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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 
AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Vol. 2 No. 4 



BASKET DESIGNS OF THE INDIANS OF 
NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA 



BY 

A. L. KROEBER 



BERKELEY 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

JANUARY, 1905 



UNIVERSrTY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

The publications issued from the Department of Anthropology of the 
University of California are sent in exchange for the publications of 
anthropological societies and museums, for journals devoted to general 
anthropology or to archaeology and ethnology, and for specimens 
contributed to the museum collections of the Department. They are 
also for sale at the prices stated, which include postage or express 
charges. They consist of three series of octavo volumes, a series of 
quarto memoirs, and occasional special volumes. 

GRAECO-ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Vol. 1. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part I. Edited by Bernard P. Grenfell, Arthur 
S. Hunt, and J. Gilbart Smyly. Pages 690, Plates 9, 1903 
Price, $16.00 

Vol. 2. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 2 (in preparaition). 

EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY. 

Vol. I. The Hearst Medical Papyrus. Edited by G. A. Reisner and A, M. 
Lythgoe (in press). 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Vol. 1. No. 1. Life and Culture of the Hupa, by Pliny Earle Goddard. 

Pages 88, Plates 30, September,' 1903 . . . Price, 1.25 

No. 2. Hupa Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pages 290, March, 

1904 Price, 3.00 

Vol. 2. No. 1. The Exploration of the Potter Creek Cave, by William J. 

Sinclair. Pages 27, Plates 14, April, 1904 . . Price, .40 

No. 2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San 

Francisco, by A. L. Kroeber. Pages 72, June, 1904. Price, .60 
No. 3. Types of Indian Culture in California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pages 22, June, 1904 Price, .25 

No. 4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California, 

by A. L. Kroeber. Pages 60, Plates 7, January, 1905. Price, .75 
Vol. 3. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard 

(in press). 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL MEMOIRS. 

Vol. I. Explorations in Peru, by Max Uhle (in preparation). 
No. 1. The Ruins of Moche. 
No. 2. Huamachuco, Chincha, lea. 
No. 3. The Inca Buildings of the Valley of Pisco. 

SPECIAL VOLUMES. 

The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans, containing an account of their 
rites and superstitions; an anonymous Hispano-American manuscript 
preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence, Italy. Repro- 
duced in fac-simile, with introduction, translation, and commentary, 
by Zelia Nuttall. 

Part I. Preface, Introduction, and 80 Fac-simile plates in 

colors. 1903. 
Part II. Translation and Commentary. (In press). 
Price for the two parts $25.00 



Address orders for the above to the University Press, Berkeley, 
California. Exchanges to be addressed to the Department of Anthro- 
pology, University of California, Berkeley, California. 

A. L. Kroeber, Secretary. F. W. Putnam, Director. 



UNIV, CALIF. PUB. AM, ARCH, &. ETH. 



VOL. 2, PL. 15. 




mmmm0^^ 













Caps. Yurok. i. 



X 



VOL. 2 



i/ 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 



NO. 4 



BASKET DESIGNS OF THE INDIANS OP 
NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA. 



BY 

A. L. KROEBER. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

The Indians of extreme northwestern California, while show- 
ing many similarities to the other tribes of California, and 
some approximation to those of the north Pacific coast, are in 
many ways peculiar in their culture. The territory occupied by 
this group of tribes is very limited, comprising only Humboldt 
and Del Norte and small parts of Trinity and Siskiyou counties. 
Their specialized culture is found in its most highly developed 
form among the tribes of the lower Klamath and Trinity rivers : 
the Yurok, Karok, and Hupa. The Hupa belong to one of the 
California groups of the great Athabascan linguistic stock. The 
Yurok and Karok are small isolated linguistic stocks. The three 
languages are as radically different in phonetics as they are 
totally unrelated in vocabulary. The three tribes live in close 
contact, with more or less intercourse and generally friendly 
relations. In their culture they are remarkably alike. 

The names of the basket designs described in this paper were 
obtained from Indians of the three tribes during 1900, 1901, and 
1902. The most extensive investigations were made among the 
Yurok. This accounts for the larger number of designs obtained 
among this tribe. The Yurok designs described are taken from 
nearly a hundred baskets. The majority of these are now in the 
Museum of the Anthropological Department of the University 
of California. A number of baskets, and the names of their 
designs, were collected in 1900 for the California Academy of 
Sciences. Through the courtesy of the oflBcers of the Academy 
this material is used in the present paper. Information was 

Am. Abch. Eth. 2. 9. 



106 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

obtained among the Yurok as to the designs of a greater number 
of baskets than were actually collected, the total number reach- 
ing several hundred. The more common design names are 
exceedingly frequent among the northwestern tribes, and, while 
exact duplications of designs ordinarily do not occur, yet many 
of the variations are so slight that it was often thought unneces- 
sary to insure their preservation by purchase of the specimen. 
All baskets having characteristic designs but uncommon design- 
names were secured for the Museum of the Department. This 
selection gives the Yurok design names described an appearance 
of somewhat greater variety than they actually possess. Prob- 
ably the fifteen most common design names constitute all but a 
very few per cent of the total number. Among the Karok and 
Hupa all baskets were secured about which information was 
obtained as to the design. The number of such Karok baskets 
is about fifty, and of Hupa twenty-five. 

It was found necessary to get the names of the designs in 
the native language, as many of the words are not names of ani- 
mals or objects, but geometrical or descriptive terms not trans- 
latable by the Indians.^ 

KINDS OF BASKETS. 

The basketry of northwestern California is characterized by 
'^circular open baskets somewhat rounded at the bottom and 
generally of no very great depth, "and by women's caps, which 
are shallower than the basketry caps worn in other parts of Cali- 
fornia. Large baskets serving for the storage of food are propor- 
tionally of deeper shape than the smaller baskets used for cook- 
ing and eating. Conical baskets are used for gathering seeds, 
and flat circular baskets for trays, plates, and meal sifters. The 
acorn mortar consists of a basket hopper of the type used by the 
Pomo. Conical carrying baskets, baby baskets, plates, and some 
trinket baskets are made in open work. The various kinds and- 

^ The following characters have been used : c = sh, x = spirant of 
k = kh, q z= velar k, L = palatal or lateral 1, n = ng ; a = a as in father ; 
a = a as in bad ; a ::= English aw ; b and 6 = long open e and o ; a, e, 
I, o, u, = obscure vowels. Yurok r has the peculiar quality of American r 
in an exaggerated degree. Karok r is clear and trilled. Yurok v is bilab- 
ial, having nearly the the sound of w, and its g is always a spirant = 




^.^ 



-2^.^A^ 



Vol, 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 107 

shapes of baskets can be seen in the accompanying plates 15 to 
21, and in plates 20 to 27 published in the first volume of the 
present series of University of California publications. 

Yurok names for baskets are: waxpeya, cap, if brown (Plate 
15, figures 7, 8) ; aqa', cap, if the ground is covered with over- 
laying (Plate 15, figures 1 to 6) ; he'kwuts, small basket for acorn 
mush, especially for eating (Plate 16, figure 3, and figure 6, 
unfinished) ; muri'p, large basket for acorn mush, used for cook- 
ing (Plate 16, figures 4, 5; he'kwuts and muri'p are called by* 
the Karok asip : Plate 20, figures 4, 5, 6, 8) ; perxtse'kuc, a basket 
higher than he'kwuts, used for keeping small objects (Plate 
17, figures 4, 5, 6; Karok cipnuk, Plate 20, figure 3) ; rumi'tsek, 
an openwork trinket basket (Plate 19, figure 5, usual form; fig- 
ure 6, unusual) ; qewa'i, conical burden basket of openwork (see 
P. E. Goddard, Life and Culture of the Hupa, University of 
California Publications, American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
I, Plate 22, figure 1) ; terre'ks, conical basket for gathering seeds 
(Goddard, op. cit., Plate 22, figure 2, of Yurok provenience) ; 
paaxte'kwc, basket for storing food, especially acorns, much like 
perxtse'kuc but much larger (Goddard, Plate 23, figure 1, a 
Yurok specimen) ; meixtso', storage basket similar in shape, but 
made altogether of hazel, without overlaying or patterns ; poixko', 
large flat tray for acorn meal (Goddard, Plate 24, figure' 2) ; 
poixtse'kuc, small tray for seeds used as food (Plate 19, figures 
1, 2), also small, flat, conical dipper for acorn mush (Plate 19, 
figure 3, a Karok specimen) ; wetsane'p, meal sifter, flat without 
appreciable curvature (Plate 18, figure 2); laxp'ceu, openwork 
plates for eating salmon (Plate 18, figures 1, 3; Goddard, Plate 
21, figure 2, a Yurok specimen) ; meco'liL, larger openwork 
plates on which salmon is laid; upe'kwanu, mortar hopper (God- 
dard, Plate 24, figure 1, Yurok) ; qeme'u, also called haxlui'm 
uperxtse'kuc, "tobacco its storage-basket," tobacco basket, often 
with a lid, and similar to the perxtse'kuc, though generally 
smaller (Plate 17, figures 1, 3, 5, 7, Plate 19, figure 4) ; uq^m'- 
te'm, said to have been a large form of perxtse'kuc with a small 
opening and a lid, used for storage of valuable property ; ego'or, 
an approximately cylindrical basket used in the jumping dance, 
made of a rectangular sheet bent into shape of a cylinder slit 



108 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

along the top (Plate 18, figure 4). A Hupa baby basket and 
seedbeater are shown in Goddard's Plate 21, figure 1, and Plate 
23, figure 2. The aqa', perxtse'kuc, terre'ks, paaxte'kwc, poixko', 
poixtse^kuc, wetsane'p, qeme'u, uqem'te'm, and ego'or are gene- 
rally overlaid with white ; the waxpeya, he'kwuts, muri'p, upe'- 
kwanu, and sometimes the poixtse'kuc, are mostly in unover- 
laid brown, but usually with a pattern in overlaying ; the rumi'- 
Isek, qewa'i, laxp'ceu, meco'liL are in openwork. 

MATERIALS. 

The basket materials of this region and their employment 
have recently been given full treatment in Dr. P. E. Goddard's 
Life and Culture of the Hupa,^ and on a less localized basis by 
F. V. Coville in Professor 0. T. Mason's Aboriginal American 
Basketry.^ 

According to information obtained from the Yurok, the 
warp of their basketry regularly consists of hazel twigs. The 
woof is made of strands from roots of sugar pine and near the 
coast of spruce. Redwood and willow roots are inferior but 
used. Willow seems to be usual for the woof in beginning a 
basket. 

While these root fibres give a colorless gray, deepening with 
age to a not unpleasant brown, designs and sometimes the entire 
ground color are produced by overlaying in other materials. 
The most important of these is the widely used and well known 
lustrous whitish grass xerophyllum tenax. In baskets for ordi- 
nary use the designs are worked in this white on the darker 
ground of root-fibre woof. In ornamental baskets the ground is 
overlaid with this material, and the patterns are black, red, and 
occasionally yellow. For black the outside of stems of a species 
of maidenhair fern, adiantum, are used; for red, alder-dyed 
fibres of a large woodwardia fern. The stems of this fern are 
bruised by beating, and two flat fibres extracted from each. 
These are usually dyed by being passed through the mouth after 
alder bark has been chewed. Yellow is produced by dyeing with 



' Univ. Cal. Publ., Am, Arch. Ethn., I, 38 seq., 1903. 
'■ Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1902, 199 seq., 1904. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 109 

a lichen, the widely used evernia vulpina. Porcupine quills dyed 
yellow are rarely used.^ 

Besides red and yellow, black dyeing is occasionally prac- 
ticed by burial of materials in mud. Part of the hazel twigs 
for the warp of openwork plate baskets are sometimes treated 
in this way; and rarely the woodwardia fibre for the woof of 
other baskets. 

Of the three colors used on a white ground, black most fre- 
quently stands alone. Red is usually accompanied by at least 
a certain amount of black ornamentation, such as lines or edg- 
ing. Yellow does not seem to be used without accompanying red 
or black, usually the latter. Occasionally the three colors are 
used in combination on a white ground, but although pleasing 
if skilfully carried out this is uncommon. Sometimes areas of 
unoverlaid brown are left in colored baskets and employed in 
design effects. The only baskets with unoverlaid ground whose 
patterns sometimes contain black or red in addition to white, are 
hats, even the plainest of which, as is only natural, show more 
ornamentation than is usual in baskets for household purposes. 

A somewhat greater proportion of red to black designs is 

found among the Karok than among the Yurok or Hupa, due 

possibly to greater scarcity of the maidenhair fern furnishing 

black. 

TECHNIQUE. 

In regard to technique, the fundamental feature of the bas- 
ketry of northwestern California is that twining is the only 
method followed. Coiled weaves of any kind, except as a border 
finish, are unknown. This statement can be made without quali- 
fication, and all coiled baskets attributed to this region are of 
erroneous provenience or obtained by the northwestern Indians 
from more southerly tribes. 

To all intents these Indians practice only one weave, the 
simple twining with two strands. This is used for the finest 
hats, for the largest and coarsest storage baskets, for cooking 
baskets, and for openwork plates, cradles, and carrying baskets. 

» Yurok names of basket materials and dyes: h&li'L, hazel; paxkwo', 
wdllow; waxpe'u, sugar pine; qiL, redwood; teiwolite'po, spruce; haamo', 
xerophyllum tenax; rego'o, maidenhair fern; paap, woodwardia fern; 
were'regets, alder; mece'n, evernia lichen. 



110 University of California Publications. C-A^m. Arch. Eth. 

Though two-strand twining is very close to wiekerwork, differ- 
ing from it only in that the two strands cross after each warp 
is passed, instead of continuing parallel, these tribes do not seem 
to practice wiekerwork. 

Three-strand twining is well known in this region and fre- 
quent in use, but apparently no baskets are made completely in 
this weave. Almost all baskets begin in this weave ; the majority 
have one or more courses of it where the bottom begins to turn, 
and again near the top ; and occasionally a basket is finished in 
it. The specific technique seems to be simple three-strand twin- 
ing, not three-strand braiding. Each woof strand passes over 
two warp rods on the outer or ijattern side of the basket, over 
one on the inside. 

There is one basket in the collections of the Department of 
Anthropology from this region in which the two strands of the 
woof cover two rods of the warp at a time, while in the following 
course they take these rods so as to alternate with the previous 
one. This is the weave that has been called diagonal twining. 
The basket is shown in Plate 17. At its origin it shows the usual 
three-strand twining. While the alternate or diagonal weave 
has been praised by Mason and Purdy as more susceptible of 
developed decoration than ordinary twining, this basket is unor- 
namented except by two plain bands. This poverty of decora- 
tion is perhaps due to the fact that the ornamentation is pro- 
duced by covering of the woof instead of by the woof itself. 
One or two other baskets found are made in this weave for a 
number of courses near their origin. 

In two-strand twining the woof strands are usually more or 
less flat, and are not twisted, the same side being turned toward 
the outside of the basket continuously, whether overlaid or not. 

The only usual modification of two strand twined weaving 
is a multiple warp. This is common for the bottom of large 
storage baskets, and is usually accompanied by a certain degree 
of openness of woof. After the turn from the horizontal bottom 
has been made and the sides of the basket started on their upward 
course, the additional warp sticks taper out and are dropped 
and the weave is continued on the main stick of each group. 
Sometimes a group is so divided as to result in two single warp 
sticks. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber.— Basket Designs of N. W. California. m 

Crossing of the warp sometimes occurs in openwork, most 
often for one course just below the border, occasionally near the 
origin. 

Strengthening by means of a rod enclosed in the twining 
is common. This forms the first step toward lattice twining or 
the ti weave, a superimposition of coiling on twining. Mortar 
baskets are strengthened by several stout rods; storage baskets 
frequently show one or two near top or bottom ; and occasionally 
a rod is used as a finish. The great majority of cooking baskets 
have two strands, apparently of root, laid around the outside 
near the top of the basket in the region of the typical design 
zone, which they serve markedly to define, limit, or divide. It 
is probable that their decorative effect is their chief purpose; 
being pliable, they do not stiffen the basket appreciably, and 
being held only by the twining of the overlaying material — ^the 
body of the woof being usually completely lacking in the two 
courses on which the strands are laid — they can scarcely be a 
source of strength. 

Ornamentation almost without exception is produced by over- 
laying or false embroidery, and not by the use of colored or dyed 
woof materials. The method of overlaying differs from that of 
the Tlinkit and Thompson Indians, two strands being employed 
instead of one. Among the Tlinkit "the decorative element, 
instead of taking its turn to pass behind the warp, remains on 
the outside and makes a wrap about the strand that happens to 
be there." The Thompson Indians follow a method of "passing 
a strip of . . . material entirely around the twining each time, 
showing the figure on the inside. ' '^ In northwestern California 
each of the two woof strands is faced as it were, in the process 
of weaving, with a strand of overlaying material toward the out- 
side of the basket. This facing follows the woof-strand behind 
the warp, and together with it twines with the other woof -strand 
and its facing. As the overlaying always faces the outside of 
the basket, and not the outside of the twining, each strand of 
it is half the time between warp and woof and invisible, and 
the decoration does not show on the inside of the basket except 
casually between turns and plies especially in coarser baskets. 
» Mason, Aborig. Amer. Basketry, Rep. U. 8. Nat. Mus. 1902, 309. 



112 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

Fine hats are nearly as completely free from trace of over- 
laying inside as is Tlinkit work. The two overlaying strands 
follow the woof strands to the edge of the design-figure, where 
they are broken off on the inside of the basket, and the woof 
continues on its course alone, or overlaid by strands of a differ- 
ent color, until the next figure is reached. Occasionally, where 
this intervening space between designs is not great, especially 
where there is a small recurrent design, the overlaying is not 
broken off, but brought to the rear of the woof, so as to be invis- 
ible from the front, and carried along to the next figure, when 
it reappears. Of course it then shows inside the basket while it 
is invisible on the outside, but this occasional result seems to be 
produced among the northwestern tribes not for its effect but 
because in such cases it is preferable to carry on the overlaying 
material rather than cut the strands to reinsert them a few 
turns, sometimes only two or three, farther on. 

It will be seen that this method of overlaying cannot be 
"classed technically with three strand twined weaving," as 
Professor Mason says of the Tlinkit process, not only because 
there is a total of four strands in the woof, but because the opera- 
tion is essentially one of two-strand twining with double strands. 

In northeastern California, among the northeasternmost 
Wintun tribes, on the McCloud river, still another process of 
overlaying is practiced. Like the northwestern overlaying, this 
is done with two strands, but the overlays form a separate twin- 
ing around both warp and woof, which latter they entirely 
enclose, never being within its plies as in the northwestern 
process. The design thus shows inside the basket as well as out- 
side. That the difference in this respect from the northwestern 
basket is fundamental, is evidenced by the fact that in the cases 
when the design appears on the inside of a northwestern basket 
it does so in the intervals of its disappearance from the outside, 
the inside and outside figures being the reverse of each other; 
whereas in these North Wintun baskets the regular overlaying 
appears inside in the same places as outside and forms identical 
figures. In the northeastern weaving each strand of overlay is 
evidently carried and treated as part of one of the woof strands, 
as in the northwestern process, but in passing around each warp 



UNIV. CALIF. PUB. AM. ARCH. & ETH. 



VOL 2. PL, 16. 




'> «H«^« »^^*le^ |Wat%a^aJ^aw•::- 





Figs. I, 2, ;{, J), 6. Cook in jf baskets. Yurok. },. 
Fig. 4. Cooking basket. Karok. i. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 113 

rod it is either given a half-twist to the other side of the strand 
that it accompanies, or much more probably the combined woof 
and overlay strand is thus half twisted. 

This northern Wintun method of overlaying is used also by 
the Lutuami or Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians, and perhaps 
by the Achomawi, the Pit River Indians. 

The overlaying materials in northwestern basketry are never 
used without an underlying woof to serve them as body; but 
sometimes this woof is itself of the overlaying material, either 
with or without another overlay of the same or another material. 
Where a pattern is worked consisting of alternate stitches of 
overlaid and of undecorated woof, the whole design being merely 
one of regularly disposed dots, the woof strand on which the 
white overlay is carried is usually if not always itself of this 
material, and sometimes of double thickness, in this case making 
a woof of three flat white strands twining alternately with one 
of a single strand of brown root fibre. The same process is fol- 
lowed to produce a design of vertical bars only one stitch wide 
and one stitch apart. It is easy to see why the single overlay 
in these cases is carried on continuously with its supporting 
woof; but the only explanation that seems to account for the 
underlying woof itself being of overlay material is a desire to 
preserve the two woof strands of the same total thickness, which, 
as only one of them is overlaid, would be very difficult if the 
same body material were used for both of them. The white 
xerophyllum is flat and thin, so that two or three strands of it 
about equal in thickness one of the more rounded root fibres 
usually forming the woof. 

In some baskets almost completly covered with overlay, por- 
tions are sometimes entirely without woof except of overlaying 
materials. The motive is apparently the desire to avoid addi- 
tional strands in the twining, which would detract from fineness 
of stitch ; but as different parts of a basket are sometimes incon- 
sistently treated, it is difficult in all cases to follow the weaver's 
purpose. A Karok basket covered with a solid pattern of contig- 
uous red and white isosceles triangles alternately pointing up and 
down, lacks for the major part the usual root woof. Where the 
pattern in this basket is white, the red material serves as under- 



114 University of California Publications. [Am. Aech. Eth. 

lay, and consequently appears on the inside of the basket in an 
identical red figure ; and vice versa. The purpose of this device 
is explicable; owing to a desire to continue the strands of over- 
lay unbroken, the usual colorless woof was sacrificed to avoid 
carrying a total of six threads, and its place taken by the overlay 
temporarily not appearing in the design. The triangles in this 
basket are however separated into several bands by horizontal 
lines consisting of a single course of black overlaying. In two 
of these courses the woof under the black material consists of 
red overlay; but in several other courses the woof is the usual 
colorless root fibre; and this material is used also for the woof 
of one of the adjacent courses forming part of the triangle 
design. 

An unfinished Karok hat, the outside only of which is shown 
in Plate 20, figure 7, has a red ground-surface. On this are 
horizontal black courses and a certain zone, not reaching the top 
or bottom of the basket, in which there is a recurrent white 
design. Through the greater part of this zone the usual woof 
material does not occur, its place being taken by the white of 
the exterior design, and, in the design, by the red of the ground. 
Two horizontal courses of black run around this zone; for the 
upper one, the red overlaying serves as underlay; for the lower 
there is the usual root fibre woof ; and this is also the woof, with 
some irregularities, for one or two of the adjacent courses form- 
ing part of the red ground. 

The only production of ornamentation other than by over- 
laying in this region is in openwork plates. Hazel twigs are 
dyed black by being buried in mud. They are then grouped so 
as to form four or five narrow black sectors or rays in the cir- 
cular basket, the majority of the warp rods in the tray being 
the undyed white hazel shoots (Plate 18, figures 1 and 3). This 
process is stamped as exceptional by the fact that the coloring 
is in the warp instead of the woof. For this reason scarcely any 
other pattern could be produced in it, and it is obviously applic- 
able only to openwork. This method of ornamentation has been 
found among the Yurok, though black dyed plates are much 
less common than unornamented ones. The Karok say that they 
do not employ it. The Athabascans of Eel River use it fre- 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 115 

quently for openwork conical carrying baskets as well as for 
plates. 

The ends of the woof, and occasionally the beginnings of 
introduced warp rods, are left projecting on the inside of the 
basket until it is finished. They are then broken off, after the 
basket has been dried by being set before a fire, by scraping; 
at the present time, with the edge of a tin spoon. To even the 
shape of a new basket it is sometimes set filled with damp sand. 

There is usually no distinct finish for the edge, the ordinary 
two-ply twining merely coming to an end. The warp ends are 
cut off flush with the top of the last course of the woof. Usually 
there is no projection of the warp above this. In this respect the 
northwestern baskets differ from the twined Pomo baskets, which 
are, in process, finished similarly, but usually have the warp ends 
projecting regularly a short distance. The northern Wintun 
baskets also usually do not show quite so close a cutting off of 
the warp, though there is scarcely a well calculated intentional 
effect as among the Pomo. Plate 16, figure 6, shows a basket 
before the superfluous warp and woof ends have been respec- 
tively cut and rubbed off. 

A minority of baskets are finished in one or more courses of 
three strand twining. 

Large conical openwork carrying baskets and mortar baskets 
usually have the edge braided or interlaced. Openwork plates 
usually show only simple twining at the finish. A few baskets, 
especially small openwork household and trinket baskets, have 
a coiled edge, the warp sticks being bent at right angles and 
then carried horizontally around the top of the basket and 
wrapped.^ Cradles are similarly finished along the oval edge in 
front, but more by means of rods specially employed for the 
multiple foundation than by a continuation of warp sticks from 
the twined body of the basket. 

Professor Mason's statement^' that "the McCloud Indians 
in Shasta county, California, cut off the warp flush and finish 
the border with what looks like plain twined weaving on the 



1 Professor Mason has illustrated this border on page 265 of his Aborig- 
inal American Basketry, op. cit. 

^Aborig. Amer. Basketry, op. cit., 266. 



116 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

edge, but a regular half knot is tied between each pair of warp 
stems," is inapplicable to the McCloud Wintun baskets in the 
Department's Museum, none of which appear to show anything 
that could be interpreted as a half knot. The only departure 
from the simple twining of the northwestern region is that those 
of the baskets that are overlaid to the edge show a half-twisting 
on itself of each warp strand, independently of the other, at 
each stitch, due to the northeastern method of causing the over- 
laying to come to the surface both inside and out ; but the unover- 
laid baskets go right on to the end in undisturbed and untwisted 
two-ply twining. 

ORNAMENTAL DESIGNS. 

The general character of the ornamental designs on the bas- 
kets of this region can be seen in the accompanying plates, and 
their typical arrangement has been admirably described by Dr. 
Goddard in the paper referred to.^ It will be noted that 
the majority of baskets have the decorative pattern confined to a 
comparatively narrow region extending around the basket not 
far below its rim. Caps are more fully covered by ornamen- 
tation, but even in these the characteristic arrangement is to 
some extent observed. An arrangement of the design in several 
distinct parallel bands, such as is common on Pomo and Yokuts 
baskets, is not found among the northwestern tribes. 

Property marks are occasionally introduced in the weaving, 
certain small areas being covered with overlaying. The irreg- 
ular designs on the basket shown in Plate 16, figure 6, were said 
to be property marks. 

There is apparently no habit among the northwestern tribes 
of leaving a break in the design encircling a basket, the opening 
or interruption being conceived as a passage. Occasional irreg- 
ularities producing this effect in continuous designs seem to be 
due to technical inability. 

TRIBAL DIFFERENCES. 

The basketry of the Yurok, Karok, and Hupa is virtually 
identical. No given basket could be identified with certainty 
as from a particular one of the three tribes. When a large 

^Life and Culture of the Hupa, op, cit., 44. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 117 

number of baskets from one tribe are brought together, slight 
differentiating tendencies are discernible. Thus the Karok are 
more inclined than the other tribes to use red. They seem also 
more inclined to use patterns containing vertical outlines 
instead of the more usual oblique. On the whole the finest work 
is done by the Yurok, the Karok and Hupa baskets being gene- 
rally less smooth and even. But these differences hold only as 
averages. Some of the Hupa baskets are far above the ordi- 
nary Yurok in quality. 

YUROK DESIGNS. 

One of the commonest of Yurok designs is the flint or vEnii- 
gemaa* design. Its fundamental shape is that of a parallelo- 
gram, generally with sides slanting downward to the right. 
Sometimes, however, the slant of the sides of the parallelogram 
is toward the left. In all the typical forms the base is consid- 
erably greater than the altitude. This figure occurs singly, but 
more frequently in diagonal rows. Sometimes the bases of suc- 
cessive parallelograms are partially superimposed; sometimes 
the parallelograms merely touch at their corners. The direction 
of the slant of the row of figures is always opposite to the 
direction of the slant of the sides of each individual figure. Not 
infrequently subsidiary designs, especially rows of triangles, 
are combined with the flint design. Figure 11 shows a design 
the elements of which consist of two triangles close together. 
They are so placed that they may be interpreted as a parallelo- 
gram that has been bisected. It was for this reason no doubt 
that the name flint was given to the design. Sometimes rectan- 
gles take the place of the oblique-angled parallelograms, though 
this is uncommon (figure 12). Various forms of the flint design 
are shown in figures 1 to 12 and in figures 118 to 120, where 
they occur in combination with other designs. 

* Yurok design names are mostly formed by the addition of the prefix 
VE-, (which, as the vowel is obscure, sometimes becomes VA-, vu-, u-, 0-), 
and of the suffix -aa. Thus niigem, flint, vE-niigem-aa, flint design; 
tsSpkw, mesh-stick, vE-ts6pkw-aa, mesh-stick design. 

Niigem in Yurok means flint or obsidian. It does not mean arrow- 
point, which is one of the commonest basket design names elsewhere in 
California. Flint knives, and especially the long knife or spearpoint- 
shaped objects of obsidian used in the deer skin dance, and regarded as 
extremely valuable, are called niigem. 



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120 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

The sharp-tooth design or vEniirpeLaa^ consists of right 
angled triangles, either singly or in combination, more usually 
the latter. The essential feature of this design is however not 
the right angle but the acute angle of the triangle. Figures 13 
to 23 show the different forms. In figure 22 it is the two small 
triangles at the ends of the Z-shaped figure which give the name 
to the design. In the design shown in figure 23 the name could 
have been applied only on account of the acute angles. Figure 
115 shows a similarly shaped design-element used as a pattern 
within larger obtuse triangles. 

The vEreq !en or sitting design is another of the very common 
Yurok designs. Its various forms are shown in figures 24 to 
34 and in figure 115. It will be seen that all these designs con- 
tain as element an oblique isosceles triangle. The reason of the 
application of the name "sitting" to these designs is not clear. 
It seems however that we have to deal with a spatial or verbal 
conception, not with the representation of any object. 

Figures 33 and 34 show two designs which are probably 
modern but to which the name sitting was given. 

The snake-nose design (vEleialekcoopern) is identical with 
the last. It is mentioned very much less frequently. Inasmuch 
as the ordinary name for the obtuse isosceles triangle among the 
Karok is snake-nose and among the Hupa rattlesnake-nose, it 
seems that the occasional occurrence of this design name among 
the Yurok must be attributed to the influence of these tribes. 
A case of this design is shown in figure 35. 

The waxpoo^ design is shown in figures 36 to 44. The typ- 
ical element of this design may be described as a trapezoid the 
longer upper base of which is bisected by the apex of an inverted 
isosceles triangle. This design element, however, does not 
appear to be used in its isolated form, but always occurs either 
in combinations as in figures 36 to 39, or in distortions as in 
figures 40 to 44. The meaning of the name has not been ascer- 
tained ; it seems however to have some reference to ' * the middle, ' ' 
presumably the bisection of the base of the trapezoid by the 



'■ Occasionally called veniir. 
^ Also called haxpoo. 



UNIV. CALIF. PUB. AM. ARCH. & ETH, 



VOL 2, PL. 17. 




Tobacco and other baskets. Yurok. \. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 121 

apex of the triangle. This is also a very frequent characteristic 
design. Figures 40 to 44 would seem to show that the trapezoid 
is not an essential element of the design and that any obtuse 
isosceles triangle whose apex is in contact with a horizontal line 
may be given this name. The design shown in figure 44 was 
called sitting as well as waxpoo. The waxpoo design is also 
shown in figures 116 and 117 in combination with other designs. 

The snake design (vEleialekcaa) consists of a progressive 
zigzag of alternately horizontal and vertical stripes. In accord- 
ance with the general trend of Yurok patterns, the horizontally 
extending portions of this zigzag are usually considerably 
longer than the vertical ones. In most cases the snake design 
is combined with the flint design in the manner shown in figure 
119. Figure 45 shows it occurring independently. The design 
in figure 46 was also given the name snake. It might equally 
well have received one or two other names. In figure 47 the 
right angled zigzag stripe does not ascend but is alternately 
directed upward and downward, thus forming a band through 
the zone of ornamentation on the basket instead of rising diag- 
onally from the base to the rim of the basket. The triangles 
adjacent to this design do not form part of it. They were given 
the name sitting. 

The spread-hand or spread-finger design (okwEgetsip) is 
shown in figures 48 to 50. Its most usual form is the one it 
has in figure -48. It will be noted that all the figures contain a 
common element: the paired acute angles with vertical sides 
parallel. 

The foot design (umetsqaa), figures 51 to 57, has for its ele- 
ment a right angled triangle at the end of a bar or stem. Being 
a small design, it is rarely found singly, but its application in 
patterns varies considerably. Figure 52 is not uncommon. The 
form shown in 53 is also not rare. The form shown in figure 
57 is fairly common and suggests a design found among the 
Maidu, Achomawi, and other tribes. Figure 116 shows the foot 
design in combination with waxpoo and ladder. 

The ladder design (vibqemviLqemaa, also viLqema) is shown 
in figures 58 to 63. In figure 58 the small squares were called lad- 
der. This occurrence and that shown in figure 63 demonstrate that 

Am. Aboh. Kth. 2, 10. 



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124 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

the elemental idea of this design name is the square or rectangle. 
In by far the greater number of cases, however, this element 
occurs only in combination. In these cases the characteristic 
feature is the step-like effect which gives the design its name. 
The Yurok ladder which leads into the pit of the house consists 
of a large slab or a log into which several steps have been cut. 
It is interesting to note that while this design obviously takes 
its name from a combination of elements in a pattern, the same 
name is also used for the elements occurring singly, when real- 
istically the name is inappropriate. 

Not uncommon is the elk design (umeviLkaa), cases of which 
are shown in figures 64 to 70. These designs may in general be 
described as consisting of a rectangle placed on the middle of 
another about twice its length. Essentially therefore this design 
is very like the preceding ladder design, and to many designs 
either name might properly be applied. It may be noted that 
among the Karok and Hupa there is only one name correspond- 
ing to these two Yurok designs. It has not been possible to 
obtain an explanation of the reason for the use of this name. 
In figure 64 the rows of vertical bars are strictly only an adjunct 
to the design. The same may be said of the triangles in figures 
65. Figure 68 might quite correctly have been named either 
sitting or waxpoo by other individuals. For figure 69 the name 
elk would hardly have been expected. This design would usually 
receive the name flint, snake, or possibly ladder. There is also 
no apparent reason why the design shown in figure 70 should 
have been called elk, as it bears no relation to any of the other 
forms of the design. 

The sturgeon-back design (qaxkwilee), representing the plates 
of the sturgeon, is shown in figures 71 to 75. Figure 71 shows 
what may be regarded as the most typical form. Whether the 
parallelograms in figure 75, which would ordinarily be called 
flint, are correctly named sturgeon-back, seems doubtful. Par- 
allelograms painted on the back of a bow, though arranged 
somewhat differently, have however also been called sturgeon- 
back. 

The okrekruyaa design, which may be translated crooked or 
zigzag, is rather common. A variety of its forms are shown in 



Vol.21 Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W, California. 125 

figures 76 to 83. It will be seen that its essential constituent is 
an angle. As in the ease of most other Yurok designs this 
usually occurs in repetition or combination, though not neces- 
sarily so. Figure 83 shows a pattern to which in most cases the 
name flint or waxpoo would be given. The name crooked was 
here no doubt applied to it on account of its zigzag outline. Fig- 
ure 80 was called both crooked and sturgeon-back. 

A very common design is called by the Yurok vEtseq !seq !oaa. 
The translation of this word is uncertain. It seems to be about 
equivalent to striped. The design consists of vertical bars or 
stripes. These may be attenuated to mere lines or shortened 
until they become small rectangles. Figures 84 to 90 show the 
different forms of this design. The grate-like lines of figure 64 
were also given this name. Figure 90 is virtually the same 
design as figure 57, but occurs on another basket and was inter- 
preted by another woman. Figures 117 and 118 also show this 
design. In both these cases there is only a single stripe and it 
is not vertical. 

Somewhat less common is the design called vAnaanak. This 
also consists of parallel stripes or bars but their direction is 
diagonal instead of vertical. The meaning of this name is also not 
clear. This design sometimes constitutes a small patch at the 
bottom of a basket. Some of these occurrences may be property 
marks, irregularities in design being occasionally explained in 
this way. The vAnaanak design is shown in figures 91 to 94. 

The meaning of the design called by the Yurok vutsierau 
can also not be given. It consists simply of a narrow line. 
Sometimes the name is given to the ridge, one or two courses 
wide, of a strand laid on horizontally outside and encircling the 
basket. Such a case is shown in figure 95. While this pattern 
is very common, it is hardly a true design, and it is not impos- 
sible that the name may refer only to the technique of its pro- 
duction. 

A design called by the Indians vEtergerpuraa is shown in 
figures 96 and 97. The meaning of this name has not been 
ascertained. It is however evidently of spatial or geometrical 
significance, perhaps having reference to the joined apices of 



126 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

triangles or angles.^ Another instance in which this design 
was found was on a basket showing a pattern identical with the 
abnormal snake design of figure 46. 

A design that is not uncommon, but is very limited in the 
scope of its employment, is the tattoo (opegoixket) design. This 
represents the tattooing on the chin of the women. It is found 
only on openwork basketry trays used as plates for dried salmon 
and similar food. Many of these trays are plain, but some con- 
tain four or five figures like that shown in figure 98, radiating 
from the center to the edge of the plate and produced by the 
use of black-dyed warp stems. 

All the remaining Yurok designs have been found only once 
and must therefore be regarded as much less typical than those 
that have been described. 

A band consisting of a double row of rectangles (figure 99) 
was given the name flying geese (qleilekvelet) by an old woman. 

Figure 100 shows a design called owatsela, the small skunk 
or polecat. It probably represents the markings of the animal. 
A crab or crayfish design (qerLqer) is shown in figure 101. 

Figure 102 is a design called maggots (viekwELkwaa). Prob- 
ably the small white rectangles are to be interpreted as the 
maggots. 

Boxes of an approximately cylindrical shape are made by 
the Yurok from elk antlers for holding dentalium money, and 
of wood for larger objects. Such boxes are represented in a 
design called vEtekwanekwcaa. It is shown in figure 103 ; the 
rectangles represent the boxes. 

Figure 104 shows the elbow design, uperxkricenaa. 

Figure 105 shows another geometrical non-realistic design. 
It was called tsextselaa, spreading apart. This design was also 
given the name foot. 

A design known as vEtsepkwaa or mesh-stick, being a repre- 
sentation of the approximately rectangular flat pieces of elk 
antler used for measuring net meshes, was found only once as 
a basket design. It is shown in figure 106. The same name 
was however found applied once or twice to carved rectangular 
figures on the wooden paddles used for stirring acorn soup. 

^ The design shown in figure 97 was called vEtiigerpEkwaa, * ' small in 
the middle." 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 127 

A series of rhombi, which would ordinarily be called stur- 
geon-back, was once given the name kwerermetsaa, a chiton mol- 
lusk. This design is shown in figure 107. 

What was called a star design, haagetsaa, is represented in 
figure 108. 

A design called swallow is shown in figure 109. It is sup- 
posed to represent the tail. This name has been also found 
applied to a decorative figure carved as part of an acorn-soup 
paddle. 

A design representing the markings of a small red snake 
is shown in number 110. In this case part of the design was 
executed in red. 

The design shown in figure 111 was called orawoi, dove. 
Ordinarily such a design would be named waxpoo and vEtseq!- 
tseq !oaa. It is possible that the information supplied in regard 
to this design and the two preceding may not be correct. 

The following names that were each found once, seem either 
to denote geometrical ideas or to be modifications of common 
designs. They are: 

A design called veret!, shown in figure 112. 
A design called veret Ikorem, consisting of the horizontal bar 
in the middle of figure 54. 

A design called veniirpeLaa upapelek, large ( ?) sharp-teeth, 
shown in figure 113. 

The same design executed in smaller size on the same basket 
was called okegotir, crossed. 

A design, shown in figure 120, consisting of two right tri- 
angles in contact at their acutest angles, was called kiwagik 
vElereq !en, sitting in the middle. 

The term veniir okegaama, "sharp different" or "sharp 
varying," was applied to the sharp-tooth design shown in figure 
18, and the term vEneg^tsiq !, interpreted as sleeping together, to 
the ladder design of figure 63. 

A modem design, to which no name was given because it 
was of recent invention, is shown in figure 114, in order to illus- 
trate its difference in character from the older designs. 

Figures 115 to 120 show patterns consisting in each case of 
two or more design elements. These are : 




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130 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

Figure 115, sharp-tooth and sitting. 

Figure 116, waxpoo and foot and ladder. 

Figure 117, waxpoo and vEtsep !tseq !oaa. 

Figure 118, flint and vEtseq !tseq !oaa. 

Figure 119, flint and snake. 

Figure 120, flint and kiwagik vElereq !en. 

Basket design names are the only names applied bj^ the 
Yurok to the carved, engraved, or painted figures, predomina- 
tingly of triangles, on wooden aeorn-soup paddles, elkhorn 
spoons and purses, and network and skins. This decoration, 
which is never realistic, is not made with any purpose of signi- 
fication and usually is nameless; but when a name is applied to 
it, it is either descriptive, such as "scratched," or a name 
familiar from baskets, such as sitting, sharp-teeth, sturgeon-back, 
crooked, or mesh-stick. 

KAEOK DESIGNS. 

The Karok designs are very similar to those of the Yurok, 
although their names sometimes do not correspond equally. 
They will be taken up in the order of the Yurok designs.^ 

The Karok oteha'hits or flint-like design has for its element 
the parallelogram. It is identical with the Yurok flint design. 
Figures 121 to 124 show different forms. The design shown in 
figure 124 was called oteha'hits tunueits, small flint. The oblique 
parallelogram is replaced by a rectangle more often among the 
Karok than among the Yurok. 

The tata'ktak design among the Karok corresponds to the 

Yurok sharp-tooth. The etymology of this word is not known; 

it seems to be derived from an adjectival or verbal root. Objects 

with a row of notches are so called. A variety of the forms 

assumed by the tata'ktak design may be seen in figures 125 to 

133, as well as in figures 185 to 187 where this design occurs in 

combination with others. A design like that shown in figure 

151, which is ordinarily called spread-finger, was- once named 

tata'ktak. This interpretation is very natural, as the elements 

of the spread-finger design always constitute the tata'ktak 

figure. 

^ Karok names of baskets: cooking or eating basket, large or siual), 
asip; higher basket for trinkets, cipnuk; hat, apxan. Karok names of 
basket materials; hazel, asis; pine roots, carum; xerophyllum, panyura; 
adiantiun, yamarekiritap ; woodwardia, tiptip. 



Vol. 2] Kroeher. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 131 

The apcuniu'fi or snake-nose design corresponds to the Yurok 
sitting design. A number of forms are shown in figures 134 
to 141, and in figure 184. The species of snake denoted by apcun 
is not known. 

The apxanko'ikoi design corresponds to the Yurok waxpoo. 
The typical form is seen in figure 142. Figures 143 to 145 show 
forms that are unusual among the Yurok. It will be seen that 
figures 143 and 144 lack the isosceles triangle, the bisection by 
whose apex of the longer base of the trapezoid appears to give 
the Yurok design its name. The Karok name for the design 
contains the word for basketry cap, apxan. Koikoi, the second 
part of the word, is said to mean up and down, or progressively 
back and forth, or the successive placing of one thing against 
another. Figures 146 and 147 show forms of this design to 
which the Yurok would in most cases apply the name of the 
elements constituting them, sitting. The relation of these pat- 
terns to the typical forms of the design is however obvious. Fig- 
ure 185 shows the apxanko'ikoi design in combination with the 
tata'ktak. 

These four designs — flint, tata'ktak, snake-nose, and apxan- 
ko'ikoi — are among the commonest of Karok designs, as their 
equivalents are among the Yurok. 

The design called vakaixara, long worm, shown in figures 
148 and 149, corresponds exactly to the Yurok snake, even to 
its usual association with the flint design. An entirely different 
form is shown in figure 150. This appears to be equivalent to 
the rare Yurok maggot design. 

The kixtakpis or kixtapis design of the Karok corresponds 
in shape to the Yurok spread-finger or hand design. A similar 
significance has been obtained for the Karok word, but others 
say that the fingers are used only in illustration, the meaning 
being long and pointed, though not necessarily sharp. It is pos- 
sible that the Yurok word okwEgetsip also refers to the fingers 
only by implication. This design is shown in figures 151 and 152. 

The crow-foot design, anatcfis, corresponds to the Yurok foot 
design, especially to that variety of it shown in figure 53. 

A common Karok design is the cut-wood, en i'kiviti. This 
is the equivalent of the Yurok elk and ladder designs and there- 



132 • University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

fore needs no further characterization. It is shown in figures 
153 to 160, and again in figure 184. 

The ikurukur design is the equivalent of the Yurok okre- 
kruyaa; apparently the name is to be translated stirred, which 
may be a way of expressing the spatial idea zigzag. It is shown 
in figures 161 to 163. Another form is like the Yurok variety 
in figure 79. 

The Karok xurip or striped design is the equivalent of the 
Yurok vEtseq !seq !oaa. It is shown in figures 164 to 166 and 
186 to 187. 

The design corresponding to the Yurok vAnaanak seems to 
be called among the Karok kutsisiva'c, spotted.^ An instance 
of this design is shown in figure 167. Another form is identical 
with the Yurok form shown in figure 93. 

A single line or ridge encircling a basket, called among the 
Yurok vutsierau, is called by the Karok uc-acip-rovahit. This 
is said to mean to put something long around, and in basketry 
may refer to the technique rather than to the design. A portion 
of a design given this name is shown in figure 168. 

A design similar to the ikurukur design was a nuin])ei* 
of times given the name xasi'ree. The meaning of this term 
could not be obtained, which is evidence that the word is descrip- 
tive and not the metaphorical application of the name of an 
object. This design seems to differ from the ordinary zigzag or 
crooked design in that when it constitutes a separate zigzag band 
it appears to be composed of broken lines, and that when it 
follows an outline of triangles, it is detached from them a little 
distance. In all the cases obtained there is thus a broken or 
openwork effect.^ (Figures 169 to 172.) There seems to be 
nothing among the Yurok corresponding to this design name. 

The esivaci or snail-back design, said also to mean to carry, 
is another that is not found among the Yurok. Its element seems 
to be an acute or right angled triangle. It is shown in figures 
173 and 174. The two designs in figure 174 were found on the 
same basket and were called by the owner of the basket both 
tata'ktak and snail-back. 



^ The last part of this word has a resemblance to the name of the snail- 
back design, Isivaci. 

* That this is the essential feature of the design is made almost certain 
by the fact that xas has recently been found to mean separated. 



Vol. 2] Kroeher. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 133 

The deer-excrement design, ip'af, is also not found among 
the Yurok, but occurs among the Achomawi and Wintun. Its 
element is a small rectangle used in combination. It is shown 
in figures 175-177. The design in figure 177 was also called 
rabbit-excrement, niv 'af . 

A design found only once is shown in figure 178. It was 
called iyu'uphit, eyes, strictly, like eyes. 

A modification of the snake-nose design consists of two hori- 
zontal rows of the isosceles triangular elements. The design is 
then called apcuniu'fi upcantu'nvahit, snake-noses on top of each 
other, or snake-noses together. Once the form apcuniu'fi upsan- 
tunvaramu was given. Figures 179 to 181 show the modified 
snake-nose design. It will be seen that the isosceles triangles 
may be put simply above one another or joined at their apices 
or along their bases. In the latter case a diamond or rhombus 
results. It is in this way that the diamonds in figure 184 are 
to be interpreted as snake-noses. 

Figure 182, which is the same design as 181, was called by 
an old woman tata'ktak tcivi'tahits. Tcivi'tahits is said to be 
used of small objects in a row. 

A pattern like the eye pattern of figure 178, ascending diago- 
nally through two flint-parallelograms, was once called snake- 
nose ikurukur. This name shows that each of the rectangles in 
the design was in this case considered as consisting of two tri- 
angles joined at the bases. 

Figure 183 shows a design called tata'ktak eviyi'hura, tatak- 
tak ascending, or thrown or moved up. 

Figures 184 to 187 show combinations of designs. These are: 

Figure 184, en i'kiviti and apcuniu'fi. 

Figure 185, apxanko'ikoi and tata'ktak. 

Figure 186, xu'rip and tata'ktak. 

Figure 187, xurip and tata'ktak. 

HUPA DESIGNS. 

Since the drawings for this paper were made, Dr. P. E. God- 
dard has published a description of Hupa basket making, includ- 
ing an account of the designs and their names, in his general 
paper on the Life and Culture of the Hupa referred to. His 



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136 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

illustrated description of the various classes of baskets and of 
the arrangement of their decoration shows the practical identity 
of Hupa and Yurok basketry, several of the pieces he figures 
being in fact of Yurok origin, and has rendered any lengthy 
treatment of the same subject unnecessary in the present paper. 
His account of the use and treatment of materials is particu- 
larly full, and the material previously presented in this connec- 
tion must be regarded as merely supplementary of his more 
exact observations. Dr. Goddard names and figures a number 
of Hupa designs, some of which were not obtained by the author. 
In the cases where the same names were secured, Dr. Goddard 's 
orthographical rendering has been adopted, except that his close 
o and u are represented without diacritical marks. Where he 
does not give a design name, it has been rendered according to the 
phonetic system employed for native names in this paper. 

So far as the Hupa designs can be paralleled with Yurok 
designs they will be taken up in the same order. 

The common design whose elements are parallelograms is 
called by the Hupa niLkutdasaan, on top of each other. While 
this design itself is generally identical in shape with the corre- 
sponding Yurok and Karok flint designs, its name is altogether 
different. Several forms are shown in figures 188 to 191. Inas- 
much as the name has reference only to the relative position of 
the component elements, and not to their shape, it is perfectly 
applicable to the pattern shown in figure 191, though this design 
corresponds much rather to the Yurok elk or ladder than to the 
flint design. 

In one case a design consisting of two oblique parallelograms 
was called by a Hupa woman nesetaxkyuuLon, long mark. 
According to Dr. Goddard the second part of this word means 
weave or woven. This design is shown in figure 192. 

The Yurok sharp-tooth and Karok tata'ktak designs are called 
by the Hupa tcaxtceuneL. Occurrences are shown in figures 
]93 to 196. According to Dr. Goddard this word means points 
sticking up and is applicable to a series of projecting angles. 
The name was obtained, however, for the design reproduced in 
figure 194, which consists of an isolated triangle. Dr. Goddard 
gives as the name of the single right triangle tcesbinalwiltcwel, 



.-^c^^ 






i\ 



UNIV. CALIF. PUB. AM. ARCH. &. ETH. 



VOL 2. PL. 18. 




''"'■ilfff^ ■^^- 





Figs. 1, 2, 3. Openwork and sifting trayn. Yurok. !,. 
Fig. 4. Dance basket. Yurok. v'o- 



Vol, 2] Kroeher. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 137 

said to mean sharp and slanting. The design shown in figure 
195 was called miskaxe tcaxtceuneL with niLkutdasaan. 

A design identical with that of figure 196 is shown in figures 

200 and 202, which were called swallow-tail. While this is per- 
haps the more characteristic name, the acute angles in the figure 
make tcaxtceuneL also applicable to it. Dr. Goddard notes the 
use of both names for this design. 

The obtuse isosceles triangle is called by the Hupa nearly 
as by the Karok, rattlesnake-nose, Luwjmintcwuti;. Two patterns 
are shown in figures 197, 198. Dr. Goddard mentions also 
huwmintewuw nibkutdasaan, rattlesnake noses on top of each 
other, as the name of a pattern of isosceles triangles, which cor- 
responds with the Karok name apcuniu'fi upcantu'nvahit, snake 
noses on top of each other. 

The Yurok waxpoo, the Karok apxanko'ikoi design is called 
by the Hupa tea, or tcax-hultcwe (=tca-wiltcwelt). An 
instance is shown in figure 199. The meaning is unknown. Tea 
and the first part of tcax-hultcwe appear to occur also in tcax- 
tceuneL; hultcwe in mi-kinily-ultcwe and perhaps in tcesLinal- 
wiltcwel. 

According to Dr. Goddard the tea design is usually so 
arranged that a series of figures encircles the basket, when the 
name LenaLdaut/; is given it, signifying "it encircles." 

The swallow-tail design, testcetcmikye in Hupa, has not been 
found among the Karok and only once or twice among the 
Yurok. It appears to be not uncommon among the Hupa. A 
typical form is shown in figure 200. The pattern shown in figure 

201 is from the same basket and was given the same name, but 
is so unrelated in form that a mistake seems likely. Figure 202 
shows the elements found in figure 200 arranged in a continuous 
zigzag pattern. 

The design shown in figure 53 as a Yurok foot design is usu- 
ally called by the Hupa frog hand, tcwal mila. This name was 
also found applied to the design shown in figure 204, but the 
connection between this form and the usual one is not clear. 
The typical form of the frog hand design is again shown in 
figure 203, though in this case it was given the name spread- 
hand, mila analeLi. It thus appears that the Yurok foot design 

Am. Aeoh. Eth. 2, U. 



138 University of California Publications. [Am. Aech. Eth. 

corresponds to both the Hupa frog hand and spread-hand 
designs, while the Yurok spread-hand design is the equivalent 
of the Hupa swallow-tail. 

The Yurok elk and ladder, and the Karok cut-wood designs, 
are found among the Hupa in the forms shown in figures 205 
to 208. To the first two of these, which were obtained from 
one individual, the name LenouLon was given. To the two 
others, which were obtained from two different individuals, the 
name LenoikynuLon was applied. According to Dr. Goddard 
Le-, the first element of these names, means joined or tied 
together, and is no doubt used because the design extends in a 
continuous pattern around the basket; while -kyuuLon means, 
as stated before, weave or woven. 

The sturgeon-back design, Lokyomenkontc, was found once 
among the Hupa and shows in this case the same shape as the 
typical form of the Yurok design of the same name. It is repro- 
duced in figure 209. 

The equivalent of the Yurok crooked or zigzag design is 
called by the Hupa naikyexoloxats. A form is given in figure 
210. The design shown in figure 81 was also called by this name. 

The Yurok vEtseq !seq !oaa, the design of vertical bars, is 
called by the Hupa kinesni. It is shown in figures 211 and 212. 
Presumably the meaning of this design name is, as among the 
Yurok and Karok, striped. 

The design of slanting stripes called by the Yurok vAnaanak 
is called by the Hupa kinilyu. This was translated spotted, but 
this rendering may be inexact. An instance is shown in figure 
213. In figure 189 the diagonal stripes were called mikinily- 
ultcwe. 

In addition to the designs here figured. Dr. Goddard gives 
the following. 

Mikyowe mila, grizzly bear hand, a parallelogram with pro- 
jecting acute angles along the oblique sides. 

"They come together," LekyuwineL, seems to be trapezoids 
superimposed. 

Qowitselminat, worm goes round or worm's stairway, is a 
series of rectangular parallelograms superimposed so that each 
higher one projects to the right of the one below it, the whole 
being bordered by a double line conforming to the outline. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 139 

Oblique lines nmning through oblique angled parallelograms 
are called niLkutdasaan, one on the other its scratches. 

COMPAEISON OF YUROK, KAROK, AND HUPA DESIGNS. 

On the whole the designs of the Yurok, Karok, and Hupa 
correspond rather closely. Still there are a number of discrep- 
ancies in design names. The Yurok and Karok flint design, 
which takes its name from the individual parallelogram, is 
called in Hupa on top of each other, the name being given not 
on account of the shape of the elements but on account of their 
combination into a pattern. The difference between Yurok 
snake and Karok long worm is of course slight. The same may 
be said of Yurok ladder and Karok cut-wood, since the ladder 
consists of a log or slab into which steps are cut. It should be 
noted however that the Karok cut-wood and the corresponding 
Hupa design have two equivalents in Yurok: ladder and elk. 

The design consisting of four or more triangles at the end 
of vertical stalks, those in the middle being higher than those at 
the two sides, is called among the Yurok foot, after the indi- 
vidual elements composing the design; among the Karok and 
Wishosk crow-foot, after the design as a whole; and among the 
Hupa frog-foot. The Hupa however, apply to the design a 
second name, namely spread-hand. This name is found also 
among both Yurok and Karok, but applied to a design consisting 
of four or six vertically projecting acute angles. This design 
in turn is found also among the Hupa, who have given it the 
name swallow-tail. This name, finally, has not been found 
among the other tribes, except for a few cases among the Yurok. 
This is a characteristic instance of the degree of variability of 
design names among the northwestern tribes. 

All the designs so far found among the Yurok, Karok, and 
Hupa are given in Table I, which is arranged so as to show the 
design names that correspond among the three tribes. It will 
be seen that the greater number of names found in one tribe 
but missing in another, are names that are rare even where 
they do occur. Some discrepancies, however, will be noted also 
among the more common names, although, as previously stated, 
all the designs themselves are common to the three tribes. Of 



140 University of California Publications, l^^- Arch. Ern. 

the Yurok designs found more than once, Karok lacks five: 
sturgeon-back, tattoo, vEtergerpuraa, elk, and sitting; but of 
these the first three are not very common even among the Yurok, 
while the elk and sitting are both second names for designs 
whose other names, snake-nose and ladder, have Karok equiva- 
lents. Of Karok designs found more than once, the Yurok 
lacks only deer-excrement, snail-back and xasiree. Hupa, so 
far as now known, lacks nearly the same Yurok design names 
as Karok: snake, sturgeon-back, vEtergerpuraa, elk, and sitting. 
The difference in the number of design names among the 
three tribes is probably only apparent and owing to the fact that 
inquiry has been fuller among the Yurok than among the other 
tribes. Omitting the names found only once, and the varia- 
tions of the common names, there were found among the Yurok 
sixteen, among the Karok fourteen, and among the Hupa, includ- 
ing the designs given by Dr. Goddard, about an equal number of 
characteristic common tribal design names. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber.— Basket Designs of N. W. California. 



141 



TABLE I.-EQUIVALENT DESIGN NAMES. 

The corresponding Yurok, Karok, and Hupa names of the same figure 
are on the same line. 



YUROK 


KAROK 


HUPA. 


flint 


flint-like 


on top of each other; long woven* 


sharp-tooth 


tataktak 


points sticking up 


sitting; snake-nose 


snake-nose 


rattlesnake-nose 


waxpoo 


apxankoikoi 


tcaxhultcwe, tea* 


snake 


long worm 




spread-hand 


spread-hand (?) 


swallow-tail 


foot 


crow-foot 


frog hand ; spread-hand* 


ladder; elk 


cut-wood 


LenouLon, LenoikyuuLon 


sturgeon -back 




sturgeon-back* 


okrekruyaa 


ikurukur 


naikyexoloxats 


vEtsSqlts^qloaa 


xurip 


kinesni* 


TAnaanak 


kutsisivac 


kinilyu' 


vutsierau 


ucaciprdvahit' 




vEtergerpuraa 






tattoo 


xasiree 
snail-back 
deer-excrement 
rabbit-excrement* 
eye-like* ' 




flying geese* 






dove* 






crab* 






maggots* 






box* 






elbow* 






spreading* 






mesh measure* 






chiton mollusc* 






star* 






swallow 






red snake* 






skunk* » 







WISHOSK DESIGNS. 

The names of the designs on a few Wishosk baskets seen were 

obtained, as well as the Wishosk names of a few sketches of 

Yurok designs. Most of the names are untranslatable. Some 

may be descriptive terms instead of standard design names. 

They are given for what they are worth. They are : 

* Found once. 

*A few variations of standard designs, such as ascending tataktak and 
make-noses on top of each other, are not included. 



142 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch, Eth. 

Yurok foot, as in figure 53, but larger, with six to eight stalks 
on each side: Wishosk gatsireweliLe or sisgoptele weliLel, crow 
foot. 

Yurok sharp-tooth: Wishosk laget. 

Yurok sitting, as in figures 27, 135 : Wishosk dutematho. 

Yurok vEtseq !tseq !oaa : Wishosk tciruratcgat. 

Yurok sturgeon-back or Karok flint, as in figures 72, 123: 
Wishosk gavoyahati. 

Yurok flint, as in figure 6: Wishosk wa'sat, put on top, or 
ritve wa'sat, two put on top. 

Yurok elk, as in figure 66 : Wishosk ritvelet, two 1 

Yurok waxpoo, like the elements in figures 36, 142, but in 
three tiers like figure 146 except that the trapezoids are solid: 
Wishosk rikweritcag' atgat, three ? 

Yurok waxpoo, like figure 37 : Wishosk gidacedarib or gidace- 
dariL dudematho, said to mean grown up or full blown. 

Long horizontal trapezoids on top of each other: Wishosk 
datherowaLet, said to mean straight across horizontally. 

Short vertical bars at the ends of these trapezoids : Wishosk 
rakdathaligwalat, said to mean beginning to grow. 

NORTHEASTEEN WINTUN DESIGNS. 

The following information as to the baskets and design names 
of the Wintun of the McCloud river at the extreme northeastern 
end of the territory of the stock and in contact with the Acho- 
mawi or Pit River Indians, was obtained, together with the speci- 
mens to which it relates, by Professor John C. Merriam and is 
presented through his courtesy. 

Typical baskets of this branch of the Wintun are shown in 
Plate 21. In general they are of the northwestern type. The 
weaves are the same except for the different method of over- 
laying described, the shapes and patterns not very different, 
and the materials are largely identical. The warp is of willow 
in place of the northwestern hazel.^ For conical carrying bas- 
kets poison oak, rhus diversiloba, is also used. The woof is of 
roots of yellow pine, pinus ponderosa. The overlaying materials 

^ McCloud river Wintun names of baskets : puluk, large cooking basket ; 
dausep, small shallow cooking and drinking basket; kolom, small deeper 
basket; kawi, mortar basket; an'kapis, conical openwork carrying basket; 
an, seed-beater; tekes, flat tray-shaped basket. 



Vol. 2] Kroeher. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 



143 



are the same as in the northwest, xerophyllum, adiantum, and 
alder-dyed woodwardia. It is possible that additional materials 
may be used to produce patterns. The hat shown in Plate 21, 
figure 3, resembles a Modoc more than a Yurok hat in shape, 
pattern, and softness. The warp appears to be of roots instead 
of twigs ; it is said to be grass, admitted to be an unusual mate- 
rial. The woof at the center or origin of this hat is of twine, 
as in Modoc hats. 

In part the design names collected by Professor Merriam 
corroborate those given by Dr. R. B. Dixon from the upper Sac- 
ramento river Wintun ;^ others are new. 

The water-snake design, shown in figure 214, agrees with 
the form given by Dr. Dixon. The diamond-shaped rattlesnake- 
head design shown 
in figure 215 in 
continuous pattern 
is also given by 
Dr. Dixon. Figure 
216, a row of tri- 
angles, middle of 
base on apex, called 
sucker-tail, is also 
practically ident- 
ical with the Dixon 
sucker-tail design. 
The flying geese, 
figures 217 and 
224, are somewhat 
different from the 
Dixon design, but 
there is an under- 
lying similarity in 
pattern effect. Fig- 
ure 218 shows leaves. A more typical form is said to consist of 
obtuse isosceles triangles with their bases in a row. Dr. Dixon 
shows rows of triangles on each side of a diagonal, which he calls 
* * leaves strung along. ' ' 

* Basketry Designs of the Indians of Northern California, Bull. Am. 
MuB. Nat. Hist., XVII, I, 17, 1902. 




144 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

A bird's breast design is shown in figure 219.' It consists 
of a band of diagonal stripes. Both in form and name this sug- 
gests the Pit River meadowlark neck design.^ 

Figure 225 shows a design that is called lizard foot or track. 
A different combination of the elements constituting this design 
was found by Dr. Dixon called bear-foot. - 

Figure 220 shows what was called a tribal design, taken from 
the woman's cap mentioned. 

Figure 221 shows the arrow point design. 

Figure 222 is the quail-crest design. 

Figure 223 represents a form of what is called the zigzag 
design. 

A raft design, not figured, is square or oblong, containing 
about two horizontal dividing lines. 

A navel-string design on a basket for preserving a child's 
navel-string, also not figured, consists of vertical parallel bars 
or stripes. 

SINKINE DESIGNS. 

The Athabascans of lower South fork of Eel river and of the 
neighboring coast region seem to call themselves Sinkine. In 
the totality of their culture they are as near the Yuki and 
northern Pomo as they are to the Hupa and Yurok. Their bas- 
ketry, however, is distinctively of the northwestern type, though 
very poorly made. The materials include hazel, redwood roots, 
maidenhair fern, woodwardia fibres dyed with alder, and xero- 
phyllum; and coiled baskets are not made. These Indians are 
fond of introducing black radiating stripes in all their open- 
work by coloring the warp, a method only occasionally practiced 
by the Yurok. Much like the northern Wintun and probably 
Shasta, the Sinkine tend to certain minor differences in form 
of their baskets and pattern arrangements from the Yurok, 
Karok, and Hupa. Large baskets have somewhat more contin- 
uous curve and flare in profile than among the tribes of the 
north, and the edge is more often strengthened by a thick rod. 
The acorn meal sifter is shallowly concave in place of flat as 
with the Yurok and Karok or somewhat conical as with the 



^ Dixon, op. cit., p. 15. 
"Ibid., p. 18. 



UNIV. CALIF. PUB. AM. ARCH. &. ETH. 



VOL. 2, PL. 19. 




Various haskets. Kigs. 1, J, 4, .'), (i. Vun.k. Fifr. :>, Karok. ,Vf 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 145 

Hupa. Openwork trays are slightly deeper than among these 
tribes. The patterns are inclined to run in a large horizontal 
zigzag. 

A design of a continuous series of angles, either acute or 
oblique, is called naijgos. 

A pattern of alternately black and white small rectangles is 
called tees 'an or tes'an, which is translated patch. 

Vertical stripes or bars have the name tcinisnoi, which is 
dialectically equivalent to the Hupa name of this design, kinesni. 

COMPAEISON OF BASKET DESIGNS IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

Before proceeding to a comparison of the basket design 
names of California, so far as they are known, it is desirable to 
discuss briefly the geographical relations of techniques and of 
pattern arrangements. 

As between the two chief modes of weaving that are cus- 
tomarily distinguished in western North America, the twined 
and the coiled, twined weaving has perhaps a wider distribution 
in California, but coiled weaving is the principal and more 
characteristic technique of the greater number of groups. 

The tribes of northernmost California, both east and west, 
practice only twined weaving. South of the Yurok, Karok, and 
Hupa the Wailaki are the first group that make coiled baskets. 
The Indians who adjoin them on the north class them as coiled 
basketry makers, while at Round Valley, where they now live 
in contact with Yuki, Pomo, Maidu, and other stocks that chiefly 
make coiled baskets, they are looked upon as workers in twined 
weaving. The Wailaki baskets in the Museum of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology are divided between the two techniques; 
and of two in the American Museum of Natural History one is 
coiled and one twined. The baskets of the Shasta and Chima- 
riko were undoubtedly twined. The northern Wintun of the 
upper Sacramento and McCloud rivers make twined baskets 
exclusively, as those of Trinity river almost certainly did. This 
however must not be supposed to apply to the entire "Wintun 
stock. The southern Wintun east of the Pomo make coiled bas- 
kets. How far north in the territory of this family the practice 
of making coiled baskets extends is not certain. Coiled baskets 
were made on Stony creek. The Achomawi, the Pit river basin 



146 University of California Publications. [-A-m. Arch. Eth. 

Indians, according to Dixon made only twined baskets. The 
Yana work is twined. The Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians 
of the head waters of the Klamath river also use the twined 
technique exclusively. 

South of these tribes coiled work was found and everywhere 
predominated except for larger and more specialized bas- 
kets. Among the Pomo twined weaving was relatively more 
important than among other tribes that employed the coiled 
style ; but even here the smaller and more characteristic baskets 
are coiled. 

In regard to the grouping of designs in patterns on Cali- 
fornia baskets the following arrangements must be distinguished : 

First, horizontal, either in continuous bands or in rows of 
figures. 

Second, vertical or radiating. 

Third, diagonal or spiral, according as the basket is deep 
or flat. 

Fourth, zigzag, or diagonal alternately to the right and left. 

Fifth, in blocks, where a compact cluster of designs or a 
single figure occupies the greater part of the basket visible in 
one view. 

These terms have reference to the appearance of the ordi- 
nary basket seen from the side. In the case of a flat, tray-like 
basket, a horizontal arrangement would consist of circular 
bands, a vertical pattern would be radiating, a diagonal one 
spiral, and a zigzag one star or net-shaped. 

In the baskets from the northwestern region the preponder- 
ating tendency is a horizontal one. The ordinary baskets for 
purposes of cooking or eating, and the hats, show in most cases 
a single decorated strip extending around the basket a short 
distance below its rim. In the case of caps there is generally 
an additional simple subsidiary design at the center. This hori- 
zontal decorative area may consist of the same figure or group 
of figures three or four times repeated in the circuit of the bas- 
ket, or of a more simple and more continuous pattern. The fig- 
ures may be repeated in part above or below the main design 
zone. Ordinarily the zone does not take the form of a distinct 
band of the sort that is so common on the Yokuts and larger 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 147 

Porno baskets. Within this horizontal zone of decoration the 
lines of the pattern sometimes run vertically, but more usually, 
in connection with the common parallelograms and triangles, 
diagonally. 

A secondary tendency in the general pattern disposition of 
northwestern baskets is a diagonal arrangement. This is found 
chiefly in trinket and storage baskets. These are about equal 
in height and diameter, so that in their case the style of decora- 
tion which is confined to a zone near the rim would leave the 
greater portion of the surface of the basket unomamented. The 
diagonal arrangement allows the design to be carried without 
difficulty from the bottom to the top of the basket. The cooking 
baskets and hats are considerably lower than they are wide, so 
that a single horizontal zone of decoration sufficiently occupies 
the visible surface. 

Other methods of distributing the pattern are rare in bas- 
kets of northwestern California. A vertical ornamentation is 
occasionally found in small baskets and a zigzag arrangement 
on large ones. 

The Achomawi baskets are made in the same general style as 
those of the Yurok and Hupa. The unadorned brown, the nat- 
ural color of the roots employed for the woof in most north- 
western baskets not intended for purposes of display, is how- 
ever apparently not used among the Achomawi. The charac- 
teristic Achomawi basket, even when intended for carrying or 
cooking, has its entire surface overlaid with xerophyllum grass, 
which by the northwestern tribes is used to such an extent only 
for caps, trinket baskets, and others in which the ornamental 
purpose is at least equal to the useful one. The alder-dyed red 
of the northwestern region is also absent from baskets of the 
Pit river region. A black, apparently the same as the maiden- 
hair fern fibre of northwestern California, is used by the Acho- 
mawi for making their designs on the white ground color. Some- 
times a dyed black is used. The bottom of some Achomawi bas- 
kets is left in a natural brown without xerophyllum overlaying, 
but this is not always done. 

The baskets from this region are generally somewhat higher 
in proportion to the diameter than the comparatively shallow 



148 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

baskets characteristic of the northwestern region. The bottom 
of the baskets is also squarer, the sides meeting the flat bottom 
more nearly at an angle with a very short curvature, while in 
the northwestern baskets the curving bottom runs very grad- 
ually into the sides. Nevertheless on the whole Pit river bas- 
kets and those from the lower Klamath region belong to the 
same type. 

In the arrangement of designs, however, the Pit river and 
northwestern baskets differ fundamentally. The most common 
arrangement in the Pit river region is the spiral one. Zigzag 
patterns are also common. Block patterns, or single figures, 
which are nearly wanting in the northwest, also occur. On the 
other hand the horizontally arranged patterns of northwestern 
California occur rarely. 

The basketry of the Yana, who are almost extinct, is very 
little known. Dr. Dixon has however described two pieces. They 
seem not very different from Achomawi baskets, being twined 
and overlaid with xerophyllum. Their designs also suggest the 
Pit river designs.^ 

The baskets of the Modoc, and of the Indians often loosely 
called Klamath Indians, the two tribes who constitute the Lutu- 
ami stock, resemble in many ways the northwestern and Acho- 
mawi baskets, belonging to the same twined overlaid type. 

Both warp and woof of the Lutuami baskets are however of 
tule in place of tree twigs and roots, resulting in a more flexible 
basket. The basketry hats are also higher and flatter than those 
of the northwestern Indians besides being begun with woof of 
string. 

The pattern arrangement on the Modoc-Klamath baskets is 
different from the characteristic northwestern arrangement. 
While frequently horizontal, there is a distinct tendency to 
defined bands. The pattern arrangement of hats resembles that 
of Achomawi baskets, being usually zigzag or diagonal. 

The northern Wintun baskets described by Dr. Dixon and 
in this paper stand nearly as close to the Achomawi and Lutu- 
ami baskets as to the Yurok-Karok-Hupa. They resemble the 
Achomawi baskets in being less flat than the northwestern bas- 

* E. B. Dixon, op. cit., p. 19. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 149 

kets and in that their ground color is more often in overlaid 
white than in the natural color of the root fibres of the woof. 
They also lack the characteristic horizontal design-zone of the 
northwestern baskets, but agree with them in showing in the 
great majority of cases either a diagonal or a horizontal arrange- 
ment, although the vertical, the zigzag, and the block arrange- 
ments are also found. The elements of the designs are for the 
most part equivalent to northwestern design elements. 

The Shasta seem to have made comparatively few baskets and 
these resembled the Yurok and Karok baskets of poorer finish. 
Most of the few baskets that can be regarded as typically Shastan 
show a simple pattern of a band of vertical bars. 

Among the few surviving Sinkine, the Athabascans of South 
fork of Eel river, north and west of the Wailaki, baskets are 
altogether northwestern in type, though crudely made. It is 
noteworthy, however, that in the patterns there is a distinct 
tendency toward a zigzag arrangement. 

In the region where coiled basketry predominates, compris- 
ing the remainder and by far the greater part of the state, three 
main types of pattern arrangement may be distinguished, which 
may be called the Maidu, the Southern, and the Porno. It is 
hardly necessary to say once more that this classification has 
nothing to do with materials, technique, or texture. 

The Maidu baskets illustrated and described by Dr. Dixon 
show most commonly a zigzag arrangement. Second in import- 
ance is a diagonal arrangement. Horizontal distribution of 
designs is very rare and the vertical or block arrangement still 
more so. 

The northern Moquelumnan or Miwok baskets in the American 
Museum illustrated by Dr. Dixon, show a preponderating hori- 
zontal arrangement, and secondary to this is a vertical arrange- 
ment of designs. The characteristic Maidu diagonal and zigzag 
arrangements seem to be rare. This fact is noteworthy because 
the Moquelumnan arrangement is that of the southern basketry, 
so that the Maidu type of pattern arrangement would seem not 
to extend southward beyond the limits of the stock, and alto- 
gether to be limited to the Maidu themselves and perhaps some 
of the adjacent Wintun. 



150 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

The Yokuts makers of the Tulare baskets prevailingly use 
horizontal and secondarily vertical patterns, thus agreeing with 
their northern neighbors the Moquelumnan Indians. Especially 
among the southern Yokuts the continuous horizontal band is 
however more in use than in Moquelumnan territory. A diag- 
onal arrangement is not rare in these regions, but usually has 
the form of a series of rectangular steps, so that the horizontal - 
vertical tendency still finds expression. The Shoshonean tribes 
adjacent to the Yokuts follow the same pattern arrangements. 

Baskets from the coast region west and southwest of the San 
Joaquin valley are very scarce. The few that are undoubtedly 
from this region, almost all from Chumash territory, show a 
combination of horizontal and vertical designs. 

The baskets of the Shoshonean and Yuman Mission Indians 
of Southern California, while different from the Yokuts types 
of baskets in many ways, like them generally show horizontal 
and vertical arrangements. Tray-shaped baskets frequently 
show a star-shaped pattern, which should be classed as a form 
of zigzag ararngement. The tribes of the desert farther east, 
such as the Chemehuevi, seem to use the same types of design 
arrangement. 

The entire part of California south of the latitude of San 
Francisco, the larger half of the state, must accordingly be con- 
sidered a unit in the matter of basket-design arrangement, the 
patterns being prevailingly horizontal or vertical instead of 
diagonal or zigzag. 

The third region in which coiled basketry predominates is 
that of the coast region immediately north of San Francisco, 
extending along the coast to the northwestern region. The Pomo 
are the largest group in this area. 

Twined weaving is of relatively greater importance among 
the Pomo than among either the Maidu or the Indians south of 
the latitude of San Francisco. Besides having twined and coiled 
basketry, the Pomo possess the ti weave, a superimposition of 
coiling on twining. Including the minor variations, the total 
number of weaves practiced by the Pomo may not be as large 
as can be found among some other California groups; but 
whereas other groups limit the use of their less characteristic 



Vol. 2] Eroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 151 

weaves to parts of baskets or to certain classes or shapes of bas- 
kets having special purposes, among the Porno the employment 
of the several techniques is not confined nearly as rigorously to 
narrow types of ware. Besides the variety of techniques there 
exists much latitude of shapes, there being flat bowl-shaped bas- 
kets, others whose opening is about equal in diameter to their 
bases, and still others which curve inward to the top consider- 
ably ; besides of course conical carrying baskets and the flat tray 
baskets found all over California. The Porno have also devel- 
oped the canoe shaped or oval basket which is scarcely aborig- 
inal in any other region in California or at least is not usual 
anywhere else. They also use the greatest variety of external 
ornament. Beads, shell ornaments, quail plumes, and feathering 
are employed to a far greater extent than elsewhere. Among the 
northern tribes using only the twined technique such external 
decoration is altogether wanting. The total covering of baskets 
with feathers is also not found outside of the Pomo region, 
though this area must probably be made to include some of the 
southern Wintun, southern Yuki, and perhaps northwestern 
Moquelumnan, as well as the Pomo. Complete feathering is said 
not to have been practiced formerly even by the Yuki proper, 
who in their general culture and their basket technique belong 
to the Pomo type. 

As in shape and technique, Pomo baskets show the greatest 
variety of design arrangements in California. The horizontal 
and diagonal arrangements apparently predominate. Single fig- 
ures of such size that one fills the entire visible surface of a 
basket, or of such size that several are visible at one time, are 
also considerably used, especially on the smaller coiled baskets. 
Very often these figures are fairly elaborate, consisting of a 
group of figures rather than of a design or pattern. Zigzag and 
vertical patterns are also both found on Pomo baskets, and a 
net-like arrangement which might be described as a combination 
of two diagonal patterns slanting in opposite directions is not 
uncommon. 

In regard to decorative scheme and pattern arrangements 
California baskets may therefore be classified as follows : 



152 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

A. Northwestern type, twined. Designs arranged hori- 
zontally in a single pattern-zone or diagonally. 

B. Northeastern or Achomawi type, twined. Arrangement 
of patterns diagonal or zigzag, not horizontal. 

C. Maidu type, chiefly coiled. Pattern arrangement zigzag 
or diagonal. 

D. Southern type, chiefly coiled. Pattern arrangement 
horizontal (often in continuous bands) or vertical. 

E. Pomo type, coiled and twined. Variety of design 
arrangements, horizontal bands and diagonal patterns being 
most frequent. 

In this classification the Yana belong to the Northeastern 
type, the Lutuami and northern Wintun are intermediate between 
the Northeastern and the Northwestern types, the affinities of the 
southern Wintun are either with the Pomo or Maidu, the Yuki 
probably belong to the Pomo class, and the Southern type covers 
the larger half of the state. 

It will be seen that while the Northwestern and Northeastern 
types resemble each other in technique, materials, and general 
effect, the Northwestern and Pomo types are most similar in 
pattern arrangement, whereas the Northeastern is similar in pat- 
tern arrangement to the Maidu. The Maidu and the North- 
western types differ most in pattern arrangement. 

The considerable similarity in materials, methods of manu- 
facture, and general appearance between the basketry of the 
Indians of northwestern and of northeastern California must 
not be interpreted as evidence of general cultural similarity. 
The culture of the two groups of tribes is quite distinct. The 
Lutuami and Achomawi in general resemble the tribes of the 
Sacramento valley or of the great interior basin much more than 
they do the Karok, Yurok, and Hupa. It is in northernmost 
California that the deep and sharp difference between the culture 
of the immediate Pacific coast and that of the interior, which is 
so marked everywhere farther north, finds its most southerly 
occurrence. South of Mount Shasta the line of ethnographical 
division is transferred from the Coast Range eastward to the 
Sierra Nevada; and the differences across this line become of a 
different nature. 



UNIV. CALIF. PUB. AM. ARCH. & ETH. 



VOL. 2, PL. 20. 




Figs. 1-2. Small cookiiij; baskets. Hii]>a. •. 
Figs. 3-8. Cooking and other baskets. Karok. I. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 153 

The artistic poverty said by Dr. Dixon to characterize Porno 
basketry work must from what has been said be understood to 
be only paucity of design names. That it does not extend further 
even to the designs themselves, much less to the general deco- 
rative and technical style, is sufficiently evident from the series 
of Pomo baskets illustrated by Dr. Dixon himself. Of patterns 
the Pomo have as great wealth and variety as any other Cali- 
fornian group. Apart from all question of whether their work 
shows a more refined taste and artistic feeling and execution 
than that of other Indians, it can scarcely be disputed that they 
evince freer imagination and wider range of treatment in the 
decoration of their basketry than other tribes. 

A classification according to meaning of Californian basket 
design names among the tribes from which adequate material 
is at present available is shown in Table II. It will be seen that 
names of animals, of parts of animals, and of parts of the body 
are very frequent, constituting everjrwhere a majority of the 
total number of design names. The only exception is among 
the Maidu, where the proportion of animal designs sinks to 
about one-half. Instead, there is an unusually large proportion 
of names of plants and parts of plants among the Maidu, these 
constituting nearly a third of the designs. Elsewhere plant 
designs are few, and among the Yurok and Karok are altogether 
lacking. Names of natural or artificial objects are found in 
about the same proportion among all the tribes. A fourth class 
of design names are spatial or dynamic ; these might also be 
called geometrical or abstractly descriptive. Names of this sort 
are lacking among the Maidu and are few among the Achomawi. 
Among the Yurok and Karok they are important, constituting 
more than a fourth of all the design names; and the same is 
true of the northern Wintun. Among the Hupa names of this 
class are more numerous than all others. 

In regard to range of representation of design names, accord- 
ingly, the northwestern tribes and the Maidu stand farthest 
apart in that the northwestern tribes have numerous geomet- 
rical designs and none representing plants, the reverse being the 
case with the Maidu; while the northwestern group is inter- 
mediate. 

Am. Arch. Eth. 2, 12. 



154 University of California Publications. [-A-m. Arch. Eth. 

TABLE II. 

Animals and Spatial 

parts of the and dynamical 

body. Plants. Objects. ideas. 

Yurok 17 . . 5 9 

Karok 8 .. 2 4 

Hupa 7 . . . . 12 

Wintun 12 1 1 4 

Achomawi 13 2 2 1 

Maidu 18 11 7 

In the descriptions of Yurok designs previously given it will 
have been noted that almost all the names applied rather to the 
simple element of design than to the pattern as a whole. The 
figure which receives the Yurok name flint is the parallelogram. 
This name is applied to the design whether it consists of the 
simple parallelogram standing alone or of a pattern of such 
parallelograms, although the latter is more frequently the case 
Among the Hupa the same design is named on top of each other. 
This name is obviously applicable only to a pattern consisting 
of two or more such parallelograms. We have here a difference 
between a design-element name and a pattern name. Again, 
there is a widespread design which may be described as consist- 
ing of four or more triangles, or horizontal bars, at the ends of 
vertical stalks arising from a horizontal base, the stalks in the 
middle being longer than those at the two ends. This design 
has various names, such as crow-foot among the Karok and 
Wishosk, frog-foot among the Hupa, lizard-foot among the Acho- 
mawi, and pine-cone among the Maidu. All of these names are 
applicable only to the design as a whole. Among the Yurok the 
design is called simply foot, and the application of this term 
to certain other patterns shows that the name refers not to the 
pattern as a whole but to the single elements constituting the 
pattern, the small triangles at the ends of stalks. 

The relative frequency of design names applying to design- 
elements, and of those applying to composite patterns, is shown 
in Table III.^ 

It will be seen that among the Yurok and Karok designs 
named for constituent elements are in the majority. Among the 

^ The numbers given in Table III are fewer than the total number of 
designs, owing to the difficulty of classifying certain designs. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W.California. 155 

Maidu the opposite is the case. The northern Wintun agree 
with the Yurok and Karok, but the Hupa form an exception 
among the northwestern tribes. The Achomawi show an approx- 
imate balance, but the difference is slightly in the direction of 
the Maidu tendency. 

TABLE III. 

Designs named Designs named 

after their after the whole 

elements. pattern. 

YuTok 13 8 

Karok 9 4 

Hupa 5 12 

Wintun 10 6 

Achomawi 8 9 

. Maidu 8 19 

A summary of the Yurok, Karok, Hupa, and northern Win- 
tun design names presented in this paper, and those of the Maidu, 
Achomawi, and Wintun described by Dr. Dixon, together with 
a few other names obtained by the author, is given in Table IV. 
Only translatable design names have been included. The Wishosk 
are from Humboldt Bay, the Sinkine are Athabascans from 
southernmost Humboldt county, the Yuki are from Round Val- 
ley, the northern Yokuts are the Chuckchansi of Madera county, 
the southern Yokuts the Tule river Indians of Tulare county. 



156 



University of California Publications. [A^m. Arch. Eth. 



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Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 157 



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UNIV. CALIF. PUB. AM. ARCH. &. ETH. 



VOL, 2, PL 21 









Fiys. 1, 2, 4, .'), (i. BasketH. Nortlu-ni Wiiitun. yVV- 
Fig. 3. Cap, Modoc type. Northern Wintuu. ^. 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 159 

It will be seen that although this summary covers only half 
a dozen tribes or groups, occupying much the smaller part of 
the state, there yet is no design name which is found in all of 
them. Patterns having some reference to snakes or parts of 
snakes are found among all the tribes included except the Acho- 
mawi. The rattlesnake is of course especially prominent. Among 
the Yokuts and Maidu its marking is represented; among the 
Wintun its head; among the Hupa its nose. It is evident that 
there is a tendency to use the rattlesnake for design names but 
that the parts of the snake selected are as diverse as the figures 
to which they are applied. There is a similar tendency in regard 
to the deer. The Achomawi have the deer rib, deer gut, and deer 
excrement designs. The Wintun have the deer excrement. The 
Maidu lack deer designs. The northwestern tribes also have no 
deer design names excepting that among the Karok the deer 
excrement design is found and among the Yurok an elk design. 
The arrow-point and flint designs, assuming that they may be 
taken as equivalents, are of the commonest the state over. So 
far however neither has yet been found among the Hupa. The 
quail-plume design, which among some tribes is very common, 
seems to occur chiefly on coiled basketry, to which the use of 
the feather itself as an ornament is also confined. The Acho- 
mawi have the design name but the northern Wintun and all the 
northwestern tribes lack it. 

Little of a general nature as to the relative amount of simi- 
larity of design names among different tribes can be deduced 
from the table. On count, the greater part of the total number 
of design names of any group appears not to be found in any 
other group. As far as the material goes, the northern Wintun 
and Achomawi, who are territorially in contact, show the greatest 
number of design names held in common. 

If the designs themselves to which the names that are given 
in this table are attached are compared, it will be seen that the 
designs corresponding to identical names among several tribes 
are in many cases very different. In the northwestern region 
for instance the flint design is always a slanting parallelogram. 
Among all the other tribes from which material is available the 
equally common arrow-point design is always a triangle. Con- 



160 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 

versely, the same pattern or design-element has among different 
tribes often radically different names. To take again the paral- 
lelogram, its name among the Yurok and Karok, whether used 
singly or in combination, is flint; the Hupa call it long mark, 
or more frequently on top of each other; the Wintun, rattle- 
snake head. The Achomawi and Maidu do not seem to use it as 
an isolated figure but always in pairs or diagonal rows. Among 
the Achomawi these rows are frequently divided by a transverse 
diagonal stripe or other pattern, the parallelograms thus being 
cut into triangles. The pattern running through the rows 
of parallelograms is the deer rib or deer gut design and the tri- 
angles resulting from the divided parallelograms are called 
arrow-points. The undivided rows of parallelograms are called 
by the Achomawi flying geese. The Maidu call such rows vines, 
or, if triangles are combined with the parallelograms, flying geese. 
When the rows of parallelograms are divided by a line or pat- 
tern the design is called fern or notched feather. 

Another instance of diversity of names for an identical pat- 
tern is the design in which the point of a triangle rests on the 
middle of the longer base of a trapezoid. In the northwestern 
region the meaning of the names for this design are not alto- 
gether certain, but among the Yurok the name appears to have 
reference to the middle, among the Karok to basketry-hat, and 
among the Hupa to sharp or point. Dr. Dixon gives the same 
figure from the Achomawi, but the name attributed to it by these 
Indians is bushes. 

Again the obtuse isosceles or equilateral triangle has, in 
different arrangements, the meaning among the Maidu of moth, 
quail-tip, flower, and notched feather, among the Achomawi of 
arrow-point, among the Wintun of fish-tail, flying geese, and 
leaves, among the Yurok of sitting. 

It is not necessary to give further illustrations. The cases 
cited show that there is no deep or inherent relationship between 
the designs of California basketry and their names. Of course 
some names are from their nature applicable only to certain 
designs and must be applied either to these or drop out of use. 
Most names, however, owing to the simplicity of technical repre- 
sentation, are applicable to several designs and are often found 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 161 

attached to different designs among different groups or even in 
the same tribe, just as the same designs very frequently have 
different names among different groups. It must be concluded 
that the basket-design names of at least the greater part of Cali- 
fornia are little more than conventional names of conventional 
designs. 

Symbolism, in the usual and historic sense of the word, does 
not therefore exist in California basketry. The designs and 
design names given by Dixon from the northeastern tribes and 
those from the northwestern part of the state here presented, 
make this fact very clear. Recent investigations on behalf of 
the University by Mr. S. A. Barrett among the Pomo have 
brought out the same result. The various information thus 
obtained covers northern California fairly completely. As to 
the rest of the state less is known at present, but there are no 
indications that conditions are different. The design names of 
the Yokuts at the southern end of the San Joaquin basin are 
certainly of the same general character as those found in the 
north of the state. The names of the designs painted by the 
Mohave, still farther south, on pottery and sometimes on wood, 
refer in large part to objects that do not occur among the design 
names of the basket making tribes, but are as free as these of 
religious or any but a conventional significance. Lack of con- 
nection between basket design names and religious thought can 
therefore be absolutely asserted for the greater part of California 
and can safely be accepted as extremely probable for all the 
remainder of the state. Certainly there is as yet' no trustworthy 
evidence of anything to the contrary. This condition is in entire 
accordance with the almost utter lack of pictographic or realistic 
representation in the art of these Indians. Symbolic expression 
in actions or ritual is almost equally absent. When the general 
fundamental difference in character of the California Indians 
from those of the southwest and of the Mississippi valley, and 
in a measure from those of the north Pacific coast, is once 
clearly realized, the conventionality of their basket design names 
seems entirely natural. Of course it is needless to say that no 
California basket designs express modern poetical sentiments. 
The California Indian calls a triangular ornament in basketry 



162 University of California Publications. [A-m. Arch. Eth. 

an arrow-point, not because this figure expresses a wish or 
prayer for success in the hunt, but because it is a simple and 
fitting name for a simple design. The significance of the deco- 
ration of California basketry is therefore of an entirely different 
nature from the symbolism of a Navaho sand-painting, a Pueblo 
altar, a Plains shield, or a Haida totem pole. The designs are 
primarily decorative, no doubt conditioned in part, but only 
in part, by technique ; and they have convenient names. These 
names of course are as appropriate as possible. This simple 
naming of decorative figures appears to be the analogue or repre- 
sentative in California of a more prevalent tendency in mankind 
to embody a deeper significance in ornaments. But in the form 
in which these design names exist among the California Indians 
they are free from attempts at picture writing or the expression 
of religious ideas. 



KEY TO FIGURES OF DESIGNS SHOWN ALSO IN THE PHOTOGKAPHICALLY 
REPBODUCED PLATES. 

Figure. 

4 

5 

9 

14 

15 

17 

20 

29 '.. 

38 

64 

71 

74 

81 

84 

90 

93 

96 

98 

104 

118 

132 



'late. 


Figure. 


Figure. 


Plate. : 


Figure. 


15 


3 


140 


20 


3 


18 


1 


142 


20 


8 


15 


3 


150 


20 


8 


15 


5 


152 


20 


6 


17 


4 


172 


20 


3 


15 


4 


179 


16 


4 


15 


7 


184 


20 


4 


17 


6 


192 


18 


2 


15 


4 


197 


20 


1 


15 


1 


199 


15 


8 


16 


1 


206 


20 


2 


16 


6 


209 


20 


1 


18 


4 


215 


21 


5 


15 


7 


216 


21 


5 


16 


2 


217 


21 


6 


15 


4 


218 


21 


4 


16 


3 


219 


21 


2 


18 


1 


220 


21 


3 


17 


1 


221 


21 


4 


15 


6 


222 


21 


5 


20 


7 


225 


21 


2 



Vol. 2] Kroeber. — Basket Designs of N.W. California. 



163 



MUSEUM CATALOGUE NUMBERS OF BASKETS ILLUSTRATED IN THE PLATES. 



Numbers with numerator 1 refer to specimens in the Museum of the 
Anthropological Department of the University of California. 

Numbers with numerator 40 refer to specimens in the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences. 

Plate 15, figure 



Plate 19, figure 



Plate 16, figure 



Plate 17, figure 



Plate 18, figure 



1 


40-1675 


2 


1-1591 


3 


40-1663 


4 


40-1661 


5 


40-1653 


6 


1-1609 


7 


40-1708 


8 


1-1496 


1 


1-1579 


2 


1-1870 


3 


1-1472 


4 


1-1761 


5 


40-1683 


6 


1-1481 


1 


1-1661 


2 


1-1507 


3 


1-1888 


4 


1-1571 


5 


1-1599-1601 


6 


40-1655 


7 


1-1817 


8 


40-1659 


1 


40-1711 



Plate 20, figure 



Plate 21, figure 



2 


1-2234 


3 


1-2016 


4 


1-1461 


1 


1-1588 


2 


1-1877 


3 


1-1798 


4 


1-1594 


5 


1-1847 


6 


1-1608 


1 


1-1493 


2 


1-1517 


3 


1-1807 


4 


1-1763 


5 


1-1772 


6 


1-1762 


7 


1-1778 


8 


1-1764 


1 


1-2307 


2 


1-2300 


3 


1-2305 


4 


1-2310 


5 


1-2308 


6 


1-2303 



164 University of California Publications. [Am. Arch. Eth. 



MUSEUM CATALOGUE NUMBERS OF BASKETS PROM WHICH DESIGNS ARE FIGURED. 

Fig. Cat. No. Fig. Cat. No. Fig. Cat. No. Fig. Cat. No. Fig. Cat. No. 

1 40-1652 46 40-1724,1720 135 1-1586 136 1-1794 181 

2 40-1720 47 1-1473 91 40-1658 137 1-1587 182 

3 40-1654 48 40-1664 92 40-1709 138 1-1782 183 1-1783 

4 40-1663 49 40-1694 93 40-1661 139 1-1806 184 1-1763 

5 40-1711 50 1-1831 94 140 1-1807 185 1-1787 

6 40-1720 51 95 141 1-1801 186 1-1774 

7 40-1721 52 40-1727 96 1-1472 142 1-1764 187 1-1781 

8 40-1659 53 40-1607 97 1-1829 143 1-1598 188 1-1463 

9 40-1663 54 1-1698 98 40-1711 144 1-1585 189 1-1502 

10 55 1-1577 99 1-1857 145 1-1583 190 1-1494 

11 1-1434 56 1-1672 100 1-1474 146 1-1788 191 1-2235 

12 1-1438 57 1-1880 101 147 1-1790 192 1-2234 

13 40-1721 58 1-1478 102 1-1577 148 1-1803 193 1-1508 

14 40-1653 59 1-1482 103 1-1830 149 1-1805 194 1-1500 

15 1-1571 60 40-1695 104 1-1661 150 1-1764 195 1-1501 

16 40-1707 61 1-1672 105 1-1590 151 1-1767 196 1-1518 

17 40-1661 62 1-1483 106 1-1476 152 1-1762 197 1-1493 

18 40-1697 63 40-1725 107 40-1665 153 1-1789 198 1-1509 

19 1-1636 64 40-1675 108 154 1-1584 199 1-1496 

20 40-1708 65 40-1662 109 155 1-1800 200 1-1497 

21 40-1699 66 40-1657 110 156 1-1585 201 1-1497 

22 1-1610 67 1-1441 111 1-1475 157 1-1797 202 1-2233 

23 1-1442 68 1-1692 112 40-1700 158 1-1805 203 1-2236 

24 40-1709 69 1-1606 113 1-1435 159 1-1586 204 1-1495 

25 40-1727 70 40-1706 114 1-1439 160 1-1766 205 1-1516 

26 40-1658 71 1-1579 115 1-1437 161 1-1596 206 1-1517 

27 40-1660 72 1-1844 116 1-1578 162 1-1776 207 1-1863 

28 40-1662 73 1-1828 117 163 1-1598 208 1-2232 

29 40-1655 74 1-1481 118 1-1609 164 1-1769 209 1-1493 

30 40-1682 75 ' 119 1-1480 165 210 1-1864 

31 76 1-1456 120 1-1426 166 1-1773 211 1-1463 

32 1-1610 77 40-1699, 1687 121 1-1784 167 1-1597 212 1-1503 

33 1-1593 78 40-1684 122 1-1804 168 1-1773 213 1-1492 

34 1-1592 79 1-1606 123 1-1514 169 1-1770 214 1-2302 

35 40-1656 80 1-1589 124 1-1806 170 1-1772 215 1-2308 

36 40-1682 81 1-1461 125 1-1596 171 1-1771 216 1-2308 

37 40-1660 82 1-1440 126 1-1769 172 1-1807 217 1-2303 

38 40-1661 S3 1-1479 127 1-1595 173 1-1793 218 1-2310 

39 1-1424 84 40-1651,1662, 128 1-1587 174 1-1773 219 1-2300 

40 1-1425 1708,1728 129 1-1799 175 1-1791 221 1-2310 

41 40-1725 85 40-1685 130 1-1802 176 1-1768 222 1-2308 

42 1-1417 86 40-1712 131 1-1772 177 1-1792 220 1-2305 

43 1-1692 87 40-1673 132 1-1778 178 1-1804 223 1-2309 

44 1-1444 88 40-1724 133 1-1765 179 1-1761 224 1-2306 

45 40-1656, 89 134 1-1499 180 1-1777 225 1-2300 

1659, 1676 90 1-1870 



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