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Bt GEORGK J0XE3. Esg. K.A. 



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The subjoined Facsimile of a Note from His Grace the Duke of Wellington, 
written to the late Editor and Publisher of this Work, acknowledging the receipt of 
a copy of a former Edition, will not oidy be of value to the curious in autographs, 
hut form an interesting introduction to this Edition. 

DuKB Street, September 30, 1852. 

•^."^ - . y^ 



The aubjoined Facsimile of a Note from His Grace the Duke of Wellington. 
written to the late £ditor and Publisher of this Work, acknowledging the receipt of 
a copy of a former Edition, will not only be of value to the curious in autographs, 
but form an interesting introduction to this Edition. 

DuKS Stbxet, September 30, 185S. 




The subjoined Facsimile of a Note from His Grace the Duke of Wellington, 
written to the late Editor and Publisher of this Work, acknowledging the receipt of 
a copy of a former Edition, will not only be of value to the curious in autographs, 
-■at form an interesting introduction to this Edition. 

DuKS &rBXEr, September 30, 1852. 


i . 

3 Z^' 


ta *i 


1 u: 

' diVoE^ • 

_'■. ' 





The subjoined Facsimile of a Note from His Grace the Duke of Wellington, 
written to the late Editor and Publisher of this Work, acknowledging the receipt of 
I eop7 of a former Edition, will not only be of value to the curious in autographs, 
liut form an interesting introduction to this Edition. 

DuKX Street, September 30, 1662. 


A Brief Memoir of F.M. the Duke of Wellington, K.G. &c. <bc. 

Memoir of F.M. Prince Bliioher 

Count Bulow 

Memoir of the Emperor Napoleon 

References to and Memoir to explain Crann's Map. 
Description of the Panoramic Sketches. 

P. i-lxxzii 






The first intelligence at Brussels of 

the commencement of hostilities 1 
Ditto in London .... 1 
Haste and preparation of the troops 

to march to battle ... 2 
Unconcerned feeling of the coun- 
try inhabitants contrasted with 
the martial bustle ... 2 
Excellent order of departure of the 

troops 3 

Confidence in their General . 8 

The quietude of Brussels on the 

departure of the troops . 4 

Duke of Wellington and Sir Thomas 

Picton leare Brussels 4 

Various unfounded reports in the 

first moments of suspense 4 

First correct news of the battle at 

Brussels 5 

Terror and suspense relieved . 6 
Highlanders received the first onset 6 
Scared Fille-de-Charabre . . 
Flight of the Belgians ... 7 
Intelligence of the action of Quatre 

Bras 6 

Ferocious character of the war be- 
tween the Prussians and French 8 
Duke of Brunswick killed, and ar- 
rival of his corpse at Brussels . 8 
Airival of the wounded at.Brussels 8 
Retreat of the Duke of Wellington 

upon Waterloo .... 8 
Bliichex's retreat npon Wavre . 8 
Superior generalship of the Duke 

of Wellington .... 9 
Unpopularity of the French in 

Belgium 9 

Disappointment of Buonaparte's 
•efeet friends at Brussels . 9 


Confusion on the road arising from 

panic 10 

Consternation at Antwerp for three 

days 10 

Further flight of the fugitives to 

Holland 11 

Arrival of the news of the Battle 

of Waterloo . . . .11 
Exalted feelings on the occasion . 11 
Description of the field of battle . 12 
Heights occupied by the French . 12 
DiUo by the English ... 12 
Farm of La Haye Sainte .12 

Extent of the field of batde . . 12 
French position, superior . 12 

Waterloo, situation of . .12 

British force, estimate of . .12 
French ditto, ditto . . . 18 
English commanders of corps, divi- 
sions, and brigades, cavalry, and 
infantry . . . . 13, 14 
Abstract of the artillery forces . 14 
Road from Brussels to Genappe . 14 
SoHtary woman in a farm-house 

during the battle 

Most advanced post of the British 

army ..... 

Situation of Gen. Picton's division 

Quarry in front of the British 

position 15 

Mont St. Jean . .15 

La Belle Alliance, where Blucher 

and Wellington met, and where 

Buonaparte cUrected many of his 

operations from .16 

La Haye Sainte, slaughter great 

near this spot . . . .16 
Ch&teau Hougomont, or Gomont . 16 
The conunencement of the action 16 







General Byug's Brigade of Guards 16 
Napoleon and French Imperial 

Guards 16 

Destruction of Hougomont and 

grounds 16 

Appearance of the field of battle . 17 
Standards of the Invincibles taken 17 
Seij. E wart's, of the Scots Greys, 

letter on taking tlie Eagle . .17 
French Eagles highly ornamented IK 
Shaw, of the Horse Guards . . IH 
The fall of Sir W. Ponsonby . 18 

Observator)' . . .19 

Endeavour to persuade the Bel- 
gians to revolt . . . .10 
French promise of plunder at 

Brussels for three days . .10 
The advance of tlie Prussians . 19 
Duke of Wellington at the begin- 
ning of Uie acUon . .10 
Duke of Wellington near being 
taken prisoner . . . .20 
> traita of character . 20 

. 20 








Colonel de Lancy wounded . 
Farm at La Haye Sainte, the scene 

of great contest, given up for 

want of ammimition . 
French reserve . . . • 
Attempts of the enemy to separate 

the British and Prussians . 
Gallant conduct of the 28th Begi- 


French Cuirassiers 

Sir Thomas Picton's division and 


71st Begiment . . , . 
02d Begiment .... 
Graves, or pits of dead . 
Bivouac on the 17th and 18ih of 

June ..... 

Policy of the Duke of Wellington . 
Desperate and final effort of the 

enemy 23 

Arrival of the Prussians . 23 

Impetuous and glorious charge of 

tiie English, and rout of the 

enemy ..... 
Bliicher during the battle 
Meeting of the Duke of Wellington 

and Prince Bliicher . 
Duke of Wellington's emotion in 

crossing the field after the battle 
The day of battle one of sorrow and 

of glory 

Desolation and distressing scene 

of the field and surrounding vil- 
lages, &c. .... 
Humanity of the Belgians 
Merciless barbarity of the French 
Appearance of the field afl«r the 


Boflections upon the rictory 







I^>rd Castlereagh's sentiments, and 
introduction to the private com- 
munications . . . .30 

Letter from an officer to his friend 
in Cumberland, from tlie Camp 
ofClichy 32 

Duchess of Bichmond's ball . . 32 

The retreat to Waterloo covered 
by Lord Uxbridge . . .34 

Buonapario, ha\ing tried the right, 
turned to the left, but unsuc- 
cessful ; retreated with great 
steadiness .... 34 

Buonaparte changed again his plan 
of battle 3.'V 

Three o'clock to eight o'clock the 
"tug of war" .... 35 

Four regiments of the 6th division 
almost destroyed without firing 
a shot 45 

Letter from an officer in the Guards 36 

French Cuirassiers charging two 
German guns at Quatre Bras 38 

Belgian Light Cavaliy stniggle 
with Cuirassiers . , , SH 

Bespect to tlie remains of four 
officers ..... 39 

Brunswickers salamanders . 41 

Mfgor Lloyd of the Artilleiy . 42 

Guards, Duke of Wellington, and 
Imperial French Guards . . 42 

Steadiness of the British troops . 42 

Gallantry and devotion of a French 
officer 42 

English cavalry penetrated the 
French squares . . .42 

liCtter from an officer in the Guards 44 

Battle of Quatre Bras . . .44 

Handsome affair, General Byng 
and Guards . . . .40 

Letter from an officer in the 2d 
Life Guards . . .49 

Duke of Wellington on the charge 
of the Household troops . .51 

Letter from an officer in the Light 
Dragoons 51 

Cruelty of French to prisoners . 51 

Letter from an officer in the 42d 
Regiment 5:? 

Sketch to illustrate the operations 
of the 92d 63 

Letter from an officer in the 92d 
Regiment 54 

Humanity of Scot<*h regiments . 58 

Bivouac near Landrecy after the 
battle 5ft 

An officer in the Royals, battle of 
Quatre Bras .... 5S 

Letter written on the field of battle, 
June 19th 5H 

Letter from Charleroi . . . 00 

from Brussels . .01 

from a German ofticor . Oi 



Idgny and Genappe described 63 

Science and knowledge at critical 
moments of little avail, as im- 
portant results often arise from 
accidental and trifling causes . 64 
Fears of an army its worst opponent 65 
Letter from Prince Saxe Weimar, 

^e day after the battle . 66 

Letter from an officer in the Duke 

of Brunswick's army 68 

French letter from Fleurus . 60 

Duke of Wellington's letter from 

the field of battle . . . 70 
Prince Bliichei's ditto . .71 

— — — to his wife . . .71 
Prassian officer's (of high rank) 

letter 71 

Buonaparte's carriage, equipage, 

&c, capture of . .71 

Contents of ditto described . .71 
Letter attributed to Gentz, from the 

Allied Sovereigns' head-quarters 75 
Restitution of the works of art .77 
Letter by Duke of Wellington to 

Lord Castlereagh . . .78 
Letter by Prince Bliicher to Mufflin 82 
Anecdotes of the Prince of Orange. 
Of a Cumberland regiment of 
Hussars. Of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick's fall. Of a Life Guards- 
man. Of a private of Scotch 
Greys. Of Irish regiments. Of 
Prince Bliicher and the Miller 
at Ligny. Of Frederica M*Mul* 
len Waterloo. Seijeant Graham 
of the Guards. Buonaparte's 
projects. Characters of French 
and Hanoverians discovered after 
the action in field of battle. 
Eagles deposited at Whitehall 82-88 
French officer's interesting account 
of the last campaign of Buona- 
parte, who was an eye-witness 89-116 
Buonaparte's conduct during the 

battle 116 

Anecdote of Captain Elphinstone .118 
La Coste's narrative . .119 

Col. Cheney of the Scotch Greys . 120 
Meeting of the Duke of Welling- 
ton and Lord Uzbridge . .120 
Waterloo since the battle . . 120 
Earl of Uxbridge's heroic firmness 120 
Buonaparte's premature declara- 
tion, Lacken .... 122 

after the battle and at 

Paris 122 

wishing to go to America 126 

letter to the Prince Ke- 

gent 127 

— on board the Bellerophon 127 

Buonaparte and Sir H. Bunbury, 
Lord Lowther, Mr. Lyttleton, 
^tc 100-13(i 




Captain Paget's, and further con- 
versations and remarks by Buo- 
naparte 136 

Buonapaile's passage and arrival 
at St. Helena . . .140 

Field of Waterioo from Mont St. 
Jean, &c. already classic ground 141 

The Forest of Soignies new Via 
Sacra 141 

Field of battle — one month after 
the battle . . . .142 

Duke of Wellington's Dispatch af- 
fords a clear idea of the position 142 

appointed Commander 

on the Continent of Europe . 142 

Prince of Orange takes leave of the 
troops in consequence, by a ge- 
nend order .... 142 

Duke of Wellington assumed the 
command, 11th April . . 143 

■ formed the whole force, 
British, Hanoverian, and Dutch, 
into two corps .... 143 

' regulations for the 
same 143 

Cavalry and Horse Artillery ad- 
mired much in passing through 
the Ketherlands . . .143 

— — ^- thought to be too showy 
to be good .... 143 

Opening of the campaign . 144 

Station of the French corps . .144 

Buonaparte takes Charleroi . .145 

Brussels the head-quarters o tlie 
Duke of Wellington . . . 145 

Forces on the Belgic frontier could 
be collected at any given point in 
twelve hours . % . . 145 

The Prussians occupied the ^- 
maining frontier . 145 

— defended their out-posts 

with great bravery, and stopped 
the enemy's further progress on 
the 15th 146 

Dutch troops in advance on the 
15th 146 

British 5th Division and Duke of 
Brunswick leave Brussels, 2 p.m. 
16th 147 

Bliicher meets the French on the 
16th 147 

Buonaparte reconnoitred Bliicher's 
position . . . . . 147 

French advance in overpowering 
masses 147 

Bliicher finally supports himself . 147 

British arrive at QuatreBras at 
two in the afternoon on the 16th 147 

Guards anivc at four o'clot-k . .148 




The French driven in . . 148 

Arriyal of the whole British force 
at dajlight of 17th . .140 

News of Bliicber's retiring to 
Wavre 149 

English retrograde movement . 149 

Tempestuousda^ and night of 17th 150 

Advance upon Hougomont on the 
18th 151 

Various description of attack dur- 
ing tlie day at Waterloo . 151-156 

Hougomont the material point of 
attention and operation .159 

■ described . .159 

J Jerome Buonaparte com- 
mands the attack .160 

— — , General Byng and rein- 
forcements of Guards . . 162 
, loss at . . , 162 
, or Gomont, the history 
of 163 

Abtoj^kbt Opebationb. 

Commanders of troo^is and brigades 1 65 

Rogers's and Lloyd's brigades at 
Quatre Bras . . .166 

Desertion of a French officer . 167 

Artillery of much use in covering 
the retreat on the 17th . . 167 

For some hours the action was 
chiefly with artillery . . 169 

Capt. Kamsay buried . . 170 

English guns taken and retaken 
repeatedly . . . .169 

Beturas of French artillery taken . 171 

Fire of artillery a£fording repose, 
and confirming the steadiness 
of infantry .... 171 

Every man's a^m raised against 
that of another .... 172 

Ailer tm mingled mass had ebbed 
and flowed, the enemy began to 
give way 173 

Weak point of Hougomont rein- 
forced by other artillery . .174 

Other artillery ordered to the right 
of Sir H. Clinton's position . 1 74 

Ground gradually declined upon 
the crest of our position . .175 

Attacks of the enemy and recep- 
tion particularly described . 175 

Fatigue of the artillery very preat 176 

Rapid advance of the reserve Horse 
Artillery 176 

Brigades under Rogers, Saoilbam, 
and Lloyd, their position . .176 

Capt. Bolton's, afterward Napier's 
brigade ..... 170 

flanking wood at Hou- 
gomont 176 


Capt. Bolton's great exeootion at 
Uie dose of the action . . 177 

Reports of the officers searching 
for the enemy's artilleiy veiy in- 
teresting 179 

Discovery and sufferings of the 
wounded ..... 179 

Returns of Artillery killed and 
wounded, and forces in Belgium 407 

Earl of Uxbridge and Cavalry 
Operations .... 180 

Review at Schendelbeke . . 180 

Debouche on 17th June at Ge- 
nappe 181 

Marquis of Anglesey's Letter to 
the 7th Hussars . . 181 

received his wound . 183 

-^— — happy combinations in 
this nobleman . . . .183 

Sir W. Ponsonby's brigade of ca- 
valry 184 

, fate of . . . . 180 

Letter fVom Seijeant Crichley, lat 
Dragoons 187 

Sir Ormsby Vandeleur's and Sir 
Richard Vivian's brigade of ca- 
valry 188 

Important movement and change 
at the close of the day . . 188 

Letter fVom an officer of 18th 
Hussars ..... 189 

fVom John Marshal, 10th 

Hussars 190 

from an officer, 13th Light 

Dragoons 195 

from an officer . . . 196 

of high rank . . 197 

Infantry 3d Brigade, under M^jor- 
General Adam, in Sir Heniy 
Clinton's division . . . 199 
Letter from John Lewis, 95th 

Regiment . . . .199 

Extract of a letter by an officer in 

Lord Hill's coi-ps . . .202 

Army of Observation . 202 

28th Regiment . . . .203 

General Lord Hill's order of the 

day after the battle . 215 

Anecdotes, Tra-ts, Ac 

Lieutenant Irwin .... 203 
General Picion on 16th . . 204 
Private Fry of the 28tl: seizes an 

Eagle 204 

Lieut. Deare's gallant conduct . 204 
Sir J. Kempt, Sir D^nis Packe, 
Sir P. Belson, and Sir J. Lam- 
bert 204 



Migor (MeDzies) and private 4SSd 
Higluanders .... 205 

Bighland Soldier, 02d . . 205 

Hont St. Jean and its peasant . 206 

Tcffeigner's testiinony of regard for 
Highlanders . . .206 

Migor Mnttlebuiy and 69th Regi- 
ment 206 

FrsDch exasperation at the good 
practice of our artillery . . 207 

Gapt Thoyts wrests an Eagle from 
a French officer . . . 207 

Betom of an officer alter the 
battle 207 

lieut. Tathwell of the Bines seizes 
an Eagle 207 

Officer of the Inniskillings, perilous 
situation 207 

Lient-CoL Dahymple of the 15th 
Hnssars 208 

Horses wounded, or without riders 208 

Oen. Maitland . . . .208 

CoL Colquitt of the Onaids . . 208 

Rose de Gnerre and Gen. Halket . 209 

lient. Morean and La Haye Samte 209 

Waterloo a battle of Giants . . 209 

Hon. Colonel Ponsonby severely 
wounded 209 

fired over by Tirailleurs, 

as their breastwork . . 210 

Seijt. Taylor of the I8th Hussars 
and Cuirassiers . 190 

Last gun fired by the English was 
a French howitzer, by Captain 
Campbell 218 

Duke op Weixdiotok, when he 
received the first news of the 
opening of the Campaign by the 
I^ce of Orange . . 211 

The second courier^s arrival ; dis- 
patches delivered in biJl-room 
at the Duchess of Bichmond's ; 
his momentaiy abstraction while 
making his decision . . . 211 

Cordiality of operations between 
Wellington and Bliicher . .211 

Wellington with Bliicher at the 
win£nill at Ligny, at half-past 
eight o'clock on the 16th . . 212 

WelUng^n's ruse on changing po- 
sidon on the 17th . . 212 

The Duke of Bichmond in the 
field of action . . . .212 

Mr. Whitbread's opinion of the 
Duke of Wellington . . .218 

The Duke of Wellington and God- 
frey of Bouillon . . . 213 

Betreat,— Genappe, — and General 
Duhesme 214 

No water on the field of battle after 
the action 214 

lieutenant-Gen. Lord Hill's ge- 
neral order after the battle . 215 

Anecdotes and particnlars com- 
municated by French officers .216 
Buonaparte on the 17 th at CaiUou 216 
His lodging and breakfast . .216 
General Yandamme wounded . 21 7 
Signs of distress of a brother 
mason by an English officer, and 
French kindness . . .217 
Buonaparte and Grenadiers, nine 

o'clock 217 

Seven officers sent to Grouchy, the 

last only reached . . 218 

Gen. Drouet and Gen. Bourmont . 218 
Extract from Warden's Letters on 
the conversation with Buona- 
parte and his officers respecting 
the battle of Waterloo . 219 

Becital of details by a Belgio officer 220 
Grant to the Prince of Orange . 222 
Anecdote of Lord March . 222 

Emperor of Russia, &c visit to the 

field of Waterloo . .222 
General Count Drouet's account of 
the Campaign, which states a 
5th corps. This account drew 
Marshal Ney's statement for- 
ward 223 

Operations of Grouchy'sooips .228 
De Coster's attested Narrative of 
'Buonaparte during the action, 

&c 280 

Field of battle one month after 

the battle, described . . . 234 
Field of Waterioo in 1850 . . 267 
Duke of Wellington's answer to 

the thanks in Parliament . . 237 
Prince Bliicher's ditto . . .237 
The Speaker's Address to Lord 
Edward Somerset and Sir Henry 
Clinton, with their Keplies . 239 

Fn»T AsinvBBaABT. 

Considerations upon the retom of 
the 18th of June, 1816 . 243 

Anniversary of the day at Windsor, 
Brussels, Ac 246 

Appropriate address and grace to 
Uie soldiers at Windsor .247 

SZCOMD Ahhivxbsabt. 

Waterloo Fund Subscription . 249 
Waterioo Bridge opened . . 251 
C^ebration at Vienna, Hanover, 
Prussia, Brunswick, Ae, . . 255 

The last Waterloo Banquet, 1852 259 




or THE Fallen Heroes. 

Duke of Bmnsvick . . . 272 
Comet Bernard .... 205 
CaptAin W. Buckley . . 2«2 

Major Robert Caimes . . 285 

Colonel Cameron . . .281 

lieat-Colonel Canning . . 288 
Captain Caasan . . .202 

Captain Chambers . .291 

Lieut.>CoIonel Currie . 287 

Captain Carzon .... 288 
Captain Davidson . . 205 

Sir W. Delancy . . . .289 
lieut-Colonel SirF. D'Oyly . . 285 
Colonel Sir H. Ellis .290 

Lieutenant Elwes .... 294 
Colonel Ferrior .... 285 
LieuL-Colonel Bichard Fitzgarald 286 
Lieutenant Foster . .287 

Colonel Fuller . . .205 

Lieutenant Geale .... 293 
Lieut-Colonel Sir A. Gordon . 295 
Migor Graham .... 293 
Captain Gubbins . . .203 

Colonel Hamilton . . .280 

Mfyor Hawlyn .... 287 
Captain Hobhoose .291 

Mi^or Hodge . .282 

Mi^or Howard .... 208 
Lieutenant E. D. Johnson . 287 

Captain J oUifte 
Captain Lind 
Mcgor Lloyd 
Colonel Macara . 
M%jor Madaine 
Lieutenant Magniac 
Lieut* Colonel Miller 
M^jor Packe 
Lieut.-General Sir Thomas 
General Sir W. Ponaonby 
Lieutenant Pym . 
Lieutenant Robe . 
Comet Shuldham 
Mi^or Smyth 
Lieutenant Sqnires 
Lieut-Colonel Stables 
Lieut-Colonel Thomas 
Lieutenant Wightwick 
Captain Windsor . 


. 287 
. 290 
. 294 
. 281 
. 294 
. 290 
. 292 
. 290 
Picton 282 
. 289 
. 293 
. 291 
. 292 
. 293 
. 295 
. 293 
. 291 
. 292 
. 293 

Monumental inscriptions of the 

several Officers— 

Buried in the Church at Waterloo 290 

in the Wood of Soignies . 297 

at Braine-la-Leud . 297 

at Brussels . . .297 

at Hougomont . 297 

at Halle . .298 

German Legion at La Haye Sainte 298 
Sir A. Gordon at La Haye Sainte 296 


Introduction .... 801 

First news in London of the begin- 
ning of hostilities, four o'clock, 
June 20th . . .304 

Bulletin giving the first news of * 
the battles of Quatre Bras and 
Waterloo 304 

Duke of Wellington's account of 
the operations, published by the 
British Government . . . 305 

Hanoverian account, and killed 
and wounded . .310 

The Prince Regent's thanks to do. 
and honours .... 315 

Dutch account of the battles and 
loss 317 I 

Prussian account of the battle of i 

Charleroi 320 ! 

Prussian account of the battle of 
ligny, on the 16th . .321 

of Waterloo on the I8th 323 

Bliicher's thanks to the Prussian 
army 326 

Russian account of the battle . 327 

Austrian ditto .... 329 

Spanish ditto .... 334 

Order of the day, June 20th, and 
Duke of Wellington's regulations 
on the troops entering France . 

Prussians and English in their 
progress to the French capital . 

French proposals for commis- 
sioners to be appointed . 

Abdication of Buonaparte 

Advance to and capture of Paris . 

Convention of Paris 

Entering of the French King 

Austrian, Russian, &c. proclama- 
tioDs, &c. ..... 

Bliicher and Wellington's farewell 
and address to the Mayor and 
inhabitants of Brussels, &c. 

Humanity of the inhabitants at 
Brussels 362 

Prussian address respecting the 
delay of payment of the contri- 
butions 362 

French exactions, 1794 and 1705 . 363 






Prince Regent's message on the 
Duke of Wellington's success . 364 

Thanks of Parliament to the Duke 
ofWelhngton .... :j«4 



Prince Regent's message and 
roeech in Parliament on closing 
the Session, extract . . . 865 

Address to and answer of the City 
of London 366 

Buonaparte's ahdication, and decla- 
ration to the French in favour 
of his son and to the army . 367 

wishes to he received 

under conditions on hoard the 
Bellerophon, Captain Maitland . 860 

received on hoard the 

Bellerophon, &c. . . . 360 

Cessation of hostilities with France 
hy sea 370 

Earl Bathnrst on Buonaparte's fti- 
tare treatment .... 371 

St. Helena, foreign Powers ex- 
cluded from .... 372 

General Buonaparte's arrival at 
St. Helena . .374 


Extract from Buonaparte's mili- 
tary letters, &c. from his leaving 
Paris to join the army . . 375 

Declaration to his soldiers previous 
to his attacking the Prussians . 376 

French position .... 378 

■ official accounts of the 
hattles, &c 370 

Ligny .... 370 

Mont St. Jean . . 382 

General Count Drouet's statement 223 

Ney's observations on the cam- 
paign and on Brouet . . 3H5 

Grouchy's official report after the 
battle of June 18th . .380 

Protocol of the conference between 
the Plenipotentiaries of Austria, 
Russia, Great Britain, Prussia, 
and France, as a basis for a ge- 
neral Peace . 301 

Army of Occupation and the com- 
bined forces of the Allied armies 
who entered France . . 803 


Alphabetical List of killed and 
wounded . . 307-403 

British and Hanoverian effective 
force of each regiment . . 404 

British regimental loss . 404 

Dutch loss 405 

Prussian loss .... 405 

Effective strength of the several 
regiments of the British army on 
the 18th of June . . .406 

Abstract of killed, wounded, and 
missing of the Royal Artillery 
June 16-18 . . .407 

Waterloo honours, privileges, and 
with the Brevet . . .411 

Extracts from the Journals of Par- 
liament of the names of officers 
thanked 400 

— for a national monument 410 

Officers admitted to the military 
Orders of the Allied Sovereigns 412 

Officers admitted to the most 
honourable military Order of 
the Bath 412 

Prince's Order for the Waterloo 
Medal, and for wearing the same 421 

Gen. Sir Charies Colville's Divi- 
sion Order .... 422 

Gen. Sir James Kempt's do. . 422 

Gen. Bloomfield's Letter to brig. 
Artillery 423 

Forty-fourth Regt. 2d bat. honours 
conveyed to the 1st bat. . . 423 

Pensions for losing an eye or limb, 
&c. <fcc 424 

officers' widows, regi- 
mental 424 

officers' widows, staff . 425 

Precedency of Relatives . . 425 

Waterloo Prize Money. — Regula- 
tions for the Waterloo grant . 427 

London merchants' letter, June 
30, 1815, to the Duke of Wel- 
lington, with his Grace's reply 
thereto 427 

Reoisteb of the Names of the 
Officers employed in the Cam- 
paign.^ — Their rank and regi- 
mental order . 431-450 

Alphabetical order, or index to the 
names . 458—475 




The Dnxx of Wkltjnoton, from a bast by Hopper. 
Pbdvcb Blucheb, by Ditto. 

Waterloo Mtial, TUU. 

DetcrifHon. — The medal giyen to the officers and soldiers who were engaged in 
the batde of Waterloo was executed by Mr. T. Wyon, jun. and is of fine silver, and 
weighs one ounce. There is no difference between those presented to the officers 
or to the privates. Around the outer edge is impressed the man's name who 
receives the medal, his rank, and the regiment or corps to which he belongs. On 
the obverse of the medal is the bust of H.R.H. the Prince Regent, with the in- 
scription "George P. Regent." The reverse side bears a figure of Victory, holding 
in her right hand her proper emblem, the palm-branch ; in her left, the olive- 
branch, which indicates peace, as the effect of that glorious achievement, which is 
insciibed on the plinth on which the figure is seated ; and above the figure is 
inscribed the name of the great Commander under whom this victory was gained. 

To the medal is affixed a steel loop and ring, with a short ribbon of crimson 
edged with blue, by which it is attached to the coat of the wearer, over the left 
broiRst. Vide Piinoe's order for wearing the medal, p. 421. 

Map ob Plan A. 

Represents the theatre of war from the north of France to the Straits of Calais, to 
the Rhine, and from Holland to Paris. The blue or green line marits the frontiers 
of France, according to the treaty of Paris, 1814. All the strong places of France 
are distinguished by red, of which there are seventy-six, not comprising Paris, 
but comprehending Chiteau-Thierry, Rheims, Soissons, Laon, and La Fere (lately 

The strong places possessed by the Allies on the Idth of June, marked by 
yellow, are situated between the Rhine and the Mouse. The Allies had only the 
strong fortress of Luxembourg, and from the Meuse to the sea they had three 
ncwly.fortified places, Mons having 18,000 inhabitants, Toumay 22,000, and Ypres 
15,000. Thus the frt>ntiers of the Low Countries, and of Germany to the left 
bank of the Rhine, a length of 110 leagues, had but four fortresses for its defence, 
while France in the same ^ace had more than fifty. 

Map 6 comprehends the whole space of the operations from the 14th to the 
22d of Jane. The blue lines denote the places where the four corps of the army 
of Prussians collected, and their line of advanced posts are marked by the blue 
dots towards the^ Sambre, extending as far as Labbas and Binch ; towards the 
Meuse, to opposite Oivet and Bamain. 

a 2 


Map G and D represents the position and disposition of the English, Prus- 
sian, and French, from Quatre Bras and Ligny. 

Map D. The battle of Ligny at five o'clock. 

Map or Plan E. F. G. 

During the nine hours' battle it would be impossible to describe the blind and 
ferocious courage <rith which the French masses marched upon the English, nor 
the intrepid courage, the persevering and heroic coolness, with which the latter 
awaited, sustained, and repulsed, the reiterated attacks of their enemies. The 
limited space of the combat, the rapidity of the attacks and movements of the dif- 
ferent corps, could not be described in ten plans : every testimony has, however, 
been collected by the Editor ; besides which, the thick smoke of the powder, which 
was prevented from rising above the surface of the earth by a heavy atmosphere, 
scarcely allowed the field of battle to be seen at once. The obscurity was some- 
times so great that the French masses got within twenty paces of the English 
battalions before they were perceived, which rendered their attacks still mora 
dangerous to the English. The movements at three periods, viz. the beginning, 
the middle, and the advance, will be found in the map, E. F. G. Connected wiUi 
the operations at Wavro. 

Plan of the Fixld of Watebloo upon the largest scale, being five inches to 
A KILE. The advantage of this scale must be manifest, as enabling the draftsman 
to give all the minutiae of the operations, as it regards the AUi^s or the enemy, 
pointing out every feature of the ground, first and second positions, and tradnga 
of the movements of the troops, in tlieir several combinations or of retreat. 

This map is accompanied by an Historical Memoir and numerous References, 
that render it the most satisfactory to those who wish every detail. 

The large Historical Map and Plan of the Campaign in 1816 next follows ; size 
twenty-two by twenty-seven inches : and is in itself a complete and detailed repre- 
sentation of the whole of the operations. 


Two large Panoramic Views of the Fteld, drawn immediately after the 

A View of the present State of the Field of Waterloo, with the Monu- 

No. Paf« 

1. *' The Dnke of Wellington having shown the Puke of Bronswiek a letter 

changed his horse, and they set off together" 68 

2. Battlb of Liont. ** It was here a contest began, the most obstinate 

recoided in History" 321 

8. Battle of Lxgnt. ** Marshal Blilcher, stunned by the violent fall, lay 
entangled under his horse" 922 

4. Battle of Quatrb Bbas. ** Sir T. Picton ordering the charge of Sir 

James Kempt's Brigade " 59 

5. Battle of Quatbe Bbas. Sir T. Belson and 28th Begiment *' The 

square remained steady" 203 

6. Battle of Quatbs Bbas. Lieut.-Col. Maoara of the 42d Regiment . 52 

7. Battle of Quatbe Bbas. 7 1st Regiment. " The piper suddenly struck 

up the * Pibroch,' and followed into the thickest of the fight'* . 23 

8. Battle of Quatbe Bbas. " Fall of the Duke of Brunswick" . 69 

9. GuABDB' Officebs. ** The last tribute to the brave " . ,89 

10. '*Mabquis of Akolesey charging on the 17th of June, at the entrance 

into Genappe** 50 

11. The Duke of Welltngton akb his Staff at the commencement of the 

action on the 18th of June 20 

12. Defence of Houoomont. ** Who succeeded in gaining great part of 

the wood" 16 

18. Hougomont. ^ The Artillery officers had the range so accurately, that 

every shot and shell fell into the very centre of their masses" . .152 

U. ** The Duke led on a Brigade, consisting of the 52d and 95th Regi- 
ments'* 35 

15. La Have Sainte. ** Close by a large building, occupied alternately by 

Mend and foe" 178 

16. Watebloo, 2 P.M. *' Left of the British line. Charge of the Royals, 

Oreys, and Inniakilliugs, conducted by the Marquis of Anglesey and 
Sir W. Ponsonby. The body of Oen. Picton, who fell leading on the 
infantiy, is borne from the field. The vUlage of Fricherraont in the 
distance .... ....... 29 

xii ulubtsations. 


17. PoMioiiBT'i Bbioass. "At tliis critical moment, the MerquiB of An* 

gletey galloped up" 185 

18. Miyor-OeD. Sir W. Ponsonby's Brigade ehaiging. '* Tke Greya preserred 

a beantifiil line at apeed. After considerable reaistanoe, the Eaglea 
of the i5th and 105th Regiments were seized" 185 

10. The fill of M^or.Oen. Sir W. Ponaonby, 1LC.B 186 

20. ** French Cuirassiers adTanoed to the month of onr cannon, &c. Three 

o'clock- 85 

21. Singular gallantly of an Officer of the Imperial Guards .42 

22. The Hon. Lient-Col. Ponsonby, 12th Dragoons. ''Ah, Brigand, ta 

* n'ea pas moit done!" 210 

23. LixuT.-OsHBRAL SiB T. PiCTOH fell in the thickest of the fight . 22 

24. The Greys and 92d cheered and huzzaed *" Scotland for ever!" . 57 

25. Corporal Shaw of the Life Guards 18 

26. Sergeant Taylor, 18th Hussars and French CnirassierB, ** Ha! ha!** fto. . 190 

27. Bburswicxxbs Salajiahdsu. OuirassieiB repulsed by a square of 

Bnmswickers 41 

28. < Up, Guards, and at them !" 43 

20. Gbkbbal LoBD Hnx ABD IStr. '^ Drive them back, 13th!" . . .105 

SO. Waterloo, 8 p.m. Right of the British line. The Duke of Wellington 
ordering the general advance, at the time the Enemy's columns were 
repulsed by the Guards, and taken in flank by Gen. Adam's Brigade. 
The wood of Hougomont is on the right, and the Observatory in the 

81. Waterloo, 8 p.k. Centre of the British line. The Marquis of Anglesey, 

on the general advance, directing the Brigades of Cavalry on the right 
of La Haye Sainte. La Belle AlHance, the road to Charieroi, and the 
spires of Planchenoit in the distance 

82. *< Now EVEBT Mak must advabcb !" 188 

83. ^ It was at La Belle Alliance, pierced through and through, they acci- 

dentally met" 24 

84. The retreat at Genappe. - The Duke fell yesterday, and thou shalt also 

bite the dust" 65 






AsTHUB Wellbslet (or, as formerly written, Wesley), the 
fonrtb son of Gburrett Colley Wellesley, Earl of Momington and 
Viscount Wellesley in the peerage of Ireland, by his wife Anne 
Emi, eldest daughter of Arthtu* Viscoiint Dungannon, was bom, 
according to some accounts, at the seat of his ancestors, Dangan 
Castle, county Meath, but most probably in Merrion Street, 
Dublin, on the 1st May, 1769.* His father died in May 1781, 

* The qaestiott of the real birth-day of the Duke would appear settled by the 
testimony of his nrather, as shown by the following letter, communicated to the 
*' Times " of September 21, 1802 :— 

<' Hewrieita Street, Cavendish Square, London^ April 0, 1815. 
*' SzB<— In answer to your inquiry respecting my son, the Duke of Wellington, 
I inform you that he was bom on the 1st of May, 1769. I am much flattered by 
your intention of celebrating his birth-day ; the good- wishes and prayers of worthy, 
respectable persons, I trust, wiU continue to my son the good fortune and success 
that it has hitherto pleased the Almighty to grant him in the service of his king 
and country. * » * » 

*' Amux Mormington." 
" To Mr. Jas. CnthbertBon, 

<< Seaton Mains by Tranent" 

The place of His Grace's birth may be also ascertained by referring to the fol- 
lowing paragraph from the ^ Dublin Mercury " of May 2, 1769, among the births : — 

** In Merrion Street, the Bight Hon. the Countess of Momington of a son.*' 

The only incongruity arises from the fact that in the Registiy of Baptisms in 
St Peter's Church, Dublin, the entry runs thus: — **^ 1769, April 30, Arthur, son of 
the Bight Hon. Karl and Countess of Momington. — J. J. M'Solly, Curate of 
St Peter's.' 

This was probably a clerical error ; no doubt the Duke was christened May 30. 



leaving a numerous family and an embarrassed estate; but he 
left also an amiable widow, to whose wise economy and personal 
instruction her children have been deeply indebted, and who 
lived long to witness the extraordinary glory which attended 

By the death of his father in 1781, the control of his educa- 
tion was entrusted to his mother, who placed him at Eton. He 
was afterwards transferred to the Military College of Angiers, in 
the department of the Maine and Loire, under the direction of the 
celebrated engineer Pignerol, where he finished his military 
education in a manner creditable to his perseverance, but ex- 
hibiting at that time no marked superiority, such as might in after 
years have been looked back to as indicative of future fame. 

On the 7th of March, 1787, he received his first commission 
as Ensign in the 73d Regiment, and on the 25th of December 
following he was promoted to a Lieutenancy in the 76th; in 
January, 1788, he exchanged into the 41st Regiment ; and in 1789, 
on the 25th of June, was appointed to the 12th Light Dragoons ; 
he received a company in the 58th Foot on the 20th September^ 
1791, but in October, 1792, again exchanged to the 18th Light 
Dragoons: he obtained his majority in the 33d Regiment in 
April, 1793, and succeeded to the Lieutenant-colonelcy of that 
regiment on the 30th of September following. In 1764 he was 
employed under Lord Moira in Flanders, and was noticed for the 
coolness with which he, under considerable difficulties, aided in 
covering the retreat of the army. It was near the village of 
Schyudel that he for the first time found himself engaged with 
that army which, in after years, he so successfully and finally 

In the autumn of 1795 he embarked with the 33d Regiment, 
under orders for the West Indies ; but after five weeks' ineffectual 
attempts to get out to sea, the squadron was obliged to return 
to Portsmouth to refit Meanwhile the destination of the 33d 
was changed, and in April, 1796, Colonel Wellesley sailed for the 
East Indies. 

The career of Wellington may now be said to have fairly com- 
menced. Previously, all had been educational He had passed 
successively Eton, Angiers, and the Dykes of Holland, not as 

* The Conntesa died in September 18S1, aged 90. 

IN1)U. ill 

disjointed or separate efforts of education^ but as a continuous 
passing forward of life, from the schoolboy to the cadet, and from 
the cadet, by rapid series of promotions, to a command which 
enabled him to exhibit his individual merit, and which caused liiin 
to look to himself only for aid in moments of danger and difficulty, 
— thus by experience learning that most necessary virtue in a 
commander, decision of character. 

He had passed also unscathed the ordeal of pecuniary difficult 
ties, having been aide-de-camp in the household of the Earl of 
Westmoreland, viceroy uf Ireland ; and the appointment necessi- 
tating a display to which his means were inadequate, he found 
himself embarrassed with debts, which the kindness of his landlord, 
a wealthy bootmaker of Dublin, alone enabled him to arrange ; 
the assistance, timely and generous as it was, did not, as too often 
unfortunately is the case, remain unnoticed or forgotten. The 
young aide-de-camp was enabled in a few years, not only to repay 
the loan, but lived to confer valuable appointments on his humble 
friend and his family. Thus he had learned worldly wisdom, a 
lesson he never forgot in after life. 

India, at the period Colonel Wellesley first landed on its 
shores, was but a shadow of that colossal and powerful dependency 
which now adds its lustre to the British crown ; our empire in the 
East was held by the sword. French influence, which, although 
it had diminished, was still powerftil ; and that power was sys- 
tematically employed against England. The wars from the time 
of Clive to Comwallis had gloriously upheld the dignity of the 
English crown, and the prestige of our invincibility was beginning 
to dawn upon the minds of our Asiatic competitors. Still the 
fame of Hyder, and the skill and impetuosity of his son Tippoo, 
had rendered the tenure of our power in the East entirely de- 
pendent on our maintaining our military supremacy: a single 
battle lost would have united those semi-barbaric rulers in one 
vast league against our dominion, and those who now held aloof, 
or whose mutual jealousies and animosities had been our greatest 
security, would probably, for the time, have united their efforts to 
expel the common foe. Colonel Wellesley arrived at Calcutta in 
February 1797, under the most auspicious aspects. His elder 
brother, the Earl of Momington, had been appointed Governor- 
general of India, and arrived at Calcutta on the 17th of May fol- 

IT LIFE or mSLUNQlOlf . 

lowing. The double-dealiDg and treachery of Tippoo had ren- 
dered hostilities unavoidable, and, after every endeavour which 
the Governor-general had made for the continuance of peace, 
he was compelled to issue a declaration of war in February 
1799. Colonel Wellesley had proceeded to Wallajahbad, where 
he had the superintendence of the troops there collected; 
and upon General Harris taking the command, Colonel Wellesley 
was thanked by a general order for the high state of discipline 
and effectiveness in which he had maintained the troops during 
his temporary command. On the 1st of April die army halted 
within four leagues of Seringapatam. One battle only was fought 
before Tippoo retired within the walls of his capital. It was at the 
village of Mallavelly : Major-general Floyd commanded ; Colonel 
Wellesley distinguished himself greatly, as also did Colonel Cotton, 
who was destined to be his companion in so many fields of glory. At 
the subsequent siege of Seringapatam, Colonel Wellesley had the 
difficult service of driving in the enemy from the strong ground 
which afforded cover for their rocket men ; and upon its capture 
he was appointed governor, and named as one of the commissioners 
who were to dispose of the conquered territories. In this and in 
all the arduous duties of his government. Colonel Wellesley so 
acted as to justify his brother's choice, and to deserve and obtain 
the gratitude of the conquered people. During his command at 
Seringapatam one of those adventurers who have so often sub- 
verted empires and founded dynasties in the East started up. 
Dhoondiah Waugh was the name of this freebooter: he soon 
made himself formidable, and it was necessary to send a force 
against him under Colonel Wellesley. By a rapid movement he 
intercepted Dhoondiah on his march with about 5000 horse; 
Colonel Wellesley had four regiments, which he was obliged 
to form in one line, in order, as nearly as might be, to equal that 
of the enemy in length : they charged with complete success, 
routed, dispersed the enemy, and killed their leader, thus 
effectually completing the object upon which they had been 
sent For*this service Colonel Wellesley received the thanks of 
General Braithwaite, then in command of the forces at Madras, 
and also of the Governor-general in counciL 

On the 29th of April, 1802, he obtained the rank of Major- 
general; and in 1803 was appointed to command the Mahratta 


expedition^ and opened the campaign by a forced Inarch on 
Poonaih, where he arrived on the 20th of ApriL He writes to 
Colonel Close : — ** I marched last night with the cavahy and a 
battalion, and arrived here this day at about two, and the town b 
safe." ..•.** We hftvft marrli^ **^^^ ^^^^ es Since ve ster* 
day morning," — a proof that he had his troops in the highest state 
of efficiency. On the 11th of August the fort of Ahmednuggur 
capitulated, after a brisk cannonade. 

The history of this memorable campaign, which, in all its 
paribs, was ably executed as it was wisely planned, belongs to the 
life of Marquis Wellesley rather than to his brother ; but the 
Duke of Wellington may look back with pride upon the part 
which he performed in it G^eral Wellesley had about 9000 
men in his division ; Colonel Stevenson about 8000. The com- 
bined force of Sdndiah and the Rajah of Berar consisted of 
10,500 regular infantry, commanded by French officers (besides 
irr^olar foot), a well-equipped train of artiDery, exceedmg 100 
guns, and between 30,000 and 40,000 horse. It was of the utmost 
importance to bring their main force to action. When, therefore, 
the two British corps met on the 21st of September, at Badna- 
poor. General WeUesley determined that they should move 
separately towards the enemy, and attack them on the morning of 
the 24tL He took the eastern route, beginning his march on 
the 22d. On the 23d, when he reached Naulnair, he found that 
the enemy were about six miles off, upon the very ground on 
which he himself had intended to encamp. He detenmned to 
attach them, without waiting for Colonel Stevenson ; it was better, 
he thought, to bring them to action with half the army, than let 
them avoid an attack, which they would probably do if he de- 
layed. Moreover, he could not wait for the junction, without 
being himself exposed to that mode of harassing war which bar- 
barous troops are best employed in waging, and which European 
soldiers can least endure — a warfare which, affording to the de- 
fensive party little other stimulus than that of perpetual alarm, 
wears down the spirits as well as the body. In these circumstances 
the boldest counsel was the best ; and Charles XH. did not act 
more boldly at Narva, nor with more signal success. 

The troops had already marched fourteen miles ; a sufficient 
body was left for the protection of the baggage and stores, the 


rest hastened on^ and came in sight of the enemy at one in tlic 
afWnoon. The confederate army was encamped between Kaitna 
and the Juah, two rivers which run nearly parallel toward the 
point of their junction. Their line extended east and west along 
the north bank of the Kaitna; the banks of which being high 
and rocky are not passable for guns^ except at places close to the 
villages. Their right consisted entirely of cavalry, and extended 
to the infantry, which were encamped near Assaye, a forti6ed 
village that has given name to the battla General Wellesley de- 
termined to attack the left, where the guns and infantry were 
])osted, though he had arrived in front of their right ; an attack 
upon tlie vital part of their force he rightly thought would be 
decisive. He passed the Kaitna at a ford beyond their left flank, 
and formed liis infantry in two lines, leaving the cavalry as a 
reserve in a third, and keeping in check a large body of the 
enemy's cavalry by the Peishwah's and Mysore horse. The 
enemy, perceiving his intention, changed the position of their 
infantry and guns, and brought them to bear upon the assailants 
with consununate skill and terrible effect Ofiicers who had made 
several campaigns on the Continent declared that they had never 
seen cannon better served than at Assaye that day. The British 
artillery had opened at a distance of four hundred yards ; 
Greneral Wellesley saw that it could produce little effect against 
the formidable line opposed to it, and that it could not ad- 
vance because so many men and bullocks were disabled. 
Never was promptitude more required, and never w^ it more 
strikingly displayed than throughout the whole of this day^s 
work. He gave orders to leave the guns, and for the whole line 
to move; Lieutenant-colonel Maxwell, with the British horse, 
being instructed to protect the right The 74th Regiment in this 
wing had suffered so umch from the enemy's cannon, that a body 
of Mahratta cavalry ventured to charge it; Colonel Maxwell 
charged them in return, and drove them with great slaughter into 
the Juah. The enemy now, dismayed at the steady advance of 
the British troops, gave way on all sides : they were driven firom 
their guns ; and the British army, pressing on in pursuit, left the 
artillery which they had thus bravely taken, behind them. Tljey 
were not enough in number to secure advantages as they won 
them ; and perhaps, in the heat and exultation of victory, they did 


not recollect that it is a common practice among Indian troops to 
feign death in the hope of escaping it : with this hope many of the 
Mafarattas threw themselves down among the gons, the conquerors 
passed them by, and they, seeing that another hope flashed upon 
them, rose, and turned the guns upon the victorious army. The 
fugitives, perceiving how marvellous a change was thus effected in 
their &vour, rallied, and the battle was to be fought again. 
Colonel Marwell charged their infantry, broke them again, but 
felL Greneral Wellesley with the 7dth, and a regiment of native 
cavalry, once more attacked the formidable artillery, which had 
already made such havoc among his men; his horse was shot 
under him,' but the second attack proved as irresistible* as the 
first, and the field with all the spoil was again his own— no more 
to be contested. 

The loss of the conquerors was severe beyond aQ former 
example in India, a ftill third of the victorious army being killed 
or wounded. Never was any victory gained against so many dis- 
advantages. Superior arms and discipline Have often prevailed 
against as great a numerical difference ; but it would be describing 
the least part of this day's glory to say that the number of the 
enemy were as ten to one : they had disciplined troops in the field 
under European officers, who more than doubled the British 
force ; they had an hundred pieces of cannon, which were served 
with perfect skill, and which the British, without the aid of 
artillery, twice won with the bayonet The victory was de- 
cisive ; about 2000 were left dead upon the field, and twice as 
many more are supposed to have been wounded. Ninety-three 
guns, with many colours, were taken, and the remainder of the 
army fled in dismay. Never had a battle been won against such 
overwhelming odds ; and many cavilled at General Wellesley for 
risking an engagement with so many chances of defeat It is, 
however, doubtftd if he could have avoided an engagement, even 
had he desired it ; and the moral effect which a retrograde move- 
ment would have had, not so much upon his own troops as in the 
ranks of the enemy, renders it obvious that the young general 
exercised a wise discretion in engaging at once. The result 
certainly justifies this conclusion. After some other important 
operations at Asseerghur, Argaum, and Gawilghur, the Rajah 
of Berar concluded a treaty of peace on the 17th of December, 


and Scmdiah submitted; and a similar arrangement was ocxn- 
duded on the 30th of December. General Wellealejr, for his 
part in this memorable campaign, received the first-fimits of 
those honours of which he was one day to reap so abundant a 
harvest A monument in memory of the battle of Assaye was 
erected at Calcutta: the inhabitants of that city presented him 
with a sword; hb own o£5cers with a golden vase:* in ESngland 
the thanks of Parliament were voted him, and he was made a 
Knight Companion of the BatL The people of Seringapatam 
presented to him an address on his return, which, to one who felt 
himself deserving of the feelings which it expressed, must be as 
gratifying as the proudest distinctions. ** They had reposed for five 
years,^ they said, ** under the shadow of his protection : they had 
felt, during his absence in the midst of battles and victory, that his 
care for their wel&re had been extended to them as amply as if no 
other object had occupied his mind ; they were preparing in thdr 
several castes the duties of thanksgiving and of sacrifices to the 
preserving (rod who* had brought him back in safety ; and they 
implored the Grod of all castes and of aQ nations to hear their con- 
stant prayer, whenever greater affairs should call him from them, 
for his health, his glory, and his happiness.'' 

Sir Arthur Wellesley returned to England in 1805, and com- 
manded a brigade in the army imder Lord Cathcart He was 
now, upon the death of Marquis Comwallis, made Colonel of the 
33d Regiment, in which he had served as lieutenant-colonel thir- 
teen years. In 1806 he took his seat in the House of Commons, 
as member for Newport, in the Isle of Wight In the same year 
he married the Honourable Catherine Pakenham, sister to the 
Earl of Longford. In 1807 he was appointed chirf Secretary in 
Ireland under the Duke of Richmond, and Dublin is indebted to 
him for a police. In the summer of this year the expedition sailed 
against Copenhagen, and Sir Arthur again accompanied Lord 
Cathcart Only one action of any importance took place, and in 
that Sir Arthur commanded* This movement deprived the 
Governor of Copenhagen of all hope of relief from the army, and 
accelerated the capitulation. Sir Arthur Wellesley was iqppointed 
to treat : in diplomacy and in war he pursued the same prompt 

* Afterwards changed for a service of plate, embossed with the word 
" Assaye." 


system, and the^ terms were discussed^ settled, and signed the same 

He was soon to be tried in more arduous undertakings. By 
the peace of Tilsit, Buonaparte was left master of the contineDt g! 
Europe, the greater part being actuaOy in his possession, and the 
rest under his control He possessed a more real and absolute 
authority over Germany than the most powerful of her emperors 
had ever been able to obtain. Switzerland, which had in former 
times so gloriously asserted her independence, submitted to call 
him her Protector, received with obedience his oppressive and baiv 
barising edicts, and supplied men to fill up the enormous con- 
sumption of his wars. Holding France, Flanders, and Italy him- 
self, he had established one brother upon the throne of Naples, 
made a second King of Holland, and erected a kingdom in Grer* 
many for a third, with territories taken indiscriminately from his 
foes and his friends. 

He b^an his machinations by calling upon Spain to supply 
him with troops, in virtue of an offensive and defensive alliance 
which Godoy had concluded with the Directory : by these means 
he withdrew fix>m the country the flower of her armies imder the 
Marquis de Romana, and to make sure of them he sent the 
greater part into Denmark. The political drama, of which the 
destruction of the Spanish Bourbons and of the house of Braganza 
was to form the catastrophe, was crowded with intrigues. A 
secret treaty was made with Charles lY. for partitioning Portugal, 
which, small as it is, was to be divided into three kingdoms : one 
for the Prince of the Peace: one for the Queen of Etruria, in 
exchange for an ^hemeral kingdom which Buonaparte had 
created and now took to himself; the third was to remain in 
Ins hands, to be disposed of as might hereafter seem good, or be 
exchanged with Spain for her Pyrenean provinces. While the 
treaty for despoiling the Prince of Brazil was negociating, Buona- 
parte negociated with him also, and required him to renounce his 
old alliance with Great Britain, seize all the British subjects, and 
confiscate the British property in Portugal. The Prince, knowing 
the helpless state of his country, consented to every sacrifice 
except that of his honour and conscience : he gave the English 
notice to d^)art and withdraw their property, and then submitted 
to obey the orders, and be included in the continental system, of 


the universal tyrant Regardless of this, a French army ad- 
vanced by forced marches to seize him in his capital; being 
apprised in time of the secret treaty of Fontainbleau, he made 
his determination known to the British squadron, and embarked with 
all his fiEmiily from Belem : he removed the seat of the Portuguese 
government to its rising empire in South America. The French, 
commanded by Junot, entered Portugal without declaration, cause, 
pretext, or pretence of war : it was proclaimed that they came as 
friends and allies, and the last orders of the Prince were that they 
should be received as such : this he thought the only means of 
preventing them from treating his kingdom as a conquered 
coimtry. As such, however, it was treated. 

Already, under various pretexts, he had filled the Peninsula 
with his troops, — it was to take possession of Portugal, to defend 
the southern coast against the English, to besiege Gibraltar, and 
to invade Morocco. It would be out of place here to pursue the 
detail of events so notorious as the treacherous seizure of St. 
Sebastian, Pampeluna, Figueiras, and Barcelona, the insurrection 
at Aranjuez, the occupation of Madrid by Murat, and the betrayal 
of the whole royal family. 

An expedition was planned, nominally against some part 
of Spanish America — troops were collected at Cork, under the 
command of Sir A* Wellesley, but before they could set sail 
the events of the 2d of May, 1808, altered their destination, 
and changed the fate of Europe. On that day tlie people 
of Madrid, exasperated alike at the treachery by which their 
prince had been kidnapped, and the insolence with which a 
foreign tyrant pretended to set a foreigner and an upstart over 
them, rose against Murat's army. The immediate result was 
the defeat and massacre of the insurgents ; but the effects were 
Ailly answerable to the hopes of the most heroic spirits that were 
stirring in that day's work. Never had the blood of martyrdom 
been more profusely shed, never did that holy seed produce a 
more abundant harvest. The people were mown down by grape- 
shot in the streets; they were bayonetted in their houses, and 
when the slaughter of the contest and of the pursuit had ceased, a 
military tribunal was erected to continue £he butchery with the 
forms of insulted justice. During many succeeding days groups 
of thirty and forty at a time were led to the Prado, the Puerta del 


Sol, the Paerta de S. Vicente, the Church of N. Sefiora de la 
Soledad, — all the most public places of Madrid, — and there shot 
in the presence of their townsmen, their friends, their wives, their 
parents, and their children. 

The impulse of this movement at Madrid was felt like an 
electric shock throughout the whole Peninsula. The Spaniards 
and Portuguese rose simultaneously against their oppressors. 
Without a government, without a leader, without armies, without 
concert, they rose against the most formidable military power 
which had ever yet existed — a power perfectly organised, with all 
its means in readiness, which held the government and the capital 
of both kingdoms in its hand, occupied their fortresses, and was in 
actual possession of both countries. There existed but one nation 
to which they could look for help. Portugal was bound to 
England by ties of intimate and most friendly intercourse, almost 
coeval with her existence as a kingdom. The Spaniards were at 
war with us; but they also knew the English character, and 
called upon Exigland as the natural and sure ally of men enga^ng 
in so just and sacred a cause. '^ Never, indeed," says the eloquent 
Wordsworth, *'was the fellowship of our sentient nature more 
intimately felt, — never was the irresistible power of justice more 
gloriously displayed, than when the British and Spanish nations, 
with an impulse like that of two ancient heroes throwing down 
their weapons and becoming reconciled in the field, cast off at once 
their aversions and enmities and mutually embraced each other to 
solemnise this conversion of love, not by tiie festivities of peace, 
but by combatting side by side, tiux>ugh danger, and under afflic- 
tion, in tiie devotedness of perfect brotherhood." The feelings of 
the British people were forcibly appealed to, and tiiey were uni- 
versally excited. Even party-spirit, which is the bane of the 
British councils and the opprobrimn of tiie British name, even 
that was for a time suspended ; and the general cry was that the 
most speedy and the most vigorous measures should be taken for 
assisting tiie Spaniards and Portuguese in tiie struggle which they 
had so gloriously commenced. 

The expedition at Cork being ready. Sir Artiiur Wellesley was 
ordered to sail for Corunna, to communicate tiiere with tiie junta 
of Galicia, and act as circumstances might direct him. General 
Spencer^ from Gibraltar, would be instructed to join him, and 


further remfbrcemeutB Bmt after him, as fast as they conld be 
fitted out Accordingly Sir Arthur set sail, and on the 20th July 
arrived at G>runna9 where he found tidings of the recent defeat 
which Guesta and Blake had sustained at Medina del Rio Seco. 
It was such a reverse as was to be expected in the outset of such 
a war. The French used their victory cruelly, and committed 
the most atrocious excesses afterwards. This disaster had not 
in the slightest degree dispirited the Galicians : when the English 
offered their assistance, they assured Sir Arthur that they were 
in no need of men, and that his army could nowhere be so 
useftdly employed as in acting against Junot and clearing Por- 
tugal of the enemy. They represented the enemy's force as not 
exceeding 15,000 men, and said that the Portuguese had already 
assembled an army of 10,000 at Porto. 

To Porto the expedition proceeded ; and Sir Arthur, after a 
conference with the Bishop, leaving the transports, went on to 
confer with Admiral Cotton off the Tagus. It was impossible to 
effect a landing there: Mondego Bay, therefore, was chosen, and 
Sir Arthur, having sent instructions to General Spencer to join 
him, met his transports on the 30th. There he received dispatches 
from home, informing him that reinforcements of 5000 men under 
General Ludlow were on their way, and that 10,000 more would 
speedily be sent under Sir John Moore. This general was his 
superior o£Scer ; but the command in chief would be vested in Sir 
Hew Dalrymple, who was to come from Gibraltar, and Sir Harry 
Burrard was to be second in command. There was, however, yet 
time for him to strike the blow before they should arrive to super- 
sede him, and nothing could be more prosperous than the news 
from Spain: the French squadron at Cadiz had been taken 
possession of by the Spaniards, and Dupont, with his whole army, 
made prisoners in Andalusia. Buonaparte had never before re* 
ceived such a blow ; the loss of men, indeed, was easily reparable, 
but the reputation of his armies was wounded, the Invincibles had 
been put to shame, the spell which palsied the nations was broken : 
another such catastrophe might stir Up the north of Europe to 
imitate the glorious example of the Peninsula, and what was to 
preserve Junot from the fiite of Dupont? With this prospect, Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, having been joined by Greneral Splicer, began 
his march from Coimbra towards Lisbon. 


The disposition of the Portogaese was excellent The events 
of their insurrection against the French were little known at the 
time, and have not jet been detailed in any language except their 
own. It was a general and simultaneous movement of the peo^e, 
which, under all circumstances, Sir Arthm: Wellesley thought 
even more extraordinary than that for which the Spaniards de- 
served and obtained universal sympathy and admiration ; it was 
made against £ar greater disadvantages; and while the British 
were on the coast an enemy's detachment was ravaging Alemtejo 
under General Loison, a man who, in an army infamous for its 
excesses, was distinguished for his love of plunder and of blood« 
On the 29th of July he sacked the city of Evora, and in the car- 
nage which ensued, the clergy were marked out as especial objects 
of vengeance, and hunted l£ke wild beasts. Wherever he went 
his soldiers were let loose to bum, to pillage, and to destroy ; but 
these cmdties served to repress the people only while he was 
present, and left them more eager and more insatiate for ven^ 
geance. This spirit was so general, and such precautions were 
taken by the govenunent of Coimbra and Pombal, that the^French 
for a long time obtained little information concemiog the British 
troops. At the first rumour, however, Loison hastened firom 
Alemtajo, and, crossing the river, took a position between Thomar 
and Santarem ; and Laborde, who had the reputation of being the 
best general in that army, with Generals Thomi^res and Brennier 
under him, entered Aloba^a with a strong detachment, and pushed 
his advanced posts as far as Aljubarrota. The enemy were per- 
fectly well acquainted with the country; in these points they were 
always as well informed, as we tiU of late were ignorant They 
fell back as the English advanced, and took post upon the heights 
of BoH^a, a village about two leagues south of Obidos, remarkable 
as the first ground whereon the British and French were opposed 
to each other in the Peninsular war. Laborde had about 5000 
men ; Loison, with an equal force, was expected to join him on the 
evening of the 17th. Sir Arthur Wellesley was informed of this, 
and made Ins attack in the morning. The enemy had chosen his 
ground well; it consisted of narrow passes and strong heights. 
Dispositions were made for turning his left by a column of 1200 
Portuguese, and his right by Major-general Ferguson, who had 
also to watdi the motions of Loison ; but the main attack was 


made boldly upon the front and strength of die position, where the 
principal column, under cover of some olive and cork-trees, was 
enabled to approach and deploy without much loss. The way was 
up ravines, made by the rains, in some places overgrown with 
shrubs, in others impeded with crags, and hitherto only thought 
practicable for goats. The middle pass appeared the least difficult, 
and here the assailants suffered their severest loss : for near the 
top of this pass there was a small opening in the form of a wedge, 
which at the point nearest the English was overgrown with myrtle, 
arbutus, and those other shrubs which render the wildernesses of 
tliis part of Portugal so beautiful. Here the French posted an 
ambush of riflemen, and here Colonel Lake led his regiment, in* 
stead of sending forward to explore the ground as the pass 
opened : the French let half the r^ment enter, and then fired 
upon them when they were in close column. Colonel Lake fell ; 
a severe loss was sustained, but the men pushed forward and won 
the pass. Here the 29th and 9th Regiments found themselves for 
a considerable time unsupported, and the enemy charged them 
thrice with great resolution, but were as often repulsed. The 
skill of the French was indeed as clearly proved that day as their 
inferiority to the British soldiers in those moments when every 
thing depends upon native courage. During a contest which 
began at nine in the morning and was not concluded before five in 
the aflbemoon, they retreated with admirable order from one diffi- 
cult position to another, losing none of the advantages which the 
ground offered, of which it was not the least that the English were 
never able to avail themselves of their nimierical superiority, the 
number actually engaged being far less than that of the enemies 
whom they defeated. They repeatedly attempted to recover what 
they had lost, and when this hope was abandoned they effected 
their retreat in good order ; for as Sir Arthur Wellesley wanted 
cavalry, and troops and cannon could not be brought up the passes 
with the requisite speed, there was no pursuit Our loss was less 
than 500 men killed, wounded, and missing ; tliat of the French 
was supposed to have trebled it, and of their five pieces of cannon 
three taken. The battle, though neither in its scale nor its conse- 
quences of much importance, becomes interesting, as the first in 
this long struggle, and because in this trial the British evinced 
that superiority in what may be termed national courage, which 


they maintained in every engagement from that day till they 
closed their triumphant career before the walls of Toulouse. 

On the same day that the battle of Roli^a was fought, the 
Portuguese by an enterprise, conducted with equal bravery and 
good fortune, recovered the important city of Abrantes, where 
Loison had left a garrison of 200 men. That general, as well as 
Laborde, now fell back to join the main force of the French, 
which Junot was collecting about Torres Vedras. 

Sir Arthur Wellesley meantime was informed that Generals 
Ackland and Anstruther, with their brigades, were off the coast ; 
and he moved to Vimeiro to protect their landing. The larger 
reinforcements under Sir Harry Burrard and Sir John Moore, 
having been delayed by contrary winds, were sixteen days from 
Portsmouth before they made Cape Finisterre : their instructions 
were, not to go to tlie south of Porto without obtaining informar- 
tion. Sir Harry, therefore, removed to tlie Brazen sloop, with 
some of his staff, and leaving the convoy, proceeded first to the 
Douro, then to the Mondego. Here he found letters from Sir 
Arthur, recommending that the troops should land here, and 
march upon Santarem in order to cut off the retreat of the enemy 
in that direction ; but the letter added that they must carry their 
own bread, for the resources of the coimtry were not to be relied 
on. Upon weighing this difficulty, and the possible danger of not 
being in sufficient strength to resist the enemy if they shoidd 
retire with their force upon that point. Sir Harry Burrard deter- 
mined not to follow this advice, and continued his course south* 
ward. This was on the 18th : the next day he obtained intelligence 
of the battle of Rob'ga, and then dispatched an officer to Sir John 
Moore, directing him to land in the Mondego, and proceed accord- 
ing to circumstances and his own judgment Moore accordingly 
reached the Mondego on the 20th, began to disembark, but presently 
he received counter-orders to follow Sir Harry, who had changed his 
mind, and was proceeding to the Maceira, where he arrived on the 
evening of the 20th. While the English troops were thus divided, 
Junot had collected his forces ; he himself, with the advanced guard, 
took post in fix)nt of Torres Vedras, and the main body, imder 
Laborde and Loison, were strongly posted behind the town. They 
covered the country with their cavalry, of which they had about 
1300, and Sir Arthur could only learn that their position was 


very atrongi and their whole strength aasembled there. His own 
plans were speedily formed; Sir Charles Stuart (a man whose 
eminent military talents were never allowed an adequate field 
wherein to display themselves) had carefully surveyed this part 
of the country while he commanded the British troops in Por- 
tngalj for it had not escaped him that upon this ground, in case 
of serious invasion, the kingdom must be won or lost His maps 
and topographical accounts were in Sir Arthur Wellesley's pos- 
session* The French eith» did not understand the advantages 
which the ground offered them, or they believed that a defensive 
system was not practicable on their part, because of the disposition 
of the people. Sir Arthur determined to push his advanced 
guard to Mafira on the following morning, turning the enemy's 
position by tlus movement ; and he then hoped to enter Lisbon 
in pursuit of the retreating enemy. Having laid down this plan, 
and issued orders for putting it in execution on the morrow, he 
heard of Sir Harry's arrival, and going immediately on board 
to communicate with him, he explained his intended measures. 
But the new commander was more impressed with the diffi- 
culties to be encountered, than encouraged by the success which 
had hitherto attended the movements of the army. The strength 
of the enemy's cavaby, and their own want of that important arm 
of war, kept the British troops at present close to their encamp- 
ment ; and the farther they might advance fi:om the ships (upon 
which they depended for bread), the more severely would this 
inferiority be felt The artillery-horses were inefficient; they 
were cast-off cavalry, purchased in Irdand, the old and the blind, 
and the lame; some of them had already died of age, and others, 
thou^ carefully fed, had sunk under what would have been easy 
work for horses in good condition; nearly a sixth part had thus 
perished upon the way, and of those which were left many were 
not worth the forage which they consumed. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the decision which he was now called upon to mske 
appeared to Sir Harry Burrard most serious in its consequences ; 
and should the army be checked in advancing, he thought it 
impossible to calculate the disasters to which it might be exposed. 
He was of opini<m, therefore, that they ought to wait for Sir 
John Moore's division. Sir Arthur represented that at least ten 
days must elapse before these troops could land and become ser- 

TDHEBa xvii 

ylceable ; and that, in the meantime^ the enemj would gain inform 
mation and become better acquainted with their position^ or^ seeing 
their irresolution^ be emboldened to attack. These representations^ 
however, were unavailing; and the orders which Sir Arthur 
WeUesIey had given for advancing on the morrow were conse- 
quent! j countermanded. But a part of his opinion was soon veri- 
fied; for on the following morning the enemj, allowed to choose 
the place, the time, and the manner of attack, made full use of the 
advantage, and brought all their force to bear upon half the British 
army. To a general of less promptitude, or to troops of less deter^ 
mined courage, this would have been fatal ; but on this occasion 
the skill of the general was admirably seconded bj the gallantry 
of officers and men. The intentions of the enemy were divined at 
every movement, troops were moved with the utmost celerity just 
when and where they were needed, and the heart, and the arm, 
and the bayonet, did the rest Wherever the French made the 
attack, they were repelled; wherever they were attacked, they 
gave way. Tet they were brave enemies. One charge which 
they made upon Major-general Ferguson's brigade will long be 
remembered by those who witnessed it ; it was made by the flower 
of the enemy's army with the bayonet: they came resolutely to 
the point of trial, and in one instant their whole line was cut down, 
so decisive was the superiority of British courage when brought to 
this last test Above three hundred of their grenadiers were found 
dead in the line where they had been drawn up. Before the action 
began. Sir Harry Burrard and his staff left the ship; the firing was 
heard as soon as he was on shore, and the armies were hotly engaged 
when he reached the hdghts and found Sir Arthur, who told him 
briefly what measures he had taken for defeating the enemy. The 
*new commander had too just a feeling of honour to interfere, and, 
approving all the dispositions, he desired him to go on with what 
he had so weU begun. But when the French were beaten on the 
left, Sir Arthur went to him, and told him this was the moment to 
advance — the right wing ought to march upon Torres Vedras, and 
the left pursue the beaten enemy. By this movement Junot would 
be cut oflF from the nearest road to Lisbon, and must take a circui- 
tous route by way of Alenquer, dispirited, defeated, and in con- 
fusion. There was plenty of ammimition in the camp for another 
battle, and there were also provisions for twdve days. But neither 


the representatioiis, urged as they were with natural and fitting 
warmth^ nor the victory which was before his eyes, could induce 
the commander to deviate from his former opmion ; and he replied 
that he saw no reason to change his purpose^ the same motives 
which yesterday induced him to wait for reinforcements had still 
the same weight At that moment the enemy were retiring in 
great disorder, and most completely disheartened by their defeat. 
But the irrevocable opportunity was let pass; and Sir Arthur, 
whose sense of military obedience would not aUow him to act upon 
Us own better judgment, concealed the bitterness of his spirit under 
a semblance of levity, and, turning to one of his officers, said, 
'' Well, then, we have nothing to do but to go and shoot red- 
legged partridges r 

On the morning after the battle Sir Hew Dalrymple arrived^ 
The French, perceiving that the British did not profit by the ad- 
vantage they had gained, supposed it would be ea^y to make good 
terms with men who seemed so little to feel their own strength ; 
accordingly they proposed terms, which, perhaps not less to their 
own astonishment than to the wonder and indignation of Great 
Britain, were accepted. By these terms they were to evacuate 
Portugal, and be conveyed to France, with all their arms, artillerj, 
ba^age, and property, then to be at liberty to serve again ; and 
the Russian fleet in the Tagus was to be held in deposit by the 
British till six months after a peace should be concluded between 
England and Russia, when the ships were to be restored, the crews 
being iomiediately to be conveyed home in British vessels. It was 
even agreed that the fleet should leave the Tagus unmolested, bat 
the Admiral, Sir C. Cotton, reftised to ratify such an agreement. 
It is easier to account for the terms of this memorable Convention 
than to justify or excuse them* When the command was in one * 
general in the morning, in a second at night, and in a third on the 
morrow, there could be no singleness of view, and, therefore, no 
steadiness of conduct Sir Hew landed in utter ignorance of die 
state of the army, the enemy, and the country. Sir Harry had 
hardly more knowledge than Sir Hew ; and Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
who alone was acquainted with all circumstances, had seen his 
opinion rejected and overruled at the moment when the tide of 
fortune was at its flood. After seeing so fair an opportunity lost, 
he may easily be supposed to have felt a certain degree of indiffer- 


eace as to subsequent measures^ over which he had no controli 
and for which he was not responsible. 

" And ever since that martial synod met 

Britannia sickens, Cintra ! at thy name ; 

And folks in office at the mention fret, 

And ftdn would blush, if blush they could, for shame. 

How will posterity the deed proclaim ! 

Will not our own and fellow-nations sneer. 

To view these champions cheated of their fame 

By foes in fight o'erthrown, yet victors here, 
Where Seom her finger points through many a coming year f* 

Lord Byron, in the above-quoted lines, admirably describes 
the state of public feeling. Southej says, ^^ An outcry of indigna- 
tion was set up from every part of the kingdom, such as had seldom 
been known before." A Court of Inquiry was held, and Sir Arthur 
WeUesIey returned to England, and furnished to Government many 
details respecting the part he took in the negotiation. He returned 
to his post as Secretary for Ireland, and received, in his place in 
the House of Commons, the thanks of Parliament for his skill and 
gallantry in the battle of V imiero. 

We must take a brief view of the events which occurred in 
Spain during Sir Arthur Wellesley's absence in England. The 
capture of Dupont's army was followed by a series of successes. 
Palafox had driven the French with great loss from Zaragoza, 
after one of the most glorious struggles which has ever been re- 
corded in history. Moncey had been defeated in an attempt to 
seize Yalentia ; and in Catalonia, the French, after vain attempts 
to extend their usurped authority, were confined to the walls of 
Barcelona. A central and superior Junta had been formed, with 
the concurrence of all the local authorities. Joseph Buonaparte^ 
whom his brother had named King of Spain and the Indies, and 
who, in that character, had arrived at Madrid, found it necessary 
to retreat in the course of ten days, taking care in that time to 
plunder the palace and carry off the crown jewels. The legitimate 
govamment was now installed at Aranjuez, and preparations were 
made upon a great scale for completing the work which had been so 
happily and gloriously began. The French had at this time about 
60,000 men in Spain, who occupied a strong country, having the 
Ebro in their front, the river Aragon on their left, and the Bay of 


Biscay on their right Three armies were set on foot bj the 
Spaniards, in the hope of expelling them ; that on the right, or the 
Eastern army as it was called, under Palafox, the deliverer of 
Zaragoza; the central under Castafios, whose deliverance of An- 
dalnsia had rendered him deservedly popular;* and the left, or 
Western army, under Blake, who, for the^reputation which he had 
obtained at the battle of Rio Seco, had been thus promoted. The 
nominal force of these armies was 130,000 men ; but it is not pro- 
bable that they amounted at any time to more than half that num- 
ber. The Spanish army before this revolution had £Edlen into the 
worst state ; and during revolutions discipline is the last thing which 
a soldier learns. Blake, indeed, had 10,000 men with him, who 
with their commander, the Marquis de Romana, had been brought 
off from Denmark by Admiral Keates, in a manner as weU planned 
as it was dexterously executed. These were good troops ; but except 
these, the Spanish armies consisted chiefly of raw levies. The 
ofBcers were equally inexperienced: in the first ebullition of na- 
tional feeling, the local authorities assumed the power of granting 
commissions, and soon abused the power by granting them to their 
friends and dependants, without any reference to capabilities or 
miUtary acquirements. 

One of the reasons assigned by the British generals for granting 
such favourable terms to Junot was, that the British army might 
be able immediately to co-operate witii the Spaniards; one of the 
effects of that Convention was to delay tiiis co-operation, — the 
transports which should have carried the British troops to those 
places where tiiey might have advantageously acted with the 
Spaniards being employed in transporting the French to their 
own country, that they might lose no time in marching to act 
against them I The Convention of Cintra was signed on the 30th 
August ; in August it had been determined tiiat a British army 
should be sent to act in the nortii of Spain, but it was not till the 
6th October that Sir John Moore received his appointment to the 
command, and was ordered to form a junction in Galicia or Leon 
with 15,000 men who were sent to Corufia under Sir David 
Baird. No time was then lost in making the necessary prepara- 

* General Cast4i£os, dnc de Baylen, died at Madrid on the 23d September, 
^852, a few dajs after hia illustrious English oontemporaiy, at the advanced 
age of 00. 

coBUfiA. xxi 

tions; and seeking for the necessary local information; but so mucli 
had already been lost, that Sir John Moore, with his advanced 
guards did not reach Salamanca till the 15 th November. Before 
he entered that city, he heard that the Estramaduran army, or 
army of reserve, nnder Count Belvedere, had been routed at 

Meanwhile the French had not been inactive. Buonaparte had 
collected an enormous armament, advanced rapidly upon Madrid, 
and by the celerity of his movements and the confidence his pre- 
sence inspired, and the unanimity which it imparted to the councils 
of war, prevented the combination which Sir John Moore had 
hoped to effect from taking place, and the English army was 
obliged to make a hasty retreat, abandoning much of its materiel 
on the road, but effecting the same in presence of a much su- 
perior force under Soult, in a manner highly creditable to the 
genius and bravery of its lamented commander. Sir John Moore, 
whose gallant resistance and unfortunate death at Corufia will 
always be remembered by his country with gratitude, with admi- 
ration, and with regret 

It is not the province of the Editor of this memoir to enter 
into the various details of every movement connected with our 
long and finally glorious struggle in the Peninsula; a brief 
sketch of each engagement, with an historical commentary to 
give continuance and connexion to the narrative, must be all that 
can be attempted : those who would foUow the varied movements 
of this exciting history are referred to the pages of Napier and 
Sonihey, whose graphic narratives wiU ftdly repay the time and 
attention necessarily bestowed by the student who wishes to 

..^ . fifc taoW of fl» i.po*„. „».. a„» »™«d. 

The earlier portions of this memoir have been devoted to those 
passages in the history of the Duke of Wellington in which he 
played a subordinate part Sometimes we find him, as it were 
by accident, commanding, with the inspiration and confidence of 
genius, by his wise, or, as some said, hazardous measures, 
** chaining Victory to his chariot wheels ;" at others, checked in 
the moment of success by those superior only in command, who, 
from an overstrained idea of their vast responsibilities, from want 
of capacity to comprehend, or perhaps from a lurking feeling of 


jealotisy at the rising fame of their jtmior^ interposed dieir sn- 
perior authority to prevent the execution of those plans which his 
master-mind only suggested. 

We can now view the career of Sir Arthur Wellesley, no 
longer subject to the influence of inferior minds, and finom this 
point we shall find nothing but a series of victories following one 
after the other in progressive importance, until he finally forced 
the enemy to evacuate the Peninsula at Toulouse. True, at times 
his movements may appear retrogressive, sometimes discouraging ; 
but to those capable of rightly judging each movement was but a 
step towards one fixed object, which, as it became gradually 
revealed, gave fresh confidence to his army and speedily to the 
nation at large, — a confidence which the glorious termination of 
the campaign proved incontestably not to have been misplaced. 

On the 22d (^ April, 1809, Sir Arthur Wellesley returned to 
Lisbon as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in Portugal, 
and on the 6th of July foUowing was made Marshal-general of 
the combined English and Portuguese forces by a decree of the 
Prince Regent of Portugal. 

On the 12th of May he defeated Soult and delivered Oporto, 
where he found a large quantity of French ordnance : he con- 
tinued the pursuit for several days, but foimd it impossible to 
overtake him. Soult lost at least the fourth part of his army, 
with all his artillery and equipments. * Sir Arthur effected a 
junction with the Spanish army under Cuesta, at Oropesa, on the 
20tli of July; but the obstkiacy and self-sufficiency of this ge- 
neral totally prevented the good results which might have re- 
sulted had the united armies been immediately led to the attack. 
Several valuable days were spent in useless discussions and di- 
vided operations; the brilliant opportunity was lost, and the 
French, under Victor, retired leisurely nito positions firom which 
they again, on the 27th, moved to attack the Allied armies near 
Talavera, where Wellesley had strongly posted his troops, with 
his Spanish allies on the right, supported by two heavy batteries : 
but, in spite of these precautions, when the enemy advanced they 
nearly all turned and fled in disorder ; and had not Sir Arthur 
Wellesley immediately ordered some English squadrons to flank 
the main road, the position would have been lost We cannot do 
better than take Sir A. Wellesley's account of this important 

talaykbAm xxm 

battle, as giiren in his despatch to Lord Castlereagh, dated Tala- 
Tera de la Reyna, Julj 29, 1809 :— 

'^ Greneral Guesta followed the ^lemy's march with his armj 
from the Alberche, on the moming of the 24th, as far as Sta. 
Olalla, and pushed forwards his advanced gnard as £Bur as Torrijos. 
For the reasons stated to jour Lordship in my despatch of the 
24th, I moved onlj two divisions of infantry and a brigade of 
cavahy across the Alberche to Gazalegas, under the command of 
Lieuto-general Sh^rooke, with a view to keep up the communi- 
cation between General Guesta and me, and with Sir R. Wilson's 
corps at Escalona. 

*^ It appears that General Venegas had not carried into exe- 
cution that part of the plan of operations which related to his 
corps, and that he was still at Dajmiel, in La Mancha ; and die 
enemy, in the course of the 24th, 25th, and 26th9 collected all his 
forces in this part of Spain, between Torrijos and Toledo, leaving 
but a small corps of 2000 men in that place. This united army 
thus consisted of the corps of Marshal Victor, of that of General 
Sebestiani, and of 7000 or 8000 men, the guards of Joseph 
Buonaparte, and the garrison of Madrid; and it was commanded 
by Joseph Buonaparte, aided by Marshals Jourdan and Victor, 
and by General SebastianL 

^ On the 26th, G-eneral Guesta's advanced guard was at- 
tacked near Torrijos and obliged to fall back ; and the General 
retired with his army on that day to the left bank of the Alberche, 
General Sherbrooke continuing at Gazalegas, and the enemy at 
Sta. Olalla. It was then obvious that the enemy intended to try 
the result of a general action, for which the best position appeared 
to be in the neighbourhood of Talavera; and General Guesta 
having consulted to take up this position on the moming of the 
27th, I ordered General Sherbrooke to retire with his corps to its 
station in the line, leaving General Mackenzie with a division of 
infantry and a brigade of cavalry as an advanced post in the 
wood, on the right of the Alberche, which covered our left flank. 

^ The position taken up by the troops at Talavera extended 
rather more than two miles ; the ground was open upon the left, 
where the British army was stationed; and it was commanded by 
a height, on which was placed en dehelony as the second line, a 
division of infantry under the orders of Major-general HilL 


*' There was a valley between the height, and a range of monnr 
tains still further upon the left, which valley was not at first occu- 
piedf as it was commanded by the height before mentioned ; and 
the range of mountains appeared too distant to have any influence 
on the expected action. 

" The right, consisting of Spanish troops, extended immediately 
in finont of the town of Talavera, down to the Tagus. This part 
of the ground was covered by olive-trees, and much intersected by 
banks and ditches. The high road leading from the bridge over 
the Alberche was defended by a heavy battery in front of a church, 
which was occupied by Spanish infantry. 

''All the avenues of the town were defended in a similar 
manner. The town was occupied, and the remainder of the Spanish 
in£uitry was formed in two lines behind the banks on the road 
which led from the town and the right to the left of our position. 

" In the centre between the two armies there was a commanding 
spot of ground, on which we had commenced to construct a re- 
doubt, with some open ground in its rear. Brigadier-general 
Alexander Campbell was posted at this spot with a division of 
in£uitry, supported in its rear by General Cotton's brigade of 
dragoons and some Spanish cavalry. 

'' At about two o'clock on the 27th, the enemy appeared in 
strength on the left bank of the Alberche, and manifested an inten- 
tion to attack Greneral Mackenzie's division. The attack was made 
before they could be withdrawn; but the troops, consisting of 
General MiKdienzie's and Colonel Donkin's brigades, and (xeneral 
Anson's brigade of cavalry, and supported by General Payne 
with the other four regiments of cavalry in the plain between 
Talavera and the wood, withdrew in good order, but with some 
loss, particularly by the 2d battalion of the 87th Regiment and 
the 2d battalion of the 31st Regiment, in the wood. 

" Upon this occasion the steadiness and discipline of the 45th 
Raiment and the 5th battalion of the 60th Regiment were con- 
spicuous, and I had particular reason for being satisfied with the 
manner in which Major-general Mackenzie withdrew this advanced 

^^ As the day advanced, the enemy appeared in larger numbers 
on the right of the Alberche, and it was obvious that he was ad- 
vancing to a general attack upon the combined armies. General 

Mackenzie continued to &11 back gradoallj upon the left of the 
position of the combined armies^ where he was placed in the second 
line in the rear of the Guards, Colonel Donkin being placed in the 
same situation further upon the left;, in the rear of the King's 
German Legion. 

*' The enemy immediately commenced his attack, in the dusk 
of the evening, by a cannonade upon the left of our position, and 
by an attempt with his cavalry to overthrow the Spanish infieuitry, 
posted, as I have before stated, on the right This attempt entirely 

''Early in the night he pushed a division along the valley 
on the left of the height occupied by General Hill, of which he 
gained a momentary possession ; but Major-general Hill attacked 
it instantly with the bayonet, and regained it This attack was 
repeated in the night, but failed; and again at daylight on the 
morning of the 28th, by two divisions of infantry, and was repulsed 
by Major-general HilL Major-general Hill has reported to me, 
in a particular manner, the conduct of the 29th Regiment, and of 
the 1st battalion of the 48th Regiment, in these different affairs, 
as well as that of Major-general Tilson and Brigadier-general 
R. Stewart We lost many brave officers and soldiers in the 
defence of this important point in our position : among others, I 
cannot avoid mentioning Brigade-major Fordyce and Brigade 
major Grardner; and Major-general Hill was himself wounded, 
but, I am happy to say, but sUghtly. 

'' The defeat of this attanpt was followed, about noon, by a 
general attack with the enemy's whole force upon the whole of 
that part of the position occupied by the British army. 

'' In consequence of the repeated attempts upon the height upon 
our left, by the valley, I had placed two brigades of British cavalry 
in that valley, supported in the rear by the Duque de Albur^ 
querque's division of Spanish cavalry. 

'' The enemy then placed light infantry in the range of moun- 
tains on the left of the valley, which were opposed by a division of 
Spanish infantry, under Lieutenant-general Bassecourt 

'' The general attack b^an by the march of several columns 
of infismtry into the valley, with a view to attack the height occu- 
pied by Major-general Hill. These columns were immediately 
charged by the 1st German Hussars and 23d Light Dragocms, 


tmder Brigftdier^eneral Anson, directed bj Lienlenant-general 
Payne, and supported by Brigadier-general Fane's brigade of 
heavy cavalry ; and although the 23d Dragoons suffered consider- 
able loss, the charge had the effect of preyentiDg the executioii of 
that part of the enemy's plan. 

''At the same time he directed an attack upon Brigadier-general 
Alex. Campbell's position, in the centre of the combined armies 
and on the right of the British. This attack was most success- 
fully repulsed by Brigadier-general Campbell, and supported by 
the King's Regiment of Spanish cavalry, and two battalions of 
Spanish infantry, and Brigadier-general Campbell took the enemy's 
cannon. The Brigadier-general m^itions particularly the conduct 
of the 97th, the 2d battalion of the 7th, and of the 2d battalion <^ 
the 53d Regiments, and I was highly satisfied with the manner in 
which this part of the position was defended. 

'' An attack was also made at the same time upon Lieutenant- 
general Sherbrooke's division, which was in the left and centre of the 
first line of the British army. This attack was most gaUantl j re- 
pulsed by a charge with bayonets by the whole division; but the 
brigade of Guards, which were on the right, having advanced too 
far, they were exposed on their left fiank to the fire of the enemy's 
batteries, and of their retiring columns, and the division was obliged 
to retire towards the original position, under cover of the second 
line of General Cotton's brigade of cavalry, which I moved fix>m 
the centre, and of the 1st battalion of the 48th Regiment I had 
moved this last regiment from its position on the height as soon as I 
observed the advance of the Guards, and it was formed in the plain 
and advanced upon the enemy, and covered the formation of Lieu- 
tenant-general Sherbrooke's division. 

^^ Shortly afiier the repulse of this general attack, in which ap- 
parently all the enemy's troops were emjdoyed, he commenced hia 
retreat across the Alberche, which was conducted in the most 
wgolar order, and was effected during the night, leaving in our 
hands 20 pieces of cannon, ammunition, tumbrils, and some pri- 

'' Your lordship will observe, by the enclosed return, the great 
loss which we have sustained of valuable officers and soldiers in this 
long and hard-fought action with more than double our numbers. 
That of the enemy has been much greater. I have been informed 


that entire brigades of infantrj have been destroyed ; and, indeed, 
the battalions which retreated were much reduced in numbers. 

'^I have particularij to lament the loss of Major-general 
Mackenzie, who had distinguished himself on the 27th, and of 
Brigadier-general Langworth, of the King's German Legion, and 
of Brigade-major Beckett, of the Guards. 

^ Your Lordship will observe that the attacks of the enemy were 
principally, if not entirely, directed against the British troops. The 
Spanish Conunander-in-Chief, his officers and troops, manifested 
every disposition to render us assistance, and those of them who 
were engaged did their duty ; but the ground which they occupied 
was so important, and its fircHit at the same time so difficult, that I 
did not think it proper to urge them to make any movement on 
the left; of the enemy while he was engaged with us. 

^'I have reason to be satbfied with the conduct of all the 
officers and troops. I am much indebted to Lieutenant-general 
Sherbrooke for the assistance I received from him, and for ^ 
manner in which he led on his division to die charge with bay- 
onets ; to Lieutenantrgeneral Payne and the cavalry, particularly 
Brigadier-general Anson's brigade; to Major-generals Hill and 
lUson, Brigadier-generals Alex. Campbell, R. Stewart, and Ca- 
meron, and to the divisions and brigades of in&ntry under their 
command respectively; particularly to the 29th Raiment, com- 
manded by Cdondl White; to the 1st battalion of the 48th, com- 
manded by Colonel Donellan, — afterwards, when that officer was 
wounded, by Major Mid&lemore ; and to the 2d battalion of the 
7th, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Sir W. Myers ; and to the 
2d battalion of the 53d, commanded by Lieutenanlrcolonel Bing- 
ham; to the 97th, commanded by Colonel Lyon; to die 1st 
battalion of detachments, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Bun- 
bury ; to the 2d battalion of the 30th, commanded by Major 
Watson ; the 45th, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Guard; and 
to the 5tfa battalion of the 60th, commanded by Major Davy. 

^ The advance of the brigade of Guards was most gallantly 
conducted by Brigadier-general H. Campbell, and when necessary 
that brigade retired and formed again in die best order. 

'^The artillery under Brigadier-general Howorth was also 
throughout these days of the greatest service ; and I had every 
reason to be satisfied with the assistance I received from the chief 


Engineer, Lieutenant-colonel Fletcher; the Adjutant-general, Bri- 
gadier-general the Hon. C. Stewart; the Quarter-master-general, 
Colonel Murray; and the officers of those departments respec- 
tavdy ; and firom Lieutenant-colonel Bathurst and the officers of my 
personal staff 

'' I also received much assistance from Colonel O'Lawlor, of 
the Spanish service; and from Brigadier-general Wittingham, 
who was wounded in bringing up the two Spanish battalions to the 
assistance of Brigadie]^-general Alex. Campbell." 

Except at Albuera, the French throughout the whole war 
never opposed us so welL There were two causes for this : after 
they had ceased to attack the Spaniards on the right, they brought 
a force twofold in number to bear upon the British army ; and 
they had yet not fairly learnt of what materials that army is made. 
The battle of Coruiia had been represented to them as a victory 
on their part, and that of V imeiro appeared like one by the cour 
vention which followed it They were now beaten to their own 
conviction. The loss on both sides was immense. The English 
lost two Grenends, Mackenzie and Langworth. The total of killed 
and wounded on the British side amounted to 5423. The French 
ore supposed to have lost upwards of 7500. The action was 
fought on the 27th and 28th, and Soult received orders on the 
24th to move upon the rear of the Allies by way of Plasencia. 
His force amounted to little less than 30,000 men. From the 
b^inning of the campaign Sir Arthur knew that this force existed 
in that direction, and was well aware in«what manner it would be 
directed; but he could not spare a detachment to occupy the 
passes against them, and Cuesta, though urged in time to take 
this needful precaution, neglected it till it was too late. Sir Arthur 
now saw that his only course was to retreat across the Tagus, 
before that retreat could be cut off; for he was betwe^i two 
armies each superior to his own, and had seen how little in their 
present state of discipline was to be expected from his allies. The 
bridge of Almaraz had been destroyed ; he crossed, therefore, at 
the Puente del Arzobispo, and took a position which enabled hkn 
to defend the passage at Almaraz and keep open the defiles of 
Deleitosa and Xaraicejo. A plan which Ney had formed of 
occupying those defiles and cutting him off &om Portugal was 
thus defeated, and the French, not thinking it prudent to make 


any farther moyements against such an enemy, turned their efibrts 
against Van^as, who, after a successful defence at Aranjuez, was 
defeated at Ahnonacid: but the French purchased the victory 
with so severe a loss that they were not able to follow up their 
success. For these services, Sir Arthur was created Viscount 
Wellington of Talavera and of Wellington, and Baron Douro, 
of Wellesley, co. Somerset, with a pension of 2000 JL aryear. 

The experiment of co-operating with the Spanish army had 
now been fidrly tried; the want of discipline in the troops, the 
want of capacity in the leaders, and the want of vigour in the 
Government, rendered it impossible to rely upon them for effectual 
assistance. Painful as the determination was to a man like Lord 
Wellington, there was no alternative but to withdraw his army 
to the Portuguese frontier, and there await the march of events, 
while a force was created in Portugal which it was in vain to look 
for in the sister country. The Spanish army under the Due del 
Parque, after some temporary successes, were defeated by Keller- 
man at Alba de Tormes, and Soult obtained a victory at Ocan% 
over the Spaniards under General Aiisaga. 

With these operations ended the year 1809. Preparations 
were made early in the following January by the French, on the 
largest scale, for the final subjugation of Spain, and vast bodies of 
troops were arriving daily at Bayonne on their march to the 
Peninsula. Meanwhile, Wellington had not been idle; for, al- 
though his health had given way under the fatigues and responsi- 
bilities of his position, he, with a foresight never perhaps equalled, 
employed himself in preparing and establishing a chain of fortified 
heights, known as ^e lines of Torres Vedras, the retention of 
which at a later period of the sam^year effectually checked the 
victorious career of the French army, whose successes had been 
excited to such a pitch of confidence, that Massena,in the month of 
June, published at Salamanca a proclamation, in which he promised, 
in less than three months, to drive the English into the seal 

The Government of Spain was at this time in a most wretched 
condition. The Supreme Junta, driven from Seville, took refuge 
on the Island of Leon : a popular outbreak took place ; many of 
the Junta were accused of treason, and some were seized by the 
populace, and narrowly escaped being put to death. Ciudad 
Rodrigo was invested in June 1810 by two corps of the French 


anny under Massena; on the 25ih the besiegers opened their 
fire, and on the lOth of July the place surrendered. The defence 
was honourable to the Spanish arms, it being only a walled town, 
having no outworks. On the 27th the fortress of Almeida sur- 
rendered, and the French under Regnier crossed the Tagus with 
a yiew of turning Wellington's right flank, and occupying the 
road to Lisbon. General Hill anticipated this movement, and^ 
crossing the Tagus, possessed himself of that important road. 

In the advance of the French army towards Busaco it had 
several encounters with the Allied forces; on the 27th of Sep- 
tember they made two desperate attacks on Lord Wellington's 
position, but they were soon driven back, and the loss they sus- 
tained in these attacks was very great Massena's army consisted 
of 68,600 men, in three corps, under Regnier, Ney, and Junot ; 
besides which, he had one division of 7000 men at Benevente, and 
another of 8000 at Astorga. {n full expectation of seeing the 
English fly before him, and perhaps of receiving the crown of 
Portugal for his reward, he ordered his army to provide itself 
with food for seventeen days, expecting that, in that time, Lisbon 
would be their own. This confidence was so strong, that when he 
perceived the English army had taken post upon the Serra de 
Busaco, as if they meant to oppose him there, be said to one of his 
generals, *^ I cannot persuade myself that Lord Wellington wOI 
risk the loss of his r^utation ; but if he does, / have him I To- 
morrow we shall complete the conquest of Portugal, and in a few 
days more I shall drown the Leopard*" The boaster was wofully 
undeceived ; he left nearly 5000 men killed or woimded upon the 
mountains, and he took away as many more disabled, whom he 
left at Coimbra. By an accident, or mistake of counter-orders^ 
Colonel Trant was prevented from occupying in time a circuitous 
and difficult road, by which Massena, after his defeat, turned the 
left of the British position* The error was well redeemed, by the 
manner in which be entered Coimbra immediately aft;er Massena 
left it, captured his wounded and his hospital stores, and cut him 
off from all supplies in that direction. The Allied army, meantime^ 
retreated before the enemy by easy marches, and in perfect order : 
instead of spreading panic by the rapidity of their march, their 
steadiness and admirable discipline inspired the peasantry with 
courage; under their protection the Portuguese removed their 


praperly^ destroyed their mills^ luroke up the bridges, and laid the 
country waste. In this manner Lord Wellington retired within 
the lines of Torres Vedras, and Massena retired towards Alcoentre. 

This formidable position of the Allied army was a line of 
strongly-fortified heights, extending from Altandra on the Tagos 
to Torres Vedras, about thirty miles from Lisbon, and from thence 
to the month of the Sipandro ; behind these were other lines, 
extending £ct>m the[ sea-coast near Mafra to the Tagns. One of 
these lines nearest to Torres Vedras could be defended with 20,000 
men; the other, nearer to Lisbon, by half the number: on these 
were planted an immense power of heavy artillery ; but, besides 
a triple line of drfences, redoubts were raised at Penniche, Obidos, 
&C. on the left of the position. The whole of the coast from 
Yimiero to the mouth of the Tagus was studded by redoubts 
on the right ; the banks of the Tagus were flanked by the 
EngHsb fleet; mines also, ready to be sprung, were formed in 
yarious places; and within this crescent of impregnable forti- 
fications was stored the whole produce of those provinces which 
the Allies had, by their retreat, left open to the enemy, who, ad- 
vancing with blind confidence, found the army unassailable in any 
position, and after a sojourn of little more three months, enduring 
the greatest privati<»is from want of provisions, were finally obliged 
to retreat towards Santarem in January 1811. 

Never was human foresight so successfully exerted; never 
did the cool and undaunted courage of Wellington shine forth 
with greater lustre ; and never had a general more necessity for 
self-reliance and firmness of character than at this eventful period. 
The retreat, necessary and poUtic as it was, at home was magni- 
fied and misrepresented as one continued series of defeats ; the 
Governments with which he was to act thwarted him in every 
way, and, instead of finding support and encouragement fi:om those 
whose cause he so successfully was supporting, envy, jealousy, 
distrust, on every side, surrounded him, and had he not possessed 
that cool, invulnerable courage, which always supported him, his 
favourite mode of reasoning, " I am doing the best that can be 
done under the circumstances,'' would scarcely have enabled him 
to bear up against the accumulation of annoyances which then 
suTounded him. 

the distresses of the Portuguese nation were 


dreadiuL An immense crowd of reAigees were thrown apon the 
humanity of the army for support; numbers died daily from 
actual want 100,0002. was Voted by the British Parliament in 
aid of the distressed Spanish and Portuguese^ and a large sum 
coUected by private subscription. 

The retreat of Massena towards Santarem was so skilfiilly 
managed, that the Allies had expected, and prepared for, an attack. 
To deceive our piquets, and to favour his retreat, he had placed 
figures in uniform, with muskets, in front of his entrenchments. The 
loss ofhis army since his entrance into Portugal is estimated at40,000 
men I On the 5th of March, Grenend Graham defeated the French 
under Victor at Barossa ; and General Beresford, after a partial 
engagement with the enemy at Campo Major, pursued them to the 
gates of Badajos, and took 600 prisoners. In May he formed a junc- 
tion with Blake and Castanos at Albuera,' where he was attacked 
on the 16th by the French army under Soult; and aft»r a severe 
engagement of six hours and a half, in which all the troops con- 
ducted themselves with the utmost gallantry. Sir W. Beresford 
gained the victory. The enemy retired in the night of the 17th, 
leaving 1000 wounded on the field, and two of their generals killed. 

Wellington, with the Allied army, now advanced, crossed the 
CSoa, and undertook the siege of Badajos, but which, from not 
possessing sufiicient force, he was obliged to raise, as also 
Ciudad Rodrigo. Soult, and Marmont who had replaced Mas- 
sena in the command of the French army of Portugal, having 
effected a junction, Wellington retired from Giudad Rodrigo, 
and took up a strong position behind the Guadiana, and 
within the Portuguese frontier defied this united force, which 
he knew could not long be kept together. While Lord Wel- 
lington, acting upon this confidence, baffled, with consummate 
skill, the efforts of an enemy greatly superior in numbers, he was 
secretly preparing again to besiege Ciudad Rodrigo. The first 
business was to restore the works at Almeida, so as to make it a 
secure place of deposit for his artillery and stores. There was a 
possibility that the place might be reduced by blockade; for, 
standing in a hostile country, sixty miles firom the nearest 
French cantonments, supplies could not be thrown in without 
an escort at least equal in number to the blockading force : but 
it was not easy for the French to keep together so large an army 



when they had no magazines. With these views^ as soon as 
Marmont and Soult had separated for want of suppKes, Lord 
Wellington again returned to the Agueda^ and by the middle of 
September Ciudad Rodrigo was so much distressed, that Mar- 
mont, with between 60,000 and 70,000 men, was compelled to 
come to its relief. The Allies retired behind the Coa, and the 
French papers boasted that they would have been driven to the 
lines of Lisbon, if the moment had been come which was fixed for 
that catastrophe ! When that moment should arrive, Marmont was 
to be joined by the army of the south, of whose unbroken force he 
boasted. Lord Wellington had his eye upon that force; and 
General Hill, being detached against a division of 5000 men 
under General Girard, who occupied the cormtry about Caceres, 
surprised them completely, killed above 600, and took above 
1400 prisoners, with the whole of their artillery, baggage, stores, 
&c This was the first act of enterprise that the British had 
attempted* While the French were astonished at the change 
of system in their enemies. General Hill continued to alarm them 
by repeated incursions ; and Lord Wellington, taking advantage 
of a moment when Marmont had detached part of his troops to 
assist Sachet in the conquest of Valencia, brought up his batter- 
ing train against Ciudad Rodrigo, invested it on the 8th January, 
and carried it by storm on the 19th, four days before Marmont 
collected an army at Salamanca, to march to its relief. As soon 
as the place was again rendered tenable, he delivered it to the 
Spaniards, appeared suddenly before Badajoz, invested it once 
more on the 16th March, and in twenty days was master also of 
that strong fortress. Both places were purchased at a heavy 
expense of life; for, owing to the deficiency of our military 
establishment in these important branches, that was accomplished 
by courage which ought to have been effected by art But they 
were both points of the greatest importance; and admirable 
indeed was the skill by which a general, with less than 50,000 
men, was enabled thus to take two fortresses of such magnitude, 
in spite of two French armies amounting to more than fourscore 
thousand men. The tide of fortune had turned ; Buonaparte was 
at this time preparing for a war in Russia ; another breathing-time 
was given to Spain; and England now began to feel her own 
strength, and to glory in her army and her general 




The Spaniards were now so sensible of Lord Wellington's ser- 
vices that they created him Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo^ and named 
him Commander-in-chief of their armies. But this appointment 
added little to his actual means. The character of the Spaniards, 
such as it appears in history, had been strikingly exemplified 
during this war ; nothing could subdue the spirit of the people, 
nothing could teach wisdom to their rulers. The Cortes, from 
which so much had been hoped, wasted their time in metaphysical 
discussions. Little or nothing was done to improve their armies, 
and Lord Wellington had only his own troops and the Portuguese 
to rely upon ; the latter, indeed, inlly equal to any service which 
might be required &om them, but both too few in number for the 
great opportunity which was presented. The first object was to 
impede the communication between Soult and Marmont, now 
carried on by a bridge of boats established in place of the fine 
bridge at Almaraz. This was defended by formidable works on 
both sides of the river. General Hill, with his usual ability, 
siurprised and destroyed them in May, and in June Lord Wel- 
lington advanced from the Agueda to Salamanca, took the forts 
which the French had constructed at that city, maJcing 800 
prisoners, and pursued Marmont to the Doura Marmont con- 
centrated his force on the right bank between Polios and Torde- 
sillas, having possession of all the bridges, and here he was joined 
by Bonnet's army firom Asturias, giving him a considerable supe- 
riority over Lord Wellington, who then found it necessary to 
retreat On the 21st of July the whole of the Allied forces were 
assembled on the Tormes; the evening was overcast, and a 
thunder-storm began as the enemy took up their position; the 
whole sky was kindled with almost continuous lightnings, and in 
spite of heavy rain the enemy's fires were seen along their line. 
The two armies were now drawn up near Salamanca on opposite 
rising groimds, the French having their left and the Allies their 
right, each upon one of two remarkable rocky points called the 
two Arapiles. Here the French general, who, confiding in his 
superior numbers, was determined to bring the Allies to action, 
extended his left, in order to turn the right of their position, and 
interpose between them and Ciudad Rodriga Lord Wellington 
was at dinner when he was informed of this movement ; he saw at 
once the advantage which had been given ; he rose in such haste 


as to overturn die table, exclaimed that ** Marmont's good genius 
had forsaken him," and in an instant was on horseback, issuing 
those orders which won the battle of Salamanca. He attacked 
the French immediately where they had thus weakened them- 
selves, and overthrew their whole army from their left to their 
right, taking 7000 prisoners, eleven guns, and two eagles. Mar- 
mont lost an arm in the action, and nothing but the coming on of 
m'ght saved his army from total destruction. This was the most 
severe defeat which they had yet sustained, and the most humili- 
ating. Hitherto we had been satisfied with repelling their attacks 
and remaining masters of the field of battle : Lord Wellington 
now drove them before him; he followed them to Valladolid, 
then leaving the pursuit, re-crosscd the Douro and moved upon 
the capital The intruder took flight for the second time from 
that city, and 1700 men who were leflt in the Redro surrendered 
to the British arms. 

This was a bold movement : the Allied army did not exceed 
50,000 men, and the enemy had armies on all sides amounting 
to more than thrice that number. Against these there was 
to be taken into the accoimt a hostile population, wh(Hn it was 
everywhere necessary to keep down by force; and numerous 
bodies of guerrillas, who waged upon the invaders a consuming 
and disheart^oing war. Something Lord Wellington calculated 
upon — a Spanish army in the south under Ballasteros, a man of 
admirable activity and courage : and he relied still more upon a 
diversion in Catalonia, where a British army from Sicily was to 
land to co-operate with the Catalans, whom Great Britain had too 
long suffered to struggle without support ; they, of all the Spaniards^ 
having made the greatest efforts, and received the least assistance. 
But Ballasteros carried with him through all stages of his military 
progress the habits of insubordination which he had learnt as a 
smuggler; and being instigated by some of those persons who 
were blindly and obstinately jealous of the' British influence in 
Spain, he refused to obey Lord Wellington's orders at the most 
critical moment, saying, he should not think himself worthy to be 
called an Arragonese if he could thus consent to tarnish the 
honour of the Spanish army. The Regency immediately removed 
him from the command, aiid sent him into exile; but the evil 
was done: and Soult, who, in consequence of the advance upon 


Madrid, had broken up the long-protracted siege of Cadiz, aban- 
doned Seville, and evacuated the whole of Andalusia, was thus 
enabled to make his retreat unmolested, and prepare with a 
formidaUe force to act against Lford Wellington. The hopes of 
co-operation from the Sicilian army were not less cruelly dis- 
appointed ; that army was not strong enough to land in Catalonia, 
it proceeded therefore to Alicante, and thereby enabling the 
Spanish army in that quarter again to come forward, prevented 
Suchet from moving upon Madrid ; this was as much as so weak 
a force could do, but much more was required at such a crisis. 
There was yet another point to which Lord Wellington might 
look for support : the resources of Gralicia had never been called 
forth since the French were driven out in 1809 ; it was said that 
an army of 25,000 men was ready to act with him from thence, 
and able to make a stand if they were put in possession of Burgos. 
Marmont's army, now refitted under General Clausel, and amount- 
ing to 25,000 men, was advancing in this direction, and Lord 
Wellington judged it best to march against this part of the enemy's 
force, and obtain possession of Burgos, leaving half his army under 
Sir Rowland Hill, to observe the movements of Soult from the 

The castle of Burgos is an old building which the French had 
fitted for defence. These irregular fortifications are sometimes far 
stronger than they appear, «id besieging armies have often 
suffered for estimating them too cheaply. Lord Wellington in- 
vested it on the 19th September; three 18-pounders and five 24- 
pounder irpn howitzers were the whole of his artillery ; but after 
what had been done at Rodrigo and at Badajoz it was supposed 
that nothing could resist the assault of British soldiers. There 
are situations in which no courage, however enterprising and 
desperate, can compensate for the want of science ; the siege was 
undertaken almost without means of any kind, and the men, after 
failing in their first attempt, lost heart ; they saw that the proper 
means were wanting, and that they were opposing bayonets and 
flesh and blood against artillery and stone walls. Anmiunition 
also failed, and it was necessary to wait for a supply frx>m St 
Andero : thus operations were protracted till Soult, with a supe- 
rior force, began to threaten Sir Rowland Hill, and Clausel, 
having been strongly reinforced, was able to act on the offensive. 


The siege was then raised^ after nearly five weeks* perseverance 
and the loss of 2000 men. It was necessary also to retire from 
Madrid. Sir Rowland Hill fell back and joined Lord Wellington 
on the retreat, and the French armies, to the amount of 80,000 
foot and 10,000 horse, formed their junction also in pursuit, upon 
the Tonnes ; the Allies not exceeding 50,000, of which 9000 were 
cavalry. If a victory had been gained against such odds, it could 
not be pursued; the retreat was therefore continued to Ciudad 
Rodrigo, and the campaign of 1812 was thus closed. As far as 
the ccnmianders were concerned, the retreat was made with 
excellent skilL "None," said Lord Wellington, **was ever 
known in which the troops made such short marches; none on 
which they made such long and repeated halts ; none in which the 
retreating armies were so little pressed on their rear by the enemy. 
The army met with no disaster, it suffered no privations but such 
as might have been prevented by due care on the part of the 
officers, and no hardships but what unavoidably arose from the 
inclemency of the weather. ** " For my part," said Marquis Wel- 
lesley, speaking in Parliament with becoming pride of his brother's 
conduct, — " for my part, were I called upon to give my impartial 
testimony of the merits of your great general, I confess before 
Heaven I would not select his victories, brilliant as they are : — I 
would go to the moments when difficulties pressed on him, — when 
he had but the choice of extremities, — when he was overhung by 
superior strength I It is to his retreats that I would go for the 
proudest and most undoubted evidence of his ability I" But though 
this praise (and it is the highest which a general can acquire) was 
perfectly deserved, the ill effects of the repulse at Burgos were 
lamentably apparent in the retreat, and the soldiers became so 
insubordinate as to call forth a severe reprehension from the com- 

Mortifying as it was thus to have retreated, and deeply painAil 
as it was to retire from Madrid, where the people had welcomed 
their deliverers with such enthusiastic joy, yet the campaign was 
productive of the most beneficial consequences. The only two 
fortresses which enabled the enemy to threaten Portugal had been 
wrested from him, a number of his troops, nearly equal to that of 
the whole Allied army, had been destroyed, and the whole south 
of Spain delivered. The honours and rewards which Lord Wei- 


lington had so well deserved were now decreed him by lis 
grateful country. The restrictions upon the R^ency having ex- 
pired^ the first use which the Prince Regent made of his new 
power was to create him a Marquis of the United Kingdom, and 
Parliament unanimously voted a grant of 100,0002. to purchase 
lands and enable him to support the dignity of the peerage. In 
Portugal he had already been made Count of Vimiero and Mar- 
quis of Torres Vedras, and now, by a remarkable coincidence, the 
Prince of Brazil conferred upon him the additional title of Duke 
of Vittoria, The winter and early spring were spent in preparing 
for a campaign which might complete the great work of delivering 
the Peninsula: for this purpose Marquis Wellington went to 
Cadiz to communicate in person with the Spanish Government, 
and the armies of that country were at length brought into a 
better state of disciplina In England also it was at last acknow- 
ledged, that the best economy in war is to spare no expense in 
doing the work speedily. Buonaparte had been driven &om 
Russia ; and never had any army been overtaken with such tre- 
mendous vengeance as that which in his wanton and blind ambi- 
tion he had led to Moscow. Prussia had seized the opportunity 
to throw off his yoke ; his whole force was now required for the 
struggle in Germany ; and the British Government, which in the 
worst times had bravely and wisely persisted in the arduous 
struggle, made fiill use of the favourable opportunity. 

Notwithstanding Soult, with a considerable body of troops, 
had been called to Germany, there were still above 150,000 
French in Spain; but of these a great number were dispersed in 
garrisons, &nd Catalonia and Valencia required a large proportion. 
A force, however, of 70,000 was collected to oppose the AlUes ; it 
consisted of the whole armies of the south and the centre^ with? 
some divisions of the army of the north, and of the army of Por- 
tugal, whose name was still retained after its complete expulsion 
from that country. The puppet King Joseph was at their head, 
thinking it prudent to leave Madrid before he should be driven 
from it, that his last retreat might be more decorous than the 
former; and Marshal Jourdan had the command. Their head- 
quarters were in Yalladolid when Marquis Wellington, toward the 
latter end of May, took the field with 80,000 men. The enemy 
retired from the Tormes as he advanced ; and he moved up the 


right bank of the Duero, crossed the Esia, and took their hne of 
defence along the Duero completely in reverse; they therefore 
necessarily retreated, and onr cavalry, acting to advantage in the 
flat country, kept them so in check and cramped their movements 
8o as to prevent a single reconnoissance on their part to discover 
the numbers, routes, or intentions of the British army. Bui^os, 
which had opposed so formidable a resistance the preceding year, 
was abandoned and blown up; and our great commander, pur- 
suing the same system, amused the enemy upon their main front, 
while three or four divisions, hastening forward by lateral roads 
on their flank, crossed the Ebro also, before they could take 
possession of its most impregnable positions. These successes, 
which would have been considered as an ample reward for two or 
three general actions, were obtained by the skill of the general 
with scarcely the loss of a single Ufa The French, being de- 
prived, by these admirable movements, of the advantage which 
they might have derived from these rivers, and the strength of the 
country about the Ebro, drew up for battle upon the river Zadora, 
near Vittoria ; the high road to that city being in their centre, their 
left extended across the mountains to La Puebla de Arlanzon, and 
the right of their centre rested on a strong circular hill, which 
they covered with infantry, and with several brigades of guns to 
defend the passage of the river. The iK>6ition, though in other 
respects well chosen, was liable to be taken in flank, and Marquis 
Wellington saw at a glance where its weakness lay. He began 
the action on the right, where the Spaniards tmder General 
Murillo attacked the heights of La Puebla with great gallantry : 
their leader was wounded, but remained in the field ; the French 
made great efforts to retain this ground, which they neglected to 
occupy in sufficient strength, and here the stress of the battle lay, 
reinforcements coming from both sides : but Sir Rowland Hill 
remained at last in possession of this important point, and being 
enabled to pass the river, and a defile which it formed, carried the 
village of Sabijana de Alara in front of the enemy's position. This 
being lost, when the French perceived the centre of the Allied 
anny advancing to attack the hill above the Zadora, while 
Sir Rowland attacked their centre on the other side, they began to 
retire toward Vittoria in good order; meantime Sir Thomas 
Graham^ with the left, cut off theu* retreat on the road to 


Bayonne. The contest was now carried close to the walls of Vit- 
toria, and was soon terminated* As an officer who bore a part in 
this day's glorious work well expressed it, " the French were 
beaten before the town, and in the town, and through the town, 
and out of the town, and behind the town, and all round about the 
town." Everywhere they were attacked, and everywhere put to 
utter rout They themselves had in many actions made greater 
slaughter of a Spanish army, but never in any instance had re- 
duced even an army of raw volunteers to such a state of total 
wreck, — stores, baggage, artillery, everything was abandoned, — 
one gun and one howitzer only were they able to carry off, and 
even that gun was taken before it could reach Pamplona. King 
Joseph attempted to escape in his coach, a pistol was discharged 
into the carriage, and he had just time to leave it, leap on horse- 
back and gallop off, while a party of dragoons impeded his pur- 
suers. The number of prisoners was inconsiderable, for the 
French ran without making an attempt to form and rally, and the 
pursuit was not directed with the same skill as the attack. The 
number of killed and wounded was comparatively little, so speedily 
had the victory been won. The superiority of generalship on the 
part of the Allies was indeed never more decidedly manifested, 
and such of the enemy as had been in action with the English 
before did not fight the better for the recollection. 

The blow which was thus struck at Vittoria was felt in Ger- 
many, and Soult was sent to collect fresh armies and oppose the 
victorious General, whose name was now become terrible to the 
French troops. But Marquis Wellington was now master of the 
field, and Soult could neither recover his footing in Spain nor 
prevent the Allies from invading Franca We pass rapidly over 
the brilliant achievements that ensued ; Pamplona was invested by 
the Spanish under O'Donel. Meanwhile Soult had concentrated 
his forces, and meditated an attack on the right of the Anglo- 
Spanish army under Wellington. On the 24th, Soult moved two 
of the wings of his anny upon St Jean Pied de Port, and on the 
25th attacked General Byng's post at Roncesvalles. Wellington, 
after providing for the continuance of the siege of St Sebastian 
and the blockade of Pamplona, moved on the 27th. The Battles of 
the Pyrenees may then be said to have commenced, and notwith- 
standing the immense superiority of the French force, the com- 


bined Elnglish, Spanish, and Portuguese army obtained a brilliant 
victory. General Sir Rowland Hill and the Earl of Dalbousie 
rendered eminent services on tliis occasion, and the English 
army occupied the positions which the French had left on the 
25tb. The total loss from the 25th to the 27th of August 
was upwards of 7500 men. Never during the whole campaign 
had there been so severely contested and continuous a series 
of battles as those fought in the Pyrenees. The effect was 
magical: the French retreated, beaten and discomfited, while the 
Allied army pressed forward with renewed confidence and enthu-* 
siasm, both for the justice of their cause, and also in the skill of 
that General by whose hand alone it appeared the pride of the 
French army was to be humbled. St Sebastian fell by assault on 
the 31st of August; the passage of the Bidassoa took place on the 7 th 
of October, and on the 21st the fortress of Pamplona surrendered. 
On the 10th of November, Wellington attacked and forced the 
fortified passes of the Nivelle, after a most obstinate defence. Fifty- 
one pieces of cannon, quantities of ammunition, and 1400 prisoners, 
were the result of this operation. On the 27th of February, 1814, 
after the passage of the Adour, the battle of Orthez, one of tiie 
most severely contested during the campaign, took place, and 
Soult was again vanquished, and forced to retire, and had not Lord 
Wellington been disabled and severely hurt by a blow from a spent 
shot, the operation against the retreating army might have been 
still more decisive. After several movements of minor importance, 
but all bearing upon the plans sketohed out by the skUftd com- 
mander of the Allied army, they crossed the Garonne, and com- 
menced operations in the enemy's country, and the final but 
unnecessary battle of Toulouse was fought on the 10th of April, 
1814, Buonaparte having abdicated on the 4th of April ; which 
event was, however, unknown both to Wellington and Soult until 
the 12th, although it has been stated frequently that the French 
commander was in possession of that information. In this san- 
guinary battle the Allies lost 4600 men, and the French about 
4000 ; but the French were obliged to retire from their positions ; 
and on the 1 1th Soult abandoned Toulouse, making a forced march 
upon Yillepache, and leaving his wounded, his magazines, and 
eight pieces of artillery to the conquerors. And yet, after these 
decisive proofs of their inability to retain that for which they so 

zlii uns OP wxllinqton. 

bravely fought^ there are many Frenchmen, whose edncation 
shotild place them above such petty detractions, who now claim 
the victory for their countrymen I Having beaten the French 
from the mouth of the Tagus to the Garonne, that war which 
Wellington had commenced under such disadvantages at the ex- 
tremity of Portugal he concluded victoriously in the heart of 
France, after a series of successes which, when all circumstances 
are considered, may truly be said to be unparalleled in military 
history. He entered upon that career at a time when the military 
reputation and the military power of France were at their greatest 
height ; when a belief that it was impossible to resist the conunand- 
ing genius and inexhaustible resources of Buonaparte had been 
inculcated in this country with pestilent activity, and had deeply 
tainted the public mind. 

The battle was fought on Easter Sunday: — ^long will that 
Easter be remembered by the Toulousans I the wounded French 
were brought from the field of battle as they fell, to the gates of 
the town, and thence conveyed by the inhabitants to the hospitals. 
They are said by the French themselves to have been innume- 
rable. Marshal Soult talked of defending the town and burying 
himself and his army under its ruins, and the people had all the 
horrors of Zaragoza and Tarragona before their eyes, and dreaded 
those reprisals which might so naturally be expected from the 
Portuguese and Spaniards. The city and the army were in 
reality at that time at the conqueror's mercy; but Lord Wel- 
lington, though he had not been apprised of the deposition of 
Buonaparte, knew that that event was at hand, and that no cir- 
cumstances could long delay it Wishing, therefore, to avoid all 
further efiusion of blood, he suffered Soult and his troops to file 
ofi* during the night of the 11th under the cannon of the British 
army without firing a shot; and on the following morning the 
Allies entered the city as deliverers. The perfect order which 
they observed, so utterly unlike the rapacious conduct of the 
French armies, excited the utmost admiration in the inhabitants. 

On the evening of the 12th the despatches from Paris arrived ; 
the restoration of the Bourbons was announced to Marshal Soult, 
but that general only proposed a suspension of hostilities till he 
could ascertain the real state of public feeling. Lord Wellington 
then put his army in motion to pursue him; but on the 17th, 


Marshal Soult informed him that he formally acknowledged the 
provisional government of France. 

It seemed not unreasonable to suppose that the Duke of Wei* 
lii^ton would, for the remainder of his life, enjoy in peace the 
honours and rewards which he had so well deserved, and which 
had been so properly bestowed.* Leaving the army which he 
had so often conducted to victory, he joined the Allied Sovereigns 
at the court of Louis XVIII., and there for the first time met 
General Bliicher, the most glorious of his fellow-labourers in the 
deliverance of Europe ; little did they foresee in what manner the 
acquaintance which they had began was to be cemented, and how 
their names in inseparable union would descend to the latest 
posterity. From Paris the Duke repaired to Madrid, where Fer- 
dinand confirmed all the honours which the Cortes had conferred 
upon him, and created him Captain-general of Spain. Returning 
to England, on the 23d June, 1814, he was received with every 
mark of love, gratitude, and honour, which the Prince, the Legis- 
lature, and the People could bestow. He had never yet taken his 
seat in the House of Lords, and at his first introduction, on the 
28diof June,wa« placed in the highest rank of the peerage, his 
various patents of Viscount, Earl, Marquis, and Duke being read 
on the same day« Here he received the thanks and congratula* 
tions of the House on his return from his command on the Conti- 
nent, and for the great, signal, and eminent services which he had 
so repeatedly rendered therein to his Majesty and to the public 
The House of Commons appointed a deputation to congratulate 
him on his return, and llie Duke attended the House on the 30th 
of June to express his thanks. This was a memorable scene ; all 
the members uncovered, rose, and enthusiastically cheered him as 
he entered ; the Speaker, in an admirable address, touched upon 
those parts of his military character for which Wellington is more 
peculiarly to be praised — the implicit faith which he communi- 
cated to his soldiers — the confidence which he had ever felt in 
himself and his cause, and the manner in which he had united 
armies of such different and discordant materials under his com- 
mand. " It is not," said the Speaker, " the grandeur of military 

• On the 3d of May, 1814, he was created Marquis of Douro and Duke of 
Wellington ; he had been made a Knight of the Garter the previous year, and a 
grant of 100,000/., to which Parliament, in Jane, added the sum of 400,000/. 


success which has alone fixed our admiration or commanded our 
applause ; it has been^ that generous and lofty spirit which inspired 
your troops with unbounded confidence, and taught them to know 
that the day of battle was always a day of victory : that moral 
courage and enduring fortitude which in perilous times, when 
gloom and doubt had beset ordinary minds, stood, nevertheless, 
unshaken; and that ascendancy of character which, uniting the 
energies of jealous and rival nations, enabled you to wield at will 
the fate and fortunes of mighty empires." The Duke on his part 
^^ expressed his admiration of the great efforts made by the House 
and by the country in times of unexampled pressure and difficulty, 
for supporting on a great scale those operations by which the 
contest had been brought to so happy a conclusion." The occa- 
sion, indeed, had called for all the efforts of the country, but the 
efforts were adequate to the occasion, and success could not be 
doubtful when those mighty means were entrusted to hands which 
knew how to direct them so welL 

In the summer of 1814 the Duke of Wellingtoo was appointed 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of 
France, and assisted in the autumn of that year and the com- 
mencement of the next at the Congress of Vienna, whose delibe- 
rations were so suddenly and unexpectedly interrupted by the 
return of Napoleon from Elba on the 1st of March, 1815. 

The details of the vast military conspiracy, which had its rami- 
fications in every part of the French army, have never yet trans- 
pired; some of the Marshals probably were not entrusted with the 
important secret Still it could not have been but known to 
many, and suspected by others. In fact, the peculiar and unne- 
cessary movements of the army, only a few weeks previous to 
Napoleon's landing, should have roused suspicion in the minds of 
the King of France's ministers. These details may some day be 
brought to light, unless the policy of the present ruler of France 
should be able effectually to destroy all traces, or that those 
engaged had, in the hour of danger and defeat, after the battle of 
Waterloo, careftilly destroyed all documents that might criminate 
themselves or others. 

The feeling which prevailed throughout Europe at the re- 
appearance of Buonaparte was as general as it was just The 
Plenipotentiaries at Vienna thought it due to their own dignity, 


and the interest of social order, to make a solemn declaration of 
their sentiments. 

" By thns breaking the convention," they said, ** which has 
established him in the Island of Elba, Buonaparte destroys the 
only legal title on which his existence depended; by appearing 
again in France with projects of conftision and disorder he has 
deprived himself of the protection of the law, and has manifested 
to the universe that there can be neither peace nor truce with 
hiuL The Powers consequently declare, that Napoleon Buonaparte 
has ^aced himself without the pale of civil and social relations, 
and that as an enemy and disturber of the tranquiDity of the world 
he has rendered himself liable to public vengeanca" 

This was the proper language ; it was what the law of nature 
and the law of nations dictated; it was what common sense prompted 
and common justice required. The declaration bore the stamp of 
wisdom and sound policy as well as of manliness ; and it will be 
recorded by future historians and biographers to the honour of the 
Duke of Wellington, that he was one of the ministers who acted 
thus promptly and judiciously for the nations which they repre- 
sented. He acted as became him in the cabinet; and Great Britain, 
in perfect approbation of what he had done, and in that full confi- 
dence which his former services merited, placed him once more 
at the head of her armies in the field. 

On the 11th of April, Wellington arrived at Brussels from 
Vienna, and took the command of the Allied armies, and put him- 
self on the 2d of May in communication with Prince Bliicher in 
command of the Prussian army on the Mouse. 

The operations of the decisive and all-important campaign 
will be found fully described in the pages which follow this 
memoir. The batde of Waterloo was fought on the memorable 
18th of June, and the power of Buonaparte at once and for ever 
annihilated. The feeling which this battle produced in England 
will never be forgotten. Accustomed as we were to victory, 
upon the land as well as upon the seas, since the star of Wel- 
lington had risen; confident as we were in our general and in 
our army, even they who were most assured of success, and of 
speedy success, dreamed not of success so signal, so sudden, so 
decisive. The glory of all former fields seemed at the time to 
fade before that of Waterloa At Cressy, at Poictiers, at A^- 


ooorty the ease with which victory had been obtained appeared to 
detract from the merit of the conquerors ; there the moltitade of 
the enemies had been delivered into our hands by their own inso- 
lence and presumption. Blenheim had been less stubborn in 
the conflict, less momentous in the consequences; and all the 
previous actions of our great commander, from Eastern Assaye 
to Toulouse, now seemed mere preludes to this last and greatest 
of his triumph. Heavy as was the weight of private sorrow 
which it brought with it ; severe as was the public loss in the fall 
of Picton and Ponsonby, and of so many others, the flower of the 
British youth, the pride and promise of the British army ; still we 
were spared that grief, which on a former occasion had abated the 
joy of the very multitude, and made thoughtftil spirits almost 
regret the victory of Trafalgar. The Duke's aides-de-camp — men 
endeared to him by their long services in the career of glory, and 
by their personal devotion to him — fell, killed or wounded, one 
after another. Of those who accompanied him during this ^' agony 
of his fame," his old friend, the Spanish General Alava, was the only 
one who was untouched either in his person or his horse. At one 
moment, when the Duke was very far advanced observing the 
enemy's movements^ one of his aides-de-camp ventured to hint 
that he was exposing himself too much: the Duke answered with 
his noble simplicity, *^ I know I am, but I must die or see what 
they are doing." 

The first consideration, when joy and astonishment admitted 
leisure for it, was how to express our sense of this great exploit, 
how to manifest our gratitude to the army and its leader, how 
to discharge our obligation — the mighty debt which was due to 
the living and the dead. There remained no new title for Wel- 
lington ; from his knighthood to his dukedom he had won them 
all; there remained no new distinctions of honour, he had ex- 
hausted them all : but the Parliament added two hundred thousand 
pounds to its former munificent grant, with which the nation 
purchased and presented to the Duke the manor and estate of 
Strathfieldsaye, the tenure bdng similar to that by which the 
estate of Blenheim is held by the descendants of the illustrious 
Marlborough ; namely, the presentation of a tricolored flag to the 
Sovereign on the anniversary of his last and most glorious battle. 
The merits of the army also were properly estimated, and the re- 

WATERix)a zlvii 

wards^ as tbej ought to be^ were extended to every rank and every 
individaaL Every regiment which had been present was per- 
mitted firom thenceforth to bear the word " Waterloo" upon its 
colours : all the privates were to be borne upon the muster^roUs 
and pay-lists of their respective corps as Waterloo-men^ and every 
Waterloo-man allowed to reckon that day's work as two years' 
service in the account of his time for increase of pay, or for a 
pension when discharged. The subaltern officers were in like 
manner to reckon two years' service for that victory ; and a benefit 
not less important was on this occasion extended to the whole 
Anny, by a regulation enacting that henceforward the pensions 
granted for wounds should rise with the rank to which the officer 
attained, so that he who was maimed when an ensign should, when 
he became a general, receive a general's pension for the injury 
which he had endured. These were soUd, substantial benefits, 
such as the army had well deserved, and as it became the Govern- 
inent to confer. 

Lord Wellington described his own feelings after the battle in 
a letter to the Earl of Aberdeen, to whom he had the painAil task 
of commimicating a brother's death (Sir Alexander Gordon). 

^' I cannot," he said, " express to you the regret and sorrow 
with which I look round me, and c(»itemplate the loss which I 
liave sustained, particularly in your brother. The glory resulting 
from such actions, so dearly bought, is no consolation to me, and 
I caimot suggest it as any to you and his friends. But I hope that 
it may be expected that this last one has been so decisive, as that 
no doubt remains that our exertions and our individual losses will 
be rewarded by the early attainment of our just object It is then 
that the glory of the actions in which our friends and relations 
have fidlen will be some consolation for their loss."* 

Language like this is indeed honourable to him from whom it 
proceeded. Lord Wellington spake from his heart This victory 
had been too severely purchased to bring with it any of that ex- 
hilaration with which victory is usually accompanied. But his 
expectations of the result w^re not fallacious. The Allied armies 
moved upon Paris, of which they took military possession on the 
7 th of July. On the 15 th, Napoleon surrendered himself uncon- 

* Gurwood*8 " WeUington Dispatches.'* 


ditionall J to the English nation, on board H. M. S. Belleiophon ;* 
meanwhile the Duke, in his hour of victory, exerted himself to 
prevent the retaliatory measures of his brave companion in arms, 
Blucher; and Paris was saved the humiliation of seeing the 
destruction of some of her proudest monuments by the magna- 
nimity of the conqueror. These acts of retaliation savoured, perha|)s, 
a Utde of die barbarous, but the outrageous conduct of the French 
armies in Prussia would have justified any measures, however 
strong. On the 22d of October the Duke was appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Allied Army of Occupation in France, 
and made Field-marshal in the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian 
armies, and Prince of Waterloo by the Kmg of the Netherlands. 
On his return to England, the enthusiasm with which the Duke 
was received by every class was unbounded. Crowds daily 
awaited at his gate to see him ; wherever he appeared he was 
greeted with the shouts and benedictions of the populace; honours, 
rewards, riches, were showered with lavish hands. Every town 
voted an address, and Waterloo Testimonials and Monuments rose 
on every side too numerous to particularize. But with all these 
popular ovations the head of the Duke was not turned. He held 
on his way steadily, neither turning to the one side nor to the other, 
but manAilly fulfilling his duty to his sovereign and his country. 
Happy was it that he was thus constituted, for, with the charac- 
teristic fickleness of popular feeling, not many years elapsed before 
the same man, the same Hero of a Hundred Fights, the same 
Saviour of Europe, could not show himself without being subject 
to those insidts and outrages which a London mob can so fearfiilly 
inflict The iron shutters at Apsley House are a lasting memorial of 
this period of popidar excitement, and a silent reproach and warning 
to that unthinking, unwise, and uiireasonable assemblage. However, 
the people repented of their ingratitude, and his latter days were 
equally crowned by popularity as at the early period of victory. 

The Duke's military career was now ended, but the period 
of useAilness to his country was but half accomplished, and his 
poUtical life of thirty^seven years would form as instructive, if not 
so briUiant a narrative, as the earUer portions of his career ; want 
of ability and want of space must here be pleaded in excuse for a 
mere outline of subsequent events. 

• Vide p. 127. 


Dniing the occupation of Paris^ the life of Wellington had 
been twice attempted; and, to the eternal disgrace of Buonaparte, 
he rewarded the miscreant Cantillon, the author of the last 
attempt, by a legacy. In September, 1818, the Duke assisted at 
the second Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle, and on the 26th of De- 
cember was appointed Master-general of the Ordnance. On the 
4th of March he was made Colonel-in-Chief of the Rifle Brigade, and 
assisted as Lord High Constable at the coronation of George lY., 
and in the autumn of 1821 he visited the Field of Waterloo, in 
company with his Sovereign. In 1826 he was sent on a special 
mission to St Petersburg, where he received the highest honours, 
and was treated by the Emperor of Russia with the greatest respect 
and consideration. One of the finest regiments in the Russian 
service was then, in the most graceful maimer, named the *^ Duke 
of Wellington's Regiment,'' the Emperor notifying the same to his 
Grace in a flattering letter. On the death of the Duke of York he 
was appointed, with universal consent and satisfaction, Commander- 
in-Chief, and Colonel of the Grrenadier Guards; in February, 

1828, he accepted office as First Lord of the Treasury, when he 
resigned the command of the army. On the 20th of January, 

1829, was appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ; and in con- 
junction with the late lamented Sir Robert Peel he carried through 
Parliament the important measure of Catholic Emancipation, and 
the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. On the 21st of 
March, 1829, a hostile meeting took place in Battersea Fields 
between his Grace and the Earl of Winchilsea, the present Viscount 
Hardinge acting as second to the Duke ; the bloodless result of the 
encounter was followed by a retraction on the part of the Earl of 
the objectionable paragraphs of a speech, which was the origin 
of the dispute. His Grace afterwards saw reason to condemn so 
absurd a mode of settling a political quarrel, and by a stringent 
order on the subject of duelling, which he subsequently issued 
from the Horse Guards, tacitly admitted his error. In Novem- 
ber 1830, on the question of Reform, the Government of which 
he was the chief was forced to resign ; and for honestly stating 
his opinions (which we beheve he afterwards conscientiously 
changed) he was treated with that shameful ingratitude we have 
bad occasion to refer to as a disgrace to the English character. 
After a temporary retirement he \ras again, in November 1834, 


called upon by King William IV, to assist him with his counsels. 
He advised the King to send for Sir Robert Peel^ who was then 
travelling in Italy, and assumed himself in the interim the duties 
of Premier, and three of the departments of State, including that 
of Foreign Affairs, in which he eventually continued ; and we may 
add^ that during this short monopoly of office never were public 
affairs carried on in a more systematic or efficient manner. 

The University of Oxford the same year elected him, by general 
acclamation. Chancellor of that ancient and yenerable seat of learning. 
In April of the following year he retired from office, since which 
time, excepting the duties connected with the administraticxi of 
the affairs of the army, he never entered into the active service of 
a Minister of the Crown, although his advice has often been sought 
and acted upon by the most illustrious persons of the land. 

At the coronation of her present Majesty, the Duke was treated 
with marked respect by all assembled. His old antagonist. Marshal 
Soult, had been appointed Ambassador Extraordinary from the 
King of the French, and the meeting of these old opponents in 
arms was most cordial and interesting. 

The latter days of the protracted life of the illustrious Duke were 
calm and serene. Courted and flattered by every one, from the 
highest, to the lowest of that mob who had so fickly bestowed its 
favour, wherever his well-known figure and face appeal^ every 
head was respectfoUy uncovered, and his quick military salute in 
return never failed to send home the recipient with the news that he 
had seen and been noticed by ^^ the Duke." Courteous and kind to 
all, he calmly continued his career of honour and usefiilness, pre- 
paring for that change which^ although long protracted, most 
eventually come. A few years ago the first warning, that eighty 
summers cannot be borne along without casting their shadows over 
even the strongest frame, manifested itsel£ The Duke had an 
attack which the skill of his medical attendants ultimately reduced, 
and his Grace was enabled stUl to continue those habits of activity 
which even his prolonged existence could not checL Increased 
deafness and difficulty of articulation, with a peculiar unsteadiness 
of step in walking, and a greater difficulty in mounting his horse 
— a feat in which to the last he sternly forbade any one to at- 
tempt to assist him — were the sure but only signs which presented 


His intellect and correct judgment remained clear to the last ; 
and although the pablic, from the great interest which all felt in 
the preservation of that honoured life, had naturally yet painfully 
been prepared for the sad result which his increasing years daily 
rendered more and more probable, still the news, when at last it 
came, from the want of the looked*for premonitory symptoms and 
from the magnitude of the loss, fell on the public ear as some 
sudden national calamity, the electric shock of which was at once 
and as suddenly felt from one exti^emity of the kingdom to the 
other; and notwithstanding the speculations of all on the proximity 
of so sad an event, these mental preparations, as in the case of the 
loss of one near and dear to any of us, failed utterly to assuage the 
public grief. It would be in vain to attempt to describe more 
minutely the impressions participated in by all, at home and abroad, 
when it was at last announced that our illustrious Commandeivin-* 
Chief had ceased to exist ; the sad news is too fresh upon us, and 
the impression sufficiently vivid to all: we therefore, while his 
honoured remains await those ceremonials which the attachment of 
his Sovereign and the gratitude of a nation have unanimously 
accorded, will briefly endeavour to give a short account of his last 
moments, gathered from the public press. 

As was usual in the autumn of each year, the Duke retired to 
his marine residence, Walmer Castle, which he held officially as 
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, and was gathering, it was 
hoped, renewed health and strength from the change of air and 
from the sea breezes. On the Saturday preceding his death he 
had ridden over on horseback to Dover, and inspected the works 
in prepress at the harbour; he lefl for Walmer shortly after four 
o'clock; on the Simday he attended Divine service in Walmer 
Church; on the Monday he inspected his stables, and gave 
several directions respecting a visit to Dover, which he intended 
for the morrow; his appetite was good, and he dined heartily, 
and retired at his ordinary hour to rest 

On Tuesday, the 14th of September, his valet called him as 
usual between six and seven o'clock, but his Grace did not rise to 
dress. After the lapse of about an hour the valet's attention was 
aroused by a sound resembling faint meanings issuing from his 
master's chamber. On going into the room, the Duke (who had 
not risen) desired him to send for Mr. Hulke, of Deal, the family 


apothecary^ as he wished to see him. This was the first intimation 
the family received of his illness^ and Liord and Lady Charles 
Wellesley were summoned, and remained with him till the last 
The doctor arrived at about eight o'clock. His Grace complained 
of uneasiness about the chest and stomach, and was then perfectly 
conscious, and answered the questions put to him with correctness. 
Some medicines were ordered, and during their preparation the 
Duke took some tea and toast; shortly afterwards he was seized 
with fits similar to those he had been subject to some years pre- 
viously ; his breathing became laborious, and he was removed to 
an easy chair, which afibrded him for a time some relie£ A 
mustard plaster was applied to his chest, and an emetic ad- 
ministered. These remedies, which in the former cases had been 
productive of relief, were now, alas I inefficient, and after gradually 
sinking he breathed his last at twenty-five minutes past three, 
P.M.,* on Tuesday, the I4th of September, 1852. Thus passed 
away the spirit of England's greatest son^ with as little pain or 
suffering as it is possible *the great debt of humanity can be 
acquitted, — so gentle was the transition ftom life to death, that for 
some moments it was doubtful whether the great change had really 
taken place; a mirror was^ however, held to his lips, when its 
unwiUied surface proclaimed to his sorrowing femily and attendants 
that the last act of that great life had been accomplished. 

To sum up the character of this great man is a task of no ordi- 
nary difficulty; to do it perfectly, the intimate history of more than 
half a century should be mastered: but certain leading traits are 

* <* To the Editor of the ' Medical Timei and Gazetu: 

" Sir, — I enclose yoa an account of the death of the Duke of Wellington, for 
insertion in the JIfedical Timet and OazeUe should you deem it snffidentlj in- 
teresting to the readers of your widely-circulated journal. 

" I am, Sir, Ac. J. W. Huleb. 

" 150 Lotper Street, Deal, September 21, 1852. 

** Tuesday, Sept. 14. — ^About half-past eight this morning my father received a 
note firom Walmer Castle, stating that the Duke of Wellington wished to see him. 
He immediately went to the CasUe. His Grace complained of uneasiness about 
the chest and stomach ; was then perfectly conscious, and answered questions put 
to him with correctness. Some medicine was ordered, and during its preparation 
his Grace took some tea and toast. Shortly after leaving the Castle, my father 
received another communication, stating that his Grace was much worse. He had 
had fits similar to those he was subject to. My father and I went directly, and 
found his Grace in bed, unconscious ; eyes turned a little upwards, fixed ; pupils of 
medium size ; skin warm and moist; respiration very laborious, firom accumulation 


manifest to all impartial judges. The most prominent feature of his 
life was indomitable moral courage, and straightforwardness of 
purpose, which, at all seasons, was the ruling emotion of his mind, 
and his sure refuge in times of trial or disappointment What was 
it that supported him during the early periods of the Peninsular 
War? but his sure reliance on the justice on which his conduct was 
based, and the conviction which had early imprinted itself on his 
mind, that truth, like a mathematical axiom, whatever difficulties 
may appear in the path, or however strong the temptation may be 
to the contrary, will always rise triumphant I And in this sterling 
metal of the mind he greatly excelled the Emperor Napoleon, who, 
brilliant and talented as he was, and whose career soared infinitely 
higher than that of his contemporary, yet never seemed to com- 
prehend this homely guide in all Wellington's difficulties ** Honesty 
is the best policy ;" and it was this unffinching honesty of purpose 
which caused him to fight to the last in Portugal, or to express his 
opinion on the Reform question as he did, — ^that " the nation did 
not want reform, and should not have it;" and by the same 
honesty of conduct, when the said Reform was the law of the land, 
he adopted it I and the same honesty of opinion that caused him, 
in opposition to the traditions of his party, to support his fiiend 
the late Sir Robert Peel, in the important measures of Commercial 
Reform. Next to decided principles, decided action is a virtue of 
uncommon occurrence, simple as it may appear, and startling as 

of mucus in air- tabes. Before oar amval his valet had applied a mustard poultice 
to his chest, as on a former occasion this had given relief. 

'* Dr. M' Arthur soon arrived, and Drs. Hume and Ferguson were telegraphed 

** Dr. M'Arthur advised a mustard emetic to be given, having prescribed one 
with advantage for the Duke several years ago under similar circumstances. This 
and other measures were now of no avail. His Grace became very restless, tried 
to turn on his left side : occasionally there were slight twitchiugs of the left arm. 
When raised In bed, his breathing was much more free, and this induced us to 
place him in an easy chair, when his respiration became much less embarrassed ; 
his pulse sank, and his Grace was now placed more horizontally. The pulse 
rallied for a little time, and then gradually declined ; the breathing became more 
feeble ; and, at twenty-flve minutes past three o'clock, p.m., his Grace breathed his 
last. So easy and gentle was the transition, that for the moment it was doubted. 
A mirror was held before his Grace's mouth. Its brightness was undimmed, and 
he was no more. 

" John Whitakeb Hulks." 


some will pronounce the fket Yet how many men, who might 
have seen the same necessity for action, wonld not have pat off 
the execution to a more convenient opportunity ? how many men 
are there now with great aspirations, and with equal honesty of 
purpose, who, from inertness of disposition, or waiting vainly for 
opportunities, dream away their lives in abstract speculations? 
With Wellington it was otherwise ; when he had well considered 
his plan, he caitied it into execution with that promptness and 
perseverance which may mainly be said to be the staple charac- 
teristic of his Ufa Proceeding from and naturally connected with 
the ruling power of his mind, was punctuality ; a virtue which his 
military education no doubt greatly tended to foster, but which 
greatly conduced to his ease and useftdness as a citizen of the 
world. Whoever wrote to the Duke, was he not sure of an answer 
by return of post? And his task in this respect was not a light one. 
From love-sick young ladies who considered themselves privileged 
to ask his advice on aBairs most important to them, to the b^ging- 
letter impostor, who so well knew how to work on the tender 
feelings of the man; each got his or her response with the best 
and shortest advice or assistance, as the case might require. And 
this leads us to another point of his character, in which, until 
lately, his Grace had been misrepresented, — ^that of his charity. It 
had been surmised, from not seeing his great name at the head 
of lists of the multitudinous charities of this great city, that he 
spared but little of his large income in forwarding objects of 
charity: this might happen, that his name did not appear, but it 
was not proof that he was niggardly in disposition, although some 
over-charitable had so distorted it: but, to his honour be it told — 
and those deeds that are d(Hie secretly shall one day be made 
manifest, so may it now be said — after the conviction of that bare- 
faced impostor who had swindled the Duke of upwards of 4002L 
by b^ging appeals to his generous aid, as the widow, the daughter, 
or relative of some of his unfortunate companions in arms. In 
this one case what a sum had been obtained I and is it fair to 
believe this a solitary instance? In connexion with this greatest of 
Christian virtues, charity, may be mentioned his unostentatious 
piety. When half London had barely quitted their pillows, this 
good old man was already engaged in the service of his Maker : 


at the early aervioe of the Chapel Royal the Duke was an in- 
variable and often the only attendant 

Comparisons have been attempted to be drawn between Wel- 
lington and Napoleon, but beyond their coincidence in the year of 
their birth no likeness can be cited to induce a parallel Napoleon's 
was a brilliant meteoric career, which by its brilliancy dazzled 
the nations, and whose short life of triomph only contrasted more 
fearfully with the obscurity and reverses his own insatiable ambi- 
tion called down. Wellington, on the other hand, never was 
intoxicated by success : his greatest victory, Waterloo, he modestly 
ascribed to the steadiness and invincibility of the troops he com- 
manded; and after his military career had ended, and the star of 
Napoleon had for ever sunk, what a career of honourable useiul- 
ness he saw, and how peaceful and hallowed his end I 

No, there is no comparison between these two; both were 
great men, but essentially antagonistic Had Wellington been a 
French general, he might have been First Consul — nothing more. 
Had Napoleon commanded in India, he would probably have 
ended by turning Brahmin or Mahomedan, or founding a dynasty 
or religion through a career of blood, like Genghis Khan or 
Hyder AIL 

la the intercourse of private life Wellington was courteous, 
affable, and conciliating ; his circle was aristocratic by birth, and 
be seldom moved from it, except upon rare or public occasions. 
His latter years were crowded with engagements ; never did man 
of his age make more sacrifices to please and conciliate his Mends, 
or rather their descendants, for of the friends of his youth but few 
remained: his kindness to their children, and their children's 
children, was not limited to few, but bestowed on all who had any 
pretensions to remembrance or regard. 

In fact he was, in all, a good man and a loyal subject, and the 
nation will long deplore his loss. The news of his lamented death 
was rapidly circulated. Her Majesty expressed the liveliest concern, 
and every class did their utmost to show their feelings of regret 
All the clubs and most of the tradesmen closed their shutters ; from 
every public office and from all the shipping the flags were 
hoisted half-mast high ; and through the length and breadth of 
Britain the solemn peal tolled forth the sad tidings to all. The 
press united to pay him honour. Four extracts, highly creditable 


to the taste and attainments of their various writers, must suffice 
as specimens. The first, from " The Times,** is a graceful and 
well-turned tribute to his memory. The second, from " The 
Observer," elegantly and truly conceived and expressed. The 
thirds horn " The Dispatch," a paper opposed in politics and feeling 
to the Duke. And the fourth, fit)m a French paper, an example 
of moderation and right feeling tmfortunately rare in these days. 

[From « The Times,'' Sept 15.] 

'^ If aught can lessen this day the grief of England upon the 
death of her greatest son, it is the recollection that the life which 
has just closed leaves no duty incomplete and no honour unbe* 
stowed. The Duke of Wellington had exhausted nature and 
exhausted glory. His career was one unclouded longest day, 
filled from dawn to nightfall with renowned actions^ animated by 
unfailing energy in the public service, guided by unswerving prin- 
ciples of conduct and of statesmanship. He rose by a rapid series 
of achievements, which none had surpassed, to a position which no 
other man in this nation ever enjoyed. The place occupied by the 
Duke of Wellington in the councils of the country and in the life 
of England can no more be filled. There is none left in the army 
or the senate to act and speak with like authority. There is none 
with whom the valour and the worth of this nation were so incor- 
porate. Yet, when we consider the Ailness of his years and the 
abundance of his incessant services, we may learn to say with the 
Roman orator, ^ Satis diu vixisse didtOy since, being mortal, 
nothing could be added either to our veneration or to his fame. 
Nature herself had seemed for a time to expand her inexorable 
limits, and the infirmities of age to lay a lighter burden on that 
honoiured head. Generations of men had passed away between 
the first exploits of his arms and the last counsels of his age, until, 
by a lot imexampled in history, the man who had played the most 
conspicuous part in the annals of more than half a century became 
the last survivor of his contemporaries, and carries with him to the 
grave all living memory of his own achievements. To what a 
century, to what a country, to what achievements, was that life 
successfally dedicated ! For its prodigious duration — ^for the multi- 
plicity of contemporary changes and events, far outnumbering the 
course of its days and years — ^for the invariable and unbroken 


Stream of success which attended it from its commencement to its 
close, from the first Bash of trimnphant valour in Indian war to 
that senatorial wisdom on which the Sovereign and the nation 
hung for counsel to its latest hour — for the unbending firmness of 
character, which bore alike all labour and all prosperity — ^and for 
unalterable attachment to the same objects, the same principles, the 
same duties, undisturbed by the passions of jouth and unrelaxed 
by the honours and enjoyments of peace and of age — the life of the 
Duke of Wellington stands alone in history. In him, at least, 
posterity will trace a character superior to the highest and most 
abundant gifts of fortune. If the word ^ heroism" can be not 
unfisurly applied to him, it is because he remained greater than his 
own prosperity, and rose above the temptations by which other 
men of equal genius, but less self-government, have fallen below 
their destinies. His life has nothing to gain firom the language of 
panegyric, which would compare his military exploits or his civil 
statesmanship with the prowess of an Alexander or a GsBsar, or 
with the astonishing career of him who saw his empire overthrown 
by the British General at Waterloa They were the ofispring of 
passion and of genius, flung from the volcanic depths of revolu- 
tions and of civil war to sweep with meteoric splendour across the 
earth, and to coUapse in darkness before half the work of life was 
done. Their violence, their ambition, their romantic existence, 
their reverses, and their crimes, will for ever fascinate the interest 
of mankind, and constitute the secret of their fame, if not of their 
greatness. To such attractions the life and character of the Duke 
of Wellington present no analogy. If he rose to scarce inferior 
renown, it was by none of the passions or the arts which they 
indulged or employed. Unvanqmshed in the field, his sword was 
never drawn for territorial conquest, but for the independence of 
Europe and the salvation of his country. Raised by the universal 
gratitude of Europe and of this nation to the highest point of rank 
and power which a subject of the British monarchy could attain, 
he wore those dignities and he used that influence within the 
strictest limits of a subject's duty. No law was ever twisted to his 
will, no right was ever sacrificed by one hair's breadth for his 
aggrandisement There lived not a man, either among his coun- 
trymen or his antagonists, who could say that this great Duke had 
wronged him ; for his entire existence was devoted to the causo 


of legal authority and regulated power. You seek in it in vain for 
those strokes of audacious enterprise which in other great captains, 
his rivals in fame, have sometimes won the prize of crowns 
or turned the fate of nations. But his whole career shines with 
the steady light of day. It has nothing to conceal, it has nothing 
to interpret by the flexible organs of history. Everything in it is 
manly, compact, and clear ; shaped to one rule of public duty, 
animated by one passion — the love of England and the service of 
the Crown. 

'' The Duke of Wellington lived, commanded, and governed in 
unconscious indifference or disdainful aversion to those common 
incentives of human action which are derived &om the powers of 
imagination and in sentiment He held them cheap, both in their 
weakness and in their strength. The force and weight of his cha- 
racter stooped to no such adventitious influences. He might have 
kindled more enthusiasm, especially in the early and doubtful 
days of his Peninsular career; but in his successful and tri- 
mnphant pursuit of Glory her name never passed his lips, even in 
his addresses to his soldiers. His ^itire nature and character 
were moulded on reality. He lived to see things as they were. 
His acute glance and cool judgment jHerced at once through the 
surface which entangles the imagination or kindles the sympathy 
of the feelings. Truth, as he loved her, is to be reached by a 
rougher path and by sterner minds. In war, in politics, and in the 
common transactions of life, the Duke of Wellington adhered 
inflexibly to the most precise correctness in word and deed. His 
temperament abhorred disguises and despised exaggerations. The 
fearlessness of his actions was never the result of speculative con- 
fidence or foolhardy presumption, but it lay mainly in a just 
perception of the true relation in which he stood to his anta- 
gonists in the field or in the senate. The greatest exploits of his 
life, such ad the passage of the Douro, followed by the march on 
Madrid, the battle of Waterloo, and the passing the Catholic 
Relief Bill, were performed under no circumstances that could 
inspire enthusiasm. Nothing but the coolness of the player could 
have won the mighty stakes upon a cast apparently so adverse to 
his success. Other commanders have attained the highest pitch 
of glory when they disposed of the colossal resources of empires, 
and headed armies already flushed with the conquest of tlie world. 


The Duke of Wellington found no such encouragement in any 
part of his career. At no time were the means at his disposal 
adequate to the ready and certain execution of his designs. His 
steady progress in the Peninsular campaigns went on against the 
current of fortune^ tiU that current was itself turned by perse- 
verance and resolution. He had a clear and complete perception 
of the dangers he encountered, but he saw and grasped the latent 
power which baffled those dangers and surmounted resistances 
iq)parently invincible. That is precisely the highest degree of 
courage, for it is courage conscious, enlightened, and determined. 

" Clearness of discernment, correctness of judgment, and recti- 
tude in action were, without doubt, the principal elements of the 
Duke's briQiant achievements in war, and of his vast authority in 
the councDs of his country, as well as in the conferences of Europe. 
They gave to his determinations an originality and vigour a]dn to 
that of genius, and sometimes imparted to his language in debate a 
j»th and significance at which more brilliant orators failed to arrive. 
His mind, equally careless of obstacles and of effect, travelled by 
the shortest road to its end ; and he retained, even in his latest 
years, all the precision with which he was wont to handle the 
subjects that came before him, or had at any time engrossed his 
attention. This was the secret of that untaught manliness and 
simplicity of style that pervades the vast collection of his despatches, 
written as they were amidst the varied cares and emotions of war ; 
and of that lucid and appropriate mode of exposition which never 
fafled to leave a clear impression on the minds of those whom he 
addressed. Other men have enjoyed, even in this age, more vivid 
faculties of invention and contrivance, a more extended range of 
foresight, a more subtle compreh^ision of the changing laws of 
society and the world# But the value of these finer perceptions, 
and of the policy founded upon them, has never been more assured 
than when it was tried and admitted by the wisdom and patriotism 
of that venerable mind. His superiority over other men consisted 
rather in the perfection of those qualities which he pre-eminently 
possessed than in the variety or extent of his other faculties. 

** These poip^ers, which were unerring when applied to definite 
and certain facts, sometimes failed in the appreciation of causes 
which had not hitherto come under their observation. It is, 
perhaps, less to be wondered at that the soldier and the statesman 


of 1815, bom and bred in the highest school of Tory politics, 
should have miscarried in his opinion of those eventfnl times 
which followed the accession of William IV., than that the 
defeated opponent of Reform in 1831 should have risen into the 
patriot senator of 1846 and 1851. Yet the Administration of 
1828, in which the Duke of Wellington occupied the first and 
most responsible place, passed the Catholic Emancipation Act, and 
thereby gave the signal of a rupture in the Tory party never 
afterwards entirely healed, and struck the heaviest blow on a 
system which the growing energies of the nation resented and 
condemned. Resolute to oppose what he conceived to be popular 
clamour, no man ever recognised with more fidelity the claims of 
a free nation to the gradual developement of its interests and its 
rights ; nor were his services to the cause of liberty and improve- 
ment the less great because they usually consisted in bending the 
will or disarming the prejudices of their fiercest opponents. 
Attached by birth, by character, and by opinion to the order and 
the cause of the British aristocracy, the Duke of Wellington knew 
that the true power of that race of nobles lies, in this age of the 
world, in their inviolable attachment to constitutional principles, 
and their honest recognition of popular rights. Although his 
personal resolution and his military experience qualified him 
better than other men to be the champion of resistance to popular 
turbulence and sedition, as he showed by his preparations in May 
1832, and in April 1848, yet wisdom and forbearance were ever 
the handmaidens of his courage, and, while most firmly deter- 
mined to defend, if necessary, the authority of the State, he was 
the first to set an example of conciliatory sacrifice to the reason- 
able claims of the nation. He was the Catullus of our Senate, 
after having been our Caesar in the field; and if the common- 
wealth of England had ever saluted one of her citizens with the 
Roman title of Parens Patrice, that touching honour would have 
been added to the peerage and the baton of Arthur Wellesley by 
the respectful gratitude and faith of the people. 

** Though singularly free from every trace of cant, his mind 
was no stranger to the sublime influence of religious truth, and he 
was assiduous in the observances of the public ritual of the Church 
of England* At times, even in the extreme period of his age, 
some accident would betray the deep current of feeUng which he 


never ceased to entertain towards all that was chivalrons and 
benevolent. His charities were unostentations but extensive, and 
he bestowed his interest throughont life upon an incredible number 
of persons and things which claimed his notice and solicited his 
aid. Every social duty, every solemnity, every ceremony, every 
merry-making, fonnd him ready to take his part in it He had a 
smile tor the yonngest child, a compliment for the prettiest face, 
an answer to the readiest tongue, and a lively interest in every 
incident of life, which it seemed beyond the power of age to chilL 
When time had somewhat relaxed the sterner mould of his 
manhood, its eflPects were chiefly indicated by an unabated taste 
for the amusements of fashionable society, incongruous at times 
with the dignity of extreme old age, and the recollections of so 
virile a career. But it seemed a part of the Duke's character that 
everything that presented itself was equally welcome, for he had 
become a part of everything, and it was foreign to his nature to 
stand aloof from any occurrence to which his presence could eon- 
tribute. He seems never to have felt the flagging spirit or the 
reluctant step of indolence or ennui^ or to have recoiled firom 
anything that remained to be done; and this complete perform- 
ance of every duty, however small, as long as life remained, was 
the same quality which had carried him in triimiph through his 
campaigns, and raised him to be one of the chief Ministers of 
England and an arbiter of the fate of Europe. It has been said, 
that in the most active and illustrious lives there comes at last 
some inevitable hour of melancholy and of satiety. Upon the 
Duke of Wellington that hour left no impression, and probably it 
never shed its influence over him; for he never rested on his 
former achievements or his length of days, but marched onwards 
to the end, still heading the youthful generations which had 
sprang into life around him, and scarcely less intent on their 
pursuits than they are themselves. It was a finely-balanced mind 
to have worn so bravely and so well. When men in after times 
shall look back to the annals of England for examples of energy 
and public virtue among those who have raised this country to 
her station on the earth, no name will remain more conspicuous or 
more unsullied than that of Abthub Welleslet, the oreat Duke 
OP Wellington. The actions of his life were extraordinary, but 
his character was equal to his actions. He was the very type and 


model of an Englishmaii ; and though men are prone to invest 
the worthies of former ages with a dignity and merit thej com- 
monly withhold from their contemporaries, we can select none 
from the long array of our captains and our nobles who, taken for 
all in all, can claim a rivalry with him who is gone from amongst 
us, an inheritor of imperishable fame." 

[From « The Observer,'' Sept 19.] 

" * Difficile est communia dicere,* — There is nothing so difficult 
to treat of as that which fills every mind and influences every 
heart To dwell upon the character and exploits of the Duke of 
Wellington seems an easy task, from the simple greatness of that 
character, and the brilliant light in which these exploits were peiv 
formed in the face of the world. And yet the subject is not without 
its embarrassments. The greatest of these is perhaps the over- 
fruitful and abundant nature of the subject, and the difficulty of 
choice in the comments, as well as in the text itself. The deatli of 
the Duke of Wellington, although naturally not an unlooked-for 
event, has filled the world with awe as well as with surprise. The 
public appreciation of his services, and the almost unbounded ad- 
miration to which he had attained in the eyes of the people whom 
he had saved, and the generations which had profited by his 
services — and had time to forget his faults — are all easily expressed. 
There is nothing heard in Great Britain but one unbounded senti- 
ment of admiration. This unanimity forms in itself not the least 
difficult portion of the task of any person sitting down to expatiate 
upon the event, with which all alike, from the peer to the peasant, 
are full to overflowing. Everybody knows the subject; everybody 
feels it Everybody expresses his neighbour's thoughts, as well as 
his own ; and so one must s«em to do no more than iterate, in 
some difficult form of words, the thoughts, the sentiments, and the 
impressions of all. It is no wonder then, that the various forms of 
panegyric that have been exhausted over the great spirit that has 
departed, should seem somewhat tedious to those who think as 
one man, and yet each one is naturally anxious to add his mite to 
the general tribute of sorrow for the loss, which is no less felt for 
being so long delayed, and to the universal burst of acclamation 
with which justice is done to the transcendent reputation, which 


was alwajTs large, but which onlj appeared to want the sanctity of 
death to make it immortal 

** The time for history is hardly come, at the mom^it of be- 
reayement. The reverence due to the dead is more than felt in 
the case of this most illustrious departed. The words of reverential 
gratitude are at once the most graceful and the most appropriate. 
It is a scene, and a moment, in which criticism may well be silent; 
and the bare recapitulation of the actions in peace and war of the 
statesman and the soldier is the best commentary upon his long 
and eminently useftil life. 

** The Duke of Wellington is obviously viewed in his two 
capacities, civil and military. 

^* The largest share of glory ha$ attended him in his military 
successes. Yet it might not be too much to say that he scarcely 
deserved less of his country in the civil service of the Crown and 
the Parliament, than he did in the well-fought fields of glory where 
he earned his great renown. Although the army became his pro- 
fession, it can scarcely be called his first For in early life he 
was at three different periods employed in the service of the 
Government in the immediate country of his birth. He was, at 
intervals, in the household of the Lord Lieutenant of beland when 
a boy, from which he received his first commission in the army. 
Secondly, he became Aide-de-camp to another Lord Lieutenant 
And, thirdly, after the Union, he was for some time Secretary for 
Ireland; a post which has been filled in succession by some of the 
most eminent statesmen of our time, including his own brother, 
Mr. Wellesley Pole (Lord Maryborough), his earliest friend. Lord 
Castlereagh, Sir R. Peel, Lord Derby, Sir Henry Hardinge, and 
many others closely connected with him in political life. It is a 
remarkable incident, that his first appearance in the Irish Par- 
liament was to move the Address in answer to the Royal Message 
in 1793, advising the Irish Parliament to relax the more stringent 
of the Penal Laws among the Roman Catholics. He gave to this 
measure of concession a most emphatic support Amongst other 
things, the Electoral Franchise that the Roman Catholics of Ireland 
obtained, nearly half-a-century later — the full equalisation of Civil 
Rights ; and again, the Duke of Wellington, Prime Minister of 
Great Britain and Ireland, was the most prominent as well as the 
most powerful instrument to carry out to its full completion, in the 


fatness of his own power and glory^ the policy with which he first 
started as a youth in political life. He had resisted the claims of 
the Roman Catholics to equal privileges, although often urged by 
the most eloquent and able men in the British Senate of all political 
parties in the state. The good sense and the good feeling, too, of 
the Duke saw that the time was coming for settling this great 
question, and also saw that the only way was to settle it completely, 
and at once, and for ever. 

** Of his military renown, however, it is more easy to speak, for 
on this ground, whatever might have been with imperfect know- 
ledge the small criticisms ancL doubts of his commanding capacity, 
there is no longer a second opinion in any quarter worthy of notice. 
With some slight exceptions in France, and, we are sorry to say, 
in Ireland — the genius and perseverance of the Duke of Welling- 
ton stamps him as the greatest commander of any age or country. 
The Mahratta War was all his own in conception, as well as in 
execution, and has rendered all subsequent operations m India 
comparatively easy, and almost matter of routine. His first en- 
gagement, as Ck>mmander at Assaye, is scarcely second in many 
particulars to the crowning glory at Waterloa But it is the 
several campaigns in the Peninsula that make and mark the man. 
Contending against superior force, he was no less great in watching 
his opportunity for assault, than in the vigour and bravery with 
which the assault was invariably made. His patience was as re- 
markable as lus courage in the conduct of that long war. He 
had, it is true, the confidence of his Government, the advice and 
assistance of his accomplished brother the Marquis Wellesley. He 
had the able co-operation of the Foreign Secretary, and the 
Secretary at War, whose ability he never forgot in all political 
differences. — He had a friendly population, and a powerful, though 
not always steady aid, firom the inveterate hostility of the Portu- 
guese and Spaniards to their invaders. He had the sea open for 
his supplies. All these aids he undoubtedly had. But where was 
the man who could make such undeviating and successful use of 
them? We are sorry, therefore, to see even the slightest shade of 
envy sought to be thrown over the brilliancy of such a career. He 
was a good and a great man. He, too, has gone to his long rest, 
adorned, not with honours, dignities, and renown alone, but covered 
with the gratitude and love of a bereaved and sorrowing people." 


[^From the Weekly JDispatclu] 
" The death of the Duke of Wellington has proved to all the 
greatness of his life. Nothing could be more quiet — ^let us not be 
misunderstood in using the word — ^more common-place, than his 
closing scene: there was no climax, no catastrophe, no heroic 
sacrifice in battle, like the fall of Nelson ; no exhaustion by stem 
mental strife, as in the fates of Pitt and Canning ; no sudden stroke 
of unforeseen accident, as we misterm it, as in the loss of Peel. 
The Duke died at an age when death must, in ordinary cases, 
have been long expected— of a disease that often strikes old age 
fatally— epilepsy ; and this was caused probably by a paroxysm of 
the morbid appetite for food, which it is especially necessary to 
guard against at that period of life. His danger, if we may 
believe the accounts, was apparent to himself, and much under- 
rated by the apothecary who was summoned, Mr. Hulke, although 
that person had attended him on the occasion of a previous similar 
attack. However, the Duke has quitted life, as far as we may 
pronounce, for another, happily ; in the ftdness of years, and with- 
out the painftd and humiliating decline of faculties. He has died 
a natural death, and, we hope, a very easy one. The time of his 
ceasmg to breathe could not be exactly determined. And so 
passing away, with as little to startle in the event as death can 
bring, the event itself causes one deep, strong, unanimous sensa- 
tion. What may be the efiPect in other lands we know not — ^we 
almost care not; the great country which he served is enough to 
estimate his memory and to treasure it He has, as much as one 
man can embody a common cause, saved Europe; but we do not 
expect Europe to repay its debt, or even to understand it It was 
the single misfortune of the Duke's life that he served those who 
were every way less worthy than himself. In this we do not 
speak of the nations he so mainly helped to redeem from in- 
tolerable and disgraceful bondage, but of those who led and 
represented them. In England he has long been looked upon as 
a piece of living history. The past had more of him in men's 
minds than the present, but, had a present arisen that needed his 
help, the old faith in him would have been shown, as of old. 
Indeed, in the two latest crises of our policy, both within the 
period of the shortest memory, he was looked to as the arbiter of 
all differences. The Russell Ministry could scarcely rule, and 


none were ready to succeed them; the Duke's moral authority 
composed the difficulty^ and on the weight of his decision the effete 
continued in power. The nation was in possible peril from the 
freaks of irregular and unscrupulous authority in France; all 
sane men asked^ What insurance against the danger will the Duke 
think sufficient? He had not outlived his service or his fame; 
and he dies when neither could have been much increased. 
Moreover^ he passes from us at a time when all enmity and all 
envy are disarmed — ^when he is understood as he would desire to 
be. This is great fortune. The earlier part of his European 
career was subject to all the spleen of party. The somewhat 
shallow, and the not-too-honest persons, who then represented the 
people's cause, never divided or classed the progress of the French 
Revolution and its consequences. In the origin of the great war, 
which was only stayed, till 1814, by a hollow truce, the French, 
maddened and brutalised as they were by the education of serfs, 
fought for the inherent rights of mankind against the paltriest and 
most presumptuous usurpers of them. They claimed national 
existence against the miserable conspirators of Pilnitz. Disgraced 
as their cause might be, it was, in its main essentials, holy. The 
disgusting egotism of many individuals polluted it ; the horrible 
selfishness of one engulfed it Men who are striving against the 
charlatan tyrannies of Napoleon the Little should begin by rightly 
estimating him whom, for antithesis sake, they call Napoleon the 
Great. That Napoleon substituted bloodglory for the defence of 
patriots and freemen ; he substituted aggression, lust of conquest, 
brigandage, for republican virtue ; he derided equality, and threw 
baubles to dupes as badges of slavery ; he, the ancient enemy of 
France by blood and feeling, the avenger of Paoli — he, the 
Corsican, the son of a conquered land, whose schoolboy dreams 
were hatred to his island's oppressors — crushed France and stood 
upon its ruins, its possessor, its tyrant, governing the estate and 
the human cattle upon it with skill indeed, but with skill exerted 
only for his own personal purposes. France was liis, and that 
was the sum of his regard for it But half-minded men never 
analyse causes; when party spirit works, they wilfully confase 
them. When Napoleon reigned, it was England fighting for 
existence against a tyranny as frightful as that which France had 
discomfited. France had taken the place of aggression. Our 


Liberals could not see this. To them, as to some Frenchmen of 
the present day, who^ as children, are unable to give up the 
bauble glories of the Empire, Napoleon was the vindicator of 
freedom against tyrants, the child of the Republic He hated and 
despised both. When Wellington entered the field of European 
contest, it was in opposition to the idol of these twaddling dra- 
matic romancers, these would-be politicians, who preferred a story- 
book in weekly or daily parts, in which their favourite might 
triumph, to the serious justice and the hard practical facts they 
had no skill to appreciate. They felt for Napoleon as they would 
feel for Madame Lafiarge or Ainsworth's Jack Sheppard. We 
are tracing Wellington's career in tracing these contrasts. He 
and Napoleon were indeed impelled on different courses in widely 
different spheres of action, but the moral distinction was as great 
as the material Wellington was no hero for slipslop senti- 
mentality. The Liberals of England thought that they were 
doing service to mankind when they were mocking at his plain, 
patient genius, and thwarting his efforts to arrest a plague that 
dazzled them by Bashing its influence in lightning meteors. But 
the English sympathy, the heart of the people, as we remember 
well, was with the English General. They did more than 
illuminate for his victories — they rejoiced in the apportionment of 
the rewards which they were well aware they had to pay. Even 
after the retreat from Moscow they could hMxily believe Napoleon 
Buonaparte to be anything less than personally invincible; but 
they honoured Wellington as the man that could beat all his 
generals. The cynical Opposition carped and hindered — the paltry 
Government was afraid of supporting to its utmost, and with frdl 
avowal, the soldier who did its choice unwonted honour. Wel- 
lington had to win success, that he might have the power to 
compel from his employers the means of success afterwards — ^and 
he did it He conquered reluctance at home as enemies abroad, 
and forced enthusiasm as well as victory. He has been compared 
to Napoleon : he should be contrasted with him. For ourselves, 
we decidedly say that he was the greater man. He undertook his 
task under all the obligations of morality and honour, and he beat 
the man who would own none of them. This ought never to be 
forgotten in the estimation of noted men. It is the first interest of 
mflnlrip^ to givc the prizc to those who deliberately choose to 


serve their fellows in compliance with the laws of right, and not 
to those who make mankind serve them in utter defiance of these 
laws. If merely to produce a given quantity of change, regardless 
of the means which bring it about, or the ends for which it is 
accomplished, be the measure of greatness, the conscienceless 
must transcend those who have conscience. Good is heavily 
weighted while evil is free. We are not comparing abilities, 
but deeds; the men as they stand in history self-sculptured. 
The use of all qualities is the glory of the possessors. Wel- 
lington and Buonaparte acted upon opposite principles; they 
never could have understood one another. Wellington's unselfish 
devotion was to his country, personified to him, as a soldier, 
in that country's Sovereign. If we could imagine him at a con- 
ference in another world, it would be carrying out the Queen's 
interests to the utmost of his power. Buonaparte so cx>mpletely 
mistook him, that one of his calculations was that the Wellesley 
family, after what they had achieved for England, must be ex- 
pecting to reign in it He could not understand the dignified 
humility of true glory, the fame that is won by working for a 
great cause without a second thought, — that imperishable and ever- 
honoured fame, that comes as an unsought accident to the per- 
formance of duty. Again, as a soldier, we cannot allow Wel- 
lington to be less than Napoleon's superior. The successes of 
Austerlitz and Jena were in a great degree Napoleon's own ; but 
even there he had no worthy competitors. At Marengo he was 
beaten. Desaix released him from defeat At Wagram he would 
have perished, with all his army, had the Archduke Charles 
trusted in his own victory. What Wellington achieved he owed 
to himself, even to the formation of his armies out of the most 
unpromising materials. Lamartine has thoroughly estimated him 
when^ in his narrative of the battle of Waterloo, he treats him as 
the most perfect and illustrious impersonation of the English cha- 
racter. Wellington despaired of nothing. He might be slain 
with his last follower, as he made up his mind to be at Waterloo, 
but he would not be beaten. When but one of his stafi^ was left 
beside him, and he was asked what was to be done in case of anv- 
thing happening to himself, he had but one order to give, — * to die 
to the last man.' Napoleon had won many a battle by outdaring 
his enemies; there was no suci tiling as outdaring Wellington. 


As be had been obliged to cover with his fame the sins of his 
patrons at the opening of his career, so he suffered in the disgrace 
of others when he had helj^ed to win Europe for them. The 
tyrants of the Holy Alliance made him appear an accomplice in 
their iniquity, though he was in nowise responsible for the abuse 
of the power which he had so mainly contributed to recover for 
them. This is admitted and comprehended now. When we turn 
to him as a statesman, we have the same character, but employed 
on a subject respecting which his mind was not specially instructed* 
There were the same sense of right, the same simple single- 
mindedness, the same disdain of hollow convention, the same 
disregard of personal consequences ; but there were, also, the pride 
of birth and the habit of aristocratic predilection, and the absence 
of philosophical training which might coimtervail them. What he 
could discern, he saw rightly ; but he could not see enough. In 
the case of Catholic emancipation he perceived a coming civil war, 
and with the courage that would rather bear obloquy than inflict 
such miseries as civil war entails, he magnanimously yielded his 
political preferences. Reform he opposed because he ' could not 
see how the king's government was to be carried on.' He pro- 
fessed no theoretical distinction of right ; he never said that the 
aristocracy ought, as a moral choice, to have the government of 
England : but he had a machine that would work, with which, 
indeed, he had secured England's safety in the Catholic emancipa- 
tion against England's will, and he did not wish to see the machine 
broken tiU he was sure that another could be provided. When 
the Reform Bill had done that, he accepted it, and, in his way, he 
did his best with it Never a violent partisan, in the latter years 
of his life he has been almost released from party altogether. As 
Commander-in-Chief he has independently pursued the good of the 
service, and applied the nation's forces to their most effectual pur- 
pose. He has been an arbiter between factions, with the power of 
the House of Lords to enforce his decrees. Of that institution he 
may almost be said to be the saviour, in moderating its opposition 
when opposition was most dangerous. The Peerage was in- 
stinctively grateful to him. He held its decisions often and 
continuously in the proxies he had in his pocket To the last it 
would have been a desperate attempt to move the Lords to thwart 
his will or oppose his judgment He had a veto, at leasts upon all 


that was proposed in the British Legislatare. He is gone. The 
Northmen's image of death is finer than that of other climes ; no 
skeleton, bat a gigantic figure that envelopes men within the mas- 
sive folds of its dark garment Wellington seems so enshrouded 
from ns, as the last of a mighty series, the greatest closing the 
procession. The robe draws round him and the era is past His 
offices and honours lie like a wreck and spoil on his empty path. 
They must only be taken up by worthy hands. It will be an 
additional reproach upon all insufficiency, that it struts in the 
garment of the Duke of Wellington. Royal personages are 
bruited as his successors in his greatest function, that of Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Let them shun the comparison. Let them 
pause before they revive ideas which it is wise in their order to 
obliterate. It will be difficult enough to arrange for the due per- 
formance of that anomalous office. We require at once a security 
that it should not be made an instnmient of party bribery by a 
Minister of War, and that it shall not be removed from the ani- 
madversions of public opinion in the House of Commons. There 
is a Gordian knot to be loosed as intricate as the East Indian 
government But, in any case, the Commandership must not be 
the prize of blood, or interest, or connexion. Prince Albert would 
begin his unpopularity by assuming such a dignity, to the exclu- 
sion of men who have earned their experience in hard soldierly life. 
The insult of placing the Duke of Cambridge in such a position is 
not to be surmised without proof. As to the minor means of 
patronage, even to the bestowal of the ribbon of the Grarter, we are 
entitled to demand a strict account There is no irresponsible 
patronage now. If an institution, even such as an order of chivalry, 
is to be upheld, it must be by associating to it only such as man- 
kind will willingly honour. If public assent does not confirm the 
new knight in his election, his companionship is disgraced. We 
know the suddenness of selfish action, or we should not advert to 
such topics in this article. By the memory of the past we charge 
the dispensers of the future. And here we pause, not from 
having exhausted our subject, but of necessity, being content, for 
the moment, to yield our concurrence in many points on which 
men are agreed, and to propound such differences as we need not 
fear to maintain. Many among our readers will have to talk of 
the subject of this article to satisfy the interest of children's 


children ; the best proof of the sincerity of present praises is our 
belief that his name will be spoken to children's children with in- 
creased reverence and affection.'' 

The following article from the "Assemble Nationale" is 
in striking and honourable contrast to the remarks which haye 
been made in some of the Paris journals. The "Assemble" 
says: — 

** Great men disappear, and eyery day witnesses the fall of the 
last illustrious personages who have been on the stage since the 
commencement of the present century. By the death of the Duke 
of Wellington, M. de Mettemich 13 the sole survivor of the political 
celebrities who remodelled the map of Europe at the Congress of 
Vienna. We have already spoken of the Duke of Wellington, 
and have retraced the principal circumstances of his glorious 
career. If we now return to this subject, it is to protest agsunst 
the bad taste of some journals, which, in order to flatter the cause 
which now triumphs, draws comparisons between the Duke of 
Wellington and Napoleon Buonaparte. We know nothing more 
odious than the judgments passed on illustrious contemporaries 
from the point of view of a narrow and unjust patriotism. This 
low rhetoric is of a nature to degrade us in the eyes of foreigners 
who read our journals, and who take them for the expression of 
public opinion. Every great nation, we know, is animated with a 
national spirit, which has its inevitable prejudices. France and 
England will never agree on the manner of judgmg Napoleon and 
the Duke of Wellington. Is it therefore impossible, by rising 
above those passions of circumstances, to arrive at the truth with 
regard to these two illustrious rivals? The year 1769 witnessed 
several glorious births, but certainly there was nothing more re- 
markable in that year than the simultaneous appearance on the 
stage of the world of the two men who were to meet at Waterloo. 
It appears that Providence proposed to balance one by the other — 
to oppose to a great genius one of a quite contrary character, and 
to bring in contact qualities and gifts of the most dissimilar kind. 
The principal characteristics of the genius of Napoleon were a 
prodigious and insatiable imagination, aspiring to the impossible, 
the most vast and flexible faculties, but also a singular mobility 


of ideas and impressions. A solid judgment, a cool reason, a 
wonderful justness of perception both on the field of battle and in 
the cabinet, the most penetrating good sense, amounting to a power 
which became genius,' a perseverance which nothing could tire or 
turn aside, and the most unshakeable finnness in great dangers — 
such are some of the points which give the Duke of Wellington 
such a prominent figure in the history of the nineteenth century. 
It was at a giant's pace that Napoleon ran through a career which 
was to lead him for a moment to the head of human things. By 
the rapidity of his ascent he dazzled the world, and everything 
with him took the character of a magic improvisation. His rival, 
on the contrary, rose with patient and modest slowness by a coura- 
geous reflection. He never drew back, however ; he always went 
forward, and his glory followed a progression which escaped all 
reverses. To speak warmly to the imagination of men, to fascinate 
them, to excite their enthusiasm, and to labour by every means to 
inspire them with an admiration, mingled with a little terror, was 
the constant study of Napoleon, who was far from disdaining artifice 
to effect his purpose. The Duke of Wellington never thought 
but of speaking to the reason ; he was never seen to do anything 
in a theatrical manner. Duty was the only rule which he admitted 
and which he imposed on others. He had a horror of charla- 
tanism and falsehood. He never sought to excite his soldiers, but 
sometimes he reminded them that they had to shed their blood 
because it was their duty. No astonishment will therefore be felt 
at the difference in the eloquence and the style of the two Generals. 
In the proclamations of Napoleon, particularly in those of the 
campaigns of Italy, is to be found a powerful orator, who, in the 
manner of the ancients, engraves great images in the minds of 
those to whom he addresses himself. The orders of the day, the 
dispatches, and the reports of the Duke of Wellington, were 
written with a cold and austere simplicity. No scope is given to 
effect — everything is positive and true. The Emperor Napoleon 
and the Duke of Wellington were not only great captains, they 
have also been both called on to play great political parts. 
History will perhaps decide, that in Buonaparte the organiser was 
equal to the conqueror. It must not, however, be forgotten, that 
the possession and the use of sovereign power smoothed down 
many obstacles. With despotism great things are often easy. 


It was in a free country that daring thirty-seven years, irom 1815 
to 1852, the Duke of Wellington enjoyed an unequalled influence 
and authority. Placed by his birth, and more particularly by hia 
glory, at the head of the English aristocracy, he belonged, truly 
speaking, to no party. It may be said that, in the bosom of the 
constitutional liberty of his country, the Duke of Wellington 
exercised a kind of moral dictatorship. The assistance which he 
was able to give or to withhold from the Goyemment was immense. 
Although naturally (Conservative by his principles and the nature 
of his genius, the Duke of Wellington did not, however, hesitate to 
propose to the Crown and to Parliament the emancipation of the 
Catholics. In his eyes that reform was politic, just, and necessary. 
But his opinion was very different with regard to Parliamentary 
Reform, which appeared to him to change the political constitution 
of Old England, and to threaten her with serious dangers. Was 
he mistaken? The future alone can decide. We only now 
witness the first consequences of Parliamentary Reform, and 
twenty years have scarcely passed since the Duke of Wellington 
opposed it in the House of Lords. We must wait for a longer 
trial, remarking, however, that the symptoms already seen are far 
from impeaching the foresight of the illustrious statesman. If at 
any fiiture period England should find herself exposed to any great 
danger, either at home or abroad, her ideas would certainly revert 
to the man who, for sixty years, served and defended her. She 
will appreciate still more that wise, firm, and sober genius, who 
never allowed himself either to be intimidated or to be excited, and 
whose moderation was rewarded by such a splendid destiny. The 
end and fall of the Emperor Napoleon are the last points of 
contrast which we pointed out at the outset The Emperor fell, 
the scaffolding crumbled away, and he who raised it with heroic 
temerity only survived his irreparable shipwreck for a few years 
in exile. His fortunate rival, after a day by which the face of 
Europe was changed, saw^ open before him another career, which 
procured for him a new glory between peace and liberty, and 
which has only just finished in the midst of the unanimous regret 
and the gratitude of a great country. Is not such a lesson a 
striking proof of the final ascendancy of reason and of good sense 
over all the boldness and the flights of imagination and of genius ? 
The contrast of these two destinies, and these two great historical 


figures^ has appeared to us too instmctive not to be rapidly 
sketched, and, in drawing the comparison, we have set passion 
aside, and have only sought for trutL" 

Oor immortal poet, Spenser, in describing his beau idial of an 
English Gentleman and Warrior, involmitarily, or prophetically it 
might almost be said, summed up the character of the greatest 
Warrior of our times:— 

" WhoeTer gave more honourable prize 

To the sweet muse, than did the martial crew ; 

That their brave deeds she might immortalize 

In her shrill tromp, and sound their praises due ? 

Who then ought more to favour her, than you, 

Most Noble Lord, the honour of this age. 

And precedent of all that arms ensue ? 

Whose warlike prowess and manly courage. 

Tempered with reason and advisement sage. 

Hath filled sad Belgic with victorious spoil ; 

In France and India left a famous gage. 

And lately shook the Lusitanian soil." * 
" « « * « n noble peer, 

Great England's glory, and the world's wide wonder, 

Whose dreadful name late thro' all Spain did thunder, 

And Hercules' two pillars standing near. 

Did make to quake and fear : 

Fair branch of honour, flower of chivaliy ! 

That flllest England with thy triumph's fame, 

Joy have thou of thy noble victory, 

And endless happiness of thy own name 

That promiseth the same ; 

That through thy prowess and victorious arms 

Thy country may be freed from foreign harms. 

And BritaifCt great and glorious name may ring 

Through all the world, fill'd with thy wide alarms 

Which some brave Muse may sing 

To ages following." f 

The last honours to be paid to his remains and memory are, 
by her Majesty's desire, left to the gratitude and good feeling of 
his countiy to declare, and will be loyally and enthusiastically 

• Edmund Spenser, author of Faerie Queen : " Lines to Sir John Noma." 

f Edmund Spenser: ^ Prothalmion," 145. 


responded to by Parliament The decision of her Majesty is clearly 
and forcibly expressed through the following elegantly-expressed 
letter fix)m Liord Derby : — 

[From the Morning HeraldJ] 

"' Tothe Eight Hon. Spencer H. Walpole, Secretary of the Home 


"'Balmoraly Sept 20, 1862. 

" * Sir, — Her Majesty received with grief, on Thursday last, 
the aflBicting intelligence of the sudden death of the late Duke of 

'' ^ Although the Queen could not for a moment doubt that the 
Toice of the country would be unanimous upon the subject of the 
honours to be paid to the memory of the greatest man of the age, 
her Majesty considered it due to the feelings of his Ghrace's sur- 
viying relatiyes that no steps should be taken, even in his honour, 
without their approving concurrence; and accordingly, in the 
same feelings, in obedience to her Majesty's commands, I wrote to 
Ixnrd Charles WeUesley (the present Duke not having returned to 
England), to ascertain whether the late Duke had left any direc- 
tions, or whether his family desired to express any wish on the 
subject; and suggesting the course which appeared to her Majesty 
best calculated to give expression to those feelings, in which the 
nation, as one man, will sympathise with her Majesty. 

" ' Having this day received letters from the present Duke 
and his brother, to the effect that the late Duke had left no direc^ 
tions on the subject, and placing themselves wholly in her Majesty's 
hands, I hasten to relieve the public anxiety by signifying to you, 
for general information, the commands which I have received from 
her Majesty. 

'' ' The great space which the name of the Duke of Wellington 
has filled in the history of the last fifty years — ^his brilliant achieve- 
ments in the field — ^his high mental qualities — his long and fidthfrd 
services to the Crown — his untiring devotion to the interests of his 
country — constitute claims upon the gratitude of the nation, which 
a public frmeral, though it cannot satisfy, at least may serve to 

^' ' Her Majesty is well aware that, as in the case of Lord 
Nelson, she might, of her own authority, have given immediate 


orders for this public mark of veueration for the memory of the 
illustrious Duke, and has no doubt but that Parliament and the 
country would cordially have approved the step ; but her Majesty, 
anxious that this tribute of regard and sorrow should be deprived 
of nothing which could invest it with a thoroughly national cha- 
racter — anxious that the greatest possible number of her subjects 
should have an opportunity of joining it — and anxious, above all, 
that such honours should appear to emanate from the general will, 
and that the two Houses of Parliament should have an opportunity, 
by their approving sanction, of stamping the proposed ceremony 
with increased solemnity, and of associating themselves with her 
Majesty in paying honour to the memory of one whom tio English- 
man can name without pride and sorrow. 

** * The body of the Duke of Wellington will remain, therefore, 
with the concurrence of the family, under proper guardianship, at 
Walmer Castle, until the Queen shall have received the formal 
approval of Parliament to the course which it will be the duty of 
her Majesty's servants to submit to both Houses upon their re- 
assembling. As soon as possible after that approval shall have 
been obtained, it is her Majesty's wish, should no unforeseen impe- 
diment arise, that the mortal remains of the late illustrious and 
venerated Commander-in-Chief should, at the public expense, and 
with all the solemnity due to the moumiulness of the occasion, be 
deposited at the Cathedral Church of St Paul's, there to rest by 
the side of Nelson — the greatest Military by the side of the greatest 
Naval Chief who ever reflected lustre upon the annals of England* 
*' * I have the honour to be. Sir, 

** * Your most obedient humble servant, 

" * Derby.' " 

** Mr. Secretary Walpole, we understand, this morning, sent 
down an express telegraph message to Walmer Castle, that a 
guard of honour should immediately be placed near the body of 
the illustrious Duke ; which of course was immediately done, and 
where it will remain as guardians of the public trust until her 
Majesty's further commands shall be made known upon the 

The fiineral is fixed for Thursday, the 18th of November, and 
will be conducted with all the splendour and solemnity which the 


wealth and sorrow of the nation can impart. Generals and other 
officers from the various Foreign Powers have been deputed to 
attend, to mark the sympathies of the various Governments by 
assisting at the mournful ceremony. 

The armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Hanover, Spain, and 
Portugal, have each already shown their respect to his memory, 
by ordering their respective armies to wear mourning for three 

The following order of proceeding in the public funeral of the 
late Field-marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington, K.G., to be 
solemnised in St Paul's Cathedral on Thursday, the 18th day of 
November, 1852, was issued by the authority of the Earl Marshal 
on November 5th: — 


On the eTening of Wednesday, the 17th of NoTember, the remains of Field- 
marshal, Arthur, Dnke of Wellington, K.G., will be removed, nnder an escort of 
cavaliy, from the Hall of Chelsea Hospital to the Andienoe-room of the Horse 
Guards ; and on the following morning, at half-past seven o'clock, the procession 
having been formed in St James's Park, will proceed up Constitntion Hill, through 
Piccadilly, by St. James's Street, along Pall Mall, Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, 
and the Strand, to Temple Bar, and thence to the Cathedral Church of St Paul, in 
the following order : — 

Infamihy — Six Battalions, consisting of 

Three Battalions of Her Miyesty's Regiments of Guards. 

One Battalion of Her Majesty's S3d Foot 

One Battalion of the Royal Marines. 

One Battalion of the Rifle Brigade. 

Each Battalion of 600 strong, making 8600. 

Cavalbt — ^Eight Squadrons, consisting of 

Three Squadrons of Her Migesty's Life Guards ; 

Five Squadrons of Cavalry, making 640 Swords. 

Abtillery — Seventeen Guns of the Royal Artilleiy. 

Marshalmen on Foot 

Messenger of the College of Arms on Foot 

Eight Conductors with Staves on Foot 

Chelsea Pensioners in number eighty-three on Foot 

Twelve Enrolled Pensioners on Foot 

One Soldier from every Regiment in Her Majesty's service. 

Three Trumpets and One Kettledrum. 

Two Pursuivants-at-Arms in a Mourning Coach. 


Carried by a Lieutenant-Colonel, supported by two Captains in the Army on 


In a Mouming Coach. 

Ixxyiii ufe of wsllinoion. 

Serrants of the Deceased in a Mourning Coach. 

Lieutenant and Deputy-Lieutenant of the Tower. 

Deputations from Public Bodies in Carriages. 

Merchant Taylors' Company. 

East India Company. 

Corporation of the Trinity House. 

Barona and Officers of the Cinque Ports, 

With the 

lieutenant and Deputy-lieutenant of Dorer Castle. 

Captains of Deal, Wahner, Sandgate, and Sandown Castles. 

Board of Ordnance and Ordnance Department. 

Delegation f^m the University of Oxford, in Two Carriages. 

Deputation ftotn. the Common CouncU of the City of London, in Three Carriages. 

(Will fall in here after the Procession has passed through Temple Bar.) 

Three Trumpets. 

Two Pursuivants-at-Arms in a Mouming Coach. 


Carried by a lieutenant-Colonel, supported by two Captains in the Army on 

Controller of the lata Duke's Household in a Mouming Coach. 
Physicians to the Deceased in a Mouming Coach. 
Chaplain of the Tower, ^ 

Chaplain of the Forces in the 

London District, 
Chaplain-General of the Forces, 

High Sheriff of the County of Southampton. 

Sherifb of London in Two Carriages. 

Aldermen and Recorder of London ; a Deputation consisting of Four Carriages. 

[Will fall in here alter the Procession has passed through Temple Bar.] 

Companions of the Order of the Bath, represented by Four, in One Carriage. 

[Members of the House of Commons have Seats reserved 

for them in the Cathedral.] 

Knights Commanders of the Order of the Bath, represented 

by Four, in One Carriage. 

Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, represented by Four, in One 

Caniage, in each Class, one from the Army, one from the Navy, one from 

the East India Company's Service, and one from the Civil Service. 

Three Trumpets. 

Heralds in a Mouming Coach. 


Carried by a Lieutenant-Colonel, supported by two Captains 

in the Army on Horseback. 

The Lords Justices of Appeal. 

Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 

Master of the Rolls. 

Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench. 

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. 


The Paymaster-General of the Forces. 

The Bight Hon. the Secretary-at-War. 

The Right Hon. the Jndge-Advocate-General. 

Master-General of the Ordnance. 
First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty. 
Secretaries of State for the Home and Colonial Departments. 
[Speaker of the House of Commons, if not with the House.] 




irill have seats reserved in the Cathedral. 

Earl of Malmesbury, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 
Earl of Derby, First Lord Commissioner of the Treasury. 

Earl Marshal of England. 

Lord Great Chamberlain. 

Lord Privy SeaL 

Lord President of the Council. 

Lord Archbishop of York. 

Lord High Chancellor. 

Lord Archbishop of Canterbuzy. 

[At Temple Bar, the Lord Mayor, carrying the City Sword, will join in the 


Military Secretary. 

Assistant Quarter- Assistant 

"o master-GeneraL Adjutant-GeneraL § 

-g Aide-de-Camp to Aide-de-Camp to ^ 

§ the Deceased. the Deceased. | 

& Deputy Quartermaster- Deputy-Adjutant- c 

§ General. General. % 

Quarter-master-General. Adjutant-GeneraL 

His Boyal Highness Prince Albebt, in a carriage drawn by Six Horses ; 

attended by the Lord Chamberlain of Her Majesty's Household, and the Groom 

of the Stole to his Boyal Highness. 

A Second Carriage with other Attendants. 

A Third Carriage with other Attendants. 

Four Trumpets. 

Seijeant Trumpeter. 


Norroy King of Arms in a Mourning Coach. 


Carried by a Colonel, supported by two Lieutenant-Colonels on Horseback. 

[Here, on reaching the Cathedral, the Dignitaries of the Church, meeting the 

Body at the West Door, full in.] 


The B&ton of the Deceased, as Field-Marshal, borne on a Black Velvet Cushion 

in a Mourning Coach, by the Marquis of Anglesey, K.G. 

Gentleman '^^® Coronet of the Deceased, borne on a Black Gentleman 

^ , Velvet Cushion in a Mourning Coach, by Usher 

Clarenceux King- at- Arms. 


The Pallbearen, Eight General Officers, in Two Mooming Coaches. 

■? ►. THE BODY, o3' 

S ^ J Covered with a rich Black Velvet Pall, S ? » 

"^ A) 9 aj|/u«iAi1 until ITaAnfAKAAiika ^u 9 P 

» « J adonied vith Escutcheons, U "^ b 

|.s§ '^p^^* i a 

g B n Fnneral Car, drawn by Twelve Horses, ^ gi" 

^ J g decorated with Trophies and • a a 

^ O Heraldic Achievements. «< <^ 

fN *< 

Gentleman Garter Principal King of Gentleman 

Usher. Arms, in a Mourning Coach. Usher. 


In a long Mourning Cloak, 

Supporter, his Train borne by Supporter, 

the Marquis of the Hon. the Marquis of 

Salisbury. William Wellesley. Tweeddale. 

Ten Assistants to the Chief Mourner. 

Relations and Friends of the Deceased. 

The late Duke's Horse, led by the Groom to the Deceased. 

Offloers and Men from eveiy Regiment in the Service ; consisting of one Captain, 

a Subaltern, a Sergeant, a Corporal, and five men from every Regiment, 

with Bands, representing eveiy such Regiment. 

Carriages of the Queen and of the Royal Family. 

Troops to close the Procession. 

At Temple Bar the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of London, attended by the 
Recorder, and a Deputation from the Aldermen, by the Sheriffs, and a Deputation 
from the Common Council, will receive the procession. 

The three carriages containing the Deputation from the Common Council will 
fall into the procession immediately after the delegation from the University of 
Oxford. The six carriages of the Sheriffs and Aldermen will fall into the pro- 
cession between the carriage of the High Sheriff of the county of Southampton 
and that containing the Companions of the Bath, which positions will be indicated 
by a conductor on horseback. 

In order to give space for the admission of the carriages of the Common 
Council, of the Sheri£&, Recorder, and Aldermen, the second Mourning Coach 
and the carriage of the Companions of the Order of the Bath will respectively 
halt until those carriages have taken their rank in the procession. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, bearing the City Sword, will be placed 
between the carriage of his Royal Highness Prince Albert and that of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. 

Upon arrival at St. Paul's Cathedral the Marshalmen and conductors will 
diride and range themselves on each side at the foot of the steps without the 
great west door : the Chelsea and enrolled Pensioners, together with the soldiers 
from every regiment in Her Mi^esty's service (two officers from eveiy regiment 
having been previously provided with seats in the nave behind the place assigned 
to the soldiers), proceeding into the nave, will file off right and left; the rest of 
the procession, having alighted, will move forward in order to the west door of 


the cburcb, on entering which they will proceed up the nave. The officers of 
arms, the officers bearing the banners with their supporters, and the officers of 
the late Duke's household, mil take their places in the area. 

The deputations and delegations from public bodies, the officers of the Tower 
of London and of Dover Castle, the c&stles of Deal, Walmer, Sandgate, and 
Sandown, the Barons and Officers of the Cinque Ports, tlie Physicians of the 
deceased, Chaplains, and the High Sheriff of the county of Southampton, will be 
conducted to their seats. The Common Council, Sheriffis, Recorder, Aldermen, 
and Lord Mayor, will proceed to their own seats. The Companions, Knights 
Commanders, and Knights Grand Cross of the Bath, representing the Order of 
the Bath, will be conducted to the seats appropriated to them ; the Lords 
Justices, the Master of the Bolls, the Chief Baron and Chief Justices, the other 
official personages, Ministers, and great officers of State, will also be conducted to 
the seats appropriated to them respectively. 

His Royal Highness Prince Albert will be seated in a chair on the right hand 
of the chief mourner; the suite of his Royal Highness will take their places near 
his Royal Highness. 

The body, when taken from the car, will be received by the Dean and Preben- 
daries, attended by the choir, and borne into the church, attended and supported 
as follows :-.. 

The Spurs, borne by York Herald. 

The Helmet and Crest, borne by Richmond Herald. 

The Sword and Target, borne by Lancaster Herald. 

The Surooat, borne by Chester Herald. 

Foreign Bfttons. 

The B&ton of the Deceased, as Field-Marshal, borne by the 

Marquis of Anglesey, K.G. 
The Coronet and Cushion, borne by Clarencenx King-of-Aims. 


•gill THE BODY. ^^ta» 


" § 

The remainder of tlie Procession will follow as before marshalled. 

The Supporters of the Pall will be seated on stools on each side of the body. 
The Officers bearing the bannerols will be ranged behind the supporters of the pall. 

The Chief Mourner will be seated in a chair at Uie bead of the body, his sup- 
porters on either side, tlie trainbearer behind, and the assistant-mourners upon 
stools, also on eitlier side. The relations and friends of the deceased will take 
their places behind the Chief Mourner. 

The body being placed on a bier, and the pall being removed, the coronet and 
cushion will be placed on the coffin, as also the Field-Marshal's b&ton of the 

The foreign b&tons will be held during the ceremony by military officers of 
high rank in the respective armies of the different foreign Powers, and they, with 
the Marquis of Anglesey, will occupy stools at the foot of the coffin. 


The pari of the sexriee before the interment and the anthem being performecU 
the body will be deposited in the vault, and the sernce being ended, Garter irill 
proclaim the style, and the Controller of the deceaaed, breaking his stafi; will give 
the pieces to Garter, by whom they will be deposited in the grave. 


General Viscount Combermere, G.C.B. and G.G.H. 

General Marquis of Londonderry, G.C.B. and G.G.H. 

General Viscount Hardinge, G.C.B. 

lieutenant-General Lord Seaton, G.C.B., G.C., M.G., and G.C.H., Ac. 

Lieutenant- General Viscount Gough, G.C.B., &c. 

Lieutenant-General Sir Charles J. Napier, G.C.B. 

Lieutenant- General Sir J. L. Lushington, G.C.B. 

Lieutenant-General Sir G. Pollock, G.C.B. 

MiOor-^«Qe"^ Sir Hany G. W. Smith, Bart., G.C.B. 

(From the United Service Gazette,) 

An order was sent fh>m the Commander-in-Chief *s-office on Thursday, by oom- 
mand of her Majeuty, that one field-ofiQcer, one captain, one lieutenant or subaltern, 
one sergeant, one corporal, and six privates, from each regiment or d^p6t in the 
United Kingdom and Channel Islands, shall attend and take part in the ceremony. 
But last night the above order was so far changed that, instead of six privates, a 
squadron of each regiment of cavalry and a company of each regiment of infantry 
shall attend. The 33d Regiment, the late Duke's favourite, will furnish 540 men, 
exclusive of the band. 

The Duke was married 10th April, 1806, to the Honourable 
Catherine Pakenham, third daughter of Edward Lord Longford; 
and by her (who died 24th April, 1831) had two sons : Arthur, 
the present and second Duke of Wellington, bom 3d Feb. 1807, 
and married, 18th April, 1839, the Lady Elizabeth Hay, fourth 
daughter of George, Marquis of Tweeddale. 

Charles, bom 16th January, 1808, M.P. for the borough of 
New Windsor ; married, 9th July, 1844, Augusta Sophia Anne, 
only child of the Right Hon. Henry Manvers Pierrepoint, and 
niece of Earl Manvers; and has issue, Arthur, bom May 5, 1845, 
and other children. 



November 19, 1852. 

A BBiEF description of the last honours paid to the remains of 
the illustrious dead may not be now thought inappropriate, written 
partly firom personal observation, and completed by reference to 
the published accounts. 

On Thursday, Nov. 18, the Amend procession started &om the 
Horse Guards. The weather, which had for weeks before been 
unpropitious, on this mormn^ brightened, and the sun's beams shed 
a brilliancy on the moumfid procession, and, without decreasing 
from the solemnity of the scene, enabled the countless multitudes 
assembled on each side of the line of route to view with comfort 
the splendid pageant — ^vanity of vanities to the chief object con- 
cerned, but the only means left by survivors to show the respect 
and attachment of a grateftd people. 

The gloom, which threatened in the early morning, had cleared off, 
as, punctual to the moment appointed, the word of command was 
shouted from column to column, and the band of the 3d Battalion of 
the Rifle Brigade struck up the '' Dead March in Saul," and with 
silent, solemn precision the Brigade filed off, with arms reversed, in 
slow step, at a rate which, continued throughout the procession, might 
be calciJated as about one mile an hour. Scarcely had the roll of the 
muffled drums died away, than the band of the 1st Battalion of Royal 
Marines took up the strain, and the Marines fell in, and continued the 
procession at an equal pace. They were followed, as we have stated 
above, by another band, that of the 38d Regiment, and the Regiment 
itself, which enjoyed the pririlege of joining entire in the procession, as 
being that in which the late noble Duke had held his first commission, 
and from which circumstance they were regarded with unusual interest 
by the bystanders. When the two united bands of the Scots Fusiliers 
and Coldstream Guards joined in the ''Dead March," it was remarkable 
what a different effect they produced to the other bands, and how their 
precision and tone gave double power to this fine specimen of classic 
music. It then became noticeable, as regiment after regiment filed off 
in long order, without a check' or a lapse, what care had been evinced 
by the Duke of Cambridge in the necessary manoeuvres, and with what 
sedulous attention he watched the result. The troops for the day had 
been placed under his grace's command, and he was anxious to acquit 
himself of so heavy a responsibility with credit to himself and the 
service. Certainly a finer set of men were never brought together, and 
never did men acquit themselves so weU as the horse and foot engaged 
in the soldier triumph of the Wellington funeral. The Horse Guards 
(Blue), the Life Guards, the 8th Hussars, and the 6th Dragoons con- 
stituted a cavalry brigade, of which any nation might well be proud ; 
nor did the soldiers throughout the day belie their character as citizens 
partaking the triumph of England's greatest warrior. 




The banners, borne by different distinguished officers, added largely 
to the splendour of the scene, and many were the sympathies as one 
after the other of the yeteran companions of the Duke in many a bloody 
field were announced as taking part in this procession. Another cir- 
cumstance excited greatly the feelings of the assembled multitudes. 
This was tiie charger of the late Duke, clothed with his Field-marshal s 
saddle, and carrying in the stirrups his spurred boots reversed. The 
noble animal seemed to feel the moumM interest of the scene, and 
held down his head as if he, too, could lament the loss of so good and 
noble a master. Nor must we omit to allude to a group which excited 
more than usual attention. We allude to the Chelsea pensioners, 83 
in number, as typical of the years attained by the great general under 
whom they had served, drawn up between the statues of England s 
hapless King and the monument of her Naval Hero. It would be dif- 
ficult to mark amidst such a scene such a body of fine old veterans, 
who had fought and bled for England's gloiy, and bore on their breasts 
the well-won tributes of her gratitude, without some feelings of interest. 
There stood these brave fellows, headed by their captains, Davem and 
Evans, assembled to pay tbeir last tribute to the Great Departed ! 
They had as soldiers followed him in the hour of strife to victory, and 
as mourners did they now, in time of peace, follow him to his grave. 

But the object which excited the greatest curiosity was the gigantic 
car, which now reposed outside the Horse Guards, carefully shdftered 
from the weather under an awning of vast dimensions. This car was now 
in readiness for the great procession, the coffin having been raised upon 
it by an inclined pkme. The twelve black horses, clothed from head to 
foot in black velvet housings with silver fringe, were put to it, and the 
body of Wellington was on its last journey to its final home. The car, 
or catafalque, is a series of repetitions of designs, forming a majestic 
whole. In shape something like a railway carriage truck, it is a flat 
surfeu^e upon wheels, upon which is raised a golden dais, elaborately 
ornamented, and terminating in halberts, which support a rich tissue 
of woven black and gold, the latter predominating, and producing 
a lustrous effect over the whole. The wheels of the car are formed 
by repetition of truncated oaks, the circles of the wheels being formed 
by double dolphins extended between the points of the cross. 
These are of solid bronze, and the centre of each wheel is formed by 
a lion's head, sharply moulded and vigorous in model. These wheels 
are six in number, and the body of the truck is brought down between 
each of them, so as to take off that meagreness of outline which would 
be occasioned by mere straight lines upon wheels. In each department 
between the wheels is a figure of Victory, or Fame, holding in either 
hand a laurel and an olive. This figure is repeated in high relief, and 
larger proportions, upon each comer of the truck, which is also all of 
bronze. In the centre of the front rises a boldly-conceived design of 
the arms of the Wellington family, with the supporters. At each side 
of the dais was constructed a splendid military trophy, formed of two 
cuirasses, surmounted by a helmet. From these radiated, in the first 
instance, swords, bayonets, and other small arms ; the effect being com- 
pleted, on each side, by the flags of an inflEmtry regiment, beyond which 

FOSiscBiFr. Ixxxv* 

extended a cayalry ensign. The pyramidal foim of these trophies 
was artisticallj attained hy small drums under the flags, above which 
were deposited splendid arms, holsters, Ac., of Indian manufacture. At 
the oomers of the truck were laid, as if without art, heavy pieces of 
artillery, also of Eastern make. That nothing might be wanted to 
complete the illustration of the heroic character in this funeral car, the 
party to whom tins portion of the ornamentation had been entrusted, 
seized upon, with much elegance of taste, the exquisite allusion made 
to the laurel and cypress in Mr. Disraeli's late eloquent eulogium upon 
the Duke of Wellington. Wreaths of laurel and cypress were pendant 
on the side of the car, whilst garlands of bay were laid on other 
parts, and on the coflin and by its side were laid the palm, with crowns 
of immortelle. It may be interesting to note, that in obtaining this 
palm — the true date-palm that grows about Jerusalem — there was 
much difficulty, and it was only through the kindness of Sir William 
Hooker that a supply was obtained from the only available source — the 
gardens at Eew. At each side of the dais are Ave entablatures, each 
of them containing the titles of three victories gained by the late Duke. 

The funeral proc^sion entered the City at Temple Bar^ which 
had been draped with black, and hun^ with trophies, immortelles, 
&C., the whole surmounted by three onerary urns, richly silvered, 
where it was joined by the Civic authorities, and continued its 
conrse to the Cathedral Church of St. Paul's. 

The near approach of the car to the Cathedral having been an- 
nounced, the clergy and choristers, headed by the Bishop of London 
and the Dean of St, Paul's, all wearing white surplices, advanced from 
the choir to meet the coffin at the western entrance of the cathedral. 

The car was brought alongside the platform at half-past twelve 
o'clock ; but, owing to an unhappy hitch in the machinery, a delay of 
half an hour took place before the procession moved into the cathedraL 
When this little difficulty was obviated, and the maxshalling of the 
generals had been completed, the swelling strains of the choir were 
poured forth in the beautiful service commencing '* I am the resur- 
rection and the life," &c. The effect was magnificent. At the head of 
the procession walked the Right Hon. tiie Lord Mayor of the City of 
London, bearing the city sword, and preceded by the officers of the 
corporation. His Royal Highness Prince Albert followed, in the uni- 
form of a Field-marshal, supported by the Marquis of Exeter, as Lord 
Chamberlain, and the Marquis of Abercom, Groom of the Stole to his 
Royal Highness. The lords and gentlemen of the royal household 
were also in attendance on the Prince. H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge 
and his Serene Highness Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar followed the 
Prince Consort. Next after the royal mourners came the choristers. 

The coffin, resting upon a bier of nearly eight feet high, now came 
in view, moving almost imperceptibly along the nave. This was a most 
interesting moment. Upon the lid of the coffin were laid iiie Marshal's 
sword and hat, and as trifles in such moments, in relation to great 
events, assume an importance which may not belong to them, tiiere 
were few among those present who could see unmoved a light breeze 


rising at the moment impart a life-like motion to the plume of the 
hat resting on the dead warrior's hier. Nor was it the less affecting 
to see, apart from all consideration of their gallant deeds, the veteran 
companions in arms of the great captain crowded round, and advancing 
towards the grave, each with a hand upon his coffin. The names of 
these brave men — a portion of the history of our country's glory — 
are :— 

General Visoonnt Gombermere, O.C.B. lieat-Gen. Lord Seaton, G.C.B. 
General Marquis of Londonderry, G.G.B. Lieut- Gen. Sir A. Woodford, G.C.B. 
General Sir Peregrine Maitland, G.C.B. Lieut-Gen. Viscount Gough, G.C.B. 
General Visoonnt Hazdinge, G.C.B. Lieut-Gen. Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B. 

The ordinary service having been concluded by the Dean, Garter 
King at Arms came forward and pronounced, in a very effective manner, 
over the grave, the style and titles of the deceased Duke, as follows : — 

'* Thus it has pleased Almighty God to take out of this transitory life unto His 
divine meroy the late most high, mighty, and most noble Prince, 

Arthur, Duke and Marquess of Wellington, 

Marquess Douro, Earl of Wellington, Viscount Wellington, and Baron Douro. 

Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, 

Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, 

One of Her Majesty's Most Hon. Privy Council, and 
Field-Marshal and Commander-in-Chief of Her Mfiuestys Forces. 


Field-Marshal in the Austrian Anny, 

Field-Marshal of the Hanoverian Army, 

Field-Marshal of the Army of the Netherlands, 

Marshal-General of the Portuguese Army, 

field-Marshal of the Prussian Army, 

field-Marshal of the Russian Army, and Captain-General of the Spanish Army. 

Prince of Waterloo of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. 

Duke of Ciudad Bodrigo, and Grandee of Spain of the First Class. 

Duke of Vittoria, Marquess of Torres Vedras, and Count of Vimiero in Portugal 

Knight Grand Cross of the Lnperial Military Order of Maria Teresa of Austria. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Boyu Military Order of Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria. 

Knight of the Order of the Elephant of Denmark. 

Knight of the Order of St. Esprit of France. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphio Order. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of William of the Netherlands. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Portuguese Military 

Order of the Tower and Sw<»d. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Orders of the Black Eagle 

and of the Red Eagle of Prussia. 

Knight of the Imperial Orders of St Andrew, 

St Alexander Newski, and St George of Russia. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the Annunciation of Sardinia. 

Knight of the Royal Order of the Rue Crown of Saxony. 

Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece, and of 

the Military Orders of St Ferdinand and St. Hermenigilde of Spain. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal and Military Order of the Sword of Sweden. 

Knight of the Order of St Januarius, and of the Military Order dT St Ferdinand 

and of Merit of the Two Sicilies. 

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit of Wurtemberg. 

Knight of the Order of the Golden Lion of Hesse Cassel, and 

Knight Grand Cross of the Orders of Fidelity and of the Lion of Baden. 

The Bishop of London then pronounced the blessing, and the 
mourners presently retired. 




Gebhabdt Lbbbecht yon Blucheb^ descendant of a noble 
SEunily in the Duchy of Mecklenburg Schweriny was bom at 
Rostock, December 16, 1742, being the youngest of six brothers. 
His father was a Captain of Dragoons, in the service of the Elector 
of Hesse Cassel. The events of the Seven Years' War induced his 
parents to send him to the Isle of Rugen, where he took a liking 
to the military service; and when young Bliicher was twelve years 
old, four of his brothers were serving in th€f Prussian, Russian, 
and Danish armies. At this early period he became a cadet him- 
self in the Swedish Regiment of Moemer Hussars. He made his 
first campaign against those very Black Hussars which he was 
one day to command. Being sent with a detachment of ten men, 
he was surprised and made prisoner, aflfcer having had a horse shot 
under him. When he was brought before Colonel Von Belling, 
that officer asked him many questions, and finally offered him a 
commission in the Prussian service. This, however, Bliicher 
refused, unless he could gain his dismission from that to which he 
owed his all^iance. This the Colonel succeeded in obtaining by 
an exchange; and immediately appointed his young friend to a 
lieutenancy, purchased for him the equipage which belonged to his 
predecessor, and finally made him his Adjutant Under that 
officer Bliicher acquired a thorough knowledge of military duty; 
but when the Colonel had incurred the displeasure of his Sove- 


reign, and was displaced, his friend experienced some ill-treatment, 
in consequence of the zeal manifested by him in the defence of one 
whom he justly regarded as a parent Bliicher was at that time a 
Captain, and when the Major of his regiment died a jimior officer 
was placed over his head; on which he remonstrated earnestly 
with Frederick the Great, but received no redress. He then wrote 
a letter to the King, requesting permission ** to resign, rather than 
expose himself to acute sensations during every hour of his life." 
To this letter Frederick wrote the following note, and addressed it 
to the Commandant of that regiment: 

** Captain Von Bliicher has leave to resign, and may go to the 
devil as soon as he pleases. Fbedebick.'* 

He was at this time about to be married to a lady of great 
merit, but small fortune; and as his means were also contracted, 
the disappointment he had sustained in the loss of his majority was 
severe. However, the union took place, and Bliicher farmed an 
estate in Pomerania belonging to his father-in-law, where, by his 
diligence, he in a few years acquired a considerable landed pro- 
perty. Of this province he was also chosen High Bailiff; and it 
should be mentioned to the honour of Frederick, that, however 
harshly he had behaved towards Bliicher in the army, he acted 
liberally towards him in other respects, particularly by giving him 
such pecuniary assistance as enabled him to purchase advan- 
tageously, and to^ improve his estates. On the death of that 
monarch, fifteen years after the retirement of Bliicher, he was 
recalled to the service, and appointed Major of tlie second battalion 
of his former regiment of Black Hussars. At the head of this 
corps Bliicher distinguished himself near Orchies, Luxemburg, 
Kierweiller, and Edesham. He soon rose to the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and in 1789, being then full Colonel, he was in- 
vested with the Order of Merit His career of glory may be said 
to have commenced in the campaign on the Rhine, in 1793, where 
he distinguished himself so conspicuously as to receive, the year 
following, the regiment of Black Hussars, as a reward for his 
services. The same year he was promoted to the rank of Major- 
general, and invested with the grand Order of the Red Eagle. At 
this period he became an author in the line of his profession, by 
publishing a valuable book on a War of Posts and Skirmishes, 
with Observations on Ambuscades. In 1801 he was made Lieu- 


tenant-general, at which time he took possession of Erfurth and 
Muhlhaosen, being also appointed Governor of Monster. At the 
battle of Jena Blucher performed wonders, though some blame 
has been unjustly cast upon him for his precipitancy, when, in fact, 
the whole miscarriage of that day was owing to Marshal MoUen* 
dorf. After that battle Blucher was appointed to the command 
of the Prince of Wirtemburg's corps, with orders to conduct it 
across the Oder, and while engaged in this service he fell in with 
the French light troops under General Klein, when by great 
presence of mind he completely deceived the enemy, with a decla- 
ration that peace had been concluded between France and Prussia. 
Buonaparte particulai'ly noticed this occurrence in one of the 
bulletins, accompanied by a severe animadversion on the conduct 
of his officers. After a succession of skirmishes and forced marches, 
Blucher threw himself into Lubeck, which he defended with obsti- 
nacy agamst superior numbers under Bemadotte, with whom, at 
length, the Prussian hero was obliged to capitulate. He was after- 
wards exchanged for the French General Victor ; and as he passed 
through Finkerstein, to repair to the head-quarters of his Sove- 
reign, he was received with particular distinction by Napoleon. 
After the peace of Tilsit he was made Military Governor of 
Pomerania, in the campaign of 1813, and the King entrusted him 
with the command of the Silesian army, with which he per- 
formed deeds astonishing to all Europe. His victories made him 
the terror of the Revolutionists, and greatly contributed to the 
first overthrow of Napoleon. After the memorable battle of 
Leipsic, in which he bore so distinguished a part, our veteran was 
made Field-marshal, and General-in-chief of the Prussian Armies. 
We have just seen that his bravery and promptitude in the short 
campaign of the Netherlands, 1815, has equally contributed to 
effect a second overthrow; and a few days before his landing in 
England he was raised to the dignity of Prince Bllicher of 
Wahlstadt. A monument is erected to his honour in the market* 
place of Rostock, his native place. 

On the death of his first wife, Bliicher married the daughter of 
M. Von Colomb, Counsellor of the Finances. By his former lady 
he had three children: two sons, Francis and Gebhardt, and one 
daughter, who are all living. Count Francis von Bliicher is 
Colonel Commandant of the Brown Hussars ; and his second son 

bcxxvi aSMERAL COUnr BULOW. 

served as Captain in his father's regiment^ bat having resigned, he 
now lives on the family estates in Fomerania. The daughter 
married Count von Schillenberg, on whose death she took for 
second husband, in 1814, Baron von de Afreberg. 

Marshal Blucher died at Krieblowitz, on the 12th of September, 
1819, and was buried there. A gigantic block of unhewn stone 
was to have marked the spot, but only since the death of the Duke 
of Wellington has this incompleted intention been again revived. 
Colossal statues in bronze have been erected to his memory at 
Rostock, Berlin, and Breslau: the first, on the 26th of August, 
1819, to celebrate the Anniversary of the Battle of Katzbach; the 
second waa erected in 1826; and that of Breslau, in 1827. 

6ei9EBAL Count Bclow, of Dinnewitz, died on the 25th of 
February, 1816, of an inflammation of the lungs, at Konigsberg, 
of which city he was Governor. 

It was this excellent officer who, on the 18th of June, by a 
successful movement with a strong Prussian force, assisted much 
in determining the success of the day; for while Grouchy was 
supposing he had kept the Prussians separated from the English, 
he found himself, on the contrary, without communication with 
the French army. Count Bulow commanded the 3d Prussian 
corps in France, 1814, as Lieutenant-general. His corps much 
distinguished itself at Soissons and Laon, against Buonaparte in 
person ; and the most memorable feat of the campaign was per- 
formed by him, in taking La F^re and its important arsenal. He 
possessed distinguished military talents, and performed much 
service, and he never lost a battle. 

On his death the King of Prussia paid the most marked com- 
pliment of respect, of which there are but two examples since the 
days of the Great Frederick, by ordering every officer of his army 
to put on mourning for three days, and declaring at the same time 
that all Prussia ought to weep for his loss. 




k€. iUi, Ac. 

To write a life of Napoleon, in conjunction with that of his 
great rival, Wellington, and to append that life to the account of 
the most momentous and fearful defeat he ever experienced, might 
be thought by some to be an act savouring of the vainglorious, or 
partaking of that semi-barbarous feeling which caused the victorious 
Koman generals and emperors to heighten the glories of their 
triumphs, by leading the most illustrious of their captives in pro- 
cession as they entered the Eternal City: and by exhibiting to 
public gaze the most conspicuous or celebrated of their opponents, 
to enhance, or render more palpable the glory of their own deeds. 
In order to prevent such comparisons, it has been the endeavour 
to steer clear of controverted points, and this short memoir has 
been written, not to invite invidious comparisons, but to present 
an historic portrait necessary to explain or elucidate other por- 
tions of this work : it would be absurd to attempt to decry the 
great talents or abilities of Napoleon ; on the other hand, to laud 
too highly his achievements would only be to build up a great 
reputation in order to magnify the power of him who overthrew 
the fabric : either course would be open to objections. The aim 
has been merely to write a short memoir on a life which has long 
ago become a matter of history. 


Napoleon Baonaparte, the second son of Charles Bnonaparte 
and Letitia Rainolmi his wife, was bom at Ajaccio, in Corsica, on 
the 15th of August, 1769: one hundred and six days after Arthur 
Wellesley first saw the light in the city of Dublin. This same 
year ushered in many celebrated names in history, but none com- 
parable with the fame of these two heroes, whose advent, within so 
short a time of one another, will render the year 1769 famous for 
centuries to come. 

The position of the Buonaparte family was modest and re- 
spectable, and ranked with the nobility of that small island. To 
attempt, as some French sycophants of the Imperial Court did, to 
trace the genealogy of the family from the ancient kings of the 
north of Italy, and thus invent a princely ancestry for their master, 
was looked upon, even by Buonaparte, as ridiculous ; who when 
the pedigree was submitted to him, with his intuitive sagacity 
perceiving that he derived no real dignity from such attempts, 
exclaimed, " I am the Rudolph* of my race!" thus protesting 
against regal consanguinity, and founding his nobility alone on 
the services he had rendered his country, which was therefore 
only to be dated from Montenotte. 

Napoleon's father was educated at Pisa and Rome. He was a 
well-informed and eloquent man, who displayed also much energy 
on various important matters, and especially at the consultation 
extraordinary of Corsica, relative to the submission of that island 
to France, Charles Buonaparte afterwards appeared at Versailles 
at the head of the deputation from his province, on the occasion of 
the controversy that was raised against the two French generals 
who commanded in Corsica, M. de Marbeuf and M. de Narbonne 
Pelery. The reputation of the latter, so powerful at court, was 
superseded by the testimony of Charles Buonajxarte, who, faithful 
to truth and justice, pleaded eloquently for M. de Marbeuf. This 
was the origin of the interest and protection which the Buonaparte 
family afterwards found in that commander. Placed, in 1777, 
at the Military School at Briemie, Napoleon applied himself 
especially to the study of history, geography, and science gene- 
rally. He succeeded principally in mathematics. His taste for 
politics was remarkable. Ardent for the independence of his 
country, he evinced a species of adoration for Paoli, and mainly 

• Count Rudolph of Hapslnirg was the fonmler of the Austrian dynasty. 


defended him against the opinion even of his father. Some 
biographers, reviewing his early history at college, describe him 
there as isolated and taciturn, alike without equal or friend ; his 
precocious gravity and brusque and rigorous habits proclaiming 
a misanthropy and want of soul. Others, again, declare him by 
nature noble, kind, and affectionate, and that it was only at tlie 
close of his eventful career that disappointed ambition and blasted 
hopes resolved themselves into a morose and sullen deportment. 

It has likewise been said that his taste for retirement, and that 
pencliant for military art, which was as exclusive as premature, 
caused him to confine himself to his own garden, which was for- 
tified against the attacks of his companions: one of the latter, 
however, denies this, and in contradiction relates the well-known 
anecdote of the fortress constructed of snow and besie^^ed and 
defended with snow-balls, in which they all took part, though 
devised and conducted by Napoleon, who in that simple pastune 
displayed that military tact and skilful generalship which after- 
wards so distinguished him; and the willingness with which all 
submitted to his dictation at that early age, amongst so many 
varj-ing dispositions as a college of boys presents, ctjjpears on re- 
viewing it almost predictive of the influence he was one day to 
possess over the minds and destinies of a whole nation. 

Many of the professors, in after years, aifected to have foreseen 
in part his subsequent great cai'eer; and M. de I'Eguille, the 
Historical Master, asserted under the Empire that there was to be 
found amongst the reports of the Military School a note, in which 
he had foreshadowed the future success of his pupil in these words: 
" Corsican by birth and character, he will rise high should cir- 
cumstances favour him." At the Assembly in 1785, he was 
elected by the Chevalier de Ki^ralio to the Military School in 
Paris. On his entrance there. Napoleon was not backward in 
showing surprise and regret at the effeminate and luxurious educa- 
tion which it gave to young men destined for the hardships of the 
camp and rigour of military service, and made refonnatiou in diis 
respect the subject of a memorial to his principal, M; Bertan, 
putting forth the elements of an institution which he was dastined 
himself to realise in the fulness of his glory. The brilliant talents 
he manifested, distinguished him at Paris as they iiad done at 
Briemie. He left the Military School at Paiis in 1787, and 


entered as second Lientenant the Artillery regiment De la F^^ 
then garrisoned at Grenoble. 

In 1794^ Buonaparte^ as chief of the battalion, made his first 
campaign, in which he contributed so powerfully to the recapture 
of Toulon. From this period the progress of this extraordinary in- 
dividual was so rapid as to leave him without a parallel in modem 
history. He was soon raised to the raids of General of Artillery, 
and in July, 1794, received instructions to repair to Genoa, for the 
ostensible purpose ^to confer with that Government conjointly 
with the Ambassador of the French Republic." To these public 
credentials were added secret directions to examine the state of the 
works and military stores of the fortresses of Genoa and Lavona, 
and to unravel, as far as possible, the conduct of the French 
Minister Tilly, and the intentions of the Grenoese respecting the 
coalition. The result of the fulfilment of this mission was, that he 
was arrested and sent back to Paris, where he continued under 
restraint fifteen days, when a resolution was passed, setting him 
provisionally at liberty, but directing that he should remain at head- 
quarters; and subsequently, upon his refusing the post of Brigadier- 
fireneral of Infantry at La Vend^, he was dismissed the service. 

The inactivit/to which his retirement into private life con- 
demned him suited but little with his restless and sanguine 
disposition. Delays and disappointments becoming insupportable 
to him, he at one time contemplated quitting France for ever, and 
seeking in Eastern climes to realise those projects of ambition 
which were the dream and aim of his life, when the afikir of 
the Sections which he so vigorously quelled— one of those inci- 
dents peculiar to the French nation — gave Buonaparte an oppor- 
tunity of distinguishing himself apart from the rest, and the 
services rendered by him on that occasion secured him the com- 
mand of the capital. His marriage with Josephine, widow of 
the Count de Beauhamois, took place March 9th, 1796, and 
was quickly followed by his appointment as General of the 
Army of the Interior and Commandant of Paris ; and but a few 
months elapsed before he left Paris on his way to Italy, to assume 
the command-in-chief of the French army in that quarter ; and 
the continued success which attended his progress, led to the Treaty 
of Leoben, the preliminaries of which were signed on the 18th 
April, 1796. Although the circumscribed limits of this memoir 


will not admit of entering into a detailed account of Buonaparte's 
career throughout his important Italian campaign, it is imperative 
to make a sketch at least of those great militarj events which 
resulted in the above-mentioned preliminaries of Leoben^ and 
finally to the signing of the treaty of Campo Formio. Buonaparte, 
as we have seen, arrived at the head-quarters of his army early in 
the spring of 1796, and after some tSe spent by the Austrian in 
various movements to deceive the French, hostilities conmienced 
on the 9th of April, on which day General Beaulieu ordered 
10,000 men to attack Yoltre. This important post was bravely 
defended for some time by Greneral Gerboni, at the head of 4000 
men ; but he was at length obliged to retreat, and on the following 
day Beaulieu, with 15,000 men, took up a position before Mon- 
tenotte. On the morning of the 11th, Buonaparte succeeded in 
placing himself in the rear of the enemy ; a sharp attack ensued, 
which ended in the complete rout of the Austrians, 1500 of their 
men being killed, 2500 made prisoners, and several standards 
taken. To the battle of Montenotte succeeded that of Millesimo, 
on the 14th, in which the Austrians were again defeated, with the 
loss of 3000 men killed and 9000 made prisoners. These suc- 
cesses on the part of the French were followed by others, with a 
rapidity almost unequalled in the annals of war. On the 2l8t of 
April, Buonaparte encountered and defeated the Sardinian army, 
putting the French in possession of Meudon ; and on the 25th 
the King of Sardinia, finding himself pressed on every side by the 
enemy, sent to Buonaparte to propose negociations for peace, 
which was finally eflected by the relinquishment of Savoy and 
Nice. Napoleon then marched his army across the Po, feeling 
convinced that his conquests would not be secure until the 
Austrians were driven from all their possessions in Italy. The 
Imperialists waited for the French at the bridge of Lodi, who, 
upon the 12th of May, made their attack upon this formidable pass, 
scattering the Austrians, and spreading terror and death in every 
direction. This battle was followed by the surrender of Pizzi- 
ghettone, Cremona, Pavia, and Milan, which was entered by the 
French on the 15 th of May. To these triumphs were added those 
of Roveredo, Bassano, Arcole, the subsequent capture of Mantua, 
and surrender of Ancona and other places in the Papal States, 
when a treaty of peace was effected between the French republic 


and the Pope. This had hardly been concluded when Buonaparte 
again encountered the Austrians, then under the command of the 
Archduke Charles, He attacked the village of Cainin, the head- 
quarters of tlie Archduke, who was forced into a precipitate retreat, 
leaving the tow^ns of Pahna, Nuova, Udina, and all the Venetian ter- 
ritory, to tlie mercy of tlie victors. This led to a proposition of peace 
on the part of Austria, which ended in the pacification of Leoben, and 
in due time the treaty of Campo Formio. Thus ended the first Italian 
campaign, which spread tlie name of Na}x>leon like lightning 
through the civilised world, and, unliappily, emboldened him to 
those unprincipled and open aggressions, to the indulgence of that 
lawless and imi)erious spirit, which marked his future course and 
kept pace with his growing power. Next to Italy, Egypt became 
the stage for the display of Napoleon, who, on Ids return to Paris, 
was named Commander-in-Chief of the Army in tlie East The 
squadron set sail on the 19th of May, 1798, and arrived before 
Alexandria on the 30th of June, where they learnt that Nelson 
had been on the coast two days before. On hearing these details. 
Napoleon overruled the remonstrances of tlie admiral, and disem- 
barked, amidst many dangers and difficulties, on the 2d of July, at 
Marobam, about three leagues east of Alexandria. Two hours 
after, the Commander-in-Chief was in full march upon that capital 
with the divisions of Kleber, Bon, and Morand. On arriving 
within gun-shot of Alexandria the attack commenced, the walls 
were fX!aled, and in a short time French valour had triumphed 
over all opposition. Buonaparte devoted ten days in organising 
the city and district of Alexandria, and in preparing for the march 
of the army across the plains of Bohahireh. On the 10th of July 
they arrived at Rakenaliairieb, and on the 22d beheld the Pyra- 
mids : a j)ortion of the army on that day also encountered and 
defeated a considerable body of Mamelukes. The battle was 
fought at Embaheh, opposite Boulac, the consequence of which 
victory was the occupation of Cairo by tie conquerors. In pos- 
session of the capital, the Commander-in-Chief engaged himself 
actively in the organisation of his conquests, when he learned that 
Ibrahim, the most powerful of the beys, was making head in 
Syria. Upon this, Buonaparte prepared to march in person 
against this formidable opponent, the results of which campaign 
and defeat of Ibrahim at El-Arych are well knowTi to every one. 


During the absence of Napoleon, news arrived at Cairo of the 
overwhelming disaster of the French squadi-on at Aboukir, in the 
memorable encounter with Nelson on the 1st of August On 
learning this terrible catastrophe, the Commander-in-Chief seemed 
completely borne down. To the painful feelings aroused by the 
ungenerous complaints and the moral discouragements of his 
companions in arms and glory, was just added a misfortime incal- 
culable, positive, irreparable — the destruction of the fleet This 
calamity impressed upon General Buonaparte the necessity of 
promptly and securely organising Egypt The flights of Ibrahim 
and Mourad left him an interval of repose. War, fortifications, 
revenue administration, appointment of divans, commerce, science, 
the arts, — all engrossed his cares. On the 21st of August the 
Institute was opened at Cairo, for the propagation and progress of 
intelligence in Egypt, — for the study and collecting of its natural 
history, its resources, its monuments, — for every object which 
promised to be useful to Egypt, to France, to humanity. On the 
21st of October an insurrection broke out in Cairo, which, how- 
ever, lasted only three days. Buonaparte*s next expedition was 
against the Turks in Syria, though before commencing it he had 
revolved the scheme of invading British India by way of Persia ; 
and in pursuit of this design wrote to Tippoo Saib, informing 
him of his arrival on the shores of the Red Sea, with an army 
invincible as it was innumerable, and professing the desire of deli- 
vering him from the iron yoke of England. To this letter Tippoo 
did not reply, as frequently stated ; there was no time, the empire 
of Mysore had fallen before the succeeding April. On the 11th 
of February, 1799, Buonaparte commenced his march for Syria 
with about 12,000 men, and reached El-Arych on the 17th. The 
fatigues of the desert, the want of water, and privations of all 
kinds, had excited discontent among the soldiers ; still their attach- 
ment to their general remained undiminished. On the 20th, EI- 
Aiych surrendered, and on the Ist of March the army entered 
Ramleh, the ancient Arimathea. The siege of Jaffa, a paltry 
town, dignified as the ancient Joppa, conmicnced on the 4th, and 
terminated by assault and pillage on the 6th of March. The 
carnage was horrible. 

After the siege of Jaffa the plague began to manifest its 
approaches with more severity. From first to last, seven or eight 


hundred men were lost by the contagion during the Sjn-ian ex- 
pedition. The march upon Acre^ which conmienced upon the 
14th March, was by no means a series of triumphs. On the 18th 
the army arrived before Acre. The siege continued for sixty days, 
the details of which are suiBciently known, as also the gallantry 
with which Sir Sidney Smith defended the town during that 
period. On the 20th •May, after having cost the besiegers in 
killed, wounded, and those who died of the plague, nearly .3000 
men, the siege of Acre was raised. Never was any enterprise 
undertaken with more precipitation or less discretion. On the 
army breaking up its encampment before the town, they adopted 
the cover of night for effecting a march along the shore of the 
Mediterranean, and passed Mount Carmel uninterrupted. Thus 
terminated the disastrous expedition. But a fearful journey yet 
lay before the troops. A devouring thirst, the total want of 
water, an excessive heat, and fatiguing march among scorching 
sand-hills, created universal discouragement, and on their arrival 
at Tentoura the loss among the wounded and sick was already 
considerable. This place and its moving sands beheld the loss of 
their last gims of calibra They were buried for the want of 
means of transportation, and in that moment the soldiers appeared 
to forget their own sufferings in regret for these, the instruments 
and witnesses of those triumphs which had shaken Europe. 
Whilst halting for the night at Cesarea, an attempt was made on 
the life of Napoleon by a Syrian. Missing his aim, however, 
he was easily taken and shot The army returned to Jaffa on 
the 24th May, and this city, so lately the scene of such a 
horrible massacre, was again to behold the terrible necessity 
of commanding death. An order was secretly given to blow 
up the fortifications, which was accordingly done, and those 
lying sick of the plague were despatched by poison. Napoleon 
reached Cairo on the 14th June, after a most painful march 
of twenty-five days, accomplished by the army under every 
species of privation. He announced his entrance into that city 
by one of those false bulletins which imposed only on fools. " I 
bring," said he, " many prisoners and colours. I have razed the 
palace of the Djezzar, the ramparts of Acre, — ^there stands not one 
stone above another. All the inhabitants fled by sea." On the 
15th July, Napoleon being then on a visit to the Pyramids, 



received dispatches from Alexandria, informing him that the 
Turks had disembarked on the 1 1th at Abonkir, under the escort 
and protection of an English fleet The next day the army was 
in full march, and on the 25th of July ensued that memorable 
conflict in which the Turks were completely defeated. Buonaparte 
sent an envoy on board the English Admiral's ship, the intercourse 
with whom was marked by that urbanity which ought to cha- 
racterise the relations of civilised nations* The Admiral pre- 
sented to the French envoy giflts in return for those the French 
had sent, and the Gaasette of Frankfort of the 28th June, 1799. 
For ten months they had been without news from France. 
Buonaparte ran over this journal with an eagerness easy to be 
conceived. ** Ah," said he, ** my presentiment has not deceived 
me : Italy is lost ! All the fruit of our victories has disappeared : I 
must be gone." He instantly sent for Grentheaume, whom he 
ordered to prepare two frigates and two small brigs, with pro- 
visions for four or five hundred men, and for two months, con- 
fiding at tlie same time to him the secret of the armament, recom- 
mending the closest concealment of its object, and to act with such 
prudence that the English cruisers might be kept in ignorance of 
the preparations. Buonaparte left Alexandria on the 6th August, 
and arrived at Cairo on the 10th. Here he caused to be renewed 
the report of his intended expedition into Upper Egypt General 
Kleber, then at Rosetta, and destined successor in the command 
of the army, was invited to come to Damietta, in order to confer 
on matters of the utmost importance. In appointing this meeting, 
well knowing he should not be there, Buonaparte wished to avoid 
the reproaches and the sturdy frankness of Kleber. Kleber 
complained loudly in his correspondence of this crafty policy. At 
the same time the Commander-in-Chief issued a proclamation to his 
army, in which he said, ** Intelligence from Europe has decided 
my departure for France : I leave the command of the army to 
Genersd lOeber. I cannot explain more ftdly ; the General whom 
I leave you enjoys the confidence of Government, and mine." 

On the 23d August, 1799, Buonaparte and his suite embarked 
in the two frigates, to the number of about 500. Such was the 
squadron, such the formidable armament with which Buonaparte — 
so he had written to the divan at Cairo — was to annihilate all his 
enemies. During tw^ity-one days the wind, blowing from the 


west or north-west, was constantly adverse, and they were thus 
unceasingly driven back towards the coasts of Syria and Alex- 
andria ; which jx)rt it was even proposed to re-enter, but Buona- 
parte declared fur running all hazards rather than return; and 
finally, on the 9th October, he entered the bay of Frfejus, where he 
first learned the real extent of the reverses in Italy. Decided to 
hasten with all speed to Paris, he set out the same afternoon, and 
accounts of his journey and entry in tliat city describe it as 
resemblmg a triumphal march, and requiring but small gift of 
prophecy to foresee in it something of the futurity that lay beyond. 
The state of things in France was indeed fearful. Every pro- 
vince became a prey to anarchy and the ravages of civil war ; 
the nation menaced with foreign invasion, and groaning under the 
load of tyrannic laws; the Government denounced by the uni- 
versal voice of the people, as without power, without justice, 
without morality, the mere puppet of the factious and intriguing. 
All things wore the aspect of dissolution; disorder reigned 
throughout, but especially in the provinces: any prospect of a 
change could not fail of being hailed with transport The 
majority of the French nation longed to emerge from this debase- 
ment, and was ardently searching for a man capable of restoring 
tranqiiillity to an exhausted and bleeding country. But the 
search had as yet been vain. A fortunate soldier presented him- 
self covered with glory, who had imfurled the banners of the 
Republic from the Capitol and from the Pyramids. All acknow- 
ledged his possession of superior talents ; his character, the well- 
known boldness of his views, joined to his victories, had placed him 
in the first rank. Thus, without a thought in reserve, expectation 
fixed upon a General whom past actions designated as the most 
capable of defending the Republic from foes without, and liberty 
from false friends within ; and who might be styled " th« hero of 
liberal principles." 

Napoleon reached Paris on the 16th of October : and here, to 
follow the course of events, it will be necessary to cast a retro- 
spective glance upon the state of parties during his absence and at 
the time of his return. 

The Army was exclusively Republican, while the Directory 
and the Government seemed as if constituted expressly for intrigues 
of all kinds. Si^yes was reported at one time to have entertained 



thoughts of inviting the Duke of Brunswick to the head of affairs ; 
and Barras seemed not to have heen far removed from recalling 
the Bourbons. Moulins^ Roger-Ducos, and Gohier alone main- 
tained tlie possibility of preserving existing forms. Among the 
niilitarj, Moreau enjoyed a high reputation, and might be con- 
sidered as representing the Army of the Rhine. Buonaparte, on 
the other hand, had for devoted partisans all the companions of his 
Italian glory, and a little later those whom he termed ^^my 
Egyptians." Bemadotte, too, though at the head of no party, 
occupied a conspicuous place in pubhc attention as a stem and 
inflexible Republican, round whom, in the event of any great 
political explosion, most probably would rally all those of similar 

The parts were well cast in the grand drama whose catastrophe 
approached. The morning of the eventful 18 Brumaire arrived. 
The limits of this account will not admit of a minute detail of the 
occurrences of that day, so important in the life o£ the future 
Emperor and subsequent Exile of St Helena. Every one is 
conversant with the coup (THat and revolution, wliich ended in the 
formation of the First Consular ministry under Buonaparte, 
Sieyes, and Ducos, which continued till the 25th of December, 
when he got quit of these two colleagues, and assiuned from this 
date the title of First Consul, uniting in the consular executive 
Cambac&res and Lebrun. Though Buonaparte, on attaining the 
Consularship, doubtless in his secret wishes desired war, yet he 
was not ^orant how much the people longed for repose; and 
that the appearance at least of seeking peace was the interest of a 
Government erected on the ruins of one which had provoked an 
unpopular and disastrous hostility. In this view he hastened to 
notify to the various foreign powers his new dignity, and caused a 
letter of Uke tenor to be addressed to the diplomatic agents 
abroad. On the 26th of December, the day after he had been 
disencumbered of his first colleagues, Bucmaparte endeavoured to 
open n^ociations with the Cabinet of London, and proposed terms of 
peace to the House of Austria. Both attempts were unsuccessful. 
All seemed averse from recognising the new government of the 

Napoleon was now installed in the palace of the Luxemboiurg, 
and about this time was acccnnplished the organising of a Council 



of State^ divided into five sections; viz. Home Department, 
Finances^ Admiralty^ War, Legislation. The costomes of the 
consuls and different orders of state officers were also appointed. 
Velvet, proscribed since the Monarchy, now once more came into 
nae ; and, as if from regard to the mano&ctories of Lyons, it was 
decreed that this anti-Republican stuff should be employed in 
the robes of office. Thus the constant aim of Buonaparte was to 
efiace the remembrance of the Republic, preparing things so 
artfully for the return of monarchy, that when the time arrived 
there should remain only a word to be changed. For some time 
rumours had announced a coldness between Russia and Austria, 
while an open misunderstanding existed between the Courts of 
London and St. Petersburgh. From a knowledge of this, the First 
Consul judged the season propitious for severing Russia from 
England. It had been refused to include in a cartel of exchange 
between France and England 7000 Russians taken prisoners in 
Holland. These Buonaparte ordered to be armed, and clothed 
anew in the uniforms of the corps to which they had belonged, and 
sent back without ransom, exchange, or condition whatsoever. 
This ingenious munificence was not thrown away. Paul, from an 
ally became the declared enemy of England. Henceforward the 
Consul and the Czar were on the best of terms. Lord Wentworth 
was ordered to quit St Petersburgh, and English ships were seized 
in all the ports of Russia. Through the instigation of the Czar a 
Prussian army invaded Hanover, and with his support Buonaparte 
contemplated the march of a French army by land against the 
British possessions in India. At this time Buonaparte began to 
find himself straitened in the Luxembourg for room, and prepa- 
rations were making for removal to the Tuileries. But this grand 
step towards the re-establishment of monarchy was taken with all 
prudence. To sleep in die Tuileries, in the bed-chamber of the 
kings of France, was aU that Buonaparte desired ; the rest would 
follow. The first preparations were modest enough; for the 
stanch Republican ought to have no taste for luxury, and the 
Consul's policy was to conceal as much as possible the importance 
attached to the translation of the Consular domicile to this, ** The 
Palace of the Government.*' In viewing his career at the present 
time, how easy it is to observe the two real passions which he 
nourished — glory and war. Never was he more gay than in the 


camp— at no time so morose as when inactive. Building, too, 
gratified his imagination; plans of gigantic construction fiUed, 
more than any other thought, the void created by repose. He 
believed, that to remain stationary was to fall ; hence the desire 
ever to be advancing. Before engaging in battle, Buonaparte 
made little provision for subsequent events if successful, but oc- 
cupied himself with much of what ought to be done in the case of 
defeat He was enabled to accomplish much, because he hazarded 
all, grasped at all, and was cautious in nothing. His excessive 
ambition urged him on to power, and power obtained only added 
to his ambition. We now see him at the Tuileries reviving ancient 
ceremonials, and receiving the members of foreign diplomacy in 
public audience. 

His next ent^rise was that brilliant campaign which restored 
to France the ascendancy she had lost during his absence. The 
invasion of Italy by the pass of the Great St Bernard was a grand 
conception — altogether the Consul's own — and which has fixed the 
admiration of the worlds It was in this campaign that he proved 
himself the worthy rival of Hannibal. The energy which con- 
ducted an army, with its cavalry, artillery, and supplies, across the 
Alps, by untried paths, which only the chamois himter, bom and 
bred amidst glaciers and everlasting snows, had trodden, gave the 
impression, which of all others he most desired to spread, of his 
superiority to nature as well as to human opposition. This enters 
prise was, in one view, a fearful omen to Europe. It showed a power 
over the minds of his soldiers, the effects of which were not to be 
calculated. The subsequent conquest of St Bernard by a French 
army was the boast of the nation ; but a still more wonderful thing 
was the capacity of that General to inspire into that army the 
intense force, confidence, resolution, and patience, by which alone 
the work could be accomplished. 

The 8th of May had been fixed for Buonaparte's departure 
from Paris. At two o'clock in the morning he was on his way to 
the army. 

The Austrian army was numerous, warlike, and victorious. 
The fate of Buonaparte hung upon the gain or loss of a battle. 
He saw the danger, but without being daunted, confiding in him- 
self and the devotion of his soldiers. The army reached Martigny, 
May 20th, and was now in full march for the Great St Bernard. 


The question was not of single travellers who were to efFect this 
pass, but of a whole anny: cavalry, baggage, ammunition-waggons, 
artillery, were to defile along paths so narrow, that the goat-herd 
there picks his steps with caution. On one side, overhanging 
snows might every moment overwhelm his squadrons in their 
avalanches; on the other, a single false step was death. They all 
passed, men and horse, one by one, along these chamois tracks. 
The artillery was dismounted ; the guns, enclosed in hollow trunks 
of trees, were dragged along with ropes. The First Consul 
climbed St Bernard, not prancing over the Alps as represented 
in the popular prints of this feat, but safely on the back of a sure- 
footed mule. 

On the 23d the anny arrived within sight of BanL On the 
left is Mount Albarefio ; on the right, the Doria-Baltea, a moim- 
tain-stream ; between lay their route, commanded by the fort To 
avoid the fire the army crossed, or rather escaladed Albaredo; but 
as the cannon could not thus be carried over an almost inaccessible 
steep, it was resolved to traverse with the whole train the town 
of Bard, which is not fortified, and separated from the fort by an 
inconsiderable torrent. Advantage was taken of the approaching 
night; the wheels of the carriages, and, in many instances, the feet 
of the horses even, were bound round with straw smd bouglis of 
trees : the whole thus passed with noiseless rapidity through the 
little town, and under the guns of the fortress, which so com- 
pletely commands the narrow valley, that, but for the negligence 
and carelessness of tlie Austrians, it might have rendered fruitless 
the passage of the Great St Bernard. The army arrived at 
Milan the 2d June, and the citadel was immediately blockaded. 
How few the events and how brief the period which may some- 
times reverse the fate of nations! Buonaparte quitted Milan on 
the 13th June; on the 14th, had conquered at Marengo; on 
the 15th, was in possession of Italy. A suspension of hostilities 
between the French and Austrian armies proved the immediate 
result of a single battle; and, in virtue of a convention, the French 
obtained entrance into all the fortified places, with the exception 
of Mantua. 

After some days passed at Milan engaged in settling the affairs 
of Italy, the First Consul set out for France, by way of Turin. 
Here, at Lyons, Dijon, and indeed at every place through which 


he passed on his way to the capital, his reception was enthusiastic 
He reached Paris, July 2d. Men looked on in astonishment at 
the rapidity with which, in a campaign of less than two months, he 
had brought back victory to the standard of Franca Negociations 
now engaged all his attention and activity; but, both with England 
and Austria, great difficulties arose. 

The 4th July had been appointed as a festival in honour of the 
Republic, and upon this day Lucien, Minister of the Interior, had 
made preparation for solemnising the victory of Marengo, and dis- 
tributing sabres of honour to the officers and soldiers who had 
fought in that engagement In the October and December fol- 
lowing two attempts were made to assassinate the First Consul, 
when witnessing representations at the Opera. On both occasions 
the plots were discovered, and, being traced to the Jacobins, the 
opportunity was made a pretext for transporting all indiscriminately; 
thus accomplishing a long-cherished wish of Napoleon. At this 
time, news of the victory of Hohenlinden, by the French army 
under Moreau, gave a new turn to the negociations for peace, and 
decided the opening of the Congress of Luneville, which took place 
on the 1st of January following. In the month of March of the 
same year, Paul I., in a domestic revolution, fell by the hands 
of assassins. This overturned all Napoleon's projects of acting in 
concert with the Czar, and giving a mortal blow to the English 
power in India. On the death of Paid, the Consul's system in 
respect to Russia underwent a change. The idea of a war 
against that empire unceasingly agitated him, and for a certainty 
the conception of the fatal campaign, wliich dates eleven years 
later, was first formed. 

In April, 1801, the English Gazette announced the successful 
disembarkation in Egypt of the army commanded by Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie — the battle which the British had fought and won, 
with the loss of their General. For some time the First Comml 
had been under apprehensions that the evacuation of Egypt would 
speedily take place ; and feigning, therefore, to make a great sacri 
fice by giving up this conquest, he signed the preliminaries con 
ducted by M. Otto, on behalf of England, on the 1st October, and 
only t]^e day before the news of the forced evacuation of the French 
from Egypt arrived in London. 

Prepared to ascend the throne of France, Buonaparte's next step 


was to pave the way for becoming one day king of Italy. Desirous 
of harmonising the Cisalpine Government with that of France, 
— chief of one, he judged it requisite to have a suitable president for 
the otlier ; and who so fitting for that office as himself? Un- 
willing to be long absent from Paris, and wishing also to avoid the 
trouble of a long journey to Milan, he arranged that those named 
for the convocation should meet him half way, at Lyons ; and for 
this purpose left Paris, January 8th, 1802. On the 26th the title 
of Presidentwas conferred on him, without difficulty. The journey 
and the conference were only forms ; but opinion was to be capti- 
vated by lofty words and solemn proceedings. 

On the 25th of March following, England signed a suspension 
of hostilities for fourteen months, which has been called the Peace 
of Amiens. The clauses of this treaty were not of a nature to 
induce the hope of a long peace ; and even in England it was 
regarded as a truce which coidd only be of short duration. But 
this peace, truce, or treaty, served to consolidate the power of the 
Consul. England had treated him as " Chief of France," and he 
did not dissemble his satisfaction in this particular. Aftier the 
extension of Buonaparte's consulate for ten years was created the 
order of the Legion of Honour, — an institution which has wrought 
prodigies. The idea had been cherished by the Consul from the 
time he had seen stars and orders glitter on the breast or dangle 
from the button-hole of foreign ministers. He used frequently to 
repeat, "That does well. Such things are necessary for the 
people.'' In April, 1802, the First Consul bent all his efforts 
towards getting himself declared Consul for life. From the be- 
ginning of that year the Republic had been but a name ; there 
remained, indeed, a lying inscription over the gates of the palace, 
but both the trees of liberty erected in the court Buonaparte had 
caused to be cast down, even before his instalment at the Tuileries. 
After the Senatus Conmlta, however, of the 2d and 4th of August, 
it was apparent to tlie least clear-sighted that there no longer 
wanted anything to complete the sovereign power of the First 
Consul save a designation. In his dazzling march. Napoleon 
neglected none of those means which were adapted at once for the 
gaze of the multitude, and to conciliate the approbation of men of 
sense. Thus, he displayed sufficient attachment to the arts, and 
he had reason to be proud of the exhibition made during this 


automn of the productLons of national industry, which was held at 
the Louvre under the direction of M. Chaptal. 

With regard to foreign relations, peace everywhere prevailed. 
The court of Borne, which, since the Concordat, had been, so to 
speak, at the devotion of the First Consul, exhibited under all 
circumstances proofs of adherence to the interests of France and 
compliance with the desires of her ruler. She had been the first to 
recognise the erection of Tuscany into the new kingdom of Etruria, 
as also the Helvetic, Cisalpine, and Batavian republics. 

Prussia speedily followed this example, and the other powers of 
Europe in succession. All these new states, whether kingdoms or 
republics, were under the immediate influence of France. Pied- 
mont, divided into six departments, was united to that country ; 
and tlie news of a Te Deum chanted at Turin as a thanksgiving 
for this union, left Buonaparte in no doubt as to the facility with 
which Italy would bend beneath his yoke. The island of Elba, 
which las own banishment was subsequently to render so famous, 
also formed part of the shade of the French republic One cha- 
racteristic distinction of Ns^leon's government, even under the 
denomination of Consular, gave no doubtful evidence of his inten- 
tion. Had he designed to found a free constitution, it is quite 
evident he wotdd have assigned to his ministers a personal respon- 
sibility, while, on the contrary, they were responsible to himself 
alone ; he beheld in them only instruments, to be thrown aside at 
pleasure. This one circimastance sufficed to unveil his future 
intentions, showing that in his exercise of the consular power his 
constant object was to prepare the way to empire. Buonaparte 
considered himself as king from the night on which he first slept 
at the Luxembourg; his reign may, therefore, be said to have 
extended over a period of fourteen years ; and, taking this view of 
the subject, we need not hesitate to say, that history furnishes 
no parallel of an empire founded under such circmnstances as that 
of France under Napoleon, inasmuch as all its parts were orga- 
nised under the cloak of repubUcanism. During the whole period 
of the Consulate he was, in fact, the chief of the state. His two 
colleagues were so inefficient and so powerless, that Talleyrand, 
holding office as he did by the will of Buonaparte, was, in reality, 
the second person in the government 

At this time was discussed the grand question of the consulate 


for life. The Tribunate had proposed, and in due form trans- 
mitted the proposition to the Senate, of conferring some mark of 
public gratitude upon the First Consul. The latter agreed to ex- 
tend the consulate for ten years longer in favour of Napoleon, 
commencing from the termination of the ten years already granted 
by the constitution. Upon this, Buonaparte appealed to the people 
to elect him Consul for life^ well knowing that the question 
might be regarded as already decided in his favour from the popu- 
larity he had secured. 

The result justified his anticipations; he was elected on the 
2d of August, and in the middle of that month paid his first visit 
of state to the Legislative Assembly, therein to preside as Consul 
for life. During the busy year of 1802, the First Consul gave 
his hours to a subject which engrossed his thoughts from the time 
when he first entered the Luxembourg. This was the compiling 
of a new code of laws to replace the collections of revolutionary 
judicature, and to substitute order for that species of anarchy 
which still reigned in judicial legislation ; and the result was, Hie 
Civil Code, afterwards named TTie Code Napoleon, 

The conduct of England at this time but too well justified 
apprehensions that peace would not be of long continuance. 
Already, in fact, was she preparing the strong arm of her sub- 
sidies, an arm even then powerful in diplomatic concerns. The 
King of England had addressed to Parliament a message which 
spoke of armaments preparing in the ports of France, and pre- 
cautions necessary to be taken against aggressions. Henceforward 
communications with England became reserved at first, then hos- 
tile explanations were reciprocally demanded with equal haughti- 
ness, — a requisition of passports, — and war quickly followed. 

The First Consul having calculated upon a longer continuance 
of the Peace of Amiens, found himself in rather a doubtful posi- 
tion on its abrupt termination. The great number of discharges 
that had been granted, the deplorable state of the cavalry, and the 
temporary nullity of the artillery, demanded all his energy and 
promptitude. It is impossible to describe the labours undertaken 
and executed. The whole extent of the Channel coast presented the 
aspect of one vast arsenal ; for on this occasion Buonaparte formed 
his troops on the model of the Roman legions, causing the tools of 
the artisan to replace, in the hands of his soldiers, tlie weapons of 


the warrior. They excavated the harbour at Boulogne, re- 
paired and finished the works at Ambleteuse, commenced under 
Louis XVI. and interrupted during the Revolution. 

The first consequence of the declaration of war by England 
was the invasion of Hanover by the French troops, under the 
command of General Mortier. The telegraphic dispateh conveyed 
the intelligence to Paris that ^^ the French were masters of the 
Electorate of Hanover, and the enemy remained prisoners of war." 
Upon this, the First Consul conceived the hope of exchanging the 
Hanoverian troops for the French prisoners already taken by sea, 
and made a proposition to that efiect, but the English Cabinet 

Nothing could then equal the animosity of the two govern- 
ments against each other, and Buonaparte, at the moment of 
declaring war, showed his indignation by arresting every English 
subject found in France, — a barbarous order ; but, in his passion, 
he regarded no nice distinctions. Towards the end of June, 
Napoleon, in company with Josephine, undertook his journey to 
Belgium and the northern coasts of France, regal pomp every- 
where attending their progress. 

The commencement of the year following was marked by the 
conspiracy of Pich^ru, Moreau, Georges, Cadoudal and others, to 
overthrow the Consular government The Duke d'Enghien, from 
motives of policy, being declared by the First Consul as implicated 
in the plot, he was illegally arrested, imprisoned, and executed, by 
order of Buonaparte. The immediate consequences of his death 
filled the foreign courts with horror and indignation, universally 
changing the dispositions of the sovereigns towards the First 
Consul. The real principals and accomplices in the conspiracy of 
Georges were tried and sentenced to death, with the exception of 
Moreau, who was condemned to exile. 

In these sentences, Buonaparte was less guilty than the judges 
and accusers ; but the entire odium of the Duke's murder rests on 
him, and continues an everlasting stain on the name of Napoleon. 
At this time the First Consul wanted not for causes of irritation 
against his active enemies. The news which reached Paris from 
the coasts of the Channel were by no means encouraging; the 
English fleets not only blockaded the French ports, but had com- 
menced the offensive by bombarding Granville. It will have been 


all along apparent, that the course of events either conduced or 
became subservient to the elevation of Buonaparte to the Imperial 
throne. For a long time the agents of Government had been trained 
throughout France to demand for the First Consul, in the name of 
the people, that which the people were far firom desiring, but 
which Buonaparte wished to assume under show of acceding to 
the general inclination, — the sovereign power, without restrictions^ 
limits, or subterftige of denomination. A conspiracy against his 
life was not an opportunity to be omitted, but, on the contrary, 
was eagerly laid hold of by all the authorities, dvU, military, and 
ecclesiastical ; a new and abundant shower of addresses, congra- 
tulations, and rendering of thanks, inundated the Tuileries. These 
addresses, more or less adroitly, called upon their glorious chief to 
place himself so high as to be beyond reach of any new attempt ; 
which, being interpreted, implied that he should assume imperial 
and hereditary power. The Eknpire was forthwith rehearsed in the 
Council, in the Tribunate, and completed in the Senate, who saluted 
Napoleon as Emperor on the 18 th May, 1804. The first act of 
the new Emperor, on the day of his elevation to the Imperial throne, 
was to nominate his brother Joseph to the dignity of Grand Elector, 
and Louis to that of Constable of the Empire, each with the title 
of Imperial Highness. On the 18th of July the Eknperor set out 
for the camp at Boulogne, to distribute the deooradon of the Legion 
of Honour among the members in the grand army there assembled. 
Davoust had under his orders the camps at Dunkirk and Ostend ; 
Ney commanded those of Calais and Montreuil ; the general camp 
at Boulogne was superintended by Soult; Oudinot had replaced 
Marmont at St Omer; and Marmont commanded the detachment 
of the army cantoned on the firontiers of Holland, as also the Dutch 
marine, destined in appearance for the transport of the French 

From Boulogne Napoleon set out for Lacken, where the chftteau 
had been fitted up with great magnificence ; and here the Empress 
joined him. Thence he continued his progress along the Rhine by 
Cologne, Coblentz, and Mayence; and in October their m^esties 
returned to St Cloud. The mission of Caffarelli, who had been 
despatched to Rome to induce the Holy Father to come to Paris 
and crown the Emperor, was successfiiL The Pope arrived on 
the 28th November, and no time was lost in preparing for the 


solemnity which had brought him tliither. Two days after, the 
Senate presented to the Emperor the result of the votes of the 
people on the question of hereditary succession ; and next day the 
consecration took place. It was pretended that the title of Emperor 
changed nothing of the republic, and that the succession of this 
dignity in one family was the only innovation introduced under the 
Empire. On this question, therefore, Napoleon affected to desire 
the sanction of the people. Throughout France there had voted 
3,574,898 individual citizens, of whom only 8,569 had given their 
voices against hereditary succession. They were not Royalists, 
bat, for the most part, old and stem Republicans. On the 2d De- 
cember, 1804, the coronation took place, a detail of which tedious 
ceremonial is unnecessary here. 

The imperial corikge appeared resplendent with gold, plumes, 
and rich furniture of the horses ; the costumes dazzled the multi- 
tude, and, for the first time, pages surrounded the Imperial carriage. 
The vast interior of N6tre Dame was crowded with an audience in 
fiill dress, and with swords. The Emperor took the crown from the 
hands of the Pope, and placed it himself on his own head. After- 
wards he crowned, in like manner, Josephine, the day of whose 
coronation was one of the most sorrowful of her life. On the 
morrow, all the troops then in Paris were assembled in the Champ 
de Mars, and deputations from the different arms of the service 
attended to assist at the distribution of the eagles, which were to 
replace the republican colours. An immense platform had been 
erected in front of the Military School, now transformed into a 
barrack ; behind was to be seen the double throne of the Ehnperor 
and Empress. On a signal being given, Napoleon arose, and pro- 
nounced in a firm voice the following words : '' Soldiers I behold 
your standards I These eagles will ever prove your rallying point ; 
they will always be wherever your Emperor may judge their pre- 
sence necessary for the defence of his throne and of his people. 
You swear to sacrifice your Kves to defend them, and by your 
valour to uphold them constantly in the road to victory I" This 
eventful year terminated with the opening of the Legislative 
Assembly by the new Emperor in person, an occurrence which 
produced a powerfiil impression throughout Europe. 

We must now revert to another of the most important events 
which distinguished the life of Napoleon ; we allude to his assump- 


tion of the crown of Italy. This step in the ambitious career of 
the newly-created Emperor did not, it a\rpeaTSy meet with the entire 
acquiescence of the Poj)e* The Holy Father, or ratlier the cardi- 
nals who advised him, urged for some reward for the favours 
already conferred upon Buonaparte by the Sovereign Pontiff's visit 
to Paris, and the jmrt he had taken in the ceremony of the coro- 
nation. The restoration of Avignon and Bologna, with some other 
territories in Italy, were hinted at, but peremptorily refused by the 
Emperor. This refiisal occasioned extreme coldness between the 
Poi)e and the Church's eldest son; and the former, after conferring 
on Napoleon the title of Emperor of the French, refused to sanction 
his assumption of the title of King of Italy. The opposition of the 
Pope had, however, become comparatively of little importance to 
Buonaparte, who, in pursuance of his original intenti<Hi, quitted 
Paris on the 1st of April for Milan, in order to assume the iron 
crown, leaving the Sovereign Pontiff still at Paris. Being, however, 
in no haste to assume a dignity which he knew could not escape 
him, he remained tlu-ee weeks at Turin, where he inhabited the 
palace of the King of Sardinia. Here he received the report from 
the camp of Boulogne, and arranged the embarkation with such 
minuteness that those who executed his orders were the first 
dupes. Thence the Emperor set out for Alessandria, where he 
had already begun those immense works wliich absorbed so much 
treasura He afterwards repaired to Milan, where, in May 1805> 
Napoleon was crowned with the iron crown of the ancient kings of 
Lombardy, which on this occasion was drawn from the dust 
wherein it had reposed for ages,* and taking it from the hands of 
the Archbishop of Milan, he placed it upon his own head, calling 
aloud, " Dieu me Va donnee, gave h qui la touche ;" which remark- 
able expression afterwards became the legend of the Order of the Iron 
Crown, founded by the Emperor in commemoration of the event 

The enmity of the foreign princes against Napoleon had greatly 
augmented on the murder of the Duke d'Enghein ; the indignation 
against that transaction was, in truth, universal The King of 
Sweden distinguished himself by his violence, and sent back to the 

• The iron crown, as it is called, is a plain circlet of gold, covering a ring of 
iron, said to be composed of tlie nails of the Cross. The Imperial crown was in 
the form of a garland of leaves, resembling those in the antique busts of the Caesars. 
Its appearance was light and elegant. 


King of Prussia the collar of the Black Eagle, because the order had 
been conferred upon the First Consul. The Emperor of Austria 
had not acknowledged Napoleon as King of Italy, though his am- 
bassador had remained at Paris. From that moment, however, 
Austria prepared for war. In the beginning of the month of 
August a treaty was talked of between Russia and England, of 
which the foUomng is an extract: — 1. The object of the treaty to 
be the re-establishment of the equilibrium of Europe. 2. The 
Emperor of Russia shall place 36,000 men at the disposal of Eng- 
land. 3. Neither of the two powers to lay down arms till the 
King of Sardinia be restored to his dominions, or have received an 
equivalent in the north-east of Italy. 4. Malta to be evacuated 
by the English, and occupied by the Russians. 5. The two con- 
tracting powers guarantee the independence of the Ionic republic, 
and England engages to aid Russia in her war with Persia. Had 
this proposed treaty been realised, it is impossible to calculate 
what might have been the consequences to Europe. At length 
the Emperor set out for the army. It was Napoleon's constant 
policy to represent his enemies as aggressors, — himself as forced to 
declare war. In this he had two objects in view: to maintain an 
appearance of sincere love of peace, and to remove the responsi- 
bility of a contest which he seemed not to have sought His career 
offers few examples of this policy so striking as the operations pre- 
vious to the first conquest of Vienna. Nothing could be more 
evident than that the transformation of the Cisalpine republic into 
the kingdom of Italy, and the union of Genoa to the empire, were 
acts contrary to the existing treaties ; yet the Emperor did not the 
less complain of these treaties being violated by Austria, The 
fact was, Austria had armed in the most secret manner, and as- 
sembled her troops on the frontier of Bavaria, — an Austrian corps 
had even penetrated into some of the provinces of the Electorate. 
From that moment Napoleon could assume for a pretext the neces- 
sity of marching to the succour of the allies of France. In this 
spirit he published a singular manifesto, intended for the Diet then 
assembled at Ratisbon, in which document he exposed his griev- 
ances, and threw the odium of all that might follow upon the 
previous bad faith of Austria. Orders were forwarded for break- 
ing up the camps at Boulogne; a brief proclamation announced the 
change in the destination of the troops, and by the morrow's 


dawn the vanguard was on the march for Germany. Departing 
from Strasbourg, the £m{)eror hastened forward and threw himself 
at the head of the Bavarian trooi)S9 thus holding the enemy at bay 
till his own army came up. 

Hostilities commenced on the 2d of October. On the 6th and 
9th the French passed the Danube, and turned the army of the 
enemy. On the 8th, Murat, in the battle of Wertengen, on that 
river, made 4000 prisoners. On the morrow the defeated Aus- 
trians sustained another discomfiture at Gunzbourg. The Arch- 
duke made a brave attempt to defend this post, but was finally 
obliged to abandon it, with the loss of nearly 9000 men and the 
greater part of his cannon. The French, following up their suc- 
cesses, entered Augsburg on the 10th, and Munich on the 12tli of 
the same montL Two days after the entry of the French into the 
Bavarian capital, that is to say on the 14th, an Austrian corps of 6000 
laid down their arms to Marshal Soult at Memmingen; while, on the 
same day, Ney won, by force of arms, his dukedom of Elchingen. 
Lastly, the 17th October beheld the fisonous capitulation of Ubn. 
The French troops now penetrated into the Austrian dominions, 
and immediately occupied Saltzburg and Braunau. Massena also 
obtained important advantages in Italy, having on the same day 
that these two fortresses surrendered gained the sanguinary 
battle of Caldiero, and taken 5000 prisoners from the Austrians. 
On the 2d November Lintz was captured, and the bold march of 
Ney upon the Innspruck had rendered himself master of the 
Tyrol. Several affairs of inferior importance followed between 
the 2d and 8th November. On the latter day, Davoust's division 
fell ^ ^ith a corps of Austrians marching for Neustadt, to cover 
Vienna on that side. The French attacked with great impetuosity, 
and were received as bravely. After a severe engagement, which 
lasted several hours, the Austrians were defeated. Davoust par- 
sued his march on the following day along the great road leading 
to Vienna, and on the 13th the capital of Austria, — ^that city 
which from time immemorial had not beheld the face of an armed 
foe, — ^became the prey of the imperial eagle of France. The 
Austrians now uniting with the Russians, and Napoleon concen- 
trating the whole of his army which had been divided between 
Austria and the Tyrol, on the 2d of December, — the first anni- 
versary of the Emperor's coronation, — was fought the ever-memo- 


Table battle of Austerlitz, in which the Austro-Russian army 
sustained a complete defeat; and the subsequent treaty of Pressburg, 
effected between the three Emperors, terminated the hostilities of 
a campaign which elevated the glory of Napoleon to the highest 
pitch. At this time, as if to temper the pride of these brilliant 
successes, the Emperor received intelligence of the disaster of 
Trafalgar, which had been nearly contemporaneous with the sur- 
render of Ulm to his own arms. Admiral Villeneuve, who with 
Grabina commanded the combined fleets of France and Spain, 
sailed from Cadiz with the intention of attacking the English fleet 
under the orders of Admiral Nelson, on the 2 1st October, 1805. 
The southern shores of the Peninsula witnessed this naval combat, 
in which thirty-one French engaged twenty-seven British ships ; 
eighteen of the French fleet were captured or destroyed. This great 
battle gave to the world a fresh proof of French inferiority both in 
matSriel and seamanship, proclaiming anew England as indisputable 
mistress of the seas. Admiral Sir R. Galder had given them a 
lesson which Nelson completed, — but at the expense of his life. A 
bloodier naval engagement had not taken place since the re- 
nowned Armada. Its issue was equivalent to the destruction of 
the whole French fleet, since the thirteen ships that escaped to 
Cadiz were almost wrecks. The day was fatal to three Admirals: 
Nelson lost his life in the fight, Grabina died of his wounds, and 
Villeneuve, a prisoner, was carried to England, and (Hi his return 
to France committed suicide at Rennes, on April 26 following. 

Financial difficulties in France brought the Emperor in haste 
to Paris at the end of January, 1806, where, on arriving, he 
learned that his troops occupied Malta. At the present time 
France was at war with Russia and England: the situation of 
the Continent presented only tmcertainty: the Prussians were 
arming in silence : the treaty of Vienna had been fulfilled only in 
part. We now approach the time when war was to ravage Ger- 
many anew. Prussia all at once assumed a tlireatening tone. 
The King aspired to the character of liberator of Germany. 
Prussia, therefore, rejected every offer of compensation for Han- 
over, and the Cabinet of Berlin sent an ultimatum, replete with 
expre8si(His in which little measure was observed, and amounting 
almost to a defiance. After eight months passed in the chances 
of peace and uncertain negociation, the Empei'or departed on 


September the 25th for the Rhine, and on October the 10th hosti- 
lities commenced between France and Prussia. The Prussian 
divisions were commanded by the King in person. Prince Hohen- 
loe. Generals Ruchel and Blucher ; the whole, under the command 
of the Duke of Brunswick, amounted to 150,000 men. The 
French marched by three divisions, under Soult and Ney, 
Murat, Bemadotte, and Davoust, and Lannes and Augereau. 
The first intimation the King of Prussia received of the presence 
of Napoleon in his dominions was from the explosion of the 
magazines of Nanemberg, and the battle of Saalfeld, in which his 
brother, the Prince Louis of Prussia, fell. On the evening of the 
13th, Napoleon with his army pitched his tent on the field 
of Jena. A thick fog obscured the early part of the day fol- 
lowing, and when it cleared up the two armies beheld each other 
within the distance of a cannon-shot In less than an hour the 
action became general; about 300,000 men, with 700 or 800 
pieces of cannon, scattered death in every direction, and exhibited 
one of the most awful scenes ever beheld* 

Buonaparte saw the position of both armies, and ordered a 
simultaneous charge throughout the lines. The Prussians with- 
stood the shock, and fought with the heroism of patriotic despair. 
For a time victory seemed doubtful; when Napoleon, seeing where 
a bold charge would decide the battle, ordered Miurat to advance 
with his cavalry, which threw the Prussians into disorder, break- 
ing their ranks, and putting artillery, cavalry, and infantry all to 
the route. Thus was defeated an army of 150,000 men, and tlius 
the Prussian monarch lay "at the feet of the conqueror. The loss 
of the French was stated at 1 100 kiUed and 3000 wounded ; while 
20,000 Prussians were killed or wounded in this disastrous action, 
and from 30,000 to 40,000 taken prisoners. The Duke of Brunswick 
died of his wounds a few days after the battle. The King of 
Prussia retreated to Konigsberg, and did not again join the army. 

A division of the French under Marshal Davoust entered 
Berlin on October the 25th, and on the 27th Buonaparte made 
his public entry into that city. Several minor actions took place 
before the final close of the campaign, in all of w^hich the Prus- 
sians were defeated, and compelled to lay down tlieir arms. Prince 
Hohenloe yielded at Preuzlon, and even the indomitable Bliicher 
was finally compelled to surrender. 

• •• 


In this brief record we cannot trace the pr<^6ss of eyents, 
wliich for a while promised the independence of Poland^ but left 
her at last disappointed and deceived. Everything now urged 
Napoleon to meet the Russians, and he made his entrance into 
Warsaw January the Ist, 1807. The majority of reports pre- 
viously received spoke in unison of the discontent of the troops, 
then suffering from severe weather, bad roads, and privations of 
all kinds. Upon hearing this. Napoleon had recourse to one of 
those proclamations, in dictating which he exhibited, for the mo- 
ment, the air of one inspired. His imagination kindled like the 
fancy of the Improvisatori of Italy ; he was, so to speak, upon the 
tripod, and it became necessary to write with incredible rapidity, 
in order to keep pace with him : for his dictation was then an 
outpouring. GreneraDy speaking, his proclamations turned upon 
three points : boasting to the soldiers of what they had performed; 
showing in perspective what remained to be accomplished ; and 
blackening his enemies. One of these was now dispersed all over 
Germany, and it is impossible to imagine the wonderftd impres- 
sion this produced upon the whole army. They forgot their 
fatigues, their sorrows, their privations, and desired to be led on 
to the combat They recalled the battles in which they had been 
present; marched on gaily, though without shoes; passed the 
long hours without food, and without complaint Such was the 
extraordinaiy" enthusiasm, or rather fanaticism, with which Na- 
poleon could inspire his soldiers ; and this power of spreading 
through his ranks a confidence and exhilarating courage, which 
made war a pastime, and seemed to make victory sure, distin- 
guished Napoleon in an age of uncommon military talent, and was 
one main instrument of his frequent success. On January the 
25th, the Russian general Markow attacked the French at Moh- 
ringen. After a sharp contest the eagle of the 9th Regiment of 
In&ntry was taken; but the French receiving reinforcements, 
renewed the combat, and succeeded in driving the Russians back. 
The battle of Mohringen was quickly followed by those of Berg- 
firied, Deppen, and Hoff, all of which contests were doubtful, each 
party claiming victory, till the morning of February the 8th, when 
the battle of Eylau, fought near the village of that name, decided 
in favour of Napoleon. 

To enter into a detailed account of all the military move^ 


ments of this extraordinary and brilliant campaign does not come 
w'itliiu the present plan ; to the movements of Buonaparte atten- 
tion principally must be confined. On the 17th he quitted 
Eylau, and fixing his head-quarters at Osterode, occupied the 
time till the end of May in re-organising and recruiting his army. 
Nor was the enemy idle during that period. Military operations 
had been going on in different quarters with various success; 
and by the latter end of May the commanders of the grand 
armies^ having completed dieir arrangements, seemed determined 
by one great effort to bring the contest to a close, and on June 
the 14th was fought the battle of Friedland, in which, after a 
long and obstinate resistance on the part of the Russians, they 
were at length compelled to give way, and the French were 
again the victors. Alexander sent his lieutenant to propose an 
armistice, which was agreed to on June the 23d, and two days 
after the Eniperors met on a raft in the river Nieman, near 
Tilsit, the town which gave its name to this celebrated treaty. 
The King of Prussia was admitted as a party to the treaty ; 
but on condition that he, with Alexander, should sign such stipu- 
lations in regard to states and territories, and the continental 
system, as the victor was inclined to impose. Napoleon con- 
structed from his conquests the kingdom of Westphalia for his 
brother Jerome ; and having now wrung from the last of his re- 
luctant enemies, except England, the recognition of his Imperial 
power, which already embraced a wider territory and a far 
greater number of subjects than Charlemagne ruled over as the 
Emperor of the West a thousand years before. Napoleon hast- 
ened back to Paris, where the/efe« and celebrations in honour of 
his achievements dazzled the eyes of the world. But he was no 
sooner in his capital than new disquietudes arose. Russia had 
declared open war against Sweden. Finland had been invaded, 
and Aho, its capital, occupied by the Russian troops. Joseph had 
been proclaimed King of Spain on June the 8th; the 21st had 
witnessed his entrance mto Madrid ; but in ten days after, the 
news of the disasters at Baylen had forced liim to leave the 
capital England had just dispatched troops into Portugal, under 
the command of Sir Arthur Wellesley. There could thus be no 
longer any hope of an accommodation with Great Britain. The 
Emperor Alexander, in terms of the Treaty of Tilsit, had sent 


Ck>mit Romanzow to London, charged with mediatorial proposals 
on the part of Russia, which were not even heard. The media- 
tion had been rejected after the Treaty of Tilsit, while subsequently 
Napoleon had dethroned the King of Spain, and got up in the 
heart of Germany the kingdom of Westphalia for his brother 
Jerome. Towards the end of September, Napoleon again quitted 
Paris for his interview with Alexander at Erfiirth, in which 
matters were to be accommodated and Napoleon make good his 
point The Emperor Alexander recognised Joseph as King of 
Spain, and Napoleon, in return, agreed to Alexander's occupation 
of Finland ; and to Denmark was left — resignation. After the 
interview Buonaparte returned to Paris, where he presided with 
great splendour at the opening of the Legislative Assembly, and 
in November set out for Spain. 

The Empire of Napoleon was based only upon his sword ; and 
it seemed as if all Europe must rise in arms to second his 
gi^tic ambition. During the heat of the contest in Spain, 
which he was directing in person, a storm was once more gather- 
ing along the shores of the Danube, and the Emperor imme- 
diately confided operations in the Peninsula to his Generals, 
and set out for Paris. He reached his capital January the 22d, and 
prepared for another campaign against Austria, whose Emperor 
had violated the peace of Tilsit and soon after declared war against 

In the campaign of 1809, Napoleon was even more rapid than 
in 1805. Setting out from Paris on April the 1st, we find him 
on the 17th at Donawerth, in active operations, at the head of 
the barbarians : on the 23d, ho was master of Ratisbon. In the 
engagement which preceded his entrance into that city Napoleon 
was wounded in the heel; the hurt, slight indeed, could not 
induce him to quit for an instant the battle-field. Between 
Donawerth and Ratisbon also, by a brilliant achievement, as 
skilful as it was daring, Davoust gained and merited his title of 
Prince of Eckmiihl, in the battle of that name. In his march 
upon Vienna, the Emperor used such expedition that his army 
set down before that place on May the 9th. The town capitulated 
on the 13th. The Archduke, on hearing of the capture of the 
capital, collected his forces, and the French army having passed 
the Danube, were encountered and defeated by the Austrians at 


the battles of Asperne and Essling. For the first time Napoleon 
had sustained a defeat in Germany, and military operations were 
for a short time suspended: by skilful manoeuyring he concen- 
trated a powerful army on July the 8th, near the little town 
of Wagram, where a long and bloody contest followed. The 
results of this battle were most humiliating to Austria : Napoleon 
pushed the advantages he had gained to the utmost ; his nume- 
rous hosts bore down all before them, and every possible stra- 
tagem was practised to strike terror into the vanquished. On July 
the 12th an armistice was solicited by Francis, and agreed to by 
Napoleon. The Treaty of Raab was signed on October the 14th, 
by which the German Empire was demolished, and Francis II. 
emperor of Germany, became Francis L emperor of Austria. 
Napoleon returned once more to Paris; and the close of the year 
was marked by that cruel and short-sighted sacrifice to state 
policy, the divorce of the Empress Josepliine, which utterly 
failed to connect the dynasty of Napoleon with any of the powers 
of the Continent, as he had vainly hoped. And it is a singular 
circumstance, that from that very hour fortune ceased to smile on 
the efforts of Napoleon ; and the prophecy of the Black SybO was 
soon after accomplished.* The arrangement of preliminaries for an 
alliance with Maria Louisa, archduchess of Austria, was one of tiie 
results of the recent treaty. The pompous marriage ceremony 
took place April the 2d, 1810, immediately after wWch the Em- 
peror and Empress proceeded to Holland, that country being 
united to the empire by the abdication of Napoleon's brother 
Louis. After visiting various parts of Holland and Belgium, the 
greatest rejoicings everywhere hailing their approach, the Imperial 
pair returned by way of Ostend, Lille, and Normandy to St Cloud, 
on June the 1st. In December, the Hanse towns were united to 
the empire. This usurpation, so far northward, excited still more 
strongly the growing displeasure of Russia, which was soon to 
break into open hostility. At the close of the year negociations 
were again entered into between France and England for the 
exchange of prisoners and a general peace, but broken off by the 
unreasonable demands of Napoleon. 

* When Josephine was a girl, an old negress predicted she would one day be 
greater tban the Queen of France, and afterwards die in an hospital. 


At length the long-cherished hopes of Napoleon's ambition 
were fulfilled — ^he had a son of his own, an heir of his name, his 
power, and his crown. He was immediatelj proclaimed Eang of 
Rome ; and the birth of an infant heir to the Imperial throne was 
hailed with universal enthusiasm. Never had child beheld the light 
under circumstances promising greater glory. In fact, from the 
birth of his son to the first of his reverses beyond the Moskwa the 
Emperor was, to sapeijScial observers, in the zenith of his power. 
The Empire, embracing under this denomination all the states 
possessed by the Imperial family, exclusive of the ill-assured 
throne of Spain, contained 57,000,000 of inhabitants. 

Having accompanied Napoleon through his successful and 
wooderixd career to the height of his empire, travelling, as he 
had hitherto done, along a sunny and exulting path, he must 
now be foUowed as he begins to enter the echpse, from which he 
never ailer emerges. _ His next campaign, the expedition to 
Rnssia, was one against which his wisest counsellors remonstrated, 
but which had every recommendation to a man who regarded 
himself as an exception to his race, and able to triumph over the 
laws of Nature. 

From the month of March, 1811, suspicions of an approaching 
war with Russia began to be entertained, and in October, on 
returning from an excursion to Holland, upon which he had set 
out soon after the birth of the King of Rome, Napoleon perceived 
that such a rupture had become inevitable. The motives which 
moved the Russians to war were numerous, but all springing from 
one grand source, — the ambitious aggressions of Buonaparte, in 
adding to his empire state after state, to the very borders of 
Russia. The Hanse Towns and the right bank of the Elbe, 
formed into Imperial departments, we have seen, awakened into 
active resolution this slumbering jealousy. The seizure of Olden- 
burg, belonging to Alexander's uncle, the invasion of Pomerania, 
and the operations in Poland, foUowed the conviction, or tended to 
enforce it, that, if Russia wished to prevent the mighty wave thus 
rolling on northward over Europe from overwhelming her own 
estates, she must meet and repel it with an armed bulwark. 
Napoleon on his part prepared for the gigantic entei*prise, on a 
scale so immense that the conquest of the world might well have 
seemed in prospective. This vast expedition, the greatest con- 


ceived by the genius of man since the age of Alexander's conquest 
of India, fixed all regards, absorbed all ideas, and transcended the 
calculations of reason. 

Towards the Nieman, as if that river had become the sole 
centre of all action, men, horses, carriages, provisions, baggage of 
every description, were directed from all points of the £tux>pean 
continent The army of Napoleon was not composed solely of 
French, nor of those troops drawn from countries subjected to her 
iDunediate influence, as Spain, Italy, Switzerland, and the Con- 
federation. Neither Prussia nor Austria possessed the courage, or, 
rather, could claim the power of remaining neutral ; the former 
supplied a contingent of 15,000 men under General Yorck, and 
Austria an army of 90,000 troops, commanded by Prince Sch^^art^ 
zenburg, who nevertheless retained his station of ambassador to 
the French imperial court, or rather head-quarters. From 
Dresden, whither the Empress had accompanied Napoleon, she 
returned to Paris, and Buonaparte sjied forward without delay 
towards Smolensk. On the 24th June he crossed the Nieman, 
and on the 27th arrived at the advanced posts and put the army 
in motion for the purj)ose of approaching Wilna ; and, should the 
Russians be inclined to defend that place, to attack them on the 
28th. At daybreak on the 28th the King of Naples (Murat) put 
himself in motion with the advanced guard of light cavalry. 
The Prince of Eckmiihl supported him with his corps. The 
Russians everywhere retired, crossed the Wilna in haste, burnt 
the bridge, and set fire to the immense magazines collected in the 
town and valued at several millions of rubles. At mid-day 
Napoleon entered Wilna; on the 29th, several skirmishes took 
place between different corps of the two armies. The Russians, 
however, still continued to retreat, and in doing so set fire to 
their extensive magazines at Wilkomer. The head-quarters of 
Napoleon were now in the place where the Emperor Alexander 
had previously held his court for six weeks. The Russian army 
was still posted in a most advantageous manner, and consisted of 
upwards of 140,000 men; but notwithstanding they had this 
immense force opposed to them, the French army still continued 
to advance, and the Russians to retreat, destroying all their 
magazines and everything in their way. Torrents of rain at this 
time fell for a space of thirty-six hours, and the weather changed 



from extreme heat to extreme colcL Several thousand horses 
perished in consequence of this change ; convoys of artillery were 
stopped by the mud, and the march of the French army was 
greatly retarded. The battles of Dresse and Riga followed hard 
on each other ; and each terminated in the continued retreat of the 
Russians. In the battle of Mohilow, which took place on the 
3d of July, the French claimed the victory ; but on a subsequent 
affair, which occurred on the 25th, they were obliged to retire 
with the loss of 8000 men. On the same dav the Russian main 
army was attacked, and its assailants were again obliged to retire 
with the loss of 6000 killed and wounded. Several other conflicts 
took place previous to the grand encounter at Smolensk, which 
point it was obviously Napoleon's object to gain, as appeared by 
all his movements. The policy of the Russians appeared to be 
retreat, still contesting every foot of ground, and by these con- 
tinued skirmishes to weaken the enemy's forces, to draw him 
further from his resources, and to destroy his confidence in 
victory. On the 17 th commenced the battle of Smolensk, and 
after two days' hard fighting the French obtained possession of the 
place. On the 5th September was fought the great and important 
battle of Borodino, in which the Russians lost 25,000 men in 
killed and wounded, and the French loss it was estimated was 
even still greater. Two days after the Russian general retired, 
leaving the French at liberty to enter Moscow, which they did on 
the 14th, The Russians, however, before they withdrew had set 
fire to the city. 

In the possession of Moscow, Napoleon had hoped to secure for 
his army good winter-quartew and abundant suppUes. For the 
attainment of the first object enough of the city still remained ; 
but for the second, the statement in the bulletin, that Moscow con- 
tained provisions for eight months, was entirely false. Disap- 
pointed in the hopes which he had formed in this respect. Napoleon 
soon became fully aware of the difficulties he had to encounter, 
amongst the most serious of which was the daily diminution of 
his army by sickness, the effect of a climate to which the troops 
were wholly unaccustomed; and whilst on the one hand the 
French army was thus becoming hourly weaker and less efficient, 
the Russians were daily adding to their strength by the arrival of 
re-enforcements. Napoleon entered Moscow on the 14th Sep- 

cxz MBMont or napoleon. 

tember, and by the 30th found himself in so critical a situation 
that it Ijecame necessary to adopt his old system of *n^gociation, 
for the purpose of gaining time, if possible, to extricate himself. 
Accordingly on that day he dispatched Count Lauriston to the 
Russian head-quarters, with proposals for an armistice preparatory 
to opening negociations for peaca The Russian general, how- 
ever, peremptorily refused to listen to any such proposal; no 
course, therefore, was left for Napoleon but to extricate himself in 
the best manner he could from his perilous situation by fightmg 
his way through the enemy, who was now gradually enclosing 
him oa every side. On the 18th of October a severe engagement 
took place between the advanced guards of the French and 
Russian armies near Moscow, in which the French under Murat 
were defeated with great loss. Moscow was re-occupied by the 
Russians. The French, in their precipitate retreat, left several 
thousand sick behind them. On the 24th October the Emperor 
in person attacked the Russians; the encounter was desperate, 
but the French were obliged to retreat From this time to the 
15th November there followed a continual succession of fighting, 
the French constantly defeated and retreating, and the Russians 
closely pursuing them. At length the rear of the French army 
was completely broken up; upwards of 12,000 men laid down 
their arms ; the slaughter was dreadful ; and the spoil which fell 
into the hands of the conquerors immense. Slowly, sadly, de- 
spairingly, the hitherto invincible legions of Napoleon defiled from 
the scene of carnage, and once more turned their faces towards 
Paris. The retreat from Russia needs no lengthened description, 
it is summed up in a few words. It was a dark and sanguinaxy 
chain of corpses for a thousand miles. Thousands laid down on 
the snow at night and never awoke ; those who could bend their 
stiffened limbs to another day's march had to fight their way 
through the merciless slaughter of the Cossacks ; the howl of the 
polar wolf mingled night by night with the dreams of the starving, 
freezing soldiers ; and as fast as the wounded or the wearied fell 
they were devoured alive. At last a few stragglers, emaciated, 
worn and wounded, again stepped upon their native soiL Of the 
grand army which in all the confidence of victory and all the 
pride of chivalry and power had crossed the Nieman but a few 
months before, 125,000 had been skin, 130,000 had died by 


famioe or cold, 200,000 had become the prisoners of unrelenting 
foes ; and among this vast multitude there were 50 generals and 
3000 regimental officers. There are but few more victories of 
Napoleon's to record — his star was sinking for ever. 

Buonaparte arrived in Paris on the 17th December; but his 
return on this occasion in nothing resembled former triumphal 
entries into his capital All his efforts and exertions were now 
concentrated to repair his losses; a new artillery was created: 
men were called forth in masses: the eye of the Emperor was 
everywhere. Notwithstanding this activity, the disasters of the 
Russian campaign were daily pressing heavy on his cause. Prussia, 
constrained to play a part, now went over to the Russians. The 
moral effect produced by this desertion was far more to be dreaded 
than its real amount The signal thus given, it was to be feared, 
would be speedily followed by other allies in Germany; Napoleon 
foresaw in the event all the misfortune which it foreboded for the 
future. Assembling a privy council, he demanded whether, in 
such a conjimcture, he ought to make overtures of peace, or pre- 
pare anew for war ? Cambac^res and Talleyrand argued in favour 
of peace; the contrary opinion prevailed generally, and the war 

All Napoleon's thoughts now lay beyond the Rhine. He was 
unfortunate, and the powers most nearly allied were falling away; 
nor was Austria the last to imitate the example of Prussia. Austria 
withheld her contingent, — a clear proof to Napoleon that she would 
soon assume more active hostility, and that ere long he would 
soon have the whole of Europe against him. A few of the princes 
of the Confederation still remained faithful, and his own prepa- 
rations being finished, he was about to resume in person the com- 
mand of the army thus miraculously renewed. 

This time Napoleon appointed the Empress Regent, assisted by 
a Council of Regency ; and convoking a new privy council, he 
presented Maria Louisa, in her new capacity, with all possible 

Napoleon quitted Paris on the 15 th April, having under his 
standard a new army of 180,000 effective men, including guards 
of honour. With such physical resources, and the aid of his own 
genius, men rightly foresaw he could yet play a high game, and 
might perhaps prove the winner. On the SOiti April, information 


was received at the Russian head-quarters that Napoleon had 
arrived at the head of the French army. Ui^n the receipt of this 
intelligence the Emperor Alexander and the King of Prussia also 
joined the allies; both armies were now in the vicinity of each 
other, and the plain of Lutzen was doomed to be the stage of 
another sanguinary contest for empire. The engagement took 
place on the 2d May, the French being led on by the Emperor in 
person. The troops on both sides fought with desperation, each 
claiming victory, though the advantage was clearly with the 
French. The result of this battle was the retreat of the Allies, 
and eight days after tlie Emperor was in Dresden; not, as in the 
spring of the last year, like the sovereign of Western Europe sur- 
rounded by his grand vassals, yet still counting on his fortune. 

The battle of Lutzen was followed by tliat of Wurtschen, 
which took place on the 21st May, in which the superiority of the 
French in number obliged the Russians to give way. In the mean 
time the conflict in the mountains had commenced with redoubled 
animosity, but the inflexible spirit and steady Are of the allied 
battalions, supix)rted by the cavalry under the Prince of Wirtem- 
berg, prevented the French from making any progress in that 
quarter. At length a division of the French, under Greneral Ney, 
persevering in a heavy and destructive fire of musketry and 
artillery, obliged the Prussians, under Bliicher, to retreat in the 
rear. The Russian commander-in-chief, finding the battle going 
against him, determined to decline the contest, and ordered a 
retreat The loss on both sides equalled 20,000 men. The time 
had now arrived for Austria to declare herself, which she did by 
offering to mediate between the belligerent powers. This offer 
brought on the armistice of Plessnitz, and, subsequently, the 
Congress of Prague. 

Towards the end of July Napoleon made an excursion to 
Mayence, where the Empress met him for a few days; thence he 
returned to Dresden, and allowed the armistice to expire on the 
17 th of August The Congress at Prague having thus separated 
without attaining any result, hostilities recommenced on the 17th; 
and on the same day — a fatal blow for France — Austria declared 
against her: the Emperor alleging to his son-in-law that the 
greater the number of his enemies, tlie greater was the chance of 
bringing him sooner to reasonable terms. This addition of 250,000 


men to the allied ranks, arrayed against Napoleon upwards of a 
million of combatants. The Emperor of Austria joined the Allied 
army at Dresden, on the 27th. The result of that day's struggle 
was, that the Allies retired in the evening with a loss of 6000 or 
7000 men. On the 28th the Allies commenced their retreat 
towards the Bohemian mountains, and were followed on different 
roads by the FrencL In this pursuit, the division of General 
Vendamme, with all its baggage and 60 pieces of cannon, were 
captured. The disaster of Vendamme was followed by the defeat 
of another corps of the French army, under Macdonald, by Bliicher, 
in which the French lost 18,000 prisoners and 103 pieces of 

In the meantime Napoleon had quitted Dresden, and was 
concentrating his army in the neighbourhood of Leipsic The 
Allied army had also approached the same point, and it was evident 
that a decisive action must soon take place. On the 18th October 
the important battle of Leipsic took placa The contest continued 
throughout the whole of the day, and was maintained with des- 
perate courage on both sides, until night parted the combatants. 
Napoleon in person led on his army, animating the troops by his 
presence and example to the performance of the most extraordinary 
acts of courage. All his exertipns could not, however, cover 
defeat The Allies were successful in every quarter ; and though 
night divided the combatants, on the morning of the 19th, retreat 
having become indispensable. Napoleon took leave of the King of 
Saxony, who had accompanied him from Dresden, quitted Leipsic 
by the outer gate, and took the road towards France. This great 
battle, in which half-a-million of men engaged together on a surface 
of three square leagues, decided the fate of Europe. From this 
bloody field Napoleon retreated to Mayence, which he entered, 
but not without more conflicts, on the 2d November, and thence 
to Paris. 

After the events of Leipsic, which thus lost to France a second 
formidable army, all the powers of the Coalition pledged themselves 
to each other at Frankfort, on the 9th November, never to separate 
before a general peace had been established, and to renounce all 
armistice or negociation which had not such peace for its object : 
they finally resolved to treat with Napoleon only in his capital. 
On hearing this. Napoleon profited by the occasion to raise once 


more a levy of 300,000 men, to make a last effort to repel the 
attack against him. 

The most critical period in Buonaparte's career was now 
reached. Fraud was united with force, and both against the 
Emperor ; while the mighty resources still offered by France were 
paralysed through the inactivity of many agents of his government. 
He was betrayed by those who yet professed themselves allies. 
Murat joined the enemy, and the Swiss voluntarily opened their 
frontiers, which, as a neutral power, they had promised to see 
rcsi)octed, or to defend ; and the weakest side of France thus lay 
exposed to the blow. The treachery of Murat had proved doubly- 
fatal — ^in itself and in its effects — upon the mighty combinations 
in which he had been destined to act an important part. In the 
gigantic scheme of defence now meditated by Buonaparte, his 
intention had been that Eugene and Murat, uniting their forces, 
should march upon Vienna through the Tyrol, and thus get to the 
rear of the Allies, and shake Austria to the centre. Meanwhile 
he himself, with the soldiers, and on the soil of France, would 
have multiplied obstacles in the enemy's front, and might have 
decided the campaign before the AlUed army had reached Paris. 
In planning that campaign. Napoleon was all himself; agiun he 
unfolded that fervid mind, which, as in early conquests, annihilated 
time and space, and seemed omnipresent in its energies. Frustrated 
in this well-conceived attempt, he sent an ambassador to treat with 
the Allies ; but the man who had imposed upon all Europe treaties of 
peace, not less disastrous than war itself, could not now obtain an 
armistica Affairs were approaching daily to a crisis. In the 
course of the first fifteen days of 1814, one-third of France was 
invaded, and a new congress proposed at Ch&tillon-sur-Seine. At 
this jimcture Napoleon summoned the National Guard, and con- 
fiding to them the Empress and King of Rome, he set out to join 
the army on the 25th January. Eastern France was already 
occupied by 500,000 men, and Napoleon had wherewith to oppose 
this host only, at most, 100,000 ; but his genius, far firom failing 
him, seemed to renovate its youthful vigour at this terrible crisis. 
The same day that he quitted Paris, Alexander, Francis, and the 
King of Prussia were assembled at Langres. Napoleon rejoined 
his guard at Vitry, and, two days after quitting his capital, put to 
rout the Prussian army ; then advancing, in two days more took 


place the battle of Brienne^ in which, with 15,000 men, he kept 
ill check /or twelve hours 80,000 Russians; and on the 1st of 
February from 70,000 to 80,000 men of the French and Allied 
armies drew up against each other. In the battle of Champ- 
Aubert^ which has immortalised the village df that name, the 
Allies were again beaten ; and the whole of February was a series 
of combats, a succession of reverses and defeats nearly balanced, 
in which the activity, the energies, and the resources of the French 
chief seemed inexhaustible. It is unnecessary to trace minutely 
the progress of this last struggle. For two months the hunted 
hero fought inch by inch the irresistible onset of the Allied in- 
vaders; wherever he met the enemy, he encountered them with 
the heroism of former days, and his troops fought with the energy 
of despair. Napoleon never displayed so much true greatness as 
during this last campaign. His transitions from point to point — 
the rapidity of his evolutions and marches — his unflagging resolu* 
tion — his matchless skiQ — unwasting energy, and, above all, the 
invincibleness of his unbroken and imbending will, place him 
on an eminence apart fix>m any other of his achievements, and 
render the last scenes of the dissolving Empire the most remark- 
able of his wonderful career. Valour at length could not withstand 
increasing numbers and the constant reinforcements added to the 
Allies. On the 26th March, Napoleon found himself cut off from 
Paris ; the Allies gradually fought their way through the various 
divisions of the French army, defended by their gallant generals, 
and finally entered the capital on the 30th. 

The result is well known ; Napoleon's overthrow was complete. 
By the force of armed intervention the Bourbons were restored, 
and Louis XVIIL reascended the throne of France. Buonaparte 
had retired to Fontainbleau, where, on the 11th April, when he 
was entirely in the power of his enemies, and'most of his ministers, 
marshals, and favourites had abandoned him, he signed at their 
dictation an abdication of the thrones of France and Italy for him- 
self and his heirs. By a subsequent decree he was sentenced to 
banishment to the island of Elba, and on the 20th April he left 
Fontainbleau, after delivering a parting address to the soldiers of 
his Old Guard, the stranded masts and spars of that Imperial vessel 
which had braved so many tempests, who were assembled in the 
courtyard of the palace to take a last farewell of their illustrious 


commander. Accompanied, at his own request, by a commissioner 
from each of the Allied armies, Napoleon proceeded to Fr^jus, 
the place of embarkation, and, on the 28th April, he set sail for 
Elba in the English frigate Undaunted. 

It is unnecessary to accompany the dethroned Emperor in his 
temporary exile. He arrived at Elba May 4th, and passed the 
ten montlis of his sojourn there in planning his liberation, and 
making a last attempt to regain his empire. The discontents 
which had manifested themselves under the new monarchy, and 
his own consciousness of popularity with the French army, un- 
folded the alluring prospects of ultimate success before the ima- 
gination of Napoleon as he stood upon the deck of the vessel that 
bore him from the rocks of Elba to the shores of France. He 
landed at Frejus March 1st, and on the 20th of that month took 
up his abode at the Tuileries, where he once more held his Im- 
perial court It comes not within these limits to detail at length 
all the transactions of the period distinguished by the appellation 
of The Hundred DaySy a brief mention of the most important events 
will suffice for the purpose of this memoir. Early in April, Na- 
poleon made an appeal for the establishment of peace to each of 
the Allied Sovereigns, whose only reply was the adoption of 
measures still more energetic than those which had preceded 
them for the total annihilation of that authority in France to 
which Buonaparte had so suddenly and unexpectedly been restored. 
The Congress, then sitting at Vienna, signed a final treaty, in 
which they proclaimed Buonaparte an outlaw, and pledged their 
faith to exterminate him from die face of the earth. Once more 
every nation on the Continent rang with the clangour of warlike 
preparation, and the commencement of June witnessed a million 
of armed men marching to the scene of the final struggle. It is 
obviously superfluous to enter here into the particulars and result 
of the glorious contest at Waterloo. In every part of the civi- 
lised world it is well known, that whiltt they placed the Duke of 
Wellington on the highest summit of military renown, they were 
fatal to the fortune of his great rival, whose sun on the evening of 
that day so glorious to Britain set, never to rise again. Imme- 
diately after the battle, Buonaparte left to his generals the care of 
collecting the scattered remains of his army and returned to Paris, 
where, despairing of further support, he consented to abdicate, and 


signed a proclamation to that effect, June the 22<L Aflter vainly 
soliciting passports to America from the Duke of Wellington, he 
withdrew to Rochefort, where he remained until he learned the 
dissolution of the two Chambers and the entrance of the King into 
Paris. Up to this period he entertained an idea that the Cham- 
bers would recall him, but that hope having now passed away, 
and finding it impossible to escape the strict surveUlance kept on 
him by the English ships, he embarked on the 14th of July in a 
French frigate, and the following day surrendered himself prisoner 
on board the English ship Bellerophon, and dispatched a communi- 
cation to the Prince Regent, claiming protection from the British 
laws. On the 16th, the Bellerophon sailed for England, and 
arrived at Torbay, July 24th. The time between the arrival of 
the Bellerophon and the transfer of Buonaparte from that vessel 
to the Northumberland, was occupied in discussions between the 
Allied Powers as to the mode of his future disposal. Napoleon 
declared his object in surrendering himself to be, to obtain from 
the British Government permission either to reside as a private 
individual in England, or to be allowed to proceed to America. 
To neither of these propositions would the Allies accede, and it 
was finally determined that the man who had at one period had 
dominion in his own person over more than half Europe, and who 
had controlled seven-eighths of the remaining half, was to pass the 
rest of his days a prisoner and an exile, confined within the narrow 
limits of a barren island, not twenty miles in circumference, and 
separated from the rest of the habitable world on every side by 
thousands of leagues of trackless ocean. 

On the morning of the 5th of August, Sir Henry Bunbury, 
accompanied by the Hon. Mr. Bathurst, was conveyed on board 
the Bellerophon by Lord Keith's yacht On being introduced to 
the ex-Emperor, Sir Henry read to him the resolution of the 
Cabinet, by which he was informed of his intended transportation 
to St Helena. Against this determination of the Allies he pro- 
tested in the most vehement terms, as contrary to good faith and 
the law of nations. In surrendering himself to Captain Maitland, 
he said, he had sought an asylum as a private individual in 
England, and hoped to have been received under the King's 
allegiance, and to have been allowed to live under the protection 
of the laws. In making tliis protest, his manner was temperate 


and his language eloquent Sir Henry, in reply to his argument, 
merely said that he had no commission but to make known to him 
the resolution of his Majesty's Government 

Previous to his being transferred from the Bellerophon to the 
Northumberland, his arms and pistols had been taken from him, 
though not without a strong resistance being made against it, both 
by himself and his attendants. He was now also informed that he 
would only be permitted to take with him in his exile four friends 
and twelve domestics. Those who were not to accompany him 
were sent on board the Eurotas frigate ; and the parting between 
the ex-Emperor and his faithful attendants was a most affecting 
one. On the 7th of August Lord Keith, in his bai^, went on 
board the Bellerophon to escort Napoleon, and those who were 
to accompany him, on board the Northumberland, on the deck 
of which ship the marines were drawn out to receive him, 
but merely as a General Officer. On the 9th of August the 
Northumberland commenced her voyage for St Helena. The 
passage was long, and tedious throughout The ship did not 
reach her destination until October 16th, and two days more 
elapsed before Napoleon could land. No residence having been 
prepared for him, he took up a temporary abode whilst a house at 
Longwood was getting ready for his reception. It is impossible to 
describe the effect produced on the island by his unexpected 
arrival. Of Napoleon's habits and pursuits during his subsequent 
years of exile it is tmnecessary to speak here. Those of his 
adherents who accompanied him in his banishment, and who 
witnessed the final close of his eventful life, have already, by their 
respective and minute details, gratified the most curious. For six 
years he continued the occupant of that island prison, living within 
its proscribed rules, and the monotony of his daily routine alone 
interrupted by the frequent altercations between himself and Sir 
Hudson Lowe, the Governor, to whose care was intrusted the 
illustrious exile. His invectives against those who had decreed 
his sentence were bitter and continuous, the slightest inconvenience 
serving as a pretext for a renewal of complaints; and when 
measures were from time to time taken to rectify these, there still 
always remained that one pre-eminent and constant source of dis- 
content — the appellation by which he was designated. 

At the conunencement of 1821, Napoleon's health began to 


tail, and after some months of great suffering lie fell the victim 
of a disease which had been fatal to his father— cancer in the 

On the 5th of Maj, 1821, Buonaparte ended his wonderful 
life^ his eventful and extraorduiary career having carried him 
successivelj from the Lieutenant to the General — from the Consul 
to the Emperor, — and from the Conqueror of the greater part of 
Europe to the Recluse of Saint Helena. 

His remains were interred in the centre of the island^ with all 
the respect and honour due to his position as a General. It 
devolved upon English soldiers to consign his body to the grave — 
the cofBn being borne on the shoulders of the troops from the 
hearse to the tomb. A square stone, without tablet or inscription, 
was then sufficient to cover the man for whom Europe was once 
too small. 

For nineteen years the exiled Emperor slept in that lone 
island, during which period France had undergone many changes. 
Louis Dix-huit had been succeeded by his brother, Charles X., 
whose arbitrary and tmconciliating government caused the Revo- 
lution of July, 1830; and Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, who 
had been long watching the course of events, took advantage of 
this popular outbreak to place himself at the head of aSairs ; and 
thus for some time a Democratic Monarchy was carried on, under 
the auspices of the Napoleon of Peace, as Louis Philippe was 
sometimes called. However, the recollection of the deeds of the 
Napoleon of War was cherished by the French people, whose love 
of conquest and display soon made them forget the lesson but 
partly learnt tmder the iron rule of the Emperor: and that restless 
and vacillating nation were rapidly forgetting the faults and 
cherishing only the memory of the glories of their former master. 

The desire of possessing and consecrating all that remained of 
their once great General was becoming daily more manifest ; and 
in 1840 Louis Philippe^ yielding to the universal wish of the 
nation, entered into negociations with the British Government for 
permission to remove the body of Napoleon. These preliminaries 
being satisfactorily arranged, La Belle Poule frigate, under the 
command of the Prince de Joinville, sailed for St Helena, to 
transfer the remains of Napoleon from the desolate spot where they 
had so long reposed to that city which had witnessed all his 



former glory; and on the 15th of December, 1840, all that was 
mortal of the late Emperor was placed with great pomp in the 
Chapel of the Invalides, and afterwards consigned to a tomb, 
according to his own expressed desire, on " the banks of the 
Seine, among that people he had loved so well.'* 

A minute review of the character of Napoleon is a task too 
lengthened and important for present consideration; a slight sketch 
of the great leading features of his intellectual and moral charac- 
teristics will suffice a3 a sequel to the foregoing memoir. Power 
was his supreme object — the love of power and supremacy 
absorbed, consmned him. No other passion, no domestic attach- 
ment, no private friendship, no love of pleasure, no relish for 
letters and the arts, no human sympathy, no human weakness, 
divided his mind with the passion for dominion, and for dazzling 
manifestations of liis power. His intellect was distinguished by 
rapidity of thought. He understood by a glance what most men 
only learn by study. He darted to a conclusion rather by intui- 
tion than reasoning. He understood war as a science ; but his 
mind was too bold, rapid, and irrepressible to hie enslaved by the 
technics of his profession. He found the old armies fighting by 
rule, and he discovered the true characteristic of genius, which, 
without despising rules, knows when and how to break them. 
He understood thoroughly the immense moral power which is 
gained by originality and rapidity of operation. He astonished 
and paralysed his enemies by his unforeseen and impetuous as- 
saults, — by the suddenness with which the storm of battle burst 
upon them ; and whilst giving to his soldiers the advantages of 
modern discipline, breathed into them by his quick and decisive 
movements the enthusiasm of ruder ages. These stirring influ- 
ences infused a consciousness of his own might; they gave intensity 
and audacity to his ambition, form and substance to his indefi- 
nite visions of glory, and raised his fiery hopes to empire. The 
Empire of the world seemed to him to be in a measure his due, 
for nothing short of it corresponded with his conception of him- 
self : he desired to amaze, to dazzle, to overpower men's souls 
by striking, bold, magnificent, and imanticipated results. Cahn 
admiration, though imiversal and enduring, could not satisfy 
him. He panted to electrify and overwhelm. He lived for 
effect. The world was his theatre, and he cared little what part 


he played if he might walk the sole hero on its stage, and call 
forth bursts of applause which would silence all other fame. In 
war, the trimnphs which he exacted were those in which he 
seemed to sweep away his foes like a whirlwind ; and the immense 
and unparalleled sacrifice of his own soldiers in the rapid marches 
and daring assaults to which he owed his factories, in no degree 
diniinished their worth to the victor. His history shows a^ spirit 
of self-exaggeration unrivalled in enlightened ages ; in his own 
view he stood apart from other men. He was not, in fact, to be 
measured by the standard of humanity. He was not to be re- 
tarded by difficulties to which all others yielded. He was not 
to be subjected to laws and obligations which all others were 
expected to obey. Nature and the human will were to bend to 
his power. He deemed himself the chosen of Fortune, and spoke 
of his successive conquests but as the " fulfilment of his destiny." 
This spirit of self-exa^eration brought its own misery, and viti- 
ated and perverted his high powers. It diseased his intellect, 
gave imagination the ascendancy over judgment, turned the 
inventiveness and fruitfulness of his mmd into rash, impatient, 
restless energies, and thus precipitated him into projects which 
were fraught with ruin. To a man whose vanity took him out 
of the rank of human beings, no foundation for reasoning was 
left; the calmness of wisdom was denied him. He, who was 
next to omnipotent in his own eyes, and who delighted to strike 
and astonish by sudden and conspicuous operations, could not 
brook delay, or wait for the slow operations of time. A work 
which was to be gradually matured by the joint agency of various 
causes could not suit a man who wanted to be felt as the great, 
perhaps .only, cause ; who wished to stamp his own agency in the 
most glaring characters on whatever he performed; and who 
hoped to rival by a sudden energy the steady and progressive 
works of Nature. Hence so many of his projects were never 
completed, or only announced. They swelled, however, for a 
time, the tide of flattery, which ascribed to him the completion of 
what was not yet begun; whilst his restless spirit, rushing to new 
enterprises, forgot its pledges, and left the promised prodigies of 
his creative genius to exist only in the records of adulation. 

Thus the rapid and inventive intellect of Buonaparte was de- 
praved, and failed to achieve a growing and durable greatness. 


It reared^ indeed, a vast and imposing structure, but a dispro- 
portioned and disjointed one, Mrithout strength, without foundations. 
One strong blast was enough to shake and shatter it, nor could all 
his genius uphold it Another striking property of Napoleon's 
character was decision; and this, as we have already seen, was 
perverted by the same spirit of self-exaggeration into an inflexible 
stubbornness, which counsel could not enlighten nor circumstances 
bend. Having taken the first step, he pressed onward. His pur- 
pose he wished others to i-egard as a law of Nature or^a decree of 
Destiny. It must be accomplished. Resistance but strengthened 
it; and so often had resistance been overborne, that he felt as if his 
unconquerable will, joined to his matchless intellect, could vanquish 
all things. On such a mind, the warnings of human wisdom and 
of Providence were spent in vain ; but the Man of Destiny lived 
to teach others, if not himself, the weakness and folly of that all- 
defying decision which arrays the purposes of the creature with 
the immutableness of the councils of the Creator. 

But in tliis hasty glance at the chief attributes of Napoleon, 
we must not lose sight of -one especial talent with which he was 
endowed. To the greatness of actum belongs the greatness of 
Napoleon; and that he possessed this to an extraordinary extent, 
none can deny. The man who raised himself from obscurity to a 
throne — who changed the face of the world — ^who made himself 
felt through powerful and civilised nations — who sent the terror of 
his name across seas and oceans — whose will was pronounced and 
feared as destiny — in whose gifts were crowns — ^who broke down 
the barriers of the Alps and made them a highway— and whose 
fame was spread beyond the boundaries of civilisation to the steppes 
of the Cossack and the deserts of the Arab,— -the man who has left; 
this record of himself in history, has taken out of all hands the 
question whether he shall be called great All must concede to 
him a sublime power of action, an energy equal to great eflFects. 
But whilst our admuration is fired by the vastness of those cam- 
paigns of which he was the sole projector, in following him through 
which the astonishment is excited by his wonderful powers of 
endurance, which rendered that sturdy form alike inaccessible to 
the scorching heat of an African sun or the rigour and severity of 
a polar winter— we cannot shut our eyes to the fact, that Napoleon 
knew distinctly the price he must pay for the eminence which he 


coTetecL He knew that the path to it lay over wounded and 
slaughtered millions — over ravaged fields^ and smoking ruins^ and 
pillaged cities I In referring, also, to the wrongs which he is sup- 
posed to have suffered at St Helena, and to the unworthy use 
which some have alleged the Allied Powers made of their triumph 
over Napoleon, we see a sympathy created in his behalf which 
has helped to throw a veil over his crimes. When, however, we 
would carry those sympathies to that solitary island, and fix them 
on the supposed victim of British cruelty, they will not remain 
there, but take flight across the Mediterranean to Jaffa; and across 
the Atlantic to the grave of the Due d'EInghien; and to fields 
of battle, where thousands at* his bidding lay weltering in their 
blood. When we would fix our thoughts upon the sufferings of 
the injured hero, chained to a rock in a desolate island, and ex- 
posed to the evils of an uncongenial clime, other and more terrible 
sufferings, of which he was the cause, rush upon us; and his com- 
plaints, however loud and angry, are drowned by the remembrance 
of the little compunction with which he sacrificed millions to the 
sword for the fiirtherance of his own ambitious ends. He insulted 
the fallen who had contracted the guilt of opposing his progress ; 
his allies were his vassals, nor was their vassalage concealed. Too 
loflby to use the arts of conciliation, preferring command to per- 
suasion, overbearing and all-grasping, he spread distrust, exaspe- 
ration, fear, and revenge, through Europe ; and when the day of 
retribution came, the old antipathies and mutual jealousies of 
nations were called forth in unison to prostrate the common tyrant, 
the universal foe! 

$tffxmts ta, ait^r Ptmoir of, 



As pMiihed by Jfr, Qsjjsnsiy Engineer to the King of the Nethedande, 





Formed itself between the two highways of Charleroi and Nivelles. 

A 1 division, M. G. Cooke, on the right front of the centre. This division 

of tiie English Gnards was composed as follows: — 
a 1 brig. M. G. Maitland, the 2 and 3 bat 1 regt Ft Gnards. (Thii 

Brig, iuffered much on the Mith of June.) 
b 2 brig. M. G. Sir J. Byng, the 2 bat of the Coldstream regt and 2 bat of the 

3 regt of Ft Guards. Seven comp. of the Coldstream regt. occupied the 

chitean and garden, the four light comp. of the div. were placed as Tirailleurs 

in the woods and orchards of Gomont See i and h. There was attached to 

this div. a batteiy of Br. Roy. Artill. Capt. Sandham, and one bat German 

Horse Artill. M. Kuhlman. (1 bat, Capt. Sinclair adj.) 
B 3 div. inf. L. G. Sir Charles Alten, on the left front of the centre. This div. 

was composed as follows : 
c 2 brig. K. G. L. Col. Ompteda, the 1 and 2 light bat. and the 5 and 8 bat 

of the line. The 2 light bat L. C. Baring, occupied the farm of La Haye 

Sainte, which it defended with obstinacy, 
d 1 HanoT. brig. M. G. Count Eielmansegge, the field-batts. of Lunenburg, 

1 bat Duke of York, Gftibenhaagen, Yerden, Bremen, and the Chass. of 

e Brit brig. M. G. Sir Colin Halket, the 2 batts. of the 80, 60, and 78 regts. 

and the 88 regt This 8 div. and the 1 div. of Guards, suffered severely 

from the charges of cavalry, all of which they repulsed. There was attached 

to the 8 div. a bat Br. R. Artill. M. Lloyd, one bat German Horse Artill. 

Capt Cleeve. 


f Corps of the Dnke of Bmnswick, G. M. Olfermans, one light inf. brig. L. C. 
Butler, one brig. inf. of the line, M. de Mnnckhausen, one regt of black 
hussars, one squadron of lancers. Two bat were placed between the 
div. of English Guards. Before them, the two bat. artill. M. de Lubeck. 
One bat. M. Bulow, was detached in the wood of Gomont, where thej 
fought on both sides with great tttry. 

g Contingent of Nassau Usingen, G. Emse, 8 bat. of the 1 regt It was in 
leading this regt in a chaige of the bayonet against the middle Gd. that the 
P. of Orange was wounded. (See the last references.) 

In the ch&teau and gardens of Gomont, whose walls were crenellated, 
there was a post of 9 eomp. of the 2 Coldstream regt L. C. Macdonnell^ 
who was reinforced by four other comps. Col. Woodford, same regt They 
kept their post, the whole day with bravery. The ch&teau was in flames. 
The wood and orchard of Gomont were defended by the 4 light comp. of 
the 1 div. of Gds. the 1 bat. of the 2 regt of Nassau (m the service of the 
Low Countries) and a bat of Brunswickers, M. Bulow. This part of Gomont 
was occupied, after two hours' fighting, by Jerome Buonaparte's div. {See 

J Battexy which the French brought forward in the afternoon to raze the wall 
of the garden. It was dislodged. 

k 1 brig, heavy cav. M. G. Lord F. Somerset, the 1 and 2 regts. of life Gds. the 
Horse Gds. Blue, the 1 regt Drag. Gds. This brig, frequently charged the 
Cuirassiers, and drove them from the eminence upOn the causeway. 

1 8 brig. Light Drag. M. G. Sir W. Domberg, the 1 and 2 regt Drag. K. G. L. 
and the 28 English Drag. 

m 7 brig. Light Horse, Col. F. Arendschild. The 8 regt Hus. E. G. L. and the 
13 Light English Drag. 

n 5 brig. Light Horse, M. G. Sir C. Grant, the 7 and 15 regt English Hus. ( The 
Regt. of Cumberland JTus. Hanov, was here.) 

o Div. of R. Cav. of the Low Countries, L. G. B. Collaert, three brig, who re- 
pulsed several charges. {See z Memoir.) 

p One brig. Heavy Cav. G. M. Trip, the 1, 2, and 8 regts. of Carabineers. {The 
land^ Dutch, the 2 Belffic.) 

q 1 brig. light Horse, G. M. Van Merle, the 6 regt Dutch Hus. and the 5 Bel- 
gic laght Horse. 

r 2 brig. light Horse, G. M. Ghigny, the 4 regt Drag. Dutch, and the 8 Hus. 
Belgio. Attached to this div. one bat R. Light Artill. of the Netherlands, 
Capt Fetter, placed nearly before the 1 of Nassau, g. 

Artillery attached. 

Besides the Artilleiy joined to each div. there was attached to the English 
cavalry the bat of M. BulL L. Col. Smith, L. Col. Sir Robert Gardner, M. 
Ramsey, and Capt Mercer. One Rocket brig. M. Whinyates. Three batts. 
of reserve, Sir H. Ross, M. Bean, and Capt Sinclair. AH these battalions 
were successively engaged to relieve those dismounted in the centre, and on 
the left wing. The batt in the centre were placed irregularly, according to the 
dispoeition of the ground. 




Right Wing, extremity at Braine-la-Leud. 

The plateau on which was placed en potence the 2 English div. L. G. Sir H. 

Clinton, composed as follows :— 

8 British brig. M. G. Adam, the 1 bat of the 52 and 71 regts. of the line, and 

nine comp. of the 95 Riflemen. 

1 brig. K. G. L. CoL Duplat, the 1, 2, 8, and 4 bat of the line, Bong's Gennan 



a 3 Hanoy. brig. Col. Halket, the 2 and 3 bat. Duke of Tork, and the bat. of 
Militia Saltzgitter and Bremervorde. There was attached to this 2 div. the 
bat. of Capt Bolton, B. Brit Art., and M. Sympher, Germ. Horse Artill. 

T 4 Brit, brig. Col. Mitchell {belonging to, and on the lejl of the 4 div. m observH' 
tion)y the 3 bat. 14 regt, the 1 bat of the 23 and 51 regts. of the line. It was 
attached with a bat Capt de Bettberg, Hanov. Art to the 2 div. which about 
three o'clock came into the line on the right of the centre, the first position 
having become useless on this point. 

D The 3 B. div. of Dutch, L. Gen. B. Chasse, was charged with the defence of 
Braine-la-Leud, where there were posted the 1 brig. Col. Detmers, the 35 bat 
Belg. Chass. the 2 bat. of the line (Dutch;, the 4, 6, 17, and 10 bat Dutch 
Militia. The 17 bat a little advanced, kept up the communication with 3 
£ng. div. L. G. Clinton. 

E 2 brig. G. M. d'Anbrem^, the 36 bat Chass., and the 3 bat of the line 
(Belgic), the 12 and 13 bat. of the line, the 3 and 10 bat of the Dutch Militia, 
occupied an advantageous position on the height of the faim of Vieux Foriea. 
Attached to this div. was a bat of foot artil. Capt Lux, one light bat M. 
Yander Smissen. 

w Towards two o'clock, the 3 div. advanced towards the centre, the 2 brig, by 
Merbe-Braine ; the 1 brig, replaced the 2 £ng. div. 4 bat marched in squares. 
The 3 div. took its second position near the highway to Nivelles. 



Left Wing, extremity above La Haye. 

F Part of the 2 B. dir. of Dutch, L. G. B. of Perponcher, the 2 brig. Col. Prince 

of Saxe Weimar. The 1 and 2 bat reg. Or. Nassau, with the 2 and 3 bat 

of the 2 regt. Kassau Usingen. It was at the extreme left, occupying 

Papelotte, Smohain, and La Haye. The 1 bat. of the 2 regt. above was 

posted at Gomont. (See i.) 
X 1 brig. G. M. Ct de Byland, same div., the 7 bat. of the line (Belgic), 

the 27 Chass., the 5, 7, and 8 bat Dutch Mil. The 5 bat. in reserve having 

suffered much on the 16th. Attached to this div. was Capt Byleveld's bat 
G 5 div. Brit L. G. Sir T. Picton, having 2 bat M. Bogers, B. Brit Artill. and 

Capt Braun, Hanov. Artill. 
y The 5 Hanov. brig. Col. Vincke, 4 bat Militia of Hameln, Grifform, Hil- 

desheim, and Peine, 
z (or Scotch) brig. M. G. Sir Denis Pack, 3 bat. 1 regt (B. Scots), the 1 bat. 

of the 42 and 92 regt. Highlanders, and the 2 bat 44 regt It charged with 

the bayonet the French column, T. (See m.) 
aa 8 Brit brig. M. G. Sir J. Kempt the 1 bat 28 and 32 regt the I bat. 70 regt 

(Highlanders), the 1 bat 95 regt (Biflemen), and one comp. of 2 bat same 

regt (See m below,) 
bb 10 Brit brig. M. G. Sir J. Lambert (belonging to the 6 div.), the 1 bat of 4, 

27, and 40 regt of the line. This brig, was particularly engaged in the 

evening, in the retaking of La Haye Sainte. 
CO 2 brig. Heavy Cav. Brit., M. G. Sir W. Ponsonby, 1 regt. B. Drag., 2 regts. 

N, Br. Drag. {Scotch Greys), and the 6 regt Drag. (InnukUling\ This brig. 

made one of the boldest charges on the French art. {See m, o.) 
dd 4 brig. light Horse, M. G. Sir J. Yandeleur, 11, 12, and 16 regt light Drag. 

(Brit) charged on T, m. 
ee 6 brig. light Horse, M. G. Sir H. Vivian, 1 regt Hus. K. G. L. the 10 and 

18 Hus. (Brit) In the afternoon, the 6 and 4 brig, moved towards the right 

of the centre. {See y.) 




The Prussian Army debouching by Lasne and Ohain. 

H The arrival of the I corps of the army, L. O. v. Zeithen, at eight o'clock in 

the evening, with 4 brig, of inf. each of 8 regta. The 1 brig. G. Steinmetz, 

2 brig. G. Pirch I. 3 brig. G. Jagow, 4 brig. G. Henkel, a corps of caT. 

6 regis. G. ▼. Roeder. This 1 corps had suffered much on the Iftth and 

16th of June, 
ff Advanced guard of the 1 corps, which at the period of the general advance 

retook Smohain and Papelotte, in concert with the troops of Nassau. 

They immediately established a bat. against La Haye, near to ff. 
gg The three other brig, followed the same movement in advance upon La 

Belle Alliance, 
hh The cav. led by the G. v. Roeder took the lead, and pursued the French, 

then in full retreat. 

I Arrival of the 4 corps, L. G. Comte de Bulow. The 16 brig. Col. Hiller, 
the 15 brig. Gen. v. Losthin, 13 brig. L. G. v. Hacke, and the 14 brig. M. 
G. V. Ryssel, a numerous artill. and a large corps of cav., which with that 
of the 2 corps^ together l^ regts. were commanded H. R. H. Prince W. 
of Prussia, 

J. The Id and 1 6 brig, arrived at four o'clock, with a corps of cav. in a covered 
position in the Wood of Paris, near to Frichermont; they debouched soon 
after, and advanced towards Planchenoit. Prince Bliicher had already pre- 
ceded them at three o'clock to reconnoitre the field of battle, with two regts. 
of Drag, who were engaged with the French cav. behind Frichermont. 

K Gen. Count Bulow, whilst waiting for his reinforcements, made his dispo- 
sitions for an attack on Planchenoit. 

L The two other brig, of the 4 corps arriving successively, with a part of the 2 
corps, under the orders of G. Pirch, formed on the plain Some troops 
arrived by the Abbey of Aywiers, kk. 

ti The cav. protected by the artil. attacked the right of the 1 French corps, 
and was engaged with the cav. tt. The French immediately turned some 
bat. against them in N. The grape-shot could reach them. 

M The remainder of the 4 corps, with one part of the 2 corps, attacked Plan- 
chenoit, defended by the 6th French corps in front. Towards six o'clock the 
engagement became general. They fought with much fury. 

II A column, which, after having experienced a sharp resistance, turned the 
village towards the evening. 

mm The attack of the ^lage in front. It was taken and retaken three times. 
This grotind was disputed with ftury. 



Right Wing extending to Smohain. 

N ), ^2, ^8. Three sttUiont on the rtti$ed banks of the highway to Charleroi 
which Napoleon occupied during the battle^ tuccemvely at 10, at 3, and eU 
7 o*clock, (See Memoir following.) 


N Exiremiiy of the right of ike I eoTf9, L. O. Count d^Erion^ 4. dh, of U\f, and 
one div. of cav. iX, Having a numerous artillery^ 80 piece*, (Official 

nn 4 div. of the 1 cotft, X. G, DurutU ; four regie, the 29, 85, 95 of the line, 
and the light It attacked several times the farm of 

Papetotte, defended hg the troops of Nassau, F. // was destroyed hg the 
flfunes. In the evening, the div. was attacked in thejiank hg the Prussians, 

oo 8 cff r. L. O, Mareognet ; four regts. the 25, 45, and 105 of the line, and the 

light It was at the head of the strong column qf attack, 

T, on the left wing of the Allied armg, 

pp 2 div. L, G. ; four regts. the 17, 19, and 51 of the line, and the 

18 light It was directed against La Hage Sainte, where it met 

with great resistance. The 19 regt. was almost entirely destroyed. 

qq 1 div. L. G. ; four regts. the of the line, and the 

light . It supported the 2 div, in the attack of La Haye Sainte, 

which it carried qfter a connderable loss. 

rr I div, of Cuiras, G. Delort, 1 brig, Adjt, Com, Calmer, 5 and 10 regt. The 
9. iritt. G, 6 and 19 regt, 

ss div, of Cuiras. G, Vathier de St. Alphonse, the 1 hrig, G, Dubois, 1 and 2 rtgt, 

the 2 brig, G, Travere, 4 and 12 regis. These two div, formed the 8 corps of cav, 
L, G, MUhaud, which towards three o*clock, after the taking of La Haye Sainte, 
moved to V at the side. 

ti Div. of Light Cav, G, Jacqmnot, the 8 and A of the Lancers, the 8 Chass. and 7 
Huss. It was attached to the \ corps of inf., emd was in the evening duarged and 
harassed m its retreat by the Prussian cav. 

Left Wing, extending to Gomont, 

O Extremily of the left wing of the 2 corps, L, G, Count Beille, 4 div, if\f, and one 
div, of cav, zz. His artillery mounted about 60 pieces. It was here that the 

1 div, if\f, of Jerome Buonaparte, composed of A regis,, the 1,2, and 8 qf the line, 
and the 1 light, supported by the 2 div. uu. It made the first attack at ha^-past 
eleven, on the wood and chdteau of Gomont. After two hours qf a very bloody 
combat, it succeeded in occupying the wood and orchard, without being able the 
whole day to dislodge the English post from the chdteau and garden, surrounded 
by a wall ; the chdteau became the prey of the flames, but was never surrendered, 
(See A.) 

uu 2 div. L. G, Bacheht, 4 regts,, the 12 light, the 72, 108, and of the line, 

(See o.) 
w 8 div. L. G, Foy, four regts. the of the line, the light ; 

part directed against i, part against La Haye Sainte. 
WW 4 div. L. G. Gerard (severely wounded on the I6ih), four regts, the 4 Ught, 12 
of the line. {This div. having suffered much at the battle of Ligny, trow 
not much engaged in this battle.) 
xsf Div. of Heavy Cav.L. G, L*HMtier,four regU,, the 8 and 11 Ctnras, the 2 and 

7 Drag, 
yy Div. of Heavy Cav. L, G. Roussel d'Urbal, 4 regis., the 1 and 2 Carab., the 

2 €tnd 8 Cuirass. (These two div, formed the 4 corps oj cav. L, G. KeUerman, 
they advanced on r, t, towards the centre of the jUlies,) 

22 Div, of Light Cav. L. G. Pir^, attached to the 2 corps ofinf, ; 4 regts, ; the 1 and 8 
of Chass., the 5 and 6 of Lancers. This div, the whole day m observance at Mont 
Plaisir, moved towards evening to the side of Planchenoit. 

Beserve between Planchenoit and Mont Plaisir, 

P corps m reserve, L. G. Count de Lobau, composed of 2 div, with about 80 
pUces of artm. 1 div. G, B. Simmer, the 5, 11, 27 and 84 of the line. The 2 
<Uv, ofG. B. Jeannin, the 5 Ug, the 10 and 107 of the line, (The 8 div. of the 
6th corps, G. B. Testa, was detached to Wayre, with the 8 corps, G. 

« Div. of cav, G, d*Aumont, attached to the ^th corps, the A, 11, and 12 of 


« TheQ eorpt defend Piauehenoii uHih ohsUnae^, The Yotmf Chttird cmne to the 

support qfUi right, 
Q. The Young Guard, O. Duheeme, one div. O. Barrou, 4 regts. 1 brig, G, Chartrtm^ 

the 1 regt, TiraiU. tmd the 1 VoUigeurs. The 2 brig. G. MeUinet, ch^fi^ lAc 

Staff, The 3 regU, of TiraiU, and the 3 VoUigeurs, 
a Young Guard eupporting the right of the 6th cprpe, threatened to be out-^Umked 

bg the PrueaioMS. 
b Head-Quarter$ of Napoleon^ near Le Caillou, where hie baggages were guarded 

bg the 2 bat, 1 regt, Chass. of the Old Guard, LL Col, During, Near this the 

park of reserve {I ^-pounders) of the Guard, 
B Old Fool Guard, 0, Drouet, Aide-Mq^.-Gen, At 8 o^dock it advanced towards 

La Belle Alliance, 
c Grenad. OU Guard, L. O. Friant, the 1,2, 8, and 4 regts, G. Petit commandmg 

the iUvision. 
d Chau, Old Guard, L. G, Moraud, the 1, 2, 3, and Uh regU,, G. Michel com- 
manding the div. The artill. of the Guard, cowmnanded bg G, Doguermu^ was 

engaged at Planchenoit, 
e Horse Grenad, of the Guard, L, G, Gugot, Drag, Col, Hofineger, {Gen. Letori 

was kUled on the Uth,) 
f Lancers of the Guard, G, Colbert. Chass, G, Lefebvre DesnouetUs, {These 

four regts, of cav. of the Guard advanced towards the centre of the AlUes, om 

which Iheg made numerous charges.) 
g Bait, of the reserve of the Guard {\2-pounders), who in the evening plaged upon 

the Prussians above the village. 

Second Positions, principal Attacks, and divers Movements. 

8 Second position of the French Foot Quards, formed into squares on the 

approach of the PrusBians. 
h Two bat. of the Old Guard, sent from S to support the 6 corps and the Young 

Quard at Planchenoit. 
i Light Artill. of the Guard, G. Duehaud, who with other bat. of the Guard 

supplied the place of the batts. of the 6 corps sent to the right of the 1 corps 

N, to relieve the dismounted batts. {See o.) 
k Two great squares, 1 and 2 of the Old Guaxxl, in the evening at nine o'clock. 

They made some vain efforts to cover the retreat ; they were drawn into the 

vortex of the runawi^s. Napoleon made his retreat by the side of the square, 

2. The 1 forced by the fugitives and charged by the English cav. was broken. 

{See Memoir following.) 
/ Squares of the retreat of the 6 corps of the Young Guard, and two bat of the 

Old Guard sent to Planchenoit. 
T Strong column of inf. composed in part of the 3 and 2 div. of the 1 corps, 

preparing themselves at two o'clock to attack the left wing of the Allies, and 

approaching by favour of a deep ravine, and sheltered fh>m the cannon, 
m Head of the column T, which, advancing rapidly, succeeded in repulsing the 

brig, which was opposed to it. Having attained the height, it was attacked 

in flank by the 9 div. of G. Picton, and charged by the Engl. Drag, of G. 

Ponsonby, who took two eagles and about 2000 prisoners. {See Memoir.) 
n Column T cut up in their retreat by the English Drag., supported by the 

brig, {q) Dutch, G. Ghigny. 
• The Brit. Drag, coming from n charged the bat., sabred the cannoneers, and 

dismounted thirty pieces on the right of the 1 French coips. {See Memoir.) 
p These Drag, after this gallant achievement, and much weakened, were 

repulsed by the Cuirass, of G. Milhaud, and the 4 of the Lancers. 
q After the most obstinate resistance, La Haye Sainte was taken at three 

o'clock, by a part of the 2 and 1 div. of inf. f>om that time the CuirassierB 

formed in a mass at the side of the bottom U, 
V Bottom where the Cuirass, reunited, and other cav. in great numbers, before 

and after the charges on the squares in echelons to the centre behind the 

heights of Mont St. Jean, 
r Mounted Grenadiers and Drag, of the Guard, coming from («), made several 

charges on a and b. 


9 Lane of the Otuurd ooming from / at five o'clock, by different positions. 

They made some bold charges on a, c, d. 
t I>iv. of Carab. and Cnirass. coming from yy. It was at one of the barriers of 

Gomont, near this Rpot, that Marshal Ney on foot, his horse being killed, 

with a sword in his hand, excited them to midce tlie last charge. 
« Squares of the 2 div. L. G. Clinton, coming at two o'clock from Cto support 

the right of the centre. {See Memoir.) 
F Four regts. of the Fr. Guard, the 3 and 4 Chass., the 8 and 4 Grenad. (middle 

guard), excited I y Napoleon, prepared themselves to make the last attack on 

the centre of the Allies at half-past seven. {See Memoir.) 
9 Conducted by M. Ney, they advanced on the height with an intrepid coolness, 

and deployed. 
« The 1 brig. D. of Col. Detmers of the 3 div. of the Netherlands, L. G. 

Chass, advanced veiy ^propoa on this side at seven o'clock, with 6 bat. to 

check them, in concert with the brave troops who had been engaged ever 

since the morning. Arrived from Braine-larLeud, with the light bat. w, M. 

Van der Smissen, it vigorously seconded its intrepid neighbours, and repulsed 

the Guard, which it put to the rout along the whole line. {See Memoir.) 
s Bat. of the 2 div. Capt Ni^ier, who with the bat tr, made dreadful slaughter 

among the Guard. {See the Account of Capt, Napier's brigade, in "^ArtUlery 

€}peratioiu,*' p. 177.) 
y 2 brig, light cav. dd, ee, arrived from the left wing, charged in concert with 

the brig. » m, 1. on the flanks of the Guard, when the general movement in 

advance decided the victory ! 
z Fr. squares, which after a vain resistance were broken, crushed, and mingled 

in the general confrision. 
o r The spot where the Prince of Orange was wounded, at half-past seven in the 

evening, as he was leading the 1 regt. of Nassau, with their bayonets fixed, 

against the middle guard. H. B. H. had his shoulder pierced through by a 



In reference to the Plan and of the Circumstances which 
arose during the Battle of the \.%th of June y 1815. 

After a most bloody combat the Allied British army, under the command of 
Field-marshal H. G. the Duke of Wellington, gloriously maintained itself (the 
16th of June) on the important position of Quatre Bras. This advantage, which 
foretold a victory, had an undoubted influence on the great success obtained on 
the IBth of June. In consequence of the brave defence of this important point, 
the di£Berent corps had time to arrive frt>m their distant cantonments, and to 
concentrate and reinforce themselves by a well-ordered retreat. Without this 
inappreciable advantage, who could venture to calculate the results of the great 
contest ! It was at Quatre Bras that an army, hastily re-united, for a long time 
deprived of its artillery and its cavalry (still at a distance), evinced more than 
ordinary braveiy, to resist the impetuous attack of a well-organised army, provided 
with a numerous artillery and superb cavalry. It was there that it required all the 
presence of mind, and all the energy of a great General, to foresee the plans 
suggested by the opposing foe, and to extricate himself from so critical a situa- 
tion. The Prince of Orange evinced a zeal and talent on this occasion highly 
creditable. It was in this glorious combat, that, with so many brave, the valiant 
Duke of Brunswick terminated his brilliant career. 

The reverse experienced on the 16th of June by the Prussian army upon the 


plains of Fleurus, after a brave and severe contest, determined Marshal Prince 
Blucher to concentrate his army toward^^ Wavre, where it would be reinforced by 
the 4th corps, commanded by L. G. Coant Btilow, who was not able to assist at 
the bloody battle of ligny. Tim retrograde march required on the part of the 
Duke of Wellington (notwithstanding the advantage obtained at Quatre Bras, 
and without being compelled by the enemy), a coiresponding movement towards 
the fields of Waterloo. This gently undulating plain offered a position, which this 
mo<iem Fabius had previously noticed as favourable, to defend Brussels against 
an invasion on this side. 

On the morning of the 17th of June, the army having bivouacked before the 
field of battle of Quatre Bras, the Duke of Wellington deployed the forces which 
he had reunited, that he might engage the enemy in a fresh battle. But not 
seeing him make any dispositions for the attack, it was about noon, in the design 
of co>operating with the Prussian Army, when he ordered the retreat through 
Genappe, which he effected in the most admirable order. Nevertheless his rear- 
guard was closely pursued, and often harassed by the French cavaliy, which was 
vbliantly withstood and repulsed by the English Life Guards. About four o'clock 
the army arrived in the plain before Waterloo, a village half enclosed by the forest 
of Soignies, where the English Field-marshal established his head -quarters. The 
divisions and brigades which had not yet been engaged, had time to rejoin them. 

The French army, commanded by Napoleon in person, followed this move- 
ment ; but the dreadful weather prevented any serious attempt : in the evening 
the rain fell in torrents. Yet some of the light artil. advanced as far as La Belle 
Alliance ; but after a cannonade of short duration the army bivouacked, part 
before Genappe, part on the heights between Planchenoit and the farm of Mont 
Plaisir. The head-quarters of the French were established at Caillou. The 
Allied army bivouacked between Smohain and Braine-la-Leud, chiefly on the 
inclination of the heights which they occupied the day following, and which it was 
destined to render illustrious by the most splendid victoiy, which will be for ever 
famous by its importance and by its results. 

Tike IStA day o/June.—BAVthE of WATEBiiOO. 

What a dreadful night must this have been, in which some ravines only 
separated about 1 50,000 men, who only waited for the day to decide by the sword 
so many and such great interests ! The veQ' inclement weather rendered this 
situation more gloomy still ; it did not cease raining, and the fertile fields of Water- 
loo offered no shelter to the troops weakened by fatigue. At length the day broke ; 
the rain fell still, but at intervals, which were made use of on both sides to prepare 
for combat. 

Napoleon and his army did not expect to find the English army in the morning 
ready to accept the battle. Their only fear was of seeing the English had 
escaped, by effecting their retreat during the night. The dj^ of Quatre Bras 
might have undeceived them, if the battles of Talavera, Albuera, Salamanca, 
Yittoria, and others, had not been sufficient. The French valour needed no 
apology ; the famous exploits of these able warriors are indelible from the page 
of history, but also let them render justice to the coiurageous coolness, to the 
invincible firmness of the most persevering of their enemies. The Duke of Wel- 
lington, determined not to make another retrograde step, took his position before 
the hamlet of Mont St Jean, on a line of heights which extend from (a) the 
plateau commanding the Ch&teau of Gomont, to the inclination of the plateau (f) 
which crowns the farms of La Haye and Papelotte. A deep ravine, which on this 
side descends towards Ohain, protected the left wing. In front and in the rear of 
the line of these heights many deep and shallow ravines occur, which render this 
position sufficiently good, although the centre presented some weak points. The 
right was protected by a long ravine, which descends towards Merbe-Braine, a 
hamlet separated frt)m Braine-Ia-Leud by an extended plateau, wliich, not offering 
any position in front, rendered necessary the occupation of tliis village. The com- 
munication was thus kept up with two little corps of observation to defend the 


approaches by the road to Mods. One of these corps, oommanded by M. Gen. Sir 
C harles GolvUle, was posted near to Tubise, the other at Clabbeek and Braine4e- 
Ch4tean, under the command of H. R. H. Prince Frederick of the Low Countries. 
The army occupied a very extended line, the principal position crossed in the 
centre the highways to Charleroi, NiveUes, and Brussels, which join at the hamlet 
of Mont St. Jean, in the form of a fork, the handle of which points towards Wa- 
terloo, at the distance of three-quarters of a league, along a part of the forest of 
Soignies, that the army had its rear to. With respect to the action, the true 
centre was crossed by the road to Charleroi, where there was (b) a remarkable 
tree, near to which the Duke of Wellington often stood with his staff. The 
heights which the French army occupied in front of the position of the Allies 
are separated at a distance nearly parallel of about 1300 yards, the ground less 
elevated, but more undulating. In the rear of the position the ground elevates 
itself in the form of an amphitheatre to the farther side of the wood of Callois 
and Neuve-Cour ; in the first is a trigonometrical observatory, where Napoleon for 
a short time ascended to view the pontoons early in the morning of the 18th. 

The French army (present at Waterloo) amounted to near 78,000 combatants, 
which comprised about 15,000 cavalry. It was composed of the 1st and 2d corps 
of the army, 8 divisions. The 6 corps, deficient 2 div. Two div. more of the Old 
Guard, and one division of the Yotmg Guard, composed the reserve. 

The cavalry consisted of two corps, or 4 div. of heavy cav. ; 2 div. more of the 
Guards, and 3 div. of the light cav. attached to the different corps of infantry. 
The 1st corps of infantry (m), commanded by Lieut-Gen. Count D'Erlon, sup- 
ported its left on La BeUe Alliance ; its right extended towards Smohain. Its 
artillery mounted about 80 pieces, comprising the reserve. The light cav. (tt) 
attached to this corps was in the rear on the right. The second corps of inf. (O) 
commanded by Lieut.-Gen. Count Reille, supported its right at La Belle Alliance ; 
its left had in fh)nt the wood of the Ch&teau Gomont. Its artillery mounted 
about 60 pieces. The div. of light cav. (zz) attached to this corps was sent in 
observation to Mont Plaisir. In the second line were placed at intervals the two 
corps of heavy cav., two div. of which (ss, rr) commanded by Lieut- Gen. Milhaud, 
two div. (XX, yy) by lieut-Gen. Kellerman. The 6th corps (P), commanded by 
lieut-Genend Count de Lobau, with about 30 pieces of artillery, and the div. of 
light cav. (es) was in reserve behind the right wing, also the Young Guard (Q) 
under Gen. Duhesme, for the defence of Planchenoit, which, from an intercepted 
letter, they expected to see attacked by 10,000 Prussians. The Old Guard (R) 
took position on the heights behind the 2d corps ; the Horse Guards (e,/), part 
on the right and part on the left of the chaussee. The park of artiUeiy in reserve 
of the Guard, about forty 12-pounder8, remained near La Maison du Boi, and the 
baggages of the head-quarters (ft) at Caillou. 

The Duke of Wellington had already on the 11th of April organised his army 
in two grand corps with the artillery attached. Two English div. the 5th and 6th, 
with the contingent of Brunswick, composed the reserve. The 1st corps was 
commanded by H. R. H. General the Prince of Orange ; the 2d corps by Lieut- 
Gen. Lord Hill. All the cavalry of the army was under the orders of Lieut-Gen. 
the Earl of Uxbridge. But some part of these corps, having received another 
destination, or being themselves intennixed on the ground, we must confine our- 
selves to describing the troops as they were respectively placed. 

The corps of the different troops reunited on the field of battle made a total 
of about 51,500 infantry, and 18,000 cav., including the artillery belonging to a 
train of about 150 pieces of cannon. Among these combatants there were 13,000 
infantry and 3000 cavalry, with 4 brigades of artillery of the kingdom of the 
Netherlands; about 6000 horse and foot, with two batteries of the troops of 
Brunswick, and 8000 mf. of the contingent of Nassau-Usingen. The British army 
(including the Hanoverians and the King's German Legion) formed the strongest 

The following was the position of the corps at noon. In the centre, principally 
under the orders of the Prince of Orange ; Uie 1st div. (A) English Foot Guards, 
commanded by M. G. Cooke, leaned with its right on the highway to Nivelles, 
having the Ch&teau of Gomont a liUle in advance of the right Aront The 3d div. 
(B) of L. G. Count Alton joined on the left, having the 3 brigades deployed to the 
highway to Charleroi, and La Haye Sainte in the bottom, a little in advance of the 
left front. Between the brigades of this 8d div. was placed the contingent (g^ of 


NasBan-Usmgen ; G. Kmse, part in reseire, part in the first line between the Ist 
div. of QuaroH, was placed (f) the finmawick corps, G. M. Olfermans, with the 
two batteries in advance, and the cav. of this corps on the sides. The different 
batteries in the centre took their positions according to the sinuosities and undu- 
lations of tlie ground. For the detaiU of the corps generally ^ cantuit the re/erencet 
precedina ; tu alto the Circumatamtial Detail*, 

Lord Hill, commanding the right wing, had not his % corps of the army com* 
plete and present {one part wom in observation on the road to Mont) ; consequent!/ 
the 8rd div. (D) of the K. of the Netherlands, L. G. Baron Chasse (o/ the JirU 
corps), passed this day under his orders, and toolE their position atBraine-la-Lend, 
occupying the plateau (E) at the farm of Vieux Foriez. To guard the right flank 
of the centre, the 2d div. of L. G. Sir H. Clinton with his artillery, and the 4 
brig, of the 4 div. f M. G. Colville^ was placed en potenee behind the right on the 
plateau (C), difficult of access, bemg protected by a ravine, which extends towards 
Merbe-Braine. This fine position rendered dangerous every attempt of the enemy 
to outflank the right. 

The left wing of the army, deployed along the road towards Chain and Wavre, 
had two div., viz. the 9 British div. (G), commanded by L. G. Sir T. Picton, having 
on his right, leaning on the road to Charleroi, the 10 brig, (bb) detached from the 
6th div. The 2 R. div. of the Dutch, commanded by L. G. Baron de Perponcher, 
had its two brig, separated by a part of the 5 div. before mentioned. The 2 brig.. 
Col. Prince de Saxe Weimar, composed of the troops of Nassau (in the service of 
the Dutch), was charged with the defence of the hamlet of Smohain, at the extreme 
left. The artillery was ranged at small intervals along the road bordered with a 
hedge. The defence of La Haye Sainte, an important post, the key of the centre, 
was confided to the 2 brig. K. G. L. of Col. Ompteda, who occupied the farm and 
the orchards, with the 2 bat. of Chasseurs, L. Col. Baring. They loopholed the 
walls of the garden and chAteau of Gomont ; the raised banks planted with hedges 
round about the fields and orchards, formed little natural ramparts. The 1 div. 
of Guards was charged with the defence of tliis very importaot post, which was the 
key of the right Three comp. under L. Col. Macdonnell of the Coldstream, of the 
2 brig., M. G. Sir J. Byng, established themselves at first in the ch&teau and gar- 
den, and were successively reinforced by 4 comp. of the same regt., and the 4 Ught 
comp. of all the div. These different detachments were conducted by Cols. Wood- 
ford and Hepburn, and L. Cols. Home and Lord SaJtoun. These light comp. 
occupied the wood and the orchards in concert with the 1 bat of the 2 regt. of 
Nassau, and one light bat of Bmnswickers. 

Between nine and ten o'clock, the weather having cleared up a little, Napoleon 
advanced towards the farm Bossomme, and established himself near to it on a 
little lull (N), remarkable by its fine raised position on the border of the 
chaussee. It was there that he directed the battle till about three o'clock, having 
always near him 4 squadrons of his bodyguard. About half-past eleven, the 
tirailleurs of the 1 div. (0) of Jerome Buonaparte commenced the attack on the 
wood of Gomont, whilst at the same period the advanced posts were engaged at 
the extreme left before Papelotte. The first cannon was then fired from the 
plateau of Mont St Jean, and the cannonading took place immediately on all 
sides ; at noon the cannons roared dreadfully. Whilst 200 pieces of artillery on 
both sides spread death in the immoveable ranks, the whole of Jerome Buona- 
parte's div. advanced upon Gomont The intrepid Voltigeurs had soon passed 
the ravine, and penetrated into the wood ; but the defence was as obstinate as the 
attack was vigorous : nevertheless, the enemy gained ground. After two hours 
of a bloody combat, the advanced posts in the wood and the a4}acent field were 
obliged to yield to the French impetuosity, and fell back by degrees, part in the 
ch&teau, part behind the hedge of the orchard, and at length into the hollow way 
which goes along the orchard. As every inch of ground had been disputed with 
fury, the French perceived too late that a well-directed fire, by a handful of brave 
men, through the loopholed wall of the garden (concealed by a hedge), had 
doubled their loss : they redoubled their fury to dislodge them and take the 
ch&teau by force, but in vain ; although they for a moment forced a gate of the 
yard, they were soon repulsed with the bayonet; and tliis important post^ 
defended with an heroic bravery, was maintained all the day, although the 
ch&teau was surrounded on three sides, and became the prey of the flames. A 
part of the divisions of Generals Bachelu and Foy experienced great loss in 


attempting to support Jerome's div. by bis right, on the side of the plain ; i^ 
deluge of case-shot, from the advanced batteries of the centre, often dispersed 
them. Napoleon, seeing bis efforts were vain to carry the post of Gomont, 
whilst his right wing was thundered upon by the opposite batteries, ordered a 
formidable attack against the left wing, with the double design (without doubt) 
of throwing the left back on the centre, and preventing the communication with 
the Prussian army. 

Nevertheless, the 2 brig. (F) of the 2 div. Dutch {troops of Nas.)^ though 
sharply attacked at different times by the 4 div. Durutte, bravely preserved the 
point of junction by Fricbermont and Smohain. Gen. C. I)'£rlon reunited a 
strong column (T), composed of a part of the 2 and 3 div. of the 1 corps, and 
eooducted it in person, protected by 80 pieces of artillery. Favoured by a deep 
ravine, it rapidly approached at the head of the column {represented by vx on the 
plan) and soon attained the height. Although battered by the case-shot, the 
iotrepid enemy charged without hesitation the 1 brig, of the 2 div. Dutch, who, 
deployed in line to occupy more ground, could not withstand that formidable 
mass, and was repulsed with loss. It soon rallied with the & bat. of Militia {in 
reserve, having suffered much and dittinguished itself at Quatre Bras)^ and advanced. 
In this interval the 8 Brit. brig, (aa) of M. G. Sir J. Kempt made a vigorous 
resistance, whilst the 9 brig, (z) of M. G. Sir D. Pack rushed with fixed 
bayonets on the right flank of the column. This bold charge, executed by the 
valiant Scotch, routed the enemy, who had already penetrated. The brave Gen. 
Sir T. Picton, so beloved by the English army, was among the number of the 
killed in this bloody contest. The brig, of heavy cav. (cc) of M. G. Sir W. 
Ponsonby rushed immediately on the regiments which had advanced so boldly, 
and cat them in pieees. The Scotch Greys and InniskiUings carried off two 
eagles belonging to the 45 and 105 reg. The column was repulsed by the 
infantry, and charged in flank by the brig, of light cav. (dd) of M. G. Sir J. 
Vandeleur, and that of G. M. Ghigny, of tlie div. (o) of cav. of the Low Countries* 
About 2000 men remained prisoners. The Roy. Drag., the Scotch Greys, and 
InniskiUings, G. Ponsonby at their head, dispersed the enemy to a great distance 
(fi), and precipitated themselves with unexampled boldness on the batteries (o) 
at the right of the 1 corps, put the cannoneers to the sword (then little supported), 
and dismounted 30 pieces. But the Cuirassiers of L. Gen. Milhaud, having 
advanced towards the chaussee to support the attack of inf. which had failed, 
the brig, of G. M. Travere from one side, and the 4 reg. of Lancers coming from 
the other, fell at the same time on these brave Drag, (p), who, not being able to 
resist this terrible shock, were cut to pieces and repulsed with considerable loss. 
The brave Gen. Ponsonby was killed by the Lancers, boldly attempting to join the 
greater body of his brig., from which he found himself separated. 

While this fine exploit and the reverse experienced by the inf. had disor- 
ganised a great part of the right wing, a desperate attack was directed against 
La Haye Sainte. In tliis attempt, for a long time fruitless, one brig, of the 2 div. 
was almost wholly destroyed, but soon reinforced by a part of the 1 div. sup- 
ported by the Cuirassiers of L. G. Kellerman ; on this occasion the heavy brig, 
(k) of Lord E. Somerset made some brilliant charges to maintain this important 
post, defended vrith obstinacy and protected by the arUlleiy of the centre and 
of the left. The 2 bat. of Chasseurs, K. G. L., after having exhausted its ammu- 
oition, defended itsell with the bayonet, but was at length obliged to fall back, 
and La Haye Sainte fell into the power of the enemy. This advantage procured 
him the means of re-assembling by degrees his strong masses of cavalry, almost 
sheltered from the fire of the cannon in the bottom (U). 

It was from this period that they commenced those charges so often repeated 
on the centje. At this period there took place for three dreadftd hours the 
severest combat of caval^, the most frightful confusion of all arms, of which 
bistoiy offers example! 

Napoleon had caused his Old Guard to advance to (S), and went at three 
o'clock towards (N 2), on the bank of the chauss^ near to La Belle Alliance. 
After the disasters experienced by his right, he ran through the ranks, rallied 
the dispersed brigades, and animated them by his presence. He ordered the 
artillery of Gen. Nourri, attached to the 6 corps, to replace the dismounted 
batteries on the right, where the firing began again. 

lo this interval they had perceived at a distance some troops debouching 


fW>in the ride of the Wood of Paris, in the rear of Frichennont, which Ni^K>leoii 
(returaed to N 2) took at first for the adTanoed guard of Marshal Groucliy. 
Thin report quickly spread itself through the whole army, and was conununicated 
by Col. Labedoyore to the left wing, which in vain exhausted its forcea against 
the GhAteau of (iomont But, far from thence, Marshal Grouchy with 36,000 inf. 
and 6000 cav. was fighting at Wa^Te with the 3 Prussian corps of Gen. Y. Thiel- 
man. It was not long before tlieir error was known; they were two regts. of 
Pruss. Drag, escorting their intrepid Field-marshal: this respected warrior, 
impatient of waiting the arrival of his corps upon the march, had already advanced 
to reconnoitre the ground. 

It is not explained how Napoleon could neglect to cause the openings of this 
wood to be occupied! However, he took his measures. The Count de Lobau 
with the 6 corps, supported by the Young Guard, was to defend Planchenoit to tbe 
last extremity ; part of the artillery of this corps, of which he had disposed, was 
replaced by that of his guard. The cav. of G. d'Aumont went into the plain 
before the village. At three o'clock the Old Foot Guard, 3 regt formed itself into 
squares ( S ) on both sides of the highway, and the Horse Guards, 4 regt. approached 
again from the plateau of Mont St Jean with all the heavy cavalry. 

It did not escape the penetrating eye of the English General, that Napoleon 
alone aimed at breaking the centre before the arrival of the Prussians. The 
noble Duke, seeing his right not in the least threatened, caused to advance at 
about three o'clock, the 2 div. of G. Sir H. Clinton, with his batteries, and the 
4 brig, of the 4 div. from plateau (C), towards the right of the centre (»), to 
support the Guard and cannon at Gomont ; the brig, of Gen. Adam on the left, 
and brig, of Colonels Halket and Duplat, more to the right One of the enemy's 
batteries had advanced upon (j) to raise the wall of the garden of Gomont, hut 
was dislodged by the 4 brig, of Col. Mitchell, supported by the Brunswick cav. 
The 3 regts. Dutch, L. G. Chass^, was marched from Braine-la-Leud towards the 
centre. The 1 brig, of Col. Detmers, having taken the village, proceeded first 
towards the plateau (C), 4 bat marched in squares, perceiving the enemy's cav., 
the two others kept their posts and rejoined them afterwards. The 2 brig. G. M. 
d'Aubrem^, who with the artillery of that div. had occupied the plateau (E), 
advanced by Merbe-Braine. The whole of the div. towuxls six o'clock took a 
second position (w) in reserve along the highway to Nivelles. 

In the meanwhile one part of the 4 Prussian corps approached by Lasne, 
under the orders of L. G. Count de Bulow, after having surmounted many obsta- 
cles to pass the defiles of St Lambert Towards four o'clock advanced through 
the Wood (called of Paris) the Id brig, of Gen. v. Losthin, with a bat of Im- 
pounders, and the 2 regt of Huss. of Silesia. The 16 brig, of Col. v. Hiller, fol- 
lowed close, as well as the artillery of reserve, and all the cav. under the orders of 
H. R. H. Prince William of Prussia. Without staying for his reinforcements, P. 
Bliicher resolved to attack, and caused these two brig, to debouch first ; the 15 by 
the left, tlie 16 by the right 

The 18 regt of the line, and the 3 regt. of Militia of Silesia, were detached 
towards Frichermont, to effect the junction with the left of the army of Wellington. 
The French turned some batteries (N) against the Prussians: the combat was 
less serious on this side. P. Bliicher considered at first that it was on the reserve 
that he ought to strike the grand blow ; in consequence Gen. Bulow proceeded 
immediately towards (K), before Planchenoit with a great body of his cavalry. 
Soon after the 13 brig, of L. G. v. Hacke, and the 14 brig, of M. G. v. RysseU^ 
rejoined the 4 corps, of which they made a part, having at first formed themselves 
in (L), and advanced afterwards towards (M), to attack the village, which the 
Gen. Count Loban with the corps, supported by the Young Guard, defended 
with a bravery the more remarkable, as bis corps was less numerous. At six 
o'clock the engagement became general. As soon as La Haye Sainte was taken, 
the Heavy Cav., Cuirassiers, Carabineers, Drag., and the Cav. of the Guard, were 
thrown into the plateau of the centre, with the design of mutually supporting each 
other. From that time this intrepid cav. made charges one after another on the 
numerous squares ranged by echelons on the inclination behind the height. 
Notwithstanding these squares were often assailed on every side, and harassed 
without ceasing, they remained unshaken, and resisted with an heroic constancy 
the violent shock of these impenetrable Cuirassiers. The Allied cav. precipitated 
itself immediately on their squadrons, dispersed and drove them to a distance : 


bat suddenly nllying, they soon returned to the charge. It was thus that the 
tffair often became desperate : the artillery having fallen back into the squares, 
leaving their cannon at intervals in the power of the enemy, who had neither 
time nor means for carrying them off. At times their squadrons wandered into 
the spaces between the squares. It was between five and six o'clock that the 
crisis was at the extreme, and the issue doubtful. In this desperate moment the 
Duke of Wellington, the Prince of Orange, the Earl of Uxbridge, Lord Hill, &c., 
vere seen animating and reuniting the weakened squares, and charging with the 
troops to restore the wavering line. 

Lord Somerset's heavy brig, performed many signal feats of valour. In one 
of these brilliant charges, it overthrew the Ooirassiers from the small rise (B), 
into the highway near to a pit of sand, where a great many perished. The brig, 
of Dutch Carabineers, G. Trip at their head, bravely tried their strength wiUi 
them, and repulsed them twice into the bottom, U. The brig, of light cav. of the 
centre having had to contend with an 4lUe of heavy cav. gave frequent proofs of 
good conduct. The brave Gen. Van Merle, returning from a charge at the head 
of his brig (r) of the K. of the Netherlands, was killed. 

The British hero, always present where danger was most imminent, remained 
unhurt, as by miracle, in the midst of his staff, which was for the most part 
killed or wounded. The squares of the Engl. Guards, Gens. Maitland snd Byng, 
in the middle, opposed an impenetrable rampart of bayonets ; their fire spread 
destruction in the fine squadrons of Horse Grenadiers of the Guard and Cara- 
bineers, of which they received the principal charges. {Gen. Cooke commanding 
the div. was aeverely wounded,) By the example of the Guards, all the troops in 
the centre rivalled each other in courage and constancy. The 3 div. of G. Count 
Alten {who was also wounded) being much exposed by its position, had to repulse 
innumerable charges ; let it suffice to cite for example, that the square a little 
advanced of the 30 and 73 Engl, regt {making part of the brig.j M, G. 8rr Colin 
Halket cdwayt present) was charged eleven times without the least success, by the 
Lancers of the Guard and the Cuirassiers. Tlie fury of a combat may be sup- 
posed, when, after three hours of unspeakable efforts on both sides, a horrible^ / 
carnage was its only result. In the mean time, the attack on Planchenoi^as v 
carried on with equal fuiy. The village was taken and retaken twice, and these 
courageous efforts of the 4th corps were often fruitless. The Count D'Erlon, having 
rallied one brig, of his 1 corps, sustained the left of the 6 corps, and pushed in 
advance, to prevent the communication with the left of Wellington, and to separate 
the two armies. Napoleon had already sent G. Duhesme with the Young Guard, 4 
regts. on the right to reinforce the 6 corps, which the 16 Prussian brig, constantly 
endeavoured to outflank. The Young Guard had again penetrated into the village, 
sod retook the churchyard, which Uie lA regt. of the line, and the 1 rogt. of 
Militia of Silesia, had occupied. Two bat of the old Guard {coming from S) were 
again sent to support it. The formidable battery of 12-pounders of the Guard in 
reserve, came from the advance, and tlmndered over the village. At this period, 
the French w^ere successful, and acted for a time on the offensive. The intrepid 
Prussians were obliged to exert all the energy which characterises them to resist 
The 2 and 8 regt of Hussars vigorously repulsed the attack of some light cav. of 
the 1 and 6 corps. In the mean time, the arrival of the 5 brig, and two bat of the 
2 corps, commanded by L. G. Pirch, who went to the right (M), restored the 
equilibrium, and they again assumed the offensive with redoubled fury. The 
iumy consisted of about 30,000 men. Although his reserve was threatened with . 
a very probable reverse, and his free retreat very much endangered. Napoleon f 
P^isted in his bold project of pushing in advance. Marshal Grouchy had not 
<^yed. So many f^tless efforts could scarcely presage any great success. 
^Wlst his most able Generals, and Marshal Ney, considered the battle very 
hazardous. Napoleon, always immovable, despaired of nothing — not even of 
victory! He advanced at seven o'clock, with 4 regts. of his Guard, towazds Mont 
St Jean, and placed at the situation (N 3), where the chaoss^e is increased in 
the declivity of the height before La Haye Sainte, having on his right and on his 
left two batteries of his Qxusrd {of which he levelled several pieces himself ), One 
"A^t^ was already established a good deal in advance on the side of the garden 
of this farm, and made a murderous Are. Seeing the ilite of his cavalry fatally 
^iigaged on the plateau, he ordered a fourth attack on the centre, with which he 




charged Marshal Key, at the head of the 8 and 4 regt. of Ohass., and the 3 and 4 
of the Grenadiers of his Old Guard {the middle Guard), This oolmnn of warriors, 
whose valour tripled their number, were to protect the Cuirassiers, the broken 
remains of which went back successively in the bottom (U). The Duke of Wel- 
lington, informed of the progress of Count Bulow, and of the approach of the 1 
corps of G. V. Ziethen, took his measures to repulse this attack, and to assume the 
offensive on the whole line. All the brig, kept the same positions, but some bat. 
of Brunswickers advanced from the side of La Haye Sainte ; during the whole 
day, these brave troops took ample revenge for the loss of their noble Duke. It 
as half-past seven when the Middle Guard advanced with an imposing coolness 
with shouldered arms, deplo3ring regularly as they approached {in v, v, v, v), 
having two pieces loaded wiUi case-shot in every interval The Allied troops 
maintained themselves perfectly calm to receive them at the points of their 
bayonets, the firing of muskets became general through the whole line, and the , 
artillery also spread destruction in the ranks. The Prince of Orange put himself 
at the head of the 1 regt. of Nassau, to repulse the enemy with the bayonet, when 
he was struck with a ball, which pierced the left shoulder, and obliged him to quii 
the field. 

At this time L. G. Chass^, who, having arrived from Braine-la-Leud, had been 
placed in reserve, advanced veiy opportunely from this side with 6 Dutch batta- 
lions. Col. Detmers, and the light battery (if) of M. Van der Smissen on the right, 
to oppose the impetuous attack of these old warriors, who sought to penetrate on 
this side. These brave battalions immediately attacked them, and repulsed them 
briskly on this point ; the whole line, likewise, was driven beck. The bat. (v) above 
mentioned, and the bat (x), Capt. Napier, did great execution. Marshal Ney is 
unhorsed; G. Friant wounded ; G. Michael killed. Astonished at such a resist- 
ance, and seeing its ranks thin, the paralysed Guard made a stop, but did not 
recede ; it hesitated. The eagle-eyed and intrepid Wellington seized this moment 
to assume the offensive, gave orders for a general advance, and marched onward, 
the whole line charging with the bayonet. The brig, of cav. of M. Gens. Yande- 
leur and Vivian arrived (from the left) at the extreme right, took the enemy in 
flank, the other brig, of cav. advanced in fr^nt by intervals. The Guaid being 
repulsed, fell back at first in order, but the cavalry soon carried conf^on in its 
outflanked ranks. The orchards of Gomont are regained, the ch&teau freed from 

, the assailants, and La Haye Sainte taken. The 1 Prussian corps of L. G. t. 

^ Ziethen (H), arrived by Ohain, rejoined at 8 o'clock the extreme left, and, in con- V 
cert with the Nassaus, drove the enemy from Smohain and Papelotte. The 
Prussian cav. of G. v. Boeder outflanked its right, and pursued it in its retreat ; 
the whole advanced towards La Belle Alliance with the rapidity of lightning. The 
cannonading, which thundered behind ; the cavaliy paralysed or destroy^ ; the 
Middle Guard defeated, and its broken remains retiring in disorder; everything, in 
fine contributed to spread terror in the French army. Whilst the victory w«s 
decided in the centre, the 6 corps, with the Young Guard, and 2 bat. of the Old, 
again defended itself at Planchenoit, with the sole design of seouYingthe retreat of, 
the army. Prince Bliicher made a third decisive attack to cut it off, whilst his 1 
corps came to rejoin his right The 16 brig, completely turned the village, the 
others pressed on vigorously, and the enemy is obliged to retreat With a 
redoubled Airy, all the Prussian army pressed on, and pushed towards the highway 
to Charieroi, where his left wing had idready arrived in great disorder, which was 
completed by the vigorous pursuit In the meantime Napoleon had retired 
towards La Belle Alliance. To cover his retreat, which, had he effected it two 
hours sooner, might have saved the half of his army, he exposed the four regi- 
ments of the Old Guard {tphich were yet entire) :* but what could a handfril of 
brave men do against a victorious army, who had resisted the united efforts of 
almost the whole of his army ? They gallantly maintained themselves, yielding 
only foot by foot, until at length overwhelmed by numbers they were almost 
whoUy destroyed. The broken remains fell back into two squares {k) towards 
Rossomme. Napoleon was still retiring under the protection of the second, 
when the first previously broken by the fogitives was routed by the English 
cavaliy. There was then but one ciy, Save the Ea^le / Retreating at the same 

* Vide French officer's anecdote, p. 217. 


time, a group is formed around, and the Eagle is effectually saved by favour of the 
dusk of the evening ; it was that of the Chasseurs of the Guards. The div. of G. 
Pire, and other light cav. had been posted behind to restrain the fugitives, but in 
vain ; it was hurried along by the runaways, and confounded in the general mass. 
The crisis of the most dreadful defeat was come ; the decline of day increased ; the 
panic and terror spread itself in every possible direction ; the mai^ritl had disap- 
peared ; the army was no more ! 

There was nothing but a conflised mass, which rolled back like a torrent 
towards the Maison du Roi, to gain Genappe. Two hundred pieces of artilleiy, 
an immense maUnel^ a great number of prisoners, among whom many Generals, 
fell into the power of the conquerors. Prince Bliicher caused all his cavalry to 
advance. Gen. Gneisenau at their head, who closely pursued the enemy from 
bivouac to bivouac. The darkness and the confusion of this general rout alone 
prevented their complete destruction; a great number of prisoners, about 60 
pieces of artillery, and the equipages of Napoleon {taken on the road and at 
Genappe,) increased the trophies of that memorable day. Through this pfle- 
mile Napoleon, followed by a part of his staff, escaped as by miracle I He 
repassed the Sambre at Gharleroi, 19tli of June, at b o'clock in the morning. 
Whilst the Prussian army was engaged in the pursuit of the enemy, the Allied 
British anny kept the field of battle, and fulfilled the noble task of taking care 
of the wounded; in this number was the Earl of Uxbridge, who had bis leg 
bhattered by ahnost the last ball which was fired, and unto whom every tribute is 
dae for his extreme braveiy and the influence of his daring example upon 
the troops. Such was the BATTTiE of Watertx>o, for ever memorable ! Its 
results are too generally known to be repeated. The loss of the French army 
is incalculable. The number of killed and wounded of the Alhed British army is 
estimated at about ld,000 men ; that of the Prussian army could scarcely amount 
to more than 8000 men. Honour and glory to the brave who have purchased, 
irith their life or their blood, the most splendid of victories ! 


Descbihion of the Panoramic Sketch of the Field of 


These Sketches of the Field on which the glorious hattle of the 18th of June 
was fought were taken on the spot, from the summit of a peipendicnlar hank, im- 
medi'itely above the high road from Brussels to Genappe, in the firont of the 
centre of the British position. The First Plate represents the view as it appeared 
to the British army, when drawn up in order of battle on the morning of that 
memorable day, looking directly forward to the hamlet of La Belle Alliance, fig. 1 
and 2 ; and the heights occupied by the French, fig. 8, 4, 5, and Plate 2, fig. 6. 
The Second Plate, taken fW)m the same spot, looking the contrary way, represents 
the ground occupied by the British, with the farm-house of La Haye Sainte, fig. 7, 
in front, and backed by the Forest of Soignies, fig. 8 and 9, Plate 2. Each plate 
form9 a semicircle, comprising the whole view which the eye can take in at once. 
The two plates join together at each end, as marked (A joining to A, and B join- 
ing to B), forming a complete circle or panoramic view of the Field of Battle. 
Every house, eveiy bush, every tree, every undulation, is distinctly copied from 
nature. There is not a spot on which the eye can rest that was not immortalised 
by some heroic deed of British valour, and scarcely a clod of earth that was not 
covered with the wounded and the dead bodies of our countrymen and their van- 
quished foes. 

The ground on which the battle was fought cannot at most exceed two miles 
fiiom north to south, including the whole from the rear of the British to the rear 
of the French position. Vide Sketch, fig. 3, 4, 5, and 6 was the height occupied by 
the French ; and Plate 2, fig. 12, 13, 14, 15, the height occupied by the English. 
From east to west, from the extremity of the left to that of the right wing of the 
contending armies, is scarcely a mile and half in extent ; the smallness of the 
space on which they fought, and the consequent intermixture of the two armies, 
might have occasioned in some degree the sanguinary result of the battle. The 
British position crossed the road to Nivelles, which branches off to the right from 
Mont St. Jean {ue Plan of Ponition) ; and sloping along, passes behind the wood 
and ch&teau of Hougumont on the height, the most advanced post of the British 
army, fig. 11, Plate 2. In front, it occupied the farm of La Haye Sainte, fig. 7, 
Plate 2, extending to the left along the hedge, fig. 12, 13, 14, and 15, Plate 2, and 
a lane behind it, which was occupied by General Picton's division. Upon this 
height a considerable part of our artillery was placed ; but it was also dispersed in 
different parts of the field, and placed upon every little eminence, with great judg- 
ment and effect The cut eartli-bank, fig. 16, 17, 18, lU, 20, Plates 1 and 2, in 
front of the British position, represents a quiury on the opposite side of the road 
to La Haye Sainte, which was surrounded by cannon during the engagement. 
Fig. 21 and 22, Plate 2, a high perpendicular bank, cut down for the road or 
chaussee to pass through, along the top of which cannon wero planted. The 
chaussee or paved road from Brussels to Genappe, fig. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, Plates I 
and 2, which passes nearly through the centre of the position of both armies, pro- 
ceeding directiy forward from the village of Mont St. Jean, leaves the farm-house 
of La Haye Sainte, fig. 7, Plate 2, on the right, nearly in the hollow, and agiun 
ascends to La Belle Alliance (fig. 1, Plate 1), on the summit of the opposite hill, 
which, with the heights on each side, were occupied by the French. The French 
position was decidedly the best ; the eminence they occupied was higher, and the 
ascent steeper than ours, and better adapted both for attack and defence. 






4e. Jkc. 











On the evening of Thursday, the 15th of June, an officer arrived 
at Brussels from Marshal Bliicher, to announce that hostilities 
had commenced. The Duke of Wellington was sitting after 
dinner, with a party of officers, over the dessert and wine, when 
he received the dispatches containing this unexpected news. Mar- 
shal Blucher had been attacked tnat day by the French; but 
he seemed to consider it as a meye affair of outposts, which was not 
likely to proceed much further at present, though it might pro- 
bably prove the prelude to a more important engagement* It 
was the opinion of most military men in Brussels, that it was the 
plan of the enemy by a false alann to induce the Allies to con- 

• The first intelligence of the commencement of hostilities was known in 
London, at four o'clock on Tuesday afLemooPi June 20, 1815. {Vide Part II, note 
to OjjUcial Bulletin,) ' *• 



centrate their chief military force in that quarter, in order that he 
mi^^ht more snccessAilly make a serious attack upon some other 
]x>mt, and that it was against Brussels and the English army that 
the blow would be aimed. The troops were ordered to hold 
themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice : but no 
immediate movement was expected, and for some hours all was 

It was past midnight, and profound repose seemed to reign over 
Brussels, when suddenly the arums beat to arms, and the trumpet's 
loud call was heard from every part of the city. It is impossible 
to describe the effect of these sounds, heard in the silence of the 
night We were not long left in doubt of the truth. A second 
officer had arrived from Bliicher :* the attack had become serious; 
the enemy were in considerable force ; they had taken Charleroi, 
and had gained some advantage over the Prussians, and our troops 
were ordered to march immediately to support them; instantly 
every place resounded with martial preparations. There was not 
a house in which military were not quartered, and, consequently, 
the whole town was one universal scene of bustle: the soldiers 
were seen assembling from all parts in the Place Royale, with 
their knapsacks upon their backs; some taking leave of their 
wives and children ; others sitting down unconcernedly upon the 
sharp pavement, waiting for their comrades ; others sleeping upon 
packs of straw, surrounded by all the din of war, wliile 6a^ norses 
and baggage-waggons were loading; artillery and conmiissariat 
trains harnessing, officers riding in all directions, carts clattering, 
chargers neighing, bugles sounding, drums beating, and colours 

A most laughable contrast to this martial scene was presented 
by a long procession of carts coming quietly in, as usual, from the 
comitry to market, filled with old Fleraisn women, who looked 
irresistibly comic, seated among their piles of cabbages, baskets of 
green peas, early potatoes, and strawberries, totally ignorant of the 
cause of all these warlike preparations, and gazing at the scene 
around them with many a look of gaping wonder, as they jogged 
merrily along, one after another, through the Place Royale, 
amidst the crowds of soldiers, and the confusion of baggage- 

* The second officer arrived from Bliicher before 1 2 o'clock on the night of 
the 15th, and the dispatches were delivered to the Duke of Wellington in the 
ball-room of the Duchess of Richmond. While he was reading them, he seemed 
to be completely absorbed by their contents ; and after he had finished, for some 
minutes he remained in the same attitude of deep reflection, totally abstracted 
from every surrounding object, while his countenance was expressive of fixed 
and intense thought. He was heard to say to himself — *^ Marshal Bliicher 
thinks" — ^' It is Marshal Bliicher's opinion," — and after remaining thus a few 
minutes, and having apparently formed his decision, he gave his usual clear 
and concise orders to one of his staff officers, who instantly left the room, and 
was again as gay and animated as ever ; he staid supper, and then went home. 


Yet there was order amidst all this apparent confusion. Regi- 
ment after raiment formed with the utmost regularity^ and 
marched out of Brussels. About four o'clock in the mornings 
the 42d and 92d Highland regiments marched through the Place 
Rojale, and the Pare One could not but admire their fine 
appearance; their firm^ collected, steady, military demeanour, 
as they went rejoicing to battle, with tiieir bagpipes playing 
before them, and the beams of the rising sun shining upon their 
glitterii^ arms. Before that sun had set in night, how many of 
that galuuit band were laid low I They fought like heroes, and 
like heroes they fell — an honour to tneir country. On many a 
highland hill, and through many a lowland valley, long will the 
deeds of these brave men be fondly remembered, and their fate 
deeply deplored. Never did a finer body of men take the field — 
never did men march to battle that were destined to perform such 
services to their country, and to obtain such immortal renown I 
It was impossible to witness such a scene unmoved. Thousands 
were Darting with their nearest and dearest relations, and to every 
British heart it was a moment of the deepest interest Our coun- 
trymen were marching out to battle — they might return victorious 
—and we proudly indulged the hope of their triumph ; but they 
were going to meet an enemy formidable bv their nnmbers and 
their discipline ; commanded by a leader whose mihtary talents 
had made him the terror and the tyrant of Europe, and whose 
remorseless crimes and unbomided ambition had so long been its 
scourge. Not only was the safety of our brave army at stake, 
but the glory which Britain had so dearly purchased and so nobly 
won — her prosperity — her greatness — her name among other 
nations — the security and the fate of Europe, depended upon the 
issue of that eventftd contest, which was now on the eve of being 

Our troops, however, who had never known defeat, were 
confident of success, under the command of a general who had so 
lately led a victorious army from the shores of the Tbots, over 
the mountains of the Pyrenees, and carried conquest ana dismay 
into the heart of France ; under whom they had never fought but 
to conquer, and whom they now followed to battle as to certain 
victory. What could not British soldiers do under such a 
general ? What could not such a general do with such soldiers ? 
The Duke of Wellington himself, with a candour and modestv 
which does him the mghest honour, made an observation which 
ought never to be forgotten: — ■'^When other generals commit any 
error, their army is lost by it, and they are sure to be beaten ; 
when I get into a scrape, my army get me out of it." 

Before eight in the morning the streets, which had been filled 
with busy crowds, were empty and silent ; the great Square of 
the Place Royale, which had been filled with armed men, and 


with all the appurtenances and paraphernalia of war, was now 
quite clesertA^cL 

The Flemish drivers were sleeping in the tilted carts that 
were (U»stintMl to convey the wounded — the heavy bagga<:^e-wagfrons, 
ran^wl in order and ready to move when occasion mi^ht require, 
were standing; under tlie guard of a few sentinels : some officers 
were still to he seen riding out of town to join the army. The 
Duke of Wellington had set otfin great spirits, observing, that as 
BlUcher had most likely settliHl the business himself by this time, 
he should ])erha])8 be back to dinner. Sir Thomas Picton 
mounted u[)on his charger, in soldier-like style, with his recon- 
noitring-ghuss slung across his shoulder, gaily accosting his friends 
as he rode through the streets, left Brusvsels in the highest spirits 
never to return. It was on this very morning that Nai>oleon 
Buonaparte made the boast, tliat to-morrow night he woula sleep 
at Lacken.** 

After the army was gone, Brussels seemed indeed a perfect 
desert. Every countenance was marked with anxiety or me- 
lancholy—every heart filk»d with anxious ex[)ectation. It was 
not, however, supposed that any action would take place that day. 
What was then the general consternation, when about three 
o'clock a furious cannonading began! — It was certainly in the 
direction our army had taken — it came from Waterloo I Had 
our troops, then, encomitered the French before they had joined 
the Prussians? — Were they separately engaged? — Where? — 
When? — How? — In vain did every one ask questions which 
none could answer. Numbers of people in carriages and on horse- 
back set off towards Waterloo, and returned no wiser than they 
went, each bringing back a different story : a thousand absurd 
reports, totally devoid of foundation, were circulated ; what you 
were told one minute, was contradicted the next According to 
some, Bliicher had been completely beaten ; according to others, 
he had gained a complete victory; some would have it, that 
30,000 French were left dead on the field of battle ; others, that 
about the same number were advancing to surprise Brussels. It 
was even said that the English army were retreating in confusion : 
but the l>earers of this piece of intelligence were received with so 
much indignation, and w^ith such perfect incredulity, that they 
were glad to hold their peace. Some said the scene of action was 
twenty miles off — others that it was only six. At length intelli- 
gence came from the army, brought by an officer who had left 
tne field after five o'clock. The British, in their march^ had 

* A palace now belonging to the King of the Belgians, about three miles 
beyond BrusHels, on an elevated situation, surrounded by beautifiil grounds. It 
was fitted up with great magnificence by Louis Buonaparte, and Napoleon 
himRelf staid tliere in his progress through the Netherlands. 


encotmtered the enemy on the plains of Fleurus,* about fifteen 
miles from Brussels. The Highland reghnents received the 
furious onset of the whole French army, without yielding one 
inch of ground. With resolute imshaken valour they fought to 
the last, and fell upon the very spot where they first drew their 
swords. The combat was terrible; the enemy were in much 
more formidable force than had been represented, and deriving 
confidence from their immense superiority of numbers, they fought 
most furiously, Blucher i»as separately engaged with another 
division of French at some distance, and coulcl give us no assist- 
ance. Yet this brave handfal of British had undauntedly stood 
their ground, repulsed every attack, and were still fighting with 
the fiillest confidence of success. In the words of this officer, 
" all was well." 

Still the cannonading continued, and apparently approached 
nearer.t The French were said to be 30,000 or 40,000 strong. 
Only 10,000 British troops had marched out of Brussels — our 
army was unconcentrated — it was impossible that the cavalry 
could have come up — the principal part of the artillery were at a 
distance. Under such circumstances it was impossible, even with 
the fullest confidence in British valour, not to feel extreme anxiety 
for the armv. Unable to rest, we wandered about the Pare the 
whole evemng, or stood upon the ramparts listening to the heavy 
cannonade, which towards 10 o'clock became fainter, and soon 
afterwards entirely died away. 

No ftirther intelligence had arrived — the cannonade had con- 
tinued five hours since the last accounts came away. The anxiety 
to know the result of the battle may be imagined. 

Between twelve and one, we suddenly heard the noise of the 
rapid rolling of heavy carriages, in long succession, passing 
through the rlace Royale, mingled with the loud cries and excla- 
mations of the people below. For some minutes we listened in 
silence, — faster ancl faster, and louder and louder, the long train 
of artillery continued to roll through the town ; the cries of the 
affrighted people increased. In some alarm we hastily ran out to 
inqinre the cause of this tumult : the first person we encountered 
was a scared fiUe-de-chambre, who exclaimed in a most piteous 

tone — " les Frangois sont touts pres — dans une petite 

demi-heure ils seront ici Que ferons-nous, que ferons- 

nous ! il faut partir toute de suite." Questions were in 

vain — she could only reiterate again and again, — " Les Francois 
sont touts pr^s," — and then renew her exclamations and lamentar 
tions. As we flew down stairs, the house seemed deserted, every 

• The French were not destined to be a second time victorious on the plains 
of Fleurus. About the end of the seventeenth century a great battle was fought 
there, in which they completely defeated, instead of being defeated by, the Allies, 

i Probably because in the stillness of evening it was heard more distinctly. 
There wa«» no real change of position. 


room-door was open — the candles were left burning on the tables 
— every body had run out into the Place Royale, and the solitude 
and silence which reigned within formed a fearful contrast to the 
increasing tumult without At tlie bottom of the stairs a group 
of affiighted Belgians were assembled — consternation pictured on 
their faces. They could only tell us that intelligence had been 
brought of a large body of I* rench having been seen advancing 
through the woods to take Brussels, that they were within half-an- 
hour's march of the city f which was yholly undefended), and that 
the English army was in mil retreat " C'est trop vrai — c'est trop 
vrai," was repeated on every side ; " and the tram of artillery that 
was passing through (they said) was retreating!" We had soon, 
however, the satisfaction of being assured that the artillery were 

|>assin^ through to Join the army, that they were not retreating, 
>ut advancing ; ana finding that the report of the French being 
within half-an-hour's march of the city rested only on the autho- 
ritv of some Belgians, our alarm gradually subsided ; some people 
indeed took their departure, but as the French did not make 
their appearance, some went to bed, and others lay down in their 
clothes, by no means assured that their slumbers might not be 
broken by the entrance of the French. 

In fact, between five and six we were roused by a loud knocks 
ing at the door, and the cries of *' Les Francois sent ici ! Les 
Francois sont ici I'' Starting up, the first sight we beheld was a 
troop of Belgic cavalry, covered, not with glory, but with mud,* 
galloping through the town at full speed, as if the enemy were at 
their heels ; ana immediately the heavy baggage-waggons, which 
had been harnessed from the moment of the nrst alarm, set off frdl 
gallop down La Montague de la Cour, and through every street 
by which it was possible to effect their escape. In less than two 
minutes the great square of the Place Royale, which had been 
crowded with men and horses, carts and baggage-waggons, was 
completely cleared of every thing, and entirely aesertedi Again 
were the cries repeated of " Les Fran5ois sont ici I — lis s'empa- 
rent de la porte de la villel" The doors of all the bed-rooms 
w^ere thrown open, the people fiew out with their nightcaps on, 
scarcely half dressed, and looking quite distracted, running about 
pale and trembling they knew not whither, with packages under 
their arms — some carrying huge heterogeneous collections of 
things down to the cellars, and others loaded with their property 
flying up to the garrets. The poor fiUe-de-chambre, nearly 
frightened out of her wits, was standing wringing her hands, un- 
able to articulate any thing but " Les Francois ! les Francois I — 
while the cuisiniire exclaimed with more dignity, ^* Nous somimes 
tous perdus I" 

* " L'Oracle de BnuLcUes" said, that the Belgic troops had ** covered them- 
selves with glory." 


In the court-yard below, a scene of the most dreadM con- 
fusion ensued ; description can give but a faint idea of the scuffle 
that took place to get at the horses and carriages ; the squabbling 
of masters and servants, ostlers, chambermaids, coachmen, and 
gentlemen, all scolding at once, and swearing in French, English, 
and Flemish ; while every opprobrious epithet and figure of speech 
which the three languages contained were exhausted upon each 
other, and the confusion of tongues could scarcely have been 
exceeded by that of the Tower of Babel. Some made use of sup- 
plication, and others had recourse to force ; words were followed 
by blows. One half of the Belgic drivers refused either to go 
tliemselves or let their beasts go, and with many gesticulations 
called upon all the saints and angels in heaven to witness that 
they would not set out — no, not to save the Prince of Orange 
himself; and neither love nor money, nor threats nor entreaties, 
could induce them to alter this determination. Those who had 
horses, or means of procuring them, set off with most astonishing 
expedition, and one English carriage aflter another took the road 
to Antwerp. * 

It was impossible for the people at Brussels, who were wholly 
mnorant of the event of the oattle, and acquainted only with the 
disadvantageous circumstances under which it had been fought, 
not to fear that the enemy might at last have succeeded in break- 
ing through the British, or at least tlie Prussian lines, or that 
Buonaparte, ever fertile in expedients, might have contrived to 
elude their vigilance, and to send a detachment under cover of 
night, by a circuitous route, to seize the unguarded city, the pos- 
session of which was to him of the highest importance. The news 
of the advance of the French — the alarming reports which had 
been brought in from all quarters during the night — the flight of 
the Belgic troops, and above all, the railure of any intelligence 
from our own army, tended to corroborate this last alarm, and it 
seemed but too certain that the enemy were actually at hand. At 
length, after a considerable interval of terror and suspense, an 
sude-de-camp of the Duke of Wellington arrived, who had left the 
army at four o'clock, and, to our unspeakable joy, this was found 
to be a false alarm. It had been spread by those dastardly Bel- 
gians whom we had seen scampering through the town, and who 
had, it is supposed, met with some straggling party of the enemy. 
It was also said, that a foraging party oi French had come brava- 
doing to the gates of the city, summoning it to surrender. A con- 
siderable number of French, indeed, entered the town soon after ; 
but they were French prisoners.* The Duke's aide-de-camp 

* The French acknowledge their loss was nearly equal to ours, and, heavy as 
ours was, theirs was much more severe. Colonels Dnmoulin and Cambac^res, 
aides-de-camp to Buonaparte, arrived at Brussels as prisoners and wounded, 
on the morning of the 17th.-^J?</t7or. 


brouirht the welcome information that the British army, though 
attacKed by such a tremendous superiority of numbers, and under 
every possible disadvantage, had completely repulsed the enemy, 
and remained masters of the field of battle. The cavalry, or at 
least a considerable part of them, had come up at the close of the 
action, but too late to take any part in it : thus our infantry had 
sustained, during the whole of the day, the attack of the enemy's 
cavalry as well as infantry. 

The Duke expected that the attack would be renewed this 
morning ; but the anny was now collected, and joined both by the 
cavalry and artillery, and a more decisive engagement might be 
expected. The loss of tlie enemy in killed, wounded, and .pri- 
soners had been great The defeat w^hich the Prussians had sus- 
tained could not, however, be concealed,* and the Belgians were 
filled with consternation and dismay. The corpse of the Duke of 
Brmiswick had passed through Brussels during the night, and his 
fate seemed to make a great impression upon the minds of die 
people-t Waggons filled with the wounded began to arrive, and 
the melancholy spectacle of these poor sufferers increased the 
general despondency. The streets were filled with the most piti- 
able sights. We saw a Belgic soldier dying at the door of his own 
home, and surrounded by liis relatives, wno were weeping over 
him; numerous were the sOrrowfiil groups standing round the 
dead bodies of those who had died of their wounds in the way 
home. Numbers of wounded, who were able to walk, were wan- 
dering upon every road ; their blood-stained clothes and pale, hag- 
gard countenances, perhaps, giving the idea of sufferings even 
greater than the reality. 

It is well known that on the forenoon of this day (Saturday), 
the Duke of Wellington fell back about seven miles, upon 
Waterloo, in order to take up a position more favourable for the 
cavalry, and from which he could keep up the communication 
with Marshal Bliicher, who had retreated upon Wavre. 

Never was there a more masterly or successful manoeuvre. 
By superior generalship, every plan of the enemy was baffled; 

♦ The war took a most ferocious character between the French and Priifssians 
from the very beginning. Before the opening of the campaign, the Ist and 
2d corps of tlie French had hoisted the black flag. They openly avowed that 
they would give no quarter to the Prussians, and in general they kept thejr 
word. The Prussian loss, in all the aiTairs together, is calculated at 33,120 
men. — Editor. 

+ In the spirit of the days of chivalry, the Duke of Brunswick had taken a 
soU'mu oath that he would never sheath the sword till he had avenged the insult 
olfered to the tomb of his father. It is to be lamented that he should have 
fallen without the satisfaction of knowing how full and glorious was the revenge 
for which he panted. The sincerity of the sorrow which, even in a moment of 
such universal consternation, was everywhere testified for his loss, afibrds the 
highest eulogium on his virtues. Peace to his ashes ! His death has been honored 
by the l>cst funeral oration — the lamentations of the people. A sketch of his l\fe 
ti'jil bf/aiind at the end of (his voiume. 


although constantly on the watch, he never had it in his power to 
attack our retreating army to the smallest advantage. The con- 
fession escaped from Napoleon himself, that it was on his part 
"a day of fahe maruxuvresJ* In the meantime it is impossible to 
describe the panic that the news of this retreat spread at Brussels. 
Nobody could convince the Belgians that a retreat and a flight 
were not one and the same thing ; and, firmly con^-inced that the 
£nglish had been defeated, they fiilly expected every moment to 
see them enter Brussels in the utmost confusion, with the French 
after them : even the English themselves, who had the most un- 
bounded confidence in the British army and its commanders, and 
who were certain that if they retreated it would be with good 
order, steady discipline, and undaunted courage, began to fear that 
the immense superiority of the enemy had made the Duke judge 
it prudent to fall back until joined by fresh reinforcements. 

There is a mistaken idea in this country, that the French, that 
even Napoleon Buonaparte himself, was popular in Belgium. This 
was a moment when Hypocrisy itself would have found it im- 
])ossible to dissemble ; and the dismay which reigned upon every 
tiice, and the terror which filled every town and village, when it 
was believed that the French were victorious — the execrations 
with which their very names were uttered — the curses, "not loud 
but deep,** half repressed by fear, betrayed how rooted and sincere 
was their hatred of the tyranny from which they had so recently 
escaped. There may be miscreants* of all ranks in Belgium, as in 
other countries, whom the hope of plunder and the temptations of 
ambition wiU bring over to any party, where these can be ob- 
tained ; but by the great body of the nation, from the highest to 
the lowest, the French government is abhorred, and Napoleon him- 
self is r^axded with a detestation, the strength of which we can 
form no idea of in this country. Their very infants are taught to 
lisp these sentiments, and to regard him as a monster. 

It would be endless to dwell upon every fresh panic. An 
open town like Brussels, within a few miles of contending armies, 
is subject to perpetual alarms, and scarcely an hour passed without 
some false reports occurring to spread general terror and confii- 
sion. Every hour only served to add to the dismay. So great 

* Among his papers taken after the Battle of Waterloo was a list of eighty 
inliabitants of Brussels, whose persons and property were to he respected by the 
French amiy on its entrance into that city. Among these was a Flemish Noble- 
man, wlio had prepared a splendid supper for Buonaparte on the 18th. Of the 
reutaiuiitir, several of them had also prepared one for his principal officers. Of 
this junto, the nobleman who was to have been Buonaparte's host has fled. The 
others remained at Brussels on Saturday, apparently without fear, although it is 
well known that the King of the Netherlands is in possession of the list. It is 
(iKo certain, that several Proclamations were found among the papers of Buona- 
part*^, a(.l(lrcsscd from Brussels, Lacken, &c., all prepared in confident expectation 
"t* hiN ?;nccc*»s on the 18th, the capture of Brussels, and his irruption into Flanders 
jnul Holland. — Jitlilor. 


was the alann in Brussels on Saturday evening, that one hundred 
ni^Ieons were offered in vain for a pair of horses to go to 
Antwerp, a distance of nearly thirty miles; and numbers set 
off on foot, and embarked m boats upon the canaL In the 
afternoon, a violent thunder-storm came on, followed by torrents 
of rain, which during the whole of the night, when the army were 
lying unsheltered upon the field of Watenoo, never ceased a single 
moment On Sunday the terror and confiision reached its highest 
point News arrived of the French having ^uned a complete 
victory, and it was universally believed. A dreadful panic had 
seized the men left in charge of the baggage in the rear of the 
army, and they ran away with a rapidity that could not have been 
surpassed even by the French themselves. The road between 
Waterloo and Brussels, which lies through the Forest of Soignies, 
is completely confined on either side by trees ; it was soon choked 
up; those behind attempted to get past those before — officers' 
servants were struggling to secure theu* masters' baggage — panic- 
stricken people forcing weir way over every obstacle, with the des- 
peration of fear, — and a complete scuffle ensued, which might 
really be called a battle burlesqued, in which numbers of horses 
were killed, and some lives lost, not to mention the innumerable 
broken heads and black bruises sustained on the occasion. 

The road was covered with broken and overturned waggons 
— heaps of abandoned baggage — dead horses, and terrified people. 
In some places, horses, waggons, and all, were driven over lugh 
banks by the road side, in order to clear a passage. The quantity 
of rain that had fallen, of itself made the roads nearly impassable, 
and it was impossible for the wounded to be brought irom the 
field. Certainly these Waterloo Men who came flying into Brussels 
on Sunday, did not cut a very glorious figure I 

At Antwerp, though more distant from the scene of action, the 
consternation was nearly as great Long rows of carriages lined 
the streets, filled with fugitives, who could find no place of shelter; 
and people of rank and fortune were glad to eat and sleep in one 
and the same miserable hole, which at any other time they would 
have disdained to have entered. So great was the imiversal 
anxiety, that during the whole of SunoEiy, though the rain was 
almost incessant, the great Place de Maire was crowded with 
people, who stood from morning until night, under umbrellas, 
nnpatiently watching the arrivfiJ of news firom the army, and 
assailing everybody who entered the town with fruitless in- 

Our persons indeed, and our outward senses, might be in 
Antwerp or Brussels, but our whole hearts and souls were with 
the army. One common interest bound together all ranks and 
conditions of men. All other subjects, all other considerations, 
were forgotten — all distinctions were levelled — all common forms 


thrown aside and neglected, — ladies accosted men they had never 
seen before with eager questions; no preface — no apology — no 
ceremony was thought of — strangers conversed together like 
friends — all ranks of people addressed each other without hesita- 
tion — everybody seeking — everybody giving information — and 
English reserve seemed no lon^r to exist. 

It is impossible to imagine ike strong overpowering anxiety of 
being so near such eventful scenes, without being able to learn 
what is really passing. To know tliat within a few miles such an 
a¥rful contest is decimng — to hear even the distant voice of war 
— to think that in the roar of every cannon your brave country- 
men are fidling, bleeding, and dying — ^to dread that your friends, 
even those dearest to you, may be me victims — ^to endure the long 
and protracted suspense — the constant agitation — the varying 
reports — the incessant alarms — the fluctuatmg hopes, and doubts, 
and fears — no — none but those who have felt what it is can con- 
ceive or understand it 

This state of susp^ise had lasted three days ; continual vague 
and contradictory reports, and rumours of evil, were brought in, 
during the whole of Sunday, which only served to increase the 
general anxie^. At length, between nine and ten in the evening, 
some woundea British officers arrived on horseback from the field, 
bringing the dreadful news that the battle was lost, and that 
Brussels was actually in the possession of the French I This was 
corroborated by frigitives from Brussels, who affirmed they had 
seen the French in the town ; and one gentleman declared he had 
been pursued by them, half way to Malmes. It was even asserted 
that the French had entered Malines : later accounts tended to 
confirm these disastrous tidings, and Antwerp was filled with con- 
sternation and dismay. Many people set off for Holland, thinking 
Antwerp no longer safe. I'hrough the whole night, carriages 
fiUed with the woimded — heavy waggons loaded with military 
stores — trains of artillery and ammunition — Hanseatic troops to 
garrison it, in case of a siege, continued to pour into the town. It 
was th^i, when fear abnost amounted to certainty, when suspense 
had ended in despair, afler a ni^ht of misery, that the great, the 
glorious news burst upcHi us — that the Allies had gained a com- 

Elete victory; that the French — defeated — routed — dispersed— 
ad fled from the field of battle — pursued by our conquering 
troops. No words can describe the feelings of that moment — no 
eloquence can paint the transport which filled every breast and 
brought tears into every eye. An express arrived at eight in the 
morning, bringing a bulletin to Laay Fitzroy Somerset, dated 
from Waterloo the preceding night, merely containing a brief 
accoimt of the victory. The tumults, the acclamations, the re- 
joicings which ensued — the voluble joy of the Belgians, the more 
silent neartfelt thankMness of the British, the contending feelings 


of triumph, pity, sorrow, anxiety gratitude, and admiration, may 
be conceived, but cannot be described. A party of wounded 
Highlanders, who had found their way on foot from the field of 
battle, no sooner heard the news, than, regardless of their suffer- 
ings, they began to shout and huzza with the most vociferous 
demonstrations of joy ; and those who had the use of their arms, 
threw tiieir Highland bonnets into the air, calling out in broad 
Scotch, " Boney's beat 1 — Boney's beat 1 — huzza 1 — huzza ! — 
Bone>''8 beat ! " 

The ground on which the battle was fought cannot at most 
exceed two miles from north to south, including the whole from 
the rear of the British to the rear of the French ix>siti()n. From 
east to west, from the extremity of the left to that of the right 
wing of the contending armies, is scarcely a mile and a half in 
extent ;* the smallness of the space on which they fought, and the 
consequent intermixture of tlie two armies, might have occasioned 
in some degree the sanguinary result of the battle. The French 

S>sition was decidedly the best ; the eminence they occupied was 
igher, and the ascent steeper than ours, and better adapted both 
for attack and defence. The battle took place at some distance 
from the \Hillage of Waterloo, which is situated behind the skirts of 
the Forest of Soignies, and is not seen from the field It was 
occupied on Saturday, the night preceding the battle, by the 
Duke of Wellington, the principal officers of his staffs, the Prince 
of Orange, Lord Uxbridge, Sir Thomas Picton, Sir William DeLan- 
cey, ana other general officers : their names, written in chalk, were 
yet visible on the doors of the cottages in which they slept After die 
battle, those houses were filled with the most severely wounded of 
the British officers, many of whom died and are buried there. 

The following is an accurate statement of the combined British, 
Hanoverian, Gennan, and Belgic army, under the command of 
Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K-G. and K.G.C.B., 
ii])on the authority of returns made from the army serWng in 
Flanders to the Adjutant-generaFs Office, dated May 25, 1816. 

Infantr)', T^ritish 17,^16 

Do. Kinjj's German Legion 3,«M) 

Do. Hanoverians 9,312 

Total Infantry .... 30,S()S 

Cavalry, British 5,045 

Do. King's German Lopion 2,*274 

Do. Hanoverians, Kstorlf's Brigade .... 1,135 

Total Cavalry .... 9,354 

Artillery and Engineers 5,434 

German ditto G25 6,&')a 

Total British, Germans, and Hanoverians . . 4(i,-4*^>l 

* 'Vhv {^(jund had n(»t been measured; this computAtion is merely intended 
to give an idi a <»f its ixtent : it d<His not pr«»fess to be conreet. 












i '^ -^ 



Brought over . •iO.Q^l 

Bninawicker^, estimatod at 8,()00 

Belgian and Nassau Troops, estimated at 14,000 

Total of Troops in the line of operation at Qaatre Bras or Waterloo 08,221 

In Ohservalion, 
In Line . . . 46^21 Five British Kegiments 2,554 

In Observation . . 5,819 6th Hanoverian Brigade 2,778 

2d Hussars, K.G.L. 4H7 

Total in British Pay . 62,040 5,819 

Total Army opposed to the French 

. 74,040 

The French Army amounted to 130,000; and after the losses 
of the 15th and 16th, and tlie detachment of two coqos under 
Marshal Grouchy, there must have remauied at least 90,000 men, 
with which Napoleon took the field on the 18th of June; while, 
after allowing for our own losses on the 16th, which were very 
serious, it must appear there was a great disparagement in regard 
to numbers, as it appears from the above statement, which is 
founded upon the latest returns to the Horse Gruards, previous to 
the battles of the 16th and 18th, that our extreme force, British 
and German, was 46,221 men, under the Duke of Wellington, to 
which add 22,000 for Brunswickers and Dutch, together not ex- 
ceeding 68,221 ttieiL The English, Germans, and Hanoverians 
were divided into two corps d'arm^e. 

lu Corps — Gen. Prince of Oiunoe, K.O.C B. 

Divitions. * 

Brigade t. 

iBt, Mj^.-Oen. f 1 Br. B. M%j.-0. P. Maitland 
Qttyrst Cooke. \ % Do. MivJ--Gen. Sir J. Byng 

Sd, Lt.-0«n. 
C. Alim, K.C.B. 

2d, Lt.-Gen. 

Sir H. Clinton, 


5 Br. B. M.-G. Sir C. Halket 

1 Br. K.G.L. G. B. Ompteda 

, 1 Han. B. Col. Kielmansegge 


Gds. l&3Bat. IstHt. 
Do. 2 Bat 2 (X; 3 Rt. 

dOth, d3d, 69th, 73d, 
b, 8 line, 1, 2, Lt. Inf. 
Duke of York, &c. 

2d Corps, — Lt.-Gen. Lord Hill, K.G.C.B. 


3 Brit. Brig. M^j. Gen. F. Adam 
1 Do. K.G.L. M.-Gen. Du Plat 

.3 Hanov. Brig. Col. B. Halket 

4 Brit. Brig. Colonel Mitchell 

4th, Lt.-Gl. Sir . 6 Do. Major-General Johnston 
a Colviiu. 1^6 j£an. Brig. M^i..Gen. Lyon 

6th, Lt.-Gl. Sir f ^ Brit. Brig. M.-G. Sir J. Kempt 
ThoM. Picton, • 9 Do. Miy.-Gen. Sir Denis Pack 
K.G.C.B. ^ 5 Hanoverian Brigade, Col. Vinke 

' lOBrit. Br. M.Gen. Sir J.Lambert 
4 Hanoterian Brigade, Col. Best 


In Garrison. ) 

,7 Bt. Brig. M.-Gen. Mackenzie i 

Total Infantry 

52d, 71st, 05th, 
1st, 2d,3d, <S:4th K.G.L. 
. . . . . . 

14th, 23d, 51st, 

11 . . • . • • 

28th, 32d, 79th, 9dth, 
1st, 42d, 44th, g2d 

• • • • • « 

4th, 27tli, 40th, 81st||, 

25th|l, 87th||, 78th||, 

Idth V.B.It, l8tF.V3||. 









* The 1st, 2d, 8d, and 4th divisions were on the right, the 5th and 6th on 
the left of the Genappe road. 

f The effective force of each regiment will be given in a future part. 

\ This division was employed as a corps of observation, and was not therefore 
in action on the 18th of June, excepting Colonel Mitchell's brip:ade, which was on 
the left of this division. || Not in the Battle of Waterloo. 



Ca mm t Mie d bp Lt.-Oeh. Earl or Uxbbidob, K.O.C.B. 


1. M^.-Oeii. Lord Edward Somerset 

2. Miu.-Oen. Sir W. Ponsonby . 

3. Mig.-06n. Count Sir W. Domberg 

4. Mig.-Gen. Sir Ormsby Vandeleur 
6. M^.-OeD. Sir Colquhoan Grant 

6. Mig.-Gen. Sir R. Hussey Vivian 

7. Col. B. SirF. de Arentschildt 
Col. Estorff, Prince Regent, and Bremen Ver- 

dnn, and Cumb. Hus.* 

1^2 Life Grds. Hone 
GdB.Blae, IDrag.Gds. 
Ist, 2d, 6th Dragoons 
23 L. D. 1 & 2 K. G. L. 
11,12, 16, Lt Drag. 
7,ldHii8.2ijH. K.G.L. 
10, ISHos. IH. K.G.L. 
IdLtDiag.SH. K.G.L. 

1 1227 




Total Cavaliy . 9,841 

Artilleiy, 5ce. 5,434 

0( rman ditto 62A 

Infantry, as above enomerated 36,140 

Total of British, German, and Hanorerian Army in Flan- ) 

includes those in Observation, &o f 52,040 

The EMoncsBM were under the command of Col. Smyth. 

ARTZLLBBY.f — Commanded by Sir G. Wood, consisted of 21 brigades, viz.— 

HoBSB Abtillbst, Commanded hp Bir An^ituM Frazer, 

With the Earl of Uxbridge British . . 6 

With the Infantry in Reserve, under the immediate | British . . 2 
direction of the Duke \ German Artil. 2 


With the several Divisions of the Army 


rBritish . . 7 
< German . . 1 
(.Hanoverian . 2 

Total Field Artillery in Action 
18-pounders in Reserve 

. 20 
. 1 



On their Passage Arom Ireland 
18-pounders, equipping in the Netherlands 

Total 21 124 

2 12 

2 8 

Total 25 


" Never was the overthrow of a great armv so complete. Of 
40,000 cavaliy, not 10,000 returned capable of service; and of an 
immense artillery, only 12 pieces were saved." 

The road from Brussels to Genappe passes through the little 
village of Mont St Jean, firom which tne French h»ve named the 
battle, and which was occupied by the British during the whole of 
the day ; and repeatedly and furiously, though ineffectually, at- 
tacked by the enemy. Coimt D'Erlon headed a desperate attack 
against it, which was repulsed by the British army; and Napoleon 
Buonaparte, in his own account of the batde, declares he was on 
the pomt of leading a general charge of the whole French army 

* This regiment ran away. 

f The names of eaeh officer of the several arms of service will be found in 
the Appendix. 


against it in person, at the very moment when the general charge 
of the British army and their Allies took place, which obliged him 
to lead it in the opposite direction. All the inhabitants had fled 
from this village previous to the action, and even Waterloo was 
deserted ; but in a farm-house, at the end of the village nearest 
the field, one solitary woman remained during the whole of the 
day, shut up in a garret from which . she could see nothing, and 
without any means of gaining information of what was passing, 
while they were fighting man to man and sword to sword at the 
verjr doors; while sheUs were bursting in at the windows, and 
while the cannon-balls were breaking through the wooden gates 
into the farm-yard, and striking against the walls of the house. 
This woman was the farmer's wife ; and when asked her motives 
for this extraordinary conduct, she replied with great simplicity, 
that she had a great many cows and calves, and poultry, and pigs, 
— that all she had in the world was there ; and that she thought, 
if she did not stay to take care of them, they would all be de- 
stroyed or carried off. The three rooms in tne lower part of the 
house, nay, even the stables and cow-houses, were filled with 
wounded British officers, among whom wei*e Major-general 
Cooke, Lieut-colonel Cameron of the 79th, Major Llewellyn of 
the 28th Regiment, and many others, who had particularly dis- 
tinguished themselves by their conduct in the field. The British 
position crossed the road to Nivelles, which branches off to the 
right, firom Mont St Jean (see Plan of Position) ; and sloping 
along, passes behind the wood and chateau of Hougoumont on 
the height, the most advanced post of the British army. Li firont, 
it occupied the farm of La Sainte Haye, extending to the left 
along uie hedge, and a lane behind it, which was occupied by 
General Picton's division. Upon this height a considerable part 
of our artillery was placed ; but it was also dispersed in different 
parts of the field, and placed upon every little eminence, with 
^reat judgment and effect The chauss^, or paved road, from 
Brussels to Genappe, which passes nearly through the centre of 
the position of both armies, proceeding directly forward from the 
village of Mont St Jean, leaves the farm-house of La Have 
Sainte on the right, nearly in the hollow, and again ascends to La 
Belle Alliance, on the summit of the opposite hDl, which, with the 
heights on each side, were occupied by the French. This cele- 
brated spot is a small farm-house on the left side of the road, 
pierced tnrough in every direction with cannon-ball. The offices 
behind it are now a heap of ruins, from the fire of the British 
artillery. Numbers of wounded French officers crawled in here 
the night after the battle, and on the morning of the 19th. it was 
filled with the dead and dying. A little cottage on the opposite 
side of the road is also called La Belle Alliance, and forms a part 
of the hamlet It was here that Napoleon Buonaparte stood in 


the proud confidence of success, after dispatcliing a courier to 
Paris with intelligence that the battle was won ; it was here, a few- 
hours afterwards, when the battle was really won, that Lord Wel- 
lington and Marshal BlUcher accidentally met, in the very moment 
when Napoleon, foremost in the flight, and followed by his panic- 
stricken army, was driven along by their victorious troops. 

After some skirmishing between the piquets, the French com- 
menced the engagement about ten o'clock, wi^ a ftirious attack 
upon the post at the wood and garden of Chateau Hougoumont, 
wnich was occupied by General Byng's brigade of Guards. It 
was a point of particular importance to the enemy to gain this 
post, as, from its situation, it commanded a considerable |)art of 
our position ; and accordingly it was furiously and incessantly 
assailed by large and reinforced bodies of the enemy, and gal- 
lantly and successfully defended to the last by the British. 
Napoleon himself directed the charge of the French Imperial 
Guards against it; but, even though fighting under the imme- 
diate eye of their leader, they were oroken, repulsed, and finally 
cut to pieces by the British Guards. Thirty pieces of our artillery 
played continually over this wood, to assist its defence, while the 
enemy directed against it their hottest fire. ( Vide letters from 
Officers in the Guardsy and General AlavcHs Spanish official ac- 

Every tree in the wood of Hougoumont is pierced with 
balls ; in one alone I counted the holes where upwards of thirty 
had lodged : but the strokes which were fatal to human life have 
scarcely injured them; though their trunks are filled with balls, 
and their branches broken and destroyed, their verdure is still the 
same. Wild flowers are still blooming, and wild raspberries 
ripening beneath their shade ; while huge black piles of human 
asnes, dreadfullv offensive in smell, are all that now I'emain of 
the heroes who fought and fell upon this fatal spot Beside some 
graves, at the outskirts of this wood, the htde wild flower, 
" Forget-me-not," (Myosoiis arvensis), was blooming, and the 
flaring red poppy had already sprung up around, and even upon 
them, as if in mockery of me dead. The chateau itself, upon 
which the attack was first made by the French, now in ruins, is 
immediately behind the wood, by the side of the road to Nivelles. 
It was the beautiful country-seat of a Belgic gentleman, and was 
actually set on fire by shells during the action, which completed 
the destruction occasioned by the cannonade. In the ^urden 
behind the house, the roses, orange-trees, and geraniums, were 
still flowering in beauty, and the fig-tree ana the pear-tree 
bearing their fruits — a melancholy contrast to the ruined house, 
whose mouldering piles were still smoking, and to the scene of 
desolation around. 

The poor countryman, who with his wife and infant family 




'" l 




inhabited a miserable shed amongst the deserted ruins^ pointed 
out with superstitious reverence the little chapel belonging to the 
chiteauy wmch alone stood uninjured in the midst of these 
blackened walls and falling beams. There was something in- 
expressibly striking in the almost miraculous preservation of this 
simple sanctuary of piety^ which the flames of war, and the 
hand of rapine, had alike spared; and it was affecting to see 
standing on the spot, still reeking with himian blood, and heaped 
with the dreadful and yet undecayed remains of mortality, the 
sacred altar of that blessed religion, which proclaimed " Peace on 
earth," and dispelled the horrors of death by the assurance of 

A more moumAil scene than this ruined ch&teau and wood 
presented, cannot possibly be imagined. Even when the heaps 
of dead were reduced to ashes, — the broken swords, shattered 
helmets^ torn epaulets, and sabre-tashes bathed in blood, told too 
plainly the deadly strife that had taken place ; and the mournful 
reflection could not be repressed, that the glory which Britain 
had gained upon this spot was purchased by the blood of some of 
her noblest sons. 

Here the standards of the InvincibleSf inscribed with the names 
of Jena, AusterUtz, Wagram, and Friedland, were wrested from 
them. The Scots Greys took one of the French eagles; and 
Francis Stiles, a corporal in the 1st Royal Dragoons, took an- 

* Extract of a Letter from Serjeant Ewart, of the Scots Greys {since appointed 
to an Ensigncy in the Veteran Battalion) ^ who took a French Eagle, dated Rouenj 
July 18, 1815: — '* The enemy began forming their line of battle about nine in 
the morning of the 18th ; we did not commence till ten. I think it was about 
eleven when we were ready to receive them. They began upon our right with 
the moBt tremendous firing that ever was heard, and I can assure you, they 
got it as hot as they gave it ; then it came down to the left, where they were 
received by our brave Highlanders. No men could ever behave better: our 
brigade of cavalry covered them. Owing to a column of foreign troops giving 
way, onr brigade was forced to advance to the support of our brave fellows, and 
which we certainly did in style ; we charged through two of their columns, each 
about 9000 ; it was in the first charge I took the eagle from the enemy : he and 
I had a hard contest for it; he thrust for my groin — I parried it off, and cut 
him through the head ; after which I was attacked by one of their Lancers, who 
threw his lance at me, but missed the mark, by my throwing it off with my sword 
by my right side : then I cut him from the chin upwards, which went through 
his teeth ; next I was attacked by a foot soldier, who, after firing at me, charged 
me with his bayonet — but he very soon lost the combat, for I pained it, and cut 
him down through the head ; so that finished the contest for the eagle. After 
which I presum^ to follow my comrades, eagle and all, but was stopped by the 
General saying to me, ' You brave fellow, ti^e that to the rear : you have done 
enough until you get quit of it;' which I was obliged to do, but with great 
reluctance. I retired to a height, and stood there for upwards of an hour, which 
gave a general view of the field ; but I cannot express the horrors I beheld : 
Uie bodies of my brave comrades were lying so thick upon the field, that it was 
scarcely possible to pass, and horses innumerable. I took the eagle into 
Brussels, amidst the acclamations of thousands of the spectators who saw it." 
— Editor, 

The eagles taken belonged to the 4dth and lOt'^th Begiments, and were 


Here the brave, the lamented Sir W. Ponsonby fell, leading on 
his men to victory and glory. 

The grief of his country and friends for his loss, will be aggra- 
vated by the knowledge that it is to be attributed as much to the 
fault of his horse as to his too ardent courage, which carried Imn, 
alone and unsupported, into the midst of his enemies ; the acxx>unt 
that has been given of the death of this pliant oflScer is perfectly 
correct He led his brigade against the Polish Lancers, checked 
at once their destructive charges against the British in£EUitry, and 
took 2000 prisoners ; but havmg pushed on at some distance from 
his troops, accompanied only by one aide-de-camp, he entered 
a newly-ploughed field, where the ground was excessively soft. 
Here his horse stuck, and was utterly incapable of extricating 
himself. At this instant, a body of Lancers approached him at 
ftjl speed. Sir William saw that his fate was inevitable. He 
took out a pictiu*e and his watch, and was in the act of giving 
them to his aide-de-camp to deliver to his wife and family, when 
the Lancers came up : they were both killed on the spot* His 

superbly gilt and ornamented with gold fringe. That of the 4dth was iaseribed 
with the names of Jena, Ansterlitz, Wagram, Eylaa, Friedland, &c., being the 
battles in which this regiment, called the Invincibles, had signalised it«elf. The 
other was a present froui Louisa to the lOdth Eegiment. One was much defaced 
with blood and dirt, as if it had been struggled for, and the eagle was also 
broken oflf from the pole, as if from the cut of a sabre, but it was neverthe- 
less preserved. It is worthy of obsen'ation, that the eagles taken were only 
given to their respective regiments at the Champ de Mai, On the 1st of June, 
Uiey glittered over the heads of the vain Parisians, amid cries of " Vive VEm~ 
pereur /*' — Editor, 

The life Guards, the foremost in this important battle, by their physical 
power and courage, appalled the veteran enemy, although clad in mail, and in 
possession of that high mind {ffrande pens^e) which devoted them to honour 
and the country. OftiBn, in the conflict of " La Belle Alliance" did the Earl of 
Uxbridge turn his eye towards them, exclaiming, '* Now for the honour of the 
Household Troops;" and as often was his Lordship solaced by the brightest 
effects of glory under his eye. {Tide Extract of a Letter from an Officer in the 
Horse Guards.) — Editor, 

Captain Kelly, of the Life Guards, encountered and killed the Colonel of the 
Ist regiment of French Cuirassiers, in the battle of the I8th : after which he 
stripped the vanijuished of his epaulets, and carried them as a trophy. 

One man is known to have had three horses shot, and taken prisoner; but 
being rescued by Light Di*agoons, returned and remounted to the charge. 

Shaw, in the Horse Guards, of pugilistic fame, was fighting seven or eight 
hours, dealing destruction to all around him ; at one time he was attacked br 
six of the French Imperial Guard, four of whom he killed, but at last fell by the 
remaining two. A comrade, who was by his side a great part of the day, and who 
is the relater of this anecdote, noticed one particular cut, which drove through. 
his opponent's helmet, and with it cut nearly the whole of his face at the stroke, 
— Editor. 

* It is not the only instance of the coolness and bravery of that family in the 
field of battle. The Hon. Me^or- General Ponsonby, who fell in the battle of 
Fontenoy, in the year 1745, at the head of his regiment, was also in the act of 
bestowing his ring and watch on his son Brabazon, who was his aide-de-camp, 
when a cannon-ball struck him dead. We have been favoured with this fact by 
the great-grandson of the General. The watx'h and ring are still in possession 
of the family, and preserved with great veneration. — Editor, 


body was found, lying beside his horse, pierced with seven lance 
wounds ; but he did not fall unrevenged. Before the day was 
ended, the Polish Lancers were almost entirely cut to pieces by 
the brigade which this officer had led against them. 

There is a considerable space] of ground, and a deep dell, 
between the observatory and Hougoumont The peasant * who 
had served Napoleon as a guide the preceding day, was with him 
during the principal part of the battle ; and from him we learnt 
that he o^n expressed surprise that the Belgic troops did not 
come over to him. Wherever the French encountered them, by 
his orders they called to them to join, and not to fight against dieir 
Emperor. He had formed the idea of arming the Belgic peasantry, 
and a considerable d^pot of muskets was at Lisle for that purpose. 
Before the engagement began he addressed a short speech to the 
soldiers, whicE was received with enthusiasm, promising them that 
Brussels and Ghent should be given up to plunder for three hourSf 
according to some accounts — to others, for three days. He is 
reported to have said, ** These English fight well, but they must 

five way soon ;" and asked Sotdt if he " did not think so ?" 
oult said, ^^ that he much doubted whether they would ever give 
way.** ** And why ?" said Kapoleon, with his usual quickness. 
Soult replied : " he believed they would sooner be cut to pieces.'* 
Still Napoleon seemed to entertain the fullest confidence of victory, 
and at six o'clock jocularly observed '^ that they should arrive at 
Brussels in good time for supper." 

Soon after, the Prussians advanced from the wood at the 
bottom of the ravine, passing the little hamlet in the hollow, and 
advancing up the heights, to the right flank and rear of the French 
position. At first he would not credit it ; he angrily exclaimed, 
« they were his own troops— they were French reinforcements 
advancing under Grrouchy and Vandamme :" but when the truth 
was forced upon him, when he perceived that they were really 
Prussians, his coimtenance changed, he turned pale, and faltered 
in his speech; and when he saw the impetuous charge of the 
AUies, and the confusion and discomfiture of his own troops, his 
alarm became extreme, and exclaiming, **Tout est perdu 1" he 
precipitately galloped from the field. It is, I believe, bevond a 
doubt that he was one of the first to set the example of fiightr 
After relating these particulars, the guide, hearing some person 
speak of him with contempt, cordiafiy agreed with us that he 
certainly was a pitifiil scoumrel, (" un vrai sc^lerat,") /or he had 
onlv mven him a single napoleon for all the trouble he had had 
with him. 

At llie commencement of the action the Duke of Wellington, 

* Vide La Co6te*8 (the peasant's name) mterestiog and detailed narratiye in 
the Additional Particalars. 


on horseback, surrounded by his staff, stxxxl on the high ^ound 
to the right of the high road from Brussels to Genappe. To say 
where he afterwards was, is impossible — it would be more diffi- 
cult to say where he was not ; wherever his presence was most 
requisite he was to be found ; he seemed to be everywhere pre- 
sent Exposed to the hottest fire, in the most conspicuous jx)si- 
tion, he stood reconnoitring witli his glass, watching the enemy's 
mana»uvres, and issuing orders with tlie most intrepid coolness, 
while balls and shells sliowerod around him, and his staff-officers 
fell wounded and dying by his side. Sir William De Lancey 
received the shot which occasioned his death while the Duke was 
in close conversation with liim, and many of his escapes seemed 
almost miraculous,* 

He was once on the point of being taken prisoner by a party 
of cavalry ; and "at one time, perceivmg the 52d and 95th regi- 
ments waver and give ground under the attack of an overwhelming 
force, he rallied them, placed himself at their head, chained in 
person, drove back the enemy, and restored the day. So tre- 
mendous were the dangers he braved, and so astonishing his 
escapes, that the hand of a protecting Providence seemed to nave 
shielded him through the perils of that eventiul day, to be the 
Saviour of his Country,! and the Conqueror of that inveterate 
foe, who, during a long succession of years, had turned the whole 
force of his gigantic power to effect the ruin of England ; but who, 
in his last attempt once more ** to wade through slaughter to a 
throne," was destined to meet his final overthrow on that field 
from which he escaped with life, but with the loss of honour. 

The conduct of the Duke of Wellington on this memorable 

* At a critical part of the battle he took his stadon on a ridgp>, and declared 
he would not stir from it ; nor did he stir till he quitted it in triumph. In the 
whole of the contest he performed all the duties a military man could perform. 
He UHU General of Division, Commander of Corps, and Colonel of a Regiment ! 
He at times headed several diiferent regiments, and rallied them to the attack. 
Towards the close of the day. Napoleon led an attack of the Imperial Guards ; 
they were met by the British Guards (who did not feel the panic which it was 
boasted these men had occasioned among the Prussians and Russians), and ov^- 
thrown in an instant, in the finest style. The position of Waterloo was well known 
to his Grace : in the summer of the previous year, his Grace went there in his way 
to Paris, and on that occasion took a military view of it. He then declared, that 
if ever it should be his fortune to defend Brussels, Waterloo would be the position 
he would occupy. His conduct on the 18th had thrown all his former actions ioto 
the ahade : he never moved, but in fire ; and when one of the hottest charges was- 
made by the enemy, he threw himself into the hollow square that was chazged.— 

•f '* My heart (says the noble Duke) is broken by the terrible loss I have sus- 
tained of my old friends and companions, and my poor soldiers ; and I shall not 
be satisfied with this battle, however glorious, if it does not put an end to Buona- 
parte." In a letter to his mother, Lady Momington, the Duke pays a high com- 
pliment to Buonaparte : he says that he did his duty — that he fought the battle 
with infinite skill, perseverance, and bravery ; " and this," adds the noble Duke, 
'* I do not state from, any personal motive of claiming merit to myselfi for the 



day realised the &bled achievements of the hero whose prowess is 
celebrated in the strains of an old Italian poet : 

** H valoroso Buca d'lDghilteira 
Fece, quel d) cio che, in molti anni fero 
Gik mold cavalier* maestri in guerra." 


While the battle raged with unceasing and unexampled fiiry 
in the right wing, it was scarcely less tremendous in other parts of 
the field. The farm of La Haye Sainte, whose walls and roof are 

J)ierced and battered through with cannon-shot, formed a prominent 
eature in the action. It was long and vainly attackea, until at 
length the amumnition of the troops who occupied it being ex- 
hausted, without the possibility of procuring' more, it was conse- 
quently taken by the enemy ; but its brave defenders only resigned 
its possession with their lives. 

The enemy's reserve were chiefly placed upon the heights on 
their right, as it was the great object of Napoleon, if possible, to 
turn the left British flank, and separate us from the Prussians, 
with whom we maintained a communication through Ohain on 
our left. To effect this, the most desperate efforts were made, 
column propelling column, and fresh masses of troops continually 
pouring down, while their artillery scattered destruction along 
our line. Major-general Sir Thomas PJcton's division, stationed 
along the hecme, and in the lane behind it, sustained the chief 
brunt of this long and tremendous attack, and unshaken main- 
tained their ground. Upon this spot thousands of our brave sol- 
diers met a glorious death; their gallant leaders, wounded and 
dying on the ground, still cheered on their men to the charge. 
The 28th Regiment, formed into a square, repelled the fiirious 
attacks of the French Cuirassiers,* whose armour inspired them 

victory is to be ascribed to the superior physical force and constancy of British 
soldiers." To his brother, the Hon. Wellesley Pole, he writes, " Never had he 
foaghtsohard for victory, and never, firom the gallantry of the enemy, had he been 
so near beaten." — Editor, 

The Dnke of Wellington, in a letter to the Earl of Aberdeen, writes, ** I cannot 
express to you the regret and sorrow with which I contemplate the losses the 
country has sustained ; none more severe than that of General Sir A. Gordon. 
The glory resulting firom such actions so dearly bought is no consolation to me, 
and I cannot imagine that it is any to you ; but I trust the result has been so 
decisive, that little doubt will remain that our exertions will be rewarded by the 
attainment of our first object : then it is that the gloiy of the actions in which our 
friends have fallen may be some consolation to me." — Editor. 

Extract fivm Mr, Vansittart the Chancellor of the Excheqyei*s Speech, — ** The 
merit of our troops and our officers in this great battle was briefly expressed in 
the modest simplicity of the Duke of Wellington's dispatch ; but the whole might 
be seen to more advantage by looking at the accounts of our Allies and of the 
enemy. It was, indeed, a proud day, when the Conqueror of Europe was destrayed 
by one batUe." — Editor, 

* The Cuirassiers of the French Imperial Guard are all arrayed in armour, the 
front cuirass is in the form of a pigeon's breast, so as effectually to turn off a 
musket-shot, unless fired very near, owing to its brightness ; the back cuirass is 


with confidence and courage ; still thej could not stand the Elng- 
lish charge with the bayonet^ and again and again thej were re- 
pulsed by the 28th Regunent, with immense loss : at one time they 
were almost overpowered by the repeated attacks of a strong 
column of the enemy; when one of their officers called out to them, 
— « 28th I Remember Egypt 1" These words had the effect of 
electricity. The gallant veterans, giving oi^^ load and general 
cheer, rushed forward to the charge, ana completely routed and 
dispersed the assailants. 

It was in a more advanced part of the field (I believe), near 
a tree, that the lamented Sir Thomas Picton fell, m the 
very act of ^^ gloriously leading his division to a charge with 
bayonets, by which one of the most serious attacks made by the 
enemy on our position was defeated.'* ( Vide Duke of WeHmatons 
dispatch.) He was shot through the h^d with a miSu&ket-bali, and 
never spoke after he received the wound. During the whole day 
he exposed himself to the severest fire, — not only leading his 
united division to the charge, but repeatedly placing himself at the 
head of the columns of the different regiments, as if he had been 
their commanding officer. Wherever the storm of battle was the 
most tremendous he invariably chose his station, courting danger 
in every possible form : it seemed as if be sought to close his career 
of glory on the field of Waterloa* 

Near a hedge completely trodden down, where the fighting 
was particxilarly severe, and the carnage was dreadful, huge 

Saves, or rather pits, are filled with hundreds of dead, w^here 
e victors and the vanquished are promiscuously laid : so lightly 
had the clay been tlirown over them, that from one a nand 
had ^rced its way above the ground, and in another, a human 
face was distinctly visible. Indescribable was the horror of these 
objects. Three weeks after the battle, the very gales of heaven 

made to fit the back ; they weigh from nine to eleTen pounds each, according to 
the size of the man» and are staffed inside with a pad : they fit on by a kind of 
fish-Bcaled clasp, and are put off and on in an instant. They have helmets the 
same as our Horse Guards, and straight long swords and pistols, but no carbines. 
All the accounts agree in the great advantage that the French Cuirassiers derived 
from their annour. Their swords were three inches longer than any used by the 
Allies, and in close action the cuts of our sabres did no execution, except they 
fortimately came across the neck of the enemy. The latter also feeling them- 
selves secure in their armour, advanced deliberately and steadily, until they came 
within about twenty yards of our ranks, as a musket-ball could not penetrate the 
cuirasses at a greater distance. The cuirass, however, was attended with one 
disadvantage : the wearer, in close action, cannot use his arm with perfect facility 
in all directions ; he chiefly tlirusts, but cannot cut with ease. They are aU 
chosen men, must be above six feet high, have served in three campaigns, twelve 
years in the service, and of a good character ; and if there is a good horse to be 
found, they have it. It is to be observed, that a wound through a cuirass 
mostly proves fatal.*' — Editor. 

* After the 16th, this gallant officer's coat was observed to be most dreaiUully 
cut. After his lamented fall, it was discovered that he had been wounded in the 
hip on the 10th by a musket-ball ; a circumstance which he carefully concealed 


• . I . 

• • . • 








>*' "J^ 






were tainted with the effluvia arising from them: besides these 
tremendous graves, of which several hundreds might be counted, 
immense heaps of the dead were burnt in different places, and 
their ashes, mingled with the dust, are scattered over the field. 

In the background is a spot where the British bivouacked on 
the night of the 17th, beneath a heavy and incessant torrent of 
rain. On the morning of the 18th they were just preparinjg 
breakfast, and dressing their beef-steaks, when one of Lord WeC 
lington's aides-de-camp riding up, called to them, " Stand to your 
arms ; the French are advancing : " instantly breakfasts and beef- 
steaks were abandoned; wet, cold, and hungry, but bold and 
undaunted, our brave soldiers ranged themselves to face their foes, 
and during nearly twelve hours, without any other aid, maintained 
the unequal and the glorious contest Let it never be forgotten, 
that the united Britisli and Belgic army on that day amounted 
to little more than half the enemy. 

It was the policy of the Duke of Wellington, when attacked 
by such a tremendous superiority of force, to act upon the defen- 
sive, until joined by the Prussians, whose progress had been im- 
peded by the dreadful state of the roads. Just before they appeared, 
the enemy, turning their artillery against the centre of our army 
near tlie farm of La Haye Sainte, made a desperate effort with 
the united cavalry and artillery to force that point Our gal- 
lant troops, unmoved, received the shock, and after a long and 
dreadful contest the French were compelled to retreat in con- 
fosion. At that moment, the Prussians were seen advancing up 
the heights, to charge the enemy in flank. The fire of the Prussian 
artillery b^an to take effect Bliicher himself appeared on the 
field. The Duke seizing the critical moment, ordered the whole 
body of infantry, supported by the cavalry and artillery,* to 
charge. They rushed impetuously forward with the irresistible 

from ereiy one but his servant : the wound had assumed a serious aspect for 
want of surgical assistance, haying been only bandaged by himself and servant 
as well as circumstances would admit. — Editor, 

** Towaids tfie afternoon, when the 02d were reduced to scarce 200 men, a 
cohxmn of 2000 of the enemy bore down upon them, when this chosen band 
charged this overwhelming force with their bayonets, penetrating into the centre 
of them : the Scots Greys, cheering the brave Highlanders, rushed forward to 
support them, driving the enemy back with great loss/' {Vide the letter of the 
92d Regiment,) 

At the battle of Quatre Bras, in a similar manner, the 71st repulsed the 
Imperial Guard, and when they were repeating, the piper suddenly struck up the 
pibroch ; at the well-known sounds, the Highlanders charged Uieir astonished 
enemies, still followed into the thickest of the fight by the piper, who was hurried 
forward by the impulse of valour, and the French were almost to a man cut to 

• The fire of the artillery had been terrible and destructive all day, but at 
this moment no idea can be conveyed of the shock and crash that was now felt 
from it. (Extract fnm a French officer' t Utter, who waa in the baUle.) — Editor, 


force of valour. The French gave way on every side ; a total 
rout ensued. They fled in confusion back to their own country, 
leaving behind them the whole of their baggage, their artiUery, 
their prisoners, and their wounded. It was then, at half-past 
nine in the evening, that Marshal Bliicher* and Lord Wel- 
lington accidentally met at La Belle Alliance. It was in this 
miserable cottage, pierced through and through vrith cannon- 
balls, and deserted by all but the dead and dving, that their first 
interview took place, after four days of battle with the common 
enemy, and in the moment when victory had crowned their 
united arms. Both annies being on the same road, they decided 
that the British troops, who had fought for nearly twelve hours, f 
should relinquish the pursuit to the Prussians, who had come 
in at the close of the contest, in time to decide the victory and 
to share its glory. They parted ; Bliicher proceeded on his way. 
Lord Wellington returned to Waterloo. As he crossed agam 
this fatal scene, on which the silence of death liad now succeeded 
to the storm of the battle, the moon, breaking from dark clouds, 
shed an uncertain light upon this wide field of carnage, covered 
with mangled thousands of that gallant army, whose heroic valour 
had won for him the brightest wreath of victory, and left to ftiture 
times an imperishable monument of their country's fame. He 
saw himself surrounded by the bloody corpses of his veteran 
soldiers, who had followed him through distant lands — of his 
friends — his associates in arms — ^his companions through many 
an eventful year of danger and of glory ; in that awml pause 
which follows the mortal conflict of man with man, emotions 
unknown or stifled in the heat of battle forced their way, — the 
feelings of the man triumphed over those of the general, and in 
the very hour of victory Lord Wellington burst into tears. 

* This gallant veteran, the moment he heard of the engagement, got up, 
monnted his horse, and led his troops to the field. He bad been confined to 
faia bed, in consequence of the iqjury he sustained on the Idth, when his horse 
was killed by a shot, and fell upon him. As he lay upon the ground, unable to 
extricate himself, and covered by his cloak, which fortunately prevented the 
enemy from recognising him, the French Cuirassiers twice charged dose past 
him, and he was on the point of being trampled to death by an advancing 
squadron, when he was rescued by a rej^iment of Prussian Hulans. With some 
assistance, he instantly remounted another horse, and the first words this brave 
old officer spoke were : " Now then, my fine fellows, let us charge them again !** 
" The horse which the Prince Regent presented to Marshal Bliicher, on which 
he placed so high a value, was killed under him during the late battle." 
Marshal Bliicher seemed to have been possessed of the spirit of prophecy 
when he told the British officers after the review at New Grammont, ''that 
he should soon have the pleasure of meeting them in Paris." Certainly this 
prediction was verified, even sooner than his most sanguine expectations ooold 
have anticipated. 

•t At the close of the pursuit of the enemy, the Duke of Wellington, ftmiing 
the troops so exhausted as to be unable to proceed, recommended it to them to 
give the flying enemy three British cheers before halting^ — EdUor. 




Thus ended a day as glorious in its achievements as important 
in its results, which at once averted the calamities that threatened 
the world, and altered the destinies of nations. Thus ended a 
contest, which has raised the glory of England to its highest 
pitch, and in which the last and most decisive proof was given, 
that in every age and every country, under every disadvantage of 
numbers and situation, firom the days of Cressy and Agincourt to 
the present times ; on the burning sands of Egypt, and the shel- 
tered shores of Italy; on the mountains of Portugal, the plains 
of Spain, amidst the rocks of the Pyrenees, the fielcb of Flanders, 
and the valleys of France ; in foreign lands, and in their native 
soil ; by land, and by sea ; Englishmen have ever been victorious 
over their ancient and presumptuous foes. 

The names of Aboukir, Maida, Vimiera, Corunna, Talavera, 
Barrosa, Busaco, Albuera, Salamanca, and Yittoria, — of Orthes, 
the Pvrenees, Toulouse, — and, finally, of Quatre Bras and 
Waterloo, — will proclaim to fiiture times the deeds of British 
valour — deeds more like the tales of chivalry and romance, than 
the events of real life and of civilised ages. 

If it was a day of glory, it was likewise a day of sorrow for 
Britain ; if we triumph in it as the proudest, we must also mourn 
it as the most bloody of all the battles that she has fought or won. 
Those who witnessed the most sanguinary contests of the Penin- 
sular war declared they had never seen so terrible a carnage ; and 
the Prussians acknowledged that even the battle of Leipsic was not 
to be compared to it The dead could not be numbered ; and by 
those who visited this dreadful field of glory and of death, the day 
after the battle, the spectacle of horror that it exhibited can never 
be forgotten. 

The mangled and lifeless bodies were even then stripped of every 
covermg — every thing of the smallest value was already carried 
off. The road between Waterloo and Brussels, which passes for 
nine miles through the thick shades of the Forest of Soignies, was 
choked up with scattered baggage, broken waggons, and dead 
horses. The heavy rains and me great passage upon it had ren- 
dered it almost impassable, so that it was with extreme difiiculty 
that the carriages containing the wounded could be brought along. 
The way was nned with mifortunate men who had crept from the 
field, and many, unable to go farther, lay down and died: — holes 
dug by the road-side served as their graves, and the road, weeks 
after the battle, was strewed with the tattered remains of their 
clothes and accoutrements. In every village and hamlet, — on 
every road, — in every part of the country, for thirty miles round, 
wounded soldiers were foimd wandering; die wounded Belgic and 
Dutch stragglers exerting themselves to the utmost to reach their 
own homes. So great were the numbers of the woimded, that. 


notwithstanding the most active and unremitting exertions, the last 
were not removed irom the field of battle into Brussels till the 
Thursday following. 

It is impossible for words to do justice to the generous kind- 
ness and unwearied care and attention which the inhabitants of 
Brussels and Antwerp, and the whole of the Belgic people, exerted 
towards these poor sufferers. Nor should the humanitj shown hy 
the British soldiers themselves be unnoticed. The wounded of 
our army who were able to move employed themselves in tying up 
the wounds and administering to the wants of their suffering ene- 
mies* — a striking and noble contrast to the brutality with which 
the French had treated our pri8oners.t 

The desolation which reined on the scene of action cannot 
easily be described. The fields of high standing com were tram- 
pled down, and so completely beaten into the earth, that ihey had 
the appearance of stubble. The ground was completely ploughed 
up in many places with the charge of the cavalry, and the horses' 
hoofs, deep stamped into the earth, lefit the traces where many a 
deadly struggle had been. The whole field was strewed with the 
melancholy vestiges of war and devastation — soldiers' caps pierced 
with many a ball, and trodden under foot — eagles that had orna- 
mented them — badges of the legion of honour — cuirasses — frag- 
ments of broken arms, belts and scabbards innumerable — shrras 
of tattered cloth, shoes, cartridge-boxes, gloves. Highland bonnets, 
feathers steeped in mud and gore — French novels, and German 
Testaments — scattered music belonging to the bands — packs of 
cards, and innumerable papers of every description, that had been 
thrown out of the pockets of the dead, by those who had pillaged 
them. French love-letters, and letters from mothers to their sons, 
and from children to their parents, were scattered about in every 
direction. Amongst the thousands that we examined^ it was, how- 

* It is pleasing to add the testimony of a foreigner : — ** The British regiments 
of infantry, which diR played such intrepid vdonrin the battle of the 18th, gave^ 
after the action, the moHt aflectin^if and sublime example ever offered to nations. 
They were seen (forgetting their own wounds, and hardly escf^ped from the 
sword of the enemy )> proceeding to afford all the succour in their power to those 
who had just endeavoured to cut them down, and who, in their tnm, had fallen 
on the field of destruction. The conduct of the English army is mentioned 
with admiration, as uniting the heroism of valour to the heroism of humanity.** 

f We forbear to dwell upon the horrid details of the merciless barbarity with 
which the French treated our prisoners ; besides being stripped and plundered, 
exposed to tlie severest privations and the grossest insults, many of our bravest 
officers, whose names respect for the fe^'lings of their snr\'iving friends forbids us 
to mention, were actually murdered in cold blood, after snirendering up their 
swords. Such diabolical cruelty would be incredible, and, for the sake of 
humanity, we would gladly doubt its truth, had we not incontrovertible proofs 
fh)m many eye-witnesses of these brutal murders. (Tide letters from an Officer of 
the Lyk Chiards and of Light Dragoons.) 


ever, remaricable^ that we found only one English letter. It was 
from a soldier's wife to her husband. 

Upon this field were performed deeds of valour as heroic as 
any which swell the page of history, which will for ever be buried 
in obUvion. Of those who performed them, many rest in the bed 
of honour, and those who survive will never relate the story of 
their own achievements. Modesty is ever the concomitant of true 
coura^ ; and thus actions, which, could they have been witnessed, 
woula have been the theme of an applauding world, are now un- 
known and unadmired. It is scarcely possible to notice the merits 
of any individual without injustice to others. It is difficult to say 
who were bravest, when all were brave; and who were greatest, 
amoiu^t an arm v of heroes. 

Never was there an attack more tremendous, nor a resistance 
more firm, unshaken, and triumphant. The French army, infu- 
riated by despair, animated by the promised plunder of Brussels, 
and fillea witn perjured traitors, who had betrayed their king and 
country, and who knew that their lives and fortunes depen&d on 
success^ fought, from first to last, with the desperation of madness. 
But they could not wrest victory from the hands of the British. In 
every land and^ every clime, wherever the French have ap- 
peared as oppressors, the British have sprung forward as deliverers 

— they have sought foreign lands, not as enemies, but as friends 

— they have fought and conquered, not to destroy, but to save. It 
is but a few years since the late arrogant Ruler of France made 
the boast that he would invade this country — scatter its armies— 
dethrone its monarch — and march his victorious troops into its 
capital. His threats have recoiled upon himself; England has an- 
swered him, not by words, but by deeds. — His country is invaded 
— his armies are scattered — he is himself dethroned, and the vic- 
torious troops of England are in his capital I It is to them we are 
indebted that he comes to our shores — not as a tyrant, but as a 
suppliant, — not as a conqueror, but as a captive. It is to them we 
owe our preservation — our very existence as a nation— our dearest 
liberties, and our proudest glories. Wounded thousands of that 
brave army are now enduring, in lingering pain and confinement, 
the sufierings they have received in the service of their country. 
During years of hardships they have braved for her, in foreign 
lands, the dangers and the horrors of war. They have triumphed 
in many a well-fought field — they have sought every changing 
scene where honour was to be gained, or glory to be won. Oh I 
who, at this triumphant moment, does not feel it his proudest boast 
to be an Englishman ? Who can refiise a tribute of regret to the 
brave who have perished ? What heart does not swell with gra- 
titude to that gallant army, whose heroic valour has raised their 
country to the highest pitch of glory, and to whom we are indebted. 


that while other nations sank beneath the yoke of despotism, and 
basely crouched at the feet of the Tyrant, England alone proudly 
defended her own rights — singly maintained the loi^ and glo- 
rious contest — broke the speU which bound the kingdoms of 
Europe in i^omiuious slavery — and finally restored to ue world, 
peace, security, and independence I 

** England! be still, even to thf lateti times, 
The nurse of Heroes, and the scouiige of crimes ; 
Still may thy patriot sons, where'er they roam, 
DiffVise abroad the rights they boast at home ; 
StiU nnseduced by glory's vain increase. 
Make War thy pathwi^ to the shrine of Peace ; 
Still guard the rights of Freemen against Slaves, 
And rule, with Heaven's approval — proudly rule the waves !** 


Xoffion, Auy, 7, 181d. 

' ^^-^ ^ 1 

, lis* 

V t ■ ; 


- 5$ 







'^ It would be confessed, that whatever the fonner fame of the 
Duke of Wellington might have been, yet, in all the various 
occurrences of his life, in all those great achievements which he 
had performed, and which had called for the thanks of the nation, 
he had never before attained to a height of glory like the present 
And in all the great events which he had been engaged in, and 
those scenes that he had witnessed,'it had never before fallen to 
the lot of this illustrious commander to render so great a service 
to his coimtry, so extensive a benefit to the world. There was in 
the present victorv an acknowledged pre-eminence over all those 
that had preceded it: but when we looked at its influence and 
combination, in which are bound up all the mterests of the 
civilised world, it was almost impossible to conceive an idea 
adequate to its magnitude and importance. The position of the 
Allied army, previously to the late battle, was a very peculiar 
one ; and, without meaning to impute blame, or to suppose any 
neglect of secttrity, he* must say that the circumstance of the 
armies not being actually engaged in hostilities necessarily led 
to a distribution of force for we more convenient obtainment 
of subsistence. The whole line of troops destined to act upon 
France not being equaUy advanced, it was clearly not the inte- 
rest of the Allies to become the assailants ; the army, therefore, 
which was to act upon the offensive, making its point of union 
the point it chose for an attack, must have a great advan- 
tage over an army situated as the Allied army wa^: and yet 

* Lord Castlereagh. 


it was impossible to alter that position ; for if Marshal Bliicher 
and the Diike of Wellin^n had concentrated their forces, they 
must have left oyen a long line of country at the mercy of the 
enemy, who might have made use of such a lapse for the most 
important ends : and therefore, not imputing any neglect of pre- 
paration to the commander, it must be evident, that tne attacking 
army would have the advantage. With such a force on die 
frontiers of France, it was with Buonaparte a great object to 
attack it in some powerful point before the combmed powers 
were all perfectly ready for operations ; and accordingly he had 
acted with all the decision of character and energy of mind that 
he was known to possess, and as soon as he coula leave Paris he 
joined his army, and dbrecting it to the North, commenced his 
operations. In considering the nature and extent of the forces 
engaged, it must be observed, that of the ten corps d*arm^ which 
France possessed, the five which were complete were united under 
Buonaparte, together with his guard, and other cavalry. These 
troops nad certainly maintainea their ancient character; and one 
feature of the victory was, that it had been gained over the best 
troops of France, and that, too, at a moment when they displayed cdl 
their ardour, and wJien their conduct even surpassed all that they had 
before performed; although this force did not amount to less than 
one hundred and thirty or forty thousand men, the flower of the 
FrencJi army I T7iat was a regular and disciplined army, even 
before the Bourbons quitted France, and for which, since the return 
of Buonaparte, everything had been done to make it effective ; it toae 
tJie force which had been selected and combined to act upon the 
northern frontier. To particularise the conduct of any part of the 
Allied army would be invidious, where all had acquitted them- 
selves with nearly equal bravery ; but he might be allowed to say 
that, except the British part (who themselves were only such as 
the country could spare at a time when a strong detachment of 
our veteran troops nad been sent to America), nearly the whole 
was a green army : the Allies, particularly the Dutcn, Belmans, 
Hanoverians, and troops of Nassau, were chiefly young soldiers ; 
and deducting the absent corps, consisting of 25,000 under Prince 
Frederick, and the other corps distributed along the line to the 
northward, there was not in action a greater number than 64,000 
men, to support the attack of the whole French army. He fiilly 
felt what we owed to the illustrious Prussians, who were ready to 
support the British army, and enabled diem to make that move- 
ment, without which the Duke could not have obtained such an 
advantage over a superior force. The effort he made was crowned 
with success, and with his energy of mind and example of person 
it was certain that much would be effected. But from that 
example, it was dreadful to reflect on the risks to which his valuable 
life was exposed In fact, such was his dauntless activity, that he 


was much more exposed than any private soldier, who could only 
bear the hazard of a single svot ; but the Duke was everywhere, at 
least wherever danger was. Under the circumstances in which the 
Duke found himself at the end of the day, when the French had 
been repulsed, and Marshal Bulow advanced, he put himself in 
motion, and attacked the French : their lines did not resist as ours 
had done ; he forced the second line, routed their whole army, and 
took more than half the artillery of their army and its ammuniti&n. 
It was impossible to attempt to predict what would be the result 
of this victory; but this much was certain, that the Duke of 
Wellington haa been enabled to follow the enemv with an army 
that had been either fighting or marching the whole day before. 
The French had attacked with their usiml temerity : by this he 
did not mean to censure them ; Buonaparte was justified in his 
attempt; he had been driven back; but if he could have suc- 
ceeded, the effect would have been fiilly equal to the sacrifice 
made to obtain the object" — Extract from Lord CasUereagKs 
Speech in the House of Commons, preparatory to his motion for a 
Vote of ThanJcs, June 23 ; which see, with the Officers included in 
the Waterloo Honours, at the end of this work. 

The whole of the mighty and important operations were car- 
ried on within a tract of country extending, firom Thuin to Ligny, 
about 20 miles ; from Ligny to Waterloo, about the same distance ; 
and from Waterloo to Thum, about 25 miles. There is no doubt 
that Buonaparte would have been attacked as soon as the Russians 
had come up; but, in point of fact, he commenced hostilities 
without any menacing movement on the adverse side. He issued 
an Order of the Day on the 14th to his soldiers, appealing to 
their passions, by reminding them that that day was the ^ni- 
versary of Marengo and of Friedland.* On the following 
morning, at daylight, he put the whole of his army in motion, and 
attacked the Prussian posts established on the Sambre ; in the 
course of the day he succeeded in driving them from that river, 
making himself master of the groimd from Thuin to Fleurus. 
According to Buonaparte's account of the result, in the various 
contests on the 15th, the Prussians lost 2000 men, while the 
French only experienced a loss of 10 killed, and 80 wounded I 
Buonaparte also claims a victor v on the 16th. He, however, 
admits that he lost 3000 men on that day ; but says he took many 
thousand prisoners, and 40 pieces of cannon! On Sunday the 
18th, the grand struggle was made. The whole weight of the 
French force, with me exception of Vandamme's corps, was 
thrown upon the army of the Duke of Wellington, whose line was 
within fifteen miles of Brussels. The battle began about ten 
o'clock in the morning, with a furious attack on a post occupied 

* Vide Documents in the French Official Accounts following. 


by hb in front of our right Thifl was supported by a very heavy 
cannonade upon our whole line, with repeated attacks of infantiy 
and cavalry, until seven in the evening, when the enemy made a 
desperate attempt to force our left; in which, after a sev&e 
contest, he was defeated, and retired in great disorder. This was 
the happy moment, seized bv the genius and resolution of our 
unrivalled Hero, to advance his whole line of infantry, supported 
by cavalry and artilleir, a^inst the enemy, who was unaole to 
resist the English attack. The first line was driven back on the 
second, and tne second was almost instantly broken. All was 
now total rout and conftision ; artillery, baggage, everything was 
abandoned ; and the true British perseverance of general and 
soldiers was crowned with a success so much the more precious, as 
it had remained long in a state of the most awftil suspense. The 
French fought with greater desperation than ever before wit- 
nessed ; but it may be added, that after their rout they became 
more completely broken than ever, threw awav their arms by 
whole regunents, and were, in short, wholly dispersed and dis- 
organised. The loss on the part of the British has been severe, 
but on that of Buonaparte it is almost beyond calculation. On all 
sides was seen a total disregard of personal danger. The leaders 
were mingled in the heat of the iray, like the meanest soldier. 
Marshal Blucher, it is said, was for some moments a prisoner. 
As to Buonaparte, he was more than once inclosed among the 
British troops, and disentangled, as it were, by miracle. He 
led on the (ruards himself to the charge, and seemed to feel that 
there could be no hope for his power but in the absolute jeopardy 
of his life. 

Letter from an Officer to his Friend in Cumberland. 

'' Campof CUchy. 

** All the sharers of my tent having gone to raris, and my 
servant having manufactured a window-shutter into a table, and 
a pack-saddle into a seat, I will no longer delay answering your 
two affectionate letters, and endeavour to comply with your 
demand of an account of the battle such as it offered to my own 

" On the 15th of June everything appeared so perfectly quiet, 
that the Duchess of Richmond gave a ball and supper, to which 
all the world was invited ; and it was not till near ten o'clock at 
night that rumours of an action having taken place between tBe 
French and Prussians were circulated through the room in 
whispers. No credit was given to them, however, for some time ; 
but when the General Cheers, whose corps were in advance, 
began to move, and when orders were, given for persons to repair 


to their remments, matters then began to be considered in a 
different lignt. At eleven o'clock the drums beat to arms, and 
the 5th Division, which garrisoned Brussels, after having bivou- 
acked in the Park until daylight, set forward towards the 
frontiers. On the road we met baggie and sick coming to the 
rear; but could only learn that the French and Prussians had 
been fighting the day before, and that another battle was expected 
when they left the advanced posts. At two o'clock we arrived at 
Grenappe, from whence we heard firing very distinctly; half an 
hour afterwards we saw the French columns advancing, and we 
had scarcely taken our position when they attacked us. Our 
ii^nt consisted of the 3d and dth Divisions, with some Nassau 
people, and a brigade of cavalry, in all about 13,000 men; while 
the French forces, according to Ney^s account, must have been 
immense, as his reserve alone consisted of 30,000, which, however, 
he says, Buonaparte disposed of without having advertised him. 
The business was begun by the first battalion of the 95th, which 
was sent to <irive the enemy out of some corn-fields, and a thick 
wood,. of which they had possession. Aft;er sustaining some loss, 
we succeeded completely ; and three companies of Brunswickers 
were left to keep it, while we acted on another part of the line ; 
they, however, were driven out immediately, and the French also 
got possession of a village which turned our flanks. We were 
then obliged to return, and it took us the whole day to retake 
what had Deen lost. While we were employed here, the remainder 
of the army were in a much more disagreeable situation ; for, in 
consequence of our inferiority in cavalry, each regiment was 
obliged to form a square, in which manner the most desperate 
attacks of infantry and charges of cavalry were resisted and re- 
pelled ; and when night put an end to the slaughter, the French 
not only gave up every attempt on our position, but retired from 
their own, on which we bivouacked. I will not attempt to de- 
scribe the sort of night we passed — I will leave you to conceive it. 
The ffroans of the woundod and dying, to whom no relief could be 
aiForoed, must not be spoken of liere, because on the 18th it was 
fifty thousand times worse. But a handfiil of men lying in the 
face of such superior numbers, and being obliged to sleep in 
squares for fear the enemy's dragoons, knowing that we were 
weak in that arm, might make a dash into the camp, was no very 
pleasant reverie to soothe one to rest Exclusive of this, I was 
annoyed by a wound I had received in the thigh, and which was 
become excessively painful, I had no great coat, and small rain 
continued falling until late the next day, when it was succeeded 
by torrents. Boney, however, was determined not to give us 
much respite, for he attacked om* piquets at two in the morning ; 
some companies of the 95th were sent to their support, and we 
continued skirmishing until eleven o'clock, when the Dd^e com** 


menced his retreat, which was covered by Lord Uxbridge. The 
Blues and Life Ouards behaved extremely welL 

'^ The whole of the 17 th, and indeed until late the next morn- 
ing, the weather continued dreadful; and we were starving with 
hunger, no provision having been served out since the march firom 
Brussels. While five officers who composed oar mess were look- 
ing at each other with the most deplorable &ces imaginable, one 
of the men brought us a fowl vhe had plundered, and a handfiil of 
biscuits, which, though but little, added to some tea we boiled in 
a camp*kettle, made us rather more comfortable ; and we huddled 
up together, covered ourselves with straw, and were soon as 
soundly asleep as though reposing on beds of down. I awoke long 
before dayligot, and found myself in a very bad state altogether, 
being completely wet through in additi<m to all other ills. For- 
tunately I soon after this found my way to a shed, of which 
Sir Andrew Barnard (our commandant) had taken possession, 
where there was a fire, and in which, with three or four others, I 
remained until the rain abated. About ten o'clock the sun made 
his appearance, to view the mighty stru^le which was to deter- 
mine the fate of Europe; and about an hour afterwards the 
French made their dispositions for the attack, which commenced 
on the right The Duke's dispatch will give you a more accurate 
idea of the ground, and of the grand scale of <^>erations, than 
I can do ; and I shall therefore confine myself to details of less 
importance which he has passed ov^r. 

^* Afber having tried the right, and found it strong, Buona- 
parte manoduvred until he got 40 pieces of ardllenr to play on 
the left, where the 5th Division, a brigade of heavy cu*agoons, and 
two companies of artillery, were post^ Our lines were formed 
behind a hedge, with two companies of the 95th extended in firont 
to annoy the enemy's approacL For some time we saw that 
Buonaparte intended to attack us; yet as nothing but cavalry 
was visible, no one could imagine what were his plans. It was 
generally supposed that he would endeavour to turn our flank. 
But all on a sudden his cavalry turned to the right and left^ and 
showed large masses of infantry, who advanced up in the most 
gallant style to the cries x)f ^ Vive VEmpereurr while a most 
tremendous cannonade was opened to cover their approach. They 
had arrived at the very hedge behind which we were — the 
muskets were almost muzzle to muzzle, and a French mounted 
officer attempted to seize the colours of the 32d Regiment, when 
poor Picton ordered the charge of our brigade, commanded by Sir 
James Kempt When the French saw us rushing through the 
hedge, and heard the' tremendous huzza which we gave, they 
turned ; but instead of running, they walked off in close columns 
with the greatest steadiness, and allowed themselves to be butchered 
without any material resistanca At this moment^ part of General 

'! ■■ 


' .\ 


J • 

/ ^ 

' » 

' I' ♦ 

"H-."^' ^^^^^^ 


Ponsonby's brigade of heavy cavalry took them in flank, and, 
besides killed and womided, nearly 2000 were made prisoners. 
Now Buonaparte again changed his plan of attack. He sent a 
great force both on the right and left ; but his chief aim was the 
centre, through which lay the road to Brussels, and to gain this he 
appeared determined. What we had hitherto seen was mere 
* boys' play' in comparison with the * tug of war' which took 
place from this time (three o'clock) until the day was decided. All 
our army was formed into solid squares — the French Cuirassiers 
advanced to the mouth of our camion — rushed on our bayonets : 
sometimes walked their horses on all sides of a square to look for 
an opening through which they might penetrate, or dashed madly 
on, thinku^ to carry everything by desperation. But not a 
British soldier moved ; all personal feeling was forgotten in the 
enthusiasm of such a moment Each person seemed to think the 
day depended on his individual exertions, and both sides vied with 
each other in acts of ^lantry. Buonaparte charged with his 
Imperial Guards. The Duke of Wellington led on a brigade con- 
sisting of the 52d and 95th Regiments. Lord Uxbridge was with 
every squadron of cavalry which was ordered forward. Poor 
Picton was killed at the head of our division, while advancing. 
But in short, look through the list engaged on that day, and it 
would be difficult to point out one who had not distinguished him- 
self as much as another. Until eight o'clock the contest raged 
without intermission, and a feather seemed only wanting in either 
scale to turn the balance. At this hour, our situation on the left 
centre was desperate. The 5th Division, having borne the brunt 
of the battle, was reduced from 6000 to 1800. The 6th Division, at 
least the British part of it, consisting of four regiments, formed in 
our rear as a reserve, was almost destroyed, without having fired 
a shot, by the terrible play of artillery, and the fire of the light 
troops. The 27th had 400 men, and every officer but one subal- 
tern, knocked down in square, without moving an inch or dis- 
chsawng one musket ; and at that time I mention, both divisions 
could not oppose a sufficient front to the enemy, who was rapidly 
advancing with crowds of fresh troops. We had not a smgfe 
company for support, and the men were so completely worn out 
that it required the greatest exertion on the part of the officers to 
keep up their spirits. Not a soldier thought of giving groimd ; 
but victory seemed hopeless, and they gave tnemselves up to death 
with perfect indifference. A last effort was our only chance. The 
remains of the regiments were formed as well as the circum- 
stances allowed, and when the French came vrithin about 40 
paces we set up a death-howl, and dashed at them. They fled 
immediately, not in a regular manner^ as before, but in the 
greatest confusion. 

^* Their animal spirts were exhausted^ the panic spread, and in 


five minutes the army was in complete disorder ; at this critical 
moment firing was heard on our left, the Prussians were now 
coming down on the right flank of the French, which increased 
their flight to such a degree, that no mob was ever a greater 
scene of confusion ; the road was blocked up by artillery ; the 
dragoons rode over the infantry; arms, knapsacks, everything 
was thrown away, and * sauve qui pent ' seemea indeed to be the 
universal feeling. At eleven o'clock, when we halted, and gave 
the pursuit to jBliicher's fresh troops, 150 pieces of cannon and 
nmnbers of prisoners had fallen into our hands. I will not attempt 
to describe the scene of slaughter which the fields presented, or 
what any person possessed of the least spark of humanity must 
have felt, while we viewed the dreadAil situation of some thou* 
sands of wounded wretches, who remained without assistance 
through a bitter cold night, succeeded by a day of most scorching 
heat ; EngUsh and French were dying by the side of each other ; 
and I have no doubt, hundreds who were not discovered when the 
dead were buried, and who were unable to crawl to any habitation, 
must have perished by famine. For my own part, when we 
halted for the night, I sank down almost insensible from fatigue ; 
my spirits and strength were completely exhausted. I was so 
weak, and the wound in my thigh so painful, from want of atten- 
tion, and in consequence of severe exercise, that afler I got to 
NiveUes, and secui^ quarters, I did not awake regularly for 36 

* Extract of a Letter from an Ojfficer in the Guards, 

« Bavay, June 21, 1815. 

" I date my letter from the first town in France; we having 
this morning, for the second time, violated its boasted frontiers, 
and that too, in the very teeth of a triple line of fortresses, and on 
the anniversary of Vittoria, after a battle which, notwithstanding 
the brilliant and most glorious tale of the 21st of June, 1813, must 
in every way rank abo^ it in the page of history. 

" Assured of my safety, you will doubtless be anxious for an 
account of the three eventful days I have witnessed ; and therefore 
I lose no time in gratifying your curiosity, particularly as I am 
aware of your desire to oe informed of everything relating to your 
friends the Guards. We were suddenly moved from Enghein, 
where wo had remained so many weeks in tranquillity, on the night 
of the 15th instant, or rather the morning of the 16th, at three 
o'clock. We continued on our march through Braine-le-Comte 
(which had been the Prince of Orange's head-quarters), and from 

* Captain Baity of the Grenadier Guards. 




thence on to Nivelles, where we halted, and the men began making 
jGres and cooking. Daring the whole of this time, and as we 
approached the town, we heard distinctly a constant roar of cannon; 
and we had scarcely rested ourselves, and commenced dressing 
the rations which had been served out at Enghein, when an aide- 
de-camp from the Duke of Wellington arrived, and ordered us 
instantly under arms, and to advance with all speed to Lea Quatre 
BraSf where the action was going on with the greatest fury, and 
where the French were making rapid strides towards the object 
they had in view, which was to gain a wood called ^ Bois de 
Bossu ;' a circumstance calculated to possess them of the road to 
Nivelles, and to enable them to turn the flank of the British and 
Brunswickers, and to cut oiF the communication between them and 
the other forces which were coming up. The order was, of course, 
instantly obeyed ; the meat which was cooking was thrown away, 
the kettles, &c packed up, and we proceeded, as fast as our tired 
legs would carry us, towards a scene of slaughter, which was 
a prelude well calculated to usher in the bloody tragedy of the 

" We marched up towards the enemy, at each step hearing 
more clearly the fire of musquetry ; and as we approached tlie 
field of action we met constantly waggons full of men, of all the 
various nations under the Duke s command, wounded in the most 
dreadful manner. The sides of the road had a heap of dying and 
dead, very many of whom were British : such a scene did, indeed, 
demand eveiy better feeling of the mind to cope with its horrors ; 
and too much cannot be said in praise of the division of Guards, 
the very largest part of whom were young soldiers, and volunteers 
from the militia, who had never been exposed to the fire of an 
enemy, or witnessed its effects. During the period of our advance 
from Nivelles, I suppose nothing could exceed the anxiety of the 
moment with those on the fiela. The French, who had a large 
cavalry and artillery (in both of which arms we were quite desti- 
tute^ excepting some Belgian and German guns), had made 
dreadful havock in our lines, and had succeeded in pushing an 
immensely strong column of tirailleurs into the wood I have before 
mentioned, of which they had possessed themselves, and had just 
begun to cross the road, having marched through the wood, and 
placed affairs in a critical situation, when the Guards luckily came 
in sight The moment we caught a glimpse of them we halted, 
formed^ and having loaded and fix^ bayonets, advanced, the 
French immediately retiring; and the very last man who attempted 
to re-enter the wood was killed by our Grenadiers. At this instant 
our men gave three glorious cheers, and though we had marched 
fifteen hours without anything to eat and drink, save the water 
we procured on the march, we rushed to attack the enemy. This 
was done by the 1st brigade, consisting of the 2d and 3d battalions 


of the first regiment ; and the 2d brigade^ consisting of the 2d 
battalion of the Coldstream and third regiment, were formed as a 
n*serve along the chaussee. As we entered die wood, a few noble 
fellows, who sunk down ovenwwered with fatigue, lent their voice 
to cheer their comrades. The trees were so thick, that it was 
beyond anything difficult to efiect a passage. As we approached, 
we saw the enemy behind them, takmg aim at us : they contested 
every bush, and at a small rivulet running through the wood they 
attempted a stand, but could not resist us, and we at last succeeded 
in forcing them out of their possessions. The moment we endea- 
voured to go out of this wood (which had naturally broken us), 
the French cavalry charged us ; but we at last found the third 
battalion, who had rather skirted the wood, and formed in front of 
it, where they afterwards were in hollow square, and repulsed all 
the attempts of the French cavalry to break them. Our loss was 
most tremendous, and nothing could exceed the desperate work of 
the evening; the French infantry and cavalry fought most despe- 
rately ; and after a conflict of nearly three hours (me obstinacy of 
whicn could find no parallel, save in the slaughter it occasioned), 
we had tlie happiness to find ourselves complete masters of the 
road and wood, and that we had at length defeated all the efibrts 
of the French to outflank us and turn our right, than which 
nothing could be of greater moment to both parties. Greneral 
Picton s superb division had been engaged since two o'clock p.x., 
and was still fighting with the greatest fury ; no terms can be 
found sufficient to explain their exertions. The fine brigade of 
Highlanders suficred most dreadfully, and so did all the raiments 
engaged. The gallant and noble conduct of the Brunswickers w^as 
tlie admiration of every one. I myself saw scarcely any of the 
Dutch troops ; but a regiment of Belgian light cavalry held a long 
struggle with the famous Cuirassiers, in a way that can never be 
forgotten : they, poor fellows, were nearly all cut to pieces. These 
French cuirassiers charged two German guns, with the intent 
of taking them, to turn them down the road on our Bank. This 
charge was made along the chaussee running from Charleroi to 
Brussels ; the guns were placed near the farm-houses of Les Quatre 
Bras and were loaded, and were kept till their close arrival Two 
companies (I think, of Highlanders, vicle Letter from the 92d)j 
posted behind a house and dunghill, who flanked the enemy on 
their approach, and the artillery, received them with such a dis- 
charge, and so near, as to lay (with an efiect like magic) the whole 
head of the column low; causing it to fly, and be nearly all 
destroyed. We had fought till dark; the French became less 
impetuous, and after a little cannonade they retired firom the field. 
Alas I when we met after the action, how many were wantins; 
among us I how many, who were in the full pnde of youth and 
manhood, had gone to that bourn from whence they could return 


no more! I shall now close my letter^ and in my next will 
endeavour to give you some description of the 18th ; for^ to add 
to this account now, would be but to harrow up your mind with 
scenes of misery, of which those only who have oeen witnesses can 
form an adequate idea." 


Village of Gommignies^ Jwne 22, 1815. 

Having completed our day's march, I once more take up 
my pen, and after giving you some of the leading features of the 
17th, shaU do my best to relate to you, as far as lies in my power, 
the most striking incidents of the glorious day of Waterloo. At 
daybreak on the 17th we were again under arms, having snatched 
a hurried repose to our wearied limbs, on the ground near which 
we fought. Uncertain as to the movements of the enemy, or 
whether they purposed renewing their attack, we were in a state 
of anxious suspense ; and the skirmishing at intervals in our front 
made us expect that something was about to be done. During all 
this time we were employed, by parties, in bringinff in our wounded 
companions, whom me darkness had the night before prevented 
our finding, and in doing our best to be ready for anything that 
might occur, and in assuaging, as well as we could, the sufferings 
of those around us. We succeeded in finding the bodies of our 
four officers. Captains Grose and Brown, Ensigns Lord Hay and 
Barrington, who were killed ; and had the melancholy satisfaction 
of paying the last tribute of respect to their remains. They were 
buried near the wood, and one of our officers read the service over 
them. Never did I witness a scene more imposing : those breasts 
which had, a few hours back, boldly encountered the greatest 
perils, did not now disdain to be subdued by pity and affection ; 
and if the ceremony wanted the real clerical solemnity due to its 
sacred character, it received an ample equivalent in this mark of 
genuine regard, and the sincerity with which we wished them a 
more immortal halo than that which honour will confer. The 
whole night was occupied in getting up the cavalry and artillery ; 
and report said that the Duke of Welhngton had it in contempla- 
tion to become, in his turn, the assailant. Be that as it may, we 
were ordered to fall back by the Charleroi road through Genappe, 
to our position of Waterloo. I will not invite you to accompany 
ns on our march, which was only marked by fatigue, dust, heat, 
and thirst After halting for a short time, to ascertain our actual 
position, we marched to it, and were greeted by one of the very 
hardest showers of rain I ever remember to have seen, which lasted 
nearly half an hour; it then ceased. The whole afternoon was 
taken up by the various divisions getting to their respective posts, 
and making active preparations for the expected attack on the 
morrow. Our position was a very compact one } the extreme left 
resting on Ter la Haye, the left centre on La Haye Sainte, and 


the right centre on Ilougouinont ; and the extreme right was 
thrown back to a certain degree, in consequence of a ravine, which 
would otherways have laid it oj)en to the enemy. 

" We were ixysttvl near Hougoumont, into which the four light 
companies of the division of Guards, under Colonel M'Donald and 
Lora Saltoun, were thrown. The house had a large garden 
attached to it, laid out in the Dutch fiushion, with parallel walks 
and high thick hedges, and was surrounded by an orchard. As 
the army fell back, the enemy's cavalry attacked the rear, and 
there were constant skirmishes and charges of cavalry during the 
day. Towanls seven o'clock in the evening the French cannonaded 
Hougomnont and our position for near an hour and a half, and 
were answered by the guns on the top of the hill in our front We 
were moved back a little distance to get out of the exact range of 
the shot, and after continuing during the time I have above men- 
tioned, eagerly awaiting a further develojx^ment of their attack, the 
firing ceased, and we continued till the morning in the situation we 
now held. The weather, which had hitherto been showery, became 
settled into a decided and heavy rain, which continued in actual 
torrents the complete night through, accompanied by a gale of 
wind and constant thunder and lightning. Such a night few have 
witnessed ; it was one that imagination would paint as alone fit for 
the festival of the dejnons of death, and for the Fates to complete 
the web of those brave souls whose thread of life was so nearly 
spun. After such a night of horrors and contending expectations, 
the dawn of any kind of day was welcome ; it seemed, however, 
with diflSculty to break through the heavy clouds which overhung 
the earth, and appeared so slowly, that it seemed as if Nature re- 
luctantly lent her light to assist at the scene of carnage and distress 
which was to mark tlie history of this eventfiil day. Our artillery, 
which had the night before so admirably an»wered the fire of the 
French guns, was all placed on the heights in our front It is here 
necessary for me to remark, that our position comprehended the 
two roads from Charleroi and Nivelles to Brussels, which united 
at the village of Mont St Jean, and formed rather an acute angle ; 
the Prince of Orange's corps composed the first line, with the 
whole artillery in its front, and Lord Hill's corps the right flank 
and second line. 

" About a quarter past eleven o'clock A.M. the battle conmienced 
by the French making a most desperate and impetuous attack upon 
Hougoumont, against which, as well as La Haye Sainte, tney 
directed their most furious efforts during the whole day. Hougou- 
mont, however, appeared to be the principal object they ha3 in 
view, since its possession would have uncovered our flank, and 
have afforded them a most fatal advantage over our line: in a 
word, had it been lost, nothing short of its being re-taken at any 
rate could have repaired the misfortune. The French opened upon 

4 It 


US a dreadful cross-fire from three hundred pieces of artillery, 
which was answered with a most uncommon practice from our 
guns ; but to be just, we must own that the French batteries were 
served in a manner that was terrible. During this period the 
enemy pushed his troops into the orchard, &c. &c. ; and after its 
being contested for some hours, he succeeded in reducing our men 
to nothing but the house itself. Every tree, every walk, every 
hedge, every avenue had been fought for with an obstinacy almost 
unparallelea ; and the French were killed all round, and at the 
very door of the house, to which, as well as a hay-stack, they suc- 
ceeded in setting fire ; and though all in flames over their heads, 
our brave fellows never suffered them to penetrate beyond the 
threshold. The greatest part of the woiuided on both sides were, 
alas ! here burned to death. In consequence of this success on the 
part of the French, the Coldstream and 3d Regiment were 
ordered into the wood, from whence they drove the enemy ; and 
every subsequent struggle they made to re-possess themselves of 
it proved abortive. The places of these two battalions of Guards 
were supplied by two of our gallant friends, the Black Bnmswick- 
ers, who seemed, like salamanders, to revel in the smoke and flames. 
The 2d and 3d battalions of the 1st Regiment were formed with 
the two battalions of Brunswickers into hollow squares, on the slope 
and summit of the hill, so as to support each other ; and in this 
situation we all lay down, till between three and four o'clock p.m., 
in order to avoid the storm of death, which was flying close over 
our heads, and at almost every moment carrying destruction among 
us; and it is, you will allow, a circumstance highly creditable to 
those men to have lain so many hours under a fire which, for 
intensity and precision, was never, I believe, equalled; with nothing 
else to occupy their attention save watching then: companions falling 
around them, and listening to their moumfrd cries. It was about 
the time I have just named that the enemy, having gained the 
orchard, commenced their desperate charges of cavalry, under 
cover of the smoke which the burning houses, &c. had caused ; the 
whole of which the wind drifted towards us, and thus prevented 
our observing their approach. At this period the battle assumed 
a character beyond description interesting, and anxiously awfrd. 
Buonaparte was about to use against us an arm which he had 
never yet wielded but with success. Confidently relying upon the 
issue of this attack, he charged our artillery and infantry, hoping 
to capture the one and break the other, and, by instantly establish* 
iDg his own infantry on the heights, to carry the Brussels road, 
and throw our line into confrision. These cavalry, selected for 
their tried gallantiT and skill (not their height or mustachios), who 
were the terror of Northern Europe, and had never yet been foiled, 
were first brought up by the 3d battalion of the 1st Regiment. 
Never was British valour and discipline so pre-eminent as on this 


occasion ; the steady appearance of this battalion caused the famous 
Cuirassiers to pull up ; and a few of them, with a courage worthj 
a better cause, rode out of the ranks, and fired at our people and 
mounted officers with their pistols, hoping to make the face of the 
square throw its fire upon them, and thus become an easy prey ; 
but our men, with a steadiness no language can dojustice to, 
defied their efforts, and did not pull a single trigger. The French 
then made a sudden rush, but were received in such a manner, 
and with a volley so well directed, as at once to turn them. They 
then made an attempt on the 2d battalion, and the Brunswickers, 
with similar success ; and, astonished at their own failure, the cool 
intrepidity of their opponents, and the British cheers, they £Eiced 
about This same game was played in succession by the Imperial 
Horse Guards and Polish Lancers, none of whom could at all suc- 
ceed in breaking our squares, or making the least impression upon 
them whatever. During their attacks, our cavalry rushed out 
from between the squares, and carried havoc through the enemy's 
ranks, which were nearly all destroyed. I cannot here resist 
relating an anecdote of Major Lloyd, of the Artilleiy, who, with 
another officer (whose name I could not learn), was obliged to take 
refuge in our square at the time these charges were made, being 
unable to continue longer at their posts. There was a gun be- 
tween our battalion and the Brunswickers, which had been drawn 
back; this. Major Lloyd with his friend discharged five or six 
times at the French cavalry, alternately loading it and retiring to 
the square, as circumstances required. We could see the French 
knocked off their horses as fast as they came up, and one cannot 
refuse to call them men of singular gallantry. One of than, indeed, 
an officer of the Imperial Guards, seeing a gun about to be dis- 
charged at his companions, rode at it and never suffered its fire to 
be repeated while he hved. He was at length kiUed by a Bruns- 
wick rifleman, and certainly saved a large part of his raiment by 
this act of self-devotion. Thus discomfited, Buonaparte renewed 
his cannonade, which was destructive to a degree, preparatory to 
an attack of his whole infantry. I constantly saw the noble Ihike 
of Wellington riding backwards and forwards, like the Grenius of 
the storm, who, borne upon its wings, directed its thunder where 
to burst He was everywhere to be found, encouraging, directing, 
animating. He was in a blue short cloak and a plain cocked hat, 
his telescope in his hand; there was nothing that escaped him, 
nothing that he did not take advantage of, and his lynx eyes 
seemed to penetrate the smoke, and forestall the movements of the 
foe. How he escaped, that merciful Power alone can tell who 
vouchsafed to the aliied arms the issue of this pre-eminent contest ; 
for such it is, whether considered as an action by itself, or with 
regard to the results which it has brought about Upon the 
cavalry being repulsed, the Duke himself ordered our second bat- 




I • 


talion to form line with the third battalion, and, after advancing to 
the brow of the hill, to He down and shelter ourselves from the fire. 
Here we remained, I imagine, near an hour. It was now about 
seven o'clock. The Frencn infantry had in vain been brought up 
against our line, and, as a last resource, Buonaparte resolved upon 
attacking our part of the position with his veteran Imperial Guard, 
promising them the pluncfer of Brussels, Their artulery covered 
them, and they advanced in solid column to where we lay. The 
Duke, who was riding behind us, watched their approach,' and at 
length, when within a hundred yards of us, exclaimed, ' Up, 
Guards, and at them again ? Never was there a prouder moment 
than this for our country or ourselves. The household troops of 
both nations were now, for the first time, brought in contact, and 
on the issue of their struggle the greatest of stakes was placed. 
The enemy did not expect to meet us so soon ; we suffered them 
to approach still nearer, and then delivered a fire into them which 
made them halt ; a second, like the first, carried hundreds of deaths 
into their mass ; and, without suifering them to deploy, we gave 
them three British cheers, and a British charge of the bayonet 
This was too much for their nerves, and they fl^ in disorder. The 
shape of their column was tracked by their dying and dead, and 
not less than three hundred of them had fallen in two minutes to 
rise no more. Seeing the fate of their companions, a regiment of 
tirailleurs of the Guard attempted to attack our flank ; we instantly 
charged them, and our cheers rendered anythingfurther unneces- 
sary, for they never awaited our approacL The French now 
formed solid squares in their rear, to resist our advance, which, 
however, our cavalry cut to pieces. The Duke now ordered the 
whole line to move forward; nothing could be more beautifuL 
The sun, which had hitherto been veiled, at this instant shed upon 
us in departing rays, as if to smile upon the efforts we were makmg, 
and bless them with success. As we proceeded in line down the 
slope, the regiments on the high ground on our flanks were formed 
into hollow squares, in which manner they accompanied us, in o]:der 
to protect us from cavalry. The blow was now struck, the victory 
was complete, and the enemy fled in every direction : his ddrauie 
was the most perfect ever known ; in the space of a mile and a half 
along the road we found more than thirty guns, besides ammuni- 
tion-waggons, &c &C. Our noble and brave coadjutors, the Prus- 
sians, who had some time since been dealing out havoc in the rear 
of the enemy, now falling in with our line of march, we halted, 
and let them continue the pursuit. Buonaparte fled the field on 
the advance of the Prussians, and the annihilation of his Imperial 
Guard, with whose overthrow all his hopes perished. Thus ended 
the day of Waterloa The skill and courage of our artillery 
could not be exceeded. The brigade of Guaros, in Hougoumont, 
suflEered nothing to rob them off their post: every regiment eclipsed 


its f(»rnier de(*ds by the glories of to-day ; and I cannot better close 
tills than by informing you, tliat when we halted for the night, 
which we did close to where Buonaparte had been during a great 
])ortion of the battle, and were preparing our bivouac by the road- 
side, a regiment of Prussian Lancers coming by, halted, and played 
* (i()d save the King,' than which nothing could be more appro- 
priate or grateful to our feelings ; and I am sure I need scarcely 
add, diat we gave them three heartfelt cheers, as the only return 
we could then offer." 

Extract from a letter by an Officer in tlie Guards. 

" On the evening of the 15th we heard that the French were 
passing the frontiers, and we received orders to hold ourselves in 
readiness to march; at two o'clock we received our orders to 
march, and were off at three. We passed through Braine-le- 
Comte, and proceeded to a bivouac near Nivelles. While we 
were setting ourselves down, an order came to move immediately 
to the left, through Nivelles; having passed it, we heard the 
firing very close, and soon met many wounded Belgians coming 
in. At five o'clock. General Maitland galloped up, and ordered 
the Grenadiers to drive the Fi^nch out of a wood, and in about 
half an hour we perfectly cleared it When we opened at the end 
of the wood, the enemy threw in a most tremendous fire of round 
and grape shot, from which we found it necessary to retire. 
We got out of the wood in another part, and they unmediately 
advanced columns to attack us, whicn deployed very regularly, 
and drove us a short way back. However, we advanced again, 
and they gave way and retired to their guns. They then ad- 
vanced upon us, and having driven as back a second time, their 
cavalry attempted to charge ; but a square of Black JBrunswickers 
bropgnt them up, while we were nimbly slipt into the wood on 
our right, lined the ditches, and paid them handsomely. Our 
loss was very severe, and we found great difficulty in forming our 
line again. At last we effected it with the third battalion of our 
regiment, and then we drove every thing before us. We kept 
possession of the wood all night The Prussians and French had 
been engaged from two o'clock in the morning, in the position of 
Fleurus; and the former had been driven back. The French 
then tried to get possession of the road to Brussels. They had 
a severe contest with the Dutch and one of our divisions, and 
had succeeded in driving the Dutch out of a wood (Bossu, I think 
it is called). We arrived at the very moment the French skir- 
mishers were appearing. We dashed in and cut them up pro- 
perly, though our loss was severe. Out of 84, I had only 43 


left in my company.* At night the remains of the battalion 
bivouacked at the head of the road, and during the night we 
received a strong reinforcement They call this the action of 
Quatre Bras (where two high-roads cross). In the morning of 
the ITthy the enemy made no further attempt against us ; and as 
the Prussians had retired during the night, we did the same very 
leisurely, about eleven o'clock taking up a position in front of 
a village called Waterloo, at a point where the high-road or 
chauss^ to Brussels crosses that from Nivelles to Namur. Here 
we remained quiet through the ni^ht, except that it rained more 
ftiriously than ever I experienced, even in Spain. We were 
quite wet through^ and literally up to the ankles in mud. The 
cavalry were considerably engaged during the day of the 17th, 
but the Hussars could not make much impression against their 
heavy-armed opponents. The Life Guards behaved most nobly, 
and carried every thing before them. The morning of the 18 th 
dawned full of expectation of something decisive being done. 

*' But, first, I must give you some idea of our position. It ran 
from the Brussels chaussee to the right, about a mile and a half 
in length, and then turned very sharply to the right and crossed 
the chaussee ft^m Nivelles to Namur, which two chauss^es cross 
each other, so that we were nearly in a quarter-circle (like an open 
fan, the two outside sticks being the chauss^). 

^' At the turn and at the bottom of a slope was a farm and 
orchards, called Hougoumont This was the key of our posi- 
tions, and in front of our centre. On this point the most serious 
attack was made. 

** At twelve o'clock the columns of the enemy moved down 
from the heights which they had occupied during the night, and 
our artillery began to cannonade them most rariously, which 
their artillery returned; and it is said that 300 pieces were in 
use that day. The British infantry were drawn up in columns 
imder the ridge of the position. We were at the turn or knuckle 
with two battalions of Brunswickers. The 3d Regiment of Guards 
were in columns in front of the turn, and the Coldstream at the 
farm-house. The light infantry of the division were to defend 
the orchard and smaU wood next to it The 3d Division were in 
squares to the left of our squares, and under cover of the ridge. 

** Unfortunately for us, during the cannonade the shot and 
shells which passed over the artillery fell into our squares, and I 
assure you I never was in a more awful situation. Col. Cooke 
(who commanded the battalion) was struck with a grape-shot as he 
sat on the ground next to me. The enemy now made an attack 

* It appears by the " Gazette/' that the Ist Regiment of Gaards lost, in this 
affair, five officers killed and eight woundeA : no official return has yet been made 
of the men ; bat report states that regiment to have lost dOO killed and wounded 
in this battle, exclusively of the action on the 18th. 


with infantry and cavalrv on the left, in hopes of carrying the 
chaussee to BrussiOd ; hut the artillery guns cut them to pieces 
every time they advanced. They tlien attempted to charge the 
guns with cavalry ; hut the squared of infantry kept up so smart a 
fire tliat tliey could never reach our gmis, though the artillerymen 
were obliged to leave them to get out of our fire. When the 
enemy foimd the attempt fail on this point, he ordered an attaufk 
on the farm-house, which it was necessary for him to )X)ssess in 
order to turn the right of ourjx)sition. There it was that the 
serious struggle conmienced« Two companies of light infantry, 
under Lord Saltoun, disputed tlie wood and orchard most gid- 
lantly, but were at last obliged to retire under cover of the house, 
when the enemy were charged by the light infantry of the 2d 
brigade (the Coldstream and the 3d), and driven back with great 
loss. At this period the Coldstream entered the house, which the 
enemy set on fire by shells, but did not entirely consume it. The 
enemy were foiled in two repeated attempts, and were each time 
severely cut up by the artillery. When they faQed in their 
attacks upon our squares, the cavalry rushed out from between 
our squares, and cut them up most desperately. When he found 
these efforts vain, he began his attack upon the centre. He first 
endeavoured to carry the guns with his cavalry, which came up 
most gallantly ; but our squares sent them to the right-about three 
times in great style. I never saw any thing so fine, the cavalry 
rusliing out and picking up the deserted cannon. After these 
failures he brought up his Garde Imp^riale^ just opposite to our 
brigade, which had formed in line on their advancing. We were 
all lying under shelter of a small bank, as they covered their ad- 
vance with a most terrible fire of grape and musketry. Buona- 
parte led them himself to the rise ot the hill, and told them, ^ that 
was the way to Brussels:' we allowed them to approach very 
near,* when we opened so destructive a fire, that tliere were soon 
above 300 of them upon the groimd, and they began to waver. 
We instantly charged, but they ran as fast as possible. The Duke 
of Welluigton, observing this crisis, brought up the 42d and 95th, 
taking the enemy in flank, and leading them himself quite close 
up. The enemy s column was entirely dispersed. After this, we 
were again annoyed with grape and musketry, which obliged us 
to retire. On fronting, we saw another heavy column of the 
Chasseurs de la Garde Impiriale. We immediately started at 

* Those who witnessed this, speak of it as a most handsome affair. The 
Imperial Gaards' charge was most furious ; General Bjng, from circumstances, 
oould only receive them in line ; the volley was destructive, literally knocking 
the mass hack ; nothing could exceed the effect, or he superior to this determined 
eoolness. General Byng, in the course of the day, had many narrow escapes ; 
in one instance, a cannon-ball forced itself between his arm and side, rending a 
hole in his cloak, but did no other mischief than leaving a slight contusion in the 
hip. — Editor. 


donble-quiek time to meet them ; but they had had such a proper 
reception just before, that thej never let us come near them, and 
when they turned the rout beicame general We ran on as fast 
as we could, and the cavalry started after them. We got about 
two miles that evening, taking ourselves 30 pieces of cannon. No- 
thing could be more complete and decisive. Most fortunately the 
I^ussians came on the field at this moment, and pursued the 
enemy through the night" 

Extract of a Letter from an Officer of the Gnardsyfrom the Bivouac 

near Lanarecy. 

** After our bivouac of the 18th after the battle, we marched 
to NiveUes, over the terrible field; so horrible a scene scarcely 
any man ever witnessed ; the ground, for the space of a league, 
was covered with bodies, absolutely lying in ranks, and horses 
grouped in heaps, with their riders. Towards our right was a 
ch&teau, which auring the battle took fire from the enemy's shells ; 
and in that state was heroically defended by Saltoun, and after- 
wards by the 2d brigade of Guards. The appearance brought to 
my mind St Sebastian; it was equally horrid, though on a 
smaller scale. — I did not mention to you, in my last, that towards 
the close of the action we were encaged with tne Imperial Guard. 
After seven hoon.' dreadAal cannr^ and daring ^ch we sof- 
fered very much from grape and shells, the French cavalry ad- 
vanced in a saUop, in masses, up the slope of a gentle hill ; they 
were arrested oy a continual echelon of squares, whose cross-fire 
cut them to pieces, our men standing like statues. After this suc- 
ceeded a tiraillade (sharp-shooting) of about half an hour, when 
we all imagined the fight was over, and that it would die away 
with the night ; but to our surprise, the head of an immense 
column of the Old Guard appeared trampling down the corn-fields 
in our firont: they advanced to within one hundred and fifty 
yards of our brigade without attempting to deploy or fire a shot 
Our wings threw themselves immediateiy forward, and kept up 
such a murderous fire, that the enemy retired, losing half their 
numbers, who, without any exaggeration, literally lay m sections. 
Their loss in cannon is estimatcoat 160 pieces, and we Prussians 
take more every step they advance. I have now to tell vou the 
lamentable loss of 32 officers of our regiment, which has left the 
command of the 2d battalion under Saltoun, and the third under 
Seeve, the two youngest captains. Maitland conunands the di- 
vision, and Fered the brigade, in consequence of General Cooke's 
wounds. Colonel Cooke was struck by a cannon-shot on the 
shoulder, about a foot above my head ; but I bdieve his case \& not 
hopeless. Those who were at Vittoria, Albuera, and Leipsic say 
their fire was not to be mentioned, or the carnage to be compared. 


to that of Waterloo. — ^The 73d Ke^ment is commanded by Lieut 
RoWrt Stewart, and the 1st li£;ht German battalion has only one cap- 
tain left. — Milnes not being likely to recover, or Luttrell command 
for some time, I have this mommg accepted the command of the 
regular light infantry company, instead of the supplementary one, 
which I commanded in the action. Greville is in company with 
me. We marched on the 19th to Nivelles, 20th to Binch, 21st to 
Bavay, and to-day to this place, 15 miles from Cambray, 5 miles 
from Quesnoy, and 10 from Landrecy. The Hussar Brigade, 
and some light troops, with a corps of Prussians, observe Mau- 
beuge, and some Hanoverian cavalry are stationed round Quesnoy. 
The Prussians advance by Charleroi, Maubeuge, and Lsmdrecy, 
and Givet I hope soon to date from Paris." 

From an Officer to his Father (written on the Jield of battle)^ dated 

Lee Quatre Bras, I9th June^ 1815. 

^' England has to thank the talents of her consummate General 
and the oravery of the allied troops under his command, their 
steadiness, and great endurance of privation ; for yesterday's vic- 
tory is equalled by none of modem aays, except Leipsig. 

'^ On the 14th, the French army transferred the seat of war 
from its own territory to that of the Allies, by crossing the fron- 
tier in the direction of Fontaine St Ev^que, and moving in large 
masses on Charleroi and Fleurus. During the 16th they suc- 
ceeded in getting possession of these places, and in moving their 
whole army on tne road from Charleroi to Brussels, with the 
intention of separating the English from the Prussian right, and 
carrying consternation to that city. The Guards moved fitnn 
Enghien at three o'clock in the morning of the 16th, to Brain-le- 
Comte, then to Nivelles, and from thence (making all together 27 
miles' march), to* Les Quatre Bras — a point where four cross- 
roads meet, one leading from Charleroi to Brussels, immediately 
on our march. We found that we had come at the critical 
moment, when the enemy were actually in possession of a large 
wood, commanding all four roads, and cutting off our communi- 
cation with Marahal Bliicher. The 3d Division had been driven 
from the wood, and the Guards were* ordered to retake it The 
enemy's tirailleurs retired as we advanced, till at length we passed 
the wood, and found ourselves in the presence of an immense body 
of French cavalry ready to charge. From the difficulties of the 
ground we could not manoeuvre, and retired into the wood ; the 
cavalry charged in after us, did us no harm, and were all cut to 
pieces; but their light troops advanced in such numbers as to 
oblige us to evacuate the wood at ten o'clock, after four hours' 
hard fighting, till night closed the business. We lost here in the 
first brigade. Lord Hay, Barrington, Brown, and Cross, killed ; 


Askew, Adair, Miller, Streatfield, Townsend, Stuart, Croft, 
Fludyer, and Lathel, wounded. I received a contusion in my 
right instep from a musket-shot, and a bayonet scratch over the 
eye ; but neither of any consequence. At night we bivouacked 
on the road; and in the morning of the 17th retired on the 
Brussels road, to preserve our communication with the Prussians, 
who had been separately attacked, and had retired on the 16th in 
the same direction. Lord Wellington took up a position with his 
whole army near Braine-larLeud, his right resting on the village 
of Waterloo, covering the approach from Charleroi; his left 
extending beyond, anacovering the approach from Nivelles — the 
whole position 12 miles from Brussek, and covering it in those 
directions. The night of the 17th was a miserably wet piquet 
bivouac for me, the rain falling in torrents. At noon on the 18th, 
the French made the most desperate attack with artillery, cavalry, 
and tirailleurs, ever witnessed. Our defence was equally terrible. 
The whole line was formed in squares and battalions ; not one man 
fell back ; the whole stood firm. The French cavalry repeatedly 
attacked 6chelon of squares after Echelon, and were repulsed ten 
or eleven times with immense loss. Our squares stood in the face 
of shot, shells, and everything else ; which caused great destruc- 
tion, without our being able to return a shot At eight o'clock, 
the enemy moved forward his old Guard, who were received by 
the first brigade of Ghiards, and a Dutch brigade, with Saltoun at 
their head, with such a fire, that they took to their heels ; their 
whole army fled in the greatest disorder, and was followed in 
sweeping lines, as fast as the lines could move. Our cavalry cut 
them to pieces. The abandoned guns, carriages, knapsacks, and 
muskets, choked up the ground ; and for five miles, in which we 
followed them last night, the field was covered with the bodies of 
Frenchmen only. Ine Prussians beat them in another attack of 
the same sort the same day, and took Napoleon's carriage and 
baggage. Napoleon commanded the army opposed to the Duke of 
\^^ington, and both were in the field together. We are just 
going to move ofi^ in pursuit I have not taken my clothes ofi^, or 
changed, siuce I left Enghien ; and don't know when I shall. I 
never was better in my life. On the 18th we lost Doyley and 
Pardee, killed ; Gen. Cooke, Lieut-col. Cooke, Stables, Lutterell, 
Batty, and Ellis, wounded." 

Extract of a Letter from an Ofjicer in the 2d Life Guards^ 

dated 20ili June^ 1815. 

** On the morning of the 16th inst about two o'clock, an order 
came for the cavalry to move from their cantonments, and we 
marched from Meerbeke about seven. We passed Enghien, 
Braine-le-Copte, and on approaching Nivelles about seven m the 



eveningy we first heud the cannonadingy which had oonunenced 
about three F.1L After passing through Nivelles, we proceeded at 
a trot for several miles along me chaius^ leading from diat town 
to Namur; and, on the approach of night, faivooacked in a wheat- 
field, between that road and the one leading firom Charleroi to 
Brussels, and in front of the village of Genappe. 

''Next morning (the 17th) our brigade, with the rest of the 
cavalry, was drawn up in line of battle, fincnting the wood where 
the French had retired during the night; but thej declinBd attack- 
ing us. Our in&ntry continued^ during the morning, to retire 
towards Brussels; it being Lord Wellington's intention to draw 
the French, bj a ruse ds ffnerre, to a spot of ground which he had 
fixed on, between Genappe and Brussels, as me most advantamous 
for giving them battle. After all the infimtry had retire^ the 
cavsSrj began to retire also, and were soon followed by that of 
the enemy. During this movement a violent thunder-storm came 
on, accompanied witn torrents of rain. The 1st Life Guards, with 
Lord UxDridge at their head, had an opportunity of chamng 
some French Lancers at the entrance into Genappe, which uiey 
did most gallantly, and almost cut them to pieces. We were to 
have given them another charge of the same sort, but they thought 
it prudent not to expose themselves to om* weight a second time. 
In the evening we bivouacked on a piece of marshy ground, near 
the village of Mont St. Jean, where, from the quantity of rain 
that had fallen, we were almost knee-deep in mua and water. It 
continued to rain in torrents the whole of the night, but cleared up 
about nine o'clock in the morning of the 18th. About eleven a«m. 
the action commenced, and the Household Brigade of cavalry was 
soon ordered forward to charge the Cuirassiers of the Imperial 
Gxtard, which they did with great success. A second charge left 
but few of them ; but we in our turn have suffered much, for the 
heaviest fire, which was truly tremendous^ was directed against 
the Household Brigade during the whole of the day, and it is 
astonishing how any of us escaped. Towards the evening, the 
fate of the day seemed doubtful, but the timely arrival of the 
Prussians turned the scale in our favour, and the French army 
was completdy routed, and retreated in the utmost confiudon^ 
leaving us masters of the field. 

'^The 1st Life Guards have lost CcIL Ferrior and Captain 
Lind, and several of the officers have been wounded. We nave 
lost Lieut-col. Fits^erald^ who was kiUed by a cannon-shot soon 
aft;er the first charge. Captain Irby was taken prisoner, his horse 
having fallen with him in returning from the charge. He has 
since made his escape and joined us ; but they have stripped him 
of his sword and money, and threatened to take his life. Lieut 
Wajououth is missing, but supposed to be taken prisoner. CoL 
Lygon and most of me officers had their hones wofinded during 




the action. Abont 10 p.u. the army biyouacked for the ni^tt 
there was then only one subaltern with two corporals and six pri-* 
vates of the 2d Life GKiards remauiing, and about double the 
number of the Ist Life Guards, but no officer, all or most of them 
having been dismounted. The command of the remains of the two 
regiments, for the night, was given by Lord Edward Somerset to 
the remaining officer of the 2d Regiment 

** Several of our men, who had their horses shot dtuing the 
battle, have joined us, mounted upon horses which had lost their 
rid^s, some belonging to our regiment, others to the 1st Life 
Guards, &c &c., and many French. The stragglers ct the other 
raiments are similarly mounted* We have at present about 40 
men with us ; we know of about 49 wounded, and the names of 
about 16 kiD^: but our loss has been much greater, as I imagine 
most of those returned missing are killed, as the French did not 
take many of our men prisoners.* 

*^ Lord Wellington was near our brigade several times in the 
course of the day. He appeared much pleased with the conduct 
of the troops, and is said to have observed to the General Officer 
near him, mat it was the hardest battle he ever fought, and that he 
had seen many charges of cavalry, but never any to equal those 
made by the heavy brigades, particularly the Household. We 
made in all four changes, viz. two against the Cuirassiers, and two 
against infimtry." 

Eastrad of a Letter by an OjffUer in the Light Dragoom. 


That previous to the Horse Guards' charge, on the IStli, this 
raiment was ordered to attack a body of Lancers and Cuiras- 
siers, on whom they could make no impression : that numbers of 
their men having fallen, they were forced to retreat, when the 
French were ordered to charge in their turn, and from the supe- 
rior weight of the horses and men, and theur species of armour 
and weapons, he had the mortification to see them cut down 
numbers of his regiment : that being in tiie rear, he soon received 
80 desperate a shock himself from one of the lancers as to plui^ 
himself and horse into a deep ditch, with such violence that l£e 
horse never got out alive; while he, being thrown, fortunately 
escaped with ufe, though immersed in, and covered with mud and 
water : that in his fall the lancer attempted to run him through, 
luckily missed his aim, and only tore away part of the flesh of 
the arm : that finding himself in the midst of the enemy, he had 
offered an officer to surrender, but who declined taking charge of 

• The 2d Life Giurds, on the morning of the 18th, were not much above ISO 
strong, a part of the regiment having been detached. But of this number, it has 
been since ascertained, that the loss on that day was 152 horses and 86 men, 
which includes those who were killed and those who died of their wounds. 


faim theoy and ordered him to an adjacent field, where were several 
others under similar circmnstanoea: that he had the mortification 
to witness from thence the overthrow of numbers of the men dur- 
ing their retreat, but at last, to his great satisfaction, saw the heavy 
brigade advance to the chai^, who, in their torn, overthrew every 
tiling in their way, literally rolling both men and horses of the 
French over to a considerable distance, by the tremendous force of 
their charge, and cutting down all before them. Seeing the face 
of affairs to be changed, he c<xitemplated upon an escape; and 
having communicated his idea to a brother officer near hun, they 
together made for another part of the field, and had hardly gained 
tlie summit of a steep bank when, looking back, they observed a 
small French detachment enter the field, and cut down in cold 
blood all the prisoners there waiting for the orders of their captors, 
to the number of thirty or forty, while only himself and companion 

A2d Highland Regiment* 

" The 42d Regiment was ordered to advance along with a 
Belgian corps, to support the Prussians, who were under fire. In 
the march, owing either to their own superior quickness or to, the 
want of ardour in the Belgians, the latter were le& behind ; and in 
a field of high standing com a column of French Lancers ad- 
vanced upon them. Col. Macara ordered the regiment to form a 
square, in doing which two companies were left out, or were 
rather in the act of falling in, when they were pierced by the Lan- 
cers, and in one moment overwhelmed, and hterally annihilated. 
The Lancers then attacked the square, and repeated the charge 
several times. One half of them were also mowed down, together 
with the brave Colonel; upon which Lieut-coL Dick toc^ the 
command, though wounded oy a musket-ball ; he succeeded in ral- 
lying and fonmng them into a diminished square, and thus pre- 
sented an undaunted resistance to the enemy. The Lieutenant- 
colonel was at length, from the loss of blood, carried from the 
field; wh^i he was succeeded by Captain Davidson, who had been 
previously twice wounded, but remained in the field till near the 
close of the 16th, when he received his death wound: but the gal- 
lant remnant of the men succeeded in putting the Lancers to flight 

• StOrad of a Letter from a Private in the 4Sld Regimemt to his Faiher. 

« General HotpUalj Antwerp^ Jwne 24, 1815. 

" On the Idih, about twelve o'clock at night, we tomed oat, and at two in the 
morning marched from the city of Bnissels to meet the enemy, who were 
advancing in great force on that city. About three o'clock in the afternoon of the 
16th we came up with them. Our whole force did not exceed 12,000 men, who 
were fatigued with a long march of upwards of twenty miles, encumbered with 


On t^e 16th, this r^ment had killed and wounded 284, on the 
18th, 49." 

Plan or thx Battle of the 16th Jumb. 


The pUn is moetl; intended to illustrate the foUowl]^ letter, which 
relates chiefl; to the glorious part which the 9Sd took in the contest ; 

knapsacka and other luggage. Th« da; *»s nncomiDOii]; warm, and no water 
to be had on the road ; however, we were brought up in order of battle. The 
Ft'eneh being strongl; posted in a thick wood, to ue nnmber of 40,000 men, 
iaclnding eavKtrj- and lanaerg, gare na tbt; little tima to look MOund as ere the 


it however gives detail, and will serre to explain the movements of other 
Highland regiments, who came thus earlv into the contest. Ttie 03d 
Regiment is designated by its number, in three different positions. 
The dotted line indicates the course of its advance against the enemy. 
The horizontal road is that leading from Brussels, by which our troops 
came up. The small circle in front of the second position of the 92d 
in the ditch, is the spot where the Duke of Wellington was so exposed. 
The road from the house, No. 2, to the village of Quatre Bras, No. 6, 
is that by which the French cavalry made the desperato charges re- 
counted below. No. 6 is the garden referred to in the letter as the 
scene of a dreadful resistance. No. 7 is the Brunswick cavalry, which 
were routed. The third position of the 02d, in the right-hand comer, 
close to the wood, is the spot to which their gallant remnant had 
reached, when they were relieved by the Guards. Here they were 
exposed to a flank fire from a column and a battery, besides a fire torn 
the body which they had so nobly driven back. The cavalry columns 
are indicated, on both sides, by a half circle extending from the paral- 
lelogram. The guns will be easily distinguished. 

92d Regimenty vmUen 2\8t of Jvneyfrcm Brussels, by a 

wounded Ojfflcer. 

<' The 9th Brigade consisted of 1st, or Royal Scots, 42d, 44th, 
and 92d regiments. The 8th brigade, the 32d, 28th, 79th, and 
95th. We marched 30 miles that night, and came up with the 

fight commenced on both sides, in an awful and destroctiye manner, they having 
every advantage of as, both as to position and numbers, paiticalariy in cavalry, 
and the British dragoons had not yet come up. The French cavvlry charged 
the British line of infantry three different times, and did much ezeeotioa, until 
we were obliged to form squarea of battalions, in order to torn them, whi<^ was 
executed in a most gallant maimer, and many hundreds of them never returned. 
Still they sent up fresh forces, and as often we beat Uiem back. The battle 
laaied imtil it was quite dark, when the enemy began to give way ; our poor 
feUewB who were left alive following them as long as they could see, when nig^t 
put an end to the fatigues of a well-fought day. Thousands on both sides ligr 
killed and wounded on the field of battle : and as the greater part of the action 
lay in eoni-fields along a vast tract of country, many himdreds must have died 
for want of assistance through the night, who were not able of themselves to 
crawl away. I was wounded by a musket-ball, which passed through my right 
arm and breast, and lodged in my back, from whence it was extracted by a 
surgeon in the hospital cmF this place. Captain M. is most severely wounded, 
having several shots through his body, and the regiment, in general, aie mostly 
cut off. We have heard, since we came here, that our fine brigade, which 
entered the field on that eventful day, consisting of the Sd battalion Royal Scots, 
42d, 44th, and 02d regiments, are now formed into one battahon, not exceeding 
in the whole 400 men. Lord Wellington retired in the night to wait for rein- 
forcements, and next day our cavalry and the rest of the army anived. Thus 
I have given you as full an account of affairs, principally what I witnessed on 
the 10th. NoUiing can exceed the kindness and attention of the inhabitants of 
this dty to our wounded men ; the hospital is constantly filled with ladies and 
gentlemen, who, although speaking a different language, personally administer 
to our wants with the kindest attention, distributing clean shirts, bread, wine, 
coffee, tea, milk, and fhiit of all sorts, with every requisite for our comfort and 


enemy aboat 2 or 3 o'clock next daj, tul the 16th. We were 
mimediately marched into the field, as there were only one British 
division and some Bronswickers there before we came up. The 
92d took the position in a ditch to cover the gons and the cavalry, 
being the jmuor regiment,'^-while the rest of the division went a 
little to the left to check the French infantry that were passing 
on thera We lay in a most disagreeable situation for upwards of 
an honr^ having an excellent view, however, of the nght, but 
exposed to a most tremendous fire, from their great ^uns, of shot, 
shells, grape, &c., which we found great difficulty in keeping clear 
of. I say keeping dear of^ because you can very oft^ see the 
round shot coming. This heavy fire was maintamed against us 
in oonsequmce ofthe Duke and his staff being only two or three 

J aids in front of the 92d {vide small circle in ]^an), perfectly seen 
y the French, and because all the reinforcements which ,were 
coming up passed along the road in which we were. Here I 
had a remarxable opportunity of witnesung the sana-fraid of the 
Duke, who, unconcerned at the showers of shot faUing on evei^ 
side of him, and killing and wounding a number of his staff, 
stood watching the enemy and giving orders with as much com- 
posed calmness as if he were at a review. The French cavalry 
were now beginning to advance in front of the 92d, to take the 
village, and ue Brunswick caval^ that were also in our front 
went on to meet them; but the French putting spurs to their 
horses to charge, the Brunswickers wheeled about and galloped 
upon the 92d in the greatest confrision. The French were soon 
up with their rear men, cutting them down most hcMrribly. The 
enemy also dismoimted the two guns I have marked. We did 
not allow the flying Brunswickers to break through our regiment, 
but they passed round our right fiacnk, close to the men's bayonets, 
having the French mingled with them, cutting away. We, of 
course, could not fire to nelp them till they haa cleared us. At 
the same instant, the road from the French lines towards the 
village was covered with cavaby at full speed charging* When 
the Brunswickers deared our right, we wheeled our grenadiers 
back on the road, the ditch of which we lined, that iSey might 
fire when the first of the French should pass No. 2 ; the rest were 
to fire obliqudy on the road and on the remains of those that 
followed the Brunswickers. The volley was decisive. The front 
of ihe French charge was completely separated from the rear by the 
gap which we made, and nothing was seen but men and horses 
tmnUixig on each other* Their rear retreated^ and the front 
dashed throu^ the village, cutting down all stragglers. Our 
assistant-sorgeon dresring a man behind a house. No. 4, had his 
bonnet cut in two, and a lance run into his side. Three of them 
came down the load through the grenadiers at frill speed, brand* 
isfai]^ their swords^ and our rear rank firing at them all ihe way. ^ 


Two were brought down, but the third (his hone gashing 
blood from all parts) had just cleared the regiment, when Colond 
Mitchell made a cut at him with his sabre, which he dexterously 
parried, but an officer of the staff cut with his sword the ham- 
strings of the fellow's horse, and he was taken. The rest were 
likewise taken, and they tell me that eight pursued the Duke a 
good way. I wonder how he got off, for I saw him in front not 
hve minutes before the charge. The enemy's charge being re- 
pelled, it was now our turn to have oiu* share of chai^ging. The 
French formed their cavalry again to charge, supported by 
infantry, and advanced past house No. 2, when Adjutant-general 
Barnes, our old brigadier in Spain and France, who is dotingly 
fond of the regiment, came down to the front, and calling out, 
* Come on, my old 92d,' the men jumped from the ditch and 
charged in the finest style, up to the house Na 2. He was then 
obliged to leave us, as it was not his duty to chai^, although he 
could not resist the impulse. We were then moved forward from 
behind the house, with our brave Colonel Cameron at our head. 
When we jumped from the ditch, the officer with the regimental 
colour was shot through the heart The staff of the colour was 
shattered in six pieces with three balls, and the staff of the King's 
colour with one. I got the remains of the regimentaL When 
we moved from behind the house, and had passed the comer of 
the garden parallel to the road, Na 5, w^e received a volley from 
a column on the right, which was retreatii^ towards the wood. 
This fire killed Colonel Cameron and Mr. Becher, and woimded 
a great many. This column of the enemy kept us five minutes 
before we could clear the garden in advance to the wood. The 
fire here was dreadful. There was an immense slaughter among us at 
this time, but the French began at last to give way, and retreated 
up the side of the wood, keeping up, however, a tremendous fire, 
and killing a great many of our regiment We had advanced so 
far that we were now completely separated from the rest of the 
line, and scarcely fiffy men of those of us who went into action 
were remaining. A regiment of Guards was afterwards sent up to 
relieve us, but not before thirty of that fifty were hit 

** We formed behind the houses after we left the field, with 
the loss, which you will see by the Gazette, of 23 officers and 270 

*^ Our regiment has again attracted the notice of all the staff. 
On the 18th, when the cavalry charged in such desperation, and 
the line formed squares, none stood but the 92d, and they charged 
with the Scots Greys at the time they took the eagles. 

^' In the afternoon of the 18th, the regiment, which was then 
reduced to about 200 men, found it necessary to charge a column 
of the enemy which came down on them, from two to three 
thousand men : they broke into the centre oi the column with the 



bajonet ; and the instant they pierced it^ the Scots (rreys dashed 
in to their support^ when thej and the 92d cheered and huzzaed 
* Scotland for ever I ' By the eflFort which followed, the enemy 
to a man were put to the sword or taken prisoners ; after which 
the Greys charged through the enemy's second line, and took the 

" It was perhaps the most destructive battle ever fought The 
loss fell almost entirely on our division, which, along with the 
Brunswick troops and some Prussians, was the only one up for 
the first two hours. The three Scotch regiments are nearly an- 
nihilated ! I — Ours had only six officers who escaped, and some are 
so dangerously wounded as to give little hopes of their recovery. 
We were amply revenged, however; and gave the French a 
lesson which they will not soon forget ; but they were so strong 
on this point, tliat, notwithstanding our giving them such a drub- 
bing, his Grace found it necessary to occupy a better position, by 
retiring about a league and a half in the rear. He expected another 
attack, but it did not take place ; and this gave time to Lord Hill 
and BlUcher to operate upon the enemy's flanks, which obliged 
him to retrograde. His Grace was strong enough to repel any 
attack that might be made upon him. 

" You womd be astonished how we could have borne the fa- 
tigue which we sufiered. We marched from Brussels at one in 
the morning, and arrived at three o'clock in the afternoon at the 
place of action, having marched nine leases. We were engaged 
in five minutes aflier, and continued so tul night. I was wounded 
about half-past eight, when I was obliged to walk six miles to 
the nearest village, where I lay in pam and sleepless till day- 
light I was again obliged to walk to Brussels, seven leagues; 
not being able to bear the motion of a waggon. The exertion has 
done me no good ; I am indeed surprised that I was able to stand 
it out The poor fellows who had escaped, bivouacked in the 
field, without tents or baggage— last night the same — and it has 
rained incessantly. I am unable to give you the particulars of 
the action — it was altogether brilliant and decisive. The High- 
landers and Royals, in particular, behaved admirably. Our 
regiment was charged by a body of Cuirassiers of the Guard, and 
we gave them a noble peppering. We also charged a column of 
infantry, which we dispersed; on getting behind some hedges 
they rallied, and gave us a terrible fire. It was here that our 
raiment suffered most Cameron, our gallant colonel {vide 
MUtary Notices of Fallen Heroes), and four other officers, fell 
almost at the same instant — this was about six o'clock. We 
drove them, however, firom all the hedges, and advanced upon 
two guns, which began to open upon us with grape. These we also 
drove from two different positions. The French suffered pro- 


digiotifily ; but our cavaliy and artillery not being ap» we could 
do no more than repel their attacks. 

** The courier arrived ui the Duke of Bassano's carriage^ Our 
regiment was again engaged, and suffered seyerely. There ia 
scarcely one officer left, rf ever was there sight so touchiE^ so 
extraordinary^ as this town presents, — ^the people in crowds goinz 
out to meet the wounded with refreshments, bandages, &c., — afi 
the women employed in the kindest offices. I returned to the 
house of my former landlord, where I am treated as if I were his 
own brother* The French prisoners are treated by the populace 
in the most violent manner ; the escort can with difficulty protect 
them from being attacked*'* 

The Scotch regiments, who had during the battle of the 18th given 
such proofs of heroic intrepidity, offered a most sympathetical example 
in appearing to forget their wounds, to render services to their wounded 
iron foe» who, but the minute before, had been attempting with ail their 
might to destroy them. We know from respectable persons, that 
upwards of 500 of the French owe their lives to their generous enemies. 
** Among these respectable warriors, the Scotch deserve to be particu- 
larly commemorated ; and this honourable mention is due to their dis- 
cipline, their mildness, their patience, their humanity, and their 
braveiy without example." 

" On the 16th and 18th of June, 1815, their valour was displayed 
in a manner the most heroic. Multiplied, constant, and almost un- 
heard-of proofs were given, I do not merely say of courage, but of 
devotion to their country, quite extraordinaiy and sublime ; nor must 
we forget that these men, so terrible in the field of battle, were mild 
and tranquil out of it** — Viscount VAia>EBF0S9E. 

Extracts Jwm Letters relative to Ae Conduct oftheSd Battalion of 

the Royals. 

Batik of Ae 16i/u 

'* I have great pleasure in detailing the conduct of the gaUant 
dd battalion of the Koyal Scots ; and uiough I have been present 
with the reoiment at the battles of Busaco, Salamanca, V ittoiia, 
Fuentes d'Honor, both stormingg of San Sebastian, the passage of 
the Bidassoa, &c. (in all of which they bore a most conspicuous part, 
and su£Pered moet severely), I can assure you they never evinced 
more steadiness and determined bravery than at the late battle. 
About half-past one o'clock on the 16u>i the battaMon was taken 
from its place in the centre oi the 6th Divisiim, by a movonent to 
its own left» by order of Sfar Thomas Picton, and instantly by com- 

jTvirriuut PABnccLA]i& 69 

mand of that lamented ofScer brought into action by a charge 
upon a column of the enemy ; it succeeded beyond oiu* most 
sanguine expectations in routing this column, which afterwards 
formed under the protection of their cay airy, and then commenced 
a most gallii^ fire upon us, which we returned with the utmost 
steadiness and precision. The battalion was brought into action 
under the most trying circumstances imaginable, and continued so 
for a long time; but they never for one moment lost si^t of that 
character which upon former triaJs they had so well earned and 
maintainecL The sround through which they moved was planted 
with com that tooK the tallest men up to the shoulders; and the 
enemy by this, and the adyantage of the risii^ ground, threw in 
yoUey aner yolley of grape and musketry, which did astonishing 

^ After being engaged for some time in a Une, the battalion 
was fi>rmed into a square to resist the enemy's cayalry, who were 
then adyancii^ in sreat force ; and I haye the pride of stating, 
that though chained six or seyen times by an urnnite superiority 
of numbers, the French cavalry never for an instant made ttie 
slightest impression upon the square of the Royal Scots. 

*' The hi^ enoomiums given to this battalion on the morning 
of the 17th, by the geoeral officers both of brigade and division, 
for its condbct on the 16th, haye made me yery proud of being a 
Royal Scot. The Cuirassiers neyer were able to make uie 
smallest impression upon our squares, nor did we lose one single 
man by the cavalry. We were at the yery commencement of Uie 
action sent with Sir James Kempt's brigade, by order of Sir T. 
Picton, and remained apart from our own brigade the whole day. 
The 4:2d and 92d were chiefiy engaged near a village, in which 
the Commander of ihe Forces remamed with the head-quarters for 
a great part of the afternoon. Our battalion and the 28 th formed 
one square, and it so happened that the Cuirassiers chained that 
part of the square in which the Royals were posted. 

^' On the afUasioon of the 17th, the battalion, in concert with 
the rest of the army, retired through the village of Genanpe, and 
took up the position of Waterloo, which was destined to add fresh 
glory to the British arms. About nine o'clock in the morning of 
me IBtb, the battalion was attacked by the enemy, and with yery 
little interruption the entire day, they formed a line of skirmishing 
in front of the brigade. I have often seen the battalion en- 
gaged, but I must confess, on this trying day, they ftr excdled 
any thing I eyer vritnessed ; and, indeed, so pleasea was the late 
General ricton with their gallantry and good conduct, that he 
several times eiqpressed it mmself to them in the most flattering 


Extract of a Letter fr(mt Charleroif June 20th, in the morning. 

[The well-known sentiments of the functionary who is the author 
of this letter, guarantees the authenticity of the details which 
he gives.] 

** The 14th in the evening, the Prussians were informed that 
a movement was executing along the whole French line; and, 
in fact, at 7 A.K. on the 15th, the tirailleurs were upon Mar- 
chiennes-sur-Pont and Couillet There were several affidrs of 
out-posts, and the firing of musketry took place as far the entrance 
of the wood of Gilly. The French remamed masters of the town 
at eleven 

** Buonaparte^s army defiled during two days ; he was himself 
at the head of the first column ; he passed through here at three 
o'clock, as far as the wood of Gilly, where he took a position. 

*^ About 6 or 7 p.m. he returned to lodge at Puissants, and set 
oiF again the next morning at 10, to direct the battle which took 

{Jace from Ligny to Quatre Bras. I never in my life saw a finer 
■"rench army than that which he had this time.* 

'* It was wholly composed of veteran troops, and had a consi- 
derable maiidrieL W ell, m twice twenty-four hours he has lost alL 
His soldiers began to arrive here on the 18th, at 7 p.m., in the 
most terrible (usorder. Three quarters of those who returned 
were wounded. The generals and officers were in the most cruel 
despair, and vented a £ousand imprecations against this man, who 
cannot satiate himself with blood: they will not serve him any 
longer. Almost all the colonels, majors, and generals are either 
killed or wounded. In a word, of 40,000 cavalry who passed 
through here, not 10,000 capable of service have returned ; they 
all tb^w away their arms, and every soldier said he was going 
home, and that nobody should ever bring him into the fire again. 

*^ Officers have told me, that the retreat from Moscow was not 
near so terrible as this, because the generals and chiefe of corps 
had abandoned every thing, and saved themselves as they could. 

'* Of the immense artillery which Buonaparte had, only twelve 
pieces of cannon have returned. 

'^ From Quatre Bras to Beaumont you cannot take four steps 
without finding effects that have been abandoned* More than 100 
caissons, loaded with ammunition, provisions, and money, were 
abandoned in the streets of Charleroi, which, in three hours, were 
all pillaged by the populace. 

** I nave just learned, that almost all the villages through 
which the French passed in their retreat have been plundered. 
Marshal Blucher's corps is here, and the heads of his columns are 

* N3.— The writer has served several campaigns as a conscript. 


advancing to Beamnont The French prisoners taken by the 
Prussians are sent to Tirlemont, Louvainy Liege, &c« Their 
number is immense ; the artillery taken is sent to the rear of the 

From a Correspondent at Brusseb, June 22. 

" After the action of the 16th, which was uncommonly obsti- 
nate and bloody, both armies retired a few miles. The French 
occupied a large wood near Genappe; the English took up a 
strong position, with a village called Waterloo in their centre 
(which was head-quarters), about thirteen miles from Brussels, 
having the fine forest of Soign^, which extends from thence to the 
very gates of Brussels, in their rear. The Prussians, under Ge- 
neral ^ulow, were posted on the left of the Anglo-Belgic army, 
having the small town of Wavre for their head-quarters. All 
Saturday, the 17th, both sides were busy preparing for the ter- 
rible contest A cannonade was kept up at intervals. The weather 
was sultry, with heavy showers and much thunder and lightning. 
The British artillery and cavalry (the want of which was severely 
felt on the 16th, had now come up, with the 27th, and some other 
fresh regiments. The ground being unequal, the little hills and 
swells were ftimished with cannon. These preparations continued 
till about noon of Sunday the 18th, when the French debouched 
from their coverts, and were astonished, but not daimted, to find 
us so well prepared to receive them. They made their attack with 
more than then* usual impetuosi^, attempting to cut our line and 
turn our left wing ; in which, if they had succeeded, they would 
have separated us from the Prussians. To efiect this, they made 
the most astonishing and reiterated efibrts, cplumn propelling 
column, whilst their artillery and mortars scattered destruction 
along our whole line. They, in fact, did succeed in breaking 
up some of our squares of infantry, notwithstanding the most 
heroic acts of courage that ever were displayed in any battle. 
But the enemy's columns were shaken ; his men could no longer 
be made to stand ; and his officers fought, unsupported by their 
soldiers, like men in despair. At this critical moment the grand 
and general charge was made. Our brave fellows poured down 
on me enemy with irresistible force ; and about nine o'clock the 
French gave up the well-fought field, and retreated about six 
miles, leaving the ground uickly strewed with killed and 
wounded, arms, cannon, and baggage. How our great Hero of 
the battle escaped being killed or twen is wonderfrd, as he was 
never exposed so much before. He was seen with his spy-glass 
viewing the manoeuvres of the field, with the same sang-froid 
and self-possession that an astronomer might be supposed to view 
the satelutes of Jupiter : whilst showers of balls and shells fiew 
about him, with evident direction, and which killed and wounded 


fleveral of his sta£ A select party of French cavahy cut thdr 
passage throu£^h our line of infantry, and were near succeeding in 
taking him prisoner. At one critical time, when our lines and 
squares were wavering, Lord Wellington himself, at the head of 
the 95th^ charged and drove back the most advanced of the 
enemy.— ( Vide Etching.) 

''The feats of particular regiments were also remarkable. 
The 28thy formed into a square^ repulsed the repeated efforts 
of the Cuirassiers to break through them. The 73d did the 
same ; it repulsed every thing until its flanks were opened by 
showers of grape.— ^Fufe Etching.) 

''The three Highland regiments, the 42d, 79th, and 92d, 
already thinned in the action of the 16th, and of which they 
bore Uie brunt, were now reduced to compete skeletons. Such 
was also the state of the 44th after the acti(»i* Nor were the acts 
of the cavalry less meritorious, particularly the Heavy Brigade. 
The charge was led by the 6th, or EnniAilling Dragoons, ¥dth 
Sir William Ponsonby at their head. They cut down everything 
before them, and overturned the French Chasseurs like nin&- 

f>ins. It is said they actually made 3000 prisoners. They were 
bllowed up with equal intrepidity by the Guards, the Scotch 
Greys, and the 1st Dragoon Guards : but to enumerate the par- 
ticular deeds of each, would require the historic page to contain 
them. Su£Sce it to say, that all the British did theur duty in the 
most exemplary manner, as they never fSul to do: nor shall I 
tarnish so brilliant a battle by making any remarks on corps who 
might not have been so stea^. As to the enemy, it is but justice 
to say, his courage and conduct equalled, if not surpassed, the 
finest of his former exploits. It would be unworthy in us to wish 
to elevate our own character by traducing our enemies. For by 
how much his valour shall have been conspicuous, by so mucn 
the more glory will they have acquired who have beat him. 
History will have a fine and just subject of jnraise in that of his 
Royal Highness the Hereditary Prince of Belgium. Towards the 
close of the day, when our lines were bending, he was at the head 
of his people, cheering and exciting th^n, amidst the hottest fire ; 
in doing which, his Royal Highness received a musket-ball in his 
left arm, which ultimately locked in the shoulder." 

Extract of a Letter from a German Officer^ July 16. 

^' I have visited the field of battle.* The sleep of the dead is 
sound. On the spot where this day month thousands thronged 
and fought, where thousands sank ai^ bled, and groaned and died, 

* Those who witnessed the field two days after the battle, state that the spec- 
tad o was most honible; the contortion of the fallen was inconceivable, and this 
horrur was increased l^ the large masses of horssB that UXlr^EdUor, 


there is now not a liying soul, and oyer all hovers the stillness of 
the grave. 

^' In Limy 2000 dead were buried. Here fought the West- 
phalian ana Berg regiments. Limy is a village built of stone 
and thatched with straw, on a smdl stzeam which flows through 
flat meadows. In the village are several farm-houses, inclosed 
with walls and S^teA, Every farm-house the Prussians had cour 
verted into a fortress. The French endeavoured to penetrate 
through the village by means of superior numbers. Four times 
were they driven out. At last they set on fire the farm-houses in 
the upper end of the village with their howitzers ; but the Prus- 
sians still kept their ground at the lower end. A whole company 
of Westphalum troops fell in the court-yard at the church ; on the 
terrace before the church lay 60 dead. 

"In the evemng the French surromided the village. The 
Prussians retired half a league ; the position was lost ; and it is 
imcomprehensible why the French did not follow up the advan- 


^* This was on the 16th. The same day a French column 
marched by the high road of Charleroi to Brussels. 

^* At Quatre Bras they found the Duke of Brunswick and the 
Prince of Orange. Here the battle was as hot as at Ligny. The 
Duke let himsdf be carried away by his ardour into the fire of 
small arms; a musket-ball went through his bridle-hand, and 
entered the belly : the liver was penetrated; he fell^ and breathed 
his last in ten minutes. His sufierings were short 

^^ At the inn by the cross-roads at Quatre Bras the contest 
was the hottest Here are the most craves. The wounded 
reeled into the inn-yard, leaned against l£e walls, and then sank 
down. There are still the traces of the blood on the walls, as it 
spouted forth from the wounds with departing life. 

'^ Where the battle was, the fields are -completelv trodden 
down for a circuit of about a league. On both sides of the high* 
road, ways are made about 100 feet broad, and you can still 
follow the march of the battalions in all directions through the fine 
fields of maize. 

^^ On the 18th, the battle was renewed four leagues nearer 
Brussels, on both sides of the high-road. The spot is a plain, 
sprinkled with hillocks. The diameter of the field of battle may 
be about aleaffue and ahal£ Buonaparte placed himself near the 
farm-house ofMont St Jean, on a rismg ground, whence he could 
overlook the whole. Beside him was one Lacoste, a Walloon, 
who now lives near the hamlet of Belle Alliance, and who was 
employed as a guide. This man told me as follows: 'When 
the Prussians came out of the wood of Fritschermont, Buonaparte 
observed them with his glass, and asked one of his adjutants who 


they were. The latter, upon looking through his ghiss, replied, 
' They are the Prussian coloars.' That moment his face assomed 
a chalkj whiteness, as if the ghost of the samted Queen of Prussia 
had appeared to him, whom he persecuted to death. He said 
nothing, but merely once shook his head.' 

" When he saw that the battle was lost, he rode off with his 
general staff and the above guide. He had told Lacoste that he 
wished to be conducted by a by-road to CharleroL 

" Genap{)e is an open market-town, a league and a half from 
the field of battle, through which runs the Dyle, a small stream. 
At the lower end of Genappe lies an iron forge, which it drives. 
A quarter of a mile lower lies the village of W ays, at which there 
is a bridge. An officer had arrived at Genappe about five in the 
afternoon, with orders to withdraw the baggage. He had already 
considered the battle as lost, because the reserves had been 
brought into the fire. When the flight became almost universal, 
the military waggons were driven sixteen a-breast on the cause- 
way. In tiie narrow Genappe they were wedged in together, and 
Lacoste relates that it took an hour and a half to get through 
them. It was half-past twelve at night before they got out of £e 
town, with 150 horses of the staff. I asked him why he did not 
take Buonaparte by the bridge of Ways, where nobody passed; he 
replied, * I was not aware of this road.' 

'^ Thus with all the maps of the war d6p6t, with all the engineer 
geographers, who with their repeating circles can set off the geo- 
graphical position of places even to a second, Buonaparte, with a 
large staff, here depended on the ignorance of a peasant, who did 
not know that there was a bridge over the Dyle at Ways. 
People talk a great deal of military skill and nulitary science, 
while often in decisive moments tne whole depends upon the 
knowledge of a very common man. 

*^ In the village of Planchenoit, the fourth of a league firom 
Belle Alliance, the Gnards were posted. The principal house in 
the village is nearly burnt down. It is inhabited by a very in- 
telligent farmer of the name of BemhanL He, like the ouiers, 
had fled on the day of battle; but witnessed, on an opposite 
height, the combat between Bulow and the French reserve, and 
comd give a very good description of it. He carried me to the 
key of the position opposite Fritschermont He told me that 
the peasant who guided Bulow's army resolved not to come out of 
the wood at Fritschermont, but to <fescend into the valley lower 
down, and to penetrate by Planchenoit, nearly in the rear of the 
French reserves. ^Then,' said he, 'we shall take them all.' 
The period was truly most critical when the Prussians came to the 
attack. Wellington was hard pressed, all his reserves were 
already in action, he was already compeUed to withdraw some of 
his artillery^ and a countryman from the vicinity of Braine-la- 


Leud told me that he saw some of the army (as he expressed it) 
en dibandage, Buonaparte was probably only waiting for the 
moment when, with his Guards, he could decide the iiy. We 
shudder w^hen we reflect, that at this important moment all de- 
pended on the local knowledge of a single peasant Had he 
guided wrong, had he led them into the hollow way throufrh 
which the cannon could not pass, had Bulow's army come up;m 
hour later, the scale had probably descended on the other side. 
Had Buonaparte been victorious, and advanced to the Rhine, 
the French nation would have been intoxicated with victory, and 
with what they call the national glory, and a levy en masse would 
have been effected throughout allFrance. 

" How great soever the number of killed and wounded in a 
battle may be, yet, as compared with the amount of the armies 
engaged, it may generally be pronounced moderate However 
murderous our artillery are, yet their operation is inconsiderable, 
as relative to the great number of rounds. At the battle of 
Leipsic, probably only about one in the hundred of cannon and 
cartridge balls fired took effect The battle of Waterloo was 
more sanguinary from the smallness of the field of battle ; pro- 
bably every sixth man fell in it 

" The disorder of a battle generally first originates with the 
runaways, who fly from an impression that all is lost, and who 
bawl this out to others, in order to exeuse their own flight. Al- 
though the Prussian army, on the 16th, retreated omy half a 
league from Ligny, yet shoals of fugitives passed through Liege 
and Aix-la-Chapelle, spreading universal alarm. I fell in with 
some of them twenty-five leagues from the field of battle ; they 
asserted that the French were within a mile of Brussels, and their 
light troops already in the -suburbs. On the 18th, so early as five 
in the afternoon, French ruilaways came to the inn at Quatre 
Bras, who had fled from the field, even at the time when circum- 
stances seemed very favourable to them. 

" The- idea of being cut off operates very strongly upon men ; 
should it get possession of the mass, then all order is lost, and the 
army destroys itself. Hence may be explained the great defeat of 
the French on the 18th. In Genappe there was nothing but pell- 
mell confrision, and they suffered themselves to be cut down like 
cattle. In Genappe, 800 lay on the spot General Duhesme, who 
commanded the rear guard, was cut down by a Brunswick hussar 
at the gate of an inn. * The Duke fell yesterday, and thou shalt 
also bite the dust:' so saying, the black hussar cut him down. 
The fury of the Brunswickers no longer knew any bounds. 

" Wellington's army consisted cliiefly of young regiments, 
and very many of whofti were quite youths. What supported 
them, was the confidence which they had in the talents of their 


" The Ik»l^ans and DuU^li, by the common victory in which 
they participattHl, have been pretty well amalgamated and fira- 
temised. Besides, the nation feels itself honoured by its brave 

IjetJttT from Prince Bemhard of Saxe Weimar, to his Father. 

" Bivouac near Waterloo^ in the Wood between Brussels 
and Genappe, June 19rt, 1815. 

" Dear Father, — ^Thank God I am still alive, and have escaped 
nnhurt from two bloody battles. The first was on the 16th of 
June, the second was yesterday. I beg you, when you read this, 
to take Ferrari's map in your hand, il^or four weeks I was in 
cantonments in Genapf)e, with the regiment of Orange Nassau, of 
which I am Colonel. On the 15th 1 was api)ointed Brigadier of 
the second brigade of the division Perponcher ; my predecessor 
had had the misfortune to break his 1^. Besides my two bat- 
talions of Orange Nassau, I now had under my command three 
battalions of the Duchy of Nassau, when my brigade was 4000 
strong: to-day I have not 1200 left! On the 15th, the French 
fell uix)n the Prussian army, and pressed it very much. My 
brigade continued on the left wing of the Dutch army, the heacl- 
quarters of which were at Braine-le-Comte — my division lay in 
Nivelles. A battalion of Nassau were at Frasne, and also a bat^ 
tery of Dutch horse -artillery. When the Prussians retreated 
towards Fleurus, the post at Frasne was attacked and driven 
back. The infantry threw itself into a wood on the right, and the 
artillery retired fighting to Quatre Bras. At this important post 
I had drawn my bri£:ade together, and cannonaded the enemy, 
whom I succeeded in keeping off. I maintained this post throngh 
the whole night Towards morning, on the 16th, I was reinforced 
by a battalion of Dutch yagers, and a battalion of militia. Soon 
after arrived my General of Division and the Prince of Omnge. 
With the latter I went to tlie out-posts, and by his order imder- 
took a reconnoissance, with a battalion and two cannon. Towards 
noon the enemy showed strong columns, and began to cannonade 
us. It is said he had three corps of his army engaged against us 
on this day. We had only five battalions to oppose to him, and 
the skirts of a wood to defend to the utmost 

" The Duke of Wellington himself was present at the begin- 
ning of the action: I kept my gtound a long time against an 
enemy thrice my number, and had only two Belgic cannons to 
protect myself with. The enemy took the point of a wood oppo- 
site me, and incommoded my left flank. I, without loss of time, 
took some volunteers and two companies of Dutch militia, and 


recovered my wood at the point of the bayonet : I was at the 
head of the storming parties, and had the honour to be one of the 
first in the wood. In cutting away some branches I womided 
myself with my sabre very slightly in the right leg, but was not 
a moment out of battle. It is, m fact, not worth while to mention 
this wound ; I write to you about it, only that you and my good 
mother may not be alarmed by exaggerated and foolish reports. 
While I manfully defended my wood/the enemy drove back our 
left wing as far as Quatre Bras. It was on this occasion that the 
brave Duke of Brunswick was killed by a ball, which entered his 
breast. Strong columns of infantry turned my right flank; I 
asked for orders how to act, but received none. When I saw 
myself surrounded on all sides, and my people had expended all 
their ammunition, I retreated in good order through the wood to 
the neighbourhood of Hautain-le-VaL The Hanoverian division 
Alten supported me, and recovered the wood, but lost it again ; 
at last it was forced by the English with great loss, and main- 
tained through the night I bivouacked for tne ni^^ht in the wood. 
The Prussians retreated this day to Wavre, an^ on account of 
this retreat we were obliged to retire to the position near Mont 
St. Jean, between Genappe and Brussels; this was done on the 
17th. We were obliged to bivouac for the night upon a very 
muddy soil, in the most dreadful rain. Yesterday about ten 
o'clocK began the decisive battle, which was completely gained 
towards evening by Wellington over Napoleon in person. A 
hundred and sixty cannon are the fruit of this bloody victory. I 
commanded on the left wing, and was charged to maintain a 
village and a position. With a great loss of men I succeeded. 
The victory was still doubtful, when, about four o'clock, the 
Prussians, under Generals Bulow and Ziethen, arrived upon our 
left flank, and decided the battle. Unhappily the Prussians, who 
were to support me in my village, mistook my Nassauers, whose 
uniform is still very French, though their hearts are true Grerman, 
for Frenchmen, and made dreadful fire upon thenL They were 
driven from their post, and I rallied them a quarter of a league 
from the field of battle. My General of Division, whose first bri- 
gade was wholly destroyed, is now with me. I must conclude, 
because I have just received orders to proceed to Nivelles in piup- 
suit of the enemy. Farewell, dear father ; salute my mother, my 
sister-in-law, my brother, and all my friends; and be assured 
that I will do everything to be worthy of you. 

" The Colonel and Brigadier, 

" Beknhard of Saxe Weimar. " 


Extract of a letter from an Ojjicer in the Army of the late 

Duke of JJrumwicL 

" Brunsunck, June 29, 1815. 

** — On the 15th, in. the evening, about ten o'clock, a letter 
was brought from the Duke of Wellington's office, which con- 
tained an order tliat all the trooi)s might be concentrated at the 
Allee Verte, near Brussels, on the following morning at day-break. 
Orders were accordingly given, and sent off* as fast as possible: 
but the dislocations being rather at a great distance, the troops 
could not arrive before five o'clock ; when our lamented Duke, on 
the instant, marched through Brussels, and so on to the road to 
Waterloa Directly afterwards the Duke of Wellington followed, 
and, after showing a letter to the Duke, changed his horse ; they 
then set off together, and were as fast as possible followed by 
their suites. About ten o'clock we arrived at Quatre Bras, where 
we found part of the Na^^sau troops engaged, and heard itiBt the 
French advanced very fast, and were exceedingly strong. We 
then went on a hill to observe their approach; but hardly had 
they perceived the number of officers, but the rascals fired at us 
with grenades: so we were obliged to leave the spot, and I nar- 
rowly escaped being killed. About twelve o'cIock we returned; 
and the Duke strongly expressed his wish of having an oppor- 
tunity of meeting the French in equal force with his troops. To 
his great satisfaction, the Royal Scotch, the Hanoverians, and his 
own corps, arrived betwixt one and two o'clock. Tired and hun- 
gry as they were, they sang as they passed the Duke, abusing and 
swearing against Buonaparte, wishing that they might soon meet 
him, and have an opportunity of setting the soldiers of the Grande 
Nation to rights. Hardly had we marched half-an-hour when we 
saw the French expecting us on a hill. The Duke of Wellington 
then ordered to collect the troops as quick as possible, and to pre- 
pare for battle. At two o'clock all was ready, and the attack 
began. The battle was very bloody, but we compelled the enemy 
to retreat About half-past four the French advanced again, and 
appeared double the number of the AlUed army; but no fear 
was shown. The cannonade began most horribly, which in some 
respects put the train and ba^age in concision; however, the 
troops stood, and fought h'ke lions: so the French were again 
obliged to retreat, and were driven back to their position. Here 
they had a great advantage, being covered by a little wood, where 
they had placed all their ardll&ry and riflemen. The Duke of 
Wellington most likely knew this, and ordered a fresh attack, to 
get the French out of the wood. The troops advanced, the 
Brunswick division on tlie left wing. When they came near the 
wood the French commenced a horrible fire with artillery and 

« k 



case-shot, which occasioned a great loss to our corps. In this 
attack, which was about seven o'clock in the evening, the Duke 
was unfortunately killed on the spot by a case-shot* At this 
moment I was not far from his Highness, and ordered our small 
carriage, thinking that he was only wounded — when, alas I to my 
inexpressible sorrow, I found he was dead. My feelings I cannot 
describe, but you wiU be able to form to yourself an idea." 

Letters written from Fleurus. — Juiie 17, 1815. 

^^ The French armies have again immortalised themselves on 
the plains of Fleurus. 

" We entered Belgium on the 15th. The enemy was over- 
thrown in a first affair upon every point where he attempted to 
resist us. 

" Before Charleroi several of his squares were broken and 
taken by some squadrons only: 1700 prisoners only could be 
saved out of 5000 or 6000 men, who composed those squares. 
Yesterday (the 16th) we encountered the whole of the enemy's 
army, in its position near Fleurus ; its right, composed of English, 
under the command of Wellington, was in front of Meller; its 
centre at St Amand, and its left at Sombref — a formidable posi- 
tion, covered by the little river Ligny. 

" The enemy occupied also the little village of Ligny, in front 
of this river. Our army debouched in the plain, its left mider 
Marshal Ney, by Gosselies ; the centre, where the Emperor was, 
by Fleurus ; and the right under General Girard, upon Sombref. 
The action began at two o'clock upon the left and centre. Both 
sides fought with inconceivable fury. The villages of St Amand 
and Ligny were taken and re-taten four times. Our soldiers 
have all covered themselves with glory. At eight o'clock the 
Emperor, with his whole guard, had Ligny attacked and carried. 
Our brave fellows advanced at the first discharge upon the prin- 
cipal position of the enemy. His army was forced in the centre, 
and obliged to retreat in the greatest oisorder ; Bliicher, with the 
Prussians, upon Namur, and Wellington upon Brussels. 

"Several pieces of cannon were taken by the Guard, who 
bore down all before them. All marched i^ith cries a thousand 
times repeated oi^Vive VEmpereur!^ These were also the last 
words of the brave men who fell. Never was such enthusiasm ; 
a British division of 5000 or 6000 Scottish was cut to pieces ; we 
have not seen any of them prisoners. The Noble Lord must be 
confounded. There were upon the field of battle eight enemies 
to one Frenchman. Their loss is said to be 50,000 men. The 
cannonade was like that at the battle of Moskwa. 

• Vide etching. 


"This morning, the 17th, the cavahrj of Greneral Pajol is 
gone in pursuit of the Prussians upon the road to Namur. It is 
ahpeady t^'o leagues and a half in advance ; whole bands of pri- 
soners are taken. They do not know what is become of their 
commanders. The rout is complete on this side, and I hope we 
shall not so soon hear again of the Prussians, if they should ever 
be able to rally at all. 

" As for the English, we shall now see what will become of 
them. The Emperor is here.** 

Some private letters from the army give the following par- 
ticulars: — 

" The English are retiring upon Brussels by the forest of 
Soignies ; the Prussians are falling back upon the Meuse in great 

"The 17th, at 11 p.m., the Emperor had his head-quarters 
at Planchenoit, a village only five leagues from Brussels. The 
rain fell in torrents. His Majesty was fatigued, but he was very 

" Count Lobau, who was marching with the 6th corps upon 
Namur, was, with his vanguard, only half a league from the town. 
Five battalions are gone from Lille to escort tne prisoners taken 
on the 15th and 16th." 

Telegraphic Bulletins from Paris, dated tlie 17</t, ai two o^clock, 
and transmitted to Lille and Boulogne the 18iA, at four in the 

" On the 15th, the French army forced the Sambre and en- 
tered Charleroi, made 1500 prisoners, took six pieces of cannon, 
and destroyed four Prussian regiments. We have lost very few 

"On the 16th, his Majesty the Emperor gained a complete 
victory over the English and Prussians united, commanded by 
Lord Wellington and Prince Bliicher." 

Letter from the Duke of Wellington to Sir Cliarles FUnL 

" Would you credit it. Napoleon overthrown by the gallantry 
of a British army 1 — But I am quite heart-broken by tne loss I 
have sustained ; my friends, my poor soldiers — how many of them 
have I to regret! — I shall follow up this tide of success, and I 
shall not be satisfied even with this victory, if it be not foDo\red 
by the total overthrow of Buonaparte." — June ISth, 


Prince Blucher's Letters. 

To his Excellency the General Count KdUcreiiihy Governor of 


Head Quarters at Genappe, June 19, 1815, J past Jive A.M. 

I hereby acquaint your Excellency, that in conjunction with 
the English army, under the Duke of Wellington, I obtained 
the completest victory that it is possible to gain over Napoleon 
Buonaparte. The battle was fought in the neighbourhood of a 
few insulated houses, lying on the road from this place to Brussels, 
and called La Belle Alliance ; and I think there cannot be a better 
name for this important day. The French army is in a state of 
entire disorganization, and a prodigious quantity of artillery is 
taken. Time does not allow me to give your Excellency any 
further particulars at this moment I reserve to myself the com- 
munication of the details, and beg your Excellency to publish this 
joyful news to the good people of Berlin. 

" Blucher.** 

To the Princess BlilcJier, written immediately after the Battle. 

** My dear Wife, — You well remember what I promised you, 
and I have kept my word. The enemy's superiority of numbers 
obliged me to give way on the 17th ; but on the 18 th, in con- 
junction with my friend Wellington, I put an end at once to 
Buonaparte's dancing. His army is completely routed, and the 
whole of his artillery, baggage, caissons, and equipages, are in my 
hands ; the insignia of aUthe various orders he had worn are just 
brought me, having been found in his carriage, in a casket I 
had two horses killed under me yesterday. It will soon be over 
with Buonaparte. " Bluchbr." 

" P. S. (Written by the Prince's son on the road to Grenappe.) 
Father Blucher embraced Wellington in such a hearty manner, 
that every body who was present said it was the most affecting 
scene that could be imagined." 

From anoHier official Letter. 

" Gosselies, June 20. 

** I have recovered from my fall, but I have had again a horse 
wounded. I believe now that we shall not so soon have any con- 
siderable battles, perhaps not at all. The victory is the most 
complete that ever was gained. Napoleon escaped in the ni^ht, 
without either hat or sword. I send both sword and hat to-day 
to the King. His most maCTificently embroidered state mantle 
and his carriage are in my nands, as also his perspective glass. 


with which he observed us during the battle. His jewels and all 
his valuables are the booty of our troops. Of his equipage he has 
nothing left. 

" Many a private soldier has got 500 or 600 dollars in booty. 
Buonaparte escaped under favour of the night The consequences 
of this victory are incalculable, and Napoleon's ruin will be the 
result of it ** Blucheb." 

To Majar^eneral Von DobschutZf MiKtary Governor of the 

Pruman Provinces on the Rhine. 

Head-Quarters at Merbes-U'Chateau^ June 21. 

Sir, — It is with great pleasure I inform you, that the conse- 
quences of the victory of the 18th continue to prove more and 
more brilliant The enemy's army is entirely broken up, and has 
lost, as near as we can calculate, 300 cannon ; not a regiment of 
the enemy's is together, and subordination has ceased among them. 
During the battle of the 18th, a French corps had penetrated to 
Wavre, to operate on our line of communication, and hinder us 
from supporting the Duke of Wellington; this corps of the 
enemy's was yesterday forced back by Lieutenant-general Von 
Thiehnann, who was opposed to it at Wavre, as far as Namur, 
and Lieutenant-general Fhielmann probably occupied that place 
vesterday evening. Maubeuge was surrounded yesterday, and 
Landrecies and Avesnes will be so to-morrow. Blucheb." 

Letter from an Officer of high Rank in the Prussian Army, 
" Genappe-sur-Oise, near Guise, June 24, 1815. 

**The army has behaved gloriously. The 3d corps had to 
cover our rear while we were engaged: it had some severe 
attacks to support, and fought without interruption on the 18th, 
19th, and 20tb; it was at nrst in a critical situation, but extri- 
cated itself very well ; if we had lost the battle, this was our only 

** Never was any battle so fine as ours at La Belle Alliance, 
never batde so decisive, and never was an enemy so completely 
destroyed. With some corps of the army we had got unperceived 
into the rear of the enemy, who with great superiority of numbers, 
and still greater impetuosity, had attacked the Duke of Wellington, 
and kept ourselves concealed in a wood. 

^^ Just as the fate of the day was dubious, the British army 
had lost considerable ground, and the enemy was ready to strike 
another blow against it, we resolved, though our columns were 
for the most part not come up, to make the attack with two bri- 
gades only : we therefore burst out of the wood, exactly in the 


rear of the enem j, and opened our fire. The enemy was now in 
a desperate situation, but fought, however, with a desperation 
suitable to it, and turned all his reserve against us. We main- 
tained our position. The enemy brought up fresh troops against 
us ; but we also became stronger every quarter of an hour : tlie 
firing became so violent, that the enemy's cannon-balls flew by us 
without ceasing, not to mention our own fire ; I could scarcely 
hear the notices that were brought, and give the necessary orders ; 
and though my voice is very powerful, I was obliged to exert it 
to the utmost in order to be heard. As our troops continued to 
be reinforced, we advanced cautiously, but incessantly : it was a 
grand sight to see our battalions, formed into square masses, descend 
from the heights, which rise like terraces, preceded by their 
batteries and sharpshooters. After an obstinate resistance the 
enemy's army was oroken, and fled in the utmost disorder. Gene- 
ral Gneisenau, resolved to leave him not a moment's repose, put 
himself at the head of the troops, encouraged the tired men to 
follow him, and so with only a few cannon, which we fired from 
time to time, we drove him from all his bivouacs, an^ continually 
firing and cutting him down, we pursued till we at last reached the 
Guards. Buonaparte had intended to stop at Genappe ; but when 
he heard our cannon, and our cavalry and infantry, though few in 
number, come up, he escaped from his carriage, defending himself 
with his pistols. Besides nis hat and sword, his seal-ring was also 
taken, and now blazes on the hand of the hero Gneisenau. We 
have got all his ba^ige, even his diamonds. The Fusiliers sold 
four or five diamonds as large as a pea, or even larger, for a few 
francs. We have a large quantity of diamonds* of a middle size, 
and one of the size of a pigeon's egg ; the Fusiliers have chosen out 
the finest as a present to the king. The subaltern officers of this 
battalion dine now upon silver. We did not halt till daybreak. It 
was the finest ni^ht of my life : the moon beautifully illuminated 
the scene, and the weather was mild. General Gneisenau had 
again a horse killed by a cannon-ball in the last battle, another 
twice wounded by musket-balls, his sabre once beat out of the 
scabbard, and once shot to pieces." 

Letter from Dusaeldorf, — June 26. 

"Buonaparte's costly travelling carriage, which is provided 
with every convenience, and which was taken by the 15th Prus- 
sian regiment of infantry of the line, arrived here yesterday after- 
noon. What various thoughts and feelings must the sight of this 
carriage inspire I It was naturally an object of general curiosity. 
Upon being examined, it was found to contain several private 

* The diamonds, to an immense amount, were chiefly found in powder- 


drawers, filled with various articles of value ; among other things, 
some articles belonging to Buonaparte's toilet ; various articles for 
the table, mostly massy gold : besides this carriage, it seems diat 
seven other state carriages were taken, among which is the magni- 
ficent state coach, in wliich he intended to make his entry mto 
Brussels, drawn by ein^ht cream-coloured stallions; they were 
taken, besides eighty Arabian horses, all his ba^age, diamonds, 
treasures, &c &c« 

^' The travelling Ubrary taken consisted of near 800 volumes." 

Narrative of the particular Circumfttances under which Major to5 
Keller captured the Carriage, JEquipage, and Baggage-waggon 
of Napoleon Buonaparte, on t/ie 18tA June, 1815, after the 
battle of Waterloo. 

The fourth corps of the Prussian army, commanded by the 
General of Infantry, Count Bulow von Donnewitz, proceeded by 
forced marches from tlie environs of Luttwick, and arrived at 
Zabeme at four o'clock in the afternoon of the 18th of June. 
General von Hillier received orders to form the advanced guard 
with the 16th Brigade ; and Major von Keller received orders to 
form the head of the advanced guard, with two battalions of 
Fusiliers, and to proceed to Planchenoit, in the direction along the 
heights ; and to clirect his particular care to the left wing. 

The Major, in obedience, executed this order with the utmost 
promptitude, and met the enemy before Planchenoit, whom, by 
means of the Tyrolese, led on by Captain von Humbracht, he 
repulsed* The conflict soon became general, but the French 
b^»me considerably reinforced at this period. General von HilUer 
with the 16th Brigade, after having twice attacked Planchenoit, at 
length stormed it with the 16th Brigade, and took it 

During the time of this attack. Major von Keller went round 
the village, and by this movement came on the right flank of the 
flying enemy, and pursued them along the road which leads to 
Charleroi : here he fell in with some other Prussian light infantry, 
whom he attached to his own corps. 

The General of Infantry, Count Gneisenau, gave personal 
orders to Major von Keller to pursue the flying enemy without 
intermission. The hero Gneisenau remained constantly at the 
head of the pursuers. At eleven o'clock at night, the troops 
arrived at the barricaded town of Genappe. At uie entrance of 
Genappe, Major von Keller met the travelling carriage of Buona- 
parte, with six horses. The postillion and the two leaders were 
killed by the bayonets of the Fusiliers. The Major then cut dowD 
the coachman, and forced opened the doors of the carriage : the 
Major then took possession of the carriage, and afterwards brought 


it to England himself,* All the houses in Oenappe were filled 
with the enemy, and those who were found with arms in their 
hands were bayoneted on the spot After this destruction of the 
enemy at Genappe, the pursuit was continued over Milet as far as 
Goslie : and in the former of the two towns, the Fusilier regiment, 
under Major von Keller, captured the most valuable baggage of 
the whole French head-quarters, and took more than 3000 pri- 

The captured carriage contained a-gold and silver n&essairey 
including above seventy pieces; a large silver chronometer; a 
steel bedstead with merino mattresses ; a pair of pistols ; a green 
velvet cap ; a pair of spurs ; linen, and many other things for the 
convenience of travelling. There were also a diamond head-dress 
(tiara), hat, sword, uniform, and an imperial mantle. The booty 
made was equally considerable and remarkable ; several boxes of 
mounted and unmounted diamonds, large silver services with the 
arms of Napoleon, and gold pieces, with his name and portrait, 
filled tlie haversacks of the soldiers of that battalion. 

** Head-quarters of iJie Allied Sovereigns, 
Saarbrucky^ July 3d, 1815. 

" It is seldom that a grand pohtical plan has been executed 
with such an active and successful co-operation of all^the parties as 
the present No greater importance was for a moment attached 
to Buonaparte's enterprise tlian it deserved. The declaration of 
die 13th of March and the 12th of May, equally show the immu- 
table sentiments of the High Allies, and the just appreciation of 
what the Disturber of the peace of die world, returned from Elba, 
could effect It occurred to nobody to believe any lasting effects 
of his appearance. The peace of Europe was established ; the 
invasion of Buonaparte was rather a breaking of the peace, in the 
light of an offence gainst the police, than a political breach of the 
repose of Europe ; the first great occasion on which all the Euro- 
pean states had to show that they formed one and the same re- 
united ^hole. Too weak to destroy a work which rested on such 
firm foundations, the enemy was powerful enough to cause to the 
world incalculable, though transitory evils. It was, therefore, to 
be proved by the energy of the great penal measures against the 
last attempt to involve Europe in fiames by unworthy means, 
whether the union of its princes would be durable, whether amidst 
the difficult negociations concerning the meum and tuuniy and the 

• This carriage, from circnmstances, is an object of curiosity ; it was built by 
Symouds at Brussels, according to Buonaparte's order, for the campaign in 
Hussia, in which he travelled and returned, the body being placed on a sledge : 
it is replete with personal conveniences, and is still exhibiting in London. 

* This letter is attributed to Gentz. 


particalar pretensions of each in<lividual, the great pubKc spirit of 
the years 1813 and 1814 had really maintain^ itself unimpaired. 

** Every possible doubt of tliis nature is for ever and irrevo- 
cably silencea by the events themselves. 

** The political and military tactics of Jfapoleon were well 
known: to divide in order to command^ politically by separate 
nefi^ociations, militarily bv partial attacks on his adversaries, exe- 
cuted with an immense display of force : to divide and cut them off 
from each other was more especially the line he had to follow in 
this new enterprise; as he could depend on finding in his own 
party the unity of milt and desperation, and as the union of the 
princes opjiosed to nim seemed, from the diversity of the several 
mterests, to become more intricate and artificial with the accessicm 
of every new member. 

*' His political attacks were directed, as had been foreseen, first 
acainst Austria; in such a critical situation as his was, nothing 
short of the defection of so great a power as Austria could throw a 
weight into his scale. He has brought into play the most sacred 
private feelings, which, in the great mind oi him who was to be 
rained by them, had been long since repressed within their due 
limits ; he gave clearly to understand the inmiense present advan- 
tages which a union with him would have placed in the hands of 
the House of Austria. All was in vain : posterity will judge 
whether Austria has worthily terminated a twenty-years' struggle, 
whether the ancient pillars of her throne, juslice and an innate 
conscientiousness in her policy, have been forgotten by her, at a 
moment when an indubitable preponderance (the highest aim of 
short-sighted cabinets) was offered to her; posterity will only 
doubt wnether Austria has shown more magnanimity in prosperity 
or adversity. 

** In a military point of view, it was with certainty to be fore- 
seen that he would make a concentrated attack upon one of the 
wings of the great theatre of war, which extended from the Apen- 
nines and the Alps along the Rhine ; Italy and the Netherlands 
were the first and most natural objects of his operations. Now, by 
a rare union of political and military activity, the first of these 
objects, Italy, was wrenched firom his hands ; so that the Alps, 
whose summits, supported by his only ally, he fancied he could 
threaten, became his most vulnerable fix)ntier, is evident to the 
whole world. 

" The more difficult it was for him to separate himself irom 
Paris, as it was decided that he must renoimce Italy for ever, and 
that he could find only in France a place for his usurped throne, 
the more unalterably was the plan of operations prescribed to 
him, which he had to adopt, and by which lie was to meet his 
ruin. It was necessary that the Power which the most nearly 
threatened Paris should be first, if not annihilated, at least shaken. 


** According to the first plan of the Allies, three armies were 
to penetrate into France at once, independent of each other, but 
tending to a common centre. That of the Upper Rhine, under 
Field-marshal Prince Schwartzenberg ; that of the Lower Rhine, 
under Field-marshal Prince Blucher ; and that of the Netherlands, 
under Field -marshal the Duke of Wellington. ' The Russian 
armies, which, according to the usual calculations, could not come 
up till a later period, were to form the reserve, as the Austrian 
* army in Italy was to come to support the South of France imme- 
diately after the completion of the conquest of Italy. 

^* The turn that affairs took in Italy induced the great British 
Conunander strenuously to urge the union of the two armies of the 
Lower Rhine and the Netherlands. With what reciprocal regard 
this union, this belle alliance^ was accomplished, neither of the two 
conmianders becoming subordinate to the other, and how just was 
the military conception in which this union originated, has been 
proved by the most brilliant result : the heroism and the energy 
of the execution were no more than Europe justly expected from 
the two generals and their armies. 

** But that the Lower Rhine could be uncovered without 
causing a break in the whole undertaking, and that the urgent re- 
presentations of the Duke of Wellington could be attended to, for 
this Europe is indebted to the unparalleled exertions of the Prussian 
Government, which had assembled upon the Rhine, before the end 
of June, a force that, according to the most favourable calculations, 
would have achieved the utmost that could be expected, had it 
arrived by the same time upon the Elbe; so that it was able 
immediately to enter into the great line, and to fill up the interval 
between the army of the Upper Rhine and that of the Nether- 

" Thus, by a perfectly united exertion of all the great powers 
of Europe, was Buonaparte defeated, both in the cabinet and 
the field. The remembrance of this great moment, so truly glo- 
rious for all the leading sovereigns, w^ill never be extinguished. 
Posterity, in complete possession of all the details of these events, 
will acknowledge how much it owes, in particular, to his Majesty 
the Emperor of Austria." — From the " Austrian Observer." 

RESTrrunoN op Works of Art carried off by the French, 

" Aix'la-CIiapelle, July 25th. 

> ^^ 

" By an official letter from the Councillor of State, M. Ribben- 
trop, Intendant-general of the army of the Lower Rhine, dated 
Paris, July 15, I have received information that his Excellency 
Fieldrmarshal Prince Blucher of Wahlstadt, immediately after 
the taking of Paris, ordered that all the works of art and literature 


which are there, and which had been previously carried off by the 
French from the states of his Prussian Majesty, should be seized 
and restored to the places from which they were taken. For the 
execution of this order a s|)ecial conunittee has been appointed at 
Paris, under the direction of an intendant-general, and at the same 
time a line of conveyances from Paris to the Rhine. The first 
convoy left Paris on the 16th ; among the articles which it brings 
is the invaluable picture of St Peter, which Rubens presented to 
Cologne, his native city, and which the audacious hands of our 
enemies ravished from the sacred and classic soil. Orders have 
also been given, that the beautiful colunms of granite and porphyry, 
carried off by tiie same sacrilegious hands irom the sanctuary of 
our Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, and placed afterwards to support 
the arched roof of the Hall of Antiquities at Paris, shall be pmled 
down, and brought back to Aix-la-Chapelle. I bad particularly 
requested our illustrious Field-marshal, immediately upon the 
taking of Pafis, to cause these two articles to be restored ; he has 
immediately complied with this desire, and has thus acquired a 
particular right to the gratitude of the cities of Cologne and Aix- 
la-Chapelle. You see, Prussians of the Rhine, that the state, of 
which you are the youngest children, has not forgotten to seize 
the first opportunity to make you participate in the fruits of its 
victories, i our cities will celebrate with grateful joy the day on 
which the property plundered firom your ancestors, re-taken from 
a rapacious enemy by the powerful hand of your king and his 
warriors, shall re-enter your walls, &c, 

(Signed) " Sack, 

" President of the Prussian Provinces of the RkineJ* 

Tlie Duke of Wellington to Lord Castlereagh, 

''Paris, Sept 23d, 1815. 

" There has been a good deal of discussion lately, respecting 
the measures which I have been under the necessity of aaopting 
in order to get for the King of the Netherlands his pictures, &c. 
from the Museum ; and lest these reports should reach the Prince 
Regent, I wish to trouble your Lordship with the following state- 
ment of what has passed, for his Royal Highness's information. 

" Shortly after the arrival of the Sovereigns at Paris, the mi- 
nister of the King of tlie Netherlands claimed the pictures, &c. 
belonging to his sovereign, equally with those of other powers ; 
for, as I learn, he never could get any satisfactory reply from the 
French Government After several conversations with me, he 
addressed to your Lordship an ofiicial note, which was laid before 
the ministers of the Allied Sovereigns assembled in conference ; 
and the subject was taken into consideration, repeatedly, with a 
view to discover a mode of doing justice to the claimants of the 


specimens of the arts in the Museum^ without injuring the feelings 
of the King of France. 

^^ In the meantime the Prussians had obtained from his Majesty^ 
not only all the pictures really Prussian, but those belonging to the 
Prussian territories on the leh of the Rhine, and the pictures, &c^ 
belonging to all the allies of his Prussian Majesty ; and the subject 
pressed for an early decision, when your Loidship wrote your note 
of the , on which it was fully discussed* 

" The ministers of the King of the Netherlands, still ha^dng 
no satisfactory answer from the French Government, applied to 
me as the Commander-in-Chief of the army of the King of the 
Netherlands, to know whether I had any objection to employ his 
Majesty's troops to obtain possession of what was his undoubted 
property ? I referred this application again to the ministers of the 
Allied Courts, and no objection having been stated, I considered 
it my duty to take the necessary measures to obtain what was his 

"I accordingly spoke to the Prince de Talleyrand upon the 
subject, explained to him what had passed in conference, and the 
grounds I had for thinkii^ that the King of the Netherlands had a 
right to the pictures, and begged him to state the case to the King, 
and to ask his Majesty to do me the favour to point out the mode of 
effecting the object of the King of the Netherlands, which should 
be the least offensive to his Majesty. The Prince de Talleyrand 
promised me an answer the following evening, which, not having 
received, I called upon him at night, and had another discussion 
with him on the subject ; in which he informed me that the King 
could give no orders upon it, that I might act as I thought 
proper, and that I might communicate with M. Denon. I sent 
my aide-de-camp, Colonel Fremantle, to M. Denon in the morning, 
who informed him that he had no orders to give any pictures 
out of the gallery, and that he could give none without the use of 


" I then sent Colonel Fremantle to the Prince de Talleyrand, 
to inform him of this answer, and to acquaint him that the troops 
would go the next morning, at twelve o'clock, to take possession of 
the King of the Netherlands' pictures, and to point out, if any dis- 
turbance resulted from this measure, the Eang's ministers, and not 
I, were responsible. Colonel Fremantle also informed M. Denon 
that the same measure would be adopted. 

" It was not necessary, however, to send the troops, as a 
Prussian guard had always remained in possession of the gallery, 
and the pictures were taken without the necessity of calling for 
those of the army under my command, excepting as a working 
party to assist in taking them down and packing them. 

" It has been stated, that in being the instrument in removing 
the pictures belonging to the King of the Netherlands from the 


galleiy of the Tnilleries, I bad been gtultr of a breach of a treaty 
which 1 had myself made : and as there is no mention of the 
Museum in the treaty of the 25th of March, and it now appears 
that the treaty meant is the Military* Convention of Paris, it is 
necessary I should show bow that convention affects the Museom. 

^' It is not now necessary to discuss the question, whether the 
Allies were or not at war with France : there is no doubt whatever 
that their armies entered Paris under a roilitaiy convention, con- 
cluded with an officer of the Goyemment; me Prefect of the 
Department, as an army officer, being the representative of each 
of the authorities existing at Paris at the moment, and authorised 
by those authorities to treat and conclude for them. 

" The article of the Convention which it is supposed has been 
broken is the 11th, which relates to public property. I positively 
deny that this article refers at all to the Museum, or Gallary of 

" The French Commissioners, in the original projet, proposed 
an article to provide for the security of this description of property : 
Prince Bliicner would not consent ; as he said there were pictures 
in the gallery which had been taken from Prussia, which his 
Majesty Louis the XVIIL had promised to restore, but which had 
never been restored. I stated this circumstance to the French 
Commissioners, and they then offered to adopt the article, with an 
exception of the Prussian pictures. To this offer I answered, that 
I stood there as the ally of all the nations in Europe ; and any- 
thing that was granted to Prussia I must claim for other nations. 
I added, that I had no instructions regarding the Museum, or any 
grounds on which to form a judgment how the Sovereigns would 
act ; that tliey certainly would insist upon the King's performing 
lus engagement, and that I recommended that the article should be 
omitted altogether, and the question should be reserved for the 
decision of the Sovereigns, when they should arriye. 

" Thus the question regarding the Museum stands, and the 
Treaty or Convention of Paris is silent upon it : but there was a 
communication upon the subject, which reserved it for the decision 
of the Sovereigns. 

" Supposing the silence of the Treaty of Paris of May 1814, 
regarding the Museum, gave the French Goyemment an undis- 

Euted claim to its contents upon all future occasions, it will not 
e found that this claim was broken by this transaction. Thus I 
acted for the French Government at the time I considered that 
the successful army had a right, and would touch the contents of 
the Museum ; and they made an attempt to save them by an article 
in the Military Convention. This article was rejected, and the 
claim of the Allies to their pictures was broadly advanced by the 
negotiators on their part, and tliis was stated as the ground for 
rejecting the article. Not only, then, the Military Conyention did 


not itself guarantee the possession; but the transaction above 
recited tended to weaken the claim of possession by the French 
Government, which is founded upon the silence of the Treaty of 
Paris of May 1814. 

" The Allies, having the contents of the Museum justly in their 
power, cannot do otherwise than restore them to the countries from 
which, contrary to the practice of civilised warfare, they had been 
torn during the disasti*ous periods of the French Revolution, and 
the tyranny of Buonaparte, 

" The conduct of the Allies regarding the Museum, at the 
period of the Treaty of Paris, might be fairly attributed to their 
desire to conciliate tne French army, and to consolidate the recon- 
ciliation with Europe, which the army at that period manifested a 
disposition to effect 

" But the circumstances are now entirely different : the army 
disappointed the reasonable expectations of the world, and seized 
the earliest opportunity of rebelling against their sovereign ; and 
of giving their services to the common enemy of mankind, with a 
view to the revival of the disastrous period which had passed, and 
of the scenes of plunder which the world had made such gigantic 
efforts to get rid of. 

** The army having been defeated by the armies of Europe, 
they have been disbanded by the united councils of the sovereigns, 
ana no reasons can exist why the Powers of Europe should not do 
justice to their own subjects, from any view to conciliate that 
army again ; neither has it once appeared to me to be necessary 
that the Allied Sovereigns should omit this opportunity to do 
justice, and to gratify their own subjects, in order to gratify the 
people of France. 

" The feeling of the people of France upon this subject must 
be founded on national vanity only. It must be a desire to retain 
these specimens of the arts, not because Paris is the fittest deposi- 
tory for them (as on that subject artists, cdhnoisseurs, and all who 
have written upon it, admit that the whole ought to be removed 
to their ancient seats), and because they .were obtained by military 
success, of which they are the trophies. 

" The same feelii^ which induces the people of France to wish 
to retain the pictures and statues of other nations, would naturally 
induce other nations to wish, now that success is on their side, that 
the property should be returned to its rightful owners, and the 
Allied Sovereigns must feel a desire to gratify them. 

. ** It is, besides, on many accounts desirable, as well for their 
own happiness as that of the world, that the people of France, if 
they do not already see that Europe is too strong for them, should 
be made sensible of it ; and that, whatever may be the extent, at 
any time, of their momentary and partial success against any one, 
or any number of the indiviaual powers in Europe, that the day of 



retribution most come. Not only then wonld it, in my ojMnion, 
be unjust in the sovereigns to gratify the people of France on the 
subject, at the expense of their own people, but the sacrifice they 
would make would be impolitic, as it would depriye them of the 
opportunity of giving the people of France a great moral lesscxi. 

" I am, &C. ** Wellihgtoh." 

** Paris, Sept 23, 1815^ 

**Fari8, Oct 19, 1815- 

*^ Sir, — As my conduct has been publicly animadverted ujpon, 
for not having allowed the property plundered firom Prussia by a 
banditti to remain in the Museum of the Louvre, I have only to 
remark, that, ably supported by the illustrious Wellington, I pur- 
sued the thieves who had despoiled many of the nations of Europe 
of their inestimable monuments of the Fine Arts : I attacked and 
dispersed them, and restored to my country the plunder they had 
unjustly taken, spiuning the idea of negotiating with the French 
commissioners on the subject : and they may now thank Provi- 
dence for our not following their base example. 

** Blucheb." 
*' To General Count Muffin, Governor of ParisJ" 


*' His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange,* hurried by 
ardour into the midst of the battle, was surrounded and taken by 
the French. The 7th Battalion perceived the Prince's danger, 
hastened to his assistance, and succeeded in delivering him ; liis 
Royal Highness took off the insignia of his order, and threw it 
into the midst of the battalion, exclaiming, * Children, you have 
all deserved it T It was fastened to their colours on the field of 
battle, amid cries of * Long live the Hereditary Prince !' All the 
Belgians swore to defend, even to death, this mark of honour: 
and at this sublime moment, many of these brave men fell whilst 
pronouncing this patriotic oath. 

** Towards the close of the day, when he saw the lines w^ere 
bending, he was at the head of his people, cheering and exciting 
them, amidst the hottest fire, when nis Royal Highness received 
a musket-ball in his left arm, which lodged in his shoulder.'* — Vide 
Dutch Account 

*^ Brussels, July 26. — The French cannon brought from La 

* An eye-witoess, who was travelling on the French fi!t>ntier8, Januarj 16th, 
personally witnessed the active exertions of the Prince of Orange in collecting 
the forces, and giving notice to the distant corps of the commencement of hosti- 
lities, and from H. B. H. in person at Bmssels the Duke of Wellington first 
leamed that hoetilitiaa had oommesoed. — Editor, 


Belle Alliance are placed here upon the Esplanade, without tlie 
gate Du Rivage, till they shall he embarked for England. They 
are 87 in number, as well cannon as howitzers. Some have the 
ciphers of * Louis XIV.,' others have the words, * Liberty, Equa* 
lity,' and the greater number the cipher of Napoleon ; fifty others 
are expected in a short time. We have received from the head- 
quarters of Prince Augustus of Prussia, an account of the sur- 
render of Landrecies to the arms of his august sovereign. The 
capitulation, in nine articles, was annexed to the dispatch. The 
place is given up to the Prussian troops; the garrison to march 
out with the honours of war, and repair either to the French army, 
or disperse and go home. They kept two caunon, drawn by four 
horses. The French troops lay down their arms on the glacis, 
except fifty men per battalion, and the company of Veterans, whom 
his Koyal Highness permits to retain their arms, on accoimt of 
the honourable, brave, and distinguished conduct of the garrison. 
The officers keep their swords; the subalterns and members of 
the Legion of Honour, their side-arms and all their private pro- 
perty. The property of the inhabitants to be respected, and no 
one to be molested for his political opinions, or for his conduct 
previous to the capitulation." 

A foreign regiment (Cumberland Hussars), extremely well 
horsed and appointed, and soldier-like in appearance, were ordered 
by the Commander-in-Chief of the cavalrjr to place themselves 
under line on the brow of a hill ; and, from being raw soldiers, he 
would not put them to any difficult service, but gave the condi- 
tional orders, that if the charge he was about to make with an 
English brigade succeeded, they were then to ride in and cut 
away : — ^for the performance of this, the most earnest entreaty was 
made, and the strongest promise given, that every attention should 
be paid to the direction — thai charge was made, and completely 
succeeded, and the enemy were in the greatest confusion. The noble 
Earl then looked round for his gallant supporters — but they had 
tamed their horses' heads, and were trotting away towards Brussels; 
an aide-de-camp was immediately dispatched, and, notwithstanding 
every possible remonstrance, and even contemptuous language 
addressed to the Colonel, to stop them was impossible ; and it was 
then b^ged as a favour, and entreated of them, not to go further 
than Ws^loo — it was all useless; to Brussels he would go, and 
to Brussels he went* This, although a great disappointment, 
was attended with such cutri (and it may be said, comic) effect, 
that every one who noticed it, notwithstanding their serious occu- 
pation, were convulsed with excessive laughter, and among them 
the noble Duke himself. The men, however, to do them credit. 
It is understood, have brought their Colonel to an account 

* This event contributed much to the panic at this place. — Vide " Circimi' 
•twitwl Detafle," p. 6. 


The gallant Duke of Brunswick met his fate in a farm-yard, 
which he had just entered, when the enemy's light troops, who 
were stationed about the out-houses, fired, and brought down 
this hero with ten others. 

A letter from a Life-guardsman, speaking of the havoc made 
among the Cuirassiers of the Imperial Guard at the hattle of 
Waterloo, contains the following homely, but emphatic descrip- 
tion: — ^' Until we came up witli our heavy horses, and our 
supeKor weight of metal, nothing was done with the Cuirassiers; 
unless one got now and then a cut at their fieures, not one of them 

Save way ; we therefore galloped at them, and fairly rode them 
own: when they were unhorsed, toe cracked them like lobeters 
m their thellsj and by the coming up of the cannon afterwards, 
thousands of diem were squeezed as flat as pancakes." 

A Life-guardsman, who, from being bald, was known amons 
his comrades by the appellation of the Marquis of Grranby, had 
his horse shot under him; in the charge his helmet fell off, and on 
foot he attacked, and had a contest with a Cuirassier, whom he 
killed, and mounted his horse, his comrades in the meanwhile 
cheering him with — " Well done, Marquis of Granby I" 

One man of the Scots Greys, from Ayrshire, has ei^teen 
sword and sabre wounds, the greater number of which were in- 
flicted by those savages after he was on the ground, dismounted. 
His name is Laurie, and a few days previous to the battle he 
had accounts of his father's death, by which this gallant private 
soldier became possessed of 12,000^ He says, that he saved 
his life in the end only by calling out in French, as the enemy 
were charging over mm — Oh! man Dieu! nwn Dieu! mes 
amis I mes amiel" by which contrivance he was taken for one 
of their own men. 

'^ The Irish howl set up by the Lmiskilling, and other Irish 
regiments, is reported to have carried almost as much dismay into 
the ranks of the enemy as their swords. The stubborn braveiy 
and conduct of these raiments contributed much to the success 
of the day ; it having been their lot to find themselves in the 
hottest part of the action, innumerable opportunities were afforded 
them of showing their devotion to their country's honour, and 
exalted sense of gallantry and duty." An officer of the Inniskil- 
ling Dracoons, says, ** Our brigade charged, upset, and completely 
destroyed three large columns of infantry ; at least 9000. The 
old Inniskillings behaved most gallantly ; they went into the field 
1050, afler the action they mustered about 100 : some, however, 
were sent to escort prisoners." 

" A decree of his Majesty of the 29th of September, annexes 
to the title of Prince of Waterloo a dotation producing an 
annual revenue of 20,000 Dutch florins, to be possessed irrevo- 
cably and for ever by the Prince of Waterloo and his legitimate 


descendants. The preamble of this decree is in the following 
terms : — * Desiring to give to the Duke of Wellington, prince of 
Waterloo, a pledge of the national gratitude for the splendid 
services which he did our kingdom on the ever-memorable days 
of the 16th, 17th, and 18th of June last, when, with the aid of 
Divine Providence, he so powerfully contributed, by the wisdom 
of his dispositions and bv his calm and intrepid courage, to repulse 
the common enemy, and to consolidate this mfant kingdom . . . .' 

** The second article indicates the lands of which me said dota- 
tion is composed, which consists of the three portions of the domanial 
wood situated between Nivelles and Quatre Bras, and containing 
altogether about 1083 hectres, or 1270 acres. 

'^ By the third article the property of the said woods shall 
be conferred on the Prince of Waterloo, free from all enrolment, 
under the obligation of submittim; to the regulations which his 
Majesty may make in the sequel^ concerning the enrolment of 
the dotation." 

A Prussian hussar made a capture at the battle of Waterloo 
of 5000 napoleons, which he has sent to his family by the Inten- 
dant-general and Councillor of State Ribbentrop: a soldier of 
the Landwehr also obtained possession of 500 napoleons. 

Nov. 24. — Prince Bliicher, on his wiy to the Prussian domi- 
nions, gave occasion to several fUtes. In passing through Bel- 
gium, he desired to see again, at Ligny, the place where, thrown 
irom his horse, he lay upon the ground during the pursuit and 
hasty return of a part of the French army. After remaining 
there some time conversing with his aide-de-camp, he generously 
recompensed a miller who had assisted him in his criticiJ situation. 

The miller at Ligny, recompensed by Prince Blucher on his 
return from France, addressed tne following letter to the editor of 
the " Brussels Oracle :" — 

^' Prince Bliicher, on his return, called at my house with his 
aide-de-camp; his modesty concealed his illustrious name, and 
I did not recollect him. He asked me many questions concerning 
my losses, and my melancholy situation. Alas I it was easy for 
me to answer that I had saved nothing, either in my house or 
on the lands which I farm, and that me war had reduced niy 
family to misery, so that I could not pav my contributions, lid 
asked me the amount of them ; I told nim 80 francs, which he 
immediately gave me. He departed : and when he got to Namur, 
he sent me four pieces of 40 francs each, and one of 20 francs. 
It was from this messenger that I learnt the name of this great 
prince; his generosity honours him; his modesty ennobles him; 
and my heart thanks him. 

« P. M. Cabpene." 

Five hundred cart-loads of wounded entered Paris, June 23d. 


A private of the 27th, woonded very severely, was carried off 
the field of battle by his wife, then far advanced in pregnancy; 
she, too, was severelV wounded by a shell, and both of them lay a 
long while in one of'^ the hospitals at Antwerp in a hopeless state. 
The poor man has lost both his arms ; the woman extremely lame, 
and given birth to a daughter, to which the Duke of York, it is 
said, has stood godfather, by the name of Frederica M'Mullen 

The Rector of Framlingham, in Suffolk,* soon afW the battle, 
wrote to the Duke of Wellin^n, stating that, in his opinion, the 
non-commissioned officers of the British army had, by their valo- 
rous conduct on that day, entitled themselves to some distinct 
marks of their country's approbation, and therefore he felt dis- 
posed, for one, to offer his humble tribute to their merit In order 
that diis might be properly applied, he requested the favour of his 
Grace to point out to hun the non-commissione^l officer whose heroic 
conduct, from the representations which his Grace had received, 
appeared the most prominent ; to whom he, the Rector, meant to 
convey, in perpetuity, a freehold farm, value 102. per annum. 
The Duke set the inquiry immediately on foot, through all the 
commanding officers of the line, and, m consequence, learnt that 
a Serjeant of the Coldstream, and a corporal of the 1st Regiment 
of Guards, had so distinguished themselves, that it was felt dif- 
ficult to point out the most meritorious ; but that there had been 
displayed by the serjeant an exploit arising out of fraternal affec- 
tion, which he felt it a duty on this occasion to represent, viz. 
That near the close of the dreadful conflict, this distinguished 
Serjeant impatiently solicited the officer commanding his company 
for permission to retire from the ranks for a few minutes ; the latter 
havmg expressed some surprise at this request, the other said, 

* *^ Some thoit time since the Rev. Mr. Noreross, of Framlingham, villed the 
nun of 000/. to the bnvest man in England. The Duke of WeUington was 
applied to upon the subject by the executors : be at first declined to answer their 
question, from delicacy ; but in a few days sent for them, when he stated that, 
upon considering their request, he had determined to afford them all the assist^ 
anoe in his power. The Duke then said, *■ It is generally thought that the battle 
of Waterloo was one of the greatest battles ever fought : such is not my opinion, 
but I «ay nothing upon that head. The success of the battle orWaterloo, how- 
«Ter, turned upon the closing of the gates of Hougoumont. These gates were 
closed in the most courageous manner, at the veiy nick of time, by the effort of 
Sir James Macdonnel. I cannot help thinking, therefore, that Sir James is the 
man to whom you should give the 500/.' 

^ Sir James Maedonnel was applied to : he listened to the story of the 
executors, expressed his thanks to the great hero for his award, bat said, ' I can- 
not claim all the merit due to the dosing of the gates of Hougoumont; for 
Servant John Graham, who saw with me the importance of the step, rushed 
forward, and together wb shut the gates. What I should therefore propose is, that 
the seijeant and myself divide the legacy between us.' The executors, delighted 
with the proposal, adopted it at once, and Seijeant Graham was rewarded with 
hifl share of the 500/. 

^ The brave seijeant died April 28d, 1845." 


** Your honour need not doubt of my immediate return." Pei> 
mission being given him, he flew to an adjoining bam, to which 
the enemy, in their retreat, had set fire, and from thence bore on 
his shoulders his wounded brother, who, he knew, lay helpless in 
the midst of the flames. Having deposited him steely for the 
moment, imder a hedge, he returned to his post in time to share 
in the victorious pursuit of the routed enemy : we need scarcely 
add, that the superior merit of this gallant non-commissioned 
ofiicer was thus established. 

About two years since, Buonaparte gave an Italian nobleman 
a list of his intended exploits: tne first was the subjugation of 
all the northern powers ; the invasion of Britain was to follow ; 
his intention was then to bring under his power the dominions 
of the Grrand Signior ; after which he would proceed to the con- 
quest of Africa, and 4it last of the Chinese empire. He had 
already employed an architect to draw the plans of two new cities, 
one to be built in Asia, the other in Africa, and both to be called 

A very sensible writer has remarked, who was in the field of 
Waterloo just after the battle, how much the varied character of 
the men was distinguished by their amusements ; that on the part 
of the French, playine cards, the most trifling letters, verses, &c. 
&C., with books of the worst tendency. But not so with the 
English whose pockets were ransacked, or with the Hanoverians ; 
with the latter, it was observable the quantity of books of devo- 
tion in German that were found. A correspondent found in the 
field an unfinished letter of an Elnglish soldier to a female friend^ 
dated 17th June, in which he gives her an account of the battle 
of the 16th, and that he had escaped, evidently leaving it open to 
send when the day was over. The direction being written, it 
was taken up and forwarded, with a note in explanation of its 
being fonnd. 

Thursday, January 18, 1816, being the appointed day for a 
general thanksgiving, on the re-establishment of peace in Europe, 
the day was setectedin London for the ceremony of lodging the 
eagles, taken fix>m the enemy at' the battle of W aterloo, in the 
Chapel Royal, Whitehall. The ceremony was conducted with 
perfect order ; and associated as it was with the duties of reli- 
gious worship, the memory of the contest in which the trophies 
were won, and the sight of the brave veterans who had survived 
its carnage, the influence it produced was not of an ordinary 
nature. A brigade of the Guards formed aa the parade, in St. 
James's Park, at nine o'clock, of which, one company, consisting 
of a captain, three subalterns, two Serjeants, and eighty-four 
privates, all of whom were at Waterloo, were appointed an escort 
to the eagles, and took post opposite to Melbourne House. A 
detachment oS the Royal Artillery was also on the ground^ and 


two bands attended in their state clothing. Soon after ten the 
Duke of York proceeded to the parade, and a very large assem- 
blage of officers, decorated with the several insignia they had been 
invested with* The usual duty of the day proceeded, and after 
the trooping of the colours had taken place, the detachment, that 
had been selected was escorted to the tdt-yaxd by the two bands, 
and received the eagles ; the detachment then presented arms, the 
bands playing the ** Grenadiers' March," and proceeded round the 
square in ordinary time. The eagles appeared somewhat of a 
larger size than those captured in the Peninsula; they were richly 
gilt, and bore the number of die battalions to which they were 
attache(L The silk colours appended to them were about the 
size of our cavalry standards, and splendidly embroidered with a 
profusion of gold fringe, and a number of inserted bees, stars, &c. 
But the most interesting part of the ornaments was the laurel 
wreath, enclosing, in letters of gold, the inscriptions emblematic of 
French renown — Austerlitz, Essling, Eylauy Jena^ and FrUdUmd* 
These names, still memorable, once to us the subjects of mournful 
reflection, now seemed to mock the ambition they formerly flat- 
tered. They ^ve to the conquerors an impressive lesson on the 
inconstancy of Fortune, when the register ot the successes of those 
who triumphed at Austerlitz, Jena, and Friedland, served to sig- 
nalize their defeat, displayed as the prize of the heroes of Water- 
loo. The trophies were carried by Serjeants of the 1st and 
3d Regiments, and, on reaching the colours of the Grenadier 
r^ment, were lowered to the ground, while the former, with 
" Lincelles, Corunna, Barossa, and Waterloo," emblazoned in gold, 
majestically waved ; and die troops, with the spectators, instan- 
taneously mve three loud huzzas, with the most enthusiastic 
feeling. The detachment still continued to proceed with the 
trophies, and on reaching the centre of the parade facing the 
Horse Guards, wheeled on their right, and marched to Whitdiall 
ChapeL The Serjeants with the eagles entered the body of the 
chapel as soon as the first lesson was read by Archdeacon Owen, 
the chaplain-generaL Their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of 
York and Gloucester were in the royal pew, and the chapel was 
extremely crowded. The escort entered by the two doors, in 
eaual divisions, the band playing, and marching up to the steps 
of the communion-table, when they filed off to the right and Im. 
As soon as the band had ceased, the two Serjeants bearing the 
eagles approached the altar, and fixed upon it their consecrated 
banners. After the Litany, a voluntary was played ; and at the 
conclusion of the Communion-service, which was read by the 
chaplains of the chapel, the Rev. Mr. Jones and the Rev. Mr. 
Hewlett, the 100th Fsalm was sung by die whole congregation. 
After the customary blessing, the band played "God save the 
King," the whole congregation standing. The ceremony was wit- 

FRENCH officer's ACCOUNT. 89 

nessed by a great multitude of people, among whom was a con- 
siderable number of persons of distinction and fasliion. 


A faithful and detailed Relation of the final Campaign of Buona- 
parte^ terminated by the Battle of Mount St John^ otherwise 
called of WaterloOy or of La BeUe Alliance, By an Eye-^untness,^ 

" Fas mihi quod vidi referre.** 

The landing of Buonaparte at Cannes opei^ted as a thunder- 
bolt upon every honest and truly patriotic Frenclunan ; upon all, 
in a word, who sincerely wished the repose and welfare of their 
country. Li fact, they could expect from this event nothing but 
disastrous results, alreiady announced by a civil war which ap- 
peared inevitable. 

Nevertheless, by a concurrence of circumstances as extraor- 
dinary as unforeseen, the imminent danger towards which we 
were precipitated was for a while lulled. Who could credit it ? — 
this man, pursued by the general hatred of a nation, on which he 
had drawn every scourge, found in its bosom a mass of people 
disposed to assist his most culpable projects. 

The whole army scandalously broke their oaths of allemance to 
the best of kmgs, even turned their arms against him, and forced 
him ere long to abandon his capital. The well-disposed part of the 
kingdom haa the mortification of seeing Buonaparte arrive even 
at Paris, and arrive too in some d^ee triumphantly. No sooner 
did he re-appear than he employed every means to deceive those 
people whom he had already pressed under his iron yoke, for the 
purpose of extorting from them yet greater sacrifices, and plunging 
them into an abyss of misery from which they could only rise 
with himself. 

Meanwhile, through his myrmidons, he caused the most inju- 
rious and absurd reports to be circulated against the king, while 
he kept in alarm the holders of national lands ; and, to attach to 
his cause a numerous class of citizens he had so long oppressed, 
afiected to follow their principles. He proclaimed with loud 
effrontery that he was in perfect understanding with Austria, of 
which the speedy arrival of Maria Louisa would ftimish the hap- 
piest proof. 

Shaken by such positive assurances, France resigned herself, 
for some time, to the nattering hope of avoiding that war she had 

* Relation fiddle et detailUe de la derni^re Cainpagne de Buonaparte, ter- 
TDinee par la Bataille de Mont Saint-Jean, dite de Waterloo, ou de La Belle- 
Alliance. Par un T^moin ocnlaire. Revue et corrigee. Paris, J. G. Dentu, 
Iraprimeur-Libraire, Rue du Pont de Lodi, No. 5, pr^ le Pont-Neuf. 1815. 


herself declared against all Europe, bj once more receiving, and 
in despite of treaties, the man she had for ever proscribed. Even 
those thinking Frenchmen whose ideas had not been misled either 
by self-interest or false notions of independence, still sought to 
create to themselves illusion, and wishea to believe Buonaparte 
incapable of such atrocious deceit Restrained by an ignorant 
and enthusiastic multitude, diey could only offer their silent tows 
for the salvation of their country. 

Thus, by perfidious insinuations, by lies artfully fabricated 
and more impudently. supported, Buonaparte succeeded in restor- 
ing to France the confidence he stood m need of, to engage her 
in the contest he was preparing. Thus, to the eternal sname of 
the nation, the constant Disturber of its repose, the Devastator of 
Europe, the Monster to whom France owes all its misfortunes, at 
the moment when he resigned the people to a host of new enemies 
his very name had rousecl to vengeance, even at that moment he 
was in some measure hailc<l as their Deliverer. 

He declares his wish for peace! He invokes the treaty of 
Paris — not to legitimate his rights to supreme power, which were 
alreadv sufiiciently consecrated by his bayonets — but he calls an 
assembly of the people, of whom be exacts no other services, nor 
imposes other obligations, than to proclaim the war he brings a 
national one. Thirsting for vengeance, and a slave to the same 
ambition by wliich he had already fallen, he dreams but of victory 
and conquests ; and if he succeeds so far as to persuade the nation 
he still respects her, he only manccuvres to render her the instru- 
ment of his mad projects. Impatient to figure once more on the 
horrid scene of battle, anticipa^ng the moment when, restored to 
power, he mav command even over death itself, he urges with in- 
credible activity the formation of his armies. 

At every quarter troops were embodied, organised, and dis- 
patched to the frontiers. In a few days France is transformed 
in£o a vast camp. While a first and numerous army moves 
towards Belgium, others are collected in Alsace, in Lorraine, 
Franche-Comt6, at the foot of the Alps, and under the Pyrenean 

The powers of Europe knew too well the character o( this 
perfidious man to deliberate one moment on the part they had to 
take. Declarations issued from the Congress of Vienna to an- 
nounce their determination. The intercourse from France was 
most carefully intercepted, while innumerable armies were ap- 
proaching its frontiers. 

There was nothing to be hoped from the mediation of Austria; 
and all Europe rose up to hurl from his throne, a second time, the 
man whom rebellion and perjury had just placed there, and who 
dared again brave it by threats of fi^esh aggression to force its 
acknowledgment of him. 


During these movements, the deputies of the departments as- 
sembled at Paris to assist at the Champ de Mai, where the vain 
and absurd formality of examining the votes on his Additional 
Act of the Constitutions of the Empire was to be performed. 
There, among a great number of upright and learned men, were 
found many names the Revolution had stamped with an infamous 
celebrity ; and a crowd of military men without resources, and in- 
capable of other political views than an exclusive preponderance 
founded on their sabres. Into such hands were conunitted the 
destinies of France ; and tlie Acte Additionel, that audacious 
system of despotism, was ratified by men who, with the words 
of freedom in their mouths, were only the interpreters of their 
master's wilL The undigested opinions of a few thousand indi- 
viduals from that class of people, the least qualified to be invested 
with deliberative power, and tne greatest proportion from an igno- 
rant, undisoeming soldiery, was impudently adopted as the ex- 
pression of the national wuL France, compressed by terror, and 
treated by its own army as a conquered country, was compelled 
to receive those laws which consecrated its servitude. 

Meanwhile the French armies concentrated on the frontiers ; 
that of the North, the most numerous of them all, occupied at the 
beginning of June extensive cantonments, par icheUms, in the de- 
partments of the North and the Aisne. Its head-quarters were 
at Laon. It occupied Valenciennes and Maubeuge. Its right 
communicated with the army of the Moselle, and its left was 
covered by Lisle. Chiefly composed of old soldiers, the enthu- 
siastic spirit of this army was intense in favour of Buonaparte. 
This army lived on the best possible terms with the people about 
the Aisne, who, beholding in this war a national one, sought only 
to preserve their country from fresh invasions, and set themselves 
with avidity to the construction of such fortifications as were con- 
ceived necessary for their defence. 

The National Guards were armed at a moment; and the 
whole populace testified their intention of rising in mass on the 
approach of the enemy. The same spirit was manifested in all 
those departments of France which had been invaded in 1814, 
with the exception of that of the North, who openly avowed con- 
trary sentiments, and did not dissemble their dislike to the pre- 
sence of these troops. They could not draw from thence a single 
military resource, and the National Guards peremptorily refused 
to march. The army counted on the effective co-operation, at 
the moment of hostilities, of all the inhabitants generally ; and the 
latter, persunded that die Allies had only been able to enter 
France thro::gh a succession of treasons, had an entire confidence 
in the army. The latter, therefore, awaited in self-security the 
commencement of the campaign ; but, impatient for battle, vented 
their spleen against the tardiness of the Allies. 


Such was the state of afiain when they learned that the 
Guardsy who had qiiitted Paris after the Champ de Mai, were 
directed hy forced marches on Laon; that Buonaparte followed 
them some days after^ and had suddenly appeared on the frontiers. 
He arrived, in fact, as soon as they at Vervins, where he put him- 
self at the head of the army, which drew round him finom all its 

It is still to be asked, by what enchantment Buonaparte suc- 
ceeded in so fascinating the eyes of an immense population, and 
of an army, that the one saw without fear all the calamities of 
war burst on them, and the other audaciously braved all the 
powers of Europe leagued against them ? Certain it is, however, 
that he was received everywhere with loud and unanimous shouts 
of acclamation. 

It did not generally appear he had any idea of attacking ; but 
rather that he nad drawn thither his troops to form a line of de- 
fence. He, however, showed in his movements his usual activity, 
and lost no opportunity of presenting himself before his soldiers. 

On arrivmg at Beaumont, the army of the North joined that 
of the Ardennes, mider the command of Vandamme, and esta- 
blished its head-quarters at Fumay. That of the MoseUe, under 
General Gerard, departed by forced marches for Metz. The 
army of the North thus was composed of five bodies of infantzy, 
commanded by Lieutenant-generals d'Erlon, Reille, Vandamme, 
Gerard, and (Jount de Liobau. The cavalry, under Grouchy, was 
formed into four divisions under the orders of Generals Pajol, 
Excelmans, Milhaud, and Kellerman. 

The Imperial Guard of 20,000 men, formed the kernel of this 
splendid army, which was strengthened by a body of artilleiy, 
well disciplined, provided with an excellent train, and pontoon 
corps. Besides the batteries attached to each division, eacn corps 
had its park of reserve. The Guard, particularly, had a magnifi- 
cent train of artillery, almost wholly composed of pieces new cast 
The whole might be estimated at 150,000 effective men, of whom 
20,000 were cavalry ; and 300 pieces of cannon* 

Still, in the very bosom of^ their own country, those troops 
failed in that discipline which forms the strength of armies. With- 
out feeling for their unfortunate compatriots, who showed eveiy 
degree of zeal in furnishing them subsistence, the French soldiers 
treated them with the utmost cruelly ; and, conceiving they had 
an imquestionable right to plunder, abandoned themselves to every 
species of excess. 

In every place they ransacked the houses, broke open coffers, 
ill-treated the peasants, and took everything at discretion. ^^ There 
is war,'' said they ; '' it cannot be earned on without us, and there- 
fore we have free play." And, pursuant to this kind of r^isoning, 
they gave entire scope to that thirst for plunder, improved by ten 

FRENCH officer's ACCOUNT. 93 

years' warfare, and outra^ only to be paralleled bj the exter- 
minatiiig incursions of the barbarians of old. Roving from house 
to house^ from granary to granary, from cellar to cellar, they did 
not return till loaded with spoil, after destroying everything they 
left behind. Too happy that cottager who, accused but of having 
too well concealed his cash, escaped their vengeance by leaving 
his all to destruction. 

Dreadful to be credited, their officers, for the most part, toler- 
ated these infamous proceedings I " Why," said they, with a sort 
of satisfaction, ^^ is there not a magazine ? the soldiery must live." 
And the soldiers not only lived; but the officer, it will be believed, 
lived in abundance, and did not much trouble himself upon whom. 
Is this the loyal, disinterested, ^nerous, and delicate character, 
that distinguished the French dnScer? No, surely! But other 
times, other manners; and it was reserved to the officers of 
Buonaparte to exhibit to history a physiognomy novel and 

Doubtless there were many men of honour and morality at^ 
tached to this army, who lamented such disorders, and served with 
regret amidst these rebellious troops, whose atrocities enhanced 
their crime ; but, hurried on by the force of circumstances, they 
sought apology for the violation of their oaths in the need to pre- 
vent, at all events, the invasion of their native frontiers. More- 
over, it was impossible to restrain these excesses; the soldiers 
could no longer be controlled; and the superior officers were 
aware that such devastations had been constantly practised by the 
troops under Buonaparte's immediate command ; and that it was 
one of his most powerfrd engines to conciliate their devotion and 
stimulate their courage. 

The country was covered with rich crops, that promised the 
most abundant of harvests ; but ill betide the lands that lay in 
their way ; still more unhappy the neighbourhood of the camps. 
It seemed as though, by a determinate motive of studied destruc- 
tion, they sought out for that purpose the richest fields. In an 
instant sJl disappeared under the scythe and sword, to be made 
forage for the cavalry and thatch for the canteens. 

The interior administration of the army was deranged by acts 
of equal anarchy. An implacable hatred seemed to animate the 
different corps against each other, and displayed itself in acts of 
open hostility. No mutual confidence, no fraternity of arms, no 
interchange of generous feelings ; pride, selfishness, and thirst of 

Srey, reigned tnroughout Often, when the conmiandant of a 
ivision, or regiment, arrived at die spot it was destined to oc- 
cupy, he seized everything without consideration for those who 
were to follow. Guards were placed in every house that pre- 
sented any resource, and by the mere right of pre-occupation op- 
|»osed all division of the spoiL The sentries were often attacked. 


and real warfare ensned Many were thus wounded^ and not a 
few lulled on the spot 


The Imperial Guard, as being the tmnwxliai« Janissaries of 
the despot, comported itself with extreme arrogance towards the 
other troops, and was detested throughout ; wnile repulsiTe and 
disdainful towards the other corps within its contact, it was not 
less tormented bj them, whenever its numbers were too few to 
dictate tlie law. Tlie different denominations of cavaliy not only 
were at open war among themselves, but insulted the foot by 
every means and on every occasion, and the infantry in turn 
threatened tliem with its bayonets. 

Actuated by such a spirit, the troops approached the frontiers 
as the defenders of the State I Their marches were rapid and 
long, and the weather, though stormy, tolerably fine ; nor were 
tlie roads so cut up as to retard the artillery, or camp equipages. 
Their movements, therefore, almost partook of precipitation. It 
was evidently the intention to surprise the enemy by a sadden 
approach ; and these forced inarches gave rise to the reports of a 
sudden irruption into Belgium. On the 14th this whole army had 
joined and formed in line on the extreme frontiers. 

It was then that the uncertainty in which they had remained 
respecting these manoeuvres was done away, by a proclamation, 
which was read at the head of every division : — 

" Soldiers ! 

** This day is the anniversary of Marengo and of Friedland, which 
twice decided the fate of Europe. Then, as after the battles of 
Austerlitz and Wagram, we were too generous. We trusted to the 
oaths and protestations of princes, whom we left upon their thrones. 
Now, however, coalesced among themselves, they conspire against our 
independence, and the most sacred rights of France. They have 
begun the most unjust of aggressions ; are not they and we the same 
men still ? 

'* Soldiers I At Jena, against these same Prussians now so arro- 
gant, you were as one to three, and at Montmirail, one to six ! 

** Let those among you that have been prisoners in England, de- 
scribe their pontoons (the prison-ships), and tell the miseries ^ey there 

" The Saxons, the Belgians, Hanoverians, soldiers of the Rhine, all 
groan at being compelled to lend their arms to princes, enemies of 
justice and the rights of nations. They know the Coalition is insatiable. 
After having devoured twelve millions of Poles, twelve millions of 
Italians, a million of Saxons, six millions of Belgians, it seeks to devour 
the whole second order of States in Germany. 

" A moment of prosperity has blinded these senseless princes. The 
oppression and humiliation of France are beyond their power. If they 
enter France, they will there find a grave. 

" Soldiers ! We have forced marches to make, battles to offei^ 


perils to encounter ; but with constancy, Tictoiy will remain ours. The 
rights, the honour, and the weal of France, shall be re-conquered. 

*' To every Frenchman who has a heart, the hour is come to conquer 
or die/* 

It is scarcely necessary to say, that this proclamation was 
received with transports of joy and loud acclamations by a multi- 
tude of ignorant soldiers, to whom a few high-sounding words they 
do not comprehend seem the very acme of eloquence. 

Nor need we mention that ridiculously pompous proclamation. 
It wears the same stamp with all his other productions, and only 
differs from them in greater extravagance and absurdity. Who- 
ever weighed the incoherent declamation of that vam-glorious 
prophet, looked on it with pity. Meanwhile it augmented the 
public inquietude, by laying open the whole extent of the dangers 
Buonaparte meant to brave. 

The chiefs, however, were enraptured with the precision of 
their routes, and recognised, they said, the presence of the great 
man in those scientific combinations, by which all the masses of 
the army, after encumbering each other's march, seemed all at 
once to rise from the ground, and find themselves ranged in line 
by the effect of magic. So great is the power of prepossession. 

The 15th, at break of day, this army broke up tor the Belgic 
territory. The 2d Division attacked the Prussian outposts, and 
pursued them with vigour as far as Marchienne-au-Pont ; the 
cavalry of this body had to charge several corps of infantry dif- 
ferent times, whicn they drove back, took some hundreds of 
prisoners, and the Prussians hastened to recross the Sambre. 

The light cavalry of the centre followed the 2d Division on the 
road to Charleroi, and, brushing away in different charges such of 
the enemy as they met, drove the whole to the other side. While 
numerous sharpshooters defended the approach to the bridge, the 
Prussians were employed in rendering it impassable, in order to 
retard our march, and afford them time to evacuate the city ; but 
being too closely pushed, they were not able to destroy it effect- 
ually, and our men soon removed all difficulties to their passage 
over it About noon their work was finished, and the lignt 
cavalry took possession of CharleroL 

On the omer hand, the 2d body, which had effected its march 
to Marchienne, advanced on Gosselies, a large town situated on 
the road to Brussels, with the intention of intercepting at that 
quarter the troops driven out of CharleroL The Prussians, sur- 
prised at so sudden an attack, and pursued by the light troops, 
retired in great disorder to Fleurus, where their main body was 
concentrated. They were attacked several times by our advanced 
guard, who afforded them no time to take up any positions. The 
presence of Buonaparte so electrified the French troops, there was 
no possibility of restraining them. They rushed on the enemy 


without firing a shot; charging them so furiously with tlie 
bayonet, that nothing could resist their shock. 

The squadrons doing duty under Buonaparte charged the 
infantry several times, and it was in one of those charges that 
General Letort, colonel of the Dragoons of the Guard, received a 
mortal wotmd. 

The French, in a word, after the most obstinate and san- 
guinary encounters, carried all the positions opposed by the 
enemy to their advance. Towards night they ceased the pur- 
suit ; and Buonaparte, leaving the 3d corps on me road to Namur, 
and the 2d at Gosselies on that to Brussels, returned with his 
head-quarters to CharleroL 

The result of these engagements was, a thousand prisoners, 
the passage of the Sambre, and the possession of Charleroi ; but 
the principal advantage derived from it was, to sustain the confi- 
dence of toe army by gaining an early success ; and, according to 
Buonaparte's general method of actmg, everything w^as put in 
effort to make the most of it The prisoners were divided into 
parties, and passed before the troops in the rear. The soldiers 
cried out, ^^ Long live the Emperor !" It was what was expected, 
and the aim was answered. 

The whole French army encamped on the Belgic territories, 
surrounded by the new subjects of the kingdom of the Low 
Countries, who hailed us as their liberators! Yet some of the 
villagers, who drew near at the cry of " Long live the Emperor I" 
did not appear very enthusiastic in the cause. They received us 
rather as conauerors, whose good-will it was requisite to conciliate, 
and their acclamations evidently expressed — " We are willing to 
become Frenchmen, if your bayonets carry law with them ; but 
in mercy do not pillage us, do not lay waste our lands, treat us 
as your countrymen." These supplications were unheeded; 
though our soldiers placed unlimited confidence in their ami- 
cably demonstrations, they conducted themselves towards them 
as avowed enemies. Plunder and devastation marked their way ; 
and wherever they pitched at night, that place was a desert in uie 
morning I 

No sooner had our troops taken a momentary position near 
some village, than they spread like a torrent througn the unfoi> 
tunate habitations ; liquors, provisions, moveables, unen, clothes, 
everything disappearea in an instant Each village where we 
had encamped was left next day a heap of ruins, or rather of 
rubbish, scattered with the broken fragments of household ftumi- 
ture. Its environs, generally covered with rich crops, appeared 
destroyed by some dreadful haU-storm'; while the places where 
our bivouacs had lighted up their watch-fires, black and scat- 
tered, seemed to point out tne spots where the tibunderbolta had 


Tlie instant we quitted, the inhabitants, plunged in silent de- 
spair, rufihed from tiieir hiding-places in hsdf-naked swaims to 
search for the dispersed relics of their fdmiture or utensils, and 
collected what could be found.* 

It appeared from information obtained, that the Prussian ad- 
vanced posts, although on their guard, had been surprised ; and, 
far from expectini? so serious and lively an attack, the Allies 
were preparbg tolter in a few days ap6n the French territoiy. 
The mhabitants, too, were astonished at our appearance, when 
they thought us anxiously employed in securing our own frontiers* 
They gave a very bad account of the misconduct and exactions of 
the Jrrussians. 

Each one speculated for himself on theprobable result of the 
campaign, according to his information. Tne enemy's army not 
being collected, was not prepared to concentrate itself. If pursued 
with vivacity, the different corps would be »^arately turned on 
all points, and would make little defence. W ellington was not 
prepared ; discontented by so unexpected a movement, his whole 
plan was frustrated, since he had lost the initiative, and could not 
resume his ground. In short, their confidence in Buonaparte 
knew no bounds; his combinations, as sure in their results as 
admirable in their conception, were either to annihilate the Eng- 
lish, or drive them to their ships. A speedy arrival on the 
Rhhie was to take place amidst the universal acclamation of the 
inhabitants of Belgium, risen in mass for their deliverance, and 
the whole rushing with transport into the ranks of their old 
companions in arms. 

The 16th, at 3 A.M., the columns which remained on the right 
bank of the Sambre put themselves in march and passed the 
river, when the whole army advanced forward. 

The command of the left wing, consisting of the 1st and 
2d Divisions of infantry, and four corps of cavalry, was giveii to 
Ney, who arrived the evening before at head-quarters, and re- 
ceived orders to march by Gosselies and Frasnes on the road to 

* Ought we, as many well-inteotioned persons pretend, to shun disclosure, 
under the pretext that it is needful to spare the honour of France, and not justify 
the future reprisals of hostile armies on its territory ? Should we with this intent 
refuse to trace the picture of excesses committed hy our troops, and sUde the 
reproach due to their misdeeds ? Did we even suppress the mention of such 
deplorable acts of revolting Vandalism, they would not he the less notorious ; and 
our silence might draw down on France the injurious surmise that she owns and 
approves them. We ought not, then, to hesitate in denouncing them before the 
face of day, as atrocious abuses of force and confidence, which she most formally 
disavows, and so, by holding them up to public indignation, do away the stain that 
otherwise would fall on herself. Thus will a threefold duty he performed— to 
efface national dishonour, to convey shame to the breasts of the culpable, and to 
testify the horror which aJU must feel for the deeds of violence, that invariably call 
down on their perpetrators scorn and hatred implacable, and the whole weight of 
a terrible, though haply a protracted vengeance. 


The centre, composed of the 3d, 4th, and 6th Divisions, the 
reserve, and a numerous body of cavalry, forming the mass of the 
army, directed itself upon Oleums. IVf arshal Groochy, with the 
cavalry of Pajol and some battalions of 'foot, manoeuvred towards 
the village of Sombref on the Namur road. 

In forming out of Fleurus, they presently descried the Prus- 
sian army ; the chief masses of which appeared in close columns, 
crowning the upland levels that surrouna the mill of Bussi, and 
stretching in amplutheatre through the whole length of a sloping 
hill, in front of which was a deep ravine, tufted with thickets, 
that extended in front of the entire line. Its right rested on the 
village of St Amand, its centre at Ligny, and its left stretched 
beyond the reach of sight towards Sombref, Gembloux, and the 
road to Namur. All these villages, which are large, and built on 
uneven and broken ground, are in front of the ravine, and were 
lined with infantry. 

Having reconnoitred them, Buonaparte took his measures for 
the attack. The 1st corps, forming fart of the left, were placed 
with the divisions of heavy cavalry behind the village of Frasnes 
on the right, and near the Brussels road, in order to direct itsdf 
on such points where its presence should be necessary. The 3d 
advanced in columns of attack on St Amand, the 4th on Ligny, 
supi)ortcd by the Guard ; the 6th corps, and a numerous reserve 
of cavalry, under Marshal Greuchy, with the right divisions, 
marched on Sombref. 

The 3d corps began the attack on the village of St Amand, 
and, after meetmg a very obstinate resistance, carried it by the 
bayonet, but was driven out again after being in possession of a 
part of it The 4th corps threw itself, in its turn, upon Ligny ; 
and the two wings successively became engaged, the lett at 
Frasnes, and the right at Sombref. In a few moments the affair 
was general, and a neavy cannonade, which perpetually increased, 
was heard alo^g the whole line. 

The combat was maintained on both sides with equal obstinacy; 
each soldier seemed to meet his adversary with personal rancour, 
and each had resolved, it is evident, to give no quarter. The 
villages which were the scenes of action were taken and retaken 
over and over, with dreadful carnage $ and a defence made by the 
Prussians in the church of St Amand, rendered the result of the 
day so dubious that Buonaparte sent, with great haste, the 1st 
Division to save that point 

By this movement the left, which had obtained considerable 
advantage over the English line, and driven it from the heights 
of Frasnes back to the farm of Quatre Bras, and taken position 
there, became materially weakened; and the total loss of the 
battle was risked through the imprudence of Buoniqxarte in not 
advising Marshal Ney that he had drawn off a part of hia fonoas. 


The 1st corps had parted about an hour to make towards St 
Amand; when the English army, strengthened with numerous 
reinforcements under the Prince of Orange, resumed the oflFensive, 
and vigorously repulsed our light troops, and the columns they 
preceded. Their cavahry were ranged upon the high road to 
lirussels, while the infentry occupied the entire skirts of an exten- 
sive wood, which stretched along the left of that road. From the 
whole outline of this forest ran a hollow way, resemblii^ a ravina 
In front of the road were fields of rye of Considerable extent 
The French line were in possession of the right side of the road to 
a certain height 

All on a sudden, the fields were covered with numerous batta- 
lions in solid columns, supported by a formidable cavalry, which, 
boldly advancing, threatened to break our line. Our troops ap- 
pearol intimidated, and fell back in a kind of panic The mo- 
ment was urgent, and it was necessary to bring up at the instant 
our reserve. Marshal Ney, little alarmed by this circumstance, 
as he relied on the arrival of the 1st corps, sent orders for them 
to charge the enemy. But what was his surprise and embarrassment 
on learning that Buonaparte had disposed of them elsewhere I 

He immediately ordered the 8th and 11th Cuirassiers, who 
were at hand, to charge the first battalions. The charge was 
made with tlie greatest bravery ; but these battalions, covered by 
a wood filled with infantry, opened conjointly so terrible a fire, 
that the Cuirassiers, unable to penetrate further, were compelled 
to make a short turn and retreat in disorder. It was in this 
charge, which, however unfortunate, was executed with daring 
valour, that a cuirassier of the 1 1th Regiment took a standard from 
an English regiment 

This repute, with the crowds of wounded soldiery and cuiras- 
siers who fell back, or were conveyed to the rear of the army, 
spread dismay. Equipages, hospital-wa^rgons, cantiheers, servants, 
the swarm of non-combatants that follow an army, and who, 
according to the orders given, all made a precipitate escape, 
drawing with them everything they met in me way along the 
road to Charleroi ; which was presently choked. The rout was . 
complete, and spread with rapidity. Every one fied in confusion, 
crying, " The enemy ! the enemy 1** 

The evil, however, was reparable. The Cuirassiers of General 
Roussel advanced at full trot towards ih^ Eagli^h^ but had not 
occasion to charge. Our infantry fell Back in good and close 
order, opposing a vigorous resistance, and checked the enemy. 
Led off at length to the heights of Frasnes, it formed again, but 
had little ftuther share in the affw of the day. In a short time 
order was restored in the rear^ and the fugitives halted the moment 
they were assinred of not being pursued. 

Meanwhile, the 1st corjNS, d^ts^hed &om the left wing, had 


romained useless ; and when it came up, the 3d had taken the viUage 
of St Amand It was ordered, therefore, to return to its former 
position ; thus marching and countermarching, it was not brought 
mto action on any one point 

The fire still continued verv briskly along the line, particulariy 
towards Ligny, the point of the greatest strength, and of course 
most directed against The cannonading did not cease an instant ; 
and, by what we could judge, our artillery did considerable mis- 
chief among the great body of Prussian troops that were posted 
in mass on the heights and slopes, which formed an open amphi- 
theatre to us. Our troops, almost hid behind the uneven grounds, 
were less exposed to the enemy^s artillery ; who, however unsuc- 
cessful, did not relax their fire. 

Towards 7 p. il we were masters of the villages, but the 
Prussians still kept their positions behind the ravine ; at this mo- 
ment it was that Buonaparte, who from the conmiencement had 
manoeuvred so as, at a proper time, to have the power of trans- 
porting a great force beyond the ravine, directed his gnard and 
the whole of his reserve on the village of Ligny. This bold 
movement, the execution of which what had passed on the left 
wing had retarded, was intended to cut off from the main body 
the right of the Prussian army behind St Amand, and intercept 
their retreat upon Namur. Instantly the Guards, supported by a 
strong cavalry and powerful artillery, pressed forward to the ra- 
vine, which they cleared amidst a shower of baUs, and the combat 
became dreadful. But nothing could withstand the impetuosity of 
the French Grenadiers, who cut their way with the most horrible 
carnage, our cavalry charging at the same time on every side. 
At length, after the most obstinate defence, the Prussians were 
driven back, and left us masters of the field of battle, covered 
with dead, the dying, the wounded, some prisonen., and a few 
field-pieces. The Guards immediately possessed themselves of 
the Slopes and uplands which were evacuated, and our cavalry 
pursuea the fugitives. 

During this decisive operation at Ligny, the 3d corps w^e 
endeavouring to employ tne Prussian right wing, in order to 
divert their attention from what had passed. But they readily saw 
through our design, and made good their retreat to (jembloux and 

The French army prepared to push their success ; but the 
approach of night, and the fatigues of the day, prevented it 
They contented themselves with taking possession of all the Prus- 
sian posts, and at ten o'clock the fire had ceased along the whole 

Various extravagant reports circulated in our army respecting 
this battle. Marshal Bliicner had, in fact, a horse killed under 
him; he was stunned by the fall, and surrounded by Froich 

^CjC.*r*-\ • "-^ 

FRENCH officer's ACCOUNT. 101 

Cuurassiers ; it was to the darkness of the night alone he owed 
his safety. But notwithstanding the Prussians must have severely 
suffered, their loss was never known, nor ever attended to in 
our orders. 

On the left, where the English were engaged, both parties 
maintained their ground and their positions. 

The death of the Duke of Brunswick was announced, killed ^^^^ v JL 
from the fire of the division commanded by Jerom e Buonaparte £> 
and also the death of General Hill. The first Inten^ence was 
confirmed the following day, and urged our French Generals to 
interweave, for the purpose of currying favour with the ex-King 
of Westphalia, some unbecoming pleasantries on the fatality that 
seemed to pursue the unfortunate Duke, who, placed in constant 
opposition with the conqueror of his states, was condemned to die 
by his hand And the fatter, they argued hence, was again called 
to be his successor. It was addeid, tnat Jerome himself had been 
struck by a spent bullet We will not stop to examine the truth of 
a fact of so trivial importance ; but it is to be observed, this sort 
of shots never reach any but great personages, whose valour it is 
interesting to enhance. 

But every one agreed that Buonaparte had obtained Us end 
in separating the Prussians and the English, and that, having so 
much weakened the former, he had now only the latter to 

It was to realize the hope of exterminating the English that 
on the 17 th, at day-break, Buonaparte, leaving behind him the 3d 
and 4th corps, together with the cavalry of General Pajol, under 
command ot Marshal Grouchy, to watch the Prussians, marched 
with his reserve, and the 6th corps, towards Quatre Bras. 

The English appeared to occupy the same positions as on the 
day preceding; and the French army remained till 11 o'clock 
A. M. observing them, and waiting for the troops on the right, 
whose arrival was delayed by heavy rains and cross-roads almost 

Arrangements were made for the attack, and the united corps 
advanced m front of battle, along the heights of Frasnes, when 
it was perceived that the English had manoeuvred so as to mask 
their retreat The troops we saw on the plain, at the entrance of 
the wood, and on the road, were only a strong rear-guard to 
cover the same. Buonaparte set out in pursuit of them with his 
cavalry, and all the army urged its march to Brussels. 

The ardour of the soldiers during this rapid pursuit was incre- 
dible. In the dexterous and adnurablv-executed retreat of the 
English, they chose only to see their total defeat, the abandonment 
of Brussels, and their refuge on board their ships. 

We again crossed the plains of Quatre Bras, strewed with 
dead, among whom were vast numbers of wounded Frenchmen, 


who had not been renK)vc<L We had time to ascertain how 
murderons the affair had been on both sides ; bat, from all ap- 
pearancey the English \os» was the greatest The plains which 
lav between the road and the wood, where they were in positioR, 
but particularly the skirt of the wood, and the hc^ow way behind 
it, was buried beneath hills of slain, of whcMn the greatest portion 
were Scotchmen. 

Their costume, composed of a kind of folded jacket, of brown 
stuffs chequered with blue stripes, which not descending so low 
as the knees, leaves the leg nearly bare, singularly attracted the 
attention of our French soldiery, who gave them the a{^llation 
of Sana-culottes, 

Buonaparte, with his advance, followed the English till night, 
and only stoppc^l at the entrance of the forest of Soignies, when 
he met a de^nree of resistance not to be surmounted on tliat dav. 
After having cannonaded them as long as the light permitted, 
he took up his head-quarters at the farm of Caillou, near Plan- 
chenoit The different corps of this army encamped at G^iappe 
and its neighbourhood 

The night was dreadful, the wind blew a tempest, and the 
rain fell in unceasing torrents ; the troops slept on the mud and 
dripping com, and so did the inhabitants of the farms and vil- 
lages around, driven naked from their burning cottages by these 
more than Tartarian Frenchmen, whom pretended deserters, 
sent purposely by the English staff, made to believe the latter 
were abandoned by the Belgians, and in full retreat towards their 

However, at break of day, how great was their astonishment 
to find the English had not only maintained their evening position, 
but were prepared to defend it 1 Buonaparte, who dreamaed they 
had escaped, exclaimed in a transport of joy : " I have them at 
last, these English I** 

With his characteristic impatience, and without ascertaining 
whether Grouchy had or not succeeded in keeping the Prussians 
in check ; without inquiring either the force or the position of his 
enemy, he urged on the columns which were in his rear, and re- 
solved to attack them immediately. 

The French army, presenting an effective force of 120,000 
men, was ranged by ten o'clock on the heights, opposite to ^ose 
the English were seen to occupy, in front of the forest of Soignies, 
which they held. 

In the centre were perceived, behind the village of Mount St 
John, strong bodies of infantry that covered a vast plain, in front 
of which redoubts* were distinctly seen, of differently-coloured 
earth rfewly thrown up, extending beyond the whole line along the 

♦ No redoubts have been heard of. — EdUor. 

rilENCH OFnCfiB's ACC0U17T. lOS 

skirts of the forest, diminiahing as they extended, and covered with 
batteries. Its right rested on the village of Merke-Braine, having 
in front the farm of Hougoumont, surrounded by a wood inter- 
sected with numerous ravines or deep sinuosities ; its left stretched 
far towards Wavres, also covered by a ravine, and the farm of 
La Haye Sainte : it was impossible to ascertain its dispositions 
farther than Smouhen, where the Brunswick troops were placed, 
and where it was presumed the line terminated. In general, 
except on the great plain, which was considered to be the centre 
of the English army, few troops were to be seen ; but was it not 
to be conjectured, as it was afterwards ascertained during the 
business, that they were concealed in the hollows which separated 
the plains ftom the forest, and in the forest itself? Except on 
the great plain, few troops appeared in view. The head-quarters 
of Lord Wellington were at Waterloo, in the rear of his lines, 
which it will be seen crossed the two high roads of Brussels and 
of Nivelles. 

The instant the French troops were come up, Buonaparte, 
who had placed himself on a mound, at a small distance from the 
farm where he had slept, on the right of the road, ordered the 
cannonade to b^n. He walked to and fro alone, with folded 
arms, a little in front of his staff. The weather was stormy; 
there fell, at intervals, some short showers. 

The 2d corps was on the left, and marched against the farm 
of Hougoomont The 1st had its left on the road, and advanced 
upon the centre of the line. The 6th occupied the right. The 
Guard was in reserve upon the height The cavalry was distri- 
buted upon different points ; but its strongest columns were dis- 
posed on the wings, and particularly the rignt (me. 

About noon the first discharge of cannon was heard from 
the French lines, and numerous light troops in front opened their 
fires. The left made a vigorous attack on the farm of Hougou- 
mont, the buildings of which had been crenellated for defence by 
the infantry, who maintained the combat with great obstinacy. 
Horse and foot advanced together against the corps placed in the 
rear of that farm, and who were wrowing into it a continual 
reinforcement After an hour's contest, the English appeared to 
retire a little, and the ]^rench army closed its advance. The 
artillery was in front of the whole Une, and the infantry foUowed 
up in columns. 

Our troops became thus engaged by degrees, not without sus- 
taining great losses under the cumculties arising from uneven hilly 
ground, deep ditches, and ravines, where they were! checked at 
every step by fresh columns, concealed till the moment we came 
^p to them. £very inch of ground was disputed on both sides, 
and neither gave way till every means of resistance was exhausted. 
The smallest hillock, the most trivial embankment, was frequently 


taken and re-taken several times. Repealed chaises of cavalnr 
took place; the field of battle was hei4)ed with dead, and the 
firing, instead of slackenings became more and more violent Both 
sides contended with eqtuu fury, and the defence was as obstinate 
as the attack was impetnoos. 

It was immediatelj reported that very strong oolomns were 
marching, with fixed bayonets, upon Mount St John, at the same 
time that the cavalry of the wings were to charge the batteries, 
which appeared to be very little j^otected. This grand move- 
ment, from the result of which so much might be expected, was 
impatiently waited for; bat the obstinate perseverance of the 
English, in maintaining their position in the villages which flanked 
their wings, retarded it They successively sent battalicHis to- 
wards the farms of Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte, which our 
cavalry as frequently drove back ; yet those villages, though 
pressed with unparalleled vigour, still aefended themsdives. Elager 
to drive the enemy from Hougoumont, who appeared deter- 
mined not to retire, we decided to set fire to it, at the same time 
sending a reinforcement against La Haye Sainte, which we carried 
afrer a most sanguinary contest 

The English artillery made dreadfrd havoc in our ranks : we 
were so completely exposed, that their ricochets passed easily 
through all the lines, and fell in the midst of our equipage, which 
was placed behind on the road, and its environs. A number of 
shells, too, burst amongst them, and rendered it indisp^isable for 
the train to retire to a greater distance. This was not done with- 
out considerable disorder, which the English clearly perceived. 
Our artillery re-opened their fire with equal vivacity ; but pro- 
bably with much less efiect, as their masses could only be levelled 
against by approximation, being almost entirely masked by the in- 
equalities of the ground. The continued detonation of more than 
600 pieces of artillery ; the fire of the battalions and light troops ; 
the fr^uent explosion of caissons, blown up by shells which 
reached them ; the hissing of balls and grape-shot ; the clash of 
arms ; the impetuous noise of the charges, and shouts of the sol- 
diery — all created an effect of sound the pen is unable to describe ; 
and all this within a narrow space, the two armies being close to 
each other, and their respective lines contracted into the shortest 
length possible. 

However, in spite of obstacles and dangers, the French army 
was sensibly gaining ground. 

The support of the two British wings being carried, we passed 
the ravine, and made our advances amidst a deluge of balls and 
grape-shot A strong column approached Mount St John, whence 
a terrific fire was pouring. The French cavalry at the same 
time rushed to carry the rnrns on the plains, but was charged in 
its turn by the enemy's horse, who issued in a body from the 


hollows where they had laui in ambuscade^ and the slaughter 
became horrible. Neither side gave way one step ; fresh columns 
reinforce them; the charge is repeated. Three times the French 
are on the point of forcing the positions, and three times they are 
driven back I 

These three assaults, made without interruption, and with all 
the characteristic impetuosity of the French, caused considerable . 
loss to the enemy, and called for the most vigorous resistance on 
their part Lord Wellington exposed himself very much; and, 
in order to direct in person the efforts of his troops, several times 
threw himself into the midst of the medley to animate them by his 
presence. The Prince of Orange, who was with the right wing, 
was woimded at the head of his troops. 

The English, however, if the reports are to be credited, were 
very near being broken ; it is strongly af&rmed, that, for a consi- 
derable time, great disorder prevailed in their rear, and they caused 
their equipages to retrograde with precipitancy, and file off towards 
Brussels m much confusion. 

But however that may have been, it is not less true that they 
repulsed with insurmoiuitable firmness all our efforts, and knew 
how to frustrate them, by concealing from omr observation what- 
ever trouble or apprehensions might have been produced from 
such fiirious attacks, so often repeated and so obstinately upheld. 
A general uneasiness now prevailed through our army. Se- 
veral dismounted batteries were withdrawing; numbers of the 
wounded, detached from the columns, bv their reports spread an 
alarm, and universal silence succeeded tlie shouts of victory with 
which the day had hegan. All the troops (with the single excep- 
tion of the infantry of the Guard) were engaged, and expo^ to 
the deadliest fire ; the action still continuing with the same fury, 
yet presenting nothing decisive. 

It was near seven o'clock. Buonaparte, still pacing the ground 
he had from the first placed himself on, contemplated with a iaro- 
cious eve this horrid butchery. The more the difiicultlea multi-- 

J)li€d, the more determined was his obstinacy. And, far from 
earing to drive to madness an army who placed their jonboumiled 
confidence in him, he pressed on fresh troops without <>eaaiDg^; 
ordering them to advance, charge with the bayonet, and carry 
everything before them I In vain was he repeatedly told that- tbd 
affair was bad on many points, that the troops were shaken — 
"Forwards!" he cried; "forwardsl" 

A general officer had informed him how impossible it was to 
sustain the position he was in, as one of the batteries was anni- 
hilatmg him ; and requested to know what he should do to elude 
its destructive fire. "Carry it!" was the reply ; and he turned 
his back on the aide-de-camp. 

A wounded English officer was brought before him. He 


made some inquiries of him, and amongst others, ** What was the 
strength of their army ?" The officer replied, " Very consider- 
able ; and had just been reinforced by 60,000 Pmssians.'' — ** So 
much the better,** he answered ; ^ the more there are, the longer 
we shall fight** He sent off several expresses towards France, 
and repeatedly exclaimed, in a tone of distraction, to his secre- 
tary, ** Above all, fiul not to say the victory is mine I** 

At this juncture, and at the moment when all his attonpts 
proved abortive, it was announced to him that powerful bocUes 
of Prussians were opening on our right flank, and threatening our 
rear : but he treated the news as an idle tale, and then answered, 
that they had kept a bad look-out, for those pretended Prussians 
were nothing but Grouchy's corps. Several of the aidesnle-camp 
who came to report this news he even abused, and dismissed 
them widi ill-humour. — ** Be off!** said he, ** you are frightened ; 
ride up to the columns that are defdoying, and you will fmd thev 
are Grouchy's.** 

After so peremptory an answer, many of them, ashamed to 
have been mistaken, advanced heedlessly towards the Prussian 
jagers, and, notwithstanding the lively fire directed against them, 
got near enough to be either killed or taken. He was, however, 
obliged to yield to evidence, when these columns commenced a 
serious attack on our right winff. A part of the 6th Division 
was sent to sustain this new shock, till those of Marshal Grroochy, 
on whom the greatest dependence was placed, should arrive; 
and it was even announced through the army that they were 
absolutely in line. 

It appears from the reports, that a part of Marshal Bliicher's 
BTtnfy which from the 16th concentrated itself in the ^ivirons of 
Wavre, had eluded the vigilance of Marshal Grouchy, and 
being joined by the 4th Prussian corps, under Greneral Bulow, 
had rapidly joined the English line, to co<K)perate with Lord 

Marshal Grouchy had, in reality, briskly pursued the Prus- 
sians during their retreat to Wavre, and attacked in that place 
the portion of the enemy which remained there. He was, there- 
fore, engaged, at the same moment we were, against a small divi- 
sion, whicn he mistook for the whole of the Prussian army, and 
over which he continued to obtain signal advantages; but, fa- 
voured as they were by the difficulties of a hilly country, inter- 
sected with woods and ravines, these coips made a sufficiently 
obstinate resistance, if not to stop his march, at least to impede it 
very considerably. Thus they succeeded in holding him in play 
at a distance from the principal seat of action. 

He could not, therefore, be of any assistance to us ; and hence 
it was that the English received a considerable reinforcement, 
whose concerted intervention put them in a situation no longer 

FBENCH officer's ACCOUNT. 107 

to fear our most vigorous attacks; but, on the other hand, to 
resume the offensive, and presentiv to overpower us. Confidence 
was restored amongst them, and, calculating their manoeuvres 
by the favourable circumstances diat occurred, they resisted our 
efforts ^ith all their force, and with an ardour that seemed to 
redouble itself. 

It ia evident that this operation had been preconcerted by the 
two Grenerals-in-Chief, and that the English defended their posi- 
tions with such invincible tenacity, only to give the Prussians 
tiine to effect that combined movement, on which the success of 
the battle depended, and the signal of which was waited for from 
one moment to the other. 

Buonaparte, whose resolutions nothing could change, thought 
the moment was arrived to determine the day: he formed a 
fourth column of attack, almost entirely composed of his Guard, 
and led on the charge upon Mount St John, after directing his 
orders on every point to second this movement, on which fate 
seemed to hang. Those old warriors entered the plain with their 
accustomed intrepidity, and courage was restored through the 
whole line. The Guard made several charges, but was con- 
stantly regulsed, crushed by a terrible artillery that each minute 
seemed to multiply. These invincible grenadiers beheld the 
grapes-shot make day through their ranks ; they closed promptly 
ana coolly their shattered files; nothing intimidates them ; nothing 
stops them but death or mortal wound ; but the hour of defeat 
. had sounded ! Enormous masses of British infantry, supported by 
an immense cavalry we had nothing to oppose to (for our own 
had already met its destruction), descend m fury, surround, and 
cry out to them to surrender 1 " The Guard never surrenders I 
If called on, it dies I" was the reply. No more quarter is given, 
almost the whole fall fighting in desperation. 

This tremendous massacre continues as long as their resist- 
ance. At length the fragment that remained quit their ranks, 
and rush in utter confusion towards their first positions, doubtless 
in hopes to rally there. 

Meanwhile the Prussians, arrived on our right, advance, and 
charge what troops remain on that point. The cannonade and 
a brisk fire of musketry were heard in the rear of that line ; as it 
approached, louder and louder. Our troops endeavoured to main- 
tain the combat, but gradually lost grormd. At last our right 
wing evidently fell back, and the Prussians, who out-flanked it, 
were on the point of opening on the road, when the report ran 
that the Guard was repulsed ; and when its scattered and maimed 
battalions were seen to rush back in confusion, an universal 
panic seized the army, which disbanded itself on every point, and 
sought safety in instant flight In vain Buonaparte, for a last 
effort, collected some batt^ons of the old ana young Guard, 


which had heen least engaged, and led them on. All in vain ! 
Intimidated by the scene, and pulveruBed by the canncm, this 
feeble reserve was presently overthrown. 

The army th^i spontaneously, and all at the same time, leh 
its posts, ana spread like a torrent in all directions. The can- 
noneers abandon their guns. The waggon-train cut their traces ; 
infantry, cavalry, all arms mingled in utter confusion, fly alon^ 
the road and through the fields. Equipages of all sorts, that had 
been arranged in park along the highway, and withdrawn in dis- 
order, choke the road, and render it impassable. 

However, the cry of ** Sauve qui pevi^ was nowhere heard ; 
and this general rout was the consequence of a spontaneous move^ 
ment, whose causes remain to this moment unknown, or for which 
it would be very difficult to assign any other than die knowledge 
the soldiery had acquired of the perils of our situation ; for the 
French soldier is never, like those of almost all other naticHis, 
wholly passive. He observes, he reasons, and never under any 
circumstances places in his chiefs so blind a confidence as may 
prevent him from submitting their operations to his own judgment. 

No order nor route had been given. The commanders, swept 
along by the flying torrent, were separated from their, corps ; not 
a single file of men to rally to ; no arrangements dreamt o^ fbr an 
orderly retreat The Guard, heretofore Irmndblesy fled foremost 
of the multitude. Night came on, and added to the confusion. 

The enemy detached a numerous cavalry in pursuit of the 
fugitives. A part of them took possession of the whole hospital- 
train on the road, while formidable columns advanced on each 
flank. All the household carriages of Buonaparte fell first to the 
Prussians, with mountains of other baggage. All the cannons 
were taken in the batteries where they had served, along with the 
caissons and trains. In a word, the whole matSriel of our army 
disappeared in less than one half hour. 

The English and Prussian commanders, having completely 
effected their junction, met at the farm of La Bdle AOianca 
The British cavalry being greatly fatigued, that of the Prussians 
was sent forward, and did not give us a moment's repose. 

Arrived at Genappe, they barricaded the entrance and threw 
up all possible obstacles, in hopes to pass there the night. Pre- 
sently a few shots fired by the Prussian cavalry, who were by 
this time close at their heels, spread the alarm ; the bivouac is 
raised, and all in a flight again, more confused than before. 

No one knew what was become of Buonaparte, who had dis- 
appeared. According to some he had perished in the strife ; and 
this account being brought to a well-known general officer, he 
exclaimed, as Megret did after the death of Charles XIL at 
Frederickstadt, ** VoUh la pikce jwkP Others reported he had 
been unhorsed and made prisoner. The same incertitude pre- 


vailed respecting the fate of Marshal Nej, of the Major-general, 
and of the principal number of the generd staff. 

The former, who was Comman£int-m-Chief of the 1st and 2d 
corps, had directed in person the different attacks made on the 
centre, and was constantly seen in the tliickest of the action. It ap- 
pears that, until t;he moment there was a certainty of its not being 
Ghrouchy's division which approached from the right, but a body 
of Prussian troops, he had considered that affairs were in a good 
^w^ay, and conceived the liveliest hopes of a fortunate issue; but 
inrhen he saw Buonaparte maintain against demonstration that 
Cxrouchy was forming into line, and ostentatiously circulate this 
falsehood through the ranks, he supposed it was his purpose to de- 
ceive the whole army in order to inspire it with a fatal confidence. 
From that time his opinion changed, and he no longer acted 
with the same coolness and self-collection ; but it must be avowed 
that not one reproach was made against him by the army on his 
chan^ of conduct, and his bravery was never suspected; he 
merely partook the general anxiety and discouragement It was 
indeed obvious, that from the opening of the campaign he ap- 
peared profoundly dissatisfied, but dissimulated his feelings in pre- 
sence of the public. There subsisted between him and Buonaparte 
a certain misunderstanding, and a kind of reciprocal distrust, very 
difficult to fathom, but not the less evident Tnere is every reason 
to believe, too, that he entertained a jealousy of Marshal Grouchy, 
which Buonaparte himself seemed manifestly to adopt Such 
dissensions between the principal chiefs, must necessarily have 
cramped the course of their operations, and disturbed the unity of 
their plans. 

A great number of persons affirmed they had seen Buonaparte 
in the midst of the crowd, and perfectly distinguished him by his 
short grey cloak and dappled horse. 

This last story was the true one. When the last battalions of 
tiie Guard were overthrown, Buonaparte was hurried away with 
them, surrounded on all sides by the enemy, into a cider-orchard, 
belonging to the farm of La Belle Alliance. There he was met bv 
two cavwiers of the Guard, who conducted him cautiously through 
the Prussian parties tiiat were scouring the country, but who, 
fortunately for him, were aU employed in stopping and plundering 
the equipages. He was known and recognised in many places, 
and often heard the whisper run: "The Emperor! — the Em- 
peror!" — words of alarm which caused his instant removal from 
the spot wherever heard. 

After a flight harassed by the enemy through the whole night, 
the sad relics of our army reached at the pomt of day, part of 
them Charleroi, and the rest Marchienne, where they hastened 
to repass the Sambre. The remaining equipages, meanwhile, im- 
peded by their gradual accumulation on the two roads which lead 


to the bridges of Charleroi and Marchienne, were overtaken by 
the Prussians, abandoned by their train and drivers, and thus the 
last cannon and military carriage fell into the power of the enemy , 
who made at the same time a £rreat number of prisoners. 

The Sambre once crossed by the remnant of onr army, we 
ho{)ed to be able to halt, and bivouacs were established in the 
orciiards and meadows on its right bank ; but an alarm was given 
tliat the Prussians were nigli. Without waiting orders ; withoat 
attempting to destroy, or even turn adrift the bridges; withoat 
making a single reconnaissance, the flight recommenced with all 
its disorder; the whole started at once, and each ccmsulting his 
own safetv, iiirects his steps he knows not whither. 

At a little distance from Charleroi are two roads, one leading 
to Avesnes, the other to Philippeville. Having received no direc- 
tions, and seeing none of the superior officers, they divided into 
two parties ; the most numerous one taking that of Avesnes, by 
whicn they had marched before, and the other towards the left to 
Pliilipi)eville. A ^reat number of scattered men threw th^nselves 
into tlie surrounding woods to avoid the enemy's cavalry; and 
thus this brilliant army gradually dispersed and disappeared. It 
was the latter road that Buonaparte chose for his retreat Once 
more a fugitive from his own army, he abandons it without fur- 
ther effort in the midst of dangers he seems to take pleasure in 
aggravating, by delivering it up to anarchy and disorganisation. 

Wandering and deserted, tnousands of insulated soldiers run 
about the country, spreading alarm as they pass. The wretched 
inhabitants hear almost at the same moment the success of the 
French army and its annihilation, and find themselves the prey 
of an enemy whom victory, won with its blood, must render 
more ferocious. Every strong place shuts its gates against the 
fugitives, and driving away by force those who flee thither for 
scuety, oblige them to seek shelter in the neighbouring hamlets, 
where they practise every sort of excess. 

It was in his character of a runaway that Bucmaparte, in the 
moment of general dismay, sought safety, and presented himself, 
begging entrance, at the gates of Philippevilla He was urged 
to solicit the protection of their ramparts, to secure himself from 
the close pursuit of the Prussians, who traced him in all direc- 
tions. He underwent the humiliation of being refused admittance 
till the Governor came out and recognised nim, when the gates 
were opened. 

Numbers of soldiers dispersing that way, to whom it was soon 
known their illustrious Emperor was in tliis place, conceived it 
their duty to encamp around him. Buonaparte, however, pru* 
dently judged that such an assemblage miffht make his asylum 
known to tne enemy ; he therefore sent orders for them to con- 
tinue their route : but having, like a wise general, analysed the 


means of acting on the sentiments of an army after such a defeat, 
he insured the prompt execution of his orders by sending emissar 
lies finom the town, who called out : ** The Cossacks I — Save your- 
selves ! — the Cossacks ! — Hftte ! " 

It Mras these unfortunates who, in accents of despair and grief, 
spread^ as they journeyed, the dreadful news that the Emperor 
was blocking at Philippevilla This was looked on as a certainty, 
but conceived to be only a measure forming one part of his grand 
preconceptions. However, after passing a few hours at Philipp&« 
ville, his majesty withdrew firom thence, and departed for 
MeziSres. Night came on as he passed under the walls of Rocroi, 
where it was supposed he would have stopped: a number of 
people appeared on the ramparts, crying, ** Long live the Em- 
peror !" wnile he remained in sight; but he probably found the 
night more convenient for continuing his route. There entered 
the town a few of his officers and attendants, with only a few 
horses. AU his carriages and equipages had been seized by the 

The great portion of the shattered army, which had withdrawn 
to Avesnes and Laon, experienced the deepest anxiety as to the 
fate of Buonaparte. They were ignorant of what had befallen 
him ; but persuaded that, not being amongst them, he had foimd 
a ffrave in the same field of honour with the brave fellows he had 
lea to death, they lamented the fate reserved for a chief so dear. 
When they leam he is arrived at Paris, full of life and good 
health I — oh I shame eternal! — how paint the indignation they 
must have felt? 

Since the affair of Ligny there had been no communication 
from the right of the army, under Marshal Grouchy. The 
people, therdbre, remained in ignorance of what was become of 
them ; and reports were circulated that, for want of knowing the 
issue of the battle of Motmt St John, they had been surrounded 
by the AUies at Wavre, and, unable* to eroct a retreat, had laid 
down th^r arms ; Vandamme being in the number of the killed. 

This fine French army, then, sacrificed with its predecessors, 
had ceased to exist ! It seemed as though Buonaparte, become 
furious at having seen some thousands of brave men escape his 
rage, the monster had stalked from his den in Elba solely to 
devour the remainder. And if, in fact, he might have the credit of 
such intention, his every action during this short and unlucky 
campaign would be in consonance therewith. But let us rather 
ascribe these enormous errors to his unskilful and presumptuous 
rashness, and to his well-known and incorrigible mania of ad- 
vancing always in blind confidence, without plan or any calcu- 
lation of the chances of war. It is evident that that system, so uni- 
formly adopted and persevered in by Buonaparte, being become 
known to the Allied generals, had opened the pit-faiU in which his 


own pitiable solf-secority precipitated him; for, whatever their 
foreign bulletins may aflvance, with the intention, no doubt, of 
enhancing the glory of their generals and the bravery of the men, 
it is clear that the position of MoiAt St John had been reccm- 
noitred, designed, and marked out, with the fiill purpose to draw 
him thither with his army, and there give him battle : for only a 
Buonaparte, infallible in his own opinion, could have failed to see 
through it The calculated retreat of the English on so strong a 
position, the obstinacy with which they maintamed it, the laciljtT 
they had for masking their troops and artillery in an immense 
forest, and beyond all that, the redoubts and open batteries they 
had raised, would have awakened mistrust in almost any odier 
general What further strengthens the supposition is, the erec- 
tion of a wooden observatory, which had been raised on a knoll in 
front of the forest, where with a good telescope every movement 
as far as the Sambre might be distinguished. It was certainly 
erected to watch us, and could not have been the work of twenty- 
four hours. 

In every hypothesis, prudence called on him to reconnoitre the 
ground, and ascertain the dispositions of the enemy ; and could 
the most unexperienced general commit the error of making an 
attack without first placmg himself in communication with his 
right wing, or at least being fully aware of its operations? 
Besides, supposing that we had forced the English line, which 
could not have been done without very considerable loss, what 
had been our advantage ? Behind them was a forest of 15 leagues 
long by 5 broad ; the road through it was but a narrow defile, 
where 10,000 men and a few pieces of artillery would have stopped 
the progress of the greatest army. 

Great fault was found with the chaige of our officers, to 
whose ill-success they ascribed all the mischief that ensued. They 
were accused of not having boldly met the enemy's battalions, 
though they had brought away one standard ; and some went so 
far as to surmise treason. Rumours like these spread presently 
through the whole army ; and to counteract the bad impressicni, it 
was studiously propagated that several generals who had become 
traitors, among the rest General Bourmont, had been delivered to 
a military commission, and shot 

Everything, however, was lost ; and the destruction of the 
French army was the more inevitable from its right being turned 
and no provision made for a retreat Yet (who will credit it ?) 
Buonaparte alone appeared to make light of the dangers which 
threatened him. Yet will he advance again ; and flatters hunself, 
with a few battalions, to overturn a force that had resisted his 
whole army I 

And this is the man who passes for *• the first captain of the 
age I'* Yet it will not be doubted, that at Mount St John 


Buonaparte displayed the whole measure of his faculties ; he had 
too much need of victory not to put forth all his energies to obtain 
it. Sither^ then, it must be admitted all his former victories 
were due to chance^ or that his intellects were deranged on the 
18th of June; for his combinations of that day could not other- 
wise be termed judicious^ than insomuch as we pre-suppose his 
former determination to cause the assassination of his whole 
army. Such, at least, was the opinion of his most consummate 
generals on this day, who exclaimed in the violence of despair, 
*^ The man is not himself I What would he have ? He loses his 
understanding I " 

It is, however, pretended by some that, setting aside all disad-* 
vantages of ground, the manner in which he directed his attacks, 
and the evolutions he commanded, bore a strong resemblance to 
those of Marengo ; insomuch, that if on a sudden, at the moment 
when the victorious English army broke from their positions to 
rush upon us, a formidable column had issued from the ground, 
commanded by a Desaix, it is more than probable the chances had 
turned to our advantage. 

If, then. Marshal Grouchy had appeared at the instant, he 
would have played most truly the part of Desaix, and it is beyond 
a doubt the victory had been ours. But he was too distant from 
the theatre of action to figure there so effectually. That consider- 
ation a^ravates the inconceivable errors committed at Mount 
St John by Buonaparte, whom nothing compeUed to hazard so 
abruptly a decisive battle, and who, instead of reducing his right 
wing to an absolute nullity by neglecting to secure his communica- 
tions with it, mi^ht, without inconvenience, have waited till it had 
rejoined. One day — a few hours even — would have sufficed to 
accomplish this most essential point, which would have placed 
every probability of a successfrd termination on our side : nor can 
the disasters that ensued from that circumstance be ascribed to 
unforeseen misfortune ; for it is clear, that no measures had been 
taken to acquire any certain knowledge of the march of Grouchy's 
corps, or of the difficulties it might have encountered. And ar- 
rangements were made, which implied a full certainty that that 
body, having perfectly repulsed the Prussians, its prompt co- 
operation might be implicitly relied on. 

It is generally believed, that when Buonaparte saw the affidr 
turning so badly, he charged with the greatest bravery at the head 
of his uuard ; that he had two horses killed under him, and courted 
death in the midst of the English several times. This desperation 
was proof of a disturbed mind. We must, therefore, deeply deplore 
the fate of an army committed to the hands of a man marked by 
such invincible obstinacy — with whom there can be no alternative 
but to conquer or die ! 

The battle of Mount St John was, assuredly, one of the most 



murderons that ever has been recorded. The French army, oon- 
sisdng of 120,000 meiiy after certainly displaying prodigioiis valoiir, 
was umost totally destroyed ; 300 fieces of canncm, all the cai^ 
sons and eqaipages, fell into the power of the enemy, as well as 
an inimmerable mass of prisoners ; and the bodies of more than 
20y000 Frenchmen, mangled with grape-shot, strewed the field. 
The English, likewise, suffered great losses ; bat not comparable 
to those of the French, from the superior adyantage afforded bj 
their position. Nevertheless, it is prestmied the Allied armies 
had at least as many as 20,000 killed. There is reas<m to believe, 
that at the commencement of the action their forces were nearly 
equal ; but the English army was, in fact, much stronger throu^ 
its CTtrenchments, and beoune oxisiderably augmented by me 
effective co-operation of the Prussians. 

It was easy to predict the consequences of this fight. The 
scattered fragments of the French army rallied in the environs of 
Laon and of Kheims ; but, weak and discouraged, were incapable 
of opposing the immediate entrance of the AUies into the cMitaL 
They presently made their appearance before the barriers of Paris, 
when some resistance was first presented on the arrival of those 
corps which had composed the right wing of the army. 

This right wing, which was supposed to have been destroyed, 
had with singular good fortune retreated b^ Namur, and, after 
marching ei^t days in the midst of the Alhes, and parallel with 
them, jomed at length the remainder of our army, without having 
met any considerable loss. 

Thus 70,000 men were concentrated before Paris, and threat- 
ened to defend that capital. But what could so small a force 
effect against the united arms of all Europe, which were approach- 
ing, with rapid strides, towards their central point? After some 
dajrs spent in a resistance extremely alarming to the inhabitants, 
whose safety was thereby endangered to an indefinite ext^it, they 
succeeded m overcoming the obstinacy of the troops, who had 
determined to hold out to the last extremity, and were resolved to 
exact for that purpose the greatest sacrifices. In thus gradually 
disposing them to accept a capitulation, and extorting, it may be 
saia, in this manner, their consent to evacuate Paris, France, in 
reality, gained a signal victory; the results of which are incalcul- 
able, and perhaps saved the capital fix>m entire destructiiHi. 

The battle of Mount St John, therefore, by the occupation of 
Paris, and re-establishment of the Intimate Government, termi- 
nated the frightful strife in which Buonaparte had engaged us. 
No doubt the momentary destruction of so many thousands of 
men was a dreadful catastrophe ; but it was the prompt and un- 
expected issue of a fiightful war, which might probably have 
ravaged France for an mdefinite period. Even had their efforts 
been unanimous, yet must she have yielded finally to all the 


united energies of Europe put forth against her ; and meanwhile^ 
a prey to wild devastation, trampled under foot by numerous 
enemies, her soil would only have Been ceded when covered with 
dead^ and, encumbered with the sad ruins of burning villages, her 
inhabitants had abandoned them in despair to the discretion of 
soldiers whose need is destruction. 

History has diown, by frequent and terrible examples, that 
men whom the power of arms has raised above all law, no longer 
recognise the ties of patriotism. They form a corps apart, and 
treat with undistinguisoing friry their own or fore^ lanos. And 
what protection could be sought from an army, whose whole alle- 
giance and devotion were centred in the individual Buonaparte, 
and who avowed themselves, in the &ce of the world, to be the 
blind instruments of his will ? Accustomed to a wandering life of 

Jdunder, and embued with the sole genius of destruction, it per- 
ected a system of military cosmopolitism. It breathed only war, 
for war and unchecked rapine were the objects of its vows. After 
havir^ ravaged the rest (k Europe, France was still a virgin land, 
that presented to them a wide and fertile field of depredation. The 
spirit of disorder and indiscipline this army carried along with it 
everywhere, victorious or fugitive, had become contagious, and 
spread not only among the foreign troops who served in its ranks, 
but among those they opposed. France could not, therefore, have 
expected a better lot than those unhappy lands which their armies 
had successively desolated. 

Though unhappily it is too notorious, that the French in their 
incursions into ihe neighbouring states set an example of rapine 
and exaction, it is no less certain they have been well imitated, if 
not excelled, by those of the foreign troops, who seem to have made 
it a point of honour to resemble them in this jparticular. And 
there is one nation to whom, perhaps, it belongs of right to exercise 
the most cruel reprisals, tbat they may well serve as a model 
thereof. But whatever be the inducements to such a scandalous 
abuse of nulitary power, its perpetrators blindly light up a volcano 
that assuredly will one di^ explode under their own feet : for it 
cannot be demed, it is the afflicting excesses with which the French 
armies are reproached, that have drawn down on their native land 
the resentment of all Europe, and provoked that terrible re-active 
visitation under which we now groan. In every point of view, 
therefore, they have been the heralds of greater evils to France 
tiian to the countries that have had to undergo them. May, then, 
this tremendous lesson not pass unheeded by the nations, but en- 
lighten their views of policy and public interest for the common 
good of them all I 

Necessarily subversive of every principle and of morality — 
the destroyer of law and justice — the sworn enemy to civilisation 
— there can exist neither govenmient nor society where military 


despodfln reigns. Peace is imposBflble, becanse man is goyenei 
by nis interest, and the thirst of power is interwoven in Im natnm 
Soldiers, therefore, called at first to the hcnoorable task of main- 
taining the rights of their fellow-citizens, soon foi]get their manda- 
tory characters, and, aspiring to engross the wealth, honours, and 
offices of state, do not hesitate in the choice of means. War, above 
all, is the element they breathe, and hence a miKtary goTemment 
finds occasion to be for ever at war. 

An exclusive preponderance, therefore, of the military |MX>f»- 
sion is the greatest evil which can befall a state. Crashed beneadi 
the weight of their own power, all conquering nati<His have been 
OMiquered in their turn. And what country bas had to feel more 
than France the weight of this austere truth? That militaiy 
government for which she has made such fiT^at sacrifioeSy these 
splendid conquests, this glory of arms, have led her firom victory 
to victory, to the ver^ of destruction. 

The same deplorable system has made us retrograde with npd 
strides towards the ages of barbarism. Factious lemons, as in the 
periods of anarchy of the Roman Republic, acknowledging no otha' 
law than their own will, called to reign over the nations they 
oppressed the General who had captivated thm choice, or, like 
the janissaries of the East, raised and deposed their own deqKyt at 
their pleasure. 

It is highly essential, therefore, that all efforts be ccHubined 
against this Vandalism, which threatens to replunge us in the 
gidf of barbarian darkness. It is now time that order should 
succeed to anarchy, and the authority of laws to the sway of 

Buonapabte's Conduct ditbino aiA> afteb the Battle, 


The following details will give a correct idea of the dangers 
which Buonaparte personally underwent on the memorable day of 
Waterloa These details were fiimished by an eye-witness of the 
whole, and may be relied on: — 

*^ From two o'clock until a quarter before seven Buonaparte 
commanded all the operations and movements from a position, 
where he remained without any danger whatever to his own per- 
son : he was at least a cannon-shot and a half off. Nothing, in 
short, could reach him. 

" When he was at length convinced that the corps d'armee 
which he had so lone and so obstinately taken for that of Marshal 
Qrouchy was in reahty a Prussian corps, he seemed to think that 


the af&ir was desperate, and that he had no other resource than to 
make a great em>rt with the reserve of his Guard, composed of 
1 5,000 men. This part he accordingly took. 

^^ At this moment he assmned an appearance of. resolution, 
-which reanimated a little those who surrounded him. 

^^ He advanced, saving, * Let every one follow me,' (Toitt le 
monde en arrihe /) which evidently signified that he wished to be 
in front. In fact he made this movement at first, and headed, for 
about ten minutes, the formidable column which remained to him 
as his forlorn hope; but when he arrived within 200 toises (1200 
feet) from three solid squares of Allied troops which occupied a 
ridge, with a formidable artillery (and which ridge it was necessarv 
to carry), he suddenlv stopped under the broken ground of a sand- 
pit, or ravine, and a little on one side, out of the direction of the 

^' This fine and terrible column, which he had sometime 
headed, found him here as it passed and defiled before him in order 
to advance, taking a demi-tour to the bottom of the hillock, and 
directly in &ont of the enemy's squares, which Buonaparte himself 
could not see from the lateral point which he occupied, although 
it is very true that he was dose enough to the enemy's batteries.. 
As the corps passed him, he smiled, and addressed to tibem expres* 
sions of confidence and encouragement. The march of these old 
warriors was very firm, and there was something solemn in it 
Their appearance was very fierce. A kind of savage silence 
reigned among theuL There was in their looks a mixture of sur- 
prise and discontent, occasioned by their unexpected meeting with 
Buonaparte, who, as they thought, was at their head. 

^' In proportion as tney ranged up the eminence, and darted 
forward on the squares which occupied its summit, the artillery 
vomited death upon them and killed them in masses. This part 
of the scene came directly under Buonaparte's eyes, without his 
being able to see what passed on the height itself, as he still kept 
himself, as it were, enveloped in the comer of the ravine. It was 
then precisely a quarter of an hour from seven o'clock, and it 
was at this very moment that the decisive crisis of the battle 

^'Buonaparte had then six persons close to him — these were, 
his brother Jeroine, and Generals Bertrand, Drouet, Bernard, 
Douhers, and Labedoyire. At every step which he took, or 
seemed to take, to put his own person in front, Generals Bertrand 
and Drouet threw themselves before his horse's head, and ex- 
claimed in a pathetic accent, — 'Ah I Sire, what are you going to 
do ? Consider that the safety of France and the army depends 
entirely upon you. All is lost, if any accident should nappen to 

'^ Buonaparte yielded to thdr entreaties with a zeal or apparent 

118 BARU or wAniLoa 

effort, which he seemed to cain over himaelE Bat one tiui^ 
^>petfed very singalary namely^ that the two men who knefw so 
wdl how to moderate his ardour and to restrain him, were the only 
persons whom he never sent to reconnoitre the state of the battle, 
while he sent the rest twenty times into the midst of the fire to 
carry orders or Inin^; him information. One of them having told 
him that the Duke m Wellington had been for a long time in mmt, 
and at the head of one of his squares, he exhibited a sort of a grin, 
which showed evidently that this part of the narrative vexed him 

** Jerome having thooght proper to take aside and wbisper 
with one of his brother^s aides-de-camp, to whom he spoke his 
mind very freely, Buoni^Mirte sent him (Jerome) sevend times 
into the middle of the fire, as if to get rid of such an importanate 
critic. Jerome, in fact, took it ffreatly to heart that hu brotho* 
did not profit of this occasion to die in a glorious manner; and I 
distinctly heard him say to Greneral Bertrund, ' Can it be possible 
that he will not seek death here? Never will he find a more 
glorious gravel' 

^ At night-fall Buonaparte disappeared firom us, und^ pretext 
of going himself to ascertain the state of things, and put himself at 
the head of the Guards to animate them. Before I conclude, 
there is a peculiarity which deserves to be noticed, namely, that 
before effecting his personal retreat, in order to get rid of ixnperd- 
nent witnesses, he directed all those around him to carry diffio^nt 
orders at once, the result of which could not concern mm in the 

^ Captain Elphinstone, who was made prisoner in the batde of 

the 16 th, was brought before Buonaparte for examination. Being 

asked bv Buonaparte, 'Who commands the cavahy?' he was 

answered, *Lord Uxbridge.' *No, Paget,' replied Buonaparte. 

The officer then explained that they meant the same person, and 

Buonaparte nodded assent He was then asked, ' Who conunanded 

in chief?' and was answered, *The Duke of Wellington;' upon 

which he observed, * No, that cannot be, for he is sick.' It seems 

that his Ghrace had received a fall from his horse on the 14th, and 

was reported to be indisposed in consequence, and Buonaparte had 

received intelligence to that efiect The conversation continued 

thus for a considerable time, during which Buonaparte showed 

himself perfectly acauainted with the strength and position of llie 

several divisions ot the Allied armies, and the names of their 

several commanders. As they were successively m^itioned, 

Buonaparte occasionallv remarked, * Oh, yes, this division cannot 

be up in time ; — this division cannot be up in a day ;' and so oa 

Upon some difficulty in the conversation, one of his aides-de-camp, 

who spoke English weU, interpreted siter, and he, it appeared, 

had been in London about ten chys before. On the conversation 

buonapabte's opinions^ etc. 119 

being ended, a surgeon was ordered to sive his attention, and he 
was placed, with another officer, xmder three guards. On retiring^, 
they -were put to quarters, which happened to be the cock-l<m 
of ahouse ; firom hence, on the following morning, they looked 
secretly, and saw the whole of the French army march to their 
positions. Ejiowing the disparity of force, he trembled to think 
of the result ; and noticed particularly the enthusiasm and devo- 
tion of the troops. In this state of anxiety they silently waited 
some hours, fearing every moment to hear the crisis. At length 
they heard a great Dustle of men and horses ; upon coming nearer 
they discovered them to be French. All is now lost ; victory is 
gained ; and these are the messengers. On coming to the town^ 
fliey, however, found them flying French. Then was their joy 
superior to their former dejection ; but in their helpless situation 
they dare not show themsdves, as they certainly would have been 
shot ; but after an hour the black Brunswickers came riding 
through; then they came out of their lurking-places, and joined 
their conorades. It is to be observed that theur guards had long 
left them.*' 

La Coste's Nabkauvb.* 

** Three officers, early in the mormng of Sunday, the 18th 
June, inquired for him, and asked him how long he had lived in 
the country, and upon hearing his reply wrote three lines upon 
a piece of paper, and sent an officer with him to Buonaparte at 
six. He asked him if he knew the different roads. C. answered. 
Yes, and explained them upon a chart, which was lying before B. 
Goste said, mat from eight to one B. was forming his troops for 
the general engagement, which began at one. From one to four, 
B. was dismounted, and remained in the same position (viz. a 
little above Hougoumont, towards the left). From four to seven, 
he was upon the roof of Coste's house, one-eighth of a mile be- 
yond Belle Alliance. At seven, he moved in the high road be- 
tween Belle Alliance and Mont St. Jean, three-quarlers of a 
imle ftom Coste's house. That B. remained there till half-past 
eight, when, finding that the Prussians were coming upon his 
flank, and that the English, by their desperate attack, nad thrown 
his troops into utter confusion, said to Bertrand, ^ Sauvone^ 
nous:* he then immediately galloped off; and that he never 
spoke for four hours. B. was not seen either to eat or drink 
during the day, and, in Coste's opinion, he considered victory as 
certain till seven in the evening, when he was cheered with victory 
by his troops." 

* "Vide the attested declaration of this person of all he saw of Buonaparte, 
before and during the battle, in a subsequent part of this work. 


^ Waterloo, Augugt 15. 

*' Oppoflite the inn, at a cottage, where the E^I of Uxlnid^ 
was earned, you are shown a neat garden ; in the centre of Ibar 
paths, a little hillock, with a weeping-willow and shrubs planted 
near the spot, show the sepulchre of his lordship^s leg: * in an 
inclosure, turUier behind this cottage, are interred several EngUsh 
officers ; one only, Colonel Fitzgerald of the Life Guards, has a 
st(»ie with an inscription over him ; many have been taken up azKi 
transmitted to England. You then proceed to Waterloo, the house 
of Jean Bapdste Xa Coste, called Belle Alliance, from whom I 
obtained the following particulars: — 

'^ About five in the morning he was taken prisoner to serve 
as guide, and conducted with his bauds tied behmd him (that he 
might not escape, as a former man had done), to another house 
bebnging to him, opposite to which Buonaparte had slept. Ob- 
serving we French soldiers plundering and destroying this house, 
he cried. Buonaparte asked what he cried for ? * Because jrour 
soldiers are destroying all my property, and my family have no- 
where to put their heads.' Buonaparte said, * Do you not know 
that I am Emperor, and can recompense you a hundred times as 
much ? ' He was placed on a horse immediately between Buona- 
parte and his first aide-de-camp, his saddle being tied to the 
saddle of a trooper behind him, that he might not escape. They 
proceeded a little beyond Belle Alliance, and Buonaparte took the 
ground on a small eminence on the opposite side ; a sort of body- 
guard of twelve pieces of artillery, very light, surrounding theoL 
From this spot he could command both lines. He first observed : 
'How steaoily those troops take the ground I how beautiiully 
those cavalry form! Megardez ces chevaux gria!^ Qui sorU ces 
beaux cavaliers f Ce eont des braves troupes, mats dans tme denrd- 
heure je les couperai en piices.^ Observing how the chasms in 
the British squaorons were filled up the instant they were made 
by his artillery, he exclaimed, ' QueUes braves troupes I comme ils 
u travaUlentl ils travaillent trh-^neuy tris-bienl^ He asked La 
Coste the particulars of every house, tree, wood, rising ground, 

• YoQ are also shown the chair on which his lordship sat daring the operation, 
exactly as it remained ; and they still remember the gallant Earl's heroic sen- 
timents at the moment of this severe trial : but he was not seen to wince in the 
least, not even by contortion of features, consoling those about him in saying, 
** Who would not lose a leg for such a victory ? It is true, I have a limb less ; 
but I have a higher name in the eyes of my country." The interview between 
the noble Duke and his lordship, upon his visit to Brussels after the battle, on 
the Sunday, is described as the most feeling that can be imagined. The Duke, in 
displaying the purest sympathetic affection, had a fine contrast in the heroic 
firmness of the noble Earl. — Editor. 

f Meaning the Scots Greys. N.B. — CoL Cheney of the Ghreys, on whom Uie 
command of that regiment devolved on the 18th of June, in consequence of the 
death of Col. Hamilton and the wounds of other officers, had five horses killed 
nnder him, yet, almost by miracle, himself escaped without a wound. 

buonapabtb's opinions, etc. 121 

&C., with which he seeme4 well informed, holding a map in his 
left hand, and intent upon the action all the day, incessantly 
taking snuff from his waistcoat pocket, in large pinches, of which 
he violently snuffed up about half, throwing the other from him, 
with a violent exertion of the arm, and thumb and finger, as if 
from vexation : this was all the refreshment he took for fourteen 
hours : he frequently placed his left hand upon the back of La 
Cioate's horse to speak to the aide-de-camp on the other side of him. 
Seeing La Coste flinch at the shower of shot, he replied : * Do 
not stir^ my friend; a shot will kill you equally in the back as in 
the front, or wound you more disgracefrdly.' About eight, hear- 
ing the fire of the Prussians on the right of his rear flank, leanini 
his hand on the neck of La Goste's horse, and seeing the Britisl 
cavalry, from their right and left flanks, making a tremendous 
charge that would have encircled hi^ pergonal position, he ex- 
claimed, addressing himself to Bertrand, * Ilfaitt que nous nous 
sauvons,* retreating, with all lus staff, about forty yards along 
the road; and within about twenty yards of the house Belle 
Alliance he halted, and putting the glass to his eye, saw the 
British cavalry, intermingled j[>e^m62^, and furiously cutting the 
French troops to pieces. He exclaimed, * QuHls sont terribles 
ces chevaua griaT nneaning the Scots Ghreys, which had parti- 
cularly daring the oay, and at that moment, attracted his atten- 
tion). * Ufaut nous dip&cher; nous dSpecherJ They, and all the 
cavalry, commenced a gallop, till they got about three leagues 
beyond Charleroi, where they halted, and pitched a tent upon a 
grass-plot, about nine at night A fire was kindled, and renresh- 
ments placed upon a chair, which Buonaparte took the first for 
fourteen hours, standing with Ins back to the fire, with his hands 

generally behind him, conversing with a circle of nine, whose 
orses La Coste had been ordered to hold, till the party, about 
two in the morning, broke up, when, each taking his horse, Ber- 
trand gave La Coste a napoleon-d'or, which he exchanged, after a 
twenty-four hours' fast, to refresh himself and family. 

^^This statement of La Coste contradicts the account of the 
new Ghiard crying to the old, * Se sauve qui peut;^ that expression 
might easily Imve changed, in running through the army, from the 
first text, ^ Ufatd que nous nous sauvons,^ About an hour before 
the rout Buonaparte exclaimed, * I shall cut them to pieces, yet 
it is a pity to destroy such brave troops.' 

" The latter part corresponds much with an account I had by 
an officer, that accompanied me in this inspection. About an 
hour before the finish, he said, an aide-de-camp came to the Duke 
of Wellington, telling him that the 5th Division was reduced from 
4000 to 400, and that their keeping their post was wholly ineffec- 
tual. * I cannot help it,' said the Chief; ' they must keep the 
ground with mysetf to the last man. Would to God the night 

128 BAmi or WAimxxk 

or Blficher woald oome V Near an hour after, the fire was heard 
by the British in the rear of Booni^Mute^s right flank : * We wiD 
Mat them jet,' cried he. The charge was sonnded, the most 
dreadful havoc commenced, and a victory closed the 18th daj of 
June, which established a British generalship^ and the Britiah annj 
as the first in Eurme* 

** On the left ot all^^the Bronswickers, in a firm sqnarey made 
a breastwork of carnage : the Soots brigade next A brigade <^ 
Hanoverian Landwehr on their right, forming their square 
awkwardlv. Colonel Cameron of the 92d, who was killed after- 
wards, called to them to form as t/^y did ; which thej obeyed, and 
stood : the next, a Datch brigade, by not forming alertly, were cut 
to pieces. TUs battle proved the met of what we vulgariy call 

Premature ProclamaUon, daied I^acken, June 17, 1815. 

So confident was Buonaparte of getting to Brussds, that 
several bales of Proclamations were found arnon^ his baggi^ 
dated from ** Our Palace of Lacken,** a royal residence near that 

ProdamaHan to the Belgians and Inhabitant of the left Bank 


" The ephemeral success of my enemies detached you for a 
moment from my empire ; in my exile, upon a rock in the sea, 
I heard your complaint ; the God of Battles has decided the fate 
of your beautiful provinces; Napoleon is among you; you are 
worthy to be Frenchmen ; rise in mass, join my invincible pha- 
lanxes to exterminate the remainder of these barbarians, who are 
your enemies and mine : they fly, with rage and despair in their 

'* At the Imperial Palace of Lacken, June 17, 1815. 

(Signed) '' Nafolbon." 

** By the Emperor. 
** The Major-Genenu of the Army, 

" Corar Bestiuiq)." 

Buonaparte after the Batde of Waterloo* 

It was on the 20th of June, at nine at night, that the fugitive 
ftom Waterloo arrived at Paris. He first saw Madame de St 
Leu (Louis Buonaparte's wife), then Maret and Regnault de St 

buonafabtb's ofimioks, btc« 123 

Jean d'Aimely. The following are the details of this interview. 
M. St. Dicuer was present 

The night was far advanced. Maret sat in a comer of the 
room^ with an alarmed countenance — Renault stood before a 
table making pencil-marks on a piece of paper before him— 
Buonaparte walked up and down> biting his nails and taking snuj£ 
He stopped all at once — " Where is the bulletin?" 
RegnauU. — There it is, corrected. 
JBuonaparie. — Let us see. (Renault began reading it) 
Buonaparte. — (During two-thirds of it) It was gained. When 
Regnault nad finished, he said, with a si^h — It is lost I 
BucTiaparte. — It is lost, and — my ^ory with it 
RegnaulL — You have fifty victories to oppose to one defeat 
Maret — The defeat is decisive ; the Emperor is in the ri^t 
Suonaparte. — They are not accustomed to conquer. They 
will abuse the victory. 

Maret — Those whose cowardice Wellington's bravery has 
made triumphant are more dangerous, and more yoiur enemies, 
than the English and Prussians. 

jReanaidt — The Republicans will grieve; but they will try to 
profit by the circumstance. 

Btumaparte. — They will do well; at least, the glory and liberie 
of the country will remain untouched. K the Royalists succeed, 
it will be by the support of foreigners. 

Maret — The courage of the RoyaUsts is in the head of Wel- 
limrton and the arm of Bliicher. 

Regnault — What most presses is, to stop Bliicher and Wel- 

Maret — How ? The army exists no more, and the frontier is 

ifegrwawtt,— The frontier is uncovered, but the army exists: 
it requires only being rallied. 

Buonaparte. — It will rally itself; we must reorganize and 
repair its losses. 

Maret — Are you sure of Soult and Grouchv? 
Buonaparte. — Grouchy is an honest man, but feeble. Soult 
has ^ven pledges. 

Regnault — The army will reorganize itself, but the corps are 

Biumaparte. — Assemble the ministers. I will have the 
Chambers know all to-night 

Maret —Parties will be agitating. 

BegnauU. — The parties, agitat^ for a loi^ time, will know 
each other, measure tneir strength, and make efforts. 

Buonaparte. — So much the better. The masks will fall off. 
For the public, I mean. As for me, a long time has —— Sum- 
mon the ministers. We will make a report — tell the truth. If 

124 Bimi or WAiSRLoa 

all patriotism and honour are not dead, the Chambers will not 
refuse men and money. 

Maret — They wiU speak of sparing water and engines, when 
the house is on fire, 

RegnaulL — Thej have stupidlj reproached Dictatorahipu It 
is now that it will save all I 

Buonaparte. — I have recommenced a constitutional m<»iarchj 
— convoke the Ministers. 

Maret — No Dictatorship; but, also, no indignities. If we 
are attacked, we will defend ourselves. 

Buonaparte. — Ah I mj Old Gruardl will they defend them- 
selves like thee ? 

They separated. Maret remained with the Emperor, who, in 
spite of^ his fatigue, received several visits, at which I was not 
present From my window, I saw among the carriages those of 
Cambaceres, Decres, Caulaincourt, and the two Camots. 

For two days and nights meeting and committees succeed 
each other in toe £lys6e Palace, wiwout producing any result 
The Emperor's anxiety seemed to increase. Much business 
seemed to be doing, and yet nothing was determined. The time 
was, however, pressing. The Chamoers had assembled, and from 
the violence or the £scussions it was plain the parties stood 
opposed to each other ; the necessity of an abdication was already 
spoken of with much freedom. 

I heard the noise of a carriage, which suddenly stopped at the 
palace: it was Prince Lucien's. Napoleon turned pale on seeing 
nim ; he went down, however, and met his brother m the garden. 
The Prince drew the Emperor aside into the closest walk in the 
garden. I followed at a distance by turnings which I knew, and 
I arrived behind a thicket of verdure which concealed me from 
them. It is probable I heard only the last part of their con- 

Prince Lucieru — Where is your firmness now ? Abandon this 
irresolution. You know the consequence of not having the 
courage to dare. 

Tne Emperor. — I have dared too much. 

The Prince. — Yes, too much and too little. Dare once again. 
You deliberate when it is proper you should act Others are 
acting and not deliberating ; they will pronounce your forfeiture. 

The Emperor. — ^Forfeiture 1 Let us see Davoust 

They returned into the palace, and the Prince of Eckmuhl 
was sent for. I am not certain what was proposed to him, nor 
what he replied ; but it appeared that he would attempt nothing 
against the independence of the national representation. 

Prince Lucien, much agitated, soon drove off in his carriage. 
I heard him say to his secretary, ^ What can I say to you ? 'Die 
smoke of Mont St Jean has turned his head." 

buonapabte's ofimions, etc. 125 

The Emperor shut himself hermetically in a retired cabinet^ 
and did not come out for an hour. He had asked for a jelly and 
cofiee^ and a valet-de-chambre sent it into him by a bojr^ who 
durLo^ his seryice in the palace had been particularly noticed by 
Napoleon, and of whom he seemed yery K>nd. The boy looked 
seriously at the Emperor, who was sitting motionless, with his 
hands oyer his eyes. — " Eat some," said the boy, " it will do you 
good.'* The Emperor asked — ^** Are you not from Gonesse?"— 
*' No, Sire, I come from Pierre Fite. " And your parents haye 
a cotta^ and some acres there ?" — " Yes, sire.** " That is a 
happy life I" His head, which he had for a moment raised, he 
then sunk again upon his hands. 

Napoleon soon after returned to his great cabinet, where he 
found me opening a dispatch. '^ Is there any thing new there ?" 
said the Emperor. ^^ It contains a letter addressed to his Majesty 
himself." Buonaparte read what follows : — 

^^ The chastisement of a hero consists in his fall. Yours is 
resolyed on ; and in order that history may consider it as legal as 
your contemporaries will belieye it just, the public authority is 
about to pronounce it Your accompUces will not then haye it in 
their power to describe it as the work of the bayonets of Kalmucks. 
You may, howeyer, preyent this. Take to yourself the honour of 
descendu^ from a throne fit)m which you may be dragged. This 
is the adyice of a candid enemy, who nas often admired you, who 
neyer feared you ; and who, at the price of his blood, would haye 
wished to haye had to reyere in you the sayiour of that world of 
which you had been the scourge. That enemy cannot leaye him 
whom nis genius and the national will haye raised to soyereimity, 
without saying to him what his friends, if any yet remain to mm, 
ought to say — Abdicate.^ 

** That I should abdicate!" biting his lips and crushing the 
letter in his hand. ** What think you of it?** said he, to two of 
the ministers, the Duke of Bassano and Regnault St Jean 
d'Angely, who had just entered. The former was silent " I 
imderstand you," said Napoleon, affecting ^ety; "you agree with 
the anonymous writer. Well, Count Kegnault, what is your 
opinion?* — "With men and money you might still repel the 
attacks of your assailants ; but without them, wnat can you do but 
yield?" — " I am able to resist" — " Public opinion is with the 
Chambers, and it is the opinion of the Chambers that a sacrifice 
is required." 

Here Greneral Solignac, Member of the Chamber of Deputies, 
was announced. 

" Solignac I" exclaimed the Emperor — " he has not spok^i to 
me these fiye years; what can he want?" The ministers with- 
drew, and Solignac was immediately admitted. 


I was not present at the conversation, I shall therefore quote 
the words in which the Greneral has stated it himself: — 

*' It was settled ; the Chamber had detemined to exclude 
Napoleon from the throne ; bat it was wished to show r^o-d for 
the army in proceedings concerning the person of its Chi^, whose 
power and glory the troops had so long he&a. accostomed to 
respect There was also reason to fear that the decree of its fin^ 
feiture might be made the pretext of an insorrection. The oqatal 
might become the scene of serious troubles, and the country be 
involved in a civil war. It appeared necessary, therefore, in cRraer 
to avoid these evils, that the abdicaticm of Napoleon should proceed 
from himself, and be considered as a voluntary act of devotedness 
for the countiy. 

*' To obtain this object, I employed the means of persnasioD 
which appeared to me blest calculated for success. After an hour 
and a half's conversation. Napoleon at last yielded to my urgent 
recommendations. He appeared touched with the frankness and 
the energy with which I spoke, while at the same time I preserved 
the respect which was due to his rank, and stiU more to his mis- 
fortunes. In a word, I left the Emperor with the assurance that 
he would transmit his act of abdication, and I arrived at the 
Chamber of Representatives before the forfeiture (which was then 
under consideration) became the subject of positive decree." 

JRespecting a Protection far Buonaparte, 

** Head-Quarters, June 28. 

" Monsieur le Comte, — I have had the honour to receive your 
Excellency's letter of the 25th. I have already written to the 
Commissioners named to treat with the Allied Powers for peace, 
upon the proposition for a suspension of hostilities: a reply which 
your Excellency has seen, ana to which I have nothing to add. 
As to what regards a passport and protection for Ni^leon Buonar 
parte to go to the United States of America, I must inform your 
Excellency that I have no authority firom my Government to give 
any sort of answer whatever to that demaJDucL I have the honour 
to be, Mons. le Comte, with the highest consideration, your 
obedient servant, 

(Signed) ** Welungton." 

« To Count Bignon.'' 

Napoleon arrived at Rochefort, July 3, and resided at the Pre- 
fect's house until the 8th, when he embarked in a boat ; on the 
9th he landed on the Isle of Aix ; 10th, he was fearful, from the 

buonapabib's ovanomf sxa 127 

E^xiglish crnusersy to pat to sea; on the fbllowinff day lie sent a flaff 
of trace to the Bellerophon; Uth, he heard of the dissolution of 
the Chambers at Pans, and entrance of the King ; 12th, landed 
his suite and baggage at the Isle of Aix ; 13th and 14th, went on 
board the Epervier, thinking an escape hazardoos, and oa the 
other hand faring arrest On July 15th, at daybreak, Buona- 
MTte came on board the Bellerophon at Rochefort; Captain 
^aitland dispatched a frigate to England with die inteUigence of 
his surr^ider ; and the officer who brought this news was also the 
hearer of the following letter, written by Napoleon to the Prince 

Oopy of Buonaparte^s Letter to hie Royal Bighneas the Prince Be- 
gent; forwarded to England hy General Gourgaud, in the Slaney, 
on the I4th of July. 

'' Rochefort, 13 Jmllety 1815. 
'^ Altesse Royale, 

** En butte aux factions qui divisent mon pays, et k Pinimita^ 
des plus grandes Puissances de I'Europe, j'ai termini ma carri^re 
politique ; et je viens, comme Th^mistocle, m'asseoir sur les foyers 
an peuple Bntannique. Je me mets sous la protection de ses lois ; 
que je r&;lame de V . A.R. comme le plus puissant, le plus constant, 
et le plus g^6reux de mes ennemis. 

** Napoleok.'* 

'' Your Royal Highness, 

'* Exposed to the factions which divide my country, and to the 
enmity of the greatest Powers of Europe, I nave terminated my 
politick career, and I come, like Themistocles, to throw myself 
upon the hospitality {nCaeseoir mir lee foyers) of the British nation. 
I place myself imder the protection of its laws, which (protection) 
I claim m>m your Royal Highness, as the most powerful, the most 
constant, and the most generous of my enemies. 

« Rochef(yrt, 13t4 Jt%, ISIS.** ** Natoleon." 

When Napoleon first boarded the Bellerophon, he said to 
Captain Maitland, *' I am come to claim the protection of your 
Pnnce and Goimtry;" and shortly after said wilii his usual quick- 
ness, '^ Come, Captain Maitland, suppose we walk oyer your ship.^ 
To this the Captam replied by saying, that the decks were then 
washing, and that the ship was consequently not in a state to be 
inspected ; that he had better wait an hour or so, &c. To this 
Buonaparte rejoined, ^' No, no. Captain Maitland, let us go now ; 
I haye been accustomed to wet and dry, and confusion, &c. for 
upwards of tw^ity years, and I must see her in her present state." 


He did 80y and inspected her with all the alacrity^ mmtiteiiess, and 
curiosity so characteristic of him, walking several times over the 
ship; after this, he expressed himself highly delighted with the 
admirable economy of a British man-of-war. One day, addressing 
an old marine, he asked him *^ how long he had served?" The 
reply was, " Sixteen years," " Where are your marks of dis- 
tinction, then?" '* I have none," answered the marine. Buona- 
parte shrugced up his shoulders, and retired. 

The Bellerophon arrived in Torbay on the 24th of July, with 
Buonaparte ana his suite, consisting of fiftv persons, on board. 
On the 26th, she arrived in PlymouUi Sound, and cast anchor. 

On the voyage from Rochefort, the officers and crew of the 
Bellerophon seem to have treated Buonaparte, who was at times 
unwell and in bad spirits, with all the respect they would have 
shown to a reigning sovereign: and although, on his arrival at 
PI vmouth, orders were issued by the British (Government to con- 
sider and treat him merely as a General — [f^ By your King, I 
have been acknowledged First Consul of France, and by all others 
as Emperor"] — it api)ears these orders were but indifferently 
attended to, so much had he ingratiated himself with all on board 
during his short vovage. The following letters will give an idea 
of the curiosity and bustle excited at Plymouth by me presence 
of this man : — 

« Plymouth, July 29tk, 1815. 

''Yesterday the curiosity of thousands was gratified by the 
most ample view of the ex-Emperor. There were at 4 
upwards of 1000 boats in the Sound. The scene at this time 
beggared all description. The guard-boats, strongly iuanned, 
d&nhed through the water, running against every boat that hap- 
pened to be too near. The sentinels of the Bellerophon, and of 
the guard-frigates, the Eurotas and Liffey, were every moment 
presenting their pieces to intimidate the curious multitude. At 
last a movement was observed on board the Bellerophon — the 
seamen were seen pressing to the forecastle, the booms became 
covered, and, with unsatiated curiosity, they pressed so closely 
on the sentinels, that they were obliged to clear the gangways. 
The marines were now also noticed on the poop, and me officers 
and seamen, by a simultaneous movement, uncovered widiout 
orders. A moment after, to gratify the people in the boats, as 
well as to view the sublune spectacle before him, the object of 
boundless curiosity advanced to the starboard gangway: the mass 
of boats endeavoured to precipitate themselves on the ship— the 
guard-boats dashed fririouslv through the water — some boats were 
struck — persons overturned into the sea — the sentinels presented 
their pieces : — all in vain : the force was overwhelming — screams 
and curses were alternately heard — the next moment all was 
calm — the Emperor was bowing to the multitude — he stood before 

buonapaste's opinions, etc. 129 

them six or seven minutes, and retired for a short time. In this 
manner was the time spent during the whole of Friday, till eight 
in the evening. Buonaparte certainly is endeavouring to gratify 
the spectators as much as possible. Hitherto none have boarded 
the snip but Lord Keith, and Mr. Penn the pilot, of Cawsand. 
The time when Buonaparte is most seen, is from three o'clock 
until e%ht The boats get near enough to view his features 
distinctly, and even to hear him speak. On Friday, General 
Brown was alongside, and was pointed out to him by an officer. 
Buonaparte instantly addressed him in a complimentary maimer, 
in French, which was answered by the General On Thursday, 
Sir R. Strachan was pointed out to him, and he bowed to Sir 
Richard most courteously, which was returned." 

'' Plymouth, July 31. 

'* The boats get within thirty yards of the Bellerophon, and 
Buonaparte is seen at the gangway for twenty minutes at a time. 
He BlwsLys leaves the cabm, and walks to the quarter-deck and 
gangway, while the cloth is laying for dinner. 

" I observed his person particularly, and can describe him 
thus : — He is about five feet seven inches in height, very strongly 
made, and well proportioned ; very broad and deeo chest ; legs 
and thighs proportioned with great symmetry and strength; a 
small, round, and handsome foot His countenance is sallow, and, 
as it were, deeply tinged by hot climates; but the most com- 
manding air I ever saw. His eyes grey, and the most piercing 
that you can imagine. His glance, you fancy, searches into your 
inmost thoughts. His hair dark brown, and no appearance of 
grey. His features are handsome now, and when younger, he 
must have been a very handsome man. He is rather fat, and his 
belly protuberant; but he appears active notwithstanding. His 
step and demeanour altogether commanding. He looks about 
forty-five or forty-six years of age. In fact, he is very like the 
picture exhibited of him. He is extremely curious, and never 
passes anything remarkable in the ship, without inquiring mi- 
nutely about it He also stops and asks the officers cQvers ques- 
tions relative to the time they have been in the service, what 
actions, &c. : and he caused all of us to be introduced to him the 
first day he came on board. He has asked several questions about 
the marines, particularly those who appeared to have been some 
time in the service, and about the warrant-officers, midsliipmen, 
seamen, &c He was but a very short time on board when he 
asked tfiat the boatswain might be introduced, in order that he 
naight look at him, and was very inquisitive as to the nature of 
his duty. He dresses in green uniform, with red facings, and 
®<lged with red, two plain gold epaulets, the lappels of the coat cut 
round and turned back, white waistcoat and breeches, with mili- 



130 BATTU or WATBftliOa 

tary bootB and Bpurs, the Grand Cross of the hepon of Honour 
on his left breast He professi^ his intention (if he is allowed to 
reside in England) to adopt the English customs and maimers, 
and declares that he will never meddle with politics any more. 
The army which left Paris, and united with others on the Loire, 
wanted him to join them and resume his title, which he relused tu 
d(K He declares that not another *goutU de sang^ shall be shed 410 
his account Fortunate indeed it would have been, if he reallv 
had been of this opinion some years back I** 

Buonaparte continued in the Bellerophon till Monday the 7th 
of August, when he was transferred to the Northumberland man- 
of-war, which, under the command of Admiral Sir Greorge Cock- 
bum, was appointed to convey him to St Helena. 

Sir Henry Bunbury, accompanied by the Hon. Mr. Bathurst, 
charged with the communication of the determination of Grovem- 
ment to Buonaparte, were conveyed on board the Bellerophon by 
Lord Keith's yacht Sir Henry was introduced to the ex-Em- 
peror ; and, mer mutual salutations, he read to him the resolu- 
tion of the Cabinet, by which he was informed of his intended 
transportation to the Island of St Helena, with four of his 
frienos, to be chosen by himself, and twelve domestics. He 
received this intimation without any mark of surprise, as he said 
he had been apprised of the determination: but he protested 
against it in the most emphatic manner ; and in a speech of three 
quarters of an hour, delivered with great coolness, self-possesaon, 
and ability, reasoned against the outrageous proceeding. He 
recapitulated the circumstances under which he had been forced, 
he said, by the breach of the treaty made with him by the Sove- 
reigns of Europe, to quit the Islana of Elba — that he had exerted 
himself to prevent the renewal of hostilities — but that when they 
became unavoidable, and that the fortune of war had decided 
against him, he yielded to the voice of his enemies ; and as they 
had declared in the face of the world that it was against him only 
that they had taken up arms, he abdicated the Imperial Crown of 
France, in the ftill confidence that the Allies would be faithful to 
their solemn declaration, and leave his country to the settlement 
of their own afiairs ; then, unarmed, and with the view of sedcing 
an asylum as a private individual in England, he had first sought 
to be received under the King's allegiance, and under the pro- 
tection of our laws, and had finaUy voluntarily put himself into the 
British power. In this predicament, he felt nimself entitled to 
protest against the measure now announced to him, and in a long 
argument, in which he showed himself to be well versed in our 
laws, he reasoned against the act 

Sir H. Bunbury and Mr. Bathurst say, that his manner was 
temperate, his language eloquent, and that he conducted himself 
tliroughout in the most prepossessing way. The account they 

buonapabtb's ofh^ions, etc. 131 

give of his persuasive maimer is, we miderstand, highly inter- 
esting. Sir Hemry answered to his discourse, that he had no 
commission but to make known to him the resolution of his Ma- 
jesty's Mmisters, but said that he should faithfully report the 
reasons that he had stated against the proceeding. 

Before the Northumberland sailed^ a yacht or large boat, with 

several gentlemen of the Pay-office, had arrived to pay the ship, 

who, availing themselves of the opportunity presented by the 

folding-doors of the cabin being open, beheld, to their surprise, 

Buonaparte playing at vingt-un with his companions as cheerfully 

as if nothing had happened to him. When Sir G. Cockbum saw 

Buonaparte for the first time, he simply pulled off his hat, in the 

same manner as he would have done to another General, and said, 

— ** How do you do. General Buonaparte?" which was returned 

by him in a manner equally laconic, but with his head uncovered. 

Everything was so well conducted in this removal, that the greatest 

order prevafled, and so little was it known at Torbay, off which 

place it occurred, that very few boats were present to witness it. 

rhe Northiunberland has part of the military on board, and is fiill 

of stores and baggage. The cabin is neatly fitted up, and the 

after-part dividedm the centre for sleeping, one side of which is 

occupied by Buonaparte, and the other oy Sir George Cockbum. 

Liberty having been afforded to Buonaparte and his compa- 
nions to procure from England any articles of luxury or accommo- 
dation they may desire, they have sent frequently ashore, and 
having purchased a billiard-table, wines of the most costly descrip- 
tion, an immense quantity of playing-cards, chessmen, &c., and 
the best books procurable in the English language (the ex- 
Emperor having suddenly grown exceeding fond of that lan- 
guage !), Buonaparte solicited Mr. O'Meara, surgeon of the Belle- 
rophon, to attend him in the same capacity, which Lord Keith has 
consented to, and an exchange between the Bellerophon and 
the Northumberland was in consequence speedily effected. Buo- 
naparte endeavoured to make him forget his cfuty, even at the 
commencement, by offering a salary of 500L per annum ; but this 
gentleman rejected the overture, and said that the pay of his king 
was enough to satisfy him. 

The Northumberland sailed from Portsmouth on Friday, Aug. 
4, and on nearing Torbay on Sunday, Aug. 6, perceived two line- 
of-batde ships approaching her, wmch proved to be the Bellero- 

?hon, with Buonaparte on board, and the Toimant with Lord 
feith. In a few hours the Northumberland hailed them, and 
asked after Buonaparte, who, she was informed, had not come out 
of his cabin for some days. The ship came to anchor in Torbay. 
General Bertrand went first on board the Tonnant, where ne 
dined with Lord Keith and Sir G. Cockburn. He is a man of 
about fifty years of age, and extremely well iJdiaved. At dinner. 


Sir George gave him a general explanation of his instmctions 
respect to Buonaparte; one of which was, that his baggage must 
be inspected before it was received on board the Northomberland. 
Bertrand expressed his opinion strongly against the measure of 
sending the Emperor (ss he and all the suite constantly styled 
him) to St Helena, wnen ius wish and expectation was to live 
Quietly in England, under the protection of the English laws. 
Lord "keith and Sir George CockDum did not enter into any dis- 
cussion on the subject After dinner, Lord Keith and Sir G. 
Cockbum, accompanied by Bertrand, went in the admiral*s yacht 
towards the Bellerophon. Previously to their arrival, Buona- 
parte's arms and pistols were taken front him — not without con^- 
dcrable altercation and objections on the part of the French 

Those who were not to accompany him, were sent on board 
the Eurotas frigate. They expressed great reluctance at the sepa- 
ration, particularly the Polish officers. Buonaparte took leave of 
them individually. A Colonel Pistowski, a Pole, was peculiarly 
desirous of accompanying him. He had received seventeen woun<& 
in the service of Buonaparte, and said he would serve him in any 
capacity, however menial, if he could be allowed to go with him to 
St Helena. The orders for sending off the Polish Lancers were 

C^remptorv, and he was removed to tlie Eurotas. Savazy and 
alleman J, however, were not among those s^it on board the 
frigate — they were left in the Bellerophon. 

When Lord Keith and Sir George Cockbum went on board 
the Bellerophon, on Sunday afternoon, Aug. 6, Buonaparte was 
upon deck to receive them, dressed in a green coat with red 
facings, two epaulets, white waistcoat and breeches, silk stockings, 
the star of the Legion of Honour, and chapeau bras, with the three- 
coloured cockade. His {ace is remarkably plump, and his head 
rather bald on the top. After the usual salutations. Lord Keith, 
addressing himself to Buonaparte, acquainted him with his in- 
tended transfer from the Bellerophon to the Northumberland. 
Buonaparte immediately protested with great vehemence against 
this act of the British Government — he (fid not expect it — he did 
not conceive that any objection could be made to his residing in 
England quietly, for the remainder of his life. No answer was 
returned by either Lord Keith or Sir G. Cockbum. A British 
officer, who stood near, observed to him, that if he had not been 
sent to St Helena, he would have been delivered up to the 
Emperor of Russia. 

Buonaparte* — " Dieu me aarde dea Russes!^ (God keep me 
from the Kussians.) In making this reply, he looked at General 
Bertrand, and shrugged up his shoulders. 

Sir G* Cockburru — " At what hour to-morrow morning shall 
I come. General, and receive you on board the Northumbenand ?" 

buonapabte's opinions, etc. 133 

BuonaparUy with some surprise at being styled merely General 
— " At ten o'clock." 

Bertrand, Madame Bertrand, Savary, Lallemand, Count and 
Countess Montholon, were standing near Buonaparte. Sir G. 
Cockbum asked him if he wanted anything before they put to 
sea ? Bertrand replied, '^ Fifty packs of cards, a backgammon and 
domino table ;'^ and Madame Bertrand desired to have some arti- 
cles of furniture; which, it was said, should be furnished forthwith. 

An officer who stood near him said, '' You would have been 
taken, if you had remained at Rochefort another hour, and sent 
off to Paris." Buonaparte turned his eye upon the speaker, but 
did not speal^ a wonL He next addressed Sir G. Cockbum, and 
asked several questions about St Helena. ^' Is there any himting 
or shooting there? — where am I to reside?" He then abruptly 
changed the subject, and burst into more invectives against the 
Government, to which no answer was returned. He then ex- 

Eressed some indignation at being styled General, saying, ^^ You 
ave sent ambassadors to me as a Sovereign Potentate — you have 
acknowledged me as First Consul" He took a great deal of 
snuff whilst speaking. After reminding him that the Nortiium- 
berland's barge womd come for him at ten on Monday morning, 
Lord Keith and Sir G. Cockbum retired. 

Early on Monday morning. Sir George Cockbum went on 
board the Bellerophon, to superintend the inspection of Buona- 
parte's baggage : it consisted of two services of plate, several 
articles in gold, a superb toilet of plate, books, beds, &c. They 
found bnt 4000 gold napoleons, and these were sealed up and 
detained. They were all sent on board the Northumberland about 
eleven o'clock. At half-past eleven o'clock. Lord Keith, in the 
bai^e of the Tonnant, went on board the Bellerophon, to receive 
Buonaparte and those who were to accompany him. Buonaparte, 
before their arrival and afterwards, addressed himself to Captain 
Maitiand and the officers of the Bellerophon. After descending 
the ladder into the barge, he pulled off his hat to them again* 
Lord Keith received in the barse the following personages :— 
Buonaparte, General Bertrand and Madame Ber&and, with their 
children; Count and Countess Montholon and child; Count Las 
Cassas,* General Gourgaud ; nine men and three women servants. 
Buonaparte's surgeon refused to accompany him; upon which 
the surgeon of the Bellerophon offered to supplv his place. 
Buonaparte was this day dressed in a cocked hat much worn, with 
a tricolored cockade; his coat was buttoned close round him 
— a plain green one with a red collar; he had three orders 
— two crosses, and a large silver star, with tile inscription 
Bonneur et Pci^rU; white breeches, silk stockings, and gold 

* This person^ stated to have been long resident in England. 


About twelve oVIock the Tonnant's barge reached the Nortk- 
umlKTland. I^rtrand steinied first upon deck, BacMiaparte next 
mountiiig the side of the ship with the activity of a seaman. The 
marines were drawn out and received him, but merelj as a 
General, presenting arms to him* He puUed off his hat As 
soon as he was upon deck, he said to Sir Geoi^ Cockbum, *^Ji 
mds h vos ordresJ" He bowed to Lord Lowther and &fr. Lytdeton, 
who were near the Admiral, and spoke to them a few words, to 
which they replied. To an oflBcer he said, ** Dansqud cerff 
servez'vausf" (In what corps do you serve?) — The officer 
replied, *' In the Artillery.'' Buoni^Nirte immediately rejoined, 
" Je 9or$ de ce service mcirmemeJ" (I was originally in that servjoe 
mysel£) After taking leave of the officers who had accompanied 
him from the Bellerophon, and embracing the nephew of Jose- 
phine, who was not going to St Helena, he went into the after- 
cabin, where, besides his principal companions, were assembled 
Lord Keith, Sir G. Cockbum, Lord Lowther, the Honourable 
Mr. Lyttletcm, &c. 

Bertrand asked what we should have done, had we taken 
Buonaparte at sea ? — " As we are doing now," was the reply. 

Lord Lowther and the Honourable Mr. Lyttleton now entered 
into very earnest conversation with him, which continued for two 
hours. As he was very communicative, and seemed desirous of a 
very free conversation with these two young gentlemen, they 
availed themselves of the opportunity, and entered into a review 
of much of his conduct We understand that they asked him 
how he came to commit the impolicy of attacking Spain — the 
motives for the Berlin and Milan aecrees — the war against Russia 
— the reAisal of the terms of peace offered him before the first 
capture of Paris, &c To all these questions, we hear, he gave 
full answers, not avoiding, but rather encouraging the discussion. 

His cabin in the Northumberland is fitted up with the greatest 
elegance. His bed is peculiarly handsome, and the linen upon 
it very fine. His toilet is of silver. Among other artides npon 
it is a magnificent snuff-box, upon which is embossed in gold an 
eagle with a crown flying from Elba to the coast of France — the 
Eagle just seeing the coast of France, and the respective distances, 
are admirably executed. 

The following are a few passages of the conversation whicli 
Lord Lowther and Mr. lyttleton had with Buonaparte when he 
was transhipped from the Bellerophon to the Northumberhod. 

Buonaparte, whilst remonstrating against his detention, said, 
** You do not know my character, iovl ought to have placed 
confidence in my word of honour,'' 

Chieof thegendemen said-" ShaU I speak the plain truth to 

Buonaparte, — *^ Speak it" 

BUO^AFABTE's 0FDa01^3 ETC. 135 

*^ I must then tell you, that since your invasion of Spain 

no Englishman could put trust even in your most solemn engage- 

B. — ** I was called to Spain by Charles IV. to assist him 
against his son." 

" No : according to my opinion, to place King Joseph 

on the throne." 

B. — *^ I had a grand political system. It was necessary to 
establish a counterpoise to your enormous power on the sea; and, 
besides, that was only what had been done by the Bourbons," or 
words to that effect 

" It must be confessed, however, General, that France 

under your sceptre was much more to be feared than during the 
latter years of Louis XIY.'s reign. She was also aggran- 
dised," &c 

B» — *^ England on her part had become more powerful" Here 
he referred to our Colonies, and particularly to our acquisitions in 

— ** Many well-informed men are of opinion that England 
loses more than she gains by the possession of that overgrown and 
remote empire." 

-B. — " I wished to revive Spain ; to do much of that which the 
Cortes afterwards attempted to do." 

He was then recalled to the main point, and reminded of the 
character of the transaction by which he obtained possession of the 
Spanish crown ; to which he made no answer, but took a new line 
oi argument on the subject of his detention, and after much dis* 
cussion concluded by saying, " Well, I have been deceived in 
relying upon your generosity. Replace me in the position from 
wmch you took me (or words to that effect). 

Speaking of his invasion of France, he said, with great vehe- 
mence — '^ I was then a Sovereign. I had a right to make war. 
The King of France had not kept his promises." 

He afterwards said, exultingly, and laughifag and shaking his 
head — " I made war on the King of France with 600 men." 

He said that, in confining him as we did, we were ** acting 
like a little aristocratic power, and not a great free people." 

Of Mr. Fox he saia, he knew him, and had seen mm at the 
TuiUeries. " He had not your prejudices." 

" Mr. Fox, General, was a zealous patriot with regard to 

his own country, and, besides, a citizen of the world." 

B, — '* He sincerdy wished for peace, and I wished for it also. / 
His death prevented the conclusion of peace. The others were not ^ ^ ^^^^* 

At one time he observed — " I do not say that I have not for 
twenty years endeavoured to ruin England ; and then, as if cor- 
recting himself for having inadvertently said more than waa 


prudent—'' that is to sa^, to lower jovl I wished to force yoa to 
be just — at least, less unjust'* 

He was asked his opinion of the British infantry. 

B, — " Long wars make good soldiers ; the cavalry of both 
nations,'' he said, " was excellent : our artillery had derived much 
improvement from the French." 

Of the Duke of Wellington he seemed at this time to ayoid 
giving any opinion. 

To a question about Louis XVIIE 

/^.— '' He b a good sort of man, too fond of the table and 
pretty sayings. He is not calculated for the French* The 
Duchess of Angoulcme is the only man in the family. The 
French must have such a man as mysel£'' 

He broke out into some invectives against the conduct of the 
Allies ; called it perfidious, treacherous. 

Touching upon St. Helena, he seemed not only indignant, bat 
surpriserl at oeing sent there. 

B. — ** I would have given my word of honour to have remained 
quiet, and to have held no political correspondence in England I 
would have pledged myself not to quit the place assigned me, but 
to live as a simple individual." 

*' That seems to be next to impossible ; for though you 

have had great reverses, you could never so fiar forget what you 
had been as to conceive yourself to be, or conduct yourself as, a 
simple individual" 

B. — ^^ But why not let me remain in England upon my parole 
of honour?" 

" You forget that some hundred of French officers vio- 
lated their parole of honour, and that not only you did not expre^ 
any indignation against them, but received them with particular 
distinction ; Lefebvre Desnouettes, for instance." 

Buonaparte made no remark upon this. 

Of the Prince Regent he spoke in the highest terms, adding 
that he was the only sovereign in Europe that had been consistent, 
constant, and vigorous ; that it was he who had been the red 
cause of defeating all his designs, and destroying his power. 

Letter from Captain Paget 

** I have been some hours in Buonaparte's company, and have 
had conversation with him. He says never was a battle so severely 
contested as that of Waterloo. Uis troops knew and felt that 
they never had more to gain, or more to lose, than at that time; 
ana never had they fought harder, and they were only overcome 
by the superiority of British intrepidity. He was astonished at 
the firmness with which his charges were received and repulsed by 
our troops: he spoke highly ^ our cavalry, and acknowledged 

Buonaparte's opinions^ £Ta 137 

that if the Earl of Uxbridge had not been wounded, he would ) Q^ ^^-^ 
have been the Earl's prisoner in two minutes; and he feels no f p>^^^^\ t\ 
hesitation in saying that the Duke of Wellington was a better > 
general than himself. I mention this circumstance, because in his \ ^ 
voyage to Elba, when it was remarked that the Duke was the best j 
general of the age, he answered : ** We have never met yet" 

Translation of the Protest presented by Buonaparte to Lord Keith, 

against his transportation to Su Ilelena, 

** I protest solemnly, in the &ce of Heaven and of men, 
against the violation of my most sacred rights, by the forcible 
disposal of my person and of my liberty. I came freely on 
board the BeUerophon ; I am not the prisoner, I am the guest of 

" Once seated on board the BeUerophon, I was immediately 
entitled to the hospitality (Jefus sur le foyer) of the British people. 
If the Government, by giving orders to tne captain of the BeUero- 
phon to receive me and my suite, intended merely to lay a snare 
ior me, it has forfeited its honour and snUied its flag. 

" If this act be consummated, it wiU be in vain that the Eng- 
lish wiU talk to Europe of their integrity, of their laws, of theur 
liberty. The British faith will be lost m the hospitaUty of the 

** I appeal, therefore, to history ; it will say that an enemy who 
made war for twenty years on the people of England, came freely, 
in his misfortune, to seek an asylum under its laws. What more 
striking proof could he give of his esteem and of his confidence ? 
But how did they answer it in England ? They pretended to hold 
out an hospitable hand to this enemy, and wnen he surrendered 
himself to them in good faith, they sacnficed him. 

" On board the BeUerophon, at Sea.*' " Napoleon." 

His Majesty's Ship Northumberland, lat 34® 53', long. 13° 45'. 

'' August the 22d, 1815. 

"Conversing one day about the siege of St Jean d'Acre, 
Buonaparte observed, * that when Sir Sidney Smith was there he 
distributed several proclamations among the French troops, which 
inade them waver a little*' In order to obviate this, he published 
&n order, in which he ^ asserted that the English Commodore was 
nuid,' and it concluded with prohibiting aU communication with 
^^hiu ^ This,' he added, ' had the desired effect, and so enraged 
Sir Sidney, that he sent him a challenge to single combat, which 
'Was declined,' and Napoleon returning at the same time for answer, 
^^ *when he brought the Duke of Marlborough to meet him he 

v> «.- 


would accept it' He stated meet positivelj, * that he would tkm 
have taken Acre if the English had not taken his battering train ; 
and added, in finglish and French, ' Had it not been for jon 
English I would have been Emperor of the East ; but wherever a 
ship could get I was always sure to find some o[ the English to 
oppose me.' 

** He spoke of the invasion of England as his first determina- 
tion, and said that he intended to have landed as near Chatham as 
iwssible, and to have dashed at once for London. He admitted the 
great probability of his not succeeding, and that he might have been 
killed in the attempt That this scheme was not put into effect, 
he says, was owing to Admiral Villeneuve not obeying the orders 
he received. He was particularly inquisitive as to the climate of 
England, and said that the cause of so many suicides was the 
humidness of the atmosphere. 

** The anxiety of the English to see him when on board the 
Bdlerophon, flattered his vanity in the extreme ; and he woold 
frequently stand at the gangway purposely to afibrd the ga{nng 
and wonaering multitude an opportunity of beholding his persoa 
At tliis time he had invariably a spy-glass in his hand, which he 
frequently used in observing the spectators. 

" He appeared greatly pleased with the beauty of our &ir 
countrywomen, and was always wishing to know their names, 
families, and any circumstance that could be communicated to him 
concerning them. 

" Buonaparte gives great credit to our in&ntry and our artil- 
lery. He said, * the British infantry is now what the French was 
ten years back, and that the cavalry is greatly inferior to the in- 
fantry in everything but appearance.' He found great fault with 
the construction of the bits, which, he says, ' are so bad that the 
men cannot manage their horses.' Bertrand and the others assented 
to the truth of this observation. 

" One day Buonaparte was speaking of the Duke of Wdlington, 
and observed, ' he did not expect he would have riven him battle, 
but that he would have retreated, and waited for the Russians sod 
other reinforcements ; in which case, he says, he must have been 
finally beaten: but that he was extremely happy to find Lord 
Wellington did not decline the combat,' adding, ths^ * be made 
quite ceriain of obtaining the victory^ He also said, ' that he 
knew of the advance of the Prussians, but that he did not regard 
it of much consequence ; and that he was betrayed by some of his 
generals.' He nirther said, 'that the universal consternation 
among his troops taking place at a time of darknessy he was not 
able to rally the fugitives by showing his person to theniy tohich fe ^ 
convinced would liave effectually restored order had it been dca/Ugf^i 
but that, in consequence of its being dark, he vxis borne away by ^ 
crowd, and obliged to fly himself.^ 

buonafabte's opinions, ETa 139 

** On being asked why he had not given himself np to Austria ? 
He replied, * What, give myself up to a nation without laws, 
honour, or faith I No: the moment I had got there, I should 
have been put into a dungeon, and never heard of more. In 
giving myself up to the Engush, I have given myself up to a nation 
with honourable and just laws, which afford protection to every 

** One day he observed, he * ought to have died the day he 
entered Moscow, as ever since he had experienced a continual 
series of disasters.' He further observed, he ' would have 
made peace at Dresden, and also afterwards, if it had not been 
for the advice of the Dj gke of Bagsano, who persuaded him 
against it' * ' '^ 

" The invasion of Spain, Buonaparte says, he undertook at the 
special desire of Talleyrand, who was continually urging him to that 
measure, invariably pointing out the absolute necessity of its being 
undertaken, and, if possible, accomplished at all hazards. 

*^ It is astonishing the detestation in which Fouch^ is held by 
Buonaparte and all ms followers, who never mention his name but 
with the greatest contempt ; and they say, ' it was entirely owing 
to this creature that Buonaparte abdicated in favour of his son ; 
and that he was continually carrying on a clandestine correspond- 
ence with the Allies.' 

'^ The respect that is still paid to Buonaparte by his suite is 
very great ; as an instance, I shall mention that he was one day 
playing at chess with Montholon, who is by far the best player 
of the two. Buonaparte had evidently the worst of the game, 
when Montholon made purposely an improper movement, which 
was speedily observed by the former, and he ultimately was the 
victor. Montholon praised the superior skill of his master (as he 
termed him), and declared himself ^not competent to encounter 
such a player again;' at which Buonaparte was highly pleased. 
At this game, or tmn^Mxn, Buonaparte generally passes his time ; 
but was much hurt when the Admiral insisted that neither of 
these ^imes, nor any other, should be played on Sundays. 

** He has been very inquisitive as to me climate, &c. of St 
Helena, and declares that he shall be more comfortable there than 
in Austria. Temperance, he says, is the only means of preserving 
health ; and adds, that he never was ill but twice in his life, and 
on one of those occasions only applied a blister. Montholon's wife 
had been unwell, and he inquiml of the surgeon how she was. 
He said. Rather better ; but that he thought the fear of the tropical 
climates preyed on her mind. Buonaparte replied, nearly in the 
words of Shakspeare, ^ Doctor, thou canst not administer to a mind 
diseased.' The force with which this remark was made was 

* This strongly confirms the statement in the pabUcation of M. Pradt, 
archbishop of Ms^es, and Ambassador at Warsaw. 



observed by eveiy one near, and apparently related to his own 

** Bertrand and his wife are continually with Buonaparte, and 
the whole are more reconciled to their future destiny. 

** Sir George Cockbum and Buonaparte are cm exc^ent 
terms, as he is, indeed, with all the officers of die ship ; they fre- 
quently play at cards, &c., in which, occasionally, they have the 
advantage of each other. 

** Hitherto our passage has been very favourable, and no pai^ 
ticular occurrence has tuen place since we sailed from Torbaj.'* 

By dispatches which arrived in London, December 4, leaving 
St Iklena October 23, we learn that Buonaparte landed there on 
the 17th of October, 1815. 

■• f 

7.1V invmetiicai Facrs. 

o Jthlfntrn . 







Thb Battle of Waterloo has formed one of the greatest epochs 
in history and politics. Everything which relates to the immortal 
day of the 18th of Jime, 1815, is secure of fixing our attention* 
The histories of the campaign of four days, which has put an end 
to the power of the modem Gtengis Khan, may well be multiplied, 
for all are insufficient to satisfy the public curiosity as they have 
appeared ; and new works are offering themselves on all sides, 
ana in every form. The fields of Waterloo, the farms of Mont 
St. Jean, La Have Sainte, and La Belle Alliance, and the ruins of 
the chliteau of Hougomont (more properly Gomont), have already 
become classic soil. They are visited at this day by all travellers, 
as the world went formerly to visit holy places. People set out 
from Brossels, and the three leagues wnich are to be passed 
through the forest of Soignies, like a new Via Sacra, by inspiring 
a sel^recoUection, prepare the minds of those who p^orm this 
species of pilgrimage lor the strong emotions which they are in- 
voluntarily to experience when they arrive, on quitting the forest, 
at the branching of the roads which lead on the right to Nivelles 
and Braine-la-Leude, and on the left to Ohain and Wavre. Every 
step which they make beyond this spot, as far as Charleroi, pro- 
duces some grand recollection. Here, say they, it was fought — 
under the auspices of England and her Allies, against the infernal 
Genius of Evil and his horrible satellites I Her^ the monster was 
thrown down for ever by the heroes in whom England has gloried 
through all ages I It may one day be written on the monuments 
which shall rise at Waterloo (what Quinaut has said of the 
Titans) : — 

*^ Les superbes grants, arm^s contrc les cienx, 

Ne nous donnent plus d'^pouvante ; 
Nous avons yu tomber leur chef andacieux : 

Wellington I'a contraint de Yomir k nos yeux 
Les Testes enflamm^ de sa rage mourante ; 

Wellington est Yictorieox ; 
£t tout c^e k reffort de sa main foadroyante." 

142 BA1TLK or WAmULOO. 

One month after the battle of the 18th of June, I vished the 
iield of battle. At the distance of a mile and half from Bmaseb 
the road ascends a considerable eminence, which commands a fine 
view of the city and smrrounding country. The fields exhibited a 

C^osion of Divine bomity. We soon after entered an immose 
h-forest, called Soignies. The road through it is a drarr 
vista of more than seven miles in length, very roughW paved, and 
barely wide enough for two carriages to pass with safety. Twelve 
or thirteen miles nrom Brussels is W aterloo, standing low and fiat 
Advancing a mile and a half on the same rc^ are some small cot- 
tages, which resemble an E^lish hamlet, called Mont St. Jean, 
and which stands on the northern boundary of the field of batde. 
From an adjoining eminence the view resembles that of several 
large English fields uninclosed, and separated from each odier bj 
stout he^es, which mark the boundaries of respective parishes 
Their prepuce had been chiefly rye and barley. From east and 
west the eye ranges about twelve to fourteen miles, and five to six 
north and south. 

The Duke of Wellington's dispatch affords at once a clear 
idea of the position which the contending armies occupied. That 
of the British consisted of a range of gently-rising groimds, rather 
than hills, while that of the army opposed to them was consider- 
ably more elevated. *' So important a battle, perhaps, was never 
before fought within so small an extent of ground. I computed 
the distance between Hougomont and Papelot at three miles ; in a 
straight line it may probably not exceed two and a half. 

*< * Small theatre for such a tragedy.'" — Southct. 

TTie Duke of Wellington appointed to command His Majesty s 
Forces — ffe arrives at BrvsseU — Organisation of the Anglo- 
ffanoverian Army commanded by his Grace,* 

On the 28th of March, the Prince Regent was pleased to ap- 
point Field-marshal the Duke of Wellington tJommander of Ifis 
Majesty's forces on the continent of Europe; His Grrace left 
Vienna immediately afterwards, and arrived at Brussels on the 
5th of April. On the 10th, His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Orange took leave of the troops, as their Commander-in-Chief, in 
a general order; in which he states, that in delivering over the 
command of the British and Hanoverians, he desired to congra- 
tulate them on that command being placed in the more able hands 
of Field-marshal the Duke of Wellington. His Roy alx Highness 
took that opportunity of returning his thanks to Lieutenant-gene- 
ral Sir Henry Clinton, the General Officers, and heads of depart- 

* Vide Dr. Halliday's account. Paris, 1815. 


xnents^ for the cordial support which thej had on all occasions 
afforcled him^ and begged to express his approbation of the troops 
in quarters^ adding, that he considered their strict preservation of 
discipline as the best pledge of their conduct in the field, should 
they be called into action. " His Royal Highness reflects with 
'eat pride and satisfaction," continues the general order, ''that 
le is to continue to serve with the British army, under a chief 
yviih 'whoin he has been so long associated." 

The Duke of Wellington assumed the command on the 11th,* 
and bis first care was to organise the army entrusted to his com- 
mand. The King of the Netherlands was pleased to entrust his 
Grace i^th the command of his troops also ; so that he became 
Generalissimo of the Allied army. 

The Duke formed the whole of the force under his command, 
consisting of British, Dutch, and Hanoverian troops, with the con- 
tingents of Nassau and Brunswick-Oels, into two great corps. He 
gave the command of the first corps to His Royal Highness the 
]Prince of Orange, and that of the second to Lieutenant-general 
Ix>rd HilL T^ was done, as his Grace stated in his general 
order, with the view of amalgamating the whole ; and to enable 
them to move together, and act in concert But though the whole 
were thus united, and each corps subjected in everything to the 
command of its respective chief, it was expressly declared, that 
everjrthing which related to the discipline of the officers and sol- 
diers of each nation, the provisioning, clothing, and equipment, 
and means of transport, was to remain under the direction of the 
officers^ civil and military, of the respective nations. Each grand 
corps consisted of so many divisions of cavalry and infantry, and 
each division of so many brigades-f 

Our cavalry and horse-artillery, in passing through the Nether- 
lands, excited universal admiration. The fineness of our horses, 
and their equipments, were far superior to anything they had ever 
seen ; and the Jacobins were quite delighted to think that Buona- 
parte would soon be able to mount his dragoons with such fine 
horses, bideed they did not hesitate to say, that the English 
might fight by sea, because it was our element, but that our 
troops would not stand one hour before Buonaparte. Our army 
was too showy to be good, and our soldiers too civil to be brave I 
Such was the language of the discontented in Belgium, of whom 
there were a few ; but the event has proved how much they were 

• General Order, dated 11th of April, 1815, Head-quarters, Bniasels : — " His 
l^oyal Highness the Prince Regent having appointed Field-marshal the Dnke of 
Wellington to he Commander of his Majesty's forces on Uie Continent of Europe, 
all reports in ftiture are to be made to his Grace." 

< Vide p. 13. 


Opening of the Campaign — Btumaparte takes Charteroi, and 
vances into Belgium — Battle of St Amand and lAffny^ in ydtiA 
the Prussian Army is defeated — British defeat Marshal Xeyt 
corps at Quatre Bras* 

What was properly called the French Army of the North 
nsted only of two corps ; but these corps were composed eotireiT 
of old soldiers, the dite of the whole empire^ and such as vere 
most attached to the person of Buonaparte. About the begumiK 
of June, the head-ouarters of this army were at LaoQ ; the 1^ 
corps occupied Valenciennes, and tlie 2d Maubeuge. On its 
right it communicated with the army of the Ardennes and thst of 
the Moselle, while its left rested on the strong garrison of Lflie. 
The whole of these armies, however, had been put in motion some 
days previous to Buonaparte's quitting the capital. The army d 
the North and that of me Ardennes effected a junction at Beau- 
mont on the 13 th ; and the army of the Moselle, whose head- 
quarters were at Metz, quitted its cantonments on the 5th and 6th, 
and came into the grand line by Pliilippeville on the same day. All 
these movements were effected with the usual precision and alacritT 
of the French armies ; and when Buonaparte arrived at Avesnes 
he found his whole force in line, and reaay to move on any pcHSt. 
As yet his intentions were unknown, even to his own generals; 
but on the morning of the 14th he put an end to their suspense by 
a general order, which was the first and last he had occasioa to 
issue during the campaign. 

The force which Buonaparte had with him consisted of five 
corps of infantry and four corps of cavalry. 

The Allied army under the Duke of Wellin^n, after its or- 
nization, was cantoned along the frontiers of Belmum, from 
ieuport to CharleroL The head-quarters of the Du^e of Wei- 
ll remained at Brussels with the reserve of the army ; and 
although the troops were so placed that they could be collected on 
any pomt in the space of twelve hours, yet no order could be given 
for tneir moving until the direction in which Buonaparte intended 
to advance was perfectly ascertained. 

On the 15th of June the campaign commenced with the dawn 
of day, by an attack upon the outposts of the Prussian army. This 
army was commanded by Field-marshal Prince Bliicher of Wahl- 
stadt, consisted of four corps, and occupied the remainder of the 
Belgic frontier. The points of concentration of the several corps 
were Fleurus, Namur, Aney, and Hannut Buonaparte advanced 
the 2d corps of his army by Thuin, along the banks of the Sambre 
(a part of it having crossed that river at Solre-suivSambre), upon 
the town of Charleroi, and drove the advanced posts of General 
Ziethen's corps back upon the bridge of Marchienne. After a 
very smart action, the Prussian general was obliged to retire 




behind the river, and collect his corps near Fleurus : and as he 
considered Charleroi untenable^ the troops stationed in that town 
were withdrawn, and tlie French cavaby entered it about midday. 
The Prussians defended their advanced posts on the 15th witli 
great bravery, and it was only the overwhehning force which was 
brought against Ziethen's corps that induced that general to with- 
draw his advance, in order tnat he might concentrate his whole 
force near Flemnis, which he did so effectually as to put a stop to 
the enemy*s progress for that day. 

There was now no longer any doubt as to the direction by 
which Buonaparte intended to penetrate into Belgiimi ; and the 
Duke of Wellington immediately gave orders for the army under 
his command to concentrate on the extreme of its position, near the 
great road from Brussels to Charleroi, and in a line between 
Nivelles and Namur. The 5th Division of the British army, with 
tlie corps of the Duke of Brunswick-Oels, left Brussels about 2 a.m. 
on the 16th, and advanced towards the position where the whole 
army was ordered to assemble. 

One brigade of the Dutch troops, which was in advance towards 
Charleroi, had been attacked when the Prussians fell back on the 
15th, and driven from its advanced position near Frasnes ; but the 
Prince of Orange having moved up another brigade of the same 
army, they were able to repulse uie enemy, and in the evening 
they regained the greater part of the ground which had been lost 
throughout the day. On the morning of the 16th, Prince Blucher, 
who was determined to meet Buonaparte with all his strength, had 
]X)sted the army under his command on the heights between the 
villages of Brie and Sombref, and to some distance beyond Som- 
bref. In front of this line he occupied the villages of St Amand 
and Ligny with a very considerable force. 

The enemy was delayed in his advance for some hours, on the 
morning of the 16th, in passing the Sambre with the remainder of 
his troops. But as soon as Uiat was Accomplished, Buonaparte 
made his dispositions for attack, while he carried the great body 
of his force against the Prussian line. Marshal Ney, who had 
joined the army on the evening of the 15th, and who had been 
appointed to command the left wing, was directed to advance by 
Gosselies and Frasnes, and attack the British position. The force 
iinder Marshal Ney consisted of the 1st and 2d corps of infantry, 
and four divisions of cavalry. 

The 3d, 4th, and 6th corps, with the Guard in reserve, were 
ordered to attack the Prussian position in front, while the 5th 
corps under Grouchy, and a division of cavalry, were detached 
towards Sombref, on the Namur road, with the view of manoeu- 
vring on that flank. 

On debouching from Fleurus, Buonaparte had an opportunity 
of reconnoitering flie position of Marshal Bliicher with more pre- 


ciftioiL He immediately placed the Ist corps belonmng to tbe k 
wing, mider Ney, with two divisions of heavy cava&y, behind*^ 
village of Frasnes, on the right, and at a little distance from i* 
Brusseb road, where it was to form & reserve that could be bTt<^* 
up to support either his attack upon the Prussians or Ney^s szckt 
upon the British. The 3d corps was ordered to advance in colics 
to carry the village of St Ainand, whilst the 4th corps, $a}^)oiv. 
by the Guard and the cavalry, was ordered to attack Xignj. 

The enemy advanced in overpowering masses upon St AsdssL 
where the action first commenced, on the morning of the 16^ 
The brave Prussians defended this part of their advanced po^it>^ 
with great firmness, and it was not till after a long and sangaberj 
conflict that they were obliged to yield for a time to superior dgid- 
bers. The 4th corps commenced its attack upon tbe viU^ige '^ 
Ligny about mid-day, and by one o'clock p.m. the action may '"^ 
said to have become general diroughout the whole of the extant''' 
line of the Allied Bntish and Prussian armies. Grouchv bv tia^ 
time had attacked the extreme left beyond Sombref, and hey d*^ 
come in contact with the advance of the army under the Dake*< 
Wellington, near Frasnes. But it was in the villages of St Amau- 
and Ligny that the greatest struggle for victory took place betvtt* 
tlie contending armies. There tlie battle continued tor five honrs. 
it may be said, almost in the villa£res themselves, as tbe mori'- 
ments forwards and backwards dunng that period were ctffliW 
10 a very narrow space. Fresh troops were constantly moved up 
on both sides ; and as each army had immense masses of infantry 
behind that part of the village which it occupied, these served to 
maintain the combat, as they were continually receiving reinfon^ 
ments from the rear. Upwards of 200 pieces of cannon were 
directed affiiinst the villages, and they were firequendy on ^ 
in many {naces. . 

About four o'clock Prince Bliicher placed himself at the bead ot 
a battalion of| infantry, and charged with them into the villac^ ^^ 
St Amand After a dreadftd struggle he gained possession o^ "le 
greater part of it The enemy were panic-struck, and the victory 
seemed so doubtful, that Buonaparte was obliged to send ffl ^ 
haste for the 1st corps, which he had left in reserve near Frasnc"' 
at the very moment, too, that it had become equally necessary 
Marshal Ney, whose columns, ha\ing been repulsed by tbe o 
Division of British infantry, were retiring in great confusion. 

The advantage which Blucher had so nobly gained, ^^ ^ 
little importance to the general action in which ms troops ^^ 
engaged. At Ligny the battle stiU raged with unabated vigoi^? 
and though the evening was far advanced, the victory remaj^ 
undecided. The badness of the roads, and the difficiSties ^n*^ 
Gen. Bulow had to encounter in his march, prevented tis c^^r 
from getting up on tlie 16th; so that Blucher had only three corp 


of his army in position; and though they had repulsed every 
attack which had been made upon them, the danger was becoming 
urgent, as all the divisions were engaged, or had abready been so, 
and there was no reserve at hand. 

As the night advanced, the enemy, favoured by the darkness, 
made a circuit round the village of Ligny, with a division of 
infantry on one side ; and, without being observed, got into the 
rear of the main body of the Prussian army, at the same moment 
that some regiments of Cuirassiers forced their passage on the 
other side of the village. This movement decided the day, and 
Field-marshal Bliicher was obliged to commence his retreat; yet 
his brave colmnns, though surprised, were not dismayed. They 
formed themselves into solid masses, and repulsing every attack 
which the enemy made upon them, retired in perfect good order 
to their original ground, upon the heights above the village, and 
from thence contmued, immolested, meir retrograde movement 
upon Tilly. 

The badness of the roads obliged the Field-marshal to aban- 
don some of his artillery during this retreat; but, except the 
badly wounded, the enemy made very few prisoners. At oni time 
the veteran warrior had a very narrow escape from being taken 
prisoner himself. Wherever the battle was hottest, there Bliicher 
was to be found ; and wherever it was of importance to carry a 
point, he led his troops to the charge in person. During his 
retreat, a charge of cavalry which he had led, having &iled, the 
enemy were vigorously pursuing his broken squadrons, when a 
musket-baU having struck his horse, it bounded forward with 
increased velocity for a moment, then suddenly dropped dead. 
The Field-marshal, stunned with the fall, lay entangled under his 
horse, and a whole regiment of Cuirassiers galloped past him. 
Inmiediately afterwards, the Prussian cavalry having formed, 
charged the enemy, and were in tuni victorious ; and the same 
K^giment of Cuirassiers, in their flight, again galloped past the 
Eield-marshal, who then, and not till then, was relieved from his 
perilous situation, and enabled to mount a horse belonging to one 
of his own dragoons. 

The Duke of Wellington, having given orders for the army 
lender his command to cx)ncentrate on the left, proceeded widi 
the 5th Division and the Duke of Brunswick-Oels' corps, in the 
direction of CharleroL About two o'clock on the afternoon of the 
16th, the head of the British column reached the ferm of Quatre 
Bras, so namfed from its standing near where the roads from Brus- 
sels to Charleroi, and from Nivelles to Namur, cross each other. 
TOie advance of the enemy under Ney, who had again driven the 
I^^itch troops from their position near Frasnes, had nearly reached 
the same spot ; and General Kempt's brigade had scarcely time 
to deploy from the great road, before it was attacked by the 


enemy's cavalry, sunported by heavy masses of his infantry. 
Nothing could excised the daring intrepidity of the French tnn*:* 
at this moment; their success on the 15th, and confidence in tbeL* 
leader, added to the natural bravery of the troops^ made tbs 
advance with almost a certainty of victory. The sudden i^ipea:* 
ance of overwhelming masses of cavalxy, and the rapidity viti 
which they charged our infantry, before they had time to thiuv 
themselves into squares, createa some little confusion in cme ^e 
two regiments. Indeed, so daring were the French Gnirassier', 
that a regiment actually cut into the square of the 42d Hi^- 
landers; but they paid aear for their temerity, as few ever re- 
turned to their lines ; and the Highlanders haa ample revei^ U 
the loss of their brave Cdonel, Sir Robert Macara. The 3d ba:- 
talion of the Royal Scots, 28th, and Ist battalion of the 9otb. 
were warmly engaged for several hours on the left of the Bross^ 
road : while General Pack^s brigade, consisting of the 44th9 79du 
and 92d regiments, with the 42d, already mentioned, snoceedal 
completely in repelling the enemy on the right, after an equallr 
arduous contest 

About four o'clock, the 1st Division under Major-genenl 
Cooke, and 3d under Lieutenant-general Sir Charles Altoi, came 
up, and were also immediately engaged* The enemy was now 
driven from his ground, and obliged to retire to the position whicli 
he had occupied the night before, and where he had some dif- 
ficulty in maintaining hunself, until the darkness put an end to 
the combat. The troops of the Duke of Brunswick distinguisht^ 
themselves vexy much on the afternoon of the 16th ; and His 
Serene Highness was unfortunately killed at the h^ui of his 
brave hussars. 

The enemy had many advantages over the handful of British 
troops that were in the field this day. Few of our guns, and 
none of our cavalry, came up till late in the evening ; and^ inde- 
pendent of the four divisions of cavalry which Ney had under 
Lis command, his infantry more than outnumbered the British. 
Ney has stated that the removal of the 1st corps fix>m under his 
command by Buonaparte was the cause of his want of success; 
and certainly had he been able to bring his two corps, and all 
his cavalry, against the 5th Division, which was engaged singly 
for nearly two hours, he would, in aU probability, have over- 
whelmed that division. But after the 1st and 3d Divisions had 
come up, I am inclined to think that his success would have 
been doubtful^ even with his whole force. 


Jvne \%ih, 1815. 

At daylight on the morning of the ITth, the armj having 
come up, the Doke of Wellington showed his whole force, and in 
a manner challenged the enemy to %ht; but as they did not 
seem inclined to accept the challenge, and as he had learned in 
the course of the morning that Marshal Bliicher had continued 
his retrograde movement upon Gembloux, where the 4th corps of 
his army, under General Bulow, had joined him, and that he 
had decided on concentrating his whole force in the environs of 
Wavre, still more in the rear ; the Duke determined also to retire 
upon the position in fix)nt of the village of Waterloa The move- 
ments intended by the two commanders were mutually commu- 
nicated to each other; and the Duke, in stating his arrangements 
to the Field-marshal, added that it was his intention to defend 
the position which he had chosen, and requested, if the enemy 
should attack next day, that he (Field-marshal Bliicher) would 
support him with two divisions of his army. Bliicher replied, 
that he was ready to support the British army with his whole 
force; stating at the same time, that it was his opinion, should 
Buonaparte not attack, that they ought to attack him next day 
with their united armies. , 

About eleven o'clock on the forenoon of the 17th, orders 
were given for the infantry to move to the rear, while the cavalry 
and some light troops took up a position in front The enemy 
remained quietly on the groimd he had occupied the preceding 
night, in front of the British lina Buonaparte, who had left 
about 20,000 Jbafantry, and General Pajol's division of cavalry, 
under the orders of Marshal Grouchy, to watch the motions of 
the Prussian army, proceeded with the remainder of his force to 
the position which the troops under Marshal Ney occupied ; but 
before his arrangements were completed, and his orders given for 
his army to advance, our in&ntry had nearly finished their march, 
and were about to take up their ground in the new position. His 
troops advanced in strong columns of attack ; but when they 
reached the heights above the village of Frasnes, Buonaparte 
found, to his great surprise, that the British army had retreated, 
^d that the troops against which his columns were advancing 
were nothing more than a strong rear-guard, which fell back as 
his troops advanced. He ordered his cavalry immediately to 
advance in pursuit, and his columns of infantry continued tiheir 
niarch in the direction of Brussels. Buonaparte, who was with 
his advance, kept his cavalry up with our rear-guard during the 
whole of the day. The French army, when it found no enemy to 
oppose its progress during the day, is said to have believed, with 
Its usual levity, that the greater part of the British force was 


destroyed, and that the remainder were flying to the ship £ 
Antwerp and Ostend 

The position which the British army now took up had be£ 
chosen with great judcrment, <Tom its proximity to the exteibir. 
forest of Soignies. 1 ne village of Waterloo lies upon the gio? i 
road from Unissi^s to Cliarleroi, embosomed in the forest; asu 
a few scattered houses extend to another small village caU*^: 
Mount St John ; about a quarter of a mile in front of this kt^ 
village there is a rising grounrl, which crosses the great r^ai 
already mentioned, and extends from a larm-house, called Ter-b- 
Have, on the left, to tlie village of Merbe-le-Braine on the mbt, 
crossing also the road from Brussels to Nivelles, uvhich diver.v: 
from the road to Charleroi at the vilWe of Mount St. John, k 
was on this rising ground that the Allied army, commanded k 
Field-marshal the Duke of Wellington, or, more properlv, the Is 
corps of that army, took up its position on the evening of the 17i 
of June. The 2a corjw, imder the command of Lord Hill (with 
the exception of the 4th Division and the troops of the Nethff- 
lands, under Prince Frederick of Orange, who were left to guani 
an imjMirtant position at HaUe), was placed in reserve on the ri^ 
of the {X)sition, and in front of the village of Merbe-le-Braine,witfc 
its right resting on Braine-la-Leud. The infantry bivouacked * 
little under the ridge of the rising ground, and the cavalry in tke 
hollow ground in rear of the infantry. Excepting a few round 
shot, which the enemy occasionally fired while our troops wei? 
deploying into their position, nothing of any moment occurred 
during tliat afternoon or the whole of the night. 

It had rained almost incessantly during the greater part of the 
17 til, and the weather was very tempestuous during the nig'**' 
The ground afforded no cover for the troops ; so that generals, 
officers, and men, were equally ex|)osed to the rain, which fell m 
torrents. Buonaparte slept at the fjBirm-house of Caillou, near 
l*lanchenoit ; and his army halted in the neighbourhood of Gf 
napiKj. The Duke of Wellington slept at a small public-house id 
tlie village of Waterloo. 

This night, which was dreadful to the soldier, must have been 
still more so to the wretched inhabitants of the country which the 
armies occupied; obliged to abandon their humble dwellings i*^ 
despair, they had fled to the deep recesses of the forest for secun^Ji 
and in the hope of saving their lives. The rich crops of gr*^* 
which were fast hastening to maturity, were trodden under tooU ^ 
eaten up by the cavalry, and the helpless, farmer saw the lawQf 
of a whole year destroyed in a single day; houses of all ki^^ 
were destroyed or burnt to ashes ; and the inhabitants, herding J^ 
the forest, must have felt imcertain even of their own fate, shoui 
chance have conducted any of the plundering banditti to v^ 
lonely retreat 


The French officers who have written the account of the 
»a.ttle of Waterloo assure us that Buonaparte, as well as his army^ 
relieved that the Duke of Wellington had continued his retreat 
Lirring the night, and it is said he expressed himself as quite 
lelighted when he found, on the morning of the 18th, that our 
Droops still occupied the ground they had ta&en up the night before. 
A^fraid^ as it would seem, that we might still steal away, the most 
preasing orders were sent to hasten up his columns from the rear, 
that he might commence the attack wnich was to annihilate us. 

As soon as daylight appeared on the morning of the 18th, the 
British army could perceive, from its position, immense masses of 
the enemy moving in every dii*ection, and by two o'clock the 
whole of nis force appeared to be collected on the heights and in 
the ravines which ran parallel with the British position. 

The French army, when concentrated in front of our position, 
consisted of four corps of infantry, including the Guard, and three 
corps of cavalry ; and if the report of a staff-officer of that army is 
to he credited, it presented an effective grand total of one hundred 
and twenty thousand men, 

A httle to the left of the road from Brussels to Nivelles, and in 
the hollow ground in front of the British line, there is a gentle- 
man's country-house with its appendages, called Houm>mont 
[/or a more detailed account of the splendid achievement which the 
British infantry performed in the defence of this never^to-be'forgotten 
spoty vide article fouawing thisy p. 159.] A walled garden, with a 
considerable orchard, and several acres of wood, surround the 
house, and extend for a considerable way into the plain. The 
Duke of Wellington had occupied this house, as also the garden 
and wood, with a part of Major-general Cooke's division of the 
Guards, and a regiment of the troo^)S of Nassau. It was a post of 
the utmost importance ; for while it was held, the enemy could 
not approach our right. Buonaparte also saw the importance of 
that position, and me necessity which there was for his getting 
possession of it ; he sent orders to Marshal Ney^ who commanded 
the left wing of his army, to direct such a force upon 'Hougomont 
as should at once take possession of it 

It was now eleven o'clock, and everything seemed to indicate 
that the awfiil contest was about to commence. The weather had 
cleared up, and the sun shone a little as the battle begun ; and the 
armies b^ng within 800 yards of each other, the Duke of Welling- 
ton, with his usual quickness, had soon perceived the nature of the 
attacks that would be made upon his line ; and when the troops 
stood to their arms in the mommg, he gave orders that they should 
be formed into squares of half-battalions, and in that state to await 
the enernVs attack. 

Marshal Ney, as soon as Buonaparte's order was communicated 
to him, directed the division of infantry commanded by Jerome 


Buonaparte to advance U|ion Hoiigomont; and aboat half-pas; 
eleven <)V*l(x*k tlic first columns of this division made their appear- 
ance U|K)n the ravine, or rather hollow groimd, which leads down 
from the ]>ublic-hou8C of La Belle Alliance to the chateau. The 
two brigades of artillery belonging to General Cooke's diviadn 
had taken up a position on the ridge of the hill, in front of the line 
of infantiT, and tlie moment the enemy made his appearance, our 
nine-])oun(lers opened upon his columns. The artillery-officei^ 
had got the range so accurately^ that almost every shot and shell 
fell in the very centre of his masses ; so great was the efiect pn>- 
duced by these few guns, that all Jerome's bravery oonid mi 
make his fellows advance, and in a moment they were a^ain hid 
by the rising ground, from under cover of which they had out just 
emerged. This, which was the commencement of the action, was 
considered a very favourable omen by our brave fellows who wit- 
nessed it ; and for a short time they were much amused with the 
manoeuvres of Jerome's division, and the cautious manner in which 
it seemed to emerge from its hiding-place. 

This state of tilings, however, did not continue long^ as other 
great movements were observed to be prejMiring throughout the 
enemy's line. A jx)werful artillery was Drought to bear upon our 
guns that had so annoyed his first advance, and General Jerome's 
troops gained the outskirts of the wood, where they became en- 
gaged with our light troops. By mid-day the cannonade was 

The great road from Brussels to Charleroi ran through the 
centre of the British i)osition. Upon the right of this road, and 
upon the declivity of what is properly called the height or Mount 
of Saint John, there is a large farm-house with offices, called La 
Hayte Sainte, which are surrounded by a high wall. The garden 
attached to this house, which has only a brush-wood fence, runs 
for about fifly yards into the plain* This formed another covering 
point of im])ortance, wluch the Duke had taken care to occupy 
with a considerable force of tlie light troops of the King's German 

The great object of Buonaparte in this important battle was 
evidently to force our centre, and at the same time turn our light 
flank ; so that by surrounding and taking prisoners, as it were, 
one half of our h'ne, he might completely paralyse and destroy the 
effect of the other half. Unfortunately, our centre was the w^est 
part of our position, and upon that part he directed his first grand 
attack to be made about noon. 

An immense mass of infantry, followed by a column of 
upwards of twelve thousand cavalry, advanced upon the points 
occupied by the 3d and 5th Divisions, and the lefl of the GuanU, 
covered by a fire from upwai'ds of one hundred pieces of artillery* 
These columns, which seemed to advance with a certainty of sue- 





::ess, ^were led by Count d'Erlon in person. They advanced almost 
to tlie muzzles of our muskets ; but here they soon found they had 
Hritons to contend with: our fellows gave them a volley, and, 
cheering, rushed on to the charge, which they did not stand to 
receive, and our cavalry, emerging from the hollow ground where^ 
they had hitherto been concealed from the envy's view, passed 
tlirough the openings between the squares, and charging the 
enemy's cavalry, succeeded completely in dispersing them, and 
driving them back upon their own Ime. 

In this conflict, which was dreadAil while it lasted, the enemy 
was baffled in all his attempts, and, besides the killed and wounded, 
lost several thousand prisoners and an eagle ; but the British army 
had also to lament th^ loss of its brightest ornaments, and his ma- 
jesty one of his best officers. The gallant Sir Thomas Picton fell, 
mortally wounded, in leading on the 5th Division. He had only 
joined the army on the 15th. His exertions contributed greatly to 
tlie success of the 16th, when his division was engaged singly for 
several hours with the troops imder Ney. Though severely 
vroimded, he concealed it from every one but his servant, and went 
through all the fatigues of the 17th. On the 18th, as the Duke of 
Wellington has feelingly expressed it in the public dispatch, " he 
fell gloriously leading his (uvision to a charge with bayonets, by 
which one of the most serious attacks made by the enemy upon 
our position was defeated." 

From the commencement of the action, little manoeuvring was 
necessary in either army. The points which Buonaparte had first 
attacked were again and again assailed with fresh troops, which 
obliged the Duke to move up reinforcements to Hougomont and to 
the centre. So overwhelming were the masses that were brought 
to bear upon these points, that victory sometimes seemed to hover 
over the imperial eagles ; but the consummate judgment of Wel- 
lington and the bravery of the British troops overcame all the 
efforts of the enemy. 

About three o'clock, when Buonaparte found that Jerome's divi- 
sion could not drive the Gruards from Hougomont, he ordered the 
chateau to be set on fire. The shells from several mortars which 
were brought to bear upon the houses, soon had the desired effect: 
but our troops retiring into the garden, did not yield one inch of 
their ground ; and the only thing which the enemy gsdned by this 
cruel measure was the destruction of a few of our wounded, who 
were too ill to be removed, and who fell sC prey to the flames. The 
troops in La Haye Sainte, having expended their ammunition, were 
obliged to retire for a moment from that point, and the enemv got 
possession of the house and garden ; but as soon as a reinK>rce- 
ment of our troops could be moved up, he was driven from that 
as well as from every other point which he had attacked : and at 
no period during the day, notwithstanding the heavy masses of 


infantrj and cavalry which were advanced against onr centre, time 
after time, was he ever able to force our position; and the 

sion of the advanced post of La Haje Sainte for a few nimntes 
may be said to have been the greatest advantage he ever gained. 
The battle continued to rage with unabated fury, and the number 
of brave men who were continually falling on both sides was verr 
great, whOe the rapidity with which the columns of attack suc- 
ceeded each other, seemed to indicate for a time that the resooroes 
of the enemy were inexhaustible. The artillery on both ades were 
well served: but Buonaparte had upwards of two hundred and 
fiity ])ieces in the field ; while the train of the Allied army under 
the Duke of Wellington did not exceed one hundred £^uns, nine- 
}X)under8 and six-pounders. Notwithstanding our imerioritj in 
this arm, which was still more apparent from the size of the enemv^s 
guns (being 12-pounders^ than from their numbers, ours w^^ so 
well fought, that I beheve it is allowed by all they did equal 

About two o'clock the Duke of Wellington dispatched an officer 
of his staff to the head-ouarters of Field-marshal Bliicher, to ascer^ 
tain his movements, and to know when it was probable his advance 
would come in contact with the enemy. This officer found the 
Prussian General at the village of Lasnes, where he gained die 
information required. 

I must now beg leave to direct the attention of the reader to 
the extraordinary movements of the gallant Prussian army ; move- 
ments that have never been surpassed in the history of any war, 
and which clearly proved that the spirit of the great Frederick has 
not yet departed from them. On the 16th three corps of this army 
fought, and for a whole day defied the efibrts of the enemy to drive 
tliem from their position. At night they were surprised, and obliged 
to retreat On the evening of the 17 th, the broken columns, whose 
loss had been immense, after having retired upwards of thirty 
miles, were completely re-organised ; and at break of day on the 
morning of the 18th the whole advanced from Wavre to join the 
British army at Waterloa 

The 2d and 4th corps were directed by Blucher to proceed 
by Saint Lambert, and to attack the enemy in the rear of ms ri^t 
flank near Frichermont The first corps, with theCommanderHn- 
Chief, moved by Ohain so as to unite with the left of the British 
line at Ter-la-Haye ; while the 3d corps, which formed the reserve, 
was directed to foUow in the rear of the first Gen^^ Bulow, 
who commanded the 4th corps, found great difficulty in passing 
the defile of Saint Lambert, and his advance was considerably 
retarded ; yet, true to the promise of his Commander-in-Chief, two 
of his brigades were in the position assigned them on the enemy's 
right flank by four o'clock in the afternoon. Bulow commenced 
his attack almost immediately, but his numbers were too few to 


xiiake any serious impression. About six o'clock, when Bliicher 
was nearly in sight of the field of battle, he received intelligence 
that his reserve had been attacked by Marshal Grouchy, and was 
driven from its position near Wavre ; this information made no 
alteration m .the Field-marshal's arrangements, as he well knew 
that the fate of Europe would be decided on the field to which he 
\sras advancing. 

It was now half-past seven o'clock, and the issue of the battle 
was still doubtful. The greater part of Lord Hill's corps of the 
liritish army had been moved up at different periods to the support 
of the 1st corps. The whole of Bulow's corps, and part of the 2d 
corps of the rrussian army, had arrived at their position near 
Fiichermont, and their attack in that direction was sufficiently 
YK>werfiilto oblige the enemy to give way on his right; which Buona- 
parte having observed, conceived that the moment was now arrived 
when he must put an end to the engagement He informed his 
generals that the firingon the right was occasioned by the arrival 
of Gronchy's corps. This gave fresh hopes to his troops, already 
beginning to despair, and immediately he gave orders to form the 
last column of attack. This column was composed principally 
of the Ghiard, which had hitherto suffered but little; he cave 
directions for the whole of the line to second this effort, upon which 
he said the victory depended, and placing himself at their head, 
they advanced in double-quick time. 

These veteran warriors, so long esteemed the first troops in 
Europe, advanced across the plain which divided the two armies, 
with a fimmess which nothing could exceed ; and though our grape 
and canister-shot made dreadful havock in their ranks, they were 
never disconcerted for a single moment Our infantry remained 
firm in their position, imtil the enemy's front line was nearly in 
contact with them, when, with the usual salute of a well-directed 
voUey, and a British cheer, they rushed on to the charge with bay- 
onets. This charge even the Imperial Guard could not stand against, 
and those undaunted troops, who atone time considered themselves 
the conquerors of the world, were obliged to give way. In this 
attack tfie British and French Guards were, ror the first time, I 
believe, fairly opposed to each other. The shock for a moment 
was dreadfdi. The enemy refused to take or give quarter, and 
the carnage was horrible. At last the whole of their ranks were 
broken, afl discipline was at an end, and they began to give way 
in the utmost confusion. The Duke of Wellington, who was on 
the spot, was not inattentive to the manner in which the enemy 
retired from this attack, and, though his left was still pressed, he 
ordered the whole line of infantry, supported by the cavalry and 
artillery, to advance. This order was no sooner given, than our 
brave fellows rushed forward firom every point In a moment 
they carried the enemy's position^ and obligea him to retire in great 


disorder, leaving in our possession a number of priscmerBy and uf^ 
wanls of one hundred and fifty pieces of cannon, with their ais- 
munition. Before the disorganised masses of die French had 
cleared the ravine by which they retired, the right and left of the 
British line were nearly in contact, and the enemy in a nuumer 
surrounded. What added greatly to the confusion of the betten 
foe, was a gallant charge oy G^eral Ziethen's corps apon Us 
right flank, at the moment the British advanced in front. BIucIkt, 
who had joineil with his first corps at the time this decisive chai^ 
was going on, advanced with his gallant troops ; and about nine 
o'clock the two Field-marshals met at the small publk>4ioase 
called La Belle AUiance, and mutually saluted each other as 

The British army, which ha^l been so warmly engaged for up 
wards of nine hours, was now halted, and the pursuit left to the 
brave Prussians. Though they had already marcned many leagnes, 
all fatigue was forgotten when in the presence of their eoesnj. 
About half-past nine Field-marshal Bliicher assembled the whcJe 
of his sui)erior officers, and gave orders for them to send eveir 
man and horse in pursuit 

The transactions of this eventful day, so glorious to Britam, 
cannot be concluded without recalling to the recollection of the 
reader s«»me of those heroes whose exertions and example were, 
in some measure, conducive to this great victory. Their gallantry, 
indeed, calls for a much larger share of notice than it is possible to 
bestow here; yet, brief as the remarks must be, the task that 
was undertaken would be inadequately performed if they were 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange proved himself m 
this day, as well as on the 16th, not unworthy of the great master 
under whom he had studied the art of war, and, until he rec^ved 
a severe wound in the right shoulder, he was never absent fi!Dm 
the post of danger. His Royal Highness showed a great deal of 
good generalship in the manner in which he supported the brigade 
of his father's troops, that were attacked on the 15th, as well as in 
collecting his corps on the afternoon of that day. To him, how- 
ever, the issue of the campaign was certainly of importaiK^ as 
nothing less than a kinadam was at stake : but it was far dif- 
ferent with Henry Earl of Uxbridge. Already in possession of 
every blessing which wealth can give, or domestic happmess bestow, 
war, at best, was a losing game to him ; vet^he did not hesitate for a 
moment when his country called for his services, and, forgetting 
every claim but that which his Sovereign had upon him, ne ex- 
chai^ed his peaceful retirement for the command of the British 
cavalry in Belgium. On the 16th he inarched with the troops 
under his command upwaixk of forty miles, and got to the grotmd 
just as the enemy had retired &om the action. On the 17th he 


vf as appointed to protect the retreat of the infantry, and on more 
than one occasion he made the ex-£mperor pay dearly for the 
keenness of his pursuit On the 18th his exertions were great 
and unremitting, while his example was m«>st animating : scarce a 
squadron charged but he was at their head; and wherever the 
cavalry could Be of service, there he led them. Throughout the 
^whole of the day, though exiK»sed to the hottest of the fire, he 
escaped unhurt; but alm<»st tne last shot which the enemy fired 
shattered his right knee, and dei>rived the gallant Paget ot a leg. 
1 liave already relateil the fall of Sir Th'>mas Picton. England 
has also to r^ret the loss of Maior-general Sir William Ponsonby, 
an officer not less distinguished than respectecL Colonel De Lancey 
felly tooy by the side of the Comraander-m-Chief, as also Lieutenant- 
colonels Gordon and Canning, who hail Ijecn long in his Grace's 
family as aides-de-camp. Every officer on the personal staff of 
the JJuke of Wellington was either killed or wounded. Few 
general ofiScers escaped untouched, and many commanding officers 
ML Lord Hill's coolness and determined bravery never shone 
more conspicuous than on the 18th of June ; though^ from com- 
manding the reserve, his exertions were not so much called for on 
this as on many former days. 

The enemy continued to retreat during the night. Ids cavalry 
and infantry mrming one conftised mass. The Marshals, Generals, 
and Officers of all ranks, were mingled with the mob, and pressed 
forward by the torrent; no one mought of giving orders, and 
every one seemed to act only from the impulse or terror of the 
moment. The Prussian cavalry did not allow them one moment's 

Advance of the AUiee into France — Reduction of Cambray and 
Peronne — Capitulation of Paris — Treaty of Peace. 

After a few hours ^▼^i to repose, among the dying and the 
dead, on the field of Waterloo, the British army moved forward 
at daylight on the morning of the 19tL On the 20th, it entered 
the French territory. There was no force to oppose their pro- 
gress, and their advance upon the capital was as rapid as if uiey 
Had been marching through a friendly country. It was not con- 
sidered necessary, in the first instance, to halt before any of the 
frontier garrisons, though a sufficient force was left to observe 
them; and only those towns which could be reduced without 
difficulty, and which lay directly in the route, were attacked. 

General Sir C. Cofville's division appeared before Cambray 
on the 24th; and the garrison having refused to surrender, it was 
attacked on the 25th. The light companies of Major-general 
Johnstone's brigade, led on by Colonel Su: Neil Campbell of the 

158 lunu OP WATEBLoa 

64th B^j^iment, escaladed the works at the angle formed by tbp 
Valenciennes gateway, and the curtain of the Ixxly of the yj^f^'^ 
while a second column, commanded by Colonel Sir l^illxaiL 
Donglas of the 9l8t R<^^ent, entered \>y the rayelin near tik 
Amiens road. The Valenciennes gate was broken open by Sir 
Neil Campbell, at the same moment that Colonel MitcheU's br^:ade 
forced open the Paris gate. The enemj, finding the town in oar 
possession, surrendered, after a feeble resistance, and the chr w«> 
gained with yery Uttle loss. 

Oil the 26tli, the Duke of Wellington attacked Peronne. The 
1st brigade of Guards, under Major-general Maitland, were 
onlered to storm the horn-work which coyers the suburb on the 
left of the Somme river, which they carried in their usual gallaot 
manner with yery little loss ; and the town immediately surrvn- 
dered, upon the condition that tlie garrison should lay down their 
arms, and be allowed to return to their homes. The nece^sitj 
which the Duke of Wellington was under of halting at Catean, to 
allow the jwntoons and certain stores to come. up with the annv, 
allowed the Prussians to get a day in advance of the British ; but 
neither army ran any risk from this separation, as the enemy had 
no force out of l*aris, except the few troops under Marshal Grouchy, 
who were hastening towards that capital, and who were too much 
alarmed for their own safety to think of fighting. 

On the 28th, the advance of Field-marshal Bliicher^s armv 
came in contact with the enemy, for the first time. It was attacked 
at Villers-Coterets ; but his main body coming up, they were 
repulsed with a loss of six pieces of cannon and about a thousand 
pnsoners. General Bulow pursued this column, which was on its 
march from Soissons to Paris, and took about five hundred more 
prisoners. The advance of the British army crossed the Oise on 
the 29th, and the main body on the 30th of June, and on the 1st 
of July took up a position, with their right upon the height of 
Rochebourg, and their left upon the forest of Bondy. Bliicher, 
having taken the village of Vertus on the 30th of Jime, moved to 
his right, as the British army advanced on the 1st of July, and 
crossed the Seine at Saint-Germain. On the 2d, he had his right 
at Plessis-Pique, his left at Saint-Cloud, and the reserve of liis 
army at Versailles. 

On the 28th of June, Paris was declared, by the Provisional 
Government, in a state of siege, and Marchal Davoust appcnnted 
to command the army. Saint-Denis as well as Montmartre were 
strongly fortified. The ground to the north of that town was 
inunaated, by means of the small rivers Bouillon and Lavielle- 
mar. Water was also introduced into the canal de I'Ourcq, and 
batteries with a strong parapet established on its banks : Paris was, 
therefore, well defended on that side. The heights of Belleville 
were likewise strongly fortified ; but the left of the Seine had been 



exvtirely neglected, and was quite defenceless. The troops coUected 
in Pans consisted of aJl that remained fix)m the battle of Waterloo, 
V5rith the dep6ts of the whole army, which might amount to from 
forty to fifty thousand troops of the line, besides the National 
Griiards, the tirailleurs of the Guard, and the corp ofFedires. The 
advanced posts of this army defended itself with great bravery, 
p>articiilarly the heights of Saint-Cloud and Meudon ; and it was 
not till aftier a very severe action that Marshal Bliicher succeeded 
in carrying these points. General Ziethen's corps distmmuahed 
itself once more, in carrying the heights of Meudon, and in driving 
the enemy also from the village of Issy on the evening of the 1st 
The troops in this position having b^n strongly reinforced, the 
Prussians were attacked at Issy on the morning of the 3d ; but 
this attack was repulsed with considerable loss on the part of the 
enemy. At last, finding that Paris was open on its vulnerable side, 
and that a communication had been established between the Bri- 
tish and Prussian armies, by a bridge of boats at Argenteuil, and 
that a British corps was moving upon Neuilly, the enemy sent to 
"beg that the firing might cease on both sides, with a view to the 
negociation of a military convention between the armies, under 
which the French army should evacuate Paris. On the night of 
the Sd, the following convention was agreed to, which put an end 
to all military questions at the moment, but touched upon nothing 
political : — 

** This day, the 3d of July, 1815, the Commissioners named 

by the Commanders-in-Chief of the respective armies; that is to 

say, the Baron Bignon, holding the portefeuille of Foreign Affairs; 

the Count Guilleminot, Chief of the General Staff of me French 

army; the Coimt de Bondy, Prefect of the department of the 

Seine, being furnished with the full powers of his Excellency the 

Marshal Prince of Ek^kmuhl, Commander-in-Chief of the French 

army on one side ; and Major-general Baron Muffling, fiimished 

with the full powers of his Highness the Field-marshal Prince 

Bliicher, Commander-in-Chief of the Prussian army; Colonel 

Hervey, furnished with the full powers of his Excellency the 

Duke of Wellington, Commander-in-Chief of the English army, on 

the other side ; have agreed to a convention." 


The Duke of Wellington having determined on the ground 
where he would wait tlie attack of the French army, observed, 
on the right of his position, an old Flemish chateau, properly 
called Gomont, by defending which, he judged tliat much advan- 
tage might be derived. It comprised an old tower, and chapel. 


and a number of officii, |«artly surrounded by a farm-yanL It 
had ako a ganlen, inoloscnl by a high, strong, brick wall, and raoiiti 
die earden a wood of beech,* an orchard, and a hedge, bv 
wliicn the wall was concealed ; in another part there was a pond, 
serving as a moat Steps were taken to strengthen these means; 
of defence, by loopholing, or perforating the walls, for the fire i»f 
musquetry, and erecting scaflolding, to give tlie troops within an 
opiM>rtunity of firing from tlie top of die wall : and these judicious 
measures greatly assisted that successful resistance that w^as after- 
wards made against so many reiterated and desperate attacbv 
The enemy's cannon could only be brought to Dear upon die 
up[)er part of the walls and buildings ; ana the great damage it 
received was by shells. 

On the eveningof the 17th, die following troops were allotted 
for the defence: The 2d Brigade of Guards, commanded by 
Major-general Sir J. Byng^ and two light companies of the Isc 
Brigade. The force was disposed as follows ; The Ught companies 
of die Coldstream, and Third Guards, under Lieut.-coL Mac- 
donnell, occupied the house and garden: those of the 1st Regi- 
ment occupied the wood to the left ; these were under the command 
of Lieut -coL Lord Saltoun : the rest of the brigade was placed 
about 200 yards in the rear, in a commanding situation, and in 
readiness to 8up]x)rt the garrison if necessary. Tne whole amounted 
to from 1400 to 1500 men. To tliis force was added, imme- 
diately previous to the action, about 300 of the Nassau troops : 
some of them, however, did not remain long ; owing, it is said, to 
their not having been sufficiently supplied with ammunition. 

The action commenced at thirty-five minutes past eleven o'clock. 
The force of the enemy employed in making this attack was very 
great : it consisted of the whole of the 2d corps, under Comte de 
Reille. This corps, which amounted to 30,000 men, was formed 
into three divisions : the division commanded by Jerome Buona- 
parte commenced the attack, but was soon driven back (about 
half.past twelve) with §Peat loss. A most desperate attack was 
next made by the division of General Foy, who succeeded in 
gaining great part of the wood, and had nearly surrounded the 
house ; but four companies of the Coldstream and two of the 3d 
Regiment, moving promptly down, and attacking them, they were 
driven back with immense slaughter, and some prisoners were 
taken from them. Several other attempts w^ere made by the 
enemy against this post during the course of the day, until their 
general retreat ;t but they did not obtain any advantage. In a 

• In this -wood of beech, probably 2000 trees were nearly aU in a wounded 
state ; 40 to 100 wounds were found in single trees. 

+ Late in the evening, when the 2d corp» had been so completely beaten 
as the ist corps had been on the left, Buonaparte ordered forward Uie Impe- 
rial Guards, and part of that fine body of men were directed against Hougomoot 


most detenmned and gallant attack, made between twelve and one, 
an officer and a few men got inside of the gate of the farm-yard ; 
but thej were all killed, and at no period of the day was the com* 
munication cut off. Reinforcements of men and ammunition 
were sent in whenever thev were requisite. The attack against 
the position of Hougomont lasted, on the M^hole, from twenty-five 
minutes before twelve, until a little past eight at night 

At several periods during the day, reinforcements from the 
Coldstream ana the 3d Regunent of Ghiards were sent down to 
support the light companies, employed in the defence of the house, 

ten, and wood.* The latter was repeatedly occupied by the 
enemy, who were as often driven from it again, until at last these 
po«te were occuW by the whole brigade, with the exception of 
two compames. About six in the ev^iing, when the second line 
was broudit forward, some Hanoverian oattalions occupied the 
ground where the 2d brigade of Guards had been placed at the 
commencement ; and a Brunswick regiment was sent down to the 
wood, more to the left than where the Gxiards held it 

The Hon. CoL Acheson, of the Coldstream, was ordered to 
defend a certain part of the wood at Hougomont The enemv 
made a tremendous attack, and at the first charge the Colonel s 
horse was shot dead and feU, with his rider under him, consi- 
derably stunned by tlie fall ; in which situation he must have 
lain some time, as the enemy had passed and repassed, regarding 
himasdead. men he hii^ reco W; he fou^d^ 
soner by the dead weiirht of the horse: after a time, by great 
exertion;he released Saelf unhurt, by drawing his leg L^is 
boot, which remamed under the horse. 

The loss of the Guards, in killed and wounded, in the deface 
of Hougomont, amounted to 28 officers and about 800 rank and 
file, "nie foreign corps (Nassau and Brunswickers) lost about 100. 

The troops occupying the fan^-house of Hougomont being 
hard pressed oy the enemy, were in dai^er, though most gallantly 
defended by Lieut-coL Macdonnell, oi falling into their hands ; 
when a detachment of the Coldstream (xuards was ordered down 
to rdnforce him. Before they reached the house the enemy had 
succeeded in gaining possession of the outer court, stabling, &c., 
and also of some neighbouring banks, from which they kept up a 
very destructive fire, and coiud only be dislodged by the resolute 
advance of the reinforcing party. Major Dumaresque, aide-de- 
camp to Sir John Byng, who had accompanied the detachment, 

^ When part of the 8d Begiment of Guards was sent into the wood before one, 
Colonel Hepburn, of that oorps, superseded Lord Saltoon, who, having but few 
men left, obtained pennission to join his battalion, where he again distinguished 
himsell Colonel Woodford of the Coldstream, who went with the reinforce- 
ment into the house, was senior to Colonel Macdonnell ; but in consideration of 
that gallant officer's conduct, Colonel Woodford refused talcing the command, 
and each undertook the defence of a particular portion of the post they occupied. 



findliiig at the entnmce of the wood, firom die curcumstenoe of the 
troope having to pass through a very narrow lane, in dose parsnit 
of the enem J, ana under a most flalux^ fire, from which they had 
goffered extremely, that it would be miposaible to get them suffi- 
ciently formed to resist the attack it was natural to sappoee the 
enemy would immediacy make with fresh troops, retomed to the 
Duke, and acquainted hmi with the situation of the detacbnent 
His Ghraoe desued him to order CoL Woodford to more forward to 
their assistance, with the remainder of the Coldstream. Sir Joho 
Byng had anticipated the necessity of this movement, and had 
already given a sunilar order. Before Colonel Woodford reached 
the spot, however, the enemy had again possessed themsdves of 
the wood and adjoining banks, from which they were immediately 

Major Dumaresque, in advancing a second time, with this de- 
tachment, was shot tnrough the body, when close to the house, by 
one of the enemy's infontry, many of whom he had passed while 
moving forward. But knowing the Duke's anxiety mat this post 
should be maintained (as the enemy were now making a vigoroos 
attack on the left), he galloped up to Us Grace, regfudless of hk 
wound, and having communicatea the welcome inteUigence, tiiat 
the French had been driven out of the wood, and the house secured, 
fainting from loss of blood, and overcome by his great exertioiis, 
he was removed from hb horse, and conveyed to ue rear by the 
assistance of a friend. 

It is said the enemy wero ignorant of the strength of the posir 
tion, the garden-wall being concealed by the wood and hedge: but 
the wall was so protected by trees, that it would not have been 
easy to have brought cannon to play against it; and, besides, it was 
of creat thickness. The enemv brought guns to a height on the 
rigat of the position, which enfiladed it, ana caused great loss; and 
they succeeded m setting fire to a hay-stack, and part of the txiild- 
ings,* by means of shells : but that did not prevent the garrison 
from occupying the remaining part 

It has been said that the inhalntants of the place were not 
friendly to the English, but this is quite a mistake. They 1^ it 
with much trepidation when the cavahy of the enemy appeared in 
the evening of the 17th : they returned, however, for a short time, 
very early on the 18th, to ti^e some things away; and their con- 
duct generally implied friendship for the English and terror of tfae 

Within half an hour, 1500 men were killed in the small orchard 
at Hougomont, not exceeding four acres. 

The loss of the enemy was enormous. The division of Gr^eral 
Foy alone lost about 3000, and the total loss of the ^lemy in 

* It was the Tower that was burnt 


the attack of this poaition is estimated at 10,000 in killed and 

Above 6000 men of both armies perished in the farm of Hou- 
gomont ; 600 French fell in the attack on the ch&teau and the 
mnn; 200 English were killed in the wood, 25 in the garden, 
llOO in the ordiard and meadow, 400 near the farmer's garden; 
2000 of both parties behind the great orchard. The bodies of 300 
£Dglish are buried opposite the gate of the chateau; those of 600 
French have been burnt at the same place. On a square stone in 
the garden, above the spot where Capt Blackman of the Guards 
is buried, who was killed in this place at the age of 21, there is the 
following inscription sent by his father: — '' Jonn Lucie Blackman, 
Waterloo, 18th June, 1816." 

Another inscription to the memory of the same John Blackman 
will be mentioned among those which are in the cemetery of the 
Reformed Church at Brussels. 

Among the brave men who perished in defending Hougomont 
was Thomas Crawford, aged 21, captain in the 3d Regiment of 
Gnards, and son of Sir James CrawfonL He was first interred in 
the rarden of the ch&teau, near to the place where death had 
struck hinL His body was removed some days afterwards by his 
respectable father and Mr. Tomaux, who lives in one of the 
suburbs of Brussels, and who had been formerly attached to the 
family. The body was conveyed to England in a leaden coffin, to 
be d^DOsited in the £Eunily vault on one of the estates. 
' Tne true name of the ch&teau is Gomont The public prints 
call it erraneouslv Hougoumont Its name, according to ancient 
tradition^ comes m>m the circumstance, that the hill on which is 
at present the neighbouring plantation, was covered with large 
pines, the rosin of which was in great request The place was 
nence called Gomont, for Gomme Mont, or Mont de Gomme. 
This ch&teau has existed for ages. It has long belonged to the 
family of Arrazola Deonate. Its possessor took the tiue of Go- 
mont. One of the Deonates distinguished himself at the battle of 
Lepante : another, or perhaps the same, was Viceroy of Naples. 
The illustrious author of ** Don Quixote," Miguel Cm^antes, who 
lost a hand at this battle, highly praises this viceroy. 

M. de Lonville Gomont, resi^mg at Nivelles, formerly a major 
in the Austrian service, but now retired on a pension, who is 
descended on the mother's side firom the family of Arrazola Deo- 
nate, is the present owner of this ch&teau, and has just put it up to 
sale. We have these particulars firom him. 

An article of intelligence firom BnvselB, under date the 29th of 
March, 1816, says that the winds have thrown down the observa- 
tory, which commanded a view of all the eminences and hollows 
of Waterloa On the other hand, the proprietor of the ruins of 
the ch&teau of Hougomont has caused all the woods to be felled. 

■ / 

164 1UTII.S OF WAmiLoa 

for ever I 

od tluit obeervatorj, 
rafieringy have vazii 


The Editor of this Work liad, when he first undertook it, everr 
confidence in the liberality of thoee gentlemen to whom he lookcii 
for commonications — that is, to those who witnessed the mightr 
events, the details of which are here collected. He has been sap* 
plied with sach conmimiications with a liberality greater than, with 
every reasonable confidence, he could have ventored to hope ; and 
his chief difficulty has been that of selection: with all his attention, 
frequent repetitions have been unavoidable ; but to most reacfers 
sucn repetitions are not, perhaps, objectionable, as every recital 
places the fact in a difierent point of view, yet tending to corrobo- 
rate the general eventual result. He has lately been fitvoured 
with access to a collection of letters written finom the theatre of 
those great events, that would, if published separately and entire, 
be high^ interesting and valuable, as they were written by gentle- 
men who witnessed all of them. On looking over the preceding 
parts of his work, he finds the operations of the Artillery less de- 
tailed than those of most other corps; and he is glad, in the se- 
lection from the letters in question, to have an opportunity of re- 
medying, in some degree, the deficiency of former accounts, and 
of doing justice, as far as lies in his humble ability, to the great 
exertions of that powerful arm. 

'' Bfwaek, ISth June, 1815. 

. . It seems that Buonaparte is at Maubeuge ; that he 
has about 120,000 men there ; that he has advanced in the di- 
rection of Binch, leaving Mons to his lefl and rear ; that Bliicher, 
with 82,000 Prussians, nss moved from Namur to Sombref (4m the 
road from Namur to Nivelles); that we shall concentrate our force 
in front of Braine-larLeud, near HaL Admitting all this to be 
true, we may the day after to-mcmrow have a battla The Duke 
has gone to a ball at the Duchess of Richmond's, but all is ready 
to move at dav-bpeak ; of^ course all depends on the news that 
may arrive in the night: by way of being ready, I shall go to bed, 
ana get a few hours' sleef). It is now hau-past eleven ; I hope you 
and • • • • are enjoying peacefrd slumbers in our happy Eli^^and, 
safe from all the alarms wiiioh to-morrow may see here." 



** BrusaelSf I6th June, 6 A. M. 

^* I have been sleeping very soundly. The morning is beau- 
tifxd. Sir Thomaa Picton is arrived. I have now learned that 
the Duke moves in half an hour ; some say to Waterloo, which 
y^G do not find in our map. The whole place is in a bustle — such 
jostling of baggage, of guns, and waggons I It is very useftd to 
acquire a quietness and composure about all these matters. One 
does not mend thiogs by being in a hurry. Adieu ! I almost 
^wonder that I can wnte so quietly. But nothing can be done to- 
day. My horse is ready, when the signal for mounting shall be 

[^Here /ollotes a disposition of the army, which unU be fovnd in 
cmother part of this Work That of the Artillery only is 

^* CoL Sir (jeorge Wood, commanding in general 

^^ Lft.-coL Sir A« Frazer, commanding British Horse ArtiUery. 

^^ Lt.-coL A. Macdonald, Six Troops of Horse Artillery, 
attached to Cavalry, commanded by (viz.) Major Sir Robert 
Gardiner, L.C. ; Major W. Smith, JLu. ; Capt A. C. Mercer ; 
Capt. N. W. Ramsay, M. h. ; Maj. Bull, L.C. w.\ Capt E. C. 
Wninyates, M. w. 

** Lieut-coL Sir Julius Hartsmann, commanding Song's Ger- 
man and Hanoverian Artillery. 

lient-ooL Adye. 
lieuU-col. Gold. 
Lt.-ooL Williamson. 

Lieat.-ool. Hawker. 

Major Heisse, Han. 

Lt.-c61. Bnickman, 
Hanoverian ArtiL 

Msgor Dnunmond. 



Migor Kuhlman'a Troop. 
Captain Sandham's Brigade 

Mivjor Sympher'a Troop, 
Captain Bolton's Brigade. 

M^jor Lloyd's Brigade. 
Ci^t. Cleevea* do. (German.) 

Migor Brome's Brigade. 
Capt Bitbeig'a do. (Hanov.) 

Mi^or Rogers's Brigade. 
Capt Braun's do. (Hanov.) 



I Mijor UneU's Brigade. I 

Mig. Sir H. Boss, L. C. H. A. 
Migor Bean, H. A. 
Captain Sinclair, F. A. 


1st Division of 

3d Division of 


8d Division of 


4th Division of 

5th Division of 

6th Division of 


^^ Quabre Bras, VJih June, 1815, hcdf-past Seven A.M. 

** We have had a sanguinary contest Buonaparte partially 
attacked Bliicher's corps the day befiore yesterday ; and yesterday 
the affidr was general, both with the rrussians and ourselves. 
Quatre Bras is a little to the south of Grenappe, at the point where 
the road from Genappe to Charleroi intersects* that m>m Namu^ 

* Se^ engrfived plan, B and C. 


to Nivelles. The aeverity of our stnicgle was between Quatre Bns 
and Frasnefl. The affair ended oiuy with the day : there was 
indeed a good deal of firing by moonli^t The enemy, who be- 
haved with admirable gallantry, were repulBed' in all attacks. We 
had no British cavalry in the field Y andelenr^s brigade of cavalrr 
came up at dusk, but too late to be employed. No British Horse 
Artillery, and odhr one Grerman troop, wmch did great execatioo 

in the field. Tne enemy's Lancers and Cuirassiers are the finest 

fellows I ever saw. They made several bold charges, and re- 
peatedly advanced in the very teeth and in the rear of our in- 
rantrv. They have severely paid for their spirit — ^most of them are 
now lying before me. Had we but had a coume of brigades of Britisii 
cavalry, we should have gained a derided advantage. We had 
but one Belgic regiment of Hussars and some Brunswick Hussars, 
and both felt thS- inferiority, and made weak efforte ag»nst tk 
enemy's cavalry, who, pursuing them amongst our very m£uitzT; 
made a mingled mass of the wnole. I have never seen a hotter 
fire than at some times of yesterday, n<»r seen more of what is called 
a mSlie of troops. Our wounded at the close of last night was 
said by the Adjutantr^eral to be 5000. Of the killed I hsTe 
heard no estimate, but it must be severe. Qreat part of the actioD 
having been fought in standing com, the dead are not easily <&- 
cemibTe, and many of the wounded may never be found. Tbe 
Duke of Brunswick, I believe, is killed. I saw and spoke to him 
in the course of the day, but did not see him fiJL Of me Artilleij 
I hear of no officers killed. Ro^rs's and Lloyd's brigades have 
suffered much, especially Lloyas, which was attacked h^ two 
brigades of French Artulery, concealed in a wood. A r rench 
column came out of the wood on their right fiank, and attempted 
to get in their rear, but soon retired from a sharp fire with grest 
loss. The Duke of Wellington ordered some Bel^c cavalry to 
their support Our in&ntiy behaved most adnurably, setting 
good examples to our Belmc and Grerman Allies. Poor GameroB 
of the 92a is dangerously, but I hope not mortally womided. 
Blucher fought obstinately, but lost ground ; we, in consequ^ce, 
retrograde a little. The ammunition-carriages of the*Horse Ar- 
tillery are sent off to the firont of Soignies, near Waterloa R<^ 
and Bean* are known to be near Brussels, and coming up 'The 
British cavalry have made also very forced marches, and are ^^ 
this moment in the field. Sir Henry Hardinge has lost his left 
hand by a cannon-shot The brunt of the Prussian action was in 
the road £rom Namur to Nivelles. The action seems now wo^ 
mendng — ^we shall retire to make our communication with Bliicber 

closer. I sleut last night at Grenappe, , &c. ; the hons^^ 

and indeed all others, is full of dymg and dead. Henry Macleod 

^ Of the Royal Horse Artiller}-. 


is wounded ; he has three stahs from the Lancers ; he is at Oe- 

nappe ; we hare sent to him^ and trust he will do welL 

'^ The conntiy hereabout is open — rich in com^ and haying 
occasionally large and rather thick woods ; it is undulating ana 
deep, but without hedges or obstacles of any kind to the movement 

of all arms. and pointed out yesterday to the 

Duke the bold advance of a French column, but it was seen too 
late to frxistrate all its efforts : it was repulsed after severe loss on 
both sides. Tempted by the partial success of this bold manoeuvre, 
the enemy repeated it without effect a little before dusk. Adieu. 
I am well and in cood spirits. Half-past nine: preparations 
making for withdrawmg to tne other side of Genappe. The artil- 
lery, srare carriaf^es, &c. are moving^off. 

** The Chef aEtat-Major of a French division deserted to us 
last night,* with returns of the French force, which amounts to 
130,000, of which an immense body are cavahy; artiUery not 
specified. Ney was our opponent yesterday, with the 1st and 
2d corps under Reille and D'Erlon (Drouet, count d'Erlon). 
Buonaparte was opposed to Bliicher, but is believed to have beeoi 
opposite us about 4 p. m. when loud and continued cheering among 
the French troops preceded one of their boldest attadks. An 
officer is just come £rom Bliicher to the Duke. Bliicher's centre 
was pierced by the French cavalry, who took 16 pieces of cannon. 
The Frussians are retiring — so must we." 

**BrumU, HA June, 1815, 11 p.m. 

'^ Just arrived from the frt)nt, jaded and dirty, and goin^ to 
bed. I wrote this morning from Quatre Bras, just to say I am 
safe and well ; to morrow i shall start before day-break. Adieu I" 

'' ISA June, Z A. u. 

** Quite refreshed aftier a comfortable night's rest The British 
a^air of yesterday was merelj the common skirmishing which na> 
turally tekes place on retirmg in the face of the enemy. The 
French behave very well, and push us as much as they can. Our 
Horse Artillery yesterday were of much use. There were some 
trifling charges of cavalry on the chauss^, but nothing happened of 
any consequence. We retired to a position previously selected, 
and we shall now make a stand. Our right is toward Braine-lar 
Lend, our left toward Limalle. Head-quarters at Waterloo ; and 
Genappe (in the enemy's possession) in our front In this position, 
the forest of Soignies you will observe to be in our rear — four 

Svis run through it The wood is open, and practicable for in- 
itrv or cavalry. The trees are high, tibe roads and the whole 
wood very dark ; and, except in the paved part of the road, the 
rest is very deep When I came this way last night, it was crowded 

* Vide anecdote conuDmucated by Fteach officers, p. 318. 


and choked with carriages of every kind, many of them oTC^ 
tamed. People get alanned and confosed, and lose their senseB, 
and all about nothing. Of Blticher's army I know nothing certun, 
except that he was to retire on Wavre, and I have no cumbt bat 
our two armies are in perfect communication and well placed : onr 
retiring at all was merely because Bliicher had lost ground in die 
aiair of the dav before yesterday ; in which, as I stated yest^nlaj, 
he is said to nave lost 14,000 men killed and wounded, and 16 
pieces of artilleiy. The enemy seems to have perced his oraitre 
just about dusk, and to have taken all his reserve ammunition. 
These things will happen, and there will be jumblings just at first; 
but all wilTbe very well The enemy, taught by uie day befiire, 
were very shy of attacking us yestercuiy. 

** Lloyd's two guns, which were oiBabled on the 16th, were 
soon after again ready for action, and with the other jguns of the 
brigade assisted yesterday in covering the retreat We left the 
enemy nothing but our killed -^our wounded we brought off on 
cavalry horses, except such as could not be found in the standing 
com. Poor fellowsJ in these scenes, not in the actual rencxmtre,. 
are seen the miseries of war. I saw Henry Macleod last night, 
free from fever and pain, and doing welL lie has three pike-stabs 
in the side, a graze in the head, and contusion in the should^. 
Poor Cameron, I hear, is dead ; but I am unwilling to believe it 
In all these strange scenes my mind is at home, but is tranquil and 
composed* All will be very welL God bless you.** 

'' Waterloo, i past 9 A«|L ISth June. 

*^ All quiet on both sides — all getting into order. Ammunition 
on ours, and undoubtedly on the enemy's, coming up. The road 
from Brussels through the wood cleared. Findmg it blocked up 
last night, .... begged . . . . , who was coming up, to report 
to De JLancey the necessily of the road being cleared. In conse- 
quence, baggage has been removed, and the waggons which had 
broken down nave been burned by Qeneral Lamrort's brigade f 4 
battalions of infantry, and 6 Hanoverian field-pieces) from Ghent, 
which wanted friel to cook their rations. Blticher's head-quarters 
are at Wavre, and our left division (the 3d) in ftdl communication 
with us. The Russians will reach Metz in six days: so says 
General Pozzo di Borgo,* the Russian general officer with the 
Duke. The Austrians are expected to be at Metz at the same 
time. Admitdng this, Buonaparte cannot afford to remain long 
in our front : he must take care that the Russians and Austrians 
do not get into his rear. I expect that we shall have some can-r 
nonading this afternoon. Adieu for the present^ 

^ Vide this officer'tt excellent account of the battle. — Editor, 


" Waterlooy 11 P. M. ISih June. 

*^ How shall I describe the scenes through which I have passed 

since morning I I am so tired that I can hardly hold my pen. 

W^e have gained a glorious victory* and against Napoleon hunself. 

I know not yet the amount of kiUed* wounded, or prisoners ; but 

all must be great Never was there a more bloody affair — never 

so hot a fire. Buonaparte put in practice every device of war : he 

tried us with artillery, with cavalry, and last of all with iilfantry. 

The efforts of each were gigantic ; but the admirable talents of our 

Duke, seconded by such troops as he commands, baffled evcary 

attempt For some hours the action was chiefly of Artillery. We 

had 114 British and some 16 Belgic guns, six and nine pounders. 

The enemy near 300, eight and twelve pounders. Never were 

guns better served on both aides. After seven hours' cannonading, 

uie French cavaLy made some of the boldest charges I ever saw ; 

they bounded the whole ext^it of our Une, which was thrown into 

squares. Never did cavalry behave so nobly, or was received by 

imantry so firmly. Our guns were taken and retaken repeatedly. 

They were in masses, especially the Horse ArtQlery. Failing m 

his repeated efforts of cannonading and movements of cavwy. 

Napoleon at length pierced the left of our centre with the infantry 

of me Imperial Guard. The contest was severe, beyond what I 

have ever seen, or could have fancied. [HerefoUowa a long list of 

officers kiUed and toounded^ friends^ apparently^ of the corresponding 

parties, from the manner in which they are mentioned.! 

** Several of the troons of Horse Artillery are almost without 
officers, and almost all ue guns were repeatedly in the enemy's 
hands : the officers and men retiring from them on the near ap- 
proach of the enemy's cavaby, to shdter themselves in our squares 
of m&ntiy, and resuming tneir posts and guns the moment the 
cavalry were repulsed.* I have escaped very welL In a mo- 
mentary lull of ue fire, the men of poor Ramsay'sf troop dug a 

* The Editor is infonned, that it is part of the regular drill of the Horse Artil- 
leiy (as if in yiew to snch events as are here descrihed) to dismount their gtms, take 
off a wheel, or all the wheels, and leave and scatter them ahont, so as to render 
them useless to an enemy, the men retiring each with an allotted portable article 
essential to their utility. On a given signal by bugle, each man instantly rushes 
to his assigned post and part, and the gun is remounted and fired, in less time 
than it has required to write, or peihaps to read this note. On some occasions, in 
anticipation of an abandonment of position, the gun itself is moved off by the men 
without the carriage, the latter bmng supposed to be disabled ; or, supposing a 
wheel to be disabled, or any other part of the gun, such part is replaced at 5ie 
drill, from the spare stores in reserve, with a rapidity and facility not easily ima- 
gined by those who have not witnessed it Thus all the contingent casualties 
of actual service, such as those which called for this note, are anticipated at drill, 
and when th^ really oocur scarcely interrupt the executive operation of the 

f This lamented officer commanded a troop of Horse Artillery ; he fell covered 
with wounds, at the moment when nearly all the officers of his troop were hit by 
mounted riflemen, idio advanced behind the Cuirassiers. Captain E. held a like 

170 Biinu OF wAimxxi. 

Eave, and buried his wann bodj in the spot where it fell, and 
fore their tears were dried, were recaUed to a renewal of the 
struggle. AU with me now is a confused recollection of scenes 
that seem still present : — the noise, the groans of the djii^ and 
all the horrid realities of the field, seem yet before me. m this 
very honse are poor • • . ., 1^ shot off, out not jet amputated ; 

• • . • shot through the lungs, .... and • • • • and . . . . ; 
&C. &C. &C., are wounded; . • • • of ours, and • • . . and 

• • • ., &C. &C. &C., are killecL So many are killed and wounded, 
that I scarcely dare attempt to name them* What a strange letter 
is this ! what a strange day has occasioned iti To-day is Sunday. 
How often have I observed that battles are fought on Sandap ! 
Alas I what three days have I passed I What days of glory — 
^et what days of misery to thousands ! The field of battle tonlaT 
IS strewed with dead. But let me turn awhile firom scenes so 
distressing, even in description, and lay me down with a grateful 
sense of mercies Touchsafed* I might have got a decoration for 
yon ; but the officer of the Imperial Guard who wore it, and who 
offered it as a prisoner, looked so wishfully at the reward of many 
a gallant day, that I could not think of taking it I made an 
acquaintance in the field with a French lieutenant-colonel^ poor 
fellow, badly wounded and prisoner. How misery makes friends 
of all I Acueu. I will sena you a more correct account of the 
battle when able." 

^NiveOuy 20e& JtmBy 1815. 

*' AJl welL The victory was more complete than we at first 
imagined. I will give you, in this letter, some account of the 
fruits of this sanguinary contest of the day before yesterday, but I 
cannot yet give a corrected account of we struggle. I wrote a 
few lines after tlie close of the day, and hope my letter was re- 
ceived before the public reports of the battle. I would &in write 

to ... . and . . • ., but am interrupted In trudi, 

now that the stem feeling of the day have given way to the return 
of better, I think, with a bitterness of anguish not to be described, 

on the loss of my friend And not ofthis friend alone, 

but of many others, though less dear than poor .... De Lancej 
is said to be dead. This is our greatest loss ; none can be greater, 
public or private. 

^* The troops are moving ; the Duke is still at Brussels. Orders 
are justcomeror .... and • • • • The Duke's/orto is in pursuit 

oommaad in the PeninBular war. It is no disparagement to any offioer who 
acted in either of these brilliant campaigns to say, Uiat his Mfuesl^ had not a 
more zealous offioer in the field. His Boyal Highness the Prince Begent, vith 
feelings and liberality that must endear him to all hearts, caused the most consol- 
atory communications to be conveyed firom himself to the afflicted parent and 
relatiTes of this excellent soldier and man, together with a handsome proriaioD 
for several who looked more immediately to him for support.— i?ditor. 


of the beaten enemy. Where, indeed, and what is not his fcrU t 
Cold and indifferent — nay, appar^itly careless in the beginning of 
battles — when the moment oi difficmty comes, intelligence flashes 
froni the eyes of this w<xiderfal man, and he rises superior to aU 
that can be imagined. The following is a list of some of our 
trophies : — 

'' Taken at Waterloo, I8ih June, 1815. 

12-poiinder guns. . . .85 12-poiinder waggons .74 

6 07 6-poimder do. . .71 

6-mch howitzdra . . . .18 Howitzer do. ... 00 

24-poiiiider do 17 

Total 195 

Total cannon 122 

Spare Gnn Carriaget, Forage waggons .... 20 

12-pomid6r 6 Waggons of Imperial Goard . 52 

Howitzer — 

fi-pounders . .8 Total 72 

20 Grand Total, 409. 

*• Adieu ! for the present" 

'^ Nivettes, 20th Jvme, 9 A.1L 

'* I leave off but to begin again, as moments of occupation and 
leisure require and allow. I have just sent to Brussels a letter for 
you, enclosing a rou^h sketch of our losses:* that is, of part; you 
shall have all when me returns arrive. There are several of our 
men's wives in your neighbourhood — happy will they be not to 
find their husbands' names in the £Atal list I find • • • . troop 
lost 90 horses ; but it behaved so well, so steadily, that it was 
gratifying to aU who witnessed it The English Horse Artillery 
did great execution. Their ordnance has been recently f changed 
a few days, and it is the opinion of some Artillery officers, that had 
the troops continued with light guns, the ^reat oay had been lost 
The earlier hours of the battle were chiefly affairs of artillery: 
but, kept down by the admirable and steady fire of our guns, me 
enemy's infantry could not come on en masse; and his cavalry, 
though bold, impetuous, and daring was forced to try the flanks, 
rather than the firont of our position.^ The steacuness of our 

« Begimental losses, perhaps. — EdUor. 

t The exchange from 6 to 9>poimderB and one hrigade of howitzers, was only 
made a few days before.— £4ilor. 

} No acoonnt jet pablished of the hatde, seen by the Editor, has mentioned in 
adequate tenns the effect of our aMilleiy at Waterioo : no Enalith account, at 
least The «fMfiiy feU ii, and in their manner of expressing themsehres, have 
passed the greatest compliment. A French aoconnt) given in onr preceding pages, 
says, ** The English artflleiy made drm^fiU havoc m onr ranks."— See p. 104. 
"The Imperial Guard made several charges, but was constantly repulsed, enuked 
fry a UffihU aiiUltrjf, thai each mwmlc aemed to mmlHplff. These invincible greiui- 


infantry, too, became confirmed by the comparative repose aff<ffdal 
by the fire of the artillery. NotwithntaiKting, had Napoleon sup- 
ported his first cavalry attacks on both flanks c^ masses of infimtry, 
ne had gained the day. His last attack^ which was so supported, 
we were aware of. An officer of the Imperial Coirassi^rs, whether 
a deserter or not we could not determine, apprised ns of this^ 
pointing to the side on which he said the attack would be made in 
a quarter of an hour. It was necessary to find the Duke, and 
• • • • reported the important information^ so that the necessaij 
dispositions were made. With aU these, this last strucele wis 
nearly fatal to our hopes. But our itifantry remaining mrm, not 
only recdving the cavalry in squares, but, on their retiring, dart- 
ing into line, and charging the Imperial Infimtry Grnards, and 
anin resuming their squares, the enemvwas forced to give waj. 
I liave seen nothing like this moment The sky lit^rall v daikened 
with smoke — the sun iust eoing down, and which, till then, had 
not for some hours broken urough the gloom of a dull day — tk 
indescribable shouts of thousands — ^it was impossible to disongaisk 
between friend and foe. Every man's arm was raised s^iinst 

dien beheld the grajpe-thU wnake dojf tkromok their ramka : ihey closed pitunptljr tn^ 
oooUy their shattered files."— P. 107 . ** Enonnoos masses d British infantiy, rap- 
ported by an immense eavalxy we had nothing to oppose to {/or <mr own W 
ulrtad^ met iU dettntctum),**m^Ib. This confirms the d««cripUoQ of our detttruedn 
fire ; but in all the accounts of the battle, firom the Jir$t to the iatt, the impcrtist 
effects of this rufht turn of war sppears to be forgotten. Baonapazte, on making 
his last effort at Waterioo, says a foreign aocoont, headed the advanoe, having oo 
other resource, of his forlorn hope ; ^ but when he arrived within 900 toiMS 
(1200 feet) firom three solid squares of Allied troops, which occupied a ridge vith 
formidable srtilleiy (and which ridge it was neoessaiy to cany), he suddmlj 
stopped under the broken ground of a sand-pit or ravine, and a little on one nde, 
out of the direction of the cannon 5a^."— See p. 117. Buoni^arte himseU; we thus 
see, was stopned by ^e fire of our artilleiy ; and the account referred to, I7 tf 
eye-witness, describes the formidable column as ** surprised and discooteoted,' 
when they found Buonaparte was not, as th^ expected, at their head. Tbey did 
not, however, slop, but pushed on ; and we shall see the result ** In propartioo 
as Uiey ranged up the eminence,** the account continues, '* end darted tomnxd on 
the squares which occupied its summit, the artiUery vomiied death upon Aem^ «»i 
hUied them in maseet." — See p. 117. In an account given by an office of the Nartb- 
umberland, of Napoleon's conversations on board that ship, he says, ** Bnonaptfta 
gives great credit to our infantiy and our artiUery.** —See p. L38. A Hanorerian 
account, first published in this work, says : '* The fire of the enemy's artiUeiy nor 
became brisker, end it was kept up on both sides with a vehemence such ss fev « 
the oldest soldiers, perhi^, ever witnessed.** The French official account says-' 
** For three hours numerous chsrges were made, which enabled us to peoatntt 
several squares, and to take six standsrds of the light infantry ; an advantige oot 
of proportion with the loss which our cavaliy experienced by Uie grape-shot aw 
musket-firing." Again : ^ As the Cuirassiers suffered from the grape-sboi, «« 
sent four battalions of the middle guard to protect the Cuirassiers, keep the po^' 
tion, and, if possible, draw back into the plain a part of our cavalry." ** At hm- 
past one o*clook, the four battalions of the middle guard, who had been sent iojoe 
ridge to support the Cuirassiers, being greatly annoyed by the grspe-shotf eodea^ 
voured to cany the batteries with the bayonet** Thus we see that the sitiUfT 
continued till the veiy dose of the action, as at the beginning, its deetrae^ 
effects. In p. 152 the following passage occurs : ^ The two l»igades of ArtiU^ 
belonging to General Cooke's division had taken up a position on the lidge of tfl« 


that of every other* Suddenlj^ after the mingled mass had ehhed 
and flowed, the enemy began to give way, and dieering and Ekiglish 
huzzas announced that the day must be ours. 

'^ Are you not tired of battles? — sick of the sanguinary de- 
scription ? — What must have been the reality ? The Duke hunself 
Qsia, in tiie evening, that he had never seen such a battle, and 
hoped he never should again* To this hope we will all say. Amen. 

^^ Before the affiur be^an, the Duke hail a copy of a report from 
• • . • of • . . , wno was on piquet at St Lambert, that 
Bulow with 25,000 Prussians were arrived at Ohain, three quarters 
of a league from hispost; — that Bulow had sent an officer to say 
so, and wished the Duke to be acquainted with it Meeting Sir 
Thomas Picton, I communicated it to him* He told me the line 
was ordered under arms, and that we were to be attacked. 
Passing Sir Thomas, and riding to the left of the position, whither 
I understood the Duke to have gone, the enemy's Lancers were 
observed gaily stretching to their right ; and the heads of their 
infantry columns were just appearing* This was about 10 A.1C 
Sir Thomas Picton, with whose division we were also, came to the 

hill, in front of the line of infantry, and the moment the enemy made his appear- 
ance, our nine-pounders opened upon his columns. The Artilleiy officers had got 
the range so accurately, that almost erery shot and shell fell in &e very centre of 
his masses. So great was the effect produced by these few guns, that aU Jerome's 
bravely could not make his fellows advance. This was the commencement of the 
action." Again : '* The Artilleiy on both sides was well served ; but Buonaparte 
had upwards of 250 pieces in the field. Notwithstanding our inferiority in this 
arm, which was still more apparent from the size of the enemy's guns (being 
12-pounders, ours only and 6), than from their numbers, ours were so weU 
fought, that I believe it is allowed by all they did equal execution." — P. 104. 
Again. Describing Buonaparte's last effort at half-past seven o'clock, when '* he 
gave orders to form the last column of attack, formed principally of the Guard, 
which had hitherto suffered but little, he gave directions for the whole of the 
line to second this effort, upon which he said the victory depended ; and, placing 
himself at their head, they advanced in double-quick tmie. These veteran war- 
riors, so long esteemed the first troops in Europe, advanced across the plain, 
which divided the two armies, with a &inness which nothing could exceed ; and 
though our grape and canister made dreadftil havoc in their ranks, they were 
never disconcerted.** — P. 1 95. See, also, the account of Captains Bolton and Napier's 
brigade of foot artillery, from which it appears the Artillery had turned the enemy 
previous to the advance of the Guards. — P. 176. The French displayed the greatest 
rage and ftuy ; ** they cursed the English while they were fightmg, and cursed the 
precision wiUi which the English grape-shot was fired, 'which,' said the man, 
* was neither too high nor too low, but struck right in the midcUe.' "—P. 207. Many 
other testimonials might be added to these of the excellent practice made by our 
artillery in this short campaign, shortened, probably, thereby. A statement of the 
loss bttfore us ^ves 82 officers, SQO men killed and wounded, and 529 horses 
kUled of the Artilleiy, in the actions of t^ 16th and 18th. This statement may 
be relied on. And it may serve to mark the comparative severity of this short 
campaign when we state, that the total field casualties of the corps of Artillery in 
the whole Peninsular worfare^ wherein their zeal and execution have been highly 
and justly praised, did not half equid this amount. We may further be allowed 
to remark, thbugh, perhaps, irrelevant, that in Ihe whole of the campaigns of 
Portngid, Spain, the Pyrenees, and their vicinity, we did not lose a single gun. In 
one action, some of the field-pieces fell into the enemy's hands for a whUe, but 
were retaken.— ffifi^or. 


gpot, and whilst speakinff to our party, rode up to a Bdgic bat- 
talion to correct flometmng giving way. He has since &Uen. 
Not finding the Duke, we rode toward the centre, where we found 
him. On telling • • • . what we had learned, he said his Grace 
was aware of it. 

** His Grace had determined not to lose a wood* 300 yaids in 
firont of that part of the line that ¥nis in reality the weakest This 
wood is close to where the extension of our line touched Aejxnt 
leading fiom Nivelles to Waterloa From this pave there is an 
avoiae of 200 yards, leading to (Hie large and two smaller houses 
enclosed, together with a large carden, within a walL Beycmd 
the wall, ana embracing the whole front of the buildings, and an 
orchard, and perhaps idtogether three or four acres, is the thick 
wood To the right, as yiewed from our position, die wood was 
high; to the left, less high; and toward omr position, thick, bat low. 

'^ Whilst looking about, it was again remarked, that the weak 
point of our line was on our right; and it was imagined that the 
enemy, "lAlring a demonstration on our left, would forcibly seize 
the wood, and mterposinff between us and Braine-larLeud, endea- 
your to turn the right mmk of our second lin& To prevent this, 
the Howitzer troop (Major Bull's) was ordered up, and came in 
yery handsome style. By this time, the enemy had forced a Belgic 
battalion out of the orchwi to the left of the wood, and there was 
a hot fire on a battalion (or four companies, I forget which) of the 
Guards stationed in the buildings, ana behind the walled garden. 

*' The imposii^ approach of the Howitzer troop encouraged 
the remainder of the division of the Guards, who were lying down 
to be sheltered from the fire. The Duke, observing what was in- 
tended, made some remarks upon the delicacy of the service, as it 
r^arded the correctness of the howitzers, part of the wood being 
held by our troops, and part by the enemy ; his Grrace explaining 
at the same time in the clearest and most calm manner the situation 
of afiairs. The Duke being satisfied that every dependence might 
be placed upon the men and guns, orders were given, the troop 
commenced its fire, and in ten minutes the enemy were driven 
frt)m the wood. Major Ramsay's and Captain Mercer's troops of 
Horse Artillery were now ordered to the right of Sir H»n:y Clin- 
ton's division, in the second line, and Captain Webber Smith's 
troop fired down the pav6 leading fix)m Nivelles to Waterloa By 
this time the enemy, stretching to his left, showed some squadrons 
of Lancers and Cuirassiers towacds our ri^ht There were several 
undulations and one hollow road, by which he might advance 
rapidly to the attack ; and we remained some time, expecting to 
observe some indication of his approach: but the. enemy not 

* It is repoited that Lord Uxbridge, wfaen askiiig the Duke for the material 
points of his operation should any accident arise, received for reply, " Keep 
Hougomont." — Editor, 


pressing part of the 5l8t Light Battalion was pushed on beyond 
where the road in jour map leads from the j>at?e to Braine-larLend* 
^' The action becoming more general, the fire hotter, and nothing 
pressing particularly on our ri^t wing, we returned to the first 
line. Kunsay's troop was ordered to the centre of the second line, 
whither also it became necessary, at one time, to send Bull's troop 
to refit and repair carriages. The wood, from the front of which it 
went, was taken and retaken three times. At a quarter before three 
the large building burst out in a volume of fiame, and formed a 
striking feature in the murderous scena Imagining that this fire 
might ohlige our troops to quit a post most material, and that it 
would have an effect, and probably a great one, on the results of 
the day^ I remarked the time by my watcL The Guards, how- 
ever, held the post, and maintained tnemselyes in the lesser build- 
ing, firom which the enemy could not dislodge them. To our 
ri^t of the burning buildings, a troop of Horse Artillery, galled 
by the superior fire of the enemy's artillery, could not keep its 
ground. But the post being essential, it was ordered up agam at 
all hazards; and its loss was not so great as might have been 
reasonably expected. True is the observation, thiot boldness is 
generally safety* 

<< By this time the in£uitry were entirely formed into squares ; 
the cavahy generally in solid columns; the crest of our position 
crowned witn artillery. It was now that the French cavalry, 
advancing with an unparalleled intrepidity, attacked at once the 
right ana centre of our position, their advance protected by a can- 
nonade more violent than ever. Behind the crest of the position, 
the ground declined gradually to the easy valley in which the pav4 
runs ; by an equally gentle swell, the ground rose beyond the pavS 
to the position of the second line, perbtps a quarter of a mile nrom 
the first, but receding more toward the left. This declination of 
ground was most favourable to the infimtry, who, under a tre- 
mendous cannonade, were thus in a great measure sheltered, by 
their lying down by order. On the approach,— the majestic ap- 
proach, — of the French column, the squares rose, and with a 
steadiness almost inconceivable, awaited, without firing, the rush of 
the cavalry; who, after making some fruitless efforts, sweeping the 
whole artillery of the line, and receiving the fire of the squares as 
they passed, retired, followed by, and pell-mell with, our own 
cavabiy, who, formed behind our squares, advanced on the first 
appearance (which was unexpected) of the enemy's squadrons. 
The enemy rushed down the nill, forming again under its shelter, 
and in a great measure covered from the fire of our guns, which 
by recoiling had retired so as to lose their origiaal and nrst position. 
But in a deep stiff soil the fatigue of the artillerymen was great, 
and their best exertions were unable to remove the guns again to 
the crest without horses, and to employ the horses was certain loss 


of the ttiimalfl. The repeated charges of tlie enemy's noUecaTiliT 
were similar to the first — each was firaitless ; not an m£uitrTiitts 
moTed; and on each charge, abandoning their gnns» our ardl- 
lerymen sheltered themselyes between the flanks of thear squares. 
Twice, however, the enemy tried to charge in finont; these attempts 
were entirely firnstrated by the fire of our gons, wisely reserrBJ 
till the hostile squadrons were within twenty yards of tlie mnzxks. 
In this the cool and a uiet steadiness of the troops of Horse Artil- 
lery was very creditaole. The obstinacy of these attacks made 
our situation critical; though never forced, our ranks were be- 
coming thin. The second Ime was therefore chiefly ordered acros 
the vidley, and formed in masses behind the first; the boroken 
intervals of which, where necessary, it filled up. Some time 
before this the Duke ordered up all the reserve Horse Ardllerv, 
which at that time were but two troops (Bull's and MercerV); 
they advanced with an alacrity and rapidity most admirable 

'' The brigades behaved admirably, and were of most essential 
service. Rogers's was Mrith Picton's division, near La Have Sainte ; 
Sandham's near the centre of the line; Lloyd's on the left of the 
right centre, a little to the left of the wood of Houcomont, where 
they maintained a tremendous fire throughout the whole of the day. 
Lloyd was mortally wounded towards the dose of the acticMi, while 

S'vmg directions to Lieutenants Wells and Phelps, commandiog 
e two only mms of his brigade remaining at that pericxl service- 
able, and wmch were drawn immediately in front of Greneral 
Byng's squiiure of Ghiards, and fired with very great efiect on the 
Cuirassiers and Lancers, when they repeatedly charged and paired 
from them.* 

** The Artillery fired on the 18th, 200 rounds a-gun. 

'^Capt Bolton's brigade of nine-pounders, afterwards CapL 
Napier's, were importantly posted in the operations of the IStL 
In the early part dP the day this brigade, when in position on an 
extreme height which was thrown back, two batteries of eight- 
pounders and heavy howitzers were brought to bear on two guns 
which were detached from the brigade, under Capt N^er, for 
the purpose of flanking the wood of Hougomont, to prevent the 
enempr nrom attacking the right side of the same. The heavy loss 
sustamed by these guns inmiced the General to order the other 
guns of the brigade to assist them, together with Lieut.-coL Webber 
Smith's troop of Horse Artillery and Major Sympher's, which 
opened such a fire of Shrapnell shells and round shot on than, 
that in less than a quarter of an hour they had not a gun to bear 
on us, and a great number of the enemy with the cannon were 

* Paitieolarly noticed by & Gnards' officer in his letter, date Bavay, June 21, 
1819. Vide p. S6. 


"This brigade, about the close of the day, was stationed on 
the right of our Guards, commanded by Capt Napier after Capt 
Bolton's fall, when the Imperial Guards, led on by Marshal Ney, 
about half-past seven o'clock, made their appearance from a corn- 
field, in close columns of grand divisions, nearly opposite, and within 
a distance of fifty yards from the muzzles of the guns.* Orders 
were given to load with canister-shot, and litersSy five rounds 
from each gun were fired with this destructive species of shot 
before they ^owed the least symptom of giving way. At the 29th 
round their left gave way, and they were then attacked by the 
Guards, who were at this period lying down in line, when they 
made a most gallant charge with the 95th and 2d Division, and 
13th Light Dragoons, which decided the fate of that glorious day, 
by forcing them to fall back. Previous to this attack the Duke 
came up to the brigade, and asked ^ What they were firing at ?' 
One of the officers (Lieut Sharpin) told his Grace, ^ At a French 
column approaching.' He then asked Lieut S. ' Who ordered the 
guns there ?' His Grace was answered, * Captain N.' This reply 
was scarcely finished when the Duke, who discovered the French 
column in the com, said, ^Look out' His Grace immediately 
ordered the Guards to rise ; and he stationed himself on the left 
of the guns close to their right, and was very intent watching the 
Prassians through his glass, until the enemy gave way. Unfortu- 
nately, Capt Napier, after the day was won, received eight wounds ; 
his thigh frtu;tured in two places, and right hand disabled. His 
wounds were received while in the act of stopping a brigade of 
Grerman artillery from endangering the lives of our brave country- 
men who were mixed with the enemy." 


" It were tiresome to describe further. Somewhere or other 
I have already mentioned the concluding struggle of the gigantic 
contest The horror of the scene strikes me now — at the moment 
its magnificence alone filled my mind. Several times were critical ; 
but confidence in the Duke, I have no doubt, animated every 
breast His Grrace exposed his person, not unnecessarily, but 
nobly; — without his personal exertions, his continual presence 
wherever and whenever more than usual exertions were required, 
the day had been lost ^ Twice have I saved this day by perse- 
verance,' said his Grace before the last great struggle, and said so 
most justly. 

"Another saying that evening to Lord Fitzroy Somerset, 

* Vide X for the position in the map of the field of Waterloo on the scale of 
five inches to a mile, drawn by Mr. Crann, engineer to the King of the Nether- 
lands, who, in speaking of this brigade, states, '* it did great execution.** 

t In Older to excuse himself from the charge of unnecessary repetition, the 
Editor begs to observe that the lines between the rules are from another source, 
which if he were to curtail would lessen the interest 



deserves to be recorded, — '^ I have never fooght such a batde, ai! 
I trust I shall never fight such another./ This was after the daj 
was our own. 

** The Life Ghiards made some good chaiges* and overset the 
Cuirassiers, searching with the cook^ of experienced soldiers the 
unprotected parts of their opponents, and stabbing where the opo- 
ings of the cuirass would aomit the points of their swords. Tbe 
Rocket troop, under Major Whinyates, was two hnndred Taiu5 
more to the left of this post, and has suffered severely ; it had ali<> 
to wield the lights <»rdnance. The rockets were used, aud ven? 
useful ; circumstances, however, did not arise to afford numj 
opportunities of applying thenu The Duke never was moie u* 
the left than the intersection of our centre by the pav^y whicli was 
in a ravine, and close by a large building (ua, Haye Sainte) occu- 
pied alternately by friend and foe, and a pomt more than commooir 

** The Belgic troops, though they yielded, yet returned to tb^ 
posts. One corps of them, probably stragglers finom all, gallopAi 
all the way to Brussels, spreading terror and dismay^ breal^ 
open and plundering our spare carnages and store-waggcms, which 
£rom prudence were sent to the rear. 

'^ I may seem to have forgotten the Prussians in this bottle. I 
saw none ; but I believe that to our left they really did advaoce; 
and the knowledge of their position might certainly have indiic^ 
Napoleon to withdraw when his efforts against us wore unavailifig- 
We expected their oo-operation early in the day, and earnesdv 
looked for it ; but it was not visible from any point wh^re the 
Duke was till dusk, when we had swept the eiaemy from the fisin 
in our front 

" Equipments of all kinds are collecting. I have had, you see, 
some leisure to-day. To-morrow must bring its occupatioB witn 
it — and soon, how soon I will all that the day before vesterdaf 
presented be forgotten, unless arrested while yet fresh in tw 
recollection. Might not one wish that it was forgotten ? — that the 
bitter pangs whicn recollection cannot but cause in so msnj hearts 
imahioe spared ? or may we say, with the poet of an action less 
bruliant than the one just gained, — 

" Weep fondly, bat exnltiiig weep ? * 

" 8 A.M. 22d JuTiBy Traismere sur Fl^ 

" Near Malplaquet, which I reached last night at twelve, h&^ 
ridden from Nivelles, by the scene of the 18th to Gfenappe, back to 
Waterloo, ^ain to Nivelles, and hither by Binch ; to-oay f^ ^ 
moving on Gateau (by CambrayV the scene of a glprioos ^^^ 
1794. . . . / . We have passed the frontiers, and shall soon be 
nearer to Pi^ris than to Brussels. 

' v^ 

• » * 





** On the evening of the 20th, the Duke desired that the cap- 
tured guns might be parked ; several axtQlery-officers volunteered 
to collect them during the night It was feared whilst our chief 
attention had, been paid to re-equipping our force, and sending 
forwajd everything necessary for the probable work in our front, 
that the Prussians had appropriated the trophies of our victory. 
The report of the proceedings of the officers on this service is very 
interesting. All the scattered artillerymen and horses were col- 
lected, and the party proceeded by Lillois toward the burnt house, 
and rode carefully over the ground of the action. Before they 
reached it they perceived the air tainted from the effluvia of the 
dead. It was a moonlight night, frequently dull, with repeated 
flashes of lightning. But few guns were found, though the field 
was carefully examined ; it was known, indeed, that most of them 
had been blocked up in the road leading to Genappe, having been 
merely thrown aside to clear the road. But supposing that many 
sufferers might be still living on the field, all the spare horse- 
artillerymen that were found at Lillois (whither all the broken parts 
of troops had been sent to refit), were taken to assist in this laoour 
of humanity. Full occupation was soon found for aH On every 
side poor fellows were seen dying and suffering, in every variety of 
wretchedness ; and it was necessary to enjoin strict silence in the 
searching party, that the scarcely audible groans of some of the 
sufferers might not escape notice. Before morning several wag- 
gon-loads of these brave fellows were collected. It is scarcely 
necessary to add, that no one then knew anv distinction of friend 
and foe. When all was done on this point, tne search for the guns 
was resumed and extended ; but, except a few here and there, none 
were found in places where they were known to have been in 
abundance the ni^ht before, and the party began to fear that the 
major part would altogether escape their search. At last, how- 
ever, near Genappe, they found 161 gnns, with some hundreds of 
ammunition and o^er carriages. Thet were r^ularly parked 
with Prussian sentries. With some diinculty the Prussian officer 
was foimd He was asleep under some straw, and evidently did 
not wish to be seen ; after bearing the errand of our party, and 
seeing the return of the guns taken by the British on the 18th, he 
readuy assented to their delivery, and they were accordingly 
drawn off and parked near Waterloo. 

^^ It was particularly remarked, that most of the sufferers thus 
rescued from their impending fate complained that they had been 
five days in misery and want Poor souls I-rthe action was on 
the ISflj, they were brought off before daylight on the 21st How 
misery prolongs time I — now rapidity of idea and occupation pro- 
loi^, too, its recollection 1 — It seems already an age since we were 
at Brussels — the day of the 18th seems an age ago." 


** 22d JunSf 6 P.1L Caleau, 
** The bells here are ringing merril y, and the white flag is dis^ 
played from the steeple. Nothing but ' Vive Ixnas XVIlItk,^ is 
neardy shouted with as much energy as ' Vive VEmpereur^ would 
have been, had he got to Brussels. I trust we shall march rapidlT 
on. I fully anticipate another battle ; but that our cause will pre- 
vaily I most confidently hope and believe : still we must neglect 
no precaution to insure it 


Eabl of Uxbbidge. 

The pre&ce to further details of the cavalry operations cannot 
be better commenced than by a short recapitulation of the share 
taken by that distinguished officer, the Earl of Uxbridge, in the 
operations of the army. 

On the 29th of May, 1815, the whole of the British Cavalry and 
Horse Artillery, together with the Rocket corps, were reviewed 
on an extensive plam, at Schendelbeke, a village between Ninove 
and Grramont, but nearest to the latter. The whole of the troops, 
amounting to about 8000 men, were formed on the ground in 
three lines, about half-past nine o'clock A.M. The Duke of Wel- 
lington arrived about half-past twelve, accompanied by Field- 
marshal Blucher, the Prince of Orange, the Duke de Berri, the 
Earl of IJxbridge, and a long list of distinguished foreigners. 
Some idea may oe formed of the extent of the lines, when it is 
stated that it occupied an hour and a half to ride along them. 
After the Duke of Wellington had performed this part of the 
duties of the day, and taken his station, the whole of the troo[» 
marched past in columns of half squadrons, at quarter distance; 
It was the finest sight that perhaps was ever seen in any country ; 
the crowd of spectators from all parts of the vicinity was immense, 
and there were several EInglish equipages from Brussels on the 
ground. The cavalry, which was commanded by the Earl of 
Uxbridge, chiimed particular notice. His Lordship's great exer- 
tions, and happy arrangements, had the efPect of giving a more 
than ordinary combination to t^e whole body ; ana his personal 
devotion upon all occasions of service inspired confidence and 
alacrity in every individual, which insured success in the hour of 
conflict The Duke of Wellington was pleased to express his ap- 
probation of the appearance of the troops in a general order on the 
loUowing day. After the review, the Earl of Uxbridge entertained 
the Duke of Wellington and his party with a most splendid dinner 
at Ninove, the cavalry head-quarters. Covers were laid fi>r one 


l[i\xndred persons, and none under the rank of field-officer were 
invited, unless belonging to the staff. 

On the opening of the campaign on the 16th of June, the 
cavalry had scarcelj reached the scene of action, being to be 
drawn from very distant cantonments. (Fife p. 61.) 

On the 17th, large bodies of the enemy's cavalry, brought 
from the right, press^ hard upon the retreat of the British ; but 
tlie £arl of Uxbridge, equally jalert with the Usurper, never suf- 
fered the squadrons of the latter to derange his movements for an 
instant ; and the enemy, in several exam^es, had good reason to 
regret the keenness of his pursuit, which he at length gave up, 
towards five o'clock in the evening. *'He displayed," says an 
eye-witness of his Lordship's conduct in the field on this occasion, 
'^ consummate valour, in the sight of the admiring men. As it 
was the greatest object at the moment to kindle the spirit of our 
troops, wnat could more effectually do this than the display, gal- 
lantry, and dash of their superior? This was the more important, 
as it is also a certain fact, that not having as yet made an essay 
on the Cuirassiers, they entertained the i(^ that all attack upon 
them was ineffectual."* At the entrance into Genappe, the £arl 
intrepidly led on the 1st Life Guards against the Lancers, and 
enabled the former fuUy to establish, then* superiority. The 2d 
Life Guards were about making a similar charge, when the enemy 
prudentlv retired. 

Much having been said respecting the first attack of the 
Hussars, it perhaps will afford the best explanation in giving Lord 
Uxbridge's Letter to his regiment : — 

** BruMeUy June 28, 1815. 
*• My dear Brother Officers, 
" It has been stated to me, that a report injurious to the repu- 
tation of our regiment has gone abroad ; and I do not, therefore, 
lose an instant in addressing you on the subject The report must 
take its origin firom the affiur that took place with the advanced 
guard of the French cavalry near Genappe, on the 17th instant, 
when I ordered the 7th to cover the retreat As I was with you, 
and saw the conduct of every individual, there is no one more 
capable of speaking to the fact than I am. As the Lancers pressed 
us hard, I ordered you (upon a principle I ever did, and shall act 
upon) not to wait to be attacked, but to fall upon them. The 
attack was most gallantly led by the officers ; but it failed : it 
failed, because the Lancers stooa firm, had their fianks secured, 
and were backed by a large mass of cavalry. The regiment was 
repulsed, but did not run away. No — it rallied immediately; I 
renewed the attack. It again failed firom the same cause. It re- 
tired in perfect order, although it had sustained so severe a loss ; 

* rUe Officer's Letter, 2d Life Guards, dated June 20, 1810, p. 49. 

IM siTtui or WATmax 

but you had thrown the Lancers into disorder, who, being id 
motion, I then made an attack upon with the Life Guards, irho 
certainly made a very handsome chai^, and oompletdy so(y 
ceedtxL This is the plain honest truth. However ligndy I thiidc 
of Lancers under oroinary circumstances, I am of opinicHi ttuu, 

fi>sted as they were, they had a most decided advanta^ over ib& 
[ussars. The impetuosity, however, and weight of the life 
Guards, carried ail before them. And while I exculpate my ovn 
repmcnt, I am delighted in being able to bear testinKxny to the 
gallant conduct of the former. 

'' Be not uneasy, my brother o£Bcers, you had ample oppoi^ 
tunity, of which you gallantly availed yourselves, of reveogii^ 
yourselves on the 18th for the failure on the 17th ; and atter all, 
what regiment, and which of us individuaUy, is certain of success? 
Be assured that I am proud of being your colonel, and that ycm 
possess my utmost conndence. 

** Your sincere friend, 
(Signed) *• Angleset, lAeut-general" 

On the the 18th, about noon,* upon an attack of our caitre 
by the enemy, *^ the Duke of Wellington led some battafaons of 
infantry, and Lord Uxbridge led the cavalry,*' when the life 
Guards received his Lordship's orders to charge the enemy; Bod 
it being their first charge, excepting the trivial affair in the retreat 
of the preceding day, every expectation was alive : — ^its result Tv-as 
glorious ! and his llfordship declared himself *' perfectly satisfied." 

At about half-past eleven, three heavy masses of the enem/s 
infantry advanced, supported by artillery and a nmnerous bodrof 
Cuirassiers. This formidable body drove in the Belgians, leaving 
the Highland brigade to receive the shock, and which, tfaougfa it 
had been weakened the preceding day, received them in line, and 
gave them a formidable check. " At this critical and awiul mo- 
ment, Lord Uxbridge galloped up to the 2d Heavy Brigade (Pon- 
sonby's), when the three regiments were wheeled up in the most 
masterly style, presenting a beautiful front of about thirteen hun- 
dred men ; and as his Lordship rode down the line, he was received 
by a general shout and cheer from the brigade. After having 
taken a short survey of the troops, and the threatening attitude of 
the enemy, his Lordship determined upon a charge, which, for the 
wonderful intrepidity of its execution, and its complete success, h^ 

rarely been equallea."t 

About seven o'clock, his Lordship, noticing the great pressure 
upon the infantry, at the time when it was necessary, from the 
slaughter committed by the enemy's fire, to take one or two remams 
of regiments to form a square, and when the heavy cavalry were 

* Account of General Pozzo di Borgo, the Rnssian General. 

t Vide Officer's account of Sir W. Ponsonby'B brigade, p. 1S4 fdUnriog* 




nxtcli reduced, ordered the two brigades commanded by Major- 
Tenerais Sir Ormsby Vandeleur and Sir Richard Hussey Vivian 
trom the left to the main point of attack. These troops being ii%sh 
axid entile, revived the spirits of the oppressed in£uitry ; and it was 
apoa this change of corps, removed so opportunely bv his Lordship, 
that the most important services were rendered, such as materially 
hastened the trirunfliant finctle. 

His Lordship had previously, at six o'clock, '^ led the household 
troops in some brilliant attacks, cutting in pieces some battalions of 
the Old Guards into whose masses they penetrated." * 

Upon the general advance of the une, and *^ after having sxjKr- 
cessfuily got through this arduous day, his Lordship received a. 
wound by almost the last shot fired," f in the joint q£ his right knee^ 
from the bad state of which it was found necessary to amputate the 
le^ just above the joint* hi contemplating this misfortone, incal- 
culable to the coimtiTy as it may rob her of his Lordship's ftiture 
services, it should still be reflected on with gratitude, that the aecir 
dent did not occur at an early period of the day, so as to have 
prevented the exertion of his active and animating efforts ; for 
(though it should be said without designing to take m>m the ffreat 
merits of the officers beneath him in command) it is bujt seMom 
that there can be in one and the same iadividaal so happy an 
unity of qualities fitted to form an officer of the highest preten- 
sions ; and probably, under similar circumstances, " it would be 
diffictdt to find another chief to lead the cavabry with the same 
courage and skilL'':( hi the Earl of Uxbridge were combined the 
possession of exalted rank and fortune in the country, an established 
character of the highest class as an officer, vigour of mind, great 
personal activity, and a dash and spirit proper to excite the admirar 
tion and emulation of all around him, and fix his well-earned repu- 
tation of being '^ the first cavalry officer in the world I" 

The materials of this work consisting of the communications, 

or extracts fi*om the correspondence, of officers who were actually 

on the field of battle, it becomes the Editor's duty not to pass over 

without remark those variations which may from time to time 

present themselves between the accounts here given and those 

which are to be met with in other books. In a popular and valuable 

publication of the day, § we find it is stated, in relation to the charge 

of the 2d Heavy Brigade on the 18th, that " Sir John Elley, 

Quarter-master-generd, requested and obtained permission to 

bring up that brigade, consisting of the Life Guards, Oxford Blues, 

and Scotch Greys, and made a charge, the effect of which was 

• Vidi Anslarian Accoant. t Duke of Wellingtoii's Dispatch. 

t Vuie Spanish Genena's Acoount i '< Paul's Letters to his Kinsfolk." 


treinendoas.'' In this instance, the great celebrity of the aothorii 
the Ri'ntence quoted may have the effect of perpetuatED^ aa emf . 
if not corrected, and it is to be lamented that such a writer shooM 
have been misinformed upon the subject, exceptiii^oinly as to the 
effect of the charge of the Heavy Brigade. Sir John EDej vas 
wounded early in the day: all the cavidry movemoits weie 
directed and led by Lord Uxbridge m person. It mav be 
allowed, perhaps, to add, from this example, with olhen vhkk 
might be adduced, that all hearsay accounts of the memorilJe 
battle of Waterloo ought to be cautiously received ; many erro!^ 
being unintentionally committed, from the want of ocular infinntt- 
tion;"* while, as above remarked, the resources of the peseot 
volume consist in the actual recitals of gentlemen who saw the coh 
flict, and who describe what fell under their observation. 

We now proceed to offer further particulars in detafl </ ofor 
Cavalry operations. For the movement of the 1st, or what i? 
generally termed the Household Bri^uie, the reader is referred to 
Uie letter of an officer of the 2d Life Guards, p. 49. 

Major^eneral Sir WilUam Ponsanbt^s Brigade of Cavahy, 
consisting of Isty 2(2, and 6th Dragoons, 

(bt an officer m the brioadb.) 

The conspicuous feature which the 2d Heavy Br^ade or 
Cavalry formed in the operations of the memorable day ofWaterloo, 
with the esteem and regret that we feel for its gallant leader, Sir 
William Ponsonby, cannot fail in giving an interest to every pffth 
cular that can be gathered as to the considerable share they took 
in the glory of that day. The brigade consisted of the Ist, or 
Royals, which, from its long services in Spain, was the weakest of 
the three in point of numbers; the 2d, or Scotch Greys; anfl 
the 6th, or Lmiskillin^ This brigade was formed in position the 
night before, in a wet oarley-field on the left of the line, in the rear 
of the Highland brigade and a corps of Belgic troops. 

On the morning of the 18th, the brigade was formed into a dose 
column of half sqt^drons, a little in advance of the field they occu- 
pied the preceding night, in order to be in momentary readiness, 
as also to relieve the men and horses from the de^ swamp ^^^ 
the incessant raining the night before had occasioned : the brigade 
remained in that position dismounted. 

♦ A« we have mentioned one error, it will be the best opportunity to t&o^ 
respecting the infantry movements, that the 92d Regiment never had their 
colonrs seized by a French mounted officer, but attempted ; the French were 
entirely beat and driven off the ground ; and in Simpson's account ^^J^f 
batae, respecting th6 82d, it should be that they wen on the right of tlie 79tii 
and 28th. 




N> ,» 




5 ^) 


About half-past eleven o'clock, three heavy masses of infantry, 
supported by artillery and a numerous body of Cuirassiera, were 
formed, and appearea to threaten the left of the British line* The 
Belgic light infantry were almost immediately driven in upon their 
support ; and as these heavy columns of infantry advanced, the 
greater part of the Belgic infantry, after a short opposition, rave 
way, ana, although in good order, retreated, leaving the Highland 
brigade, which was about four hundred yards in rront of me 2d 
Heavy Brirade of Cavalry, to evince a glorious and very different 
example. These fine fellows, although they had suffered so severely 
on the 16th, with the most undaunted courage received the enemy's 
columns in line, taking up their, line in rear of a cross'-road some- 
what protected by a small bank of earth, which formed a sort of 
hedge to the road, and with a most steady and well-directed fire 
presented a decided check to the enemy. 

At this critical and awftd moment* Lord Uxbridge galloped 
up ; the three regiments of cavalry were in the most masterly style 
iimeeled into line, and presented a most beautiftd front of about 
thirteen hundred men : as his Lordship rode down the line, he was 
received by a general shout and cheer from the brigade. Aft;er 
having taken a short survey of the force and threatening attitude 
of the enemy, and finding the Highland brigade, although still pre- 
senting an unbroken front, upon the point of bein^ on both sides 
outflamced by an immense superiority of numbers, his Lordship de- 
termined upon a charge, which, for uie wonderful intrepidity of its 
execution, and its complete success, has rarely been eaualled, and 
certainly never surpassed. The Royals appeared to take the lead, 
while the Greys preserved a beautiml line at speed, more to the 
left, over the cross-road, near which spot their brave chief. Colonel 
Hamilton, fell, together with his horse, pierced with wounds.t 
After considerable resistance, the eagle of the 45th Regiment was 
seized by a serjeant of the Grreys, of the name of Ewart,J a man of 
most gigantic stature, whose right ann well did its duty on that 
day. The Royals on the right appeared not to be outdone by the 
Greys, and amidst the loud and hearty cheers of the Highlanders, 
two squadrons under Lieut-col. Clift»n and Major Dorvule rushed 
into the second column of the enemy, consisting of about 4000 
men, which had kept in reserve, when, after the most desperate 
individual exertion, the eagle of the 105th Regiment was seized 
by a Serjeant of the name of Styles. The best part of this column 
threw down their arms, and were immediately swept off to the rear 

* A subject to one of the etchings, by Capt. Jones, to illustrate this Work. 

f Lieut.-col. Clarke, who succeeded to the command of the regiment, was 
afterwards severely wounded, and had four horses shot under him. 

{ Viile his letter stating Uie particulars of the conflict to obtain this, in p. 17 
of this Work, and which is introduced towards the bAck-ground, in the etching of 
the charge of Ponsonby's brigade. 

186 batuji Of WAZisiioa 

by the Iimiskilliii^ The greater part €( the Rojab fell in this 
attack. This division of the enemy consisted of upwards of 9000 
men, under Count d^Erlon. Independently of 3000 prisoners^ the 
few that escaped firom the rude grasp of this heavy brigade 
formed themselves under cover of their Cuirassiers, and hardly 
amounted to a thousand men : which loss taking place so early in 
the day, most materially cramped the operations of the enemy on 
the left of the British line. 

This terrible carnage of iniantry and cavalry, where almost 
everything was left to mdividual courage, and where every officer 
and man exerted every nerve to deserve well of his country, 
lasted about three-quarters of an . hour ; and after the comjrfete 
destruction of this formidable mass of infantry, every endeavour 
was made to collect the fortunate remains of the brigade, under 
cover of a small wood to the left, which was speedily eflfected. 
If anything could have damped the ardour of the officers and 
men after Uiey were collected, it was to find that thdbr gallant 
leader, to whom so much of the success was due, was no more ! 
Sir William, just before the charge, had mounted a fresh horse : 
after heading the brigade with the most conspicuous valour, and 
having cut tnrough the first column, he passed on to where Major 
Dorvule was so thickly engaged ; he here found himself outflanked 
by a regiment of Polish Lancers, who had come forward to the 
support of the infantry : finding his fate inevitable, he rushed upon 
the enemy's infantry to endeavour to join the Royals, and tell, 
together with his horse, pierced with wounds. iThns died Sir 
William Ponsonby ! Perhaps no cavalry officer ever fell so per- 
sonally beloved as himself. His services in Spain had brought 
him into the notice of every individual in the army ; and it is 
impossible to say which is the most deserving of admiration, whether 
his character as an individual or as a soldier. The officers of his 
own regiment, the 5th Dragoon Guards, upon the news of his 
death, immediately put on mouming; and as soon as the perish- 
able remains of this exceUent man had been brought to Ei^land, 
evenr officer that could be permitted attended them to the grave.* 

The command of the teigade, aft«r Sir W. Ponsonby's fall, de- 
volved upon CoL Muter of the Inniskillings ; upon his being 
wounded, the command was taken by Lieut-coL Clifton of the 
Roysris— the command of this regiment, such as remained^ was 
with Major Dorville. 

From the testimony of La Coste, it appears that the appear- 
ance and conduct of the Greys was a subject of Buonaparte's 

* The death of this officer is made the subject of a very spirited etching, 
drawn hy Captain Jones. 


^Elxtract of a Letter from Serjeant CriMey of the \8t DragoonSi 
forming part of tlie preceding Brigade. 

Nanterre, 24iih of July ^ 1815. 

The action fought on the 18th of Jane, at Waterloo, was 
dreadful, and difficmt to gain, I can assure you, although we 
made a complete victory of it, with hard fighting, by the aouble 
courage of our British heroes. The British CavSiy exerted and 
displayed themselves gallantly. Our brigade was the first that 
charged, and great havoc we made: broke their lines and 
columns : took two stands of colours, two eagles, and made them 
fly before us a mile or more : but the loss of the brigade wa^ 
severe. Tet it surprised me that so many escaped as did, for their 
guns and small arms were playing upon us on every side, pouring 
like hail, and men falling, and horses, as thick as possible. Dear 
Tom, I came off pretty safe, my horse shot through the leg, and 
myself slightly wounded with a bayonet, but nothing to signify of 
any consequence; in short, there were but few escaped wounds or 
scars. The French had the better of the day about twelve o'clock 
at noon, when the Belgians turned their backs to them, and left 
the British infantry to the mercy of the world : and the French 
advanced upon that part of the line, and would have had posses- 
sion of it in a few minutes, had it not been for our brigade making 
a rapid charge, which took such effect, and repulsed them, and 
drove them to confusion, which lightened the hearts of our in- 
fantry, and encouraged them to rally together, which was of great 
service at that point The enemy kept up a continual firing, and 
the battle was equally as good upon their side as it was with us, 
till between seven and eight o'clock in the evening, when the 
victc^ turned glorious on our side — ^they began to retreat ; when 
the Irussians, with their brave Commander, Von Bliicher, was 
close after them, who never let them have any rest until they 
came to Paris. The day after the battle we buried our dead, and 
rested the following night, and then commenced our march, and 
got to Paris gates; and shortly the rebels yielded their capital, 
and evacuated, and suffered two armies to invest it On the 24th 
instant, we had our British army reviewed by the Emperors of 
Russia, Austria, and King of Prussia, Duke Wellington, Prince 
Bliicher^ and all the noted warriors in Europe, at the entrance 
of Paris gates. Dear Tom, you hear more news in England than 
we do here ; only what we see is the real thing, which must be 

§ referable to hearsay accounts. The Prussian army plays the 
evil with the country wherever they go ; they made destruction 
in all the villages on tne road from Waterloo to Paris, and beyond. 
I am not in the least sorry for them, for it just serves them right, 
and not half bad enough, for the usage they gave the Portu- 


gnene and Spaniards : it makes them feel a little ct the sett d 
war as well as the rest of their neighbours.*^ 

MajoT^eneraU Sir Omuby Vandeleur and Sir Richard JSysaey 

Vvoiain!$ Bnffade$ of Cavalry. 

Before seven oVlock, many of the raiments of infimtry were 
so much reduced, that two or three r^ments were necessary in 
some instances to form a square; and the heavy cavahy were 
much reduced in numbers, when Lord Uxbri<^ commanded 
tliese two brigades to move from the left to the main point of 
attack. The ai)pearance of these six regiments, viz. 1st, lOtlu 
11th, 12th, 16tn, and 18th, (^ fredi cavalrv, which had not jet 
been in action, greatly revived the spirits of the harassed troops. 
About this time also, two brigades of Prussian infantry and a 
brigade of cavalry, part of General Bulow's troops, had arrived at 
their intended position, in a wood on the right fliuik of the enemy. 
At half-past seven Buonaparte had, instead of endeavouring to 
secure a retreat while it was possible, made a tremendous charge, 
with four regiments of his middle guard and a large body of 
cavalry, endeavotuing to penetrate our centre, and had actually 
forced some of our regiments to fall back : the action was now> 
if possible, more tremendous than ever; the French troops, in- 
spired to the pitch of desperation, could only have their repulse 
from the cool and determined confidence of the English. At this 
moment General Yandeleur's brigade, with the assistance of Sir 
William Ponsonby's, made a charge which eifectually changed the 
face of things, by putting the infantry and cavalry mto confusion. 
From this tune, and at the advance of the British line, these two 
brigades, removed so opportunely from the left by Lord Uxbridge, 
were of most important service ; all the other brigades of cavaliy, 
heavy and li^ht, having been engaged nearly all the day, and had 
suffered much. 

The Duke of Wellington, who had been for some time atten- 
tively observing what was passing in the French and Prussian 
armies, in an exposed situation, and apparently regardless of what 
was passing near him, suddenly shut his telescope, and exclaimed 
to those who were near him, " Now evebt man must AnvAyc&'f 

* A Pmssian officer of rank had his quarters upon a French family, and pro- 
ceeded to exert some species of tyranny and oppression, which at last drew foiih 
an expostulation from the mistress of the house ; when he assured her, that 
treble the oppression, wanton distress, and inconvenience he occasioned, vbs 
not equal to half that which her son had made him and his family experieoc^ ^ 
Berlin, when the French were masten ; but told her, as he hoped the lesson he 
had given would have its full effect, he should then leave her quiet possession 
of the hotel. — Editor, 

t This forms a subject for one of the etchings, by Captain Jones, to ill^* 
trate this work. 




Tlie Duke had obBerved both cannon and in&ntry endeavour- 
ing to retire from the rear of the French position, and resolved to 
allo'w^ them as little time as possible to recover from the confusion 
in which thej retired irom the last attack. The orders flew like 
lightning along the line, and the whole army was instantly in 
motion, with as much alacrity as if the action was just beginning. 
Prince Bliicher had joined the left wii^ of the army, and nearly the 
^wliole of the Prussian force had by this time arrived : the right 
-wing of the French gave wav before them, and was soon in great 
confiision. There were still some large squares of the old Impe- 
rial Ghiard opposed to the English, to cover the retreat As soon 
as the advance was ordered. Sir Hussey Vivian's brigade charged 
the squares, broke into one of them, passed the others, and drove 
away the cavalry and the artillerymen from the gims, leaving the 
squares exposed to the whole force of the British army then bear- 
ing down on them. 

The cavalry having put to flight the artillerymen, those de- 
structive engines, the cannon, were silenced, and our infantry soon 
came in contact with the last-mentioned squares of the Imperial 
Guard, who, notwithstanding their hopeless situation, seemed still 
to consider themselves invincible, and scorned to tarnish the repu- 
tation they had held so long in ihe estimation of Europe : but the 
British troops were not then to be checked ; after a short conflict, 
in which many fell on both sides, the squares broke, and the rout 
was the most complete ever known. The brigades of light cavalry 
continued the pursuit nearly to Genappe, when it was relinquished 
to our brave allies the Prussians. 

JE^tract of a Letter from an Officer of the ISih Hussars. 

** On the morning of the 18th, Major-general Vivian, who com- 
manded the 6th Cavalry Brigade, composed of the 1st Hanoverian 
Hussars, the 10th Royal, and the 18m Hussars, made us take a 
few hours' rest in a Little copse on the borders of the forest of 
Soignies, and close to a village forming the left of the British line, 
and in correspondence with General Bulow. At four o'clock in 
the morning a Prussian officer arrived, who informed Major- 
general Vivian that he left Ohain at 12 o'clock, and came with 
the utmost speed possible, with orders to inform the Duke of 
Wellington that Marshal Blucher had commenced his march at 
12, and that he hoped to be up by one, p.m. (but the roads were 
so bad, that he did not open fire until four o'clock) ; and that 
General Bulow was marching firom Ohain on our left, to operate 
agreeably to the promise made to Lord Wellington bv Marshal 
Bliicher: however, from the badness of the roads, he did not come 


up till eight oVlock in the evening; but, even at that late hour, be 
was of the greatest use, as we were .much harassed by the artilleiT 
and musketry of the Frrach. 

** At 3 o'clock P.M.^ Major Percy was sent by the Duke of 
Wellinirton to General Bulow, to inquire how long it woold be 
before ne could come up : he returned in a short tunes, saying, 
that he would arrive in an hour ; but, as I before observed, tbe 
roads proliibited the possibility of his doing sa 

** The Duke of Wellington dispatched Xieut-coL Stavdy, si a 

auarter before seven o'clock, to see if the Prussians were coming; 
ley had made a halt to rest themselves near the field, before they 
came into action ; very few of the officers, and none of the soldien 
of the British army, knew that the Prussians were expected. 

*^ The enemy pressed the centre of the British line so heavily, 
that we were obliged to leave the left, and form in line in the rear, 
and almost on the heels of the pressed infantry : and remained in 
that position for about a quarter of an liour, when tbe Frendi 
gave way, and we charged, first the Cuirassien, then the Lancers, 
and ultimatdy became so mixed with the enemy, then the con* 
fusion exceeded all descriptiou ; but terminated in the &atiTe defeat 
of the FrencL 

" I must name to yo« an individual occurrence which happened 
in our regiment Serjeant Taylor, on coming up with the Guiras- 
siers, made a cut at the head of one of them, which had no other 
eifect on the Frenchman than to induce him to cry out in derision, 
* Ha I ha I' and to return a severe blow at the Serjeant, wkicii 
was admirably parried, aud Taylor then thrust his sabre into tbe 
mouth of the Cuirassier, who instantly fell, and the conqueror 
cried, ^ Ha ! ha !' in his turn ; which circumstance much increased 
the ardour of the other men."* 

Extract of a Letter from John Marshtdl, private lOtJi Hussarh 

part of the preceding Bngade, 

Pidlute, near Paris, July lltA, 1815. 

I have availed myself of this opp(»tunity to give you as much 
information as comes within my knowledge, though you no doubt 
are well acquainted with what has transpired during that short, 
but ever-glorious campaign: but as the scribbler of a news- 
paper can say what he pleases, I shall take the liber^ of saying 
what I know to be true — and so to the subject On the l6th (w 
June, our troops were in motion. At day-break in the moroing; 

* This fomu a subject for one of the etohiDgs to i&nslMte this fioAt ^ 
CapUin Jones. 


the British were advancing with all possible speed towards the 

eixeaxy, who was waiting our approach, and had akeady made 

an attack upon some Hanoverian troops, and on that account we 

laad a forced march. Tlie brigade to which I belong marched a 

distance of about fifty miles, tiding their posts the same evening 

alioixt seven o'clock; and being the first cavalry that arrived, 

^nre remained under arms all night, during which time several 

brigades of cavalry, and most of our infantry, arrived But 

the enemy was so strongly posted, that it was thought prudent 

not to attack them in their works, but to Ml back, lae infantry, 

therefore, about ten in the morning of the 17 th, began to withdraw, 

leaving us to cover their retreat The French, perceiving this, 

did not remain long inactive, but soon brought up their Lancers to 

attack us ; but we were not to bring them to action, but retreat, 

which was accordingly done. General Vivian, who commands 

our brigade, conducted the retreat ; in a most able and skiliul 

manner did he complete it, covering the retreat with our brigade 

of the whole army, that fell back on tliis rioint. The enemy, 

seeing us retreat, were quite delighted, and followed us with all 

speed^ cheering and halloaing at us, thinking to alarm and 

frighten : but m this they were disappointed, for we did not lose a 

man, although they attempted to charge us several times ; but our 

skirmishers Kept them back, in spite of all their boasted bravery. 

Thus was our retreat completed, afi:er having fallen back about 

eight miles: thus far then they were to come, but no further. 

But we were much hurt by a thunder-storm, which brought with 

it the most heavy torrents of rain that I ever beheld ; nor did it 

abate during the night, nor till about nine the next morning ; and 

we were exposed to it all the time, for we 1 ook up our abode in a wood 

allnight, so that we were like drowned men more than soldiers: but 

as many of us have long been inured to hardships and privations 

of all descriptioDs, it went off cheerftdly, and none seemed to 

repine ; for when the motives of the mind are strong for exertion, 

all things are set aside to gain the wished-for purpose. This it is 

that m^es us think light of misfortunes, and bear deprivations 

beyond conception to those who never trod this thorny path; yet, 

with us, thev are borne without a murmur. But I am wandering 

from my subject About nine on the morning of the 18th the 

clouds oispersed, and it gave over raining, and the enemy drew up 

in order of battle, and our line had been formed all night, so we 

were quite ready for them. Our troops were posted upon a chain 

of rismg heights, which commands the plain before it, whilst 

those of the French were posted upon a rising ground, in a parallel 

line with ours ; and their position was covered by a long chain 

of woods, which favoured and hid many of their movements, so 

that we had no advantage of them, for we had the plain before us, 

and they the same. Thus all were ready, and about twelve the 


onset commenced, by a brisk fire from the sharpshooters, and soon 
after a very heavy cannonading ensued ; and oy tifro the action 
became general, and most desperate did it rage ; for both sides 
seemed determined to keep their ground : but the enemy showed 
us that they did not only mean to have their own ground^ bm 
ours alsa With this seeming determination did they bring iip 
a strong force of cavalry and mfantry, and pushed w^ith all their 
might upon the centre of our line, thinking to break it ; but in this 
they were disappointed, for our cavalry met them, and droTe them 
back, as fast as they advanced. Finding, therefore, that ther 
could not move our centre, thev then endeavoured to turn our left 
flank, by pressing upon it in tfie same manner. Upon this pobt 
our brigaae was posted ; but they met with the same reception as 
before : so, finding that we stood firm at this place also, they took 
up their own ground, and soon after endeavoured to advance at 
all points ; but their attention was then arrested by a large bodv 
of Prussians, who came point blank upon their right flank, and 
opened a very heavy fire of artillery upon thenu This for a little 
time put them in a consternation ; but even this they recovered, 
and, altering their lines, seemed to suffer but little firom this our 
new reinforcement This was about five in the evening, and vic- 
tory was still doubtful The enemy then made one more attempt 
to vanquish us, by bringing the most of his force at our rignt 
flank, trying to force it, and to gain the hi^h road for Brussels, in 
which if he had succeeded, our defeat would have been complete. 
And here it was that our commander the Duke of Wellington was 
put to the test ; for they advanced with a vast and numerous body 
of cavalry, supported by infantry and covered by artillery, and 
seemed determined to have this road. The chief of our ardllery 
was then brought to this point, and theirs parallel with onrs ; sucli 
a tremendous peal of thunder did they ring one against the other, 
as I never knew since my name was MarshalL The whole of the 
cavalry belonging to the British was also brought to the right of 
our line, and charged them in brigades ; and oiirs also left its 
post, where it had been all day on the left, and came to the right, 
and, having the greatest distance to come, we, of course, were the 
last, and the whole of our cavalry nearly had charged them. This 
stopped their progress in advancing in a great measure. O^ 
brigade was tnen formed into line, and then we stood showii^ 
them that we would have the ground, or perish in the attempt: 
but they did not much like our sturdy m>nt. They had some 
brigades of Imperial Gruards to confix)nt us, and at a snudl distance 
off, but would not charge us ; but we stood under a most ^ing 
and destructive fire ftom infantry and artillery for near an hour: 
but this could not move us ; but firm as a rock we stood, except 
those poor fellows who fell victims to their bravery. It was now" 
eight in the evening, and still the batde raged with redoubled foxT) 


and still was much to be done, and but little time to do it in, for 
night was fast approaching; therefore, no time was to be lost. 
Our brigade was then formed into three lines, each regiment com- 
prising its own line, which was the 10th, 18th, and a regiment of 
the German Legion Hussars, my own regiment forming the first 
line. The General then came in front of the line, and spoke in the 
following manner : — * Tenth,' he said, * you know what you are 
going to do, and you also know what is expected of you, and I am 
well assured it will be done ; I therefore shall say no more, only 
wish you success ; ' and with that he gave orders for us to ad- 
vance. I am not ashamed to say, that, well knowing what we were 
going to do, I offered up a prayer to the Almighty, that for the 
sake of my children and the partner of my bosom he would pro- 
tect me, and give me strength and couraee to overcome all that 
might oppose me, and with a firm mind I went, leaving all that 
was dear to me to the mercy of that great Ruler, who has so often 
in the midst of peril and danger protected me. AjBter advancing 
about one hmuued yards we struck into a charge, as hst as our 
horses could go, keeping up a loud and continual cheering, and 
soon we were amongst the Imperial Guards of France. The 18th 
Hussars also charging, as soon as we got amongst them ; which so 
galled them, that we slew and overthrew them Hke so many child- 
ren, although thev rode in' armour, and carried lances ten feet 
long : but so brisklv did our lads lay the English steel about them, 
that they threw ofir their armour and pikes, and those that could 
get away flew in all directions. But still we had not done, for 
there were two great solid squares of infantry, who had hurt us 
much, whilst we were advancing, with their nre, and still conti- 
nued to do so, whilst we were formii^ again : in short, they were 
all around us. We therefore formea as well as we could, and at 
them we went, in spite of their fixed bayonets. We got into their 
columns, and, like oirds, they fell to the ground. Thus they were 
thrown into confusion, for it seemed like wild-fire amongst their 
troops that the Guards were beaten, and, panic-struck, they flew 
in ail directions. But we had done our part, and left those to 
pursue who had seen the onset We took sixteen guns at our 
charge, and many prisoners: but it was so dark, we could not see 
anv longer, and at length we assembled what few men we had got 
left of the regiment, and the General of Brigade formed us in close 
columns, so mat we mi^ht all hear him, ana he addressed us in the 
following manner: *Now, Tenth,' he said, *you have not disap- 
pointed me ; you were just what I thought you were. You was the 
first regiment that brdse their lines, and to you it is that we are 
indebted for turning the fate of the day ; and depend upon it that 
your Prince shall know it ; for nothing but the bravery and good 
discipline of the regiment could have completed such a work.' 
We then gave him three cheers, and since that he has given us at 



great length, in our orderly books, his thanks and pmiae for aas 
conduct You may, perhaps, think, because I have spoke of this. 
that it shows my vanity ; out my motive for having done so is, 
because I saw in an English newspaper that die Life Gusnk 
were the only cavalry that had been of any service. It, therefore, 
did not much please me nor my regiment, that we ahould not hx^ 
a little of the credit The Guards, certainly, made a very briliijiit 
charge : it ought to be spoken o£ You will, however^ see, by wbat 
I have here stated, that the regiment did its duty, and that is all 
we wish to be understood of us. I am sorry that we have tn 
lament the loss of a most brave and gallant office*. Major Howard. 
who led on the squadron that I belong to ; and most nobly did he 
show himself formed to let them know that he was an Englisb- 
man ; but when we charged the infantry, one of them shot hioi 
dead, just as we got wiuiin bayonet length of them* We had 
two omcers killed, wounded three captains, and two lieuteoaots 
wounded. But how many privates we have lost, I do not know; 
but not so many as might be expected: for the French fired so h^^ 
that when we were at close quarters with them half their ahois 
did not tell, or they might have killed eveiy man of as. But Pro- 
vidence is ever on the watch, and orders every thing as it pleases; 
and I can never return too many thanks to the Afanighly, for pre- 
serving me through that day's peril and danger : for never did 1 
behold such a day^s slaughter as that Never did British troops 
try more for victory, and never were they nearer being beat 
But, thanks be to Heaven, the work was at last completed, for the 
Prussian troops finished what we had begun, pursuing and dnvin^ 
them all night, the darkness of which helped to add to their hor- 
ror-struck minds. Thus was the proud and destroying tyrant 
once more beaten and compelled to fly to his capital for slmlter, | 
leaving his troops to their destructive fate. This proves him to be 
a coward, for he abandoned them in the hour of danger: and he. 
like the fretful porcupine, can nowhere find rest: his ititc, anJ 
that of all Europe, depended upon that day; but the evening's 
clouds saw him a wretched fiigitive, not darmg to stop, nor yet to 
go on. We took from them two hundred and tesa pieces oi can- 
non, and stores of all descriptions, and many prisoners. He bad 
during the action, in several places of his lin^ the black fla^ fly- 
ing, which signifies ' no quarter.' No, if he had beat us, Idars 
say they would have showed us none ; and myself am eye-witness 
to it, that many of them were laid to the ground, which would not 
have been, but for tliat he had covered his cavahy with armonr to 
secure them: but we wanted no steel covering, for our hearts 
proved to be already steeled, and we let them know it We have 
followed them to the gates of Paris, which place gave up to us on 
the 6tli of this month. 

H ■ 


^ w 


Extract of a Letter from an Officer of the Hth Light Dragoons. 

*' After nearly six years' service in the Peninsula and France, 
we returned to England in 1814, and were almost immediately 
marched for Plymouth, and embarked for Ireland, from whence 
we again took shipping the following May for Ostend ; in due time 
we arrived at our cantonments, under the orders of the Duke of 
Wellington. The action which shortly after took place, on the 
plain before Mont St Jean, must ever be remembered by those 
present from the severity of the conflict ; and on those not present, 
its result must fix an mdelible stamp. In an afiair so waniily 
contested, it must occur that cavalry is opposed to almost every 
description of forces ; this general observation was never more 
completely illustrated than on the 18th of June, 1815. On that 
memorable day, our gallant regiment was alternately engaged with 
every arm of the enemy's service ; and out of the twelve principal 
charges made by this raiment on that day, but one was incom- 
plete, and even m this instance (thou^ much outnumbered) our 
retreat was effected without loss. Our momentary check was, 
however, shortly after avenged by the regiment to its complete 
satis&ction, and, I trust, has fixed its reputation on the highest 
pinnacle; I can only say that we each strained every nerve to 
aj)i)al our enemy. As I know you will expect all I can tell you, I 
will go a little more into particulars, by informing you that our 
position during the action was so varied, that I hardly know how 
to define the exact one : the principal charges, however, took place 
in the firont of the centre of the British hne. Our brigade con- 
sisted of the 15th and 7th Hussars, and 13th, under M^or-general 
Sir Colquhoun Grant Our loss, as may be expected^ was con- 
siderable. The only officer that escaped, either personally or by 
horse, was Captain iBowers ; from this you can give a clear esti- 
mate of the sharp work we had. Our opponents were infantry 
and cuirassiers, which made our exposure more extreme. Our 
last and most^ brilliant charge was at the moment that Lord Hill, 
perceiving the movement of the Prussian army, and finding the 
r rench Imperial Guard on the point of forcing a part of the British 
position, cried out, — * Drive tnem back, Tlurteenthl'* Such an 
order, from such a man, could not be misconstrued, and it was 
punctually obeyed. The 16th was not calculated for cavalry 
operations, nor even the 17th, when we covered the retreat of the 
army to its position." 

* This spirited charge affords a subject for an etching, which is published to 
illustrate this work. 

196 BATTLft or WARftLOa 

Extract of a Letter from on Offijcer. 

<* On April the 26th we landed at Ostesid, from whence we 
proceeded ti) Brussels, which was then the head-quarters of the 
British forces, where we lay till the battle took place, which I 
tliink was the most dreadfiil that ever was witnessed bj Briti^ 
troo|)s. I have been in four engagements and two sieges, but thb 
8ur]iassed all that I have ever