Skip to main content

Full text of "Barye"

See other formats

^OBER, 1904 




B ^ 5=12 fl33 

:. ^v 



PART 58* 







Guided by a Topic Book. 

THE cultivated American should become 
acquainted with the art of liis own country. 
This can be done in your own home, satisfac- 
torily and practically, by joining 


Subject of first lesson s <' Artistic Resources of 
Our Country." This alone is worth knowing. 

40 selected Raphael Prints, 4x5, outline the course. 
6 dozen 4x5 Raphael Prints give further light. 
16 dozen miniature size add further examples of 

Send for leaflet of Raphael Prints and illustra- 
ted Booklet of The Traveler's Art Club, free. 


I Hancock Street, Worcester, Mass. 


Translated from the Latest German Edition. Edited, 
Revised, and Much Enlarged by 


What Makes the New Edition Valuable 

First — The last edition has been minutely revised, and 
brought down to the present time. 

Second — Mr. Russell Sturgis, the editor, is an author- 
ity in art matters. 

Third — There are many more illustrations in the text, 
and over 100 beautiful full-page half-tone plates which 
the older edition did not have. 

Fourth — There is a full general index and an index of 

Fifth — This new edition of Liibke is the best general 
history of art in the English language. 

Two vols. 8vo, cloth. Price, $10.00 net. 

Write for illustrated circular. 

Dodd, Mead & Company 

Publisher NEW YORK 

^i^?5^^^iV2^ ONE 




or Artistic Shading, may do well to write 
for circulars for the latest and the best. 

No. 4 2 Nassau St., Rockford, III., U.S.A. 






Drawing and 





Paige Foreign Scholarship 
for Mer and Women. 

Helen Hamblen Scholarship. 

Ten Free Scholarships. 

Prizes in money awarded in 
each department. 

Twenty-ninth Year 

For circulars and terms address 
the inanager 



UR new pictures, the " Colorgraphs," 
are, as the title suggests, reproduc- 
aj m tions in color. The suhjects have 
sad^ been carefully selected from the most 
famous works of both ancient and modern mas- 
ters. The '• Colorgraphs" will at once be rec- 
ognized as gems of art, for their faithfulness to 
the originals in the depth and beauty of coloring 
brings them close to the possible limits of repro- 
ductive art. 


The best carbon print fails to give an echo of the rich har- 
monies of color which are the chief glory of the masterpieces 
of pictorial art ; but in presenting to the world y out new series 
of pictures, " The Colorgraphs,' you have rendered a great 
service, for they reproduce the originals so faithfully both in 
form and in color that now, for the first time, we may hope by 
their use to lead our children to know something of the splen- 
dor of those marvels cf the Renaissance. — HENRY TURNER 
BAILEY, Statt Suferviior tf Drawing of Mas'achusetH. 

I am moved by the novel excellence of your " Colorgraphs "' 
to offer you my sincere personal commendation. With a 
knowledge of what has hitherto been done in reproduction of 
celebrated pictures by colored process, I feel that this is a dis- 
tinct advance.— HARRISON S. MORRIS, Pa. Acadtmy of 
Fine Art I. 

(J^The *' Colorgraphs" are 8 x 10 inches in size, and 
each is enclosed in a neat declcle-edged portfolio. 
CPrice, 35 cents each. Send for circular of subjects. 


BOSTON 120 Boylston Street 

WESTERN BRANCH : 192 Michigan Ave., Chicago 

In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art 




THEY are not copies, but originals by master designers and 
carried to completion under the most favorable condi- 
tions. Our effort is not alone to secure excellence of design, 
but to blend therewith construction worthy of the conception 
which it sets forth. Each year arouses a wider and wider de- 
mand for these pieces, which naturally compels the addition of 
many new patterns. Furthermore, none of our creations has 
ever more favorably emphasized the advantages of " Cobb- 
Eastman hand-made furniture " than those which now await 
your inspection. Each portion of the house has bad consider- 

If you are interested in SOLID MAHOGANY COLO- 
NIAL FURNITURE for the Dining-room, Living-room, 
or Bedrooms, don't fail to call or correspond with 



III TO 117 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

Next to the Heart of 
Candy Lobers 

and Confections. 

The Perfection of Confections. 

Instantaneous Chocol&te 

In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art 





'^^ M3 


,,jai*«*'« n' ' V- 'Trr ii f i -n'i ITW ,. ■ ■ -rfJimw—fci 

ii yu . - I I mm mammfptiiiilmmimfmm i mn m 








? I 

pq « 




K (A 

K 2 M 
<! S rt 

n b fc- 

o b 

> q; 

a >A 



<! z: 

bZ O 

< ! 2 






[ 391 ] 


5 S 



s •< 

«■" a 

5 '•; « 

< = c 

tfi 'II 

D « 

as ^ 

2 D 

Hi H 


|2! i'-' 

Barye's appearance is described in the account of his life which follows, 
trait given above is based on a daguerreotvpe letouched bv Flameng. 

[ 400 ] 




Mntoint=Uoni^ l^Av^t 

BORN 17 9 (5: DIED 1875 

ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE (pronounced Bar-ee) was born in Paris, 
.ZV September 15, 17 96. His father, a jeweler, who had removed from Ly- 
ons to Paris shortly before his son's birth, seems to have been too poor to 
afford him much schooling, for at thirteen the lad was apprenticed, first to 
Fourier, an engraver of military equipments, and a little later to a silversmith, 
Biennais. In 1812, however, Barye's apprentice days came to an end. The 
war which had devoured the men of France now demanded even the chil- 
dren, and at sixteen Barye was drafted by conscription. During this period 
of military service he seems to have planned his future; for when, after the 
capitulation of Paris, he was released from the army, he at once began the 
study of design. As he could devote thereto only the moments spared from 
the engraving trade, which he had taken up again to earn his living, we may 
form some conception of his energy when we find him at the age of twenty 
deemed sufficiently advanced to be admitted to the studio of a well-known 
sculptor, Bosio by name. 

The teachings of Bosio, a cold, conventional artist of the academic school, 
could not have been of much profit to the youth whose work in art was to 
be the depiction of living reality ; and in 1817 Barye entered the studio of the 
painter Gros, a very different type of master. Always reticent and self-con- 
tained, Barye never spoke in detail of these early years; but his stay in Gros's 
atelier was probably favorable to the development of his sense of mass, en- 
ergy of conception, and preference for dramatic action, for although by con- 
viction and in teaching a devoted classicist, Gros was by temperament and 
in his own work an ardent romanticist. "All the painters who studied in his 
studio," says M. Alexandre, "appear to have looked attentively at what he 
did, but to have listened as little as possible to what he counseled." 

Two years later, when he was twenty-three, Barye tried for the annual 
prize awarded by the Institute in the Department of Medals. The subject 
of the composition was 'Milo of Crotona Devoured by a Lion,' and all 
that can be said of Barye's maiden effort is that it showed some boldness and 
vigor. The jury gave him an honorable mention, but not the Prix de Rome, 



for which he had hoped; and instead of being able to spend five years study- 
ing in Rome he was obliged to remain in Paris — for which we should be 
heartily grateful. In 1820, and in the two following years, he tried again 
with no better fortune; in 1823 no prize was awarded; and in 1824 Barye 
was not even allowed to compete. Such ill success drove him back to the 
workman's bench; and for eight years thereafter he earned his living in the 
shop of a fashionable goldsmith, Fauconnier. 

At this time he was a married man, and two daughters had been born to 
him. Later his wife and daughters died, and he married again, and had by 
this second marriage a family of eight children. Beyond this we know almost 
nothing of his private life. 

It was during his eight years with Fauconnier that Barye made his first im- 
portant studies of animals. Whether the idea of applying beasts drawn from 
nature to the decoration of ornamental objects originated with him or with his 
master we cannot tell; but for Fauconnier he executed at least sixty little 
models of animals for watch-charms and brooches, or paper-weights and clock 
ornaments; and these little figures, now very rare, show a truthfulness and 
breadth of treatment which make them far superior to the usual class of such 
subjects. In a word, Barye had discovered his bent. 

From this time on he never ceased to spend every spare moment at the 
Jardin des Plantes — the Paris menagerie, or zoo — and in the museums of 
stufl^ed beasts and skeletons connected with it. He would sit before the cages 
for hours at a time watching the action of the beasts, and strive with pencil 
to catch their characteristic movements, or, pulling a lump of wax from his 
pocket, would make a hasty model of a head or reproduce the angry curve 
of a tail. Old Pere Rousseau, head keeper of the animals, became his espe- 
cial friend. "He opened the doors of the menagerie to him at five o'clock 
every morning, and when he saw him draw from his pocket a few poor hard 
crusts for breakfast would give him some slices of softer bread meant for 
the rations of the bears." Rousseau lived long enough to see his protege be- 
come famous, and loved to talk of the "tall, thin young man, always silent, 
who first found my beasts worthy of sculpture." 

Such studies, once begun, enchained Barye till his death. When he was 
sixty-seven years old, the American connoisseur, Mr. Walters, called at his 
house several days in succession, only to find that he was absent; and at last 
Mme. Barye exclaimed: "Ah, sir, there is no use in coming here for three 
weeks. A new tiger has just arrived from Bengal, and until its wildness is 
gone — no M. Barye!" Never thereafter was he content with any other 
knowledge than that derived first hand from the study of living beasts, and 
he began a systematic course in reading on natural history and the anatomic 
structure of animals. 

Yet his first contributions to the Salon of 1827, when he was thirty-one, 
were not animals, but busts of a young man and a young girl. Three years 
later, however, he submitted an animal group, his 'Tiger Devouring a Croc- 
odile,' which excited much comment. Such realism, such forcible rendering 
of life and movement, had never before been seen; indeed, the tiger had not 



been considered worthy of the honors of sculpture, much less the crocodile; 
for academic zoology recognized only two animals, the lion and the horse, 
and both had degenerated into mere conventional forms. 

But the attention which his 'Tiger Devouring a Crocodile' attracted was 
by no means an unmitigated advantage. True, the group and its subsequent 
purchase by the French government bt'ought Barye reputation, and he left 
Fauconnier and set up for himself; but as soon as it became apparent that 
a new influence, too strong to be disregarded, had appeared in sculpture, two 
classes of opponents arrayed themselves against him: first, those who hon- 
estly revered the old traditions and were shocked at Barye's disregard of them ; 
and second — and more to be feared because their opposition was secret — 
iealous rivals. Therefore, when he exhibited at the Salon of 1833 his 'Lion 
Crushing a Serpent ' there was an extraordinary sensation ; and when the group 
was bought by the government, cast in bronze, and set up in the Tuileries 
Garden, and its designer made a Knight of the Legion of Honor, the indig- 
nation of those who disapproved of his work became burning, and the oppo- 
sition of his rivals aggressive. "Since when has the Tuileries become a men- 
agerie?" exclaimed some one, and the saying was taken up as a war-cry by 
Barye's adversaries. But so great was the clamor that every one who pre- 
tended to the reputation of a connoisseur had to come out with an opinion 
for or against him; and the public, led by various far-seeing critics, began 
to find a charm in the little bronzes which he had meantime been constantly 

The Duke of Orleans, who had become Barye's liberal patron, now or- 
dered from him the celebrated surtout, or table decoration, which consisted 
of nine small sculptured groups representing episodes of the chase. The 
groups were finished in time for the Salon of 1834; but when the duke asked 
Barye to submit them to the jury, the sculptor, knowing that he had become 
the victim of jealousy, and foreseeing from the taunts which were flung at him 
as being a "maker of paper-weights and mantel ornaments" what the out- 
come might be, declined to act. Thereupon the duke himself made overtures, 
and was amazed to find that the groups would be refused on the ground 
that they were not sculpture but goldsmith's work. He hurried to Louis 
Philippe and begged that monarch to prevent such an act of injustice, but 
the latter with some irony replied: "^«<? voulez vousF I have appointed the 
jury, but I cannot force them to recognize works of genius." 

The six animal pieces and the water-colors which Barye sent to the Salon 
of 1834 were not refused, but he received no award. The following year he 
showed a 'Tiger' in stone; and in 1836 submitted the 'Seated Lion,' one 
of his finest works, and a series of small bronzes. These last the jury re- 
fused to accept, giving the same ridiculous pretext as in respect to the Duke 
of Orleans's surtout — that they were not sculpture but jeweler's work. This 
time the insult was too pointed, the hostility too evident, and Barye, pro- 
foundly wounded, ceased to exhibit at the Salons for many years, making his 
reappearance only in 1850, when his reputation was firmly established. 

At this period, too, he had to suffer another serious disappointment. Al- 



though always ambitious to work on a large scale and for public monuments, 
he would never, with characteristic aloofness, solicit such commissions; but 
now M. Thiers, the premier, and one of his admirers, seems to have made 
vague promises to intrust him with the execution of the large groups planned 
for the Place de la Concorde; and we may imagine how Barve's imagination 
must have kindled at the prospect of adorning the most imposing square in 
the world with colossal figures of his beasts. But the shifty Thiers began to 
listen to Barye's detractors, and the commission shrank, first to statues for 
the four piers of the Pont de la Concorde, then to one figure for a corner of 
the square, and at last to an allegorical piece to crown the Arc de Triomphe 
— but even this commission did not materialize. 

Despairing, then, of fair treatment at the Salon or of obtaining public work, 
Barye conceived the idea of setting up a workshop and foundry of his own, 
and selling his bronzes direct to the public; and in 1839, having borrowed 
the necessary capital, he embarked on this enterprise. The result might have 
been predicted from the beginning, for with Barye the question of profit was 
altogether subservient to that of art. He wished to put into practice the pro- 
found studies which he had made of the technical processes of casting and 
finishing bronzes, and to sell only perfect casts. He also planned to devote 
himself to new work, and indeed this period was perhaps the most fruitful 
of his career. But with all his attention centered on the artistic side of his 
enterprise, he almost entirely disregarded its business aspect. With naive 
simplicity he waited for patrons to come to him; and an odd sort of sales- 
man he must have made, leaving visitors to their own devices, and frequently 
giving the impression of being unwilling to part with a bronze, or insisting 
on some improvement of finish or a fresh casting before he would let it go. 
He would often direct his wife to put some particularly successful piece out 
of sight, or at all events not to show it to any except a "real amateur." 

Meantime, in addition to producing numerous small works, he obtained a 
few public commissions. In 1839 he designed the 'Lion' for the Column 
of July; and in 1847 the authorities had the 'Seated Lion,' which he had 
exhibited at the Salon of 1836, cast in bronze and placed, together with a 
reversed duplicate, beside one of the entrances to the Louvre. 

Naturally the bronze foundry and shop did not pay ; and in 1 848, when the 
Revolution made all business enterprises hazardous, those who had financed 
the venture, unwilling to risk their capital further, sued him for a sum equiv- 
alent to seven thousand dollars, and, lacking other assets, seized his models. 
Ten years later, indeed, he managed to repay his creditors, and regain pos- 
session of these models; but now, at the age of fifty, he found himself in a 
more hopeless state than even at the beginning of his career. 

Domestic troubles, too, were added to these material disasters. His favorite 
daughter died, and, an even greater grief, he discovered that one of his sons 
had been base enough to palm off on purchasers inferior casts, pretending 
that they were those finished by his father, thus stabbing Barye in his most 
sensitive point — his artistic conscience. Perhaps this cumulation of misfor- 
tune was the cause of that systematic impenetrability, that voluntary isola- 



tion and growing bitterness, which he manifested more and more with every 
year, and which deprived him of the sympathy of all but his closest friends. 

But the Revolution of 1848 was not entirely an ill wind for Barye. It 
gained him a public post somewhat to his liking, for the new director of the 
Louvre appointed him Director of the Department of Molding for that mu- 
seum. If Barye had kept this post long he might have rendered great serv- 
ice to the Louvre, since his technical studies had made him the most ex- 
pert bronze-founder in France; but he continued in office only four years, 
for in 1852 the place was taken from him. 

Meantime, in 1850, he again began to exhibit at the Salon, his first con- 
tribution being the admirable group of the 'Centaur and Lapith.' To the 
Salon of 1851 he sent one of his most noteworthy pieces, 'Theseus Slaying 
the Minotaur'; and the following year exhibited his 'Jaguar Devouring a 
Hare,' which perhaps marks the crowning point of his achievement. 

All this time he was continually carrying on his studies at the Jardin des 
Plantes; and in 1854 he was delighted at obtaining the professorship of draw- 
ing in zoology at the small school for the artistic study of animals maintained 
in connection with the menagerie. The salary was only about four hundred 
dollars a year, but it added something to his meager means, and the facilities 
which the position afforded for his individual work must have proved a great 
resource to him. He had, however, little power of interesting his pupils, and 
for the most part contented himself with silently looking over their work, and 
occasionally offering a comment. Sometimes he would forget his destination 
on the way to the class-room, and would be discovered standing in front ot 
one of the cages at the menagerie. 

In 1854 he received another public commission. Through the influence 
of Lefuel, the architect of the Louvre, a stone group, the subject of which 
was 'War,' was ordered for one of the inner faces of the courtyard of that 
building. This group showed that Barye's devotion to animals had not de- 
prived him of the power of nobly executing the human figure, and three 
more companion groups were ordered, the subjects being ' Peace,' 'Order,' 
and 'Force.' The originals of these, half the size of life, are perched so high 
on the Louvre as to be beyond appreciation by ordinary eyesight, and curi- 
ously enough may be better seen in the United States, where, through the lib- 
erality of Mr. Walters, they, together with the 'Seated Lion' of the Louvre, 
have been set up in bronze in Mt. Vernon Square, Baltimore. 

Barye was now almost sixty. His talent had attained its full development, 
and in spite of the fact that he had never taken a step toward seeking fame 
or commissions, the masterly character of his work had become recognized, 
and a little ease began to show itself in his pinched circumstances. At the 
Universal Exposition in 1855 he was given the Grand Medal of Honor in 
the Section of Bronzes, and was made an Officer of the Legion of Honor. 

In regard to his private life — and it would be hard to find a less eventful 
one — he observed a characteristic reticence even with his most intimate 
friends. Here is the man at sixty as Theophile Silvestre has sketched him: 
" His demeanor and his gestures are precise and dignified, yet without any 



real austerity. His eyes, vigilant, yet calm, look you straight in the face. 
His forehead is losing its short and whitening hair. His nose is slightly up- 
turned, his face square and vigorous, yet relieved by delicate modeling. . . . 
The self-restraint, deep-seated melancholy of his character, and his innate 
pride seem to escape in spite of him from his inner nature." 

On the other hand, the few who knew Barye intimately found him, at 
least on occasions, full of animation and spirit, although his animation was 
never familiar, and his wit was of the sarcastic kind. He used to dine occasion- 
ally with a number of artists, among whom was Corot, and in their society 
he perceptibly unbent; but for the most part the impression he gave was that 
of self-contained austerity. 

In his latter years he lived in winter in the rue Montagne Sainte Gene- 
vieve, Paris. His home in summer was a cottage at Barbizon, and he de- 
lighted to paint in oils and water-colors in the Forest of Fontainebleau. His 
former residence in the rue Saint Anastase he kept for his workshop; and 
his catalogue of 1855 shows that he then had for sale more than a hundred 
bronzes, ranging in size from a turtle to be worn as a locket up to the large 
'Rogero and Angelica on the Hippogriff.' The prices ranged from sixty 
cents for the turtle to one hundred and forty dollars for the hippogriff group. 

It was by Americans rather than by his own countrymen that the value of 
Barye's bronzes seems to have been first recognized. Mr. William H. Hunt, 
the American painter, was a stanch admirer; and Mr. William T. Walters, 
of Baltimore, was probably Barye's best patron. 

In 1861, when great monuments for Paris were in question, Barye was 
again talked of for public works, and received some minor commissions; but 
he had now passed his prime. He is said to have remarked rather sadly to a 
friend who congratulated him on receiving some public order, "I have waited 
all my life for patronage and now it comes just as I am putting up my shut- 
ters." In 1862 he received a commission for a bronze equestrian statue of 
Napoleon i. to be erected in Corsica. The statue was not, however, in his 
line and is of only mediocre merit. In 1863 he was appointed president of 
what was called the "Consultive Commission of the Central Union of the 
Arts Applied to Industry," and up to the end of his life was much interested 
in this post. 

In 1866 his friends persuaded him to offer himself for election to the In- 
stitute. It seems remarkable that any inducements could have persuaded Barye 
to make the requisite preliminary visits to the members of that body; it may 
have been that, realizing that his career as a creating genius was over, he 
sacrificed his personal pride for the sake of his wife and children; for if he 
died a member of the Institute they would be pensioned, and his works would 
fetch higher prices. But the sacrifice was fruitless, for he was rejected. He 
was, however, elected two years later. How he came to be induced to again 
offer himself is explained by the story that M. Lefuel, the architect, and his 
great friend, one day took him to drive and on the wav home stopped at a 
certain house and persuaded Bayre to go in with him. When Barye entered 
he found himself visiting one of the members of the Institute, and Lefuel's 



ruse was exposed. Once in the distasteful round, however, Barye persevered, 
made the obligatory calls, and this time was elected. 

With this honor we may mark the close of his active career as an artist. 
His succeeding works cannot be ranked with his previous productions; and 
he himself seemed conscious of failing powers, for in 187 3 he declined an 
order for a vase given him on the most liberal and flattering terms, because 
he knew that he could not produce as in former years. Moreover, he was 
now occupied with a congenial task which did not call for new production. 
In 1873 Mr. Walters, of Baltimore, who had been appointed to select ob- 
jects for the new Corcoran Gallery, in Washington, called on him and said, 
"M. Barye, I come to make you a proposition. I come to commission you 
to supply the Corcoran Gallery with one specimen of every bronze you have 
ever designed." "This speech," said Mr. Walters, "produced the liveliest 
effect on the old sculptor's stolid calmness; his eyes filled, and he spoke 
with difficulty. 'Mr. Walters,' he said, 'my own country has never done 
anything like that for me!"' He immediately set to work to execute this 
commission, and before his death had managed to send to Washington no 
less than one hundred and twenty bronzes. 

Up to the very end Barye occupied himself with his beloved art. His 
health remained excellent until the last five years of his life, when he suffered 
from gout; but even when confined to his chamber he occupied himself by 
making water-colors or by giving additional finish to some of his bronzes. One 
day as his wife was dusting the casts in his workshop, she said to him that 
when he felt stronger it would be wise to cut his signature more legibly on 
some of the groups. "Don't worry," replied the old sculptor, "within twenty 
years people will be hunting for that signature with a magnifying-glass." 

He died peacefully, of a disease of the heart, on the twenty-fifth of June, 
1875, confronting death as stoically as he had confronted life. His friends 
had concealed from him the fact that the painter Corot, whom he loved, had 
died only a few days before. 

%\jt art of 35arpe 

BARYE is the Michelangelo of the animal kingdom. He restored to 
sculpture elements which had been forgotten by generations of artists 
— the elements of force, of subtlety, and of life. — E. J. T. thore 


THE name Barye awakens in our minds the image of a world of animals, 
small and great, which he fixed immutably in bronze; but it is not true 
that he was a sculptor of animals only. He excelled in the whole domain of 
sculpture; but his constant predilection for gnimal forms proved that this was 



his chosen field, attracting him the more, perhaps, because it had been almost 
unexplored before his advent; in this field he attained to the highest triumphs 
possible, putting as much beauty and force into his statues of animals as had 
ever been brought to the sculpture of the human form. Every model which 
came from his hand — the wild beast roaring, the bird taking its flight, the 
snake coiling and striking — awakes more than the simple image of such or 
such an animal. It shows us nature itself, brimming with the fullest inten- 
sity of life, and such power and grandeur that no human form could evoke 
more completely the sentiment of beauty. 

Because of their small dimensions, and because of something almost pic- 
turesque in their appearance, certain of Barye's works seem like those which 
commerce had theretofore monopolized, and are often put to the same uses. 
We find his bronzes in all sorts of houses, on chimneypieces, on the tops 
of clocks, condemned to the useful role of paper-weights; but wherever we 
find them they always preserve their intrinsic nobility of character, and be- 
long no more to what is loosely called "industrial art" than do the Tanagra 
figurines, for they are conceived with the same breadth as the greatest stat- 
ues. By an elimination of details he gained what we might call a fictitiously 
monumental character. An elephant only a few inches high seems a colossus 
— in miniature; a lion, which a few pounds of metal would suffice to cast, 
produces an impression of grandeur. 

Look over his works, large and small, and note how every one is stamped 
and dominated by that for which there is no other term than "style." Barye 
sought unceasingly for harmony of form, and found it always. Under his 
hand each line is at once true and eloquent, and the general outline which 
bounds the group or figure cuts against the background with breadth and 
amplitude. With infinite art he concentrated the spectator's attention upon 
the dominant parts — the vigorous limbs, the solid and salient muscles which 
make large flat bosses under the hide; and finally we must admire the won- 
derful exactness with which he established the proportions, one of the secrets 
of his power, for no artist has ever studied anatomv more carefully, or used 
his knowledge with more triumphant effect. 

Barye was the first to reproduce certain animals which the sculptor's chisel 
had before avoided. He dignified in bronze the rabbit, the pelican, and the 
monkey; and even with these, or with such clumsy models as the elephant 
on the full trot, or the bear at his lumbering play, he created works which bear 
the imprint of the highest stvle, because he has so disposed the outlines as 
to give even the ugliest and clumsiest of them a certain gracious dignity. 

To this faculty of elevating reality and ennobling form Barye added the 
power of rendering life in full intensity, and these constitute the two most 
characteristic qualities of his genius. He went as far as is possible in sculp- 
ture in the expression of movement. Note this tiger crouched against the 
ground, ready to shoot through the air in a terrible spring ; this owl just alight- 
ing on a tree, his outstretched wings still feeling the air beneath them; this 
horse passing at full gallop, or neighing as he prances and curvets; this pan- 
ther, crafty and feline, stealing along with silent steps. Or note these ter- 


B A R Y E 31 

rific battles in which wild beasts, reptiles, and great carnivorous birds take 
pait. A lion is about to crush, with formidable paw, a serpent, fearful de- 
spite its littleness; a jaguar bounds upon a deer, and bites through its neck; 
an eagle on his aery rips with curved beak the body of a dying heron; a boa- 
constrictor wraps his great rings about a crocodile and strangles him, while 
the reptile, yawning his enormous maw, lashes and twists. In every one of 
these combats Barye gives us fury at its paroxysm, rage at its fiercest. Yet 
though everything is contorted, violent, frightful, tragic, the artist was con- 
stantly mindful of his broad lines, which ever remained obedient to the most 
rigorous canons of sculptural art. 

Barye was not the sculptor of movement and tense attitude only. He has 
given us animals motionless and at rest. A stag standing upon a rock listens 
in the solitude; a lion dreams with eyes half closed; a gazelle lies relaxed 
in death; a rabbit hunched up into a ball is nibbling peacefully; a heron, 
that melancholy philosopher, is depicted sleeping poised upon one leg, head 
beneath wing. 

Gifted with a penetrating and analytical mind, Barye studied nature in all 
her infinite variety. He knew the distinctive characteristics of each race, 
the peculiarities of each species. No two of his animals are alike. Each has 
the individual aspect, pose, and attitude proper to it — its own individuality, 
as it were. His panther from Tunis is very different from the panther from 
India; his stag from the banks of the Ganges could not be confounded with 
the stag from France; and a horse fancier would recognize at first glance not 
only whether the horse he depicts belonged to one or another breed, but 
whether it was full-blooded or half-blooded. But this scientific knowledge 
did not cramp his vitalizing power. His animals are neither stiffened nor 
imprisoned in their bronze forms. Their immobility seems only an instant's 
suspension of movement. Let the fairy's wand touch them and they will re- 
sume that movement. Nor have they any of that mournful sadness or dis- 
honored look which comes to an animal long confined in a cage. His beasts 
live in the boundless desert, in the tangled depths of inaccessible forests, or 
on the crags of rugged mountains, superb in the full development of their 
natural forces. 

Note, too, that in Barye's animals the effect of movement is no local thing, 
or brought about by any ingenious trick or artifice of the studio. The roar- 
ing lion roars with every limb, from his rising mane to his lashing tail; the 
pointing dog shows in every muscle fixity which precedes the spring. Break 
one of his bronzes, carry a limb to some disciple of Cuvier, and he will re- 
construct for you not only the animal, but its attitude. 

Barye by no means stopped with the rendering of exterior forms. He gives 
us the inner qualities quite as forcibly — the temperament, the instinct. 
With what feline voluptuousness this jaguar sucks the blood of his victims! 
Is not this elephant wise and debonair despite his colossal bulk? Does not 
this curveting and whinnving horse show pride in his freedom and elegance 
of movement ? 

It has often beew avouched that Barve had a special liking for murderous 



and terrible scenes. I believe that those who think this do not fully under- 
stand his work. In even the most terrible of these mortal combats he never 
evidences a taste for cruelty. He merely avails himself of the fittest means 
to exhibit the ferocity of the beasts which he represents. Unquestionably the 
bent of his genius did attract him to displays of force and nervous powerj 
but he could see equally what was graceful and fantastic in animal life. Ter- 
rible and tragic when he shows us a tiger furious in his rage, he is equally 
graceful and charming when he shows us a light and slender gazelle, and de- 
lightfully humorous when he depicts a bear in his trough, another standing 
clumsily on his hind legs, or a solemn heron riding on the back of a tortoise. 
Again he has his epic side, as in his 'Seated Lion,' and makes himself "the 
Michelangelo of the animal world." 

Barye effected a revolution in the sculpture of his time. Before him not 
only were certain animals thought unworthy of the sculptor's attention, but 
even those which passed for noble, like the lion and the horse, had come to 
be considered of only secondary importance — as mere accessories to the hu- 
man figures. But Barye brushed aside the impossibly noble courser, whose 
function it was to bear heroes or draw triumphant cars, and took for his model 
the living horse. The half-heraldic, half-classic lion with his humanized face 
seemed to him ridiculous, and he conceived the novel idea — which, some- 
how, seemed monstrous to his contemporaries — of studying him in the men- 
agerie. For convention and formalism he substituted vitality and truth. 

Was he then a "realist," this innovator? Before answering the question 
it would be wise to come to an understanding as to the exact sense of that 
much-abused term. If realism be the conscientious, penetrating, faithful ren- 
dering of nature, if, in a word, it implies a passion for truth, we may count 
Barye among the realists, and as one of realism's greatest glories. If, on the 
other hand, by realism is meant nothing but a servile reproduction of every 
manifestation of nature, a copying of the real object with Chinese fidelity, 
and without choice as to that object, and if the search for the real blind the 
seeker to all save the outward show of things — then Barye never was a real- 
ist. He investigated the structure of animals, knew the dimensions of each 
bone, dissected their bodies curiously; but, better than any one could tell him, 
he knew the exact point where anatomy stops and art begins. Never is his 
work a mere display of erudition ; never did he parade his knowledge of tech- 
nical details. 

His forms, rendered though they are with scrupulous care, defy the dis- 
secting-knife, for there are two kinds of truth even of structure, one of which 
we may call "anatomical truth" and the other "artistic truth." One is pos- 
itive, brutal, unvarying; the other shows things according to the laws of art, 
and brings to that depiction beauty, order, harmony, and mass. Barye was 
master of both of these truths, but he availed himself of the anatomical iruth 
only that he might base his artistic truth upon a surer foundation. He sup- 
pressed, or rather merely hinted at, the secondary parts and multiplex details 
of the muscular system, and modeled, as art demands, in large planes and 
masses; but these correspond so accurately to the anatomical divisions of 
the bony structure that it does not suffer, while art gains. He combined two 



natures, that of the artist and that of the naturalist; and the artist, who con- 
ceived and planned, was dominant; the naturalist obeyed and executed, and 
was secondary. 

It is a strange fact that Barye, who in representing animals rendered the 
impression of movement and life so powerfully, seemed to obey quite another 
impulse in representing man. Here, instead of movement and strain, he de- 
picted almost wholly attitudes which are calm, tranquil, and full of a grave 
dignity. Though with less serenity and a less degree of ideal elevation, his 
statues, like those of antiquity, show us primarily beautiful bodies, and ex- 
press no transient emotions. Their whole end seems to be to image forth 
beauty through harmony of plastic perfection. He may be compared to the 
Greek masters whenever he touches the human figure per se, for in every case 
he represents not a man, but man taken in the broadest abstraction. By efface- 
ment of individuality he elevates his statue to a type — and upon this point 
the sculptor of the figure and the sculptor of the animal in him were one. 

Some attempt has been made to establish a link between the character of 
Egyptian sculpture and Barye's style. In the general silhouette, in the en- 
velop of lines, there is a certain nobility common to both; but the art of 
Egypt is more solemn, more majestic, more grandiose than Barye's, and has 
none of his warmth, intimacy, and life. What a contrast, for instance, be- 
tween the Egyptian Sphinx, crouching for eternity, and a tiger by Barye, leap- 
ing in fury upon its adversary. His work recalls, if it recalls anything, the 
animal sculpture of Assyria rather than that of Egypt; but he could not have 
been influenced by Assyrian models. He had exhibited all his prime qualities 
ten years before the newly discovered bas-reliefs from Khorsabad revealed 
the impressive art of Nineveh to France. 

Where, then, may we discover the parentage of Barye's genius, or trace 
the influences which unconsciously went to the formation of his talents? Per- 
haps all that it is safe to affirm is that his genius was primarily that of his 
own time and country expressed through his own strong individual temper- 
ament. The transports of imagination, the ideal flights, the aspirations which 
glorified Renaissance art in Italy during its golden period were not for him; 
but he did possess that temperance, practical good sense, analytical power, and 
faculty of lucid conception and clear expression which have been the natural 
qualities of the French school of art at its best. To him, as to most French 
artists, the domain of transcendent and abstract conception was closed. His 
is an art neither of sentiment nor of emotion, but of form and of force. He 
was not a poet. He had a message, and spoke to his own time and in his own 
language what was given him to say; but that message was a new one, and 
was spoken with a plenitude and energy which will make it forever superb. 



BARYE transports us into a world the existence of which we half forget 
— a world without mercy or pity, in which necessity, the only law, dom- 
inates; a world in which fear, craft, and violence reign. But he, the creator, 
looks on without emotion; he does not sympathize; he sheds no tears; he 



points no moral and draws no conclusion. He merely depicts, shows us the 
fact — that is his role. Antique in his calm aloofness, as in his precision and 
firmness of hand, he is yet modern in his love of the dramatic, the striking, 
and the picturesque. 


IT would have been impossible to predict the promise of Barye's future 
from his first competition medal, 'Milo of Crotona Devoured by a Lion,' 
made when he was trying for the Prix de Rome in 1819, or from another 
bas-relief sketch of this same period, ' Hector Reproaching Paris.' Only when 
poverty forced him to abandon his academic studies and he entered Faucon- 
nier's workshop, and there, for some unknown reason, took up the model- 
ing of animals, did his originality begin to develop. 

His first real masterpiece was the 'Lion Crushing a Serpent,' exhibited in 
1833. Compare this monarch of the desert, thin, and rough of hide, with 
the academic lion which had theretofore been the accepted type in sculpture 
— a solemn, coldly ornamental beast, destitute of all real nobility, and whose 
majesty, such as it is, was pure attribution, and in no wise derived from na- 
ture — and we may readily grasp the essential elements of novelty in Barye's 
work. These consisted primarily of a first-hand study of the beast itself, and 
of a profound knowledge of its anatomical structure. 

But Barye's 'Lion and Serpent' showed even more. It was a work of 
militant romanticism. His lion was a wild lion, with every trace of wildness 
emphasized, and it was this which gave the group its moving quality. Like 
the ancient sculptors, he marked with extraordinary distinctness the gullet and 
paw, those members of the animal which are the instruments of its energy, 
and most necessary to its existence — but unlike them, his work has no archi- 
tectonic restraint or touch of symbolism. Neither, on the other hand, does 
it show any taint of the theatrical, the humanly emotional, such as marked 
the animal paintings of Rubens, Snyders, and their school. His lion is de- 
picted purely for himself, with all considerations of environment, ornament, 
and mise en scene disregarded. He is beautiful only with the beauty of his na- 
tive wildness, dignified only with the dignity of natural might. 

Thanks to innate genius, coupled with his study of living nature, Barye 
with this group freed animal-sculpture from all captivity, whether from that 
of the menagerie or from the still more stifling imprisonment of convention. 
But he had not yet reached his height. The ' Lion Crushing a Serpent ' lacked 
that breadth of treatment, that simplification, which the laws of plastic art 
require, and which distinguish sculpture from mere casts from life. 

To such a criticism Barye's 'Seated Lion' of 1847 might seem an answer. 
It is a work of monumental sculpture of the first order. The principal divi- 
sions of the body, the muscular masses, the head and the mane, are all ren- 
dered with a simplicity and energy which equal the finest animal-sculptures 
of Egypt and Assvria. But though equally monumental and imposing, Barye's 
lion shows none of the coldness, the architectonic impassibility, of Egyptian 
and Assyrian sculpture, in which planes and proportions were established by 



rigid and hieratic tradition. Equally typical, the type has here been arrived 
at through the observation and digestion of natural detail. Barye's lion is 
real, might live, might leap down from the pedestal; yet all this naturalism 
is subordinated to the central oneness of the whole — the statue is the abstract 
of leonine being. 

In his 'Seated Lion,' then, Barye showed that he had learned the lesson 
which all modern sculptors must learn; namely, that the point of departure 
of true art is not from the ideal, but must spring from nature and thence at- 
tain to ideality. In this work, while remaining fundamentally true to life, he 
had by force of genius and plastic energy attained supreme sculptural ex- 

Meantime, though devoting most of his attention to animal-sculpture, 
Barye had not neglected man. The numerous figures of his earlier years, 
such as the horsemen in his hunting groups, are remarkable for vitality and 
truthfulness to the race and time to which they belong ; and in his later works, 
in which he dealt with the figure primarily, such as the four stone groups for 
the Louvre, he proved himself no less a master of the forms of man than of 
animals, exhibiting the same characteristics — energy of conception, breadth 
in execution, and essential truth to structure — in rendering both. 

This joint knowledge of the anatomy of man and beast qualified Barye to 
excel in a branch of sculpture in which most other modern artists have sig- 
nally failed — the representation of such chimerical beings as the hippogrifF 
of his 'Rogero and Angelica,' the centaur of his 'Centaur and Lapith' and the 
minotaur of his 'Theseus Slaying the Minotaur.' The hippogrifF, for exam- 
ple, is a horse, whose beak and claws appear under Barye's hand, if fantas- 
tic, at least not impossible, for not only are they real beak and claws, but 
their junctures with the nose and fetlocks of the horse are true anatomical 
junctures; the wings — most difficult features to handle successfully in sculp- 
ture — seem able to sustain the animal and capable of movement by his mus- 
cles. In the minotaur, again, note the absolutely convincing juncture of the 
bull's head with the man's shoulders. 

If the aim of sculpture be to disengage and present the essential and per- 
manent elements in living beings, Barye took the surest road, for there is no 
more certain way to determine what these constituent and immutable ele- 
ments are than by the study ot nature. Every animal that he molded was 
first, and above all else, the representation of some particular species, and 
of some particular instinct. Moreover, he scrupulously obeyed that law which 
demands that the artist shall depict nothing untrue to the nature of his model, 
or incapable of being expressed through its natural exterior form. In not 
one of his works do we find any attempt at theatrical mise en scene., any trace 
of the "pathetic fallacy." Each of his figures lives solely for and of itself, 
absorbed in its own individuality. He never takes a subject out of its own 
sphere, never gives it an emotion which is unnatural to it. 

But let not this insistence upon naturalism as Barye's prime tenet mislead 
the reader into thinking that he was a mere realist — a copier of actuality. 
Nothing could be further from the truth. Nature served as the basis of his 



works, but those works were ideal. He strove to discover for himself what 
nature's facts really were, and then (if I may employ the figure) cast the metal 
of these facts in the mold of his own genius. You will never find one of his 
works, not even the hastiest sketch, that is a mere portrait or imitation of 
reality. It would have been opposed to his whole conception of sculpture to 
consecrate in bronze or plaster the relative disorder of any individual form. 

Let us now for a moment consider Barye's work from a more technical 
standpoint. To begin with, the subjects he preferred to treat are not those 
which represent emotions. He shows us neither joy nor sadness. His heroes 
fight impassively, his animals satisfy their instincts. What he did choose to 
represent was movement, and he selected the most suitable material for sculp- 
ture which depicts movement; namely, bronze. To assure solidity in a mar- 
ble group with much variety of outline the sculptor is compelled to make use 
of purely artificial supports (we all know the impossible stump, growing im- 
possibly under the belly of the horse); but the tenacity of bronze allows 
small supports to carry large masses, so that the outline may be kept free; 
and, as it is hardly necessary to point out, the essential feature in sculpture 
dealing primarily with movement is outline. 

Moreover, bronze, with its strong reflections of high light and black wells 
of shadow, does not show forms by the delicate transitions between half- 
lights and half-shades as marble does, so that objects molded in it are mainly 
distinguished by their contours; and in choosing bronze as his medium Barye 
chose material best suited to his style, for he excelled in drawing, or outline. 
Indeed he drew better than he modeled, cared more for line than for surface. 
His forms are analyzed and summed up in broad surfaces bounded by lines 
of remarkable sweep and firmness. His, in a word, was the architectural type 
of sculpture, and it is perhaps this quality that allies it with earlier antique 
carvings, giving certain of his works something of an archaic look that sets 
them back in time, and lends them an aspect of authority that most modern 
sculpture lacks. 

If such are the ideas that Barye's works suggest, these works themselves 
stand above censure, either by artist or scientist. We may hand them down 
to posterity secure in the conviction that our judgment of their eminence will 
be confirmed. — abridged from the French 

Ci)e Woxk^ of 35arpe 


IN 1836 Barye exhibited the plaster original of this colossal 'Seated Lion.' 
Eleven years later the French government had it reproduced in bronze, 
and set up beside the stately Pavilion de Flore entrance to the Louvre, facing 



the Seine. As another figure was needed to balance it on the other side of 
the portal, Barye was asked to furnish a duplicate. This seemed to him an 
artistic heresy which he could not countenance. To his thinking, the only 
possible companion for the 'Seated Lion' would be another figure which 
should not cheapen the first by suggesting an indefinite number of seated 
lions all cast from the same mold. But the price he demanded for a com- 
panion work (which, indeed, he seemed not at all anxious to undertake) was 
so high that the authorities revoked the commission, and, in spite of his pro- 
test, had a reversed duplicate cast for the other side of the entrance — an 
action which wounded him cruelly. 

The 'Seated Lion' is unquestionably Barye's masterpiece in the monu- 
mental style. "Abandoning all the minute details which marked his previous 
work," writes Arsene Alexandre, "Barye here composed in the broadest and 
most monumental lines, and modeled in the most vigorous and summary 
masses, so that the eye, distracted bv no detail, feels at a glance the power- 
ful tranquillity and august pride of the whole. Conscious of his might, the 
lion seems at once to command, to disdain, to watch, to dream, and to guard; 
yet beneath the outward calm we divine the inner force. It would be im- 
possible to imagine a more striking presentment of power in repose." 


BARYE was careful to discriminate between different species in his rep- 
resentations of animals. We do not need the "Senegal" to tell us that 
this 'Elephant Running' is from Africa. The elephant of Asia has smaller 
ears and tusks, its back is curved upwards and its brow is straight, while the 
African elephant has a brow curved outward and a hollow back. 

"This figure," writes Roger Ballu, "is a wonderful piece of work. The 
elephant has agility, a certain grace, even lightness; and yet all this without 
prejudice to the essential bulk and heaviness of the natural animal." 
The height of the figure is five and a half inches. 


THE full title of this group, which was modeled about 1851, and which 
measures fifteen inches high, is given in Barye's catalogue as 'A Large 
Panther Seizing a Stag of the Ganges.' 

"The stag's hind quarters sink," writes M. Roger Ballu, "his head and 
neck are borne almost to the ground under the terrible pressure of the pan- 
ther's paw, struck between his eyes and muzzle, while the latter, the superb 
mounting line of his body rising from the squatting hind paws as a base, seizes 
the neck of the stag in his jaws, and bears down his prey beneath his weight." 


THE Parisian public was startled, at the Salon of 1831, by this group, 
which was shown in plaster, half life-size. Its audacious realism shocked 
many. "You smell the menagerie as you look at it," wrote one critic. "Its 
over-naturalness debases the art of sculpture," wrote another. Nevertheless 



its vivid vitality compelled attention. "What energy, what ferocity," writes 
Gautierj "what a thrill of satisfied lust for killing shows in the flattened ears, 
the savage, gleaming eyes, the curved, nervous back, the clutching paws, the 
rocking haunches, and the writhing tail of the panther, and how the poor 
scaly monster doubles in agony under those cutting teeth and claws." 

The group first showed Barye as an innovating spirit in sculpture, and it 
is evident that (as a writer in the 'Magazine of Art' has pointed out), "not- 
withstanding its vitality and truth, the work was still too close to merely im- 
itative realism; Barye had not yet gained that authority which later enabled 
him to accentuate the typical and subordinate the merely accidental." 

The full title of the group, which was bought by the French government 
in 1848 for the Luxembourg Gallery and is now in the Louvre, is 'A Tiger 
Devouring a Gavial of the Ganges.' The gavial is a species of crocodile in 
which the end of the snout attains, in old males, the flattened protuberance 
shown in Barye's model. 


THOUGH Barye made his greatest fame as the sculptor of animals, 
hardly one of his many human figures is insignificant or undignified. 
The critics previously quoted have spoken at length of his treatment of man, 
and M. Guillaume has also pointed out (see page 35) that his knowledge of 
anatomy fitted him especially for the representation of such half-man, half- 
animal beings as the bull-headed minotaur of this group, which is perhaps 
his most masterly achievement outside animal-sculpture. 

The minotaur was, in Greek mythology, a monster which devoured the 
youths and maidens whom the Athenians were periodically compelled to 
send him as a tribute. He was killed by the hero Theseus, and Barve shows 
us the climax of the struggle. 

"In creating this work," writes Clement, "Barye could hardly fail to re- 
member the 'Theseus' of the Parthenon ; but though he preserved the Greek 
type, he borrowed nothing, and the group, while imbued with the antique 
sentiment and character, has all the life and warmth of a modern work. The 
virile beauty of Theseus, with his broadly massed torso, proud attitude, and 
superhuman calm, contrasts markedly with the bestial fury and gross, heavy 
limbs of the minotaur. Brute force is struggling against heroic intelligence, 
and we have no doubt of the result." 

" Had this group," writes Mr. De Kay, "been dug up at Pompeii or Olym- 
pia every art magazine in the world would have had its portrait and expa- 
tiated on its magnificent Greekness; every museum would have sent for casts, 
and lecturers would have pointed out wherein the modern lagged far behind the 
ancients; namely, in the wonderfully fresh way the real was blended with the 
ideal. It falls short of the very greatest sculpture known only by having in 
a less degree that bright and godlike serenity we find in such works as the 
'Venus of Melos.'" 

The group was begun in 1841 and finished in 1846, though not exhibited 
at the Salon till 1851. It measures eighteen inches high. 


B ARY E 39 


OF all the animals which Barye introduced to an astonished public in the 
early nineteenth century, perhaps that which surprised them most was 
the bear. From time immemorial the lion had been considered a noble ani- 
mal; the horse was allowed in sculpture because the ancients had treated 
him, and because without him equestrian statuary would have been impos- 
sible; the boar and dog were tolerated because of their ennobling connection 
with the chase; but the clumsy bear was considered distinctly unworthy of 
the honors of bronze or marble. Barye, however, took poor, outcast Bruin for 
one of his favorite subjects, representing him, singly or in groups, at least ten 
times; and one of his best achievements in a lighter mood is this 'Standing 
Bear,' which he produced in 1833. There is something waggish about the 
little figure (it measures only nine and a half inches high), which yet expresses 
admirably that mixture of force and heavy awkward indolence characteristic 
of bears of all species. 


"^ I ''HE epithet 'paper-weights' was often applied to Barye's smaller 
X bronzes by those whom it pleased to sneer at them," writes Arsene 
Alexandre. "Perhaps the title was never more ridiculously inappropriate 
than when aimed at such a figure as the 'Walking Lion,' even though it 
measures but thirteen inches high. The play of the muscles is so accurately 
observed, the whole line of the body, from the mane just beginning to rise 
in anger to the tail which impatiently lashes the air, is rendered with such 
vitality, and the legs give such an impression of just moving into the next 
step, that it would be truer to say that the giance /o Hows the animal rather 
than observes him. If the 'Walking Lion' be a paper-weight, it is worthy 
to hold down only such papers as the manuscripts of Shakespeare or Victor 


THE wolf, leaping from cover, has seized the running stag by the throat. 
The stag's impetus has dragged the wolf under his belly, but now he is 
pinned fast and can run no further. Again Barye gives us the supreme mo- 
ment of the struggle. "It seems," writes M. Alexandre, "as if he threw his 
combatants together and then waited, calmly, to seize the vital moment 
which was to decide the fate of the mortal duel." 


"^T~^HE jaguar, squatting on his hind paws, his belly settling to the ground, 
A. raises his breast, propped on one forepaw, the strong bone of its joint 
breaking the serpentine line of the flank, and burrows his jaws into the en- 
trails of the hare, his neck furrowed with great swellings," writes Edmond 
de Goncourt. "The hungry, eager reach of neck and shoulders, the con- 
tented settling down of the hind quarters, dimpled with nervous contractions, 



the infolding of the powerful hind legs, the writhe of the tail — the torsion 
at its end suggesting the last ebb of the excitement of the attack — the ter- 
rible puckering of the face, the laying back of the small ears, the skilful op- 
position of the effect of those parts in which the muscles are relaxed and 
dormant and those in which they are tense and in action — all this makes 
the group one of those imitations of nature beyond which sculpture cannot go. 
Truly it is a perfect rendering of the fierce, gluttonous, voluptuous enjoy- 
ment of the feline beast in the taste of blood." 

If any one of Barye's works can fairly be termed his masterpiece it is this 
group, exhibited in plaster at the Salon of 1850, and in bronze at the Salon 
of 1852. It measures fifteen and a half inches high. 


IN a much-quoted passage Theophile Gautier has imagined the effect which 
this lion, first exhibited in plaster at the Salon of 1833, must have made 
upon the servile academic images of the animal which sculptors had been 
heretofore content to reproduce. "These marble lions," he writes, "had 
manes like the perruque wigs of the time of Louis xiv., the neatly waved 
locks of which fell gracefully over their backs; their faces were debonair, 
with almost human features, reminding one of the traditional countenance 
of the 'noble father' in the old comedies; their flaccid bodies, seemingly 
stuffed with bran, showed no trace of bone or muscle; and one uplifted paw 
usually rested gracefully on a ball — not a very leonine gesture it must be 
confessed. ... At the sight of Barye's superb and terrible beast, bristling 
his unkempt mane, wrinkling his muzzle with a rage mingled with disgust 
above the hideous reptile which, pinned under his claws, writhes in a con- 
vulsion of impotent rage, all these poor old marble lions must have whipped 
their tails between their legs, and let the balls, which served to keep them in 
countenance, escape." 

The details in this group are not so broadly handled as in Barye's later 
work, and the outline of the whole is, from a distance, somewhat confused; 
but all critics agree in regarding it as a masterpiece of energy and realism. 

It was purchased by the French government, and in 1835, cast in bronze, 
was set up in the Tuileries Garden, where it still stands. A cast of it has 
been presented by France to the Metropolitan Museum, New York. It 
measures a trifle over four feet in height. 


Shortly after Barye's death an exhibition of his works, comprising some three hundred and fifty bronzes 
or plaster models, one hundred oil-paintings, seventy water-colors, and upwards of one hundred drawings 
and sketches, was held at the £cole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. These represented the contents of his studio 
at the time of his death. In addition to these he had executed a number of unique works which were in 
private collections or in public places. The Corcoran Gallery, Washington, now possesses perhaps the most 
satisfactory collection of his bronzes. The following list takes account only of Barye's animal and figure 
sculptures. For his decorative pieces, paintings in oil and water-color, etchings, drawings, etc., see the re- 
print of Barye's own catalogues given in Roger Ballu's ' Barye ' and the list in Arsene Alexandre's ' Barye.* 


BAR YE : •*••": t**-*.^!-. ; 


CORSICA. AjACCiO: Equestrian Statue of Napoleon I. — FRANCE. Lyons Museum: 
Tiger devouring Virginian Stag — Marseilles Museum: Two Tigers devouring a 
Stag; Lion devouring Wild Boar; Lion devouring Antelope — Paris: Bas-relief Lion, 
Column of July — Paris, Church of the Madeleine: St. Clotilde — Paris, Louvre: 
Tiger devouring a Crocodile (Plate iv). [Entrance to Pavilion de Flore] Seated Lion 
(Plate i). [CouR du Carrousel] Four Stone Groups: (i) War, (2) Peace, (3) Force, 
(4) Order; Napoleon iii. dominating History and the Arts (bas-relief); Two Figures of 
Youths representing Rivers — Paris, Tuileries Garden : Lion crushing Serpent (Plate x). 

BR ONZE figures 

TABLE Decoration for Duke of Orleans, comprising nine pieces: (i) Hunt of Tiger 
with Elephant, (2) Hunt of Lion with Buffaloes, (3) Hunt of Wild Ox, (4) Hunt of 
Bear, (5) Hunt of Ellc, (6) Eagle and Wild Goat, (7) Serpent with Bison, (8) Lion with 
Boar, (9) Leopard with Doe; Bust of the Duke of Orleans; Napoleon Bonaparte; Ama- 
zon; Gaston de Foix; Charles vi. in the Forest of Mans; Charles vii.; Tartar Warrior 
reining up Horse; Two Arab Cavaliers killing Lion; Medieval Cavalier; Arab Cavalier 
killing Wild Boar; Arab Cavalier killing Lion; Cavalier surprised by Serpent; Elephant 
ridden by Indian crushing Tiger; Warrior of the Caucasus; Huntsman, Louis xv. Cos- 
tume; Medieval Peasant; Rogero and Angelica on the Hippogriff; The Graces; Nereid 
arranging Necklace; Minerva; Apollo; Juno; Theseus slaying the Minotaur (Plate v); 
Centaur and Lapith; Theseus struggling with Centaur Bianor. 

bronze animals 

MONKEY on Gnu; Bear pulled down by Dogs; Bear fleeing from Dogs; Two 
Young Bears boxing; Bear eating an Owl; Standing Bear (Plate vi); Seated Bear; 
Ratel stealing Eggs; Greyhound lying down; 'Tom,' Algerian Greyhound; Harrier 
fetching Hare; Dalmatian Dog and Pheasant; Spaniel and Dalmatian Dogs pointing Par- 
tridges; Spaniel pointing Pheasant; Seated Hound; Standing Hound; English Hound; 
Wolf seizing Stag by the Throat (Plate viii); Wolf abandoning his Prey; Wolf caught in 
Trap; Two Young Lions; Lion holding Guiba; Lion devouring Doe; Lion and Serpent 
(Sketch for the 'Lion' of the Tuileries Garden); Seated Lion; Lioness of Senegal; Lion- 
ess of Algeria; Walking Lion (Plate vii); Walking Tiger; Walking Lion (new model); 
Walking Tiger (new model); Tiger surprising Antelope; Panther seizing a Stag (Plate 
in); Tiger surprising a Stag; Tiger devouring Gazelle; Panther lying down; Panther of 
India; Panther of Tunis (bis); Panther surprising Civet-cat; Panther holding Stag; Jaguar 
devouring Hare (Plate ix); Walking Jaguar; Standing Jaguar; Jaguar holding Alligator; 
Jaguar devouring Agouti; Sleeping Jaguar; Jaguar devouring Crocodile; Ocelot carrying 
off Heron; Cat; Rabbit; Seated Hare; Startled Hare; Elephant crushing Tiger; Elephant 
of China; Elephant of Senegal running (Plate 11); Elephant of Asia; Elephant of Africa; 
Horse surprised by Lion; Full-blooded Horse; Half-blooded Horse; Half-blooded Horse 
with lowered Head; Turkish Horse; Percheron Horse; Wild Ass; Dromedary of Algeria 
(bis); Dromedary of Egypt; Dromedary ridden by Arab; Persian Camel; Elk surprised 
by Lynx; Family of Deer; Stag pulled down by Scotch Hound; French Stag walking; 
French Stag resting; Stag listening; Stag belling; Stag with lifted Leg; Family of Stags; 
Stag rubbing Horns against Tree; Spotted Deer; Java Stag; Spotted Stag; Stag of the 
Ganges; Virginian Stag; Dead Wild Goat; Ethiopian Gazelle; Kevel; Bull; Rearing 
Bull seized by Tiger; Bull pulled down by Bear; Small Bull; Buffalo; Wounded Boar; 
Eagle holding Heron; Eagle with outspread Wings; Eagle holding Serpent; Parrakeet on 
Tree; Pheasant; Wounded Pheasant; Chinese Golden Pheasant; Stork standing on Tor- 
toise; Owl; Marabout Stork; Tortoise; Crocodile; Crocodile devouring Antelope; Python 
swallowing Doe; Python strangling Crocodile; Lion of the Zodiac (bas-relief reduction of 
the Lion of the Bastille); Leopard (bas-relief); Panther (bas-relief); Genet carrying off 
a Bird (bas-relief); Virginian Stag (bas-relief); Buck; Doe and Fawn; Doe lying down; 



Hind lying down; Fawn; Group of Rabbits; Elk surprised by Lynx; Python seizing 
Gnu; Tiger devouring Antelope; Horse attacked by Tiger; Buck pulled down by Alge- 
rian Greyhounds; Buck overturned by Greyhounds; Lion devouring Wild Boar; Seated 
Bear; Pheasant on Tree; Dead Gazelle; Bear in his Trough; Panther holding Gazelle; 
Head of Chimpanzee. 

3$arj>e 3SiiIiosrap})p 


The chief work on Barye is Roger Ballu's large and excellently illustrated 'L'QLuvre de Barye ' (Paris, 
1890). Arsene Alexandre's 'A. L. Barye,' a smaller book, is interestingly written. In English the prin- 
cipal work is Charles de Kay's * Barye' (New York, 1889). 

ALEXANDRE, A. A. L. Barye. Paris [i 889] — Ballu, R. L'CEuvre de Barye. 
-Paris, 1890 — Blanc, C. Artistes de nion temps. Paris, 1876 — Brownell, W. C. 
French Art. New York, 1901 — Catalogue of the works of Barye, exhibited at the 
American Art Galleries, New York, 1 899-1 900 — Child, T. Art and Criticism. New 
York, 1892 — Claretie, J. Peintres et sculpteurs contemporains. Paris, 1882 — Cle- 
ment, C. Artistes anciens et modernes. Paris, 1876 — De K y, C. Barye. New York, 
1889 — GiGOUX, J. Causeries sur les artistes de mon temps. Paris, 1885 — Goncourt, 
E. DE. Preface, * Catalogue de la Vente Sichel.' Paris, 1886 — GoNSE, L. La Sculpture 
fran(;aise depuis le xive siecle. Paris, 1895 — Guillaume, E. Notice, 'Catalogue de 
r Exposition de Barye a I'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. ' Paris [1889] — Guillaume, E. No- 
tices et discours. Paris [1898] — Lenormant, C. Les Artistes contemporains: Salons de 
1831, 1833. Paris, 1833 — Petroz, P. L' Art et la critique en France. Paris, 1875 — 
Planche, G. Etudes sur I'ecole franqaise. Paris, 1855 — Roger-Miles, L. Collection 
Georges Lutz. [Paris, 1902] — Silvestre, T. Histoire des artistes vivants. Paris, 1856 — 
Silvestre, T. Les Artistes fran^ais. Paris, 1878 — Smith, C. S. Barbizon Days. New 
York, 1902 — Walters, W. T. Barye; From the French of various critics. [Baltimore, 

magazine articles 

AMERICAN ARCHITECT, 1890: The Barye Exhibition — L'Art, 1875: C. Blanc; 
. Barye. A. Genevay; Barye. E. Veron; Exposition des oeuvres de Barye au Palais 
des Beaux-Arts — Art Journal, 1888: W. E. Henley; Barye — Century Magazine, 
1886: C. de Kay (pseud. H. Eckford); Barye — Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1859: 
Ventes d'aquarelles, de dessins, et de tableaux, i860: T. Gautier; Exposition de tableaux 
modernes. 1867: P. Mantz; Barye. 1889: L. J. F. Bonnat; Barye — L'Illustration, 
1866: T. Gautier; Barye — Journal des Debats, 1875: J. Clement; Barye — Les 
Arts, 1903: G. Migeon; Les Bronzes de Barye dans la collection Thomy Thierry — 
Magazine of Art, 1891: Anon. (Review of Roger Ballu's 'Barye') — Nation, 1890: 
W. A. Coffin; Review of De Kay's 'Barye' — New Englander and Yale Review, 
1889: D. C. Eaton; Barye (translation of Bonnat's article in Gazette des Beaux-Arts) — 
New England Magazine, 1904: R. I. Geare; The Remarkable Barye Bronzes — Revue 
des Deux MoNDES, 1870: C. d'Henriet; Barye et son oeuvre. 1851: G. Planche; Barye. 






S iJCa l St 

£t3 t* tai S 


a7s;j. •"•' ^ ^' " ^"" ^ 

In answering advertisements, please mention Masters IN Art 







Author of 

•' A Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art," 

" Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and their Works," 

"Stories of Art and Artists," 

" Artists of the Nineteenth Century." 

A VALUABLE biographical and critical handbook, reviewing the work done by 
women in Painting, Sculpture, and the Lesser Arts, from the seventh century B.C. 
down to the present day. 

The conditions in various countries which have encouraged and aided women in ar- 
tistic pursuits, and resulted in their freedom to share the studies and honors now avail- 
able for artists, are outlined, thus giving an idea of the atmosphere in which, at different 
epochs, these women have lived and worked, and of the influences which affected the 
results of their labors. 

The volume also includes biographical notices of artists of all nations, in which the 
important and interesting facts relating to their studies and achievements are given, thus 
adding to its value. 

An attractive feature is the inclusion of over thirty reproductions of paintings and 
sculptures, of which the larger number have been contributed by the artists themselves, 
for this purpose. "Women in the Fine Arts," although more comprehensive, resembles 
"Artists of the Nineteenth Century," and will fill a place in the history of women in 
art like that which has been accorded to the earlier art-books by Mrs. Clement. 

Illustrated. i2mo, $2,50, net. Postpaid, $2,65. 



4 Park Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sirs: Send, postpaid, to the following address, one copy of Mrs. Clement's "Women in the 
Fine Arts," for which I enclose ^2.65. 

Very truly. 

In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art 



Selected for their fine Color & 
the perfection of their C^/fliT^ 
j^By this means stones or 

the greatest Brilliancy 

^ Beauty dre securedir 

Foster £? Co. 

32 West SXree^i.Boston 



O F 



is called to the exceptionally high class of advertising carried by Masters in Art, the policy of the advertising manage- 
ment excluding certain classes of advertisements as undesirable for a magazine so closely associated with the best of home 
life, even though these same advertisements are accepted by many of the leading magazines. 


art publications 





Reproduction of famous 
paintings by old and mod- 
ern masters. 2, zoo sub- 
jects in Black and White 
or bepia. bize, 5^2 x 8. 

One Cent Each 

1 20 FOR $1 .00 

Our new 48-page catalog, 
with 1,000 small illustra- 
tions and two sample pic- 
tures, sent for 2-ct. stamp, 

Geo. P. Brown & Co. 


Beautifies and 

Preserves the 


A positive relief for 
chapped hands, cha- 
fing:, and all skin afflictions. Men- 
nen's face 011 every box. Sold every- 
where, or by mail, 25 cents. A~,'oid 
liariii) III imitations. SiiinJ>lcfrfe. 

r;;'"^ MENNEN'S VIOLET TALCUM '!■"!'';:"; 


In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art 


The numbers of ' Masters in Art' which have already appeared 
in 1904 are: 










jBt \j e m 6 e r 



VOL. 1. 

VOL. 2. 















Part 13. 
Part 14. 
Part i;.- 
Part 16. 
Part 17. 
Part 18. 
Part 19. 
Part 20.- 
Part 21. 
Part 22. 
Part 23. 
Part 24. 



VOL. 3. 






§ Draw 

Part ji.— PAUL POTTER 
Part 52.— GIOTTO 
Part 34— HOGARTH 
Part j;.— TURNER 
Part 36.— LUINI 

VOL. 4. 


























Prices on and after January i, 1904: Single numbers of 
back volumes, 20 cents each. Single numbers of the current 1904 
volume, 15 cents each. Bound volumes I, 2, 3, and 4, containing 
the parts 1 isted above, bound in brown buckram, with gilt stamps 
and gilt top, $3.75 each; in green half-morocco, gilt stamps and 
gilt top, S4.25 each. 

are admirable both for gifts and for the adornment of one's own 
walls. The best art reproductions made in America. " Excel- 
lent," says John S. Sargent; "I could not wish bettered," 
writes Edwin A. Abbey. Fifty cents to $20. 00. At art stores, 
or sent on approval. Our ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 
in attractiveness and interest far beyond the ordinary publish- 
ers' announcements, is sent only upon receipt of 25 cents, — 
stamps accepted, — which charge, however, may be deducted 
from any purchase of the Prints themselves. Aho-ue picture, 
Mary Magdalen, by Rosseiti, copyright Ig04 by 


2 J Pierce Building. Opposite Public Library 


^yimong the pine's of J^etv Jer^sey 

A Fashionable Fall Resort 

90 Minutes 

New YorK 

I^eached by the 

New Jersey Central 

Its palatial hotels arc famed for their perfect 
cuisine & its sports include all popular pastimes 

Descriptive book will be sent upon application 
to C. M. BURT, Gen. Pass. Agt., New York 

In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art 



Books not returned on tin.e are -Se!\%-sing 
"SOc per volume after t-^e tn^'".:" tji day. Books not m 

fEB 11 191|8^^ STACKS 

JUL 30 1935 |tffcl3^ 

APR 3 196B 9 ^ 

IVr. 2 8 966Uyi-*68-5PM 



YD 3-'""^ 

)M I WO 




It is a perfect Grand piano 
with the sweetness and qual- 
ity of the larger Grands — adapted to the 
limitations of the average room.'%« It occu- 
pies practically no more space than an 
Upright.-^ It costs no more than the large 
Upright.'%r It weighs less than the larger 
Uprights.-%. It is a more artistic piece of 
furniture than an Upright.'m. It can be 
moved through stairways and spaces 
smaller than will admit even the small 
Uprights. '%r^'%.'%'%.'%.-%.'%'% 





In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art