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FILSON CLUB PUBLICATIONS No 18
Battle of the Thames
IN WHICH KENTUCKIANS
DEFEATED THE BRITISH, FRENCH, AND INDIANS,
OCTOBER 5, 1813
With a List of the Officers and Privates
Who Won the Victory
Colonel BENNETT H. YOUNG
Member of The Filson Club
JOHN P. MORTON AND COMPANY
Vrinters to The Filson Club
23 1903 1
THE FILSON CLUB
IN the year 1780 the battle of King's Mountain was
won by colonial backwoodsmen in the midst of con-
ditions not unlike those of 18 13, when Kentuckians won
the battle of the Thames. The disasters which befell the
Americans before both of these battles filled the public mind
with a despondency which hung like a funeral pall over
sorrowing patriotism. Isaac Shelby, the first and the
sixth governor of Kentucky, was a leader in both of these
battles, and the antecedents, the surroundings, and the
consequences of each of them were as like as his com-
manding person in both.
Before the battle of King's Mountain the outlook for
the Americans, especially in the South, was through thick
gloom. Gates, with the glory of Saratoga blazing upon
him, had suffered a disastrous defeat at Camden. Sevier,
who was supposed to be always upon his guard, was sur-
prised at Fishing Creek. But worst of all Lincoln, after
failing to recover Savannah, had lost Charleston at the end
of a long and distressful siege. Ferguson, the able model
in the South for the weak Proctor in the North, flushed
with British victories over the Americans, was literally
riding roughshod over the Carolinas and filling his
regiments with Tories in numbers that threatened to
overrun the whole country.
The conditions in the North, and especially in the
Northwest, were no less discouraging. The Americans
'■ had held Fort Harrison, Fort Stephenson, and Fort
; Meigs, but the surrender of Detroit and Mackinac, and
the massacres at Fort Dearborn, Fort Meigs, and the
river Raisin had more than eclipsed the glory of all
other quarters. Proctor, reeking with the blood his
treachery and brutality had drawn from fallen foes, stood
forth like a demon incarnate to desolate the land with
all the horrors of a savage and none of the ameliorations
of a civilized war.
The victory of Perry on Lake Erie, like a bright
morning risen upon a dark night, lighted the way for the
Americans not only to recover Detroit but to invade
Canada and strike at the source of the ills that had
befallen them. The Americans were quick to see the
advantage of this naval victory and lost not a moment to
turn it to their full advantage. The thunder of Perry's
guns upon the water had scarcely died away when the
tramp of Shelby's regiments on their way to Canada
was heard upon the land. When they reached Maiden
they found the enemy had fled, but with the eagerness
of famished tigers in the pursuit of their prey they fol-
lowed and overtook them in battle array at a chosen
point on the river Thames, protected by a precipitous
bank on their left and by an impassable swamp on their
right. The strong position chosen by the enemy was at
once recognized by the Americans, but they were so
eager to avenge the massacre of their fellow-soldiers that
they would have attacked them had their numbers been
twice as great and the fortifications of nature double as
strong around them.
The advantages of position were with the enemy at
the battle of the Thames, as they had been in the battle
of King's Mountain. The British had in each instance
the field of their choice. At the Thames the Americans
had not to point their guns upward as at King's Mountain
to dislodge the enemy, but had to shoot at them around
trees and through swamps which would have discouraged
any other troops. No advantage of position, however, in
favor of the enemy could have slaked the thirst for battle
which was consuming every American heart.
Beside the massacre of their brethren at Fort Dearborn
and Fort Meigs and the river Raisin, the Americans
remembered atrocities, barbarities, and oppressions in the
more distant past which helped to fire their spirit. The
conduct of Great Britain against the United States had
been such for years before as to excite the public mind to
fever heat. The forcible taking of sailors from our ships
on the high seas and impressing them into the British
marine; the blockading of our seaports to the ruin of our
commerce, and worst of all, the arming, clothing, and
feeding of savages while they tomahawked and scalped
our helpless women and children raised public indignation
to such a height that the sight of an English soldier
excited a hatred that made every man an avenger.
Leading men everywhere in the United States reached
the conclusion that war, though a terrible evil, was a less
evil than to endure such outrages and oppressions.
No secret was made of the determination of the people
that the United States would go to war with England if
such outrages continued. The matter was openly debated
in Congress and the newspapers of that day were full of
fiery articles on the subject, and politicians everywhere
made inflammatory speeches about it. Even the plan of
the initial campaign of the war was shadowed forth in the
proposed conquest of Canada, by the orators and writers
of the day. Some were opposed to the war, but enough
were in favor of it to bear down all opposition. War
against Great Britain was therefore declared by the United
States, June i8, 1812.
The eighteenth publication of the Filson Club is prin-
cipally concerned with the war that followed this declara-
tion as it occurred in the Northwest. It was soon evident
after the declaration that we were not ready for war,
especially for the campaign in the Northwest. An inade-
quate number of undisciplined infantry were expected to
invade Canada and conquer it, without a navy and in spite
of the armed vessels of the enemy that floated upon the
lakes and protected Canada. Neither was our army ready
with ofificers or soldiers, or arms, or supplies. A beginning
had to be made, however, and when the initial steps were
taken it was found that the enemy, forewarned by our
proceedings in Congress, by our newspapers and our
stump orators, were better prepared for the fight than
those who had sent the challenge.
The campaign began by the invasion of Canada by
Hull on the 12th of July, 181 2. Instead of Hull attacking
Maiden he spent his time in trying to induce the Canadians
to come under the American flag and the Indians to keep
quiet, until he learned that the British were not as idle as
he was and were about ready to make an attack on him.
He then crept back to Detroit and there began that dis-
graceful series of acts which led to the surrender not only
of his army but of the whole Northwest frontier. His first
step after returning to Detroit was to get his supplies
from tlie river Raisin, where the enemy had blockaded
them, by sending an inadequate force, which was defeated.
He then sent a larger force, which after defeating the
enemy were withdrawn without getting the much-needed
suppHes. While these unmilitary acts were progressing
and a third party had been sent to the river Raisin for
the supplies, General Brock marched his army to Sand-
wich, planted cannon so as to command Detroit, without
any interference on the part of Hull, and when ready for
bombarding demanded and secured the surrender of Hull,
August 1 6, 1812, without the American general accom-
plishing anything but to cover himself with everlasting
disgrace. The fortress of Detroit and the territory of
Michigan, with a population of live thousand souls and
one thousand four hundred soldiers, with arms, ammuni-
tion, and supplies went from Hull to Brock by the
Previous to the surrender of Detroit, Fort Mackinac
had been taken by the British, on the 17th of July, 181 2.
Lieutenant Hanks was in command of the fort, but had
not been advised of the declaration of war until the enemy
were upon him. The garrison, consisting of only fifty-
seven effective men, could do nothing but surrender when
taken by surprise, as they were, by an overwhelming
Hull's order to Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dear-
born after distributing the stores to the Indians led to a
fearful massacre of the occupants of the fort on the 15th
of August, 181 2. The Indians, who had promised to
conduct the garrison safely to Detroit, proved to be
treacherous, and either slaughtered or permitted others
to slaughter those they had promised and been paid to
protect. The massacre had all the horrors of Indian
barbarity in tomahawking and scalping not only soldiers
but women and children.
Things had thus gone fearfully wrong in the year 181 2,
the first year of the war. On the 8th of September,
however, a small bright spot appeared in the dark sky of
that period. The Indians attacked Fort Harrison, on the
Wabash, and set it on fire and seemed to be in the act of
taking it. But it was heroically defended by Captain
Taylor and saved. As the year 181 2 ended so the year
1813 began with a show of favor to the Americans by the
God of War. The soldiers sent by General Winchester
to Frenchtown met the British there and defeated them
January 18, 181 3. The defeat, however, was of short dura-
tion. On the twenty-second the British were reinforced
from Maiden and the Americans from Fort Meigs. A
second battle ensued, in which the Americans were defeated
with great loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners. On the
twenty-third followed such a massacre of the prisoners and
wounded by the Indians as has seldom occurred in the
annals of civilized war.
There was another serious disaster to our arms in the
year 1813. It occurred at Fort Meigs on the 5th of May,
and came of Colonel Dudley either not understanding or
disobeying the orders given to him to take the English
batteries and then make his way to the fort. Instead of
doing this he took the batteries and then pursued the
Indians. In so doing he lost eight hundred men and left
the enemy's batteries to continue playing upon the fort.
This bad current of events began to change for the
better in the second siege of Fort Meigs in May, 181 3.
It gained strength and flowed stronger in the defense of
Fort Stephenson August 2d, and yet stronger in the
victory of Perry on Lake Erie September loth. The
decisive victory of Perry on the lake removed all obstacles
in the way of General Harrison to Detroit and into
Canada, and the battle of the Thames soon followed.
. This battle of the Thames is the subject of the follow-
ing pages. It was no big thing compared to armies as
now organized and brought against one another, but it was
immense in its influence on the War of 1812. It was like
the battle of King's Mountain in the Revolutionary War.
It came at a time when the Americans were full of gloom.
It dispelled that gloom and displayed a clear sky to the
American armies. Cornwallis felt as much despair in the
death of Ferguson as Harrison felt hope in the flight of
It is not always best in a preface to anticipate too
much of what is said in the text. The story of the Battle
of the Thames is better told in the text than it can be
told in an introduction, and it is well to leave the reader
to learn what is said in the text of the author. He may
sometimes be thought to color his facts with the hues of
romance, but if they are thereby made more interesting
to the reader no harm can come of such a departure from
cold and naked narrative. Even if he should now and
then be thought to substitute creations of a vivid imagi-
nation for dry historic facts, the reader may be benefited
by the change, whether cold history approve or not.
Differences of opinion have always existed as to certain
facts about the battle of the Thames, and they may con-
tinue to exist after this or any other essay on the subject.
What battle was ever fought about which all historians
One valuable feature of this account of the battle of
the Thames may be pointed out. It is the appendix, in
which the names of all the officers and soldiers who took
part in this battle are given. The descendants of these
heroes are now scattered far and wide over the land, and
they can but be pleased to see the names of their ances-
tors mentioned in a victory so glorious as that of the
Thames. These names are given as they appeared in
their regiments and companies, and the names of the
privates are alphabetically arranged, so that it is not diffi-
cult to find any one of them. The numerous illustrations
are also worthy of mention in this preface. The principal
persons engaged in the battle are represented by halftone
likenesses, which are the very best of their kind, and
worthy of the images they are intended to preserve.
There will also be found in the appendix a sketch of
Oliver Hazard Perry, and the names of the Kentuckians
known to have been with him in the battle of Lake
R. T. DURRETT,
President of The Filson Club
I Events Which Led to the Battle, i
II The Material, Organization, and March of the
III Johnson's Regiment Joins in Pursuit of the Fly-
ing Enemy, 52
IV Arrived at the Battlefield, 67
V The Battle and the Victory, 75
VI After the Battle, 94
VII The End 102
VIII The Heroes of THE Battle no
Colonel Bennett H. Young Frontispiece
Mound on battlefield of the Thames 8
Thames River, looking south from mound i6
Tree on bank of Thames River, near battlefield 24
Thames River, looking south from Longwood Road 32
General John Poague 38
The old Tecumseh Hotel, on the Thames battlefield 56
The battlefield of the Thames 68
The Hospital Barn 80
Relics picked up on battlefield of the Thames 96
Governor Isaac Shelby iio
General William Henry 116
General Joseph Desha 118
General William Henry Harrison 120
General John Edward King 122
Governor John Adair 124
General James Allen 128
Colonel George Trotter 130
General David Chiles 132
William T. Barry, Postmaster-General 134
J. J. Crittenden 140
Colonel James Johnson 146
Colonel Micah Taul 160
Colonel Joseph McDowell 162
Major DeVall Payne 170
General Robert B. McAfee 172
Colonel Richard M. Johnson i86
Colonel James Davidson 190
The Battle of the Thames
The Battle of the Thames
EVENTS WHICH LED TO THE BATTLE
THE War of 1812 was one of tremendous importance
to the future development of the United States.
Although thirty years had elapsed since the decla-
ration of peace, after the War of the Revolution, the
relations between England and the United States had
never been harmonious or fully adjusted. There had
grown up in England, among many of its leading men,
the idea that in some way, somehow, at some time,
the United States would return to their allegiance to
In those days of slow communication the public at
large were not kept well informed of the conditions of
public sentiment in the United States, and the England
of that period could not understand how people who
spoke the English language and fashioned their laws
after English jurisprudence could desire any other system
of government than that then in vogue in England.
Then, again, the English people were never satisfied
with the result of the War of Independence ; they never
2 The Battle of tJie Thames
believed that they were fairly vanquished in that struggle,
and there was a strong undercurrent in the English
nation which, if it did not suggest, at least desired
another test of arms. That the Colonies would set up a
permanent government of their own in the Western
World on their own account did not appear reasonable
or possible, and, by a majority of the people in Great
Britain, it was expected that the republic would collapse
and the American nation again accept British sovereignty.
England, then relatively the greatest nation on earth,
felt her power ; she was insolent, rude, and domineering
toward the United States. The English nation felt that
they had nothing to lose by a war with the United
States and would probably gain much ; therefore Amer-
ican rights were ignored and American protests given no
Through a long line of mean, petty aggressions, Eng-
land placed the United States in a position where, to
maintain even a semblance of national self-respect, war
Under Mr. Jefferson's administration vessels had been
taken and wrongs had been suffered because the national
and commercial conditions of America were such that
Mr. Jefferson's party thought the taking of vessels the
lesser of evils.
The Battle of the T/iaines 3
Many of the American people thought the conduct of
the administration at Washington was pusillanimous ;
especially in the Southern and Southwestern States public
spirit had long before demanded an appeal to arms as
the only vindication of American nationality.
On the first of June, 18 12, James Madison, President
of the United States, had presented a manifesto to the
Senate and House of Representatives, communicating
certain doctrines and making suggestions, and, in effect,
advising a declaration of war. In this manifesto Mr.
Madison says :
We behold, in fine, on the side of Great Britain, a state of
war against the United States, and on the side of the United
States a state of peace toward Great Britain.
Whether the United States shall continue peaceful under
these progressive usurpations and these accumulating wrongs or,
opposing force to force in defense of their natural rights, shall
commit a just cause into the hands of the Almighty disposer of
events, avoiding all connections which might entangle it in a
contest of views with other powers, and preserving a constant
readiness to concur in an honorable re-establishment of peace
and friendship, is a solemn question which the constitution wisely
confides to the legislative department of the Government.
This manifesto was an able and complete presentation
of the wrongs which England had inflicted upon the
United States, but in the then divided sentiment in this
4 The Battle of the Thames
country as to either the policy or the safety of a decla-
ration of war, Mr. Madison had gone fully as far as
political wisdom would admit.
This message of the President was referred to the
Committee on Foreign Relations, which made its report
to the House, and resulted, after several days' debate, in
passing an act declaring war between the United King-
dom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Dependencies
thereof and the United States of America and their
The causes which led up to the war had existed for
twenty years. England, with a persistence and with a
spirit of insolence unworthy of a great nation, had ignored
the rights of the United States, had assumed to be
mistress of the ocean, and had practically declared that
the United States had no rights that Great Britain was
bound to respect.
For many years British cruisers had held up American
merchant vessels on the ocean and carried ofl" persons
sailing under the American flag, claiming that England,
by reason of the nationality of these sailors, had the
right to take, capture, and hold them wherever found.
This course was persisted in without a hearing or inves-
tigation before a competent tribunal ; the search was
exercised in a summary, harsh, and cruel manner, and
The Battle of the Thames 5
the rights of citizens of the United States or sailors of
the United States were thus subjected to the will or
caprice of any commander of any English war-vessel.
Under pretext of search for these British subjects,
thousands of American citizens had been taken from
their country, had been carried on board of English
ships of war, subjected to the severest discipline, and
compelled to fight England's battles.
Against such wrongs and outrages the United States
had in vain remonstrated and expostulated, and the
United States had gone so ^^r as to offer to enter into
an arrangement by which, if there were any British sub-
jects in American vessels, they might, under proper
restrictions, be delivered up.
In addition to this British ships of war had hovered
along the American coast and harrassed American com-
merce. They had seized and searched American vessels
and had in American harbors shed American blood in
pursuance of these extraordinary and unlawful methods.
At every opportunity American commerce had been
plundered on the seas and the staples of America had
been cut off from all foreign markets.
England had taken the position that while she was at
war with France all French allies or countries from which
the British flag was excluded were subject to the same
6 The Battle of the Thajnes
restrictions as if blockaded, and all vessels trading with
these ports were subject to English capture and con-
demnation. This practically meant that England had
entire domination of all oceans, and that commerce was
forbidden and every vessel driven from the ocean unless
sailing under the British flag.
Under this extraordinary claim many American vessels
were seized, carried into English ports, and condemned
as prizes of war, while others were compelled to cease
their ocean trade, and the commerce of the United States
was thus substantially destro3'ed.
To give effect to these demands American ports were
blockaded and impressments made by British cruisers in
Again, Great Britain had continued to excite hostility
among the American Indians against the United States,
had supplied them with arms and munitions of war, and
had openly and constantly encouraged savage assaults on
the American frontier. It was also proven that England
had sent agents secretly into the United States to disrupt
the United States and to endeavor to have States secede
from the Union while the two countries were negotiating
an adjustment of their differences.
The American public mind had now become so fixed
in its determination to resist English aggressions and
The Battle of the Thames 7
wrongs that it would have been extremely difficult to
longer restrain it. Therefore the Committee on Foreign
Relations closed its report with these thrilling words :
Your Committee, believing that the freeborn sons of America
are worthy to enjoy the liberty that their fathers purchased at
the price of so much blood and treasure, and seeing in the
measures adopted by Great Britain a course commenced and
persisted in which might lead to the loss of national life and
independence, feel no hesitation in advising resistance by force,
in which the Americans of the present day will prove to the
enemy and the world that they have not only inherited that
liberty which our fathers gave us, but also the will and power
to maintain it. Relying on the patriotism of the nation and
confidently trusting that the Lord of Hosts will go with us to
battle in a righteous cause and crown our efforts with success,
your Committee recommend an appeal to arms.
War was declared by this act, passed on the i8th of
June, 1 81 2, which was immediately approved by the
President, and on the 19th of June President Madison
issued a proclamation of war.
In the Senate the vote stood nineteen for the war and
thirteen against it, showing a very close division of public
sentiment on the subject.
In the House there were ninety-eight yeas and sixty-
New Hampshire voted three for the war, two against it.
8 The Baffle of fhc Tlianics
Massachusetts, six for the war, eight against it.
Rhode Island voted two against the war.
Vermont, three for the war, one against it.
Connecticut voted seven against the war.
New York voted three for the war, eleven against it.
New Jersey, two for the war, four against it.
Pennsylvania, sixteen for the war, two against it.
Delaware gave one vote against the war.
Maryland gave six for the war and three against it.
Virginia, fourteen for the war, five against it.
North Carolina, six for the war and three against it.
South Carolina, eight for the war, none against it.
Georgia, three for the war, none against.
Kentucky, five for the war, none against.
Tennessee, three for the war, none against.
Ohio, one for the war.
Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Delaware were solidly
against the war, while South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky,
Tennessee, and Ohio were solidly for the war.
No war with so brief a duration was ever marked
with more disasters or mistakes, and while these mistakes
were not exclusively confined to the American armies a
large proportion of them happened on the American side.
The United States was not prepared for the war, but the
conduct of England became so insulting and degrading
The Battle of the Thames
that there was nothing left to do but to fight, and Mr.
Madison's predecessors had not made that preparation
which was essential to the preservation of peace or to fit
the nation for war, when war, which was inevitable, should
occur. There was no enthusiasm for the war in many
States of the Union. The narrow margin, both in the
Senate and House of Representatives, in favor of war
was an unmistakable indication that the whole country
was neither willing nor prepared for hostilities. Six
majority in the Senate and thirty -six majority in the
House was a very slim vote on which to enter into a
conflict with a nation like Great Britain ; with , Rhode
Island, Connecticut, and Delaware soHdly against the
war, and Massachusetts eight against it, with New York
eleven against and three for, and New Jersey four against
and two for. The condition of the public mind was not
prepared to enter upon a great conflict and fight out a
great issue with a nation like Great Britain, then con-
fessedly the most powerful of the world.
This difference of sentiment hampered American effort
and destroyed American enthusiasm ; it made the men
less brave and the generals less confident. With foes in
front and foes behind no man can often lead an army to
a great victory. The nation desired peace, the majority
of those who had fought in the Revolutionary Army still
The Battle of the Thames
lived. Indian aggressions on the frontier had produced a
depressing effect, but it is just to say that the States
hke Tennessee and Kentucky, Georgia and Ohio, which
would suffer most, were those which were most anxious
and earnest in their demands for hostilities. The anti-
war spirit was especially strong in New England. The
legislatures of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New
Jersey protested against the war, and the shipping interests
of Boston hung flags at half-mast expressive of their
disapproval of what Congress had done.
It took some months to create real enthusiasm in the
quarters where it was most needed to give the armies
of the United States proper backing, and the very
first results of the war were such as to justify those who
opposed it with their prophecies of evil. The men
who were appointed first in military positions were men
who had been prominent in the Revolutionary War and
greatly advanced in years. As a result of this, operations
were slow, the march of forces was timid, and movements
hesitating. Unfortunately for the United States, General
William Hull was Governor of the Territory of Michigan.
No man in the country could have been found less fitted
for the exigencies or the conditions which were sure to
arise at one of the most important points of contact
between the armies of the two countries.
The Battle of the Thames n
In the beginning of 1813 the American Army was
organized in three divisions : First, the Army of the
North, under General Wade Hampton, which was to act
in the country around Lake Champlain ; second, the
Army of the Center, under General Henry Dearborn,
which was to conduct operations on Lake Ontario and
the Niagara frontier ; third, the Army of the West, com-
manded by General Winchester for a short time and
subsequently by General Harrison. After the defeat at
the River Raisin General Harrison located himself at the
Maumee Rapids, fifteen miles from Lake Erie, in what
is now known as Perrysburg, in Wood County, Ohio.
General Proctor had besieged these forces, and on the
5th day of May occurred the disaster in which Colonel
Dudley and the troops led by him were captured and so
many Kentuckians massacred, but the Americans now
returned to their old way of fighting, and Proctor was
driven off. In July the siege was again renewed, with no
better results. The Americans maintained themselves
with gallantry and courage, and George Crogham, a mere
youth, on August 2d, with one hundred and sixty men,
inflicted a tremendous loss upon the British troops and
held Fort Stephenson in such a way as not only to make
him a hero, but to encourage the American soldiers in
12 The Battle of the Thames
The capture of York, now Toronto, in April, the activ-
ity under Generals Dearborn and Pike, and the defense
of Sackett's Harbor, again gave encouragement; but these
were offset in turn by disasters on Lake Ontario and
the defeats at Stony Creek and Beaver Dams. Thus a
year of war left the Americans without a signal victory
on land, and practically nothing to compensate for the
loss of life and property which twelve months of conflict
had brought to the nation. The dreadful massacre at
Fort Dearborn on August 15th, the cowardly surrender of
Detroit on the i6th, the savage atrocities at the Raisin,
and the fearful loss at Fort Meigs, coupled with the
reverses at different points in the North and East, had
impressed upon the minds of all the American people
that the war was a real one, in which reverses and failures
would demand patriotic sacrifice and a united and earnest
effort to place the United States upon a real war footing.
When the war began there was not a single war-vessel
on Lake Erie. The small sloop "Adams" was surrendered
by Hull, but this was recaptured and burned by Captain
Evans off Fort Erie. This was followed by the battle
of Queenstown, November 13, 181 2, brilliant and glorious
because of the courage and gallantry of the American
volunteers; all of this, however, was offset by the sur-
render of Scott to the American troops, who had made
The Battle of the Thames 13
so brilliant a record, which was quickly dimmed by the
failure of General Van Rensalaer to support his fellow-
Disasters on land were offset by superb successes on
the sea. England then had a thousand war-vessels,
manned by one hundred and forty thousand seamen, while
the American vessels numbered seventeen men of war,
and could carry only four hundred and forty-two guns,
with five thousand seamen.
First came the conflict of the ' ' President " with the
"Little Belt," and then the subsequent conflict of the
"President" with the "Belvedere;" then the capture of
the British vessel "Minerva" and its soldiers by the
"Essex" and the capture of the "Guerriere" by the
"Constitution;" then the brilliant pursuit of the "Frolic"
by the "Wasp," the capture of the "Swallow" by the
"United States," and then the capture of the "Macedonia"
by the " United States," and lastly that of the "Java" by
The American navy in a year had six encounters, and
in each one scored a victory. Three hundred British
merchantmen had been captured in six months, either by
the navy or by American privateers, and everywhere on
the water the courage and gallantry of the American
sailors were more than a match for their English enemy.
The Battle of the Thames
The year 1813 had dawned in disaster and massacre.
The temporary success at Frenchtown, on the 19th of
January, was sadly counterbalanced by the horrors of the
Raisin on the 2 2d. As the battle of the Raisin had
much to do in aflfecting the spirit and temper of the men
engaged in the battle of the Thames, a brief account of
it will be necessary to a complete understanding of the
conditions which surrounded those engaged in it.
When the express, which was then sent through the
wilderness from Detroit to Cincinnati, brought an account
of the surrender of Detroit by General Hull, August 15,
1812, there seemed to be a universal outburst of patriotic
sentiment among the people of Kentucky. Their con-
tinued conflict with Indians from the cessation of hostili-
ties through the peace which followed the Revolutionary
War had kept alive a military spirit as well as military
organizations. Their sufferings and their services in
behalf of their country had given them the highest order
In the hearts of all the people of Kentucky burned
an intense desire to wipe out in some great victory the
stain which had been placed upon national courage by
the base surrender of General Hull.
General Harrison, then Governor of the territory of
Indiana, had been authorized to take command of the
The Battle of the Thames 15
troops in the Indiana and Illinois territories to carry on
the war in that section against the Indians, and also to
call on the Governor of Kentucky for any portion of its
contingent of volunteers which was not in service.
In May, 181 2, the Governor of Kentucky had organ-
ized ten regiments, amounting to five thousand five hun-
dred, as the quota of Kentucky under the one hundred
thousand militia call made by the United States. More
than enough volunteers had promptly come forward to
meet the demands of the Governor, and, under requisi-
tions made by the War Department, the regiments of
John M. Scott, William Lewis, and John Allen were
ordered into the service. They were required to ren-
dezvous at Georgetown, in Scott County, on the 15th
of August, 181 2, and were placed under command of
Brigadier-General John Payne, of Scott County.
The best men in the State promptly offered their
services to their country. Members of Congress, county
officers, majors, colonels, and captains of militia, all has-
tened, if required, to take the place of privates in the
ranks. Men who had fought in the War of the Revolu-
tion, or later under Wayne, Harrison, St. Clair, and Clark,
esteemed it a privilege to again assert their country's honor,
and rushed to its defense. Rank was unhesitatingly
waived, and the impulse to volunteer was almost universal.
The Battle of the Thames
While these troops were assembled at Georgetown and
were listening to an address from Henry Clay, Hull, at
Detroit, was surrendering the soldiers of his country and
his post in the most cowardly manner to their British foes.
Who should command these troops was a question of
much moment to the Kentucky soldiers. Governor Scott
would shortly turn over his office to Shelby, who was for
the second time to be Governor of the Commonwealth.
It had been suggested that General William Henry
Harrison be made Major-General by the Governor of
Kentucky, but the difficulty was, Harrison was not a
citizen of Kentucky, and the laws did not sanction the
appointment of a non-resident as a militia officer of the
State, and besides a Major-General had already been
appointed for the detached militia, which was all that
was allowed under the law.
At this juncture a caucus was called, composed of
Governor Shelby, Henry Clay, Thomas Todd, Judge of
the Federal Court, and other distinguished Kentuckians,
and they unanimously resolved to advise Governor Scott
to appoint General Harrison as Major-General of the
Kentucky Militia, and authorize him to take command of
the troops now about to march for Detroit. Governor
Scott made the appointment, and in a very short time
Kentucky sent seven thousand of her citizens into the field.
The Battle of the Thames 17
Among the troops that went forward from Kentucky
were the regiments of Lieutenant- Colonel WiUiam Lewis,
composed largely of Central Kentucky Volunteers, from
Fayette, Jessamine, Clark, and Scott ; and that of Lieu-
tenant-Colonel John Allen, known as the First Rifle
Regiment of Kentucky. They had been the first of
Kentucky's troops to enter the service, having been
enlisted August 15, 181 2, to serve until October 14,
1 81 2. These regiments were composed in large part of
the crack militia companies of Central Kentucky. They
were with General Winchester at the Rapids of the
Maumee ; their time had been extended from two to
six months. They had borne with the greatest heroism,
in the most splendid manner, the privations and diffi-
culties which attended the winter campaign of 181 2-1 3.
As their time would expire in February, it was necessary,
if a forward movement was to be made by these troops,
that it should be made promptly.
General Winchester and his command were at this
time at the Rapids of the Maumee, now called Maumee
City. On the morning of the 17th of January, 1813,
General Winchester had directed Colonel Lewis to march
with five hundred and fifty men to the River Raisin,
about forty miles distant. A few hours afterward, he
was followed by Colonel John Allen with one hundred
J 3 The Battle of the Thames
and ten men, who came up with Lewis on the evening
of the 17th, at Presque Isle. Lewis remained all night
at this point, and set out very early in the morning to
reach Frenchtown, about six miles farther up the lake,
thus bringing him within eighteen miles of Maiden, where
the British troops had established their headquarters and
were supposed to be in large force. When he arrived
within six miles of Frenchtown he met a considerable
force of Indians.
Colonel Allen was in command of the right, and
Major Benjamin Graves in command of the left — three
companies constituting each command — while the center,
likewise composed of three companies, was commanded
by Major George Madison, and the advance guard was
commanded by Captain Bland Ballard.
When they reached Frenchtown the enemy was
observed in motion and in line of battle. They were
attacked in a most vigorous manner by the Kentuckians,
and for two miles, under severe fighting, were driven
back. The commanding general said of the troops
engaged in this contest: "They amply supported the
double character of the American and Kentuckian." But
two men were killed and fifty-five wounded, while the
Indians left fifteen dead on the ground, and carried off
in addition a large number of wounded. The British
The Battle of the Thames 19
and Indians were commanded by Major Reynolds, of
the British Army. His force consisted of one hundred
Enghsh and four hundred Indians. Colonel Lewis was
directed to hold Frenchtown.
The success of this movement, communicated to the
army at the Rapids, created a high degree of excitement
and all were eager to advance and participate in the
hostilities. On the 19th of January General Winchester
himself advanced with two hundred and fifty men — all
that could be spared from the Rapids — and assumed
command of the force.
General Harrison reached the ford at the Rapids on
the morning of the 20th, and there discovered that Gen-
eral Winchester had the evening before preceded him to
the River Raisin, having left General Payne in camp with
three hundred men.
General Harrison did all that he could do, under the
circumstances, to reinforce General Winchester. So soon
as he learned, on the morning of the 2 2d, of the attack,
he ordered all the reinforcements to follow those which
had already gone forward under General Payne.
The first intelligence they had of the dreadful calamity
was from fugitives who had escaped from the battle, and
who informed the scouting force that General Winchester
had been totally defeated, and the British and Indians
The Battle of the TJianies
were pursuing them toward the Rapids. A short time
afterward information was received which showed the
defeat was total and irretrievable, and all resistance on
the part of the Americans had ceased.
General Winchester, an old Revolutionary soldier, who
had moved to Tennessee, living in luxury and ease, had
no experience as an Indian fighter, and rested that night
with his two hundred and fifty troops in fatal security,
while guards were placed as usual. In consequence of the
extreme cold weather, no picket was placed on the road
along which the enemy was likely to advance. The night
was passed without any alarm, but at daybreak on the
morning of the 2 2d, while reveille was beating, three guns
were heard in quick succession. Without delay the troops
were formed in line of battle, and while doing so the
British opened a heavy fire on the camp with artillery
loaded with bullets and grapeshot, at a distance of nine
hundred and fifty feet.
The Kentucky troops had been placed within the line
of a picket fence. The regulars, under Colonel Welles,
who had come as their escort, had been formed in the open
field, without the protection of any breastworks. A partial
advance of the Indian allies on the right and left had been
received by the Kentuckians with absolute steadiness.
Around Lewis's camp they were repulsed, but the rein-
The Battle of the Thames 21
forcement which had arrived with General Winchester,
composed of the regulars, after a short contest was com-
pelled to fall back, and by some misconception of orders
in directing them to form along the picket fence this
detachment was thrown into confusion. Discovering the
misfortune which had attended the regulars, Colonels
Lewis and Allen left their protected point behind the
picket fence and went forward to assist in rallying the
men who had been thrown into disorder.
In their disconcerted condition they attempted to move
along a narrow lane through which the road passed from
the field. The Indians formed on either side of this lane
and shot the retreating Americans down in every direction.
Some who had passed through the lane and reached the
wood on the right hand were surrounded and massacred,
and nearly one hundred men were tomahawked within a
distance of three hundred feet.
Captain Simpson, a member of Congress, in command
of one of the companies, was shot and tomahawked at the
edge of the wood near the mouth of the lane, and Colonel
Allen, although severely wounded in his thigh, attempted
to rally his men, begging them to halt and sell their lives
as dearly as possible. Colonel Allen, attacked by two
Indians, killed one with his sword, while a third one
coming up, put him to death with a shot from his rifle.
The Battle of the Thames
Lieutenant Garrett, with his command, consisting of
twenty men, about a mile and a half from the village were
surrounded, and after surrendering, all were massacred
excejit the Lieutenant himself. Another party of thirty
men, who had escaped for three miles, were overtaken by
the savages and more than half of them shot and toma-
hawked, and thus in a brief while a majority of those who
were in the retreat were sacrificed. The snow was deep
and the cold was intense, so they were unable to march
or elude their pursuers. General Winchester and Colonel
Lewis were captured a short distance from the village and
were taken back to the British lines.
But the British and Indians met a superior sort of
courage from within the protected space. The troops
there, under Major Benjamin Graves and Major George
Madison, formed their men within a line embraced by the
picket fence, resolving to sell their lives as dearly as pos-
sible. Major Graves, being shot in the knee, bandaged
his own wound, telling his men never to mind him but
to fight on.
A six-pounder used by the British had been posted
behind a small house two hundred yards from the lines
of the Kentuckians. Supplies of ammunition had been
furnished by a horse and sleigh. The Kentucky rifiemen
promptly killed the horse and cut off the chance of sup-
The Battle of the Thames 23
plying the six-pounder with ammunition. Again and again
was the attempt made to dislodge the little band of Ken-
tuckians, and Proctor was finally compelled to withdraw
his forces to the woods and to await the return of his
Indian allies, who had pursued the retreating party.
General Proctor, the British commander, resolved to do
by strategem and deception what he was unable to do by
force. He persuaded General Winchester to send an order
to the Kentuckians to surrender. Major Madison was
unwilling to obey any such order, taking the ground that
since Winchester was a prisoner he had no right to issue
such an order. Proctor himself went forward for the pur-
pose of negotiating a surrender. He demanded an imme-
diate surrender, claiming that he would set the town on
fire and the Indians would commit an indiscriminate mas-
sacre. Major Madison still refused to surrender, saying
it had been customary for the Indians to massacre all
prisoners after surrender, and he would not agree to any
capitulation which General Winchester might direct unless
the safety and protection of his men were stipulated.
He attempted to bully Major Madison, and asked him
if he intended to dictate to him (Proctor), to which Madi-
son replied that he intended to dictate to himself, and he
preferred to sell the lives of himself and his men as dearly
as possible rather than be massacred in cold blood.
The Battle of the Thames
Proctor then agreed to make terms, by providing that all
private property should be respected; that sleds should
be sent next morning to move the sick and wounded to
Fort Maiden, near Amherstburg, but in the meantime the
prisoners should be protected by a guard, and the side-
arms of the officers should be restored to them at Maiden.
As there was but little hope of reinforcement, and as their
ammunition had now been reduced to one third of a small
keg of cartridges, there was nothing to do but accept
Shortly after the surrender the prisoners were marched
toward Maiden, Proctor saying that as soon as his wounded
should be taken to Maiden the American wounded would
be attended to. Doctors Todd and Bowers, of the Ken-
tucky volunteers, were left with the wounded, and the
only guard that was left was an English major named
Reynolds and two or three interpreters. On the following
morning, about sunrise, instead of the sleds which were
promised to carry the wounded and sick, a large body of
Indians returned to Frenchtown, painted black and red.
These Indians held a council, and it was resolved that all
the wounded should be killed in revenge for the warriors
they had lost in battle.
They then began to plunder the houses of the inhabi-
tants, and break into those where the wounded lay, strip
1 '< I
thei' had !'>st ; i ! cattle.
The Battle of the Thames 25
them of their blankets, and tomahawking them without
mercy. Captain Paschal Hickman, who had been
wounded, was drawn to the door, tomahawked, and thrown
back into the house, the house set on fire, and the greater
part of the wounded within were consumed in the con-
flagration. Those who were able to crawl attempted to
get out of the windows, but they were pushed back, and
some who were not in the house were killed and thrown
into the flames, while many more were tomahawked and
inhumanly massacred and left in the streets and along
the road. A few, who were able to march, were started
toward Maiden, but upon the slightest sign of fatigue
they were tomahawked and left lying in the road. The
fate of Major Graves was never known. He started
toward Detroit, but no tidings have ever come of his
whereabouts. Some of the prisoners made their escape,
while others were burned at the stake.
Ordinarily, a government like the British would have
hanged a commander Hke Proctor for such conduct, but
in the state of public mind then in Great Britain he
received promotion for his conduct.
The Forty-first Regiment of British troops was badly
cut up. Both General Winchester and Major Madison
protested to Proctor against the violation of his contract.
The renegade. Captain Elliott, in response to solicitations
26 The Battle of the Thames
for assistance and help to the wounded, replied: "The
Indians are very excellent surgeons."
On arrival at Amherstburg, the Americans were placed
in an old mud hut, where they were exposed all night to
a heavy rain without beds or blankets, and scarcely enough
fire to keep them from freezing. They were thus exposed
to the intensest suffering.
On the 26th of January the prisoners, some of whom
were wounded, were sent up Detroit River and up the
Thames River, and carried through the interior of Upper
Canada to Fort George at Niagara. They were subse-
quently paroled and returned to Kentucky. General Win-
chester, Colonel Lewis, and Major Madison were sent to
Quebec, where they were kept in confinement until 18 14,
when in a general exchange they were released and
These horrible barbarities, together with the fact that
the American dead were left unburied, created the intensest
indignation and the fiercest hate among the people of
Kentucky who had thus suffered by these atrocities.
Another event, known as Dudley's defeat, occurring on
the 28th of April, 1813, had aroused widespread excite-
ment and horror in the minds of Kentuckians.
Governor Shelby had sent General Green Clay forward
with reinforcements to General Harrison, who was then
The Battle of the Thames 27
at Fort Meigs, at the Rapids of the Maumee. General
Clay arrived close to the fort on the 4th day of May,
and communicated by messenger with General Harrison,
who directed him to send eight hundred men as he
advanced to the relief of the fort; to cross the Maumee
River at a point one and a half miles above Fort Meigs,
and then, marching down the river a short distance, cap-
ture some batteries, spike the guns composing them, and
recross the river.
Colonel William Dudley was designated to take charge
of this movement. By some misunderstanding of orders,
after taking the batteries Colonel Dudley's troops pursued
some Indians who were seen in proximity to the batteries.
They were led into an ambuscade; Colonel Dudley him-
self was wounded and killed, and almost the entire force
captured. The prisoners were subjected to massacre by
the Indians, and after they had been corralled in the fort
a large number of them, in the presence of British officers,
were ruthlessly and wantonly shot down. Tecumseh,
hearing the firing, rode up and ordered the cessation of
this murderous policy, and protected the remaining pris-
oners from death at the hands of the savages. The
prisoners were subsequently paroled, May nth, and upon
their return to their homes told of the horrors and barbar-
ities to which they were subjected by their foes. The
28 The Battle of the Thames
American loss was eighty-one killed, two hundred and
sixty-nine wounded, and four hundred and sixty-seven
As Kentucky alone suffered in this battle, this, taken
in connection with the massacre at the River Raisin, had
produced tremendous public excitement and a high state
of indignation throughout the entire Commonwealth.
The period for which the Kentucky volunteers had
enlisted — who had gone forward with General Clay and
had been at the siege of Fort Meigs— would expire late
in September or early in October. The operations for the
year had not bettered the condition of the American forces
in the Northwest, and in Ohio and Michigan the condition
was worse if anything than at the beginning of the year.
THE MATERIAL, ORGANIZATION, AND MARCH
OF THE ARMY
The American forces under General Harrison had, with
difficulty, held their own in Ohio and Michigan. After the
second siege of Fort Meigs and the conflict at Fort Steven-
son neither side was very aggressive. The term of service
of most of the troops at Fort Meigs, and in the parts of
Ohio and Michigan where service was active, had expired.
Governor Shelby had endeavored to secure the consent of
the troops for re-enlistment, and offered a bounty of seven
dollars per month extra to persuade the troops to remain
for a little while longer. Following up written communica-
tions to accomplish this purpose, he had Colonel Anthony
Crockett, from Franklin County, Kentucky, an old Revolu-
tionary soldier of great courage, sent to urge these troops to
engage for an additional sixty days' service, but even with
Colonel Crockett's imposing presence no better results had
been obtained. The garrison duty, and necessary inactiv-
ity of the infantry in that section of Ohio, had produced a
very high degree of discontent. Rations had not been
served with the regularity or abundance which the men
expected. It looked as if the Army of the Northwest had
20 The Battle of the Thames
disintegrated, and that the forts would be abandoned and
the territory lost. It was therefore necessary to have new
enlistments as well as to have new men, if the war was to
be carried on successfully, the positions of the forces
maintained, and the territory held. The reverses elsewhere
had produced a spirit of dissatisfaction with all the opera-
tions of the war. News traveled slowly; there were not
many newspapers, and those that were published did not
give any very great detail of the military operations. In
this emergency General Harrison appealed to Governor
Shelby to come to his aid, and he had doubtless heard of
the Governor's willingness, if necessity demanded it, to take
part in the war. The Kentucky heart was filled with indig-
nation, not only at the misfortunes of the war, but particu-
larly at the disasters that had befallen Kentuckians. The
public mind, therefore, was ripe for action, and when
Governor Shelby issued his proclamation of July 13, 18 13,
there was an enthusiastic response to the demand for
troops. Twice as many volunteered as were expected, and
had it not been for Governor Shelby's persistence and his
broad views of the necessities of the occasion the results
obtained would have been impossible ; enlisting twice as
many men as were allowed by the call and, in defiance of
General Harrison's suggestion, moving the militia on horse-
back to the scene of hostilities were the two things which
The Battle of the Thames 31
made the Battle of the Thames a grand victory. The proc-
lamation was printed on hand-bills and posted at all the
public places throughout the State. It required in some
localities as much as eight or ten days to get the hand-bills
distributed, but no sooner were the contents known, no
sooner did they realize that their country's honor and their
State's good name demanded services, than the State
became one vast camp of enlistment. While it was under-
stood that only sixty days of service would be required, the
men who were enlisting this time were doing so with the full
determination to remain as long as war's emergencies should
demand. They came with the calm and deliberate pur-
pose, under the leadership of Shelby, of doing whatever
patriotism and courage required. A large majority of the
men who accepted this service were those whose business
and families required their presence. In many localities
of the State they had not more than ten or fifteen days for
preparation; they knew they would be compelled to make a
march of several hundred miles, surrounded by many diffi-
culties affecting ammunition, food, and clothing, and it is
extremely creditable to the men who thus aligned them-
selves under Shelby's standard that in so short a time they
were wilhng and able to arrange the details for a campaign
fraught with such danger and controlled by such uncertain-
ties as to the period of enlistment and service.
,2 The Battle of the Thames
The Commonwealth of Kentucky had very few good
roads at that period, and the men who came from the west
as far as Henderson and Glasgow donned their hunting
shirts and made the best provision possible for the cam-
paign upon which they were entering. In squads and com-
panies they began to move from all parts of the State.
Those whose arrangements were not completed promised
their comrades to follow with rapidity and to meet them at
Newport, the place of rendezvous, in time to start for the
seat of war on the first of September.
To a large proportion of the men thus answering so
patriotic a summons, absence from home at this period
involved tremendous sacrifices, but nothing could stay the
generous impulse which warmed and animated their souls,
and rendered them willing to do all and abide all which
the sense of their country's honor and right required at their
hands. And so from the great valleys where the Cumber-
land and the Tennessee pour their waters into the Ohio;
from the hills which overshadow the Green and the Barren;
from the mountains that feed the rippling Rockcastle; from
the head waters of the Cumberland; from the picturesque
land where the Kentucky cuts its deep way through the
limestone rocks, and finds for its waters an outlet in the
bosom of the Ohio; from the places which feed the Licking
and the Big Sandy — patriots everywhere made response
The Battle of the Thames 33
with liberty's noblest offering, their persons — these Kentuck-
ians moved to the place of organization where they should
all become an army, and be officered and led to meet
America's most detested foe. To Newport came the best
and bravest men the great Commonwealth could offer or
send; social rank was forgotten and ignored; political posi-
tion set aside ; duty to country was higher, more sacred
than all other considerations, and these heroes stood ready
to act when and where and as country called.
The personnel of this little army surpassed in valor, in
intelligence, and in patriotic zeal any similar number of men
which had ever been organized in the State of Kentucky.
The ready response, the unflagging ardor, and the superb
courage which animated these men made them a most for-
midable foe. A large number of them holding official posi-
tions, many of them Revolutionary soldiers, more of them
men of renown won by participation in the Indian battles
from 1782 to 1794, they were possessed of a spirit of great
personal pride, of manly courage, and of unlimited devotion
to the cause of their country. In that early period of its
history the men of Kentucky had the same wonderful State
love which has characterized its inhabitants during all its
existence. They felt that the reverses at Raisin and Fort
Meigs, and the horrors and barbarities which had attended
the battles at both these places, demanded from the State
^4 The Battle of the Thames
of Kentucky retribution, and they were willing to make any
march, face any danger, and engage in any conflict which
should avenge the death of their fellow-citizens and restore
the glorious record of their Commonwealth for courage and
chivalry. Each man felt that he was engaged in history-
making; that aside from the personal glory which might
result from the campaigns, there was something higher and
nobler to be considered in this ; the honor, the reputation
and the fame of Kentucky was involved. No draft or
threatened conscription had brought these heroes together.
No fear or danger could drive them from their purpose.
They were to follow leaders in whom they believed, and in
whom they trusted with sincerest faith. The sight of their
Governor, Isaac Shelby, was in itself an inspiration, and
the vast number of Revolutionary soldiers, like William
Whitley, Anthony Crockett, Joseph Desha, and William
Henry, gave renewed inspiration to every military impulse.
The future history of these men is the highest evidence and
the surest indication of the magnificent spirit and of the
noble impulse which impelled this little army. Vice-presi-
dents, senators, congressmen, governors, ambassadors,
consuls, and judges were all to be made from the men who
gathered under the leadership of Shelby, Henry, and
Desha. The men who there assembled at Urbana were, in
a large measure, for half a century, to be leading factors in
The Battle of the Thames 35
the development, growth, and government of Kentucky.
Little discipline was needed. The crack shots now and
then violated the rules by shooting-matches, and the army
was now and then disposed to make free use of cartridges;
but these military peccadillos detracted nothing from the
splendid esprit de corps and the superb patriotism which
governed, directed, and controlled this army. Every man
was impatient to go to the front ; with undisguised restless-
ness they hurried every movement; a large proportion of
them would have been willing to have gone forward with
nothing but guns. Many of them carried their Kentucky
squirrel rifles ; those who did not have these had been
supplied with muskets either at Newport or at Urbana.
They detested the slow march which was required to allow
provisions and ammunition to keep up with the command,
and everywhere officers and men demanded to be led for-
ward in order that they might, on the battlefield, show not
only their prowess, but their readiness to avenge the insults
and dishonor which they felt rested upon their State by
reason of the perfidious and barbarous treatment which had
been accorded Kentuckians at Raisin and Fort Meigs.
The officers found it difficult at first to restrain the men ;
their zeal outran all discretion, but, in a little while, calmer
judgment and mihtary discipline prevailed, and this brave,
gallant, and chivalrous host submitted itself unmurmur-
^6 The Battle of the Thames
ingly to the leadership of their Governor and his chosen
assistants. The staff appointments were men who, for
intelHgence and courage, could not be surpassed ; and
now, after nearly' ninety years, as we look back we can
realize what it meant to have aids like John Adair, John J.
Crittenden, Matthews Flournoy, George Walker, and
Robert P. Henry; secretaries like Thomas C. Flournoy
and William T. Barry ; adjutant-generals like Joseph
McDowell ; brigadier-majors like Gabriel Evans, Robert
Poague, Anthony Crockett, and John Bibb. No army led
and officered by such men could fail in meeting any
call that duty could make. With brigadier-generals
like Marquis Calmes, George Trotter, David Chiles, John
Edward King, James Allen, and Samuel Caldwell; colonels
composed of such material as Trotter, Donaldson,
Poague, Montjoy, Renick, Davenport, Taul, Calloway,
Simrall, Barbour, Floyd, and Williams, these troops
could not, under any fair conditions, fail to meet every
Kentucky had already furnished far more than her just
quota of the men who were engaged in the War of 1812,
but the misfortunes and defeats and the massacres to
which the men of Kentucky had been subjected had only
aroused a higher degree of patriotism and a nobler resolve
of consecration to the country's cause.
The Battle of the Thames 37
There were then fifty-six counties in the State. Some
of the counties it would require four or five days to reach by
messengers, and in some instances a week had elapsed
before the Governor's proclamation had been read. When
a month had passed forty-eight of the fifty-six counties
Scott, Woodford, Bourbon, Mercer, Jessamine, and
Clark all had large representation in the troops then in the
field, but nothing could stay the great tide of enthusiastic
and chivalrous response which came from every part of
the State, in answer to the demands of the Governor for
an adequate force to repel British invasion.
Instead of the two thousand called for four thousand
responded. Some came with only tomahawks and knives,
some with swords and knives, many with their rifles, but
all with brave, earnest, and patriotic hearts and all ready to
do whatever their country and its cause should demand. A
portion of them had seen service in the Indian wars, many
of them had been Revolutionary soldiers. Although now
well advanced in years, such men as Colonel Anthony
Crockett and WilHam Whitley, who by their age and
devotion on the battlefield had won exemption from
further sacrifice, gladly stepped forward to meet the call of
the hour. Men who held high rank in the militia of the
State willingly became privates in order to take part in the
jg The Battle of the Thames
glorious victories which they felt would await them under
the leadership of Shelby and Harrison.
After drawing such arms and equipments as could be
had at Newport they marched from there to Urbana, Ohio,
one hundred and twenty miles north of Cincinnati, and
there the regular organization was completed.
General William Henry, a distinguished Revolution-
ary soldier and a great Indian fighter and a major-gen-
eral in the Kentucky Militia, was given command of one
division, while General Joseph Desha was given another.
The companies of Captain David Todd, Captains
Matthews Flournoy and Stewart W. Megowan, of Fayette,
and Captains Gustavus W. Bowers and Mason Singleton,
of Jessamine; Captains Joseph Reading and John Chris-
topher, of Woodford, formed the first regiment, under
Colonel George Trotter.
The second regiment was composed of the companies
of Captain Isaac Cunningham, of Clark; Richard Menifee,
of Bath; George Matthews, of Fleming; James Mason, of
Montgomery; James Simpson, of Clark, and Captain
George W. Botts, of Fleming, and was to be commanded
by Colonel John Donaldson, of Clark.
The third regiment was composed of the companies
of Captain Aris Throckmorton, of Nicholas; Captains
William Reed, Moses Demmitt, and Jeremiah Martin, of
GiNiKAL JOHN POAGLE.
The Battle of the Thames 39
Mason; Captain Francis A. Gaines, of Greenup, and
Aaron Stratton, of Lewis, to be commanded by Colonel
The fourth regiment was composed of the companies
of Captain Conrad Overturf, of Bracken; Captain John
H. Morris, of Gallatin; Captain Thomas Childers, of Pen-
dleton (who had succeeded William Mountjoy as captain
of the company); Captain Squire Grant, of Campbell;
Captain Thomas Ravenscroft, of Harrison; Captain
William Hutchison, junior, of Bourbon, to be commanded
by Colonel William Mountjoy.
The fifth regiment, to be commanded by Colonel
Henry Renick, was composed of the following companies:
Captain Martin H. Wickliiife, of Nelson; Captain John
Hornbeck, of Bullitt; Captain Thomas S. T. Moss, of
Green; Captain Thomas W. Atkinson, of Adair, and
Captain Samuel Robertson, of Washington. The com-
pany commanded by William R. McGary subsequently
joined the troops at Portage River and was assigned to
The sixth regiment, to be commanded by Colonel
Richard Davenport, of Boyle, was composed of the com-
panies of Captain Archibald Bilbo (Colonel Davenport
went out as captain of this company, but being promoted
to colonel, was succeeded by Bilbo, first lieutenant),
.Q The Battle of the Thames
Captain Abram Miller, of Lincoln; Captain John Faulkner,
of Garrard; Captain Jesse Coffee, of Casey, to which was
subsequently added the company commanded by Captain
The seventh regiment, commanded by Colonel Micah
Taul, was composed of the companies of Captain Samuel
Wilson and Captain William Wood, of Cumberland
(Captain Taul, who was made colonel, was succeeded by
William Stephens, of Wayne); Captain Thomas Laughlin,
of Knox, and Captain Samuel Tate, of Pulaski.
The eighth regiment, to be commanded by Colonel
John Calloway, of Henry, was composed of the companies
of Captain John Calloway, who, upon being made
colonel, was succeeded by Edward George, his first lieu-
tenant; Captain Eleazor Hedden, of Henry; Captains
James Hite and Philip Shiveley, of Jefferson; Captain
Robinson Graham, of Franklin, and Captain Samuel Kel-
ley, of Jefferson.
The ninth regiment, commanded by Colonel James
Simrall, was composed of the companies of Captains John
Hall, James S. Whittaker, and Samuel Harbison, of
Shelby; Warner Elmore, of Green; Richard Bennett, of
Franklin, and Presley C. Smith, of Washington.
The tenth regiment, commanded by Colonel Philip
Barbour, of Henderson, was composed of the companies
The Battle of the Thames 41
of Captain William Whitsett, of Logan; Captain Robert
E. Yates, of Grayson; Captain William Ewing, of Butler;
Captain James Gorin, of Barren; Captain Joseph McClos-
key, of Nelson; William R. Payne, of Warren, and
Captain Philip Barbour who, upon being promoted to
colonel, was succeeded by Daniel Wilson, of Henderson.
The eleventh regiment was to have been commanded
by Colonel George R. C. Floyd, but from some cause he
was succeeded by Colonel William Williams. It was com-
posed of the companies of Captains Sylvanus Massie,
Richard C. Holder, John C. McWilliams, of Madison;
Thomas McGilton, of Clay; Captain Johnston Dysart, of
Rockcastle; Captain John Hay don, of Harrison; to which
was subsequently added the company of Captain William
Berryman, and- also that of Captain Henry R. Lewis.
The first and second regiments composed the First
Brigade, to be commanded by Brigadier-General Marquis
Calmes, who was succeeded by Colonel George Trotter.
General Calmes, having been taken sick and unable to
assume command and left at Detroit, followed the army
and was with it at the battle of the Thames, but too ill
The third and fourth regiments composed the Second
Brigade, commanded by General David Chiles, of Mason
42 The Battle of the Thames
The fifth and seventh regiments composed the Third
Brigade, commanded by General George Edward King,
The sixth and eighth regiments composed the Fourth
Brigade, commanded by General James Allen, of Green.
The ninth and tenth regiments composed the Fifth
Brigade, commanded by General Samuel Caldwell, of
The first, third, and fourth brigades constituted the
First Division, commanded by Major-General William
Henry, of Scott.
The Second Division was composed of the second
and fifth brigades and the eleventh regiment, and was
commanded by Major-General Joseph Desha, of Harrison.
General John Adair, subsequently to bear a distin-
guished part in the history of Kentucky and of the coun-
try, was appointed first aide to Governor Shelby, and
Major John J, Crittenden second aide-de-camp, while
William T. Barry, with the rank of major, was made
secretary to the Commander-in-Chief.
Thomas Barr, of Lexington, was appointed judge
advocate-general, with the rank of major ; Joseph
McDowell, of Boyle, was made adjutant-general and
Colonel George Walker, of Jessamine, was commissioned
The Battle of the Thames 43
Governor Shelby, with miHtary experience and a true
conception of the difficulties under which General Harri-
son was laboring, wisely concluded that the best thing to
do was to march his men through from Newport to Por-
tage on horseback. The men would be far better satisfied
to keep their animals, for it would provide them an easy
means of returning, but the greatest advantage was the
rapidity with which the column could be moved, and in
the end this proved of the highest importance.
Eight days of the time had been consumed in drawing
the necessary arms, provisions, and equipments, and in
reaching Urbana. A block-house had been constructed
at this place at the beginning of the war, and stores of
all kinds placed here for use of those who were to march
from Cincinnati to Detroit. The march from Urbana was
begun on the ninth day of September, 18 13, reaching, on
the tenth, Manary's block-house, three miles north of the
present city of Bellefontaine, Logan County. They
camped on the tenth at Solomon's Town, near the line
of Hardin and Logan counties, at Fort McArthur on the
eleventh, three miles north of Kenton, the present county
seat of Hardin County; on the twelfth they reached Upper
Sandusky, the present county seat of Wyandot County,
sixty-three miles north of Columbus. Leaving there at
eight o'clock a. m., the army reached Fort Ball on the
AA The Battle of the Thames
thirteenth. This was near the line between Wyandot and
Seneca counties. On the fourteenth the column reached
Lower Sandusky, now known as Fremont, the county seat
of Seneca County. At Seneca, half way on this day's
march, ammunition was distributed. On the fifteenth the
army arrived at its camp on the Portage River, where it
remained until the embarkation for Put-in-Bay on the
Governor Shelby at once reported to General Harrison
and announced his readiness with his troops to obey all
commands. Some historians have endeavored to show
that differences and jealousies existed or arose between
General Harrison and Governor Shelby. There was no
real foundation for any such statement. These men were
too great in mind and too intensely patriotic to harbor
any such littleness. They were animated by a common
purpose — to pursue, defeat, and destroy a common foe —
and each, with unselfish devotion to country, did all that
was possible to help the other. General Harrison would
have waived the real and retained a nominal command in
favor of General Shelby, but the hero of King's Moun-
tain would accept no such sacrifice, and willingly and
gladly, even though entitled to control as Commander-
in-Chief of the Kentucky Militia, renounced all such right
and took subordinate position to General Harrison.
The Battle of the Thames 45
It was a tradition in Kentucky for years that General
Harrison hesitated about a pursuit of Proctor, and that
Governor Shelby insisted upon such a course, and with
emphatic language declared that he would follow Proctor
and his British and Indians even to h — if necessary to
avenge Kentucky's wrongs; but this was pure fiction, as
was shown by both Shelby's and Johnson's acts and dec-
larations after the return of the army to Kentucky.
The topography at the mouth of the Portage River
was peculiarly favorable for the purposes of Governor
Shelby and General Harrison. A peninsula is here formed
by inlets from Lake Erie. By building a fence across
the narrow point of the peninsula, about one and a half
miles, would enclose seventy thousand acres of fine grazing
land. The land on this peninsula had been settled before
the war by thrifty families, who had been driven away
during hostiHties, and grass and other provender had
grown up, so that there was an average of fifteen acres
for every animal which should be turned into the
Orders had been given by which each regiment should
fence the space in its front on the line, to be constructed
across the peninsula. With three thousand willing hands,
working with hatchets, grubbing-hoes, and knives, in a few
hours the fence was completed. It was built of poles,
^6 The Battle of the Thames
about six or eight feet high, and then the brush and tree-
tops were piled up on the fence, so that it presented an
impassable barrier to the animals confined within it. A
short time after the fence had been completed, from some
unaccountable cause, these thousands of horses became
stampeded. They rushed like a great cyclone toward the
camp. Huts had been erected during the four or five
days' stay by the soldiers, and in and about these the
frightened animals crowded. A good many men were
wounded and some killed, and many of the horses were
lost by running into the water and becoming mired in the
sand along the river bank. After much difficulty they
were extricated and quieted.
As the victory of Perry over the British on the lake
had rendered the approach to Canada by water the easiest
way, the troops were to be carried by boat, first to Bass
Island, next to Middle Island, and thence to the Cana-
On the 2 1st and 2 2d of September all the troops were
transported to Bass Island, where they remained until the
24th of September, waiting for the arrival of stores and
provisions. On the twenty-fifth the whole army removed
to Middle Island, a small island containing about five or
six acres, which was crowded to its fullest limit. On the
twenty-seventh, early in the day, the whole army was
The Battle of the Thames 47
embarked and set sail from the Middle Island to the
The troops were exhorted to remember the fame of
their ancestors and the justness of the cause in which they
were engaged, and to the Kentuckians General Harrison
and Governor Shelby spoke these four words: "Remember
the River Raisin." By three o'clock in the afternoon the
army was landed, the hne of march was formed, and in
two hours the advance guard — the regiments of Ball and
Simrall — was at Amherstburg, where they saw the smok-
ing ruins of Fort Maiden, which had been burned by
Proctor as he began his flight with his army of British and
At this time General Harrison had faint hope of being
able to out-march Proctor and overtake him. In a letter
written that night, he says: "I will pursue the enemy
to-morrow, although there is no probability of overtaking
him, as he has upward of one thousand horses and we
have not one in the army."
After a search a small pony was obtained, and on this
the venerable Shelby was mounted, and of all the gallant
heroes who had left their horses some forty or fifty miles
behind — and they would then have been very serviceable —
only the hero of King's Mountain could be provided with
.8 The Battle of the Thames
On the twenty-ninth the army arrived at Sandwich,
nearly opposite Detroit. It was expected at this point that
Proctor would give battle, but on arriving there it was
found he had deserted the place on the day preceding.
Here and there a few Indians could be seen plundering
the inhabitants in the suburbs of Detroit, which kept the
people there in a state of great perturbation.
General McArthur crossed over from Detroit and took
possession with his brigade. On the thirtieth, which was
a very trying, rainy day, the troops continued at Sandwich.
The inhabitants of Sandwich, after some earnest arguments
in the shape of threatened impressments, brought in provi-
sions. A few of the soldiers had violated the rights of
property, and upon hearing of this General Harrison issued
the following order :
"The Commander-in-Chief of the Kentucky Volunteers
has heard with extreme regret that depredations have been
committed upon the property of the inhabitants of this
town, by some of the troops under his command. He did
not expect that it would ever be necessary for him to
admonish citizens who are proud in the enjoyment of
property at home of the -impropriety of wantonly injuring
that of others. Violations of this kind, while they disgrace
the individuals who are guilty of them, will tend to injure
the character of the army and detract from the merit which
The Battle of the Thames 49
the success of the present campaign would entitle them to
claim. While the army remains in this country it is
expected that the inhabitants will be treated with justice
and humanity, and their property secured from unnecessary
and wanton injury. The Commander-in-Chief of the
Kentucky Volunteers enjoins it upon the officers of every
corps to use their exertions to prevent injury being done to
the private property of the inhabitants. He is determined
to punish with the utmost rigor of martial law any one who
shall be guilty of such violation."
The naval successes of the war on the side of the United
States, in September, gave new cause of congratulation.
Oliver Hazard Perry, born in 1785, lost his ship and
sought service on the lakes under Commodore Chauncey and
took part in the attack on Fort George, at the mouth of the
Niagara River, which was captured by the militia. From
there he was sent to fit out a squadron on Lake Erie. How
well and successfully he did this is best told in the story of
the destruction of the British fleet on Lake Erie under
Commodore Barclay. Both English and Americans had put
forth extraordinary efforts to build and organize a fleet on
Lake Erie, the British preparing their vessels at Amherst-
burg and the Americans at Erie. With almost incredible
energy and efforts he managed to construct nine vessels,
capable of carrying fifty-four guns. Commodore Perry could
^o The Battle of the Thames
not restrain himself as he saw the British fleet maneuver-
ing off the Canadian coast, and on the loth of Septem-
ber, 1 813, with all his squadron, he engaged the British
fleet. Perry's flag-ship, the Lawrence, was disabled, and he
boarded the Niagara. He had placed some Kentucky
riflemen in the masts, and under their deadly fire a large
number of British officers and seamen were killed, and after
a tremendous conflict, at three o'clock the British flag was
hauled down, and for the first time in her naval history
Great Britain, the " Mistress of the Sea," had lost an entire
squadron, and had surrendered this to a young man only
twenty-seven years of age. His dispatch to General
William Harrison, then in camp at the falls of the Maumee,
" We have met the enemy and they are ours," immortalized
him. It is unfortunate that all the names of these Ken-
tucky riflemen have not been preserved; they numbered
about one hundred and fifty. They were largely from
Colonel William E. Boswell's and Colonel R. M. John-
son's regiments, and their accurate aim did much to
dishearten the British and keep the decks clear during the
conflict. This victory gave to the United States the
mastery of Lake Erie. It was impossible for the British to
construct a navy and organize a naval force on Lake Erie
again, and the destruction of Commodore Barclay's fleet
made access to Canadian territory by the United States
The Battle of the Thames 51
entirely practicable and comparatively easy, and rendered
possible the pursuit, which was afterward made, of Proctor
and Tecumseh. Perry subsequently carried his ships into
Lake St. Clair, and in person he followed the fortunes of
General Harrison and Governor Shelby. Six hundred
British sailors were made prisoners. Commodore Barclay,
the British commander, went into battle with one arm, and
during the fight lost the other. The British loss in killed
and wounded was two hundred, American loss twenty-six
killed and ninety-six wounded. The news of this mag-
nificent victory was communicated to the Kentucky troops
about fifteen miles from Portage River, and gave new zeal
and enthusiasm to the Kentuckians as they were nearing
the end of their tedious and difficult march.
JOHNSON'S REGIMENT JOINS IN PURSUIT OF THE
Colonel Johnson's regiment, with the exception of one
company, had been encamped at Fort Meigs since the
middle of September. It had been placed there to awe
the Indians and to keep General Harrison posted as to
the military conditions then existing west of Fort Meigs.
On the evening of the 25th of September a messenger
arrived with orders from General Harrison to march
immediately to the river Raisin. With the dawning of
the morning the march was begun. The military instincts
of these veterans convinced them that the time of action
had come. They had known of a large Indian force at
Brownstown, and among men and officers there was a
feeling that in forty-eight hours the command would come
in contact with the enemy. For the use of the regiment
four pieces of light artillery were taken from Fort Meigs,
each of which was manned by a captain and ten men.
These captains were Craig, Turner, Gist, and Sanford.
On the twenty-eighth they reached the river Raisin.
Frenchtown, the scene of the awful calamity nine months
before, had been abandoned by its inhabitants, with the
exception of a few French families.
The Battle of the Thames 53
As they approached the town they saw the bones of
their massacred brothers scattered over the plains for
three miles south of the river. Ninety days before Colo-
nel Johnson had sent a detachment to the battlefield,
which had collected and buried the remains of many who
had fallen on the fatal field. These interments, however,
had been hasty, and the graves had been opened and
the bones scattered afresh over the land. This awful
sight produced a tremendous effect on the hearts of the
men. With these grim reminders before them they saw
again the helpless wounded prisoners and the barbarous
savages bent on their schemes of murder, outrage, and
robbery. They looked in grief and reverential awe on
the spot where the noble and gallant Allen had fallen,
where the handsome and brilliant Hart had gone down,
and where the chivalrous Woolfolk had been butchered.
Before them was the ruin in which the ashes of Hickman
and his companions were mingled, and near by were
pointed out the places where Simpson had found his
end, where Montgomery and Davis and McAfee, with self-
sacrificing faithfulness in their devotion to their wounded
comrades, had met an honorable though barbarous death,
and where Lieutenant Graves had been shamefully slain.
In the early morning an Indian guide had taken them to
the spot where Simpson had been put to death. His
- . The Battle of the Thames
extraordinary height, six and a half feet, enabled his
friends to identify his remains, and they were given hon-
orable sepulture. This sad duty having been performed,
the line of march was at once taken up.
On the following morning Colonel Johnson crossed the
Huron River, and there received a dispatch from General
Harrison in regard to the true condition on the east side
of the Detroit River and of the position of his force, half
way between Maiden and Sandwich, in full pursuit of the
The troops marched all this day at half speed. On
arriving at the river Decasse they found Captain Ben-
jamin Warfield had been sent over by General Harrison
to repair the bridge. The Indians, on the west side of
the Detroit River, had prepared an ambuscade at this
place, expecting that Colonel Johnson would march by
night into Detroit.
The regiment encamped at Rouge River that night,
where they were re-enforced by four companies of regu-
lars and one of militia from General Harrison's head-
quarters opposite Detroit, some uneasiness having been
felt for the safety of Colonel Johnson on account of the
large number of Indians who had been seen prowling on the
east side. On the 30th of September, at twelve o'clock,
the regiment, after a hard morning's march, entered
The Battle of the Thames 55
The approach of the regiment to Detroit had been
observed by General Harrison, who immediately sent
Major Todd with orders to Johnson to cross as quickly
as possible. The men had not dismounted after their
morning's ride before they received this order. They
marched promptly to the river and prepared to cross. A
few got over on the night of the thirtieth. A large
proportion could not be conveyed over the river until
the following morning.
Johnson had been ordered to bring his regiment over
with the greatest possible rapidity, but Governor Shelby
himself crossed from the Detroit side and communicated
to Colonel Johnson the result of the council of war, which
had decided to pursue Proctor by land, but owing to the
high wind all the regiment was not gotten over till late
in the evening. Each man vied with the other in ener-
getic, persistent efforts to cross.
All the preparations were made on the night of the
first for an early start. The hardy sons of Kentucky,
who now composed the infantry, having left their horses
at the Portage, were determined to show their endur-
ance and their spirit by marching as infantry.
The country through which they were to pass had
been exhausted of provisions. General Cass's brigade
could not march, from the fact that their knapsacks and
blankets had been left at Middle Island. The cavalry,
^6 The Battle of the Thames
after drawing their provisions, made ready to enter upon
the pursuit, but such was the haste and desire to overtake
the enemy, on the part of the troops, that the infantry
marched twelve miles in the morning and there waited
for the mounted men to come up.
It was found that the British and Indians, under
Proctor and Tecumseh, either had not expected pursuit
at all or had not expected it on the line along which it
was made, and had left the bridges across the rivers and
creeks which run north into Lake St. Clair. About four
o'clock in the afternoon the mounted men in front met
six British deserters, who informed them that at one
o'clock, on the first, they had left Proctor fifteen miles up
the river Thames, and that he had about seven hundred
regulars and twelve hundred Indians.
Starting at sunrise and taking a brief rest at noon, by
dark the infantry had made a march of twenty-five miles,
a most extraordinary performance considering all the cir-
cumstances under which the distance was covered. While
these troops at home were accustomed, a large portion of
them, to agricultural pursuits and were hardy — their nerves
trained to exercise — many of them had been called from
mercantile pursuits ; but all had either been on their horses
or in camp for the past thirty days. A noble spirit
animated every man in the ranks, and for quite a large part
The Battle of the Thames 57
of the day, in order to keep pace with the cavah-y in front,
the infantry marched on the half run.
On the 3d of October, by the break of day, the
American army was in hne. A few hours' march brought
them to the mouth of the Thames, where it empties into
Lake St. Clair. Here the spies under Chaplain Suggett
discovered a small party of dragoons ; they pursued and
captured the dragoons, who had undertaken to destroy a
bridge over a small creek at the mouth of the river. Five
of these British soldiers had crossed the Thames River in a
boat, but they were forced by Captain Berry, of Colonel
Johnson's spies, to bring back the boat and surrender.
Here, unfortunately, one of the horses belonging to the
dragoons made his escape, and his wild run into the British
lines gave Proctor the first intimation of the approach of the
American troops. The sight of the red-coats and of the
captured men gave renewed zeal and animation to the
The second night the Americans camped ten miles
above the mouth of the Thames, and next morning at day-
light resumed the rapid gait of the day before, with the
belief on their part that during the day they would be able
to force the British to stand and give battle.
About midday, at the Fork of the Thames, the Indians
and British attempted to dispute the passage of the right-
eg The Battle of the Thames
hand fork and had torn the planks off the bridge. After a
warm skirmish the Indians were driven away from the
upper bridge, which was seized by Colonel Johnson with a
loss of two men killed and seven wounded. Among the
wounded was Captain Elijah Craig, who subsequently died.
The Indians had thirteen killed and a large number
During the day, Walk-in-the-Water, a Wyandot
chief, had deserted the British with a company of warriors.
On the preceding day he had a conference with General
Harrison, and offered to make a treaty, to which the
General replied that this was not the time to make treaties,
and if he desired peace he had better abandon his British
friends and get out of the way of the American army.
After marching about six miles it was found impossible
for the troops to proceed farther. Burdened with their
heavy muskets, their ammunition and blankets, required as
they were to carry all their baggage on their persons, it was
impossible to make any further advance ; so they camped
for another night, but with the consciousness that their
enemies were not far away. At this point two twenty-four
pounders and a large quantity of bullets and shells were
captured. The troops consequently slept on their arms
behind a breastwork of wood, logs, and brush which was
found around the encampment.
The Battle of the Thames 59
Untin ten o'clock General Harrison rode around super-
intending and inspecting the arrangements for the night,
and during the entire night Governor Shelby was on
active duty, passing from one part of the line to another to
see that proper diligence was observed, and for a short
time before daybreak he rested on a blanket on the ground
with one of his soldiers. The troops were aroused at dawn,
and by the time it was fully light the whole army was in
Colonel Johnson's regiment took the lead, with which
was General Harrison and his staff, and the infantry fol-
lowed, as rapidly as was possible, under the command of
By nine o'clock the Americans reached a mill, where
there is a rapid in the river, at which place it was possible
to ford the river on horseback. Here several boats and
barges loaded with military stores and prisoners had been
captured early in the morning. In the mill, on the north
side of the river, some of the Americans who passed over
found a British lieutenant and eight privates, and from
them the information was received that the allied force of
British and Indians had determined to give battle at no
very great distance east.
The old military trail and road at this point crosses over
to the north side of the river, and General Harrison deter-
6o The Battle of the Thames
mined to march forward on this trail. The river being
fordable for horsemen, each of Colonel Johnson's mounted
militia took an infantryman behind him. This put
twelve hundred of the footmen on the north side, and
the balance were crossed over in canoes, which were
quietly floated down the river to this point. As soon as the
troops were all over, the line of march was formed, and the
entire force advanced at the former rapid gait.
The road had been laid out straight; the river being
tortuous, it was only now and then that the two converged.
At every such point a large amount of military stores,
provisions, and clothing was found, which the enemy had
left on their hurried retreat.
Eight miles from the crossing, after a march of two and
a half hours, the Americans camped upon the place where
Colonel Warburton and the British soldiers had rested the
night before. Here it was learned that General Proctor
and his Indian allies were about four miles above, or at
least had been on the preceding day.
It now became evident that the enemy was close at
hand, and Colonel Johnson's mounted men were directed to
march with all possible rapidity to procure the necessary
information and to bring the enemy to bay.
Two miles from the camp the advance guard captured
a British wagoner, from whom it was learned that the
The Battle of the Thames 6i
enemy were in order of battle about a quarter of a mile
beyond, and there awaiting the approach of the Americans.
Colonel Johnson, with Major Suggett and the spies, immedi-
ately advanced within sight of the British line, where by
observation, together with the statements of several prison-
ers whom they had captured, they were able to get an
understanding of the line upon which Proctor's forces
had been formed. The English had selected the battlefield
not only with care but with great wisdom.
The road, or trail, at this point was about two hundred
feet from the river. The banks were probably forty feet
high and sloped down to the river, leaving quite a space
between the bed of the stream and the top of the bank, and
the road was back a short distance — about one hundred feet
from the bank.
Beginning on the bank and running out in a westerly
direction and at right angles to the road, the British were
posted in a beech woods. In order to protect the road the
British artillery had been placed so as to sweep it. It was
straight at this point for one thousand feet. It was evident
that Proctor had expected the main attack along the line of
this road, from the fact that he placed there both his
artillery and his British regulars of the Forty-first Regiment.
To face these British General Harrison placed what was
probably his best brigade. General Trotter had wide
53 The Battle of the Thames
experience, having been in the war almost from the
beginning, and was one of the most gallant and courageous
men sent by Kentucky into the field. The officers com-
manding the several companies had also had much experi-
ence. Bowers had been at Raisin; he had been surgeon
with Lewis's regiment and had acted with great courage and
gallantry in his efforts to protect his comrades from massa-
cre by the Indians. His statement, made after his return
to Kentucky, is one of the fullest of the narratives prepared
of this dreadful event, and has generally been accepted as
the most complete.
The brigade, composed of the first and second regi-
ments, was almost entirely made up of soldiers of Fay-
ette, Jessamine, Scott, Woodford, Clark, Montgomery, and
Fleming counties, and the vigor with which it subse-
quently enforced Colonel Richard M. Johnson's charge,
with the second battalion of his regiment, showed that
there was no mistake in giving it the post to which it
Four hundred and fifty feet behind Trotter General
King's brigade was placed, composed of the fifth and
seventh regiments, which was in large part officered by
men who had had extended experience in the present
war, while the reserves were so placed as to reach either
the line in front of the British or Indians, consisting of
The Battle of the Thames 63
General Chiles' brigade, which was composed of the
third regiment, commanded by Colonel Poague, and the
fourth regiment, commanded by Colonel Mountjoy.
Facing the swamp occupied by the Indians, with its
right resting on Trotter's left, was the brigade of Gen-
eral Samuel Caldwell. He himself was also a veteran of
the present war, having commanded a regiment the year
previous in operations on the Wabash and White rivers.
His brigade was composed of the ninth regiment, com-
manded by Colonel Simrall, and the tenth, commanded
by Colonel Philip Barbour, while to his left was the brig-
ade of Colonel James Allen, composed of the regiments
of Colonels Davenport and Calloway.
As the British and Indians were waiting for the
attack, the Americans were equally anxious to begin it.
Though the British had the choice of the battle-ground,
the Americans had determined, wherever such ground was
chosen, to promptly accept the gage of battle.
While upon the line of march the American cavalry,
composed of Johnson's regiment and the infantry, found
that the trail or military road would cover a distance of
probably two miles and a half, and it required something
Hke an hour and a half to make the necessary alignment
before proceeding to hostilities, but with the British wait-
ing for a fight and the Americans longing for it all pre-
liminaries were soon arranged.
64 The Battle of the Thames
While forming the infantry lines and more closely
inspecting the British line of battle, Colonel Johnson and
General Harrison discovered that the British regulars had
been placed in open line. This would put the men about
three feet apart. The result of the battle was to be
determined almost entirely by the cavalry.
When Colonel Johnson commanded his first regiment,
in the fall of 1812, it had been given a very thorough
training by his brother, Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson,
who was a thorough disciplinarian as well as a brave and
gallant soldier, and he and Colonel Johnson had then
drilled this regiment so as to enable it to charge a line
of infantry. The hollow square, the favorite method of
forming British soldiers, while good for open ground, had
never been practiced in the forests of America because
there had been no cavalry to charge the infantry, and
therefore this formation had never been attempted.
Colonel Johnson, having had from May until October
to use his regiment in scouting, when in camp had
instructed it in the ver}' exercise and movements it would
now be called upon to perform. He had dismounted a
portion of his men, formed them as infantry, given them
blank cartridges with which to fire, and then drilled the
remainder of the regiment to charge this infantry line
so as, first, to familiarize the men with this method of
The Battle of the Thames 65
warfare, and, second, to accustom the horses to musketry
fire. There is no animal in the world that learns so
quickly under these circumstances as the horse. He soon
becomes perfectly steady under either musketry or artil-
lery fire, and partakes of the excitement and enthusiasm
of his rider on entering battle.
General Harrison, very naturally and very properly, in
his report of the battle of the Thames, takes credit for
ordering the charge of Johnson's men in this way and at
this time. As the commanding general, whatever was
done by subordinates was done by him, and while he
ordered this charge he assumed the responsibility for it,
and was entitled to the credit of the results which
On the 2 2d of December, 1834, Colonel Johnson, in
response to inquiries made by General Armstrong, said :
"It is due to truth to state that I requested General
Harrison to permit me to charge, and knowing that I
had trained my men for it, during our short service, he
gave me the order." (See Armstrong's Notices of the
War of 181 2, Volume I, page 234.) But whether the
credit belonged to General Harrison or Colonel Johnson,
it proved a most brilliant and successful undertaking.
The limited space in front of the British regulars was
full of large beech trees. This part of the battlefield
was practically denuded of underbrush,
66 The Battle of the Thames
In addition to the practice which Johnson's men had
had in charging infantry, they were probably the most
expert frontier horsemen in the world. In those days all
frontier men rode on horseback. The rifle was their
constant companion ; they were accustomed, either in the
pursuit of cattle or in hunting, to carry their guns in
the forest. They had no swords or pistols — they had
nothing but their rifles, muskets, tomahawks,' hatchets,
'In visiting the battlefield in 1899-1900, I was enabled to secure
several specimens of these tomahawks that had been plowed up on the
field. The American tomahawk or hatchet was so different from the
British tomahawk that there was no difficulty in distinguishing it.
ARRIVED AT THE BATTLEFIELD
The hour for action had come. Behind, weary march-
ings of four hundred miles, full of self-denial and unchang-
ing privations ; before them, enemies arousing an immeas-
urable hate; every heart was full of memories of
savage brutality and cruelty to relatives, friends, and
fellow-citizens for a quarter of a century. The horrible
massacre of the Raisin, its indescribable barbarity and its
fiendish inhumanity, was painted on every soul, and the
spirits of its slain victims seemed to ride side by side in
martial procession with these living horsemen, fate's
avengers, chosen to inflict punishment on its ferocious
The atrocities of Fort Meigs were not forgotten, and
the cry of the Kentuckians, tortured and murdered by the
savage red man within the sight of British officers, and
coolly tomahawked or shot while helpless and defenseless
in their very presence, seemed to beseech Heaven for a just
and complete revenge upon those guilty of such unspeak-
Among these Kentuckians now aligning for conflict
were men who had looked upon all that was awful at
68 The Battle of the Thames
Raisin and terrible at Fort Meigs. Some had shared in
the humiliation of Detroit's surrender, and had witnessed
their country's flag and honor sullied by General Hull's
cowardice and imbecility, while others had endured the
trials, insults, and torture of British prisons. All were
animated by the highest courage and truest patriotism.
The generous impulses of brave and chivalrous souls
impelled every man to the noblest discharge of duty, and
every ear was listening with absorbing interest for the
sound which should call them to battle with their detested
Each man signaled his desire to march in the front
line; there were neither laggards nor cowards in that Ken-
tucky army. Intense desire to avenge the murder of
fellow-Kentuckians was quickened by an eager patriotism
and sharpened by an honorable ambition for personal honor
and renown. If any were selfish of distinction, it was a
selfishness controlled and directed by a thorough subjec-
tion to the glory of Kentucky and their country, and seek-
ing in the discharge of a public service to win a crown
of personal fame.
The long line of cavalry formed in columns, and the
infantry, directed by aides and officers, moved with celerity
and eagerness to find their proper positions in the order
The Battle of the Thames 69
On a small elevation, just west of the Longwood Road,
at the northern end of the swamp, the English artillery
was posted, and in the front the British soldiers, consist-
ing of some seven hundred and fifty men of the Forty-
first Regiment of English foot, were located in two lines,
the men some three feet apart in line, and the two lines
with one hundred feet between them. The English
artillery was so disposed as to sweep Longwood Road for
a thousand feet, and a quarter of a mile back of the
artillery General Proctor and his staff took position. The
space from the Longwood Road westward to the small
swamp was possibly five hundred feet wide; then a small
ridge intervened, and then the large swamp parallel with
the Thames and extending north within these lines about
Proctor had hastily chosen the field of battle. It pos-
sessed many and strong strategic points. The Indians
were posted in the brush along the eastern line of the
great swamp, where they could sweep with deadliest rifle
fire the narrow ridge between the two swamps, while the
British regulars felt able to hold the limited space between
the Longwood Road and the small swamp, supported by
the artillery, the approach to which was covered by an
unbroken forest filled with large beech, walnut, and maple
-o The Battle of the Thmnes
The American troops had marched seventy miles in
three and a half days. Their eagerness to meet their foes
had hastened the tramp of their willing feet. They had
already marched in line of battle about thirteen miles.
They had kept well up with the cavalry, and the thought
that a conflict was approaching filled their hearts with
enthusiasm and courage. There was no time taken for
the midday meal. They needed no incentive or support
other than their ample bravery to keep them not only in
line but with quick and steady tread along the narrow
The cavalry covered the front. A small number of
pickets or spies protected the flank of the advancing
column; but the eleven regiments, at most four abreast,
and the artillery made a line over three miles in length.
Fully an hour and a half was consumed in getting the
infantry in position. The regiment of mounted men in the
meantime was reconnoitering and holding the enemy
under close watch.
Henry's division was composed of the best of material.
At least one half the men had seen service in the previous
days of the war, and it was officered with some of the
coolest and nerviest men Kentucky had ever sent to battle.
To General George Trotter fell the post of honor.
General Marquis Calmes, well advanced in years, was by
The Battle of the Thames 71
reason of a severe attack of illness prevented from com-
manding the brigade. No indisposition, however, could
prevent his presence with his men. He was carried with
the troops, but the command devolved upon Colonel
Trotter. The brigade was composed of the first and
second regiments. The men were homogeneous. In the
first regiment (Trotter's) three of the companies, Todd's,
Megowan's, and Flournoy's, were from Fayette; two.
Bowers' and Singleton's, were from Jessamine; and one,
Christopher's, from Woodford.
In the second regiment, commanded by the gallant
John Donaldson, two companies were from Clark, those
of Cunningham and Simpson; two from Fleming, com-
manded by Matthews and Botts; one from Bath, com-
manded by Menifee; one from Montgomery, commanded
George Trotter was one of the most gallant and dis-
tinguished soldiers the War of 181 2 produced. He was
only thirty-four years old at the time of the battle of the
Thames, but he had already made his mark among the
military men of that period. Distinguished by birth and
chivalrous by nature, he had responded to the first call
made by his country and had gone with Simrall's regi-
ment of dragoons in August, 181 2, and had rendered
efficient service in the Fort Wayne campaign. With a
72 The Battle of the Thames
soul filled with the highest conception of duty and noble
patriotism, there was no sacrifice at which he would hesi-
tate for his country's honor. His relatives, friends, and
associates had gone down at the Raisin. An unusual
proportion of the men lost in that conflict had been from
Fayette County; Fayette and Jessamine bore the brunt,
and from these two counties probably more than any part
of Kentucky there had grown up a consuming desire not
only to wipe out any discredit which attached to the
Raisin, but also to avenge its wrongs.
As the associates and friends of the men murdered at
Raisin and Meigs had been from the immediate locality
of Lexington, it was deemed just that the brigade com-
posed of soldiers from this immediate district should have
the honor of fighting in the vanguard of the battle which
was just about to take place. Trotter's brigade, therefore,
advanced to the front, and was ordered to prepare to use
the bayonet in the charge upon the British regulars.
Here and there between the trees could be seen the
bright accoutrements of the Forty-first Regiment of King
George's infantry, and no men ever entered into a battle
with keener desire for conflict or awaited with more
eagerness the order to advance.
It was about this time that it was made known to
General Harrison, through the spies on foot in front of
The Battle of the Thames 73
Colonel Richard M. Johnson's regiment, that the British
infantry, not suspecting the full nature and disposition
and resources of the men opposing them, were aligned in
For some months previous Johnson had been training
his regiment to charge in line through the forests in Ohio.
He had used a large number of cartridges to accustom
the horses to the use of firearms. Discovering the mis-
take which the British had made. Colonel Johnson at once
communicated this fact to General Harrison, and told
him, with his cavalry regiment, he could break the British
line in a single charge.
General Harrison promptly authorized this movement on
the part of Colonel Johnson, who at this moment observed
that the space between the Longwood Road and the small
swamp would not allow him to deploy more than one of
his battalions. Anxious for the fray, he quickly detached
one battalion and marched it across the small swamp so
as to face Tecumseh and his Indians, while the other
battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson and
Major DeVall Payne, was at once put in line in four
columns to charge the British infantry.
In this supreme moment it was necessary to steady
every arm and nerve every heart. Calmly the general
officers galloped up and down the lines and encouraged
the men to be brave, valiant, and heroic.
74 The Battle of the Thames
Colonel John Calloway, in the lull preceding hostilities,
with his majestic form and stentorian voice rode out
calmly before the fine companies of his regiment, and
waving his sword aloft, said, ' ' Boys, we must either whip
these British and Indians, or they will kill and scalp
every one of us. We can not escape if we lose. Let
us all die on the field or conquer."
Similar words were shouted in the ears of every line.
The men hardly needed these warnings. No braver
army for its number ever went into battle. The result
was bound to be annihilation or victory. Harrison,
Shelby, Henry, Desha, Chiles, King, Trotter, Caldwell,
and their subordinate officers well understood the condi-
tions, and there was no equal number of men then alive
who could have whipped this Kentucky army, led and
officered as it was, and with the inspiration of the presence
of men like General Cass and Commodore Perry, who
had come to share with them whatever fate would bring.
THE BATTLE AND THE VICTORY
After a proper disposition of the forces had been
made, and everything was in readiness and awaiting the
charge, it was in making a reconnoissance that General
Harrison discovered the open order of the British, and
Colonel Johnson suggested to him that he could break
the line of the British regulars with his mounted men.
General Harrison immediately gave the order for him
to charge. They were then eight hundred feet from the
British infantry line.
Colonel Johnson, in aligning the first battalion, com-
manded by Major DeVall Payne, saw that the limited
space in front of the British would render useless more
than one battalion composed of five hundred men. As
this battalion was to charge in four columns, double file,
it would require a front for each man of about three and
a half feet, and as there would be two hundred and fifty
men, composing the four columns, of about sixty each, it
was impossible to maneuver more than the one battalion.
Finding that the swamp on the right of the British
could be passed in places, he immediately directed the
second battalion, then under command of Major David
76 The Battle of the Thames
Thompson, to change and take position in advance of
the Hne of Allen and Caldwell, their flank being protected
by the regiment of Simrall on the extreme left. In
between the lines of the four divisions formed by the
four columns of the first battalion rode the officers. On
the right was Colonel James Johnson and on the left
Amid hurried movements and while the spirit of the
men was thrilled to the enthusiastic joy which ever fills
a true warrior's breast at battle's eve, the command
"Forward, Charge!" rang out on the oppressive stillness
which surrounded the expectant host.
Hardly had the horses begun to move when another cry,
terrible in its intensity and with foreboding wrath in its
tones, filled the space overshadowed by the mighty mon-
archs of the forest. From the stalwart throats of nearly
six hundred Kentuckians there arose the cry, " Remember
the Raisin ! " As they lifted this mighty shout to Heaven
they saw about them the forms of their murdered comrades
and friends and relations. They beheld the bedizened,
painted savages, with barbarous cruelty, strike their
wounded foes and casting their bodies, when dead or writh-
ing, into the flames to be consumed. They remembered the
bones of their fellow-citizens scattered along the river and
the fields and woods adjacent thereto, and before them
The Battle of the Thames 77
arose visions of those fleshless skeletons which, seven days
before, they had for the second time committed to mother
Eight months and thirteen days had elapsed since
this awful tragedy at Raisin had been enacted, but the two
visits that these charging men had made to that dreadful
spot and the scenes they had there witnessed (for many in
the command had been at the Raisin) burned into their
brains and created in their minds images which nerved
every arm, thrilled every soul, and inspired every heart with
the desire to punish and to destroy those who had been
responsible for that awful catastrophe.
As the cry of these Kentuckians resounded through
the forests, it fell upon the ears of the British regulars, who
themselves had been at the battle of the Raisin, and whose
officers had connived at, or at least permitted, the slaughter
of Allen, Graves, Hickman, Woolfolk, Simpson, and
their noble commands.
The galloping columns caused the earth to shake and
the great beeches to vibrate as men and horses, mad-
dened with the excitement of battle, crowded, shouted,
and rushed to the conflict. The very boughs and leaves
of the overshadowing trees swayed and trembled as if
keeping time to the cadence of war's weird, strange, and
-3 The Battle of the Thames
In the fierce charge there was but one cry, oft
repeated, but rising each time in sharper and sterner
tones, ' ' Remember the Raisin ! Remember the Raisin ! "
These avenging warriors, catching the enthusiasm and
deHrium of combat, rose high in their stirrups and plung-
ing their spurs into the fianks of their chargers, as they
approached the enemy still more furiously, waved their
guns aloft and with their voices made stronger and
stronger by the excitement of their impetuosity, cried the
more vehemently, "Remember the Raisin! Remember
the Raisin ! "
No human power could resist such an assault. Cower-
ing on the earth, or taking refuge behind the trees in
their line, the red-coats of the Forty-first British gave
way. The second line, one hundred yards behind, fared
no better than the first. As well attempt to resist the
cyclone or ward off the lightning as to stay this
onslaught. The Kentucky horsemen were invincible.
No sooner had they passed the second line than, wheel-
ing about, they sprang to the ground, and with deadliest
aim poured their fire into the fear-stricken infantry, who
in their terror begged for a mercy and implored a pity
which at Raisin and Meigs they had denied the friends
and brothers of the men who had now defeated them,
and before whom they knelt as suppliants for mercy.
The Battle of the Thames 79
No act of cruelty marked the conduct of these scrupu-
lously brave heroes. They accepted the surrender of
men who had acquiesced in and permitted the murder of
their fellow-Kentuckians only a few months before. Civ-
ilization and humanity controlled their embittered and
justly indignant hearts, and not a single excess detracted
from the splendor of their victory or the grandeur of
A quarter of a mile away at the rear, in the edge of
the forest, along the trail, was the commander of the
British regulars, General Henry A. Proctor, who was
responsible for the revolting butchery and brutality at
Raisin and Meigs. He came to Canada as the colonel
of a British regiment, and his atrocities had never been
reproved by his government. For his conduct at Raisin
he had been promoted to a brigadier-general.
His ear was quick to detect danger. He knew his
fate if the Kentuckians (many of whom had sworn that
he should not be taken alive) should capture him.
He distinctly heard the tramp of Johnson's mounted
men, and his ear caught that portentous and to him fate-
ful cry, "Remember the Raisin!" Dismayed, he watched
and waited for the result. He saw one line brushed out
of the path of the horsemen or rush in confusion upon the
second line. He beheld this last line disappear and the
8o The Battle of the Thames
black hunting-shirts and gray breeches of the Kentuckians
as they dismounted and turned in furious onslaught upon
his stricken and helpless grenadiers, and then, with his
cowardly conscience impelling him, he turned his horse's
head eastward and accompanied by a small guard of horse-
men precipitately fled toward Burlington. Hard pressed
by Major DeVall Payne, he abandoned his baggage and
followers and fled through the forest to escape capture.
His ignominious conduct brought upon him the contempt
of his associates. He was tried by court-martial, disgraced,
and deprived of pay for six months, and was publicly
reprimanded by his superiors by order of his government.
A sterner conflict and more sanguinary fate awaited the
second battalion, under the immediate command of Colonel
Johnson and Major David Thompson. This battalion
consisted of the companies of Captain James Coleman,
Captain William M. Rice, Captain S. R. Combs, Captain
James Davidson, Captain Jacob Stucker, and Captain
Robert Berry. On the right of this battalion was the
gallant Colonel Richard M. Johnson, on the left Major
This second battalion was formed in two columns, on
horseback, while one company was dismounted, and on foot
placed in front of the right column, which was led by Colo-
nel Johnson. The front of each column was something
The Battle of the Thames 8i
like five hundred feet. In front of the column led by
Johnson was a company on foot, while in front of those,
mounted, was what was known as the "Forlorn Hope,"
in the courage and gallantry of which on that day was
written one of the most heroic and sublimely brave acts
which had ever been recorded of Kentucky men.
The "Forlorn Hope" consisted of twenty men. Colo-
nel Johnson himself rode by its side. It was led by the
grand old pioneer William Whitley, and was composed, so
far as known, of the following persons:
William Whitley, of Lincoln, enlisted as a private in
James Davidson's company; Benjamin S. Chambers, quar-
termaster, a lawyer from Scott County; Garrett Wall,
forage master, Scott County; Eli Short, assistant forage
master, Scott County; Samuel A. Theobald, lawyer, Frank-
lin County, judge advocate; Samuel Logan, second lieuten-
ant, Coleman's company, from Harrison County; Robert
Payne, private, James Davidson's company, probably from
Lincoln or Scott County; Joseph Taylor, private, J. W.
Reading's company; William S. Webb, private, Jacob
Stucker's company, Scott County; John L. Mansfield,
private, and a printer, Jacob Stucker's company, Scott
County; Richard Spurr, private, Captain Samuel Combs'
company, Fayette County; John McGunnigale, private,
Captain Samuel Combs' company, Fayette County.
82 The Battle of the Thames
These twenty men, with Colonel R. M. Johnson and
the pioneer William Whitley, at once advanced to the
front. The main line halted for a brief space, until this
advance could assume position, and when once they were
placed, at the command "Forward! march!" they quickly
and calmly rode to death.
In the thickets of the swamp, in which lay Tecumseh
and his red soldiers, they peered in vain for a foe. Not a
man stirred, but the ominous silence betokened only the
more dreadful fire when the moment of contact should
Along a narrow space they advanced. Stunted bushes
and matted and deadened grass impeded their horses' feet,
but these heroes urged their steeds forward with rapid walk,
seeking the hidden foe in the morass that skirted the
ground upon which they had aligned.
These were not unwilling victims to war's savage sacri-
fices. They understood and realized the dangerous and
deadly mission upon which they were bent; six hundred
comrades rode behind, but were partially removed from
danger. This noble vanguard was the cynosure of all eyes,
and their fellows watched with almost stilled hearts to hear
the signal guns which meant wounding and death to these
twenty men who were daring so much and who were ready
to receive into their own hearts and bodies the leaden hail
The Battle of the Thames 83
which in an instant all knew must be emitted from the
ambush into which with open eyes, steady minds, and
unblanched cheek this gallant band was now so bravely
pushing. Fifteen hundred savages, with their cocked rifies
at their shoulders and with their fingers upon the triggers,
were waiting and watching only a few yards away, and
behind trees and fallen logs and thick underbrush, with the
silence of assassins, were longing for the word which should
order them to pour death's missiles into the chivalrous
squadron which, with absolute fearlessness, was seeking
them in their lair.
Into their minds came memories of thosfe they loved,
half a thousand miles away, in peaceful Kentucky homes.
Years these heroes lived in the few seconds required to
pass the narrow space between them and their foes.
Before their eyes came images of those dearer than life
itself. Wives, sisters, mothers, sweethearts, seemed to be
gazing at them from every side, and with affection's
instinct they almost reached out to touch those imaginary
forms which hovered about them in this supreme moment.
They could hear tender voices calling, they could feel
the imprint of love's kiss upon their lips and catch the
brave words spoken at parting four months before, when
they set out at their country's call to face danger and if
need be death in her service; but all these only urged
^A The Battle of the Thames
them forward in duty's path and gave them calmer and
nobler purpose in the conflict which was now upon them.
Seconds were transformed into years. Almost breathless,
and with an anxiety which temporarily stilled every
physical function, the battalion waited for the instant
when death's messengers should be turned loose and in
their fury be hurled upon the brave men who composed
The suspense was brief. A loud, clear, savage voice
rang out the word "Fire!" The sharp crackling of half a
hundred rifles was the response, and then the deafening
sound of a thousand shots filled the air. The smoke
concealed those who fired the guns, but the murderous
effect was none the less terrible. Of the twenty, one
alone escaped unhurt or failed to be unhorsed. A mass of
fallen, struggling horses, a company of wounded, dying men,
lay side by side. The bleeding beasts whinneyed to dead
masters, and wounded masters laid their hands on the quiv-
ering bodies of their faithful steeds. Of the twenty, fifteen
were dead, or to die. Their leader, with a dozen wounds,
still sat erect, his judge advocate, Theobald, close to his
side. The remainder were lost in the battle's confusion.
The "Forlorn Hope" had met its fate. Its mission
was to receive the fire of the savages, when their fellows
and comrades might safely charge upon the red men
The Battle of the Thames 85
with guns unloaded. Its purpose had been fulfilled. The
promise of its commander to save all life possible,
spoken at Great Crossings, in Kentucky, on the i8th of
May, had been kept, but the "Forlorn Hope" had been
annihilated. On this fateful field it had won imperish-
able renown and had carved out fadeless glory. It had
been destroyed, but its members had magnified Ken-
tucky manhood and written in the life-blood of three
fourths of its members a story of courage and patriotic
sacrifice which would live forever. Whenever and
wherever their deed should be told it would command
the world's applause, and down through all the ages
excite in the hearts of Kentuckians noblest pride in the
glorious immortality they had purchased by their unself-
ish, superb, and patriotic sacrifice for their country's
It was Johnson's idea that as soon as this "Forlorn
Hope" or advance guard appeared, the whole fire of the
Indians would be concentrated upon it. There could be
little doubt that the majority, if not all, of its members
would instantly fall, and that after having thus drawn the
fire of the enemy the remainder of the battalion would then
advance upon the Indians, receiving no damage at all.
This plan would have worked most admirably had it
not been for the unfortunate topography which confronted
86 The Battle of the Thames
these two columns of the second battaHon. For any
column of cavalry the swamp chosen by the Indians as
their battle-ground was practically impassable; water,
decayed trees, and willo\^s rendered a charge on horse-
back utterly impracticable. Men on foot might find their
way through by careful picking, but a column of cavalry
would find it impossible to keep themselves in line or
charge with any such speed as would place them among
the enemy before they had time to reload.
When this "Forlorn Hope" had fallen, and when the
front of his column had received the fire of the Indians,
Johnson at once saw his mistake. He ordered all his men
to dismount but himself, and then at their head, with his
horse floundering in the water and mud of the swamp,
carried his men forward to the charge.
The experienced, courageous, and valiant Tecumseh
stood in the swamp with his red followers, encouraging
them by his commands, reproving them by his sharp
censure when they were disposed to run, and threatening to
kill all who refused to fight the white men who were
now forcing the battle with such vigor and enthusiasm.
The five hundred and fifty men of Johnson's battalion
were reinforced by quite a number of volunteer infantry-
men from Trotter's, Donaldson's, and Simrall's regiments,
who, hearing the firing and the shouts both of the
TJie Battle of the Thames 87
Indians and white men, rushed to the assistance of their
For a quarter of an hour the result of the battle seemed
in doubt. Twelve hundred Indians in the swamp and on
their chosen battlefield, behind trees and fallen logs, did
not hesitate to throw down the gage of battle to the six
or seven hundred Kentuckians who now advanced to the
As the lines were pushed along through the morass
Colonel Johnson saw, behind a fallen tree, an Indian chief
who, with vigorous words of command and loud cheers
and most earnest encouragement, was urging the red men
to stand firm against the assaults of the white men.
At the head of the column opposing these red men,
Johnson, still sitting upon his white mare, rode around the
tree and advanced upon the red man. At the first fire
he had lost by a wound the use of his left hand, in which
he would carry his bridle. The Indian, placing his gun
to his shoulder, immediately fired and added another to
the many wounds already received by the gallant Ken-
tuckian, and then, having exhausted his trusty rifle, with
uplifted tomahawk he advanced upon the white man who,
although wounded, was now riding upon him fearlessly and
rapidly. The savage, jerking his tomahawk from his side
and waiting for no assistance except his own strong arm
gg The Battle of the Thames
backed by his courageous soul, rushed upon Colonel
Johnson to strike him from his horse, but when he had i
advanced within four feet Johnson, letting his horse loose, j
seized his pistol from his helpless left hand and fired its \
contents into the breast of the Indian. Being loaded/"
with one bullet and three buckshot, at such close range
and piercing the heart of the Indian, he instantly fell
dead. Some said it was Tecumseh. He was certainly a
great leader, and it was at this time that somebody in
the battle killed Tecumseh.
The red men with amazement looked upon the sudden
and unexpected death of their valiant chief. They heard
no more his shouts of encouragement, saw no more the
gallant wave of his hand, and with utter alarm and despair,
with a great cry of disappointment, they rushed from the
In a single instant every hope was crushed and every
national aspiration perished. These children of the forest,
taught by the incantations of the dead warrior's brother
to believe that Tecumseh was immortal, saw him reel, fall,
and die as others of the race had done. Tecumseh's
eloquence had made them confident that the hated white
man's advance could be stayed, and that the nation of
seventeen fires could not prevail against the red man
protected and led by the Great Spirit.
The Battle of the Thames 89
The youngest warrior present had hstened with rap-
turous dehght to the glorious future Tecumseh, in his fervid
words, had prophesied for the Indians, and the oldest
had been led by his eloquent appeals to certain assurance
that no power could destroy the red men when the red
men stood united in their wilderness haunts and bid these
invaders defiance. Together these Indians had nursed
these national dreams and racial ambitions until they had
become part of their whole being. They had been taught,
and their experience in many conflicts had led them to
believe and conclude, that Tecumseh had been sent by the
god they worshiped to lead them to a sublime destiny
and to make them defenders of their race and protectors
of their lands and hunting-grounds from the never-ceasing
and constantly widening aggressions of their pale-face foes.
With Tecumseh dead, to them life was a bitter and
unbearable burden. It had neither joy nor hope. Confi-
dent that the white man's bullet was harmless against
their heroic leader, when they saw him tremble with pain,
fall, then writhe and die, they read in this awful tragedy
the doom of their race, the destruction of every cherished
dream of success, and understood that a remorseless fate
had bereft and was to destroy them.
To them nature, hitherto so beautiful, so inspiring, and
so generous, had suddenly turned in bitterest cruelty and
go The Battle of the Thames
with most malignant hate. To their tortured vision the
great trees above them seemed to sway and tremble as if to
fall in anger and wrath upon their defenseless heads with
direful resentment. Nature to them seemed now only
some wild fury bent upon their destruction and charged
with their annihilation and overthrow.
In a single instant they realized that nothing was left
for the Indian. Deserted by their British red-coated
allies, who now fled in dismay and terror from the avenging
and uplifted hand of the Kentucky Long Knives, they had
no heart for battle and no courage to prolong a contest
which had to them been fraught with absolute ruin.
They were not faithless, however, even in such awful
gloom, to him who had led, encouraged, and directed them
through so many years and in so many battles. Tenderly
and reverently they lifted the warm, bleeding, and stilled
body of the great chieftain into their arms ; stalwart
warriors became his pallbearers. With a wild, weird shout
of heartbroken despair, they abandoned the battle and bore
Tecumseh's body into the pathless depths of the surround-
ing forest, there to give him a hasty and honorable burial.
It may be that they had heard from the traditions of
their fathers, who had come across the seas to inhabit a
distant land, of the burial of one in the mountain whose
place of sepulture was known only to the God who had
The Battle of the Thames 91
buried him, and hence resolved that the greatest of
their race, he who for twenty-five years had planted in
their minds plans and hopes of a magnificent kingdom
which should cover the mighty, unbroken forest and hold
sacred for the use of the red man a fertile soil that
knew not impoverishment, and hunting grounds, the limits
and the abundance of which could not be measured by
even the heavens themselves, should sleep in an unknown
And so, in the darkness of the night, with the sombre
shade of the trees shutting out even the gleaming of the
moon or the pale reflection of the stars, they walked in
single file far out into the unexplored wilderness of the
sylvan expanse to find a resting-place for their beloved
They had done what an Indian had rarely ever done
before, they left the corpses of their fellows who had fallen
in the struggle to the mercy of their foes. They had
violated a code of honor and war dear to them and their
ancestors, and they hurried away from the scene of the fate-
ful conflict to give the ashes of Tecumseh repose where
they felt the foot of the pale-face would never tread and
where his eyes would never look upon the grave of him
they called "The Shooting Star," and who to them, in
their simple faith, had been sent from the unseen spirit-
A2 The Battle of the Thames
land to be their chieftain, their guide, and their national
The dust of Tecumseh, in their loving hearts, was too
sacred for the white man's view. The great warrior had
loved the trees and the rivers and the waving grasses,
and the silence and grandeur of their surroundings, and
amid these they imagined that his departure from tliis
world's scenes to another would best suit his noble concep-
tions and his grand ideas of life here and hereafter ; and
thus, with the rustling of the leaves in response to the
tread of moccasined feet, as a requiem, they moved on
amid the black darkness to a distant place in the wooded
wilderness where a few of his comrades, with their toma-
hawks and their hands, hollowed out a grave under a
widespreading monarch of the forest, which was to stand
guard over the sacred spot forever, and where in the
peace, and yet in tlie terror of the tomb, Tecumseh was
to rest forever.
With skillful craft they leveled the earth ; with cunning
hand they laid leaves upon it so that none could find it,
and unknown, unmarked, the Indian Warrior's resting-
place was forever hid from the white man's search.
Persuasion, threats, rewards, promises, money, glory
were all used without avail. The red man alone knew
where Tecumseh was put away, and the red man died
The Battle of the Thames 93
with the secret in his heart. His loyalty to the dust of
his leader was proof against all research, all exploration,
all investigation, and all inquiry. Grand in life, Tecumseh
was and is grand in death. In the isolation and desola-
tion of his burial he becomes almost sublime, for to this
day "no man knows where they have laid him."
AFTER THE BATTLE
The storm of battle was past. A small detachment
rode hard to overtake Proctor and Elliott, and along
the narrow trail through the forests pressed eagerly for-
ward to catch the fleeing Briton and his wary allies.
Some fifteen miles away Major DeVall Payne and
half a dozen associates had captured Proctor's and Elliott's
carriages and baggage, and with sixty prisoners were
now turning their faces toward the camp of their
The remainder of the army was preparing for sleep,
and as the twilight came on the saddest of all a soldier's
duties was performed.
Through the grasses and willows of the swamp, and
along the ridges among the trees, search was made for
the dead and wounded. At one place the dead were
close together; at the spot where the immortal "Forlorn
Hope" had received the concentrated fire of Tecumseh
and his red men, the richest sacrifice had been made.
The tall, stalwart form of the ever brave Whitley was
there. His trusty rifle was in his hand, his powderhorn
swung over his shoulder, and his hunter's knife in its
The Battle of t lie 1 Jiaines 95
sheath, and with his face to the foe they found the
fearless soldier, now past threescore years, pierced by
many bullets, lying at the side of his chivalrous leader,
where he had gone down to death for his beloved
A few feet away lay all the dead of the ' ' Forlorn
Hope." Colonel Johnson had been carried a few hundred
yards south to a tent.
Lieutenant Logan, mortally wounded, had expired, and
among the dead horses were found the lifeless forms of
the other heroes who had so gloriously fallen in the advance
upon the Indian line.
Less than twenty yards west were the bodies of the
red men who had disputed the passage across the swamp
with the Kentucky mounted soldiers.
The corpses of the white slain were gathered together
and lain side by side on a small knoll just northeast of
where the men had fallen and where the British artillery
had been placed to command the road along which the
Kentuckians had advanced.
The British dead were also collected, and now that
death, the great leveler and peacemaker, had done his
work, the opposing slain lay calmly and quietly side by
side on the mound which had been selected for a com-
g6 The Battle of the Thames
Over the bodies of the foe and friend blankets were
spread, and there, with guards about them, they remained
through the hours of the night, awaiting burial on the
In the morning two trenches were dug, one for the
British, the other for the Kentucky dead. A blanket
was their only coffin. Side by side, with hands folded
over their stilled hearts, these patriots were laid in
foreign soil. Their features and forms were imposing
and majestic even in their rude cerements.
These hardy and warlike men were not unaccustomed
to burials in the wilderness, but as they wrapped the
bodies of their dead comrades in their winding sheets,
which were only linsey blankets, and forever hid their
faces from the light of day, they dropped tears upon
these inanimate forms and bewailed that fate which gave
them so rude a tomb on hated English soil.
There was no sound as the loose earth fell upon the
soft and yielding blankets; the trenches were quickly filled.
On the beech trees, which were to be the sentinels to
stand guard over the Kentucky dead, were carved with
hunting-knives the names of those who had found graves
beneath their protecting shade. The tragedy was ended,
and these glorious dead were left forever in the solitude
of the Canadian forest. The firing squad performed the
last sad rites, the drums beat a dirge, and William Whit-
RELICS PICKED UP OX THE BATTLEFIELD OF
The Battle of the Thames 97
ley and his comrades, without monumental stone, have
slept fourscore and ten years in a strange land.
Long since the forest has disappeared. Only a few
trees on the river bank tell that once a dense woods
covered the battlefield. The agriculturalist plows his corn,
harrows and reaps his wheat. Tradition only tells where
sleep our brave. The murmuring ripples of the Thames
are the only requiem of these gallant slain, and the waving
wheat and the rustling corn-leaves whisper that beneath
their roots rest some of war's richest treasures — the
ashes of the Kentucky freemen who died for their country
on the battlefield of the Thames.'
In 1835 there appeared in the public prints of Ken-
tucky a communication from a gentleman named William
Emmons, who had anonymously written the life of Colonel
Richard M. Johnson, in which he represented that the
pursuit of Proctor and his men, after the battle of the
Thames, was made by Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson.
Captain John Payne, son of Major DeVall Payne, felt that
that honor was due his father, and he immediately took
steps, by communicating with all those who were engaged
' It is not to the credit of Kentucky that she has permitted her dead ^
thus to sleep. The bones of the Raisin's dead were collected and borne >
to Frankfort and deposited in the State lot, but the Thames' dead have
been left unhonored by any suitable mark, and in the ninety years passed
since their sepulture I could learn of no Kentuckian, except myself, who i
had come to visit the spot where these noble heroes sleep their last
^8 The Battle of the Thames
in the pursuit, to secure an authoritative statement of the
facts in regard to that transaction. As there was no more
heroic or courageous performance in all the War of 1812,
it was just that it should be determined finally to whom
the honor of this pursuit belonged. Major Payne, having
died in 1830, could not speak for himself.
Immediately after the shock of battle had subsided
and General Harrison realized that he had obtained a
complete victory. Major Chambers, a volunteer aide, and
Colonel Charles S. Todd, a regular aide, were directed to
detach two hundred men from the right battalion of John-
son's regiment, commanded by Major DeVall Payne, for
the pursuit of Proctor. These gentlemen, in the execu-
tion of this order, found Major Payne in command of that
battalion. With his troops, he was still busy pursuing the
fleeing British and Indians. The battalion was then
between the battlefield and Moravian Town, some four
and a half miles above the present site of Thamesville,
Ontario. When called upon to name what force he could
command for that purpose, sending all whom he could
reach to take the place of messengers, he at once gathered
about sixty of his men from the various companies; these
were all the troops then in hearing. Instantly they were
organized. Major Payne was directed to push on to the
Moravian Town, about a mile away, to endeavor to cap-
The Battle of the Thames 99
ture the enemy's baggage, and promptly lined up his men,
in company with Colonel Todd, Major Chambers, Major
E. R. Wood, Captain Langham, of Ohio, General Lewis
Cass, and Lieutenant Robert Scrogin, of Captain Matson's
From early dawn all the troops had been busy at work.
The day had scarcely broken when the American column
started in pursuit of the British, and so great had been
the zeal of the infantry, and such their endurance of
fatigue, that almost the entire day they kept close within
reach of the cavalry. They had already marched thirteen
miles, and it was well on in the afternoon before the con-
flict took place. It was fully half past four o'clock before
the pursuing detachment was enabled to proceed regularly
to its purpose.
From the commander to the private, in this whole
army there was one consuming desire — to capture General
Proctor. His brutal and barbarous cruelty and inhuman
conduct at Raisin, Meigs, and elsewhere to American
prisoners had filled the heart and soul of every Ken-
tuckian not only with indignation but hatred; and stirred
by these feehngs. Major Payne, immediately assuming
command, took charge of the small detachment, which in
so brief time could be gathered, and entered upon the
pursuit. Riding hard, pressing their wearied steeds to the
loo The Battle of the Thames
utmost endeavor, prisoner after prisoner was taken, until
with not more than sixty of his soldiers he had captured
fully that number of British infantry and cavalry.
In the pursuit, when Major Payne and his followers
came upon Indians they were waved from the path or
shot down. It was not the deluded savage red man that
these heroes desired to capture and kill; it was the man
who pretended to be civilized, who wore the British
uniform, and had perpetrated such cruelties on defense-
less prisoners, who was the true object of the chase.
With unflagging zeal, though weary and sore, this httle
command pursued the fleeing enemy until of the sixty who
had started in the chase only nine remained. The pursuit
was along a narrow road cut through the forest. It was
a road which had been used by the British for their
wagons and pack-horses through Canada from Toronto
to Detroit. It was not more than fifty feet in width,
and when hotly pushed the fleeing enemy, one by one,
dropped into the thick forest on either side.
Proctor, who had taken an early start, with his cow-
ardly conscience belaboring him and a guard of British
soldiers protecting him, with his carriage and one or two
wagons for his baggage, was running away with all the
speed that his guilty fears could command.
The pursuing column, animated by the hope of the
capture of the man who had incurred the hate and dis-
TJie Battle of the Thames loi
pleasure of all Kentuckians, rode with never-faltering step.
The tramp of their steeds was heard by the guilty British
general, who, abandoning his carriage and wagons, hastily
mounted a horse, and with a small guard and some Indian
guides, fled through the forest. In a few moments the
pursuing party reached his baggage-wagons, guarded by six
British regulars, who quickly surrendered, and in a short
distance, further along the Hne, Colonel Elliott, whose
barbarities and whose savage instincts, cultivated by the
hate of his fellow-countrymen, had done so much and so
barbarously for the destruction of women and children,
was overtaken. He, too, was compelled to abandon his
carriage and rush into the woods to prevent capture.
General Proctor's baggage, papers, telescope, and offi-
cial documents were all captured. The prisoners were
corralled and carried back to the Moravian Town, thirty
of them being in charge of the nine persons who had
made this vigorous pursuit. It was ten o'clock before
the advance of this pursuing party reached the Moravian
Town, and it was after eleven o'clock when Major Payne
arrived at General Harrison's headquarters and reported
to him the result of the chase.'
' One of the men engaged in this chase was Christopher Lillard, of Elli-
son's company. From a British officer who he forced to surrender he took
a beautiful dragoon fiint-lock pistol, which, with the belt and other accoutre-
ments, is now in the possession of Christopher Lillard, his son, of Anderson
County, and is as perfect as when captured nearly one hundred years ago.
The long, rapid, weary marches were now at an end.
The battle had been fought, the victory won. The enemy
had been crushed, defeated, scattered, and punished.
Raisin and Fort Meigs had been in part avenged, and
Kentucky's retribution had been laid with heavy hand
upon those who had ruthlessly murdered her sons. Proctor
was fieeing in disgrace and cowardice and was yet to be
disowned by his king and court-martialed by his peers.
Tecumseh, his savage agent, ally, and colleague, was dead
and his body hid away in a Canadian forest, far from
the place of his nativity and abode, and as these Ken-
tucky patriots arose on the morning of the 6th of
October they had much to render them happy, contented,
and proud. Unaccustomed to walking, they had made
unsurpassed day marches; they had subsisted on limited
rations; they had traveled over rough and difficult roads;
they had pursued their enemies for a hundred miles into
a foreign land; they had faced every danger, met every
vicissitude in a perilous undertaking. They had gained a
great and important victory, with far-reaching conse-
quences; they had completely broken the power of the
savage in a vast territory ; they had secured a lasting
The Battle of the Thames 103
peace for Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan ; they had
taught the red man, who had so long hovered with terror
and the tomahawk about the frontiersman's home, that
England could not protect him from deserved punish-
ment from his Long Knife foes, and that hereafter the
nation with seventeen fires would destroy the Indian if
the Indian molested or murdered the white man, and
that it was the interest of the Indian and his only safe
policy to keep the peace with the pale-face warrior.
All these things had been accomplished in an incredi-
bly short period. It was only fifteen days since this
Kentucky army had sailed away from Portage River to
Bass Island, the first resting place in Lake Erie. It was
only nine days since this army had landed at Maiden on
British soil, and at the end of a week and two days its
mission was accomplished. It had won a glorious renown
and performed for its Commonwealth and country superb
and immeasurable service.
As the sun rose clear and bright on the morning of
the 6th of October, 181 3, its light was long delayed in
finding the battle-worn and march-weary men who were
sleeping beneath the great trees which covered the scene
of their triumph on the preceding day. No tents pro-
tected the soldiers ; there were no houses open for their
accommodation, and upon mother earth, wrapped in their
I04 The Battle of the Thames
blankets, they had found sweet and refreshing repose.
There was no necessity to arouse them from their beds.
The foe they had sought was either captured or fleeing,
and so the sun was well up in the sky before the tired
heroes were called into line to begin the duties of the
day, which consisted of burying the dead, caring for the
wounded, and securing and destroying all public property
belonging to the enemy.
Rested, satisfied, full of patriotic contentment, on the
morning of the seventh the homeward march was begun.
The wounded and sick were, after a few miles' journey by
land, placed in boats and floated down the Thames River
to Lake St. Clair, thence to Detroit.
The infantry and cavalry marched to Sandwich, and
a few miles below crossed the Detroit River to the
American side, and from thence the footmen pursued
their way to the camp on Portage River. The British
prisoners were put in charge of the cavalry, but later
were transferred to the infantry and guarded by Colonel
Trotter's command, not one being lost by the way.'
■ These prisoners were brought to Frankfort, Kentucky, and confined
for a considerable period in the State penitentiary. The officers vigor-
ously resented this treatment, which they designated "ignominious." But
little sympathy was aroused on their account. The murders and bar-
barity at Raisin and Meigs had not put these men of the Forty-first Regi-
ment in a position to ask or expect much from Kentuckians. They were
subsequently exchanged, but not for some months.
The Battle of tJie Thames 105
The lake shore to the Portage River furnished much
good road, but the weather had now become cold and
quite an amount of snow fell during the march. The
winds from the lake were sharp and penetrating. The
troops were compelled to wade the rivers and creeks
flowing from the west into the lake. The soldiers had
expected to be conveyed by water to the Portage camp,
and this failure produced a tremendous amount of dissat-
isfaction and complaint. These militiamen felt that
they were entitled to fairer treatment. They had gone
into Canada when others had refused. They had left
their horses nearly two hundred miles from where they
had found their foes and defeated them, and now that
the whole purpose of the campaign had been so success-
fully accomplished, and every expectation of the govern-
ment and State realized, they felt that being thus left
under such disagreeable surroundings and conditions to
find their way back to their horses and camp was neither
grateful nor considerate.
It was necessary for General Harrison to explain
publicly that the absence of the fleet was occasioned
by the requirement for other and more important naval
and military operations, and when this was known these
brave men took up the burdens and endured the hard-
ships of the long, desolate, and tiresome march of one
io6 The Battle of the Thames
hundred and twenty miles without further complaint or
The infantry in its march reached the river Raisin on
the 15th of October. Johnson's regiment, in the hurry
of the ride to Detroit, had only partially buried the
bones of those who had been killed or massacred by the
Indians on January 2 2d previous. With reverent love
and tenderness for those brave men who had fallen, Gov-
ernor Shelby directed Simrall's regiment to make careful
search for the bones of all who may have died and
remained unburied, but the task was greater than antici-
pated, and General King's brigade was further detailed
for this work.
They recovered sixty-five skeletons and gave them
honorable and humane sepulture. The bones of these
heroes had a sad and eventful history. After these burials
most of them were reinterred in the cemetery in Monroe,
Michigan, which city is on the site of the battle. This
occurred on July 4, 1818. On August i8th a public
meeting was called in Detroit by General Lewis Cass.
A committee was appointed to bring the remains to
Detroit, and there they were again interred in the Prot-
estant burying-ground. In 1834 the boxes containing the
bones were removed to the Clinton Street Cemetery in
Detroit. In September of the same year they were once
The Battle of the Thames 107
more exhumed, placed in boxes marked "Kentucky's
gallant dead, January 18, 1813, River Raisin, Michigan,"
and at last and forever placed at rest in the State lot at
The animals and camp were found intact. Colonel
Christopher Rife, with the detail under his command,
had kept everything with scrupulous care and fidelity.
The horses, with the abundant grazing on the peninsula,
had fattened, and were now in good condition for the
joyous and happy ride home. Willing hands, impelled
by glad and satisfied souls, quickly packed all baggage and
equipments. On October 20th, the day following their
arrival, a general order was issued for the troops to return
to Kentucky by way of Franklinton (Columbus), at which
point those who had received government arms were to
deposit them, and on the 4th of November, just sixty-five
days from that on which the command met at Newport
to be mustered in, they were discharged from further
service and scattered to their homes.
The departure had been heroic and enthusiastic. The
home-coming was illustrious and glorious. The news had
preceded the troops by twelve days. The mustering out
was at Maysville. Mason County had furnished two com-
panies in Governor Shelby's army, those commanded by
Captains Reed and Demitt, and one in Johnson's regiment
io8 The Battle of the Thames
commanded by John Payne. The welcome was not
confined to these, but the whole command had all that
gratitude or patriotism could desire or suggest.
Diverging at Maysville for all parts of the State, these
heroes, drawn together by many sacrifices, much suffering,
and severe hardships, and great dangers endured not
only in this but many of the campaigns in which Kentucky
soldiers had borne so conspicuous a part, separated from
each other with deepest emotion. At all the county seats
great crowds gathered to honor the returning conquerors.
Public meetings in many places were called to express
the grateful recognition by Kentucky of their patriotic
devotion in their country's need, and for the next half a
century to have been at the Thames was the ' ' open
sesame " to public and political honor and preferment.
Adair, Desha, and Crittenden were to become governors;
Barry, McAfee, Charles A. WickliiTe, lieutenant-gov-
ernors; Walker, Barry, Crittenden, Johnson, senators, and
a score of them were sent as members of the House of
Representatives, and to the State senate and house every
year for a third of a century a large number of the men
who fought at the Thames were chosen as the people's
These men who followed Governor Shelby dared all
that patriots could dare. They faced all that courage
The Battle of the Thames 109
could face. They offered all that freemen could offer,
and they won all that a brave and chivalrous people could
bestow. On that roll of her sons whose fidelity and
loyalty the Commonwealth delights to honor, the names
of the men who fought at the Thames on October 5,
1813, stand out with a brilliancy and glory which time
can not dim and ages will not efface.
THE HEROES OF THE BATTLE
After such a victory as that of the Thames we natur-
ally want to hear something of the individuality of those
who won it. In a monograph we can not speak of all of
them. They were more than three thousand in number,
and it would require a book of no ordinary dimensions
to devote only a few words to each of them. Those who
began the battle and won the victory were Kentuckians,
and while this fact narrows the limits of the meritorious
to be mentioned, yet even all the famous Kentuckians
can not be presented in a work of this kind. Some of
them, however, can be mentioned, and naturally enough
the most meritorious claim selection. But while mention-
ing the brave Kentuckians, Harrison, the commander-in-
chief of the army, must not be forgotten, for although he
was not a Kentuckian by birth or habitation he com-
manded in the insignia of a Kentucky major-general.
Nor must we forget the Indian chief, Tecumseh, who was
the most meritorious of the enemy and greater by far
than any or all of the English for whom and under whom
he fought and died. We may begin, therefore, with
Shelby and end with Johnson, the two Kentucky heroes
Governor ISAAC SHELBY.
The Battle of the Thames m
who enlisted the troops, organized them, marched them
to the battlefield and with them won the victory.
Isaac Shelby, the first and the sixth governor of
Kentucky, one of the most remarkable men the State
ever had as a citizen, was on the day of the battle of
the Thames in his sixty-third year, having been born
December nth, 1750, near Hagerstown, Maryland. He
died at his home, "Traveler's Rest," in Lincoln County,
Kentucky, July i8th, 1826.
He early went to West Virginia as a land surveyor,
and was a lieutenant in the company of his father, Gen-
eral Evan Shelby, and fought in the great battle of
Point Pleasant on the loth of October, 1774. This
great battle, lasting from sunrise to sunset, was fought at
the juncture of the Ohio and Kanawha rivers, and the
Indians, under Cornstalk, abandoned the ground under
cover of night. Here Isaac Shelby received his first
experience and taste of war.
He came to Kentucky in 1775, and remained in the
wilderness without bread or salt for twelve months. In
his absence in Kentucky he had been appointed captain
of a company of militia by a Committee of Safety, in
Virginia, and from 1777 to 1778 he was engaged in the
commissary department of the army.
112 The Battle of the Thames
In 1/79 he was elected a member of the Virginia
Legislature and commissioned a major by Thomas Jef-
ferson. He had command of the guards sent by the
State to protect the commissioners who were running the
boundary between Virginia and North Carolina. By the
extension of that line Shelby's residence fell within the
limits of North Carolina, and a new county, Sullivan,
having been established, Major Shelby was appointed
colonel for that county. In 1780 he returned to Ken-
tucky,- located and secured land which he had previously
marked in 1775.
Intelligence of the surrender of Charleston having
reached him, he left Kentucky and returned to North
Carolina, where he immediately organized a battalion of
militia, and with Colonels Sevier and Clarke captured a
fort in the Cherokee territory commanded by Captain
Shelby's successful aggressions on British posts caused
Ferguson, of the British army, to make many efforts to
surprise and capture him. He later, on the 19th of
August, 1780, was engaged in the battle of Musgrove's
Mill in South Carolina, where he inflicted a loss upon
the British of sixty-three killed and one hundred and
sixty-three wounded and captured, while the American
loss was only four killed and nine wounded. He escaped
The Battle of the Thames 113
by a most extraordinarily perilous march, distributing the
footmen among the horsemen, who each took a footman
behind him in order to hasten their journey. They
marched thirty-six hours without stopping to take refresh-
In September, 1780, Shelby proposed to Sevier and
Campbell to march across the mountains into North
Carolina and attempt the capture of General Ferguson
by surprise in the night. While the command was given
to Colonel Campbell, the credit of the enterprise really
belonged to Shelby.
The battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, was
one of the turning points of the Revolutionary War.
The militia with their rifles attacked Ferguson with his
British soldiers on the top of King's Mountain. They
killed Ferguson and three hundred and seventy-five of
his men, and captured seven hundred and thirty. This
extraordinary venture was made by riflemen untrained in
military tactics, who had nothing to guide them but
brave hearts, steady nerves, and trusty rifles. It saved
the cause of the Revolution in North Carolina.
The legislature of North Carolina presented Shelby
with an elegant sword, which, however, was not carried
into conflict until the time when Shelby was about to
lead the troops in the battle of the Thames. It was
114 The Battle of the Thames
presented to him shortly before his departure on that
expedition. He served with Marion and with General
Green in South Carolina and North Carolina with most
In 1782 he was elected by the North Carolina Legis-
lature as one of the commissioners to settle the pre-
emption claims along the Cumberland River and lay off
lands allotted to the officers and soldiers of the North
Carolina line, south of where the city of Nashville now
stands. After performing this service in the winter of
1782-3, he returned to Kentucky in the following April,
and remained until the end of his life.
It is one of the curious facts in connection with Ken-
tucky history that at the period of his death, forty-three
years later, he was the only individual in the State of
Kentucky residing upon his own preemption.
He was a member of the convention held in 1787-
1788, as well as of that which formed the first Constitu-
tion of Kentucky in 1792 ; also a member of the Senate
of Kentucky, and was named as the first governor of
the State in 1792, and inaugurated in Lexington June
1st, 1792. His patriotism and his wise judgment in the
support of the principles of the Federal Government in
the Northwest would alone render his name immortal.
Now, when threescore and six years of age — thirty-three
The Battle of the Thames 115
years, lacking two days, after the great victory of King's
Mountain — this grand old man led the Kentucky troops
to one of the most splendid and successful conflicts in
which the soldiers of America were ever engaged. In
1 81 8 he was appointed by President Monroe joint
commissioner with Andrew Jackson to negotiate a treaty
with the Chickasaw Indians, which was executed October
19, 18 18, resulting in the purchase of all the land in
Tennessee and Kentucky lying west of the Tennessee
The noblest manhood of Kentucky was proud to
follow General Shelby on this occasion. No army had
ever left the State comprising among its members men
of more patriotism, more courage, more intelligence, and
more true nobility than these men who marched with
Shelby and Harrison to their victory on the Thames.
It is almost impossible to calculate the beneficent
results which came to the United States from the victory
of the Thames. In the first place, it completely broke
the English power in this section, destroyed their prestige
with the Indians, and demonstrated to them, who at all
times had been helped and encouraged by the British,
that it was useless to expect that even v/ith British aid
they could maintain themselves against the rapidly
developing power of the United States. It therefore
ii6 The Battle of the Thames
practically ended the Indian wars in the Northwest, and
at once secured full control of Michigan, Indiana, and
Illinois for settlement.
General William Henry.
Genera! William Henry, who commanded the First
Division, had been both a Revolutionary soldier and a
successful Indian fighter.
He was born April 12, 1761, in Charlotte County,
Virginia. He was the son of Reverend Robert Henry, a
Presbyterian divine. When seventeen years of age he
entered the Revolutionary army, and served through the
war as a private under Colonel Harry Lee. He was at
Guilford Courthouse, Yorktown, and other battles, and
emigrated to Kentucky in 1781.
He first settled on Salt River, in Lincoln County, and
afterward moved to Flournoy Station, in Scott County.
He was the father of thirteen children; five of his sons were
in the War of 181 2, so that at the time he left his home
the mother was weighted with the thought that five sons
and her husband were exposed to the casualties of war.
He was engaged frequently in the punishment of the
Indians, who made forays into Kentucky, and was an
aide-de-camp to General Wilkerson in his campaign across
the Ohio in 1791.
General WILLIAM HENKV.
The Battle of the Thimies 117
Between General Henry's family and the Johnson
family there grew up a bitter political feeling, which was
maintained during the life of the parties.
General Henry was a man of great intelligence, a fine
public speaker; six feet two inches high and perfectly
erect, blue-gray eyes and Roman nose, pleasant in con-
versation, fond of anecdote, with a kindly disposition
which bore no malice, without ostentation, and a Christian
gentleman of the highest character.
He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and was
a member of the first Synod of that church in the State
of Kentucky, formed in 1803. He was senator from Scott
County, 1796 to 1800, and its representative in the
Kentucky Legislature, 1793-4, 1801, and 1809. He was
defeated in 181 3 for the legislature by Colonel Robert
Johnson, father of Colonel Richard M. Johnson, and never
afterward aspired to any political office.
[He long held a prominent command in the mihtia of
Kentucky, was a great favorite with Governor Shelby, and
was given the position of senior major-general at Urbana,
Ohio, and during the absence of Governor Shelby was
in chief command of the Kentucky army.
His family had a remarkable record. Two of his sons
were representatives in Congress from Kentucky, and the
third, Gustavus A. Henry, represented Christian County
ii8 The Battle of the Thames
in the Kentucky Legislature in 183 1-2, and upon his
removal to Tennessee was elected to Congress, and was
also senator in the Confederate Congress and a distin-
guished officer in the Confederate service.
His grandson was a member of Congress from Missis-
sippi, and a great-grandson was also a member of Congress
He was appointed by President Madison assessor for
the Third Kentucky District, which office he held for
several years, and in 18 16 moved to Hopkinsville, Chris-
tian County, living in strict retirement with his family,
and where he died November 23, 1824. He was interred
on the farm of his brother, about ten miles from Hop-
General Joseph Desha.
General Joseph Desha, who commanded the Second
Division, was born in Monroe County, Pennsylvania,
December 9, 1768. His father had moved from the
Wyoming Valley to Virginia a short time before the
Indian massacre, and in 1781 came to Kentucky.
He volunteered in the campaign under Wayne, was
with him at Fallen Timbers in 1794, and acted with great
gallantry. For quite a number of years he remained with
William Whitley at his station near Crab Orchard.
General JOSEPH DliSHA.
The Battle of the Thames 119
Whitley became very much attached to him, and it was
to General Desha, the night before the battle of the
Thames, that he imparted his presentiment of death on
the coming day, and begged him to bear to his wife
messages of affection, and his rifle and powderhorn.
Shortly after his marriage he moved to Mason County,
Kentucky, and represented that county in the senate
from 1803 to 1807, and in the House of Representatives
in 1797-99, 1800, 1 80 1-2. He was a member of the
House of Representatives in Congress from Kentucky
from 1816 to 1 8 19.
He was named by Governor Shelby as one of the
major-generals to command a division in the expedition
which ended in the battle of the Thames. His division
was composed of the brigades of General Chiles and
General Caldwell, and the eleventh regiment, com-
manded by Colonel William Williams.
In 1820 he was defeated for Governor by General
Adair, being third in the list; but in 1824 he was elected,
receiving 38,300 votes as against 22,000 for the brilliant
Christopher Tompkins, his opponent. Tompkins was,
however, subsequently elected to Congress two terms, in
While General Desha's early education was meager —
such as the frontier could afford — he remedied this defect
1 20 The Battle of the Thames
by study, and oftentimes by firelight, and after attaining
manhood and entering pubHc Hfe, by systematic study he
prepared himself for the duties to which he was called by
the appreciation of his fellow-citizens.
He was Chairman of the Committee of the Whole in
the Kentucky House of Representatives during the con-
sideration of the resolutions of 1798.
In 1S26 he moved to Harrison County, subsequently
to Georgetown, in Scott County, in 1840, and died there
October 11, 1842. He was interred on his farm, where a
monument was erected to his memory. In 1880 his
remains were reinterred at Georgetown Cemetery, and
the monument removed to that place.
His canvass for governor in 1S24 was marked by the
highest feeling. General Desha denounced with tre-
mendous force and vehemence the anti-relief judges —
Boyle, Miller, Clark, and Blair. He was a "New Court"
man, and was elected by a very large majority.
A number of his descendants still reside in Harrison
County, and manifest that manliness and personal cour-
age which marked their distinguished ancestor.
General WILLIAM HENKV HARRISON.
The Battle of the Thames 121
William Henry Harrison.
William Henry Harrison was born at Berkeley, Charles
City County, Virginia, February 9, 1773.
In April, 1791, at eighteen years of age, he was
appointed by Washington ensign, and assigned to the
First Regiment of Artillery, then encamped on the site
of Cincinnati. He was with General Wayne August 20,
1794, at the battle of Fallen Timbers, and in 1799 was
elected delegate to Congress from the Western Territory.
In 1800 he was appointed governor of the new terri-
tory of Indiana, which then comprised the States of
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and became
commander-in-chief of the territorial militia.
He negotiated thirteen treaties with the Indians of the
West and won his earliest renown as a commander at
the battle of Tippecanoe, the 7th of November, 181 1.
The distinguished honor was conferred upon him of
having been made a major-general of the Kentucky
mihtia by Governor Scott, though not a citizen of the
State. Such an appointment was not authorized by law,
but Governor Scott called the matter to the attention of
the leading men of Kentucky, including Henry Clay and
others, and they advised the appointment, which was
immediately made by the governor.
122 The Battle of the Thames
He was appointed by President Madison, in conjunc-
tion with Slielby and Lewis Cass, as associate on the
Indian Commission, and in 1816 was elected member of
Congress from Ohio.
In his course he had created certain enmities which
followed him into the Congress of the United States ;
and, when a resolution was offered providing for a medal
to be given to Harrison and Shelby for their distinguished
services at the battle of the Thames, Harrison's name
was stricken out, and Shelby instructed his friends to
refuse, in his name, any honor which could not be shared
with General Harrison. In 18 18 this bit of spite was
remedied by the adoption of the original resolution.
He was elected senator from Ohio in 1824, and
appointed Minister to the Republic of Colombia in 1828.
In 1840 he was elected President of the United States,
and inaugurated March 4, 1841. He died exactly one
month thereafter, April 4, 1841.
Few careers have been marked by more uniform success.
No man did more than Harrison for the extension of the
territorial limits of the United States. He was brave,
generous, able, patriotic. He purchased a home at North
Bend, Ohio, a few miles northwest of Cincinnati, and
is buried on the bank of the Ohio, at that place.
Gknekal JOHN EDWAKl) KING.
The Battle of the Thames 123
General John Edward King.
General John Edward King, who commanded the
Third Brigade, was born at Dumfries, Prince WilHam
County, Virginia, on the 21st of December, 1757, and died
in Burksville, Cumberland County, Kentucky, May 13,
He moved from Virginia to Cumberland County,
Kentucky, in 1797. He was admitted as a member of
the Frankfort bar shortly after his arrival in the State,
and was appointed county and circuit clerk of Cumberland
County when it was organized in 1798. He had been
active in the militia service of the State. He owned a
tract of land two miles north of Burksville on the road
to Columbia, known as Melmont. He was married twice
and had a large family. His son, Milton King, succeeded
him as circuit and county clerk, and held the position
until the adoption of the Constitution of 1850.
General King was buried at his home, Melmont, and
over his grave is a slab with the following inscription :
"In memory of Major-General John Edward King.
Born, December 21, 1757; died. May 13, 1828."
General King was a man of imposing ^presence and
courtly manners, and exercised great influence in the
section in which he lived. A large number of his descend-
1 24 The Battle of the Thames
ants still live in Cumberland County. Godfrey Hunter,
member of Congress and minister to Guatemala, married
a descendant of General King.
General Samuel Caldwell.
General Samuel Caldwell, commander of the Fifth
Brigade, was born in Charlotte County, Virginia, in 1770,
and came with his father's family to Kentucky in 1787.
He early moved to Russellville, in Logan County, and
was the first clerk of that county.
He commanded a regiment in the early part of the
war. This regiment having been enlisted on the 20th
of September, 181 2, its time expired on the 29th of Octo-
ber, 181 2. It was known as the First Kentucky Regiment
of Mounted Militia.
He came of a distinguished family. His brother,
General John Caldwell, was elected lieutenant-governor of
Kentucky in 1804, and died at Frankfort that year, while
the legislature was in session.
Caldwell County was named for him, and to his
memory the State erected a monument. His brother,
Robert Caldwell, presided in the House of Representa-
tives of the Kentucky Legislature in 1798, when the
famous resolutions of that date were presented by John
Breckenridge and adopted.
Governor nl KMiitm k>, JS20-24.
From a painting in possession of William Briiiue^ Tliayer. Kansas Citv. Missour
The Battle of the Thames 125
When eighteen years of age, in 1788, he was a
member of General Wilkinson's command, which was
engaged in the Indian territory.
He died June 14, 1835, and was buried with the highest
military honors. He and his wife are buried in a garden
in the southern part of the city of Russellville, in what is
known as Polly Latham's Addition. A simple headstone
marks his resting place, on which is inscribed: "In
memory of General Samuel Caldwell, who departed this
life June 14, 1835. 'An honest man, the noblest work
He was buried in the place in which he had lived for
a number of years, at his home, which is now the property
of John G. Orndorf, of Russellville, who has kindly given
the writer much of the information concerning him.
He was a man of great courage, the highest convic-
tions, and noblest patriotism. He was a member of the
house of representatives from Caldwell County in 1805
and 1809. He possessed the widest influence, and was in
the fullest sense honest and patriotic.
General John Adair.
General John Adair, First Aide to Governor Shelby,
was one of the most distinguished men in the early history
of the State. He was born in South Carolina in 1757.
126 The Battle of the Thames
When quite a youth he joined the American forces, was
subsequently made prisoner by the British, and treated
with unusual cruelty and barbarity.
In 1786 he came to Kentucky and settled in Mercer
County, and in all the Indian wars he took a prominent
part. In a battle with the Indian chief Little Turtle, in
November, 1792, he exhibited great courage and skill.
In 1807 his popularity was largely destroyed for a time
by his supposed connection with the enterprise of Aaron
Governor Shelby appointed him adjutant-general of
the Kentucky troops, and sent him to New Orleans with
the brevet rank of brigadier-general. At the battle of
Januar}' 8, 181 5, General Thomas, the senior officer,
being indisposed, General Adair commanded the Ken-
General Jackson having placed some slur upon the
Kentucky troops on that occasion, the contest was taken
up by General Adair, and resulted in an acrimonious con-
troversy, in which General Adair maintained, in a most
creditable manner, the reputation of the Kentucky troops.
On the loth of February, 18 16, the legislature passed
a vote of thanks to General Adair for his gallantry at the
battle of New Orleans, and "more particularly for the
deep interest he took in vindicating a respectable portion
The Battle of the Thames 127
of the troops of Kentucky from the Hbelous imputation
of cowardice most unjustly thrown upon them by General
In 1820 he was elected governor of Kentucky, defeat-
ing Judge Logan, General Desha, and Colonel Butler, and
receiving 20,493 votes as against 19.947 for William Logan,
12,419 for Joseph Desha, and 9,567 for Anthony Butler.
He died at White Hall, his home, in Mercer County,
in May, 1840. His remains were removed in 1S72 to the
cemetery at Frankfort, where the State erected over his
grave a monument with the following inscription:
John Adair, born in Chester District, South Carolina, January
9, 1757; died at White Hall, Mercer County, Kentucky, May,
1840, aged eighty-three years.
This monument is erected by the people of Kentucky in pur-
suance of a resolution of the General Assembly approved March
5, 1872, as a mark of their appreciation for his services as a
soldier and statesman.
As A Statesman — Previous to his removal from South Caro-
lina served as a member of the convention which revised the
Constitution of the United States. Becoming a citizen of Ken-
tucky he represented the county of Mercer in the legislature of
1795-6; afterwards frequently a member of both house and senate.
In 1805 he was elected to United States Senate to fill an unex-
pired term. In 1820 was elected governor, and served the term
128 The Battle of the Thames
of four years. In 183 1 served a term in United States Congress
from Mercer District.
He sleeps the sleep of the brave and just.
As A Soldier — He entered the Revolutionary Army at the age
of seventeen; served through the war first as private, afterwards
aide-de-camp to General Sumpter. Moved to Kentucky 1787,
participated in Indian campaigns, 1791-2-4; the war with Great
Britain 1812-15. He commanded Kentucky troops at New
Orleans as brigadier-general under General Jackson 1S14-15.
Catherine Adair, wife of John Adair, born near Charleston,
South Carolina, October 17, 1768. Died at Montrose, near Frank-
fort, Kentucky, September 24, 1854, and was buried at White
Hall by the side of her husband. Her remains have been removed
to this spot and now rest in the same grave with his after a union
in life of fifty years.
In death they are not divided.
General James Allen.
General James Allen, who commanded the Fourth
Brigade, was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, in 1770.
His father was a Revolutionary soldier and died while on
his way with his family from Virginia to Kentucky. After
some delay the family, consisting of four boys and one
girl, settled near Houstonville, Lincoln County, and later
removed to Green County.
General JAMES ALLEN.
The Battle of the Thames 129
He enjoyed the benefits of a very thorough educa-
tion, and could read the New Testament in the original
Greek, having attended New Providence Academy, in
Staunton, Virginia. After reading law in Virginia he
concluded his course under Judges Sebastian and Ormsby
He was admitted to the bar before he was twenty years
of age, and practiced his profession in Lincoln, Washing-
ton, and Madison counties, and last in Green County.
For a long time he was clerk of the County and Quar-
ter Sessions Courts. After his removal to Green County
that section of country was constantly molested by roving
bands of Indians. He organized a company of mounted
riflemen to repress these Indian invasions and to punish
the perpetrators of these outrages.
In 181 1 he commanded the Tenth Brigade of State
Militia. His brigade consisted of two regiments, formed
of the companies from the counties of Lincoln, Garrard,
Mercer, Madison, and Shelby.
He was elected president of an independent bank at
Greensburg, the county seat of Green, but after conducting
it a short time became satisfied the conditions surrounding
the bank were not such as to justify its continued exist-
ence, and promptly placed its affairs in liquidation, which
was accomplished without loss to the stockholders.
130 The Battle of the Thames
He was a man of splendid appearance, six feet two
inches tall, well proportioned, fine forehead, and a most
affable manner, great firmness and absolute courage. He
was extremely popular in all the section where he was
Having gone on horseback from Greensburg to Lebanon
to attend to some business, upon his return home, in some
unknown way he fell from his horse. He was found dead
about a mile from his residence, the probabilities being
that by an overhanging limb he had in the night been
knocked from his horse and killed by the fall.
When Governor Shelby resolved to lead the Kentucky
troops which had been summoned by his proclamation of
July 31, 1813, he wrote pressing letters and sent a dis-
patch to Allen begging that he would accompany him in
the campaign. Allen secured as many volunteers as pos-
sible and promptly reported at Newport and at Urbana.
On the 8th of September he was made brigadier-general
and assigned to a brigade composed of the regiments
commanded by Davenport and Calloway.
Colonel GEOKGE TKOTTER.
The Battle of the Thames 131
Colonel George Trotter.
Colonel George Trotter was born in Augusta County,
Virginia, and came with his father to Lexington, Ken-
tucky. His people emigrated from the north of Ireland to
Philadelphia, thence to Virginia and then to Kentucky.
He was born November 8, 1778; died October 13, 1815.
He engaged with his father in the hemp-bagging busi-
ness, and also in the manufacture of powder. The
Trotters were wealthy, brave, and patriotic, and George
Trotter was among the first of Kentucky's sons to answer
his country's call in 1812.
He raised a company for Simrall's Dragoons and
entered the service August 27, 181 2. He did superb
service in the Fort Wayne campaign, and returned honored
and beloved by all who knew him.
His popularity and reputation were such that when a
last call was made he had no difficulty in enlisting a large
number of men in Fayette, Jessamine, Scott, and Wood-
ford. The captains in his regiment were splendid patriots
who had seen service and who gladly rallied to his banner.
The material in his regiment was unsurpassed and the
morale of his troops superb.
Governor Shelby was glad to appoint the brilliant,
dashing young man the colonel of the first regiment, and
132 The Battle of the Thames
when General Calmes, from sickness, was unable to lead
the first brigade, that task fell to Trotter. He was
singularly handsome, six feet three inches in height, and
with the face and bearing of an ideal soldier. There
was no sacrifice too great and no danger too imminent
for him to face and meet, and on the march and in the
battle his presence was an inspiration.
His brigade and regiment were assigned the places of
greatest peril, and gladly he and his men sought such
conditions. He returned from the war full of honors and
applause. Distinguished, brave, successful, and wealthy,
he was married to a beautiful, cultured, and brilliant
woman who bore him two sons, and with whom life seemed
radiant of hope and promise; but just when peace had
come and his country was at rest, death claimed him.
His father had built for him the beautiful home standing
in the Lexington Park or Chautauqua. He came to it
only to die. Within a week from the hour he entered
into its possession death broke in with its crushing hand,
and he was laid in state within the walls where he had
hoped for a long and happy life.
In a beautiful woodland across from his home they laid
him to rest, building over him a brick mausoleum and
covering it with earth. Forty years later Federal soldiers
who were camping about it mistook the tomb for an
General D.WID CHILES.
The Battle of the Thames 133
Indian mound, and an excavation was made, to find his
coffin decayed and his ashes resting on the bricks.
Forty years after this some boys, playing on the mound,
led by curiosity, dug into it and carried away his skull
and coffin-plate. A vigorous outcry caused these to be
returned, and now his dust again reposes peacefully in the
General Harrison presented to Colonel Trotter's regi-
ment the brass drum of the Forty-first British Infantry,
of which so large a part was captured at the Thames,
and with its inscription it was long the most prized of all
the relics and memories of the Forty-second Regiment,
Kentucky Militia, to which Trotter's men in large part
The following inscription was painted on the drum :
Presented by General Harrison and Governor Shelby to
Colonel George Trotter, for the Forty-second Kentucky Regiment
Militia, as a testimonial of its patriotism and good conduct, and for
having furnished more volunteers than any other regiment.
General David Chiles.
David Chiles, who commanded the second brigade in
Governor Shelby's army, was born in Virginia, August
23, 1767, and migrated to Kentucky prior to 1790. He
came with some means, and purchased an estate near the
134 '^^^^ Battle of the Thames
town of Minerva, in Mason County, close to the Bracken
County line. From the profusion of cane found on his
place he called it "Caneland. " It is the highest point
between Vanceburg and Newport, Kentucky.
On the loth of February, 1791, he married Frances,
the daughter of Reverend Louis Craig, and with her
received a dowry of land which gave him nearly fifteen
hundred acres as his possession. He built a mill and
distillery on Raccoon Branch of Bracken Creek, and was
extremely prosperous. He held no office, but was a man
of great intelligence and courage, and commanded in a
high degree the confidence of his fellow-citizens. He
was a mihtia officer in Mason County, and promptly
responded to Governor Shelby's call for troops. Mason
County sent three companies, and Greenup, Nicholas,
Bracken, and Campbell had so strongly volunteered Gov-
ernor Shelby thought it due this section to have a brigadier-
general, and David Chiles was appointed to that position.
He is buried on his own farm, having provided in his
will for the erection of a stone wall about the family bury-
ing-ground. A plain slab with his name, the dates of his
birth and death, constitutes the monument that marks his
grave. He died in 1834.
WILLIAM I. 1;AKK\. Posimasti-k-GeiNKKal,
From a painting by C. H. Kiii}<.
The Battle of the Thames 135
Major William T. Barry.
Major William T. Barry, one of the most remarkable
men who ever lived in Kentucky, was born in Virginia,
February 5, 1783. At a very early age he came to Ken-
tucky with his father and settled first in Fayette and after-
ward in Jessamine County. He attended school at Wood-
ford Academy, graduated at Transylvania University, and
commenced the practice of law in Lexington when twenty-
one years of age. He was one of the most brilliant and
eloquent men of the period in which he lived. From 1805
to 1835 his life was a series of wonderful successes. For-
tune appeared to lavish upon him her richest gifts and
In his twenty-first year he was elected to fill a vacancy
in the legislature of Kentucky from Fayette County, and
re-elected in 1809. He was chosen to represent the Ash-
land District in Congress in 18 10, and again in 18 14. He
also represented it in the legislature. In the discussion of
the matters which led up to the War of 18 12, no man was
more eloquent, earnest, brilliant, and patriotic. His
speeches won the admiration and confidence of all parties.
His courage and gallantry while serving on the staff of Gov-
ernor Shelby as his secretary merited and received the
gratitude and approval of his chief. The people of Ken-
136 The Battle of the Thames
tucky recognized in him not only a brilliant statesman but
an unselfish patriot.
When twenty-seven he became speaker of the Ken-
tucky House of Representatives. He represented Ken-
tucky in the senate for two sessions, 18 14-16, and then
resigned to accept the circuit judgeship. In 181 7 he was
forced to stand as a candidate for the State senate. His
magnetic power and influence enabled him, while in the
Kentucky Senate, to secure aid for Transylvania University,
in which he was lecturer in the Law Department. His
name gave the law school wide prestige and success.
In 1820 he was elected Heutenant-governor by an over-
whelming majority, and at that time was unquestionably
the most popular man in Kentucky. He was appointed
chief justice of the "New Court" in 1825, and held the
place until the repeal of the "New Court" act in 1826.
A candidate for governor in 1828, he was defeated by only
seven hundred and nine votes, but his splendid presence,
superb eloquence, and the influence resulting from his
canvass caused the State, in the following year, to cast
7,934 votes for Andrew Jackson.
He was appointed postmaster-general by Jackson, and
held the office until declining health caused him to
surrender it. In the hope that a change of location and
a milder climate might restore his health, Judge Barry
The Battle of the Thames 137
was sent by President Jackson as Minister to Spain. He
sailed for his post, and died at Liverpool, England, in 1835.
In 1854, by act of the legislature, the remains of Judge
Barry were disinterred, brought to Kentucky, and buried
in the State lot at Frankfort. His friends erected a monu-
ment to his memory in the courthouse yard at Lexington.
The State erected a headstone over his grave.
Colonel George Walker.
Governor Shelby appointed Colonel George Walker, of
Jessamine County, his inspector-general. He was admi-
rably fitted for this responsible post. He came from
Culpeper County, Virginia, where he was born, and settled
in Kentucky in 1794. He began the practice of law in
Nicholasville, Kentucky, in 1799, and was the second
lawyer to open an office in the new county seat.
Colonel Walker was of distinguished lineage. His
mother was a sister of David Meade, of Chaumiere, and
this fact doubtless induced his permanent residence in
Jessamine. A man of wide learning and attractive manners,
he wielded a great influence in Central Kentucky, and he
enjoyed in a high degree Governor Shelby's confidence
and esteem. When a mere lad he had fought at Cowpens,
Guilford Courthouse, and Yorktown. Brave as the
bravest he had battled for his country's liberties with
138 The Battle of the Thames
superb courage and gallantry. He had answered every
call his country made, and was among the first to respond
in the War of 181 2. He represented Jessamine County
in the Kentucky Senate in 18 10, and held this position
when he followed Kentucky's governor to the Thames.
He married a daughter of General John Coffee, of
Tennessee, and was the father of quite a family when he
volunteered. He died on his farm, near Nicholasville, in
The regard of Governor Shelby for the patriotism of
Colonel Walker was again manifested by his appointing
him to fill a vacancy in the senate of the United States
in 1814. He remained in the senate until 1815.
He was one of the commissioners appointed to survey
and locate the line between Kentucky and Tennessee,
and the line was afterward known as Walker's line.
He was one of the first men to respond to Governor
Shelby's call, and to his influence and that of Captain
Augustine Bower was attributable in large degree the
prompt and enthusiastic response of Jessamine County in
this campaign; although a small county it sent two full
companies, which were assigned to Trotter's regiment.
Colonel Walker was buried on his farm, now the
property of Melancthon Young, Esq., about one mile east
of Nicholasville. The monument built over him has long
The Battle of the Thames 139
since fallen down, and the exact spot of his burial is
Charles A. Wickliffe.
Among those present at the Thames was Charles A.
Wickliffe, then in his twenty-fifth year. He was born on
the present site of Springfield, the county seat of Wash-
ington County, on June 8, 1788. He died, while on a
visit, at the home of his son-in-law. Judge Richard T.
Merrick, in Maryland, on the 31st of October, 1869.
He came of the best pioneer stock. His mother was
a sister of Colonel John Hardin, who was sent as a Peace
Commissioner to the Indians of Ohio, where he was killed
and where he had gone against his protest, assured that
his life would be taken, but ready to serve his commander
and his country however and whenever called upon.
Beginning his practice of law at Bardstown, Mr. Wick-
liffe, at the commencement of the War of 181 2, volun-
teered as a private, but was appointed aide to General
In 181 2 and 1813 he was elected to represent Nelson
County in the Kentucky Legislature. Again he volunteered
as a private in the company of his relative, Martin D.
Hardin, who was recruiting in Washington County, and
was subsequently given a place upon the staff of General
140 The Battle of the Thames
Samuel Caldwell, to whom he rendered valuable services,
not only in the preceding campaign but at the battle of
He was a member of Congress from 1823 to 1833,
and from 1861 to 1863; again a member of the legis-
lature in 1833, 1834, and 1835, and in 1834 was chosen
speaker of the house of representatives, after an
In 1836 he was elected lieutenant-governor, and on
the death of Governor James Clark, August 27, 1839, he
succeeded to the governorship, being duly installed on
September 5th. He filled the office to the close of the
term with great credit.
He was postmaster-general in the cabinet of Tyler
and member of the Constitutional Convention of 1849,
and of the Peace Conference in February, 1861; and in
the face of threats of arrest and imprisonment he made
the race as Democratic candidate for governor in August,
1863, but was defeated by Thomas E. Bramlette.
He rests in the cemetery at Bardstown, Kentucky.
J. J. CKITTENDEN.
The Battle of the Thames 141
John J. Crittenden.
Among the heroes and extraordinary men who took
part in this illustrious conflict was John J. Crittenden, son
of a Revolutionary soldier. He was born in Woodford
County, September 6, 1786.
In his early Hfe he moved to Russellville, Logan
County, and was elected to the legislature from that
county in 181 1, and had conferred upon him the extra-
ordinary honor of being elected to the house of repre-
sentatives for six consecutive terms, and was twice made
speaker of the house, once unanimously.
In 18 1 7 he was elected United States senator; he was
then the youngest member of that body. He was twice
attorney-general of the United States, once under Harri-
son and once under Fillmore. He was again elected to
the senate in 1843, and resigned to run for governor of
Kentucky, and was elected in 1848. In 1849 he resigned
to become attorney-general in President Taylor's cabinet.
In 1853 he was elected to the United States Senate for
the term ending 1861, and in 1861 was elected represent-
ative, and was a member of that body until the time of
his death, on the 25th of July, 1863.
He was one of the most eloquent men that Kentucky
ever produced. Upon his election to the senate he was
142 The Battle of the Thames
deemed, although very young, to be a fitting colleague for
Henry Clay. In public life for fifty-two years, and having
attained the highest honors in the legal profession, even
his enemies admitted his uprightness as a statesman and
his power as an orator.
Crittenden County, formed in 1842, was named in his
Colonel William Whitley.
Among the remarkable historical men who took part in
this battle was William Whitley, a famous Kentucky pio-
neer. He was born in Virginia, August 17, 1749, and moved
to Kentucky in 1775. He lived first at Boonesborough, then
at Harrod's Fort, and finally, in 1781, built what was
known as Whitley's Fort, two miles northwest of Crab
Orchard. He surveyed and preempted large tracts of
land in this neighborhood, and, it is said, here built the
first brick house ever erected in the State. He paid for
this brick house in land; he gave one man five hundred
acres, in Lincoln County, for the construction of the brick-
work; another a farm for the whisky which was furnished
to the workmen during the time consumed in the con-
struction of the building. Although erected one hundred
and thirteen years ago, the house is still in a perfect state
of preservation, and is now occupied as a residence.
The Battle of the Thames 143
He was a cousin of George Rogers Clark, and accom-
panied him on one of his expeditions to Kentucky.
It is said his wife was the third white woman to cross
the Cumberland Mountains, and the daughter born to
Whitley and his wife in Boonesborough was one of the first
white children born in Kentucky. The child was named
Levisa, once the name of the Big Sandy River.
Colonel Whitley laid out the first race track in Ken-
tucky, called his home Sportsman's Hall, and here he
entertained many of the most distinguished men in the
early history of Kentucky, among them Boone, Logan,
George Rogers Clark, McDowell, and Harrison.
Whitley County, created in 18 18, was called in honor
of Colonel Whitley, and its county seat, Williamsburg,
formerly known as Whitley Courthouse, was doubtless so
called from Whitley's first name.
Colonel Whitley was one of the most adventurous of
the pioneers who had come to Kentucky. In 1775, while
farming in a small way in Virginia, he told his wife that he
had heard splendid reports of Kentucky; that he thought
they could get their living there with less hard work. In
a few days they started out through the wilderness to take
up their residence in this new country.
Thoroughly acquainted with Indian methods, brave as
a lion, he allowed no Indian aggression or invasion to go
144 ^^^^ Battle of the Thames
unpunished. He was engaged in seventeen battles, res-
cued many captives, and in 1794, with Major Orr, organ-
ized what was known as the Nickerjack Expedition, in
which the Tennessee Indians were severely punished for
their forays into Kentucky.
Colonel Whitley and Major Orr marched with seven
hundred men, with great secrecy and dispatch. They
attacked the Indians suddenly, defeated them with much
slaughter, burned their town, and destroyed their crops.
Although a private in Captain James Davidson's com-
pany of Colonel Richard M. Johnson's regiment, he was
designated by Colonel Johnson to command "The Forlorn
Hope," the members of which exhibited as noble a courage,
as splendid a sacrifice, and as magnificent a patriotism as
ever marked human conduct.
The night before the battle of the Thames he
imparted to General Desha and to his bosom friend,
John Preston, his presentiment that on the morrow he
would die. Two hours before his death he killed three
Indians across the river Thames and swam his horse to
obtain their scalps, which were returned to Kentucky in
his grip-sack after his death.
It was claimed by some of his friends that he fired
the shot which killed Tecumseh; the weight of histori-
cal evidence is against this fact. When John Preston,
The Battle of the Thames 145
his friend, brought back his riderless horse to the widowed
wife, she threw her arms in great despair around the
animal's neck, and with weeping bewailed her desolate fate.
At the time of the battle of the Thames, Whitley
was sixty-three years of age — exactly that of Governor
Whitley might have had any command he desired in
the army, but he had volunteered, on May 20, 1813, for
six months' service, and with many of his neighbors and
friends entered as a private in Captain James Davidson's
Whitley often exercised a poetic talent, and some of
his doggerel has been preserved. On his powderhorn
was inscribed these lines :
William Whitley, I am your horn,
The truth I love, a lie I scorn;
Fill me with the best of powder,
rie make your rifle crack the louder.
See how the dread, terrifick ball
Makes Indians bleed and Toreys fall;
You with powder I'le supply
For to defend your liberty.
He might well have claimed exemption from military
service after all he had done for the wresting of Ken-
tucky from the savage, but his brave, valiant spirit carried
146 The Battle of the Thames
him into the war, and, after fighting in twoscore battles,
he gave up his life for his country on foreign soil and
sleeps in an unknown and unmarked grave hundreds of
miles from the home he had made such sacrifices and
endured such privations to win from the red man.
James Johnson, the elder brother of Colonel Richard
M. Johnson, was born in Orange County, Virginia, on
January i, 1774, and died at Washington, District of
Columbia, August 13, 1826, being then a member of the
House of Representatives.
He was a member of the Kentucky Senate from 1803
to 181 1 — his father being at the same time a member of
the house — presidential elector in 182 1, and elected to
Congress in 1824. He was among the first as well as the
bravest of the sons of Kentucky who responded to the
nation's call for volunteers for the War of 181 2. He
raised a company of mounted militia, and without waiting
for the regular enlistment and for the organization of the
battalion, hastened away to answer the call of General
Harrison, who then, in order to relieve Fort Wayne,
needed the assistance of every patriot.
It was he who trained the celebrated regiment of his
brother. Colonel Richard M. Johnson, and taught its riders
Colonel JAMES JOHNSON.
The Battle of the Thames 147
to charge the lines of the enemy with their terrible cavalry,
break through his lines, form in the rear, and deal unex-
pected death from that quarter. It was this maneuver
that gained the battle of the Thames.
He was a man of great dignity and suavity of manner,
and dispensed, at his home in Scott County, true Ken-
tucky hospitality. He rests in the Johnson family ceme-
tery at Great Crossings, on the road between Georgetown
Colonel John Calloway.
John Calloway was born August 24, 1775. His grand-
father, Richard Calloway, was the friend and companion
of Boone, and came with him to Boonesborough in 1775.
He was killed near the fort, in 1778, while sitting on a
stump in a clearing he had made. Betsy and Frances
Calloway, captured by the Indians at Boonesborough in
1776, and rescued by Boone and others, were daughters
of Richard Calloway, the grandfather of John.
When eight years of age John Calloway was captured
by the Indians and carried to Chillicothe, Ohio. After
three years' life with the Indians he was ransomed by a
trader and returned to his family. He never held any
civil position, but volunteered early in the War of 181 2,
and served his country as a soldier.
148 The Battle of the Thames
He settled in Henry County, Kentucky, where he
erected, on a large body of bluegrass land he owned, a
family residence that was in advance of its times. Here
he died July 25, 1825.
On the 29th of August, 181 2, he was appointed major
in Colonel John Thomas's regiment, Kentucky mounted
militia. This regiment was composed of men recruited in
Henry, Shelby, and adjoining counties, and served in the
Ohio campaigns. The command was enlisted for sixty
days. When Governor Shelby issued his call for volun-
teers he raised a company in Henry County and marched
it to Urbana, Ohio, where the regiments were formed, and
where he was made colonel of the eighth regiment.
Colonel Calloway was a man of most imposing appear-
ance, six feet three inches in height. He died very
suddenly, and is buried on his home place near Smith-
field, Kentucky, where a plain headstone records the dates
of his birth and death.
Philip Barbour commanded the second Kentucky regi-
ment. This regiment of Kentucky militia was enlisted
from September i, 1812, to December 4, 181 2. He was
born in Culpeper County, Virginia, on June 27, 1770. In
early life he moved to Jefferson County, Kentucky, and
The Battle of the Thames 149
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Middletovvn. He had
for one of his clerks Zachary Taylor, afterward so distin-
guished in the war with Mexico, and later President of the
United States. At the time of the settlement of Jefferson
County Middletown was considered a more prosperous
and prominent center than Louisville.
He became a large landholder in Jefferson County, and
married, first, Lucy, daughter of Commodore Richard
Taylor, and sister of President Zachary Taylor. Com-
modore Taylor was a distinguished officer in the American
navy, and resided at Louisville for many years previous
to his death.
After the death of his wife, in 1806, Colonel Barbour
removed to Henderson, Kentucky, where he married Eliza-
beth Branch, daughter of General Samuel Hopkins, a
distinguished Revolutionary soldier, for whom Hopkins
County was named. General Hopkins had fought in the
battles of Princeton, Trenton, Monmouth, and German-
town. He had come to Kentucky in 1797, and settled on
Green River. He commanded two expeditions, in October
and November, 181 2, which, however, produced no satis-
factory results. Colonel Barbour promptly responded to
Governor Shelby's call and recruited a company in Hen-
derson County, of which he became captain. At Urbana
he was made colonel of the regiment.
i^o The Battle of the Thames
While engaged in a business trip to Corydon, Indiana,
Colonel Barbour died there on October 6, 1818, and is
buried at that place.
His eldest child was Major Philip Norbourne Barbour,
who graduated at West Point in 1834. He was killed at
the head of his company while storming the breastworks
at Monterey, September 19, 1846. He is buried in the
State lot at Frankfort, and his name is on the monument
erected by the Commonwealth to her distinguished sons.
Colonel Henry Renick.
In the very earliest years of the last century, Henry
Renick came to Barren County from Maryland, and
acquired a large landed estate near Hiseville.
He was active in the militia, and early in the War of
181 2 raised a battalion of mounted men, which served
in Illinois. The battalion was sworn into service Sep-
tember 18, 18 1 2, to remain until November 4th of that
year. His command consisted of three companies
recruited in Barren and adjoining counties.
When Governor Shelby made his appeal to Ken-
tuckians to avenge the massacre of Raisin and Fort
Meigs, Major Renick was quick to respond, and at
Urbana, on the organization of Governor Shelby's army,
he was made colonel of the fifth regiment, composed of
The Battle of the Thames 151
Wickliffe's company from Nelson, Hornbeck's of Bullitt,
Moss's of Green, Kinson's of Adair, and Robertson's of
Waslifngton. Captain William R. McGary's company was
subsequently added to the regiment, when the army had
About 1820, Colonel Renick removed to Missouri.
The records in Barren County show numerous transfers
of land after his leaving Barren, but do not indicate
in what part of Missouri he resided.
He and Colonel Taul are the only colonels in the
battle who sleep in death outside of Kentucky.
The material in the regiment of Colonel Renick
was of the best class of men from Nelson, Green, and
Bullitt, and were among the best fighting men who
went into the campaign.
He was thrice elected to the legislature from Barren,
Colonel William Williams.
Colonel William Williams, who commanded the
eleventh regiment, was born in Virginia on the 20th of
March, 1788, and died in Madison County, Kentucky, in
1834. He lived on a farm about eight miles southwest of
Richmond, on the line of the Kentucky Central, near
Red House. He married Charlotte Reed, a woman of
1^2 The Battle of the Thames
great refinement and culture. Alexander Campbell, in his
notes on Kentucky travel, says that Mrs. Williams was
one of the most refined and cultured women he ever met.
He was cashier of the first bank founded at Rich-
mond, Kentucky. His funeral, which occurred in 1834,
was one of the largest ever known in Madison County.
He was a man of splendid judgment and fine informa-
tion, taking great interest in military matters, and it was
to this he was indebted for his promotion from private
to colonel. He volunteered as a private. He was first
made major of the eleventh regiment, but subsequently,
from some cause or other Colonel George R. C. Floyd
failing to serve. Major Williams was appointed colonel
of the regiment.
He was buried on the old family place near Red
House, and his grave is unmarked.
(Originally Spelled Danneldson.)
John Donaldson was born in Berkeley County, Virginia,
in 1769. His father moved to Kentucky and settled
in Clark County, near Strode's Station. The fort being
besieged by the Indians, Colonel Donaldson's father, in
passing by a port-hole while inside of the fort, was
killed by a shot fired by an Indian through the hole.
The Battle of the Thames 153
His mother subsequently married Colonel John Flem-
ing, for whom Fleming County and Flemingsburg, its
county seat, were named, and who in 1790 established
Colonel Fleming engaged in the pursuit of the
Indians who had attacked Strode's Station, and at
Battle Run, near the Upper Blue Licks, in Fleming
County, in an engagement with the Indians was badly
wounded, but escaped almost miraculously. An Indian
approached Colonel Fleming, supposing him to be badly
wounded, and fired, but when he had reached a distance of
some six or eight feet from him, Colonel Fleming shot him
dead and the Indian lay on the opposite side of the log
from which Colonel Fleming was lying. His mare, which
was a favorite, came running up, and in response to
her master's whistle she came to his side. Colonel
Fleming was barely able to throw himself over her back
like a bag, and was carried by the faithful animal out
of the fight. Colonel Fleming died in 1794.
Colonel Donaldson represented Clark County in the
legislature in 1803 and 181 7.
He lived on the road between Paris and Winches-
ter, about six miles from Winchester, owned a large farm
there, and died in 1829. He was a general in the Kentucky
154 "^^^^ Battle of tlie Thames
Some fifteen years since his remains were removed to
Flemingsburg and buried in the cemetery there. A head-
stone has been erected, on which is the following inscrip-
Sacred to the memory of General John Donaldson, who was
born in Berkley, Virginia, January gth, A. D., 1769, and departed
this life August 24th, A. D., 1829, aged sixty years, seven months
and fifteen days. He was loved and respected, and died la-
Clark County, where he was residing during the War
of 1812, made a most magnificent record. The county
sent twelve companies into that war. More than nine
hundred men, at various times, volunteered from the
county for service in that conflict.
Colonel Donaldson was a man of fine presence,
great intelligence, and always exhibited the very highest
Colonel William Montjoy.
Colonel William Montjoy, who commanded the fourth
regiment, was born in Stafford County, Virginia, April
He represented Pendleton County in the Kentucky
Senate in 1820-22-23, and was a member of the house
of representatives in 1809. He died in Williamstown,
Grant County, Kentucky, February 17, 1823.
The Battle of the Thames 155
He settled in Pendleton County in 1795. He raised a
company in Pendleton County upon the call of Governor
Shelby, July 31, 1813.
In April, 1820, he was appointed by Governor Adair
surveyor for Grant County, to which place he moved
about 181 7. His will, probated in 1823, is remarkable
from the fact that he gave all his slaves their freedom
within periods prescribed by that instrument.
He was one of the first settlers in Williamstown, and
occupied one of the three houses in Williamstown in 1820,
and kept a tavern at that place. He purchased a farm
a short distance from Williamstown, on which place he
resided at the time of his death. He is supposed to be
buried in the old cemetery on the Covington and Lexing-
ton Pike, about two miles north of Williamstown. His
grave, so far as can be known, is unmarked.
That he was patriotic is attested by the fact that he
was among the first soldiers in Kentucky who volunteered
in the War of 18 12. In the early part of the war he
served as a private, and was severely frostbitten in the
Fort Wayne campaign. He was brave and patient, and
possessed a high degree of courage.
1^6 The Battle of the Thames
Colonel Richard Davenport.
Of Richard Davenport very meager details are obtain-
able. He settled, in the early history of Kentucky, in
Mercer County, near Danville, coming from Spottsylvania
County, Virginia, and died before the creation of Boyle
County, in 1842.
He was prominent in the Kentucky militia from 1800
to 18 1 2, and commanded a company in the early part of the
War of 18 1 2. He was a man of great dignity of manner
and speech, with the high type of chivalry and courage
incident to the men of his social status of that period.
He kept a tavern near Danville for some years. In
those days many of the leading men of the Commonwealth
kept houses of entertainment.
At the call of Governor Shelby for volunteers, on July
31, 181 3, Colonel Davenport, who lived only six miles from
the governor's home, promptly enlisted. His personal
acquaintance with Governor Shelby and his previous mili-
tary experience suggested him as a valuable leader.
His daughter, Eliza, in 1823, married Honorable James
Harlan. His grandson. Honorable John M. Harlan, is
now Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United
States. Judge Harlan was appointed to this position by
President Hayes in 1877.
The Battle of tJie Thames 157
Colonel Davenport died about September, 1818. His
will was dated April 25, 181 7, and probated October 18,
He had some part in the donation of the land on which
the First Presbyterian Church of Danville was built. His
wife survived him thirty years.
He was buried in the grounds attached to the First
Presbyterian Church, Danville; but with the going of years
the marks of the graves have been obliterated, and only
those of Ephraim McDowell and David Rice, whose
remains were reinterred there a few years since, are
capable of identification.
He recruited a company in Mercer County in response
to Governor Shelby's call, and the names of its members
indicate that the best blood and material of Mercer
answered Captain Davenport's patriotic call.
At Urbana he was appointed by Governor Shelby
colonel of the sixth regiment. This regiment consisted
of his own company, from Mercer, Miller's of Lincoln,
Faulkner's of Garrard, and Coffee's of Casey — only four
companies with four hundred men, but all of the best
possible stuff, and ready under all circumstances to meet
every call of duty.
158 The Battle of the Thames
Colonel James Simrall.
Colonel James Simrall, who commanded the ninth
regiment, was a resident of Shelby County, and had
been a patriotic and active soldier of the War of 18 12.
He had the good fortune to command two regiments.
The first of these, known as the First Regiment of Light
Dragoons, was enlisted on the 27th of August, 181 2, and
its time expired on the 31st of October of the same year.
George Trotter, who commanded the first regiment at
the Thames, was a captain in this First Regiment.
Colonel Simrall was born March 18, 1781, in West
Chester, Pennsylvania, but removed from there to Culpeper
County, Virginia, thence to Shelby County, Kentucky, in
1792, and settled a mile east of Shelbyville, He died
September 9, 1823.
He was in service for his State and country during
almost the entire period of the war. His regiment
entered active service about the 17th of September, 181 2,
under General Harrison, and contained three hundred
men, armed with muskets.
On the 1 8th of September he attacked the town of
Little Turtle, and executed his orders with such prompt-
ness and dispatch that he received the thanks of General
The Battle of the Thames 159
He was engaged in the battle of Mississiniway. They
marched from FrankHnton, now Columbus, on the 25th of
November, each man carrying ten days' rations and such
forage as was possible. The weather was extraordinarily
cold and the ground frozen and covered with snow. The
night before the attack on the savages they marched all
night. The night after the battle the command was
attacked by the Indians. In this battle Captain Trotter,
in command of a company of Colonel Simrall's regiment,
who was afterward brigadier-general, commanding the
First Brigade, exhibited great courage and gallantry, and
Colonel Simrall was commended in a general order for
the excellent disciphne of his regiment, which was deemed
equal to that of any in America.
When they returned to Greenville more than half of
the command were rendered unfit for duty because of
sickness or wounds. A general order was issued com-
mending in the highest manner the troops composing
Colonel Simrall was one of the first to respond to the
call of Governor Shelby in 1813, and owing to his experience
and gallantry was made colonel of the regiment, composed
largely of soldiers from Shelby and Franklin counties.
He represented Shelby County in the senate from
1814 to 18 18, and was largely instrumental in passing the
i6o The Battle of the Thames
necessary legislation for the construction of the Louisville
and Portland Canal.
He was interested in the lead mines in Galena, 111.,
and in April, 1823, went to look after his business inter-
ests, and died there. The place of his sepulture is
unknown and unmarked.
In Missouri and Mississippi a large number of his de-
scendants are found. Horatio F. Simrall, of Mississippi,
long one of the Supreme Court judges of that State;
Reverend John G. Simrall, of Walnut Hill, Kentucky, so
long a prominent minister of that church; Judge John G.
Simrall, of Louisville, and others are his descendants.
He was a man of great physical proportions, weighing
three hundred and twenty-five pounds, with red hair and
a ruddy complexion, and is said to have had the strongest
voice in the army. He was a man of military instincts,
a strict disciplinarian, and, tradition says, somewhat of a
The sufferings of himself and his men in the Missis-
siniway expedition were probably as severe as any ever
experienced by any American troops.
After the capture of the British soldiers at the battle
of the Thames they were placed in his command, and he
brought them to Portage, where they were turned over to
Colonel George Croghan.
Colonel MICAH TAL'L.
The Battle of the Thames i6i
Lieutenant-Colonel Micah Taul, of Wayne County, com-
manded the seventh regiment. He had raised a company
which was sworn into service August 23, 18 12, for six
months, in Colonel Joshua Barbee's regiment. During the
campaign Captain Taul won distinction for courage, tact,
and military sagacity.
When Governor Shelby called for volunteers in 18 13
Captain Taul was amongst the earliest to respond, and
in Wayne County he quickly organized a company of more
than eighty men, who unanimously chose him as their
Upon reaching Urbana, he was appointed lieutenant-
colonel of the seventh regiment, composed of his own
company from Wayne, afterward commanded by Captain
William Stephens, Captain Wood's and Captain Wilson's
companies, from Cumberland, Captain Laughlin's of Knox,
and Captain Tate's of Pulaski. Wilson and Laughlin were
promoted to majors. Colonel Taul was born in Mont-
gomery County, Maryland, May 14, 1785, and when the
son was two years old his father moved to Fayette County,
Kentucky, and settled on Marble Creek, twelve miles south
of Lexington. When only sixteen years of age, in 1801,
he was elected, by the magistrates, clerk of the county
1 62 The Battle of the Thames
court of Wayne County, and in a few months afterward
was elected clerk of the Quarter Sessions Court. He was
a candidate for Congress in 1812, and lost by a majority of
sixty-two for his opponent, Judge Montgomery. In 18 14
he defeated Montgomery by a majority of 1262.
Without educational advantages, he became one of the
most eflfective stump-speakers of his day. His courage was
unquestioned, and as a lawyer he won much reputation.
He moved from Monticello, which he named, to Win-
chester, Kentucky, in 181 8, and from there to Winchester,
Tennessee, in 1826.
In 1846 Colonel Taul moved to Talladega, Alabama,
where he practiced law, and died May 27, 1850.
His grandsons were prominent in the civil war.
Bradford commanded the Thirtieth Alabama Regiment ;
another, Silas Parsons Bradford, was a captain, and Tipton
Bradford also was in the Confederate service.
He is buried at Mardisville, a short distance from
Talladega, and a simple shaft marks his resting-place.
Of the colonels, only two in death rest out of Kentucky,
Colonel Taul in Alabama and Colonel Renick in Missouri.
Colonel JOSEPH McOOWELL.
The Battle of the Thames 163
Joseph McDowell, adjutant-general of the Kentucky
troops, was of Scotch descent, the son of Judge Samuel
McDowell, born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, Septem-
ber 13, 1768, and moved to Kentucky with his father in
He was a private in Captain Brown's company, in
General Scott's expedition in 1791, and with General
Wayne at Fallen Timbers in 1794. He was later in
both expeditions under General Hopkins.
His good sense, great courage, and absolute self-con-
trol, coupled with his military experience, caused General
Shelby to appoint him adjutant-general. This position
was of the greatest importance, in view of the lack of
discipline and drill among the troops composing the
command, and its importance was increased by the
character of the country through which the forces were
Colonel McDowell performed the duties of the oflfice
in such manner as to receive the highest commendation
from both Governor Shelby and General Harrison.
Colonel McDowell owned a large tract of land two
miles from Danville, on the Lexington Pike. His chil-
dren having left him, he moved to Danville in his later
164 The Battle of the Thames
years, and resided with his daughter, Mrs. Caleb Wallace.
He died there January 27, 1856, in the eighty-seventh
year of his age, and is buried in the Danville Cemetery.
He left a reputation full of all that a good man could desire,
and his name and example still live amongst the people
with whom he was associated and by whom best known.
Colonel Anthony Crockett.
Among the most unique as well as most patriotic of
the men who composed this army was Colonel Anthony
Crockett, of Franklin County, a native of Virginia, born
in Prince Edward County in 1756; in 1790 a member of
the Virginia Legislature from Kentucky, and later, in 1 796
and 1799, a member of the Kentucky House of Represent-
atives from Franklin County. He had already rendered
valiant service in the War of 181 2. He was, at the time
of the organization of Governor Shelby's forces, fifty-seven
years of age and exempt from all military duty, but
between Colonel Crockett and Governor Shelby there
existed a very warm friendship, and Colonel Crockett was
amongst the first to volunteer to go and share whatever the
campaign should bring to the hero of King's Mountain.
Colonel Crockett had been sent a short time previously
by Governor Shelby to Fort Meigs to impress upon the
militia there the necessity and importance of remaining
The Battle of the Thames 165
in the field at least sixty days beyond their period of
enhstment. It was thought that the sight of an old Revo-
lutionary soldier and his fervid, patriotic words would
induce the Kentuckians, then under General Harrison, to
prolong their service, but neither Governor Shelby's written
nor Colonel Crockett's spoken words could avail against
the discontent which had been aroused by the unjust treat-
ment which they had suffered at the hands of the war
Colonel Crockett had served actively during the entire
Revolutionary War. He enlisted in February, 1776, in
the Seventh Virginia, and only left the army when peace
had been declared. He was at White Plains, Brandy-
wine, Monmouth, Saratoga, Germantown, Princeton, and
Trenton, and in 1729 joined General George Rogers Clark
at Vincennes, Indiana. He was with Logan in his pursuit
at Blue Licks, and was a lieutenant in the Crockett or
Illinois Regiment, commanded by his uncle. Colonel
Joseph Crockett, and which played such a conspicuous
part in the conquest and defense of the Northwest. At
the battle of Brandywine, when LaFayette was severely
wounded, he was taken by Colonel Crockett in his arms
and borne to a place of safety. General LaFayette, when
visiting Kentucky in 1825, recognized Colonel Joseph
Crockett and Colonel Anthony Crockett when approach-
1 66 The Battle of the Thames
ing him, and calling them by name, gave expression to his
love for them, and putting his arms about each, tenderly
In the Indian War from 1782 to 1794 he was a gallant
and courageous soldier. For thirty years he was the
sergeant-at-arms of the Kentucky Senate, and died in
1838, and is buried in the Benson Churchyard in Franklin
He was a man of superb physique, six feet three inches
in height, gentle by nature, but fearless and valiant in
battle, and as he rode as brigade-major by the side of
General John Edward King, commander of the Third
Brigade, his presence was a noble object-lesson and his
unselfish patriotism an inspiration to his comrades.
Colonel Young Ewing.
One of the most unique characters at the battle of the
Thames was Colonel Young Ewing. He had raised a
regiment on the early call for troops in the War of 181 2,
which was mustered in on October 2, 18 12.
In 1792 he was appointed one of three magistrates for
Logan County, which was organized that year, and he
represented the county in the legislature in 1795. He
was said to have been a native of Virginia ; a man of
strong intellect and great courage, but sometimes careless
The Battle of the TJiames le-j
in the use of the EngHsh language, especially when he
After Christian County was organized in 1796, being
taken from Logan County, Colonel Ewing represented
that county in the senate from 1808 to 181 2, 1S12 to
1816; 1819 to 1823; 1823 to 1826, and in the house of
representatives in 1800, 1801, 1802, 1806. He was one
of the great politicians in that county, and was known
as a "backwoods politician," a hunter, surveyor, and
He was the first clerk of the Christian Circuit Court,
and was in public office for more than a quarter of a
century. He had commanded a regiment of mounted
men through Indiana and Illinois in the early part of the
War of 181 2, and his military record was of great
advantage to him before the people.
He was also cashier of the first bank established in
Hopkinsville, and a member of the Constitutional Con-
vention held in Frankfort, August 17, 1799, which formed
the second Constitution, and was presidential elector in
1824. He was defeated for the State senate in 1832,
and afterward moved to Tennessee.
A story has been told that when a candidate, par-
ticularly if the campaign waxed hot and the election
appeared doubtful, he would appear resting on a cane,
1 68 The Battle of the Thames
with one arm in a sling, telling in the most earnest way
of the hardships of a soldier's life, but immediately after
the election his infirmities speedily disappeared.
He raised a company under Governor Shelby's call of
July 31, 1813, and was appointed a brigade-major of the
Fifth Brigade, commanded by General Samuel Caldwell.
General Caldwell himself came from Christian County.
Major James Suggett.
Major James Suggett, one of the most courageous men
who fought in the War of 18 12, was born in Orange
County, Virginia, May 2, 1775. When five years of age
his parents moved to Kentucky and settled near the Great
Crossings, in Scott County. His sister, Jemima Suggett,
was the mother of Colonel Richard M. Johnson, having
married his father, Robert Johnson, in Orange County,
Virginia, in 1770.
Wild and reckless in his youth, he was converted at a
great Baptist revival in 1800, and soon afterward com-
menced preaching with great effect. He was finally
ordained in 18 10.
After the War of 181 2 he traveled extensively
throughout the State, preaching as an evangelist. He
died in Missouri, near Palmyra, on the 12th of October,
TJie Battle of the Thames 169
His reputation as a brave and gallant soldier did much
to influence and affect the people of his period.
He was with Colonel Johnson at the formation of the
first regiment, which he commanded in the War of 181 2.
The organization of this first regiment, commanded by
Colonel Johnson, was completed on the 30th of Septem-
ber, 181 2, near Fort Wayne. He had command of a
battalion composed of his brother James Johnson's com-
pany and Ward's and Ellison's. These companies were
raised in response to the appeal that had been made in
August of that year. The first two companies raised
were those of Captain John Arnold and Captain James
Johnson, to which was subsequently added the company
commanded by Captain Charles Ward. These companies
constituted the battalion.
Of this battalion James Suggett was adjutant and was
with his distinguished nephew in the campaign for the
relief of Fort Wayne, in August and September, 1812.
After their return from the campaign a full regiment
was organized, to which were added the companies of
Captains Roper, Clark, and Bacon.
It is said that when General Harrison, in approaching
Fort Wayne, called for some one of undaunted courage and
unflinching bravery to go through the lines and announce to
the garrison of the fort that relief was at hand, Colonel
170 The Battle of the Thames
Johnson suggested that he had a Baptist preacher, named
Suggett, who had all the necessary qualifications to under-
take such a difficult and dangerous task.
At the head of twenty mounted men he started out to
make this effort. He met with a company of Indians,
about twenty in number, charged them, killed their chief
and put them to rout, and when General Harrison and
the remainder of the army reached Fort Wayne they
found the siege had been raised.
Upon the organization of the regiment of mounted
riflemen, which was completed May 20, 1813, and to secure
which Colonel Johnson left his seat in Congress, James
Suggett was made third major and commandant of a troop
of spies, which consisted of a number of picked men detailed
from the regiment to perform special hazardous service.
Fighting with magnificent courage, he won the hearts of all
His conduct in the battle of the Thames commanded
highest praise, and he was one of the number who
pursued Proctor for nearly twenty miles after the surren-
der of the British troops.
After his removal to Missouri, the devotion of the con-
gregation at Great Crossings was such that by popular
subscription a sufficient sum was raised to buy him a
farm in Scott County, to induce his return to Kentucky,
Major DkVALL PAVNE.
The Battle of the Thames x-ji
but as his children had settled around him in Missouri
he declined to come.
He was with the battalion under the command of
Colonel James Johnson which charged the British lines.
Major DeVall Payne.
Major DeVall Payne was born on the ist of January,
1764, in Fairfax County, Virginia. His father, William
Payne, in an altercation in the courthouse at Alexandria,
knocked General Washington down. Washington was
then a colonel of a British regiment stationed at Alex-
andria. Upon reflection, Washington concluded he was
wrong and apologized to Mr. Payne.
He came to Kentucky in 1789 and settled at Lexing-
ton, and served under Governor Charles Scott in his cam-
paign against the Indians on the Wabash. He was with
Captain McChord, and commanded his company when he
was killed and brought him off the battlefield. In a
charge in this battle he encountered an Indian chief who
was lying behind a log. Payne observed the Indian when
his horse leaped the log; he dismounted and grappled with
the Indian, desiring to take him prisoner. The Indian was
armed, resisted most vigorously, and Payne closed in upon
him so that he could not use his weapon, and finally con-
quered the Indian and forced him to surrender. He
172 The Battle of the Thames
removed, in 1792, to Mason County, where he Hved at the
time of his death.
It was his battahon, under Colonel James Johnson, that
charged through the British regulars in the battle of the
Thames, and he was sent with the party who pursued
Proctor for fifteen miles after the battle, and forced the
British general to abandon his carriage and take refuge in
a swamp, leaving his baggage in the hands of his victors.
He was twice a member of the Kentucky Electoral
College, and a member of the senate from Mason from
1807 to 181 1, and in the house of representatives from
Mason in 1801-2-5, 1817, and 1828. He was one of Ken-
tucky's most heroic and courageous sons, and one of her
most distinguished and patriotic citizens.
General Robert B. McAfee.
General Robert B. McAfee represented Mercer County
in the senate 1821-24, 1841. 1845, and was lieutenant-gov-
ernor from 1824 to 1828, and was a member of the house
of representatives in 1810-1 1-12-13, 1815. 1819-20,
1830-31-32. He ran for lieutenant-governor in 1824,
defeating William B. Blackburn. He was elected with
Governor Desha. He was born February, 1784, on Salt
River in Mercer County, and graduated at Transylvania
Genhhal KOISKKI li. McAllJ
The Battle of the Thames 173
He volunteered as a private in a company of riflemen,
and was among the first Kentuckians to join the Western
army. He was subsequently made second lieutenant.
He was quartermaster of Colonel Johnson's first regi-
He was commissioned by Governor Shelby to raise a
company for Johnson's regiment, and marched with them
on the 25th day of May, 181 3. He had the largest com-
pany in the regiment, composed of one hundred and fifty-
two men, and it did good service at the battle of the
He presided over the senate of Kentucky during the
heated discussion and contest which arose from the Old
and New Court question.
In 1833 he was appointed by Jackson Charge d'Affairs
to Colombia, and remained there until 1837. In 1842 he
was appointed one of the visitors to West Point and
elected president of the board; afterward retired from
public life and resided on his farm in Mercer County, near
the Old Providence burying-ground. He died in 1850.
He was the author of a valuable book entitled "His-
tory of the Late War," published at Lexington, Kentucky,
in 1 8 16, and left a number of historic manuscripts which
are worthy of publication, and should long since have
174 The Battle of the Thames
John Payne, the son of DeVall Payne, captain of one
of the companies, served first in the expedition of Lieu-
tenant-Colonel John B. Campbell to the Missime and
Wabash rivers as a private in the company of Captain
Robert Smith. Having been honorably discharged, he
set out at once for Fort Meigs, on the 17th of January,
18 13, for the purpose of tendering his services to General
Harrison, so as to aid his country in the war with its
enemies. At Franklinton, now Columbus, Ohio, he
learned of the disastrous defeat of the troops under
General Winchester and the massacre of the Raisin.
On reaching Fort Meigs he found the defeat had so
disarranged all the plans of the commanding general that
it was deemed unwise to prosecute the campaign further
until reinforcements should arrive. As these reinforce-
ments must come from Kentucky, Ohio, and the western
part of Pennsylvania, through a country difficult at all
times, being an almost impassable wilderness, and having
received from General Harrison authority to organize a
company of volunteer light dragoons, he at once retraced
his steps and returned to his home in Mason County.
On February 26th he issued a call, published in "The
Dove," a weekly paper then being printed at Wash-
ington, in Mason County, in which he says :
The Battle of the Thames 1 75
The service, I am sure, will be active. The opportunity to
acquire military renown will be ample. The thanks of your
country and the approbation of your own hearts will follow.
Why should you hesitate .' I need not speak of the compensa-
tion, for that, ample as it is, is no inducement; "the soldier's
wealth is honor." I say the compensation is ample — eight dol-
lars per month and twelve dollars per month for the hire of
your horses. Arms of the best quality are at Lebanon and
Franklinton in abundance ; with these you will be supplied.
Although I take an active part, it being necessary for some one
to do so in raising the troop, yet you shall have the liberty of
choosing any commander and your own commissioned officers. I
will act with you in any capacity.
Any person wishing to volunteer will please direct a letter to
me at Augusta, Bracken County; I will then describe to them
the uniform agreed upon, which will be plain, cheap, and serv-
iceable. I hope to march by the 15th or 20th of April.
In response to this call ninety-two volunteers met
Captain Payne. The commander of the company expected
to march on the 15th or 20th of April. On the 14th he
received a letter from General Harrison, stating that he
had no authority, under the recent regulation issued by
the War Office, to call out or receive the services of any
troops not specially ordered out by the Secretary of War.
Acting upon this notice the company was temporarily
disbanded, and on the 13th of May Captain Payne
received a letter from Colonel Johnson, asking him to
176 The Battle of the Thames
attach his troop to his regiment, which was to rendezvous
at Newport on the 2 2d of May. The offer was imme-
diately accepted. The troop was notified ; they answered
the call with alacrity and assembled in Washington,
Mason County, in May, in readiness for the field, and
met Colonel Johnson on the 2 2d of May at Newport.
John Speed Smith.
Colonel John Speed Smith, of Madison County, Ken-
tucky, was a son of William and Mary Speed Smith. He
was born July 31, 1792, was educated for the law, and
became one of the most prominent lawyers in the State
of Kentucky. In 1819 he was elected to the legislature
of Kentucky, re-elected to the same body in 1827, 1830,
1839, 1841, 1845. In 1827 he was speaker of the house,
and in 1846 and 1850 he was a member of the senate.
In 182 1 he was elected to Congress. Under President
Adams he was sent on a mission to South America, and
was made District Attorney of Kentucky by President
Jackson. In the War of 1812 he was aide-de-camp to
General Harrison. In 18 15 he married Miss Eliza Lewis
Clay, a daughter of General Green Clay and a sister of
General Cassius M. Clay. He died in 1854, leaving in
charge of his countrymen the name of a distinguished
lawyer, a wise statesman, and an exemplary citizen. He
The Battle of the Thames 177
was connected by blood and by marriage with the Clays,
the Frys, the Speeds, and other prominent families in
Kentucky and elsewhere, and lived a long and honored
life as the peer of any and all. He occupied a position
at the head of the Kentucky bar, and his opinion as a
lawyer and his views as a statesman were deemed worthy
of being obtained by prominent men on many important
occasions. He lived the life of a well-bred gentleman of
the olden times, whose hospitable home and table were
enjoyed by admirers from near and far.
Richard P. Butler.
Colonel Richard P. Butler was born in Jessamine
County, Kentucky, in 1792. He was the son of General
Percival Butler, a Revolutionary soldier, who removed
from Pennsylvania to Kentucky in 1784, and settled at
the mouth of Hickman's Creek. He married a Miss
Hawkins, who was a sister of the wife of Colonel John
Todd, who lost his life in the disastrous battle of the
Blue Licks. The elder Butlers were all distinguished in
the Revolutionary War. The father and five sons were
all at the same time fighting the battles of the colonists
for independence, and the mother was at home doing all
she could to raise means with which to sustain them in
the army. It was to this family that Washington, at his
178 The Battle of the Thames
own table, in the presence of distinguished guests, is said
to have offered a toast "The Butlers and their five sons."
And it is of this family that LaFayette is reported to
have said that when he wanted anything well done, in
the military line, he ordered a Butler to do it.
He studied law, but never practiced, preferring an
agricultural life upon his farm in Carroll County, which
was a model farm and cultivated with an intelligence in
advance of his neighbors. His sowing and reaping were
all of a scientific character and seldom failed of the best
results. He was a delegate to the celebrated Democratic
Convention which met in Baltimore in June, i860, to
nominate a candidate for the presidency. This conven-
vention failed to agree upon a candidate, as its predecessor
had done in Charleston. A large number of delegates
withdrew, and others refused to vote. Among those who
refused to vote was Colonel Butler. The delegates left
in the convention nominated Douglas, and those who
withdrew nominated Breckinridge; thus two Democratic
candidates were put in the field, and the race made easy
for the Republican candidate, who won in the person of
Mr. Butler lived to a ripe old age on his farm in
Carroll County, almost a nonogenarian, and died regretted
by all who knew him.
The Battle of the Thames 179
Bemjamin S. Chambers.
Major Benjamin S. Chambers was the youngest son of
Thomas Chambers, an eminent citizen of Virginia. He
emigrated to Kentucky about the close of the eighteenth
century and settled at Georgetown, where he became a
distinguished lawyer. When the War of 181 2 broke out he
was a member of the Kentucky Legislature from the county
of Scott. He promptly enlisted in Johnson's regiment of
mounted infantry and was appointed quartermaster, with
the rank of major, May 20, 1813. He was one of the
twenty who formed the "Forlorn Hope" in the battle of
the Thames and one of the six who came out alive from
the terrible charge made upon the Indians. In 1814 he
married Miss Violetta Bradford, a daughter of Fielding
Bradford, one of the founders of the "Kentucky Gazette,"
which was the first newspaper published in Kentucky and
the first on this side of the Alleghanys except the "Pitts-
burg Gazette, " which antedated it only a short time. In
1833 he removed to Little Rock, Arkansas, and formed a
law partnership with Chester M. Ashley, of New England
birth. Here he purchased, in connection with Governor
Henry M. Rector, a large body of land adjoining Little
Rock. On this land he began to build a handsome resi-
dence, but was attacked by fever and died before the
i8o The Battle of the Thames
building was finished. After his death his law partner,
Ashley, discovered a defect in the title of the land he had
purchased, and instead of removing that defect for the
benefit of the widow and the children of Major Chambers
he perfected the title for himself. This act of Ashley led to
a law-suit of long duration and much bitterness. The
Chambers heirs, in conjunction with Governor Rector, sued
Ashley for the land and gained the suit in the courts of
Arkansas, but Ashley took an appeal to the United States
Court, and finally won the suit after litigation extending
through nearly thirty years and making the Ashleys rich
and the Chambers poor. Major Chambers, at his death,
left a widow and six daughters. One of these daughters,
Mrs. Annie Chambers Ketchum, who still lives an honored
octogenarian, became famous as a poetess, botanist,
elocutionist, and educator. Many of her poems have been
much admired, and one of them entitled "Benny"
acquired, as it deserved, a national reputation.
The greatest and ablest man on the opposing side was
an Indian, who was then in the full prime of life. He
was born on the banks of the Mad River, in what is
known now as Clark County, near Piqua, Ohio, a name
so given it because of the wild and resistless torrents
The Battle of the Thames i8i
which rushed through its banks when fed by storms.
Born in 1768, he had come from one of the most distin-
guished Indian famiUes of which history has ever spoken,
or will ever speak. He was descended from the Shaw-
nees, the most enterprising, brave, and restless of all the
Indian tribes. Tradition had it that his grandmother
was a white woman, the daughter of the governor of one
of the colonies. His mother was named Methoataske,
which means "Turtle laying eggs in the sand." His
father, Puckeshinwau, while not a chief, by his courage
and ability had risen to that rank, and was killed in the
battle of Point Pleasant when Tecumseh was only six
years of age. From his older brother, who became his
counselor and his guide, Tecumseh had often heard the
story of the details of that tremendous conflict, the most
destructive and hard-fought of all the battles between
the white and the red men in the West. He had listened
to the story told by the great Cornstalk of that battle,
and his brother Cheeseekau had repeated to him, again
and again, the details of the glorious death of his father on
that bloody field, and had inspired his youthful heart with
hate of the white man as he detailed how his gallant sire
had fallen a victim to the bullet of the Long Knife.
From the time that Tecumseh was fifteen until he was
twenty-two, more than fifteen hundred white men, women.
1 82 The Battle of the Thames
and children had been slain or taken captive by the
Indians on the waters of the Ohio, and in these raids the
Indian had not gone unpunished ; he too had suffered in
Clark and Logan, and others, with their avenging
horsemen and riflemen, had penetrated their country, and
the ashes of burned villages, deserted cornfields, and the
effects of destroyed crops had been deeply impressed
upon his youthful mind. He had listened to the story
of the cruel and unjustifiable death of the great Indian
commander after the battle of Point Pleasant, and he
well remembered, when a mere lad, how George Rogers
Clark and his thousand Kentuckians had dropped down
upon Tecumseh's home, and how as a mere child he fled
away into the wilderness from these avenging white men;
and he had not forgotten how, when sixteen years of
age, against Logan's raid, he had for the first time come
under fire, and how, by the side of his brave and distin-
guished brother, Cheeseekau, he had started into the
battle and had taken flight and escaped. With pride he
recalled his battle with the white men along the banks
of the Ohio, and later on the Mississippi, and every emotion
of his soul cried out for vengeance on the white man
when he remembered how Cheeseekau died in his assault
upon the white man's fort. With delight he ran over in
The Battle of t/ie Thames 1 83
his mind the slaughter at Harmer's defeat, and the
glorious memories, to him, of the butchery of Saint Clair
and his men. He had not forgotten the disaster to the
Indians at Fort Recovery, when so many of his brethren
were slain in the assault upon the valiant defenders of
that position. His courage had not been able to avail
at the battle of Fallen Timbers, when the white
man's bayonet had settled the fate of the day. There
first he had met in battle the man who was to com-
mand the forces which would subsequently vanquish and
After the treaty at Greenville in August, 1795, he had
begun to organize a troop or band, of which he called
himself chief, and in 1799, when he attended the meeting
at Urbana, his speech was so eloquent and beautiful as to
command even the admiration of the white men.
A younger brother of Tecumseh, formerly known as
The Prophet, assumed the name of Elkswatawa, which
means "The Open Door." He said the Great Spirit had
given him a vision which had told him to drink no more;
that Indian women must not marry white men; that
Indians must hold all property in common, and that the
young must at all times support and cherish the aged.
He inveighed against the Indian adopting the dress of
the white man; he promised those who followed him com-
184 The Battle of the Thames
fort and happiness, and declared that the Great Spirit
had given him power to destroy his enemies, to cure
diseases, and to prevent death on the battlefield. He
had attended the meeting at Chillicothe, and for the first
time his eloquence had given the white man a true con-
ception of his ability.
A great idea had come into the mind of this red man,
Tecumseh, and that was a perfect confederacy among the
Indians, to be a united front to oppose the ceaseless
encroachments of the whites upon Indian territory. To
perfect the plans of this great idea, Tecumseh for years
traveled ceaselessly among the forests of the West and
South, with his eloquence convincing and persuading his
red brethren that the only safety against the white man
lay in confederacy; that unless the aggressions of the white
man were stopped it was only a question of time until the
red man should be driven from the face of the earth, and
that pride of race as well as patriotism demanded that the
red man should meet the white man fearlessly on the
border and yield no more territory.
The rashness of his brother, The Prophet, had brought
on the battle of Tippecanoe, with its disastrous results to
the Indians, before Tecumseh had fully matured his plans.
Tecumseh had advocated the principle that all the
lands in the West belonged to all the Indians, that no
The Battle of the Thames 185
tribe had ownership over any particular part, and that in
any sale or disposition of the land all the Indians must
be consulted, and that any sale made without the consent
of all was void.
The plans of Tecumseh were worthy of his great mind,
and his ceaseless energy and great talents were devoted
to these noble purposes.
Tecumseh loved his race and hated the white man.
He foresaw that in the end the white man would destroy
the red man; that the two could not live side by side.
In the forest, night and day, he nourished this dream,
which would bring prestige and glory to his race and
save it from annihilation.
When his plans for a confederacy had been destroyed
his hate for the white man of the West, who had been
the aggressor upon the lands of his people, caused him
with alacrity to connect himself with the British in their
war against the United States. He became their ablest
and most successful ally and leader.
Amid the varying fortunes of the English at Detroit /
and its vicinity, with his people he oftentime stood the
brunt of battle. He was a born fighter; no fear of death
ever troubled him. He had been with Proctor at French-
town in defeat and at Raisin in victory; he had helped
him besiege Fort Meigs, and stood by the English at Fort
1 86 The Battle of the Thames
Stephenson; he had seen, with profound distress, Proctor
fleeing away from the Detroit River to allow the landing
of the American army without opposition; he had
reproached the English general for his cowardice, and
demanded of him that he should meet his foes in battle;
with disgust he had retreated the seventy miles which
now intervened between the English border and the
Under the taunts, entreaties, and threats of his Indian
ally the British soldier at last resolved to give the Ameri-
Homesick and disappointed, he joined the English in
their retreat with the declaration: "We are now going to
follow the British, but I feel well assured we shall never
He declared that his body would remain on the field
of battle, and unbuckling his sword he handed it to one
of his chiefs, with the request that when his son became
grown and able to wield a sword it should be given to him.
He was brave, fearless, able, and at times merciful.
That this, the greatest of all the Indians, who died for the
people whose cause he had espoused and to whom he
yielded such firm and unchanging allegiance, should at
last rest in an unknown grave, and that the nation for
whom he had done so much, risked so much, and lost so
CoLONF.L KlCHAKll M. lOHNSON.
The Battle of the Thames 187
much should never have builded a monument to com-
memorate his prowess and his faithfulness, is one of the
saddest travesties in human history.
Colonel Richard M. Johnson and Regiment.
Colonel Richard M. Johnson was the third son of Colonel
Robert Johnson, of Scott County, and Jemima Suggett, his
wife. He was born at Floyd's Station, in Jefferson
County, in 1780, and a few months thereafter his father
and mother moved to Bryant's Station, in Fayette
County. He was an infant at his mother's breast at the
siege of Bryant's Station, and it is said that his mother
left him in his cradle under the charge of a little sister
while she led the women who, with a heroism unsurpassed
in human history, on the i6th of August, 1782, sallied
forth from Bryant's Station down to the spring, three
hundred yards away, and filled their vessels with water
while six hundred Indians from the underbrush and trees
had their rifles trained upon them. Some estimate may
be had of the heroism of his mother when we understand
that the cooing of her babe sounded in her ears as she
passed through the gate, and she turned to look upon her
infant with maternal longing and tenderness. She gazed
for a moment upon the playful movements, and listened
to the childish prattle of her offspring, as with wondering
1 88 The Battle of the Thames
eyes they watched their mother and inquired why she
would leave them.
He was admitted to the practice of law at nineteen,
after having had as his tutor such great lawyers as
George Nicholas and James Bryant. In his twentieth
year he organized a company and took part in the war
which was then imminent between Spain and the United
States. Before he was eligible, and while under twenty-
one years of age, he was by acclamation elected to a seat
in the Kentucky Legislature, and after having served two
terms he was elected to Congress in October, 1807, being
then just twenty-five years of age.
His splendid talent, his courage of conviction, and his
patriotism secured for him places on important com-
mittees, and at its second session he was appointed
Chairman of the Committee on Claims, at that time the
most responsible of all the House's appointments. He
was a member of Congress at the time of the Declara-
tion of War by the United States against Great Britain,
and with Joseph Desha, Samuel McKee, Stephen Ormsby,
and Anthony New made the vote of Kentucky unanimous
Upon the adjournment of Congress he hurried home
and raised a battalion of mounted men, consisting of
three companies, and pressed forward to the scene of
The Battle of the Thames 189
conflict at St. Mary's. On the 3d of September, 181 2,
his force was increased by a battahon consisting of the
companies of Roper, Bacon, and Clark. These combined
companies were formed into a regiment, of which he was
elected colonel. After a brief but active campaign Colo-
nel Johnson returned home and entered Congress, and
during the coming winter he supported the new adminis-
tration in all war measures with vigor and ability, which
won for him the admiration of his colleagues.
In February he was authorized by the Secretary of
War to raise arms and have in readiness a regiment of
mounted volunteers, to consist of a thousand men. He
hastened to Kentucky, and in less than sixty days secured
from amongst the most distinguished and patriotic citizens
of the State twelve hundred men, and organized them
into a regiment, which not only became thoroughly dis-
ciplined, but under his leadership one of the most gallant,
daring, and historic of American military organizations.
The authority to organize this regiment came on the
1 6th of February, 181 3, from General Armstrong, Secre-
tary of War, and was limited by letter of instruction as
You are hereby authorized to organize, and hold in readiness,
a regiment of mounted volunteers; the organization as to the
number of officers and men to be conformable to the military
190 Tlie Baffle of fhe Thames
authority of the United States. The Governor of Kentucky will
be required to commission the officers, when selected, to serve four
months after being called into active service, and six months after
being required by the United States. The pay of the officers and
men to commence from the active service and march of the corps
under the direction of the War Department. After marching
orders the contractor and commissary agents of the different dis-
tricts through which it passes will supply the regiment with forage
for the horses, and provisions for the men, if required to do so.
The keepers of military stores will also furnish said corps with
ammunition, on regular returns of the effective force of the regi-
ment. If any difficulty arises as to rank, the commanding general
will settle the same after the corps shall have reached its place
With the authority thus obtained, immediately upon
the adjournment of Congress Colonel Johnson lost no
time in reaching Kentucky for the purpose of recruiting
The stories of the infamous massacre at Raisin, and
the reverses of the troops under Allen, Lewis, and
Winchester, who had been so barbarously slain, had
caused not only the patriotic impulses of the people of
Kentucky to rise to the highest pitch, but the spirit of
revenge for such wrong to burn with fiercest glow.
Opposition at once arose to Colonel Johnson's project
in the State of Kentucky. It was held that the method
and plan of raising these troops was unconstitutional and
The Battle of the Thames 191
irregular, but no legal technicalities or quibbles hushed
the patriotic and courageous answer to this call.
On the 2 2d of March, 1813, the call was published.
Colonel Johnson designated men in the different counties
contiguous to his own, Scott, to raise companies ; the
platoon and other officers to be chosen by the men who
It required a few weeks only to fill the regiment,
which was the largest entering the service of the United
States in the western department during the war. The
field and staff officers selected by Colonel Johnson and
commissioned by the State of Kentucky were James John-
son, lieutenant-colonel ; DeVall Payne, first major; David
Thompson, second major; James Suggett, chaplain and
commander of spies ; Benjamin S. Chambers, quarter-
master ; Robert Ewing, surgeon, and Benjamin Branham,
forage master. The company commanders were as follows:
Jacob Stucker, Scott County.
James Davidson, Lincoln County.
Robert A. McAfee, Mercer County.
Jacob Elliston, Woodford County.
Samuel R. Combs, Fayette County.
Richard Matson, Bourbon County.
James Coleman, Harrison County.
John Payne, Bracken County.
Benjamin Warfield, Fayette County.
192 The Battle of the Thames
Elijah Craig, Scott County.
Allen A. Hamilton,
William M. Rice, Henry County.
Robert Berry, Woodford County.
John W. Reading,
William Church, Franklin County.
The first five companies were to rendezvous at the
home of Colonel Johnson, in Scott, and on the 20th of
May take up the line of march for Newport, where the
regiment was to be armed and equipped.
The other five companies, viz.. Captains Coleman,
Payne, Warfield, and Craig, were to march to Newport and
report on the twenty-second.
On the 20th of May a vast concourse assembled at
Great Crossings, on Elkhorn Creek, to say farewell and
words of encouragement to the soldiers, who represented
in so large measure the best blood, the noblest patriotism,
and the truest courage of the State of Kentucky. It was
on this occasion that Colonel Johnson, speaking gratefully
to his neighbors and friends, and to the friends of his
men, of the confidence which had been reposed in him,
promised that, in the coming campaign, he would not
only lead them where dangers were thickest, but that he
would do all that could be done to protect them from the
hardships and dangers of the march and from any undue
exposure in battle.
The Battle of the Thames 193
On the following morning they began their march for
Newport, and when half way upon their journey they
were met by Colonel John T. Johnson, an aide on General
Harrison's staff, with a copy of an order from Harrison,
dated Franklinton, Ohio (now Columbus), May i6th,
expressing his gratitude for the patriotic conduct of the
citizens of Ohio and Kentucky in coming to his aid in
such large numbers ; that he was now happy to inform
them that the pressing danger was past, and that as the
enemy had abandoned the siege of Fort Meigs their
services would not be required.
Colonel James Johnson, who was in command of the
battalion, received and conveyed this order to his troops
with great regret. Some of the companies, acting under
the belief that the order was final, turned backward and
marched toward their homes, but finally it was decided to
await the coming of Colonel R. M. Johnson, who had been
delayed and was in the rear. When he arrived he gave it
as his judgment that the order did not discharge his regi-
ment, and that he would proceed to Newport, and would
not disband his men without a special order from General
Harrison; that as his first authority to raise the regiment
had come directly from the President and Secretary of
War he did not think a mere order of General Harrison,
without authority from the War Office, would be sufficient.
194 The Battle of the Thames
This interpretation of the order greatly pleased the
men. They were full of enthusiasm and joy at being
allowed to resume their march, and they rode on in high
spirits, following Colonel Johnson, who had preceded them.
Immediately upon reaching Newport the members of
the regiment were equipped as rapidly as possible. The
first battalion was dispatched to North Bend by Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Johnson, where they arrived on the 4th of
May. There they learned from General Harrison himself,
who had arrived on a visit to his family at North Bend,
that the regiment had been received into the service of the
General Harrison at once communicated to Colonel
Johnson his commands, and directed him to take charge
of Fort Wayne and the forts on the Auglaise River,
establish a system of scouts and forts, make incursions into
the Indian territory, where feasible cut off and pursue
small parties harassing forts or found passing from the
Illinois or Wabash rivers toward Maiden and Detroit, and
other depredators; and also not to remain more than three
days at any one place.
With ten companies of mounted men to cover the
territory now comprised within the bounds of Western
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois,, all a wilderness, with no posts
except on the eastern line, and no depots for provisions,
The Battle of the Thames 195
the task laid out for Colonel Johnson and his Kentuckians
was one that would appall the stoutest heart.
With the assistance of his brother, James Johnson,
who was a magnificent soldier and a superb tactician, this
regiment acquired a reputation which gave it national
fame. Throughout the summer and fall of 18 13 it was
in most active service. It shirked no sacrifice, hesitated
at no responsibility, and under the leadership of its dis-
tinguished colonel and lieutenant-colonel rendered mag-
nificent service to the American cause.
At the battle of the Thames Colonel Johnson's
bravery was preeminent, his coolness unsurpassed, and
his courage peerless — covered with wounds, twenty-five
bullets having been shot into him, his clothes, or his
horse. Remaining at the front until victory was assured,
at the end he was carried from the battle-ground fainting
from his exertions and loss of blood, almost helpless.
Subsequently carried down the Thames River, he rested
for a brief while in Detroit, and from there, subjected to
all sorts of inconvenience and pain, in a hastily con-
structed boat, he was carried to Upper Sandusky, and
there upon a litter between two horses, with his wounds
still unhealed, suffered tortures that only a brave spirit
could endure. He was brought to his home at George-
town. In February, 18 14, unable to walk, he set out for
196 TJie Battle of the Thames
Washington and resumed his seat in Congress. On the
road and at the national capital he received that enthu-
siastic greeting which evinced the gratitude of his fellow-
countrymen. Even his political opponents could not raise
their voices in anything but praise of his patriotism and
valor, but with one accord they applauded the man who,
with such sacrifices, had given such services to his
Congress by joint resolution placed upon record its
acknowledgment of his valor, and presented him with a
medal in commemoration of his services. In 18 19 he
voluntarily retired from Congress, carrying with him the
love and respect of the whole nation.
Upon his return home he was elected to the legis-
lature, which immediately sent him to the United States
Senate, where he remained from 18 19 to 1829, which,
with his services in the house of representatives from
1807 to 1819, and from 1829 to 1837, gave him one of
the longest terms in the national legislature with which
Kentucky has ever honored any of her sons.
In 1836 he was elected by Congress Vice-President
of the United States, where he presided over the sen-
ate with the greatest impartiality and fairness for four
years, and from which he returned to his farm in Scott
The Battle of the Thames 197
Twice again, in 1841 and 1842, he was sent by his
fellow-countrymen to the legislature, of which he was a
member at the time of his death at Frankfort in 1850.
Distinguished honors were accorded him in his burial.
The State claimed as its own the ashes of this heroic
statesman and patriotic citizen, and in its lot at Frankfort
on the beautiful hill overlooking the splendid scenery
which surrounds the Capital City, a grateful Common-
wealth has erected a monument on which is the following
RICHARD MENTOR JOHNSON.
Bryant's Station in Kentucky
17TH DAY OF October, 17S1,
19TH DAY OF November, 1850.
(On the opposite side.)
To THE Memory of Colonel Richard M. Johnson.
A faithful public servant for nearly half a century, as a
member of the Kentucky Legislature, and Representative and
Senator in Congress; Author of the sundry mail report and of
the laws abohshing imprisonment for debt in Kentucky and in
the United States; Distinguished by his valor as colonel of a
Kentucky Regiment at the Thames; for four years Vice-President
of the United States — Kentucky, his native State, to mark the
scene of his eminent services in the cabinet and in the field,
has erected this monument in the resting-place of her illustrious
OLIVER HAZARD PERRY AND THE KENTUCKIANS WHO
HELPED TO WIN THE BATTLE OF LAKE
ERIE, SEPTEMBER lo, 1813
Oliver Hazard Perry, who was so largely instrumental
in producing the conditions which immediately preceded
the battle of the Thames, is one of the most unique
characters in American history. He was born in South
Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 1785; died in Port
of Spain, Island of Trinidad, August 23, 18 19.
Although only thirty-four years of age at the time of
his death, he had won glorious immortality. His father
before him was a naval officer. His mother was a bril-
liant and accomplished woman, the granddaughter of an
officer in the Scotch army and who had signed the
Solemn League and Covenant in Scotland.
The father, Christopher Raymond Perry, was the
mate on the ship on which the mother sailed to America
to visit Doctor Benjamin Rush, and this acquaintance led
to their engagement. They were shortly afterward mar-
ried. Oliver Hazard Perry was made a lieutenant in the
American navy on the 15th of January, 1807. While in
command of the schooner "Revenge," cruising off the
south coasts of the United States, he lost his ship, but
was acquitted of all blame by a court of inquiry.
When the war opened with England he was probably
the best ordnance officer in the American navy. He
was painstaking, energetic, and brave, and had the
capacity for mastering the details of everything he under-
Disappointed in securing the command of a ship, he
tendered his services to Commodore Chauncey, and he
was sent at once to Lake Erie. Traveling in sleighs, he
reached Erie on the 27th of March, 18 13, and at once
began the construction of the ' ' Lawrence " and the
" Niagara," and the other vessels then being fitted out
for service on the lake. Surrounded by great difficul-
ties, he pushed his work with such tremendous energy .
that he was able to move out from Put-In-Bay on
September 10, 1813, with nine small vessels manned by
about five hundred landsmen and sailors, many of whom
had never seen salt water, but by practice and constant
drilling, within five months Perry had transformed some
of these men into fairly good artillerists. He was to meet
an experienced and brave commander on the English
side — Robert Heriot Barclay. The English ships were
better armed and better manned than the American
vessels. After a contest at close range, and exhibiting
great skill and courage, Perry forced the English fieet to
run up the white flag, and after four hours of tremendous
conflict the British flag was hauled down, and for the
first time in her naval history Great Britian lost an
entire squadron, and that was surrendered to a young
man just twenty-seven years of age. The loss on the
British side, proportionately, largely exceeded that on the
American. The Kentucky riflemen in the masts of
Perry's vessels shot down every man that was visible, and
the battle being at close range, the guns on the American
ships being adapted to that service, the deaths among
the officers and men on the British ships were nearly
twice as great as that of those under Perry.
From the deck of one of his ships, the "Lawrence,"
Perry sent the celebrated dispatch to General W. H.
Harrison, then at Portage, which included the famous
fine, "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
While in command of the "John Adams," another
United States vessel in the West Indies, he was attacked
by yellow fever, and died on the 23d of August, the
anniversary of his birth.
Rhode Island and Ohio both honored him with monu-
ments, and the State of Ohio has placed in the Capitol
at Washington a picture of the battle of Lake Erie and
of Perry leaving the "Lawrence" for the "Niagara."
Leaving the ships, he cheerfully went with Harrison
and Shelby in their pursuit of Proctor, and as an aide
rendered valuable service in the battle of the Thames.
KENTUCKIANS ON COMMODORE PERRY'S SHIPS.
Kentucky riflemen played a most important part in
Commodore Perry's triumph. History has never given
them the credit they deserve. It is certain that a large
part of them were volunteers, whose time had expired
before the great naval conflict.
Six of them were living as late as 1868, and the
names of these survivors are alone preserved. Assuming
that they were eighteen years of age at the time of
enlistment, they were all over seventy-three when Ken-
tucky did them tardy justice.
On February 11, i860, the following resolution was
passed by the legislature of Kentucky :
RESOLUTION No. 19.
Resolution Authorizing the Governor to Procure and Pre-
sent THE Surviving Officers and Soldiers of the
Kentucky Volunteers in the Battle on
Lake Erie with a Gold Medal.
Resolved by the Genoa I Assembly of ike Co»niionu'ealtli of Ken-
That the Governor of this Commonwealth be, and he is hereby,
authorized and directed to procure suitable gold medals, with
appropriate inscriptions and devices, and in the name of the State
of Kentucky to present to each of the surviving officers and
soldiers of the Kentucky volunteers who were present and partici-
pated in the memorable engagement between the American and
British naval forces on Lake Erie on the loth of September,
1813, as a token of the grateful recollection in which the people
of the State hold their brave and patriotic services on that day,
and the imperishable renown which that brilliant victory achieved
for their common country.
Approved February ii, i860.
Nothing was done under this resolution except that
the medals were procured, but the auditor of the State
refused to issue a warrant for the money required to pay
the cost of their manufacture, on the ground that the
journals of the house and senate did not show that the
resolution was passed in the manner required by the
Constitution. January 24, 1867, another resolution was
passed, appropriating four hundred and forty dollars to
pay the cost of these medals.
The names then mentioned were James Artus, of
Mason County ; Doctor William T. Taliaferro, of Cincin-
nati, Ohio, but late of Kentucky ; John Tucker, late of
Mason County, and John Norris, of Boone County.
These were the four known in i860, and in 1867 the
name of Ezra Younglove was added to this illustrious
list, and in 1868 the name of Samuel Hatfield, of Floyd
County, was included among those worthy of this delayed
but noble remembrance.
By an examination of the roster of the soldiers of
1812 it is learned that both Norris and Tucker enlisted
on March 14, 1813, in Captain John Walker's company
of Colonel William E. Bosvvell's regiment. Their term
of enlistment expired on September 4, 1813, six days
before the naval battle on Lake Erie.
The enlistment of Ezra Younglove is not of record,
but on the ist of January, 1814, he re-enlisted in Captain
Thomas L. Butler's company of Colonel Thomas Deye
Owing's regiment of United States Infantry to serve until
April 30, 18 14, showing that he was both patriotic and
The three others, Artus, Taliaferro, and Tucker, were
all from Captain John Payne's company of Colonel R. M.
Johnson's regiment and all three from Mason County,
where that company was principally recruited.
Artus was fourth sergeant; Taliaferro first corporal,
and Tucker a private.
If possibly all, certainly five sixths of the survivors of
these riflemen in 1867 were from two companies. One of
these companies of discharged men being from Boswell's
regiment and three of the men from Captain Payne's
company in Johnson's regiment, it is fair and reasonable
to presume that a very large majority of these brave and
heroic volunteers were from these two companies.
The service of these mihtiamen was perilous and diffi-
cult in the extreme.
The British commodore had secured a number of
Indians for a like duty on the English ships, but the
moving of the masts and the strange and unusual char-
acter of the work caused them to refuse to perform their
appointed tasks, and they abandoned their allies.
Not so with these Kentuckians. They ascended the
masts with alacrity; they sought the service. Unaccus-
tomed to the sea, placed high above the decks, sub-
jected to an unusual motion for landsmen, with the
increased danger of death by falling or drowning, and
with largely augmented chances of destruction by cannon-
ade and shivered timbers, these gallant soldiers perched
themselves in the heights of the sails and plied their
work of death amid greatest perils with calm and undis-
Captain Edward Porter Thompson, in his "Young
People's History of Kentucky," assigns these heroes to
Payne's and Stockton's companies.
Hatfield and Norris enlisted in the United States
Infantry regiment of Colonel Thomas Deye Owings,
Joseph C. Betts' company, on January i, 18 14, and
Younglove in Thomas L. Butler's company same day,
but this was nearly four months after the battle.
Under the conditions then surrounding them, few men
who fought in the War of 1812 engaged in a more dan-
gerous service, exhibited a higher degree of true courage,
or manifested a nobler patriotism than these Kentucky
riflemen who fought from Commodore Perry's masts, and
who by their accurate aim inflicted a tremendous loss
upon their enemies. And it is especially to be noted that
at the time of their performing this patriotic duty more
than one half of them had been discharged by the expira-
tion of their time of enlistment.
The names of these men are justly entitled to a place
among Kentucky's noblest heroes, and they ought to be
carved on the monument which the Commonwealth has
erected in its capital city to perpetuate the memory of her
most illustrious sons.
The following are the resolutions previously alluded to
under which these deserving heroes received their medals
RESOLUTION No. 31.
Resolution Authorizing the Governor to Procure and
Present to Samuel Hatfield, of Floyd County, a
Survivor of the Kentucky Volunteers in
THE Battle of Lake Erie, a
Whereas, under a resolution of the Kentucky Legislature,
approved February 17th, i860, one gold medal was awarded to
each of the following-named persons: One to James Artus, of
Mason County, Kentucky; one to Dr. William T. Taliaferro, of
Cincinnati, Ohio, but late of Kentucky; one to John Tucker, late
of Mason County, Kentucky, and one to John Norris, of Boone
County, Iventucky; and whereas, under a resolution approved
March gth, 1867, a similar gold medal was awarded to Ezra
Younglove, all of whom were survivors of the Battle of Lake
Erie; and whereas, Samuel Hatfield, of the county of Floyd, was
present and assisted in achieving the glorious victory of the
loth of September, 1813; therefore, be it
Resolved by the General Assembly of the Cominoincealth of
Kentucky: That the Governor be, and he is hereby authorized
and directed to procure a suitable gold medal, with appropriate
inscriptions and devices, and, in the name of the State of Ken-
tucky, to present the same to said Samuel Hatfield as a token of
the grateful recollection in which the people of the State hold
his brave and patriotic services on that day, and the imperishable
renown which that brilliant victory achieved for our country; said
medal not to exceed in cost the other medals awarded for similar
services; and that the auditor be directed to draw his warrant on
the treasury for the amount of the cost of the medal hereby
Approved March^g, 1868.
RESOLUTION No. 44.
Resolution in Relation to the Gold Medals Awarded
TO James Artus and Others.
Whereas, Under a resolution of the Legislature of Kentucky,
approved February 17, i860, the Governor has procured and has
now ready for delivery, four gold medals: One for James Artus, of
Mason County, Kentucky; one for Dr. William T. Taliaferro, now
of Cincinnati, Ohio, but late of Kentucky; one for John Tucker,
late of Mason County, Kentucky, and one for John Norris, now of
Boone County, Kentucky, survivors of the Kentucky Volunteers
who, at the request of Commodore Perry, with such ready alacrity
and heroism, repaired on board his fleet and assisted in achieving
the glorious victory of loth of September, 1813, over the British
fleet on Lake Erie; and whereas, the Auditor of Public Accounts
declines to issue his warrant for the cost of said medals, because
the journals of the two Houses do not show that said resolution
was passed in the manner prescribed by the Constitution: now,
therefore, be it
Resolved by the General Assembly of the Conimomvealth of
Kentucky: That the Auditor of Public Accounts draw his warrant
on the treasury for the sum of four hundred and forty dollars,
the cost of said medals, in favor of the Governor, and to be paid
out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated.
Approved January 24, 1867.
ROLL OF FIELD, STAFF, COMPANY OFFICERS AND
PRIVATES, KENTUCKY VOLUNTEERS,
IN THE WAR OF 1812
Pursuant to the Call of Governor Shelby, July 31, 1813
George Trotter, Colonel.
Richard M. Gang, Major.
Thomas Bodley, Major.
William Montgomery, Adjutant.
Ambrose Dudley, Paymaster.
Nathan O. Dedman, Quartermaster.
Fielding Bradford, Quartermaster.
John Young, Surgeon.
Archimedes Smith, S. M.
John McDowel, S. M.
Chester Pearce, Quartermaster-Sergt.
David Todd, Captain.
George Y. Rass, Lieutenant.
John M. Her.\n, Ensign.
Chester PE'.xrce, Sergeant.
Fielding Bradford, Sergeant.
John R. Dunlap, Sergeant
AzELL R. Freeman, Sergeant.
Selburn W. Bogge, Corporal.
John Bryant, Corporal.
Starks W. Cockrill, Corporal.
A. B. H.\lstead, Corporal.
Allen, Barnabas W.,
Barr, Thomas T.,
Burns, Thomas S.,
Carr, Walter C,
Lindsay, A. R.,
Mannor, Nathan W.,
McConnell, William L.,
Moore, John T.,
Shannon, Thomas S.,
Smith, Samuel C,
Todd, David, Jr.,
GusTAVus W. Bower, Captain.
Bartholomew Kindred, Lieutenant.
Smith Bradshaw, Ensign.
Joshua Hightower, First Sergeant.
Michael R. Bower, Second Sergeant.
Peter Withers, Third Sergeant.
Robert D. OversTreet, Fourth Sergt.
George Chrisman, First Corporal.
Reuben Bennett, Second Corporal.
William D. Wilson, Third Corporal.
Benj.jvmin Bradshaw, Jr., Fourth Corp'l.
Conner, William R.,
Casby, Charles J.,
Crockett, John W.,
Davenport, John F.,
Davis, James G.,
Higby, James H.,
Johnson, John G.,
McCune, John L. P.,
Mirrain, Wm. W.,
Rice, Thomas N.,
W'ard, George S.,
Wilson, William S.,
John Christopher, Captain.
Solomon Dunnegan, Lieutenant.
Thomas W. Sellers, Ensign.
Francis W. Cook, First Sergeant.
John F. Cook, Second Sergeant.
Silas Johnson, Third Sergeant.
Willis Long, Fourth Sergeant.
Arthur Gregory Young, Fifth Sergt.
Merrit Young, First Corporal.
William Woolridge, Second Corp'l.
James L. Russell, Third Corporal.
John Hawkins, Fourth Corporal.
Berry, Benjamin, Jr.,
Bingley, John M.,
Bowdry, Samuel P.,
Dunlap, Alexander, Jr.,
Elgin, Thomas P.,
Gay, William D.,
Long, James B.,
Railey, Randolph, Jr.,
Rucker, Lyvand F.,
Smith, John W.,
Watkins, Nathaniel W.,
Mason Singleton, Captain.
Benjamin, Williams, Lieutenant.
Thomas Haydon, Ensign.
Joel Turnh.^m, First Sergeant.
William Scott, Second Sergeant.
Jesse Haydon, Third Sergeant.
Ed SallEE, Fourth Sergeant.
Moore, Joel P.,
Steel, Jabez T.,
Mathews Flournov, Captain.
John Wyatt, Lieutenant.
Thomas C. Flournov, Ensign.
Henry C. Payne, First Sergeant.
William Dougherty, Second Sergeant
William C. Offutt, Third Sergeant.
Jeremi.\h Rogers, Fourth Sergeant.
Francis Springer, First Corporal.
Peter Leathers, Second Corporal.
Samuel L. P.atterson, Third Corporal.
Andrew WiljERS, Fourth Corporal.
Bruce, Richard W.,
Flournoy, Natley M.,
Henderson, Alex. S.,
Henry, Robert P.,
McDowell, John L.,
Muldro, George F.,
Sanderson, William E.,
Stone, William H.,
Joseph Reding, Captain.
Charles W. Hall, Lieutenant.
Christopher Acuff, Ensign.
John Winer, First Sergeant.
John Lemon, Second Sergeant.
Israel Lewis, First Corporal.
Jesse L. Cope, Second Corporal.
Hall, Thomas G.,
Sheppard, Wni. T.,
Todd, Abell D.,
S. W. Megowan, Captain.
James Megowan, Lieutenant.
James McConnell, Ensign.
James Nepper, First Sergeant.
Hiram WorTham, Second Sergeant.
William Liggins, Third Sergeant.
Robert McConell, Fourth Sergeant.
Enoch Fr.\ncis, First Corporal.
Thomas Bronston, Second Corporal.
Jacob Wicard, Third Corporal.
John Wilson, Fourth Corporal.
Prather, Benj. H.,
Shaw, Thomas R.,
John Donaldson, Colonel.
William Farrow, First Major. ■
James Mason, Second Major.
John R. Porter, Adjutant.
Robert TalEFaro, Surgeon.
Wiley R. Brassfield, Paymaster.
J.\MES Daniel, Quartermaster.
William V. Morris, Quartermaster.
Levi L. CarTwright, Sergeant-Major.
Uriel B. Chambers, Sergeant-Major.
Abram McGowan, Forage Master
William Pepper, Quartermaster-Sergt.
Richard Menifee, Captain.
Daniel P. Moseley, Lieutenant.
Harrison Conner, Ensign.
Peter G. Glover, First Sergeant.
CrEad Glover, Second Sergeant.
Joel Parker, Third Sergeant.
Jacob Steele, Fourth Sergeant.
Jesse Steele, First Corporal.
William Smart, Second Corporal.
Thomas MoslEy, Third Corporal.
Jacob Ragan, Fourth Corporal.
Anderson, John A.,
Kelsoe, John G.,
Porter, John R.,
Isaac Cunningham, Captain.
John Bean, Lieutenant.
Henry Smith, Ensign.
Edmund Pendleton, First Sergeant.
Benjamin Luckett, Second Sergeant.
Richard Empson, Third Sergeant.
John Cunningham, Fourth Sergeant.
John Smith, First Corporal.
John Bogas, Second Corporal.
Alfred Burns, Third Corporal.
Jonas Goff, Fourth Corporal.
Brassfield, Wiley R.,
Brown, Mathew P.,
Chambers, Uriel B.,
Clarkson, Julius W.,
Thomas, Granville P.,
George M-athews, Captain.
John Taylor, Lieutenant.
George Taylor, Ensign.
William Pepper, First Sergeant.
Peter B. Lewis, Second Sergeant.
Isaac Evans, Third Sergeant.
Reuben Godard, Fourth Sergeant.
Samuel Howe, First Corporal.
William Armstrong, Corjjoral.
Richard T. Godard, Second Corporal.
Eli Weaver, Third Corporal.
Henry M. Hart, Fourth Corporal.
English, Wilham, Sr.,
Enghsh, William, Jr.,
Howe, Jonathan W.,
Lawrence, Isaac, Sr.,
Lawrence, Isaac, Jr.,
Logan, William, Sr.,
Logan, William, Jr.,
Saunders, Henry G.,
Wills, Andrew, Sr.
Wills, Andrew, Jr.
James Simpson, Captain.
Edmund CALtowAv, First Lieutenant.
Pleasant Bush, Ensign.
Joseph Martin, First Sergeant.
Elijah D.wis, Second Sergeant.
Robert Don.\ldson, Third Sergeant.
John Bvbee, Fourth Sergeant.
Daniel Do.vihoe, First Corporal.
Absalom Lowe, Second Corporal.
Alfred Stephens, Third Corporal.
Robert Elkins, Fourth Corporal.
EUsberry, Benjamin W.
Goorich. William W.
Martin, Robert B.,
Martin, Robert E.,
Trimble, Peter M.,
James Mason, Captain.
John Crawford, Lieutenant.
Amos Richardson, Ensign.
John Davis, First Sergeant.
John D. James, Second Sergeant
John Dickson. Third Sergeant.
William Owings, Fourth Sergeant.
George Peeler, First Corporal.
Francis McKennell, Second Corporal.
Thompson, Clark, Third Corporal.
Joseph Ringo, Fourth Corporal.
Alexander, James D.,
Carter, George W.,
Finley, Joseph W.,
George W. Botts, Captain.
DoRSEv K. Stockton, Lieutenant.
Thomas PaTTOn, Ensign.
James Dobvns, First .Sergeant.
Bazil Calvert, Second Sergeant
Hencely Clift, Third Sergeant.
William Morris, Fourth Sergeant.
William Harper, First Corporal.
George Gilkison, Second Corporal.
Stephan TaTman, Third Corporal.
Thomas Rawlings, Fourth Corporal.
Jones, Thomas, Jr.,
Leaper, James, *
Prather, Benjamin C.
Trumble, William C,
John Poage, Colonel.
Aaron Stratton, Major.
JerEmi.\h Martin, Major.
John E. McDowell, Adjutant.
Samuel L. Crawford, Quartermaster.
John Hockaday, Paymaster.
Anderson Don.\phan, Surgeon.
Thom.\s Nelson, Surgeon's Mate.
Edw.\rd Brooks, Quartermaster-Sergt.
\ViLLL\M Triplett, Sergeant-Major.
Ariss Throckmorton, Lieutenant.
John Standerford, First Sergeant.
John West, Second Sergeant.
Isaiah Williams, First Corporal.
John Clarke, Second Corporal.
William Reed, Ensign.
Grimes, Avery B.,
Jeremiah Martin, Captain.
Benjamin Norris, First Lieutenant.
Stephen Bayliss, Second Lieutenant
Arthur Mitchell, Third Lieutenant.
Thom.\s Ad.\mson, Ensign.
Thomas Chalfant, First Sergeant.
■William Holton, Second Sergeant.
Lewis Bridges, Third Sergeant.
WiLLi.AM Duff, Fourth Sergeant.
Joh.n Ricketts, First Corporal.
HiR.\M W.\tson, Second Corporal.
WiLLi.^M CoRwiNE, Third Corporal
John Hillman, Fourth Corporal.
Jacob B.\gby, Trumpeter.
Clark, John W.,
Gates, William, Jr.,
Gibbons, Thomas G.,
January, Peter T,,
Lewis, Thomas P.,
Moore, George E.,
Shields, William, Jr.,
Moses Demmitt, Captain.
Thomas Hord. First Lieutenant. Joseph Thorn, Ensign.
Triplett, William, Sr.,
Triplett, William, Jr.,
Francis A. Gaines, Captain.
Thomas T. G. Warring, Lieutenant
Thomas Page, Sr., Ensign.
Hezekiah Magruder, Sergeant.
William Ward, Sergeant
James Po.\ge, Sergeant.
John Bartley, Sergeant.
John Evans, Corporal.
James Nichols, Corporal.
David White, Corporal.
Levi Shackles, Corporal.
Boone, Jesse B.,
Crawford, Saiimel L.,
Fugue, John M.,
Gammon, Samuel W.,
Henderson, George W.,
Thomson, James C,
Aaron Stratton, Captain.
Richard Soward, First Lieutenant.
George W. Davis, Second Lieutenant
Elij.ah Houghton, First Sergeant.
Charles Parker, Second Sergeant.
Henry Halbert, Third Sergeant.
William Calvert, Fourth Sergeant.
Charles Alkins, First Corporal.
Ashel Brewer, Second Corporal.
Jacob FrizlE, Third Corporal.
Daniel Thomas, Fourth Corporal.
McDowell, Jolm G.,
William Mountjov, Colonel.
Conrad OvErdewplE, Major.
Zachariah EasTIN, Major.
David Todd, Surgeon.
James Metcalfe, Surgeon's Mate.
John M. Garrard, Paymaster.
Daniel Bourn, Adjutant.
William Dickison, Quartermaster.
Daniel AyrES, Quartermaster.
John Conn, Quartermaster.
Innis Woodward, Quartermaster.
Conrad Overturf, Captain. William Oden, Third Sergeant.
Ends Woodward, First Lieutenant. Harrod Newland, Fourth Sergeant.
James Armstrong, Second Lieutenant. Henry Oakwood, First Corporal.
Jesse Pigman, Ensign. Daniel Hutchison, vSecond Corporal.
James Logan, First Sergeant. Amos Shroff, Third Corporal.
Peter Mann, Second Sergeant. Frederick Dillman, Fourth Corporal
Hunt, John, Jr.,
Jackson, James R.,
Lyons, James, Sr.,
Sallee, Jacob, "
Smith, George H.,
John H Morris, Captain.
CoLEM.^N Ayres, First Lieutenant.
M.\RTi.M Ho.\GL.\ND, Ensign.
WiLLi.\M White, First Sergeant.
Lewis Ayres, Second Sergeant.
John McGibbanv, Third Sergeant.
J.VMEs Sale, Fourth Sergeant.
Shelton, John B.,
William Mountjoy, Captain.
Thomas Childers, Lieutenant.
John Mountjoy, Ensign.
William Little, First Sergeant.
Joseph Bra.nd, Second Sergeant.
J.\mes Henry, Third Sergeant.
GoLDSBY Childers, Fourth Sergeant.
William Ellis, First Corporal.
Robert A. Taylor, Second Corporal
He.nrv Ellis, Third Corporal.
Steven Ellis, Fourth Corporal.
Calvert, Charles B.,
Colvin, B. Charles,
Lawles, Lewis W. ,
Lockwood, Isaac H.,
Porter, Edward W.
HuLHisoN, JR.'s, Company
William Huchison, Jr , Captain.
John Current, Lieutenant.
WiLLiA.M Thornton, Ensign.
CoLUMBfS Eastin, First Sergeant.
Joseph Kendrick, Second Sergeant.
Achilles Chinn, Third Sergeant.
N.\THANiEL Fisher, Fourth Sergeant.
Joseph G. Chinn, First Corporal.
J.AMES MoRi.N, Second Corporal.
Lewis Kendrick, Third Corporal.
Joseph Ellis, Fourth Corporal.
Brown, Samuel D.,
Cotton, John E.,
Garrard, Alexander B.,
Garrard, John M.,
Tucker, Thomas L.,
Squire Grant, Captain.
William Dickerson, Lieutenant.
LowDEN, Carl, Ensign.
Henry E. Spillman, First Sergeant.
Elijah Herndon, Second Sergeant.
Charles Daniels, Third Sergeant.
William PosEv, First Corporal.
Thomas Organ, Second Corporal.
Thomas P. Leathers, Third Corporal.
Anderson, Cornelius W.
Arnold, Benjamin J.,
Coleman, Thomas B.,
Grant, Israel Boone,
Thomas Ravenscrapt, Captain.
Samuel Hinkson, First Lieutenant.
David Wilson, Second Lieutenant.
Samuel Snodgrass, Ensign.
John English, Sergeant.
Mich-aEL WoolErv, Second Sergeant
Hugh Brown, Third Sergeant.
William Wilson, Fourth Sergeant.
Zachariah, Randle, Corporal.
John Humble, Second Corporal.
Thomas Ravenscrapt, Third Corporal.
Richard Hall, Fourth Corporal.
John Conn, Sergeant-Major.
Creechlow, John A.,
Debuler, James C,
Martin, William, Sr.,
Martin, WilHam, Jr.,
Henry Rexick, Colonel.
Joseph Hornback, First Major.
Robert B.\rret, Second Major.
William Gr.^y, Surgeon.
Joseph McGriffi.v, Surgeon's Mate.
Joseph M Hoys, Adjutant.
M.\RTIN H. WiCKLiFFE, Paymaster.
Sherrard Atkerson, Quartermaster.
S.AMUEL T.\LBurr, Sergeant-Major.
Thomas Bell, Quartermaster-Sergeant.
Samuel Robertson, Captain.
Thomas Head, Lieutenant.
John Hung.ate, Ensign.
William Mey-ERS, Sergeant.
Henry South, Sergeant.
Jacob C.arnays, Sergeant.
Gideon B.\irsley, Sergeant.
Charles Br.\chen, Corporal.
John Ingr.\m. Corporal.
Richard Jenkins, Corporal.
Allen Hill, Corporal.
Edelin, Charles F.,
Graham, John W.,
Moore, John \V.,
Smith, John W.,
Springer, Thomas B.,
Walker, Richard L.,
Watts, William R.,
Wilson, John H.,
John Hornbeck, Captain.
Daniel Brown, Lieutenant.
Robert Lewis Prvor, Ensign.
Joshua Norrell, Orderly Sergeant.
John Miller, Second Sergeant.
James Risley, Third Sergeant.
Richard Ferguson, Fourth Sergeant.
Hamilton, Edward H.
Hubbard, Albert C,
Shankhn, William, Jr.
Simmons, Robert W.,
Smith, James T.,
Thomas W. Atkinson, Captain.
Joseph M. Hays, Lieutenant.
Elij.^h Stapp, Jr., Ensign.
John H. Sneed, First Sergeant.
George C. Elliott, Second Sergeant
Gabriel Jones, Third Sergeant.
Aaron Trabue, Fourth Sergeant.
Benjamin S.mites, First Corporal.
James Edmund, Second Corporal.
J.\MES Orms, Third Corporal.
LiNGYtnn Selbv, Fourth Corporal.
Johnston, Robert M.,
Moss, William P.,
Price, Gideon H.,
Price, William R.,
Ray, Benjamin B.,
Thomas S. T. Moss, Captain.
Joshua Brents, Lieutenant.
Jesse Paris, Ensign.
James T. Carter, First Sergeant.
Samuel Phillips, Second Sergeant.
Benjamin Spillmon, Third Sergeant.
Thomas Dills, Fourth Sergeant.
Joel W. Harlen, First Corporal.
Benj.amin Moss. Second Corporal.
Joshua Lee, Third Corporal.
John Marress, Fourth Corporal.
Buckner, Henry W.,
William R. McGary, Captain.
IsR-AEL D.wis, Lieutenant.
Henry Ashby, Ensign.
Hugh Kirkwood, First Sergeant.
Robert Sisk, Second Sergeant.
Benjamin Stokes, Third Sergeant.
S.-uiuel Berry, First Corporal.
Jacob Tucker, Second Corporal.
George Hooker, Third Corporal.
Bell, John M.,
Blain, William G.,
Earl, Thomas P.,
Griffith, Martin B.,
Nesbit, Samuel B.,
Martin H. Wickliffe, Captain.
Mason Carter, First Lieutenant.
John W. Ogden, Second Lieutenant.
Samuel Stephens, Ensign.
James E. Goodlet, First Sergeant.
George Cox, Second Sergeant.
William R. Anderson, Third Sergeant.
Alfred Murray, Fourth Sergeant.
John Cummins, First Corporal.
William Temple, Second Corporal.
Solomon Reasoner, Third Corporal.
Thomas Johnston, Fourth Corporal.
Chenowith, Hardin T.
Davis, William M.,
Jones, William L.,
McCown, William, -
Roberts, Thomas C,
Smith, Guy W.,
WicklifTe, Charles A.,
Richard Davenport, Lieut. -Colonel.
John Faulkner, First Major.
Benjamin H. Perkins, Second Major.
Robert McConnell, Surgeon.
Joseph Berry, Surgeon's Mate.
Samuel I. McDowell, Lieut, and Adjt.
John Glover, Lieut, and Quartermaster
Michael G. Zo.n'CE, Lieut, and Paymaster.
Robert Telford, Sergeant -Major.
Robert Rochester, Quarterniaster-Sergt.
Jesse Coffee, Captain.
Thomas Kennedy, Lieutenant.
Robert T. Lewis, Ensign.
Thomas Blain, First Sergeant.
Abrah.\m Smith, Second Sergeant.
Newton C. Jones, Third Sergeant.
Timothy Good, Fourth Sergeant.
John Faulkner, Captain.
Stephen Richardson, Lieutenant.
Isaac Rentfrow, Ensign.
S.\MUEL Smith, First Sergeant.
William Drinkard, Second Sergeant.
Alexander B. McQuea, Third Sergeant.
William L. Poor, Fourth Sergeant.
David Perkins. First Corporal.
William A. Trulove, Second Corporal.
John Nicholson, Third Corporal.
Benj.\min Smith, Fourth Corporal.
Bledsoe, William M.,
Letcher, Stephen G.,
Russell, John W.,
Michael Davidson, Captain.
John Bright, Lieutenant.
Samuel Engleman, Ensign.
Thomas Owslev, First Sergeant.
Gabriel Hughes, Second Sergeant.
LoTT, HacklEv, Third Sergeant.
Samuel Davidson, Fourth Sergeant.
Joseph Killison, Fifth Sergeant.
Henry OwslEv, First Corporal.
William Craig, Second Corporal.
Amos Ellison, Third Corporal.
James Cook, Fourth Corporal.
Lion, Charles P.,
Abram Miller, Captain.
Alexander Givens, First Lieutenant
Joseph H. Wooleolk, Ensign.
Gabriel LackEV, First Sergeant.
Alexander G.\y, vSecond Sergeant.
George Carter, Third Sergeant.
John TinslEv, I'ourth vSergeant.
Allen Logan, First Corporal.
Thomas Briggs, Second Corporal.
Samuel Murrell, Third Corporal.
John K. Johnson, Fourth Corporal.
Gilbert, John C,
Johnson, William B.,
McCorraack, John S.,
Miller, George S.,
Shacklcford, Bcnnet C,
Richard Davenport, Captain.
Archibald Bilbo, First Lieutenant.
Silas Harlan, Second Lieutenant.
Thomas P. Moore, Third Lieutenant.
Elijah H.\rlen, Ensign.
Samuel McDowell, First Sergeant.
Michael G. YousE, Second Sergeant.
Thomas Chiles, Third Sergeant.
Thompson, Gaines. Fourth Sergeant.
John Glover, Fifth Sergeant.
John Green, First Corporal.
Robert MosEbv, Second Corporal
William Minor, Third Coriioral.
John Harlan, Fourth Cor]Kiral.
Robert Tilford, Fifth Corporal.
George D. RosEny, Sixth Corporal
Banton, David W.,
Crain, Cary A.,
Crutchficld, Benj. F.,
Gordon, Robert T.,
Grimsley, William W.,
Howell, Squire D.,
Humble, Noah M.,
Irvine, William D.,
Johnson, Samuel M.,
Lewis, Robert W.,
Martin, Charles W.,
Mitchell, James P.,
Smith, Harvey A.,
Smock, John B.,
Tadlock, John H.,
■ Taylor, John,
Wilkinson, Merideth G.
Michael Taul, Colonel.
Samuel Wilson, First Major.
Thomas Laughlin, Second Major.
Henry E. Green, Surgeon.
Henry E. Innes, Surgeon's Mate.
WiLLSON Bowman, Adjutant.
William Scott, Quartermaster.
JoN.\THAN Smith, Paymaster.
James Donely, Sergeant-Major.
Edward Dever, Quarterinaster-Sergt.
Mic.vH Taul, Captain.
William Stephens, Lieutenant.
Bartholomew Hayden, Ensign.
Thomas Miller, First Sergeant.
Andrew Evans, Second Sergeant.
Alex.\nder Davis, Third Sergeant.
Silas Shephard, Fourth Sergeant.
John Heav^ens, First Corporal.
David Worsham, Second Corporal.
John Anderson, Third Corporal.
Dempsey WhiTEney, Fourth Corporal.
Hadon, Richard M.,
Newelle, John M.,
Samuel Wilson, Captain.
J..\MES Gholson, Lieutenant.
Samuel Stockton. Ensign.
Philip Alexander, First Sergeant.
William Walthall, Second Sergeant.
Kenian McMullin, Third Sergeant.
Moses J. Lincoln, Fourth Sergeant.
William King, First Corporal.
Aquilla H.\ll, Second CorjKiral.
Tho.mas Hickland, Third Corporal.
Samuel Brown, Fourth Corporal.
Howard, Reuben B.,
King, John E.,
Taylor, James W.,
William Wood, Captain.
Arthur Frogg, Lieutenant.
Hdw.vrd Beck, Ensign.
William H. Talbot, First Sergeant.
Jonathan Smith, Second Sergeant.
Samuel Scott, Third Sergeant.
Solomon Long, Fuurth Sergeant.
James Lackey, First Corporal.
Joseph Bradon, Second Corporal.
Ch.^rlEs Silvers, Third Corporal
James Brents, Fourth Corporal.
Clayton, Beverly W.,
Flower, Charles H.,
Mathews, Lott R.,
Myers, Daniel L.,
Williams, James J.,
Samuel Tate, Captain,
Robert Gilmore, Lieutenant.
Jonathan Smith, Ensign.
Samuel Nevvall, First Sergeant.
William H.avs, Second Sergeant.
Thomas Gibson, Third Sergeant.
RorEbT Cowan, Fourth Sergeant.
St. John, Noah,
Thom.\s Laughlin, Captain.
George W. Craig, First Lieutenant.
Nathaniel D. Moore, Second Lieut.
Joseph Earley, Ensign.
Angus Ross, First Sergeant.
LoTT Pitman, Second Sergeant.
George TyE, Third Sergeant.
Charles Rachhold, Fourth Sergeant.
Thomas Scott, First Corporal.
Jonathan Evans, Second Corporal.
Archib.\ld Zachaway, Third Corporal.
John S. Laughlin, Fourth Corporal.
Campbell, William L.,
Carpenter, Wm. K.,
Cole, David M.,
LaughUn, John D.,
John Calloway, Colonel.
John Arnold, Major.
Philip White, Major.
Benjamin Bridges, Quartermaster.
Benjamin Bridges, Paymaster.
Joshua Norwell, Adjutant.
Robert D. Dawson, Surgeon.
James M. Baxley, Surgeon's Mate
Moses Kirkp.\trick, Second Surgeon's
Gabriel Field, Sergeant-Major.
James Kite, Captain.
Isaac Clark, Lieutenant.
William Cooper, Ensign.
Richard Mills, First Sergeant.
Charles Duncan, Second Sergeant.
Francis W Davis, Third Sergeant.
Jeremy Snyder, Fourth Sergeant.
William Cummins, First Corporal.
James Moore, Second Corporal.
Lewis Miller, Third Corporal.
Chambers, George M.,
Collins, Rezin B.,
Hall, James M.,
Humphries, William C,
Merriwether, David H.,
Smith, Elias B.,
Robinson Graham, Captain.
John Hays, Lieutenant.
John R. Noland, Ensign.
Benjamin B. Johnston, First Sergeant
Edmund Vaughn, Second Sergeant
William J. Phillips, Third Sergeant.
Barnett Arnold, Fourth Sergeant.
Willia.m Owen, First Corporal.
John Woods, Second Corporal.
Benjamin Rarsen, Third Corporal.
William Church, Fourth Corporal.
Hatton, Robert C,
Hughes, James M.,
Irvin, PauHs E.,
McDowell, John A.,
Mitchell, Alexander L
Settles, Bennet G,,
Philip Shirely, Captain.
William Shirely, Lieutenant.
William C McKex'ney, Ensign.
JosHU.\ Gore, First Sergeant.
Willis B.vll.\rd, Second Sergeant.
John H. Ferry, Third Sergeant.
Timothy Gilman, Fourth Sergeant.
James Farnsley, First Corporal.
Sandford, LE\\^s, Second Corporal.
William Stowers, Third Corporal.
Thomas Stewart, Fourth Corporal.
Catt, John C,
Cottenhaur, George L.,
Hollis, WilUam, Jr.,
Woods, John, Jr.,
John C.\LLOW.\y, Captain.
Edward George, Lieutenant.
Benjamin Coons, Ensign.
John Jones, First Sergeant.
"Moses Hogland, Second Sergeant.
William Sublett, Third Sergeant.
Jeremi.\h M. Dupuy, Fourth Sergeant.
Elias DejarnETT, First Corporal.
Archibald Cosby, Second Corporal.
Joseph Weaver, Third Corporal.
N.\thaniel Stephens, Fourth Corporal.
Love, John R.,
Mount, Thomas J.,
Sublett, James (musician),
Samuel Kellev, Captain.
John Shaw, Lieutenant.
Benj.\min Bridges, Ensign.
James Edw.\rds, First Sergeant.
James MayfiEld, Second Sergeant.
George A. Frederick, Third Sergeant.
Robert Stewart, Fourth Sergeant.
Philip Zilhart, First Corporal.
John W. Slaughter, Second Corporal.
Thomas Mayfield, Third Corporal.
Emanuel Stuckey, Fourth Corporal.
Blankenboker, Benj ,
Blankenboker, John H.,
Calloway, Thomas P.,
ElE.azor Heddin, Captain.
WiLLi.AM Hall, Lieutenant.
Andrew Young, Ensign.
Thomas Griffith, First Sergeant.
Henry Farmer, Second Sergeant.
Ale.xander Stewart, Third Sergeant
Ch.\rles Stewart, Fourth Sergeant.
Cyprus Wiley, First Corporal.
Henry Banta, Second Corporal.
Elijah Vand.\riff, Third Corporal.
Green, John, Jr.,
James Simr.u,l, Lieutenant-Colonel.
Thom.^s Johnston, Major.
Benj.\min Log.\n, Major.
William E. Young, Lieut, and Adjutant.
Fielding Winlock, Lieut, and Quarter-
George Gay, Lieutenant.
Robert Thruston, Surgeon.
John Moore, Surgeon's Mate.
Benjamin F. Dupuy, Sergeant-Major.
Nathaniel W. Pope, Quartermaster-
PiERSON Willis, Forage Master.
Fielding Winlock, Paymaster.
John H.\ll, Captain.
Is.\AC Watkins, First Lieutenant.
John M\xEs, Jr., Second Lieutenant.
Alexander Ferguson, Ensign.
Benjamin F. Dupuy, First Sergeant.
MiCAjAH W. Sharpe, Second Sergeant.
James M\xES, Third Sergeant.
William Cardwell, Fourth Sergeant.
Jacob Cardwell, First Corporal.
John Craw'Ford, Second Corporal.
Christopher G. Simpson, Third Corp'l.
John L. Simpson, Fourth Corporal.
Booker, Edward M.,
Dougherty, Joseph, Jr.,
Fore, Peter G.,
Mitchell, Samuel H.,
Nash, Marvel M.,
Roysden, Jesse F.,
Wilcox, George, Sr.,
Wilcox, George, Jr.,
Lock, John D.,
Pendleton, James T.
Warner Ellmore, Captain.
Richard Patterson, First Lieutenant.
Thomas M. Emmerson, Ensign.
Benjamin F. Cook, First Sergeant.
Andrew H. BrownlEE, Second Sergt.
Coalman C. Spiller, Third Sergeant.
Barret White, Fourth Sergeant.
Gabriel N. Buckner, First Corporal.
CoLELV Cowherd, Second Corporal.
John Durham, Third Corporal.
James Harris, Fourth Corporal.
Allen, James J.,
Buckner, James B.,
Cabmess, John M.,
Chisteen, John L.,
Cook, William B.,
Embry, Samuel P.,
Presley C. Smith, Captain.
Martin Harding, Lieutenant.
John Hardin, Ensign.
James WaTkins, First Sergeant.
Owen D. Thomas, Second Sergeant.
Hardin Thomas, Third Sergeant.
Joseph MaTTincly, Fourth Sergeant.
BennET M.vTTIngly, First Corporal.
Elias Russell, Second Corporal.
James Mattingly, Third Corporal.
Joseph Brown, Fourth Corporal.
Jarbor, WiUiam S.,
Lyons, Charles W.,
Summers, John S.,
James S. WhittakER, Captain.
Joseph W. Knight, First Lieutenant.
James L. Holmes, Second Lieutenant,
John Whittaker, Ensign.
William Dugan, First Sergeant.
Joshua Rutlidge, Second Sergeant.
Thomas Wright, Third Sergeant.
John G. Anderson, Fourth Sergeant.
James Figg, Jr., First Corporal.
Woodson, E.vslEy, Second Corporal.
MoNAS Hansborough, Third Corporal.
Robert Anderson, Fourth Corporal
John W. Young, Trumpeter.
Allen, John M.,
Brewer, George W.,
Christian, Martin S.,
Hollis, John P.,
Holt, Thomas B.,
Jones, John W.,
McClelland, Joseph G.;
Pope, Nathaniel W.,
Robinson, John G.,
Sharp, William T.,
Tyler, Robert, Jr.,
Washburn, John B.,
Richard Bennett, Captain.
WiLLi.vM RoBiNsoN; Lieutenant.
Jesse Kennedy, Ensign.
James McBr.wer, First Sergeant.
Samuel McGuire, Second Sergeant.
William Robinson, Third Sergeant
William Hensey, Fourth Sergeant.
Drury Pullam, First Corporal.
John Crockett, Second Corporal.
Nathan Watson, Third Corporal.
Elij.ah Kennedy, Fourth Corporal.
Macey, Gustavus S.,
Major, Thomas P.,
Smart, John C,
Miles, James T.
Samuel Harbison, Captain.
James Ford, Lieutenant.
Thomas Gaither, Second Lieutenant.
John Shannon, Cornet.
George P. Miller, First Sergeant.
William Harbison, Second Sergeant.
John Ford, Third Sergeant.
John Sharp, Fourth Sergeant.
Leroy, Wintsworth, First Corporal.
William Grooms, Second Corporal.
Joseph Duncan, Third Corporal.
William Smith, Fourth Corporal.
Boyd, James P.,
Clifton, William B.,
Finley, William C,
Gibson, John F.,
Hardesty, Henry H.,
Thompson, James C,
Philip Barbour, Lieutenant-Colonel.
John Gorin, Major.
John Barnett, Major.
Thomas Polland, Surgeon.
Horatio D. Gnatkin, Adjutant.
Thomas Boothe, Surgeon's Mate.
Thomas B Lee, Paymaster.
James T. Barbour, Quartermaster.
Lucius Duvall, Sergeant-Major.
John Milroy, Quarterinaster-SergeaiU.
Wii<UAM EwiNG, Captain.
Daniel Hov, Ensign.
Charles J. SublETT, First Sergeant.
J.\mes Davidson, Seconil Sergeant.
Georce Day, Corporal.
Deen, Robert A.,
Funkhouser, Wilson L.,
Young Ewing, Ensign.
Thomas KellEY, Sergeant.
William Appling, Corporal.
McFarlin, Andrew M
Robert E. Yates, Captain.
Robert Sconce, Lieutenant.
Isaac Thom.\s, Ensign.
James B. Sutterville, First Sergeant.
John Vanmeter, Second Sergeant.
Benjamin Keith, First Corporal.
Moses SurroN, Second Corjioral.
Oldham, Daniel D.,
Philip Barbour, Captain.
Daniel Wilson, Lieutenant.
Nevil Lindsev, Ensign.
Andrew Burk, First Sergeant.
Thomas A. Griffin, Second Sergeant.
Barbour, James T.,
Cheatham, Baxter D.,
Gnatkins, Horatio D.,
Mayes, Branch V.,
McClain, Andrew W.,
Richardson, Steven A.,
William Whitsett, Captain.
Robert P. B. Caldwell, First Lieut.
William S. Lofland, Second Lieut.
James McDonald, Ensign.
Solomon Hunter, First Sergeant,
John B. Curd, Second Sergeant.
EzEKiEL Smith, Third Sergeant.
John Williams, Fourth Sergeant.
John Coner, First Corporal.
Lewis Parker, Second Corporal.
John Thomas, Third Corporal.
Hiram Jameson, Fourth Corporal.
Bibb, John B.,
Bigger, John H.,
Cason, Denis B.,
Copland, Lewis W.,
Ewing, John L.,
Kenerly, John W.,
King, John B.,
Lion, James G.,
Nurse, James H.,
Posey, Lane W.,
Taylor, James W..
Duncan, James M.,
Joseph McCloskey. Captain.
John Wooten, Lieutenant.
John Huston, Second Lieutenant.
John Robinson, Ensign.
John Milroy, First Sergeant.
S.\MUEL Pitman, Second Sergeant.
Samuel W.\Tson, Third Sergeant.
Thomas Heady, Fourtli Sergeant.
John Brown, First Corporal.
Stephen M.\y, Second Corporal.
S.\muEL Howard, Third Corporal
Samuel Brown, Fourth Corporal.
Brown, James H.,
Davis, Joseph W.,
Graham, John P.,
Remy, Butler G.,
William R. P.une, Captain.
Richard D. Neale, First Lieutenant.
James Maxev, Second Lieutenant.
Hiram RoundTrEE, Ensign.
John Brewer, First Sergeant.
William Hendricks, Second Sergeant.
William Briggs, Third Sergeant.
James Ford, Fourth Sergeant.
Henry GridER, First Corporal.
John Boyd, Second Corporal.
Shadrick, Hays, Third Corporal.
Thomas Edmonson, Fourth Corporal.
Briggs, James T.,
Cole, Andrew H.,
Donaldson, Lewis G.,
Jones, Robert P.,
McNeal, Pleasant D.,
Neal, Thomas M.,
Ransdall, Charles M.,
Robinson, David H.,
Andrew, Walker, Lieutenant.
John Gorin, Captain.
Charles Harvev, Lieutenant.
Richard Waggoner, Ensign.
Joel Franklin, Orderly Sergeant.
Jesse Berry, Second Sergeant.
Thomas Cooke, Third Sergeant.
William Co.\ts, Fourth Sergeant.
Barker T. Anderson, First Corporal.
John Franklin, Second Corporal.
Samuel Mattox, Third Corporal.
Mahlon Hall, Fourth Corporal.
Fletcher, George W.,
Lowe, Samuel B.,
James Tyler, Captain
Philip Thompson, First Lieutenant.
Benjamin NewTON, Second Lieutenant.
Thomas MosElEv, Ensign.
John Smith, Sergeant.
John Crow, Sergeant.
Mason Wood, Sergeant.
Joseph Garbo, Corporal.
W.\LTER Crow, Corporal.
Jesse Crow, Corporal.
Howell, Mason J.,
Smith, John J.,
Wayne, Henry L.,
William Williams, Culonel.
Jeremiah Stroud, Major.
Lewis Kincheloe, Major,
Stephen Taylor, Surgeon.
John Bennett, Surgeon's Mate.
Archibald Woods, Adjutant.
Matthew Clarke, Paymaster.
James Jones, Quartermaster.
Will R. Ashby, Quartermaster.
Will R. Ashby, Quartermaster-Sergt.
Willis Green, Quartermaster-Sergt
Will C. Barnett, Sergeant-Major.
Benjamin Bayles, Captain.
WiNSLOw Parker, First Lieutenant.
Jambs A. Paxton, Second Lieutenant.
PayTON, B. Key, Ensign.
John P. McKay, Orderly Sergeant.
Arthur Fox, First Sergeant.
William B. Johnston, Second Sergt.
John Samuel, Third Sergeant.
James Campbell, Fourth Sergeant.
Abrah.\m Proctor, Corporal.
Zebulon L. Hart, First Corporal.
Stephen Lasiibrook, Second Corporal.
Christian Shultz, Third Corporal.
George G. Chinn, Fourth Corporal.
Bullock, William G.,
Duke, Thomas M.,
Hoge, Nimrod G.,
Hudson, Bailey W.,
Osborne, Wilson S.,
Stubblefield, George W.,
SiLVANUS Massie, Captain.
Andrew Briscoe, Lieutenant.
Joseph Black, Ensign.
Levi Wiluams, Sergeant.
Lowry, William C,
Lewis Kincheloe, Captain.
Charles F. Wing, Lieutenant.
John Dobvnb, Ensign.
John W. Langlev, Corporal.
Baldwin, Herbert W.,
Culbertson, Robert W.
Graves, John C,
Thomas McJilton, Captain.
Robert Baker, Lieutenant.
Pleasant Parker, Ensign.
Daniel Sybert, Second Sergeant.
William Harris, Third Sergeant.
Isaac M.\rtin, Fourth .Sergeant.
John Seabourne, First Corporal.
Merrit Hubbard, vSecond Corporal.
Archibald Ellison, Third Corporal.
John Casteel, Fourth Corporal.
Love, Granville N.,
> Morris, George,
Johnston Dysart, Captain.
Charles C. Carson, Lieutenant
Joseph Henderson, Ensign.
James Wilson, First Sergeant.
Jacob Frederick, Second Sergeant.
Isiah Ham, Third Sergeant.
Samuel Vance, Fourth Sergeant.
John Bustle, First Corporal.
John Evans, Second Corporal.
George Watkins, Third Corporal.
Is.\ac Dillard, Fourth Corporal.
John C. McWilliams, Captain.
John W. Elliott, Lieutenant.
Richard Gentry, Ensign.
James Scott, First Sergeant.
William Farris, Second Sergeant.
William Elliott, Third Sergeant.
James Blythe, Fourth Sergeant.
Robert Buckner, Corporal.
Barnett, William C,
McClane, Richard W.,
McWilliams, Alex C,
Moran, Barnett C,
Snoddy, Joseph W.,
Richard C. Holder, Captain.
Akchib.vld Woods, Lieutenant.
William Harris, Ensign.
John Hart, First Sergeant.
James A. Cannon, Second Sergeant.
James Barnes, Third Sergeant
Willia.m K.wanaugh, Fourth Sergeant,
Joseph Bralton, First Corporal.
Steward Stevens, Second Corporal.
Willis Green, Third Corporal.
Tarlton Turner, Fourth Corporal.
Ashby, William R.,
Sanford, John D.,
Smith, John Speed,
Woods, Aswell D.,
John H.vydEn, Captain.
William Furnish, Lieutenant.
Jon,\than Hedger, Lieutenant.
D.wid R.\lston, Ensign.
Lewis Conner, First Sergeant.
Noah HalbERT, Second Sergeant.
William Lindsey, Third Sergeant.
G.\rnet Hayden, Fourth .Sergeant,
George Goodnight, First Corporal.
Martin Odour, Second Corporal.
Willia.m Porter, Third Corporal.
William Odour, Fourth Corporal.
Chandler, George R.,
Clark, John R.,
William Berrvman, Captain.
Willis J. Williams, First Lieutenant.
Henry Collins, Ensign.
Travers Dunc.\n, Sergeant.
Samuel Keely, Sergeant.
Joseph Chapman, Sergeant.
J.\MEs Spillman, Sergeant.
James MlCollister, Corporal.
Jesse Kerry, Corporal.
Upsh.\m Martin, Corporal.
Robert Duff, Corporal.
Barnabus Low, Musician.
Martin, Wilham G.,
Ray, James S.,
Wainscot t, Robert,
Henry R. Lewis, Captain
Robert McClure, Lieutenant.
Greenlief Morrell, Ensign.
Alexander Reid, Sergeant.
John Millhollon, Sergeant.
John Golliker, Corporal.
Edmund Kenneda, Corporal.
Anderson, John G.,
ROLL OF CAPTAIN BALTZELL'S COMPANY IN THE
WAR OF 1812
Pursuant to the call of July 31, 1813
George Baltzell, Captain.
Samuel Arnold, Lieutenant.
James Clark, Ensign.
George Si'ROULE, First SerReant.
Rowland Maddison, Second Sergeant.
\ViLLL\M Mavhall, Third Sergeant.
William Fox, Fourth Sergeant.
James Arnold,, First Corporal.
James Holton, Second Corporal.
AitcHiBALD Elliott, Third Corporal.
Nelson R. Jones, Fourth Corporal.
Calhoun, Henry P.,
Chambers, John D.,
Ruble, John R.,
ROLL OF FIELD, STAFF, COMPANY OFFICERS AND
PRIVATES, KENTUCKY MOUNTED INFANTRY,
IN THE WAR OF 1812
Commanded by Colonel Richard M. Johnson
Richard M. Johnson, Colonel.
James Johnson, Lieutenant-Colonel.
Duval Payne, First Major.
David Tompson, Second Major.
James Suggett, Third Major.
Robert M. Ewing, Surgeon.
John C. Rich.\rdson, Mate.
Wilson Coburn, Mate.
Jeremiah A. Matthews, Mate.
Benjamin S. Chambers, Quartermaster.
Jeremiah Kertley, Adjutant.
Samuel Theobalds, J. Advocate.
Garrard Wall, F. Master.
Eli Short, Apt. F. M.
John Dickerson, Sergt. -Major.
LuRENCE Sandford, Quartermaster-
J.AMES Johnson, Paymaster.
Allen A. H.vmilton, Captain.
Joseph Bell, First Lieutenant.
JoHN HoLLiDAY, Second Lieutenant.
Tho.mas EasTERdav, Third Lieutenant.
Benjamin Cr.aig, Lieutenant.
Robert Berry, Ensign.
Robert S. Dougherty, First Sergeant.
James Luster, Second Sergeant.
Joseph Holiday, Third Sergeant.
Thomas Simpson, First Corporal.
WiLLi.\M Snell, Second Corporal.
Dudley Mitchell, Third Corporal.
William Brow.v, Fourth Corporal.
JOH.N Baker, Saddler.
William Bond, Trumpeter.
William Kerr. Blacksmith.
John BrumlEy, Farrier.
Hayden, Blan. B.,
Sneed, Samuel C,
Benjamin Warfield, Captain.
HiNLEY, Roberts, First Lieutenant.
Robert Berry, Ensign.
Abner DepEW, First Lieutenant.
Lewis Reddle, Second Lieutenant.
John Willi.^ms, Third Lieutenant.
Zachariah J.\meson, First Sergeant.
Thomas Rodgers, Second Sergeant.
William Craig, Third Sergeant.
Joseph Blair, Fourth Sergeant.
Jacob Stew.\rt, First Corporal.
Thomas L. M. Justice, Second Corp'l.
WiLLi.^M Moore, Third Corporal.
John Jamiso.n, Fourth Corporal.
John Wells, Artificer.
Cox, Richard H.,
Malories, A. Oba,
Riddle, James, - '
Saide, Eleford Brison,
Todd, James L.,
Terrel, George C,
Thomson, H. D.,
James Coleman, Captain.
John McMillin, First Lieutenant.
Samuel Logan, Second Lieutenant.
William Clarke, Third Lieutenant.
Carter Anderson, Ensign.
HiR.AM Philips, First Sergeant.
William Lamml, Second Sergeant.
John Williams, Third Sergeant.
Thomas Hurd, Fourth Sergeant.
Peter Lewis, First Corporal.
John Mc. Dickson, Second Corporal.
John W. McClEnin, Third Corporal,
James S.N'ELL, Fourth Corporal.
Thomas Cummings, Trumpeter.
Joseph Loan, Saddler.
John Brownsfield, Blacksmith.
Bell, Listen T.,
Endicott, Joseph, Jr.,
Glenn, Turner H.,
Hodge, Charles A,,
Holaday, William S.,
Lemmon, John W ,
Sellers, John F.,
Stern, John W.,
Welch, James H.,
William M. Rice, Captain.
Morgan Bryan, First Lieutenant.
Joseph Thomas, Second Lieutenant.
M.\TTHEW MiLSEV, Third Lieutenant
Elisha Scott, Ensign.
Jonathan ElTis, First Sergeant.
George Scorr, Second Sergeant.
William McKjnsey, Fourth Sergeant.
Jacob Meyers, First Corporal.
Robert Lowden, Second Corporal.
Benjamin MilEy, Third CoqKiral.
Benjamin Ruan, Fourth Corporal.
Bela Cropper, Trumpeter.
Fairley, Joseph F.,
Mitchell, Michael M.,
Wooldgriger, Geo. W.,
Jacob Elliston, Captain.
John B. White, First Lieutenant.
William McGinnis, Second Lieutenant.
Leonard Seays, Third Lieutenant.
Edw.ard Harris, Ensign.
James Decker, First Sergeant.
Major M. Johnson, Second Sergeant.
Richard D. Phillips, Third Sergeant.
Samuel B. Petty, Fourth Sergeant.
Henry McKee, First Corporal.
Hugh McBra\-ers, Second Corporal.
Newman Barn-es, Third Corporal.
PlEas.\nt Oliver, Fourth Corporal.
Joseph Allen, Trumpeter.
Charles Laughter, Artificer.
Colquit, Ranson E.,
Grabb, John A.,
Hackley, James S.,
Mulican, John T.
Preuett, Joel B.,
Rucker, Robert A.,
Slate, William I.,
Samuel R. Combs, Captain.
H. P. Thornton, First Lieutenant.
James H. Hill, Second Lieutenant.
James M. Cogsw'ELL, Third Lieutenant.
Joseph Major, First Sergeant.
William Rout, Second Sergeant.
Jacob LindsEy, Third Sergeant.
William D. Hexry, Fourth Sergeant.
Hen'RV Rush, First Corporal.
WiLLi.\M Lampton, Second Corporal.
L.^RKIN Dawson, Third Corporal.
Richard Awbrav, Fourth Corporal.
William Winn, Fourth Corporal.
John H. Combs, Trumpeter.
Joseph Cockrel, Farrier.
Joseph W.allace, Artificer.
Graham, Joseph W.,
Grimes, John A.,
Howard, George S.,
Howard, Samuel U.,
Jones, John, Sr.,
Jones, John, Jr.,
Kenney, Alexander R.
Lock, WilUam F.,
James Davidson, Captain.
John Lapslev, First Lieutenant.
Hugh W. McKeE, Second Lieutenant.
Wier Tilford, Third Lieutenant.
Robert G. Foster, Ensign.
Francis Clory, First Sergeant.
Andrew LeepER, Second Sergeant.
William Hill, Third Sergeant.
Absalom McKinsev, Fourth Sergeant
Samuel Dodds, First Corporal.
James Hall, Second Corporal.
Gabriel Hugh, Third Corporal.
Thomas Cl-^^rk, Fourth Corporal.
John Run.\lds, Trumpeter.
JON.ATH.\N Levi, Farrier.
Banton, George W.,
Dunwiddie, David C,
Gillett, John S.,
Hall, John B.,
Loid, WiUiam F.,
Power, Andrew L.,
Wiloy, George W.,
Wood, John S.,
Richard Matson, Captain.
Robert Scroggins, First Lieutenant.
■ William McHatton, Second Lieut.
R.\LPH Jacobv, Third Lieutenant.
John Brice, Ensign.
Thomas Stark, First Sergeant.
J.\MES St.\rk, Second Sergeant.
Thomas Delaney, Third Sergeant.
William Kelly, Fourth Sergeant.
Thomas Buckhannon, First Corporal
James LafferTv, Second Corporal.
John Vanderb.\ck, Third Corporal.
John Griggs, Fourth Corporal.
William B. Kincade, Trumpeter.
William F. P.\ge, Saddler.
Thomas Funnell, H. Farrier.
Adam Kokindaffer, Artificer.
Golson, James I.,
Golson, John B.,
Smith, George A.,
Smith, John R.,
Robert B. McAfee, Captain.
John R. Cardwell, First Lieutenant.
David Lillard, Second Lieutenant.
William Sharp, Third Lieutenant.
David Adams, Ensign.
James BrEcki.N'RIDGE, First Sergeant.
John Sprixgate, First Sergeant.
Samuel Crawford, .Second Sergeant.
Mathias Ho.mrav, Third Sergeant.
John Armstrong, Fourth Sergeant.
Simeon Moore, First Corporal.
Stephen Blithe, Second Corporal.
John L. McGinnis, Third Corporal.
IsA.\c Rynerson, Fourth Corpora!.
William CardwELL, Trumpeter.
Washington, Barnes, Trumpeter.
Alexander, James D,,
Armstrong, William, Jr., Bohon, Joseph,
Davis, John S.,
Divine, Thomas H.,
Deen, John L.,
Lockhart, Lewis, Sr.,
Lockhart, Lewis, Jr..
Lions, Stephen, Jr.,
Morrison, Nathaniel S.,
McGinnis, Thomas B.,
Jacob Stucker, Captain.
Thomas Story, First Lieutenant.
WiLLi-VM M.vssiE, Second Lieutenant
Andrew Johxso.x, Third Lieutenant.
Turner Branham, Ensign.
John L Johnson, First Sergeant.
Gabriel Long, Second Sergeant.
Joel Harding, Third Sergeant.
Edgecomb Suggett, Fourth Sergeant.
Thomas Bl.vckbourn, First CorporaL
N-\THANIEL Gray, Second Corporal.
S.«IUEL Benton, Third CorporaL
John Herndon, Fourth CorporaL
Thomas Suggett, Trumpeter.
James Long, Farrier.
George C. Branh.vm, Blacksmith.
Daniel Stephenson, Saddler.
Ficklin, John H.,
Gray, John D.,
Herndon, John S.,
Holeman, Jacob H.,
Mansfield, John L.,
Sutton, James W.,
Sutton, William P.,
Webb, William S.,
Robert Berry, Captain.
Henley, Roberts, First Lieutenant.
J.\MEs Slott, Ensign.
\Vii,i.i.\M Armstrong, Sergeant.
McCown, David, •--'
Benjamin Br.\nh.«i, Captain.
John W. Reading, Captain.
William Griffith, First Lieutenant.
William Mosby, Ensign.
Abraham W.vrE, First Sergeant.
James Bentley, Second Sergeant.
Bradford, Stribling, Third Sergeant.
Louis Dreweard, Fourth Sergeant.
Bruno, John B.,
Lafountain, Ant wain,
Tarlton, Ralph B.,
Valicate, John B.,
Walker, James B.
William Church, Captain.
John Hughev, First Lieutenant.
James Sterman, Ensign.
Israel Jackson, First Sergeant.
Joseph Mocksley, Second Sergeant.
James McCleland, Third Sergeant.
Rice Oliver, First Corporal.
William Stevenson, Trumpeter.
Moses Clinton, Farrier.
Barlow, Thomas H.,
Hood, Moses B.,
Pullian, Blan. B.,
Richardson, John C,
Suttenhill, James B.,
Sacery, John C,
Tuker, Davis O. W.,
John Pavne, Captain.
James W. Coburn, First Lieutenant.
John T. P.\rker, Second Lieutenant.
J.\mEs Ellis, Third Lieutenant.
John R. Chitwood, First Sergeant.
Beverly StubblEfield, Second Sergt.
Joseph Buckley, Third Sergeant.
James Artus, Fourth Sergeant.
William T. Talliaferro, First Corp'l.
William Pepper, Second Corporal.
Mic.vjAH Bland, Third Corporal.
William P. Thomas, ^Fourth Corporal.
Jonathan Stout, Farrier.
David Hickman, Saddler.
Sennet Triplett, Blacksmith.
Bradford, Thomas H.,
Parker, J avis,
Wilson, Augustus A. C.
Adair, John 125
Allen, James 128
Americans in Canada 57
Americans cross the Thames 60
Americans proclaim " Remember the Raisin! " as they rush to battle .... 78
Army as organized in 1813 "
Artus, James 203
Arranging troops for battle ^3
Barbour, Pliilip M^
Barry, William T '35
Battlefield chosen by British ^ i
Battle of Thames, Kentuckians in G i
Brigades and Divisions of Kentuckians 4 '
British oppression in the United Stales ~
British reported in order of battle less than a mile ahead 61
British arms captured 58
British opinion of United States '
Burial of dead friends and foes 9"
Butler, Richard '77
Calloway, John '•♦^
Calloway's words to his men 74
Caldwell, Samuel ' "■♦
Caldwell's brigade faces swamp ^3
Causes of War of 1S12 ■*
Chambers, Benjamin '79
Chiles, David '^^
Crittenden, John J '•*
Crockett, Anthony ' "*
Dudley's defeat at Fort Meigs ^^
Davenport, Richard ^
Declaration of war in 1 8 1 2 7
Donaldson, John ■*"
Early victories and defeats 12
Emmon's account of the pursuit of Proctor not true 97
Eve of battle 5^
Evving, Young i56
First campaign of the war not successful 10
Fleming, John j,.
Forlorn Hope g j
Frenchtowu, battle and victory 18
Harrison, William Henry 121
Harmony between Harrison and Shelby 4 .
Hatfield, Samuel 20^
Henry, William j j 5
Heroes of the Thames' battle no
Horses left at Portage River 4 r
Johnson, Richard M jgy
Johnson's regiment march from Fort Meigs to River Raisin 52
Johnson's men bury skeletons at River Raisin 53
Johnson's regiment march for Canada , 54
Johnson's training of his regiment 54
Johnson's regiment in two battalions charge the enemy 75
Johnson's plan of attack adopted by Harrison 65
Johnson's cavalry dismount and fight afoot 86
Johnson's cavalry carry everything before them 78
Johnson, James J45
Kentuckians sent to river Raisin 17
Kentuckians in battle of the Thames 209
King, John Edward 123
Kind of men who enlisted under Governor Shelby's call 15
King's brigade next to Trotter's 62
Madison's manifesto 3
McDowell, John 15,
Massacre after defeat at the River Raisin 24
March of Americans in Canada 57
McAfee, Robert B 172
Mountjoy, William 154
Naval victory on Lake Erie 49
Norris, John 20^
Officers and privates in battle of the Thames 211
Organization of army in 18 13 11
Order against depredations on enemy's property 4S
Payne, John '74
Payne, DeVall 171
Perry, Oliver Hazard i99
Plan of battle changed at the last moment 73
Position of Americans and British just before the battle 6g
Prisoners, boats, and arms captured 59
Proctor flees from the fight 79
Proctor's baggage captured 101
Proctor pursued by Payne °o
Proctor's successful flight i°o
Regiments of Kentuckians 3^
Reinterred at River Raisin i o^
" Remember the Raisin!" the American battk'-cry 7^
Renick, Henry '5°
River Raisin battle and defeat 20
Shelby, Isaac " '
Shelby and Harrison in harmony 44
Simrall, James *58
Smith, John Speed '76
States for and against the war ^
Suggett, James ^^^
Taliaferro, William T ^°5
Taul, Micah ^^'
Tecumseh killed and Johnson wounded ^7
Tecumseh's death ends the battle ^^
Tecumseh's death and burial 9^
Thames battle, Kentuckians in 2°9
Trotter, George '^^
Trotter's Brigade given front '
Troops move from Portage River to Canada 4^
United States as estimated by British *
Victory and return home
Victories on the sea
Vote in Congress for and against war 9
Walker, George 137
Walk-in-the-water deserted British 58
War declared ini8i2 7
Whitley, William 142
Wickliffe, Charles 130
Williams, William 151
Winchester in command of Kentucky troops 17
Younglove, E^ra 203
ilson ' ^ub rublications ^
• *•»*»•*»•»»»» *^* ********
WITH A LIST OF THE OFFICERS AND PRlVATr-
WHO WON THE VICTORY
* * * * • ****************************
Col. Bennett H. Young
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