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COPYmGIITtI) IIY THE FILSON CLUB 1903 PREFACE IN the year 1780 the battle of King's Mountain was won by colonial backwoodsmen in the midst of con- ditions not unlike those of 18 13, when Kentuckians won the battle of the Thames. The disasters which befell the Americans before both of these battles filled the public mind with a despondency which hung like a funeral pall over sorrowing patriotism. Isaac Shelby, the first and the sixth governor of Kentucky, was a leader in both of these battles, and the antecedents, the surroundings, and the consequences of each of them were as like as his com- manding person in both. Before the battle of King's Mountain the outlook for the Americans, especially in the South, was through thick gloom. Gates, with the glory of Saratoga blazing upon him, had suffered a disastrous defeat at Camden. Sevier, who was supposed to be always upon his guard, was sur- prised at Fishing Creek. But worst of all Lincoln, after failing to recover Savannah, had lost Charleston at the end of a long and distressful siege. Ferguson, the able model in the South for the weak Proctor in the North, flushed iv Preface with British victories over the Americans, was literally riding roughshod over the Carolinas and filling his regiments with Tories in numbers that threatened to overrun the whole country. The conditions in the North, and especially in the Northwest, were no less discouraging. The Americans '■ had held Fort Harrison, Fort Stephenson, and Fort ; Meigs, but the surrender of Detroit and Mackinac, and the massacres at Fort Dearborn, Fort Meigs, and the river Raisin had more than eclipsed the glory of all other quarters. Proctor, reeking with the blood his treachery and brutality had drawn from fallen foes, stood forth like a demon incarnate to desolate the land with all the horrors of a savage and none of the ameliorations of a civilized war. The victory of Perry on Lake Erie, like a bright morning risen upon a dark night, lighted the way for the Americans not only to recover Detroit but to invade Canada and strike at the source of the ills that had befallen them. The Americans were quick to see the advantage of this naval victory and lost not a moment to turn it to their full advantage. The thunder of Perry's guns upon the water had scarcely died away when the tramp of Shelby's regiments on their way to Canada was heard upon the land. When they reached Maiden Preface v they found the enemy had fled, but with the eagerness of famished tigers in the pursuit of their prey they fol- lowed and overtook them in battle array at a chosen point on the river Thames, protected by a precipitous bank on their left and by an impassable swamp on their right. The strong position chosen by the enemy was at once recognized by the Americans, but they were so eager to avenge the massacre of their fellow-soldiers that they would have attacked them had their numbers been twice as great and the fortifications of nature double as strong around them. The advantages of position were with the enemy at the battle of the Thames, as they had been in the battle of King's Mountain. The British had in each instance the field of their choice. At the Thames the Americans had not to point their guns upward as at King's Mountain to dislodge the enemy, but had to shoot at them around trees and through swamps which would have discouraged any other troops. No advantage of position, however, in favor of the enemy could have slaked the thirst for battle which was consuming every American heart. Beside the massacre of their brethren at Fort Dearborn and Fort Meigs and the river Raisin, the Americans remembered atrocities, barbarities, and oppressions in the more distant past which helped to fire their spirit. The vi Preface conduct of Great Britain against the United States had been such for years before as to excite the public mind to fever heat. The forcible taking of sailors from our ships on the high seas and impressing them into the British marine; the blockading of our seaports to the ruin of our commerce, and worst of all, the arming, clothing, and feeding of savages while they tomahawked and scalped our helpless women and children raised public indignation to such a height that the sight of an English soldier excited a hatred that made every man an avenger. Leading men everywhere in the United States reached the conclusion that war, though a terrible evil, was a less evil than to endure such outrages and oppressions. No secret was made of the determination of the people that the United States would go to war with England if such outrages continued. The matter was openly debated in Congress and the newspapers of that day were full of fiery articles on the subject, and politicians everywhere made inflammatory speeches about it. Even the plan of the initial campaign of the war was shadowed forth in the proposed conquest of Canada, by the orators and writers of the day. Some were opposed to the war, but enough were in favor of it to bear down all opposition. War against Great Britain was therefore declared by the United States, June i8, 1812. Preface vii The eighteenth publication of the Filson Club is prin- cipally concerned with the war that followed this declara- tion as it occurred in the Northwest. It was soon evident after the declaration that we were not ready for war, especially for the campaign in the Northwest. An inade- quate number of undisciplined infantry were expected to invade Canada and conquer it, without a navy and in spite of the armed vessels of the enemy that floated upon the lakes and protected Canada. Neither was our army ready with ofificers or soldiers, or arms, or supplies. A beginning had to be made, however, and when the initial steps were taken it was found that the enemy, forewarned by our proceedings in Congress, by our newspapers and our stump orators, were better prepared for the fight than those who had sent the challenge. The campaign began by the invasion of Canada by Hull on the 12th of July, 181 2. Instead of Hull attacking Maiden he spent his time in trying to induce the Canadians to come under the American flag and the Indians to keep quiet, until he learned that the British were not as idle as he was and were about ready to make an attack on him. He then crept back to Detroit and there began that dis- graceful series of acts which led to the surrender not only of his army but of the whole Northwest frontier. His first step after returning to Detroit was to get his supplies viii Preface from tlie river Raisin, where the enemy had blockaded them, by sending an inadequate force, which was defeated. He then sent a larger force, which after defeating the enemy were withdrawn without getting the much-needed suppHes. While these unmilitary acts were progressing and a third party had been sent to the river Raisin for the supplies, General Brock marched his army to Sand- wich, planted cannon so as to command Detroit, without any interference on the part of Hull, and when ready for bombarding demanded and secured the surrender of Hull, August 1 6, 1812, without the American general accom- plishing anything but to cover himself with everlasting disgrace. The fortress of Detroit and the territory of Michigan, with a population of live thousand souls and one thousand four hundred soldiers, with arms, ammuni- tion, and supplies went from Hull to Brock by the surrender. Previous to the surrender of Detroit, Fort Mackinac had been taken by the British, on the 17th of July, 181 2. Lieutenant Hanks was in command of the fort, but had not been advised of the declaration of war until the enemy were upon him. The garrison, consisting of only fifty- seven effective men, could do nothing but surrender when taken by surprise, as they were, by an overwhelming enemy. Preface ix Hull's order to Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dear- born after distributing the stores to the Indians led to a fearful massacre of the occupants of the fort on the 15th of August, 181 2. The Indians, who had promised to conduct the garrison safely to Detroit, proved to be treacherous, and either slaughtered or permitted others to slaughter those they had promised and been paid to protect. The massacre had all the horrors of Indian barbarity in tomahawking and scalping not only soldiers but women and children. Things had thus gone fearfully wrong in the year 181 2, the first year of the war. On the 8th of September, however, a small bright spot appeared in the dark sky of that period. The Indians attacked Fort Harrison, on the Wabash, and set it on fire and seemed to be in the act of taking it. But it was heroically defended by Captain Taylor and saved. As the year 181 2 ended so the year 1813 began with a show of favor to the Americans by the God of War. The soldiers sent by General Winchester to Frenchtown met the British there and defeated them January 18, 181 3. The defeat, however, was of short dura- tion. On the twenty-second the British were reinforced from Maiden and the Americans from Fort Meigs. A second battle ensued, in which the Americans were defeated with great loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners. On the X Preface twenty-third followed such a massacre of the prisoners and wounded by the Indians as has seldom occurred in the annals of civilized war. There was another serious disaster to our arms in the year 1813. It occurred at Fort Meigs on the 5th of May, and came of Colonel Dudley either not understanding or disobeying the orders given to him to take the English batteries and then make his way to the fort. Instead of doing this he took the batteries and then pursued the Indians. In so doing he lost eight hundred men and left the enemy's batteries to continue playing upon the fort. This bad current of events began to change for the better in the second siege of Fort Meigs in May, 181 3. It gained strength and flowed stronger in the defense of Fort Stephenson August 2d, and yet stronger in the victory of Perry on Lake Erie September loth. The decisive victory of Perry on the lake removed all obstacles in the way of General Harrison to Detroit and into Canada, and the battle of the Thames soon followed. . This battle of the Thames is the subject of the follow- ing pages. It was no big thing compared to armies as now organized and brought against one another, but it was immense in its influence on the War of 1812. It was like the battle of King's Mountain in the Revolutionary War. It came at a time when the Americans were full of gloom. Preface xi It dispelled that gloom and displayed a clear sky to the American armies. Cornwallis felt as much despair in the death of Ferguson as Harrison felt hope in the flight of Proctor. It is not always best in a preface to anticipate too much of what is said in the text. The story of the Battle of the Thames is better told in the text than it can be told in an introduction, and it is well to leave the reader to learn what is said in the text of the author. He may sometimes be thought to color his facts with the hues of romance, but if they are thereby made more interesting to the reader no harm can come of such a departure from cold and naked narrative. Even if he should now and then be thought to substitute creations of a vivid imagi- nation for dry historic facts, the reader may be benefited by the change, whether cold history approve or not. Differences of opinion have always existed as to certain facts about the battle of the Thames, and they may con- tinue to exist after this or any other essay on the subject. What battle was ever fought about which all historians perfectly agreed? One valuable feature of this account of the battle of the Thames may be pointed out. It is the appendix, in which the names of all the officers and soldiers who took part in this battle are given. The descendants of these xii Preface heroes are now scattered far and wide over the land, and they can but be pleased to see the names of their ances- tors mentioned in a victory so glorious as that of the Thames. These names are given as they appeared in their regiments and companies, and the names of the privates are alphabetically arranged, so that it is not diffi- cult to find any one of them. The numerous illustrations are also worthy of mention in this preface. The principal persons engaged in the battle are represented by halftone likenesses, which are the very best of their kind, and worthy of the images they are intended to preserve. There will also be found in the appendix a sketch of Oliver Hazard Perry, and the names of the Kentuckians known to have been with him in the battle of Lake Erie. R. T. DURRETT, President of The Filson Club CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Preface iJi I Events Which Led to the Battle, i II The Material, Organization, and March of the Army, 29 III Johnson's Regiment Joins in Pursuit of the Fly- ing Enemy, 52 IV Arrived at the Battlefield, 67 V The Battle and the Victory, 75 VI After the Battle, 94 VII The End 102 VIII The Heroes of THE Battle no Appendix i99 ILLUSTRATIONS OPPOSITE PAGE Colonel Bennett H. Young Frontispiece Mound on battlefield of the Thames 8 Thames River, looking south from mound i6 Tree on bank of Thames River, near battlefield 24 Thames River, looking south from Longwood Road 32 General John Poague 38 The old Tecumseh Hotel, on the Thames battlefield 56 The battlefield of the Thames 68 The Hospital Barn 80 Relics picked up on battlefield of the Thames 96 Governor Isaac Shelby iio General William Henry 116 General Joseph Desha 118 General William Henry Harrison 120 General John Edward King 122 Governor John Adair 124 General James Allen 128 Colonel George Trotter 130 General David Chiles 132 William T. Barry, Postmaster-General 134 J. J. Crittenden 140 Colonel James Johnson 146 Colonel Micah Taul 160 Colonel Joseph McDowell 162 Major DeVall Payne 170 General Robert B. McAfee 172 Tecumseh 180 Colonel Richard M. Johnson i86 Colonel James Davidson 190 The Battle of the Thames The Battle of the Thames EVENTS WHICH LED TO THE BATTLE THE War of 1812 was one of tremendous importance to the future development of the United States. Although thirty years had elapsed since the decla- ration of peace, after the War of the Revolution, the relations between England and the United States had never been harmonious or fully adjusted. There had grown up in England, among many of its leading men, the idea that in some way, somehow, at some time, the United States would return to their allegiance to Great Britain. In those days of slow communication the public at large were not kept well informed of the conditions of public sentiment in the United States, and the England of that period could not understand how people who spoke the English language and fashioned their laws after English jurisprudence could desire any other system of government than that then in vogue in England. Then, again, the English people were never satisfied with the result of the War of Independence ; they never 2 The Battle of tJie Thames believed that they were fairly vanquished in that struggle, and there was a strong undercurrent in the English nation which, if it did not suggest, at least desired another test of arms. That the Colonies would set up a permanent government of their own in the Western World on their own account did not appear reasonable or possible, and, by a majority of the people in Great Britain, it was expected that the republic would collapse and the American nation again accept British sovereignty. England, then relatively the greatest nation on earth, felt her power ; she was insolent, rude, and domineering toward the United States. The English nation felt that they had nothing to lose by a war with the United States and would probably gain much ; therefore Amer- ican rights were ignored and American protests given no consideration whatever. Through a long line of mean, petty aggressions, Eng- land placed the United States in a position where, to maintain even a semblance of national self-respect, war became necessary. Under Mr. Jefferson's administration vessels had been taken and wrongs had been suffered because the national and commercial conditions of America were such that Mr. Jefferson's party thought the taking of vessels the lesser of evils. The Battle of the T/iaines 3 Many of the American people thought the conduct of the administration at Washington was pusillanimous ; especially in the Southern and Southwestern States public spirit had long before demanded an appeal to arms as the only vindication of American nationality. On the first of June, 18 12, James Madison, President of the United States, had presented a manifesto to the Senate and House of Representatives, communicating certain doctrines and making suggestions, and, in effect, advising a declaration of war. In this manifesto Mr. Madison says : We behold, in fine, on the side of Great Britain, a state of war against the United States, and on the side of the United States a state of peace toward Great Britain. Whether the United States shall continue peaceful under these progressive usurpations and these accumulating wrongs or, opposing force to force in defense of their natural rights, shall commit a just cause into the hands of the Almighty disposer of events, avoiding all connections which might entangle it in a contest of views with other powers, and preserving a constant readiness to concur in an honorable re-establishment of peace and friendship, is a solemn question which the constitution wisely confides to the legislative department of the Government. This manifesto was an able and complete presentation of the wrongs which England had inflicted upon the United States, but in the then divided sentiment in this 4 The Battle of the Thames country as to either the policy or the safety of a decla- ration of war, Mr. Madison had gone fully as far as political wisdom would admit. This message of the President was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations, which made its report to the House, and resulted, after several days' debate, in passing an act declaring war between the United King- dom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Dependencies thereof and the United States of America and their Territories. The causes which led up to the war had existed for twenty years. England, with a persistence and with a spirit of insolence unworthy of a great nation, had ignored the rights of the United States, had assumed to be mistress of the ocean, and had practically declared that the United States had no rights that Great Britain was bound to respect. For many years British cruisers had held up American merchant vessels on the ocean and carried ofl" persons sailing under the American flag, claiming that England, by reason of the nationality of these sailors, had the right to take, capture, and hold them wherever found. This course was persisted in without a hearing or inves- tigation before a competent tribunal ; the search was exercised in a summary, harsh, and cruel manner, and The Battle of the Thames 5 the rights of citizens of the United States or sailors of the United States were thus subjected to the will or caprice of any commander of any English war-vessel. Under pretext of search for these British subjects, thousands of American citizens had been taken from their country, had been carried on board of English ships of war, subjected to the severest discipline, and compelled to fight England's battles. Against such wrongs and outrages the United States had in vain remonstrated and expostulated, and the United States had gone so ^^r as to offer to enter into an arrangement by which, if there were any British sub- jects in American vessels, they might, under proper restrictions, be delivered up. In addition to this British ships of war had hovered along the American coast and harrassed American com- merce. They had seized and searched American vessels and had in American harbors shed American blood in pursuance of these extraordinary and unlawful methods. At every opportunity American commerce had been plundered on the seas and the staples of America had been cut off from all foreign markets. England had taken the position that while she was at war with France all French allies or countries from which the British flag was excluded were subject to the same 6 The Battle of the Thajnes restrictions as if blockaded, and all vessels trading with these ports were subject to English capture and con- demnation. This practically meant that England had entire domination of all oceans, and that commerce was forbidden and every vessel driven from the ocean unless sailing under the British flag. Under this extraordinary claim many American vessels were seized, carried into English ports, and condemned as prizes of war, while others were compelled to cease their ocean trade, and the commerce of the United States was thus substantially destro3'ed. To give effect to these demands American ports were blockaded and impressments made by British cruisers in American waters. Again, Great Britain had continued to excite hostility among the American Indians against the United States, had supplied them with arms and munitions of war, and had openly and constantly encouraged savage assaults on the American frontier. It was also proven that England had sent agents secretly into the United States to disrupt the United States and to endeavor to have States secede from the Union while the two countries were negotiating an adjustment of their differences. The American public mind had now become so fixed in its determination to resist English aggressions and The Battle of the Thames 7 wrongs that it would have been extremely difficult to longer restrain it. Therefore the Committee on Foreign Relations closed its report with these thrilling words : Your Committee, believing that the freeborn sons of America are worthy to enjoy the liberty that their fathers purchased at the price of so much blood and treasure, and seeing in the measures adopted by Great Britain a course commenced and persisted in which might lead to the loss of national life and independence, feel no hesitation in advising resistance by force, in which the Americans of the present day will prove to the enemy and the world that they have not only inherited that liberty which our fathers gave us, but also the will and power to maintain it. Relying on the patriotism of the nation and confidently trusting that the Lord of Hosts will go with us to battle in a righteous cause and crown our efforts with success, your Committee recommend an appeal to arms. War was declared by this act, passed on the i8th of June, 1 81 2, which was immediately approved by the President, and on the 19th of June President Madison issued a proclamation of war. In the Senate the vote stood nineteen for the war and thirteen against it, showing a very close division of public sentiment on the subject. In the House there were ninety-eight yeas and sixty- two nays. New Hampshire voted three for the war, two against it. 8 The Baffle of fhc Tlianics Massachusetts, six for the war, eight against it. Rhode Island voted two against the war. Vermont, three for the war, one against it. Connecticut voted seven against the war. New York voted three for the war, eleven against it. New Jersey, two for the war, four against it. Pennsylvania, sixteen for the war, two against it. Delaware gave one vote against the war. Maryland gave six for the war and three against it. Virginia, fourteen for the war, five against it. North Carolina, six for the war and three against it. South Carolina, eight for the war, none against it. Georgia, three for the war, none against. Kentucky, five for the war, none against. Tennessee, three for the war, none against. Ohio, one for the war. Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Delaware were solidly against the war, while South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio were solidly for the war. No war with so brief a duration was ever marked with more disasters or mistakes, and while these mistakes were not exclusively confined to the American armies a large proportion of them happened on the American side. The United States was not prepared for the war, but the conduct of England became so insulting and degrading a c TZ S 5 B O r The Battle of the Thames that there was nothing left to do but to fight, and Mr. Madison's predecessors had not made that preparation which was essential to the preservation of peace or to fit the nation for war, when war, which was inevitable, should occur. There was no enthusiasm for the war in many States of the Union. The narrow margin, both in the Senate and House of Representatives, in favor of war was an unmistakable indication that the whole country was neither willing nor prepared for hostilities. Six majority in the Senate and thirty -six majority in the House was a very slim vote on which to enter into a conflict with a nation like Great Britain ; with , Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Delaware soHdly against the war, and Massachusetts eight against it, with New York eleven against and three for, and New Jersey four against and two for. The condition of the public mind was not prepared to enter upon a great conflict and fight out a great issue with a nation like Great Britain, then con- fessedly the most powerful of the world. This difference of sentiment hampered American effort and destroyed American enthusiasm ; it made the men less brave and the generals less confident. With foes in front and foes behind no man can often lead an army to a great victory. The nation desired peace, the majority of those who had fought in the Revolutionary Army still lO The Battle of the Thames lived. Indian aggressions on the frontier had produced a depressing effect, but it is just to say that the States hke Tennessee and Kentucky, Georgia and Ohio, which would suffer most, were those which were most anxious and earnest in their demands for hostilities. The anti- war spirit was especially strong in New England. The legislatures of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey protested against the war, and the shipping interests of Boston hung flags at half-mast expressive of their disapproval of what Congress had done. It took some months to create real enthusiasm in the quarters where it was most needed to give the armies of the United States proper backing, and the very first results of the war were such as to justify those who opposed it with their prophecies of evil. The men who were appointed first in military positions were men who had been prominent in the Revolutionary War and greatly advanced in years. As a result of this, operations were slow, the march of forces was timid, and movements hesitating. Unfortunately for the United States, General William Hull was Governor of the Territory of Michigan. No man in the country could have been found less fitted for the exigencies or the conditions which were sure to arise at one of the most important points of contact between the armies of the two countries. The Battle of the Thames n In the beginning of 1813 the American Army was organized in three divisions : First, the Army of the North, under General Wade Hampton, which was to act in the country around Lake Champlain ; second, the Army of the Center, under General Henry Dearborn, which was to conduct operations on Lake Ontario and the Niagara frontier ; third, the Army of the West, com- manded by General Winchester for a short time and subsequently by General Harrison. After the defeat at the River Raisin General Harrison located himself at the Maumee Rapids, fifteen miles from Lake Erie, in what is now known as Perrysburg, in Wood County, Ohio. General Proctor had besieged these forces, and on the 5th day of May occurred the disaster in which Colonel Dudley and the troops led by him were captured and so many Kentuckians massacred, but the Americans now returned to their old way of fighting, and Proctor was driven off. In July the siege was again renewed, with no better results. The Americans maintained themselves with gallantry and courage, and George Crogham, a mere youth, on August 2d, with one hundred and sixty men, inflicted a tremendous loss upon the British troops and held Fort Stephenson in such a way as not only to make him a hero, but to encourage the American soldiers in subsequent conflicts. 12 The Battle of the Thames The capture of York, now Toronto, in April, the activ- ity under Generals Dearborn and Pike, and the defense of Sackett's Harbor, again gave encouragement; but these were offset in turn by disasters on Lake Ontario and the defeats at Stony Creek and Beaver Dams. Thus a year of war left the Americans without a signal victory on land, and practically nothing to compensate for the loss of life and property which twelve months of conflict had brought to the nation. The dreadful massacre at Fort Dearborn on August 15th, the cowardly surrender of Detroit on the i6th, the savage atrocities at the Raisin, and the fearful loss at Fort Meigs, coupled with the reverses at different points in the North and East, had impressed upon the minds of all the American people that the war was a real one, in which reverses and failures would demand patriotic sacrifice and a united and earnest effort to place the United States upon a real war footing. When the war began there was not a single war-vessel on Lake Erie. The small sloop "Adams" was surrendered by Hull, but this was recaptured and burned by Captain Evans off Fort Erie. This was followed by the battle of Queenstown, November 13, 181 2, brilliant and glorious because of the courage and gallantry of the American volunteers; all of this, however, was offset by the sur- render of Scott to the American troops, who had made The Battle of the Thames 13 so brilliant a record, which was quickly dimmed by the failure of General Van Rensalaer to support his fellow- countrymen. Disasters on land were offset by superb successes on the sea. England then had a thousand war-vessels, manned by one hundred and forty thousand seamen, while the American vessels numbered seventeen men of war, and could carry only four hundred and forty-two guns, with five thousand seamen. First came the conflict of the ' ' President " with the "Little Belt," and then the subsequent conflict of the "President" with the "Belvedere;" then the capture of the British vessel "Minerva" and its soldiers by the "Essex" and the capture of the "Guerriere" by the "Constitution;" then the brilliant pursuit of the "Frolic" by the "Wasp," the capture of the "Swallow" by the "United States," and then the capture of the "Macedonia" by the " United States," and lastly that of the "Java" by the "Constitution." The American navy in a year had six encounters, and in each one scored a victory. Three hundred British merchantmen had been captured in six months, either by the navy or by American privateers, and everywhere on the water the courage and gallantry of the American sailors were more than a match for their English enemy. 14 The Battle of the Thames The year 1813 had dawned in disaster and massacre. The temporary success at Frenchtown, on the 19th of January, was sadly counterbalanced by the horrors of the Raisin on the 2 2d. As the battle of the Raisin had much to do in aflfecting the spirit and temper of the men engaged in the battle of the Thames, a brief account of it will be necessary to a complete understanding of the conditions which surrounded those engaged in it. When the express, which was then sent through the wilderness from Detroit to Cincinnati, brought an account of the surrender of Detroit by General Hull, August 15, 1812, there seemed to be a universal outburst of patriotic sentiment among the people of Kentucky. Their con- tinued conflict with Indians from the cessation of hostili- ties through the peace which followed the Revolutionary War had kept alive a military spirit as well as military organizations. Their sufferings and their services in behalf of their country had given them the highest order of patriotism. In the hearts of all the people of Kentucky burned an intense desire to wipe out in some great victory the stain which had been placed upon national courage by the base surrender of General Hull. General Harrison, then Governor of the territory of Indiana, had been authorized to take command of the The Battle of the Thames 15 troops in the Indiana and Illinois territories to carry on the war in that section against the Indians, and also to call on the Governor of Kentucky for any portion of its contingent of volunteers which was not in service. In May, 181 2, the Governor of Kentucky had organ- ized ten regiments, amounting to five thousand five hun- dred, as the quota of Kentucky under the one hundred thousand militia call made by the United States. More than enough volunteers had promptly come forward to meet the demands of the Governor, and, under requisi- tions made by the War Department, the regiments of John M. Scott, William Lewis, and John Allen were ordered into the service. They were required to ren- dezvous at Georgetown, in Scott County, on the 15th of August, 181 2, and were placed under command of Brigadier-General John Payne, of Scott County. The best men in the State promptly offered their services to their country. Members of Congress, county officers, majors, colonels, and captains of militia, all has- tened, if required, to take the place of privates in the ranks. Men who had fought in the War of the Revolu- tion, or later under Wayne, Harrison, St. Clair, and Clark, esteemed it a privilege to again assert their country's honor, and rushed to its defense. Rank was unhesitatingly waived, and the impulse to volunteer was almost universal. i6 The Battle of the Thames While these troops were assembled at Georgetown and were listening to an address from Henry Clay, Hull, at Detroit, was surrendering the soldiers of his country and his post in the most cowardly manner to their British foes. Who should command these troops was a question of much moment to the Kentucky soldiers. Governor Scott would shortly turn over his office to Shelby, who was for the second time to be Governor of the Commonwealth. It had been suggested that General William Henry Harrison be made Major-General by the Governor of Kentucky, but the difficulty was, Harrison was not a citizen of Kentucky, and the laws did not sanction the appointment of a non-resident as a militia officer of the State, and besides a Major-General had already been appointed for the detached militia, which was all that was allowed under the law. At this juncture a caucus was called, composed of Governor Shelby, Henry Clay, Thomas Todd, Judge of the Federal Court, and other distinguished Kentuckians, and they unanimously resolved to advise Governor Scott to appoint General Harrison as Major-General of the Kentucky Militia, and authorize him to take command of the troops now about to march for Detroit. Governor Scott made the appointment, and in a very short time Kentucky sent seven thousand of her citizens into the field. H X > < The Battle of the Thames 17 Among the troops that went forward from Kentucky were the regiments of Lieutenant- Colonel WiUiam Lewis, composed largely of Central Kentucky Volunteers, from Fayette, Jessamine, Clark, and Scott ; and that of Lieu- tenant-Colonel John Allen, known as the First Rifle Regiment of Kentucky. They had been the first of Kentucky's troops to enter the service, having been enlisted August 15, 181 2, to serve until October 14, 1 81 2. These regiments were composed in large part of the crack militia companies of Central Kentucky. They were with General Winchester at the Rapids of the Maumee ; their time had been extended from two to six months. They had borne with the greatest heroism, in the most splendid manner, the privations and diffi- culties which attended the winter campaign of 181 2-1 3. As their time would expire in February, it was necessary, if a forward movement was to be made by these troops, that it should be made promptly. General Winchester and his command were at this time at the Rapids of the Maumee, now called Maumee City. On the morning of the 17th of January, 1813, General Winchester had directed Colonel Lewis to march with five hundred and fifty men to the River Raisin, about forty miles distant. A few hours afterward, he was followed by Colonel John Allen with one hundred J 3 The Battle of the Thames and ten men, who came up with Lewis on the evening of the 17th, at Presque Isle. Lewis remained all night at this point, and set out very early in the morning to reach Frenchtown, about six miles farther up the lake, thus bringing him within eighteen miles of Maiden, where the British troops had established their headquarters and were supposed to be in large force. When he arrived within six miles of Frenchtown he met a considerable force of Indians. Colonel Allen was in command of the right, and Major Benjamin Graves in command of the left — three companies constituting each command — while the center, likewise composed of three companies, was commanded by Major George Madison, and the advance guard was commanded by Captain Bland Ballard. When they reached Frenchtown the enemy was observed in motion and in line of battle. They were attacked in a most vigorous manner by the Kentuckians, and for two miles, under severe fighting, were driven back. The commanding general said of the troops engaged in this contest: "They amply supported the double character of the American and Kentuckian." But two men were killed and fifty-five wounded, while the Indians left fifteen dead on the ground, and carried off in addition a large number of wounded. The British The Battle of the Thames 19 and Indians were commanded by Major Reynolds, of the British Army. His force consisted of one hundred Enghsh and four hundred Indians. Colonel Lewis was directed to hold Frenchtown. The success of this movement, communicated to the army at the Rapids, created a high degree of excitement and all were eager to advance and participate in the hostilities. On the 19th of January General Winchester himself advanced with two hundred and fifty men — all that could be spared from the Rapids — and assumed command of the force. General Harrison reached the ford at the Rapids on the morning of the 20th, and there discovered that Gen- eral Winchester had the evening before preceded him to the River Raisin, having left General Payne in camp with three hundred men. General Harrison did all that he could do, under the circumstances, to reinforce General Winchester. So soon as he learned, on the morning of the 2 2d, of the attack, he ordered all the reinforcements to follow those which had already gone forward under General Payne. The first intelligence they had of the dreadful calamity was from fugitives who had escaped from the battle, and who informed the scouting force that General Winchester had been totally defeated, and the British and Indians 20 The Battle of the TJianies were pursuing them toward the Rapids. A short time afterward information was received which showed the defeat was total and irretrievable, and all resistance on the part of the Americans had ceased. General Winchester, an old Revolutionary soldier, who had moved to Tennessee, living in luxury and ease, had no experience as an Indian fighter, and rested that night with his two hundred and fifty troops in fatal security, while guards were placed as usual. In consequence of the extreme cold weather, no picket was placed on the road along which the enemy was likely to advance. The night was passed without any alarm, but at daybreak on the morning of the 2 2d, while reveille was beating, three guns were heard in quick succession. Without delay the troops were formed in line of battle, and while doing so the British opened a heavy fire on the camp with artillery loaded with bullets and grapeshot, at a distance of nine hundred and fifty feet. The Kentucky troops had been placed within the line of a picket fence. The regulars, under Colonel Welles, who had come as their escort, had been formed in the open field, without the protection of any breastworks. A partial advance of the Indian allies on the right and left had been received by the Kentuckians with absolute steadiness. Around Lewis's camp they were repulsed, but the rein- The Battle of the Thames 21 forcement which had arrived with General Winchester, composed of the regulars, after a short contest was com- pelled to fall back, and by some misconception of orders in directing them to form along the picket fence this detachment was thrown into confusion. Discovering the misfortune which had attended the regulars, Colonels Lewis and Allen left their protected point behind the picket fence and went forward to assist in rallying the men who had been thrown into disorder. In their disconcerted condition they attempted to move along a narrow lane through which the road passed from the field. The Indians formed on either side of this lane and shot the retreating Americans down in every direction. Some who had passed through the lane and reached the wood on the right hand were surrounded and massacred, and nearly one hundred men were tomahawked within a distance of three hundred feet. Captain Simpson, a member of Congress, in command of one of the companies, was shot and tomahawked at the edge of the wood near the mouth of the lane, and Colonel Allen, although severely wounded in his thigh, attempted to rally his men, begging them to halt and sell their lives as dearly as possible. Colonel Allen, attacked by two Indians, killed one with his sword, while a third one coming up, put him to death with a shot from his rifle. 22 The Battle of the Thames Lieutenant Garrett, with his command, consisting of twenty men, about a mile and a half from the village were surrounded, and after surrendering, all were massacred excejit the Lieutenant himself. Another party of thirty men, who had escaped for three miles, were overtaken by the savages and more than half of them shot and toma- hawked, and thus in a brief while a majority of those who were in the retreat were sacrificed. The snow was deep and the cold was intense, so they were unable to march or elude their pursuers. General Winchester and Colonel Lewis were captured a short distance from the village and were taken back to the British lines. But the British and Indians met a superior sort of courage from within the protected space. The troops there, under Major Benjamin Graves and Major George Madison, formed their men within a line embraced by the picket fence, resolving to sell their lives as dearly as pos- sible. Major Graves, being shot in the knee, bandaged his own wound, telling his men never to mind him but to fight on. A six-pounder used by the British had been posted behind a small house two hundred yards from the lines of the Kentuckians. Supplies of ammunition had been furnished by a horse and sleigh. The Kentucky rifiemen promptly killed the horse and cut off the chance of sup- The Battle of the Thames 23 plying the six-pounder with ammunition. Again and again was the attempt made to dislodge the little band of Ken- tuckians, and Proctor was finally compelled to withdraw his forces to the woods and to await the return of his Indian allies, who had pursued the retreating party. General Proctor, the British commander, resolved to do by strategem and deception what he was unable to do by force. He persuaded General Winchester to send an order to the Kentuckians to surrender. Major Madison was unwilling to obey any such order, taking the ground that since Winchester was a prisoner he had no right to issue such an order. Proctor himself went forward for the pur- pose of negotiating a surrender. He demanded an imme- diate surrender, claiming that he would set the town on fire and the Indians would commit an indiscriminate mas- sacre. Major Madison still refused to surrender, saying it had been customary for the Indians to massacre all prisoners after surrender, and he would not agree to any capitulation which General Winchester might direct unless the safety and protection of his men were stipulated. He attempted to bully Major Madison, and asked him if he intended to dictate to him (Proctor), to which Madi- son replied that he intended to dictate to himself, and he preferred to sell the lives of himself and his men as dearly as possible rather than be massacred in cold blood. 24 The Battle of the Thames Proctor then agreed to make terms, by providing that all private property should be respected; that sleds should be sent next morning to move the sick and wounded to Fort Maiden, near Amherstburg, but in the meantime the prisoners should be protected by a guard, and the side- arms of the officers should be restored to them at Maiden. As there was but little hope of reinforcement, and as their ammunition had now been reduced to one third of a small keg of cartridges, there was nothing to do but accept these terms. Shortly after the surrender the prisoners were marched toward Maiden, Proctor saying that as soon as his wounded should be taken to Maiden the American wounded would be attended to. Doctors Todd and Bowers, of the Ken- tucky volunteers, were left with the wounded, and the only guard that was left was an English major named Reynolds and two or three interpreters. On the following morning, about sunrise, instead of the sleds which were promised to carry the wounded and sick, a large body of Indians returned to Frenchtown, painted black and red. These Indians held a council, and it was resolved that all the wounded should be killed in revenge for the warriors they had lost in battle. They then began to plunder the houses of the inhabi- tants, and break into those where the wounded lay, strip 1 '< I t!ie W" thei' had !'>st ; i ! cattle. p; W c :z ^ > z ?: H M o n Tl r-* ^ H m X rn > I s t-r > rrj PC -r" La re 'X l>J f- z > rn ■y) > H ?c D CCI 1:^ > H ?0 p 1 Hlf n p^ 1 b Hi^.; -^ =dx '^Z^^'-^ The Battle of the Thames 25 them of their blankets, and tomahawking them without mercy. Captain Paschal Hickman, who had been wounded, was drawn to the door, tomahawked, and thrown back into the house, the house set on fire, and the greater part of the wounded within were consumed in the con- flagration. Those who were able to crawl attempted to get out of the windows, but they were pushed back, and some who were not in the house were killed and thrown into the flames, while many more were tomahawked and inhumanly massacred and left in the streets and along the road. A few, who were able to march, were started toward Maiden, but upon the slightest sign of fatigue they were tomahawked and left lying in the road. The fate of Major Graves was never known. He started toward Detroit, but no tidings have ever come of his whereabouts. Some of the prisoners made their escape, while others were burned at the stake. Ordinarily, a government like the British would have hanged a commander Hke Proctor for such conduct, but in the state of public mind then in Great Britain he received promotion for his conduct. The Forty-first Regiment of British troops was badly cut up. Both General Winchester and Major Madison protested to Proctor against the violation of his contract. The renegade. Captain Elliott, in response to solicitations 26 The Battle of the Thames for assistance and help to the wounded, replied: "The Indians are very excellent surgeons." On arrival at Amherstburg, the Americans were placed in an old mud hut, where they were exposed all night to a heavy rain without beds or blankets, and scarcely enough fire to keep them from freezing. They were thus exposed to the intensest suffering. On the 26th of January the prisoners, some of whom were wounded, were sent up Detroit River and up the Thames River, and carried through the interior of Upper Canada to Fort George at Niagara. They were subse- quently paroled and returned to Kentucky. General Win- chester, Colonel Lewis, and Major Madison were sent to Quebec, where they were kept in confinement until 18 14, when in a general exchange they were released and returned home. These horrible barbarities, together with the fact that the American dead were left unburied, created the intensest indignation and the fiercest hate among the people of Kentucky who had thus suffered by these atrocities. Another event, known as Dudley's defeat, occurring on the 28th of April, 1813, had aroused widespread excite- ment and horror in the minds of Kentuckians. Governor Shelby had sent General Green Clay forward with reinforcements to General Harrison, who was then The Battle of the Thames 27 at Fort Meigs, at the Rapids of the Maumee. General Clay arrived close to the fort on the 4th day of May, and communicated by messenger with General Harrison, who directed him to send eight hundred men as he advanced to the relief of the fort; to cross the Maumee River at a point one and a half miles above Fort Meigs, and then, marching down the river a short distance, cap- ture some batteries, spike the guns composing them, and recross the river. Colonel William Dudley was designated to take charge of this movement. By some misunderstanding of orders, after taking the batteries Colonel Dudley's troops pursued some Indians who were seen in proximity to the batteries. They were led into an ambuscade; Colonel Dudley him- self was wounded and killed, and almost the entire force captured. The prisoners were subjected to massacre by the Indians, and after they had been corralled in the fort a large number of them, in the presence of British officers, were ruthlessly and wantonly shot down. Tecumseh, hearing the firing, rode up and ordered the cessation of this murderous policy, and protected the remaining pris- oners from death at the hands of the savages. The prisoners were subsequently paroled, May nth, and upon their return to their homes told of the horrors and barbar- ities to which they were subjected by their foes. The 28 The Battle of the Thames American loss was eighty-one killed, two hundred and sixty-nine wounded, and four hundred and sixty-seven prisoners. As Kentucky alone suffered in this battle, this, taken in connection with the massacre at the River Raisin, had produced tremendous public excitement and a high state of indignation throughout the entire Commonwealth. The period for which the Kentucky volunteers had enlisted — who had gone forward with General Clay and had been at the siege of Fort Meigs— would expire late in September or early in October. The operations for the year had not bettered the condition of the American forces in the Northwest, and in Ohio and Michigan the condition was worse if anything than at the beginning of the year. II THE MATERIAL, ORGANIZATION, AND MARCH OF THE ARMY The American forces under General Harrison had, with difficulty, held their own in Ohio and Michigan. After the second siege of Fort Meigs and the conflict at Fort Steven- son neither side was very aggressive. The term of service of most of the troops at Fort Meigs, and in the parts of Ohio and Michigan where service was active, had expired. Governor Shelby had endeavored to secure the consent of the troops for re-enlistment, and offered a bounty of seven dollars per month extra to persuade the troops to remain for a little while longer. Following up written communica- tions to accomplish this purpose, he had Colonel Anthony Crockett, from Franklin County, Kentucky, an old Revolu- tionary soldier of great courage, sent to urge these troops to engage for an additional sixty days' service, but even with Colonel Crockett's imposing presence no better results had been obtained. The garrison duty, and necessary inactiv- ity of the infantry in that section of Ohio, had produced a very high degree of discontent. Rations had not been served with the regularity or abundance which the men expected. It looked as if the Army of the Northwest had 20 The Battle of the Thames disintegrated, and that the forts would be abandoned and the territory lost. It was therefore necessary to have new enlistments as well as to have new men, if the war was to be carried on successfully, the positions of the forces maintained, and the territory held. The reverses elsewhere had produced a spirit of dissatisfaction with all the opera- tions of the war. News traveled slowly; there were not many newspapers, and those that were published did not give any very great detail of the military operations. In this emergency General Harrison appealed to Governor Shelby to come to his aid, and he had doubtless heard of the Governor's willingness, if necessity demanded it, to take part in the war. The Kentucky heart was filled with indig- nation, not only at the misfortunes of the war, but particu- larly at the disasters that had befallen Kentuckians. The public mind, therefore, was ripe for action, and when Governor Shelby issued his proclamation of July 13, 18 13, there was an enthusiastic response to the demand for troops. Twice as many volunteered as were expected, and had it not been for Governor Shelby's persistence and his broad views of the necessities of the occasion the results obtained would have been impossible ; enlisting twice as many men as were allowed by the call and, in defiance of General Harrison's suggestion, moving the militia on horse- back to the scene of hostilities were the two things which The Battle of the Thames 31 made the Battle of the Thames a grand victory. The proc- lamation was printed on hand-bills and posted at all the public places throughout the State. It required in some localities as much as eight or ten days to get the hand-bills distributed, but no sooner were the contents known, no sooner did they realize that their country's honor and their State's good name demanded services, than the State became one vast camp of enlistment. While it was under- stood that only sixty days of service would be required, the men who were enlisting this time were doing so with the full determination to remain as long as war's emergencies should demand. They came with the calm and deliberate pur- pose, under the leadership of Shelby, of doing whatever patriotism and courage required. A large majority of the men who accepted this service were those whose business and families required their presence. In many localities of the State they had not more than ten or fifteen days for preparation; they knew they would be compelled to make a march of several hundred miles, surrounded by many diffi- culties affecting ammunition, food, and clothing, and it is extremely creditable to the men who thus aligned them- selves under Shelby's standard that in so short a time they were wilhng and able to arrange the details for a campaign fraught with such danger and controlled by such uncertain- ties as to the period of enlistment and service. ,2 The Battle of the Thames The Commonwealth of Kentucky had very few good roads at that period, and the men who came from the west as far as Henderson and Glasgow donned their hunting shirts and made the best provision possible for the cam- paign upon which they were entering. In squads and com- panies they began to move from all parts of the State. Those whose arrangements were not completed promised their comrades to follow with rapidity and to meet them at Newport, the place of rendezvous, in time to start for the seat of war on the first of September. To a large proportion of the men thus answering so patriotic a summons, absence from home at this period involved tremendous sacrifices, but nothing could stay the generous impulse which warmed and animated their souls, and rendered them willing to do all and abide all which the sense of their country's honor and right required at their hands. And so from the great valleys where the Cumber- land and the Tennessee pour their waters into the Ohio; from the hills which overshadow the Green and the Barren; from the mountains that feed the rippling Rockcastle; from the head waters of the Cumberland; from the picturesque land where the Kentucky cuts its deep way through the limestone rocks, and finds for its waters an outlet in the bosom of the Ohio; from the places which feed the Licking and the Big Sandy — patriots everywhere made response > 5 7) < The Battle of the Thames 33 with liberty's noblest offering, their persons — these Kentuck- ians moved to the place of organization where they should all become an army, and be officered and led to meet America's most detested foe. To Newport came the best and bravest men the great Commonwealth could offer or send; social rank was forgotten and ignored; political posi- tion set aside ; duty to country was higher, more sacred than all other considerations, and these heroes stood ready to act when and where and as country called. The personnel of this little army surpassed in valor, in intelligence, and in patriotic zeal any similar number of men which had ever been organized in the State of Kentucky. The ready response, the unflagging ardor, and the superb courage which animated these men made them a most for- midable foe. A large number of them holding official posi- tions, many of them Revolutionary soldiers, more of them men of renown won by participation in the Indian battles from 1782 to 1794, they were possessed of a spirit of great personal pride, of manly courage, and of unlimited devotion to the cause of their country. In that early period of its history the men of Kentucky had the same wonderful State love which has characterized its inhabitants during all its existence. They felt that the reverses at Raisin and Fort Meigs, and the horrors and barbarities which had attended the battles at both these places, demanded from the State ^4 The Battle of the Thames of Kentucky retribution, and they were willing to make any march, face any danger, and engage in any conflict which should avenge the death of their fellow-citizens and restore the glorious record of their Commonwealth for courage and chivalry. Each man felt that he was engaged in history- making; that aside from the personal glory which might result from the campaigns, there was something higher and nobler to be considered in this ; the honor, the reputation and the fame of Kentucky was involved. No draft or threatened conscription had brought these heroes together. No fear or danger could drive them from their purpose. They were to follow leaders in whom they believed, and in whom they trusted with sincerest faith. The sight of their Governor, Isaac Shelby, was in itself an inspiration, and the vast number of Revolutionary soldiers, like William Whitley, Anthony Crockett, Joseph Desha, and William Henry, gave renewed inspiration to every military impulse. The future history of these men is the highest evidence and the surest indication of the magnificent spirit and of the noble impulse which impelled this little army. Vice-presi- dents, senators, congressmen, governors, ambassadors, consuls, and judges were all to be made from the men who gathered under the leadership of Shelby, Henry, and Desha. The men who there assembled at Urbana were, in a large measure, for half a century, to be leading factors in The Battle of the Thames 35 the development, growth, and government of Kentucky. Little discipline was needed. The crack shots now and then violated the rules by shooting-matches, and the army was now and then disposed to make free use of cartridges; but these military peccadillos detracted nothing from the splendid esprit de corps and the superb patriotism which governed, directed, and controlled this army. Every man was impatient to go to the front ; with undisguised restless- ness they hurried every movement; a large proportion of them would have been willing to have gone forward with nothing but guns. Many of them carried their Kentucky squirrel rifles ; those who did not have these had been supplied with muskets either at Newport or at Urbana. They detested the slow march which was required to allow provisions and ammunition to keep up with the command, and everywhere officers and men demanded to be led for- ward in order that they might, on the battlefield, show not only their prowess, but their readiness to avenge the insults and dishonor which they felt rested upon their State by reason of the perfidious and barbarous treatment which had been accorded Kentuckians at Raisin and Fort Meigs. The officers found it difficult at first to restrain the men ; their zeal outran all discretion, but, in a little while, calmer judgment and mihtary discipline prevailed, and this brave, gallant, and chivalrous host submitted itself unmurmur- ^6 The Battle of the Thames ingly to the leadership of their Governor and his chosen assistants. The staff appointments were men who, for intelHgence and courage, could not be surpassed ; and now, after nearly' ninety years, as we look back we can realize what it meant to have aids like John Adair, John J. Crittenden, Matthews Flournoy, George Walker, and Robert P. Henry; secretaries like Thomas C. Flournoy and William T. Barry ; adjutant-generals like Joseph McDowell ; brigadier-majors like Gabriel Evans, Robert Poague, Anthony Crockett, and John Bibb. No army led and officered by such men could fail in meeting any call that duty could make. With brigadier-generals like Marquis Calmes, George Trotter, David Chiles, John Edward King, James Allen, and Samuel Caldwell; colonels composed of such material as Trotter, Donaldson, Poague, Montjoy, Renick, Davenport, Taul, Calloway, Simrall, Barbour, Floyd, and Williams, these troops could not, under any fair conditions, fail to meet every possible emergency. Kentucky had already furnished far more than her just quota of the men who were engaged in the War of 1812, but the misfortunes and defeats and the massacres to which the men of Kentucky had been subjected had only aroused a higher degree of patriotism and a nobler resolve of consecration to the country's cause. The Battle of the Thames 37 There were then fifty-six counties in the State. Some of the counties it would require four or five days to reach by messengers, and in some instances a week had elapsed before the Governor's proclamation had been read. When a month had passed forty-eight of the fifty-six counties were represented. Scott, Woodford, Bourbon, Mercer, Jessamine, and Clark all had large representation in the troops then in the field, but nothing could stay the great tide of enthusiastic and chivalrous response which came from every part of the State, in answer to the demands of the Governor for an adequate force to repel British invasion. Instead of the two thousand called for four thousand responded. Some came with only tomahawks and knives, some with swords and knives, many with their rifles, but all with brave, earnest, and patriotic hearts and all ready to do whatever their country and its cause should demand. A portion of them had seen service in the Indian wars, many of them had been Revolutionary soldiers. Although now well advanced in years, such men as Colonel Anthony Crockett and WilHam Whitley, who by their age and devotion on the battlefield had won exemption from further sacrifice, gladly stepped forward to meet the call of the hour. Men who held high rank in the militia of the State willingly became privates in order to take part in the jg The Battle of the Thames glorious victories which they felt would await them under the leadership of Shelby and Harrison. After drawing such arms and equipments as could be had at Newport they marched from there to Urbana, Ohio, one hundred and twenty miles north of Cincinnati, and there the regular organization was completed. General William Henry, a distinguished Revolution- ary soldier and a great Indian fighter and a major-gen- eral in the Kentucky Militia, was given command of one division, while General Joseph Desha was given another. The companies of Captain David Todd, Captains Matthews Flournoy and Stewart W. Megowan, of Fayette, and Captains Gustavus W. Bowers and Mason Singleton, of Jessamine; Captains Joseph Reading and John Chris- topher, of Woodford, formed the first regiment, under Colonel George Trotter. The second regiment was composed of the companies of Captain Isaac Cunningham, of Clark; Richard Menifee, of Bath; George Matthews, of Fleming; James Mason, of Montgomery; James Simpson, of Clark, and Captain George W. Botts, of Fleming, and was to be commanded by Colonel John Donaldson, of Clark. The third regiment was composed of the companies of Captain Aris Throckmorton, of Nicholas; Captains William Reed, Moses Demmitt, and Jeremiah Martin, of GiNiKAL JOHN POAGLE. The Battle of the Thames 39 Mason; Captain Francis A. Gaines, of Greenup, and Aaron Stratton, of Lewis, to be commanded by Colonel John Poague. The fourth regiment was composed of the companies of Captain Conrad Overturf, of Bracken; Captain John H. Morris, of Gallatin; Captain Thomas Childers, of Pen- dleton (who had succeeded William Mountjoy as captain of the company); Captain Squire Grant, of Campbell; Captain Thomas Ravenscroft, of Harrison; Captain William Hutchison, junior, of Bourbon, to be commanded by Colonel William Mountjoy. The fifth regiment, to be commanded by Colonel Henry Renick, was composed of the following companies: Captain Martin H. Wickliiife, of Nelson; Captain John Hornbeck, of Bullitt; Captain Thomas S. T. Moss, of Green; Captain Thomas W. Atkinson, of Adair, and Captain Samuel Robertson, of Washington. The com- pany commanded by William R. McGary subsequently joined the troops at Portage River and was assigned to this regiment. The sixth regiment, to be commanded by Colonel Richard Davenport, of Boyle, was composed of the com- panies of Captain Archibald Bilbo (Colonel Davenport went out as captain of this company, but being promoted to colonel, was succeeded by Bilbo, first lieutenant), .Q The Battle of the Thames Captain Abram Miller, of Lincoln; Captain John Faulkner, of Garrard; Captain Jesse Coffee, of Casey, to which was subsequently added the company commanded by Captain Michael Davidson, The seventh regiment, commanded by Colonel Micah Taul, was composed of the companies of Captain Samuel Wilson and Captain William Wood, of Cumberland (Captain Taul, who was made colonel, was succeeded by William Stephens, of Wayne); Captain Thomas Laughlin, of Knox, and Captain Samuel Tate, of Pulaski. The eighth regiment, to be commanded by Colonel John Calloway, of Henry, was composed of the companies of Captain John Calloway, who, upon being made colonel, was succeeded by Edward George, his first lieu- tenant; Captain Eleazor Hedden, of Henry; Captains James Hite and Philip Shiveley, of Jefferson; Captain Robinson Graham, of Franklin, and Captain Samuel Kel- ley, of Jefferson. The ninth regiment, commanded by Colonel James Simrall, was composed of the companies of Captains John Hall, James S. Whittaker, and Samuel Harbison, of Shelby; Warner Elmore, of Green; Richard Bennett, of Franklin, and Presley C. Smith, of Washington. The tenth regiment, commanded by Colonel Philip Barbour, of Henderson, was composed of the companies The Battle of the Thames 41 of Captain William Whitsett, of Logan; Captain Robert E. Yates, of Grayson; Captain William Ewing, of Butler; Captain James Gorin, of Barren; Captain Joseph McClos- key, of Nelson; William R. Payne, of Warren, and Captain Philip Barbour who, upon being promoted to colonel, was succeeded by Daniel Wilson, of Henderson. The eleventh regiment was to have been commanded by Colonel George R. C. Floyd, but from some cause he was succeeded by Colonel William Williams. It was com- posed of the companies of Captains Sylvanus Massie, Richard C. Holder, John C. McWilliams, of Madison; Thomas McGilton, of Clay; Captain Johnston Dysart, of Rockcastle; Captain John Hay don, of Harrison; to which was subsequently added the company of Captain William Berryman, and- also that of Captain Henry R. Lewis. The first and second regiments composed the First Brigade, to be commanded by Brigadier-General Marquis Calmes, who was succeeded by Colonel George Trotter. General Calmes, having been taken sick and unable to assume command and left at Detroit, followed the army and was with it at the battle of the Thames, but too ill to serve. The third and fourth regiments composed the Second Brigade, commanded by General David Chiles, of Mason County. 42 The Battle of the Thames The fifth and seventh regiments composed the Third Brigade, commanded by General George Edward King, of Cumberland. The sixth and eighth regiments composed the Fourth Brigade, commanded by General James Allen, of Green. The ninth and tenth regiments composed the Fifth Brigade, commanded by General Samuel Caldwell, of Logan. The first, third, and fourth brigades constituted the First Division, commanded by Major-General William Henry, of Scott. The Second Division was composed of the second and fifth brigades and the eleventh regiment, and was commanded by Major-General Joseph Desha, of Harrison. General John Adair, subsequently to bear a distin- guished part in the history of Kentucky and of the coun- try, was appointed first aide to Governor Shelby, and Major John J, Crittenden second aide-de-camp, while William T. Barry, with the rank of major, was made secretary to the Commander-in-Chief. Thomas Barr, of Lexington, was appointed judge advocate-general, with the rank of major ; Joseph McDowell, of Boyle, was made adjutant-general and Colonel George Walker, of Jessamine, was commissioned inspector-general. The Battle of the Thames 43 Governor Shelby, with miHtary experience and a true conception of the difficulties under which General Harri- son was laboring, wisely concluded that the best thing to do was to march his men through from Newport to Por- tage on horseback. The men would be far better satisfied to keep their animals, for it would provide them an easy means of returning, but the greatest advantage was the rapidity with which the column could be moved, and in the end this proved of the highest importance. Eight days of the time had been consumed in drawing the necessary arms, provisions, and equipments, and in reaching Urbana. A block-house had been constructed at this place at the beginning of the war, and stores of all kinds placed here for use of those who were to march from Cincinnati to Detroit. The march from Urbana was begun on the ninth day of September, 18 13, reaching, on the tenth, Manary's block-house, three miles north of the present city of Bellefontaine, Logan County. They camped on the tenth at Solomon's Town, near the line of Hardin and Logan counties, at Fort McArthur on the eleventh, three miles north of Kenton, the present county seat of Hardin County; on the twelfth they reached Upper Sandusky, the present county seat of Wyandot County, sixty-three miles north of Columbus. Leaving there at eight o'clock a. m., the army reached Fort Ball on the AA The Battle of the Thames thirteenth. This was near the line between Wyandot and Seneca counties. On the fourteenth the column reached Lower Sandusky, now known as Fremont, the county seat of Seneca County. At Seneca, half way on this day's march, ammunition was distributed. On the fifteenth the army arrived at its camp on the Portage River, where it remained until the embarkation for Put-in-Bay on the twenty-first. Governor Shelby at once reported to General Harrison and announced his readiness with his troops to obey all commands. Some historians have endeavored to show that differences and jealousies existed or arose between General Harrison and Governor Shelby. There was no real foundation for any such statement. These men were too great in mind and too intensely patriotic to harbor any such littleness. They were animated by a common purpose — to pursue, defeat, and destroy a common foe — and each, with unselfish devotion to country, did all that was possible to help the other. General Harrison would have waived the real and retained a nominal command in favor of General Shelby, but the hero of King's Moun- tain would accept no such sacrifice, and willingly and gladly, even though entitled to control as Commander- in-Chief of the Kentucky Militia, renounced all such right and took subordinate position to General Harrison. The Battle of the Thames 45 It was a tradition in Kentucky for years that General Harrison hesitated about a pursuit of Proctor, and that Governor Shelby insisted upon such a course, and with emphatic language declared that he would follow Proctor and his British and Indians even to h — if necessary to avenge Kentucky's wrongs; but this was pure fiction, as was shown by both Shelby's and Johnson's acts and dec- larations after the return of the army to Kentucky. The topography at the mouth of the Portage River was peculiarly favorable for the purposes of Governor Shelby and General Harrison. A peninsula is here formed by inlets from Lake Erie. By building a fence across the narrow point of the peninsula, about one and a half miles, would enclose seventy thousand acres of fine grazing land. The land on this peninsula had been settled before the war by thrifty families, who had been driven away during hostiHties, and grass and other provender had grown up, so that there was an average of fifteen acres for every animal which should be turned into the enclosure. Orders had been given by which each regiment should fence the space in its front on the line, to be constructed across the peninsula. With three thousand willing hands, working with hatchets, grubbing-hoes, and knives, in a few hours the fence was completed. It was built of poles, ^6 The Battle of the Thames about six or eight feet high, and then the brush and tree- tops were piled up on the fence, so that it presented an impassable barrier to the animals confined within it. A short time after the fence had been completed, from some unaccountable cause, these thousands of horses became stampeded. They rushed like a great cyclone toward the camp. Huts had been erected during the four or five days' stay by the soldiers, and in and about these the frightened animals crowded. A good many men were wounded and some killed, and many of the horses were lost by running into the water and becoming mired in the sand along the river bank. After much difficulty they were extricated and quieted. As the victory of Perry over the British on the lake had rendered the approach to Canada by water the easiest way, the troops were to be carried by boat, first to Bass Island, next to Middle Island, and thence to the Cana- dian shore. On the 2 1st and 2 2d of September all the troops were transported to Bass Island, where they remained until the 24th of September, waiting for the arrival of stores and provisions. On the twenty-fifth the whole army removed to Middle Island, a small island containing about five or six acres, which was crowded to its fullest limit. On the twenty-seventh, early in the day, the whole army was The Battle of the Thames 47 embarked and set sail from the Middle Island to the Canadian shore. The troops were exhorted to remember the fame of their ancestors and the justness of the cause in which they were engaged, and to the Kentuckians General Harrison and Governor Shelby spoke these four words: "Remember the River Raisin." By three o'clock in the afternoon the army was landed, the hne of march was formed, and in two hours the advance guard — the regiments of Ball and Simrall — was at Amherstburg, where they saw the smok- ing ruins of Fort Maiden, which had been burned by Proctor as he began his flight with his army of British and Indians. At this time General Harrison had faint hope of being able to out-march Proctor and overtake him. In a letter written that night, he says: "I will pursue the enemy to-morrow, although there is no probability of overtaking him, as he has upward of one thousand horses and we have not one in the army." After a search a small pony was obtained, and on this the venerable Shelby was mounted, and of all the gallant heroes who had left their horses some forty or fifty miles behind — and they would then have been very serviceable — only the hero of King's Mountain could be provided with a mount. .8 The Battle of the Thames On the twenty-ninth the army arrived at Sandwich, nearly opposite Detroit. It was expected at this point that Proctor would give battle, but on arriving there it was found he had deserted the place on the day preceding. Here and there a few Indians could be seen plundering the inhabitants in the suburbs of Detroit, which kept the people there in a state of great perturbation. General McArthur crossed over from Detroit and took possession with his brigade. On the thirtieth, which was a very trying, rainy day, the troops continued at Sandwich. The inhabitants of Sandwich, after some earnest arguments in the shape of threatened impressments, brought in provi- sions. A few of the soldiers had violated the rights of property, and upon hearing of this General Harrison issued the following order : "The Commander-in-Chief of the Kentucky Volunteers has heard with extreme regret that depredations have been committed upon the property of the inhabitants of this town, by some of the troops under his command. He did not expect that it would ever be necessary for him to admonish citizens who are proud in the enjoyment of property at home of the -impropriety of wantonly injuring that of others. Violations of this kind, while they disgrace the individuals who are guilty of them, will tend to injure the character of the army and detract from the merit which The Battle of the Thames 49 the success of the present campaign would entitle them to claim. While the army remains in this country it is expected that the inhabitants will be treated with justice and humanity, and their property secured from unnecessary and wanton injury. The Commander-in-Chief of the Kentucky Volunteers enjoins it upon the officers of every corps to use their exertions to prevent injury being done to the private property of the inhabitants. He is determined to punish with the utmost rigor of martial law any one who shall be guilty of such violation." The naval successes of the war on the side of the United States, in September, gave new cause of congratulation. Oliver Hazard Perry, born in 1785, lost his ship and sought service on the lakes under Commodore Chauncey and took part in the attack on Fort George, at the mouth of the Niagara River, which was captured by the militia. From there he was sent to fit out a squadron on Lake Erie. How well and successfully he did this is best told in the story of the destruction of the British fleet on Lake Erie under Commodore Barclay. Both English and Americans had put forth extraordinary efforts to build and organize a fleet on Lake Erie, the British preparing their vessels at Amherst- burg and the Americans at Erie. With almost incredible energy and efforts he managed to construct nine vessels, capable of carrying fifty-four guns. Commodore Perry could ^o The Battle of the Thames not restrain himself as he saw the British fleet maneuver- ing off the Canadian coast, and on the loth of Septem- ber, 1 813, with all his squadron, he engaged the British fleet. Perry's flag-ship, the Lawrence, was disabled, and he boarded the Niagara. He had placed some Kentucky riflemen in the masts, and under their deadly fire a large number of British officers and seamen were killed, and after a tremendous conflict, at three o'clock the British flag was hauled down, and for the first time in her naval history Great Britain, the " Mistress of the Sea," had lost an entire squadron, and had surrendered this to a young man only twenty-seven years of age. His dispatch to General William Harrison, then in camp at the falls of the Maumee, " We have met the enemy and they are ours," immortalized him. It is unfortunate that all the names of these Ken- tucky riflemen have not been preserved; they numbered about one hundred and fifty. They were largely from Colonel William E. Boswell's and Colonel R. M. John- son's regiments, and their accurate aim did much to dishearten the British and keep the decks clear during the conflict. This victory gave to the United States the mastery of Lake Erie. It was impossible for the British to construct a navy and organize a naval force on Lake Erie again, and the destruction of Commodore Barclay's fleet made access to Canadian territory by the United States The Battle of the Thames 51 entirely practicable and comparatively easy, and rendered possible the pursuit, which was afterward made, of Proctor and Tecumseh. Perry subsequently carried his ships into Lake St. Clair, and in person he followed the fortunes of General Harrison and Governor Shelby. Six hundred British sailors were made prisoners. Commodore Barclay, the British commander, went into battle with one arm, and during the fight lost the other. The British loss in killed and wounded was two hundred, American loss twenty-six killed and ninety-six wounded. The news of this mag- nificent victory was communicated to the Kentucky troops about fifteen miles from Portage River, and gave new zeal and enthusiasm to the Kentuckians as they were nearing the end of their tedious and difficult march. Ill JOHNSON'S REGIMENT JOINS IN PURSUIT OF THE FLYING ENEMY Colonel Johnson's regiment, with the exception of one company, had been encamped at Fort Meigs since the middle of September. It had been placed there to awe the Indians and to keep General Harrison posted as to the military conditions then existing west of Fort Meigs. On the evening of the 25th of September a messenger arrived with orders from General Harrison to march immediately to the river Raisin. With the dawning of the morning the march was begun. The military instincts of these veterans convinced them that the time of action had come. They had known of a large Indian force at Brownstown, and among men and officers there was a feeling that in forty-eight hours the command would come in contact with the enemy. For the use of the regiment four pieces of light artillery were taken from Fort Meigs, each of which was manned by a captain and ten men. These captains were Craig, Turner, Gist, and Sanford. On the twenty-eighth they reached the river Raisin. Frenchtown, the scene of the awful calamity nine months before, had been abandoned by its inhabitants, with the exception of a few French families. The Battle of the Thames 53 As they approached the town they saw the bones of their massacred brothers scattered over the plains for three miles south of the river. Ninety days before Colo- nel Johnson had sent a detachment to the battlefield, which had collected and buried the remains of many who had fallen on the fatal field. These interments, however, had been hasty, and the graves had been opened and the bones scattered afresh over the land. This awful sight produced a tremendous effect on the hearts of the men. With these grim reminders before them they saw again the helpless wounded prisoners and the barbarous savages bent on their schemes of murder, outrage, and robbery. They looked in grief and reverential awe on the spot where the noble and gallant Allen had fallen, where the handsome and brilliant Hart had gone down, and where the chivalrous Woolfolk had been butchered. Before them was the ruin in which the ashes of Hickman and his companions were mingled, and near by were pointed out the places where Simpson had found his end, where Montgomery and Davis and McAfee, with self- sacrificing faithfulness in their devotion to their wounded comrades, had met an honorable though barbarous death, and where Lieutenant Graves had been shamefully slain. In the early morning an Indian guide had taken them to the spot where Simpson had been put to death. His - . The Battle of the Thames extraordinary height, six and a half feet, enabled his friends to identify his remains, and they were given hon- orable sepulture. This sad duty having been performed, the line of march was at once taken up. On the following morning Colonel Johnson crossed the Huron River, and there received a dispatch from General Harrison in regard to the true condition on the east side of the Detroit River and of the position of his force, half way between Maiden and Sandwich, in full pursuit of the enemy. The troops marched all this day at half speed. On arriving at the river Decasse they found Captain Ben- jamin Warfield had been sent over by General Harrison to repair the bridge. The Indians, on the west side of the Detroit River, had prepared an ambuscade at this place, expecting that Colonel Johnson would march by night into Detroit. The regiment encamped at Rouge River that night, where they were re-enforced by four companies of regu- lars and one of militia from General Harrison's head- quarters opposite Detroit, some uneasiness having been felt for the safety of Colonel Johnson on account of the large number of Indians who had been seen prowling on the east side. On the 30th of September, at twelve o'clock, the regiment, after a hard morning's march, entered Detroit. The Battle of the Thames 55 The approach of the regiment to Detroit had been observed by General Harrison, who immediately sent Major Todd with orders to Johnson to cross as quickly as possible. The men had not dismounted after their morning's ride before they received this order. They marched promptly to the river and prepared to cross. A few got over on the night of the thirtieth. A large proportion could not be conveyed over the river until the following morning. Johnson had been ordered to bring his regiment over with the greatest possible rapidity, but Governor Shelby himself crossed from the Detroit side and communicated to Colonel Johnson the result of the council of war, which had decided to pursue Proctor by land, but owing to the high wind all the regiment was not gotten over till late in the evening. Each man vied with the other in ener- getic, persistent efforts to cross. All the preparations were made on the night of the first for an early start. The hardy sons of Kentucky, who now composed the infantry, having left their horses at the Portage, were determined to show their endur- ance and their spirit by marching as infantry. The country through which they were to pass had been exhausted of provisions. General Cass's brigade could not march, from the fact that their knapsacks and blankets had been left at Middle Island. The cavalry, ^6 The Battle of the Thames after drawing their provisions, made ready to enter upon the pursuit, but such was the haste and desire to overtake the enemy, on the part of the troops, that the infantry marched twelve miles in the morning and there waited for the mounted men to come up. It was found that the British and Indians, under Proctor and Tecumseh, either had not expected pursuit at all or had not expected it on the line along which it was made, and had left the bridges across the rivers and creeks which run north into Lake St. Clair. About four o'clock in the afternoon the mounted men in front met six British deserters, who informed them that at one o'clock, on the first, they had left Proctor fifteen miles up the river Thames, and that he had about seven hundred regulars and twelve hundred Indians. Starting at sunrise and taking a brief rest at noon, by dark the infantry had made a march of twenty-five miles, a most extraordinary performance considering all the cir- cumstances under which the distance was covered. While these troops at home were accustomed, a large portion of them, to agricultural pursuits and were hardy — their nerves trained to exercise — many of them had been called from mercantile pursuits ; but all had either been on their horses or in camp for the past thirty days. A noble spirit animated every man in the ranks, and for quite a large part H X m c z p M — > ?a H m 5> n o r^ 7. X o m -^ < -T- X -J- PI _1 ,^ PI H c PI _ H V i-U > m --^ H ^ > PI i^ PC P^ t/) 2 b The Battle of the Thames 57 of the day, in order to keep pace with the cavah-y in front, the infantry marched on the half run. On the 3d of October, by the break of day, the American army was in hne. A few hours' march brought them to the mouth of the Thames, where it empties into Lake St. Clair. Here the spies under Chaplain Suggett discovered a small party of dragoons ; they pursued and captured the dragoons, who had undertaken to destroy a bridge over a small creek at the mouth of the river. Five of these British soldiers had crossed the Thames River in a boat, but they were forced by Captain Berry, of Colonel Johnson's spies, to bring back the boat and surrender. Here, unfortunately, one of the horses belonging to the dragoons made his escape, and his wild run into the British lines gave Proctor the first intimation of the approach of the American troops. The sight of the red-coats and of the captured men gave renewed zeal and animation to the American forces. The second night the Americans camped ten miles above the mouth of the Thames, and next morning at day- light resumed the rapid gait of the day before, with the belief on their part that during the day they would be able to force the British to stand and give battle. About midday, at the Fork of the Thames, the Indians and British attempted to dispute the passage of the right- eg The Battle of the Thames hand fork and had torn the planks off the bridge. After a warm skirmish the Indians were driven away from the upper bridge, which was seized by Colonel Johnson with a loss of two men killed and seven wounded. Among the wounded was Captain Elijah Craig, who subsequently died. The Indians had thirteen killed and a large number wounded. During the day, Walk-in-the-Water, a Wyandot chief, had deserted the British with a company of warriors. On the preceding day he had a conference with General Harrison, and offered to make a treaty, to which the General replied that this was not the time to make treaties, and if he desired peace he had better abandon his British friends and get out of the way of the American army. After marching about six miles it was found impossible for the troops to proceed farther. Burdened with their heavy muskets, their ammunition and blankets, required as they were to carry all their baggage on their persons, it was impossible to make any further advance ; so they camped for another night, but with the consciousness that their enemies were not far away. At this point two twenty-four pounders and a large quantity of bullets and shells were captured. The troops consequently slept on their arms behind a breastwork of wood, logs, and brush which was found around the encampment. The Battle of the Thames 59 Untin ten o'clock General Harrison rode around super- intending and inspecting the arrangements for the night, and during the entire night Governor Shelby was on active duty, passing from one part of the line to another to see that proper diligence was observed, and for a short time before daybreak he rested on a blanket on the ground with one of his soldiers. The troops were aroused at dawn, and by the time it was fully light the whole army was in motion. Colonel Johnson's regiment took the lead, with which was General Harrison and his staff, and the infantry fol- lowed, as rapidly as was possible, under the command of Governor Shelby. By nine o'clock the Americans reached a mill, where there is a rapid in the river, at which place it was possible to ford the river on horseback. Here several boats and barges loaded with military stores and prisoners had been captured early in the morning. In the mill, on the north side of the river, some of the Americans who passed over found a British lieutenant and eight privates, and from them the information was received that the allied force of British and Indians had determined to give battle at no very great distance east. The old military trail and road at this point crosses over to the north side of the river, and General Harrison deter- 6o The Battle of the Thames mined to march forward on this trail. The river being fordable for horsemen, each of Colonel Johnson's mounted militia took an infantryman behind him. This put twelve hundred of the footmen on the north side, and the balance were crossed over in canoes, which were quietly floated down the river to this point. As soon as the troops were all over, the line of march was formed, and the entire force advanced at the former rapid gait. The road had been laid out straight; the river being tortuous, it was only now and then that the two converged. At every such point a large amount of military stores, provisions, and clothing was found, which the enemy had left on their hurried retreat. Eight miles from the crossing, after a march of two and a half hours, the Americans camped upon the place where Colonel Warburton and the British soldiers had rested the night before. Here it was learned that General Proctor and his Indian allies were about four miles above, or at least had been on the preceding day. It now became evident that the enemy was close at hand, and Colonel Johnson's mounted men were directed to march with all possible rapidity to procure the necessary information and to bring the enemy to bay. Two miles from the camp the advance guard captured a British wagoner, from whom it was learned that the The Battle of the Thames 6i enemy were in order of battle about a quarter of a mile beyond, and there awaiting the approach of the Americans. Colonel Johnson, with Major Suggett and the spies, immedi- ately advanced within sight of the British line, where by observation, together with the statements of several prison- ers whom they had captured, they were able to get an understanding of the line upon which Proctor's forces had been formed. The English had selected the battlefield not only with care but with great wisdom. The road, or trail, at this point was about two hundred feet from the river. The banks were probably forty feet high and sloped down to the river, leaving quite a space between the bed of the stream and the top of the bank, and the road was back a short distance — about one hundred feet from the bank. Beginning on the bank and running out in a westerly direction and at right angles to the road, the British were posted in a beech woods. In order to protect the road the British artillery had been placed so as to sweep it. It was straight at this point for one thousand feet. It was evident that Proctor had expected the main attack along the line of this road, from the fact that he placed there both his artillery and his British regulars of the Forty-first Regiment. To face these British General Harrison placed what was probably his best brigade. General Trotter had wide 53 The Battle of the Thames experience, having been in the war almost from the beginning, and was one of the most gallant and courageous men sent by Kentucky into the field. The officers com- manding the several companies had also had much experi- ence. Bowers had been at Raisin; he had been surgeon with Lewis's regiment and had acted with great courage and gallantry in his efforts to protect his comrades from massa- cre by the Indians. His statement, made after his return to Kentucky, is one of the fullest of the narratives prepared of this dreadful event, and has generally been accepted as the most complete. The brigade, composed of the first and second regi- ments, was almost entirely made up of soldiers of Fay- ette, Jessamine, Scott, Woodford, Clark, Montgomery, and Fleming counties, and the vigor with which it subse- quently enforced Colonel Richard M. Johnson's charge, with the second battalion of his regiment, showed that there was no mistake in giving it the post to which it was assigned. Four hundred and fifty feet behind Trotter General King's brigade was placed, composed of the fifth and seventh regiments, which was in large part officered by men who had had extended experience in the present war, while the reserves were so placed as to reach either the line in front of the British or Indians, consisting of The Battle of the Thames 63 General Chiles' brigade, which was composed of the third regiment, commanded by Colonel Poague, and the fourth regiment, commanded by Colonel Mountjoy. Facing the swamp occupied by the Indians, with its right resting on Trotter's left, was the brigade of Gen- eral Samuel Caldwell. He himself was also a veteran of the present war, having commanded a regiment the year previous in operations on the Wabash and White rivers. His brigade was composed of the ninth regiment, com- manded by Colonel Simrall, and the tenth, commanded by Colonel Philip Barbour, while to his left was the brig- ade of Colonel James Allen, composed of the regiments of Colonels Davenport and Calloway. As the British and Indians were waiting for the attack, the Americans were equally anxious to begin it. Though the British had the choice of the battle-ground, the Americans had determined, wherever such ground was chosen, to promptly accept the gage of battle. While upon the line of march the American cavalry, composed of Johnson's regiment and the infantry, found that the trail or military road would cover a distance of probably two miles and a half, and it required something Hke an hour and a half to make the necessary alignment before proceeding to hostilities, but with the British wait- ing for a fight and the Americans longing for it all pre- liminaries were soon arranged. 64 The Battle of the Thames While forming the infantry lines and more closely inspecting the British line of battle, Colonel Johnson and General Harrison discovered that the British regulars had been placed in open line. This would put the men about three feet apart. The result of the battle was to be determined almost entirely by the cavalry. When Colonel Johnson commanded his first regiment, in the fall of 1812, it had been given a very thorough training by his brother, Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson, who was a thorough disciplinarian as well as a brave and gallant soldier, and he and Colonel Johnson had then drilled this regiment so as to enable it to charge a line of infantry. The hollow square, the favorite method of forming British soldiers, while good for open ground, had never been practiced in the forests of America because there had been no cavalry to charge the infantry, and therefore this formation had never been attempted. Colonel Johnson, having had from May until October to use his regiment in scouting, when in camp had instructed it in the ver}' exercise and movements it would now be called upon to perform. He had dismounted a portion of his men, formed them as infantry, given them blank cartridges with which to fire, and then drilled the remainder of the regiment to charge this infantry line so as, first, to familiarize the men with this method of The Battle of the Thames 65 warfare, and, second, to accustom the horses to musketry fire. There is no animal in the world that learns so quickly under these circumstances as the horse. He soon becomes perfectly steady under either musketry or artil- lery fire, and partakes of the excitement and enthusiasm of his rider on entering battle. General Harrison, very naturally and very properly, in his report of the battle of the Thames, takes credit for ordering the charge of Johnson's men in this way and at this time. As the commanding general, whatever was done by subordinates was done by him, and while he ordered this charge he assumed the responsibility for it, and was entitled to the credit of the results which followed. On the 2 2d of December, 1834, Colonel Johnson, in response to inquiries made by General Armstrong, said : "It is due to truth to state that I requested General Harrison to permit me to charge, and knowing that I had trained my men for it, during our short service, he gave me the order." (See Armstrong's Notices of the War of 181 2, Volume I, page 234.) But whether the credit belonged to General Harrison or Colonel Johnson, it proved a most brilliant and successful undertaking. The limited space in front of the British regulars was full of large beech trees. This part of the battlefield was practically denuded of underbrush, 66 The Battle of the Thames In addition to the practice which Johnson's men had had in charging infantry, they were probably the most expert frontier horsemen in the world. In those days all frontier men rode on horseback. The rifle was their constant companion ; they were accustomed, either in the pursuit of cattle or in hunting, to carry their guns in the forest. They had no swords or pistols — they had nothing but their rifles, muskets, tomahawks,' hatchets, and hunting-knives. 'In visiting the battlefield in 1899-1900, I was enabled to secure several specimens of these tomahawks that had been plowed up on the field. The American tomahawk or hatchet was so different from the British tomahawk that there was no difficulty in distinguishing it. IV ARRIVED AT THE BATTLEFIELD The hour for action had come. Behind, weary march- ings of four hundred miles, full of self-denial and unchang- ing privations ; before them, enemies arousing an immeas- urable hate; every heart was full of memories of savage brutality and cruelty to relatives, friends, and fellow-citizens for a quarter of a century. The horrible massacre of the Raisin, its indescribable barbarity and its fiendish inhumanity, was painted on every soul, and the spirits of its slain victims seemed to ride side by side in martial procession with these living horsemen, fate's avengers, chosen to inflict punishment on its ferocious perpetrators. The atrocities of Fort Meigs were not forgotten, and the cry of the Kentuckians, tortured and murdered by the savage red man within the sight of British officers, and coolly tomahawked or shot while helpless and defenseless in their very presence, seemed to beseech Heaven for a just and complete revenge upon those guilty of such unspeak- able horrors. Among these Kentuckians now aligning for conflict were men who had looked upon all that was awful at 68 The Battle of the Thames Raisin and terrible at Fort Meigs. Some had shared in the humiliation of Detroit's surrender, and had witnessed their country's flag and honor sullied by General Hull's cowardice and imbecility, while others had endured the trials, insults, and torture of British prisons. All were animated by the highest courage and truest patriotism. The generous impulses of brave and chivalrous souls impelled every man to the noblest discharge of duty, and every ear was listening with absorbing interest for the sound which should call them to battle with their detested foes. Each man signaled his desire to march in the front line; there were neither laggards nor cowards in that Ken- tucky army. Intense desire to avenge the murder of fellow-Kentuckians was quickened by an eager patriotism and sharpened by an honorable ambition for personal honor and renown. If any were selfish of distinction, it was a selfishness controlled and directed by a thorough subjec- tion to the glory of Kentucky and their country, and seek- ing in the discharge of a public service to win a crown of personal fame. The long line of cavalry formed in columns, and the infantry, directed by aides and officers, moved with celerity and eagerness to find their proper positions in the order of battle. The Battle of the Thames 69 On a small elevation, just west of the Longwood Road, at the northern end of the swamp, the English artillery was posted, and in the front the British soldiers, consist- ing of some seven hundred and fifty men of the Forty- first Regiment of English foot, were located in two lines, the men some three feet apart in line, and the two lines with one hundred feet between them. The English artillery was so disposed as to sweep Longwood Road for a thousand feet, and a quarter of a mile back of the artillery General Proctor and his staff took position. The space from the Longwood Road westward to the small swamp was possibly five hundred feet wide; then a small ridge intervened, and then the large swamp parallel with the Thames and extending north within these lines about two miles. Proctor had hastily chosen the field of battle. It pos- sessed many and strong strategic points. The Indians were posted in the brush along the eastern line of the great swamp, where they could sweep with deadliest rifle fire the narrow ridge between the two swamps, while the British regulars felt able to hold the limited space between the Longwood Road and the small swamp, supported by the artillery, the approach to which was covered by an unbroken forest filled with large beech, walnut, and maple trees. -o The Battle of the Thmnes The American troops had marched seventy miles in three and a half days. Their eagerness to meet their foes had hastened the tramp of their willing feet. They had already marched in line of battle about thirteen miles. They had kept well up with the cavalry, and the thought that a conflict was approaching filled their hearts with enthusiasm and courage. There was no time taken for the midday meal. They needed no incentive or support other than their ample bravery to keep them not only in line but with quick and steady tread along the narrow military trail. The cavalry covered the front. A small number of pickets or spies protected the flank of the advancing column; but the eleven regiments, at most four abreast, and the artillery made a line over three miles in length. Fully an hour and a half was consumed in getting the infantry in position. The regiment of mounted men in the meantime was reconnoitering and holding the enemy under close watch. Henry's division was composed of the best of material. At least one half the men had seen service in the previous days of the war, and it was officered with some of the coolest and nerviest men Kentucky had ever sent to battle. To General George Trotter fell the post of honor. General Marquis Calmes, well advanced in years, was by The Battle of the Thames 71 reason of a severe attack of illness prevented from com- manding the brigade. No indisposition, however, could prevent his presence with his men. He was carried with the troops, but the command devolved upon Colonel Trotter. The brigade was composed of the first and second regiments. The men were homogeneous. In the first regiment (Trotter's) three of the companies, Todd's, Megowan's, and Flournoy's, were from Fayette; two. Bowers' and Singleton's, were from Jessamine; and one, Christopher's, from Woodford. In the second regiment, commanded by the gallant John Donaldson, two companies were from Clark, those of Cunningham and Simpson; two from Fleming, com- manded by Matthews and Botts; one from Bath, com- manded by Menifee; one from Montgomery, commanded by Mason. George Trotter was one of the most gallant and dis- tinguished soldiers the War of 181 2 produced. He was only thirty-four years old at the time of the battle of the Thames, but he had already made his mark among the military men of that period. Distinguished by birth and chivalrous by nature, he had responded to the first call made by his country and had gone with Simrall's regi- ment of dragoons in August, 181 2, and had rendered efficient service in the Fort Wayne campaign. With a 72 The Battle of the Thames soul filled with the highest conception of duty and noble patriotism, there was no sacrifice at which he would hesi- tate for his country's honor. His relatives, friends, and associates had gone down at the Raisin. An unusual proportion of the men lost in that conflict had been from Fayette County; Fayette and Jessamine bore the brunt, and from these two counties probably more than any part of Kentucky there had grown up a consuming desire not only to wipe out any discredit which attached to the Raisin, but also to avenge its wrongs. As the associates and friends of the men murdered at Raisin and Meigs had been from the immediate locality of Lexington, it was deemed just that the brigade com- posed of soldiers from this immediate district should have the honor of fighting in the vanguard of the battle which was just about to take place. Trotter's brigade, therefore, advanced to the front, and was ordered to prepare to use the bayonet in the charge upon the British regulars. Here and there between the trees could be seen the bright accoutrements of the Forty-first Regiment of King George's infantry, and no men ever entered into a battle with keener desire for conflict or awaited with more eagerness the order to advance. It was about this time that it was made known to General Harrison, through the spies on foot in front of The Battle of the Thames 73 Colonel Richard M. Johnson's regiment, that the British infantry, not suspecting the full nature and disposition and resources of the men opposing them, were aligned in open order. For some months previous Johnson had been training his regiment to charge in line through the forests in Ohio. He had used a large number of cartridges to accustom the horses to the use of firearms. Discovering the mis- take which the British had made. Colonel Johnson at once communicated this fact to General Harrison, and told him, with his cavalry regiment, he could break the British line in a single charge. General Harrison promptly authorized this movement on the part of Colonel Johnson, who at this moment observed that the space between the Longwood Road and the small swamp would not allow him to deploy more than one of his battalions. Anxious for the fray, he quickly detached one battalion and marched it across the small swamp so as to face Tecumseh and his Indians, while the other battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson and Major DeVall Payne, was at once put in line in four columns to charge the British infantry. In this supreme moment it was necessary to steady every arm and nerve every heart. Calmly the general officers galloped up and down the lines and encouraged the men to be brave, valiant, and heroic. 74 The Battle of the Thames Colonel John Calloway, in the lull preceding hostilities, with his majestic form and stentorian voice rode out calmly before the fine companies of his regiment, and waving his sword aloft, said, ' ' Boys, we must either whip these British and Indians, or they will kill and scalp every one of us. We can not escape if we lose. Let us all die on the field or conquer." Similar words were shouted in the ears of every line. The men hardly needed these warnings. No braver army for its number ever went into battle. The result was bound to be annihilation or victory. Harrison, Shelby, Henry, Desha, Chiles, King, Trotter, Caldwell, and their subordinate officers well understood the condi- tions, and there was no equal number of men then alive who could have whipped this Kentucky army, led and officered as it was, and with the inspiration of the presence of men like General Cass and Commodore Perry, who had come to share with them whatever fate would bring. THE BATTLE AND THE VICTORY After a proper disposition of the forces had been made, and everything was in readiness and awaiting the charge, it was in making a reconnoissance that General Harrison discovered the open order of the British, and Colonel Johnson suggested to him that he could break the line of the British regulars with his mounted men. General Harrison immediately gave the order for him to charge. They were then eight hundred feet from the British infantry line. Colonel Johnson, in aligning the first battalion, com- manded by Major DeVall Payne, saw that the limited space in front of the British would render useless more than one battalion composed of five hundred men. As this battalion was to charge in four columns, double file, it would require a front for each man of about three and a half feet, and as there would be two hundred and fifty men, composing the four columns, of about sixty each, it was impossible to maneuver more than the one battalion. Finding that the swamp on the right of the British could be passed in places, he immediately directed the second battalion, then under command of Major David 76 The Battle of the Thames Thompson, to change and take position in advance of the Hne of Allen and Caldwell, their flank being protected by the regiment of Simrall on the extreme left. In between the lines of the four divisions formed by the four columns of the first battalion rode the officers. On the right was Colonel James Johnson and on the left Major Payne. Amid hurried movements and while the spirit of the men was thrilled to the enthusiastic joy which ever fills a true warrior's breast at battle's eve, the command "Forward, Charge!" rang out on the oppressive stillness which surrounded the expectant host. Hardly had the horses begun to move when another cry, terrible in its intensity and with foreboding wrath in its tones, filled the space overshadowed by the mighty mon- archs of the forest. From the stalwart throats of nearly six hundred Kentuckians there arose the cry, " Remember the Raisin ! " As they lifted this mighty shout to Heaven they saw about them the forms of their murdered comrades and friends and relations. They beheld the bedizened, painted savages, with barbarous cruelty, strike their wounded foes and casting their bodies, when dead or writh- ing, into the flames to be consumed. They remembered the bones of their fellow-citizens scattered along the river and the fields and woods adjacent thereto, and before them The Battle of the Thames 77 arose visions of those fleshless skeletons which, seven days before, they had for the second time committed to mother earth. Eight months and thirteen days had elapsed since this awful tragedy at Raisin had been enacted, but the two visits that these charging men had made to that dreadful spot and the scenes they had there witnessed (for many in the command had been at the Raisin) burned into their brains and created in their minds images which nerved every arm, thrilled every soul, and inspired every heart with the desire to punish and to destroy those who had been responsible for that awful catastrophe. As the cry of these Kentuckians resounded through the forests, it fell upon the ears of the British regulars, who themselves had been at the battle of the Raisin, and whose officers had connived at, or at least permitted, the slaughter of Allen, Graves, Hickman, Woolfolk, Simpson, and their noble commands. The galloping columns caused the earth to shake and the great beeches to vibrate as men and horses, mad- dened with the excitement of battle, crowded, shouted, and rushed to the conflict. The very boughs and leaves of the overshadowing trees swayed and trembled as if keeping time to the cadence of war's weird, strange, and frenzied notes. -3 The Battle of the Thames In the fierce charge there was but one cry, oft repeated, but rising each time in sharper and sterner tones, ' ' Remember the Raisin ! Remember the Raisin ! " These avenging warriors, catching the enthusiasm and deHrium of combat, rose high in their stirrups and plung- ing their spurs into the fianks of their chargers, as they approached the enemy still more furiously, waved their guns aloft and with their voices made stronger and stronger by the excitement of their impetuosity, cried the more vehemently, "Remember the Raisin! Remember the Raisin ! " No human power could resist such an assault. Cower- ing on the earth, or taking refuge behind the trees in their line, the red-coats of the Forty-first British gave way. The second line, one hundred yards behind, fared no better than the first. As well attempt to resist the cyclone or ward off the lightning as to stay this onslaught. The Kentucky horsemen were invincible. No sooner had they passed the second line than, wheel- ing about, they sprang to the ground, and with deadliest aim poured their fire into the fear-stricken infantry, who in their terror begged for a mercy and implored a pity which at Raisin and Meigs they had denied the friends and brothers of the men who had now defeated them, and before whom they knelt as suppliants for mercy. The Battle of the Thames 79 No act of cruelty marked the conduct of these scrupu- lously brave heroes. They accepted the surrender of men who had acquiesced in and permitted the murder of their fellow-Kentuckians only a few months before. Civ- ilization and humanity controlled their embittered and justly indignant hearts, and not a single excess detracted from the splendor of their victory or the grandeur of their achievement. A quarter of a mile away at the rear, in the edge of the forest, along the trail, was the commander of the British regulars, General Henry A. Proctor, who was responsible for the revolting butchery and brutality at Raisin and Meigs. He came to Canada as the colonel of a British regiment, and his atrocities had never been reproved by his government. For his conduct at Raisin he had been promoted to a brigadier-general. His ear was quick to detect danger. He knew his fate if the Kentuckians (many of whom had sworn that he should not be taken alive) should capture him. He distinctly heard the tramp of Johnson's mounted men, and his ear caught that portentous and to him fate- ful cry, "Remember the Raisin!" Dismayed, he watched and waited for the result. He saw one line brushed out of the path of the horsemen or rush in confusion upon the second line. He beheld this last line disappear and the 8o The Battle of the Thames black hunting-shirts and gray breeches of the Kentuckians as they dismounted and turned in furious onslaught upon his stricken and helpless grenadiers, and then, with his cowardly conscience impelling him, he turned his horse's head eastward and accompanied by a small guard of horse- men precipitately fled toward Burlington. Hard pressed by Major DeVall Payne, he abandoned his baggage and followers and fled through the forest to escape capture. His ignominious conduct brought upon him the contempt of his associates. He was tried by court-martial, disgraced, and deprived of pay for six months, and was publicly reprimanded by his superiors by order of his government. A sterner conflict and more sanguinary fate awaited the second battalion, under the immediate command of Colonel Johnson and Major David Thompson. This battalion consisted of the companies of Captain James Coleman, Captain William M. Rice, Captain S. R. Combs, Captain James Davidson, Captain Jacob Stucker, and Captain Robert Berry. On the right of this battalion was the gallant Colonel Richard M. Johnson, on the left Major Thompson. This second battalion was formed in two columns, on horseback, while one company was dismounted, and on foot placed in front of the right column, which was led by Colo- nel Johnson. The front of each column was something H n X m c I O p (/) -t: =r. H — > o r _ D3 n > H ?c X The Battle of the Thames 8i like five hundred feet. In front of the column led by Johnson was a company on foot, while in front of those, mounted, was what was known as the "Forlorn Hope," in the courage and gallantry of which on that day was written one of the most heroic and sublimely brave acts which had ever been recorded of Kentucky men. The "Forlorn Hope" consisted of twenty men. Colo- nel Johnson himself rode by its side. It was led by the grand old pioneer William Whitley, and was composed, so far as known, of the following persons: William Whitley, of Lincoln, enlisted as a private in James Davidson's company; Benjamin S. Chambers, quar- termaster, a lawyer from Scott County; Garrett Wall, forage master, Scott County; Eli Short, assistant forage master, Scott County; Samuel A. Theobald, lawyer, Frank- lin County, judge advocate; Samuel Logan, second lieuten- ant, Coleman's company, from Harrison County; Robert Payne, private, James Davidson's company, probably from Lincoln or Scott County; Joseph Taylor, private, J. W. Reading's company; William S. Webb, private, Jacob Stucker's company, Scott County; John L. Mansfield, private, and a printer, Jacob Stucker's company, Scott County; Richard Spurr, private, Captain Samuel Combs' company, Fayette County; John McGunnigale, private, Captain Samuel Combs' company, Fayette County. 82 The Battle of the Thames These twenty men, with Colonel R. M. Johnson and the pioneer William Whitley, at once advanced to the front. The main line halted for a brief space, until this advance could assume position, and when once they were placed, at the command "Forward! march!" they quickly and calmly rode to death. In the thickets of the swamp, in which lay Tecumseh and his red soldiers, they peered in vain for a foe. Not a man stirred, but the ominous silence betokened only the more dreadful fire when the moment of contact should come. Along a narrow space they advanced. Stunted bushes and matted and deadened grass impeded their horses' feet, but these heroes urged their steeds forward with rapid walk, seeking the hidden foe in the morass that skirted the ground upon which they had aligned. These were not unwilling victims to war's savage sacri- fices. They understood and realized the dangerous and deadly mission upon which they were bent; six hundred comrades rode behind, but were partially removed from danger. This noble vanguard was the cynosure of all eyes, and their fellows watched with almost stilled hearts to hear the signal guns which meant wounding and death to these twenty men who were daring so much and who were ready to receive into their own hearts and bodies the leaden hail The Battle of the Thames 83 which in an instant all knew must be emitted from the ambush into which with open eyes, steady minds, and unblanched cheek this gallant band was now so bravely pushing. Fifteen hundred savages, with their cocked rifies at their shoulders and with their fingers upon the triggers, were waiting and watching only a few yards away, and behind trees and fallen logs and thick underbrush, with the silence of assassins, were longing for the word which should order them to pour death's missiles into the chivalrous squadron which, with absolute fearlessness, was seeking them in their lair. Into their minds came memories of thosfe they loved, half a thousand miles away, in peaceful Kentucky homes. Years these heroes lived in the few seconds required to pass the narrow space between them and their foes. Before their eyes came images of those dearer than life itself. Wives, sisters, mothers, sweethearts, seemed to be gazing at them from every side, and with affection's instinct they almost reached out to touch those imaginary forms which hovered about them in this supreme moment. They could hear tender voices calling, they could feel the imprint of love's kiss upon their lips and catch the brave words spoken at parting four months before, when they set out at their country's call to face danger and if need be death in her service; but all these only urged ^A The Battle of the Thames them forward in duty's path and gave them calmer and nobler purpose in the conflict which was now upon them. Seconds were transformed into years. Almost breathless, and with an anxiety which temporarily stilled every physical function, the battalion waited for the instant when death's messengers should be turned loose and in their fury be hurled upon the brave men who composed the advance. The suspense was brief. A loud, clear, savage voice rang out the word "Fire!" The sharp crackling of half a hundred rifles was the response, and then the deafening sound of a thousand shots filled the air. The smoke concealed those who fired the guns, but the murderous effect was none the less terrible. Of the twenty, one alone escaped unhurt or failed to be unhorsed. A mass of fallen, struggling horses, a company of wounded, dying men, lay side by side. The bleeding beasts whinneyed to dead masters, and wounded masters laid their hands on the quiv- ering bodies of their faithful steeds. Of the twenty, fifteen were dead, or to die. Their leader, with a dozen wounds, still sat erect, his judge advocate, Theobald, close to his side. The remainder were lost in the battle's confusion. The "Forlorn Hope" had met its fate. Its mission was to receive the fire of the savages, when their fellows and comrades might safely charge upon the red men The Battle of the Thames 85 with guns unloaded. Its purpose had been fulfilled. The promise of its commander to save all life possible, spoken at Great Crossings, in Kentucky, on the i8th of May, had been kept, but the "Forlorn Hope" had been annihilated. On this fateful field it had won imperish- able renown and had carved out fadeless glory. It had been destroyed, but its members had magnified Ken- tucky manhood and written in the life-blood of three fourths of its members a story of courage and patriotic sacrifice which would live forever. Whenever and wherever their deed should be told it would command the world's applause, and down through all the ages excite in the hearts of Kentuckians noblest pride in the glorious immortality they had purchased by their unself- ish, superb, and patriotic sacrifice for their country's cause. It was Johnson's idea that as soon as this "Forlorn Hope" or advance guard appeared, the whole fire of the Indians would be concentrated upon it. There could be little doubt that the majority, if not all, of its members would instantly fall, and that after having thus drawn the fire of the enemy the remainder of the battalion would then advance upon the Indians, receiving no damage at all. This plan would have worked most admirably had it not been for the unfortunate topography which confronted 86 The Battle of the Thames these two columns of the second battaHon. For any column of cavalry the swamp chosen by the Indians as their battle-ground was practically impassable; water, decayed trees, and willo\^s rendered a charge on horse- back utterly impracticable. Men on foot might find their way through by careful picking, but a column of cavalry would find it impossible to keep themselves in line or charge with any such speed as would place them among the enemy before they had time to reload. When this "Forlorn Hope" had fallen, and when the front of his column had received the fire of the Indians, Johnson at once saw his mistake. He ordered all his men to dismount but himself, and then at their head, with his horse floundering in the water and mud of the swamp, carried his men forward to the charge. The experienced, courageous, and valiant Tecumseh stood in the swamp with his red followers, encouraging them by his commands, reproving them by his sharp censure when they were disposed to run, and threatening to kill all who refused to fight the white men who were now forcing the battle with such vigor and enthusiasm. The five hundred and fifty men of Johnson's battalion were reinforced by quite a number of volunteer infantry- men from Trotter's, Donaldson's, and Simrall's regiments, who, hearing the firing and the shouts both of the I TJie Battle of the Thames 87 Indians and white men, rushed to the assistance of their comrades. For a quarter of an hour the result of the battle seemed in doubt. Twelve hundred Indians in the swamp and on their chosen battlefield, behind trees and fallen logs, did not hesitate to throw down the gage of battle to the six or seven hundred Kentuckians who now advanced to the assault. As the lines were pushed along through the morass Colonel Johnson saw, behind a fallen tree, an Indian chief who, with vigorous words of command and loud cheers and most earnest encouragement, was urging the red men to stand firm against the assaults of the white men. At the head of the column opposing these red men, Johnson, still sitting upon his white mare, rode around the tree and advanced upon the red man. At the first fire he had lost by a wound the use of his left hand, in which he would carry his bridle. The Indian, placing his gun to his shoulder, immediately fired and added another to the many wounds already received by the gallant Ken- tuckian, and then, having exhausted his trusty rifle, with uplifted tomahawk he advanced upon the white man who, although wounded, was now riding upon him fearlessly and rapidly. The savage, jerking his tomahawk from his side and waiting for no assistance except his own strong arm gg The Battle of the Thames backed by his courageous soul, rushed upon Colonel Johnson to strike him from his horse, but when he had i advanced within four feet Johnson, letting his horse loose, j seized his pistol from his helpless left hand and fired its \ contents into the breast of the Indian. Being loaded/" with one bullet and three buckshot, at such close range and piercing the heart of the Indian, he instantly fell dead. Some said it was Tecumseh. He was certainly a great leader, and it was at this time that somebody in the battle killed Tecumseh. The red men with amazement looked upon the sudden and unexpected death of their valiant chief. They heard no more his shouts of encouragement, saw no more the gallant wave of his hand, and with utter alarm and despair, with a great cry of disappointment, they rushed from the battlefield. In a single instant every hope was crushed and every national aspiration perished. These children of the forest, taught by the incantations of the dead warrior's brother to believe that Tecumseh was immortal, saw him reel, fall, and die as others of the race had done. Tecumseh's eloquence had made them confident that the hated white man's advance could be stayed, and that the nation of seventeen fires could not prevail against the red man protected and led by the Great Spirit. The Battle of the Thames 89 The youngest warrior present had hstened with rap- turous dehght to the glorious future Tecumseh, in his fervid words, had prophesied for the Indians, and the oldest had been led by his eloquent appeals to certain assurance that no power could destroy the red men when the red men stood united in their wilderness haunts and bid these invaders defiance. Together these Indians had nursed these national dreams and racial ambitions until they had become part of their whole being. They had been taught, and their experience in many conflicts had led them to believe and conclude, that Tecumseh had been sent by the god they worshiped to lead them to a sublime destiny and to make them defenders of their race and protectors of their lands and hunting-grounds from the never-ceasing and constantly widening aggressions of their pale-face foes. With Tecumseh dead, to them life was a bitter and unbearable burden. It had neither joy nor hope. Confi- dent that the white man's bullet was harmless against their heroic leader, when they saw him tremble with pain, fall, then writhe and die, they read in this awful tragedy the doom of their race, the destruction of every cherished dream of success, and understood that a remorseless fate had bereft and was to destroy them. To them nature, hitherto so beautiful, so inspiring, and so generous, had suddenly turned in bitterest cruelty and go The Battle of the Thames with most malignant hate. To their tortured vision the great trees above them seemed to sway and tremble as if to fall in anger and wrath upon their defenseless heads with direful resentment. Nature to them seemed now only some wild fury bent upon their destruction and charged with their annihilation and overthrow. In a single instant they realized that nothing was left for the Indian. Deserted by their British red-coated allies, who now fled in dismay and terror from the avenging and uplifted hand of the Kentucky Long Knives, they had no heart for battle and no courage to prolong a contest which had to them been fraught with absolute ruin. They were not faithless, however, even in such awful gloom, to him who had led, encouraged, and directed them through so many years and in so many battles. Tenderly and reverently they lifted the warm, bleeding, and stilled body of the great chieftain into their arms ; stalwart warriors became his pallbearers. With a wild, weird shout of heartbroken despair, they abandoned the battle and bore Tecumseh's body into the pathless depths of the surround- ing forest, there to give him a hasty and honorable burial. It may be that they had heard from the traditions of their fathers, who had come across the seas to inhabit a distant land, of the burial of one in the mountain whose place of sepulture was known only to the God who had The Battle of the Thames 91 buried him, and hence resolved that the greatest of their race, he who for twenty-five years had planted in their minds plans and hopes of a magnificent kingdom which should cover the mighty, unbroken forest and hold sacred for the use of the red man a fertile soil that knew not impoverishment, and hunting grounds, the limits and the abundance of which could not be measured by even the heavens themselves, should sleep in an unknown grave. And so, in the darkness of the night, with the sombre shade of the trees shutting out even the gleaming of the moon or the pale reflection of the stars, they walked in single file far out into the unexplored wilderness of the sylvan expanse to find a resting-place for their beloved dead. They had done what an Indian had rarely ever done before, they left the corpses of their fellows who had fallen in the struggle to the mercy of their foes. They had violated a code of honor and war dear to them and their ancestors, and they hurried away from the scene of the fate- ful conflict to give the ashes of Tecumseh repose where they felt the foot of the pale-face would never tread and where his eyes would never look upon the grave of him they called "The Shooting Star," and who to them, in their simple faith, had been sent from the unseen spirit- A2 The Battle of the Thames land to be their chieftain, their guide, and their national leader. The dust of Tecumseh, in their loving hearts, was too sacred for the white man's view. The great warrior had loved the trees and the rivers and the waving grasses, and the silence and grandeur of their surroundings, and amid these they imagined that his departure from tliis world's scenes to another would best suit his noble concep- tions and his grand ideas of life here and hereafter ; and thus, with the rustling of the leaves in response to the tread of moccasined feet, as a requiem, they moved on amid the black darkness to a distant place in the wooded wilderness where a few of his comrades, with their toma- hawks and their hands, hollowed out a grave under a widespreading monarch of the forest, which was to stand guard over the sacred spot forever, and where in the peace, and yet in tlie terror of the tomb, Tecumseh was to rest forever. With skillful craft they leveled the earth ; with cunning hand they laid leaves upon it so that none could find it, and unknown, unmarked, the Indian Warrior's resting- place was forever hid from the white man's search. Persuasion, threats, rewards, promises, money, glory were all used without avail. The red man alone knew where Tecumseh was put away, and the red man died The Battle of the Thames 93 with the secret in his heart. His loyalty to the dust of his leader was proof against all research, all exploration, all investigation, and all inquiry. Grand in life, Tecumseh was and is grand in death. In the isolation and desola- tion of his burial he becomes almost sublime, for to this day "no man knows where they have laid him." VI AFTER THE BATTLE The storm of battle was past. A small detachment rode hard to overtake Proctor and Elliott, and along the narrow trail through the forests pressed eagerly for- ward to catch the fleeing Briton and his wary allies. Some fifteen miles away Major DeVall Payne and half a dozen associates had captured Proctor's and Elliott's carriages and baggage, and with sixty prisoners were now turning their faces toward the camp of their friends. The remainder of the army was preparing for sleep, and as the twilight came on the saddest of all a soldier's duties was performed. Through the grasses and willows of the swamp, and along the ridges among the trees, search was made for the dead and wounded. At one place the dead were close together; at the spot where the immortal "Forlorn Hope" had received the concentrated fire of Tecumseh and his red men, the richest sacrifice had been made. The tall, stalwart form of the ever brave Whitley was there. His trusty rifle was in his hand, his powderhorn swung over his shoulder, and his hunter's knife in its The Battle of t lie 1 Jiaines 95 sheath, and with his face to the foe they found the fearless soldier, now past threescore years, pierced by many bullets, lying at the side of his chivalrous leader, where he had gone down to death for his beloved country. A few feet away lay all the dead of the ' ' Forlorn Hope." Colonel Johnson had been carried a few hundred yards south to a tent. Lieutenant Logan, mortally wounded, had expired, and among the dead horses were found the lifeless forms of the other heroes who had so gloriously fallen in the advance upon the Indian line. Less than twenty yards west were the bodies of the red men who had disputed the passage across the swamp with the Kentucky mounted soldiers. The corpses of the white slain were gathered together and lain side by side on a small knoll just northeast of where the men had fallen and where the British artillery had been placed to command the road along which the Kentuckians had advanced. The British dead were also collected, and now that death, the great leveler and peacemaker, had done his work, the opposing slain lay calmly and quietly side by side on the mound which had been selected for a com- mon sepulchre. g6 The Battle of the Thames Over the bodies of the foe and friend blankets were spread, and there, with guards about them, they remained through the hours of the night, awaiting burial on the morrow. In the morning two trenches were dug, one for the British, the other for the Kentucky dead. A blanket was their only coffin. Side by side, with hands folded over their stilled hearts, these patriots were laid in foreign soil. Their features and forms were imposing and majestic even in their rude cerements. These hardy and warlike men were not unaccustomed to burials in the wilderness, but as they wrapped the bodies of their dead comrades in their winding sheets, which were only linsey blankets, and forever hid their faces from the light of day, they dropped tears upon these inanimate forms and bewailed that fate which gave them so rude a tomb on hated English soil. There was no sound as the loose earth fell upon the soft and yielding blankets; the trenches were quickly filled. On the beech trees, which were to be the sentinels to stand guard over the Kentucky dead, were carved with hunting-knives the names of those who had found graves beneath their protecting shade. The tragedy was ended, and these glorious dead were left forever in the solitude of the Canadian forest. The firing squad performed the last sad rites, the drums beat a dirge, and William Whit- RELICS PICKED UP OX THE BATTLEFIELD OF THE THAMES. The Battle of the Thames 97 ley and his comrades, without monumental stone, have slept fourscore and ten years in a strange land. Long since the forest has disappeared. Only a few trees on the river bank tell that once a dense woods covered the battlefield. The agriculturalist plows his corn, harrows and reaps his wheat. Tradition only tells where sleep our brave. The murmuring ripples of the Thames are the only requiem of these gallant slain, and the waving wheat and the rustling corn-leaves whisper that beneath their roots rest some of war's richest treasures — the ashes of the Kentucky freemen who died for their country on the battlefield of the Thames.' In 1835 there appeared in the public prints of Ken- tucky a communication from a gentleman named William Emmons, who had anonymously written the life of Colonel Richard M. Johnson, in which he represented that the pursuit of Proctor and his men, after the battle of the Thames, was made by Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson. Captain John Payne, son of Major DeVall Payne, felt that that honor was due his father, and he immediately took steps, by communicating with all those who were engaged ' It is not to the credit of Kentucky that she has permitted her dead ^ thus to sleep. The bones of the Raisin's dead were collected and borne > to Frankfort and deposited in the State lot, but the Thames' dead have been left unhonored by any suitable mark, and in the ninety years passed since their sepulture I could learn of no Kentuckian, except myself, who i had come to visit the spot where these noble heroes sleep their last sleep. ^8 The Battle of the Thames in the pursuit, to secure an authoritative statement of the facts in regard to that transaction. As there was no more heroic or courageous performance in all the War of 1812, it was just that it should be determined finally to whom the honor of this pursuit belonged. Major Payne, having died in 1830, could not speak for himself. Immediately after the shock of battle had subsided and General Harrison realized that he had obtained a complete victory. Major Chambers, a volunteer aide, and Colonel Charles S. Todd, a regular aide, were directed to detach two hundred men from the right battalion of John- son's regiment, commanded by Major DeVall Payne, for the pursuit of Proctor. These gentlemen, in the execu- tion of this order, found Major Payne in command of that battalion. With his troops, he was still busy pursuing the fleeing British and Indians. The battalion was then between the battlefield and Moravian Town, some four and a half miles above the present site of Thamesville, Ontario. When called upon to name what force he could command for that purpose, sending all whom he could reach to take the place of messengers, he at once gathered about sixty of his men from the various companies; these were all the troops then in hearing. Instantly they were organized. Major Payne was directed to push on to the Moravian Town, about a mile away, to endeavor to cap- The Battle of the Thames 99 ture the enemy's baggage, and promptly lined up his men, in company with Colonel Todd, Major Chambers, Major E. R. Wood, Captain Langham, of Ohio, General Lewis Cass, and Lieutenant Robert Scrogin, of Captain Matson's company. From early dawn all the troops had been busy at work. The day had scarcely broken when the American column started in pursuit of the British, and so great had been the zeal of the infantry, and such their endurance of fatigue, that almost the entire day they kept close within reach of the cavalry. They had already marched thirteen miles, and it was well on in the afternoon before the con- flict took place. It was fully half past four o'clock before the pursuing detachment was enabled to proceed regularly to its purpose. From the commander to the private, in this whole army there was one consuming desire — to capture General Proctor. His brutal and barbarous cruelty and inhuman conduct at Raisin, Meigs, and elsewhere to American prisoners had filled the heart and soul of every Ken- tuckian not only with indignation but hatred; and stirred by these feehngs. Major Payne, immediately assuming command, took charge of the small detachment, which in so brief time could be gathered, and entered upon the pursuit. Riding hard, pressing their wearied steeds to the L.ofC, loo The Battle of the Thames utmost endeavor, prisoner after prisoner was taken, until with not more than sixty of his soldiers he had captured fully that number of British infantry and cavalry. In the pursuit, when Major Payne and his followers came upon Indians they were waved from the path or shot down. It was not the deluded savage red man that these heroes desired to capture and kill; it was the man who pretended to be civilized, who wore the British uniform, and had perpetrated such cruelties on defense- less prisoners, who was the true object of the chase. With unflagging zeal, though weary and sore, this httle command pursued the fleeing enemy until of the sixty who had started in the chase only nine remained. The pursuit was along a narrow road cut through the forest. It was a road which had been used by the British for their wagons and pack-horses through Canada from Toronto to Detroit. It was not more than fifty feet in width, and when hotly pushed the fleeing enemy, one by one, dropped into the thick forest on either side. Proctor, who had taken an early start, with his cow- ardly conscience belaboring him and a guard of British soldiers protecting him, with his carriage and one or two wagons for his baggage, was running away with all the speed that his guilty fears could command. The pursuing column, animated by the hope of the capture of the man who had incurred the hate and dis- TJie Battle of the Thames loi pleasure of all Kentuckians, rode with never-faltering step. The tramp of their steeds was heard by the guilty British general, who, abandoning his carriage and wagons, hastily mounted a horse, and with a small guard and some Indian guides, fled through the forest. In a few moments the pursuing party reached his baggage-wagons, guarded by six British regulars, who quickly surrendered, and in a short distance, further along the Hne, Colonel Elliott, whose barbarities and whose savage instincts, cultivated by the hate of his fellow-countrymen, had done so much and so barbarously for the destruction of women and children, was overtaken. He, too, was compelled to abandon his carriage and rush into the woods to prevent capture. General Proctor's baggage, papers, telescope, and offi- cial documents were all captured. The prisoners were corralled and carried back to the Moravian Town, thirty of them being in charge of the nine persons who had made this vigorous pursuit. It was ten o'clock before the advance of this pursuing party reached the Moravian Town, and it was after eleven o'clock when Major Payne arrived at General Harrison's headquarters and reported to him the result of the chase.' ' One of the men engaged in this chase was Christopher Lillard, of Elli- son's company. From a British officer who he forced to surrender he took a beautiful dragoon fiint-lock pistol, which, with the belt and other accoutre- ments, is now in the possession of Christopher Lillard, his son, of Anderson County, and is as perfect as when captured nearly one hundred years ago. VII THE END The long, rapid, weary marches were now at an end. The battle had been fought, the victory won. The enemy had been crushed, defeated, scattered, and punished. Raisin and Fort Meigs had been in part avenged, and Kentucky's retribution had been laid with heavy hand upon those who had ruthlessly murdered her sons. Proctor was fieeing in disgrace and cowardice and was yet to be disowned by his king and court-martialed by his peers. Tecumseh, his savage agent, ally, and colleague, was dead and his body hid away in a Canadian forest, far from the place of his nativity and abode, and as these Ken- tucky patriots arose on the morning of the 6th of October they had much to render them happy, contented, and proud. Unaccustomed to walking, they had made unsurpassed day marches; they had subsisted on limited rations; they had traveled over rough and difficult roads; they had pursued their enemies for a hundred miles into a foreign land; they had faced every danger, met every vicissitude in a perilous undertaking. They had gained a great and important victory, with far-reaching conse- quences; they had completely broken the power of the savage in a vast territory ; they had secured a lasting The Battle of the Thames 103 peace for Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan ; they had taught the red man, who had so long hovered with terror and the tomahawk about the frontiersman's home, that England could not protect him from deserved punish- ment from his Long Knife foes, and that hereafter the nation with seventeen fires would destroy the Indian if the Indian molested or murdered the white man, and that it was the interest of the Indian and his only safe policy to keep the peace with the pale-face warrior. All these things had been accomplished in an incredi- bly short period. It was only fifteen days since this Kentucky army had sailed away from Portage River to Bass Island, the first resting place in Lake Erie. It was only nine days since this army had landed at Maiden on British soil, and at the end of a week and two days its mission was accomplished. It had won a glorious renown and performed for its Commonwealth and country superb and immeasurable service. As the sun rose clear and bright on the morning of the 6th of October, 181 3, its light was long delayed in finding the battle-worn and march-weary men who were sleeping beneath the great trees which covered the scene of their triumph on the preceding day. No tents pro- tected the soldiers ; there were no houses open for their accommodation, and upon mother earth, wrapped in their I04 The Battle of the Thames blankets, they had found sweet and refreshing repose. There was no necessity to arouse them from their beds. The foe they had sought was either captured or fleeing, and so the sun was well up in the sky before the tired heroes were called into line to begin the duties of the day, which consisted of burying the dead, caring for the wounded, and securing and destroying all public property belonging to the enemy. Rested, satisfied, full of patriotic contentment, on the morning of the seventh the homeward march was begun. The wounded and sick were, after a few miles' journey by land, placed in boats and floated down the Thames River to Lake St. Clair, thence to Detroit. The infantry and cavalry marched to Sandwich, and a few miles below crossed the Detroit River to the American side, and from thence the footmen pursued their way to the camp on Portage River. The British prisoners were put in charge of the cavalry, but later were transferred to the infantry and guarded by Colonel Trotter's command, not one being lost by the way.' ■ These prisoners were brought to Frankfort, Kentucky, and confined for a considerable period in the State penitentiary. The officers vigor- ously resented this treatment, which they designated "ignominious." But little sympathy was aroused on their account. The murders and bar- barity at Raisin and Meigs had not put these men of the Forty-first Regi- ment in a position to ask or expect much from Kentuckians. They were subsequently exchanged, but not for some months. The Battle of tJie Thames 105 The lake shore to the Portage River furnished much good road, but the weather had now become cold and quite an amount of snow fell during the march. The winds from the lake were sharp and penetrating. The troops were compelled to wade the rivers and creeks flowing from the west into the lake. The soldiers had expected to be conveyed by water to the Portage camp, and this failure produced a tremendous amount of dissat- isfaction and complaint. These militiamen felt that they were entitled to fairer treatment. They had gone into Canada when others had refused. They had left their horses nearly two hundred miles from where they had found their foes and defeated them, and now that the whole purpose of the campaign had been so success- fully accomplished, and every expectation of the govern- ment and State realized, they felt that being thus left under such disagreeable surroundings and conditions to find their way back to their horses and camp was neither grateful nor considerate. It was necessary for General Harrison to explain publicly that the absence of the fleet was occasioned by the requirement for other and more important naval and military operations, and when this was known these brave men took up the burdens and endured the hard- ships of the long, desolate, and tiresome march of one io6 The Battle of the Thames hundred and twenty miles without further complaint or regret. The infantry in its march reached the river Raisin on the 15th of October. Johnson's regiment, in the hurry of the ride to Detroit, had only partially buried the bones of those who had been killed or massacred by the Indians on January 2 2d previous. With reverent love and tenderness for those brave men who had fallen, Gov- ernor Shelby directed Simrall's regiment to make careful search for the bones of all who may have died and remained unburied, but the task was greater than antici- pated, and General King's brigade was further detailed for this work. They recovered sixty-five skeletons and gave them honorable and humane sepulture. The bones of these heroes had a sad and eventful history. After these burials most of them were reinterred in the cemetery in Monroe, Michigan, which city is on the site of the battle. This occurred on July 4, 1818. On August i8th a public meeting was called in Detroit by General Lewis Cass. A committee was appointed to bring the remains to Detroit, and there they were again interred in the Prot- estant burying-ground. In 1834 the boxes containing the bones were removed to the Clinton Street Cemetery in Detroit. In September of the same year they were once The Battle of the Thames 107 more exhumed, placed in boxes marked "Kentucky's gallant dead, January 18, 1813, River Raisin, Michigan," and at last and forever placed at rest in the State lot at Frankfort, Kentucky. The animals and camp were found intact. Colonel Christopher Rife, with the detail under his command, had kept everything with scrupulous care and fidelity. The horses, with the abundant grazing on the peninsula, had fattened, and were now in good condition for the joyous and happy ride home. Willing hands, impelled by glad and satisfied souls, quickly packed all baggage and equipments. On October 20th, the day following their arrival, a general order was issued for the troops to return to Kentucky by way of Franklinton (Columbus), at which point those who had received government arms were to deposit them, and on the 4th of November, just sixty-five days from that on which the command met at Newport to be mustered in, they were discharged from further service and scattered to their homes. The departure had been heroic and enthusiastic. The home-coming was illustrious and glorious. The news had preceded the troops by twelve days. The mustering out was at Maysville. Mason County had furnished two com- panies in Governor Shelby's army, those commanded by Captains Reed and Demitt, and one in Johnson's regiment io8 The Battle of the Thames commanded by John Payne. The welcome was not confined to these, but the whole command had all that gratitude or patriotism could desire or suggest. Diverging at Maysville for all parts of the State, these heroes, drawn together by many sacrifices, much suffering, and severe hardships, and great dangers endured not only in this but many of the campaigns in which Kentucky soldiers had borne so conspicuous a part, separated from each other with deepest emotion. At all the county seats great crowds gathered to honor the returning conquerors. Public meetings in many places were called to express the grateful recognition by Kentucky of their patriotic devotion in their country's need, and for the next half a century to have been at the Thames was the ' ' open sesame " to public and political honor and preferment. Adair, Desha, and Crittenden were to become governors; Barry, McAfee, Charles A. WickliiTe, lieutenant-gov- ernors; Walker, Barry, Crittenden, Johnson, senators, and a score of them were sent as members of the House of Representatives, and to the State senate and house every year for a third of a century a large number of the men who fought at the Thames were chosen as the people's trusted law-makers. These men who followed Governor Shelby dared all that patriots could dare. They faced all that courage The Battle of the Thames 109 could face. They offered all that freemen could offer, and they won all that a brave and chivalrous people could bestow. On that roll of her sons whose fidelity and loyalty the Commonwealth delights to honor, the names of the men who fought at the Thames on October 5, 1813, stand out with a brilliancy and glory which time can not dim and ages will not efface. VIII THE HEROES OF THE BATTLE After such a victory as that of the Thames we natur- ally want to hear something of the individuality of those who won it. In a monograph we can not speak of all of them. They were more than three thousand in number, and it would require a book of no ordinary dimensions to devote only a few words to each of them. Those who began the battle and won the victory were Kentuckians, and while this fact narrows the limits of the meritorious to be mentioned, yet even all the famous Kentuckians can not be presented in a work of this kind. Some of them, however, can be mentioned, and naturally enough the most meritorious claim selection. But while mention- ing the brave Kentuckians, Harrison, the commander-in- chief of the army, must not be forgotten, for although he was not a Kentuckian by birth or habitation he com- manded in the insignia of a Kentucky major-general. Nor must we forget the Indian chief, Tecumseh, who was the most meritorious of the enemy and greater by far than any or all of the English for whom and under whom he fought and died. We may begin, therefore, with Shelby and end with Johnson, the two Kentucky heroes Governor ISAAC SHELBY. The Battle of the Thames m who enlisted the troops, organized them, marched them to the battlefield and with them won the victory. Isaac Shelby. Isaac Shelby, the first and the sixth governor of Kentucky, one of the most remarkable men the State ever had as a citizen, was on the day of the battle of the Thames in his sixty-third year, having been born December nth, 1750, near Hagerstown, Maryland. He died at his home, "Traveler's Rest," in Lincoln County, Kentucky, July i8th, 1826. He early went to West Virginia as a land surveyor, and was a lieutenant in the company of his father, Gen- eral Evan Shelby, and fought in the great battle of Point Pleasant on the loth of October, 1774. This great battle, lasting from sunrise to sunset, was fought at the juncture of the Ohio and Kanawha rivers, and the Indians, under Cornstalk, abandoned the ground under cover of night. Here Isaac Shelby received his first experience and taste of war. He came to Kentucky in 1775, and remained in the wilderness without bread or salt for twelve months. In his absence in Kentucky he had been appointed captain of a company of militia by a Committee of Safety, in Virginia, and from 1777 to 1778 he was engaged in the commissary department of the army. 112 The Battle of the Thames In 1/79 he was elected a member of the Virginia Legislature and commissioned a major by Thomas Jef- ferson. He had command of the guards sent by the State to protect the commissioners who were running the boundary between Virginia and North Carolina. By the extension of that line Shelby's residence fell within the limits of North Carolina, and a new county, Sullivan, having been established, Major Shelby was appointed colonel for that county. In 1780 he returned to Ken- tucky,- located and secured land which he had previously marked in 1775. Intelligence of the surrender of Charleston having reached him, he left Kentucky and returned to North Carolina, where he immediately organized a battalion of militia, and with Colonels Sevier and Clarke captured a fort in the Cherokee territory commanded by Captain Pat Moore. Shelby's successful aggressions on British posts caused Ferguson, of the British army, to make many efforts to surprise and capture him. He later, on the 19th of August, 1780, was engaged in the battle of Musgrove's Mill in South Carolina, where he inflicted a loss upon the British of sixty-three killed and one hundred and sixty-three wounded and captured, while the American loss was only four killed and nine wounded. He escaped The Battle of the Thames 113 by a most extraordinarily perilous march, distributing the footmen among the horsemen, who each took a footman behind him in order to hasten their journey. They marched thirty-six hours without stopping to take refresh- ment. In September, 1780, Shelby proposed to Sevier and Campbell to march across the mountains into North Carolina and attempt the capture of General Ferguson by surprise in the night. While the command was given to Colonel Campbell, the credit of the enterprise really belonged to Shelby. The battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, was one of the turning points of the Revolutionary War. The militia with their rifles attacked Ferguson with his British soldiers on the top of King's Mountain. They killed Ferguson and three hundred and seventy-five of his men, and captured seven hundred and thirty. This extraordinary venture was made by riflemen untrained in military tactics, who had nothing to guide them but brave hearts, steady nerves, and trusty rifles. It saved the cause of the Revolution in North Carolina. The legislature of North Carolina presented Shelby with an elegant sword, which, however, was not carried into conflict until the time when Shelby was about to lead the troops in the battle of the Thames. It was 114 The Battle of the Thames presented to him shortly before his departure on that expedition. He served with Marion and with General Green in South Carolina and North Carolina with most distinguished success. In 1782 he was elected by the North Carolina Legis- lature as one of the commissioners to settle the pre- emption claims along the Cumberland River and lay off lands allotted to the officers and soldiers of the North Carolina line, south of where the city of Nashville now stands. After performing this service in the winter of 1782-3, he returned to Kentucky in the following April, and remained until the end of his life. It is one of the curious facts in connection with Ken- tucky history that at the period of his death, forty-three years later, he was the only individual in the State of Kentucky residing upon his own preemption. He was a member of the convention held in 1787- 1788, as well as of that which formed the first Constitu- tion of Kentucky in 1792 ; also a member of the Senate of Kentucky, and was named as the first governor of the State in 1792, and inaugurated in Lexington June 1st, 1792. His patriotism and his wise judgment in the support of the principles of the Federal Government in the Northwest would alone render his name immortal. Now, when threescore and six years of age — thirty-three The Battle of the Thames 115 years, lacking two days, after the great victory of King's Mountain — this grand old man led the Kentucky troops to one of the most splendid and successful conflicts in which the soldiers of America were ever engaged. In 1 81 8 he was appointed by President Monroe joint commissioner with Andrew Jackson to negotiate a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians, which was executed October 19, 18 18, resulting in the purchase of all the land in Tennessee and Kentucky lying west of the Tennessee River. The noblest manhood of Kentucky was proud to follow General Shelby on this occasion. No army had ever left the State comprising among its members men of more patriotism, more courage, more intelligence, and more true nobility than these men who marched with Shelby and Harrison to their victory on the Thames. It is almost impossible to calculate the beneficent results which came to the United States from the victory of the Thames. In the first place, it completely broke the English power in this section, destroyed their prestige with the Indians, and demonstrated to them, who at all times had been helped and encouraged by the British, that it was useless to expect that even v/ith British aid they could maintain themselves against the rapidly developing power of the United States. It therefore ii6 The Battle of the Thames practically ended the Indian wars in the Northwest, and at once secured full control of Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois for settlement. General William Henry. Genera! William Henry, who commanded the First Division, had been both a Revolutionary soldier and a successful Indian fighter. He was born April 12, 1761, in Charlotte County, Virginia. He was the son of Reverend Robert Henry, a Presbyterian divine. When seventeen years of age he entered the Revolutionary army, and served through the war as a private under Colonel Harry Lee. He was at Guilford Courthouse, Yorktown, and other battles, and emigrated to Kentucky in 1781. He first settled on Salt River, in Lincoln County, and afterward moved to Flournoy Station, in Scott County. He was the father of thirteen children; five of his sons were in the War of 181 2, so that at the time he left his home the mother was weighted with the thought that five sons and her husband were exposed to the casualties of war. He was engaged frequently in the punishment of the Indians, who made forays into Kentucky, and was an aide-de-camp to General Wilkerson in his campaign across the Ohio in 1791. General WILLIAM HENKV. The Battle of the Thimies 117 Between General Henry's family and the Johnson family there grew up a bitter political feeling, which was maintained during the life of the parties. General Henry was a man of great intelligence, a fine public speaker; six feet two inches high and perfectly erect, blue-gray eyes and Roman nose, pleasant in con- versation, fond of anecdote, with a kindly disposition which bore no malice, without ostentation, and a Christian gentleman of the highest character. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and was a member of the first Synod of that church in the State of Kentucky, formed in 1803. He was senator from Scott County, 1796 to 1800, and its representative in the Kentucky Legislature, 1793-4, 1801, and 1809. He was defeated in 181 3 for the legislature by Colonel Robert Johnson, father of Colonel Richard M. Johnson, and never afterward aspired to any political office. [He long held a prominent command in the mihtia of Kentucky, was a great favorite with Governor Shelby, and was given the position of senior major-general at Urbana, Ohio, and during the absence of Governor Shelby was in chief command of the Kentucky army. His family had a remarkable record. Two of his sons were representatives in Congress from Kentucky, and the third, Gustavus A. Henry, represented Christian County ii8 The Battle of the Thames in the Kentucky Legislature in 183 1-2, and upon his removal to Tennessee was elected to Congress, and was also senator in the Confederate Congress and a distin- guished officer in the Confederate service. His grandson was a member of Congress from Missis- sippi, and a great-grandson was also a member of Congress from Mississippi. He was appointed by President Madison assessor for the Third Kentucky District, which office he held for several years, and in 18 16 moved to Hopkinsville, Chris- tian County, living in strict retirement with his family, and where he died November 23, 1824. He was interred on the farm of his brother, about ten miles from Hop- kinsville. General Joseph Desha. General Joseph Desha, who commanded the Second Division, was born in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, December 9, 1768. His father had moved from the Wyoming Valley to Virginia a short time before the Indian massacre, and in 1781 came to Kentucky. He volunteered in the campaign under Wayne, was with him at Fallen Timbers in 1794, and acted with great gallantry. For quite a number of years he remained with William Whitley at his station near Crab Orchard. General JOSEPH DliSHA. The Battle of the Thames 119 Whitley became very much attached to him, and it was to General Desha, the night before the battle of the Thames, that he imparted his presentiment of death on the coming day, and begged him to bear to his wife messages of affection, and his rifle and powderhorn. Shortly after his marriage he moved to Mason County, Kentucky, and represented that county in the senate from 1803 to 1807, and in the House of Representatives in 1797-99, 1800, 1 80 1-2. He was a member of the House of Representatives in Congress from Kentucky from 1816 to 1 8 19. He was named by Governor Shelby as one of the major-generals to command a division in the expedition which ended in the battle of the Thames. His division was composed of the brigades of General Chiles and General Caldwell, and the eleventh regiment, com- manded by Colonel William Williams. In 1820 he was defeated for Governor by General Adair, being third in the list; but in 1824 he was elected, receiving 38,300 votes as against 22,000 for the brilliant Christopher Tompkins, his opponent. Tompkins was, however, subsequently elected to Congress two terms, in 1833-35- While General Desha's early education was meager — such as the frontier could afford — he remedied this defect 1 20 The Battle of the Thames by study, and oftentimes by firelight, and after attaining manhood and entering pubHc Hfe, by systematic study he prepared himself for the duties to which he was called by the appreciation of his fellow-citizens. He was Chairman of the Committee of the Whole in the Kentucky House of Representatives during the con- sideration of the resolutions of 1798. In 1S26 he moved to Harrison County, subsequently to Georgetown, in Scott County, in 1840, and died there October 11, 1842. He was interred on his farm, where a monument was erected to his memory. In 1880 his remains were reinterred at Georgetown Cemetery, and the monument removed to that place. His canvass for governor in 1S24 was marked by the highest feeling. General Desha denounced with tre- mendous force and vehemence the anti-relief judges — Boyle, Miller, Clark, and Blair. He was a "New Court" man, and was elected by a very large majority. A number of his descendants still reside in Harrison County, and manifest that manliness and personal cour- age which marked their distinguished ancestor. 5*Pi- General WILLIAM HENKV HARRISON. The Battle of the Thames 121 William Henry Harrison. William Henry Harrison was born at Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia, February 9, 1773. In April, 1791, at eighteen years of age, he was appointed by Washington ensign, and assigned to the First Regiment of Artillery, then encamped on the site of Cincinnati. He was with General Wayne August 20, 1794, at the battle of Fallen Timbers, and in 1799 was elected delegate to Congress from the Western Territory. In 1800 he was appointed governor of the new terri- tory of Indiana, which then comprised the States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and became commander-in-chief of the territorial militia. He negotiated thirteen treaties with the Indians of the West and won his earliest renown as a commander at the battle of Tippecanoe, the 7th of November, 181 1. The distinguished honor was conferred upon him of having been made a major-general of the Kentucky mihtia by Governor Scott, though not a citizen of the State. Such an appointment was not authorized by law, but Governor Scott called the matter to the attention of the leading men of Kentucky, including Henry Clay and others, and they advised the appointment, which was immediately made by the governor. 122 The Battle of the Thames He was appointed by President Madison, in conjunc- tion with Slielby and Lewis Cass, as associate on the Indian Commission, and in 1816 was elected member of Congress from Ohio. In his course he had created certain enmities which followed him into the Congress of the United States ; and, when a resolution was offered providing for a medal to be given to Harrison and Shelby for their distinguished services at the battle of the Thames, Harrison's name was stricken out, and Shelby instructed his friends to refuse, in his name, any honor which could not be shared with General Harrison. In 18 18 this bit of spite was remedied by the adoption of the original resolution. He was elected senator from Ohio in 1824, and appointed Minister to the Republic of Colombia in 1828. In 1840 he was elected President of the United States, and inaugurated March 4, 1841. He died exactly one month thereafter, April 4, 1841. Few careers have been marked by more uniform success. No man did more than Harrison for the extension of the territorial limits of the United States. He was brave, generous, able, patriotic. He purchased a home at North Bend, Ohio, a few miles northwest of Cincinnati, and is buried on the bank of the Ohio, at that place. Gknekal JOHN EDWAKl) KING. The Battle of the Thames 123 General John Edward King. General John Edward King, who commanded the Third Brigade, was born at Dumfries, Prince WilHam County, Virginia, on the 21st of December, 1757, and died in Burksville, Cumberland County, Kentucky, May 13, 1828. He moved from Virginia to Cumberland County, Kentucky, in 1797. He was admitted as a member of the Frankfort bar shortly after his arrival in the State, and was appointed county and circuit clerk of Cumberland County when it was organized in 1798. He had been active in the militia service of the State. He owned a tract of land two miles north of Burksville on the road to Columbia, known as Melmont. He was married twice and had a large family. His son, Milton King, succeeded him as circuit and county clerk, and held the position until the adoption of the Constitution of 1850. General King was buried at his home, Melmont, and over his grave is a slab with the following inscription : "In memory of Major-General John Edward King. Born, December 21, 1757; died. May 13, 1828." General King was a man of imposing ^presence and courtly manners, and exercised great influence in the section in which he lived. A large number of his descend- 1 24 The Battle of the Thames ants still live in Cumberland County. Godfrey Hunter, member of Congress and minister to Guatemala, married a descendant of General King. General Samuel Caldwell. General Samuel Caldwell, commander of the Fifth Brigade, was born in Charlotte County, Virginia, in 1770, and came with his father's family to Kentucky in 1787. He early moved to Russellville, in Logan County, and was the first clerk of that county. He commanded a regiment in the early part of the war. This regiment having been enlisted on the 20th of September, 181 2, its time expired on the 29th of Octo- ber, 181 2. It was known as the First Kentucky Regiment of Mounted Militia. He came of a distinguished family. His brother, General John Caldwell, was elected lieutenant-governor of Kentucky in 1804, and died at Frankfort that year, while the legislature was in session. Caldwell County was named for him, and to his memory the State erected a monument. His brother, Robert Caldwell, presided in the House of Representa- tives of the Kentucky Legislature in 1798, when the famous resolutions of that date were presented by John Breckenridge and adopted. JOHN ADAIR, Governor nl KMiitm k>, JS20-24. From a painting in possession of William Briiiue^ Tliayer. Kansas Citv. Missour The Battle of the Thames 125 When eighteen years of age, in 1788, he was a member of General Wilkinson's command, which was engaged in the Indian territory. He died June 14, 1835, and was buried with the highest military honors. He and his wife are buried in a garden in the southern part of the city of Russellville, in what is known as Polly Latham's Addition. A simple headstone marks his resting place, on which is inscribed: "In memory of General Samuel Caldwell, who departed this life June 14, 1835. 'An honest man, the noblest work of God.'" He was buried in the place in which he had lived for a number of years, at his home, which is now the property of John G. Orndorf, of Russellville, who has kindly given the writer much of the information concerning him. He was a man of great courage, the highest convic- tions, and noblest patriotism. He was a member of the house of representatives from Caldwell County in 1805 and 1809. He possessed the widest influence, and was in the fullest sense honest and patriotic. General John Adair. General John Adair, First Aide to Governor Shelby, was one of the most distinguished men in the early history of the State. He was born in South Carolina in 1757. 126 The Battle of the Thames When quite a youth he joined the American forces, was subsequently made prisoner by the British, and treated with unusual cruelty and barbarity. In 1786 he came to Kentucky and settled in Mercer County, and in all the Indian wars he took a prominent part. In a battle with the Indian chief Little Turtle, in November, 1792, he exhibited great courage and skill. In 1807 his popularity was largely destroyed for a time by his supposed connection with the enterprise of Aaron Burr. Governor Shelby appointed him adjutant-general of the Kentucky troops, and sent him to New Orleans with the brevet rank of brigadier-general. At the battle of Januar}' 8, 181 5, General Thomas, the senior officer, being indisposed, General Adair commanded the Ken- tuckians. General Jackson having placed some slur upon the Kentucky troops on that occasion, the contest was taken up by General Adair, and resulted in an acrimonious con- troversy, in which General Adair maintained, in a most creditable manner, the reputation of the Kentucky troops. On the loth of February, 18 16, the legislature passed a vote of thanks to General Adair for his gallantry at the battle of New Orleans, and "more particularly for the deep interest he took in vindicating a respectable portion The Battle of the Thames 127 of the troops of Kentucky from the Hbelous imputation of cowardice most unjustly thrown upon them by General Andrew Jackson." In 1820 he was elected governor of Kentucky, defeat- ing Judge Logan, General Desha, and Colonel Butler, and receiving 20,493 votes as against 19.947 for William Logan, 12,419 for Joseph Desha, and 9,567 for Anthony Butler. He died at White Hall, his home, in Mercer County, in May, 1840. His remains were removed in 1S72 to the cemetery at Frankfort, where the State erected over his grave a monument with the following inscription: NORTH SIDE. John Adair, born in Chester District, South Carolina, January 9, 1757; died at White Hall, Mercer County, Kentucky, May, 1840, aged eighty-three years. This monument is erected by the people of Kentucky in pur- suance of a resolution of the General Assembly approved March 5, 1872, as a mark of their appreciation for his services as a soldier and statesman. WEST SIDE. As A Statesman — Previous to his removal from South Caro- lina served as a member of the convention which revised the Constitution of the United States. Becoming a citizen of Ken- tucky he represented the county of Mercer in the legislature of 1795-6; afterwards frequently a member of both house and senate. In 1805 he was elected to United States Senate to fill an unex- pired term. In 1820 was elected governor, and served the term 128 The Battle of the Thames of four years. In 183 1 served a term in United States Congress from Mercer District. He sleeps the sleep of the brave and just. EAST SIDE. As A Soldier — He entered the Revolutionary Army at the age of seventeen; served through the war first as private, afterwards aide-de-camp to General Sumpter. Moved to Kentucky 1787, participated in Indian campaigns, 1791-2-4; the war with Great Britain 1812-15. He commanded Kentucky troops at New Orleans as brigadier-general under General Jackson 1S14-15. SOUTH SIDE. Catherine Adair, wife of John Adair, born near Charleston, South Carolina, October 17, 1768. Died at Montrose, near Frank- fort, Kentucky, September 24, 1854, and was buried at White Hall by the side of her husband. Her remains have been removed to this spot and now rest in the same grave with his after a union in life of fifty years. In death they are not divided. General James Allen. General James Allen, who commanded the Fourth Brigade, was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, in 1770. His father was a Revolutionary soldier and died while on his way with his family from Virginia to Kentucky. After some delay the family, consisting of four boys and one girl, settled near Houstonville, Lincoln County, and later removed to Green County. General JAMES ALLEN. The Battle of the Thames 129 He enjoyed the benefits of a very thorough educa- tion, and could read the New Testament in the original Greek, having attended New Providence Academy, in Staunton, Virginia. After reading law in Virginia he concluded his course under Judges Sebastian and Ormsby in Kentucky. He was admitted to the bar before he was twenty years of age, and practiced his profession in Lincoln, Washing- ton, and Madison counties, and last in Green County. For a long time he was clerk of the County and Quar- ter Sessions Courts. After his removal to Green County that section of country was constantly molested by roving bands of Indians. He organized a company of mounted riflemen to repress these Indian invasions and to punish the perpetrators of these outrages. In 181 1 he commanded the Tenth Brigade of State Militia. His brigade consisted of two regiments, formed of the companies from the counties of Lincoln, Garrard, Mercer, Madison, and Shelby. He was elected president of an independent bank at Greensburg, the county seat of Green, but after conducting it a short time became satisfied the conditions surrounding the bank were not such as to justify its continued exist- ence, and promptly placed its affairs in liquidation, which was accomplished without loss to the stockholders. 130 The Battle of the Thames He was a man of splendid appearance, six feet two inches tall, well proportioned, fine forehead, and a most affable manner, great firmness and absolute courage. He was extremely popular in all the section where he was known. Having gone on horseback from Greensburg to Lebanon to attend to some business, upon his return home, in some unknown way he fell from his horse. He was found dead about a mile from his residence, the probabilities being that by an overhanging limb he had in the night been knocked from his horse and killed by the fall. When Governor Shelby resolved to lead the Kentucky troops which had been summoned by his proclamation of July 31, 1813, he wrote pressing letters and sent a dis- patch to Allen begging that he would accompany him in the campaign. Allen secured as many volunteers as pos- sible and promptly reported at Newport and at Urbana. On the 8th of September he was made brigadier-general and assigned to a brigade composed of the regiments commanded by Davenport and Calloway. Colonel GEOKGE TKOTTER. The Battle of the Thames 131 Colonel George Trotter. Colonel George Trotter was born in Augusta County, Virginia, and came with his father to Lexington, Ken- tucky. His people emigrated from the north of Ireland to Philadelphia, thence to Virginia and then to Kentucky. He was born November 8, 1778; died October 13, 1815. He engaged with his father in the hemp-bagging busi- ness, and also in the manufacture of powder. The Trotters were wealthy, brave, and patriotic, and George Trotter was among the first of Kentucky's sons to answer his country's call in 1812. He raised a company for Simrall's Dragoons and entered the service August 27, 181 2. He did superb service in the Fort Wayne campaign, and returned honored and beloved by all who knew him. His popularity and reputation were such that when a last call was made he had no difficulty in enlisting a large number of men in Fayette, Jessamine, Scott, and Wood- ford. The captains in his regiment were splendid patriots who had seen service and who gladly rallied to his banner. The material in his regiment was unsurpassed and the morale of his troops superb. Governor Shelby was glad to appoint the brilliant, dashing young man the colonel of the first regiment, and 132 The Battle of the Thames when General Calmes, from sickness, was unable to lead the first brigade, that task fell to Trotter. He was singularly handsome, six feet three inches in height, and with the face and bearing of an ideal soldier. There was no sacrifice too great and no danger too imminent for him to face and meet, and on the march and in the battle his presence was an inspiration. His brigade and regiment were assigned the places of greatest peril, and gladly he and his men sought such conditions. He returned from the war full of honors and applause. Distinguished, brave, successful, and wealthy, he was married to a beautiful, cultured, and brilliant woman who bore him two sons, and with whom life seemed radiant of hope and promise; but just when peace had come and his country was at rest, death claimed him. His father had built for him the beautiful home standing in the Lexington Park or Chautauqua. He came to it only to die. Within a week from the hour he entered into its possession death broke in with its crushing hand, and he was laid in state within the walls where he had hoped for a long and happy life. In a beautiful woodland across from his home they laid him to rest, building over him a brick mausoleum and covering it with earth. Forty years later Federal soldiers who were camping about it mistook the tomb for an General D.WID CHILES. The Battle of the Thames 133 Indian mound, and an excavation was made, to find his coffin decayed and his ashes resting on the bricks. Forty years after this some boys, playing on the mound, led by curiosity, dug into it and carried away his skull and coffin-plate. A vigorous outcry caused these to be returned, and now his dust again reposes peacefully in the neglected tomb. General Harrison presented to Colonel Trotter's regi- ment the brass drum of the Forty-first British Infantry, of which so large a part was captured at the Thames, and with its inscription it was long the most prized of all the relics and memories of the Forty-second Regiment, Kentucky Militia, to which Trotter's men in large part belonged. The following inscription was painted on the drum : Presented by General Harrison and Governor Shelby to Colonel George Trotter, for the Forty-second Kentucky Regiment Militia, as a testimonial of its patriotism and good conduct, and for having furnished more volunteers than any other regiment. General David Chiles. David Chiles, who commanded the second brigade in Governor Shelby's army, was born in Virginia, August 23, 1767, and migrated to Kentucky prior to 1790. He came with some means, and purchased an estate near the 134 '^^^^ Battle of the Thames town of Minerva, in Mason County, close to the Bracken County line. From the profusion of cane found on his place he called it "Caneland. " It is the highest point between Vanceburg and Newport, Kentucky. On the loth of February, 1791, he married Frances, the daughter of Reverend Louis Craig, and with her received a dowry of land which gave him nearly fifteen hundred acres as his possession. He built a mill and distillery on Raccoon Branch of Bracken Creek, and was extremely prosperous. He held no office, but was a man of great intelligence and courage, and commanded in a high degree the confidence of his fellow-citizens. He was a mihtia officer in Mason County, and promptly responded to Governor Shelby's call for troops. Mason County sent three companies, and Greenup, Nicholas, Bracken, and Campbell had so strongly volunteered Gov- ernor Shelby thought it due this section to have a brigadier- general, and David Chiles was appointed to that position. He is buried on his own farm, having provided in his will for the erection of a stone wall about the family bury- ing-ground. A plain slab with his name, the dates of his birth and death, constitutes the monument that marks his grave. He died in 1834. WILLIAM I. 1;AKK\. Posimasti-k-GeiNKKal, From a painting by C. H. Kiii}<. The Battle of the Thames 135 Major William T. Barry. Major William T. Barry, one of the most remarkable men who ever lived in Kentucky, was born in Virginia, February 5, 1783. At a very early age he came to Ken- tucky with his father and settled first in Fayette and after- ward in Jessamine County. He attended school at Wood- ford Academy, graduated at Transylvania University, and commenced the practice of law in Lexington when twenty- one years of age. He was one of the most brilliant and eloquent men of the period in which he lived. From 1805 to 1835 his life was a series of wonderful successes. For- tune appeared to lavish upon him her richest gifts and noblest rewards. In his twenty-first year he was elected to fill a vacancy in the legislature of Kentucky from Fayette County, and re-elected in 1809. He was chosen to represent the Ash- land District in Congress in 18 10, and again in 18 14. He also represented it in the legislature. In the discussion of the matters which led up to the War of 18 12, no man was more eloquent, earnest, brilliant, and patriotic. His speeches won the admiration and confidence of all parties. His courage and gallantry while serving on the staff of Gov- ernor Shelby as his secretary merited and received the gratitude and approval of his chief. The people of Ken- 136 The Battle of the Thames tucky recognized in him not only a brilliant statesman but an unselfish patriot. When twenty-seven he became speaker of the Ken- tucky House of Representatives. He represented Ken- tucky in the senate for two sessions, 18 14-16, and then resigned to accept the circuit judgeship. In 181 7 he was forced to stand as a candidate for the State senate. His magnetic power and influence enabled him, while in the Kentucky Senate, to secure aid for Transylvania University, in which he was lecturer in the Law Department. His name gave the law school wide prestige and success. In 1820 he was elected Heutenant-governor by an over- whelming majority, and at that time was unquestionably the most popular man in Kentucky. He was appointed chief justice of the "New Court" in 1825, and held the place until the repeal of the "New Court" act in 1826. A candidate for governor in 1828, he was defeated by only seven hundred and nine votes, but his splendid presence, superb eloquence, and the influence resulting from his canvass caused the State, in the following year, to cast 7,934 votes for Andrew Jackson. He was appointed postmaster-general by Jackson, and held the office until declining health caused him to surrender it. In the hope that a change of location and a milder climate might restore his health, Judge Barry The Battle of the Thames 137 was sent by President Jackson as Minister to Spain. He sailed for his post, and died at Liverpool, England, in 1835. In 1854, by act of the legislature, the remains of Judge Barry were disinterred, brought to Kentucky, and buried in the State lot at Frankfort. His friends erected a monu- ment to his memory in the courthouse yard at Lexington. The State erected a headstone over his grave. Colonel George Walker. Governor Shelby appointed Colonel George Walker, of Jessamine County, his inspector-general. He was admi- rably fitted for this responsible post. He came from Culpeper County, Virginia, where he was born, and settled in Kentucky in 1794. He began the practice of law in Nicholasville, Kentucky, in 1799, and was the second lawyer to open an office in the new county seat. Colonel Walker was of distinguished lineage. His mother was a sister of David Meade, of Chaumiere, and this fact doubtless induced his permanent residence in Jessamine. A man of wide learning and attractive manners, he wielded a great influence in Central Kentucky, and he enjoyed in a high degree Governor Shelby's confidence and esteem. When a mere lad he had fought at Cowpens, Guilford Courthouse, and Yorktown. Brave as the bravest he had battled for his country's liberties with 138 The Battle of the Thames superb courage and gallantry. He had answered every call his country made, and was among the first to respond in the War of 181 2. He represented Jessamine County in the Kentucky Senate in 18 10, and held this position when he followed Kentucky's governor to the Thames. He married a daughter of General John Coffee, of Tennessee, and was the father of quite a family when he volunteered. He died on his farm, near Nicholasville, in 1819. The regard of Governor Shelby for the patriotism of Colonel Walker was again manifested by his appointing him to fill a vacancy in the senate of the United States in 1814. He remained in the senate until 1815. He was one of the commissioners appointed to survey and locate the line between Kentucky and Tennessee, and the line was afterward known as Walker's line. He was one of the first men to respond to Governor Shelby's call, and to his influence and that of Captain Augustine Bower was attributable in large degree the prompt and enthusiastic response of Jessamine County in this campaign; although a small county it sent two full companies, which were assigned to Trotter's regiment. Colonel Walker was buried on his farm, now the property of Melancthon Young, Esq., about one mile east of Nicholasville. The monument built over him has long The Battle of the Thames 139 since fallen down, and the exact spot of his burial is now unknown. Charles A. Wickliffe. Among those present at the Thames was Charles A. Wickliffe, then in his twenty-fifth year. He was born on the present site of Springfield, the county seat of Wash- ington County, on June 8, 1788. He died, while on a visit, at the home of his son-in-law. Judge Richard T. Merrick, in Maryland, on the 31st of October, 1869. He came of the best pioneer stock. His mother was a sister of Colonel John Hardin, who was sent as a Peace Commissioner to the Indians of Ohio, where he was killed and where he had gone against his protest, assured that his life would be taken, but ready to serve his commander and his country however and whenever called upon. Beginning his practice of law at Bardstown, Mr. Wick- liffe, at the commencement of the War of 181 2, volun- teered as a private, but was appointed aide to General Winlock. In 181 2 and 1813 he was elected to represent Nelson County in the Kentucky Legislature. Again he volunteered as a private in the company of his relative, Martin D. Hardin, who was recruiting in Washington County, and was subsequently given a place upon the staff of General 140 The Battle of the Thames Samuel Caldwell, to whom he rendered valuable services, not only in the preceding campaign but at the battle of the Thames. He was a member of Congress from 1823 to 1833, and from 1861 to 1863; again a member of the legis- lature in 1833, 1834, and 1835, and in 1834 was chosen speaker of the house of representatives, after an exciting contest. In 1836 he was elected lieutenant-governor, and on the death of Governor James Clark, August 27, 1839, he succeeded to the governorship, being duly installed on September 5th. He filled the office to the close of the term with great credit. He was postmaster-general in the cabinet of Tyler and member of the Constitutional Convention of 1849, and of the Peace Conference in February, 1861; and in the face of threats of arrest and imprisonment he made the race as Democratic candidate for governor in August, 1863, but was defeated by Thomas E. Bramlette. He rests in the cemetery at Bardstown, Kentucky. J. J. CKITTENDEN. The Battle of the Thames 141 John J. Crittenden. Among the heroes and extraordinary men who took part in this illustrious conflict was John J. Crittenden, son of a Revolutionary soldier. He was born in Woodford County, September 6, 1786. In his early Hfe he moved to Russellville, Logan County, and was elected to the legislature from that county in 181 1, and had conferred upon him the extra- ordinary honor of being elected to the house of repre- sentatives for six consecutive terms, and was twice made speaker of the house, once unanimously. In 18 1 7 he was elected United States senator; he was then the youngest member of that body. He was twice attorney-general of the United States, once under Harri- son and once under Fillmore. He was again elected to the senate in 1843, and resigned to run for governor of Kentucky, and was elected in 1848. In 1849 he resigned to become attorney-general in President Taylor's cabinet. In 1853 he was elected to the United States Senate for the term ending 1861, and in 1861 was elected represent- ative, and was a member of that body until the time of his death, on the 25th of July, 1863. He was one of the most eloquent men that Kentucky ever produced. Upon his election to the senate he was 142 The Battle of the Thames deemed, although very young, to be a fitting colleague for Henry Clay. In public life for fifty-two years, and having attained the highest honors in the legal profession, even his enemies admitted his uprightness as a statesman and his power as an orator. Crittenden County, formed in 1842, was named in his honor. Colonel William Whitley. Among the remarkable historical men who took part in this battle was William Whitley, a famous Kentucky pio- neer. He was born in Virginia, August 17, 1749, and moved to Kentucky in 1775. He lived first at Boonesborough, then at Harrod's Fort, and finally, in 1781, built what was known as Whitley's Fort, two miles northwest of Crab Orchard. He surveyed and preempted large tracts of land in this neighborhood, and, it is said, here built the first brick house ever erected in the State. He paid for this brick house in land; he gave one man five hundred acres, in Lincoln County, for the construction of the brick- work; another a farm for the whisky which was furnished to the workmen during the time consumed in the con- struction of the building. Although erected one hundred and thirteen years ago, the house is still in a perfect state of preservation, and is now occupied as a residence. The Battle of the Thames 143 He was a cousin of George Rogers Clark, and accom- panied him on one of his expeditions to Kentucky. It is said his wife was the third white woman to cross the Cumberland Mountains, and the daughter born to Whitley and his wife in Boonesborough was one of the first white children born in Kentucky. The child was named Levisa, once the name of the Big Sandy River. Colonel Whitley laid out the first race track in Ken- tucky, called his home Sportsman's Hall, and here he entertained many of the most distinguished men in the early history of Kentucky, among them Boone, Logan, George Rogers Clark, McDowell, and Harrison. Whitley County, created in 18 18, was called in honor of Colonel Whitley, and its county seat, Williamsburg, formerly known as Whitley Courthouse, was doubtless so called from Whitley's first name. Colonel Whitley was one of the most adventurous of the pioneers who had come to Kentucky. In 1775, while farming in a small way in Virginia, he told his wife that he had heard splendid reports of Kentucky; that he thought they could get their living there with less hard work. In a few days they started out through the wilderness to take up their residence in this new country. Thoroughly acquainted with Indian methods, brave as a lion, he allowed no Indian aggression or invasion to go 144 ^^^^ Battle of the Thames unpunished. He was engaged in seventeen battles, res- cued many captives, and in 1794, with Major Orr, organ- ized what was known as the Nickerjack Expedition, in which the Tennessee Indians were severely punished for their forays into Kentucky. Colonel Whitley and Major Orr marched with seven hundred men, with great secrecy and dispatch. They attacked the Indians suddenly, defeated them with much slaughter, burned their town, and destroyed their crops. Although a private in Captain James Davidson's com- pany of Colonel Richard M. Johnson's regiment, he was designated by Colonel Johnson to command "The Forlorn Hope," the members of which exhibited as noble a courage, as splendid a sacrifice, and as magnificent a patriotism as ever marked human conduct. The night before the battle of the Thames he imparted to General Desha and to his bosom friend, John Preston, his presentiment that on the morrow he would die. Two hours before his death he killed three Indians across the river Thames and swam his horse to obtain their scalps, which were returned to Kentucky in his grip-sack after his death. It was claimed by some of his friends that he fired the shot which killed Tecumseh; the weight of histori- cal evidence is against this fact. When John Preston, The Battle of the Thames 145 his friend, brought back his riderless horse to the widowed wife, she threw her arms in great despair around the animal's neck, and with weeping bewailed her desolate fate. At the time of the battle of the Thames, Whitley was sixty-three years of age — exactly that of Governor Shelby. Whitley might have had any command he desired in the army, but he had volunteered, on May 20, 1813, for six months' service, and with many of his neighbors and friends entered as a private in Captain James Davidson's company, Whitley often exercised a poetic talent, and some of his doggerel has been preserved. On his powderhorn was inscribed these lines : William Whitley, I am your horn, The truth I love, a lie I scorn; Fill me with the best of powder, rie make your rifle crack the louder. See how the dread, terrifick ball Makes Indians bleed and Toreys fall; You with powder I'le supply For to defend your liberty. He might well have claimed exemption from military service after all he had done for the wresting of Ken- tucky from the savage, but his brave, valiant spirit carried 146 The Battle of the Thames him into the war, and, after fighting in twoscore battles, he gave up his life for his country on foreign soil and sleeps in an unknown and unmarked grave hundreds of miles from the home he had made such sacrifices and endured such privations to win from the red man. James Johnson. James Johnson, the elder brother of Colonel Richard M. Johnson, was born in Orange County, Virginia, on January i, 1774, and died at Washington, District of Columbia, August 13, 1826, being then a member of the House of Representatives. He was a member of the Kentucky Senate from 1803 to 181 1 — his father being at the same time a member of the house — presidential elector in 182 1, and elected to Congress in 1824. He was among the first as well as the bravest of the sons of Kentucky who responded to the nation's call for volunteers for the War of 181 2. He raised a company of mounted militia, and without waiting for the regular enlistment and for the organization of the battalion, hastened away to answer the call of General Harrison, who then, in order to relieve Fort Wayne, needed the assistance of every patriot. It was he who trained the celebrated regiment of his brother. Colonel Richard M. Johnson, and taught its riders Colonel JAMES JOHNSON. The Battle of the Thames 147 to charge the lines of the enemy with their terrible cavalry, break through his lines, form in the rear, and deal unex- pected death from that quarter. It was this maneuver that gained the battle of the Thames. He was a man of great dignity and suavity of manner, and dispensed, at his home in Scott County, true Ken- tucky hospitality. He rests in the Johnson family ceme- tery at Great Crossings, on the road between Georgetown and Frankfort. Colonel John Calloway. John Calloway was born August 24, 1775. His grand- father, Richard Calloway, was the friend and companion of Boone, and came with him to Boonesborough in 1775. He was killed near the fort, in 1778, while sitting on a stump in a clearing he had made. Betsy and Frances Calloway, captured by the Indians at Boonesborough in 1776, and rescued by Boone and others, were daughters of Richard Calloway, the grandfather of John. When eight years of age John Calloway was captured by the Indians and carried to Chillicothe, Ohio. After three years' life with the Indians he was ransomed by a trader and returned to his family. He never held any civil position, but volunteered early in the War of 181 2, and served his country as a soldier. 148 The Battle of the Thames He settled in Henry County, Kentucky, where he erected, on a large body of bluegrass land he owned, a family residence that was in advance of its times. Here he died July 25, 1825. On the 29th of August, 181 2, he was appointed major in Colonel John Thomas's regiment, Kentucky mounted militia. This regiment was composed of men recruited in Henry, Shelby, and adjoining counties, and served in the Ohio campaigns. The command was enlisted for sixty days. When Governor Shelby issued his call for volun- teers he raised a company in Henry County and marched it to Urbana, Ohio, where the regiments were formed, and where he was made colonel of the eighth regiment. Colonel Calloway was a man of most imposing appear- ance, six feet three inches in height. He died very suddenly, and is buried on his home place near Smith- field, Kentucky, where a plain headstone records the dates of his birth and death. Philip Barbour. Philip Barbour commanded the second Kentucky regi- ment. This regiment of Kentucky militia was enlisted from September i, 1812, to December 4, 181 2. He was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, on June 27, 1770. In early life he moved to Jefferson County, Kentucky, and The Battle of the Thames 149 engaged in mercantile pursuits at Middletovvn. He had for one of his clerks Zachary Taylor, afterward so distin- guished in the war with Mexico, and later President of the United States. At the time of the settlement of Jefferson County Middletown was considered a more prosperous and prominent center than Louisville. He became a large landholder in Jefferson County, and married, first, Lucy, daughter of Commodore Richard Taylor, and sister of President Zachary Taylor. Com- modore Taylor was a distinguished officer in the American navy, and resided at Louisville for many years previous to his death. After the death of his wife, in 1806, Colonel Barbour removed to Henderson, Kentucky, where he married Eliza- beth Branch, daughter of General Samuel Hopkins, a distinguished Revolutionary soldier, for whom Hopkins County was named. General Hopkins had fought in the battles of Princeton, Trenton, Monmouth, and German- town. He had come to Kentucky in 1797, and settled on Green River. He commanded two expeditions, in October and November, 181 2, which, however, produced no satis- factory results. Colonel Barbour promptly responded to Governor Shelby's call and recruited a company in Hen- derson County, of which he became captain. At Urbana he was made colonel of the regiment. i^o The Battle of the Thames While engaged in a business trip to Corydon, Indiana, Colonel Barbour died there on October 6, 1818, and is buried at that place. His eldest child was Major Philip Norbourne Barbour, who graduated at West Point in 1834. He was killed at the head of his company while storming the breastworks at Monterey, September 19, 1846. He is buried in the State lot at Frankfort, and his name is on the monument erected by the Commonwealth to her distinguished sons. Colonel Henry Renick. In the very earliest years of the last century, Henry Renick came to Barren County from Maryland, and acquired a large landed estate near Hiseville. He was active in the militia, and early in the War of 181 2 raised a battalion of mounted men, which served in Illinois. The battalion was sworn into service Sep- tember 18, 18 1 2, to remain until November 4th of that year. His command consisted of three companies recruited in Barren and adjoining counties. When Governor Shelby made his appeal to Ken- tuckians to avenge the massacre of Raisin and Fort Meigs, Major Renick was quick to respond, and at Urbana, on the organization of Governor Shelby's army, he was made colonel of the fifth regiment, composed of The Battle of the Thames 151 Wickliffe's company from Nelson, Hornbeck's of Bullitt, Moss's of Green, Kinson's of Adair, and Robertson's of Waslifngton. Captain William R. McGary's company was subsequently added to the regiment, when the army had reached Portage. About 1820, Colonel Renick removed to Missouri. The records in Barren County show numerous transfers of land after his leaving Barren, but do not indicate in what part of Missouri he resided. He and Colonel Taul are the only colonels in the battle who sleep in death outside of Kentucky. The material in the regiment of Colonel Renick was of the best class of men from Nelson, Green, and Bullitt, and were among the best fighting men who went into the campaign. He was thrice elected to the legislature from Barren, in 1806-15-18. Colonel William Williams. Colonel William Williams, who commanded the eleventh regiment, was born in Virginia on the 20th of March, 1788, and died in Madison County, Kentucky, in 1834. He lived on a farm about eight miles southwest of Richmond, on the line of the Kentucky Central, near Red House. He married Charlotte Reed, a woman of 1^2 The Battle of the Thames great refinement and culture. Alexander Campbell, in his notes on Kentucky travel, says that Mrs. Williams was one of the most refined and cultured women he ever met. He was cashier of the first bank founded at Rich- mond, Kentucky. His funeral, which occurred in 1834, was one of the largest ever known in Madison County. He was a man of splendid judgment and fine informa- tion, taking great interest in military matters, and it was to this he was indebted for his promotion from private to colonel. He volunteered as a private. He was first made major of the eleventh regiment, but subsequently, from some cause or other Colonel George R. C. Floyd failing to serve. Major Williams was appointed colonel of the regiment. He was buried on the old family place near Red House, and his grave is unmarked. John Donaldson. (Originally Spelled Danneldson.) John Donaldson was born in Berkeley County, Virginia, in 1769. His father moved to Kentucky and settled in Clark County, near Strode's Station. The fort being besieged by the Indians, Colonel Donaldson's father, in passing by a port-hole while inside of the fort, was killed by a shot fired by an Indian through the hole. The Battle of the Thames 153 His mother subsequently married Colonel John Flem- ing, for whom Fleming County and Flemingsburg, its county seat, were named, and who in 1790 established Fleming's Station. Colonel Fleming engaged in the pursuit of the Indians who had attacked Strode's Station, and at Battle Run, near the Upper Blue Licks, in Fleming County, in an engagement with the Indians was badly wounded, but escaped almost miraculously. An Indian approached Colonel Fleming, supposing him to be badly wounded, and fired, but when he had reached a distance of some six or eight feet from him, Colonel Fleming shot him dead and the Indian lay on the opposite side of the log from which Colonel Fleming was lying. His mare, which was a favorite, came running up, and in response to her master's whistle she came to his side. Colonel Fleming was barely able to throw himself over her back like a bag, and was carried by the faithful animal out of the fight. Colonel Fleming died in 1794. Colonel Donaldson represented Clark County in the legislature in 1803 and 181 7. He lived on the road between Paris and Winches- ter, about six miles from Winchester, owned a large farm there, and died in 1829. He was a general in the Kentucky militia. 154 "^^^^ Battle of tlie Thames Some fifteen years since his remains were removed to Flemingsburg and buried in the cemetery there. A head- stone has been erected, on which is the following inscrip- tion : Sacred to the memory of General John Donaldson, who was born in Berkley, Virginia, January gth, A. D., 1769, and departed this life August 24th, A. D., 1829, aged sixty years, seven months and fifteen days. He was loved and respected, and died la- mented. Clark County, where he was residing during the War of 1812, made a most magnificent record. The county sent twelve companies into that war. More than nine hundred men, at various times, volunteered from the county for service in that conflict. Colonel Donaldson was a man of fine presence, great intelligence, and always exhibited the very highest patriotism. Colonel William Montjoy. Colonel William Montjoy, who commanded the fourth regiment, was born in Stafford County, Virginia, April 29, 1774. He represented Pendleton County in the Kentucky Senate in 1820-22-23, and was a member of the house of representatives in 1809. He died in Williamstown, Grant County, Kentucky, February 17, 1823. The Battle of the Thames 155 He settled in Pendleton County in 1795. He raised a company in Pendleton County upon the call of Governor Shelby, July 31, 1813. In April, 1820, he was appointed by Governor Adair surveyor for Grant County, to which place he moved about 181 7. His will, probated in 1823, is remarkable from the fact that he gave all his slaves their freedom within periods prescribed by that instrument. He was one of the first settlers in Williamstown, and occupied one of the three houses in Williamstown in 1820, and kept a tavern at that place. He purchased a farm a short distance from Williamstown, on which place he resided at the time of his death. He is supposed to be buried in the old cemetery on the Covington and Lexing- ton Pike, about two miles north of Williamstown. His grave, so far as can be known, is unmarked. That he was patriotic is attested by the fact that he was among the first soldiers in Kentucky who volunteered in the War of 18 12. In the early part of the war he served as a private, and was severely frostbitten in the Fort Wayne campaign. He was brave and patient, and possessed a high degree of courage. 1^6 The Battle of the Thames Colonel Richard Davenport. Of Richard Davenport very meager details are obtain- able. He settled, in the early history of Kentucky, in Mercer County, near Danville, coming from Spottsylvania County, Virginia, and died before the creation of Boyle County, in 1842. He was prominent in the Kentucky militia from 1800 to 18 1 2, and commanded a company in the early part of the War of 18 1 2. He was a man of great dignity of manner and speech, with the high type of chivalry and courage incident to the men of his social status of that period. He kept a tavern near Danville for some years. In those days many of the leading men of the Commonwealth kept houses of entertainment. At the call of Governor Shelby for volunteers, on July 31, 181 3, Colonel Davenport, who lived only six miles from the governor's home, promptly enlisted. His personal acquaintance with Governor Shelby and his previous mili- tary experience suggested him as a valuable leader. His daughter, Eliza, in 1823, married Honorable James Harlan. His grandson. Honorable John M. Harlan, is now Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Judge Harlan was appointed to this position by President Hayes in 1877. The Battle of tJie Thames 157 Colonel Davenport died about September, 1818. His will was dated April 25, 181 7, and probated October 18, 1818. He had some part in the donation of the land on which the First Presbyterian Church of Danville was built. His wife survived him thirty years. He was buried in the grounds attached to the First Presbyterian Church, Danville; but with the going of years the marks of the graves have been obliterated, and only those of Ephraim McDowell and David Rice, whose remains were reinterred there a few years since, are capable of identification. He recruited a company in Mercer County in response to Governor Shelby's call, and the names of its members indicate that the best blood and material of Mercer answered Captain Davenport's patriotic call. At Urbana he was appointed by Governor Shelby colonel of the sixth regiment. This regiment consisted of his own company, from Mercer, Miller's of Lincoln, Faulkner's of Garrard, and Coffee's of Casey — only four companies with four hundred men, but all of the best possible stuff, and ready under all circumstances to meet every call of duty. 158 The Battle of the Thames Colonel James Simrall. Colonel James Simrall, who commanded the ninth regiment, was a resident of Shelby County, and had been a patriotic and active soldier of the War of 18 12. He had the good fortune to command two regiments. The first of these, known as the First Regiment of Light Dragoons, was enlisted on the 27th of August, 181 2, and its time expired on the 31st of October of the same year. George Trotter, who commanded the first regiment at the Thames, was a captain in this First Regiment. Colonel Simrall was born March 18, 1781, in West Chester, Pennsylvania, but removed from there to Culpeper County, Virginia, thence to Shelby County, Kentucky, in 1792, and settled a mile east of Shelbyville, He died September 9, 1823. He was in service for his State and country during almost the entire period of the war. His regiment entered active service about the 17th of September, 181 2, under General Harrison, and contained three hundred men, armed with muskets. On the 1 8th of September he attacked the town of Little Turtle, and executed his orders with such prompt- ness and dispatch that he received the thanks of General Harrison. The Battle of the Thames 159 He was engaged in the battle of Mississiniway. They marched from FrankHnton, now Columbus, on the 25th of November, each man carrying ten days' rations and such forage as was possible. The weather was extraordinarily cold and the ground frozen and covered with snow. The night before the attack on the savages they marched all night. The night after the battle the command was attacked by the Indians. In this battle Captain Trotter, in command of a company of Colonel Simrall's regiment, who was afterward brigadier-general, commanding the First Brigade, exhibited great courage and gallantry, and Colonel Simrall was commended in a general order for the excellent disciphne of his regiment, which was deemed equal to that of any in America. When they returned to Greenville more than half of the command were rendered unfit for duty because of sickness or wounds. A general order was issued com- mending in the highest manner the troops composing the expedition. Colonel Simrall was one of the first to respond to the call of Governor Shelby in 1813, and owing to his experience and gallantry was made colonel of the regiment, composed largely of soldiers from Shelby and Franklin counties. He represented Shelby County in the senate from 1814 to 18 18, and was largely instrumental in passing the i6o The Battle of the Thames necessary legislation for the construction of the Louisville and Portland Canal. He was interested in the lead mines in Galena, 111., and in April, 1823, went to look after his business inter- ests, and died there. The place of his sepulture is unknown and unmarked. In Missouri and Mississippi a large number of his de- scendants are found. Horatio F. Simrall, of Mississippi, long one of the Supreme Court judges of that State; Reverend John G. Simrall, of Walnut Hill, Kentucky, so long a prominent minister of that church; Judge John G. Simrall, of Louisville, and others are his descendants. He was a man of great physical proportions, weighing three hundred and twenty-five pounds, with red hair and a ruddy complexion, and is said to have had the strongest voice in the army. He was a man of military instincts, a strict disciplinarian, and, tradition says, somewhat of a martinet. The sufferings of himself and his men in the Missis- siniway expedition were probably as severe as any ever experienced by any American troops. After the capture of the British soldiers at the battle of the Thames they were placed in his command, and he brought them to Portage, where they were turned over to Colonel George Croghan. Colonel MICAH TAL'L. The Battle of the Thames i6i MiCAH Taul. Lieutenant-Colonel Micah Taul, of Wayne County, com- manded the seventh regiment. He had raised a company which was sworn into service August 23, 18 12, for six months, in Colonel Joshua Barbee's regiment. During the campaign Captain Taul won distinction for courage, tact, and military sagacity. When Governor Shelby called for volunteers in 18 13 Captain Taul was amongst the earliest to respond, and in Wayne County he quickly organized a company of more than eighty men, who unanimously chose him as their captain. Upon reaching Urbana, he was appointed lieutenant- colonel of the seventh regiment, composed of his own company from Wayne, afterward commanded by Captain William Stephens, Captain Wood's and Captain Wilson's companies, from Cumberland, Captain Laughlin's of Knox, and Captain Tate's of Pulaski. Wilson and Laughlin were promoted to majors. Colonel Taul was born in Mont- gomery County, Maryland, May 14, 1785, and when the son was two years old his father moved to Fayette County, Kentucky, and settled on Marble Creek, twelve miles south of Lexington. When only sixteen years of age, in 1801, he was elected, by the magistrates, clerk of the county 1 62 The Battle of the Thames court of Wayne County, and in a few months afterward was elected clerk of the Quarter Sessions Court. He was a candidate for Congress in 1812, and lost by a majority of sixty-two for his opponent, Judge Montgomery. In 18 14 he defeated Montgomery by a majority of 1262. Without educational advantages, he became one of the most eflfective stump-speakers of his day. His courage was unquestioned, and as a lawyer he won much reputation. He moved from Monticello, which he named, to Win- chester, Kentucky, in 181 8, and from there to Winchester, Tennessee, in 1826. In 1846 Colonel Taul moved to Talladega, Alabama, where he practiced law, and died May 27, 1850. His grandsons were prominent in the civil war. Bradford commanded the Thirtieth Alabama Regiment ; another, Silas Parsons Bradford, was a captain, and Tipton Bradford also was in the Confederate service. He is buried at Mardisville, a short distance from Talladega, and a simple shaft marks his resting-place. Of the colonels, only two in death rest out of Kentucky, Colonel Taul in Alabama and Colonel Renick in Missouri. Colonel JOSEPH McOOWELL. The Battle of the Thames 163 Joseph McDowell. Joseph McDowell, adjutant-general of the Kentucky troops, was of Scotch descent, the son of Judge Samuel McDowell, born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, Septem- ber 13, 1768, and moved to Kentucky with his father in 1784. He was a private in Captain Brown's company, in General Scott's expedition in 1791, and with General Wayne at Fallen Timbers in 1794. He was later in both expeditions under General Hopkins. His good sense, great courage, and absolute self-con- trol, coupled with his military experience, caused General Shelby to appoint him adjutant-general. This position was of the greatest importance, in view of the lack of discipline and drill among the troops composing the command, and its importance was increased by the character of the country through which the forces were to march. Colonel McDowell performed the duties of the oflfice in such manner as to receive the highest commendation from both Governor Shelby and General Harrison. Colonel McDowell owned a large tract of land two miles from Danville, on the Lexington Pike. His chil- dren having left him, he moved to Danville in his later 164 The Battle of the Thames years, and resided with his daughter, Mrs. Caleb Wallace. He died there January 27, 1856, in the eighty-seventh year of his age, and is buried in the Danville Cemetery. He left a reputation full of all that a good man could desire, and his name and example still live amongst the people with whom he was associated and by whom best known. Colonel Anthony Crockett. Among the most unique as well as most patriotic of the men who composed this army was Colonel Anthony Crockett, of Franklin County, a native of Virginia, born in Prince Edward County in 1756; in 1790 a member of the Virginia Legislature from Kentucky, and later, in 1 796 and 1799, a member of the Kentucky House of Represent- atives from Franklin County. He had already rendered valiant service in the War of 181 2. He was, at the time of the organization of Governor Shelby's forces, fifty-seven years of age and exempt from all military duty, but between Colonel Crockett and Governor Shelby there existed a very warm friendship, and Colonel Crockett was amongst the first to volunteer to go and share whatever the campaign should bring to the hero of King's Mountain. Colonel Crockett had been sent a short time previously by Governor Shelby to Fort Meigs to impress upon the militia there the necessity and importance of remaining The Battle of the Thames 165 in the field at least sixty days beyond their period of enhstment. It was thought that the sight of an old Revo- lutionary soldier and his fervid, patriotic words would induce the Kentuckians, then under General Harrison, to prolong their service, but neither Governor Shelby's written nor Colonel Crockett's spoken words could avail against the discontent which had been aroused by the unjust treat- ment which they had suffered at the hands of the war department. Colonel Crockett had served actively during the entire Revolutionary War. He enlisted in February, 1776, in the Seventh Virginia, and only left the army when peace had been declared. He was at White Plains, Brandy- wine, Monmouth, Saratoga, Germantown, Princeton, and Trenton, and in 1729 joined General George Rogers Clark at Vincennes, Indiana. He was with Logan in his pursuit at Blue Licks, and was a lieutenant in the Crockett or Illinois Regiment, commanded by his uncle. Colonel Joseph Crockett, and which played such a conspicuous part in the conquest and defense of the Northwest. At the battle of Brandywine, when LaFayette was severely wounded, he was taken by Colonel Crockett in his arms and borne to a place of safety. General LaFayette, when visiting Kentucky in 1825, recognized Colonel Joseph Crockett and Colonel Anthony Crockett when approach- 1 66 The Battle of the Thames » ing him, and calling them by name, gave expression to his love for them, and putting his arms about each, tenderly kissed them. In the Indian War from 1782 to 1794 he was a gallant and courageous soldier. For thirty years he was the sergeant-at-arms of the Kentucky Senate, and died in 1838, and is buried in the Benson Churchyard in Franklin County. He was a man of superb physique, six feet three inches in height, gentle by nature, but fearless and valiant in battle, and as he rode as brigade-major by the side of General John Edward King, commander of the Third Brigade, his presence was a noble object-lesson and his unselfish patriotism an inspiration to his comrades. Colonel Young Ewing. One of the most unique characters at the battle of the Thames was Colonel Young Ewing. He had raised a regiment on the early call for troops in the War of 181 2, which was mustered in on October 2, 18 12. In 1792 he was appointed one of three magistrates for Logan County, which was organized that year, and he represented the county in the legislature in 1795. He was said to have been a native of Virginia ; a man of strong intellect and great courage, but sometimes careless The Battle of the TJiames le-j in the use of the EngHsh language, especially when he was stumping. After Christian County was organized in 1796, being taken from Logan County, Colonel Ewing represented that county in the senate from 1808 to 181 2, 1S12 to 1816; 1819 to 1823; 1823 to 1826, and in the house of representatives in 1800, 1801, 1802, 1806. He was one of the great politicians in that county, and was known as a "backwoods politician," a hunter, surveyor, and statesman. He was the first clerk of the Christian Circuit Court, and was in public office for more than a quarter of a century. He had commanded a regiment of mounted men through Indiana and Illinois in the early part of the War of 181 2, and his military record was of great advantage to him before the people. He was also cashier of the first bank established in Hopkinsville, and a member of the Constitutional Con- vention held in Frankfort, August 17, 1799, which formed the second Constitution, and was presidential elector in 1824. He was defeated for the State senate in 1832, and afterward moved to Tennessee. A story has been told that when a candidate, par- ticularly if the campaign waxed hot and the election appeared doubtful, he would appear resting on a cane, 1 68 The Battle of the Thames with one arm in a sling, telling in the most earnest way of the hardships of a soldier's life, but immediately after the election his infirmities speedily disappeared. He raised a company under Governor Shelby's call of July 31, 1813, and was appointed a brigade-major of the Fifth Brigade, commanded by General Samuel Caldwell. General Caldwell himself came from Christian County. Major James Suggett. Major James Suggett, one of the most courageous men who fought in the War of 18 12, was born in Orange County, Virginia, May 2, 1775. When five years of age his parents moved to Kentucky and settled near the Great Crossings, in Scott County. His sister, Jemima Suggett, was the mother of Colonel Richard M. Johnson, having married his father, Robert Johnson, in Orange County, Virginia, in 1770. Wild and reckless in his youth, he was converted at a great Baptist revival in 1800, and soon afterward com- menced preaching with great effect. He was finally ordained in 18 10. After the War of 181 2 he traveled extensively throughout the State, preaching as an evangelist. He died in Missouri, near Palmyra, on the 12th of October, 1854. TJie Battle of the Thames 169 His reputation as a brave and gallant soldier did much to influence and affect the people of his period. He was with Colonel Johnson at the formation of the first regiment, which he commanded in the War of 181 2. The organization of this first regiment, commanded by Colonel Johnson, was completed on the 30th of Septem- ber, 181 2, near Fort Wayne. He had command of a battalion composed of his brother James Johnson's com- pany and Ward's and Ellison's. These companies were raised in response to the appeal that had been made in August of that year. The first two companies raised were those of Captain John Arnold and Captain James Johnson, to which was subsequently added the company commanded by Captain Charles Ward. These companies constituted the battalion. Of this battalion James Suggett was adjutant and was with his distinguished nephew in the campaign for the relief of Fort Wayne, in August and September, 1812. After their return from the campaign a full regiment was organized, to which were added the companies of Captains Roper, Clark, and Bacon. It is said that when General Harrison, in approaching Fort Wayne, called for some one of undaunted courage and unflinching bravery to go through the lines and announce to the garrison of the fort that relief was at hand, Colonel 170 The Battle of the Thames Johnson suggested that he had a Baptist preacher, named Suggett, who had all the necessary qualifications to under- take such a difficult and dangerous task. At the head of twenty mounted men he started out to make this effort. He met with a company of Indians, about twenty in number, charged them, killed their chief and put them to rout, and when General Harrison and the remainder of the army reached Fort Wayne they found the siege had been raised. Upon the organization of the regiment of mounted riflemen, which was completed May 20, 1813, and to secure which Colonel Johnson left his seat in Congress, James Suggett was made third major and commandant of a troop of spies, which consisted of a number of picked men detailed from the regiment to perform special hazardous service. Fighting with magnificent courage, he won the hearts of all his soldiers. His conduct in the battle of the Thames commanded highest praise, and he was one of the number who pursued Proctor for nearly twenty miles after the surren- der of the British troops. After his removal to Missouri, the devotion of the con- gregation at Great Crossings was such that by popular subscription a sufficient sum was raised to buy him a farm in Scott County, to induce his return to Kentucky, Major DkVALL PAVNE. The Battle of the Thames x-ji but as his children had settled around him in Missouri he declined to come. He was with the battalion under the command of Colonel James Johnson which charged the British lines. Major DeVall Payne. Major DeVall Payne was born on the ist of January, 1764, in Fairfax County, Virginia. His father, William Payne, in an altercation in the courthouse at Alexandria, knocked General Washington down. Washington was then a colonel of a British regiment stationed at Alex- andria. Upon reflection, Washington concluded he was wrong and apologized to Mr. Payne. He came to Kentucky in 1789 and settled at Lexing- ton, and served under Governor Charles Scott in his cam- paign against the Indians on the Wabash. He was with Captain McChord, and commanded his company when he was killed and brought him off the battlefield. In a charge in this battle he encountered an Indian chief who was lying behind a log. Payne observed the Indian when his horse leaped the log; he dismounted and grappled with the Indian, desiring to take him prisoner. The Indian was armed, resisted most vigorously, and Payne closed in upon him so that he could not use his weapon, and finally con- quered the Indian and forced him to surrender. He 172 The Battle of the Thames removed, in 1792, to Mason County, where he Hved at the time of his death. It was his battahon, under Colonel James Johnson, that charged through the British regulars in the battle of the Thames, and he was sent with the party who pursued Proctor for fifteen miles after the battle, and forced the British general to abandon his carriage and take refuge in a swamp, leaving his baggage in the hands of his victors. He was twice a member of the Kentucky Electoral College, and a member of the senate from Mason from 1807 to 181 1, and in the house of representatives from Mason in 1801-2-5, 1817, and 1828. He was one of Ken- tucky's most heroic and courageous sons, and one of her most distinguished and patriotic citizens. General Robert B. McAfee. General Robert B. McAfee represented Mercer County in the senate 1821-24, 1841. 1845, and was lieutenant-gov- ernor from 1824 to 1828, and was a member of the house of representatives in 1810-1 1-12-13, 1815. 1819-20, 1830-31-32. He ran for lieutenant-governor in 1824, defeating William B. Blackburn. He was elected with Governor Desha. He was born February, 1784, on Salt River in Mercer County, and graduated at Transylvania University. I Genhhal KOISKKI li. McAllJ The Battle of the Thames 173 He volunteered as a private in a company of riflemen, and was among the first Kentuckians to join the Western army. He was subsequently made second lieutenant. He was quartermaster of Colonel Johnson's first regi- ment. He was commissioned by Governor Shelby to raise a company for Johnson's regiment, and marched with them on the 25th day of May, 181 3. He had the largest com- pany in the regiment, composed of one hundred and fifty- two men, and it did good service at the battle of the Thames. He presided over the senate of Kentucky during the heated discussion and contest which arose from the Old and New Court question. In 1833 he was appointed by Jackson Charge d'Affairs to Colombia, and remained there until 1837. In 1842 he was appointed one of the visitors to West Point and elected president of the board; afterward retired from public life and resided on his farm in Mercer County, near the Old Providence burying-ground. He died in 1850. He was the author of a valuable book entitled "His- tory of the Late War," published at Lexington, Kentucky, in 1 8 16, and left a number of historic manuscripts which are worthy of publication, and should long since have been published. 174 The Battle of the Thames John Payne. John Payne, the son of DeVall Payne, captain of one of the companies, served first in the expedition of Lieu- tenant-Colonel John B. Campbell to the Missime and Wabash rivers as a private in the company of Captain Robert Smith. Having been honorably discharged, he set out at once for Fort Meigs, on the 17th of January, 18 13, for the purpose of tendering his services to General Harrison, so as to aid his country in the war with its enemies. At Franklinton, now Columbus, Ohio, he learned of the disastrous defeat of the troops under General Winchester and the massacre of the Raisin. On reaching Fort Meigs he found the defeat had so disarranged all the plans of the commanding general that it was deemed unwise to prosecute the campaign further until reinforcements should arrive. As these reinforce- ments must come from Kentucky, Ohio, and the western part of Pennsylvania, through a country difficult at all times, being an almost impassable wilderness, and having received from General Harrison authority to organize a company of volunteer light dragoons, he at once retraced his steps and returned to his home in Mason County. On February 26th he issued a call, published in "The Dove," a weekly paper then being printed at Wash- ington, in Mason County, in which he says : The Battle of the Thames 1 75 The service, I am sure, will be active. The opportunity to acquire military renown will be ample. The thanks of your country and the approbation of your own hearts will follow. Why should you hesitate .' I need not speak of the compensa- tion, for that, ample as it is, is no inducement; "the soldier's wealth is honor." I say the compensation is ample — eight dol- lars per month and twelve dollars per month for the hire of your horses. Arms of the best quality are at Lebanon and Franklinton in abundance ; with these you will be supplied. Although I take an active part, it being necessary for some one to do so in raising the troop, yet you shall have the liberty of choosing any commander and your own commissioned officers. I will act with you in any capacity. Any person wishing to volunteer will please direct a letter to me at Augusta, Bracken County; I will then describe to them the uniform agreed upon, which will be plain, cheap, and serv- iceable. I hope to march by the 15th or 20th of April. John Payne. In response to this call ninety-two volunteers met Captain Payne. The commander of the company expected to march on the 15th or 20th of April. On the 14th he received a letter from General Harrison, stating that he had no authority, under the recent regulation issued by the War Office, to call out or receive the services of any troops not specially ordered out by the Secretary of War. Acting upon this notice the company was temporarily disbanded, and on the 13th of May Captain Payne received a letter from Colonel Johnson, asking him to 176 The Battle of the Thames attach his troop to his regiment, which was to rendezvous at Newport on the 2 2d of May. The offer was imme- diately accepted. The troop was notified ; they answered the call with alacrity and assembled in Washington, Mason County, in May, in readiness for the field, and met Colonel Johnson on the 2 2d of May at Newport. John Speed Smith. Colonel John Speed Smith, of Madison County, Ken- tucky, was a son of William and Mary Speed Smith. He was born July 31, 1792, was educated for the law, and became one of the most prominent lawyers in the State of Kentucky. In 1819 he was elected to the legislature of Kentucky, re-elected to the same body in 1827, 1830, 1839, 1841, 1845. In 1827 he was speaker of the house, and in 1846 and 1850 he was a member of the senate. In 182 1 he was elected to Congress. Under President Adams he was sent on a mission to South America, and was made District Attorney of Kentucky by President Jackson. In the War of 1812 he was aide-de-camp to General Harrison. In 18 15 he married Miss Eliza Lewis Clay, a daughter of General Green Clay and a sister of General Cassius M. Clay. He died in 1854, leaving in charge of his countrymen the name of a distinguished lawyer, a wise statesman, and an exemplary citizen. He The Battle of the Thames 177 was connected by blood and by marriage with the Clays, the Frys, the Speeds, and other prominent families in Kentucky and elsewhere, and lived a long and honored life as the peer of any and all. He occupied a position at the head of the Kentucky bar, and his opinion as a lawyer and his views as a statesman were deemed worthy of being obtained by prominent men on many important occasions. He lived the life of a well-bred gentleman of the olden times, whose hospitable home and table were enjoyed by admirers from near and far. Richard P. Butler. Colonel Richard P. Butler was born in Jessamine County, Kentucky, in 1792. He was the son of General Percival Butler, a Revolutionary soldier, who removed from Pennsylvania to Kentucky in 1784, and settled at the mouth of Hickman's Creek. He married a Miss Hawkins, who was a sister of the wife of Colonel John Todd, who lost his life in the disastrous battle of the Blue Licks. The elder Butlers were all distinguished in the Revolutionary War. The father and five sons were all at the same time fighting the battles of the colonists for independence, and the mother was at home doing all she could to raise means with which to sustain them in the army. It was to this family that Washington, at his 178 The Battle of the Thames own table, in the presence of distinguished guests, is said to have offered a toast "The Butlers and their five sons." And it is of this family that LaFayette is reported to have said that when he wanted anything well done, in the military line, he ordered a Butler to do it. He studied law, but never practiced, preferring an agricultural life upon his farm in Carroll County, which was a model farm and cultivated with an intelligence in advance of his neighbors. His sowing and reaping were all of a scientific character and seldom failed of the best results. He was a delegate to the celebrated Democratic Convention which met in Baltimore in June, i860, to nominate a candidate for the presidency. This conven- vention failed to agree upon a candidate, as its predecessor had done in Charleston. A large number of delegates withdrew, and others refused to vote. Among those who refused to vote was Colonel Butler. The delegates left in the convention nominated Douglas, and those who withdrew nominated Breckinridge; thus two Democratic candidates were put in the field, and the race made easy for the Republican candidate, who won in the person of Lincoln. Mr. Butler lived to a ripe old age on his farm in Carroll County, almost a nonogenarian, and died regretted by all who knew him. The Battle of the Thames 179 Bemjamin S. Chambers. Major Benjamin S. Chambers was the youngest son of Thomas Chambers, an eminent citizen of Virginia. He emigrated to Kentucky about the close of the eighteenth century and settled at Georgetown, where he became a distinguished lawyer. When the War of 181 2 broke out he was a member of the Kentucky Legislature from the county of Scott. He promptly enlisted in Johnson's regiment of mounted infantry and was appointed quartermaster, with the rank of major, May 20, 1813. He was one of the twenty who formed the "Forlorn Hope" in the battle of the Thames and one of the six who came out alive from the terrible charge made upon the Indians. In 1814 he married Miss Violetta Bradford, a daughter of Fielding Bradford, one of the founders of the "Kentucky Gazette," which was the first newspaper published in Kentucky and the first on this side of the Alleghanys except the "Pitts- burg Gazette, " which antedated it only a short time. In 1833 he removed to Little Rock, Arkansas, and formed a law partnership with Chester M. Ashley, of New England birth. Here he purchased, in connection with Governor Henry M. Rector, a large body of land adjoining Little Rock. On this land he began to build a handsome resi- dence, but was attacked by fever and died before the i8o The Battle of the Thames building was finished. After his death his law partner, Ashley, discovered a defect in the title of the land he had purchased, and instead of removing that defect for the benefit of the widow and the children of Major Chambers he perfected the title for himself. This act of Ashley led to a law-suit of long duration and much bitterness. The Chambers heirs, in conjunction with Governor Rector, sued Ashley for the land and gained the suit in the courts of Arkansas, but Ashley took an appeal to the United States Court, and finally won the suit after litigation extending through nearly thirty years and making the Ashleys rich and the Chambers poor. Major Chambers, at his death, left a widow and six daughters. One of these daughters, Mrs. Annie Chambers Ketchum, who still lives an honored octogenarian, became famous as a poetess, botanist, elocutionist, and educator. Many of her poems have been much admired, and one of them entitled "Benny" acquired, as it deserved, a national reputation. Tecumseh. The greatest and ablest man on the opposing side was an Indian, who was then in the full prime of life. He was born on the banks of the Mad River, in what is known now as Clark County, near Piqua, Ohio, a name so given it because of the wild and resistless torrents TECUMSEH. The Battle of the Thames i8i which rushed through its banks when fed by storms. Born in 1768, he had come from one of the most distin- guished Indian famiUes of which history has ever spoken, or will ever speak. He was descended from the Shaw- nees, the most enterprising, brave, and restless of all the Indian tribes. Tradition had it that his grandmother was a white woman, the daughter of the governor of one of the colonies. His mother was named Methoataske, which means "Turtle laying eggs in the sand." His father, Puckeshinwau, while not a chief, by his courage and ability had risen to that rank, and was killed in the battle of Point Pleasant when Tecumseh was only six years of age. From his older brother, who became his counselor and his guide, Tecumseh had often heard the story of the details of that tremendous conflict, the most destructive and hard-fought of all the battles between the white and the red men in the West. He had listened to the story told by the great Cornstalk of that battle, and his brother Cheeseekau had repeated to him, again and again, the details of the glorious death of his father on that bloody field, and had inspired his youthful heart with hate of the white man as he detailed how his gallant sire had fallen a victim to the bullet of the Long Knife. From the time that Tecumseh was fifteen until he was twenty-two, more than fifteen hundred white men, women. 1 82 The Battle of the Thames and children had been slain or taken captive by the Indians on the waters of the Ohio, and in these raids the Indian had not gone unpunished ; he too had suffered in equal proportion. Clark and Logan, and others, with their avenging horsemen and riflemen, had penetrated their country, and the ashes of burned villages, deserted cornfields, and the effects of destroyed crops had been deeply impressed upon his youthful mind. He had listened to the story of the cruel and unjustifiable death of the great Indian commander after the battle of Point Pleasant, and he well remembered, when a mere lad, how George Rogers Clark and his thousand Kentuckians had dropped down upon Tecumseh's home, and how as a mere child he fled away into the wilderness from these avenging white men; and he had not forgotten how, when sixteen years of age, against Logan's raid, he had for the first time come under fire, and how, by the side of his brave and distin- guished brother, Cheeseekau, he had started into the battle and had taken flight and escaped. With pride he recalled his battle with the white men along the banks of the Ohio, and later on the Mississippi, and every emotion of his soul cried out for vengeance on the white man when he remembered how Cheeseekau died in his assault upon the white man's fort. With delight he ran over in The Battle of t/ie Thames 1 83 his mind the slaughter at Harmer's defeat, and the glorious memories, to him, of the butchery of Saint Clair and his men. He had not forgotten the disaster to the Indians at Fort Recovery, when so many of his brethren were slain in the assault upon the valiant defenders of that position. His courage had not been able to avail at the battle of Fallen Timbers, when the white man's bayonet had settled the fate of the day. There first he had met in battle the man who was to com- mand the forces which would subsequently vanquish and destroy him. After the treaty at Greenville in August, 1795, he had begun to organize a troop or band, of which he called himself chief, and in 1799, when he attended the meeting at Urbana, his speech was so eloquent and beautiful as to command even the admiration of the white men. A younger brother of Tecumseh, formerly known as The Prophet, assumed the name of Elkswatawa, which means "The Open Door." He said the Great Spirit had given him a vision which had told him to drink no more; that Indian women must not marry white men; that Indians must hold all property in common, and that the young must at all times support and cherish the aged. He inveighed against the Indian adopting the dress of the white man; he promised those who followed him com- 184 The Battle of the Thames fort and happiness, and declared that the Great Spirit had given him power to destroy his enemies, to cure diseases, and to prevent death on the battlefield. He had attended the meeting at Chillicothe, and for the first time his eloquence had given the white man a true con- ception of his ability. A great idea had come into the mind of this red man, Tecumseh, and that was a perfect confederacy among the Indians, to be a united front to oppose the ceaseless encroachments of the whites upon Indian territory. To perfect the plans of this great idea, Tecumseh for years traveled ceaselessly among the forests of the West and South, with his eloquence convincing and persuading his red brethren that the only safety against the white man lay in confederacy; that unless the aggressions of the white man were stopped it was only a question of time until the red man should be driven from the face of the earth, and that pride of race as well as patriotism demanded that the red man should meet the white man fearlessly on the border and yield no more territory. The rashness of his brother, The Prophet, had brought on the battle of Tippecanoe, with its disastrous results to the Indians, before Tecumseh had fully matured his plans. Tecumseh had advocated the principle that all the lands in the West belonged to all the Indians, that no The Battle of the Thames 185 tribe had ownership over any particular part, and that in any sale or disposition of the land all the Indians must be consulted, and that any sale made without the consent of all was void. The plans of Tecumseh were worthy of his great mind, and his ceaseless energy and great talents were devoted to these noble purposes. Tecumseh loved his race and hated the white man. He foresaw that in the end the white man would destroy the red man; that the two could not live side by side. In the forest, night and day, he nourished this dream, which would bring prestige and glory to his race and save it from annihilation. When his plans for a confederacy had been destroyed his hate for the white man of the West, who had been the aggressor upon the lands of his people, caused him with alacrity to connect himself with the British in their war against the United States. He became their ablest and most successful ally and leader. Amid the varying fortunes of the English at Detroit / and its vicinity, with his people he oftentime stood the brunt of battle. He was a born fighter; no fear of death ever troubled him. He had been with Proctor at French- town in defeat and at Raisin in victory; he had helped him besiege Fort Meigs, and stood by the English at Fort 1 86 The Battle of the Thames Stephenson; he had seen, with profound distress, Proctor fleeing away from the Detroit River to allow the landing of the American army without opposition; he had reproached the English general for his cowardice, and demanded of him that he should meet his foes in battle; with disgust he had retreated the seventy miles which now intervened between the English border and the Moravian town. Under the taunts, entreaties, and threats of his Indian ally the British soldier at last resolved to give the Ameri- cans battle. Homesick and disappointed, he joined the English in their retreat with the declaration: "We are now going to follow the British, but I feel well assured we shall never return. " He declared that his body would remain on the field of battle, and unbuckling his sword he handed it to one of his chiefs, with the request that when his son became grown and able to wield a sword it should be given to him. He was brave, fearless, able, and at times merciful. That this, the greatest of all the Indians, who died for the people whose cause he had espoused and to whom he yielded such firm and unchanging allegiance, should at last rest in an unknown grave, and that the nation for whom he had done so much, risked so much, and lost so CoLONF.L KlCHAKll M. lOHNSON. The Battle of the Thames 187 much should never have builded a monument to com- memorate his prowess and his faithfulness, is one of the saddest travesties in human history. Colonel Richard M. Johnson and Regiment. Colonel Richard M. Johnson was the third son of Colonel Robert Johnson, of Scott County, and Jemima Suggett, his wife. He was born at Floyd's Station, in Jefferson County, in 1780, and a few months thereafter his father and mother moved to Bryant's Station, in Fayette County. He was an infant at his mother's breast at the siege of Bryant's Station, and it is said that his mother left him in his cradle under the charge of a little sister while she led the women who, with a heroism unsurpassed in human history, on the i6th of August, 1782, sallied forth from Bryant's Station down to the spring, three hundred yards away, and filled their vessels with water while six hundred Indians from the underbrush and trees had their rifles trained upon them. Some estimate may be had of the heroism of his mother when we understand that the cooing of her babe sounded in her ears as she passed through the gate, and she turned to look upon her infant with maternal longing and tenderness. She gazed for a moment upon the playful movements, and listened to the childish prattle of her offspring, as with wondering 1 88 The Battle of the Thames eyes they watched their mother and inquired why she would leave them. He was admitted to the practice of law at nineteen, after having had as his tutor such great lawyers as George Nicholas and James Bryant. In his twentieth year he organized a company and took part in the war which was then imminent between Spain and the United States. Before he was eligible, and while under twenty- one years of age, he was by acclamation elected to a seat in the Kentucky Legislature, and after having served two terms he was elected to Congress in October, 1807, being then just twenty-five years of age. His splendid talent, his courage of conviction, and his patriotism secured for him places on important com- mittees, and at its second session he was appointed Chairman of the Committee on Claims, at that time the most responsible of all the House's appointments. He was a member of Congress at the time of the Declara- tion of War by the United States against Great Britain, and with Joseph Desha, Samuel McKee, Stephen Ormsby, and Anthony New made the vote of Kentucky unanimous for hostilities. Upon the adjournment of Congress he hurried home and raised a battalion of mounted men, consisting of three companies, and pressed forward to the scene of The Battle of the Thames 189 conflict at St. Mary's. On the 3d of September, 181 2, his force was increased by a battahon consisting of the companies of Roper, Bacon, and Clark. These combined companies were formed into a regiment, of which he was elected colonel. After a brief but active campaign Colo- nel Johnson returned home and entered Congress, and during the coming winter he supported the new adminis- tration in all war measures with vigor and ability, which won for him the admiration of his colleagues. In February he was authorized by the Secretary of War to raise arms and have in readiness a regiment of mounted volunteers, to consist of a thousand men. He hastened to Kentucky, and in less than sixty days secured from amongst the most distinguished and patriotic citizens of the State twelve hundred men, and organized them into a regiment, which not only became thoroughly dis- ciplined, but under his leadership one of the most gallant, daring, and historic of American military organizations. The authority to organize this regiment came on the 1 6th of February, 181 3, from General Armstrong, Secre- tary of War, and was limited by letter of instruction as follows: You are hereby authorized to organize, and hold in readiness, a regiment of mounted volunteers; the organization as to the number of officers and men to be conformable to the military 190 Tlie Baffle of fhe Thames authority of the United States. The Governor of Kentucky will be required to commission the officers, when selected, to serve four months after being called into active service, and six months after being required by the United States. The pay of the officers and men to commence from the active service and march of the corps under the direction of the War Department. After marching orders the contractor and commissary agents of the different dis- tricts through which it passes will supply the regiment with forage for the horses, and provisions for the men, if required to do so. The keepers of military stores will also furnish said corps with ammunition, on regular returns of the effective force of the regi- ment. If any difficulty arises as to rank, the commanding general will settle the same after the corps shall have reached its place of destination. With the authority thus obtained, immediately upon the adjournment of Congress Colonel Johnson lost no time in reaching Kentucky for the purpose of recruiting his regiment. The stories of the infamous massacre at Raisin, and the reverses of the troops under Allen, Lewis, and Winchester, who had been so barbarously slain, had caused not only the patriotic impulses of the people of Kentucky to rise to the highest pitch, but the spirit of revenge for such wrong to burn with fiercest glow. Opposition at once arose to Colonel Johnson's project in the State of Kentucky. It was held that the method and plan of raising these troops was unconstitutional and c-<< The Battle of the Thames 191 irregular, but no legal technicalities or quibbles hushed the patriotic and courageous answer to this call. On the 2 2d of March, 1813, the call was published. Colonel Johnson designated men in the different counties contiguous to his own, Scott, to raise companies ; the platoon and other officers to be chosen by the men who enlisted. It required a few weeks only to fill the regiment, which was the largest entering the service of the United States in the western department during the war. The field and staff officers selected by Colonel Johnson and commissioned by the State of Kentucky were James John- son, lieutenant-colonel ; DeVall Payne, first major; David Thompson, second major; James Suggett, chaplain and commander of spies ; Benjamin S. Chambers, quarter- master ; Robert Ewing, surgeon, and Benjamin Branham, forage master. The company commanders were as follows: Jacob Stucker, Scott County. James Davidson, Lincoln County. Robert A. McAfee, Mercer County. Jacob Elliston, Woodford County. Samuel R. Combs, Fayette County. Richard Matson, Bourbon County. James Coleman, Harrison County. John Payne, Bracken County. Benjamin Warfield, Fayette County. 192 The Battle of the Thames Elijah Craig, Scott County. Allen A. Hamilton, William M. Rice, Henry County. Robert Berry, Woodford County. John W. Reading, William Church, Franklin County. The first five companies were to rendezvous at the home of Colonel Johnson, in Scott, and on the 20th of May take up the line of march for Newport, where the regiment was to be armed and equipped. The other five companies, viz.. Captains Coleman, Payne, Warfield, and Craig, were to march to Newport and report on the twenty-second. On the 20th of May a vast concourse assembled at Great Crossings, on Elkhorn Creek, to say farewell and words of encouragement to the soldiers, who represented in so large measure the best blood, the noblest patriotism, and the truest courage of the State of Kentucky. It was on this occasion that Colonel Johnson, speaking gratefully to his neighbors and friends, and to the friends of his men, of the confidence which had been reposed in him, promised that, in the coming campaign, he would not only lead them where dangers were thickest, but that he would do all that could be done to protect them from the hardships and dangers of the march and from any undue exposure in battle. The Battle of the Thames 193 On the following morning they began their march for Newport, and when half way upon their journey they were met by Colonel John T. Johnson, an aide on General Harrison's staff, with a copy of an order from Harrison, dated Franklinton, Ohio (now Columbus), May i6th, expressing his gratitude for the patriotic conduct of the citizens of Ohio and Kentucky in coming to his aid in such large numbers ; that he was now happy to inform them that the pressing danger was past, and that as the enemy had abandoned the siege of Fort Meigs their services would not be required. Colonel James Johnson, who was in command of the battalion, received and conveyed this order to his troops with great regret. Some of the companies, acting under the belief that the order was final, turned backward and marched toward their homes, but finally it was decided to await the coming of Colonel R. M. Johnson, who had been delayed and was in the rear. When he arrived he gave it as his judgment that the order did not discharge his regi- ment, and that he would proceed to Newport, and would not disband his men without a special order from General Harrison; that as his first authority to raise the regiment had come directly from the President and Secretary of War he did not think a mere order of General Harrison, without authority from the War Office, would be sufficient. 194 The Battle of the Thames This interpretation of the order greatly pleased the men. They were full of enthusiasm and joy at being allowed to resume their march, and they rode on in high spirits, following Colonel Johnson, who had preceded them. Immediately upon reaching Newport the members of the regiment were equipped as rapidly as possible. The first battalion was dispatched to North Bend by Lieu- tenant-Colonel Johnson, where they arrived on the 4th of May. There they learned from General Harrison himself, who had arrived on a visit to his family at North Bend, that the regiment had been received into the service of the United States. General Harrison at once communicated to Colonel Johnson his commands, and directed him to take charge of Fort Wayne and the forts on the Auglaise River, establish a system of scouts and forts, make incursions into the Indian territory, where feasible cut off and pursue small parties harassing forts or found passing from the Illinois or Wabash rivers toward Maiden and Detroit, and other depredators; and also not to remain more than three days at any one place. With ten companies of mounted men to cover the territory now comprised within the bounds of Western Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois,, all a wilderness, with no posts except on the eastern line, and no depots for provisions, The Battle of the Thames 195 the task laid out for Colonel Johnson and his Kentuckians was one that would appall the stoutest heart. With the assistance of his brother, James Johnson, who was a magnificent soldier and a superb tactician, this regiment acquired a reputation which gave it national fame. Throughout the summer and fall of 18 13 it was in most active service. It shirked no sacrifice, hesitated at no responsibility, and under the leadership of its dis- tinguished colonel and lieutenant-colonel rendered mag- nificent service to the American cause. At the battle of the Thames Colonel Johnson's bravery was preeminent, his coolness unsurpassed, and his courage peerless — covered with wounds, twenty-five bullets having been shot into him, his clothes, or his horse. Remaining at the front until victory was assured, at the end he was carried from the battle-ground fainting from his exertions and loss of blood, almost helpless. Subsequently carried down the Thames River, he rested for a brief while in Detroit, and from there, subjected to all sorts of inconvenience and pain, in a hastily con- structed boat, he was carried to Upper Sandusky, and there upon a litter between two horses, with his wounds still unhealed, suffered tortures that only a brave spirit could endure. He was brought to his home at George- town. In February, 18 14, unable to walk, he set out for 196 TJie Battle of the Thames Washington and resumed his seat in Congress. On the road and at the national capital he received that enthu- siastic greeting which evinced the gratitude of his fellow- countrymen. Even his political opponents could not raise their voices in anything but praise of his patriotism and valor, but with one accord they applauded the man who, with such sacrifices, had given such services to his country. Congress by joint resolution placed upon record its acknowledgment of his valor, and presented him with a medal in commemoration of his services. In 18 19 he voluntarily retired from Congress, carrying with him the love and respect of the whole nation. Upon his return home he was elected to the legis- lature, which immediately sent him to the United States Senate, where he remained from 18 19 to 1829, which, with his services in the house of representatives from 1807 to 1819, and from 1829 to 1837, gave him one of the longest terms in the national legislature with which Kentucky has ever honored any of her sons. In 1836 he was elected by Congress Vice-President of the United States, where he presided over the sen- ate with the greatest impartiality and fairness for four years, and from which he returned to his farm in Scott County. The Battle of the Thames 197 Twice again, in 1841 and 1842, he was sent by his fellow-countrymen to the legislature, of which he was a member at the time of his death at Frankfort in 1850. Distinguished honors were accorded him in his burial. The State claimed as its own the ashes of this heroic statesman and patriotic citizen, and in its lot at Frankfort on the beautiful hill overlooking the splendid scenery which surrounds the Capital City, a grateful Common- wealth has erected a monument on which is the following inscription: RICHARD MENTOR JOHNSON. BORN AT Bryant's Station in Kentucky ON THE 17TH DAY OF October, 17S1, DIED IN Frankfort, Kentucky, ON THE 19TH DAY OF November, 1850. (On the opposite side.) To THE Memory of Colonel Richard M. Johnson. A faithful public servant for nearly half a century, as a member of the Kentucky Legislature, and Representative and Senator in Congress; Author of the sundry mail report and of the laws abohshing imprisonment for debt in Kentucky and in the United States; Distinguished by his valor as colonel of a Kentucky Regiment at the Thames; for four years Vice-President of the United States — Kentucky, his native State, to mark the scene of his eminent services in the cabinet and in the field, has erected this monument in the resting-place of her illustrious dead. i i APPENDIX I OLIVER HAZARD PERRY AND THE KENTUCKIANS WHO HELPED TO WIN THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE, SEPTEMBER lo, 1813 Oliver Hazard Perry, who was so largely instrumental in producing the conditions which immediately preceded the battle of the Thames, is one of the most unique characters in American history. He was born in South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 1785; died in Port of Spain, Island of Trinidad, August 23, 18 19. Although only thirty-four years of age at the time of his death, he had won glorious immortality. His father before him was a naval officer. His mother was a bril- liant and accomplished woman, the granddaughter of an officer in the Scotch army and who had signed the Solemn League and Covenant in Scotland. The father, Christopher Raymond Perry, was the mate on the ship on which the mother sailed to America to visit Doctor Benjamin Rush, and this acquaintance led to their engagement. They were shortly afterward mar- ried. Oliver Hazard Perry was made a lieutenant in the American navy on the 15th of January, 1807. While in command of the schooner "Revenge," cruising off the south coasts of the United States, he lost his ship, but was acquitted of all blame by a court of inquiry. 202 Appendix When the war opened with England he was probably the best ordnance officer in the American navy. He was painstaking, energetic, and brave, and had the capacity for mastering the details of everything he under- took. Disappointed in securing the command of a ship, he tendered his services to Commodore Chauncey, and he was sent at once to Lake Erie. Traveling in sleighs, he reached Erie on the 27th of March, 18 13, and at once began the construction of the ' ' Lawrence " and the " Niagara," and the other vessels then being fitted out for service on the lake. Surrounded by great difficul- ties, he pushed his work with such tremendous energy . that he was able to move out from Put-In-Bay on September 10, 1813, with nine small vessels manned by about five hundred landsmen and sailors, many of whom had never seen salt water, but by practice and constant drilling, within five months Perry had transformed some of these men into fairly good artillerists. He was to meet an experienced and brave commander on the English side — Robert Heriot Barclay. The English ships were better armed and better manned than the American vessels. After a contest at close range, and exhibiting great skill and courage, Perry forced the English fieet to run up the white flag, and after four hours of tremendous Appendix 203 conflict the British flag was hauled down, and for the first time in her naval history Great Britian lost an entire squadron, and that was surrendered to a young man just twenty-seven years of age. The loss on the British side, proportionately, largely exceeded that on the American. The Kentucky riflemen in the masts of Perry's vessels shot down every man that was visible, and the battle being at close range, the guns on the American ships being adapted to that service, the deaths among the officers and men on the British ships were nearly twice as great as that of those under Perry. From the deck of one of his ships, the "Lawrence," Perry sent the celebrated dispatch to General W. H. Harrison, then at Portage, which included the famous fine, "We have met the enemy and they are ours." While in command of the "John Adams," another United States vessel in the West Indies, he was attacked by yellow fever, and died on the 23d of August, the anniversary of his birth. Rhode Island and Ohio both honored him with monu- ments, and the State of Ohio has placed in the Capitol at Washington a picture of the battle of Lake Erie and of Perry leaving the "Lawrence" for the "Niagara." Leaving the ships, he cheerfully went with Harrison and Shelby in their pursuit of Proctor, and as an aide rendered valuable service in the battle of the Thames. 204 Appendix KENTUCKIANS ON COMMODORE PERRY'S SHIPS. Kentucky riflemen played a most important part in Commodore Perry's triumph. History has never given them the credit they deserve. It is certain that a large part of them were volunteers, whose time had expired before the great naval conflict. Six of them were living as late as 1868, and the names of these survivors are alone preserved. Assuming that they were eighteen years of age at the time of enlistment, they were all over seventy-three when Ken- tucky did them tardy justice. On February 11, i860, the following resolution was passed by the legislature of Kentucky : RESOLUTION No. 19. Resolution Authorizing the Governor to Procure and Pre- sent THE Surviving Officers and Soldiers of the Kentucky Volunteers in the Battle on Lake Erie with a Gold Medal. Resolved by the Genoa I Assembly of ike Co»niionu'ealtli of Ken- tucky : That the Governor of this Commonwealth be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to procure suitable gold medals, with appropriate inscriptions and devices, and in the name of the State of Kentucky to present to each of the surviving officers and soldiers of the Kentucky volunteers who were present and partici- Appendix 205 pated in the memorable engagement between the American and British naval forces on Lake Erie on the loth of September, 1813, as a token of the grateful recollection in which the people of the State hold their brave and patriotic services on that day, and the imperishable renown which that brilliant victory achieved for their common country. Approved February ii, i860. Nothing was done under this resolution except that the medals were procured, but the auditor of the State refused to issue a warrant for the money required to pay the cost of their manufacture, on the ground that the journals of the house and senate did not show that the resolution was passed in the manner required by the Constitution. January 24, 1867, another resolution was passed, appropriating four hundred and forty dollars to pay the cost of these medals. The names then mentioned were James Artus, of Mason County ; Doctor William T. Taliaferro, of Cincin- nati, Ohio, but late of Kentucky ; John Tucker, late of Mason County, and John Norris, of Boone County. These were the four known in i860, and in 1867 the name of Ezra Younglove was added to this illustrious list, and in 1868 the name of Samuel Hatfield, of Floyd County, was included among those worthy of this delayed but noble remembrance. 2o6 Appendix By an examination of the roster of the soldiers of 1812 it is learned that both Norris and Tucker enlisted on March 14, 1813, in Captain John Walker's company of Colonel William E. Bosvvell's regiment. Their term of enlistment expired on September 4, 1813, six days before the naval battle on Lake Erie. The enlistment of Ezra Younglove is not of record, but on the ist of January, 1814, he re-enlisted in Captain Thomas L. Butler's company of Colonel Thomas Deye Owing's regiment of United States Infantry to serve until April 30, 18 14, showing that he was both patriotic and brave. The three others, Artus, Taliaferro, and Tucker, were all from Captain John Payne's company of Colonel R. M. Johnson's regiment and all three from Mason County, where that company was principally recruited. Artus was fourth sergeant; Taliaferro first corporal, and Tucker a private. If possibly all, certainly five sixths of the survivors of these riflemen in 1867 were from two companies. One of these companies of discharged men being from Boswell's regiment and three of the men from Captain Payne's company in Johnson's regiment, it is fair and reasonable to presume that a very large majority of these brave and heroic volunteers were from these two companies. Appendix 207 The service of these mihtiamen was perilous and diffi- cult in the extreme. The British commodore had secured a number of Indians for a like duty on the English ships, but the moving of the masts and the strange and unusual char- acter of the work caused them to refuse to perform their appointed tasks, and they abandoned their allies. Not so with these Kentuckians. They ascended the masts with alacrity; they sought the service. Unaccus- tomed to the sea, placed high above the decks, sub- jected to an unusual motion for landsmen, with the increased danger of death by falling or drowning, and with largely augmented chances of destruction by cannon- ade and shivered timbers, these gallant soldiers perched themselves in the heights of the sails and plied their work of death amid greatest perils with calm and undis- mayed hearts. Captain Edward Porter Thompson, in his "Young People's History of Kentucky," assigns these heroes to Payne's and Stockton's companies. Hatfield and Norris enlisted in the United States Infantry regiment of Colonel Thomas Deye Owings, Joseph C. Betts' company, on January i, 18 14, and Younglove in Thomas L. Butler's company same day, but this was nearly four months after the battle. 2o8 Appendix Under the conditions then surrounding them, few men who fought in the War of 1812 engaged in a more dan- gerous service, exhibited a higher degree of true courage, or manifested a nobler patriotism than these Kentucky riflemen who fought from Commodore Perry's masts, and who by their accurate aim inflicted a tremendous loss upon their enemies. And it is especially to be noted that at the time of their performing this patriotic duty more than one half of them had been discharged by the expira- tion of their time of enlistment. The names of these men are justly entitled to a place among Kentucky's noblest heroes, and they ought to be carved on the monument which the Commonwealth has erected in its capital city to perpetuate the memory of her most illustrious sons. The following are the resolutions previously alluded to under which these deserving heroes received their medals of honor: Appendix 209 RESOLUTION No. 31. Resolution Authorizing the Governor to Procure and Present to Samuel Hatfield, of Floyd County, a Survivor of the Kentucky Volunteers in THE Battle of Lake Erie, a Gold Medal. Whereas, under a resolution of the Kentucky Legislature, approved February 17th, i860, one gold medal was awarded to each of the following-named persons: One to James Artus, of Mason County, Kentucky; one to Dr. William T. Taliaferro, of Cincinnati, Ohio, but late of Kentucky; one to John Tucker, late of Mason County, Kentucky, and one to John Norris, of Boone County, Iventucky; and whereas, under a resolution approved March gth, 1867, a similar gold medal was awarded to Ezra Younglove, all of whom were survivors of the Battle of Lake Erie; and whereas, Samuel Hatfield, of the county of Floyd, was present and assisted in achieving the glorious victory of the loth of September, 1813; therefore, be it Resolved by the General Assembly of the Cominoincealth of Kentucky: That the Governor be, and he is hereby authorized and directed to procure a suitable gold medal, with appropriate inscriptions and devices, and, in the name of the State of Ken- tucky, to present the same to said Samuel Hatfield as a token of the grateful recollection in which the people of the State hold his brave and patriotic services on that day, and the imperishable renown which that brilliant victory achieved for our country; said medal not to exceed in cost the other medals awarded for similar services; and that the auditor be directed to draw his warrant on the treasury for the amount of the cost of the medal hereby awarded. Approved March^g, 1868. 2IO Appendix RESOLUTION No. 44. Resolution in Relation to the Gold Medals Awarded TO James Artus and Others. Whereas, Under a resolution of the Legislature of Kentucky, approved February 17, i860, the Governor has procured and has now ready for delivery, four gold medals: One for James Artus, of Mason County, Kentucky; one for Dr. William T. Taliaferro, now of Cincinnati, Ohio, but late of Kentucky; one for John Tucker, late of Mason County, Kentucky, and one for John Norris, now of Boone County, Kentucky, survivors of the Kentucky Volunteers who, at the request of Commodore Perry, with such ready alacrity and heroism, repaired on board his fleet and assisted in achieving the glorious victory of loth of September, 1813, over the British fleet on Lake Erie; and whereas, the Auditor of Public Accounts declines to issue his warrant for the cost of said medals, because the journals of the two Houses do not show that said resolution was passed in the manner prescribed by the Constitution: now, therefore, be it Resolved by the General Assembly of the Conimomvealth of Kentucky: That the Auditor of Public Accounts draw his warrant on the treasury for the sum of four hundred and forty dollars, the cost of said medals, in favor of the Governor, and to be paid out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated. Approved January 24, 1867. II ROLL OF FIELD, STAFF, COMPANY OFFICERS AND PRIVATES, KENTUCKY VOLUNTEERS, IN THE WAR OF 1812 Pursuant to the Call of Governor Shelby, July 31, 1813 FIRST REGIMENT (TROTTER'S) George Trotter, Colonel. Richard M. Gang, Major. Thomas Bodley, Major. William Montgomery, Adjutant. Ambrose Dudley, Paymaster. Nathan O. Dedman, Quartermaster. Fielding Bradford, Quartermaster. John Young, Surgeon. Archimedes Smith, S. M. John McDowel, S. M. Chester Pearce, Quartermaster-Sergt. Todd's Company David Todd, Captain. George Y. Rass, Lieutenant. John M. Her.\n, Ensign. Chester PE'.xrce, Sergeant. Fielding Bradford, Sergeant. John R. Dunlap, Sergeant AzELL R. Freeman, Sergeant. Selburn W. Bogge, Corporal. John Bryant, Corporal. Starks W. Cockrill, Corporal. A. B. H.\lstead, Corporal. privates Adrain, James, Allen, Barnabas W., Armstrong, John, Barbee, Lewis, Barker, George, Barr, Thomas T., Bevens, William, Bowman, Benjamin, Bowman, John, Burns, Thomas S., Carr, Walter C, Cassell, Benjamin, Clarke, Charles, Clarke, William, Combs, Edward, Dudley, Ambrose, Dudley, Peter, Ferguson, Robert, Fitzgerald, William, Fulse, Christopher, Hart, John, Henry, Elijah, Holloway, George, Johnston, William, Langsbury, John, Lindsay, A. R., Marrs, Samuel, Martin, Charles, Mannor, Nathan W., McCleland, Benjamin. McConnell, William L., Moore, John T., Morton, Elijah, Naylor, John, Philips, Thomas, Robinson, Isaac, Sanders, Miraid, Shannon, Thomas S., Shields, John, Smith, Samuel C, Stout, Samuel, Tait, John, Taylor, William, Tilton, Robert, Todd, David, Jr., Todd, Robert, Vegus, Cyrus, Waring, Edward, Welch, John, Wilkerson, Joseph 212 Appendix Bower's Company GusTAVus W. Bower, Captain. Bartholomew Kindred, Lieutenant. Smith Bradshaw, Ensign. Joshua Hightower, First Sergeant. Michael R. Bower, Second Sergeant. Peter Withers, Third Sergeant. Robert D. OversTreet, Fourth Sergt. George Chrisman, First Corporal. Reuben Bennett, Second Corporal. William D. Wilson, Third Corporal. Benj.jvmin Bradshaw, Jr., Fourth Corp'l. AUison, John, Bird, John, Bourne, Daniel, Bradshaw, Benjamin, Bustard, David, Campbell, John, Campbell, William, Carroll, John, Cobb, Thomas, Conner, Rice, Conner, William R., Corr, James, Casby, Charles J., Casby, James, Crockett, John W., Crutclier, James, Davenport, John F., Davidson, Richard, Davis, James G., Demoss, Asa, Dickerson, Fountain, Dickerson, James, Daugherty, James, Duncan, James, East, James, privates Fitzgerald, Francis, Fassee, John, Gilman, James, Gray, David, Haggard, John, Hawkins, Thomas, Higby, James H., Higginbotham, Jesse, Hunter, Davidson, Johnson, John G., Lewis, Daniel, McCarty, Dennis, McConnell, Andrew, McCune, John L. P., McDaniel, Thomas, Miles, Benjamin, Miles, James, Moss, William, Mirrain, Wm. W., Pennington, Samuel, Power, Samuel, Reynolds, William, Rice, Thomas N., Richards, Alexander, Robertson, Michael, Christopher's Company Scott, James, Shaw, John, Shearer, Caleb, Shelton, William, Sike, David, Smith, Adam, Smith, Alexander, Stipe, David, Stipe, Henry, Stipe, Jacob, Taylor, Samuel, Taylor, William, Thompson, Alexander, Thornton, Elijah, Trister, Peter, Turner, Robert, Walker, Reuben, Wallace, Thomas, Walters, Thomas, W'ard, George S., Welch, Alexander, Willis, Drury, Wilson, William S., Woods, James, Zimmerman, John. John Christopher, Captain. Solomon Dunnegan, Lieutenant. Thomas W. Sellers, Ensign. Francis W. Cook, First Sergeant. John F. Cook, Second Sergeant. Silas Johnson, Third Sergeant. Willis Long, Fourth Sergeant. Arthur Gregory Young, Fifth Sergt. Merrit Young, First Corporal. William Woolridge, Second Corp'l. James L. Russell, Third Corporal. John Hawkins, Fourth Corporal. Appendix 213 Arnold, Fielding, Ashford, Levi, Ashford, Thomas, Baker, James, Berry, Benjamin, Jr., Bingley, John M., Bowdry, Samuel P., Brittinham, William, Brooking, Samuel, Brown, Joseph, Callimes, Marquis, Carroll, Perry, Coleman, Strother, Conover, William, Cox, James, Dawson, William, Donnald, John, Dunlap, Alexander, Jr., Dunegan, Acre, Easley, Obediah, Elgin, Thomas P., Elkin, McCIanihan, Elkin, Strother, Elliott, Robert, PRIVATES Felix, Isaac, Florence, William, Frasheur, John, Gaines, Richard, Garnett, Reuben, Garrett, John, Gay, William D., Gibbany, James, Gray, Isaac, Holeman, Cornelius, Kirby, John, Lankford, Robert, Lewis, Fielding, Long, James B., Long, Zachary, Maning, Richard, McGehe, Carter, McGuire, John, McQuaddy, Benj., Morris, James, Moseby, Nicholas, O'Brien, Daniel, Parker, John, Paul, James, Poore, Jesse, Railey, Randolph, Jr., Rucker, Lyvand F., Sellers, Joseph, Smith, Allen, Smith, Allen, Smith, George, Smith, James, Smith, John W., Son, Dick, Spaulding, James, Spillman, James, Stephenson, William, Stanford, David, Stone, John, Terrell, Vivian, Tilbery, Lotte, Walker, John, Walker, William, Watkins, Nathaniel W., Watkins, Samuel, Wharton, Sanmcl. Singleton's Company Mason Singleton, Captain. Benjamin, Williams, Lieutenant. Thomas Haydon, Ensign. Joel Turnh.^m, First Sergeant. William Scott, Second Sergeant. Jesse Haydon, Third Sergeant. Ed SallEE, Fourth Sergeant. Burton, Thomas, Corithes, Hugh, Ellison, Thomas, Evans, Andrews, Ficklin, Thomas, Frost, John, Gatewood, Gabriel, Hampton, Stephen, Haydon, Ezekiel, Haydon, John, HoUoway, Samuel, Hughes, Charles, Hunley, John, Lampkin, Daniel, McVey, John, Moore, Joel P., Morrow, John, Moseley, Edward, Neal, John, Proctor, Isaiah, Proctor, Thomas, Reed, Philip, Reynolds, Drake, Rice, Richard, Richardson, Jesse, Roper, Jesse, Scofield, Samuel, Sharewood, Wm., Singleton, Lewis, Smith, James, Smith, William, Starr, Henry, Steel, Jabez T., 214 Appendix Webster.'^Christopher, Wells, Jacob, Williams, Elijah, Williams, Thomas, Willis, Lewis, Wilson, Nathan, Wilson, Alexander, Woods, Christopher, Woods, Richard, Young, Lewis, Fizer, Jacob, Jenkins, Henry. Flournoy's Company Mathews Flournov, Captain. John Wyatt, Lieutenant. Thomas C. Flournov, Ensign. Henry C. Payne, First Sergeant. William Dougherty, Second Sergeant William C. Offutt, Third Sergeant. Jeremi.\h Rogers, Fourth Sergeant. Francis Springer, First Corporal. Peter Leathers, Second Corporal. Samuel L. P.atterson, Third Corporal. Andrew WiljERS, Fourth Corporal. Bruce, Richard W., Burton, William, Canick, Robert, Fisher, William, Flournoy, Natley M., Graves, Asa, Graves, Zachariah, Honip, Hiram, Harp, David, Henderson, Alex. S., Henry, Wilham, Henry, Robert P., Hicks, William, James, Harry, Jeflfries, Robert, privates Johnson, James, Mattison, Henry, McChord, John, McCoy, John, McDowell, John L., Moore, Jeriah, Morgan, John, Muldro, George F., Nutter, Thomas, Owens, John, Parberry, James, Payne, Bailor, Payne, Nathan, Rogers, Joseph, Ropell, Elijah, Runjon, Joseph, Ryon, Edward, Sanderson, William E., Scofield, Henry, Sheley, David, Sheley, John, Shuff, Jacob, Simpson, William, Stapleton, David, Sterrett, John, Stone, William H., Tandy, Edraond, Wilson, Russell, Woods, William, Cuthbert, Margrove. Reding's Company Joseph Reding, Captain. Charles W. Hall, Lieutenant. Christopher Acuff, Ensign. John Winer, First Sergeant. John Lemon, Second Sergeant. Israel Lewis, First Corporal. Jesse L. Cope, Second Corporal. privates Adams, Terrell, Allen, Malcolm, Antle, Jeremiah, Bows, George, Bows, Peter, Cocks, Daniel, Cummings, John, Ewing, William, Fields, Levin, Gaines, Gideon, Hall, Preston, Hall, Thomas G., Hiles, George, Iceminger, Henry, Lemmon, William, Marshall, Robert, Martin, Andrew, McBee, Turner, McConnack, George, McCure, William, Neal, Charles Appendix 215 Neal, Fielding, Neal, Jotin, Nicliolson, Samuel, Peak, John, Ransdale, John, Ransdale, Wharton, Sheppard, Wni. T., Strickler, Emanuel, Todd, Abell D., Triplett, John, Wright, Abner, Megowan's Company Wright, Reuben, McGary, Daniel, Shipp, Dudley, Lemnion, William, Tompkins, Slieppard. S. W. Megowan, Captain. James Megowan, Lieutenant. James McConnell, Ensign. James Nepper, First Sergeant. Hiram WorTham, Second Sergeant. William Liggins, Third Sergeant. Robert McConell, Fourth Sergeant. Enoch Fr.\ncis, First Corporal. Thomas Bronston, Second Corporal. Jacob Wicard, Third Corporal. John Wilson, Fourth Corporal. Baldwin, Jeremiah, Benton, Loyd, Buckley, Samuel, Campbell, Williamson, CHne, Hiram, Dennis, Mathew, Fisher, James, Francis, Jesse, Hillix, James, Howe, Abraham, Lindsey, Robert, Lindsey, William, privates Litterat, Joseph, Lyons, Elijah, Masterson, James, Masterson, Moses, McDonald, Enoch, Minor, Joseph, Mitchell, Benjamin, Mitchell, Robert, Moreland, James, Parker, North, Penn, Nimrod, Prather, Benj. H., Price, Samuel, Rice, Joe, Roberts, Billington, Rumsey, Thomas, Rumsey, William, Shaw, Thomas R., Snider, Peter, Stout, Ira, Tadlock, Andrew, Yates, William. 2l6 Appendix SECOND REGIMENT (DONALDSON'S) John Donaldson, Colonel. William Farrow, First Major. ■ James Mason, Second Major. John R. Porter, Adjutant. Robert TalEFaro, Surgeon. Wiley R. Brassfield, Paymaster. J.\MES Daniel, Quartermaster. William V. Morris, Quartermaster. Levi L. CarTwright, Sergeant-Major. Uriel B. Chambers, Sergeant-Major. Abram McGowan, Forage Master William Pepper, Quartermaster-Sergt. Menifee's Company Richard Menifee, Captain. Daniel P. Moseley, Lieutenant. Harrison Conner, Ensign. Peter G. Glover, First Sergeant. CrEad Glover, Second Sergeant. Joel Parker, Third Sergeant. Jacob Steele, Fourth Sergeant. Jesse Steele, First Corporal. William Smart, Second Corporal. Thomas MoslEy, Third Corporal. Jacob Ragan, Fourth Corporal. Adams, John, Alexander, David, Anderson, John A., Anderson, John, Barkley, Lazarus, Bourn, John, Bourn, Walker, Bracken, James, Bracken, Mathew, Cassady, Peter, Choat, Samuel, Clayton, Charles, Dotson, Thomas, Epperson, Robert, Fannen, Middleton, privates Gill, John, Glover, Chesley, Goodpaster, Noah, Griffin, Gordon, Hackitt, Daniel, Hackley, Samuel, Hows, Frederick, Hornback, Abraham, Jamison, Thomas, Kelsoe, John G., Kincaid, James, Lemons, Benjamin, Lemons, David, Leslie, Joseph, Lonsdale, James, Cunningham's Company Linch, William, McClane, James, Mcllhany, Thomas, Oakley, John, Patrick, William, Parsons, David, Porter, John R., Rogers, William, Roysdon, Jesse, Smart, Glover, South, Benjamin, Spencer, John, Thompson, Joseph, Young, Sennet. Isaac Cunningham, Captain. John Bean, Lieutenant. Henry Smith, Ensign. Edmund Pendleton, First Sergeant. Benjamin Luckett, Second Sergeant. Richard Empson, Third Sergeant. John Cunningham, Fourth Sergeant. John Smith, First Corporal. John Bogas, Second Corporal. Alfred Burns, Third Corporal. Jonas Goff, Fourth Corporal. Appendix 217 Anderson, Henry, Armstrong, Robert, Bean, Eli, Bonifield, James, Boyd, John, Brassfield, James, Brassfield, Wiley R., Brown, Mathew P., Bryan, Lewis, Buckhanon, Stephen, Calmes, George, Chambers, Uriel B., Chisam, James, Clark, James, Clarkson, Julius W., Conchman, John, Cooper, Robert, Crockett, Samuel, Cunningham, Riddle, Davis, John, Dawson, Nathaniel, Donaldson, John, Eades, Drury, Eades, Howell, Estes, James, Estes, Middleton, Forman, David, Foster, John, Graves, James, Hanks, John, Hulitt, Stephen, Jacobs, Harrison, Jones, Edward, Jones, William, Judy, David, Kenney, Joseph, Kiggin, Thomas, King, James, Lackey, John, Mathews' Company Monical, Christopher, Moore, William, Parks, George, Parks, John, Peebles, Jolin, Peticord, Nathaniel, Rash, Benjamin, Rash, Stephen, Rennich, James, Sharrad, Samuel, Stipp, George, Stipp, Jacob, Tanner, Archer, Thomas, Granville P., Waterman, Jonathan, West, Robert, Whitesides, Kphraim, Wilson, John, Wilson, Moses. George M-athews, Captain. John Taylor, Lieutenant. George Taylor, Ensign. William Pepper, First Sergeant. Peter B. Lewis, Second Sergeant. Isaac Evans, Third Sergeant. Reuben Godard, Fourth Sergeant. Samuel Howe, First Corporal. William Armstrong, Corjjoral. Richard T. Godard, Second Corporal. Eli Weaver, Third Corporal. Henry M. Hart, Fourth Corporal. Allen, Benjamin, Anderson, Alexander, Bonham, Amariah, Brandham, William, Brown, Daniel, Browning, Josiah, Burris, William, Camaron, Henry, CoUins, Amos, Daily, Charles, Daily, John, Daily, Samuel, Eaton, Wilham, privates English, Wilham, Sr., Enghsh, William, Jr., Elliott, Edward, Evans, Gabriel, Evans, John, Emmons, Elijah, Farris, James, Foxworthy, Samuel, Foxworthy, William, Glen, Henry, Gooding, Ab., Gooding, David, Gooding, Samuel, Gorman, John, Hood, William, Horton, Benjamin, Howe, Jonathan W., Hush, Henry, Jarnagan, Noah, Jonson, James, Killison, Michael, Kelly, Thomas, Lair, William, Lawrence, Isaac, Sr., Lawrence, Isaac, Jr., Lawrence, John, 2t8 Appe7idix Leforgy, Airs, Padget, John, Surest, Valentine, Leforg\-, Lewis, Pickerel!, William, Surest, William, Logan, William, Sr., Powell, Stephen, Taylor, Jacob, Logan, William, Jr., Reeves, Isaac, Vanskite, Robert, Leraan, Samuel, Rhodes, Samuel, Weir, Haziel, McCoy, James, Roister, John, White, Isaac, McCoy, Samuel, Saunders, Cyrus, White, IHff, McGowan, Abr., Saunders, Henry G., Wills, Andrew, Sr. McDaniel, Joseph, Saunders, John, Wills, Andrew, Jr. Mitchell, Philip, Steele, Jacob, Wills, Samuel, Moore, Benjamin, Steele, Solomon, Young, Alexander Morris, Samuel, Strode, Jeremiah, Yoimg, Thomas. Simpson's Company James Simpson, Captain. Edmund CALtowAv, First Lieutenant. Pleasant Bush, Ensign. Joseph Martin, First Sergeant. Elijah D.wis, Second Sergeant. Robert Don.\ldson, Third Sergeant. John Bvbee, Fourth Sergeant. Daniel Do.vihoe, First Corporal. Absalom Lowe, Second Corporal. Alfred Stephens, Third Corporal. Robert Elkins, Fourth Corporal. Adams, John, Alcorn, Robert, Booth, John, Brooks, William, Bruner, .Stephen, Brundge, Bartlett, Burgis, William, Bush, Hiram, Bybee, William, Chisara, John, Cox, Claiburn, Cimunins, Thomas, Daniel, James, Downey, Alexander, Eaton, George, EUsberry, Benjamin W. Evans, Mayberry, privates Flooty, Rawson, Goorich. William W. Hamilton, James, Hampton, Ezekiel, Hardin, Thompson, Hazelrig, Charles, Hulse, Paul, Irvine, Jack, Jones, John, Johnson, Richard, Lander, Henry, Lander, John, Lane, Joel, Loeknane, John, Martin, John, Martin, Robert B., Martin, Robert E., Martin, Samuel, McCarty, Ezekiel, McMurray, John, Millar, Jacob, Moore, William, Poer, William, Rupard, William, Sideballom, Joseph, Trimble, Peter M., Trimble, Samuel, Walker, James, Welch, William, White, William, Wilcoxan, Aaron, Williamson, Jacob, Wilcoxan, Jesse. Appendix 219 Crawford's Company James Mason, Captain. John Crawford, Lieutenant. Amos Richardson, Ensign. John Davis, First Sergeant. John D. James, Second Sergeant John Dickson. Third Sergeant. William Owings, Fourth Sergeant. George Peeler, First Corporal. Francis McKennell, Second Corporal. Thompson, Clark, Third Corporal. Joseph Ringo, Fourth Corporal. privates Anderson, Nicholas, Alexander, James D., Black, George, Barnett, Roman, Bunch, Davis, Carter, George W., Cox, James, Cutright, John, Farrow, Joseph, Farrow, William, Finley, Joseph W., Frakes, Barnabas, Frakes, Joseph, Guddy, Thomas, Green, Henry, Grimes, Elijah, Grimes, John, Higgins, Richard, Howell, David, Kirk, James, Lanter, Archibald, Linch, David, Marshall, Alexander, Nolan, Henry, Nolan, Williain, Richardson, John, Richardson, Nathan, Stokes, Robert, Stokes, WiUiam, Strange, Berry, Strange, William, Urton, Laban, Watson, Hezekiah, Wells, Andrew, White, Henry, Wren, John, Young, John. BoTTs' Company George W. Botts, Captain. DoRSEv K. Stockton, Lieutenant. Thomas PaTTOn, Ensign. James Dobvns, First .Sergeant. Bazil Calvert, Second Sergeant Hencely Clift, Third Sergeant. William Morris, Fourth Sergeant. William Harper, First Corporal. George Gilkison, Second Corporal. Stephan TaTman, Third Corporal. Thomas Rawlings, Fourth Corporal. Alexander, William, Asbury, Henry, Beeding, George, Berry, Holdsworth, Bridges, Dillon, Burges, Mordecai, Calvert, Mansfield, Calvert, William, Carter, James, Clarke, Thomas, Dobyns, Thomas, Dunbar, Alexander, Duncan, Walter, Farrow, Thomas, Feagin, Henry, Fitch, Henry, Foster, James, Foxworthy, Thomas, Gilkison, Benjamin, Glasscock, John, Goshn, Nathaniel, Gragg, Solomon, Hooke, James, Hysong, Jacob, Jackson, Henry, Jackson, William, Jones, Thomas, Jr., Jurinall, Jacob, Leaper, Andrew, Leaper, James, * Maddin, Jeremiah, Morrison, David, Pearce, Samuel, Prather, Benjamin C. Reed, Stephen, Rhodes, Jacob, Simms, John, Sweet, James, Tatman, Nehemiah, Tatman, Vincent, Thomas, Levi, Trumble, William C, Williams, Mordecai. 220 Appendix John Poage, Colonel. Aaron Stratton, Major. JerEmi.\h Martin, Major. John E. McDowell, Adjutant. Samuel L. Crawford, Quartermaster. THIRD REGIMENT (POAGE'S) John Hockaday, Paymaster. Anderson Don.\phan, Surgeon. Thom.\s Nelson, Surgeon's Mate. Edw.\rd Brooks, Quartermaster-Sergt. \ViLLL\M Triplett, Sergeant-Major. Throckmorton's Company Ariss Throckmorton, Lieutenant. John Standerford, First Sergeant. John West, Second Sergeant. Isaiah Williams, First Corporal. John Clarke, Second Corporal. Ashcraft, Nimrod, Brooking, Vivion, Busby, Mathevv, Colvin, John, Duncan, Pope, Cumbus, Carvil, Dawson, Abraham, Hollady, WiUiam, McGinniss, Neal, Morgan, Thomas, privates Feeback, Gilbert, Fight, John, Grosvenor, John, Harney, Selby, Keith, Wilham, Reed's Company William Reed, Ensign. privates Musgrove, Gabriel, Rice, Abraham, Reed, John, Weaver, John, Wheeler, Lawrence, KivUng, WilUam, McCormack, Valentine, Scott, Merril, Temple, Jesse, WiUiams, Abraham. Wright, John, Grimes, Avery B., Skinner, Wilham, Jones, Isaac, McDonald, John. Jeremiah Martin, Captain. Benjamin Norris, First Lieutenant. Stephen Bayliss, Second Lieutenant Arthur Mitchell, Third Lieutenant. Thom.\s Ad.\mson, Ensign. Thomas Chalfant, First Sergeant. ■William Holton, Second Sergeant. Martin's Company Lewis Bridges, Third Sergeant. WiLLi.AM Duff, Fourth Sergeant. Joh.n Ricketts, First Corporal. HiR.\M W.\tson, Second Corporal. WiLLi.^M CoRwiNE, Third Corporal John Hillman, Fourth Corporal. Jacob B.\gby, Trumpeter. Adams, John, Anderson, James, Ausborne, Alexander, Barbee, Lewis, PRIVATES Biglow, Joseph, Black, WiUiam, Blackburn, James, Botts, Wilham, Boucher, George, Brannin, Joseph, Browning, Edmund, Byland, John, Appendix 221 Callan, William, Cain, Philip, Carter, Levi, Chandler, Walter, Chiles, David, Clark, John W., Colvin, James, Cooper, Conner, Cordery, John, Corwine, George, Courtney, Robert, Cronsby, John, Culberson, William, Curtis, David, Curtis, George, Davis, James, Davison, John, Dailey, William, Doniphan, Anderson, Dovvden, John, Downing, Edmund, Downing, Robert, Driskill, Peter, Duncan, James, Earles, Payton, Earles, Rhody, Elrod, William, Fanning, Michael, Frazee, Ephraim, Gates, William, Jr., Gibbons, Thomas G., GiiTord, Joshua, Ginn, Lawrence, Golder, Abraham, Horle, Baldwin, Heth, James, Hiatt, John, Hiatt, Lewis, Higgins, Richard, Higgins, Samuel, Huskins, Benjamin, Huskins, Jemion, Ivans, David, Ivans, Griffith, January, Peter T,, Jones, Jesse, Kerr, James, Kilgore, Anthony, Kilgore, Robert, Knight, Andrew, Lee, Daniel, Lewis, Thomas P., Little, James, Logan, Joseph, Masters, Samuel, Masterson, David, Masterson, John, McCarthy, John, McGruder, Dory, McKinsey, Malcomb, McKinsey, William, Moffert, John, Moore, George E., Morrison, David, Murphy, John, Norris, Gabriel, Penick, WilUam, Poe, John, Demmitt's Company Poe, Thomas, Pollock, James, Proctor, Uriah, Raines, Henry, Ramsey, Samuel, Rubart, James, Rubart, Jesse, Sentany, Joab, Shields, Jonathan, Shields, William, Jr., Smith, Richard, Sothoror, Levin, Sullivan, Randolph, Seypold, Denisey, Tabb, Richard, Taylor, Andrew, Tenins, John, Thomas, Isaac, Thomas, Robert, Thornton, Ednmnd, Vance, Henry, Wallace, John, Walton, William, Whipps, Samuel, WilUams, Abram, Witt, Orange, Wood, Henry, Hieatt, James, Masterson, Jeremiah, Masterson, James, Franklin, James, Adamson, William, Dayley, Thomas, Gaff, William. Moses Demmitt, Captain. Thomas Hord. First Lieutenant. Joseph Thorn, Ensign. Bean, Albert, Bland, Benjamin, Brightvvell, Thomas, Burris, George, privates Collins, Thomas, Conoway, John, Conoway, Withers, Deavens, John, Duncan, Joseph, Duncan, Walter, Fitzgerald, Benjamin, Fitzgerald, David, 222 Appendix Fitzgerald, Moses, Ginn, James, Grover, John, Gray, Wesley, Hesler, Jacob, Hornbuckle, Alfred, Hornbuckle, Hardin, Hornbuckle, Richard, Hornbuckle, Solomon, Howard, Henry, Jarvis, Amos, Kenton, Thomas, Morey, John, McCoUam, Seth, Murphy, William, O'Hara, John, Pierce, Zachariah, Purcel, Charles, Purcel, John, Reno, Zealy, Richards, John, Shiply, Reason, Strode, James, Strode, John, Thorn, William, Triplett, Hedgeman, Triplett, William, Sr., Triplett, William, Jr., Vincen, Elvin, Watts, George, Watson, Aaron, Wood, William, Dyer, John, Burrell, John. Francis A. Gaines, Captain. Thomas T. G. Warring, Lieutenant Thomas Page, Sr., Ensign. Hezekiah Magruder, Sergeant. William Ward, Sergeant James Po.\ge, Sergeant. Gaines' Company John Bartley, Sergeant. John Evans, Corporal. James Nichols, Corporal. David White, Corporal. Levi Shackles, Corporal. Adams, WilHam, Alison, John, Auxier, Thomas, Boone, Jesse B., Brooks, Edward, Coldgrove, Peleg, Colvin, John, Crawford, Saiimel L., Esom, Robert, Franklin, Lawrence, Fugue, John M., Gammon, Samuel W., Gholson, John, Griffith, Jesse, Henderson, George W., privates Hockaday, John, Holland, Hezekiah, Howe, Daniel, Horseley, James, Horseley, Mathew, Kain, John, Kouns, Jacob, Lowden, Thomas, MefEord, Andrew, Morton, Nat, Nichols, John, Parker, Solomon, Poage, Allen, Poage, John, Poage, Robert, Poage, Thomas, Slaughter, Samuel, Snedicon, James, Thomson, James C, Virgin, Rezin, Warring, Bazil, Warring, Francis, White, WiUiam, Willis, Joseph, Wilson, John, Young, Fountain, Bean, Stephen, Sinclair, James. Aaron Stratton, Captain. Richard Soward, First Lieutenant. George W. Davis, Second Lieutenant Elij.ah Houghton, First Sergeant. Charles Parker, Second Sergeant. Henry Halbert, Third Sergeant. Stratton's Company William Calvert, Fourth Sergeant. Charles Alkins, First Corporal. Ashel Brewer, Second Corporal. Jacob FrizlE, Third Corporal. Daniel Thomas, Fourth Corporal. Appendix 223 Baker, William, Bakley, James, Bennett, Hiram, Bilque, John, Brunt, John, Briant, Bailey, Briant, Daniel, Brook, Humphrey, Campbell, James, Campbell, William, Cox, Mark, Cox, Samuel, Cummins, William, Davis, James, Donovan, Aquilla, Donovan, Thomas, Donovan, William, Dyal, John, Easley, Andrew, PRIVATES Easley, Stephen, Elson, Cornelius, Fisher, Adam, Haynes, Joseph, Halbert, Stephen, HamHn, James, Hamlin, John, HamUn, William, Helvey, Peter, Henderson, Francis, Holt, William, Horrer, Peter, Kelly, Henry, Kenard, James, Lamar, James, Lamar, WiUiam, Martin, James, Martin, WiUiam, McCan, William, McDowell, Jolm G., McKay, William, Orms, Nicholas, Piper, John, Ravenscraft, James, Riley, John, Saxon, Daniel, Shepherd, John, Singleton, James, Smith, James, Smith, Jeremiali, Thomas, David, Thomas, Solomon, Vincent, Lavin, Wilson, Robert, Wilson, Ralph, Albert, Stephen, Stephenson, Edward. FOURTH REGIMENT (MONTJOY'S) William Mountjov, Colonel. Conrad OvErdewplE, Major. Zachariah EasTIN, Major. David Todd, Surgeon. James Metcalfe, Surgeon's Mate. John M. Garrard, Paymaster. Daniel Bourn, Adjutant. William Dickison, Quartermaster. Daniel AyrES, Quartermaster. John Conn, Quartermaster. Innis Woodward, Quartermaster. Armstrong's Company Conrad Overturf, Captain. William Oden, Third Sergeant. Ends Woodward, First Lieutenant. Harrod Newland, Fourth Sergeant. James Armstrong, Second Lieutenant. Henry Oakwood, First Corporal. Jesse Pigman, Ensign. Daniel Hutchison, vSecond Corporal. James Logan, First Sergeant. Amos Shroff, Third Corporal. Peter Mann, Second Sergeant. Frederick Dillman, Fourth Corporal PRIVATES Adams, WiUiam, Allison, Edward, Allison, Isaac, Ambrose, Mordecai, Biddle, John, Brashears, William. Bruce, Joseph, Chalfant, Amos, Cobler, Nimrod, 224 Appendix Derore, Christopher, Derore, Nicholas, Donton, Keely, Downard, John, Fegans, John, Fishback, Martin, Gill, Reuben, Gassage, Benjamin, Hamilton, Samuel, Hammon, Richard, Hammond, Thomas, Hardstock, Peter, Hiles, Christopher, Hooton, James, Hunt, John, Jr., Jackson, George, Jackson, James R., Jackson, Richard, Lancaster, Mallory, Lyons, James, Sr., McDowell, Joseph, McKinney, Jarrard, McMillen, John, Miranda, Thomas, Norris, Archibald, Norris, John, Parker, Marshall, Parker, William, Ramley, Samuel, Reeves, John, Sadler, John, Sallee, Jacob, " Smith, George H., Stites, William, Thomas, Jacob, Thompson, Robert, Thompson, Samuel, Washburn, James, Wells, Robert, Wiley, Eli, Wilson, Mathew, Wirrick, George, Woodward, Innis, Alexander, Thomas. Morris's Company John H Morris, Captain. CoLEM.^N Ayres, First Lieutenant. M.\RTi.M Ho.\GL.\ND, Ensign. WiLLi.\M White, First Sergeant. Lewis Ayres, Second Sergeant. John McGibbanv, Third Sergeant. J.VMEs Sale, Fourth Sergeant. Adkins, John, Ashby, Thomas, Baker, Jonathan, Baker, Nathan, Blakemore, Daniel, Boone, George, Buckhannon, Thomas, Butts, John, Coghill, Zachariah, Daley, John, privates Frazier, James, GulUon, George, Hensley, Samuel, Hogland, John, Hoover, Jacob, Lester, William, McDaniel, John, Mills, Elisha, Phillips, Joseph, Queshingberry, Jas. H., Ray, Jennings, Shelton, John B., Spillman, Wesley, Stafford, Henry, Tandy, Mark, Vallandingham, Richard, \'enshour, Isaac, Wilson, John, Wright, Jordon, Rice, Jordon. I Childers' Company William Mountjoy, Captain. Thomas Childers, Lieutenant. John Mountjoy, Ensign. William Little, First Sergeant. Joseph Bra.nd, Second Sergeant. J.\mes Henry, Third Sergeant. GoLDSBY Childers, Fourth Sergeant. William Ellis, First Corporal. Robert A. Taylor, Second Corporal He.nrv Ellis, Third Corporal. Steven Ellis, Fourth Corporal. Appendix 225 Abbott, Fielding, Arnold, James, Asby, Coleman, Ashbrook, Levy, Ashcraft, Amos, Ashcraft, Ichabod, Ashcraft, James, Beard, Hugh, Belew, Richard, Boner, Charles, Brand, Thomas, Bums, Samuel, Buskirk, Lawrence, Calvert, Charles B., Campbell, Matthew, Childers, James, Childers, Joseph, Clark, Jeremiah, Colvin, B. Charles, PRIVATES Colvin, Burket, Colvin, Henry, Crook, Robert, Duncan, Fielding, Ellis, John, Ellis, Laban, Ford, Thomas, Forsythe, William, Grigg, William, Hart, Thomas, Hitch, John, Johns, Jacob, Jones, Wilham, Kennedy, Jesse, Kennedy, John, Lawles, Lewis W. , Lockwood, Isaac H., Luckett, William, Mann, Richard, McClanahan, John, Minor, James, Monroe, John, Moore, James, Moore, William, Morris, James, Morris, Richard, Nichols, Simon, Norton, David, Norton, Henry, Norton, William, Porter, Edward W. Rush, Gabriel, Rush, Garland, Shoemaker, Laky, Southard, John, Thompson, John, Williams, Elijah. HuLHisoN, JR.'s, Company William Huchison, Jr , Captain. John Current, Lieutenant. WiLLiA.M Thornton, Ensign. CoLUMBfS Eastin, First Sergeant. Joseph Kendrick, Second Sergeant. Achilles Chinn, Third Sergeant. N.\THANiEL Fisher, Fourth Sergeant. Joseph G. Chinn, First Corporal. J.AMES MoRi.N, Second Corporal. Lewis Kendrick, Third Corporal. Joseph Ellis, Fourth Corporal. Armstrong, William, Ayres, Daniel, Belt, Asa, Brown, Samuel D., Buckhannon, Andrew, Cave, Richard, Chowning, Wilham, Claypole, Jacob, Conn, John, Conn, Thomas, Conn, William, Corbin, James, Cotton, John E., Dinwiddle, John, privates Eastin, Zachariah, Ellis, John, Ellis, Wilham, Field, John, Floumoy, Notley, Fry, Jacob, Garrard, Alexander B., Garrard, John M., Garrard, Stephen, Graham, John, Henderson, Samuel, Hildreth, John, Hill, Abraham, Hill, Ezekiel, Huchison, William, Jones, Marshall, Kiplinger, Philip, Kirtley, James, Kizer, John, London, Thomas, McClintock, Joseph, McGuffy, Joseph, Neal, Charles, Nesbit, Joseph, Xichals, Erasmus, Odor, Joseph, Ogle, David, Palmer, Thomas, 226 Appendix Parrish, Ezekiel, Patton, William, Peyton, Valentine, Rannels, William, Robinson, Andrew, Searight, George, Searight, Isaac, Smith, Joseph, Smith, Nicholas, Smith, Peter, Smock, Jeremiah, Summer, Daniel, Talljott, Daniel, Todd, Davis, TomUnson, Isaac, Tucker, Edward, Tucker, John, Grant's Company Tucker, Thomas L., Vallandingham, Merit, Ware, George, Wheeler, William, Wigginton, Peter, Williams, George, Williams, Stephen, Yates, Middleton. Squire Grant, Captain. William Dickerson, Lieutenant. LowDEN, Carl, Ensign. Henry E. Spillman, First Sergeant. Elijah Herndon, Second Sergeant. Charles Daniels, Third Sergeant. William PosEv, First Corporal. Thomas Organ, Second Corporal. Thomas P. Leathers, Third Corporal. Anderson, Cornelius W. Arnold, Benjamin J., Baker, Thomas, Bowles, Swansey, Brent, Ellison, Coleman, Thomas B., Daniel, Garret, Daniel, Travers, Foster, John, Gosney, Peter, Gosney, Robert, PRIVATES Grant, Israel Boone, Harwood, George, Helms, Joseph, Kennedy, Thomas, Kenney, James, Kyle, Thomas, Leathers, John, Mann, Elijah, Marshal, John, Palmer, Thomas, Palmer, William, Peck, Peter, Rice, WiUiam, Rusk, John, Rust, James, Sapp, John, Thomas, Thomas, Vickers, James, White, John, White, Joseph, Winston, Joseph. Thomas Ravenscrapt, Captain. Samuel Hinkson, First Lieutenant. David Wilson, Second Lieutenant. Samuel Snodgrass, Ensign. John English, Sergeant. Mich-aEL WoolErv, Second Sergeant Hugh Brown, Third Sergeant. Ravenscraft's Company William Wilson, Fourth Sergeant. Zachariah, Randle, Corporal. John Humble, Second Corporal. Thomas Ravenscrapt, Third Corporal. Richard Hall, Fourth Corporal. John Conn, Sergeant-Major. Adams, Isaac, Adams, John, Barnes, John, Bean, James, Bean, John, privates Berry, John, Boyd, Andrew, Burns, Garret, Burns, John, Bums, Thomas, Casey, Archibald, Conner, Samuel, Conover, Joseph, Creechlow, John A., Curry, James^ Appendix 227 Curry, William, Custard, George, Debuler, James C, Dial, Alexander, Dobenspecke, John, Drummond, John, Eaton, Morgan, Fishback, George, Hall, Samuel, Hambleton, Benjamin, Hinkson, John, HoUaday, Moses, Jaquess, Garretson, Lair, William, Moffitt, Mathew, Martin, William, Sr., Martin, WilHam, Jr., Mitchell, George, Nesbit, John, Rankin, Samuel, Ravenscraft, William, Ross, David, Sharp, Isaac, Sharp, Stephen, Smith, Jonathan, Smith, John, Spencer, Barnet, Sturgeon, Jeremiah, Wilson, James, Garrison, Gagues. FIFTH REGIMENT (RENICK'S) Henry Rexick, Colonel. Joseph Hornback, First Major. Robert B.\rret, Second Major. William Gr.^y, Surgeon. Joseph McGriffi.v, Surgeon's Mate. Joseph M Hoys, Adjutant. M.\RTIN H. WiCKLiFFE, Paymaster. Sherrard Atkerson, Quartermaster. S.AMUEL T.\LBurr, Sergeant-Major. Thomas Bell, Quartermaster-Sergeant. Robertson's Company Samuel Robertson, Captain. Thomas Head, Lieutenant. John Hung.ate, Ensign. William Mey-ERS, Sergeant. Henry South, Sergeant. Jacob C.arnays, Sergeant. Alrey, Basil, Askins, Josiah, Baker, William, Barber, WiUiam, Baxter, WiUiam, Bracken, Edward, Bracken, James, Brown, Henry, Brown, Peter, Brownlow, Isaac, Burns, Jacob. Calvert, Isaiah, Calvert, William, Compton, James, Gideon B.\irsley, Sergeant. Charles Br.\chen, Corporal. John Ingr.\m. Corporal. Richard Jenkins, Corporal. Allen Hill, Corporal. privates Davis, James, Docherty, Archibald, Drain, Walter, Dunn, McKee, Edelin, Charles F., Ferguson, Henry, Fluse, Nicholas, Graham, Isaac, Graham, John, Graham, John W., Grant, Adam, Hazlewood, James, Hoys, Wilhara, Hickson, Thomas, Isaacs, John, Lewis, WiUiam, McAllister, James, Moore, Jesse, Moore, John \V., Morgan, Vincent, Ray, Jennings, Riney, John, Rallens, Basil, Ruby, Charles, Seamster, Pleasant, Sharp, Aaron, Silvers, Bletcher, Simpson, Asa, 228 Appendix Sindusky, John, Smith, John W., Springer, Thomas B., Stalcup, Henry, Thickston, Abraham, Walker, Philhps, Walker, Richard L., Ward, James, Watts, John, Watts, William R., Weathers, James, Hornbeck's Company Williams, Daniel, Wilson, John H., Wright, Mathias, Young, Evan, Moody, John. John Hornbeck, Captain. Daniel Brown, Lieutenant. Robert Lewis Prvor, Ensign. Joshua Norrell, Orderly Sergeant. John Miller, Second Sergeant. James Risley, Third Sergeant. Richard Ferguson, Fourth Sergeant. Allen, David, Brooks, David, Brown, WiUiam, Budd, Gilbert, Budd, Joseph, Burks, John, Carroll, John, Cochran, Nathaniel, Conn, Hugh, Cooper, Jesse, Dawson, John, FrankUn, Benjamin, Gaither, James, Gentry, James, Gentry, Samuel, Hoglin, Moses, Hamilton, Edward H. PRIVATES Hill, William, Hopewell, Thomas, Hubbard, Albert C, Kiper, Jacob, Langsdon, Charles, Lee, William, Logan, Hugh, Luckey, Elisha, McCarthy, Barria, Merryman, Charles, Montgomery, Hugh, Pratt, Richard, Quick, Ephraim, Rainbarger, John, Riley, James, Rowland, David, Saunders, WilUam, Shanklin, William, Shankhn, William, Jr. Simmons, Robert W., Smith, Asa, Smith, James T., Smith, Robert, Thompson, John, Tucker, John, Vanmeter, Henry, Vanmeter, John, Welsh, Moses, Westfall, Daniel, Wiley, Charles, Worth, James, Younger, Ebenezer. Thomas W. Atkinson, Captain. Joseph M. Hays, Lieutenant. Elij.^h Stapp, Jr., Ensign. John H. Sneed, First Sergeant. George C. Elliott, Second Sergeant Gabriel Jones, Third Sergeant. Atkinson's Company Aaron Trabue, Fourth Sergeant. Benjamin S.mites, First Corporal. James Edmund, Second Corporal. J.\MES Orms, Third Corporal. LiNGYtnn Selbv, Fourth Corporal. Armstrong, Solomon, Ashworth, John, Atkinson, Sherwood, Bennett, Wilham, Bishop, Joseph, privates Bradshaw, Isaac, Bryant, Alexander, Bryant, John, Caldwell, WilUam, Clark, Jesse, Coats, Charles, Coats, James, Creel, John, Dahoney, Chapman, Doke, David, Appendix 229 Hancock, Hiram, Harrison, John, Harrison, Michael, Hayes, Wilham, Holhday, Zachariah, Johnston, Robert M., Jones, James, Kemp, Marshal, Lawson, William, McKinley, Michael, Moss, William P., Perkins, Richard, Price, Gideon H., Price, William R., Ray, Benjamin B., Robertson, Isaac, Rollen, Henry, Selby, Nicholas, Self, Daniel, Trabue, Hoskins, White, Jesse, White, John, Young, George. Moss's Company Thomas S. T. Moss, Captain. Joshua Brents, Lieutenant. Jesse Paris, Ensign. James T. Carter, First Sergeant. Samuel Phillips, Second Sergeant. Benjamin Spillmon, Third Sergeant. Thomas Dills, Fourth Sergeant. Joel W. Harlen, First Corporal. Benj.amin Moss. Second Corporal. Joshua Lee, Third Corporal. John Marress, Fourth Corporal. Anderson, Stephen, Angel, Thomas, Atkinson, Henry, Bale, Jacob, Bell, Thomas, Bennett, James, Brown, Nathaniel, Buckner, Henry W., Burner, John, Byas, Armstrong, Carson, Alexander, Carter, Isaac, Carter, Joseph, Close, John, Dobson, Robert, Dobson, William, Gibson, Elias, Gibson, James, Gibson, John, Graham, George, Gray, Stout, Greenstreet, Peter, Harv'el, Merrit, Hawks, George, Horsey, John, Houchens, James, Jaggers, Simeon, Jarvis, Lazarus, Jenkins, AHson, Kellum, William, Lancaster, William, Lee, Zachariah, Legg, Samuel, Logster, Thomas, McDaniel, John, McChandless, William, Murphy, Benjamin, Oiler, Leonard, Parker, Edmund, Patton, Alexander, Pickerel, Samuel, Rountree, Turner, Rowlett, John, Rowlett, William, Rue, William, Rupe, John, Sherrell, Benjamin, Shoemaker, Tandy, Skaggs, James, Skaggs, Jeremiah, Smith, Samuel, Sneed, James, Tadlock, Thomas, Taylor, Joseph, Tribble, Absalom, Tucker, Enoch, Vanmeter, Henry, Whitman, Daniel, Wilson, John, Wright, George, Wright, Vinston. McGary's Company William R. McGary, Captain. IsR-AEL D.wis, Lieutenant. Henry Ashby, Ensign. Hugh Kirkwood, First Sergeant. Robert Sisk, Second Sergeant. Benjamin Stokes, Third Sergeant. S.-uiuel Berry, First Corporal. Jacob Tucker, Second Corporal. George Hooker, Third Corporal. 230 Appetidix Bell, John M., Blain, William G., Bourland, Gabriel, Bourland, Samuel, Bryant, Roderick, Earl, Thomas P., Fulcher, Jefferson, Griffith, Martin B., PRIVATES Hewlett, Lemuel, Kilbourn, Benjamin, Logan, Thomas, Majors, James, McGruder, Granderson, McKinty, Michael, Morrison, Samuel, Wickliffe's Company Murphy, Stephen, Nesbit, Samuel B., Parker, Wiley, Ross, Thomas, Sisk, Asa, Sisk, Meredith, Timmons, Elijah. Martin H. Wickliffe, Captain. Mason Carter, First Lieutenant. John W. Ogden, Second Lieutenant. Samuel Stephens, Ensign. James E. Goodlet, First Sergeant. George Cox, Second Sergeant. William R. Anderson, Third Sergeant. Alfred Murray, Fourth Sergeant. John Cummins, First Corporal. William Temple, Second Corporal. Solomon Reasoner, Third Corporal. Thomas Johnston, Fourth Corporal. Allen, Nathaniel, Briggs, Benjamin, Brown, Frederick, Brovyn, Nathaniel, Bryan, William, Cambron, John, Chenowith, Hardin T. Cleaver, William, Cook, John, Cotton, William, Cravens, James, Cravens, Reason, Curts, Jacob, Dalryniple, Joseph, Day, Joseph, Davis, William, Davis, William M., Evans, William, Frye, Elias, Glasscock, William, Greathovise, William, Harris, Isaac, privates Hahn, Christian, Hays, George, Henry, John, Jacks, Joseph, Johnston, Clement, Jones, William L., Kincheloe, Jesse, Kincheloe, Stephen, Langley, Charles, Langley, Nathaniel, Linton, Henry, Lindsey, James, Long, John, Lorimer, Joseph, Maxwell, William, McBride, Samuel, McCown, William, - McDaniel, James, McDaniel, John, Murphy, Benjamin, Murphy, James, O'Neal, Thomas, Osburn, Samuel, Pour, Richard, Price, Francis, Price, Dory, Ray, Benjamin, Read, William, Redman, John, Roach, Louis, Roberts, Thomas C, Smith, Guy W., Smith, James, Tabler, Jacob, Talbott, Daniel, Talbott, Hendly, Talbott, WiUiam, Tennell, Benjamin, \'entress, Pleasant, Wheatley, Abraham, White, Benson, WicklifTe, Charles A., Williams, John. Appendix 231 SIXTH REGIMENT (DAVENPORT'S) Richard Davenport, Lieut. -Colonel. John Faulkner, First Major. Benjamin H. Perkins, Second Major. Robert McConnell, Surgeon. Joseph Berry, Surgeon's Mate. Samuel I. McDowell, Lieut, and Adjt. John Glover, Lieut, and Quartermaster Michael G. Zo.n'CE, Lieut, and Paymaster. Robert Telford, Sergeant -Major. Robert Rochester, Quarterniaster-Sergt. Coffee's Company Jesse Coffee, Captain. Thomas Kennedy, Lieutenant. Robert T. Lewis, Ensign. Thomas Blain, First Sergeant. Abrah.\m Smith, Second Sergeant. Newton C. Jones, Third Sergeant. Timothy Good, Fourth Sergeant. privates Bailey, Ralph, Baker, Jacob, Baker, Joseph, Blane, Samuel, Blunt, Miles, Burk, Rowland, Clifton, Nehemiah, Coal, Harbin, Coffee, Richard, Edons, Charles, Elder, Jesse, Graham, James, Graham, Thomas, Hill, Alexander, Hodges, James, Holmes, James, Hutcherson, John, Hutcherson, Lewis, Kennedy, William, Kenney, William, Lanham, Pleasant, Mayfield, James, McWhirter, Jesse, Miller, William, Mitchell, Robert, Faulkner's Company Mitcheltree, George, Moore, George, Parks, Moses, Parks, Willis, Phillips, James, Pledger, John, Rife, Christopher, Russell, Absalom, Silvers, Hugh, Sudduth, James, Taylor, John, Willis, Jacob. John Faulkner, Captain. Stephen Richardson, Lieutenant. Isaac Rentfrow, Ensign. S.\MUEL Smith, First Sergeant. William Drinkard, Second Sergeant. Alexander B. McQuea, Third Sergeant. William L. Poor, Fourth Sergeant. David Perkins. First Corporal. William A. Trulove, Second Corporal. John Nicholson, Third Corporal. Benj.\min Smith, Fourth Corporal. Anderson, James, Ashley, James, Baker, Henry, Baker, Martin, Ball, James, privates Ball, John, Blalock, Jeremiah, Bledsoe, William M., Boyle, Alexander, Carpenter, Rufus, Clarke, Thomas, Coniley, James, Curtis, Reuben, Denny, James, Drinkard, Francis, 232 Appendix Falkner, William, Frame, John, Gill, Samuel, Graves, John, Hall, John, Harris, Jeremiah, Hedrick, John, Hews, Henry, Hews, William, Hogan, James, Hogan, Philip, Hogan, Samuel, Holmes, Edward, Holmes, Isaac, Hubbard, Moses, Jackraan, Samuel, Kennedy, Samuel, Kincaid, John, Lankford, Thomas, Letcher, John, Letcher, Roland, Letcher, Stephen G., Lettral, Edward, Mayfield, Southerland, McConnel, Robert, McGowin, James, Mershon, James, Moore, Moses, Nelson, William, Nicholson, William, Oatman, George, Owsley, Elsworth, Picklehimer, Isaac, Pol, William, Pollard, John, Posey, Price, Preston, John, Quinn, Ennis, Reed, Andrew, Robinson, Jacob, Ross, Hugh, Russell, John W., Scuyler, John, Shackleford, James, Simpson, John, Smith, Christopher, Smith, Robert, Smith, Zachariah, Sutton, Humphrey, Ward, William, Wieldon, James, Williams, Henry, Williams, Osias, Wooley, John. Davidson's Company Michael Davidson, Captain. John Bright, Lieutenant. Samuel Engleman, Ensign. Thomas Owslev, First Sergeant. Gabriel Hughes, Second Sergeant. LoTT, HacklEv, Third Sergeant. Samuel Davidson, Fourth Sergeant. Joseph Killison, Fifth Sergeant. Henry OwslEv, First Corporal. William Craig, Second Corporal. Amos Ellison, Third Corporal. James Cook, Fourth Corporal. Alford, Harrison, Bailey, Carroll, Bast, Peter, Bentley, Ephraim, Berry, Enoch, Bingerman, Henry, Bixler, Samuel, Bolton, John, Clark, David, Collins, William, Colyer, James, Comer, William, Craig, James, Crum, William, Edwards, James, Feland, William, Fleese, William, privates Flowers, James, Haines, James, Harland, Jeremiah, Hicks, Reuben, Hughes, William, Jett, Stephen, Lamb, James, Lion, Charles P., Logan, Benjamin, Logan, James, Masterson, William, McKutchen, Samuel, Mobley, Simeon, Moore, Alexander, Morehead, Aaron, Overlease, Jacob, Owsley, Zachariah, Parks, Sanmel, Pence, John, Piner, John, RulTner, Emanuel, Runalds, Joseph, Larton, Joel, Smith, Elias, Stines, Jacob, Sutton, Rowland, Sutton, William, Terrell, Robert, Terrell, Thomas, Warner, John, Whitesides, David, Whitesides, James, Woodall, Cosby, Yeager, John. Appendix 233 Miller's Company Abram Miller, Captain. Alexander Givens, First Lieutenant Joseph H. Wooleolk, Ensign. Gabriel LackEV, First Sergeant. Alexander G.\y, vSecond Sergeant. George Carter, Third Sergeant. PRIVATES John TinslEv, I'ourth vSergeant. Allen Logan, First Corporal. Thomas Briggs, Second Corporal. Samuel Murrell, Third Corporal. John K. Johnson, Fourth Corporal. Bailey, Ral[)h, Barnet, William, Bcntley, James, Blakey, Reuben, Carpenter, George, Carter, Britton, Carter, Larkin, Cumberland, Jiles, Cooper, James, Craig, John, Dawson, Elijah, Dodds, James, Downey, James, Elder, James, Ely, Winson, Fielding, John, Fisher, Matthew, Gilbert, John C, Givens, Alexander, Givens, William, Helm, Charles, Helm, Willis, Huston, James, Huston, Thales, Johnson, William B., Jones, David, King, Thomas, McAllister, John, McBride, David, McCorraack, John S., McCormack. William, Miller, George S., Murril, George, Patton, James, Patton, William, Bilbo's Company Pembcrton, William, Reed, John, Reynolds, Benjamin, Sampson, William, Shacklcford, Bcnnet C, Shelby, Evan, Skidmore, James, Slaughter, Matthew, Spears, Jacob, Sutherland, William, Upthegrove, Joseph, Vance, John, Warren, Samuel, Warren, William, Wilhight, Joel, Wright, Joel, Wright, Jonathan. Richard Davenport, Captain. Archibald Bilbo, First Lieutenant. Silas Harlan, Second Lieutenant. Thomas P. Moore, Third Lieutenant. Elijah H.\rlen, Ensign. Samuel McDowell, First Sergeant. Michael G. YousE, Second Sergeant. Thomas Chiles, Third Sergeant. Thompson, Gaines. Fourth Sergeant. John Glover, Fifth Sergeant. John Green, First Corporal. Robert MosEbv, Second Corporal William Minor, Third Coriioral. John Harlan, Fourth Cor]Kiral. Robert Tilford, Fifth Corporal. George D. RosEny, Sixth Corporal Baber, Joseph, Banton, David W., Board, Wilham, Boddy, Thomas, Boiling, Dred, Brown, Nathaniel, privates Chiles, John, Clark, William, Cole, Harlan, Colter, Thomas, Corley, Thomas, Covert, Garret, Covert, Simon, Cozine, Cornelius, Crain, Cary A., Crawford, John, Crutchficld, Benj. F., Daugherty, Samuel, 234 Appendix Davis, Edward, Davis, John, Debon, Abraham, DePaw, Charles, Downing, Samuel, Duncan, Howsen, Duncan, William, Farrow, Daniel, Gaines, Thompson, Gordon, Robert T., Grimsley, William W., Harbert, William, Hardenbrook, Cornelius, Harlan, Eli, Harman, Jacob, Howell, Squire D., Hughes, John, Humble, Noah M., Irvine, David, Irvine, William D., Jeffries, Taliafarro, Johnson, Garret, Johnson, Samuel M., Jones, Robert, Keele, Solomon, Kile, John, King, John, Klinesmith, Edward, Knox, William, Lester, Elias, Lewis, Robert W., Manners, James, Martin, Charles W., McGraw, William, Miller, William, Mitchell, James P., Moore, Charles, Patterson, George, Pritchett, Abraham, Richardson, David, Richardson, Landie, Robards, Thomas, Rochester, Robert, Ryan, David, Shye, John, vShye, William, Smith, Harvey A., Smith, James, Smock, John B., Smock, Simon, Tadlock, John H., Taylor, Samuel, ■ Taylor, John, Thomas, Joseph, Thomas, William, Toomy, John, Vandivere, James, \'andivere, John, VanNice, John, Weaver, Davis, Wilkinson, Merideth G. Williams, Meshach, Wilson, David, Yerser, George. SEVENTH REGIMENT (TAUL'S) Michael Taul, Colonel. Samuel Wilson, First Major. Thomas Laughlin, Second Major. Henry E. Green, Surgeon. Henry E. Innes, Surgeon's Mate. WiLLSON Bowman, Adjutant. William Scott, Quartermaster. JoN.\THAN Smith, Paymaster. James Donely, Sergeant-Major. Edward Dever, Quarterinaster-Sergt. Stephens' Company Mic.vH Taul, Captain. William Stephens, Lieutenant. Bartholomew Hayden, Ensign. Thomas Miller, First Sergeant. Andrew Evans, Second Sergeant. Alex.\nder Davis, Third Sergeant. Silas Shephard, Fourth Sergeant. John Heav^ens, First Corporal. David Worsham, Second Corporal. John Anderson, Third Corporal. Dempsey WhiTEney, Fourth Corporal. privates Ayres, Bailey, Bailey, Thomas, Bond, Isaac, Bond, WiUiam, Bookout, Benjamin, Bramblet, Nathaniel. Coffee, Sail, Cooper, James, Cotton, James, Appendix 235 Cox, John, Davis, Drury, Devers, Edmund, Dodson, Robert, Duncan, George, Duncan, William, Dunwiddie, William, Elain, Edmund, Elrod, Harmon, Elrod, Jeremiah, Gholson, Benjamin, Gholson, Samuel, Goodrich, John, Hadden, James, Hadon, Richard M., Hawkers, John, Hickenbotham, Moses, Hix, John, Hudgers, Joseph, Hunter, James, Hutcherson, John, Hutcherson, Robert, Jackson, James, Jackson, John, Jones, Alban, Jones, James, Larcher, Joseph, Lefever, David, Long, John, Martin, Job, Martin, John, McGee, Robert, McHenry, John, McHenry, William, Mercer, Nathaniel, Mills, Caleb, Wilson's Company Montgomery, John, Moore, Clark, Mullens, Charles, Newelle, John M., Perryficld, Henry, Sanders, John, Scott, William, Shepherd, Isaac, Shrewsberry, John, Sinclair, Joseph, Sloan, William, Stacey, Peter, Steel, Christian, Sutton, William, Walker, Gideon, Walker, James, West, Joshua, Woods, Archibald. Samuel Wilson, Captain. J..\MES Gholson, Lieutenant. Samuel Stockton. Ensign. Philip Alexander, First Sergeant. William Walthall, Second Sergeant. Kenian McMullin, Third Sergeant. Moses J. Lincoln, Fourth Sergeant. William King, First Corporal. Aquilla H.\ll, Second CorjKiral. Tho.mas Hickland, Third Corporal. Samuel Brown, Fourth Corporal. Alexander, Greenwood, Anderson, Mathew, Anderson, William, Awtry, John, Bailey, William, Baker, Obediah, Best, James, Blakey, Thomas, Bland, Warren, Bland, WiUiam, Bowles, Thomas, Bowman, Wilson, Bridges, ^\'iUiam, Brothers, Thomas, 'Brummell, Barnet, Brummell, John, Carter, James privates Carter, Thomas, Chandler, Seady, Chrisman, Elijah, Chrisman, Joseph, Cole, James, Davis, William, Dicken, Landen, Donally, James, Enyard, Abner, Foster, Michael, Gannan, Jacob, Graves, Joseph, Hill, William, Howard, Reuben B., Jackson, John, King, John E., Lynn, James, Martin, Jesse, Maxwell, Nimrod, McCord, John, McMullin, John, Obanion, John, Owens, Elijah, Rayburn, FVancis, Savage, Hamilton, Savage, Levin, Sims, John, Smith, Mathew, Taylor, James W., Wash, John, Williams, John, Wilson, James. 236 Appendix Wood's Company William Wood, Captain. Arthur Frogg, Lieutenant. Hdw.vrd Beck, Ensign. William H. Talbot, First Sergeant. Jonathan Smith, Second Sergeant. Samuel Scott, Third Sergeant. Solomon Long, Fuurth Sergeant. James Lackey, First Corporal. Joseph Bradon, Second Corporal. Ch.^rlEs Silvers, Third Corporal James Brents, Fourth Corporal. Appleby, Robert, Blankenship, David, Calhoun, John, Campbell, William, Clayton, Beverly W., Coffee, Joseph, Conner, James, Conner, Joseph, Davis, John, Ellis, John, Embree, Moses, Ferril, Robert, Flower, Charles H., privates Frogg, William, Grider, Joshua, Grimsley, Caye, Irwin, John, Irwin, William, Martin, Joshua, Mathews, Lott R., McDowell, John, Myers, Daniel L., Nichols, Edward, Northcut, John, Owens, Nicholas, Pointer, Cornelius, Reynolds, Charles, Russell, James, Smith, Henry, Sproul, Alexander, Sproul, Joseph, Stockton, Daniel, Taylor, Jonathan, Thresher, William, Trotter, James, Williams, James, Williams, James J., Williams, John. Tate's Company Samuel Tate, Captain, Robert Gilmore, Lieutenant. Jonathan Smith, Ensign. Samuel Nevvall, First Sergeant. William H.avs, Second Sergeant. Thomas Gibson, Third Sergeant. RorEbT Cowan, Fourth Sergeant. Barns, Adam, Barrier, James, Beard, Abraham, Beaty, James, Bell, James, Bregis, Edmund, Buster, William, Clarke, Elisha, Cooper, Acey, Cowan, Isaac, Cox, Allen, Cundiff, Gregory, Davis, Fields, Davison, Henry, Dishman, John, Dunham, Alex, Evins, Samuel, Garner, Parish, Gasper, Achilles, Gibson, Martin, Gilmore, John, Gilmore, William, Hargis, Thomas, Hast, Israel, Herring, Joshua, Hickman, Lewallin, Higgins, James, Hines, James, Hughes, Hiram, Humphries, David, Hunter, Thomas, Kelly, Joseph, Lankford, Garrard, Lewis, John, Martin, John, Mathews, William, Mayfield, Reuben, McDonald, Andrew, McKinney, James, Mintin, William, Murphy, Bennet, Neal, Isaac, Nealey, Isaac, Owens, John, Owens, William, Appendix 237 Preston, William, Richardson, Joel, Richardson, Stephen, Ridge, Robertson, Roberts, John, Scott, Allen, Short, John, Short, Reuben, Short, Thomas, Smith, James, Stagsdill, William, St. John, Noah, Sutherford, James, Laughlin's Company Turlcy, Standford, Vanhook, Sullivan, Wliite, John, Willis, Henry, Wonlland, Thomas, Yeanis, John. Thom.\s Laughlin, Captain. George W. Craig, First Lieutenant. Nathaniel D. Moore, Second Lieut. Joseph Earley, Ensign. Angus Ross, First Sergeant. LoTT Pitman, Second Sergeant. George TyE, Third Sergeant. Charles Rachhold, Fourth Sergeant. Thomas Scott, First Corporal. Jonathan Evans, Second Corporal. Archib.\ld Zachaway, Third Corporal. John S. Laughlin, Fourth Corporal. Bailey, Thomas, Baker, Overton, Barton, John, Bayers, Samuel, Blake, Achilles, Blake, John, Bledson, Joseph, Bodkin, William, Boyd, Sanmel, Campbell, William L., Carpenter, Wm. K., Caston, John, Cole, David M., Craig, Joseph, Demass, Andrew, Downey, George, Early, Wilham, Edwards, William, privates Ellison, Hugh, Evans, Hugh, Fergerson, William, Fortner, Jonas, Gentry, Elijah, Gibson, James, Hancock, Thomas, Holt, Drewry, LaughUn, John D., McWhirter, Robert, Miller, Martin, Newton, Amos, Nicholson, Leonard, Offutt, William, Pemberton, John, Poange, John, Raper, Jesse, Raper, Lewis, Richards, John, Rass, John, Rass, Samuel, Sams, James, Scruggs, John, Smith, Joseph, Stewart, James, Stewart, John, SuUivan, Charles, Swift, Elias, Tirpin, Obediah, Tramball, Demoss, Truman, William, Tye, Joshua, White, Hendrick, White, John, WiUiams, Thomas, Wright, John. 238 Appendix EIGHTH REGIMENT (CALLOWAY'S) John Calloway, Colonel. John Arnold, Major. Philip White, Major. Benjamin Bridges, Quartermaster. Benjamin Bridges, Paymaster. Joshua Norwell, Adjutant. Robert D. Dawson, Surgeon. James M. Baxley, Surgeon's Mate Moses Kirkp.\trick, Second Surgeon's Mate. Gabriel Field, Sergeant-Major. Kite's Company James Kite, Captain. Isaac Clark, Lieutenant. William Cooper, Ensign. Richard Mills, First Sergeant. Charles Duncan, Second Sergeant. Francis W Davis, Third Sergeant. Jeremy Snyder, Fourth Sergeant. William Cummins, First Corporal. James Moore, Second Corporal. Lewis Miller, Third Corporal. Applegate, Tunis, Batman, Thomas, Cardell, George, Carrel, Samuel, Chadburn, Joseph, Chambers, George M., Collins, Rezin B., Crow, William, Earickson, William, Elzie, Elzie, Fields, Gabriel, privates Gatewood, James, Hall, James M., Henry, Stewart, Hite, Joseph, Hornback, Abram, Humphries, William C, Lewis, William, McCloy, WiUiara, Merriwether, David H., Mucleroy, Henry, Newkirk, Jacob, Ramsey, Abraham, Ross, Mervin, Ross, Robert, Smith, Elias B., Standerferd, Nathan, Stephens, James, Vanmeter, Henry, Vann, Joseph, Walls, Samuel, White, Everet. Robinson Graham, Captain. John Hays, Lieutenant. John R. Noland, Ensign. Benjamin B. Johnston, First Sergeant Edmund Vaughn, Second Sergeant William J. Phillips, Third Sergeant. Graham's Company Barnett Arnold, Fourth Sergeant. Willia.m Owen, First Corporal. John Woods, Second Corporal. Benjamin Rarsen, Third Corporal. William Church, Fourth Corporal. Burk, Henry, Cashier, Lewis, Cook, Seth, Craig, Joseph, Edrington, John, Graham, William, privates Hatton, Robert C, Hicklin, Thomas, Hughes, James M., Irvin, PauHs E., McDowell, John A., Mitchell, Alexander L Pattie, Daniel, Porter, Jeremiah, Settles, Bennet G,, Shannon, Samuel, Wayren, Thomas, Chedle, Burch. Appendix 239 Shirelv's Company Philip Shirely, Captain. William Shirely, Lieutenant. William C McKex'ney, Ensign. JosHU.\ Gore, First Sergeant. Willis B.vll.\rd, Second Sergeant. John H. Ferry, Third Sergeant. Timothy Gilman, Fourth Sergeant. James Farnsley, First Corporal. Sandford, LE\\^s, Second Corporal. William Stowers, Third Corporal. Thomas Stewart, Fourth Corporal. privates Bartlelt, John, Bowen, Arnold, Bradway, Abner, Brener, Frederick, Catt, John C, Churchill, WiUiam, Compton, Richard, Cottenhaur, George L., Danset, John, Duff, Patrick, Floyd, Nathaniel, Hagen, Charles, Heaton, Daniel, Hollis, Fielding, HoUis, John, Hollis, Lewis, Hollis, WilUam, Jr., Job, John, Johnston, Lancelot, Malott, Hiram, Martin, Andrew, Moore, Daniel, Morrison, George, Polly, John, Reece, George, Roberts, Lawrence, Rothwell, Ray, Sale, William, Shaw, Archibald, Stameter, Andrew, Todd, John, Torryhill, Adams, \'ance, WiUiara, Waid, George, Williams, James, Woods, John, Woods, John, Jr., Woods, Timothy, Graves, James. George's Company John C.\LLOW.\y, Captain. Edward George, Lieutenant. Benjamin Coons, Ensign. John Jones, First Sergeant. "Moses Hogland, Second Sergeant. William Sublett, Third Sergeant. Jeremi.\h M. Dupuy, Fourth Sergeant. Elias DejarnETT, First Corporal. Archibald Cosby, Second Corporal. Joseph Weaver, Third Corporal. N.\thaniel Stephens, Fourth Corporal. Admise, Jacob, Admise, Wilham, Bell, George, Bell, Richard, Bennett, WilUam, Button, James, Button, John, Button, Reuben, Button, William, Calloway, James, Clem, Isaac, Coons, Daniel, privates Duncan, WilHs, English, James, English, Levin, English, Robert, Farley, Thomas, Felps, Harris, Fore, Peter, Gillum, Charles, Legan, John, Lemaster, Zachariah, Loch, David, Love, John R., Monroe, W'illiam, Mount, Thomas, Mount, Thomas J., Nay, Bennet, Nay, James, Nay, John, Peggs, Jacob, Pemberton, Thomas, Poland, James, Prewitt, Michael, Prior, John, Read, James, 240 Appendix Roberts, Joseph, Roberts, Merrie, Rass, William, Sanford, Daniel, Sanford, Lawrence, Smith, Henry, Smith, Owen, Sparks, Walter, Stevens, John, Sublett, James (musician), Tidwell, WiUiam, Troutman, James, Kelley's Comtany Turk, Robert, Varble, George, Webb, John, \\'ebb, Robert, Whitesides, Joseph, Wiman, Adam. Samuel Kellev, Captain. John Shaw, Lieutenant. Benj.\min Bridges, Ensign. James Edw.\rds, First Sergeant. James MayfiEld, Second Sergeant. George A. Frederick, Third Sergeant. privates Robert Stewart, Fourth Sergeant. Philip Zilhart, First Corporal. John W. Slaughter, Second Corporal. Thomas Mayfield, Third Corporal. Emanuel Stuckey, Fourth Corporal. Anderson, Thomas, Asher, William, Barhill, William, Batman, John, Batman, Thomas, Blankenboker, Benj , Blankenboker, John H., Bleven, James, Bohannon, Charles, Boyd, Frederick, Brookhart, David, Buckner, Robert, Calloway, Thomas P., Chenoweith, Absalom, Collier, George, Crooks, Jacob, Crooks, John, Crum, Andrew, Dawsey, F.lias, Denham, Christian, Erickson, Perrygrime, Frederick, Andrew, Gausney, John, Goben, WiUiam, Grimes, James, Grijjhey, Samuel, Guthery, James, Harboth, John, Harden, Henry, House, Benjamin, HoUingsworth, Isaac, Jobe, William, Johnson, Bryant, Kelley, John, Kirkpatrick, Moses, Litefoot, Gutredy, Maple, Arthur, Matfield, Weat, Maxwell, William, Mayfield, Isaac, McCartney, Andrew, Oldham, George, Right, John, Roben, John, Heddin's Company Rose, Allen, Rose, James, Seaton, Richard, Sebolt, George, Shake, John, Sharpe, Edward, Smith, Joseph, Sparks, James, Stafford, Thomas, Stewart, James, Taylor, William, Tyler, George, Tyler, Zachariah, Veach, Alexander, Veach, Elliott, Ward, James, Ward, John, W^ebb, John, Weems, James, Whitney, Robert, Williams, Moses, Wood, Henry. ElE.azor Heddin, Captain. WiLLi.AM Hall, Lieutenant. Andrew Young, Ensign. Thomas Griffith, First Sergeant. Henry Farmer, Second Sergeant. Ale.xander Stewart, Third Sergeant Ch.\rles Stewart, Fourth Sergeant. Cyprus Wiley, First Corporal. Henry Banta, Second Corporal. Elijah Vand.\riff, Third Corporal. Appendix 241 Allen, Harris, Baker, Andrew, Baxter, James, Baxter, Jesse, Bryan, Robert, Carter, Thomas, Chriswell, Robert, Clarke, Lawrence, Carnine, Richard, Cubbage, James, Dumarrell, Daniel, Eastham, George, PRIVATES Ellison, David, Green, Benjamin, Green, James, Green, John, Jr., Green, Richard, Hawkins, James, Higgs, Roddin, Martin, Robert, Moore, Jeremiah, Parks, James, Ringle, William, Shcalds, Alexander, Stewart, Asa, Sutton, James, Tendle, Kendle, Terrel, Reuben, Tingle, Edward, Tucker, James, \'anderver, John, \\'ingfield, James, Winscott, William, Chadwick, Benjamin. NINTH REGIMENT (SIMRALL'S) James Simr.u,l, Lieutenant-Colonel. Thom.^s Johnston, Major. Benj.\min Log.\n, Major. William E. Young, Lieut, and Adjutant. Fielding Winlock, Lieut, and Quarter- master. George Gay, Lieutenant. Robert Thruston, Surgeon. John Moore, Surgeon's Mate. Benjamin F. Dupuy, Sergeant-Major. Nathaniel W. Pope, Quartermaster- Sergeant. PiERSON Willis, Forage Master. Fielding Winlock, Paymaster. Hall's Company John H.\ll, Captain. Is.\AC Watkins, First Lieutenant. John M\xEs, Jr., Second Lieutenant. Alexander Ferguson, Ensign. Benjamin F. Dupuy, First Sergeant. MiCAjAH W. Sharpe, Second Sergeant. James M\xES, Third Sergeant. William Cardwell, Fourth Sergeant. Jacob Cardwell, First Corporal. John Craw'Ford, Second Corporal. Christopher G. Simpson, Third Corp'l. John L. Simpson, Fourth Corporal. Boice, William, Booker, Edward M., Boone, Samuel, Booth, Thomas, Bosley, James, BowUng, John, Brookie, William, Butter, Moses, privates Carr, John, Chew, Samuel, Conley, Thomas, Crenshaw, James, Dougherty, Joseph, Jr., Ferguson, John, Fore, Peter G., Greathouse, William, Gueny, George, Hannah, William, Helm, Joseph, Jackson, John, Johnson, Thomas, Kay, James, McClelland, John, McFadden, James, 242 Appeiidix Miller, Nicholas, Millis, William, Mitchell, Samuel H., Moore, John, Myles, Richard, Nash, Marvel M., Ogden, Masterson, Peay, Turner, Perry, WiUis, PoUey, John, Robbins, William, Roysden, Jesse F., Ryon, Robert, Sawyers, James, Sawyers, Sampson, Sellrey, Solomon, Short, Peter, Smith, Samuel, Stillwell, Isaiah, Swearingen, Hornson, Thursby, James, Thurston, Robert, Tilford, Jeremiah, Todd, Robert, Turnstall, Thomas, Wayland, Abram, Wells, William, Ellmore's Company White, Andrew, White, Robert, Wilcox, George, Sr., Wilcox, George, Jr., Willis, Pierson, Wood, Harvey, Wood, John, Woodfork, James, Workman, William, Gray, George, Lock, John D., Penn, Shadrach, Pendleton, James T. Warner Ellmore, Captain. Richard Patterson, First Lieutenant. Thomas M. Emmerson, Ensign. Benjamin F. Cook, First Sergeant. Andrew H. BrownlEE, Second Sergt. Coalman C. Spiller, Third Sergeant. Barret White, Fourth Sergeant. Gabriel N. Buckner, First Corporal. CoLELV Cowherd, Second Corporal. John Durham, Third Corporal. James Harris, Fourth Corporal. Adams, William, Allen, James J., Barbee, John, Barret, Robert, Bass, John, Blakcman, James, Blakeman, John, Brownlee, Alexander, Brownlee, William, Buckner, Aylett, Buckner, James B., Buckner, John, Cabmess, John M., Caldwell, Andrew, Canada, Elijah, Chisteen, John L., Churning, Hardin, Clark, Reuben, Compton, William, Cook, William B., Cowherd, Yelverton, privates Deaven, Richard, Edrington, Robert, Embry, Samuel P., Farris, John, Fisher, John, Forbes, Yates, Greer, Solomon, Hood, Robert, Jarvis, Edward, Johnson, Isaiah, Jones, Robert, Landers, Jacob, Lee, William, Lennnons, Jolm, Lemmons, Rudie, Lewis, Henderson, Marshal, Sanmel, Martin, Peter, McDaniel, Edward, Minor, John, Pepper, Daniel, Phillips, John, Pierce, Thomas, Price, John, Price, Reuben, Rhear, Arche, Rhear, William, Richardson, Thomas, Roger, John, Shenault, John, Short, Horatio, Short, William, Sprouls, EUeck, Stovall, William, Vaughan, John, Vaughan, William, Wheler, Ceburn, WilUan, Thomas, Williams, Joel, Wilson, Isaac. Appendix 243 Smith's Comtany Presley C. Smith, Captain. Martin Harding, Lieutenant. John Hardin, Ensign. James WaTkins, First Sergeant. Owen D. Thomas, Second Sergeant. Hardin Thomas, Third Sergeant. Joseph MaTTincly, Fourth Sergeant. BennET M.vTTIngly, First Corporal. Elias Russell, Second Corporal. James Mattingly, Third Corporal. Joseph Brown, Fourth Corporal. Baley, Thomas, Brother, Samuel, Brown, Benjamin, Carrico, Benedict, Casey, John, Chamberlain, Liles, Cotter, Charles, Crosgrove, Charles, Daley, John, Dinking, Thomas, Edlin, Benjamin, Flanagan, James, PRIVATES Gates, Ehsha, Goudy, Samuel, Green, Leonard, Hamilton, Edward, Horbin, Jeremiah, Hardin, Otho, Jarbor, WiUiam S., Ivcigh, Henry, Lyons, Charles W., Michaels, George, Mudd, Henderson, Newton, James, Whittaker's Company PhilUps, Philip, Powell, Charles, Quiggins, John, Quiggins, Joseph, Richardson, Benjamin, Riggs, Abraham, Riggs, James, Smith, Thomas, Summers, John S., Watkins, Joseph, Wheatley, James, Yates, John. James S. WhittakER, Captain. Joseph W. Knight, First Lieutenant. James L. Holmes, Second Lieutenant, John Whittaker, Ensign. William Dugan, First Sergeant. Joshua Rutlidge, Second Sergeant. Thomas Wright, Third Sergeant. privates John G. Anderson, Fourth Sergeant. James Figg, Jr., First Corporal. Woodson, E.vslEy, Second Corporal. MoNAS Hansborough, Third Corporal. Robert Anderson, Fourth Corporal John W. Young, Trumpeter. Allen, John M., Allen, William, Anderson, William, Brewer, George W., Burnett, Henry, Christian, Martin S., Collett, Aaron, Colher, John, Daniel, George, Edwards, Leroy, Farmer, Ehas, Figg, WiUiam, Gee, James, Gee, William, Graves, David, Graves, Samuel, Gresham, Henry, Harris, Jonah, Hastings, William, Hollis, John P., Holt, Thomas B., Jacobs, James, Jacobs, Samuel, Jones, John W., Legg, George, McClelland, Joseph G.; McCormack, Richard, Minor, Spence, Murphy, John, O'Neal, James, Polly, Peter, Pope, Nathaniel W., Proctor, James, Purcell, David, Randal, James, Reynolds, Thomas, Roberts, Henry, Roberts, Jesse, Robinson, John G., 244 Appendix Rodman, Thomas, Rodman, William, Romine, Samuel, Runey, Absalom, Russell, George, Russell, Hedgeman, Sharp, William T., Stewart, Thomas, Strangham, Nathaniel, Thompson, David, Thompson, William, Tyler, Robert, Jr., Vanmeter, William, Walls, WilUam, Washburn, Delaney Washburn, John B., Whittaker, Seth, Wilson, Samuel, Winlock, Fielding. Richard Bennett, Captain. WiLLi.vM RoBiNsoN; Lieutenant. Jesse Kennedy, Ensign. James McBr.wer, First Sergeant. Samuel McGuire, Second Sergeant. William Robinson, Third Sergeant Bennett's Company William Hensey, Fourth Sergeant. Drury Pullam, First Corporal. John Crockett, Second Corporal. Nathan Watson, Third Corporal. Elij.ah Kennedy, Fourth Corporal. Albin, Phihp, Arnold, John, Berry, George, Brown, Robert, Clark, Matthew, Cole, Ehjah, Crockett, Anthony, Hawkins, Moses, Macey, Gustavus S., PRIVATES Mackey, John, Mahoney, Benjamin, Major, Thomas P., Motherhead, John, Paxton, Thomas, Pemberton, Henry, Pullam, Benjamin, Robinson, Gabriel, Robinson, Robert, Harbison's Company Sercy, Isaac, Sercy, Merit, Smart, John C, Taylor, Tekal, White, Averitt, White, Phil, Oldburn, Phihp, Robinson, James, Miles, James T. Samuel Harbison, Captain. James Ford, Lieutenant. Thomas Gaither, Second Lieutenant. John Shannon, Cornet. George P. Miller, First Sergeant. William Harbison, Second Sergeant. John Ford, Third Sergeant. John Sharp, Fourth Sergeant. Leroy, Wintsworth, First Corporal. William Grooms, Second Corporal. Joseph Duncan, Third Corporal. William Smith, Fourth Corporal. Boyd, James P., Booky, Robert, Burton, John, Burton, Preteman, Clifton, William B., Ducker, Nathan, Duncan, Jacob, Elliott, John, Finley, William C, Fisher, Zachariah, Gibson, John F., privates Gilbert, Elnathan, Hardesty, Henry H., Harlow, George, Huston, James, Lemon, James, Mahan, William, Neal, Elias, Orsborn, George, Riddle, George, Riddle, Thomas, Roberts, William, Robinson, Jesse, Shrouders, Abram, Sill, Adam, Thomas, Joseph, Thompson, James C, Thompson, WilHam, Venable, James, Wood, Isaac, Hood, Isaac. Appendix 245 TENTH REGIMENT (BARBOUR'S) Philip Barbour, Lieutenant-Colonel. John Gorin, Major. John Barnett, Major. Thomas Polland, Surgeon. Horatio D. Gnatkin, Adjutant. Thomas Boothe, Surgeon's Mate. Thomas B Lee, Paymaster. James T. Barbour, Quartermaster. Lucius Duvall, Sergeant-Major. John Milroy, Quarterinaster-SergeaiU. Ewing's Company Wii<UAM EwiNG, Captain. Daniel Hov, Ensign. Charles J. SublETT, First Sergeant. J.\mes Davidson, Seconil Sergeant. Georce Day, Corporal. Airs, Henry, Blackwell, Grant, Brown, Bowlin, Cravens, Elijah, Davis, Edward, Day, James, Deen, Robert A., Finley, Samuel, Funkhouser, Wilson L., Funkhouser, Young, Gidcomb, John, Hartgrave, William, Howard, James, Porter, Francis, Ewing's Company Young Ewing, Ensign. Porter, Oliver, Read, James, Read, Rol^ert, McFarland, William, Deen, Olden, Tublett, Jordon. Thomas KellEY, Sergeant. William Appling, Corporal. Bradley, Richard, Brian, Alexander, Chestnut, Samuel, Dake, David, Gibson, Jordan, Gorin, Gladdin, HoUeday, Zachariah, Yates' Company McFarlin, Andrew M Shaw, Joel, Vanmeter, Jacob. Robert E. Yates, Captain. Robert Sconce, Lieutenant. Isaac Thom.\s, Ensign. James B. Sutterville, First Sergeant. John Vanmeter, Second Sergeant. Benjamin Keith, First Corporal. Moses SurroN, Second Corjioral. privates Able, John, Anderson, James, Artman, John, Barnes, James, Brown, William, Burtle, Joseph, Campbell, Allen, Cleaver, William, Downs, William, Ferry, Moses, Keller, Frederick, Love, James, 246 Appendix McLure, John, Miller, Michael, Oldham, Daniel D., Oldham, John, Porter, John, Prunty, Robert, Purtle, Uriah, Rhoades, Samuel, Saltsman, George, Sconce, John, Sutton, John, Vanmeter, Nathan, Williams, John, Wiley, James, Blain, William. Wilson's Company Philip Barbour, Captain. Daniel Wilson, Lieutenant. Nevil Lindsev, Ensign. Andrew Burk, First Sergeant. Thomas A. Griffin, Second Sergeant. privates Barbour, James T., Bentley, William, Bradshaw, Jonathan, Cheatham, Baxter D., Clay, Thomas, Dixon, Robert, Fryley, Martin, Fuquay, Benjamin, Gnatkins, Horatio D., Hart, David, Johns, Thomas, Jones, Adam, Lambert, Evan, Lambert, WilHara, Mayes, Branch V., McClain, Andrew W., Whitsett's Company Pollard, Thomas, Richardson, Steven A., Scott, Charles, Scott, John, Tate, John, Walder, William, Wilson, George. William Whitsett, Captain. Robert P. B. Caldwell, First Lieut. William S. Lofland, Second Lieut. James McDonald, Ensign. Solomon Hunter, First Sergeant, John B. Curd, Second Sergeant. EzEKiEL Smith, Third Sergeant. John Williams, Fourth Sergeant. John Coner, First Corporal. Lewis Parker, Second Corporal. John Thomas, Third Corporal. Hiram Jameson, Fourth Corporal. Barnett, James, Barnett, John, Barnett, Morgan, Bibb, John B., Bigger, John H., Bishop, James, Caldwell, Samuel, Call, Jacob, Cason, Denis B., Cooksy, Theophilus, Copland, Lewis W., Crittenden, Robert, Dawson, Robert, Davenport, Richard, Dougan, Jeremiah, privates Duevall, Lucius, Dunscomb, Samuel, Ewing, John L., Fitzhugh, John, Gilleland, John, Glascow, Samuel, Glisson, Thomas, Green, George, Griggs, John, Ham, Joshua, Harrison, Barkley, Herndon, James, Hester, Middleton, Hickman, George, Jackson, Charles, Johns, Jorden, Kenerly, John W., Kerr, David, King, John B., Kircheval, Thomas. Lion, James G., Lofland, James, Manksfield, James McFall, John, McGoodwin, James, Mcintosh, John, Mcintosh, Samuel, Milhcan, John, Moore, Richard, Neeley, Charles Appendix 247 Nurse, James H., Nurse, William, Ogden, Thomas, Patten, John, Patterson, Robert, Posey, Lane W., Price, Mayor, Rafferty, Samuel, Raghdale, Frederick, Reed, James, Sands, James, Saterfield, Archibald, Shelton, Thomas, Slaughter, Phihp, Sprigs, Gilbert, Stephens, John, Sumner, Landy, McCloskey's Company Taylor, James W.. Trimble, John, Usry, John, Walker, David, West, Leonard, Lee, Thomas, Duncan, James M., Thomas, John. Joseph McCloskey. Captain. John Wooten, Lieutenant. John Huston, Second Lieutenant. John Robinson, Ensign. John Milroy, First Sergeant. S.\MUEL Pitman, Second Sergeant. Samuel W.\Tson, Third Sergeant. Thomas Heady, Fourtli Sergeant. John Brown, First Corporal. Stephen M.\y, Second Corporal. S.\muEL Howard, Third Corporal Samuel Brown, Fourth Corporal. Ash, Benjamin, Ash, George, Baldwin, James, Batman, William, Bell, John, Bennett, Samuel, Boley, Nicholas, Brown, James H., Clarke, Thomas, Combs, Amos, Cook, WilUam, Cotton, Edward, Davis, Joseph W., Doddson, Wesley, Edwards, Travis, Flick, John, Glass, James, PRIVATES Graham, John P., Guthrie, John, Harman, Thomas, Heady, Squire, Herrald, James, Herrington, Jeremiah, Hilton, William, Hunley, Sherwood, Kendle, James, King, Willis, Lowber, Peter, Lusher, Jacob, May, Anderson, McClelland, Robert, McMickam, Charles, Mills, Ely, Payne's Company Mug, Benjamin, Mug, William, Murphy, John, Remy, Butler G., Roads, Barney, Robert, Abner, Russell, Samuel, Selch, Nicholas, Sherley, Joshua, Smiley, William, Vanwender, James, Watson, John, Wilcocks, Isaac, Wilson, John, Wilson, William, Wyatt, Luutzeford. William R. P.une, Captain. Richard D. Neale, First Lieutenant. James Maxev, Second Lieutenant. Hiram RoundTrEE, Ensign. John Brewer, First Sergeant. William Hendricks, Second Sergeant. William Briggs, Third Sergeant. James Ford, Fourth Sergeant. Henry GridER, First Corporal. John Boyd, Second Corporal. Shadrick, Hays, Third Corporal. Thomas Edmonson, Fourth Corporal. 248 Appendix Airy, John, Ambrose, Jacob, Barclay, Eli, Barnes, James, Barnes, William, Birch, Cheadle, Boice, Jesse, Bowen, Reece, Bowsman, Samuel, Briggs, James T., Brown, William, Campbell, James, Campbell, Samuel, Carter, John, Chapman, George, Coats, Austin, CofFman, Nathan, Cole, Andrew H., Cawn, William, Cox, Frederick, Donaldson, Lewis G., Dunham, Joseph, PRIVATES Dunovan, William, Fisher, Samuel, Grider, John, Hobson, Jonathan, Inglish, William, Johnston, Absalom, Jones, Robert P., Jones, William, Lawrence, Harper, Long, Nimrod, Lowry, Weat, Manance, John, Maxey, James, McNeal, Pleasant D., Moore, Robert, Moore, Samuel, Neal, Thomas M., Patrick, Luke, Randall, James, Ransdall, Charles M., Richardson, John, Robinson, David H., Scott, Lewis, Shanks, Henry, Smith, David, Smith, William, Snowden, Samuel, Snowden, William, Stroud, John, Tindell, Benjamin, Todd, Benjamin, Turner, Edward, Turner, Joel, Turner, Levi, Turner, Thomas, Upton, Elijah, Vance, John, Wallace, John, White, Amos, Wingfield, David, Wingfield, Jacob, Wingfield, Josepli, Young, William. Walker's Company Andrew, Walker, Lieutenant. Baker, Abraham, Baker, Abram, Broon, Isaac, Clarke, Drury, Clarke, Reuben, Clarke, William, PRIVATES Craddock, Zerrel, Hamilton, Adams, Hardin, Martin, lollilT, James, Jones, David, Gorin's Company Laswell, William, McKinney, Charles, Pierce, Richard, Ray, James, Rennick, Henry. John Gorin, Captain. Charles Harvev, Lieutenant. Richard Waggoner, Ensign. Joel Franklin, Orderly Sergeant. Jesse Berry, Second Sergeant. Thomas Cooke, Third Sergeant. William Co.\ts, Fourth Sergeant. Barker T. Anderson, First Corporal. John Franklin, Second Corporal. Samuel Mattox, Third Corporal. Mahlon Hall, Fourth Corporal. Appendix 249 Anderson, William, Bailey, Jacob, Bennett, Gabriel, Berry, Thompson, Bishop, Cary, Bishop, Thomas, Bush, William, Brown, Isaac, Cosby, Achilles, Chapman, Daniel, Clarke, John, Davidson, Elijah, Davidson, James, Dishman, William, Eubank, Richard, Evans, William, Fitzgerald, William, Fletcher, George W., Foster, Barnett, Foster, David, Foster, James, PRIVATES Franklin, Martin, Goodall, Loddonick, Goodwin, Jas., Goodwin, John, Gray, William, Hailey, Maximillian, Hall, Joseph, Hampton, Amos, Hampton, Joshua, Hardy, Thomas, Humphries, Thomas, Jenkins, Richard, Jenkins, William, Kirtly, Abraham, Lowe, Samuel B., Mattox, Ignatius, Mayfield, Isaac, McCuUum, John, McMurry, Samuel, Melton, Isaac, Tyler's Company Moss, William, Newell, James, Perkins, Tarlton, Pointer, Rdniond, Pointer, John, Reed, James, Robertson, Thomas, Robertson, William, Rousey, William, Shclton, David, Suter, John, Turpin, Elisha, Waggoner, Reuben, Waters, Jacob, Wilkerson, Richard, Wilson, Richard, Melton, Jesse, James, David, Lofwell, William, Penton, Jolm. James Tyler, Captain Philip Thompson, First Lieutenant. Benjamin NewTON, Second Lieutenant. Thomas MosElEv, Ensign. John Smith, Sergeant. John Crow, Sergeant. Mason Wood, Sergeant. Joseph Garbo, Corporal. W.\LTER Crow, Corporal. Jesse Crow, Corporal. Adkins, Harrison, Albin, Reuben, Beal, Hilary, Coffee, Philip, Christian, Charles, Condit, Peter, Crow, Edward, Crumley, John, Diamond, JuUan, Dulin, William, Ford, Warren, Files, John, Frizzle, Beverly, Garnett, Reuben, Handcock, Samuel, privates Hamilton, Thomas, Haynes, Daniel, Hepsley, Amos, Hill, Henry, Howell, Mason J., Howard, Will, Howard, Groves, Howard, John, Ingram, James, Jones, William, Lindsey, Thomas, Lane, Lewis, Madison, James, Martin, Thomas, Meekley, Henry, Milay, William, Neal, Thomas, Roan, John, Rogers, Lewis, Shepherd, William, Smith, John J., Stevens, Joseph, Tanner, Thomas, Taylor, William, Taylor, Joseph, Turnbo, George, Travis, John, Wall, Banister, Wayne, Henry L., Wilcox, Abraham. 250 Appendix ELEVENTH REGIMENT (WILLIAMS') William Williams, Culonel. Jeremiah Stroud, Major. Lewis Kincheloe, Major, Stephen Taylor, Surgeon. John Bennett, Surgeon's Mate. Archibald Woods, Adjutant. Matthew Clarke, Paymaster. James Jones, Quartermaster. Will R. Ashby, Quartermaster. Will R. Ashby, Quartermaster-Sergt. Willis Green, Quartermaster-Sergt Will C. Barnett, Sergeant-Major. Bayles' Company Benjamin Bayles, Captain. WiNSLOw Parker, First Lieutenant. Jambs A. Paxton, Second Lieutenant. PayTON, B. Key, Ensign. John P. McKay, Orderly Sergeant. Arthur Fox, First Sergeant. William B. Johnston, Second Sergt. John Samuel, Third Sergeant. James Campbell, Fourth Sergeant. Abrah.\m Proctor, Corporal. Zebulon L. Hart, First Corporal. Stephen Lasiibrook, Second Corporal. Christian Shultz, Third Corporal. George G. Chinn, Fourth Corporal. Best, James, Blanchard, John, Brading, James, Brierly, Samuel, Brook, Humphrey, Bryant, Lewis, Bullock, William G., Byram, William, Cahill, Ellison, Chutter, William, Corgcll, James, Cox, Enoch, Cox, Jonathan, Dougherty, John, Duke, Thomas M., Drake, Benjamin, Drake, Ralph, Dyson, Thomas, Edwards, Alexander, Ewell, Leroy, Glenn, James, privates Corsage, James, Corsage, William, Hancock, William, Hoge, Nimrod G., Hudson, Bailey W., Hurst, Harmon, Lurton, James, McCarty, Nathaniel, McCord, WiUiam, McClung, Thomas, McGalHard, Joseph, McKinsey, John, McNary, John, Means, Amos, Moore, Samuel, Newdegate, William, Nicholson, Thomas, Osborne, Wilson S., Phillips, Daniel, Pool, Thomas, Ravenscraft, John, Ryan, James, Silvers, Joseph, ,Smith, David, Spurrier, Garrard, Stubblefield, George W., Taylor, Joseph, Taylor, Thomas, TolHvcr, Benjamin, Vandeventer, Peter, Vandeventer, Robert, Wallingsford, Samuel, Wiley, James, Wilson, James, Wood, Charles, Wood, David, W'oolfolk, Thomas, Yancy, Thomas, Glenn, Isaac, Wilson, Thomas. Appendix 251 Massie's Company SiLVANUS Massie, Captain. Andrew Briscoe, Lieutenant. Joseph Black, Ensign. Levi Wiluams, Sergeant. Adams, William, Bartlett, John, Bartlett, Henry, Bell, William, Bennett, Joshua, Burgy, Manson, Campbell, Joseph, Conn, Francis, Conmi, Hiram, Corum, John, Dunn, James, Durbin, Edwards, Faulkner, Henry, Gentry, Nicholas, Gentry, William, Griffith, James, Gwinn, William, Hicks, Robert, PRIVATES Hicks, WilUam, Hunt, Dudley, Johnson, Vincent, Kavanaugh, Charles, Lamb, James, Lamb, Pendleton, Lamb, Thomas, Lowry, William C, Martin, David, McGuire, Jesse, Million, Burrell, Perkins, William, Powel, Jeremiah, Powel, John, Powel, Obediah, Proctor, William, Rafferty, William, Reives, Thomas, Reynolds, Charles, Roberts, George, Rummins, Abram, Shearer, Hiram, Stagner, Jesse, Stagner, Thomas, Todd, Caleb, Todd, Jesse, Tamblin, Joel, Turner, Enoch, Vanbuskirk, John, Watson, William, Witt, Elisha, Witt, Littlebery, Wood, Samuel, Campbell, Jesse, Lamb, Samuel. Kincheloe's Company Lewis Kincheloe, Captain. Charles F. Wing, Lieutenant. John Dobvnb, Ensign. John W. Langlev, Corporal. Baldwin, Herbert W., Brown, Frederick, Butler, Samuel, Culbertson, Robert W. Davis, Randolph, Davis, William, Drake, Mosely, Graves, John C, Ham, David, Harris, Richard, Haws, John, Hill, Asa, PRIVATES Hill, John, Hill, William, McFerson, John, Miller, George, Murphy, Samuel, Neff, Henry, O'Neal, Spencer, Pace, Daniel, Pace, Josel, Penrod, George, Redmin, Parmenas, Roark, William, Raco, Henry, Segler, Jacob, Shelton, John, Smith, Hugh, Uzzell, Thomas, Wilcox, Thomas, Worthington, Isaac, Row, Henry, Jones, Fielding, Langley, James. 253 Appendix McJilton's Company Thomas McJilton, Captain. Robert Baker, Lieutenant. Pleasant Parker, Ensign. Daniel Sybert, Second Sergeant. William Harris, Third Sergeant. Isaac M.\rtin, Fourth .Sergeant. John Seabourne, First Corporal. Merrit Hubbard, vSecond Corporal. Archibald Ellison, Third Corporal. John Casteel, Fourth Corporal. Baker, Bowling, Bengo, David, Bowling, Isham, Broadus, Jeremiah, Bunch, Garrett, Bunch, William, Cain, Jacob, Callihan, Isaac, Dunbar, James, Duncil, William, Edwards, Meredith, Francis, Samuel, Hynes, John, Lewis, David, Love, Granville N., Dysart's Company Love, James, McCoy, David, McCammon, William, > Morris, George, Morris, WilUam, Schoolcraft, George, Shackleford, Marquis. Johnston Dysart, Captain. Charles C. Carson, Lieutenant Joseph Henderson, Ensign. James Wilson, First Sergeant. Jacob Frederick, Second Sergeant. Isiah Ham, Third Sergeant. Samuel Vance, Fourth Sergeant. John Bustle, First Corporal. John Evans, Second Corporal. George Watkins, Third Corporal. Is.\ac Dillard, Fourth Corporal. Alexander, George, Bailey, Hannan, Bealey, Reuben, Bell, Elijah, Bowen, Jacob, Brooks, James, Brown, Wilson, Buford, William, Callahan, John, Callons, Andrew, Colyar, Gabriel, Colyar, John, privates Conn, Alexander, Cremon, John, Dearmine, Flenion, Denning, Levi, Dysart, Samuel, Graves, William, Haley, John, Henderson, William, Jones, James, Lawrence, Thomas, McEnturf, Manuel, Owens, Allen, Owens, Martin, Owens, Presley, Owens, Samuel, Roberts, Hiram, Roberts, James, Stewart, James, Tenner, Silvester, Terrell, James, Thompson, Joseph, Tysah, John, Warren, Benjamin, White, Joel. McWiLLiAMs' Company John C. McWilliams, Captain. John W. Elliott, Lieutenant. Richard Gentry, Ensign. James Scott, First Sergeant. William Farris, Second Sergeant. William Elliott, Third Sergeant. James Blythe, Fourth Sergeant. Robert Buckner, Corporal. Appendix 253 Anderson, Allen, Barnett, William C, Broadus, Pascal, Butcher, Robert, Calvin, Jeremiah, Cochran, James, Cochran, Robert, Cochran, William, Davis, Asa, Dougherty, Cornelius, Glascow, Nathan, Goen, Francis, Goen, Pollard, Hawkins, William, Haze, David, Henson, Francis, PRIVATES Hopper, James, Hopper, John, Johnson, Thomas, Kirkpatrick, Hugh, Mason, William, McClane, Richard W., McKay, James, McNitt, Joseph, McWilliams, Alex C, Mitchell, Samuel, Moore, John, Moran, Barnett C, Moran, Joshua, Ried, James, Ried, John, Ried, William, Ross, Alexander, Ross, George, Scott, Mathevv, Snoddy, Joseph W., Stinson, Andrew, Stinson, James, Tomblin, Ambrose, Tomblin, Joel, Vaughan, Elisha, White, Henry, Wiley, Hiram, Wiley, Zachariah, Woods, William, Horan, Joshua. Richard C. Holder, Captain. Akchib.vld Woods, Lieutenant. William Harris, Ensign. John Hart, First Sergeant. James A. Cannon, Second Sergeant. James Barnes, Third Sergeant Holder's Company Willia.m K.wanaugh, Fourth Sergeant, Joseph Bralton, First Corporal. Steward Stevens, Second Corporal. Willis Green, Third Corporal. Tarlton Turner, Fourth Corporal. Ashby, William R., Barnes, Aswell, Bentley, John, BiggerstafT, Hiram, Charis, Ishmael, Clarke, Turner, Dickey, William, Hasten, Johnson, Fox, George, FuUilove, Larkin. Harris, Samuel, Hays, Arthur, Hays, Benjamin, PRIVATES Irvine, Davis, Kerley, John, Lancaster, Delaney, Lancaster, Larkee, Lancaster, Littleton, McQueen, John, Miller, Frederick, Moberly, Thomas, Newland, Abraham, Newman, George, Newman, Henry, Prophet, Anderson, Reid, James, Sanford, John D., Simon, David, Smith, John Speed, Taylor, Peter, Tribble. John, \'aughan. Rarely, Waters, Sampson, Waters, Samuel, Wayne, William, While, Nicholas, Williams, William, Woods, Aswell D., Mays, Benjamin. Hayden's Company John H.vydEn, Captain. William Furnish, Lieutenant. Jon,\than Hedger, Lieutenant. D.wid R.\lston, Ensign. Lewis Conner, First Sergeant. Noah HalbERT, Second Sergeant. William Lindsey, Third Sergeant. G.\rnet Hayden, Fourth .Sergeant, George Goodnight, First Corporal. Martin Odour, Second Corporal. Willia.m Porter, Third Corporal. William Odour, Fourth Corporal. 254 Appendix Alger, Samuel, Chandler, George R., Clark, John R., Dungan, Thomas, Eckler, Samuel, Ferguson, John, Green, William, Hutchison, Wilham, Kendal, Enoch, PRIVATES Levi, Hugh, Martin, David, Martin, John, McDowell, Thomas, Milner, Edmund, Milner, John, Mitchell, James, Mitchell, Joseph, Moore, James, Berryman's Company Moore, William, Mussulman, Daniel, Ritter, Lewis, Shearer, Michael, Shropshire, Wilham, Shuppett, Jacob, Wells, Bazil, Wells, Benjamin, Winn, William. William Berrvman, Captain. Willis J. Williams, First Lieutenant. Henry Collins, Ensign. Travers Dunc.\n, Sergeant. Samuel Keely, Sergeant. Joseph Chapman, Sergeant. J.\MEs Spillman, Sergeant. James MlCollister, Corporal. Jesse Kerry, Corporal. Upsh.\m Martin, Corporal. Robert Duff, Corporal. Barnabus Low, Musician. Abshear, John, Barton, John, Barton, Berry, Carter, Charles, Chapman, Jeremiah, Charon, David, Dobson, Thomas, Davis, John, Dawson, Jonathan, Dinvv'iddie, James, Dobson, James, Darrel, David, Darral, John, privates Duncan, Ashley, Ellison, George, Field, Ambrose, Foley, James, Gibson, Jacob, Gibson, William, Gibson, John, Hardcastle, William, Hardcastle, John, Hopson, Alexander, Kerby, Isiah, Martin, Wilham G., McKinney, Kennith, Ormsby, Nicholas, Patton, Wilham, Ray, James S., Rockburk, Benjamin, Sameboy, Adam, Thomas, Samuel, Whaley, James, Wharton, Thomas, Williams, Ralph, Wainscot t, Robert, Wharton, Edwin, Young, Wilham, Gibson, Joseph. Lewis's Company Henry R. Lewis, Captain Robert McClure, Lieutenant. Greenlief Morrell, Ensign. Alexander Reid, Sergeant. John Millhollon, Sergeant. John Golliker, Corporal. Edmund Kenneda, Corporal. privates Adams, Westley, Anderson, John G., Barton, Roger, Boyertt, Joseph, Berdine, James, Estis, John, Estis, Joseph, Grace, Allen, Johnson, James, Mitchell, Jonas, Smith, Stephen, Terrell, Ebar. Appendix 255 ROLL OF CAPTAIN BALTZELL'S COMPANY IN THE WAR OF 1812 Pursuant to the call of July 31, 1813 George Baltzell, Captain. Samuel Arnold, Lieutenant. James Clark, Ensign. George Si'ROULE, First SerReant. Rowland Maddison, Second Sergeant. \ViLLL\M Mavhall, Third Sergeant. William Fox, Fourth Sergeant. James Arnold,, First Corporal. James Holton, Second Corporal. AitcHiBALD Elliott, Third Corporal. Nelson R. Jones, Fourth Corporal. Anderson, William, Benhara, James, Bennet, Benjamin, Bratton, Adam, Calhoun, Henry P., Campbell, George, Chambers, John D., Church, James, Fish, F., PRIVATES Gudgell, Andrew, Hampton, James, Hulton, Cornelius, Lewis, Zachary, Matthews, Milam, James, Miller, William, Pitts, Berkin, Price, John, Redding, Joseph, Reece, Thomas, Robinson, Robinson, James, Ruble, John R., Tompkins, Vance, Isaac, Vines, 256 Appendix ROLL OF FIELD, STAFF, COMPANY OFFICERS AND PRIVATES, KENTUCKY MOUNTED INFANTRY, IN THE WAR OF 1812 Commanded by Colonel Richard M. Johnson JOHNSON'S REGIMENT Richard M. Johnson, Colonel. James Johnson, Lieutenant-Colonel. Duval Payne, First Major. David Tompson, Second Major. James Suggett, Third Major. Robert M. Ewing, Surgeon. John C. Rich.\rdson, Mate. Wilson Coburn, Mate. Jeremiah A. Matthews, Mate. Benjamin S. Chambers, Quartermaster. Jeremiah Kertley, Adjutant. Samuel Theobalds, J. Advocate. Garrard Wall, F. Master. Eli Short, Apt. F. M. John Dickerson, Sergt. -Major. LuRENCE Sandford, Quartermaster- Sergeant. J.AMES Johnson, Paymaster. Hamilton's Company Allen A. H.vmilton, Captain. Joseph Bell, First Lieutenant. JoHN HoLLiDAY, Second Lieutenant. Tho.mas EasTERdav, Third Lieutenant. Benjamin Cr.aig, Lieutenant. Robert Berry, Ensign. Robert S. Dougherty, First Sergeant. James Luster, Second Sergeant. Joseph Holiday, Third Sergeant. Thomas Simpson, First Corporal. WiLLi.\M Snell, Second Corporal. Dudley Mitchell, Third Corporal. William Brow.v, Fourth Corporal. JOH.N Baker, Saddler. William Bond, Trumpeter. William Kerr. Blacksmith. John BrumlEy, Farrier. Brumley, Alexander, Buckhannon, John, Baker, Jesse, Calbert, Daniel, Craig, Hawkins, Crawford, James, Cronden, James, Craig, James, Conover, Joseph, Craig, Levi, Craig, Richard, Catterson, Robert, Cook, William, privates Cobb, William, Dougherty, James, Deen, Robert, Evans, Lewis, Eliott, William, Finley, James, Finley, John, Gillum, James, Hayden, Blan. B., Handen, Robert, Homes, Thomas, Hadden, William, Jackson, Alexander, Jackson, George, Jackson, Hugh, Jones, Thomas, Kelly, Samuel, Linch, Isaac, Markham, John, Moore, Jesse, Madox, Shearwood, Markham, William, Morgan, WilUam, Outhouse, Israel, O'Neal, John, Pringle, John, Appendix 257 Pittell, George, Pringle, Samuel, Pringle, William, Ray, John, Ray, Moses, Ross, Philip, Right, Reason, Sanders, Abner, Simpson, Abraham, Still, Charles, Searcy, Francis, Short, John, Searcy, James, Sail, James, Swonger, James, Sanders, Nathaniel, Stewart, Robert, Sneed, Samuel C, Warfield's Company Searcy, Taylor, Toon, John, Thompson, Samuel, Wyant, George, Walters, John, Wyman, William, Whitehead, William, Whitehead, Richard, Wheat, Nathaniel. Benjamin Warfield, Captain. HiNLEY, Roberts, First Lieutenant. Robert Berry, Ensign. Abner DepEW, First Lieutenant. Lewis Reddle, Second Lieutenant. John Willi.^ms, Third Lieutenant. Zachariah J.\meson, First Sergeant. Thomas Rodgers, Second Sergeant. William Craig, Third Sergeant. Joseph Blair, Fourth Sergeant. Jacob Stew.\rt, First Corporal. Thomas L. M. Justice, Second Corp'l. WiLLi.^M Moore, Third Corporal. John Jamiso.n, Fourth Corporal. John Wells, Artificer. Andrew, Mallows, Allen, David, Allen, WilUam, Alexander, James, Bullock, Nathan, Bell, Thomas, Barton, John, Bradshaw, George, Brockman, William, Caldwell, Oliver, Caldwell, Robert, Colglazier, John, Colglazier, Phil, Colglazier, David, Cox, Richard H., Connell, David, Craig, Francis, Christy, Simeon, Duckworth, Wilham, Dickey, Thomas, Denton, Abraham, Duskin, Moses, David, Ignation, privates Evans, Thomas, Evans, F'rancis, Eve, Milton, Ellerson, James, Fatton, John, Finn, John, Focoke, Richard, Fay, WiUiam, Farrel, James, Gamett, James, Graves, Reuben, Graves, Henry, Harron, William, Hall, Moses, Hall, Elikin, Hawkins, Philip, Hawkins, Gregory, Hugh, Alexander, Jamison, William, Johnson, George, Kirtley, William, Lockridge, James, Lockridge, .\ndrew. Lacy, Levi, Lanton, James, Larkin, Rogers, Mcintosh, James, Mosby, Daniel, McConn, David, Malories, Oba, Malories, A. Oba, Magoker, John, Mcintosh, John, Prichards, Alfred, Parker, Harvay, Poe, Benjamin, Priest, Daniel, Pebell, John, Rogers, James, Raynalds, Richard, Rogers, Valentine, Riddle, James, - ' Rector, Hezekiah, Ross, Reuben, Ross, Jacob, Rogers, George, 258 Appendix Rogers, John, Stewart, R<iy, Smith, John, Smith, William, Smith, David, Scott, Muril, Shortridge, William, Sanders, George, Sanders, Haney, Saide, Eleford Brison, Saide, Simpson, Stamper, Richard, Sanders, Solomon, Steward, Ray, Stapp, Major, Trumble, William, Todd, James L., Terrel, George C, Tabbot, Pane, Tanner, John, Thomson, H. D., Thomson, Thomas, Coleman's Company Thompson, Samuel, Venkirk, Mat, Woodward, John, Whitaker, William, Wilson, Martin, Wilson, James, Weeks, Payton, Wilson, John, Wishart, Aram, Wishart, James, Woolcut, Justice. James Coleman, Captain. John McMillin, First Lieutenant. Samuel Logan, Second Lieutenant. William Clarke, Third Lieutenant. Carter Anderson, Ensign. HiR.AM Philips, First Sergeant. William Lamml, Second Sergeant. John Williams, Third Sergeant. Thomas Hurd, Fourth Sergeant. Peter Lewis, First Corporal. John Mc. Dickson, Second Corporal. John W. McClEnin, Third Corporal, James S.N'ELL, Fourth Corporal. Thomas Cummings, Trumpeter. Joseph Loan, Saddler. John Brownsfield, Blacksmith. Anderson, Amos, Ashbrook, Andrew, Ashesop, Ichabod, Anderson, William, Angel, William, Burke, Abraham, Ball, Hugh, Bayle, John, Brown, James, Bell, Listen T., Bow, Joseph, Bogle, John, Burke, Abraham, Cummings, Edward, Casey, Henry, Childen, Harman, Crook, John, Cleveland, James, Cleveland, Micajah, Clough, Price, Crook, Richard, privates Clough, Thomas, Clough, William, Crook, William, Casey, William, Cummins, William, Clough, WiUiam, Dudley, Ambrose, Depew, George, Dickson, James, Egner, Andrew, Endicott, John, Egnew, John, Endicott, Joseph, Endicott, Joseph, Jr., Egnew, Andrew, Fielding, William, Gowdy, George, Gray, James, Gowdy, James, Glenn, Turner H., Guthrie, William, Hodge, Charles A,, Huston, John, Holiday, Joseph, Hume, Stripling, Holaday, William S., Jennings, Clement, Johns, David, Johns, Jacob, Jenkins, John, Jones, Isaac, Jolas, Samuel, Lemmon, John W , Laws, Pompy, Laner, Reuben, Little, William, Miller, Aaron, Moore, Benjamin, Mason, Daniel, Mason, Josiah, McCarthem, James, Mills, Joseph, Appendix 259 McClure, Samuel, McFarling, Thomas, McFarland, William, Night, Jacob, Newell, Robert, Pettet, George, Phillips, William, Picket, Wilham, Rankins, John, Rout, Nimrod, Scribner, Abraham, Satterfield, Clement, Slade, Ezekiel, Shaver, Frederick, Shepherd, George, Slaughter, James, Sellers, John F., Stern, John W., Stewart, Jesse, Scott, Robert, Schooler, Richard, Smith, Silas, Spotwood, William, Turner, Abraham, Turner, Isaac, Trimble, James, Thompson, Robert, Theobalds, Samuel, Veach, David, Vaughan, Isaac, Vaughan, John, Vandevin, Samuel, Wallace, Graham, Welch, James H., Waltern, John, White, John, Wyatt, Jesse, Woolen, Leonard, Woorkman, Richard. William M. Rice, Captain. Morgan Bryan, First Lieutenant. Joseph Thomas, Second Lieutenant. M.\TTHEW MiLSEV, Third Lieutenant Elisha Scott, Ensign. Jonathan ElTis, First Sergeant. George Scorr, Second Sergeant. Rice's Company William McKjnsey, Fourth Sergeant. Jacob Meyers, First Corporal. Robert Lowden, Second Corporal. Benjamin MilEy, Third CoqKiral. Benjamin Ruan, Fourth Corporal. Bela Cropper, Trumpeter. Admere, James, Aldridge, John, Antle, John, Antle, Peter, Allen, Peter, Banta, Abraham, Banta, Andrew, Barnes, Caleb, Banta, Daniel, Bartlett, Edmond, Bacy, Elisman, Bartlett, Foster, Bryant, James, Bantee, Jacob, Berry, John, Brown, Joel, Burton, John, Boston, Mary, Banter, Peter, Brown, Richard, privates Bell, Thomas, Boid, William, Clark, John, Clemeworth, James, Clemeworth, John, Carnahan, James, Conn, Richard, Dowdin, James, Dunn, Jesse, Dawkins, Thomas, Elston, John, ElHs, William, Fairley, Joseph F., Franks, Thomas, Goods, Richard, Gobin, Jose])h, Hardin, Daniel, Hagland, James, Hyatt, Shadrach, Huffman, Philip, Hitshoe, William, Hanna, William, Jones, Ebner, Johnson, John, Jones, Tholeson, Jones, Wilham, Kelley, Amos, Kepheart, Abraham, Kepheart, Abraham, Kelly, Daniel, Kepheart, George, Kelly, John, Kindall, John, Kelly, James, Kel, Mosef, Kindall, Reason, Lowden, .Thomas, Mitchell, Andrew, McCollcston, David, McClane, George, 26o Appendix May, Gabriel, McGuire, Jesse, McClain, Jacob, McClain, James, McClelland, James, McCauIey, James, McGuire, Luke, Mitchell, Michael M., McClelland, Richard, Martin, Thomas, Moore, William, McCrackin, William, McClure, William, Nevell, Thomas, Neal, William, Nevell, Stewart, Owings, Henry, Onan, Peter, Parr, Aaron, Perry, EUsha, Parr, John, Penn, Noah, Powell, Robert, Pope, Reuben, Piles, Samuel, Poland, William, Rice, John, Rice, William, Scott, Asa, Spencer, Caleb, Elliston's Company Spencer, Joseph, Joseph, Levi, Smith, Robert, Simpson, Shelley, Spencer, Walter, Tyler, Charles, Turner, James, Thompson, John, Thomasson, Thomas, White, David, Wooldgriger, Geo. W., Wyler, John, Warfield, John, Woodford, John, Wiley, John. Jacob Elliston, Captain. John B. White, First Lieutenant. William McGinnis, Second Lieutenant. Leonard Seays, Third Lieutenant. Edw.ard Harris, Ensign. James Decker, First Sergeant. Major M. Johnson, Second Sergeant. Richard D. Phillips, Third Sergeant. Samuel B. Petty, Fourth Sergeant. Henry McKee, First Corporal. Hugh McBra\-ers, Second Corporal. Newman Barn-es, Third Corporal. PlEas.\nt Oliver, Fourth Corporal. Joseph Allen, Trumpeter. Charles Laughter, Artificer. Buntian, John, Buntian, James, Bryant, Rowleigh, Barnes, Zachariah, Buntian, Thomas, Cox, Ansel, Cummings, Alexander, Cogshill, Francis, Cofiiner, John, Case, Joseph, Coffiner, Jacob, Cogshill, Leonard, Cogshill, Magauner, Cole, Micajah, Cogshill, Matthew, Comings, Matthew, Cox, Nathaniel, privates Colquit, Ranson E., Cole, Salathiel, Duprey, Ebenezer, Downey, James, Downey, John, Frazier, Robert, George, Dudley, Grabb, John A., Gaines, Samuel, Hackley, James S., Hanks, Pitman, Halhs, Robert, Holeman, Reuben, Joy, Curtis, Johnson, Holeman, Jerrell, Whitefield, Johnson, Isaac, Johnson, James, Kelley, Henry, Lewis, Charles, Lillard, Christopher, Lightfoot, Goodrich, Lillard, Mathew, Lightfoot, PhiUp, Morris, George, Miller, George, Miller, John, Mulican, John T. Miller, Peter, Montgomery, Robert, Miller, Robert, McMinimy, William, Natron, Francis, Preuett, Joel B., Appendix 261 Phillips, Solomon, Rochells, John, Rucker, Robert A., Raines, Wilham, Ryan, Winston, Robinson, WilUam, Rice, Joseph, vSlate, Bazel, Slaughter, Francis, Slate, James, Slate, Thomas, Combs' Company Slate, William I., Thompson, David, Timmismon, William, Young, Thomas, Young, William. Samuel R. Combs, Captain. H. P. Thornton, First Lieutenant. James H. Hill, Second Lieutenant. James M. Cogsw'ELL, Third Lieutenant. Joseph Major, First Sergeant. William Rout, Second Sergeant. Jacob LindsEy, Third Sergeant. William D. Hexry, Fourth Sergeant. Hen'RV Rush, First Corporal. WiLLi.\M Lampton, Second Corporal. L.^RKIN Dawson, Third Corporal. Richard Awbrav, Fourth Corporal. William Winn, Fourth Corporal. John H. Combs, Trumpeter. Joseph Cockrel, Farrier. Joseph W.allace, Artificer. Allen, Joseph, Aresmith, WilUam, Allen, William, Bentley, Bailey, Baler, Jonathan, Baxter, Jesse, Boyle, Joseph, Browning, James, Bums, Jackey, Barnes, John, Beamblett, John, Burnett, John, Black, Samuel, Bramblett, Henry, Chism, Elijah, Caldwell, Ephraim, Cuberson, Francis, Cotton, George, Coffer, George, Combs, Joseph, Combs, John, Cormick, Richard, Chism, Nathaniel, Corbin, Silas, Christian, William, Call, William, Corbin, Zachariah, Duckworth, Ezekiel, Duckerson, John, Eustis, Robert, Edwards, William, Foster, Isaac, Foster, Moses, Foster, Tinsley, Foster, William, Gordon, Benjamin, Griffin, Francis, Gist, James, Graham, Joseph W., Grimes, John A., Gist, Mordecai, Henry, Andrew, HazUngs, Charles, Hendley, Elkaaa, Henry, EUsha, Haggin, George, Howard, George S., Hackey, Hightown, Haley, John, Huston, Matthew, Hardwick, Robert, Herrington, Samuel, Heydon, Samuel, Howard, Samuel U., Hoggin, William, Hardwick, Wilham, Halsel, William, Hand, Thomas, Jones, John, Sr., Jones, John, Jr., Jamison, John, Johnson, Isaac, Kenney, Alexander R. Latham, James, Lampton, William, Lock, WilUam F., Mitchell, Daniel, Murr, EUptet, McDoweU, George, McGunnigal, John, Mure, Jeremiah, McCall, John, Major, John, Moore, John, Mace, Jobe, McClure, Mathew, Major, Oliver, McFarine, Robert, 262 Appendix Mure, Richard, Mure, Robert, Mitchell, Robert, Nelson, Graham, Nicholas, Robert, Owens, Horatio, Owens, Jonathan, Owens, Samuel, Pasley, John, Rodgers, Henry, Ripper, James, Roper, James, Rolston, John, Rollins, Owen, Rinard, Samuel, Rodgers, Thomas, Southerland, Bailey, Sherwood, Edward, Southerland, Howard, Southerland, John, Southerland, James, Sherwood, Moses, Spurr, Richard, Short, Pleasant, Talbot, Benjamin, Tangier, George, Talbot, John, Tinsley, William, Utty, Royal, Utterback, Reuben, Wills, Alexander, Wallace, Andrew, Welch, John, Wyatt, James, Winn, James, Wyatt, Mordecai, Wilson, Samuel, Wier, W'illiam, Wood, Peter. Davidson's Company James Davidson, Captain. John Lapslev, First Lieutenant. Hugh W. McKeE, Second Lieutenant. Wier Tilford, Third Lieutenant. Robert G. Foster, Ensign. Francis Clory, First Sergeant. Andrew LeepER, Second Sergeant. William Hill, Third Sergeant. Absalom McKinsev, Fourth Sergeant Samuel Dodds, First Corporal. James Hall, Second Corporal. Gabriel Hugh, Third Corporal. Thomas Cl-^^rk, Fourth Corporal. John Run.\lds, Trumpeter. JON.ATH.\N Levi, Farrier. Astall, John, Allen, Samuel, Allen, Thomas, Allen, Churchwell, Brown, Bailey, Baley, Edward, Brown, Francis, Bourne, Francis, Banton, George W., Blackenship, John, Banks, Jared, Brown, Joshua, Banks, Lucia, Banker, Richard, Harnett, Robert, Boswell, Thomas, Bernett, William, Berry, William, Clear, George, PRIVATES Cawley, Samuel, demons, Wilson, Collins, William, Dunwiddie, David C, Dunwiddie, George, Davidson, George, Davis, John, Dunwiddie, John, Denton, William, Edwards, Griffin, Edwards, Peter, Easthan, Zachariah, Fancy, James, Feland, James, Flint, Richard, Flint, Samuel, Farrel, William, Fitzpatrick, William, Garter, Dennis, Grimes, Elijah, Gillett, John S., Gilmore, James, Gilmore, Robert, Giles, Thomas, Hall, Andrew, Hutchings, Baird, Hughs, Frank, Hall, George, Harvey, James, Hughs, John, Homes, Jacob, Hall, John B., Hall, John, Hutchings, Lemuel, Hodge, Moses, Hutchings, Parks, Humphrey, William, Henderson, William, Appendix 263 Homes, Solas, January, John, King, David, Logan, Benjamin, Logan, David, Leeper, George, Lewis, John, Leach, Matthew, Loid, WiUiam F., Legg, WiUiam, Lampton, Wilham, Lapsley, William, Law, Thomas, McKee, Gipson, May, George, McCoUiston, George, Milner, John, McKee, James, Martin, Nicholas, McDonald, Story, McGrenwood, William, McCoon, William, Moore, Alexander, Norville, Lepscombe, Power, Andrew L., Preses, Bailey, Perrel, Edward, Panton, George, Pearson, James, Paw, Joseph, Patter, Jesse, Preston, John, Pinor, John, Pearson, Jeremiah, Piirnel, Lemuel, Potter, Lemuel, Potter, Thomas, Paw, William, Pruce, Robert, Right, James, Rose, John, Read, Jacob, Runnalds, Peter, Ridgeway, Samuel, Rentford, James, Shannon, Absalom, Smith, Ephraira, Shackelford, Edward, Scott, George, Matson's Company Sharp, Henry, Stevenson, James, Sellors, John, Sayers, John, Shanks, James, Shclton, Peter, Sanders, Stephen, Standford, Perry, Sanders, Stevenson, Thaylewood, Joseph, Thuman, Joseph, Tarrant, James, Vutton, Aaron, Vautress, Jacob, Vauters, Aaron, Vulson, Thomas, Wiloy, George W., Wood, John S., Wood, Abraham, Wilson, Martin, Williamson, Robert, West, WiUiam, Woolfskill, William, Whitley, William. Richard Matson, Captain. Robert Scroggins, First Lieutenant. ■ William McHatton, Second Lieut. R.\LPH Jacobv, Third Lieutenant. John Brice, Ensign. Thomas Stark, First Sergeant. J.\MES St.\rk, Second Sergeant. Thomas Delaney, Third Sergeant. William Kelly, Fourth Sergeant. Thomas Buckhannon, First Corporal James LafferTv, Second Corporal. John Vanderb.\ck, Third Corporal. John Griggs, Fourth Corporal. William B. Kincade, Trumpeter. William F. P.\ge, Saddler. Thomas Funnell, H. Farrier. Adam Kokindaffer, Artificer. Armstrong, Robert, Burk, Richard, Bosel, Henson, Brice, William, Butler, Ichabod, Biggs, William, Berry, Thomas, privates Barlow, Thomas, Bridges, Henry, Bigers, James, Baley, John, Boon, William, Case, Jo,scph, Collins, Thomas, Cox, Charles, Campbell, Alexander, Cannon, Newton, Campbell, Thomas, Currey, William, Chiles, Joseph, Cropper, Solomon, 264 Appendix Delany, Abner, Davis, Ingram, Duncan, Jeremiah, Devers, Johnson, Edmonson, William, Ewings, Hugh, Eades, Horatio, Ford, John, Foster, Nathaniel, Foster, John, Ferguson, William, Ferguson, John, Fagans, Jarard, Golson, James I., Golson, John B., Gray, W'illiam, Givers, Matthew, Grant, John, Galaway, Samuel, Gallaway, Eliheigh, Harris, Daniel, Haines, Nathaniel, Hardester, Samuel, Hill, Nathaniel, Hord, EUas, Haines, Jonathan, Jones, Wilham, Jones, Thomas, Jessup, William, Jones, Richard, Kincaid, William, Laten, James, Laws, William, Martin, William, Malary, William, Malary, Roger, McDowel, Samuel, McKinsey, John, McKinsey, David, McHatten, Samuel, McHatten, Alexander, Mills, Eulises, Morris, Caleb, Malary, Henry, Miller, John, O'Neal, John, Patterson, William, Parsel, John, Palmer, Thomas, Rule, James, Richardson, Robert, Richardson, Jeremiah, Richardson, James, Runalds, John, Ruby, Henry, Smith, John, Sydner, Jacob, Scroggin, John, Scroggin, Joseph, Sharpshire, Jeremiah, Slaughter, Edgecomb, Spears, Abraham, Smith, George A., Schooler, John, Srader, Coonrod, Scrivi, Daniel, Smith, John R., Stevenson, Reuben, Stevenson, Zachariah, Smith, William, Wilson, Jesse, 'ft'alker, Samuel, Wright, John, Winkfield, Enoch. McAfee's Company Robert B. McAfee, Captain. John R. Cardwell, First Lieutenant. David Lillard, Second Lieutenant. William Sharp, Third Lieutenant. David Adams, Ensign. James BrEcki.N'RIDGE, First Sergeant. John Sprixgate, First Sergeant. Samuel Crawford, .Second Sergeant. Mathias Ho.mrav, Third Sergeant. John Armstrong, Fourth Sergeant. Simeon Moore, First Corporal. Stephen Blithe, Second Corporal. John L. McGinnis, Third Corporal. IsA.\c Rynerson, Fourth Corpora!. William CardwELL, Trumpeter. Washington, Barnes, Trumpeter. Atkinson, John, Alexander, James D,, Agains, Thomas, Armstrong, William, Adams, William, Agains, WiUiam, Armstrong, William, Jr., Bohon, Joseph, PRIVATES Brine, Churchwell, Bright, David, Barns, Edmund, Bohon, George, Barnes, Henry, Bohnger, John, Borders, Jacob, Boyle, John, Barton, John, Brine, James, Bucks, John, Baker, James, Burton, John, Appendix 265 Booker, Nicholas, Barnes, Richard, Burton, Samuel, Bornian, William, Corn, Bazil, Cochran, George, Cunningham, Henry, Cardwell, John, Coulter, Mark, Grains, Nathaniel, Curry, Thomas, Cravrford, Thomas, Currens, William, Davis, Allen, Divine, Andrew, Davis, Amos, Divine, David, Davis, George, Devine, George, Debann, George, Dikey, Hays, Davis, John S., Dobson, John, Divine, Thomas H., Deen, John L., Davis, James, Denny, John, Denny, Joseph, Duff, WiUiam, Davis, John, Ewing, Samuel, Franklin, Claiboume, Forsythe, Robert, Guthrice, James, Gutton, Levi, Gutheric, Robert, Green, Samuel, Green, Thomas, Galloway, Daniel, Haines, Daniel, Howard, Eppy, Hale, Joseph, Hackley, I,ott, Horn, Michael, Hughes, Reuben, Hope, Richard, Hughes, Stephen, Hall, Thomas, Hawkins, James, Halligan, John, Jordan, John, Jones, Jesse, Kelly, Joseph, Little, Joseph, Lamb, John, Lawson, Joshua, Little, John, Lawson, James, Lockhart, Lewis, Sr., Lockhart, Lewis, Jr.. Lockhart, Richard, Lions, Stephen, Lions, Stephen, Jr., Logan, Thomas, Lewis, Thomas, Lewis, William, Lillard, Christopher, McFatredge, Andrew, McDonald, Clement, McGee, David, Myers, George, McAfee, George, Mclntire, John, McGinnis, John, Miller, Jacob, McRettrick, James, McGee, Joseph, McGee, John, McAfee, James, Mason, James, Morrison, Nathaniel S., McRettrick, Robert, McGinnis, Thomas B., McClure, WilUam, Morris, William, Mann, Thomas, Noel, Dudley, Perry, Daniel, Philips, George, Parish, Nicholas, Powers, Richard, Poulter, William, Rennick, Robert, Ragan, Abner, Rice, .Ander.son, Roberts, John, Rylcy, Jonathan, Rinehart, Samuel, Riley, WiUiam, Roberts, William, Riley, Jena, Sail, Clayton, Scott, David, Smith, John, Smith, James, Sennel, John, Sportsman, James, Sorter, John, Smith, John, Sandifee, Lewis, Sinnett, Richard, Smithey, Robert, Sylva, Samuel, Steen, Frederick, Thompson, Andrew, Vincent, Charles, \"oris, John, Vandalor, John, Vislet, Sinclair, Wingate, Henry, Wigham, John, Woods, Joseph, Wells, John, Williams, Martin, Voung, John, Young, Nirarod. 266 Appendix Stucker's Company \ Jacob Stucker, Captain. Thomas Story, First Lieutenant. WiLLi-VM M.vssiE, Second Lieutenant Andrew Johxso.x, Third Lieutenant. Turner Branham, Ensign. John L Johnson, First Sergeant. Gabriel Long, Second Sergeant. Joel Harding, Third Sergeant. Edgecomb Suggett, Fourth Sergeant. Thomas Bl.vckbourn, First CorporaL N-\THANIEL Gray, Second Corporal. S.«IUEL Benton, Third CorporaL John Herndon, Fourth CorporaL Thomas Suggett, Trumpeter. James Long, Farrier. George C. Branh.vm, Blacksmith. Daniel Stephenson, Saddler. Anderson, Presty, Bates, Andrew, Barlow, Hartecy, Barkley, Thomas, Berry, Henry, Bonsen, Solomon, Bowen, Solomon, Bourbage, Robert, Bradley, William, Bradley, Valentine, Branham, George, Branham, William, Butler, James, Butler, Thomas, Campbell, William, Coppage, Thomas, Davis, John, Davis, Dare, Isaac, Dehaven, Isaac, Dehaven, Jacob, Denney, Fielding, Dougherty, John, Downing, John, Duncan, John, Ealy, Edward, Ealy, Henry, Fales, William, Ficklin, John H., Foster, Isaac, Foster, Robert, Foster, Thomas. privates Gaines, James, Garth, Thomas, Gibbs, Robert, Godard, Francis, Grant, John, Grant, James, Grant, Robert, Gray, John D., Hall, William, Harwood, James, Herndon, John S., Holeman, Jacob H., Hoover, Adam, Hughey, Samuel, Hurst, James, Johns, Jonathan, Johnson, Edward, Johnson, Henry, Johnson, Joel, Johnson, James, Johnson, William, Keene, John, Kelly, Daniel, Lucas, Richard, Mansfield, John L., Martin, Benjamin, McConathy, James, McMurda, Robert, Montgomery, Kenney, Mountjoy, Charles, Offett, Hugh, Osbourne, John, Payne, Robert, Pearson, Robert, Peak, Spencer, Pratt, John, Reading, Joseph, Rittenhouse, Adam, Sanders, Valentine. Scruggs, William, Shannon, William, Shannon, Ale.xander, Shealy, Singleton, Snowvanier, Christopher, Stapp, Eli, Sutfin, Gilbert, Sutton, James W., Smith, John, Stapp, Milton, Shelton, Thomas, Shell, Willis, Sutton, William P., Stevenson, William, Stucker, James, Theobalds, James, Thompson, Peter, Thompson, Robert, Thomason, Richard, True, Simeon, Wolf, Coonrad, Wolf, Jesse, Webb, William S., Williams, William, Yancy, Thomas. Appendix 267 Berry's Company Robert Berry, Captain. Henley, Roberts, First Lieutenant. J.\MEs Slott, Ensign. \Vii,i.i.\M Armstrong, Sergeant. Archer, Sampson, Anderson, Vencent, Bradsliaw, George, Bright, WilUam, Brown, Ale.xander, Caldwell, John, Carey, James, Caseady, Jeremiah, Caldwell, James, Dici, Abner, Evans, John, Ferguson, Henry, Fulton, John, Gellepsie, James, Howard, Madison, Hughes, W'illiam, Hughes, Isaac, Hughes, ToUiver, Hopkins, Joslin, Hace, Ellihu, Hace, Moses, Irvin, John, Ishniael, John, Lockridge, William, Lockridge, John, Myers, Peter, Myers, John, McDowell, Mordecai, McDonald, Hugh, McDonald, Oliver, McDonald, William, Murphy, James, Myers, Daniel, Myers, David, Maxwell, Grace, McClure, Lave, McMahan, Robert, McCoy, James, McCown, David, •--' Oliver, Archy, Poe, Benjamin, Payne, William, Reading's Company Ray, George, Richards, Randolf, Seveynuls, Edward, Stevenson, James, Stevenson, WiUiam, Williams, William, Waddle, James, Waddle, Ora, Denton, Abraham, Wells, John, Colder, John, Farrel, Jame.s, Sanders, Sebencvin, Dampear, Henry, Wheeler, Joshua, Caldwell, James, Wier, Joseph, Hugh, Alexander, Westhart, James, Wishard, James. Benjamin Br.\nh.«i, Captain. John W. Reading, Captain. William Griffith, First Lieutenant. William Mosby, Ensign. Abraham W.vrE, First Sergeant. James Bentley, Second Sergeant. Bradford, Stribling, Third Sergeant. Louis Dreweard, Fourth Sergeant. Bradford, Simeon, Boid, John, Bates, Joseph, Branham, James, Birts, Wilhani, Bruno, John B., Crempayt, Daniel, Collins, Richard, Cave, John, Cremer, John, PRIVATES Davis, Daniel, Dickerson, John, Dingham, Daniel, Dreward, Neni, Elain, Joseph, Ewing, Alexander, Faven, John, Freeman, Samuel, Grant, James, Greenup, vSamuel, Hoover, Adam, Heart, Andrew, Johnson, Lewey, Kirtley, William, Knaggs, James, Lemon, John, Landon, Daniel, Lafountain, Ant wain, Labrook, Joseph, Larangc, Antwain, 268 Appendix Momeni, Antwain, Momeni, Peter, Menard, John, Neai, Miner, Osborn, John, Osborn, Joseph, Pratt, William, Peek, Hezekiah, Pluminer, Joseph, Pettell, William, Peter, William, Payne, John, Ruland, John, Robb, Thomas, Robb, James, Robine, Lewis, Scraggs, John, Sebery, John, Sandford, Lawrence, Smith, John, Senture, Antwain, Spencer, John, Tarlton, John, Tarlton, Ralph B., Taylor, Joseph, Valicate, Josejjh, Valicate, John B., Wood, Benjamin, Walker, James B. Church's Company William Church, Captain. John Hughev, First Lieutenant. James Sterman, Ensign. Israel Jackson, First Sergeant. Joseph Mocksley, Second Sergeant. James McCleland, Third Sergeant. Rice Oliver, First Corporal. William Stevenson, Trumpeter. Moses Clinton, Farrier. Brown, John, Barkett, Martin, Barlow, Thomas, Barlow, Thomas H., CUnton, Jacob, Carter, John, Cooper, Samuel, Clemon, WiUiam, Edgecomb, Samuel, Gatewood, Larkin, Hord, Elias, Hancock, Joel, Hook, James, PRIVATES Hood, Moses B., Hatten, Sanders, Haden, Thomas, Hutter, WilUam, Laytin, James, Morse, James, Moxley, William, Miller, Wilham, Orr, John, Pullian, Blan. B., Prewit, Lewis, Ritenhouse, Adam, Rucker, John, Reading, Samuel, Richardson, John C, Suttenhill, James B., Sacery, John C, Still, James, Stevenson, Reuben, Sharp, WilUam, Satterwhite, Walker, Tuker, Davis O. W., Taylor, John, Thornton, Toliver, Wilson, Alexander, Wirelv, Richard. Payne's Company John Pavne, Captain. James W. Coburn, First Lieutenant. John T. P.\rker, Second Lieutenant. J.\mEs Ellis, Third Lieutenant. John R. Chitwood, First Sergeant. Beverly StubblEfield, Second Sergt. Joseph Buckley, Third Sergeant. James Artus, Fourth Sergeant. William T. Talliaferro, First Corp'l. William Pepper, Second Corporal. Mic.vjAH Bland, Third Corporal. William P. Thomas, ^Fourth Corporal. Jonathan Stout, Farrier. David Hickman, Saddler. Sennet Triplett, Blacksmith. Appendix 269 Bradford, Thomas H., Bryant, David, Colerich, Charles, Colnirn, Wilson, Clearney, WilHam, Cook, Littleton, Chafant, Francis, Carson, Samuel, Davidson, Joseph, Donavan, Gilbert, Elliott, Elijah, Evans, Harry, Fox, Clairbome, Hord, Edward, Hord, Thomas, Harrison, Thomas, Howell, Jonathan, Halbert, Kathan, I<ewis, William, Mitchell, Richard, Morsford, James, Murray, David, Morris, Joseph, Norris, John, Newland, Joel, Nelson, William, Osborn, Morgan, Perkins, Isaac, Pickett, James, Parker, J avis, Powers, Charles, Parker, Garland, Stephens, Lewis, Thomas, James, Thomas, Layton, Thompson, Andrew, Tucker, John, Wilson, Augustus A. C. INDEX PACK Adair, John 125 Allen, James 128 Americans in Canada 57 Americans cross the Thames 60 Americans proclaim " Remember the Raisin! " as they rush to battle .... 78 Appendi.x '99 Army as organized in 1813 " Artus, James 203 Arranging troops for battle ^3 Barbour, Pliilip M^ Barry, William T '35 Battlefield chosen by British ^ i Battle of Thames, Kentuckians in G i Brigades and Divisions of Kentuckians 4 ' British oppression in the United Stales ~ British reported in order of battle less than a mile ahead 61 British arms captured 58 British opinion of United States ' Burial of dead friends and foes 9" Butler, Richard '77 Calloway, John '•♦^ Calloway's words to his men 74 Caldwell, Samuel ' "■♦ Caldwell's brigade faces swamp ^3 Causes of War of 1S12 ■* Chambers, Benjamin '79 Chiles, David '^^ Crittenden, John J '•* Crockett, Anthony ' "* Dudley's defeat at Fort Meigs ^^ Davenport, Richard ^ Declaration of war in 1 8 1 2 7 , 118 Desha, Joseph Donaldson, John ■*" 272 Index PAGE Early victories and defeats 12 Emmon's account of the pursuit of Proctor not true 97 Eve of battle 5^ Evving, Young i56 First campaign of the war not successful 10 Fleming, John j,. Forlorn Hope g j Frenchtowu, battle and victory 18 Harrison, William Henry 121 Harmony between Harrison and Shelby 4 . Hatfield, Samuel 20^ Henry, William j j 5 Heroes of the Thames' battle no Horses left at Portage River 4 r Johnson, Richard M jgy Johnson's regiment march from Fort Meigs to River Raisin 52 Johnson's men bury skeletons at River Raisin 53 Johnson's regiment march for Canada , 54 Johnson's training of his regiment 54 Johnson's regiment in two battalions charge the enemy 75 Johnson's plan of attack adopted by Harrison 65 Johnson's cavalry dismount and fight afoot 86 Johnson's cavalry carry everything before them 78 Johnson, James J45 Kentuckians sent to river Raisin 17 Kentuckians in battle of the Thames 209 King, John Edward 123 Kind of men who enlisted under Governor Shelby's call 15 King's brigade next to Trotter's 62 Madison's manifesto 3 McDowell, John 15, Massacre after defeat at the River Raisin 24 March of Americans in Canada 57 McAfee, Robert B 172 Mountjoy, William 154 Naval victory on Lake Erie 49 Norris, John 20^ Officers and privates in battle of the Thames 211 Index 273 PAGE Organization of army in 18 13 11 Order against depredations on enemy's property 4S Payne, John '74 Payne, DeVall 171 Perry, Oliver Hazard i99 Plan of battle changed at the last moment 73 Position of Americans and British just before the battle 6g Prisoners, boats, and arms captured 59 Proctor flees from the fight 79 Proctor's baggage captured 101 Proctor pursued by Payne °o Proctor's successful flight i°o Regiments of Kentuckians 3^ Reinterred at River Raisin i o^ " Remember the Raisin!" the American battk'-cry 7^ Renick, Henry '5° River Raisin battle and defeat 20 Shelby, Isaac " ' Shelby and Harrison in harmony 44 Simrall, James *58 Smith, John Speed '76 States for and against the war ^ Suggett, James ^^^ Taliaferro, William T ^°5 Taul, Micah ^^' Tecumseh Tecumseh killed and Johnson wounded ^7 Tecumseh's death ends the battle ^^ Tecumseh's death and burial 9^ Thames battle, Kentuckians in 2°9 Trotter, George '^^ Trotter's Brigade given front ' Troops move from Portage River to Canada 4^ 20 x Tucker, John United States as estimated by British * Victory and return home Victories on the sea Vote in Congress for and against war 9 274 Index PAGE Walker, George 137 Walk-in-the-water deserted British 58 War declared ini8i2 7 Whitley, William 142 Wickliffe, Charles 130 Williams, William 151 Winchester in command of Kentucky troops 17 Younglove, E^ra 203 |l ilson ' ^ub rublications ^ • *•»*»•*»•»»»» *^* ******** ********** THE BATTLE OF THE THAMES WITH A LIST OF THE OFFICERS AND PRlVATr- WHO WON THE VICTORY * * * * • **************************** Col. 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