands, or accepts, or agrees to accept for himself or 
for any other person any undue advantage for agreeing to a composition, 
shall be punished with fine not exceeding five times the value of such 
undue advantage. 

Section 69. 

A creditor who demands, accepts or agrees to accept for himself or for 
any other person any undue advantage for forbearing to oppose or for 
consenting to the discharge of a bankrupt, shall be punished with fine not 
exceeding three times the value of such undue advantage. 

Section 70. 
A person untruthfully stating himself in writing to be a creditor 
of the bankrupt for the purpose of obtaining access to or copies of any 
decuments relating to the bankruptcy proceedings, shall be punished 
with fine not exceeding five hundred ticals. 

PART VIM. 

DUTIES OF OFFICIAL RECEIVEE. 



Section 71. 

(1) The duties of official receiver shall have relation both to the 
•conduct of the bankrupt and to the administration of his estate. 

(2) An official receiver for the purpose of affidavits, verifying proofs 
and petitions and for the purpose of other proceedings under this Act 
may administer oaths. 



88 Recent Enactments. 



(3) An official receiver may for the purpose of his duties issue a 
summons or subpoena for the attendance of any person before him to> 
give evidence or to produce any document. 

Section 72. 
As regards the bankrupt it shall be the duty of the official receiver : — 

(1) To investigate the conduct of the bankrupt and to report to the 
Court thereon. 

(2) To make such other reports concerning the conduct of the bank- 
rupt as the Court may direct. 

(3)* To take such part and give such assistance in relation to the 
prosecution of any person charged with an offence under this Act as the 
Court may direct. 

Section 73. 

As regards the estate of a bankrupt it shall be the duty of the 
official receiver : — 

(1) To act as receiver of the bankrupt's estate and to act as manager 
thereof where a manager has not bee'n appointed. 

(2) To raise money or make advances for the purpose of the estate- 
in any case where it appears necessary to do so. 

(3) To summon meetings of creditors at such times as he thinks fit or 
the Court may direct or whenever requested in writing so to do by one- 
fourth in value of the creditors who have proved their debts. 

(4) To preside at all meetings of creditors held under this Act. 

(5) To advertise the interim receiving order, the bankruptcy order, 
the date of the bankrupt's public examination, "and such other matters 
as it may be necessary to advertise. 

(6) To divide in its existing form amongst the creditors, according to- 
rts estimated value, any property which from its peculiar nature or other 
special circumstances cannot be readily or advantageously sold. 

(7) And generally to do all such acts and things as may be necessary 
for the purpose of winding up the estate which the bankrupt himself could 
have done had he not been declared bankrupt. 

Section 74. 
The official receiver may sue and be sued by the official name of 

' ' the official receiver of the property of , a bankrupt , ' ' 

inserting the name of the bankrupt, and by that name may hold property 
of every description, make contracts, sue and be sued, enter into any 
engagements binding on himself and his successors in office, and do all 
other acts necessary to be done in the execution of his office. 

Section 75. 
Any suit or process commenced against an official receiver or any 
person acting under this Act for anything done or omitted to be done 
under the provisions of this Act shall be commenced within six months 
after the accruing of the cause of action, and not afterwards. 



Recent Enactments . 89 



PART IX. 
GENERAL. 



Section 76. 

(1) The Minister of Justice may from time to time make general 
rules for carrying into effect the objects of this Act. 

(2) The Civil Procedure Act of the year 127 shall govern all proceed- 
ings under this Act so far as is practicable. 

(3) Every application to the Court shall be by motion, and the Court 
shall direct service to be made on the official receiver and on all parties 
affected or likely to be affected by the motion. 

Section 77. 

(1) A copy of the Government Gazette containing any notice inserted 
therein in pursuance of this Act or the rules made under this Act shall be 
evidence of the facts stated in the notice. 

(2) The production of a copy of the Gazette containing any notice 
of a bankruptcy order or interim receiving order or order annulling a 
bankruptcy shall be conclusive proof in all legal proceedings of the order 
having been duly made and of its date. 

(3) A minute of proceedings at a meeting of creditors under this Act 
signed by or on behalf of the official receiver shall be received in evidence 
without further proof. 

(4) A report by the official receiver to the Court shall be ■prima facie 
evidence of the facts alleged in the report. 

Section 78. 

(1) If the bankrupt or any other person is aggrieved by any action or 
decision of the official receiver he may apply to the Court within fourteen 
days from the time he received notice of such act or decision. 

(2) The Court may confirm, reverse or modify the act or decision 
complained of and make such order as it thinks fit. 

Section 79. 
All orders of the Court may be appealed to the Court of Appeal. 
No farther appeal shall be allowed to the Dika Court save on a 
question of law. 

Section 80. 
All orders or judgments under this Act shall be executed notwith- 
standing appeal, unless otherwise provided in the order or judgment. 
Due notice of all appeals under this Act shall be given to the official 



90 Recent Enactments. 



THE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION LAW 
R.S. 131. 



PREAMBLE. 



Whereas firearms are lethal weapons capable of being easily used to cause death 
•or bodily injury to human beings, and are objects prohibited to be imported into this 
Kingdom ; 

And 'whereas it is possible the disposal of firearms by persons authorised to 
possess the same may in some instances result in such weapons falling into the hands 
of persons unfit to have firearms in their possession, whereby risk of danger to the 
public peace and life and body is created ; 

His Majesty the King has deemed it expedient that the manufacture and trade in 
firearms and ammunition, as well as permission for the purchase, import or possession 
of the same should henceforth be placed under proper control, and has therefore been 
pleased to establish a law for such purposes as follows: 

CHAPTER I. 
SHORT TITLE AND APPLICATION. 

Section 1. This law relating to firearms and ammunition may be cited in brief 
as "The Firearms Law, year R. S. 131." 

Section 2. It shall come into force within the Monthon of Bangkok from the 1st of 
October, year R. S. 131. Whenever it shall please His Majesty to extend this law 
to any other Monthon or Muang of the Kingdom, a notification to that effect will be 
published in the Government Gazette. 

Section 3. The Ministers in charge of the operation of this law shall have power 
to frame regulations for its execution and to fix the scale of fees for the delivery of 
licenses and permits. Such regulations, on being approved by His Majesty and 
published in the Government Gazette, shall be deemed to be part of the present law. 

Section 4. In this law, unless there be anything repugnant in the subject or 
context : 

(1) ''Firearms" shall mean firearms of every description capable of being dis- 
charged, or parts of such firearms. 

(2) " Ammunition" shall mean shells, bullets and similar ammunition of every 
description, parts of the same, such as caps or cases, as well as gunpowder, explosives 
and any other articles used in the discharge of firearms. 

. (3. " Competent Minister" shall mean either the Minister of the Interior, the 
Minister of Local Government, or the Minister of Finance. 

(4) "Competent Official" shall mean any person appointed by the Competent 
Minister to carry out the execution of the present law or any part thereof. 

Section 5. This law shall not apply to : — 

(1) Firearms and ammunition on board of any seagoing vessel forming part of 
her ordinary equipment ; 

(2) The import, export, manufacture, sale, purchase, carrying or possession 
of any firearms or ammunition by order of the Government or by a Government 
official in the course of his duties as such ; 

(3) Guns for purposes of practice or sport, Avhich are not discharged by means 
. of explosives or any substance having the nature of an explosive ; 

(4} Firearms kept as curiosities only ; 

(5) The manufacture and the sale of fireworks ; provided that the manufacturer 
or seller of the same registers his name and place of business with the Commissioner 
of Police or the Chao Krom Amphur at Bangkok if the place of business is within 
Bangkok, and with the Governor of the Muang if the place of business is within a 
Muang. 

Any manufacturer or seller of fireworks who has registered as herein provided, 
shall be entitled to receive a certified copy of the registration. 



Recent Enactments. 91 



CHAPTER II. 

PROHIBITIONS AGAINST THE POSSESSION OF CERTAIN DESCRIPTIONS 

OF FIREARMS, AND AGAINST CERTAIN CLASSES OF PERSONS 

POSSESSING FIREARMS. 

Section 6. No person is allowed to manufacture, possess, or carry on the work of 
repairing firearms or ammunition, or to trade in firearms or ammunition unless he has 
been granted a license by the Government to that effect. 

Section 7. No person is allowed to import or possess a firearm or ammunition 
unless he has been granted a permit to do so by the Government. 

Section 8. No license or permit shall be granted for the import, manufacture, 
repair, or possession of or for the trade in, firearms or ammunition used only in war, 
such as cannon, machine-guns and ammunition for the same. 

Section 9. Licenses for the possession or carrying of firearms and ammunition 
shall not be granted to : 

(1) Persons who have been convicted, even once only, of any of the offences 
, described in the following sections of the Penal Code : 

Sections 97-111 : Offences against the Royal Family and offences against the 
internal security of the State. 

Secret societies and criminal associations ; 

False Money ; 

Offences causing death ; 

Theft, snatching, robbery, gang-robbery, piracy, extortion ; 

Cheating and fraud. 

Cheating under aggravated circumstances ; 

Criminal misappropriation ; 

Criminal misappropriation of property lawfully attached and 
left in the owner's charge ; 

Criminal misappropriation of property delivered by mistake ; 

Criminal misappropriation of discovered lost property or of 
treasure-trove ; 

Criminal breach of trust ; 

Receiving stolen property ; 

Receiving stolen property obtained by robbery or gang- 
robbery ; 
. Section 323 : Habitually receiving stolen property ; 

(2) Persons who have been convicted twice or more within a period of five years 
»of any of the offences, not coming under the description of petty offences, other than 
those described in Sub-section (1) above; 

(3) Persons under sixteen years of age ; 

(4) Persons of unsound mind resulting from physical infirmity; 

(5) Persons who are, on account of any infirmity, unable to use a firearm ; 

(6) Buddhist priests and novitiates. 

Section 10. The following persons shall be prohibited from carrying on the 
manufacture or repair of, or trade in, firearms and ammunition : 

(1) Persons mentioned in Section 9 hereof ; and 

(2) Persons who have been convicted more than once during a period of three 
years for any of the offences described in the present law. 

CHAPTER III. 

ffSSUE OF PERMITS TO CERTAIN CLASSES OF PERSONS FOR THE 

POSSESSION OF CERTAIN DESCRIPTIONS OF FIREARMS 

AND AMMUNITION. 

Section 11. Permits for the possession of firearms may be granted in Bangkok 
by the Commissioner of Police or the Chao Kronv Amphur and in the Muangs by the 
•Governor of the Muang. 

Section 12. Permits for the possession of firearms shall be granted only for the 
purposes of self-defence or of sport. 

They shall be granted only to persons of good character and reputation. 



Sections 


177-182 


Sections 


202-208 


Sections 


249-251 


Sections 


288-303 


, Section 


304 : 


Section 


306: 


Section 


314: 


Section 


316: 


Section 


317: 


Section 


318: 


Section 


319: 


Section 


321 : 


Section 


322 : 



92 Recent Enactments. 



Section 13. Persons who are in possession of firearms or ammunition previous to 
the date of the coming into force of the present law are required to apply for permits 
to do so within three months from such date, and to deposit, within any period of 
time which the competent authorities may see fit with the said authorities the 
firearms for which they require permits, in order that such firearms may be marked. 

Section 14. A permit shall be granted in respect of every firearm so marked by 
the competent authorities, and shall be valid for three years, at the expiration of 
which an application for its renewal must be submitted. 

Section 15. A permit for the purchase or import of a firearm shall be valid only 
for six months from the date of its issue. 

Section 16. Permits already mentioned shall not be transferable. 

Section 17. Every firearm imported into Siam under a personal permit shall 
have a mark in letters and figures made on it by the Customs authorities, in order 
that its identity be rendered certain. 

Section 18. The identification mark of the firearm shall be entered in the 
permit. If the firearm is bought from a licensed dealer, the entry shall be made by 
the licensed dealer. If the firearm is imported by the holder of the permit, the entry 
shall be made by the Customs authorities. If the firearm is acquired from a third 
person, the entry shall be made by the holder of the permit. 

Section 19. A person provided with a permit for the possession of a firearm may 
not transfer such firearm except to another person provided with a similar permit 
under this law from the competent authorities. 

Section 20. The owner of a firearm who has been refused the renewal of his 

f»ermit for the same shall, within one month from date of refusal, dispose of it to a 
icensed dealer in firearms and ammunition or to the holder of a permit for the 
possession of a firearm. 

Section 21. Any person arriving in Siam with any firearm or ammunition in his 
possession may be granted a provisional permit for the same by the Customs 
authorities ; provided that such person shall submit an application for the legal 
possession of such firearm or ammunition in accordance with the provisions of the- 
present law within fifteen days from the date of issue of the said provisional permit. 

CHAPTEK IV. 

MANUFACTURE AND TRADE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION 
IN SIAM. 

Section 22. Any person wishing to manufacture or trade in firearms and' 
ammunition or repair firearms must apply for permission to the competent Minister, 
who may grant a license for that purpose as he may think fit. 

Persons so licensed may not, however, import firearms or ammunition into Siam 
without special permits granted by the competent Minister. 

Section 23. The competent Minister may restrict the demand for the manu- 
facture, repair or import of firearms and ammunition to such quantities as may 
correspond to the needs of the trade. 

SectioB 24. A license shall be valid for three years, at the expiration of which 
an application for its renewal must be submitted. 

Section 25. A license shall not be transferable. 

Section 26. Every firearm kept in stock for the purpose of trade, as already 
mentioned, shall have a mark made on it by the proper authority, in order that its 
identity be rendered certain. 

Section 27. A licensed manufacturer, repairer, or dealer in firearms may dispose 
of such firearms only to persons who have been granted permits to possess firearms 
under this law. 

Section 28. Every licensed manufacturer or repairer of, or dealer in, firearms 
or ammunition shall keep such books of account as may be necessary to show his 
imports, purchases, manufacture, repairs, or sales, and to ascertain that the provi- 
sions of the present law are complied with. 

Section 29. Such books of account as well as the firearms shall be open to. 
inspection at all times by the proper authorities. 



Recent Enactments. 93 



Section 30. A dealer, repairer or manufacturer of firearms and ammunition 
who has been refused a license or the renewal of a license, or whose license has been 
withdrawn, is allowed six months to dispose of his stock of firearms and ammunition : 
or the same may be re-exported or be forfeited to the State. 



CHAPTER V. 
OFFENCES. 

Section 31, If a person in possession of a permit or license for keeping a firearm 
is convicted of any of the offences mentioned in Sections 9 and 10 hereof, the 
competent authorities may withdraw the permit and forfeit the firearm. 

Section 32. The competent Minister may withdraw the license of any dealer, 
repairer or manufacturer of firearms and ammunition who has been sentenced by a 
final judgment to one year's imprisonment or more for any offences under the present 
Act or under any other law, or who has been convicted more than once during a 
period of three years for any of the offences described in Sections 31 to 34 of the 
present law. 

Section 33. The following persons shall be punished with imprisonment not 
exceeding three years or fine not exceeding five thousand ticals, or both : 

(1) Whoever imports, attempts to import, manufactures, sells, purchases, 
carries or is found in possession of any firearm or ammunition mentioned in Section 8 
hereof, or knowingly abets such acts ; 

(2) Whoever imports, attempts to import, or is concerned in importing, firearms 
or ammunition without having been granted a permit as provided by this law. 

Section 34. The following persons shall be punished with imprisonment not 
exceeding one year or fine not exceeding two thousand ticals, or both : 

(1) Whoever manufactures or repairs firearms or ammunition or trades in 
firearms or ammunition without a license or with an expired license, or in any way 
contrary to the terms of his license ; 

(2) Whoever is in possession of firearms, or ammunition without having a license 
to trade in the same, or with an expired license ; 

(3) AVhoever is in possession of a firearm without a permit, or with an expired 
permit, or of a firearm which does not correspond to the description or mark entered 
in his permit ; 

(4) Whoever being lawfully in possession of a firearm sells or transfers it to a 
person not provided with a permit or license for buying or receiving the same, or to 
-a person whose permit or license shows that he is already in. possession of the firearm 
mentioned in it ; 

(5) Whoever being lawfully in possession of ammunition sells or transfers it to 
a person not provided with a permit or license for buying or acquiring the same, or 
with a permit or license for the possession of a firearm ; 

(6) Whoever sells or transfers to any person provided or unprovided with a 
permit or license a firearm of another description than that mentioned in the permit 
or license : 

(7) Whoever being a manufacturer of, or dealer in, fireworks does not register 
his name and place oi business as provided in the present law. 

Section 35. The following persons shall be punished with fine not exceeding five 
hundred ticals : 

(1) Whoever being a licensed manufacturer, repairer, or dealer neglects to 
enter in his books of account the import, manufacture or sale of any firearm or 
ammunition, or neglects to enter the sale of a firearm on the permit of the buyer, or 
makes an incorrect entry ; 

(2) Whoever being a licensed manufacturer, repairer, or dealer is found in 
possession of firearms or ammunition not corresponding to the number or quantity 
shown in his books of account. 

Given on the 15th day of July in the year R. S. 131, being the f>13th day of the 
Present Reign. 



94 Agriculture. 



%Qxunltmt. 



Agriculture in Siam is still mostly in a primitive state. The ordinary ploughs 
are of two kinds. For low-lying lands with clay soil, where water buffaloes are the 
most suitable animals to use, the plough employed is made from mai pradu, which 
is a hard and tough wood, and is composed of four pieces. The body, sole plate, land 
side and mould board, are all combined in natural crotch — the hump at the fork of a 
tree ; the shorter branch is made to answer as a mould board, and the longer one is 
left some two feet long and ten inches round and comes to a point to receive the 
socket of the plough point, which is made of hard chilled cast iron, and is triangular 
in shape, and a little larger than a man's hand. It bulges out into a socket on the 
underside to receive the nose of the runner. This nose of the runner which receives 
the iron point is the part most frequently broken, and when that happens a new 
body has to be made. "On this body a slot' is made to which is fixed the handle, and 
on the lower part of the handle is also a slot for fixing the beam, which is fixed on by 
means of a wedge. This wedge is also for raising or lowering the end of the beam 
for regulating the depth that the plough has to cut. The wood for the beams is 
selected with a natural curve with a graceful sweep upwards at the ends, so that it 
will go over the high grass. Just before the curved is bored a hole for fastening the 
wippletree by means of a short piece of buffalo leather thong. • Buffalo leather ropes 
are attached to this wippletree and the other ends are fastened to the collar on the 
buffalo's neck. The upper part of this collar is made from bamboo which has been 
bent while growing, and the lower part is usually made from the flat leaf stem of a 
palm. The buffalo has a rope passed through its nose and fastened behind the ears, 
and on to this nose rope is fastened a string which acts as a rein. The plough is 
used just like an ordinary European plough pulled by one horse. The wood part of 
the plough, if made from naturally bent pradu wood, in the rough condition, costs 
from 8 to 10 ticals, and from sawn wood from 4 to 5 ticals. The cast iron tip costs 
25 satangs. The furrows made are about 2 to 3 inches deep, depending on whether 
the ground is hard or soft, and from 4 to 5 inches wide. The mould-boards differ in 
size in different districts ; in some there is scarcely any, and in others it is so large 
as to turn the ground completely over. 

On high lying lands where the soil is more or less sandy, where the draft animals 
are not liable to get bogged, bullocks are used. But as they are not so strong as 
buffaloes a pair of them is required for drawing the plough. For using two bullocks, 
the beam of the plough has to be made longer than for the single buffalo plough for 
the purpose of fastening the yoke, which is a wooden beam for going across the necks 
of both animals. The end of the beam is often *20 to 30 inches beyond the yoke, and 
those for special occasions have graceful curves upwards, ornamented with flowers and 
peacocks' feathers or coloured cloths, and the heads of the oxen are kept up by being 
fastened to it by short bridles. 

The harrow is simply a large rake with wooden teeth, and two bamboos forming a 
tongue to which the yoke is fastened, and is drawn by two buffaloes or bullocks. It 
has a handle to aid in lifting it up to shake out the grass and stubble, and to bear 
down upon when the clods are hard to break. 

It is now being recognised that a much better crop of rice is got if the soil is 
ploughed up before the rains, that is when the soil is quite dry. The advantages 
are : the noxious grasses are killed by the great heat of the sun ; the soil is airified 
and thoroughly baked, so that when the rains come, this ploughed soil becomes very 
friable, and with a second ploughing and harrowing, it. pulverises into a fine tilth, 
which is the most suitable seed bed for rice. This favourable condition cannot always 
be obtained when ploughing is done after the rains have commenced, as of late years 
there have not been the favourable intervals of dry spells to permit of the ploughed 
up soil getting properly dried, and hence the poorness of the crop in the most rich, 
this is the low lying, districts. By ploughing in the dry season, the seed can be put 
into the ground much earlier and a bigger crop will be obtained. 

These advantages have been recognised in the Rangsit district, which is con- 
trolled by a private company, but the native wooden ploughs are not able to attack 
the hard baked soil, so light American and European steel ploughs adapted to buffalo 
haulage, have been tried with considerable success, and as these are not much more 
expensive than the best native wooden ploughs, and will last much longer, no doubt 
they will eventually be much used. But the ploughs which give the greatest promise 
for tackling this hard baked soil are the heavy disc ploughs drawn either by steam 
and wire rope system, or by direct steam or motor tractors. All three systems have 
been tried and show that these rice fields can be ploughed in the dry season, and the 
rice cultivators who have seen these machines in operation are keen to have their 



Agriculture. 95 



lands ploughed for them during the dry season. This will no doubt be done for them 
by some enterprising company, and if it becomes general, the increase in output of 
the rice crop will be considerable. 

RICE PLANTING. 

In districts where the land is high and not affected by the overflow of the rivers, 
but depends upon the water supply of the rainfall alone, and in districts where the 
overflow of the rivers takes effect only for short periods, and in garden lands where 
the ground is cut up by numerous ditches, the process of cultivation by transplanting 
is adopted. The rice is sprouted and sown thickly in small patches surrounded by 
dykes, so that these can retain or keep out the water. By supplying water or 
keeping it away from this seedling rice, the length of stalk can be regulated to suit 
the height of the water in the fields to be transplanted. When the ground is pre- 
pared and the seedlings are of the proper height, they are pulled up and all the soil 
adhering to the roots is shaken and washed off. Then they are made into bundles and 
taken to the fields, which have been ploughed and the soil of which has been harrowed 
under water until it is in a condition of liquid mud. There are three methods of 
transplanting. When the ground is soft, and about 6 to 8 inches of water on it, men, 
women and children turn out to transplant the rice, thrusting the stalk with the 
hands and pressing with the feet into the soft mud beneath the water. A good trans- 
planter can set out about one-third of an acre a day. When the ground is hard a 
round stick with a handle like a crutch is used for making a hole into which is thrust 
the rice stalk, which is made firm by another dig with the stick. Again, if the water 
is deep and the ground is not hard, a stick with a sharp forked end is used, the rice 
plant is put in between the fork and is thrust into the soil and the stick pulled out. 
The distance that the rice plants are set apart depends on the richness of the soil ; 
in poor soils about 8 inches and in rich soils 20 inches. Good field hands are paid now 
as a rule from 80 to 120 ticals for the season of about nine months, and in addition 
they receive their food, clothing, bedding, tobacco, and betel nut for chewing. The 
transplanting season is generally about from June to October. 

In a large rice growing district in the province of Ayuthia, where the land is low 
and is liable to be quickly inundated by the overflow of the rivers, all the rice 
planting must be done by broadcast sowing as scon as the rain has commenced, that 
is about May. A special variety of rice must also be grown, which is capable of 
growing rapidly so that it is able to keep its head above the rise of the flood. In 
low-lying districts, the rice stalk may be three fathoms long. This kind of rice is 
called Na Muang rice, and is of poorer quality than the variety used for transplant- 
ing, which is called Na Suan rice; but rice that is used for transplanting would be 
drowned at. once in this district. 

The tract of land lying between Ayuthia and Bangkok, has an area of about one 
million acres, which a company has covered with a system of canals and retaining 
locks, where the average depth of water during the flood season in ordinary years is 
about two feet over the ground. Here the same variety of rice used for trans- 
planting is sown broadcast when the ground is dry. The advantage of this is 
obvious, as a very much greater area can be cultivated by one family than can be 
done by transplanting, which is a very slow and tedious process, and at the same time 
a good quality of rice is obtained. As a matter of fact, four methods of rice planting 
can be done here. 

The first is by dry sowing as already mentioned. If the ground is water-logged, 
but there is not sufficient water for transplanting, slightly sprouted rice is sown 
broadcast. When there are 6 or 8 inches of water then rice can be transplanted from 
seedling beds prepared beforehand, or from some thick patch of broadcast sown rice. 
It sometimes happens that the water has flooded the fields a foot or more in depth 
and there are not long enough seedlings to transplant. Then the farmer has to 
prepare his land for sowing broadcast in deep waiter, and this is done by making a 
dyke of grass all round. This is for the purpose of keeping out a species of perch 
which eats the sprouted .grains that are sown broadcast. Also these dykes are for 
stopping the wavelets during a high wind which would soon tear the young rice plants 
off the soil. Just before sowing the sprouted rice in this water, the ground under 
the water is thoroughly harrowed until the water is quite muddy. Then the sprouted 
rice is cast on the water, which must be' beaten with a stick to make the rice sink ; 
then in a night the mud settles on the grain and the water clears, and in a few days 
the young rice plants appear with leaves floating above the water. On account of 
the large areas that can be cultivated in this district, there was a. big rush of people 
from other districts, and many speculators who bought and sold this land made their 
fortunes. But unfortunately, this kind of rice is not capable of rising above sudden 
and high floods, so that the extraordinary inundations of the last three years have 
very nearly ruined this fine district. 

It is often asked how many crops are taken off the rice fields a year. In other 
rice-growing countries, such as China, Japan and India, where each cultivator has 



96 Agriculture. 



only a small plot of land, generally two crops are grown on the same piece of land. 
In this country, with the exception of a few places here and there, it usually takes a 
cultivator all his time to take in the one crop. When the rice crop is exceptionally 
heavy, the cultivator is very often glad to divide the crop with those that come to 
help to reap it On account of the large areas cultivated, several varieties of rice 
have to be grown, ripening at different dates. Rice that ripens earliest takes about 
70 days from the time of sowing, and the latest is about 6 months, and between these 
there are a number of kinds taking different periods to ripen, so that the cultivator 
has time to take in all his crops as these ripen one after the other. 

IRRIGATION. 

Proper irrigation, that is where water is under absolute control for growing rice, 
is mostly to be found in the northern parts of Siam. In such districts when a com- 
munity has selected a suitable piece" of land which they have determined to be 
irrigated, they elect an irrigation master (nai fai). This man takes the direction of 
affairs from the damming of the mountain stream, from which the water for irriga- 
tion is to be brought, to the distribution of the water to the cultivators. The nai fai 
does not cultivate any rice himself, but is given a certain percentage of the rice crop 
grown by the community. The Government has nothing to do with these small 
irrigation works ; such works are made and kept up by each community. 

On several parts of the Menam Chao Phya, and other rivers, where there are 
low-lying lands close to the river, such lands have dykes along the river front which 
are provided with sluices for controlling the water supply. Such lands are able to 
grow two crops if desired, and are very rich and valuable. But the water supply on 
these lands can only be properly controlled for the dry weather crop, that is depend- 
ing upon the rise and fall of- the water in the river. 

Irrigation by mechanical means or by hand labour, is done only to supplement 
the rainfall or other sources of water supply. 

Where there are rapid streams water wheels for irrigation are to be seen. These 
wheels are usually of considerable diameter, and generally entirely made of bamboos 
with bamboo buckets fixed to the periphery. As the wheel goes round by the force of 
the current, these buckets convey the water to the too of the wheel and tipple it into 
a bamboo trough and so to the ground to be irrigated. 

Irrigation by manual labour is done in many ways. The simplest is by means 
of a bucket or kerosene tin to which four ropes are attached. Two persons standing 
on opposite sides of a ditch, and holding the ropes, can dip the bucket or tin into the 
water and tilt it over a small dam on to the rice field. A wooden scoop suspended 
under a tripod is also in common use. When a larger quantity is required for such 
low lifts, generally a wooden paddle wheel worked by treadle with one or two men 
is adopted. For higher lifts, from 4 to 8 feet, a wooden chain-pump also worked by 
treadle is also the most practical, requiring one, two, three or lour men, depending 
on the height to be lifted. For still greater depths the old-fashioned well-sweep is 
sometimes to be seen, and the water is emptied from the buckets into an elevated 
trough, from which it flows to the rice fields. 

In the lower Menam valley in former times have been excavated many canals, on 
the banks of which rice is cultivated. With a few exceptions, primarily these canals 
were made for intercommunication between the rivers, but they have served as inun- 
dation canals also for the rice growers. In the year 1890 a Siamese syndicate made 
a large system of canals especially for rice cultivation. This system was a great 
improvement on the old inundation canals by having retaining locks. His late 
Majesty the King Chulalongkorn was very much interested in the whole scheme and 
gave his personal support, and eventually His Majesty created a Royal Irrigation 
Department with Dutch exoerts directing the affairs. This Department has now 
practically put locks on all the old canals, which are kept dredged by steam dredgers. 
Finally all these systems of canals will be supplied by water from some of the rivers 
and real irrigation and drainage carried out. At present the head of the Irrigation 
Department is a Siamese engineer educated in P^urope. 

REAPING. 

The sickle is used for reaping. Generally most of the rice is reaped when there is 
water on the fields in the low-lying lands, and it is only the late rice crop that is 
reaped on dry ground. Even then the ground is usually soft, so the introduction of 
reaping machines is a difficult problem. Also the rice plant is very prone to lie down 
when the water has left the fields and is therefore difficult to cut with a self-binder. 
Many attempts have been and are being made with moderate success. The reaping 
problem will bring a big fortune to the man who properly solves it. 



Agriculture. 97 



THRESHING. 

To prepare a threshing floor,, the grass is taken off and the ground levelled, and 
moistened with water. Then buffaloes or bullocks are made to tread it until quite 
hard and firm, when a plaster of cowdung is applied to make it smooth and prevent 
it from cracking. The rice sheaves with their binding cut are placed on this floor 
in a circle with their ears on the top, and usually two or three buffaloes or bullocks 
are made to tread the rice by driving them round and round. The straw is stirred 
up at intervals with sharp curved pointed bamboos 6r iron pointed sticks, and the 
grain gradually falls down below. When some of the straw is put into fire, if it 
gives a peculiar crackling noise, it shows that some of the grain is still adhering, then 
the treading has to go on further before the straw is removed. When large numbers 
of buffaloes or bullocks are used for threshing at one time, a post in the centre of the 
floor is necessary so that the bunch of animals can be tied on and kept from swinging 
off the rice which they are to tread. Threshing is usually done at night, as the 
buffaloes especially cannot stand the heat well in the day time. The night scenes 
during the threshing season are very interesting and picturesque with bonfires, 
dances and songs. But there is not the least doubt that the big farmer with a heavy 
crop could get his work done much better by a good threshing machine, which will 
not break the long grain of the Siamese rice. The threshing machine is bound to 
come into general use, as when the early rice crop is taken in it is very difficult to 
find dry ground to make a threshing floor. After the inundation season the buffaloes' 
hoofs become very soft and are soon worn down, and if much threshing is to be done 
they often get quite lame and cannot do their work. 
RICE CLEANING. 

In the open rice fields rice is cleaned by winnowing it in the wind by throwing 
up the rice from one heap to another by large wooden scoops, or if the quantity is 
small by pouring from a height from wide shallow baskets. In districts surrounded 
by trees, where there is not much wind, a winnowing machine is used. The small 
farmer stores his rice in large bamboo baskets, plastered with a mixture of mud and 
cowdung ; the top of the rice grain is also covered with this to preserve it from the 
attacks of insects. These baskets are kept in his shed, which is usually built on 
raised mounds or posts above floor level. Men with larger quantities of rice to store, 
make separate buildings for their rice. The smaller sizes have bamboo basket work 
walls with plank floors, and the larger sizes have substantial board walls, and have 
grass or galvanised iron roofs. 

The farmer prepares only a small quantity of rice at one time for food, as the 
grain keeps much better with the hull on. The simplest process is to put it into a 
mortar and pound with a wooden pestle, and by the mutual rubbing of the grains 
together, the husk is first removed, and by continuing pounding the bran or outer 
cuticle is taken off and the grain becomes white rice. The contents of the wooden 
mortar are then transferred to a flat traylike basket work of bamboo, and by 
throwing the rice up several times, the wind carries away the chaff leaving the white 
rice mixed with unhusked grains. Then by a peculiar circular motion given to this 
tray the white rice and the unhusked grains separate from one another. As a matter 
of fact the circular separator now working in many rice mills in this country is a 
development from this simple and primitive apparatus. Well-to-do farmers have 
usually besides the wooden mortar and pestle, a mill for taking the husk off first. 
This mill is made from bamboo wicker work filled with earth, the husking teeth are 
made from chips of wood hammered firmly into the earth. It is in two pieces, corre- 
sponding to the upper and nether mill stones. 

QUALITY OF SIAM RICE. 

Rice that is exported can be roughly divided into three classes: — Na Muang, 
Pasak and Garden rice. Na Muang is the cheapest quality and grown mostly in the 
district of Ayuthia, where no other kind of rice can be grown, as stated above. The 
grains are short and have a great deal of red rice mixed with it, and it is also very 
much cracked, therefore liable to be broken in the milling process. 

The Pasak rice is of better quality than Na Muang, and comes from the Pasak 
river district, and is a variety of so called Garden rice. It is only due to the soil of 
this district that it is of poorer quality than the ordinary garden rice. 

The so-called Garden rice is the main bulk of rice that is exported, and is the 
best quality. The Na Muang and Pasak rice are used for mixing with it. This rice 
was formerly mostly grown in the ditches of vegetable gardens, but is now grown on 
vast tracts of land, both by broadcast sowing and transplanting process, so that the 
name of garden rice has lost its original meaning. 

On account of the exhibitions of rice during the last four years, very fine 
varieties of rice have been brought to the notice of the cultivators, and in a few 
years the quality will greatly improve. Many of the varieties exhibited are 
considered by experts to be amongst the best in the world. 



98 The Siamese Calendar. 



mnxtBt Calendar. 



The Siamese have three calendars, which are made use of in denning dates. 
These are the religious calendar, the official civil calendar which was introduced in 
1889, and the old civil calendar, which is still the one in popular use. Their sacred 
era, which is called Butha Sakaraht, is reckoned from the death of Buddha. The 
year used to begin with the full moon of the sixth Siamese lunation, but has now 
been made to agree, with the official calendar, and on April 1st, 1913, this era will 
commence its 2456th year. Thus the Buddhist era antedates the Christian era by 
some 543 years. This reckoning, however, is never used by the Siamese except in 
connection with their religious affairs. 

THE OFFICIAL CALENDAR. 

The old civil method of computing the years in Siam was found inconvenient 
to use along with the European system, the Siamese calendar being a lunar one ; 
and it was thought necessary to adopt an entirely new system to meet modern 
wants. The Gregorian calendar was accordingly adopted, the new era being termed 
Ratanakosindr Sok (Bangkok era). The only differences from the new style calendar 
in use among Western peoples, are that the Siamese new year commences on the 
1st of April, and that tne year of the establishment of Bangkok as the capital, is 
taken as the, date to be reckoned from. The months are called by the Pali names of 
the twelve signs of the zodiac, the first month (April) being called the month of 
Aries. This nomenclature has antiquity to back it, and at least as much reason in 
its favour as our own system of naming the months. 

The date of the change was April 1st, 1889, which was made to correspond with 
the 1st Mesayon, of the 108th year of Bangkok. The first of the month of April this 
year (1913) will, therefore, be the 1st Mesayon, year 132 Ratanakosindr Sok. The 
other days and months follow the ordinary numerical order throughout to the end 
of the year, thus : — 



1 Mesayon 


30 days, 


corresponding to April. 


2 Phrisabhakhom 


31 


m ii May. 


3 Mithoonayon 


30 


ii June. 


4 Karakadakhom 


31 


„ July. 


5 Singhakhom 


31 


„ „ August. 


6 Kanyayon 


30 


i. ii September. 


7 Tulakhom 


31 


•i n October. 


8 Phrischeekayon 


30 


i, ii November. 


9 Thanwakhom 


31 


,i H December. 


10 M'k'rakhom 


31 


,i ti January. 


11 Kumphaphan 


28 


n ii February. 


12 Minakhom 


31 


„ March. 



It will be seen from the above that the names of the months containing 31 days 
have the termination " khom " while the names of those containing 30 days end in 
"yon." The term corresponding to February, with its vai-ying number of days, has 
a distinct ending. 

THE PEOPLE'S CALENDAR. 

The new calendar is, of course, universally used in official business, but else- 
where it has not supplanted the old method of counting the years and defining the 
date of events. The people still regularly use the lunar reckoning. Thus in ordinary 
conversation a Siamese would speak of 5th March, 1913, not as the 5th of Minakhom, 
131, but as the 13th of the waning moon of the third month of the year 1274, 
Chulasakaraht era. The commencement of this era, which is 639 years subsequent to 
the commencement of the Christian era, was fixed according to an old but incorrect 
tradition by a distinguished King named Phra Ruang, and the first day of the 
year 1275 will be on the 6th of April, 1913, being the first of the 5th Siamese lunation. 

The calendar being lunar is subject to much adjustment by intercalary methods. 
Its principal periods are the two cycles, one of twelve and the other of ten years, 
which run concurrently and issue in the Great Cycle of 60 years, the year of 12 or 13 



98 a 



THE NEW CALENDAR. 

On the 2nd March, 1913, twenty-four years after adopting the 
Gregorian calendar and establishing the E. tanakosiudr Sok ( Bangkok era ) 
for official business, the announcement was made of the adoption of the 
Buddhist era ( Phra Baddhasakaraht ) for official records. As stated on 
the opposite page, in the case of this Buddhist era the lunar calendar had 
already been done away with, and the Gregorian calendar adopted, by a 
previous decree of the present reign. The year 2456 B. E. began on the 
1st April 1918 and ends on the 31st March 1914. It has taken the place 
of R S. 132, but there is no other change. The change was made because 
it was felt that, for historical purposes, an era which went no further back 
than a little over a century and a quarter, was an inconvenient one to 
employ. The Chulasakaraht lunar reckoning continues to be in general use 
among the people. 



The Siamese Calendar. 99 



1 


Pee Chuet 


2 


Pee Chalu 


3 


Pee Kahn 


4 


Pee Thau 


5 


Pee Marohng . 


6 


Pee Maseng 


7 


Pee Mammeea 


8 


Pee Mama'a . 


9 


Pee Wauk 


10 


Pee Rakah 


11 


Pee Chau 


12 


Pee Khun 



months, the month of 29 or 30 days, and the intercalary month. An exact correspon- 
dence between the Siamese months and those in the Gregorian Calendar it is, of 
course, difficult to make. 

Each year has a specific name in a cycle of twelve years. These names are as 
follow, pee being the Siamese for year : — 

Rat. 

Bull. 

Tiger. 

Hare. 

Major Dragon. 

Minor Dragon. 

Horse. 
Goat* 

Monkey. 

Cock. 

Dog. 

Pig. 

The years run in the order of the above list, in groups of ten. These decades 
are termed sok, and each of the years composing the decade is distinguished by a Pali 
number, in addition to the name it bears in the 12 years' cycle as given in tlie above 
list. The years in this 10 years' cycle are denominated as follows : — 

Eka sok 1st of the decade. 

Toh sok 2nd n 

Tree sok 3rd .1 

Chatawah sok 4th ,, 

Bencha sok 5th „ 

Chau sok .. 6th 1, 

Sapta sok 7th « 

Atta sok 8th 

Noppa sok 9th „ 

Samreth sok 10th „ 

The two cycles run concurrently, and thus in every period of sixty years each 
year in the 12 years' cycle returns to the same position in the 10 years' cycle which 
it originally held, to pass through the decades again in the same order as before. 
The period of sixty years is called the Great Cycle. 

A lunar month being nearly 29| days, the Siamese make the odd months contain 
29, and the even months 30 days, to complete 59 days in two months. The term 
Du'an means a lunar month, and the months in the Siamese year are named or rather 
numbered, as follows : — 

Du'an ai ... First month. 

Du'an yee Second n 

Du'an sahm Third n 

Du'an see Fourth ,, 

Du'an hah Fifth ,, 

Du'an hok ... Sixth „ 

Du'an chet ... ... ... ... Seventh ,, 

Du'an pa'at Eighth „ 

Du'an kao Ninth ,, 

Du'an seep ... ... ... ... Tenth „ 

Du'an sip-et Eleventh „ 

Du'an sip-song Twelfth „ 

Twelve months, six of which consist of 30 days each, and six of 29 days each, 
make a year of only 354 days, which is more than eleven days short of the length of 
year. To compensate for this deficiency they introduce seven intercalary months in 
19 years, and, in addition, whenever the seventh month does not actually agree with 
the true position of the moon, they add to it one intercalary day, making it a month 
of 30 days. Whenever the intercalary month is introduced the 8th lunation of that 
year is doubled, making two consecutive eighth months of 30 days each. The first of 
the two eighth lunations is called Burapah-saht, or Patoma-saht, first 8th lunation. 
The second is called Utarah-saht, or Tutiyah-saht, second 8th lunation. In this way 
the Siamese contrive to bring their months and years and seasons into unison 



100 The Siamese Calendar. 



with the yearly revolutions of the earth round the sun. In giving a date it is always 
necessary to specify if it is in the waxing (kahng k'un), or the waning (kahng 
raam) of the moon, because the days of the month are not numbered from 1 to 30 
or 29 as the case may be. The days in the first part of the month, the waxing of the 
moon, are invariably numbered from 1 to 15, and in the second half, the waning of 
the moon, they begin at 1 again and run to 15 in the case of the even months and to 
14 in the odd months. The only exception to this is when the seventh contains an 
intercalary day. 

The Siamese language contains no distinct word for "week." The days of the 
week, however, have specific names derived from the names of the planets. They are 
as follows : — - 

Wan-athit Sunday 

Wan-chan Monday 

Wan-angkan Tuesday 

Wan-put Wednesday 

Wan-prahat Thursday 

Wan-suk Friday 

Wan-sao Saturday 

It is important to note that the day commences not at midnight, but at sunrise. 
Thus Wan-angkan, for example, begins at sunrise on Tuesday morning and ends at 
the same time on Wednesday morning. The day from sunrise is termed wan, and the 
hours of the day are called mong so that 12 mong make one wan. From sunset to 
sunrise is designated ham, and the hours of the night are termed toom, 12 toom 
making one kam. In giving a date the age of the moon is naturally reckoned as so 
many kam, not ican. 

The hours of the day are counted on a rather elaborate system. The morning 
after sunrise, is called chao, noon tieng, afternoon bai (after 4 p.m. yen is frequently 
used in place of bai) : and after 6 p.m. kam commences and the term applies to the 
whole night. The night is also divided into four watches, called yahm, of three 
hours each, the first watch being from sunset to 9 p.m., the second from 9 to 12 p.m., 
the third from midnight to 3 a.m., and the fourth from 3 to 6 a.m. The European 
method of naming the hours is not infrequently adopted, but a decree was published 
in the Gazette of the 29th July, 1900, pointing out the antiquity of the proper 
Siamese method, and directing that it should be used in official communications. In 
this decree the correct nomenclature of the hours is given as follows : — Yum roong 
(6 a.m.), mong chao, or chao mong niing (7 a.m.), saung mong chao (8 a.m), sahm 
mong chao (9 a.m.), see mong chao (10 a.m.), hah mong chao (11 a.m.), tieng or yum 
tieng (12 noon), bai mong or bai mong niing (1 p.m.), bai saung nong (2 p.m.), 
bai sahm mong (3 p.m.), bai see mong (4 p.m.), bai hah mong (5 p.m.), yum kam 
(6 p.m.), toom niing (7 p.m.), saung toom (8 p.m.), yahm niing (9 p.m.), see toom 
(10 p.m.), hah toom (11 p.m.), saung yahm (midnight), chet toom (1 a.m.), paat toom 
(2 a.m.), sahm yahm (3 a.m.), seep toom (4 a.m.), sip-et toom or tee sip-et (5 a.m.), 
and finally yum roong (6 a.m.), again. 

The hour was formerly divided into ten parts called baht, and the baht contained 
six natee ; the term baht is not now used, the hour being divided into 60 natee or 
minutes. 

The Siamese reckon three seasons of four months each. These seasons are called 
Had oo, as follows : — 

1 Radoo raun or Kimbnn Hot 

2 Radoo fon or Wasah Rainy 

3 Radoo naow, or Hemun Cold 




Siamese Weights and Measures 



'tamest SSeioMs anb Measures. 



By a decree issued in 1912 His Majesty the King was pleased to 
■order the introduction of the Metric System into Siam. 

The question of Weights and Measures reform in Siam is one which 
has been for many years before the Government. Fully twenty years ago 
the Ministry of Agriculture was engaged in an attempt to standardise the 
existing customary system, in the course of which attempt standards were 
made and laws and regulations were drafted which, however, tor one reason 
and another, uever reached the stage of being enforced. Meanwhile, in the 
absence of any laws or standards, the people continued to use tl e customary 
system with infinite variations or, as it gradually became necessary to find 
something more stable and accurate, adopted the systems of foreign countries 
such as the Chinese, the English, and the Metric. 

In the year R. S. 116' the confusion caused by the absence of legalised 
weights and measures having been brought to his notice, His Majesty King 
Chulalongkorn appointed a Royal Commission to consider the matter, but 
though a good deal of evidence was taken by this Commission, nothing 
definite resulted from its labours. 

In the year 118 the Minister of Agriculture took up the question 
again and more evidence was taken, this time resulting in a report to His 
Majesty accompanied by a draft Regulation covering the measures of 
capacity only. 

In the year 119 three draft Regulations were prepared and submitted 
to His Majesty, one of these being a draft Metric System Law, and the 
others intended to legalise the existing systems. 

In 121 a new Ro3^al Commission was appointed, and in 124 this body 
submitted a report strongly advising the adoption of the Metric S^'stem. 
No action was taken on this last report and in 129 the Minister of Agricul- 
ture on the request of His Majesty again caused the matter to be reopened 
and in 130 submitted a report, the result of which was that Siam definitely 
decided to follow in the footsteps of the Governments of the greater part of 
■the civilized world and to introduce the Metric System into the country 
without further delay. 

The execution of the reform is in the hands of the Ministry of Lands 
•and Agriculture, where a Central Office of Weights and Measures will be 
established. Here the standards will be kept and from this office inspection 
and registration work will be controlled. 



]02 Siamese Weights and Measures. 



After the law establishing the Metric System shall have been 
the use of the system will be optional for such period as may appear desir- 
able. The public will thus be able to make arrangements for discarding the 
weights and measures hitherto in use and adopting those prescribed by the 
law. At the end of this optional period the use or the possession of any 
Weights and Measures other than those allowed by the law will be absolute- 
ly prohibited. 

In 1913 it was decided to introduce the Metric system gradually, one 
weight or measure at a time. 

The new standards have been received in Bangkok, but it nu;y still 
be useful to give the details of the old measures as under : — 

LINEAR MEASURE. 

4 Kabiet make 1 Niew 

12 Niew „ 1 K'up 

2 K'up ., 1 Sauk 

4 Sauk „ 1 Wah 

20 Wah „. 1 Sen 

100 Sen ,.. 1 Yote 

The English equivalents of these terms are necessarily inexact, but 
ordinarily kabiet is translated line; niew, inch; k'up, half-cubit ; sauk, 
cubit' and wah. fathom. There is no fixed standard, but the niew may 
safely be taken as t£ tns °f an English inch, the sank as 19^ inches, the 
wah as 6^ feet or 2 metres, and the sen as 130 feet. The sank is also 
given as 20 inches, and the wah as 6 feet 8 inches. The yote is about 
10 miles English or, in other words, 10 sen are practically one mile. 

SQUARE AND CUBIC MEASURE. 

The unit of measurement of are is is the, squire wah. One square 
sen makes on* rai of paddy land. For gardens or plantations the word 
khanat is tised in place of the term rai, but khanat has no definite extent ; 
it is simply said to be so many sen or wah in length and breath. 

Sawn wood is sold by the yok, which is 16 wah long by one saulk 
wide by one niew thick. Otherwise, the yok represents a surface of 
planks of 16 square metres and a niew in thickness. It contains 11.44 
cubic feet. 

MEASURE OF CAPACITY. 

In both the liquid and the dry measure the point of departure is 
the "kanahn or tanakn (coconut shell) 7 which is supposed to be capable of 
holding 830 ot the old bullet-shaped tuangs. It is about £-§ of a litre. 

The tang therefore contains about 19 litres. 

In measuring grain, etc., there are in use, in addition to the 
kanahn: the sat, or bushel; the tang, a wooden bucket; and the kivien, a 



Siamese Weights and Measures. 103 



cart. Even the relative capacity of these measures varies considerably, 
hut for measures bearing the Government stamp the following i s 
correct : — 

830 Round Fuangs make 1 Kanahn 
25 Kanahn „ 1 Sat 

80 Sat „ 1 Kwien 

In the province of Paknam ( Samut Prakan ) the people reckon 28 
kanahn to the sat, and in the province of Minburi 30. The same variations 
occur elsewhere, and the local custom must always be ascertained. 

In transactions where the tang is used : — 

20 Kanahn make 1 Tang 

100 Tang „ 1 Kwien. 

The sat is used for measuring paddy only ; the tang is used for 
rice as well as for the other articles, including liquids, sold by their 
volume. The kwien, perhaps more commonly written coyan, is not 
an actual measure, but merely a convenient expression' for 2,000 
kanahn. 

WEIGHTS. 

The silver coins of Siam are also the standard measures of 
weight in the country, the tical (baht) weighing 15 grammes (236 grains 
troy), 900 fine. The Siamese catty (chang), equivalent to 80 ticals, 
weighs 1,200 grammes or 2| lbs. avoirdupois, being double the 
weight of the Chinese catty. Fifty catties make a picul (haph), which 
is equivalent to 133£ lbs. avoirdupois. Other Measures of weight are 
the tamlung weighting 4 ticals, the salung weighing £ of a tical, the fuang 
weighing £ of a tical, the hun weighing } of a fuang, and the lee weighing 
| of a hun. The hun and lee are properly Chinese weights. These 
small weights are used in weighing gold and jewels, opium, medicine, etc. 
A number of other weights were formerly in common use but those 
mentioned are now the only ones recognised. 

SIAMESE COINAGE. 

Up to 1910 the coins in circulation were the so'ot for loft), 
ail, pal, and seek (saungpai), copper coins ; and the fuang, salung and 
tical, silver coins. 

Under the Gold Standard Law of the 11th November, 1908, the 
following are now the coins of Siam : — 

Gold. Dos or 10 tical piece. 

Silver. 1 Tical. 2 Salung piece, 1 Salung. 

Nickel. 10 Satang piece. 5 Satang piece. 

Bronze. 1 Satang piece. 

By a notification of the 17th May, 1909, the silver fuang and the 
bronze att coins were definitely demonetised, but were received at the 
Treasuries for one year from that date. The old satang coins issued in 1898 



104 Siamese Weights amd Measures. 



were demonetised by the same notification. The coinage is now on a 
decimal basis. The gold coin and the 2 sailing piece have nut yet been 
introduced, while the existing sailing coinage was demonetised, from the 1st 
October 1913, but the coins are to be receivt d at the Treasuries for one year 
from that date. The tical of the new reign was put into circulation on the 
11th Novembe, 1913. 

From some time in the reign of King Mongkut up to the 29th 
November, 1902, when the Mint was closed to the free coinage of silver, the 
value of the tical was fixed at three-fifths of a Mexican dollar. The silver 
coins of the country were in fact manufactured from dollars imported by the 
banks and merchants, and sent to the Mint and exchanged at the rate of 
$60 to Ticals 100. In the summer of 1903. however, bar silver was 
imported by the Mint and by the end of the year a start had been made 
in coining from bar silver. When the Mint was closed to the free coin- 
age of silver, ticals could only be purchased from the Treasury by 
payments in sterling in London. ' The price fixed on by the Government 
was 17 ticals to the pound sterling, the actual price at the Banks being- 
then 21 ticals 45 atts to the £1. The difference was found to be too 
great, and for some days no exchange business was done. On the 10th 
December (1902) a compromise was arrived at. It vas agreed that 
the minimum price should be 20 ticals to the £1, and a promise was 
made that for three months thereafter the price should not be in- 
creased unless the dollar appreciated. On December 18th the Bank 
rate also reached 20 to the £1. On December 22nd the Treasury price 
was put up to 19| and next day to 19^ ticals to the £1, the Banks 
increasing their rates accordingly. No further change took place till 
March 3rd, 1903, when the Treasury price of ticals was increased to 19£ 
to the £1 ; this was followed on March 5th by an increase to 19 and on 
March 12th by another inciease to 18f. These increases were due to the rise 
of the value' of the dollar in Singapore, and the local Bank rates kept 
pace with the Treasury price. About this time, however, imports were 
increasing enormously while exports were very slack, and about the middle 
of April (1903) the Banks abandoned the attempt to maintain the 
Government rate, the value of the tical falling from 18f to 19^- to the 
pound bterling. The value of silver began to rise again, and on July 
22nd (1903) the Government was able to increase its selling rate to 18^. 
Next month this was followed by increases to 18 (August 5th), to IVf 
(August 12th), to 17i (August 24th) and to 17^ (August 27th). The 
Bank rate was also rising, and at 17| became the same as the government 
rate, though the subsequent increases were not followed by the Banks 
immediately. On the 25th of September the Treasury selling rate was 
further raised to 17, and then on the 9th February 1904, to 16.67 
to the pound sterling, at which it remained till November 1905, when 
it was raised to 16. Early in 1906 it was notified that the 
Government was prepared to sell drafts on London at an exchange of 
Is. 2fd. per tical, thus making the value of the tical effective at from 
Is. 2fd. to Is. 3d, per tical. In Agust 1906, on the occasion of a 
temporary scarcity of ticals due to the dollar b.ung replaced in Monthon 



Siamese Weights and Measures. 105 



Puket by the tical, the Treasury selling price of the tical was raised to 
15 to the £1, making the coin equal in value to the rupee. On Nov. 
2nd, 1906, the Treasury selling price was further raised to 13£ to the £1, 
making the Tical equal to Is. 6\1, owing to the rise in price of bar 
silver. The Gold Standard Law finally fixed the Government selling rate 
at 13 ticals to the £1, sterling. The Bank rate varies, but it is based now 
on the exigencies of local trade, instead of on the price of Silver in foreign 
markets, and the benefit derived from the closing of the Mint consists in the 
more moderate fluctuation of exchange round a fixed point, viz, the Govern- 
ment price of ticals. In the year 1902-03 (121) the Bank rate of exchange 
averaged Tcs. 19.84 per pound sterling; in 1903-04 (122), Tcs. 18.28; 
in 1904-05 (123), Tcs. 17.94; in 1905-06 (124J, Tcs. 16.84; in 1906-07 
(125), Tcs. 15.06. In September, 1907, it had reached Tcs. 13.62 to £1, 
and in September, 1908, Tcs. 13.33 at which figure it stood also in 
September, 1909, having in the meantime varied from Tcs. 13.15 to 
Tcs. 13.38. In 1909-10 exchange ranged for Bank Demand Drafts, from 
Is. 5|£d. to Is. 6|d., with an average for the year of Is. 6|d ; in 
1910-11 it was maintained throughout the 12 months at the figure of 
Is. 6 ll/32d; in 1911-12 exchange fluctuated between Is. 5|d. and 
Is. 6^d. ; in 1912-13 the variation was from Is. 5ffd. to Is. 6£fd. with an 
average of Is. 6^-d. The Gold Standard Reserve Fund stands at nearly a 
million sterling. 

Formerly the fuang was the smallest coin in circulation, and 
the small change of Siam consisted of cowrie shells (bias), the legal 
value of which was fixed at 800 for one fuang. The number of these 
shells that would be accepted in the market, however, as equivalent to one 
fuang, varied enormously, and in the reign of King Mongkut lead coins and 
notes were issued by the Government for small change. These, however, 
were soon abandoned, as they failed to give satisfaction, and copper 
coins were then introduced. The copper money till 1909 in 
circulation — Seek, pai, att, and lott — was first issued in 1875 ; and after 
about a dozen years these coins first bore a print of the King's 
profile, in place of the royal monogram and crown as before. 
Previous to the reign of King Somdetch Phra Chom Klao, the silver 
coins of the country were round, and almost bullet-shaped, with two 
small stamps on them peculiar to each reign. The old bullet-shaped 
ticals did not cease to be legal tender till the 27th October, 1905, the public 
having had an opportunity for twelve months previously to exchange 
their holding of these coins for flat ticals or currency notes. 

In Northern Siam the rupee formerly replaced the tical as the 
current coin, but now the circulation of the tical is increasing. Similarly 
in the southern provinces of the Malay Peninsula the dollar had wider 
circulation than the coinage of the country, but since 1906 the tical has 
replaced the dollar in Monthon Puket. 

In Bangkok there are branches of the Hongkong and Shanghai 
Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, 



106 Siamese Weights and Measures. 



and the Banque de l'lndo-Chine, as well as agencies of the Mercantile 
Bank of India, Ltd., and other banks. The Siam Commercial Bank, 
Ltd., was established in 1906 with Siamese, Danish and German capital ; 
and the Chino-Siam Bank in 1908. There are quite a number of other 
Chinese and Siamese banks in Bangkok. The three first named issued 
notes. Bank-note issues were in nowise regulated by the Siamese 
Government, but the notes have now been replaced by the Government 
Currency Notes. The Paper Currency Department was formally opened 
on the 19th September, 1902. The notes are of five denominations, 
viz., Ticals 5, 10, 20, 100, and 1000. The Act and regulations under 
which they are issued were framed with all the great caution with 
which the finances of the country are handled. Not more than 25 per cent 
of the coin received in exchange for the notes could be invested ; but in 
view of the large increase in the circulation of the notes, this was increased 
to 50 per cent, bj^ the Currency Law Amendment Act of the 9th October, 
1906. The Monthon and Muang Treasuries throughout the country act 
as branches of the Department, and the notes are legal tender in Siam. 
The Currency Notes have proved popular and useful. At the end of the 
year in which the Department was opened, March 31st, 1903, the value in 
circulation was Ticals 3,479,105; on March 31st, 1904, it was Ticals 
7,310.935 ; on March 31st 1905, it was Ticals 10,623,120 ; on the 31st 
March 1906, it was Ticals 11,030,770; on the 31st March 1907, it was 
Ticals 15,209.170 ; on the 31st March 1903, it was Ticals 14,796 040 ; on 
the 31st March 1909. it was Ticals 16,832,820; on the 31st March 1910, 
it was Ticals 17,988,185 ; on the 31st March 1911 it was Ticals 18,770,220 ; 
on the 31st March. 1912, it was Ticals 23,736,020; and on the 31sfe 
March 1913, it was Ticals 26,051,070. 



Gulf of Siam. 1Q7 



§ttlf of §bmm. 



WIND AND WEATHER. 

The South-west monsoon lasts from April to September, the north- 
east from October to March, but in the inner Gulf both monsoons are un- 
certain and variable. The end of the summer monsoon is signalized by cool 
fresh mornings, with easterly winds towards the end of October. As the 
day advances it freshens to a strong breeze which dies away in the after- 
noon and is occasionally followed by a southerly wind in the evening. A 
few more days of southerly wind are accompanied by bursts of heavy 
squalls from the north-east and north-west. In November the monsoon 
has fairly broken in the China Sea, and glorious, cool mornings are the 
result on the Menam. Along the eastern shore of the Gulf in November 
there are strong blows from the north and north-east, occasional light 
breezes from the north-west, bright skies, and lovely weather. At the 
same season the western side of the Gulf is wet and stormy. At the end 
of January and in February the winds of the inner Gulf are not so strong, 
and the general easterly direction is varied by southerly or south-easterly 
breezes in the evenings, and an occasional return for two or three morn- 
ings to the north-east. The sea is smooth as the winds are light and 
uncertain, and a few showers, known as the mango showers, fall to en- 
courage the fruit. By the end of February and in March and April the 
mornings are hot and calm, and as the land gets heated strong sea breezes 
blow up from the south towards evening. Owing to the lowness of the 
water the worst sea of the year will often be found in these months on 
the outside banks. These winds, however, are purely local, and do not 
reach far into the Gulf. They are in fact an example of land and sea 
breezes, but with the latter intensified and former obliterated owing to 
the land being always of a higher temperature than the Gulf. In May comes 
the longed for return of the south-west monsoon, but it is broken by the 
mountains of the Malay Peninsula, and the date of its advent from the 
Indian Ocean is most uncertain. The barometer cannot be relied upon 
to give any indication of bad weather and except for the small diurnal 
variation it remains very steady. Strong breezes and high seas now pre- 
vail on the east side of the inner Gulf for eight or ten days together, 
while the west side is now navigable As the monsoon grows old, and 
September approaches, the winds veer westerly and north-westerly. Heavy 
rains occur in August, September, and October, the average in these 
months for eleven years being 7.570, 13.567, and 8.659 inches respectively, 
as compared with an average of 7.746, 5.751, and 5.642 in the three preceding 
months. After heavy rain for some days the land gets so cooled that land 
breezes may prevail in the morning, varied by calms in the afternoon. In 
the inner Gulf both monsoons are variable and uncertain, but during the 
north-east monsoon in the China Sea ( November to March ) the wind is 
most prevalent from the N. N. E. or E., the first three months, and E. S. 



108 Gulf of Siam. 



E. and S , for the latter part. April is a month of land and sea breezes. 
From May to October the south-west monsoon, mutilated by the high land 
of the Peninsula, blows from S. S. W., and West, veering to west and 
north-west and is accompanied by the fall of some 57 inches of rain at 
Bangkok. For the eleven years 1902-12 the average rainfall in Bangkok 
was 56.711 inches, the actual figures for these years being 46.51 (1902), 
52.48 (1903), 60.13 (1904), 59.115 (1905), 45.95 (1906), 49.37 (1907), 
72.13 (1908), 59.80 (1909), 68.82 (1910), 57.58 (1911), and 52.40 
(1912). The lee shores of the Gulf at each season experience bad weather, 
and rough seas and rain ; the windward shores are navigable, and have com- 
paratively fine weather. 

From China Sea Directory. 
Appended is the account given in the China Sea Directory : — 

The North-east monsoon in the Gulf of Siam sets in early in 
November. It is usually preceded by a month of squally, variable, and 
uncertain weather. 

In the months of November, December and January, the wind blows 
between N. N. E. and East ; generally strong breezes with the temperature 
occasionally as low as 65°. Along the eastern shores of the Gulf at this 
time the sky is frequently unclouded for a week together, but on the 
opposite coast the weather is wet and stormy. 

In November and December, strong squalls, with heavy thunder 
and lightning, are occasionally met with near Pulo Pajang. 

Towards the end of January the wind blows more from the 
eastwards, is steadier, and abates in strength. 

In February the wind is more constant from E. S. E. than any other 
point: it veers between S. E. and N. E. with occasional calms and squalls. 
Fine weather and smooth water now prevail all over the gulf. 

In March the monsoon cannot be depended on : In the middle of the 
gulf calms prevail with southerly winds near the shore, and occasional 
land and sea breezes. Towards the end of the month the weather becomes 
hot and sultry. 

April is the hottest month of the year ; calms may be expected near 
the middle of the gulf; land and sea breezes near the shore, and occasional 
slight squalls. From the 2nd of April until the 15th of May, 1856, the 
Saracen remained at anchor off the Bangkok bar, during which interval the 
river was surveyed, and the four-mile boundary line round the town of 
Bangkok defined. Towards the middle of April the weather changed and 
became gloomy and threatening ; at the latter end of the month there 
were several days continuous and heavy rain, after which the weather 
became showery, and continued so during the remainder of the above period. 
On the 15th the Saracen sailed for Singapore, and in the upper part of the 
gulf had calms and light winds from the eastward, drawing round to the 



Gulf of Siam. 100 



southward as the Redang islands were neared. A southerly current was 
experienced the whole way to Pulo Aor. 

In May clouds begin to bank up, an occasional shower relieves 
the intensity of a vertical sun. The south-west monsoon sets in about the 
middle of the month, sometimes preceded by light flaws of wind and fine 
weather, but usually with squally went her, and occasional heavy falls of rain. 
In July, and August the South-West monsoon blows strong, with occasional 
showers, but generally very fine weather along the western shore of the 
gulf; out in the middle, a rough sea; and along the eastern shore strong- 
breezes with much rain, and occasionally a fresh gale. 

In September the wind is very unsteady, veering between S. W. and 
W. N. W. in strong gusts. Heavy and continuous rain may be expected 
in this month. 

In October the wind veers between west and north, and abates 
considerabty in strength ; the rain squalls are less frequent. Towards the 
end of the month the wind settles in the north, and the cold weather and 
fine season set in. Sailing vessels bound to the gulf from Hongkong will 
not profit much by leaving China earlier than the middle of this month. 

At the bar of the Bangkok river, land and sea breezes generally 
prevail, veering by east or west according to the monsoon. 

The south-west monsoon is scarcely felt close in shore betweed Cape 
Patani and the Redang islands, its course being interrupted by the high 
land in that neighbourhood. To the southward of the Pulo Kapas it takes 
the direction of the coast veering a few points on or off shore by da}^ or 
night, under the influence, alternately, of the sea and .laud breezes. 

White squalls are said to prevail in the gulf, particularly in the 
month of May. 

Black squalls are frequent in the south-west monsoon ; they rise in 
the westward accompanied by a heavy bank of clouds and blow with great 
violence for a short time, and are frequently accompanied by heavy rain. 

Heavy gales are unknown in the Gulf. 

In the Peninsula. 

From Tringganu to Nakon Sritamarat there is a decided rainy season 
during the months of April, May and June, though not so heavy as that 
from September to December. The earty wet season is not felt so 
appreciably near the sea coast as in the interior where the high range of 
hills intercepts the clouds. During both seasons the water to the mouths of 
the rivers is fresh, though the inland lakes of Singora and Pataloong are 
only fresh, during the end of the heavy wet season. During the north-east 



110 Gulf of Siam. 



monsoon inland communication by boat can be carried on between Tring- 
ganu and and Kelantau and Sai by means of canals running parallel to the 
sea coast and connecting most of the rivers. 

TIDES. 

The tides in the Gulf present peculiarities which are at first very 
confusing, and the only tide-tables formerly procui'able were compiled by 
one of the Captains trading to the port. The record kept at the Bar 
Lighthouse may also be seen at the Harbour Master's Office. A perpetual 
tide table, giving the water on the Bar from 8 feet upwards, and the time 
and depth at high and low water, was. however, prepared by Capt. Torresen, 
then the Nautical Adviser of the Harbour Department, and was issued in 1908. 

The semi-diurnal tides are unequal in height and duration.. One of 
the two becomes weak at certain times and gradually disappears entirely T 
with the result that for three or four days in the month there is a single 
diurnal tide. After this tide with its long periods has been running for a 
few days a new tide begins to make and gradually assumes greater strength, 
to die away ao-ain about the 2.4th day of its existence. In the south-west 
monsoon (April to September) the principal of the two tides occurs at night, 
and the level of the river is low by day, the ebb being only interrupted by 
the feeble day tide. In the north-east monsoon ( October to March ) the 
high tide is experienced in the day time, and the inland floods, which are 
coming down from October to January, run off during the night ebbs, which 
are very strong, often attaining. over four knots. 

As the equinoxes approach,, the differences between the inferior and 
superior tides are much less markel, and vessels may often cross the bar 
twice in 24 hours, the depths being often over 13 feet for each. The 
difference is most marked at the time of the solstices. 

The highest tides occur shortly after new and full moon, but they 
are much influenced by the wind. Easterly and north-easterly winds seem 
to drive the water from the China Sea into the Gulf, and if no strong head 
wind is met in advancing up the Gulf the flood is often half a foot above its 
proper height. Westerly and north-westerly winds delay the flood tide in 
its passage up the Gulf, and when blowing strongly lower very considerably 
the depth of the next high water at the bar, especially as the flood takes a 
westerly set at the top of the Gulf, and so feels the retarding influence from 
that quarter. Strong northerly winds may lower the level of the low water, 
as strono- southerly and south-easterly raise that of high water on the bar. 

The greatest depths occur in October, November and December, 
when the morning tides rise to 14ft. 8 ins., 14ft. 10 ins. and even to 15ft. 
The period of high water is generally of some duration, and at no time is 
there less than 9 or 10ft. In March, April and May there are comparatively 
few days when lift, is reached at high water, and there being very little 
fresh water coming down then there is not 4 ft. in the channel at low water. 



Gulf of Siam. m 



The tide observations are said to give 3ft. on the bar at low water 
and 12^ ft. at high water, in the month of April. 

The difference in time between high water at the bar and at Bang- 
kok is on an average about three hours ; but the current often runs up for 
a space of from an hour and a quarter to an hour and three-quarters after 
the actual time of high water, and while the level is actually falling. Slack 
water occurs about two hours after high water. 

From February to May, when the mean level of the river is lowest, 
the moment high water is reached and the fall commences, the water in 
the klongs, being at high level, begins to run out into the main stream. 
Though the momentum of the tidal wave still continues to cause an upward 
current in the river, the klongs will all be ebbing. In the high water 
season October to January, there is often no upward current in the main 
stream owing to the amount of up country fresh water coming down at a 
higher level than the tide. The klongs flow up for long periods before and 
after high water, on account of the high level of the water in the main river. 

The soundings on the Siamese and Admiralty chart are reduced to the 
lowest level on the bar observed in the month of April. 

Outside the bar and near the anchorage the flood sets to the west- 
ward, and the ebb to the eastward, altering its direction occasionally 
according to the strength of the river stream. Along the eastern shore 
of the Gulf towards Cape Liant the ebb sets to the southward, and the flood 
to the northward. 

It is high water at Cape Liant about the same time as at the bar and 
the rise is onl}' 6^ feet. 

CURRENTS. 

The currents in the Gulf, near the middle, are generally weak and 
variable, but near the land, in the strength of the monsoon, strong sets may 
be expected. In the south-west monsoon a strong northerly current is found 
from Lem Chong Pra to Samroi-yot point. In the north-east monsoon there 
is frequently a strong set across the head of the Gulf to the westward. 

In the neighbourhood of the Redang islands and Pulo Obi. the strong 
currents prevalent in the China Sea may be expected. The China Sea 
current does not appear to enter the Gulf farther than a few miles, but is 
said to set across its mouth in both monsoons. 

The flood tide from the China Sea appears to meet the western shore 
of the Gulf and divide somewhere near Cape Patani ; from the Redang 
islands the flood sets to the southward and at Singora and Koh Prah it is 
found setting to the northward. 



112 Gulf of Siam. 



KOH-SI-CHANG. 

At 4 miles W. N. W. of Lem Krabang commences the Koh-si-chang 
group, between which and the coast there is a clear channel. Koh-si- 
chang, the largest of the group, is 3^- miles long, north and south, and 
1 mile broad ; its peak, which rises at the north end of the island Co an 
elevation of 697 feet, bears N. E. by 15^ miles from Koh Luem. Kangku, 
an island with a sharp peak 125 feet high, lies one third of a mile off the 
south end of Koh-si-chang, and a rock 10 feet high, about two-thirds of a 
mile off the north end ; an island also, named Koh Kam, and three islets, 
lie off the north-east side ; the western side is quite clear. At half a mile 
E. by N. from the rock 10 feet high is a rock with only 4 feet of water 
on it; and there is another with 3 feet N. N. W. one third of a mile from 
the north point of Koh Kam. 

The bay of the north-east side of Koh-si-chang affords anchorage 
partly sheltered by Koh Kam and the islets to eastward. The best berth 
is between the inner or sandy point of Koh-Kam and the village on Koh-si- 
chang, or rather nearer Koh Kam. 

THE BAR. 

The Menam has on the western point of entrance a clump of high 
trees like a small mound elevated about 30 feet above the surrounding 
mangrove, lat. 13° 32' N., long. 100° 33' E., and this is the first land seen 
on approaching from the southward. From this mound Pilot Island or 
Koh Luem bears S. f E., 34 miles ; Double Bead S. E. by E., 22£ miles ; 
and Koh-si-chang peak S. E. by S., 25 miles. 

The outer edge of the bar in 3 fathoms is about three miles south- 
ward of the lighthouse, which is situated on a bank that dries at low water 
tides. The channels into the river are between extensive flats of sand and 
mud which dry off a considerable distance from both shores. The Avest flat 
dries at low water. The east flat dries at very low tides, but shoals grad- 
ually from the channel. 

Four junks laden with stones were, about 60 years ago, sunk across 
the month of the river farther in (it is reported by the Siamese during a war 
with the Cambodians). The junks decaying these stones have become a 
solid mass by the accumulation of sand and mud. There is a depth of 5 feet 
at low water over one of these heaps of stones, of which the one in the middle 
of the river entrance is marked by a lightship showing a red light. From 
the lightship the flagstaff on the outer fort (Phra Chula Chom Klao) bears 
S. W. £ W. mag. The only passage is to the northword of this lightship 
where the width of the channel is 240 metres. During the acute stage of 
the Franco-Siamese trouble in 1893 further obstructions to navigation were 
sunk, which obstruct the channel to the south of this. The obstruction to 
the northwax-d, the east junks, are now marked by a green painted buoy. 



GulfofSiam. 113 



After the survey made by Captain Loftus in 1888 the Bar was not 
surveyed again till 1901, when, in September and October, a complete 
survey was made by Commander Ziegler-Sorensen in H. S. M. S. Muratha. 
Very little change was found in the western channel, the one up to that 
time in regular use, though as was known, the banks had shifted south, 
and westwards A middle channel, however, was discovered, and is now 
the one in regular use. It is about a thousand metres wide nearl} r the 
whole way, and the actual bar is much shorter there than in the old 
channel. It was found that there is considerably more water in the new 
(middle) channel than in the old (S. W.) one, except for a distance of 
about three cables, where the water is from 6 inches to one foot more 
shallow than in any other part of this middle channel. This part is also 
the narrowest, being only about 400 metres wide, but this channel can be 
used by night as well as by day, being marked by two lightships, one at 
the inner and the other at the outer end. All steamers, as well inward 
as outward bound, are directed to pass these lightships on their own port 
side. Ships are able to cross the middle channel with up to 6 inches deeper 
draught than through the old channel. By using the middle channel, ships 
bound for Koh-si-chang or Anghin, shorten their way at least three 
miles. It was also found that there is a navigable way with about 12 
feet of water at Spring tide in the eastern or south-eastern channel which 
is a saving for coasting boats bound eastwards. 

In April-May 1912 the bar was again surveyed by Comclr. M. Boje- 
sen and Comdr. F. Thomsen. The most important changes found were that 
the old ( S. W. ) channel has now practically silted up, and the same is the 
case with the so called " Deep Hole." The Main (or middle) channel has 
become still more pronounced. A " False Deep" is leading more to the true 
South, separated from the main channel by the middle ground. As to the East 
Channel no pronounced alterations were found. The whole bar is apparently 
growing southwards as might be expected. 

LIGHTS. 

In addition to the lightships, there is a screw-pile lighthouse at the 
bar of the Bangkok river. This, the Regent Lighthouse, shows an occult- 
ing light, the period of occultation lasting five seconds and the period of 
the exposure of the light 15 seconds. At the north end of Koh-si-chang, 
there is a lighthouse on a small island called the 10-feet rock, or Hin-sam- 
mah-yen exhibiting a fixed red light visible at a distance of five miles. 
This light is called the Asdang light. The Pah u rat Lighthouse is 
situated on Koh Chuen, the southernmost island on the east coast of the 
GulfofSiam. Anew occulting light, built on the south point of Lem 
Singh, at the entrance to Chantaboon river, was opened in September 

1906. At the quarantine station a light was opened in the latter half of 

1907, on the N. W. point of the quarantine island, Koh Phra>. The above 
mentioned lights are on the east of the Gulf. On the west coast, a light 
has been erected at Chumpon ; the Bandon light, built on Koh Prap 
island, was opened at the end of 1906; and a new light built at Langsuen 



114 Gulf in Siam. 



was opened in 1910. A light is to be erected at Lakon. New 
lights have been opened at Koh Samit on the north-east point, 
fixed red, visible 4 miles : Lem Sahemsam, south-east point of 
mainland opposite Koh Chuen, fixed red, visible 4 miles ; Lem Nob, 
marking the Koh Chang channel, fixed red, visible 4 miles ; Hin Kee 
Chang rock, near Muang Kratt, Wigham 31 day light, fixed white, 
visible 6 miles. The Singora light, formerly under the High Com- 
missioner of* that province, has been taken over by the Harbour 
Department. j 

CROSSING THE BAR. 

The channel has now been marked by two lightships one at the 
inner end, showing a fixed green light, and one at the outer end, showing 
a fixed red light. Both lights are visible at a distance of six miles. 
Ships, as well inward as outward bound, should always pass these light- 
ships on their own port side. The position of these lightships is so 
arranged that in crossing the Bar, ships only have to steer from one to 
the other. Thus ships inward bound take, as a rule, their departure from; 
the pilot-cutter (the approximate position of which is S. by E. from the 
outer lightship about 1£ miles off), and steer for the outer lightship ; 
or if the pilot cutter should not be in her proper position, the other 
lightship is brought to bear true North by West in about three fathoms of 
water, and then a straight course is made for it, leaving it on the port and 
passing it at a distance of about 100 metres. As soon as it is passed, the 
course is shaped for the inner lightship, which is passed in the same 
manner as the outer one. After rounding the inner lightship the course 
is shaped for the sunken junks lightship which, as mentioned above, 
always has to be passed to the northward, also at a distance of about 100 
metres. After passing the sunken junks lightship, the course should be 
about mid-river till the Bangkok harbour is reached, the southern limit 
of which, is marked by an obelisk. The courses outward are vice versa. 
In crossing the Bar, whether outward or inward, due allowance must be 
made for the set of the tide, wind, etc. 

A pilot boat having European pilots on board is always at anchor 
outside the bar. The pilot flag is white and red horizontal the upper half 
being white. 

A flagstaff 240 feet in height was erected at Klong Sara in 1912, and! 
signals are exhibited as a guide to vessels. The Quarantine Department has 
erected a flagstaff on the Island of Koh Phra. 



Gulf of Siam. 



Ill 



TARIFF OF PILOTAGE. 

From the Bar to Bangkok and from Bangkok to a safe anchorage 
outside the Bar inclusive. 

RATES FOR STEAMERS AND ALSO FOR SAILING-VESSELS 
BEING TOWED. 



ips of 150 tons register and under 

ips of over 150 tons register & under 200 tons 



200 
250 
300 
350 
400 
450 
500 
550 
600 
650 
700 
750 
800 
850 
900 
950 
1000 



250 
300 
350. 
400 
450 
500 
550 
600 
650 
700 
750 
800 
850 
900 
950 
1000 



Tic, 



115.00 
137.50 
160,00 
166.00 
172.00 
177.50 
183.50 
189.00 
195.00 
200.00 
204.00 
207.00 
210.00 
213.00 
216.00 
219.00 
222.00 
225.00 
228.00 



If over 1000 tons register Tcs. 2 per every 50 tons additional. 

Rates for sailing- Vessels not being towed 15 per cent, additional. 

Oa the engagement of a Pilot the charges are for both inward and 
oi.t'.vard pilotage and not separately. 



116 Towage Bates. 



dDofiragc Hates to mxb from i|e §ar. 



Keg. Tons or 


UNDER 


Ur 


AND DOWN 


One way only 


200 




Tcs: 320 


Tcs: 


220 


250 






j j 345 


J5 ' 


235 


300 






„ 370 


., 


250 


350 






„ 395 


., 


270 


4.00 






„ 420 


., 


285 


450 






„ 445 


„ 


300 


500 






„ 470 


,, 


320 


550 






„ 495 


„ 


335 


600 






„ 520 


:i 


350 


650 






„ 545 


,, 


370 


700 






„ 570 


., 


385 


750 






„ 595 


., 


400 


800 






„ G20 


jj 


420 . 


850 






„ 645 


j) 


435 ' 


000 






„ G70 ( 


„ 


450 


950 






„ 695 ' 




470 


1000 






„ 720 


„ 


485 


1050 






,., 745 


J5 


500 


1100 






„ 770 


,, 


520 


1150 






„ 795 


., 


535 


1200 






„ 820 


J) 


550 


1250 






„ 845 


„ 


570 


1300 






„ 870 


•5 


585 


1350 






„ 895 


J" 


600 


1400 






,, 920 


„ 


620. 


1450 






„ 945 


55 


635 


1500 






„ 970 


„ 


650 


For ever}* aclclit 


ional 100 Tons 


„ &o 


3? 


35 



To the Patriew Rice Mills an addition of one-third is made to the 

above rates, and to Samsen an addition of one-fifth. 



Light Dues. 



117 



fflrfle of fifilt gjttg. 



Satangs 5 per ton Register 
Satangs 1\ „ „ 

Satangs 2^ „ „ 



For sea-going ships entering the River 
Menam ChaoPhya 

For sea-going ships anchoring at 
Koh-Si-Chang 

For sea-going ships anchoring outside 
the bar ... 

For sea-going ships entering any other 
Siamese Port or River 

For coasting vessels ... 



All lorchas junks, and other craft, engaged in carrying cargo to 
and from ships outside the mouth of the River, shall be exempt from 
paying dues. 



Points of the Compass in Siamese. 

The points of the compass are called Tit : 

East, Tit tawan awk, or Burap'ah. 

S. E., Tit tawan awk chieng tai, or Ahk'ane. 

South, Tit tai, or Taksin 

S. W., T'it tawan tok chieng tai, or Horadee. 

West T'it tawan tok, or Prachin. 

N. W\, T'it tawan tok chieng n'ua, or Payap. 

North, T'it n'ua, or Udaun. 

N. E., T'it tawan awk chieng n'ua, or Isahn. 



118 Teak Trade in Siam. 



fek fabc in- j&utm 



MEASUREMENT OF ROUND TIMAER. 



Rough timber imported from the forest districts in the north is 
divided by dealers into three classes — Mai lak paa, Mai Kam Kuam and 
Mai Yai. The first consist of logs 4 kairj and under in semi-girth ; 
the second usually of 5, 6, and 7 kam timber; "Big timber" ( Mai Yai, ) 
by which term is meant timber suitable for conversion into logs and 
planks for export, includes logs of 5 kam, but generally runs 8 kam and 
upward. 

The units of measurement are the wall in measuring the length 
of the log, and the kam is measuring its girth. The kam is a variable 
quantity. In the forests its equivalent is 4^ English inches. At the 
rafting points the kam is a matter for bargain between buyer and seller, 
there being two measures in use — one containing 4^ and the other 
4 T ~ English inches. In the Bangkok market a 4| inch kam is invariably 
accepted. The kam in use by the Pasi (Duty) Station measurers, 
contains 4-J-g inches, It should be noted that in stating the size of a 
log the number of kam given represents only half its girth in the 
middle of the log. Thus the true girth of a 10 kam log in Bangkok is 
10 x 4|- inches x 2=82^ inches. That only the semi-girth is given, is due 
to the method adopted in girth measurement. A thin ribbon of rattan is 
used, and after passing the rattan round the log the flexible ribbon is 
doubled and laid along the wah stick, from which the number of kam is read 
off. In regard to the length of rough timber in Bangkok the usual trade 
wah contains 78 English inches. 

It is customary between buyer and seller to reckon three-quarters 
of a wah ( 3 sauk ) as a full wah, lesser fractions being disregarded. In 
ascertaining the girth the rule is for the buyer to concede a full kam if the 
measurement exceeds four-fifths of a kam. 

PIKAT RATES, 

In all transactions in Siam concerning the sale and purchase of round 
teak logs of market size, of which the minimum is 3 wahs in length ( say 
19^ feet ) by 5 kams in semi-girth ( say 41£ inches in circumference), a 
common standard is assumed as the basis of calculation of the price. This 
standard arbitrarily assigns an individual value to each log, such value, 
called the Pikat, gradating according to the length and girth of the log, 



Teak Trade in Siam. 119 



Thus a, log 3 wah long and 12 kam in semi-girth is a 7 tical log ; that is 
its value at one pikat, and the phrase " 7 tical log " is another way of 
expressing that measurement. The pikat of the log is determined solely 
by its length and girth, and the transaction of sale and purchase, therefore, 
resolves itself merely into a bargain as to how many times this pikat the 
prrce shall be. The pikat standard places a premium upon long logs of 
timber, and expresses for such logs a higher price per cubic foot than for 
wood of shorter length. For example one pikat amounts to 4 ticals for 
a log 4 wahs in length and 8 kams in semi-girth in the middle of 
the log, while one pikat for a log of the same girth but 9 wahs long means 
1G ticals. Thus at the price of 12 pikat for wood in Bangkok the former 
log would be worth 48 ticals, and the latter 192 ticals. The log of 4 
wahs and 8 kam contains 46.1 "2 cubic feet of wood, round measure, and 
the 9 wah log contains 110.5G cubic feet, round measure, so that the 
price of the former is Tics. 48.85 per ton round measure, and the price 
of the latter is Tics. 86.83 per ton. 

Appended is a table of the standard pikat rates for logs of market 
size. The figures in the body of the table represent in ticals the value of 
logs at one pikat. To find the market value of any log you multiply the 
current pikat price by the figure written in the table agaiiiot that log or 
the log of that measure. The price of a 6 wah by 10 kam log is, according 
to the table, 12 ticals at one pikat. When wood sells at 14 pikat, the value 
of this log would be 168 ticals. 



120 



Tea 1 : Trade hi Siam. 



T 


STANDARD PIKAT RATE. 


Semi- 






Length in wahs. 








Girth 














in 


















Karas 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


5 


Tcs. -h 


Tcs. 1 


Tcs. l\ 


Tcs. 2 


Tcs. 4 


Tcs. 6 


Tcs. 8 




6 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


8 


10 




7 


2 


3 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 




8 


3 


4 


6 


8 


12 


14 


16 




9 


4 


6 


8 


10 


16 


20 


22 


o 

F 5 


10 


5 


8 


10 


12 


20 


24 


26 


o 

o 


11 


6 


10 


12 


16 


24 


28 


32 


es 


12 


7 


12 


16 


20 


28 


32 


38 




13 


8 


14 


20 


24 


32 


36 


44 




14 


10 


16 


24 


28 


36 


42 


50 




15 


32 


20 


28 


32 


40 


48 


60 




16 


14 


24 


32 


36 


44 


52 


70 





PIKAT PASI (CUSTOMS TARIFF.) 



In tb e treaty of 1856 it is provided that all goods and produce not 
subject to an export duty, shall be subject to an inland tax or transit duty. 
There being no export tax upon teak the following transit duty, regulated 
according to the size of the timber, is levied upon all market-sized logs 
passing the Duty Station at Paknampoh. The duty charged has no connec- 
tion with the market price of the logs, but depends solely on the dimensions, 
or in other words, on the pikat rate. 



'Teal' Trade in Siam. 



121 







Length in Wahs (a 


\vah containing 80 inches. ) 


Semi- 
girth in 

kams 
( 1 kam 

-4 1/16-) 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 












Tcs. 


Tcs. 


Tcs. 


Tcs. 


Tcs. 


Tcs. 


5 


24 atts 


32 atts 


48 atts 


l.Tcs. 


1.16 


1.40 


2.32 


8 


12 


20 


6 


32 „ 


48 » 


1. Tcs. 


1.16 


1.40 


2.32 


3.32 


12 


20 


32 


7 


Tcs. 
1. 


Tcs. 
1.24 


2. 


2.40 


3.8 


4.24 


5.8 


20 


32 


56 


8 


1.24 


2. 


2.40 


3.40 


4.24 


5.8 


5.32 


32 


56 


72 


9 


2. 


2.40 


3.40 


4,24 


5.32 


6.48 


7.40 


56 


72 


88 


10 


2 40 


3.32 


4.24 


5.32 


6.48 


7.40 


8.48 


72 


88 


104 


11 


3.32 


4. 


4.48 


6.16 


8. 


9.48 


10.8 


88 


104 


120 


12 


4. 


4.48 


6.24 


8. 


9.32 


10.8 


11.16 


104 


120 


136 


13 


5.8 


5.40 


7.40 


8.28 


10.24 


12. 


13.32 


120 


136 


152 


14 


5.40 

6.48 


7.40 
8.48 


8.48 
10.24 


10.24 
12. 


12. 
14.24 


13. 

16. 


16. 
17.14 


136 


152 


168 


15 









MEASUREMENT OF SAWN TIMBER. 

In the Chinese and native handsawing sheds, the sawn wood is 
sold by the yeh,— 16 wahs long by one sank wide by one niew thick. The 
following is the sale measure : — 

24 Niew= 1 Sauk 

4 Sauk= 1 Wah 

16 Wah= 1 Yok 

Three-quarters of sank in length are counted as one sauk ( |th 
•of a wah) and in measuring the width and the thickness three-quarters 
of a niew are counted as one niew. Lesser fractions are in buyer's favour, 
A wah may safely be reckoned as the equivalent of 6| English feet, and 



122 



Teak Trade in Slam. 



a niew as equal to x| of an English inch. A yok of 16 wah long by s. 
sank wide by 1 niew thick contains 11.44 cubic feet, that is there are 
4.37 yok to the ton of 50 cubic feet. 

The following table gives at a glance the equivalent per cubic feet 
of prices per Siamese yok of 11.44 cubic feet. 

PRICES PER YOK AND THE EQUIVALENTS PER CUBIC FOOT 



Per Yok 


Per cubic foot 
in dollars & cents 


Per Yok 


Per cubic foot 
in dollars & cents 


Tcs. 10 


cts. 52.45 


Tcs. 15J 


cts. 81.29 


m 


55.07 


16 


83.92 


li 


57.09 


16^ 


86.54 


Hi 


60.32 


17 


89.16 


12 


02.94 


17* 


91.78 


101 
± -2 


65.56 


18 


94.41 


13 


68.18 


18* 


97.03 


13| 


70.80 


19 


99.65 


14 


73.43 


m 


SI cts. 02.27 


141 


76.05 


20 


SI cts. 04.90 


15 


78.67 







1 Salnng per Yok = Cts. 1.31 per cubic foot. 

2 Salung „ = 2.62 



3 Sal une 



1 Tical 



3.93 
5.25 



Baii'ihok ani Its Trade. 123 



§an(|kok anb |ts fek, 



The capital of Siam is situated on both sides of the Menam Chao 
Phya, and is about twenty-five miles from the bar following the winding? of 
the river, or about 14 miles direct. That river would be a splendid 
instrument of commerce but for the bar at its mouth. The mean level of 
the city is only about 4.25 metres above mean sea level. The capital is the 
ordinary residence of the Court, and the seat of the whole central administra- 
tion ; it is situated in a marvellous delta, one of the rice granaries of the 
world, and to the capital all the wealth of the country converges. It is only 
132 years since Bangkok became the capital of the country, and of late years 
it is being rapidly modernised. Despite both these facts, it is still one of 
the most interesting and picturesque cities in the Far East. Within the 
memory of many who do not yet reckon themselves old men, it was a town 
without streets. Now between Bangkolem and Klong Sam sen there are 
between 90 and 100 miles of carriage roads and more are always being made. 
There is, of course, in addition a large mileage of lanes. But the river and 
the canals which intersect the town in all directions, still retain much of their 
old importance as the highways of Bangkok, especially for purposes of trade; 
and a considerable proportion of the population lives on the water. There 
is no foreign quarter in the town, or indeed any very distinct quarters, but 
new suburbs have now been formed, several of them filled mainly with the 
residences of foreigners. Sampeng, the great bazaar, which is at last having 
streets driven through it, was no doubt originally the Chinese quarter, but 
now the Chinaman is everywhere. The Royal palace and the Government 
offices are in the City proper ; the big business firms have their premises, 
for the most part, on the banks of the river from the City to Bangkolem. The 
distinction between the City and the rest of the town is likely, however, 
to disappear, for a good portion of the wall has already been removed, and 
every year sees some further portions taken away to make room for new- 
premises. The gate known as Patoo Sam Yot was removed some fourteen 
years ago, another useful improvement was effected in the course of 
1902 by the removal of Patoo Phi. In September, ]912, the Taphan Han 
gate collapsed, with fatal result, and before the end of the year most 
of the remaining gates had been removed. The town is lighted with 
electricity, and the tram-car service is entirely electric. The first tramway 
to be constructed runs from Bangkolem to near the Palace in the City, 
a distance of about six miles. In 1901 another electric tram line was 
opened from the Paknam Railway terminus to Samsen, a distance of four 
and a half miles. Both these lines are the property of the Siam Electricity 
Co., Ltd. In 1903 the Siamese Tramway Co., Ltd., was formed to construct 
and work a further length of over 12 mimes of electric tramway in and about 
thft City and Dusit Park. These lines were opened to traffic in October, 
1905. In August 1907 the Siam Electricity Co., Ltd., acquired a controlling 
interest in this company. In 1911 the Government decided to build a power 
station of their own of 3,000 kilowatts capacity and this is now practically 
completed. The laying out of Dusit Park estate and the policy 
of opening new roads have brought large new residential areas into 



124 Bangkok and Its Trade. 



the market. The town covers a very extended area, some twelve square 
miles on the eastern bank of the river and the recent census of the capital 
gives the total population as 628,675, of which 379,118 are males and 
249,557 females. 

The first section of the great Raja-Damnern Boulevard was opened in 
1900, and work was finally completed in 1904. The Boulevard extends 
from the Dusit Park Palace to the Grand Palace, and it is throughout 58 
metres in width with the exception of the section known as the Phra Lan 
which is 78 metres, wide. Fine bridges of an ornamental character have 
been constructed over Klong Padung, Klong Talat and Klong Bang Lumpu. 
All new roads in Bangkok are now one or other of two classes, one 29 
metres, and the other 15 metres, in width. Along the first class roads 
is planted a double row of trees. As a result of the opening of the new 
streets an immense impetus has been given to building, and the class of 
houses is much better than in old days. The whole appearance of New-road 
is also being gradually changed. It remains, however, a long, unlovely 
street, too narrrow, outside the City, for the traffic, and interesting only for 
its animation and the variety of races to be met in it. The " policy of 
roads" has presumably been pursued so vigorous^ from a recognition of the 
fact that no improvement scheme was possible till accoinmodation was pro- 
vided for the people in the most densely populated part of the town, and the 
introduction of the motor car has given an additional impetus to improving, 
and adding to the roads. A road is being made between Paknam 
and the capital. The removal of the cattle trade to the Bangkolem 
Abattoirs, together with the sanitary regulations respecting dairies and 
Chinese market gardens, restored the important Windwill-road district — be- 
tween the Suriwongse and Poh Yome Roads — to European occupation, and in 
the main roads and the cross roads that have been opened up there, several 
new and handsome residences have been built. The large Bangrak market, 
destroyed by fire in 1908, has been rebuilt on modern lines and opened. 
Taken as a whole, the improvements effected in Bangkok during the last six 
or seven years have been more important, as well as more marked, than those 
of the previous dozen years together. 

The right bank is much the less important part of the town. There 
are no streets, and apart from the rice and saw mills, some big Indian com- 
munities give it its chief commercial importance. The electric light 
however has now been installed, and streets and a tramway are projected. 
A bridge has been built across Klong Bangkol^yai, thus restoring the old 
means of land communication between Pak Klong Sarn and Klong Bangkok- 
noi. On this side too are to be found some fine Buddhist monasteries, and 
the palaces of a number of the older aristocratic families. The descendants of 
the original Portuguese settlers still preserve their identity round the oldest 
of the Catholic Churches, that of Santa Cruz, which was pulled down during 
1913 to make room for a more modern building. 

Among the distinctive features of Bangkok, a first place must be 
given to the Buddhist monasteries. Religion is bound up with all the acts 
of the life of the Siamese, and Wats are to be found everywhere in the capital. 
One of the most sumptuous is ihe most recent, that of Benchamabophit, 



Bangkok and its Trade. 121 



built to commemorate the reign of His late Majesty. It is situated near the 
new royal palace in Dusit Park, and the whole design is very happily concei- 
ved in the purest Siamese style. More rich and imposing is Wat Phra Ked 
(officially styled Wat Phra Sri Ratana Satsadaram) situated within the walls 
of the Grand Palace. This is the royal temple and contains the so-called 
emerald Buddha, a sort of palladium of the Thai race. Other noted monas- 
teries are Wat Phra Chetupon (Poh), where one building contains a famous 
"'sleeping" Buddha, Wat Bovoranives, Wat Surhat, Wat Saket in the 
grounds of which rises the Golden Mount, and Wat Aroon (Cheng) on the 
west bank. The restoration of the last named, one of the most ancient 
monasteries in Bangkok, was completed in 1910. 

The big undertaking of providing Bangkok with an abundant water 
supply is now nearing completion, and by the middle of 1914 it is expected 
that water will be supplied for domestic purposes all over the town. The 
water works at Samsen, including the pump houses, filter house, filtered 
water reservoirs, etc., are now completed, while two elevated filtered water 
reservoirs have been built in Worachak-road. The towers ars thirty metres 
high, and each reservoir has a capacity of 1,000 cubic metres. The laying 
of pipes throughout the town was commenced in the latter part of 1912, and 
was finished towards the end of 1913, The water to be used will be taken 
from the river at Ohiengrak above Pakret. Artesian well boring was begun 
in 1904 and has been continued ever since, the success attained showing 
that this should be at least a useful adjunct to a proper water supply, It 
should also be of the utmost value in many of the other towns of lower Siam, 
About twenty bores have been made in Bangkok and others at Nakon 
Pathom, Korat, Tachin, Meklong, Ban Phaji, Nakon Sritamarat, etc. In Na- 
kon Pathom and Raheng the water is distributed through the town by pipes. 

The principal trade of Bangkok is in rice, teak-wood providing an- 
other important industry. There is constant communication with Singapore 
and Hongkong by established lines of steamers ; there is regular steam com- 
munication with both coasts of the Gulf; there is a direct service with Europe 
about every three weeks ; and, in addition, a number of steamers and sailing 
craft visit the port, in the course of a year, from most parts of the world. 

The following tables show the value of the Imports and Exports of 
the Port of Bangkok in recent years :— 

Table A.— Total Value oe all Imports. 



Imports, 




2454 


Average of 


2455 






(1911-12). 


Five Years. 


(1912-13). 






Ticals. 


Ticals, 


Ticals. 


3% Goods ... 




63,698782 


61,535,793 


67.583,197 


Wine, Beer <fe Spirits 




1,441,230 


1,485,749 


1.626.190 


<iold Leaf 




2,502,8^0 


4,089,159 


2,093,000 


Opium 




3,<J69,125 


2,192,582 


3,173,511 


Treasure ... .... 


Total 


2,427,045 


4,029,214 


1,749,429 




73,138,932 


73,332,497 


76,225,327 



126 



BawjlwJc and lis Trade. 



Table B. — Total Value of all Exports. 



Exports. 

Eice ... 

Pieuls 

Teak ... 

Treasure 

All other G-oods 

Goods Re-Exported 


2454 
(1911-12). 

Tieale. 

65,840,265 

(10,541,455) 

6,112,097 

859,434 

9.088.007 

2,733,810 


Average of 
Five Tears. 

Tieals. 
79,391,230 
(14,587,458) 
9,170,830 
1,061,276 
8,002,537 
1,694,889 


2455 
(1912-13), 

Ticals. 

65,320,423 

(9,88U30> 

5,600,282- 

259,511 

9,614,078 

1,176,267 


Total 


84,633,613 


99,320,762' 


81,970,561 



The appended table gives the value of the principal imports an<$ 
exports for 2455(1912-13). 

Imports. 



Cotton Goods. 



Palais 
Papoons 

Sarongs 

Slendangs 
Patas 

Prints and Chintzes 
White Shirting ... 
Grey Shirting 
Turkey Red t loth 
Turkey Red Yarn 
White Tarn 
Coloured Yarn other > 
than Turkey Red > 
Piece Goods 
Singlets 
TJnenuuierated 
Raw Cotton 

Total, Cotton Goods 
Silk Goods 



Ticals 777,086 

... 1,821.323 

703,237 

668,474 

85,104 

... 1,211,481 

2,781,010 

.'.. 1,467,229 

93,958 

260,736 

705,294 



649,414 

2,757,400 

246,830 

2,484,695 

7,946 

16,721,217 

3,081,991 



Gunny Bags ... ... 2130,165 

Oil " 3,610^04 

Machinery 1,845,534 

Hardware 1,225,885 

Wood and wood ") , ,o_ fi .,. 

manufactures ) ' ' 

Jewellery Precious Stones I , . ~ fi ggi 

Gold and Silver ware f ' 

Sugar, Manufactured ... 3,284,144 

Provisions 1,617,149 

Motor Cars and parts ... 716,916 

Drugs .. 1,375,590 

Tea 837,325- 

Metal Manufactures ... 5,791,138 

Tobacco 1,286,424 

Liquors ... ... ... 1,626,190 

Opium .. 3,173,511 

Treasure 1,749,429 

Gold Leaf 2,093,000 

Paper ... 930,458 

Matches ... 757,52© 



Bangkok and Its Trade. 



127 



Exports. 



Rice 


Tica 


s 65,3-20,423 


Teak 


,.. 


. 5,600,282 


Agilla Wood 




54.890 


Sapan Wood 




13,759 


Fish, Platoo 




325,978 


Fish, salt, other 
than platoo 


than ^ 


. 1,173,784 


Dried Mussels 




530,876 


Fish, Plaheng 


... 


33,220 


Fish, Plasalit 


... 


7,575 


Pepper 




877,198 


Cardamutus 




62,122 


Gamboge ... 




• c 2,969 


Sticklac 




281,550 


Bullocks 




363,380 


Buffalo Hides 




936,892 


Cow Hides 




. 1,186,286 


Buffalo Horns 




131,078 


Copra 




5,370 



Other horns, deer ] 






and rhinoceros J 


47,639 


Deer Hides 




125,900 


Birds Nests 




39,540 


Silk, Eaw 




354,241 


Silk Piece Goods . 




682,263 


Cotton ... ' . 




176,817 


Ivory 




31,908 


Pumeloes ... 




56,819 


Rough Rubies 




2,865 


Duck Eggs 




18,315 


Onions 




80,702 


Salt 




153,268 


Gum Benjamin . 




26,980 


Rubber 




87,968 


Swine 




31,750 


Tin Oxide ... 




5,757 


Pine Apples 




378,964 



The following is the Return of Siamese and Foreign Shipping at the 
Port of Bangkok in 2455 ( 1912-13 ), as furnished by his Majesty's 
Customs : — 







INWARDS. 






Nationality 
of Flag. 


Steamers. 


Sailing-ships. 




No- 


Tonnage 


No. Tonnage 


Austrian ... 


... 1 


1,831 




British 


.. 84 


77,151 






Danish 


... 17 


35,857 






Dutch 


.. 29 


16,810 






French 


• • 30- 


12^710 






German ... 


./f22 


2227115"} 






Hungarian 


.r~r 


1,951 




Norwegian 


.. 171 


145,174 




.. 


Siamese ... 


.. 103 


47,757 






Chinese ... 


.. 6 


4,816 






Junks 




... 


1 


37 Z 



664 



566,172 



128 



Bangkok and Its Trade. 





OUTWARDS. 






Nationality 










of Flag. 


S' 


rEAMERS. 


Sailing-ships. 




No. 


Tonnage 


No. 


Tonnage 


Austrian ... 


... 1 


1,831 






British 


... 82 


76,373 






Danish 


... 14 


33,689 






Dutch 


... 29 


16,810 






Fi-ench 


... 29 


12,479 






German ... 


.. 226 


226,045 






Hungarian 


.. 1 


1,951 


« • • 




Norwegian 


.. 172 


145,696 






Siamese ... 


.. 118 


50,607 


. . . 




Chinese ... 


.. 5 


3,835 






Junks 






180 






677 


569,316 


Junks 180 





The imports ( in order of value ) were from Great Britain, China, 
India, Netherlands-India, Germany, Singapore, Japan, U. S. America, 
France, Hongkong, Holland, Belgium, and the exports ( also in order of 
value ) were to Singapore, Hongkong, Germany, United Kingdom, India, 
Holland, Belgium, Austria-Hungary. There is also a considerable trade 
overland with Burma, and on the northern frontier, with the British Shan 
States and Yunnan, carried on by traders, who buy goods at one place and 
sell them at another. 



Forestry in Siam. 329 



jfottsfrg in; JHara. 



At present by far the most valuable tree in Siam is the Teak. The 
forests in which this species occurs are situated in the dry regions of the 
Monthon Bayap and those parts of the Monthons Nakonsawan and Pitsaim- 
lok which lie north of Lat. 17,° the average annual rainfall being probably 
under 50 inches. These regions, which are hilly throughout, are drained by 
the Salween on the west, and the Mekong on the east, while the numerous 
feeders of the Menam Chao Phya water the whole of the central portion, all 
affordingthe waterways by which timber is floated out. 

Where conditions are suitable, Teak occurs in deciduous forests up to 
2,500 feet elevation, mixed with many other species of which the following 
are some of the most important : 

Xylia dolabriformis, Eugenia jambolana, Bombax insignia, Sterculia 
various, Pterospermum semisagittatum, Garuga pennata, Bursera serrata, 
Semicarpus panduratus, Spondias Magnifera, Terminalia tomentella, Ter- 
minalia crenulata, Terminalia belerica, Anogeissus acuminatus, Lagerstroe- 
mia flos regina, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Homalium tomentosum, Cordia 
grandis, Cassia Siamea, Odina wodier, etc., etc. 

Prior to the year 1896, although teak had been worked very exten- 
sively in the Menam and Salween basins, yet practically no attempts had 
been made to control these workings. It is true that such work was sup- 
posed to be restricted to forests for which leases had been granted by the 
Government, and the form of lease then in use contained certain conditions 
as to minimum girth, etc., which although absurdly inadequate were appa- 
rently at the time considered a sufficent safeguard for the future of the 
forests. But as no Government official was directly responsible, not only 
were the conditions of leases not enforced, but very many unleased forests 
were worked under the authority of the local officials whose sympathies 
■could as a rule be enlisted by the timber traders for 'certain pecuniary con- 
siderations. 

Forestry in Siam, (if ex-President Roosevelt's definition is to be 
accepted ), may be said to have commenced only in 1896-97 when the Go- 
vernment secured the services of Mr. H. Slade ( an officer of the Imperial 
Forest Service, of exceptional abilities ) on deputation from the Government 
of India. 

This officer at once directed his attention to the Teak forests and 
acting under his advice the following measures were taken to protect the 
valuable forest properties of the Government : 

(I.) The establishment of a Forest Department, with an European 
staff of officers, recruited as far as possible from the Imperial and Provincial 
Forest Service of India and Burma, not the least important of their duties 
being the training of selected Siamese youths with a view to their filling 
responsible positions in the Department in the future. 



130 Forestry in Siam. 



(II.) The promulgation of various Royal Decrees by His Majesty,, 
providing for the better protection and control of forests, and absolutely 
prohibiting any work except under a lease. 

(III.) The inspection and survey of all leased forests by Forest 
Officers with a view to ascertaining the future possibilities of the forests,. 
and also further periodical inspections to ensure strict observance of condi- 
tions of leases. 

(IV.) The training of selected Siamese at the Indian Forest School 
at Dehra Dun. 

In 1897 with the consent of the lessees a new form of lease was sub- 
stituted for that under which they had hitherto worked, the conditions of the 
lease embodying the more important restrictions necessary for the future 
welfare of the forests, among which may be mentioned the raising of "tie 
minimum girth from 51 inches to 76^ inches. 

In 190U-01 most of the old leases expired and a further new form of 
lease was brought into force for such forests as Government decided should 
still be worked. This form provided for the closing of one half of the 
original areas, and prohibited any further girdling by lessees. The royalty 
was also raised from Rs. 4.25 a log to Rs. 10 per large log, and Rs. 6 per 
small log. A large log is one of 3 Pikat and over. 

In 1907-08, when a large proportion of the 6 years leases were 
expiring or about to expire, a change in the organisation of the leases r 
which for some time had been recognised to be necessary, was decided 
upon. 

The main features of this reorganisation, which took effect from the 
1st December, 1909, are as follows : — 

1„ The lengthening of the period of the leases from 6 to 15 years. 

2. The exchange of certain forests between the various lessees, and 
the opening of the closed forests in such manner as to allow of the conso- 
lidation and regrouping of the former numerous, small, and scattered leases 
into a few leases of large area and compact form, covering practically the 
whole of the teak bearing forests of Siam. 

6. The division of these larger areas into two halves, of which one- 
half is leased for 15 years and the other half reserved, with permission to- 
work all the mature teak in the open half area during the currency of the 
lease. 

On account of the greater economy in working which this scheme 
has made possible, the Government has been justified in raising the royalty 
payable per log from Ticals 10 to Tic;ils 12, in spite of the severe fall 
which occurred in the value of teak during the years 1908 and' 1909. 
This reorganisation of the forest leases, which was made necessary by the 
ever increasing distance from which the teak had to be worked,, the general 
increase in working expenses, the near approach of the long threatened 
shortage in teak supplies, and the falling teak market, has also placed the- 
forests on a better and surer working basis, and more certainly safeguard ed. 
the sustained and permanent yield of the teak forests of Siam. 



Forestry in Si am. 23 j 



Although the average annual output of teak from Siamese forests 
during the next 15 years will be considerably less than the average of the 
last five years, much difference will probably not be felt for the "next few 
years ; but an increased yield may confidently be looked for during the 
second 15 years of the new leases. 

For the past few years many promising Siamese youths have been 
sent to receive their forest education at Dehra Dun (India).' They have come 
back after having received their education, and some of them have passed 
the highest examinations with honour. These men are now being placed in 
charge of the responsible positions formerly held by Europeans and are 
working satisfactorily. Students are also being sent to Burma for their 
training instead of to India. 

A short account of the system under which teak is worked may be of 
interest. The trees selected are first killed (girdled) by cutting a ring 
round the tree near the ground well into the heart-wood. They & are then 
left standing, for two years at least, to season, when they are felled, 
logged and dragged, by elephants principally, into the nearest floating 
streams. Parties of elephants are also kept working down the main streams 
to break up stacks and keep the timber moving. 

Across flat country carts are now being largely introduced, dragged 
by buffaloes, or bullocks, as such work can be donein the hot weather when 
elephants cannot be used, and is far cheaper than using elephants. 

Various mechanical contrivances have also been introduced by 
Messrs. The Borneo Company, Limited, and the Bombay Burmah Trading 
Corporation, Limited, with wire ropes to drag over hills which are too 
steep for elephants. 

Owing to the many rapids on the Me Ping, Me Yome, Me Wang and 
Me Nan logs are floated singly until arrival at Raheng, Sawankalok or 
Utaradit, where they are made into rafts, varying in shape and number of 
logs according to the river, and thus conveyed to the Duty Station at 
Paknampoh, where they are examined, and the duty due is collected by a 
Forest Department establishment, before proceeding to Bangkok. 

The average annual arrivals at Paknampoh amount to some 100,000 loo-s. 

Salween timber is floated singly to Kyodan, a rafting station some 70 
miles north of Moulmein, then rafted to" Kado where the Government 
inspection and collection of dulies is carried out, before passing to Moulmein. 
The average annual arrivals from Siam at Kado amount to over 20.000 loo-s. 
It was most unfortunate for the teak forests of Siam that Mr. Slade 
did not arrive 10 years earlier. All of the more accessible teak forests are 
now in a deplorably over-worked condition, many of them so completely 
exhausted that they will supply no more teak for another 50 years. It was 
during these 10 years, and even a little after, that the greatest damage was 
done. Girdling was carried out without any sort of regard to the main- 
tenance of a steady uninterrupted yield. Everything which would vield a 
log which could be sold at a profit was killed, and enormous numbers of 
small poles even, which it could not pay to work, were ruthlessly girdled. 



132 Forestry in Si am. 



The result, in forests which have been treated like this is that the market- 
able timber which should have been gradually cut and utilized over a period 
of 30 to 40 years, was girdled almost all at once, and has since been extract- 
ed as fast as supervision and money could be made available, and the supply 
of elephants and labour would permit. The normal yield of 30 or 40 years 
is thus being compressed into a period of about 16 years. Fortunately Mr. 
Slade was in time to save some of the forests from a similar fate, and a very 
few forests in the district of Nakon Lampang, and a fair number in the 
district of Pre were reserved before they could be worked out, and these are 
now being worked on strictly economic lines, and are helping to mitigate 
the serious shortage in yield and revenue which is now commencing to be felt. 

As regards the other valuable species of timber trees in the North, 
these at present cannot be worked north of Raheng, Sawankalok or Utaradit, 
as being heavy woods they require to be floated lashed to bamboos and too 
large a percentage would be wrecked in the rapids to make it a paying, 
business. The railway to Chiengmai is, however, under course of con- 
struction, which when completed will tap a very large area of practically 
virgin forest as far as these species are concerned. 

FORESTRY IN LOWER STAM. 

Whereas the Teak, the most valuable tree in Siam, and the most 
largely exported, is confined almost entirely to the hilly tracts in northern 
Siam, it must not be supposed that Lower Siam, contains no valuable forests. 
Far from it. Although at the present time little is done to foster forestry 
operations in the South, the Government is expected to shortly issue new 
rules for the working of these forests and to bring several monthons in lower 
Siam and the Peninsula under the control of the Forest Department with a 
view to scientific development and administration, when these forests will 
constitute one more of the many valuable natural assets of the country. 

The areas of these forests are very extensive. On the east they extend 
from the boi'ders of the Monthon Krung Kao all along the Korat railway 
to a short distance beyond Buriram at the eastern extremity of Monthon 
Nakon Rachasima. This same block extends south into Monthon Pactum. 
On the south-east a great belt of forest extends through the coast districts 
of Ohantaburi and Pachim, while on the south-west the Peninsular district 
of Singora southward is one compact mass of dense forest. 

The question that naturally arises in regard to such extensive forests 
is of what value are they to the Government or to any one else. Though 
their value is to a certain extent still a matter for the future to decide, 
it must not be supposed that nothing has yet been done to prove the exis- 
tence of many valuable woods in them, and it is certain that many of the 
more accessible forests will be extensively worked in the near future, indeed 
are being worked at the present moment as regards some of their most 
valuable species. 

The first we may mention and at present the most valuable is the 
well known Rosewood ( Mai Pa Yung, Siamese ) Dalbergia sp : Phis extends 
in suitable localities throughout the forest areas of Nakon Rachasima 



Forestry in Siam. 133 



and Pachim, and owing to the facilities of transport afforded by the 
Korat railway considerable quantities are brought down yearly to Bangkok, 
and find their way to Hongkong and Singapore and even to London, where 
it is in demand as a furniture wood. 

Three other very useful woods are largely exploited from this area, 
Dipterocarpus Tuberculatus, Shorea obtusa and Pectacme Siamensis ( Mai 
Teng Lang, Siamese). As posts for buildings they are used in Bangkok, but 
more especially for the Railways, the sleepers for which, as the wood for 
bridge construction, have been from the very commencement supplied 
entirely from these two species, to which uses they are admirably suited. In 
spite of such a great demand there are still enormous tracts of these woods 
which have never yet been touched by the axe. In addition to the above 
may be mentioned Pterocarpus Indicus (Mai Padouk), a valuable furniture 
wood, supplies of which are only waiting better means of communication 
and transport to be worked. 

Turning to the woods of the Peninsular districts, we find in the 
districts of Petchaburi, Chumpon, and Nakon Sritammarat, to mention only 
a few useful species, a kind of box-wood (Mai Put), much sought after 
by Japanese traders, who export it for use in wood carving, Mai Yang, 
which is finding a ready market in India and Europe, and Mai Loompaw, 
which is valuable bridge building timber and is also exported to China for 
making coffins. 

These are but a few of the many valuable woods, which as time goes 
on will no doubt be found in these yet almost unexplored forests of the 
Peninsula. Already foreign firms who have recognized the value of these 
forests, are applying for concessions to work them, and when in addition to 
the woods mentioned, the many other species useful for boat-building, house 
construction, and other local requirements, such as Xylia dolabriformis 
(Mai Deng), Hopea odorata (Mai Takien ), Lagerstroemia flos-Regina 
( Mai Kabak ), Schleichera trijuga (Mai Makraw) , Nauclea cordefolia ( Mai 
Kwow), and a host of others, are considered, the value of these forests to 
Siam can hardly be over-estimated. 

It is becoming more and more evident each year that the time has 
arrived to inaugurate measures of forest conservancj 7 - in Lower Siam. Indeed 
it is hoped wichin the next few months that such forest conservancy will 
be inaugurated. On all sides it is found that the most valuable species of 
timber trees in all the easily accessible forests are gradually being exter- 
minated. One or two of the most valuable kinds, such as rosewood, have 
already been found to have been exterminated in certain tracts. In 
many places the indiscriminate removal of trees in the pole and sapling stage 
may be noticed. The yearly increasing value of these valuable trees, and 
the danger they are now in of being exterminated or at any rate of being- 
rendered scarce points unmistakeably to urgency of adopting some measures 
of conservancy. The time is now all the more opportune in that the loss of 
revenue which the Government anticipates in respect of its teak forests 
may, it is hoped, be counterbalanced by revenue from the extensive forests 
of the South, and there is every reason to believe that this revenue is 
capable of reaching a high figure before the worst period of the shortage 
of teak supplies arrives. 



134 J)efe 



dtm. 



THE ARMY. 

The last decade rtl Siam has witnessed great strides in the progress- 
of the country, and in this movement toward higher efficienc) 7 the Army 
has taken the front place. Fundamental changes have been made in the 
system of obtaining men for all branches of the Army, with the result that 
the openings for administrative wrong-doing in the old system, by which 
men either rendered personal service or paid a poll tax, have been effectively 
frustrated. To-day the system in use is compulsory and universal. Since 
R. S. 124 every able-bodied man between the ages of 18 and 40 is liable 
to be called to Military Service, ( a ) for two years with the colours,, 
thereafter ( b ) passing into the first reserve, and thereafter ( c ) passing in- 
to the second reserve. Service in the first reserve means that during a 
period of 5 years the person is liable to be called upon for a maximum 
service of two months per year. Service in the second reserve means that 
during a period of ten years the person is liable to be called upon for a 
maximum of 1 5 days per year. At the age of 40 all liability ceases whether 
the person has fully served or not. 

The system is territorial in operation, a man serves in his home- 
circle and is not called into any other circle. Private business is disturbed 
as little as possible, and numerous exemptions are accorded by law on an 
even more liberal scale than in Europe, those exempted including members 
of the priesthood, civil officials, students, orphans, Chinese,, the uncivilised 
tribes, etc. 

The exemption may be total or partial,, the object being to hamper 
as little as possible the peaceful occupations of the people and the require- 
ments of the branches of civil administration, which are now considerable 
owing to the development of the country and the establishment of the 
new order of things all over the Kingdom. 

The up-country regiments are regional, i. e., the men are recruited 
in the military district itself where the regiment is stationed. For this 
purpose the country is divided into Military Circles or Monthons, which 
correspond on the whole, though not being exactly identical, with the 
monthons instituted for the purposes of civil administration. 

This system has brought about far reaching effects on the country at 
large. Men who have served their time with the colours and the reserve 
make better citizens on their re-entry into civil life than those who 
have not served as soldiers. The work of the local governing bodies in the 
different Monthons has been rendered much easier, and the minor positions,, 
such as phu-yai-b n, are largely filled by ex-soldiers. 



Defence. 135 



ORGANISATION. 



His Majesty is the supreme head of the Army and holds the rank of 
Field Marshal. H.R.H. Prince Bhanurangsi, the former head of the army, 
likewise holds the same rank, and at the beginning of the present reign 
was appointed Inspector General of all Land forces, a post the King had 
filled when Crown Prince. One of His Majesty's brothers, H.R.H. the 
Prince of Nagorn Jaisri, holds the appointment of Minister of War. He 
received his military education in Denmark, and the present efficient state 
of the Army is due in a very great measure to the personal efforts of 
the Minister. Acknowledgement was made of the value of his work by his 
promotion to the rank of Field Marshal in 1911. A few of the far reaching 
reforms effected since R. S. 124 may be mentioned, in the improvement 
brought about in the status of the non-commissioned officer, the establish- 
ment of military colleges, the issuing of text books, etc. It must not be 
forgotten too that the army gave the lead in the introduction of the new 
Codes. A new system of Courts-martial and of martial law has been 
introduced. 

Formerly the army was divided into ten Divisions, but at the com- 
mencement of the reign those Divisions were grouped into Army Corps. 

The 1st Army Corps consists of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Divisions. 

The 2nd Army Corps consists of the 6th, 7th and 8th Divisions. 

The 3rd Army Corps consists cf the 5th, 9th and 10th Divisions. 

These Divisions are homogeneous. Each consists of two regiments 
of Infantry, one Regiment of either Cavalry or Chasseurs (Jaeger), one 
Regiment of Artillery, one Company of Engineers, one Company of Trans- 
port, one Company of Machine Guns (mitrailleurs), and one Ambulance 
Company. 

As to the actual strength of this Army, each infantry Regiment con- 
sists, on a peace footing, of one battalion of four Companies, each 
Company consisting of 100 men, exclusive of officers and N. C. O.'s. 
On a war footing each Regiment will consist of three battalions, each of 
tour Companies, and ea'ch Company will be raised to a strength of 250 men. 

A regiment of cavalry, in peace, consists of two squadrons, each 
of 120 horse. In war another squadron will be added. The Chasseurs 
like the Cavalry are employed tor scouting purposes, but on foot. A 
regiment consists of two or more companies in peace and four companies 
in war as circumstances require. 

An Artillery regiment consists of two batteries of four guns in peace 
and three batteries in war. 



136 Defe 



The peace company of Engineers will be raised to a battalion in war, 
and the same applies to the Transport and the Ambulance. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

Since R. S. 128 the Royal Survey Department has been added to 
the Ministry and placed under the Chief of General Staff, who controls in 
addition the Military Instruction Department and the Intelligence Depart- 
ment. Since the Survey Department has been taken over a fair amount 
of progress has been made. A new map of Siam in Siamese showing the 
new frontier has been prepared, but this is only temporary, and as soon as 
the trigonometrical surveys are completed a further map will be published. 
A coloured map of Monthon Krung Thep in Siamese together with 
those of several other Monthons are included in the list of maps issued. 
A Survey School has also been established where officers from the regiments 
are sent to study topographical and trigonometrical survey work, etc. 

The Royal Military College is now separated into two different 
establishments, one of them being a Cadet Corps serving the purpose of a 
preparatory school, while the other is a War School, where military sciences 
are taught. The Cadets who have successfully passed their examinations 
in the highest form of the Cadet Corps, can enter the War School without 
entrance examination. Candidates from civil schools are allowed to enter 
the highest form in the preparatory school but have to pass a strict com- 
petitive entrance examination. Both schools, while having separate com- 
manding officers, are united under the command of the Chief of the Military 
Education Department, who looks after all educational affairs in the Army. 
A very high standard has been attained in the work of both schools, and 
all the present young officers have been trained there. There is always 
a great demand for these officers, and since R. S. 128 two hundred have 
passed out every year. At present there are about 800 cadets in both 
schools, and within the next two years the schools with be in a position to 
supply at least 150 officers every year. Besides the above mentioned 
schools, there is also a special course of study for the education of those 
who wish to become General Staff Officers, who, after passing their examina- 
tion will be sent to all Div. H. Q. 

Amongst the officers in the service are now a number who have been 
trained in European Armies, and who are now holding important posts. 
There is a school for non-commissioned officers in every regiment and the 
standard of education for N. C. O.'s is much higher than formerly. Much 
attention is now paid to the training of the men. In their first year of 
service they are taught their duty to their King and country, drilled in 
barracks, learn military duties and generally get two months in each year 
in manoeuvres. The physical development cf the men is also carefully looked 
after. 

There is now also one school of musketry, to which officers from 
each Infantry, Chasseur, and Transport Regiment are sent by turn every 



Defence. 137 



year, and an artillery application school for officers sent from Artillery 
regiments. 

ARMS AND EQUIPMENT. 

The Arms and Equipment are European, modified of course to suit 
the special demands of the country. ' The troops are armed with R. 8. rifles 
model 121, 8 mm. in calibre. The new field guns are 7.5 cm. calibre, 
and the mountain guns of 5 cm. Machine guns have not yet been definitely 
adopted, as experiments are still being carried out to evolve a type specially 
suited to the country. In R. S. 128 a cartridge factory was established at 
Bangsue, and from the beginning of R. S. 129 has supplied cartridges for 
the Army. Repairs to arms are also carried out in this factory. 

In a country intersected by waterways boats form a large portion of 
the machinery of transport. The headquarters of the transport department 
are situated in Bangkok. That the arrangements are speedy and up-to-date 
is evidenced by the ease with which the large force of troops were trans- 
ported to the capital for the Coronation. 

Experiments are now being carried on to ascertain the most suitable 
form of ration for the army when in the field and on manoeuvres, and to 
this end various kinds of food popular with the men are being subjected to 
treatment with a view to their beinsf used in a compressed form. Officers 
for an aviation corps have been trained iu Europe. 

THE NAVY. 

The Navy is small, but has for a considerable time been a smart, well 
trained and well equipped service. 

The list of ships contains the names of some 21 vessels of over 100 
tons, 10 of these being of 500 tons or over. 

The largest is the cruiser yacht Maha Chakrkri, steel, twinscrew, 2 
masts with 1 military top on each, 2 funnels. Length. 287 feet ; Beam, 40 
feet; Draught, 14 feet; Displacement, 3,000 tons; speed, 14 knots. 
Armament: — four 12 c/m. Q. E.; ten 57 m/m. Q. E.; four 37 m/m. Q. E. 
Serves as Royal Yacht. 

Among the other 'arger vessels are : — 

Torpedo Boat Destrovers, Sua Tayarn Choi and Sua Kamron Sirdhu. 
Length between peips. 227' 0" ; Breadth moulded 21' 6" ; Draught 6' 0" ; 
Displacement 375 tons; I. H. P. 6,000 ; speed 27 knots. Armament: — one 
76 m/m,, five 57 m/m., 2 maxims, two 18" torpedo tubes. Built 1908 and 
1911 respectively at Kobe, Japan. 

Makut Rajakumar, steel, twin-screw gun-boat, 2 masts with 
military top, 1 funnel. Length, 175 feet; Beam, 23 feet 6 inches; 
Draught, 11 feet; Displacement, 700 tons; speed 11.5 knots. Arma- 
ment :— two 12 c/m Q. F. ; four 57 m/m. Q. F.; and three 37 m/m Q. F. 

Bhali and Sukrib — Each is a screw gun-beat, 2 masts with 1 
military top on each, 1 funnel. Length, 162 feet ; Beam, 23 feet ; 
Draught, 10 feet; Displacement, 580 tons: Speed, 11.4 knots. Arma- 
ment : one 12 c/m Q. F. ; five 57 m/m. and four 37 m/m Q. F. 



138 Defence. 



Muratha, steel, screw gun-boat, 2 masts with 1 Military top, 1 
funnel. Length, 145 feet ; Beam 23 feet ; Draught, 10 feet ; Displacement, 
530 tons ; Speed, 11.4 knots. Armament: — one 12 c/m Q. P. ; four 57 m/m 
Q. F. ; three 37 m/m Q. F. 

Torpedo Boats Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Length between perps, 40.1 m. ; 
Breadth moulded, 4.94 m. ; Draught 1.11 m.; I. P. H., 1,200; speed 22 
knots. Armament : — one 57 m/m, one 2£ pr., two 18" torpedo tubes. 
Built 1908, at Kobe, Japan. 

Torpedo Boat No. 4, built 1912, at Kobe, Japan. The conditions are 
similar to those of the aforesaid boats. 

Buk, transport. Length, 176 feet ; Beam, 27 feet 2 inches ; 
Draught, 13 feet 6 inches ; Displacement, 850 tons ; speed 10 knots. 

Besides the above there are about 10 more steam vessels which 
serve as despatch boats for coast and river service, in addition to some 
50 or 60 steamers and launches from 100 tons downwards for service on 
the river. 

The Naval Arsenal dock has been reconstructed, the work 
being completed towards the end of 1906. It measures 300 feet 
in length and 45 feet wide in the entrance, with 15.6 to 16 feet on the 
blocks at high water. In the year 1904, it was further equipped with a 
large wharf on screw piles, and steam sheer legs capable of lifting loads 
of 40 tons, together with a steam travelling crane of 10 tons. There are 
also workshops, fitted with modern machinery and latest improvements, 
capable of undertaking the repair work of the whole fleet- 
In 1904 a Royal Naval Academy was established at Phra Raj- 
wangderm near Wat Aroon, and 200 cadets are trained there for Naviga- 
tion and Engineering. 

The standard of instruction given in this institution has recently 
been so advanced that within a few years the Royal Navy will have in the 
service far more competent officers than hitherto— in fact a number of the 
cadets have already passed into the service, and some are even now 
commanding the new boats. With the more general application of the 
Military service law in the Provinces and Bangkok Monthon, the Naval 
Training Establishments have likewise been extended, and the Depart- 
ment now has these at Muangs Samut Scngkram, Samut Sakon, Nakon 
Khuan Khan, Samut Prakarn, Bang Phra, Rayong and Chantaburi. so 
that the men, recruited locally, may have their preliminaty training for a 
certain period of their service in their native district and be then transfer- 
red to Bangkok to serve in ships of the Royal Navy. 

There are 5,000 men available for service afloat, besides a reserve 
of 20.000. 



Postal R emulations. 139 



f ostal Regulations. 

Business Hours of the Post Office. 

The Post Offices in Bangkok are open for the transaction of business 
at the hours given below : 

Post Office No. 1 ( City, G. P. 0. ) daily from 8 am. to 4 p.m. 
„ „ 2 ( Custom House Lane ) ,, 8 ,, „ 5 „ 

,, „ 4 ( behind Ministry of Interior ) ,, 8 ,, „ 4 ,, 

„ 5 ( R. Railway Dept. ) „ 7 „ „ 4 „ 

„ „ 8 ( Tanon Yaworat ) for 

Chinese correspondence only 8 ,, „ 4 ,, 

[ Post Offices Nos. 3 and 6 have been temporarily closed and 
Post Office No. 7 ( Suen Dusit ) is for the use of the Royal Palace of Suen 
Dusit only. J 

On Sundays the counters are open only from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

At the Inland Offices the hours for the transaction of business are 
regulated by the Postal Authorities. 

Delivery of Correspondence. 

The following are the hours at which delivery of correspondence 
takes place from the Bangkok Post Offices : 

General Post Office ( City ). 7.50 a.m. 12.50 p.m. 4.05 p.m. 

Post Office No. 2 ( Custom House ) 7.50 „ 12.50 „ 4 

Post Office No. 5 ( Railway Dept. ) 7.40 „ 12.40 „ 4 

Letters marked " By Express " will be delivered by special mes- 
senger immediately after their arrival at the destination. The fee is 
16 satangs. 

Postage Stamps. 

The followiug are the Postage Stamps, &c. in use in Siam for the 
purpose of Inland and Foreign Post. — 

Postage stamps : - 2 satangs, 3 satangs, 6 satangs, 12 satangs, 
14 satangs, 28 satangs, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 Ticals. 

Post Cards :— 3 satangs ( Local ), 5 satangs ( Inland ) 6 satangs 
( Foreign ), and 12 satangs (Foreign with reply ). 

Coupons (for prepaying letter-reply from foreign countries, 16 stgs. 



140 



Portal Feyula ■firms. 



Local and Inland Postage Rates. 
Local Letters for every Tical's weight 6 satangs, 

Inland Letters, for every Tiral's weight or 

fraction thereof 12 satangs. 

Unpaid local letters are not transmitted by post. 

Post Cards, Local 3 stangs each card. 
Inland 5 „ ,, 

Printed Matter, ( including newspapers, books, photographs, 
&c. ) Local and Inland, for every 3 Ticals' 
weight or fraction thereof ... ... ... 2 satangs. 

Newspapers registered at the P. & T. Dept : up to 6 Ticals' 

weight, 2 stgs ; for every succeeding 3 Tcs.' weight 2 satangs. 

Patterns or Samples of Merchandise, Commercial and legal 
papers. Local and Inland, for every 3 Ticals' 
weight or fraction thereof ... ... ... 2 satangs. 

Local Parcels : for every 30 Ticals' weight or fraction thereof 10 satangs. 



Inland Parcels 


: for every 


30 Ticals' 


weight or fraction then 


?of 20 satangs. 


Registration — Local and 


[nland : 


U 


satangs ( in addition 


to 




the ordinary 


rate 


of 


postage ). 






Acknowledgement of recei 


Pt 


Local 


and Inland 




... 14 satangs. 


Money Orders- 


-The rates of ( 


Commission charged 


on the issue 




of Inland 


Money 


Orders, are : 








up 




to 




20 Ticals 


inclusive 


... 25 satangs 


over 20 


Ticals up 




to 




60 


,, 


... 50 


60 


,, ,, 








100 


,, 


... 1 Tical 


„ 1 oo 


J7 )T 








200 


,, 


... 2 Ticals 


„ 200 


,, ,, 








300 „ 


T> 


... 3 „ 


„ 300 


)) 11 








400 


}> 


... 4 „ 


„ 400 


„ ,, 








500 


,, 


5 „ 


„ 500 


,, „ 








600 


J> 


... 6 „ 


„ 600 


„ „ 








700 


,, 


• •• 7 „ 


„ 700 


J> 5> 








800 


JJ 


... 8 „ 



Telegram. Tariff. 



143 



TELEGRAM TARIFF. 

The following is the Tariff per word for telegrams: 





Via 


Via 


Via 


L 


COUNTRY. 


Moulmein. 


Saigon. 


Penang O. 




Tcs. 


stgs. 


Tcs. 


stgs. 


Tcs. 


stgs. 


SI AM : — Telegrams are charged at the rate 














of 1 Tical for the first 10 words 














or under and 12 satangs for each 














word in addition. 


1 


65 


2 


25 


2 




Aden & Perim (via Bombay) 


20 


Australia 


2 


05 


1 


65 


2 


05 


Canada,? Dominion of ( via N. A. cables ) 














British Columbia 


3 


30 


3 


95 


3 


80 


Northwest Territories ... 


4 





4 


65 


4 


50 


Cape Breton, New Brunswick, Nova 














Scotia, Ontario, Quebec Province, 














Prince Edward Island 


2 


85 


3 


50 


3 


35 


Cape Colony, Orange River Colony and 














Transvaal 


3 


05 


2 


60 


1 


10 


Ceylon 


— 


80 


1 


40 


1 


35 


China, Important Towns: 














Amoy 


2 







35 


1 


30 


Canton 


2 







35 


1 


30 


Foochow 


2 


_ 




8f 


1 


30 


Hongkong ... 


1 


75 




10 


1 


05 


Macao 


1 


90 




25 


1 


20 


Shanghai 


2 


— 




35 


1 


30 


Swatow 


2 


— 




35 


1 


30 


Dutch East Indies. via S'pore 














Tcs.— stgs. 90 


1 


85 


1 


35 


1 


15 


( via Suez 


2 


20 


2 


40 


2 


25 


Europe (except Russia & Turkey) •! 














[ via Fao 


2 


— 


2 


70 


2 


50 


Russia in Europe i V l a % u ? z 

| via leheran ... 


2 


20 


2 


40 


2 


25 


1 


55 


2 


30 


2 


05 


Turkey in Europe i via ^ uez 
J * \ via Fao 


2 


20 


2 


40 


2 


25 


1 


85 


2 


45 


2 


25 


India 


— 


75 


1 


40 


1 


35 


Burma ... 


— 


60 


1 


55 


1 


50 


Indo-China via S'pore 














Tcs. stgs. 














Cochin-China, Cambodia & Laos — 95 


1 


50 




15 


1 


25 


An nam and Tonquin ... 1 35 


1 


90 





30 


1 


65 


•Japan 


3 


45 


2 


70 


3 


05 


Malay Peninsula: Overland 














Tcs. stgs. 














Federated Malay States and 














Straits Settlements q D r > 


1 


40 


— 


90 


- 1 


— 



144 



Telegram Tariff. 



TELEGRAM TARIFF. 

The following is the Tariff per word for telegrams : — 





Via 


Via 


Via 


COUNTRY. 


Moulmein 


Saigon 


Penang C. 




Tes. 


stgs. 


Tcs. 


stgs. 


Tcs. 


stgs. 


New Zealand 


9 


25 


1 


85 


2 


25 


Philippine Islands, — Luzon 


2 


15 


1 


45 


1 


50 


Ho Ho, Bacolod, Cebu 


2 


60 


1 


90 


1 


85 


United States of America : 














California. 


3 


20 


o 


85 


3 


70 


New York City 


2 


85 


3 


50 


3 


35 



The maximum length of a word in plain language is fixed at 15 
characters or at 5 figures ; in code language at 10 characters or 5 figures. 

Full stops, commas, dashes and bars indicating fractions are each counted 
as a figure or a letter in the group in which they occur. 

The sender of a private telegram may obtain priority of transmission and 
delivery at destination by writing the instruction " Urgent " or — D — before 
the address and by paying three times the charge for an ordinary telegram of 
the same length between the same points. 



Gramme . 
Kilogramme 
Quintal Me'trique 
Tonneau . 
Litre, Liquid 

Hectolitre \ -,-. ^ " 
Dry 



15-43 gr. tr. 
2.205 lbs. av. 
2201 „ n 
2,205 lbs. 
1-76 pint. 
22 gallons. 
2-75 bushels, 



Metre 
Kilometre . 
Metre Cube 
Stere 
Hectare 
Kilometre Carre' 



= 39.37 inches. 
= .621 mile. 

= 35.31 cubic ft. 

= 242 acres. 
= .386 sq. mile. 



Postal Regulations. 



141 



Money Orders are issued by Post Office No. 1 (City), Post Office No. 
2 (Custom House Lane) and Post Office No. 4 (behind Ministry of Interior) 
in Bangkok, on Ayuthia, Chantaboon, Chiengrnai, Chiengrai, Chaiya (Ban- 
don), Chumporn, Kanbnri, Korat, Lampang, Makhaeng, Nan, Paknampoh 
(Nakon Sawan), Patani, Patriew, Pitsanulok, Nakon Pathom, Puket, Raheng, 
Batburi, Singora, and Ubon. Money Orders from these places drawn on Bang- 
kok are likewise received by the Bangkok Post Offices No. 1 or 2. But for 
the present no money can thus be sent from one Inland station to another. 



Foreign Postal Table. 



Country. 



Single 
each. 



Reply 
each. 



Printed 
Matter 

including 
Books, 

Newsp's 



Legal 
and 

Com- 
mercial 
Papers. 



Samples 



Per 50 grammes. 






Union 

Countries— 



Any part in the 

world beyond 

Siam. 



stgs. stgs 



stgs. 



(Lowest 
charge 

14 
satangs) 



(Lowest 

charge 

G 

satangs) 



142 Postal Regulations. 



ForeicxN Parcel Post. 

Parcels are received at the Bangkok Post Offices, Nos. 1 and 2, and 
at the following Inland Post Offices, viz : — Paknampoh, Lampang, Puket, 
Raheng, and Ohiengmai, for transmission to all countries of the world. 
Particulars may be obtained at the Post Offices named above. 

The rates of Postage charged are : to Great Britain 3 lbs 1.35 Tics., 
7 lbs. 2.20 Tics., 11 lbs. 3.00 Tics ; to other countries in Europe, from 1 
tical 90 satangs to 3 ticals per parcel up to 5kg.; to the Straits Settle- 
ments up to 3 lbs. 55 satangs, up to 7 lbs. Tcs. 1.35, up to 11 lbs. Tcs. 2 j 
to the Federated Malay States up to 3 lbs. 80 satangs, up to 7 lbs. Tcs. 
1.85, up to 11 lbs. Tcs. 2.85 ; to Hongkong, Macao and British offices in. 
China: 3 lbs. 60 satangs, 7 lbs. Tics. 1.20, 11 lbs. Tics. 1.80; to Japan 
and Chosen up to 3 lbs. Tical 1, up to 7 lbs. Tcs. 1.45, up to 11 lbs. 
Tcs. 2.28 ; to British India 2 ticals per parcel up to 5kg-.; to Netherlands 
India, 1 tical 50 satangs per parcel up to 5kg.; to Cochin-China, Cambodia T 
Annam and Tongking, 1 tical per parcel up to 5kg. ; over 5 to 10kg. 1 tical 
35 satangs. 

Foreign Money Orders. 

Money orders are issued b}' the Post Offices Nos. 1 and 2 in 
Bangkok, and by the Post Office at Chiengmai, on the following countries : 

Argentine Republic, Australasia, Austria-Hungry, Belgium, Br. 
India, China, Congo State, Chosen, Denmark and Danish West Indies, 
Eoypt, Erythrea, France (including Morocco and Algeria), Germany and 
German Colonies, Hongkong and China Ports, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, 
Macao, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Roumania, Straits Settle- 
ments, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and United States of America. 

The rate of Commission charged on the issue of international 
money orders amounts to 14 satangs for every 25 ticals or fraction of 
25 ticals. 

On Money Orders drawn through the Singapore or Hongkong Post 
Offices, the rates are 3 satangs for each tical or fraction of a tical. The- 
minimum charge, however, is 15 satangs. 

The amount of a Foreign Money order may not exceed Francs 
1000, if payable in France or any of the countries and places for which 
the French Post Office acts as medium. The limit of value for a single 
money order payable in Germany or through the German Post Office, is 
Marks 800 ; and for a money order on the United Kingdom and on 
countries for which England acts as intermediary, £40. On Hongkong 
and places for which that office acts as medium, no money order may be 
issued for more than $400, Mex. ; on Singapore and places served by. 
Singapore the maximum is $400. 



Constitution of the Courts of Justice. 145 



Cavitation of \\t Courts of gustite. 

The Courts of Justice as at present constituted are of quite recent 
origin. The old system remained in full force till the year 1892, when the 
Ministry of Justice was first established. The system— briefly speaking- 
was a system of overlapping jurisdiction without co-operation or control. In 
Bangkok cases were entered in one Court, which had full power to decide 
whether there was a cause of action, the evidence was taken in another 
Court, the guilt or responsibility of the defendant was decided on the 
evidence by a third tribunal, and the judgment actually given by a fourth 
tribunal. These Courts were independent of each other. The idea was\ 
probably to ensure impartiality, but it entailed great delays, and often re- 
sulted in a deadlock between two Courts. 

There were different Courts for different kinds of cases, both civil ancl 
criminal, and different Courts again for different classes of people. 

For instance, there were three separate Courts for land cases, — one 
for land and houses, one for paddy land, and another for garden land. In 
the same way there was one Court for Chinese, another Court for Kheks 
(Malays), and a third for Siamese plaintiffs and Chinese and Khek defen- 
dants. There was a Court of nobles, a Court for the Palace, and a complete 
set of Courts both civil and criminal under the control of the Wang Na 
(second King), for all his numerous vassals no matter in what part of the 
countiy they were living. 

In the Provinces, then under the central administration of the 
Capital, executive and judicial functions were combined in the same officials. 
The Governor of the town was Chief of everything, Courts included, and 
he was frequently the judge in person. The Provinces were under three 
different Departments which had their headquarters in Bangkok, and to 
the Courts of these Departments in Bangkok were sent appeals and all the 
complaints of litigants generally. The outlying Provinces such as Chieng- 
mai were quite independent in judicial matters. 

The Rules of Procedure were elementary and fixed by custom. The 
law of evidence excluded nearly everybody who was likely to know any- 
thing about the case; the parties were strictly forbidden to have any 
communication w r ith the few witnesses left who were allowed to testify ; and 
appeals could be lodged at every stage of the proceedings and on every 
order of the judge. 

In fact it seems marvellous that under these conditions anybody ever 
had the courage to go to law, and it may doubtless be presumed that the 
majority who did were heartily sorry before final judgment was reached — a 
consummation which indeed frequently never happened at all. 



14(3 Constitution of the Courts of Justice. 



In March 110 (1892) the Ministry of Justice was established,, and 
sixteen different Courts in Bangkok were grouped under its controk A 
Minister of Justice was appointed at the same time, the first Minister being 
H. R. II. Prince Savasti. The Courts of the Local Government in Bang- 
kok still retained their jurisdiction, but later on in the year 1892 the Boris- 
pah Courts were transferred to the Ministry of Justice and all judicial power 
taken away from the Ministry of Local Government. In 1893 the Courts 
under the Ministry of Justice were re-organised, and again in the year 115 
(1897) when H. R. H. the Prince of Rajaburi was appointed Minister of 
Justice. They then assumed the form they have since retained. 

The Courts not taken over by the Ministry of Justice are the 
Military and Naval Courts and the Palace Court. The Military and Naval 
Courts have more power than, is usually allotted to Courts Martial. 

Judicial matters in the Provinces still remained under the control of 
the executive officers with the exception of appeals, which were dealt with 
by the Appeal Courts in the Ministry of Justice at Bangkok. In the year 
1896. however, Special Judicial Commissioners were appointed with power to 
re-oro-anise the Courts in the Provinces. The first Commissioners were H. 
K. H. the Prince of Rajaburi, Khun Luang Phva Kraisee and Mr. R. J. 
Kirkpatrick. The Courts in the Provinces were dealt with in turn. Ayuthia 
being the first, and by degrees all the Courts in the Provinces were re-orga- 
nised and placed under the control of the Ministry of Justice. 

Every High Commissioner in a Monthon is ex-officio also a Special 
Judicial Commissioner, but the High Commissioners' never interest them- 
selves in purely judicial matters, so that the division of the executive from 
judicial functions is now complete, and the office of judge is independent 
as far as the local authorities are concerned. 

In the meantime the Siamese authoi'ities, with the assistance of 
Monsieur Rolin-Jaequemyns, had been working to improve the Organisation 
and Procedure of the Courts, and the results of their labours appeared in the 
Law of the Organisation of the Courts which was published in 1895, the 
Code of Criminal Procedure and the Code of Civil Procedure which became 
law in 1896. The Law of Evidence was also promulgated in the year 1895. 

The Codes of Criminal and Civil Procedure are based on English 
models, and the Organisation of the Courts partly on the French system. 
The French system by which a tribunal is composed of two. and three judges 
is probably the best for this country. 

The Codes of Criminal and Civil Procedure were intended to be 
temporary, and some defects have naturally become apparent since 1896. A 
commission of officials in the Ministry of Justice under the presidency of H. 
E. H. the Prince of Rajaburi drafted a Consolidation Act of the Organisation 
of the Courts, and Civil Procedure, embodying at the same time all the more 
urgent modifications seen from experience to be necessary. This Act came- 



Constitution of the Courts of Justice. 147 



into force on the 1st of June, 1908, but will only be temporary till the 
complete Civil and Criminal Procedure Codes referred to in recent various 
Treaties are prepared. 

The present organisation of the Courts is as follows : — 

Each Monthon (Province) is divided into Muangs (Districts) with a 
Muang Court with competence to try criminal cases involving not more than 
10 years' imprisonment, and civil cases not exceeding in amount Tcs. 10,000. 
The bench is composed of two judges. In the capital of each Monthon is a 
Monthon Court, competent to try all criminal and civil cases exceeding the 
jurisdiction of a Muang Court. The bench is composed of three judges, of 
whom the Chief Judge has control over all the Muang Courts in the Monthon. 

In the town of Bangkok there are no Muang Courts, but three 
Borispah (or Police) Courts have jurisdiction in criminal cases involving 
punishment not exceeding 6 months' imprisonment, and civil cases not 
exceeding Tcs. 200 in amount. They also take preliminary examinations 
in all criminal cases. 

Outside the limits of the town of Bangkok there are six Muang 
Courts situated at Paknam, Paklat, Nontaburi, Pratumtani, Tanyaburi and 
Minburi respectively. They have the same jurisdiction as Muang Courts in 
the Provinces, but their appeals go to the Appeal Court at Bangkok, and 
not to the Provincial Appeal Court, as appeals from Muang and Monthon 
Courts in the Provinces do. 

In Monthons where the number of cases is not very large, the 
Monthon Court combines the functions of a Muang and a Monthon Court. 
There are in fact separate Monthon and Muang Courts only in the towns of 
Ayuthia, Chiengmai, Bajburi, and Pachinburi. 

The Dika or Supreme Court of Appeal is now under the Ministry of 
Justice like all other Courts. Three Judges form a quorum. 

The total number of Muang Courts in the Provinces is 62 and 
Monthon (or Monthon and Muang Courts combined) 15, with a total 
of 157 Judges. 

In the Bangkok Monthon, in addition to the six Muang Courts and 
three Borispah Courts already referred to, there is a Court for Foreign 
Causes, where cases are tried in which the subjects of treaty Powers, 
except British subjects and French subjects of Asiatic descent, are 
plaintiffs and Siamese subjects defendants : two International Courts, one 
of which is a section of the Borispah Courts, for British subjects and French 
subjects of Asiatic descent who have been registered before the last Treaties 
with each Power respectively; as well as the Civil and Criminal Courts. 
The number of the judges in these Courts amounts to 34. 



148 Constitution of the Courts of Justice. 



The Appeal Court for Bangkok has 6 judges (in addition to 3 
Europeans), and the Provincial Appeal Court 16 judges. The total number 
of judges thus amounts to 216, exclusive of the judges of the Dika Court 
(or Supreme Court of Appeal) and European Judges and Advisers and other 
officials. 

Judges under the old system received no salaries, but were entitled 
to the fees. All this is changed of course. Fees and fines which in the 
year 129 amounted to Tcs. 848,852 ( =about £63,600-0-0) are remitted 
to the Treasury. The judges are well paid, and are divided into seven 
grades. They receive salaries varying from Tics. 120 a month to Tics. 800 
(about £720 per annum). A few special men receive upwards of Tcs. 800. 
A Judge who has passed his Advocate's Examination (called to the Siamese 
Bar) begins on Tcs. 240 a month (about £216 per annum). In the 
Provinces a house is included, so that Judges in the country have every 
reason to be satisfied with their emoluments. 

The International Court system has been largely extended by the 
French Treaty of 1907 and the British Treaty of 1909. By the former 
Treaty the ordinary Siamese Courts throughout the Kingdom 'with the 
consent of the Consul have jurisdiction to try all cases in which French 
Asiatic Proteges are concerned whether as plaintiffs or defendants. A 
Siamese Court when trying such a case becomes ipso facto an International 
Court, and the French Consul has the right to be present and to withdraw 
the case, should he think it necessary. This right of evocation ceases, 
however, on the promulgation of the different Codes. The same holds good 
in the case of British subjects registei*ed before the Treaty of 1909. 

In the Chiengmai district the International Court system was 
inaugurated by the Treaty between Siam and Great Britain in 1883, and in 
1905 it was also extended to all Danish and Italian subjects. In 1912 
Danish subjects came under Siamese jurisdiction on the same terms as 
British subjects. 

There is no doubt that a system of International Courts is equally 
advantageous to both Siamese and Foreign subjects. 

When the English and French Treaties were drawn up and agreed to 

in the fifties, it was never contemplated by either of the contracting parties 

that there would be large numbers of Asiatic Proteges endowed with the 

same privileges and immunities as Europeans. The principle that Europeans 

brought up under a totally different system of law and having totally different 

habits and customs from the inhabitants of the country, should have recourse 

to tribunals where their own law and customs were administered by their 

own Consuls or Judges, appeared so self-evident to the Siamese 

(authorities of that time that they had no hesitation in admitting it. In 

/fact the Siamese authorities probably welcomed the idea of Foreign Consuls 

I dealing with their own subjects as an easy solution of the difficulties of 

\ administrative aud judicial control of unknown races. 

It was also never contemplated that Foreign subjects might be 
established and engaged in trade in large numbers all over the country, 
days' — if not months' journey from the nearest Consular Court. 



Constitution of the Courts of Justice. 149 



If foreign subjects had been in practice limited to residence within 24 
hours' journey of Bangkok as the Treaties had in view, many of the difficulties 
of recenfc years would not have arisen. In Japan the right of residence was 
strictly limited, but in Siam the whole country has been practically open to 
anyone from the date of the Treaties. ' 

In addition, in consequence of territorial changes taking place within 
and just outside the boundaries of Siam, thousands of Asiatics resident in the 
country became changed automatically from Siamese subjects. These 
Asiatics, for years -and sometimes for generations Siamese subjects, suddenly 
found themselves invested with all the privileges of Europeans, and if they 
were living in places distant from their Consul they found in addition that 
they were released from all direct administrative control. If they chose 
to be troublesome, they could make themselves very objectionable to the 
local authorities. 

On the other hand they found that, if they wanted redress through the 
Courts, they had to lay their complaints in Bangkok, which was always 
exceedingly inconvenient. This convenience could, however, be lessened 
if they were indistinguishable in language and appearance from Siamese 
subjects. This is the case as regards, Chinese, many Shan British subjects, 
and Cambodian and Lao French subjects. In that event, until found out, 
they have often posed as Siamese subjects as long as they were plaintiffs, but 
when they were sued as defendants they would produce their certificates as 
foreign subjects and refer the local authorities to their Consul, or, just as 
frequently, they would lie low as Siamese, provided the decisions of the local 
Court were in their favour, and when given against them, they would 
refuse to submit to the jurisdiction of the Court. 

One of the features of reform in the Ministry of Justice is the train- 
ing of a staff of Legal Advisers. In the Report of this Ministry for the year 
1902 the following remarks occur : — 

" It is very evident that the Advisers of the future must be young 
men who will enter the permanent Civil Service of Siam with the intention 
of spending the best part of their lives here, and who will devote the first 
two or three years of their residence to the hard study of the language. A 
staff of legal men speaking and reading Siamese with ease would make an 
enormous difference in the guidance that might be afforded the youthful 
judges and in the general improvement of the administration of justice." 

Such a staff is in the process of organisation. The system is to 
engage young lawyers under the age of 28 and give them a thorough train- 
ing in the Siamese language for two years. They are then posted to different 
Courts where they are able to take part in the daily work of the Court. During 
probation, whilst learning Siamese, these junior legal Advisers receive Ticals 
375 a month, which is equivalent to about £337 per annum, and afterwards 
are given agreements on a salary of Ticals 500 rising by Ticals 80 to Ticals 
1,200 a month, or about £450 rising by £72 to £1,080 a year. Their service 



150 Constitution of the Courts of Justice. 



counts for pension according to t,he ordinary rules or if their services are- 
dispensed with, unless for good causes shown, they receive compensation for 
the loss of their appointment, in an amount which varies from one year to 
four years' pay. 

No expense or trouble has been spared in the matter of teaching this 
staff the Siamese language, and they have on an average been most success- 
ful in the rapid and thorough acquirement of one of the most difficult 
languages of the East. 

The Foreign Staff under the Ministry of Justice at present ( 1913) 
numbers 28. They are distributed amongst the various Courts in Bangkok 
and the provinces, as will be found on reference to the more detailed 
account of the Staff in another portion of this volume. 

Excluding the Assistant Legal Advisers, seven of this senior staff' 
receive salaries which vary from £1,000 to about £1,350 per annum, one 
receives £1,800 per annum and two receive £2,000 per annum and upwards. 

The Code Commission are proceeding steadily with the work of draft- 
ing new Codes and Laws. 

M. Padoux, Legislative Adviser, joined the service in 1905, and in 
conjunction with other officials in the Ministry of Justice he remodelled a 
draft of a Penal Code which had been prepared by Dr. Masao and Mr. 
Schlesser since some years ago, and it became law on the 21st of September 
1908. 

The Siamese Penal Code is written in very plain and straightforward 
language as the original English draft had to be translated into Siamese- 
All profound definitions and all the prolixity and amplification generally 
considered necessary in Europe have been strictly avoided. This of course 
lias disadvantages as well as advantages, as the Supreme Court of Appeal 
mav have to give many decisions before what seems to be a simple text is 
(dearly elucidated. This however was considered a lesser evil than having a 
prolix and intricate wording difficult to translate and hard to understand. 

The Commission have now taken in hand the Criminal Procedure and 
also the Civil and Commercial Codes. 

The work of Codification has a very important bearing on the political 
situation in Siam, as it has been stipulated in the Treaties with France and 
En o-land that the system of International Courts shall come to an end and 
the jurisdiction of such Courts be transferred to the ordinary Siamese- 
Courts after the promulgation and coming into force of the Siamese Codes,, 
viz. the Penal Code, the Civil and Commercial Codes, the Codes of 
Procedure and the Law of Organisation of Courts. In the Treaty with Japan 
it has even been stipulated since so long ago as 1898 that upon the 
promulgation and coming into force of these Codes the system of Consular 
juris liction shall come to an end and the Japanese subjects in Siam. shall 
be subject to the jurisdiction of the Siamese Courts. 



Law Relating to Flags R. 8. 129. 151 



iafo feinting U $lags, % ■». m 



=so9999Q)Q®09«s 



WE. SOMDETOH PHRA PARAMENDRA MAHA VAJIRA- 
VUDH, KING OF S1AM, etc. 

WHEREAS it is expedient that certain changes should be effected 
in the Flags prescribed by the Flag Regulations of the year R. 8. 118, by 
additions and otherwise, in order to render the same suitable to the present 
time. 

THEREFORE We have decreed and do hereby decree that a law for 
that purpose shall be established as follows : 

Section 1. — This law may be cited as " The Flag Regulations, year 
R. S. 129," 

Section 2. — This law shall come into force from the 1st day of 
April, R. S. 130. 

Section 3". — The Flag Regulations, R. S. 118, established on the 1st 
day of December, R. S. 118, shall be henceforth abrogated. 

Section 4. — Henceforth the National Flag and the Flags used in 
connection with the Government shall be of the following descriptions : — 

1. 

THE ROYAL STANDARD 

. " MAHARAJA YAI." 

The Royal Standard shall be a rectangular yellow flag, in the middle 
of which shall be the figure of the Garuda in red. 

This Standard shall be used for the Sovereign only. Whenever it is 
carried unfurled by a military officer on the march, or hoisted in any place, 
it shall indicate that the Sovereign is present. In the same manner, when 
the Sovereign is travelling on board a Royal or any other vessel, this 
Standard shall be hoisted on the mainmast of such vessel. 

2 

THE ROYAL PENDANT. 

"MAHARAJA NOI." 

The Royal Pendant shall in its fore part resemble the Royal Standard 
in every respect, but not more than 60 centimetres in width. The remain- 
ing adjacent part shall be white, tapering and ending in the shape of a 
swallow's tail. The total length of the Pendant shall be 14 times its 
greatest width, and the width of the end one half that of the fore part. 
The depth of the swallow's tail shall be equal to -A of the Pendant's length. 



152 Law Relating to Flags. R. S. 129. 



This Pendant may be hoisted on the mainmast of a Royal or any 
vessel where the Sovereign may be on board, in the same manner as the 
Eoyal Standard; but when it is so ordered by His Majesty to be used in 
place of the Royal Standard, it indicates that no Royal salute shall be fired. 

3. 

THE QUEEN'S STANDARD 

"RAJINI YAI" 

The Queen's Standard shall be a yellow flag, 10x15, with a swallow 
tail £th of the length of the flag. In the middle of the flag shall be the 
figure of the Garuda in red, the same as on the Royal Standard. 

This flag shall indicate the presence of Her Majesty the Queen. It 
shall also be hoisted on the mainmast of any Royal or other vessel by which 
the Queen may be travelling. 

4. 

THE QUEEN'S PENDANT 
"RAJINI NOI" 

The Queen's Pendant shall resemble the Royal Pendant, but with 
the difference that the white part shall be substituted by red. 

This Pendant shall be used, when it so pleases Her Majesty, in place 
of the Queen's Standard, in which case no salute shall be fired. 

5. 

THE CROWN PRINCE'S STANDARD. 

" YUVARAJ YAI" 

The Crown Prince's Standard shall be a flag having a rectangular 
outer field in dark blue and an inner field, half the dimensions of the for- 
mer, in. yellow. In the centre of the inner field shall be the figure of 
the Garuda in red. 

The flag shall indicate the presence of the Crown Prince, and shall 
also be hoisted on the mainmast of any Royal or any other vessel by which 
His Royal Highness may be travelling. 

6. 

THE CROWN PRINCE'S PENDANT. 

"YUVARAJ NOI" 

The Crown Prince's Pendant shall in its forepart resemble the Crown 
Prince's Standard in every respect, but not more than 60 centimetres in 
width. The remaining adjacent' part shall be white, tapering and ending 
in the shape of a swallow's tail. The total length of the Pendant shall 
be 14 times its greatest width, and the width of the end one half that 
of the forepart. The depth of the swallow's tail being equal to x* of the? 
Pendant's length. 



Law Relating to Flags. B. & 129. 153 



This Pendant may be used in place of the Crown Prince's Standard 
when His Royal Highness shall so desire, and in which case no salute shall 
be fired. 



THE CROWN PRINCESS'S STANDARD 
AND PENDANT. 

The Standard and Pendant of the Crown Princess shall resemble 
those of the Crown Prince, with the difference that the Standard shall be 
in shape similar to the Queen's Standard, and the Pendant shall have its 
end in red, similar to the Queen's Pendant. 

The occasions for the use of both these flags shall be the same as 
those already mentioned with regard to the Crown Prince's Standard and 
Pendant. 

8. 

THE ROYAL PRINCES' STANDARD 

« RAJAVONGS YAL" 

The Standard for the Royal Princes shall be a dark blue rectangular 
flag, having in the centre a yellow circle half the width of the flag in 
diameter. In the circle shall be the figure of the Garuda in red. 

This flag shall be hoisted on the mainmast of any vessel by which 
a Royal Prince, being Son of a Sovereign, is travelling, 



THE ROYAL PRINCES' PENDANT 
" RAJAVONGS NOl." 

The Pendant of the Royal Princes shall in its forepart, resemble 
the Royal Princes' Standard in every respect, but not more than 60 
centimetres in width. The remaining adjacent part shall be white, 
tapering and ending in the shape of a swallow's tail. The total length of 
the Pendant shall be 14 times its greatest width and the width of the 
end one half that of the forepart. The depth of the swallow's tail being 
equal to f-j of the Pendant's length. 

This flag whenever used in place of the Royal Princes' Standard 
shall indicate that no salute is to foe fired, 

10. 

The Standard and Pendant of the Royal Princesses being daughters 
•of a Sovereign, shall resemble those of the Royal Princes, with the 
difference that the Standard shall have its outside part similar in shape 
to the Queen's Standard, and the Pendant shall have its end in red in 
the same manner as the Queen's Pendant. 

The use of these flags shall be subject to the same rules as those for 
the Standard and Pendant of the Royal Princes. 



154 Law Eelathuj fo Blags. 7?. 8. 129. 



11 
THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE FLAG. 

The Government Service Flag shall be a red flag bearing in the- 
eentre the figure of a white elephant, caparisoned, standing on a pedestal 
and facing the staff. 

This flag may be hoisted on all vessels and in all places belonging 
to the Government, 

12 

THE ROYAL NAVY FLAG. 

The Royal Navy Flag shall resemble the Government Service Flag, 
with the difference that it shall have in the upper corner in front of the 
elephant the figure of an anchor with that of a " Chakr " hung on the 
middle of the stock, surmounted b}' the Royal Crown in yellow. 

IS 

THE MINISTER OF MARINE'S FLAG. 

The Minister of Marine's Flag shall be a dark blue flag, having in 
the centre the figure of an anchor with that of a " Chakr " hung on the 
middle of the stock, and surmounted by the Royal Croww in Yellow. 

This flag shall be for the use of the Minister of Marine and shall 
be hoisted at the Ministry of Marine and on the mainmast of any vest el 
where the Minister of Marine may be on board. 

When the Royal Standard or the Queen's Standard is hoisted at 
the mainmast of any vessel, the Minister of Marine's flag shall always be 
hoisted on the fore mast at the same time on every occasion, 

14. 
THE NAVY JACK. 

The Navy Jack shall be a dark blue flag having in the centre the 
figure of a white elephant standing on a pedestal and facing the staff. 

This flag shall be hoisted at the bow of RoyaJ Yachts and war vessels 
in commission. When hoisted at the yard arm of any vessel, it indicates- 
that such vessel is on guard duty of the Hai-bour. 

This flag shall also be used as a regimental flag for Naval detach- 
ments on shore. 

15. 

THE ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET'S FLAG. 

The Admiral of the Fleet's Flag shall be similar to- the Navy Jack,. 
but with the addition of two anchors entwined,, surmounted by the Royal 
Crown in Yellow, in front of the elephant. 

When used on ships, it should be hoisted on the mainmast. 



Law UelaUng to Flags. R. 8. 129. 155 



16. 

DISTINGUISHING FLAGS FOR 

ADMIRALS & COMMODORE. 

The Admiral's Flag shall be similar to the Navy Jack, and shall 
indicate that the officer in command holds the rank of an Admiral. When 
nsed on a ship, it shall be hoisted at the mainmast. 

This flag, with the emblem of a " Charkr " in white in the upper 
corner in front of the elephant, shall indicate that the officer in command 
holds the rank of a Vice-Admiral ; and when it bears the same emblem in 
white in both the upper and lower corners in front of the elephant, it 
shall indicate that the officer in command holds the rank of a Rear-Admiral. 

The Vice- Admiral's Flag, when used on a ship shall be hoisted 
at the fore mast. The Rear-Admiral's Flag, when iised on a threemasted 
ship, shall be hoisted at the mizzen mast, and, in the case of a ship with 
two masts, on the fore mast. 

The Navy Jack ending in the form of a shallow's tail shall indicate 
that the officer in command holds the rank of Commodore. When used on a 
ship, it shall be hoisted at the mizzen mast. 

17. 
THE OFFICER'S PENNANT. 

The Officer's Pennant shall be 6 metres long, by 18 centimetres 
broad at the mast and tapering to a point. 

The first ^ of its length shall be red, and the remaining f dark blue. 

This pennant when hoisted shall indicate the command of a Naval 
Officer. 

18. 
THE SENIOR OFFICER'S PENNANT. 

The Senior Officer's Pennant shall be 36 centimetres broad at the 
mast and 75 centimetres in length, tapering to a point. 

The first ^ of its length shall be dark blue, and the remaining § white. 
In the middle of the dark blue portion there shall be the figure of a 
"'Charkr" in- white. 

When hoisted on the mizzen mast of any ship this Pennant shall 
indicate that the Senior Officer in command is on board. But in case of 
such officer being an Admiral, then the Pennant shall be substituted by the 
flag consistent with his rank. 

19. 
THE NATIONAL FLAG. 

The National Flag shall be red, having in the centre the figure of 
a white elephant facing the staff. It may be flown on all merchant and 
other vessels owned by Siamese subjects. 



156 Law Relating to Flags. R. S. 129. 



20. 

THE PILOTS FLAG. 

The Pilot's Flag shall be similar to the National Flag, but with a 
white border. It is for the use of pilots, and when hoisted at the foretop 
of any vessel, it shall indicate that such vessel requires the services of a 
pilot. 

THE GOVERNMENT OFFICER'S FLAG. 

Section 5. — Any official holding any office in the Government service 
desiring to use a flag to indicate such office may be permitted to use 
the National Flag for the purpose, provided that the same shall bear on 
the upper corner in front of the figure of the white elephant a distinctive 
device or emblem. Such device or emblem shall, however, be first notified 
to the Department charged with the operation of this law for submission 
to His Majesty The King, and only when Royal sanction has been granted 
and duly published in the " Government Gazette," and the flag duly 
registered by the said Department, shall the use of such flag be authorized 
and considered legal before the law. 

FLAGS NOT PRESCRIBED BY THIS LAW. 

Section. 6. — Flags other than those mentioned under the present- 
law may also permitted to be used, provided always that in every in- 
stance a special sanction has been granted by His Majesty The King. 
When so authorized, the use of such flag shall be deemed to be legal 
before the law. The person receiving such sanction shall also notify the 
same and have the flag duly registered by the Department in charge of 
the operation of the present law. 

Section. 7. — The Ministry of Marine is hereby charged with the 
conti'ol of the operation of the present law, and the authorities of every 
Government Department having occasion to make use of the flags men- 
tioned herein shall strictly comply with the provisions of this law in every 
particular. 

Given on the 2nd day of March, year R. S. 129, being the 112th 
day of the Present Reign. 



The Loial Sanitation Decree. B. S. 116. 157 



®{>c Jatal Sanitation gccrcc, 116. 



Decree to make provisions for the appointment of 

sanitary officers, and for some measures of 

sanitation of the town of bangkok. 

(Translation from the Official Gazette of Nov. 21, 1897.) 

We Sowabha Phongsri, Queen Regent. &c, &c, &c. 

Whereas it appears advisable as a first step towards the preparation 
•and execution of a complete and permanent scheme of sanitation of the 
Capital of Bangkok to appoint sanitary officers who under the superinten- 
dence of Our Minister of the Local Government shall gradually carry out 
such sanitary improvements as will be herein after enumerated and who, 
under the same superintendence, shall inquire into the general conditions of 
public health in the Capital of this Kingdom so as to be able to suggest 
from time to time such regulations to be made and such works to be put in 
execution as may be conducive bo an improvement of the sanitar}- con- 
ditions as also to the general embellishment and nicety of the capital ; 

It is hereby decreed as follows: 
Chapter I.— Medical officer of health and sanitary 

ENGINEER TO RE APPOINTED. THEIR RESPECTIVE POWERS 

AND DUTIES. INSTITUTION OF A LOCAL SANITARY 
DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. Subject to our approval the Minister of Local Govern- 
ment shall appoint such two persons as he thinks (it, to the respective offices 
of Medical Officer of Health and of Sanitary Engineer of the Local Govern- 
ment and subject to the same approval he shall determine the salaries and 
allowances to be attached to such offices respectively. 

Section 2. The medical officer of health shall, under the superinten- 
dence of the Minister of Local Government, have the power and duty of in- 
spection and of control in all matters concerning the execution of any regu- 
lations decreed or henceforth to be decreed for the preservation or improve- 
ment of public health within the district of B mgkok. He shall from time 
to time report to the Minister of Local Government on the results of such 
inspection and control, suggest such measures as he ma}^ d^em necessary for 
or conducive to the public health and give his advice and his active co-opera- 
tion on all medical matters concerning the Local (lovermnent, whenever re- 
quired thereto by the Minister. 



]58 77/.<? Local Sanitation Decree. E. 8s 116. 



Section 3. The sanitary engineer shall, under the superintendence 
of the Minister of Local Government, have the power and duty of inspection 
an 1 control in all matters concerning the execution, maintenance, alteration 
or repair of Public Works executed or to be executed within the district of 
Bangkok and in connection with some sanitary purpose, such as public 
markets and slaughter houses, waterworks, public baths, wasbhouses, 
latrines, urinals, drains, sewers, drainage works and other works for the re- 
moval of sewage, night soil and town refuse, reclamation of unhealthy local- 
ities, cleansing and watering of streets and sewers, scavenging, removal of 
nuisances, etc., etc. He shall from time to time report to the Minister of 
L)cal Government on the results of such inspection and control and, when 
requested thereto by the said Minister, draft the plans, estimates, and as the 
case may be, such contracts as will be necessary for carrying into execution 
any sanitary work. 

Section 4. From time to time and as often as the Minister of 
Local Government shall deem it convenient, the medical officer of health 
and the sanitary engineer shall meet under the presidency of the said 1 
Minister, and give, as representatives of the Loeal Sanitary Department,, 
their respective opinions on all questions for the solution of which it is 
necessary to have at once medical and engineering advice. If r on such mix- 
ed questions, the medical officer of health and the sanitary engineer dis- 
agree, the Minister shall decide between them after having taken such 
supplementary advice as he may deem fit. If they agree between themselves- 
but if the Minister is of another opinion, the question shall be referred to 
His Majesty the King. 

Section 5. Whenever the Minister of Local Government submits to* 
the Royal Sanction some new sanitary regulations or some modification or 
cancelling of existing regulations or some public work for a sanitary pur- 
pose, he shall record the opinions expressed on the subject by the medical; 
officer of health or by the sanitary engineer or by both, as the case may be. 

Section) 6. Whenever any contract for the execution of some work 
or for the supply of some goods or materials or for the doing of some duty 
concerning the sanitary service involves the expenditure of more than SCO 
ticals, it shall be reduced to writing and signed by the Minister of Local 
Government and shall specif} :— 

(a) the work or duty to be done, or the goods to be supplied, 

(b) the material to be used, 

(c) the price to be paid for such work, duty, goods or materials. 

(d) the time or times within which the work or duty is to be done or 
the materials or goods are to be furnished and r 

(e) the damages for breaches of the contract. 

Section 7. The medical officer of health and the sanitary engineer 
acting separately or jointly, as- the case may be, but always under the super- 
intendence of the Minister of Local Government, shall have the direction' 
of the local sanitary department and they shall be assisted in their respective- 



The Local Sanitation Decree, R. 8. 116. 159 



work by the necessary number of officers, such as inspectors, assistant, engi- 
neers, surveyors, draughtsmen, translators, interpreters, clerks, etc, whose 
list the Minister of Local Government shall, from time to time, and accord- 
ing to the actual wants of the sanitary department, submit to the Ro\ T al 
Sanction with their proposed salaries and allowances. 

Chapter II. — Sanitary Improvements. 

Section 8. The following sanitary improvements shall be carried out 
within the shortest possible delay in Bangkok : — 

1st Destruction of refuse. 

2nd Public privies and latrines. 

3rd Provisions against future erection or re-erection of insanitary 
buildings. 

4th Removal of Public nuisances. 

Part I. — Destruction of refuse. 

Section 9. The Minister of Local Government shall cause such 
measures to be taken by the sanitary department as will appear necessary 
for gradually destroying the numerous heaps of refuse which are presently 
existing in the public streets or footways, on the banks of the river or of the 
klongs within the town and he shall to this effect", with the assistance of the 
sanitary engineer, make contracts, whereby the contractor or contractors shall 
bind themselves to remove within certain time or times such heaps by means 
of carts or boats, and to carry the refuse to some central depot whereof the 
})^,ce shall be chosen outside the walls of the city, after consultation with 
the medical officer of health, so as not to create a nuisance and where all 
arrangements shall be taken for burning the refuse in the safest possible 
way, and if necessary for using the remaining ashes to reclaim waste ground. 

Section 10. All necessary measures shall be taken, on the advice 
of the medical officer of health, for disinfecting the places where such heaps 
of refuse are presently accumulated. 

Section 11. The Local Sanitary Department shall cause any neces- 
sary number of moveable or fixed receptacles wherein dust, dirt, ashes and 
rubbish may be temporarily deposited to be provided and placed in various 
parts of the town, or carts to go round daily at stated hours to receive the 
same, and carry them to the central depot as aforesaid. 

Whenever such receptacles or carts shall have been provided for in 
any street or quarter, any person who deposits or causes or permits to be 
deposited any such matter in such street or quarter, except in such recep- 
tacles or carts, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding sixteen ticals. 

Provided that every person who deposits or causes or permits to be 
deposited any matter as mentioned in Section 12 (1) in any street or in any 
such receptacles or carts as aforsaid shall be liable to a fine no. exceeding 
sixteen ticals. 



J 60 The Local Sanitation Decree. R. S. 116. 



Section 12(1.) On report of the medical officer of health notice may 
be given by the Local sanitary Department to any person carrying on a trade, 
manufacture or business or occupying any stable, cattle-shed or place for keep- 
ing sheep, goats, swine or poultry within the town, requiring the periodical 
removal of trade or stable refuse and, where such notice has been given, if 
the person to whom it is given fails to comply with it, he shall be liable with- 
out further notice to a fine not exceeding sixteen ticals for every day during 
which such non-compliance continues. 

( 2 ). On report of the sanitary engineer the local sanitary department 
may contract with any person for removing any dung, swine trade, stable or 
garden refuse from his premises upon such terms and conditions and for such 
periods as the Minister may think fit. 

Part II.— Public privies and latrines. 

Section 13. (1). After having consulted with the medical officer of 
health and with the sanitary engineer, the local sanitary Department shall 
provide and maintain in proper and convenient situations within the town, 
so as not to create a nuisance, common latrines and urinals and shall cause 
the same to be kept in proper order and to be daily cleansed. 

(2). The local sanitary Department may within the town license 
latrines for public use on such terms as they may think fit. 

Section 14. ( 1 ). In case the medical officer of health and the sani- 
tary engineer are of opinion that any privy or privies or additional privy or 
privies are necessary to be attached to or provided for any house or building 
or land, the local sanitary Department shall, by notice in writing, require 
the owner thereof within reasonable time after notice to construct such 
privy or privies as he shall think fit. 

( 2 ). In case any notice given under the preceding sub-section is not 
complied with by the person to whom it is addressed he shall be liable to 
a fine not exceeding thirty ticals and to a fine not exceeding five ticals 
for every day during which the said notice shall not have been complied with. 

Section 15. Special regulations shall be prepared by the Minister 
of Local Government with the assistance of the medical officer of health and 
of the sanitary engineer, for the removal of the night soil, with a view of 
discouraging the method of disposing of it in the drains or klongs, and on the 
roads. 

Part III. — Provisions against future erection 
or re-erection of insanitary buildings. 

Section 16. (1) Every person intending after the coming into 
force of this part of the sanitation decree to erect or re-erect any building in 
the town shad give notice in writing of his intention to do so to the local 
sanitary department and shall submit a plan showing : — 

a) The levels on which the foundation and lowest floor are proposed 
to be laid ; 

b ) The levels of the verandahs, if any, on either side of the proposed 
building ; 

c) The proposed mode of drainage, etc. ; and 

d) The front elevation of the proposed building together with 
specifications of the works intend.^ to b j constructed and the materials to be 
iised ; 



Tito Laced Sanitation Decree. /?. S. 116. 1G1 



And shall obey all written directions given by the local sanitary de- 
partment consistent with this decree and with any bye-laws made there- 
under for preventing the newly erected or re-erected building to be in- 
jurious to the safety or health of its inhabitants or of the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood, or to be, by its outer aspect, not in comformity, with the 
character of the street, place or quarter where it is to be erected. 

( 2 ). The expression " erect or re-erect any building " includes all 
additions or alterations which involve new foundations or increased super- 
structure on existing foundations, or the conversion into a dwelling-house 
of any building not originally constructed for human habitation or the con- 
version into more than one dwelling-house of a building originally construct- 
ed as one dwelling-house only. 

Section 17. If any such works as mentioned in the preceding sec- 
tion are begun or erected in the city without giving notice or without sub- 
mitting a plan as aforesaid, or in contravention of the legal directions issued 
by the local sanitary department at any time before the expiration of the 
period of thirty days from the date of such notice, or otherwise than in ac- 
cordance with this Decree or any f5ye-laws made thereunder, or if an} r 
deviation shall be made from any plan or specification approved of by the 
local sanitary department without their written permission, the person so 
beginning or erecting any building shall be liable to a fine not exceeding- 
ten ticals per day until he has made the necessary alterations, or as the case 
may be, demolished the building. 

Provided however that in case no remarks are made by the Local 
Sanitary Department within the period of thirty days from the receipt of the 
notice with plan and specifications as prescribed in Section 16, the building 
may be erected or re-erected upon the plan and specification sent with the 
notice. 

Section 18. It shall not be lawful to erect or to re-erect any build- 
ing having the external roof or walls made of grass, leaves, mats, ataps or 
other combustible materials at any distance not greater than ten wahs from 
any other building separately occupied or from any street, without permis- 
sion in writing from the local sanitary department. 

If any person offends against the provisions of this section he shall 
be liable to a fine not exceeding two ticals per day until he has removed the 
roof or wall made contrary to such provision. 

Section 19. Every new building begun to be erected in the city 
after the coming into force of this part of the Decree, and intended to be 
used wholly or partly as a dwelling house, shall, unless the local sanitary de- 
partment otherwise permit, have directly attached thereto and in rear thereof 
an open space exclusively belonging thereto of the following extent : 

Where such building is no more than two stories in height, the open 
space shall not be less than two wahs in depth ; 

Where such building is more than two stories in height, the open 
space shall not be less than three wahs in depth. 

Every such open space shall be free from any erection thereon other 
than latrines, bath-rooms, cooking places and stables which shall not exceed 
in height the level of the ceiling of the ground floor story, and such open 
space shall extend throughout the whole width ( exclusive of the external 
walls ) of such building at the rear thereof. 



162 The Loral Sanitation Decree. 7?. S. 116. 



Part IV. — Removal of public nuisances. 
Section 20. The local sanitary Department shall take steps to re- 
move as much as it will be in their legal attribution nuisances of a public 
nature on public or private premises which may tend either to injure the 
health or to affect the safety of the inhabitants at large, and they shall to 
that effect proceed at law, if need be, against any person infringing against 
any of the provisions of this Decree. They shall farther, and they are hereby 
required to cause streets, water-courses, drains, roads, klongs and places to 
be kept -clean and free from dirt, filth or rubbish. 

Chapter III.-=~Bye-laws gradual extension of 
sanitary improvements. 
Section 21. (1) It shall be lawful for the Minister of Local Gov- 
ernment after deliberation with the sanitary engineer and with the medical 
officer as provided for by Section 4 of this Decree, to make bye-laws not 
inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree or of any law for the time be- 
' ing in force in this Kingdom for or with respect to any purpose which may 
by them be deemed necessary for carrying out the several provisions of this 
Decree, or for which they ax'e by this Decree or any other enactment empow- 
ered to make bye-laws. 

(2) It shall also be lawful for the Minister of Local Government, af- 
ter deliberation as aforesaid, to alter, amend, add to or cancel any Bye-law 
or all such Bye-laws and substitute another or others therefor not incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this Decree. 

(3) The Minister for Local Government may, in making any Bye- 
law, prescribethe fine with which the contravention thereof shall be punish- 
able, but so that such fine shall not exceed for any offence the sum of forty 
ticals or in the case of a continued offence the sum of twenty ticals for every 
day during which such offence is continued. 

(4) No Bye-law or alteration in amendment of or addition to or 
cancelment of or substitution for any Bye-law shall have effect until it has 
received the Royal Sanction and such sanction has been notified in the 
Official Gazette. 

Section 22. The sanitary engineer and the Medical Officer shall, 
from time to time, report to the Minister for Local Government on the pro- 
gress of the organisation of the Local Sanitary Department and of the 
sanitary improvements of some quarters or of the whole town of Bangkok, 
and, according as the experience made and the available resources will shosv 
to be possible, the Minister for Local Government shall submit to the Royal 
Sanction such measures as will be necessary for the gradual extension of the 
sanitary improvements. 

Chapter IV. — Miscellaneous. 

Section 23. The present decree shall be quoted as " the local sani- 
tation Decree 116." Its several clauses, with the exception of Sections 11, 
12. 13, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 19 shall come into force after publication in the 
Official Gazette. The coming into force of part or of the whole of the ex- 
cept ed sections for any part or for the whole of the district of Bangkok shall 
be duly notified by special Decree published in the Official Gazette. 

Done at Bangkok on this 16th day of November 1897. 



Sanitary Department Regulations. 1G3 



'intitarg gqjartmeitt filiations* 



POLICE REGULATIONS. 

His Excellency Phya Devesr Wongs Wiwadhna, Superintendent 
of Sanitary Department, begs to call the attention of residents and land 
owners who are living within the city walls to the following notification. 
As His Majesty the King has been most gracious to sanction the Sanitary 
Department to commence sanitary works in the city for the sake of the 
public in general's health, the public are hereby called to observe the 
Police Regulation which has been decreed in 1875 as follows : — 

Art. 25. It is prohibited to build any shade for laying articles 
jutting out into the streets where obstruction to traffic will be caused. 
Any person found to commit this fault a policeman on duty must warn 
the said person not to erect such shade, and order the goods to be removed, 
out of the way. 

Art. 37. Any person wishing to erect temporary shades on the 
public road for merit-makin g^ permission must be obtained from the 
Inspector General of Police. This permission has to be given in writ- 
ing mentioning the date to begin the ceremony and the day to end. 
When the permission is expired, the applicant must remove away the 
shade at once, otherwise the Inspector General of Police may give orders 
to the police to remove same, which materials then become the property 
of the Police Department. 

Any person building up houses or shades on the public streets 
without the knowledge of the Inspector General of Police or permission, 
the police must warn him or her to stop further erection, and if he con- 
tinues the work the police may proceed to pull them down and the mat- 
erials become the property of the Police Department, furthermore a fine 
will be imposed on the owner of these shades or houses at the rate of six 
ticals per partition, which money becomes the fund of the Police Depart- 
ment. 

Art. 42. Any person whether young or old found to use lead 
pencil or charcoal to inscribe figures on the city walls or walls of Temples 
or private residences, the said person will be fined Ticals Ten each time, 
and in default the offender must be locked up and work for the Police 
Department one month, 

Art. 43. Any person found to be watering the street either from 
washing or bathing or other purposes, which is filthy, or even bathing 
one-self on the street will be fined Ticals Ten each time an offence is com- 
mitted and in default the offender must be locked up and work for the 
Police Department one full month. 

Any one found to relieve one-self on the public street or by its 
side must pay a fine of Ticals Twenty and in default must undergo 
imprisonment for three months with labour, 



164 Sanitary Bepa/rtment Regulations. 



Art. 46. Breeders of domestic animals must understand that 
the} 7 have to bury the carcases of their animals at the Wat grounds or in 
their own premises, but it is forbidden to throw them about especially on 
the public thoroughfare or place where police on beat, as when they get 
rotten will cause a nuisance to the passer hy. Should an offender dis- 
regard the police warning he must pay a fine of Ticals Ten. Any 
person caught committing the fault repeatedly which is published in this 
notification as a warning, now the Police Department will take steps 
against the culprit according to law. 
May 1st, 1898. 

WITHIN THE CTTY. 

■Sanitary works to be carried out within the City. 

Phya Devesara Wongse Viwadthna, Superintendent of the Sanitary 
Department, by command of His Majest} 7 hereby gives notice, etc. etc. 

1. The limits in which the sanitary works are to be carried out 
are to be delineated as follows : — " Along the eastern bank of the river 
from the entrance of Klong Banglamphu to the entrance of Klong Tap- 
han Han and then backwards along the bank of the canal by the city 
wall to Klong Banglamphu." This area is hei-einafter called "the city 
proper," and in this the following sanitary works are to be carried out : — 

2. All rubbish and refuse in the city proper must be thrown into 
the dust bins provided by the sanitary department or at any other suitable 
place where the department may allow the rubbish to be thrown. Is is 
forbidden to throw rubbish in streets, pathways, etc., or at any place other 
than allowed by the department. No person who resides in a high building 
or house shall throw rubbish, refuse or dirty water on to the roofs of lower 
houses and buildings or on to the roads. An infringement of this clause is 
liable to a fine of not more than Tcs. 16. 

3. Night soil, offal or dung of animals shall not be thrown into 
the dust bins, roads, streets or pathways, or at any other place not allowed 
by the sanitary department. Any person infringing this clause is liable to 
a fine of not more than Tcs. 16. 

4. All dead animals must be buried by the owner of the house 
in which the animals died, as deep as to prevent the smell to arise 
therefrom. The carcases of dead animals shall not be thrown into the 
roads, drains, canals or into the river, nor by the side of dwelling- 
places. Any person infringing this clause is liable to a fine of not 
more than Tcs. 16. 

5. No person shall throw dirty water on the streets or bathe by 
the road side — nor throw water nor bathe at any place where water may 
run info the streets. Throwing water on the streets to prevent dust 
from flying about, using dean water for this purpose, is exempted from 
this rule. Any person infringing this clause is liable to a fine of not 
more than Tcs. 4. for each infringement. 



Sanitary Department Regulations. 165 



6. All existing latrines or those to be erected adjoining' buildings 
or houses and public streets which may cause nuisance and can be easily 
seen must be looked after by the owners in such a way that they may 
not be seen by passers-by and to abate the nuisance. The owners of 
these latrines shall be liable to a fine of not more than T cs. 30 if they 
do not comply with this rule, and also a fine of Tcs. 5 per day commencing 
from the date of notice received from the sanitary department, until such 
notice has been complied with. 

7. No person shall relieve nature in any place outside the atrines 
erected or to be erected by the sanitary department in accordance with 
this notice. Persons not complying with this rule will be liable to a 
fine of Tcs. 5 each time doing so. 

8. The sanitary department shall make rules for all latrines 
erected preventing such places from becoming dirty. Persons not com- 
plying with such rules shall be liable to a fine of not more than Tcs. 30 
for each and every such infringement. 

9. Any person or company removing or intending to remove 
night soil shall apply to the sanitary department for license. The 
department may examine the utensils used by such person ©r company 
and make regulations for such work and after a fee of Tcs. 80 has 
been paid the department shall grant such a license. Any person or com- 
pany found undertaking the removal of night soil without a license from 
the sanitary department shall be liable to a fine of not more than 
Tcs. 30. 

10. No cattle sheds from which stench may arise — -with the ex- 
ception of stables for horses, elephants, bullocks and buffaloes — such as 
pig stys, poultry farms, etc., and manufactories which cause stench and 
nuisance such as places for dyeing cloths, manufactories of sauce ( nam 
pla) and vermicelli ( kanom chin ), shall be erected at any place near 
to public roads or adjoining other person's property. Persons intending to 
keep such cattle sheds and carry on such trades shall erect their sheds and 
manufactories in a secluded place at such a distance from public roads and 
private properties that they cannot be seen or cause nuisance to the 
passersby and the neighbourhood. Ail such cattle sheds and manufactories 
established in places not allowed by this notice shall be removed to such 
places as mentioned in this notice within, one month's time from the date of 
this notice. The offal, filth and rubbish at the old sites shall also be 
removed that no stench remains. Persons not complying with this notice 
shall be liable to a fine of not more than Tcs, 16 per day, and the 
department shall pull down all such places and remove all the offal and filth 
— the owners not complying with this notice to bear ail expenses incun-ed 
by the department in destroying the sheds and removing all filth therein. 

11. Owners of houses, sheds or stalls along the roads which do not 
look clean must repair or remove all such erections. If any person 
does not comply with this rule, the sanitary department may give notice 



166 ScmiUanj Department Regulations. 



to the owners of such sheds etc. to have them repaired or removed within 
a specified time and in the case of non-compliance with such notice a 
fine of not more than Tes. 10 per. day shall be imposed. The department 
then shall repair or remove these- sheda etc., and the owners shall refund 
to the department all the expenses incurred in this matter. 

12. After- the date of this notice no person shall build or erect 
houses, sheds r stalls, etc., the walls or roofs of which be of mats,, bamboos' 
or leaves- along the streets and roads without a written permission from the 
sanitary department. Any infringement shall be liable to a fine of not 
more than Tcs. 10 per day i h> il such houses or sheds be removed. 

lo* The police and amphurs shall have the power to ware, audi 
Arrest all persons not complying withis notice. 

22nd May 1898. 

BY-LAW; 

With Respect to Vegetable Gardens using Manijret in BanCtKgk. 

His Eoyal Highness Prince Nares "Varan-rid hi, Minister of Local; 
Government, makes the following notification i — 

Whereas by virtire of Section 21 of fcho Local iSanitary Decree,. 
116, the Minister of Local Government may,, after delihe ration with the 
Sanitai'y Engineer and with the Medical Officer, make By-Laws for or with 
respect to any purpose necessary for the carrying out the several provisions. 
of that Decree. 

Whereas the i?se of filth as manure has been found injurious to> 
the health of persons dwelling in the neighbourhood,- so as to create a 
public nuisance. 

Now, therefore,. His Eoyal Highness Prince Nares VarariddhL 
Minister of Local Government, with the- sanction of His Majesty the* 
Kino-, does hereby make the following by-law with respect to the use ©f 
manure in Bangkok, to come in force at once :: — 

1. — On the East bank of the river Chao Fhya, between Klong. 
Samsen and Bangkolem point, within one hundred and sixty sens from 
the river bank, the owners or occupiers of vegetable gardens or planta- 
tions are prohibited from using nightsoil, dung, decaying fish, decaying 
rice or other filth as manure for any purpose. 

2. — Within the above prescribed limits, the Police shall have- 
power to enter into and inspect any garden or plantation where they 
suspect the use of prohibited manure, and they shall order any such. 
manure to be removed or destroyed together with the receptacles in 
which it is kept. 



Sanitary Department Regulations. ] 67 



3. — Any person using manure for the purpose of cultivation in 
disregard of the prohibition contained in this by-law shall be punished 
with fine not exceeding the sum of forty ticals or, in the case of a con- 
tinued offence, with fine not exceeding twenty ticals for every day during 
which such offence is continued. 

Bangkok, October 1st, 1900. 

PLAGUE NOTIFICATION. 

By command of His Majesty the King, His Royal Highness 
Prince Nares Vorariddhi, Minister of Local Government, hereby notifies 
that, in order to stamp out and prevent the spread of bubonic plague 
which is making its appearance from time to time in Bangkok, it° is 
expedient to enact the following Regulation : — 

1. "Householder" means the head of any family or household 
who is in occupation of any residence., house, floating-house, boat or 
tenement of any description, either as an owner or as a lessee or otherwise. 

In monasteries the chief priest shall be deemed a "householder" 
only in a general sense, but th* chief person residing in every building 
within the monastery enclosure shall be deemed a " householder " under 
these regulations. 

In any hospitals, barracks, schools, charitable Institutions or Pri- 
sons the person in charge of every such place is the householder. 

2. It shall be the duty of any householder within whose house a 
case of sickness occurs which has the appearance of plague immediately 
to give information of the fact to the nearest police station. 

3. The officer in charge of such station shall hand the reporter a 
certificate that he has reported and shall by the most expeditious means 
available bring the case to the knowledge of the Medical Officer of 
Health. 

4. Any person suffering from high fever with swellings in the 
arm pits or groins shall be held to have the appearance of plague. 

5. Whenever a person following the profession of a doctor or who 
is called in to attend on the sick in any capacity finds out that a patient 
has the appearance of suffering from plague, it shall be his duty to 
enquire from the householder whether information has been given to the 
police and to ask to see the certificate provided in section 3. 

If information has not been given it shall be the duty of such 
person immediately to give such information himself. 

6. Any householder failing immediately to import a case having 
the appearance of plague as provided in section 2, 



168 Sanitary Department Regulations. 



And any person following the profession of a doctor or called in 
to attend the sick in any capacity failing to report immediately a case 
having the appearance of plague which has not been reported by the house- 
holder, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred ticals. 
Bangkok, 12th July, 1906. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT NOTICE. 

Reminding persons who commit a breach against the Rules 
for Sanitation. 

His Excellency Chao Phya Yomaraj, Minister of the Local Govern- 
ment, hereby notifies that nowadays it has been observed that the public 
are committing a breach against the Sanitary Decree which has already 
been promulgated and prohibits such acts, for example : — digging holes, 
putting up posts, erecting some structures, building stalls, exposing 
articles which project into the public street, and throwing rubbish or 
filth into the drains or the like, all of which acts cause obstruction to 
the traffic and nuisance to the passers-by. It is understood by the 
public that such nuisances are but trifling matters and lying far away 
from the eyes of the officials whose duty it is to look over these matters, 
so a breach is continuously committed. From the date of the publication 
of this notice, the public are requested to comply with the Sanitary 
Decree as follows : — 

1. It is unlawful to build stalls or temporary shades on the 
public street without permission from the authorised officials. 

2. It is unlawful to put articles or to dry clothes on the street 
where obstruction to traffic will be caused. 

3. It is unlawful to throw filth or refuse, unconsumed food or 
foul water on the street or to empty the contents of spittoons into, 
the drains, which are not dust-bins where refuse is allowed to be 
thrown in. 

4. It is unlawful to spit on the foot-path, on the city walls, or on 
1 he walls or roofs of the houses with betel nut saliva. 

5. It is unlawful to allow or lead cattle to walk on the foot-path, 
and etc. 

If it is a first offence, the Police are ordered to warn and explain to 
the offender that he commits a breach against the Sanitary Decree, but if the 
offender refuses to follow the explanation or repeats the offence, the police 
will arrest such offender and send him to the Court for sentence of 
punishment. 

Notice is hereby given in order that the public may be first reminded, 

23rd December. 1909. 



Sanitary Department Regulations. 169 

DECREE FOR PREVENTION OF CATTLE DISEASE. 

R. S. 119. 

By Command of His Majesty the King. 

Whereas a temporary Decree was issued in the year 115 for the 
prevention of cattle disease and the institution of Medical inspection of 
cattle and of other sanitary measures. 

And whereas in consequence of the increased trade in cattle for 
exportation and consumption as food and the increasing - monthly importation 
of cattle into Bangkok from the Provinces, and in view of giving satisfac- 
tion to the numerous complaints made by the different sections of the 
population of Bangkok against the inconveniences resulting from the pre- 
sent state of things, His Majesty has been graciously pleased to direct the 
establishment, by the Sanitary Department, in Bangkolem, of Cattle-Sheds 
for storing cattle destined for exportation, Slaughter Houses, Quarantine 
Station for segregating cattle affected with disease, and a wharf for landing 
and embarking cattle from and to boats and shipping. 

And whereas it is necessary that suitable regulations for carrying 
■out the working of the same should be provided. 

It is hereby decreed as follows : — 

1. — This Decree shall be cited as " Decree for Prevention of Cattle 
Disease R. 8. 119" and it shall come into force from the date of its promul- 
gation by the command of His Majesty in the " Government Gazette." 

2. — From the date of the promulgation of this Act the Government 
Notification of 19th January 114 relating to the slaughtering of cattle, 
the Decree of R. S. 110, and the amended Royal Decree for Prevention of 
Cattle Disease R. S. 115 shall be abrogated. 

3. — All cattle imported into Bangkok shall be landed only at the 
wharf of the Government Cattle Sheds at Bangkolem. unless special per- 
mission is given by the Medical Officer to land elsewhere, and shall be 
submitted immediately on being landed to an examination by the Medical 
Officer. 

4. — Cattle can only be landed between the hours of 6 a.m. and 
6 p.m., unless special permission is given fcj land at other hours. 

5. — All cattle pronounced unhealthy by the Medical Officer shall be 
removed to the cattle Quarantine Station and any animals pronounced by 
the Medical Officer as suffering from contagious disease may be ordered 
by him to be slaughtered and buried forthwith, and the owners of such 
animals shall obey such orders in every particular. 

6. — Owners of cattle destined for slaughter for consumption as food 
shall pay a fee of two Ticals per head for full grown bullocks, five Ticals per 
head for full grown buffaloes, and one and a half Ticals per head for calves 
under three feet in height, inclusive of charge for eight days housing in the 
Government Cattle-Sheds and Slaughter-House. 



170 8 unitary Department Regulations. 



7. — With regard to the Custom House Notification No. 3 of 29th 
February 110, published under the provisions of Section 14 of the Cattle 
Decree of 110, whereby expert duty is levied at the rate of two Ticals per 
head on bullocks and three Ticals per head on buffaloes, the owner of cattle 
destined for exportation shall pay, in addition thereto, a fee of one Tical 
per head on bullocks and two Ticals per head on buffaloes for medical 
examination, inclusive of charge for eight days housing in the Govern- 
ment Cattle-Sheds. 

8. — All cattle imported into Bangkok not intended for consumption 
as food shall be kept in the Government Cattle-Sheds for a period of eight 
days free of rent, and when examined and pronounced free from disease by 
the Medical Officer, may be taken delivery of by the owners and taken to 
any destination approved of by the Medical Officer. 

All milk cows and calves must be kept in sheds in Windmill Road 
or in some other place approved of by the Medical Officer, where they 
will be under the supervision of the Medical Officer, whose orders the own- 
ers must obey. 

9. — Any cattle having to be kept in the Government Cattle-Sheds in 
excess of the time provided for in sections 6, 7 and 8 of this Decree shall be 
charged a rent of eight atts per head per day payable by their owners for 
the number of days in excess of such time. 

10. — Alt cattle destined for slaughter and sale as food shall only be 
slaughtered at the Government Slaughter House, but slaughtering in 
accordance with religious custom or any other purpose not connected with 
the sale of meat may be carried out elsewhere by special permission of 
the Authorities and on payment of the fees mentioned in the foregoing 
Section 6. 

11. — All meat leaving the Government Slaughter-House destined 
tor consumption as food shall be marked by the Authorities as an indication 
that the same has been examined and pronounced fit for human food. If 
the Medical Officer finds any meat unfit for human food, he may order the 
same to be buried forthwith. 

Any person exposing for sale as human food, the flesh of any bullock 
or buffalo slaughtered without permission of the Authorities or which 
died a natural death from any cause whatever, ( such person ) shall be 
liable to a fine as laid down in Section 14 of this Decree and also to the 
forfeiture of such meat. 

Aiiy carcase or part of a carcase which shall not bear the Slaughter- 
House mark, shall be presumed, until the contrary be proved, to have been 
slaughtered in contravention to this Decree. 

12. — All cattle kept in the Government Cattle-Sheds shall be looked 
after and fed at their own expense by the owners, who shall keep the place 
where their cattle are quartered clean and also conform to all the rules and 
regulations of the establishment. 



Sanitary Department Regulations. 171 



13. — The Superintending Officer may at any time enter, or order his 
subordinate Officer to enter with the knowledge of the owner, and examine 
any shed or building used for strong cattle, in order to see that all cattle 
are housed in a sanitary and healthy manner to prevent any outbreak of 
sickness among them. 

14. — Any person offending or attempting to offend or abetting in 
the offence against any of the provisions of this Decree cr obstructing its 
execution by the officers entrusted to carry it out, shall be liable, on 
conviction for every such offence, to imprisonment for a term which may 
extend to one month, or to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty 
Ticals, or to both. 

15. — The Minister of Local Government is empowered to establish 
rules and regulations in virtue of this Decree, and such rules and regula- 
tions after being sanctioned by His Majesty and published in the Govern- 
ment Gazette shall have the same force during the period for which they 
were intended as if they formed part of the present Decree. 

The Minister of Local Government and the Minister of Finance are 
charged with the execution of the present Decree in all particulars. 

Bangkok, July 1, 1900. 



Amendment to the 

ROYAL DECREE FOR PREVENTION OF CATTLE DISEASE 

R. S. 119. 

By Command of His Majesty the King. 

1. — The term "cattle" wherever it occurs in the said Decree shall 
be construed to includ-e sheep as well as bullocks, buffaloes, bulls, cows, and 
calves. 

2. — Owners of sheep destined for slaughter for consumption as food 
shall pay a fee of one Tical per head for medical inspection inclusive of 
charge for eight da} T s housing in the Government Cattle Sheds. 

3. — Any sheep having to be kept in the Government Cattle Sheds in 
excess of the time provided for in Sections 6, 7 and 8 of the said D< oree 
shall be charged a rent of four Atts per head per day payable by their 
owners for the number of days in excess of such time. 

4. — The words " not intended for consumption as food " where they 
occur in Section 8 of the said Decree, shall be struck out and in their place 
shall be inserted the following words " whether or not intended for con- 
sumption as food." 

5. — In the second paragraph of Section 11 of said Decree, after the 
words " any bullock or buffalo " shall be inserted the words " or cow or 
calf or sheep." 

6.— In all other respects the said Decree of R, S. 119 (July 1, 1900) 
shall remain in full force and vigor. 

Bangkok, May 18, 1907. ' 



172 The Morphine and Cocaine Ad, B. E. 2$56 (19 IS). 

%\t fjjoijjjmte aitb Cocaine %d, 

E. E. 2456 (1913). 

m i tm 

BY THE 

KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 

Whereas, by reason of the fact that the trade in morphine and 
cocaine is not at present under proper Government control, certain classes 
of the public are enabled to use these drugs in excess to the detriment of 
their health and happiness, 

Be it enacted as follows : — 

1. The law of the year B. E. 2456 for regulating the trade in 
morphine and cocaine, herein enacted, shall be called the " Morphine and 
Cocaine Act, B. E. 2456." 

And it shall come into force on the first day of October, B. E. 
2456 (1913). 

Interpretation of Terms. 

2. In this Act : — 

" Morphine " includes morphia and all salts of morphia and any 
solution thereof. 

" Cocaine " includes cocaine and all salts of cocaine and any 
solution thereof. 

This Act applies to morphine and cocaine in a pure state and to ab- 
solutions, pills or other preparations containing morphine or cocaine, except 
preparations enumerated in Schedule C and any such other preparation 
considered to be harmless to the consumer as may be added to Schedule C 
by a notification of the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Local 
Government, published in the Government Gazette. 

Licenses. 

3. On and from the coming into operation of this Act, no person 
shall be allowed to deal in morphine or cocaine, unless such person has been 
granted a license to that effect, 

4. The licenses for dealing in morphine and cocaine shall be granted 
in Monthon Bangkok by the Minister of Local Government and in the other 
Monthons by the Minister of the Interior. 

5. A license shall not be valid for more than one year. 



Morphine and Cocaine Act. B. E. °4»C (1913). 



6. Licenses shall not be transferable and shall apply only to the 
persons and premises named thereon. 

Import of and trade in Morphine and Cocaine. 

7. A person who is not a licensed dealer in morphine and cocaine, 
is prohibited from importing morphine or cocaine into the Kingdom, or 
from being in possession of more than one gram of either of those two 
substances at any time. 

8. Except on special permission granted in Monthon Bangkok by 
the Minister of Local Government and in the other Monthons by the 
Minister of the Interior, a licensed dealer shall not be allowed to import or 
purchase in any one year more than a total of one hundred and eighty 
grams of morphine and one hundred and thirty grams of cocaine or the 
equivalent thereof in solutions, pills or other preparations. 

9. Morphine or cocaine shall not be imported into the Kingdom 
except through the ports of Bangkok and Puket, or any other port which 
shall hereafter be declared by a notification of the Minister of Finance 
published in the Government Gazette to be a port for the importation of 
morphine or cocaine. 

10. When the proper Customs entry for any imported morphiue or 
cocaine has been accepted by th* Customs officer, and such officer is 
satisfied that the law has been complied with fully, a permit shall be issued 
to the importer. Such permit shall be the importer's authority for the 
removal of the goods from the custody of the Customs to the premises 
specified on the permit, and shall be retained by the importer as proof 
of legal possession of the goods upon such premises. 

Accounts. 

11. Every licensed dealer shall keep accounts in the form given ha 
Schedules A and B hereto annexed, showing the imports or purchases and 
the sales or deliveries made by him of morphine and cocaine. 

12. Within eight days after the end of each month, every licensed 
dealer shall send a true signed copy of the accounts of such month to the 
Director General of Customs, for transmission to the Ministries concerned. 

In Puket and in any other port declared to be a port for the importa- 
tion of morphine and cocaine, the monthly returns shall be transmitted 
through the Chief Officer of Customs of the port. 

Inspections and Searches. 

13. Dealer's licenses, removal permits and accounts of receipts and 
issues of morphine and cocaine shall always be open to inspection by the 
following officials : — 



174 Morphine and Cocaine Ad. B. E. 34-56 (1913). 



(1) In Monthon Bangkok, the Medical Officer of Health, his deputy 
and any official specially empowered for that purpose by the Minister of 
Local Government, and the Customs Analyst or any Inspector or Surveyor 
of Customs. 

(2) In the other Monthons, the Deputy Commissioners, the Gov- 
ernors of the Muangs. the Medical Advisers to the Ministry of the Interior 
and any officials specially empowered for that purpose by the Minister of the 
Interior or by the High Commissioner of the Monthon. 

14. The officials mentioned in section 13 shall have the right to 
inspect any books or documents and search the premises of any licensed 
dealer in order to ascertain whether the quantities of morphine or cocaine 
held b}r such licensed dealer correspond with the quantities shown by the 
permits and accounts. 

The officials referred to shall have the right to search any premises 
where they suspect that morphine or cocaine is kept contrary to the provi- 
sions of the present Act. Provided that, if the premises are in the posses- 
sion of a person under the jurisdiction of a Consular Court, the consent of 
the Consul shall first be obtained. 

The officials in question shall have the right to seize and attach any 
morphine and cocaine, the legal possession of which the owner is unable to 
demonstrate, as well as any drug suspected to contain morphine or cocaine. 
Provided that any drugs so seized or attached under suspicion shall be 
returned within ten (10) days unless it is found that they contain morphine 
or cocaine not legally holdable. 

15. The rights of inspection, search and seizure may be exercised 
by force, if necessary. 

16. If a dispute arises as to the proportion of morphine or cocaine 
contained in a medicine or other preparation, it shall be finally decided by 
an analysis made by a Commission consisting of a representative of the 
Government and a representative of the person concerned. In case these 
two experts should disagree, they shall appoint a third person as an umpire. 
Jf they cannot agree on the selection of the umpire, the umpire shall be a 
qualified chemist and analyst residing in Europe or in America or in Japan- 
to be appointed by the Ministry of Local Government or the Ministry of 
the Interior, as the case may be. 



Penalties. 

17. Whoever, not being a licensed dealer, is found in possession of 
a craantity of morphine or cocaine not exceeding one gram and is unable to 
prove that such morphine or cocaine was obtained from a licensed dealer, 
shall be punished with fine not exceeding five hundred fcicals or with im- 
prisonment not exceeding three months or with both. 



Morphine and Cocaine Ad. B. E. 3^50 (1913). 175 



18. Whoever, not being a licensed dealer, imports or attempts to 
import into Siam, or sells, morphine o;- cocaine, or is found in possession of 
more than one gram of morphine or one gram of cocaine, shall be punished 
with fine not exceeding five thousand ticals or three times the duty-paid 
value of such morphine or cocaine or with imprisonment not exceeding six 
months or with both. 

19. Whoever obtains morphine or cocaine from any person not- 
being a licensed dealer shall be punished with fine not exceeding five 
hundred ticals or with imprisonment not exceeding three months or with 
both. 

20. Whoever, being a licensed dealer, imports or attempts to 
import into Siam morphine or cocaine without proper permit shall be 
puuished with fine not exceeding five thousand ticals or three times the 
duty-paid value of such morphine or cocaine or with imprisonment not 
exceeding six months or with both. 

21. Whoever, being a licensed dealer, is found in possession of a 
quantitjr of morphine or cocaine exceeding by at least five grams the 
quantity appearing from the permits and accounts, shall be punished with 
fine not exceeding- five hundred ticals or with imprisonment not exceeding 
three months or with both. 

If the quantity found exceed by fifty grams or more the quantity 
appearing from the permits and accounts, the punishment provided in 
Section 20 shall apply. 

22. Whoever, being a licensed dealer, makes any omission or false 
entry in his accounts or returns shall be punished with fine not exceeding 
five thousand ticals or with imprisonment not exceeding six months or 
with both. 

23. Whoever, being a licensed dealer, fails to send in due time his 
monthly returns shall be punished with fine not exceeding one hundred 
ticals. Provided that a warning that his return is due shall first have been 
given him. 

24. If a licensed dealer shall be convicted of any offence against 
this Act, his license may be withdrawn by the authority who granted it. 

The license may also be withdrawn if the accounts of the licensed 
dealer are kept inaccurately. 

25. In any prosecution in respect of any morphine or cocaine 
seized under this Act, it shall rest with the defendant to prove his 
innocence. 

26. Any morphine or cocaine in respect of which any offence 
against this Act has been committed shall be forfeit 3d irrespective of the 
conviction or non-conviction of any particular person. 



175 Morphine and Cocaine Act. B. E. 24.06 (1913). 



Transitory. 

27. Every person who, on the day of promulgation of the present 
Act, shall be in possession of any quantity of morphine or cocaine exceed- 
ing five grams or its equivalent in solutions, pills, or other preparations, 
shall within one month make a declaration of such drugs to the Ministry 
of Local Government in Bangkok or to the High Commissioner in the 
Provinces. Such declaration shall be sent through the Director General 
of Customs. 

In Puket or any other port declared to be a port for the importation 
of morphine or cocaine, the declaration shall be sent through the Chief 
Officer of Customs of the port. 

Should such person desire to continue dealing in morphine or 
cocaine under this Act, he shall send with his declaration an application for 
a license. 

28. If it is decided to grant the license applied for, the competent 
official shall verify the quantity of morphine or cocaine said to be held, and 
shall enter it in the accounts of the licensed dealer as if it has been imported 
into the Kingdom under this Act. 

29. If no application for a licence is made, or if the application is 
refused, the morphine and cocaine shall be deposited with the Ministry of 
Local Government or with the High Commissioner and shall be sold 
through them to licensed dealers only. 

Execution. 

30. The Minister of Local Government, the Minister of the Interior 
and the Minister of Finance shall have charge and control of the execution 
of the present Act. 

Schedule C. 

In accordance with Section 2 of the Morphine and Cocaine Act, 
B. E. 2456, the following Patent or Proprietary xirticles containing mor- 
phine or cocaine are hereby exempted from the operation of the said Act : — 

Burroughs Wellcome & Co.'s Voice Tabloids. 
Hall's Coca Wine. 
Vibrona, 
Mariani Wine. 
Dalby's Carminative. 

The coming into force of the Act has been postponed till January 1st, 1914, 



Local Administration. 177 



Ifkal ^ministration. 



Formerly the Kingdom was divided into Muangs, about sixty in 
number, each dependent on Bangkok. The provincial muangs of the 
North and East were dependent on the Ministry of the Interior ( Krasuang 
Mahadthai ), those of the West on the Ministry of War ( Krasuang 
Kalahoni), those of the coast on the Foreign Office (Krom Tha), and Krung 
Thep on the Krom Muang. The change was made in the year R. S. 114, 
when all the civil affairs of the whole of the provincial muangs were placed 
under the Ministry of the Interior, and every four or five muangs formed. 
into a niontlion, Monthon Krung Thep was placed under the administra- 
tion of the Ministry of Local Government, and the rest of the country under 
that of the Ministry of the Interior, 

For administrative purposes the Kingdom is now -divided into eighteen 
Circles (Monthon)^ which are subdivided into Provinces (Muang) -accord- 
ing to importance, and these latter are again subdivided into districts 
( Amphtir ), With the exception of the metropolitan Circle of Krung Thep 
all montkons are under the Ministry of the Interior. If then the metro- 
politan Monthon be omitted, the general scheme of organisation may be 
summarized as follows : At the head of each Monthon there is placed a 
Lord Lieutenant (Samuha Tesar Bhibaln), formerly known as High Commis- 
sioner, who is resident within his monthon and who is a representative of 
all the Ministers in Bangkok, At the head of each province there is a Gov- 
ernor, who is in the first instance responsible to the Lord Lieutenant of his 
Monthon, At the head of each Amphur s a Nai Amphur who is responsible 
to the Governor. With the passing of the Local Administration Act 
seventeen years ago — introduced by H. R. EL Prince Damrong— the system 
of administration was completed, and it is working satisfactorily. Under 
this Act the province is, as just stated, divided into districts, each under a 
Nai Amphur ; the district is again divided into T-ambon or villages 5 and 
these latter are divided into Mu Ban or hamlets, At the head of every 
Mu Ban of from ten to twenty families is placed an ekler ( Pirn Yai Ban) , 
and these elders elect the Kamnan or headman of the whole village in 
which their Mu Ban are included. Thus from the small group of families 
up to the central Ministry which controls the system, there is complete 
responsibility for order and government. A general Administrative Con- 
ference of the Lords Lieutenant of the various Monthons is held in Bangkok 
-each year, usually in September, when they discuss all new measures that 
are necessary to be taken in their respective districts. 

For the repression of robberies in the provinces a gendarmerie has 
been established, under the Ministry of the Interior, in all the Monthons, 
This service has given general satisfaction. 



178 Local Administration. 



The Revenue Department under the same Ministry is another de- 
parture of recent years, which has worked an important reform in the 
administration by relieving the executive officials of all handling: of the 
revenues. 



THE MONTHON OFFICIALS. 

To explain the organisation in greater detail it may be stated that 
the officers of the Monthon are as follows : — 

I. Samuha Tesar Bhibaln ( the Lord Lieutenant ). 

II. The Palat Monthou ( Deputy Lord Lieutenant ), who is also of 
the same rank as the Governor of a Muang. 

III. Yokrabat Monthon ( Government Prosecutor and chief law 
officer for the Monthon. ) 

IV. Mahathai Monthon (Assistant Commissioner), who is the- 
special officer for the General Administration of the Monthon. 

V. Sanpakorn Monthon (the chief Revenue officer). 

VI. The Commandant of the Gendarmerie ( with the rank of Major 
or Captain). 

VII. Klang Monthon ( the chief Treasury officer )„. 

VIII. Kaset Monthon (the chief land officer), 

IX. Yotha Monthon ( the chief Public Works officer y 

X. Dhamakara Monthon (Superintendent of Education and Eccle- 

siastical affairs), 

XL Lehkamikarn (Personal Secretary of the Lord Lieutenant), 
XII. Mahatlek Raingan (junior officer. ) 

THE MUANG OFFICIALS. 



The officers of the Muang are as follows ;. — - 
I. Phoo Wa Rajkarn Muang (the Governor)^ 
IL Palat Muang (the Deputy Governor )<, 



Local Administration. 179 



JII. Yokrabat (the Muang Government Prosecutor). 
IV. Sanpakorn Muang (Assistant Revenue officer). 

V. Klang Muang (Assistant Treasury officer). 
VI. Lieutenant (commanding the Gendarmerie). 

THE DISTRICT OFFICIALS. 
The officers of the Amphur are : — 

I. The Nai Amphur (the District officer). 

II.] 

>T\vo Palat Amphurs ( Assistant District officers ). 

III. J 

But the number depends on the size of the district. If the district does not 
require two, there will be only one Assistant. 

IV. Smuhban-shee (District Revenue officer). He is in charge of 
the accounts and revenue. 

V. The Kamnan (the village headman). There is one Kamnan 
to about 500-1000 of population. 

VI. Phoo Yai Ban (the elder). There is one to about 100 of 
population. 

VII. The Saravat. The Kamnan may appoint about two Sara vats 
to ba his assistants. 

MONTHON BAYAP. 

The title of the officers of Monthon Bayap are slightly different 
from those of the other Monthons in the following : — 

I. The Officers of this Monthon are : — 

1. The Samuha Tesar Bhibaln (the Lord Lieutenant), etc. 

II. The Officers for the Muang are: — 

1. The Chao Phoo Kraung Muang "1 

2. The Palat Monthon Pracham Muang V These three officers 

3. The Khaluang Phoochui J 

form the Kao Sanam Luang (Executive Council tor the Muang). 
All acts are done in the name of the Kao Sanam Luang. 

4. The Sena Mahathai has the same duty as the Mahathai 
Monthon, but is of a lower rank. 



180 Local Administration 



5. The Sena Klang ( the Treasury officer. ) 

6. Captain ( commanding the Gendarmerie. ) 

7. The Sena Yuthitam ( the Judge. ) 

8. Sena Wang. 

9. Sena Na. 

LIST OF MONTHONS. 

Mpnthon Krung Thep ( Bangkok ) is under the jurisdiction of the 
Ministry of Local Government, and apart from the capital contains the 
following divisions : — 

Muang Nontaburi 
,, Pratoomthani 
,, Nakon Kuenkan (Paklat) 
,, Samutprakan ( Paknam ) 
,, Tanyaburi 
Minburi 



Subjoined is the list of Monthons under the jurisdiction of the 
Ministry of the Interior. The letter ( a ) denotes the Muang where the 
Monthon offices are. Monthon is the Siamese for Circle ; Muang for 



province. 



Monthon Kruxgkao ( Ayuthia. ) 

(a) Muang Krungkao (Ayuthia.) 

,, Angthong 

,, Lop bi iii 

„ Saraburi 

„ Sinyburi. 



Monthon Nakon Rachasima (Korat.) 

( a ) Muang Nakon Rachasima ( Korat ) 
,, Chayapoom 
,, Buriram. 



Monthon Pachinburi (Pachhvl) 

With headquars at Chachoengsao 

Muang Pachinburi 
(a) ,, Chachoengso ( Petriu ) 
„ Nakon Nayok 
„ Cholburi [ Bangplasoi ) 
Krabin. 



Local A dmin is tra tion. 



181 



Monthon Nakon Chaisi. 

With headquarters at Nakon Pat hom 
Muang Nakon Chaisi 
,, Supanburi 
„ Samutsakorn (Tachin), 



Monthon Rajaburi. 

(a) Muang Rajaburi 

Petchaburi 

Kanchanaburi ( Kanburi ) 
Sarautsongkram ( Meklong) 
Pranburi 



Monthon Nakon Sawan. 

•{a) Muang Nakon Sawan 
Kamphengphet 
Tak ( Raheng ) 
Chainat 
Utaitani. 



Monthon Pitsanulok. 

<a) Muang Pitsanulok 

Pichai ( Utradit ) 
Sawankalok 
Sukotai 
Pichit 



Monthon Petchaboon. 

uang Lomsak 

Petchaboon. 



Monthon Bayab ( North-Western. ) ' 

( a ) Muang Nakon Chiengmai 
Ghieng Rai 
Me Hong Sorn 
Nakon Nan 
Nakon Lampang 
Nakon Lampun 
Phrae 



182 1 Local Administration. 



MONTHON UdORN ( NORTHERN ). 

( a ) Huang Udontani ( Ban Makeng ) 
„ Sakolnakorn 
,. Kon Kaen 
,, Nakon Panom 
„ Lbi 



Monthon Ubon Rajthani ( North Eastern )„ 
I. Division of Ubon. 
II. Division of Kukan, 
III. Division of Surinthorn, 



Monthon Roi Et. 

I. Divison of Roi Et 
11. Division of Mahasarakam 
III. Division of Kalsindh 



Monthon Ohantaboon. 



( a ) Muang Chantaburi 
„ Rayong 
,, Krat 



MoiNTHON CHUMFON, 

( a ) Muang Chumpon 

,, Chaiya ( Bandon ) 
„ Langsuan 



Loca I A dministrat ion. 



183 



MONTHON PUKET. 



( a ) Muang Puket 

Takua Pa 
,, Pang-nga 

,, Tran g 
,, Kanong 
,, Grabi 
Satul 



MONTHON NAKON SrITAMARAT. 

Muang Nakon Sritamarat 
( a ) ,, Songkla ( Singora ) 
Pataluanp- 



MONTHON PATANI, 



( a ) Muang Tani 

Bans' Nara 



Saiburi ( Taluban 

Jala 

-Taring 

Nongchik 



184 Railway. 






About the years 1887-88 the development of the country by railways 
was under serious consideration, and through Sir Andrew Clarke, formerly 
Governor of the Straits Settlements, a contract for railway surveys was made 
with an English firm. Extensive surveys reaching as far as the Northern 
frontier at Chieng Sen were made. The pioneer line, however, running from 
Bangkok to Paknam, near the mouth of the Menam Chao Phya, was the 
work of private enterprise. The concession having been obtained the Pak- 
nam Railway Company Ltd. was formed in Bangkok and the construction 
of the road commenced on the 10th July, 1891. The line 20 km. long was 
opened to traffic in 1893, and it has proved a satisfactory investment for the 
shareholders. The first important railway enterprise to be completed, how- 
ever, was the State Railway to Korat, the first turf of which was cut by His 
.Majesty on the 8th of March - , 1892. The work of construction was for some 
years in the hands of a contractor, but in August, 1896, it was taken over 
by the Royal Railway Department. On the 25th March 1897, the first 
section of the line, Bangkok to Ayuthia, was opened for traffic by the King, 
and some seven months afterwards a daily service of trains for goods and 
passengers was established as far as (iengkoi, which is half way to Korat. 

I Finally in November, 1900, the railway was opened for traffic up to Korat, 
the end of the line. The whole length ot the line is 264 kilometres, and the 
gauge 1.435 m., the standard guage, as used nearly throughout Europe. 

The Lopburi line which constitutes a section of the projected Northern 
line, running to Chiengmai and Chiengsen, was opened to traffic on the 1st 
April 1901. It branches oft from the Korat line at Ban Phaji ( km. 90 ) 
between Ayuthia and Pak Preo, and has a length of 42 km. 

Meanwhile work on the south-western Line, running from Bangkok 
westward via Nakonchaisi to the Meklong river, and then south through 
RatbiR-i to Petchabnri, was commenced in 1899. The line crosses both the 
Tachin and Meklong rivers, over which long bridges had to be built. The 
line was opened to traffic on the 1st April, and formally inaugurated by His 
Majesty the King on the 19th June, 19J3. The total cost of the line was 
Tcs. 8,115,877, being Tcs. 53.747 per kilometre. Its length is 151.5 km. 
and the gauge 1 metre, which will be standard guage for all railways on 
the west side of the Menam Chao Phya river, whereas, as stated above, the 
Railways on the eastern side are provided with the full broad gauge. 

In November, 1905, another section of the Northern line, from 
Lopburi to Pakuampoh (118 km.), was opened to traffic. This line 
does not follow, as first proposed, the course of the river, but goes 
nearly straight tliiv a rich rice district. The cost of this line amount- 

ed to 7,200,000 Ticals including the extension of a number of station 



Baxlueatis, 185 



yards of the Korat line to meet the new traffic and also a considerable 
increase of rolling stock. In January, 1908, the line north from Paknampoh 
to Pitsanulok (138 km.), and the first section of the Eastern line from 
Bangkok to Petriu. (63 km.) were opened. On 11th November of the same 
year a further section of the North line from Pitsanulok to Ban Dara 
( 67.7 km. ), was opened to traffic, and on 15th August 1909 the section Ban 
Dara, Utaradit, Pang Ton Phung (52.2 km.), together with a branch line 
from Ban Dara to Sawankalok situated at the head of the navigation of the 
Meh Yom (29 km.). 

On 1st June, 1911, followed the Pang Ton Phung- Meh Puak section 
of 19 km. length. Though short this section was in so far of wider import- 
ance as it replaces the caravan route from Utaradit to Phrae over the 
wearisome Kao Plung pass. On 15th November 1912 a further short 
section of the North line of 10 km. length, from Meh Puak to Pak Pan, 
where the Meh Yom is reached, was opened to traffic, and on 15th November 
1913 another 13 km. from Pak Pan to Pak Tha. 

On the 19th June, 1911, the first Section of the Southern Line from 
Petchaburi to Ban Cha Am (87 km.) was opened to traffic and a further 
section of 25 km. to Hua Hin was opened on the 25th November, 1911. 

The total length of State Railways open to traffic is now 823 km. 
broad gauge; and 25b" km., narrow gauge. Under construction are: — Ex- 
tension of the Northern Line from Pak Tha to Chiengmai 206 km.; Exten- 
sion of the Southern Line, 945 km. 

According to the last official report on the traffic of the State 
Railways for the year 131 (April 1912/13;, the clear profit derived from 
them after feeding the Renovation fund amounted to 2,422,379 Tcs. corres- 
ponding to 3.89 % on the capital outlay of 62,254,261 Tcs. 

THE SOUTHERN LINE. 

In the month of July, 1909, a second Railway Department was formed 
for the construction of Railways iu the Siamese dominions of the Malay 
Peninsula. 

The line known as the Southern Line is a continuation of the metre 
gauge from Petchaburi and will have a terminus on the west coast at Trang, 
and connections with the Federated Malay States. Commencing at Pet- 
chaburi it runs almost due south to Bandon, via Bangtaphan, Ohumpon and 
Langsuan. From Bandon it continues on to Tung Sawn, where the line 
bifurcates, the western branch continuing on to the terminus at Trang, and 
the eastern to the Kelantan boundary, via Patalung, Sin gora junction, Yala 
and Rangeh to the boundary. This eastern line will have two short junc- 
tion lines ; one of 28 kms. in length to Singora, and one of 30 kms. to 
Nakon Sritamarat. The length of the direct line from Petchaburi to the 
Kelantan boundary is estimated to be km. 970 and from_Petch^uri to_ 
Trang km. 67Q. A connecting link with the Kedah railway is also talkecTof. 



186 Mailwa'/s. 



Trans; will be the port for Penang, from which it is distant 220 
km. by sea. It is expected that the train journey from Bangkok to 
Trans; will occupy about 18 hours, and then with a ten knot boat from' 
Trans; to Penang would make about 30 hours for the whole jurney, say 
two days and a half, as against the six ov eight now taken by sea. 

The construction of the line commenced in September 1909 at 
three points, viz., Petchaburi, Singora and Trang, and it was originally 
expected to complete the whole line by the jeav 1915. The line is a Gov- 
ernment line built departmental ly under the direction of the Minister of 
Communications and was expected to cost about Tcs. 58,000,000. 

The first Section of this line, from Petehabnri to Cha Ahm, a distance 
of 37 kms., was opened for traffic, in June 1911, and a further Section of 25 
kms. to Ban Hua Hin in November 1911. The section from Trang to 
Kaokhao (50 km.) was opened on the 1st April 1913. Total open to 
Traffic, 256 kms. (Nov. 1913). The total length of line is estimated at 1,302 
km., and 945 km. are under construction at present time. 

The line will tap a population of over one and a quarter millions^ and 
open ^^p a large tract ot country for cattle grazing, paddy growing, rubber 
planting and other tropical productions. It will likewise assist tin minins" 
now carried on in many places, and increase the possibility of the 
working of other minerals. Gold, wolfram, coal, etc., are said to exist in 
several districts. The mail service to Europe via Trang and Penang will 
be accelerated by three or four days. 

The Monthons of Pukefc, Nakon Sritamart, Patani and Chumpon 
are all busy laying down roads to connect the outlying towns with the 
railway, and this work T and the construction of the necessary bridges,, 
steadily progresses year by year. 



PRIVATE LINES. 

Besides the Government lines the following concessions- for narrow 
gauge Railways have been granted : 

1. Paknam line opened to traffic 1893 (1 m. gauge) 20km 

2: Phrabad line „ „ „ 1903 (0-75m. „ ) 19 km 

3. Tachin line „ „ „ 1905 ( 1 m. „ ) 33 km 

4. Meklong line „ „ „ 1907 ( 1 m. „ ) 34 km 
| Grand total of State and Private Railways in Siam 

) open to traffic ... ... .... ,.... 1185 kna 



Population. 187 



ovulation 



An estimate of the population of Siam that used to be commonly 
given, some years ago, was 9,000,000. That, however, was an arbitrary 
figure ; no census of the country had then been taken, and all estimates 
were therefore in a large measure a matter of guesswork. In works on Siam 
the population has been put at pretty nearly everything from three or four 
to twelve or fifteen millions, but in every case these estimates have been 
merely more or less lucky guesses. La Loubere says that in his time the 
Siamese population was estimated at one million nine hundred thousand. 
Malloch put it in 1849 at 3,653,150. Pallegoix estimated it at six millions, 
a figure which Bovvrihg was~ with reason, disposed to think should be re- 
duced by at least a million. In those days there was an official census of 
able-bodied men only, but it seems doubtful if it was ever made public. 
Pallegoix seems to have obtained this record, however, more or less ac- 
curately, and estimated the total population at five times its amount. The 
elements of which Pallegoix made up his total were the following. — Siamese 
proper, 1,900,000; Chinese, 1.500.000; Laos, 1,000,000, Malays, 3,000,000 ; 
Cambodians, 500,000 ; Pegans, 50,000 ; Kareens, Xongs, etc., 50,000— 
making a total of 6,000,000. After that trme the next careful estimate pre- 
pared was one by Mr. W. A. Graham, which he based on a census made of 
Bangkok Monthon (outside the actual town of Bangkok) in 1902. The 
result he arrived at was rather under six millions. 

In 1905 the first census figures were published in this country after 
a careful enumeration of the population of twelve of the Monthons, and in 
1909 a Census Law received the royal sanction and a census was taken of 
the •capital. Since then further enumerations have been made throughout 
the country, yielding figures that may be regarded as still more nearly 
accurate, and the total, it will be found, is now approaching more nearly the 
old figure of nine millions. 

The official Memorandum which was issued in 1905, is still of 
interest. It runs as follows : — 

" 1. The proposal to take a census of the country has been long in 
existence, but the work has had to be postponed pending the organisation of 
a proper system of local administration which would furnish adequate staffs 
of District Officers, Kamnans and Village Elders, whose co-operation was 
necessary in the work of procuring reliable statistics. The Work of admini- 
strative reorganisation, which consisted in confederating small provinces 
into administrative Divisions, or Monthons, under High Commissioners, has 
since been successively carried out and as soon as a proper system of local 
Government was established in any Monthon, a general enumeration of the 
population, as a Preliminary Census measure, was ordered to be made. 



188 Population. 



" 2. When this general enumeration had been effected, it was then 
decided to proceed to greater details, even to obtaining the name of each 
inhabitant. For this purpose printed census forms were distibuted to Kam- 
nans and Village Elders with instructions to fill and return the same with 
statistics of the inhabitants under their local control. But this work failed 
through a most surprising cause, which the attempt to take a census 
brought into prominence for the first time, namely that, while the Kamnans 
and Village Elders and the majority of the people can read, very few are 
able to write, and still fewer able to understand how to fill up a statistical 
form. This fact constituted a serious check, and caused the work to be 
postponed until in the year 122 a more suitable method was devised. 

" 3. The system adopted for taking the census, in the year 122, con- 
sisted in having one census form (or more, if necessary), for registering each 
household : no more than one household being allowed to be described in the 
same form. These printed forms were put up in packets, each containing 
a sufficient number for about 100 households, and distributed b}^ the Ministry 
of the Interior to every Kromakar-Amphur (District OfficerJ, sufficient for 
the requirements of his district. The Palat-Amphur (Assistant District 
Officer) of each district and a clerk, previously instructed for the work, were 
appointed census officers and charged to take out the census forms to the 
different villages to have the census taken with the assistance of the Village 
Elders. The mode of procedure, was for the census officers and the Village 
Elder to go into every house, ascertain the number of persons living in the 
same, and then to call each person, whenever possible, to be questioned for 
the necessary particulars to be described under the various headings on the 
census forms. This procedure was carried out with every house throughout 
the Amphur district, the only exceptions being those inhabitants who live in 
scattered communities in the forests and among the hills, where they could 
not be reached without much difficulty. Within two or three months after- 
wards, this work was further verified on the spot by other officers ; and this 
verification has proved that the work of the Census officers has, on the whole, 
been most thoroughly and creditably performed ; the percentage of errors not 
averaging more than 2 in a hundred and the figures obtained being so near 
the truth that they may be considered as practically accurate. 

" 4. The statistics as regards persons in holy orders were obtained in 
the same manner as above, with the only difference that the returns were 
taken monastery b} 7 monastery, and include priests, novices and laymen resi- 
ding therein. 

" 5. Among the details, the census had to state the different races to 
which the population belong. This was a most difficult matter, as the po- 
pulation of Siam is for a large part of mixed blood and it becomes extremely 
difficult to properly define the ethnical distinctions. For instance, take the 
case of the Chinese part of the population. Most of them marry Siamese 
women, and their male descendants generally wear the " queue " for several 
generations, even down to that which lias ceased to use or understand the 
Chinese language, while their female descendants from the first generation 
generally adopt the dress and fashion of wearing the hair of their Siamese 



Population. 189 



mothers. This practice makes it very hard to determine how far these des- 
cendants may still be considered as belonging to the Chinese race, and there- 
fore, in taking the census with respect to the Chinese element in the popu- 
lation, the plan adopted has been to go by the fashion of wearing the hair and 
the dress of the individual and to categorize all males who wear the "queue," 
whether they be full blooded Chinamen or only mestizos of whatever degree, 
as "Chinese," and all females who dress in the Siamese fashion as "Siamese," 
with the exception of those who dress in the Chinese fashion and come from 
China, of whom there is now quite a large number. ) 

" 6. There is also the case of those commonly known as Cambodians, 
Mohns, &c. The majority of such persons are only distant descendants of 
persons of such races who came to settle in Siam as far back as a century or 
more, and have so extensively intermarried with the people of the country 
and adopted their fashion of dress as to become quite indistinguishable out- 
wardly from the Siamese proper. The plan which had to be adopted in sueh 
•cases was to classify such persons by race on the basis of the language in com- 
mon use among them. In like manner the general plan adopted with regard 
to all persons whose nationality cannot be distinguished by other indications, 
was to classify them racially according to their style of dress and the 
language commonty spoken among themselves. 

" 7. But there is another section of the population which does not 
admit of being separately distinguished from the Thai, or Siamese, race, 
namely the people commonly called Laos. It is generally admitted that there 
does not exist any proof to show that the Laos is ethfiically distinct from the 
Thai or Siamese race. For were we to refer to the matter of language, wo 
should find that the Laos and the Siamese languages are identical ; the diffe- 
rence between that spoken by the Siamese and the Laos is only 
in the pronunciation and in the use of a few words or phrases — 
the degree of difference that would exist between the olden and the modern 
style of speaking the same language. The difference, in fact, is far less 
marked than that between the Siamese spoken in Bangkok and that spoken 
in the Peninsula ; and therefore, if the Laos are to be classed as belonging to a 
separate race because they speak Siamese with a pronunciation different from 
that spoken in Bangkok, then the Siamese of the Peninsula would also have 
to be considered as not belonging to the Siamese race. Moreover, it has 
"been definitely ascertained by learned men that die people who are called. 
Laos at the present day are really of the Thai race, and they also consider 
themselves to be such. The real Laos are those people who are known as 
La wah or Lawa in Monthon Bayap, who were the aboriginal inhabitants of 
the country before the incursion of the Thai, and are now only to be found 
in ven^ small numbers widely scattered in various parts of the Kingdom, and 
too insignificant to be distinctively classified for census purposes. For 
the reason above stated, it would serve no useful purpose in the census to 
divide the population of the Thai race into two sections as Laos and Siamese, 
and therefore both Siamese and Laos are made to figure under the common 
head of the Thai, or Siamese race. 

" 8. The work of taking a detailed census was commenced in January 
122 (1904), and completed in 5 months ; but it only includes 12 Alonthons, 



"J 90 Population 



namely : Nakon-Sithamaraj, Nakon-Rajasima ( Korat ), Nakon-Savan, 
Krung-Kao ( Ayuthia ), Rajburi, Nakon-Chai&i, Pitsanulok, Chumphorn y 
Pachinburi, Puket, Petchaboon, and Cbantaburi (Chantaboon.) — 

" 9. The total population of the 12 Monthons where the census has 
been carefully taken consists of l r 62i,46ii males,, and 1,683,570 females, 
total 3,308,032 souls " 

We omit the details issued in 1905 as being now out of date, and 
pass on to the 

CENSUS OF BANGKOK. 

After the above Memorandum was issued nothing further was 
published on the subject till 1909, when a decree was issued directing a 
census to be taken of the whole kingdom. This was shortly followed by the 
taking of the first census of the capital, and the following figures were 
issued officially in September of that year : 

Bangkok Town— Males, 379,118 ; Females, 249,557 ; Total 628,675. 

Provinces in Monthon Bangkok— Males, 108,863; Females 129,913 ; 
Total 238,776. 

The whole Bangkok Monthon— Males, 487,981 ; Females 379,470 ; 
Total 867,451. 

The different nationalities : — 

Siamese . ... ... 639,920 

Chinese 197,918 

Indians and Malays ... 20,764 

Europeans ... ... ... 1,604 

Other nationalities 7,245 

With regard to the above it should be pointed out, however, that the 
census was confined to the town and that the figures for the provinces in. 
the Monthon outside Bangkok were obtained from a previous enumeration. 

A further enumeration has since been made in Bangkok, but at time 
of writing the results have not been published. 

THE LATEST FIGURES. 

The figures for the Interior monthons have been checked so often 
now that they may without hesitation be taken as substantially correct. 
The latest publication on the subject is dated August 131 (1912), and gives 
full details of an enumeration made in the year 129 (191 0-1 1). The follow- 
ino- figures are taken from that publication ; — 



Population. 



191 



NUMBER OF ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS. 



MONTHON. 


MUANG. 


Amphur. 


Tambo 


1. Krung Theb 


7 


36 


295 


2. Krung Kao ... 


5 


. 30 


512 


3. Chantaburi ... 


3 


11 


150 


4. Chumporn ... 


3 


16 


154 


5. Nakorn Chaisri 


3 


14 


254 


6. Nakorn Rachasiraa 


3 


18 


208 


7. Nakorn Sawan 


5 


24 


265 


8. Nakorn Sritamarat 


3 


17 


294 


9. Pattani 


6 


20 


235 


10. Pachinburi ... 


5 


21 


306 


11. Pifcsanulok ... 


5 


18 


223 


12. Ba}'ap 


7 


50 


603 


13. Petohaboon ... 


2 


5 


62 


14. Puket 


7 


26 


276 


15. Rajaburi 


5 


21 


369 


16. Isan ... 


4 


51 


514 


17. Udorn 


5 


31 


349 



Total 



78 



409 



5,069 



POPULATION, LAY AND CLERICAL. 



MONTHON. 

1. Krung Theb 

2. Krung Kao 

3. Chantaburi 

4. Chumporn ... 

5. Nakorn Chaisri 

6. Nakorn Rachasima 

7. Nakorn Sawan 

8. Nakorn Sritamarat 

9. Pattani 

10. Pachinburi ... 

11. Pitsanulok ... 

12. Bayap 

13. Petchaboon ... 

14. Puket 

15. Rajaburi . 

16. Isan ... 

17. Udorn 



Lay. 

Male. Female, 



531,200 
260.273 
65,876 
78,165 
133,222 
229,720 
137,059 
229,005 
131,726 
156,412 
116,648 
566,142 
34,082 
121,294 
198,362 
628,029 
297,309 



393,644 
277,906 
65,759 
82,134 
141,968 
246,751 
143,868 
236,589 
136,326 
162,539 
126,912 
614,843 
36,700 
105,405 
212,272 
744,078 
320,156 



<V 



In Holy 
Orders. 

T-16,682 

15,815 

3.056 

3,155 

5.889 

11,660 

6,073 

6,855 

1,765 

6,729 

4,490 

35,832 

1,880 

2,270 

9,080 

41,966 

13,216 



Total. 

941,526 &^ 

553,994 «yJ*^ 

134,691 

164,154 

281,079 

488,131 <W 

287,000 

472,449 

269,817 

325,680 

248,050 

1,216,817 — 

72,662 

228,969 

419,714 
1,414,073 

630,681 



Total 3,915,224 4,047,850 186,413 8,149,487 



192 



Population. 



MOVEMENT OF LAY POPULATION IN 129. 
Monthon. Born. Arrived. Died. 



Left. 



1. 


Krung Theb 


— 


— 


— 


* 


2. 


Krung Kao ... 


17,953 


44,582 


10.063 


45,079 


3. 


Chantaburi ,.. 


3.257 


18,866 


1,948 


17,552 


4. 


Chumporn 


, . 5.622 


23,411 


3,015 


21,595 


5. 


Nakorn Chaisri 


6,709 


33,143 


2,703 


34,087 


6. 


Nakorn Rachasima .. 


. 13,179 


50,403 


6,804 


48,106 


7. 


Nakorn Sawan 


7,986 


47,158 


3.964 


41,349 


8. 


Nakorn Sritamarat .. 


16.019 


52,178 


8,009 


49,082 


9. 


Pattani 


6.286 


29,381 


3.424 


25,991 


10. 


Pachinburi 


7.749 


37,625 


3.500 


34,730 


11. 


Pitsanulok 


7,433 


45,499 


4,665 


32,311 


12. 


Bayap 


. 25,704 


92,648 


14,491 


88,115 


13. 


Petchaboon ... 


2.554 


9,439 


1,064 


10,020 


11, 


Puket 


7,203 


46.996 


4,728 


43.506 


15. 


Rajaburi 


. 11,618 


37,963 


6,117 


30,966 


16. 


Isan 


— 


— 


— 


-t 


17. 


Udon 


. 22,519 


50,870 


9,178 


47,775 



Total 



162,491 



620,162 



83,673 570,264 



MOVEMENT OF BUDDHIST CLERICAL POPULATION IN 129. 

Ordained Arrived Died Left Left 

in the year ' ' priesthood. monthon. 



Monthon. 



1. Krung Theb 

2. Krung Kao 

3. Chantabim 

4. Chumporn 

5. Nakorn Chaisri 

6. Nakorn 

Rachasima 

7. Nakorn Sawan 

8. Nakorn 

Sritamarat 
Pattani 
Pachinburi 

11. Pitsanulok 

12. Bayap 

13. Petchaboon 

14. Puket 

15. Rajaburi 

16. Isan 

17. Udorn 



9. 
10. 



5,468 
1,058 
1,223 
2,011 

2,697 
1,845 

2,565 
293 

1,724 

1,504 

3.261 

801 

547 
3,155 

4,094 



1,855 
267 
358 

541 

1,715 

1,442 

882 
191 
694 
783 
1,118 
400 
416 
631 

2,262 



129 

22 
22 
41 

44 
23 

54 
8 
30 
40 
212 
10 
34 
76 



4,050 
1,079 
1,060 
1,729 

2.963 
1,673 

1,985 
169 

2,457 
1,596 
2,829 
624 
407 
2,595 

3,464 



2,063 
375 

472 

607 

2,297 
1,474 

751 
190 

1,287 
882 
970 
358 
320 
803 
— t 

1,813 



Total v32,246 13,555 S22 J 28,677 14,662 

* No information received from Ministry of Local Government. 
t No statistics kept. 



Population, 



193 





POPULATION ACCORDING TO RACE. 








Lay and 


Clerical. 








Male. 


Female; 


Total. 


1. 


Thai 


3,592,900 


3,683.71 Q 


7.276,610 


2. 


Chinese 


161,110 


9,888 


170,998 -" 


3. 


Malay 


181,351 


188,354 


109,705 


4. 


Javanese 


290 


91 


381 


5. 


Khek Cham 


535 


548 


1,083 


6. 


Persian 


1,477 


903 


2,380 


7. 


Sikh 


61 


12 


73 


8. 


Ceylonese ... 


5 


1 


6 


9. 


Hindoo 


68 


24 


92 


10. 


Kling 


38 


13 


51 


11. 


Mohn 


12,827 


16,039 


28,866 


12. 


Cambodian ... 


63,335 


70,997 


134,332 


13. 


Annamite ... 


3,174 


3,351 


6,525 


14. 


Karen 


29,857 


30,328 


60,185 


15. 


Shan 


13,724 


12,357 


26,081 


16. 


ToHgsaa 


894 


133 


1.027 


17. 


Burmese 


3,720 


2.3 14 


6,061 


18. 


Japanese 


8 


14 


22 


19. 


Turk 


1 


— 


1 


20. 


European ( Farang ) 


343 


136 


479 


21. 


Others 


31.441 


28,609 


60,050 



Ohs 


im, 7 ; Farang 3. 


















PLACES 


OF WORSHIP. 








MONTHON . B 


UDDHIST, 


Christian. 


Mahomedan 


Others. 


Total. 


1. 


Krung Tlieb 


630 




12 


76 


4 


722 


2. 


Krung Kao 


946 




4 


14 


4 


968 


3. 


Chantaburi 


207 




4 


1 


1 


215 


4. 


Chumporn 


157 




— 


7 


— 


164 


5. 


Nakorn Chaisri 


271 




5 


— 


1 


277 


6. 


,, Rachasima 415 




1 


— 


— 


416 


7. 


„ Sawan 


201 




1 


1 


— 


203 


8. 


„ Sritamarat 345 




— 1 


102 


— 


447 


9. 


Pattani 


64 




— 


260 


— 


324 


10. 


Pachinfouri 


431 




10 


.0 


4 


451 


11. 


Pitsauulok 


224 




_ 7 


— 


3 


227 


12. 


Bavap 


369 1 




@"1 


3 


— 


374 


13. 


Peichaboon 


84 






— 


— 


84 


14. 


Pufcet 


15 




— 


81 


— 


126 


15. 


RajabiiM 


456 




9 


— 


5 


470 


16. 


Isan 


1,815 




6 


— 


— 


1,821 


17. 


Udorn 


■15 1 




12 


— 


— 


466 



1 w 



Total... 4.097,159 1.0 17,849 8,145,008 

The information received from the Ministry of Local Government did 
not deal with the capital. The number in holy orde jg_included in above 
figures is as follows, Thai 180.968; Chinese, 57; Malays, 1,926: Khek 



Total 



114 



m 



194 



IN HOLY ORDERS IN 129. 



MONTHON 


1. 


Krrnig Theb 


2. 


Krung Kao ... 


3. 


Chantaburi .. 


4, 


Chum porn . . , 


5. 


Nakorn Chaisri 


6. 


Nakorn Rachasima 


7. 


Nakorn Bawan 


3. 


Nakorn Sritamarat 


9. 


Pat tan i 


10. 


Pachinburi ... 


11. 


Pitsanulok ... 


12. 


Bayap 


13. 


Petchaboon ... 


14. 


Puket 


15. 


Rajaburi 


16. 


Isan 


17. 


Udoru 



Total.. 



Total. 

16,682 

15,815 
3,056 
3,155 
5,889 

11,660 
6,075 
6,855 
1,765 
6,729 
4,190 

35,832 
1,880' 
2,270 
9,030 

41,966 

13,216 

186,415 



NUMBER OF DWELLING HOUSES. 





Cottages 


Houses 


1 . Ki urag Theb 


121,907 


60,346 


2. Krung Kao . 


206,757 


96,050 


3. Chantaburi . 


49,237 


25,040 


4. Chumporn 


46\332 


30,107 


5. Nakorn Chaisri 95,917 


45,660 


6. Nakorn Rachasima ... 140,461 


72.701 


7. Nakorn Sawai 


i ... 117,849 


39,138 


8. Nakom Sritamarat ... 145,740 


75,740 


9. Pattani 


104,666 


48,450 


10. Pachinburi . 


116,269 


60,940 


11. Pitsanulok 


95,781 


37,450 


12. Bayap 


358,544 


197,485 


13. Petchabooi 


29,063 


10.384 


14. Puket 


40,843 


40 845 


15. Rajaburi 


136,177 


58,336 


16. Isan .„ 


341,297 


183,072 


17. Udorn 


196,577 


100,487 




Total 2,343,417 


1,182,227 



These figures do not include the town of Bangkok or the Inner 

amphur districts. 



Population. 



195 





NUMBER OF 


BOATS. 








Steam & 

MOTOK 


Cargo 
Boats. 


Small 
Boats. 


Total. 




Launches. 








1. Krung Theb 


259 


16,192 


109,124 


125,575 


2. Krung Kao 


34 


9,488 


101,600 


111,122 


3. Chan tabu ri ... 


1 


1,077 


8,689 


9,767 


4. Chumporn ... 


7 


1,274 


9,313 


10,594 


5. Nakorn Chaisri 


16 


5,417 


45,236 


50,669 


6. Nakorn Rachasima . . 


1 


10 


2.381 


2,392 


7. Nakorn Sawan 


12 


1,489 


17,626 


19,127 


8. Nakorn Sritamarat.. 


7 


1,946 


20,397 


22,350 


9. Pattani 


— 


738 


4,658 


5,396 


10. Pachinburi 


32 


4,149 


35,946 


40,127 


11. Pitsanulok ... 


8 


" 2,173 


23,426 


25,607 


12. Bayab 


— 


1,135 


3,403 


4,538 


13. Petchaboon ... 


— 


245 


1,113 


1,358 


14. Puket 


7 


308 


8,986 


9,301 


15. Rajaburi 


20 


7,486 


44,842 


52,348 


16. Isan... 


— 


366 


19,384 


19,750 


17. Udorn 


otal 404 


274 


7,518 


7,792 


T 


53,767 


463,642 


517,813 


These figures do 


not include Government boats, which do not have 


to be registered. 










NUMBER OF BEASTS OP BURDEN. 








Horses 








Elephants. 


& 
Ponies. 


Bullocks. 


Buffaloes. 


1. Krung Theb 


— 


1,340 


955 


91,454 


2. Krung Kao 


9 


21,224 


99,534 


182,919 


3. Chantaburi ... 


— 


3,122 


4,287 


65,758 


4. Chumporn ... 


541 


1,607 


547 


127,324 


5. Nakon Chaisri 


2 


4,014 


138,840 


76,101 


6. Nakorn Rachasima.. 


336 


5,133 


361,464 


144,492 


7. Nakorn Sawan 


279 


3,367 


20,240 


141,704 


8. Nakorn Sritamarat . . 


156 


576 


221,954 


103.708 


9. Pattani 


346 


236 


154,274 


36,750 


10. Pachinburi ... 


35 


9.289 


30,947 


136,198 


11. Pitsanulok ... 


426 


3,018 


6,097 


108,544 


12. Bayap 


.. 2,797 


4,998 


341,064 


223,733 


13. Petchaboon ... 


13 


1,474 


20,670 


18,793 


14. Puket 


259 


655 


15,328 


116,956 


15. Rajaburi 


109 


3,994 


361,861 


38,282 


16. Isan 


277 


11,265 


815,025 


481,841 


17. Udorn 


170 

al 5,755 


5,988 


477,056 


267,540 


Tot 


81,300 


3,063,143 


2,362,097 


These figures do 


i not include animals in 


Bangkok or 


in the inner 



amphur districts. 



196 



Population. 





NUMBER OF VEHICLES. 








Horse 
Carriages. 


RlKTSHAS. 


Motor 

Cars. 


KWIEN. 


1. Krung Theb ... 


372 


2,463 


401 


268 


2. Krung Kao 


8 


1 


— 


20,738 


3. Chantaburi 


2 


6 


— 


6,370 


4. Chumporn 


2 


2 


— 


34 


5. Nakorn Chaisri . . . 


19 


3 


— 


14,598 


6. Nakorn Rachasima 


7 


10 


— 


21,737 


7. Nakorn Sawan 


5 


2 


1 


17,958 


8. Nakorn Sritamarat 


49 


49 


2 


305 


9. Pattani 


'11 


94 


— 


28 


10. PacHnburi 


3 


21 


— 


16,997 


11. Pitsanulok 


22 


21 


— 


8,698 


12. Bayap 


153 


10 


6 


2,044 


13. Petchaboon 


— 


— 


— 


87 


14. Puket 


344 


510 


3 


. 750 


15. Rajaburi 


29 


12 


— 


33,107 


16. Isan 


21 


1 


— 


48,549 


17. Udorn 


28 


1 


413 


17,801 




Total 1,075 


3,206 


210,169 



Under borse-carriages and rikishas are included only tbose registered. 
The motor car figures do not include those only belonging to the King or the. 
Government. In May, 1913, the number of registered cars in Bangkok was 
530. The kwien figures do not include the kwien in the inner amphur 
district round Bangkok. 

POPULATION BY AGES. 

Total. 
2,466,172 



Ages. 


Male. 


Female. 


From 14 down 


1,231,596 


1,234,576 


15 to 17 inclusive 


542,248 


552,988 


18 to 20 


204,634 


266,053 


21 to 25 


297,509 


327,450 


26 to 35 


473,865 


499,191 


36 to 40 


292,977 


286,101 


41 to 60 


482,643 


474,439 


61 upwards 


219,332 


206,171 


Total 


3,744,804 


3,824,969 



1,095,236 

418,687 
624,959 
973,056 
579,078 

957,082 
425,503 

7,569,773 



Popnhifion. 



197 



STATE OF EDUCATION, 



MONTHON, 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Krung Kao 


Literate 
Illiterate 


. 126,648 
. 149,440 


6,682 

271,224 


133,330 
420,664 


Cbantaburi 


Literate 
Illiterate 


32,810 
. 36,122 


3,635 

62,124 


36,445 
98,246 


Clmmporn 


Literate 
Illiterate 


42,660 
. 39,360 


5,939 
76,195 


48,599 

115,555 


Nakorn Ohaisri 


Literate 
Illiterate 


. 40,689 

. 98,422 


4,249 
137,719 


44,938 
236,141 


Nakorn Rajasima 


Literate 
Illiterate 


75,064 
166,316 


602 
246,149 


75,666 

412,465 


Nakorn Sawatt 


Literate 
Illiterate 


• 51,791 
91,341 


1,215 
142,653 


53,006 
233,994 


Nakorn Sritamarat ... 


Literate 
Illiterate 


110,531 
125,329 


14,888 
221,701 


125,419 

347,030 


I attain 


Literate 
Illiterate 


14.979 
118.512 


2,928 
133,398 


17,907 
251,910 


I'achinburi 


Literate 
Illiterate 


65,486 

97,450 


16,905 

145,840 


82.391 
243,290 


Pitsanulok 


Literate 

Illiterate 


. 49,471 

71,667 


1,249 
125.663 


50,720 
197,330 


Puket 


Literate 
Illiterate 


34,417 

92,147 


5.560 

99,845 


36,977 
291,992 


Hajaburi 


S A terate 
111 iterate 


76,117 
. 1-3 L 325 


22,042 
190,230 


98,159 
321,555 


Uctorra 


Literate 
Illiterate 


13.707 
296,818 


235 
319,921 


13,942 
616.739 


JPetdhafooow 


Literate 
Illiterate 


7,771 
28,191 


136 
36,564 


7,907 
64,755 


Bayafo 


Literate 

Illiterate 


10.400 
591,574 


1.986 

612,857 


1 2,386 1 
1,204,431, 


Isarn 


Literate 
Illiterate 


78,073 
591,922 


53,892 

690,186 


131,965 

1,282,108 



198 



Population. 





POPULATION IN 129 COMPARED WITH 


128. 




MONTHON. 


Year 128, 


Yeah 129. 


+ More 

— Less 


1. 


KrungTheb 


867,577 


941,526 


+ 73,949 * 


2. 


Krung Kao ... 


545,520 


553,994 


+ 8,474 


3. 


Chantabivri ... 


132,216 


134,691 


+ 2,475 


4. 


Chumporn ... 


159,704 


164,154 


+ 4,450 


5. 


Nakorn Ohaisri 


277,842 


281,079 


+ 3,237 


6. 


Nakorn Raehasima .. 


479,651 


488,131 


+ 8,480 


7. 


Nakorn Sawan 


277,052 


287,000 


+ 9,948 


8. 


Nakorn Sritainarat .. 


460,686 


472,449 


+ 11,763 


9. 


Pattani 


263,448 


269,817 


+ 6,369 


10. 


Petchaburi ... 


319,892 


325,680 


+ 5,788- 


11. 


Pitsanulok .... 


232,325 


248,050 


+ 15,725 


12. 


Bay ap 


. t — 


1,216,817 


+ 1,216,817 


13. 


Petehaboon .... 


71,544 


72,662 


+ 1/118 


14. 


Puket 


222,802 


228,969 


+ 6,167 


15. 


Rajabmi 


406,904 


419,714 


+ 12,810 


16. 


Isan 


. t - 


1,414,073 


+ 1,414,073 


17. 


Udorn 

Total 


613,243 


630,681 


+ 17,438 




. 5,330,406 


8,149,487 


+ 2,820,121 



* Increase due to large immigration of Chinese. 

| Census not yet taken in 128. 

The Ministry of Interior writing in Nov. 19l3< state that they " have 
no later population statistics than those above. " 



Population. 199 



FOREIGN SUBJECTS. 

The subjects of some of the Treaty Powers enjoy extra-territorial 
rights, and are accordingly for the most part registered at their respective 
Consulates. There are upwards of 2,000 Europeans and Americans 
resident in Siam, mostly in Bangkok. By the courtesy of the Foreign 
Representatives in Bangkok we are able to give the following figures : — 

BRITISH. 

Schedule showing the number of British subjects registered in the 
Bangkok Consular District during 1912 : — 

Europeans, ... ... ... ... 17 

Indians, Cingalese and Malays, ... ... 423 

Chinese, ... ... ... ... 36 

Burmese, and Shans, ... ... ... 25 

•Eurasians, ... ... ... ... 9 

Widows of Asiatic British Subjects, ... 7 

517 
Practically the system of renewing certificates ceased on the coming 
into operation of the treaty between Great Britain and Siam of 1909. 
It has been estimated that the number of British subjects in the Bangkok 
Consular District exceeds 10,000, but there is no means of ascertaining an 
acciirate figure. 

New certificates issued to British subjects in the Senggora Consular 
District during the year 1912: — 

Europeans ... ... ... ... 1 

Indians and Malays ... ... ... 40 

Chinese ... ... ... ... 1 

Females ( Asiatic ) ... ... ... — 



42 

New certificates issued to British subjects in the Puket Consular 
District during the year 1912: — 

Europeans ... ... ... ... H 

Eivrasian ... ... ... ... 1 

Indians and Malays ... ... ... 41 

Chinese ... ... ... ... g 



61 
New Certificates issued to British subjects in the Chiengmai 
Consular District during the year 1912 :— 

Burmese, Shans, Toungsus, etc. ... ... 394 

Indians ... ... .., ... 30 



424 
There were no renewals. 



200 Population. 



The total number of British subjects to whom certificates have been 
issued by H. M. Vice-Consulate at Nakawn Lampang, which was opened in 
1903, is 1116 Asiatics and 8 Europeans; total number 1124. 

The number of British subjects whose names stand on the Register 
of the former Vice-Consulate at Nan, which was closed in 1906 (now under 
Nakawn Lampang) is 1303 Asiatics and 2 Europeans; total 1305. 

With few exceptions, the Asiatic British subjects in the Nakawn 
Lampang and Nan districts are Shans, 

During the year 1912, 109 new papers were issued. 

All statistics as to the British population of Siam, based on Consular 
Registers, are very incorrect and misleading. There are hundreds of British 
subjects whose names appear on the registers of one district, but who live 
in another, hundreds more have died or left Siam, and probably thousands 
who have never registered at all. 

FRENCH, 

The number of French citizens in Siam amounts to 240 (146 men, 
63 women and 31 children). 

The number of proteges is about 15,000. In the circonscription of 
Bangkok these are distributed as follows: — 

Chinese ... ... ... ... 724 

Annamites ... ... ... ... 396 

Laotians ... ... ... ... 2,460 

Cambodians ... ... ... ... 1,466 

Indians ... ... ... . . . , 44 

Foreigners ... ... ... ... 90 



Total 5,180 

The rest are divided between the different Consular circonscriptions 
of Chieng-Mai, Ubon , Korat and Chantaboon. 

GERMAN. 

The number of German subjects registered at the Legation is 264. 
viz., 179 men, 31 women, and 54 children. Germany has no proteges of 
Asiatic origin, and the Legation does not enter natives on its register. To 
become a German protege one must have been formerly a German subject 
or be a subject of a friendly nation. 

The number of Swiss under German protection is 51, viz., 27 men, 
8 women and 16 children. 

The number i .' Turkish subjects registered in the German Legation 
is 653, viz.. 193 men, 126 women and 334 children. 



Population,. 




DUTCH. 

There are registered at the Legation and Consulate-General of the 
Netherlands^ including European women and children : — 

48 Dutch 
75 Chinese 
2,148 Javanese and Malays. 

AMERICAN. 

The number of American Citizens registered at the Consulate- 
general isdlf 



ITALIAN. 

The number of Italian subjects registered in the Italian Legation is 
altogether 131, viz : 35 absent, 70 men, 13 women, 13 children. 

DANES. 



The number of registered Danish subjects is(139l 

PORTUGUESE. 

There aie about 85 Portuguese subjects, and 300 nitlos, registered 
at the Legation. 



JAPANESE. 

Registered at the Japanese Consulate at the end of September 1913 
^tliere were 157 males and 62 females-— total 219. 

A USTRO-H UNG AR I A N. 

The number of Austrian subjects now registered in the Consulate is 
•32, anJ Hungarian citizens 2, — total 34. 

RUSSIAN. 

Besides the staff of the Imperial Russian Legation and Consulate 
there are 23 Russians registered here, viz., 8 men and 15 women. 

OTHER NATIONALITIES. 

There are 8 Norwegian subject s registered at the Consulate-General. M r ^Mt^ 

There are eight Belgian subjects in Siam. 

There are seven Swedish subjects registered at the Consulate-General. 



202 



Mining in Suim. 



ci- 



ing m swam. 



Among the mineral resources of Slam may be mentioned Rubies, 
■Sapphires, Gold, Tin, Copper, Coal, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Wolfram, Antimony 
and Molybdenum. Of these only tin and wolfram are worked on a commer- 
cial scale tin being by far the more important. The following table shows 
the output' of the country, for the last six years : — 

TIN OUTPUT IN P1CULS. 



Month on. 


Year. 

2450 


Year. 

*451 


Year. 

2452 


Year. 
2453 


Year, 

2454 


Year. 
2455 

99,901 


Puket 


64,285 


64,157 


67,882 


70,719 


, 87,354 


Patani 


4,826 


11,851 ! 6,515* 


6,207 


8,083 


6.067 


Chum pawn ... 


908 


1,411 | 2,044 


2,782 


2,911 


3,092 


Nakon Sri Tammarat 


2,419 


2,768 1 2,842 

i 


2.547 


1,279 


1,564 


Totals 


72.438 


•80,187 i 79,283 


82,255 


99.627 


1 1 0,624 



1 Ln 2451, the output from Amphur Betong. Lower Rahman, Patani, 
was 7,180 piculs. In 2452, practically the whole of the producing territory 
was ceded to Great Britain. 

Further particulars for the year 2455 are as follows : — 



Monthon. 


Munng. 


Piculs. 


Puket 


Puket 

Renong 

Takuapa 

Pangnga 

Trang 


59,605 
13,405 

8,588 
14.846 

3,457 


Nakon Sri Tammarat 


Sing ore 

Nakon 


451 
1,113 


Pa tan i 


Patani 
Saiburi 
Bangnara 
Betong 


5,119 

417 

26 

505 


Chum paw n 


Chaiya . 
Langsuan 


2.351 
711 



In Monthon Patani the output is divided according to place of fin*! 
export and not according to the Muangs producing. 



Mining in Siam. 203 



The figures given indicate piculs of metallic tin. In the case of ore 
being exported it is reckoned to contain 70% of the metal, this being the 
rate at which it is calculated for taxation purposes ; as a matter of fact the 
contents are probably slightly in excess of 70%, probably averaging 71%. 

As can be seen from the tables, Monthon Puket on the West coast of 
the Malay Peninsula is by far the most important part of the country from 
a mining point of view. In Monthon Puket, the most important pro- 
vince is the island of Puket, which in the year 2455 produced 59,605 piculs 
or about 54 per cent of the whole of the country, and an increase of 5,793 
piculs over the year 2454 — nearly 10%. The Province of Renong, which in 
the past turned out but a small quantity of tin annually, is rapidly 
becoming one of the biggest producers owing to the advent of two large 
dredging companies. 

On the East coast of the Peninsula Patani is the largest producer, 
though the output has considerably decreased during the past year. 
Both Chumpawn and Nakon Sri Tammarat produce but very little, though 
it is hoped that the building of the Southern railway through these month- 
ons will help to increase the tin production. 

A recent discovery of considerable interest has been made in Muang 
Chaiya. Monthon Chumpawn. A mountain stream disappears into the side 
of a limestone mountain and after passing through a series of caves and pas- 
sages issues on the other side of the mountain at aboul 600 feet lower 
elevation. Before entering the mountain the stream passes across a granite- 
limestone contact where there is a series of veins carrying tin. The stream 
picks up the alluvial derived from these veins and deposits it in the caves in 
the limestone. The stream, falling as it must through a series of waterfalls, 
exercises a strong concentrating effect, the hea\y tin mineral remaining in 
the caves and the lighter material flowing away. Prospecting in these 
caves is a difficult matter owing to their being full of water, but the owner 
of the lease claims to have obtained samples running several piculs to the 
cubic yard. It is therefore hoped that the working of these deposits will 
considerably increase the output of the muang in which it is situated. 

The most important event of the last few years has been the intro- 
duction of dredges to Siam. In November 1907 the Tongkah Harbour 
Tin Dredging Co. started to work their first dredge and from that 
time their output has steadily increased. At the present time they have 
no less than five dredges at work in the harbour, the two newest and largest 
excavating about 80,000 cubic yards per month. A sixth of even larger 
capacity is now on order. In December 1911 the Tongkah Compound started 
work with one dredge on their concession which comprises the site of the 
old Government offices and some of the adjoining land. This land ' has long- 
been known to be very rich and the sum paid for the concession by the 
compan}^ is more than sufficient to build fine new Government offices ; at 
^•he same time the Company have made a very handsome profit. The two 
other Companies now operating dredges in Siam are the Siamese Tin 



204 



Mining in Siam. 



Syndicate and the Renong Tin Dredging Co , both of which work in Renong,, 
each operating one dredge at present, while the Siamese Tin Syndicate have 
two more on order and the Renong Dredging Co. also two more, so that there 
will soon be six dredges at work in Renong. The following table shows 
the total production from dredges in Siam for the last six years, i. e., since 
dredging started. For purposes of comparison a second coJumn is given 
showing" the amount of tin obtained from all sources other than dredging. 



Year 


Tin obtained from 


Dredging 


Other sources 


2450 
2451 
2452 
2453 
2454 
2455 


Piculs 

467 

2,528 

7,372 

11,451 

23,317 

32.946 


Piculs 
71,971 
77,659 
71,911 
70,804 
76,310 
77,678 



From the second column it will be seen that the output from sources 
other then dredging remains almost stationary, in fact the statistics for 
former years bears this out. The output for the year 2455 is certainly 
higher than the previous five years, it is however not the highest on 
record ; the increase for this year is undoubted!}- due to the very high price 
of tin. It will be seen from the above that the prediction in last year's 
report that there would be a large increase in output lias been fully borne 
out. It does not appear probable that this increase will continue during the 
present year 2456, as the price of the metal has fallen and it is not likely that 
the dredging output will increase, though the Siamese Tin Syndicate will 
probably have an extra dredge during the last two or three months of the year. 

In the course of tin mining in certain districts of Monthon Nakon 
Sri Tammarat, a black mineral was found mixed with the tin ore and of the 
same specific gravity so that the separation of this black mineral from the 
tin became a difficult operation. This mineral was known to the Chinese 
miners as " dead ore" and was looked upon by them as a nuisance. Some 
of the ore was finally taken to Singapore and it was then found to be 
wolfram, a mineral of considerable value though less than tin ore. The 
richest deposit of wolfram that has yet been found is in Amphur Klai in 
Nakon Sri Tammarat. As soon as the value of the mineral was known a 
rush took place to obtain leases, and the government decided to survey the 
land in plots and sell it by public auction. The money obtained from this 



Mining in Siam. 205 



auction was to be used for road-building purposes to assist the miners. 
The output of wolfram during the year 2455 from Muang Nakon Sritamarat 
amounted to 5199 piculs, an increase of over 2000 piculs over the preceding 
year. At first the profits were enormous as a large quantity of the ore had 
been separated by the old tin-miners and left in heaps. These heaps have 
all been worked out and now the miners are gradually getting deeper into 
the rock and the. profits naturally diminish. In fact if capital and know- 
ledge are not available to work the deposit on proper lines the export from 
this field will soon cease. 



Not far from this district lies the island Koh Samui, where a European 
company has spent a certain amount on prospecting and installing machin- 
ery. They do not appear to have met with great success and they have now 
stopped operations. 



Small quantities of wolfram have also been mined in Puket. In fact 
the mineral appears to be fairly widely distributed in the Siamese portion of 
tli9 Malay Peninsula. 

Gold is worked in a very small way in many parts of the country, 
the Chinese and Siamese washing gold out of the streams. The principal 
districts are Bangtaphan, Kabin, Wattana, and Muang Lomm in Petchaboon. 
A certain amount of rock mining for gold is carried on at Tomoh in Monthon 
Patani. The new international boundary cuts this district in two, the greater 
part still remaining on the Siamese side. In the past a large amount of 
alluvial washing has been 'carried on, but this is nearly all worked out 
at present. In the past, efforts have been made to work some of the above 
mentioned districts by European Companies. The princial mines so 
worked were at Bangtaphan, Tomoh, Wattana and Kabin. h\ each case 
large amounts of capital were spent with no benefit to the unfortunate 
shareholders. How far this result was due to mismanagement it is difficult 
to say, but there is no doubt that it played an important part in the failure 
of some of the Companies. On a smaller scale capital has been spent in 
opening up mines at Muang Lomm in Petchaboon and at Pu Kiriu in 
Lopburi with equally bad results.. 

An unsuccessful attempt was made by Danish capitalists some years 
agfo to work a copper mine at Chant.uk on the way to Korat, and samples of 
■copper ore are occasionally brought in from different parts of the country to 
the Mines Department for identification. Most of these samples have been 
sulphides, but one specimen of native copper was identified. 

Since the cession of the Pailin district to the French in 1907 the 
■gem industry has ceased to have any importance, (iems are still found near 
Krat f nd in other districts, but the total value is very small indeed. 



206 Mining in Siawi 



An enterprise was started to work lead in Jalar many years ago, but 
nothing came of it. The machinery still lies scattered over the country, 
never having reached the mine. Lead occurs mixed with tin in some of the 
Jalar fields and causes considerable trouble to the miners, the lead occurring 
as carbonate and the tin as oxide r and the two are very difficult to separate 
owing to their having the same specific gravity. At the present time there 
is a prospect of a lead mine of considerable size feeing opened above Karn- 
buri in Monthon Ratburi. An English engineer has examined it and 
advised further prospecting. Samples have been obtained from depth by 
means of a diamond drill, and a tunnel has been driven some distance into 
the side of the hill. There is no doubt that a large body of ore exists, 
but the question at present is whether the quality of the ore is goo:l enough 
to counterbalance the very high transport charges which will necessarily be 
entailed. 



Coal has been known for many years past to exist in Gherbi, and a 
certain amount of capital has been spent during the last six or seven years in 
examining the deposit. There is no doubt as to the quantity, but the quality 
is poor. The deposit is situated on tidal water, and the question of trans- 
port provides no difficulties. Since the discovery of better quality coal at 
Kawang in the Federated Malay States, there appears little hope of the 
Gherbi deposit being developed. 



Megnetic iron and titaniferous iron are very frequently brought 
to the Mining Department. Neither of them is « likely to be of an}^ value in 
this country. They are brought in for identification under the mistaken 
impression that they are wolfram, which they closely resemble. 



The revenue derived from mining varies very much from year to year. 
By far the greater part of the revenue is obtained from the royalty imposed 
on all tin exported. This royalty is based on a sliding scale varying with 
the price of tin. With tin at $60 per picul the royalty only amounts to- 
about 10 ticals per picul, whereas with the abnormally high price of the 
metal ruling during the year 2455 the royalty rose to about 26 ticals per 
picul. It will thus be seen what an important factor the price of tin is in 
estimating the amount of revenue. Not only is the royalty per picul much 
higher with the high price, but the miners are naturally striving their 
utmost to turn out as much tin as possible. The following table shows the 
revenue derived from mining during the last fourteen years. For purposes 
of comparison the average price of tin in Singapore for the years in ques~ 
tion is given in the adjoining column. 



Mining in Siam. 



207 



Year 


Average 

price of tin 

in 

$S per picul 


Revenue 
Ticals 


2442 


60 


626,046 


2443 


62 


1,239,204 


2444 


61 


746,733 


2445 


62 


1,105,849 


2446 


63 


1,082,425 


2447 


68 


1,020,866 


2448 


75 


1,210,480 


2449 


92 


1,536,532 


2450 


71 


1,095,165 


2451 ' 


67 


826,483 


2452 


71 


918,968 


2453 


82 


- 1,185,823 


2454 


95 


2,033,732 


2455 


.107 


2,670,000 J 


2456 


£> 


2,000,000-* 



Estimated. 



In the early years of the table it will be noticed that the revenue 
does not follow the price of tin. This is due to the changes made in the 
i-ate ^ of royalty collected during these years. In the later years the con- 
nection between the price of the metal and the amount of revenue is very 
evident. J 

^ The following table gives particulars of the leases and their areas 
now in force in the different provinces : — 



208 



Ilining in Slam, 









CO 




CO 


^P 


OS 


rv. 


CO 








■<# 




lO 


lO 


oc 


CO 


CM 




CS 




so 




■«* 


iO 


■<? 


CO 


cn 


gco 


(h 




00 




co" 


^" 


co" 




o" 


.2 




"* 












CO 


O OS 




r - 


A^ 


N 


rr~^ 


r-^ 


— A " ■> 


, A 






c« 


■<# 


o co 


CO 


CO o 


CO — o 


O OS 


1 **■ 




a _-• 

" H CO 


CD 


cm" 


-^ CO 


CO 


O iO 


L- CO iO 


OS ^ 


1 CO 




-5 


co" -#" 


CO 

Tj<" 


>o os 
cm" 


t— CO 

-*" 


co^ »o 
cm" 


CO 




v> -1; 




co 




















OS 




»o 


QO 


-* 


CO 


~^ _ 






CO 




co 


1-1 


CM 




i>. 


d 




1 




r _A.^ 


r-^^ 


r~*—^ 


( — ' — \ 








~^ 




CM 


CO -^ 


kO 


CM CO 


-^ CO rH 


CM CM 


1 CO 








tP 


O CO 


OS 


CM --! 




CM 


1 








CO 


1— 1 




















«* 




t^ 




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t^ 


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CO 


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a 


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CO 


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1 1 


° 1^ 


1 fr- 






03 


co 


CO CM 


Tji 


"5 t- 


1 1 


CO 


1 CO 




15 CO 




CM 


i— I CM 


so 


iO CO 




r^ 


»o 




03 


"< 


co 


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CM 






cm" 










r- 1 




CO 


1 


r— 1 


CM 


CM 


■:* 






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1-1 


1 






CO 


V CM 




















r? ■" ' 
|os 


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[21 


, — 


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— -\ 


r-^-> 


r~-^-\ ' 


r-^~, 


r-^ 






ca cm 


CM 


I>- rH 


1 I 1 


1-1 1 


I CM 




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to 


CM 


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1 1 1 


1 


1 




- 






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Ol 


. CO 

— — ' 
O-OS 


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CM 

CO. 

co" 




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OS 




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A 


^ 


r-^~~ a 


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f — A — •> 




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CO 


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1 1 


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CO 

c3 ^ 


Si 


cm" 


i—i CO 


CO 


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6 




A 


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r ^"^ 


r-^-A 








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h3 




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a 
a 
o 

CS 

03 


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its 

S STd 




a 


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a 

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S 






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03 


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l 








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-'s es a 


=« ^3 ec 


cs a 


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S 5 


S3 




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Pu 


W cu 


EH 


^ PhC5 


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03 

-a 












• ^^ 




a 




fl 










's- ce 




fe 






O 






03 

"5 




a g 

^ a 


'a 


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a 




rg 

c3 


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=+H 

"3 


o 






Um 




PM 


a 
.a 
O 


D^ 


O 

H 



Religion and Instruction. 209 



Jtcligtoit anir jtistractioiL 



EDUCATION IN SI AM. 

It is the duty of the Ministry of Public Instruction in conjunction 
with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Local Government to 
co-operate in providing for the education of the people. The following 
is the general plan of education for the country as a whole, now partly iii 
operation : — 

a ) Grades of schools. 

a. Primary Schools. General ( boys and girls ) up to Prathom 

Standard ( i. e., proposed compulsory minimum J. 

b. Higher schools. Matyom. 

TJdom. 

In general the larger towns should have a Matyom School ; and the 
largest towns an Udom School. 

b ) School finance. 

There are three classes of school : — ■ 

1. Government schools dependent on the Departmental budget. 

2. Rate-aided schools, provided by the district. 

3. Private schools. 

The first class are mostly High schools, and model schools, or schools 
built where no others existed. 

The other two classes will receive State aid. 

c ) Schools for which the Ministry of Public Instruction 
is responsible, and schools for which the Ministry 
of Public Instruction shares responsibility with 
the Ministries of Local Government and the 
Interior. 

The Ministry of Public Instruction is generally responsible for all 
Government schools, but the Ministries of the Interior and of Local Govern- 
ment are responsible for the management of such schools as are 'delegated t<> 
them by the Ministry of Public Instruction, as, e. g., in respect of the receiv- 
ing and payment of money in the case of distant schools ; the provision of 
local rate-aided Schools : the formation of District Boards, &c. &c. 

As regards Rate-aided and Private Schools, the three Departments are 
;jtll responsible as thus : — 

d) The Duties of the several Departments in regard 
to Education. 



210 i'l.eliqion and TnsiruHwu. 



The two Local Departments have duties of 

1 ) starting schools . 

2 ) requiring scholars to attend. 
o ) providing teachers. 

4 ) providing funds for new and old schools. 

5 ) registering private schools. 

6 ) general organisation of these two classes of schools. 

7 ) providing suitable education for all children of 

a certain specified age. 
The Ministry of Public Instruction has the duties of 

a. Starting Government schools. 

b. Drafting codes and regulations. 

e. Inspection,, so that the work of the school may 
proceed properly and that the school may 
turn out good citizens. 

d. Giving grants in aid in proportion to the good 

derived from the school. 

e. Examination. 

e ) Rules for regulating grants in aid given by the 

Government to schools. 
Grants shall be given on the following grounds : — 

1. In proportion to the average percentage of attendance made by 
the whole school. 

2. For the general management of the school, as regards premises, 
schools and teachers. 

o. For any Special Instruction given in the school, e.g., of the 
many special subjects permitted to be taught and one or more being 
taken ; results of the teaching will be considered. 

The Education Department will draw up and publish regulations- on 
the lines of these three headings, and will publish any future alterations-, 

f ) Officials. 

Each Monthon and chief town has an official of the Ministry of 
Public Instruction, and an assistant if required, who iw directly under the 
authority of the Commissioner. 

In Bangkok Monthon the divisions are smaller ; there are 7 districts. 

in Bangkok : 1, the N. E. j 2. the S. &. : 9, the N. W. ; 4, the S. W. 
districts. Outside, in Bangkok province: 5, the three Northern towns ; (>, 
the three Southern towns. Also, 7, the Special District for Matyoni and 
Higher Schools. 

Inspectors sent by the Ministry of Local Government will send their 
reports to that Ministry and receive orders ii-om it. 

As regards Government schools, their reports will be sent direct to 
the Ministry of Public Instruction. 

The Arts and Crafts School at Wat Liep started by the Department, 
for the purpose of reviving the old industries of Siam has extended its 
work* 



Religion and Instritrtion. 211 



Wood-craving, enamelling on silver, modelling and designing are 
carried on, and it is hoped that the new school will be a centre of artistic 
activity, and that it will attract the attention of those who desire specimens 
of genuine Siamese work. 

It should also be mentioned that the work of Education in the 
provinces has been taken up vigorously. Many administrators and teachers 
have been sent ont, and the local authorities have generally shown 
themselves very enthusiastic in helping on the work of Education. 

Technical schools. All lower schools will provide instruction in 
such trades as carpentering, tailoring, pottery-making and the like, which 
require few materials and little space. The trade chosen will of course be 
dependent on the locality. 

But for handicrafts which require considerable space and a more 
expensive outfit such as blacksmith's work, metal-casting, gold-beating and 
the like, central schools will be built to which students will be sent for 
further instraction who have already attained some proficiencj- in their 
own district. Special centres will also be started for the study and encourage- 
ment of special industries such as the making and polishing of furniture, 
for the benefit of those who wish to apply themselves to this trade only. 

There will be Technical Education in both the Lower and Higher 
Schools suited to each. In country districts, for example, instruction will 
be given in Agriculture and Gardening. 

Inspectors will be appointed to supervise, assist, and encourage in 
each branch of instruction. 

Commercial Education. There is already one central Commercial 
School at Wat Rajaboona and Commercial studies form part of the course ar, 
others. The number of the latter will gradually be extended. There will 
also be a shop where the varions articles made in the schools will be on 
exhibition and for sale. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC. 
There now two Roman Catholic Bishops in Siam, and the work of the 
Church is divided between the two Missions of Siam and Laos. Within the 
bounds of the Catholic Mission of Siam there are 56 Churches, five of which 
are in Bangkok. In addition to the Bishop there are 44 priests. Generally 
speaking there is a school attached to each station or church, and the total 
number of schools now is 61. These schools are attended by 4,060 puu ijsv 



of both sexes. In addition, the principal educational institutions under the 
Mission are the Assumption College_ (say 800 pupij s). the Convent Boarding 
School of St. J^s^pir~(T4ir~plipils)^ thlf^As sumption Covent day school 
lately erected (102 pupils), and the Clerical College (College of the Sacred 
Heart of JesusJ with some 82 students. These fignres are not included in 
the 4,060 given above. 

AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION. 
The Siam Mission has four churches in Bangkok : the First Presby- 
terian Church, at Samray, under the charge of the Rev. Yuan ; the Second 
Presbyterian Church, at Wang Lang ; the Third Presbyterian Church, of 



212 Religion and Instruction. 



Sam Yek, working among the Chinese, under Kroo Joy ; and the Krit 
Sampantawongse Church near the German Legation. The Mission also 
conducts a Bazaar chapel at Ban Maw, Bangkok. The Mission has started 
a young men's institute in Bangkok, the Boon Itt Memorial Institute, a 
work similar to the Y. M. C. A. 

In Bangkok the Mission has three schools, the Bangkok Christian 
College with an enrolment of over 250 boys, the Wang Lang Girls' School 
with an enrolment of nearly 150, and the Boys' School at Samray with 
about 100 pupils enrolled. Besides the work in Bangkok, there is a similar 
work conducted at Petchaburi, Ratburi, Pitsanulok, Nakon Sritamarat and 
Tap Teang. The hospitals and dispensaries of the Mission treated more 
than 18,000 people last year. An extra year has been added to the 
curriculum of the Bangkok Christian College, making it an eight year 
course instead of seven. 

In Northern Siam the Laos Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A. began work in 1867. They have at present 24 regularly established 
churches, and services are held each Sabbath in some sixt} T other towns and 
villages. It reports 6299 communicants and conducts ten boarding schools 
with about 760 pupils and thirty primary day schools with some 650 pupils. 
It has five hospitals and dispensaries connected with the various stations and 
several other branch dispensaries. There is also a leper asylum with 127 
lepers and 11 untainted children of leper parents. A vaccine laboratory is 
carried on in connection with Chiengmai Hospital, which supplies virus to 
the Government in Northern Siam and to the other Stations of the ^fis- 
sion ; during the past year 86 calves were used in the production of vaccine. 
A Mission Theological Training School has been established in Chiengmai, 
and during the past year had about 50 students in attendance. At present 
connected with the work of the Mission are 26 gentlemen of whom 9 are 
.physicians, and 5 single ladies. Chiengmai, Lakawn, Prae, Nan and 
Chiengrai are the principal centres of their work, but it extends over into 
British territory on the North is well, though no Missionaries reside there. 
The opening of a new station in Chieng Rung, Yunnan, has been sanction- 
ed. The accessions to the North Laos Mission for the year ending Sept. 
30th 1913, were 1397. Reported by Stations the returns were as follows : — 
Chiengmai and Lampoon. 1127; Lakawn 68; Prae 107; Nan 13; 
Chiengrai 82. There were 820 children baptized. 
OTHER MISSIONS. 

The agent of the American Bible Society covers an extensive field in 
Siam and Laos. Work is being carried on among the Chinese in Pukef, 
and along the west coast of the Peninsula, by missionaries of the sect com- 
monly called " Plymouth Brethren." Another mission is the Baptist 
Missionary Union. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel formerly 
maintained a missionary in Bangkok. There has now also been established 
a Christian Mission to the Mohns in Siam with headquarters at Nakon 
Pathom. The Anglican Church in Bangkok was established for the benefit 
of those foreigners who are Protestants, and is not in connection with any 
Missionary Society. Siam is in the diocese of the Bishop of Singapore. 



Finanee. 



211 



xmmt 



The Report of the Financial Adviser upon the Budget of the Kingdom 
of Siam for the current year 2156 (1913-14) shows an estimated increase 
of revenue amounting to Tcs. 3,000,000 as compared with the previous 
estimate. The steady growth of the wealth of the country is clearly shown 
by the following statement of Revenue and Expenditure for tho past twenty 
years (the Samese year ending on 31st March ): — ■ 



Revenue 




Expenditure. 


Year 


Ticals 


Year 


Ficals. 


2435 (1892-93) 


15,378,114 


2435 (1892-93) 


14,918,977 


2436 (1893-94) 


17,389,672 


2436 (1893-94) 


18,174,504 


2437 (1894-95) 


17,334,469 


2437 (1894-95) 


12,487,165 


2438 (1895-96) 


18,074,690 


2438 (1895-96) 


12,685.697 


2439 (1896-97) 


20,644,500 


2439 (1896-97) 


18,482.715 


2440 (1S97-98) 


24.808,001 


2440 (1897-98) 


23,996,625 


2441 (1898-99) 


28,496,029 


2441 (1898-99) 


23,787,582 


2442 (1899-00) 


29,920.365 


2442 (1899-00) 


27,052,717 


2443 (1900-01) 


35.611,306 


2443 (1900-01) 


31,841,257 


2444 (1901-02) 


36,157,963 


2444 (1901-02) 


36,646,558 


2445 (1902-03) 


39,152,124 


2445 (1902-03) 


39,248,544 


2446 (1903-04) 


43,458,817 


2446 (1903-04) 


43,908.901 


2447 (1904-05) 


46,046.404 


2447 (1904-05) 


46,634,654 


2448 (1905-06) 


51,657,539 


2448 (1905-06) 


50,035,523 


2449 (1906-07) 


57.014,810 


2449 (1906-07) 


56,837,460 


2450 (1907-08) 


55,826,532 


2450 (1907-08) 


56,503,203 


2451 (1908-09) 


60,859,508 


2451 (1908-09) 


58,378,548 


2452 (1909-10) 


62,679,401 


2452 (1909-10) 


58,844,619 


2453 (1910-11) 


63,509.181 


2453 (1910-11) 


59,076,553 


2454 (1911-12) 


61,493,918 


2454 (1911-12) 


64,017,150 



214 



Finance. 



Subjoined is an abstract of the Budget estimates of the current year, 
B. E. 2456. For convenience of comparison, the corresponding figures for 
B. E. 2455 and the actuals for B. E. 2454 are also given. 



Abstract of State Revenue and Expenditure for the Year 2456. 



Particulars. 



Actual Receipts 
or Expenditure 
2454 (1911-12). 



Budget 

24 55 

(1912-13). 



Budget 

2456 

(1913-14). 



+ Plus or 

— Minus. 



Revenue 

Expenditure chargeable 
to Revenue 

Revenue more or less 
th&n Expenditure 



Ticals. 
61,493,918 

64,017,150 



2,523.231 



Btgs. 
26 



15 



S9 



Ticals. 
61,600,000 

61,581,891 



+ 18,109 



Ticals. 
64,600,000 

64,599,423 



Ticals. 
+ 3,000,000 

+ 3,017,532 



+ 577 



Expenditure not Chargeable to Revenue. 



Source 




Expenditure 


Budget 


Budget 


+ Plus or 


from 


Particulars 


2454 


2455 


2456 




which met 




(1911-12). 


(1912-13). 


(1913-14). 


— Minus. 


Treasury 


Southern Railway 












Reserve 


Construction 














(branch lines) 


1,353,639 


20 


270,951 




— 270,951 


Do. do. 


Electric Power 














Station 


90,000 


— 


807,935 


372,866 


- 435.069 


Do. do. 


War Materiel 








450,000 


+ 450,000 


Loan 


Northern Eailwav 












Account 


Construction 


400,455 


64 


2,650,000 


3,900,000 


+ 1,250,000 


Do. do. 


Southern Railway 














Construction 












(main lines) 


3,764,330 


72 


8,630,000 


8.712,133 


+ 82.133 


Do. do. 


Do. do. (branch 














lines) 






1,299,549 


1,207,3*0 


- 92,239 


1 )o. do. 


Bangkok Water- 














works. 


1,185,899 


56 


1,569.624 


1.104.479 


- 465,145 


Do. do. 


Irrigation 








100.000 


+ 100,000 


Loan Sink- 


For £1.000.000 












ing Fund 


Loan of 1905 


It; ('..400 


— 


171.230 


182,000 


+ 7,800 


Do. do. 


For £3.000.000 














Loan of 1907 






478.400 


499.720 


+ 21,320 



Treasury Savings Bank Law, B. E. 2^50. 215 

9/waimrg ladings §;ralv ya&r, 



Whereas it is desirable to encourage thrift among the inhabitants of 
Hie Realm, and to provide an institution for the safe custody of their 
savings, 

Now therefore His Majesty has been pleased to command that a 
Treasury Savings Bank shall be established to receive and keep in safe 
custody the small sums of money brought for deposit by the public and to 
arrange for suitable interest thereon to be given to the depositors, in the 
manner set forth hereunder. 

Section 1. This Law shall be called the Treasury Savings Bank 
Law, B. E. 2456, and it shall come into force on the 1st April B. E. 2456. 



Section 2. The places at, and the conditions under, which 
may be received from, or withdrawn by the public ; the rate or rates of 
interest to be allowed on deposits ; the officials by whom, and the manner 
in which, the affairs of the Treasury Savings Bank shall be controlled ; and 
all other matters connected with the establishment, the organisation and 
the working of the said Bank shall be set forth in regulations to be issued 
from time to time. 

Section 3. Both the capital sum obtained from the Treasury Re- 
serve, under section 5 of this Law, and the deposits made by the public, 
shall be held apart from the funds of the Treasury. Likewise, all income of 
any kind derived from the investment of the said capital or deposits shall 
be held apart from the funds of the Treasury. Likewise, all income of any 
kind derived from the investment of the said capital or deposits shall be 
kept distinct from the revenues of the State. 

Section 4. The .repayment of all deposits within the time stipulated 
by the regulations mentioned in Section 2, and the payment of interest 
at the authorised rates, on the balances of deposits, shall be guaranteed 
by the Government. 

Section 5. As already -commanded by His Majesty, in connection 
with the establishment of the Treasury Savings Bank, the Minister of 
Finance shall pay over the sum of one hundred thousand ticals from the 
Treasury Reserve as a capital sum from the investment of which an income 
may be obtained for the immediate payment of interest to depositors. 



216 Treasury Savings Bank Law, B. E. 24-56. 



Section 6. The capital to be invested under sections 3 and 5 shall 
be administered by a Board of Officials appointed by the Minister of 
finance. Any excess of income resulting from the said investment, after 
deducting the interest payable to depositors, shall be transferred and added 
to the capital sum of one hundred thousand ticals granted by His Majesty 
under section 5. Should such income be insufficient to meet the interest 
payable to depositors, the required additional sum shall be provided in full 
by the Treasury and treated as a loss on the Treasury Savings Bank. 

Section 7. Where a person of less than 20 years of age, . even 
though under legal disability to act for himself, has withdrawn from the 
Treasury Savings Bank money deposited by him, or interest accrued thereon. 
he shall have no right to any further claim for the monies so withdrawn. 
Again, paj'rnents made to a married woman, according to the regulations 
issued under this Law, of deposits or of interest accrued on deposits of any 
kind, shall be held to be payments legally made, and her receipts therefor 
shall be a sufficient discharge of the Treasury Savings Bank's liabilities 
in regard to the monies paid. 

Section 8. The Minister of Finance shall publish an annual re- 
port on the working of the Treasury Savings Bank, showing the number of 
depositors, the total amount held in deposit, the total amount of interest 
credited on deposits, the income derived from investments made under 
sections 3 and 5, and such other particulars as ma} T be thought proper. 

Section 9. The Minister of Finance is authorised to issue the re- 
gulations referred to in section 2, prescribing the procedure to be followed 
for the execution of this law. Such regulations, on His Majesty's assent 
being obtained, and on publication in the Government Gazette, shall be 
regarded as forming a part of this La\v T and shall come into force from the 
date of publication. 

Given on the 26th March, B. E. 2455 (1913), being the 867th, day 
of the present Reign. 



Festivals and Fasts. 217 



$ estipals, jfasts, ©bserpancee 
for tbe j])ear 1914. 



2456-2457 BUDDHIST ERA. 

1275-1276 OLD ERA. 

PEE-CHALU (OX)— PEE-KHAN (TIGER). 

BENCHA-SOK— CHAU-SOK (5th-6th OF THE DECADE) 

4th-5th OF THE REIGN 

132^-133 ERA OF BANGKOK. 



HIS MAJESTY'S BIRTHDAY is the 1st January. The celebration 
Jasts from the 30th December to the 2nd January. The Queen Mother's 
Birthday is celebrated on the 2nd January. 

KRUT CHIN ( Chinese New Year ) 5 26th January, the holidays 
extending over the 26th, 27th and 28th January. 

PHRABART, or the visiting of Buddha's footprint, takes place this 
year in the first half of February. 

KRUT THAI, Siamese popular New Year, occurs this year on the 
26th March, the holidays extending over the 25th, 26th and 27th. 

THE SIAMESE official New year, April, 1st. 

SONG KRAN, or Siamese astronomical New Year — the holidays 
extend from the 13th to the 15th of April. 

The RAAK-NA ceremony, marking the beginning of the ploughing 
takes place on Wednesday 6th May. 

BIRTH, ATTAINMENT of self knowledge, and the death of Buddha, 
The anniversary occurs this year on Saturday the 9th May. 

BUDDHIST LENT— Khao Wasah, the beginning, occurs this year 
on the 8th July. Awk Wasah, the ending, occurs on the 4th October. 

THU NAM, the semi-annual ceremony of the drinking of the water 
of allegiance, takes place the first time on Saturday 28th March ; and the 
second time on Thursday the 17th September. 

SART Festival takes place on the 17th, 18th and 19th September. 

CHULALONGKORN MEMORIAL DAY, October 23rd. 

COMMEMORATION of the previous Kings of the ^ Dynasty ami 
Chatr Mongkol solemnity (in commemoration of the King's x\ccessio« ), 
11th November. 



218 



Festivals and Fasts. 



THOT KATHIN begins about the middle of October, and is kept up 
one whole month. 

PROO KHAO THONG, and Buddhist Eelics Festival, from the 30th 
October to the 2nd November. 

PAKNAM Festival (Phrachadee Klang Nam) and boat races on 10th 
and 11th October. 

HIS MAJESTY'S CORONATION. The anniversary is on 2nd 
December. 

THE SWING CEREMONY takes place on the 2nd and 4th January 
and on the 23rd and 25th December. 



BANGKOK LIST OF BANK HOLIDAYS FOR 1914. 



Thursday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Wednesday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Wednesday 

Wedne 

Tuesday 

Monday 

3 Days 

Friday 

Saturday 



January 1st 
January 26th 
do. 27th 
do. 28th 
April 1st 
April 10th 

do. 11th 

do. loth 
May 23rd 
June 1st 
June 3rd 
July 1st 
July 14th 
August 3rd 
November 
December 25th 
do. 26th 



I 



New Year 

Chinese New Year 

Siamese New year 

Easter 

Empire Day 

Whit Monday 

King of England's Birthday 

Half Year 

French National Day 

August Bank Holiday 

Accession of the King of Siam, 

Christmas 



The Calendar 



FOR 



1914. 



220 



Calendar. 



1914. 

Pee Chalu (Ox)-Pee Khan (Tiger),4th-5th of the Reign, 

2456-2457 Buddhist Eba, 1275-1276 Old Era, (132-133 Era of Bangkok). 

J A N U A R Y 9 ~(MakarakhomJ . 



English. 


Siamese 










Lunar 




Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &c. 


Dates. 


Day of 
Week. 


Reckoning. 










Duen Yee 






1 


Thr. 


6 


King's Birthday 


King born, 1881. Queen Mother born, 1864. First 


2 


Fri. 


7 


) 


issue of the Bangkok Times, 1887. 


3 


Sat, 


8 * 


V Swinging Rite 




4 


Sun. 


9 


) 


Tachin Railway opened by Crown Prince, 1905. 


5 


Mon. 


10 




Typhoon at Muang Chumpon, 1,300 houses distroyed, 
'1894. 


6 


Tues. 


11 






7 


Wed. 


12 






8 


Thr. 


13 




Govt, Dockyard opened by H. M., 1892. Evacuation 
of Chantaboon completed, 1905. 


9 


Fri. 


14 






10 


Sat. 


15 * 




Legislative Council decreed, 1895. 


11 


Sun. 


1 ) 




Prince Bhanurangsi born, 1860. 


12 


Mon. 


2 






13 


Tues. 


3 




Crown Prince of Siam first proclaimed, 1887. 


14 


Wed. 


4 






15 


Thr. 


5 






1« 


Fri. 


(J 




The King proclaimed Crown Prince, 1895. 


17 


Sat. 


7 






18 


Sun. 


8 * 




Siamese Embassy to Paris. 1867. Admiral de Riche- 
lieu appointed head of the Siamese Navy, 1901. 


19 


Mon. 


9 






20 


Tues. 


10 






21 


Wed. 


11 








Thr. 


12 




French Chamber of Deputies adopted the treaty 
between France and Siam, 1894. Cremation of 
late Crown Prince, 1901. Queen Victoria died, 
1901. 


23 


Fri. 


13 






24 


Sat. 


14 






25 


Sun, 


15 * 
Duen Sam 


... .y ... 


Exportation of rice from Siam prohibited, 1865. 


26 


Mon. 


1 O 


j- KroM Cheen 




27 


Tue». 


2 


Emperor of Germany born, 1859. 


28 


Wed. 


3 




29 


Thr. 


4 




Return of Crown Prince from Europe, 1903. 


30 


Fri. 


g 






31 


Sat. 


6 




Two Rice Mills burned, 1900, damage $300,000, 

N. B. — Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday or Wan Phra, 



MEMORANDA. 
JANUAKY, 1914 (wnnnuw^^v^nnifb^^) 

( u qo i cirfnnif • ) k,d& ) 



231 



i 


Th 




2 


F 




a 


' S 




4 


S 




5 


M 




6 


T 




7 


W 




8 


Th 




9 


F 




10 


S 




11 


S 




12 


M 




13 


T 




14 


W 




15 


Th 




16 


F 




17 


S 




18 


S 




19 


M 




20 


T 




21 


W 




22 


Th 




23 


F 




24 


S 




25 


S 




26 


M 




27 


T 




28 


W 




29 


Th 




30 


F 




31 


S 





222 



Calendar. 



FEBRUARY, 1914.-(*"«mp*opan). 



English. 


Siamese 
Lunar 






i 


Chronology of Noteworthy Events, <fee. 


-. . Day of 
I)ates - Week. 


Reckoning. 




• 






Duen Sam 






1 


Sun. 


70 





Cheek Arbitration Case opened, 1898. Daily Mail 
Service to Ayuthia established, 1888. 


2 


Mon. 


8 * 






3 


Tues. 


9 






4 


Wed. 


10 






5 


Thr. 


11 





Arrival of Admiral Sir C. Bridge in H. M. S. Glory, 
1902. 


6 


Fri. 


12 





New Gaol opened, 1891. Royal decree safeguarding 
Timber Trade promulgated, 1897. 


7 


Sat. 


13 





Treaty between Germany and Siam signed, 1862. 


8 


Sun. 


14 






9 


Mon. 


15 * 





Abolition Gambling Farms decreed, 1905. 


10 


Tues. 


1 ) 




Siamese Postal Service reorganised, 1891. Japan 
formally declares War on Russia, 1904. 


11 


Wed. 


2 






12 


Thr. 


3 






13 


Fri. 


4 




Franco-Siamese Treaty signed at Paris 1904. 


14 


Sat. 


5 





Duke of Sutherland visited Bangkok, 1888. 


15 


Sun. 


6 






16 


Mon. 


7 





First execution at H. B. M. gaol, 1901. Luiz Xavier 
died, 1902. 


17 


Tues. 


8 * 




Dr. Gowan died, 1902. 


18 


Wed. 


9 






19 


Thr. 


10 





Visit of the Italian Ambassador to Bangkok, 1887, 


20 


Fri. 


11 




T. Windsor died, 1902. H. M. left for Java, 1902. 


21 


Sat. 


12 






22 


Sun. 


13 




Telegraph line from Bangkok to Luang Phrabang 
begun, 1891. 




Mon. 


14 * 
Duen Si 




Spanish treaty with Siam signed, 1870. 




Tues. 


1 





Commencement of Phra Yot's trial by the Special 
Court, 1894. 


25 


Wed. 


2 




Failure of Jucker, Sigg & Co., 1891, liabilities 
$1,000,000. Siam- Japan Treaty signed, 1898. 


26 


Thr. 


3 




Treaty of Versailles, 1871. Siam Society formed, 
1904. 


27 


Fri. 


4 






28 








N. B. — ° Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday, or Wan Phra. 



MEMORANDA. 223 

FEBRUARY, 1914. (nwrnitw^mrffiiuwa*,) 

v S 1 



1 


S 




2 


M 




3 


T 




4 


W 




5 


Th 




6 


F 




7 


S 




8 


S 




9 


M 




10 


T 




11 


W 




12 


Th 




13 


F 




14 


S 




15 


S 




16 


M 




17 


T 




18 


W 




19 


Th 




20 


F 




21 


S 




• 22 


§ 




23 


M 




24 


T 




25 


W 




26 


Th 




27 


F 




28 


S 





224 



Calendar. 



MARCH, im4—(mahhomJ. 



English. 



Dates. 



Siamese 
Lunar 



Day of 

Week. Reckoning. 



Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &c. 



7 
8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 

20 
21 

22 
23 



Sun. 
Mon. 
Tues. 

Wed. 
Thr. 

Fri. 

Sat. 
Sun. 
Mon. 

Tues. 
Wed. 

Thr. 
Fri. 

Sat. 

Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri. 
Sat. 
Sun. 
Mon. 



Tues. 
Wed. 



Thr. 
Fri. 



Sat. 
Sun. 



Mon. 
Tues. 



Duen Si 

6 O 

7 
8 * 

9 
10 
11 

12 
13 
14 

15 * 
1 ) 



Duen Hah 
1 O 



| 

L Krut Thai 
Thu Nam 



Korat Railway Construction ordered by H. M., 1891. 

Late King's reign equals that of any of his ancestors, 

1896. 
Sunandalaya College opened, 1891. 

Investiture of Crown Prince at Siamese Legation, 
London, 1895. Raja of Patani deposed, 1902. 



Late King left for Batavia, 1871. Late King turned 

first turf of the Korat Railway, 1892. 
Treaty with Eagland signed, 1909. 
Decree of expulsion issued against Mr. J. J. Lillie, 

1898. 



Late King returned from Calcutta, 1872. 

Cremation of late King, 1911. 
New Road opened, 1864. 

Czarewitch (now Czar) arrived in Bangkok, 1891. 
Arrival of Mr. E. Strobel, 1904. 



Royal elephant hunt at Ayuthia, 1891. 

Czarewitch left for Saigon, with Russian fleet, 189L 
Crown Prince unveiled Victoria Memorial Statue 
1905. Treaty with France signed. 1907. 

Foreign Loan issued in London and Paris, 1905. 

Nagara Rajasima State Railway ( first Section ), 
opened by late King, 1897. 



King Chulalongkorn left for Europe, 1907. East-' 
Aeiatic Co., Ltd,, formed, 1897. 

The Duke of Genoa visited Siani, 1881. 



N. B.— Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday or Wan Phnv,. 



MEMORANDA. 
MARCH, 1914. ( winnu HUTS w. mrfn j-w i.^&\» ) 
( A Qfl i cirf nrwf *hd& ) 



225 



s 

M 
T 
W 

Th 
F 

S 

S 

M 
T 
W 

Th 
F 

S 

§ 

M 
T 
W 

Th 
F 

S 



M 
T 
W 

Th 
F 

S 

§ 

M 
T 



226 



Calendar. 



APRIL, 1914— {Mesayon). 



English. 



Dates. 



Day of 
Week. 



Siamese 

Lunar 

Reckoning. 



Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &e. 



Wed. 



Thr. 
Fri. 

Sat. 
Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri. 

Sat. 

Sun. 

Mon. 
Tues. 
Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri. 
Sat, 
Sun. 
Mon. 

Tues. 
Wed. 

Thr. 



Fri. 

Sat. 

Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thr. 



Duen Hah 
70 



12 
13 
14 
15 * 

1 ) 
2 



Duen Hok 

1 O 

2 

3 

4 

5 



f Official 
I New Year 



Songkran 



New law of Evidence in operation, 1895. Pawnshop 
regulations enforced, 11)01. 



Stung-Treng occupied by the French, 1893. 
Admiral Bush died, 1905. 
Khone occupied by French, 1893. 
Prince Prachaks born, 1856. 

Late King started on European tour, 1897. 

King of the Belgians born, 1875. 



Ong Yai died, 1900. 



General Grant arrived in Bangkok, 1879 



Late King left for Southern Provinces and Singa- 
pore, 1890. 

Treaty Great Britain-Siam signed, 1855. 
Cremation of Dr. Gowan, 1902. 

R. C. Church at Ayuthia opened, 1891. Arrival of 
first Russian Minister to Siam, 189S. 

Serious outbreak at the New Gaol : eleven prisoners 
shot, 1893. 



Portuguese Consul-General drowned, 1870. 

Loss of the Kong Lee with all hands, 1887. 
King of Hawaii visited Siam, 1881. Prince Narisara 
born, 1862. 

Borneo Co.'s new Rice Mill opened, 1901. 



N. B. — O Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday, or Wan Phra. 



MEMORANDA. 
APRIL, 1914. (iwhiiw wimrfhjTj hdw) 



227 









bdfc) 




1 


W 






2 


Th 






3 


F 






4 


S 








5 


S 








6 


M 








7 


T 








8 


W 






9 


Th 






10 


F 






11 


S 








12 


S 








13 


M 








14 


T 






15 


VV 






16 


Th 






17 


F 






18 


S 






19 


S 






20 


M 






21 


T 




* 


22 


W 






23 


Th 






24 


F 








25 


S 








26 


S 








27 


M 








28 


T 








29 


W 








30 


Th 









Calendar. 



MAY, 1 91 4~(Phrispha,khomJ . 



English. 


Siamese 
Lunar 










Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &c. 


Dates. 


Day of 
Week. 


Reckoning. 










Duen Hok 






1 


Fri 


8*0 




Siamese Embassy to London, 1879. 


2 


Sat. 


9 




Prince Devawongse left for Europe, 1887. Conflict 
between Siamese and Annamites at Khone, 1893. 


S 


Sun. 


10 






4 


Mon. 


11 






5 


Tues. 


12 






6 


Wed. 


13 


Eaak Na 


Late King left for Java, 1901 ; Crown Prince of 
Germany born, 1882. 


7 


Thr. 


14 






8 


Fri. 


15 * 




Prince Naret born, 1855. 


9 


Sat. 


1 ) 


Wisaka Bucha 


Late King left for Singapore and Java, 1896, 


10 


Sun. 


2 






11 


Mon. 


3 




Great fire in Bangkok, 1877. 


12 


Tues. 


4 






13 


Wed. 


5 






14 


Thr. 


6 


— 


Steam Ferry service inaugurated, 1888, 


15 


Fri. 


7 




King Mpngkut crowned. 1851. 


16 


Sat. 


8 * 




Arrival of M. Doumer, 1899. 


17 


Sun. 


9 




Foundation stone of the Grand Palace laid, 187ft, 
Austro-Hungarian Treaty with Siam signed, 186#, 
King of Spain born, 1886, 


18 


Mon. 


10 




Czar of Russia born, 1868, 


19 


Tues. 


11 






20 


Wed. 


12 




First issue of private bank notes in Siam, 1880, 


21 


Thr. 


13 


.!. ... .1 


Revival of the" electric light, 1894. 


22 


Fri. 


14 






23 


Sat. 


15 * 
Duen Chet 






24 


Sun. 


1 o 




Installation of electric power of Bangkok Tramline 
completed, 4984. 


25- 


Mon. 


z 






26 


Tues. 


3 





H. S. M. Yacht Vemtri stranded on Pulo Anjor and 
lost, 1890. 


27 


Wed. 


4 






28 


Thr. 


5 






29 


Fri. 


6 




IT. S. Consulate established, 1856. 


30 


Sat. 


7 




Royal Mint opened, 1876. 


£1 


Sun.. 


8 * 




Princesses Sunantra and Kranoborn drowned in the 
Menam, 1880, Terms of peace signed, South 
Africa, 1902. 

ST. B.— Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday or Wan Phra, 



MEMORANDA. 

MAY; 1914. (wi]rfmnm4wy:yiiviiirffiTHi><i&d) 

( ijtum firfnrwf sjkn«;^> ) 



229 



1 


F 






2 


S 






3 


S 




4 


M 








5 


T 








6 


w 








7 


Th 








8 


F 








9 


S 








10 


S 








11 


M 










12 


T 










13 


W 










14 


Th 










15 


F 










16 


S 










17 


S 










18 


M 










19 


T 










20 


W 










21 


Th 










22 


F 










23 


S 










24 


S 










25 


M 










26 


T 








27 


W 








28 


Th 








29 


F 








30 


S 








31 


1 











280 



Calendar. 



JUNE, 1914— {Mithunayon). 



English. 


Siamese 










Lunar 




Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &e. 


Dates. 


Day of 
Week. 


Reckoning. 










Duen Chet 






1 


Mon. 


9 





Parcel post service established in Siam, 1888. 


2 


Tues. 


10 





Fire in Sampeng, $185,000 damage, 1888. 


3 


Wed. 


11 





Late King arrived in Italy, 1897. Franco-Siamese 
fight at Kieng-Chek, six Siamese killed, 1893. 
King George V. born, 1865. 


4 


Thr. 


12 






5 


Fri. 


13 





M. Ranchot, French Charge" d' Affaires, died in 
Bangkok, 1897. Danish Constitution Day. 


6 


Sat. 


14 






7 


Sun. 


15 * 






8 


Mon. 


1 ) 





Luang Prabang sacked by the Haws, 1887. 


9 


Tues. 


2 





Omnibuses began running in Bangkok, 1881. 


10 


Wed. 


3 





First Britsh Consul arrived in Siam, 1856. 


11 


Thr. 


4 






12 


Fri. 


5 






13 


Sat. 


6 





King Chulalongkorn's reig 
Nang Klao, 1895. 


n equals that of Phra 


14 


Sun. 


7 








15 


Mon. 


8 * 








16 


Tues. 


9 








17 


Wed. 


10 





French Supplementary Coi 


lvention with Cambodia 










signed, 1881. 






18 


Thr. 


11 










19 


Fri. 


12 










20 


Sat. 


13 










21 


Sun. 


14 * 
Duen Paat 




Serious Chinese riots, 18; 
Prince Damrong born, 18 


$9; 900 
62. 


taken prisoner 


22 


Mon. 


1 










23 


Tues. 


2 










24 


Wed. 


3 




Bishop Pallegoix died, 1857. 






25 


Thr. 


4 




Phya Sri Sahadheb (now 


Maha Ad 


imat) left for 


26 


Fri. 


5 




Europe, 1902. 






27 


Sat. 


6 










28 


Sun. 












29 


Mon. 


8 * 










30 


Tues. 


9 




N. B. — O Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holidaj 


r , or Wan 


Phra. 



MEMORANDA. 
JUNE, 1914. (TinwHM mi-mrfnj'tf b^w) 



231 







(imvj iflrtnrm ^u^ ) 




1 


M 






2 


T 






3 


W 






4 


Th 






5 


F 






6 


s 






7 


S 






8 


M 






9 


T 






10 


W 






11 


Th 






12 


F 






13 


S 






14 


Ǥ 






15 


M - 






16 


T 






17 


W 






18 


Th 






19 


F 






20 


S 






21 


S 






22 


M 






23 


T 






24 


W 






25 


Tli 






26 


F 






27 


S 






28 


s 






29 


M 






30 


T 







232 



Calendar. 



J U L Y, 1 91 4—(K<*r.akadakkomJ . 



En. 


lish. 


Siamese 











Lunar 




Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &c. 


Dates. 


Day oi 
Week. 


Reckoning. 










Duen Paat 






1 


Wed. 


10 




Abolition of large number transit dues, 1898. Siam 
entered the Postal Unio:., 1885. Royal Bangkok 
Sports Club formed. 190.1. 


2 


Thr. 


11 






3 


Fri 


12 




Late King visits St. Petersburg, 1897. 


4 


Sat. 


13 






5 


Sun. 


14 






C 


Mod. 


15 * 






7 


Tues. 


1 ) 


Kao Wasah 




8 


Wed. 


2 




' 


9 


Thr. 


3 





Anglo-Siamese Treaty ratified. 1909. 


10 

11 


Sat. 


4 






12 


Sun. 


,; 






13 


Mon. 


7 





The French gunboats. Inconstant and Comete forced 
passage of Paknam forts. 1893. 


14 


Tues. 








15 


Wed. 


9 




Order of St. Andrew conferred on late King by 
the Czar. 1891. 


16 


Thr. 


10 




Late King turned first sod of Paknam Railway. 1891. 


17 


Fri. 


11 





Prince Damrong left for Europe, 1891. 


18 


Sat. 


12 






19 


Sun. 


13 






20 


Mori. 


14 




21 


Tues. 


15 * 
Pnen Kao 




French Ultimatum presented to Siam. 1893. 


22 


Wed. 


1 




Pilot Jackson drowned at the Bar. 1894. 


23 


Thr. 


•> 






24 


Fri. 


3 


i 




26 


Sat. 


4 




Siamese Embassy left for England, 1858. Muang 
Phrae sacked by Shans. 1902. 


26 


Sun. 


5 




French declared blockade of Bangkok and ports. 1893. 


27 


Mon. 


6 




War declared between China and Japan. 1894. 


28 


Tues. 


7 




29 


Wed. 


H * 


Royal grant of Protestant Cemetery. ]S">3. French 

seized Siamese steamer Asadang at Bar. Further 
blockade, from Samit Island to Chantaboon pro- 
claimed, 1893. 


30 


Thr. 


9 


Serious Chinese faction fight in Bangkok, 1887; 


31 


Fri. 


10 


Late King arrives ii3 England, 1897. 

X. B.— O Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 








1 
i 


* Siamese holiday or Wan Plira. 



MEMORANDA. 
JULY; 1914. (njnginwmsT|yiirfnjiik<i&d) 



233 



1 


W 


2 


Tli 


3 


F 


4 


S 


5 


S 


6 


M 


7 


T 


8 


W 


9 


Th 


10 


F 


11 


S 


12 


S 


13 


M 


14 


T 


15 


W 


16 


Th 


17 


F 


18 


S 


19 


S 


20 


M 


21 


T 


22 


W 


23 


Th 


24 


F 


25 


S 


26 


S 


27 


M 


28 


T 


29 


W 


30 


Th 


31 


F 



234 



Calendar. 



AUGUST, ^14.-{Si*gha,lchom). 



English. 



„ . Day of 
Dates - Week. 



Siamese 

Lunar 

Reckoning 



! Duen Kao 



Sat. ! 11 O 

Sun. 12 

Mou. | 13 

Tues. I 14 



Mon. 
Tues. 



Wed. 



Thr. 
Fri. 



22 Sat. 

23 Sun. 



Mon. 
Tues. 
Wed. 

Thr. 
Fri. 

Sat. 
Sun. 
Mon. 



1 ) 

3 

4 



Wed. 

6 Thr. 

7 i Fri. 

8 ! Sat. 

9 J Sun. 

10 j Mon, 

11 Tues. 

12 ! Wed. 



13 ! Thr. ' 8 

14 Fri. }t 

15 • Sat. 10 

16 : Sun. 11 



12 
13 

14 * 

Duen Sip 
1 O 



Chronology of Noteworthy Events. &e. 



The blockade of Bangkok and ports raised, 1898. 

King of Norway born, 1872. 
Late King visits Queen Victoria at Osborne, II 

Nakon Lam pang attacked by Shans, 1902. 
Vaccination adopted in Bangkok, 1844. 



Coronation of King Edward. 1902. 
Late King returned from Java, 1896. 



Foundation Assumption College laid, 1887, 
French treaty with Siam signed, 1856. M. Le Myre 
de Vilers, French Minister .Plenipotentiary, ar- 
rived. 1898. 



Emperor of Austria born. 1830. 

Siamese Government survey commenced, 18G7. 



Prince Swasti left for Europe. 18J3. 
H. M., then Crown Prince, entered Buddhist Priest- 
hood. 1904. 



Late King received by Kaiser at Potsdam, 18i»7. 



Emperor of Japan born. 1879. Queen of Netherlands 
boru, 1880. 

N. B. — O Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday, or Wan Phra. 



MEMORANDA. 
AUGUST^ 1914. (fovnnjj nurfcmffhjn wad ) 
(unu icrtnnif «w,d^ ) 



235 



1 


i 
S 


2 


S 


3 


M 


4 


T 


5 


! w 


G 


! Th 


7 


F 


8 


s 


9 


S 


10 


M 


11 


T 


12 


W 


13 


Tli 


14 


F 


15 


S 


16 


§ 


17 


M 


18 


T 


19 


W 


20 


Th 


21 


F 


22 


S 


23 


S 


24 


M 


25 


T 


26 


W 


27 


Th 


28 


F 


29 


S 


30 


S 


31 


M 



236 



Calendar. 



SEPTEMBER, 1914.— (Kanyayon) 



English. I Siamese 

I 

; Lunar 

„ Dav of 

Week. Reckoning. 



Chronology of Noteworthy Events. &,c. 



Tups. 
Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri 
Sat. 
Sun. 
Mon. 

Tues. 
Wed. 
Thr. 

Fri. 
Sat. 
Sun. 
Mon, 



Tues. 
Wed. 
Thr. 

Fri. 



Sat. 

Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri. 

Sat. 

Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 



Duen Sip 

13 O 
14 



1 ) 

2 
3 

4 



Duen Sip-et 

1 
2 
3 
4 



Thu Nam 



Sat Festival 



Death of Dr von Seldeneek, German Minister. 1898. 



Arracan Co."s rice mill burned, damage $400,000. 
1.900. President McKinley shot, 1901. 



Late King first visits Paris, 1897. 

Flat silver coins first issued in Siam, 1862. M. 

Klobukowski arrived, 1901. President McKinley 

died. 1901. 
St. Louis General Hospital opened, 1898. 
Electric light in Bangkok inaugurated, 1890. 
Reorganization of Post and Telegraph Department 

begun, 1904. 



Exportation of rice prohibited, 1887. 



Hooah Lampong Road opened by late King, 1896. 

Opening of new Military College by late King. 1892. 

Siamese Budget first made public, 1901. 
King of Denmark born, 1870. 



Late Kinsr left for Pitsanulok, 1901. 



N. B. — O Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday or Wan Phra. 



MEMORANDA. 

SEPTEMBER, 1914. (m™MW m ^ Sd ) 



237 



1 


T 




2 


W 




3 


Th 




4 


F 




5 


s 




• 6 


s 




7 


M 




8 


T 




9 


W 




10 


Th 




11 


F 




12 


S 




13 


S 




14 


M 




15 


T 




16 


W 




17 


Th 




18 


F 




19 


S 




20 


s 




21 


M 




22 


T 




23 


W 




24 


Th 




25 


F 




20 


S 




27 


s 




28 


M 




29 


T 




30 


W 





238 



Calendar. 



OCTOBER, lM4.-(Tulakhom). 



English. i Siamese 
Lunar 



Dates. 



Day of 
Week. 



Reckoning. 



Chronology of Noteworthy Events, ke. 







Duen Sip-et 




1 


Thr. 


13 


1 


2 


Fri. 


14 




3 


Sat. I 


15 * 


] 


4 | 


Sun. | 


1 ) 


Ok Wasah 


5 : 


Mon. 


9 




6 


Tues. 


3 




7 i 


Wed. 


4 




8 ! 


Thr. 


5 




9 


Fri. 


6 




10 


Sat, 


7 




11 


Sun. 


8 * 




12 


Mon. 


9 




13 


Tues. 


10 




14 


Wed. 


11 




15 


Thr." 


12 




16 


Fri.' 


13 




17 


Sat. 


14 * 

Duen 
Sip-song 




18 


I Sun. 


1 




19 


Mon. 


2 




20 


Tues. 


3 




21 


Wed. 


4 




22 


1 Thr. 


5 




23 


1 Fri. 


6 


Memorial Day 


24 


1 Sat. 


7 




25 


Sun. 


8 * 




26 


Mon. 


9 




27 


, Tues. 


10 




28 


Wed. 


11 




29 


Thr. 


12 




30 


Fri. 


13 




31 


Sat, 


14 





King Mongkut died. 1868. Late King visited Wind- 
sor Castle, 1897. 



Franco-Siamese Treaty and Convention signed, 1893. 
Late King left England, 1897. 
Portuguese National Day. 

Franco-Siamese Treaty signed in Paris, 1902. 

Late King visited Paris, incog., 1897. 

National Library established by Royal Decide, 1905. 

First square rigged vessel built in Siain, 1835. 
Late King issued first Proclamation, 186S. 
Korat Railway Tenders opened. 1891. 
Late King reached Pitsanulok, 1901. 



Mr. Hillier, first British Consul in Siam, died, 1856 
Late King visited Madrid, 1897. 

Prince Rabi born, 1874. 

First steam rice mill built in Siam, 1858. 

King Chulalongkorn died, 1910. 

Gas introduced into Bangkok, 1866. First rail of 

Korat Railway laid, 1892. 
Prince Waldemar, of Denmark, born, 1858. 

s. s. Menam wrecked on Krusoie Rock. 1894. 



O Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holidav, or Wan Phra. 



MEMORANDA. * 

OCTOBEB, 1914. (^mmtn^in^^) 

( inny i orfnnir «wwj^ ) 



1 


Th 




2 


F 




8 


S 




4 


S 




5 


M 




6 


T 




7 


W 




8 


Th 




9 


F 




10 


S 




11 


S 




12 


M 




13 


T 




14 


W 





Th 
F 

S 

s 

M 

T 

W 

Th 

F 

S 

S 

M 

T 
W 

Th 
F 

S 



240 



Calendar. 



NOVEMBER, 191 4-fP^tschtkayonJ . 



Eng 


lish. 


Siamese 










Lunar 




Chronology of Noteworthy Events, &c. 


Dates. 


Day of 
Week. 


Reckoning. 










Duen 










Sip-song 






1 


Sun. 


15 * 




H'kong S'hai Bank established in Siam, 1S8S. 


2 


Won. 


1 ) 






3 


Tues. 


3 






4 


Wed. 


3 






5 


Thr. 


4 






6 


Fri 


5 


! Phra Yot released, 1898. 


7 


Hat. 


6 


Prince Chira born, 1876. 


8 


Sua. 


7 


- Prince Koruatsu of Japan visits Siam, 1887. 


9 

10 


Mori. 
Tues. 


8 * 
9 


! Royal Decree for protection of Forests, 1897. 

First steamer built in Siam, 1855. 


11 


Wed. 


10 


Chatr Mongkol 


Record Reign celebrated, 1908. King of Italy born. 
1869. 


12 
13 


Thr. 
Fri. 


11 
12 




Currency Notes forged, 1903. 


14 
15 


Sat. 
Sun. 


11 


Siamese Embassy returned from London, 1879. 


If. 


Mon. 


15 * 
Duen Ai 




Late King returned from Europe, 1907. 


17 


Tues. 


1 






IS 


Wed. 


2 




Irrigation Co."s Klong Rangsit opened bv late King, 
1896. 


lit 

20 


Thr. 
Fri. 


3 
4 




Korat Railway Arbitration commenced. 1896. 


21 


Sat. 


» 






22 


Sun. 


« 




Prince Devawongse returned from Europe. 1887. 


23 
24 


Mon. 
Tues. 


S * 





Prince Damrong received by Sultan, 1891. 


25 


Wed. 


9 






26 


Thr. 


10 





Mint closed to free coinage of Silver, 1902. Arrival 










of Prince Adalbert of Prussia, 1904. 


27 


Fri. 


11 




Prince Devawongse born, 1858. 


28 


Sat. 


12 




Prince Valdemar and three of his Sons and Prince 
Hiroyasu Fushimi of Japan arrived, 1911. 


29 


Sun. 


13 





Prince and Princess William of Sweden, Grand Duke 
Boris of Russia, and Prince and Princess Alexander 


30 


Mon. 


14 




of Teck arrived, 1911. 
St. Atulrew"s Day. 

N. B. — Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday or Wan Phra. 



MEMORANDA. i 

NOVEMBER, 1914. (^mmmwmfimn^) 
( Li my i orfnrra *Jh* ) 



1 


S 




2 
3 


M 
T 




4 


W 




5 


Th 




6 


F 




7 


s 




8 


s 




9 


M 




10 


T 




11 


W 




12 


Th 




13 


F 




14 


S 




15 


S 




16 


M 




17 


T 




18 


W 




19 


Th 




20 


F 




21 


s 




22 


s 




23 


M 




24 


T 




25 


W 




26 


Th 




27 


F 




28 


S 




29 


s 




30 


M 





242 



Calendar. 



DECEMBER, -\&[4-{Tanvakhom). 



English. 



■r. Dav of 

Dates, ^veek. Reekdnin 



Siamese 
Lunar 



Chronology of Noteworthy Events, fee. 



Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri. 

Sat. 

Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thr. 

Fri. 



12 Sat. 

13 Sun. 

14 Mon. 

15 Tues. 



Wed. 
Thr. 
Fri. 



Sun. 
Mon. 

Tues. 
Wed. 
Thr. 

Fri. 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 
Wed. 
Thr. 



15 * o 



1 ) 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 * 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 * 

Duen Yee 

1 O 

2 

3 



14 

15 * 
1 ) 



Protocol for the Siamese Buffer State signed in Paris, 
1893. Prince Valdemar of Denmark and Prince 
George of Greece arrived, 1906. 

Coronation of His Majesty. 1911. 

Outbreak in the gaol, five convicts shot. 1891. 

Chief of Chiengmai died, 1897. 

H. S. M. S. Mahachakri arrived. 1892. 
Prince Putarate died, 1897. 
Arrival of Count of Turin, 1898. 

Award of Korat Railway contract, 1891. 

Expedition started for Cambodia, 1851. 



Late King returned from Europe, 1897. 
Arrival of Prince Henry of Prussia, 1899. 
Late King left for Calcutta, 1871. 



Important Ministerial reforms promulgated, 1894. 
Opening of railway to Korat, 1900. First outbreak 

of plague in Bangkok, 1904. 
Prince Svasti born, 1865. 

Mr. Tower, H. B. Minister, arrived. 1901. 

Christmas Day. 



Chao Phya Bhaskarawongse left on Mission to Tokio. 

1887. 
Arrival of Prince Valdemar of Denmark, 1899. 

Export of rice from Siam prohibited, 1864. 



N. B. — o Waxing moon. 
) Waning moon. 
* Siamese holiday, or Wan Phxa. 



MEMORANDA, 

DECEMBEB, 1914. (nowii$z%mifaiKh.£& tl i) 

(unw icirtfirn ^ke^^ ) 



24;J 



1 


T 




2 


W 




3 


Th 


- 


4 


F 


1 


5 


S 


. 


6 


S 




7 


M 




8 


T 




9 


W 




10 


Th 




11 


F 




12 


S 




13 


S 




14 


M 




15 


T 




16 


W 




17 


Th 




18 


F 




19 


S 




20 


S 




21 


M 




22 


T 




28 


w 




24 


Th 




25 


F 




26 


S 




27 


s 




'28 


M 




29 


T 




30 


W 




31 


Th ! 





Siam Import Compan 



(Incorporating Kerr & Co.) 

.Agencies 

T i i e British Grown Assurance Co rpora fcio n, I Am itecl. 
The Motor Union Insurance Cart) puny. Li mi ted. 
Napier Motor Cars. 
•Overland" Motor Oars. 
Siddeley Deasy Motor Cars. 
• A. C. " Light Car. 
•Delta'* Motor Cars. 
Austin Motor Cars. 
Lacre Commercial Cars, 
Hobart Motor Cycles. 
•• Palladium" Marine Motors. 
Aster Marine Motors. 
Boulton and Paul, Marine Engines. 
Dixon Bros, & Hutchinson, Marine Motors. 
Smart & Brown, Pumping Sets. 
\iarshall Sons & Company, Limited, Gainsborough. 
The Rattier Safe Company, Limited. 

Newton. Chambers & Company, Limited, Izal DisiulYviaiit. 
Bell's Asbestos Compan v, Lim i ted. 

• Poilite" Asbestos Slates & She* ts. 
Waring & Gillow, Limited. 
"St. Marceaux" Champagne. 
•• Mew Era" Fire Extinguishers. 
A {.in m sez 1 Sa n i tary F i tti ngs, 
So 1 i £ n u 1 7i . ' W h \ fce A 1 1 fc Destr< > ve v) . 



KERR & Co. 

Role Agents in Siam for 

John Dewar k Sons" Whisides. 

l v hc? Yorkshire Pi re A Life "insurance Company. Limit 

The National Assurance Compan v of [reland. 



Official Directory. 



245 



©ffittal fitraim 



KINGDOM. 

The Kingdom of Siam is an exten- 
sive country of South-eastern Asia, 
extending approximately from the 6th 
to the 20th degree of North latitude 
and from the 97th to the l06th degree 
r of East longitude. It contains an area 
of about 198,900 square miles. The 
length of Siam, from north to south, is 
approximately l,0z0 miles, and at the 
widest part its breadth, from east to 
west, is about 480 utiles. The coast 
line amounts to 1,300 miles. 

Siam is bound* d on the north by j 
the French Lao States and Burma ; on 
the west by lower Burma and the 
Bay of Bengal ; in the Peninsula the 
Siamese territory is bounded on the 
south by the Protected Malay States, 
and on the east by the China Sea and 
the Gulf of Siam; to the south of the 
mainland lies the Gulf of Siam ; and 
on the east the country is bounded by 
Cambodia, and the French Lao States, i 
from which it is separated by the J 
Mekong River, except in the case of J 
Luang Prabang in the North, where ! 
the new boundary between Siam and 
French territory Jies on the west side 
of the Mekong.. 

The Government is an absolute | 
Monarchy, and the succession to the 
throne is limited to the Princes of the 
blood ranking highest among the sons ' 
of the King. During the time that 
His Majesty is without male issue 
the succession passes presumptively 
through the line of Her Majesty the 
Queen Mother's Sons according to 
their respective ages. 

Flags. 
The Royal Standard is a rectangular , 
yellow Sag, in the middle of which is 
the figure of the Garada in red. 



The National flag is red, having in 
the centre the figure of a white 
elephant facing the staff. 



REEGNING KING. 

H, M. Somdech Phra Paramendra 
Maha Vajiravudh, Phra Mongkut 
Klao, King of Siam both Northern 
and Southern and all its Dependen- 
cies, Laos Chiang. Laos Kao, Malays, 
Kareans, etc., etc., etc.. born. 1st 
January 1881 : is son of King Maha 
Chulalongkorn (born 20th September 
1853, died 23rd October 1910) and 
of Queen Sowabha Pongsi (born 1st 
January 1864); proclaimed succes- 
sor and Crown Prince on January 
16th, 1895 : and succeeded to the 
throne on the 23rd October, 1910; 
Chief Sovereign and Master of the 
Order of the House of Maha Chakrkri, 
etc ; Knight of the Order of St. An- 
drew, of the Order of the Annuncia- 
tion, of the Order of the Golden 
Fleece (Spain), of the Order of the 
Elephant, of the Order of the Seraphim, 
of the Order of the Black Eagle, Grand 
Cordon of the Legion of Honour, etc. 

— ; o :-- 

princes of the royal. family 

in order of precedence. 

Uncles. 

Somdech Chao Fa Bhanurangsi $a~ 
vangvongs (Krom Phya BhanuhandJiM- 
vongs Yor<i<lrj), born 11th January, 
I860. 

Somdech Chao Fa Krom Phra 
Xarisara. Nuvattivougs, born 28th 
April, 1862. 



BARROW, BROWN & Co. 

Engineers and Merchants, Telephone No. 435. 



246 



Official Directory. 



Brothers. 

Somdech Chao Fa Paribatra Suk- 
immabandhu ( Krom Luang Nagorn 
Sawan Vorabinit ), born 29th June, 
1881. 

Somdech Chao Fa Chakrabongs 
Bhuvanardh ( Krom Luang Bisnulok 
Prajanardh ), born 3rd Marcli, 1883. 

Somdech Chao Fa Asdang Dejavudh 
( Krom Khun Nagorn Rajasima ) born 
12th May, 1889. 

Somdech Chao Fa Mahidol Aduldej 
(Krom Khun Songkhla Nagarindr), 
born 1st January, 1892. 

Somdech Chao Fa Chudadhuj Dhora- 
dilok (Krom Khun Bejrabim Indrajai), 
born 5th July, 1892. 

Somdech Chao Fa Prajadhipok Sak- 
didej (Krom Khun Sukhodai Dhamma 
Raja), bom 8th November, 1893. 

Somdech Chao Fa Yugala Dighama- 
born (Krom Khun Lobbtiri Ramesuen), 
born 17th March, 1883. 



Uncles. 



born 



Krom Phra Naresr Varariddhi 
7th May, 1855. 

Krom Luang Adisorn Udomdej, born 
14th March, 1856. 

Krom Luang Prachaks Silpagom, 
born 5th April, 1856. 

Krom 1 mang Brahma Varanuraks. 

Krom. Miin Uajasakdi Samosorn, j 
born 3rd November, 1856. 

Krom Miin Bivakom Wongs Pra- I 
vat, born 17th August, 1857. 

Krom Luang Sanbasatra Subhakich, 
bom 18th October, 1857- 

Krom Luang Sanbasrddhi Prasong, j 
born 29th December, 1857. 

Krom Phra Devawongs Varoprakar, ! 
born 27th November, 1858. 

Somdech Krom Phya Vajiranano i 
Varoros, born 12th April, 1860. 

Krom Phra Sommot Amarabandhu, ' 
born 7th September, 1860, 

Krom Miin Vividh Varnaprija, born 
11th December, 1860. 



Krom Miin Bongsa Disornmahip. 

Krom Miin Naradhip Prabandhu- 
bongs, born 20th May, 1861. 

Krom Phra Bamrong Rajanubhab, 
born 21st June, 1861. 

Krom Khun Marubongs Siribadhana, 
born 27th May, 1863. 

Krom Luang Svasdi Vatanavisit, 
born 23rd December, 1865. 



Elder Brothers. 

Krom Luang Chandaburi Narinardh 
( Kitiyakara , born" 8th June 1874. 

Krom Luang Rajaburi Direkricldhi 
( Rabi ), born 21st October, 1874. 

Krom Luang Prachin Kitibodi 
( Pravitra ), born 27th May, 1875. 

Ki-oin Luang Nagorn Jaisri Suradef 
( Chira) , born 7th November, 1876. 

Krom Miin Jumborn Khetr Udom- 
sakdi ( Abhakara ), born 12th Decem- 
ber, 1880. 

Younger Brothers. 

Krom Miin Kambaeng B&jra Agayo- 
dhin (Purachatra), born 23rd January, 
1882. 

Krom Miin Singha Vikrom Kriang 
Krai ( Vudhijai ), born 5th December. 
1883. 

Phra Ong Chao Suriyong Praywra- 
bandu, born 29th July, 1884. 

Phra Ong Chao Rang sit Prayura- 
sakdi, born 12th November, 1885. 

Wang Na Family. 

( First Cousins to late King.) 

Phra Ong Chao Toh. 
Phra Ong Chao Sanan. 

Wang Luang. 
( 1st Cousins to H. M.) 
Krom Miin Anubongs Chakrabardi. 



Phra Ong Chao Oscamudia, 
Phra Ong Chao Nibanckt I 



bo: 



igg. 



BARROW, BROWN & Co. 

Sole Agents for W. H. Allen Son & Co., Ltd., Bedford. 



Official Directory. 



247 



The following have the title of 
Highness. 

Wang Na 

( Second Cousins of H. M.) 

Phra Ong Chao Vilai Varavilat. 
Krom Miin Ghanchai Bovoryos, 
Krom Miin Kavibachana Suprija. 
Phra Ong Chao Suthasn Nibhadhara. 
Phra Ong Chao Voravudhi Abhorn 

Rajakumar. 
Phra Ong Chao Rucha Varachavi. 
Krom Miin Bidyalanharana. 

Wang Luang. 

( 1st Cousins to late King), 

Phra Ong Chao Pricla. 

Phra Ong Chao Alanghar. 

Phra Ong Chao Brom Bongs Adhiraj. 

( 2nd Cousin to H. M.) 

Krom Miin Ghinawon Sirivatn, 

( 1st Cousins to H. M.) 

Phra Ong Chao Bongkoj. 
Phra Ong Chao Charoon Sakdi 

Krisdakorn. 
Phra Ong Chao Vadhana. 

The above list does not include the 
Phra Ong Chao children of His 
Majesty's brothers. 



MINISTRY OF THE ROYAL 
HOUSEHOLD. 

( Krasuang Wang. ) 

Central Department. 

Minister — First Grand Court Officer 
Chao Ph) a Dharma Dhikarana 

Dhibadi. 

Grand Marshal of His Majesty's Court 

—Third Grand Court Officer Phya 

Bamroe Bhakdi. 



Samien Tra— First Court Officer Phra 

Akshara Somburna. 
private Secretary — Second Court 

Officer Phra Phibun Banakich. 
Comptroller of the Royal Household- 
Third Grand Court Officer Phya 

Sthira Snraprabheni. 
Palat Phra Dhamnun— Second Court 

Officer Phra Asok Montri. 
Nai Wehn Krom Banchakarn— Third 

Court Officer Mom Chao Bongsa 

Bhuvanarth. 
Director of Posts and Telegraphs in 

the Palace— First Court Officer 

Phya Anudutvadi. 

Samien Tra Branch. 

Samien Tra— First Court Officer Phra 

Akshara Somburna. 
Palat Krom— Second Court Officer Phra 

Rajadhan Dhurabinetr. 

Registration Branch. 

Chao Krom— First Court Officer Phra 
Raja Kosa. 

Comptroller's Dept. 

Comptroller of the Household— Third 
Grand Court Officer Phya Sthira 
Suraprabheni. 

Deputy— Second Court Officer Phra 
Yotsesavaraj. 

Treasury Dept. 

Chang Wang— Third Grand Court 
Officer Phya Rajai Savariyadhibodi. 

Chao Krom— First Court Officer Phya 
Sombatya Dhiban. 

Ceremonies Dept. 

Chang Wang— Third Grand Court 
Officer Phya Siddhi Jogjummmi. 

Chao Krom— First Court Officer Phya 
Prajum 1 [ongolkar. 



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Krom Bhusamala. 

Chang Wang — Third Grand Court 
Officer Phya Udaidharma. 

Chao Krom — First Court Officer Phya 
Debabhorn. 



General Service Dept. 

Chang Wang — Third Grand Court 
Officer Ph} T a Abbhantarikamatya. 

Chao Kroni — First Court Officer Phra 
Indradit. 



Krom Tamruet Wang. 

Chang Wang — Third Grand Court 
Officer Phya Sri Kridakara. 

Chao Krom — First Court Officer Cha- 
miiu Chong Bhakdi Ong Gvva. 

Eoyal Elephants Dept. 

Chang Wang — Third Grand Court 

Officer Phya Bedraja. 
Chao Krom — Second Court Officer 

Phra Raja Wangmuang. 

Krom Rong Ngan. 

Chao Krom — Second Court Officer 
Phra Vijit Jolakarn. 

— : o : — 

ROYAL ART DEPARTMENT 

(Krom Silpakorn.) 

Central Dept. 

Director General — Chao Phya Dharma 
Dhikarana Dhibadi. ! 
Asst. ,, ,, — Krom Luang San- 
prasart Suphakicha \ 
Special Asst. Dir. Gen. — Prince Suri- 

yong Prayuraphandu. 
Director — Phra. Sathiiaja Nimarnkarn. 
Secretary — Khun Pramarn Hathakam. 



Accounts. 
Accountant I hun Wi n olrasda. 

Stores. 
Store-Keeper Nai Chaam. 

Public Works Dept. 

Director — Mom Chao Anucharti Suka 
Swasdi. 
Sub-Director — Luang Smil h Lekha. 

Technical Section. 

Engineer — G L< v r i. . 
Architect — B. Manfredi. 
Sculptor — A. ToMni'elli. 

Building Section. 

Chief Inspector — Nai Onn. 
Asst. — Luang Chanini Yotha. 

do. — Luang Ohamnan Yotha. 
Overseer Khun Loha Kicha 

Wicharn. 

Royal Museum Dept. 

Director — Phra Bhadoong Sulakakri- 

tiya 

— : o : — 

ROYAL CHAMBERLAIN'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

( Krom Mahadlek ) 
Board of Control. 

Members of the Board of Control — 
2nd Grand Chamberlain Phya 

Varabongsa. 
2nd Grand Chamberlain Phya 

Burus Ratana. 
2nd Grand Chamberlain Phya 

Deb Dvaravadi 

Secretary's Division. 

Secretary to the Board of Control — 
3rd Grand Chamberlain Mom Chao 
Piyabutra (acting). 



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Comptroller's Division. 

Comptroller — 3rd Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Dhanaratnabadi. 

Household Inspection. 

Inspector of the Household — 2nd 
Grand Chamberlain Phya Vara- 

bongsa. 

Registry. 

Registrar — 3rd Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Bamrung Raja Baribar. 

Medical Bureau. 

Surgeon to the Household — Vice 
Chamberlain Phra Dibachakshu 
(Licenciate of Royal Medical Col- 
lege of Siam). 

Royal Bed Chamber Division. 

Principal Gentleman of the Bed Cham- 
ber — 3rd Grand Chamberlain Phya 
Prasiddhi Subhakar. 

Senior Gentlemen of the Bed Chamber 
— Deputy Grand Chamberlain Chao 
Miin Sarabedh Bhakdi. 
— Chamberlain Luang Sakdi. 
— Chamberlain Luang Riddhi. 

Stewards Division. 

Chief Steward — 3rd Grand Chamber- 
lain Phya Varasiddhi Sevivatra. 

Deputy Chief Stewards — Deputy 
Grand Chamberlains Chao Miin Vai 
Varanarth, Chao Miin Sri Sararaksh 
and Chao Miin Samoe Chai Raj. 

Royal Buttery and Kitchen. 

Chief Butler and Superintendent of the 
Royal Kitchen — 3rd Grand Cham- 
berlain Phya Prasoeth Subhakich. 

Asst. to the Chief Butler — Vice Cham- 
berlain Phra Banja Bhatrakar. 



Buttery. 

Deputy Butlers — Chamberlain Luang 

Dej. 
— Chamberlain Chamiin 

Maha.llek. 



Royal Kitchen. 

Asst. Supt. — Vice Chamberlain Phra 
Banhar Bhatrakar 

Equerries Division. 

Principal Equerry — (vacant) . 

Equerries in ordinary — Senior Pages 
Nai Sobhon Asdara, Nai Sund;ira 
Manomava. and Nai Vijaya Durong 
Riddhi 

Ceremonial Division. 

Director — 3rd Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Narariddhi Rajahaj 

Arts Division. 

Director — 3rd Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Anusasana Chitrakara. 

The Major Domo's Dept. 
(Kroin Chau Tin). 

Mayor of the Palace — 2nd Grand 
Chamberlain Phya Burns Ratana 

Director — 3rd Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Bibidh. 

Royal Pleasaunce Dept. 
( Krom Suan Luang. ) 
Director — Deputy Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Briksha Bhirom. 

Palace Works Dept. 

Chief Commissioner of Palace Works — 
3rd Grand Chamberlain Phya Visu- 
kam Slipa Prasiddhi. 

General Assistant — Chamberlain Phra 
Baisal Navakara. 



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Entertainments Dept. 

(Krom Mahorasob.) 

Director — 3rd Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Visukam. 

Theatrical Division. 

The King's Master of Drama & Dance 

— Vice Chamberlain Phra Rabam 

Bhasa. 

— Vice Chamberlain Phra Nataka, 

Nuraksha 

— Vice Chamberlain Phra Bamnak 

Nachanikarana. 



Musical Division. 

The King's Master of Music — Vice 
Chamberlain Phra Prasan Durya 
Sabdi. 



Department of the Master of the 

Horse. 

(Krom Phra Asvaraj). 

Master of the Horse — 3rd Grand Cham- 
berlain Phya Asvabadi. 
Deputy Master of the Horse — 3rd 
Grand Chamberlain Phya Sri Suri- 
yabaha. 
Veterinary Surgeon — G. G. Tubateau 

Herrick. 
Riding Master — G. Harry. 

Motor Vehicles Department. 
(Krom Yan Yont). 

Director — Deputy Grand Chamberlain 
Phya Busya Roth Badi. 

Royal Pages School. 

(Rong Rian Mahadlek Luang). 

Under the Patronage of H. M. The 

King. 



Governors — 

<2nd Grand Chamberlain Phya 
Varabongsa. 
2nd Grand Chamberlain Phya 
Burus Ratana. 
2nd Grand Chamberlain Phya 
Deb Dvaravadi. 
3rd Grand Councillor and Hon- 
orary Deputy Grand Cham- 
berlain Phya Baisal Silpa- 
satra. 
3rd Grand Chamberlain Phya 
Prasiddhi Subhakara. 
3rd Grand Chamberlain Phya 
Buri Navarasth. 
Headmaster — Chamberlain Phra Ab- 
hiraksha Raja Riddhi. 
Deputy Headmaster for School works 
— Vice Chamberlain Luang Abhibal 
Burima Sakdi. 
Chief Inspector of Building, &c. — Vice 
Chamberlain Phra Bidaksha Manob. 
Court Etiquette Master — Chamberlain 
Phya Barihar Raja Manob. 
Science Master — Vice Chamberlain 

Luang Raja Darun Raksha. 
English Master — Honorary Senior 
Page C. A. Seymour Sewell, M.A. 
(late Scholar of St. Catherine's 

College, Cambridge). 
— : o : — 
H. M.'s PRIVY PURSE DEPARTMENT. 
( Krom ■ Phra Klang Kangti ). 

Central Office. 

Director-General — Phya Subhakorn 

Banasarn. 
Secretary — Luang Rajasab Bisit. 
Interpreter — Khun Indr Tlianakom. 
Legal Adviser — Samuel Brighouse 

( Messrs. Tilleke and Gibbins). 

Correspondence. 
Correspondent and Comptroller of Re- 
venue — Phra Siddhi Thunaraks. 
Asst. Correspondent — Khun Anukarn 
Rajathabadh. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Foo. 



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251 



Revenue. 

Superintendent — Luang Bibadhna 

Dhonakitch. 
Asst. Superintendent — Khun Prom 

Thanathorn. 
— Nai Paa. 
— Nai Omen. 
District Superintendent — Nai Poa. 

— Nai Tasana. 
— Nai Chom. 
Overseer of Environs of Dusit Park — 
Phra Rajanuchit. 



Building Office. 

CI lief Inspector— Phra Prakob 

Rajavitra. 
Draftsman — Khun Thep Thanakorn. 
Inspectors— Nai Chuey. 

— Nai Thong Yoo. 
Architect — F. Montalenti. 



Accountant's Office.. 

Accountant General — Phra Sakdi 

Th on a. raj. 
Asst. Accountant — Luang Prakitch 

Angkanee. 
— Luang Bibidb 

Dhonasar. 
—Khun Pises 

Hirankanchana. 
Sub- Accountant — Khun Rajathon 

Bhibal. 
Chief Clerk — Khun Charern. 
— Nai Chun. 



Civil List. 

Asst. Accountant — Luang Pisarn 

Hiraukitch, 
Sub- Accountant — Khun Anukoni 

Rajathaparn. 
Chief Clerk — Nai Son. 



Treasury. 
Treasurer — Phra Boribun Raja 

Sombat. 
Cashier — Luang Rajavitra Bhisonha. 
Asst. Cashier — Khun Thipya Thaua- 

sepka. 

Ceremonial Officials. 

Officer — Luang Pramuen Masok. 
Asst. Officer — Khun Raks Rajahiran. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Mon. 



H. M.'S PRIVATE SECRETARY'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

H.R.H. Prince Krom Phra Sommot 
Amarabandhu, Minister Adviser. 

H.R.H; Prince Pravitra of Prachin, 
H.M.'s Private Secretary. 

Phya Sri Sundara Vohar, H. M.'s 
Assistant Private Secretary. 

Phya Chakrapani Sri-silvisuddh, H. 
M 's Legal Secretary. 

Phya Buri Navarasth, H.M.'s Private 
Secretary (Foreign Department). 

Phya Rajasasna Sobhon, H. M.'s Per- 
sonal Secretary. 

Mom Chao Darun Vayavadhana. 
Mom Chao Anukul Prabaddh. 
Phya Nararaj Chamnong. 
Phya Sri Raj-Akshara. 
Phra Suvarna Akshara. 
Phra Prasiddhi Varnalakshana 
Luang Bicharua Rajahattli. 
Luang Bibadhna Varnakich. 
Luang Bibidh Varnakar. 
Luang Bicliitra Rajasasna 
Luang Likliit Prlcha. 
Luang Mahasiddhi Vohar. 
Khun Prachaksh Aksharaniti. 
Khun Prachitra Aksharanai 
Khun Vidyanuvatikar. 
Khun Sarabarna Barihar 
Khun Sarabanchong 
Khun Narumitra Akshara. 
Khun Chamnong Sundara. 
Khun Dibkravi 



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KING PHRA MONGKUT KLAO'S 
ROYAL PALACE GUARDS. 

( Taharn Raksa Wang. ) 

Commanding Officer — Colonel Phya 

Surara j R i d 1 1 anoi i rl . 
Adjutant — Major Chamtim Surabol 

Ballobh. 
Intendant— Capt. Luang Gamrob 

Barnasiddhi. 
Orderly Oficer — Lieut. Luang Deb 

Boribal. 

Medical Branch. 

Director — Capt. Luang Bijitr 

Rogabadh. 
Assts. — Ag. Lieut. Liien. 
— Lieut. Chaeng. 

First Regiment. 

Commander — Capt. Chamttn Sasdi 

Songgram. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Dhi. 
Commanding 1st Company — Capt. 

Nai Krai Bolasaen. 
Commanding 2nd Company Lieut. 

Nai Salya Kamdhorn. 
In charge of the Fire Brigade of the 

Grand Palace — Lieut. Savasdi. 



Second Regiment. 
(Dusit Park Palace). 

Commanding Officer — Major Cham tin 

Riddhi Ronachakr. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Nuem Nava- 

majodhin. 
Intendant — Lieut. Nai Sondanong. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Chaeng Jushana- 

yodhin. 
Commanding 3rd Company — Capt. Nai 

Kwaen Boulalan. 
Commanding 4th Company — Capt. Nai 

Klan Rongkran. 
In charge of Fire Brigade — Lieut. Boh 

Bohdhiyodhin. 



THE SIAMESE ORDERS. 

1. The Most Illustrious Order ot the 

House of Maha Chakrkri, 
founded 21st April 1882, ex- 
tended in 1889, 1893, 1895 
and 1896 by Statutes, con- 
taining one Class only, con- 
ferred on Princes and Prin- 
cesses, and may be conferred 
on foreign Sovereigns, Prin- 
ces and Princesses as honorary 
members. 

2. The Most Ancient Order of the 

Nine Gems, a religious Order 
conferred upon Buddhists only, 
founded in 1851, extended in 
1869, 1873, 1889, 1893 and 
1913 by Statutes. 

3. The Most Noble Order of Chula 

Chomklao, the star contain- 
ing His late Majesty's Style 
"Ch. Ch. Ch." and the Badge 
containing His late Majesty's 
effigy, conferred upon Siamese 
noble families and may be con- 
ferred upon foreign Princes 
and Princesses and Nobilities 
as honorary members. Found- 
ed 16th November, 1873, 
extended in 1886, 1889. 1891. 
1893, 1894 and 1900 by 
Statutes, 3 Classes. (The 
Most Noble Lady Order con- 
tains 4 Classes). 

4. The Most Exalted Order of the 

White Elephant, founded in 
1861, extended in 3 869, 1873. 
1889, 1893, 1902 and 1909 
by Statutes, containing 8 
Classes. The Highest Class 
is termed " Chan Sung Sut," 
and the others are numbered 
1 to 7. The 6th and 7th 
Classes are gilt and silver 
Medals respectively. 



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253 



5. The Most Honorable Order of the 

Crown of Siam, founded in 
1869, extended in 1873, 1889, 
1898, 1902 and 1909 by 
Statutes, containing 7 Classes. 
The sixth and seventh Classes 
are gilt and silver Medals 
respectively. 

6. The Order of Ratna Vorabhorn, 

founded in the present reign, 
containing one class. 

7. The Order of Vajiramala, founded 

in the present reign, contain- 
ing one class. 

Medals. 

1. The Ratanabhorn Medal ( old 

style ) founded 1 869, (Modern) 
founded 1901, (present reign) 
founded 1911, containing five 

Classes. 

2. The Chakra Mala Medal, Silver, 

founded 1873. 

3. The Dusdi Mala Medals, gilt and 

silver, founded 1882. 

4. The Chakrabarti Maha Medals, 

gilt and silver, founded 1895. 

5. The Raj Ruchi Medals, gilt and 

silver, founded in present reign. 

There are several other Medals 
besides, but these are the most im- 
portant. 



THE HOUSEHOLD OF HER 

MAJESTY THE QUEEN 

MOTHER. 

Ladies of the Household. 

Mistress of the Robes — Thao Vanida 
Bicharini. 



Ladies of the Bedchamber 

— Thao Nari Vora Ganaraks. 
— Thao Bidaks Anong Nikor. 



Household Department. 

Master of the Household 

— Phya Dharma-Charya- 

nukul Montri. 
Gentlemen-in-AVaiting 

— Chamiin Siri Vang Ratna. 
— Chamiiu Svasti Vang Raj. 
Grooms-in-Waittng — Nai Nivas 

Visesh. 
— Nai Nives Visisht. 



Chamberlain's Department. 

Lord Chamberlain — Phya Raja Montri. 
V.ce-Uhumberlains — Chamtin Manob 
Narisra. 
— Chamiin Manit Naresra. 
Chamberlains — Luang Sevok Vajri. 

— Luang Sevi Vajrindra. 



Dept. of Master of the Horse. 

Master of the Horse — Luang Raja 

Rothbodi. 
Asst. Masters — Luang Bariraks Ratha 

Yan. 
— Luang Barihar Haya Raj. 



Private Secretary's Department. 
Private Secretary — Mom Chow Dhani 
Nivatra. 
Asst. Private Secretaries 

Khun Prachong Sa?nasnong. 
Khun Chamlon£ Aksharasamai. 



Comptrollers Department. 
Comptroller of the Househld — Phra 

Bariburna Raja Sombati. 
Asst. Comptrollers — 

Luang BiVadhna Dhanakich. 
Luoner Bibidh Dhansar. 



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MINISTRY. 


Local Government and Police. 


( Senabodi. ) 


Chao Phya Yomaraj. 


An Edict dated April 1st, 1892, 




instituted a Council of Ministers of 


Communications. 


equal rank among themselves. The 


Chao Phya Wongsa Nuprabadh. 


Offices are distributed as follows ; — 








Public Instruction. 


Privy Seal. 


Chao Phya Phra Sadech Surendradhi- 


Prince Krom Phra Naresr Varariddhi. 


bodi. 





Agriculture. 


Foreign Affairs. 






Prince Krom Luang Rajaburi. 


Prince Krom Phra Devawongse 




Vaioprakar. 


— :o:— 





MINISTRY OF PRIVY SEAL. 


War. 


( Krasuang Muradhadhorn. ) 


Chancellor — H.R.H. Prince Krom Phra 


Prince Krom Luang Nagorn Jaisri 


Naresr Varariddhi. 


( Field Marshal.; 


Private Secretary — Luang Adhorn 




Patidhaddhi. 




Under Secretary — Phya Bhibhid 


Marine. 


Montri (acting). 


Prince Somdet Chao Fa Krom Luang 


Secretary — Phra Seni Bhidhaks. 


Nagorn Sawan ( Admiral. ) 







ROYAL SCRIBES DEPT. 




t Krom Phra Alaks. ) 


Interior. 


Director — Phya Sri ^undhor Vohar. 


Prince Krom Phra Damrong 




Kajanubhab. 


Commission Office. 




( Wehn Sanyabatr. ) 


Finance. 


Deputy Director— Phra Sundhorn 


Prince Krom Luang Chandaburi. 


Likit. 




Asst. ,, — Luang Chamnong 


• 


Narison. 


Royal Household. 


As isfant — Nai Sameang. 


Chao Phya Dharma Dhikarana, 





• Dhibadi. 


Insignia Office. 





( Wehn Isariyabhorn. ) 


Justice. 


Deputy Director — Khun Boriraks 




Krisdikar. 


Chao Phya Abhai Raja. 


Assistant ,, — Nai Oru. 



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Legislation & Registration Office. 
( Wehn Krisadikar le Tabien. ) 

Archivist & Registrar — Khun 

Kachitrsarakam. 

Assistant — Nai Bharana. 

Royal Gazette Office. 
( Kong Satrakhom. ) 
.Deputy Director — Phra Prakat 

Aksornkitch. 
Assistant — Luang Sabhakhan 

Bhidhaks 

Accounts Office. 

( Krom Banchie. ) 
Director — Phya Bhibhid Montri, 
Asst. — Nai Chim (Gajaseni). 

MINISTRY OF WAR. 

Minister— Field Marshal H. R. H. 
Prince of Nagornjaisri. 
Asst. Minister — General Chao Phya 

Bodindradeja. 
Chief Orderly Officer — -Major Luang 
Siddhisamdengron. 
Orderly Officer — Capt. Luang Bhol- 

khansakrathuj. 
„ ,, —Capt. Suk. 



ADJUTANT GENERAL'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

Under Secretary and Adjutant Gen- 
eral—Lieut. Gen. Phya Sriharajde- 
jojai. 

Orderly Officer — Capt. Sukh. 

Administration Division. 
Director of Administration Division — 

Lieut. Col. Luang Vijitsarabhol. 
Bureau 1 — Oa.pt. Khun Songaksprn, 
2— (Vacant). 
„ 3 — Capt. Mom Chao Bhandhu- 
gam. 
4— Capt. Dhien. 



Recruiting Division. 

Director of recruiting division— Lieut. 

Col. Bhra Srisurendfadhibodi. 
Asst, — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Capt. Prayul. 
Bureau 1 — Lieut. Shak. 

,, 2 — Capt. Luang R.'iksbholsidh. 
„ 3— (Vacant). 

Recruiting Districts. 

Krungdhebh Recruiting circle — 

Major Luang Rajkhanboriraks. 
Nagorn-Jaisri Recruiting circle — 

Major Luang Rajnararaks. 
Krung-Kao Recruiting circle- 
Major Luang Bhibhidnarong. 
Rajburi Recruiting circle- 
Major Luang Bhibhidsena. 
Nagorn Rajsima Recruiting circle — 

Capt. Luang Prajajedhakich. 
Nagorn-Sawan Recruiting circle — 

Major Luang Pramanbholnikorn. 
Bhisnulok Recruiting circle— 

Capt. Luang Bhidhaknarin. 
Jieng-Mai Recruiting circle — (vacant) 
Prachim Recruiting circle — 

Lieut. -Col. Bhra Senanggavicharn. 
Ubolrajdhani Recruiting circle — ■ 

Capt. Luang Bhakdijumbho). 
Roi-Et Recruiting circle — 

Capt, Luang Raksabarnasan. 
Udon Recruiting circle — 

Major Luang Smagsmanbhol. 
Chandhaburi Recruiting circle — 

Capt. Luang Samdengriddha. 

PAY MASTER GENERAL 
DEPARTMENT. 

Pay Master General — 

Colonel Phya Vijitnarong. 
Asst, — Major. Luang Prasidhsombat. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Leng. 
Bureau 1 — 

Major Luang Rdnnabhanbhidhak. 
Bureau 2 — Luang Dhebharajsenya'. 
Bureau 3 — 

Major Luang Ronnabharnbhirnicn. 



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OjjJc ia I D i rector 1/ . 



JUDGE ADVOCATE'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

Judge Advocate — ■ 

Col. Phya Dhebhadhibodi. 
Asst. — Ool. Bhra Vijitmontri. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Bhu. 
Bureau 1 — Opt. Luang Sriadhavicharir 
„ 2— (Vacant). 

CENTRAL M5LITARY COURT. 

President — Major-Gen. Phya Samo- 
sornsarnbhaka rn . 
Member — Col. Bhra Vijitmontri. 

„ — Lieut-Col. Bhra Bhinichsara. 
„ — Capt. Mom Chao Bhongs- 

dhindheb, 

MILITARY POLICE. 

Commandant for Bangkok and Chief 
of Military Police — Major-Gen. Phya 
Kiddhikrai Kriengharn - 

Superintendent of the city district — 
Major Luang Aksarakich. 

Superintendent of the Northern Dis- 
trict — Major Luang Bhijitbhairin. 

Superintendent of the Southern Dis- 
trict — Major Luang Ramdeja. 

GENERAL STAFF DEPARTMENT. 

Chief of General Staff— Gen. H. R. H. 
The Prince of Bhisnulok. 
; Sarajan- 
bholkrai. 

Intendant— Lieut. -Coh Luang Hiran- 
yuddhakich. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Phua. 

Strategical Division. 

Director of Strategical Division — 

Lieut.-Col. Bhra Yuddhakichbanharn. 
Assistant — Capt. Luang Yuddhakarn. 
( )rclerly Officer — (vacant). 
Bureau 1 — Capt. Phan (act). 

„ 2 — Capt. Mom Chao Bhongs- 
dhindhebh. 
Railway Section- -Capt. Luang 

Yuddhakarn (act.) ; 



Military Instruction Division. 
bor of Military Instruction — Col. 
Bhra Haddhasarn. 
' >rd i y Officer-^-Lieut. Ten. 



War School. 

Commanding Officer — Lieut. -Col. 

Luang Jitsarakam, 
Head-Master — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Pradh esswamibhak. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Term. 
Intendant — Lieut. Yen. 

Cadet. School. 

Commanding Officer — Col. Bhra 

Haddhasarn. 
Head-Master — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

VisessiTpasatr, 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Was. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Parn. 
S urgeon — -Lieut . Sook . 

Topographical Survey Division. 
(See also later under heading, Royal 

Survey Dept). 
Director of Topographical Survey — 

Col. Bhra Vibhakbhuvadol. 
Deputy Director — A. J.. Irwin. 
Interpreter — A. E. de Campos. 

1. Asst. Deputy Director's Branch. 

Asst. Deputy Director— 

Bhra Sakolkichpramuan.. 
Correspondence Section — 

Luang Prajumbarnnasarn. 
Transport Section — 

Khun Chariradhaakhet- 

2, Accountant's Branch - 

Accountant — A. E. de Campos. 
Intendant Section — Khun Siddhikorn. 
Keverme Section — 

Khun Prasarnsisa-ad. 
Materials Store Section— 

Khun Bhasdupradis .. 



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Official Directory. 



257 



3. Field Staff. 

Chief of Field Staff— Lieut.-CcL 

Luang Ridhireungron. 
Triangiilation Section— S. Masterman. 
Cadestral Detail Section — 

K. G. Gairdner. 

4. Instruction and Map-Making 

Branch. 

Chief of Instruction & Map-Making — 

Luang Pramansdholmarg. 
Map Drawing Section — 

Luang Likhitshmalak. 
Map Printing Section — 

Luang Saranbhanaran. 
Map Keeping & Distribution Section 

— Khun Prasarnsisa-ad (act). 
Instx-uction Section — 

Luang Pramansdholmarg. 

Military Attache. 

Military Attache to Legations in 
France, England, Russia, & Italy — 
Capt. Mom Ohao Amoradhat. 



GENERAL INSPECTION OF H. M.'S 
LAND FORCES. 

Inspector General of H. M.'s Land 
Forces— Field-Marshal H. R. H. 
Prince Bhanubhandhuwongs-Vara- 
dej. 

Inspection Departments. 

Inspector Genei'al of Infantry — Maj.- 
Gen. Phya SakdaWiidejworaridh. 

Asst. — Lieut.-Col. Bhra Songsuradej. 
,, — Major Luang Abhibal. 

Inspector General of Artillery — Lieut- 
Gen. Mom Bhao Bovaradej (act). 

Asst. — Lieut-Col. Luang Yod-awudh. 

Inspector General of Cavalry — Maj- 
Gen. Phya Sakdabhidejworaridh. 

Asst. — 

Lieut-Col. Luang Archronarong. 

Director of Horse Breeding — 

Col. Bhra Bhaholharnsoek. 



Veterinary Surgeon— Maj. W. Sprater. 

Inspector General of Engineers — Lieut- 
Gen. H. R. H. The Prince of Khani- 
bhengbhech. 

Asst.— Lieut-Col. Bhra Sarabhai. 

Inspector General of Materials — Col. 
Phya Surinrajseni. 

A ss t. — Col. Bhra Vijitmontri. 

Asst. — Lieut-Col. Bhra Bhinichsara. 

INTENDANT GENERAL'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

Intendant General — 

Maj-Gen. Phya Srisararajbhakdi. 
Asst. — 

Lieut-Col Bhra Pramuanpramanbhol. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Sai. 
Intendant — 

Maj. Luang Bhisalsenamart. 

Accoutrement Division. 

Director of Accoutrement — Lieut-Col. 

Luang Vicharn-rajarak. 
Orderly Officer — 

Luang Abhaibhidhaks. 
Bureau 1 — Capt. Luang Dhebhseni. 

2 — Capt. Luang Nikornbhakdi. 

„ 3- 

Capt. Khun Bhajanabarnchong. 

Military Equipment Division. 
Director of Military Equipment — 

Lieut-Col. Bhra Riddhichak. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut Bhun. 
Bureau 1 — Lieut. Bun. 
„ 2— 

Lieut Luang Bamrungyudh. 
„ 3 — (vacant). 

Miscellaneous Stores Division. 
Director of Miscellaneous Stores — 

Lieut.-Col. Bhra Sarabhanvisudh. 

Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Sorn. 

Bureau 1— Capt. Khun Bholyudh- 

sakadhat. 

„ 2— Capt. Luang Narairidha. 

3— Sub-Lieut. Mom Luang 

Bhloy ( act ). 



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QUARTER-MASTER GENE-riAL'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

Quarter-Master General— Maj .-Gen. 

Phya Samosornsarnbhakarn. 
Asst. — Col. Bhra Narendraksa. 
Orderly Officer— Lieut. Yoean. 
Intend ant — Lieut. Thieng. 

Barrack Construction Division. 

Director of Barrack Construction — 
Maj. -Gen. Phya Samosornsarnbha- 
karn ( act ). 
Asst,— Capt. Bhloy. 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Glam. 
Bureau 1— Sub-Lieut. Dhoh. (act). 
„ 2 — ( vacant ). 
„ 3— Maj. Luang Asabhudhorn. 

Supply Division. 

Director of Supply — Lieut.-Col. Luang 
Petchakamheng. 
Orderly Officer — Bhan Bhromsakdhi. 
Intendant — Maj. Luang Anukarn- 

radhakitch. 
Bureau 1 — Capt. Khun Salaisatrusoon. 
„ 2— Capt. Luang Visutrseni. 



Transport Division. 

Director of Transport — Lieut.-Col. 

Bhra Reungridhsongkram. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant). 
Intendant — Capt. Pen, 
Bureau 1 — Sub- Lieut. Sut Chai. 

,, 2 — Capt. Luang lndharodom. 



ARMY MEDICAL SERVICE 
DEPARTMENT. 

Surgeon General — Col. Phya Dam- 
rongbheddhayagun. 
Adviser — Dr. Schaefer. 
Asst. to Siamese Medical Branch — 

Lieut.-Col. Mom Chao Karmasidh. 
Intendant — Capt. Mann. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Khun 

Veiakichkosol. 



ARTILLERY DEPARTMENT. 

Director General — Maj. Gen. Mom 
Chao Sessiri. 
Asst. — Col. Phya Narinrajseni. 
Adviser— Col. C. A. C. Oiterstrom. 
Adjutant— Maj. Kert. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Swadh. 
Intendant — Capt. Khun Loha-a-Wudh. 



ARSENAL. 

Director of Arsenal — Maj. -Gen. Mom 
Chao Sessiri (act). 
Asst. — Capt. Luang Arch-a-Wudh. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant). 
Intendant— Capt. Prem. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Kim Soon. 
Bureau 1 Capt. Chu. 

„ 2 — (vacant). 

„ 3 — Major Luang Ridh-akane. 



ORDNANCE STORES. 

Director — Col. Bhra Rajarkniraks. 
Adjutant — Bhra Sornsamdeng. 
Intendant — Mom Rajwong Joea (act). 
Bureau 1 — Chameun Kongsorn. 

„ 2 — Khun Abhornbholyudh. 

„ 3 — (vacant). 



ELEPHANT SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

Director General — Maj. -Gen. H. R. H. 

Prince Adisorn Udomdej. 
Asst. — Bhra Kambneng-rambhakdi. 
Orderly Officer — Capt. Luang Sinard- 

yodharaks. 



AIDES-DE-CAMP OF H. M. THE KING. 

Chief Aide-de-Camp General — 

Lieut.-Gen. Phya Surasena. 
Asst. —Maj. -Gen. Phya Prasidhsal- 
karn. 



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Aide-de-Camp General— Field Marshal 
H. R. H. Prince Bhanubhan- 
dhuwongsvoradej, 
—Field Marshal H. R. H 
The Prince of* Nagorn Jaisri. 
—General H. R. H. The 
Prince of Bhisnulok. 
— General Chao Phya 

Bodindradeja. 

—Lieut.-Gen. H. R. H. Prince 

Narisaran uwatti wongs. 

—Lieut.-Gen. H. R. H. Prince 

Damrong Rajanubhabh. 

—Lieut.-Gen. H. R. H. The 

Prince of Kambheng-bhech. 

— Lieut.-Gen. Chao Phya 

Surasakmontri. 
— Lieut.-Gen. Mom Chao 

Bovaradej. 
— Lieut.-Gen. Phya 

Sriharajdejojai. 

—Maj.-Gen. H. R. H. The 

Prince of Nagorn-Sawan. 

—Maj.-Gen H. R. H. Prince 

Adisorn Udomdej. 

—Maj.-Gen. H. R. H. Prince 

Sarnbhasidhprasong. 

—Maj.-Gen. H. R. H. Prince 

Marubhong-siribhad. 

—Maj.-Gen. Phya Ridh- 

dhirong-ronshet. 
— Maj.-Gen. Phya" 

Anujitjarnjai. 
— Maj.-Gen. Phya 

Rajwalbhanusidh. 
—Maj.-Gen. Phya Sakdabhi- 
dej 
— Maj.-Gen. Mom Chao 

Sessiri. 
— Maj.-Gen. Mom Chao 

Alongkot. 
— Maj.-Gen. Phya Kamheng. 
— Maj.-Gen. Phya Samosorn- 
sarnbhakarn. 
— Maj.-Gen. 



— Maj.-Gen. 
— Maj.-Gen. 



Phya Ridhikrai 

Kriengharn. 

Phya Senabhi- 

mook. 

Phya Bhibhitdej. 



Aide-de-Camp— Col. H.R.H. Prince 

Sarnbhasart. 

„ — Col. Phya Bhijaijarnridh. 
„ — Col. Phya Surarajridhanon. 
,, — Col. Bhra Narenhdr-raksa. 
„ — Col. Bhra Vijitjaisakdavudh. 
„ — Col. Bhra Sarajatyodhi. 
„ — Col. Bhra Bhaholharnsoek. 
,, — Col. Bhra Hadthasarn. 
,, — Col. Bhra Sarajitbholkarn. 
„ —Col, Bhra Songbholbhab. 
„ —Col. Bhra Kridhabholdhi- 
bodi. 
,, — Col. Mom Chao Dhossiri- 

wongs. 
„ — Col. Bhra Vibhakbhuvadol. 
,, — Lieut.-Col. Mom Chao 

Mon gk o 1 pra wad h . 
„ - Lieut.-Col. Bhra Suraronjit. 
„ —Lieut.-Col. Bhra Suradej- 

ronajit. 
„ — Lieut.-Col. Bhra Dhakol- 

sorasilp. 
,, — Lieut.-Col. Bhra Song- 

suradej. 

,, — Lieut.-Col. Bhra 

iSrinarong Vijai. 

„ — Lieut.-Col. Bhra Surayudh- 

vodha. 

„ —Lieut.-Col. Bhra Yiuldha- 

kichbanharn. 

,. — Lieut.-Col. Bhra Ranrona- 

riraj. 

,, — Lieut.-Col. Bhra Akanesorn. 

„ — Lieut.-Col. Luang Vicharn- 

rajaralvs. 

,, — Lieut.-Col. Phya Dharm- 

charya. 

„ — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Sarakichbhisal. 
,, — 'Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Yodawudh. 
, f — Lieut.-Col. Luang Bamras- 
arinbhai. 
,, — Lieut.-Col. Mom Chao 

Bhandhuprawadh. 
., — Lieut.-Col. Ohamoen 

Hhallublialadhikarn. 



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Aide-de-Camp — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Bhin-Amitbhai. 
„ — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Sarajarnbholkrai. 
.. — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Bhiddhayudh. 
,, — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Jitsarakarn. 
„ — Major Luang 

Abhibalbhuvanarth. 
„ —Major H. R. H. The Prince 
of Nagorn Rajsima. 
,, — Major Chamoen 

Surabbolbhallop. | 
,, — Major Luang 

Awudhsikigorn. ; 
„ — Major Luang 

Salyudhvidhikal. 
„ — Major Luang Kraidhebh. 
„ — Major Luang 

Bhalabhirakseni. 
„ — Major Luang Ruabrat. 
„ — Major Luang Sarakarnbanja. 
,, — Major Luang Jaideja. 
„ —Major Luang Archsorasilp. ; 
., — Major Luang 

Naroebalboriraks. ! 
,, — Major Luang 

Ohaturongwijai. 
,, — Major Luang Ratronayudh. 
,, — Major Luang 

Pli ad e tson gk ram . 
„ — Major Luang Yodhaboribal 
j, — Major Luang 

Sorasidhyanukarn 
,. — Capt. Mom Chao 

Bhongsdhindhebh 
„ — Capt. Prince Oscarnudhis. 
„ — Capt. Mom Chao Shafr 

Mongkol. 
,, — Capt. Mom Chao 

Amoradhat. 
,. — Capt, Nai Sorakarn'riddhi- 
ron . 
,. — Capt. Luang Rambhijai. 
„ — Capt. Luang 

Bholkansakradhui 



Aide-de-Camp — Capt. Mom Chao 

Thong Thicayu. 
„ — Capt. Nai Quan Bhollarn. 

1ST. ARMY CORPS. 

Army Corps Commander — Major-Gen. 
Phya Senabhimuk. 
Chief of Staff— Lieut.-Col. Bhra 

Ramnarong. 
Orderly Officer — Capt. Mann. 
Intendant — Col. Bhra 

Thagolyuddhakos. 

The 1st Army Corps consists of 
Array Troops anal the 1st, 2nd, 3rd 
and J+th Divisions, viz : 

ARMY TROOPS. 

Engineer Regiment of the 

1st Army Corps. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Wisissarasal. 
Adjutant — ( vacant ) 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Muy. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut, Phan. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut, Bhien. 

Train des Equipages of the 
1st Army Corps. 

Commanding Officer — Lieut -Col. 

Luang Arinjatsangharn. 
Ad j utant — Capt . Luang 

Charoonroengridh. 
Orderly Officer — ( vacant ) 
Intendant — Capt. Jey. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Joy. 

Disciplinary Battalion. 

Battalion Commander — Col. Bhra 

Anuraksyodha. 

1st GUARD DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — 

Lieut. -Col. Bhra Srinaroug Vijai. 
Chief of Staff — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

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Adjutant — Capt. Luang Senabhidak. 
Intendant — Capt. Sham. 
Orderly Officer — Capt. Loea. 
Surgeon — Major Luang Bamrungros- 
rangabbhayadh. 
Law Officer — Major Khun Satwadhi. 

King Chulalonkorn's 
1st Guard Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel In Chief— H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — Lieut. -Col. 

H.R.H. The Prince of Bhisnulok. 
Second in Command — Lieut.-Col. 

Chamoen Bhallobh. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Pang. 
Intendant — Capt. Khun Wudl- 

bhidhak. 
Surgeon — Capt. Luang Wejjalarm- 

prasidh. 

Commanding Officer 1st Bn.— Major 

Luang Sarasidhyannkarn. 

Commanding Officer 2nd Bn. — Major. 

H. R. H. The Prince of Nagorn- 

rajsima. 

11th Guard Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — Lieut.-Col. 

Bhra Surayudhyodhakam. 
Adjutant — Capt. Khun Bhlarn- 

bhllang. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Jey. 
Intendant — Lieut. Pen. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Boonmak. 
Commanding Officer 1st Bn. — Major 

Luang Ran-a-ribhal. 
Commanding Officer 2nd Bn. — Capt. 

Luang Mansornbhlang. 

1st Guard Cavalry Regiment. 
Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Commanding Officer — Lieut.-C^l. 

Bhra Ranron-ariraj. 
Adjutant — ( vacant ) 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut Rod. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Ohn. 



Surgeon — (vacant; . 
Veterinary Surgeon — 

N. C. 0. Nai Nit (act.) 

1st Guard Artillery Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Commanding Officer — 

Lieut-Col Bhra Aknesorn. 
Adjutant, — Capt. Mong-kol. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant) 
Intendant — Capt. Mom Raj won gs Kab. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Bhoong. 

2nd DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — Lieut- 
Col. Mom C.hao Bhandhupravat(act.) 
Cnief of Staff- -Capt. Chong (act.) 
Adjutant — 

Ma,or Luang Yodhaboribal. 
j Intendant — Major Luang Sriyodha. 
j Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Loen. 
; Surgoon — Capt. Bhuk. 
I Law Officer — Lieut. Shum. 

2nd Infantry Regiment. 

i Colonel Commanding — 

Capt. Khun Amorasakdawudh (act.) 
Adjutant — Capt. Khun Bhijaibholdej. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Pleang. 
Orderl} r Officer — (vacant). 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Sin. 

12th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — 

Major Luang Bhlabhirakseni. 
Adjutant— Capt. Bhan. 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Thong-Di. 
Intendant — Capt. Heng. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Bhew. 



2nd Artillery Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— Field Marshal H. R. 
H. The Prince of Nagorn-jaisri. 



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Commanding Officer — Lieut.-Col. 

Luang Bhin Amitbhai. 
Adjutant — Capt. Khun 

Visessornbhleng. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant). 
Intendant — Lieut. Dis. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Hin. 

2nd Cavalry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. R. H. The 

Princess of Petch-Buri. 
Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Naroebalboriraks. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Chamlong. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Toh. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Su-Warn. 
Veterinary Surgeon — N. C. 0. 

Nai Im (act). 

3rd DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — 

Lieut.-Col. Bhra Aknesorn (act) . 
Chief of Staff— Major Bhien. 
Adjutant — Major Luang 

Awudhkamprija (act). 
Intendant — Capt. Yen 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Chum. 
Surgeon— Capt. Khun 

Chongchaibhobh . 
Law Officer — Lieut. Le. 

3rd Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Major Luang 

Radronyudh. 
Adjutant — Capt. Aun. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Krut (act). 
Surgeon — Lieut. Plien. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant). 

13th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief — H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — 

Capt. Dej. (act.) 
Adjutant — Capt. Yoo. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Hoy. 



Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Net. 
Surgeon — ( vacant ). 

3rd Rifle Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief — H. M. the King. 
Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Chongbhayuha. 
Adjutant — Capt. Cherm. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Loen. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Phin. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Leng. 



3rd Artillery Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Lieut.-Col. 

Luang Smarksalyudh. 
Adjutant — Capt. Jit 
Orderly Officer — ( vacant ). 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Rod. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Teck. 



4th DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — Col. 

Phya Bhijai Janriddhi. 
Chief of Staff — Major Luang 

Songsakda. 
Adjutant — Major Luang 

Chaturongvijai. 
Intendant — Lieut.-Col. Luang 

Ronbhasdhugamnal. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Singto. 
Surgeon — Capt. Luang 

Siddhiyodharak, 
Law Officer — lieut. Ja-em. 



4th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— Field Marshal H. 
R. H. Prince Bhanubhandhuwongs- 
voradej. 
| Colonel Commanding — 

Capt. Khun Bhlanbheng (act.) 
j Orderly Officer - Sub- Lieut. Nguan. 
I Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Jey. 
I Surgeon — (vacant). 



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14th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — 

Major Luang Salyudhwidhikan. 
Adjutant— 

Capt. Mom Rajawongs Arun. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Dhong. 
Intendant— Lieut. Toug (act.) 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Suwarn. 



4th Rifle Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — 

Major Luang Chobgrabuanyudh. 
Adjutant — Capt Khun Sorasonggram. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Jem. 
Intendant — Lieut. Ohn. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Prayul. 

4th Artillery Regime jt. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Ridhsamdeng. 
Adjutant — ( vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Bhook. 
Intendant — Lieut. Hluy. 
Surgeon - (vacant). 

4th Engineers. 

Commanding Officer— Sub- Lieut. Chya 

(act.) 

4th Train des Equipages. 
Commanding Officer — Capt. Ngiw. 



6th DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding-- Col. 

Bhra Sarajitbholkarn. 
Chief of Staff— Major Luang Chat- 

krabuanbhol. 
AJjutant — Major Luang Nara- 

roengdej (act). 
Intendant — Capt. Khun Bholbhak- 

nikorn. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Sweng. 
Surgeon— Capt. Khun Boriraksara- 

bhol. 
Law Officer — Lieutenant Chem. 



6th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in CI ief— H. R. H. The Prince 

of Nagorn- *>awan . 
Colonel Com nanding — Major Luang 

Rerngron- ,sa. 
Orderly Officer — ( vacant ). 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Mora. 
Surgeon — ( vacant ). 



16th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Lieut.-Col. 

Bhra Suraronjit. 
Adjutant — Capt. Khun Kam-Heng- 

Ronnarong. 
Orderly Officer ~Sub-Lieut. Hmoean. 
Intendant— Sub-Lieut. Chai. 
Surgeon — ( vacant ). 



2ND ARMY CORPS. 

Army Corps Commander — Major.- 

Gen. Mom Chao Alongkot (act). 
Chief of Staff— Lieut.-Col. Bhra Sura- 
dejronjit. 
Orderly Officer — Capt. Bhluy. 

Consisting of the 6th, 7th mid Sih 
Divisions. 



6th Rifle Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Capt. Khun 

Wid harrtsaradej . 
Adjutant — ( vacant ). 
Orderly Officer- Sub-Lieut. Tuan. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Bhon. 
Surgeon— Sub-Lieut. Jom. 



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6th Artillery Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. The King. 
Commanding Officer— Lieut.-Col. 

Luang Dhebh-deja. 
Adjutant— (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Sub.-Lieut. Khao. 
Intendant — Sub.-Lieut. Di. 
Surgeon— (vacant). 



6th Engineers. 

Colon* 1 in Chief— Major-Gen. H.R.H- 
The Prince of Kambhengbhech. 
Commanding Officer — Lieut. Mom 

Chao Marubhorbhand (act), 



6th Train des Equipages. 



Commanding Officer — Lieut. Bah 



(act). 



7th DIVSION. 



General Officer Commanding — Maj.- 

Gen. Mom Chao Alongkot. 
Chief of Staff— Capt. Luang Krai- 

grabuanhad. 
Adjutant — Major Mom Chao 

Kanchanasangkas. 
Intendant— Capt. Luang Chamnong- 

raja. 
( )rderly ( H'ficer — Lieut. Yoy. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Sidh. 
Law Officer— Lieut. Pai. 



7th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding -Major Luang 
Yodhadhibaf. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Sub- Lieut. Mom 

Luang Bheum. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Bun. 
Surgeon — (vacant). 



17th Infantry Regiment. 
Colonel Commanding — Major Luang 
Rambal-prachamit r. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Bheng. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Bho. 
Surgeon — (vacant). 

7th Cavalry Regiment. 
Colonel in Chief— Gen. H. R. H. The 
Prince of Bhisnulok. 
Commanding Officer— Capt. Luang 

Rerngrook-pachamitr. 
Adjutant. — (vacant) . 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Jit. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Tim. 
Surgeon Lieut. Sim. 
Veterinary Surgeon— Sub-Lieut. 

Dhong. 

7th Artillery Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Indsorasal. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Jam. 
Intendant— Sub-Lieut. Lorm. 
Surgeon — ( vacant) . 

7th Engineers. 

Commanding Officer — Lieut. Joea 

( act ). 

7th Train des Equipages. 
Commanding Officer Lieut. Shaleom. 

8th DIVISION. 
General Officer Commanding — 

Maj.-Gen. Phya Bhibhitdeja. 
Chief of Staff— Capt. Khun 

Laibholrob. 
Adjutant— Capt. Luang Bhubendr- 

nurake. 
Intendant— Capt. Dhawil (act). 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Dhien. 
Surgeon — Capt. Khun Senbholraks. 
Law Officer — Lieut. Ohun. 



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8th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — Major Luang 
Bhlangsar.sart. 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Yong. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Ploem. 
Surgeon— (vacant). 

18th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Major Luang 

Chombhinae. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Bhol. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Bhan. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Kao. 

8th Rifle Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Prajaridhroejai. 
Adjutant — Capt. Dhiem. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Jeoa. 
Intendant — Lieut. Ram. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Thong Muan. 

8th Artillery Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Awudh-arkni. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Li. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Sorn. 
Surgeon — (vacant) . 

8th Train des Equipages. 

Commanding Officer — Lieut. Liem 

(act.) 

3RD ARMY CORPS. 

Army Corps Commander — 

Lieut.-Gen. Mom Chao Bavaradej. 
Chief of Staff— Col. Bhra Kridhabhol. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant). 
Consisting of the 5th, 9th, and 10th. 
Divisions. 



5th DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — 

Col. Mom Chao Dhossiriwongs. 
Chief of Staff- 
Major Luang Salwidhprija. 
Adjutant— Capt. Loy (act). 
Intendant — Capt. Tern. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Pom. 
Surgeon — Capt. Khun Narongbori- 

raks. 
Law Officer — Sub-Lieut. Khun 

Prabhonnetiprawat 

5th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel-In-Chief— H. R. H. The 

Prince of Nagorn Rajsima. 
Colonel Commanding — Major Khun 

Yuddhakaskamdhorn. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Sing. 
Intendant — Lieut. Pow. 
Surgeon — (vacant). 

15th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Lieut.-Col. 

Luang Bhiddhayudh-Yarnyong. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Bhim. 
Intendant— Sub-Lieut. Im. 
S u rgeon — ( vacant) . 

5th Cavalry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. The Queen 

Mother. 
Commanding Officer — Capt. Luang 

Raorengbhol (act). 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieu r. Theb. 
Intendant — Lieut. Jot. 
Surgeon— (vacant) . 
Veterinary Surgeon — Capt. Luang 

Bhanloek&ara.sak. 

5th Artillery Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Commanding Officer — Lieut.-Col. 

Bhra Bhuvanarth. 
Adjutant — ( vacant). 



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Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Thiera. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Cham. 
Surgeon — (vacant). 

5th Engineers. 

Commanding Officer — Lieut. Juang 

(act). 

5th Train des Equipages. 

Commanding Officer — Sub-Lieut. 

Kong ( act ). 

9th DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — Col. 

Ihya Suranarthseni. 
Chief of Staff— Major Luang Song 

Vijai. 
Adjutant — Capt. Luang Bhidhakyodha 

(act.) 
Intendant — Capt. Khun Chamnien- 

songkram (act.) 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Shat 
Surgeon — Major Luang Jamnanjat- 

sakda. 
Law Officer — Lieut. Khun Ratbholsak. 

9th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief — H. M. the King. 
Colonel Commanding — Capt. Luang 

Jannarong (act.). 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Shey. 
Intendant — Capt. Tern. 
Surgeon— (vacant.) 

19th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Major Luang 

Jat<orasidh. 
Adjutant — Lieut. Sai. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Jieng. 
Intendant— Sub-Lieut. San. 
Surgeon Sub-Lieut. Nart. 

9th Rifle Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Praharnripurab. 



Adjutant — Capt. Lab. 
Ore erly Officer — Sub-Lieuti Joea. 
Intendant— Sub-Lieut. Chan. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Jit. 

9th Artillery Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Major Khun 

Akniwudh. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer— Sub-Lieut. Dhawil. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Thab. 
Surgeon — (vacant). 

9th Engineers. 



Commanding Officer- 



Lieut. Was (act.) 



9th Train des Equipages. 

Commanding Officer— 

Capt. Khun Ridrudrambal. 



10th DIVISION. 

General Officer Commanding — 

Col. Phya Sisurakrai. 
Chief of Staff— (vacant)/ 
Adjutant— Capt. Luang 

Bhidhaksbhubendr. 
Intendant — Lieut .-Col. Luang 

Rondhanbhieharn. 
Orderly Officer — Lieut. Inn. 
Surgeon — Capt. Roen. 
Law Officer — Lieut. Yoean. 



10th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Lieut -Col. 

Luang Samdengridhirong'. 
Adjutant — (vacant). 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Loean. 
Intendant — Lieut. Khun 

Bhicharnronkich. 
Surgeon — (vacant). 



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20th Infantry Regiment. 

Colonel Commanding — Lieut.-Col. 

Bhra Suraridhbhroedhikrai. 
Adjutant — Capt. Cham long. 
Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Wandi. 
Intendant — Sub-Lieut. Inn. 
Surgeon — Capt. Luang 

Prasatwejkiteh. 

10th Artillery Regiment. 

Colonel in Chief— H. M. the King. 
Commanding Officer — Capt. Luang 

Rudsaradej (act.) 
Adjutant — (vacant) 
Orderly Officer — Sub.-Lieut. Jum. 
Intendant — (vacant). 
Surgeon — (vacant). 

10th Cavalry Regiment. 

Commanding Officer — Major Luang 

Archsarasilp. 
Adjutant — Capt. Nai Sarakarnrid- 

dhirong. 
Orderly Officer — (vacant). 
Intendant— Sub-Lieut. Swad. 
Surgeon — Lieut. Peh. 
Veterinary Surgeon — N. C. 0. Nai 

Mul (act). 



Asst. „ — Lieut. Comdr. 

Luang Ram Riddhikri. 

Orderly Officer — Sub-Lieut. Luen. 

Seal-keeper — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Javana 

Bunnag. 

Chief Central recorder — Lieut. Luang 

Laxnamana. 

GENERAL STAFF. 

Inspector General — Rear-Admiral 
H. R. H. Prince Krom Miin Singha 
Vikrom Kriang Krai. A. D. C, (offi- 
ciating). 
I Asst. Inspector General — Lieut.- 

Conidr. Luang Pradiyat. A. D. C. 
I Secretary — Sub-Lieut. Puen. 
Section 1 — Comdr. Phra Amora- 

mahadej. 
] Sections 11 and III — (vacant). 
Section IV — Lieut. Comdr. Luang 

Navavichitr. 

ADMIRALTY PAYMASTER STAFF. 

Chief Paymaster — Captain H. H. 

Mom Chao Upabad Bongse. 
Secretary — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Daeng. 
Cashier — Lieut. Khun Visutr Deja. 
Auditor — Lieut.-Comdr. Luang 

Surindr Sampatti. 
Accountant — Lieut .-Comdr. Luang 

Dej Samdaeng. 



MINISTRY OF MARINE. 

( KraLuang Tuharn Rua). 
Minister of Marine — Admiral H. R. H. 
Prince Chao Fa Krom Luang Na- 
gorn Savvan Vorabinit, A. D. C. 
Private Secretary — Lieut. Luang 

Saeng Siddhikar. 
Flag- Lieut. — Sub-Lieut. Chandr. 

ADMIRALTY STAFF. 

Under Secretary of State for Marine 
— Rear- Admiral H. H. Mom Chao 
Toom, A. D. C. 

Chief Secretary to the Ministry — 
Comdr. Phra Orasum 



JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL'S 
DEPARTMENT. 

Judge Advocate General' — Captain 

Phra Sundra (officiating). 
Secretary — Lieut. Khun Ramasiddhi. 
Judges — Lieut. Comdr. Luang Rid- 

dhikamron, Mom Rajoday, Luang 

Jangadi and Lieut. Phad. 

Admiralty Court. 
Registrar — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Ann. 

Central Naval Court. 

Judge Advocate — Junr. Sub-Lieut. 

Jim. 
Registrar — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Wan. 



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MILITARY POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

Assistant to chief of Military Police — 
Comdr. Phra Asa Salakar. 
Superintendents of Districts — Junr. 

Sub-Lieuts. Luen, Ung and Lo. 



BANGKOK NAVAL STATION. 

Inspector General — Rear-Ad miral 

Phya Mahayotha, A.D.C 
Asst. do. — Captain Phra 

Ratanachakr 
Flag-Lieut.— Junr. Sub-Lieut. 

Nai Sanguen. 
Secretary — do. Nai Lieb. 

Recorder — Sub-Lieut. Boon. 
Paymaster — Lieut. Luang Surindrseni. i 
Marine Commander — Lieut. Luang 

Janriddhikri (officiating), j 
Steam-launches Commander — 
Lt.-Comdr. Luang Balasindhu 

(officiating). 
Asst. Steam-launches Commander — 

Junr. Sub-Lieut. Kam. | 
Band-master — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Kan. j 

BANGKOK NAVAL SCIENCE 
DEPARTMENT. 

Inspector General — Rear-Admiral H. 
R. H. Prince Krom Mtin Singha 
Vikrom Kriang Krai, A. D. C 

Asst. Inspector General — Comdr. Phra 
Narindr Rangsarga. 

Secretary — Sub-Lieut. Sir'. 

Paymaster — Lieut. Khun Sri Balapheo. 

Sure eon — Sub-Lieut. Choey. 



HyDROGRAPHIC OFFICE. 

Chief Surveyor — Captain Axel Rischel 
Surveyors — Comdrs. F. Thomsen, and 

Briickmeyer, Sub-Lieuts. Pluang, 

Mom Luam> Bhakdi. Lib and Junr. 

Sub-Lieuts. Klab. Pui, Chua, Foong 

and Pin. 



Royal Naval & Engineering 
College. 

Commanding Officer — 

Lieut. Khun Nikorn Asa. 
Asst. ,, — -Sub-Lieut. To. 

Petty Officer School. 

Commanding Officer— Sub-Lieut. 

Thieb (officiating). 

Asst. ,, — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Ong. 

Instructors — Junr. Sub-Lieuts. Pan, 

Bun, Sood and Klieng. 

Education Branch for Naval 
College. 

Head Instructor — Lt. Comdr. Luang 
Pradiyat, A.D.C. 

Instructors — Sub-Lieuts. Wun, Jam, 
Junr. Sub-Lieuts. Xui, 
Sawad and Inn. 

Education Branch for Engineering 
College. 

Head Instructor— Eng. Lt. Comdr. 

Luang Bhinit. 

Instructors — Eng. Sub - Lieut. Boon 
Rot, Eng. Junr. Sub- 
Lieuts. Sanga, Wars, 
Chandr and Phoot. 

COAST STATIONS STAFF & FORTS. 

Inspector General — Captain Phya 

Rajawangsarga (officiating) . 
Asst. ,, — Lt. Comdr. Luang 

Hanhakripu (officiating). 
Secretary — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Prong. 
Paymaster — Lieut. Khun Phitaks 

Dhueyham. 

Naval Training Establishments. 

No. 1. 
Commander — Lieut. Kim. 

No. 2. 
Commander — Lieut. Comdr. Khun 

Nara De-ja. 



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No. 3. 

Commander — Sub-Lieut. La-aw 

(officiating). 

No. 4. 
Commander — Lieut. Sming Daphetchr. 

No. 5. 
Commander — Lieut-Oomdr. 

Sming Mahaprab. 

No. 6. 
Commander — Lieut. Add (officiating). 

No. 7. 

Commander — Lieut. Comdr. 

Sming Siddhiraja. 

Forts. 

" Phra Chula Chom Klao. " 

Commander — Lieut. Comdr. 

Luang Phlan. 

" Phi Sua Samudth. " 

Commander — Lieut. 

Sming Daphetchr (officiating). 



BANGKOK NAVAL DOCKYARD AND 
WORKSHOP. 

Inspector General — Eng. Rear- 

Admiral Phya Vichitr Navi. 
Asst. ,, — raptain Phra Jolathan. 
Secretary — Sub-Lieut Prom. 
Paymaster — Sub-Lieut. Sod. 
Store- keeper — Junr. Sub-Lieut. 

Choem. 
Inspector of Machinery — Eng. Capt. 

A. Jonsen. 
Work Inspector — Lieut. Comdr. 

Khun Satra Banehong. 
Chief Draftsman — Lieut. Comdr. 

H. H. Mom Chao Adhya. 
Engineer Superintendent — Eng. 

Lieut. Comdr. Luang Vicharn. 
Asst. ., — Lieut. Khun Pradit Naves. 
Chief Boiler Maker — Lieut. Jom. 



Electric Engineer — Lieut. Jua. 
Inspector of Carpentry — Junr. Sub- 
Lieut. Luang Chamuien. 
Dock-master — Lieut. Khun Jam 

Chakrkum. 



ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT. 

Inspector General — Captain Phya 

Navabhol, A. D. C. 
Asst. ,, — Lieut. Comdr. 

Luang Prab Dvai Sun. 
Secretary — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Li. 
Paymaster — Lieut. Sook. 
Surgeon — Sub-Lieut. Cherm. 
Chief Gunnery Section — Comdr. 

M. Bojesen. 
Chief Torpedo Section — Lieut. 

Krasae, A. D. C. 

NAVAL MEDICAL SERVICE 
DEPARTMENT. 

Surgeon General — Comdr. Dr. A. H. 
Boehmer. 
Asst. ,, — Lieut. Khun Vari. 

Secretary — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Kim 

Chye. 
j Paymaster — „ Dok Mai. 

! Chief Dispenser — ,, Won. 



Naval Central Hospital. 

Chief Surgeon — Comd. Dr. A. H. 

Boehmer (officiating). 
Asst. „ — Sub-Lieut. Chuen 

Bonsophon. 
Hospital Inspector — Junr. Sub-Lieut. 

Din. 



ROYAL NAVAL CENTRAL STORE. 

Inspector General — Captain Phra 

Narendr Bodindr. 
Asst. „ — -Lb. Comdr. Khun 

Bhrom Prajajit. 
Secretary — Warrant Officer Nuan. 
Paymaster — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Choo. 
Chief Store-keepers — Junr. 

Sub-Lieuts. Dang, Joi and Plung. 



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LIST OF SHIPS AND VESSELS 


H. M. T. B. No. 1. 


OF THE ROYAL SIAMESE NAVY AND 




THEIR OF.-ICERS. 


Commander — Sub-Lieut. Chalam. 


H. M. Y. " Mahachakkri." 


Engineer — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Choom. 


Commander — Comdr. R. Kjeldahl 


H. M. T. B. No. 2. 


(officiating). 


Commander — Lieut. Thanom, A.D.C. 


Chief Engineer — Lt. Comdr. 


Engineer — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Pom. 


V. Hendriksen (officiating). 


H. M. T. B. No. 8. 


H. M. S. " Bali." 


Commander — Sub-Lieut. Man. 


Commander — Captain B. Dery. 


Engineer — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Xai. 


Chief Engineer— Sub-Lieut. Plung. 


H. M. T. B. No. 4. 


H. M. S. " Makut " 


Ccnmander — Sub-Lieut. Ja. 


Commander — Lieut. Nab. 


Engineer — uiinr. Sub-Lieut. Boosya. 


Chief Engineer — Lieut. Bherm. 





H. M. S. "Muratha." 


H. M. TRANSPORT AND DESPATCH 




VESSELS. 


Commander — (vacant) . 


Transport " Buk ". 


Chief Officer — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Bheng 


(acting as Commander). 


Commander — Lieut. Hong 


Chief Engineer — Sub-Lieut. Sood. 


Hangsanavin. 




Engineer — Sub-Lieut. Fai. 


H. M. S. ' : Sugrib.'* 






" Banchu ' . 


Commander — Sub-Lieut. Yom. 
Chief Engineer — Junr. Sub-Lit ut. Joi. 


Commander — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Baa. 
Engineer — Warrant Officer Chin. 


H. M. S. " Suriya." 






" Oothai ". 


Commander — Sub-Lieut. Krob. 


Commander-^- Junr. Sub Lieut. Kirt. 


Chief Engineer — Sub-Lieut. Ann. 


Engineer — Warra.it Officer Berm. 


H. M. T. B. D. "Sua Kamron 


" Prab ". 


Sindhu." 


Commander — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Han. 




Engineer — Warrant Officer Yen. 


Commander — Lieut. Luang Han 


Samudth, A.D.C. 


'• Deva ". 


Chief Engineer — Lieut. Khoon 


Commander — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Mali. 


Chamnarn Kolaehakr. 


Engineer — Warrant Officer Kwie. 


H.M.T.B. D. "SuaTayan 


" Sathit ". 


Choi. " 


Commander — Junr. Sub-Lieut. Sai. 




Engineer — Warrant Officer Pin. 


Commander — Sub- Lieut. Thongdee, 




A. D. C. 


" Kechon ". 


Chief Engineer — Lieut. Khun 


Commander — Warrant Officer Hod. 


Kitchkarkolchakr. 


Engineer — Warrant Officer Brom. 



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M1NSSTRY OF JUSTICE. 

(Krasuang Yudhitham.) 

Minister — Chao Phya Abhai Raja 

Maha Yudliithamathara. 
Under Secretary— Phya Yanaprakas. 
Asst. „ — Luang Patibhari Piset. 

Keeper of the Seals — Luang Suvapit 

Pisut, 

ACCOUNTANT DEPARTMENT. 

Palat Banji — Phya Thonakitch Raxa. 
Assistant — Khoon Charoon Butneti. 

STAMP DEPARTMENT. 

Chao Krom — Luang Vanalaks Lekha. 
Assistant — Phya Chula Rajmontri. 

BANKRUPTCY, SHERIFF AND 

REGISTRY OF PARTNERSHIPS AND 

COMPANIES DEPARTMENT. 

Accountant — Luang Dhainnoon 

Vootikorn. 
Assistant — Luang Ruja Pramuen. 

Sheriff Branch. 

Chao Krom — Luang Karoo n 

Narakorn, 
Palat Krom — Nai In. 

Bankruptcy Branch. 
Chao Krom — Luang Nart Panya. 

Registry of Partnerships and 
Companies. 

Chao Krom — Luang Dhaui 

Padoongkitch. 
Asst.— Nai Tek. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC 
PROSECUTIONS. 

Athibodi — Phya Atakarn Prasiddhi. 
Palat Krom — Luang Voranye 

Prasiddhi. 
„ —Khoon Prakas Krisdika: 

Asst.— J. F. G. Guna Tilaka. 
Shorthand writer — E. B. Gatenby. 



LEGAL ADVISERS. 

Legislative Adviser — G. Padoux. 
Judicial Adviser — Skinner Turner. 
Legal Adviser — M F. Buszard. 
Asst. Legal Adviser— C. L. Watson. 
„ ' — S. H. Cole. 

— R. W. Aston. 

— R. B. H. Gibbins. 

— R. C. Chadwick. 

— W. B. Way. 
.,, — II . Laurent. 

„ — E. A. Laydeker. 

— R. Pradere-Niquet. 

— M. F. Richer. 
„ — F. Beque. 

— A. F. N. Thavenot. 
,, — J. R. C. Lyons. 
„ — E. R. Stevens. 

,, — L, Duplatre. 

-E. W. Li. Hadden. 
„ — F. C. Kempson. 



COMMISSION FOR THE DRAFTING 
OF CODES. 

Member — G. Padoux. 

— R. C. Guyon. 
„ — H. Segnitz. 
,, — X. de Lafoi'cade. 

— Phya Atakarn Prasiddhi. 
,, — Luang Sakol Satyathorn. 
,, — Luang Pinit Nitinai. 
Secretary — C. L'Evesque. 
Asst. Translator — H. R. H. Prince 

Vividh Yarnpricha, 



LAW SCHOOL. 

Lecturer— Luang Pinit Nitinai. 

„ — Luang Pradist Picharnkarn. 
— Luang Chinda Piromj. 
— Luang Pisone Sara nit. 
— R. Pradere-Niquet. 
,, — E. A. Laydeker. 
—Dr. Hi 11 yard. 



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KING'S COLLEGE. 

Principal — A. Trice Martin, M.A., F.S.A. 
English Master — A. H. Cartwright, 

B.A. 

„ — R. Halloran Brown, m.a. 
,, — A. Coleby, b.a. 

— G. Ernest Webb, b.a. 
Siamese Masters — Nai Soot Chai and 
7 others. 



THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 

Bangkok. 

Suprkmb Court of Appeal, 

(Dika Court.) 

Chief Judge— H. R, H. Prince Svasti 
Vadhana Visit. 
Judge — H. R. H. Prince Rajburi. 

,, — Phya Chakrpani Srisilvisut. 

„ —Phya Kritika Nukornkitch. 

,, — Phya Noranefc Banjakitch. 

., — Phya Kasem Snkari. 

,. — Phya Kalyau Maitri. 

,, — G. Padoux. 

,, — Skinner Turner. 
Assistant — Luang Kamchorn Nitisarn. 
Act. Registrar — Luang Banharn 

Noranet. 



Appeal- Court. 

Division 1 (Bangkok). 

Act. Chief Judge— H. R. H. Prince 

Prome Vorauurax. 
Judge— Phya Dhamasart. 

,, — Phya Charoen Rajmaitri. 

.. — Phya Pioharana. 

., — Phya Pirain. 

., — Phra Suoharit Vinichye. 

,, — Phra Ubhai Pipaksa. 

,, — R. Sheridan. 

„ — C. .NieL 

„ —P. W. Thornely. 
Registrar — Luang Supadbep. 



Division II. (Provinces). 

Chief Judge — Phya Dhamasaravet. 
Judge — Phya Pipaksa Satyatipatye. 

— Phya Maha Vinichye. 

— Phya Charaya Yutakrit. 

— Phra Srisangkorn, 

— Phra Pinit Doola At, 

— Phra Vichit Netisart. 
— Phra Apibal Prapani. 
— Phra Srisatj'a rax. 
— Luang Pisit Satyan. 
— Luang Vibool Bantitkitch. 
— 'Luang Tharindre Wat. 
— Luang Paichit Satyadool. 
— Luang Vichai Nitinart. 
— Luang Prachaks Supa At. 

Registrar — Luang Naratikorn 

Kamchat. 



Civil Court. 

Chief Judge — Luang Chinda Piromj. 
Judge — Mom Chao Thong Chuer 

Thamacharfc. 

— -Luang Sudhaiu Manuwat. 

— Luang Pakdi Vinichye. 

— Luang Pisone Saraniti. 

— Luang Sucharit Thuraprapat. 

— Luang Sriraj Booroot. 
Registrar— -Khoon Nanda Nitikorn. 

Foreign Causes Court. 

Chief Judge — Phya Pichet Pisetpisai. 
Judge — Phya Maim Sarasart Bancha, 

,, — Luang Pradist Pitcharnkarn.- 

„ — Luang Sanhakitch Vicharn. 

,, — Nai Ha^batnroe. 

,, — Cha Muau Svasti Vinichye. 

„ —Nai Tolu 
Resfistrar — Nai Thew. 



Criminal Court. 

Chief Judge— Phya Padet Doolbodi. 
Judge — Luang Vorasan Sob!i i. 

,, — -Luang Atkitch V'icharn. 

„ — Luang Nides Yudikarn. 



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,, — Luang Pochanarfc Viniohye. 

,, — Luang Prapat Pinitchyekarn. 

,, — Luang Thurat.ham Prapart. 

., — Luang Athorn Kadiras. 

,, — Luang Pridhisan Prasiddhi. 

,, — Luang Vootisart Sari. 

,, — Luang Atasarn Sitikam. 
Registrar — Khoon Sarat Thuratham- 



Borispah Courts. 

Chief Judge — Phya Dhamasaranet. 

Court No. 1. 
Judge — Luang Vinit Narunye. 

,, — Luang Ratanasart Somboon. 

„ — Luansr Vithet Chanyarax. 

„ — Nai Rat. 

„ —Nai Yien. 
Registrar — Nai Chome. 

Court No. II. 

Judge — Luang Suntara Nuyutkitch. 

,, — Nai Luan. 
Registrar — Nai Chandr. 

Court No. III. 

Judge — Luang Kachorn Kitikarn. 

,. — Lxiang Yutisart Kosone. 
Registrar — Mai Sung. 

District Courts. 
(Bangkok Provinces.) 

Tanyabu ri — J udge — 

Luang Pichai Bantit. 
Nakorn Khuen Kant — Judge — 

Luang Phrome Ayah. 
Nondabnri — Judge — 

Luang Nart Nititada. 
Pratoonidhani — Judge — 

Luang Amnuey Natipote. 
Minburi — Judge — Luang Sora At 

Amnuey. 
Samut Prakarn — Judge — Mom Chao 
Thawatchai. 



PROVINCIAL COURTS. 

Special Commissioners for the 
Provinces. 

President — H.R.H. Prince of Rajburi. 
Commissioner — Phya Dhamasaravet. 

., Phya Pipaksa. 

,, Phya Picharna. 

,, Phya Maha Vinichye. 



Monthon Courts. 

Payab— -Chief Judge & Commissioner 

— Luang Dhamrongras Prapani. 
Ayuthia — Chief Judge — Luang 

Rajanart Pinich. 
Puket — Chief Judge — Luang Pinit 

Sanhakarn. 
Udorn — 'Chief Judge — Luang Prapai 
Pityakoon. 
Petchaboon — Chief Judge — Luang 

Chong Kadikitch. 
Chantaburi — Chief Judge — Phya 

Nakorn Paipichet. 
Rajbui i — Chief Judge — Luang 

Narunye Soranart. 
Nakorn Chaisee — Luang Thararax 

Montri. 
Nakorn Raj sima — Luang Vichit 

Natinye. 
Chumporn — Acting Chief Judge— 

Imang Pinitchkarn Kosone. 
Nakonr Savan — Acting Chief Judge 

— Luang Prathan Kadieart. 
Nakorn Srithamraj — Acting Chief 

Judge' — Luang Pinai Nitisart. 
Prachinburi — Acting Chief Judge 

— Luang Boripone Bochanapisut. 
Pitsanulok — Acting Chief Judge 

—Luang Vorapart Brapaud. 
Ubolrajdhani— Acting Chief Judge 

— Luang Sarakitch Pricha. 
I Roy Et — 1 ting Chief Judge 

— Luang Pichit Patibhan. 



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MINISTRY OF LOCAL 


District Officers— of the 


GOVERNMENT. 


Outer Circle, Round Bangkok. 


(Krasuang Nagorn Ban ) 


Bangkhen— Khun Srikhetra Nagara. 


Minister — Chao Phraya Yomarap 


Bangsue — Luang Dharanihal. 


Private Secretary to the Minister- 


Bangkapi — Khun Drong Dharani. 


Phra Bannasar Prasiddhi. 


Bangkhuntien — Lining Lokabad. 


Under Secretary of State — Phraya 


Talingjan — Luang Biniciia Dhani. 


Bejrjra. 


Rajaburana — Luang Drabal. ' 


Chief Accountant - Phraya Prajakara 


Pliasi-Charoen— Khuu Drong Nagara. 


Kichvicharana. 


Nongkhem Khun Bhidaksha 


Recorder — (vacant). 


Prajabal. 


Correspondent — Luang 




Sandisdhuraraksha. 




Archivist — Nai Long (actg.) 


Governors of Provinces of Bangkok. 


Foreign Department. 


Nanda-buri — Mom Chao Khachara 




Subhasvasdi. 


Director — Luang Banharn 


Pradumdhani — Phraya Bhidaksha 


Varaphochn. 


Duihar. 





Dhanyabnri- PJoraya Nandaburi 


Registration Department. 


Sri k rash etraram. 


Director — Phra Srishdi 


Smud-Prakar — Phra Smud 


Karbanchong. 


Buranuraksha. 


Asst. — Luang Bamrung Ratnaburi. 


Nagara Khuen Khantha - Luang 


Sri Siddhidej (actg.) 


District Officers' Department. 


Minburi— Mom CJiao Sanga Ngatn. 


Director — Phra Bejrpani. 





Deputy Director — Luang Prasiddhi 


POLICE DEPARTMENT. 


Buriraksha. 


Commissioner of Police — 


Inspector — Luang Vicbarana 


Eric St. J. Lawson. 


Bhuclhara. 


Deputy Commissioner of Police — 

E. W. Trotter. 


,, — Luang Sanbakich Cham- 


nong. 


Divisional Supt. of Police— 


,, —Khun Damrongga Rajakar. 


R. C. Whiting. 


District Officers of Inner Circle. 





Phra Nagara — Luang Svasdi 


Bangkok Town. 


Nagarindra. 




Sampeng — Phra Visutra Barihar. 


Divisional Supt. of Police — 


DusSt — -Luang Abhibal Dusit. 


C. B. Folletr. 


Ba-ngrak — Luang Svasrii Nagaresara. 


„ Phraya Indra Dhibadi 


Bangkoknoi — Luang Vithi Dharnia- 


Siharaja Rongmuang. 


sanchara. 


,, Phraya Birendradhibadi 


Bangkokyai — Khun Sakol Raksha 


Siharaja Ngammuang. 


(acting). 


,, Phra Debphalu. 


1 langlamphulang — Luang Blml- 


,. Luang Dharani Narubesra. 


phalakara. 


,, Luang Bolabarga Bhibal. 



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Asst. Supt. of Police — 

Luang Dhurakar Kamchat. 
5 , Luang Kamchat Sonaducharita. 
,, Luang Riddhiruang 

Bamrabchara. 
,, Luang Vibad Pranud. 
„ Luang Narakara Anuraksha. 
„ Luang Anumata Manukicha. 
„ Luang Praja Smosara. 

Luang Bures Fhadungkicha. 
„ Luang Barihar Nagarindra. 
„ Luang Bidaksha Nagara Khetra. 
,, Luang Narabarga Bridhikara. 
„ Luang Dhanakara Kichakar. 
„ C. H. Forty. 
Ohief Inspector of Police — 

Luang Bamrab Oharabhaiya. 
,, Luang Arirashtara. 
,, Luang Prab Prajabal. 
,, Luang Abhibal Khetra Nagara. 
,, Luang Anusara Dhurakara. 
,, Luang Prasongga Sanfoakar. 
,, Khun Khachara Dharani. 
,, Khun Raksha Bolbuii. 
„ Khun Araksha Prajakara, 

H. M's. A. D. C. i 
„ Khun Hakdurakar Kosala, 

(On probation). < 
,, Khun Smag Chair&shtara; 
,, Khun Sanor Sarsnid. 
,, Khun Bedya Boltraven. 
,, Khun Yisarburi. 
,, Khun Anukul Prajar&shtara. 
,, Khun Sanhakar Kosala. 

,, Khun Viseshburi. 



Special Branch. 

I 
Divisional Supt. of Police — 

Phra Adhikarana Prakas. 
Chief Inspector of Police — 

Khun Ohamnong Nararaksha. 

Northern Suburbs Division. 
Divisional Supt. of Police — 

Leo Day (acting). ; 
Asst. Supt. of Police- 
Luang Smag Bunromya. 
,, Luang Bicharana Burirath. [ 



Chief Inspector of Police — 

Luang Jan Nagara. 
„ Luang Prasar Prajarashtara. 

Southern Suburbs Division. 
Divisional Supt. of Police — 

Luang Ashabol Nikara (actg.) 
Assistant Supt. of Police — 

Luang Ananta Nararaksha. 
Chief Inspector of Police — Luang 

Nikara Boriraksha. 

Koh-Si-Chang Police Station. 

Asst. Supt. of Police — S. P. Groves. 
Chief Inspector of Police — 

P. A. R. Barron ( on leave). 



BANGKOK REVENUE DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Sanpakorn Nai.) 

Di rector-General — Phraya Rashtakara 
Kosala. 
Deputy Director — Phra Phala 

Karanuraksha. 
Chief Inspector —Khun Rathakar 

Daviphola. 
„ ,, — Khun Prabandha 

Heranraksha. 
Assistant — Khun Rajabhognukula. 
Secretary — Khun Direk Sarclhana- 

sakdi. 
„ — Khun Prasar Dhanasakdi. 
Inspector — Luang Srishti Sukha- 

romya. 
Attorney — Khun Heranraksha Kosala. 

Accountant's Office. 
Accountant-in-Chief — Phra Nibaddha 
Bhogakara. 
Assistant — Khun Siri Mahaisvanya. 

Bangkok Town Revenue Office. 
Chief Revenue Officer — Phra Saravitra 
Vicharana. 
Assistant— Khun Smag Sanbakarn. 
— Khun Sakala Sanbakara. 



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Inspector — Khun Pradab Dhanakicha 
„ — Khun Pradishth 

Dhanakar. \ 
„ — Khun Pramula Raja 

Drabya. j 
„ — Khun Prachaksha 

Hirankicha. ! 



MUANG NANDABURl REVENUE OFFICE. 

Assistant Revenue Officer — Khun 

Prakob Dhanaraksha. 
Accountant — Nai Keo ( Amphuo 

Talad Khavan). 
„ — Nai In (Amphuo 

Pakkred). 
„■ — Nai Keo (Amphuo 

Bang - Buahong). 
„ — Nai Thung (Amphuo 

Bangyai). 

Muang: Samud Prakab Revenue 
Office. 

Assistant Revenue Officer — Khun 

Rathapliala Raksha. 
Accountant — Nai Sum (Amphuo 

Muang). 
, r — Nai Phuan (Amphuo 

BW-Pliyai). 
n — -Nai Bus (Amphuo 

Bang Hiea). 

Muang Nagara Kuuen Kbandba 
Kevenue Office. 

Asst. Revenue Officer — Khun Vadana 
Sombati- 
Accountant — Nai I>a Oa (Amphuo 

Phva Khanong). 



Muang Pradutmphanj Revenue 
Office. 

Asst. Revenue Officer — -Khun 

Arirath Baibulya, 



Accountant — Saming Janasonggram 
(Amphuo Muang). 
, y — Nai Ben (Amphuo 

Chiengrak)* 
, T —Nai Ming (Amphuo 

Samgok) , 

Muang Dhanyaburi Revenue 
Office. 
Asst. Revenue Officer — Khun Davi 

Dhanakar, 
Accountant — Nai Proy (Amphuo 

Muang). 
,f — Nai Singto (Amphuo 

Lamlukka). 
„ — Nai Phew (Amphuo 

Glong Luang). 
„ — Nai Phong (Amphuo 

Nong Sua). 

Muang Minburi Revenue Office. 
Asst. Revenue Officer — Khun Praserth 
Dhanakar. 
Accountant — Nai Chon (Ampliuo 

Muang), 
„ — Nai Plang (Amphuo 

Nong Chok). 
„ —Nai Chem (Amphuo 

Senseb), 

THE HARBOUR DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Chao Ta). 

Directorate. 

Harbour Master-General — 

Phya Visutra Sagaradith„ 

Asst. Harbour Master-General — 

Phra Singhol Sagara. 

Deputy Harbour Master- 
Luang Anubal Dittagama, 

Department of Correspondence. 

Secretary of Correspondence — 

Khun Sakol Saralaksana. 
Asst. — Mom Luang Pao. 

„ —Nai Thong Chin. 

,, — Nai David Mason. 



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Accountants Department. 

Chief Accountant — Luang Anuphand 
Dhittakara. 
Asst. — Khun Bhibit Dhanakara. 
., — Nai Chub. 

Licensing Department. 

Licensing Inspector — 

Khun Bhisal Bhahanachol. 
Licensing Officers — 

Luang Buri Rajbarnrung. 
luang Raksa Hiranjkitch. 
Khun Bamrung Sagara. 
Divisional Licensing Officers — 
Luang Vinit Narakara. 
Luang Charanan Naves. 
Luang VTtie Cholatara. 
Luang Samudha Kochara. 
Khun Boriburna Thanasara. 
Khun Upakara Dhittagama. 
Nai Heng, Nai ChaiBunnag, 
Nai Bert and Nai San. 
Assistant Licensing Officers — Nai 
Phan, Nai Hee, Nai Chinn Komara- 
kul na Nagara, Nai Sake. Nai Chien, 
Nai Chirm, Nai Chote, Oo, Nai Yai, 
Nai Datt, Nai Chaeng, Nai Imm, 
Nai Brahm, Nai Chune. Nai Chai, 
Nai Kim, Nai Plaek, Nai Chian. 

Stores Department. 

Keeper— Luang Anuraksa Cholatara. 
Assistant— Nai Roon. 

Repairs Section. 

Inspector — Khun Pradit Nava. 
Assistants — Nai Chow, Nai Ngoon, 

Nai Chin, Nai Choei, Nai Phenn 

and Nai Phorn. 

Marine Surveyors Department. 

Chief Marine Surveyor — J. Mackay. 

Assistants — C. W. Andersen, 

E. W. Jorgenseu and 
E. M. Sequeira. 



Berthing Officers Department. 
Chief Berthing and 

Boarding officer — Lieut. G. Foss, 

R.N.N.R. 
Boarding officers — Lieut. T. Odner, 

R.N.N.R. 
Capt. A. Surhoff. 

LIGHT-HOUSES. 
Regent Light-House. 
(Bar of Menam) 
Keeper— Khun Bavara Agni. 

Asadang Light-House. 
(Kob Saraajew Island). 
Keeper — Nai Deng. 

Laem Singh Liuht-House. 
(Mouth of Chantaboon River). 
Keeper — Nai Kui. 

Koh Prab Light-House. 
Keeper — Nai Chit. 

Singora Light-House. 
Keeper — Luang Sura Sagara. 

Samsan Light. 
Keeper — Nai Ann. 

Koh Samee Light. 
Keeper — -Nai Lab. 

Koh Phra Light. 

(Quarantine Station), 
Keeper— -Nai Bua. 

Laem Ling Light, 
(Krat). 
Keeper — Nai Chai. 

Mataphon Light. 
(Churapon-Bay). 
Keeper — Nai Phan. 



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Langsuan Light- House. 
Keeper — Nai Sert. 

Green Light Ship at Bar. 
Keeper — Nai Luen. 

Ked Light Ship at Bar. 
Keeper — Nai On. 

Red Light Ship at Sunken Junks. 
Keeper — Nai Seng. 

Bangkok Flagstaff. 
Keeper — Nai Fune. 

Light-House Tender. 
S/S " Phra Yom". 
Master — Captain W. Nielsen. 
Mate — Nai San. 
Engineer — Ah Joo. 

LOCAL SANITARY DEPARTMENT. 

( Krom Sukhabhibarn. ) 

Central Office. 

Director-General — Phraya Bejrjata. 
Secretary — Luang Pradith Varasatra. 
Asst. — Khun Bichitara Chamnong. 

,. — Khun Sukhakar Binis. 
Interpreter — H. Von Kockritz. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Sook. 
Chief Accountant — Phra Pravatara 

Suddhikarana. 
Accountant (Water Works) — Khun 

Phachong Likhit. 
Asst. Accountant — -Khun Lekhakicha 
Vicharana. ! 
Chief Clerk— Nai Aronie. 

Road Maintenance Section. 
Director — Phraya Rathaya Nuraksha. i 
Deputy Director — Phra Bhadi Preja. I 
,, — Luang Visai Sukhakar. 

Asst. — Khun Abhibal Sukhpraja. 
., — Khun Smag Sukhakar. 
„ — Khun Saman Sukhabarga. 



Road Inspectors — Luang Baribal Suk- 
hapraja, Luang Anati Narakara, 
Khun Chen Sat hoi Rathaya, Khun 
Chad Sathol Rieb, Khun Vinicha 
Maraga, Khun Sandad Vithikar, 
Khun Barihar Vithikicha, Nai Hah, 
Khun Deb Vithisiddhi, Khun Dib 
Vithisebj^a. 
Engineer in Charge of Stone Mill — 

J. Lampe. 
Inspector of Public Grounds and Road- 
side Trees — Khun Rukkha Raksha. 
Building Inspector — Luang Sador 

Subhakicha. 
— Khun Jan Samruech. 



ENGINEERING OFFICE. 

City Engineer — L. R. de la Mahotiere. 
Superintendent Engineer (water 

works) — F. Didier. 
Superintendent Engineer (roads 

and bridges) — R. Belhomme. 
Architect — (vacant). 
Engineer — F. Grassi. 

„ — J. Rouyre. 
Chief interpreter — Khun Visuthi 

Photchana Vichan. 
Assistant interpreter Nai Son. 
Chief Surveyor — E. B. d'Herlinville. 
Surveyor — Luang Phiphat. 
,, — H. M. Reimers. 
,, — Nai Cliot. 
Assistant Surveyor — Mun Phraison. 

- Nai Chit. 
Building inspector — F. de Forael. 
Assist, inspector — F. Saxtorph. 
— F. P. Xavier 
Piping inspector — G. Marecaux. 
Chief overseer — D. H. W. Samara- 

kone. 
Overseers — L. Quang. 
,. Nai Thap. 

„ Nai Tuan. 

„ Nai Louis. 

Store keeper — Michel Chamroen. 
Chief Draughtsman — L. Delaunay. 
Draughtsman — F. Delitala. 



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Assist. Draughtsman — Nai Charoen. 
,, ,, Nai Luen. 

„ ,, Nai Men. 

,, „ Nai Noi 

L. R. Pratch. 
,, ,, Nai Oheri. 

,, „ Nai Naj. 

„ ,, Nai Deng. 

Electrical Engineering Office. 

Government Electrical Engineer — A. 

Odent. 
Interpreter — H. Freidrichs. 

BUILDING SECTION. 
Chief-Engineer— E. G. Gollo, C. E. 
Chief-Architfect — M. Tamagno. 
Engineer — A. B. Spigno, C. E. 
Architects — G. Salvatore. 

—0. Tavella. 

— A. Rigazzi. 

— B. Moreschi. 

— C. Quadrelli. 
Moulder — G. Innocenti 
Building Inspector — G. Guasco. 

—A. Falck. 
Draughtsman — Nai Pan. 

GOVERNMENT POWER STATION. 

Director — Luang Svasdi Vieng Jai. 
Engineer-in-Charge — F. B. Shaw. 
Chief Clerk - Nai Thep. 

OFFICE OF THE MEDICAL 
OFFICER OF HEALTH. 

Medical Officer of Health — 

H. Campbell Highet, M. D., C. M., 
(Glasgow), D. P. H. (London). 
Asst. Medical Officer — 

Morden Carthew, M. D. 
(Edin.), D P.H. (Ireland). 
,, ,, Allan C. Rankin, M. D., 

D. P. h. (Mc Gill), 

M. R. C. S., L. R. C. P. 

(England). 

,, ,, H. Havelock Hepburn, 

c. M., m. d. (McGill). 



District Medical Officer — Nai Kim Lai 
„ „ „ — Nai Chin. 
,, ,, „ — Nai Klab. 
„ ,, „ — Nai Taam; 

,, ,, „ — Nai Kroon. 

— NaiOi. 
Chief Sanitary Inspector — 

Khun Sudha Bidaksha. 
Asst. Sanitary Inspectors— 

Khun Vicharana Sukhakarm, 
Khun Bhakdi Sukhakar, 
Nai Heng, Nai Earn, Nai 

Champee. 
Interpreter & Clerk — -Nai Sanor. 
Clerk — Nai San 
Vajira Hospital— R. E. G. Tilaka. 

M.D., F.R.C.S.E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 
D.P.H. (London). 
Bangrak Hospital — T Heyward Hays, 

M.I). 

Police Hospital — E. A. Bryan. 

Asst. — Khun Bedya Boltravane. 
Lunatic Asylum — Nai Sonboon. 
Isolation Hospital — Nai Earn. 
Samsen Hospital — Luang Bedya 

Bisesha. 
Officer in charge Quarantine Station 
—J. B. West. 

— : o : — 

MINISTRY OF INTERIOR. 

(Krasuang Mahadthai.) 

Minister — H. R. H. Prince Krom 

Phra Damrong. 
Deputy Minister — Phya Maha Am mat. 
Under Secretary — Phya Rajanakul. 
Private Secretary — Luang Anujit 

Pitaks. 
Seal Keeper — Luang Ruang Sakdi. 

Administration Department. 

Director General— Phya Chasen Bodi. 
Assistant Director — Luang Angana 

Nuraks. 
,, — Khoon Pirun 

Vitayakom. 
Director of Statistics — Phya Rajri- 
thanon 



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Assistant Director — Phya Prutha. 
,, — Luang Naruraj. 

Public Prosecution Department. 

Director General — Phya Rajsena. 
Assistant Director — Luang Ridthamat. 
— Luang Nikon Chara- 
nong. 

Accountant Departmf:nt. 

Director — Phra Anuraks. 
Assistant Director — Phan Phanuraj. 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 
OF PROVINCES. 

Director — Phya Amorithamrong. 
Asst. „ — Khun Phisit Lohakan. 

,, „ — Luang A udom Vithayakan. 
Medical Adviser — Dr. A. Manaud. 
Comptroller (Vaccination of Provinces) 
— Khun Phonpitak - 

Pasteur Institute (Bangkok). 

Director — Dr. A. Manaud. 
Bacteriological-Laboratory — Dr. 

Secretary — Nai Choo, 



Robert. 



GOVERNMENT MEDICAL DEPOT. 

Chief of Government Medical Depot — 
Khoon Potchamanmanit. 
Manager— H. Willems. 
Asst. — G . Rexhausen. 

Government Analytical Laboratory. 
Analytical Chemist — H. Willems. 



PROVINCIAL REVENUE 
DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Sanphakorn Nork.) 
Director — P. H. Giles. 



Asst. Director — Phra Suphanithi 

Wibulya 
Personal Asst. — Nai Keow. 
Revenue Inspectors : — • 

Phra Thephathon Phathana. 

Phra Phakdi Nuraks. 

Phra Phisai Sunthornkarn. 

Phra Rajaphan Phiphathana. 
Supt. of Office — Nai Sawadi Pholaman. 
— Nai Phiew. 



Chief Revenue Officers. 

Monthon Krungkao — Mom Chao 

Udom Direklab. 
Rajaburi — Luang Udom 

Rajadathorn. 
Phitsanolok— Phra Phakdi 

Phiphatphol. 
Nakorn Sawan — Luang Sri 

Thanathorn. 
Nakorn Chaisi — Luang 

Prachanat Thanakorn. 
Pachinburi — Luang Wichit 

Phakdi. 
Phayab— Phra Phakdi 

Nuchit. 
Chumphon — Luang Anukul 
Nithayakorn . 
Petchaboon — Luang 

Rat ha wit Wibulya. 
Ubon Rajathani — Luang 

Sithisin Sathorn. 
Roiet —Luang Thanaphan 

Phithak. 
LTdon— -Luang Witr 

Wibulkarn. 
Nakorn Rajasima — Luang 

Witsaya Phiphol. 
Nakorn Sithamaraj — Luang 
Akhan it ehniyora . 
Puket — Luang Worakorn 

Rajakiteh. 
Chantaburi — Luang Adul 

Saraphan. 
Patani — Phra Suphasarn 

Sombat. 



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FOREST DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Pa Mai) 

Conservator of Forests. 
Bangkok— W. F. Lloyd. 

Deputy Conservators. 

Chiengmai — H. B. Garrett. 
Lampang --W. L. Palmer. 
Muang Nan — R. D. Bainbrigge. 
Muang Phrae — Phra Vanpruk Picharn. 
Raheng — Luang Daruphan Pithaks. 
Paknainpo— do. 

Muang Youam — M. H. F. Swete. 
Moulmein — W. E. MacNaught. 
On leave — C. M. Medworth. 

do. — R. H. Nisbet 

do. — A. W. Ogilvie. 



Assistant Conservators. 

Bangkok — Luang Wankan Pinit. 
do. — Luang Phon Plaraks. 
do. — Khun Phraison Salaraks. 
do. — Khun Aran Raksa. 
do. —Mom Rajavvong Chai 

Sanpsin. 
do. — Nai Chan. 
Paknampo — Luang Vanarak Damrong 
do. — Khun Wanakhan 

Prawate. 
Lampang — Khun Wa*akhet Boribarn. 
do. — Nai Peng, 
do. — Nai Bin. 
Chiengmai — Nai Toh. 
Ban Pong — Luang Prawate 

Wanakhan. 



PROVINCIAL GENDARMERIE. 

( Krom Tamruet Phu thorn ) 

Commanding the force — Major-General 
Phva Vasudeb (G. Schau). 
Chief Staff Officer— Col. Phra Song 

Pholphab. 



Chief Accountant— Col. Phra 

Pitsauusen. 
Department of Equipment — 

Lieut. Colonel Luang Anuchit. 
Director of Criminal Investigation — 

Phya Viset Ruchai. 
Asst. — Captain Khoon Sudeb Nuraks. 

European Officers attached to 
the Force. 

Chiengmai— Major Thorvaldsen. 
Nan — Major Springer. 
Mesort — Major Fabricius. 
Phrapatoom — Major Warming. 
Me Hawng Sawn — Major Yarmer. 
Singora — Major Trolle. 
Makeng — Captain Steiner. 
Muang Youam — Captain Andersen. 
Lampang— Captain Sylow. 
Ubon — Captain Seindenfaden. 

Monthon Krung Kao. 

556 n. c. o. and men. 

Major Luang Rajruengrit, in command. 

Monthon Pachin. 
536 n. c.o. and men. 
Major Luang Svasti Phisarn, 

in command. 

Monthon Nakorn Chaisri. 
426 n. c. o. and men. 
Captain Luang Pitak, in command. 

Monthon Ratburi. 
692 n. c. o. and men. 
Major Khoon Senanon. in command. 

Monthon Korat. 
426 n. c. o and men. 
Major Luang Vichitt Chonhan, in 

command. 

Monthon Nakon Sawan. 
665 n. c. o. and men. 
Lt-Col. Phra Thakon Surasin, in 

command. 



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Monthon Pitsanuluke. 

371 n. c. o. and men. 
Col. Plira Petintra, in command. 
Monthon Udon. 

405 n. c. o. and men. 
Lieutenant On, in command. 

Monthon Isarn. 
563 n. c. o. and men. 
Major Khun Hoem Phrayuddhkan, 

in command. 

Monthon Chantaburi. 
171 n. c. o. and men. 
Major Luang Prap Prathouthapkai, 

Monthon Chumporn. 

310 n. c. o. and men. 

Captain Khoon Tephen, in command. 

Monthon Sri Thamaraj. 
557 n. c. o. and men. 
Captain Khoon Vichai Prachaban. in 
command. 

Monthon Patani. 
303 n. c. o. and men. 
Lt-Col. Luaug Atyaphitak, in 

command. 

Chiengmai district. 
611. n. c. o. and men. 
Col. Phra Prakob Ronakarn. in 

coTnmand. 

Lampoon district. 
152 n. c. o. and men. 
Captain Chao Chai Vorachet, in 

command. 

Chieng Rai District. 
375 n. c. o. and men. 
Major Khoon Han Prayuddhkam 

in command. 



Lampang District. 
375 n. c. o. and men. 
Colonel Chao Rajbutr, in command. 

Pre District. 
137 n. c. o. and men. 
Major Khoon Anan Yuddhakat, in 

command. 

Nan District. 
357 n. c. o. and men. 
Lt.-Col. Luang Nathnaranuban, 

in command. 

Monthon Petchaboon. 
106 n. c. o. and men. 
Captain Khoon Rak Yotha, in 

command. 

Monthon Puket. 
578 n. c. o. and men. 
Major Luang Rerng Rongabbai, 

in command. 



HIS MAJESTY'S LORDS 
LIEUTENANT. 

Monthon Krungkow — Phya Boran 

Rajathanintr. 
Monthon Chantaburi—- Phya Trang 

Pumapibal. 

Monthon Chumpawn — Phya Boriraks 

' Puthon. 

Monthon Nakon Chaisri — Phya Sun- 

thon Buri. 

Monthon Nakon Rajasrima — Phya 

Kamheng Songkram. 

Monthon Nakon Sawan — Phya Rona- 

jai Janyud. 

Monthon Nakon Srithamaraj — H.R.H. 

Prince ( Chow Fa Krom Khun ) 

Lopburi. 

Monthon Patani— Phya, Deja Nujit. 

Monthon Prachin — H. R. H. Prince 

Krom «Kliun Marubhongse. 

Monthon Bayab— H. E. Chao Phya 

Surasi Visithasakdi. 



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Monthon Pitsanuloke — Phya Surabo- 

din Surintha Rujai. 

Monthon Petchaboon — Phya Sunthon 

Tepakitcha Nuraks. 

Monthon Puket — Phya Surintha Raja. 

Monthon Rajburi — H. H. Mom Chao 

Saridhidej. 

Monthon Roi-et — H. H. Mom Chao 

Thamrong Sari. 
Monthon Ubol — Phya Viset Singhanat. 
Monthon Udon— Phya Sri Suriyaraj 
Varanuyat. 



MINISTRY OF LANDS AND 
AGRICULTURE. 

(Krasuang Kasetratikarn.) 

Minister — H. R. H. Prince Rajburi 

(Rabi.) 
Under Secretary — H. E. Phya 

Prajajib Boribal. 
Private Secretary 

to Minister — Nai Lek. 



Adviser's Office. 

Adviser — W. A. Graham, f. r. g. s., 
m. R. A. 

Assistant — Khun Wiset Kasikich. 
2nd Assistant — P. Sequeira. 



CENTRAL DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Klang). 

Asst. Under Secretary — Phra Pokpol 
Poontawi. 



Correspondence. 

Director — Luang Kasikarn Bancha. 
Deputy Director — Khun Wihikom 

Banakich. 
Chief Clerks— Nai Chai, Nai Song. 



Accounts. 
Director — Luang Kasetr Hiranraks. 
Deputy Director — Khun Pramarn 

Banakich. 
Asst. — Khun Pramuan Banakarn. 
Chief Clerks — Nai Rien, Nai Boon. 

AGRICULTURb. DEPARTMENT. 

Director — Phra Visutr Kasetr Silp. 
Asst. (Agriculture Branch) — 

Khun Siddhi Kosiyabandlm. 
„ (Sericulture Branch) — 

Khun Vichin Banijkar. 
Translator — Nai Inn. 
Chief Clerk — Khun Vicharna 

Banicjkich. 

IRRIGATION BRANCH. 

Chief Expert— T. R. J. Ward, c.i.k., 

M.V.O. 

Personal Assistant — Mom Chao 

Chalart Lop Loesan. 
Secretary — Luang Binit Pitchakarn. 
Assistant — R. C. R. Wilson. 
—A. A. Stoddard. 
„ — F Glass. 
„ —William P. S. Wol stone 

Calleniels. 
Interpreters — Nai Wad, Nai L^k, 

Nai Eck Ee. 
Overseer— Mom Srihabongse. 
Draftsman — Nai Chung. 
Levellers — Nai Chuy, Nai Yoo. 
Accountant — Luang Mahai Sawan, 

LAND RECORDS DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom TabienTi Din). 

Director — R. D. Craig, b.a., ll.k. 
Deputy Director — Luang Witete 

Poomatorn (actg.) 
Assistant — Khun Raksa Poomikitch. 
Chief Clerks — Khun Anuraks Sali. 

Nai Cham, Nai Poh, Nai Oon. 
Translator — Nai Mani. 
Accountant — Khun Wisutr 

Patbamroe. 
Registrar of Companies — Nai Chime. 



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icial Director]/. 



ROYAL DEPARTMENT OF MINES 
& GEOLOGY. 

(Krorn Rachalohakit laa Poom 
Vithya). 
Director — (vacant). 
Deputy Director — Luang Loha Poom 
Pithya Nukarn. 
Inspector General of Mines — 

J. H. Heal, a.r.s.m., f.g.s. 
Chief Assistant — Luang Sakol 

Lohakarn. 
Assistant — Khun Poom Satarn 

Lohaveth. 
„ — Khun Chamnarn Lohawit. 
„ — Khun Pisarn Lohapak. 

.Survey Branch. 
(Kong Rang Wat Ti Din) 
Director — Phya Kamnuan Kakanarn. 
Deputy Director — -(vacant). 
Supt. of Surveys — J. Michell. 

— W. G. Weeks, A.R.S.M. 
Accountant— J. de Campos. 

PROVINCIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF 

THE MINISTRY OF LANDS AND 

AGRICULTURE, 

MoNTHON KrUNGTEP. 

Commissioner for Land Settlement — 
Luang Sarit Sutivicharn. 
Land Officers — Luang Rasatarn Pitaks, 

— Nai Huan, 
Draughtsman — lje&rig Pisarn 

Wisaikum. 
Registrar uf Land Titles— Nai Sui 

(actg.) 

Assistant Registrars — Nai Khan, Nai 

Fetch, Nai Oh. 

MONTOON KrUMtKAO. 

A gri en 1 fc u ra 1 Com m i ssi on e r — K h un 

Pitak Pataikitch (actg.) 
Asst.— -Nai Od. 
Registrar of Land Titles — Khun 

Taratorn Pitaks, 
Asst. — Nai Yen. 



Asst. Registrar of Land Titles for 

Lopburi — Nai Boon Mee. 
Asst. Registrar of Land Titles for 

Angthong — Nai Thong Suk (actg.) 
Asst. Registrar of Land Titles for 

Singburi — Nai Nguan (actg.) 
Registrar of Land Titles, Saraburi — ■ 

Khun Sathon Poom Sathit, 
Assistant — Nai Litra. 

Monthon Nakorn Chai Sri. 

Agricultural Commissioner — 

Luang Banharn Poomsathit (actg.) 
Asst. — Nai Mongol. 
Asst. Registrar of Land Titles, Nakorn 

Pathom — Khun Tararaks Likhit. 
Registrar of Land Titles, Supanburi— 

Nai Pom. 
Asst — Nai Chune. 
Registrar of Land Titles, Samudt Sa~ 

korn — -Nai Boon Thorn (actg.) 
Asst.—Nai Kham. 



Monthon Prachinburi. 

Agricultural Commissioner- — 

Luang Kasipol Pibool (actg.) 
Asst. — Nai Chuem. 
Registrar of Land Titles, Prachin — 

Khun Patai Payuaharaks. 
Asst. — Nai Kheet. 

Asst. do., Cha Cherng Sao — Nai Ong. 
Registrar of Land Titles, Cholburi — 

Luang Pooriraks Bodi, 
Asst.—Nai Chitr. 



MONTKON RAJBURI. 

Commissioner for Land Settlement — 

Phra Kettanuraks. 
Asst. Registrar of Land Titles — 

Nai Arron. 
Asst. Commissioner for Land Settle- 
ment, Petchaburi — Khun Rathabak 
Pibool. 
Asst. — Nai Keo. 



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285 



MONTHON NAKORN SaWAN. 

Commissioner for Land Settlement — 

Luang Pratete Khantakarn. 
Asst. — Nai Chum. 



MONTHON PlTSANULOKE. 

Agricultural Commissioner — 

Phra Sri Panommart. 

Assistant Commissioner — Nai Ann. 

Asst. Agri. Commissioner — In charge 

of experimental garden — F. Lupsa. 

do. do. — Nai Chorn. 

Asst. Registrar of Land Titles, 

Pitsanuloke — Nai Pong. 
Asst. Registrar of Land Titles, 

Sukhotai — Nai Chut. 
Asst. Registrar of Land Titles, 

Pichai — Nai Choei. 



MONTHON ChANTABURI. 

Agricultural Commissioner — Nai Lek 
(acting). 
Assistant— (vacant). 

MONTHON PUKET. 

Agricultural Commissioner — (vacant). 
Commissioner for Land Settlement — 
Khun Narapoom Pi pat. 
Assistant — Khun Wicharn Khavvi. 
Adviser for Mining matters — 

E. Geoffrey Lee, a.r.S.m. 
Chief Mining Officer — Luang Pisetr 

Lohakitch. 
Asst. Mining Officer, Takuapa — 

Khun Pinit Lohapon. 
Asst. Mining Officer, Panga — 

Khun Pisarn Lohakum. 
Asst. Inspector of Mines, Renong — 

G. M. Yetts, a.r.S.m. 

Monthon Nakorn Sri Tamaraj. 

Agricultural Commissioner — 

Luang Pheo Polapak. 
Assistant— -Nai Marn. 



Asst. Mining Officer— Khun Pitak 

Lohapit. 
,, „ — Nai Deng. 

Monthon Nakorn Rajasma. 

Agricultural Commissioner — Khun 

Chamnarn Kosaiyasart (actg.). 
Assistant— Nai Ward. 

Monthon Ubon Rajatani. 

Agricultural Comnissioner — Khun 

San Kosiyapat (actg.). 
Assistant — Nai Boon. 



MINISTRY OF PUBLIC 
INSTRUCTION. 

( Krasuang Dhammakarn. ) 

OFFICIALS OF THE MINISTRY. 

Minister — Chao Phya Phra Sadech 

Surendradhipati. 
Under-Secretary — Phya Baisal 

Silpsatr. 
Asst. Under Secretary — 

H.R.H. Prince Rangsit. 
Adviser— 'W. G. Johnson. 
Law Officer— Phra Pinit. 
Secretary to the Minister — Phra 

Voravart Bhisuddhi, 

DEPARTMENTS OF THE 

MINISTRY. 

a. ) Central Department. 

Director — Phya Phakdi Narubesr. 
Chief Accountant — Phra Pamul. 
Assistant — Khun Hiron Karakosit. 

b.) Krom Dhammakarn. 

( Department concerned with the 
fabric of temples. ) 
Director- I lira Dhammakarbodi. 



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c. ) Ecclesiastical Department.) 
Director — Phya Vudhikarapati. 

d. ) Text Book Department. 
(Krom Rachabandit.) 
Director — Phya Medhadhipati. 

e. ) Education Department. 

Director — Phya Suksa Somboon. 

Chief of Bureau for Arts and Crafts — 

Phra Anukit Vithoon. 

„ „ ., for Commercial Schools 

— Phra Ovard. 

Chief Inspector — E. S. Smith. 

INSPECTORS. 

Chief Inspector for the Provinces — 

Luang Anuthars. 

Inspectors — Luang Vithit, Luang Pra- 
kaup, Khun Vipit, Mom Luang 
Charoen, Khun Anusitdarunraj. 

SCHOOL MANAGERS. 

Luang Anubhan, Khun Vithoon, Khun 

Voravut. Khun Piroon, Khun Vora- 

vate, Khun Visut, Nai Muen, Nai 

Bhakdi. 

FOR STUDENTS ABROAD. 
Supt. — Col. C. V. Hume, d. s. o. 

ORGANISERS OF EDUCATION IN THE 
PROVINCES. 

Ayuthia Province — Khun Chumni. 
Prachinburi — Khun Banharn. 
Rajaburi — -Luang Bamnarn. 
Petchaboon — Khun Phitak. 
( 'hum pom — Khun Prakart. 
Puket — Luang Upakarn. 
Patani — Khun Phibool. 
(Jdorn — Nai Prawm. 
Nakornchaisri — Khun Prakit. 
Nakornsawan — Khun Viput. 



Pit sanulok— Khun Chumnarn. 
Nakornrachasima — Luang Vithet. 
Chantaboon— Khun Vipart. 
Nakornsidhammarat — Khun Bamnet. 
Bayab — Luang Upakorn. 
Ubon — Luang Charoon. 
Roi Etch— Khun Nipit. 

SCHOOLS IN BANGKOK UNDER THE 
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. 

Figures in brackets refer to the 
number of scholars in the school. 

SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

1 ) Normal College. 

(Training College for Teachers) 

(93.) 

Director (Phu pokkraung) — (vacant). 

Head-Master— F. G. Trayes, 

and 7 assistants. 

2 ) Medical College. (209) 

Director — Luang Vichasiddhi. 
Lecturers — Dr. Geo. McFarland. 

Dr. W. B. Toy. 

Dr. H. Adamsen. 

Dr. R. E. G. Tilaka. 

Dr. E. Pin. 

Dr. Lucius. 

Dr. Morden Carthew. 

M. S. Fernandes. 

a) Mahapreutaram Commercial 

School. (81). 

Head-Master — J. Caulfeild James 

with 5 assistants. 

i ) Arts and Crafts School (57). 

Head-Master — Nai Sook (actg.). 
Adviser & Asst. — F. Harrop. 

ORDINARY SCHOOLS, 
a ) Higher Schools. 

1 ) SUAN KULARB VlTYALAI (715). 

Director — Phra Vinitvityakarn. 



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Head-Master — H. E. Spivey. 
Assistant- Masters — E. J. Godfrey, J. 

H. Sedgwick, A. C. Churchill, and 

30 assistants. 

2 ) Debsirindr School (415). 

Director — Luang Charan Chuenapat. 
Head-Master (acting) — T. Judge, m.a. 
(Oxon). 
Asst. Master — N. L. Selley, 

]8 assistants. 

* ) Prathomakongka School (3G5). 

Head-Master— N. Sutton (act.) 
Asst. Master — T. R. Jenkins, and 

13 assistants. 

4) SUDDHIVORARAM SCHOOL (130). 

Head-Master — Luang Vichit Vorasart. 
Asst. Master — P. J. Johnson. 

b) Matyom Schools. 

Benchamabopitr. 
Vinaichamnarn, 

Nuen Noradit. 

Anongkarara. 

Bovaranivet. 

Kaow Fa. 

Satri Vitya (Girls School), 

Sowabha ( „ „ ). 



MINISTRY OF 
COMMUNICATIONS. 

(Krasuang Khamana Khom). 

Minister — H. E. Ohao Phya Wongsa 
Nuprabadh. 
Under-Secretary — Phya Sathien 

Tapana Kitj. 
Keeper of Seal — Phra Vises Banakam. 
Private Secretary — Luang Anusarn 

Prasiddhi. 
Chief Interpreter — Luang Visith 

Banakorn. 



General Administration. 

Director (Chao Krora Saraban) — 

H. H. Prince Suthasna. 
Deputy Director — Luang Visarn 

Banakitj. 
Record Keeper— Luang Narumitr 

Saranukorn. 
Store-Keeper— Khun Charoen 

Rajaphant. 
Archivist — Khun Phrapatr Navakitj. 

Registration Section. 

Registrar — Luang Borom Ra jasavee. 
Head Clerk — Nai Pluang. 

Accounts Section. 

Chief Accountant — Luang Praphai 

Hiranraks. 
Assistant — Khun Pracbaks 

Kitchathon, 



DEPARTMENT OF WAYS OF 

COMMUNICATION. 

(Krom Thang). 

Central Administration . 

Director General—Mom Anuruth 

Deva, m.a , ll.b., Barrisfcer-at-law. 
Adviser — C Allegri. C.E. 
Deputy Director — Lieut. Luang Waree 
Srimaraks. 
Secretary — Lieut. Khun Vorapharkj 

Pochana* 
Interpreter — Nai Chiang , 
Correspondent — Nai Krit. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Horn. 

Accounts Section. 

Chief Accountant— Khun Nart'h 

Thanarak. 

Asst. ,, - — (vacant). 

Sub. „ — Nai Wan. 

Sub. ,, —Nai Thong Suk. 

Sub. „ —Nai Salee. 



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Chief Clerk— Nai Tooh, 

„ —Nai S. Hock. 

Store Section. 

Store Keeper— Khun Sakhon 

Phanphithak. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Ek. 
,-, „ — Nai : Sngar. 

Maintenance and Revenue Section. 

Revenue Inspector — Khun Pithak 

Cholapravetr. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Hien. 
Lock Sapatoom Lock Master — 

Nai Wongse. 
„ Phrakanong Lock Master — 

Nai Sorn. 
„ Sararong Lock Master — ■ 

Nai Heng. 
„• Pasi Charoen Nai Lock Master — - 
Nai Ooy. 
„ Banghea Lock Master — ■ 

Nai Sorn. 
„ Pasi Charoen Nok Lock Master 
— Nai Chalerm. 
„ Bangkanak Lock Master — 

Nai Tong (actg.) 
„ Tatua Lock Master — 

Nai Phorn (actg.) 
„■ Paktaklong Lock Master — 

Nai Chub. 
„ Bang Yang Lock Master— 

Nai Kwan. 
,, Bangnokkwaek Lock Master— 

Nai Thong Dee. 
„ Thakai lx)ck Master — Nai Sart. 

Waterways Branch. 

Official in charge — Luang Phadunge 

Sacorasartra (officiating). 
Supt. Engineer — W. B. Freeman, C. E. 
Executive ,, — John Wolthers, C. e. 

„ ,, — A. Mathiesen, c. E. 

Overseers — Khun Samart Cholakarn, 
Nai Ngirn, Nai, Chera, 
Nai Klew. 



Sub. Overseers — Nai Kuai, Nai Seek. 
Levellers — Nai Cheurn, Nai Iain, 

Nai Chora. 
Chief Draughtsmen— U, N. Nandy, 

Nai Pan. 
Draughtsmen — Nai Tany Nai Charoen. 

Mechanical Section. 

Dredging Inspector — -Axel Green. 
Engineer in charge of workshop- 

V "' 
Chief Clerk — Nai Somboon. 
Dredger Master — O. Massey* 

do. — Khun Chamnarn Cholakhan'. 

do. —Nai P. Chang. 

do. — Nai Juy. 
Asst. Dredger Master— Nai Bio. 

do. — -Nai Phorn. 

do. — Nai Chieng. 



Public Highways Branch, 

Official in charge — Luang Phadunge 

Sacorasartra. 
Executive Engineer — 

M r Ingaramo, C. E. 
do, do. — C. De Giorgis, C. E. 
do. do. — S. Cambiaso, C. E. 
do, do. — R. Facchinetti, C. E. 
Draughtsman — K. Tayama. 
Interpreter — Nai Boonek. 



Provincial Section. 

MONTHON KRUNG KaO. 

District Engineer — (vacant) . 
Asst.— Luang Wang. 

MONTHON NaKON ChAISI. 

District Enginee r — -(vacant) . 
Asst. — Khun Pramuan Hathakarn. 

do. — Nai Bio, 
Overseer — Nai Bua. 
do. — Nai Khar: 



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Monthon Nakon Rajasima. 

District Engineer — (vacant). 
Asst. — Phra Suthorn Tewaphakdee. 
Overseer — Khun Kichirun. 
do. — Nai Luom. 

Monthon Nakonsawan. 

District Engineer — ( vacant ). 

Asst. — Khun Phinit Ohamnongkarn. 

Overseer Nai Pan. 



Monthon Nakonsritamaraj, 

District Engineer— ( vacant ). 
Asst. — Khun Safhanavakarn. 
Interpreter — Nai Seng. 
Draughtsman — Nai Lieb. 
Overseer— Khun Vichit 

'„ — Khun Rongviset Yotha. 

.. — Nai Keo. 
Chief Clerk— Nai Plang. 

Monthon Patan i . 

District Engineer — ( vacant ). 
Asst. — Nai Abdulrahim. 
Overseer — Luang Borithan. 

,, —Nai King. 

,, — Nai Pharcl. 

Muang Saiburi. 
Overseer — Nai Mat. 

Yala District. 
Overseer — Luang Vathakikaju. 

Monthon Prachin. 

District Engineer — (vacant ). 
Asst. — Nai Soon. 

Monthon Payab. 

District, Engineer— ( vacant ). 
Asst. — Chao Praphanphong. 

,, — Luang Phinit Hathakarn. 
Interpreter— Khun Phornphochana- 

pharl 



Muang Lampang. 
Assistant — Chao Rajphatiwongse. 
,, — Luang Sirisiddhi 

Sunthorn. 

Muang Phrae. 
Assistant — Nai Xai. 

Muang Nan. 
Assistant — Chao Rajphatiwongse. 

Muang Chiengrai. 
Assistant — Nai Sook. 

Monthon Pitsanulok. 

! District Engineer — (vacant). 
Assistant — Phra Vichit Kiri. 
Overseer — Nai Xuom. 

Monthon Puket. 

District Engineer — L. Giacone. 
Assistant — Nai Thos. 

—Nai Teck Huat. 
,, — Nai Phum. 
Surveyor — Noi Foi. 
Draughtsman — Nai Norn. 

—Nai Tan Chi Chin. 
Chief Clerk — Nai Meo. 

Muang Trang. 

Assistant — Khek Aim. 
„ —Nai Phard. 

Muang Ranong. 
Assistant — Nai Chew. 

Monthon Rajbtri. 

District Engineer— (vacant). 
Assistant — Nai Chit. 
Overseer — Nai Thes. 
„ —Nai Oo. 

Monthon Ubol Rajthani. 

District Engineer — ( vacant Jl. 
Assistant— Luang Swasdi Kosa. 
—Nai Chun. 
' —Nai Turn. 



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MONTHON UdORN. 
District Engineer — (vacant). 
Assistant — Khun Bantherng 

Phithakarn. 
Surveyor — -Luang Wutvatikam. 

MONTHON CHUMPHORN. 

District Engineer — (vacant). 
Assistant — Nai Taha. 

POST AND TELEGRAPH 
DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Praisanee Thoralek). 

Director General— Phya Achirakarn 

Prasiddhi. 
Asst. Director General — G. Wolf 

(Foreign section). 
,, ,, ,, — Phra Khabuan 

Banasarn (Interior section). 
Chief Electrical Engineer — 

C. Zisswiller. 
Secretary (Foreign Section — 

Richard Gotte. 
Assistant Registrar — 

Khnn Banasarn Sampantakit. 
Asst. Electrical Engineer — 

F. Pickenpack. 
Secretary (Interior Section) — 

Khun Praphit Ohajagarn. 
Supt. of Stores — 

Luang Boriharn Vorapasadu. 
Chief Accountant — 

Luang Anukarn Banakit. 
Asst. Accountant — Nai Seng Kui. 

,, ,, — Khun Vivathanakit. 

Inspector Post and Teh School — 

Luang Banawake Win it. 
Asst. Director of Posts — Luang Bithak 

Royal Household Division. 

Special Supt. of P. & T.~ 

Phya Anutut Wati. 

Post & Telegraph Office No. 4. 
Postmaster- — 

Khun Bumroong Toralake. 



Post and Telegraph Office No. 7. 
Postmaster — Nai Sin. 

Post and Telegraph Office No. 1. 

Superintendent — 

Khun Jawakarn Banchar. 
Asst. — Khun Viwit Thanakarn. 

Post Office No. 2. 

Superintendent — - 

Luang Raijakarn Banchar. 
Asst. — Nai Ruan. 

Telegraph Office No. 2. 

Superintendent — 

Luang Xavakit Banharn. 
Asst. — Luang Chapakit Banharn. 

Post Office No. 5. 
Postmaster — Nai Jai. 

CHIEF POST AND TELEGRAPH 

INSPECTORS. 

Northern Circle — Luang Praisausee 

Turanurak. 
Eastern ,, —Luang Kachorn 

Yuthakril . 
South Eastern Circle — 

Luang Upakarn Nintmitr, 

Upper Southern Oil 
Lower 



jpaivcHii milium Li . 
■ . i ~) Luang 

V Samaharn 
" ) Sanphakit. 



INSPECTORS OF POSTS AND 
TELEGRAPHS. 

Monthon Nakon Chaisri and Rajabuvi 
— Luang Chapasarn Sathorn. 
,, Chumpurn — Khun 

Toraphark Pharhakit. 
,, Puket — Luang Borichitr 

Hatakam. 

,, Nakon Srithamaraj — Luang 

Sarawat Wu? Invidiam. 



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Moi 


ithon Paehim 


— Khun Bunchong 




List of 1 


J OST 


Offices. 








Sanphakit. 


1. 


Anghin 


2. 


Angtong 




., Nakorn 


Rajasima — Khun 


3. 


Ayuthia* 


4. 


Bangkok 1 * f + 








Phrom Toralake. 


5. 


Bangkok 2*fJ 


6. 


Bangkok 4* 




„ Ubon Rajadl 


ani — Khun 


7. 


Bangkok 5 


8. 


Bangkok 7 






Phichitr Torapakdi. 


9. 


Bangkok 8 


10. 


Bangnara 




„ Pitsauuloke- 


-Khun Borirak 


11. 


Bang-pa-in 


12. 


Bangpakong 








Chavakarn; 


13. 


Bangplasoi 


14. 


Buri ram 




.,, Udon — 


Khun Sidhi 


15. 


Ban Don * 


16. 


Chainat 








Toralake. 


17. 


Chantaboon* 


18. 


Chiengmai*fJ 




„ Patani- 


-Khun Turasidhi 


19. 


Chiengrai 


20. 


Chonabot 








Phahakarn. 


21. 


Chumpon* 


22. 


Kalasin 




„ Nakon 


Sawan — Khun 


23. 


Kampengpet 


24. 


Kanburi* 






Samridhi Torakarn. 


25. 


Kemarat 


26. 


Kengkoi 




,, Payab— 


-Luang- Art Toralake. 


27. 


Koh Kam 


28. 


Konken. 










29. 


Korat 


30. 


Krabi 




List of Telegraph Offices. 


31. 


Krabin 


32. 


Lampang *J 










33. 


Lampoon 


34. 


Latbuakao 


1. 


Anghin 


2. 


Angtong 


35. 


Lopburi 


36. 


Langsuen 
Maha-Sarakam. 


3. 


Ayuthia 


4. 


Bandon 


37. 


Makeng 


38. 


5. 


Bangkok 1 


6. 


Bangkok, 2 


39. 


Manorom 


40. 


Meh Sot 


7. 


Bangkok 4 


8. 


Bangkok 7 


41. 


Meklong 
Mukdahan 


42. 


Minburi 


9. 


Bangnara 


10. 


Bang Plasoi 


43. 


44. 


Nakon 


11. 


Chainat 


12. 


Chantaboou 


45. 


Nakonnayok 


46, 


Nakon Panom 


13. 

15. 


Chiengmai 
Kampengpet 


14. 
16. 


Chutnpon 
Koh Kam 


47. 
49, 


Nan * 
Nongkai 


48. 
50. 


Nonghan 
Nontaburi 


17. 


Kanburi 


18. 


Konken 


51. 


Ootaradit 


52 


Ootai 


19. 


Korat 


20, 


Krabiu 


53. 


Paehim* 


54. 


Paklat 


21. 


Langsuen 


22. 


Lam pang 


55, 


Pa k moon 


56 


Paknam 


23. 


Lopburi 


24. 


Makeng 


57. 


Paknam Poll 


n 

59 




25, 


Meh Hongso 


i 26, 


Meklong 


58. 


Pakpreo 
Patani * 


Panga 
Patrievv * 


27. 


Meh Sot 


28. 


Nakon Nayok 


60. 


61 


29. 


Nakon 


30. 


Nongkai 


62. 


Petchaboon 


63. 


Petchaburi 


•81. 


Nan 


32. 


Qothai 


64. 


Phoomrieng 
Nakonpathoi 


65. 


Prabat 


33. 


Ootaradit 


34. 


Paknam 


66. 


n* 


67. Pichai 


35. 


Paehim 


36. 


Pakpreo 


68. 


Pichit 


69. 


Pimai 


37, 


Paknampok 


38. 


Patani 


70. 


Pitsamilok* 


71. 


Poom 


39. 


Pataloong 


10- 


Nakon Patkom 


72. 


Pratoom 


73. 


Phre 


41. 


Patriew 


42. 


Pichit 


74, 


Pranburi 


75. 


Pataloong 
Ratanaburi * 


43. 


Petchaburi 


44. 


Phre 


7<i 


Puket* 


77. 


45. 


Pitsanuloke 


46. 


Paket 


78. 


Raheiig * f 


79. 


Ratburi * 


47. 


Pranburi 


48. 


Rayon g 


! 80. 


Ranga 


81. 


Rahman. 


49. 


Raheng 


50. 


Ratburi 


; 82. 


Reuong 


8& 


Roi-Et 


51. 


Satahip 


52, 


Sing 


1 84. 


Saiburi 


85. 


Sakon Nakon 


53. 


Hid Buri 


54. 


Siraeka. 


86, 


Satooi. 


87, 


Sing 
Sisaket 


55. 


Satuol 


m. 


Suphan 


! 88. 


Singora * 


89, 


57. 


Singora 


58. 


Swankalok 


i 90. 


Siraeha 


91. 


Soongnern 
Supan 


59 


Sukotai 


60. 


iSuriu 


! 92. 


Sukotai 


93. 


-61. 


Trang 


62. 


Ubon 


j 94. Sarin 


$5. 


Swankalok 



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96. Tachin 



Ta 



98. Takuapa 99. Tanyaburi 
300. Tern 101. Trang 

102. I] boa* 103. Yasoton 

* Office participating in the inland 
postal Money Order service. 

f Office participating in the foreign 
postal Money Order service. 

| Office particpating in the foreign 
Parcels Post service. 
Note. — Besides the Post Offices men- 
tioned here almost all the Railway 
Stations act as Postal agencies. 

ROYAL RAILWAY DEPARTMENT. 

(Krom Rot Fai Luang.) 
Broad Gauge Lines. 

CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION. 
Director General — L. Weiler, Kgl. 

Baurat. 
Chief Mechanical Engineer — 

P. Giertz, Kgl. Baurat. 
Chief Auditor & Traffic. 

Superintendent — F. Schnerr. 
Section Engineer — E. Dorow, C. E, 
Medical Adviser -Dr. C. Gayetti. 
Private Secretary & Chief* of Personnel 
( )fuee — Phra Gini Sandananukar. 

Central Office. 

Chief — Phra Gini Sandananukar. 
Interpreter- -1. Gardner. 
Clerk—A, I 'Inch. 

„. Tan Chong Kwang- 

,, J. Lampe. 

Technical Office. 

Asst. Engineer & Architect — 

A. Gerber. 
Chief Clerk— Khoon Sathol RotphibaL 
J )raughtsman — Nai Poon. 

., Nai Thien H-ee. 

A pi r. .. Nai Ruarig. 
,, Nai Khien. 
-James TraiH, 



Executive Service. 

Divisional Engineer — E. Altmann, C.E. 
„ E. Eisenhofer. c.e. 
Section Engineer H. C. Horbach.C.E- 
., „ Max Beer, C.E, 

,, ,, — O. Lueders, C. E. 

„ ,, — F. Zabel, C. E. 

Asst. Engineer — R. Eschenbrenner. 

c. E, 
„ — F. Moebus, c. E. 
„ W. Russ, c. E. 
,, — Hans Raab, C. E. 
Bridge-builder — H. Hoffmann. 
Asst. of Works — A. F. Mueller. 
„ — R. Goette. 
„ — F. Weiss. 
Surveyor and General Asst. — 

G. K. SpitteL 
Asst. Surveyor — T. Higgins. 

„. „ — Moung Tun Hline. 

Dresser Lieutenant Nai Plien. 

„ —Nai Toh. 
Leveller — Nai Pooi. 
,, — Nai Choo. 
Overseer — Nai Pan. 
„ — Nai Choo. 

Maintenance Service. 
Section Engineer — E. Dorow, C. E. 

„ „ — M. F. Gross, c. e. 

Telegraph Inspector — R. Lobeck. 
Asst. ,. ,, — J. F. Kneupelt.,. 
Chief Permanent way Inspector — 

G. F. Wehler. 
„ „ — S. R. Greene. 
„ ,, — J. Reina. 
Asst. „ — K. Moteo. 

„ „ — R. P. Caldera. 
Actg. ,, — Khoon Phipit Rothakon* 

„ ,, — Nai Chim. 
Maintenance Clerk — C. Tyson. 
Timber Overseer — E. Kemp. 

CHIEF AUDITOR'S OFFICE. 

Chief Auditor — F. Schnerr. 
Asst. Traffic Supt. — O. Neidhardt, 
Cashier — P. A. Pestonji. 
Storekeeper — Khoon Sanp Paadukitcfo, 



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Interpreter & Translator - 

Luang Chakr Rathabodi. 
Head Clerk— D. A. Pesttonji. 
,, — J. Perry. 

,, — Khoon Anusit Sarakorn. 

,, — Khoon Anusorn 

Hirankarn. 
Clerk- — Khoon Anunian Rothachakr. 
,, — A. de Souza. 
„ — C. Framji. 
Godown-keeper — Kim Kang. 
Chief Clerk, Goods office — G. Piroshaw. 
Foreman Printing office — 

W. J. Berndt. 

CHIEF MECHANICAL 
ENGINEER'S OFFICE. 

Chief Mechanical Engineer — 

P. Giertz. 

Traffic Service. 

Asst. Traffic Superintendent — 

R. Juerges. 
Traffic Inspector — L. Grenier. 
Head Clerk— P. Feit. 
•Station Master I. — Khoon Pramuan 
Rothakam (Bangkok). 
„ „ II. — Khoon Phinit 

Rothakam (Bangkok). 
„ „ I. — Mas Chinta 

(Ban Phaji). 
., ,. II. — Khoon Phibool 

Rothakit (Ayuthia). 
., „ II. — K. Behram 

(Gengkoi). 
,, „ 11. — Khoon Pracham 

Rothakoon (Korat). 
„ „ 11.— Khoon Phibool 

Rothayon (Lopburi). 
,, „ II. — Khoon Noraphol 

Rothakam (Ban Mee). 
„ II.— -Khoon Phibal 

Rothayon (Chongkeh), 
,, „ II. — Khoon Rathavisit 
Sathorn (Paknampoh). 
<», „ II.— Nai Plum 

(Pitsanuloke). 



Station Master 11. — Khoon Kolayarn. 
Phinit (Utara'dit). 

Workshop Service. 

Asst. Workshop Superintendent— 

L. Rummel. 
Workshop Foreman — J. M. B. Greene. 
„ „ G. Rabe. 

E. H. James. 
Electrician — K. Moeller. 
Head Clerk— F. W. Rine. 
Storekeeper — Nai Srithien. 

Locomotive Service. 

Asst. Loco. Superintendent — 

R. Schaedrich. 
Loco. Inspector — H. Robinson 

(Bangkok). 
„ ~ H. Hills (Pitsanuloke. 
Loco. Driver — E. E. Jacobs (Gengkoi) 
„ „ E. C. Robinson. 

H. N. Keith. 
,, „ D. Maneckji. 

„ ,. L. Van der Straaten. 

„ „ J. C. Capper. 

„ „ C. Jl. Ferdinands. 

,, „ .1. A. Lawrence. 

A. W. W r endt. 
,, „ F. Van der Smagfc. 

., „ Khoon Chen Chakr- 

kitch. 
„ „ Khoon Chitr Chakrkun 

Carriage Examiner — Ah Soon. 

„ _ „ J. D. Milligan. 

Running Shed Fitter— Ah Foon. 

ROYAL STATE RAILWAYS 
SOUTHERN LINE. 

Metre Gauge. 

Estimated length — 1302 Kilometres. 

Under Construction — 945 Kilometres, 

Open to Traffic — 256 Kilometres. 

Controlling Engineer — H. Gittins. 

Chief Mechanical Engineer and Act- 
ing Controlling Engineer — Leslie 
S. Smart. 



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Chief Construction Engineer — 

J. M. Sinclair. 
Chief Auditor— C. F. Hare. 
Consulting and Inspecting Engineer 
— C. P. Sandberg ( London.) 

Ch(EF Mechanical Engineer's 
Department. 

Asst. Chief Mechanical Engineer— 
R. K. Cornish Bowden. 

Asst. Mechanical Engineer's Depart- 
ment — H. A. K. Zachariae. 

Asst. Draughtsman — S. Coroneo. 

Clerk— Nai Kim. 

Chief Auditor's Department. 

Asst. Chief Auditor — F. Stanway. 

Cleik — A. Cordiero, Nai Kho, Wee 
Khoon, Nai Thong Dee, Nai Sang ] 
Nguan, Nai Thong Joo, Nai Liem, i 
Nai Khai Boon, Nai Kim Long, j 

.' Nai Nuam, Nai Pat. 

Typewriter— Nai Weo. 

Central Office. 

Divisional Engineer in charge — 

E. Wyon Smith 
Asst. „ „ —A. F. B, Barratt 
Chief Translator — Luang Raks 

Chotiyarn 
Clerks — Nai Meng Khai, 

Heng, Nai Sawadi. 
Draughtsmen — Nai Choom 

Nai Sawdi, Nai Boon 

Thorn, Nai Noi, Nai Chiem, 

Ta7iom, Nai Thong Mark. 
Typewriter — Nai Lee. 
Siamese Typewriter — Nai Mai. 



Nai Boon 

Nai Parn, 
Mark, Nai 

Nai 



Petchaburi Division. 

Divisional Engineer — R. F. Smvfh. 
Section Engineers — G. C. Snayfch, T. ' 

S. Butler, Phra Ratha Chanprachak i 

A. 0. Robins. 



Assistant Engineer — W. P. H. Roe. 

Accountant — C. Teck. 

Dresser — Ranaweva. 

Engine Drivers— Nai Choom, Nai Toh, 

Nai Har, Nai Suang. 
Principal Overseers — Jando, B. Kadi- 

ron, Delitala, Appiaya, Ibrahim, Nai 

Yuaen, Sunker. 



Chumphon Division. 

Section Engineer in charge — 

C. Ammon. 
Section Engineer — S. Godden. 
Principal Overseers — C. Svvitzer, 

Abdul Samad. 
Engine Driver — Nai Phat. 



Bandon Division. 

Divisional Engineer — V. Doring. 

Section Engineers — Luang Pipat 
Koolbongse, Th. Rabus, Th. Schnei- 
der, V. Strauss, H. A. R. Allan, 
A. K. Ekins. 

Accountant — Nai Nguan Choo. 

Storekeeper- Nai Boon Hee. 

Head Overseer — C. Ramanaden. 

Engine Drivers — Nai Nin, E. Rich- 
mond, G. R. Watcha, C. H, 
Highfield. 

Principal Overseers —Kabul Singh, 
Stien-Bruck, Acherry, 
Nazar, Sundrum, 
Mohomed. 



Singora Division. 

Superintending Engineer — B. T. 

Knight, 
do. do. — G. Canova 

Section Engineers — V. Catella, H. D. 

Fitzgerald, A. Gibb. 
Assistant Engineer — Nai Sanghee. 
Accountant — Ian Kee Yan. 



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29; 



Mechanic il Foreman — H. W. Hill. 
Storekeeper — J. Chapman. 
Engine Drivers — C. O. Richardson, 
S. Walsh, 
B. W. Jacobs, 
M. Sammy. 
Principal Overseers — Kotigala, 
Sharma, 
Green, 
Venchirutti. 

Trang Branch. 

Section Engineer — J. C. Molony. 

Storekeeper — Tan Chong Teck. 

Engine Driver— Jaffar. 

Tunnel Foreman— Russignago, Piefcro. 

Principal Overseers — Hayman, 

A. Corbett, 
Sahib Singh, 
Ali Munch. 
Kanya Lai. 

Nako.n Branch. 

Divisional Engineer— Phra Ramphai 
Bongee Boribatr. 

Tung Sawng Division. 

Acting Divisional Engineer- — 

.1. C. Dumbletoa. 

Section Engineers — C. Smart, 
(;. Catella. 

Accountant — -I . Kuis. 

Principal Overseer — Y\ . Johnson. 

OPEN LINES. 

Bangkok to Btja Hin. 

Asst. Traffic Manager— W. Engelhar&fc 
Asst. Auditor — Luang Pipit Sombat. 
Chief O k Khun Vivit Sara. 
Clerks— Nai Thien, Nai Thiem., Nai 

Yv'ang. Nai Ann, Nai Chit, 

Nai Fung. 
Station Musters : 
Bangkok Noi — C. Banmanji. 
Nakon Fathom — Nai Lai. 
Ratburi — Khun Vicharn Kothikon. 



Petchaburi — Khun Sakol Tothakitj. 

Hua Hin — Nai Sawadi. 

Guards — Nai Clerm, Nai Chuey, 

Bernard!:. 
Bangkok Noi Loco Workshop. 
Loco Inspector — H. Lover. 
Storeman — (vacant). 
Clerk — Nai Seng. 

— : o : — 

MINISTRY OF FINANCE, 

{Krasuang Phraklang Maha Sombatti.) 
Minister — H, R. H. Prince 

Chandabwi. 
Secretary to Minister — (vacant.) 

CENTRAL BUREAU. 
Central Department. 

Under Secretary — Mom Chao Nana. 
Asst. to the U. S.— Phya Raja 

Sombat, 
Director — Luang Kosakara Vicharn. 
Sub-Director — Luang Likit Banalaks. 

License Department. 

Secretary to Licensing Board— 

(vacant.) 

Financial Adviser's Office. 

Financial Adviser — W. J. F. 

Williamson. 
Secretary to F. A. — Phra Supan 

Sombat. 
— : o : — 

G( )M.PT ROLLER-GEN ERAL'S 
DEPARTMENT. 
Comptroller-General — Krom Man 

Bidyalonkorn, 

Account anb Audit Office. 

Deputy Comptroller General — 



Asst. 



E. Flon 
Phra Vimala. 
Phra Boribun. 
A. H. Duke. 



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Official Directory. 



Supteri ntendent— 

„ H. Bauer. 

„ Mom Chao Sudasinoday. 

,, Khun Indr Sorabat. 

„ Khun Sakti. 

, T Khun Savasti. 

„ Khun Vijiya, 

., Khun Srijjhu. 

Luang Dhana Ratana. 
., Luang Surasit. 

, r Luang Anuraks. 

Paper Currency Office, 
Director- — Phya Deb Ratanarindr. 
Treasurer — Luang Siddhi. 
Accountant — Luang Dhana Ratana. 

ROYAL TREASURY DEPART- 
MENT, 

Di reetor-( reneral — Phya Chayos 

Sorabati. 
Asst. , r — Luang Dhana 

Sakdi. 
,,. —Luang Siri Sorabati.. 
Registry of Revenue Farms. 
Director — E. Florio (acting*. 
Asst. -Luang Visudh Thakorn. 

royal mint. 

Central Administration. 
Director General — H. H. Mom Chao 

Sithiporn. 
Assistant— Luang Nanark Karaasok. 

„ — Khun Suit Krasabkarn. 
Chief Assayer — A. Marcan. 
Assistant Assayer — Luang Krasarb. 
Chief Storekeeper — (vacant). 
Hea< I Operative Department — 

Nai Chna. 
— :o :■ — 

CUSTOMS AND EXCISE 

DEPARTMENT. 

(V.ntral Office. 

Director-Genera) — 

H. H. Prince Prom Bongs Adiraj 



Adviser and Deputy Director General 
— William Nunn. 
Asst Director General — 

R. W. Lamberton. 
Chief Secretary — -vacant. 
Asst. Secretary — Luang Uprnik 

Sitsaraban* 
r , „ — Khun Woraphat 

Banharn. 
Paymaster — Khun Sawaddi 

Phokhakorn. 
Chief of Statistical Office — Norman 

Maxwell, 
Analyst — Reinhold Lucius, D. Ph. 
Casher — Tan Chuen Tiong. 

Valuator's Office. 

Valuer — Mom Narathiraj. 
Asst. — Luang Savok Varayuth, 

Export Office. 

Director — Phra Phithak Sorabatti. 
Asst. — Khun Anuman Rajadhanna,. 



Import Office. 
Chief Clerk— Kho Poh Yang. 

Inland Tax and Excise Register 
Office. 

Director — Luang Bhanda 

Lakanavi chains 
Asst. — Luang Sri Ratanakorn, 

Outdoor Staff. 

(Thief Surveyor — H. G. Lam-berion. 
Surveyor — I. P. Calla9o. 
„ A. Drennan. 

„ Luang Sorabatti 

Thanyaphom 
„ Khun Bhahiraban 

Borirakse 
Chief Preventive Officer— C Knox. 
Superintending Engineer — t\ Dean. 



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Paknam Station. 
( >fficer in Charge — Phra Rajaya 

Sathok. 

Kohsichang Station. 
Officer in charge — L. F. Schmidt. 

SPIRIT SECTION. 

Director — P. Petithuguenin. 

,. — Phra Aksorn Sombatti. 
Chief Inspector— Luang Samosorn 

Thanasarn. 
Asst. Inspector— R. J. Gibbons. 

,, ,, L. N. Lamache. 

Spirit Distiller — Phya Choduk 

Rachasethi. 

ROYAL OPIUM ADMINISTRATION 
DEPARTMENT. 

Central Bureau. 

Director General — H. H. Mom Chao 

Piya Pakdee. 
Assistant Director— Phya, Sundhorn 

BhimoL 
„ „ -—Nai Tangkuai. 

Secretary — Nai Thouay. 
( )ffice Superintendent — 

Luang Dhanabhidh Bhisal. 

Accounts Section. 

Chief Accountant — Luang Thanakorn 
Pakdee 
Assistant — Luang Subhan Ratana- 

bhichit. 
Superintendent opium divans — Luang 
Rajnit Bhimol. 
•„ ,, — Luang Isoon 

Sudhivisai. 
Chief cashier— -Phra Tonapharn Bhisit. 

Opium Store Section. 
Chief Store Keeper — Chin Back. 

Opium Factory (Samsen). 

Manager in Chief— H. H ; Mom Chao 
Sithiporn. 



Asst.— Luang Phi phut Tanakoru. 
Store Keeper — KhunTonarith Phitak. 
Works superintendent — 

Khun Tanarak Phi tarn. 
Accountant — Nai Butr. 



Preventive Section. 

Chief Inspector— Phra Phinit 

Phokakorn. 
Asst. — -Nai Cheng Choon. 



Law Investigation Section. 

Law investigating officer — 

Nai Tongdea 



VAJIRANANA NATIONAL 
LIBRARY. 

(Ho Phra Samud Vajiranana) 

Founded by Royal decree, 

1 2th October 1905. 
President — EL R. H. Prince Sommot 

Amarabandhu. 
Committee — H. R. H. Prince 

Damrong Rajanubhab. 
„ — H. H. Mom Chao Piya 

Bhakdinarth. 
„ — H. E. Phya Boran 

Rajadhanindr. 
„ — H. E. Chao Phraya Phra 

Sadech. 

Secretary and Treasurer — H.H. Prince 

Kavivacanasuprija. 

Chief Librarian — 0. Frankfurter, Ph . f ). 

Librarians — Phra Mahavijadharm. 

„— Hluang Nana Vich.it. 
Attached — Phra Bariyati Dharm, 

Siamese literature (I 'rose). 
„— Hluang Dharm Bimon, 

Siamese literature (Poetry). 
,,-— Phra Debalok, Brahman ical Lore 
and Peguan language. 
,, — Khun Chen Chin aksor. 



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ROYAL COMMISSION FOR 

FOREIGN EXHIBITIONS. 

President — His Majesty The King. 
Vice-Presidents — Prince Krom Miin 
Bidyalonkorn. 
— Phya Phi pat Kosa. 
Secretary General — A. H. Duke. 

— : o :— 

H. M. KING CHULALONG- 

KORN'S CIVIL SERVICE 

COLLEGE. 

Board of Governors. 

President — H.R.H. Prince Krom Phra 
Dam long. 
H.R.H. Prince Krom 

Luang Bismiloke. 
B. B. Chao Phya Abhai 

Raja. 
H. K. Chao Phya 

Phra Sadech. 
H. E. Phya Sri Wara- 

wongse. 
II. E. Phya Bisala. 
Luang Binit Nitinaya. 
Director General — H. E. Phya Sri 

Warawongse. 
Superintendent — Major Luang Deb. 
Assistants — Luang Dusit. 
Khoon Bichan. 
Khoon Raj. 
Accountant — Luang Dhanaraks. 
Registrar — Luang Sinid. 

Civil, Service Branch. 
Head Master — Mom Anuvatr. 
Lecturer in Administration — 

Koon Bann. 
Lecturer in Surveying — Koon 

Dharabhag. 
Lecturer in Arithmetic,'! 

Book Keeping and V — Nai Ann. 
Geography. ) 

Lecturer in Ethics — Mom Anuvatr. 
Assistant — Koon Narth Sanit. 



Lecturer in Siamese! 

Language and > —Mom Anuvatr 
Literature ) 

Assistants — Nai Tong Dee. 

Nai Ahn. 
Teachers of English — 

B. 0. Cartwright, B.A. 

(Cantab). 
„ „ — Luang Jettha. 

„ ,, — Nai Soon Heng. 

„ ,, — Nai Sai. 

Special Lecturer in Criminal Law — 

Luang Rirldhamat. 
., „ in Contract Law — 

Luang Visuddhakara. 
., „ in History — 

Luang Likhit. 
Engineering Branch. 
Head Master — Mom Anuvatr. 
Lecturer in Surveying — Luang Nabha. 
,, in Siamese — 

Koon Narth Sanit. 

„ in Mathematics and Drawng 

— Luang Nabha. 

,. in Physics ami Chemistry — 

Mom" Raj won gse Toh, Ph. D. 

Teachers of English — B. 0. Cartwright, 

B.A. (Cantab). 

— Luang Jettha. 

— Nai Soon Heng. 



ROYAL SURVEY DEPT. 

(Krom Phendi) 

(Attached to the General Staff of the 
Army.) 

(See also page 256.) 

Administration Branch. 

Director — Colonel Bhra Wibhay 

Bhuw^dol. 
Deputy Director — A. J. Irwin, b. a., 

b. a. i., Assoc, M. Inst. C. E. 
Chief Translator — A. E. de Campos 

(act.). 



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Pa lad Keom's Branch. 

Palad Krom— -Blna Sakol Kich 

Prarouan. 

Secretary — Hluang Prajum Banasarn. 
Officer-in-Charge, Transport and Sani- 
tary Party— Khun Chaiiradhaket. 
Assistant — Lieut. Yai. 

Accountant's Branch, 

Accountant— A. E. de Campos. 
Officer-in-Charge, Disbursements Party 
— Khun Sidhdhikornbhandhabhidh. 
Officer-in-Charge, Revenue Party — 

Khun Prasan Sisaat. 
-,, Stores Party— Khun 

Bhasdupradisth. 

Field Staff Branch, 

Chief of the Field Staff— Lieut.- 

Colonel Hluang Ridhdhi Rdc-angron. 
Superintendent — S. W. Masterman, 

Assoc. M. Inst., 0. E. 
,., — P. R, Kemp. 

Asst. Supei-intendent — 

W. Warner Shand. 
,' — K. G. Gairdner, F.S.I. 
r, — W. M. Gilmore, R.A., B.A.I. 
Asst. Supt. — Hluang Anusith 

Bhumidhes 
-Hluang Bhibhidh 

Bhum Bicharn, 
,., — Capt, Mom Hluang Tas. 

„ — Lieut. Yim. 

,, — Lient. Un. 

„ — ,. Dhohng Yu, 

,, — „ Charoen. 

Asst. Surveyor — S. -I. Pieris. 
Accountant — -H. Warnken. 

Mapping and Educational Branch, j 
Chief of Branch — (vacant). Officer-in- ! 
Charge, Educational party, Acting, j 
'Office r-i-u-Charge, Drafting .Party — 

Hluang Likit Shamalak. 
Assistant — I. R. Bell. 
Officer-in-Charge, Printing Party— 

Hluang Sarin Bhanaran (actg.) 



Assts.— Khun Dhara, H. de Sa, and 

Khun Rangsan. 

Officer-in-Charge, Educational Party — 

Hluang Praman Satholamarg. 

,, Map Storage and Sales Party — 

Khun Prasan Sisaat (actg.) 



MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN 
AFFAIRS. 

(Krasuang Karn Tangprathes.) 

Minister — H. R. H„ Prince Deva- 
wongse Varoprakar. 

tinder Secretary of State.— 

Phya Phi pat Kosa (Xavierj. 
First Secretary— Luang Visutr Kosa. 
„ — Mom Chao Damra,s 

. Dam ron g. 
2nd Secretary — Luang Vises 

Virajthan. 
,, ■ — Khun Akson Sombat. 

1st Asst, — Khun Samak Maitriraj. 



Political and Diplomatic. 

Director — Phya Dibkosa. 
Sub-Director — Luang Vioharu Kosa. 
1st Asst. — iVtuii Vises Akson. 



Judicial and Consular, 

Director- -Phra Ditfaakar Bhakdi. 

Sub-Di rector— ( vacant ). 

1st Asst, — Khun Vises Rochanakar. 



Archived. 

.Sub-Director — Luang RafcanayaptL 
1st Asst. — Khun Sa-man Maitriraks. 



Accounts. 

Director— Phya Raksa Sombat. 
1st Assistant — Khun Ratanathib. 
2nd. ,, — Khun Vithit Voratar 



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BUREAU OF THE GENERAL 
ADVISER 
General Adviser — 

Phya Kalyan Maitri. 
(Jens I. Westengard.) 
Secretaries — Phya Boriraks 

Chaturongs. 
Mom Chao Vipulya. 
Luang Basa Parivafcr. 
Assts., First — Mom Chao Kaehorn. 

Nai Bah. 
Assts., Second — Nai Pan, 
Nai Poh, 
Nai Th ie m 



DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES 
ABROAD. 

Great Britain, Netherlands, 
Belgium. 
(legation in London, 2o Ashburn- 
place. South Kensington.) 
ILS. M's. Envoy Ext r. and Minister 
Plen .— Phya Sudham Maitri. 
Councillor— W. J. Archer, C.M.G. 
1st Seer.— Phra Sanpha&iteh Pvicha. 
3rd Seer.— L. C. Bateman. 
Attache — Nai Tiem. 
,. — Nai Seum. 
2nd Asst.— G. Loftus. 
Std. Attache— Nai Mani. 
— Nai Pradit. 

Nai Suprida. 
— G eorges Xa vi er. 
— M, C. Wanwaithaya- 

kom. 

France,. Italy, Sim in, and 

Portugal. 

(Legation in Paris, avenne d'tfylau.) 

H. 8. M's. Bnvoy Extr. and Minister 

IMen.— His Highness Prince 

Charoon. 
Councillor — ( '. 0. D'Orelli. 
2nd Seer.— Phra Montri Nikorri Kosa.. 
3rd Seer.— Luang Vi.sutr Sunthorn. 
» — I' 1 , de Kickman. 



2nd Asst. — Nai Soodchai. 

,, — -Nai Cheun. 

Std. Attache — Nai Choo. 
„ — Nai Lorn. 

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and 

Denmark. 

(Legation in Berlin, Herwarthstrasse, 

3 a.) 
H. S. M's. Envoy Extr. and Minister 
Plen. — His Highness Prince Traidos. 
Councillor — Dr. H. Keuchenius. 
2nd Seer. — Phra Bhinij Virajkitch. 
Attache— H. Loftus. 
Assistant — H. Albers. 
Std. Intr. — Mom Rajawongse Pow. 
,, — Nai Boon Leur. 

Russia, Sweden, and Norway. 

(Legation in St. Petersburg, 6 Quai 

de TAniiraute.) 

H. S. M ? s. Envoy Extr. and Minister 

Plen. — Phra Visarn Bojanakitch. 
Councillor — G. Cuissart de Grelle. 
Seer. Intr.— Luang Lipikorn Kosol. 
Std. Attache — -Nai (Jhon. 

Japan. 

( Legation in Tokyo. ) 

H. S. M T s. Envoy Extr. and Minister 

Plen. — Phya Chamnong Dithakar. 
2nd Seer. — Luang Bides Bojana- 

visudhi. 
Attache — Nai Chuong. 
2nd Asst. — Mr. Katori. 
—Nai Phu. 
,, — Nai Kkarb. 
,., — Nai Vew. 

America. 

(Legation in Washington, The 

Arlington.) 

H. S. M r s Envoy Extr. and Minister 

Plen. — Phya Praphakaravvongse. 
1st Seer. — Edward Loftus. 
Attache — Nai Choat. 

„ — Nai Chat Chavarn. 
2nd Asst.— Nai Wong. 



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LIST OF HIS SIAMESE MAJESTY'S 

CONSULS IN EUROPE, 

AMERICA AND ASIA. 

CONSULATES-GENERAL. 

Brussels — H. Hoeylaerts, 

Consul-General. 
Berlin — Baron Paul von Merling, 

Consul-General. 
Christiania — Chrs. B. Lprenzen, 

Consul-General. 
„ — Ina Wettre, 

Vice Consul-General. 
Copenhagen — H. N. Andersen, 

Consul-General. 
,, — C. Sveistrup, 

Vice Consul-General 
Hamburg — M. E. Pickenpack, 

Consul-General. 
London — Sir. John Anderson ( Phra 

Bhides Bhanij ), Consul-General. 
Paris — (vacant). 
,, —P. Sarazin, 

Vice Consul-General. 
Penang — The Hon. A. D. Neubronner 
(Pli3 T a Davip Siamkitch), 
Consul-General 
,, — H. A. Neubronner, 

Vice Consul-General. 
Singapore — A. Hood Begg. 

Consul-General. 
Stockholm — Axel A. Johnson, 

Consul-General. 
„ — Helge A. Johnson, Consul. 
Vienna — E Muller (Phra Patibat 

Rajprasong ), Consul-General. 
„ — -Leopold Langer, Consul. 

CONSULATES. 

Antwerp — R. Cateaux, Consul. 

,, — Paul Cateaux, V r ice-Consul. 
Amsterdam — D. H» P. Mackay, 

Consul. 
Bombay — Alister Forbes, Consul, 
Batavia— W. B. Ramage, Consul. 
Bremen — Ed. Delius, Consul. 



Budapest — Wilhelrn Kanitz, Consul. 
Calcutta — Sir A. A. Apcar, k. c. S. ).. 

(Luang Siam Kritiyanuraks), Consul. 
Chicago — Milward Adams, Consul. 
Colombo T. S. Clark, Consul. 
Dordretch — Jam Gaatra, Consul. 
Dresden — R. Hammer, Consul. 
Florence — Cavaliere Vittorio Zeggio, 

Consul. 
Frankfort — Paul Loewenthal, Consul. 
Genoa — Enrico Caprile, Consul. 
Ghent — Robert Francois Ramlot, 

Consul. 
Gibraltar — Harry. Joseph King, 

Consul. 
Glasgow — J. W. Murray, Consul. 
Haiphong — A. Giqueaux, 

Consul (actg.) 
Hanover — Heinrich Gornau, Consul. 
Hongkong — Sir Catchick Paul 

Chater, Consul. 
Liege — Paul Rollin, Consul. 
Lisbon — Gullium Ferera Pinto Basto, 

Consul. 
Liverpool — Donald A Stewart, Consul. 
Macao — Bernadino de Senna 

Fernandez, Consul. 

Madrid — Luis BerMejello Marque* 

de Mohemando,' Consul. 
Malta — S. Micallef Eynaud, Consul. 
Marseilles — -A. C. Vimond, Consul. 
Maulmain — Arthur Hamilton Russel, 

Consul., 
Mauritius — Henry Goupille, Consul. 
New York— L. T. Hildreth, Consul. 
Ostend — F. de Cannart d'Hamale, 

Consul. 

Rangoon — B. J. B. Stephens, Consul. 

Rome— Commander A. Ceuturini. 

Consul. 

Rotterdam — Fritz .). E. Horstmann, 

Consul. 

Saigon — Louis Stang, Consul. 
Samarang — R. F. G. Fleming, Consul, 
Sourabaya — H. N. Loney. Consul. 
Trieste — Elis Matatia, Consul. 



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302 



Official Directory. 



^Diplomatic anb Consular $$obs>. 



LEGATIONS. 

AMERICAN LEGATION. 

( Established May 29th, 1856 ). 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary — Alexander Sweek. 
Secretary of Legation — Sheldon 

Leavitt Crosby, (Aug. 22, 1912). 
Interpreter — Lao Leng Hui 
Telegraphic Address— Amlegation. 
Telephone Number — 247. 



American Consulate General 

Office Hoars 9— o, Sat. 9—12 
Consul-G eneral — Sheldon Leavitt 

Crosby. 
Vice and Deputy Consul-General — 

Carl Christian Hansen, 

Apl. 2. (1909.) 
Marshal — Lao Leng Hui. 
Clerk — Tan Cheng Kui. 
Telegraphic address — Am consul. 
Telephone Number — 247. 

(The Consul-General is also in 
charge of the interests of the Republics 
ot Cuba and Panama. Residents oi 
Insular Possessions owing allegiance 
to the United States are protected in 
Siam to the same extent as American 
citizens) . 



I. & R. AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN 
LEGATION. 

Envoy extr. and Minister plertip. — 

Rudolph Wodianer von Magldd. 

Appointed, 1/1 1/1912. 

Accredited, 1 1/3/1913. 
Secretary of Legation — E. [veil. 
Chancellor — K. Siehenkittl. 

Telegraphic Address : Austung. 



I. & R. Consulate — vacant. 

(Office hours, 9-12.) 

The I. & R. Legation is at present 
charge of the Consulate. 



BELGIAN LEGATION & CONSULATE 
GENERAL, 

Sapatum. 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary — A. Frere, 

(23rd August, 1911). 
Vice-Consul — (vacant; . 

(Consular Office Hours, 10-12 noon). 

LEGATION DE LA REPUBLIQUE 
FRANCAISE. 

Envoys Extraordinaire et Ministry 
Pienipotentiaire — P. Lefevre 

Pontalis. 
Consul — J. Tripier (Secretaire d'Am- 
bassade fasiaut fonctions de Consul). 
1st Interprete — ±1. Bonnafous, Eieve 

Interpret?. 
Chancelier R. Blondeau, Eleve 

Interprete. 
Eleve Interprete — R. Garreau. 
Medecin — Dr. A. Poix. 

—Dr. E. Pin. 
Greffier — F. Chalant. 
Com mis — A. David. 
„ — Ko To Khi. 

CONSULAT DE XlENGMAI. 

Consul — H. Lugan. 
Gerant— C. Notton. 

VlCE-CONSULAT D'OUBONE. 

Gerant— M. Topenot. 

VlCE-CONSULAT DK ChANTABOUN* 
VlCE-CONSULAT DE KORAT. 



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Official Dift'-'iori/. 



303 



IMPERIAL GERMAN LEGATION AND 
CONSULATE GENERAL 

Surisak Road, 

Telegraphic address : Gerniania. 

Telephone No. 125. 

A. B. C. Code 5th edition. 

Bodiker Familien. 

Telegrapher-Schliissei. 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary — P. von Buri. 
Secretary of Legation — Dr. E. Remy. 
Interpreter — K. Zobel. 
Asst. Interpreter — P. Ulrich. 
Chancellor — H. Rieschick. 
Asst. Chancellor — 0. Sandreczki. 



I. TURKISH CONSULATE GENERAL. 
In Charge : — Imperial German 

Legation. 

SWISS INTERESTS : 

In Charge : — Imperial German 

Legation. 



R. SPANISH CONSULATE GENERAL. 

In Charge : — Imperial German 

Leo-.it ion. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 
H. B. M. Legation and Consulati- 
General. 

Hours of Bangkok Consulate General : — 
9 a tn. to noon; 1.30 p. m. te 3.30 p m. 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary — A. R. Peel 

(Sept. 1.5th. 1909). 
Consul-General, Bangkok — Th. H. 

Lyle (15th Octr. 1913.) 
Consul, Chiengmai— (vacant). 
Vice-Consul, Puket — W. N. Dunn. 
Vice-Consul, Nakawn Lam pang— 

W. A. R. Wood. 



Consul, Senggora — G. H. R. Moor. 
Vice-Consul, Bangkok — J. Crosby. 
First Assistant ( with local rank of 
Vice-Consul in Bangkok Consular 
District)— J. P. Johns. 
First Assistant ( with local rank of 
Vice-Consul in Chiengmai Consular 
District)— F. G. Gorton. 
Second Assistant — H. Fit«maurice. 
Acting ., R. S. Le May. 

J. D. Hogg.' 
G. A. Vesey Fitz- 
Gerald. 
., ,, John Bailey. 

Medical Attendant. Bangkok — M. A. 

Smith. m.r.C.s., l.r.C.p. (Lond). 
Clerk— B. C. Neoh. 
Siamese Writer — (vacant.) 

—A. AH. 
Indian Interpreter — T. T. Rungara. 



ITALIAN LEGATION. 

(Consulate hours : from 10 a. m. to 12.) 

Consulate Court sits on the Legations 
premises, Poh Yom Road, 2s o. 8. 
Telephone No. 605. 

Marches© Enrico Durand de la Pemne, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary, (25th July 1911). 

Goffredo Bovo — Chancellor- Interpret- 
er, (2.1st November, 1911 ). 



JAPANESE LEGATION AND CONSULATE. 

( Consulate Hour* from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m ) 
Consulate Court Sits Irregularly. 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary — Sakuya Ybshida, 
(June, 1908.) ' 

Third Secretary and Consul — 

Goro Miho', (February, 1912.) 

Chancellor— Masao Shirahama. 

Police Inspector— Suketoshi Kukita. 



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Official Directory. 



NETHERLANDS LEGATION. 

( Consulate Hours 9-12.) 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary— F. J. Domela 

Nieuirenhuis. (24th December 

1907.) 

Secretary and Siamese Interpreter — 

G. Lake. 

Captain N. I. Malays and Javanese — 

Hadji Abdool Kadir ( Interpreter, ) 

Head Constable — Hadji Abdul Karim. 



RUSSIAN LEGATION AND CONSULATE- , 
GENERAL. 

(Consulate Hours 10-12 a. in.) 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister ! 
* Plenipotentiary —Georges de Plan- ! 

9on, Chamberlain of H. M. the | 

Emperor of Russia, (26th January 

1910). 
[In Charge also of Danish interests in 

Siam.] 
Secretary of Legation — 

J. L. Skarjinski, (14th Sept, 1911). 
Asst. Secretary — (vacant). 
Interpreter - J. A. T. de Barros. 

PORTUGUESE LEGATION. 

{Office hours from 8 to 11 n.m- mnd 
1 to 3 p.m.) 
The Consular Court sits every day if 
there is any case to be tried. 
Charge d'Affaires — Cominandeur Luiz 
Leopoldo Floros, credentials dated 
12th June 1912. presented in Bang- 
kok on 3rd January 1913. 
Secretary-Interpreter of Legation — 
Luiz Carlos Manoel de Mello Flores 



Presidential Decree, 16th Nov. 1912. 

Chancellor, Vice Consul — Antonio 

Joao Flores — Presidential Decree, 

26th April, 1912. 

Captains of Portuguese subject* of 

Chinese race : — 
Accas — Lam Ngui Sang. 
Techios — Kao Seng Po. 
Mas — Ma Chan'Iu. 



CONSULATES GENERAL 

CONSULATE-GENERAL FOR NORWAY. 

(Consulate Hours 9-12, 3-4, 

Saturday, 9-12). 

Telephone 299. 
Telegraphic address " Noreg." 
Code used, A.B.C. 5th Ed. 
Consul-General — H. B. Borgersen 

(22nd November, 1911). 



SWEDISH CONSULATE-GENERAL. 

(Consulate Hours, 10-12 a.m. 2-4 p.m ) 
Consul-General— A, Mohr. 

(6th December. 1912). 
Residence — Larn Luang Road. 



CONSULATES. 



DANISH CONSULATE. 

Consulate Hours 9 2. 
Consul missus — C. von Hoick 

(4th January. 1909 ). 



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General Directory. 



:;o; 



dcnentl fferiom 



G. Guillou, Church of Hua Phai, 

Pet riu. 
A. Peyrical, J. P. Bonvent, and L. .1. 
Calenge, Church of the Conception, 
Chantaboon. 
A. Matrat, (absent). 
J. M. P. Besret, (absent). 
P. A. Salmon, Church of the 

Nativity, Bannokhuek. 
J. H. Carrie, Church of St. Paul, 

Petriu. 
A. Perroy, Church of Pachim. 
E. Loetscher, College of Sacred Heart 
of Jesus. 
G. A. Houille, Church of Kanburi. 
H. J. B. Juglar, Church of Pak Klong 
Talat, Petriu. 
J. M. J. Bellamy, Church of Paknam 
and Paklat. 
Ch. Sommelet, Church of the Holy 

Rosary, Bangkok. 
J. P. Tapie, Church of Song Phi Nong. 
G. M. Voisin, Church of St. Paul, 

Petriu. 
L. Perlay, College of Sacred Heart 

of Jesus. 
J. P. R. Perbet, Church of St. Paul, 

Petriu. 
G. David, Church of Ko Yai, Ayuthia. 
L. P. Richard, Church of 

Dongkabuang. 
C. Durand, Church of Lamsai 

( Klong Rangsit ). 
A. M. Roiidel, Church of Khorat. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS IN 
SIAM. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

SIAM MISSION. 

Right Rev. Rene Marie Joseph Perros, 
Bishop of Zoara and Vicar Apostolic 
of Siam. 
Aloys d'Hondt, pro- Vicar Apostolic, 
Church of St. Francis-Xavier, Sam- 
sen. 
E. A. Colombet, pro-Vicar Apostolic, 
Assumption Church, Bangkok. 
.1. B. Fouillat, Church of the Holy 
Rosary, Bangkok. 
J. A. Fauque, Church of the 

Conception, Samsen. 
L. P. Romieu, 

Assumption Church, Bangkok. 
L. J. F. Faivre, 

Assumption Church, Bangkok, 
h. J. Guignard, Church of the 

Conception, Samsen. 
Revd. Boniface, Church of St. Joseph, 
Ayuthia. 
P. Broisat, Church of St. J. B., 

Banplaina. 
M. Carton, Church of St. Peter, 

Nakhonxaisi. | 
L. P. Perroudon, Church of'Paknampoh. 
G. J. Bayle, Church of Hua Khai, 

Petriu. 
L. Loetscher. Church of the Holy Name 

of Jesus, Muang Chonburi. J Assumption College fo-k Boys. 
M. Buhl, (absent.) 
N. Barbier, Church of Vat Phleng. 
A. Chancliere, Assumption Church, 

Bangkok 

A. Gastal, Church of the Holy Name 

of Jesus, Mining Phrora, 

8. •). Jung, Church of the Conception, 



Superintendent and Director — 

Rev. Brother Martin de Tom 
French and English Departments. 
The Rev. Brothers of St. Gabriel. 

Siamese Department. 
Rev. Brother Mi la ire. 



Chantaboon. i Nai Thim. etc. 



306 



General Directory . 



High Schools for Girls. 

Convent Boarding School of St. 

Joseph. 

Directed by the Sisters of St. Paul. 
Lady Superior — Sister St. Xavier. 
11 European Nuns. 
Assumption Day School. 
Directed by the Sisters of St. Paul. 
Lady Superior — Sister Ste. Anne. 
8 European Nuns. 

LAOS MISSION. 

Right Revd. 0. J. Prodhonnne. Bishop 
of Gera, and Vicar Apostolic of | 
l^aos (residing at Nong-Seng). 

Church of Nongseng. 

(Near Lakon Phanom). 
Bight Revd. Bishop C. J. Prodhomme. 
Revd. Eustache Berteas. 
Revd. Paul J. M. Fresnel. 

Chukch of Kham Keum. 

Revd. Georges Dabin. 
Revd. Gustave Lagathu. 

St. Anne Day School. 
( Norag Seng ). 

Directed by the Sisters of St. Paul. 

Lady Superior — Sister Ste. Ursule. 

H European Nuns. 

Church of Don Don. 
Revd. Felix Chabanel. 

Church of Sieng Jun. 
Revd. Antoine Lazare. 

Church of Oubon. 

Revd. Anthelme ExcoflTon, 
Revd. .Joseph ( lourrier. 
ii.v.l. Pierre Exeoftou. 



Ste. Marie Day School. 
( ot Oubon ). 
Directed by the Sisters of St. Paul. 
Lady Superior — Sister Ste. Agnes. 
4 European Nuns. 

Church of Sang Ming. 
Revd. Antoine Marchi. 

Church of S-akon Nakhon. 
Revd. Joseph Oombourieu. 
Revd. Prospere Alazard. 
Revd. Athanase Phai. 

Church of Chanphen. 
Revd, Albert Lacombe. 

Church of Vien Chan. 
Revd. Paul Pierre Figuet. 

Church of Pak-san. 
Revd. Celestin Delalex. 

Church of Song Khon. 
Revd. Hyacinthe Gratien. 

Church of Si Than. 
Revd. Eugene Boner. 

Church of Muang Khuk. 
( Near Nong Khai ) . 
Revd. Edmond Jantet. 
Revd, Ainbroise Xu'n. 

Church of Sieng Vang. 
Revd. Xavier Guego. 
Revd. Clement Touve. 

Church of Dong Mak Ba, 
Revd. M. I. O. Malaval. 

Church of Bassac. 
Revd. Arsene Couasnon. 
Revd. Georges Chastenet. 
Revd. Gabriel Vong. 

Church of Ban Uet. 
Revd. -lean Buchet. 



General Director)/. 



3(H 



Church of Jasathox. 
Revd. Leon Quentin. 
Revd. Casimir Dezavelle. 

Church of Ban Bua. 
Revd. Joseph Burguiere. 

Church of Na Bua. 
Revd. E. H. Barrio! . 

Cburch of Don Thoi. 
Revd. I. B. Stoeker. 



AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 

S1AM MISSION. 

Chairman— Rev. J. A. Eakin, D. D., 
Petchaburi. 

Secretary — Rev. A. W. Cooper, 

Pitsanulok. 

Treasurer— Rev. J. B. Dunlap, 

Bangkok. 

Bangkok. 

Rev. J. B. Dunlap and Mrs. Dunlap. 
Rev. F. L. Snyder and Mrs. Snyder 

(absent). 
Rev. W. G. and Mrs. McClure. 
Miss E. S. Cole- 
Miss A. Gait (absent). 
Miss M. C. McCord. 
Miss Blount. 
Miss A. J. jy 11 in wood. 
Mr. E. M. Spilman, and Mrs. Spilman. 
Mr and Mrs. C. A. Steele. 
Mr. A. M. McClure, 

Nakawn Sritamarat. 

Rev. & and Mrs. C. E. Eckels. 

Dr. and Mrs. Van Meter. 

Miss L. J. Cooper. 

Rev. E. Wachter, M.D.,&Mrs. Wachter 

Mies B. Moller. 



Pitsanulok. 

Rev. R. C. and Mrs. Jones (absent). 
Dr. C. J. and Mrs. Shell man. 
Rev. and Mrs. Herbert W. Stewart. 
Rev. A. W. Cooper. 

Petchaburi. 

Dr. & Mrs E. B. McDaniel. 

Rev. Dr J. A. Eakin and Mrs. Eakin. 

Rev. and Mrs. R. W. Post. 

Rev. Paul Eakin. 

Tap Teang. 

Rev. E. P. Dunlap, d.d., & Mrs. Dunlap 
L. C. Bulkley, M.D., & Mrs. Bulkley. 
Miss J. Christensen. 

Bangkok Christian College. 

(Phone 264.) 

Rev. W. G. and Mrs. McClure. 

Miss A. Gait (absent). 

Mr. A. M. McClure. 

Rev. R. 0. Franklin and Mrs. 

Franklin.- 

Wang Lang School. 

(Phone 137.) 

Miss E. S. Cole. 
Miss M. C. McCord. 
Miss Blount. 
Miss Ellinwood. 

American Presbyters an 
Mission Press. 

(Phone 139. ) 
E, M. Spilman & Mrs. Spilman. 

Boon Itt Memorial. 

Young Men's Institute. 
(Phone 414.) 
Mr. & Mrs. C. A. Steele. 



308 



General Directory. 



Krit Sampantawong Memorial 

Chapel. 

Near the German Legation in Bang- 
kok. Services in Siamese and in 
English every Sunday. 



LAOS MISSION. 
Chiengmai. 

Mrs. S. B. McGilvary. 

R.ev. I). G. Collins and Mrs. Collins. 

J. W. McKean, M. U. and 

Mrs. McKean. 
Rev. Howard Campbell. D. J) , and 

Mrs. Campbell. 
Rev. J. H. Freeman and 

Mrs. Freeman (Lampoon). 
ttev. Win, Harris and Mrs. Harris. 
Rev. Henry White and Mrs. White. 
Rev. R. M. Gillies and Mrs. Gillies. 
Claude W. Mason, M. D., and 

Mrs. Mason. 
E. C. Oort, M. D., and Mrs. Cort 

( on furlough), 
Rev. W. O. Yates (on fin lough). 
Henry P. Reid, M. E. 
Miss Edith M. Buck. 
Miss Eula M. Van Vranken. 
Miss Kate P. McKean. 



Nakawn (Lampang). 

Rev. H. S. Vincent and Mrs. Vincent. 
Chas. H. Crooks, M. i)., and 

Mrs. Crooks. 
Rev. .1. L. Hartzell and Mrs. Hartzell. 
Miss Hazel E. Brunner. 
Miss Addie Burr. 



PliAK. 

Rev. C. R. Callender and 

Mrs. Callender. 
Chas, 1-:. Park, M. D.. and Mrs. Park. 
Mr. Arthur H. McMullin. 



Nan. 

Rev. S. C. Peoples, D. D., M. D., 

and Mrs. Peoples. 
Rev. Hugh Taylor, L>. D., and 

Mrs. Taylor. 
Rev. Marion B. Palmer and Mrs. 

Palmer ( on furlough ). 
Miss Lucy Starling. 
W. H. Beach, M. D., and Mrs. Beach. 

Ohieng Rai. 

Rev. W. Clifton Dodd, D. D., and 

Mrs. Dodd. 
Rev. W. A. Briggs. M. D., and 

Mrs. Brings (on furlough.) 
Rev. L. J. Beebe (on furlough). 
Rev. Ray W. Bachtell and 

Mrs. Bachtell. 
W. T. Lyon, M. D., and Mrs. Lyon. 

AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

Siam and Laos Agency. 

Rev. Robert Irwin. B. D 
Agent for Siam, French Lao?, and 
"British Shan States to the North. 

Residence, 4^6 Pr. ..men Road. 

Godown and Sales room, New Road 

near British Legation bridge. 

S. P. G. 

( Chapel, next British Legation. ) 

Clergyman in charge — Rev. H. 
Hillyard, LL.D. A school for girls 
in held in the building formerly 
hired by the Bangkok Christian 
Association. 

CONGREGATIONAL. 

Miss I. Bradley, Klong Bang Luang. 

CHURCHES OF CHRIST, GREAT BRITAIN 

Protestant Mission. 
Mission station at Nakon Pat horn 
I ( formerly, for three years, at Nakon 



General Directory. 



309 



Choom) on the Ratburi railway. 

Work commenced and schools for 
boys and girls opened at N&kon Fathom 
July 1906. Outstations at Nakon 
Choom and Sam Pow Lom ( for Mon 
work ) and Tah Muang (Chinese.) 

British evangelists — 
Mr and Mrs. P. Clark and Miss 
Halliday (Siamese and Chinese work.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Halliday (Mon Mission.) 

CHRIST CHURCH, 
BANGKOK. 

Chaplain — Revd. H. Hillyard, ll. d. 

Protectant Church Committee, 
Bangkok. 

Arthur Peel — Chairman. 
Revd. H. Hillyard. 
M. F. Buszard. 

S. G. Lambert. 

H Price. 

W. J. P. Williamson. 

•i. W. Edie— Hon. Treasurer. 

A. R. Malcolm — Hon. Secretary. 

CEMETERY COMMITTEE- 

The following Committee is in charge 

of the Protestant Cemetery — 
Th. H. Lyle - Chairman. 
H. B. Borgersen. 
•I. W. Edie — Hon. Treasurer. 
•J. Ludvig Hansen. 
T. Hey ward Hays. M. D. 
H. Campbell Highet, M. d. 
•I. F. Johns— Hon. Secretary. 

HOSPITALS. 
Bangrak Hospital. 

A Siamese Government hospital < ><ij 
accommodation tor Europeans. 

T. Heyward Hays. M.o., resident 

PI vsician. ; 

Maw Chin — Doctor. 



St. Louis General Hospital. 

Lady Superior — Sister Donatien. 

8 European Nurses. 
Medical Officers — Dr. A. Poix. 
—Dr. E. Pin. 



Bangkok Nlrsing Home. 
Convent Road. 

Matron — Miss Clay. 
Nurse- — -Miss Begley. 

— Miss Lockyear. 
Committee : — 
Leslie S. Smart (Chairman). 
Skinner Turner. 
H. Habenicht. 
Mrs. Campbell Highet. 
W. Muir. 

R. B. Mair — -Hon. Secretary. 
R. W. Bucklev— Hon. Treasurer. 



PHYSICIANS AND 
SURGEONS. 

H. Adamsen, m. d. 

W, H. Beach, M. d.. Nan. 

W. A. Briggs, M. d.. Chiengrai. 

L. C. Bulkley. m. o.. Tap Teang, 

A. H. Boehmer, m. i>, 

H. Earle Blunt, (dentist.) 

C. H. Crooks, M. D., Laka wn. 

Morden Cart hew, m. i>., d. p. h. 

E. C. Cort, M. i>., Lakawn. 

C. Gayetti, m. i». 

C. O. Hansen, M. i». 

T. Hey ward Hays. M. l>. 

H. Have lock Hepburn, c. m., m. !».. 

(McGill). 
H. Campbell Highet, m. i».. n. p. h. 
Mrs. Robert Irwin, if. i>. 
A. P. G. Kerr. H. a.. M. B.. (;. CH. 

| Dublin), Chiengmai. 
A. Logan Murison, b. a. (Camb.). 

m. k. c. s . l. u. c. p. ( Lon Ion)i 
E. Manaud. m. \>. 
C VV. Mason, m. d.. Chiengmai. 



810 



General Directory, 



G. B. McFarland, m. d., d. D. S. 
B B. McDaniel, m. d., Petchabun. 
J. W. McKean, m. i>., Chiengmai. 
Due-Peterson, m. d. 
E. Pin, M. d. 
A. Poix, m. d. 

A. C. Rankin, M. I)., D. P. H. (McGill), 
M. R. c. s., L. K. C. f (Fjng.). 
Schaefer, M. D. 
<). Schneider, M. r>. (Berlin). 
0. J. Shellman, Pitsannlok. 
Malcolm A. Smith, M. R. C. »s., l.k.CP. 
(London). 
Phra Montri. 

R. E. G. Tilaka, m. d. t f. r. C. s. e. 
m. R. c. s., l. r. c. p.. D. p; h, (Lond). 
W. B. Toy, m. n. 

E. Wachter, M. d., Nakon Sritamarat. 
0. C. Walker, M. i>. 

Yai Sanit Wonse, M. b, 

— : o : — 

LEGAL PRACTITIONERS. 

ft. D. Atkinson, Solicitor, 

(Messrs. Tilleke and Gfibbins.) 
S. Brighouse, Solicitor, 

(Messrs. Tilleke and Gribbins.) 

F. M. Brooks, Attorney-at-iaw. 
P. Peterson, advocate. 

A. Teutsch, Lieeneie en Droit. 

G. Kenneth Wright, Solicitor, 

(Messrs. Baguley anil Tooth.) 
P. van Cuylenberg, Solicitor. 

CLUBS AND SOCIETIES. 

Bangkok CJkited Club. 

( Jommittee. 

W. G. .Johnson, Chairman, 

II- Y. Bailey. 

V. Geddie. 

A. Harvey, 

.1. C. Keddie. 

G. Kluzer. 

W. H. Mundie. 



F. H. L. Perl. 
T.O. Rees. 

I D. Robertson. 
T. Heyward Hays, Hon. Secretary, 



The British Club, 

Committee— 1913-14. 

John Bailey, 

J. Crosby. 

W. A. Graham, 

J. H. Heal. 

H. Campbell Highet, 

Hamilton Price. , 

M. A. Smith. 

Skinner Turner." 

W. J. F. Williamson. 

Hon. Secretary — John Bailey. 

Royal Bangkok Sports Club, 
Honorary President. 
His Majesty The King. 

Honorar3 T Patrons. 
H. R. H. Prince Bhanurangsi. 
H. R. H. Prince Damrong. 
H. R. H. Prince Pitsanuloke. 

Honorary Vice-President, 
H, R H. Prince NakornchaisrL 

President. 
J. Caidfeild James. 

Trustees. 
Phva Asavabadi Sri Surabahan„- 
H.'V. Bailey. 

Committee. 
A. B. Stiven — Chairman* 
S. Brighouse. 
W. A. Graham. 
J. Caulfeild James. 
A. J. Irwin. 
W. G. Johnson. 
J. 0. Keddie. 
W. Wei m ami. 
W.. R. H. Taylor,. 



Gen era I Directory. 



311 



Sections of Sport. 

(Golf) — Norman Prentice. 
(Shooting) — J. J. McBeth. 
(Cricket) — C. J. Roberts. 
( Football) — Hamilton Price. 
(Tennis)— T. R. Jenkins. 

Lawn Tennis Section. 

T. R. Jenkins — Representative on 

General Committee. 
Committee — Due Petersen. 
J. A. Duthie. 

Football Section. 

Hamilton Price — Representative on 

General Committee. 
Committee — J Reith- 

C. J. Roberts 

0> Gronemann. 
Hon. Secretary— T. O. Rees. 

Golf Section. 

Captain*— 'S. Brighou.se. 
Committee — D. Ross. 

A. E. Stiven. 

E. Wyon Smith. 
Hon. Secretary — Norman Prentice. 

Cricket Section. 

Captain— W. G. Johnson. 
Vice-Captain — M. T. Cooke CoJlis. 
Committee — P. Christmas. 

N. Sutton. 

W. R. H. Taylor. 
Hon. Secretary — C. J. Roberts. 



Deutscher KlUB. 
Vorstand. 

Herr C. Brockmann — Vorsitzender, 

„ G. Wolf— 1, Schriftfuhrer. 

„ G. Dietrich— 2. Schriftfuhrer. 

•,, G. Rexhausen — 1. Hauswart. 

„ C. Pruss — 2. Hauswart. 

,, F. Bierwirth — Sackelmeister. 

„ H» Wilkens — Spielwart. 



Bangkok St. Andrew's Society. 

Chieftain — Leslie S. Smart. 
Vice do. — W. A. Graham. 
Hon. Sec— A. R. Malcolm. 
Hon. Treas.— H. W. Matheson. 

Committee : 
J. C. Keddie. H. E. Massey. 

J. M. Milne.. J. Reith. 

D. Robertson. 



The Siam Society. 

Patron — His Majesty The King. 
Vice-Patron— H. R. H. Prince 

Dam r ono. 
President— 0. Frankfurter, Ph. D. 
Vice-President — H. Campbell Highet, 

M. I). 

— A. J. Irwin, B. A., 

B. A. I., A.M. I. C. E. 

— P. Petithuguenin. 
Hon. Secretary and Librarian — 

B. O. Cartwright, B. a. 
Hon. Asst. Sec. — Khun Phraison, b. \. 
Hon. Treasurer — W. H. Mundie, M. A. 
Members of Council — R. Belhomme, 

B A., B. A. L., A. M. I. C. E., J. Crosby, 

F. H. Giles, Phraya Prajajib Boribah 
C. Sandreczki, K. G. Gairdner, J. G. 
Raggi, 0. A. S. Sewell, m. a. 



Bangkok Library Association. 

President— Mrs. W. J. F. Williamson, 
Vice-President — Mrs. J B. Dunlap, 
Hon. Secretary — Mrs. G. K. Wright. 
Hon. Treasurer — Mrs. G. B. McFar- 

land. 
Hon. Librarian — Mrs. T. Hey ward 

Hays. 
The Bangkok Library is open daily 

(Sundays expected). 
Sept. 1st to Feb. 28th, 4 to 6 p. m. 
March 1st to Aug. alst, 4-30 to 6-30 

p. ra. 



312 



General Directory. 



Siam Philatelic Society. 

President— W. J. F. Williamson. 
Vice-President— J. G. Raggi. 
Hon. Secretary— J. R C. Lyons. 
Hon. Treasurer— G. Wolf. 
Committee — H. G. Monod, E. Wyon 
Smith, J, Michell, C. A. S. Seweil. 



Natural History Society of Siam. 

President — W. J. F. Williamson. 
Hon. Secretary & Treasurer — 

S. H. Cole. 
Committee— Dr. M. A. Smith, 

Mr. J. G. Raggi. Capt. W. Sprater. 

COMITE DE LALLIANCE FrANCAISE AU 

Siam. 
Presidents d'Honneur. 

Le Ministre de France. 

S. A. R. le Prince de Bisnulok. 
S. G. Monseigneur Perros. 

(Evcque de Zoara.) 
S. A. le Prince Charoon. 
Conseil d Administration. 
President— Mi-, le Dr. Poix. 
Vice-Presidents — Rev. Pere Colombet 

Mr. Niel. 
Secretaire— Mr. R. Pradere-Niquet. 
Tresorier — M. Got. 
Mernbres : — 

Mr. le Dr. Manaud. 

Mr. Didier. 

Mr. Raggi. 

Mr. Re id. 

Phya Prachachib- 



Deutscheb Flottenverein 
in Bangkok. 

President — P. Giert/,. 
V r ice-Presiden1 — G. Schaarschmidt. 
Him. Secretary — G. Wolf. 
Assfi. ., G.Dietrich. 

Hon. Treasurer — W Sprater. 



Chiengmai Gymkhana Club. 

Patrons — -The Siamese High Commis- 
sioner, The Chao Luang, The Chao 
Uparat, The Commissioner. 

Lakon Sports Club. 

Patrons — The Chief of Nakorn Lam- 
pang, the Siamese Commissioner, 
Committee : — 
R. W. Aston (Hon. Sec. & Treas.) 
H. W. Clarke. 
0. B. Ainslie. 
G. Gordon Macleod. 
G. M. Med worth. 
W. A. R. Wcod. 

Bangkok Riding Society. 

Master — Erik Leth (on leave). 
Acting Master — A. Mohr. 
Hon. Secretary — H. Reinecke. 

Bangkok Lawn Tennis Club. 
( Hon. President, H. M. The King). 
Committee : — 
Skinner Turner. 
G. E. Hewitt. 
W. L. Grut. 
C. L. Watson. 
S. H. Cole and 
Norman Maxwell, 

Hon. Sec. and Treasurer, 



Lodge St. John. 

No. 1072, S. C, Bangkok. 

(See addenda.) 

Fire Insurance Association of 
Bangkok. 

The Borneo Co., Ltd.— Chairman, 
A. Markwald & Co. Ltd. — Deputy 

Chairman. 
Windsor & Co.— Member of 

Committee. 
W. H. Mundie— Secretary. 



General Directory, 



313 



Bangkok Philharmonic Society. 
President- — E. M. Sequeira. 
Hon. Sec. and Treas.— G. E. M. de 

Jesus. 

Siam Chinangkoon Club. 

President — Tan Hong Hee. 
Hon. Sec. — Siow Siong Wan. 
Hon. Treas. —Tan Boon Theng. 

Committee : — 
Phua Kim Chye. 
Tan Tang Kwai. 
Tan Chew Pock. 
Kho Choo Toon. 
Loh Peng Thong 
Luang Sala Chinangkorn. 

Assumption College. 

Old Boys Association. 

(Oriental Avenue). 

President — Rev. Father Colombet. 
Vice-President — Eev. Bro. Martin de 

Tours. 
Hon. Secretary — Fred. Gr. de Jesus. 
Hon. Treasurer — G. E. M. de Jesus. 

Concordia String Band Association. 

President — Peter Feit. 



BANKS. 

HONGKONG * SHANGHAI BANKING 
CORPORATION. 

Last Hank of River Menam, corner of 

Klong Kut Mai Canal. 

•I. C. Keddie — Acting Agent. 

Gr. >L Ardron — Acting Accountant, 

A. H. Reis — Assistant Accountant. 

J. C. Roberts— „ 

S. Eng Siew — Chief Clerk. 

L. Si Mow— Clerk. 



A. L. Johnston — Clerk. 
H. flinch— 
J. Kerr— 

S. Seng Sin — „ 

L. Guan Seng — ,, 
H. Gotsche — „ 

H. Vil— 

E. H. Bourgueil — „ 
Wong Hang Chow — Compradore. 
L. Kwan Pui — Assistant Compradore. 
Kwok Hoi — Cashier. 
L. Thien Hock— Bill-Collector. 
Y. Chin Lock— Head Shroff. 
Telephone (General Office) No. 522. 
Agent's Office No. 181. 

CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, AUSTRALIA, 
AND CHINA. 

Wm. Sutherland — Agent. 

R. W. Buckley — Acting Accountant. 

H. W. Matheson — Sub- Accountant. 

D. McNiven — do. 

D. R. Davidson — do. 

J. D. Dossen- Chief Clerk. 

Cheah Chee Seng — Cashier. 

Lee Oon Geok — Assistant Cashier. 

C. Mclntyre — Clerk. 
J. B. Otten — do. 
Lim Peean — do. 
Chua Kim Ann — [do, 
Lee Keng Seng — do. 
Lee Keng Ann — do. 
Wee Soon Hoe — do. 
P. Tit Chve— do, 

D. Teck Hua— do. 
J. Kemp — ■ do. 
Lim Geok Lin — do. 

Khoo Toon Hong — Chief Shroff. 
Lim Ah How — Asst. Shroff. 
Chew Thye Phew— do. 
Goh Ah Yia — do. 

Yio Lim — do. 

Law Chia — do. 

BANQUE DE L'INDO-CHINE. 

Head Office — 1 obis rue Laffitte, Paris. 
Manager — Camille H enrv. 
Accountant — P. C. Fliche. 



314 



General Directory. 



Cashier— J. Got. 
Assistant— W. Hock Kee. 
Clerk— M. Hassen. 

„ Hock Lee. 

,, TC. Lamache. 

„ Soon Sieu. 

„ J. Dono. 
N. Phorn. 

„ P. Durando. 

„ J. Bourgueil. 
Telephone No. 177. 
( 'ompradore — Ho Shiu Hee. 
Telephone No. 452. 



THE SIAM COMMERCIAL BANK, LTD. 

A. Willeke — Ag. Manager, Foreign 

Dept. 
Nai Chalong Nayanart — Manager, 

Local Dept. 
( ). Kniepf — Assistant. 
lv. Schnerr — Assistant. 
Khun Sri Rajada — Chief Cashier. 
Leng Sue — Compradore. 

—Chief Clerk. 
D. F. Hendriks— Clerk 



P. Micaleef— Clerk 

P. Jeltes— 
C. Hock— 
Nai Teck — 

,, Saiyoot — 

,, Plume 

„ Yong — 

„ Chune — Head Shroff 



Sampeng Branch. 

W. P. Chapman— Chief Clerk. 
Guan Hai — Clerk. 
Nai Muan — „ 

,, Chao — ,, 

„ Kim— Cashier. 

,, Chuay — Asst. Cashier. 
Thiam Hee — ,, „ 

MERCANTILE BANK OF INDIA, LIMITED. 

Windsor and Co. — Agents. 



DEUTSCH-ASIATISCHE BANK. 

Siarn Commercial Bank Ltd. — Agents. 



RICE AND SAW MILLS IN BANGKOK 

And Elsewhere in Siam. 



315 




Kim Thye Seng 

Nai Thorn Yar 

.Too Chiang ... 

Yong Seng Hong 

Lee Cheng Chan 

Nai Thiem 

Kim Seng Soon 

Kwang Hup Seng (two mills) 

Bang Hong Tye (Hoa Heng Seng). 

Long Heng Lee 

Sieng Kee 

Guan Hoa Seng 

Guan Hong Seng ... 

Mae Khean (Teong Seng) ... 

Li Tit Guan 

Seng Joo Thye 
Yong Joo Seng 
Guan Chiang Seng ... 
Ban Seng 
Thye Heng Sing 
Guan Thye Seng 
Guan Heng Seng !... 

Poh Thye Seng 

Poh Joo Seng 



Guan Long Seng 

Sieng Kee Chan ... 

Borneo Co., Ltd. 

Seng Heng 

Kiam Ching & Co. 

Teck Lee 

Low Ban Seng 

Bang Seng Chiang ... 

Guan Lee 

Guan Lee Chan or Hong Lee 

Kim Heng Guan 

A. Markwald «fc Co., Ltd 

Khoon Heng Lee (Windsor k Co.) 

Hock Hao Seng Kee 

Tow Thye 

Khoon Chom 

Siang Huat 

Ban Soon 

Guan Joo Seng 

Chin Hah Heng 



Starting 


from the South on the 


West Bank River Menam. 




Paklat 


do. 


Daukanong 


do. 


do. 


do- 


do. 


do. 


Klong Daukanong. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 


Klong Bang Luang. 


do. 


do. 


dc. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


d . 


Klong Bangkok Noi 


Starting 


from the South on the 


Ea3t Bank River Menam. 




Phrakanong 


do. 




do. 




do, 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do, 




do. 




do. 


Bangiak 


do. 


do. 


do. 


Klong Poh Yomc 


do. 


Klong Kut Mai 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



316 RICE AND SAW MILLS IN BANGKOK 

And Elsewhere in Siam. 



No. 


Name 


of Mill. 


Situation- 








Starting 


from the South on the 








East Bank River Menam 


45 


Jin Hong Hua K 


3e 


do 


Klong Kut Mai 


46 


Kim Seng Guan 




do. 


do. 


47 


Boa Hong 




do. 


do. 


48 


Mian Heng Chan 


(Xavier Mill) ... 


do. 


do. 


49 


Kim Seng Hong 




do. 


Samsen 


50 


Kim Seng Lee 




do. 


do. 


51 


Ehean Lee Chan 




do. 


do. 


52 


Sarasen Rice Mill 




do. 


do. 


53 


Guan Tit Lee 




do. 


. do. 


54 


do. 


... 


do. 


do. 








Outside of Bangkok 


55 


Hock Ann Bee 


... 


Patriew 


56 


Meng Seng Chan 




do. 




57 


Simoon Rice Mill 




do. 




58 


Kim Seng Lee 




Korat 




59 


Tow Seng 




Lakon 


(Klong Pahpanung) 



SAW MILLS. 



60 

61 
62 

m 

64 
65 
66 

67 

68 



Kim Seng Lee <k Co. 

Lam Sam's 

Guan Huat <k Co. 

Wing Seng Long & Co. 

Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd. ... 

Bombay Burmah Trading Corpn. Ltd 

Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 

Borneo Co., Ltd. 

East Asiatic Co.. Ltd 



Samsen 

do. 

do. 
West side of Menam Chao Phya 

do. 

do. 
East side of Menam Chao Phva 

do. 

do. 



General Directory. 



:\\ 



MERCHANTS PROFESSIONS, 
ETC, 

ARRACAN CO. LTD. 

Rice Millers and Merchants. 

Head Office, 57^ Old Broad Street, 

London, E. C, 

Branches : Rangoon, Akyab, Bassein, 

Maulmain, Calcutta and Saigon. 

A. A. Smith— Manager. 
W. I. Hunter — Assistant. 
A. B. Foot do. 

Agencies. 
London Assurance Corporation 

(Marine.) 
Sun Insurance Office (Fire.) 
The Palatine Insurance Co, Ltd. 

(Fire.) 
Burns Philp Line, 

Telephone Number 118. 

A. H. M. ADAM * CO. 

General Cloth Merchants 

and Commission Agents, 

Wat Koh. 

A. E. G. 
Government Power Station, Satnsen. 
Noel E. Dufty — engineer-in-charge 

for A. E. Gr. 
A. W. Henderson. 
E. Butler. 
I). Robinson. 
H. Pennant. 
Herr Potschke. 

AKSORNIT PRINTING PRESS. 

Established 1898. 
Bang Khun Phrom. 

Ginning House. 

Established 1912. 

Bang Khun Phrom. 



Phra Sri Aisawan — Proprietor. 

General Printer and Publisher. 

Buyer and Seller of Cotton 

(produce of Siam only). 

Plantation, Tap Quang. 



NAKHODA OSMANBHAI AMIRBHAI & CO. 

General Stores, 
5 & 6, Bamrung Muang Road 
Tapan Chang Rongsi, (City.) 
Tel. Address: — " Nakhoda," 

Bangkok. 
Amanbhai Aman — Managing Partner. 



J. R, ANDRE NACHFOLGER. 

Importers. 

By Special Appointment to 

H. M. The King. 

Hans Gever ~) t, , 
. » r i > Partners. 

A. Mohr j 

A. Andre — Assistant. 
Nai Tschin Tscho — Clerk. 

Nai Tschora ,, 

Nai Maehn ,, 

Nai Phonn „ 

Nai Ngirn ,., 

Nai Peng Siah „ 

Sole Agents for 

1.— J. HYiedmann's Nachiblger, 

Court Jewellers, 
Hanau. 
2. -Adam Opel, Motor Works. 
3. — The Peter Union Tyre Company. 
4. — The Wanderer Works Ltd. 



A. M. ANTONiO & CO. 

Manufacturers of Rubber Stamps. 
99 New Road 
J. Antonio — Manager. 



318 



Geiieral Direciorxf. 



ARISTOCRATIC TOBACCO 
MANUFACTORY. 

( New Road. ) 

By Special Appointment to 

His Majesty The King. 

0. Pappayanopulos— sole proprietor. 

ASTOR HOUSE HOTEL. 

A. Landau — Proprietor. 
George Rudow — Sub-Lessee. 

ASIATIC PETROLEUM CO., LTD, 

Local Representative — P. Nesbitt. 
Asst. — J. M. Lindsay. 

Bangpakok Kerosene Installation 
Lugineer — W. A. Robinson. 

Paklat Liquid Fuel Installation. 
Engineer — H. M. West. 
Telephone Nos : — 

Office 132. 

Bangpakok Installation i-80. 

Paklat (Liquid Fuel) 241. 

Y. ASOW * CO. 

Photo Studio. 
Y . fibata — Proprietor. 
N. Inomoto — Photo Artist, 
M. Nakahachi ,, 
('. Sana 
Y. Bun 

APOTHECARIES HALL. 

New Road. 
G. J. Williams — manager and 

dispense". 

HARRY A. BADMAN & CO. 

Naval. Military and Civil Tailors. 
Court Dressmakers. 
Purnisjvers and General Stores. 
A. C. Warwick— sole partner.- 
G. C. Parr- -signs per pro;- 



R. H. Walters — assistant. 

E. S. Wooller— 

P. Ramsdale — ,, 

0. B. Payne 

Miss S. Johannes — ,, 

Madam Lelievre -dressmaker, 

R. Sedgwick — clerk. 

P. K. Jean — ,, 

A. P. Prathan— „ 

Tooie Seng — ,, 

Nai Teng — salesman. 

„ Chin- 
A. Heggie — ■ <} 
Nai Louis — ., 

,, Sri— 

„ Onn- 

.. ToShing — „ 

„ Bulei— 
M. Kassim — ,, 
Noordin — bill-collector. 
1 Chin Long; 



Toilet Saloon, Bangkak, 
P. Stacke— Gents' Coiffeur. 



BAGULEY * TOOTH. 

Advocates and Solicitors. 

G. K. Wright, Solicitor. 
Chief Clerk— J. K. Wadia. 
Siamese Clerks — -Nai Pui. 

— Nai Charoen. 

—Nai Parn. 



BAMRUNG NUKUL KITCH PRINTING 
PRESS, * MOTOR GARAGE. 

Luang Damrong Dhamasarn — 

proprietoi » 
Nai Yaam — manager, motor garage. 

Thongkam Damrong Dhamasarn — 

clerk, 
Tel. No. 374. 



% :IW«M lock (!k, Ms. 

' Established 1865. 

CONTRACTORS To H. S. M. & OTHER GOVERNMENTS. 



Trtloirmphirt Address: (1 ♦ T\ I Telegraphic Codes: 

p«iu«,- b»«-s«. Graving" Hooka x: \.t^'- 

No. I. Length on Blocks, 300 feel I No. 2. Length on Blocks, 110 ; '<- ■; 

Depth on Sill, II feet C inches Depth on Sill s feel 

Width at entrance, 40 feet Width al entrance 24 feet. 

Slipways. 

No. I Capable of Shipping H6 feel Launches 

No. 2 do. do. 50 „ do. 

No. :; do. do. 40 ., do. 

Steam Sbeerleas. 

Lifting capacity, 25 tons. 

flftacbine anfc Morfc Shops?. 

Ali Departments arc under European supervision and the Machine Workshops. 
Foundry and Boilershops are the best equipped in Siam and capable of execut- 
ing every kind of repairs in the most expeditious manner. 

Stores. 

This Department is under European control and carries a large and varied 
Assortment of all goods for use in connection with Shipbuilding, Engineering. 
Rice Mills, Saw Mills, Electrical Installations. 

(TDotor <5araoe. 

This Department has recently been reconstructed and fitted with the latest 
high class labour saving Machine tools, enabling repairs to be executed without 
loss of time. 

The Garage can accommodate 20 Cars. 

All accessories for repairs and renewals stocked. 

Tyres of Mlchelin make always on hand, 

Vulcanizing and repairing a Speciality. 



HDotor Boats. 

Sole Agents for the famous Wolseley, Silent Knight, Daimler, and the Kromhout 
Slow Running Crude Oil Marine Engines. Special attention given to the building 
;ind equipping of latest types of Motor Boats. 

plane & 'Estimates 

Supplied, on application, for all classes of Engineering, Shipbuilding, Con- 
structional, Rice and Saw MJSI, Architectural, Electrical and General Contracting 
Works. Water supplies including Artesian Well Boring a Speciality. 

agencies. 

Huston Proctor & Coy. I B. S. A. Ciirs, Hudson Car*. 

General Electric Coy. Kelvin Motors. 

Wolseley Auto-Cars & Marine j Hall's Distemper. 

Engines. < Annie and Lux Lamps. 
Star Motor Cars & Lorries. Morris Oxford Cars. 

Ford Motor Cars. Holzaphels Ship Compositions. 

Silent Knight, Daimler Motor Cars & Marine Engines. 
London Agents: Glasgow Agents: Singapore Agents : 

To/.kh. Kbmsley. <fe Fisher, Stephenson Brown Coy. MoAlister & Coy. 

New York Agents : 
Markt Hummacher Coy. 
Mui.lkr, Maclean- & Co. 




Bangkok 

Dock Co., 

Ltd. 



MOTOR GARAGE. 

STOCKISTS: 

HDicbelin Hyxes. 

AGENTS: 

"Wolseley Cars & Marine Engines 




_B< >scli Magnetos 

Morris Oxford Cars. 

FAMOUS FOKD CARS. 
English Daimler, "Silent Knight'' Cars and Marine 

Engines- 
B. 5. A. Cars, Star Cars and Lorries, Hudson Cars. 

H alley Motor Lorries, Stepney Spare Wheels, 

Kelvin Marine Motor sets. 
Kromhout Slow Running -Crude Oil Marine Engine Sets. 



Urn? rid Fireciory. 



•SI 9 



BANGKOK CANNING CO. 

Windmill-road. 
I 'hya Anudhufcvadhi — Proprietor. 

BANGKOK DISPENSARY. 

R. Schulz, (Apotheker) — 

managing proprietor. 
W. Ehlers (Apotheker) — assistant. 

THE BANGKOK DOCK CO., LTD 

(Established 18G5. ) 

Telegraphic Address, "Progress" 

James S. Smyth, b. e.> m. I, C. K. — 

Manager. 

(Jo wan Newlands — Secretary. 

Andrew Carson — Accountant. 

Percy Bulner — chief clerk. 

Wee Kay Siah — cashier. 

Chin Neib ") ,, , 

,, TT tj y collectors. 

P. Hoa Heng J 

G. Tien Liong ] 

S. Peng Siew j 

H.Thao y clerks. 

B. Kek Cheng | 

W. Hean Leang 

( ). Bah Chee 1 . . . 

, ,, -. ., - time-keepers. 

( handrika ) ' 

Shipbuilding and Docking Dept. 
J. Kerr — supt. and dock master. 
A. McKelvie — assistant. 

Engineering Dept. 
J. Aitchison, a. M. I. E. E.— -supfe. 
J. Reith — -shop foreman. 
T. Aitchison — ., 

Motor Garage. 
R. Alexander-^snpt. 
T. W» Carr— assist. 

Technical Depts-. 
Constructional and Building. 
A. Wishart. 
J. D. Powell. 
T. Gaethke. 

J . Ki m — Dra ugh ts m an . 
J> Queel — Foreman of Works. 



Stores Department. 
A. McKelvie — ?hief store-keeper. 
W. Hean Cheng ] 

W. Hean Kim. 
L. Kim Lian 
A. Th. Polyzoidis. 
Supoovan. 
W. Kok Poh. 



assts. 



W. Kok Eng — shipping clerk. 

Agencies. 
Mc A lister A Co., Ltd., Singapore. 
General Electric Co., Ltd., London. 
Ruston Proctor & Co.. Ltd., London. 
George Angus & Co., Ltd., 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Sole Agents for 

Wolseley Motor Cars, Marine 

Engines & Aeroplanes, 
S'ar Motor Cars. 

Silent Knight Daimler Motor Cars. 
Morris Oxford Cars. 
B. S, A. Motor Cars. 
Ford Motor Cars. 
Kelvin Marine Engines. 
Miehelin Tyre Stockists. 
"Kromhout" Slow Running 

Paraffin Marine Engine Sets, 
Silent Knight Daimler Engine Sets. 

Agents For 

Bosch Magnetos, 

Stepney Spare Wheels and 

Lucas Motor Lamps. 



THE BANGKOK MANUFACTURING 
CO. LTD. 

Ice, Cold Storage, Aerated 

Waters, etc. 

Offices 50-64 New Road. 

Works, Klong Kut, Mai. 

Registered Office, 10 Collyer Quay, 

Singapore. 

Telegraphic Address— NAM K ENG, 

Telephone No, 287. 



820 



General Directory. 



Agencies : 
The Singapore Cold Storage Co. Ltd. 

Board of Directors : 
Dr. T. Heyward Hays— Chairman. 
W. Brehmer, J. Mackay. 

S. H. Hendrick, W. S. Smart. 

C. Kramer, Phya Arthakarn. 
S. G, Lambert — manager. 

D. L. Gray — asst. do. 
Paul Feit— book-keeper. 
T. Boon Hee— cashier, 
A. A. Jouheng — clerk. 
Lee Soon Wen — „ 
Nai Itt— 

K. van Dort— Engineer. 

Tan Quey Boo — Ice sales dept. 

Nai Pleng — asst. ,, 

Nai Lock — asst. ,, 

F. S. D'Castro foreman aerated 

water dept 
W. Van Cuylenburg — cold storage 

manager 
J.'S. Show — stores clerk. 
C. Choo Beng — collector. 
Tiam Chve — do. 



BANGKOK OUTFITTING CO. 

( See B. Grimm & Co. ) 

BANGKOK TIMES PRESS LTD. 

( Daily newspaper — English and 
Siamese. ) 
Bangkok Times Weekly Mail. 
. ( English Weekly. ) 
Bangkok S'mai (Siamese Weekly). 
Tel. Address — "Times" Bangkok. 
( 5th Edition A. B. C. ) 
orne — m 
W. H. Mundie. 
[I. Adev Moore. 
11. L. Hopkin. 
Luang Visutr. 
Nai Chua. 
Nai S. Pawns. 



S. T. Sari and Ah Chee — foremen. 

Publishers of the Directory for 
Bangkok and Siam. 
Agencies — Reuter's Telegram Co., Ltd., 

24, Old Jewry, London. 

BANGKOK TRADING CO. 

(Phitstien Bridge) 

General Importers, Exporters and 

Commission Agents. 

Sole Proprietors — 

The Siamese Tobacco Co. 

BANG NARA RUBBER CO., LTD. 

Estate: Bang Nara. 
Directors : — 

W. A. Graham (Chairman). 
W. F. Lloyd. 
W. Nunn. 

Phya Katsda Kornkosol. 
Phra Sophon Petcharat. 
Manager R. F. Mesney. 
Secretary — R. Adey Moore. 
Registered Office : Bangkok. 

BARROW BROWN * CO. 
Engineers and Merchants, 
Office : Tapani Hua Takay. 
Telegraphic Address : 

" Leather" Bangkok. 

Telephone No. 435. 
London Office : — 2 London Wall 
Buildings, E. C. 
R. H. Brown, M.I. MECH. B. 
H. Leatherbarrow. 
Nai Thao — comprador. 
Nai Thong Yoo — Chief clerk. 
Nai Seng- — Clerk. 
Nai Am Phan „ 
Nai Whay — Store-keeper. 
Nai Term — Draughtsman. 

BARMER EXPORT-GESELLSCHAFT 
M. B. H. 

(Barmen Export Co. Ltd.) 
General Importers 
Mead Office . Barmen (Germany). 
Branch Office : Hamburg, Sudseehaus. 




Bi Appointment, 

BANGKOK MANUFACTURING Co., Ltd. 

Pure Crystal Ice. 

Gold Storage : 

The Company ha* three Cold Storage Rooms of the latest d©8igf» E 
Large Stocks of Australian mutton, lamb, hares, butter, etc., always kept. 
Also fres:i meat and fish. 

Aerated Waters : 

Made from absolutely pure Artesian Well Wafcjr and wish Ife kiwi 
rvad aijst improved machinery. 

Ice Cream : 

Special quality for dinners, dances, etc. Any flavouring to trait 
customers. Made from the finest fresh eggs and cream, in moulds, bricks, 
or soft. 

Artesian Well Water : 

Guaranteed absolutely pure, certified by Government Analysis*, 
The Company have a Tank boat, and a Tank Waggon, and ca*i supply 
water in any quantity to ships or private houses. 

Sole Agents in S»am for:— 

Zbe Singapore €olb Storage Co., %t& 



SINGAPORE, T> n:NA::c; (Ftnits S«ttlemenrs), BANDAKAN ( Brit. Forth 

Borneo), MiMLA. CeI.U, ILOILO, ' - ■ BOANGA (Philipiine Islands), 

BANGKOK (Sium), BATAYiA, SOEKABAIA, £AMAEANG (Juva), 

BETONG TELOK (Sumatra), 

London, Hambueg. 

General import anb Eypovt flDercbants. 

Insurancs OfTxcs and- Government Contractors. 



Herm. Hoinr. Boker, Rcmschcid. 

Farbwerke vorm. Meister, Lucius & 

Bruening Hoeohst a Mai;.. 
Kali Syntli rare, Stassfun. 
Fried. Krupp, Essen, Magdeburg. 
Stahlwerksvcrband, 1; " sseldorf. 

Oesterreu hisch Waffenfabricks-Gesellschaft, 

Sr.-yr 
Deuts -lie WafEen & M luitionsfabri'cen 

Berlin, Karlsruhe. 
F. Pohlig A t.-Ues., Cologne. 

Lubricating Oil rmport Co., Hamburg. 
Heinr. Boker, Remscheid. 

Autorhobilwerk Nonnendamm (Siemens- 

ttchuckeit Works . 
International Harvester Co., of America, 

Willich Akt. G-s. 

A. Heuk< Gatersleben. 

Por land Ccmenl Works. Hemmpor. 

SchneLuressesifabri! , Frankemh'al Albert 

& Co." A. G. Fran enriial. 
Borndor er Metallwarenfabiik, Berndorf. 
Blood, Wolfe ik Co., Liverpool. 
Kaiserbrauer i Bok & Co., Bremen. 
Adet. Seward k Co., Bordeaux. 
N • -a Milch Exportges. Bosch & Co. 

Waren, 



Manufacturers of Portable and Permanent 

Rai r.ays, Trams, Loci motiveB. 
Pha n . ei i' • roducts, Anilin, Indigo, 
Aliiiiiin' Dyes. 
'. an <■ Manures. 

• ■ I Machineries. 
Stt »1 !• .--. 3 irders, Tool steel, Mining steel 
etu., eti . 
lime runs S: Ammunition etc. 

. an ■. Ammunition, Industrial 
iner; •* Iuminium ar icles. 
A (rial Ropi v ay •. Hi isting & Conveying 

Machinery. 
Machine Oils, Lubricating Oils. 
Hardware, ' Cutlery, Joiners and Machine shop 

Omfbs. 
" Protos ' Cars. 

Ri • Farming Machinery and Implements, 

ig Ri e Bind rs. St< am Ploughs. 
Brii > - and iroti < lonsi ructions. 
Ti .: Enjrines, Steam Ploughs. 



1 E ectn P 1 ;;:^ Goods, 
Siout, Wolf Brand. 



Guini 

Ee.v Beer. 

Bo hive Brandy. 

Natura Milk and Cream. 



INSURANCE COMPANIES. 



Magdeburqr Fire Tns. Co., & T ncrdcl irg. 
Nei herlan Is Fire Tns. < !o., he I! 

Allianz Fire Ins. Co., of Bi . in, I ■ • n 



H;n ! urn Bremen Fire Tns. Co., Hamburg, 

'".i and Fire Ins. Co., l'>;.r. via.. 
North Western Insurance Co., Ltd., Jianchcster. 



Mc»a?Iix©.. 



Ja-va Sea & Fire Ins. Co., Batavia. Mannheim Ins. Co., Mannheim, 

General Marine Ins, Co.. of Dresden, Berlin. 



General Director/./. 



321 



Branches: Medan ( Sumatra ), Bata- 
via, Saiuarang and Sourabaja (Java). 
Habana (Cuba), and Bangkok. 

Import Department : 
W. Koch — manager. 
A. Barth— assistant. 
Tel. address : " Barmexport " 

Samyek Store : 

A. Budde — acting manager. 
F. Becker — assistant. 
A. Sandreczki — assistant 

Telephone No. 408. 
Agencies : 
Adlerwerke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer 
A.-G.-, Frankfurt a. M., 

Motor cars & Typewriters. 
F. Soennecken, Bonn — Stationery. 



BEHN, MEYER & CO., LTD. 

General Merchants. 

Head Office : Singapore. 

Branches : Hamburg, London. Penang 
(Straits Settlements), Manila, Cebu 
Iloilo, Zamboanga ( Philippine 
Islands), Sandakan 'Brit. North 
Borneo), Batavia, Soerabaia, Samar- 
ang (Java), Telok Betong (Sumatra.) 

Bangkok. 

E. Jiirgens — manager. 

F. Mulder — aest. 
H. Good— „ 

Agencies : 

(See also opposite page.) 

Magdeburg Fire Ins. Co. 
Hamburg Bremen Fire Ins. Co. 
Netherlands Fire Ins. Co. 
Java Sea and Fire Ins. Co. 
Allianz Ins. Co., Ltd., of Berlin 
North Western Ins. Co., Manchester. 
Mannheimer Ins. Co. (Marine). 
General Marine Ins. Co. Ltd., Dresden. 



Orenstein & Koppel Akt. Ges., Berlin. 
Stahl werksver band , Dtiss^ldorf. 
Deutsche Waffen-und-Munitiotis- 

fabriken, Karlsruhe, Berlin. 
Oesterreichische Waffenfabriks — 

Gesellschaft, Steyr. 
Fried. Krupp. Essen, Magdeburg. 
Lubricating Oil Import Co., 

Antwerp, Hamburg. 
Kali Syndicate, Stassfurt. 
H. K. Boeker & Co.. Remscheid, 
Automobilwerk Nonnendamm (Sie- 
mens-Schuckert Works), Nonnen- 
damm-Berlin, " Protos " Cars. 

A. BERLI & CO., m.b. H. 

Import and Export. Merchants. 

H. Jucker — signs per pro. 

A. Baer— do. 

E. Frith — assistant. 

Ed. Jucker — Dip] Engineer. 

W. G. Robinson, Nakorn. 

Fire Insurance Agencies : 

L'Urbaine of Paris. 

Prussian National Ins. Coy.. Stettin. 

Salamander Fire Ins. Coy., 

Amsterdam. 

London & Midland Ins. Coy , 

London. 
Marine : 

Swiss National Ins. Coy., Basle. 
Havarie-Agents : 

" Switzerland " General Ins. Coy., 
Zurich. 

DR. H. EARLE BLUNT. 

American Dental Surgeon. 

THE BOMBAY BURMAH TRADING 
CORPORATION LIMITED. 

Head Office— Bombay. 

Branches i Ran g 00 "> Monlniera 

^ "Oost Java," Sourabaya. 



Manao-ers 



C Hamilton Price. 
1 E. J. Walton. 
(. H. Gore Browne. 



322 



General Directory. 



L. Brewitt-Taylor. 
E. G. Herbert. 

E. B. R. Mair. 
A. V. Rooth. 

W. R. H. Taylor. 
G. E. Hewitt, 

F. Paget. 

W. H. Graham. 

A. E Jones. 
Shipping Clerk— E. C. Favacho. 
Asst Engineer — H. Jarvis. 



fA. 

. \l 

Chiengmai -{ p 



Lakon 

Lampang 



Muang Prae. ■< 

Raheng < 
Paknampho — M 



L. Queripel. 
H. Rogers. 
G. Pardoe. 
A. Sherriff. 
. Phibbs Fowler. 
G. Oakden. 
W. Clarke. 

F. Coates. 
A. Boxall. 
A. Porter. 

C. St J. Yates. 

M. Weston. 

. Leigh Williams. 

W. R. Dibb. 
E. Hutchinson. 
C. E. Griffith. 
0. C. Weddeiburn. 

G. F. Weston Ehves. 
J. F. Keddie. 

W. Haines. 
S. Smith. 



Agencies : 
The British India Steam Nav. Co. Ltd. 
The Alliance Assurance Co. Ltd. 
The Yangtsse Insurance Assn. Ltd. 
W. H. Harton & Co., Calcutta. 



Telegraphic Address — " Romford." 
Telephone No. 113. BBT.C.L. 

Mill Office. 

„ 285. „ Head Office. 

„ „ 293. Manager's House- 



BORISAT RUA MAI. 

Meklong — Ratburi. 
Manager — Nai Si. 

Banpong — Kanburi. 
Manager— Nai Hua. 

THE BORNEO COMPANY, LIMITED. 

(Merchants). 
Head Office — London. 
Branches at 
Batavia, Sourabaya, Sarawak, 
Singapore, Bangkok, and Chiengmai. 
Stations at 
Lakon, Paknampho, Raheng, 
and Bannar. 
Bangkok. 
J. W. Edie Manager. 

W. E. Adam (signs per pro.) Assistant. 
N. J. Prentice 
M. T. Cooke-Collis 
A. E. Stiven 
H. W. Hall 
D. Robertson 
G. A. R. Mackintosh 
0. M. Peiniger 
R. W. S. Ogle 
A. R. Malcolm 
A. Harvev 
H. H. E. Massey 

D. S. Hewetson 
J. M. Blair 
P. L. Hogan 

E. Newington 
P. A. R. Barron 
P. A. Church 

Chiengmai, Raheng, Paknampho, 
and Lakon. 



D. F. Macfie 
R. J. Chaldecott 
W. G. Peiniger 
C. B. Ainslie 
J. D. Macvicar. 
H. A. Morrison' 
J. E. Dalgliesh' 
W. Bain 



Manager. 
Assistant. 



General Directory. 



323 



E. R. Atkins Assistant 


Van Oppen & Co., Ltd., Forward 1 


ng 


T. Brodie Chatteris 




Agents. 


N. C. B rah am „ 


Telephone Numbers : 




C. H. Munro 




General Office & Shipping 




H. Graham ,, 




& Insurance Depts. No. 


188 


N. J. MacLeod 




Import Dept. ,, 


130 


Rice and Saw Mills (in Bangkok). 




Manager's Office • ,, 


120 


W. Muir — Superintendent Engineer. 




,, House ,, 


663 


J. Maben — Assistant ,, 




Rice and Sawmill ,, 


263 


A. McKendrick — ,, ,, 




Asiatic Petroleum Co. Ltd. 








Office 


132 


Kerosini Installation. 




Kerosine Install ,, 


480 


(Bangpakok.) 




Liquid Fuel Install. ,, 


241 


W. A Robinson — engineer. 




E. BRANDE. 




Liquid Fuel Installation. 




Merchant and Accountant. 




(Paklat). 




Custom House Lane. 





H. M. West — engineer. 

Agencies. 
Lloyd's. 

Asiatic Petroleum Company, Limited. 
Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co., Ltd. 
Burrnah Oil Co., Ltd. 
Nobel's Explosives Company Limited. 
James Buchanan & Co.'s Whiskies. 
Dun lop Cycle Tyres. 
St. Pauli Breweries ( " Girl " Brand 

Beer). 
W. A. Ross & Sons, (Belfast Ginger 

Ale). 
Eastern Insurance Co. Ltd., (Fire). 
Federal Lite Assurance Co. of Canada. 
Hongkong Fire Insurance Co. Ltd, 
North China Ins. Co. Ltd (Marine). 
Northern Ass'nce Co. (Fire and Life). 
Norwich Union Fire Insce. Society. 
Ocean Marine Insurance Co. Ltd. 
Royal Insce. Co. (Liverpool) (Fire 

and Life). 
Tokio Marine Insurance Co. Ltd. 
Triton Insurance Co. Ltd. (Marine). 
Peninsular and Oriental Steam 

Navigation Co. 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha (Japan Line). 
•' Shire " Line of Steamers. 
The " Bank" Line Ltd. 
Davies Turner and Co., Ltd. 



BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO CO., LTD. 

Head Office : 
Cecil Chambers, 83, Strand. 

London, W. C. 

New York Office : 

200, Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Bangkok Depot. 

Telegraphic Address : 

Bramtoco, Bangkok. 

C. E. D. Warry— Depot Manager, 

F. M. S., Straits, & Siam. 

T. A. Slack — in charge, Siam. 

S. C. Batstone — asst. 

E. Hedle\ Stevens — ,, 

Chua Kim Choo— book-keeper. 

Chin Bock ^) . 

XT . AT . s salesmen. 

>Jai Nim J 

Ah Yong— store-keeper. 

Ah Keong — asst. 

Salem — messenger. 

BUAN HOA SENG * CO. 

Shipchandlers, Metal and General 
Hardware Merchants. 

(Next above to Kiam Hoa Heng 
& Co.'s premises.) 



324 



General Directory. 



Kiam Hoa Heng & Co. 

— general managing partners. 
Goh Ah Seng — sub-manager. 
Heng Kiah Siang — senior asst. 
Chua Ken ? Siang ") chief agstg> 
Low Hak Koo ) 

and others. 
Tel. JNo. 404. 



M. CACACE. 

Importer and Contractor. 



THE CHINO-SIAMESE DAILY NEWS 

Is a daily issue of both Chinese and 
Siamese. Besides, the Chino-Siamese 
Daily News is the owner of several 
monthly Siamese magazines. 
Proprietor and Editor — Seow Hood 

Seng. 
Asst. do. do. — Miss Seow 

(Samom). 

BAN HONG LONG * CO. 

Song wad Road, Wat Koh. 
General Importers and Shipping 
Agents. 
Chartered Boat, s.s. Pronto. 
Owners of s.s. Ban Hong Liong. 
Manager — Teng Hong Hoon. 
Shipping Clerk — Ong Keng Tiong. 



BUKIT TENGAH COCONUT ESTATE LTD. 

Estate Trengganu. 
Directors : — 

Dr. Malcolm Smith (Chairman). 
H. V. Bailey. 
A. H. Donaldson. 
W. Finnic 
Capt. Johansen. 

Manager — E. Bay. 
Secretary — R. Adey Moore. 
Registered Office — Singapore. 



BANGKOK INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER 
OF COMMERCE. 

Offices : Hongkong Bank Lane. 
Members of Committee. 
Hamilton Price — Chairman. 
C. Brockmann — Vice-Chairman. 
P. M. Lortet — Vice-Chairman. 
W. L. Blackett. 
J. W. Edic 
W. Finnic 
A. Hertzka. 
J. Keddie. 
C. Kramer. 
G. Kluzer. 
Erik Leth. 
F. Leuthold. 
A. Mohr. 
P. Scott. 
A. Teutsch. 

W. W. Mundie — Secretary. 

Market Report issued Monthly. 

CHINO-SIAM STEAM NAVIGATION 
CO., LTD. 

Incorporated by Royal Charter. 
Shipping, Fire and Marine Insurance. 

Head Office — Bangkok. 
Agents : 

Hongkong, Swatow and Hoihow. 

Charterers of s.s. " Drufar." 
s.s. " Childar," s.s. " Sexta," 
s.s. " Michael Jebsen " and 
s.s. " Clara Jebsen." 
Directors : 
Tai Kim Hoa Phya Charoen 

Leong Fook Woh Teng Lay Amm 
Hoon Kim Huat Chua Soon Huat 
Tai Tye Pheng Bay Nguan Lee 

Yong Seng Kew — Chairman 

(now absent in China). 
Manager — Teng Lay Amm. 
Secretary — Chua Soon Huat. 
Representing Manager — Low Buck 

Thong. 
Chief Acct. — Nai Jon. 
Cashier — Low Poh Hong. 
Shipping Clerk — L. Kee Pang. 




Bl KOYAL APPO.INTMKNT 



CONTRACTORS TO 

THE BRITISH ADMIRALTY, THE WAR OFFICE, 
THE INDIA OFFICE, 
ALSO F. M. S. & S. S. HOSPITALS. 



Milkmaid Milk 

LARGEST SALE IN THE WORLD. 

MILKMAID NATURAL STERILIZED (Not condensed, 

not sweetened, simply sterilized). 
For all purposes for which fresh milk is used. 

MILKMAID CONDENSED (Sweetened). 

For all domestic purposes-. 

IDEM, MILK ^Condensed, Sterilized, not sweetened). 

Excellent with boa and coffee or over fruit. 

.MILKMAID Pore Rich Thick CREAM | 

Delicious vvith stewed or preserved. fruits, for Meringues,' 
Ices, ('reams, etc. 



.... . , . , 

Each of these four is perfectly safe No risk whatever. 



liny the brand with the reputation behind it: 

MILKMAID. 

/. Nestli'' and An(ji.o-S\visn Condensed Milk Co., (London). 

Singapore, t», 7 and 8 lioat Quay. Penarig, ;J Railway Buildings: • 

Kuala Lumpur. Old Market Square. Bangkok, Etachawongse Road, 'I 
■ , • ) (Diethelra & Co., Ltd.; 




ey ROYAL APPOINTMENT fBim^fc *0 H - M - THB KING. 



Nestle Milk-Food. 

39 Gold Medals, 35 Diplomas of Honour and numerous testimonial* 
from the Highest Medical Authorities. 



A PERFECT NUTRIMENT FOR INFANTS, CHILDREN AMD 
INVALIDS, OF WHICH THE BASIS IS 

THE BEST MILK FROM SWISS COWS, 



THIS IS THE ONLY FOOD FOR WHICH A MEDAL AND A DIPLOMA WKRJS 
AWARDED AT MARSEILLES BY THE SOCIETY FOR THE 
• PROTECTION OF INFANCY. 



THE TEST OF HALF A CENTURY HAS PROVED THE MERITS OF 
THIS FOOD TO BE UKEQUALLED. 



The use of unsuitable and injudicious foods is one of the principal 
causes of the great mortality among children of tender age. 

During the first months the mother's milk will always be the most 
suitable nourishment, but where this from any cause is not available 
Nettle's Milk-Food, is the only food to which every. mother anxious to 
bring up her child ought to have recourse. 

The careful analyses, made by the most learned chemists of England 
France, and other countries, have proved that Henri Nestle's Milk-Food 
contains all the elements of a complete nutrition, under the most assimil- 
able form. , 



BUY THE BRAND WITH THE REPUTATION BEHIND IT. SOLD BY 
ALL DISPENSARIES AND LEADING DEALERS. 



NteSTLE and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co., (London). 
Singapore, 6, 7 and 8 Boat Quay. Penang, 3 Railway Buildings. 

Kuala Lumpur, Old Market Square. Bangkok, Rachawongse Road, 
b.:J (Diethelra &, Co., Ltd.) 



General Directory. 



325 



CHAROEN KRUNG PHOTOGRAPHIC 

STUDIO. 

Antonio Bros. 

99, New Road. 

J. Antonio — managing proprietor. 

CITY HOTEL. 

See Kak Phya Sri 
and 
Bristol Hotel. 
Proprietor — 0. Prufer. 

COELHO BROS. 

New Road. 
Dealers in Musical Instruments. 

COMMERCIAL HOTEL. 

Si phya Road. 
Madame Engel — proprietress. 

D. COUPER-JOHNSTON. 

Manager tor Siam, 

The Great Eastern Life Assurance 

Co, Ltd. 

Telephone No. 441. 

282, Si Phya Road. 

Head Clerk — -Neo Maun Poong. 

Clerks — Nai Larp, Teo Taik Lye, 

Koh Teck Chye. 
Collector — Nai Pan. 

C. COWAN. 

Commission Agent. 

DASTAKEER * CO. 

General Cloth Merchants and 

Commission Agents and Wholesale and 

Retailers and Contractors. 

50 and 51, Watkoh. 
K. M. Davoodsha — signs per pro. 
E. Abdul Azees Sahib. 
A. Fakkir Mohiadeen Sahib — 

chief clerk. 
K. M. Hidhayathulla — salesman. 
E. Nizamdeen Sahib—bill collector. 
S. Sayed Mohamad — cashier. 



DEUTSCH-SIAMESISCHE HANDELS 

GESELLSCHAFT. 

G. m. B. H. 

J. Waldburger— manager. 
P. Voirol — asst. 

Otto Bergmann — ,, 

Agencies. 
Liverpool and London and Globe 

Insurance Co., Ltd. 
Globus Insurance Co. of Hamburg. 

DIETHELM * CO., LTD. 

Merchants and Commission Agents. 
Head-Office: Diethelm & Co., S.-A., 
Zuerich. 

Branch-Hoiises at Singapore 
and Saigon. 
Bangkok. 
F. Leuthold — manager. 
H. Kunz — manager. 
L. Schneider — signs per pro. 
R. F. Meyeringh — asst. 
J. Ruegg — asst. 

Agencies : 
Koninklyke Paketvaart Maatschappv 

( Royal Packet S. N. Co. ) 
Stoomvaart Maatschappy 

" Nederland." 
Rotterdamsche Lloyd. 
Java-China-Japan Lyn. 
The Netherlands Fire and Life In- 
surance Co, (est. 1845), (Fire). 
The General Accident Fire and Lite 
Assurance Corporation Ltd, (Fire). 
The Helvetia Swiss Fire Insurance 

Company, (Fire). 
The Continental Insurance Company, 

(Marine). 
The " Fatum " Accident Insurance 

Company, (Accidents). 
The Official Tourist Bureau, Welte- 

v red en. 

Nederlandsche Fabriek van Werk- 

tuigen & Spoorweg Materieel, 

Amsterdam. 

Nestle & Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk 

Co., ( London ), Bangkok Depot. 

Cable Address: " Diethelmco." 



326 



General Directory. 



JOHN DICKINSON & CO,, LTD. 


THE EAST ASIATIC CO., LTD. 


Si-phya Road. 


Steam & Motorship Owners, 


C. Mancini — Travelling- 


Millers of Teak & Other Woods, 


Representative. 


Oil-Millers, 





Cement & Superphosphate 


ALEX. H. DONALDSON, C. A. 


Manufacturers, 


9, Chartered Bank Lane, 


Rubber & Cocoanut Estate Owners, 


H. H. Cook, C. A.— Asst. 


Exporters & Importers, 




General Merchants. 


JOHN M. DUNLOP. 




John M. Dunlop, m.i.n.a., m.i.e.s.s.— 


Head Office : Copenhagen. 


Consulting Engineer, Surveyor, 


Branches : Bangkok, Dalny, Hankow 


Importer and Valuator. 
Nai Chung— Chief Clerk. 
Nai Hub— Clerk. 


Harbin, Kvantschentze, London* 


Nikolajevsk, St. Thomas D. W. I. 
Shanghai, Singapore, Wladiwostock 


Mahomet Assin ,, 


Bangkok Branch : 


Agencies: 


W. Weimann, Managing Director 


Det Norske Veritas. 


residing at Bangkok. 


Siemens Bros. 


E. Leth — signs per pro. 


Swan & Maclaren. 


0. Paludan-Miiller — ~l sign con- 


John I. Thornycroft & Co. Ltd. 


chief supt. > jointly per 


George Jennings Ltd. 


0. Bjorling — chief acct.J pro. 


Dayton Electric Manufacturing Co. 


K. S. Huat — cashier. 



BRITISH DISPENSARY. 

(New Road and Seekak Phya Sri.) 

J. J. McBeth — Proprietor. 
E. Nichols — Manager. 
Nai Manee — Asst. 

A DIANA It CO. 

Import-Export Agents. 

Head Office — Bangkok. 

Branch — San Pier d'Arena, (Italy). 

Attilio Diana — partner. 
Rrcole Crowther — accountant. 
W. R. Smith I . , 
L. Suppo ) assistant, 

Agencies : 
Registro Nacionale Italiano. 
Itala Marine Insurance Co., Genova. 
Assicurazioni Marittime. Genova. 



Accounts Department (Telephone 400: 

0. Bjorling. 
H. Petersen. 

Engine & Technical Department 
(Telephone 400). 

O. Paludan-Miiller. 
P. Thomsen. 



Export & Import Department 
(Telephone 178). 
E. Leth. 
A. Abrahamsen. 
Th. Ehlers. 
C. Knipschildt. 
S. Siong Pek. 

Godowns and Wharves 

(Telephone 450). 
Capt. J. B. Johansen. 



THE EAST ASIATIC CO., LTD. 

I L. 

■ njGKGK-fcU^GP E & VICE V ERSA. 

Ijlegtti.tr direct service of last Cargo and Pa ssenge r Steamers 
and Motor - Ves sels from Copenli gen, Middlesburough, Antwerp, Genoa 
Bangkok and from baugkok u» ( enoa, Loudun, Copenha- 
gen and other ports with transhipment ; u all En- merican and. 

A f 

-Vessels are fitted will) luxurious ition for Js* 



S AWMILLS IN BANGKOK AND AT BANDON. 
bers of and dealers in Te^k , Mai Kiam, Mai In tan in, Maii Yang 
and Other Woods. 



ManufsuM m'er.- of the 

high grade "Buffalo" and "Lion" cements. 



Exporters of Siamese Products. 



Importers of all kinds of Fumpean and Ameri can goods. 

Specialities: Building Materials such as Oorr. Iron, Gutters 
Wirena ; ls, bar Iron, Zincrolls, Ridgings, Marble and Asbesl Paints 

and Oils j '■ •■ ' >' : Enam. goods, Bucket's, Muntz Metal, Pig Iron, etc., etc. 
Always large stock on hand. 
Gr< are sent; in own cargoboits, securing quick deliveries. 

' slli P s of Fresh VV^te r f rom own Artesian Well. 

Gfoe ©dental Store. 

; r.f all kinds of Provisions, Wines and Spii 
and Othi Cigars and Cigarettes, Lamps, Travelling Implements, 

I i ■■" . Perfum -ri j.s ;ui I T let A ; 1 icles, Gl ■ 

'Corrugated Iron, Walerpipes, Slrps' S 
Regular fresh su pplies. 



Managing Agents for ; 
THE SI AM STEAM NAVIGATION Co., Ltd. 

THE SI AM MINING Co., Ltd. 

General A gents for : 
THE RUSSIAN EAST ASIATIC Co., Ltd., ST. PETERSBURG. 
THE SWEDISH EAST ASIATIC Co., Ltd., GOTHENBURG. 



The Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 

Uirn be v an^ (Seneral merchants. 

PROPRIETORS: 

THE BANGKOK SAW MILLS. 
AGENCIES: 

Sir W. (5. A rmsl rong, Whil wori h & Co.. Ltd. 

Commercial Union Assurance Co., Ltd., (Fire, Life Marine,* Accident, 

Disease, and Motor Car). 
Guardian Assurance Co.. Ltd., (Fire) 

P) ■ im Assurance Co., Ltd., (Fire, Occident and Disease. ) 
D. M. Home & Co., Liice M< rchants, 16, Mark Lane, London, E. C. 
Pacific Mail Steamship Co., Ltd., Sari Francisco Overland Route. 
Toj o Kisen Kaisha do. do. 

The Bank Line, Limited. 
Lever Brothers, Limited, and allied Companies : 

Hodgson A Simpson, Limit.-!. Vinolia Co., Ltd. 

Bloudeau et CiV. R. S. Hudson Ltd. 

Chubb & Sons' Lock and Sat'.- Co., Ltd. 
Empire T\ pewrifer ( !o., Ltd. 

Barl.ock Typewriter Co , U I., (English and Siamese keyboards). 
Stone & Son's " Diamond Reef" Sterilized Milk. 
B ( ars Ltd.'s Lamps. 

mitas Co., Ltd.'s Disinfectants. 
Carr & Co., Ltd-.'s Biscuits 
Gonzalez & ■ lo.'s Brandies. 

Brothers Ltd.'s Leather Cloths. 
H & Cn.'s Perfumeries. "■. 

^spinalis Ltd 's Enamels. 
Corbyn Staeey & Co.'s Chemicals. 
Cadhury Brothers Lt-I.'> Cocoas and Chocolates. 
The Hutchinson Tyre Co., Ltd's Motor Tyres. 
Grimwades Ltd.'s Chinaware. 
Maconoehie Bros. Ltd's. Provisions. 
li P< sn^ed " : Motor ( 'ars. 
" Berlie) " Motor (ars. 
The Premier Cycle Co., Ltd's. Motor Cycles. 

i-r" Petroleum and Spii it Engines. 
Jones' Sewing Machines. 



HEAD OFFICE: 2 Fenchurch Avenue, London, E. C. 

Telegraphic I Timber Business:— ." Siaga" 1 London and 

Address. \ General Business :-^-« Claric^fcum * J Bam 



General Directory. 



327 



Oriental Store (Telephone 179): 

V. Sorensen. 
0. Gronemann. 
H. P. Bagger. 
E. Tofte. 
G. H. Hassing 

Sawmills (Telephone 192): 

O. C. Christensen. 

A. Ehrhardt. 

R. W. Jorgensen. 

S. Drost. 

A. L. Beer. 

P. Chum. 

Shipping Dept. (Telephone 400): 

Chr. Jensen. 
A. Rasmussen. 
Capt. C. Kaas. 
T. Watt Seng. 

Water Works Dept. (Telephone 450): 
Capt. J. B. Johansen. 

Work Shops (Telephone 192): 
P. Thorn sen. 

Sawmills at Bandon : 

H. E. Hansen-Raae. 
C. Holm. 



Forests at Phrae : 



V. Gjern. 
Ii. Jagd. 
P. Hedegaard. 
A. Gredsted. 
A. S. Sabroe. 



Forests at Bandon 



Knud Larsen. 
O. A. Ascanius. 
Th. Bendixsen. 
P. Jensen. 
D. Brocksgaard. 



Singora Agency : 



Telegraphic Addresses : 
In Bangkok — General : " Asiatic, *' 
Shipping : " Ruafai, " Woods : " Orin- 
teak, " Confidential : " Pyramide, " 
Oriental Store : " Oriental. " 

At Phrae, Bandon and Singora : 

Hours : 7|-12 & l|-5, Saturdays: 7^-1. 



Oriental Store 7-12 



N. Larsen. 



do, Saturday 7-12 & lfc-4- 

EDGAR BROTHERS. 

General Import & Export Merchants. 
Telegraphic Address " Edgar " 
Telephone No. 568. 
Partners : 
M. A. Edgar, Sr. — Manchester. 
C. A. Edgar, Sr. - 
C. A. Edgar, Jr. — Bangkok. 
M. A. Edgar, Jr. — Singapore. 
S. A. Edgar- 
Bangkok. 

George Edgar — Signs per pro. 
Kuang Huee — bill collector. 
Check Choon — store-keeper. 
Heng Kwee — shipping clerk. 

EST ASIATIQUE FRANCAIS. 

Xieng Khong. 

M. Lesterre — manager. 
M. Rabjeau — asst. 
M. Taponier — ,, 
M. Mouraille — ,, 

at Saigon. 
M. Champhanet — agent. 
R. W. Fricker — technical manager. 
M. Preheie — asst. 

ABDUL TAYEB ESMAILJEE MUSKATI. 
Rajawongse Road. 
General Importer and Merchant. 
A. G. Hoosein — manager. 

Telephone No. 620. 



328 



General Directory. 



HOTEL EUROPE. 

New Road. 
Telegraphic address : Rosenberg. 
Telephone No. 542. 
Proprietor — M. Rosenberg. 

FALCK * BEIDEK. 

Ch. Kramer — sole partner. 
O. Brandenburg") 
W. Lamm j 

Telephone No. 238. 



assistants. 



FRASER & NEAVE, LTD. 

Aerated Water Manufacturers. 
Siphya Road. 

Branch Manager — T. F. Dixon. 
Assistant- J. A. Duthie. 
Clerk — Chin Choon. 
Collector — Yeow Seng Chuan. 
Telephone No. 262. 
Telegraphic Address : Atlas. 

Head Office : Singapore. 

Branches : Penang, Kuala Lumpur, 
Ipoh and Malacca. 

H. W. FRICKER. 

Saigon. 

GREAT EASTERN LIFE ASSURANCE 
CO, LTD. 

282 Si-Phya Road. 

Telephone No. 441. 

D. Couper- Johnston — manager, 

Bangkok Branch. 

FRENCH DISPENSARY. 

Sura won gse Road. 

Telephone No. 690. 

A. Escaich, pharmacien de Ire classe. 

M. Re — Successor, 

Chemical Analyst. 



F. GRAEHLERT & CO. 

Court Jewellers. 

F. Grahlert — sole proprietor. 
H. Storm — signs per pro. 

G. Seidel — asst. 
A. Flessing — „ 



B. GRIMM * CO. 

Bangkok : Tel. Address, " Grimm." 

Hamburg Branch : Tel. Address, 

" Siamgrimm." 

General Import Merchants and 
Contractors. 

Departments : 

.General Department Tel. No. 235. 
Market Department ,, 425. 

The Pratu Samyot Store „ 208. 
The Bangkok Outfitting 

Co. „ 220. 

F. Bopp and A. Link — Partners. 
H. Scheele — signs per pro. 

W. Siegert — ,, 

L. Bohensky — ■ ,, 
H. C- Hanhart (Hamburg) — signs 

per pro. 
H. Jungclaus — assistant. 

G. Schaarschmidt — ,, 
W. Clasen — „ 

A. Koch — ,, 
H. Waag— 

W. Sprenger — ,, 
W. Schmidt 
O. Weber— 

B. Roggan ,, 
S. Dost — cutter. 
W. Kremer — ,, 

B. Grimm & Co's Siam Dispensary. 
Tel. No. 626. 

0. Tewes, analyt. chemist— manager. 
S. Gortzen. analyt. chemist 

C. Kiu6e — optician. 



Genera] Directory. 



329 



C. L. GROUNDWATER * CO. 

Machinery Merchants and Contractors. 
0. L. Groundwater, m.i.e.s. — 

consulting engineer and surveyor. 

VILH. GEDDE. 

Accountant and Secretary. 
13 Chartered Bank Lane. 

G. BOVO &. CO. 

General Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Merchants. 

New Road & Custom House 
Lane, No. 106. 

Partners. 
Giuseppe Bovo — Rome, 

P. 0. Box 201. 
Tancredi Bovo — managing partner. 

Staff: 
F. Hendriks— assistant. 

Tel. Address : " Bovo," Bangkok. 

B. R. GAUDART * CO 

New Road. 

General Outfitters. 

Tel. No. 386. 

MRS. GRITTERS. 

Assumption Square, New Road. 
Provision Merchant, 

Household Sewing Undertaken. 



T. A. HAVELIWALLA & BROS. 

Bangkok, Bombay and Surat. 
Head Office ; Nagdevi Street. Bombay. 

Manager for Bangkok — 
Ebrahim A. Real. 

C. HERMANN & CO. 

Contractors, Undertakers, Decorators, 

etc. 

Bang Kwang, Tel. No. 657. 



D. M. HORNE * CO. 

16, Mark Lane, London. 

Rice Merchants. 

Agents — The Siam Forest Co., Ltd., 

Bangkok. 
D. Ross — Assistant. Bangkok. 

HONG HENG CHAN. 

General Merchant and Commission 
Agent. 

Safiapeng Street. 

INDIA RUBBER STAMP MANUFACTORY 
F. W. C. Hamacker — manager. 

ISONAGA PHOTO STUDIO. 

Proprietor — S. Hatano. 

THE JENDARATA RUBBER CO., LTD. 

Danish Company, Registered in Copen- 
hagen, 4th November, 1907. 
Capital— £. 50,000 (one <£ shares.) 
Rubber & Cocoanut Plantations. 
Estate— Teluk Anson, Perak, F. M. S. 

Board of Directors — 

A age Westenholz — Chairman. 
W. L. Grut — Vice Chairman. 
Villi. Gedde — Director. 
T. A. Gottsche — ,, 
Aage Jonsen — ,, 
Herluf Hansen — ,, 
Board of Management — Villi. Gedde, 
Aage Jonsen, T. A. Gottsche. 

Staff in Bangkok — 
L. Bisgaard-Thomsen. — acct. and sec. 

Staff* on the Estate— 
Capt. F. von Zernichow, manager. 
Major 0. Buscli — accountant. 
J. Kyllberg — -assistant. 
C. L Gjorup — ,, 
H. Get/,— 
S. H. Schwarts — ,, 
F. Jensen — 



330 



Genera! Directory. 



Telegraphic Address — Jendarata 


IKRUNG THEP CINEMATOGRAPH CO. 


(Bangkok or Teluk Anson). 


New Road. 


Telephone— No' 339. 

Bankers — The Hongkong & Shanghai 


(Established 1907.) 


Banking Corporation. 


Importers of Films. 


Legal Representative — 


Nai Soon Chai — manager. 


Ulf. Hansen, 





14, Nybrogade, Copenhagen. 


KOH MAH WAH & CO. 





Rice Millers, etc., 


KAT2 BROS., LTD. 


Nai Lorm — manager. 


Merchants, 


Koh Sin Chai — asst. manager. 


General Commission Agents, 


Koh Kye Kwang — asst. 


and Licensed Ann Dealers 




Siphya Road. 




KIM CHING * CO. 


Tel. No. 245. 




L. Goldschmid — manager 

signs per pro. 


(Chop) Chin Seng Chan. 


Merchants and Commission Agents. 


H. Reichwein — asst. 


^ f Tan Quee Swee. 
Executors < m ^ 1F , 
(_Tan Quee Wan. 


KERR AND CO. 


Manager — Chua Boon Poh. 


( See : Siam Import Co. ) 


sub- do. — Chee Koon Cheng- 





Rice Mill : 


KIAM HOA HENG & CO. 


Manager — Chua Boon Poh. 


Est. 1879. East bank river Menam. 


Sub do. — Koh Swee Tong. 


Merchants, General Importers, and 


Engineer — W. S. Smart, 


Commission Agents. 


Head Office : 


Chan Teck Hee — managing partner. 


Kim Ching & Co. 


Goh Yong Chua — manager. 


(Chop) Chin Seng — Singapore. 


Tan Hee Seng — accountant. 


. 


Tan Hee Soon — -manager of Sales 


G. KLUZER. 


and Indent Dept. 
Goh Yong Joo — cashier. 


Building Contractor. 


Gh.ua Tit Seng— senior assistant. 


G. Kluzer. 


L. L. Meng Seng — ,, 


M. Galletti— building expert. 


Tan Hee Guan — ,, 


G. Agnesi — overseer. 


Low Kiok Siang — bill collector 





Teo Kiah Seng — ., 


G. KLUZER AND CO. 


and other assts. and clerks. 


G. Kluzer — sole partner. 


Tel. No. 180. 


R. Boffa-Tarlatta — asst. 


Branches. 


F. Galassi — chief clerk. 


Buan Hoa Seng & Co. — 


Agencies : 


Shipchandlers, Bangkok. 


The Paraffine Paint Co.. San Francisco. 


Yong Hoa Seng & Co. — 


(Malthoid Roofing.) 


General Store. Singapore. 


Joh Cockerill, Railway Materials. 



G. KLUZER. 



F UUIBINll r^ ONTEACTOR. 
Estimates Given, 



AND 



Erections of Every Description 
Undertaken. 

Address :-FRATU SAMYOT. 
BANGKOK. 



U7bV! no iiti: 

t 



I'M rie w. ru imn Ik nm nn jti <srM m In** n ««« 



5K fc 1 • 



S k 



rij 3 irm -5 

1 



IMPERIAL 



German Mail 
Steamers. 

Boieteutscber %lc£o,- Bremen. 

N. D. L. 

The Steamers of the Company convey Passengers and Cargo every 2 
weeks to and from the following ports, viz : — 

Bremen, Antwerp, Southamj ton, Gibraltar, Algiers, Naples ( connec- 
tion Marseilles, Naples, Alexandria and vice versa), Genoa ( Genoa, New 
York ), Port Said, Suez, Aden, Colombo, Singapore, Bangkok, Hongkong, 
Shanghai, Yokohama, and Nagasaki. Hongkong to Manila, New Guinea 
and Australian Ports. • 

The above Company has also fast Mail boats plying between Bremer- 
haven and New York, and, fur. her, a regular Mail Service between the 
former port and South America, t tc. 

Through tickets issued fi om Bangkok to all above named ports. 

Particulars regarding dates of sailing, rates of passage money, 
passenger's life and luggage! insurance, etc., maybe obtained on application 
at the Company's Agents' Office. 



CCAiT LINES. 

Departures for Hongkong about every third day, while a regular 
weekly service is kept, up with Singapore. Besides, s.s. Deli maintains a 
fortnightly seivice connecting with the German Mail. 

WINDSOR & Co., 

Agents. 




BY APPOINTMENT 



Kiam Hoa Heng & Go. 

EAST BANK RIVER MKNAM. 

Hbe premier provision firm since 1870. 
Tel. 180 

Departments :— 

Provisions, 

Wines and Spirits, 

Cigars and Cigarettes, 
Bicycles, 

Fancy Goods, 

Stationery, 
Perfumery, 

Toilet Requisites, 

Household Goods, 
Cutlery, 

Electro Goods, 

Boots and Shoes, Etc 

Special Terms offered to Messes and Clubs. 
Town orders delivered free. 

Branch Store— BUAN IIOA SENG & CO 

Tel, 404 

* Next above cur premises. 

SHIPCHANDLERS 

Hardware, IVTetals, 

and Rice JVlill stores in general. 



Harry A. Badman 
& Co. 

City and Baiigt»ak. 



NAVAL, MILITARY & COURT TAILORS, 
COURT COSTUMIERS, 

DRAPERS, OUTFITTERS 

AND 

GENERAL STORE. 

Complete House Furnishers & Upholsterers, 

Specialises 
In the manufacture of Furniture from Native Woods. 

4LSO 

ALWAYS OH SHOW 

- L A compete stock of Jewellery, Watches. Clocks, 
Silver & Electro Plate goods, Cutlery, Bags & Trunks, 
China & Glass Ware, Stationery, IS.uSic & Musical 
Instruments, Saddlery. 

Tehgrarm; "BAVMAJS" BANGKOK. 

<;Ol)E: A.B.CV 5T8 E1>IT!0*. 

f CITY SO 

*****{ BANGHAK './. $50. 



General Directory. 



331 



Baume et Marpent. Railway Materials. 
F. I. A. T. Motor Oars. 
The Yost Typewriter Co., Ltd. 
Hartraann's Anti-Corrosive Paints. 
O'Hara, Mathews & Co , 

"Dodoine" Water Paints. 
Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. 
The Studebaker Corporation of 

America, Motor Cars. 

THE LAAD YAI SALT MANUFACTURING 
Sc REFINING CO., LTD. 

Si Phya Road. 
M. Towfique— -manager. 

ROBT. LENZ & CO. 

Photographers to the Court of Siam. 

E. Qroote ") , 

^ -r, v- partners. 

C. Pruss J l 

0. Pruss — assistant. 

Mann Cheen — book-keeper. 

Som Boon ") n . 
. , r i > co lectors, 

Ah Lock J 

LOUIS T. LEONOWENS, LIMITED. 

Teak Concessionaires, Saw * Millers. 

General Importers & Exporters. 
Head Office— -11/12 Fenchurch 

Street, London, E.C. 
Mananging Director — 

Louis T. Leonowens. 

Branches at Bangkok, and 

Nakon Lampang. 

Stations at Sucothai, Paknampoh 

and Raheng. 

Bangkok. 

Offices : Hongkong and Shanghai 
Rank Lane ; Tel. Add. 
" Leonowens. Bangkok 
Tel. No. 250. 

Bang Lampoo Larng ( Saw 
Mill) ; Tel. Add. "Denny. 
Bangkok '" Tel. No. 144. 
Joint Managers : 

Gr. Rowland, Bang Lampoo Larng. 

J. M. Milne, Hongkong & Shanghai 

Bank Lane. 



Assistants : 

J. A. C. Anderson, H. & S. Bank Lane. 
J. Miller, Bang Lampoo Larng- 
R. H. Steele, do. 

A. J. Mearns, H. & S. Bank Lane 
L. W. Home, Bang Lampoo Larng 

Nakon Lampang. 

Northern Manager — G. Gordon 

MaCleod 
Assistants — R. Vivian Jeavons 

— H. W. Joynson 

— A. W. Mountain 

— H. Foster Pegg 

— J. G. Campbell 

— R. W. Bolton 

—T. Taylor Scott 

— H. Bartosch 

— H. E. Palmer. 
Agencies : 

Siamese Trading Corporation Ltd. 
Renong Tin Dredging Co. Ltd. 

COMPTOIR FRANCAIS DU SIAM. 
PIERRE M. LORTET. 

Agent de Fabriques Francaises. 
Assistant — F. E Fortin. 
Accountant — Madame Lortet. 
Lim Cheng Kiet — Head and 

Shipping Clerk. 
Choi Khok Leong 1 p 
Lu Baek Chun J 
Louis Fariola — Clerk. 
Bonn Chin — CJodown keeper, 



Compradores. 



THE EXCELSIOR ICE MANUFACTORY 
NAI LERT. 

Ice, Cold Storage, Ice Cream Dept. 
Nai Bhakdinart (NaiLert) — proprietor. 
A. Bermann — assistant. 
K. Y. Leng — clerk. 
T. B. Lieng— ,. 

Store. 
Nai Hian — clerk. 

Agencies : 
Shell Motor Spirit (Benzine), Retail. 
Fraser & Neave's Aerated Waters. 



332 



General Directory. 



LOTUS DISPENSARY. 

Corner of Custom House Lane. 
Carl C. Hansen— Attending Physician. 

A. LANDAU 4 CO. 

Auctioneers and Brokers, 
New Koad. 

A, MARKWALD & CO. LTD., m. to. H. 

Reis-& Handels-Aktiengesellschaft, 
Bremen, — proprietors. 
H. Habenicht — manager. 
H. Bullermann — asst. 
H. Wilkens— 
H. v. d. Heyde— „ 
H. Bottcher— 
H. Koch— 

Rice Mill. 
H. Jockisch — head-miller. 
E. Klinger — miller. 
W. Marwan — engineer. 
Agencies. 
Shipping. 
Austrian Lloyd. 
Osaka Shosen Kaisha. 

Insurance ( Fire. ) 

London & Lancashire Fire Ins. Co. 
North British & Mercantile Ins. Co. 
Nord-Deutsche Insurance Co. 
Fire Ins. Co. of 1887, Hamburg. 

Insurance (Marine). 
Hamburg & Bremen Underwriters. 
The Canton Insurance Office Ltd., 

Hongkong. 
" Allianz " Versicherungs Akfcien. 

Ges., Muenchen & Berlin. 
"Agrippina" See-, Fluss- & Land- 
transport Vers. Ges., Koeln. 
" Alliance" Marine & Gen. Ass. Co., 

London. 
La Assecuradore Espanola, Madrid. 
Badische Assekuranz Ges., Akfr. Gee., 
Mannheim. 
Baseler Transport Vers. Ges. } Basel. 



Bremische Seeversieherungsges., 

Bremen. 
China & Japan Marine. Insurance Coy., 
Shanghai. 
Deutscher Lloyd, Transport Vers. Akt. 
Ges., Berlin. 
Desdener Feuer Vers. Ges., Trans- 
port Vers. Branche. Dresden. 
Deutsche Transport Vers. Ges., Berlin. 
Deutsche Rueck- & Mitversicherungs 
Ges., Berlin. 
Duesseldorfer Allgemeine Versiche- 
rungs Ges., Duesseldorf. 
Eidgenoessische Transport Vers. Ges., 
Zuerich. 
" El Dia " Compagnie Anonyme 

d' Assurance, Carthagena. 
" Fonciere " Pester Versicherungs 

Anstalt., Budapest. 
" Globus " Versicherungs 

Gesellschaft, Hamburg. 
" Hansa " Allgemeine Seeversiche- 

rungs Akt. Ges., Hamburg. 
Internationale Transport Vers. Ges., 

Duesseldorf. 
Koelner Lloyd, Koeln. 
Muenchener Rueck Versicherungs 

Ges., Berlin. 
Niederrheinische Gueter Ass. Ges., 

Wesel. 
Nord-West-Deutsche Versicherungs 

Ges.. Hamburg. 
Nouveau Lloyd Suisse, Winterthur. 
Oberrheinische Vers. Gee., Mannheim. 
Oesterreichische Elemental' 

Versicherungs Akt. Ges. 
Preussische National Vers. Ges, 

Transport Abtlg.. Stettin. 
"Providentia" Allgeimine Vers. Ges., 

Wien. 
" Rhenania" Versicherungs Akt. Ges., 

Koeln. 
Rheinisch-Westfael. Lloyd, Transport 
Vers. Akt. Ges., *M.-Gladbach. 
Rheinisch-Wesfael. Rueckversiche- 

rungs Akt. Ges., M.-Gladbach. 

Russisehe Transport & Vers. Ges. von 

1844. 



General Directori/. 



333 



Schweizerische National Vers. Ges., 

Basel. 
Societe Anonyme d' Assurances 

" Franco-Hongroise," Budapest. 
Transatlantische Gueter Vers. Ges., 

Berlin. I 
Verein Hamburger Assekuradeure, 

Hamburg. 
Versicherungs Ges., " Salamandra," 

St. Petersburg. 
Wuerttembergische Transport Vers. 

Ges., Heilbronn. 
Germanic Lloyds, with power for 

classing ships. 
Bureau Veritas, with power for 

classing ships. 
Deutsche Rueckversicherungs A.-G., 

Dueaseldorf. 
Duesseldorfer Rueckversicherungs 

A.-G., Duesseldorf. 



MEKLONG RAILWAY CO., LTD. 

Capital— Tcs. 2,230,000 in 22,300 
shares. 

640 debentures at Tcs. 100. 

Directors — 

Dr. T. Hey ward Hays — chairman. 

J. Mackay. 

C. Kramer. 

J. M. Milne. 

Phra Boriboon. 
G. Dietrich — secretary. 
H. C. Andersen — manager. 
W. Gbttsche — engineer. 
M. Haile — asst. manager. 



MENAM MOTOR BOAT CO., LTD. 

Siamese Company. 

W. L. Grut — chairman. 

Phya Atharka rn — vice-chairman. 

J. Bruun — Manager. 

Tel. No. 540 



MESSAGERIES FLUVIALES 
DE COCHINCHINE. 

Head Office: 5 rue d'Athenes, Paris. 
Direction — Saigon . 
Branches — Pnompenh, Savannaket, 

Vien-Tiane, Luang-Prabang, Bat- 

tambang, and Bangkok. 
Agencies : Messageries Maritimes 

(French Mails), Chargeurs Reunis. 
Cable address : " Postage " 
E. C. Monod et File — agents. 

MOHR BROTHERS * CO. LTD. 

( Merchants ). 

Head Office— 12, Mark Lane, 

London, E. C. 

Branches— Rangoon, Akyab, Bassein, 

Moulmain and Bangkok. 
P. Dormans — manager. 
Herm. Krudop — asst. 
Telephones : 

Office No. 486. 

Manager's residence No. 515. 



E. C. MONOD & FIL 

Import and Export Merchants. 
E. C. Monod. 
H. G. Monod. 
P. Semprez — asst. 
Paul Veh - asst. 



F. A. MOTIWALLA. 

Merchant & Commission Agent. 
47/9, Raja won gse Road. 
Telegrams : Abdanbhai. 
Telephone No. 528. 
H. Faizullabhaj r — head manager. 
K H. Fat eh ally— -asst. 
N. M. Yagnik — head clerk. 
A. H. Sulemanji — assistant. 
A. A. Gangriwalla — ,, 

Head Office. Surat. 
Branch Office, Bombay. 



334 



General Directory. 



THE MUTUAL STORE LTD. 

Tapan Lek, New Road. 
General Importers. Tailors. Outfitters, 

and Warehousemen. 
Telephone No. 622. 

Directors. 
Lim Cheng Kiat. 
Cheah Chee Seng-. 
Hoon Kim Hua. 
Nai Sai. 
Tan Boon Poh — attorney for 

Tan Boon Liat. 
Lim Cheng - Kiat— manager and 

secretary. 
H. Kim Lee — book-keeper. 
Lim Cheng Hock — cashier. 
S. Kam Yuan — salesman. 



Thom- 



do. 



MAHOMEDALI NOORBHOY. 
Merchant and Commission Agent. 
Took Khaw. 
Hassanali Mahomedali — managing 

partner, signs per pro. 
Abdulali Mahomedali — bill collector. 
Jeewajee Allibhai — godown keeper. 
Agencies. 

Singapore : — H. Rajbhai & Co., X. 
Purshotmudass & Co., N. Tyebali. 
Calcutta : — Md Ali Hassanali & Co., 

Sadik Husain. I Attar). 
Bombay : — Baboojce Noorbhali & Sons. 

M. A-' Patharia. 
Vienna: — M. A. Goldenberg. 

MOUNG KYWET Nl * SONS. 

Gold and Silversmiths. 

Workshop— In the palace of H. R. H. 
Prince Sanpasart. 

MITSUI BUSSAN KAISHA LTD. 
General Merchants. 
New Road. 
Head OffLe— 1, Surugacho. Tokio. 

Japan. 
London ( >ffice— Mitsui & Co., Ltd. 

24, Lime Street. E. C. 



Branches at : — 

Amoy, Bombay, Calcutta Canton, 
Che too, Chemulpho, Foochow, Ham- 
burg, Hankow, Hongkong, Manila, 
Newchwang, New York, Rangoon, 
San Francisco, Seoul, Shanghai, 
Singapore. Sourabaya, Sydney, Tai- 
ren. Taipeh, Tientsin, Tsingtau, An- 
tong, Fusan, Lyon, Harbin, Mukden, 
Portland, Vladivostok and all Japan 
Ports. 

Representative — T. Komaki. 
Asst. — K. Yoshioka. 
Asst. — M. Shibano. 

Telegraphic Address : " Mitsui. " 

Telephone No. 513. 

Agencies : 
Japanese Government Monopoly 

Bureau. 
Miike and Tagawa Coal Mines. 
Kanada Coal Mines. 
Ohnoura Coal Mines. 
Dai Nippon Brewery Co. 
American Locomotive Co., etc. 

J. D. MACARTHUR. 
Engineer and Contractor. 
Tel. Add ress — M;i carthu r. 
J. I). Macarthur, Extra 1st Clas s 
Engine ■.-. Gold Medallist Inst- 
Marine Engrs., Member of the 
Institute of Engineers and Ship- 
builders in Sc itland, M. Inst, 
of .Mining Engineers, Vice- 
President of the Institute of 
Marine Engineers. 
Speciality, Motor Launch Construction, 
Contractor to H.. M's Government 
Departments. 
Slips and Workshop adjoining G. P. 0. 

Sole Agent : 
The Britannia Engineering Co., Ltd. 
(1010;, Colchester. 
Daimler Motors. Marienfeld. 
Brazil Straker & Co.. Bristol. 
Djinn Motors. 



General Director)/. 



33! 



Westinghouse Brake Co., London. 
Warner's Pumps. 

Representative in Bangkok for James 
Murchie & Co., * Ltd.. London — 
J. D. Macarthur. 

Joint representative and assistant — 
H. E. Foster. 

H. S. MARICAN. 

14 Chartered Bank Lane. 

Dubash, Stevedore and Contractor. 

K. A. MALBARY. 

10, Rajawongse Road. 

General Merchant, Importer & 

Exporter. 

Telephone No. 665. 

Telegraphic Address " Malbarv. " 

Surat Office, " A. H. Malbarv". " 

MAGAULAL KASALCHAND MEHTA. 

Jewellers & dealers in precious Stones. 
80 Wat Liep. 

NESTLE & ANGLO-SWISS CONDENSED 
MILK COMPANY I LONDON /. 

Telegrams : Nestanglo. 
See Diethelm & Co.. Ltd. 

NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD STAFF, 
in Bangkok. 
Telephone No. 557. 
Telegr. Address : Suedlloyd. 

H. Schiingel — Representative. 
K. Schmeden — supt. engineer. 

Steam-lighters — 

Capt. R. Freese — s s. Ayulhia. 

,, J. Meyer — s.s. Pangpakong. 

,, Gr. Meyer — s.s. Chantaboon. 

„ O. Malitz — s.s. Menam. 

„ N. Siemen — s.«. — Patriu. 

,, K. Bargholz — s.s. Tacheen. 



Tugs.— 

„ A. Schulz - s.s. Cyclop. 

„ Alii Adam— s.s. Undine. 
Supt. of Coal-Hulks at Kohsichang— 

H. Bruhn. 

K. W. NORDMANN. 

New Road. 
Broker &, Accountant. 

NANGSUE PHIM THAI. 
Sanon Phlab Phla Jai. 
Tel. No. 482. 
Proprietor — Phra Raj Sewoke. 

NIM SOON NGUAN. 

Importers and Wholesale Merchants. 

Nakon Sri Tamarat : 

(Chop) " Jing Soon. " 

Rice Millers, Pak Penang : 

(Chop) " Jing Jee Soon. " 

Tin Mines, Lampoon, Chaiya, 

Monthon Chumporn: 

(Chop) "Jing Soon. " 

Wolfram Mines. Amphur Klai, Nakon: 

(Chop) '' Jing Han Soon." 

ORIENTAL BAKERY. 

•G. E. M. de .Jesus — manager. 

ORIENTAL STORE. 

Wholesalers and Retailers, Import- 
ers of all Kinds of Provisions, Wines 
and Spirits, Danish and Other Beers, 
Tobacconists' goods, Travelling Imple- 
ments, Sationery, Harness and Sad- 
dlery, Glassware and Crockery. Ships' 
Stores, Water Pipes, Corrugated Iron, 
etc. 

V. Soreusen. 
0. Gronemann. 
H. P. Bagger. 
E. Tofre.^ 
G. H. Hassing. 



336 



General Directory. 



Telegraphic Address : "Oriental." 


THE PHATHANAKORN CINEMATOGRAPH 


Telephone: 179. 


CO., LTD. 




New Road. 


Hours : 7-12 and l£-5. 

Saturday 7-12 and l£-4. 


Siow Siong Wan — manager. 


ORIENTAL HOTEL. 


THOMAS H. POLLARD. 


Tel. Address : Orienhotel. 


Chartered Bank Lane. 


A. J. Maire — proprietor. 


Consulting Engineer, Marine 
Surveyor, and Valuator, 




Importer of Machinery, &c. 
Ship & Engineer Surveyor at Bangkok 


PAKNAM RAILWAY CO., LTD. 


Directors — Dr. T. Heyward Hays, 


to 


(chairman). 


Lloyds Register of British and 


W. L. Grut. 


Foreign Shipping 


Phra Boribun. 


and Local Offices. 


Luang Sunthorn Kosa. 


Telephone No. 394. 


Phya Arthakar Prasiddhi 




0. Kramer. 




Managing Director — T. Heyward Hays 


PRATU SAMYOT STORE. 


Manager — T. A. Gottsche. 


see B. Grimm & Co. 


Secretary — G. Dietrich, 





E. M. PEREIRA & CO. 


PRAMOTHAI THEATRE. 


House Furnishers, Importers, 


Pratu Sam Yot. 


Agents, etc. 


Proprietor— Nai Lek. 


The Exchange Library and 





Stationery Depot, 


RAJAH HITAM COCONUT ESTATE LTD. 


and 


Capital £25,000. 


The Siam Auctioneering Co. 


Estate — Bernam River. Selangor. 


Opposite Custom House Lane. 


Directors : — 


E. M. Pereira — sole proprietor. 


J. Mackay — chairman. 


T. S. A pear — auction crier. 


G. Foss. 


Nai Sy Yout— asst. 


C. W. Andersen. 


Agents for : 


T. A. Gottsche. 


Spencer & Co.'s Cigars. 


Manager— A. Christiansen. 


Ward Lock & Co.'s Publications. 


Asst. — K. Getz. 


Castell Brothers Ltd., Paper 


Secretary — K. W. Nordman. 


Merchants. 


Registered Office — Singagore. 


PHILIP PETERSON. 


THE RAJAH UNA COMPANY, LTD. 


Advocate. 


Capital £40,000. 


17, 18 and 19 Burapah Road. 


Estate, Bernam River, Selangor. 


Siamese Assistants — -Nai Marts. 


Directors : — 


— Nai Sanan. 


W. L. Grut — (chairman). 


— Nai Charoen. 


C. W. Andersen. 


Telephone No. 334. 


G. Foss. 



General Directory. 



337 



Herluf Hansen. 

A. Jonsen. 

M. Bojesen. 
Manager — A. Naested. 
Asst. — K. Leffland. 
Secretary — K. W. Nordmann. 
Eegistered Office— Singapore, 

RENONG TIN DREDGING CO., LTD. 

Head Office — 5, Whittington Avenue, 

London, E. C. 
Tin Mine at Renong, Siam. 
Louis T. Leonowens Ltd. — Agents 

for Siam. 
F. Nicholls — general manager. 

RATANA MALA CO. 

General Importers. 
Pahurat Road. 
Agent of Messrs. Borsalino Giusepe 
Fratello, Felt Hat Manufacturer, 
Alessandria, Italy. 
Nai Soon Chai — manager. 

G. KENNEDY REID. 

Veterinary Surgeon and 
Chemist and Druggist. 

A. ROSE. 

Contractor, Samsen. 
Telephone 488. 

SAMOSORN KA RAJAKARN. 

H. Reinecke — manager. 
M. Haas.^ 
A. Kraft. 

S. A. B. 
SOCIETE ANONYME BELGE 

pour le Commerce et l'lndustrie 

au Siam. 

Head Office : New Road, City. 

Tel. No. 436. 

Telegraphic Address : 

u Bels'osiam " — Bangkok. 



W. Blankwaardt — Manager. 

L. Riganti — Chief Watchmaker and 

Jeweller. 
R. Galassi. 
Nai Bua 1 

Ah Kooya V Watchmakers. 
Chin Yot ) 
Nai Chune. 
Soon Seng. 

Brussels Office : Dr. Dekeyser, 

Representative. 

Sole Agencies : 

F. N. Browning: pistols, rifles, shot- 
guns, motorcycles, cycles, etc. 
S. A. des Usines-Boulonnerie & 

Fonderies de la Louviere. 
Usines de Braine-le-Comte, S. A. 
Cristallerie du Val St Lambert. 
S. A. des Usines Remy, Wygmael. 
Englebert's motor and cycle tyres and 
allied-trade articles. 
Barnet photographic plates and papers. 
S. A. " La Washington," Brussels. 
L. Bleriot Lamps and accessories, 

Parit. 
Papeteries '"Godin," Huez. 
" Junghans " clocks and watches, 

Gebr. Junghans, Schraniberg. 
L. Eeckelaers, Brussels, (soaps). 
Companhia Agricola, Porto, 

(Portuguese wines). 
Diez Hermanos, Jerez de la Frontera, 

(Spanish wines). 

Preller & Cie., Bordeaux. 

Bansa & Sohn, Frankfort o/M., Rhein, 

Mosel, Saar, Pfalzer and Ruwer 

wines ; German sparkling wines. 

Harth & Cie., Mainz o/Rh., Rhein, 

Mosel wines. 
Gold- Bock beer, Hamburg, 

(light &dark). 
Havana cigars, Upmann & Co., 

Havana. 
Cocks cigars, Derrider & Hughes, 

Turnhout, (Belgium). 
Raynal brandies, L. Rayftal & Co., 

Jarnac-p res-Cognac. 



338 



General Directory. 



Agencies : 

Syndicate of Belgian Steel Works. 
G laces de Moustier s/Sambre, 

(plate glass). 
Sutton & Sons' Royal Seed Establish- 
ments, Reading, (England). 
Germain's motorcars, S. A. des 

Ateliers Germain. 
Rigaud perfumes. 
Rieger perfumes. 
Melior cigars, Ernest Tinchant, 

Antwerp. 
Guichard, Potheret & Fils, Chaion 

s/Saone, (Burgundies). 
Gonzalez, Byass & Co., Jerez de la 
Frontera (Spanish & Portuguese 

wines). 
Cinzano, Torino, (Vermouth & Italian 

sparkling wines). 
Vre. Clicquot champains, Vve. 

Clicquot Ponsardin, Rheims. 
Cusenier liquors. 
Vandenperre liquors. 
Siegerts Angostura Bitters. 
Anglo Egyptian Cigarette Co., Cairo. 
J. R. Steadtler pencils, etc. 

In Stock : 

" Zenith " watches. 

" Bachschmid " ,, 

'* Election " ,, 

" Sun " 

''Keystone Elgin " „ 

" Dacia" ,, 

" Leonidas " ,, 

*' System Roskopf " „ etc. 



SAMYEK STORE. 

Proprietors— 

Banner Export-Ges., m. b. H. 

Barmen, Germany. 

(See under Barmer Export 
Gesellschaft). 



SAPATUM LOCK. 

Motor Boat service to Minburi 
and Petriu. 
Proprietor — Nai Bhakdinart 

(Nai Lert). 

ALOIS SCHWEIGER & CO., LTD. 

Exporters & Importers. 

Address : Hongkong Bank Lane. 

Telephone No 292. 

Head Office : Vienna (Austria.) 
Branches : 
Milan, Hamburg, Lyon, Manchester, 
Bradford, Aden, Jeddah, Massaua, 
Mombassa, Karrachi, Bombay, Cal- 
cutta, Shanghai, Sydney, Winnipeg, 
New York. 

A. Hertzka — manager. 

F. Kreisler — Import Dept. 

B. Lemke — Hide Dept. 
M. Coroneo — assistant. 

C. Semprez — ,, 
Swee Yam — chief clerk. 

Nai Choon— import compradore. 
P. Thin— ,, assistant. 
Kim Cheng — cashier. 
Song Lim — export compradore. 

SENG HONG * CO. 

New Road. 
Commission Agents. 
General Importers and Exporters. 
Manager — Tan Bit Lye. 

SIAM CANALS, LAND * IRRIGATION 
CO., LTD. 

Concessionaires and Directors— 
Dr. Yai Suapan Snidvongs 

( Sanitwongse ), M b., cm. 
E. Miiller (Phra Phatibat-Racha- 
prasong.) 
E. Muller — man. director-general. 
Dr. Yai Suapan Snidvongs— actg. 

director general 
E. Brande — acct. 
Nai Kwi — head clerk. 
Wahed Ali — surveyor. 
Nai Keo — asst. 



General Directory. 



339 



SEANG LOONG BROS. 

Carpenters, General Contractors. 
No. 92, Wind Mill Road. 

SIAM ELECTRICITY CO.. LTD. 

W. L. Grut — General Manager. 

Manager's Office. 
Fred. G. de Jesus — assistant. 
Peter O. Jot- 
Peter Seng — clerk. 

Accountant's Office. 

L. Bisgaard-Thomsen — accountant. 

C. W. Marlow — asst. ,, 
A. Ibsen — „ ,, 
Wee Teck Pao — cashier. 
Wee Thong Dee — asst. ,, 
Goh Kim Swee — head clerk. 
Tan Wee Lian — „ 

Outside Electrician Department. 

J. Ludvig Hansen — electrical engineer. 

K. Ingerslev — ,, 

P. Sam Aug — assistant. 

D. Maclean — „ 
L. Chai — „ 

Inside Electrician Department. 

J. A. Marlow — electrical engineer. 
O. Hansen — ,, 

A. Berckmans — ,, 

Power Station. 
H. Hansen — ehiet engineer. 

H. Olesen — engineer. 

J. L. Ehrhardt— 
A. Kirschner — ,, 

Maclntyre — assistant. 

Workshop. 
V. Lund — superintendent 

E. Rasmussen — asst. „ 

Stores Department. 
A. Helvard — storekeeper 

F. Brcinniche — asst. ,, 
L. Petersen — ,, ,, 

Tramways. 
Tor Ericsson — superintendent. 
Nai Hui — chief inspector. 
S. M. Ebrahim cashier. 



SIAMESE TRAMWAY CO., LTD. 

W. L. Grut — manager. 

L. Bisgaard-Thomsen— accountant. 
1 Fred. G. de Jesus — secretary. 

Traffic Dept. 
1 Tor Ericsson — superintendent. 

Nai Hui — chief inspector. 

SIAM FOREST CO., LIMITED. 

Arbuthnot Ewart & Co., 2, Fenchurch 
Avenue, London, E.C. — Secretaries. 
S. H. Hendrick — General Manager 

for Siam. 
P. Scott — signs per pro. 
C. S. Richardson— signs per pro. 
F. H. L. Perl— Asst., Bangkok. 
H. Tyrer— 

E. D. Atkins— „ 

C. J. Chabot. — ,, „ 
J. H. M. McDonald „ „ 

A. E. Glover — Forest Manager, 

Muang Ngow. 

W. A. Elder— Asst. Forest Manager 

Muang Ngow. 

H. E. M. Martin — Asst., Muang Ngow. 

H. W. Persse — 

H. L. Norman — ,, ,, 

J. N. S. Owen— 

F. D. Spencer — Asst., Muang Poling. 
R. B. Law — engineer „ ,, 
Nai Pleng— clerk, Paknampoh. 

Bangkok Saw Mills. 
i Siam Forest (Jo., Ltd. — Proprietors. 
j J. W. Reid— Mill Manager. 
| Allan Stewart — Asst. Mill Manager. 

Agencies. 
Commercial Union Assurance Co , 

Ltd. (Fire, lite and Marine.) 
Guardian Assurance Co., Ltd. 
Phoenix Assurance Company, Ltd. 
Chubb & Sons Lock and Sate Co., Ltd. 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 
Toyo Kissen Kaisha. 
Lever Bros. Ltd. 

D. M. Home & Co., Rice Merchants. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth 

& Co. Ltd. 



340 



General Diredoni. 



SIAM FREE PRESS. 

Printers and Publishers. 

Proprietors of 

The Bangkok Daily Mail (English) 

The Krung Thep Daily Mail (Siamese) 

Daily Newspapers ; 

The Siam Muey, 

Monthly Siamese Magazine. 

Tel. address : "Free Press," Bangkok. 

Editor & General Manager — 

P. A. Huffman. 
Sub-Editor— W. W. Fegen. 
Reporter — R. J. Milhuisen. . 
Siamese Staff: — Louis Aumont. 
Nai Soon Huat. 
„ Pah. 
„ Chua. 
,, Yong. 

SIAM IMPORT COMPANY. 

(incorporating Kerr & Co.) 

H. V. Bailey — managing partner. 
N. G. Colley — assistant. 
Leslie May — „ 

Agencies. 

The British Crown Assurance 

Corporation, Ltd. 
The Motor Union Insurance Co., Ltd. 
Napier Motor Cars. 
Overland Motor Cars. 
Siddeley Deasy Motor Cars. 
Delage Motor Cars. 
Zed el Motor Cars. 
Lacre Commercial Cars. 
Marshall Sons & Co., Ltd., 

Gainsborough. 
J. W. Brooke & Co., Marine Motors. 
Smart & Brown, Pumping Sets. 
The Ratner Safe Co., Ltd. 
Newton Chambers & Co., Ltd., 

Izal Disinfectant. 
Bells Asbestos Co., Ltd., 

"Poilite" Asbestos Slates & Sheets. 
Waring & Gil low Ltd. 
" St. Marceaux " Champagne. 



KERR & Co. 
John Dewar & Sons' Whiskies. 
The Yorkshire Fire & Life Insurance 

Co., Ltd. 
The National Assurance Co. of Ireland. 

THE SRISAVAT MINES, LIMITED. 

Secretaries : Windsor & Co. 

SIAM MOTOR WORKS. 

(Unakorn-road.) 
Secretaries and Managing Agent? — 

Siam Import Co. 
S. E. Butler — foreman. 
P. A. Lewin — asst. foreman. 

SIAM DISPENSARY. 

see B. Grimm & Co. 

SIAM OBSERVER. 

Siam Observer: Daily English and 

Siamese Newspapers. 
Siam Weekly Mail : 

Weekly Newspaper. 
Siam Maitri : 

Weekly Siamese Newspaper. 

Publishers of the Siam Directory. 

Oriental Avenue, 

Bangkok. 

Tel. address : Observer. 

Proprietor— W. A. G. Tilaka (Phya 

Arthakar Prasiddhi.) 
Manager— E. E. Rabot. 
Asst. Manager — G. D. P. Weeraratne. 
Editor — Eric Reid. 
Sub-Editor — J. Malone. 
Reporter— J. Leibovitch. 
Siamese Editor — Khun Yuen 

Hathakarn. 
Asst. Editor — Luang Chai Chamnanit. 
Siamese Reporter — Nai Siri. 
Chief Clerk — P. Abraham. 
Cashier — Miss V. Traill. 
Translator — Nai Chrome. 
Storekeeper— B. C. Madan. 
Foreman — M. Doraswamy. 



General Directory, 



341 



SIAM OBSERVER STATIONERY STORE 
Proprietor — W. A. G. Tilaka. 
Manager — E. E. Rabot. 

Asst. — Miss V. Traill. 

SIAM PINE APPLE FACTORY. 

Sara sen. 
A. Landau — head foreman. 



THE SIAM STAMP CO. 

Charoen Krung Road, City. 

Stamp and Postcard Dealers, 

Booksellers, Stationers, 

Dealers in 

Stamp Albums, Postcard Albums 

and Philatelic Accessories. 

Telegrajyhic Address : 
" Stampman" 
We. C. Tean — proprietor. 
Nai Chit — clerk. 
Nai Chan— „ 
Nai Seng — ,, 

Agents for ;— 
Philatelic papers. 
Koh and Co., Singapore. 
-Jun Kobayagawa Co., Yokohama. 
Graea & Co., Hongkong. 
Stanley Gibbons, Ltd.. London. 
Gebruder Senf, Germany. 



THE SIAM STEAM NAVIGATION 
CO,, LTD. 

Regular service twice a week between 
Bangkok and Singapore via coast- 
ports, and between Bangkok. Chan- 
boon and Krat. 

Directors : 
Phra Montri Phochanakiteh — 



Oh 



Phra Boriboon, 
S. H. Hendrick, 
W, Weimann. 
E, Letk 



airman.. 



Managing Agents : 

The East Asiatic Co., Ltd., Bangkok. 

Telegraphic Address : " Ruafai, " 

Agents at Singapore: 
The Straits Steam Ship Co.. Ltd. 
Telegraphic Address : •' Kapal." 

Steamers : 

Prachatipok. 

Mahidol. 
Yugala. 
Asdaug. 
Boribat, 
Redang. 
Chutatutch, 
Krat. 

Staff. 

Captains, 
F. C. Christiansen. 
P. Dircks. 
H, E. Frandsen, 
N. M. Jessen. 
Th. Larsen. 
P. Lauritzen. 
A. Svarrer. 
K. West. 

Chief Engineers: 

A. Brask. 
K. Brehm. 
Bredah 1—1 onsen, 

B. flansen, 

C. Holm. 
Tit. Jensen, 

C. Muusmann Nielsen. 
& P. Olsea. 

Chief ( >ffieers : 
S. Frandsen, 
H. Lbsen. 
A. Kromann. 
A. Magnussen. 
V, Petersen. 
A. Stefani. 
1. 1. Warrer. 
-I. F. Hermanse-n. 



342 



General Directory. 



SIAM STEAM PACKET CO. 

Directors : 



LTD, 



Hamilton Price- 
Andrew Carson. 
J. Aitchison. 



-chairman. 

Wm. Duncan. 
Nai Bhakdinart, 



Wm. Duncan — managing director. 
Andrew Carson — secretary. 
Windsor & Co. — Bangkok agents. 
Edward Hicks — general manager, 

Angthong, 
John Trail — agent, Petrieu. 
Nai Oon — ., Meklong. 



SIAM STONE WORKS CO., LTD. 

Quarries at Pak Preo, and Hinlap. 
E. Bock — managing director. 
E. Brande — secretary & accountant. 



THE SIAMESE TIN SYNDICATE, LTD. 

Head Office : Capel House, New 
Broad St., London, E. C. 

Eastern Office : Puket (Tongkah), 

Western Siam. 

Penang Agents : Adams on, 

Gil'fillan & Co. Ltd. 

Eastern Staff': 
Puket. 

H. G. Scott — general manager. 

H. B. Wall— asst. 

T. R. Weir— „ 

Goon Siah Cheng — accountant. 

Renong. 

W. S. McCallum — -manager. 
A. N. Wakefield — engineer. 
I). O'Leary — asst. 

J. J. Ryan — ,, 

W. Clifford — „ 

S. Beer — ,, 

J. H. Macpherson — ,, 



THE SIAMESE TRADING CORPORATION 
LIMITED. 

Head Office — 5, Whittington 
Avenue, London, E. C. 
Louis T. Leonowens Ltd.— 

Agents for Siam. 
Managers, Renong Tin Dredging 

"Co., Ltd. 

SOCIETE FRANCAISE 

DES 

DISTILLERIES DE L'INDO-CHiNE. 

Societe Anonyme au Capital de 

3,500,000 fr. 

Siege Social : 

58, Rue de Chateaudun, Paris. 

Administration : 
55, Boulevard Gambetta, Hanoi. 

Lysines a : 

Hanoi, Namdinh (Tonkin), 

Cholon (Cochinchine). 

Addresse Telegraphique : 
Distamy. 

Bangkok Branch, Bush Lane. 

Manager — H. G. Monod. 
Assistant Cotnpradore— T. Eng Ju. 
Clerk — Nai Boon. 
Telephone No. 506. 

Agent for the Societe Franco, 
Chinoise de Distilleries de Hankow. 

SRIRACHA COMPANY, LIMITED. 

Steam Saw Mills at Sriracha 
( Opposite Island of Kohsichang. ) 
Borneo Co., Ltd. — managing agents. 
G. A. R. Mackintosh — local manager. 

F. V. de Jesus — supt. sawyer. 

J. Maben — chief engineer. 

J. Godenho — asst. „ 
H. W. Hall — forest manager. 

R. W. S. Ogle — „ assistant. 

A. Harvey — ,. ,, 

P. A. R. Barron—,, 

Timber Yard at Bangkok at the 

Borneo Co., Ltd.'s Saw Mill Premise;?, 

Telephone No. 479. 



General Directory. 



343 



SPICER BROS- (Foreign & Colonial) LTD. 

Percy W. May — Representative. 

STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF 
NEW YO/U 

W. L. Blackett — manager. 
G. E. Rightor — accountant. 
R. F. Lazaroo — asst. accountant 
0. D. de Vaz — stenographer. 

A. G. Berlandier — assistant. 
Yam Pak Leuk — translator. 
Lim Cheng Song — cashier. 
Boey Seng Tak — 

godown superintendent. 

STEEL^BROTHERS * CO., LTD. 

( Merchants. ) 

Head Office — 6, Fenchurch Avenue, 

London, E. 0. 

Brandies — Rangoon, Moulmein, Bas- 

sein, Akyab and Mandalay, 

Bangkok. 

C. G. Cranmer — manager. 

T. O. Rees — asst. 

Office Telephone No. 165. 
House „ No. 492. 

STEPHENS, PAUL * CO. 

General Merchants, 

London, Singapore & Bangkok. 

Michael, Stephens & Co. 

Macassar, Singaradja & Ampenan. 

Mackertich & Malcolm, 

Manchester. 

Partners-T.Paul 1 London . 

S. P. Stephens J 

Seth Paul — Arnheim. 

H. S. Arathoon — 

Singapore. 

L. S. Arathoon — Macassar. 
Bangkok: 
Mack, S. Arathoon — signs per pro. 
M. A. Carapiet — asst. 
L. C. Isakemsoon — ,, 

B. M. D. Singh — „ 
L. Chue Nam — cashier. 



SYME * CO. 
Merchants. 
94 Rachawongse Road. 
Telephone No. 543. 
Telegraphic Address — " Syme. " 
Code used— A B C 5th ed. 
London and Glasgow — Ker, Bolton 
& Co. 
Branches — Syme & Co., Singapore. 
Pitcairn, Syme & Co. 

Batavia, Semarang and 
Sourabaya ( Java. ) 
Ker & Co., Manila, lloilo 
and Cebu ( P. I. ) 
Partners— Ker, Bolton & Co. 

A. M, McNeil (Singapore.) 
R. S. Menzies (Sourabaya. 
T. J. Tayler (Batavia.) 
Manager — W. Haffenden 

(signs per pro.) 
Assistant — J. Rough. 

— K. M. Ross 
Clerks — Tan Hay Leng. 
Chua Keng Fatt. 
Heng Thian Pow. 
Tan Chin Hin. 
Wee Kee Chye. 
Kang Tan Kwee. 
Tan John. 
Low Chin Whatt. 

THE SIPANTAS CO., LTD. 

Capital £ 30,000. 

Estate, Bernam River, Selangor. 
Directors : — 

H. V. Bailey — chairman. 

V. Gedde. 

G. Foss. 

J. M. Dunlop. 

A. Mahr. 

W. Finnie. 

Phya Arthakar Prasiddhi. 
Manager — P. Zernichow. 
Secretary — K. W. Nordraann. 
Registered Office — Si ngapore. 



344 



General Directory. 



SIAM CEMENT CO. LD. 


SEEKAK DISPENSARY, CITY. 


Offices: 13, Chartered Bank Lane. 


Attendant Physiciui — Dr. Admansen. 


Phya Arthakar Prasiddli. 


SHANGHAI LIFE INSURANCE CO., LTD. 


E. G. Gollo. 


Office. — New Road. 


Luang Sawat Viengchai. 
Phra Boriboon Sombat. 
W. L. Grut. 


Local Representative — F. M. Brooks. 
Attorney-at-law. 


Secretary & Accountant — V. Gedde. 


SIAM ARCHITECTS. 




Architects, Builders and 


SAMPSON, JOHN, & SON. 


Decorative Artists. 


Court Tailors, Bootmakers, Outfitters 


Unakora Road. 


and complete House Furnishers. 


E. Healey — manager. 


F. Sampson — proprietor. 


J. S. Swanson — assistant. 


H. 0. Saunders — signs per pro. 
A. Bernau — assistant. 


SIAM INDUSTRIES CO., LTD. 


H. F. Carver 


Soap Manufacturers, 


T. Tang Khway 


, 


Works : Freak Ban Nai, 


T. Engek 


, 


Si Phya Road. 


Nai Norm 
0. Son Bien 
T. Teng Kee 


' 


E. R. Eastwood — manager. 

Lee Choon Teck — secretary & agent. 


Ah Kieng 
T. Boh Huat 


' 


SIAM TRIPETCH STORE. 





General Merchant. 




Pahurat & Tripetch Roads. 


Furnishing Dept. 


Nai Ch u an g— proprietor. 


P. Christmas. 


— 


Nai Pliiew. 


SIAMESE TOBACCO CO. 


Agency. 


Phitstien Bridge. 




Dealers in all kinds of Tobacco. 


Orme and Son, Billiard Tables. 


Cigars and Cigarettes, ind manu- 


London Address : 58 Maddox St., 


facturers of Buree and Siamese 


Bond St., W. 


Cigarettes. 


. 


Tel. Addr. — Buree, Bangkok. 


F. H. SCHULE, G «". b. H. i LTD. ) 


S. K. Lean — managing partner. 


Rice Mill and General Engineers. 


SIDDHIBHAND AGRA. 


Oriental Avenue. 


General Store. 


T. A. : " Schuldeich." T. No. 354. 


Fuang Nakorn Street. 


( Works & Head-Office : Hamburg ). 


Manager — G. R. Brooks. 


Branches : Bangkok, Rangoon, 


Bookeeper — Nai Pahn. 


Saigon. New-York City, U. S. A. 


Assistants — Nai Chitr. 


W. Schule. 


Nai Luen. 


K. Grove. 




Nai Cheng Nguan. 



General Directory. 



345 



SINGER'S SEWING MACHINE CO. 

Bangkok Branch, New Road. 
Manager — M. T. Ivaneich. 
Book-keeper — Aug Thian Hoh. 

SIEMENS BROTHERS DYNAMO WORKS 
LIMITED. 

Electric Light, Power, Traction 
Engineers & Contractors. 

Head Office — -Caxton House, West- 
minster, London, S. W. 
Works — Stafford, Woolwich, and 

Dalston. 
Head Office for the Middle East, 
1, 2, 6 and 9 Winchester House " 
Singapore. 

Telegrams " Siemens Singapore. " 
Bangkok Correspondent — 

J. M. Dunlop, m I. N. A. 

Oriental Avenue. 

SWAN Se MACLAREN. 

Architects, Surveyors and Civil 
Engineers. 

J. M. Dun'op — Local Representative. 

H. SWEE HO. 

Pit Satien Bridge. 

Charoeu Krung Road. 

Merchants, Importers and Exporters. 

Proprietors : The National Chemical 

Depot, Wholesale and Retail. 

Druggists and Manufacturing 

Chemist. 

Cable Address : 

" Sweeho, Bangkok." 

TA TIEN DISPENSARY. 

Seekak Phya Sri. 

Telephone No. 221. 

M. M; ■nnsfeldt — analytical' chemist, 

Chemist to Royal Court of H. M. 

the King — sole proprietor. 



TILLEKE AND GIBBINS. 

Advocates and Solicitors. 
Partners : — Samuel Brighouse, 

Solicitor. 
— R. D. Atkinson, Solicitor. 
Accountant — J C. Heggie. 
Assistant — Nai Chamroen. 
Assistant — Nai Nguan. 
Clerks — Nai Sari. 
— Nai Lek. 

Telephone No. 173. 

Telegraphic address : 

"Brigson." 



TAN KENG WHAY. 

.Auctioneer, Estate Agent and 
Valuator. 
Lim Chun Ho — cashier. 
J. Dono — chief clerk. 
Usop — clerk. 
Alii— ., 

Two Siamese assistants. 
Two Chinese 



A. TEUTSCH. 

Lie. es.-L., Lie. en D. 

Advocate and Solicitor. 
Convent Road. 



S. TISSEMAN * CO. 

Watchmakers, Jewellers, Gold and 
Silver-smiths. 

S. R. Tisseman — sole proprietor. 

TRANSPORT CO., MOTOR. 

Klong Rangsit. 
A. Osann — manager. 

T. M. UPTON. 
Timber Merchant. 
Office : Poh Yome, 



346 



General Directory. 



UNION DISPENSARY. 

Wholesale & Retail, Chemicals 
and Drugs. 
Taiat Noi, New Road. 
Joo Seng Heng — proprietor. 
Nai Xuang — book-keeper. 
Nai Yah — collector. 
Nai Kim — salesman. 
Chin Kheng — „ 

UNITED HAIRDRESSING SALOON. 
226 New Road. 
A. Aloisi — sole proprietor. 



UNITED ENGINEERS, LIMITED. 
Civil, Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineers, Iron Pounder.-,, Ship- | 
builders and Contractors. Im- | 
porters of Machinery and General I 
Hardware. 
Telegrams : — " Uniteers " Bangkok. 
Telephone Nos :— 186— 508 — 202. 
William Pinnie, M. I. Mech. E., 

M. Soc. E., Engineer and 
Manager. Bangkok. 
General Office and Stores : — 
E. O'Hara. 
H. EL Bryant. 
A. Hamilton. 
Engineering Work : — ■ 

E. S. Burgis. 
II. L. Beeehing. 
W. M. Cochrane. 
A. Brearley. 

T. Fiimie. 
G. Pearson. 
L. Revie. 

F. Edley; 
M. Kassin), 

Agencies : 

The Central Pire insurance Co. Ltd. 

— Fire Insurance. 
Merryweather & Sons. Ltd.- — 

Fire Engines. I 



Robey & Co. Ltd.— Portable Engines, 
Nagel & Kaemp — 

Rice-Mill Machinery. 
Thos. Parker Ltd.— 

Centrifugal Pumps. 
Worthingtpn Pumping Co. Ltd. — 

Duplex Pumps. 
The Pulsometer Engineering Co. Ltd. 
—Pulsometer Pumps. 
Veritys Ltd. — Electric Supplies. 
Richard Hornsby & Sons Ltd. — 

Oil Engines. 
The Continental Caoutchouc and Gutta 
Percha Compagnie — 

Continental Tyres. 
Tandem Smelting Syndicate- 
White Metal. 
John Tul lis & Sons Ltd. — 

Patent Hair Belting. 
Mumford & Co. Ltd. — Donkey Pumps. 
Bullivants & Co., Ltd. — Steel Hawsers. 
Mannesmannrohren Werke — 

Solid Drawn Steel Tubes. 
Sehuehardt & Schutte — 

Machine Tools. 
Nicholson File Co. — 

Increment Cut Files. 
John Kirkcaldy Ltd. — 

•' Compactum " Fresh Water Dis- 
tillers and Specialities. 
Wailes Dore & Co., Ltd. — 

Patent ' k Bitumastic " Enamels and 
Solutions. 
Tuck & Co., Ltd. — Packing. 
Expanded Metal. 

Thurston & Co., Ltd.— Billiard Tables. 
Jewell Export Filter Co. — Water 
Filters and other apparatus per- 
taining to the purification of water. 
Wunderlich Patent Ceiling and Roof- 
ing Co., Ltd. — 

Metal Ceiling Materials. 
Mander Bros ■ — Olsina Water Paints. 
Chubb & Sons Lock & Safe Co., Ltd.— - 

Strong Room Doors. 
R. Roger & 'Co., Ltd. — Steam Winches. 
Wilkinson Heywood & Clark Ltd. — 
" Bell " Brand Paint, Varnikh, Oils* 



Gener.il Director!/. 



347 



W. & C. Pantin— 

Mathew's Gravity Carriers. 
T. & R. Boote Ltd.— 

Wall and Floor Tiles. 
Belliss & Morcora Ltd. — 

Engines for Electric Lighting, etc. 
R. Waygood & Co., Ltd. 

Electric Passenger Lifts. 
The Rubberoid Co , Ltd.— 

" Rubberoid " Roofing and Damp- 
course. 
The " Jost" Fans Supply & Engineer- 
ing Co.. Ltd. — -Patent Fans. 
Babcock & Wilcox Ltd. — Boilers. 



VACUUM OIL COMPANY. 
E. H. V. Mayne — manager, Siam. 
Telephone No. 155. 



WINDSOR * CO. 

Bangkok-Hamburg. 

Partners — 

Chr. Brockmann. 
A. Frege. 
W. Brehmer. 

Shipping and General Dept. 

C. P. Norman— signs per pro. 

Assistants— 
J. Hicks. 
P. Hein. 
F. Bierwirth. 
P. Cramer. 
W. Fuhrhop. 
W. Muller. 
W. Vil. 

'Capt, L. Roohga — supt of cargo, 

Koh-si-chang. 



Import Dept 
Rachawong Koad. 

W. Meyer — signs per pro. 
Assistants — 0. Winckler. 

— B. Hoz. 

— H. Yidal. 

Technical & Mill Dept. 

J. Hechler — engineer. 
W. Muller — miller. 

Agencies. 

Shipping Dept. 

Canadian Pacific Railway Co 's 

R. M. S. S. L. 
Deutsche Dampfschiffahrts Ges. 

"Hansa." 
Glen-Line. 

Hamburg-America Line. 
Norddeutscher Lloyd (Coasting Lines). 
Norddeutscher Lloyd (Europe Line). 
The Ocean S. S. Co., Ltd. 

Insurance Dept. 

Aachen & Munich Fire Ins. Co. 
" Albingia " Fire Assce. Co., Ltd. 
Batavia Sea & Fire Ins. Co. 
Baloise Fire Ins. Co. 
The China Fire Ins. Co., Ltd. 
China Traders Ins. Co., Ltd. 

(Marine). 
Law Union & Rock Ins. Co., Ltd. 
Manufacturers Life Insurance Co. 
New Zealand Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Fire & Marine). 
Samarang Sea & Fire Ins. Co. 
Scottish Union & National Ins. Co. 
The South British Ins. Co., Ltd. 

(Marine). 
The State Assurance Co. Ltd. 
Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada. 
Union Assurance Society Ltd. 
Union Ins. Society of Canton, Ltd. 



348 



General Directory. 



WING SENG LONG & CO. 

Saw Mill Owners, Importers & 

Exporters. 

The First Ordinary Partnership Firm 

Registered in Bangkok. 

Head Office : -Bangkok. 

Saw Mill on the West Bank of the 
River. 

Telegraphic Address . " Teaker." 
Telephone No. 458. 

Loh Sum V ■ • *. 

T . ^, -r, y lomt managers. 
Lim Chun Beng J J 3 

Wong Yek Yue — chief clerk. 
Wong Them — salesman. 
Lee Chan — engineer. 

Branch Offices : — Wing Seng Chan, 
No. 4 Queen's Street, Hongkong, & 
Wing Seng Long, No. 46, Honam 
Street, Canton, China. 

Agent: — Nam Heng, No. 21. Beach 
.Road, Singapore. 



WHITEAWAY LAIDLAW * CO., LTD. 

General Drapers & Outfitters. 
Manager - S. Fowler. 
Assistant — A. E. Eoyster. 

— C. Todd. 

—Miss Traill. 

—Miss I. Miles. 

—Miss S. Miles. 

— C. C. Carneiro. 

— Kiong San Chay. 

— Kassim. 

— Chin Choo. 
Cashier — Kim Heng. 
Clerk— Kow Soon Lee. 

G. YAMAGUCHI ft CO. 
G. Yamaguchi — proprietor. 
M. Yamaguchi — manager. 
Morizo Yamaguchi — assistant. 
M. Muraki — „ 

I. Hirano — ,, 

H. Hirabara — • ,, 

Y. Saito — ,, 

YONG LEE SENG * CO. 

Merchants, Bnkery and Confectionery, 
next the Chartered Bank. 



Alphabetical Director)/. 349 



OF 

FOREIGN RESIDENTS IN SIAM. 
1014. 

§9 All addresses are for Bangkok, unless othenvise stated. Private addresses are 
given when desired, and are shown in brackets. 

A 

Aastrom, C, retired pilot. 

Aastrom, A. 
' Abrahamsen, A., asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 

Adam, W. E., signs per pro. Borneo Co., Ltd. 

Adamsen, H., M.D., medical practitioner, lecturer. Medical College. 

Addison, H. J. 

Agnesi, G., overseer, G. Kluzer, building contractor. 
vAinslie, C. B., asst., Borneo Co., Ld., up-country. 

Aitchison, J., supt. engineer, Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Aitchison, T., shop foreman, Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Aitken, G. F., Korat. 

Alazard, Rev. P., Church of Sakon Nakhon. 

Alexander, R., motor garage supt., Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 
•^Allan, H. A. R., section engr., R. S. R.. Bandon. 
fc- Allegri, C, adviser, Dept. of Ways of Communication. 

Aloisi, A., United Hairdressing Saloon. 
"-" Altmann, E., divisional engineer, R. R. D. 
—•Amman, C, section engineer, Chumphon, R. S. R. 

Amner, C, missionary Puket. 

Andersen, C. W., asst. Govt, marine surveyor. 

Andersen, H. C, manager, Meklong Railway, Tachin. 

- Andersen, Capt., Provincial Gendarmerie, Muang Youam. 
—"Anderson, J. A. C, asst., Louis T. Leonowens LcL 

— ; Andre, A., asst., J. R. Andre Nachfolger. 

Antonio, J., clerk, Bangkok United Club, managing propr. Charoen 

Krung Photographic Studio. 
Apcar, T. S., asst,, E. M. Pereira & Co. 

— Arathoon, Mack. S., signs per pro. Stephens, Paul and Co., (Suriwongs a -road). 
^ Ardron, G. H., ag. acct,, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. 

Ascanius, 0., asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd., Bandon. 

Aspeslagh, E. 

Aston, R. W., asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 
--Atkins, E. D., asst., Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 
^Atkins, E. R., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

Atkinson, R. D., solicitor, partner, Tilleke &■ Gibbins. 



350 Alphabetical Directory. 



' Bachtell, Rev. R. W., American Pres. Mission, Chieng Rai. 
'^Baer, A., signs per pro. A. Berli and Co. 

Baer, Rudolf. Chiengmai. 
♦"Bagger, H. P., asst., Oriental Store. 
"Baggs, J, 0., M. 0. H., Puket. 

Bailey, H. V., managing partner, Siam Import Co. 

Bailey, J., acting asst., H. B. M., Consulate. 
f Bain, W., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 
w-Bainbrigge, R. D., Forest Dept., Nan. 

Bamanji, G., station master, R. R. D., Bangkok Noi. 

Barbier, Rev. P. N., Wat Phleng. 

Bargholz, K., master, s. 1. Tacheen. 
KBaroL. J. M., asst., French Dispensary. 
v-Barratt, A. F. B., asst. engineer, R. S. R. 

Barriol, Rev. E. H., Church of Na Bua. 

Barron, P. A. R., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., Sriracha. 
» Barth, A., asst., Banner Export Gesellschaft, (Nai Sab's- road). 
^Bartosch, H., asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 
v Batstone, S. C, asst., British-American Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

Bauer, H., Ministry of* Finance. 

Bay, E., manager, Bukit Tengah Coconut Estate, Trengganu. 

Bayle, Rev. G. J., Church of Hue Phai, Petriu. 

Beach, W. H., m. d., American Pres. Mission, Nan. 
decker, F., asst., Samyek Store (Nai Sab's road). 

Beebe, Rev. L. J., American Pres. Mission, Chieng Rai. 

Beeching, H. L., asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 
^ Beer, A. L., asst., saw mills, East Asiatic Co. 
"Beer, M., section engr., R R. D. 
? Beer, S., asst., Siamese Tin Syndicate, Renong. 

Behram, K., station-master, Gengkoi. 
* Belhomme, R., asst. city engineer, Sanitary Dept. 
J Bell, J. R., Survey Dept 

Bellamy, Rev. J. M., Church of Paknam and Paklat. 
/ Bendixsen, Th., asst., East Asiatic Co., Bandon. 

VBeque, F., Ministry of Justice. 
WBeranger, Malcolm, 213 Si-Ph}'a Road, Preak Ban Nai. 
^ Berckmans, A., electrical engineer, Siam Electricity Co. 

Bergmann, Otto, asst., Deutsche Siamesiche Handels Gesellschaft. 

Berlandier, J. 

Berlandier, A. G., asst., Standard Oil Co. 

Bermann, A., asst., Excelsior Ice Manuf'actury, Nai Lert. 
^ Bernau, A., asst., John Sampson & Son. 

Berndt, W. J., printing office foreman, R. R. D. 

Berli, A., manager, A Berli & Co., (absent). 

Berteas, Rev. Eustache, Church of Nongseng. 

Besret, Rev. J., (absent). 

Bhakdinart, Nai., propr., Excelsior Ice Manufactory, Nai Lert. 
-i Biervvirth, F., asst., Windsor & Co. 



Alphabetical Director ij. 351 



v Bisgaard-Thomsen, L., acct., Siam Electricity Co. 
>/Bjorling, 0., chief acct., East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 
^Blackett, W. L., manager, Standard Oil Co. 
^Blair, J. M.. asst., Borneo Co., Ltd. 
^ Blankwaardt, W., manager, S. A. B. 
v Blondeau, R., French Legation. 

Blunt, Dr. H. Earle, dental surgeon. 
>/Bock, E., managing director, Siam Stone Works Co., Ltd. 

Boehmer, Comdr. Dr. A. H., Surgeon-General, Ministry of Marine. 

Boffa-Tarlatta, R., asst, G. Kluzer and Co. 

Bohensky, L., signs per pro. B. Grimm & Co. 

Boher, Rev. E., Church of Sithan. 

Bojesen, Comdr. Magnus, Ordnance Dept., R. S. N. 
"'Bolton, R. W., asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 

Boniface, Rev., Ayuthia. 

Bonnafous, H., French Legation. 

Bon vent, Rev. J. P., Chantaboon. 
^ Bopp, F., partner, B. Grimm & Co. 
J Borgersen, H. B., Consul General for Norway, Bush Ian?. 

Bottcher, H., asst., A. Markwald & Co., Ltd! 

Boiirgueil, E. H-, cleric, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank 

Bourgueil, J., clerk, Banque de l'lndo-Chine. 

Bovo, G., chancellor-interpreter, Italian Legation. 

Bovo, T . partner, G. Bovo & Co. 

Bowden, R. K. Cornish, asst. ch. mechinical engineer, Southern Railway. 

Boxall, E. A., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 

Braham, N. C, asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

Brande, E., merchant and accountant. 

Brandenburg, 0., asst., Falck & Beidek. 

Brandenburger, J., Katz Bros. Ltd., (absent). 

Brask, A., chief engineer, Siam S. N. Co., Ltd. 
•J Brearle} 7 , A., asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 

Bredahl-Jonsen, chief engineer, Siam S. N. Co., Ltd. 

Brehm, K., chief engineer, Siam Steam Navigation Co. 

Brehmer, W., partner, Windsor & Co. 

Brewitt-Taylor, L., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 
^ Briggs, Rev. W. A., M. D., American Pres. Mission, Chieng Rai. 

Brighouse, S., solicitor, partner, Tilleke and Gibbins. 

Brockmann, C, partner, Windsor & Co. 
^ Brockmeyer, Commander, surveyor, R. S. N. 
4 Bi-ocksgaard, D., asst., East Asiatic Co., Bandon. 

Broisat, Rev., P., Church of St Joseph, Ban Plaina. 

Bronniche, F., asst., store dept., Siam Electricity Co. 
J Brooks, F. M., attorney-at-law, representative? S'hai Life Insurance Co., Ltd. 

Brooks, G. R., manager. Siddhiband Agra. 

Brown, R. H., partner, Barrow, Brown & Co. 
■♦/Brown, R. Halloran, M.A.. assistant master, King's College. 

Browne, H. Gore, manager, B. B. T. Copn., Ltd. 

Bruhn, H., supt , coal hulks, Kohsichang. 



352 Alphabetical Directory. 



B; nun, J., manager, Menam Motor Boat Co. 

Bryan, E. A., Police Hospital. 

Bnant, R. E., asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 

Buchet, Bev. J.. Church of Ban Uet. 
* Buckley, R. W-, ag. accountant, Chartered Bank. 

Budde, A., ag. manager, Samyek Store (Nai Sab's-rcad). 

Bnlkley, L. C, m.d., American Presbyterian Mission, Tap Teang. 

Bullermann, H., asst., Markwald & Co., Ltd. 
- Bulner, P., chief clerk, Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Burgis, E. S., electrical engineer, United Engineers, Ltd. 

Burguiere, Rev. J., Ban Bua. 

Busch, O., asst. manager, Jendarata Rubber Co., Ltd, 

Bush, J. H. M., master mariner. 
^/Buszard, M. F., legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 
VButler, E ., asst., A- E. G., Govt. Power Station. 
>/ Butler, S. E., foreman, Siam Motor Works. 
>v/ r Butler, T. S., section engineer, R. S. R., Petchaburi. 



Cacace, M., contractor. 

Cairns, J., engineer. 

Calenge, Rev. L. J., Chantaboon. 
v Callender, Rev. C. R., American Pres. Mission, Prae. 
^Callenfels, W. P, S. von Stein, Irrigation branch, Ministry of Agriculture. 

Cambiaso, Count S., Dept. of Ways of Communication. 

Campbell, J. G., asst., Louis T. Leonowens Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 

Campbell, Rev. Dr. H., American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 

Canova, G., supt. engineer, R. S. R., Singora. 

Capper, J. C, engine driver, R. R. D. 
^Carapiet, M. A., asst. r Stephens, Paul and Co., (Suriwongse-road). 

Carr, T. W., asst., motor garge, Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Carrie, Rev. J. H., Church of St. Paul, Petriu. 

Carson, A., acct., Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Carthew, M., M. d., Asst. Medical Officer. 

Carton, Rev. M., Nakon Xaisi. 

Cartwright, A. H., asst. master, King's College. 

Cartwright, B. 0., asst. master, Civil Service College. 
v( Carver, H. F., asst., John Sampson and Son. 
•4 Catella, G., section engineer, R. S. R., Tung Sawng. 
^Catella, V., section engineer, R. S. R., Singora. 

Chabanel, Rev. F., Church of Don Don. 

Chabot, C. J., asst , Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 

Chadwick, R. C, asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice, (Singora). 

Chalant, F., French Legation. 
4 Chaldecot, R. J., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

Chamroen, M., storekeeper, Sanitary Dept. 

Channeliere, Rev. A., Assumption Church. 

Chapman, J., acct., R. S. R., Singora. 

Chapman, W- P-, clerk. Siam Commercial Bank- 



Alphabetical Directory. 



Chatteris, T. Brodie, asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

Chastenet, Rev. G., Bassac. 

Choi, Louis, merchant. 
J Christensen, 0. C, East Asiatic Co.'s saw-mill. 

Christiansen, A., manager, .Rajah Hitam Coconut Estate. 
^Christiansen, F. C, master, Siam Steam Navigation Co. 
* Christmas, P., asst., John Sampson and Son. 

Chubb, R. EL, planter. 

Church, P. A., asst,, Borneo Co., Ltd. 

Churchill, A. C, asst. master, Suan Kularb School. 

Claessen, W, J., station master, Trang Branch, R. S. R. 
V Clark, Percy, missionary, Nakon Pathom. 

Clarke, H. W., B. B. T. Corpn., Nakon Lampang. 

Clasen. W. B., asst., market dept., B. Grimm & Co. 

Clifford, W., asst., Siamese Tin Syndicate, Renong. 

Coates. C. F.. asst. B. B. T. Corpn., Nakon Lampang. 

Cochrane, W. M., asst , United Engineers, Ltd. 
J Cole, B. H., asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 
/Coleby, A., asst. master, King's College. 
>/Colley, N. G., asst., Siam Import Co. 

< Jollacc, I. F., Customs Dept. 

Collins, Rev. D. G , American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 

Colembet, Rev. E. A., Pro-Vicar-Apostolic, Assumption Church, 

Ccrnbourieu, Rev. J., Sakon Nakhon. 

Cooke-Collis, M. T.., asst., Borneo (Jo., Ltd. 
v/Cook, H. H., C.A., asst , A. H. Donaldson. 

Cookson, F. VV., engineer, Paknam Railway Co., Paknam, 

Cooper, Rev. A. W,, American Pres. Mission, Pitsanulok. 

Coronio, S-, asst. draughtsman, R. S. R. 
v/Cort, Dr. E. C, American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 

Couasnon, Rev. A., Bassac. 

Couper-Johnston, D., commission agent, manager, Great Eastern Life 

Assurance Co. Ltd. (28 2, Siphya-road). 

Gourrier, Rev. J.., Ubon. 

Cowan, C, broker and commission agent. 

Craig, R. TX, director, Land Records Dept. 
f Cramer. P., asst., Windsor & Co. 
</ Cranmer. C. G , manager, Steel Brothers & Co., Ltd. 

Crooks", Dr. Chas. H., American Pres. Mission, Nakon Lampang. 

Crosby, J., H. B. M. Vice-Consul. 

Crosby. Sheldon Leavitt, American Consnl-General & Secretary of Legation. 

Crowther, Ercole, accountant, A. Diana & Co. 
t Crum, J. A. : section engineer, R. S. R., Singora. 



Dabm, Rev. G., Church of Kham Keum. 

Dalgliesh. J. E., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

David, Rev. G., Ayuthia. 

Davidson, D. R , sub-acct, Chartered Bank. 



354 Alphabetical Director^/. 



Day, Leo, actg. D. So P., Northern Suburbs. 

D'Castro, F. S., foreman, Bangkok Manufacturing Co., Ltd„ 

Dean. F., supt. engineer. Customs. 

de Barros, J. A. T., interpreter Russian Legation. 

de Campos. A. E., Accountant. Survey Dept. 

de Campos. J., acct., survey branch, Minis-try of Agriculture. 

de Fornel, F, Sanitary Dept. 

De Giorgis, O, Dept. of Ways of Communication. 

<le Jesus. G. E. M., manager, Oriental Bakery. 

de Jesus, G. F. (Luang Bides), secretary, Siamese Legation. Tokio, 

de Jesus, F. G., manager's office, Siam Electricity Co., Ltd. 

de Jesus, F. V., supt. sawyer, Sriracha Co., Ltd. 

de Jesus, J. M. (Luang Banharn), director, foreign dept., Ministry of 

Local Govt, 

de Laforcade, X., Code Commission, Ministry of Justice. 

Delalex, Rev. C , Church of Paksan. 
N de la Mahotiere, L. R., City Engineer. 

de la Penne, Marchese Enrico Durand, Italian Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Delaunay. Louis, Sanitary Dept. 

Delitala, F., draughtsman, Local Sanitary Dept. 

de Lutry, R. A. Burnier, (Astor House Hotel). 
J de Plancon, Georges, Russian Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Dery, E., Capt., Bali, R. S. N. 

de Sa, H., asst., Survey Dept. 

de Tours, Rev. Bro. Martin, director, Assumption College.- 
•4de Vaz, Chas. D., stenographer, Standard Oil Co. 

Dezavelle, Rev. C, Church of Jasathon. 

d'Herlinviile, E. B., eh. surveyor. Sanitary Dept. 

d'Hondt, Very Rev. Aloys, Pro- Vicar Apostolic,. Church of St. Francis- 

Xavier, SamseBV 

Diana. Attilio, partner. A. Diana & Co. 

Dibb, W. R., asst., B. B. T. Corpn , Phrae. 

Didier. F., c. e., supt. engineer, Sanitary Dept. 

Dietrich, G., secretary. Meklong Railway Co.. Ltd.. 

Dietzel, dental surgeon. 

Dircks, Capt. P., Siam S. N. Co., Ltd. 

Ditterich, ()., merchant, Trang. 
i Dixon, T. F., branch manager, Fraser and Neave Ltd. 

Dodd, Rev. W. C, i>. D., American Pres. Mission, Chieng Rai. 

Donaldson, A. H., chartered accountant. 

Dono. J. T c^rk, Banque de l'Indo-Chiner. 

Doring, V.. divisional engineer, R. S. R., Band on. 

Dormans, P., manager, Mohr Bros. & Co,, Ltd., (125, Surivongse-road)r 

Dorow, E., section engineer, R. R. D. 

Dosser*, J. D. T chiel clerk, Chartered Bank. 

Dost, S.. cutter. B. Grimm and Co. 

Drennan, A., surveyor, Oasftoras and Excise Dept. 

Drost, S., asst.. sawmills, lilast Asiatic Co. 

Due-Petersen, medical practitioner, and Army Medical Service,- 



^ 



A Iphabetical Directory. 



Dufty, Noel E , Engineer in Charge for A. E. G., Government Power Station. 
J Duke, A. H., asst. C. G., Ministry of Finance. 
"iDumbleton, J. C, ag. divisional engineer, R. S. R.. Tung Sawng division. 

Duncan, H., veterinary surgeon. 

Duncan, W., engineer, Loh Ban Seng's rice mills. 

Dunlap, Rev. Dr. E. P., American Pres. Mission, Tap Teang. 

Dunlap, Rev. J. B., American Pres. Mission. 
. Dunlop, J. M., consulting engineer, contractor. 

Dunn, W. N., H. B. M. Vice-Consul, Puket. 
>» Duplatve, L., Ministry of Justice. 

Durand, Rev. C, Church of Lamsai. Klong Rangsit. 

Durando. P , clerk, Banque de lTndo-Chine. 

Duthie, J. A., asst., Eraser and Neave, Ltd. 

Eakin, Rev. J. A., l). l)., American Pres. Mission, Petchaburi. 
v Eakin, Rev. Paul, Amercan Pres. Mission, Petchaburi. 

Eastwood, E. B., manager, Siam Industries Co., Ltd. 

Ebata, Y., propr., Y. Asow & Co., photographers. 

Eckels, Rev. C. E., American Pres. Mission, Nakon Sritamarat. 
-* Edgar, C. A., partner, Edgar Bros., (Surawongse road). 

Edgar, G., signs per pro. Edgar Bros., (Surawongse road). 

Edie, J. W., manager, Borneo Co., Ltd. 

Edley, F., asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 

Ehlers, Th., asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 
^Ehlers, W.. asst., Bangkok Dispensary. 
VEhrhardt, J. L., engr , Siam Electricity Co. 
4Ehrhardt, A., asst., saw r mills, East Asiatic Co. 

Eisenhofer, E., divisional engineer, R. R. D. 

tSkins, A. K., section engineer, R. S. R. s Bandon division. 

\ Elder, W. A., asst., Siam Forest Co., Ltd., Muang Ngow. 
Blwes, G. F. W., asst.. B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd., Raheng. 
/Engel, Commercial Hotel. 
/ Engel, L. 
Aj En gel, M. 
^Engelhardt, W.. asst., traffic supt., B. S. R. 
J Ericsson, T., supt., tramways, Siam Electricity Co. 
Eschenbrenner, R., asst. engr., R. R. D. 
Excoffon, Rev. P., Church of Ubon. 
Excoffon, Rev, A., Church of Ubon. 



\Pabricius, F. M„ Major, Provincial Gendarmerie, Maes'ot, 
Facehinetti. R., engr., Dept. of Ways of Communicntioa. 
Faivre, Rev. L. J. F., Assumption Church. 



356 Alphabetical Directory. 



Falck, A., building section, Ministry of Local Govt. 

Fauque, Rev. J. A., Church of Conception, Sanisen. 

Favacho, E. C, shipping clerk, B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 

Fegeu, W. W., sub-editor, Bangkok Daily Mail. 

Feit, Paul, book-keeper, Bangkok Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 

Feit, Peter, head clerk, traffic dept., R. R. D. 

Ferdinands, C. E., engine driver, R. R. D. 

Ferlay, Rev. L., College of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

Fernandes, M. S., lecturer, Medical College. 

Figuet, Rev. P., Vien Chan. 

Finnie, W. ? general manager, United Engingeers, Ltd. 

Finnie, Thos., asst. United Engineers, Ltd. 

FitzGerald, G. A. Vesey, acting asst., H. B. M. Consulate. 

Fitzgerald, H. D., section engineer, Southern Railway, Singora. 

Fitzmaurice. H., second asst , H. B. M. Consulate, Puket. 

Flessing, A., asst., F. Grahlert and Co. 

Fliche, P. C, cashier, Banque de l'Indo-Chine. 

Floras, L. L., Charge d'Aflaires of Portugal. 

Flores, L. C. M. de^M., Portuguese Legation. 

Flores, A. J.. Portuguese Legation. 

Florio, E., deputy comptroller general, Ministry of Finance. 

Follett, C. B., div. supt. of Police. 

Foot, A. B., asst., Arracan Co., Ltd. 

Fortin, F. E., signs per pro- Comptoir Francais du Siam. 

Forty. C, H., asst. supt. of Police. 

Foss*. G.. berthing officers dept., Harbour Dept. 

Foster, H. E., asst., J. D. Macarthur. 

Foster, Rev. J., Baptist Mission. 

F<>ster-Pegg, H., asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd., Nakon Lampa 

Fouillat, Rev. J. B.. Holy Rosary Church. 

Fowler. S., manager, Whiteaway Laidlaw and Co. 

Fowler, W. Phibbs, asst., B. B. T. C. Ltd., Chiengmai. 

Foyster, A. E., asst.. Whiteaway, Laidlaw and Co. 

Frandsen, H. E., master, Siam Steam Navigation Co. 

Frandsen, S., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 

frankfurter, Dr. 0., Chief Librarian, The National Library. 

Franklin, Rev. R. 0., Bangkok Christian College. 

Freeman. Rev. J. H., American Pres. Mission, Lampoun. 

Freeman, YV. I!-. Dept. of Ways of Communication. 

Freese, R.. master, N. D. L. s. 1. Ayiithia. 

Freae. A., partner, Windsor & Co. (absent). 

Fivulrichs, H., interpreter, Sanitary Dept. 

Frere, A., Belgian Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Fresnel, Rev. P. .1. M.. Church of Nong Seng. 

Freye, P., 

Friendship, I!. I'., signs conjointly B. R. Gaudart and Co. 

Fritze, \V. 
\ l-Yiili. I)., asst., A. Berli & Co. 
J Fuhrhop, W., asst., Windsor & Co. 



] 



\ 



Alphabetical Directory. 357 



Gabe, Captain, m, s. tSelandia. 

Gaethke, Th., Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Gairdner, K. G., asst. supt., Survey Dept. 

Galassi, F., chief clerk, G. Kluzer & Co. 

Galassi, R. Societe Anonyme Beige. 

Galletti, M., building expert, G. Kluzer, contractor. 

Gardner, J., interpreter, R. R. D. 

Garreau, R.. French Legation. 

Garrett, H. B G., deputy conservator of forests, Chiengmai. 

Gastal, Rev. A., Muang Phrom 

Gatenby, E. B., shorthand writer, Dept. of Public Prosecutions, 

Gaudart, B. R., signs conjointly, B. R. Gaudart & Co. 

Gaudart, J. W. A., asst., Whiteaway, Laidlaw & Co. 

Gayetti, Dr. C, medical, practitioner, adviser, R. R. D. 

Gedde, V., accnt, and secretary, Siam Cement Co., Ltd. 

Genkel, A., 

Gerber, A., engr. and architect., R. R. D. 

Getz, H., asst., Jentarata Rubber Co., Ltd. 

Geyer, Hans, partner, J. R. Andre Nachfolger. 

Giacone, L., district engineer, Monthon Puket. 

Gibb, A., section engineer, Singora. 

Gibbins, R. B H., asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice, Chiengmai. 

Gibbons, R. J., asst. inspector, Customs and Excise Dept. 

Giertz, P., chitf mech. engineer, R. R. D. 

Giles, F. H., director, Prov. Revenue Dept., Ministry of Interior. 

Gillies. Rev. R., American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 

\Giimore, W. M., asst. supt., Survey Dept. 
Gittins, B., Controlling Engineer, Royal Southern Railway. 
Gjern, V., East Asiatic Co. Ltd.'s forest dept., Prae. 
.Glass, F. C, Irrigation branch, Ministry of Agriculture. 
^Glover, A E., Siam Forest Co., Ltd., forest manager, Muang Nu<>\v. 
"^ Godden, S., section engineer, Southern Ry., Chumphorn. 
Godenho, J. L., asst. engineer, Sriracha Co., Ltd. 
Godfrey, E. J., asst. master, Suan Kularb School. 
Goertzen, S., analyt.-chemist, B. Grimm & Co. 
Goldsrhmid, L-, manager. Katz Bros., Ltd. 

Gollo, E. G., chief engineer, building section, Ministry of Local Government. 
Good, H., asst.. Behn Meyer & Co., Ltd. 
Gorton, F. G., H. B. M. vice-Consul, Chiengmai district. 
Got, J., cashier, Banque de l'lndo-Chine. 
Gotte. Ruck, Asst. of Works, R. R. D. 
Gotte, Richard, registrar, P. & Tel, Dept. 
Gottsche, T. A., manager, Paknam Ry. Co., Ltd., Paknam, 
Gottsche, W., engineer. Meklong Railway Co., Tachin. 
I Gotsohe, Capt. G., licensed pilot. 
^ (.'rahlert, E., propr., Giahlert & Co., court jewellers. 
* Graham, W. A., adviser, Ministry of Agriculture. 



358 Alphabetical Directory. 



\ Grahara, W. IL, asst , B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 

J Graham, H., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

Grassi, F., engineer, Sanitary Pept. 

Grassi, EL 
. Gratien, Rev. H., Songkhon. 

Gray, P. L., a&st. manager, B. M. C 

Gredsted, A , asst , East Asiatic Co , Prae. 

Green, A., dredging inspector, Pept. of Ways of Communications 

Greene, S. R., permanent way inspector, R. R, P. 

Greene, J. M. B., workshop foreman R. R. P. 
I Grenier. L., traffic inspector R. R. P. 
i Greve, K.. asst., F. H. Schule, Ltd. 
J Griffith. C. E., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd., Prae. 
^ Gronemann, O., East Asiatic Co., Ltd., (Oriental Stored 
^ Groote, E ., partner, R. Lenx & Co. 

Gross, M. F., sec. engr., R. R. P., Korat. 

Groundwater, C. L , C. L. Groundwater & Co. 

Groves, S. P.,- asst. supt. of Police, Kohsichang-. 

Grut, W. L., general-manager, Siam Electricity Co. 

Guasco, G., building' section, Local Sanitary Pept. 

Guego, Rev. X„, Sieng Yang. 

( ui i guard. Rev. L. J,, Church of the Conception, Samsenv 

Guidon. Rev. G.,. Church of Hua Phai, Petriu. 

Guyon, R. C, Code Commission, Ministry of Justice. 



Haas, M\, asst.. Samosorn Fa Rajakarn, (nr. Samsen Station), 

Habenicht, H., manager, A. Markwald & Co , Ltd. 
AHadden. E. W. R., asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 
"VHatfenden-, W. 7 manager, Syme and Co., (British Club-road). 
^ Haile, M., asst. manager. Meklong Railway Co. 
'? Haines, W., asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Ltd., Raheng. 
^ Hall, H. W., Borneo Co., Ltd., forest manager, Sriracha.- 

Halliday, Mon Mission, Nakon Fathom. 

Hamacher, F. W. C, manager, Indiarubber Stamp Manufactory. 
*■* Hamilton, A., stores dept., United .Engineers, Ltd. 

Hanhart, H. C, signs per pro. B. Grimm & Co. (Hamburg). 
"•Hansen, F, chief engineer. Siam S. N. Co. 

4 Hansen, Pr. C. C, medical practitioner. American viee-ConsuI-General* 
J Hansen, E., chief engineer r Siam Electricity Co. 
4 Hansen, O., engr., Siam Electricity Co. 
J Hansen- liaae, IF F., Fast Asiatic, Co., Ltd.. Bandon, 
^ Hansen-llaun. O., Captain. 
^Hare. C. F., chief auditor. Sor.'tFeni Railway. 
^ Harris, Rev. W.. American Pres. Mission, ChiengmaF 
J Harrop. F . Arts and Crafts School. 
J Harry, G., Royal Stables. 



Alphabetical Directory. 359 

Hartzell, Rev. J. L., American Pres. Mission, Nakon Larapang. 
\/ Harvey, A., asst.,' Borneo Co., Ltd. 

, Hassen, M., clerk, Banque de l'lndo-Chine. 
v Hassing, G. H., asst., Oriental Store. 

Hatano, S., propr., Isonaga Photo Studio. 
i Haurowitz, F., Oomdr., harbour master, Puket. 
n Hays, T. Hey ward, res. surgeon, Bangrak Hospital. 
I Heal, J» H., Inspector General, Dept. of Mines. 
*4 Healey, E., manager, Siam Architects. 

Hechler, J., engineer, Windsor & Co. 
, Hedegaard, P., asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd., Prae. 
^ Heggie, A., mining engineer. 

Heggie, J. C, acct., Tilleke and Gibbins. 
Hein, P., asst., Windsor & Co. 
4 Helvard, A., store-keeper. Siam Electricity Co 
4 Henderson, A. W., asst., A. E. G., Govt. Power Station. 

Hendrick. S. H., General Manager for Siam, Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 
Hendriks, D. F., clerk, Siam Commercial Bank. 
J Hendriks, J. W. (Luang Pathipahn Pi-set), asst. Under Sec, Ministry of 

Justice. 
s Hendriksen, V.. eng. lieut-comdr., R. S. N. 
tHenry, Canrille; manager, Banque de l'lndo-Chine. 
^Hepburn, H. Havelock, M. D., asst. Medical Officer. 
Herbert, E. G., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 
Hermann, C, contractor, etc., Bang Kwang. 
v Hermansen, J. F., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 
*»* Hertzka, A., manager, Alois Schweiger & Co., Ltd. 

^Hewetson, D. S., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd. 
-\ Hewitt, G. E., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 

Hicks, E., manager, Siam Steam Packet Co., (Angthong). 
Hicks, J., asst., Windsor and Co., shipping and general dept. 
Higgins, T., asst. surveyor, R. R. D. 
^ Highet, H. Campbell, M. d., medical officer of health. 
Highfield, C. H., engine driver, R. S. R. 
Hilaire, Rev. Brother, Assumption College. 
Hill, H. W., mechanical foreman, Sonthern Railway, Singora. 
i Hills, H., loco, inspector, Pitsanulok, R. R. D. 

4 Hillyard, Rev. H, J., ll d., Chaplain, Christ Church, and Honorary Chaplain 
to the British Legation. 
Hinch, H., clerk, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. 
Hoffmann, H., bridge builder, R. R. D. 
Hogan, P. L., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd. 
Hogg, J. D., acting asst., H. B. M. Consulate. 
Holm, C, chief engineer. Siam Steam Navigation Co. 
Hopkin, H. L., Bangkok Times Office. 
Hopkins, G. E., Jewel Filter Co. 
Home, L. W., asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd. 
Houille, Rev. G. A., Kanburi. 
Hovers. Capt. W., licensed pilot. 



360 Alphabetical Directory. 



Horbach, H. C, section engineer, R R. D. 

Hoz, B., asst., import dept., Windsor and Co. 

Huffman, P. A., editor and general manager. Bangkok Daily Mail. 

Hunter, W. I., asst., Arracan Co., Ltd. 

Hutchinson, E., asst. B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd., Prae. 



. Ibsen. A., asst. acct., Siam Electricity Co. 
^ Ibsen, H., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 

Ingaramo, M., Dept. of Ways of Communication, 
vi Ingerslev, K., electrical engineer, Siam Electricity Co. 

Innocenti, G., moulder, Ministry of Local Govt. 

Irwin, A. J., deputy director. Survej 7 - Dept. 

Irwin. Rev. R., agent, American Bible Society, (426, Pramuen-road). 

Isakemsoon, L. C, asst., Stephens, Paul and Co. 

Ivancich. M. T.. local manager, Singer Sewing Machine Co. 



Jacobs, E. E., loco, driver, R. R. D., Gengkoi. 
Jacobs, B. W., loco, driver, R. S. R. 

Jacobsen, P. (Khun Sudha Phithaks), ch. sanitary inspector. 
Jagd, H., asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd., Prae. 
James, J. Caulfeild, head master, Mahapritaram School. 
James, E. H.. workshop foreman, R. R. D. 
Jantet, Rev. E., Nongkhai. 

Jarmer, J., Major, Provincial Gendarmerie, Me Hawng Sawn. 
Jarvis, H., asst. engineer, B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 

Jeavons, R. Vivian, asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd., Nakon Lam pang. 
^Jenkins, T. R., asst. master, Prathomakongka School. 
Jensen, C, asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 
Jensen, F., asst., Jendarata Rubber, Co., Ltd. 
Jensen, P., asst. East Asiatic Co., Bandon. 
Jensen. Th., chief engineer, Siam S. N. Co. 
Jessen, Capt. N. M.. Siam S. N..Co. 
Jockish, H.. head miller, A. Markwald & Co. 
Johansen, Capt. J. B., East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 
Johansen, Capt., director, Bukit Tengah Coconut Estate. 
Johns, J. F., H. B. M. Vice-Oonsul. 

Johnson, W. G., Adviser, Ministry of Public Instruction. 
Johnson, P. J., asst. master, Suddhivoraram School. 
Johnson, W , overseer, R. S. R.. Tung Sawng division. 
Johnston, A. L, clerk, Hongkong Bank. 

Jon, Nai, chief acct., Chino-Siam S. N. Co., (opp. British Legation). 
Jones, A. K.. asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Ltd. 
Jones, Rev. K. C American Pres. Mission, Pitsanuloko. 



\ 



Alphabetical Directory 361 



Jonsen, A., engr -captain, inspector of machinery, R. S- N. 

Jorgensen, Capt. A,, licensed pilot. 

Jorgensen, E. W., Harbour Dept. 

Jorgensen, R. W., saw-mills. East Asiatic. Co. 

-lot, P. O., asst., manager's office, Siam Electricity Co., Ltd. 

Joynson, H. W., asst., Louis T. Leonowens Ltd., Nakou Lampang. 

•Fucker, H., signs per pro. A. Berli & Co. 

Jucker, E., engineer, A. Berli & Co. 

Judge, T., actg. head master, Debsirindr School. 

Juglar, Eev. H, J, B., Petriu. 

Jung, Rev. S. J., Chantaboon. 

Jungclaus, H., asst , B Grimm & Co. 

JurgenSj E., manager. Behn, Meyer & Co., Ltd. 

-Juerges, R., asst. traffic supt., R. R. D. 

K 

Kaas, Capt-. C, shipping dept.. East Asiatic Co. Ltd. 
Kassim, M., asst., United Engineers. 
Keddie, J. F., asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Raheng. 

4Keddie, J. C, actg. agent, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. 
Keil, E„, Austro-Hungarian Legation. 
Keith. H., loco, driver. R. R. D. 
Kemp, P. R., supt., Survey Dept. 
Kemp, W. F. 

Kemp, E., timber overseer, R. R. D. 
Kempson, F. C, asst. legal adviser, Ministry of -Justice. 
Kerr, Capt. J. B., master. BnlL 

Kerr, J., shipbuilding, dept., Bangkok Dock Co.. Ltd, 
Kerr, A. F. G., medical officer, Chiengmai. 
Kerr, James, clerk. Hongkong Bank. 
Kirschner, A., engineer, Siam Electricity Co, 
Kjeldahl, R., comdr.. Et. S. N. 
\ Klinger, E.. miller, A. Markwald iV Co 
"^ Kluzer, G., sole partner. G. Kluzer & Co. 
i Kneupelt, J. F., asst. telegraph inspector. R. R. D 
"\Kniepf, 0., asst., Siam Commercial Bun)-:. 

\Knight, B. T., a. \i. i. C. E., sujit. engineer, R, S. E., Sirrgora. 
Iviupschildt. C. asst.. East Asiatie C<»., Ltd, 
Knox, C, Customs Dept. 

Koch, W., manager, Banner Export Gesellschaft (Nai Sab's-road). 
Koch, A., asst., B. Grimm & Go. 
Koch, H., asst., A. Markwald. & Co. Ltd. 
\ Komaki. T., representative, Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Ltd. 
v^Kopp, H., dental surgeon. 
^Kratt,-A., asst., Samosorn Ka Rajakarn, (Bankhonprom). 
^Kramer, C, sole partner, Falck and Beidek. 
Ivreisler, K., import dept., Alois Sckweiger & Co., Ltd, 



562 Alphabetical Directory. 



A 



Kremer, W., cutter, B. Grimm and Co. 

lvromann, A., chief officer. Siam S. N. Co. 

Krudop, PL, asst., Mohr Bros, and Co., Ltd., (125, Surawongse-road), 

Kruse, C. optician, B. Grimm & Co. 

Kuis. J., acct., R. S. R., Tung Sawng. 

Kukita, S-, Japanese Legation. 

Kunz, H., manager, Diethelm & Co- Ltd. 

Kyllberg, J., asst., Jendarata Rubber Co. , 



Lacombe, Rev. A., Church of Chanphen. 

Lagathu, Rev. G., Church of Kham Keum. 

Lake,. G., sec, Netherlands Legation. 

Lamache, L. N., asst. inspector. Customs and Excise Dept. 

Lamache, E., clerk, Banque de Tlndo-Chine. 

Lambert, S. G., manager, B. M. C. 

Lamberton, R. W., asst. Director General, Customs. 

Lamberton, H. G., ch. surveyor, outdoor staff, Customs. 

Lamm, W., asst., Falck and Beidek. 

Lampe, J., clerk, R. R. D. 

Lampe, J., Local Sanitary Dept. 

Landau r A., proprietor, Astor House Hotel, auctioneer & broken- 

Larsen, Capt. Th., Siam S. N. Co. 

Larsen, N., Singora agency, East Asiatic Co. 
>^ Larsen, K., asst., East Asiatic Co., Ltd., Bandon. 

Laurent, FL, Ministry of Justice, Ubon. 
» Lauritzen, P , master, Siam S. N. Co. 

Law, R, Balfour, Siam Forest Co., Ltd., Muang Poling*. 
\ Laurence, J. A., loco, driver, R. R. D. 
MTLawson, Eric St. J., Commissioner of Police. 
4 Laydeker, E. A., Ministry of Justice. 

Lazare, Rev. A., Church of Sieng Jun. 

Lazaroo, Rheims F., asst. accountant, Standard Oil Co; 
eat herb-arrow, H., partner, Barrow, Brown & Co. 

Lee, E. Geoffrey, Dept. of Mines, Puket. 

Lefevre-Pontalis, P. r Minister Plenipotentiary of France. 
sa Leibovitch, J., reporter, Siam Observer. 
n^Le May. R! S., acting assistant, H. B. M. Consulate, Chiengmai. 

Lemke, B., hide dept., Alois Schweiger and Co., Ltd. 

Leonard. H. S., M. R C. V. S. (London),. F. k. v. M. S-. (London), vet. surg. f 

Ministry of Agriculture*- 

Leonowens, Louis T., managing director, Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd. 

Lesterre, manager, Eafe Asiatiq-ue Franyais, Xieng Khong. 

Lath, E., signs per pro. Last Asiatic Co-, Ltd. 

Leuthold, F.. manager, Diethelm & Co., Ltd. 

L'Evesque, C„ Sec, Commission of Codification, Ministry of Justicev- 

Levi, G.j engineer, Royal Art Dept.- 



-*L* 



Alphabetical Directory. 363 



i 



Lewin, P. A., asst. foreman, Siam Motor Works. 

Lindsay, J. M , asst., Asiatic Petroleum Co , Ltd. 

Link, A., partner, B. Grimm & Go. 

Lloyd, W. F., Conservator of Forests. 

Lobeck, R., telegraph inspector, R. R. D. 

Loetscher, Rev. E., College of Sacred Heart of Jesus. 

Loetscher, Rev. L., Chonburi. 

Lortet, Pierre M., Compotoir Francais du Siam, (Siphya-road.) 

Lover, H., loco, inspector, R. S. R , Bangkok Noi. 

Lowe, N. E., Irrigation Branch, Ministry ot Agriculture. 

Lucius, R., D. Ph., analyst, Customs D^pt. 

Ludvig-Hansen, J., electi*ical engineer, Siam Electricity Co. 

Lueders, O., section engineer, R. R. D. 

Lugan, H., French Consul, Chiengmai. 

Lund, V., supt., workshop, Siam Electricity Co. 

Lupsa, F., Ministry of Agriculture, Pitsanuloke. 

hjle, Th. H. 5 H. B. M. Consul-General. 

Lyon, W. T., M.D., American Pres. Mission, Chieng Rai. 

Lyons, J. R, C, asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 



\ 



1VC 

Maben. J., chief engineer, Borneo Co., Sriracha. 

Macarthur, J. D., engineer and contractor. 

Macfie, D F , manager, Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

Mackay, J., Govt. Marine Surveyor. 

Mackenzie, master, JDusit. 

Mackintosh, G. A, R., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., ( local manager, Sriracha. 

MacLeod, G. Gordon, northern manager, Louis T. Leonowens Ltd. 

MacLeod, N. J., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd., up-country. 

MacNaught, W. E., Forest Dept., Moulmein. 

Macpherson, J. H., asst., Siamese Tin Syndicate, Renong. 

Macvicar, J. D , assb., Borneo Co , Ltd., up-country, 

Magnussen, A., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 

Mair, R. B R., asst., B, B. T. Corpn. Ltd. 

Maire, A , prcpr., Oriental Hotel 

Mai, R. R , timber merchant, Muang Nan. 

Malaval, Rev. M. J. O., Dong Mak Ba. 

Malcolm, A R,, asst., Borneo Co., Ltd- 

Malit?;, 0-, master, steam lighter Menam. 

Malone, J., sub-editor, Siam Observer. 

Manaud, A., Medical Adviser, Ministry of Interior, and Director of Pasteur 

Institute. 
Mancini, C, travelling representative, John Dickinson & Co 
Maneckji, D., loco, driver, R. R. D. 
Manfredi, B., architect, Royal Art Dept. 
Mannsfeldt, M., propr., Tatien Dipensary* 
Marangoni, M.., commission agent. 



A 



364 Alphabetical Directory. 



Marcan, A., chief assayer, "Royal Mint. 

Marchi, Rev. A., Sang Ming-. 

Marecaux, G., Sanitary Dept. 

Marlow, J. A., electrical engineer, Siam Electricity Co. 
AMarlow, C. W., asst. acct., Siam Electricity Co. 
4 Martin, A. Trice, M.A., F.S.A., headmaster, King's College. 

Martin, H E- M., asst,, Siam Forest Co. Ltd., Mg. Ngow. 

Marwan, W , engineer, A. Markwald & Co. 

Mason, Dr. C. W-, American Pies. Mission, Chiengmai. 

Massey, 0., dredging master, Dept. of Ways of Communication. 

Massey, H. E., asst., Borneo Co. Ltd. 

Masterman, S W , superintendent, Survey Dept. 

Matheson, H. W., sub-accountant, Chartered Bank. 

Mathiesen, A , C E., Dept. of Ways of Communication. 

Matratj Rev. A., (absent). 
\. Maung Gyi, J. A., barrister, Chiengmai. 
O^ Maxwell, Norman, Customs Dept, 
^ May, Percy, representative, Spicer Bros. Ltd. 

Ma}, Leslie, asst., Siam Import Oe. 

Mayne, E H V , manager, Siam, Vacuum Oil Co- 

McBeth, J. J. proprietor, British Dispensary 

McCallum, W. S., manager, Siamese Tin Syndicate, Renong. 

McClure, Rev. W. G., Bangkok Christian College. 

McClure, A. M., Bangkok Christian College. 

McDaniel, E. B., M. D., American Pres. Mission, Petchabim. 

McDonald, J H. M., asst., Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 
^ McFarland, G. B., lecturer Medical College, and surgeon dentist. 

Mclntyre, C, clerk. Chartered Bank. 
^ McKean, Dr. J. W., American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 

McKelvie, A., asst., shipbuilding dept., Bangkok Dock Co. 

Mc Kendrick, A., asst. engineer, Borneo Co's mills. 
^McMullin, Arthur B., American Pres. Mission, Prae. 

McNiven, D., sub-acct., Chartered Bank. 

Mearns. A. J., asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd. 

Medworth, C. M., deputy conservator of forests, Lampang. 

Mehta, M. K., dealer in precious stones. 

Mesney, R. F., estate manager, Bang Nara Rubber Co.' Ltd. 

Meyer, Julius, master, s. 1. Bangpq]cong. 
\ Meyer, G , master, s. 1 Chantaboon. 
A Meyer, W., signs per pro. import dept., Windsor & Co. 

Meyeringh, R. F., asst., Diethelm & Co., Ltd. 

Micaleef, P., clerk, Siam Commercial Bank. 

Michell, J., superintendent of survey, Ministry of Agriculture. 

Miho, Goro, Japanese Consul. 

Miles. T. Ramage. Landau and Co. 

Milhuisen, R. J., reporter, Bangkok Daily Mail. 

Miller, J., asst,. Louis T. Leonowens. Ltd. 

Milligan, J. D., carriage examiner, R. R. D. 
^ Milne. J. M., joint manager, Louis T, Leonowens Ltd. 



\ 



\ 



Alphabetical Directory. 36." 



Mifcani, Dr. K., the Japan Medical Consultation Institute. 
Miykawa, I., proprietor, K, Oyama & Co. 

Moebus, F., asst. engineer, R. R. D. 

Moeller, K., electrician, workshops, R R. D. 

.Mohr, A., Consul General for Sweden, (Larn Luang-road), partner, 

fS. R. Andre Nathfolger. 
Molony, J. C, section engineer, R. 8. R., Trang. 
Monod, E. C, partner, E. C. Monod et Fils. 

Monod, H. G., manager, Societe Francaise des Distilleries de FIndo-Chiae. 
Montalenti, F , architect, Privy Purse Dept. 
Montocchio, E. 

Moor, G. H. R., H. B. M. Consul, Singora, 
Moore, R. Adey, Bangkok Times Office. 
, Moreschi, B,, architect, Ministry of Local Govt. 
n Morrison, H. A, asst., Borneo, Co., Ltd., up-country, 
V Moteo, K., asst. chief permanent way inspector, R. R. D. 
* Mountain, A W., asst., Li>uis T. Leonowens Ltd., Nakon Lampang, 
Mouraille, M., asst., Est Asiatique Francais, Xieng Khong. 
Muir, W., supt. engineer, Borneo Co., Ltd. 
Miilder, F., asst., Behn, Meyer & Co^ Ltd. 

Miiller, E., (Phra Phatibat Rnjaprasong), concessionaire and director- 
general, S. C. L, & L Co. (absent). 
\ Miiller, W., technical dept., Windsor & Co. 
^Miiller, A. F., asst. of works, R, R. D. 
Muller, L. T., clerk. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd, 
Muller, W., asst., Windsor & Co. 
Mundie, W. H., sub-editor, Bangkok Times Office. 
' Munro, C. H., asst., Borneo Co., utd., up-country. 
Murchie, F., engineer (absent). 
J Murison, A. Logan, M.RC.S., LE.C.P., medical practitioner. 
Muusmann-Nielsen, C, chief engineer, Si am S. N. Co. 



Naested. A., manager, Rajah Una Co., Ltd., Sekingor. 

Nand}\, U. X., chief draughtsman, waterways branch, Krom Thang, 

Nazzari, army musical instructor. 

Neidhardt, O., asst. traffic supt., R. R. D. 

Nesbitt, P., local representative, Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. 

Newington, E., asst., Borneo Co., Ltd. 

Newlands, Cowan, secretary, Bangkok Doek Co., Ltd. 

Nichols, E., manager, British Dispensary. 

Nichoils, F., general manager. Renong Tin Dredging Co., Dtd., Renong. 

Nicolle, C, engineer, Army Aviation Dept. 

Niel, Cl<emenL Docteur en Droit, Judge of the Court of Appeal. 

Nielsen, Capt. W., Harbour Dept. 

Nieuwenhuis, F. -I. Domela. Netherlands Minister Plenipotentiary. 

•Nisbet, R. EL, Forest Dept., Chiengmai. 



366 Alphabetical Directory. 



Noorkhan, P., lawyer. 

Ncrdmann, K. W., broker and accountant. 
Norman. C. P., signs per pro. Windsor & Co. 
Norman, H. L., asst., Siam Forest Co.. Muang Ngow. 
Notton, C, Ag. French Consul. Chiengmai. 
Nunn, W.. Adviser, Customs Dept. 



Oakden, J. G., asst., B. B. T. Gorpn., Chiengmai. 

Odent, A., Government electrical engineer. 

Odner, T., Harbour Dept. 

Ogilvie, A. W., deputy conservator of forests. 

Ogle, R. W. S., asst., Borneo Co. Ltd. ( Sriracha ). 

O'Hara, E., ch. asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 

O'Leary, D., asst., Siamese Tin Syndicate Ltd.. Renong, 

O'Leary, M. D. 

Olesen, H., engineer, Siam Electricity Co. 

Olsen, E. P., chief engineer, Siam S. N". Co. 

Omoda, R., hairdresser. 

O'Neill, J. H. 

Osann, A., manager Transport Co., Motor, Klong Rangsit. 

Otten, J. B., clerk, Chartered Bank. 

Otterstrom, Colonel C. A. C, Consulting Master General of Ordnance to 

Royal Siamese Arniy. 
Owen, J. N. S., asst., Siam Forest. Co., Ltd.. Muang Ngow. 



Padoux, G., legislative adviser, Ministry of Justice. 

Paget, Ferrand, F. C. S., G. I. MECtf. E., asst., B. B. T, Corpn. Ltd. 

Palmer, W. L., deputy Conservator of Forests, Lamp'ang. 

Palmer, H. E. 5 asst., Louis T. Leonwens, Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 

Palmer, Rev. M. B., American Pres. Mission, Nan. 

Paludau-Miiller, O., chief supt., East Asiatic Co. Ltd. 

Pappayanopulos, C, tobacconist. 

Pardoe, A. G., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. ., Chiengmai. 

Park, C. E., M. D., American Pres. Mission, Prae. 

Parr, G. C, signs per pro. Badman & Co. 

Passmore, N. K., maintenance engineer, R. S. R., open line. 

Payne, O. B., asst., Badman & Co. 

Pearson, Geo., asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 

Peel, A. R., H. B. M. Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Peiniger, 0. M., asst. r Borneo Co., Ltd. 

Peiniger, W. G., asst.,. Borneo Co., Ltd. r up-country. 

Pennant, H., asst , A. E. G., Govt. Power Station. 

Peoples, Rev. S. C, dux,. M.rx r American Pres. Mission, Xan 

Perbet, Rev. J. F.R., Petriiu 

Pereira, E. M., auctioneer, sole propr., E. M. Pereira & Co- 



AljiJtahetical Directory. 367 



Perl, F. H. L., asst., Siam Forest Co. Ltd. 

Perros, Right Rev. R. M. J., Bishop ofZoara & Vicar Apostolic of Siam. 
Perroudon, Rev. L. F., Church of Paknampoh. 
Perroy, Rev. A., Pachim. 

Perry, J., head clerk, auditor's office, R. R, D. 
Persse, H. W., asst., Siam Forest Co., Muang Ngow. 
Pestonji, A. 

Pestonji, D. A., head clerk, auditor's office, R. R. D. 
Pestonji, P. A., cashier, auditor's office, R. R. D. 
Petersen, H-, asst., East Asiatic Co. Ltd. 
Petersen, V., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 
Petersen, L., asst. store-keeper, Siam Electricity Co. 
Petersen, A , licensed pilot. 
Peterson, Philip, advocate. 
Petithuguenm, P.. Customs and Excise Dept. 
Peyrical, Rev. A., Chantaboon 
Philippat, A., chef. Oriental Hotel. 

Pickenpack, F., asst. electrical engineer, Post and Tel. Dept. 
Pieris, S. J., asst, survej T or, Survey Dept. 

Pin, E., second surgeon, St. Louis Hospital and French Legation. 
Piroshaw, G., goods office, R. R. D. 
Pissard, cashier, Banque de l'lndo-Chine. 
Poix, A., surgeon, St. Louis Hospital and French Legation. 
Pollard, T. H., consulting engineer, Lloyd's Surveyor, etc. 
Polyzoidis, A. Th., asst., stores dept., Bangkok Dock Co. 
Porter, A. A., asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Nakon Lampang. 
Porter, Nelson, contractor. 

Post. Rev. R. W., American Pres. Mission, Petchaburi. 
Potschke, asst., A. E. G., Govt. Power Station. 
Powell, J. D., technical dept., Bangkok Dock Co. 
Pozzi, T. 

Pradere-Niquet, R., Ministry of Justice. 
Pratch, L. R., asst. draughtsman, Sanitary Dept. 
Prentice, Norman, asst , Borneo Co., Ltd. 
Price, Hamilton, manager, B. B. T. Corpn., Ltd. 

Prodhomme, Right Rev. C. J., Bishop of Gera and Vicar Apostolic of Laos, 

Nong Sen: 
Prtifer, C, Bristol Hotel and City Hotel. 
Pruss, C, partner, R. Lenz & Co., ( Poh Yome-road. ) 
Pruss, 0., asst., R. Lenz & Co. 



Q 



Quadrelli, C, architect, Ministry of Local Govt. 

Quentin, Rev. L. L., Church of Jasathon. 

Queripel, A. L., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd., Cbiengmar, 



368 Alphabetical Direztori 



Raab, H., asst. engineer, R. R. D. 

Rabe, G., workshop foreman, R. R. D. 

Rabjeau, L., Est Asiatique Frai^ais, Xieng-Khong. 

Rabot, E. E., manager, Siam Observer. 

Rabus, T., section engineer, R. S. R., Bandon. 

Raggi, J. G., tutor. 

Ramsay, C. H., (Luang Ohamnong Nivaeskitch), Ministry of the Household, 

(retired), near Ohalermdej Bridge, outer Hoalampong Road. 
Ramsdale, P., asst., Badman & Co. 
Rankin, A. 0., M. D., D. P. h., Asst. Medical Officer. 
Rasmussen, A., shipping dept , East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 
Rasmussen, E., asst., workshop, S. E. 0. 
Re, M., propr., French Dispensary, Suriwongse-road. 
Rees, T. , asst., Steel Bros. & Co., Ltd. 
Reese, Capt. J. D., licensed pilot. 
Reichwein, EL, asst., Katz Bros. Ltd 
Reid, Eric, editor, Siam Observer and Merrythought. 
Reid, H. P., American Pres. Mission, Ohiengniai. 
Reid, G. Kennedy, chemist and veterinary surgeon. 
Reid, J. W., mill manager, Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 
Reimers, H. M., Sanitary Dept. 
Reina, J , chief permanent way inspector, R. R. D. 
Reinecke, H., manager, Samosorn Ka Rajakarn, ( Bantanow-road, 

Wat Mahan ). 
Reis, A. H., asst. acct v Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. 
Reith, J., shop foreman, Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 
Uemy, Dr E , Secretary, German Legation, (Windmill-road). 
Revie. L , asst., United Engineers, Ltd. 

Rexhausen, G., asst. analytical chemist, Government Medical Depot. 
Ilice. F. W., head clerk, worshops, R. R. D. 
Richard, Rev. L. P., Dongkabuang. 
Richardson, C 0., engine driver, R. S. R. 
Richardson, C. S., signs per pro. Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 
Richer, M. F.. Ministry of Justice. 
Richmond, E., engine driver, R. S. R 

Riesehick, H., chancellor, German Legation, ( Surisak-road ). 
Riganti, L., asst., Societe Anonyme Beige ( City). 
Rigazzi, A., architect, Ministry of Local Govt. 
Rightor, C. E., acct., Standard Oil Co. 
Rigoli, C, artist. 

Rischel, Capt. Axel, ch. surveyor, Hydrographic Office, R. S. N. 
Robert, Dr., deputy director, Pasteur Institute. 
Roberts, J. C, asst. acct., Hongkong aiul Shanghai Bank, 
liobertson, 1).. asst., Borneo Co., Ltd. 
Robins, A. ().. section engineer, R. S. R., Petchaburi. 
Robinson, II., loco, inspector, R. R. D. 



Alphabetical Directory. 369 



Robinson, W. A., engineer, Bangpakok kerosene installation (B.C.L.) 
Robinson, D., asst., A. E, G,, Govt. Power Station. 
Robinson, VV. G., asst., Beili and Co., Nakon Tiraniarat. 
Robinson, E. C, loco, driver, R. R. D. 
Robyns, C, legal adviser, Ministry of Interior. 
Rochga, L., supt. of cargo, Koh-si-ehang, Windsor & Co. 
Roe, W, P. EL, asst. engineer, R. S. R., Hua Hin, 
Roebelen, C, orchid collector. 
Roggan, B., asst , B. Grimm & Co. 
Rogers, B. H., asst,, B B T Corpn. Ltd , ChiengmaL 
Romieu, Rev. L. P., Assumption Church. 
Rondel, Rev. A. M., Korat. 
Booth, A. V., asst., B B. T. Corpn., Ltd 
Rose, A., contractor, Samsen. 
Rosenberg, M., propr., Hotel Europe- 
Rosenberg, E. A. 
Ross, D., Southern Railway. 
Ross, K. M., asst,, Syme & Co., (Pranmen-road). 
Rough, J., asst., Syme & Co., (Pramut-n-road), 
Rouyre, J., engineer, Sanitary Dept. 
Rowland, G., joint manager, Louis T^ Leonowens, Ltd. 
Rudow, G., sub-lessee, Astor House Hotel. 
Ruegg, J., asst., Diethelm and Co., Ltd. 
Rummel, L., asst. workshop-supt., R. R. D. 
Rushton, G. D., master, s. s. Ban Hong Liong. 
Russ, W,. asst. engr., R. R. D. 
Ryan, J. -I., asst., Siamese Tin Syndicate, Renong. 



Sabroe, A. S., asst,, East Asiatic Co. Ltd., Prae. 

Salmon, Rev. P. A.. Bannokhuek. 

Salvatore, G., architect. Ministry of Local Govt. 

Samarakone, D. U. VV., Local Sanitary Dept. 

Sampson, F.. propr., John Sampson & Son. 

Sanderson, GL S., steam launch proprietor, Ayuthia, 

Sandrecaki. A., asst., Samyek Store. 

Sandi'eczki, C . architect. Windmill-road. 

Sandreezki. C, asst. chancellor, German Legation, ( Windmill-road ). 

Saunders H. 0.. signs per pro. John Sampson & Son. 

Saxtorph, F., Local Sanitary Dept. 

Schaarscbmidk G , asst., B. Grimm & Co. 

Sotiade, B. E. J. E., subsagent, China Mutual Life Ins. Co. Ltd. 

Schaedrieh, R,, asst. loco, snpt., R. II. D. 

Sohaefer, Dr., adviser to the Army Medical Service. 

Schau, Major-Generai G., ( Phya Vasudeb ), Commanding Provincial 

Gendarmerie. 
■Selieele- H.. signs per pro. B. Griram & Co, 



Alphabetical Directory. 



Schmeden, C, supt. engineer, N. D. L. staff. 

Schmidt, master, Pangan. 

Schmidt, L. F., Customs Officer, Kohsichang. 

Schmidt, W., asst., B. Grimm & Co. 

Schneider, L., signs per pro. Diethelm & Co., Ltd. 

Schneider, 0., M.D , medical practitioner. 

Schneider, Th., section engineer, R. S. R., Bandon. 

Schnerr, F.. ch. auditor and traffic superintendent, R. R. D„ 

Schnerr. lv.. asst., Siam commercial Bank. - 

Schule, W., F. H. Schule Ltd. 

Hchulz, R., man. proprietor, Bangkok Dispensary. 

Schulz, A., master, tugboat Cyclop 

Schiingel. H., representative, Norddeutscher Lloyd. 

Schwartz, S.,' asst., Jendarata Rubber Co 

Scott, P., signs per pro. Siam Forest Co., Ltd 

Scott, H. G.. gen. manager, Siamese Tin Syndicate Ltd., Puket. 

Scott, T. Taylor, asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd., Nakon Larapangv 

Sedgwick, J. H., asst. master, Suan Kularb Vityalai. 

Segnitz, H., member of Code Commission, Ministry of Justice. 

Seidel. G., asst.. F., Griihlert & Co. 

Seidenfaden, E , capt , Provincial Gendarmerie, LJbon. 

Selley, N. L , asst. master, Debsirindr School. 

Semprez, P., asst., E. C Monod et Fils. 

Sequeira, E. M , asst. surveyor, Harbour Dept. 

Sequeira, P., asst., adviser's office, Ministry of Agriculture. 

Sewell. 0. A. Seymour, M. a.. English master. Royal Pages School. 

Sguanci. artist. 

Sliand. YV. Warner,, asst. supt., Survey Dept. 

Shaw, F. B-, engineer in charge, Government Power Station, 

Shea, A., engineer. 

Shellman, C. J,, M. i>., American Pres. Mission, Pitsanulok. 

Sheridan, Rene, Docteur en Droit, Judge of the Court of Appeal. 

Sherriff. C. A., asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Ltd., Chiengmai. 

Shibano, M., asst., Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. 

Shiraharaa, Masao, chancellor, Japanese Legation. 

Siebenkitel, K., Austro-Hungarian Legation. 

Siegert. W., signs per pro. B. Grimm & Co. 

Siemen, N.^ master, s. 1. Patriu. 

Sinclair. -I. M., chief construction engineer, R. S. R» 

Skarjinski, •). L , Secretary of Russian Legation ( Charge d'Affaires ). 

Slack, T. A., in charge, Siam, British American Tobacco Co., Ld., 

( Poh Yome-roaci )» 
Smart, C, section engineer, Tung Sawng, Southern Railway. 
Smart, Leslie S.. chief mechanical engineer, Southern Railway. 
Smart, \V. S-, engineer, Kim Ching's rice mill. 
Smitli. A. A., manager. Arracan Co., Ltd. 

Smith. \i. Wyon. chief of central office and section engineer, Southern Ry* 
Smith. B. S.j chief inspector. Education Dept. 



Alphabetical Directory, 371 



Smith, Malcolm, medical practitioner, medical attendant H. B. M. Legation. 

-Smith, M. S., asst., B. B T. Oorpn., Paknampoh. 

Smith, W. R., asst,, A. Diana & Co. 

Smyth, James S., B. E , M. I. C. E., manager, Bangkok Dock Co., Ltd. 

Smyth, R. P., divisional engineer, Southern Railway, Petchaburi Division. 

Smyth, G. C, section engineer, Southern Railway, Petchaburi Division. 

Snyder, Rev. P. L., American Pres. Mission. 

Sommelet, Rev. Ch., Church of* the Holy Rosarj'. 

Sorensen, V., Oriental Store, East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 

Spencer, F. D., asst., Siam Forest Co., Ltd., Muang Pohng. 

Spigno, A. B., engineer, building section, Ministry of Local Govt. 

Spilman, E. M., American Pres. Mission Press 

Spittel, G. K., surveyor, etc., R. R. D. 

Spivey, H. E., head master, Suan Kularb School. 

Sprater, Major W., veterinary surgeon, Ministry of War. 

Sprenger, W., asst., B. Grimm & Co. 

Springer. C. N., Major, Provincial Gendarmerie, Nan. 

Stacke, P., toilet saloon, Badman & Co. 

Stan way, F., asst. chief auditor, R. S. R. 

Steele, R. EL, asst., Louis T. Leonowens, Ltd. 

Steele. C. A., American Presbyterian Mission, Boon Itt Instiiiite. 

Steevens, R., advocate, Chiengmai. 

Stefani, A., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 

Steiner, F., capt., Provincial Gendarmerie, Makeng. 

Stevens, E. R , asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 

Stewart, Allan, asst, mill manager, Siam Forest Co., Ltd, 

Stewart, Rev. H. W., American Presbyterian Mission, Pitsanulok. 

Stiven, A. E., asst., Borneo Co , Ltd. 

Stoddard, A. A., Irrigation branch, Ministry of Agriculture. 

Stoeker, Rev. J., B., Don Thoi. 

Stolberg, master, s.s. Patani. 

Storm, H , signs per pro. Grahlert & Co. 

Strauss, V., section engineer, R. S. R., Bandon. 

Suppo. L , asst., A Diana & Co. 

Surhoff, Capt. A., Harbour Dept. 

Sutherland, W., agent, Chartered Bank. 

Sutton, N., ag. headmaster, Prathomakongka School. 

Svarrer, Capt. A., Siam S. N. Co. 

Swan, W. G., surveyor. 

Swanson, J. H., works supt., Samsen Dock. 

Swanson, J. S., asst,, Siam Architects. 

Sweek, Alexander, American Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Swete, M H. F., deputy conservator of forests, Muang Youam. 

Switzer, C D., overseer, Southern Railway, Chumphon, 

S3 r low. capt-, Provincial Gendarmerie, Nakon Lampang. 



Tabalteau-Herrick, H., vet. surgeon, Royal Stables, 
Tamagno, M.. chief architect, Ministry of Local Govt 



372 Alphabetical Directory. 



Tan Keng Wbay, auctioneer and estate agent. 

Tapie, Rev. J. P., Church of Song Phi N<mg. 

Taponier, asst., Est Asiatique Francais, Xieng Khong. 

Tatner, F., commission agent. 

Tavella, 0., architect, Ministry of Local Govt. 

Taylor, Rev. Dr. H., American Pres. Mission, Nan. 

Taylor,' W. R. H., asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Ltd. 

Tean, W. We. (1, proprietor. Siam Stamp Co. 

Teutsch, A., advocate and solicitor, Convent-road. 

Tewes, O., analyt. chemist, B. Grimm & Co. 

Thavenot, A. F. N., Ministry of Justice. 

Thomsen, Comdr. Frisy, surveyor, R. S. N. 

Thomsen, Capt., m. s., Jutlandia. 

Thomsen, P., engine and technical dept., East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 

Thome, C., editor, Bangkok Times ( absent). 

Thornely, P. W., M. a., LL. d., Judge of the Court of Appeal. 

Thorvaldsen, B., Major, Provincial Gendarmerie, Ohiengmai. 

Tien Hee, C, (Phra Montri ), medical practitioner. 

Tilaka, W. A. G., ( Phya Arthakar), Attorney General. 

Tilaka, A. F. G., ( Phra Singhon ), asst. Harbour Master-General. 

Tilaka, R. E. G., medical practitioner, resident ph}>ican, Vajira Hospital. 

Tilaka, J. F. Guna, asst., Dept. of Public Prosecutions. 

Tisseman, S. R., sole propr., S. Tisseman & Co. 

Todd, C, asst., Whiteaway Laidlaw & Co. 

Tofte, E.. asst., Oriental Store. 

Topenot, M., French Consulate. Ubon. 

Tomarelli, A., sculptor, Royal Art Dept. 

Torslef, H., Engr Lieut. Comdr., R. S. N. 

Touve. Rev. C, Church of Sieng Vang. 

Towfique, M., manager, Laad Yai Salt Co., ( 55 Klong Bangkok Yai. ) 

Toy, W. B., M. n.. medical practitioner, lecturer, Medical College. 

Traill, J., agent. Siam Steam Packet Co., Ltd., Petriu. 

Trayes, F. G , head master, Normal College. 

Tripier, J., French Consul. 

Trolle, H. T.. Major, Provincial Gendarmerie, Singora. 

Trotter, E. VV.. Deputy Commissioner of Police. 

Turner, Skinner, Judge of the Dika Court, and Judicial Adviser, Ministry 



of Justice 



Tyrer, H. asst.. Siam Forest Co., Ltd. 
Tyson, C. maintenance clerk, R. R. 1). 

U 

Qlrich, A., clerk, central office, R, R, D. 

Ulrich, P., asst. interpreter, German Legation, ( Windmill-road). 

Qpton, T. M., timber merchant. 

Van Cuylenburg, VV.. cold storage manager, B, M, C. 
Van Cuylenburg. I'., solicitor. 



Alphabetical Directory. 373 



van der Smagt, F., loco driver, R. R. D. 
van der Straaten, L M., loco, driver, R. R. D. 
van Dort, K , engineer, Bangkok Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 
Van Metre, M.D., American Pres. Mission, Nakon Sritamarat. 
Veh, P., asst., E. 0. Monod et fils. 
Yidal, H., asst., import dept., Windsor & Co. 
Vil, H., clerk, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. 
Vil, W., asst., Windsor & Co. 

Vincent, Rev. H. S„ American Pres. Mission, Nakon Lampang. 
Virgeen, V., engineer., Dept. of Ways of Communication. 
Voirol, P., asst., Deutsch-Siam. Handels-Ges. 
Voisin, Rev. G. M , Petriu. 
v. d. Heyde, H., asst., A. Markwald & Co., Ltd. 

von Buri, P., German Minster Plenipotentiary, German Legation, (Surisak- 

road). 
von Hoick, C, Consul for Denmark. 

von Hoick. H., Bangkok Experimental Farm, (Danish Consulate), 
von Kockritz, H., interpreter, Local Sanitary Dept. 

Waag, H., asst., B. Grimm & Co. 

Wachter, Rev E., M. d., American Pre.-. Mission, Nakon Sritamarat. 

Wadia, J. K.. chief clerk, Baguley and Tooth. 

Wakefield, A. N., engineer, Siamese Tin Syndicate Ltd., Renong. 

Waldburger. J., manager, Deutsch-Siamesische Handels-Gesellschaft. 

Walker, C. C, M. n , Eye Hospital, Siphya-road. 

Wall, H. B.. asst,, Siamese Tin Syndicate, Ltd., Puket. 

Walters, R. H. : asst., Badman & Co. 

Walton, E. J., up-country manager, B. B. T. Corpn. 

Ward, T. R. J., C.I.E., M.V.O., Irrigation branch, Ministry of Agriculture. 

Warming, P. L. E., Major, Provincial Gendarmerie, Nagon Pathom. 

Warnken, H., acct., field staff, Survey Dept. 

Warrer, I. 1., chief officer, Siam S. N. Co. 

Warry, C E. D., Depot manager (Straits and Siam), British-American 

Tobacco Co. 
Warwick, A. C, sole partner, Badman & Co. 
Watson, C. L., asst. legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. 
Way, W. B., asst, legal adviser, Ministry of Justice. Puket. 
Webb, G. Ernest, B. a., 'asst. master. King's College. 
Weber, 0., asst., B. Grimm & Co. 
Wedderburn, C. C, asst.. B. B T. Corpn., Prae. 
Weeks, W. G.. supt. of surveys, Ministry of Agriculture. 
Weeraratne, G. D. P., asst. manager, Siam Observer. 
Wehler, G. F., ch. permanent way inspector, R. R D. 
Weiler, L . director-general, R, R. D. 
Weimann, W., managing-director, East Asiatic Co., Ltd. 
Weir, T. H., asst.. Siamese Tin Svndicate, Ltd.. Puket. 
W r eiss. F., asst, of works R, R. D*. 
Wendt, A. W.. loco, driver, R. R. 1). 
West, H. M., engineer, Paklat liquid fuel installation. (B. C. L.) 



374 ^Alphabetical Directory. 



West, J. B., quarantine inspector, Ko Phra. 

West, K., Captain, Siam S. N. Co. 

Westengard, Jens I , (Phya Kalyari Maitri), General Adviser to H. S. M. 

Government. 
Weston, C. M., asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Nakon Lampang. 
White, Rev. H., American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 
Whiting, II. C, div. supt. of Police. 
Whyte, J. B., advertising contractor. 
Wilkens, H., asst., A. Markwald & Co., Ltd. 

Willeke, A , ag. manager, foreign dept., Siam Commercial Bank. 
Willems, H., analytical cliemist, Govt. Medical Depot. 
AVilliams, G. J., manager, Apothecaries Hall. 

Williams, W. Leigh, asst., B. B. T. Corpn., Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 
Williamson, W. J. P., Financial Adviser, Ministry of Finance. 
Wilson, R. C. R., Irrigation branch, Ministry of Agriculture. 
Winckler, 0., asst., import dept., Windsor & Co. 
Windsor. L, 

Wishart, A., technical dept., Bangkok Dock Co. 
Wodianer von Maglod, Rudolph, Austro-Hungarian Minister 

Plenipotentiary. 
Wodianer von Maglod, jr. 

Wolf, G., asst. Director General, Post and Tel. Dept. 
Wolthers, John, executive engineer, Dept. of Ways of Communication. 
Wood, W. A. R., H. B. M. Vice-Consul, Nakon Lampang. 
Wooller, E. S., asst., Badman & Co. 
Wright, G. K., solicitor, Baguley and Tooth. 

X 

Xavier, C. M., (Phya Phipat Kosa), Under Secretary of State for 

Foreign Affairs. 
Xavier, F. P., Local Sanitary Dept. 



Yamaguchi, G., Yamaguchi & Co., Yaowaraj road. 

Yamaguchi, M., manager, G. Yamaguchi & Co. 

Yates, Rev. W. 0., American Pres. Mission, Chiengmai. 

Yates, H. C. St. J., asst., B. B. T. Corpn. Ltd., Nakon Lampang. 

Yetts, G. M., asst. inspector of Mines, Renong. 

Yoshida, Sakuya, Minister Plenipotentiary of Japan. 

Yobhioka, K., asst., Mitsui Bussan Kaisha. 

Young, J. <J., farmer, Klong No. 14, Nong Chork. 

z 

Zabel, F., section engineer, R. R. D. 
Zachariae, H A. R., draughtsman, Southern Railway. 
Zernichow, F., manager, Jendarata Rubber Co. 
Zernichow, P. N , manager, Sipantas Co., Ltd. 
Zisswiller, C, ch. electrical engineer. P. and T. Dept. 
Zobel, K., interpreter, German Legation, (Windmill road). 



Ladies' Directory. 



375 




Adamsen, Mrs. H., (absent V 
Aitchison, Mrs. J., Bangkok Dock. 
Andersen, Mrs. H. C, Tachin. 
Anne, Sister Ste., Assumption 

Convent. 
Antonio, Mrs. J., New-road. 
Antonio, Miss F. M., New-road. 
Antonio, Miss M. E., New-road. 
Arathoon, Mrs. Mack. S., 

Suriwongse-road. 
Aston, Mrs. R. W., Windmill-road. 

B 

Bachtell, Mrs. R. W., Ohieng Rai. 
Beach, Mrs. W. H., Nan. 
Begley, Miss, Bangkok Nursing Home. 
JBelhomme, Mrs. R., (absent). 
Bendixsen, Mrs., Bandon. 
Beranger, Mrs., 213, Siphya-road, 

Preak Pan Nai. 
Blackett, Mrs. W. L., Bush Lane. 
Blount, Miss, Wang Lang. 
,Bock, Mrs. P., Bamrung Muang-road. 
Bonnafous, Mrs., Poh Yome-road. 
Bopp, Mrs , (absent). 
Borgersen, Mrs., Bush Lane. 
Bradley, Miss I., Klong Bangkok Yai. 
Brehmer, Mrs. W., Windsor & Co's. 

compound. 
Briggs, Mrs. W. A., Chieng Rai. 
Brighouse, Mrs. S., Klong Toi. 
Brockmann, Mrs. 
Brooks, Mrs. F M. 
Brown, Mrs. R. H., 
Brunner, Miss Hazi 
Buck, Miss E. M.. Ohiengmai. 
Bulk ley, Mrs. L. C , Tap Teang:. 
Bulner, Mrs. P., Bangkok Dock. 
Burr, Miss Ad lie, Lampang. 
Buszard, Mrs. M. F., British Club- 
road. 



Phlabplajai-road. 
Sam sen. 
I E., Lampang. 



Cacace, Mrs. 

Callender, Mrs. C R , Prae. 
Campbell, Mrs. H., Chiengmai. 
Carson, Mrs. A., The Lindens, 

Woodlands Estate. 
Cartwright, Mrs. A. H., 

King's College. 
Chalant, Mrs. F., Pan Road. 
Christensen, Mrs. 0. C, Wat 

Phya Krai. 
Christensen, Miss J., Tap Teang. 
Clark, Mrs. P., Nakon Pathom. 
Clay, Miss, Bangkok Nursing Home. 
Clunis, Miss, Wang Lang. 
Cole, Miss E. S., Wang Lang. 
Coleby, Mrs., King's College. 
Collins, Mrs. D. G., Chiengmai. 
Collins, Miss Marie, Chiengmai. 
Collins, Mrs. D. J., Sriracha. 
Cookson, Mrs. F. W., Paknam. 
Cooper, Miss, L. J., Nakorn 

Sritamarafc. 
Cooper, Mrs. A. W. 
Cort, Mrs. E. C, Chiengmai. 
Craig, Mrs. R. D., Poh Yome-road. 
Crooks, Mrs. C. H., Lampang. = 



D 

da Costa, Mrs., Windmill-road. 
Dean, Mrs. F., West Bank. 
Dejanujit, Mrs. B., Patani. 
Delaunay, Mr^., Sapatum-road. 
de Jesus, Mrs. G. E. M., 

Oriental Avenue, 
de Plancon, Mrs , Russian Legation 

(absent). 
Diana, Mrs., Bush Lane. 
Dodd, Mrs. W. C, Chieng Rai. 
Donaldson, Mrs. A, H., Poh Yome- 
road. 



376 



Ladies' Diredovtf. 



.Donation, Sister, St. Louis Hospital. 
Dossen, Mrs. Claire. 
Duehamp, Mrs. 
Due-Petersen, Mrs., (absent). 
Duke, Mrs. A. H., (absent). 
Duncan, Mrs. W., Loh Ban Seng's 

Mills. 
Dufty, Mrs. Noel E., Samsen. 
Dun lap, Mrs. E P., Tap Teang 
Dun lap, Mrs. J. B., Poh Yome-road. 
Duulap, Miss. 

Dunlop, Mrs. John M., Poh Yome-road. 
Dunlop, Miss, Poh Yome-road. 

E 

Eakin, Mrs. J. A., Petehabuii. 
Eckels, Mrs. C. E., Nakon Sritamarat. 
Edie, Mrs. J. W., Frankfield. Poh 

Yome-road. 
Edley, Mrs. F., Windmill-road. 
Eliinwood, Miss A. J., Wang Lang. 

F 

Faller, Miss J , Oriental Hotel. 
Finnie, Mrs. W., Sutherland House, 

Poh Yome-road. 
Flores, Mrs. L. L., Portuguese 

Legation. 
Florio, Mrs , Poh Yome-road 
Frankfurter, Mrs., Bamrung 

Muang-road. 
Franklin, Mrs., Bangkok Christian 

College. 
Freeman, Mrs. J. H., Lampoun. 
Frere, Mrs. A., Belgian Legation, 

Sapatum-road. 

& 

Gait, Miss A., Christian College. 
Gatenby, Mrs. E. B., Siphya-road. 
Gaudarlr, Mrs. B. R., 
Gibbins, Mrs R. B. H., Chiengmai 
Giles, Mrs. F. H., Bamrung Muang- 

voad. 



Gillies, Mrs. R., Chiengmai. 
Gittins. Mrs. H.. British Club-road. 
Gollo, Mrs., Surivvongse-road. 
Gotte, Mrs. R., Bush Lane. . 
Graham, Mrs. W. A., Poh Yome-road. 
Graham, Mrs. W. H., (absent). 
Grassi, Mrs. F., Phlabplajai-road. 
Gray, Mrs. D. L., Preak Ban Nai. 
Grenier, Mrs. L. 
Glitters, Mrs. P. W., Assumption 

Square. 
Groundwater, Mrs. C. L., (absent). 
Groves, Mrs.S. P., Kohsichang. 
Grut, Mrs. W. L., S. E. C. Compound. 
Guyon, Mrs. R. C, Suriwongse-road. 

Haffenden, Mrs. W., British Club-road 
Haile, Mrs. M., Meklong. 
Halliday, Mrs. Nakon Pathom. 
Halliday, Mias, Nakon Pathom. 
Hansen, Mrs. C. C, (absent). 
Hansen-Raae, Mrs., Bandon. 
Harris, Mrs. W., Chiengmai. 
Hartzell, Mrs. J. L., Nakon Lampang. 
Hays, Mrs. T. Hey ward, Bangrak 

Hospital. 
Healey. Mrs. E., Samsen. 
Henderson, Mrs. P. R. 
Hendrick, Mrs. S. H., Siam Forest Co., 
Bangkolem. 
Hendriksen, Mrs., (absent). 
Henry, Mrs., Banque de rindo-Chine. 
Henry, Miss, Banque de FIndo-Chine. 
Hermann, Mrs, Bang Kwang. 
Hicks, Mrs. E., Angthong. 
Highet, Mrs. H. Campbell, Holyrood, 
Poh Yome-road, 
Hillyard. Mrs., (absent) 



Ingerslev, Mrs. Kay, Siphya-road. 
lnnocenti, Mrs., Samsen. 
Irwin, Mrs. A. J., Sapaturn-road. 
.Irwin, Mrs. R., M. d., 426, Pramuen- 

road. 
[vancich, Mrs.,JSamSen. 



L<i/Hes' Directory. 



377 



Jockish, Mrs. 

Johnson, Mrs., Forest House. 

Johannes. Miss. 

Jones, Mrs R. C , Pitsanulok. 

Jonsen, Mrs. A., (absent). 

Jorgensen, Mrs. I., Wind mi 11 -road. 

Judge, Mrs. T., (absent). 

K 

Kempson, Mr?. P. C-, (absent). 

Kerr, Mrs. A. F. 6., Chiengmai. 

Kerr, Mrs. James. 

Komaki, Mrs. 

Kraft, Mrs., B&nkhunprom. 



Lamache, Miss. 

Lambert, Mrs. S. G., British Club- 

road. 
Lamberton. Mrs. H. G., Custom 

House Lane. 
Lamberton, Mrs. R. W., Custom 

House Lane. 
Landau, Mrs. A., Siphya-road. 
Laurent, Mrs., Ubon. 
Law, Mrs. R. Balfour, Muang Poling. 
Lef6vre-Pon talis, Mrs., French 

Legation. 
Lelievre, Mrs. 

Leonard, Mrs. H. S., Poll Yome-road. 
LeOnowens, Mrs. L. T., (absent). 
Leu th old, Mrs. F., Suan Mali. 

Bamr u n g M i tan g -road . 
Lortet, .Mrs , Si Phya-road. 
Link, Mrs. E., Samsen-road. 
Lloyd, Mrs. W. F., Forest House 

British Club-road. 
Lloyd, Miss. 
Loekyear, Miss, Bangkok^Nursing 

Home. 
Ludvig-Hansen, Mrs., Bamrung 

Muang-ioad. 
Lyle, Mrs. Th. H., Poh Yome-road. 
Lyon, Mrs. W. T., Chieng Rai. 
Lyons, Mrs. J. R. C, Poh Yome-road. 



M 

Maben, Mrs. J., Sriracha. 

Macfie, Mrs. D. F., Chiengmai. 

Mackay, Mrs. J., (absent). 

Maekay, Miss, (absent). 

Maclean, Mrs. J., Windmill-road. 

Mair, Mrs. R. B. R., Poh Yome-road. 

Maire, Mrs., Oriental Hotel. 

Mannsfeldt, Mrs. K., Sikak Phya Sri. 

Manaud, Mrs. A., Windmill-road. 

Manfredi, Mrs., Phlabplajai-road, 

(absent). 

Mason, Mrs. C. W.. Chiengmai. 

McClure, Mrs. W. G., Christian 

College. 

McCord, Miss M. C, Wang Lang. 

McDaniel, Mrs, E. B., Petchaburi. 

McFarland, Mrs. G. B., Wang Lang. 

McGikary, Mrs. S. B., Chiengmai. 

McKean, Mrs. J. W., Chiengmai. 

McKean, Miss Kate, Chiengmai. 

McKendrick. Mrs. A., Borneo Co.'s 

compound, Bangkolem. 
j Med worth, Mrs., Lampang. 
I Miho, Mrs. G., Japanese Consulate. 
j Miles, Mrs., Siphya-road. 
| Mitani, Mrs. K., Ban-Moh Road. 

Moller, Miss B., Nakon Sritamarat. 

Moore, Mrs. R Adey, (absent). 

Muir, Mrs. W., Borneo Co.'s compound, 
Bangkolem. 



isr 

Neidhardt, Mrs. E., Hong Muang-road. 
Nesbitt, Mrs. P. E. 

Newlands, Mrs. Cowan, Pramuen-road. 
Niel, Mrs. C, Poh Yome-road. 
Nieuwenhuis, Mrs. Domeltt, Nether- 
lands Legation, Suriwongse-road. 
Nieuwenhuis, Miss Domela, (absent), 



O 

O'Donnell, Miss, (absent). 
Otterstrom, Mrs., (absent). 



378 



Ladies' Directory. 



Padoux, Mrs., Poh Yome-road. 

Palmer, Mrs. M. B„ Nan. 

Park, Mrs. C. E., Prae. 

Passmore, Miss, (absent). 

Peoples, Mrs. S. C, Nan. 

Pestonji, Mrs. D. A. 

Pestonji, Mrs. P. A. 

Pestonji, Miss A. 

PetithugnHnin, Mrs., Suriwongse-road. 

Philippat, Mrs 

Pin, Mrs., Si Phva-road. 

Post, Mrs. R. W ., Petchaburi. 

Powell, Mrs. J. D., Pan-road. 

Preecha, Mrs. Konla Karn, New-road. 

Price, Mrs. Hamilton, Poh Yome-road. 

Priifer, Mrs., Bristol Hotel. 

Prufer, Miss, Bristol Hotel. 

Pruss. Mrs, G., Poh Yome-road. 

n 

Reese. Mrs. J; P. 

Reid, Mrs. G. Kennedy, (absent). 

Reid, Mrs. J. W., Bangkolem. 

Richer, Mrs. 

Riesrhick, Mrs. Maria, German 

Legation, Surisak-road. 
Riganti, Mrs. M., S. A. B. 
Rigazzi, Mrs., Pan-road. 
Risehel. Mrs., Freak Ban Nai. 
Robert. Mrs., Bam rung Muang-road. 
Robinow, Mrs.. Holyrood, 

Poh Yome-road. 
Robinson, Mrs. W. A., Bangpakok. 
Rose, Mrs. A., Samsen. 
Rosenberg, Miss L., Hotel Europe. 
Rosenborg. Miss S., Hotel Europe. 

S 

Sampson, Mrs., Rajadamnern Avenue. 
Sanderson, Mrs. G. S., Ayufhia. 
Sanrlreczki, Mrs., Windmill-road. 
Schade, Mrs. B. 

Sclwdrich, Mrs., Rong Muang-road. 
Schaedrich, Miss, Rong Muang-road. 



Schaefer, Mrs., Windmill-road. 

Schneider, Mrs., Poh Yome-road. 

Schnerr, Mrs. F., (absent). 

Scott, Mrs. P., Hongkong Bank Lane. 

Segnitz, Mrs., Suriwongse-road 

(absent). 

Semprez, Mrs., New-road. 

Shand, Mrs. Warner, (absent). 

Shaw, Mrs. F. B., (absent). 

Shellman, Mrs. C J., Pitsanulok. 

Slack Mrs. T. A., Poh Yome-road 

Smart, Mrs. L. S., Poh Yome-road. 

Smart, Vtrs. W. S., Kim Ching's mills. 

Smith, Mrs. A. A., Poh Yome-road 

(absent). 

Smith, Mrs. S. J. (absent). 

Smyth, Mrs. J. S., Poh Yome-road. 

Smyth, Mrs., G. 0., Hua Hin. 

Snyder, Mrs. F. L. (absent). 

Spilman, Mrs , Poh Yome-road. 

Spivey, Mrs. H. E., Sapatum-road. 

Starling. Miss Lucy, Nan. 

Staro, Mrs., Suriwongse-road. 
: Staro, Miss, Suriwongse-road. 

Steele, Mrs. C. A., Worachak-road. 
! Stewart, Mrs. H W., Pitsanulok. 
: Sutherland. Mrs. W., Balfour House, 

S uri won gse-road. 
i Sutton, Mrs. N., Phlabplajai-road. 

Swanson, Mrs. J. H.. Samsen. 

T 

Tamagno, Mrs., Windmill-road. 
Taylor, Mrs. H„ Nan. 
Teutsch, Mrs. A., Convent-road. 
Teutsch, Misses, Convent-road. 
Tewes, Mrs. M.. Siphya-road. 
Thomsen, Mrs., Taphan Mensri. 
Thomely, Mrs. P. W., Poh Yome-road. 
Thoy, Miss. 

Tilaka, Mrs R. E. G., Vajira Hospital, 
Samsen. 
Tisseman, Mrs. S. R., Fuang Nakorn- 

street. 
Toy, Mrs. Walter B., New-road. 
Traill, Miss M. 



Ladies' Directory. 



879 



Traill, Miss V. 

Trayes, Mrs. F. G., Bamrung Muang- 

road. 
Trotter, Miss, Sapatum-road. 
Turner, Mrs. Skinner, East Holm, 

Poh Yome-road. 

TJ 

Ullerike, Mrs. F , Poh Yome-road. 

Upathet, Mrs. 

Upton, Mrs. T. M., Poh Yome-road. 

Van Metre, Mrs., Nakon Sritamarat. I 
Van Vranken, Miss E. M., Chiengmai. 
Vil, Miss J. 

Vincent, Mrs. H. S., Lampang. 
von Buri, Mrs. Ch., German Legation, 
Surisak-road. I 
von Hoick, Mrs. A., Danish Consulate, 
Poh Yome-road. 

W 

Wachter, Mrs. E., Nakon Sritamarat. 
Wachter, Miss J. (absent). 
Wachter, Miss F. (absent). 
Wadia, Mrs J. K„ Windmill-road. 
Waldburger, Mrs. Elsy, Bamrung 

Muang-road. 



Walker, Mrs. C. 0., Preak Ban Nai. 
Warming, Mrs., Phrapatom. 
Warwick, Mrs. A. 0. (absent). 
Watson, Mrs. C. L., Poh Yome-road. 
Weiler, Mrs., Royal Railway Dept. 
Westengard, Mrs., Taphan Yotsay. 
White, Mrs. H., Chiengmai. 
Whiting, Mrs. R. C. (absent). 
Williamson, Mrs. W. J. F., Kingsdon, 
Poh Yome-road. 
Wilson, Mrs. R. C. R., Rong Muang- 
road, 
Wodianer von Magl<5d, Mrs., Austro- 
Hungarian Legation. 
Wolthers. Mrs., Poh Yome-road. 
Wood, Mrs. W. A. R., Nakon 

Lampang. 
Wright, Mrs. G. K., Poh Yome-road. 

X 

Xavier, Sister Ste, St. Joseph's 

Convent. 

Y 

Yoshida, Mrs. S., Japanese Legation, 
(absent) . 



Zobel, Mrs Marie, Windmill-road. 



380 



Addmda. 



ADDENDA 



THE BOY SCOUTS ORGANISATION 
OF SIAM. 

Chief Scout and Ex-Ofticio President, 

— His Majesty the King. 
Inspector-General and Ex-Offieio Vice 
President— H. R. H. Prince Dam- 
rong. 
Asst. Insnectort-General — H. E. Cliao 
Phya Phra Sadech 
— Phya Baikal S.ilpasatra. 
General Secretary — Phya 3uri 

Navarasth. 

[In each Mondhol there is a Mon- 
dhol Committee with the Lord Lieut- 
enant as President thereof]. 

ELEVATION IN RANK- 
( January 1st 1914). 

Phya Bais&i Silpasatra, Under Secre- 
tary Ministry of Public Instruction, 
to be Phya Dharmasakdi Montri. 

Phya Stiksha Sombuina, Director of 
Education, to be Phya Baikal Sil- 
pasatra. 

Dr. R. E. G. Tilaka to be Luang Viraj 
Vejakieh. 

LODGE ST. JOHN. 

No. 1072 S. C, Bangkok. 
Worshipful Master — J. Burns Kerr. 

BANQUE DE L'INDO CHINE. 

Accountant — J. Got. 
Cashier — Pissard. 

COMPTO.R FRANCAIS DU SIAM. 

(in place of announcement on page 331) 

Agents de Fabriques Franchises. 

Direction a Paris. 

Pierre M. Lortet. 
P. Edmond Fortiu — aigne par pro- 
curation. 
Lira Cheng Kiet — Head and 

Shipping Clerk. 
Michel Ba— Clerk. 
Choi Khok Leong — Compradore. 
Bonn Chin — Godown-k»eper. 



THE CHINA MUTUAL LIFE 
INSURANCE CO., LTD. 

Head Office, Shanghai. 
Registered under the Life Assurance 
Companies' Acts, England, and 
under the Hongkong Ordinances. 
Louis T. Leonowons, Limited, General 
& Financial Agents. 
Telephone. No. 250, 
Sub-Agents— B. E. Schade. 

— K. W. Nordmann. 



S. S. HADJEE MOHAMEO MAUSOOR 
SAHIB. 

Cloth Merchant & Commission Agent. 
Wat Ko. 

P. Pro. Manager — M. M. Aboobaker. 
Clerk— A. Mowla Sa. 
Cashier — K. Mohamed Kassem. 
Bill Collector — O. Mohamed Sheriff. 
Salesman — M. Mohamed Yusoof. 

OTTO DITTERICH. 

Importer, Exporter, 

Shipping and Commission Agent. 

Trang. 

Southern Terminus of Bangkok-Trang. 

Railway ( Southern Line ). 

Agent For : 

Eastern Shipping Co., Ltd. 
Commercial Union Assurance Co., L^d. 

Eraser <fe Neave's Mineral Waters. 



PAUL PICKENPACK. 

General Exporter and Importer and 
Government Contractor. 

Wholesaje Merchant 
Bangkok — Hamburg. 



ADD ALPHABETICAL LIST. 

Oezannav. X.. E. C. Monod et Fils. 



Aotes on the Fauna of Siam. 



JUta; on % Jfatma of &iam. 



BY STANLEY SMYTH FLOWER, 
Fellow of the Zoological Society, 

Ex-Scientific Adviser to the Royal Siamese Museum. 



Mammals. Of all countries in the world Siam is perhaps the least known 

zoologically at the present day, and from its geographical posi- 
tion is of great interest. The number of species of Mammals 
will probably eventually prove to be very great, and many that 
come under the head of " great game " are already known. Of 

Monkeys. Monkeys, there is the Gibbon or Waa-waa, fa^tU (Chanee), whose 

loud, musical call is one of the most noticeable of jungle noises, 
Mr. H. O. Forbes in his recent book on Monkeys mentions two 
species as inhabiting Siam, HylobaUs agilis ( F. Cav. ) and H. 
leucogenys (Ogilvy.) Of the latter Forbes says (p. 159): 
" The type specimen was described in 1840, — its skin being 
preserved in the British Museum; but it was not till 1877 — 
after a lapse of thirty seven years — that a second specimen was 
brought to this country. It was sent to the Zoological Gardens 
by Mr. W. H. Newman, H. B. M. Consul at Bangkok. " The 

Kra or crab-eating Monkey, Macacus eynomolgus ( L. ), Q^ ( ling ), 

is common ; the brown, stump-tailed Monkey, M. arctoides 

{Is. Geoffr.), <0<3l£ni ( ling-sayn ), is also found. There are 

probably several species of long-tailed Leaf Monkeys, also called 
Langurs or Lutongs, in Siam. I obtained Semnopithecus 
obscurus (Reid) in Kedah, and ».*> germaini (M. Edw.), near 

Pachim. The Siamese name is Cl-3 P1T4 ( ling karng ), and in 

some parts they are feared from their reputed liking for 
human flesh and their habit lof killing men asleep in the jungle 
by sucking their blood ( ! ! ). One species of lemur occurs, 

the Slow Loris Nycticebus tardigradus ( L. ), (|^ f^)J ( Iin lorn ), 

an animal to which many strange powers are attributed in 
the countries which it inhabits, such as being able to see 
ghosts, cure wounds, etc., one of the most curious being that 
of "raising the wind " ; a sailing ship with a live Loris on board is 
said never to be becalmed. Among the Siamese Carnivora are 



Notes on the Fauna of Siam. 



Wild Cats. the Tiger, Felis iigris ( L ) [tfif} (seua), the Leopard or Panther, 
F. Pardus ( L. ), the fishing Cat, F. viverrina ( B-nnett ) l£$f) ill® 
(aeua-pla), and the Leopard Cat, F. bengalensis ( Kerr ) [tfif] D1D-3 
( seua-bong ) or [[%\Q UT (meow-pa) ; other less known species of, 
wild cats also occur. The Civet Cat, Viverra malaccensis (Gmelm) 
US WF1 ( cha-mot ), is not uncominoi, and in the Museum is a 
specimen of the Palm Civet Cat, Arciogale leacotis ( Blyth ), [y\\i [\\ 
( hen-mai ), from the Dong Phya Fai. A species of Mongoose, Her- 
pestes urva ( Hodgson,) IViU ital !H (hen plara ), occurs. Otters, 

\f\f\ (nak), are common along the rivers ; the only specimens I have 
seen are apparently Lutra vulgaris ( Erxhben). Besides the little 

Bear. Malay, Sun or Honey Bear, Ursas nialai/anas { Raffles ) VJJJ (mee), 

the large Sloth Bear, Melursns ursinus ( Shaw ), occurs ; there is a 
specimen in the Museum from Laos, and a coolie is reported to 
have been killed by one near Kabin within the last few years. 
Our present knowledge of the Siamese Insectivora is very scanty 
but the '' Muskrat," really a Shrew, Crocidora murina (L), is 

found in Bangkok and called VJU £J (nu pee) and ViU V1T3 (cu- 
ring ), and the strange " Flying Lemur," Galeopithecas volnns ( L ), 
is known to occur in places. About a dozen species of bats, p)3 R"|Q; 

Bats. (kangkow), are recorded from Siam, but there must be many more 

to add to the list: a great Flying Fox, Pteopus, may he often 
seen even in the capital, about dusk, many of them one after an- 
other flying steadily in one direction or by day roosting in trees, 
so many hanging from each branch as to make it bend under their 
weight ; the commonest species in Bangkok is the Sheath- 
tailed Bat, Taphozoas melanopogon ( Femiitck ), which has its 
day retreat in the roofs of old buildings and at night dons 
good service to mankind in devouring quantities of insects 
as it wheels about in the air, often dashing into houses 

Rodents after its prey. Among the Siamese Rodentia are many 

squirrels, rUSTOfl ( kraroke ). I have observed the following 
species, Sciurus bicolor ( Sparrman ), S. fiidaysoni ( Horsfield ), of 

which there is a pure white race flTSITin "BIQ ( kraroke khow ), 
and a red race [ var. ferrwjineus F. Cuvier ], S. caniceps ( Gray ), 
S. macclellandi ( Horsfield ), and S. berdmorei ( Blyth ). Of rats 

^TJ (nu) the Indian brown Rat, Mus rattus ( L ), is com- 



Notes 



the Fauna of Siam. 



Elephant! 



Deer. 



mon in Bangkok, the little Burmese Rat, M. concolor {Blyth), has 
been found in Bangkok and Pachim, and the Long-tailed Tree 
Mouse, Vandeleuria oleracea {Bennett), in Chantaboon. Species of 

Bamboo Rat, Rhizomys called q^ ( o'n ) , and of Porcupine, 

Hystrix, called ^jj<^ ( menn , are also found. Chief among 

the animals of Siam is the Elephant, Elephas maximtis { L. ) 

gjl^ (Chang), still found wild in large numbers in many parts 

of the country. In the Museum is a magnificent collection of 
tusks, the largest is 9' 10|" (measured along the outside curve) 
in length and 1' 3^" in circumference ; another 7' 7" in length 
has the great circumforcnce of 1' *\" ; in all there are thirty-five 
tusks of 5 ft. or over. A specimen of the one-horned Rhinoceros, 
Rhinoceros sondaicus {Cuvier), from the Laos country is in 
the Museum, the two-horned Rhinoceros, R. sum :trev.sis (Ouvier), 

is also recorded from Siam, they are called mjsi (raat). The 

Tapir, Tapirus indicus { Cuvier ), is recorded from Kedah by 
Cantor (p. 56). Information is much wanted on the great wild 
cattle of Siam and their distribution ; the Gnur or Seladang, Bos 
gavrus {Ham Smith), and the Banting,| B. sondaicus {Mutter and 
Schleg), probably occur (v. Blandford, Mam. Brit India pp. 

485 and 490). The Water Buffalo, Bos bubalus {£.), pjQ^ei 

(kh«ai), is said to be wild or feral in parts of the country; the 
domesticated ones frequently have very fine horns ; a pair 8' 6" 
from tip to tip measured round the curve, are in possession of 
Mr. J. H. Lindsay. The Goat-Antelope, Nemorhcedus suma- 

trensis {Shaw), [tft^ fjn (leeangpha), occurs, and six species of 
deer— the Muntjac, Kijang or Barking Deer, Cervus muntjac 
(Zimm), Schomburgk's Deer, Cervus Schomburgki {Blyth), the 
brown-antlered Deer or Thameng, C. eldi {Guthrie), the Sambhur 

% 
or Rusa, C. unicolor (Bechstein , (.^f) (niia), the Hog Deer, C. 

porcinas {Zimm), and the little Mouse Deer, Trayulas javanicus 
(Gmelin), flJSW (krachong). Other 



Bisds. 



wild pig ^y (mu), the Pangoli 



animals to mention are the 

or Scaly Anteater, Manis 

javamca{Desm) ■yjj (nim), and one or more species of Dolphins 
or Porpoises in the Gulf of Siam. 

Siam is rich in birds \tf\ { nok ), both in the number of 
species and of individuals. As far as we know at present a large 
majority are identical with Burmese forms, but very much re- 
rnains to be done before anything like a complete list of Siamese 
birds can be drawn up. Among the most noticeable birds in 



Notes on the Fauna of Siam. 



Bangkok are the crow, Corvus marcrorhynchus ( Wagler ), f|1 
(ka), the Siamese Mynah, jEthiopsar grandis (Moore), which has 
a crest of black feathers on its forehead, the larger Pied Mynah, 
Graculipica nigricollis ( Payk ), the Magpie Robin, Copsychus 

saularis ( L. ), the Sparrow, Passer montanus ( L. ), "WflflTS ^Qfl 
( nok-krachok ), the Roller or "Blue jay" Coracias affinis 

( McClell. ), Un F^nU (nok-ta-kharp), and the Brahminy Kite, 
Haliastur Indus ( Bodd. ) Less conspicuous but very beautiful 
are the Scarlet-backed Flower-pecker, Dicwum crucntatum (L.), 
the Yellow-breasted Sun-bird, Arachnecthra flammax llaris 

( Blyth ), Ufl TIT* ?U UTTDD ( nok-kra-chip-klaap), and the Tailor 
Bird, Orihotomus sutorius (Forst), all three common in Bangkok 
gardens. Hill Mynahs, Eulabes, \fi) ^jy V)f)«3 (nok-khoon-thong), 
and other birds are often seen kept in cages as pets. Two birds, 
more often heard than seen, are the Coppersmith, X >ntholcema 
hmmatocephala ( P. L. S. Mull.), whose cry is a monotonous " pook 
pook, pook," and the Koil, Eudynais honorata ( L. ), whose equally 
monotonous refrain is " ko-il, ko-il. " Many species of lovely 

d 
kingfishers, fl3 % \ flU kra-tenn), are found along the rivers, and 

in the country and jungles are woodpeckers, jjf) ^Q 3KJTU 
(nok-hoa-khwahn), hornbills, trogons, broadbills, pittas, king- 
crows, yfl ^^ ^ijfq (nok-saang-seow), scarlet minivets, golden 

orioles, laughing thrushes, Garrulax \fi) flJS 01-3 (nok-kralahng), 
bulbuls, bee-eaters, parrots, etc., etc. There are many birds of 
prey from the great glossy black red-headed King Vulture, Otogyps 
calvus (Scop), to the little Falconet, Microhiarax cntolmus (Hodgs.) 
Gamebirds. Among the gamebirds already known from Siam are six species 

of pigeons UflwnU ( n °k pirap), the Thick-billed Green Pigeon 
Treron nipalensis (Hodgs.), the two-banded Green Pigeon Osmo- 
treron bicincta (Jerd.), the Green Pigeon 0. vernans (L.), the large 
Nutmeg Pigeon Carpcnaga pxnea (L.), the White Nutmeg Pigeon 
Myristicivora bicolor (Scop.), and the Blue-rock Pigeon Golumba 
intermedia (Sirickl). The Jungle Fowl, Gallus baciva (Temm.) [fl 111 
(kai-pah), is very common. "The Siamese Partridge" is a species 
of Francolin, Francolinus chinensis VJfl TITSYTI (nok kra'tah); Quail, 

Peacock ^fltM ( n °k y un g)» an< ^ Crested Fire-back, Argus and 
other pheasants occur; as do Indian Cotton Teal, Nettapus coroman- 
delianus • and other wild duck ll]flm ( pet-nam ). Bangkok is 



Notts on the Fauna of Siam. 



celebrated for the snipe shooting to be got in the immediate 
neighbourhood ; the Pintail or Asiatic Snipe, Scolopax siernua, 
UT\ ihf) TJQJJ ( nok-pak-som ), is common ; the European Snipe, 

S. ccelestis. is rare ; the Painted Snipe, Rhyuccea capensis, occurs ; 
and other species are reported to have been shot. Gharadrias 
dominions a sort of golden Plover, may also be included among 
the birds worthy to be shot, 
Reptiles. Our knowledge of Siamese reptiles is still small ; much of 

what we do know is due to the labours of M. Mouhot more than 
forty years ago. The Hawksbill Turtle, Chelone imbricata ( L. ), 

LW1 V\Z V\M ( tow ta-noo ), is found in the Gulf ; its capture and the 
collecting of eggs, which are considered a delicacy by many in 
Bangkok, is farmed by the Government ; the island of Kopai these 
turtle resort to for laying their eggs. At least one species of 
land tortoise, Tesludo elongata (BlytK), occurs, and a large number 
of species of freshwater turtles or tortoises, the most remarkable 
. of which is the Bigheaded Tortoise, Platy sternum megacephahtm 
(Gray), which has a long tail ; the Soft-shelled Turtles, Trionyx, 

FlSmil W1 ( ta-parp-nam ), may be a real danger to bathers as 

they snap at anything and everything that comes within reach of 
their long telescopic necks, and once having seized it, will not 
release their hold, sometimes not even if the head is cut off. 

They are also called f)T r J (kriew), and are eaten by some classes 

of Siamese and by the Chinese. The Crocodile, Crocodilus porosus 

Crocodiles. (Schn.), p)*l!D (takhay), is very numerous in some rivers, though 
it is not now seen in the immediate neighbourhood of Bangkok 
but in 1778 in Dr. Koenig's journal (J. S. B. R A. S., No. 26, 
1894) w e read: "November 8th — The crocodiles swam in front 
of our boat ; they often made a dreadful noise, but the people 
said we had nothing to fear from them here, they are only danger- 
ous farther inland Nov. 27th— The people, offered the flesh 

of a big crocodile for sale th« tail was best and had no smell 

at all. The King of Siam pays for every crocodile in order 

to extirpate these animals. Therefore the crocodiles are afraid 
of any boat here, but higher up the country they attack people 
and eat them ;" and other such entries. Another species of 
crocodile, <?. siamensis ( Sckn. ), has been found, but little is 
known of it, as there is no specimen as yet in the Museum. 

Lizards. Of lizards there are very many species in Siam ; the largest is 

the Water Monitor, Varanus sah-ator ( Laur. ), [y\U ( heeah ), 
commonly called Iguana, [but the true Iguana is a native of 
America |; these lizards sometimes do much damage in poultry 
yards. I shot one in Kedah in April 1895, which was 7' 9" 
long and 23" in girth. Four species of Geckoes or 
house lizards are very common in Bangkok, Gecko verticilla- 



Notes on the Fauna of Si am. 



tus (Latir.), PinUfl ( to k a y)> grows to 12* in length and is well 

known from its loud voice ; the other species are collectively called 

K 

^O^fl (ching-chok), and are from 4| to 5 inches long when 

full grown ; they are of great service to man in eating scores of 
insects which enter the houses. It may be as well to mention here 
as some people are afraid of these useful, cheerful little creatures 
that all these lizards are perfectly harmless and though the Tokay 
can bite hard it is perfectly innocent from poison. Other lizards 
to mention are the Changeable Garden Lizard, Calotes versicolor 

(Duad.), fl^m (kingkar), commonly called " chameleon," the agile 

Grass Lizard, Mabvia siamensis (G wither), ^ [\I\®\1 (ching-lane) r 
which loves the brightest sunhine, and the beautiful Flying Dra 
gons, Draco toeniopterics (Gunther), and D. maculatus {Cantor), var. 
Snakes haasii (Boe.stger), named after the late Dr. F. Haase. At the present 

day 56 species of snakes, Siamese <j (ngu), are known from Siam. 

Of these 12 species are poisonous, 4 of which, however, are sea- 
snakes, therefore the number of species of poisonous land snakes 
is only one-seventh of the total number, which small proportion 
compares very favourably with many other countries, as for 
instance Australia, where the poisonous species outnumber the 
harmless. The largest snake, and one free from poison but for- 
midable from its strength, is the Python, Python reticulatus 
(Schneid.), which reaches the length of 30 feet, small specimens 
of which are sometimes found in the heart of Bangkok On the 
*25th of May, 1897, a Python 9' 3" long appeared in the Palace and 
swallowed a pet cat whole. In contrast to the great python 
is the Earth-snake, Typhlops braminus ( Baud. ) which looks 
at first sight like a worm and seldom exceeds 6" in length ; 
though said by many natives to be " very deadly " it is really 
absolutely innocuous ; as also is the larger Earth-.-nake, Cylitidro- 
phis rufas ( Laur. ), also common in Bangkok, which reaches 30 
inches in length, and is coloured above black, beneath black and 
white and has a bright red mark both on the neck and tail, which 
so resembles the head that the snake is commonly credited with 
having a head at each end. Two other common harmless snakes 
may be mentioned, the Long-nosed Green Whip Snake, Dryophis 
mycterizans (L.), which grows over 4 feet long and is wonderfully 
slender and elegant, aud quiet, and gentle when handled ; and 
the Ornate Tree Snake, Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw), which is very 
common in Bangkok gardens, and enters houses in pursuit of 
'I okays which it attacks and swallows. The local variety grows 
to nearly 5 feet long and is very handsome, the head being 
lemon-yellow boldly cross-hatched with black, and the body and 
tail bright grass green, each scale marked with black ; it is very 
fierce and will bite without provocation but can do no harm to a 
human being. A rare snake, also harmless, which when caught 
should be bottled in spirits, being among the desiderata of every 



Notes on the Fauna of Siam. 



museum, is Eerpeton tentacuJatum (Lacep ), which frequents water 
and can at once be distinguished from every other known snake 
by two tentacles projecting forward from the snout. The poison- 
ous snakes most frequently met with are the Black Cobra, Naia 
Iripudians ( Merr. ), known by its dilatable hood, which grows 
to 6* feet long, and the green Viper, Lachesis gramineus ( Shaw ), 
which resembles the whip snake in colour but seldom exceeds 2 
feet in length, and has a flattened wicked-looking head somewhat 
resembling an ace of spades when seen from above. 
Batrachians. Of the Siamese Batrachians almost less is known than of 
the Reptiles, but progress has been made during recent years. 
The best known is the "Bull Frog," Callula pulchra {Gray), 

£M OKI (eung-ahng), a rotund creature about 3 inches in length 
with a brown back and a yellow stripe along each side, which is 
cursed by every one for the tremendous noise it makes at night 
after a rainy day, " eung-ahng, eung-ahng, eung-ahng," long 
drawn out in monotonous regularity, hour after hour. Microhyla 
oraata { D. & B. ) is a little frog less than an inch in length which 
produces an astounding volume of sound at certain times 

of the year in Bangkok. The large frog, f)JJ ( kop ), which is 
eaten by the Siamese is Raaa tiyr'ma ( Daud. ), well known in 
India. The seas and inland waters of Siam teem with fish, l]{H 
Fish. (p'a), large and small, eatable and the reverse. The most clebrated 

are the Fighting Fish, Betta pugnax {Cantor), iJfll fiF) ( pla-kat), 
which are ofren kept in glass bowls in houses, the Archer Fish, 

Toxotes jacidator (Pallas), ljfl! l$0 ( plaseua ), which shoots 
insects with a drop of water, and the " Climbing Perch, " Anabas 
seandeus (Daliarff), which lives for a considerable period out of 
its natural element. 
Invertkbrates. The invertebrate animals of Siam present a great field for 
research Of the Molluscs or shell-fish much may be learnt from 
Dr. Fischer's "Catalogue des mollusques d'une partie de lTndo- 
Chine," published in 1891. The number of species of insects 
already known is very great, but much remains to be done. The 
late Dr. F. Haase formed a fine collection of the butterflies, which 
as in other parts of S. E. Asia are very numerous and beautiful. 
The great Atlas Moth is common, often flying into Bangkok houses 
at night, as does also the noisy black Rhinoceros beetle, so 
destructive to coconut palms : ants and termites (white ants) 
abound ; other noteworthy insects are the fire- fly, praying mantis, 
stick-insect, fighting cricket, and a great water bug, Belostoma, 

which is eaten as a delicacy. The large red centipedes, PlSlllJ 
(ta-kharp), are common and have a poisonous bite, but it is useful 
to know that the millipedes, Tl^flQ (king-keu), which are far 
more often met with, are perfectly harmless. A species of 



Notes on the Fauna of Siam. 



millipede, which is very numerous at Kosichang, can roll itself up 
into a ball and is sometimes called the " Tical," being about 
the size and shape of the coin The great black, hairy spider, 
often called " Tarantula," occurs in suitable localities in Siam ; 

the large house spider, Heterapoda, KWC1-3 WW ( meng-mum ), 
should be protected, as it does good service in destroying 
cockroaches. Several species of scorpion are found ; the 

big black one is called the Elephant scorpion, UW03 D0<] 3P4 
( meng-pong-chang ). Two species of King Crabs, Limiting, 

Is 

ILWQ<3 01 Ml ( meng-dah-nam ) are found in the Gulf, and 
both they and their eggs are eaten for food. The rivers and 
ponds as well aB the sea abound in crabs and prawns. 
Finally the Siamese star-fish, leeches, worms, jelly-fish, 
sea-anemones, sponges and other simpler animals must 
perforce wait to be studied till more is known of the larger 
things higher in the scale. 



TREATIES 



BETWEEN 



SIAM and THE POWERS. 



10 Treaties. England — Siam (1855). 

TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND COMMERCE 
BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND SiAM. 



SIGNED AT BANGKOK, APKIL 18th, 1855. 
[^Ratifications Exchanged at Bangkok, April 5, 1856.] 

AET. I. — There shall henceforward be perpetual peace and friendship 
between Their Majesties the First and Second Kings of Siam, and their 
successors, and Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
her successors. All British subjects coming to Siam shall receive from 
the Siamese Government full protection and assistance to enable them to 
reside in Siam in all security, and trade with every facility, free from 
oppression or injury on the part of the Siamese ; and all Siamese subjects 
going to an English country shall receive from the British Government 
the same complete protection and assistance that shall be granted to 
British subjects by the Government of Siam. 

ABT. II. — The interests of all British subjects coming to Siam shall 
be placed under the regulation and control of a Consul, who will be 
appointed to reside at Bangkok. He will himself conform to, and will 
enforce the observance, by British subjects, of all the provisions of this 
Treaty, and such of the former Treaty negotiated by Captain Burney in 
1826 as shall still remain in operation. He shall also give effect to all 
rules or regulations that are now or may hereafter be enacted for the 
government of British subjects in Siam, the conduct of their trade, and 
for the prevention of violations of the laws of Siam. Any disputes arising 
between British and Siamese subjects shall be heard and determined by 
the Consul in conjunction with the proper Siamese officers ; and criminal 
offences will be punished, in the case of English offenders, by the Consul, 
according to English laws, and in the case of Siamese offenders, by their 
own laws, through the Siamese authorities. But the Consul shall not 
interfere in any matters referring solely to Siamese, neither will the 
Siamese authorities interfere in questions which only concern the subjects 
of Her Britannic Majesty. 

It is understood, however, that the arrival of the British Consul at 
Bangkok shall not take place before the ratification of this Treaty, nor 
until ten vessels owned by British subjects, sailing under British colours 
and with British papers, shall have entered the port of Bangkok for 
purposes of trade, subsequent to the signing of this Treaty. 

AKT. III. — If Siamese in the employ of British subjects, offend 
against the laws of their country, or if any Siamese having so offended or 
desiring to desert, take refuge with a British subject in Siam, they shall 
be searched for, and upon proof of their guilt or desertion, shall be 
delivered up by the Consul to the Siamese authorities. In like manner, 
any British offenders resident or trading in Siam, who may desert, escape 



Treaties. England— Siam (1855). 11 



to or hide themselves in Siamese territory, shall be apprehended and 
delivered over to the British Consul on his requisition. Chinese, not able 
to prove themselves to be British subjects, shall not be considered as such 
by the British Consul, nor be entitled to his protection. 

AET. IV. — British subjects are permitted to trade freely in all the 
seaports of Siam, but may reside permanently only at Bangkok, or within 
the limits assigned by this Treaty. British subjects coming to reside at 
Bangkok, may rent land, and buy or build houses, but cannot purchase 
lands within a circuit of 200 sen (not more than four miles English) from 
the city walls, until they shall have lived in Siam for ten years, or shall 
obtain special authority from the Siamese Government to enable them to 
do so. But with the exception of this limitation, British residents in 
Siam may at any time buy or rent houses, lands, or plantations, situated 
anywhere within a distance of 24 hours' journey from the city of Bangkok, 
to be computed by the rate at which boats of the country can travel. In 
order to obtain possession of such lands or houses, it will be necessary 
that the British subject shall, in the first place, make application through 
the Consul to the proper Siamese officer ; and the Siamese officer and the 
Consul having satisfied themselves of the honest intentions of the 
applicant, will assist him in settling, upon equitable terms, the amount of 
the purchase money, will mark out and fix the boundaries of the property, 
and will convey the same to the British purchaser under sealed deeds. 
Whereupon he and his property shall be placed under the protection of 
the Governor of the district, and that of the particular local authorities ; 
he shall conform, in ordinary matters, to any just directions given him by 
them, and will be subject to the same taxation that is levied on Siamese 
subjects. But if, .through negligence, the want of capital, or other cause, 
a British subject should fail to commence the cultivation or improvement 
of the lands so acquired within a term of three years from the date of 
receiving possession thereof, the Siamese Government shall have the 
power of resuming the property, upon returning to the British subject 
the purchase money paid by him for the same-. 

AET. V. — All British subjects intending to reside in Siam shall be 
registered at the British Consulate. They shall not go out to sea, nor 
proceed beyond the limits assigned by this Treaty for the residence of 
British subjects, without a passport from the Siamese authorities, to be 
applied for by the British Consul ; nor shall thuy leave Siam, if the 
Siamese authorities show to the British Consul that legitimate objections 
exist to their quitting the country. But within the limits appointed 
under the preceding Article, British subjects are at liberty to travel to 
and fro under the protection of a pass, to be furnished them by the 
British Consul, and counter-sealed by the proper Siamese officer, stating 
in the Siamese character their names, calling and description. The 
Siamese officers at the Government stations in the interior may, at any 
time, call for the production of this pass, and immediately on its being 
exhibited, they must allow the parties to proceed ; but it will be their duty 
to detain those persons who, by travelling without a pass from the Consul, 
render themselves liable to the suspicion of their being deserters ; and 
such detention shall be immediately reported to the Consul. 



12 Treaties. England — Siam (1855). 



AET. VI. — All British subjects visiting or residing in Siam, shall be 
allowed the free exercise of the Christian religion, and liberty to build 
churches in such localities as shall be consented to by the Siamese 
authorities. The Siamese Government will place no restrictions upon 
the employment by the English of Siamese subjects as servants, or in any 
other capacity. But wherever a Siamese subject belongs or owes service 
to some particular master, the servant who engages himself to a British 
subject, without the consent of his master, may be reclaimed by him ; and 
the Siamese Government will not enforce an agreement between a British 
subject and any Siamese in his employ, unless made with the knowledge 
and consent of the master, who has a right to dispose of the services of 
the person engaged. 

AET. VII. — British ships of war may enter the river, and anchor at 
Paknam, but they shall not proceed above Paknam, unless with the 
consent of the Siamese authorities, which shall be given where it is 
necessary that a ship shall go into dock for repairs. Any British ship of 
war conveying to Siam a public functionary accredited by Her Majesty's 
Government to the Court of Bangkok, shall be allowed to come up to 
Bangkok, but shall not pass the forts called Pong-Phrachamit and Pit- 
Pachanuck, unless expressly permitted to do so by the Siamese Govern- 
ment ; but in the absence of a British ship of war the Siamese authorities 
engage to furnish the Consul with a force sufficient to enable him to give 
effect to his authority over British subjects, and to enforce discipline 
among British shipping. 

AET. VIII. — The measurement duty hitherto paid by British vessels 
trading to Bangkok, under the Treaty of 1826, shall be abolished from the 
date of this Treaty coming into operation ; and British shipping and trade 
will thenceforth be only subject to the payment of import and export 
duties on the goods landed or shipped. 

On all articles of import the duties shall be three per cent., payable 
at the option of the importer, either in kind or money, calculated upon 
the market value of the goods. Drawback of the full amount of duty shall 
be allowed upon goods found unsaleable and re-exported. Should the 
British merchant and the Custom House Officers disagree as to the value 
to be set upon imported articles, such disputes shall be referred to the 
Consul and proper Siamese Officer, who shall each have the power to call 
in an equal number of merchants as assessors, not exceeding two on either 
side, to assist them in coming to an equitable decision. 

Opium may be imported free of duty, but can only be sold to the 
opium farmer or his agents. In the event of no arrangement being 
effected with them for sale of the opium, it shall be re-exported, and no 
impost or duty shall be levied thereon. Any infringement of this regula- 
tion shall subject the opium to seizure and confiscation. 

Articles of export from the time of production to the date of shipment 
shall pay one impost only, whether this be levied under the name of 
inland tax, transit duty, or duty on exportation. The tax or duty to be 
paid on each article of Siamese produce, previous to or upon exportation, 
is specified in the Tariff attached to this Treaty ; and it is distinctly agreed 



Treaties. England — Siam (1855). 13 



that goods or produce which pay any description of tax in the interior 
shall be exempted from any further payment of duty on exportation. 

English merchants are to be allowed to purchase directly from the 
producer the articles in which they trade, and in like manner to sell their 
goods directly to the parties wishing to purchase the same, without the 
interference, in either case, of any other person. 

The rates of duty laid down in the Tariff attached to this Treaty are 
those that are now paid upon goods or produce shipped in Siamese or 
Chinese vessels or junks ; and it is agreed that British shipping shall 
enjoy all the privileges now exercised by, or which hereafter may be 
granted to, Siamese or Chinese vessels or junks. 

British subjects will be allowed to build ships in Siam on obtaining 
permission to do so from the Siamese authorities. 

Whenever a scarcity may be apprehended of Salt, Kice, and Fish, 
the Siamese Government reserve to themselves the right of prohibiting, 
by public proclamation, the exportation of those articles. 

Bullion, or personal effects, may be imported or exported free of 
charge. 

AET. IX. — The Code of ^Regulations appended to this Treaty shall 
be enforced by the Consul, with the co-operation of the Siamese authori- 
ties ; and they, the said authorities and Consul, shall be enabled to 
introduce any further regulations which may be found necessary in order 
to give effect to the objects of this Treaty. 

All fines and penalties inflicted for infraction of the provisions and 
regulations of this Treaty shall be paid to the Siamese Government. 

Until the British Consul shall arrive at Bangkok, and enter upon his 
functions, the consignees of British vessels shall be at liberty to settle 
with the Siamese authorities all questions relating to their trade. 

AET. X. — The British Government and its subjects will be allowed 
free and equal participation is any privileges that may have been, or may 
hereafter be, granted by the Siamese Government to the Government or 
subjects of any other nation. 

AET. XL — After the lapse of ten years from the date of the ratifica- 
tion of this Treaty, upon the desire of either the Siamese or the British 
Government, and on twelve months' notice given by either party, the 
present and such portions of the Treaty of 1826 as remain unrevoked by 
this Treaty, together with the Tariff and Eegulations hereunto annexed, 
or those that may hereafter be introduced, shall be subject to revision by 
Commissioners appointed on both sides for this purpose, who will be 
errrpowered to decide on and insert therein such amendments as experience 
shall prove to be desirable. 

AET. XII. — This Treaty, executed in English and Siamese, both 
versions having the same meaning and intention, and the ratifications 
thereof having been previously exchanged, shall take effect from the 
sixth day of April in the year 1856 of the Christian era, corresponding to- 
the first day of the fifth month of the 1218th year of the Siamese Civil era.. 



14 Treaties. England — Siam (1855) 



In witness whereof the above-named plenipotentiaries have signed 
and sealed the present Treaty in quadruplicate at Bangkok, on the 18th 
day of April in the year 1855 of the Christian era, corresponding to the 
second day of the sixth month of the 1217th year of the Siamese Civil era. 



GENEEAL EEGULATIONS UNDEE WHICH BEITISH TEADE 
IS TO BE CONDUCTED IN SIAM. 

EEGULATION I. — The master of every English ship coming to 
Bangkok to trade, must, either before or after entering the river, as may 
be found convenient, report the arrival of his vessel at the Custom House 
at Paknam, together with the number of his crew and guns, and the port 
from whence he comes. Upon anchoring his vessel at Paknam, he will 
deliver into the custody of the Custom House Officers all his guns and 
ammunition ; and a Custom House Officer will then be appointed to the 
vessel, and will proceed in her to Bangkok. 

EEGULATION II. — A vessel passing Paknam without discharging 
her guns and ammunition as directed in the foregoing regulation, will be 
sent back to Paknam to comply with its provisions, and will be fined 
800 Ticals for having so disobeyed. After delivery of her guns and 
ammunition she will be permitted to return to Bangkok to trade. 

EEGULATION III.— When a British vessel shall have cast anchor 
at Bangkok, the master, unless a Sunday should intervene, will, within 24 
hours after arrival, proceed to the British Consulate, and deposit there his 
ship's papers, bills of lading, &c, together with a true manifest of his 
import cargo ; and upon the Consul's reporting these particulars to the 
Custom-House, permission to break bulk will at once be given by the 
latter. 

For neglecting so to report his arrival, or for presenting a false 
manifest, the master will subject himself, in each instance, to a penalty 
of 400 Ticals; but he will be allowed to correct, within 24 hours after 
delivery of it to the Consul, any mistake he may discover in his manifest, 
without incurring the above-mentioned penalty. 

EEGULATION IV. — A British vessel breaking bulk, and commenc- 
ing to discharge before due permission shall be obtained, or smuggling 
either when in the river or outside the bar, shall be subject to the penalty 
of 800 Ticals, and confiscation of the goods so smuggled or discharged. 

EEGULATION V.— As soon as a British vessel shall have discharged 
her cargo, and completed her outward lading, paid all her duties, and 
delivered a true manifest of her outward cargo to the British Consul, a 
Siamese port clearance shall be granted her on application from the 
Consul, who, in the absence of any legal impediment to her departure, 
will then return to the master his ship's papers, and allow the vessel to 
leave. A Custom House Officer will accompany the vessel to Paknam, 



Treaties. England — Siam (1855). 



15 



^nd on arriving there she will be inspected by the Custom House Officers 
of that station, and will receive from them the guns* and ammunition 
previously delivered into their charge. 

REGULATION VI.— Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary 
having no knowledge of the Siamese language, the Siamese Government 
have agreed that the English text of these Regulations, together with the 
Treaty of which they form a portion, and the Tariff hereunto annexed, 
shall be accepted as conveying in every respect their true meaning and 
intention. 

(Signatures and seals of the five Siamese Plenipotentiaries.) 

( L. S. ) JOHN BOWRING. 

* The removal and return of guns to foreign ships was so very inconvenient to the 
Siamese Government that since 1st January 1868 the officials at Paknam only take custody 
of the ammunition of the vessels, and that only in case any large quantity is on board. 



TARIFF OF EXPORT AND INLAND DUTIES TO BE 
LEVIED ON ARTICLES OF TRADE. 

SECTION I. — The undermentioned Articles shall be entirely free 
ifrom Inland or other Taxes, on production or transit, and shall pay 
Export Duty as follows : — 

Ticals. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 



Ivory 10 

Gamboge 6 

Rhinoceros horns 50 

Cardamums, best 14 

Cardamums, bastard 6 

Dried Mussels 1 

Pelicans' Quills 2 

Betelnut, dried 1 

Krachi wood 

Sharks' fins, white 6 

Ditto, black 3 

Lukkrabau seed 

Peacocks' tails 10 

Buffalo and cow bones 



Rhinoceros hides 

Hide cuttings 

Turtle shells 1 

Soft ditto 1 

Beche de mer 3 

Fish maws 3 

Birds' nests, uncleaned 20 per cent. 

Kingfishers' feathers 6 

Cutch 2 

Beche seed (Nux Vomica) 2 

Pungtarai seed 2 



Salung. 






2 

o 



2 


2 

i 








Fuan^ 















Per picul 



Per 100 tails 
3/4 Per picul 









Per 100 
Per picul 



16 Treaties. England — Siam (1855). 



Ticals. Salung. Fuang. 

•26. Gum benjamin 4 Per picul 

27. Angrai bark 2 G ,, 

28. Agilla wood 2 

29. Ray skins 3 

30. Old deers' horns 1 

31. Soft, or young ditto 10 per cent. 

32. Deer hides, fine 8 per 100 hides 

33. Ditto, common 3 

34. Deer sinews 4 Per picul 

35. Buffalo and cow hides 1 ,, 

36. Elephants' bones 1 

37. Tigers' bones 5 0,, 

38. Buffalo horns 1 

39. Elephants' hides 1 

40. Tigers' skins 1 Per skin 

41. Armadillo skins 4 Per picul 

42. Sticklac 1 1 

43. Hemp 1 2 

44. Dried fish, Plahaang 1 2 

45. Ditto, Plasalit 1 

46. Sapan wood 2 1 „ 

47. Salt meat 2 

48. Mangrove bark 1 

49. Rosewood 2 

50. Ebony 1 1 

51. Rice 4 Per koyan 

SECTION II. — The undermentioned Articles, being subject to the 
Inland or Transit Duties herein named, and which shall not be increased, 
shall be exempt from Export Duty : — 

52. Sugar, white 2 Per picul 

53. Ditto, red '.. 10 

54. Cotton, clean and uncleaned ... 10 per cent. 

55. Pepper 10 

56. Salt fish, plat'u 10 Per 10,000 fish 

57. Beans and peas One-twelfth. 

58. Dried Prawns One-twelfth. 

59. Tilseed One-twelfth. 

60. Silk, raw One-twelfth. 

61. Bees'-wax One-fifteenth. 

62. Tallow 10 Per picul 

63. Salt 6 Per koyan 

64. Tobacco 1 2 Per 1,000 bundles 

SECTION III. — All goods or produce unenumerated in this Tariff 
shall be free of Export Duty, and shall only be subject to one Inland Tax 
or Transit Duty, not exceeding the rate now paid. 

(Signature and seals of the five Siamese Plenipotentiaries.) 
(L. S.) JOHN BOWRING. 



Treaties. England— Siam, (1856), 17 

AGREEMENT SUPPLEMENTARY TO 
TREATY OF 1855. 

[SIGNED AT BANGKOK, MAY 13, 1856.] 



Agreement entered into between the undermentioned Royal Commis-. 
sioners on the part of their Majesties the First and Second Kings of Siam,, 
and Harry Smith Parkes, Esquire, on the part of Her Britannic- 
Majesty's Government. 

Preamble. 

Mr. Parkes having stated, on his arrival at Bangkok, as bearer of Her- 
Britannic Majesty's Ratification of the Treaty of Friendship and Com- 
merce concluded on the 18th day of April, 1855, that he was instructed by 
the Earl of Clarendon, Her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, to request the Siamese Government to consent 
to an enumeration of those articles of the former Treaty, concluded in 
1826, between the Honorable East India Company and their late Majesties 
the First and Second Kings of Siam, which are abrogated by the Treaty 
firsl named, and also to agree to certain explanations which appear 
necessary to mark the precise force and application of certain portions of 
tbe new Treaty ; their Majesties the First and Second Kings of Siam have 
appointed and empowered certain Eoyal Commissioners, namely, His 
Royal Highness Krom Hluang Wongsah Dhiraj Snidh, and their Excel- 
lencies the four Senaputies or Principal Ministers of Siam, to confer and 
arrange with Mr. Parkes the matters above named ; and the said Royal 
Commissioners having accordingly met Mr. Parkes for this purpose on 
repeated occasions, and maturely considered all the subjects brought by 
him to their notice, have resolved : 

That it is proper, in order to prevent future controversy, that those 
clauses of the old Treaty which are abrogated by the new Treaty should 
be distinctly specified, and that any clause of the new Treaty which is not 
sufficiently clear, should be fully explained. To this end they have agreed 
to, and concluded, the following twelve Articles : — 

ART. 1. 

On the old Treaty Concluded in 1826. 

The Articles of the old Treaty not abrogated by the new Treaty are 
1, 2, 3, 8, 11, 12, 13, and 14, and the undermentioned clauses of Articles 6 
and 10. 

In Article 6, the Siamese desire to retain the following clause : 
" If a Siamese or English merchant buy or sell without inquiring and 
ascertaining whether the seller or buyer be of a good or bad character, and 



18 Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 



if he meet with a bad man who takes the property and absconds, the 
rulers and officers on either side must make search and endeavour to 
produce the property of the absconder, and investigate the matter with 
sincerity. If the party possess money or property, he can be made to pay ; 
but if he does not possess any, or if he cannot be apprehended, it will be 
the merchant's own fault, and the authorities cannot be held responsible." 

Of Article 10, Mr. Parkes desires to retain that clause relating to the 
overland trade which states : " Asiatic merchants of the English countries, 
not being Burmese, Peguans, or descendants of Europeans, desiring to 
enter into and to trade with the Siamese dominions, from the countries of 
Mergui, Tavoy, Tenasserim and Ye, which are now subject to the English, 
will be allowed to do so freely overland and by- water, upon the English 
furnishing them with proper certificates." 

Mr. Parkes, however, desires that all British subjects without excep- 
tion shall be allowed to participate in this overland trade. The said Royal 
Commissioners therefore agree, on the part of the Siamese, that all traders 
under British rule, may cross from the British territories of Mergui, 
Tavoy, Ye, Tenasserim, Pegu, or other places, by land or by water, to 
the Siamese territories, and may trade there with facility, on the condition 
that they shall be provided by the British authorities with proper certifi- 
cates, which must be renewed for each journey. 

The Commercial Agreement annexed to the old Treaty is abrogated 
by the new Treaty, with the exception of the under-mentioned clauses of 
Articles 1 and 4 : — 

Of Article 1, the Siamese desire to retain the following clause : — 

" British merchants importing fire-arms, shot, or gunpowder are 
prohibited from selling them to any party but the Government. Should 
the Government not require such fire-arms, shot, or gunpowder, the mer- 
chants must re-export the whole of them." 

Article 4 stipulates that no charge or duty shall be levied on boats 
carrying cargo to British ships at the bar. The Siamese desire to cancel 
this clause for the reason that the old measurement duty of 1,700 ticals 
per fathom included the fees of the various officers ; but as this measure- 
ment duty has now been abolished, the Siamese wish to levy on each 
native boat taking cargo out to sea a fee of 8 ticals, 2 sal'ungs, this being 
the charge paid by Siamese traders ; and Mr. Parkes undertakes to submit 
this point to the consideration of Her Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary 
to the Court of Siam. 

ART. 2. 

On the exclusive Jurisdiction of the Consul over British Subjects. 

The 2nd Article of the Treaty stipulates that : — " Any disputes 
arising between British and Siamese subjects shall be heard and deter- 
mined by the Consul in conjunction with the proper Siamese officer ; and 
criminal offenders will be punished, in the case of English offenders, by 



Treaties. England — Siam (1856). 19 



the Consul according to English laws, and in the case of Siamese offenders 
by their own laws through the Siamese authorities ; but the Consul shall 
not interfere in any matters referring solely to Siamese, neither will the 
Siamese authorities interfere in questions which only concern the subjects 
•of Her Britannic Majesty." 

On the non-interference of the Consul with the Siamese, or of Siamese 
with British subjects, the said Eoyal Commissioners desire in the first 
place to state that, while, for natural reasons, they fully approve of the 
Consul holding no jurisdiction over Siamese in their own country, the 
Siamese authorities, on the other hand, will feel themselves bound to call 
on the Consul to apprehend and punish British subjects who shall commit, 
whilst in Siamese territory, any grave infractions of the laws, such as 
•cutting, wounding, or inflicting other serious bodily harm. But in 
disputes or in offences of a slighter nature committed by British subjects 
among themselves, the Siamese authorities will refrain from all inter- 
ference. 

With reference to the punishment of offences, or the settlement of 
disputes, it is agreed : 

That all criminal cases, in which both parties are British subjects, or 
in which the defendant is a British subject, shall be tried and determined 
oy the British Consul alone. 

All criminal cases in which both parties are Siamese, or in which the 
defendant is a Siamese, shall be tried and determined by the Siamese 
■authorities alone. 

That all civil cases in which both parties are British subjects, or in 
which the defendant is a British subject, shall be heard and determined 
by the British Consul alone. All civil cases in which both parties are 
Siamese, or m which the defendant is a Siamese, shall be heard and 
•determined by the Siamese authorities alone. 

That whenever a British subject has to complain against a Siamese, 
he must make his complaint through the British Consul, who will lay it 
before the proper Siamese authorities. 

That in all cases in which Siamese or British subjects are interested, 
the Siamese authorities in the one case, and the British Consul in the 
•other, shall be at liberty to attend at and listen to the investigation of the 
case ; and copies of the proceedings will be furnished from time to time , 
or whenever desired, to the Consul or the Siamese authorities, until the 
-case is concluded. 

That although the Siamese may interfere so far with British subjects 
as to call upon the Consul, in the manner stated in this Article, to punish 
grave offences when committed by British subjects, it is agreed that : 

British subjects, their persons, houses, premises, lands, ships, or 
property of any kind, shall not be seized, injured, or in any way interfered 
with by the Siamese. In case of any violation of this stipulation, the 
Siamese authorities will take cognizance of the case and punish the 



20 Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 



offenders. On the other hand, Siamese subjects, their persons, houses,, 
premises, or property of any kind, shall not be seized, injured, or in any 
way interfered with by the English ; and the British Consul shall investi- 
gate and punish any breach of this stipulation, 

AET. 3. 
On the right of British Subjects to Dispose of their Property at Will. 

By the 4th Article of the Treaty, British subjects are allowed to. 
purchase in Siam " houses, gardens, fields, or plantations." It is agreed, 
in reference to this stipulation, that British subjects who have accordingly 
purchased houses, gardens, fields, or plantations, are at liberty to sell the 
same to whomsoever they please. In the event of a British subject dying 
in Siam, and leaving houses, lands, or other property, his relations, or 
those persons who are heirs according to English law, shall receive 
possession of the said property; and the British Consul, or someone 
appointed by the British Consul, may proceed at once to take charge of the 
said property on their account. If the deceased should have debts due to 
him by the Siamese, or other persons, the Consul can collect them ; and if 
the deceased should owe money, the Consul shall liquidate his debts as, 
far as the estate of the deceased shall suffice . 

AET. 4. 
On the Taxes, Duties, or other Charges Leviable on British Subjects. 

The 4th Article of the Treaty provides for the payment on the lands, 
held or purchased by British subjects, of " the same taxation that is levied 
on Siamese subjects." The taxes here alluded to are those set forth in 
the annexed schedule. 

Again, it is stated in the 8th Article, that " British subjects are to. 
pay import and export duties according to the Tariff annexed to the 
Treaty." For the sake of greater distinctness, it is necessary to add to 
these two clauses the following explanation, namely : — That beside the 
land tax, and the import and export duties, mentioned in the aforesaid 
Articles, no additional charge or tax of any kind may be imposed upon a 
British subject, unless it obtain the sanction both of the supreme Siamese 
authorities and the British Consul. 

AET. 5. 
On Passes and Port Clearances. 

The 5th Article of the Treaty provides that Passports shall be granted 
to travellers, and the 5th Article of the regulations that port clearances 
shall be furnished to ships. In reference thereto, the said Eoyal Com- 
missioners, at the request of Mr. Parkes, agree that the passports to be 
given to British subjects travelling beyond the limits assigned by the 
Treaty for the residence of British subjects, together with the passes for 



Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 21 



'cargo boats and the port clearances of British ships, shall be issued within 
twenty-four hours after formal application for the same shall have been 
made to the proper Siamese authorities. But if reasonable cause should at 
any time exist for delaying or withholding the issue of any of these papers, 
the Siamese authorities must at once communicate it to the Consul. 

Passports for British subjects travelling in the interior, and the port- 
' clearances of British ships, will be granted by the Siamese authorities free 
of charge. 

ART. 6. 

On the Prohibition of the Exportation of Rice, Salt, and Fish, 
and on the Duty on Paddy % . 

The 8th Article of the Treaty stipulates that " whenever a scarcity 
; may be apprehended of salt, rice and fish, the Siamese Government 
reserve to themselves the right of prohibiting by public proclamation the 
■exportation of these articles." 

Mr. Parkes, in elucidation of this clause, desires an agreement to this 
effect, namely : That a month's notice shall be given by the Siamese 
authorities to the Consul, prior to the enforcement of the prohibition ; and 
that British subjects who may previously obtain special permission from 
the Siamese authorities to export a certain quantity of rice which they 
have already purchased, may do so even after the prohibition comes in 
force. Mr. Parkes also requests that the export duty on paddy should be 
half of that on rice, namely, 2 ticals per koyan. 

The said Royal Commissioners, having in view the fact that rice 
forms the principal sustenance of the nation, stipulate that on the breaking 
out of war or rebellion, the Siamese may prohibit the trade in rice, and 
may enforce the prohibition so long as the hostilities thus occasioned shall 
•continue. If a dearth should be apprehended, on account of the want or 
excess of rain , the Consul will be informed one month previous to the 
enforcement of the prohibition. British merchants who obtain the Royal 
permission upon the issue of the proclamation, to export a certain quantity 
of rice which they have already purchased, may do so irrespective of the 
prohibition to the contrary ; but those merchants who do not obtain the 
Royal permission will not be allowed, when the prohibition takes effect, 
to export the rice they may already have purchased. 

The prohibition shall be removed as soon as the cause of its being 
imposed shall have ceased to exist. 

Paddy may be exported on payment of a duty of 2 ticals per koyan, 
-or half the amount levied on rice. 

ART. 7. 

On permission to import Gold Leaf as Bullion. 

Under the 8th Article of the Treaty, bullioa may be imported or 
exported free of charge. With reference to this, clause, the said Royal 
Commissioners, at the request of Mr. Parkes, agree that foreign coins of 



22 Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 



every denomination, gold and silver in bars or ingots, and gold leaf, may 
be imported free ; but manufactured articles in gold and silver, plated 
ware, and diamonds or other precious stones, must pay an import duty of 
3 per cent. 

ART. 8. 

On the establishment of a Custom House. 

The said Royal Commissioners, at the request of Mr. Parkes and in' 
conformity with the intent of the 8th Article of the new Treaty, agree to- 
the immediate establishment of a Custom House, under the superin- 
tendence of a high Government functionary, for the examination of all 
goods landed or shipped, and the receipt of the import and export duties 
due thereon. They further agree that the business of the Custom House 
shall be conducted under the regulations annexed to this Agreement. 

ART. 9. 

On the Subsequent Taxation of Articles now Free from Duty. 

Mr. Parkes agrees with the said Royal Commissioners that whenever 
the Siamese Government deem it to be beneficial for the country to 
impose a single tax or duty on any article not now subject to a public 
charge of any kind , they are at liberty to do so , provided that the said tax 
be just and reasonable. 

ART. 10. 

On the Boundaries of the Four-Mile Circuit. 

It is stipulated in the 4th Article of the Treaty, that " British subjects 
coming to reside at Bangkok, may rent land and buy or build houses, but 
cannot purchase lands within a circuit of 200 sen (not more than 4 miles 
English) from the City walls, until they shall have lived in Siam for ten 
years, or shall obtain special authority from the Siamese Government to 
enable them to do so." 

The points to which this circuit extends due north, south, east, and 
west of the City, and the spot where it crosses the river below Bangkok, 
have accordingly been measured by officers on the part of the Siamese 
and English ; and their measurements, having been examined and agreed 
to by the said Royal Commissioners and Mr. Parkes, are marked by stone 
pillars placed at the undermentioned localities, viz. : 

On the North. — One sen north of Wat Kemabirataram. 
On the East. — 6 sen and 7 fathoms south-west of Wat Bangkapi. 
On the South. — About 19 sen south of the village of Bangpakeo. 
On the West. — About 2 sen south-west of the village of Bangphrom. 

The pillars marking the spot where the circuit line crosses the river 
below Bangkok are placed on the left bank, 3 sen below the village of 
Bangmanau, and on the right bank about 1 sen below the village of. 
Banglampuluen. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 23 

ART. 11. 

On the Boundaries of the Twenty-four Hours' Journey. 

It is stipulated in Article 4 of the Treaty, that "excepting within 
the circuit of four miles, British merchants in Siam may at any time buy 
or rent houses, lands, or plantations, situated anywhere within a distance 
of 24 hours' journey from the City of Bangkok, to be computed by the 
rate at which boats of the country can travel." 

The said Eoyal Commissioners and Mr. Parkes have consulted 
together on this subject, and have agreed that' the boundaries of the said 
twenty-four hours' journey shall be as follows : — 

1. On the North. — The Bang-puts 'ah Canal, from its mouth on the 
Chao Phya Eiver, to the old city walls of Lophburi, and a straight line 
from Lophburi to the landing-place of Tha Phrangam near to the town of 
Sara'buri on the Eiver Pasak. 

2. On the East. — A straight line drawn from the landing place of 
Tha Phrangam to the junction of the Klongk'ut Canal with the Bang- 
pakong Eiver ; the Bangpakong Eiver from the junction of the Klongk'ut 
Canal to its mouth ; and the coast from the mouth of the Bangpakong 
Eiver, to the isle of Srimaharajah, to such distance inland as can be 
reached within 24 hours' journey from Bangkok. 

3. On the South. — The isle of Srimaharajah and the islands of Se- 
Chang, on the east side of the Gulf ; and the city walls of Petchaburi, on 
the west side. 

, 4. On the West. — The western coast of the Gulf to the mouth of 
the Meklong Eiver, to such a distance inland as can be reached within 
•24 hours' journey from Bangkok; the Meklong Eiver, from its mouth to 
the city walls of Eajburi ; a straight line from the city walls of Eajburi to 
the town of Suphanaburi ; and a straight line from the town of Suphana- 
buri to the mouth of the Bangp'utsah Canal, on the Chow Phya Eiver. 

AET. 12. 
On the Incorporation in the Treaty of this Agreement. 

The said Eoyal Commissioners agree, on the part of the Siamese 
Government, to incorporate all the Articles of this Agreement in the 
Treaty concluded by the Siamese Plenipotentiaries and Sir John Bowing, 
on the 18th April, 1855, whenever this shall be desired by Her Britannic 
Majesty's Plenipotentiary. 

In witness whereof, the said Eoyal Commissioners, and the said 
Harry Smith Parkes, have sealed and signed this Agreement in duplicate, 
at Bangkok, on the 13th day of May in the year 1856 of the Christian era. 



34 Treaties. England — Siam (1856). 

SCHEDULE OF TAXES 

On Garden-ground, Plantations, or other Lands. 

SECTION 1. — Trenched or raised lands planted with the following 
; 3 sorts of fruit-trees are subject to the long assessment, which is calculated 
on the trees grown on the land, and not on the land itself ; and the amount 
to be collected annually by the proper officers, and paid by them into the 
Eoyal Treasury, is endorsed on the title-deeds or official certificate of 
tenure. 

1. Betel-nut trees, of which there are five classes, pay according to 
:size from 50 to 138 cowries per tree. 

2. Cocoa-nut trees, from 1 sok and upwards in height of stem, pay 
per 3 trees ... 1 salung. 

3. Siri vines, all sizes (from 5 sok in height and upwards, pay per 
'tree or pole when trained on tunglang trees ... 200 cowries. 

4. Mango trees, stem of 4 kam in circumference at the height of 
3 sok from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per tree ... 1 
fuang. 

5. May rang trees are assessed at the same rate as mango trees. 

6. Durian trees, stem of 4 kam in circumference at the height of 
'3 sok from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per tree ... 1 
tical. 

7. Mangosteen trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference at the height 
■of 1^ sok from the ground, pay per tree ... 1 fuang. 

8. Langsat trees are assessed at the same rate as Mangosteen trees. 

Note. — The long assessment is made under ordinary circumstances 
■once only in each reign, and plantations or lands having been once 
assessed at the above-mentioned rates, continue to pay the same annual 
: sum, which is endorsed on the official certificate of tenure (subject to 
remissions granted in case of the destruction of the trees by drought or 
-flood) until the next assessment is made, regardless of the new trees that 
may have been planted in the interval, or the old trees that may have 
died off. When the time for a new assessment arrives, a fresh account of 
■the trees is taken, those that have died since the former one being omitted, 
•and those that have been newly planted being inserted, provided they have 
obtained the above-stated dimensions ; otherwise they are free of charge. 

SECTION 2. — Trenched or raised lands planted with the following 
eight sorts of fruit-trees are subject to an annual assessment, calculated 
on the trees grown on the lands, in the following manner, that is to say : 

1. Orange trees, five kinds, stem of 6 ngiu in circumference close to 
the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per 10 trees ... 1 fuang. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 25 



All other kinds of orange trees of the same size as the above, pay per 
15 trees ... 1 fuang. 

2. Jack-fruit trees, stem of 6 kam in circumference, at the height of 
2 sok from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per 15 trees 
... 1 fuang. 

3. Bread-fruit trees are assessed at the same rate as jack-fruit trees. 

4. Mak Fai trees, stem of 4 kam in circumference, at the height of 
2 sok from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per 12 trees 
... 1 fuang. 

5. Guava trees, stem of 2 kam in circumference, at the height of 

1 kub from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per 12 trees 
... 1 fuang. 

6. Saton trees, stem of 6 kam in circumference, at the height of 2 
sok from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per 5 trees ... 1 
fuang. 

7. Rambutan trees, stem of 4 kam in circumference, at the height of 

2 sok from the ground, or from that size and upwards, pay per 5 trees ... 1 
fuang. 

8. Pine apples pay per 1,000 plants ... 1 sailing. 

SECTION 3. — The following six kinds of fruit trees, when planted 
in trenched or untrenched lands or in any other manner than as planta- 
tions subject to the long assessment described in Section 1, are assessed 
annually at the undermentioned rates : — 

Mangoes 1 fuang per tree. 

Tamarinds 1 do. ,, 2 trees. 



Custard Apples 1 do. 

Plantains 1 do. 

Siri Vines (trained on poles) 1 do. 

Pepper Vines 1 do. 



20 trees. 

50 roots. 

12 vines. 

12 vines. 



SECTION 4. — Trenched or raised lands planted with annuals of all 
sorts pay a land tax of 1 sailing and 1 fuang per rai for each crop. 

An annual fee of 3 sailing and 1 fuang is also charged by the Nairo- 
wang (or local tax collector) for each lot or holding of trenched land of 
which an official title or certificate of tenure has been taken out. 

When held under the long assessment and planted with the eight 
sorts of fruit-trees described in Section 1, the annual fee paid to the 
Nairowang for each lot or holding of trenched land for which an official 
title or certificate of tenure has been taken out, is 2 salungs. 

SECTION 5. — Untrenched or low lands, planted with annuals of all 
sorts, pay a land tax of 1 salung and 1 fuang per rai for each crop. 

No land tax is levied on these lands if left uncultivated. 

Sixty cowries per tical are levied as expenses of testing the quality of 
the silver on all sums paid as taxes under the long assessment. Taxes 
paid under the annual assessment are exempted from this charge. 

Lands having once paid a tax according to one or other of the above- 
mentioned rates, are entirely free from all other taxes or charges, 



26 Treaties. England— Siam (1856). 



CUSTOMS-HOUSE REGULATIONS 



1. A Custom-House is to be built at Bangkok, near to the anchorage, 
and officers must be in attendance there between 9 a.m.. and 3 p.m. The 
business of the Custom-House must be carried on between those hours. 
The tide-waiters required to superintend the landing or shipment of goods 
will remain in waiting for that purpose from daylight until dark. 

2. Subordinate Custom-House officers shall be appointed to each 
ship ; their number shall not be limited , and they may remain on board 
the vessel or in boats alongside. The Custom-House officers appointed to 
the vessels outside the bar will have the option of residing on board the 
ships, or of accompanying the cargo-boats on their passage to and fro. 

3. The landing, shipment, or transhipment of goods may be carried 
on only between sunrise and sunset. 

4. All cargo landed or shipped shall be examined and passed by the 
Custom-House officers within twelve hours of daylight, after the receipt 
at the Custom-House of the proper application. The manner in which 
such application and examination is to be made shall be settled by the 
Consul and the Superintendent of Customs. 

5. Duties may be paid by British merchants in ticals, foreign coin, 
or bullion, the relative values of which will be settled by the Consul and 
the proper Siamese officers. The Siamese will appoint whomsoever they 
may please to receive payment of the duties. 

6. The Receiver of duties may take from the merchants two salung 
per catty of 80 ticals for testing the money paid to him as duties ; and for 
each stamped receipt given to him for duties he may charge six salungs. 

7. Both the Superintendent of Customs and the British Consul shall 
be provided with sealed sets of balance yards, money weights, and 
measures, which may be referred to in the event of any difference arising,, 
with the merchants as to the weight or dimensions of money or goods.. 

(Signed) etc., etc. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1868). 27 



CONVENTION between the King of Siam and the Governor-General of 
India, defining the Boundary on the Mainland between the Kingdom 
of Siam and the British Province of Tenasserim. — Signed at Bangkok, 
February 8, 1868. 

[ Ratifications exchanged at Bangkok, July 3, 1868. ] 

Chow Phya Sri Sury Wongse thi Samuha Phra Kalahome, Prime 
Minister, President of the Western and South-Western Provinces ; and 
Chow Phya Phutarapie thi Samuha Na Yoke, President of the Northern 
and North-Western Provinces, with full powers from his Majesty the 
King of Siam, on the one part ; and 

Lieutenant Arthur Herbert Bagge, Eoyal Engineers, Her Britannic 
Majesty's Commissioner, with powers from his Excellency the Right 
Honourable Sir John Lawrence, Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 
on the other part ; have unanimously agreed to this Convention regarding 
the boundaries on the mainland between the Kingdom of Siam and the 
British Province of Tenasserim ; to wit : 

On the north of the channel of the River Maymuey (Siamese), or 
Thoungyeng (Burmese) up to its source in the Pa-wan range of mountains, 
the eastern or right bank of the said river being regarded as Siamese 
territory, and the western or left bank being regarded as English territory. 
Then along the Pa-wan range to the main watershed, and along it to Kow 
Kradook Moo, or Moogadok Toung, in the Province of Theethawat. Here 
the boundary line crosses the valleys of the Houngdrau and Maygathat 
Rivers, in almost a straight line, and meets the main watershed near the 
common source of the Phabesa and Krata Rivers. From this point it 
runs down the central range of mountains which forms the main watershed 
of the peninsula as far as Khow Htam Dayn, in the district of Champon, 
thence along the range known as Khow Dayn Yai, as far as the source of 
the Kra-na-ey stream, which it follows to its junction with the Pakchan ; 
thence down the Pakchan River to its mouth ; the west or right bank 
belonging to the British, the eastern or left bank belonging to the Siamese. 

With regard to the islands in the River Pakchan, those nearest to the 
English bank are to belong to the English, and those nearest to the 
Siamese bank are to belong to the Siamese, excepting the Island of Kwan, 
off Maleewan, which is Siamese property. 

The whole of the western bank of the River Pakchan down to Victoria 
Point shall belong to the British, and the eastern bank throughout shall 
belong to Siam. 

This agreement, written both in Siamese and English, shall fix the 
boundary line between the Kingdom of Siam and the British Province of 
Tenasserim for ever. 



28 Treaties. England— Siam (1868). 



A tabular statement is attached to this agreement, in which the 
various boundary marks in the valleys and along the mountain ranges are 
specified, together with their geographical positions. 

Within the term of six months from the date of this Agreement, Her 
Britannic Majesty's Commissioners shall forward two maps, which shall 
be compared with the present map, now signed and sealed, showing the 
boundary in a red line. Should the two maps be found correct, the 
Siamese and British Governments shall ratify the same. 

Signed and sealed by the respective Commissioners, at Bangkok, 'on 
Saturday, the 15th day of the waxing moon, the year of Kabbit, the 9th of 
the decade, Siamese Civil era 1229, corresponding with the 8th day of 
February, 1868, of the Christian era. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1883). 29 



TREATY OF 1883 



Treaty between His Majesty the King of Siam and Her Majesty the 
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for 
the prevention of crime in the Territories of Chiengmai, Lakon, 
and Lampoonchi, and for the promotion of commerce between 
British Burmah and the Territories aforesaid. — Signed at 
Bangkok, September 3, 1883. 

[Eatifications Exchanged May 7, 1884.] 

ART. I. — The Treaty between the v Government of His Majesty the 
King of Siam and the Government of India, bearing date the 14th 
January, 1874, shall be and is hereby abrogated. 

ART. II. — The Siamese authorities in Chiengmai, Lakon, and 
Lampoonchi will afford due assistance and protection to British subjects 
carrying on trade or business in any of those territories ; and the British 
Government in India will afford similar assistance and protection to 
Siamese subjects from Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi carrying on 
trade or business in British territory. 

ART. III. — British subjects entering Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lam- 
poonchi must provide themselves with passports from the Chief Com- 
missioner of British Burmah, or such officer as he appoints in his behalf, 
stating their names, calling, and the weapons they carry, and description. 

Such passports must be renewed for each journey, and must be shown 
to the Siamese officers at the frontier stations, or in the interior of 
Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi on demand. Persons provided with 
passports and not carrying any articles prohibited under the Treaty of the 
18th April, 1855, or the Supplementary Agreement of the 13th May, 1856, 
shall be allowed to proceed on their journey without interference ; "persons 
unprovided with passports may be turned back to the frontier, but shall 
not be subjected to further interference. 

Passports may also be granted by Her Majesty's Consul-General at 
Bangkok and by Her Majesty's Consul or Vice-Consul at Chiengmai, in 
case of the loss of the original passport or of the expiration of the term 
for which it may have been granted, and other analogous cases. 

British subjects travelling in the Siamese territory must be provided 
with passports from the Siamese authorities. 

Siamese subjects going from Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi 
into British Burmah must provide themselves with passports from the 
authorities of Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi respectively, stating 
their name, calling, description, and the weapons they carry. 



30 Treaties. England— Siam (18S3). 



Such passports must be renewed for each journey, and must be shown 
to the British officer at the frontier stations or in the interior of British 
Burmah on demand. Persons provided with passports and not carrying 
any prohibited article, shall be allowed to proceed on their journey without 
interference ; persons unprovided with passports may be turned back at 
the frontier, but shall not be subjected to further interference. 

AET. IV. — British subjects entering Siamese territory from British 
Burmah must, according to custom and the regulations of the country, pay 
the duties lawfully prescribed on goods liable to such duty. 

Siamese subjects entering British territory will be liable, according to 
the regulations of the British Government, to pay the duties lawfully 
prescribed on goods liable to such duty. 

Tables of such duties shall be published for general .information. 

AET. V.— His Majesty the King of Siam will cause the Prince of 
Chiengmai to establish and maintain guard stations, under proper officers, 
on the Siamese bank of the Sal ween Biver, which forms the boundary of 
Chiengmai belonging to Siam, and to maintain a sufficient police force for 
the prevention of murder, robbery, dacoity, and other crimes of violence. 

AET. VI. — If any person accused or convicted of murder, robbery, 
dacoity, or other heinous crime in any of the territories of Chiengmai, 
Lakon, and Lampoonchi, escape into British territory, the British 
authorities and police shall use their best endeavours to apprehend them. 
Such persons when apprehended shall, if Siamese subjects or subjects of 
any third Power, according to the extradition law for the time being in 
force in British India, be delivered over to the Siamese authorities at 
Chiengmai ; if British subjects, they shall either be delivered over to the 
Siamese authorities, or shall be dealt with by the British authorities, as 
the Chief Commissioner of British Burmah, or any officer duly authorized 
by him in this behalf, may decide. 

If any persons accused or convicted of murder, robbery, dacoity, or 
other heinous crime in British territory, escape into Chiengmai, Lakon or 
Lampoonchi, the Siamese authorities and police shall use their best 
endeavours to apprehend them. Such persons when apprehended shall, 
if British subjects, be delivered over to the British authorities, according 
to the extradition law for the time being in force in Siam ; if Siamese 
subjects, or subjects of any third Power not having Treaty relations with 
Siam, they shall either be delivered over to the British authorities, or 
shall be dealt with by the Siamese authorities, as the latter may decide, 
after consultation with the Consul or Vice-Consul . 

AET. VII. — The interests of all British subjects coming to Chieng- 
mai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi, shall be placed under the regulation and 
control of a British Consul or Vice-Consul, who will be appointed to 
reside at Chiengmai, with power to exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction, 
in accordance with the provisions of Article 2 of the Supplementary Agree- 
ment of the 13th Mav, 1856, subject to Article 8 of the present Treatv. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1883). 31 



AKT. VIII. — His Majesty the King of Siam will appoint a proper 
person or proper persons to be a Commissioner and Judge, and Commis- 
sioners and Judges, in Chiengmai, for the purposes hereinafter mentioned. 
Such Judge or Judges shall, subject to the limitations and provisions 
contained in the present Treaty, exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction in 
all cases arising in Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi, between British 
subjects, or in which British subjects may be parties as complainants, 
accused, plaintiffs or defendants, according to Siamese law; provided 
always that in all such cases the Consul or Vice-Consul shall be entitled to 
be present at the trial, and to be furnished with copies of the proceeding's, 
which, when the defendant or accused is a British subject, shall be 
supplied free of charge, and to make any suggestions to the Judge or 
Judges which he may think proper in the interests of justice ; provided 
also that the Consul or Vice-Consul shall have power at any time before 
judgment, if he shall think proper in the interests of justice, by a written 
requisition under his hand, directed to the Judge or Judges, to signify his 
desire that any case in which both parties are British subjects, or in which 
the accused or defendant is a British subject, be transferred for adjudica- 
tion' to the British Consular Court at Chiengmai, and the case shall there- 
upon be transferred to such last-mentioned Court accordingly, and be 
disposed of by the Consul or Vice-Consul, as provided by Article 2 of the 
Supplementary Agreement of 13th May, 1856. 

The Consul or Vice-Consul shall have access at all reasonable times 
to any British subject who may be imprisoned under a sentence or order 
of the said Judge or Judges, and, if he shall think fit, may require that the 
prisoner be removed to the Consular prison, there to undergo the residue 
•of his term of imprisonment. 

The Tariff of Court Fees shall be published, and shall be equally 
binding on all parties concerned, whether British or Siamese. , 

ART. IX. — In civil and criminal cases in which British subjects may 
be parties, and which shall be tried before the said Judge or Judges, either 
party shall be entitled to appeal to Bangkok ; if a British subject, with the 
sanction and consent of the British Consul or Vice-Consul, and in other 
■cases by leave of the presiding Judge or Judges. 

In all such cases a transcript of the evidence, together with a Report 
from the presiding Judge or Judges, shall be forwarded to Bangkok, and 
the appeal shall be disposed of there by the Siamese authorities and Her 
Britannic Majesty's Consul-General in consultation. 

Provided always that in all cases where the defendants or accused are 
Siamese subjects the final decision on appeal shall rest with the Siamese 
authorities ; and that in all other cases in which British subjects are 
parties the final decision on appeal shall rest with Her Britannic Majesty's 
Consul-General. 

Pending the results of the appeal, the Judgment of the Court at 
Chiengmai shall be suspended on such terms and conditions (if any) as 
shall be agreed upon between the said Judge or Judges and the Consul or 
Vice-Consul. 



32 Treaties. England— Slam (1883). 



Id such cases of appeal, as above set forth, the appeal must be 
entered in the Court of Chiengmai within a month of the original verdict, 
and must be presented at Bangkok within a reasonable time, to be deter- 
mined by the Court at Chiengmai , failing which the appeal will be thrown 
out of Court. 

AKT. X. — The British authorities in the frontier districts of British 
Burmah, and the Siamese authorities in Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lam- 
poonchi, will at all times use their best endeavours to 'procure and furnish 
such evidence and witnesses as may be required for the determination of 
civil and criminal cases pending in the Consular and Siamese Courts at 
Bangkok and in Chiengmai respectively, when the importance of the 
affair may render it necessary. 

AET. XI. — British subjects desiring to purchase, cut, or girdle 
timber in the forests of Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi, must enter 
into a written agreement for a definite period with the owner of the forest. 
The agreement must be executed in duplicate, each party retaining a 
copy, and each copy must be sealed by the British Consul or Vice-Consul 
and a Siamese Judge and Commissioner at Chiengmai, appointed under 
Article 8 of this Convention, and be countersigned by a competent local 
authority, and every such agreement shall be duly registered in the British 
Consulate and in the Siamese Court at Chiengmai. Any British subject 
cutting or girdling trees in a forest without the consent of the owner of the 
forest obtained as aforesaid, or after the expiration of the agreement 
relating to it, shall be liable to pay such compensation to the owner of 
the forest as the British Consular officer at Chiengmai shall adjudge. 

Transfers of agreements shall be subject to the same formalities. 

'The charges for sealing, countersigning, and registration shall be 
fixed at a moderate scale, and published for general information. 

ART. XII. — The Siamese Judges and Commissioners at Chiengmai 
appointed under Article 8 shall, in conjunction with the local authorities, 
endeavour to prevent the owners of forests from executing agreements 
with more than one party for the same timber or forests, and to prevent 
any person from illegally marking or effacing the marks on timber which 
has been lawfully cut or marked by another person, and they shall give 
such facilities as are in their power to the purchasers and fellers of timber 
to identify their property. Should the owners of forests hinder the 
cutting, girdling or removing of timber under agreements duly executed 
in accordance with Article 11 of this Convention, the Siamese Judges and 
Commissioners of Chiengmai and the local authorities shall enforce the 
agreements, and the owners of such forests acting as aforesaid shall be 
liable to pay such compensation to the persons with whom they have 
entered into such agreements as the Siamese Judges and Commissioners 
at Chiengmai shall determine, in accordance with Siamese law. 

ART. XIII. — Except as and to the extent specially provided, nothing 
in this Treaty shall be taken to affect the provisions of the Treaty of 



Treaties. England— Siam (1883). 33 



Friendship and Commerce between the King of Siam and Her Majesty of 
the 18th April, 1855, and the Agreement supplementary thereto of the 
13th May, 1856. 

AET. XIV. — This Treaty has been executed in English and Siamese, 
both versions having the same meaning, but it is hereby agreed that in the 
event of any question arising as to the construction thereof, the English 
text shall be accepted as conveying its true meaning and intention.. 

AET. XV. — The Treaty shall come into operation immediately after 
the exchange of the ratifications thereof, and shall continue in force for 
seven years from that date, unless either of the two Contracting Parties 
shall give notice of their desire that it should terminate before that date. 
In such case, or in the event of notice not being given before the expira- 
tion of the said period of seven years, it shall remain in force until the 
expiration of one year from the day on which either of the High Contract- 
ing Parties shall have given such notice. The High Contracting Parties, 
however, reserve to themselves the power of making, by common consent, 
any modification in these Articles, which experience of their working may 
show to be desirable. 

AET. XVI. — This Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications 
exchanged at Bangkok as soon as possible. 

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the 
same in duplicate, and have affixed thereto their respective seals. 

Done at Bangkok, the 3rd day of September in the year 1883 of the 
Christian era, corresponding to the second day of the waxing moon of the 
tenth month of the year of the Goat, 1245 of the Siamese era. 

Signed by the following : H.E. Chow Phya Bhanuwongse Phya 
Charcen Eajamaitree, Phya Thep Prachun ; W. H. Newman, H. B. M. 
Acting Agent and Consul-General in Siam. 



List of heinous crimes appended to the Treaty made between Siam 
and Great Britain with regard to Chiengmai, Lakon, and Lampoonchi, 
this 3rd day of September, 1883, in connection with the provisions of 
Article VI. of the Treaty with regard to the extradition of offenders :— 

1. Murder. 2. Culpable homicide. 3. Dacoity. 4. Eobbery. 
5. Theft. 6. Forgery. 7. Counterfeiting coin or Government stamps. - 
8. Kidnapping. 9. Eape. 10. Mischief by fire or bv any explosive 
substance. 



34 Treaties. England— Siam (1883). 

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERN 
MENTS OF SIAM AND GREAT BRITAIN 
FOR REGULATING THE TRAFFIC 
IN SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. 



Signed at London, April 6th, 1883. 



The Government of His Majesty the King of Siam and the Govern- 
ment of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, being desirous of making satisfactory arrangement for the 
regulation of the traffic in spirituous liquors in Siam, the Undersigned, 
duly authorised to that effect, have agreed as follows : — 

AKT. I. — Spirits of all kinds not exceeding in alcoholic strength 
those permitted to be manufactured by the Siamese Government in Siam, 
may be imported and sold by British subjects on payment of the same 
duty as that levied by the Siamese excise laws upon spirits manufactured 
in Siam ; and spirits exceeding in alcoholic strength spirits manufactured 
in Siam as aforesaid may be imported and sold upon payment of such 
duty and of a proportionate additional duty for the excess of alcoholic 
strength above the Siamese Government standard. Beer and wines may 
be imported and sold by British subjects on payment of the same duty as 
that levied by the Siamese excise laws upon similar articles manufactured 
in Siam, but the duty on imported beer and wines shall in no case exceed 
10 per cent, ad valorem. 

The said duty on imported spirits, beer, and wines shall be in substitu- 
tion of, and not in addition to, the import duty of 3 per cent, leviable 
under the existing Treaties; and no further duty, tax, or imposition 
whatever shall be imposed on imported spirits, beer, and wines. 

The scale of excise duty to be levied upon spirits, beer, and wines 
manufactured in Siam shall be communicated by the Siamese Government 
to Her Majesty's Agent and Consul-General at Bangkok, and no change 
in the excise duties shall affect British subjects until after the expiration 
of six months from the date at which such notice shall have been com- 
municated by the Siamese Government to Her Majesty's Representative 
at Bangkok. 

ART. II. — The testing of spirits imported into the Kingdom of Siam 
by British subjects shall be carried out by European officials nominated 
by the Siamese authorities, and by an equal number of experts nominated 
by Her Majesty's Consul. In case of difference the parties shall nominate 
a third person, who shall act as umpire. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1883). 35 



ART. III. — The Siamese Government may stop the importation by 
British subjects into Siam of any spirits which, on examination, shall be 
proved to be deleterious to the public health ; and they may give notice to 
the importers, consignees, or holders thereof to export the same within 
three months from the date of such notice, and if this is not done the 
Siamese Government may seize the said spirits and may destroy them, 
provided always that in all such cases the Siamese Government shall be 
bound to refund any duty which may have been already paid thereon. 

The testing of spirits imported by British subjects, and which may 
be alleged to be deleterious, shall be carried out in the manner provided 
by Article II. 

The Siamese Government engage to take all necessary measures to 
prohibit and prevent the sale of spirits manufactured in Siam which may 
be deleterious to the public health. 

ART. IV. — Any British subject who desires to retail spirituous 
liquors, beer, or wines in Siam must take out a special licence for that 
purpose from the Siamese Government, which shall not be refused without 
just and reasonable cause. 

This licence may be granted upon conditions to be agreed upon from 
time to time between the two Governments. 

ART. V. — British subjects shall at all times enjoy the same rights 
and privileges in regard to the importation and sale of spirits, beer, wines, 
and spirituous liquors in Siam as the subjects of the most favoured nation ; 
and spirits, beer, wines, and spirituous liquors coming from any part of 
Her Britannic Majesty's dominions shall enjoy the same privileges in all 
respects as similar articles coming from any other country the most 
favoured in this respect. 

It is therefore clearly understood that British subjects are not bound 
to conform to the provisions of the present Convention to any greater 
extent than the subjects of other nations are so bound. 

ART. VI. — Subject to the provisions of Article V., the present Agree- 
ment shall come into operation on a date to be fixed by mutual consent 
between the two Governments, and shall remain in force until the 
expiration of six months' notice given by either party to determine the 
same. 

The existing Treaty engagements between Great Britain and Siam 
shall continue in full force until the present Agreement comes into opera- 
tion — and after that date, except in so far as they are modified hereby. 

Should the present Agreement be terminated the Treaty engagements 
between Great Britain and Siam shall revive, and remain as they existed 
previously to the signature hereof. 



36 Treaties. England— Siam (1883). 



AKT. VII. — In this Agreement the words "British subject" shall 
include any naturalized or protected subject of Her Britannic Majesty ; 
and the words " Her Majesty's Consul " shall include any Consular officer 
of Her Britannic Majesty in Siam. 

In witness whereof the Undersigned have signed the same in dupli- 
cate, and have affixed thereto their seals. 

Done at London the sixth day of April, 1883, corresponding to the 
fourteenth 'day of the waning moon of the month Phagunamas, of the- 
year Horse, Fourth Decade, 1244, of the Siamese Astronomical era. 



( L. S. ) Peisdang. 
( L. S. ) Granville. 



Treaties. England— Siam (1899). 37 



BETWEEN SIAM AND GREAT BRITAIN, ON THE REGISTRA- 
TION OF BRITISH SUBJECTS IN SIAM. 

Signed at Bangkok, November 29, 1899. 



The Governments of His Majesty the King of Siam and of Her 
Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Empress of India, recognizing the necessity of having a satisfactory 
arrangement for the Registration of British subjects in Siam, the Under- 
signed — His Siamese Majesty's Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Her 
Britannic Majesty's Minister Resident — duly authorized to that effect, 
have agreed as follows : — 

I. — The registration according to Article V. of the Treaty of 
April 18, 1855, of British subjects residing in Siam, shall comprise the 
following categories : — 

1. — All British natural born or naturalized subjects, other than those 
of Asiatic descent. 

2. — All children and grandchildren born in Siam of persons entitled 
to be registered under the first category/ who are entitled to the status of 
British subjects in contemplation of English law. 

Neither great grandchildren nor illegitimate children born in Siam 
•of persons mentioned in the first category are entitled to be registered. 

3. — All persons of Asiatic descent born within the Queen's Dominions 
•or naturalized within the United Kingdom or born within the territory of 
any Prince or State in India under the suzerainty of or in alliance with 
the Queen. 

Except natives of Upper Burma or the British Shan States who 
became domiciled in Siam before January 1st, 1886. 

4. All children born in Siam of persons entitled to be registered 
under the third category. 

No grandchildren born in Siam of persons mentioned in the third 
category are entitled to be registered for protection in Siam. 

5. — The wives and widows of any persons who are entitled to be 
registered under the foregoing categories. 

II. — The lists of such registration shall be open to the inspection of 



38 Treaties. England— Siam (1899). 



a properly authorised representative of the Siamese Government on 
proper notice being given. 

III. — If any question arises as to the right of any person to hold a 
British certificate of registration or as to the validity of the certificate 
itself, a joint inquiry shall be held by the British and Siamese authorities 
and decide according to the conditions laid down in this Agreement, upon 
evidence to be adduced by the holder of the certificate, in the usual way. 

IV. — Should any action, civil or criminal, be pending while such 
inquiry is going on, it shall be determined conjointly in what Court the 
case shall be heard. 

V. — If the person, in respect of whom the inquiry is held, come 
within the conditions for registration laid down in Article I., he may, if 
not yet registered, forthwith be registered as a British subject and provided 
with a certificate of registration at Her Britannic Majesty's Consulate ; 
otherwise he shall be recognized as falling under Siamese jurisdiction, 
and if already on the lists of Her Britannic Majesty's Consulate, his 
name shall be erased. 

In witness whereof the Undersigned have signed the same in dupli- 
cate and have affixed thereto their seals at Bangkok on the twenty-ninth 
day of November in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine 
of the Christian era, corresponding to the one hundred and eighteenth 
year of Batanakosindr. 



(Signed) Devawongse Varoprakar [ L. S. ] 
(Signed) George Greville [L. S. ] 



Treaties. Great Britain — Siam. 39 



THE BOUNDARY AGREEMENT, 

Signed November 29th, 1899, was abrogated by the 
Treaty of 1909. 



AGREEMENT 

For the Abrogation of the Land Tax Schedule in the Supple- 
mentary Agreement to the Treaty of 1855. 



In order to facilitate the financial arrangements of the Siamese 
Government, and on condition that taxation on land rented, held or owned 
by British subjects shall nowhere exceed taxation levied on similar land 
in Lower Burma, Her Britannic Majesty's Government consent to the 
abrogation of the Schedule of Taxes in five sections annexed to the 
Supplementary Agreement between Great Britain and Siam signed at 
Bangkok May 13th, 1856. His Siamese Majesty's Government having 
assented to the above condition, the undersigned, Her Britannic Majesty's 
Charge d' Affaires in Siam and His Siamese Majesty's Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, duly authorized to that effect, have agreed as follows : — 

1. — The words " The taxes here alluded to are those set forth in the 
" annexed Schedule " appearing in Article IV. of the Agreement supple- 
mentary to the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between Siam and 
Great Britain, signed at Bangkok May 13th, 1856, shall be and are hereby 
deleted. 

2. — The Schedule in five Sections of Taxes on Garden Ground, 
Plantations and other lands annexed to the above-mentioned Agreement 
shall be and is hereby abrogated. 

In witness whereof the undersigned have signed the same in duplicate 
and have affixed thereto their seals at Bangkok on the twentieth day of 
September in the year one thousand nine hundred of the Christian era, 
and in the one hundred and nineteenth year of Eatanakosindr. 



40 Treaties. England — Siam (1909). 



ram antr (§reat Uritain 



Teeaty Signed at Bangkok, 10th Maech, 1909, and 
Eatifications Exchanged at London, 9th July, 1909. 



His Majesty the King of Siam and His Majesty the King of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, being desirous of settling 
various questions which have arisen affecting their respective dominions, 
have decided to conclude, a Treaty, and have appointed for this purpose as 
their Plenipotentiaries :— 

His Majesty the King of Siam, His Royal Highness Prince 
Devawongse Varoprakar, Minister for Foreign Affairs, etc. 

His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ralph Paget, Esq., his Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, etc 

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full 
powers, and found them to be in good and due form, have agreed upon 
and concluded the following Articles :— 

ARTICLE 1. — The Siamese Government transfers to the British 
Government all rights of suzerainty, protection, administration, and 
control whatsoever which they possess over the States of Kelantan, 
Tringganu, Kedah, Perlis and adjacent islands. The frontiers of these 
I territories are defined by the Boundary Protocol annexed hereto. 

ARTICLE 2. — The transfer provided for in the preceding Article 
shall take place within thirty (30) days after the ratification of this Treaty. 

ARTICLE 3. — A mixed Commission, composed of Siamese and 
British officials and officers, shall be appointed within six months after 
the date of ratification of this treaty, and shall be charged with the 
delimitation of the new frontier. The work of the Commission shall be 
commenced as soon as the season permits, and shall be carried out in 
accordance with the Boundary Protocol annexed hereto. 

Subjects of His Majesty the King of Siam residing within the territory 
described in Article 1 who desire to preserve their Siamese nationality will, 
during the period of six months after the ratification of the present Treaty, 
be allowed to do so if they become domiciled in the Siamese dominions. 
His Britannic Majesty's Government undertake that they shall be at 
liberty to retain their immoveable property within the territory described 
in Article 1. 



Treaties. England— Siani (1909). 41 



It is understood that in accordance with the usual custom where a 
change of suzerainty takes place, any Concessions within the territories 
described in Article 1 hereof to individuals or Companies, granted by or 
with the approval of the Siamese Government, and recognized by them as 
still in force on the date of the signature of the Treaty, will be recognized 
by the Government of His Britannic Majesty. 

AKTICLE 4. — His Britannic Majesty's Government undertake that 
the Government of the Federated Malay States shall assume the indebted- 
ness to the Siamese Government of the territories described in Article 1. 

ABTTCLE 5. — The jurisdiction of the Siamese International Courts,' 
established by Article 8 of the Treaty of 3rd September, 1883, shall, under 
the conditions denned in the Jurisdiction Protocol annexed hereto, be 
extended to all British subjects in Siam registered at the British Con- 
sulates before the date of the present Treaty. 

This system shall come to an end, and the jurisdiction of the Inter- 
national Courts shall be transferred to the ordinary Siamese Courts after 
the promulgation and the coming into force of the Siamese Codes, namely, 
the Penal Code, the Civil and Commercial Codes, the Code of Procedure, 
^nd the Law for Organization of Courts. 

All other British subjects in Siam shall be subject to the jurisdiction 
'of the ordinary Siamese Courts under the conditions defined in the Juris- 
diction Protocol. 

AKTICLE 6. — British subjects shall enjoy throughout the whole; 
extent of Siam the rights and privileges enjoyed by the natives of the 
country, notably the _ right ^o f prop erty, the right of residence and travel. 

They and their property shall be subject to all taxes and services, but 
these shall not be other or higher than the taxes and services which are 
or may be imposed by law on Siamese subjects. It is particularly under- 
stood that the limitation in the Agreement of 20th September, 1900, by 
which the taxation of land shall not exceed that on similar land in 
Burmah, is hereby removed. 

British subjects in Siam shall be exempt from all military service, 
either in the Army or Navy, and from all forced loans or military exactions 
or contributions. 

AKTICLE 7. — The provisions of all Treaties, Agreements, and 
Conventions between Great Britain and Siam, not modified by the present 
Treaty, remain in full force. 

AKTICLE 8.— The present Treaty shall be ratified within four 
months from its date. 

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the 
present Treaty and affixed their seals. 

Done at Bangkok in duplicate the tenth day of March in the year 
one thousand nine hundred and nine. 

L. S. ((Signed) DEVAWONGSE VAROPRAKAR. 
L. S. (Signed) RALPH PAGET. 



42 Treaties. England— Siam (1909). 



BOUNDARY PROTOCOL. 
Annexed to the Treaty dated 10th March, 1909. 

1. — The frontiers between the territories of His Majesty the King of 
Siam and the territory over which his suzerain rights have by the present 
Treaty been transferred to His Majesty the King of Great Britain and 
Ireland are as follows : — 

Commencing from the most seaward point of the northern bank of 
the estuary of the Perlis River and thence north to the range of hills which 
is the watershed between the Perlis River on the one side and the Pujoh 
River on the other ; then following the watershed formed by the said 
range of hills until it reaches the main watershed or dividing line between 
those rivers which flow into the Gulf of Siam on the one side and into the 
Indian Ocean on the other ; following this main watershed so as to pass 
the sources of the Sungei Patani, Sungei Telubin and Sungei Perak, to a 
point which is the source of the Sungei Pergau ; then leaving the main 
watershed and going along the watershed separating the waters of the 
Sungei Pergau from the Sungei Telubin, to the hill called Bukit Jeli or 
the source of the main stream of